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Full text of "Transactions for the year ... of the Essex Agricultural Society of the County of Essex, in Massachusetts"

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UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS 
LIBRARY 



s 

74 

E8E8 
1 886-90 



TRANSACTIONS 

FOR THE YEAR 1886, 



OF THE 



ESSEX AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, 



(ORGANIZED 1818,) 



FOR THE 



COUNTY OF ESSEX, 

IN MASSACHUSETTS, 



WITH THE 



Sixty-fourth Annual Address, 



BY 



Rev. JOHN D. KINGSBURY, 

OF BRADFORD. 



PUBLISHED BY ORDER OP THE SOCIETY. 



GLOUCESTER, MASS. : 

PRINTED AT THE OFFICE OF THE CAPE ANN ADVERTISER. 

1886. 



LIBRARY 

MY OF 

MA SSACHUSET TS 

AMHERST, MASS. 






ADDRESS. 



Mr. President: — It is pleasant to speak of Agriculture, 
the earliest, most constant, most important employment. 
Agriculture, most enduring art, which still goes on when 
customs change and races die ; renewing its youth with 
each generation, employing the largest force, aggregating 
the greatest wealth, and furnishing the basis for all the 
labor of men. American Agriculture, in the forefront, 
eager in invention, bold in execution, patient in labor, 
confident in its resources, with a certain audacity gives its 
challenge to all the world. 

One quarter of the total wealth of our country is em- 
ployed in cultivating land. The capital invested in farm- 
ing, including live stock, is twelve thousand millions. 
Manufacturing, which comes next, is about one third as 
much. England may boast a larger navy, Russia may be 
proud of a larger standing army ; we " beat our swords 
into plowshares and our spears into pruning hooks." We 
study the arts of peace. 

Agricultural products are the sure indications of endur- 
ing life. Austria turns into the commerce of the world 
$322,000,000, next comes Britain with 1280 millions, 
France 2220 millions, Germany 2280 millions, Russia 
2545 millions, and last and highest of all, our own land, 
3020 millions. We have fifty-six and three-quarter million 



hogs, forty-six million cattle, forty-five million sheep, 
twelve and a quarter million horses. " Our live stock 
formed in a column five deep, would reach round the 
world." 

We are self-poised. Not an agricultural machine is 
usable on our farms which is not either an American in- 
vention, or is made usable by our own inventors. 

It is pleasant to speak of Agriculture, for above all 
others it is the art most nearly related to life and charac- 
ter and the homes of men. 

In ancient times, it was common to exalt the art, while 
the laborer was forgotten. Egypt glorified the labor,- the 
plow, the soil, but despised the man. It has not been a 
rare thing to find greater praise given to the beasts that 
bare the burdens than to the laboring man. Thej' praised 
labor in the abstract, they sacrificed to the Gods of the 
harvest, and glorified the winds and showers and even the 
harvest utensils. Virgil sang sweetly of the art of hus- 
bandry, but he portrayed the peasant poor, ignorant, and 
held helpless under the will of the autocrat. It has been 
thought an honorable thing to own the soil, but to till it 
has been a menial service. 

Here lies the secret of the slow growth of Agriculture. 
Man was ignored. The result was that four thousand 
years passed and man still used the primitive plow, a 
crooked stick that stirred the ground and could not make 
a furrow. The old sickle, which was used by the Egyp- 
tians, was the only instrument for cutting grain until al- 
most within the memory of man. The grain drill, which 
was invented by Jethro Tuli so late as 1701, was greatly 



improved by President Clap of Yale College. The old 
scythe for cutting grass was hardly improved till, in 1846, 
Joseph Jenks of Lynn welded the iron back. Poor tools 
and few improvements show that the men were not devel- 
oped. 

The Ancients did not ignore this industry. Cato wrote 
a book on Agriculture. The Roman Senate ordered the 
translation of the books of Mago of Carthage for the com- 
mon people. Columella describes a good milch cow, 
" large belly, broad head, black open eyes, graceful horns, 
smooth and black, ears hairy, jaws straight, dewlap and 
tail small." That was very good for the time. We could 
do better now. The Roman orator, Curius, said, "He is 
not to be counted a good citizen who cannot content him- 
self with seven acres of land." That was early Rome. In 
later times they made the farm larger. Pliny said, "The 
earth takes delight in being tilled by men crowned with 
laurels and decorated with triumphal honors." That was 
poor poetry and poorer prose. The truth is, the earth 
delights in being tilled by the man who knows how to 
raise a crop. Buonaparte established agricultural socie- 
ties, planted botanical gardens, and founded agricultural 
professorships, but he did not establish citizenship for 
the French peasant. 

The history of Agriculture is the history of man. The 
slow growth of the art is because of the neglect of man- 
hood. The Roman orator declared, "There is nothing 
more beautiful, nothing more protitable than a well culti- 
vated farm," but he left out the nobler idea of the well 
cultivated man on the farm. Greece drained lakes and 



hogs, forty-six million cattle, forty-five million sheep, 
twelve and a quarter million horses. "Our live stock 
formed in a column five deep, would reach round the 
world." 

We are self-poised. Not an agricultural machine is 
usable on our farms which is not either an American in- 
vention, or is made usable by our own inventors. 

It is pleasant to speak of Agriculture, for above all 
others it is the art most nearly related to life and charac- 
ter and the homes of men. 

In ancient times, it was common to exalt the art, while 
the laborer was forgotten. Egypt glorified the labor,, the 
plow, the soil, but despised the man. It has not been a 
rare thing to find greater praise given to the beasts that 
bare the burdens than to the laboring man. They praised 
labor in the abstract, they sacrificed to the Gods of the 
harvest, and glorified the winds and showers and even the 
harvest utensils. Virgil sang sweetly of the art of hus- 
bandry, but he portrayed the peasant poor, ignorant, and 
held helpless under the will of the autocrat. It has been 
thought an honorable thing to own the soil, but to till it 
has been a menial service. 

Here lies the secret of the slow growth of Agriculture. 
Man was ignored. The result was that four thousand 
years passed and man still used the primitive plow, a 
crooked stick that stirred the ground and could not make 
a furrow. The old sickle, which was used by the Egyp- 
tians, was the only instrument for cutting grain until al- 
most within the memory of man. The grain drill, which 
was invented by Jethro Tull so late as 1701, was greatly 



improved by President Clap of Yale College. The old 
scythe for cutting grass was hardly improved till, in 1846, 
Joseph Jenks of Lynn welded the iron back. Poor tools 
and few improvements show that the men were not devel- 
oped. 

The Ancients did not ignore this industry. Cato wrote 
a book on Agriculture. The Roman Senate ordered the 
translation of the books of Mago of Carthage for the com- 
mon people. Columella describes a good milch cow, 
" large belly, broad head, black open eyes, graceful horns, 
smooth and black, ears hairy, jaws straight, dewlap and 
tail small." That was very good for the time. We could 
do better now. The Roman orator, Curius, said, "He is 
not to be counted a good citizen who cannot content him- 
self with seven acres of land." That was early Rome. In 
later times they made the farm larger. Pliny said, "The 
earth takes delight in being tilled by men crowned with 
laurels and decorated with triumphal honors." That was 
poor poetry and poorer prose. The truth is, the earth 
delights in being tilled by the man who knows how to 
raise a crop. Buonaparte established agricultural socie- 
ties, planted botanical gardens, and founded agricultural 
professorships, but he did not establish citizenship for 
the French peasant. 

The history of Agriculture is the history of man. The 
slow growth of the art is because of the neglect of man- 
hood. The Roman orator declared, "There is nothing 
more beautiful, nothing more profitable than a well culti- 
vated farm," but he left out the nobler idea of the well 
cultivated man on the farm. Greece drained lakes and 



8 

feed it with fertilizers, to make it just light enough, just 
hard and solid enough, so that it may retain moisture and 
yet not be waterlogged. 

It is not a more delicate labor for the farmer's wife to 
raise the white loaf, spongy and moist and elastic to the 
touch, than for the farmer to make up the hill where the 
corn will grow that measures a hundred bushels to the 
acre. Some wise chemist will teach that the only requisite 
is the nutriment in the hill. The tanner knows better. 
He knows that straw, plowed under to rot in the heavy 
soil, lifting it and tilling it with capillary interstices, is as 
needful as the plant food. 

He knows that a heavy crop of India wheat, or of close 
hard turf plowed under, will recover the worn-out soil, not 
simply by furnishing nutriment, but by putting the land 
in condition for growth. Many a pasture is rich in mate- 
rial for plant life, which will not furnish good feed. Plow 
the hard turf under. Let the under soil mellow in sun 
and shower. Raise a crop from it. Pulverize it with the 
hoe, and seed it down with clover and red top, and your 
herds will rejoice in the abundant feed. You might as 
well sleep in a bed that has not felt the touch of a wom- 
an's hand for a twelvemonth as to expect white clover to 
grow with sweet leaf and honeyed blossom for your cattle 
on the hard-packed earth. To give the soil the right 
porosity, to expose it to the air, to give it the right nutri- 
ment, requires wisdom. 

The problem becomes more intricate when he studies 
the elements which make up the products. He needs to 
know not only what he raises, but why he raises it. 



9 

It is worth while to know that the nitrogenous elements 
vary in the different grains. These are called Albumin- 
oids. They produce muscle. 

Oats, 8 to 14 in 100, 

Flint Corn, 7 to 13 in 100, 

Sweet Corn, 10 to 15 in 100, 

Shorts and Middlings, 7 to 16in 100, 

Wheat, 8 to 15 in 100. 

It helps in the feeding of stock to know what will fatten 
and what will give muscle and vigor. And in raising the 
crops, it is of use to know what will supply the soil with 
the lacking element. 

A crop of clover, with enormous foliage and its great 
mass of roots filled with nitrogenous elements, easily 
raised, and plowed under, gives the earth lightness and 
richness, and makes the soil ready to bring forth in greatest 
abundance those very things which are most needed. 

It is a help to the farmer to know what kinds of grain 
will produce fat, what are richest in starch and gum and 
fat-producing substance. The agricultural chemists call 
them Carb-hydrates. The composition varies as follows : 

Flint Corn, 66 to 7 7 in 100, 

Wheat (same as corn), 66 to 77 in 100, 

Sweet Corn, 61 to 77 in 100, 

Oats, 57 to 66 in 100, 

Shorts and Middlings, 55 to 70 in 100. 

Chemistry has aided by suggesting the value of bone 
dust or bone in solution, which has led to the almost uni- 



10 

versal use of superphosphates — concerning which, how- 
ever, there is such varied opinion. But the variety of 
opinion is owing to the fact that some superphosphate 
manufacturers are honest men and others are not. Chem- 
ical fertilizers are to be proved by what they will do. 
By their works ye shall know them. 

If a man has an abundance of home-made manure, he is 
a happy man. 

It will appear evident that the man who finds out just 
what is best to use in renewing the soil will want to do 
something more than- manual labor. 

The study of seeds demands attention. The good farm- 
er does not need to be advised on that point. Let me 
emphasize the fact with an example. 

Mr. Hallett, of Brighton, England, chose a single head 
of good wheat. It was 4 3-8 inches long, and had 47 
kernels. 

These were planted separately. 

From the harvest the best head was selected and planted 
the same as before. 

The result of four harvests was this : 

At the first harvest the best plant bore 10 heads, at the 
secoud 22, at the third 39, at the fourth 52, and the best 
head was 8 3-4 inches long.* 

It is an illustration of what man can do in developing 
nature. The world is full of life, but man was placed in 
the garden to dress and keep it, and the best results are 
never found without the intelligent and most painstaking 
industry. 



*See U. S. Census Report 1880, vol. x, p. 403. 



11 

The apple, most popular, most useful of all fruits, is in 
natural state a "wilding crab," having had "many a foul 
curse for its sourness." Under cultivation it is changed 
to the most delicious flavor. The Baldwins and Greenings 
and Spitzenbergs and Pippins that hang in beauty on the 
bending boughs are the product of the farmer's art. 

The potato which bursts and opens its snowy grains to 
grace your table and tempt your taste is another trophy of 
the farmer's art, for in its wild state it is quite an indiffer- 
ent plant. 

There is a kind of farming which is always a fraud. It 
is fancy farming — a showy cupola on the barn, a pattern 
fence along the road, a groom with a striped cap, a car- 
peted office, a fancy wagon with prancing horses for the 
market, a patent stall for the last imported cow, a race 
course, herd books and pedigrees, and a big sign over the 
barn lest you mistake the place, 

"The Highland Farm." 

The mistake is in the name. It should be the "High- 
laud Buildings." 

Farming is not in the cupola and the office, and the herd 
book and the pattern fence. The true farmer does not 
despise the luxury of good buildings and equipments. 
But his pre-eminence is not in these, but in the knowledge 
of his art. 

He knows the nature of every field, how to stir the soil 
and cast the seed. He knows the signs of opening spring, 
when the plowshare may first turn the ready soil. He 
knows the place where the warm sun makes the earth 
ready for the early salad and the succulent pea. He knows 



12 

where to thurst his spade to draw off the water from the 
dropsical swale, that it may grow into verdure and beauty. 
He knows the nature of soils, the times and seasons they 
require. He reads the signs in the heavens. 

His crops grow bountifully. The fields vie with each 
other in the luxury of summer growth, and when the 
golden days come, it is a joy to see the great harvest 
gathered in, as one by one the fields yield their increase 
and patient oxen with measured step bring in the heavy 
wains. 

That man's farm does not need a label nor a pattern 
fence. 

The true American farmer is a model for all the world. 

We are thankful to the Old World for what it has given 
us in the start. We take the Saxony sheep and let them 
graze in our clover pastures and in the ranches of the 
West, and it is not uncommon to sell back to the breeders 
of the Old World, at a decided premium, our improved 
stock. 

About three score years ago, the shorthorns were im- 
ported into this county of Essex. They spread rapidly, 
and in 1873, Mr. Campbell of New York sold a herd for 
$380,000, and of this, $147,000 was paid by English 
breeders. 

It improved men to come away from England to live in 
the New World. It appears that it is also good for the 
cattle and sheep, and there is reason for it. The English 
farmer is a servant. He does the will of his lord. The 
American farmer is his own master. We have four million 
farms. Three million of them are carried on by the men 



13 

who own the soil. That is the reason of our pre-eminence. 

Our farms are increasing in value from their intrinsic 
worth. From 1850 to 1860 the value doubled. From 
1870 to 1880 the increase was thirty-seven per cent. 

Notice also our crops. Russia has 158,000,000 acres in 
grain. We have only 118,000,000. But our crop is 
greater on the less acreage by more than a million bushels. 

The rate of our increasing production is not less marked. 
In 1850, 867 millions of grain ; in 1860, 1200 millions ; 
in 1870, 1400 millions ; in 1880, 2698 millions. Look at 
the corn crop and its enormous aggregate, 1750 million 
bushels, or at the increase of wheat, in 1850, 100 millions, 
in 1860, 173 millions, in 1870, 287 millions, in 1880, 459 
millions, one quarter of the entire product of the world. 
Our grain crop of 1880 was equal to half the value of all 
the gold ever mined in California. 

The substantial character of our people is shown by 
what we raise and send abroad. We import many things. 
We buy laces, and wine, silk, spices, tea, coffee. But we 
sell to the world wheat, cotton, petroleum, steam boilers, 
agricultural tools, butter, cheese, beef, and it is said that 
the Queen of England comes to Essex county for ice to 
cool her drink. 

The development of Agriculture in the last one hundred 
years exceeds by far the progress of all the preceding cen- 
turies. It a suggestive fact that this has been the time 
when greatest progress has been made in bettering the 
conditions of working men. Labor has dignity. The la- 
borer has rights. Society and the state are not for the 
few but for all. Learning comes forth from the cloister, 



14 

science dispels the fog of superstition, world-wide monar- 
chies give place to the free commonwealth of nations. 
Men of diverse languages meet in friendly concord, set- 
tling disputes of sovereignties. The proud aristocrat re- 
tires before the rising- generation of free men. The Rus- 
sian serf goes free. The crescent, proud emblem of im- 
perialism, wanes before the rising cross. The British 
slave lays down his shackles in the orange groves of the 
Indies. The dark child of Africa walks through the 
snowy cotton fields in conscious freedom. The pulse 
beats strong in the hearts of all the down-trodden of Eu- 
rope, while multitudes come thronging over the sea, to 
breathe the air of freedom. It is the grandest of all the 
centuries. Commerce, "born in the wild-wood, cradled 
in the deep," spreads its white wings in tempest and calm, 
bearing evermore over the thoroughfares of the sea the 
pledges of universal brotherhood, and creates new paths in 
dark lands before unknown, repeating in the darkest pla- 
ces of earth the Divine command, "Let my people go," 
and lo ! the wilderness and the solitary place is glad and 
the desert blooms as the rose. 

The change is in man. Earth keeps on, ever the same, 
its sunshine and storm, its rain and dew, its perpetual 
harvests, giving like a bountiful mother forever, but man 
has changed ; the transformation has been in character. 

It is inspiring to look at the part which our American 
life has had in this ongoing and uplifting. We have no 
peasantry. We hardly know the meaning of the word. 
We have to go to the dictionary to learn it. 

Fifteen of our Presidents were taken from the farm, 



15 

seven of them from hand-to-hand labor on new land. The 
Father of his Country wrote freely on Agriculture, and 
he owned one of the first threshing machines that was 
ever used. Thomas Jefferson had many honors, but 
among them all there is none that is brighter than this, 
that he wrote a treatise on the mould board of a plow, and 
for it received a gold medal from the agricultural society 
of the Seine. 

We have no menial class. At the basis of our society 
lies this thought, JVo labor that is useful is degrading. 
False aristocracy rests on the wealth of inheritance, the 
technicality of tenure, a mere accident of birth, and is al- 
ways hated and hateful. There is but one nobility. It is 
found in the man whose character and life command the 
regard of all who love virtue, the man who gives an 
equivalent for what he has in wealth or place or power. 

We have no peasantry. It is the progeny of feudalism. 
Our fathers founded the republic. They honored labor. 
John Winthrop wore the leathern coat, and fed sometimes 
on corn, and handled the hoe and plow. John Winthrop, 
distinguished alike for piety and learning, for his knowl- 
edge of men and his knowledge of husbandry, for his loy- 
alty to his God and his love of humanity, equally dignified 
when he sat in state in starched ruff and badge of chief 
magistracy, or when he tilled the garden or the field he 
loved so well, — John Winthrop, who landed on the shores 
of Essex, a Puritan governor and a Puritan farmer, grand 
progenitor of a race who should be equal in right and 
privilege and rank, who should exalt all honorable labor 



.16 

ami unite all men by stronger bonds in the peaceful arts 
of industry. 

The dignity of labor! It lies nt the base of all our his- 
tory. It is the secret of our prosperity. 

Greece and Rome had somewhat of glory — reached a 
high plaee in history. Bui both fell because of the ostra- 
cism o( true manhood, the loss of the true dignity o{ the 
working men. It is an idea which belongs to our history 
ami rims through the whole of it that labor is capital. It 
is a factor in society ami the state. The terrible tragedy 
o\' history is seen in its dread culmination, when degraded 
and despairing manhood in the struggle o\' death reaches 
upward its arms to grasp the neck of power and drag it 
to the dust. 

In old days, war was an industry. Its reward was 
plunder. It reduced man to ignominy if he was conquered. 
It did little less for the victor if he were a common sol- 
dier. Victory was the assertion of power, the deceptive 
success in a contest which was soon to he tried over again. 
It was not the triumph of aggressive force over evil, and 
the reduction oi' the obstacles in the way oi' human ad- 
vancement. War itself upheld the aristocracy and de- 
graded labor. 

It remained for our day and the men of our time to 
make the pages of history to glow with the record of an- 
other thought. Our eyes have looked on a struggle, the 
grandest struggle the world has ever seen, in which war 
was for principle. The old monarchies fell in their efforts 
to repress rising humanity. It was our nation that first 
sounded the note of war and went down to the field of 



17 

blood for the one sole purpose of uplifting degraded man- 
hood to conscious freedom and break off forever the shac- 
kles from labor. 

Ignorance ie opposed to all progress. In the laborer it 
necessitates clumsy tools, heavy, hard to handle Igno- 
rance repels machines, regards as an innovation what 
- the burden of man. The yeomanry of Britain, so 
late as 1830, went about destroying the threshing ma- 
chine. That would never occur on this side the water. 

American ideas are abroad. Our life flows in the cur- 
rents of the world. Races are uplifted by the ongoing of 
our generations. 

The factor of American competition is not only in soil 
and climate, nor simply in ploughs and reapers. It is not 
confined to methods and processes. It is also a competi- 
tion of manhood. 

It is the man on the farm, the man with the plough and 
reaper, the man with thought and skill, eager in inven- 
tion, with energy of will, carrying thought into action, 
the American farmer, acute, alert, aspiring, he is the man 
who changes the aspect and the forces of Agriculture, — 
the man conscious of knowledge, understanding his art, 
himself a responsible unit in social and political life, 
choosing his place, casting his ballot, owning his land. 

Essex county has 2347 farms, averaging 66 acres. Of 
these 2561 are cultivated by the owners. The farms of 
our county are valued at $16,000,000. The product from 
them is two and a quarter millions a year. We gather 
every year 5,000 bushels barley, 104,000 bushels corn, 
7,000 bushels oats, and our orchard products aggregate 



18 

sin."), iioo, and Ibr the market garden $300,000, and it is 
our own. Our 4500 horses, 1500 oxen, 12,000 cows and 
6,000 Bwine show the best breeding. Our farming is the 
work of intelligent men. It is a wise saying, "That state 
is perfectly seeure whose soil is owned by its well-mean iug 
citizens." 

Notice the contrast, — Ireland ! that green isle of the sea, 
with a soil deep, rich, easily worked, but owned by the 
aristocrats, — her poor peasantry compelled to give rent so 
great that they cannot taste the luxury they create. The}' 
raise fat cattle and touch them not, raise grain and eat it 
not. They live in hovels, squalid and wretched, the floor 
of earth and the roof of thatch, their table spread with 
potatoes and herbs, their lives bound, aspirations blotted 
out, their duty to work, their lot to suffer and die. What 
wonder that their industry is rude, their progress back- 
ward, and their very religion hatred of the upper classes, 
and their prayer and longing and purpose to be free from 
social oppression. 

The conservative says, "Change is impossible ;" "The 
land owner is lord, his right unimpeachable, his preroga- 
tive greater than all the rights of humanity ;" "To change 
will be revolution;" "The law must stand though man 
may die." But the progressive statesman takes sides with 
humanity. He sees in the thatched cottage of the Irish 
tenant a man, with sacred rights more enduring than the 
tenure of laws ; sees in the mind and heart, made dormant 
by the long fruitless toil, the sign of mighty forces which 
shall come forth to energize the nation and exalt the com- 
monwealth and add lustre to the history of the world, when 



19 

England shall listen to her great prime minister and honor 
herself by making the Irish peasant a man. 

The American farmer is not afraid of innovations. He 
welcomes new discoveries. He is often deceived by the 
new patent rights. He has a painful experience with the 
patent bee-hive and the patent churn, the horse-power 
pitching fork, the patent milking-stool and milking-tubes, 
the potato digger and the combination feeding trough and 
the lightning rod. But he remembers the horse rake and 
the mower, the thresher and the cultivator, the hay tedder 
and the seed drill. He easily forgets the faulty machines 
in his storeroom as he rides like a prince on the sulky 
plough. He easilj r forgives the last agent of a worthless 
patent when his horse rake gathers in swift winrows the 
rustling hay before the coming storm. 

In the World's Exhibition in 1852, there was nothing 
of greater importance than the American Reaper. The 
grandest problem solved at that time was how to cut the 
grain of the world's increasing harvest. 

The ancient Hebrews could thresh as much grain as the 
farmer who lived a hundred years ago, six to twelve bush- 
els a day. The horse-power thresher came, cleaning up 
six hundred bushels, and the steam-power two thousand 
more, the combined harvesters sending to market the 
grain from forty acres in a day. 

In the old time the farmer could possibly transport his 
grain a hundred miles. Now the grain of eastern Oregon 
goes five hundred miles over land and then half way round 
the globe to find its market. 

Agriculture is eminently a progressive art. 



20 

The old Spaniards thought they lived on the borders of 
the world. The Pillars of Hercules were placed on their 
coin with this legend : "Ne Plus Ultra" — Nothing Be- 
yond. But one day a bold navigator passed through the 
narrow straits and out over the open sea, and he thrilled 
mankind with the discovery of a New World. The old 
Spaniards struck off the little negative and left the motto 
grander by far, "Plus Ultra" — More Beyond. 

That grander motto has become the watchword of the 
advaucing century. Every art, every science, all parties, 
all societies, and every form of associated labor, takes the 
new motto. The American farmer, stimulated by all past 
success, holding fast to all that has been gained in expe- 
rience, looks hopefully to the future, expecting still larger 
and better things ; new methods, new machinery, new 
discoveries, by which the art shall be advanced and the 
earth shall be made to yield yet more abundantly for the 
sustenance of men. 



SIXTY-SIXTH 

ANNUAL CATTLE SHOW AND FAIR. 



The Cattle Show and Fair of this Society was held in 
Newburyport on the 28th, 29th and 30th days of Septem- 
ber, 1886. 

The first day of the Fair was a violent rain storm, which 
prevented the appearance of stock that was expected. 
The Society, equal to the emergency, extended the time 
another day for receiving entries and added a day longer 
for holding the Fair, changing what would have been a 
partial failure into a success, the exhibits on the Show 
Ground exceeding the year previous 42 entries and in the 
Exhibition Hall 55 entries. The show of Cattle and Horses 
in point of numbers was not up to the year previous ; that 
of Agricultural Implements and Poultry was larger and 
far better. The Plowing Match on the third day of the 
Fair was not as satisfactory, being on poor land and having 
a trifle over half the number of contestants as last year. 

In the Exhibition Hall, the exhibits were arranged in a 
manner very pleasing and attractive, and their quality 
compared favorably with previous exhibitions. The at- 
tendance after the first day was good. 

The Annual Address was given on the second day at 
the Pleasant street church, by Rev. John D. Kingsbury 
of Bradford, afterward the Annual Dinner was served in 
Cadet Hall, followed by speeches from Hon. C. C. Dame, 
Mayor of Newburyport, Hon. A. C. Varnum, President 
of Middlesex North Agricultural Society, and Delegate 
of State Board of Agriculture, Hon. George B. Loring, 
Judge Mason of the Superior Court, Sheriff Herrick, 
James P. King, Esq., and others. 



22 

The entries in the several departments of the Fair were 

as follows : — 

STOCK, IMPLEMENTS, ETC., ON FREE SHOW GROUNDS. 

r, »,;, From Differenl 
l '"' , "' > - Cities and Towns. 

Fat Cattle, 4 3 

Bulls, 15 7 

Milch Cows, 7 3 

Heifers, First Class, 4 3 

Heifer Calves, First Class, 1 1 

Heifers, Second Class, 16 5 

Heifer Calves, Second Class, 2 1 

Working Oxen and Steers, 9 3 

Steers, 8 2 

Town Teams, 1 1 

Brood Mares, 10 5 

Stallions, First Class, 1 1 

Stallions, Second Class, 3 2 

Family Horses, 9 7 

i Gentlemen's Driving Horses, 8 7 

Farm Horses, 3 3 

Draft Horses, 9 3 

Pairs Farm Horses, 3 3 

Pairs Draft Horses, 3 2 

Colts for Draft Purposes, 1<> 7 

Colts for General Purposes, 30 11 

Swine, First Class, 7 3 

Swine, Second Class, 3 1 

Sheep, 2 1 

Poultry, 82 8 

Ploughing, 14 7 

Agricultural Implements, 43 10 

Carriages, 10 5 
Total, 317 entries, from 21 different cities and towns. 



23 

IN EXHIBITION HALL. 



Dairy, 

Bread, Honey and Preserves, 

Pears, 

Apples, 

Peaches, Grapes and Assorted Fruit* 

Flowers, 

Vegetables, 

Grain and Seed, 

Counterpanes and Afghans, 

Carpetings and Rugs, 

Articles manufactured from Leather, 

Manufactures and General Mdse., 

Fancy Work and Works of Art, 

Work of Children, under 12 years, 

Total, 1724 entries, from 29 different cities and towns. 

Grand Total, 2041 entries, from 33 different towns and 
cities, viz.: — Amesbury, 146; Andover, 18; Beverly, 
14 : Boxford, 52 ; Bradford, 50 ; Danvers, 55 ; Essex, 41 ; 
Georgetown, 23; Gloucester, 10; Groveland, 35; Ha- 
verhill, 55 ; Ipswich, 7 ; Lynn, 39 ; Lynnfield, 1 ; Mar- 
blehead, 2; Methuen, 16; Middleton, 1; Newbury, 365 
Newburyport, 738 ; North Andover, 3 ; Peabody, 42 
Rockport, 2; Rowley, 73; Salem, 21; Salisbury, 58 
Swampscott, 1 ; Topstield, 9 ; Wenham, 10 ; West New 
bury, 140; out of the County, 5; Unknown, 9.* 



Entries. 


Different 
Places. 


12 


3* 


70 


13 


323 


16 


311 


20 


. 99 


16 


116 


12 


321 


21 


37 


11 


75 


8 


47 


9 


2 


2 


28 


6 


242 


13 


41 


6 



David W. Low, Sec'y. 



*The exhibitors and places from which 9 butter exhibits came 
are unknown, from over-carefnlness of entry clerk to prevent 
judges knowing. 



REPORTS OF COMMITTEES. 



FAT CATTLE. 

The Committee on Fat Cattle have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 

$10. First premium to J. P. Little, Amesbury, for pair 
oxen, Devons, 6 years old, weight 4250 pounds. 
$8. Second premium to J. P. Little, Amesbury, for 
pair oxen, Herefords, 5 years old, weight 4050 
pounds. 
$4. Third premium, to Furmer H. Greeley, Salisbury, 
for pair oxen 6 years old, weight 3500 pounds. 
Ephraim A. Dane, Edward Kent, R. T. Jaques — 
Committee. 

STATEMENT OF J. P. LITTLE. 

The Devon cattle at Fair time I had owned fifteen 
months, the Herefords between eleven and twelve months. 
For the first four months the Devons did all the ox work 
on the farm. Since that time the four have done the ox 
work on the farm, drawing in eighty tons of hay each 
year and hoisting it with a fork on to the mows. 

Besides the work on the farm they have done consider- 
able outside teaming, drawing wood, salt hay, manure 
from the village, &c. During the month previous to the 
Fair they were worked reclaiming a meadow, pulling 
trees, ploughing, &c. 

In regard to the manner of feeding, they have not been 
to pasture any since I owned them. I commenced in the 
early Autumn of 1885 to feed on fodder corn ; fed with 
that nearly all the time, with very little hay all Winter ; 



25 

then commenced feeding with different kinds of hay, with 
two quarts of meal per day each, until the first of March, 
when I commenced feeding four quarts per day each until 
the present time. I give them clear corn meal dry, twice 
a day, two quarts at night and two in the morning. 

Have seen to the feeding of them myself, and have 
taken the best of care of them. They were partly fed 
with green fodder corn this last Fall, the same as the year 
before. I think that feeding different kinds of hay is 
better than it is to confine them to one kind. They eat 
some salt hay every day and relish it. 



BULLS — THOROUGHBREDS. 

The Committee on Bulls, Thoroughbreds, have attended 

to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 

they have made the following awards : 

$10. First premium, to Francis Gulliver, Andover, for 

Jersey bull, "Chrome Gold," No. 11,222, dropped 

August, 1883. 

$5. Second premium, to H. H. Hale, Bradford, for 

Jersey bull, "Cicero, Jr.," No. 8,344, 4 years old. 

$10. First premium, to Ben: Perley Poore, West New- 
bury, for Short Horn, "Crave Neck," 2 years old 
June 5, 1886, bred by Judge Bradley. 
$3. Second premium, to Win. C. Cahill, Dan vers, for 
Ayrshire, "Brown Mars, Jr.," dropped July 22, 
1885. 

*$5. First premium, to H. H. Hale, Bradford, for Jer- 
sey, "Byron G.," No. 14,455, 1 year old. 

*$2. First premium, to D. A. Massey, Danvers, for 
Ayrshire bull calf, "Queer," No. 882, dropped 
Nov. 9, 1885. 
fYour Committee recommend a gratuity of $2 for the 

Holstein bull entered by S. P. Hale of Newbury. 



26 

Wallace Bates, Richard Newell, Elbridge Mansfield, 
T. K. Bartlett, Joshua H. Chandler — Committee. 



*Thc last two awards were made by Edward Kent, J. M. Rol- 
lins. T. <i. Ordway — Supplementary Committee. 

fThe Trustees did not suspend the rules for award of gra- 
tuity recommended. 



MILCH COWS. 

The Committee on Milch Cows respectfully submit the 
following report : 

T. N. Cook of Newburyport entered two grade Jersey 
cows and one Ayrshire cow. He was awarded 
$10. First premium, for milch cow ; 
$10. First premium, for butter cow; 

$4. Second premium, for butter cow. 
$15. Special premium, was awarded to Jere. Cashman, 
Newburyport, for best milch cow of any age or 
breed. 
$4. Second premium, to same, for milch cow. 
$10. First premium, to Francis Gulliver, Andover, for 
Jersey cow, "Fanny G.," No. 26,005. 
$4. Second premium, to same for Jersey cow, "Alpha 
Maid," No. 23,635. 
Maj. Ben : Perley Poore of Indian Hill, West Newbury, 
exhibited his thoroughbred Short Horn cow, "Pearl.'' 
This cow is a very fine specimen of her class, and judging 
from the size of her udder and the fine calf by her side, 
she would have been entitled to the special premium of 
$15 for the best milker of any age or breed, had her 
owner entered her as competitor for premium. 

It is a matter of regret that so few milch cows are en- 
tered for premiums at our Essex county fairs. Of the 
various branches of agriculture in New England, dairying, 



27 



or the production of milk, butter and cheese, is the mosl 
important, and must occupy the very first position in the 
farming of the future. 

With an abundance of the purest water gushing from 
almost every hillside, and the short, sweet grass that may 
be had in profusion if farmers will take care of their pas- 
tures, and, more than all else, markets at our very doors, 
it seems as though the farmers of the old Bay State ought 
at least to supply the larger part of the 10,000,000 pounds 
of butter that are annually furnished us by other States 
of the Union. 

Within a very few years, some people have discovered 
that butter does not improve with age ; that it is never 
better than when it first comes from the churn ; that but- 
ter made and consumed in midwinter is much better and 
has a much finer aroma, if it is properly made, than that 
made in the preceding June or September and consumed 
after it has been kept for months. This education of the 
sense of taste is progressing, and hence the demand for 
"gilt edge" butter is increasing. 

The facilities afforded by improved machinery are such 
that the farmer, by the outlay of a few hundred dollars, 
can entirely relieve the good wife from the cares and hard 
work incident to the manufacture of butter by the old- 
fashioned method of the shallow pan system, if that can be 
called a system which was so uncertain in its results. 

The paramount importance of dairying to the farmers 
of this county being conceded, it seems as though milch 
cows are as deserving of consideration, to say the least, as 
the "gentleman's driving horse," or the lank nag whose 
record of two twenty and seven-eighths causes her owner 
to swell with pride. The owners of horses would refuse 
to bring their stock to our fairs for exhibition, and very 
properly, unless covered pens were provided. On the 



28 

other hand, farmers are expected to exhibit their milch 
cows in pens without any shelter whatever. Is it any 
wonder that the thrifty farmer, who would not allow his 
milch cows to lie out of doors during the night in cool but 
fair weather, utterly refuses to confine his stock in open 
pens and run the risk of exposing them to a cold equinoc- 
tial storm, such as prevailed on the first day of the Essex 
County Fair? As might be expected, very few milch 
cows are exhibited, there is no competition, and two or 
three exhibitors carry off all the premiums. 

J. D. Dodge, For the Committee. 

STATEMENT OF T. N. COOK. 

To the Committee on Milch Cows: 

Gentlemen: — We enter for premium our Milch cow, 
''Quack," grade Ayrshire, six years old. Calved July 5, 
1886 ; driven Sept. 12, 1886, and from July 7 to July 30, 
averaged 20 1-4 quarts of good milk per day. Manner of 
feeding, 3 qts. of meal, 3 qts. of shorts, wet, per day ; 
pasture. Yours, 

T. N. Cook. 

STATEMENT OF T. N. COOK. 

To the Committee on Milch Cows : 

Gentlemen: — We enter for premium our Milch cow 
"Shaker," seven years old, Jersey. Calved Jan. 2, 1886, 
calves again Dec. 10, 1886. From May 24 to May 
30, inclusive, gave 14 quarts of milk per day. Made in 
seven days 13 1-2 lbs. of butter. Manner of feeding, 3 
quarts of meal, 3 quarts of shorts, wet, per day; pasture. 
Yours, T. N. Cook. 

statement of t. n. cook. 
To the Committee on Milch Cows: 
Gentlemen : — We enter for premium our Jersey cow, 



29 

yellow and white, four years old. Calved Sept. 1, 1886. 
From Sept. 12 to Sept. 19, gave 13 quarts of milk per 
day ; made 10 1-4 lbs. of butter in seven days. Manner 
of feeding, 2 quarts of meal, 3 quarts of shorts (wet) ; 
pasture. Yours, T. N. Cook. 

Milk Statement of Jere. Cashman not received from Commit- 
tee, it having been lost. 



HEIFERS, FIRST CLASS. 

The Committee on Heifers, First Class, have attended 
to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 
$4. Second premium, to Francis Gulliver, Andover, for 
Jersey heifer, "Orange Lady," No. 22,170, in 
milk, dropped Aug. 2, 1883. 
$4. First premium, to Francis Gulliver, Andover, for 
Jersey heifer calf, " Winnie Chrome," dropped 
Feb. 27, 1886. 
$4. First prize, to D. A. Massey, Danvers, for Ayr- 
shire calf, "Mars Dora 2d," dropped July 20, 1884. 
$2. Second premium, to D. A. Massey, Danvers, for 
Ayrshire heifer, "Crocus 4th," dropped Sept. 15, 
1884. 
Maj. Ben: Perley Poore entered a nice Short Horn 
heifer, worthy of a first premium, but not entered for one, 
only for exhibition. 

Andrew Dodge, S. F. Newman, Eben True, Frank P. 
Todd — Committee. 



HEIFERS, SECOND CLASS. 

The Committee on Heifers, Second Class, have attended 
to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 



30 

£10. First premium, to P. A. Perkins, Newbury, for 

three year old heifer in milk, grade Ayrshire. 
$4. Second premium, to O. F. Lewis. Salisbury, for 

three year old, grade Jersey. 
$4. First premium, to E. S. Toppan, Newburyport, for 

three year old Short Horn. 
$2. Second premium, to Elbridge Tenney, Newbury, 

for twenty-six months old, grade Jersey. 
$4. First premium, to T. K. Bartlett, Newburyport, 

for twenty months old, Dutch. 
$2. Second premium, to J. F. Smith, Salisbury,' for 

fourteen months old, grade Jersey. 
$4. First premium, to Jere. Cashman, Newburyport, for 

calf three months old, grade Jersey. 
John Swinerton, T. J. King, J. H. Perkins — Commit- 
tee. 



WORKING OXEN AND CATTLE. 

The Committee on Working Oxen and Steers have at- 
tended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secre- 
tary that they have made the following awards : 
$12. First premium, to C. U. Burbank, Amesbury, for 

one pair working oxen. 
$10. Second premium, to Carlton Little, Newbury, for 
one pair working oxen. 
$8. Third premium, to Win. Bryant, West Newbury, 
for one pair working oxen. 
$10. First premium, to R. T. Jaques, Newbury, for 
one pair four year old steers. 
F. \\. Allen, Hiram Young, G. F. Drew — Committee. 



TOWN TEAMS. 

The Committee on Town Teams have attended to their 



31 

duly, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 

$20. First premium, to Town of West Newbury, for 
town team of oxen. 
Justin E. Bradstreet, Edward P. Perley, Richard VY . 
Ricker — Committee. 



STEERS. 
The Committee on Steers have attended to their duty, 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 
$6. First premium, to C. U. Burbank, Amesbury, for 

pair two year old steers, weight 2750 lbs. 
$5. Second premium, to James Noyes, Newbury, for 

one pair two year old steers, weight 2330 lbs. 
$5. First premium, to Wm. W. Perkins, Newbury, for 

pair yearling steers, weight 1410 lbs. 
$4. Second premium, to Edwin llsley, Newbury, for 

pair yearling steers, weight 1280 lbs. 
$4. First premium, to Mrs. M. L. Moody, West New- 
bury, for pair steer calves, eleven months old. 
The cattle were all very good. There were no three 
year olds, and as there were but two premiums offered for 
each class, we had to pass some by, but hope they will 
not be discouraged, but try again another year and win 
the premium card. 

Respectfully submitted, 

S. P. Hale, Chairman. 



STALLIONS, FIRST CLASS. 

The Committee on Stallions, First Class, have attended 
to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 



32 

$8. First premium, to H. H. Hale, Bradford, for size 
and good qualities. 

The colts entered in this class did not include horses 
four years old and upwards, of which there were no 
entries. 

The three year old imported Percheron stallion of H. H. 
Hale of Bradford came within the list of premiums offered, 
and the committee consider him of great value to the 
County, and have awarded him the first premium in the 
class to which he belongs. 

The colt of Mr. Parkhurst, a two year old half-bred 
Percheron, has tine size and shape and action; and the 
committee, finding no premium for colts of this age, have 
awarded him a gratuity of $8.* 

George B. Loring, Peter Holt, Jr., Edward Harring- 
ton, H. F. Longfellow — Committee. 



*The Trustees declined to suspend the rules to allow a gra- 
tuity, as it belonged in the Colt class for draft purposes. 



STALLIONS, SECOND CLASS. 

The Committee on Stallions, Second Class, have at- 
tended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secre- 
tary that they have made the following awards : 
$10. First premium, to C. C. Hewitt, Newburyport, for 
stallion for driving purposes. 
No others worthy of premium, on account of unsound- 
ness. 

Benj. W. Bartlett, R. T. Jaques, Albert Titcomb — 
Committee. 



BROOD MARES. 
The Committee on Brood Mares have attended to their 



33 

duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 

$10. First premium, to C. N. Maguire, Newburyport, 
for mare and foal. 
$6. Second premium, to E. E. Bartlett, Newburyport, 

for mare and foal. 
$4. Third premium, to Frank Perkins, Newbury, for 
mare and foal. 
A. J. Stockbridge, Paul T. Winkley, Jr., B. A. Fol- 
lansbee — Committee. 



FAMILY HORSES. 

The Committee on Family Horses have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 

$10. First premium, to S. P. Hale, Newbury, for dark 
brown horse, nine years old, weight 1050 lbs. 
$6. Second premium, to John C. Tarlton, West New- 
bury, for bay horse, nine years old, weight 1050 
lbs. 
$4. Third premium, to Peter Holt, Jr., North Andover, 
for gray horse, six years old, weight 1200 lbs. 
Chas. H. Gould, Wm. R. Roundy, J. A. Lamson, Wm. 
B. Carleton — Committee. 



GENTLEMEN'S DRIVING HORSES. 

The Committee on Gentlemen's Driving Horses have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the 
Secretary that they have made the following awards : 

First premium, to Peter Holt, Jr., Andover, for 
white mare, eight years old, weight 1050 lbs. 



34 

$6. Second premium, to Jere. Cashman, Newburyport, 

for seal brown gelding, five years old, weight 1140 
Lbs. 
$4. Third premium, to C. U. Burbank, Amesbury, for 
bay gelding, five years old, weight 925 lbs. 
Nine entries ; six appeared on the ground. 
A. C. Estes, Albert Kimball, C. X. Maguire — Commit- 
tee. 



FARM HORSES. 

The Committee on Farm Horses have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 

$10. First premium, to J. A. Ilsley, Georgetown, for 
farm horse, thirteen years old, weight 1220 lbs. 
$6. Second premium, to J. Otis Winkley, Newbury- 
port, for farm horse, eight years old, weight 1060 
lbs. 
$4. Third premium, to Michael Reddy, Ipswich, for 
Gray Mare, weight 1200 lbs. 
John M. Danforth, C. N. Maguire, W. E. Merrill— 
Committee. 



DRAFT HORSES. 

The Committee on Draft Horses have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 

$10. First premium, to Peter Holt, Jr., North Andover, 
for white draft horse, six years old, weight 1250 
lbs. 
$6. Second premium, to Wm. W. Perkins, Newbury, 
for mare, eleven years old, weight 1200 lbs. 



36 

$4. Third premium, to John Ronan, Newburyport, for 
bay horse, weight 1160 lbs. 
Nathan F. Abbott, C. K. Ordway, D. A. Pettingell, 
George M. Wonson, Andrew Curtis — Committee. 



PAIRS OF FARM HORSES. 

The Committee on Pairs of Farm Horses have attended 
to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 
$12. First premium, to Walter F. Dodge, North Bever- 
ly, for pair farm horses. 
$6. Second premium, to C. N. Maguire, Newburyport, 
for pair farm horses. 
J. Otis Winkley, J. N. Rolfe, H. M. Goodrich— Com- 
mittee. 



PAIRS OF DRAFT HORSES. 

The Committee on Pairs of Draft Horses have attended 
to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary 
that they have made the following awards : 
$12. First premium, to Charles Bennett, West Glouces- 
ter, for pair draft horses, five years old, weight 
2510 lbs. 
$8. Second premium, to Jere. Cashman, Newburyport, 

for pair bay horses, weight 2600 lbs. 
$4. Third premium, to Jere. Cashman, Newburyport, 
for pair brown horses, weight 2500 lbs. 
Your Committee would recommend that there be more 
distinction between Draft and Farm Horses. The pair of 
Mr. Bennett would come within the grade of Farm Horses, 
as not being used to heavy work as much as the others. 



:\6 

A. H. Knights, E. F. Little, James Noyes, Henry Na- 
son, J. M. Rollins — Committee. 



COLTS FOR DRAFT PURPOSES, FIRST CLASS. 

The Committee on Colts, for Draft, First Class, have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the 
Secretary that they have made the following awards : 
$10. First premium, to Harry H. Hale, Bradford, for 
black mare, three years old, weight 1500 lbs. 

Xo others worth special mention. 

Benj. W. Bartlett, Frank W. Evans, Frank P. Todd— 
Committee. 



COLTS, FOR DRAFT, SECOND CLASS. 

The Committee on Colts, for Draft, Second Class, have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Sec- 
retary that they have made the following awards : 
$6. First premium, to E. E. Bartlett, Newburyport, 

for colt one year old, weight 895 lbs. 
$4. Second premium, to A. J. Stockbridge, Rowley, 

for yearling mare colt, weight 800 lbs. 
$(!. First premium, to M. B. Chesley, Amesbury, for 

colt, two years old, weight 925 lbs. 
$4. Second premium, to R. Jaques, West Newbury, for 
colt two years old, weight 1035 lbs. 
Jere. Cashman, E. P. Barrett, D. Bradstreet — Commit- 
tee. 



COLTS FOR GENERAL PURPOSES, FIRST 

CLASS. 

The Committee on Colts for General Purposes, First 



37 

Class, have attended to their duty, and respectfully report 

to the Secretary that they have made the following awards : 

$10. First premium, to O. N. Fernald, Danvers, for hay 

mare colt, four years old, weight 1000 lbs. 

$6. Second premium, to F. W. Evans, Newburyport, 

for bay filly, four years old, weight 875 lbs. 
$4. Third premium, to C. C. Cook, Bradford, for mare 

colt, four years old, weight 950 lbs. 
$8. First premium, to Geo. H. Whipple, Lynn, for 

"Jennie D.," three years old, weight 1020 lbs. 
$5. Second premium, to Daniel Tenney, Newbury, for 
chestnut gelding, three years old, weight 900 lbs. 
O. S. Butler, D. A. Massey, Henry Nason, F. Gulli- 
var — Committee . 



COLTS FOR GENERAL PURPOSES, SECOND 

CLASS. 

The Committee on Colts for General Purposes, Second 

Class, have attended to their duty, and respectfully report 

to the Secretary that they have made the following awards : 

$6. First premium, to Woodbury Smith, Rowley, for 

two year old colt, weight 975 lbs. 
$4. Second premium, to Harry H. Hale, Bradford, for 

two year old colt, weight 930 lbs. 
$G. First premium, to B. W. Bartlett, Rowley, for one 

year old stallion colt. 
$4. Second premium, to O. N. Fernald, Danvers, for 
one year old bay colt, weight 705 lbs. 
Nathaniel Shatswell, James Noyes, W. P. Fisher, C. 
C. Hewett, John Parkhurst — Committee. 



SWINE, FIRST CLASS. 
The Committee on Swine, First Class, have attended to 



38 

their duty, :uid respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 
$8. First premium, to Win. W. Perkins, Newburyport, 

for grade breeding sow. 
$5. Second premium, to S. P. Hale, Newbury, for 

grade breeding sow with 11 pigs. 
$8. First premium, to Michael Reddy, Ipswich, for 

Jersey red sow with 7 pigs. 
$8. First premium, to Edward S. Knights, Newbury, 

for grade Berkshire boar. 
$."). Second premium, to Wm. W. Perkins, Newbury- 
port, for litter of 8 graded Yorkshire pigs. 
M. B. Chesley, Andrew Dodge, C. U. Burbank — Com- 
mittee. 



SWINE, SECOND CLASS, OR SMALL BREEDS. 

The Committee on Swine, Second Class, or Small 
Breeds, have attended to their duty, and respectfully re- 
port to the Secretary that they have made the following 
awards : 
$8. First premium, to W. W. Perkins, Newbury, for 

litter of weaned pigs. 
$8. First premium, to W. W. Perkins, Newbury, for 
grade Yorkshire breeding sow. 
P. T. Winkley, Daniel M. Davis, Asa T. Newhall, 
Committee. 



SHEEP. 



The Committee on Sheep have at tended to their duty, 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 



39 



First premium, to Matthew H. Toomey, Newbury, 

for Coltswold sheep. 
8. First premium, to Matthew H. Toomey, Newbury, 

for Coltswold buck. 
N. W. Moody, J. S. Todd, E. P. Perley— Committee. 



POULTRY. 

The Committee on Poultry have attended to their duty, 
and respectfully report to the Secretary through the Judge 
that the following awards have been made : 
Diploma. First premium, to E. E. Bartlett, Newbury- 

port, for best breeding pen of Partridge Cochins. 
Diploma. First premium, to Eben Smith, Newburyport, 

for breeding pen Brown Leghorns. 
$2.00. First premium, to J. W. Wilson, Amesbury, for 
pair of White Cochin chicks. 
2.00. First premium, to J. W. Wilson, Amesbury, for 

Buff Cochin chicks. 
2.00. First premium, to E. E. Bartlett, Newburyport, 

for Partridge ( ochins. 
1.00. Second premium, to Joseph Parsons, (Bytield), 

Newbury, for Buff Cochin chicks. 
2.00. First premium, to W. L. Whipple, Newburyport, 

for White Leghorn chicks. 
2.00. First premium, to Patrick M. Haley, Newbury- 
port, for Plymouth Bock chicks. 
1.00. Second premium, to Patrick M. Haley, Newbury- 
port, for Plymouth Bock chicks. 
2.00. First premium, to E. M. Woodman, Newbury, 

for W. C. B. Polish chicks. 
2.00. First premium, to J. W. Wilson, Amesbury, for 
Dark Brahma chicks. 



40 

2.00. First premium, to Charles E. Marshall, Rowley, 
for Houdan fowls. 

2.00. First premium, to Charles E. Marshall, Kowley, 
for Houdan chicks. 

2.00. First premium, to J). T. Rowe, Newburyport, for 
Light Brahma chicks. 

1.00. Second premium, to C. S. Bartlett, Newburyport, 
for Light Brahma chicks. 

2.00. First premium, to X. A. Massey, Newburyport, 
for Silver Spangled Hamburg chicks. 

2.00. First premium, to E. W. Buswell, Salisbury, for 
Wyandotte chicks. 

1.00. Second premium, to E. W. Buswell, Salisbury, 
for Wyandotte chicks. 

2.00. First premium, to Wm. P. Perkins, Danvers, for 
Pekin ducks (old). 

2.00. First premium, to Wm. P. Perkins, Danvers, for 
Pekin ducks (young). 

2.00. First premium, to Ben : Perley Poore, West New- 
bury, for dressed ducks. 

2.00. First premium, to Ben : Perley Poore, West New- 
bury, for dressed chickens. 

1.00. First premium, to Mrs. A. M. Perkins, Newbury, 
for best dozen eggs. 
The Judge would recommend notice of the Guinea hens 

exhibited, for which no premium is offered, belonging to 

John J. Quill. 

Wm. F. Bacon, Judge. 

Note. — Premiums were awarded on a score of not less than 
1 76 points for first premium pairs and 166 points for second 
premium pairs of fowls and chicks. 



41 

PLOUGHING WITH DOUBLE TEAMS. 

The Committee on Ploughing with Double Teams have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the 
Secretary that they have made the following awards : 
$12. First premium, to Xoyes & Little, Newbury, for 

ploughing with 2 yoke of oxen, "Eagle" plough. 
$10. Second premium, to Wm. P. Coffin, Newbury, for 
ploughing with 2 yoke of oxen, common plough. 
$9. Third premium, to Wm. W. Perkins, Newbury, 
for ploughing with 2 yoke of oxen, "Eagle No. 20" 
plough. 
Aaron Low, Daniel H. Hale, Edward G. Dole, Allen 
Smith — Committee. 



PLOUGHING WITH HORSES. 

The Committee on Ploughing with Horses have attend- 
ed to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary 
that they have made the following awards : 
$10. First premium, to Charles N. Maguire, Newbury- 
port, for ploughing with pair of horses. 
$7. Second premium, to S. F. Newman, Newbury, for 

ploughing with pair of horses. 
$5. Third premium, to Walter F. Dodge, North Bev- 
erly, for ploughing with pair of horses. 
J. N. Rolfe, William Thurlow, John Cashman, T. G. 
Ordway — Committee. 



PLOUGHING WITH THREE OR FOUR HORSES. 

The Committee on Ploughing with three or four Horses 
have attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the 
Secretary that they have made the following awards : 



42 

$10. First premium, to J. Kent Adams, Xewbury, for 

ploughing with four horses, steel Hussey Xo. 50 

plough. 
slO. First premium, to Frank Perkins, Xewbury, for 

ploughing with three horses, steel Eagle Xo. 50 

plough. 
Isaac F. Knowlton, George F. Averill, Nathan A. 
Bushby — Committee. 



PLOUGHING WITH SWIVEL PLOUGH. 

The Committee on Ploughing with Swivel Ploughs have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Sec- 
retary that they have made the following awards : 
$10. First premium, to Jonas M. Rollins, Danvers, for 
ploughing with two horses and Granger Swivel 
plough. 
C. J. Peabody, Ebenezer Smith — Committee. 



PLOUGHING WITH SULKY PLOW. 

The Committee on Ploughing with Sulky Plough have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Sec- 
retary that they have made the following awards : 
$10. First premium, to A. J. Stockbridge, Kowley, for 
ploughing with Cassidy Sulky plough. 

The Committee wish to remark that the work done by 
Mr. Stockbridge compared favorably with that done by 
the other kind of ploughs. The work was commenced at 
17 1-2 minutes past ten and finished at 16 minutes of 11. 

Wilbur F. Proctor, Calvin Rogers, Amos Poor — Com- 
mittee. 



43 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

The Committee on Agricultural Implements have at- 
tended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Sec- 
retary that they have made the following awards : 
$10. Diploma and first premium, to J. C. Stanley, New- 

buryport, for best collection. 

First premium, to G. E. Daniels, Rowley, for farm 

wagon. 

First premium, to Geo. E. Daniels, Rowley, for 

horse cart. 

Gratuity, to Geo. E. Daniels, Rowley, for hay 

wagon. 

Gratuity, to Wra. Little, Newbury, for hay wagon. 

Gratuity, to George E. Daniels, Rowley, for double 

sled. 

Gratuity, to C. S. Huse, Newburyport, for root 

cutter. 

Gratuity, to F. S. Wright, Pomfret, Ct., for road 

machine. 

Gratuity, to E. K. Preston, Beverly Farms, for 

hoisting machine. 

Gratuity to W. H. Stevens, West Newbury, for 

incubator. 

Gratuity to T. P. Harriman, Andover, for horse 

shoes. 
Aaron Low, G. A. Randall, James Noyes, Andrew 
Dodge, Committee. 



$5 



CARRIAGES. 

The Committee on Carriages have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 



44 

Gratuity to T. W. Lane, Amesbury, for patent 

spring road wagon, 
i. Gratuity to T. W. Lane, Amesbury, for light top 

buggy. 
». Gratuity to Gilmau A. Andrews, Salem, for market 

wagon. 
!. Gratuity to P. M. Lougee, Newburyport, for duplex 

gear. 
». Gratuity to William Poor, Andover, for meat wagon. 
Henry llobbs, David Stiles, Aaron Sawyer — Committee. 



DAIRY. 



The Committee on Dairy have attended to their duty, 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following' awards : 

$10. First premium, to No. 9, Elbridge Tenney, New- 
bury (Bytield), for 7 lbs. butter. 
$8. Second premium, to No. 2, W. K. Cole, West 

Boxford, for 5 lbs. butter. 
$6. Third premium, to No. 11, Oliver F. Lewis, Salis- 
bury, for 5 1-2 lbs. butter. 
E. H. Potter, N. Longfellow, F. W. Sargent — Com- 
mittee. 

STATEMENT OF ELBRIDGE TENNEY. 

Seven lbs. of butter, made from the milk of two grade 
Jersey heifers, Daisy and Pansy, who are 22 months old. 
Daisy came in the 14th of May and Pansy the 22d of 
May. Their feed has been one quart of Indian meal and 
one quart of shorts apiece in the morning, and what they 
could get in the pasture. I have no place to set my 
milk or make my butter, only in a corner room in the 
house. I am 72 years, 9 months old, and do my own work. 



45 



STATEMENT OF W. K. COLE. 

I enter for the Society's premium a five pound box of 
butter. This butter is made from the milk of grade Jer- 
sey cows. The milk is strained in shallow five quart pans 
and allowed to stand in the Dairy from 36 to 48 hoars ; it 
is then skimmed and the cream put in ajar and thorough- 
ly stirred together, and when enough has collected for a 
churning, it is churned until it becomes hard, when the 
buttermilk is drawn off and cold fresh water is turned in, 
when it is churned two or three minutes longer. It is 
then taken from the churn and washed, and the butter- 
milk thoroughly ivorked out, when it is salted, about 1 oz. 
of salt to the pound of butter, the salt being worked in by 
hand. It is then immediately put up in five-pound boxes 
and in balls, and is ready for the market. The milk is 
kept in a cool place, about 50 degrees. The butter con- 
tains no artificial coloring, and we have never had occasion 
to use any ; in fact I never saw any. 

STATEMENT OF OLIVER F. LEWIS. 

Dairy butter, grade Jersey. Milk set in pans, cream 
taken off soon as milk sours. Churned with Dash churn. 
Butter washed, salted 1-2 oz. to pound, with very little 
working. Milk set in milk-room, opening from kitchen. 



BREAD, HONEY AND CANNED FRUIT. 

The Committee on Bread, Honey and Canned Fruit 
have attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the 
Secretary that they have made the following awards : 
$3. First premium, to F. E. de Jean, Newburyport, for 

White bread. 
$2. Second premium, to Alice J. Bartlett, Newbury- 
port, for white bread. 



46 

$1 Third premium, to J. S. Todd, Rowley, for white 

bread. 
$2. First premium, to Delia Craven, Bradford, Graham 

improved bread. 
$1. Second premium, to Ellen Keefe, Newburyport, for 

Graham improved bread. 
50 cts. Gratuity, to R. S. Tibbets, Newburyport, for 

steamed cereals. 
$3. First premium, to John Preston, Georgetown, for 

honey. 
$1. Gratuity, to Alfred Green, Newbury, for honey. 
$3. First premium, to Lizzie Wilson, North Beverly, 

for collection of jellies and preserves. 
$2. Second premium, to Mrs. N. E. Ladd, Groveland, 

for collection of jellies and preserves. 
$1. Gratuity, to Mrs. W. Taylor, Amesbury, for jelly. 
50 cts. Gratuity, to Albert Kimball, Bradford, for ten 

year cider. 
50 cts. Gratuity, to George H. Plummer, Newbury, 

for elderberry wine. 
$1. Gratuity, to Eliphalet Griffin, Newburyport, for 6 

bottles grape wine. 
50 cts. Gratuity, to Mrs. M. de F. Bay ley, Newbury- 
port, for mustard. 
N. T. Kimball, Mrs. J. Henry Hill, Mrs. Charles B. 
Emerson, F. W. Sargent, Mrs. L. M. Sargent — Commit- 
tee. 

Note. — No bread recipes received from Committee. 

STATEMENT OF JOHN PRESTON. 

I enter for premium ten pounds of comb and one pound 
of extracted honey. This honey was gathered from fruit 
blossoms in the month of May by hybrid bees, a cross 
between Black and Italians, and stored in honey boxes 
placed on racks over brood frames in Langstroth hives. 



47' 

PEARS. 

The Committee on Pears have attended to their duty, 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 

First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Bartlett. 

First premium, to Abel Stickney, Groveland, for 
Belle Lucrative. 

First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Beurre 
Bosc. 

First premium, to Silas Plumer, Newbury, for B. de 
Aivjou. 

First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Duchess. 

First premium, to J. H. Hill, Amesbury, for Dana's 
Hovey. 

First premium, to J. H. Hill, Amesbury, for Law- 
rence. 

First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for L. Bon 
de Jersey. 

First premium, to W. Huff, Newburyport, for Marie 
Louise. 

First premium to James M. Estes, Peabody, for 
Onondaga. 

First premium, to A. J. Hubbard, Peabody, for Par- 
adise d'Antomne. 

First premium, to Silas Plumer, Newbury, for Seck- 
el. 

First premium, to Patrick Nasey, Salem, for St. 
Michael Archange. 

First premium, to J. D. Foote, Haverhill, for Shel- 
don. 

First premium, to R. S. Griffith, Newburyport, for 
Urbaniste. 

First premium, to David A. Pettingell, Dan vers, for 
Vicar of Winkfield. 



si 



si 
si 



48 

First premium, to J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for 
Winter Nellis. 

First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Mt. Ver- 
non. 

First premium, to J. Henry Hill, Amesbuiy, for 
Langlier. 

First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for plate of 
Duchess, 24 specimens. 

First premium, to J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for 
best collection of varieties recommended for cul- 
tivation by this Society. 

Second premium, to E. F. Webster, Haverhill, for 
second best collection. 

Third premium, to John O'Brien, Bradford, for third 
best collection. 

Gratuity, to W. E. Ladd, Groveland, for B. de An- 
jou. 

Gratuity, to T. K. Bartlett, Xewburyport, for Bart- 
lett. 

Gratuit}', to J. Hood, Danvers, for Beurre Bosc. 

Gratuity, to J. T. Griffin, Newburyport, for Duch- 
ess. 
50. Gratuity, to T. K. Bartlett, Newburyport, for 
Beurre Hardy. 

Gratuity, to G. J. Johnson, Rowley, for Onondaga. 

Gratuity, to Walter B. Allen, Lynn, for Seckel. 

Gratuity, to T. P. Hale, Rowley, for B. de Anjou. 
50. Gratuity, to W. B. Little, Newbury, for Souve- 
nir de Congress. 
50. Gratuity, to M. Stevens, Newburyport, for Beurre 
Clairgeau. 

Gratuity, to B. F. Stanley, Newburyport, for Shel- 
don. 

Gratuity, to George Pettengill, Salem, for Vicar of 
Wiukfield. 



49 

$1. Gratuity, to George C. Evans, Rowley, for L. Bon 

de Jersey. 
$1. Gratuity, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for B. Uiel. 
$1. Gratuity, to John O'Brien, Bradford, for Lawrence. 
$1.50. Gratuity, to E. Bates, Lynn, for Howell. 
$1. Gratuity, to Philip B. Adams, Newburyport, for 

Howell. 
$1. Gratuity, to George Pettingell, Salem, for Beurre 

Bosc. 
$1. Gratuity, to A. J. Hubbard, Peabody, for Marie 

Louise. 
$1.50. Gratuity, to C. M. Lunt, Newbury, for Keiffer. 

There were three hundred and twenty-four (324) plates 
presented by one hundred and eight (108) contributors. 
One hundred and seventeen (117) plates were of the va- 
rieties recommended for cultivation in Essex county. 
There were three (3) collections of the varieties recom- 
mended, comprising tifty-eight (58) plates, and six (6) 
dishes of twenty four (24) specimens each. The balance 
were on the "miscellaneous" table. 

*The Committee would recommend that the following 
varieties be dropped from the list recommended for culti- 
vation in Essex county : St. Michael Archangel, Mount 
Vernon and Winter Nelis ; and that Howell, Beurre Har- 
dy and Beurre Clairgeau be added to the list. 

George Pettiugell, W. H. B. Currier, Benj. F. Stanley, 
Geo. H. Plummer — Committee. 



*The recommendations of the Committee were adopted by 
the Trustees at November meeting. 



APPLES. 

The Committee on Apples have attended to their duty, 



50 

and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 

made the following awards : 

$3.00. First premium, to Edwin P. Noyes, Newbury, for 

Baldwins. 
3.00. First premium, to F. A. Whitman, Wenham, for 

Danvers Winter Sweet. 
3.00. First premium, to George Buchan, Andover, for 

Granite Beauty. 
3.00. First premium, to C. M. Lunt, Newbury, for Red 

Russet. 
3.00. First premium, to G. W. Gage, Methuen, for Mc- 

Carty. 
3.00. First premium, to D. M. Cole & Son, Boxford, 

for Roxbury Russet. 
3.00. First premium, to W. W. Perkins, Newbury, for 

Tolman Sweet. 
3.00. First premium, to T. K. Bartlett, Newburyport, 

for Drap d'Or. 
3.00. First premium, to B. F. Huntington, Amesbury, 

for Sweet Baldwin. 
3.00. First premium, to C. C. Blunt, Andover, for 

Hurlburt. 
3.00. First" premium, to Wm. Burke Little, Newbury, 

for R. I. Greening. 
3.00. First premium, to Wm. Burke Little, Newbury, 

for Smith Cider. 
3.00. First premium, to George B. Austin, West Box- 
ford, for Porter. 
3.00. First premium, to D. Bradstreet, Topsfield, for 

Pickman Pippin. 
3.00. First premium, to F. II. Adams, Rowley, for 

Hunt's Russet. 
3.00. First premium, to John Taylor, Amesbury, for 

Gravenstein. 



51 

3.00. First premium, to J. H. Hill, Amesbury-, for King 
of Tompkins County. 

3.00. First premium, to John O'Brien, Bradford, for 
Hubbardston. 

1.50. First premium, to S. G. Ashton, Lynn, for Hyslop 
Crab. 
.75. Gratuity, to F. A. Whitman, Wenham, for Crab 

Apple. 
.50. Gratuity, to Charles W. Rogers, Rowley, for Crab 

Apple. 
.50 Gratuity, to Joseph Thurlow, Newburyport, for 
Crab Apple. 

1.50. Gratuity, to T. J. King, West Newbury, for Pres- 
ident. 

1.50. Gratuity, to C. F. Pousland, Salem, for Glory of 
the West. 

1 .50. Gratuity, to Albert Kimball, Boxford, for Ordway. 

1.50. Gratuity, to E. F. Webster, Haverhill, for Blush. 

1.00. Gratuity, to F. P. Hale, Rowley, for Hunt's Rus- 
set. 

1.00. Gratuity, to David W. Low, Gloucester, for 
Mother. 

1.00. Gratuity, to David W. Low, Gloucester, for Min- 
ister. 

1.00. Gratuity, to T. K. Bartlett, Newburyport, for 
Nonesuch. 

1.00. Gratuity, to C. L. T. Atwater, Newburyport, for 
Duchess of Oldenburg. 

1.00. Gratuity, to J. O. Winkley, Newburyport, for 
Williams. 

1.00. Gratuity, to B. F. Huntington, Amesbury, for La- 
dies' Sweet. 

1.50. Gratuity, to C. W. Woods, Newburyport, for Sea- 
view. 



52 

1.00. Gratuity, to P. M. Ilsley, Newbury, for Hubbard- 

ston. 
1.00. Gratuity , to R. Jaques, Newbury, for Seek No 

Further. 
1.00. Gratuity, to W. K. Cole, Boxford, for Dutch 

Codlin. 
1.00. Gratuity, to James Noyes, Newbury, for Roxbury 

Russet. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Isaac P. Noyes, Newburyport, for 

Rolfe, 
1.00. Gratuity, to David Srnitli, Newburyport, for Hub- 

bardstou . 
1.00. Gratuity, to John Swinerton, Danvers, for Fall 

Harvey. 
1.00. Gratuity, to W. H. Stevens, West Newbury, for 

Moody. 
1.00. Gratuity, to M. W. Bartlett, West Newbury, for 

Alexander. 
1.00. Gratuity, to C. H. Poor, Bradford, for Sweet 

Rambo. 
1.00. Gratuity, to E. G. Plumer, Newbury, for R. I. 

Greening. 
1.00. Gratuity, to J. M. Lunt, Newbury, for Golden 

Russet. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Valley Farm, West Gloucester, for 

Sweet Russet. 
1.00. Gratuity, to C. B. Anderson, Boxford, for Green 

Sweet. 
8.00. First premium, to J. H. Hill, Amesbury, for best 

collection of varieties recommended for cultivation. 
6.00. Second premium, to S. B. George, Groveland, for 

collection. 
4.00. Third premium, to T. C. Thurlow, West New- 
bury, for collection. 



53 

6.00. First premium, to T. J. King, "West Newbury, for 
best 24 apples, Gravenstein. 

The Committee regret that they were unable to give 
premiums or gratuities to many deserving plates of Ap- 
ples on account of lack of funds. 

Aaron Low, Geo. W. Chadwick, Daniel Plummer, 
Thomas Hale — Committee. 



PEACHES, GRAPES AND ASSORTED FRUITS. 

The Committee on Peaches, Grapes and Assorted 

Fruits have attended to their duty, and respectfully re- 
port to the Secretary that they have made the following 

awards : 

$2.00. First premium, to D. D. Tilton, Newburyport, 
for Native Seedling peach. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Seedling 
peach. 

1.00. Gratuity, to George Pettingell, Salem, for Blood 
Seedling peach. 

1.00. Gratuity, to D. D. Tilton, Newburyport, for Im- 
perial peach. 

3.00. First premium, to James G. King, Newburyport, 
for Concord grapes. 

3.00. First premium, to S. M. Titcomb, West Newbury, 
for Worden grapes. 

3.00. First premium, to James N. Estes, Peabody, for 
Brighton grapes. 

3.00. First premium, to C. P. Savory, Groveland, for 
Hartford Prolific grapes. 

3.00. First premium, to P. M. Ilsley, Newbury, for 
Delaware grapes. 

3.00. First premium, to S. M. Titcomb, West New- 
bury, for Martha grapes. 



54 

3.00. First premium, to George Walker, Amesbury, for 
Moore's Early grapes. 

6.00. First premium, to Aaron Low, Essex, for Cold 
House grapes. 

4.00. Second premium, to George W. Gage, Methuen, 
for Cold House grapes. 

7.00. First premium, to George W. Gage, Methuen, for 
best collection of grapes. 

1.50. First premium, to E. A. Goodwin, Amesbury, for 
Niagara grapes. 

1.50. Gratuity, to Rufus Goodwin, Haverhill, for Con- 
cord grapes. 

1.50. Gratuity, to J. W. Goldthwait, Salem, for Brigh- 
ton grapes. 

1.50. Gratuity, to M. W. Bartlett, West Newbury, for 
Delaware grapes. 

1.50. Gratuity, to Samuel Cammett, Amesbury, for Mar- 
tha grapes. 

1.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Sarah J. Woodward, West New- 
bury, for Hartford grapes. 

4.00. First premium, to Abigail Perkins, Newbury, for 
best basket of assorted fruit. 

3.00. Second premium, to A. J. Hubbard, Peabody, for 
basket second best fruit. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Wallace Bates, Lynn, for Pocklington 
grapes. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Augustus Very, Danvers, for Diana 
grapes. 

1.00. Gratuity, to C. P. Savory, Groveland, for Isabella 
grapes. 

1.50. Gratuity, to Harry Noyes, Newbury, for Iona 
grapes. 

1.50. Gratuity, to Samuel Cammett, Amesbury, for 
Clinton grapes. 



55 

1.50. Gratuity, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Lombard 

plums. 
1.00. Gratuity, to J. Otis Winkley, NewbuiTport, for 

Lombard plums. 
1.00. Gratuity, to T. C. Thurlow, West Newbury, for 

Riene Claude plums. 
1.50. Gratuity, to Isaac P. Noyes, Newburyport, for 

Champion quince. 
1.50. Gratuity, to E. F. Webster, Haverhill, for Orange 

quince. 
1.00. Gratuity, to C. R. Todd, Newburyport, for Orange 

quince. 
.50. Gratuity, to E. H. Richardson, Rowley, for Orange 

quince. 
.75. Gratuity, to Lizzie Peirson, Newburyport, for 

blackberries, Lawton. 
.75. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for 

strawberries, Miner's Prolific. 
J. Henry Hill, B. F. Huntington, Thomas P. Hale — 
Committee. 



FLOWERS. 

The Committee on Flowers have attended to their duty, 

and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 

made the following awards : 

$3.00. First premium, to Mrs. T. W. Goodwin, New- 
buryport, for foliage plants. 

3.00. First premium, to Mrs. T. W. Goodwin, New- 
buryport, for parlor bouquets. 

2.00. First premium, to Mrs. T. W. Goodwin, New- 
buryport, for hand bouquets. 

3.00. First premium, to Wm. Merrill, West Newbury, 
for cut flowers. 



56 

2.00. Second premium, to Wm. H. Bay ley, Newbury- 
port, for cut flowers. 

1.00. First premium, to Mrs. T. W. Goodwin, New- 
buryport, for 4 Ferns in pots. 

1.00. First premium, to Mrs. T. W. Goodwin, New- 
buryport, for 4 Coleus in pots. 

1.00. First premium, to Mrs. T. W. Goodwin, New- 
bury port, for 1 Begonia in pot. 

1.00. First premium, to Greenleaf Dodge, Newbury- 
port, for best plant not from greenhouse. 

1.00. First premium, to Mrs. A. R. Gillett, Newbury- 
port, for bouquet of garden flowers. 

1.00. First premium, to Miss L. C. Bayley, Newbury- 
port, for basket of garden flowers. 

1.00. First premium, to E. & C. Woodman, Danvers, 
for Carnation Pinks. 

1.00. First premium, to Wm. H. Bayley, Newburyport, 
for Zinnias. 

1.00. First premium, to William Tenney, Newburyport, 
for Everlastings. 

2.00. First premium, to William Merrill, West New- 
bury, for floral design. 

5.00. First premium, to Mrs. C. N. S. Horner, George- 
town, for native plants. 

3.00. Second premium, to Eben True, Jr., Amesbury, 
for native plants. 

2.00. First premium, to A. Shirley Ladd, Groveland, 
for arrangement native flowers and autumn leaves. 

1.00. First premium, to William B. Coffin, Newbury- 
port, for roses, 3 varieties. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Lizzie Libby, Newburyport, for 
box Coleus. 

3.00. Gratuity, to T. C. Thurlow, West Newbury, for 
evergreens, etc. 



57 

1.00. First premium, to T. J. King, West Newbury, for 

garden dahlias. 
1.00. First premium, to T. J. King, West Newbury, for 

bouquet dahlias. 
1.00. Gratuity, to William Graves, Newburyport, for 

Amaranthus tricolor. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Charles Adams, Newbury, for Ama- 
ryllis. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Miss A. Edwards, Newburyport, for 
collection pansies. « 

.50. Gratuity, to Wm. P. Lunt, Newbury, for plate 

pansies. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. D. R. Parker, Groveland, for 

verbenas. 
.50. Gratuity, to A. Shirley Ladd, Groveland, for ver- 
benas. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Thomas Capers, Newburyport, for 

Guernsey lily. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. N. S. Horner, Georgetown, 
for Essex county ferns. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss H. M. Smith, Newburyport, for 

autumn leaves and flowers. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Winifred Pingree, Newbury- 
port, for native grasses. 
.50. Gratuity, to J. C. Smith, Newburyport, for cut 

flowers. 
1.50. Gratuity, to J. L. Willey, Lynn, for collection 

dahlias. 
.50. Gratuity, to David Mighill, Boxford, for wild 

flowers. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. W. Nelson, Georgetown, for 

Begonia. 
.50. Gratuity, to Wm. Merrill, West Newbury, for 
snapdragon. 



58 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. D. Rowe, Newburyport, for 

cross of wild flowers. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. P. H. Liuit, Newburyport, for 

choice plant. 
.50. Gratuity, to Thomas Capers, Newburyport, for 
gladiolus. 
1.50. Gratuity, to J. A. Kenniston, Newburyport, for 

collection dahlias. 
1.50. Gratuity, to Fred. Hibbs, Amesbury, for collection. 

The display of Flowers and Foliage Plants at our an- 
nual exhibitions is every year increasing in extent and 
general excellence. This year, owing to the severe drought, 
the contributions were not so numerous, nor the specimens 
as perfect, as in some previous seasons ; but the exhibit 
on the whole was a good one — very creditable to a County 
Fair — especially one that has always been considered 
more agricultural than horticultural. The hall arrange- 
ments were very creditable to those who had them in 
charge, and we think the plan for displaying the flowers a 
good one. The Society has very generously, during the 
past year, furnished stands and bottles for exhibiting spec- 
imens, and as more will soon be needed, we suggest that 
bottles with wider mouths would be more convenient and 
better adapted to the purpose. 

As most of our income is derived from the sale of tick- 
ets to the Hall — and one of the greatest attractions (if 
not the greatest) in the Hall is the Flower Department — 
the wisdom of these appropriations is evident. We would 
suggest the importance of increasing these appropriations 
from year to year, offering higher premiums, not for more 
but better specimens of the various plants and flowers, for 
which premiums are offered. 

Many exhibitors appear to be ignorant or careless in re- 
gard to the rules by which committees are governed. 



59 

These rules and regulations are all to be found in the prin- 
ted premium list of the society, which can be obtained of 
the Secretary, or from any Committee. For instance, a 
premium is offered for the best twelve, dahlias : some per- 
son may exhibit hundreds of specimens in our general col- 
lection ; unless twelve separate dahlias are set apart by 
themselves, they are not considered as competing for a 
premium. No Committee can look through a large col- 
lection and select out twelve flowers, which in their opin- 
ion are better than any other twelve in the Hall, and do 
this through the whole list, in the very short time allowed 
them. The printed rules should be studied by every ex- 
hibitor who expects to compete for a prize. If this was 
done there would be less of fault-finding and disappoint- 
ment. 

The labor of many of the Hall Committee is very great 
during the limited time allotted to them ; and we would 
make this suggestion to be thought over, and possibly to 
be acted upon at some future time, viz., that all the after- 
noon, until evening of the first day, be allowed the Hall 
Committees to examine and award the premiums ; and 
that during such examination, everyone except the Com- 
mittees and proper officers be strictly excluded from the 
room. Also that the exhibition at the Hall be continued 
another day, making two whole days and two evenings, 
in which it will be opeu to the public. 

T. C. Thurlow, Mrs. C. N. S. Horner, Mrs. L. H. 
Bowdoin, Win. Huff, Committee. 



VEGETABLES. 

The Committee on Vegetables have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 



60 

$3. First premium, to J. C. Stanley, Newburyport, for 

Boston market tomato. 
$3. First premium, to T. G. Bradley, "West Newbury, 
for Ruta Baga turnips. 

$3. First premium, to William Huff, Newburyport, for 
parsnips. 

$3. First premium, to Wm. Huff, Newburyport, for pur- 
ple top turnips. 

$3. First premium, to William Huff, Newburyport, for 
Hubbard squashes. 

50 cts. Gratuity, to William Huff, Newburyport, for 
sweet potatoes. 

$2. Second premium, to T. K. Bartlett, Newburyport, 
for Stone Mason cabbage. 

$1.50. Gratuity to T. K. Bartlett, Newburyport, for 
yellow Ruta Bagas. 

$3. First premium, to T. K. Bartlett, Newburyport, for 
white Ruta Bagas. 

$3. First premium, to S. F. Newman, Newbury, for Sa- 
voy cabbages. 

$3. First premium, to S. F. Newman, Newbury, for 
Fottler Drumhead cabbages. 

$2. Second premium, to S. F. Newman, Newbury, for 
Brunswick cabbages. 

$3. First premium, to S. F. Newman, Newbury, for red 
onions. 

$3. First premium, to Alfred Green, Newbury, for Beau- 
ty of Hebron potatoes. 

$3. First premium to B. F. Huntington, Amesbury, for 
Clarke's No. 1 potatoes. 

$3. First premium, to B. F. Huntington, Amesbury, for 
Pearl of Savoy potatoes. 

$3. First premium, to W. Burke Little, Newbury, for 
Early Rose potatoes. 



61 

$3. First premium, to E. G. Xason, West Newbury, for 

Turban squashes. 
$3. First premium, to Wm. H. Greenleaf, Salisbury, for 

Marrow squashes. 
$3. First premium, to W. H. Greenleaf, Salisbury, for 

Essex Hybrid squashes. 
$3. First premium, to Wm. H. Greenleaf, Salisbury, for 

cauliflowers. 
$3. First premium, to W. K. Cole, West Boxford, for 

cranberries. 
$2. Second premium, to J. M. Danforth, Lynnfield, for 

cranberries. 
$2. First premium, to W. P. Smith, Rowley, for White 

Plume celery. 
$3. First premium, to M. Andrews, West Newbury, for 

red cabbages. 
$3. First premium, to R. Jaques, Newbury, for white 

flat turnips. 
$3. First premium, to Aaron Low, Essex, for Cardinal 

tomatoes. 
$3. First premium, to W. Burke Little, Newbury, for 

turnip beets. 
$3. First premium, to Wm. W. Perkins, Newbury, for 

Stone Mason cabbage. 
$3. First premium, to Aaron Low, Essex, for Corey 

sweet corn. 
$3. First premium, to Aaron Low, Essex, for Perry's 

Hybrid Sweet corn. 
$3. First premium, to G. B. Austin, West Boxford, for 

Marblehead squashes. 
$3. First premium, to E. & C. Woodman, Danvers, for 

Livingston tomatoes. 
$3. First premium, to Aaron Low, Essex, for best col- 
lection tomatoes. 



62 

50 cts. Gratuity, to Wm. H. Bayley, Newburyport, for 
White Plume celery. 

$3. First premium, to S. F. Newman, Newbury, for 
Dauvers onion. 

50 cts. Gratuity, to Stephen P. Hale, Newbury, for 
Clarke's No. 1 potatoes. 

$3. First premium, to B. F. Huntington, Amesbury, for 
Short Horn carrot. 

$1. Gratuity, to B. F. Huntington, Amesbury, for col- 
lection of potatoes. 

$2. First premium, to John J. Nasou, Amesbury, for 
water melon. 

$3. First premium, to John J. Nason, Amesbury, for 
Danvers Intermediate onion. 

50 cts. Gratuity, to Richard Jaques, Newbury, for 
Clarke's No. 1 potatoes. 

50 cts. Gratuity to Richard Jaques, Newbury, for Beau- 
ty of Hebron potatoes. 

50 cts. Gratuity to Richard Jaques, Newbury, for Sun- 
rise potatoes. 

$3. First premium, to Richard Jaques, Newbury, for 
Flat onions. 

$1. Gratuity to Richard Jaques, Newbury, for parsnips. 

$2. Second premium, to Richard Jaques, Newbury, for 
Savoy cabbage. 

5<> cts. Gratuity to R. T. Jaques, Newbury, for Danvers 
onions. 

50 cts. Gratuity, to W. W. Perkins, Newbury, for Sil- 
ver Skin onion. 

$2. First premium, to W. W. Perkins, Newbury, for 
musk melons. 

$2. First premium, to W. W. Perkins, Newbury, for 
nutmeg melons. 

50 cts. Gratuity to W. W. Perkins, Newbury, for Egyp- 
tian beets. 



63 

$1. Gratuity, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for mammoth 
squash. 

$3. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Mangold 
Wurtzels. 

$1. Gratuity, to William Thurlow, Newburyport, for 
collection of potatoes. 

50 cts. Gratuity, to James Noyes, Newbury, for Clarke's 
No. 1 jxjtatoes. 

$1. Gratuity, to James Ilsley, Newbury, for string of 
onions. 

50 cts. Gratuity, to C. M. Bayley, Newburyport, for 
White Plume celery. 

50 cts. Gratuity, to S. W. Goldthwait, Danvers, for cel- 
ery. 

$1. Gratuity, to J. F. Dale, Danvers, for collection of 
herbs. 

$2. Second premium, to S. A. Jaques, West Newbuiy, 
for Red cabbage. 

$1. Third premium, to Andrew Lane, Rockport, for cran- 
berries. 

50 cts. Gratuity, to O. F. Lewis, Salisbury, for cranber- 
ries. 

50 cts. Gratuity, to M. P. Holland, Newburyport, for 
Boston Market celery. 

$1. Gratuity, to Daniel W. Bradstreet, Rowley, for Belle 
potatoes. 

$1. Gratuity, to M. M. Ridgway, West Newbury, for 
Danvers onion. 

$1. Gratuity, to M. M. Ridgway, West Newbury, for 
Queen of the Valley potatoes. 

$2. Second premium, to Charles R. Anderson, Boxford, 
for cauliflowers. 

50 cts. Gratuity, to Wm. P. Smith, Rowley, for cante- 
loupe melons. 



64 

50 cts. Gratuity, to M. Walsh, Groveland, for Beauty 
of Hebron potatoes. 

50 cts. Gratuity, to Mrs. Samuel Stevens, Plum Island, 
for cranberries. 

50 cts. Gratuity, to C. H. Poor, Bradford, for turnip 
beet. 

50 cts. Gratuity, to Daniel Plummer, Newbury, for Es- 
sex potatoes. 

$1.50. Gratuity, to G. W. Marsh, Newburyport, for 
Dan vers onion. 

50 cts. Gratuity, to G. W. Marsh, Newburyport, for 
Mammoth peppers. 

50 cts. Gratuity, to Cornelius Sullivan, Newbury, for 
Queen of the Valley potatoes. 

$1. Gratuity, to M. B. Chesley, Amesbury, for collec- 
tion of potatoes. 

50 cts. Gratuity, to M. B. Chesley, Amesbury, for Dan- 
vers Flat onion. 

50 cts. Gratuity, to Wm. B. Foster, Beverly, for Sweet 
potatoes. 

$8. First premium, to Aaron Low, Essex, for best 

collection of vegetables. 

$6. Second premium, to Robert Thornton, Salisbury, for 
second best collection of vegetables. 

Thomas Capers, Chairman. 



GRAIN AND SEED. 

The Committee on Grain and Seed have attended to 
their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 
$1.00. First premium, to S. M. Titcomb, West New- 
bury, for peck shelled corn. 



65 

1.00. First premium, to E. G. Nason, West Newbury, 

for peck Bald wheat. 
1.00. First premium, to C. K. Ordway & Sou, West 

Newbury, for peck Silver Hull buckwheat. 
5.00. First premium, to S. Longfellow, Grovelaud, for 

one trace Field corn. 
3.00. Second premium, to E. G. Nason, West Newbury, 

for 25 ears Field corn. 
2.00. Third premium, to G. H. Plumer, Newbury, for 

25 ears Field corn. 
*3.00. First premium, to Enoch C. Curtis, Amesbury, for 

25 ears Yellow Rice Pop corn. 
*2.00. Gratuity, to John J. Mason, Amesbury, for one 

trace White Rice Pop corn. 
1.00. Gratuity, to J. H. Tenney, Rowley, for Improved 

Canada corn. 
8.00. First premium, to J. J. H. Gregory, Marblehead, 

for collection of seed (200 varieties). 
3.00. Second premium, to Aaron Low, Essex, for col- 
lection of seeds (189 varieties). 

James P. King, Rufus Kimball, M. W. Bartlett, N. N. 
Dummer, E. L. Wildes — Committee. 



*Note. — John J. Mason would have received first premium 
for Pop Corn had he complied with the rules of the Society by 
not having more than the number of ears for which premium 
was offered. The awards were changed by the Trustees. 



COUNTERPANES AND AFGHANS. 

The Committee on Counterpanes and Afghans have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the 
Secretary that they have made the following awards : 
$4.00. First premium, to Mrs. Reuben Jackman, Ips- 
wich Bluffs, for silk quilt. 



m 

2.00. Second premium, to Miss A. W. Currier, New- 
buryport, for silk quilt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Miss Kate Buckley, Newburyport, for 

silk quilt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. F. Rose, Newburyport, for 

quilt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. George Peckham, Newburyport, 

for quilt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Annie H. Knight, Newbury, for silk 

quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Mary A. Beason, Newburyport, 

for quilt. * 

1.00. Gratuity, to Miss L. C. Ireland, Newburyport, for 

silk quilt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Miss Alice K. Noyes, Newbury, for 

silk quilt. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Sarah D. Peabody, Topsfield, for 

silk quilt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. James P. Folsom, Georgetown, 

for quilt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs J. R. Chase, Newburyport, for 

quilt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. John Caldwell, Newburyport, 

for silk quilt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. F. Adams, Newburyport, for 

silk quilt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Miss Nellie Stanley, Newburyport, 

for silk quilt. 
4.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Wm. E. Prescott, Georgetown, 

for afghan. 
1.0C. Gratuity, to Miss Sarah Bogardus, Newburyport, 

for afghan. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Frank A. Whitman, Wenham, 

for afghan. 



67 

1.00. Gratuity, to Miss Susie Mender, Newburyport, for 

afghans. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Daniel D. Adams, Newbury, for 

afghans. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Win. S. Coffin, Newburyport, 

for afghan. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. A. J. Haynes, Newburyport, 

for quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Abby J. Quill, Newburyport, for 

quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Win. S. Coffin, Newburyport, 

for quilt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Annie G. M una ford, Newburyport, 

for afglaan. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. H. Bartlett, Newburyport, 

for afglaan. 
.50. Gratuity, to Carrie L. Porter, Newburyport, for 

quilt. 

Miss Clara A. Hale, Mrs. T. C. Thurlow, Mrs. A. W. 
Smith — Committee. 



CARPETS AND RUGS. 

The Committee on Carpets and Rugs have attended to 

their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 

they have made the following awards : 

$4.00. First premium, to John H. Balch, Newburyport, 
for velvet carpet. 

3.00. First premium, to Mrs. Cyrus K. Ordway, West 
Newbury, for rug. 

2.00. Second premium, to Mrs. Moses E. Cook, New- 
buryport, for braided rug. 
.75. Gratuity, to Mrs. T. N. Cook, Newburyport, for 
drawn-in rug;. 



68 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Jere. Luut, Newburyport, for 

log cabin rug. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. George H. Plummer, Newbury, 

for rug. 
.75. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. C. Lang, Newburyport, for 

2 lamb's tongue rugs. 
.75. Gratuity, to Mrs. George Jackson, Newburyport, 

for braided rug. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Reuben Jackman, Ipswich Bluffs, 

for button rug. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. E. P. Bradley, Newburyport, 

for knit rug. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. S. Page Lake, Newburyport, for 

lamb's tongue rug. 
.75. Gratuity, to Mrs. Henry Page, Newburyport, for 

felt rug. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. S. J. Woodward, West New- 
bury, for woven rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. D. P. Nelson, West Newbury, 

for kid rug. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. M. C. Bridges, West Newbury, 

for button rug. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Annie True, Amesbury, for rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Charles Pool, Rockport, for rug. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss L. Bradbury, Newburyport, for 

rug. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. William Pearson, Newburyport, 

for rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Elbridge Tenney, Newbury, By- 
field, for rug. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Hector Little, Newburyport, for 

rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. R. Chase, Newburyport, for 

rujr. 



69 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. George L. Gillett, Newbury- 

port, for rug. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. M. E. Brown, Georgetown, for 

rug. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Carrie Abbott, Newburyport, for 

kid rug. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Minnie Page, Newburyport, for 

rug. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. R. H. Wiggles worth, Newbmy- 

port, for rug. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Nellie B. Moulton, Newbury- 
port, for rug. 
.75. Gratuity, to Miss Mary C. Noyes, Newburyport, 

for knit Smyrna rug. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Mary Cottrell, Newburyport, 

for button rug. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Mary Bent, Newburyport, for 

lamb's tongue rug. 
William H. Bayley, Mrs. Aaron Low, Mrs. Isaac P. 
Noyes, Mrs. J. N. Rolfe — Committee. 



ARTICLES MANUFACTURED FROM LEATHER. 

The Committee on Articles Manufactured from Leather 
have attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the 
Secretary that they have made the following awards : 
$5. First premium, to Thomas Hill, Georgetown, for 
best carriage harness. 

There was a collection of shoes, but no evidence that 
they were manufactured in the county. 

William Hilton, I. N. Lane — Committee. 



70 

MANUFACTURES AND GENERAL MERCHAN- 
DISE. 

The Committee on Manufactures and General Merchan- 
dise have attended to their duty, and respectfully report 

to the Secretary that they have made the following 

awards : 

$3.00. First premium, to W. H. Noyes & Bro., New- 
buryport, for samples of combs. 

2.00. Gratuity, to C. II. Richardson, Newburyport, for 
cough drops. 
.50. Gratuity, to J. R. Fogg, Amesbury, for wringer. 

1.00. Gratuity, to F. A. Silloway, Newburyport, for 
upholstery. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Edward H. Clarkson, Newburyport, 
for case of bird's eggs. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Frank E. Coffin, Newburyport, for 
sewing machine. 

3.00. Gratuity, to John Carter, Newburyport, for case 
fancy goods. 

1,00. Gratuity, to Mrs. N. A. Paine, Newburyport, for 
fancy hair work. 

2.00. Gratuity, to N. N. Dummer, Rowley, for manu- 
factured grains. 
.50. Gratuity, to Edward Limt, Newburyport, for felt 

slippers. 
.50. Gratuity, to S. II. Fowle, Newburyport, for one 
case candy. 

1.00. Gratuity, to G. H. Plumer, Newburyport, for case 
fancy velvets. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Robertson & Drummond, Newbury- 
port, for furs. 
.50. Gratuity, to Alice Brown, Newburyport, for case 
beetles from Java. 



71 

2.00. Gratuity, to Wm. Duchemien, Newburyport, for 
plaiting and basting machine. 
Benjamin Akerman, Charles N. Ballou, Charles F. Hor- 
ton, Isaac P. Noyes — Committee. 



FANCY WORK AXD WORKS OF ART. 

The Committee on Fancy Work and Works of Art have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Sec- 
retary that they have made the following awards : 
$1.00. Gratuity, to Miss Mattie F. Jaques, Newbury- 
port, for Avater color. 

.50. Gratuity, to Miss Grace L. Bailey, Newbury, 
Byfield, for oil painting. 

.50. Gratuity, to Miss Ethel Reed, Newburyport, for 
crayon. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. H. W. Roberts, Newburyport, 
for water color. 

.50. Gratuity, to Miss M. E. Couch, Newburyport, for 
china platter and dish. 

50. Gratuity, to Miss H. A. Pike, Newhuryport, for 
decorated china. 

.50. Gratuity, to Miss N. P. Rogers, Newbury, Byfield, 
for plush banner. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. G. H. Fenderson, Newburyport, 
for oil painting. 

.50. Gratuity, to Miss E. Angerine Welch, George- 
town, for 3 water colors. 

.50. Gratuity, to Miss M. E. Couch, Newburyport, for 
oil painting. 

.50. Gratuity, to Miss S. L. Knox, Newburyport, for 
painting. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. H. deRochemont, Newhury- 
port, for oil painting. 



72 

2.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Kirkpatrick, Newburyport, for 

painting of pansies. 
.50. Gratuity, to E. A. Williams, Newburyport, for 

water color. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Miss L. E. Merrill, Newburyport, for 

flower painting. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Miss Mabeth Hurd, Newburyport, for 

crayon portrait. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss E. C. Lunt, Newburyport, for 

animal study. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Dr. Leslie, Amesbury, for study 

of pansies. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss F. H. Pettingell, Amesbury, for 

putty modelling. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Nellie Clarkson, Newburyport, 

for arbutus. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Annie K. Tuck, Newburyport, 

for dog's head. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Grace G. Rogers, West New- 
bury, for oil painting. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Miss Nellie Coffin, Newburyport, for 

crayon panel. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Margaret A. Pike, Newburyport, 

for placque (oil). 
.50. Gratuity, to George Duchemin, Newburyport, for 

wood carving. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. E. C. Greenville, Newburyport, 

for breast pin. 
.75. Gratuity, to Mrs. George Stevens, Newburyport, 

for lace apron. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Belle Kennedy, Newburyport, 

for floral paper basket. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mary E. Buckley, Newburyport, for 

mantle lambrequin. 



73 

1.00. Gratuity, to Mary E. Welch, Newburyport, for 
fancy panel. 

.75. Gratuity, to Mary E. Welch, Newburyport, for 
child's sacque. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. S. A. Stevens, East Salisbury, 
for two lambrequins. 

.50. Gratuity, to Lucy J. Henry, 14 years old, New- 
buryport, for tidy. 

.75. Gratuity, to Mrs. E. B. Storer, Newburyport, for 
knit tidy. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Miss H. S. Hart, Newburyport, for 
fancy table cover. 

.75. Gratuity, to Margaret E. Pike, Newburyport, for 
table cover. 

.50. Gratuity, to Annie J. Moynihan, Newburyport, 
for sofa pillow. 

.75. Gratuity, to Mary E. McQuade, Newburyport, for 
table cover. 

.50. Gratuity to Mrs. Eliza Rogers, 82 years old, West 
Newbury, for 5 fancy pin balls. 
1.00. Gratuity to Mrs. G. H. Moulton, Newburyport, 
for table scarf. 

.50. Gratuity, to Edna Bryant, Newburyport, for mot- 
to. 

.50. Gratuity, to Gertrude Johnson, Newburyport, for 
butterflies in frame. 

.50. Gratuity, to S. J. Pike, Newburyport, for 2 bu- 
reau covers. 

.75. Gratuity, to Lillian W. Grenlief, Newburyport, 
for towel tidy. 

.75. Gratuity, to Maggie McCarty, Groveland, for ta- 
ble scarf. 

.50. Gratuity, to Annie N. Dearborn, Newburyport, 
for hand-knit edging. 



74 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. L. Colby, Newburyport, for 

table scarf. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss I. Romily, Newburyport, for 

toilet set and chair. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss L. L. Lamprey, Newburyport, 

for thermometer case. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss L. L. Lamprey, Newburyport, 

for tidy. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. E. M. Moulton, Newburyport, 

for table scarf. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Lizzie H. C. Folsom, Georgetown, 

for window lambrequin. 
.50. Gratuity, to Lizzie H. C. Folsom, Georgetown, 

for framed wreath. 
.75. Gratuity, to Gertie S. Lunt, Newburyport, for 

fancy handkerchief. 
.50. Gratuity, to Stella Neal, Newburyport, for sea 

moss. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Lizzie Jaques, Newbury, for fire 

screen. 
.75. Gratuity, to Ida M. Jaques, Newburyport, for 

panel in K. P. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Avery, Newburyport, for hand- 
kerchief. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Mary A. Creasy, Newburyport, 

for table scarf. 
.75. Gratuity, to Miss Josephine Doyle, Newburyport, 

for fire screen. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Alice C. Plumer, Newburyport, 

for table scarf. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. S. E. Blaisdell, Newburyport, 

for work box. 
.75. Gratuity, to Georgie Thurlow, Newburyport, for 

guitar brush holder. 



75 

.50. Gratuity, to Miss J. Lydston, Newburyport, for 

night robe. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Somerby N. Noyes, West New- 

buiy, for hand-knit tidy. 
.50. Gratuity to Mrs. M. W. Batchelder, Lynn, for 

linen covers. 
.50. Gratuity, to Ella W. Ferguson, Newburyport, for 

worsted wreaths. 
.50. Gratuity, to Alice Brown, Newburyport, for sachet 

boots. 
.50. Gratuity, to E. J. Parker, Newburyport, for hair 

wreath. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Levi Senior, Newburyport, for 

worsted flowers. 
1.50. Gratuity, to Miss Mary Jones, Newburyport, for 

table cloth. 
.75. Gratuity, to Nellie L. Stanley, Newburyport, for 

fancy table. 
.50. Gratuity, to L. Nellie Pierce, Newburyport, for 

sofa pillow. 
.50. Gratuity, to Susan E. Merrill, Newburyport, for 

hammered brass. 
.50. Gratuity, to George H. Smith, Haverhill, for fish 

scale pin. 
.50. Gratuity, to Kate M. Buckly, Newburyport, for 

piano cover. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mary F. Brown, Newbury, for 5 ta- 
ble mats. 
.50. Gratuity, to Delia A. Frost, Newbury (Byfield), 

for box paper flowers. 
Theodore L. Castlehun, Mrs. A. J. Haynes, Miss Delia 
C. Noyes, Miss Viola F. Winkley, Mrs. Peter Holt, Jr. 
— Committee. 



76 



WORK OF CHILDREN UNDER TWELVE YEARS 
OF AGE. 

The Committee on Work of Children under Twelve 
Years of Age have attended to their duty, and respect- 
fully report to the Secretary that they have made the fol- 
lowing awards : 
$3.00. First premium, to Marion DeJean, Newburyport, 

for silk quilt. 
2.00. Second premium, to May F. Carney, Newbury- 
port, for piano cover. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mary Casey, Newburyport, for child's 

sacque. 
.50. Gratuity, to Ida Poor, Georgetown, for daisy 
quilt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Hattie Burke, Newburyport, for table 
cover. 
.50. Gratuity to Anna Furguson, Newburyport, for ta- 
ble cover. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mary McQuade, Newburyport, for af- 

ghan. 
.50. Gratuity, to Lulie Frost, Newburyport, for tidies. 
.50. Gratuity, to Satie Swasey, Newburyport, for 

knitted mat. 
.50. Gratuity, to Shirley Ladd, Groveland, for collec- 
tion of woods. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Agnes Burke, Newburyport, for pil- 
low sham. 
.50. Gratuity, to Emma Sprague, Newburyport, for 

quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Nettie Woods, Newburyport, for af- 

ghan. 
.50. Gratuity, to Winnie Evans, Newburyport, for 
easels. 



77 . ' 

1.00. Gratuity, to Hollis Scates, Georgetown, for oil 
paintings. 
.50. Gratuity, to Willie Swasey, Newbury port, for 

shell work box. 
.50. Gratuity, to Ernest and Fred Hood, Salem, for 

calico quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Gertie Carleton, Eowley, for burlap 

rug. 
.50. Gratuity, to Drussie Brown, Georgetown, for 

lamp mats. 
There were forty-one entries for premiums. 
Mrs. G. H. Plumer, Mrs. Bartlett, Mrs. S. Noyes — 
Committee. 



IMPROVING WET MEADOW AND SWAMP 
LANDS. 
The Committee on awards for "Improving Wet Mead- 
ow and Swamp Land," in submitting their report, beg 
leave to say, that they are impressed with the importance 
of the object contemplated in offering the premiums for 
the most successful of these experiments. Throughout 
the county, in both woodland and pasture, may be found 
vestages of once cultivated fields, an evidence of a de- 
crease in the acreage of tillage land during the present 
century. It is probable that the rocky moss grown pas- 
tures could not with the present price of labor be cultiva- 
ted profitably, but many acres of woodland give evidence 
by the rapid growth of wood, of a strength of soil that 
would well repay the cost of clearing and reclaiming. 
Meadow land long abandoned to hassocks, bushes and wa- 
ter grasses, which, if properly drained, worked and ferti- 
lized, will produce a sure and profitable crop of hay, when 
higher land subject to droughts often disappoints the own- 
ers in the quantity produced. 



78 

It has been said that he who causes two l)lades of grass 
to grow where but one had grown is a public benefactor, 
and we may safely conclude that the man who reclaims a 
swamp or worthless meadow and increases its value two 
or three fold, contributes to the public welfare ; and when 
the outlay is fully met by the crops produced in two or 
three years, yielding the increased value of the land as net 
profit, it affords encouragement for others to go and do 
likewise. Four entries were made the present year, last 
year there was but one, showing an increasing interest in 
this enterprise. The first was by B. H. Farnum, of North 
Andover, who entered a little more than one acre of land, 
which three years since was wet and comparatively worth- 
less meadow, has by means of thorough drainage and cul- 
tivation produced the present year three tons of excellent 
Timothy hay and five hundred pounds of oat fodder. The 
laud and crops were examined by your Committee, who 
recommend the award of $15, first premium, to B. H. Far- 
num of North Andover. 

The second entry was by William W. Perkins of New- 
bury, who entered two acres from which a heavy growth 
of wood and timber had been removed, the stumps and 
roots taken out with much hard and persevering labor ; 
ploughed, liberally fertilized, and planted two years with 
potatoes, and two excellent crops obtained, the income of 
which has apparently met the cost of the whole outlay, 
while the value of the land is greatly increased ; but 
it does not appear that the woodland was ever wet or 
that drainage Avas required at all, for this reason, in 
the opinion of your Committee, it could not be called 
swamp land. 

The third entry was Luther Tidd of Georgetown ; 
this was an acre of common brook meadow, treated 
with sand and fertilized, and appeared in a promising 



79 

condition, but the experiment having been in progress 
but one year, it does not come within the rules. The 
fourth entry was by S. A. Jaques of West Newbury, who 
entered an acre of swamp land of deep peat muck ; this 
was first drained by cutting a wide and deep ditch around 
the lot ; a heavy growth of wood was cut seven years since 
from the lot, the stumps and hassocks removed, the whole 
worked entirely by hand for three years, producing two 
extraordinary crops of potatoes, grown without manure 
or fertilizers of any kind. The fertilizers applied the third 
year were not required by the soil or not adapted to the 
crops, hence the failure of the onions and root crops ; the 
cabbage succeeded better. Taking the three years togeth- 
er, the crops paid a large profit upon the labor bestowed, 
beside greatly increasing the value of the land. Your 
Committee recommend the award of $10, second premium, 
to S. A. Jaques of West Newbury. 

Respectfully submitted, for the Committee, 

J. Scott Todd, Chairman. 

STATEMENT OF B. H. FARNUM. 

To Essex Agricultural Society : — 

The piece of land which I enter for premium contains 
an acre and one fourth as near as I can measure. It was 
given to me by my father. He had previously cut off a 
thick growth of maple trees, blueberry bushes and alders. 
Twenty years ago it was ploughed, the roots dug out and 
burned, a ditch dug on two sides, levelled with bog hoes 
and harrow, and sowed to grass seed without any manure 
except the ashes which came from the burning roots. It 
was so soft oxen could not be used only on one side near 
the ditch. The grass seed on a narrow strip near the 
ditch came up and did nicely, but a large portion of the 
piece produced a poor quality of meadow grass, very hard 



80 

to cut. I let it go as it was except a narrow strip near 
the ditch which 1 have ploughed occasionally. I com- 
menced to reclaim a piece on the other side of the ditch, 
where my success was so good that it encouraged me to 
go back and commence again on the piece which I now en- 
ter for premium. In '83 I dug the ditch as deep as the 
water and rocks would admit, varying from two to six 
feet deep and from three and one half to four feet wide. 
I ploughed it, using a pair of wheels where the oxen could 
not go in the furrow, and applied a heavy coat of barn 
manure in the drills. I planted the dryest part with po- 
tatoes, and the rest with sweet corn, hi November I 
ploughed it with a side hill plough, with the intention of 
seeding down, but before I got it level enough the ground 
froze. In March, '84, I sowed on ten bushels of hen ma- 
nure just as it came from the roost. When warm weath- 
er came the weeds and grass came up thick, and grew 
very fast ; I ploughed it in June. I think the weeds were 
six inches high ; I turned them under and without any 
more manure, sowed it to oats and grass seed, with the 
exception of a few rods where the sod was not rotted 
enough to level. I planted again with sweet corn. Had 
a very heavy crop of oats, was obliged to move a part of 
them to higher ground to dry. In 1885 we estimated the 
crop of grass on the part that was seeded down at two 
tons. The few rods that were not seeded down to grass 
I ploughed and again planted with sweet corn. In 1886 
the few rods that had been planted with corn were ploughed 
with side hill plough and sowed to oats and grass seed. 
I think the grass on the part that was seeded down in 1884 
was the heaviest crop of grass I ever raised. We estima- 
ted the hay to weigh three tons and the oats five hundred 
pounds. 



81 



DR. 

• Estimated expense for 1883 : 

Value of land, $50 00 

To 40 rods ditch at .50, 20 00 
" ploughing with oxen and horse and two 

men, three days, 19 50 

•' harrowing and furrowing, . 2 50 

' 12 loads manure, 30 bushels each, 24 00 

" 2 bushels potatoes, 1 50 

" 12 qts. corn, 25 

' planting, two men, two clays, 3 00 

" cultivating the whole and hoeing potatoes, 2 25 

" digging potatoes, 2 00 

" ploughing and harrowing in November, 12 00 

Estimated expense, 1884 : 

To hen manure, 4 00 

" ploughing, two men and yoke of oxen, one 

and one-half days, at $1.50, 
" harrowing, 
" 2^ bushels oats, at .70, 
" grass seed, 
" harrowing and levelling and sowing 

oats, 
" manure for corn, 
" planting fodder corn and seed, 
" harvesting oats, 

Estimated expense, 1885 : 

To manure for fodder corn, 6 00 

" ploughing and planting corn, 2 00 

" making 2 tons hay, 8 00 



6 


75 


2 


00 


1 


75 


2 


25 


2 


00 


6 


00 


2 


00 


12 


00 



82 



Estimated expense, 1886 : 
To ploughing, 
" manure, 

" one-half bushel oats, 
M harrowing and levelling, 
" harvesting oats, 
" making 3 tons hay, 

Total expense, 



$1 00 


3 


00 




30 




75 


1 


25 


12 


00 



$210 05 



CR. 

Estimated value of crop, 1883 : 
By 20 bushels potatoes, 
" fodder corn, 

Estimated value of crop, 1884 : 

By oats, 
" fodder corn, 

Estimated value of crop, 1885 : 
By 2 tons hay, * 
" fodder corn, 

Estimated value of crop, 1886 : 
By 3 tons hay, 
" 500 lbs. oats, 
" present value of land, 

Total value of crops and land> 

First value of land and total expenses, 

Balance, 



15 


00 


10 


00 


24 


00 


10 


00 


32 


00 


10 


00 


$48.00 


3.00 


200 


.00 



Note. — Present value of land, per acre, 
Value of 4 3 - ears' crops, " 



$352.00 
210.05 

$141.95 

$160 00 
121 60 



Total, 



$281 60 



83 



First value of land, per acre, $40 00 

Expense on land and crops per acre, 128 04 

$168 04 



Balance per acre, $113 56 

B. H. Farnum. 

STATEMENT OF STEPHEN A. JAQUES, WEST NEWBURY, 
"RECLAIMING SWAMP LAND." 

It was a heavy growth of wood seven years ago. There 
is about five acres in the piece. I dug a ditch around the 
whole to drain it. 

In 1883 I had the stumps and hassocks cut out of one 
measured acre, cost $40 ; I then dug it over by hand, cost 
$20 ; I planted it with Clark No. 1 potatoes, without 
manure, cost $6; six bushels of seed, $3.60; I cut the 
seed in quarters, hoed once, $9 ; harvested 148 bushels 
of salable and 40 bushels of small potatoes, cost $12. 

In 1884 I dug over the same piece by hand, holed it for 
potatoes, cost $11 ; planted it the 4th of June with Clark 
No. 1 potatoes, without manure, cut them one eye in 
a piece, dropped two pieces in a hill, used four bushels, 
cost $2.40; cost of planting, $1.50 per day, $6; hoed 
once, $7.50; harvested Oct. 15th, 145 bushels of large, 
45 bushels of small potatoes. 

In 1885 I had the same piece of land dug over by hand, 
cost $5 ; planted with Clark No. 1 potatoes, seven bushels 
of seed, cost $3.50 ; holed by hand, $3 ; cut the seed two 
eyes in a piece, dropped two pieces in a hill, without 
manure ; hoed once, $8 ; harvested in October 147 bush- 
els large, 38 bushels small potatoes, cost $15. 

In the Fall of 1885 plowed the same piece of land with 
a pair of horses. Used an Oliver Chill Plow. The horses 
walked on the land side ; if they stepped on the furrow 



84 



the} r would go down ; I got them in twice. Let the land 
lay over Winter just as I ploughed. 

In the Spring of 1886 I raked it over by hand, cost $6 ; 
I then spread Dole Fertilizer, one-half ton, $17.50 ; I 
sowed three-fourths of it with onions, $3 ; the rest sowed 
with beets, parsnips, turnips, sugar beets, mangold wurt- 
zels, carrots and celery — all a failure. I then set out with 
cabbages, seed cost 15 cents ; hoed once, 75 cents ; trans- 
planting, $6; harvested one-half acre, 19,562 pounds. 

Soil, muck and peat. 



RECAPITULATION FOR ONE ACRE. 

1883. — Cost cutting out stumps, etc., $40.00 

Digging, 20.00 

CD O' 

Seed potatoes, 3.60 

Planting and hoeing, 9.00 

Harvesting, 12.00 

$84.60 
Crop — 148 bush, salable potatoes, 40 bush, small potatoes. 

1884.— Cost digging over, etc., $11.00 

Seed potatoes, 2.40 

Planting, 6.00 

Hoed once, 7.50 



$26.90 
C r op — 145 bush, large potatoes, 45 bush, small potatoes. 

1885.— Cost digging over, $5.00 

3.50 



Seed potatoes, 
Holing, 
Hoeing, 
Harvesting, 



3.00 

8.00 
15.00 



$34.50 
Crop — 147 bush, large potatoes, 38 bush, small potatoes. 



85 



1886. 


— Raking over land cost 


$6.00 




Half ton Dole fertilizer, 


17.50 




Sowing onion seed, 


3.00 




Cabbage seed, 


.15 




Hoed once, 


.75 




Transplanting, 


6.00 



$33.40 
Crop from one-half of land — 19,562 pounds cabbages; 
the other crops a failure. 



EEPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OX 
GRAIN CROPS. 

But two entries have been made in this department. 
Mr. J. J. H. Gregory of Marblehead made entry of a fine 
piece of rye, and Mr. Oliver P. Killam of Boxford, of a 
superior crop of corn. 

Mr. Gregory's rye crop, as per statement, shows con- 
clusively that there is yet a profit in growing the grains 
in New England. Here we see that with an outlay of 
$48.25, which includes $10 for fertilizers, and also the cost 
of getting the crop to market, he secures a crop of 57 1-2 
bushels of rye, worth 75 cents per bushel; and 8,131 
pounds of straw, worth $20 per ton ; or a total receipt of 
$124.48, with a net profit of $76.23— which is only another 
proof showing that good treatment is the one thing essen- 
tial to the successful growing of all the grains in compet- 
ing with the fertile prairies of the West. 

Your committee have for several years advocated the 
growing of more grain in this State, and in my report 
of one year ago I called attention to the fact that a gener- 
ous treatment of our grain crops would so increase the 



86 

yield that we should have very little trouble from Western 
competition. 

Mr. Killam's statement on Corn Crop shows that good 
yields of corn can yet be secured in Essex County, by a 
proper selection of soils, and with only an ordinary quan- 
tity of manure. 

Of the benefits to be derived from the growing of corn 
in Massachusetts too much cannot be said. Many of our 
farmers may be seen at the grain mills every day after 
their supply of meal. This, I believe, is all wrong; for 
while at the mills they are paying 60 cents per bushel, 
they can grow a crop of corn of better quality and at less 
cost, besides raising a crop of fodder on the same land 
more valuable than a crop of grass. 

Mr. Killam's field yielded a crop of 88 bushels per acre 
— a good crop certainly, yet crops of 60 or even 50 bush- 
els per acre can be grown with profit, as our President 
and other successful corn growers have shown ; and these 
yields are not more than may ordinarily be expected if 
suitable soil is selected and fairly dressed. 

Your Committee have awarded premiums as follows : 
10.00. First premium, to James J. H. Gregory, Marble- 
head, for rye crop. 
10.00. First premium, to Oliver P. Killam, Boxford, for 
corn crop. 

Respectfully submitted, 

John Q. Evans, 

For the Committee. 



87 



STATEMENT CONCERNING A CROP OF RYE RAISED BY MR. 

J. J. H. GREGORY, IN THE TOWN OF 

MIDDLETON, OCTOBER, 1886. 

The crop of 1884 was cabbage, which was manured with 
part barn manure, part fertilizer, the latter in the hill, four 
cords of the former and about six hundred weight of the 
latter. 

In 1885 the crop was cabbage seed, about six cords of 
barn manure being used, one half in the drill and one half 
broadcast. About eight hundred pounds of fertilizer, con- 
sisting mostly of phosphoric acid (soluble) and potash, 
was applied in the hill. The soil is a good loam. After 
the cabbage seed was gathered, in September, it was 
ploughed seven inches deep, and six hundred pounds of 
fertilizer, composed of soluble phosphoric acid in the form 
of bone, nitrogen as sulphate of ammonia, and potash in 
the form of muriate, was scattered broadcast by a broad- 
cast spreader ; after which, and by the same machine, two 
bushels of rye to the acre was sown. The piece was then 
thoroughly harrowed and rolled. 

The cost of the crop was as follows : 

Ploughing one acre, man and 2-horse team, $2.50 

Cost of fertilizer, 10.00 

Cost of seed, 2.00 

Applying fertilizer and seed, 1.50 

Harrowing the same, 1.00 

Rolling, 1.00 

Cutting crop by scythe, 3.00 

Binding and getting to barn, 6.00 

Threshing by hand, 15.00 

Getting straw to market, 5.00 

Getting grain to market, 1.25 

$48.25 



The receipts were : 
For straw, $1 per 100 lbs., 8,131 lbs., $81.31 

For grain, 75 cts. per bu., 57| bu., 43.17 

Value of crops, $124.48 

Expenses, 48.25 

Profit, $76.23 

After harvesting the rye, the land was ploughed, a dress- 
ing of six hundred pounds of fertilizer, rich in potash, was 
spread broadcast, and Hungarian was sown. There was 
a good crop, though it was affected by the dryness of the 
season. It was my intention to follow it with another 
crop of rye, but I regret that my teams were too much 
occupied to enable me to carry out the plan. 

Two other pieces were in rye at the same time as the 
one offered for premium, each of which had fertilizers 
applied before sowing, and all three crops were so nearly 
alike in yield that there was no choice between them. 

It strikes me that the lesson to be learned from these 
experiments is, that it may pay to manure our land, espe- 
cially for rye, and not, as is customary, let the crop depend 
wholly for food on the leavings of the one that preceded it. 
Yours, J. J. H. Gregory, 

Marblehead, Mass. 

This is to certify that on an acre of rye raised on the 
farm of J. J. H. Gregory, at Middleton, there was grown, 
by weight, 3,225 lbs., or 5T§ bu., and 8,131 lbs. of straw, 
or 4 tons, 131 lbs. — the grain having been weighed at the 
barn and the straw on the town scales. 

Middleton, Oct. 26, 1886. S. A. Jones. 

STATEMENT OF OLIVER P. KILLAM OF BOXFORD. 

The crop of 1884 English hay, fifteen hundred lbs. to 



89 

the acre ; no manure used. The crop of 1884 same, no 
manure was used, about twelve hundred lbs. to the acre. 
The soil a dark loam ; ploughed once six inches deep and 
thoroughly harrowed with wheel and tooth harrow. Cost 
of ploughing and harrowing $9 per acre. Amount of ma- 
nure, 25 loads per acre of 30 bushels to the load, all spread 
and ploughed under, all fresh from barn cellar. The val- 
ue of manure on the ground, $2 per load. The corn was 
planted May 25th by hand, 3 1-2 feet each way, with one 
spoonful of phosphate in each hill, planted with eight 
quarts of eight-rowed yellow corn ; cost of seed and plant- 
ing, $3 per acre. The cultivator was run three times each 
way with very little hoeing up to July 4th. Cost of cul- 
tivating and hoeing, $4 per acre. The corn was cut and 
stooked 16 hills to a stook the 8th of September. Cost 
of harvesting, including husking, $12 per acre. As the 
Committee did not give me any order, I measured two 
rods on one side where it was a fair average per acre, and 
husked it the 26th day of October, it being very sound 
and dry, weighing 44 lbs. to the rod. My whole field is 
about 3 acres ; I tried it on other parts of the field outside 
of this acre, and it amounted to about 40 lbs. to the rod. 
I think the condition it was in it would hold out at 40 lbs. 
to the bushel, making 176 bushels of ears to the acre. 
I certify that the above statement is correct. 

Oliver P. Killam, Competitor. 

This may certify that I measured two rods on one side 
of the acre and helped get it in and husk it, and saw it 
weighed, and the above statement is all right. 

John Emack. 



90 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON ROOT CROPS. 

The committee selected to examine the Root Crops en- 
tered for the Society's premiums, have attended to that 
duty, and report eighteen entries, from twelve competi- 
tors, viz. : 

John H. George, Methuen, Onions and Potatoes. • 

Walter Smith & Co., Methuen, Sweede Turnips. 

Benj. H. Farnham, Andover, Cabbages — withdrawn. 

Ansel W. Putnam, Danvers, Potatoes. 

Asa T. Newhall, Lynn, Onions and Squashes. 

J. E. Page, Superintendent of Pickman farm, Salem, 
Cabbages. 

Cyrus K. Ordway, West Newbury, Carrots. 

Stephen A. Jaques, West Newbury, Cabbages and Po- 
tatoes. 

Daniel Carleton, Andover, Cabbages. 

J. W. Blodgett, East Saugus, Mangold Wurtzels. 

J. W. Blodgett, East Saugus, Squashes, withdrawn. 

M. B. Faxon, Saugus, Potatoes. 

James Manning, Topsfield, Onions, Turnips, Carrots. 

It is the opinion of your committee that onions, squashes 
and potatoes ought all to be entered by Sept. 15, as, if 
entered at a much later date, the probability is that the 
committee may not be able to see those crops before har- 
vesting. 

Although it has required considerable time and expense, 
your committee feel that we have been amply repaid for 
our trouble, as we have had the pleasure of visiting some 
of the best farms and farmers of Essex County, and in 
every case have been cordially received, and had their 
several systems of farming freely explained to us. 

John H. George's crop of onions was a very heavy one, 
raised on reclaimed swamp land, with no other drainage 



91 

than an open drain around the field. At the time of 
our visit, Aug. 31, the onions were fully ripe, and of ex- 
cellent quality, with scarcely a scullion on the half acre ; 
while on the adjoining' farm, on high land, a field sown at 
the same time and out of the same lot of seed, the onions 
stood up nearly as green as ever, and were at least three 
weeks later. 

Mr. George called our attention to a trial of seed pur- 
chased of several different parties who claim to sell a good 
article. The result was, some did not come up at all, 
some very sparing, while others that did grow were large 
necked and coarse, with not one good lot among the whole. 
This shows that the selection of seed is of vital import- 
ance, and we can recommend no better seed, of any variety 
of vegetable, than that grown by our Essex County seeds- 
men. 

While in Methuen, we examined the crop of turnips of 
Walter Smith & Co., although rather early in the season 
to judge. The outlook was for a fair crop. 

At Danvers we were highly entertained by Ansel W. 
Putnam's explanation of the manner in which he con- 
ducted his farm. As he showed us his crops, each depart- 
ment was taken up and the methods of cultivation ex- 
plained by one, whose many articles in the agricultural 
press have taught us to look up to, as an experienced 
farmer ; but we had never had the pleasure of listening to 
his farm talks so direct, and we know that this was a day 
well spent. 

His crop of potatoes was not a large one, but his object 
in entering his crop was to bring his report before the 
Society, showing experiments he has been making for the 
past few years. Although we cannot award a premium 
for his crop, we earnestly request that his excellent report 
be printed in the Transactions, believing the information 
therein given is of great value. 



92 

On Sept. 15 we visited Asa T. Newhall's onion crop, 
which was raised on land similar to that of Mr. George's, 
it being reclaimed meadow land. Mr. Newhall's onions, 
at the time of our call, were perfectly ripe, and of excel- 
lent quality and of medium size ; they were very thick, 
however, pressing out so the rows seemed to be in places 
scarcely six inches apart. 

The contest between Mr. Newhall and Mr. George 
appeared to be very close, the one raised by the use of 
a compost, at the rate of eight cords to the acre, the other 
on commercial fertilizers, at the rate of one ton per acre. 

The committee did not venture to intimate, even to each 
other, which of the contestants would win. When the 
statements came in they showed a difference of fifteen 
bushels on the half acre, with a record of 1090 and 1120 
bushels per acre, the difference being only about one-half 
cent in cost per bushel. 

In 1871 Mr. Gregory came down to Newbury to see 
a crop of 970 bushels to the acre. He said, "This is a 
remarkable crop, worth a journey of thirty miles to see." 

In 1886 there are a£ least three crops in the county — 
one of 1080, one of 1090, and the other 1123 bushels per 
acre, and all first quality onions. We believe this never 
has been excelled, and perhaps never will be. 

The Society may well be proud of these results, and of 
the fact that the producers of these enormous crops are 
members of its association. These are no chance crops, 
but were especially prepared for large results by men who 
are educated, and are educators at our Institute meetings. 

At the same time we looked over a field of squashes, 
raised among early potatoes, which have since been en- 
tered for premium by Mr. Newhall, and by his statement 
we notice that he has a heavy yield of squashes, and not 
content with two crops, has a fair chance to get a nice lot 
of turnips for third crop. 



93 

At Mr. Page's, on the Pick man farm, at Salem, we 
found a line piece of cabbages which promised a large crop. 
Your Committee selected a number of average heads and 
weighed them, then taking the number of heads in a row, 
and estimating the whole piece on that basis, found the 
crop to weigh 26,672 lbs. ; the heads were of very even 
size, with scarcely a vacancy on the half-acre. 

Our next visit was to West Newbury, which'is one of 
the best forming towns in the county ; we first called on 
C. K. Ordway, whose farm contains many acres of inter- 
vale land situated on the banks of the beautiful Merrimac. 
He showed us the product of his dairy, in the shape of a 
splendid lot of home-made cheese, which sells at twenty 
cents per lb. Also large fields of excellent corn, and in 
fact he was not satisfied until he had made us familiar with 
nearly all his farm operations, all of which are conducted 
in a business-like manner. Our object was to examine a 
field of carrots ; the variety raised was the Long Orange, 
which in our view are not as profitable as the Danvers 
Medium. He has a fair field however, although he thinks 
it will fall short of last year ; this season has not been a 
good carrot season in any section. 

Just here I would like to say a word in favor of the 
Guerande carrot, a new variety. I purchased some seed 
of Mr. Gregory last spring, and on four rows, twenty rods 
long, I harvested Nov. 2, fifty-eight bushels, weighing 
3,364 lbs. ; this would make, sowing the rows sixteen in- 
ches apart, 83,130 lbs., or 41 1-2 tons to the acre. My 
method of cultivation is to sow a single row between ev- 
ery other row of strawberries, and I suppose that the yield 
would not be as large if sown in a field, with rows sixteen 
inches apart. This is just the variety to plant between 
strawberries, as it is easily pulled, not requiring any dig- 
ging at all. 



94 

Mr. Jaques, who presents potato and cabbage crops for 
our consideration, has been foremost to take advantage of 
the draining of Ash swamp, by Judge Bradley, who owns 
some three hundred acres of this land, which he is reclaim- 
ing ; we see no reason why this swamp is not capable of 
producing as large crops as those of Mr. Newhall and Mr. 
George. There are many hundred acres in the township 
which might be reclaimed, we think, at a great profit, 
yielding many tons of English hay, where now grow bush- 
es and coarse grasses ; none of this land is rougher than 
that which Mr. Jaques has had the pluck to grapple with ; 
he has cropped this meadow without using any manure 
with the exception of twelve hundred lbs. phosphate ; with 
what success his statement will show. 

At North Andover we had a, pleasant visit with Mr. 
Carleton, who presented his cabbage crop for our inspec- 
tion, and if the premiums he has received are evidence of 
his skill in this branch of his farming, he certainly under- 
stands how to raise cabbage. In order to get medium 
sized heads, which are more salable in the market than 
overgrown ones are, he plants thick and thus gets a large 
crop, and although very low prices rule this season, he 
makes a fair show of profit. 

Our last call was on Mr. Manning at Topsfield ; although 
too late to see his onions in the field, we were in season to 
examine his carrots and turnips ; the turnips were of fine 
quality, but his yield is doubtless diminished by the hard 
freeze which occurred a few daj^s before, killing many of 
the loaves, thereby stopping in a measure, the growth. 
His crop of onions was a good one and showed evidence of 
good farming, as did all his crops. 

Never before we think, in the history of the Society, has 
there been so many entries by so many competitors, show- 
ing an increased interest in high cultivation, and of friend- 
ly rivalry among our farmers. 



95 

Nathaniel Dole, one of our number, resigned at the out- 
set ; the remainder of the Committee have visited, with 
two exceptions, that of Mr. Blodgett's, whose crop was 
examined by Mr. Warren, and that of Mr. Faxon's, who 
was not aware that it was customary for the Committee to 
visit the crops, so did not enter until after the potatoes 
were dug and a part of them sold, our first notice of his 
entry being when we received his statement. 

The other crops have been thoroughly examined by a 
full committee, and we recommend the following awards, 
viz. : 

To Asa T. Newhall, Lynn, crop of onions, first pre- 
mium, $10.00 
" John H. George, Methuen, crop of onions, second 

premium, 5.00 

" John H. George, Methuen, crop of potatoes, first 

premium, 10.00 

!t Stephen A. Jaques, West Newbury, crop of pota- 
toes, second premium, 5.00 
" J. E.Page, Supt. Pickman Farm, crop of cabbage, 

first premium, 10.00 

K Daniel Carleton, Andover, crop of cabbage, second 

premium, 5.00 

K J. W. Blodgett, East Saugus, crop of Mangolds, 
first premium, 10.00 

W alter Smith & Co., Methuen, crop of turnips, 
first premium, 10.00 

" James Manning, Topsfield, crop of turnips, second 

premium, 5.00 

N Cyrus K. Ordway, West Newbury, crop of car- 
rots, first premium, 10.00 
" Asa T. Newhall, Lynn, crop of squashes, first 
premium, 10.00 
B. F. Huntington, David Warren, C. D. Ordway, A. 
M. Bodwell — Committee. 



96 



STATEMENT OF ASA T. NEWHALL. 

The following is a statement concerning a crop of onions 
raised by Asa T. Newhall in the city of Lynn, 1886, on 
84 square rods of land. 

The crop of 1884 was, on a portion of the land, onions, 
and potatoes on the balance. Stable manure was used, at 
the rate of about eight cords per acre. The crop of 1885 
was onions, excepting a small portion, which was planted 
to cabbages where the onions failed to come up. Coarse 
stable manure was applied, at the rate of about eight cords 
per acre, being spread upon the land as teamed from the 
city stables during the Winter aud Spring, the land hav- 
ing been ploughed the Fall previous. 

The nature of the soil is muck, which has been treated 
with several dressings of sand and some coal ashes at 
intervals during the past twenty-live years, being a portion 
of a reclaimed meadow. It was ploughed about six inches 
in depth in the Fall of 1885. The only manure used was 
Ames' Bone Fertilizer, applied in the Spring on the larger 
portion, and Stockbridge Onion Manure on balance, each 
at the rate of one ton per acre, at a cost of $35 per ton for 
Ames, and $45 per ton for Stockbridge. Harrowed in 
with a wheel harrow, and smoothed with Thomas harrow, 
then dragged preparatory for sowing. 

Sowed middle of April, one portion Yellow Globe Dan- 
vers and balance Red Globe Dan vers, at the rate of six 
pounds of seed per acre. There was no perceptible differ- 
ence in the crop grown on the two respective fertilizers 
used ; but there was a slight difference in the crop in favor 
of the Red over the Yellow variety, where both were 
grown under the same conditions. 

The cultivation was, hoeing live times and weeding 
twice. *The product was 30,680 pounds, or 590 bushels 
of 52 pounds each, on 84 square rods. 



97 

The method of harvesting was, pulling three rows to one 
side, then running a scuffle over the space where pulled, 

removing the scattering weeds, continuing this process 
until completed. 

The cost of the crop was as follows : 

800 lbs. Ames Fertilizer, $14.00 

250 lbs. Stockbridge Fertilizer, 5.60 

Ploughing in Fall of 1885, * 1.50 

Harrowing in the fertilizers, 1.50 

Smoothing and dragging, 1.00 

3 1-8 lbs. seed, at $2.50 per lb., 7.81 

Sowing seed, .75 

Hoeing five times, 4.00 

Weeding twice, 10.00 

Hauling and harvesting, 9.25 

Topping, at 2 1-2 cts. per bu., 590 bu., 14.75 

Interest, 4.00 



$74.19* 



I hereby certify that the land upon which grew the crop 
of onions entered for premium by Asa T. Newhall, meas- 
ures eighty-four rods. Feank Newhall. 

Lynn, Sept. 11, 1886. 

I hereby certify that I weighed the onions raised and 
entered by Mr. A. T. Newhall for premium, and the total 
weight after being topped was 30,680 pounds. 

Lynnfield, Oct. 20, 1886. Michael Lynch. 



*Note. — Product, per acre, 1123 3-4 bushels onions. 

Expenses, per acre, $141 31 



98 



STATEMENT OF JOHN H. GEORGE OF METHUEN, ON 
ONION CROP. 

Crop of 1884 was potatoes, manured 6 cords to the acre. 
1885, potatoes, manured 4 cords to the acre broadcast, 
with 400 lbs. fertilizer to acre in drill. Soil, peat -mead- 
ow, not ploughed for two years, cultivated twice, brush 
harrowed twice, dragged ; cost of preparation, 1-2 day one 
man and one horse, $1.50. Went over it twice with a 
Kemp manure spreader, putting on 8 cords of compost to 
the acre, worth $4 a cord -on the land. The seed was 
sown April 14th, 4 1-2 lbs. to the acre of Yellow Danvers, 
bought of Charles W. Mann of Methuen, at a cost of $3.50 
per lb. ; cost of seeding, 1-2 day's work, 1 man, 75 cts. ; 
hoed with a wheel hoe 5 times, 2 1-2 days' work, one 
man, $3.75; weeded three times, 6 days' work for one 
boy, $6.00; harvested in September; cost of harvesting, 
5 cts. per bushel ; yield 545 bushels measured ; basket 
even full weighs 52 lbs. 

RECAPITULATION . 

Dr. 



Preparation of soil, 


$1.50 


Manure, 4 cords, 


16.00 


Seed and sowing, 


8.62 


Hoeing, 


3.75 


Weeding, 


6.00 


Harvesting, 


27.25 


Interest and taxes on land, 


6.00 


Or. 


$69.12 


545 bushels onions, at 90 cents, 


490.50 


Less 


69.12 



Balance, $421.38* 



99 

I hereby certify that I measured 1-2 acre of land planted 
to onions for John H. George, to be entered for premium 
with the Essex Agricultural Society. 

Daniel H. Rowell. 
Methuen, Oct., 1886. 



*Note. — Product, per acre, 

1090 bushels of onions, - $981 00 

Expense, per acre, 138 24 



Balance, $842 76 

STATEMENT CONCERNING A CROP OF POTATOES RAISED 
BY JOHN H. GEORGE OF METHUEN, 1886. 

The land on which this crop was raised is a peat mead- 
ow, planted for two years past to potatoes. What manure 
has been used has been put into the hill, not exceeding 
four cords to the acre. This year (1886), in March, 
before the frost was out of the ground, I went over the 
piece once with a Kemp manure spreader, which put on 
four cords to the acre of barn manure (horse and cow) . 
When the frost was out, ploughed in the manure, furrowed 
the land, and put 600 pounds fertilizer to the acre in the 
drill; dropped the potatoes, covered them by horse, 
brush-harrowed them twice, cultivated them once, horse- 
hoed once, and one man's work one day with hand hoe, the 
only hand work done from time of planting to time of dig- 
ging. The yield was 204 bushels. 

Preparation of 1-2 acre of land for potatoes. 

Dr. 

Ploughing 1-2 day, 1 horse, 1 man, $3.00 

Manure on the land, 2 cords at $6, 12.00 

Furrowing, .75 



100 

Fertilizer, 300 lbs., 5.00 

Six bu. small potatoes, planted whole, 40 cts., 2.40 

Dropping and covering, with horse, 1.00 

Brush harrowing twice, 1.00 

Cultivating and horse-hoeing, 1.50 

1-2 day's work, 1 man, .75 

Digging, 4 cts. bu., 8.16 

Interest and taxes on land, 6.00 



$41.56 



Or. 

1-2 manure used, $11.00 

204 bu. potatoes, 50 cts. per bu., 102.00 



$113.00 
41.56 



Balance, $71.44 

I herby certify that I measured 1-2 acre of land planted 
to potatoes for John H. George, to be entered for pre- 
mium with the Essex Agricultural Society. 

Daniel H. Rowell. 
Methuen, Oct., 1886. 



Note. — Product per acre, 408 bu. potatoes, $204.00 

Cost of production, per acre, less half manure, G1.12 



Balance, per acre, $142.88 

STATEMENT OF STEPHEN A. JAQUES OF WEST NEWBURY. 
POTATO CROP. 

The crop of 1885 was potatoes, sixty bushels ; no ma- 
nure was used. The crop of 1886 was potatoes ; Dole fer- 
tilizer, two hundred pounds to the acre, was used ; soil is 
muck and peat. 



101 

Dug over by hand, six inches deep, $5.00 ; holed it for 
the seed; cost of preparation, $3.00; Dole fertilizer, 
spoonful in the hill, $3.50 ; planted May 25th, in hills ; 
seed four and one- half bushels of potatoes, Clark No. 1 ; 
cost of seed and planting, $8.25 ; hoed by hand once ; cost 
of cultivation, $5.00; harvested the first of October, dug 
by hand ; cost of harvesting, $15.00 ; amount of potatoes, 
320 bushels; cost of crop, $39.75. 

Stephen A. Jaques. 

This will certify that I have measured one-half acre ot 
reclaimed land, planted with potatoes last season by S. A. 
Jaques of West Newbury. 

Eobert A. Amend. 

West Newbury, Oct. 16, 1886. 



Note. — Product, per acre, 320 bushels potatoes, at 

same value as Mr. George's, $160.00 

Cost per acre, 39.75 



Profit per acre, $120.25 

STATEMENT OF J. E. PAGE, ON CABBAGES. 

The piece of cabbage entered by me contains one-half 
acre. The soil is a gravelly loam. For the past two 
years the crop has been potatoes, manured with a compost 
of muck, night soil and barn manure applied broadcast. 
Last Fall the piece was sown with rye, which in May last 
was cut and put into the silo. The land was then ploughed 
and rolled, and a compost of loam, livers and halibut heads 
and horse manure, was applied broadcast, and well worked 
into the soil with a Climax harrow. June 11 it was planted 
with Warren's Stone Mason seed, in rows three, and hills 
two feet apart. Three hundred pounds of Ames fertilizer 
was put in the hills. The piece was horse and hand hood 
three times. 



102 



The cost of the crop was as follows : 

Ploughing and preparing land, $3.00 

Seed and planting, 5.60 

Cultivating and hoeing, 13.00 

Fertilizer, 5.50 

Four cords of manure and spreading, 26.00 



$53.10 

J. E. Page, Sup't. 
Pickman Farm, Salem, Oct. 22, 1886. 

I hereby certify that I have this day measured one-half 
acre of cabbages for J. E. Page, (Pickman Farm), to be 
entered for premium in the Essex Agricultural Society. 

Chas. A. Metcalf, Surveyor. 
Salem, Nov. 2, 1886. 



Note. — Cost of crop, per acre, $106.20. 

STATEMENT OF DANIEL CARLETON, OF NORTH ANDOVER, 
ON CABBAGE CROP. 

The half acre of cabbage entered by me was grown on 
land that had been in grass for several years. The soil 
is a gravelly loam ; no fertilizer had been applied while in 
grass. Sixteen loads per acre of barn manure were spread 
upon the sod, last April, and ploughed under to the depth 
of about six inches. The land was harrowed three times 
with the Acme harrow. The rows were marked off three 
and a half feet apart, and eight hundred pounds of Cum- 
berland phosphate per acre sown in the furrows. The 
furrows were made as shallow as possible and the phos- 
phate slightly covered with the hoe. The seed was sown 
by machine, May 22. About three-fourths of a pound of 
Fottler's cabbage seed per acre was used. The plants 
were thinned so as to stand about sixteen inches apart in 



103 

the rows. By having the plants stand thick in the rows 
I get heads of the right size to suit my customers ; were I 
raising them for Boston market I should put them further 
apart. In Lawrence very large heads are hard to sell. 
The piece was hoed by hand three times, and the horse 
hoe used once a week until the cabbages were too large 
for the team to go between the rows. The drouth affected 
a part of the piece in the latter part of the season, so that 
the crop did not look as well at the time of the commit- 
tee's visit as it did a month earlier. 

As it was impossible to harvest and dispose of the whole 
of the crop in season to make a report, I followed the sug- 
gestion of the committee, and measured off a half acre of 
fifty rows of equal length, and then cut the cabbages from 
every tenth row and trimmed them for market. From 
these five rows I sold twenty-one barrels of cabbages, that 
would weigh considerable over one hundred pounds per 
barrel ; this would give a yield of four hundred and twenty 
barrels per acre, which at the present low price of fifty 
cents per barrel, amounts to $210 per acre. I intend to 
keep a part of the crop a while by cutting the heads off 
and laying them on grass land one head deep in the same 
position as they grew, on the south side of a double wall, 
and covering them with pine needles. Whether they are 
worth more than present prices for that purpose remains 
to be proved. 

The cost of the crop per acre I make as follows : 
Ploughing and preparing land, $10.00 

Seed and sowing, 3.00 

Cultivating and hoeing, 20.00 

800 lbs. phosphate and sowing same, 15.00 

Value of manure when spread, 40.00 

Marketing (estimated cost at wholesale), 75.00 
Interest on land, 6.00 

$169.00 



104 

Leaving a profit of $41, at 50 cents per barrel, for the 
crop. Daniel Carleton. 

North Andover, Oct. 27, 1886. 

STATEMENT OF J. W. BLODGETT. 
MANGOLD CROP. 

The following is the account of my mangold crop en- 
tered for premium : 

The land consists of a black loam with sandy sub-soil. 
The crop grown on this land, season of 1885, was Hub- 
bard squashes, manured by spreading about four cords of 
glue waste to the acre, and four cords of stable manure 
per acre in the hills. 

Season of 1886, the land was ploughed and harrowed in 
May, then manured with stable manure, about ten cords 
per acre, which was then harrowed with disc harrow. It 
was then ploughed in ridges twenty-eight inches apart ; 
the ridges were then levelled with the Meeker smoothing 
harrow. May 29th, sowed one row of mangolds to each 
ridge, of the long red variety. When the plants were of 
suitable size, they were thinned to ten inches apart. 

Harvested Oct. 15th. *The result from one half acre 
of ground was 43,875 lbs., by estimation, one sample row 
being weighed. 

Cost of cultivation, &c. : 

Use of land, $5.00 

Ploughing and harrowing, 2.50 

Ridgeing and sowing, 3.50 

Cultivating between plants, 3.00 

Hoeing, weeding and thinning, 12.00 

Pulling and topping, 10.50 

Storing, 10.50 



105 

Five cords manure and spreading, 32.00 

Two and one-half pounds seed, 1.00 



$80.00* 
J. W. Blodgett. 



East Saugus, Oct. 30, 1886. 



*Note. — Products, per acre, 87,750 lbs., or 43 7-8 net tons of 
mangolds. 
Expense of crop, per acre, $160 00 

This certifies that I have measured a piece of land on 
which J. W. Blodgett grew mangolds this season, and 
find it contains one-half acre, and the mangolds to weigh 
43,875 pounds, by estimation, one sample row having 
been weighed. Harrison Nourse. 

East Saugus, Oct. 30, 1886. 

STATEMENT OF WALTER SMITH & CO., OF METHUEN. 
TURNIP CROP. 

The turnip crop (Ruta Bagas) was produced on one-half 
acre of land, which in 1884 was in grass, run out. In 
1885 the crop was oats, fertilized with 500 pounds of phos- 
phate, and in 1886 one and a half cords of barn-yard ma- 
nure was used. 
Cost of cultivating twice with one man and 

horse, 1 hour each time, 2 hours, $ .60 

Thinning with 2 men, 1 day, 3.00 



$3.60 
Products— 232 1-2 bush. Swedes or Ruta Bagas, $104.62. 

Walter Smith & Co. 
As witness thereof. 

Colin Whitely, Methuen, Mass. 



106 



STATEMENT OF JAMES MANNING, ON TURNIP CROP. 

I sowed turnip seed July 28th. I dug four rows from 
half acre measured, and got 32 bushels from twenty-five 
rows of turnips, which would be 200 bushels in the half 
acre. I put on two cords of composted manure in drill, 
$21 ; seed, 30 cents, half pound ; ploughing, 75 cents ; 
sowing, 50 cents ; thinning, $1 ; cultivating and harvest- 
ing, $2.50. The price I am selling them for is 50 cents 
a bushel— would be $100. Profit, $82.95. 



Note. — Products, 400 bushels turnips per acre, $200 05 

Expenses, per acre, 34 10 



Profit, per acre, exclusive of land rent value, $165 90 

STATEMENT OF CYRUS K. ORDWAY OF WEST NEWBURY. 
CARROT CROP. 

This crop of carrots I offer for premium was raised on 
land that was in carrots last year. Last spring I put on 
2 1-2 cords of barn-yard manure and ploughed it about 
eight inches deep and sowed it to carrots. The seed was 
the Danvers Long Orange of my own raising. Hoed and 
weeded the crop three times during the season, and thinned 
to about five inches the second weeding. Finished har- 
vesting the crop Oct. 21. Weighed the entire crop on 
the public scales and had 18,000 pounds. 



COST OF CROP. 




Manure, 2 1-2 cords, 


$25.00 


Ploughing and harrowing, 


2.50 


Raking and sowing, 


2.00 


Seed, one pound, 


.85 


Hoeing and weeding, 


20.00 


Harvesting, 


12.00 



Total, $62. 35* 



107 



Products— 9 tons carrots, $12 per ton, 108.00* 
Less cost, 62.35 



$45.65 
remaining; in the land, 12.50 



Allowing half the value of the manure 



The result will be a profit of $58.15* 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. K. Ordway. 

I certify that I measured the land on which the above 
crop of carrots was raised and that it contained ninety 
square rods, and no more. 

Richard Newell. 



*Note. — Crop, per acre, 16 tons carrots, $192 00 

Expenses, per acre, (less half value manure), 88 62 



Profit per acre, exclusive of rent value of land, $103 38 



STATEMENT OF ASA T. NEWHALL, ON SQUASH CROP. 

The following is a statement concerning a crop consist- 
ing of Essex Hybrid and Hubbard squashes raised by Asa 
T. Newhall in the city of Lynn, 1886, on (300) three 
hundred square rods of land. 

The crops of 1884 consisted of potatoes, followed by 
squashes, on one-half the field, and sweet corn, followed 
by winter rye, on balance. One application of manure at 
the rate of about eight cords per acre of stable and barn- 
yard manure for both crops, excepting the use of 200 
pounds of Ames fertilizer per acre used in the drill for 
squashes. 

The crops of 1885 consisted of beets, sweet corn, fol- 
lowed by barley for fodder purposes, and cabbages follow- 



108 

ing the removal of the rye that was sowed the Fall previ- 
ous. Six cords of stable manure per acre was applied for 
corn, and eight cords per acre on the portions planted to 
beets and cabbages. 

The soil is a dark loam with gravelly sub-soil. It was 
ploughed about eight inches in depth in the Fall of 1885, 
and eight cords of manure per acre applied during the 
Winter and early Spring, while the frost was in the 
ground, and early in April cross-ploughed from four to 
five inches deep, and planted to early Sunrise and Early 
Essex potatoes, in sections of four rows furrowed a uniform 
width of three feet, except leaving a space of four feet 
between each four furrows, to be utilized for planting the 
squash later, which brought the squash rows a uniform 
width of thirteen feet apart. Used 400 pounds per acre 
of Ames fertilizer in the drill for potatoes, which yielded 
a crop of (70) seventy barrels per acre, which were dug 
and put upon the market from the 5th to the 15th of July, 
at an average price of $2.75 per barrel. 

The squashes were planted the 17th day of June by the 
use of about two cords per acre of a compost of barn ma- 
nure, night soil and meadow mud, which had received 
several "turnings," and the day before using a few barrels 
of ashes and also a few of air-slacked lime (two barrels 
of each to the cord of the original compost) were thor- 
oughly mixed through the heap as stated. The squashes 
were planted June 17th, having the appearance of being 
planted in drill rather than in hill, the compost being put 
in hills about five feet apart, and with the hoe levelled 
along the furrow, leaving a space of only about two feet 
between the ends of the hills ; the seed was pricked into 
the hills (in a direct line) about six inches apart. Were 
cultivated once and hoed once — two hours' work cultivat- 
ing for one man and horse, and one day's work for one 



109 

man hoeing, was all the cultivation they received or need- 
ed. As the vines grew slowly the first two weeks, show- 
ing a slim prospect for a crop, I pursued a course which I 
have previously tried with satisfactory results, viz : sowing 
turnips between the squash rows immediately after dig- 
ging the potatoes, when the weather or bugs seemed to be 
against the squash. The day following the sowing of the 
turnips, in this instance, there was a bountiful fall of rain, 
and squash and turnips soon seemed to enter into a con- 
test for supremacy, with chances in favor of the former; 
and while, later in the season, eveiy }^ard of land seemed 
utilized by the squash crop, nevertheless, the vines being 
cut severely by the early frost seemed to give the turnips 
(which were still in the "race") a chance, and the present 
prospect, at this date, with favorable weather a few weeks 
longer, will give a fair crop of turnips. 

I am undecided as to what would be considered a just 
charge for the manure, under the existing circumstances, 
and leave my estimate to your discretion. 

I had used and sold a small quantity of the crop of 
squashes before entering for premium, of which no account 
has been made in the accompanying certificate of weight, 
which gives what was on the 300 square rods at harvest- 
ing. I have stored about one-half the crop for Winter 
market. 

I submit the cost of crop, as follows : 
One-half the interest on land, $6.00 

One-half the cost of ploughing in Fall of 1885, 2.00 

One-half the cost of ploughing in Spring of 1886, 3.00 
One-half the value of manure, at $6 per cord, 

applied for potato crop, 45.00 

Manure used in hill, at $6 per cord, for squash 

crop, 22.50 

Furrowing and preparation of hills, 3.00 



110 

Planting, 1.50 

Cultivating and hoeing, 2.00 

Cutting and storing, 11.00 

Five pounds seed, 5.00 



$101.00 
Asa T. Newhall. 

This is to certify that sixteen loads of squashes raised 
by Asa T. Newhall of Lynn, on land measured by Oscar 
Stowell, and entered for premium offered by Essex Agri- 
cultural Society, weighed (38,470) thirty-eight thousand 
four hundred and seventy pounds net weight. 

C. M. Newhall, Weigher. 
Lynnfield, Oct. 4, 1886. 

I hereby certify that the land upon which grew the crop 
of squashes entered for premium by Asa T. Newhall of 
Lynn, measures just three hundred (300) square rods. 

Lynnfield, Oct. 25, 1886. Oscar Stowell. 



Note. — Product per acre, 20,517 lbs. squashes. Cost of 
production per acre, §53. 96. 



STATEMENT OF ANSEL W. PUTNAM. 

To the Committee on Root Crops: 

Gentlemen : — The experiment in potato growing, to 
which I have called your attention, is one of a series, con- 
ducted for the purpose of rinding, if possible, a system of 
cultivation and a variety of seed, so well adapted to high, 
dry land, and dry weather, as to make potato growing on 
such land reasonably safe. 

The land is mostly a gravelly loam, but part of it is grav- 



Ill 

el with the loam left out. In the spring of 1884 it was in 
grass and was top-dressed with barn manure, five cords to 
the acre ; was ploughed after haying and seeded with bar- 
ley ; the sod was backset in December, and oats sown on 
the furrows in the spring of 1885. After the oat fodder 
was harvested, five cords of barn manure to the acre was 
ploughed in, and barley sown for a fall crop. . In the 
spring of 1886, five cords of manure to the acre was 
ploughed in about six inches deep ; the land was well har- 
rowed and marked out with a Chandler horse hoe, rows 
three feet apart, furrows about three inches deep. In the 
latter part of April one-half acre was planted with Early 
Sunrise potato seed, whole, and about the size of hen's 
eggs, dropped two feet apart in the row and covered with 
a hand hoe, one hoe full of soil making a little mound over 
each potato ; the base of the mound was on a level with 
the under side of the potato, and about two inches of soil 
over the seed ; when the potatoes were about coming up, 
Stockbridge potato fertilizer was sifted over the mounds, 
about an ounce to each, or at the rate of 400 lbs. to the 
acre. Every fifth row not fertilized when the leading 
sprouts were one or two inches high, sprouts, mounds and 
fertilizer were covered by making a full ridge with the 
horse hoe, high enough to put about five inches of soil on 
the seed ; when the plants were twelve or fifteen inches 
high, a narrow cultivator was run between the rows, the 
horse hoe used to kill the weeds on the sides of the ridges, 
and the hand hoe on the top of the ridges between the 
plants. 

The bugs were checked in their work by a weak solution 
of Paris green, applied with the same cart, cask, force 
pump and hose used for spraying apple trees. 

The potatoes were harvested about the middle of July, 
the land was ploughed, and one bushel of barley sown on 



112 



the half acre. A load weighed on Oct. 16th, (a dry, 
windy day,) showed the product to be 75 lbs. of green 
barley fodder to the rod, making three tons on the half 
acre. 

COST OF POTATO CROP. 



Seed, 5 bushels of small potatoes, 


$1.00 


Dropping and covering, 


2.00 


Manure, 


7.50 


Fertilizer, 


2.00 


Ploughing, cultivating and horse hoeing, 


4.00 


Hand hoeing, 


1.00 


Killing bugs, 


*1.50 


Harvesting, 


5.00 


Kent of land, 


3.00 




$27.00 


BARLEY CROP. 




Manure, 


2.50 


Seed, 


1.00 


Ploughing and seeding, 


2.00 


Harvesting, 


2.00 




$34.50 


Returns— 10 bush, potatoes, $10.00 




50 " " 40.00 




19 " small potatoes, 3.8C Profit, 


34.30 


3 tons green fodder, 15.00 





$68.80 



$68.80 



Three fourths an acre in the same field was planted with 
a later variety of potatoes, original name unknown. I call 
it the late Sunset ; the preparation of this land, cultivation, 
&c, the same as the other. The seed was mostly good 
sized potatoes, cut so as to average one oz. to a piece. 



113 

Cost of production, $42.75 

Profits, 37.65 



$80.40 



RETURNS. 

104 bushels at 75 cents, $78.00 

12 " " 20 " 2.40 



$80.40 



This crop could have been sold for 80 cents per bushel 
at the time they were dug, but as I prefer to hold them 
for seed, I make the returns at 75 cents per bushel ; they 
may or may not be worth it in the spring. The barley 
sown on this part of the field being later than the other, 
was about half a crop, and just about paid expenses. 

Some of the conclusions to which my experiments in po- 
tato growing have led are, that it is not well to plant pota- 
toes on dry land, until after the sod is well decomposed 
by the cultivation of some other crop. After the sod is 
well rotted, the labor of growing and harvesting is reduced 
about one half, and the chances for success about doubled. 
Trying to subdue a witch grass or June grass sod with a 
potato crop, has with me often proved to be hard and un- 
profitable work. I think it best to plough in all the ma- 
nure on dry land ; this gives an opportunity to get the 
manure out and spread before the land is in condition to 
plough and plant, and consequently we have no manure to 
handle in planting time. 

I make and use on 20 acres of land, about 50 cords of 
manure annually; this at $8.00 a cord, makes $20.00 for 
each acre. The crops on each acre are charged as part of 
their cost with $20.00 for plant food each year. I 
applied to this land $40.00 worth of manure each year for 
three years, charging the crops with only $20.00 ; I do 



114 

this trusting' the grass to be grown on the land to pay the 
remainder of the manure bill. 

The farmer has an advantage of* the market gardener in 
growing cultivated crops. The farmer cultivates for the 
purpose of putting his land in good condition to grow grass, 
and can safely trust the grass crops to pay a large per 
cent, of the cost of manure, and also of cultivation. The 
gardener, if his land is in cultivated crops every year, 
must charge the crops of each year with the cost of all the 
labor and manure applied that year. 

I think it safer on dry land to plant two feet apart in 
the row, than nearer. I think it safer to use good sized 
seed, cut to ounce pieces, than to use whole seed of any 
size ; there is but little danger on such land of growing 
the tubers too big ; the danger is from too many small ones 
which whole potatoes are sure to give, unless all the con- 
ditions are very favorable. By covering each seed with a 
single hoe full of soil, and leaving it in a mound, the rain 
and air have a chance to warm the seed and give it a good 
start ; the mounds were well tilled with roots before the 
potatoes were up. I feel confident that it is better to do 
all the filling up to be done before the plants make much 
growth above ground ; it is much less labor to do it then, 
and the branches which produce the crop begin to start 
veiy soon after the potatoes are up. 

The most satisfactory idea I have found, while seeking 
for more light on potato growing, is the idea that a large 
part of the eggs laid by the bugs can be prevented from 
hatching by an early and vigorous growth of vines. 

For several seasons I have planted a few early potatoes 
in the garden, under conditions which made an early and 
rapid growth of vines. The bugs came early, laid eggs 
early — kept coming and kept laying — but not an egg 
hatched before the vines were done growing, then in a 



115 

short time the outside leaves were well covered. My 
explanation is, that only the eggs that were laid on the 
outside leaves, where the heat of the sun could reach them, 
hatched, and that millions that were laid in the first part 
of the season, like many early set hens' eggs, did not 
hatch. 

I think the reason why, in the early part of the season, 
the most bugs are found on the small, weak plants, is not 
because more eggs are laid on them, but because all that 
are laid have a chance to hatch. 

I have seen it stated that some of the best potato grow- 
ers about New York City have of late made it a practice 
to manure heavy, seed high, and let the bugs go. I think 
the reason why it is safe for them to do this is, because by 
so doing they destroy many of the eggs. 

To have first quality eating potatoes, a large per cent, 
of the foliage must remain uninjured by bugs, Paris green 
or rust, until the potatoes are well matured. When the 
leaves wilt and droop they have done their work — the crop 
is then in its best condition to dig ; the drying of the stalk 
while yet connected with the tuber, seems to detract from 
its eating qualities. 

Wire worms and white grubs don't eat potatoes before 
they are ripe. I suppose up to that time they live on the 
green and tender roots of the plant. 

The farmer needs a different variety of potato from the 
one best for the market gardener. The early varieties 
get ripe, the tops die, the worms begin to eat, and the 
weeds get possession of the land before the farmer, who 
has haying to do, can get ready to dig them. 

A variety that will bear heavy seeding and not set too 
many tubers, one that will grow stocky vines which will 
stand up stout and strong through hot, dry weather, — one 
that will grow foliage enough to completely shade the 



116 

ground, and thereby keep well ahead of the weeds and 
bugs, — one that by keeping green and thrifty until well 
into August will keep the weeds and worms in check 
until the farmer is ready to harvest, — is, in my opinion, 
the variety the farmer wants for a part of his crop, at 
least. The Late Sunset comes nearer to what I want 
a potato to do than any variety I have ever grown, but it 
has some failings, and I must prospect more before I can 
recommend it very highly. 

The fertilizer used produced 20 bushels per acre for $10 
worth used. If we trust the grass to pay one-half of the 
bill, 25 cents worth of fertilizer gave a bushel of potatoes 
— 10 3-4 cents worth of barn manure produced a bushel. 
I have never made an experiment with a fertilizer which 
has not proved our cellar manure to be worth $20 or more 
per cord. 

The excuse I make for callins; the attention of the com- 
mittee to so small a crop of potatoes is the fact that they 
were grown under conditions of drought and rust, which 
caused a large part of the crops in our town to fail to pay 
expenses of cultivation. 

Ansel W. Putnam. 

Asylum Station, Mass. 

This certifies that I measured two lots of land for Ansel 
W. Putnam. The lot planted with early potatoes is 20 
rods long by 4 rods wide — contents 80 square rods. The 
lot planted with late potatoes is 21 rods long by 5 3-4 rods 
wide — contents 120 3-4 rods. 

Joshua W. Nichols. 

Asylum Station, Nov. 1, 1886. 



117 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON ORNAMENTAL 
TREES. 

To the Trustees of the Essex Agricultural Society, 

Gentlemen : — Your committee were duly notified by 
the secretary of two entries "for the best lot of ornamental 
trees" — one by Albert Emerson, Haverhill, sugar maples 
on westerly side of Hilldale avenue ; and the" other by 
Benjamin P. Ware, Marblehead, a varied collection of 
trees situated on his farm. 

They would report that they have awarded the prize of 
$10 to Benjamin P. Ware of Marblehead ; and would add 
words of praise of Mr. Emerson's trees, there being no 
second prize. 

A visit was made to Mr. Emerson's on August 11th, 
where we saw a thrifty lot of sugar maples of quite uni- 
form size, growing in a clay soil and under generally fa- 
vorable circumstances. The committee were well pleased 
with the appearance of the trees, and also that their owner 
had showed a public spirit in setting them where they 
were doing a double duty by increasing the attractiveness 
and beauty of the adjacent lands, and also offering grateful 
shade to those passing on the highway during the heat of 
summer. 

Mr. Emerson's appreciation of trees was shown also in 
the belt of natural forest growth — chiefly oaks — which he 
had preserved as a division between two fields, and as a 
sheltered passage for his cows from their pasture to the 
spring, which was at the farther end of the belt where it 
widened into a grove. This belt was fenced in, and was 
so located that the cattle passed within easy sight of the 
house on their way to the water. These trees were an- 
other picturesque feature, lending shelter to the animals, 
and preserving a growth of woods around the spring, 



118 

which is the surest way of continuing its flow. Such 
springs, the sources of our purest water, are too fast dis- 
appearing with the increase of our population. The laying 
out of roads and digging for water, gas and sewer pipes, 
generally taps their underground currents and destroys 
them. 

Mr. Emerson's grass land and crops were looking well, 
and he was justly proud of a tine half-acre of asparagus. 

A most delightful drive was enjoyed, at Mr. Emerson's 
invitation, to the town of Atkinson in New Hampshire, 
with beautiful and extensive scenery on either side. On 
the return, a brief stop was made at the farm of E. A. 
Emerson, the son of our host, and the committee inspected 
his "Bucanan" wind-mill, which had just been completed 
to supply his barn and house with water. 

Your committee would acknowledge the kind attentions 
that were shown them by Mr. Emerson and his family, 
which were fully appreciated. 

On Wednesday, August 18th, the committee met at 
Marblehead to examine the entry made by Mr. Ware. 
Some of the members having arrived before the stated 
time, enjoyed a pleasant half-hour along the bluft", over- 
looking the beach, where a magnificent view of the ocean 
was had. We also examined "Gun-rock," with its sounds 
resembling the muffled explosions of cannon, as the seas 
in turn advanced and broke their force in an under-cavern 
of the huge rocks. A singular geological formation was 
interestingly explained by Mr. Ware, with the theory of 
its origin. 

The committee, being soon together, commenced an ex- 
amination of the trees upon the place. Several hundred 
had been planted on the farm, along both public and 
private roadsides, and also in groups and plantations. 
These consisted of a variety of deciduous and evergreen 
trees. 



119 

Some maples and ashes, on the side of the approach to 
the house, were in especially good condition and have 
probably given as grateful shade as any on the place, since 
they border the roadway from the fields and railway sta- 
tion to the buildings ; and who appreciates such protec- 
tion from the sun more than those returning from the 
scenes of bodily or mental work, on a hot summer's day? 

The trees between the house and ocean were a good 
specimen of what can be accomplished by planting in 
groups, where the exposure is considerable, and where the 
planting of the trees rather close together for mutual pro- 
tection is the only way to secure mature trees. 

Between the house and barns a mixture of evergreens 
and deciduous trees were appropriately located on a hill- 
side, and formed a useful and interesting collection. 

Quite a long avenue, which divides Mr. Ware's farm 
from his brother's, was lined with a row of maples on 
either side, and a third row down the centre, forming a 
double roadway. One side of this roadway was incom- 
plete when your committee saw it, but the trees had been 
set out in advance and were doing well. 

We also examined a thrifty line of willow trees that had 
been planted as a wind-break to a fruit orchard. 

There were a large variety of trees throughout the es- 
tate, and your committee saw Norway, Sugar, Sycamore, 
White and Cut-leaved maples, White ash, Horse-chestnut, 
Elms, Willows ; Scotch, Austrian and White pines, with 
some Larch trees ; also some Thorn-acacia hedges, and 
some few others. 

The desirability of lessening the number of trees where 
they formed rows at the side of roadways, was discussed 
by your committee, both at Mr. Emerson's and at Mr. 
Ware's, but shade and shelter in the heat of summer was 
what these were planted for, and a continuous shadow had 



120 

been secured after a number of years waiting, which would 
be broken by taking away every other tree for the sake of 
preserving the natural form of each individual. 

Where trees are planted for ornamental purposes every 
other one in a row should be removed when the trees ap- 
proach near each other ; and this same principle should be 
followed when trees are planted in ornamental groups. 

For timber, trees should be grown sufficiently near to- 
gether to prevent the growth of limbs, and encourage 
height and size in the trunk. 

After our return to the house, having completed our 
tour of inspection, we were shown by Mr. T. C. Thur- 
low samples of twenty varieties of maple leaves, and their 
individual characteristics were explained and discussed 
with interest. 

Your committee are indebted to Mr. Ware for a very 
pleasant day and a most hospitable reception. 

It is proper to call special attention, in this connection, 
to the general object to be sought in offering these prizes 
for trees. It should be to encourage people to plant trees 
and to bring to public notice as many examples as possi- 
ble of beneficial and successful tree planting, for forest, 
shade or ornamental uses, in the hope and expectation of 
inducing more people each year to plant them. The 
names of those engaging in this good work should be 
brought before the public for commendation. 

Where such an interest has not existed I have known 
of its being started, and later developed, by the receipt 
from a friend of seventy-five seedling trees, sent by mail, 
postage paid, for only one dollar for the whole seventy- 
five. These were carefully set out as the friend directed, 
and succeeded well. The recipient of these trees got 
more in a similar way, and also became a good patron of 
the nearest home nursery. 



121 

The writer has bought a number of hundred trees in 
this way which have arrived in good order, and a very 
small proportion have died. They were purchased of 
Robert Douglas & Sons, Waukegan, Illinois ; they were 
about eight inches tall, came in a slightly moist condi- 
tion, and were wrapped first in oiled paper and then in 
brown wrapping paper. Trees have been sent in this con- 
dition from Waukegan to Australia, and grown well when 
planted in Australian soil. 

Farmers' Clubs, and especially Village Improvement 
Societies, that desire to develop an interest in general tree 
planting, should adopt some such plan as the foregoing. 
Eventually we should see in our villages samples of trees 
growing about our homesteads which might be novel in 
the locality, and beautiful in form, foliage or coloring. 

Quite a variety of trees can be thus secured, and they 
are mostly the more desirable trees for general planting ; 
but a few trees that can be well introduced to produce 
pleasing effect in ornamental planting are also thus sent 
by mail. White ash, White and Red pine, Hemlock and 
Norway spruce and Catalpa are among those that the writer 
has thus bought. 

Trees should not be planted thickly around buildings, 
to shut out the rays of the sun, which are necessary for 
a healthful condition of atmosphere in our homes, in sum- 
mer as well as in winter. Too many trees are as injuri- 
ous as too many closed blinds to our health ; and we all 
know full well what the unpleasant chill of an unused 
chamber, or spare parlor is, which is kept too long shut 
up or unused. 

There are villages and towns in Massachusetts which 
are famed for their many beautiful trees, but which are 
being threatened with suspicion of malaria from the too 
dense foliage that covers their roadsides and home grounds. 



122 

Judicious planting is beneficial, both in a healthful and 
financial point of view, and should be given every encour- 
agement. 

Your committee were not called upon to visit any plan- 
tations of six hundred or more trees, but the present offer 
of the Society is wise, and it might even be well to offer 
a prize for a still larger plantation, in view of the in- 
creased interest in encouraging the preservation of forests 
around the sources of our water supplies. 

A prize for over six hundred and not over two thousand 
trees might be substituted for our present large offer ; and 
a prize for over two thousand trees might be added. 
Probably very few would enter for the latter, but the ob- 
ject is good, and good objects is what this Society seeks 
to encourage. 

Your committee would respectfully submit this report, 
trusting that it will meet with the approval of the Board 
of Trustees. 

FRANCIS H. APPLETON, Chairman. 



STATEMENT OF BENJAMIN P. WARE. 

To the Committee on Forest Trees: — 

I desire to make the following statement regarding the 
ornamental trees which I offer for premium. The row of 
rock maples growing along the avenue through the farm, 
forty-five in number and thirty feet apart, were taken from 
the woods of natural growth forty years ago, and when 
set were about two inches in diameter, and cut off at an 
equal height often feet from the ground. This gave them 
the appearance of bare poles, and caused them to put out 
branches from the top, thus adding to the beauty of the 
whole row by the uniformity of their branches. These 



123 

trees though healthy have not made a very rapid growth, 
bcins: now from twelve to eighteen inches in diameter ; 
affording, however, a grateful shade in the centre of a 
driveway a quarter of a mile long and thirty-five feet 
wide. So beautiful is this that very many strangers are 
induced to drive in and through the farm to enjoy the 
shade thus afforded. 

This first experience in setting shade trees proved so 
satisfactory that in later years, from time to time, I have 
planted some three hundred ornamental trees of various 
kinds along all of the highways and railroad that pass 
through or by my farm, adding much beauty to the land- 
scape and comfort to man and beast that travel that way. 

The grove of twenty-five trees in front of the Clifton 
House, being very near the ocean, was quite difficult to 
make grow, as the exposure to the severe easterly storms 
and high winds is more than those trees will generally 
bear. This grove was started thirty-five years ago by 
planting the trees quite near together, thereby affording 
protection to each other, and as they have grown, the 
weak ones have been removed, following the natural law 
that the fittest survive. Several varieties were here 
planted, not knowing which would stand the exposure the 
best. The American elm, Norway maple, Sycamore ma- 
ple, English linden and Balm of gilead are now standing 
in the group, all in a healthy condition, varying in size 
from six to sixteen inches in diameter, and from fifteen to 
forty feet in height. There were originally some Silver- 
leafed Poplars nearest the ocean, which grew quite well 
for a few years, but have since all died ; they were not 
very satisfactory at any time, continually throwing up 
suckers and showing more or less dead branches. 

In the summer season the dense shade which this grove 
affords is highly appreciated by the guests of the Clifton 
House. 



124 

As an experiment, I trenched one-half of the land 
where this grove stands two feet deep, supposing that it 
would promote the growth of the trees, but contrary to 
the opinion generally held, I never saw any favorable re- 
sult from it. 

I have another grove composed of sixty-five evergreen 
trees, that serves as a screen for the barn and stable, and 
also for a delightful shade with a pine odor which is very 
agreeable to many persons. These trees were set quite 
near together to afford mutual protection, and are now 
from three to eight inches in diameter, and from six to 
twenty feet high, all in thrifty condition. They will be 
thinned out as future growth may require. Here are the 
Norway, Scotch and White Pines, each of a different shade 
of green, each beautiful in itself, and making a pleasant 
combination of color ; especially in the winter is this at- 
tractive in contrast with the barenness of the surrounding 
deciduous trees and of the landscape generally. 

I desire to call your attention to a row of Norway ma- 
ples along the approach to the Clifton House. This vari- 
ety of maple naturally forms a compact mass of foliage, 
shaped like a spinning top inverted, admirable for a shade. 
It is very hardy, retains its foliage quite late in the season 
and turns to a beautiful yellow color in many shades as 
the season advances. This row of trees, with their uni- 
form shape and dense foliage, helps to make the walk to 
the railroad station a luxury rather than a burden. 

Along Atlantic avenue and the approach to the railroad 
station and on each side of the railroad are planted White 
ash, Sycamore maple, Norway maple, Rock maple and 
Horse chestnut trees, thirty feet apart. These are all in 
a thrifty condition, varying from five to ten inches in di- 
ameter and from twelve to twenty-five feet high. These 
varieties have proved hardy and well adapted to this loca- 



125 

tion, and to the object desired in planting, although no 
variety will excel, or perhaps equal, our native Elm for 
majestic grandeur and beautiful proportions. 

Nearly all of our ornamental as well as fruit trees are 
subject to attacks of disease or insects which mar the 
beauty, check the growth, and even cause death unless 
protected. Diligent watchfulness is the price of success, 
here as well as elsewhere on the farm. 

The Elm is subject to the ravages of the canker worm. 
My Linden trees were this year badly eaten by the same or 
a similar worm, and had I not sprayed them with paris 
green, they would have been stripped of all foliage. The 
White ash is subject to a blight in the early season, causing 
black spots on the leaves, though later growth seems to 
overcome it, so that the effect is not noticed. 

The Norway maple is, I think, a very desirable tree, but 
it is liable to be affected unfavorably by atmospheric influ- 
ences. One side of mine had a brownish appearance 
which came on suddenly from this cause. The Norway 
maple is in danger, more than other varieties, of splitting 
down where there are crotches of large limbs. When 
young, care should be taken in pruning to have a main 
centre trunk, instead of cutting it off and thereby causing 
several main limbs to branch out. The horse chestnut is 
a very beautiful tree in form, foliage, and especially in 
flower. It is a rapid grower after it is well established. 
But a heavy wind while the foliage is tender in the early 
season will seriously mar its beauty for the rest of the 
season. The balm of gilead is a very hardy, rapid-grow- 
ing tree, and will probably bear exposure to the ocean 
storms better than any other variety, and is very valuable 
on that account. It also has valuable medicinal properties 
that with many persons are the cure-all of the family and 
of the neighbors. Mr. Tudor found it of great service on 



126 

exposed places at Nahant in forming wind-breaks for the 
protection of more tender trees, and was thus enabled to 
grow fruit quite successfully. But this tree is subject to 
a borer that will seriously injure, if not totally destroy it, 
unless protected. 

The black poplar, introduced from Japan, is a rival to 
this for hardiness to ocean exposure, rapid growth and 
symmetrical proportion. It can be easily propagated by 
cuttings, it has been fully tested in this country for some 
fifteen years, and I know of no serious objections to it. 
It does not sucker like the balm of gilead, silver poplar 
or the Lombardy poplar that was so famous seventy-five 
years ago. Take it all in all, I think it is a valuable ac- 
quisition to our list of ornamental trees. 

The sycamore maple is a hardy tree with me, a rapid 
grower, has very beautiful leaves, grows very shapely, 
has pretty and abundant blossoms, and produces abun- 
dance of clusters of winged seed that add to the beauty of 
the tree in the autumn. This variety is not subject to 
attacks of any disease or insects that I am aware of. I 
consider it of great merit. 

I have in my collection of ornamental trees, Wier's cut 
leaf ihaple, which, as its name indicates, has a beautiful 
deeply serrated leaf, attractive by its oddity. This tree is 
a rapid grower, with an abundance of long, slender 
branches with a drooping habit, quite desirable in a col- 
lection. Also the cut leaf weeping birch, with its beauti- 
ful pyramidal form, very white bark on the trunk and 
large limbs, and dark colored on the smaller branches 
which droop, and so fiue, not larger than a knitting nee- 
dle, that a gentle breeze will cause them to wave in a 
gentle, undulating manner, making this one of the most 
beautiful and attractive trees we have. It is propagated 
by grafting on some strong growing birch of another 
variety. 



127 

I have several other varieties of some merit, but not 
requiring any special mention. 

I have gone into some detail, hoping to enlist the atten- 
tion of my brother farmers to the planting of shade and 
ornamental trees about their homes, which to me has been 
so satisfactory, notwithstanding the drawbacks that I have 
mentioned. They do grow while we sleep. 
Respectfully submitted. 

Benjamin P. Ware. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON STRAWBERRIES 
AND OTHER SMALL FRUITS. 

Your Committee have attended to their duty, and re- 
spectfully report three entries, one of strawberries, one of 
raspberries, and one of blackberries, to each of whom 
was awarded premiums as follows, viz. : 
$10. First premium, to George G. Peirce, West New- 
bury, for strawberry crop. 
$10. First premium, to George G. Peirce, West New- 
bury, for raspberry crop. 
$10. First premium, to Benjamin W. Farnum, North 
Andovcr, for blackberry crop. 
Since the fruit crops of Mr. Peirce were entered, he 
has died. He was a young man of promise, and greatly 
interested in the cultivation of small fruits, which he did 
so successfully. 

Mr. Farnum commenced in a small way while a scholar 
in the High school, and has both multiplied his plants and 
increased his market, to a profit since. 
Respectfully submitted for the committee, 

Edwaiid E. Woodman, Chairman. 



128 



STATEMENT OF GEORGE G. PEIRCE, BREAK HILL FARM, 
WEST NEWBURY. 

Crop of Wilson and Crescent strawberries on 1 acre, 
148 1-2 sq. rods. 

Soil, gravelly loam, good corn land, sloping slightly to 
the south. Plants set in spring of 1885, about the same 
quantity of each variety. 
Cost of preparing and manuring ground, $40 per 

acre, $77.00 

9000 plants to acre, about 17,440 plants, at $3 

per thousand, 52.32 

Planting, $6 per acre, 11.60 

Hoeing, $6 per acre, 11.60 

Mulching in the fall of 1885, $10 per acre, 19.40 

Picking and marketing 12,304 quarts, at 3 cents, 369.12 



Total cost, $541.04 

First picking of berries June 12, 67 quarts ; last pick- 
ing July 13th, 129 quarts. 
Total picking, 12,304 quarts, at average selling 

price of 12 1-2 cents, $1538.00 

Less cost of crop, 541.04 



Profit, $996.96 

Rent of land and interest on investment not reckoned. 



Note. — Crop per acre, 6381 quarts, $797.62 

Cost of strawberry crop, per acre, 280.43 



Profit per acre, exclusive of land reut and interest, $517.19 

STATEMENT OF GEORGE G. PEIRCE, "BREAK HILL FARM," 
WEST NEWBURY. 

Crop of Cuthbert raspberries on 71 1-2 sq. rods. 



129 

On side hill, sloping north ; soil, yellow loam, 8 inches 
deep. Location favorable for snow remaining through 
the winter, preventing deep freezing. Set in 1884, rows 
8 feet apart, plants 3 1-2 feet in rows. Pruned to within 
three feet of ground in spring, 1886. 

Cost of preparing ground, plants, planting, etc., 

in 1886, . $50.00 

Cost of pruning, 1886, 10.00 

Cost of picking and marketing 2505 pints fruit, 

or 1252 1-2 quarts, at 3 cents, 37.58 

$97.58 
First picking of raspberries July 12th, 110 pints ; last 
picking August 5th, 90 pints. 
Total picking, 2505 pints or 1252 1-2 quarts, at 

average selling price of 15 cents, $187.88 

Less cost of crop, 97.58 



Profit, $90.30 

Rent of land and interest on investment not reckoned. 



Note. — Crop per acre, 2803 quarts, $420.45 

Cost of raspberry crop, per acre, 218.35 

Profit per acre, exclusive of land rent and interest, $202.10 



STATEMENT OF BENJ. W. FARNUM, NORTH ANDOVER. 

Crop of Wachusett Thornless blackberries on 20 1-2 sq. 
rods of land. 

Soil, dark loam, rocky subsoil, southeastern aspect. 
Plants set some three years, some two years ago. Rows 
7 feet apart, plants 3 feet apart in the rows. Old wood 
trimmed out early in spring. Stable manure spread on 



130 

and cultivated in, keeping ground level. Not mulched 
through the winter ; perfectly hardy. 

Cost for season of 1886 : 

Cutting out old wood, 2.00 

Trimming during season, .75 

Labor, 1.25 

3 ft. manure, ■ 2.25 

Picking and marketing 806 quarts at 5 cents, 40.30 



$46.55 



First picking July 28th. 
Total picking, 806 quarts, at average selling price 

about 13 1-2 cents, $110.52 

Less the cost, 46.55 



Profit, $63.97 



Note. — Crop per acre, 6290 3-4 quarts, $849.25 

Cost of blackberry crop, per acre, 364.37 



Profit per acre, exclusive of land rent and interest, 



REPORT ON NEW VARIETY OF WINTER AP- 
PLES AND APPLE INSECTS. 

In our last report we gave the history of the Baldwin 
apples. It is supposed to be more than one hundred 
years since they were first known, and now they are at 
the head of the list of winter apples. Still we think they, 
like other old varieties of winter apples, are on the de- 
cline, and are not what they were many years ago. That 
it should be so is not strange, as apples, when grafted, are 
believed to partake more or less of the natural stock ; and 
we believe, too, that varieties of apples, like other works 
of nature, have their maturity and decline. 



131 

Many years ago the trustees of the Essex Agricultural 
Society, believing that varieties of apples deteriorated and 
became less productive, offered the liberal premium of one 
hundred dollars for a new variety originated in this county 
equal to the Roxbury russet or Baldwin. 

In 1879 Mr. Alfred Ordway of Bradford presented a 
new variety of apples that originated in a neighbor's wood 
lot, from which he took scions and put into his own trees, 
which produced the apples presented. The apples are 
much like the Baldwin and about the same size. Samples 
have been presented several times. Your committee did 
not feel satisfied that they were quite up to the standard, 
and declined awarding the premium, but recommended a 
gratuity of twenty dollars, which was voted by the trus- 
tees. Last fall the premium was changed as follows : one 
hundred dollars for a new variety originated in this county 
equal to the Baldwin ; for a new variety of like character 
originated elsewhere, provided they have been cultivated 
in the county sufficiently to prove them equal to the Bald- 
win for general purposes, twenty dollars. 

The additional premium is an improvement, as it mat- 
ters not to the apple growers of this county where the ap- 
ples originated, if they are productive and of good quality. 
Some of our best apples are of foreign origin. The red 
Astracan and Gravenstein are both of foreign origin and 
of superior quality in their season. If there are winter 
apples elsewhere better than we have, let us have them ; 
get scions and test them. It is hoped this additional pre- 
mium will induce people to make an effort for that pur- 
pose. 

It is not easy estimating correctly the comparative value 
of different varieties of apples, as there are so many qual- 
ities to be considered. The taste of the apple, their color, 
their size, their bearing quality, their keeping quality, with 



132 

other qualities of less importance, should all be considered. 
Their bearing quality is of vital importance, and most va- 
rieties are very uneven. 

The past autumn I visited the farm I formerly occupied. 
The Baldwin apples were small and of inferior quality. 
The Roxbury russet, the Hunt russet and Rhode Island 
greening were of good quality and an abundant yield. The 
comparison between them and the Baldwin the like I had 
rarely seen before. The comparison has usually been 
largely in favor of the Baldwin. 

At the late fair at Newburyport specimens of the Ord- 
way apple were presented that appeared well, also a speci- 
men of the same fruit by Mr. A. Kimball from scions from 
Mr. Ordway's tree ; also a sample of apples, without name, 
from Mr. Joseph Horton of Ipswich ; another variety from 
'Mr. C. M. Kent of Newbury; another specimen from J. 
H. Hill of Amesbury. It is hoped that some of these 
apples will be kept and presented at the trustees' meeting 
in June, that their quality may be known at that time and 
compared with each other. We would also recommend 
that scions be taken from these trees and grafted into oth- 
er trees, as one tree is not sufficient to fully test a variety 
of apples. 

A premium of twenty-five dollars has been offered for a 
successful experiment in destroying the codlin moth, and 
other worms destructive to the apple. No premium has 
been called for, consequently no effectual remedy can be 
expected. I have taken considerable pains to get infor- 
mation from observation and otherwise in regard to the 
habits of these insects, and think something might be 
said that would be instructive to others. 

It is often said apple insects are increasing — new insects 
are appearing. How this is we are not quite certain. It 
was said by a wise man of old "there is nothing new un- 



133 

der the sun." What then existed the like had existed be- 
fore. Whether that was intended to apply to insects we 
are not informed. The canker worm, the caterpillar and 
palmer worm are all mentioned in scripture as destructive 
insects ; whether they are the same insects now known by 
these names we are not informed. 

We learn from tradition that the orchards in the north 
part of the county were ravaged by the canker "worm in 
the latter part of the last century. In the spring of 1793 
there was a late frost that killed the canker worm and 
nearly all the apples, and it was thought to be a benefit 
rather than a loss, as the destruction of the canker worm 
would more than compensate the loss of the apples. They 
appeared again early in the present century. I remember 
their sad effects as is seen the present day in many or- 
chards. I also remember assisting in tarring my father's 
trees, which with much care proved successful. In 1815 
they were again killed by a late frost. Since that time 
they have appeared and disappeared, and sometimes have 
disappeared without a known cause. 

In tarring my father's trees we used tar mixed with 
blubber to thin it, then warmed it over the kitchen fire to 
have it mix and spread well. It was applied every day 
late in the afternoon. More recently ink has been used, 
as it could be put on less frequently and answer the pur- 
pose. Still more recently a solution of Paris green and 
water has been used to spray the trees that in many cases 
has been successful, but caution should be used that it be 
not too strong, as the foliage is sometimes injured. 

Caterpillars were formerly more numerous than they 
now are. It was then not uncommon to see nearly the 
whole orchard stripped of its foliage by these insects, but 
the like is now rarely seen. 

The apple maggot is thought to be a new insect. It is 



134 

not so. Many years ago sweet or pleasant sour apples 
appearing well on the outside, when cut open were worth- 
less, but no insect visible. They are not regular depre- 
dators. Some years they destroy nearly the whole crop, 
other seasons they do but little or no damage. From the 
outside appearance of the apple no one can tell what is in- 
side. They are said to proceed from a small fly. No rem- 
edy is known for their destruction. 

Professor Sanborn informs us that there are many in- 
sects that infest the apples. We think the apple maggot 
and codlin moth are the most destructive. The codlin 
moths are of foreign origin, having been brought to this 
country early in the present century. They have now 
spread nearly over the whole country. They are a deceit- 
ful, troublesome insect. The moths fly in the night and 
evening and not in the day time, and are rarely seen ; 
therefore it is not easy learning all their movements. 

Entomologists tell us that the moths come out in spring, 
about the time the apple blossoms are falling from the 
trees, laying their eggs in the blossom end of the apple. 
I have never seen the little yellow eggs spoken of by Pro- 
fessor Sanders in his late work on insects, but have often 
seen where the worms were entering the apples at differ- 
ent times from the early stage of their growth to October, 
and not always at the blossom end of the apple, but on 
the side or cheek of the apple. They soon hatch and en- 
ter the apple, and in about four or five weeks, according 
to the season, the worms are matured, crawl out of the 
apples and seek a hiding place to spin their cocoon and 
change to another insect as nature designed. 

If the worm is matured before the apple drops from the 
tree, it crawls out and seeks a place under the rough bark, 
or in a crotch between two branches, or some other place, 
to form its cocoon on the tree. If the apple drops before 



135 

the worm is matured, when matured it crawls out and 
seeks a place to form its cocoon : it may be to the body 
of the tree, to the stone wall, rail fence or some other 
place, as most convenient. 

I have repeatedly picked up the wormy apples soon 
after they have fallen from the trees, cut them, and found 
much the greater part without worms, they having ma- 
tured, as was supposed, and left the apple to cocoon. It 
thus appears that not so much is gained by picking up the 
wormy apples and destroying them, as has been by some 
supposed. To get further information, I picked up wormy 
apples, put them into a firkin with small scraps of cloth 
and covered the firkin. I soon found cocoons in the 
scraps of cloth, which were removed to a glass jar. Early 
in August moths were seen fluttering in the jar. Desir- 
ous of more information, I wrote to Professor Sanborn of 
the Historical Institution, of Worcester, Mass., now de- 
ceased, a man who was known to have had long experi- 
ence in studying the habits of insects, and received the 
following information : The moths come out in spring 
and lay their eggs as I have described ; that he had with- 
in his experience of more than thirty years examined with 
a microscope a large number of female moths, and found 
them to contain about three hundred eggs each. They 
live two or three weeks only, laying their eggs singly on 
the apples. If the nights are quite cool they remain tor- 
pid, do not move out, or if the weather is wet they remain 
quiet ; should the weather continue cold and wet, they 
sometimes die without laying all their eggs. 

He also informs us that the worms propagate and sub- 
sist on the following kinds of fruit : apples, pears, quin- 
ces, cranberries, and some wild fruit, and these only. In 
the most of our orchards apples are the only fruit pro- 
duced on which they subsist. Then if there is a failure of 



136 

the apple crop, as there sometimes is in certain orchards, 
there will be no place for the moths to lay their eggs ; 
consequently there will be no worms the next year, unless 
moths come from elsewhere. How far the moths will go 
to lay their eggs, and whether instinct directs them to the 
bearing tree, like the canker worm moth, we are not in- 
formed. We have seen them when they came out of the 
ground crawl directly to the body of the tree ; also when 
the web of the canker worm is broken and falls to the 
ground, the worm crawls directly to the body of the tree, 
thence up the tree for its daily food. Now may we not 
reasonably suppose that instinct directs the codlin moth to 
the bearing rather than to the barren tree? 

There is much difference of opinion among entomolo- 
gists in regard to the habits of these insects, whether they 
are single or double brooded. The fact seems to be this : 
In the northern latitudes, where the growing season is 
short, they have but one brood in a year. In the warmer 
latitudes, like California, they are said to have three 
broods in a year. In the intermediate latitudes two broods 
in a year, or partially so. The early ones have a second 
brood, the later ones but one brood, as may be supposed 
it is with us. 

I have the copy of an interesting letter from Professor 
Charles V. Riley of Washington, (formerly of Missouri). 
He confirms my representation that the moths appear 
about the time the apples are forming, others in cool 
places come out later, and others still later, so that he has 
known moths of the first brood and moths of the second 
brood in the same tree at the same time. 

He further informs us that he has bred those moths, who 
when confined would so cover the apple with eggs that 
when the worms hatched, they would enter the apple from 
every side, and soon so perforate and devour the apple as 
to die of starvation. 



137 

We have been informed by Col. Wille, secretary of the 
State Board of Horticulture of the State of California, that 
it takes about fifty -five days to produce a generation of the 
codlin moth, from the time the first generation appear on 
the wing. 

Here, as the weather is cooler, it may take longer, and 
from my experiments I think it may take sixty or sixty- 
five days to produce a brood or generation. My opinion 
is simply this : They begin to appear about the time the 
apples are forming, others in cool places come out later, 
others still later, until the next brood appears, so that 
nearly all the fall and winter apples are infested from the 
second brood of moths. 

We have thus, we think, given a fair description of 
the habits of these insects, and hope some of our Yankee 
farmers will avail themselves of the liberal premium, and 
point out a plan for the extermination of these destructive 
insects. 

Joseph How, Chairman. 

Methuen, Nov. 9, 1886. 



NEW MEMBERS. 

The Committee on New Members has attended to the 
duty and respectfully report the following award : 
$6.00. Premium, to John Q. Evans, Salisbury, for 8 new 
members from Salisbury. 

Other than those, who became members by rule of the 
Society, a premium of $7 or upwards having been awarded 
them, the new members of the Society during the year 
were 8 from Salisbury, 3 from Amesbury, 3 from Lynn, 
2 from Andover, 2 from Boxford, 2 from Rockport, 2 
from Newburyport, 3 from Gloucester, and 1 each from 



138 

Manchester, Salem, Hamilton, Beverly, Lynnfield, Brad- 
ford, Newbury and Topsfield. 

It will be seen by looking at the list of active members 
of the Society that in several places in the county the in- 
crease by new members has not kept pace with the de- 
crease by death, so that the membership in those places in 
point of numbers is not a credit to them or to the Society. 
Your Committee would therefore urge the members, es- 
pecially the Trustees from those places, and from all other 
cities and towns in the county, to increase the member- 
ship another year. No farmer or other person interested 
in Agriculture or Horticulture can obtain so good a return 
for the sum invested, $3.00, making a lifetime member. 

Respectfully submitted, 

David W. Low, Committee. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON TREADWELL 
FARM. 

The farm is increasing in fertility as shown by the crops, 
the plain land especially yielding better returns from year 
to year. The stone wall around the field in which the 
buildings stand is much out of repair. Part of it is com- 
mon wall which any man can lay up ; another line is bank 
wall, originally laid in mortar ; now much of it is loose 
and many stones have fallen out, several gaps have ap- 
peared, and the whole wall needs to be re laid. The un- 
der-drain laid many years ago when Nathan Brown was 
on the farm is in good order, and furnishes to those who 
remember the former condition of the land drained, the 
best evidence of the wisdom of the men who planned and 
executed the work. The wall and fence around the pas- 
ture will require extensive repairs before another season. 



139 

The wall was all poled when A. H. Gould first leased the 
farm, but little has been done to it since. Now the poles 
have decayed, the wall has been only partially put up 
of late years, and a considerable outlay is required at 
once. Poles enough can be cut in the pasture to do the 
work. If the maples are thinned judiciously, it would be 
no injury to them, and a maple pole will last many years. 

The wood-wax is increasing to an alarming extent, and 
the comments made by neighboring farmers are not flat- 
tering to the Society. Nothing was done last year or this 
to check it. The plowing done a few years ago not being 
followed up, spread the plant by killing out the grass, 
thus giving the wood-wax the whole ground. A much 
larger area is covered by it than formerly ; it has run into 
the woods and along the old walls so far that it cannot be 
well cut or plowed. It is respectfully suggested that the 
Society offer a premium for some effectual method of ex- 
terminating the weed, the test to be applied to this pas- 
ture.* 

Accompanying this report is the account given by Mr. 
Foster, foreman of the Pierce Farm, of the experiments 
conducted by him in planting potatoes. He also gave me 
a verbal account of an experiment with the Stockbridge, 
Ames, and Darling's fertilizers applied to corn. A heavy 
coat of manure was spread on the land and the fertilizer 
used in the hill ; an equal quantity of each one being ap- 
plied to different parts of the field. No difference could 
be observed in the various lots, either while growing or in 
the crop at harvest. This amounts to nothing as a test, 
for the manure alone would have made the crop, over four 
cords to the acre being used. 

*Note. — The Trustees, at the November meeting, voted that 
the Society insist that the tenant of the Farm be required to 
cut the wood-wax when in blossom, or immediately after. 



140 

The amount of the crops raised on the farm is also ap- 
pended to this paper, the amounts produced being given 
but no prices carried out. This account was of course 
furnished by Mr. Foster, superintendent of the leased 
farm. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Charles J. Peabody, 

For the Committee. 

REPORT OF PRODUCE TREADWELL FARM. 

25 tons English hay. 

20 tons meadow hay. 

7 tons stover. 

18 tons rye straw. 

10 tons oat straw. 

1200 bushels potatoes. 

175 bushels shelled corn. 

100 bushels beans. 

200 bushels oats. 

200 bushels rye. 

60 barrels apples. 

MANURE APPLIED. 

10 tons Darling's Fertilizer. 
15 cords stable manure. 

EXPERIMENT WITH POTATOES. 

Ten rows planted with whole potatoes produced 38 
bushels. 

Ten rows planted with single eyes produced 40 bushels. 

Ten rows planted with two eyes produced 42 bushels. 

These were all planted in drills three feet apart ; seed 
about fifteen inches apart in the drill. 



141 

REPORT OF DELEGATES TO FARMERS' CLUBS 
AND FRUIT GROWERS' ASSOCIATIONS. 

The Houghton Horticultural Society, of Lynn, has a 
large number of enthusiastic members, and as a body have 
acted as a City Improvement Society. They have caused 
a large number of ornamental and shade trees to be planted 
on many of the streets, they sometimes establish courses 
of lectures during the winter, and annually hold an exhi- 
bition of fruit, flowers and vegetables, continuing two 
days and evenings, followed the next evening by a social 
festival, with liberal refreshments. As Lynn is a spec- 
ially favorable location for the growth of pears and other 
fruit, their exhibitions are remarkable for the excellent 
quality of the fruit shown. Many first premiums offered 
by the Essex Agricultural Society are taken by members 
of this society. Its influence has been very marked, by 
the great advance in fruit culture and improved taste in 
floriculture and arboriculture which makes Lynn appear as 
a city of gardens. This is often remarked by strangers 
who visit that city. 

The Marblehead and Swampscott Farmers' Club has 
been organized six years. It has succeeded in enlisting 
the interest of nearly all of the inhabitants of the farm 
districts of the two towns. Old and young, male and fe- 
male, are induced to become members. The annual mem- 
bership fee is 50 cents ; children under twelve, 25 cents. 
The ladies of the club have formed a supplementary club 
called "The Helping Hands," and they have truly proved 
what their name indicates. They hold weekly afternoon 
meetings at their several homes, which have resulted in 
providing for two fairs for the sale of fancy and useful ar- 
ticles, the products of their taste and industry. These 
fairs have netted some two or three hundred dollars, and 
thus they have been enabled to help out the meagre in- 



142 

come of the club which the small fee of membership pro- 
vides. The club holds weekly Monday evening meetings 
from November 1st to May 1st, which are intended to 
provide for the social and educational wants of the neigh- 
borhood and also for amusement. A lively interest has 
been kept up, with a full attendance. The club has the 
free use of a very prettily arranged hall, centrally located, 
where from time to time discussions upon farm topics are 
held by the members. Popular scientific and other lec- 
tures are given by many distinguished gentlemen, who 
kindly come for the good that they can do the club. The 
younger members are encouraged to volunteer frequent 
declamations, dialogues, etc., which are always welcomed 
by the club. The young ladies have formed a Choral 
Union, for the purpose of providing singing with piano 
accompaniment as an opening exercise for the meeting. 
Musical and other entertainments are frequently given by 
friends of the clubs from other towns. A social picnic is 
usually held in August, and the ladies of the club provide 
elaborate refreshments from time to time as occasion may 
require. The influence of the club has been to enhance the 
much-needed social condition of the neighborhood. It 
has developed and brought out much latent talent in vari- 
ous directions. It has been a beneficence to the educa- 
tional, social and moral standing of those communities, 
probably more than anything else could have secured. 

The West Newbury Farmers' Club is one of the oldest 
in the county. Their fairs, usually held in September, 
every other year, draw large crowds of farmers and others. 
A dinner and speeches from invited guests are prominent 
features of the occasion. They hold ten or fifteen meet- 
ings for discussion during the year in different parts of the 
town, with an occasional lecture. A visiting committee is 
appointed to inspect farms and growing crops, which are 



143 

reported to the club, much interest is manifested, and 
good results to the farmers of the town have been secured. 

Newbury, Ipswich, Rowley, Georgetown, all have their 
farmers' organizations for discussions, lectures and social 
intercourse. They are all in a healthy condition, and the 
members feel that they are benefitted by them. 

Wenham has recently formed a club under favorable 
auspices : discussions have already been provided" for. 

The Bradford Farmers' and Mechanics' Association is 
an active, healthy organization, holding frequent meetings 
for discussion, and an annual picnic or steamboat excur- 
sion down the Merrimac river, which is a rare social occa- 
sion, much enjoyed by the families and invited guests of 
the members ; and an annual festival in the winter for so- 
cial enjoyment. They also hold an exhibition as often as 
every second year, with great success. 

The Andover Farmers' Club has been organized eight 
years. They have meetings for discussion, a visiting com- 
mittee to report the condition of farms and crops, and an 
annual festival which is highly enjoyed by the large at- 
tendance of members and invited guests. 

The Topsfield Farmers' Club is not as large or active as 
some others, but more interest is now manifested, and it 
is hoped that the discussions that are in prospect for the 
winter will give new life and energy to the organization. 

The West Peabody Farmers' Club is probably one of 
the most lively clubs in the county. The discussions held 
at their weekly meetings are sharp and spicy. With a 
tine musical company among its membership, they are 
eminently social ; male and female, old and young, of the 
neighborhood, are included in this club. They held their 
first exhibition last September, which was a great success, 
complete in all its details. 

There have been organized during the past year, Gran- 



144 

ges of Patrons of Husbandry in the towns of Amesbury, 
North Andover and Ipswich, under very favorable auspi- 
ces, with good prospects of success. These are strictly 
farmers' organizations, possessing all the advantages of a 
farmers' club, and much more that a farmers' club cannot 
have. This is the beginning, probably, of many more that 
may follow when more is known of the Order of the Pat- 
rons of Husbandry. 

The effect of these several farmers' organizations in the 
county has been very marked in the improved agriculture, 
in the talent for discussion and criticism that has been 
developed, and the importance and value of more careful 
observation by farmers. They have proved of great as- 
sistance to the mother Essex County Agricultural Society 
in providing accommodations for the Farmers' Institutes 
held in the past six years in different parts of the county. 
And the committee feel highly gratified at being able to 
report so healthy a condition of these organizations. 

Benjamin P. Ware, 

For the Committee. 



FARMERS' INSTITUTES. 

The Institutes of this Society, eight in number the past 
season, have shown increased attendance and interest. 
No farmer or person of other pursuits who has attended 
any of these meetings need have gone away without taking 
with him some new practical idea or established fact, to 
be of after benefit to him in the duties of life. No person 
interested in Agriculture in Essex county can afford to 
miss these Institute meetings, for aside from the benefits 
derived from the instructive essays and the mutual ex- 
change of experiences and opinions which the discussions 
draw out, the coming together from all parts of the county 



145 

as we do in different places, thus becoming acquainted with 
each other and forming more social relations, is of mutual 
benefit by expanding those sentiments which were never 
intended to lie dormant in the human breast. 

It should be remembered that all our Institute Meetings 
are open to every person who desires to listen to or take 
part in its discussions, without regard to age or sex. 
There is nothing exclusive about them ; they are free to 
all. Members of our Society should cordially invite their 
neighbors to participate in them. 

The opening essays or papers of the several meetings 
have been with hardly an exception of more than usual 
merit, and it is to be regretted that they cannot find room 
in our annual report. 

The first Institute of the season, and the 37th one of the 
Society, was held Dec. 8, 1885, at the Town Hall, Ando- 
ver. Seventy persons were present at 9.30 A. M., when 
President Ware called the meeting to order, to listen to 
George D. Forristall of Tewksbury, foreman of the State 
farm at Tewksbury, whose excellent paper on "The Silo 
and Ensilage" was ably discussed by Messrs. Ware of 
Marblehead, King of Peabody, Gulliver of Andover, But- 
ler of Georgetown, Case of North Reading, Morse of 
Lowell, Evans of Amesbury, Holt of Andover, Ayers of 
Methuen, Dr. Bailey, and others. At the afternoon ses- 
sion, Vice President James P. King presided, and Presi- 
dent Ware read an essay on "Indian Corn Culture," which 
was an able and exhaustive paper. Messrs. Holt, Butler, 
Gulliver, T. C. Thurlow of West Newbury, and Mr. Hil- 
ton of Bradford took part in the discussion that followed. 

The next Institute was intended to be held in George- 
town December 29th, but a disastrous fire in that place 
on December 26th caused its postponement, and its place 
of meeting was changed to Methuen. 



146 

The 38th Institute was held at Methuen in Memorial 
Hall with good attendance, Jan. 7th, 1886. The forenoon 
discussion was on "The Production and Marketing of 
Milk," opened by James P. King of Peabody, followed 
by Messrs. Hazleton, Ware, Holt, and others. The sub- 
ject in the afternoon was "Some Lessons and Suggestions 
from the Farm Experience of 1885," by Hon. J. J. H. 
Gregory of Marblehead, who gave a very interesting and 
instructive talk on his experience and the lessons it had 
taught, which brought out numerous questions and the 
experiences of others. 

The 39th Institute was held at Peabody Town Hall, 
Jan. 26, 1886, with a large attendance. The subject of 
the forenoon, "The Comparative Merits of General and 
Special Farming," was ably presented by Rev. O. S. But- 
ler of Georgetown, and was discussed by Messrs. Tapley 
and Janvrin of Revere, Ware of Marblehead, King of Pea- 
body, Chesley of Salisbury, Hon. Warren Brown of 
Hampton Falls, N. H., Hill of Amesbury, and Marsh of 
Peabody. The afternoon essay, "Forestry and Pasture," 
by Hon. J. J. H. Gregory of Marblehead, was deeply in- 
teresting, and contained valuable facts which the after 
discussion of the subject developed. 

The 40th Institute was held in the Town Hall, Ipswich, 
Feb. 12, 1886. Mr. Bartlett, the essayist for the fore- 
noon, being absent on account of stormy weather, the af- 
ternoon subject was taken up, a very instructive paper, 
mostly from experience, on the question, "Is Raising 
Stock and Fattening Beef Practical for Essex County ? " 
being presented by Charles J. Peabody of Topslield, fol- 
lowed by instructive discussion. During the noon recess 
a large party visited the Ipswich Creamery, where butter 
making had been commenced on the 18th of January pre- 
vious, and at the time of the meeting was in successful 



147 

operation with a capacity of one hundred pounds per day. 
For the afternoon discussion, James P. King of Peabody 
was called upon to give his experience with Fertilizers, 
which he did, greatly to the credit of "commercial fertili- 
zers." His talk on the subject brought out the experiences 
of others, which with discussions made a very interesting 
meeting. 

The 41st Institute was held in Memorial Hall, Brad- 
ford, Feb. 26, 1886, on a day in contrast of the preceding 
Institute at Ipswich, where the rain poured down, while 
at Bradford a violent and heavy snowstorm greeted us, 
and obliged quite a number to spend the night in George- 
town on our way home, on account of non-arrival of snow- 
bound train, to make connection. The meeting, however, 
was a very interesting one, and well attended, considering 
the storm. "The Influence of Agriculture on Climate" 
was the subject of the forenoon, opened by Michael W. 
Bartlett of West Newbury, with the reading of a paper of 
more than usual originality and merit, and no one who 
listened to it could help gaining valuable information, or 
new subjects of thought. Col. John E. Russell, who was 
to speak in the afternoon on "The Horse in His Relation 
to Agriculture," was prevented by the storm from being 
present. Dr. William Cogswell of Bradford, a well-known 
lover of the horse, was called upon, and filled with credit 
the Colonel's place, and his talk, with the interesting dis- 
cussion which ensued, gave information of benefit to every 
horse owner, including in its range the strong and weak 
points of the horse's nature, physical, intellectual and 
moral ; also the raising, breaking or controlling, and the 
care and feed of colts and horses. 

The 42d Institute was held March 16, 1886, in Grand 
Army Hall, Beverly, and was opened by Baxter P. Pike 
of Topsfield, on the question, "Does Agriculture Offer the 



148 

Same Inducements to Young Men as Other Pursuits?" 
whose handling of the subject brought out such able dis- 
cussion that an audience of some three hundred were 
deeply interested until its close at the dinner hour. In 
the afternoon, the subject of "The Potato and its Cul- 
ture," was opened by Edmund Hersey of Hingham, who 
gave his "lecture on the potato," which was full of inter- 
esting facts and valuable information based on the results 
of experiments made by him for a series of years in the 
growing of this vegetable. In response to questions, Mr. 
Hersey and Mr. Gregory added to the information on the 
subject. 

In response to a communication from the Houghton 
Horticultural Society of Lynn, asking the aid of the Soci- 
ety in securing the appointment of an Arbor Day, Mr. 
Gregory offered the following resolution, which was 
adopted : 

Resolved, That it is the belief of the members of the 
Essex Agricultural Society that it would be for the inter- 
est of the State and greatly promote the planting of shade 
trees along the highways and byways of Massachusetts to 
have the first of May, or any other better day, appointed 
by His Excellency Governor Robinson, as Arbor Day. 

The 43d Institute was held March 30th, 1886, at Lyce- 
um Hall, Salem. The forenoon subject, "The Horse in 
Agriculture," was opened by Col. John E. Russell, Secre- 
tary of the State Board of Agriculture, in his usual enthu- 
siastic and spicy way of taking up a subject in which he is 
interested, and in replying to the pertinent inquiries which 
he invokes from his audience. The discussion which fol- 
lowed showed conclusively that there was a difference of 
opinion among the speakers in regard to the management, 
care and feed of horses, some of the methods giving prac- 
tical and useful information. Mrs. E. V. Gage of Brad- 
ford was expected in the afternoon, to give her views on 



149 

"Farm and Peasant Life, as seen in short tour in Austria 
and Germany," but her non-appearance caused the subject 
to be changed to "Flowers," on which Prof. John Robinson 
of Salem and Mrs. Maria II. Bray of West Gloucester 
opened the meeting and were followed by others inter- 
ested in Horticulture, which made the afternoon meeting 
a pleasant and profitable one. 

The 44th Institute was held April 21, 1886, on the 
farm of Hon. George B. Loring of Salem, "for the exhi- 
bition and trial of implements used in the cultivation of 
crops." Exhibitors of ploughs could use their own team 
and driver if they chose and plough as they pleased, but 
not less than seven inches deep ; teams being provided on 
the grounds for those who desired them. It was a perfect 
day, and brought together several hundred from all parts 
of the county. The judges of the merits of the machines 
were each man for himself to form his own opinion of 
which excelled. The display of implements was quite 
large, J. L. Colcord of West Peabody and Whitcomb & 
Carter of Beverly being the largest contributors, others 
being Parker & Wood of Boston, George G. Creamer of 
Hamilton, C. W. Mann of Methuen, E. E. Lummus of 
Beverly (or Boston), C. L. Huse of Newburyport, C. H. 
Thompson & Co. of Boston, Joseph Breck & Son of Bos- 
ton and J. R. Whittemore of Chicopee Falls, and com- 
prised implements of the best kinds for every purpose 
used in the cultivation of crops. 

Many of those present improved the opportunity to ex- 
amine the horses and cattle in the well-ordered barns of 
Dr. Loring. 

Thus ended a season of successful Farmers' Institutes, 
notwithstanding the inclement weather experienced at sev- 
eral of them. We were fortunate in nearly all places in hav- 
ing good dinners at the usual price served to us by ladies 



150 

of charitable organizations, thus being enabled to help 
them, as well as to sit down together at the social board 
near the places of meeting, and with the ladies' assistance 
help ourselves to abundance of well prepared food. 

David W. Low, Secretary. 



POULTRY ON THE FARM. 

ESSAY, BY O. S. BUTLER, OF GEORGETOWN. 

That poultry raising, is naturally an important depart- 
ment of agricultural industry, no one can doubt ; notwith- 
standing very many persons are engaged in poultry raising 
who have no interest in common with farmers or farming, 
still it remains a fact that no farm is quite complete with- 
out its well-arranged poultry yards. But this industry is 
subject to the same fluctuations as any and all other busi- 
ness, sometimes reaching the highest standard of volume 
and profit, and then dropping down to the lowest point of 
remunerative profit, because the business is overdone and 
poultry and eggs become a drug in the market. But these 
fluctuations are felt more by the fancy breeder or special- 
ist than by the ordinary farmer who raises about the same 
number of chickens every year, and supplies his customers 
with new-laid eggs and clean, toothsome poultry at about 
the same price from year to year. 

The facts and opinions that follow in this discussion are 
the result of many years of experience, and of very close 
and careful observation made during the last year, by vis- 
iting the large poultry yards of this and other states, and 
by conversing with their proprietors in a friendly way. 

The first question that will naturally arise in the minds 
of persons contemplating the poultry business as a pro- 



151 

spective industry will be, "What kind of fowls shall we 
raise?" Well, my friends, that depends upon what you 
intend to do, and how much you know about the business, 
and how much money you wish to invest. If you wish to 
go into the breeding of fancy stock, and get your profits 
from the sale of birds straight bred and properly mated, 
with the requisite number of points in feather and form, 
or if you wish to dispose of your eggs for hatching pur- 
poses, then I would say to you, take any of the standard 
varieties, it makes no difference which, build your houses 
and yards on the most approved plan, without regard to 
cost, put into your buildings all the modern appliances 
that have been thoroughly tested for the artificial raising 
of poultry, such as incubators and brooders, with the 
means for heating your buildings and the cooking of food, 
and if you do not understand the business very thoroughly 
yourself, then employ some one that does, to assist you in 
starting your operations, then advertise your business very 
extensively in several of the poultry journals of the coun- 
try, (advertising is a trade by itself), then attend all the 
poultry shows within your reach, exhibit your birds to the 
best advantage, take the first premiums if you can, and 
you will make money if you have pluck and patience. 

What will it cost to commence in this way? Well, if 
you do not wish to raise more than one thousand chickens 
a year, and have your land, it will not cost more than one 
thousand dollars, that is, if you are not extravagant in 
your outlay, but if you get the best of everything, and hire 
the most of your work done, then you can double the 
amount before you will begin to realize anything from the 
sale of eggs or birds. 

But if you are a farmer or mechanic, and wish to raise 
and keep from twenty to one hundred fowls, deriving your 
profit from the sale or use of eggs and poultry at the or- 



152 

dinary price, after supplying your own table with the best 
you have, then I should say, select any one of the ap- 
proved breeds of Asiatic fowls, and in most instances, a 
cross between these and the Plymouth Rock or Leghorn 
will improve them both. I have found the best results by 
crossing the Light Brahma with the Plymouth Rock, real- 
izing more pounds of eggs and poultry, and of a better 
quality, than from any other breeds. These fowls are more 
easily housed and yarded, are good growers, and usually 
are very hardy and healthy. 

We should advise you to raise your chickens in the nat- 
ural way. While the modern incubator and brooder is a 
success in the hands of an expert who has plenty of time 
and a natural taste for that business, the practical farmer 
or the working mechanic has no business with them unless 
he wishes to experiment with them at great cost of time 
and temper, to say nothing of money. 

The best time to hatch your chickens is in March or 
April. It is a great mistake to suppose that chickens 
leaving the egg in June or July will do better than earlier 
in the season. We have found that chickens hatched in 
March or April are more hardy and free from vermin than 
those that come later in the season, and besides this, your 
chickens will mature earlier in the season, realizing a good 
price for all the male birds you may wish to dispose of, 
leaving your pullets all ready to drop their first egg in 
September, when by judicious feeding, you can keep them 
laying until New Year's day, covering just the time when 
eggs bring the highest price. Then they will commence 
laying again about the middle of February to give you 
eggs for hatching. 

The best feed for poultry is grain of all kinds, supple- 
mented by meat scraps, ground bone and sea shells. Fish 
waste is excellent for a change. You should not permit 



153 

your fowls to devour all the filthy oftal that is thrown 
from your kitchen. They will eat it if they can get it. 
But good clean food means good clean eggs and poultry 
for your table or the market. 

The most important time to give special attention to the 
feeding of your poultry is when they are chickens. I 
have seen many a brood of fine fowls, well kept and well 
fed, but giving no eggs in return, for the simple reason 
that their diet was entirely neglected when they were 
chickens. If you would have your fowls commence drop- 
ping their eggs when they are six months old, and con- 
tinue through the year with short intervals of rest while 
moulting, then you must commence to feed them on egg- 
producing food when they are very young, so that when 
they are six months old, their whole body will be "perme- 
ated with egg-producing properties, and then they cannot 
help laying a bountiful supply of rich, clean eggs. Our 
rule is, not to give our chickens any food at all till they 
are two days old. Then we give them a small feed of 
boiled eggs cut fine, or bread crumbs, if convenient. 
Soaked crackers are good. We follow this by giving them 
a feed of dough made of oat and corn meal mixed. We 
use no other meal on our premises but oats and corn ground 
together in equal parts. We have used it for hogs, horses 
and hens for more than thirty years, and consider it the 
best. When our chickens are from four to five weeks old, 
we begin to give them whole grain, or broken wheat and 
oats. Our regular bill of fare is as follows : In the 
morning, a warm mash of meal and cooked vegetables ; 
at noon, a good generous feed of oats ; and at night, give 
them all the whole corn they will eat. We like to have 
them go to their roosts with a full stomach. One of the 
most important articles of diet for poultry is vegetables. 
They need, and will devour a very large amount of vege- 



154 

tables at any and all seasons of the year, and at all stages 
of their growth. When your chickens are two weeks old, 
they will relish a little green grass, or potatoes chopped 
tine. Every farmer should cut and stow away a sufficient 
amount of vegetables in the fall, for winter use. Cab- 
bages, potatoes and turnips are excellent. And that there 
be no waste, we keep an old tray and knife, and chop our 
green food fine. The parings from fruit and vegetables, 
even cabbage stumps, are relished by them on a cold win- 
ter day. When your supply of vege tables is all exhausted, 
then you can fall back on your haymow. One hundred 
fowls will eat one-half ton of clover hay in five months' 
time, and it will do them good. The best way to prepare 
it for use is to take your hay (second crop is best) and 
run it through the hay-cutter, and then put it into a box 
or firkin, then sprinkle it over with hot water, cover the 
vessel tightly, and in two hours' time take on° the cover 
and see how quickly they will devour it. They will leavo 
all other food for this. Every mechanic should cut the 
fine, short grass that grows around the house or yard, 
cure it, and store it away for winter use, if he would 
please the inhabitants of the poultry house, and it would 
improve the appearance of his dooryard as well as furnish 
toothsome food for his fowls. 

The next question in order of special interest to the 
poultry grower is as to what kind of a house does he need. 
Well, that depends upon what you want to do. If you 
want to keep only a few fowls for your own use and plea- 
sure, then you will spend as much for beauty and orna- 
ment as you do for real use, only remembering that twelve 
fowls require about a twelve foot square room. The 
cheapest and most convenient poultry house that we have 
ever seen was built of 3x4 joist for a frame and covered 
with matched boards. The roof and walls were covered 



155 

with tarred paper, and when dressed with a coat of coal 
tar, was rendered entirely impervious to the atmosphere 
or storm, and will last for many years. They were built 
about ten feet wide, shed roof, the front posts about seven 
feet high, the back posts about live feet high, the front 
facing the south, and lighted with one common size win- 
dow about every twelve feet. Most of our modern poul- 
try houses have too much glass, giving too much heat at 
midday and too much cold at midnight. The extremes 
are too great even with the above described windows. 
They should be protected by tightly fitting shutters on 
cold winter's nights. 

The most important matter in connection with your 
poultry house is ventilation. No animal on your farm 
needs so frequent a change of air as your poultry. Some 
persons advocate taking the impure air from the bottom 
and others from the top of the house. We do not think 
it makes much difference which method you adopt, if you 
have your arrangement under perfect control and easily 
regulated. Some poultrymen prefer a ground floor, oth- 
ers prefer a board floor, and others still prefer a cemented 
floor. For ourselves, we prefer a tight board floor for 
our house, with a chance for the chickens to get at the 
ground through a run into the yard, if they desire to. 
The advantages of the tight board floor are, it can be kept 
clean and dry. Dampness is death to young chicks. You 
can cover it with sand or other absorbents, as you wish. 
Your chickens are entirely protected from rats, skunks or 
weasels. The cemented floor has these advantages, but it 
costs three times as much as the board floor. Such a 
house as I have described will cost about one dollar and 
fifty cents per running foot. If you can perform the work 
yourself, you can reduce the cost one-third. We have 
seen these houses built nearly two hundred feet long, and 



156 

divided into separate apartments of about twenty feet in 
length by wire netting. If you have an old building that 
you wish to convert into a poultry house, you had better 
fumigate it well by burning saltpetre and sulphur, and 
then ceil up the inside tightly with matched boards, giv- 
ing a smooth surface for your paint or whitewash. 

The one great enemy to your chickens, young or old, is 
vermin. Of these there are two kinds. It is as natural 
for poultry to generate or breed vermin as it is for .them 
to eat, and many a fine brood of fowls is rendered entirely 
useless by these pests of the hen-house. What are the 
remedies or disinfectants? Well, we prepare our nests 
for setters or layers as follows : We put a little salt hay 
into the box after saturating it well with kerosene oil, 
then we fill the boxes as full as is necessary with pine saw- 
dust or shavings. These are excellent disinfectants and 
absorbents as well. Then we occasionally sprinkle the 
boxes with dry sulphur or carbolic acid. We use a great 
deal of carbolic acid about our nests and roosts. We give 
our fowls the means to take a dust bath in coal ashes or 
road dust, which is equally as good, and then, as often as 
twice a year, we fumigate our houses by burning sulphur 
and saltpetre in them with the doors and windows closed 
tightly. No vermin can live one minute in that sulphur- 
ous odor. 

The next question that will arise in the minds of those 
contemplating this business prospectively is, will it pay? 
after doing all this, will it pay? We think it will ; taking 
one year with another, we think it will pay you better 
than any other industry connected with farming, with the 
same amount of capital invested. If any man tells you he 
can make a profit of four or five dollars per year on every 
hen, and forty dollars apiece on every duck, you may 
make up your mind that he has a secret that the ordinary 



157 

farmer does not possess. But we feel very confident, 
after keeping an account with our poultry yards for some 
time, that when grain is worth sixty cents a bushel, you 
can make poultry for about seven or eight cents a pound, 
and eggs for about ten cents per dozen, giving you from 
one dollar and fifty cents to two dollars profit on every 
fowl, if you manage shrewdly and economically. In this 
calculation we reckon the manure as compensation for 
your labor. 

Is it profitable to raise ducks ? Of this you must be 
your own judge. All that we have said in regard to 
chickens will hold true in regard to ducks. They need 
the same treatment and attention as chickens. They need 
a little more feed. They will eat more. But they do 
not need any more water than chickens. They will do 
better on close confinement than chickens. If you have a 
good market, try the ducks. The Pekiu duck is our fa- 
vorite. 

How about turkeys? Well, I should not touch them 
until they are well cooked and on the table. There is no 
profit in raising turkeys in Essex county as a business, and 
they are too costly an ornament for the ordinary farmer. 



THE KITCHEN GARDEN. 

ESSAY, BY M. B. FAXON, OF SAUGUS. 

It seems as if enough had already been said and written 
urging every farmer to have a kitchen garden separate 
from his crops which are grown for sale ; but observation 
will show that not one farmer in ten does have a garden 
that is entitled to be called such in every sense of the 
word. It is my intention in this essay to try and explain 



158 

what can be raised in a garden of suitable size to supply a 
family of ten persons, and what such a garden will cost. 

A garden containing one acre, and even less space, will 
amply supply ten persons with all the luxuries of the sea- 
son, and as most farmers can spare that amount of land as 
well as not, we will take one acre as a basis. 

In order to cultivate vegetable products in a satisfac- 
tory way, proper attention must be given to the prepara- 
tion of the soil. Having selected the location, the first 
step is to see that the ground is properly drained, so that 
all surplus and stagnant water which may accumulate can 
pass freely away. After this has been effected, the ground 
should be trenched as deep as the nature of the soil will 
admit, and thoroughly enriched with plenty of good ma- 
nure. 

Our acre is now ready to plant, and we will say that 
it is April 1st. 

Suppose the piece to be oblong in shape, say one hun- 
dred feet wide by four hundred and thirty-six feet long ; 
which divided into rows will give one hundred and nine 
rows, each row one foot wide, (that is, the surface upon 
which the seeds or plants will be placed), and one hun- 
dred feet long, with three feet between each row, ample 
space for horse cultivation. 

I will now mention the varieties of vegetables suitable 
for the kitchen garden, Avith short hints for their culture ; 
leaving the number of rows planted of each sort, date of 
planting and ripening, yield, etc., for a concise table at 
the end of the essay. 

Peas. 

The pea comes earliest to maturity in light, rich soil. 
For general crops, a deep loam or a soil strongly inclining 
to clay is the best ; for early crops, mild manure, such as 
leaf-mould, should be employed. Plant as early as the 



159 

weather will permit, in well-prepared soil, and cover two 
or three inches deep ; if the surface of the ground should 
become "crusty," a good raking just as they break ground 
will be very beneficial. For a continuous supply during 
the season, make plantings from early in April until the 
last of June ; then sowings should be discontinued until 
the middle of August, when an extra early sort (Bliss's 
American Wonder is good for this purpose) will some- 
times produce a good crop. For first early, Bliss's Amer- 
ican Wonder and Early Daniel O'Rourke will be found 
both prolific and of good quality ; for general crop, Mc- 
Lean's Advancer, Yorkshire Hero and Champion of Eng- 
land still lead. One quart of peas will plant one hundred 
feet of drill. 

Beans. 

Under this head I shall describe two varieties, Dwarf 
or Bush and Pole or Running. 

Dwarf or Bush Beans, although more hardy than Pole 
Beans, should not be planted before settled mild weather. 
They do best in warm, light soil, but will flourish in al- 
most any soil or situation, unless it be shaded or very 
wet. Plant in drills three to three and one-half feet apart, 
and, for thickness in the row, one quart will plant about 
one hundred feet of drill ; cover two inches deep. Never 
disturb the vines when moist, or the pods will become 
rusty. For succession, plant from early in May until the 
last of August. Golden Wax, Dwarf Horticultural and 
Early Long Yellow Six Weeks are the cream of the dwarf 
varieties for snap beans ; Dwarf Horticultural is also an 
excellent shell bean. 

Pole or Running Beans, as a class, are less hardy than 
the Dwarfs, and are not usually planted so early in the 
season. From the 20th of May until the 1st of June is 
about the right time. The hills should be three or three 



160 

and one-half feet apart each way ; three good plants in a 
hill are enough, as these beans need plenty of light and 
air to do well ; cover two inches deep. The poles should 
be firmly set before the beans are planted, and the earth 
slightly raised around them. The maturity of some of the 
later sorts will be hastened by nipping off the runners 
when they have reached four or live feet in height. One 
quart will plant about one hundred and fifty hills. Limas 
and Seivas, being very tender, should not be planted be- 
fore the ground is warm and mellow, say about June 1st. 
Large White Lima, Seiva or Small Lima and Pole Horti- 
cultural are the best shell beans, while Indian Chief Pole 
is an excellent snap bean. 

/Sweet Corn. 

Corn requires a good soil and a warm situation. Com- 
mence for first early by planting the early varieties about 
May 1st ; and if a continuous supply is wanted all sum- 
mer, make plantings about two weeks apart from May 1st 
until the last of July, first planting early varieties, then 
later ones. Plant in rows three feet apart, and make the 
hills about the same distance apart in the rows. Five 
kernels in the hill are plenty. Cover about one inch deep 
for early, and a little deeper for late ; thin to three plants 
in a hill. The following varieties are first-class in every 
respect : early varieties, Extra Early Marblehead, Early 
Minnesota and Early Crosby ; for general crop, Potter's 
Excelsior, Burr's Mammoth and StowelPs Evergreen. 
One quart will plant about one hundred and fifty hills. 

Beets. 

The soil best suited to the beet is a deep, light and rich 
sandy loam. For early beets, the seed should be sown 
about the middle of April, or as soon as the ground is in 
good working condition, in drills twelve to fourteen inches 



161 

apart, and thinned to ten inches apart in the drills. For 
winter crops, the 1st of July is about the right time to 
plant, perhaps a little earlier ; have the drills the same 
distance apart as for early beets, but do not thin to 
more than four or six inches apart in the drills, as, the 
weather being warmer, they will grow as well at this sea- 
son as early ones grow in April thinned to ten inches apart. 
Cover the seed one inch deep. Early Bastian and Dew- 
ing's Early Turnip are the standards for early and late 
crops. Beet tops are very popular as greens, being very 
tender, and when cooked are preferred by many to spin- 
ach or dandelion. One ounce will sow fifty feet of drill. 

Cabbage. 

All of the varieties are propagated from seed sown an- 
nually. For early use, sow about February 15th, in the 
hot-bed, green-house, or in a box in a sunny window, cov- 
ering the seed about one-half of an inch deep ; the plants 
will be ready to set in the open ground about April 20th, 
before which time they should be transplanted, in order to 
make them stocky. Cabbages grow best in a rich, loamy 
soil, which should be prepared by very heavy manuring 
(as high as twenty cords per acre being used with profita- 
ble results by market gardeners) ; lap two furrows togeth- 
er about three and one-half feet apart, and beat them 
down nearly level with the fork. Set the plants twenty- 
two to twenty-four inches apart, according to the quality 
of the land. It takes about six thousand plants to set an 
acre. A handful of wood ashes thrown into the forming 
heads will not only keep off the cabbage fly, but will also 
assist the growth of the plants to a considerable extent. 
For late crops, sow from the 1st to the 20th of June in 
the field, or in beds so as to transplant. If planting the 
seed in hills, thin to the same distance as for early ; if 



162 

transplanting the plants from the seed-bed into the field, 
set the same distance (many set thicker, but just as much 
cabbage can be raised from the same piece of land by rais- 
ins: large heads as small ones, with less labor of cultiva- 
tion). Late cabbages do not require as strong land as 
early ones. Henderson's Early Summer, Fottler's Im- 
proved Brunswick and Stone Mason Drumhead are all 
good varieties. 

Carrots. 

A good, light and well-enriched sandy loam which is 
very finely pulverized will grow carrots to perfection. 
For early crops, cover one-half of an inch deep, and 
thin to six inches apart in the rows ; for late, cover three- 
fourths of an inch, and thin to four inches. A good strain 
of Dan vers Half-Long Carrot is best for general use. 
( Jarrots should be planted about May 1st. 

Cucumbers. 

Cucumbers in the open ground should be planted about 
June 1st, in hills six feet apart, and thinned to three 
plants in a hill. Manure used should be old and fine ; or 
still better, plant on land from which a crop has been 
taken which was heavily manured for that crop. Plenty 
of water is the most important point. A sprinkling of dry 
plaster will keep off the striped bug. Improved White 
Spine and Long Green Prickly for the table, and Boston 
Pickling for pickles, are leading kinds. 

Lettuce. 

'Lettuce is well known as furnishing, among its varieties, 
the best vegetable of the salad kind grown in the open 
garden ; it is also grown largely under glass, hundreds of 
acres being devoted to growing this crop in this country 
alone. It requires a rich, moist soil, and, to be crisp and 



163 

tender, needs to be grown in cool weather. Plant in rows, 
and cover the seeds one-fourth of an inch deep, and thin 
out the plants to twelve inches apart. If plants are used, 
set them twelve inches apart. Lettuce plants are grown 
about the same as cabbage plants, a full description of 
which was given in the first part of this essay. For New 
England, the Black Seeded Tennisball for solid heads and 
the Boston Fine Curled for a curled lettuce, are both very 
fine. 

Onion Sets. 

Sets are small onions which produce early plants for 
salad or large bulbs for table use* much earlier than they 
could be grown from seed. They should be set out about 
April 20th and covered two inches deep. When the tops 
have died (about the middle of July), the sets should be 
gathered and spread thinly, in a dry, cool place. I es- 
pecially recommend them for small gardens, and those 
wishing a few early onions. There are White, Yellow and 
Red Onion Sets, but the White are by far the best, being 
of good quality and mild flavor. 

Parsnips. 

Sow as early in the spring as the weather will permit, 
iu rows, covering the seed one-half of an inch deep ; when 
well up, thin out to five or six inches apart in the rows. 
Parsnips are improved by frost ; and it is a usual custom 
to take up in the fall a certain quantity for winter use, 
leaving the rest in the ground until spring, to be dug as 
required. Aside from the value of the parsnip as a table 
vegetable, it is one of the best roots for cultivation for 
farm purposes, furnishing a very nourishing food, partic- 
ularly adapted to and relished by dairy stock. The Long 
Smooth White is the favorite for general use ; roots long 
and smooth, very productive, and an excellent keeper. 



164 



Potatoes. 

The potato can be grown with varying success on soils 
of all kinds and in all conditions of fertility. Pasture 
lands or new land with the turf freshly turned, produce 
the most abundant as well the most certain crops. On 
heavy soils, and land that has been long under cultivation, 
it is apt to be diseased and of inferior flavor. Plant in 
rows three feet apart, so as to cultivate with horse, and 
drop the seed ten or twelve inches apart in the rows ; cut 
to two eyes, with a good amount of the potato around 
same, so that the young plants may have plenty of nour- 
ishment until the roots get well established. Phosphate 
w r ill grow a good crop of smooth, fine-flavored tubers, 
when barn-yard manure would cause them to become dis- 
eased. Cultivation should commence as soon as the young 
plants are fairly above the surface of the ground, and con- 
tinue until the appearance of the blossoms, when no fur- 
ther attention will be required till harvesting time. At 
each successive hoeing, gather the earth about the plants, 
adding a little each time, for support, and also to develop 
the side shoots. When the bugs arrive, use Paris green ; 
one or two applications will destroy them. I consider the 
following varieties the best for general cultivation, and in 
the order named: Early Beauty of Hebron, Early Rose, 
Clark's No. 1 and Pearl of Savoy. 

Radish. 

The radish will thrive best in rather light soil, and to 
be crisp and tender, needs to be grown quickly. For 
early spring use, sow in hot-beds about January, and ev- 
ery ten days or so make fresh sowings. For summer use, 
sow in drills in the open ground as early as possible (the 
ground needs to be pretty dry and warm), and thin to two 
or three inches apart ; if a continuous supply is wanted 



165 

through the season, make sowings as above every ten clays 
or two weeks. The French Breakfast and Early Long 
Scarlet are both excellent sorts. 

Squash. 

The squash is a tender annual, and should not be planted 
until all danger from frost is passed, and the ground is 
warm and settled ; as aside from the tender nature of the 
plant, the seed is liable to rot in damp, cool weather. 
The hills should be nine feet apart each way, and thor- 
oughly manured. Slightly elevate them, and on this 
place seven or eight seeds, so as to have plenty for the 
bugs. The bush varieties, such as Summer Crookneck, 
AVhite Bush Scollop, etc., may be planted a little nearer 
together. Press the seeds down tirmly before covering, 
and cover early planted ones one inch deep, and late, one 
and one-half inches. Ground plaster is about as good an 
article as has yet been found for keeping off the bug. 
Plant Early Summer Crookneck and White Bush Scollop 
for summer use ; Boston Marrow for fall ; and Hubbard, 
Essex Hybrid and American Turban for winter. 

Tomato. 

Tomato plants should be set out about June 1st, in rich 
soil, the plants being set five feet apart in the rows. Their 
cultivation is very simple ; make them very rich and keep 
them free from weeds seems to be about all that is re- 
quired. Just before frost, take up the vines, and place 
them in the cellar with plenty of earth around the roots, 
and what tomatoes have not been picked (that are fully 
grown) will ripen. The favorite varieties are Acme, Liv- 
ingston's Perfection, Cardinal and Emery ; I should have 
said the above four varieties are favorites, as there are so 
many good tomatoes that it is very difficult to make a se- 
lection. 



166 

Turnip. 

The turnip is propagated from seed, and should be 
planted where the plants are to remain, as they do not suc- 
ceed well when transplanted. Sow for early crops as soon 
as the ground can be made ready in the spring, in good, 
rich soil, in rows three feet apart, and thin out according 
to the variety. The principal trouble in planting turnips is 
that of getting them so thick that it makes a great deal of 
labor in trimming. The Swede turnips are planted later, 
about June 1st ; while the Purple Top varieties may be 
planted either early or late, and as late as August 15th, a 
f>-ood crop of them may be secured. The Sweet German 
turnip is an excellent sort for winter, and should be 
planted about June 20th to July 1st for the best results. 
This turnip is also called the Cape turnip, and is raised 
extensively on Cape Cod, Mass. 

Farm Account. 

The following table gives an exact account of my garden 
of one acre ; showing dates of planting and harvesting, 
cost of production, etc. It will be remembered that we 
divided this acre into one hundred and nine rows, each 
row one hundred feet long : 



167 



O ^j 

^, CO 

ri CO 

s = 

O ^3 
••a} co 


1 quart. 

1 quart. 

2 quarts. 
1 pint. 

1 pint. 
1 ounce. 
1-2 pound. 
1-2 pint. 
5 bushels. 
400 plants. 
1 quart. 
1 quart. 
1 ounce. 


1 pint. 
1 pint. 
1 pint. 
1 pint. 

1 pint. 

2 doz. plants 
1 ounce. 

1-4 pound. 
14 pound. 
1 quart. 


2 

o 
H 


2 1-2 bu. pods. 
2 bu. pods. 
2 bu. onions. 

1 1-2 bu. pods. 

2 bu. pods. 

2 1-2 bushels. 
28 bushels. 
145 ears. 

92 bushels. 
200 good heads. 
1 1-2 bu. pods. 

3 bu. pods. 
68 squashes. 


252 ears. 
210 " 
275 " 
250 " 
280 " 

7 bu. ripe, 3 bu. green 
300 cucumbers. 

8 1-2 bushels. 
17 bushels. 

1 1-2 bu. pods. 


Finished 

H'rvest- 

ing. 


>0-*OC.OOOiO»Oi— I l^ cm O 
CM (Nth MCOri rt(N CO 

<*>!>*•!>. ...... 

-I -5 x „ x ^ ^ ^ w> ^ ^ 


-fl t— ICDr 103-^ICMOOlO 

. •+-= . T- 3 . -1-2 "t- 3 4-S -I- 3 

^ CO ^CO W CO 


Began 

H'rvest- 

ing. 


1"-C^>05CO'0»COt-hOOOt-hOD 

N(Nr- 1 i— 1 t— I -H .— 1 !N H CO CM rt 


(M CM <M <M CM 


=4-. bB 

o a 

■p c 


i— ICMCM H (N (N (N (MCN 


OiT-HT— (t— It— It— llMCMOO 

(M CO CO CO CO CO i — I t— ■ 

." S^- „ 

------ 3 3 - - 


No. rows 
planted, 

each 
variety. 


T— It— ICMt— It— IT— l©T— (©iOt— It— It— 1 
T— 1 ID 


CMCMCMCM(MCMt—I^iOt-i 


W 

s . 

^ H 

W Pi 

E 

< 


Pea, Early Daniel O'Rourke, 
Pea, Bliss' American Wonder, 
Onion Sets, White, 
Pea, Abundance, 
Pea, Everbearing, 
Carrot, Danvers, 
Parsnip, Long White, 
Sweet Corn, Early Cory, 
Potato, Early Beaut}' of Hebron 
Cabbage, Stone Mason, 
Pea, Stratagem, 
Bean, Dwarf Golden Wax, 
Squash, Summer Crookneck 
Sweet Corn, Moore's Concord, 
" Burr's Mammoth, 
" Stowell's Evergreen, 
" Black Mexican, 
" Early Minnesota, 
Tomato, Emery, 
Cucumber, White Spine, 
Beet, Dewing's Turnip Blood, 
Turnip, Purple Top, 
Pea, Bliss' American Wonder, 



168 





Summary. 




Total cost 


of seeds and plants, 


$10.93 


« « 


manures, 


30.00 


tt ft 


planting, 


20.00 


ft ft 


summer cultivation, 


15.00 


tt tt 


harvesting, 


10.00 


Interest and taxes, 


6.00 



$91.93 

You will notice that there is no winter squash in the 
list, but families that wish for it can substitute winter 
squash for potatoes or parsnips; in other words, change 
the list to meet your own wants. 

The above quantities of vegetables will supply a family 
of ten persons one year. Now if $91.93 will supply ten 
persons with vegetables for one year, then one-tenth of 
$91.93 must supply one person one year; and it seems to 
me that $9.19 for vegetables for one person one year is 
cheap enough. 



STATEMENT IN REGARD TO SHEEP 
HUSBANDRY IN ESSEX COUNTY. 

To the President of the Essex Agricultural Society : 

You will find enclosed my Sheep Report for 1886. 
You are at liberty to use it in any way you see fit. 

These sheep were bought at the Watertown market and 
were culled from flocks from Maine, Canada and Ver- 
mont. Some of them were old and diseased, in conse- 
quence I lost 30 head by disease, and 12 were killed by 
dogs. The increase from the 400 was about 500. I have 
no doubt that a flock of fine young ewes would pay a 
profit of $4 per head. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

W. W. Foster. 



169 



SHEEP ACCOUNT. 



Dr. 400 sheep, bought in January, 1886, at a 



Cr. 



cost of 


$1700.00 


50 tons meadow hay, at $10 per 


ton, 500.00 


100 bushels corn, at 60 cts. per 


bushel, 60.00 


100 bushels oats, at 40 cts. per 


bushel, 40. 0C 


Care of sheep, one man one y( 


jar, at $30 


per month, 


360.00 


Pasturage, 


100.00 


Shearing, 


40.00 


Total, 


$2800.00 


350 lambs, average price $4, 


$1400.00 


200 sheep, " $4, 


800.00 


2200 lbs. wool, at 21 cts., 


462.00 


40 pelts, at $1, 


40.00 


50 cords manure, at $5, 


250.00 


300 sheep and lambs on hand, 


1200.00 



Total, 
Peirce Farm, Topsfield, Jan. 1, 1887. 



$4152.00 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON ESSAYS, 
REPORTS AND STATEMENTS. 

The Committee designated to award premiums for Es- 
says, Reports and Statements have taken pleasure in the 
performance of their duties, because the papers submitted 
to them this year have seemed to them to be specially 
meritorious, and to fill the conditions imposed by the 
Society. Papers upon agricultural topics contain neces- 
sarily more or less matter which is not new, and as they 



170 

are written usually by persons who are not professional au- 
thors, they are not always "presented in a form worthy of 
publication," as required by the rules. But the Committee 
had little chance for criticism in this respect the present 
year. They are gratified to be able to make this state- 
ment, because they believe that good essays and good re- 
ports are the most attractive features of the "Transac- 
tions." They hope to receive more essays another year, 
as they are confident that many members of the Society 
could furnish, from their large experience and from their 
thought, many facts and suggestions which would enrich 
the Society's annual publication. 

The Committee have awarded the first premium of $15 
to O. S. Butler, of Georgetown, for an essay entitled 
"Poultry on the Farm." This is an excellent paper, full 
of practical matter, and entertaining suggestions which 
seem to be pertinent and useful. The subject is a good 
one, and is receiving more and more attention each year. 

The second premium of $10 has been given to M. B. 
Faxon, of Saugus, whose essay on "The Kitchen Garden" 
will be read with interest. The ideal garden which he 
lays out is, as we understand, substantially a description 
of the author's own garden in Saugus. 

In the matter of reports, the Committee's attention was 
given to an excellent report on "Ornamental Trees," by 
Francis H. Appleton, of Peabody, and to him they award- 
ed the first premium of $10. To some very utilitarian 
minds this subject may seem fanciful, and they may con- 
sider that those who assign it a place of little or no im- 
portance are not mistaken. But those who think that 
pleasant surroundings, agreeable prospects and grateful 
shades have a value as real and as measurable as anything 
else, will agree with the Committee in placing it in the 
front rank of topics for discussion. 



171 

Another very excellent report was submitted to the 
Committee, on "Root Crops," written by B. F. Hunting- 
ton. If there could be two best reports, we might rank 
this with the other. The author has evidently expended 
much time and money in visiting the farms of Essex 
county, and he brings in good accounts of their condition 
and what has been done thereon during the past year. 
All practical cultivators will peruse this report with avid- 
ity, and will derive much information and many sugges- 
tions therefrom. Mr. Huntington has been awarded the 
second premium of $8. 

The third award of $6 has been made to Joseph How, 
of Methuen, for a report on "New Apples and the Codlin 
Moth." Both of these subjects are important to farmers 
and the public, and perhaps no one has given more atten- 
tion to them for many years than Mr. How. The results 
of his observations and studies are given in this report, 
which the Committee are pleased to present to the mem- 
bers of the Society. 

The Committee made no awards for best statements. 

For the Committee, 

Gilbert L. Streeter, Chairman. 

G. L. Streeter, Daniel E. Safford, N. M. Hawkes, 
Charles P. Preston, David W. Low — Committee. 



172 
IN MEMORIAM. 



Your committee appointed by the Society to prepare 
appropriate notice of the members of the Society who 
have died during the past year, to be published in the 
Transactions, would report that the list of members iu 
each town and city has been sent to the Trustee of the 
Society, representing each town or city, for revision, and 
requesting from them brief notices of the deaths that had 
occurred in their place, from which, or other sources, the 
following is submitted : 

Asa A. Abbott, of Andover, died Jan. 11, 1886, aged 
87 years. He was a prominent citizen, having represented 
the town in the State legislature several terms, and filled 
for many years the offices of Selectman, Town and Parish 
Assessor, and other minor offices, and for over twenty 
years past took much interest in this society. 

Aaron Dodge, of Beverly, died Feb. 3, 1886, aged 
73 years, 6 months. He was proprietor of a grist mill for 
forty years. He held several town offices, the -boards 
of Selectmen and Overseers of the Poor being the most 
prominent. He was a member in 1850. 

Samuel D. G. Stanley died in 1886, aged about 75 
years. He became a member in 1850. 

"Thomas W. Hazeltine, of Bradford, died Sept. 2, 
1886, aged 67 years. He was a successful farmer, and 
a member of this Society for 25 years, serving on many 
of its committees with credit to himself and our society. 
He had accepted places on two committees, and virtually 
died with his harness on." 

George W. Ordway, of Bradford or Haverhill, died 
Sept. 26, 1886, aged 51 years. He was a shoe manufact- 
urer, and joined our Society in 1855. 



173 

James Lourie, of Danvers, died Oct. 25, 1886, aged 
65 years. He became a member in 1876. 

Levi Merrill, of Danvers, died in September, 1886. 
He became a member in 1857. 

Daniel Richards, of Danvers, died in Xovember, 
1886. He became a member in 1858. 

William H. Mears, of Essex, died May 27, 1886, 
aged 73 years. He became a member in 1859. - He was 
a farmer and a manufacturer of codfishing lines, with an 
excellent reputation of fair dealing. 

John Perkins, of Essex, died March 27, 1886, aged 
73 years. He became a member in 1871. He was a suc- 
cessful merchant in the fishing business of Gloucester, 
where he resided several years, from which he retired to 
become a successful farmer at his later home in Essex. 

Ira Hardy was born in a part of Bradford now Grove- 
land, where he has always resided. He died suddenly, 
May 26, 1886, aged 78 years, 5 months. He owned 
a small farm, and was interested in his work upon it. 
He become a member of this society in 1865. 

Daniel Atwood resided near the Merrimac river in 
Groveland, and died Oct. 6, 1886, aged 83 years, 8 
months. He joined this Society twenty-five or thirty 
years ago, and took an interest in its work. 

John J. Babson, of Gloucester, died April 13, 1886, 
in the seventy-seventh year of his age. He was its histo- 
rian, and its school educator, devoting a lifetime to the 
welfare of its Schools, serving a great many years as Su- 
perintendent, or on the School Committee as chairman, 
and in many ways proved himself a public benefactor. 
He was called upon several times to serve as Represen- 
tative to the State Legislature, and served one or more 
terms as Senator. He was for many years cashier of the 
Gloucester Bank. He was much interested in horticul- 



174 

ture, serving the Cape Ann Horticultural Society as pres- 
ident several years. He became a member of this society 
in 1869, and served as one of its Trustees in 1870. 

Isaac Patch, of Gloucester, died July 4, 1886, aged 85 
years. He was a very successful farmer, and at his death 
owned a large farm in Hamilton, and one in Gloucester. 
He joined this Society in 1855, and served as one of its 
Trustees from 18G4to 1870. 

Daniel T. Babson, of Gloucester, died Oct. 4, 1886, 
aged 72 years. He was a man always interested in milch 
cows and the cultivation of small fruits, as a relaxation 
from his business as painter. He visited our Fairs yearly, 
and attended the last one at Newburyport this year. He 
became a member in 1871. 

Aaron W. Bray, of Gloucester, died June 21, 1886, 
aged 55 years. He was the manager of the New England 
Halibut Company at the time of his death. He joined 
this Society in 1872. 

George James, of Gloucester, died Feb. 14, 1886, 
aged 68 years. He was greatly interested in horses, and 
kept a livery stable. He became a member of this Soci- 
ety in 1870, has served on its committees, and has taken 
premiums for horses and colts at various times. 

Robert Fears, of Gloucester, died Aug. 27, 1886, 
aged 79 years. He was a sail-maker by occupation and 
business until he retired. He was a Director of the First 
National Bank, and always an active and successful busi- 
ness man. His interest in agriculture was mostly confined 
to his garden. He became a member of our Society in 
1872. 

Charles W. Dennison, of Gloucester, died Sept. 23, 
1886, aged 80 years. He was a retired sea captain, and 
devoted his time, aside from looking after what business 
interests he had, in doing good to others in a quiet way. 
He became a member in 1872. 



175 

Joseph P. Gardner, of Hamilton, died Oct. 16, 1886, 
about 26 years of age. He joined our Society early in 
the year, and being a young farmer of ability, gave prom- 
ise of usefulness to the Society, of which his early death 
has deprived us. 

"John P. Gilman, of Haverhill, died April 13, 1886, 
aged 59 years. He was an active business man, formerly 
a shoe manufacturer and afterward a hat manufacturer, 
and also largely interested in real estate." 

"Israel K. Jewett, of Ipswich, died suddenly Oct. 
26, 1886, aged 87 years, 8 months. Before the advent of 
the railroad, he drove an express team from Ipswich to 
Boston, which railroad .competition caused him to abandon, 
and for fifty years past kept a grocery store in Ipswich. 
The deceased was a successful business man and prospered 
in whatever he undertook, being a man of strict integrity 
and always recognized as a safe man with whom to deal." 
He became a member in 1869. 

Jacob Rhodes, of Lynn, died in 1886. He became a 
member in 1872. 

James B. Knight, of Newbury, died in 1886, aged 75 
years. For forty years or more, he was engaged in the 
grain business at the tide mill at Knight's Crossing, on the 
Eastern railroad, and later at the City Steam Mills, New- 
buryport, where he had an extensive business. Aside 
from this, he took an active interest in farming, having 
raised some of the largest crops of English hay and pota- 
toes ever raised in that town. At his death, his herd of 
milch cows was among the best in that section of the 
county. He became a member in 1879. 

John F. Kimball, of North Andover, died the 1st of 
September, 1886. 

Eunice L. Smith, of Newburyport, a member of this 
Society, died July 7, 1886, at the age of 51 years. She 



176 

was a farmer's wife, and always ready for her part in life. 

Charles H. Ireland, of Newbury port, died Sept. 15, 
1886, aged 70 years. He was a large real estate owner, 
and well known to the whole community. He joined this 
Society in 1868. 

John Sumner, of Newburyport, died Aug. 29, 1886, 
aged 59 years. He was a stove dealer, and took an active 
part in the Society's exhibition of 1885. He joined the 
Society in 1856. 

William Britcher, of Newburyport, died June 15, 
1886, aged 73 years. He was a market gardener for 
many years, and a very successful one. He became a 
member in 1856. 

"Major Lewis Allen, of Peabody, died Nov. 15, 1886, 
at the ripe old age of 92 years, 3 months, 20 days. While 
he had been an active business man all his life, he made 
his home on his farm, and so long as his health allowed 
was an actively interested member of the Essex Agricul- 
tural Society, being one of its oldest members, and on its 
Board of Trustees from 1846 to 1857, and Vice President 
1857 to 1870. He was called to the offices of selectman 
and assessor, representative in the General Court, trustee 
of the Peabody Institute, captain of the Danvers Artillery 
and later major for five years, when he resigned. He was 
also county commissioner ; and his name will also be found 
in numerous positions of other important trusts. He was 
an energetic farmer, combined with his other business ; 
and to the active part which he took in that natural occu- 
pation, he was undoubtedly largelj' indebted for his healthy 
and well-balanced mind and body which he possessed until 
so near the last of his long life. His manly form and 
bright, intelligent countenance were always conspicuous 
at our Fairs ; and well does the writer remember his 
thoughtful and interested remarks concerning our useful 



177 

Society, at one of the last autumn meetings at which he 
was present." 

"On September 22, 1886, passed away Malachi F. 
Batchelder, at the age of 74 years and 5 months, after 
a long and painful illness, a respected citizen of Peabody, 
of modest and retiring disposition. He was one of the 
best market-gardeners in his vicinity, as the variety of his 
crops and his frequent success in competition for prizes at 
our County Shows well proves. His crops were always 
carefully and well cultivated, and in return they com- 
manded the highest market prices. His fields were exten- 
sive and yielded largely per acre. He was an exponent 
of an industrious farmer, with perseverance and good 
judgment combined, and his example and influence will 
be missed by all who knew him, not less at the annual 
Fairs of the Essex Agricultural Society than elsewhere." 
He joined this Society in 1871. 

Joseph Hale, of Rowley, died March 13, 1886, aged 
65 years. He was one of the foremost men of the town, 
serving on its Board of Selectmen many years, and a 
prominent worker in the local Farmers' Club. He was 
interested and active in the affairs of our County Society, 
joining it in 1870, serving as a Trustee in 1871 and 1877. 

Joshua Foss, the oldest resident of Rowley, died Dec. 
25, 1886, aged 87 years. 

Maurice Birmingham, of Salem, died March 25, 1886, 
aged 65 years. He was a regular attendant at our Fairs, 
and will be missed there by many friends. A member in 
1879. 

William S. Messervey, of Salem, died Feb. 19, 1886, 
aged 73 years, 6 months. In early life he was in business 
in the West. At one time he was a Delegate to Congress 
from the Territory of New Mexico, and at another time 
Secretary and Acting Governor. In 1854 he returned to 



178 

Salem, and in 1856 and 1857 was its Mayor. He was 
a member of this society in 1856. 

Benjamin S. Newhall, of Salem, died April 3, 1886, 
aged 79 years, 7 months. He was clerk of the contract- 
ors who built the Eastern Railroad, and was afterwards 
a farmer in Danvers several years. He became a member 
in 1853. 

Joseph Pulsifer died in Salem Oct. 19, 1886, aged 
over 88 years. He was born in Ipswich, and went to 
Salem at the age of 14 years to learn painting, and led 
a life of industry, economy and honest dealing, and earned 
success. He was one of the founders of Barton Square 
Church, and Naumkeag Fire Club, of Salem, and the 
pioneer in manufacturing painted carpets. He joined this 
Society in 1839. 

Elbridge Merrill, of West Newbury, died in 1886, 
aged 72 years. "Deacon Merrill "has been one of our 
oldest and most valued members. For more than twenty 
years he has attended our annual gatherings, serving as 
trustee for several years, always with credit to himself and 
the society. All who knew him mourn his loss. 

George G. Peirce, of West Newbury, died in 1886, at 
about 25 years of age. He joined our Society in 1882, 
and was awarded two premiums this year for fruit crops. 
He was a young man of much promise, and was loved and 
esteemed by all who knew him. 

Moses Hill, of Revere, a non-resident member of the 
Society, has died in 1886. 

Again the busy reaper, Death, has passed through our 
county, gathering for the better land a bountiful harvest 
during the year, from the members of this society. One 
from every thirty-five has been taken home ; in Glouces- 
ter, one from every thirteen. Those who have left us 
have contributed each in their own way to the success and 



179 

progress of our society and to a greater or less extent 
according to their ability or opportunity, leaving regret 
for their loss. The Society extends to all who mourn the 
loss of those near and dear to thera, its sympathy in their 
affliction. 

DAVID W. LOW, 

For Committee. 



180 






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LIST OF PREMIUMS AWARDED IN 1886. 



8 


00 


4 


00 


10 


00 


5 


00 


10 


00 


3 


00 


5 


00 



FAT CATTLE. 

J. P. Little, Amesbury, for pair oxen, first premium, $10 00 
J. P. Little, Amesbury, for pair oxeu, second premium, 
Furmer H. Greeley, Salisbury, for pair oxen, third 
premium, 

BULLS. 

Francis Gulliver, Andover, for Jersey bull, over two 
years old, first premium, 

H. H. Hale, Bradford, for Jersey bull over two years 
old, second premium, 

Ben : Perley Poore, West Newbury, for Short Horn 
bull over two years old, first premium, 

Wm. C. Cahill, Dan vers, for Ayrshire bull under two 
years old, second premium, 

H. H. Hale, Bradford, for Jerse}' bull under two years 
old, first premium, 

D. A. Massey, Danvers, for Ayrshire bull calf, "Queer," 
No. 8821, A. B. A. R., instead of 882 as print- 
ed in report, first premium, 2 00 

milch cows. 

T. N. Cook, Newbury port, for Milch cow, first pre- 
mium, 10 00 

T. N. Cook, Newburyport, for butter cow, first pre- 
mium, 10 00 

T. N. Cook, Newburyport, for butter cow, second pre- 
mium, 4 00 

Jere. Cashman, Newburyport, for best Milch cow, spec- 
ial premium, 15 00 

Jere. Cashman, Newburyport, for Milch cow, second 

premium, 4 00 

Francis Gulliver, Andover, for Jersey cow, first pre- 
mium, 10 00 



4 00 



182 

Francis Gulliver, Andover, for Jersey cow, second 
premium, 

HEIFERS — FIRST CLASS. 

Francis Gulliver, Andover, for Jerse}' in milk, second 

premium, 4 00 

Francis Gulliver, Andover, for Jersey calf, first pre- 
mium, 4 00 

D. A. Masse} r , Danvers, for Ayrshire calf, first pre- 
mium, 4 00 

D. A. Massey, Danvers, for Ayrshire heifer, second 

premium, 2 00 

HEIFERS SECOND CLASS. 

P. A. Perkins, Newbury, for three year old Grade 
Ayrshire in milk, first premium, * 

O. F. Lewis, Salisbury, for three year old Grade Jer- 
sey in milk, second premium, 

E. S. Toppan, Newburyport, for three year old Short 

Horn, first premium, 
Elbridge Tenney, Newbury, for twenty-six months old 

Grade Jersey, second premium, 
T. K. Bartlett, Newburyport, for twenty months old 

Dutch, first premium, 
J. F. Smith, Salisbury, for fourteen months old Grade 

Jersey, second premium, 
Jere. Cashmau, Newburypoi't, for three months old 

Grade Jersey Calf, 

WORKING OXEN AND STEERS. 

C. U. Burbank, Amesbury, oxen, first premium, 
Carlton Little, Newbury, oxen, second premium, 
Wm. Bryant, West Newbury, oxen, third premium, 
R. T. Jaques, Newbury, steers, first premium, 

TOWN TEAM. 

Town of West Newbury, oxen, first premium, 20 00 

STEERS. 

C. U. Burbank, Amesbury, two year old steers, first 

premium, 6 00 



10 


00 


4 


00 


4 


00 


2 


00 


4 


00 


2 


00 


4 


00 


12 


00 


10 


00 


8 


00 


10 


00 



183 

James Noyes, Newbury, two year old steers, second 

premium, 5 00 

Wm. H. Perkins, Newbury, yearling steers, first pre- 
mium, 5 00 

Edward Illsley, Newbury, yearling steers, second pre- 
mium, 4 00 

Mrs. M. L. Moody, West Newbury, steer calves, first 

premium, 4 00 

STALLIONS — FIRST CLASS. 

H. H. Hale, Bradford, three year old stallion, first pre- 
mium, 8 00 

STALLIONS — SECOND CLASS. 

C. C. Hewitt, Newburyport, four years old stallion, 

first premium, 10 00 

BROOD MARES. 

C. N. Maguire, Newburyport, mare and foal, first pre- 
mium, 10 00 

E. E. Bartlett, Newburyport, mare and foal, second 

premium, 6 00 

Frank Perkins, Newbury, mare and foal, third pre- 
mium, 4 00 

FAMILY HORSES. 

S. P. Hale, Newbury, family horse, first premium, 10 00 

John C. Tarlton, West Newbury, family horse, second 

premium, 6 00 

Peter Holt, Jr., North Andover, family horse, third pre- 
mium, 4 00 
gentlemen's driving horses. 

Peter Holt Jr., North Andover, white mare, first pre- 
mium, 10 00 

Jere. Cashman, Newburyport, gelding, second pre- 
mium, 6 00 

C. U. Burbank, Amesbury, gelding, third premium, 4 00 

FARM HORSKS. 

J. A. Illsley, Georgetown, farm horse, first premium, 10 00 
J. Otis Winkley, Newburyport, farm horse, second 

premium, 6 00 

Michael Reddy, Ipswich, farm horse, third premium, 4 00 



184 



DRAFT HORSES. 

Peter Holt Jr., North Andover, draft horse, first pre- 
mium, 10 00 

Win. W. Perkins, Newbury, draft mare, second pre- 
mium, 6 00 

John Ronan, Newburyport, draft horse, third pre- 
mium, 4 00 

PAIRS OF FARM HORSES. 

Walter F. Dodge, Beverly, farm horses, first premium, 12 00 
C. N. Maguire, Newburyport, farm horses, second 

premium, 8 00 

PAIRS OF DRAFT HORSES. 

Charles Bennett, Gloucester, draft horses, first pre- 
mium, 12 00 

Jere. Cashman, Newburyport, draft horses, second 

premium, 8 00 

Jere. Cashman, Newburyport, draft horses, third pre- 
mium, 4 00 

COLTS FOR DRAFT PURPOSES FIRST CLASS. 

H. H. Hale, Bradford, three year old mare, first pre- 
mium, 10 00 

COLTS FOR DRAFT SECOND CLASS. 

E. E. Bartlett, Newburyport, colt one year old, first 

premium, 6 00 

A. J. Stockbridge, Rowley, yearling mare colt, second 

premium, 4 00 

M. B. Chesley, Amesbury, two } T ear old colt, first pre- 
mium, 6 00 
R. Jaqnes, West Newbury, two year old colt, second 

premium, 4 00 

COLTS FOR GENERAL PURPOSES — FIRST CLASS. 

O. N. Fernald, Danvers, mare colt, four 3 r ears old, 

first premium, 10 00 

F. W. Evans, Newburyport, filly, four years old, sec- 

ond premium, 6 00 



185 

C. C. Cook, Bradford, mare, four years old, third pre- 
mium, 4 00 

George H. Whipple, Lynn, mare, three years old, first 

premium, 8 00 

Daniel Tenney, Newbury, gelding, three years old, sec- 
ond premium, 5 00 

COLTS FOR GENERAL PURPOSES — SECOND CLASS. 

Woodbury Smith, Rowley, two year old colt, first pre- 
mium, 6 00 

H. H. Hale, Bradford, two year old colt, second pre- 
mium, 4 00 

B. W. Bartlett, Rowley, one year old colt, first pre- 
mium, 6 00 

O. N. Fernald, Danvers, one year old colt, second 

premium, 4 00 

SWINE, FIRST CLASS OR LARGE BREEDS. 

Wm. W. Perkins, Newburyport, breeding sow, first 

premium, 8 00 

L. P. Hale, Newbury, breeding sow, second premium, 5 00 

Michael Reddy, Ipswich, Jersey red sow, first pre- 
mium, 8 00 

Edward S. Knight, Newbury, grade Berkshire boar, 

first premium, 8 00 

Wm. W. Perkins, Newburyport, weaned pigs, second 

premium, 5 00 

SWINE, SECOND CLASS OR SMALL BREEDS. 

Wm. W. Perkins, Newbury, weaned pigs, first pre- 
mium, 8 00 

Wm. W. Perkins, Newbury, breeding sow, first pre- 
mium, 8 00 

SHEEP. 

Matthew H. Toomey, Newbury, Coltswold sheep, first 

premium, 10 00 

Matthew H. Toomey, Newbury, Coltswold buck, first 

premium, 8 00 



186 



PLOUGHING WITH DOUBLE TEAMS. 

Noyes & Little, Newbury, with two yoke oxen, first 

premium, 12 00 

Wm P. Coffin, Newbury, with two yoke oxen, second 

premium, 10 00 

Wm. W. Perkins, Newbury, with two yoke oxen, third 

premium, 9 00 

PLOUGHING WITH HORSES. 

Chas. N. Maguire, Newburyport, with one pair, first 

premium, 10 00 

S. F. Newman, Newbury, with one pair, second pre- 
mium, 7 00 

Walter F. Dodge, Beverly, with one pair, third pre- 
mium, 5 00 

PLOUGHING WITH THREE OR FOUR HORSES. 

J. Kent Adams, Newbury, with four horses, first pre- 
mium, 10 00 

Frank Perkins, Newbury, with three horses, first pre- 
mium, 10 00 

PLOUGHING WITH SWIVEL PLOUGH. 

Jonas M. Rollins, Danvers, with two horses, first pre- 
mium, 

PLOUGHING WITH SULKY PLOUGH. 

A. J. Stockbridge, Rowley, first premium, 

IMPROVING WET MEADOW AND SWAMP LAND. 

B. H. Farnum, North Andover, first premium, 
S. A. Jaques, West Newbury, second premium, 

GRAIN CROPS. 

J. J. H. Gregory, Marblehead, rye crop, first pre- 
mium, 
Oliver P. Killam, Boxford, corn crop, first premium, 

ROOT CROPS. 

Asa T. Newhall, Lynn, onion crop, first premium, 
John H. George, Methuen, onion crop, second pre- 
mium, 



10 


00 


10 


00 


15 


00 


10 


00 



10 


00 


10 


00 


10 


00 


5 


00 



10 


00 


5 


00 


10 


00 


5 


00 


10 


00 


10 


00 


5 


00 


10 


00 


10 


00 



187 

John H. George, Methuen, potato crop, first pre- 
mium, 

Stephen A. Jaques, West Newbury, potato crop, 
second premium, 

J. E. Page, Supt. Pickman farm, Salem, cabbage 
crop, first premium, 

Daniel Carlton, Andover, cabbage crop, second pre- 
mium, 

J. W. Blodgett, Saugus, mangold crop, first premium, 10 00 

Walter Smith & Co., Methuen, turnip crop, first pre- 
mium, 

James Manning, Topsfield, turnip crop, second pre- 
mium, 

Cyrus K. Ordway, West Newbury, carrot crop, first 
premium, 

Asa T. Newhall, Lynn, squash crop, first premium, 

FOREST TREES. 

Benjamin P. Ware, Marblehead, ornamental trees, 

first premium, 10 00 

STRAWBERRIES AND OTHER SMALL FRUITS. 

George G. Peirce, West Newbury, strawberry crop, 

first premium, 10 00 

George G. Peirce, West Newbury, raspberry crop, 

first premium, 10 00 

Benj. W. Farnum, North Andover, blackberry crop, 

first premium, 10 00 

NEW MEMBERS. 

John Q. Evans, Salisbury, most new members, pre- 
mium, 6 00 

ESSAYS AND REPORTS. 

O. S. Butler, Georgetown, essay, " Poultry on the 

Farm," first premium, 15 00 

M. B. Faxon, Saugus, essay, " The Kitchen Garden," 

second premium, 10 00 

Francis H. Appleton, Peabody, report on ornamental 

trees, first premium, 10 00 



188 

B. F. Huntington, Amesbury, report on root crops, 

second premium, 8 00 

*Joseph How, Methuen, report on new apples and the 

codlin moth, third premium, 6 00 

*NOTE.— Mr. Howe is 86 years of age. 

MASSACHUSETTS AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE SCHOLARSHIP. 

George E. Newman, Newbury, yearly payment of 

1884 award, 25 00 

OTHER AWARDS. 

Awarded by Committee on Poultry, 37 00 

" " " Agricultural Implements, 47 00 

" " " Carriages, 17 00 

" « " Dairy, 24 00 

" '« " Bread, Honey, etc., 22 00 

" « " Pears, 103 50 

" " " Apples, 109 75 

" " " Peaches, Grapes, etc., 74 50 

« " " Flowers, 56 00 

" " " Vegetables,* 158 00 

" " " Grain and Seed,f 32 00 

" " " Counterpanes and Afghans, 31 00 

" " " Carpets and Rugs, J 26 50 

" " " Articles man'f'd from Leather 5 00 

" " " Manufact's and Gen'l Mdse., 20 00 

" " " Fancy Work and Art Work, 51 50 

« " » Children's Work, 15 00 



732 75 



Correction.— *Gratuit5-, 50 cents, was awarded to M. M. Ridgeway, Newbury, for 
Queen of the Valley Potato, instead of $1, as printed on G3dpage. f$o second prem- 
ium was awarded to Aaron Low, Essex, for collection of seed, instead of $3, as 
printed on 65th page. p5 cents gratuity was awarded Mrs. S. J. Woodward, West 
Newbury, for woven rug, instead of 50 cents as printed on OSth page. 



RECAPITULATION. 





FARMS. 




Awarded for Ploughing, 


$93 00 


" " reclaiming swamp land, 


25 00 


" " Ornamental Trees, 


10 00 




<tt;1 oq r\n 




s? 1 _ O \J\J 


FARM STOCK. 




Awarded for Fat Cattle, 


$22 00 




" Bulls, 


35 00 




" Milch Cows, 


57 00 




" Heifers, 


44 00 




" Working Oxen and Steers, 


40 00 




" Town Team of Oxen, 


20 00 




" Steers, 


24 00 




" Horses, 


162 00 




" Colts, 


83 00 




" Swine, 


50 00 




" Sheep, 


18 00 


" " Poultry, 


37 00 




$592 00 


FARM PRODUCTS. 




Awarded for Grain Crops, 


$20 00 




" Root Crops, 


90 00 




" Fruit Crops, 


30 00 




1 " Fruits, 


287 75 




' " Dairy, 


24 00 




" Bread, Honey, etc., 


22 00 




" Flowers, 


56 00 




' "Vegetables, 


158 00 




' 4i Grain and Seed, 


32 00 




^710 nK 




v t xv to 




MISCELLANEOUS. 





Awarded for Agricultural Implements, $47 00 

" «* " Essays and Reports, 49 00 

" " " College Scholarship, 25 00 

" " obtaining largest number of new 

members, 6 00 

" " Domestic Manufactures, 149 00 

11 " Carriages, 17 00 

$293 00 



Total amount awarded in 1886, $1732 75 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY 

FOE 1886-7. 



PRESIDENT, 

BENJAMIN P. WARE, of Marblehead. 



VICE PRESIDENTS, 

GEORGE B. LORING, of Salem. 
J. J. H. GREGORY, of Marblehead. 
THOMAS C. THURLOW, of West Newbury. 
JAMES P. KING, of Peabody. 



HONORARY TRUSTEE, 

JOSEPH HOW, of Methueu. 



SECRETARY, 

DAVID W. LOW, of Gloucester. 



TREASURER, 

GILBERT L. STREETER, of Salem. 



TRUSTEES, 

Charles C. Blunt, Andover. Aaron Low, Essex. 
B. F. Huntington, Amesbury. Oliver S. Butler, Georget'wn. 
John Meacom, Beverly. AlonzoF. Harvey, Glouc'ster. 

John Parkhurst, Boxford. Nathan Longfellow, Grovel'd. 
William Hilton, Bradford. Alvin Smith, Hamilton. 
Charles H. Gould, Danvers. Richard Webster, Haverhill. 



191 

Alden Story, Ipswich. James C. Poor, No. Andover. 

Asa M. Bodwell, Lawrence. Francis H.Appleton,Peab'dy. 
John L. Shorey, Lynn. Andrew Lane, Kockport. 

John M.Danforth,Lynnfield. Edward H. Potter, Rowley. 
Wm, S.Phillips, Jr., M'head. John Robinson, Salem. 
Daniel W.Friend,Manch'st'r. Samuel Hawkes, Saugus. 
Chas. W. Mann, Methuen. John Q. Evans, Salisbury. 
James D. Pike, Merrimac. David Warren, Swampscott. 
O.Loring Carlton, Middlet'n. George F. Averill, Topsfield. 
C. N. Maguire, Newburyport.Zachariah Cole, Wenham. 
James Noyes, Newbury. E. G. Nason, W. Newbury. 



NEW MEMBERS — 1886. 

* Joseph P. Gardner, Ham'lt'n.Osman Babson, Gloucester.' 
Samuel Thayer, Andover. Frederic F. Low, Gloucester. 
Henry A. Hay ward, Andover. Alfred Presson, Gloucester. 
Amos F. Chase, Lynn. Eugene L. Wildes, Topsfield. 

B. W. Rowell, Lynn. John W. Parkhurst, Boxford. 

Edwin Bates, Lynn. JamesW.Chadwick, Boxford. 

Furmer H. Greeley, Salisb'y. George B. Austin, Boxford. 
N.Tracy Getchell, Salisbury. Daniel D. Adams, Newbury. 
J.Q.A.Pettingell, Salisbury. Edwin P. Noyes, Newbury. 
John H. Eaton, Salisbury. Edward Illsley, Newbury. 
Wesley Pettingell, Salisbury. Frank W.Evans, Newburyp't. 
Abram L. Morrill, Salisbury. Geo. W. Knight, Newburyp't. 
P. Albert True, Salisbury. James E. Page, Salem. 
Robert Thornton, Salisbury. Ezra K. Preston, Beverly. 
Jona. H. Osborne, Amesb'ry. Thomas E. Cox, Lynnfield. 
William F. Vining, Amesb'y.John Hazeltine, Bradford. 
E. A. Goodwin, Amesbury. William H. Smith, Rockport. 
Fred'c Burnham, Manchester. Horace Lane, Rockport. 

*Deceased. 



192 

J. P. Little, Amesbury. Elbridge Tenney, Newbury. 

C. U. Burbank, Amesbury. Wm. Bryant, West Newbury. 
P. A. Perkins, Newbury. Stephen A. Jaques,W.N'wb'y 
Carlton Little, Newbury. Charles Bennett, Gloucester. 
Edw'd G. Knights, Newbury. Michael Reddy, Ipswich. 
Matthey H.Toomey, Newb'y. George H. Whipple, Lynn. 
James Kent Adams, Newb'y. 



REMOVALS OF MEMBERS. 

Andover — Addison M. Robinson to North Andover. 
Boxford — B. Frank Barnes, to Haverhill. 
Danvers — Beverly S. Moulton, to Boston. 

Samuel W. Nourse, to Peabody. 

Charles O. Putnam, to Wenham. 

Moses W. Putnam, to Philadelphia, Pa. 

William Lord, to North Beverly. 

Lyman Wilkins, to Middleton. 
Hamilton — Dudley H. Porter, to Saratoga, N. Y. 
Lynn — John G. Barker, to Boston. 
Middleton — Wm. B. Carleton, to Danvers. 

John R. Wellman, to Lawrence. 
Salem — C. A. Cooper, to Lynnfield. 

Eben Jackson, to Danvers. 
Topsfield — Arthur M. Merriman, to Manchester. 
West Newbury — E. C. Little, to Haverhill. 



CORRECTIONS OF 1884 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Methuen — S. C. Sargent should have been S. G. Sargent. 
Saugus — Alfred C. Hill, omitted. 

Peabody — David Osborne, died May 7, 1875, aged 84. 
Georgetown — I. Adams Illsley should be J. Adams 
Illsley. 



Members of Essex Agricultural Society, 

DECEMBER, 1886. 



Previous printed list was in 1884, errors in which have been 
corrected in 1885 and 1886 Reports. If any errors are dis- 
covered in the following list, please report them to the Secre- 
tary. Trustees are requested to report deaths of members as 
soon as they occur, with printed notice, when convenient. 



Bailey, O. S. 
Burbank, C. U. 
Cammet, Samuel 
Chesley, M. B. 
Chesley, John F. 
Currier, W. H. B. 
Feltch, Elbridge S. 



Abbott, James J. 
Abbott, Nathan F. 
Abbott, Moses B. 
Abbott, Hartwell B 
Abbott, John B. 
Andrews, M. C. 
Barnard, Edwin H. 
Bailey, Moses A. 
Bean, Samuel G. 
Blunt, Charles C. 
Blunt, J. H. 
Bodwell, H. A. 
Buchan, George 
Callahan, Robert 
Carter, Charles L. 
Carruth, Isaac 



AMESBURY— 21. 

Gale, Edmund 
Gale, Foster 
Goodwin, E. A. 
Hill, Albert C. 
Hill, J. Henry 
Huntington, B. F. 
Little, J. P. 



ANDOVER— 47. 

Chandler, Joshua H. 
Cheever, James O. 
Cummings, C. O. 
Downing, J. J. 
Flint, John H. 
Foster, George W. 
Foster, Moses 
Foster, George C. 
Gulliver, Francis 
Gutterson, George 
Harriman, Thos. P. 
Hayward, Henry A. 
Hazen, Nathan W. 
Hidden, David I. C. 
Holt, E. F. 
Holt, Joseph S. 



Lane, T. W. 
Morse, Daniel L. 
Osborne, Jona. H. 
Sawyer, Aaron 
Tibbets, William B. 
True, Eben 
Vining, William F. 



Holt, Ballard 
Jenkins, John B. 
Jenkins, E. Kendall 
Johnson, Francis H. 
Johnson, S. K. 
Mason, George F. 
Morton, Marcus 
Rea, Jasper 
Ripley, George 
Smith,. James B. 
Smith, John L. 
Smith, Peter D. 
Smith, Benjamin F. 
Thayer, Samuel 
Upton, Edward C. 



194 



Appleton, Nathan D. 
Appleton, Isaac 
Avery, Mark B. 
Baker, John I. 
Bell, John 
Bliss, Edgar J. 
Burnham, O. B. 
Carter, John W. 
Clark, George 
Connelley, Stephen 
Cressy, Joseph 
Danforth, E. F. 
Dodge, Andrew 
Dodge, Benjamin N. 
Dodge, Benjamin S. 
Dodge, Joshua S. 
Dodge, Richard 
Dodge, Forest C. 



Anderson, Chas. R. 
Andrew, Isaac W. 
Austin, George B. 
Barnes, B. S. 
Chadwick, Geo. W. 
Chadwick, James W. 
Parkhurst, John 
Parkhurst, John W. 
Pearl, Edw. E. 



Bradstreet, Justin E. 
Cogswell, Doane 
Cogswell, George 
Cogswell, William 
Day, Albeit J. 
Day, Royal 
Ellis, John A. 
Emerson, Charles B. 
Gage, Edwin V. 
Hale, H. H. 



BEVERLY— 54. 

Dodge, Walter F. 
Foster, David L. 
Foster, Henry W. 
Foster, William A. 
Friend. Seth 
Giles, Benjamin V. 
Gould, Thomas 
Haven, Franklin 
Herrick, Joseph H. 
Hill, Hugh 
Lee, Asa F. 
Lord, Cyrus W. 
Lord, William 
Lawrence, C. A. 
Loring, Augustus P 
Lovett, Francis S. 
Lummus, E. E. 
Mason, Alfred A. 



BOXFORD— 27. 

Cleveland, James P. 
Cole, David M. 
Cole, John K. 
Cole, Warren M. 
Cole, Wm. Kimball 
Da}', Isaac C. 
Pearl, John M. 
Pearl, John 
Perley, Charles 



Mason, Alphonso 
Mason, George 
Mason, L} T man 
Ma}o, Josiah 
Meacom, John 
Mitchell, John 
Morse, John T. 
Munsey, John G. 
Paine, Charles C. 
Pitman, Mark 
Porter, Adoniram 
Preston, Ezra 
Raymond, John W. 
Stephens, Augustus 
Trask, Joseph W. 
Walker, Lawson 
Waters, Richard P. 
Waters, William C. 



Day, Mrs. John 
Hale, John 
Herrick, Israel 
Killam, Oliver P. 
Ladd, John I. 
Nason, James H. 
Sawyer, Thomas 
Styles, Charles F. 
Wood, John T. 



BRADFORD— 38. 

Haseltine, Thomas 
Hazeltine, Charles 
Hazeltine, John 
Hilton, William 
Hopkinson. Sam'lW. 
Johnson, Charles G. 
Johnson, Labi) r ton 
Kimball, Albert 
Kimball, A. Laburton 
Kimball, Leverett 



Kimball, Wm. B. 
Kimball, W. Eustace 
Kimball, M. Tenney 
Knight, Albert H. 
Ladd, B. G. 
Ladd, George W. 
Little, Mrs. M. P. 
O'Brien, John 
Ordway, Alfred 
Ordway, Warren 



195 



Peabody, Frank 
Peabod}-, Daniel 
Perley, John 



Arrnitage, John S. 
Allen, Henry C. 
Bartlett, James A. 
Berry, Allen A. 
Beny, Eben G. 
Batchelder, J. Q. A. 
Bradstreet, Elijah 
Bodge, Hemy 
Bodge, Horatio 
Blake, John A. 
Brown, William H. 
Boardman, I. P. 
Butler, J. C. 
Clark, N. J. 
Carlton, Wm. B. 
Day, Clarence 
Dempsey, L. P. 
Dodge, Elnathan 
Dodge, Francis 
Eaton, Winslow W. 
Fellows, Alfred 
Fisher, Franklin W. 
Faxon, George 
Fowler, Augustus 
Fowler, Samuel P. 
Fuller, Solomon 
Gaffney, Cornelius 
Gould, Charles H. 
Grosvenor, David A. 
Grout, John 
Gustin, John H. 
Hill, Edward L. 
Hood, R. B. 
Hood, Joseph E. 
Hutchinson, Edward 
Jacobs, Wm. A. 
Jackson, Eben 
Johnson, George E. 
Juul, Conrad 



Phillips, G. Franklin Thornton, William 
Poor, Charles H. Webster, Charles E. 
Tewksbury, John B. 



DANVERS— 115. 

Kimball. Joel, Jr. 
Kirby, Patrick 
Langhry, J. R. 
Learoyd, A. P. 
Lefavour, Mrs. 
Legro, Edmund 
Legro, John C. P. 
Massey, Dudley A. 
Martin, George B. 
Martin, Walter F. 
McCrillis. Ransom F. 
Merrill, Walter S. 
Morgan, Wm. B. 
Mudge, Edwin 
Mudge, Augustus 
Nichols, Andrew 
Nichols, Andrew, Jr. 
Newhall, Benj. E. 
O'Neal, T. H. 
Patch, Abraham 
Peart, William B. 
Perley, Dean A. 
Perley, Edward P. 
Perkins, Henry A. 
Perkins, Warren G. 
Pettingill, David A. 
Peabody, George H. 
Pillsbury, H. H. 
Pope, Ira P. 
Porter, Benjamin F. 
Pratt, Amos 
Preston, Charles H. 
Preston, Charles P. 
Prince, Amos 
Putnam, Ansel W. 
Putnam, Edwin F. 
Putnam, Israel H. 
Putnam, Joseph C. 



Putnam, John A. 
Putnam, Joel 
Putnam, Otis F. 
Pratt, George 
Pratt, Samuel S. 
Porter, John W. 
Pope, Daniel P. 
Proctor, Nathan P. 
Richardson, James 
Richards, C. S. 
Richards, George D. 
Rollins, Jonas 
Ropes, Joseph E. 
Rice, Charles B. 
Sears, John A. 
Silvester. Joshua 
Spaulding, Sam'l W. 
Swinerton, John 
Smart, John L. 
Swazey, E. 
Spring, Jacob E. 
Tapley, George 
Tapley, Gilbert A. 
Trask, Alfred M. 
Upton, Franklin W. 
Verry, Augustus 
Verry, Henry 
Walcott, Wm. H. 
Waldron, E. T. 
Wallis, Samuel 
Warren, Aaron W. 
Weston, Wm. L. 
Weston, Mrs. L. P. 
White, Henry A. 
Woodis, Alden B. 
Woodman, Edw. E. 
Whipple, John F. 
Wilkins, Fred'k A. 



196 



ESSEX— 21. 

Andrews, Elias Cogswell, Chas. B. 

Andrews, Joseph Dodge, Grover 
Andrews, Miles S. Haskell, David L. 
Burnhan),D.BrainardHaskcll, George 
Burnham, Washingt'nKnowlton, Aaron 
Burnliam,Wrn. HoweKnowlton, David 
Choate, Rufus Knowlton, Moses 



Knowlton, Herbert A. 
Knowlton, Perry B. 
Lee, Edward K. 
Low, Aaron 
Low, Josiah 
Lufkin, A. E. 
McDonald, Daniel 



GEORGETOWN— 28. 



Bateman, A. P. 
Butler, Oliver S. 
Chapman, Jonathan 
Dole, Moody S. 
Harriman, Hiram N. 
Hoyt, John A. 
Hoyt, Martin L. 
Huse, Ralph C. 
Illsley, J. Adams 
Lovering, John H. 



Marble, Nathaniel 
Moulton, Daniel E. 
Nelson, Sherman 
Nelson, William 
Noyes, Henry P. 
Osgood, Stephen 
Pettingill, Henry 
Pillsbury, J. 
Poor, Samuel T. 



Preston, John 
Ridley, Amos 
Spoftbrd, Sumner P. 
Tenney, George J. 
Tenney, Gorham D. 
Tenney, Milton G. 
Tenney, Moses 
Tenney, Orlando B. 
Wheeler, William S. 



Atkinson, John 
Babson, Fitz J. 
Babson, Horatio 
Babson, Osman 
Barrett, Charles P. 
Bennett, Charles 
Bradford, George R. 
Brown, Edward H. 
Burnham, A. M. 
Burnham, H. A. 
Burnham, S. A. 
Calef, John C. 
Carter, John S. 
Carter, Sherman J. 
Clark, John 
Cole, Israel H. 
Conant, Thomas 
Cook, Benjamin F. 
Corliss, Benjamin H 
Corliss, John 



GLOUCESTER— 85. 

Cronin, John 
Curtis, Samuel, Jr. 
Dale, Eben, Jr. 
Davis, James 
Davis, William P. 
Dennen, George 
Dodd, Stephen 
Dolliver, John S. 
Dolliver, William C. 
Dolliver, William P. 
Fears, Robert R. 
Ferguson, Thos. B. 
Foster, Jeremiah 
Friend, Elbridge G. 
Garland, Joseph 
Gilbert, Addison 
Griffin, Bennett 
Grover, Charles E. 
Harvey, Alonzo F. 
Haskell, H. C. L. 



Haskell, William H. 
Herrick, Gardner W. 
Knowles, Thomas J. 
Lane, Andrew 
Lane, George 
Lawrence, R. C. 
Loring, Francis M. 
Lovett, John H. 
Low, David W. 
Low, Frederic F. 
Marr, Chester, Jr. 
Mayo, Israel C. 
Merchant, E. W. 
Norwood, George 
Parsons, W. Frank 
Pattillo, Alexander 
Pew, William A. 
Phillips, N. H. 
Piumer, David 
Presson, David S. 



197 



Presson, Alfred 
Price, Augustus E. 
Procter, Joseph O. 
Proctor, Wilbur F. 
Pucker, Richard W. 
Roberts, Joshua 
Rogers, Allan 
Rogers, Johu S. 
Rust, William P. 



Sanford, H. G. 
Sawyer, Samuel E. 
Shepherd, Joseph C. 
Somes, John E. 
Stacy, John H. 
Stanwood, /Barnard 
Story, Cyrus 
Thompson, Charles P, 



Webster, Nathaniel 
AVetherell, M.'L. 
Wilson, John J. 
Witham, Addison 
Wonson , A ugustusH . 
Wonson, F. G. 
Wonson, George M. 
Wonson, J. W. 



Atwood, Moses 
Balch, Thomas H. 
Curtis, Edwin T. 
Fegan, Henry C. 
George, Edwin B. 
George, Samuel B. 
Harrington, Edward 
Harriman, Moses H. 
Harriman, Abel S. 
Hopkinson, W. H. 



GROVELAND— 28. 

Ladd, J. P. B. 
Ladd, Nathaniel E. 
Longfellow, N. 
Longfellow, Samuel 
Martino, Philip H. 
Merrill, Burton E. 
Parker, Eldred S. 
Peabody, Walter S. 
Pemberton, L. K. 



Savary, Charles P. 
Spofford, Henry H. 
Stacy, Edward M. 
Stickne}', Abel 
Tenney, George H. 
Walker, George S. 
Ward we 11, Z. C. 
Whitmore, Wm. F. 
Woodbury, Louis A. 



Abbott, Joseph B. 
Allen, Francis R. 
Brown, William A. 
Creamer, George G. 
Dane, Ephraim A. 
Dane, George E. F. 
Dane, John, Jr. 
Dane, William A. 
Dane, Sylvester 
Dodge, Emerson P. 



Barnes, Frank B. 
Berry, J. M. 
Bodwell, Stephen 
Brickett, Barnard 
Brickett, Daniel 
Butters, Charles 



HAMILTON— 28. 

Dodge, George B. 
Dunnels, Ira A. 
Ellis, George W. 
Gibney, George H. 
Kimball, Isaac W. 
Knowlton, Franklin 
Knowlton, Isaac F. 
Knowlton, Joseph 
Lam son, Jarvis 



HAVERHILL— 86. 

Caldwell, William 
Chase, Abel W. 
Chase, C. W. 
Cheever, H. W. 
Cook, Justin T. 
Corliss, Charles 



Norris, George 
Norwood, C. J. 
Patch, Mrs. Oliver 
Rankin, Eli C. 
Robinson, E. P. 
Safford, Daniel E. 
Smith, Alvin 
Whipple, Em. A. 
Winslow, G. W. 



Currier, Samuel M. 
Davis, James 
Dewhurst, James 
Eaton, B. F. 
Eaton, Harrison 
Elliott, Samuel 



198 



Elliott, Samuel H. 
Emerson, Albert 
Emerson, E. A. 
Emery, Benjamin E. 
Earns worth, J. H. 
Fellows, Samuel 
Fellows, C. H. 
Fitts, D. F. 
Flanders, Daniel D. 
Frost, Henry 
Gale, John E. 
Gale, James E. 
Gage, Edmund, 
Goodwin, Rufus 
Goodrich, T. J. 
Hale, Edward 
Hanson, M. W. 
Haseltine, Amos Jr. 
Heath, Albert 
Hooke, Daniel 
Howe, Moses 
Ingalls, E. T. 
Jeffers, William 



Lackey, Andrew 
Little, E. C. 
Little, J. G. S. 
Marsh, John J. 
Merrill, William 
Mitchell, E. 
Mitchell, Seth K. 
Moody, H. L. 
Morse, John H. 
Morse, C. E. 
Merrill, Giles 
Nichols, James R. 
Nichols, John B. 
Nichols, J. B. 
Ordway, Joshua H. 
Peabody, Stephen 
Peters, Daniel 
Poore, F. W. 
Porter, Dudley 
Randall, John P. 
Richardson, John B 
Ridgewa} r , Jos. N. 
Rhodes, C. N. 



Sanders, Thomas 
Smith, George S. 
S prague, W. W. 
Stewart, John 
Swett, Jackson B. 
Taylor, Levi 
Taylor, Martin 
Taylor, Oliver 
Titcomb, Beniah 
Wadleigh, Levi C. 
Wales, Herbert E. 
Webster, Ebenezer 
Webster, E. F. 
Webster, Richard 
West, H. K. 
West, James F. 
West, Thomas 
Wheeler, Allison 
White, James D. 
Whittier, Alvah 
Whittier. Warner R. 
Winchell, James H. 



Appleton, Francis R. 
Appleton, Daniel F. 
Baker, S. N. Jr. 
Bond, James W. 
Brown, S. Albert 
Brown, John 
Brown, William G. 
Caldwell, Abraham 
Clark, Erastus 
Fall, Tristram B. 
Fellows, Alonzo B. 
Gould, John J. 
Grant, Joshua B. 
Green, George H. 
Haskell, George 



IPSWICH— 43 

Hobbs, John 
Hodgdon, George 
Hodgkins , A ugustine 
Horton, Joseph 
Hunt, Samuel 
Hurd, Y. G. 
Jordan, Mrs. Robert 
Kimball, Daniel 
Kinnear, James 
Kinsman, Joseph F. 
Kinsman, William H. 
Kinsman, Willard F. 
Marshall, Joseph 
Perkins, Isaac E. B 



Perley, David T. 
Reddy, Michael 
Rogers, Isaiah H. 
Ross, Joseph 
Rutherford, Aaron A. 
Russell, Daniel S. 
S hats well, Nathaniel 
Smith, Webster 
Stone, Augustine 
Stoiy, Alden 
Treadwell, William 
Underbill, J. C. 
Wade, Asa 
Whittier, Maynard 



199 



Ames, M. B. 
Bod well, Asa M. 
Cabot, George D. 
Currier, Eben B. 
Currier, J. Merrill 
Dow, Vigil 
Drew, J. D. 
Durant, W. A. 
Fiske, E. A. 
Flynn, Edward 
French, A. J. 
Gile, W. F. 
Gilman, Frederick 



Baker, Ezra 
Bates, EdwiD 
Bates, Wallace 
Beede, C. 0. 
Berry, Henry N. 
Berry, Benj. J. 
Breed, Henry A. 
Breed, Richard 
Chase, L. H. 
Chase, Amos F. 
Cross, Alfred 
Cressey, John S. 
Davis, Edward S. 
Emery, George E. 
Farrar, Jos. E. 
Foster, George 
Fry, Charles E. 
Goodell, J. W. 
Harnden, Henry C. 



LAWRENCE— 38. 

Goodwin, John 
Goodwin, Patrick 
Goodwin, Francis J. 
H alley, T. D. 
Harmon, Nathan W. 
Herrick, H. G. 
Hills, George 
Hood, Gilbert E. 
Holt, Lewis G. 
Keleher, W. A. 
Lewis, S. T. 
McAllister, J. G. 
Merrill, George S. 



Page, E. F. 
Richardson, E. P. 
Robinson, P. B. 
Rollins, John R. 
Russell, George W. 
Russell, W. A. 
Saunders, Daniel 
Shattuck, Charles 
Small, Henry 
Victor, F. M. 
Wellman, John R. 
Wright, W. H. P. 



LYNN— 56. 

Harris, N. S. 
Hawkes, Nathan M. 
Hill, E. L. 
Hove}-, Rufus P. 
Kimball, Rufus 
King, W. P. 
Marsh, George E. 
Marsh, S. E. 
Merrill, E. H. 
Merritt, Timothy 
Mudge, John 
Neal, Peter M. 
Newhall, Asa T. 
Newhall, G. A. 
Newhall, Hiram L. 
Newhall George T. 
Nichols, Otis 
Nichols, Thomas P. 
Norris, George, Jr. 



Noyes, Geo. C. 
Oliver, John E. 
Parsons, Charles E. 
Pevear, G. K. 
Pevear, H. A. 
Potter, Edward P. 
Preble, J. H. 
Rowell, B. W. 
Roney, Simon J. 
Sargent, George D. 
Shorey, John L. 
Shorey, George L. 
Sawyer, J. A. J. 
Tyler, Thaddeus W. 
Usher, Roland G. 
Whippen, H. C. 
Whipple, Geo. H. 
Winslow, Aaron 



LYNNFIELD— 13. 

Bancroft, J. K. Hawkes, George L. Perkins, John 

Brown, Joseph Herrick, George E. Perkins, John H. 

Cox, Thomas E., Jr. Mansfield, Andrew Roundy, W. R. 

Cooper, C. A. Newhall, Frank Smith, Henry E. 

Danforth, John M. 



200 



MANCHESTER— 12. 



Allen, Luther Cheever, William M. Merriman, Arthur M. 

Allen, Wm. H. Coolidge,T. Jefferson Price, John 

Burnham, Frederick Friend, Daniel W. Rabardy, Julius F. 
Cheever, John H. Lee, Allen Sturgis, Russell, Jr. 



MARBLEHEAD— 16. 

Dennis, W. John Nutting, John 
Gregory, J. J. H. Paine, Thomas W. 
Hathaway, AmosC. Phillips, Wm. S. Jr 
Hathaway, Joseph B. Ware, Benjamin P. 

Cloutman, B. Henry Hathaway, Seth W. Ware, Horace 

Cronin, Michael 



Alle}', Amos P. 
Alley, Reuben 
Appleton, Thomas 
Chi Ids, Caleb 



Adams, George 
Chase, William 
Clement, M. G. 
England, John J. 
Haskell, Wm. H. 



Bradley, George B. 
Bradley, Frank J. 
Buswell, Joseph E. 
Butters, W. H. 
Currier, Daniel 
Crosb}', John S. 
Emerson, Jacob, Jr 
Frederick, John W. 
Gage, George W. 
George, John H. 



Berry, William 
Carlton, O. Loring 
Christopher, Wm. P 
Currier, George A. 
Flint, James 



MERRIMAC— 15. 

Hill, A. C. Sargent, Bailey 

Loud, L. C. Sargent, Geo. W. 

Nichols, Chas. H. Sargent, P. Willis 

Pike, James D. Sawyer, Thomas C. 

Sargent, M. Perry Tewksbury, D. M. 



METHUEN— 28. 

Gutterson, B. G. 
Goss, Chas. E. 
How, Joseph 
How, Joseph S. 
Mann, C. W. 
Morrison, D. T. 
Morse, Jonathan 
Nevins, Henry C. 
Noyes, David W. 



Patterson, D. H. 
Pedlar, S. J. 
Phippen, G. S. 
Parker, Jas. O. 
Sargent, S. G. 
Sleeper, Wm. C. 
Smith, Walter 
Thurlow, J. E. 
Tozier, C. L. 



MIDDLETON— 13. 

Hutchinson, J. A. 
Phelps, William A. 
Stiles, David 
Stiles, Farnum 



Stiles, Mrs. Farnham 
Stiles, Hiram A. 
Stewart, Mrs. S. A. 
Wilkins, Lyman S. 



201 



NAHANT— 1. 



Goodale, Byron 



Adams, Charles 
Adams, Charles W. 
Adams, Daniel D, 
Adams, George W. 
Adams, James K. 
Bray, Richard S. 
Bray, George W. 
Boynton, Charles 
Coffin, Wm. P. 
Colman, Moses 
Dole, Nathaniel 
Goodrich, Wm. F. 
Hale, Stephen P. 
Howard, Horatio M. 
Illsley, Edward 
Illsley, Paul M. 
Illsley, Joseph 
Jaques, Richard 
Jaques, Richard T. 
Jaques, William 



NEWBURY— 58. 

Jones, William 
Kent, John N. 
Knight, Edward S. 
Kent, Edward 
Little, Carlton 
Little, Edward F. 
Little, George 
Little, Joseph 
Little, Nathaniel Jr. 
Little, William 
Little, Wm. Burke 
Longfellow, HoraceF 
Longfellow, Joseph 
Longfellow, Jos. Mrs. 
Lucy, Gideon R. 
Lunt, Charles M. 
Moody, Nath'l W. 
Mann, Otis 
Newman, Sidney F. 



No3 T es, Edwin P. 
Noyes, Justin 
Noyes, Horace P. 
Noyes, James 
Noyes, Luther 
Noyes, Moses K. 
Perkins, Wm. W. 
Perkins, Frank 
Perkins, Paul A. 
Plummer, Daniel Jr. 
Plummer, George H. 
Randall, George A. 
Rogers, Abial 
Rolfe, Joseph N. 
Tenney, Henry L. 
Tenney, Elbridge 
Tenney, Daniel G. 
Toomey, Mathew H. 
Woods, Charles W. 



NEWBURYPORT— 70. 



Adams, Philip D. 
Adams, J. Quincy 
Adams, Rufus 
Akerman, Joseph 
Allen, John W. 
Balch, John H. 
Ballou, C. N. 
Bartlett, T. K. 
Batchelder, Dan'l C. 
Bayley, Wm. H. 
Boardman, Isaac H. 
Cashman, Jeremiah 
Capers, Thomas 
Colby, George J. L. 
Colby, George W. 
ColmarJ, James C. 
Colman, William T. 



Cook, T. N. 
Cutter, Eben P. 
Delano, Otis 
Evans, Frank W. 
Griffin, Eliphalet 
Hale, Joshua 
Hamlet, Daniel 
Hart, James S. 
Hewett, C. C. 
Huff, William 
Huse, William H. 
Jackman, George W 
Johnson, Wm. R. 
Kent, Otis L. 
Knights, George W 
Knight, Joseph 
Lewis, Samuel W. 



Little, Hector 
Little, John G. 
Lunt, Charles 
Maguire, C. N. 
Merrill, Enoch 
Merrill, George F. 
Morrison, Daniel T. 
Moseley, Edward A 
Moseley, Edward S. 
Mosely, Fred'k S. 
Moulton. Henry W. 
Moulton, Joseph 
Nelson, David O. Jr. 
Newhall, Asa T. 
Northend, E. T. 
Noyes, Isaac P. 
Ordway, A. D. 



202 



Ordway, Parsons 
Perley, R. M. 
Perkins, Charles 
Plumrner, Moses A. 
Plummer, Wm. C. 
Smith, David 
Smith, Joseph B. 



Smith, Robert A. 
Stanle}', B. F. 
Stanley, J. C. 
Thurlow, William 
Titcomb, Albert 
Tilton, Enoch 



Titcomb, Paul 
Toppan, Edward S. 
Winkley, J. Otis 
Winkley, Paul T. 
Winkley, Paul T. Jr, 
Young, Hiram 



NORTH ANDOVER— 55. 



Adams, Edward 
Beny, Albert 
Blake, J. P. 
Bodwell, S. B. 
Butterfield, Chas. A. 
Bassett, Leon H. 
Barker, John 
Carlton, Daniel 
Carlton, Daniel A. 
Crosby, Josiah 
Chever, William J. 
Davis, George G. 
Davis, George E. 
Davis, George L. 
Dale, William J. 
Dale, William J., Jr. 
Farnham, B. H. 
Farnham, Byron K. 
Farnham, Mrs. B. H 



Apph'ton, Francis H. 
Bancroft, Sidney C. 
Barrett, E. P. 
Buxton, Henry V. 
Brown, Rufus H. 
Brown, Lewis 
Bushby, N. A. 
Brown, W. II. 
Blaney, Stephen 
Buxton, Robert G. 
Carroll, Thomas 
Clark, A. B. 
Colcord, J. L. 



Farnham, Jacob 
Farnham, J. L. 
Farnham, J. Ralph 
Farnham, W. Benj. 
Foster, J. Frank 
Foster, John P. 
Foster, Orrin 
French, J. D. W. 
Fuller, Abijah P. 
Goodhue, Hiram P. 
Greene, E. W. 
Goodwin, John O. 
Holt, Peter, Jr. 
Jenkins, Benj. F. 
Jenkins, Miloa S. 
Johnson, James T. 
Johnson, Charles F 
Kittredge, Hannah E 



PEABODY— 62. 

Cummings, Daniel 
Curtis, Andrew 
Dole, William T. 
Durkee, T. C. 
Emerton, C. S. 
Foster, Ira 
Foster, George M. 
Gardner, Henry 
Goodale, Jacob O. 
Goodale, J. P. 
Hills, Benjamin M. 
Herrick, John E. 
Hubbard, A. J. 



Loring, Geo. B., Jr. 
Man ion, John 
Montgomery, Jas. A. 
Osgood, Isaac F. 
Peters, Nathaniel 
Phillips, Willard P. 
Poor, James C. 
Rea, Loring P. 
Reynolds, James H. 
Riley, Henry 
Robinson. Addison M 
.Stevens, Moses T. 
Stevens. Oliver 
Sutton, Eben 
Symonds, Frederick 
Wilson, Abiel 
Word well, T. 0. 
.Wiley, John A. 



Hutchinson, Samuel 
Hutchinson, C. H. 
Jacobs, Edward W. 
King, J. Augustus 
King, James P. 
King, Jonathan 
Linehan, John 
Little, William H. 
Marsh, Fred. 
Mansfield, E. 
Mansfield, Arthur W. 
Marsh, Frank 
Marsh, James 



203 

Needham, George A.Preston, Levi 
Needbara, Joseph S. Richardson, W". B. 
Newhall Orlando F. Rogers, Jacob C. 
Nourse, Samuel W. Saltonstall, Henry 
Osborne, Abraham C.Southwick, Sumner 
Osborn, Lyman Swett, Samuel 

O'Kiefe, Timothy Taylor, George W. 
Pepper, George W. Thomas, Josiah B. 



Blatchford, Eben 
Estes, Alden C. 
Hodgkins, John B. 
Lane, Andrew 
Lane, Andrew, Jr. 
Lane, Horace 
Low, Mrs. Martha J. 



ROCKPORT— 19. 

Low, William 
Mills, R. P. 
Manning, James 
Manning, John J. 
Manning, William N. 
Marshall, John \V. 



ROWLEY— 22. 



Bartlett, B. W. Hale, Thomas 

Blodgette, George B.Hale, T. P. 
Daniels, George E. Haggarty, D. L. 
Dole, Charles Lambert, Mary G. 

Dodge, Joseph D. Mighill, Charles P. 
Dummer, Nath'l M. Pike, John 
Hale, Clara A. Prime, Daniel B. 

Hale, Daniel H. 



Twiss, Everett M. 
Viles, Bowman 
Walcott, John G. 
Wallace, David B. 
Walton, George D. 
Ward, Winsor M. 
Wheeler, Benj. S. 



Norwood, Gorham 
Patch, William H. 
Smith, Allen 
Smith, Beaman C. 

Smith, William H. 
York, Nathaniel S. 



Potter, Edward H. 
Stockbridge, Seth 
Stockbridge, A. J. 
Tennev, Harrison J. 
Todd, "Frank P. 
Todd, John F. 
Todd, J. Scott 



Andrews, Randall 
Andrews, Samuel P. 
Alnvy, James F. 
Abbott, Nathaniel 
Barton, Gardner 
Cur wen, James B. 
Chamberlain, James 
Curwen, Samuel H. 
Clark, Charles S. 
Collins, William F.M 
Daland, John 
Endicott, William C. 



SALEM— 71. 

Endicott, William P. 
Felt, John 
Foote, Caleb 
Foster, Joseph C. 
Foster, AVilliam H. 
Foster, William J. 
Goodhue, William P. 
Gray, Benjamin A. 
Gibney, John 
Gardner, D. B. 
Hathaway, John 
Hanson, Clement R. 



Hale, Henry 
Hale, Henry A. 
Horton, N. A. 
Ives, John S. 
Jones, Samuel G. 
Kinsman, John 
Kemble, Arthur 
Lamson, Frederick 
Loring, George B. 
Lander, William A. 
Lyford, Francis W. 
Mack, William 



204 



Manning, Robert 
Merritt, David 
Morse, E. Henry 
Newcomb, Caleb 
Northend, Wm. D. 
Peabody, John P. 
Perkins, E. R. 
Putnam, Henry W. 
Phippen, George D. 
Potter, Daniel 
Potter, William 
Pinjn-ee, David 



Pettingell, George 
Pickering, Wm. Jr. 
Page, John G. 
Page, James E. 
Pickering, Benjamin 
Robinson, John 
Ropes, Charles A. 
Rogers, A. D. 
Reynolds. Henry E. 
Rowell, E. F. 
Ropes, John C. 
Saunders, Robert J. 



Smith, Andrew 
Shreve, 0. B. 
Spencer, Charles P. 
Swasey, John A. 
Stowe, Volney C. 
Streeter, Gilbert L. 
Tracey, Patrick 
Ware, Horace C. 
Wheatland, Heniy 
White, Frank W. 
Waters, David P. 



Bartlett, Moses J. 
Dole, Edward G. 
Dow, George A. 
Eaton, John H. 
Evans, John Q. 



Blodgett, J. W. 
Faxon, M. B. 
George, Henry M. 



SALISBURY— 15. 

Getchell, N. Tracy Smith, John F. 
Greeley, Furmer H. Thornton, Robert 
Morrill, Abram L. True, P. Albert 
Pettengill, Wesley True, Eben 
Pettengill,Jolm Q. A.Greenleaf, Wm. H. 



Houghton, T. O. W. Newhall, Joseph 
Hawkes, Samuel 



SAUGUS— 13. 

Hawkes, Louis P. Noble, William 
Hill, Alfred C. Penney, George H. 

Newhall, Herbert B. Robinson, E. P. 

Whitehead, Joseph 



Crosman, S. F. 
Holden, Philander 
Pettingell, L. D. 



SWAMPSCOTT— 9. 

Pettingell, S. J. Washburne, John 

Rowe, Allen Warren, David 

Stetson, Charles A. Warren, Mrs. N. J. 



Batchelder, T. W. 
Billings, Augustus T. 
Bradstreet, Dudley 
Averill, George F. 
Derrick, Charles 
Hood, S. D. 
Lamson, J. Arthur 



TOPSFIELD— 20. 

Leach, Charles H. 
Leach, Thomas K. 
Manning, James 
Peabody, Charles J. 
Pike, Baxter P. 
Poole, Benjamin 
Stan wood, Joseph E, 



Towne, Frank H. 
Ward, Richard 
Wihles, Moses 
Wildes, Eugene L. 
Wilson, James 
Woodbury, Isaac M. 



205 



Alley, Henry 
Cole, Zacariah 
Demsev, H. H. 
Dodge," Robert F. 
Dodge, George F. 
Dodge, William P. 



WEN HAM— 18. 
Edwards, Francis R. Parsons, George W. 



Hobbs, A. F. 
Hobbs, Henry 
Kavanagh, J. 
Pingree, David 
Peabody, George 



Patch, Henry 
Perkins, Nathan'l P. 
Putnam, Charles O. 
Tilton, George H. 
Whitman, F. A. 



WEST NEWBURY— 45. 



Bailey, William P. 
Bradley, C. S. 
Boynton, Eben M. 
Brown, Harden 
Bartlett, M". Walsh 
Bailey, Lawrence H. 
Bryant, William 
Carr, E. Dole 
Carr, Samuel 
Follansbee, B. A. 
Flook, George L. 
Goodridge, David L. 
Goodridge, H. M. 
Gordon, J. R. 
Gowen, Francis H. 



Gowen, Oscar 
Jacques, Romulus 
Jacques, Stephen A. 
King, T. J. 
Lane, Isaac N. 
Merrill, William 
Merrill, William E. 
Merrill, M. B. 
Merrill, Henry 
Moore, Alfred L. 
Nason, Ezekiel G. 
Nason, Henry F. 
Nelson, Daniel P. 
Newell, Richard 
Noyes, Stephen E. 



Ordward, Cyrus D. 
Ordway, Cyrus K. 
Ordway, Thomas G. 
Ordway, Charles W. 
Poore, Moses H. 
Poore, Amos 
Poore, Ben : Perley 
Poore, George H. 
Ridgwa}-, Moses M. 
Ridgway, M. M. Jr. 
Rogers, Calvin 
Rogers, George C. 
Stanwood, Moses P. 
Thurlow, Thomas C. 
Titcomb, Silas M. 



NON-RESIDENTS— 1 1 6 . 



Alley, James E. 

Burnham, Ira T., Lexington 

Babson, Gustavus, Jr., Seward 

Neb. 
Barker, John G., Boston 
Beckford, C. H., Boston 
Balch, William II., Maiden 
Balch, Eustis, California. 
Bodwell, Hemy A., Keene, N.H, 
Black, James D., Harvard 
Blunt, J. Milton, Springfield 
Bodwell, Jos. R.,Hallowell, Me 
Brackett, H. Clarke, Virginia. 
Brocklebank, S., Rumney, N.H, 
Burnham, Choate, Boston 
Butler, Benjamin F., Lowell 



Clarke, Joseph F., Boston 
Currier, William A., Boston 
Chapin,W. C, Providence, R.I. 
Cleavelaud, H. W. S., Chicago 
Colby, Charles A., New York 
Chase, Joseph S., Maiden 
Care}', James, Quincj T 
Caldwell, L., Jacksonville, Fla. 
Campbell, Charles H., New Ro- 

chelle, N. Y. 
Carey, James, New York. 
Day, Abraham, Boston 
Davis, Phineas E., Chicago 
Dole, Francis F., Chicopee 
Dodge, Albert W., Brighton 
Dodge, John S., Chicopee 



206 

Drew, Charles R., Medford Putnam, Benjamin C, Chelsea 
Eaton, Thos., Hanistown, 111. Putnam, Moses W., Philadelphia 
Emanuel, Henry, New York Pierce, William, Boston 
Earrell, Edwin C, Reading Page, Adino, Metamora, 111. 
Felton, Wm. H., Sherborn Page, Nathan, Jr., Wakefield 

Flint, Charles L.. Boston Poor, Henry, New York 

Fowler, W. \V\, Plymouth Porter, Dudley H., Saratoga, 

Fernald, Henry B., Washington N. Y. 

Foster, James B., Melrose Payson, Samuel F., New York 

Flagg, Wilson, Cambridge Patch, A. H., Clarkville, Tenn. 

Flint, Horace P., Boston Putnam, Wm. R., Red Wing, 

French, Charles, Davenport, O. Minn. 
French, Geo. H., Davenport, O.Phelps, N. L., Iowa 
Gannett, W. W., Boston Phillips, Samuel, Brighton 

Gilman, S. E., Kingston, N.H.Phillips, A. P., Medfield 
Gookin, Samuel F., Boston Quimby.T.W., Washington, Mo. 
Green, John A., New York Raymond, Samuel, New York 
Greene, Arthur M.,Philadelphialleynolds, W. B., Deny, N. H. 
Hadley, William, Boston Robinson, John L., Manchester, 

Hale, Joseph S., Stockton, Cal. N. H. 
Hayes, J. F. C, Iowa Rogers, Benjamin, Maiden 

Hill, Mark F., Deny, N. H. Rogers, William, Illinois 
Hubbard, J. G.,Hampste'd,N. H.Stone, Edwin M. Provid'ce,R.I. 
Holt, H. E., Lexington Snow, Jesse W., Boston 

Hutchinson, C. H., Rhinebeck, Sargent, Elmer P., Maiden 

N. Y. Sargent, G.P., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hubbard, Leavitt, Turner's FallsStickney, Niles T., Chicago, 111. 
Hicock, S. S., Rochester, N. H.Stanley, Samuel S., Boston 
Kent, Albert S., Colorado Safford, N.T.,Dunbarton,N. H. 

Kimball, Jonathan, Boston Smith, George J., Boston 
Kimball, W. F., Providence, R.I. Stickney,Chas.,FonduLac, Wis. 
King, D. Webster, Boston Sleeper, S. C, Plaistow, N. H. 
Knight, J. M., Maine Shattuck, L. P., Boston 

Lamb, Wm. D., Southbridge Spofford, Farnham, Washington 
Lyford, Geo. H., New York Titcomb, Charles A., Boston 
Lake, Chas. H., Churchill, Md. Taylor, George H., Everett 
Low, Sidney, Groton Tappan, S. B., Arlington 

McFarland, L., Maine Wentzel, David, Amherst 

Mitchell, Charles, Milton Whittemore, Chas. A., Boston 

Merrill, Hajden A., Dedham Ware, Darwin E., Boston 
Moulton, Beverly S., Boston Whittemore, J. R., Chicopee 
Nichols, Albert, Chicago, 111. Wheeler, H. T., Worcester 
Nichols, D. P., Boston Webb, Michael, Jr., Cambridge 

Noyes, A. P., Lowell Walker, Dexter M., Boston 

Ordway, G. W., Manch'r, N. H. Wilder, S. W., Lowell 
Total number, December, 1886 — 1405 members. 



1887 

PREMIUM LIST OK 

Kssex Agricultural Society 



FOR THE 



Sixty-Seventh Annual Cattle Show and Fair, 

To be held September 27th and 28th, 1887, probably in 
Peabody. 



DUTIES OF TRUSTEES. 

The Trustee of each town is instructed to see the several 
members of Committees in his town previous to the Show, and 
urge upon them the importance of attending to their duties. 
Also impress upon exhibitors from localities near to the Exhi- 
bition the importance of entering their exhibits the afternoon 
and evening of Monday, in fairness to those from a distance, 
who are obliged to come Tuesday. 

To be prompt at the meeting of the Society for filling vacan- 
cies in committees on the first day of the Exhibition. 

Committees on live stock and articles exhibited on the Fair 
Grounds should appear at the Secretary's office on the grounds 
at 1 o'clock, punctually, on the first day of the Exhibition, and 
there organize, take the books of entry and proceed at once to 
business. 



DUTIES OF COMMITTEES. 

Full reports of Committees, on the blanks furnished by the 
Secretary, to be signed by all the members acting on the same, 
are required of each committee. 

Three members of any committee consisting of more than 
that number are authorized to act. 

No committee is authorized to award gratuities, except the 
committees on agricultural implements, carriages, bread, honey 
and canned fruits, domestic manufactures, fruits, vegetables in 



208 

Hall, and flowers; or any premium, unless the rules of the So- 
ciety have been strictly complied with. Neither shall they award 
premiums or gratuities in excess of the amount appropriated. 

No gratuity is to be awarded of less than fiftj 7 cents. 

The several committees are requested to affix premium cards 
(which may be had of the Secretary or assistant on the grounds 
and at the hall) to the several animals or articles, designating 
the grade of premium awarded each, and the name of the per- 
son to whom awarded, and special care should be taken that 
the cards issued correspond with the awards in their report to 
the Society. 

No claimant for a premium can be a member of the commit- 
tee upon the subject on which he makes his claim. 

The reports of award of premiums on ploughing and on ani- 
mals and articles exhibited at the Show, will be delivered to the 
Secretary and announced on Wednesday. 

The Society offers liberal premiums for the best reports of 
committees ; and the chairmen of the several committees are 
requested to present to the Secretary a full report explanatory 
of the opinions of the committee on the matter referred to them, 
within t\fo weeks after the awards are made at the Show, for 
publication in the Transactions.* 

Reports on farms, crops, etc., to be presented previous to 
the meeting of the Trustees in November. 

Any member of a committee who cannot serve on the same, is 
requested to give notice to the Secretary, before the Show, so that 
the vacancy may be filled. 

Each member of the several committees will receive a ticket 
of admission to the hall of exhibition, on application to the 
Secretary. 



♦Chairmen of committees will please notice this request. 



GENERAL RULES. 

All claims (entries) for premiums to be awarded at the Exhi- 
bition must be entered with the Secretary of the Society, or his 
agent, on or before 11 o'clock, A. M., of the first day thereof. 

All claims (entries) for premiums (on Fair Grounds) must 
be handed or forwarded to the Secretary or his agent, in writing, 
previous to the day of the Fair, if possible. 

Any person not a member of the Society, receiving an award 
of seven dollars and upwards, shall receive a certificate of mem- 
bership, for which three dollars of his award will be retained to 
increase the funds of the Society. 



209 

Diplomas awarded will be delivered and premiums paid on 
application, either by the person to whom the premium or gra- 
tuity is awarded, or an agent duly authorized, by the Treasurer, 
at First National Bank, Salem. 

In all cases the reports of award of premiums and gratuities 
made b} r the several committees and adopted by the Society 
shall be final. Committees should see that the premium cards 
issued correspond with the premiums and gratuities awarded in 
their report. 

All premiums and gratuities awarded, the payment of which 
is not demanded of the Treasurer on or before the first day of 
September next succeeding the Exhibition, will be considered as 
given to increase the funds of the Society. 

No person shall be entitled to receive a premium, unless he 
complies with the conditions on which the premiums are offered, 
and by proper entry as required, gives notice of his intention to 
compete for the same ; and committees are instructed to award 
no premium unless the animal or article offered is worth}'. 

No animal or object that is entered in one class, with one 
committee, shall be entered in another class, except town teams, 
fat cattle, working oxen and draft horses, which ma}' be entered 
for ploughing, and milch cows, which may be entered with a herd. 

In regard to all the subjects for which premiums are offered, 
it is to be distinctly understood that the Trustees reserve to 
themselves the right of judging the quality of the animal or ar- 
ticle offered ; and that no premiums will be awarded unless the 
objects of them are of a decidedly superior quality. 

Pure Bred Animals, defined by the State Board of Agricul- 
ture. 

The proof that an animal is so bred should be a record of the 
animal or its ancestors, as recorded in some herd book, recog- 
nized by leading breeders, and the public generally as complete 
and authentic. 

Standards adopted: — American Jersey C. C. Register and 
American Jersey Herd Book, Ayrshire Record and Holstein 
Herd Book. 



PREMIUMS TO BE AWARDED IT THE SHOW. 

The Committees will take notice that no premium will be 
aivarded unless the animals or objects are of a decidedly superior 
quality. 

Diplomas may be awarded for animals or articles of sp>ecial 
merit. 



210 
CATTLE AND OTHER FARM STOCK. 

TO BE ENTERED IN THE NAME OF THEIR PROPER OWNER. 

All animals, to be eligible to a premium, shall have been 
raised by tbe owner within the County, or owned by the exhib- 
itor within the County for four months previous to the date of 
the Exhibition, except Working Oxen. 

All animals, whether teams for ploughing or animals entered 
for premium or exhibition, will be fed during the Exhibition, 
and longer when they are of necessity prevented from leaving, 
at the expense of the Societ}\ 

FAT CATTLE. 

Fat Cattle, fatted within the County, regard being had to 
manner of feeding and the expense thereof, all of which shall be 
stated by the exhibitor in writing and returned to the Secretary 
with committee's report. 

Best Pair of Fat Cattle, premiums, each, $10, $8, $4 

Best Fat Cow, premiums, each, $8, $6, $4 

THOROUGHBRED BULLS. 

♦Ayrshire, Jersey, Short Horn, Devon, or of am- other recog- 
nized thoroughbred breed, for each breed, 

Two years old and upwards, premiums, $10, $5 

Under two years, premiums, for each breed, $5, $3 

Bull Calves under one year old, premium, $2 

BULLS OF ANY AGE OR BREED. 

*For the best thoroughbred Bull of any age or breed, with 
five of his stock not less than one year old, quality and condi- 
tion to be taken into account, and especially the adaptability of 
the animal to the agriculture of the Count} r , premium, $12 

*Note. — Competitors are required to give a written statement of pedigree, 
and committees are requested to be particular in this respect, and return them 
to the Secretary with report. 

MILCH COWS. 

For the best Milch Cow of any age or breed, with satisfactory 
record in quarts or pounds of her daily yield of milk for one 
or more years, premium, $15 

For best Milch Cow, either of Foreign, Native or Grade, not 
less than four nor more than ten years old, with satisfactory 



211 

evidence as to quantity and quality of milk, either by weight 
or measure, during the evening and morning of the first and 
last ten days of any month, premiums, $10, $4 

Thoroughbred Ayrshire, Jersey, Devon, Short Horn, or any 
other recognized breed, four years old and upwards, premiums, 
for each breed, $10, $4 

Native or Grade, five years old and upwards, premiums, 

$10, $4 

For the Cow that makes the most butter in any single week 
from June 1st to September 15th, premiums, . $10, $4 

Note. — A written statement will be required of the age and breed of all 
Milch Cows entered, and time they dropped their last calf, and when they 
will next calve, the kind, quality arid quantity of their food during the season, 
and the manner of their feeding, which statement is to be returned to the Sec- 
retary with Committee's report. 

HERD OF MILCH COWS. 

For the best herd of Milch Cows, not less than five in num- 
ber, to be exhibited at the Show, and a correct statement of 
manner of keeping and yield from January 1st, preceding the 
Show, premiums, $18, $12 

For the greatest produce of Milk on any farm, in proportion 
to the number of cows producing it, not less than four, from 
April 1, 1886, to April 1, 1887, statement to be made of the 
exchanges made, manner and expense of food, use made of 
milk, and such other facts as will illustrate the entire manage- 
ment, special regard being had to the mode in which the account 
is kept, premium, Diploma, and $15 

Note.— The above-mentioned statement is to be returned to the Secretary 
with Committee's report. 

HEIFERS. 

First Class. — Thoroughbred Ayrshire, Jersey or Short Horn 
under four years old, in milk, premiums, for each breed, $10, $4 

Devon, or any other recognized breed, premium, 
for each breed, $10 

Two year olds of each breed that have never calved, 
premiums, $4, $3 

One year olds of each breed, premiums, $4, $3 

Heifer Calves, thoroughbred, under one year, 
premiums, for each breed, $4, $3 

Second Class. — Native or Grade Milch, under four 
years old, premiums, $10, $4 

Two year olds, that have never calved, premiums, $4, $3 

One year olds and less than two, premiums, $4, $3 

Heifer Calves, Native or Grade, under one year old, 
premiums, $4, $3 



212 

WORKING OXEN AND STEERS. 

Stags excluded. For best pair of Working Oxen under eight 
and not less than five years old, taking into view their size, 
power, quality and training, premiums, $12, $10, $8 

For best pair Working Steers four years old, to be entered in 
the name of the owner, premiums, $10, $6 

Xote. — The Committee are required to consider the quality and shape of 
the cattle as well as their working capacity. The training of working oxen 
and steers will be tested by trial on a cart or wagon containing a load weigh- 
inir two tons for oxen, and 3000 pounds for steers. JOT At the time of entry 
a certificate of the weight of the cattle must be filed with the Secretary. 

TOWN TEAMS. 

For best Town Team of Oxen, ten yoke or more, 
premiums, $20, $12 

For best Town Team of Oxen, eight or nine yoke, 
premiums, $15, $8 

For best Town Team of Horses, ten or more pairs, 
premiums, $20, $12 

For best Town Team of Horses, eight or nine 
pairs, premiums, $15, $8 

STEERS. 

For best pair three year old steers, broken to the yoke, 
premiums, $8, $6 

For best pair two year old Steers, premiums, $6, $5 

For best pair yearling Steers, premiums, $5, $4 

For best pair of Steer calves, premiums, $4, $2 

STALLIONS. 

All Stallions entered in either class must have been owned 
by the exhibitor four months previous to the exhibition. 

First Class. For best Stallion for Farm and Draft Horses, 
four years old and upwards, diploma or premiums, $10, $6, $4 

For best Stallion, three years old, premiums, $8, $5 

For best Stallion of any age, and five colts of his stock not 
less than one year old, quality and condition to be taken into 
account, premium, $15 

Secomj Class — For best Stallion for Driving Horses, four 
years old and upwards, premiums, Diploma, $10, $6, $4 

Best Stallion of any age and five colts of his stock, not less 
that one year old, quality and condition to be taken into ac- 
count, premiums, $15 



213 

BROOD MARES. 

For best Brood Mare, with her foal not more than eight 
months old by her side, premiums, $10, $6, $4 

Note. — No brood mare or stallion will be entitled to a premium unless free 
from all apparent defects capable of being transmitted. 

FAMILY HORSES. 

For best family Horse, premiums, $10, $6, $4 

Note. — No horse will receive a premium unless free from aUunsoundness. 

GENTLEMEN'S DRIVING HORSES. 
For Best Driving Horse, premiums, $10, $6, $4 

FARM HORSES. 

For best Farm Horse, premium, $10, $6, $4 

Note. — No horse will be allowed except those actually used on farms, and 
in no case will competitors be allowed to take more than a specified load, 2000 
lbs. No obstruction shall be placed either before or behind the wheels in tri- 
als of Draft horses of either class. If this rule is not complied with the pre- 
mium shall be withheld. 

PAIRS OF FARM HORSES. 

For best pair of Farm Horses with load of two tons, premiums, 

$12, $8, $4 
COLTS FOR DRAFT PURPOSES. 

First Class. For best Mare or Gelding four year old colt, 

premiums, $10, $6, $4 

For best Mare or Gelding, three year old colt, premiums, 

$o, $o 

Second Class. For best two year old Stallion, Gelding or 

Mare Colt, premiums, $10, $6, $4 

For best yearling Stallion, Gelding or Mare Colts, premiums, 

$6, $4 
COLTS FOR GENERAL PURPOSES. 

First Class. For best Mare or Gelding four } - ear old Colt, 
premiums, $10, $6, $4 

For best Mare or Gelding three year old Colt, premiums, 

$8, $5 

Second Class. For best two year old Stallion, Gelding or 
Mare Colt, premiums, $6, $4 

For best yearling Stallion, Gelding or Mare Colt, premiums, 



214 

SWINE. 

First Class. Large breeds, viz : Cheshire, Berkshire, 
Chester Count}- Whites, Poland China, Large Yorkshire, and 
any other breed or grade weighing more than 300 lbs. at ma- 
turity. 

For best Boar, premiums, $8, $5 

For best Breeding Sow, premiums, $8, 85 

For best Litter of Weaned Pigs, premiums, $8, $5 

Note. — Litters of Weaned Pigs must be not less than four in number, be- 
tween two and four months old. 

Second Class. Small breeds, such as Suffolk, Essex, Small 
Yorkshire, China, and any other breed or grade weighing less 
than 300 lbs. at maturity, same premiums as in First Class. 

SHEEP. 

For best flock, not less than ten in number, premiums, 

$10, $6 

For best Buck, premium, $8 

For best lot of Lambs, not less than four in number, between 

four and twelve months old, premium, $4 

POULTRY. 

For the best pair of Light Brahmas, Dark Brahmas, Buff 
Cochins, Partridge Cochins, Black Cochins, White Cochins, 
Ptymouth Rocks, Dominiques, White Leghorns, Brown Leg- 
horns, Dominique Leghorns, Black Spanish, Hamburgs, Polish, 
Games, Dorking, Bantams, Black, White and Mottled Javas, 
Wyandottes, White Wyandottes, Andalusian, Erminet, Lang- 
shangs and Frizzle, each, premiums, 62, $1 

Chickens of. above varieties, premiums, 62, 81 

For the best breeding pen of each variety — Diploma of the 
Society. 

Premiums shall be awarded on a score of not less than 176 
points for first premium and 166 points for second premium. 

Best lot of Geese, Ducks, Turkeys, premiums, $2, 81 

For the best coop of 10 or more Fowls exhibited, whether 
thoroughbreds crossed or mixed, with an account for one 3'ear, 
showing cost of keeping, production and profit, premium, 85 

For the best pair of dressed Fowls, Chickens and Ducks, pre- 
mium, 82 

For the best dozen of Eggs, no more and no less than twelve 
in number exhibited, premium, 81 

Any exhibitor interfering with the Judges in the discharge of 



215 

their duties or interfering with, or handling any specimen on 
exhibition, other than his own, shall forfeit all claim he may 
have in the premium list. 

All breeds exhibited separately and to be judged by the rules 
of the " American Standard of Excellence." 

PLOUGHING. 

General Note on Ploughing. Stags are excluded. Teams must be en- 
tered in the names of their owners, and only double ox-teams to have drivers. 
A team consisting of one pair of oxen and a horse will be considered a double 
team. The owners of separate teams may unite the same and. be allowed to 
compete for premiums. The ploughmen and drivers must have been resi- 
dents of the County at least three months before the exhibition. Those who 
intend to be competitors must give notice to the Secretary on or before Sat- 
urday previous to the Show. The lands will be staked, but each ploughman 
will be required to strike out his own land. Ploughmen with land-side ploughs 
are to back furrow three furrows on each side of the stakes set, the last fur- 
row to be of the depth required in the class. Ploughmen with swivel ploughs 
to turn the outside of their furrows to the stakes on one side, and to finish 
one foot from the stake on the other. Committees to note and report the kind 
of plough used. 

Ploughing — Double Teams. — For the best performance of 
Ploughing, one-sixth of an acre, at least eight inches deep, pre- 
miums, $12, $10, $9, $8 

Ploughing — Single Teams. — For the best performance in 
Ploughing, one-sixth of an acre, at least six inches deep, pre- 
miums, $10, $9, $5 

Ploughing — With Horses. — For the best performance with 
any form of Plough, except Swivel, one-sixth of an acre, at 
least six inches deep, premiums, • $10, $7, $5 

Ploughing with Three or Four Horses. — Eight inches 
deep with three horses without driver, premium, $10 

With four horses with driver, premium, $10 

Ploughing — Swivel Plough. — For the best performance, 
one-sixth of an acre, either with double or single ox-team, dou- 
ble teams, at least eight inches deep, single teams six inches, 
premiums, • $12, $10, $8 

Horse teams, consisting of two horses, ploughing at least six 
inches deep, premiums, $10, $6 

Ploughing — Sulky Plough. — For the best performance, tak- 
ing into account ease of draft, amount and quality of work, pre- 
miums, $10, $8 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

For the best collection of Implements and Machines, (no ar- 
ticle offered in collection will be entitled to a separate premium) 

Diploma and $10 
Best Market Wagon, premium, $5 



216 

Best Farm Wagon for one or two horses, premium, $3 

Best Horse Cart, premium, $5 

Best Hay, Straw, or Corn Cutter, premium, $1.50 

Best Ox Yoke, complete, premium, 81.50 

Best Fruit Evaporator, with sample of work, premium, $5 
Best set of Horse Shoes, including those for over-reaching, 
interfering, and stumbling horses, premium, $5 

For implements not specified, to be awarded by the Commit- 
tee, premium, $40 
No premium or gratuity will be awarded for an}' Mower, 
Horse Rake, Tedder, or other Machine or Implement, the merit 
of which can be known only by actual trial in the field ; but 
manufacturers are invited to offer the same for exhibition and 
inspection. 

CARRIAGES. 

For Carriages, built in the County, and exhibited by the man- 
ufacturer, a diploma, and thirty dollars in gratuties, may be 
awarded by the Committee. 



IN EXHIBITION HILL. 

Committees on articles exhibited in the hall should be spec- 
ially careful that the premium cards issued correspond with the 
names and sums in the reports to the Society. 

DAIRY. 

For best specimens of Butter made on any farm within the 
County, the present year, samples not less than five pounds to 
be exhibited, with a full account of the process of making and 
management of the Butter, premiums, $10, $8, $6 

For best specimens of New Milk Cheese, made on any farm 
in the Count}*, the present year, samples of not less than fifty 
pounds to be exhibited, with statement in writing of the method 
of making and preserving the same, premiums $8, $6, $4 

Note. — Each lot presented for premium and the statement accompanying 
it, must be numbered, but not marked so as to indicate the claimant; any pub- 
lic or known mark must be completely concealed; nor must the competitors 
be present at the examination. 

To the person who shall furnish to the Society satisfactory 
evidence of the greatest amount of Butter made from an}* quan- 
tity of milk, being the whole produce of any single cow, for the 
first week of June, July, August and September next, stating 



217 

the whole amount of Butter produced in each week, and also 
the time when the cow dropped her last calf, and her feed and 
management all to be taken into account in making the award, 
premiums, Diploma and &10, $5 

Note. — The object in offering this last premium is to elicit inquiry as to 
the value and quality of milk for the production of butter. As far as practi- 
cable it is desirable that the race and pedigree of the cow should be given. 

BREAD, HONEY AND CANNED FRUIT. 

For White Bread made of wheat flour and raised by yeast, 
premiums, $3, $2, SI 

For yeast bread made from Graham flour, premiums, $2, $1 

For 3'east bread made from other grains, or other grains mixed 
with wheat, premiums, $1.50, $1 

All bread, entered for premiums, to be in loaves weighing not 
less than one pound each, and to be not less than 24 hours old, 
also to have a full written statement over the signature and ad- 
dress of the maker, stating the kind of flour used, quantit}' of 
each ingredient, how mixed and length of time kneaded and 
raised, which statements on all premium bread are to be sent to 
the Secretary with report of the Committee for publication. 

For first and second best display of Bees, Hives and Aparian 
Implements, to be accompanied with a description of the bees, 
hives, etc., number of hives in use and amount of surplus hon- 
ey taken from them during the season, premiums, $5, S3 

First and second best Honey, ten pounds in comb and one 
pound of same extracted, made in the County, with statement 
signed of kind of bees and hive and time of year when honey 
was made, premiums, $3, $2 

For first and second best collection of Pickles, Preserved 
Fruits, and Jellies, made from products of the Count}', ichen 
premiums are awarded, the method of making to be sent to the 
Secretary by the Committee for publication. Premiums, S3, $2 

For the first and second best five pounds of Dried Apples, 
grown and dried within the County, with statement of process 
used and amount of labor and time required in preparing and 
drying, such statement on premium fruit to be given to the Secre- 
tary for publication, premiums S3, $2 

In addition to the above, are placed in the hands of the Com- 
mittee for gratuities on other articles entered in this department, 
products of this County deemed worthy, $5 

FRUIT. 

All fruit must be entered in the name of the producer, and 
each exhibitor must certify to the same on the Entry Book, or 



218 

lists of the varieties of each class of fruit, to be filed when en- 
try is made. (Committees are not authorized to make awards 
to those who do uot compby with this rule.) 

Tables will be labeled in a conspicuous manner by the hall 
committee, before the entry of Exhibitors, with the names of 
fruit, for which premiums are offered, all others of same class of 
fruit to be labelled miscellaneous. Exhibitors must place their 
several varieties of each class of fruit where indicated b}- such 
labels, or be considered by the committee as not competing for 
premium. 

Plates of 24 specimens of fruit, when premiums are offered 
therefor, must be entered and placed by the exhibitor on the ta- 
ble assigned for the exhibit of that class of fruit. 

To entitle exhibitors to receive premiums and gratuities award- 
ed, they are required (when requested by the committee) to give 
information in regard to the culture of their fruit. 

PEARS. 

For best twelve specimens of the following varieties, which 
are recommended for cultivation in Essex County : Bartlett, 
Belle Lucrative, Beurre Bose, Beurre d' Anjou, Duchess d' An- 
gouleme, Dana's Hovey, Lawrence, Louise Bonne de Jersey, 
Maria Louisa, Onondaga, Paradise d' Automne, Seckel, Shel- 
don, Unbaniste, Vicar of Winkfield, Beurre Langlier, Howell, 
Beurre Hardy and Beurre Clairgeau, each, $3 

Doyenne d Ete, Beurre Gifford and Clapp's Favorite (ripen- 
ing early) are recommended for cultivation, but no premium is 
offered. 

For each dish of twelve best specimens of any other varieties 
deemed worthy by the committee, SI. 50 

For best dish of Pears, not less than twent3*-four specimens, 
premium, $6 

In addition to the above, are placed at the disposal of the 
committee, to be awarded in gratuities of not less than $1 each, 

$20 
APPLES. 

For best twelve specimens of the following varieties, which 
are recommended for cultivation in Essex Count}' : Baldwin, 
Danvers Winter Sweet, King of Tomkin.s Co., Granite Beauty, 
Red Russet, McCarty, Tolman's Sweet, Bailey's Sweet, Drap 
d'Or, Hubbardston Nonesuch, Hurlburt, Porter, Pickman's Pip- 
pin, Roxbury Russet, Rhode Island Greening, Sweet Baldwin, 
Gravenstein, Hunt's Russet, Smith's Cider, premium for each, 

$3 



219 

Red Astrachan, William's Favorite, Tetofsky and Sweet 
Bough are recommended for cultivation, but no premium is 
offered, (ripening early.) 

For best twelve specimens of any other varieties deemed wor- 
thy by the committee, premium for each, Si. 50 

For best twenty-four specimens of an}' variety, Apples, $6 

For best twenty-four specimens of any variety of Crab Apple 
deemed worthy by the committee, Si .f»0 

In addition to the above, are placed at the disposal of the 
committee, to be awarded in gratuities of not less than $1 each, 

$20 

PEACHES, GRAPES AND ASSORTED FRUITS. 

For best nine specimens of Freestone White Flesh, Yellow 
Flesh, Essex County Seedling, each, $2 

For best collection of Peaches, premium, S3 

For best four bunches of Concord, Worden's Seedling, Bright- 
on, Hartford Prolific, Delaware, Martha, Moore's Early, Niag- 
ara, each, S3 

For best exhibition of Cold House Grapes, produced with not 
over one month's artificial heat, premiums, $6, $4 

For best collection of ten varieties, not less than ten pounds, 
premium, S7 

For best specimens of four bunches of other varieties deemed 
worthy by the committee, premium, Si. 50 

For best basket of Assorted Fruit, premiums, $4, S3 

In addition to the above, are placed at the disposal of the 
committee, to be awarded in gratuities of not less than 50 cents 
each, $25 

FLOWERS. 

For best display of Foliage Plants in pots, at least ten 

specimens, premiums, $3, $2 

For best pair of Parlor Bouquets of choice flowers, 

premium, $3 

For best pair of Hand Bouquets of choice flowers, 

premium, $2 

For best display of Cut Flowers, premiums, $3, $2 

For best four Ferns in pots, premium, $1 

For best four Gloxinias, in pots, premium, $1 

For best four Coleus in pots, premium, $1 

For best specimen of any species of Begonia in pot, 

premium, $1 

For best grown Pot Plant of any species, not from a 

greenhouse, premium, $1 



220 

For best Bouquet of Garden Flowers, premium, $ 

For best arranged Basket of Garden Flowers, premium, $ 
For best twelve garden Dahlias, six varieties, premium, $ 
For best twelve Bouquet Dahlias, six varieties, premium, $ 
For best twelve Single Dahlias raised from seed by 

exhibitor, premium, $ 

For best twenty-four Asters, six varieties, premium, $ 

For best twelve Carnation Pinks, four varieties, premium, $ 
For best twelve spikes of Gladiolus, four varieties, 

premium, $ 

For best twenty-four Petunias, six varieties, premium, $ 
For best twenty-four Verbenas, six varieties, premium, $ 
For best twenty-four Double Zinnias, four varieties, 

premium, $ 

For best twenty-four French and African Marigolds, 

six varieties, premium, $ 

For best twelve Calendulas or Pot Marigolds, two 

varieties, premium, $ 

For best twelve Japan Lilies, two varieties, premium, $ 

For best twelve trusses of Geraniums, four varieties, 

premium, $ 

For best twelve trusses of Garden Phlox, four varieties, 

premium, $ 

For best collection of Drummond's Phlox, six varieties, 

premium, $ 

For Mourning Bride, four varieties, premium, $ 

For Nasturtiums, four varieties, premium, $ 

For Pansies, six varieties, premium, $ 

For Everlastings, six varieties, $ 

For Garden Annuals, six specimens of at least ten 

varieties, premium, $ 

For Roses, three varieties, premium, $ 

For best Floral Design of choice flowers, premium, $2 

For best collection of Native Plants, to be marked with the 

correct botanical and common names, and neatly displayed in 

separate bottles, premiums, $5, $3 

For best arrangement of Native Flowers and Autumn Leaves, 

premium, $2 

In gratuities to contributors in this department, as the arti- 
cles may seem to merit, will be awarded, $20 

1. Every plant or flower entered for premium (except native 
flowers) must be grown by the exhibitor. 

2. No premium shall be awarded unless the specimens ex- 
hibited are of average excellence and worth}' of such premium. 

3. No specimen entered for one premium shall be admitted 
in competition for another different premium. 



221 

VEGETABLES. 

Beets — For best twelve specimens, Eclipse and Dewing, 
premium, each, $3 

Carrots — For best twelve, short top long Orange and 
Dauvers Intermediate, premium, each, $3 

For best twelve, Short Horn Orange Carrots, premium, $2 
Mangold Wurtzels — For best six specimens, premium, $3 
Flat Turnips — Twelve specimens. For best Purple Top 
and White Flat, premium, each, $3 

Ruta Bagas — Twelve specimens. For best Yellow and 
White, premium, each, $3 

Parsnips — For best twelve specimens, premium, S3 

Onions — One peck. For best Danvers, Yellow Flat and 
Red, premium, each, $1 

Potatoes — One peck. For best Early Rose, Beauty of He- 
bron, Clark's No. 1, Pearl of Savoy, Early Maine, premium, 
each, $3 

Cabbages — For best three specimens Savoy, Fottler's Drum- 
head, Stone Mason Drumhead, Red Cabbage, each, premium, 

$3 
For next best, each, premium, $2 

Cauliflowers — For best three specimens, premium, $3 

For next best, premium, $2 

Celeiy — For best four roots, premium, $2 

Sweet Corn — For twelve ears ripest and best Early, 
premium, $3 

For best twelve ears in milk, Late, premium, $3 

Squashes — For best three specimens Marrow, American Tur- 
ban, Hubbard, Marblehead, Essex Hybrid, premium, each, $3 
Melons — For best three specimens Nutmeg, Musk, Cassaba, 
each, premium, $2 

For best two specimens Watermelons, premium, $2 

Tomatoes — For best twelve specimens Round, Flat, Spherical, 
Essex Hybrid, or any other variet} r , each, premium, $3 

For exhibition of greatest variety, premium, S3 

Cranberries — For peck cultivated, premiums, $3, $2, $1 

For best collections of vegetables, premiums, $8, $6 

Placed at the disposal of this committee for whatever appears 
meritorious, $30 

dPNo competitor for premium to exhibit more or less num- 
ber of specimens of any vegetables than the premiums are of- 
fered for. 

Collections of Vegetables, where premiums are offered for a number of 
varieties, must be entered and placed by themselves on the tables assigned for 
collections. Ko collection shall receive but one premium. Specimens of any 



222 

variety in such collections are not to compete with specimens of the same va- 
riety placed elsewhere. Exhibitors of such collections, however, are not pre- 
vented from exhibiting additional specimens of any variety, with and in 
competition with like variety. 

Size of Vegetables. — Turnip Beets to be from 3 to 5 inches in diameter; 
Onions, 2 1-2 to 4 inches in largest diameter: Potatoes to be of good size for 
family use; Squashes to be pure and well ripened — Turban, Marrow, Hub- 
bard/Marblehead, each to weigh 8 to 12 lbs. 

GRAIN AND SEED. 

For best peck of Shelled Corn, Wheat, Oats, Barley, 
Rye and Buckwheat, each, premium, $1 

For best 25 ears of Field Corn, premiums, $5, S3, $2 

For best 25 ears of Pop Corn, premiums, $3, $2 

For best collections of Field and Garden Seed, premiums, 

$o, $5 
All grain or seed must have been grown in the County to re- 
ceive premium. 

DOMESTIC MANUFACTURES. 

Contributors must deposit their articles at the Hall before 11 
o'clock on the first day of the Exhibition. Articles not thus 
deposited will not be entitled to a premium. Gratuities will be 
awarded for articles of special merit, for which no premium is 
offered ; but no premium or gratuit} r will be awarded for any 
article manufactured out of the County, or previous to the last 
Exhibition of the Society. 

COUNTERPANES AND AFGHANS. 

For best Wrought Counterpanes having regard to the quality 
and expense of the material, premiums, $4, $2 

Gratuities will be awarded for articles belonging to this de- 
partment, the whole amount of gratuities not to exceed $25 

CARPETINGS AND RUGS. 

For best Carpets, having regard to the quality and expense of 
the material, premiums, $4, $2 

Best Wrought Hearth Rug, having regard both to the quality 
of the work and expense of the material, premiums, $3, $2 

Gratuities will be awarded for articles belonging to this de- 
partment, the whole amount not to exceed $25 

ARTICLES MANUFACTURED FROM LEATHER. 

For best pair hand made and machine made Men's Boots, 

Women's do., Children's do., each, $2 

Best Team, Carriage and Express Harness, each, $5 



223 

$10 are placed at the disposal of this committee, to be award- 
ed in gratuities. 

For the best exhibition of Boots, and Shoes manufactured in 
the County, each, Diploma of Society. 

MANUFACTURES AND GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

For best display of Bonnets, premiums, $4, $2 

Best specimen of Horn Combs, not less than one dozen, pre- 
mium, < $3 
At the disposal of the committee in this department, to be 
awarded in gratuities not exceeding S3 in any one gratuity, $20 

Fancy Work and Works of Art, and other articles of Do- 
mestic Manufacture not included in the above. 

At the disposal of the committee in this department, to be 
awarded in gratuities not exceeding $3 in any one gratuity, 

$50 

Work by Children Under Twelve Yfars of Age. For 
best specimens of work performed by children under 12 years 
of age, exhibiting industry and ingenuity, premiums, $3, $2 

At disposal of committee to be awarded in gratuities, $10 



LIST OF PREMIUMS TO BE AW1RDED BY THE 
TRUSTEES IN NOVEMBER. 

FARMS. 

Competitors for these premiums must give notice of their in- 
tention to the Secretary on or before June 15th, and the farms 
entered for premium will be viewed by the committee twice dur- 
ing the year. Crops growing on farms that are entered for pre- 
miums, cannot be entered with another committee for separate 
premiums — except specimens exhibited at the Fair. Any per- 
son desirous of having his farm inspected, without entering it 
for premium, ma}' make application to the Secretary, and it 
will be viewed and reported upon by the committee. 

Any person entering his farm for premiums, ma}' apply to the 
Chairman of the Committee on Farms, for the appointment of a 
sub-committee of not less than five in number, to visit his farm 
and report upon the same. 

For the best conducted and most improved "farm, taking into 
view the entire management and cultivation, including lands, 



224 



buildings, fences, orchards, crops, stock, and all other appen- 
dages, with statements in detail, relating thereto, premium, $30 

IMPROVING WET MEADOW AND SWAMP LANDS. 

For best conducted experiments relating to wet meadow or 
swamp lands, on not less than one acre, the course of man- 
agement, and the produce, etc., for a period of two years at 
least, to be detailed, with a statement of all the incidental ex- 
penses, premiums, $15, $10 

IMPROVING PASTURE AND WASTE LANDS. 

For best conducted experiments in renovating and improv- 
ing pasture land, other than b}' ploughing, so as to add to their 
value for pasturage, with a statement of the same, premiums, 

$15, $10 

For best conducted experiments in renovating and improv- 
ing waste lands, so as to add to their agricultural value, with 
statement of the same, premiums, $15, $10 

No premium to be awarded to an} r person for a repetition of 
an experiment in meadow, swamp or pasture lands, for which 
he has already received a premium. 

UNDER-DRAINING LAND. 

For best conducted experiments in under-draining land, re- 
gard being had to the variety of soil, sub-soil, and other local 
circumstances, premiums, $15, $10 

MANURES. 

For most exact and satisfactory experiments, in the prepara- 
tion and application of manures, whether animal, vegetable or 
mineral, premiums, $15, $10 

COMPARATIVE VALUE OF CROPS AS FOOD 
FOR CATTLE. 

For most satisfactory experiment upon a stock of cattle, not 
less than four in number, in ascertaining the relative value of 
different kinds of fodder used in feeding neat stock for milk 
and other purposes, with a statement in detail of the quantity 
and value of the, same, as compared with English haj r , pre- 
mium, $25 



225 

FATTENING CATTLE AND SWINE. 

For most satisfactory experiments in fattening Cattle or 
Swine, with a statement in detail of the process and result, pre- 
miums, $10, 85 

GRAIN AND OTHER CROPS. 

Claimants on Grain and Root Crops will be required to state 
the size of the piece of land, when the} 7 enter, and conform to 
the following rules : Entries of Grain Crops to be made on or 
before September 10th ; Root Crops on or before October 10th ; 
giving ample time for the crops to be examined by the commit- 
tee before harvesting. Statement, to be made in conformity 
with the following form, must be forwarded to the Committee 
previous to November 1st. 

All calculations and figures given in reports of, and state- 
ments of Crops are to be made on the basis of an acre, results, 
in all cases, to be given at the rate per acre. 

In pursuance of authority delegated to the Board of Agricul- 
ture, by Chap. 24 of Acts of 1862, Agricultural Societies receiv- 
ing the bounty of the State are required to make use of the fol- 
lowing form, and be governed by its conditions in the mode of 
ascertaining the amount of crops entered for premium. 

Essex Agricultural Society. — Statement concerning a crop 
of , raised by Mr. , in the town of , , 1887. 

What was the crop of 1885? What manure was used and 
how much? What was the crop of 18S6? What manure was 
used and how much? VY hat is the nature of the soil? When, 
and how many times ploughed, and how deep? What other 
preparation for the seed? Cost of ploughing and other prepa- 
ration? Amount of manure, in loads of thirty bushels, and how 
applied? Value of manure upon the ground? (What amount 
of Commercial Fertilizer used? How used? Value of same 
when applied?) When and how planted? The amount and kind 
of seed? Cost of seed and planting ? How cultivated, and how 
many times? Cost of cultivation, including weeding and thin- 
ning? Time and manner of harvesting? Cost of harvesting, 
including the storing and husking or threshing? Amount of 
crop, etc. Signed by , Competitor. 

The committee, to whom is entrusted the award of the pre- 
miums on field crops, may award them according to their judg- 
ment, but for the purpose of furnishing accurate statistics for 
the benefit of agriculture, shall select certain of the crops, and 
require the owners thereof to measure the land and weigh the 
crops accurately, giving to the committee a 'certificate of the 
same, and give all possible information thereon over their own 



226 

signatures, and return the same to the Secretary of the Society, 
to be published in the annual transactions. 

In ascertaining the amount of crop, any vessel may be used 
and the weight of its contents once, multiplied by the number 
of times it is filled by the crop. 

In measuring the land, or weighing crops, any competent per- 
son ma}- be employed, whether a sworn surveyor or not, and 
must give certificate. 

The certificates shall state the weight of all crops only in a 
merchantable state. 

In ascertaining the amount of a hay crop entered for pre- 
mium, the measurement of the hay in the barn may be employed. 

Rules of Measure Practiced and Adopted by the State 
Board of Agriculture. 

Wheat, Potatoes, Sugar Beets, Ruta Bagas, Mangold Wurtzel, 
White Beans and Peas, 60 lbs. to bush. 

Corn, Rye, 56 " 

Oats, 32 " " 

Barley, Buckwheat, 48 k ' " 

Cracked Corn, Corn and Rye, and other meal, except Oats, 

50 lbs. to bush. 
Parsnips, Carrots, 55 " " 

Onions, 52 " " 

1. For the best conducted experiments of Rye, not less than 
twenty bushels to the acre, fifty-six pounds to the bushel, on 
not less than one acre, premiums, $10, $5 

2. For best conducted experiments of Wheat, not less than 
thirty bushels to the acre, sixty pounds to the bushel, on not 
less than one acre, premiums, $10, $5 

3. For best conducted experiments of Oats, not less than 
fifty bushels to the acre, thirty-two pounds to the bushel, on not 
less than one acre, premiums, • $10, $5 

4. For best conducted experiments of Barley, not less than 
forty bushels to the acre, forty-eight pounds to the bushel, on 
not less than one acre, premium, $10, $5 

5. For best conducted experiments of Indian Corn, not less 
than one acre, premiums, $10, $5 

6. For largest quantity and best qualtty of English Hay, on 
not less than one acre, regard being had to the. mode and cost 
of cultivation, premiums, $10, $5 

7. For best yield of Field Beans, on not less than half acre, 
and not less than twenty-five bushels per acre, premiums, 

$10, $5 



227 

ROOT CROPS. 

1. For best conducted experiments in raising Carrots, fifty- 
five pounds to the bushel, premiums, $10, $5 

2. For best conducted experiments in raising Parsnips, fifty- 
five pounds to the bushel, premiums, $10, $5 

3. For best conducted experiments in raising Ruta Bagas, 
sixty pounds to the bushel, premiums, $10, $5 

4. For best conducted experiments in raising Mangold 
Wurtzels, sixty pounds to the bushel, premiums, $10, $5 

5. For best conducted experiments in raising Sugar Beets, 
sixty pounds to the bushel, premiums, $10, $5 

6. For best conducted experiments in raising Onions, fifty- 
two pounds to the bushel, premiums, $10, $5 

7. For best conducted experiments in raising Potatoes, six- 
ty pounds to the bushel, premiums, $10, $5 

8. For best conducted experiments in raising Cabbages, 
premiums, $10, $5 

9. For best conducted experiments in raising Squashes, pre- 
miums, $10, $5 

10. For best conducted experiments in raising Summer En- 
glish Turnips for the market, premiums, $10, $5 

Raised on not less than half an acre, and the quantity of crop 
to be ascertained by weight, so far as practicable, the crops to 
be free from dirt, without tops, and in a merchantable condition 
at the time of measurement. 

Claimants for premiums on Grain or Root Crops must forward 
statement to chairman of committee before Nov. 1st. 

FOREST TREES. 

1. For best plantation of either of the following species of 
forest trees, viz. : — White Oak, Yellow Oak, Locust, Birch, 
White Ash, Maple, Walnut, or White Pine, not less than three 
years old, and not less than 1000 trees, premium, $20 

2. For best do., of not less than 600 trees, premium, $10 

3. For best lot of ornamental trees, ten or more set on any 
street, road or farm, and cared for five years, premium, $10 

CRANBERRIES. 

For best conducted experiment in the cultivation of the Cran- 
berry, at least two summers, on not less than twenty rods of 
land, with written statement of the quantit}' and quality of land, 
expense of planting, weeding and culture, and amount of crops 
produced. Premium to be paid in 1887 or 1888, $15 



228 

For best experiment do., on not less than ten rods of land, 
premium, $10 

For best do., on not less than five rods of land, 
premium, $10 

STRAWBERRIES AND OTHER SMALL FRUITS. 

For best crop of Strawberries, on not less than twenty rods 
of land, expense of planting, culture, crop, etc., stated in writ- 
ing, premium, $10 

For best crop Currants, Raspberries and Blackberries, with 
statement as above, premiums, each, $10 

NEW WINTER APPLES. 

For a new variety of Winter Apple, originated in this Coun- 
ty, equal to the Baldwin, premium, $100 

For a new variety of like character originating elsewhere, pro- 
vided it has been cultivated in the County sufficiently to prove 
it equal to the Baldwin for general purposes, premium, $20 

For a successful experiment in destroying the codling moth 
and other worms destructive to the apple, premium, $25 

SEEDLING POTATOES AND EXPERIMENTS. 

For best Seedling Potato, originating in Essex County, to 
equal in yield, earliness and quality, the Earl}' Rose, and to 
surpass it in one or more of these particulars, premium paid af- 
ter three years trial, $25 

In testing the value of a seedling Potato, the committee are 
instructed to take the sworn testimony of the cultivator with 
regard to the yield, after having inspected the crop. 

For the most satisfactory experiment to extend through five 
consecutive years, to settle the following facts relative to rais- 
ing potatoes : — premium, $50 

1st. Will whole, medium sized Potatoes, yield better results 
than pieces cut to two eyes? 

2d. What will be the result of continuously planting small- 
sized potatoes of the same strain a series of years ? 

3d. Difference between hilling and flat cultivation. 

4th. Effect, if, any, of cutting off seed ends before planting. 

5th. Effects of deep and shallow planting. 

6th. Raising from sprouts alone from same strain. 

7th. Can potatoes having dwarf vines be planted nearer than 
others. 

8th. Best distance apart for seed in the drill. 



229 

9th. To show the effect of covering the top with earth at 
several times after they had come up. 

To be raised on not less than a half-acre of land, uniform in 
character, and all to receive the same kind and quality of ma- 
nure and cultivation, and to be inspected by the committee at 
the time of gathering the crops. 

NEW MEMBERS. 

For the person who obtains the largest number of new mem- 
bers for the Society from any Town or Cit}' before the first day 
of November next, $6 

Note. — Names of new members, with name of person procuring them, can 
be sent as fast as obtained, to the Secretary of the Society, who will make a 
record of them. 

Persons paying three dollars will receive a " Certificate of Member- 
ship," which is for life. No tines or assessments are ever imposed and mem- 
bers are entitled to vote in all its transactions, with free use of the Library 
and a copy of the publication of the Society each year. 

ESSAYS AND FARM ACCOUNTS. 

The Essays must be transmitted to the Secretary b} r the 1st 
of November, with sealed envelopes containing the names of 
their authors, respectively, which shall not be opened by the 
committee, nor shall the names be known to the committee until 
they shall have decided upon the merits of the Essay. 

For best original Essaj's on any subject connected with Agri- 
culture, in a form worthy of publication, premiums, 

55^.0, 5510, $8 

For best statement of Actual Farm Accounts, drawn from the 
experience of the claimant, in a form worthy of publication, 
premium, $10 

For best Reports of Committees, who report upon subjects 
for which premiums are offered by the Society, premiums, 

$10, $8, $6 

For best Statements of Exhibitors, premiums, $8, $4 

COMMITTEES. 

Committees for Judges, and Arrangements for the next Cattle 
Show and Fair, are chosen at the Trustees Meeting in June 
next. 



CONTENTS 



Page. 

Address of John D. Kingsbury, 3 

The 66th Exhibition, - - - - - 21 

Report on Fat Cattle, - - - - 24 

11 " Bulls, ----- 25 

11 " Milch Cows, - - - - - 26 

" " Heifers, 29 

" " Working Oxen and Steers, - - -30 

" " Town Teams, - - - - 30 

" " Steers, - - - - - 31 

" " Stallions, - - - - - 31 

" " Brood Mares, - - - - 32 

" " Family Horses, 33 

" " Gentlemen's Driving Horses, - - - 33 

" " Farm Horses, - - - - 34 

" " Draft Horses, - - - - - 34 

" " Pairs of Farm Horses, - - - 35 

" " Pairs of Draft Horses, - - - "35 

" " Colts for Draft Purposes, - - - 36 

" " Colts for General Purposes, - - 36 

" " Swine, ----- 37 

" Sheep, - - - 38 

" " Poultry, ----- 39 

" " Ploughing, - - - - 41 

" " Agricultural Implements, - - - 43 

" " Carriages, - - - - - 43 

" Dairy, ..... 44 

" " Bread, Honey and Preserves, - - "45 

" " Pears, ..... 47 

" " Apples, - - - - - - 49 

" " Peaches, Grapes, etc., 53 

" " Flowers, - - - - - 55 



231 



Page. 

Report on Vegetables, ----- 59 

" " Grain and Seed, - - - - 64 

" " Counterpanes and Afghans, 65 

" " Carpets and Rugs, - - - 67 

" " Articles Manufactured from Leather, - 69 

" " Manufactures and General Merchandise, - 70 

" " Fancy Work and Works of Art, - - 71 

" Children's Work, - - -> - 76 

" " Improving Wet Meadows, 77 

" " Grain Crops, - - - - -85 

" " Root Crops, - - - 90 

" " Ornamental Trees, - - - - 117 

" " Fruit Crops, --■-.- 127 

" " New Winter Apples and Codlin Moth, - 130 

" " New Members, - 137 

" " Treadwell Farm (Society's), - - - 138 

" " Farmers' Clubs and Societies, - - . 141 

Farmers' Institutes, - 144 

Essay, Poultry on the Farm, - - - - 150 

Essay, The Kitchen Garden, .... j^y 

Sheep Husbandry in Essex County, ... j68 

Report on Essays and Reports, - - - - 169 

Report — In Memoriam, - - - - 172 

Treasurer's Report, - 180 

List of Premiums Awarded, .... I g I 

Recapitulation of Premiums, - - - - 188 

Officers of the Society, - 190 

New Members, --.... j^j 

Changes of Members, ----- jg 2 

Correction of 1884 List, ----- r g 2 

List of Members of the Society, - - - 193 

List of Premiums Offered for 1887, ... 207 



TRANSACTIONS 

FOR THE YEAR 1887, 



OF THE 



Es?ei J[6?iceiiirjii Sqgiety 



FOR THE 



COUNTY OF ESSEX 

IN MASSACHUSETTS. 



WITH THE 



Sixty-Fifth Annual Address, 



BY 



WILLIAM COGSWELL, M. D„ 

OF BRADFORD. 



PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE SOCIETY. 



SALEM, MASS.: 

SALEM OBSERVES. BOOK AXD JOB PRINT. 

18 8 7. 



ADDRESS. 



Mr. President : — I propose to speak in a practical way 
of oar Indebtedness to the Farm. My subject might 
well be suggested by the display which is this day made 
by the farmers of Essex. These fruits and flowers, 
tempting to the taste, give us some notion of what the 
earth yields to furnish our tables and gladden our homes. 
No one can look on the wonderful variet}^ of Nature's 
gifts, without gratitude. We may well take satisfaction 
and be filled with honest pride as we behold the lowing 
herds, the bleating flocks, the patient ox, the knowing 
horse, and not the least the fowls that give grace and 
beauty to every well appointed farm. It is a grand pro- 
cession that has come up through all the thoroughfares of 
Essex to join in this farmers' holiday, and everything we 
see is a testimony to the fact that Nature is always ren- 
dering tribute to man. This exhibition of machines and 
tools, and instruments, shows the skill and wisdom of 
man in devising ways of gaining more largely and with 
greater ease the products of the earth. We are im- 
pressed with the fact that these gifts are so abundant 
that we may never exhaust the bounty of Nature. Every 
year great harvests grow out on the prairies, which all 
the power of man could never cut and garner without 
the use of the reaping machine and the thresher. When 
the earth is honestly tilled, it becomes a problem which 
exhausts our skill to know how to gather and transport 



4 

the products. It is sometimes said that the former times 
were better than these, and desponding men think the 
race is deteriorating ; but if our fathers of blessed mem- 
ory ever had better fruits of husbandry, better cows, or 
horses, or swine, better needlework, or bread, or sweeter 
butter, or more delicious sweetmeats, they have left no 
record of the happy day when they showed them. 
Heaven be praised ! that the mantle of the fathers has 
fallen on their children; early vigor of New England 
life has not entirely passed away with the generations 
that have gone. 

THE BLESSING OF HEALTH. 

The first indebtedness of which I shall speak is for the 
health which comes so naturally to the farmers' employ. 
What constitutes health ? It is not the simple'absence of 
pain or disease. It is not to be defined by negatives. 
Health is the vigor of strong muscles, which make the 
man robust in action, elastic in step, ready for duty, able 
to overcome obstacles and to grasp and hold for advan- 
tage the blessings which^are always within the reach of 
him who has power to take them. Ability always finds 
opportunity. Health is in the vigorous lungs which take 
in freely the pure air of heaven, fill the blood with oxy- 
gen, cleanse it from the constant waste of the system ; 
and in the steady pulse which sends the cleansed current 
as a red river of life through the whole body, giving 
constant renewal of strength, and grace, and beauty to 
every part. Health is the power to take the good things 
of God and digest and assimilate them for all the uses of 
our manifold life ; what is a man good for who has not a 
good digestion '.' 

Health is the potency of the brain, transmitting its 



5 

force along the nerve currents, marshalling the powers of 
mind and body, so that the will of man is supreme in its 
control, and every muscle and organ and faculty moves 
at its command. The mysterious relation of brain and 
nerves to the healthful activities can never be explained, 
but the fact is not to be doubted that in a condition of 
health the brain rules in the conscious and the uncon- 
scious action of the whole body. It is often said that 
the mind is diseased, but the truth commonly is that the 
brain is affected, so that it cannot act for the mind either 
in transmitting its commands or in its equally important 
unconscious influence along the lines of the nerves in 
controlling digestion, in helping on in the assimilations 
and secretions, and even in the circulation of the blood. 
A weak or sickly brain brings inefficiency into all our 
actions, and enfeebles and distorts the best energies. 
Now I raise the question, where would you send a man 
to gain strong muscles, a vigorous digestion, and the 
healthful activity of lungs, and heart, and brain, if it be 
not to the labor which is under the open heavens, and to 
feed without restraint upon the best bounties of God, 
which come from the well kept farm. 

I need hardly say that health is essential to our joy. 
It is the thing we seek after with great longing. The 
ancient Alchemist sought in vain to change all things 
into gold. There is a modern Alchemist who not only 
seeks for the great panacea, but claims to have found it, 
and the world is full of his boasts, and men and women 
in countless numbers are seeking for the blessings of his 
healing art. They search for health along all avenues, 
by all remedies and arts, and in all climes. This desire 
is emphasized by the miseries of a ruined body, whose 
aches and pains are so many voices always ciwing out to 



be whole again. And every honest physician will testify 
that it is infinitely easier to preserve our health and 
develop it, than it is to restore it when lost. In the 
increasing wisdom of our times, it has come to he under- 
stood that health of body is necessary for all classes. 
There was a time when sickly boys were turned into the 
professions. The unhealthy body, which could not 
endure the work of the farm, might still be of service in 
the study. That fallacy has passed away. We now send 
sickly men out of the professions to the farm. We send 
sick ministers and doctors as we do broken down horses, 
"out to grass," and we send into the professions the 
strongest men we have. We look for a sound mind in a 
healthy body. We believe in a sturdy, honest, hardy 
piety, which is able to do the will of God as well as to 
long for something spiritual. A vigorous brain needs 
good digestion. A dyspeptic stomach breeds morbid 
thoughts. Whatever wastes the energies, depraves the 
mind. Disease is not confined to the body, but it preys 
on the sensibilities and the intellect, and destroys the 
glory of life. It is not strange, then, that men long for 
health. I claim that the conditions of health are best 
secured by the farmer. He breathes God's pure air, and 
that air is not mingled with the dust of the mill, or the 
contagion that lurks in the crowded streets and allevs. 
He breathes the air fresh from the hills, cleansed by 
every shower, fragrant with the breath of heaven ; pure 
air, full of oxygen, which reddens the blood, and sends 
it with living power to give strength and glowing beauty 
to the whole body. The farmer does not work behind 
some wall which hides the sun ; his labor is where the 
sunlight paints (he Mower, and fills the apple boughs 
with crimson, and adds the purple to the luscious grapes. 



He feeds on the bounties of God. The earth yields to 
him its fruit in its freshness. Good food is essential to 
health. Give nie the natural products, not the result of 
the laboratory; well grown, well ripened grain and fruit, 
clover honey, and clover butter, instead of flavored glu- 
cose and oleomargarine; golden syrup from the sugar 
maple and the cane, instead of the gift of the chemist ; 
water from heaven, distilled from the clouds, percolating 
through the earth and babbling in the living stream. 

HEALTHFUL EXERCISE. 

I am not forgetful of the hard labor and frequent ex- 
posure of farm life, when I say that the farmer has the 
best possible exercise. This body of ours must be used 
if we would have it healtlrv. The spring that is in per- 
fect rest becomes stagnant ; the air that never moves is 
filled with germs of disease — so God makes the living 
spring, which never rests, and sends the winds which 
ventilate the world, and keep the waters of the ocean as 
a reservoir of health, which otherwise were a pool of 
death. The muscle of your arm must be used, or it will 
lose its power ; everything must act. It must be evident 
that the farmer's life gives exercise to the whole body. 
The simplest tool of husbandry serves a double purpose, 
reaching the present aim, and developing also the hand 
of him that uses it. More honorable by far in the history 
of man, are the implements of honest labor, than all the 
balls and bats and things the athlete uses in his life of 
sporting vanity. The aim of life is very low if it does 
not take in some purpose to accomplish some useful 
thing. The grandest motto of life is, " I live to serve." 
The simple development of strength of body or mind is 
of little consequence, if that strength does not render 



8 

service. In the early days of the civil war our army 
was in the process of training. The early battles re- 
sulted in defeat. But the army grew stronger with 
every reverse. Fidelity to duty in the hearts of our 
patriot soidiery was the inspiration of a new resolve in 
those dark days, when the fate of the nation hung in the 
balance. The training of the camp, the knowledge of 
luetics, the hardening of the body inured to hardships, 
were elements of strength in that contest when an invin- 
cible army moved on dauntless, through the wilderness 
of death, and swept over the fields of Georgia — adding 
victory to victory, till the battle was won and the sol- 
diers rested at Appomattox. It was strength devoted to 
a grand purpose. It was the result of discipline. What 
is an army good for if it will not fight? What is a man 
worth if lie shirks responsibility, fails in the time of 
greatest need ? What is a man worth if he will not 
work ? This is the more important, when we consider 
that in all tilings conflict is necessary in order to succeed 
— an easy victoiy means small gain. The most success- 
ful man is he who has the most to do. His fertile brain 
devises the plans of life ; his hands carry out the things 
devised. You cannot gather so much gold as to be able 
to secure success to your son by any foundation on which 
you place him. Work, work, work, is the secret of all 
progress. Not the treadmill as in slaveiy, not the blind 
following instinct as the squirrel gathers nuts, but the 
work of hand and foot, guided by an active brain. The 
most successful nation does not live in tropical lands, 
where nature is most opulent with her gifts. But that 
nation whose ships float on every sea, whose people en- 
ter witli pride the rivalries of common lives, where the 
soil is less productive, and nature's forces are held in re- 



serve for those who work with her. The largest success 
lies within the secret place where nature holds her treas- 
ures ready for him who surmounts the obstacles, and 
earns the right and title to her gifts untold. 

LABOR AND REST. 

The next suggestion of our indebtedness to the farm is 
that it affords intervals of rest. The best condition of 
health is when rest and labor are so intermingled that 
the life is renewed for the duties of each new day. It is 
one of the pleasant things which the Hebrew bard sang 
of the gifts of God when he added to his verse, " So he 
giveth his beloved sleep." Rest answers a necessity of 
nature. It recuperates the weary body. It gives new 
strength to the over-taxed brain, and sends man fresh 
and vigorous to each new duty. Rest is a law of nature. 

The trees rest. You shall see when the season is over, 
how the apple boughs have little buds "ready formed for 
next year's growth. Nature forms the bud, covers it 
with varnish to keep out the moisture, and then the tree 
sleeps till it is awakened by the soft winds and the 
voices of birds singing in the branches in the opening 
spring. You can wake up that tree in the cold winter 
time, by bringing it within doors, but it will be like a 
man roused at midnight: restless and fruitless all the 
day. Nature teaches us the duty of rest ; every shrub 
and herb, and tender plant, has its season of repose. 
The land restg. God spreads the white mantle over it, 
and it sleeps through its winter night. The frost disin- 
tegrates it, and loosens and lightens and tempers it, and 
he is a foolish farmer who tries to work the soil before 
nature has made it ready. The wise man watches the 
opening season, and at the appointed time puts in the 



io 

ploughshare which turns the black furrows to the sun, 
and combs the ridges with the harrow, and drops the 
seed into the mellow loam. The spring-time is nature's 
morning. The white spread vanishes, sun and shower 
send greetings from heaven, the buds burst, the birds 
sing, and a soft verdure clothes the fields. The pastures 
are clothed with flocks; the valleys are covered with 
corn. 

This lesson of rest we read in the world of growing 
things. Man also rests from his labor. There is no 
scene of greater beauty than a rural landscape at the 
close of day. The ploughman lifts the yoke from the 
faithful ox ; the milk-pails, brimming with foam, are 
brought in, and the quiet herd lie down to rest. The 
fowls crowd the perches ; the shadows lengthen on the 
western hills, as the farmer gathers with his family round 
the evening board. The gates are closed — the bars are 
up ; night draws the curtain, and the tired farmer sleeps. 
No dreams of unpaid notes disturb his slumbers. No fear 
of failure or unfair competition. He has done his duty ; 
he leaves the rest to Him who sends the rain and sun- 
shine. He rests in peace, for God giveth the increase. 

THE FARM A SCHOOL OF THE INTELLECT. 

There are many schools in which man is trained for 
duty and for life. Among them all I do not hesitate to 
rank as of first importance that which has its place in the 
unpretending home of the farmer. In the quiet beauty 
of every rural scene, the central object is the old farm- 
house, with shade trees, and garden, and orchard, and 
spreading lawn. By the fireside, in that home, the farm- 
er gives lessons of wisdom to the growing boys. With 
his few books and his weekly newspaper, he keeps his 



1 1 



mind fresh and ready for instruction. Many a lesson on 
political economy is given by that fireside. There the 
youthful hearts learn of loyalty to the country. There 
the mind grows in adherence to the one or the other 
political party ; and there, too, from the gentler voice of 
her who reigns as queen in her ample realm, are learned 
those sweeter lessons of love and virtue, which make 
life more dutiful and more beautiful as the years go on. 
So the farmer's sons and daughters grow into strength 
and beauty, in this early school. But more than this is 
true. We owe our intellectual power to the soil ; that is 
to say, our intellectual force depends, on the health which 
is gained by a proper use of the gifts of nature. The 
time has passed when men think without eating. The 
monk lived in the desert, and starved himself as a relig- 
ious duty. But his religion was as meagre as his dish. 
The scholastic sometimes did the same thing; but thought 
was fettered by hunger. His genius was spoiled by the 
want he suffered. He tried to get away from sense, and 
gain spiritual ideas ; but God has ordained that we 
should do our work in our realm of sense, and the best 
trained intellect will not ignore this, and the most im- 
portant endowment a man can have is common sense. 
With that as a conscious possession he will never starve 
his body to make his mind broader, or break the laws of 
health in order to enlarge the spiritual faculties. Take 
away food from a man, and his whole being suffers. 
Good food, pure air, honest labor, and a clear conscience 
will do more than all else to restore that man who has 
broken the laws of his being and desires to regain the 
lost joy. The breaking of the laws of health brings a 
cloud over the mind. The wit and wisdom fail, and the 
grasp and grip of every faculty is lost. 



12 

RELATION TO MORALS. 

I will not close without suggesting that the realm of 
morals comes clearly into the farmer's life. A man can 
sometimes deal unjustly with his fellow, and escape the 
penalty, but he can never do that with his land. 

Nature teaches honesty. A man must be honest with 
his farm. If you defraud your land you will suffer loss. 
"Nature never forgives an injury." You can never pros- 
per if you take out of your farm its power of production 
and make no restitution. You may ill-treat it and rob it, 
and then it will refuse you its gifts. You will be unable 
to feast from its bounty. The duty of rendering an 
equivalent is one of the common of the teachings of 
nature. Let out your land to a man who takes off the 
hay, and grain, and straw, and you will soon find your 
land barren. The very soil cries out against the sin of 
robbery. The farm teaches the duty of exerting a pure 
influence. Mix the Canada thistle with your seed oats, 
or let the Avhite daisy have free range over your fields, or 
admit couch-grass into your garden, and you have done 
an evil which the labor of a generation will hardly re- 
deem. Resistance of evil is a duty which the farmer 
knows to be a cardinal virtue. So in all our human re- 
lations, it is so very easy to let in the thing that is wrong. 
The evil thing needs no fostering ; it will nourish itself. 
The thistle will grow in t)\e hedge row, or in the heart of 
your field. Lust will dwell in the brothel, or in the 
sacred inclosure of home. It will not be subdued by the 
curses of the one, nor by the tears and lamentations of 
the other. You are not only dropping seed into the 
ready soil, but you are sowing the seed of character in 
the minds of all about you, especially in the hearts of 
children, who take the type of character from your ex- 



13 

ample and teaching. Be careful to sow good seed, which 
shall spring up in a harvest which shall bless the world. 

The future citizenship of the land depends largely on 
the nature of the farmer's home. 

The yeomanry of the land is large. It is homogenious, 
conservative. It is self-poised, independent, gifted with 
energy and power. It is intelligent and far-sighted. If 
it may perpetuate itself in the honesty, and integrity, and 
courage, and fidelity of the rising generation all the 
interests of the Commonwealth are assured. All other 
things are dependent on the farmer. The farm is the 
basis of all wealth and civilization. Take away its fer- 
tile meadows and sweet pastures, its well-kept fences and 
appointments; destroy its pure sod, and scatter its choice 
blooded stock; tear down the home-like farm-house, and 
trample the garden, and cut away the orchard, — and you 
have done what you can to destroy all that is blessed in 
the old Commonwealth. Destroy the farms that send 
these choice products which grace this day, and society 
would relapse into the age of Nomadic tribes; cities and 
commercial marts would be silent as the sand-covered 
palaces of Ninevah ; business industries would be de- 
serted, and all arts would fail. Manufactures are only 
the handmaids of agriculture. The smoke of the forges, 
the hum of the factories, the incessant heart beat of the 
engines, the railway thoroughfares — those great arteries 
of the republic, — are only the movements of our national 
life, which have their inspiration from the cultivation of 
the soil, which is the basis of all. Countless trains of 
coal, that light the fires on the hearth-stones of the 
nation's homes ; petroleum, which changes darkness into 
day ; wheat, and corn, and barley, and oats, and rye, 
which feed the people of our land, and the starved mil- 



14 

lions over the sea, — are all alike the gifts of God in 
nature. The vastness of the farmers' industry may be 
computed, but the aggregate is larger than our power of 
comprehension. And all this gift of nature is for the 
comfort, and strength, and development of man. The 
value of all social and civil institutions must always be 
measured by the intelligence, and virtue, and moral vigor 
of the freeholders of the land. Manhood has reached a 
rare development in our country. Property is widely 
distributed. The incentive which comes from the owner- 
ship of land leads to an honorable ambition. There is 
something for every man to hope for. The walls which 
in other lands divide men into classes, are not known 
here. Therefore, we behold, out of the ranks of the 
common people, the constant rise of distinguished men. 
They stand in the courts ; they fill the places of states- 
men, and jurists, and patriot soldiers. The father of his 
country was a farmer. Webster, and Clay, and Jefferson, 
and Adams, were farmers. The fathers of the Republic 
were your ancestors in occupation. The clergy were far- 
mers in the early days, and if they communed more with 
nature to-day, there were less of useless debate about 
theoretical doctrines. The sturdy army that beat back 
the trained legions of King George, were the hardy 
pioneers whose strong arms had cleared the forests. We 
have a true pride in the development of genius. It is 
worth our while to study the great industries, to see what 
man has done. He compels the rivers to work like dray 
horses in the service of human industry. He stops the 
lightning, and bids it bear his message and bring reply. 
The numberless discoveries and inventions of man can 
only be looked upon with wonder and admiration. Thank 
heaven, that we have a land of boundless resources — the 



15 

happy home of a grateful people. The forests have 
abundant timber ; the mines of silver, and gold, and cop- 
per, and lead, and iron, are the hidden treasures ; our 
wheat fields, golden in harvest time; our meadows and 
uplands are fertile and luxuriant, from the spring on the 
mountain, to the river in the valley, producing every- 
thing that ministers to the comfort of man, from the lakes 
of the North to the Gulf, and from the Pine Tree State 
to the Golden Gate. Look over the broad land. How 
prodigal in fruits : apples and pears, apricots, peaches, 
and grapes, melons, and cherries, and plums, oranges and 
figs, and all the humbler fruits that with crimson and 
purple hues, and choice, rare flavor, grace the table of 
the humblest man who knows the royal privilege of own- 
ing; a garden of his own. 

Man was created and placed in a garden, or, on a farm. 
The fall of our first parents were less a mystery if the 
Heavenly Parent had placed them in a palace, with lux- 
ury, and wardrobes, laces and corsets, perfumes and cos- 
metics. It shows the wisdom and love of God, that they 
were placed in a home which was amid a garden of sweet 
herbs — a blossoming paradise ; and their work was among 
the growing crops, which give comfort and satisfy all 
want. And away in the distance is a sure prophecy, and 
it is still a garden. The blessed days will come again, 
when the earth becomes a garden ; its deserts shall blos- 
som as the rose. The wilderness shall be glad, the river 
of life shall water it, the tree of life shall bear its fruit, 
and life shall be glad forever. 



SIXTY-SEVENTH 

Annual Cattle Show and Fair. 



The Cattle Show and Fair of this Society was held 
Sept. 27th and 28th, at Peabody. The exhibits on the 
Show Grounds fell short in number from the previous 
year at Newburyport, by sixty-two entries, of which 
shortage 28 was of Agricultural Implements, 20 of Colts, 
and 12 of Poultry. 

The quality of the stock exhibited was in most classes, 
of the best, and with the Ploughing Match was success- 
ful, attractive and well attended, and it is expected it 
will be much more so another season. 

In the Town House the exhibits were shown in two 
large halls and a large anti-room, and the displays made 
in almost every class were the best quality of the prod- 
ucts of the farm and garden, or of skill, taste and work- 
manship in Domestic manufactures. The lower hall was 
devoted almost wholly to Vegetables, which, with 22 
less entries than the previous year, made a very attractive 
show of excellent quality. 

The Exhibition Halls were well attended, the receipts, 
at 20 cents admission, was 11306.36 and the committees 
and others, admitted by free ticket, show an attendance 
of over 7000 in the hall. 

On Wednesday, the second day of the Fair, a proces- 
sion was former], in the forenoon soon after eleven o'clock, 
of the officers, members and friends of the Society head- 
ed by the 8th Regt. Band, which proceeded from in front 
of the Town Hall to Peabody Institute, where the 
Annual Address was delivered by William Cogswell, 
M. D., of Bradford. Its good points have been appreci- 
ated no doubt by the reader in the preceding pages, if he 



17 

failed to hear it. After the address the procession re- 
formed and with their ladies marched to the Rink, where 
the annual dinner, excellent and well served, was par- 
taken of, followed by very instructive and entertaining 
speeches by the President, Benjamin P. Ware, E. W. 
Wood, delegate from the State Board of Agriculture, 
Hon. George B. Loring, of Salem, Hon. O. B. Hadwin, of 
Worcester, and Dr. William Cogswell, of Bradford. 

The Entries in the several departments of the Fair and 
premiums awarded in each, are tabulated as follows : 



STOCK, IMPLEMENTS, ETC, ON FUEE SHOW GROUNDS. 





Entries. 


From 

Different 

Places. 


Amount of 
Premiums 
Awarded. 


Fat Cattle, 


4 


4 


$26 


Bulls, 


10 


4 


4-1 


Milch Cows, 


10 


4 


43 ; 


Herd of Milch Cows, 


1 


1 


18 


Heifers, First Class, 


7 


3 


35 


Heifer Calves, First Class, 


5 


3 


18 


Heifers, Second Class, 


17 


5 


28 


Heifer Calves, Second Class, 


3 


2 


7 


Working Oxen and Steers, 


8 


3 


40 


Steers, 


1 


1 


4 


Town Teams, 


1 


1 


20 


Brood Mares, 


10 


6 


20 


Stallions, First Class, 


3 


3 


18 


Stallions, Second Class, 


2 


2 


24 


Family Horses, 


1 


1 




Gentlemen's Driving Horses, 


6 


5 


20 


Farm Horses, 


9 


7 


22 


Pairs of Farm Horses, 


11 


• 8 


24 


Colts for Draft Purposes, 


4 


3 


26 


Colts for General Purposes, 


16 


10 


53 


Swine, First Class, 


3 


1 


18 


Swine, Second Class, 


3 


2 


21 


Sheep, 
Poultry, 


4 

71 


1 
10 


8 

! Diplomas. 

44 



1 8 







Prom 


Amount of 




Entries. 


Different 


Premiums 






liaces, 


Awarded. 


Ploughing, 


18 


10 


100 


Agricultural Implements, 


15 


G 


27 






8 ! 


1 Diploma.. 


Carriages, 


12 


80 



Total on Free Show Grounds, 255 



24 



II IIUTS IN HALL. 





Entries. 


From 

Different 

Places. 


Amount of 

i Premiums 

Awarded. 


Dairy, 


8 


8 


$22 00 


Bread, Honey and Preserves, 


61 


11 


27 00 


Pears, 


275 


20 


83 50 


Apples, 


320 


25 


76 50 


Peaches, Grapes and Assorted 








Fruits, 


121 


15 


65 50 


Flowers, 


70 


11 


43 25 


Vegetables, 


299 


26 


158 00 


Grain and Seed, 


35 


17 


31 00 


Counterpanes and Afghans, 


74 


6 


31 00 


Carpeting and Rugs, 


95 


7 ! 


One Diploma. 

27 50 


Articles manuf. from Leather, 


32 


4 


27 00 


Manufactures and General Mdse.* 


h , 26 


7 I 

9 


*10 Diplomas. 

2 50 


Fancy Work and Works of Art, 


229 


49 25 


Work of Children under 12 years. 


, 21 


5 


13 50 



Total in Exhibition Hall, 1666 33 $657 50 

Grand Total, 1921 entries from 33 towns and cities of 
the county, all except Merrimac and Nahant, for which 
$1395.50 were awarded to 359 different persons. The 
entries were — Amesbury, 30 ; Andover, 15 ; Beverly, 34 ; 
Boxford, 38; Bradford, 23; Danvers, 176; Essex, 40; 
Georgetown, 5 ; Gloucester, 1 ; Groveland, 14 ; Hamil- 
ton, 8; Haverhill, 44; Ipswich, 4 ; Lynn, 80 ; Lynnfield, 
9; Lawrence, 23; Manchester, 7; Marblehead, 38; 



19 

Methuen, 26; Middleton, 39; Newbury, 78; Newbury- 
port, 11 ; North Antlover, 22 ; Peabocly, 8G1 ; Rockport, 
5; Ro\vle3 r , 32; Salem, 155; Salisbury, 3; Saugus, 9; 
Swampscott, 13 ; Topsfielcl, 5 ; Wenlaam, 38 ; West New- 
bury, 33 ; Out of the County, 2 ; Total, 1921 entries. 



REPORTS OF COMMITTEES. 



FAT CATTLE. 

The Committee on Fat Cattle have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards: 

$10. First premium, to Henry Gardner, Peabody, for 
1 pair of oxen, weight, 4330 lbs. 
$8. Second premium, to B. H. Farnum, No. Andover, 

for 1 pair of oxen, weight, 3330 pounds. 
$8. First premium, to Wm. A. Russell, No. Andover, 
for fat cow, " Maud Clay, " Holstein No. 390, age 
10 years, weight 1900 lbs. 
J. E. Bradstreet, Allen Smith, Geo. E. F. Dane, J. P. 
Little — Committee. 

STATEMENT OF HENRY GARDNER'S FOREMAN. 

The cattle entered by Henry Gardner are six years old, 
were raised in Franklin Co., Me., and bought in Water- 
town one year ago last Spring, then weighing 3360 
pounds, now weigh 4330 lbs. They have worked on the 
farm ; feed first summer was hay and two quarts of meal 
each, morning and night. Last winter the poorer quality 
of corn fodder and two quarts of cob meal each, once 
per day. The last summer, good hay and two quarts of 
meal each, morning and night. 

Andrew J. Hayes, foreman. 

STATEMENT OF B. H. FARNUM. 

The oxen which I enter for premium, are six years old. 
I have owned them twenty-three months. They weighed 
when I bought them, 2550 pounds. They have done all 
the ox work on my farm, besides working considerable on 
the road, since I owned them. The first winter, their 



21 

feed was meadow-hay, night and morning, and English 
hay at noon. Also, two quarts of meal each, per day. 
The first summer, they had pasture feed, and I commenced 
to meal them in the fall again. Last winter, when they 
worked hard, I fed them eight quarts of meal each, per 
day, with meadow hay morning and night, and English 
hay at noon. They were turned out to pasture last June, 
and have had meal occasionally, as they were taken home 
to work. The first of September, they were- turned in 
fall feed, with two quarts of meal each, per day, to the 
present time. Their weight to-day, is 3330 pounds. 

B. H. Farnum. 

STATEMENT OF WM. A. RUSSELL. 

The cow, Maud Clay, No. 390, H. H. B., awarded first 
premium, for Fat Cow, is a full blooded, home-breed, Hol- 
stein, ten years old ; weight, 1900 pounds. She failed to 
breed the past season, but is giving some milk. Her feed, 
through the season, has been four quarts of corn meal, 
hay, or green corn fodder morning and night, and has 
been turned out to pasture through the day. The pas- 
ture has been fed very close, by overstocking. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Wm, A. Russell. 

By Jas. C. Pooe, Manager. 



BULLS. 

The Committee on Bulls, have attended to their duty, 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 

First premium, to John Swinerton, Danvers, for 

2 years old Ayrshire bull, No. 3697, A. B. R. "Geo. 

Essex." Sire, "Glencarne," 2469; Dam, Lady 

Essex, 4, No. 4450. 



11 

Second premium, to D. A. Massey, DanVei's, foi' 
Ayrshire bull, No. 8821, A. B. R." Queer." dropped 
Nov. 9, 1885. 
&l0. First premium, to Tsaac C. \Vyman, Salem, for Jer- 
sey Lull, No. 18,401, A. J.' C. C. (New York), 
" Heiigist/' di-opped Aug*. 7, 1885. Sire, "ftauti- 
cus," (6648) ; Dam, "Chinchilla" (17,092), owned 
by present owner, 21 months. 
$2. First premium, to John J. Gould, Ipswich, for Jer- 
sey hull calf, "Pojo," No. 18,602, 
$10. First premium, to William A. Russell, Lawrence, 
for liolstein bull, 4 years old, " Lord of Cornwall," 
No. 3429, H. H. B., dropped May 5, 1883. 
So. First premium, to William A. Russell, Lawrence, 
for Holstein yearling bull, " Lavinia 2d Bismark," 
No, 2128, H. F. H. fi., dropped Jan. 7, 1886. Sire, 
"•Lord of Cornwall,'' 3429; Dam, "Lavinia 2d, 
1115. 
$2. First premium, William A. Russell, Lawrence, for 
liolstein bull calf, " King Ruiter," dropped May 9, 
1887. Sire, "Lord of Cornwall;" Dam, "Queen 
Ruiter," 4488. 
Joshua H. Chandler, Elbridge Mansfield, John L. 
Shorev-— Committee. 



MILCH COWS. 

The Committee on Milch Cows have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards ; 
|15- First premium, to Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for 

best milch coav of any age or breed, Holstein Fre- 

sian cow, "Madam Aberdare." 
jrt.0. First premium, to William A. Russell. Lawrence, 

for best milch cow, foreign, native, or grade, 4 to 

l'» years old, Holstein cow, "Lady Lyons." 
$4. Second premium, to Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for 

next best (as above), Holstein cow, "Lady Noble." 



23 

810. First premium, to Win. A. Russell, Lawrence, for 
milch cow of any recognized breed, 4 years old or 
upwards, Holstein cow, "Esther Morrison. " 
•$4. Second premium, to Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, 
for next best (as above), Holstein cow, " Madam 
Wit." 
The owners of cows of other breeds did not furnish 

to the Committee any statements in regard to their cows, 

as required by the Society, therefore, they' were not 

judged upon. 

Doane Cogswell, T. F, Newman, Frank P. Todd — 
Committer. 

STATEMENT OF RUSSELL COWS. 

To Commillee on Milch Cows : 

I enter for best milch cow, of any age or breed, llols- 
tein-Fresian cow, " Madam Aberdare," No. 6803, H. H. 
B., 8 years old. Imported in 1884. Milk record, from 
March 1, 1885, to March 1, 188G, 13184 pounds. Milk 
record, from Aug. 20, 1886, to July 1, 1887, 12815 pounds. 
Dropped last calf, Aug. 19, 1887. Milk record, 30 days, 
Aug. and Sept., 1840 pounds. 

I enter for best milch cows, either foreign, native, or 
grade, Holstein-Fresian cows. 

" Lady Noble," No. 390, H. H. B., 9 years old. " Lady 
Lyons," No. 6805, H. EL B., 6 years old. " Lady Noble" 
dropped last calf, Dec. 28, 188(1. Milk record, from Jan. 
1, 1887, to July 1, 1887, 8925 lbs. "Lady Lyons" 
dropped last calf, Sept. 1, 1887. Milk record for 10 days 
in Sept., 609 1 lbs. Milk record, from July 1, 1886, to 
July 1,1887, 12815 lbs. 

For Holstein-Fresians, 4 years old, and upward. 

"Esther Marion," No. 1585, H. H. B., 6 years old. 
« Madam Wit," No. 7476, H. H. B., 5 years old. " Esther 
Marion " dropped last calf, June 25, 1886. Due to calve 
Oct. 20, 1887. Milk record, from July 1, 1886, to May 
1, 1887, 12692 lbs. "Madam Wit " "dropped last calf, 



24 

Nov. LS, L886; is due, Dec. 17, 1887. Milk record, frotn 
Dee. 1, 1886, to June 1, 1887, 7825| lbs. 

Statement of Feed and Mnnag-ement. 

The winter feed of these cows is 8 to 12 qts. shorts; 
mid tine feed, and 4 qts. meal (corn on cob and oats 
ground together, two parts corn\ and one part oats), en- 
silage once per day, and dry fodder, consisting of English 
hay, with corn fodder and oats, or barley fodder mixed, 
fed once per day. 

One-half of the above quantity of grain is given with 
the ensilage, at about 7 A. M. They are watered at about 
!» a. St. They get nothing more until 2.30 V. M., when 
the balance of the above grain is given dr}^ ; and after 
this is eaten they are fed with the above dry fodder, and 
at 4.30 they are again watered. 

Milking begins at 5 A. M. and at 6 P. M. Cows giving 
a large mess of milk are milked three times a day, morn- 
ing, noon, and night. 

In summer the cows go out to pasture, which is small 

for the number of cows kept, and are fed with dry hay, 

clover, oats or barley, fodder, dried, and corn fodder in 

its season, also have some grain, not as much as in winter. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Wm. A. Russell. 

By J. C. Poor, Manager. 



HERD OF MILCH COWS. 

The Committee on Herd of Milch Cows have attended 
to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary 
that they have made the following awards: 
-:1s. First Premium, to W. A. Russell, Lawrence, for 
herd of milch cows. 

(Jeo. L. Hawkes, Francis R. Allen, Wm. B. Carlton, N. 
P. Perkins — Committee. 



25 

STATEMENT OF RUSSELL HERD. 
To Committee on Herds of Milch Cows : 

I enter for best herd of milch cows, Holstein-Fresian 
cows, " Madam Aberdare," No. 6803, H. H. B., 8 years old. 
11 Lady Lyons," No. 6805, H. H. B., 6 years old. " Lady 
Noble," No. 390, H. H. B., 9 years old. " Esther Marion," 
No. 1585, H. H. B., 6 years old. " Madam Wit," No. 
7475, H. H. B., 5 years old. 

" Madam Aberdare " dropped last calf, Aug. 19, 1887. 
"Lady Lyons" dropped last calf, Sept. 1, 1887. " Lady 
Noble"" dropped last calf, Dec. 28, 1886. "Esther 
Marion " dropped last calf, June 25, 1886. " Madam Wit," 
dropped last calf, Nov. 13, 1886. 

" Madam Aberdare's " milk record for two previous 
seasons, is 13184 lbs. and 12815 lbs. respectively. For 
past 30 days, 1840 lbs. "Lady Lyons'" record, 10 days 
in Sept., 609^ lbs. Record for last year. 12 months, 
12815 lbs. "Lady Noble's" record from Jan. 1 to July 
1, 8925 lbs. " Esther' Marion's record from July 1, 1886, 
to May 1, 1887, 12692 lbs. " Madam Wit's " record from 
Dec. 1, 1886, to June 1, 1887, 7825 lbs. 

The above records were determined by weighing and 
recording at each milking. 

The winter feed for these cows was from 4 to 6 qts. 
shorts and 2 qts. meal (corn on cob and oats, ground to* 
gether, 2 parts corn, 1 part oats), this amount twice per 
day, ensilage once per day, and dry fodder (a mixture of 
English hay, corn, oats), or barley fodder, once per day. 
Watered twice a day, and when fresh in milk, milked 
three times. They go to pasture in summer (but the pas- 
ture is a short one), and they are fed morning and night, 
with hay, clover, oat or barley, and corn fodder in its 
season, and have about one-half the amount of grain as 
in the winter. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Wm. A. Russell. 

By J. C. Poor, Manager. 



26 

HEIFERS, FIRST CLASS. 

The Committee on Heifers, first class, have attended to 
their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 
•$10. First premium, to W. A. Russell, Lawrence, for 
Milch heifer, " Queen Abberkerk." 
I. Second premium, to W. A. Russell, Lawrence, for 
Milch heifer, " Maud Clay 2d." 
$4. First premium, to W. A. Russell, Lawrence, for 
Holstein heifer, " Essex Princess," 2 years old, 
never calved. 
$3. Second premium, to W. A. Russell, Lawrence, for 
Holstein heifer, u Queen Frederick," 2 years old, 
never calved. 
$4. First premium, to W. A. Russell, Lawrence, for 

Holstein yearling, " Esther Shepard." 
$4. First premium, to W. A. Russell, Lawrence, for 

Holstein calf, "Princess William Archer." 
$3. Second premium, to W. A. Russell, Lawrence, for 
Holstein calf, " Syreza Archer." 
$10. First premium, to D. A. Massey, Danvers, for 
Ayrshire heifer, "Mars Dora 2d," No. 7937. 
$4. First premium, to D. A. Massey, Danvers, for 

Ayrshire calf. 
$3. Second premium, to D. A. Massey, Danvers, for 

Ayrshire calf. 
$4. First premium, to W. S. Dickson, Salem, for Jersey 
calf. 
John S. Ives, of Salem, entered one 3 year old Ayrshire, 
without pedigree or number ; a very likely one, but did 
not come under our class. 

G. B. Bradley, John Parker, Andrew Lane, Jr.— Com- 
mittee. 

STATEMENT OP RUSSELL HEIFERS. 

To the Committee on Heifers, 1st Class : 

I enter for Heifer under 4 years old in milk, " Queen 
Abberkerk," No. 4457, H. F. II. B., 2 years old. « Maud 



27 

Clay 2d," No. 9712, H. F. H. B., 2 years old. "Queen 
Abberkerk " calved July 21st Milk record in August 
36 pounds per day. " Maud Clay 2d " calved June 20th. 
Milk record in July, 34 pounds per day. 

Heifers two years old, never calved. " Essex Prin- 
cess," No. 4480, H. F. H. B. "Queen Frederick," No. 
4467, H. F. H. B. 

Heifer one year old. " Esther Shepard," No. 3008, 
H. F. H. B. Dropped March IT, 1886. 

Heifer Calves. " Princess William Archer." Dropped 
May 1(3, 1887. Sire, " Royal Archer," 32(33, H. F. H. B. 
Dam, "Princess Willem," 4454, H. F. H. B. 

" Syreza Archer," dropped June 1st, 1887. Sire " Royal 
Archer," 3263, H. F.^H. B. Dam, " Syreza," 1050, H. H. 
B. Respectfully submitted, 

W. A. Russkll, 

By J. C. Poor. 



HEIFERS— SECOND CLASS. 

The Committee on Heifers, Second Class, have attend- 
ed to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary 
that they have made the following awards : 
810. First premium, to James F. Cody, Peabody, for 
Milch Grade Jersey heifer, under four years old. 
$4. Second premium, to Timothy O'Keefe, Peabody, for 
Milch Grade Jersey Ayrshire heifer, under four 
years old. 
$4. First premium, to John Barker, North Andover, for 

'1 year old Grade Holsteins; never calved. 
$3. Second premium, to J. A. Jones, Lynn, for 2 3 r ear 

old Jersey and Ayrshire ; never calved. 
14. First premium, to Daniel G. Tenney, Newbury, for 

one year old Grade Jersey. 
$3. Second premium, to City Farm, Salem, for one year 

old Grade Holstein. 
$4. First premium, to Jenkin M. Emerson, Middleton, 
Heifer calf, 1\ months old. 



28 

$3. Second premium, to Stephen Blaney, Peabody, for 
Twin Calf, 8 weeks old. Dam, 3 3 r ears old, has 
had 3 calves. 
O. L. Carleton, A. T. Newhall, J. K. Bancroft, J. Otis 
Winkley, J. Frank Foster — Committee. 



WORKING OXEN AND STEERS. 

The Committee on Working Oxen and Steers have at- 
tended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Sec- 
retary that they have made the following awards: 
$12. First premium, to Lyman Wilkins, Middleton, for 

working oxen, 7 years old, weight 2640 lbs. 
$10. Second premium, to Geo. P. Wilkins, Middleton, 
for working oxen, 5 years old, weight 2720 lbs. 
$8. Third premium, to Wm. P. Christopher, Middleton, 
for working oxen, 6 years old, weight 2680 lbs. 
-$10. First premium, to B. H. Farnum, North Andover, 
for working steers, 4 years old, weight 2850 lbs. 
John B. Jenkins, Nathan Longfellow, Jas. P. Cleve- 
land — Committee. 



TOWN TEAMS. 

The Committee on Town Teams have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following award : 

$20. First premium, to Middleton town team, 11 yoke of 
oxen, 29,775 lbs. 

EEPOET ON TOWN TEAMS. 

The Committee on Town Teams report that only one 
team of oxen was entered, and none of horses. 

This was much to be regretted, as a good team always 

interests the people, and competition is desirable in a de- 

^ partment where the premiums offered are generous, as in 

this of town teams. One of the committee endeavored 



29 

to get C. H. Warren & Co., of Danvers, to exhibit their 
fine team horses, but the demands of business prevented. 
Perhaps in no direction is the change in farming more 
noticeable than in the displacement of oxen by horses, on 
most of the farms of the county. This affects our show 
more and more each year, until it is possible that at no 
distant date, the ox-team will disappear from our show en- 
tirely. In view of this, the enterprise of our Middleton 
friends is to be commended, in showing eleven yoke of 
fairly good oxen, — not very large nor fancy, but honest 
workers, and, in the opinion of the committee, worthy of 
the first premium. 

We were pleased with the skill with which Mr. Lyman 
Wilkins and Mr. William Christopher handled the long- 
string of oxen, for in these days, a good ox-teamer is hard 
to find. 

We should like the experience of some farmer who has 
changed from oxen to horses, as to the expense of keep- 
ing in working condition, wear of outfit, value at end of 
five years, and value of work done in that time, — if it 
could be obtained for publication. Mr. Day of this com- 
mittee, is certain that even at the present low price of 
beef, and with all its slowness, the ox-team is the most 
profitable for the farmer. His long experience gives his 
opinion weight and value. 

Could the fact be brought out I think we should find 
that one reason why horses are so much more popular at 
present is, that the driver can ride all the time, thus es- 
caping much fatigue, and saving some time on the journey. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Chakles J. Peabody, for Committee. 

Charles J. Peabody, Royal Day, E. B. Perley — Com- 
mittee. 



STEERS. 

The Committee on Steers have attended to their duty, 
and respectfully report to the Secretaiy that they have 
made the following awards: 



$4. First premium, to B. W. Farnnm, No. Andover, for 
One pair steer calves, 5 months old. 
Sherman Nelson, Charles P. Mighill, John Parkhurst — 
Committee. 



STALLIONS, FIRST CLASS. 

The Committee on Stallions, First Class, have attended 
to their duty, and respectfully report tc the Secretary 
that they have made the following awards : 
$10. First premium, to H. H. Hale, Bradford, black Per- 

cheron stallion, for farm and draft horses, " Major 

Dome," 4 years old, weight, 1580 lbs. Imported, 

1885, No. 4345. 
*$8. First premium, to John Parkhurst, Boxford, for 

grey Grade Percheron stallion, " Romeo," 3 years 

old, weight, 1300 lbs. 

Geo. B. Loring, W. P. Bailey, C. N. Maguire — Com- 
mittee. 



*This award was made at Trustees' Meeting, in November, chang- 
ing this and another award of the Committee. 



STALLIONS, SECOND CLASS. 

The Committee on Stallions, Second Class, have attend- 
ed to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary 
that they have made the following awards : 
$10. First premium, to John P. Conant, Wenham, chest- 
nut stallion, four years old, for driving horses. 
$G. Second premium, to John Flye, Saugus, for black 
stallion, 8 years old, " Allen Patchen." 
*$8. Gratuity, to John Looney, Salem, ba} r stallion, 
" Almot Wedgewood," 4 years old, sired by 
" Wedgewood." 
A. B. Woodis, Win. R. Roundy, Win. B. Carleton— 
Committee. 



"Transferred 1>y order of Trustees, at their November meeting, 



3i 

from "First Class," where it had heen entered, and a premium of $8 
awarded by the Committee, to its proper class, and $S gratuity 
awarded, as premiums in this class had been awarded by the Com- 
mittee. 



BROOD MARES. 

The Committee on Brood Mares have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 

$10. First premium, to Abbott & Reynolds, "Salem, for 
bay mare, 6 years old, weight 1300 lbs., and foal 3^ 
months old. 
$6. Second premium, to Michael Looney, Salem, for 
chestnut mare, 6 years old, weight 1000 lbs., and 
foal 6 weeks old. 
$4. Third premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for chest- 
nut mare, 12 years old, weight 1100 lbs., and foal 3 
months old. 
Horace F. Longfellow, .John F. Smith, Henry A. Hay- 
ward — Committee. 



FAMILY HORSES. 

The Committee on Family Horses have attended to 
their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary the 
following : 

Only one entry, do not deem it worthy a premium. 

David Stiles, Edward Harrington, Alden C. Estes — 
Committee. 

Only one entry was made, and that was a horse that 
was labeled as weighing 840 pounds, which your commit- 
tee thought was a little too light, if there were no other 
objections, and, therefore, by unanimous verdict the re- 
port was, " None worthy of a premium." 

Such a report on family horses, probably never was 
made before in the history of the society. In years past, 
there have been a large number of entries, and the com- 
mittee have found it difficult to decide who was entitled 



32 

to the first premium. But this falling off is accounted 
for in the fact that another class of horses has been added, 
called, " Gentlemen's driving horses," and these are very 
numerous, embracing nearly the whole herd of horses 
(except actual work horses), and every business man and 
every youngster who thinks anything of himself must 
possess one of these quadrupeds. 

Now, where is the noble "family horse," safe at all 
times, and in all places, so highly prized by the family 
as they go to church, or to the city, or ride for pleasure 
over our New England hills. It is a rare thing to find a 
well-trained horse. Scarcely can we take up a paper but 
what gives some account of limbs broken or lives lost by 
unsafe horses. Many a home has been darkened forever, 
by the antics of some half-broken horse. 

Our Society, from the first, wisely appropriated money 
to call the attention of the public to the important matter 
of the well training of horses, and yet, there has been a 
gradual departure from this rule for the last twenty 
years, and owners of horses have received premiums for 
animals hardly safe for every one to drive. 

A good family horse should weigh about one thousand 
pounds, well proportioned, sound, stand without tying, 
trained not to start till the reins are taken up, and then 
to travel in good shape, from seven to eight miles an hour, 
without urging, passing objects without shying, and not 
afraid of the steam whistle, or the rattling cars, not less 
than seven or eight years old, and not over fifteen. Such 
a horse is worth not less than two hundred and fifty dol- 
lars, and may be twice that sum ; while some of these 
gentlemen's driving horses would cost you about all your 
neck is worth to ride behind them. 

The society, in offering these premiums wishes to en- 
courage the better training of this most noble and useful 
animal ; one that has so much to do for our comfort and 
safety, in domestic, as well as business life. 

This statement has been added to our report, at the 
suggestion of the committee on family horses. 

David Stiles, Chairman. 



33 
GENTLEMEN'S DRIVING HORSES. 

The Committee on Gentlemen's Driving Horses, have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Sec- 
retary that they have made the following awards : 
$10. First premium, to H. H. Hale, Boxford, for black 
mare. 
$6. Second premium, to Dr. W. A. Gorton, Danvers, 

for bay mare. 
$4. Third premium, to D. J. Tenney, Byfield, for 
chestnut gelding. 
E. P. Barrett, S. W. Hopkinson, Chas. H. Gould, Geo. 
B. Loring — Committee. 



FARM HORSES. 

The Committee on Farm Horses have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards: 

$10. First premium, to F. O. Kimball, Danvers, for dark 
brown gelding farm horse, 8 years old, weight 1100 
lbs. 
$8. Second premium, to M. H. Poor, West Newbury, 

for sorrel farm horse. 
$4. Third premium, to B. H. Farnham, No. Andover, 
for farm horse, 10 years old gelding, weight 1055 lbs. 
Entries nine, — eight competed for premium. 
The Committee, after attending to their duties, would 
say, that all the horses drew the load (2000 lbs.) well, 
and they regret that they could not award more premiums, 
especially to the horses of Mr. Bates, of Lynn, and Mr. 
Holt, of North Andover. They would also call the at- 
tention of the Trustees to the fact that the horse of Mr. 
Perkins, of Lynnfield, was ruled out on account of being 
entered in the class of pairs of farm horses. All of which 
is respectfully submitted. 

Albert Kimball, 1). A. Pettengill, David M. Cole, Chas. 
M. Lunt — Committee 



34 

PAIRS OF FARM HORSES. 

The Committee on Pairs of Farm Horses have attended 

to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary 

that they have made the following awards : 

$12. First premium, to A. F. Lee, Beverly, for pair farm 

horses, weight 2300 lbs. 

if 8. Second premium, to Peter Holt, jr., North Andover, 

for pair farm horses, weight 2500 lbs. 
$4. Third premium, to C. N. Maguire, Newburyport, 
for pair farm horses, weight 2200 lbs. 
Nathan F. Abbott, Moses H. Poor, Thos. E. Cox, jr. — 
Committee. 



DRAFT COLTS. 

The Committee on Draft Colts have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following award : 

810. First premium, to Harry H. Hale, Bradford, for 
" Marita," imported Percheron black mare, 4 years 
old, weight 1509 lbs. 
Daniel D. Adams, Nathaniel S. Harris, J. Henry Na- 
son — Committee. 



COLTS FOR DRAFT PURPOSES, SECOND CLASS. 

The Committee on Colts for Draft Purposes, Second 
Class, have attended to their duty, and respectfully report 
to the Secretary that they have made the following 
awards : 

$10. First premium, to James Kinnear, Ipswich, for 
black stallion, " Wallace," 2 years old, weight 1100 
lbs. 
#0. Second premium, to James J. Abbott, Andover, for 
sorrel colt, 2 years old, weight 1000 lbs. 
John Q. Evans, James B. Smith, John A. Hoyt — Com- 
mit/ e . 



35 

COLTS FOR GENERAL PURPOSES, FIRST CLASS. 

The Committee on Colts for General Purposes, First 
Class, have attended to their dut}' - , and respectfully re 
port to the Secretary that they have made the following 
awards : 

$10. First premium, to Eben S. Keye , Rowley, for 4 
years old colt. 
$6. Second premium to O. A. Blackinton, Rowle}% for 

4 years old colt. 
$4. Third premium, to Daniel G. Tenney, Newbury, for 

4 years old colt. 
$8. First premium, to L. S. Morrison, Danvers, for 3 

3 r ears old colt. 
$5. Second premium, to Wm. A. Russell, North An- 

dover, for 3 years old colt. 
*$4. Gratuity. We recommend a gratuity of $4 to 
Woodbury Smith, of Rowley, for 4 years old colt- 
Nathan A. Bushby, M. B. Chesley, Geo. B.Austin, Geo. 
W. Peabody — Committee. 



*The Trustees did not suspend the rule to allow this gratuity. 



COLTS FOR GENERAL PURPOSES, SECOND 

CLASS. 

The Committee on Colts for General Purposes, Second 

Class, have attended to their duty, and respectfully report to 

the Secretary that they have made the following awards: 

$6. First premium, to H. H. Hale, of Bradford, for two 

year old colt, a Bay Stallion. 
f>4. Second premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for two year 

old stallion, " Eaton Wilkes." 
$6. First premium, to Chas. Sanders, Salem, for bay 

yearling stallion. 
$4. Second premium, to D. G. Tenney, Byfield, for one 
year old bay mare, " Sprite." 
Chas. II. Gould, S. W. Hopkinson, Ceo. B. Loring — 
Committee. 



36 

SWINE, FIRST CLASS. 

The Committee on Swine, First Class, have attended to 
their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 
$5. Second premium, to Elizabeth Saunders, W. Pea- 
body, for breeding sow, and eight pigs. 
$5. Second premium, to Robert G. Buxton, Peabody, for 

breeding sow, " Chester White." 
$5. Second premium, to Samuel P. Buxton, Peabody, for 
breeding sow and ten pigs. "Yorkshire." 
George Beecher, Daniel E. Moulton, Samuel Longfellow* 
— Committee. 



SWINE, SECOND. CLASS. 

The Committee on Swine, Second Class, have attended 
to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 
$8. First premium, to Munroe Bros., Lynnfield, for 

Yorkshire Boar. 
$8. First premium, to Robert G. Buxton, Peabody, for 

Yorkshire Sow. 
$5. Second premium, to Robert G. Buxton, Peabody, for 
Yorkshire Breeding Sow. 
George A. Dow, Francis Marsh, T. C. Thurlow, — Com- 
mittee. 



SHEEP. 



The Committee on Sheep have attended to their duty, 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following award: 
$8. First premium, to R. S. Brown, Peabody, for Shrop- 
shire buck. 
John L. Shorey, Elbridge Mansfield, Joshua H. Chandler, 
— Committee. 



37 

POULTRY. 

The Judge of Poultry has attended to his duty, and 
respectfully reports to the Secretary that he has made the 
following awards : 
$2.00. First premium, to Charles M. Poor, Peabody, for 

Buff Cochin fowls. 
2.00. First premium, to W. H. Downes, Salem, for Light 

Brahma fowls. 
1.00. Second premium, to Fred H. Wiiey, Peabody, for 

Light Brahma fowls. 
2.00. First premium, to Jos. H. Peirson, Newbury, for 

Light Brahma chicks. 
2.00. First premium, to E. O. Bragdon, Danvers, for 

Dark Brahma chicks. 
1.00. Second premium, to Charles M. Poor, Peabody, for 

Dark Brahma chicks. 
2.00. First premium, to Samuel Rogers, West Newbury, 

for White Wyandotte fowls. 
1.00. Second premium, to Samuel Rogers, West New- 
bury, for White Wyandotte fowls. 
2.00. First premium, to L. W. Floyd, Newbury, for Laced 

Wyandotte fowls. 
2.00. First premium, to Geo. H. King, Peabody, for 

White Leghorn chicks. 
2.00. First premium, to W. E. Sheen, Peabody, for Brown 

Leghorn chicks. 
2.00. First premium, to Nathan H. Poor, Peabody, for 

Plymouth Rock chicks. 
2.00. First premium, to CM. Poor, Peabody, for B. B, 

Red Game Bantam fowls. 
2.00. First premium, to C. M. Poor, Peabody, for B. B. 

Red Game Bantam chicks. 
1.00. Second premium, to Elmer Bates, Marblehead, for 

B. B. Red Game Bantam chicks. 
2.00. First premium, to L. W. Floyd, Newbury, for White 

Game chicks. 
2.00. First premium, to W. P. Perkins, Danvers, for lot 

of ducks. 



33 

2.00. First premium, to W. P. Perkins, Danvers, for lot 
of geese. 

1.00. Second premium, to W. P. Perkins, Danvers, fo r 
lot of geese. 

1.00. Second premium, to L. W. Floyd, Newbury, for lot 
of ducks. 

5.00. First premium, to Fred H. Wiley, Peabody, for 
coop of 10 or more fowls, with statement of keeping 
and profit. 

2.00. First premium, to G. D. Walton, Peabody, for 
dressed chickens. 

2.00. First premium, to G. D. Walton, Peabody, for 
dressed ducks. 

1.00. First premium, to Charles P. Preston, Danvers, for 
best dozen eggs. 
First premium, Society's diploma, to Warren Newhall, Pea- 
body, for breeding pen Bantams. 
First premium, Society's diploma, to Charles M. Poor, Pea- 
body, for breeding pen Dark Brahma chicks. 

W. F. Bacon, Judge. 

Essex County Agricultural Society : 

Gentlemen : — Supplementary to the regular report on 
poultry, I would most respectfully present for your con- 
sideration, a suggestion or two that I think would improve 
that department, increasing the number of exhibits, and 
improving the quality exhibited. 

The general custom, at all poultry exhibitions, and at 
the majority of agricultural fairs, is to offer a premium on 
each variety of the following ducks and geese, while your 
society only offers a general premium for best lot. 

Namely : In my opinion, you would encourage the breed- 
ing of water fowl, by offering premiums on Aylesbury, 
Rouen, Cayuga, Pekin, white and colored Muscovy, and 
Brazilian ducks; and Toulouse, Emden, Brown China, and 
African geese. 

In entering exhibition of Breeding Pens, 1 believe a man 
should be allowed to mark one female, which, with the 



39 

male bird, should be entitled to compete for the general 
premium for best pair ; also, go to make up the pen. This 
also is the general rule in most societies. 

I would recommend that the exhibiting of mongrel or 
cross bred stock be discouraged, by offering no premium or 
gratuity, except on first-class birds ; and, in order to assure 
that end, require a pair to figure 176 points, to win first 
premium. I would also recommend that a premium be 
offered for best dozen eggs, by each of the following classes : 
Asiatic, American, Game, French, and Spanish classes ; 
the Hamburgs, Polish, and Dorkins to compete in the 
Spanish class. 

Very respectfully yours, 

W. F. Bacon, Judge. 



Note. The Trustees at their November meeting adopted above 
recommendations. See premium list for 1888. 



poultry account op fred. h. wiley, op peabody, mass., 
for eighty-one weeks. 

1886. Dr. Or. 

Feb. 8, To 13 head of stock on hand, $13 00 

Feb. 10, By 2 Cockerels, sold, " $2 40 

" " 52 eggs, 1 40 

" 13, To 50 lbs. shorts, 55 

Mch. 8, " 1 lb. sulphur, 05 

" 17, " 10 lbs. lime, 10 

« 19, " 1 bag of corn, 1 00 

" " " 1 bag of oats, 1 00 

" 23, " 10 lbs. oyster shells, 20 

March, By 12 dozen eggs, at 30 cts., 3 60 

April, " 15 dozen eggs, at 25 cts., 3 75 

Apr. 10, To 1 pound sulphur, 13 

" " " 5 hens and cockerel, 8 00 

« 15, " L. Brahma eggs, 3 00 

" 23, By 1 bushel hen manure, 35 



40 
May, By 15 doz. eggs, at 18 1-3 cts., 2 75 



" 17, 


To L. Brahma eggs, 


4 50 




" 19, 


" 1 bag of meal, 


1 


05 




June, 


By 11 doz. eggs, at 22 8-11 cts., 






2 50 


« 3, 


To 1 bag of wheat, 


1 


80 




it 44 


" 1 bag of Ck. corn, 


1 


05 




U u 


" 1 bag of Meal, 


1 


05 




July, 


By 15 doz. eggs, at 25 cts., 






3 75 


» 12, 


To 1 bag of Ck. corn, 


1 


05 




" 12, 


" 1 bag of meal, 


1 


15 




August, 


By 12^ doz. eggs, at 30c, 






3 75 


Aug. 15, 


To 1 bag of corn, 


1 


15 




t< it 


" 1 bag of meal, 


1 


15 




" 17, 


By 5 hens, sold, 






2 12 


Sept. 18, 


To 1 bag cracked corn, 


1 


15 




" 20, 


To 100 lbs. oyster shells. 




85 




tt a 


" 1 bag corn, 


1 


10 




" 23, 


By 11 pullets, at 50c, 






5 50 


" 24, 


" 2 cockerels, 






2 65 


Sept. 


" 7| doz. eggs, at 30c, 






2 32 


Oct. 7, 


To 1 bag meal, 


1 


10 




u tt 


" 1 bag dessicated fish, 


1 50 




" 9, 


By 5 cockerels, 






4 58 


a a 


" 6 Light Brahmas, at $1.25, 






7.50 


tt 


" 5 doz. eggs, at 39c, 






1 95 


Nov. 7, 


To 1 bag meal, 


1 


10 




u u 


" 3 bags of corn, 


3 


30 




" 8, 


By 4 chickens, sold, 






4 14 


Dec. 3, 


" 3 chickens, sold, 






3 50 


1887. 










Jan. 8, 


To 1 bag of meal, 


1 


10 




« 11, 


" 1 cockerel, 


5 


35 




" 15, 


" 2 pullets, 


7 


00 




" 17, 


" 1 bag of wheat, 


1 


60 




Jan. 19, 


By 9 chickens, 






11 37 


Feb. 


" 5 eggs, 






10 


Mch. 2, 


To 1 bag corn. 


1 


10 




" 14, 


" 4 setters, 


4 


00 





4i 

Mch. 18, To 2 setters, 

Mch. By 26 Eggs, 

Apr. 5, To 3 setters, 

" 18, By 1 setting of eggs, 

« " 20 eggs, 

May 2, To 1 setter, 

"7, "1 bag of wheat, 

" " " 1 bag of corn, 

" " " 1 bag of meal, 

" " " 20 lbs. lime, 

" 9, " 3 setters, 

" " " 1 bag of oats, 

" " ' ; 1 bag of barley, 

" 12, " 2 setters, 

" 18, By 6 setters, 
May, " 8 doz. eggs, at 22c., 

June 10, To 1 bag meal, 

" 10, " 1 lb. copperas, 

" 18, " 10 lbs. lime, 

" 19, By 5 setters, 

" 20, " 20 eggs for hatching, 

June, " 6 doz. eggs, at 22 and 25c, 

July 9, To 1 bag of corn, 

" 18, " 1 bag of meal, 

" " " 1 bag of wheat, 

" 29, By 4 bushels hen manure, 

" " " 1 hen, 

July, " 9| doz. eggs, 

Aug. 29, To 1 bag bolted meal, 
By 8 eggs, 

Total, $92 23 $88 86 

STOCK ON HAND. 

68 chickens, valued at $2.00, $136 00 

11 hens, valued at $2.00, 22 00 

1 cock, valued at 5 00 

Total, $163 00 



2 00 






50 


2 50 






3 00 




40 


75 




1 70 




1 15 




1 15 . 




20 




1 35 




1 00 




1 40 




1 50 






2 00 




1 76 


1 15 




05 




10 






3 20 




2 00 


i 


1 44 


1 05 




1 05 




1 75 






1 40 




30 




2 58 


1 25 






30 



42 

Credits, $88 86 

Total Credits, $251 SQ 

Expenses, 92 23 



Net proceeds, $159 63 



Note. — His receipts for 59 head of stock, 81 weeks, 
" " *' 129 doz. eggs, 81 weeks. 

" " "5 bushels hen manure, 

Value of 80 head of stock, on hand Aug. 29, 1887, 



Total, 



Value of original stock, 13 head, Feb. 8, 1886, 
Cost of feed, 81 weeks, 
Cost of disinfectants, 
Cost of eggs for breeding, 
Cost of stock for breeding, 



$49 26 


37 85 


1 75 


163 00 


$251 86 


$13 00 


38 65 


63 


7.50 


32 45 



92 23 
Profit for 81 weeks, (average of $1 97 per week), 159 63 



$251 86 



STATEMENT OF FRED H. WILEY, IN REPLY TO INQUIRIES BY THE 

SECRETARY. 

Dear Sir : 

I had eleven hens and two cockerels, eight of which were 
Plymouth Rocks, and three Leghorns. I valued them at 
$13. They were nothing but common hens. 

I give my hens bolted meal, scalded, every morning, ex- 
cept in the summer months. At noon, different kinds of 
grain, such as wheat, oats, barley, and cracked corn ; at 
night, about four o'clock in cold weather, and six o'clock in 
hot weather, I give them whole corn. I also give them 
fresh water twice a day. I clean off the roost boards every 
morning, and sweep down the cobwebs if there are any. 
To keep free from vermin, I kerosene the roosts, once a 
week, and I don't have any trouble with lice ; this is the 
best remedy to keep lice away I know. I use air-slack lime 
in my nests. I raise my chickens with hens. I hatched 
out 75 chickens this year. 1 do not feed them until they 



are twenty-four hours old, and then I give them boiled eggs 
and bread crumbs, the first two or three days. I give them 
chopped green grass every single day of their lives, because 
I have no chance for them to run on gras ground. I rake 
the grass from the lawn in summer, and dry it, and then in 
winter pour hot water on it and it turns green. The way I 
break up setters is, to put them in a slat coop that is set up 
off the ground, so that there will be a draft on all sides of 
them. They won't set long after they have been hi there a 
while. 

The value of the Light Brahma pure-bred stock I now 
have, is the market value of my hens and chickens. The 
reason I value the cock so highly, is, because when I bought 
him I paid $5, and 1 claim he is worth that to-day. 

I was sixteen years old last February, the 28th day. 

I keep oyster shells on hand for the hens, all the time, as 
they need them to make egg shells. 

Yours respectfully, 

Fred H. Wiley. 



PLOUGHING WITH DOUBLE TEAMS. 

The Committee on Ploughing, Double Teams, have at- 
tended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secre- 
tary that they have made the following awards : 
$12. First premium, to B. H. Farnum, North Andover, for 
ploughing with Hussey's No. 16 plough. 

E. G. Nason, J. W. Blodgett, G. W. Sargent, Abel Stick- 
ney, James Noyes — Committee. 



PLOUGHING WITH SINGLE TEAM. 

The Committee on Ploughing, Single Team, have attended 
to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 

$10. First premium, to Washington Winslow, Hamilton, 
for ploughing with one yoke oxen, with 01ive r 
plough. 
Samuel S. Pratt, W. P. Fisher, Horace Ware— Committee. 



44 

PLOUGHING WITH HORSES. 

The Committee on Ploughing with Horses have attended 
to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 

$10. First premium, to Moses D. Poor, W. Newbury, for 
ploughing with No. 106 Hussey plough. 
$7. Second premium, to W. M. Bent, Dan vers, for plough- 
ing with Syracuse plough. 
•$5. Third premium, to Edwin A. Durkee, Peabody, for 
ploughing with No. 104 Hussey plough. 
0. L. Carleton, Paul T. Winkley jr., Wm. H. Smith, 
Reuben Alley — Committee. 



PLOUGHING WITH SWIVEL PLOUGH. 

The Committee on Ploughing, Swivel Plough, have at- 
tended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secre- 
tary that they have made the following awards: 
$12. First premium, to Solomon W. Weston, Middleton, 

for ploughing with one pair oxen, IXL. plough. 
$10. Second premium, to Wilkins & Christopher, Middle- 
ton, for ploughing with one pair oxen, Barrows & 
Sargent plough. 
$10. First premium, to Jonas Rollins, Danvers, for plough" 
ing with one pair horses, Granger plough. 
-$6. Second premium, to James C. Poor, No. Andover, for 
ploughing with one pair horses. 
C. N. Maguire, Ansel W. Putnam, Aaron Low, John A. 
Hoyt — Committee. 



PLOUGHING WITH SULKY PLOUGH. 

The Committee on Ploughing, Sulky Plough, have atten- 
ded to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary 
that they have made the following awards: 
$8. Second premium, to J. E. Page, Salem, for work done 
by Cassidy plough. 



45 

First premium, to Francis 0. Kimball, Danvers, for 
work done by National Reversible plough. 

J. J. H. Gregory, Samuel E. Marsh, Albert Emerson — 
Committee. 

There were two entries: The Cassidy, by Mr. J. E. Page, 
of the Pickman farm, and the National Reversible, by Mr. 
Francis 0. Kimball. The committee had a very interesting 
duty to perform, in comparing the work done by these two 
ploughs. Our judgment was that each of the ploughs did 
as good work in stony land, as would a common plough ; 
that each turned under the sod, as a rule, and the Cassidy 
even better, than any single team plough on the ground. 
The National Reversible was evidently of easier draught 
than the Cassidy, for, though this was drawn by a heavier 
pair of horses which had worked all summer, they evidently 
labored harder than the smaller pair attached to the Rever- 
sible, while these latter ploughed on an average, a quarter 
deeper. The Reversible leaving no dead furrows, is an in- 
vention along the line of modern improvement in ploughs. 
On the whole, your committee was very favorably impressed 
by this new applicant lor patronage, the " National Rever- 
sible," and would advise any fellow-farmer who finds him- 
self with -|55 to spare at the close of the season, to invest 
it in this plough, rather than put it in any savings bank, 
believing that when so invested it will pay a much larger 
interest than four per cent. 

J. J. H. Gregory, for the Committee. 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

The Committee on Agricultural Implements have at- 
tended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secre- 
tary that they have made the following awards : 
$5. First premium, to George E. Daniels, Rowley, for 

farm cart. 
$5. First premium, to Dole & Osgood, Pcabody, for gro- 
cery wagon. 



4 6 

$5. First premium, to H. P. Whipple, Peabody, for milk 
wagon. 

$3. Gratuity, to E. L. Blake & Co., Peabody, for seed 
drills and weed hoes. 

$3. Gratuity, to Robert Baker, Manchester, for patent 
ladder. 

$1. Gratuity, to John Barker, North Andover, for 0. K. 
harrow. 

$5. First premium, to J. H. Smith, Peabody, for exhi- 
bition of horse shoes. 
S. E. Marsh, J. A. Ilsley, J. J. II. Gregory — Committee, 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

There was, this season, a most striking poverty in the 
exhibit in the implement department. I cannot recall an 
exhibition so poor in numbers, in the experience of a quar- 
ter of a century. Still, this poverty in the exhibit is not to 
be wondered at, when we consider the great increase there 
has been of late years, in agricultural fairs. The result is 
inevitable, that some location must occasionally have but a 
poor show in this department, for the obvious reason that 
our great agricultural establishments cannot be present in 
force, everywhere, at the same time. It is obvious that the 
present season has brought our turn. 

The striking novelty of the season, was Clark's " Cut- 
away Disk Harrow," exhibited by the Higanum Manufac- 
turing Company. This differed from other disk harrows in 
having four pieces cut out of the disk, leaving them of 
about the shape of a Greek cross ; by crossing two of our 
fingers in the middle, at right angle, we will get the idea. 
It was claimed that this new form would cut deeper into the 
soil, and free itself from lumps more easily than the stan- 
dard pattern. The trial, made after the plowing match, ap- 
peared to well substantiate the first claim. I consider it an 
implement well worthy of the attention of farmers who 
need a disk harrow. There is one objection I have to it, in 
common with most of the disk harrows, — the ball and 
socket joint, as sold with them. Mind you, I have no ob 



47 

jection to the ball and socket system of forming a joint ; in 
its easy and varied motion it cannot be surpassed, — but 
when made of a soft material, the ball, after rather a 
limited use, works its way out of the socket, as it has in my 
experience, in two instances, in this class of harrows (my 
harrows have but little rest), then my pocket-book, at the 
next purchase, pays for another style of joint, — and this I 
found in the Climax, which thus far has proved itself to he 
an excellent implement. 

Blake's Improved Danvers seed drill, when used with 
care, no doubt is a good implement with which to plant 
onions and such other seed as do not tend to pack togethe'*, 
from the jarring caused by the movement of the machine 
while planting ; but for use for many varieties of seed, it is 
defective, having only a shaking motion. This is not suf- 
ficient to keep some varieties of seed, carrot, for instance, 
if it is not perfectly cleaned, from packing together over 
the drop hole, and so clogging it. 

One must have either the force feed or those machines 
which have a finger motion acting just over the drop hole, 
and by keeping the seed continually stirred, keeps them 
from clogging. The force feed implements are those which 
carry the seed in sunken depressions (which can be made 
more or less capacious by turning the screws which are at 
the bottom of them), around the circumference of a wheel, 
to a brush of bristle so arranged as to force them out. 

The Sargent machine, used largely in the vicinity of 
Newbury, and the Willis machine, used in Arlington and 
vicinity, are good illustrations of this class. The Mathews 
seed drill is a good illustration of the agitator class. The 
latter I have used for small seed for many years, and am 
well satisfied with it. 

It must be borne in mind, when using any implement, no 
matter how great its artistic excellencies may be, that a 
machine is but a machine, and its success or failure will 
always depend largely upon how much of brains the man 
who uses it presents it with. I have two men planting 
onion seed, side by side, and I can usually see plainly, 
throughout the season, the difference in the result. 



4 8 

There was a good exhibit of several styles of onion hoes, 
excellent for working between the rows, but there were 
none of the class which straddle the rows, weeding both 
sides at the same time. In some sections of New England* 
these are in common use, and there is certainly a good argu- 
ment fur them, in the fact that they save a good deal of 
hand weeding. I know it may be said that with the com- 
mon slide, or wheel hoe, the results secured are the same, 
for though they do not weed each side of a row, they do 
weed one side of two rows. True, but the great advantage 
of the straddle hoe is, that they can be regulated to go as 
close to the row as we may find it for our advantage to go, 
and having each side of the row close under the eye, we 
can do closer work than with the common style of hoe, even 
when different widths are at hand. The Fuller weed hoe, 
Planet Jr., and Bridgeport hoe are examples of the straddle 
class ; the Fuller differing from all others in the fact that 
the two hoes working close to the onions are always under 
complete control of the operator. 

" The 0. K. Steel Coulter harrow " is recommended as 
an implement that would cover manure remarkably well. 
That may be, and I think it likely, but to the eye it looks 
very like a Bastard Share harrow, a style that was in use 
about fifteen years ago. 

This subject of agricultural implements is one of huge 
proportions, and, located as we are, in about the center of 
yankee ingenuity, it is one of great importance, and well 
worthy of more thorough attention than it has yet received. 
We have had excellent exhibitions of the various ploughs, 
and do have them every year at our annual ploughing 
matches, but how is it of cultivators, harrows, and weeding 
hoes ? Has not agriculture advanced sufficiently among us, 
to have the importance of these implements more fully 
recognized ? Every farmer in our county, who owns a 
plough; owns also a cultivator and harrow, and usually a 
seed sower and weed hoe. Should not our system of pre- 
miums recognize these, not only in the exhibition tent, as 
show implements, but in the work they will actually do ? 



49 

To do this at its best, it would be necessary that they should 
be used among growing crops, and to witness this work, a 
mid-summer assembling would be necessary. At that time 
of the year all of us farmers are very busy, — but I believe 
that if a handbill should be issued by the society, giving 
the names of the different kinds of implements that would 
be tested, and the varieties of each kind, farmers would be 
so interested that quite a body would gather. I could con- 
tribute nearly a dozen varieties of onion hoes to such an ex- 
hibition. About half way between planting and haying, 
would be apt to find crops in their best condition, and farm- 
ers with the nearest approach to a leisure day. 

J. J. H. Gregory, Chairman. 



CARRIAGES. 

The Committee on Carriages have attended to their duty, 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have made 
the following awards : 
Diploma and $10 gratuity, to H. H. Pillsbury, Danvers, for 

goddard buggy. 
$10. Gratuity, to Dole & Osgood, Peabody, for end spring 

buggy- 
$10. Gratuity, to H. Whipple, Peabody, for carpet wagon. 
R. M. Leach, Ira Poster, Edward Kent — Committee. 



DAIRY. 

The Committee on Dairy have attended to their duty, and 
respectfully report to the Secretary that they have made the 
following awards: 

$10. First premium, to D. G. Tenney, Newbury, for 16 lbs. 
butter. 
$8. Second premium, to Mrs. B. H. Farnum, No. An- 

dover, for 7 lbs. butter. 
$6. Third premium, to Mrs. Oliver Patch, Hamilton, for 
14 lbs. butter. 
John A. Putnam, Eldred S. Parker, Dudley Bradstreet — 
Committee. 4 



SO 



STATEMENT OP D. G. TENNEY. 



I present, for your inspection, sixteen lbs. of September 
butter, made from the milk of Native, Grade, Dutch, and 
Hereford cows. The milk is set in tin pans, and the cream 
taken off when the milk has soured. When churned, work 
out the buttermilk with hands, and salt to taste. The next 
morning, work again, and weigh into pound balls, and 
square with boards. 

STATEMENT OF MRS. B. H. FARNUM. 

I make my butter in the old-fashioned way. Churn twice a 
week ; work out the buttermilk by hand. Have no ice, or 
milk cellar, nor any suitable place to keep my milk. This 
seven pounds of butter is a fair sample of my make for the 
past year. Use no coloring. It will keep in shape on a 
dining-table, the warmest day in summer, without ice. The 
past season has been unfavorable for making butter, on ac- 
count of dull weather. 

STATEMENT OF MRS. OLIVER PATCH. 

I enter, for premium, fourteen pounds of butter, made 
last week, from the milk of two cows, partly Buffalo. The 
milk is skimmed, after standing thirty-six hours ; adding a 
little salt to the cream, and stirring every day. When put 
into the churn, add a quart of cold water. Never use water 
after the butter comes. After taking from the churn, the 
buttermilk is thoroughly worked out, and butter salted, an 
ounce to a pound. The next day it is worked over again, 
ad made into pound lumps. 



BREAD, HONEY, AND CANNED FRUIT. 

The Committee on Bread, Honey, and Canned Fruit, 
have attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the 
Secretary that they have made the following awards : 
$3. First premium, to Mrs. Lyman S. Wilkins, Middle- 
ton, for white bread. 



5i 

$2. Second premium, to Mary Morrison, Peabody, for 

white bread. 
$1. Third premium, to Mrs. C. H. Goulding, Peabody, 

for white bread. 
$2. First premium, to Mrs. J. F. Patch, Hamilton, for 

graham bread. 
$1. Second premium, to Annie C. Horsch, Rowley, for 

graham bread. 
$1. Gratuity, to Olivia J. Spencer, Peabody, for rolls 

and cake. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. E. A. Cole, W. Boxford, for brown 

bread. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Erastus Ward, Peabody, for brown 

bread. 
$3. Gratuity, to N. N. Dummer, Rowley, for display of 

prepared and cooked grains, from Glen Mills. 
$3. First premium, to Mrs. A. Wilson, North Beverly, 

for jellies and canned fruits. 
$2. First premium, to Mrs. A. C. Osborn, Peabody, for 

canned fruit. 

SPECIAL PREMIUMS, OFFERED BY N. N. DUMMER, OF GLEN MILLS, 

ROWLEY, FOR GRAHAM BREAD MADE FROM " GLEN MILLS 

IMPROVED GRAHAM OR ENTIRE WHEAT FLOUR." 

$5. First premium, to Mrs. J. F. Patch, Hamilton, for 

" Improved Graham Flour" bread. 
$2.50. Second premium, to Annie C. Horsch, Rowley, for 

" Improved Graham Flour " bread. 
$1. Third premium, to Mrs. George Z. Goodell, Salem, 
for " Improved Graham Flour " bread. 
The exhibit of bread submitted for exhibition, and for 
premium, although not as large in amount as usual, was ex- 
ceptionally good. h\ some instances, the rules of the so- 
ciety were nut entirely complied with ; for instance, the 
brown bread the society orders made with yeast (not com- 
monly used now), and that exhibited was made without 
yeast in every case. In some of the wheat bread the rules 



5? 

of the society were not strictly complied with in minor 
points, I nit were excused by your committee. In some cases 
the bread was entered too late, therefore, it had to be set 
aside. Gratuities were also given to some fine collections 
of rolls and cake which were sent in without statements. 

The exhibit entered by N. N. Dummer, of Glen Mills, 
Rowley, of grains, cooked and uncooked, were full and very 
interesting. 

Bees, Hives and Honey. In this department there was 
no honey entered. Bees and hives, without statements as 
to amount of honey made, or how the bees were cared for^ 
were entered, and, therefore, could receive no premium. 
The exhibits of preserves and jellies were very small, and 
no exhibits of dried fruits or pickles were sent to this de- 
partment. 

Mrs. Charles B. Emerson, chairman, Mrs. W. L. Bow- 
doin, Amanda F. Low — Committee. 

STATEMENT OF MRS. LYMAN S. WILKTNS, FIRST PREMIUM WHITE 

BREAD. 

Haxall flour, 3 pints ; 1 pint of milk, \ cup of yeast, 1 
tablespoonful of lard, 1 tablespoonful of sugar, 1 table- 
spoonful of salt. Mixed with a spoon ; not kneaded at all. 
Raised 5£ hours ; baked 1 hour. 

STATEMENT OF MART MORRISON, SECOND PREMIUM WHITE BREAD. 

1 quart of flour, J teaspoonful of salt, \ tablespoonful 
of sugar, 1-8 compressed yeast cake. One-half milk and 
one-half water. Knead twenty minutes. 

STATEMENT OF MRS. J. F. PATCH. 

Bread made from Glen Mills Improved Graham Flour, — 
put up by N. N. Dummer, Rowley, Mass. 

Process of making: 1 quart graham flour, 1 teaspoonful 
salt, 1 large spoonful shortening, 1 large spoonful sugar, \ 
cup potato yeast, 1 pint milk and water, mixed warm. Set 



53 

to rise over night; in the morning, knead, put in tins, and 
rise again one hour. Bake an hour and ten minutes, in 
moderate oven. 

STATEMENT OF ANNIE C. HORSCH, SECOND PREMIUM. 

Glen Mills Improved Graham Bread. At noon make a 
sponge of 3 Warner's yeast cake, about ^ pint warm water 
and flour. At night, take 1 pint of milk, 2 teaspoonfuls of 
salt, and 2 dessertspoonfuls sugar, with the sponge, and 
graham flour enough to stiffen. In the morning, mould 
about five minutes, put into tins, and raise ; then bake 2 
loaves* 

STATEMENT OP MRS. A. WILSON, OP JELLIES. 

Boil the fruit until tender, and strain through hair sieve 
and then through flannel bag. Add 1 pound of sugar to a 
pint of juice, and boil twenty minutes, and strain through 
muslin, into glasses, 

STATEMENT OF MRS. ABRAHAM C. OSBORNE, CANNED FRUIT. 

Ladies: — I enter, for premium, specimen of the several 
varieties of fruits and berries, canned by me, for family 
use. All of the fruits and berries were grown in our own 
garden ; not a single one was obtained elsewhere. My 
method of canning is simple, as follows : — The pears are 
canned whole. It was formerly my practice to cut them in 
quarters, but recently, finding that tliey would keep just as 
long and well, canned whole, also, it being much less labor, 
I have adopted that method. Granulated sugar is used en- 
tirely by me, in canning. The quantity, one-half as many 
pounds as there are fruit or berries. I do not name this as 
a fixed rule for everyone to follow. People differ so much 
in their tastes, that it is almost impossible to have a general 
rule for everyone to adopt. Perhaps it would be a better 
and more satisfactory course to be pursued, for every one 
to sweeten to their taste. The rhubard, Black Naples cur- 
rants and gooseberries are not sweetened when they are 



54 

canned. As they are used for so many different purposes, 
the sugar is not put in until they are wanted for use. More 
sugar was used for the crab apples and plums than any of 
the other varieties. 



PEARS. 

The Committee on Pears have attended to their duty 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have made 
the following awards: 
$3. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for 12 Bartlett 

pears. 
$3. First premium, to A. Stickney, Groveland, for 12 Belle 

Lucrative pears. 
$3. First premium, to D. A. Pettengill, Danvers, for 12 

Beurre Bosc pears. 
$3. First premium, to Samuel Spalding, Danvers, for 12 

Beurre d'Anjou pears. 
$3. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for 12 Duchess 

d'Angouleme pears. 
$3. First premium to B. F. Southwick, Peabody, for 12 

Dana Hovey pears. 
$3. First premium, to John O'Brien, Bradford, for 12 

Lawrence pears. 
$3. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for 12 Louis 

Bon de Jersey pears. 
$3. First premium, to A. J. Hubbard, Peabody, for 12 

Maria Louise pears. 
|3. First premium, to J. H. Hill, Amesbury, for 12 Onon- 
daga pears. 
First premium, to B. R. Symonds, Salem, for 12 Par- 
adise d' Automne pears. 
$3. First premium, to D. A. Pettengill, Danvers, for 12 

Seekle pears. 
$3. First premium, to Amos Raddin, Peabody, for 12 

Sheldon pears. 
First premium, to W. W. Perkins, Newbury, for 12 

Urbaniste pears. 



55 

$3. First premium, to David A. Pettengill, Dan vers, for 

12 Vicar of Winkfield pears. 
$3. First premium, to J. H. Hill, Amesbury, for 12 Beurre 

Langliera pears. 
$3. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for 12 Howell 

pears. 
$3. First premium, to E. F. Webster, Haverhill, for 12 

Beurre Hardy pears. 
$3. First premium, to F. N. Carlton, Peabody, for 12 

Beurre Clairgeau pears. 
$1.50. Gratuity, to R. H. Brown, Peabody, for 12 Doy de 

Cornice pears. 
$ 1.5.0. Gratuity, to A. Stickney, Groveiand, for 12 Good- 
ale pears. 
$2. Gratuity, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for 21 Duchess de- 

Angouleme pears. 
$2. Gratuity, to Edwin Verey, Salem, for 24 Buerre 

Bosc pears. 
$1. Gratuity, to J. Lamson, Haverhill, for 24 Beurre 

Bosc pears. 
$1. Gratuity, to C. B. Haven, Peabody, for 24 Seckle 

pears. 
$ 1. Gratuity, to F. N. Carlton, Peabody, for 12 Beurre 

Bosc pears. 
$ 1. Gratuity, to F. N. Carlton, Peabody, for 12 Onondaga 

pears. 
$1. Gratuity, to F. N. Carlton, Peabody, for 12 Duchess 

de Angouleme pears. 
$ 1. Gratuity, to C. B. Haven, Peabody, for 12 Seckle 

pears. 
$1. Gratuity, to G. D. Walton, Peabody, for 12 Bartlett 

pears. 
$1. Gratuity, to A. Raddin, Peabody, for 12 Lawrence 

pears. 
$1. Gratuity, to A. Raddin, Peabody, for 12 Howell 

pears. 
$1. Gratuity, to A. Raddin, Peabody, for 12 Beurre 

Clairgeau pears. 



56 

$1. Gratuity, to A. C. Osborn, Peabody, for 12 Crispin 

pears. 
$1. Gratuity, to C. E. Brown, 2nd., Peabody, for 12 

Beurre d' Anjou pears. 
$1. Gratuity, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for 12 Bosc pears. 
$1. Gratuity, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for 12 Sheldon 

pears. 
$1. Gratuity, to J. W. Dodge, Dan vers, for Dodge Seed- 
ling pears. 
$1. Gratuity, to R: H. Brown, Peabody, for 12 Howell 

pears. 
$1. Gratuity, to W. P. Hutchingson, Danvers Center, 

for 12 Beurre Clairgeau pears. 
$1. Gratuity, to Walnut Farm, Essex, for 12 Sheldon 

pears. 
$1. Gratuity, to S. South wick, Peabody, for Pyramid of 

pears. 
John R. Langley, Abraham C. Osborn, Peter M. Neal. 
George Pettengill — Committee. 

There were 272 dishes of 12 specimens each, and 3 of 
24 each. The Committee would recommend that there 
be no premium offered for 24 specimens, but that the 
amount of that premium be added to the gratuities to be 
given to 12 specimen dishes.* They also recommend 
that the Beurre Langlier be dropped from the list recom- 
mended for cultivation in Essex County, and that the 
Doyenem de Cornice be added to the list.* 

George Pettengill, for the Committee. 



*Note. — The Trustees at November meeting struck from the Hat, 
the premiums for 24 specimens of Pears, and Apples, and offer the 
amount for Collection of Pears and Apples. The Committees on Pears 
and Apples are already authorized to award $1.50 Premiums for any 
other varieties than those recommended, if deemed worthy of it. 
The recommendation in regard to the Beurre Langlier Pear was 
adopted. 

D. W. Low, Secretary. 



57 

APPLES. 

The Committee on Apples have attended to their duty 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 
$3. First premium, to Simon P. Buxton, Feabody, for 

Hubardtson Nonsuch. 
$3. First premium, to Thomas Sawyer, Boxford, for 

King of Tompkins County. 
to. First premium, to Wm. W. Perkins, Newbury, for 

Tolman Sweet. 
$3. First premium, to Wm. W. Perkins, Newbury, for 

R. I. Greening. 
$3. First premium, to Thomas Hale, Rowley, for Graven- 
stein. 
$3. First premium, to Francis T. Marstin, Danvers, for 

Sweet Baldwin. 
$3. First premium, to S. B. George, Groveland, for Hunt 

Russett. 
$3. First premium, to D. Bradstreet, Topsfield, for Drap 

d'Or. 
$3. First premium, to Wm. B. Little, Newbury, for 

Smith's Cider. 
$3. First premium, to Monroe Bros., Lynnfield, for Dan- 
vers Winter Sweet. 
$3. First premium, to J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for 

Bailey's Sweet. 
$3. First premium, to J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for 

Granite Beauty. 
$3. First premium, to J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for 

Red Russett. 
$3. First premium, to Wm. R. Kimball, West Boxford, 

for Porter. 
$3\ First premium, to Moses H. Poot, West Newbury, 

for Baldwin. 
$3. First premium, to Joel L. Southworth, West Pea- 
body, for Hurlburt. 
$3. First premium, to David Warren, Swampscott, for 
Pickman Pippin. 



58 

il.oO. First premium, to Lyman S. Wilkins, Middletott, 
for Russian Crab. 

$6. First premium, to Marcellus Janes, West Newbury, 
for best 24 specimens Hubardston Nonsuch. 

$1.50. Gratuity, to William ft. Cole, West Boxford, for 
William's Favorite (excellent). 

SI. Gratuity, to Frank A. Whitman, Wenham, for Snow. 

SI. Gratuity, to Frank A. Whitman, Wenham, for Un- 
known (very fine). 

|1. Gratuity, to Thomas C. Thurlow, West Newbury, 
for 20 ounce Pippin. 

91. Gratuity to S. F. Newman, Newbury, for Drap d'- 
Or. 

$1. Gratuity, to T. K. Bartlett, Newburyport, for Brad- 
ford Nonsuch. 

■$1. Gratuity, to W. P. Smith, Rowley, for Blue Pear- 
main. 

SI. Gratuity, to Thomas P. Hale, Rowley, for Baldwin. 

$1. Gratuity, to Thomas Hale, Rowley, for Spitzenberg. 

SI. Gratuity, to Thomas Hale, Rowley, for Conn. Green- 
ing. 

SI. Gratuity, to Wm. W. Perkins, Newbury, for Rox- 

bury Russets. 
•SI. Gratuity, to Mrs. Dr. White, Danvers, for Hubbard* 

ston Non. 
SI. Gratuity, to C. C. Blunt, Andover, for Strawberry. 
$1. Gratuity, to Patrick Murphy, Peabody, for Osgood's 

Favorite. 
$1. Gratuity, to S. W. Spaulding, Danvers, for Wealthy. 
$1. Gratuity, to E. K. Lee, Essex, for Gravenstein. 
$1.50. Gratuity, to S. Southwick, Peabody, for pyramid 

of assorted apples. 
Geo. W. Chad wick, Thomas K. Leach, Joseph Howe, 
William B. Little, T. P. Hale — Committee. 



'PEACHES, GRAPES, AND ASSORTED FRUITS. 

The Committee on Peaches, Grapes, and Assorted 



59 

Fruits, have attended to their duty, and respectfully r6-> 

port to the Secretary that they have made the following 

awards : 

$3. First premium, to W. P. Hutchinson, Danvers, for 
Niagara grapes. 

$3. First premium, to A. J. Hubbard, Peabody, for Con- 
cord grapes. 

$3. First premium, to Geo. W. Gage, Methuen, for Wor- 
den's Seedling grapes. 

$3. First premium, to S. M. Titcomb, West Newbury, 
for Brighton grapes. 

$3. First premium, to Chas. E. Marsh, Lynn, for Hart- 
ford Prolific grapes. 

$3. First premium, to W. P. Hutchinson, Danvers, for 
Delaware grapes. 

$3. First premium, to C. B. Haven, Peabody, for Mar- 
tha grapes. 

$3. First premium, to W. P. Richardson, Danvers, for 
Moore's Early grapes. 

$1.50. First premium, to Geo. D. Walton, Danvers, for 
Croton grapes. 

$1.50. First premium, to W. P. Hutchinson, Danvers, 
for Prentiss grapes. 

$6. First premium, to Aaron Low, Essex, for Cold House 
Black Hamburg grapes. 

$4. Second premium, to Geo. W. Gage, Methuen, for 
Black Hamburg grapes. 

50c. Gratuity, to C. B. Haven, Peabody, for Bush 
Orange quinces. 

$2. First premium, to Miss Minnie A. Walton, Peabody 
for peaches. 

•fl. Gratuity, to D. H. Southwick, Peabody, for Clinton 
grapes. 

$1. Gratuity, to Rufus Goodwin, Ayer Village, Haver- 
hill, for Concord grapes. 

$1. Gratuity, to Rufus Goodwin, Ayer Village, Haver- 
hill, for Delaware grapes. 



6o 

i)()c. Gratuity, to A. C. Osborne, Peabody, for Podding- 

ton grapes. 
50c. Gratuity, to A. C. Osborne, Peabody, for Concord 

grapes. 
60c. Gratuity, to Mrs. G. P. Osborne, Peabody, for 

Renia Claud plums. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. G. P. Osborne, Peabody, for 

Cole's Golden Drop plums. 
f 2. Gratuity, to E. F. Webster, Haverhill, for Orange 

quince. 
$1. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. F. Farran, Salem, for Orange 

quince. 
$ 1. Gratuity, to Samuel Cammett, Amesbury, for Mar- 
tha grapes. 
$1. Gratuity, to Geo. Pettengill, Salem, for Ives' Blood 

peach. 
>fl. Gratuity, to Edwin Verry, Salem, for White Flesh 

Essex County peach. 
50c. Gratuity, to Edwin Bates; Lynn, for Lombard 

plums. 
$1. Gratuity, to Mrs. W. O. Satford, Salem, for Yellow 

Egg plums. 
$3. First premium, to Frederick Lamson, Salem, for 

collection of peaches. 
$2. First premium, to Frederick Lamson, Salem, for 

Essex County Seedling peaches. 
$ 2. First premium, to S. D. Rollins, Amesbury, for yel- 
low flesh peaches, " Late Crawford." 
$2. First premium, to Henry M. Meek, Salem, for white 

flesh peaches, " Stump of the World." 

J. Henry Hill, Chairman. 



FLOWERS. 

The Committee on Flowers have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards: 



6i 

50c. Gratuity, to Joseph Symonds, Salem, for Asters. 
50c. Gratuit} r , to Mrs. Geo. Reynolds, Peabody, for 

Cockscombs. 
50c. Gratuity, to W. J. Walton, Salem, for 2 plates 

flowers. 
$2. Second premium, to Miss E. M. Perley, Danvers, for 

collection Foliage Plants. 
$3. Second premium, to Andrew Nichols, Jr., Danvers, 

for native plants, named. 
$5. First premium, to Miss Mary W. Nichols, Danvers, 

for native plants, named. 
50c. Gratuity, to Jessie F. Hapgood, Middleton, for 

Quilled Asters. 
$1. First premium, to Agnes H. Hale, Rowley, for Zin- 
nias. 
$1. First premium, to Mrs. A. Raddin, So. Peabody, for 

6 varieties of Dahlias. 
81. Gratuity, to Miss S. H. Newhall, So. Peabody, for 

Roses, and Sweet Peas. 
$1. First premium, to Miss S. H. Newhall, So. Peabody, 

for 3 varieties of Roses. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. N. E. Ladd, Groveland, for Nas- 
turtiums. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. H. M. Osborn, Peabody, for cut 

flowers. 
75c. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. Marsh, Lynn, for Gladiolus. 
$1. Gratuity, to Mr. S. Blaney, Peabody, for collection 

of Asters. 
$1. First premium, to Mrs. Chas. Perley, West B oxford, 

for Calendulas. 
$1. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. H. Hill, Amesbury, for Roses 

(tender)- 
$1. First premium, to Joseph Symonds, Salem, for 24 

Asters. 
$1. Gratuity, to Miss S. H. Newhall, So. Peabody, for 

^collection. 
$1. First premium, to Miss S. H. Newhall, So. Peabody, 

for 6 varieties of Verbenas. 



62 

$1. First premium, to Mrs. J. E. Page, Salem, for bou- 
quet garden Flowers. 

$1. Gratuity, to Mrs. W. W. Kimball, Lynn, for bouquet 
Wild Flowers. 

$1. First premium, to Mrs. Win. Perkins, Peabody, for 
Begonia. 

$1. Gratuity, to T. C. Thurlow, W. Newbury, for Glad- 
iolus. 

$1. First premium, to T. C. Thurlow, W. Newbury, for 
Hardy Phlox. 

50c. Gratuity, to T. C. Thurlow, W. Newbury, for col- 
lection. 

50c. Gratuity, to P. M. Neal, Lynn, for Dahlias. 

$1. First premium, to Mrs. S. P. Weston, Dan vers, for 
Immortelles. 

$1. First premium, to E. & C. Woodman, Danvers, for 
Carnations. 

$1. First premium, to E. & C. Woodman, Danvers, for 
Geraniums. 

$1. First premium, to E. & C. Woodman, Danvers, for 
Nasturtiums. 

75c. Gratuity, to Miss M. F. Putnam, Danvers, for Wild 
Flowers. 

$1. Gratuity, to Aaron Low, Essex, for Gladiolus. 

SI. First premium, to Mrs. M. P. Nichols, Lynn, for 
Mourning Bride. 

50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Oscar Fellows, Peabody, for Pot 
Plants. 

75c. Gratuity, to Mrs. M. E. Fuller, Middleton, for Wild 

Flowers. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. M. E. Fuller, Middleton, for Na- 
tive Ferns. 

$3. First premium, to Gr. W. Creesy, Salem, for Cut 
Flowers. 

•12. Second premium, to Mrs. J. M. Ward, Peabody, for 
Cut Flowers. 

Mrs. William S. Horner, Mrs. J. Henry Hill, Mrs. 
David Warren, Eben True — Committee. 



VEGETABLES. 

The Committee on Vegetables have attends! to their 
duty, and respectively report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 
$3. First premium, to David Warren, Swampscott, for 

Eclipse beets. 
50 cts. Gratuity, to F. H. Appleton, Peabody, for Lima 

beans. 
$2. First premium, to B. P. Ware, Marblehead, for 

nutmeg melons. 
$2. Second premium, to B. Henry Wilson, Peabody, for 

savoy cabbages. 
$3. First premium to B. Henry Wilson, Peabody, for 

Clark's No. 1 Potatoes. 
$3. First premium, to Thomas C. Durkee, Peabody, for 

marrow squashes. 
$2. Second premium, to Thomas C. Durkee, Peabody? 

for Brunswick cabbages. 
$1. Gratuit}^, to Andrew Curtis, Peabody, for corn in 

milk. 
$1. Gratuity, to Andrew Curtis, Peabody, for collection 

of squashes. 
50 cts. Gratuity, to B. H. Taylor, Peabody, for Fottler's 

cabbages. 
$1. Third premium, to L. G. Moulton, Peabody, for 

cranberries. 
$3. First premium, to David Warren, Swampscott, for 

Essex Hybrid Squashes. 
$3. First premium, to David Warren, Swampscott, for 

red cabbages. 
$2. Gratuity, to David Warren, Swampscott, for Danvers 

onions. 
50 cts. Gratuity, to Batchelder Farm, West Wenham, 

for Belle potatoes. 
$1. Gratuity, to Batchelder Farm, West Wenham, for 

Winslow potatoes. 



6 4 

$1. Gratuity, to Batchelder Farm, West Wenham, for 

Carter's improved turnips. 
$2. First premium, to A. F. Lee, Beverly, for short horn 

carrots. 
50 cts. Gratuity, to J. E. Herrick, West Peabody, for 

Globe turnips. 
$1. Gratuity, to Geo. Reynolds, Peabody, for herbs. 
$1. Gratuity, to Geo. Reynolds, Peabody, for cabbages. 
50 cts. Gratuity, to B. H. Taylor, Peabody, for Beauty 

of Hebron potatoes. 
$3. First premium, to B. H. Farnum, N. Andover, for 

sweet German turnips. 
$3. First premium, to A. P. Alley, Marblehead, for 

Marblehead squashes. 
$3. First premium, to A. P. Alley, Marblehead, for 

Turban squashes. 
$3. First premium, to A. P. Alley, Marblehead, for 

Danvers onions. 
$2. Second premium, to A. P. Alley, Marblehead, for 

red cabbages. 
50 cts. Gratuity, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Bay State 

squashes. 
$3. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for mangolds. 
$3. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Long 

Orange carrots. 
#3. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Living- 
ston's tomatoes. 
$3. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Hebron 

potatoes. 
$1. Gratuity, to Wm. E. Sheen, W. Peabody, for col- 
lection of potatoes. 
$3. First premium, to Richard Jaques, Newbury, for 

flat onions. 
$1. Gratuity, to Richard Jaques, Newbuiy, for Short 

Horn carrots. 
$3. First premium, to Richard Jaques, Newbury, for 

De wing's beets. 



65 

12. First premium, to E. C. Smith & Son, Rowley, for 
celeiy. 

$3. First premium, to Aaron Low, Essex, for Early 
Sweet corn. 

$1. Gratuity, to Aaron Low, Essex, for Bay State 
squashes. 

50 cts. Gratuity, to Aaron Low, Essex, for White Spine 
cucumbers. 

$3 First premium, to Aaron Low, Essex, for Essex Hy- 
brid tomatoes. 

•$3. First premium, to Aaron Low, Essex, for collection 
tomatoes. 

$1. Gratuity, to J. P. King, Peabody, for Danvers 
onions. 

$3. First premium, to H. A. Stiles, Middleton, for Strap 
Leaf flat turnips. 

50 cts. Gratuity, to J. O. Goodale, Peabody, for Crook- 
neck squashes. 

$3. First premium, to J. O. Goodale, Peabody, for Hub- 
bard squashes. 

|1. Gratuity, to J. O. Goodale, Peabody, for Victor 
squashes. 

50 cts. Gratuity, to J. O. Goodale, Peabody, for Purple 
Top turnips. 

$3. First premium, to J. O. Goodale, Peabody, for cauli- 
flowers. 

50 cts. Gratuity, to Issachar Foster, jr., Beverly, for 
pumpkins. 

$3. First premium, to Philip Bushby, Peabody, for Dan- 
vers carrots. 

50 cts. Gratuity, to Philip Bushby, Peabody, for pars- 
nips. 

50 cts. Gratuity, to Philip Bushby, Peabody, for Strap 
Leaf Purple Top turnips. 

$3. First premium, to Richard Jaques, Newbury, for 
parsnips. 

50 cts. Gratuity, to Rufus Goodwin, Haverhill, for Dan- 
vers onions. 



66 

$1. Gratuity, to Rufus Goodwin, Haverhill, for Seedling 

potatoes. 
50 cts. Gratuity, to W. II. Cole, W. Boxford, for Early 

Sweet corn. 
$3. First premium, to W. II. Cole, W. Boxford, for cran- 
berries. 
50 cts. Gratuity, to W. H. Cole, W. Boxford, for cauli- 
flowers. 
$2. Second premium, to W. H. Greenleaf, Salisbury, for 

cauliflowers. 
$3. First premium, to S. F. Newman, Newbury, for 

Savoy cabbages. 
$3. First premium, to S. F. Newman, Newbury, for 

Fottler's Brunswick cabbages. 
$2. Second premium, to S. F. Newman, Newbury, for 

Stone Mason cabbages. 
•13. First premium, to S. F. Newman, Newbury, for Red 

Globe onions. 
$3. First premium, to E. & C. Woodman, Danvers, for 

Livingston tomatoes. 
$1. Gratuity, to Joel E. South wick, W. Peabody, for 

Turban squashes. 
50 cts. Gratuity, to Wm. Barrett, Peabody, for Marrow 

squashes. 
50 cts. Gratuity, to John J. Mason, Amesbury, for 

White Egg turnips. 
$2. First premium, to John J. Mason, Amesbury, for 

water melons. 
$3. First premium, to John J. Mason, Amesbury, for 

Ruta Baga turnips. 
$1. Gratuity, to Nathan Bushby, Peabody, for Lima 

beans. 
$2. Second premium, to W. H. Johnson, Essex, for 

cranberries. 
50 cts. Gratuity, to Berton Putnam, Danvers, for Pea- 
mi ts. 
50 cts Gratuity, to John Baker, Manchester, for Stone 

Mason cabbages. 



6 7 

$3. First premium, to Chas. W. Mann, Methuen, for 

Stone Mason cabbages. 
$1. Gratuit3% to Chas. W. Mann, Methuen, for Methuen 

Early Sweet corn. 
$1. Gratuity, to Chas. W. Mann, Methuen, for Danvers 

carrots. 
50 cts. Gratuity, to F. Buckminister, Methuen, for 

Queen of Valley potatoes. 
50 cts. Gratuity, to Aaron Low, Essex, for Edmand's 

beets. 
$1. Gratuity, to Porter's Market, Salem, for horn of 

plenty. 
50 cts. Gratuity, to Amos S. Buxton, Peabody, for 

Queen of Valley potatoes. 
$8. First premium, to Jas. J. H. Gregory, Marblehead, 

for collection of vegetables. 
$6. First premium, to Chas. W. Mann, Methuen, for 

collection of vegetables. 
B. F. Huntington, John M. Danforth, B. P. Pike, John 
Baker, Albert W. Howe — Committee. 

B. F. Huntington, Chairman. 



GRAIN AND SEED. 

The Committee on Grain and Seed have attended to 
their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 
$1. First premium, to C. F. Webster, Haverhill, for 

1 peck shelled corn. 
$1. First premium, to Pickman Farm, Salem, for 1 peck 

barley. 
$1. First premium, to Pickman Farm, Salem, for 1 peck 

rye. 
$5. First premium, to B. H. Taylor, Peabody, for 25 ears 

Field corn. 
$3. Second premium, to J. W. Yearon, Georgetown, for 

25 ears Field corn. 



68 

12. Third premium, to Frank With am, Middleton, for 

25 ears Field corn. 
|3. First premium, to B. II. Taylor, Peabody, for 25 ears 

Pop corn. 
$2. Second premium, to Wm. A. Walton, Ipswich, for 25 

ears Pop Corn. 
|8. First premium, to J. J. H. Gregory, Marblehead, for 

243 samples Field and Garden seed. 
$5. Second premium, to Charles W. Mann, Methuen, for 

Field and Garden seed. 
A large variety of seeds was exhibited by Morrison & 
Trask, of Peabody, which, not being grown in the county, 
could not compete for premiums. N. W. Edson & Co., 
of Peabody, covered their attractive " booth," con- 
taining samples of their goods, with trace corn, which 
the committee are glad to notice, both for its excellence 
and taste of arrangement. 

Rufus Kimball, P. Albert True, W. H. Greenleaf— 
( 'ommittee. 

GRAIN AND SEED. 

Much might be written of the antiquity of seeds and 
grain, but where the seeds of some of our garden vege- 
tables came from is likely to remain in doubt. 

The potato, the most valuable and widely cultivated of 
esculent tubers, is a native of the elevated tropical val- 
leys of Mexico, Peru, and Chili. It was unknown in 
New England until near the middle of the eighteen tli 
century, although described by Gerard, in his Herbal/, in 
1597, under the name of Batata Virginiana. It is allied 
to several powerful narcotics, such as tobacco, henbane, 
and belladonna, as well as to other esculents. In pro- 
duction, it exceeds that of any other esculent, yielding, 
according, to Humbolt, thirty times greater weight than 
wheat, on an equal amount of ground. 

There is positive evidence that the radish was grown 
in the gardens of the Pharoahs, although it did not reach 



6 9 

England until about three hundred years ago, according 
to the reckoning of the London Standard. The children 
of Israel, when they loathed manna in the wilderness, re- 
membered " the cucumbers, and the melons, and the leeks, 
and the onions, and the garlick," which they did eat in 
Egypt. 

Most authorities agree that the many varieties of cab- 
bage, cauliflower, turnip, etc., are natives of the temper- 
ate and cold regions of Europe and Asia, and they are 
believed to owe their parentage to the wild brassica of 
the cliffs and seashore, although, after their long culti- 
vation, it is difficult to trace any semblance to the orig- 
inal. 

The gourd is a native of Africa andiAsia, perhaps, also, 
of America; and the squash, called edible gourd in Eng- 
land, and cultivated upon both continents long before the 
time of Columbus, probably had a hybrid origin. 

The common spinach has been cultivated in this coun- 
try for more than three hundred years. It was noticed 
in Turner's "Herbal," published in 1568, as "an herb 
lately found and not much in use." It is generally sup- 
posed to be a native of Western Asia, but no positive 
evidence of its origin can be had. 

The tomato, now grown as an article of food in all 
warm and temperate climates, is a native of tropical 
America ; and the garden lettuce, believed to have been 
introduced from Asia, is said to be traced from a wild 
plant, but the statement has never been satisfactorily cor- 
roborated. 

The first mention of wheat occurs in the account of 
Jacob's sojourn with Laban (Gen. 30 : 14). Egypt was 
celebrated for wheat, and it was plentiful in Syria and 
Palestine. Corn, as usually applied, is the generic name 
for all seeds used in making bread, and especially thu 
seeds of cerelid. The grains and leaves of Indian corn 
(maize) have been found under the heads of Egyptian 
mummies, and it is supposed to be mentioned by Homer, 



70 

The offering in Lev. 2:14, was of u green ears of corn 
dried by the fire, even corn beaten out of full ears." 

The writer has been interested, during the past sum- 
mer, in watching the growth of several hills of corn in 
the garden of Mr. John H. B. Orover, in Whiting street, 
Lynn. The stalks were very similar to those of the com- 
mon field corn, raised by Essex County farmers, with the 
exception that a white stripe was shown in the centre of 
each leaf or lance. But the principal peculiarity was in 
the fact that no ear appeared, but the kernels grew upon 
the (lower or tassel, forming a bunch on the top of each 
stalk, which yielded half a pint or more of hard white 
corn, about the size of pop-corn, and the kernels being of 
the same shape as that variety. The seed from which 
this corn grew was procured by a gentleman making a 
tour in the East. While in Egypt, a mummy was ex- 
humed, and a quantity of corn was found in the coffin. 
The gentleman, finding that the corn was apparently in 
good condition, thought that perhaps it might germinate, 
and sent some of it to a friend in California, who, in turn 
sent a few kernels to a farmer by the name of Cisson, in 
New Jersey. Both the gentlemen who received the corn 
planted it, and were surprised, that the kernels grew 
where the tassel forms on our native* corn. It is believed 
that the mummy from which this corn was taken had 
been buried nearly four thousand years, and that it re- 
tained the power to germinate is truly wonderful. The 
corn raised this year, by Mr. Grover, was the second 
year's product of the seed sent from Eg} T pt. The mum- 
my was found twenty feet below the surface, the depth 
being accounted for, perhaps, by the drift of sand during 
the centuries. The facts as here related, concerning the 
finding of the seed and its history, were received directly 
from Mr. Cisson, and it seems that there can be no doubt 
of the correctness of the statements. 

There is, undoubtedly, wheat now in the United States 
which sprang from seed taken from mummies which had 



7i 

been buried four thousand years, but it will be surprising 
to many, to learn that ''there is corn hi Egypt" of such 
an age which will sprout and prove as productive as our 
native maize. 

It is, undoubtedly, true that barley is more widely dis- 
tributed than any other grain. Cultivated by the ancient 
Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans, it was a most important 
article of food in a remote antiquity. It is first mentioned 
in Exodus 9 : 31, — " And the flax and the barle} r was 
smitten, for the barley was in the ear, and the liax was 
boiled." This grain is adapted to almost all climates, the 
Himalaya barley producing good crops at the height of 
14,000 feet above the level of the sea. It has been the 
subject of song and humorous composition, and many a 
swain has sung, 

"Here's health to the Barley Mow." 

Oats are the "corn" of Scotland, and probably a de- 
velopment of the wild oat found in Europe, and now 
growing wild, and spreading over large tracts of land in 
California. It is a northern plant, though it does not 
reach so far north as barley, and degenerates very rapidly 
in hot southern summers. Its annual production in the 
United States has been as high as 3,000,000 bushels. 

Rye, the annual production of which in the United 
States is estimated at 20,000,000 bushels, is grown in the 
largest quantities in Pennsylvania, New York, and 
Illinois. Less nutritious than wheat, it is nevertheless a 
wholesome grain. Its greatest use is for distillation of 
whiskey in the United States, gin in Holland, and quass 
in Russia. Its straw is more valuable than that of any 
other grain, and it thrives upon poor soil and in the high- 
er latitudes of the temperate zone. It is mentioned in 
Exodus as " rie." 

Beans have been cultivated in Asia and Europe since 
the earliest ages, and the many varieties used us fond for 
men, cattle, and swine. In New England they have 
proved a profitable crop on dry and moderately rich soil. 



72 

Many other seeds should perhaps he included in this 
report, hut its length suggests the wisdom of bringing it 
to a close. 

Rufos Kimball, Chairman. 



COUNTERPANES AND AFGHANS. 

The Committee on Counterpanes and Afghans have at- 
tended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Sec- 
retary that they have made the following awards : 
$4,00. First premium, to Mrs. R. G. Nelson, Peabody, 

for silk quilt. 
2.00. Second premium, to Miss Alice Patterson, Pea- 
body, for counterpane. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. E. Stone, Peabody, for silk 

quilt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mary A. Brennan, Salem, for quilt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Jacob Osborn, Peabody, for 
quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. B. Shepard, Salem, for quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. John Silk, Peabody, for quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. P. Dodge, Beverly, for quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. H. F. Marsh, Peabody, for quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. S. W. Mackintire, Peabody, for 

quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Win. Stimpson, Danvers, for 

quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Henry M. Ives, Salem, for quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. E. W. Merrill, Salem, for quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Annie Gower, Salem, for quilt. 
1.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Emma French, Peabody, for two 
quilts. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. R. Jacobs, Peabody, for quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. A. Gowing, Peabody, for quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. John Moulton, Peabody, for 
quilt. 



71 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. M. L. Bodge, Peabody, for quilt, 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. H. Tigh, Peabody, for quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. I. E. Jackman, Peabody, for 

quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Mary A. Teague, Peabody, for 

quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. L. Oliver, South Peabody, for 

quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Cora M. Bushby, Dan vers, for 

quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Ernest A. Harrirnan, Peabody, 

for quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss N. E. Fellows, Peabody, for quilt. 
.50. Gratuit}^, to Mrs. Wm. Peck, Salem, for quilt. 
.50. Gratuit} T , to Mrs. M. H. Stevens, Salem, for quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. F. E. Green, Peabody, for quilt. 
2.00. First premium, to Mrs. C. S. Goldthwaite, Pea- 
body, for afghan. 
1.00. Second premium, to Mrs. D. B. Lord, Peabody, for 

afghan. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Geo. H. Little, Peabody, for 

afghan. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Susan P. Newhall, Peabody, for 

afghan. 

.50. Gratuity, to Miss Grace M. Cone, South Peabody, 

for afghan. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Stephen Fernald, Peabody, for 

afgban. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. L. M. Balcoinb, Peabody, for 

afghan. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. L. N. Putnam, Danvers, for 

afghan. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. S. Hodgkins, Peabody, for 

afghan. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Jessie F. Barrett, Peabody, for 

afghans. 
Mrs. O. L. Carleton, Chairman, Mrs. J. P. King, Mrs. 



74 

Charles O. Brooks, Mrs. Alonzo Raddin, Mrs. Edward W. 
Jacobs — Committee. 



CARPETS AND RUGS. 

The Committee on Carpets and Rugs have attended to 
their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards: 
Diploma, to George Foan, Peabody, for 27 wool mats. 
83.00. First premium, to Mrs. J. Fairbanks, Salem, for 

rugs. 
2.00. Second premium, to F. A. Perkins, Peabody, for rug. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. E. D. Folsom, Peabody, for rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. John Goldthwaite, Lynn, for rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Miss I. L. Roberts, Salem, for rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. W. Sleeper, Salem, for rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. H. C. Torr, Peabody, for rug. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. John Torr, Peabody, for rug. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Samuel Trask, Peabody, for rug. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Ira Foster, Peabody, for rug. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Samuel Ferguson, Peabody, for 
rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Miss Jane L. Stevens, Peabody, for rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Frank Witham, Middleton, for rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to D. B. Lord, Peabody, for rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Henrietta Pushee, Beverly, for rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, for rug. 

2.00. Gratuity, to B. F. Calley, East Saugus, for rug. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Abbie Wallace, Salem, for rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. L. P. Burbank, Salem, for rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Robert Hamilton, Salem, for rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. S. T. Stoddard, Peabody, for rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. H. A. Begg, Peabody, for rug. 

.50. Gratuity to Mrs. Geo. E. Dodge, Peabody, for rug. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Annie Gower, Salem, for rug. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Wm. Pack, Salem, for rug. 
Naucie T. Morrison, Sarah P. Cogswell, Mrs. N. E. Ladd, 
Andrew Nichols — Committee. 



75 

ARTICLES MANUFACTURED FROM LEATHER. 

The Committee on Articles Manufactured from Leather 

have attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the 

Secretary that they have made the following awards : 

$5.00. First premium, to Charles McTurner, Danvers, for 
team harness. 

5.00. First premium, to H. H. Pillsbury, Danvers, for car- 
riage harness. 

5.00. First premium, to EL H. Pillsbury, Danvers, for ex- 
press harness. 

3.00. Gratuity, to Herbert Gardner, Peabody, for double 
harness. 

2.00. Gratuity, to Herbert Gardner, Peabody, for express 
harness. 

3.00. Gratuity, to Charles P. Spencer, Salem, for exhibit. 

2.00. Gratuity, to J. W. Dane & Co., Salem, for carriage 
harness. 

2.00. First premium, to G. H.'Flint, Danvers, for youth's 
shoes. 
G. W. Clapp, E. C. Foster, W. H. Foster, Samuel Trask 

— Committee. 



MANUFACTURES AND GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

The Committee on Manufactures and General Merchan- 
dise have attended to their duty, and respectfully report to 
the Secretary that they have made the following awards : 
Diploma, to Charles F. Curvviu, Salem, for water motor. 
Diploma, to Alfred Taylor, Peabody, for soap. 
Diploma, to J. H. Smith, Peabody, for horse shoes. 
Diploma, to Peabody Reporter, Peabody, for printed cards. 
Diploma, to Standard Thermometer Co., Peabody, for Stan- 
dard thermometers. 
Diploma, to J. R. Fogg, Amesbury, for weather and door 

strips. 
Diploma, to G. H. Little, Peabody, for articles of brass 
manufacture. 



7 6 

Diploma, to Willey & Poor, Peabody, for kip and split 

leather. 
Diploma, to L. B. Southwood & Co., Peabody, for finished 

sheep skins. 
Diploma, to P. Osborn, jr. & Co., Peabody, for kip and split 

leather. 
50 cts. Gratuity, to B. P. ^Galley, East Saugus, for pop 

corn sheller. 
-11.00. Gratuity, to G. L. Richardson, So. Peabody, for hen 

fountain. 
50 cts. Gratuity, to Francis A. Lane, Peabody, for balls, 

and wooden chain. 
50 cts. Gratuity, to Mrs. A. K. Blackingston, Rowley, for 

two pairs knit mittens. 
William Hilton, Chairman, Dean A. Perley, Osman Bab- 
son — Committee. 



FANCY WORK AND WORKS OF ART. 

The Committee on Fancy Work and Works of Art have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secre- 
tary that they have made the following awards : 

.50. Gratuity, to Nellie E. Skinner, Salem, for painting. 
$1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. W. F. Chappie, Salem, for clayoid 

work. 
1.50. Gratuity, to Nellie A. Magoon, Danvers, for cattle 

piece. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Alice M. Bushby, Peabody, for three 
oil paintings. 
.75. Gratuity, to Henry H. Buxton, Peabody, for crayon 

pictures. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Chas. O. Stone, Peabody, for oil 

painting. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Mary D. Bomer, Peabody, for knit 

edging. 
.75. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. C. Roberts, Salem, for night 
dress. 



77 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. D. P. Grosvenor, Peabody, for bas- 
ket hood shirts. 
1.50. Gratuity, to Lillie M. Little, Newburyport, for bureau 

scarf. 
1.50. Gratuity, to Anna R. Thacher, Peabody, for crayons. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Percy Grosvenor, Peabody, for oil paint- 
ings. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. R. G. Nelson, Peabody, for sofa 
pillow. 

.50. Gratuity, to Alice Nelson, Peabody, for sea moss 
pictures. 

.50. Gratuity, to Ora Dow, Danvers, for piano cover. 

.75. Gratuity, to Henry H. Buxton, Peabody, for wood 
carving. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. C. Teague, Peabody, for banner. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. A. Warner, Peabody, for banner. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. E. W. Jacobs, Peabody, for paint- 
ings. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mr. C. A. Sanger, Peabody, for laundry 
work. 

.50. Gratuity, to Alice H: Berry, Peabody, for painting 
golden-rod. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Howard Bott, Peabody, for toilet 
set. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Lucretia Hildreth, Salem, for 
netted tidy. 
1.25. Gratuity, to Mrs. A. P. Newhall, Lynn, for tray and 

corn cloths. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Nellie M. Morrill, Peabody, for scarf, 
banner and pottery. 

.50. Gratuity, to William Cheever, Danvers, for pillow 
cases. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mary A. Forness, Peabody, for bureau 
scarf. 

.50. Gratuity, to Nellie O'Brien, Peabody, for tidy. 

.50.. Gratuity, to Mrs. S. R. Osborn, Peabody, for shoulder 
cape. 



7* 

.50. Gratuity, to Mary Walton, Peabody, for Mexican 
work. 

.50. Gratuity, to Alice Stoyle, Peabody, for four draw- 
ings. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mr. S. Lord, Peabody, for bureau scarf. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. D. P. Grosvenor, Peabody, for 
hand bag. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. A. L. Robson, Salem, for oil paint- 
ing. 
1.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. W. H. Hall, Peabody, for oil paint- 
ing. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Lizzie Hall, Peabody, for Mexican work. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. W. Simonds, Lynn, for Swedish 
tidy. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Ruth Clavridge, Peabody, for stock- 
ings. 

.50. Gratuity, to Hattie Buxton, Peabody, for painting in 
oil. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Edward Paige, Peabody, for placque- 

.50. Gratuity, to Mary Lynch, Peabody, for sofa pillow. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mary Lynch, Peabody, for table cover. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. VV. C. Reade, Beverly, for oil 
painting. 
1.00. Gratuity, to James F. Callahan, Peabody, for fancy 
table. 

.50. Gratuity, to May Herrick, West Peabody, for hand- 
kerchief. 
1.50. Gratuity, to Carrie Lummus, Peabody, for set of 

table mats. 
1.25. Gratuity, to Miss M. O. Barrett, Peabody, for pen 
sketching. 

.50. Gratuity, to S. B. Mansfield, Peabody, for placque. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. H. Tibbetts, Peabody, for worked 
suspenders. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Henry Wilkinson, Peabody, for 
Mexican work. 

.50. Gratuity, to Vienna A. Batchelder, Peabody, for 
knitted lace. 



79 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. James P. King, Peabod , for car- 
riage blanket. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. H. H. Campbell, Peabody, for cy- 
press vase and lamp. 

.50. Gratuity, to Miss A. Moulton, West Peabody, for 
crochet trimming. 
1.50. Gratuity, to Clara B. Crossman, Swampscott, for 
paintings and easel. 

.50. Gratuity, to Fred Tigli, Danversport, for carved 
clock case. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Alice Stanwood, Salem, for paper 
flowers. 
2.00. Gratuity, to N. W. Starbird, Dan vers, for photo- 
graphs. 

.50. Gratuity, to Miss A. C. Symonds, Salem, for table 
top. 

.50. Gratuity, to Miss A. C. Symonds, Salem, for oil 
painting. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Annie Symonds, Peabody, for oil paint- 
ings. 

.50. Gratuity, to Annie Tibbetts, Peabody, for table scarf. 

.50. Gratuity, to Abbie Symonds, Peabody, for foot rest. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. B. Palmer, Peabody, for vase. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. B. Palmer, Peabody, for rose jar. 

.50. Gratuity, to Jennie Verry, Salem, for oil painting. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. E. Stone, Peabody, for tidy. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mary A. Tigh, Peabody, for table top. 

.50. Gratuity, to Lizzie Baxter, Beverly, for set of tidies. 

.50. Gratuity, to Malinda Webster, Peabody, for pillow 
cases. 
Mrs. Wra. A. Gorton, Mrs. D. P. Grosvenor, Mrs. Charles 
Perley — Committee. 



With few exceptions the works exhibited were consid- 
ered by the committee as worthy of notice, but as the 
amount placed at their disposal was limited to -$50, gra- 



8o 



tuities could not be awarded upon every article. Several 
articles exhibited came too late to be entered for competi- 
tion, some of which were among the most meritorious of 
the exhibits. Of these may be especially mentioned two 
oil paintings, a figure and a fruit piece, by Miss Susie 
Poor, and several paintings by Mrs. Riddle, one of which, 
a study of chrysanthemums, was especially fine. 

The " New Complete Tailor System," exhibited by the 
agent, Mr. J. H. Taylor, seemed very well adapted to the 
use of those who do their own dress-making, as it is sim- 
ple, accurate and inexpensive. The committee feel that 
some explanation of their delay in the announcement of 
awards is proper, and desire to say, that had they been 
supplied with sufficient cards upon the first day of the 
fair,* the announcements would have been made in due 
season. 

For the committee, 

M. E. GORTON. 



*The Premium Cards were duly provided and were in charge of 
Superintendent of Hall at opening of fair. D. W. Low, Secretary. 



WORK OF CHILDREN UNDER TWELVE YEARS 

OF AGE. 

The Committee on Work of Children under Twelve 
Years of Age have attended to their duty, and respectfully 
report to the Secretary that they have made the following 
awards : 

$3.00. First premium, to Miss Lizzie Goldthwait, Peabody, 
for afghan. 

2.00. Second premium, to Marian Appleton, Peabody, for 
water colors. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Jenny F. Nichols, Peabody, for patch 
work quilt. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Willie E. Gilson, Peabody, for oil paint- 
in jr. 



.50. Gratuity, to N. Elva Fellows, Peabody, for scarf. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Daniel Lord, Peabody, for bag. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Emily N. Longfellow, Groveland, for 

tidy. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Gertrude E. Wilkins, Middleton, for 
variety of fancy and plain work. 
.50. Gratuity, to Clara M. Trask, Peabody, for plain sew- 
ing. 
.50. Gratuity, to C. Lena Wilkins, Middleton, for patch- 
work. 
.50. Gratuity, to Hattie F. Pushee, Beverly, for tidy. 
.50. Gratuity, to Annie W. Lovett, Beverly, for tidy. 
.50. Gratuity, to Sadie Estes, Peabody, for gypsy kettle. 
.50. Gratuity, to Gertie W. Carleton, Rowley, for tidy. 
The number of entries was twenty-one, by fourteen dif- 
ferent children. After awarding the first and second pre- 
miums, the committee 'thought it proper to award a small 
gratuity to each of the other contributors, as an encourage- 
ment to them to persevere in industry. 

Mrs. N. W. Starbird, Chairman, Mrs. Mary E. Fuller, 
Mrs. Amanda F. Low — Committee. 



IMPROVING WET MEADOW AND SWAMP 
LANDS. 

To the Trustees of the Essex Agricultural Society : — 

The committee on the improvement of wet meadow and 
swamp lands have attended to their duty and submit the 
following report : — 

There was but one entry made to your committee, that 
of Mr. Luther P. Tidd, of Georgetown. Mr. Tidd has 
complied with the rules of the society, his experiment in- 
cluding two years' time, and the accompanying statement 
will show the result, and the cost of producing it, and 
from what your committee saw at their two visits to the 
meadow, we should think the statement of Mr. Tidd was 



82 

entirely reliable and strictly true, and your committee 
would recommend that the premium of fifteen dollars 
($15) be awarded to Mr. Luther P. Tidd of Georgetown. 

Signed. O. S. Butler, 

Geo. S. Perry, 
Charles Hazeltine. 
Committee. 

STATEMENT OF LUTHER P. TIDD. 

The piece of land that I have entered for premium con- 
tains one acre and one hundred and fifty-three and one- 
half rods. It was soft bog meadow and produced a crop 
that was worth little or nothing more than the cost of 
making. It was worth not over six dollars an acre. From 
a bank a few rods from the meadow, was carted two thou- 
sand loads, composed of sand, gravel and loam. Ten 
cords of common stable manure were spread on the lot, 
and harrowed in. The 15th of July, 1885, it was sown 
with grass seed, and harrowed in with a brush harrow 
and roller. 

Last year, 1886, from the above described lot, was cut, 
by the estimate of good judges, seven tons of hay, besides 
one ton rowen or second crop. The year 1887, was cut, 
by estimate, three and one-half tons of hay, and one ton 
rowen. 

EXPENSES. 

Carting two thousand loads gravel, $180 00 

Ten cords manure, at $7 per cord, 70 00 

Grass seed, 5 00 
Sowing, harrowing, and rolling in the grass seed, 5 00 

Value of the land previous to reclaiming, 12 00 

Cost of cutting and curing the hay of 1886, 24 00 

Cost of cutting and curing the hay of 1887, 13 50 

$309 50 



33 

Present value of the land, $200 00 

Crop of 1886, seven tons first crop, 126 00 

One ton rowen or second crop, 12 00 

Crop of 1887, three and one-half tons first crop, 63 00 

One ton rowen, 12 00 



Total, $413 00 

Deduct expense, 309 50 



Balance, "$103 50 

Luther P. Tidd, Georgetown, Mass. 
Oct. 1, 1887. 



Note. — Production and previous value of Land, per acre, $210 72 
Expenses and present value of land, per acre, 157 92 

Profit per acre, $52 80 



IMPROVING PASTURE AND WASTE LANDS. 

The Committee on Improving Pasture and Waste 
Lands have had but one application for premium. This 
was by Charles W. Mann, of Methuen, for improving 
" Waste Land." 

The notice to the Committee came July 1, when it was 
the most busy time with farmers, making it impracticable 
to inspect the land with crops, at that time. The chair- 
man notified the committee to meet at Mr. Mann's, Aug. 
26th. But one besides the chairman, was present. 

Mr. Mann's statement annexed, explains the condition 
of the land previous to his work on it. It was the same 
as a great deal of pasture in Essex County, with the added 
advantage of being naturally of strong, moist soil, with a 
hard subsoil, thus retaining all that is put on to it. Be- 
ing a moist hill it can be relied upon to carry through, in 
adverse seasons of wet or dry, the crops put upon it. 
Thus it will be seen that it is desirable land to improve, 
and once reclaimed, becomes valuable to the farmer. 



S4 

There are many such lands in Essex County, that might 
he profitably reclaimed, and your committee regret the 
evident lack of enterprise on the part of farmers in this 
direction, from the fact that so few applications are made 
for premiums, under this head. 

Mr. Mann, with his characteristic energy and prudence, 
started with the determination to make it pay. While 
his statement of expense and returns thus far, is not as 
definite as might be desired, he is confident that it has 
been a profitable venture. He has had the advantage 
over many farmers, in an available market for the stones 
taken from the land. Mr. Mann has in mind still more 
thorough working of this land. Your committee felt 
that while great improvement had been made, the con- 
dition of the land was not up to the standard demanded 
by the society, for its first premium, but would recommend 
the second premium of $10. 

Wm. B. Caeleton, Chairman. 

To the Committee on Improving Waste Lands : 

The field which I enter for premium for "improving 
waste lands " is about ten acres in extent, on the wester- 
ly side of a high hill, and was all in pasture when I be- 
gan to work on it three years ago, and about six acres of 
it was as rough and rocky as most any land in our county, 
and a part of it covered with a vigorous growth of alders ; 
altogether it might have kept one cow alive through the 
summer. 

I have cleared off all the alders and other trees, and 
cleaned out the stone to the amount of over one thousand 
perch, or two thousand tons, and teamed them to market 
in Methueii and Lawrence, distant two and three miles. 
The stone sold have just about paid for the work of re- 
claiming, and the crops this year have been two one-horse 
loads of oat fodder, eleven loads of Hungarian, seven 
loads of good hay, at least five bushels of beans, and now 



35 

there are ten thousand cabbage still growing (Oct. 10), 
or partly sold, all of which goes to show that it is still 
practicable, and also profitable, to take hold of the rough 
parts of our Essex County farms, if near market, and a 
man has grit enough to try it, and beside the more prac- 
tical view of the achievement comes the pleasure of sub- 
duing the " wilderness " and making it bring forth its 
hidden beauties and possibilities. 

It would be almost, or quite, impossible for me to give 
a detailed account of expenses and receipts with this 
field, as it is only a part of the work I undertook, but 
the stone were sold for from 80 cents to $1.50 per perch 
(25 cubic feet), and have paid for the clearing of the 
land, or very nearly so, leaving the crops produced to pay 
for work of cultivation and fertilizers as with older fields. 

Chas. W. Mann, 



UNDERDRAWING LAND. 

The Committee on Underdrawing of Lands would 
make the following report : 

We are sorry to state that there has been but one entry, 
that made by Charles W. Mann, of Methuen. The past 
summer has been an uncommonly good one to test the 
efficiency of underdrains, as very heavy and continuous 
rains have prevailed to an unusual extent. 

At the time of our visit, August 26, after one of those 
rains, we found the drains working well. The land 
underdrained was naturally cold and wet, with a fall of 
about four feet to a brook on its easterly side. We found 
it dry and solid or firm, while upon the other side of the 
brook where not drained, it was quite wet and miry. Wo 
think he has well earned the first premium of $15, and 
would award it to him. We saw a good crop of onions 
upon it. 

Andrew Nichols, James Noyes, Frank P. Todd — Com- 
mittee. 



86 

STATEMENT OF CHABLES W. MANN", 
To the Committee on Under draining' : 

The piece of land I enter for premium contains one 
acre, and has never grown a crop worth fifty dollars, pre- 
vious to this season, on account of its wet and soggy con- 
dition. The soil is a heavy black loam, about afoot deep, 
with a foot to two feet of hard clayey subsoil underlying 
it, and beneath the latter a sharp gravel or coarse sand. 
Along one side of the piece runs an open brook which 
has been lowered to the depth of three and one-half feet ; 
on the opposite side from the brook a ditch was dug the 
whole length of the piece, and across the lower end to 
connect with the brook, and ten cross drains were also 
put in at about forty feet apart, and at a depth of three 
feet, running from the long drain to the brook. The 
drains were laid with hard pine boards well filled with 
oil, taken from the floors of the old Washington Mills in 
Lawrence, laid so as to make an open channel, perhaps 
six by ten inches, then covered with small stones^ and the 
soil returned. The drains were dug deep enough to go 
below the clay into the sand or gravel, and would have 
been useless if only two feet deep, instead of three feet, 
but two or three hours after one of the heaviest showers 
this season, would find no water standing on the surface, 
while every drain was doing good work. 
The cost of draining was, 

Eighty-two days' work, at |1.25, $103 00 

Boards. 10 00 



$113 00 



This year's crop was 300 bushels of good onions, worth 
at least $250, and the ground is now in condition for fine 
crops in years to come. It would be hard for the com- 
mittee, or any stranger, to fully realize the change in this 
piece of ground from the wet meadow that at times was 
too soft for a team to cross it, to the mellow garden it 
now is. 



8; 

GRAIN CROPS. 

The Committee on Grain Crops regret to report but 
one entry for the society's premiums, that of R. Frank 
Dodge, of Wenham, on his crop of Indian corn, and we 
award to him the first premium $10. 

Mr. Dodge's crop was viewed September 12, and the 
committee were pleased to see so fine a field of corn, and 
such evidences of clean and careful culture. Scarce a 
Weed was seen ; not a missing hill was noticed. ' The crop 
was remarkably even, with few barren, and no overgrown, 
unripe stalks seen. 

We emphasize the regret first expressed, for we feel 
that far too little attention is given to the grain crops of 
old Essex, and trust that more attention will be given 
them in the future. 

Respectfully submitted, 

William Little, Aaron Low, Charles J. Peabody — Com- 
mittee. 

STATEMENT CONCERNING A CROP OF INDIAN CORN, 

RAISED BY ROBERT FRANK DODGE, IN THE TOWN 

OF WENHAM, MASS., 188?. 

Gentlemen : 

The land upon which my corn was raised had been in 
grass for several years. The crop of 1885 was English 
hay, about 1500 pounds per acre. No manure was used. 
The hay of 1886 amounted to about 1200 pounds, with 
no manure. The soil is dark loam, and is seldom affected 
by drought. Plowing was done May 11, six inches deep. 
Barn manure was spread after plowing, twenty-five loads 
of thirty bushels each, and harrowed in. Value of man- 
ure $2 per load. Cost of plowing and harrowing, $8. 
Used 500 pounds of fertilizer in the hills, at a cost of 
$10. Planted the field May 14, by hand, using one peck 
•of eight-rowed yellow corn, with hills three and one-half 
feet apart. Cost of planting, $4. Cultivated twice each 



88 

way, and hoed by hand twice. Cost of both, $5. Corn 
was cut and stooked Sept. 21. Of the twenty-six rows 
contained in the acre, eighteen have been husked and 
found to yield 140 bushels of ears of corn. Allowing 
the remainder of the field the same average, it gives me 
202J bushels, nearly, of corn in the ear, and at least three 
tons of well-cured fodder. 

I have shelled some of the corn, and from seventy 
pounds of corn in the ear obtained fifty-six pounds of 
shelled corn. This gives a little more than 101 bushels 
of shelled corn from the acre. 

cost or CROP. 

Barn manure, 

Fertilizer, 

Plowing and harrowing, 

Seed and planting, 

Cultivating and hoeing, 

Harvesting, 

$89 00 
Allowing half value of manure to remain in ground, 80 00 



$50 


00 


10 


00 


8 


00 


4 


00 


5 


00 


12 


00 



Total cost per acre, $59 00 

Robert Frank Dodge, Wenham, Mass. 

I hereby certify that I have measured one acre of land, 
planted to corn, for Robert Frank Dodge, of Wenham, to 
be entered for premium with Essex Agricultural Society. 

R. E. Dodge, Wenham. 

Oct. 22, 1887. 

This is to certify that I have weighed and measured 
the 140 bushels of corn already husked, raised by Robert 
Frank Dodge, of Wenham, and entered for premium. 

Francis S. Lovett, Jr. 

Oct. 1887. 



8g 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON ROOT CROPS. 

The Committee chosen to examine the Root Crops 
entered for premiums of Essex Agricultural Society, have 
attended to that duty, and respectfully submit the follow- 
ing, for 1887 : 
$10. First premium, to Robert Frank Dodge, Wenham, 

for potato crop. 
$10. First premium, to John H. George, Methuen, for 

onion crop. 
$10. First premium, to Charles W. Mann, Methuen, for 

cabbage crop. 
$10. First premium, to David Warren, Swampscott, for 

squash crop. 
$10. First premium, to James P. King, Peabody, for 

Ruta Baga turnip crop. 

Nathaniel T. Kimball, for Committee. 

There have been in all eleven entries, from eight dif- 
ferent competitors : 

Robert Frank Dodge, Wenham, two lots potatoes. 
John H. George, Methuen, onions. Charles W. Mann, 
Methuen, onions and cabbages. W. Smith & Co. Methu- 
en, turnips and squashes. Rufus Goodwin, Ayers Village, 
Haverhill, for potatoes. J. E. Page, Superintendent of 
Pickman Farm, Salem, cabbages. David Warren, Swamp- 
scott, squashes. James P. King, Peabody, turnips. 

Your committee were wisely selected from different 
sections of the county, and by an agreement among them- 
selves those in the different parts were specially called 
upon to examine the crops near them. It is sometimes 
very difficult to secure the presence of a committee of 
six at any and all points of our county, so this arrange- 
ment was made. 

One member of our committee we have not had the 
pleasure of seeing at any meeting, though he has been 
notified several times, of time and place to meet. There- 



90 

fore, let it be added just here, that if any member of a 
committee elected is not inclined to serve, it would be, in 
our judgment, a kindness to notify the secretary of the 
society, so that the committee may be apprised of the 
fact, and govern themselves in view of it. Two or more 
of your committee, however, have, in every instance, 
personally seen the crops entered for society premiums. 

It would be a favor if every party who designs to en- 
ter any crop, would notify, as early as possible in the sea- 
son, of this fact ; and name the date, as near as possible, 
when he would like to have the committee see the crop. 

All of those who have been upon this committee, and 
have taken part in its work this year, agree with those 
who have served upon it in other years, that, though con- 
siderable time and expense are involved, they have been 
well paid. The compensation comes from personal con- 
tact with some of the most enterprising of our farmers 
and our best men; from the opportunity of a closer in- 
spection of their varied work than we could otherwise 
have ; and from the uniformly social and cordial reception 
given. 

Mr. Robert Frank Dodge, of Wenham, entered two lots 
of potatoes, Early Rose, and Clark's No. 1. But when he 
was visited by the committee a blight seemed to show 
itself upon the Early Rose, and he withdrew this lot 
from competition and no return was made from it. 

The other lot promised more, and though the potatoes 
were not the largest in size, the}*" averaged well, and were 
very smooth, and seemed to show no indication of rot. 
This crop was raised upon land planted last year with 
corn. Mr. Dodge does not omit the prerequisite to large 
crops, — proper care and plenty of fertilizers. 

From Wenham we went to the Pickman Farm, Salem, 
and visited Mr. J. E. Page, superintendent, who entered 
a half acre of cabbages. It was about one o'clock p. m. 
when we arrived. Though a little late for a farm house 
dinner, we regaled ourselves upon the grass under the 



91 

beautiful, wide-spreading shade trees in the yard, looking 
at a magnificent field of cabbage for but few moments, 
when we were invited to partake of a very bountiful and 
complete dinner. We had further proof that some of the 
ladies of Essex county understand the art of cookery, 
even if the men do not fully know all there is to under- 
stand about farming. After dinner was served, we went 
with Mr. Page to look more carefully at the cabbage yard. 
The half acre which he had selected and entered, was 
very promising. There were but very few vacant spaces 
and but rarely a plant which showed the least sign of 
defect. We regret exceedingly that the return statement 
was not sent in so that the committee could pass upon it 
at the meeting of the trustees, Nov. 15, when Dr. Loring, 
proprietor of the Pickman Farm, moved to withdraw the 
crop. The statement was only taken from the post office 
when the chairman of your committee returned from that 
meeting. Mr. Page showed us a fine barn full of hay, and 
one of the stoutest crops of ensilage corn you often see, 
and the farming utensils all in order. We shall not soon 
forget our visit at Dr. Loring's place and the very kind peo- 
ple we found there. 

A week or so later we had the pleasure of visiting the 
other end of the county. 

At Methuen we found the place of W. Smith & Co. They 
entered a crop of Marrow squashes and a crop of turnips. 
There appeared to be a fair crop of squashes with what had 
already been taken off for market. Turnips looked fairly 
well, but there seemed to be quite a good many bare spots 
which might materially affect the harvest. The statements 
upon both of these crops hardly brought them up to stand- 
ard of a premium, though the returns were quite good. Had 
they been worthy of premium, the statements did not con- 
form at all with the requirements of Society offering pre- 
mium. See page 227, Transactions of Essex Agricultural 
Society for 1886. 

We next visited Mr. Chas. W. Mann, one of the very 



92 

thrifty young fanners of our north end of the county who is 
doing very successful and meritorious work in seed grow* 
ing. He showed us some low and very wet ground which 
he has but recently brought into a productive state by run- 
ning through its centre a main and open drain and covered 
drains at right angles with this and emptying into it. 
Upon this and adjoining higher land he raises his onions 
and seed. Mr. Mann's onions would ordinarily have come 
up to standard of premium. They looked like an onion of 
fine quality and enough in number for the space of ground 
upon which they were grown. But the average onion 
looked to us (they were raked out when we saw them) 
rather under size, caused by what Mr. Mann called a 
" blight stopping the growth when little more than half 
grown." This seems to be no fault of Mr. Mann's methods 
or any lack of his efforts to secure the best of results. 

His cabbage lot upon the top of one of the highest hills 
of Methuen was well worth our going to see, though we 
had a hard climb to get to it. This land was once only 
used for pasturage, and was covered with stones, which, with 
great perseverance and labor, have been dug out and removed 
by Mr. Mann, and with a moderate amount of fertilizer this 
land has produced cabbages which received First Premium 
at the fair in Peabody, and to which crop we also recom- 
mend an award. 

We next visited Mr. John H. George, a near neighbor of 
Mr. Mann. Here we were invited to dine. We should be 
obliged to award to Mrs. George, as to Mrs. Page, in Salem, 
first premium for a sumptuous and well-served dinner. The 
ladies of Essex county know how to prepare and spread the 
table with the fruits of the soil. 

Mr. George's onions were ripened and fit to rake out a 
full week before they were seen by us, about Sept. 1. They 
were upon a piece of land reclaimed from meadow with 
peat bottom. A ditch simply being cut round his entire 
lot with no under drain whatever. The soil is very deep. 
We saw a rake handle thrust down to the head and the 



93 

bottom of the soil not reached. A moderate amount of 
dressing is used, good seed of Mr. Mann's production 
planted. Hardly a space of six inches in any of the rows 
where you could not tind a fine silver skin. They were 
very uniform in size and but few very small stock could be 
seen. 

Let it be borne in mind here that some of the most un- 
promising spots to which we attach little or no importance 
whatever, have in them the elements of the greatest produc- 
tiveness and permanent value. And it should be the aim 
of every farmer to do something to reclaim these waste 
places. 

In the afternoon we found ourselves in Ayers Village, 
Haverhill, and made a call upon Mr. Rufus Goodwin. This 
gentleman has a small farm, but makes every inch of it 
count, the same spot yielding two and even three crops per 
year. Even the stone wall was covered with cultivated 
grapes of different variety, and loaded with the luscious 
fruit. 

The special object of our visit was to see his crop No. 3, 
Goodwin's seedling potato entered for premium. 

He had dug most of the crop. Enough, however, were 
left to show us a sample of the vine and the appearance of 
the potato when just dug. Vine small, potato near top of 
ground, smooth and not showing much sign of rot. We 
saw a pile of them in the cellar, some of which showed more 
marks of decay. This crop was raised from the small 
potatoes of the previous year and so on back. Mr. Good- 
win has made great effort to bring forward a seedling 
which shall be a standard potato. His efforts are very 
commendable, and we are not sure but he has one which 
will prove to be such. This year, from some cause unknown 
to us, his crop seems to be undersize as a whole, more than 
one-third being under No. 1, while those of this grade were 
only average in size, and while wc might look favorably 
upon this as a new specimen of the potato, we could not 
award premiums upon such ground, but only upon the con- 
sideration of the crop itself. 



94 

Mr. David Warren, of Swampscott, was called upon next 
in order by your committee. He planted the Essex Hybrid 
squash seed, three or four seeds in the hill upon land 
planted in 1885 with cabbage, and in 1886 with potatoes. 

No extravagant amount of dressing per acre was used. 
Eight cords stable manure to acre. The crop was highly 
satisfactory, and this was entered for premium. 

It is to be regretted by some of the committee as in other 
cases that they could not have the pleasure of seeing the 
crop for themselves. 

Mr. James P. King, the last on the list of competitors, 
called the committee to see a crop of turnips which was 
raised by him on one of the high points of land in Peabody. 
The crop was produced upon ground which never felt the 
point of a plough until the year 1886. It had been an old 
stony pasture, and was cleared up and planted last year for 
the first time. Corn being the crop, Commercial Fertilizer 
only being used as dressing. The crop of turnips this year 
upon the same ground moderately dressed with compost, 
was a very handsome one. 

The plants were from planted seed equidistant from each 
other, and with rarely a bare spot in any of the rows. 
There was nearly an acre and one-third in the entire piece, 
and scarcely a place which might not have been taken for 
a sample spot. 

Your committee pronounce this one of the finest and 
smoothest lots of Ruta Bagas seen for many seasons. 

This and the onion crop of Mr. George, of Methuen, have 
shown to your committee that some of the best conducted 
experiments in our root crops have been made upon lands 
(both high and low) which have been long unused. There 
are many such acres in Essex county which are themselves 
a mine of wealth ; but will yield it only to thought and 
persistent effort. 



95 

STATEMENT OP ROBERT FRANK DODGE, OF WENHAM, ON 
POTATO CROP. 

Gentlemen : 

The crop of 1885 was grass ; 1500 pounds to the acre, 
with no manure. Crop of 1886, an excellent yield of corn, 
planted with twenty loads, of thirty bushels each, of barn 
manure, and 400 pounds fertilizer. Soil is a dark, gravelly 
loam, with slight mixture of clay. 

Ground was ploughed April 28, about six inches deep, at 
a cost of $4. Spread twenty-five loads, of thirty bushels 
each, of barn manure, and 500 pounds of fertilizer, and 
harrowed it in. Value of barn manure, $2 per load ; fer- 
tilizer, $12 per 500 pounds. Cost of harrowing and fur- 
rowing, $2. Planted in drills three and one-half feet 
apart, with seed one foot apart in the drill. Used 500 
pounds of fertilizer in drill. Cost, $12. Planted eight 
bushels of Clark's No. 1 potatoes, covering with horse. 
Cost of seed and planting, $12. Brushed once ; cultivated 
and hoed twice ; cost, $6. Turned potatoes out by plough. 
Cost of digging, five cents per bushel. 

Gathered upon the one-half acre entered for premium, 
170| bushels, giving 341 bushels of potatoes per acre. 
Cost of crop per acre : 

Ploughing, $4 00 

Harrowing and furrowing, 2 00 

Barn manure, 50 00 

One-half ton fertilizer, 24 00 

Seed and planting, 12 00 

Cultivating and hoeing, 6 00 

Harvesting, 17 00 



$115 00 
For one-half acre, 157.50. 
Value of one-half acre, at $1 per bushel, $170.50. 



Note — Product per acre, 341 bushels of potatoes, $341 00 
Cost of crop, per acre, 115 00 

Profit per acre, exclusive of land rent and interest, $226 00 



9 6 

This is to certify that I have measured the potatoes raised 
by Robert Frank Dodge, of Wenham, and entered by him, 
for premium, and that his statement is correct. 

Francis S. Lovett, Jr. 

Oct. 1887. 

I hereby certify that 1 measured one-half acre of land, 
planted to potatoes, for Robert Frank Dodge, of Wenham, 
to be entered for premium with Essex County Agricultural 
Society. 

John P. M. Green. 

Oct. 1887. 



STATEMENT OF JOHN H. GEORGE, METHUEN, ON ONION CROPS. 

The half acre of onions, which I enter for the Society's 
premium, is in two pieces of one-quarter acre each, treated 
in an entirely different manner, so it will be proper for me 
to treat them separately in this report. For convenience, I 
will call them Lots No. 1 and 2. 

Lot No. 1 had onions on it last year. In 1885, it had 
potatoes. For manure, it had, last year, eight cords com- 
post, similar to that used this year, to the acre. The soil 
of both pieces is reclaimed meadow land. 

This year it had at the rate of eight cords compost, made 
of stable manure, night soil, road dust, and coal ashes, to 
the acre. The compost, two cords, was put on last fall, 
with a Kemp manure spreader, and cultivated in. In the 
spring, the piece was harrowed with an 0. K. harrow, 
brushed with a brush harrow, drugged, and sown with five 
pounds yellow Danvcrs seed per acre (except one-quarter 
pound which was early red globe). This piece was hoed 
five times ; weeded three times ; when ripe, cut up with a 
circular hoe, raked out with a wooden toothed lawn rake, 
topped and stored. The yield was 236 bushels, measured. 



97 

Cost of crop : Dr. 

To two cords compost on land, at $4, $8 00 

" preparing soil, one man and one horse, 1-4 day, 1 50 

" seed and sowing, 5 00 

" hoeing five times, one and one-half da} r s' work, 3 00 

" weeding three times, six days' work for boy, at 75c.,4 50 

" harvesting and topping, at 5c. per bushel, 11 80 

" interest and taxes on land, 4 00 



$37 80 
Lot No. 2 was planted in 1885 and 1886, with potatoes. 
In 1886 was treated with four cords manure and 500 pounds 
phosphate on the one-quarter acre. This year it had 500 
pounds steamed bone, and twelve bushels Canada ashes on 
the one-quarter acre. The land, in other respects, was pre- 
pared in exactly the same manner as Lot No. 1. It was 
hoed but four times, and weeded but twice, not being near 
as weedy as where manure was used. The yield was 135 
bushels. 

The onions on both pieces were A 1, except on Lot 2 
they were thin skinned. There was not a half peck seal- 
lions on the whole piece. 

The cost of Lot No. 2, was : 
To one-quarter ton steamed bone, at •$ 

" twelve bushels Canada ashes, at 25c, 

" preparing land for seed, 

" seed and sowing, 

" hoeing four times, 

" weeding twice, four days' work, boy, at 75c, 

" harvesting, topping, and storing, at 5c. bushel, 

" interest and taxes on land, 



Dr. 


$4 


50 


3 


00 


1 


50 


5 


00 


2 


00 


3 


00 


6 


75 


4 


00 



75 

Dr. Total cost of half acre onions, $67 55 

Cr. Total yield of half acre, 371 bushels onions. Sold at 
96 cts. 

Sec note next page. (7) 



9 8 

Xote— Product per acre of Lot No. 1, 944 bushels onions, 
Cost per acre of crop on Lot 1, 

Profit of crop per acre, on Lot 1, 

Product per acre, on Lot 2, 540 bushels onions, 

Cost per acre, of crop on Lot 2, 

Profit per acre, on Lot 2, 
Rate of product per acre, on/both lots together, 742 bushels, 
at 96 cents, 
Cost per acre, of crop on both lots together, 

Profit per acre, on Lots 1 and 2 together, $577 22 

Methuen, Sept. 3, 1887. 
This certifies that I have this day measured a tract of 
land, having on it a crop of onions, owned by John H. 
George, of Methuen, and entered by him, for the Essex 
Agricultural Society's premium, and that said tract con- 
tains one-half an acre. 

Jos. S. Howe, Surveyor. 



$906 24 


151 20 


$755 04 


$518 40 


119 00 


$399 40 


$712 32 


135 10 



STATEMENT OF CHAELES W. MANN, OF METHUEN, ON 
CABBAGE CROP. 

To the Committee on Root Crops: 

The piece of cabbage which I enter for premium, was 
grown on the highest hill in the county, on land that was 
planted to beans in 1885, and sowed to Hungarian in 1886, 
only a small quantity of phosphate being used each time. 
The land was in pasture when I bought it four years ago, 
and has had no manure for at least ten years. The soil is 
a deep, dark mellow loam, somewhat sprinkled with small 
stone. 

I ploughed and harrowed June 4th, spreading on twenty 
loans of manure before ploughing, 1200 pounds of ground 
steamed bone, and applying 950 pounds of Tucker's Bay 
State Superphosphate in the hill. 

The seed was planted in the hill June 8th and 9th ; cul- 



99 

tivated and hoed three times ; and one hundred days from 
planting could cut plenty of eight and ten pound heads. 
Cut and sold 108 barrels in Lawrence and Methuen (two 
and three miles), and put away 1886 heads for seed pur- 
poses. 

The land measured 24,946 square feet, being 3,166 feet 
more than one-half acre. 

Dr. 

5 cords manure, at $8, $40 00 

1200 pounds bone, 12 00 

950 pounds Bay State phosphate, 18 05 

Plowing and harrowing, 3 00 

Planting, 4 12 

Seed, 2 00 

Cultivation, 15 00 

Cutting and marketing, 21 60 



Total cost, 






$115 77 


Cost per acre, 


Or. 




$202 70 


108 barrels sold, 






$92 05 


Fodder sold, 






5 00 


Fodder used, 






1 00 


250 plants sold, 






75 


1886 heads for seed, 


at 5c, 


in the field, 


94 30 



Total receipts, $183 10 

Profit, 77 33 

Receipts per acre, 338 08 

Profit per acre, 135 38 
Showing 40 per cent, profit. 

You will notice that I charge the whole amount of fer- 
tilizers to the one crop, and also make a liberal allowance 
for marketing, believing that it is just as well to figure that 
I get fair pay for fertilizers and labor, as to make out a 
tremendous profit and leave the idea that I do the work for 



IOO 



nothing ; interest and taxes are omitted, for the land is 
certainly improved enough to cover that amount. 

Charles W. Mann. 
Methuen, Mass. 



STATEMENT OF DAVID WARREN, OF SWAMPSCOTT, ON 
SQUASH CROP. 

The crop of squashes which I enter for premium, was 
raised on land which was planted with cabbages in 1885, 
and in 1886 Avith potatoes; about eight cords of stable 
manure applied to acre each year. The soil is a black 
loam, with sandy sub-soil. Ploughed in fall and spring, 
about five inches deep. Stable manure applied in spring, 
eight cords to the acre, and harrowed in with Randall har- 
row. Planted the last of May, with Essex Hybrid squash, 
in hills eight feet apart, with from three to four seeds in a 
hill. Cultivated twice, and hoed twice. Harvested Sept. 
30th, 11,620 pounds No. 1 squashes, market price of which 
was $20 per ton, and 2500 pounds of seconds, which were 
$16 per ton. 

The cost of crop was as follows : 

Ploughing and preparing land, $7 00 

Value of manure, 20 00 

Seed and planting, 1 50 

Cultivating and hoeing, 3 00 

Cutting and storing, 5 00 



Note — Rate per acre, of squash crop: 
22,072 pounds, or 11.34 tons, at $20, 
4880 pounds of seconds, or 2.4 tons, at $16, 

Total, 

Cost of crop, per acre, 

Profit per acre, $194 62 



$36 50 


David Warren 


$226 80 


S16, 39 04 


s205 84 


71 22 



lot 



Swampscott, Oct. 4, 1887. 
The following' loads of squashes were weighed by me, viz. 
Six loads, total net weight, 11,620 lbs. 

Load of small squash, estimated, 2,500 lbs. 



14,120 lbs. 
C. S. Lewis, Weigher. 

Marblehead, Oct. 20, 1887. 
This certifies that the land upon which grew the crop of 
Hybrid squashes offered for premium, by David Warren, of 
Swampscott, measures one-half acre and two square rods. 

Benjamin P. Ware. 



STATEMENT OF JAMES P. KING, OF PEABODY, ON RUTA 
BAGA TURNIP CROP. 

My turnip crop (Ruta Bagas), I offer for premium on 
land never ploughed until the year 1886. Planted with 
corn last year on fertilizer. This year 1 used for the tur- 
nips, at the rate of six cords of compost manure to the acre, 
spreading it broadcast. The seed was sown in rows, on the 
level, twenty-four inches apart. Two sample loads were 
weighed by Charles Emmerton ; the rest were measured in 
bulk, as near the sample loads weighed as possible. The 
result was 300 bushels of merchantable turnips. 

Cost of ploughing and levelling, $6 00 

" " manure on the land, three cords, 21 00 

" " seed, and sowing the same, 2 00 

" " cultivated twice, 

" " once weeding and thinning, 

" " harvesting, 

Whole expense* $>41 00 



2 


00 


4 


00 


6 


00 



102 



Value of Ruta Bagas, 300 bushels, at 40c. 

per bushel, $120 00 

Expense, 41 00 

Profit, $79 00 



Note— Bate of turnip crop per acre, 600 bushels, $240 00 

Kate of cost of crop, per acre, 82 00 

Rate of profit, per acre, $158 00 

This is to certify that I, Nathaniel W. Felton, surveyed 
the land for Mr. James P. King, where the 300 bushels 
Ruta Bagas grew, and found it to be one-half acre. 

Nathaniel W. Felton. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON ORNAMENTAL 

TREES. 

To the Trustees of the. Essex Agricultural Society : 

Gentlemen. — Your committee have been called to act 
upon only one entry, and having received notice from the 
Secretary, Colonel David W. Low, that Mr. George* L. 
Ilawkes, of Lynnfield, had entered a lot of ornamental 
trees, immediately arranged to visit his farm the latter 
part of the third week in September. It was regretted 
that Mr. T. C. Thurlow was unable to attend and unite 
his knowledge and experience to that of the remainder of 
the committee in considering the interesting entry made 
by Mr. Hawkes. We had, however, the valuable knowl- 
edge of Prof. John Robinson, added to that of Messrs. 
John L. Shorey, E. P. Barrett, and what the undersigned 
could give. Mr. French retired because he was unable 
to serve. The} r have awarded the prize of $10 to George 
L. Hawkes, of Lynnfield. 

Mr. Ilawkes has long been a most interested worker in 
doing much in the line of tree culture, that can only be 
accomplished by individuals where co-operation in the 



io3 

form of local societies cannot be advantageously brought 
to bear, and it was with much pleasure that the results 
of his efforts were examined and his hospitality enjoyed 
on the occasion of our visit. 

The statement herewith appended is a modest and brief 
explanation upon which the writer will endeavor to en- 
large. 

Mr. Hawkes' residence and farm are situated a short 
distance east of the Montrose station on that branch of 
the Western Division of the Boston & Maine R. R. which 
connects Boston with Essex county via Lynnfield, Pea- 
body and Salem, and which runs through a tract of coun- 
try that nature has made beautiful and healthful by its 
rolling, elevated, and picturesque land, which has the 
white pine, some hemlocks and a few red pine, pitch pine, 
a variety of oaks and maples, ashes, some chestnuts and 
elms, walnuts and white birches, locusts and red cedars 
among its prominent natural growth of trees. It is a 
country that well deserves to become more developed as 
homes with cultivable land around them. Such briefly 
describes the character of that part of Essex county in 
Mr. Hawkes' neighborhood. The railr ad management 
is evidently making efforts to attract and accommodate 
such citizens as will make their homes on its line. In 
driving for either business or pleasure, such pleasing and 
sheltering lines of trees as your committee found on the 
highway passing through Mr. Hawkes' farm, must always 
be appreciated by the public, as well as be a delight in 
varied ways to those who have wisely done the planting, 
and show a farsightedness as to the value of such plant- 
ing. Let those, whose roadsides offer no shade to the 
passer-b} T , plan before another spring to plant, at least, on 
the more sunny side of their streets, such deciduous trees 
as are best adapted to their soil, which shall in good time 
afford shelter from the sun's rays, and beautify the land- 
scape during the summer seasons. 

By reference to the appended statement it will be 



io4 

found that Mr. Hawkes planted his maples chiefly ifi 
three lots; the first were planted by seed sown 41 years 
ago, and transplanted to their present location in a grove 
in 1853, which are large and handsome specimens ; the 
second lot was set out on the roadside about 25 years 
ago; while the third lot was set about 13 years ago, and 
with very few exceptions all look well. The foregoing 
amounted to about 40 trees, ranging from 41 to 13 years, 
measuring from 7 to 16 inches in diameter, and up to 45 
feet in height. 

There were two Norway maples of large size planted 
at the western side of the house, which in summer acted 
as a shelter from the hot western rays of the sun, and 
under whose spreading branches there was a delightful 
spot to work, or rest in hammock or chair. When the 
leaves have fallen, the warm rays fall gratefully upon the 
homestead. These maples were presented to the father 
of our host by the late ex-President R. S. Fay, of Lynn. 
They are now 17 inches in diameter, and "while resem- 
bling the rock maple in general appearance, have a larger 
leaf and fuller, deeper green foliage, and in the spring an 
abundance of yellow blossoms " as we find given in the 
following statement. 

In addition to these we viewed a lot of white pines 
which had been taken, when small, from another part of 
the farm and set as a screen and wind break along that 
part of a field bordering the railroad embankment. In 
order to hasten their growth upward, several tiers of their 
lower limbs had been removed. 

Two or three specimens of the sugar maples had been 
gradually dying for the past year or two, and none of 
your committee could explain the cause. Those who can 
give information upon this subject are requested to offer 
their knowledge and experience in the form of an essay 
next year. 

Mr. I [awkes has also had experience with the American 
white asli, and stated that " its limbs are liable to decay; 



105 

it puts on its foliage late and loses it early, and in its 
earty years is a slow grower," and he does not consider it 
a very desirable ornamental tree. 

Its wood is, however, useful, and while we find that its 
main stem is generally healthy, may not the facts he states 
against it as an ornamental tree, make it a good tree for 
thick planting as a forest crop? I know of Ashes being 
planted by a gentleman of Middlesex county as such a 
crop. 

It may be true that we have a sufficient proportion of 
woodland compared with open land in Massachusetts, 
viewed from the standpoint of usefulness ; but there can 
be no harm in increasing that proportion in favor of wood- 
land, provided there exists land which can be made more 
useful by planting it with trees. I am one who believes 
that there are few farms in this good Commonwealth 
where there is not some land, even if the quantity may 
sometimes be small, that could be improved, to the benefit 
of itself and surroundings, by a judicious planting of trees. 

There is a sufficient amount of good and interesting 
literature upon this subject, which can be placed in every 
public library at small cost, and which would give useful 
advice, not only upon the characteristics of the different 
kinds of trees and shrubs suitable for the different pur- 
poses of planting, but the interest promoted by their 
perusal would probably result in an increased planting on 
farm lands, as well as for the more ornamental planting 
of home grounds and roadsides. 

These last are a most useful, simple and delightful 
work to undertake, and especially in our climate where 
the heat of summer is often very severe. We all know 
how grateful is the shelter from the rays of the sun, when 
returning from or going to work, and in resting from the 
toil of the day; and those who j)lant to provide it, should 
and must receive the appreciative thanks of all who share 
in its protection. 

Let us also aim to encourage our Surveyors of High- 



io6 

ways and land-owners, to unite in trying to preserve rows 
of deciduous trees on our roadsides, where nature has 
been the planter. Where roadways run in an east of 
west direction, advantage can be taken of the opportunity 
to plant or preserve our beautiful white pine or other 
evergreen trees on the northerly side, where it cannot in 
the spring-time delay the frost from leaving the road-bed 
in a uniform manner. 

All of which is respectfully submitted, trusting that it 
will meet with your approval. 

Fuancis H. Appleton, Chairman, 



STATEMENT OF GEORGE L. HAWKES. 

To the Committee on Forest Trees : — 

I desire to make the following statement regarding the 
ornamental trees which I offer for premium. 

The rock maples, twenty in number, making a part of 
the grove in front of the house, were set thirty-four years 
ago, and are from six to twelve inches in diameter, and 
from thirty-five to forty-five feet high. They and some 
others are from seeds that I brought from Vermont and 
planted forty-one years ago. 

Owing to a rather dry soil and their proximity to a 
large elm tree, they have not grown so fast as those by 
the highway. There are also in the grove a few white 
pines, American elms and white ashes. The limbs of the 
white ash are liable to decay; it puts on its foliage late 
and loses it early, and in its early years is a slow grower 
I do not consider it a very desirable ornamental tree. 
The most of the thirty-eight rock maples along the high- 
way and near the house were bought at a nursery and 
planted twenty five years ago about twenty-five feet apart. 
A few were set thirteen years ago, and are from seven to 
sixteen inches in diameter, and will average forty feet in 
height. There are two fine Norway maples near the 
house, seventeen inches in diameter, and while resembling 



io; 

the rock maple in general appearance have a larger leaf, 
and fuller, deeper, green foliage, and in the spring an 
abundance of yellow blossoms. 

A few mountain ashes grew finely for several years, 
when they were attacked by borers and all died. 
Respectfully submitted, 

George L. Hawkes. 



REPORT ON CRANBERRIES." 

There was but one application for premium on cranber- 
ries, namely, that of Mr. James P. Butterfield, of Andover- 

Your committee, consisting of Silas M. Titcomb, H. A. 
Stiles, and C. C. Blunt, on the sixth of September, visited 
the cranberry meadow of Mr. Butterfield. This plot of 
land upon which the cranberries were growing, contained 
about one and three-fourths acres, and was formerly a nat- 
ural pond, but was filled up and cultivated, as will be seen 
by Mr. Butterfield's statement, but was of not much value. 
This plot was a few feet below the surface level, and grav- 
elled over with gravel from the adjoining bank, and well 
covered with a heavy growth of vines, laden with an 
abundance of beautiful berries, high colored and of large 
size, and a handsome sight to behold, well worth a visit 
from any man in Essex county who has a boggy meadow. 
Your committee, after hearing Mr. Butterfield's statement 
and beholding with their own eyes the result of his very 
successful experiment (his crop this season being over six 
hundred bushels), were unanimous in recommending that 
he be awarded the first premium of fifteen dollars. Ap- 
pended will be found Mr. Butterfield's statement. 

The culture of the cranberry has not come up to its 
place among farm crops which its importance demands. 

Webster says of it that it forms a sauce of exquisite 
flavor, and we are told that the American aborigines pre- 
pared poultices from cranberries to extract the venom from 
wounds made by poisonous arrows, and they are used as a 



io8 

popular remedy for erysipelas. Thus we see how valu- 
able the cranberry is, not only as food but as a medicine. 
That the cranberry is a favorite luxury is abundantly 
proved by the high price which a good, and not un fre- 
quently an inferior article will command in the markets. 

That it is easy of cultivation, and that there is an abun- 
dance of land now lying waste which is just adapted to its 
growth, is perhaps not so generally known. There are 
hundreds of acres in Essex county of meadow and swamp 
land that might be converted into profitable cranberry beds 
that are now lying waste and almost worthless to the owner, 
and this healthful and delicious fruit would become still 
more popular if larger quantities were raised for more 
general use ; and when you come to the profit of raising 
cranberries, there is hardly a farm crop that pays so well, 
surpassing even the orange culture of Florida. 

Some of the worthless farms in the county that hardly 
pay for cultivating, have upon them boggy meadow land 
which, with a little enterprise, and not a large expenditure 
of money, could be converted into a well paying investment. 
A most important consideration in selecting a cranberry 
meadow is its location. This should be, if possible, below 
the surface of a natural or artificial pond or reservoir, from 
which the meadow may be filled, and the vines covered in a 
short time, if necessary, and at the same time have the ad- 
vantage of being easily drained, so at a proper time the 
water may be rapidly withdrawn. In such a location the 
vines can be readily protected from frost, which often gives 
scarcely an hour's notice of its approach, and also without 
the danger of scalding, which arises when water is suffered 
to remain about the vines, through the bright sunshine 
which sometimes follows a September frost. 

In such a location the whole surface can be flowed in the 
winter to such a depth as to secure the roots from injury 
through the heaving of the soil, and the flowing can be 
continued at such a depth and to such a time in the spring 
as in the judgment of the grower it will be necessary for 
the destruction of the cranberry worm. 



109 

Let it not be understood than the cranberry does not suc- 
ceed only on land that can be overflowed. Very successful 
experiments in cranberry culture have been made on land 
which is never flowed, but which is dry enough for the 
plough at almost any season of the year. It will grow on 
almost any soil, sometimes flourishes where the soil seems 
entirely free from any matter, either animal or vegetable. 
This berry may be said to live entirely on air and water. 

Because peat, which supplies the natural food of the 
cranberry plant and in which it grows spontaneously, is 
usually saturated with water, it is sometimes inferred that 
this is a sort of half and half water plant, which will 
thrive only where water greatly abounds. 

This is a mistake. Cranberries can be successfully 
grown in any soil, however elevated, in which mould, from 
woody or vegetable fibre, largely predominates, and in a 
suitable soil the danger of injury from drought is not 
greater than in the case of other cultivated plants. 

Cranberry meadows are prepared by removing the turf 
to such a depth that neither grass nor bushes will start 
from the roots, and setting the vines either in the pure peat 
or in a surface covering of sand or gravel to the depth of 
from two to four inches, but not so deep as to prevent the 
roots of the vines from taking hold of the peat, from which 
it takes its life and vigor. The former method is preferred 
by some for the reason that the grasses, which will take 
root in the peat after cultivation becomes impracticable, are 
much less formidable enemies to the vines than the rushes 
and other wiry plants that invariably gain a foothold in 
sanded or gravelled meadows. It has been the experience 
of some that sand and gravel check rather than promote 
the growth of the vines, and that they are useful only as 
they facilitate the process of clea:: cultivation, while the 
vines are acquiring complete possession of the soil. 

But whatever opinions exist in regard to the use of sand 
or gravel, no one would think of reclaiming a meadow for 
the culture of the cranberry without its use. For trans- 



I IO 

planting, vines should be selected whose fruit is of good 
size and of dark red color when ripe. The egg-shaped 
berries are usually the largest and considered the most 
saleable, though not so heavy as some of the smaller varie- 
ties. The vines should be carefully separated from all 
grasses and other roots, and bound in bunches of half a 
dozen or more by twisting about them one of the long run- 
ners, and in this condition they can be set very rapidly, in 
hills fifteen inches apart and rows twenty inches 
apart. Vines may be set at any season, but the spring is 
much the better time, as vines set early become more firmly 
rooted and better able to withstand the winter than those 
set later in the season, After the vines are set, it should 
be the aim of the cultivator, as soon as he can, to get such 
a growth as to completely cover the ground. To this end 
all weeds, grass, moss and bushes should be kept down with 
a hoe, while a hoe can be used, and afterwards by hand, 
until the vines have complete possession of the ground, 
which under favorable conditions will be in about three or 
four years, when cultivation is generally discontinued. 

After the vines have completely covered the ground, 
little remains to be done except to use all available means 
for protecting and securing the fruit. Where vines cannot 
readily be covered with water, the time of harvesting must 
be made earlier than where flowing can be done at any 
time. Unripe and immature fruit will sell, but perfectly 
ripe fruit keeps best and sells best, and of course brings the 
highest price. 

It is estimated that there will be shipped from Cape Cod 
the present season 100,000 barrels, which goes to show the 
great importance of this industry. 

C. C Blunt, Chairman, S. M. Titcomb, H. A. Stiles— 
Committee. 

STATEMENT OP J. P. BUTTERFIELD, OF A.ND0VER, ON CRANBERRY 

CROP. 

Andover, Oct. 31, 1887. 
The plat of land represented in the accompanying plan 



1 1 r 




was formerly a natural pond from four to six feet deep, 
which was drained and gravelled nearly eighty-six years 
ago, and was cultivated until 1875, when the writer 
ploughed nearly one-half acre of it, and after leveling and 
adding a little more gravel, set it with cranberry vines in 
June and July, 1876. 

(This part is represented in the plan, in 36 and 40 rods.) 
The weather was very dry when this plat was set and 



I 12 

nearly all of the vines died above ground, but the roots 
lived, and the vines covered the ground the third year. 

The fourth year I picked 128 bushels on the seventy-six 
rods. I set aboul ninety bushels of vines on this plat, 
which I am convinced is double what there should be. The 
plat represented in the eighty-four rods was ploughed Oct., 
1876, and set the following June. It was prepared in the 
same manner as the first piece, and set with over one hun- 
dred bushels of vines ; these vines thrived so well they 
covered the ground the second year. The third year one 
variety yielded three bushels to the rod ; the fourth year 
the vines were from twelve to fifteen inches deep, which 
condition necessitated gravelling. In 1885 this piece 
yielded 250 bushels, one variety yielding six bushels to the 
rod ; this year (1887) it bore 212 bushels. 

The plat represented in the 100 rods was prepared the 
same as the other two, but only one-half as many vines set. 
It has thrived as well as the others for a term of years. 

The plat represented in the thirty rods was set in 1879 ■> 
previous to which all the sods and mud had been carted off 
and it had been filled with stone and levelled with sand. 
There were a smaller quantity of vines set here than on 
either of the other pieces ; in the seven years since 1879 it 
has borne 253 bushels of berries, ready for the market when 
picked, which is about the 20th of September. The largest 
quantity picked on this piece in one year (1887) 62 bushels ; 
this piece was set with early varieties. 

The ditch around the border of the bog marked seed ditch 
is eight inches higher than the middle of the piece, which 
gives the surface quite an incline. This I consider too 
much. It only requires sufficient incline to prevent the 
water from standing on the surface. 

I have thought best to take the 30 rod piece set in 1879. 
This part of the bog had very little muck on it, which, as 
stated before, was carted off with the turf, and the lowest 
part filled with stone, gravel and loam from the edge of the 
meadow, and covered with sand and gravel (the land 



H3 

around the whole bog is coarse sand and gravel), any of it 
good for the setting of vines. This piece is 11 rods long, 
and 30 to 50 feet wide, and the centre is left about 2 in. 
higher than the outside, the reverse of the main part of the 
bog, as the seed ditches answer to drain the surplus water 
off as well as to keep the seed from the upland from wash- 
ing among the vines in a heavy shower. These ditches 
around the bog are about 10 in. deep and 18 in. wide, cost 
nothing as the material taken out goes on the piece to level 
it. The vines were set in rows 18 in. apart, and G in. 
apart in the rows as near as the men could guess. 

The cost per acre to set vines as thick as this, is between 
forty and fifty dollars, that is, to punch the holes and set 
the vines as some do cabbage plants. The cost of setting 
the vines on this piece was not kept separate as we set the 
vines as fast as we levelled the ground. The vines were 
cuttings about 8 to 10 in. long, set in the ground 5 or G in. 
The cost of the vines was in the gathering, as they were 
taken from a patch of wild vines, from day to day, as we 
were ready for them. I would remark, it will take one 
hand to sort and cut the slips the right length, for two to 
set. The cost of this plat will have to be given in a lump 
as you will see by the above. When we had the last row 
levelled, the men were ready to set it; one reason for so 
doing was the lateness of setting and dry weather. I did 
not wish the ground to get dry before the vines were in. 
Perhaps this is as cheap as any method if one has the re- 
quired help. The 30 rods cost $73, or nearly $2.50 per 
square rod. With regard to fertilizer I never use any, 
only to put on about an inch of gravel once in four or five 
years. 

I will take for examples the two last seasons. 
In 188G I gathered from the before mentioned plat (30 sq. 
rods) 17 1-2 barrels of berries, which sold in Boston 
for $6.75 per barrel, $118 12 

Cost of picking berries at 50 cts. per bu. $25 65 
Cost of sorting and screening, 6 56 



ii4 

Cost of barrels, 8 75 

Cartage and commission, 14 52 

Weeding vines and clearing ditches, 6 50 



#61 98 



Profit, $56 14 

This autumn (1887) we gathered 21 barrels, sold 
at $7.75 per barrel in Oct., $1G2 75 

Cost of harvesting and marketing, 857 75 

Cost of weeding and graveling. 12 50 

$70 25 



Profit, $92 50 

. Respectfully yours, 

J. P. BUTTERFIELD. 



Note.— Cranberry crop of JS86, per acre, 93 1-3 bbls. at $675 $629 94 

Cost of crop per acre, 330 56 

Profit per acre, exclusive of land rent and interest 

on investment, $299 38 

Cranberry crop of 18S7, per acre, 112 bbls., at $7.75, $868 00 

Cost of crop per acre, 374 66 

Profit per acre, exclusive of land rent and interest, $493 34 
An average of $396.36 yearly profit. 



REPORT OP COMMITTEE ON STRAWBERRIES 
AND OTHER SMALL FRUITS. 

Your Committee on Strawberries and Other Small Fruits 
submit the following : 

There were but two entries, one of strawberries and one 
of raspberries, both entered by George J. Peircc, of West 
Jvewbury. The committee visited Mr. Pierce's early in 
July, and found his strawberries in full bearing, and loaded 
with lucious fruit. The bed No. 1 was perfectly free from 
weeds, the vines completely covering the ground, still the 
nerrics were of go<;d size. There were, I think, four varie- 
ties,— Wilson, Crescent, Charles Downing, and Manchester. 



U5 

We looked the raspberries over. The Cuthberts were as 
fine as I ever saw. I did not see them when in bearing, it 
being impossible for me to attend to it at that time. Your 
committee consider the strawberries and raspberries both 
worthy, and report awards as follows : 

$10. First premium, to George J. Peirce. West Newbury, 

for strawberry crop. 
$10. First premium, to George J. Peirce, West Newbury, 

for raspberry crop. 

Mr. Peirce has sent the following statement which I for- 
ward : 

J. Henry Hill, 

Chairman of Committee. 

STATEMENTS OF GEORGE J. PEIRCE, OF WEST NEWBURY, 
ON STRA'SVBERRY CROP. 

On strawberry bed No. 1, area 101 square rods, soil slaty, 
sloping north. Land broke up in 1885 ; three cords of 
dressing spread and harrowed in, and planted with potatoes, 
200 pounds of " Ames' " fertilizer put in the hills. In 
1886 : ploughed, and 6000 strawberry vines, mostly Wilsons 
and Crescents, a few Manchester and Charles Downings, 
set on the bed in May, 1886. Four barrels hen manure 
and one load of barn manure mixed, and put on in June. 
In December, covered with mulch. In 1887, when vines 
were in blossom, applied three barrels of wood ashes. 
Weeded three times. 

crop of 1887. 

1886. — Cost of ploughing and preparing land, $4 00 

Four barrels hen manure, $3, one load barn 

manure, $2, mixed, and applied in June, at 

-S7.92 per acre, 5 00 

6000 '-Crescent" and " Wilson" strawberry 

plants, 15 00 

Planting same in May, at §3 per acre, 1 89 



n6 

Salt and fresh hay for mulching in Dec, 10 00 
Weeding three times, at $3, boy fifteen days, 

at 60 cents, 9 00 
L887. — Three barrels wood ashes, applied when in 

blossom, 2 25 
Ticking 5297 quarts strawberries, at 2 cents, 105 94 

Marketing same, at 1 cent, 52 97 

Rental value of land, one and one-half years, 4 50 

Interest on investment, about one year, 2 10 



Total cost of crop, $212 65 

First picking of berries, June 21, 189 quarts. Largest 
picking of berries, June 27, 961 quarts. Last picking of 
berries, July 12, 152 quarts. 

1887. — Received for 5297 quarts of strawberries, sold 
at from 9 to 20 cents per quart, averaging 
12 cents per quart, $635 64 

Less cost of crop, 212 65 



Profit on crop, $422 99 

Strawberry bed No. 2, on 308 1-2 square rods of land, 
which required no weeding in 1887. 

(For description of the planting and crops of this land 
previous, see statement of George G. Peirce (deceased), in 
" 1886 Transactions, 7 ' and in "Note " below). 
1886. — Cost of dressing with eight loads of horse,' 

coarse stable manure, $8 00 

1887. — Cost of picking 5*385 quarts berries, at 2c., 107 70 
Cost of marketing same, at lc, 53 85 

Cost of land, estimated rental value for one 

year, 9 00 

Interest on investment, 5 00 



Total cost of 1887 crop, $183 55 
Receipts for 5385 quarts berries, average 

price 12 cents quart, $646 20 

Profit from 1887 crop, 462 75 



ii7 

Note.— Bed No. 1. planted 1885. Crop per acre in 188*7, 8391 

quarts, at average price, 12 cents quart, slOOG 92 

Expense of bed No. 1, in 1887, per acre, 336 80 

Profit per acre, for Bed No. 1, $070 12 

Bed No. 2, planted 1885. Crop per acre, in 1S87, 2793 

quarts, at 12 cents, 
Expense of Bed No. 2, in 1887, per acre, 

Profit per acre, for Bed No. 2 , 
Bed No. 2. Crop in 1886, 63S1 quarts per acre, 
" " Crop in 1887, 2793 quarts per acre, 

Total for two years' crops, 

Cost of 1886 crop, per acre, $280 43 

Add for land and interest on investment, S 00 

Expense of 18S7 crop, per acre, 95 20 



335 


16 


95 


20 


$239 06 


7D7 62 


335 


16 


SI 132 


78 



383 63 



Profit per acre, for two and one-half years' planting, $749 15 
or an average of $299.66 yearly. 
" Bed No. 2 was planted with two rows each, of Crescent, Wilson, 
Manchester, and Charles Downing. No difference in variety was 
made in picking and marketing them. He believes that be has better 
success mixing different kinds together, and they cover the ground 
better." 

STATEMENT OP GEORGE J. PEIRCE, OP WEST NEWBURY, ON 
RASPBERRY CROP. 

On raspberry bed No. 1, crop of Cuthbert raspberries 
from 71 1-2 square rods of land, third year of picking, and 
requiring no cultivation or dressing in 1887. (For descrip- 
tion of the planting and crop on this land previous, see 
statement of George G. Peirce (deceased), in 1886 " Tran- 
sactions," and note below). 

Cost of pruning, 1887, $ 90 

Cost of picking 2814 pints berries, 28 14 

Cost of marketing same, 28 14 

Rental value of land, per acre, $5, 2 30 

Interest on investment, per acre, $5, 2 30 



Total cost, $61 78 

First picking of berries, July 13, 20 pints. Greatest 



picking of berries, July 25, 501 pints. Last picking of 

berries, August 5, 23 pints. 

Picked 2814 pints raspberries, at 8 cents, 

Less cost of crop, 

Profit from 71 1-2 sq. rods, 



$225 12 


61 


78 


$168 


34 


$50i 


: 68 


138 


! 25 



Note. — Crop of 18S7, per acre, 3148 quarts at 16 cents, 
Less cost per acre, 

Profit per acre, $365 43 

Bed No. 1. Crop in 188(5, per acre, 2803 qts. at 15c, $420 45 

Crop in 1887, per acre, 3148 qts. at 16c, 503 68 

Two years' products, $924 13 

Cost per acre, in 1886 (land and interest not included), $218.35 
Add for rental, value of land, and interest on invest- 
ment, 10.00 

Cost per acre, in 1887, 138.25 

< 366 60 



Two years' profit, per acre, $557 53 

Average yearly profit, $278 76 

On raspberry bed No. 2, crop of Cuthbert raspberries on 
thirty-five square rods of land. Second year of picking, no 
cultivation or dressing. 

Cost of picking 1450 pints berries, $14 50 

Cost of marketing same, 14 50 

Cost of pruning, at $2 per acre, 44 

Rental value of land, at $5 per acre ? 1 10 

Interest on investment, at $5 per acre, 1 10 



$31 64 

First picking, July 19, 125 pints. Greatest picking, 

July 27, 391 pints. Last picking, August 5, 39 pints. 

Receipts for 1450 pints berries, average 8 cents, $116 00 

Less cost of crop, 31 64 



Profit in 1887, from 35 square rods, $84 30 



Note. — Crop per acre, 3314 quarts, at 16 cents, $530 20 

Less cost of crop, per acre, 144 64 

Profit per acre, in 1887, $385 56 



H9 

REPORT ON NEW VARIETIES OF WINTER 
APPLES. 

Last year there were two varieties of new winter apples 
that originated ont of the county, entered for premium at 
the fair at Newburyport, one by C. M. Kent of Newbury 
the other by Joseph Horton of Ipswich. The apples 
appeared well, and they were requested to present a sam 
pie of them to the trustees at their meeting in June. Mi- 
Kent appeared with specimens of his apples that were 
fresh and good. Mr. Horton was not present, hut ap* 
peared at the fair in Peabody with good specimens of his 
fruit. It takes considerable time to fully test the com- 
parative value of different varieties of fruit, as there are 
so many qualities to be considered. 

The flavor of the apples, their size, their bearing qual- 
ity, their keeping quality, their color, which has much to 
do in the sale of the apples, all of which should be con- 
sidered. 

Several years ago the Northern Spy, then a new variety, 
was highly recommended as a late keeping winter apple, 
that would keep longer than the Baldwin and of sup- 
erior quality. 

Being in Boston market one summer day I noticed a 
dish of beautiful apples said to be the Northern Spy, a 
variety I had been long looking for. Price 6 cents each. 
I took one, put it in my pocket and carried it home that 
others might partake of the luxury. In the spring I pro. 
cured scions. 

I gave them a fair trial. I grafted a thrifty Baldwin 
stock that stood in a patch of raspberry bushes, the ground 
being manured and cultivated. The scions grew vigor* 
ously and soon produced fruit large and fair. When time 
to gather winter apples many of them were specked with 
rot and unfit for winter use, which has been characteris- 
tic of them since, when the tree would bear several 
bushels in a year. I also grafted two or three Runnels 



120 

apple stocks with them on grass land that was kept in 
good condition by top dressing. The apples on these 
trees were many of them small and unfair, not fit for 
market. 

The above experiment agrees with our former experi- 
ence that constant cultivation and manuring will produce 
large apples, but not as good for use or to keep as those 
less prolific. There should be, however, cultivation or 
fertilizing sufiicient to keep the trees in a thrift}- bearing 
condition, to produce the best fruit. 

These apples rotted worse than others have done under 
like circumstances. The question arose before the com- 
mittee on apples at the late fair at Peabody whether the 
largest apples should have the premium in consequence 
of their being large, or those of less size that were thought 
to be better apples. It was decided that the best apples 
should have the premium, taking both the size and quality 
into consideration. 

Two years ago a history of the Baldwin apple was pub- 
lished in the transactions of the Essex Agricultural So- 
ciety, which is briefly as follows: — In the latter years of 
the last century Col. Laomi Baldwin, a distinguished en- 
gineer, while engineering for the Middlesex canal from 
Chelmsford, now Lowell, to Boston, discovered these 
apples on a tree in a wood in Wilmington, perceived their 
value and disseminated them. They spread gradually, 
the Rhode Island Greening, a popular apple (but not 
red), being their competitor. The first account we have 
of them was in the south part of the county in 1812 or 
1813. They gradually spread over the county. The 
winter of 1832, a severe winter, that commenced about 
the middle of November after a mild autumn, before na- 
ture had prepared the trees for winter, many beautiful 
young orchards were almost entirely destroyed, which 
greatly cheeked the ardor of the people in propagating 
them. 

Now the Baldwin apple as a variety has become old, 



121 

far beyond the common age of man, and by being grafted 
over and over many times has depreciated and become 
less valuable, and liberal premiums have been offered by 
the society for new varieties. 

One variety has appeared and in the Ordway apple. 
It originated in a wood like the Baldwin, and was brought 
into notice by Mr. Alfred Ordway of Bradford. It much 
resembles the Baldwin and is hoped to be its equal, but 
is to be tested and proved by experience. Two other 
varieties have been brought before the society for pre- 
mium and it is hoped they will prove what they are rep- 
resented to be. To prove the value of a variety of apples 
we think they should be tested in different orchards. 

The apple crop is of vast importance to the people of 
Essex county, not only to the producer but to the whole 
community. We are as a whole a great brotherhood, all 
more or less interested in the apple crop and its improve- 
ments, and in new varieties, and in the success of each 
other (or ought to be). We have, during our long expe- 
rience, many times grafted from other orchards apples 
that did not prove what they were represented to be. 

I have not seen all the committee to consult with them 
in regard to recommending a premium, as I think more 
information is necessary as to their production in other 
orchards. We now hope that our brother farmers will 
take scions from these trees and test and compare them 
with other varieties that we may know their comparative 
value. We also hope the producers will still continue 
their efforts after new and better varieties, and they will 
*n time be rewarded. 

Joseph How, Chairman. 



NEW MEMBERS. 

The Committee on New Members has attended to that 
duty, and respectfully reports the following award : 
$6. First premium, to John Meacom, Beverly, for obtain- 
ing ten new members from Beverly. 



122 

Other than those who became members by rule of the 
Society (a premium of $7 or upwards, having been award- 
oil them), the new members of the society, during the year 
ending November 1, were ten from Beverly, ten from Pea- 
body, three from Lynnfield, two from Andover, two from 
West Newbury, two from Rockport, two from Newburyport, 
and one each from Bradford, Manchester, Wenham, Dan- 
vers, Georgetown, Lynn, Salisbury, Methuen. 

Your committee would recommend members of the so- 
ciety to show this book of " Transactions of the Society,' 1 
to their neighbors and friends, and thus convince them that 
if they are interested in agriculture or horticulture, that in 
no way can they get so much practical information returned 
to them, as by investing $3 in a life membership in this so- 
ciety, and yearly receiving its printed " Transactions," 
besides all the rights and benefits that such membership 
confers, to say nothing of the pride every such man should 
have in maintaining the standing and success of a society 
which Essex county receives such a credit for, that its 
agricultural people may well be proud of. 

David W\ Low, Secretary, Committee. 



REPORT OP THE COMMITTEE ON TREAD WELL 

FARM. 

The lease of the farm to Thomas W. Pierce, had, last 
April, two years of its term unexpired. The trustees of 
his estate desired to be relieved from its obligations, and 
by the payment of -$100 the lease was canceled, thus leav- 
ing the farm on the hands of the committee. As it proved 
too late to secure a suitable tenant, arrangements were 
made with Charles J. Peabody, of Topsfield, to sell the 
grass standing, for the benefit of the society, and to seed 
down to grass some thirty acres of land that had been in 
cultivation for several years previous, and to conduct several 
experiments, without expense to the society, all of which 
has been done in a satisfactory manner, by Mr. Peabody, as 
is shown by his annexed statement. 



123 

The farm is now without a tenant, but the committee 
hope to lease it to a suitable person before the next- season. 
The barn and adjoining shed, built twenty-five years 
ago. and then shingled with second quality shaved shingles, 
without repairs since, were in such a leaky condition 
as to make a new covering a necessity, which is now being 
done with first quality of sawed cedar shingles, and if they 
prove as serviceable as those they replace, the society will 
have reason to be satisfied. There are some broken down 
gates that are to be put in respectable condition. The 
committee feel that under the circumstances the farm lias 
made a creditable showing, with receipts of 8350. This, 
with the following statement, is respectfully submitted. 

Benjamin P. Ware, Chairman. 

STATEMENT OF EXPERIMENTS ON TREADWELL FARM, IN TOPS- 
FIELD, DURING THE SEASON OF 1887. 

First. Experiment with corn, to test comparative value 
of manure from the barn, and Darling's fertilizer. Lot 1, 
containing one acre, was manured with four cords of barn 
manure, applied in the hill. Value on the land, $40 ; 
yielded thirty-three (33) bushels shelled corn, and one and 
one-half tons stover. Value of crop, $37.80, at an estimate 
of sixty cents per bushel, for corn, and $12 per ton, for 
stover, or reckoning the seventy pounds corn on the ear as 
worth the same price for grinding cob and corn together, as 
an equal weight of western meal costs, as it actually is for 
feeding purposes, and we have a value of $27.70 for corn, 
and for making milk, the stover is worth $15 per ton, or 
$21.50 on the acre. By this estimate, the crop is worth 
$49.20, and, in my judgment, the latter value, less the cost 
of grinding, is the true one to the farmer. 

On Lot No 2, containing also one acre, was used 1435 
pounds Darling's fertilizer, costing $25.07, and producing 
thirty-two bushels shelled corn, and one and one-half tons 
stover. Value to sell, $37.20. Value to use, 148.50, on 
same basis as before. Actual difference in crop on the two 
lots, one bushel shelled corn in favor of manure. 



124 

It is probable that the yield of both lots was reduced one 
quarter part by the August gale, which so twisted and broke 
the roots that many ears did not fill out as they should have 
done under favorable conditions. The corn was also planted 
much later than usual, as the farm did not come under my 
care till the season was considerably advanced. Both lots 
were planted the sixth and seventh of June. The variety 
of corn was the eight-rowed Canada. 

Experiment No. 2. To determine the comparative value 
of sweet corn for market, and field corn as a crop. On an 
acre planted with Marblehead Mammoth Sweet corn was 
raised four hundred and fifty dozen ears, worth in the field, 
six cents per dozen. 

Value of corn sold, $27 00 

Value of small ears, fed to cows, 5 00 

Four tons stover, at $15 per ton, 60 00 

$92 00 
Value of one acre of field corn, as by 

previous account, $49 20 

Balance in favor of sweet corn, $42 80 

A significant fact in regard to the value of sweet corn 
stover, fed green, is, that by actual test, twenty pounds of 
the stover, fed to each of my herd of nine cows daily, pro- 
duced as much milk as eight pounds of meal and shorts, 
the cows having the same pasture in both cases. T tried it 
for a week at a time, and measured the milk every day. 

Experiment No. 3, with Hungarian grass, to try the 
relative value of Ames' and Darling's fertilizers. Each 
was used at the rate of three hundred pounds per acre, a 
lot of six acres being equally divided between the two 
brands. The Ames produced, on three acres, four tons of 
dry hay, weighed on public scales. The Darling yielded 
three and one-half tons, on the same area. Th'e land was 
sandy rye stubble, considered as poor as any on the farm. 



125 

The crop where no fertilizer was used, was fifteen hundred 
pounds per acre. 

The experiment with potatoes cannot be reported, as they 
were so largely destroyed by the rot. 

The Farm may be considered in satisfactory condition in 
most respects, at present. Thirty acres have been seeded 
to grass, the past season, with a good catch assured on 
most of the land. The walls around the pasture have been 
poled and repaired. The woodwax partially checked, by 
mowing : and an attempt made to carry on the place in a 
workmanlike manner. There have been eighteen cords of 
manure used on the farm, and nearly two tons of fertilizers. 
No rent has been received from the house, which has been 
unoccupied. 

C. J. Peabody. 



FARMERS' INSTITUTES. 

The first Farmers' Institute held by this Society was 
held at Plummer Hall, Salem, March 18, 1879, and was 
opened at 9.30 A. M. on the subject of "Vegetables aud 
Seed," by Hon. J. J. H. Gregoiy, and in the afternoon on 
the "Planning and Management of Farms." 

The 52d one was held March 25, 1887, (at the same 
place as the first), which not only shows that this Society 
complied with the order of the State Board of Agriculture, 
" that each Society receiving the State Bounty should 
hold at least three farmers' institutes within its limits in 
the course of a }'ear," not as a matter of compulsion, but 
because it early found that the}^ were of great value to 
the agricultural interests of the county, and as such should 
not be limited to a sufficient number to satisfy the require- 
ments of the State, and has therefore set apart since 1878 
an average of six and one-half days annually for institutes, 
holding two meetings on each day, each meeting, in most 
cases, being devoted to different subjects, and held where 
the different agricultural sections of the county could be 



126 

most benefited by attendance, inquiry and discussion- 
And not satisfied with its institutes for farmers, it set 
apart the past season its closing day, which although 
called a "Farmers' Institute," was designated as 
"Ladies' Day," and the subjects of the day, opened by 
ladies,* were handled so well and with the after discus- 
sion were so interesting and instructive to farmers and 
their wives, daughters and friends, that it is an institute 
that has come to stay, and not only on that day may we 
expect to hear the voice of women instructing and coun- 
selling, but at others of the season, to which, our society 
invites them so cordially. 

Our young farmers need not be afraid they intrude 
when they attend our institute meetings and ask ques- 
tions or give result of any experiment they have made 
connected with the subject then under discussion, for our 
Society extends to all such throughout the county a hearty 
greeting and urges that more of them be present, for none 
can go away from such meetings without benefit, intel- 
lectually and socially, if not practically. 

The Society has held eight " Farmers' Institutes " dur- 
ing the past season, the 45th and first one being held in the 
Town Hall, Georgetown, December 9, 1886, at 9.30 A. M. 
Hon. J. J. H. Gregory was introduced by President Ware, 
and gave a very instructive and interesting talk on the 
"Improvement of Meadow Lands,** showing its structural 
formation and chemical properties, and how it should be 
treated. The discussion which followed was taken part 
in by men of experience in this and other counties of this 
State, and also from New Hampshire, and the general 
verdict from such experience was that it pays to improve 
wet meadow land. In the afternoon the subject of " Root 
Crops ** was opened by Hon. Asa T. Newhall, of Lynn, a 
successful grower of such crops, who gave in a general 
way much information, which, with questions after its 
close, and the successes and disasters of others in culti- 
vating certain crops, made the afternoon, as well as the 
forenoon, one of profit to those in attendance. 



127 

The 46th Institute was held at Rowley Town Hall ' 
with large attendance, on December 30, 1886. The fore- 
noon discussion was on the subject of " Which is most 
profitable for Farmers, to raise their own Cows or to buy 
them?" opened by C J. Peabocty, of Topsfield, who 
treated the subject in a manner which showed his experi- 
ence and observation and that he favored the raising of 
cows by farmers for their own use. The discussion gave 
a great deal of information on the subject of raising, feed- 
ing and care, and the points of a good cow. The question 
was left with the evidence rather in favor of farmers rais- 
ing their own cows. 

After dinner, the meeting was called to order at 2 p. M., 
and the members of the Society proceeded to elect a dele- 
gate to the State Board of Agriculture from this Society. 
Benjamin P. Ware, of Marblehead, was elected. 

Hon. John E. Russell, Secretary of the State Board of 
Agriculture, was then introduced, and after compliment- 
ing the Society on re-electing Mr. Ware as its delegate, 
and on its influence as an agricultural instructor, spoke 
on the subject of " Sheep Husbandry as adapted to Massa- 
chusetts." He treated his subject in his usual able^ 
sprightly, interesting manner, and advocated the keeping 
of sheep in spite of dogs, of which he said there were 150,- 
000 owners to 3000 of sheep owners, and said that the best 
way to renovate the hilly pastures of Essex Count} r was 
by sheep husbandry. The after discussion by various 
persons brought out their experiences with sheep and dogs 
and of their profit and loss with sheep keeping. 

The 47th Institute was held at Memorial Hall, Me- 
thuen, on Jan. 14, 1887, with "Forage Crops," for the 
forenoon discussion, to have been opened by John Q. 
Evans, of Amesbuiy, who was delayed, and Hon. J. J. H. 
Gregory was called upon, and taking the experiments 
made with feeding different kinds of forage to cattle at 
one of the experiment stations as his text, commented 
upon them in a very interesting manner. During the 



128 

discussion which followed, Mr. Evans arrived, and read a 
very instructive paper on "Forage Crops," which was 
discussed afterwards until dinner time. 

In the afternoon, James C. Poor, Manager of Hon. Wm. 
A. Russell's stock farm, of North Andover, read a paper 
and answered numerous questions on the u Care of Farm 
Stock," which gave much interesting and practical infor- 
mation as did also the discussion of others which followed. 

The 48th Institute was held at the Town Hall, Tops- 
field. January 28, 1887. The subject in the forenoon, 
"Agricultural Implements," opened by Hon. J. J. H. 
Gregory, of Marblehead, was one of great value to all 
farmers, and was listened to with close attention for two 
hours. He divided farm im lements into five classes; 
first, those with which to prepare the ground ; second, 
those to plant with; third, those to cultivate the ground ; 
fourth, those to harvest with ; fifth, those to utilize the 
crop with, each of which were thoroughly treated, and 
was followed by the experiences of others with farm im- 
plements, all of which gave information of special value 
on various implements. 

The afternoon subject, " The Growing of Potatoes," by 
Edmund Hersey, of Hingham, illustrated with the stereop- 
tican, showing different stages of growth at same time, of 
potatoes planted in different shape, also showing their 
products when harvested, which, with his lecture, was very 
interesting and instructive. From result of experiments 
he stated that whole potatoes yield better than cut ones, 
and the seed end better than the stem end. The crop 
three times more from a whole potato than from a single 
eye. 

The 49th Institute was held Feb. 11, 1887, at Town 
Hall, Bradford, where the subject of " The Value of Corn 
Stover in comparison witli English Hay," was opened by 
Benjamin P. Ware, of Marblehead, who claimed that good 
corn stover which had been cut and stooked just as the 
corn was commencing to glaze and then carefully cured 



129 

and housed, was equal in value to English hay, and gave 
evidence in support of his claim. Some thirteen gentle- 
men took part in the discussion which followed. Some, 
while admitting its value, believed that Mr. Ware's esti- 
mate of value was set much too high. 

The afternoon meeting was opened by Dr. Wm. Cogs- 
well, of Bradford, with an essay on "The Building and 
Repairing of Country Roads," which contained many val- 
uable suggestions on the subject. The discussion which 
followed brought out practical ideas from Surveyors of 
Highways and road builders located in various parts of 
the county. 

The 50th Institute was held at Town Hall, Beverly, 
February 25, 1887, Nathan Bushby, of Peabody opening 
the meeting on the'subject of " Vegetable Culture," which, 
from his practical and successful experience, furnished an 
able talk, with questions answered, of two hours or more, 
followed by the experiences of the leading vegetable and 
seed growers of the county and others upon the subject. 

In the afternoon the subject of " Fertilizers " was opened 
by Prof. George H. Whicher, of New Hampshire Agricul- 
tural College, who for an hour and a half gave a forcible 
and practical talk on the value of chemicals as fertilizers, 
illustrating his subject with specimens and giving descrip- 
tions of experiments tried at his College and their results. 

The results from a test of chemicals beside three 
" commercial fertilizers " named, as reported by the N. H. 
State Grange, the figures given representing the increase 
of sound corn due to $1.00 worth of each tested were : — 

$1.00 worth of gave increased value at 

Paci fio Guano, $1.40 

Bradley's, 1.72 

Stockbridge, 2.16 

( bone black, \ 

Chemicals, I muriate potash, > 3.36 
( sulphate ammonia, ) 



13° 

He recommended the following combinations of chemi- 
cals for fertilizers, the "bone black" containing 16 per 
cent, phosphoric acid, the "muriate of potash" 50 per 
cent, of actual potash, and the " sulphate of ammonia " 20 
per cent, of nitrogen. 

( bone black, 325 lbs. } 

Comb'n for corn, < muriate of potash,100 lbs. > cost $11. 
( sulphate of ammonia, 75 lbs. ) 

_, . , - ( bone black, 340 lbs. ) . * Q 

Comb n for potatoes, j ^^ of polash? 160 lbs . | cost $9. 

( bone black, 300 lbs. ) 

Comb'n for oats, < muriate of potash, 150 lbs. > cost $8.50 
( sulphate of ammonia, 25 lbs. ) 

These combinations are for one acre where no manure 
is used, and in case of corn and potatoes, 150 lbs. of each 
is to be used in the hills, the remainder broadcast. 

More potash would have an injurious effect if injudi- 
ciously used. He said that fertilizers were not stimulants 
as much as necessary food for the land, as much so, if not 
more, than manure is. 

His instructive and valuable talk was followed by that 
of others of large experience in the use of fertilizers, who 
agreed with the Professor in urging upon the farmers the 
economy to them of manufacturing their own fertilizers. 

The 51st Institute was held in Peabody Institute, Dan- 
vers, on March 11, 1887, on the subject of "Progress of 
Ensilage," opened by Rev. O. S. Butler, of Georgetown, 
who gave an instructive history'of it in this country, where 
it only dates back to 1875, while in Germany and Prussia 
it was preserved 100 years ago. He gave the opinions of 
95 farmers, whose testimony he had collected, and their 
general tenor was, that ensilage had come to stay, as a 
permanent institution for the promotion of agriculture. 
Samples of ensilage corn and ensilage cut in inch lengths 
were shown. 

The afternoon Institute was opened by Francis H. 
Appleton, of Peabody, on ' Encouragement of Tree Plant- 



i3i 

ing" as a subject, who said that forest growths were a 
necessity in this country to enrich the soil with their dis- 
carded foliage ; by retaining water in the soil ; their pro- 
tection against tornadoes, frosts, and other changes of cli- 
mate, not only important in an agricultural view, but the 
source of our water ways from which large industries 
have sprung. 

He appealed for the use of our hardy trees and shrubs 
in decorating and beautifying our homes and grounds and 
to encourage all such efforts among our people. He gave 
information of value on the hardy and desirable trees for 
Essex county, their propagation, etc., and was pleased to 
see the good effects of " Arbor Day" in many localities, 
and that "tree planting" should be encouraged in all 
rational ways. 

T. C. Thurlow, of West Newbury, followed Mr. Apple- 
ton, and for half an hour interested his hearers with hints 
from his own abundant experience. He thought more 
attention should be given in our towns to public improve- 
ments in the way of parks and adornment of streets and 
home grounds. 

The 52d Institute, or " Ladies' Day,"* was held in 
Plummer Hall, Salem, on March 25, 1887. The forenoon 
subject being "Impressions of Farm and Peasant Life in 
Austria and Germany," by Mrs. E. V. Gage, of Bradford, 
and conveyed information of interest and value and 
showed that most of the farm work of those countries was 
done by women, and from her impressions and that of 
others, who spoke afterwards, all agreed that our country 
and New England especially, are far ahead of the old 
countries of Europe in the intelligence, comfort, advan- 
tages and mode of living, of her farming population. 

In the afternoon, Mrs. Maria II . Bray, of Gloucester, 
opened the meeting, on " Flowers." Her essay contained 
much of the sentimental in relation to them, as well as 
information in regard to the commercial uses of many of 
them. She was followed by others who gave practical 



132 

information in regard to the cultivation of various kinds 
of flowers, wild as well as cultivated. 

With this, closed a very successful season of Institutes, 
each attended by from 100 to 400 persons, and of such 
value that to those who attended they were days well 
spent. 

Those who attended them were in most cases provided 
near at hand with dinners together, by ladies on charita- 
ble thoughts intent, adding much to the sociability of the 
occasions, and relieving our minds of where to look for 
something to eat. To them and the Farmers' Clubs, or 
other interested persons, the Society is indebted for the 
conveniences provided for holding them in the various 
places where they have been held. 

David W. Low, Secretary. 



* In this connection I cannot resist republishing the fact that ladies 
were first put upon committees in this Society in 1856, and one of the 
ladies of the " Flower" Committee of that year made the fact known 
in their report with these lines: 

At the first Cattle Show of which we read, 

Man, sole Committee, over all presided, 
Till the Great Husbandman, who saw the need 

Of Woman's gentler couusel, thus decided: — 
" It is not good for man to be alone ; " 
And straight a helpmeet formed to share his throne. 

In this display, where Nature fresh and fair 
To Eden's bowers tempts back the roving will, 

The old precedent is brought to bear, 
And Eve's quick tact is blent with Adam's skill, 

To trace the hand of God in fruits and flowers, 

And scan the products of man's feebler powers. 

If, in the judgment thus conjointly rendered, 

Error, like evil, craftily creeps in, 
That same old plea which father Adam tendered, 

Can now be urged to palliate the sin; 
And every blunder written, thought, or said, 

Be visited on luckless women's head. 



133 
ESSAY ON RECLAIMING ROCKY PASTURES. 

BY CHAS. W. MANN, OF METHTJEN. 

We have in Essex County, many rough and rocky pieces 
of pasture and woodland that are within easy reach of mar- 
kets, and when reclaimed would become very profitable 
fields for cultivation. Many of these relics of the wilder- 
ness are of small area, and are often so situated in the 
midst of smiling fields, or upon the borders of fine farms, 
as to be a much greater damage to the appearance and sell- 
ing value of the property than what the income of the same 
land when cleared would seem to justify, but they are such 
an eyesore as perhaps to add two or three times the cost of 
reclaiming to the value of their surroundings, and yet, in 
many cases the owners are so appalled at the apparent 
magnitude of the work of making these " rough places 
plain, 1 ' that they put it off from year to year, until they 
finally lose the little courage that they had at first, and 
settle down to the idea that the works of nature had better 
not be disturbed too much, especially when it calls for 
money and hard work to accomplish the object desired. 

In many places that are within three miles of some lively 
village or growing city, the stone removed from these rough 
pieces of pasture land can be sold and teamed for the build- 
ing of house cellars, bank walls, and other similar uses, 
while, if the stones are large and heavy, they may be used 
in the building of bridges and the laying of heavy foun- 
dations for large blocks or factories, and the price is gen- 
erally from seventy-five cents a perch for the poorest qual- 
ity, to $1.50 for the large and heavy stone, of good shape, 
for building purposes, the average price in our county being 
probably from $1 to $1.25 a perch, for stone suitable for 
ordinary house cellars. A perch of stone is, exactly 
measured, 24| cubic feet, but is generally reckoned as 25 
cubic feet, and will weigh, in squared granite, or large, 
solid stone, about two tons^while the ordinary stone as dug 
from the ground and laid up, will weigh about 1£ tons to 



134 

the perch ; and of the latter, 1J to 1^ perch will make a 
fair load for a common pair of farm horses, while, if the 
horses are very heavy and the road not too hard, a load of 
two perch will not be too much, and if the distance is but 
two miles from the field to the cellar, four trips will be a 
day's work ; if the distance be three miles, three trips will 
be sufficient, and to do this, the loading and unloading 
must be done quickly, and though the team need not be 
hurried in doing it, yet there will be no time for the driver 
to stop and tell stories. 

There are two kinds of stone known as field stone, the 
round cobbles, such as are found in gravelly soil, and have 
no face, bed, or build to them, and are almost worthless, 
save for paving gutters and drives, or grading, filling 
trenches, and the like, and the square-faced, solid, good- 
shaped stone, such as are to be found in a heavy, clayey 
soil. It is of the latter that I have written, and, although 
in places where ledge stone is easily obtained, there will be 
encountered a strong prejudice against field stone, growing 
out of the idea that they are all like those first described, 
while stone from heavy soil will make as strong and sub- 
stantial a wall as any ledge stone, and can often be split so 
as to make a good finish for exposed portions, or faced with 
granite for a finish, either way making the cost much less 
than by the use of ledge stone, which costs from $2.25 to 
S3 a perch ; and beside this strong reason for the use of 
our field stone, is another, that every perch of stone taken 
from the field helps to improve the property, and the scenery 
of the vicinity of its former location, as well as to add to 
the ease and profit of cultivation, while the use of ledge 
stone only encourages the digging of an unsightly hole in 
the ground. 

The best team to use in the clearing of rocky places, is, 
undoubtedly, a pair of heavy cattle, either oxen or bulls ; 
they are slower, steadier, and stronger than an ordinary 
horse team, and there is less danger of loss by accident, 
overpulling, or straining ; yet, a heavy pair of horses, 



135 

weighing from 2400 pounds to 2800 pounds will do very- 
good work, if not too high-lived to take to it kindly, and, 
perhaps the average farm horse is not given to that fault, 
but with a pair of light horses there is altogether too much 
jerking and jumping, twitching and backing, to be either 
pleasant or profitable for the men who work with them, un- 
less it be a very light and easy job. 

Strong chains are needed in this work, and can be ob- 
tained at lowest cost, at some ship supply store, or rigging 
loft in Boston, where heavy, short-linked, second-hand ship 
chains can be bought at very low prices, and cut up and 
fitted with hooks and rings as may be desired. 

A very serviceable stone and bush hook can be made in a 
short time, at an expense of seven or eight dollars, by any 
handy blacksmith. Take a piece of bar-iron, four feet long, 
three inches wide, and one-half inch thick, bend one and 
one-half feet at one end into a long, sharp-pointed hook, not 
turned under too much, and work the other end down a 
little, and put on a four-inch, heavy, iron ring to hitch to. 
Then make two similar hooks, with about half the length 
of beam, put one of these on each side of the one first de- 
scribed, and bolt them all together with two one-half inch 
bolts, spreading the points five or six inches from the mid- 
dle one, thus making a heavy, three-pronged hook. To 
complete it, put on a good stout pair of swivel plough 
handles, and support them with iron braces from the back 
of the centre beam. 

The best team to use on this hook is a pair of heavy 
cattle. Horses will do good work with it, but are generally 
too quick for comfort, snapping and twitching about too 
much, few of them having the weight required for the slow, 
steady pulling needed in this kind of work. Rocks as 
large as the team can drag off can usually be taken out of 
the ground without digging around them ; just shove the 
hook down behind the rock, or under a ragged corner of it, 
start the team gently, and up she comes. If the first hitch 
does not fetch, try again. I have tipped a rock weighing 



136 

77G0 pounds out of its bed, on to a drag, with this hook, 
though it took three pair of cattle to do it. I afterwards 
loaded the rock on to a wagon, and teamed it to market 
with two horses, having it weighed so as to know just what 
we had done. 

I once worked steadily for two hours with a pair of 2400 
pound mares and a driver, and then stood and counted 
eighty stones, as large, and larger, than two men could roll, 
besides many smaller ones, and no digging around any of 
them, though they were all fast when we started in. It is 
quick, exciting, and hard work to hold the hook pulling out 
large stones, and I would not advise a man to work at it 
more than one or two hours a day, but in that time he could 
dig out enough to keep the team busy dragging them off all 
the rest of the day. Junipers, alders, huckleberry, and all 
such bushes can be turned bottom up with the utmost 
promptness and dispatch, and it would make you laugh to 
see it done, it seems so quick and easy, and you wonder 
why you never thought of such a thing yourself. 

The best time for doing this work is when the ground is 
wet and soft, it can be done so much easier than in a 
dry time when the land is dry and hard. We generally 
have the most time for it in early spring, just as the frost 
gets out, or after harvest in the fall, when the we&ther is 
cool, and we have time to leave the regular work and make 
some improvement in our surroundings. 

I have been at work at odd times for the past three years, 
on a pasture as rough and stony as most any in our county, 
save the ledges of the coast, though fortunately veiy few of 
the stone are larger than a team can handle without blast- 
ing. Some parts of the piece, and in fact a good share of 
it, yielded more than 300 perch of stone to the acre, and 
though I have a market for them I should hardly have at- 
tempted the job without the hook that I have described, for 
I believe it has saved more than 8100 worth of work in 
these three years, and is now as good as when made ; the 
only repairing necessary being to sharpen the points occa- 



i$7 

sionally and renew the handles when some big stone hap- 
pens to roll on to them and break them. 

A good drag or stone boat is also very necessary in the 
work of reclaiming stony ground, and, after wearing out, 
and pulling to pieces a number of the common wooden 
ones, I made up my mind to have something better, and 
here are directions for making it : Take two pieces of oak 
8x4, and thirty inches long for end pieces, and two pieces 
of 2 x 3, five feet long for sides ; these are to be bolted to 
the bottom with fiat-headed, one-half inch bolts, and the 
heads counter-sunk. For the bottom, go to the-boiler shop, 
in the city, and get a piece of second-hand, 1-4 inch boiler 
plate, 2| x 7 feet ; have a foot at each end turned up in the 
rollers ; cut out a half round notch in the middle of each 
end, to allow an easy chance to hitch ; punch all the needed 
bolt holes for the side and end pieces, and four more about 
an inch from the edge of the ends, to fasten on some small 
strips of wood, to prevent the sharp edge of the iron cutting 
the heels of the team ; bolt a ring to the end piece at both 
ends to draw by, and you have a double ender that is but 
little heavier than wood, will run as easy, better in most 
places, and will last for years. I made such a drag two 
years ago, and have pulled, perhaps, 500 perch of stone on 
it, some of them weighing nearly or quite four tons each, 
and, instead of wearing it out, as it would a wooden one, it 
rather seemed to do it good ; it got the bottom well 
polished. 

If I were to use this drag on snow, or down hill work, I 
should put a pole to it, for no matter how heavily it is 
loaded it will slide round like a hen on ice, and there seems 
to be hardly any limit to what a team can pull on it ; mine 
cost about $8, and is one of the best investments I have 
ever made. Four to six good steel bars of varied sizes, 
will be required if doing a big job of clearing, and if many 
of the stone are larger than the teams can easily handle, 
an assortment of steel drills will be necessary, and blasting 
must be done ; striking hammers will be needed, and a 



t3« 

heavy breaking hammer of sixteen pounds weight will be 
very useful, even on a small job, for many a shaky or brittle 
rock can be broken and handled much easier than while 
whble, and a few blows of the hammer may often save 
drilling. In undertaking any very extensive piece of re- 
claiming we shall have to call in the aid of dynamite, which 
seems to be the cheapest and most powerful explosive ma- 
terial that we can employ. 

Dynamite is a mixture of nitro-glycerine with some more 
solid material to give body, and varies in strength from 
thirty-five to sixty-five per cent., according to the amount of 
nitro-glycerine used in the mixture. Five years ago, it cost 
from forty cents to sixty cents per pound, but can now be 
bought for twenty-four cents or less, for the thirty 'five to 
forty per cent., which is the quality generally used, and 
these figures show it to be the cheapest explosive that the 
farmer can use. Caps cost one and one-half cents each ; 
waterproof fuse one cent per foot, and common fuse about 
twenty-five cents a hundred feet. It is put up in one-half 
pound cartridges, from one inch to one and one-half inches 
in diameter, and eight or nine inches long. It is exploded 
by percussion, and will only burn if set on fire, making a 
very bright light. A heavy percussion cap is used for ex- 
ploding the charge, and the cap is attached to a common 
fuse, care being taken to have the end of the fuse reach to 
the fulminate or white powder in the cap, so that the con- 
nection may be good. It can be exploded under water, 
and generally gives the best of satisfaction when so used, 
as water makes the best of tamping, only it is necessary to 
keep the water out of the cap, and to do this, put the cap 
on to the end of the fuse, open one end of the cartridge, 
make a hole with a small stick, insert the cap and fuse, and 
tie the paper lightly round the fuse ; sometimes it may be 
well to smear the joint with wheel grease, hard soap, or 
something of the kind. One cap in a cartridge will explode 
as many cartridges as are placed near it, perhaps within a 
foot or two. 



U9 

Dynamite is dangerous, but less so than gun-powder, for 
if a charge refuses to explode, on account of a poor cap or 
a slip of the fuse from the cap, it is easy to run down an- 
other fuse and cap, and so explode it ; but to drill out an 
old charge of powder is very dangerous, and should seldom 
be undertaken. When used in a drill hole, it is not nec- 
essary to tamp it, as with powder, but just fill the hole with 
water, moist sand, or even dirt that is damp enough to pack 
and exclude the air. 

For ordinary field rocks of one or two tons weight, a one- 
inch hole, from six to eight inches deep, under charge of 
one-quarter to one-half pound, will generally be all that is 
required to break it enough for easy removal, and if the 
rock is a little soft or shakey, or has a seam through it, a 
cartridge or two underneath will do the work without drill- 
ing, and if you have use for such stone without breaking, 
no matter how solid they are, they can be thrown out whole 
without drilling. Run a bar under the middle of the rock 
and close up to it so that there shall be no cushion of mud 
between it and the charge, put in one or more cartridges, 
according to the size of the rock, run in the fuse, fill in with 
dirt, unless it be under water, and fire it, taking care to put 
a good distance between yourself and the charge, as the 
mud and small stone will fly from one hundred to four hun- 
dred feet. Nine times out of ten the desired work will be 
well, quickly, and cheaply done. 

Five or six years ago I was the only one in my vicinity 
who used dynamite, but now there are many who have 
found it useful in clearing mowing fields, or reclaiming 
rough pastures. At first I thought it necessary to drill al- 
most every rock that I wished to remove, but I have since 
done a great deal of blasting with no drilling, thus saving 
both time and labor. One cartridge will throw out a small 
stump if placed under the centre and close to the wood, 
while larger ones will require more, though one cartridge 
at a time will often do better than two or three at once. I 
had one boulder that lay buried about level with the surface 



140 

of the ground, and mostly under water, which I removed 
very easily with three cartridges tied "to a stick and pushed 
down beside it in a hole made with a bar; it was kicked 
out high and dry, more than a rod from its hole, although 
it weighed all of three tons. Another blast of six cartridges, 
or three pounds, threw out three tons or more of solid 
rock from one corner of a very large boulder, and scattered 
it in pieces of all sizes, for a distanee of a hundred feet or 
more, and throwing one piece of a ton in weight sixty feet 
from its hole. 

Dynamite is like many other things, " A good servant, 
but a poor master ;" it is altogether too quick tempered to 
be allowed to have its own way, and if you have to keep it 
on hand, store it away from house or barn, for, though it 
may be perfectly safe, if it should explode from any cause, 
you could probably get no insurance, even if you were left 
to try for it, and do not leave the caps where the children 
can find them to play with, as they explode with the noise 
of a rifle, and often do severe damage. 

One of my neighbor's little children got a cap one even- 
ing and a pair of scissors, and went under the table to in- 
vestigate its composition, by trying to dig out the fulmin- 
ate ; the result was a loud explosion, an extinguished lamp, 
a badly frightened family, and a burnt haud. The man of 
the house now keeps his explosives in an overturned barrel 
beside the pasture wall, and doesn't allow his children to 
play in that vicinity. 

If there is a good market for stone removed, and the land 
is more stony than stumpy, the sales will about pay for 
cost of clearing the land, and the improvement of the 
property will do very well for profit, and beside, there will 
be the constant pleasure of owning and daily viewing a 
smooth and productive field where once was a rough and 
almost valueless bit of pasture or scrub land ; and again, 
the annual returns from the reclaimed lot will be very ac- 
ceptable. 

Let the members of our grand old Essex County Agri- 



141 

cultural Society take hold of this work of reclaiming the 
odd corners of our farms with renewed vigor, using our 
odd time and surplus money, if we are fortunate enough to 
have any, in making improvements in our own surroundings 
and adding to our own incomes, rather than to speculate in 
outside matters, that the farmer had far better let alone. 



ESSAY ON ANNUALS AND THEIR CULTIVA- 
TION.— Part I. 

BY M. B. FAXON, OF SATJGUS. 

The success in the cultivation of any flower, fruit or 
vegetable is exactly in proportion to the care and labor 
bestowed upon the soil for the reception of the seed or 
plant. In the Fall, as soon as a few severe frosts have 
stripped my flower beds of their beauty, I clear the 
surface of the beds and thoroughly trench the soil to the 
depth of twelve inches ; eighteen inches would be better, 
but my soil does not average over twelve inches, before a 
gravelly subsoil is reached. The ground having been 
thoroughly loosened, well decomposed barn-yard manure 
is applied at the rate of from twenty to twenty-five cords 
per acre, and turned under one spade deep. Nothing 
more is done until spring, when the ground is again 
trenched as before, and a small quantity of some good 
chemical fertilizer is spread broadcast, and the surface of 
the beds is then raked smooth and fine, and the prepara- 
tion of the soil is complete. My largest flower bed is two 
hundred feet long by sixteen wide, and faces the south. 
At the back of the bed is a high board fence, which 
shelters the flowers from the north winds ; at the ends 
and front of the bed is an open lath fence, with gates at 
convenient distances, and every twenty feet are division 
fences six feet high to break the force of east and west 
winds. This ample protection from wind renders this 



142 

bed the best on the place, and I look to it for my best 
flowers ; and I wish to emphasize the desirableness of 
protection from wind for flower beds. 

For the past five or six years I have devoted myself 
almost wholly to the cultivation of asters, sweet peas, 
pansies and nasturtiums, and tried to grow them to some- 
thing like perfection ; and I believe that there is a future 
for these flowers that will far exceed the expectations of 
their most enthusiastic cultivators. Strictly speaking, 
pansies are not annuals, but as they are largely grown as 
such let us consider them as annuals. 

ASTERS. 

It is well to make two plantings of asters — the first 
about the first of March and the second the first of 
April, in the greenhouse, hot-bed, or window, in shallow 
boxes, and as soon as the plants are well up, prick them 
out into thumb pots. From this time until they are set 
in the open ground where they are to remain, the greatest 
care is necessary to keep them from becoming spindling. 
" Keep the plants as cool as possible, and still keep them 
growing," is my maxim, and if this is done, good stocky 
plants will be the result. About the first of May the 
plants should be set in the open ground in rows or beds 
as the cultivator may prefer, but in either case they 
should be set at least two feet apart. If the weather is 
dry when they are set they must be watered until they 
become thoroughly established. Cultivate often, keeping 
the soil loose and free from weeds until the buds begin to 
set, when all cultivation must cease. When the plants 
are about two-thirds grown they should be tied up to 
stakes ; otherwise if a heavy storm should come when 
they are in full bloom, the plants will be levelled to the 
ground, and the flowers covered with dirt and spoiled. 
A bed of asters is in its prime from eight to ten days, 
and a grander sight is seldom seen than during this time, 
especially before any of the flowers have been cut. Three 



143 

classes of asters practically include all those generally 
grown. These are, first Truffaut's Paeony-flowered Per- 
fection ; second, Victoria ; and third Pompon. The 
Pseony flowered and Victoria are large asters, the 
petals of the former incurving to the centre ; those of 
the latter outcurving to the edge. Pompon asters have 
small flowers about the size of a half dollar. The differ- 
ent classes include the following colors : Pseony-flowered 
— snow-white, rose, rose and white, dark rose and white, 
light carmine and white, carmine, crimson, dark crimson 
and white, purple violet, and violet. Victoria, — white, 
white tinted with rose, rose and white, carmine rose-* 
crimson and violet. Pompon, — white, white and carmin e 
rose, crimson, crimson and white, and violet. These 
include all the desirable colors of each class. 

SWEET PEAS. 

It may be a very broad statement to say, " That the 
Sweet Pea is the most desirable annual in cultivation," 
but I have never met anyone who wished to change the 
position in which the above statement places this most 
popular flower. Its delicate fragrance, beautiful form 
and variety of coloring, makes it a favorite with the 
florist, while its easy culture and long continuance of 
blooming, secures for it a place in every flower garden- 
Sweet Peas must be planted as earl}' in the spring as the 
ground can be worked. The seed should be sown in 
drills and covered at least six inches deep. This may be 
done in two ways. Having prepared the ground and 
made the drills the desired depth, drop the seed and draw 
into the drill earth enough to cover the seed two inches 
deep. As soon as the plants appear through this covering 
draw in two inches more of earth, and so on until the 
drill is filled even with the surface of the ground, or the 
seed may be dropped and covered in the usual manner. 
The surface of the ground sometimes becomes hard just 
as the young plants are about to appear, especially after a 



144 

shower followed by a hot sun, and unless some means are 
taken to prevent this, many of the young plants will not 
break through the soil, and no more will be seen of them 
than if the seed had not germinated at all ; and those 
annoying gaps will appear in the rows. A slight raking 
just as the plants are breaking ground will prevent this, 
and also kill any small weeds that may have been started. 
The only laborious task in the cultivation of sweet peas 
is bushing them, and bushed they must be almost as soon 
as they are well up. Birch brush, the same as is used for 
for tall growing eatable varieties, makes very good bush" 
ing. Wire hen netting makes excellent support, and is 
very neat. Whatever the vines are trained to must be 
firmly secured in position, as the vines when fully grown 
will surely be blown down unless strongly supported. 
It will be found an excellent plan to place the supports 
used in position before the peas are planted ; then sow a 
row of seed on each side of the support, which when the 
vines are grown will be entirely hidden from view, and a 
beautiful wall of flowers will be the result. From the 
time that your peas begin to bloom, the flowers must be 
picked every day, if you would have them last until 
frost ; for if allowed to remain, seed will begin to ripen 
and your peas to cease blooming. The following are 
standard varieties and should be in every collection : 

Painted Lady. A beautiful rose and white. 

Crown Princess of Prussia. A delicate light rose. 

Scarlet Invincible. Bright scarlet crimson. 

White. Pure white. 

Purple. Dark purple. 

Black Invincible. The darkest variety grown. 

The following sorts are of recent introduction, and have 
not yet been sufficiently tested to warrant placing them 
among standard varieties, although some of them are very 
promising : 

Princess Beatrice. Beautiful carmine rose, which it 
holds until frost ; an early and continuous bloomer, with 



145 

extra large petals. If this variety continues as good 
during the next few seasons, it will doubtless take the 
place of the Crown Princess of Prussia, which does not 
hold its color as well. 

Cardinal. A splendid, robust growing variety, produc- 
ing a great profusion of bright, shining, crimson scarlet 
ilowers, very distinct and handsome. 

Indigo King. The standard of this charming variety 
is a dark maroon purple, with clear indigo blue wings. 

Princess of Wales. A lovely variety, shaded and 
striped with mauve on a white ground in a most pleasing 
manner; the flowers are of great substance and perfect 
shape. 

Vesuvius. A new large-flowered variety ; very fragrant ; 
upper petals brilliant rose, shading to a deeper hue, and 
spotted carmine : lower petals violet shaded lilac. 

Bronze Prince. A magnificent var'ety with well- 
formed flowers ; the standard is of a rich, shining, bronzy 
maroon, and the wings deep bright purple. 

Lottie Eckford. This charming variety is in striking 
contrast to the preceding, the standard being white 
suffused with purple ; the wings are also white with a 
pretty edging of blue. 

Butterfly. Pure white ground, delicately laced with 
lavender blue. 

The above embrace the most desirable of the newer 
varieties, although only a few of them. Five new candi- 
dates for favor have been added to the list the past sea- 
son. They are : 

Duchess of Edinburgh. Standard, light scarlet, flushed 
with crimson, slightly marbled, or splashed at the edge 
with creamy white ; wings deep rose. 

Imperial Blue. Wings bright blue, slightly shaded 
with mauve ; the standard being rich purple crimson. 

Isa Eckford. Beautiful creamy white, heavily suffused 
with rosy pink. 

Orange Prince. The most distinct variety ever grown ; 

10 



146 

standard, bright orange pink, flushed with scarlet ; wings 
bright rose veined with pink. 

The Queen. A very beautiful and pleasing variety; 
the light rosy pink standard being in charming contrast 
to the wings which are light mauve. 

Before leaving this subject I would like to call your 
attention to what seems to me to be the " key note" of 
successful sweet pea culture which in nine seasons out of 
ten will give success. It is short and easily remembered, 
" Plant early and plant deep." 

THE PANSY. 

As we are about to discuss the cultivation of the Pansy 
as an annual, the first question that presents itself to our 
mind i s ^ — what strain of seed shall we plant ? and this 
question brings up another — what are the properties of a 
perfect flower ? Substance of petal is the most important 
point ; however perfect may be the form, however beauti- 
ful the color, or large the flower ; if it is weak and flimsy 
its beauty is destroyed. The petals must be thick and 
velvety, a condition which will enable the flowers to keep 
well after being gathered. 

The second point is form. The petals must be so dis- 
posed as to form almost a perfect circle, yet I think the 
two upper petals should be a little longer than the others, 
so as to just break the circle. The margin must be 
smooth and the petals perfectly flat, not turning up at the 
edges, which defect spoils a great many flowers otherwise 
perfect. The next requirement which demands our atten- 
tion relates to color ; whatever the color it should be 
clear and pure, with the eye large and distinct. Lastly 
comes size ; of course it is desirable to have good sized 
flowers, but size is the least important point of a good 
Pansy. I believe judges usually adopt the following scale 
of points ; form, four points ; substance, three ; color, 
two ; and size, one ; if I vrere to attempt to improve this 



147 

scale, I should say, give to substance four points or 
perhaps even five, and let us have some good, heavy, 
velvety Pansies. Referring to ray diary I find March 
10th has been the average date for planting pansy seed, 
and May 20th for setting the plants in the open ground. 
The young plants are treated in the same manner as the 
asters, and are transplanted into beds as soon as the 
ground becomes dry and warm. The beds are prepared 
for the reception of these plants as previously described ; 
except that thoroughly rotted cow manure, is the only 
manure used ; horse manure should be avoided. Set the 
plants two feet apart each way, and water thoroughly 
in dry weather. Almost as soon as the plants have 
become established in their new position, they will begin 
to bloom ; and, unless they are closely watched and all 
the buds are pinched off as they form, the plants will 
exhaust themselves in producing a few very inferior 
flowers, and grow very spindlingly. From the day that 
the plants are transplanted into the open ground the beds 
should be examined every morning ; every visible bud 
should be pinched off, and every long shoot shortened ; 
the object in view being to obtain large stocky plants full 
of vitality. If this matter is attended to regularly it will 
only take a few minutes each day ; but if neglected even 
for a day, and the day be a warm one, some of the plants 
will be sure to flower, which will weaken them and partly 
undo our previous work. If the plants are thus kept 
from flowering until cool weather and then allowed to 
bloom, the flowers will be of good substance and large 
size. I do not wish this to be taken as implying that I 
ever consider the size of the flowers in any different light 
than as mentioned in my scale of points ; but this keep- 
ing back process will make large and at the same time 
heavy and velvety flowers. After the first of September 
the flowers of almost all other annuals begin to grow 
poor, and the first frost practically ends their flowering. 
But the Pansy seems rather to improve than otherwise by 



148 

any frost that we usually have in September; and it is 
from the first of that month until into October that a bed 
of pansies grown as described is in its prime ; a time 
when flowers of all kinds are becoming scarce. Last Fall 
after every other flower in my garden had been spoiled 
by frost, my pansy bed remained for a month in full 
bloom and covered with the most beautiful flowers. 

THE TROP2EOLUM. 

Of this extensive genus, — including, with hardy annuals, 
also greenhouse and- herbaceous perennials, — three of the 
annual varieties chiefly attract our attention ; these are : — 

TropcEolum major (Tall Nasturtium). A well known 
running species, much used for covering trellises and rustic 
work. 

Tropceolum minor (Dwarf Nasturtium). A dwarf spe- 
cies, growing from one foot to fifteen inches in height, and 
one of the most useful flowers we have ; for its compact 
growth and rich colored blossoms renders it an excellent 
bedding plant. 

Tropceolum lobbianum. — A running species, which may 
be grown on a trellis, or as a dwarf if the ends of the vines 
are closely pinched off, otherwise it will cover unnecessary 
space. The flowers are smaller and more cup-shaped than 
those of the two preceding species, and are of very brilliant 
colors. As regards the culture of the Tropseolurn I have 
hardly anything to say, it is so easily grown. All that 
seems necessary is to plant the seed in good rich soil, see 
that the plants have plenty of room in which to grow, and 
keep the soil thoroughly stirred. 

( To be continued.') 



149 

ESSAY ON CRANBERRY CULTURE ON CAPE 

COD. 

BY O. 8. BtrTLER, OF GEORGETOWN. 

I have given my subject the above title from the fact 
that the information gained, and which I shall endeavor 
to communicate in regard to the cultivation of the cran- 
berry, was derived from frequent visits to the cranberry 
bogs of the cape, the last visit being made in 1886, at 
which time I visited, more than two hundred separate bogs, 
ranging in extent from one-third of an acre to one hun- 
dred and fifty acres. The largest one I saw was located 
in the town of Duxbury, Mass. This bog was owned and 
worked by a corporation, and when I was there they had 
a large force of men employed in enlarging their bogs. 

It may be of interest to know that the cultivation of 
the cranberry on Cape Cod commenced nearly fifty years 
ago. The first that we know of its cultivation was in the 
town of Harwich, by a man by the name of Hiram Hall, 
and this same town of Harwich still bears the palm among 
the cape towns both in the extent and value of the cran- 
berry culture and crop, and from the small beginnings of 
fifty } r ears ago up to the present time, the business has 
made a rapid growth, and at present stands at the head of 
all other industries on the cape. I have it from the best 
authority that the sale of cranberries has brought more 
money on the cape during the last forty years than all 
other home industries combined. One beautiful feature 
in regard to this great increase of revenue is that it is dis- 
tributed among all classes of the people. Almost even- 
poor man that owns a little homestead has his cranberry 
bog, although it may be very small, and it is a business 
that can be carried on by women and children, after the 
bogs have been prepared, just as well as by men. I found 
many a poor woman that received an annual income from 
a small cranberry bog of from one hundred to three hun- 
dred dollars, with but very little expense for hired labor. 



150 

And what has been clone on the cape can be done in Es- 
sex county. We have a large extent of meadow land 
that is nearly worthless now, that might be put under 
cultivation for the cranberry crop, and many of our old 
meadows give unmistakable evidence of their adaptation 
naturally for this crop, by constantly sending forth fine 
specimens of the natural vine and berry without the aid 
of cultivation. 

But our farmers will ask, what kind of land is best 
adapted to the cultivation of the cranberry ? We should 
answer by saying not the sandy shores of bays and gulfs 
or seas. Very many persons have supposed that the rea- 
son why the cape cranberries were so beautiful in form 
and color was because they were grown on the seashore 
among the salt sea sand. This theory is entirely errone- 
ous. The experiment has often been tried to grow the 
cranberry among the sands of the seashore, not only on 
Cape Cod but in our own county, on the sandy beaches 
of Plum Island, but without success. Dr. Mumford, who 
tried the experiment on Plum Island, succeeded, after 
several years of careful study and labor and quite an ex- 
pense, in raising six or seven perfect cranberries, and then 
abandoned the business altogether. 

Others have supposed that the cranberry could be cul- 
tivated successfully upon high lands especially if these 
lands had moist, springy surfaces, but we do not know of 
a successful experiment on these lands. The nearest 
approximation to success that has come under my own 
observation is that of the late Gorham Brackett, of Ips- 
wich, Mass. 

The best lands adapted to the cultivation of the cran- 
berry are the low swamp lands that abound not only on 
the cape but here in Essex county. Most of the cran- 
berry bogs of the cape are made on the bottoms of the old 
cedar swamps where they can be easily flowed with water 
at all seasons of the year. We have seen several very 
fine cranberry bogs on lands that could not be flowed 



i5i 

with water, but occasionally there will be an entire fail- 
ure of the crop either from insects or the late or early 
frosts, that might have been prevented by the flowage of 
water at the right time. 

The methods of flowage are various. The natural flow- 
age is the cheapest and best, if your bog is so situated 
that you can have your water under perfect control, so 
that you can let it on and off the bog at your discretion. 

Artificial flowage is more expensive, but is more easily 
controlled. Very many of the smaller bogs on the cape 
are flowed from a reservoir constructed in" the ground 
above the level of the bog, so that the water will flow on 
the bog from its own force when the gate is opened. 
These reservoirs are filled with water from wells dug for 
the purpose, the water being lifted by windmills, which 
are very common on the cape, more so than in any section 
of the country I have visited. 

The advantages of flowing the bogs with water are 
many, the first of which is the protection given to the 
young berries from the late spring frosts, and the mature 
berries from the eai'ly frosts in the fall. A very shallow 
surface of water will protect the berries entirely from the 
frost, and not unfrequently a flowage of one night, or two 
at most, will save the entire crop, worth perhaps thou- 
sands of dollars. 

Another advantage of flowing is the protection you can 
give to the berries from the ravages of the insects that 
prey upon them, sometimes destroying an entire crop 
after the fruit is fully grown. The principal one of these 
insects, and the one most destructive, is the miller or lly 
that deposits her eggs in the full grown berry by pene- 
trating the surface of the berry, and leaving the eggs to 
germinate a small worm that in a few days' time consumes 
the centre of the fruit, leaving the surface round and fair 
and of a dark rich purple color, but renders the fruit en- 
tirely worthless, and the only remedy for this evil is found 
in flowing the bogs for one or two days when the miller 



<52 

first makes her appearance, and then the danger is past 
for this insect makes but one visit a year. 

Another question of importance is, what kind of plants 
shall we set, and what berries shall we grow for profit ? 
There are two kinds of berries that are extensively grown 
on the cape. The bell berry is the best formed, the rich- 
est in color, and the finest in flavor, and will take the lead 
in any of the markets of the world, but it requires great 
care in its cultivation, and is not so prolific a bearer as 
some other kinds. The earty black berry is an excellent 
variety. It does not grow so large as the bell berry, and 
is not so well formed, but is a sure grower and a prolific 
cropper, and I should think it was cultivated more largely 
than any other variety on the cape. There are other 
varieties that have obtained favorable notoriety in some 
sections. 

The methods of preparing the lands are of very great 
importance. 

The swamps and bogs are cleared of all trees and 
stumps so that the surface can be made as level and 
smooth as a floor. This is usually done in the winter 
when the swamps are partially frozen, and when labor is 
much cheaper than at other seasons of the year. Then 
this surface is covered over with sand to the depth of 
twelve or eighteen inches. The kind of sand used de- 
pends on the means of obtaining it. If convenient and 
easy of access, the shore sand is preferable. Coarse sand 
is preferable to fine. Good coarse sand is often found in 
the hills near the bogs, which renders the cost of trans- 
porting it much less than when it has to be brought from 
the distant seashore. When the bog is fully prepared, 
then the surface is marked off in rows from twelve to 
eighteen inches apart ; the plants are then set in their 
places by the use of a sharp pointed stick, which is used 
to make the hole in the ground. The plants are then 
inserted and filled around with sand, and the work of 
planting is done. The plants are prepared for setting by 



*53 

passing through an old style hay cutter with the knife 
moving up and down, cutting the plants into the desired 
length, say about four to six inches long. After the 
plants are set (which is usually done in the spring of the 
year) they need to be thoroughly cultivated, and kept 
entirely clear from all weeds and grass, until the vines 
entirely cover the ground, which takes ordinarily from 
two to three years. After that, there is nothing more to 
do but gather your crop, unless you wish to increase your 
crop or raise your bog to the highest standard of produc- 
tiveness. If so, you will need to cover the .vines with 
sand about one inch deep as often as once in every five 
or six years. This will give new life to the plants, and 
greatly increase their productiveness. But I have seen 
several bogs that had not been dressed or cultivated for 
more than twenty-five years, that gave very abundant 
crops, but these bogs had an underhvyer of muck, more 
than ten feet deep and very rich. 

The cost of preparing these bogs varies in different 
localities according to the price of labor. On Cape Cod 
the cost of preparing their bogs is about two hundred 
dollars an acre. This includes the clearing of swamps, 
the covering it with sand and the setting of the plants. 
I have visited bogs that cost three hundred dollars an 
acre where the sand was brought from a distance, but 
these bogs usually pay for their cost in from three to five 
years. The more cautious of our farmers will ask, "where 
could we sell the berries if everybody went into the busi- 
ness? " We answer, there is no danger of everybod}^ going 
into the business at present, and then we should remem- 
ber that the markets of the world are open to' us. In 
many countries of the world the cranberry is entirely 
unknown. Ten years ago the cranberry was not known 
on the tables, even of the better classes, in the great city 
of London, as a table luxury, and then we are assured by 
the best medical authority, that the cranberry contains the 
best vegetable acid known to science, and as soon as some 



154 

enterprising American shall start the business of canning 
the cranberry in its crude natural state, a market will be 
opened up for this fruit in all the armies and navies of 
the world, and all the hospitals and asylums of the world 
will adopt their use. The demand for this fruit will in- 
crease with the supply, and when put up in a form to 
withstand the changes of climate and conditions, for an 
indefinite period of time, it can never become a drug in 
any market of the world, and where the average yield 
amounts to from two hundred to ten hundred dollars an 
acre, there must be a large margin of profit. 

In closing, I would repeat what I said at the beginning, 
that Essex county is as well adapted to the cranberry 
culture as Barnstable county, and we have thousands of 
acres of meadow and swamp lands that are almost entirely 
useless, that might be converted into cranberry bogs, and 
under proper cultivation become the most profitable lands 
on our farms. The town of Topsfield has a hundred acres 
of this land, Middleton has more than that, and there is 
hardly a town in the county that has not more or less of 
this almost useless land. 

We hope to see a more thorough investigation of this 
branch of agricultural industry in our own county, and 
would express the hope that the trustees of the Essex 
Agricultural Society may see their way clear to offer a 
large premium for the best cranberry bog that shall be 
made and cultivated during the next five years, said bog 
to consist of not less than one half acre. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON ESSAYS, 
REPORTS AND STATEMENTS. 

The Committee to whom was assigned the duty of award- 
ing premiums for Essays, Reports, and Statements, are glad 
to be able to say that the papers handed to them this year 
are unusually good, both as respects their contents and the 



155 

way in which the respective subjects are presented. The 
committee have no difficulty in awarding premiums for such 
essays as these, except the hesitation in discriminating be- 
tween papers so acceptable to the Society, and deserving, 
each of them, more than the committee are authorized to 
award. 

They have determined upon the following premiums : 

For Essays : 

First premium of $lo to Charles W. Mann, of Methuen, 
for essay on " Reclaiming Rocky Pastures." 

Second premium of $10 to M. B. Faxon, of Saugus, for 
essay on " Annuals and their Cultivation." This essay is 
incomplete, and is to be concluded next year, the award 
being made with this understanding. 

Third premium of $8 to 0. S. Butler, of Georgetown, for 
essay upon " Cranberry Culture on Cape Cod." 
For Reports : 

First premium of $10 to C. C. Blunt, of Andover, for 
report on Cranberries. 

Second premium of $8 to Francis H. Appleton, of Pea- 
body, for report upon Ornamental Trees. 

Third premium of $6 to J. J. H. Gregory, of Marble- 
head, fo*r report upon Agricultural Implements. 

The committee regret that they have not the means of 
awarding some compensation to Rufus Kimball, of Lynn, 
for his excellent report upon " Grain and Seed,'' and they 
would recommend that he be granted the sum of $6, as a 
complimentary award. 

In passing upon the merits of essays upon agricultural 
subjects the committee consider that the best papers are 
those which present the newest facts derived from personal 
experience and stated in a concise and perspicuous manner. 
They do not insist upon literary merit, but merely demand 
that the writer shall have something to say which is worth 
saying, and shall do it in an intelligible style. In this con- 
nection they call attention to Mr. Mann's essay upon 
methods of clearing up rocky pastures. This is a matter of 



>5<> 

considerable importance in Essex County, and Mr. Mann 
seems to have used some simple and ingenious mechanical 
devices which are well worth knowing about. His remarks 
upon the uses of dynamite are especially interesting, as this 
is a new agent for this purpose, and according to Mr. 
Mann's statement is at once cheap and efficient. 

The essay of Mr. Faxon upon the Cultivation of Annuals 
will interest farmers' wives and daughters, and contains 
specific information about the best methods of planting and 
growing, derived from a large and successful practice. 
The cultivation of flowers not only gratifies a taste for the 
beautiful but also for the useful, and of late years has be- 
come a source of profit to thousands of cultivators. Flori- 
culture is an established industry. 

Mr. Butler, in his essay on the cranberry, tells how this 
fruit is cultivated on Cape Cod, and urges that there are 
many localities in Essex county where it might be grown 
with equal advantage. The topic is recognized as one of 
general importance. We think it would be well for some 
one to gather information upon the point whether the cran- 
berry can be profitably grown upon our Essex county mead- 
ows as generally as is supposed. In some instances when 
tried in localities apparently suitable it has failed, and it 
would be well to know what are the precise limitations to 
its easy culture. 

The several reports are very good, and also most of those 
which the committee are unable to recognize for want of 
the necessary fuuds. 

Mr. Blunt discusses very intelligently the cranberry 
question. Mr. Appleton deals with a subject of growing 
interest and importance, that of ornamental and shade 
trees, which he discusses with familiar knowledge. Mr. 
Gregory, whose large practical experience is so well known, 
contributes a great deal of useful information concerning 
agricultural implements. And so of other reports in this 
number of the Transactions. There are many that deserve 
commendation, and the committee believe that the present 



157 

volume will be considered one of the best that has been 
issued. 

For the committee, 

Gilbert L. Stbeetee, Chairman. 
G. L. Streeter, Daniel E. Safford, Nathan M. Hawkes, 
David W. Low, — Committee. 



IN MEMORIAM. 



Seldom, if ever, has the Essex Agricultural Society been 
called to mourn the loss of any member whose services 
have been so closely connected with its success, so much 
respected and beloved, as that of Charles P. Preston, of 
Danvers, who died Oct. 27, 1887. He was elected secre- 
tary for twenty- rive successive years, and until his failing 
health compelled him to decline further service. The 
annual edition of the society's transactions, published 
under his careful supervision, has gained for him and the 
society an enviable reputation in the cause of Agriculture, 
second to no other in Massachusetts. He was a successful 
farmer, managing the farm of his father and grandfather 
before him, with much care, and keeping fully up with the 
progress of the age. His sound judgment and honesty of 
purpose was appreciated by the community, therefore, he 
was elected a member of the legislature, and of the board 
of County Commissioners ; was appointed a trustee of the 
Danvers Asylum when it was first established by legislative 
act, and in his public positions contributed to the public 
welfare much that his experience and practical knowledge 
enabled him to render as but few could. 

At a meeting of the Trustees of the Society, held at 
Salem, Nov. 14th, the following resolutions were unani- 
mously adopted : 



158 

Resolved: That, by the recent death of Charles P. Preston, the 
Essex Agricultural Society has lost one of its best friends, he having 
faithfully and efficiently served as its secretary for twenty-live suc- 
cessive years, and was at all times an able supporterjof^its best in- 
terests. Always prompt and honest in the performance of his duties 
as an officer of this Society, and as a citizen. A born farmer, he has 
made the cause of Agriculture an aid to progress. As a genial, 
social companion he was loved and respected by all of his associates. 

Resolved: That the Secretary furnish the family of the deceased 
with a copy of these resolutions, and that they be printed in the 
Transactions of the Society. 

Nathan W. Hazen, of Andover, died March 19, 1887, 
aged 87 years. " He was born in Bridgeton, Maine. Ad- 
mitted to the Massachusetts Bar in 1829, discontinued 
practice in 1865, and was its oldest member in years, at 
death. He served in the Massachusetts Senate in 1856, 
and for several years as President of the Merrimac Mutual 
Fire Insurance Company. He was a man of quiet benevo- 
lence, a loyal friend and a good neighbor." He served 
this Society on the " Committee on Essays and Farm Ac- 
counts," in 1852, he then being a member. 

George Gutterson, of Andover, died April 16, 1887. 
" He was a very worthy citizen, and took a great interest 
in this Society, serving in 1878, when he first became a 
member, on the " Committee on Small Fruits." He was a 
very successful small fruit grower, and was authority on 
strawberry culture. 

Eichard P. Waters, of Beverly, died May 19, 1887, 
aged almost 80 years. He was the first United States 
Consul at Zanzibar, Coast of Africa, and remained there 
more than ten years. He purchased Cherry Hill Farm, in 
Beverly, in 1846, when he became a member of this Society, 
and greatly interested in its work, active on its committees, 
and served as Trustee nine years, 1848-1856. 

John Pickett, of Beverly, died Dec. 3, 1887, aged 80 
years. He represented his town two years in the Legis- 
lature, and was a Selectman four years, and Assessor as 
long ago as 1838. He was actively engaged in business up 
to the day of his death. He joined the Society this year. 



159 

Warren Ordway, of Bradford, aged 77 years, died May 
10, 1887. He was born in West Newbury, May 19, 1810, 
and learned the trade of carriage maker, but pursued it a 
brief time. In 1836 he moved to Bradford, and entered 
into business in Haverhill, where, as a business man, he 
took high rank, and retired with success, in 1877. He was 
an officer in banks in that vicinity, and in 1860 represented 
the town of Bradford in the legislature, and has served the 
town on its school committee. When the Bradford Far- 
mers' Club was organized he was its first president, and 
one of its most active supporters. 

He was Trustee of this Society in 1856 and 1866, and 
from 1869 to 1872 inclusive, and was one of its Vice Presi- 
dents in 1875 and 1876. In agriculture he took a lively 
interest, which was a growing feeling with his advancing 
years, and as a citizen he was energetic, public-spirited, and 
progressive. In July, 1881, Mr. and Mrs. Ordway cele- 
brated their 50th wedding (" golden ") anniversary. His 
widow, with three of seven children, survive him. 

John C. Phillips, of Boston, "died March 1, 1884 (his 
death not heretofore noticed). He was a graduate of Har- 
vard College in 1858, and for many years an active mer- 
chant in New York. In 1878 he bought a large tract of 
land on the shores of Wenham Lake, and afterwards made 
it his summer home, planting many thousand trees, native 
and foreign. He was much interested in farming, and in a 
short time the barren pastures were made to yield good 
crops of grain. He took great pride in his stock, and 
several times sent cows and other animals to the county 
fair." He became a member in 1880. 

George Faxon, of Dan vers, died April 18, 1887, aged 
48. He was engaged in the shoe business at different 
times in Danvers, Lynn and New York. At the time of 
death he was a travelling salesman of canned goods. He 
became a member in 1875. 

Joshua Silvester, of Danvers, died July 29, 1887, 
aged 84 years, 21 days. Born in Wiscasset, Me., in 1803, 



i6o 

he moved with his parents to Andover, Mass., in 1806, 
and grew to manhood working at farming and shoe mak- 
ing until 25 years of age, when he became a shoe manu- 
facturer and was connected with the shoe business until 
1867, when he retired. He went to England several 
times and there became acquainted with George Peabody, 
Esq., and was afterwards named by him as a life trustee 
of the Peabody Institute. " The Danvers Mirror," after 
a long notice of his death, says, " Many have died richer, 
but none more thoroughly respected. No man will be 
more missed and none will be longer remembered. His 
monument is everywhere where the numberless trees 
which he was instrumental in setting out are growing 
yearly more and more beautiful. In them he has left a 
precious legacy to us and future generations which no 
money can buy. It was the great pleasure of his declin- 
ing years to have seen the development of these noble 
trees from the bare sticks which he had placed in the 
ground.'' He joined the Society more than thirty years 
ago. 

Charles P. Preston, of Danvers, whose death has 
been previously noticed at the head of this memoriam, 
became a member in 1819, serving -on committees after- 
wards. Elected trustee in 1856, and serving four years 
until elected Secretary, which position he filled for a 
quarter of a century. 

John Atkinson, of Gloucester, died Feb. 21, 1887, 
aged 83 yrs., 9 mos., 8 days. He was a wheelwright by 
trade ; of business integrity and exemplary character, 
possessing such a disposition as made him a favorite Avith 
all who knew him. He was a member of the Cape Ann 
Horticultural Society from its organization, and was 
interested in small fruit culture. He became a member 
of this society in 1872. 

Epes W. Merchant, of Gloucester, died June 14, 
1887, aged 83 years, 24 days. " In his early life he fol- 
lowed the fisheries, which he left on arriving of age to 



i6i 

engage in the fishing business with his father, and for 
many years the firm of Epes Merchant & Son was one of 
the best known establishments of the old town. Mr. 
Merchant was a director in the Gloucester National Bank 
for thirty-eight and one-half years and President from 
1871 to time of death. He was connected with the 
Cape Ann Savings Bank for many years as Trustee, was 
one of the incorporators and President of Oak Grove 
Cemetery Association from 1855 ; director of the 
Gloucester Fishermen's and Seamen's Widows' and 
Orphans' Association ; and served upon the Town Hall 
building committee in 1869, and a member of the Board 
of Aldermen in 1874. He also served as captain under 
the old militia law. He was a man of methodical habits, 
conservative views, of generous instincts and unimpeach- 
able integrity." He became a member in 1872. 

Moody S. Dole, of Georgetown, who died March 10, 
1887, was twenty-five years ago an active member of 
this society and was noted for his skill as a ploughman, 
taking premiums for a number of years. He became a 
member in 1855. 

Samuel Hunt, of Ipswich, died March 9, 1887, aged 
73 years. He was an overseer in the Hosiery Mills in 
that town and joined this society about fifteen years ago. 

Nathan W. Harmon, of Lawrence, died Sept. 16, 
1887, aged 74 years, 8 months. He served this Society 
in 1851 on Committee of Essays and Reports and as 
Trustee in 1852, '53 and '54. He became a member in 
1849. He was always interested in the public schools of 
his city. Served one term as Senator in the General 
Court. Was Assistant Assessor of Internal Revenue, 
and for the last ten years of his life Judge of the Police 
Court in Lawrence. 

Henry A. Breed, perhaps the oldest member of the 

Essex Agricultural Society, was born in 1798 and died in 

1887. He was engaged in many enterprises, including 

the great " Eastern Land Speculation," by which he lost 

n 



162 

1200,000, and in the building of stores, plank walks, 
wharves and canals in the early days of the California 
gold excitement, being one of the early operators in that 
State. He was one of the original members of the Mass. 
Horticultural Society, of which he was almost the sole 
survivor at the time of his decease. He was a man of 
remarkable health and vigor, and presided at the meeting 
of the Lynn members of the Society at the election of a 
Trustee in 1886." 

Edward S. Davis, of Lynn, who died in Lynn during 
the past year, "was born in the same place June 22, 1808 
He was long a member of the Essex Agricultural Society, 
joining it in 1836 and serving for many years, afterwards on 
its committees, and taking a lively interest in its proceed 
ings. He was a member of the House of Representa- 
tives in 1839, President of the Common Council in 1852, 
'53, '56 and '57, and Mayor of the city in 1859 and 1860. 
During a long period he held important official positions 
in St. Stephens (Episcopal) church in Lynn, and did 
more than any other person in the establishment and 
maintenance of that organization. Mr. Davis was a gen- 
tleman universally respected for his sterling qualities." 

John Nutting, of Marblehead, died Dec. 6, 1887, aged 
63 years. He became a member in 1860. He was a grad- 
uate of the State Normal School at Bridgewater and for 
ten years was principal of the Story Grammar school in 
Marblehead, beginning about 1852, and was a kind and 
faithful teacher. In 1869, Mr. Nutting served as Secre- 
tary of Board of Selectmen, during illness of Town 
Clerk, and has filled other positions of trust. For thirty- 
five years he was a member of the North Street church 
choir. He had an illness lasting over eleven years, during 
which, motion, sight, hearing, speech, one after the other 
became impaired until life became a blank. He was a 
shoe manufacturer at the time he was stricken with 
disease. 



163 

Wm. F. Goodrich, of Newbury, died April 27, 1887, at 
the age of 54. He was both farmer and trader in early 
life. Twenty or more years ago he purchased the Moody 
Farm, so called, near the Byfield Factory, and there lived 
and died. He joined this Society in 1865. 

Isaac H. Boardman, of Newburyport, died July 10, 
1887, age 77 years, was one of her wealthiest and most 
honored citizens. Early fatherless, he was called to the 
active duties of life in his very boyhood to assist a widowed 
mother in the support of her family ; and once in the battle 
of this busy world, he has been unremitting in its duties, 
cares and labors, till the conflict is now ended. For forty 
years he was interested in the fisheries, especially the 
Labrador Cod fishery, sending the last one in 1880, having 
declined from seventy sail to that one. As the fisheries 
receded he became interested in freighting ships, chiefly 
cotton carriers, for which Newburyport was famous. Thus 
he passed from the smaller to the greater in his enterprises 
as he did in his personal influence, character and the 
esteem of his fellow men. 

He was an officer of the town, and when a city served it 
in 1851 and 1852 in its councils; in 1853 as an aldermen, 
and in 1863 as Mayor, declining re-election. He served in 
the Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1842, 1844 
and 1852, and in the Senate in 1855, and held important 
offices in prominent financial and charitable institutions 
and was very patriotic in his feelings toward his town, his 
state and his country. 

Charles Dole, of Rowley, who became a member in 
1871, died during the past year. 

Volney C. Stowe died in Salem, Oct. 26, 1887, from 
heart disease, at the age of 74 years. He was well known 
in Salem from his long connection with the bakery busi- 
ness, and the service rendered as a member of the city 
government. Mr. Stowe was a member of the Common 
Council in 1848, '54, '55, '57, '70, '71 and '72, and of the 
Board of Aldermen in '75 and '76. He was also an over- 
seer of the Poor and in the Fire Department. 



164 

He was an active, useful and efficient citizen. Of late 
years he has been retired and lived quietly at his home on 
Essex street. He received a premium from this society as 
long ago as 1851 for Milch Cow. 

T. O. W. Houghton, of Saugus, died Feb. 15, 1887, aged 
52 years. He was employed for many years in a snuff 
factory. He was interested in the keeping of a herd of 
Milch Cows for a milk dairy. He served one year as 
a Trustee of this society. 

Ben : Perley Poore, of West Newbury. Born in 1820, 
died May 29, 1887. He joined our society in 1848. De- 
livered its annual address in 1856, and in 1858 was one of 
its trustees. 

He was always an active industrious worker for the best 
interests of this society, and always took a lively interest 
in its agricultural, literary and social success, as his fre- 
quent and successful exhibits on his farm (at Indian Hill 
which his ancestor bought in 1650 by lawful purchase from 
" Great Tom Indian") and at our Cattle Shows and Fairs, 
and his valuable essays, statements and reports published 
in our transactions, and his cheery face and voice, in his 
witty, entertaining and instructive speeches at many of our 
annual dinners, can all testify. 

Major Poore was of patriotic and military ancestry, and 
with such blood tingling in his veins, no wonder that from 
boyhood to age he was full of military ardor ; his martial 
and scholarly elements alternated in him, or blended har- 
moniously in patriotic literary labor, when his telegrams 
were as effective as bullets on the battlefield. His pen was 
certainly mightier than the sword. His services also to his 
country, state and county, in literary works, have been 
invaluable. 

His pet grove of forest trees gained from the Massachu- 
setts society for the Promotion of Agriculture a premium of 
$1000, which had been offered for the best growth of forest 
trees within ten years from tbe time of planting. It con- 
sists of twenty acres of oak, chestnut, hickory, locust, fir, 
and pine. Every tree was planted with his own hand. 



i6s 

With exception of Mr. Preston, no member has rendered 
such valuable service to this society as Major Poore or will 
be missed more at our annual gatherings. 

S. BROCKLEBANK, # of Rumney, N. H., your committee 
was informed, died during the past year. He appeared 
on the list of members in Georgetown in 1855. 

Wilson Flagg, of Cambridge, another non-resident mem- 
ber, the committee were informed was dead. 

It will be seen that the larger part of the members who 
have gone from us the past year have been men far ad- 
vanced in life, and have held important positions which 
they filled with honor and credit. 

This Society tenders to the relatives and friends of its 
deceased members their sympathy with them in our mutual 
loss. 

Benjamin P. Ware, David W. Low — Committee. 



1 66 






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List of Premiums Awarded in 1887. 



FAT CATTLE. 

Henry Gardner, Peabody, for oxen, first premium, $10 00 
B. H. Farnum, North Andover, for oxen, second pre- 
mium, 8 00 
Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for fat cow, first premium, 8 00 

BULLS. 

John Swinerton, Danvers, for Ayrshire bull, -first 

premium, 10 00 

D. A. Massey, Danvers, for Ayrshire bull, second 

premium, o 00 

Isaac C. Wyman, Salem, for Jersey bull, first pre- 
mium, 10 00 

John J. Gould, Ipswich, for Jersey bull calf, first 

premium, 2 00 

Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for Holstein bull, first 

premium, 10 00 

Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for yearling Holstein 

bull, first premium, 5 00 

Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for Holstein bull calf, 

first premium, 2 00 

milch cows. 

Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for best Milch cow, first 

premium, 15 00 

Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for Milch cow, first pre- 
mium, 10 00 

Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for Milch cow, second 

premium, 4 00 

Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for Milch cow, first pre- 
mium, 10 00 

Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for Milch cow, second 

premium, 4 00 

HERD OF MILCH COWS. 

Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for Herd of Milch cows, 

first premium, 18 00 



1 68 



HEIFERS FIRST CLASS. 

Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for Holstein Milch heifef, 
first premium, 

Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for Holstein Milch heifer, 
second premium, 

Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for Holstein heifer, first 
premium, 

Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for Holstein heifer, sec- 
ond premium. 

Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for Holstein yearling, 
first premium, 

Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for Holstein calf, first 
premium, 

Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for Holstein calf, second 
premium, 

D. A. Massey, Dan vers, for Ayrshire heifer, first pre- 
mium, 

D. A. Massey, Danvers, for Ayrshire calf, first pre- 
mium, 

D. A. Massey, Danvers, for Ayrshire calf, second pre- 
mium, 

W. S. Dickson, Salem, for Jersey calf, first premium, 

HEIFERS SECOND CLASS. 

James P. Codey, Peabody, for Milch Grade Jersey, 

first premium, 10 00 

Timothy O'Keefe, Peabody, for Milch Grade Jersey 

and Ayrshire, second premium, 4 00 

John Barker, North Andover, for 2 year old Grade 

Holsteins, first premium. 4 00 

J. A. Jones, Lynn, for 2 year old Jersey and Ayr- 
shire, second premium, 3 00 

Daniel G. Tenney, Newbury, for one year old Grade 

Jersey, first premium, 4 00 

City Farm, Salem, for one year old Grade Holstein, 

second premium, 3 00 

Jenkin M. Emerson, Middleton, for heifer calf, first 
premium, 

Stephen Blaney, Peabody, for twin calf, second pre- 
mium, 



10 00 


4 00 


4 00 


3 00 


4 00 


4 00 


3 00 


10 00 


4 00 


3 00 


4 00 



4 00 
3 00 



12 


00 


10 


00 


8 


00 


10 


00 



169 

Working oxen and steers. 

Lyman Wilkins, Middleton, for working oxen, first 
premium, 

George P. Wilkins, Middleton, for working oxen, sec- 
ond premium, 

Win, P. Christopher, Middleton, for working oxen, 
third premium, 

B. H, Parnuin, North Andover, for working steers, 

TOWN TEAMS. 

Middleton town team, first premium, 20 00 

STEERS. 

B. W. Parnum, North Andover, for steer calves, first 

premium, 4 00 

STALLIONS—FIRST CLASS. 

H. H. Hale, Bradford, for 4 year old Percheron stal- 
lion, first premium, 10 00 

John Parkhurst, Boxford, for 3 year old Grade Per- 
cheron stallion, first premium, 8 00 

STALLIONS—SECOND CLASS. 

John P. Conant, Wenham, for 4 year old stallion for 

driving horses, first premium, 10 00 

John Plye, Saugus, for 8 year old stallion, second 

premium, 6 00 

John Looney, Salem, for 4 year old stallion, gratuity, 8 00 

BROOD MARES. 

Abbott & Reynolds, Salem, for mare and foal, first 

premium, 10 00 

Michael Looney, Salem, for mare and foal, second 

premium, 6 00 

Edwin Bates, Lynn, for mare and foal, third premium, 4 00 

GENTLEMEN'S DRIVING HORSES. 

H. H. Hale, Bradford, for black mare, first premium, 10 00 
Dr. W. A. Gorton, Danvers, for bay mare, second pre- 
mium, 6 00 
D. J. Tenney, Newbury, for chestnut gelding, 4 00 



10 00 


8 00 


4 00 


12 00 


8 00 


4 00 



170 

FARM HORSES. 

F. 0. Kimball, Dauvers, farm horse, first premium, 
M. H. Poor, West. Newbury, farm horse, second pre- 
mium, 

B. H. Farnum, No. Andover, farm horse, third pre- 

mium, 

PAIRS OF FARM HORSES. 

A. F. Lee, Beverly, first premium, 

Peter Holt, Jr., North Andover, second premium, 

C. N. Maguire, Newbury port, third premium, 

DRAFT COLTS FIRST CLASS. 

H. H. Hale, Bradford, first premium, 10 00 

COLTS FOR DRAFT — SECOND CLASS. 

James Kinnear, Ipswich, 2 year old colt, first pre- 
mium, 10 00 

James J. Abbott, Andover, 2 year old colt, second 

premium, 6 00 

COLTS FOR GENERAL PURPOSES — FIRST CLASS. 

Eben S. Keyes, Rowley, for 4 year old colt, first pre- 
mium, 

0. A. Blackinton, Rowley, for 4 year old colt, second 
premium, 

Daniel G. Tenney, Newbury, for 4 year old colt, third 
premium, 

L. S. Morrison, Danvers, for 3 year old colt, first pre- 
mium, 

Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for 3 year old colt, sec- 
ond premium, 

COLTS FOR GENERAL PURPOSES — SECOND CLASS. 

H. H. Hale, Bradford, for two year old colt, first 
premium, 

Edwin Bates, Lynn, for two year old colt, second pre- 
mium, 

Charles Sanders, Salem, for yearling stallion, first 
premium, 

D. G. Tenney, Newbury, for yearling colt, second 

premium, 



10 00 


6 00 


4 00 


8 00 


5 00 


6 00 


4 00 


6 00 


4 00 



17* 

SWINE — FIRST CLASS. 

Elizabeth Saunders, W. Peabody, for breeding sow, 

second premium, 5 00 

Eobert G. Buxton, Peabody, for Chester White 

breeding sow, second premium, 5 00 

Samuel P. Buxton, Peabody, for Yorkshire breeding 

sow, 5 00 

SWINE SECOND CLASS. 

Munroe Brothers, Lynnfield, for Yorkshire boar, first 

premium, 
Robert G-. Buxton, Peabody, for Yorkshire sow, first 

premium, 
Robert G. Buxton, Peabody, for Yorkshire breeding 

sow, second premium, 

SHEEP. 

R. S. Brown, Peabody, for Shropshire buck, 

PLOUGHING WITH DOUBLE TEAM. 

B. H. Farnum, North Andover, first premium, 

PLOUGHING WITH SINGLE TEAM. 

Washington Winslow, Hamilton, with one yoke oxenj 

first premium, 10 00 

PLOUGHING WITH HORSES. 

Moses H. Poor, West Newbury, first premium, 10 00 

W. M. Bent, Danvers, second premium, 7 00 

Edwin A. Durkee, Peabody, third premium, 5 00 

PLOUGHING WITn SWIVEL PLOUGH. 

Solomon W. Weston, Middleton, with one pair oxen, 

first premium, 12 00 

Wilkins & Christopher, Middleton, with one pair 

oxen, second premium, 10 00 

Jonas Rollins, Danvers, with one pair horses, first 

premium, 10 00 

James C. Poor, North Andover, with one pair horses, 

second premium, 6 00 



8 


00 


8 


00 


o 


00 


8 


00 


2 


00 



172 

PLOUGHING WITH SULKY PLOUGH. 

Francis 0. Kimball, Danvers, with National Reversi- 
ble plough, first premium, 10 00 

J. E. Page, Salem, with Cassidy plough, second pre- 
mium, 8 00 

IMPROVING WET MEADOW AND SWAMP LANDS. 

Luther P. Tidd, Georgetown, first premium, 15 00 

IMPROVING PASTURE AND WASTE LANDS. 

Charles W. Mann, Methuen, second premium, 10 00 

UNDERDRAWING LAND. 

Charles W. Mann, Methueu, first premium, 15 00 

GRAIN CROPS. 

R. Frank Dodge, Wenham, corn crop, first premium, 10 00 

ROOT CROPS. 

Robert Frank Dodge, Wenham. potato crop, first pre- 
mium, 

John H. George, Methuen, onion crop, first premium, 

Charles W. Mann, Methuen, cabbage crop, first pre- 
mium, 

David Warren, Swampscott, squash crop, first pre- 
mium, 

James P. King, Peabody, ruta baga turnip crop, first 
premium, 

POREST TREES. 

George L. Hawkes, Lynnfield, ornamental trees, first 

premium, 10 00 

CRANBERRIES. 

James P. Butterfield, Andover, cultivating cranber- 
ries, first premium, 15 00 

STRAWBERRIES AND OTHER SMALL FRUITS. 

George J. Peirce, West Newbury, strawberry crop, 

first premium, 10 00 

George J. Peirce, West Newbury, raspberry crop, 

first premium, 10 00 



10 00 


10 


00 


10 


00 


10 


00 


10 00 



173 

NEW MEMBERS. 

John Meacom, Beverly, most new members, premium, 6 00 

ESSAYS AND RErORTS. 

Charles W. Mann, Metkuerf, essay on " Renovating 

Pastures," first premium, 15 00 

M. B. Faxon, Saugus, essay, " Annuals and their 

Cultivation," second premium, 10 00 

O. S. Butler, Georgetown, essay, "Cranberry Cul- 
ture on Cape Cod," third premium, 8 00 

Charles C. Blunt, Andover, report on cranberries, 

first premium, 10 00 

Francis H. Appleton, Peabody, report on ornamental 

trees, second premium, 8 00 

J. J. H. Gregory, Marblehead, report on agricultural 

implements, third premium, 6 00 

MASSACHUSETTS AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE SCHOLARSHIP. 

George E. Newman, Newbury, last yearly payment 

of 1884 award, 25 00 

OTHER AWARDS. 

Awarded by Committee on Poultry, 44 00 

" " " " Agricultural Implements, 27 00 

" " " " Carriages, 80 00 

" " " « Dairy, 24 00 

" " " " Bread, Honey, etc., 27 50 

«• " " " Pears,* 85 00 

" " " " Apples, 76 50 

" " " " Peaches, Grapes, etc.,t 65 50 

" " " « Flowers, 43 25 
" " " " Vegetables, t 158 00 

" « " Grain and Seed, 31 00 
" " " " Counterpanes and Afghans, 31 00 

" " " " Carpets and Bugs, 27 50 
" " " " Articles manuf.from Leather,27 00 
" " " " Manufact's and Gen'l Mdse., 2 50 
" " « " Fancy Work and Art Work, 49 25 

" " " Children's Work, 13 50 



$1629 50 

Corrections. — *$l Gratuity to John T. Pickering, Salem, for Duch- 
ess Pears, and $1 Gratuity to P. W. Murphy, Salem, for Louise Bon 
Pears, were omitted on Committee's report. t$4, first premium, to 
A. J. Hubbard, Peabody, for basket of Assorted Fruit, omitted on 
Committee's report, and $1 Gratuity to Mrs. G P. Osborne, Peabody, 
instead of f>0 cents as printed on page fiO. 1$3, first premium, to 
Philip Bushby, Peabody, for purple top flat turnip, omitted on page 
65. 



RECAPITULATION. 





FARMS. 








Awarded foi 


Ploughing, 


$100 00 




a « 


Reclaiming Swamp Land, 


15 


00 




ii u 


Improving Pasture Land, 


10 


00 




a ii 


Underdraining Land, 


15 


00 




ii ii 


Ornamental Trees, 


10 


00 




ii 11 


Cranberries, 

FARM STOCK. 


15 


00 
^ $165 


00 


Awarded for Fat Cattle, 


$26 


00 




U ii 


Bulls, 


44 


00 




ii ii 


Milch Cows, 


61 


00 




ii ii 


Heifers, 


63 


00 




ii ii 


Heifer Calves, 


25 


00 




a a 


Working Oxen and Steers, 


40 


00 




a a 


Town Team of Oxen, 


20 


00 




a a 


Steers, 


4 


00 




a a 


Horses, 


128 


00 




it a 


Colts, 


79 


00 




a a 


Swine, 


36 


00 




a a 


Sheep, 


8 


00 




U i'i 


Poultry, 


44 


00 

$578 


00 




FARM PRODUCTS. 








Awarded for Grain Crops, 


$10 00 




a a 


Root Crops, 


50 


00 




a a 


Fruit Crops, 


20 


00 




tt a 


Fruits, 


227 


00 




u a 


Dairy, 


24 


00 




a a 


Bread, Honey, etc., 


27 


50 




a a 


Flowers, 


43 


25 




a a 


Vegetables, 


158 


00 




a a 


Grain and Seed, 


31 


00 

$590 


75 



MISCELLANEOUS, 

Awarded for Agricultural Implements, $27 00 

" " " Essays and Reports, 57 00 

" " " College Scholarship, 25 00 

" " obtaining new members, 6 00 

" " Domestic Manufactures, 150 75 

" " Carriages, 30 00 

$295 75 



Total amount awarded in 1887, $1629 50 



175 

Awarded among the towns and cities in the county as fol- 
lows, viz. : Amesbury, $24.50; Andover, $32.00; Beverly, 
$27.00; Boxford, $21.00; Bradford, $39.00; Danvers, $169.- 
25; Essex, $22.00; Georgetown, $26.00; Groveland, $9.00; 
Hamilton, $23.00; Haverhill, $10.50; Ipswich, $14.00; 
Lynn, $49.00; Lynnrield, $21.00; Lawrence, $123.00; Man- 
chester, $3.50 ; Marblehead, $36.00 ; Methuen, $83.50 ; Mid- 
dleton, $89.75; Newbury, $93.00; Newburyport, $6.50; 
North Andover, $68.00 ; Peabody, $350.75 ; Rowley, $38.50 ; 
Salem, $109.75; Salisbury, $2.00; Saugus, $18.50; Swamps- 
cott, $25.50; Topsfield, $3.00; Wenham, $34.50; West New- 
bury, $56.50. Thirty-one in number, to 367 different indi- 
viduals. All the towns and cities in the county received 
awards except Merrimac, Nahant, Kockport and Gloucester. 

Correction. — Page 17, Swine, First Class, should be $15 instead of 
$18. Page 18, Total award on Grounds, $735 instead of $738. Exhibits 
in hall, Dairy $24 instead of $22. Bread, Honey and Preserves, $27.50 
instead of §27.00, and Pears $85.00 instead of $83.50, and Total in Ex- 
hibition Hall $661.50 instead of $657.50. Grand Total award on Fail- 
Grounds and in Exhibition Hall, $1396.50. 



FINANCIAL RESULTS OF CATTLE SHOW AND FAIR 
AT PEABODY IN 188 7. 

Total receipts (including $130 in donations), $1,7 T2 86 

Total expenses (exclusive of awards), l,2l5 86 



Net Receipts, $557 00 

Note. The net receipts is all that will appear in Treasurer's report 
for 1888. The net results of any Fair is all that is accounted for by 
the Treasurer. 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY 

FOB 1887-8. 



PRESIDENT, 

BENJAMIN P. WARE, of Marblehead. 



VICE PRESIDENTS, 

GEORGE B. LORING, of Salem. 
JAMES J. H. GREGORY, of Marblehead. 
THOS. C. THURLOW, of West Newbury. 
JAMES P. KING, of Peabody. 



SECRETARY, 

DAVID W. LOW, of Gloucester. 



TREASURER, 

GILBERT L. STREETER, of Salem. 



HONORARY TRUSTEE, 

JOSEPH HOW, of Methuen. 



TRUSTEES, 

Charles C. Blunt, Andover. John Baker, Manchester. 
B. F. Huntington,Amesbuiy.Charles W. Mann, Methuen. 
John Meacom, Beverly. James D. Pike, Merrimac. 

Benj. S. Barnes, Boxford. David Stiles, Middleton. 
William Hilton, Bradford. Wm. R. Johnson,Newburyp't. 
Charles H. Gould, Danvers. Wm. Little, Newbury. 
Aaron Low, Essex. James C. Poor, No. Andover. 

Sherman Nelson, Georget'wn. Francis H.Appleton,Peab'dy. 
Alonzo F. Harvey, Gloucest'r.Andrew Lane, Rockport. 
N. Longfellow, Groveland. Thomas P. Hale, Rowley. 



177 

Geo. E. F. Dane, Hamilton. Henry A. Hale, Salem. 
Richard Webster, Haverhill. Samuel Hawkes, Saugus. 
Alden Story, Ipswich. John Q. Evans, Salisbury. 

Asa M. Bod well, Lawrence. David Warren, Swampscott. 
John L. Shorey, Lynn. Baxter P. Pike, Topsfield. 

John M. Danforth,Lynnfield.Zachariah Cole, Wenham. 
Reuben Alley, Marblehead. E. G. Nason, W. Newbury. 



54— NEW MEMBERS— 1887. 

Samuel H. Bailey, Andover. Geo. P. Wilkins, Middleton. 
Geo. W. Buchan, Andover. D. T. Rowe, Newburyport. 
JamesP.Butterfield,Andov*r.Chas.S.Bartlett, Newburyp't. 
Albert G. Bennett, Beverly. Wra. F. Wiley, Peabody. 
John T. Elliot, Beverly. Charles E. Hoag, Peabody. 
Wm. B. Foster, Beverly. Cyrus T.Batchelder,Peab'dy. 
John W. Lovett, Beverly. Alonzo Raddin, Peabody. 
Charles Pickett, Beverly. Orville B.Chadwiek,Peab'dy. 
John Pickett, Beverly. Nicholas M. Quint, Peabody. 

Jasper F. Pope, Beverly. Edward P. Barrett,Peabody. 
Jesse G. Trask, Beverly. Simon P. Buxton, Peabody. 
Peter Clark, Beverly. Andrew J. Hayes, Peabody. 

Mrs. J. C. Phillips, Beverly. Amos Merrill, Peabody. 
John D. Kingsbury ,Bradford.R. S. Brown, Peabody. 
George S. Perry, Danvers. James F. Codey, Peabody. 
William P. Perkins,Danvers. William E. Osgood, Peabody. 
Francis O. Kimball, Danvers. Horace P. Whipple, Peabody. 
L. S. Morrison, Danvers. Eben S. Ke\'es, Rowley. 
David E. Perley, Georget'wn. Daniel S. Gott, Rockport. 
Luther P. Tidd,Georgetown. Solomon Smith, Rockport. 
Ira D. Rogers, Lynn. Hiram Littlefield, Salisbury. 

Harry W. Monroe, Lynnfield.Elizabeth Saunders, Salem. 
Wilbur J. Monroe,Lynufield. Isaac C. Wyman, Salem. 
Geo. M. Round} r , Lynnfield. Everett K. Day, Wenham. 
John Baker, Manchester. John P. Conanl. Wenham. 
Wm. M. Rogers, Methuen. Henry J. Pierce, W.Newbury. 
Solomon W.Weston, Middl'n. John C. Taltou, W.Newbury. 

12 



1 7 8 

CHANGES OF MEMBERS. 

Beverly — Alphonso Mason to Topsfield. 
Danvers — John A. Blake to Haverhill. 

Cornelius Gaffney to South Boston. 

Walter F. Martin to Dover, N. H. 

E. Swazey to Beverly. 
Georgetown — Henry P. Noyes to Andover. 

John H. Lovering to Marlborough, Mass. 
Milton G. Tenney to Boston. 
Hamilton — G. W. Winslow to Lynn. 
Haverhill — Herbert E. Wales to Bradford. 
Methuen — D. H. Patterson to Lawrence. 
Newbury — Otis Mann to Springfield, Mass. 
Rowley — D. L. Haggerty to Ipswich. 
Washington, Mo. — T. W. Quimby to Haverhill. 
Changes by Death, see "In Memoriam," page 157. 



CORRECTIONS OF 1886 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Haverhill — Frank B. Barnes should be B. Frank. 
Merriraac — A. C. Hill should not be there. 
Methuen — George A. Butters omitted 1884 and 1886 lists. 
Jonathan Morse died several years ago. Trus- 
tee did not report it. 
Newbury — Edward Illsley should be Edwin Ilsley. 
Rowley — Nath'l M. Dummer should be Nathl. N. 

Harrison Tenney should be John H. 
Rumney, N. H. — S. Brocklebank dead. 
Stockton, Cal.— Joseph S. Hale should, have been Lugo- 

nia, San Bernadino county, Cal. 
Portsmouth, O.— D. Oscar Nelson omitted. 1884 and 1886 

lists. 
North Weymouth, Mass — Frank H. Palmer omitted 1884 

and 1886 lists. 
Cotton Wood, Idaho county, Idaho Ter. — Charles Lane 

Palmer omitted 1884 and 1886 lists. 



179 

The Executive Officers of the Society from its Organi- 
zation, with Year when first chosen, are 

presidents. 

1818. Timothy Pickering, Salem. 

1828. Frederick Howes, Salem. 

1831. Ebenezer Mosely, Newbury port. 

1836. James H. Duncan, Haverhill. 

1839. Joseph Kittredge, Andover. 

1841. Leverett Saltonstall, Salem. 
1815. John W. Proctor, Danvers. 
1852. Moses Newell, West Newbury. 
1856. Richard S. Fay, Lynn. 
1858. Daniel Adams, Newbury. 
1860. Allen W. Dodge, Hamilton. 
1863. Joseph How, Methuen. 

1865. William Sutton, South Danvers. 
1875. Benjamin P. Ware, Marblehead. 

secretaries. 

1818. David Cummins, Salem. 

1820. Frederick Howes, Salem. 

1821. John W. Proctor, Danvers. 

1842. Daniel P. King, Danvers. 
1844. Allen W. Dodge, Hamilton. 
1860. Charles P. Preston, Danvers. 
1885. David W. Low, Gloucester. 

TREASURERS. 

1818. Ichabod Tucker, Salem. 

1819. Daniel A. White, Salem. 

1823. Benjamin R. Nichols, Salem. 

1824. Benjamin Merrill, Salem. 
1828. Andrew Nichols, Danvers. 
1841. j William Sutton, Salem. 

1856. \ William Sutton, South Danvers. 
1865. E. H. Payson, Salem. 
1881. Gilbert L. Streeter, Salem. 



1888. 
PREMIUM LIST OK 

Essex Agricultural Society, 



FOR THE 



Sixty-Eighth Annual Cattle Show and Fair, 

To be held September 25th and 26th, 1888, in Peabody. 



Duties of Trustees. 

The Trustee of each town is instructed to see the several mem- 
bers of Committees in his town previous to the Show, and urge 
upon them the importance of attending to their duties. Also im- 
press upon exhibitors from localities near to the Exhibition, the 
importance of entering their exhibits the afternoon and evening 
of Monday, in fairness to those from a distance, who are obliged to 
come Tuesday. 

To be prompt at the meeting of the Society for filling vacancies 
in committees on the first day of the Exhibition. 



Duties of Committees. 



Committees on live stock and articles exhibited on the Fair 
Grounds. should appear at the Secretary's office en the grounds, at 
one o'clock, punctually, on the first day of the Exhibition, and 
there organize, take the books of entry, and proceed at once to 
business. Committees in Hall should take the books of entry from 
the Superintendent as soon after the entries close as the exhibits 
are arranged for judging. 

Full reports of Committees, on the blanks furnished by the 
Secretary, to be signed by all the members acting on the same, are 
requhed ol each committee. 

Three members of any committee consisting of more than lha 
number are authorized to act. 

The Diploma of the Society being considered the highest pre- 
mium that can be awarded, no committee is authorized to award 
it, except for animals and articles of special merit, deceiving of 
endorsement and recommendation by the Society. 



181 

No committer is authorized to award gratuities, except the com- 
mittees ou agricultural implements, carriages, bread, honey, and 
canned fruits, domestic manufactures, fruits, vegetables in Hall, 
and flowers ; or any premium, unless the rules of the Society have 
beea strictly complied with. Neither shall they award premiums 
or gratuities in excess of the amount appropriated. 

No gratuity is to be awarded of less than fifty cents. 

The several committees are requested to affix premium cards, 
and also on animals, blue, white, and red printed premium ribbons, 
(which may be had of the Secretary or assistant on the grounds 
and at the hall), for the several animals or articles, designating the 
grade of premium awarded each, and the name of the person to 
whom awarded, and special care should be taken that the cards 
issued correspond with the awards in their report to the Society. 

No claimaut for a premium can be a member of the committee 
upon the subject on which he makes his claim. 

The reports of award of premiums on ploughing and on animals 
and articles exhibited at the Show, will be delivered to the Secre- 
tary and announced on Wednesday. 

The Society offers liberal premiums for the best reports of com- 
mittees; and the chairmen of the several committees are requested 
to present to the Secretary a full report explanatory of the opin- 
ions of the committee on the matter referred to them, within two 
weeks after the awards are made at the Show, for publication in 
the Transactions.* 

Reports on farms, crops, etc., to be presented previous to the 
meeting of the Trustees in November. 

Any member of a committee who cannot serve on the same, is re- 
quested to give notice to the Secretary, before the Show, so that the 
vacancy may be tilled. 

Each member of the several committees will receive a ticket of 
admission to the hall of exhibition, on application to the Secretary. 

*Chairuieu of committees will please uotice this request. 



General Rules. 

Competitors are requested to carefully read the rules and premium 
list, before making entries. 

All claims (entries) for premiums to be awarded at the Exhi- 
bition must be entered with the Secretary of the Society, or his 
agent, on or before 11 o'clock, A. M., of the first day thereof. 

All claims (entries) for premiums (on Fair Grounds), must be 
handed or forwarded to the Secretary or his agent, in writing, 
previous to the day of the Fair, if possible. 

Any person not a member of the Society, awarded seven dollars 
and upwards, shall receive a certificate of membership, for which 
three dollars of his award will be taken to increase the funds of 
the Society. 

Diplomas awarded will' be delivered and premiums paid, on 
application, either by the person to whom the premium or gratuity 
is awarded, or an agent duly authorized, by the Treasurer, at First 
National Bank, Salem. 



182 

In all cases the reports of award of premiums and gratuities 
made by the several committees and adopted by the Society shall 
be final. Committees should see that the premium cards issued 
correspond with the premiums and gratuities awarded in their re- 
ports. 

All premiums and gratuities awarded, the payment of which is 
not demanded of the Treasurer on or before the first day of Sep- 
tember next succeeding the Exhibition, will be considered as given 
to increase the funds of the Society. 

No person shall be entitled to receive a premium, unless he 
complies with the conditions on which the premiums are offered, 
and by proper entry as required, gives notice of his intention to 
compete for the same ; and committees are instructed to award no 
premium unless the animal or article offered is worthy 

Xo animal or object that is entered in one class, with one com- 
mittee shall be entered in another class, except town teams, fat 
cattle, working oxen, working steers, and farm horses, which may 
be entered for ploughing, and milch cows, which may be entered 
with a herd. 

In regard to all the subjects for which premiums are offered, it 
is to be distinctly understood that the Trustees reserve to them- 
selves the right of judging the quality of the animal or article 
offered ; and that no premiums will be awarded unless the objects 
of them are of a decidedly superior quality. 

Pure Bred Animals, defined by the State Board of Agriculture. 

The proof that an animal is so bred should be a record of the 
animal or its ancestors, as recorded in some herd book, recognized 
bv leading breeders, and the public generally as complete and 
authentic 

Standards adopted : — American Jersey C. C. Register and Ameri- 
can Jersey Herd Book, Ayrshire Record and Holstein Herd Book. 



Premiums to be Awarded at the Show. 

The Committees will take notice that no premium will be awarded 
unless the animals or objects are of a decidedly superior quality. 

Diplomas may be awarded for animals or articles of special 
merit, iu all departments of the Fair. 



CATTLE AND OTHER FARM STOCK. 

TO BE ENTERED IN THE NAME OF THEIR HEAL OWNER. 

All animals, to be eligible to a premium, shall have been raised 
by the owner within the County, or owned by the exhibitor within 
the Comity, for four months previous to (he date of the Exhibition, 
except Working Oxen, and Working Steers. 

All animals, whether .teams for ploughing, or animals entered for 
premium or exhibition, will be fed during the Exhibition, and lon- 
ger when they are of n n/essity prevented from leaving, at the ex- 



i*3 

FAT CATTLE. 

Fat Catlle, fatted within the County, regard being had to man- 
ner of feeding and ihe expense thereof, all of which shall be slated 
by the exhibitor in writing and returned to the Secretary, with 
committee's report. 

For Pairs of Fat Cattle, premiums, each, $8, $0, S3 

For Fat Cows, premiums, each, $7, $5, $3 

BULLS. 

*Ayrshire, Jersey, Short Horn, Devon, Holstein, or of any other 
recognized breed, for each breed, 

Two years old and upwards, premiums, $8, $4 

Under two ye;irs, premiums, for each breed, $4, S3 

Bull Calves under oue year old. premium for each breed, $2 

BULLS OF ANY AGE OR BREED. 

*For the best Bull of any age or breed, with five of his stock 
not less than one year old, quality and condition to be taken into 
account, and especially the adaptability of the animal to the agri- 
culture of the Count) 7 , premium, S10 

*Note. — Competitors are required to give a written statement of pedigree, 
and committees are requested to be particular in tliis respect, and return them 
to the Secretary with report. 

MILCH COWS. 

For the best Milch Cow of any age or breed, with satisfactory 
record in quarts or pounds of her daily yield of milk for one or 
more years, premium, $15 

For Milch Cows, either of Foreign. Native or Grade, not less 
than four nor more than ten years old, with satisfactory evidence 
as to quantity and quality of milk, either by weight or measure, 
during the evening and morning of the first and last ten days of 
any month, premiums, S10, $4 

Milch Cows, Ayrshire, Jersey, Devon. Short Horn, Holstein, or 
any other recognized breed, four years old and upwards, premiums, 
for each breed, $10, $4 

For Native or Grade Cows, four years old and up- 
wards, premiums, $10, $4 

For the Cows that make the most butter in any single 
week from June 1st to September 15th, premiums, $10, $4 

Note. — A written statement will be required of the age and breed of all 
Milch Cows entered, and time they dropped their last calf, and when they 
will next calve, the kind, quality and quantity of their food during the season, 
and the manner of their feeding, which statement is to be returned to the Sec- 
retary with Committee's report. 

HERDS OF MILCH COWS. 

For herds of Milch Cows, not less than five in number, to be ex 
hibited at the Show, and a correct statement of manner of keep- 
ing and yield for one year preceding the Show, premiums, $18, $12 



1 84 

For the greatest produce of milk on any farm, in proportion to 
the number of cows producing it. not less than four, from April 1^ 
1887, to April 1. 1888, statement to be made of the exchanges 
made, manner and expense of food, use made of milk, and such 
other facts as will illustrate the entire management, special regard 
being had to the mode in which the account is kept, 
premium, Diploma, and $15 

Note. — Tlie above-mentioned statement is to be returned to the Secretary, 
with Committee's report for 1888. The Committee can accept statements 
dating from January 1st, preceding Show, 

HEIFERS. 

First Class. — Ayrshire, Jersey, Short Horn, Devon, Holstein, 
or any other recognized breed, under four years old, in milk, pre- 
miums, for each breed, §8, $5 

Two year olds of each breed that have never calved, 

premiums, $4, $3 

One year olds of each breed, premiums, $4, S3 

Heifer Calves, under one year, premiums, for each breed, $4, $3 
Second Class. — Native or Grade Milch, under four 

years old, premiums, $8, $5 

Two year olds, that have never calved, premiums, $4. S3 

One year olds and less than two, premiums, $4, $3 
Heifer Calves, Native or Grade, under one year old, 

premiums, $4, $3 

WORKING OXEN AND STEERS. 

Stags excluded. For pairs of Working Oxen under eight and 
not less than tive years old, taking into view their size, power, 
quality, and training, premiums, $12, $10, $8 

For pairs of Working Steers four years old, to be entered in the 
name of the owner, premiums, $10, $6 

Note.— The Committee are required to consider the quality and shape of 
the cattle as Well as their working capacity. The training of workiug oxeu 
and steers will be tested by trial on a cart or wagon containing a load weigh- 
ing two tons for oxen, and 3000 pounds for steers, ggp*" At the time of entry 
a certificate of the weight of the cattle must be filed with the Secretary. 

TOWN TEAMS. 

For Town Teams of Oxen, ten yoke or more in a team, 
premiums, $20, $12 

For Town Teams of Oxen, eight or nine yoke in a 
team, premiums, $15, $8 

For Town Teams of Horses, ten or more pairs in a 
team, premiums, $20. $12 

For Town Teams of Horses, eight or nine pairs in a 
team, premiums, $15, $8 

STEERS. 

For pairs of three year old Steers, broken to the yoke, 

premium*, $8, $6 

For pairs of two year old Steers, premiums, $6, $5 

For pairs of yearling Steers, premiums, $5. $4 

For pairs of Steer Calves, premiums, $4, $2 



i85 

STALLIONS. 

*All Stallions entered in either class must have been owned by 
the exhibitor four months previous to the exhibition. 

First Class. For Stallions for Farm and Draft purposes, four 
years old and upwards, diploma or premiums, $10, $6, $4 

For Stallions for Farm and Draft purposes, three years old, pre- 
miums, $8. $5 

For best Stallion of any age, and five colts of his stock not less 
than one year old, quality and coudition to be taken into account, 
premium, $15 

Second Class. For Stallions for Driving purposes, four years 
old and upwards, premiums, $10, $6, $4 

For best Stallion of any age and rive colts of his stock, not less 
than one year old, quality and condition to be taken into account, 
premium, - $15 

BROOD MARES. 

*For Brood Mares, with their foal not more than eight months 
old by their side, premiums, . $10, $6, $4 

*Note. — No stallion or brood mare will be entitled to a premium nuless 
free from all apparent defects capable of being transmitted. 

FAMILY 1 HORSES. 

For Family Horses, premiums, $10, $6, $4 

Note. — No borse will receive a premium unless free from all unsoundness. 

GENTLEMEN'S DRIVING HORSES. 

For Driving Horses, premiums, $10, $6, $4 

FARM HORSES. 

For Farm Horses, premiums, $10, $6, $4 

Note.— No horse will be allowed except those actually used on farms, 
whether the owner has a farm or not, and in no case will competitors be 
allowed to take more than a specified load, 2000 pounds No obstruction 
shall be placed either before or behind the wheels in trials of Draft horses of 
either class. If this rule is not complied with the premium shall be with- 
held. 

PAIRS OF FARM HORSES. 

For pairs of Farm Horses (see above note), premiums, 

$12, $8, $4 

COLTS FOR DRAFT PURPOSES. 

First Class. For Mare or Gelding four year old colts, pre- 
miums, $8, $5, $3 

For Mare or Gelding three year old Colts, premiums, $6, $3 

Second Class. For two year old Stallion, Gelding, or Mare 
Colts, premiums, 88, $5, $3 

For yearling Stallion, Gelding or Marc Colts, premiums, $5, $3 



186 

COLTS FOR GENERAL PURPOSES. 

First Class. For Mare or Gelding four year old Colts, pre- 
miums, $8, $5, £3 

For Mare or Gelding three year old Colts, premiums, $5, S3 

Second Class. For two year old Stallion, Gelding or Mare 
Colts, premiums, $5, $3 

For yearling Stallion, Gelding or Mare Colts, premiums, $5, $3 

SWINE. 

First Class. Large breeds, viz. : Cheshire, Berkshire, Ches- 
ter County Whites, Poland China, Large Yorkshire, and any 
other breed or grade weighing more than 300 pounds at maturity. 
For Boars, premiums, $8, .155 

For Breeding Sows, premiums, $8, $5 

For Litters of Weaned Pigs, premiums, $8, $5 

Note. — Litters of Weaned Pigs must be not less than four in number, be- 
ween two and four months old. 

Second Class. Small breeds, such as Suffolk, Essex, Small 
Yorkshire, China, and any other breed or grade weighing less than 
300 pounds at maturity, same premiums as in First Class. 

SHEEP. 

For flocks not less than ten in number, premiums, $10, $Q 

For best Buck, premium, $8 

For best lot of Lambs, not less than four in number, between 

four and twelve months old, premium, $4 

POULTRY. 

For pairs of Light Brahmas, Dark Brahmas, Buff Cochins, Par- 
tridge Cochins. Black Cochins, White Cochins, Plymouth Rocks, 
Dominiques, White Leghorns, Brown Leghorns, Dominique Leg- 
horns, Black Spanish, Hamburgs, Polish, Games, Dorking, Ban- 
tams, Black, White, and Mottled Javas, Wyandottes, White Wy- 
andottes, Andalusian, Erminet, Langshangs, and Frizzle, and 
other recognized varieties, each variety, premiums, $2, $1 

For pairs of Chickens of above varieties, premiums, <?2, >'l 

For the best breeding pen of each variety— Diploma of the So- 
ciety. 

Pairs can be exhibited in " breeding pens," by marking the com- 
peting female (with a ribbon or colored string), which, with the 
male will form the pair. 

Premiums shall be awarded on a score of not less than 176 
points for first premium and 166 points for second premium. 

For lots of Turkeys, and Aylesbury, Rouen, Cayuga, Pekin, 
White and Colored Muscovey, and Brazilian Ducks, and Toulouse, 
Emden, Brown China, and African Geese, premiums, $2, $1 

For the coop of 10 or more Fowls exhibited, whether thorough- 
breds crossed or mixed, with an account for one year, showing 
cost of keeping, production and profit, premium, $5 

For the best pair of dressed Fowls, Chickens, Ducks, and Geese, 
premium for each, $2 



187 

For the best 12 Eggs from Asiatic, American, Game. French 
and Spanish classes (Hamburgs, Polish, Dorkings to compete in 
the Spanish class) exhibited, premium for each class, si 

Any exhibitor interfering with tbe Judges in the discharge of 
their duties or interfering with, or handling any specimen on ex- 
hibition, other than his own, shall forfeit all claim be may have in 
the premium list. 

All breeds exhibited separately and to be judged by the rules of 
the '* American Standard of Excellence." 

COLLECTIONS OF LIVE STOCK. 

For the best collection of Live Stock from any city or town in 
the county, premium, §20 

Note. — The exhibitors from each city or town, competing for this* new pre- 
mium, must authorize some one to make entry with the Secretary, before the 
time fixed for closing entries. 

PLOUGHING. 

General Note on Ploughing. — Stags are excluded. Teams must be en- 
tered iu the names of their owners, and only double ox-teams to have drivers. 
A team consisting of one pair of oxen and a horse will be considered a double 
team. The owners of separate teams may unite the same and be allowed to 
compete for premiums. The ploughmen and drivers must have been residents 
of the County at least three months before the exhibition. Those Avho in- 
tend to be competitors must give notice to the Secretary on or before Saturday 
previous to the show. The lands will be staked, but each ploughman will be 
required to strike out his own laud in the presence of the " Committee on 
Striking out Grounds for Ploughing," after half-past nine o'clock on the morn- 
ing of the trial. Ploughmen with land-side ploughs are to back furrow three 
furrows on each side of the stakes set, the last furrow to be of the depth re- 
quired in the class. Ploughmen with swivel ploughs to turn the outside of 
their furrows to the stakes on one side, and to finish one foot from the stake 
on the other. Committees to note and report the kind of plough used. 

Ploughing with Double Teams. — One-sixth of an acre, at 
least eight inches deep, premiums, $12, §10, §9, §8 

Ploughing with Single Teams. — One-sixth of an acre, at 
least six inches deep, premiums, §10, §9, §5 

Ploughing with Horses. — With any form of Plough, except 
Swivel, one-sixth of an acre, at least six inches deep, premiums, 

§10, $7, §5 

Ploughing with Three Horses.— -One-sixth of an acre, 
eight inches deep without driver, premium, §10 

Same with four horses with driver, premium, §10 

Ploughing with Swivel Plough.— One-sixth of an acre, 
either with double or single ox-team, double teams at least eight 
inches deep, single teams six inches, premiums, §12, §10, §8 

Same with Horse teams, consisting of two horses, ploughing at 
least six inches deep, premiums, §10, §0 

Ploughing — Sulks' Plough. — For the best performance, tak- 
ing into account ease of draft, amount and quality of work, pre- 
miums, §10, $8 

Marrows — For the best Harrow exhibited and its merits shown 
by* Actual test upon the ploughed ground, premium, §10 

Nf3te. — Entry must be made with the Secretary before the day of the trial 
with description of Harrow. 



i8S 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

For the best collection of Implements and Machines (no ar- 
ticle offered in collection will be entitled to a separate premium), 

Diploma and $10 
Rest Market Wagon, premium, §5 

Rest Farm Wagon for one or two horses, premium, $3 

Rest Horse Cart, premium, $5 

Rest Hay Straw, or Corn Cutter, premium, $1.50 

Rest Ox Yoke, complete, premium. $1.50 

Rest Fruit Evaporator, with sample of work, premium, $5 

Rest set of Horse Shoes, including those for over-reaching, in- 
terfering, and stumbling horses, premium, $5 
For implements not specified above the Committee may at their 
discretion award $40 
No premium or gratuity will be awarded for any Mower, Horse 
Rake, Tedder, or other Machine or Implement, the merit of which 
can be known oniy by actual trial in the field; but manufacturers 
are invited to offer the same for exhibition and inspection. 

CARRIAGES. 

For Carriages, built in the County, and exhibited by the man- 
ufacturer, diploma, and thirty dollars in gratuities, may be awarded 
by the Committee. 



In Exhibition Hall. 

Committees on articles exhibited in the hall should be specially 
careful that the premium cards issued correspond with the names 
and sums in their reports to the Society. 

Committees and Exhibitors will be governed by instructions 
under heading of " Duties of Committees," li General Rules," 
" Premiums to be awarded at the Show," see first pages, and under 
" Fruit" and " Domestic Manufactures." 

DAIRY. 

For specimens of Rutter made on any farm within the County 
the present year, samples not less than five pounds to be exhibited, 
with a full account of the process of making and management of 
the Rutter, premiums, $8, §6, $4 

For specimens of New Milk Cheese, made on any farm in tho 
County, the present year, samples of not less than fifty pounds to 
be exhibited, with statement in writing of the method of making 
and preserving the same, premiums, $8. $6, $4 

Note. — Each lot presented for premium and the statement accompanying 
it, must be numbered, but not marked so as to indicate the claimant; any pub- 
lic or known mark must be completely concealed; nor must the competitors 
be present at the examination. 

To the person who shall furnish to the Society satisfactory evi- 
dence of the greatest amount of Butter made from any quantity of 
milk, being the whole produce of any single cow, for the tirst week 



i8g 

of June, July, August and September next, slaling 1he whole 
amount of Butter produced in each week, and also the time when 
the cow dropped her last calf, and her feed and management all to 
he taken into account iu making the award, premiums. 

Diploma and $10, 5 

]SJote —The object in offering this last premium is to elicit inquiry as to 
the value and quality of milk for the production of butter. As far as practi- 
cable it is desirable that the race and pedigree of the cow should be given. 

BREAD, HONEY AND CANNED FRUIT. 

For White Bread made of wheat flour raised by yeast, pre- 
miums, $3< $2, si 

For yeast bread made from Graham flour, premiums, $2, 81 

For yeast bread made irom other grains, or other grains mixed 
with wheat, premiums, 81-50, 81 

Special Premiums offered by N. N. Dummer, Glen Mills, Row- 
ley. For the Graham Bread "made from "Glen Mills Improved 
Graham " and raised hy yeast, premiums, So, $2.50, 81 

All bread, entered for "premiums, to be in loaves weighing not 
less than one pound each, and to be not less than 24 hours old, 
with a full written statement over the signature and address of the 
maker, stating the kind of flour used, quantity of each ingredient, 
how mixed aud length of time kneaded and raised and how long 
baked, which statements on all premium bread are to be sent to the 
Secretary with report of the Committee for publication. 

For first and second best display of Bees, Hives and Apiarian 
Implements, to be accompanied with a description of ihe bees, 
hives, etc., number of hives iu use and amount of surplus honey 
taken from them during the season, premiums. 85, s3 

First and second best Honey, ten pounds in comb and one pound 
of same extracted, made in the County, with statement signed of 
kind of bees and hive and time ot year when honey was made, 
premiums, $3, $2 

For first and second best collection of Pickles. Preserved Fruits 
and Jellies, made from products of the Count}', when premiums are 
awarded, the method of making to be sent to the Secretary by the 
Committee for publication, premiums, s.'J. $2 

For the first and second best five pounds of Dried Apples, grown 
and dried within the County, with statement of process used and 
amount of labor and time required in preparing and drying, such 
statement on premium fruit to be given to the Secretary for publica- 
tion, premiums, $3, S*2 

In addition to the above, are placed iu the bauds of the Commit- 
tee for gratuities on other articles entered in this department, 
products ot this County deemed worthy, $5 

Fruit. 

All fruit must he entered in the name of the grower before 11 
o'clock on the first day of the exhibition, and each exhibitor must 
certify to the same on the Entry Book, or lists of the varieties of 
each class of fruit to be filled when entry is made. (Committees 
are not authorized to make awards to those who do not comply 
with this rule.) 



190 

Tables will be labelled in a conspicuous manner by tbe hall com- 
mittee, before the entry of Exhibitors, with the names of fruit, for 
which premiums are offered, all others of same class of fruit to be 
labelled miscellaneous. Exhibitors must place their several varie- 
ties of each class of fruit where indicated by such labels, or be 
considered by the committee as not competing for premium. 

Plates of collections of fruit, when premiums are offered there- 
for, must be entered and placed by the exhibitor on the table 
assigned for the exhibit of that class of fruit. 

To entitle exhibitors to receive premiums and gratuities award- 
ed, they are required (when requested by the committee) to give 
information in regard to the culture of their fruit. 

PEARS. 

For best twelve specimens of the following varieties, which are 
recommended for cultivation in Essex County: Bartlett, Belle 
Lucrative, Bosc, Anjou. Angouleme, Dana's Hovey, Lawrence, 
Louise Bonne. Maria Louise. Onondaga, Paradise d'Automne, 
Seckle, Sheldon, Unbaniste, Vicar, Doyene de'Cornica, Howell, 
Hardy and Clairgeau, each, S3 

Doyenne d'Ete, Giftbrd and Clapp's Favorite (ripening early) 
are recommended for cultivation, but no premium is offered. 

For each dish of twelve best specimens of any other varieties, 
deemed worthy by the committee, $1.50 

For best collection of Pears, premium, $6 

In addition to the above, are placed at the disposal of the com- 
mittee, to be awarded in gratuities of not less than 81 each, $20 

APPLES. 

For best twelve specimens of the following varieties, which are 
recommended for cultivation in Essex County: Baldwin, Danvers 
Sweet, Tompkins County Kinsr, Granite Beauty, Red Russet, 
McCarty, Tolman's Sweet, Bailey's Sweet, Drap d'Or, Hubbard- 
ston, Hurlburt, Porter, Pickman's Pippin, Roxbury Russet, Rhode 
Island Greening, Sweet Baldwin. Gravensteiu, Hunt's Russet, 
Smith's Cider, premium for each, $3 

Red Astrachan, William's Favorite, Tetofsky and Sweet Bough 
are recommended for cultivation, but no premium is offered (ripen- 
ing early). 

For best twelve specimens of any other varieties deemed worthy 
by the committee, premium for each variety, $1.50 

For best collection of Apples, $6 

For best twenty-tour specimens of any variety of Crab Apple 
deemed worthy by the committee, $1.50 

In addition, are placed at the disposal of the committee, to be 
awarded in gratuities of not less than 81 each, $20 

PEACHES, GRAPES AND ASSORTED FRUITS. 

For best nine specimens of Freestone White Flesh, Yellow 

Flesh, Essex County Seedling, each variety, $2 

For best collection of Peaches, premium, $3 

For best four bunches of Concord, Worden's Seedling, Brighton, 



191 

Hartford Prolific, Delaware, Martha, Moore's Early, Niagara, 
each variety. 83 

For Colfl 'House Grapes, produced with not over one month's 
artificial heat, premiums, £6, $4 

For best collection of ten varieties, not less than ten pounds in 
all. premium, S7 

For best specimens of four bunches of other varieties deemed 
worthy by the committee, premium, 81.50 

For baskets of Assorted Fruit, premiums, 84, S3 

In addition, are placed at the disposal of the committee, to lie 
awarded in gratuities of not less than 50 cents each, §25 

FLOWERS. 

For displays of Foliage Plants in pots, at least ten specimens, 
premiums, S3, 82 

For best pair of Parlor Bouquets of choice flowers, premium, S3 
For best pair of Hand Bouquets of choice flowers, premium, 82 
For displays of Cut Flowers, premiums, S3, $2 

For best four Ferns in pots, premium. 81 

For best four Gloxinias in pots, premium. 81 

For best four Coleus in j.ots, premium, SI 

For best specimen of any species of Begonia in pot. premium. SI 
For best grown Pot Plant of any species, not from a greenhouse, 
premium, , SI 

For best Bouquet of Garden Flowers, premium, SI 

For best arranged Basket of Garden Flowers, premium, SI 

For best twelve garden Dahlias, six varieties, premium, SI 

For best twelve Bouquet Dahlias, six varieties, premium. SI 

For best twelve Single Dahlias, raised from seed by exhibitor, 
premium, SI 

For best twenty -four Asters, six varieiies, premium. SI 

For best twelve Carnation Pinks, four varieties, premium. SI 
For best twelve spikes of Gladiolus, four varieties, premium, SI 
For best twenty-four Petunias, six varieiies. premium, SI 

For best twenty-four Verbenas, six varieties, premium, SI 

For best twenty-tour Double Zinnias, four varieties, premium, SI 
For best twenty-four French and African Marigolds, six varie- 
ties, premium, SI 
For best twelve Calendulas or Pot Marigolds, two varieties, 
premium. SI 
For best twelve Japan Lilies, two varieties, premium, SI 
For best twelve trusses of Geraniums, four varieties, premium. SI 
For best twelve trusses of Garden Phlox, four varieties, pre- 
mium, SI 
For best collection of Drummond's Phlox, six varieties, pre- 
mium, SI 
For Mourning Bride, four varieties, premium, SI 
For Nasturtiums, four varieties, premium, SI 
For Pansies. six varieties, premium, SI 
For Everlastings, six varieties, premium, SI 
For Garden Annuals, six specimens of at least ten varieties, 
premium, 81 
For Roses, three varieties, premium. SI 
For best Floral Design of choice flowers, premium, §2 



192 

For collections of Native Plants, to be marked with the correct 
botanical and common names, and neatly displayed in separate 
bottles, premiums, So, $3 

For best arrangement of Native Flowers and Autumn Leaves, 
premium, £2 

In gratuities to contributors in this department, as the articles 
may seem to merit, will be awarded, £20 

Special Premium, offered by M. 13. Faxon of Saugus. For the 
best display of Alters, filling 25 of the Society's bottles, £5 

1. Every plant or flower entered for premium (except native 
flowers) must- be grown by the exhibitor. 

2. No premium shall be awarded unless the specimens exhib- 
ited are of average excellence and worthy of such premium. 

3. No specimen entered for one premium sball be admitted in 
competition for another different premium. 

VEGETABLES. 

Rules for Fruit apply to Vegetables. 

Beets — For best twelve specimens, Eclipse, Dewing, and Ed- 
mauds, premium, each, $53 
Carrots — For best twelve, short top, long Orange and Danvers 

Intermediate, premium, each, $3 

For be?t twelve. Short Horn Orange Carrots, premium, S3 

Mangold Wurtzels — For best six specimens, premium, §3 

Flat Turnips — Twelve specimens. For best Purple Top and 

White Flat, premium, each, $3 

Ruta Basras — Twelve specimens. For best Yellow and White, 

premium, each, S3 

Parsnips — For best twelve specimens, premium, $3 

Onions — One peck. For best Dtnvers, Yellow Flat and Red, 

premium, each, $3 

Potatoes — One peck. For best Early Rose, Beauty of Hebron, 

Clark's No. 1, Pearl of Savoy, Early Maine, premium, each, $3 
Cabbages — For best three specimens Savoy. Fottler's Drumhead, 

Stone Mason Drumhead. Red Cabbage, eacb variety, premium, £3 
For next best, each variety, premium, $2 

Cauliflowers — For best three specimens, premium, $3 

For next best, premium, !$2 

Celery — For best tour roots, premium, $2 

Sweet. Corn — For twelve ears ripest and best Early, premium, S3 
For best twelve ears in milk. Late, premium, $3 

Squashes — For best three specimens Marrow, American Turban, 

Hubbard, Marblehead, Essex Hybrid, Bay State, each variety. 

premium, $3 

Melons — For best three specimens Nutmeg, Musk, Cassaba, 

each, premium, $2 

For best two specimens Watermelons, premium, £2 

Tomatoes — For best twelve s-pecimens Bound, Flat. Spherical, 

Essex Hybrid, or any other variety, each variety, premium £3 
For exhibition of greatest variety, premium, $3 

Cranberries — For pecks of cultivated, premiums, $3, £2, Si 

For collections of vegetables, premiums, $8, S6, $4, S2 

Placed at the disposal of this committee for whatever appears 

meritorious, #30 



193 

jSgl^No competitor for premium to exhibit more or less number 
of specimens of any vegetables than the premiums are offered for. 

Collections of Vegetables, where premiums are offered for a number of varie- 
ties, must be entered aud placed by themselves on the tables assigned for 
collections. No collection shall receive but one premium. Specimens of any 
variety in such collections are not to compete with specimens of the same va- 
riety placed elsewhere. Exhibitors of such collections, however, are not pre- 
vented from exhibiting additional specimens of any variety, with and in com- 
petition with like variety. All vegetables must be entered in the name of the 
grower of them. 

Size of Vegetable*. — Turnips Beets to be from 3 to 5 inches in diameter; 
Onions, 2 1-2 to 4 inches in largest diameter; Potatoes to be of good size for 
family use; Squashes to be pure and well ripeued — Turban, Marrow, Hub- 
bard, Marblehead, each to weigh 8 to 16 lbs. 



GRAIN AND SEED. 

For best peck of Shelled Corn, Wheat, Oats, Barley, Rye and 
Buckwheat, each, premiums, $1 

For 25 ears of Field Corn, premiums, $5, £3, $2 

For 25 ears of Pop Corn, premiums, 83, $2 

For collections of Field and Garden Seeds, premiums, 

88, 86, 84, 82 
All grain or seed must have been grown by the exhibitor in the 
County to receive premium. 



Domestic Manufactures. 

Contributors must deposit their articles at the Hall before 11 
o'clock on the first day of the Exhibition. Articles not thus de- 
posited will not be entitled to a premium. Gratuities will be 
awarded for articles of special merit for which no premium is of- 
fered; but no premium or gratuity will be awarded for any article 
manufactured out of the County, or previous to the last Exhibition 
of the Society. 



COUNTERPANES AND AFGHANS. 

For Wrought Counterpanes having regard to the quality and 
expense of the material, premiums, 84, 82 

Gratuities will be awarded for articles belonging to this depart- 
ment, the whole amount of gratuities not to exceed 825 

CARPETINGS AND RUGS. 

For Carpets, having regard to the quality and expense of the 
material, premiums, s4, $2 

For Wrought Hearth Rug, having regard both to the quality 
of the work and expense of the materials, premiums, $3, $2 

Gratuities will be awarded for articles belonging to this depart- 
ment, the whole amount not to exceed 825 



194 

ARTICLES MANUFACTURED FROM LEATHER. 

For best pair hand made and machine made Men's Boots, Wo- 
men's do., Children's do., each, ?2 
Best Team. Carriage and Express Harness, each, #5 
$10 are placed at the disposal of this committee, to be awarded 
gratuities. 

For the best exhibitions of Boots, and of Shoes, manufactured in 
he County, each, premium, Diploma of Society. 

MANUFACTURES AND GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

For displays of Bonnets, premiums, #4, $2 

For Horn Combs, not less than one dozen, premium, #3 

At the disposal of the committee in tins department, to be 
awarded in gratuities not exceeding #3 in any one gratuity, #20 

Fancy Work and Works of Art, and other articles of Do- 
mestic Manufacture not included in the above. 

At the disposal of the committee in this department, to be award- 
ed in gratuities not exceeding §3 in any one gratuity, #50 

Work by Children Under Twelve Years of Age. For 
specimens of work performed by children under 12 years of age, 
exhibiting industry and ingenuity, premiums, #3, #2 

At disposal of committee to be awarded in gratuities, $10 



List of Premiums to be Awarded by the 
Trustees in November. 

FARMS. 

Competitors for these premiums must give notice of their inten- 
tion to the Secretary on or before June 15th, and the farms entered 
for premium will be viewed by the committee twice during the 
year. Crops growing on farms that are entered for premiums, can- 
not be entered with another committee for separate premiums — 
except specimens exhibited at the Fair. Any person desirous of 
having his farm inspected, without entering it for premium, may 
make application to the Secretary, and it will be viewed and re- 
ported upon by the committee. 

Any person entering his farm for premium, may apply to the 
Chairman of the Committee on Farms, for the appointment of a 
sub-committee of not less than rive in number, to visit his farm 
and report upon the same. 

For the best conducted and most improved farm, taking into 
view the entire management and cultivation, including lands, 
buildings, fences, orchards, crops, stock, and all other appendages, 
with statements in detail, relating thereto, premium, #30 

IMPROVING WET MEADOW AND SWAMP LANDS. 

For best conducted experiments relating to wet meadow or 
swamp lands, on not less than one acre, the course of manage- 



195 

merit, and the produce, etc., for a period of two years at least, to 
be detailed, with a statement of all the incidental expenses, pre- 
miums, $15, $10 
Note. — The Committee (when appointed) is instructed to ascertain how 
many, if any, reclaimed swamps in this County have been abandoned or have 
returned to natural grasses. Persons knowing of such are requested to notify 
the Secretary or Committee. 

IMPROVING PASTURE AND WASTE LANDS. 

For best conducted experiments in renovating and improving 
pasture laud, other than by ploughing, so as to add to their value 
for pasturage, with a statement of the same, premiums, $15, 810 

Eor best conducted experiments in renovating and improving 
waste lands so as to add to their agricultural value, with statement 
of the same, premiums, $15, $ 10 

No premium to be awarded to any person for a repetition of an 
experiment in meadow, swamp or pasture lands, for which he has 
already received a premium. 

UNDER-DRAINING LAND. 

For best conducted experiments in under-draining land, regard 
being had to the variety of soil, sub-soil, and other local circum- 
stances, premiums, $15, $10 

MANURES. 

For most exact and satisfactory experiments, in the preparation 
and application of manures, whether animal, vegetable or mineral, 
premiums, $15, $10 

COMPARATIVE VALUE OF CROPS AS FOOD FOR 

CATTLE. 

For most satisfactory experiment upon a stock of cattle, not less 
than four in number, in ascertaining the relative value of different 
kinds of fodder used in feeding neat stock for milk and other pur- 
poses, with a statement in detail of the quantity and value of the 
same, as compared with English hay, premium, $25 

FATTENING CATTLE AND SWINE. 

For most satisfactory experiments in fattening Cattle or Swine, 
with a statement in detail of the process and result, premiums, 

$10, $5 

GRAIN AND OTHER CROPS. 

Claimants on Grain and Root Crops will be required to state the 
size of the piece of land, when they enter, and conform to the fol- 
lowing rules: Eutries of Grain Crops to be made on or before Sep- 
tember 10th; Root Crops on or before October 10th; giving ample 
time for the crops to be examined by the committee before har- 
vesting. Statement, to be made in conformity with the following 
form, must be forwarded to the Committee previous to November 
1st. 



196 

All calculations and figures given in reports of, and statements 
of Crops are to be made on the basis of an acre, results, in all 
cases, to be given at tbe rate per acre. 

In pursuance of authority delegated to tbe Board of Agriculture 
by Chap. 24 of Acts of 1862, Agricultural Societies receiving the 
bounty of the State are required to make use of tbe following 
form, and be governed by its conditions iu tbe mode of ascertain- 
ing tbe amount of crops entered for premium. 

Essex Agkicultural Society. — Statement concerning a crop 
of , raised by Mr. -, in the town of , - — , 1887. 

What was tbe crop of 1886 ? What manure was used and bow 
much ? What was tbe crop of 1887 ? What manure was used and 
bow much ? What is the nature of tbe soil ? When, and how 
many times ploughed, and how deep ? What other preparation for 
the seed ? Cost of ploughing and other preparation ? Amount of 
manure, in loads of thirty bushels, and how applied ? Value of 
manure upon the ground ? (What amount of Commercial Fer- 
tilizer used ? How used ? Value of same when applied ?) When 
and how planted ? The amount and kind of seed ? Cost of seed 
and planting '? How cultivated, and how many times ? Cost of cul- 
tivation, including weeding and thinning ? Time and manner of 
harvesting ? Cost of harvesting, including the storing and husking 
or threshing ? Amount of crop, etc. Signed by , Competitor. 

Tbe committee, to whom is entrusted the award of the premiums 
on field crops, may award them according to their judgment, but 
for the purpose of furnishing accurate statistics for the benefit of 
agriculture, shall select certain of the crops, and require the owners 
thereof to measure the land and weigh the crops accurately, giving 
to the committee a certificate of the same, and give all possible 
information thereou over their own signatures, and return the 
same to the Secretary of the Society, to be published in the annual 
transactions. 

Iu ascertaining the amount of crop, any vessel may be used and 
the weight of its contents once, multiplied by the number of times 
it is tilled by the crop. 

In measuring the land, or weighing crops, any competent person 
may be employed, whether a sworn surveyor or not, aud must give 
certificate. 

The certificates shall state tbe weight of all crops only in a mer- 
chantable state. 

In ascertaining the amount of a hay crop entered for premium, 
the measurement of the hay in tbe barn may be employed. 

Rules of Measure Practiced and Adopted by the State 
Board of Agriculture. 

Wheat, Potatoes, Sugar Beets, Ruta Bagas, Mangold Wurtzel, 
White Beans and Peas, 60 lbs. to bush. 

Corn, Kye, 50 " " 

Oats 32 " " 

Barley, Buckwheat, 48 " " 

Cracked Corn, Corn aud Rye, and other meal, except Oats, 

50 lbs. to bush. 
Parsnips, Carrots, 55 " '" 

Onions, 52 " •' 



197 

1. For the best conducted experiments of Rye, not less than 
twenty bushels to the acre, fifiy-six pounds to the bushel, on not 
less than one acre, premiums, 810, $5 

2. For best conducted experiments of Wheat, not less than 
thirty bushels to the acre, sixty pounds to the bushel, on not less 
than one acre, premiums, £10, £5 

3. For best conducted experiments of Oats, not less than fifty 
bushels to the acre, thirty-two pounds to the bushel, on not less 
than one acre, premiums, £10, $5 

4. For best conducted experiments of Barley, not less tban 
forty bushels to the acre, forty-eight pounds to the bushel, on not 
less than one acre, premiums, £10, £5 

5. For best conducted experiments of Indian Corn, not less 
than one acre, premiums, £10, £o 

6. For largest quantity and best quality of English Hay, on not 
less than one acre, regard being had to the mode and cost ot culti- 
vation, premiums, £10, £o 

7. For best yield of Field Beans, on not less than half acre, and 
not less than twenty-five bushels per acre, premiums, $10, £5 

ROOT CROPS. 

1. For best conducted experiments in raising Carrots, fifty-five 
pounds to the bushel, premiums, £10, £5 

2. For -best conducted experiments in raising Parsnips, fifty-five 
pounds to the bushel, premiums, £10, £5 

3. For best conducted experiments in raising Ruta Bagas, sixty 
pounds to the bushel, premiums, £10, £5 

4. For best conducted experiments in raising Mangold Wurt- 
zels, sixty pounds to the bushel, premiums, £10, £5 

5. For best conducted experiment in raising Sugar Beets, sixty 
pounds to the bushel, premiums, £10, £5 

6. For best conducted experiments in raising Onions, fifty-two 
pounds to the bushel, premiums, £10, £5 

7. For best conducted experiments in raising Potatoes, sixty 
pounds to the bushel, premiums, £10, £5 

8. For best conducted experiments in raising Cabbages, pre- 
miums, £10, £5 

9. For best -conducted experiments in raising Squashes, pre- 
miums, £10, £5 

10. For best conducted experiments in raising Summer English 
Turnips for the market, premiums, £10, £5 

Raised on not less than half an acre, and the quantity of crop to 
be ascertained by weight, so far as practicable, the crops to be free 
from dirt, without tops, and in a merchantable condition at the 
time of measurement. 

Claimants for premiums on Grain or Root Crops must forward 
statement to chairman of committee before Nov. 1st. 

FOREST TREES. 

1. For best plantation of either of the following species of 
forest trees, viz.: — White Oak, Yellow Oak, Locust, Birch, White 
Ash, Maple, Walnut, or White Pine, not less than three years old, 
ana not less than 1000 trees, premium, £20 



198 

2. For best do., of not less than 600 trees, premium, $10 

3. For best lot of ornamental trees, ten or more set on any 
street, road or farm, and cared for five years, premium, $19 

CRANBERRIES. 

For best conducted experiment in the cultivation of the Cran- 
berry, at least two summers, on not less than twenty rods of land, 
with written statement of the quantity and quality of land, ex- 
pense ,of planting, weeding and culture, and amount of crops pro- 
duced.' Premium to be paid in 1888 or 1889, $15 

For best experiment do., on not less than ten rods of land, pre- 
mium, $10 

For best do., on not less than five rods of land, premium, $10 

STRAWBERRIES AND OTHER SMALL FRUITS. 

For best crop of Strawberries, on not less than twenty rods of 
land, expense of planting, culture, crop, etc., stated in writing, 
premium, $10 

For best crop Currants, Raspberries and Blackberries, with 
statement as above, premiums, each, $10 

NEW WINTER APPLES. 

For a new variety of Winter Apple, originated in this County, 
equal or superior to the Baldwin, premium, $100 

For a new variety of like character originating elsewhere, pro- 
vided it has been cultivated in the County sufficiently to prove it 
equal or superior to the Baldwin for general purposes, premium, $20 

For a successful experiment in destroying the codling moth and 
other worms destructive to the apple, premium, $25 

Note. — Persons wishing to compete for above must notify Secretary, and 
furnish scions when culled for under his direction, to be tested by the Society. 

SEEDLING POTATOES AND EXPERIMENTS. 

For best Seedling Potato, originating in Essex County, to equal 
in yield, earliness arid quality, the Early liose, and to surpass it in 
one or more of these particulars, premium paid after three years 
trial, $25 

In testing the value of a seedling Potato, the committee are 
instructed to take the sworn testimony of the cultivator with re- 
gard to the yield, after having inspected the crop. 

For the most satisfactory experiment to extend through five 
consecutive years, to settle the following facts relative to raising 
potatoes: — premium, $50 

1st. Will whole, medium sized Potatoes, yield better results 
than pieces cut to two eyes ? 

2d. What will be the result of continuously planting small- 
sized potatoes of the same strain a series of years ? 

3d. Difference between hilling and fiat cultivation. 

4th. Effect, if any, of cutting off seed ends before planting. 



199 

5th. Effects of deep and shallow planting. 

6th. Raising from sprouts alone from same strain. 

7th. Can potatoes having dwarf vines be planted nearer than 
others ? 

8th. Best distance apart for seed in the drill. 

9th. To show the effect of covering the top with earth at sev- 
eral times after they had come up. 

To be raised on not less tban a half-acre of land, uniform in 
character, and all to receive the same kind and quality of manure 
and cultivation, and to be inspected by the committee at the time 
of gathering the crops. 

NEW MEMBERS. 

For the person who obtains the largest number of new members 
for the Society from any Town ®r City before the first day of No- 
vember next, - $6 

Note. — Names of new members, with name of person procuring them, can 
be sent as fast as obtained, to the Secretary of the Society, who will make a 
record of them. 

Persons paying three dollars will receive a " Certificate of Membership," 
which is for life. No fines or assessments are ever imposed and members are 
entitled to vote in ail its transactions, with free use of the Library and a copy 
of the publication of the Society each year. 

ESSAYS AND FARM ACCOUNTS. 

The Essays must be transmitted to the Secretary by the 1st of 
November, with sealed envelopes containing the names of their 
authors, respectively, which shall not be opened by the committee, 
nor shall the names be known to the committee until they shall 
have decided upon the merits of the Essay. 

For original Essays on any subject connected with Agriculture, 
in a form worthy of publication, premiums, $15, $10, $8 

For best statement of Actual Farm Accounts, drawn from the 
experience of the claimant, in a form worthy of publication, pre- 
mium, $10 

For Reports of Committees, who report upon subjects for which 
premiums'are offered by the Society, premiums, $10, $8, $6 

For Statements of Exhibitors, premiums, $8, $4 

COMMITTEES. 

Committees for Judges, and Arrangements for the next Cattle 
Show and Fair, are chosen at the Trustees' Meeting in June next. 



CONTENTS 



Address of William Cogswell, M. D., . . 3 

The 67th Exhibition, . . . .16 

Keport on Fat Cattle, ... 20 

" Bulls, . . . .21 

" « Milch Cows, ... 22 

" " Heifers, . . 26 

« « Working Oxen and Steers, . . 28 

" " Town Teams, . . .28 

" " Steers, .... 29 

" " Stallions, . . . .30 

" " Brood Mares, ... 31 

" " Family Horses, . . .31 

" " Gentlemen's Driving Horses, . 33 

" " Farm Horses, . . .33 

" " Pairs of Farm Horses, . . 34 

" " Colts for Draft Purposes, . . 34 

" " Colts for General Purposes, . . 35 

" " Swine, . . . .36 

" " Sheep, . . . . 36 

" " Poultry, . . . .37 

" < ; Ploughing. ... 43 

" " Agricultural Implements, . . 45 

" " Carriages, ... 49 

" " Dairy, . . . .49 

" " Bread, Honey and Preserves, . 50 

" " Pears, . . . .54 

" " Apples, .... 57 

" " Peaches, Grapes, etc., . . .58 

" " Flowers, . . . 60 

" " Vegetables, . . . .63 

" " Grain and Seed, ... 67 

" " Counterpanes and Afghans, . . 72 



202 



Report on Carpets and Rugs, 

" " Articles manufactured from Leather, 

" " Manufactures and General Merchandise, 

" " Fancy Work and Works of Art, 

" « Children's Work, . 

" " Improving Wet Meadows, 

" " Improving Pasture Land, 

" " Underdraining Land, 

" " Grain Crops, 

" " Root Crops, . 

" " Ornamental Trees, 

" " Cranberries, 

" " Fruit Crops, 

" " New Winter Apples (Writer 87 years of age). 

" " New Members. 

" " Treadwell Farm (Society's, 
Farmers' Institutes, 
Essay, Reclaiming Rocky Pastures, 
Essay, Annuals and their Cultivation, . 
Essay, Cranberry Culture on Cape Cod, 
Report on Essays and Reports, 
Report — In Meraoriam,* 
Treasurer's Report, 
List of Premiums Awarded, 
Recapitulation of Premiums, 
Officers of the Society, 
New Members, 
Changes of Members, 
Corrections of 1886, List, 
List of Officers since Organization of Society, 
List of Premiums offered for 1888, 



U 

75 

75 

76 

80 

81 

83 

85 

87 

89 

102 

107 

118 

119 

121 

122 

125 

133 

141 

149 

154 

157 

166 

167 

174 

176 

177 

17S 

178 

179 

180 



*Died at Haverhill July 14, 1887, William Jeffers, age 68, and Sept. 
21, 1887, Timothy J. Goodrich, age 87. Notice of these deaths was 
received from the Trustee at Haverhill too late to be given elsewhere, 
and more in detail. 



TRANSACTIONS 

FOR THE YEAR 1888, 



LuufJA AuilluULlUi|AL oUulrJlI, 

(ORGANIZED, 1818.) 



COUNTY OF ESSEX, 



IX MA SSA CH I T SK ITS, 



Sixty-sixth Annual Address, 



Hon. HORATIO G. HERRICK, 



OF LAWRENCE. 



WITH PREMIUM LIST FOR 1889. 



PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE SOCIETY. 



SALEM, MASS.: 

SALEM OBSERVER BOOK AND JOB PRINT,. 

1 8 -S 8 . 



ADDRESS. 



Mr. President and Members of the Essex Count// Agri- 
cultural Society : — 

Although with many misgivings as to my ability to 
interest or instruct, it is nevertheless with a pardonable 
pride, as it seems to me, that I stand here to-day. selected 
by the Trustees of this now venerable society, to address 
you ; and am thus honored with a place in the long line 
of men of our own county — all of them — who have 
preceded me in this duty for now seventy successive 
years, with only an occasional exception in its earlier 
days. They were, and are, many of them, illustrious and 
distinguished in the various walks of life, not only in 
agricultural pursuits, but in all the professions, in litera- 
ture and science. Some of them have been of national, 
and more than national fame ; others have quietly and 
unobtrusively pursued their farmer's life among us, fol- 
lowing their own ploughs, cultivating their own acres, 
raising their own crops, but interesting and instructing 
in their addresses no less than those of wider fame and 
broader culture. 

By no means the least of the many benefits conferred 
by this society has been the pleasant association of 
many good men, old and young, during the many years of 
its existence, from all parts of the county ; and the 
forming of new. and the renewal of old acquaintance- 
ships and friendships, — at the annual meeting of members, 
at the more general meeting of the people in the exhi- 



4 

bition hall, at the ploughing match and among the stock 
pens, at meetings of trustees and committees, and, im 
later years, at the Farmers' Institutes. 

Without any boasting, there is no other such county 
agricultural society in the Commonwealth. In most of 
the other counties there are several, aside from the town 
societies. The people do not there as here, all come 
together at the annual Fair of one. 

Middlesex has three; Worcester, five; and several 
others, two. We have but one. The original and the 
present Essex Society covers the whole county, and. in 
our itinerating habit we go into all parts of it. 

An observation of many years leads me to believe that 
there is no county in the Commonwealth where the ac- 
quaintance of the people with each other is so general, — 
where so many people know so many other people, as in 
this. While our territorial compactness, and the unusual 
facilities of transportation and travel between one town 
and another, may have much to do with this, it is yet, I 
think, attributable largely, if not chiefly, to this society — 
to the men who have sustained it, and to the method of 
conducting its fairs and its other business, bringing to- 
gether, year after year, large numbers of the best of our 
people. And when I say no two days in the year are 
mure enjoyable or anticipated with greater pleasure than 
these of our annual fair, I am quite sure I express the 
feeling of many of you, as well as my own. Nowhere 
are there heartier or more cordial greetings, nowhere can 
be found a happier or better company of men and women. 

While it may not have been the original purpose of 
this society, as it is not now its definite or specific aim, to 
improve the social, moral or intellectual condition of the 
people, yet such unquestionably has been the result. 



The men who, seventy years ago, in Cyrus Cummings' 
tavern in Topsfield, organized it, were wise, far seeing, 
public-spirited, patriotic men ; and, while they may have 
"builded better than they knew," they could not have 
failed to consider and to anticipate that the work they 
were doing had other aspects of usefulness and a broader 
significance than simply the improvement of agriculture 
in the county, important as that was. And those on 
whom, year by year, and generation by generation, their 
mantle has fallen, and who have with such prudence, 
wisdom and high regard for public honor and private 
virtue, managed its affairs, or have been largely influential 
in all its work, in its unvarying success and long con- 
tinued usefulness, have been their worthy successors and 
representatives. 

As Dr. Loring said, so wisely and so truly, in his semi- 
centennial address in 1868— " The history of our society 
is identified with almost every active movement for the 
advancement of Essex County for the last fifty years. In 
the early days of its existence the leading statesmen, 
lawyers and educators and farmers of our county came 
up to its support as to a common cause, believing in agri- 
culture as the foundation of the best social and civil 
organization, and inspired with that love of the land 
which always characterizes a brave and lo} r al people. 
Within this circle all religious and political controversies- 
have been stilled ; all social rivalries and distinctions have 
been forgotten." 

The specific purpose and object of this society undoubt- 
edly is, as its name implies, and as all its history goes to 
show the promotion and advancement of agriculture, and 
its closely allied pursuits of horticulture, floriculture and 
arboriculture, right here in our own county of Essex, 



among our own people, and, without being justly charge- 
able with selfishness, first of all for our own benefit. 
But we, for ourselves, and representing the farmers of 
the county, are interested not only in agriculture but in 
the good order and well being of society, in establishing 
and maintaining good homes, the best citizenship and the 
best social life. 

You are here, we are all here, as men and citizens, 
proud of our citizenship, appreciating its privileges and 
its blessings, desirous and determined to transmit them 
to our children and our children's children, impressed, I 
trust, with a sense of the high duties and responsibilities 
it imposes, and recognizing always the constant claims of 
society and the state upon us. 

The best farmer, in the largest and best sense of the 
word, is the best citizen ; that is to say, the better the 
farmer the better the citizen. 

He is honest — honest with himself, honest with his 
ground. He is not always taking from it and never re- 
turning ; he gives back a fair share of what he takes 
from it ; he does not expect " to eat his cake and have it 
too." If he takes away potash, or nitrogen, or phosphoric 
acid, he will put some back in one way or another — 
either returning it in kind or growing a crop that does 
not call for it, and allowing the forces of nature and her 
resources, in earth or air, time and opportunity to make 
restoration. He does not believe that plants of any kind 
will grow with nothing to feed on. Win- will a man 
waste his time, labor and money scratching over ten acres 
when he hasn't manure enough for but five ? and when 
the five will give him a better immediate return, and in 
each successive year also, than the ten, with half the 
labor ? Any man, you will say, is a fool to buy ten shares 



7 

of stock that will pay only o per cent., when lie can buy 
five that will pay 6 for half the money. 

He is honest with his soil, and will not expect a "good 
stand of grass " from a peck where he ought to have 
sowed a bushel, nor will he cheat himself by mixing a 
little old onion seed, left over from last year, with his 
new, rather than waste it by throwing it away, as he 
ought to. 

He is honest with his stock, and will not think he can 
cheat his cattle and horses out of good feed and full 
rations and yet get good work out of them every day in 
the year, and twenty quarts of milk from his cows. In 
fine, he will not expect to get something from nothing. 

He is honest with his neighbors, lie will be more than 
what hard-faced men call honest. He will be accommo- 
dating and neighborly ; he will not persist in keeping a 
breach v cow or ox to the great damage and constant 
annoj^ance of his neighbor; he will wring the neck of 
every fowl he has, rather than that they should scratch. 
up his neighbor's garden, and eat his tomatoes and corn ; 
will be the Good Samaritan always, rather than Priest or 
Levite. Finally, he will be " honest in the sight of all 
men." 

He seeks lo have the best home, and when 1 say 
home, 1 mean a /tome, not one of the highest style in 
furniture, in ornaments, and decorations and table appoint- 
ments, not the foolish apeing of fashion and wealth — 
but a home of comfort, of peace, of good breeding, good 
manners, of love and hospitality. 

The best farmer is what St. Paul said a Bishop ought 
to be — and I don't know why a farmer shouldn't be as 
good a man as a Bishop — "blameless, the husband of one 
wife, vigilant, sober, of good behaviour, given to hospital- 



8 

ity, not given to wine, no striker, not greedy of filthy 
lucre : but patient, not a brawler, not covetous : one that 
ruleth well his own house, having his children in subjec- 
tion with all gravity."* 

He is intelligent; he reads: he thinks: and if some- 
times he reads less he thinks and observes the more. He 
is intelligent enough to investigate — if not with the ac- 
curacy and thoroughness of the scientific man, yet with 
the sound, common sense of the practical man — new 
theories and new suggestions connected with farm and 
garden, and to accept and use every new discovery of 
science, so far as applicable or useful in his calling. He 
does not trouble himself much, perhaps, with philosophi- 
cal speculations, and Darwin and Herbert Spencer may 
not be as familiar to him as Professor Goessman's reports 
from the experiment station at the Agricultural College, 
the Reports of the State Board, the "Massachusetts 
Ploughman and the New England Farmer. He may not 
.give much attention to the various theories of evolution, 
but he does believe in heredity, that "blood will tell," 
and in "the survival of the fittest:'* and if the fittest 
will not survive without help he will make it survive. 
He believes in making the fittest calf and colt, the fittest 
plant and vegetable and fruit survive, and with almost 
Spartan indifference and coolness he will get rid of all 
inferior and defective animals and plants and fruits. 

He believes in agriculture as a science and as an art. 
With the science he does not claim to be familiar, but he 
will not presume to rail against scientific deductions and 
teachings — against the facts of science — but will test 
them by his own good sense, by careful observation and 
experience, and by a practical, actual application. He 
believes in availing himself, as far as possible, of every 



aid within his reach. He sees with his own eyes what 
great advancement has been made in farming-, and recog- 
nizes the important part science has had in effecting it, 
and especially, it ought to be said here, does he acknowl- 
edge the obligation every farmer, in this Commonwealth 
at least, is under to Professor Gcessman, of the Agricul- 
tural College, for his investigations and experiments, and 
to the Board of Control of the experiment station, and 
•to the State Board of Agriculture for publishing them. 

And not to them only, but to the College itself, is the 
agriculture of the Commonwealth greatty indebted. By 
it a great stimulus has been given to agricultural pursuits 
and agricultural and its related studies, among our young 
men particularly; nor is the number limited by any 
means, to its students and graduates. It has largely 
tended to place, indeed it has placed, the farmer and the 
business of farming abreast with what have been called 
the learned professions, with every occupation that calls 
for intelligent and educated men. It has showed to the 
people that good farming makes a draft on brains, as well 
as on muscle, and that the draft is quite as likely to be 
honored as in mercantile, professional, mechanical, or 
scientific life. It has showed to young men, or has great- 
ly helped to show them, that the field for gratifying a high 
and honorable ambition is as promising here in agriculture 
as elsewhere, and that the way is as open and inviting to 
him as elsewhere, to an honorable position in society and 
to the honors that come in civil life, to a place among the 
educated and influential men of his town or his state. 
And to this, the farmer — the young farmer — has a right, 
and it is his duty to expect to be called. 

I think it will be agreed that there has been, in the last 
fifteen years, a large increase in the number of intelligent, 



IO 

well educated young farmers in our county and in the 
Commonwealth, and as they grow older, and as the num- 
ber increases, as I doubt not it will, they will surely come 
to be recognized, as they ought to be, as important forces 
and factors in all that goes to make the best society, the 
noblest state, in education, in legislation, in morals. 

Of course I do not mean to say that all the students 
and graduates of the college have become farmers ; but a 
large proportion of them have, or have entered upon pur- 
suits closely connected with agriculture. Those who 
have not, have gone out with a high respect — much dif- 
ferent from what they would have had but for their con- 
nection with the college — for the farmer's life and pur- 
suits ; and ready, as they grow into influential positions 
in life, to identify themselves with their interests and to 
recognize their rights in society and in the state. 

There have been thirty-eight young men connected 
with the college from this count}', since its establishment. 
Of this number nineteen have graduated ; others have 
taken a partial course ; four are now in college ; ten are 
engaged in farming pursuits.' 

The best farmer does not cling to, nor discard, old ways 
and appliances because they are old ; nor sneer at a thing 
because it is new, nor lose his head and run wild over 
every new invention, or new seed, or new feltilizer. He 
carries on his farm, not for the poetry or romance of the 
thing — as a mere sentiment — but as a profession, a busi- 
ness, from which to get a living and something more ; 
but he is not therefore insensible to the charms of nature 
— neither his ears or his eyes are closed to her beauties or 
to her voices. 

Have you ever stood by a potter's wheel and seen what 
will come out of a lump of clay ? If not, go over to 



1 1 

Beverly and stand by the potter's wheel there, as he takes 
a piece of soft, shapeless clay and places it on his wheel* 
and watch the process, how, under the magic touch of his 
hand and fingers and the correctness of his eye, and the 
genius within him, it will begin to grow out of its un- 
comeliness and to take on new and changing forms until, 
ere you know it, it has become a marvel, almost the per- 
fection, of beauty. Our best farmer — hard and prosaic 
as some superficial, blatant prater about the beauties of 
nature may think him to be, sees a process constantly 
going on of which the potter's work is only a semblance, 
a suggestion. He sees, and is not forever talking about 
it either, forms of beauty springing up and developing at 
his very feet and all about him, filling his eyes — the work 
of the Divine Potter. He is not the stolid, stupid wight 
many a man who ought to know better, or who puts on a 
patronizing air for what he thinks he can make out of it, 
takes him to be. He says, or if he does not say, he feels, 
with Bryant, 

•' My heart is awed within me when I think 

Of the great miracle that still goes on, 

In silence, round me — the perpetual work 

Of thy creation, finished, yet renewed 

Forever." 
He may not go into rhapsodies over bleating Hocks, and 
lowing herds and the breath of kine, but he does know 
a good cow when he sees her, and can see every line of 
beauty in her too — in her head and her horns, in her 
neck and body, milk veins and udder, especially if she 
fills a ten-quart pail night and morning. He knows 
some things about cows better even than a former Judge 
of one of our higher courts. The Judge was holding a 
court in one of the western counties (say Berkshire), and 
after the adjournment for the day, taking a walk, he met 



12 

another Judge whose home was in the same town. Said 
the latter, as they met, "Well Judge, what have you been 
trying in your court to-day?'* "We have been all day 
trying a case about a farrow cow." "By the way, 
Judge," said he, " what is a farrow cow ?" " A farrow 
cow, Judge !" said the other, noted for his humor, with a 
twinkle in his eye, " don't you know what a farrow cow 
is ? A farrow cow is a heifer that never had a calf," and 
on that theory I suppose that case was tried through. 

Robert Burns consoled himself over his defeat in a 
stooking match, saying, " Weel ! but /made a sang- while 
1 was stooking." Even our best farmer may not be able 
to do that, nor to make as sweet a song as did Burns 
when he turns up a mouse's nest with his plough, but he 
will walk in the furrow and work in the harvest field, 
with a more hopeful and thankful heart, and go to bed 
sober. 

The best farmer will recognize, always, the wisdom and 
goodness of an All-wise Providence, and will s6e in the 
returning seasons, in the heavens above him and in the 
earth beneath his feet, in the gently falling dew, in the 
snow and the rain, in the heat of summer and the cold 
of winter, in the fiercest rays of a summer sun and in the 
drizzly, foggy dog days, in the quiet beauty of the Indian 
summer and the harvest moon, and no less in the melan. 
choly days of chill November, — 

" The saddest of the year, — 

Of wailing winds, and naked woods 

And meadows brown and sere," 
the same Divine Father, who, it is said, "left not himself 
without witness, in that He did good, and'gave us rain 
from heaven and fruitful seasons, filling our hearts with 
food and gladness ;" and " without whose notice not even 
a sparrow falleth to the ground." 



*3 

With more trials, vexations arid annoyances, and more 
frequent temptations to complain of his lot, and more 
unexpected losses — here and there — than a man in almost 
any other calling, he will still, remembering - the great 
compensations of his life, possess his soul in patience, 
and learn from daily experience and observation how best 
to provide against avoidable accidents ; at least, will 
make it sure they do not come from his own carelessness 
and neglect. Pursuing the even tenor of his way, paying 
his taxes without grumbling, going to town meetings and 
sometimes having something to say, and to church ; send- 
ing his children to school, and, perhaps, one to college, 
he is not carried off his feet, nor disturbed by all he reads 
and hears about great fortunes made in a day, or, if not 
quite so rapidly, yet at the expense of honor and honesty, 
of health and the enjoyments of home ; nor by great 
booms in real estate somewhere in the South or AVest. 
He will not sell his farm for half what it is worth and go- 
to Florida or Southern California, in the expectation of 
more money and less labor in the orange groves of the 
former state and the marvellous growths of trees and 
fruits and vegetables of the latter. 

He hears the call to " fresh fields and pastures new," 
and he longs for them, but he believes in having them at 
home — making them with his own hands, by his own 
labor and skill, by good cultivation, with good manure 
and enough of it. He is not deluded by the cry of a 
virgin soil of unexampled fertility in far off western 
fields, when he can restore the fertility of the old and 
bring back the more than blushing beauty, the vitality 
and productive capacity of the earlier and youthful life. 

One of the orators of this society, years ago, said in 
his address. " the first and great motive to be urged upon 



14 

the owner of the farm house, is, to secure thereto the 
attachment of his children." 

Indorsing this eminently true sentiment, I would en- 
large it, and add to it, by saying, that among- our first 
duties at least, is to secure the attachment of our children, 
and strengthen our own, not only to their and our own 
farms and farm houses — our own homes — but to the good 
old county itself, to all that has made it what it has been 
and is. And what it has been— in the origin, habits and 
character of its people — has made it what it is. This is 
especially true as to the agricultural portion of the people, 
for upon the character of a people depends very largely 
the character of its agriculture. Out of the character 
and habits of the farmers of this county for more than 
two centuries has grown their character of to-day. 

On this occasion, in this ancient town, in this presence, 
before an almost exclusively Essex county audience, I 
cannot believe it to be out of place to say, that we can- 
not too often recall the circumstances of the immigration 
of our ancestors to the shores of Massachusetts Bay, to 
the harbor of Naumkeag. Nor can we too thoroughly 
study their character, their motives, their lives ; or be- 
come too familiar with the story of their heroic sufferings, 
their patient endurance, their exposures to all the dangers 
and perils of a new country and an inhospitable climate, 
subsisting, as it is said, on " clams, ground nuts and 
acorns ;" with their sacrifices of the comforts and luxuries 
of their homes of ease and plenty left forever behind 
them ; the sundering of family ties and all the dear re- 
lationships of home. 

It can never be in vain that we look back upon the men 
from whom we have sprung, and trace through the inter- 
mediate years the steps they, and the generations follow- 



*5 

ing, have trod in the paths of social life, of trade and 
commerce and agriculture, in all the untried walks and 
ways of men who laid the foundations and built this fair 
fabric of government. It can never be in vain that we 
bring before us the long, illustrious procession of honored 
names of the Colony, the Province, and the Revolution, 
and of later years. It is a strong, natural propensity to 
do so, if they be of our kindred, but it is no less a solemn 
duty to acknowledge the obligation Ave are under to 
them, whether of our kindred or not. Their honor, their 
devotion to a sense of duty, their achievments, their 
lives — all are our common heritage. Nor can we preserve 
what they wrought for themselves and for us, without a 
careful and an appreciative study and comprehension of 
what they were and what they did. 

Nowhere as in this ancient county of Essex, can we 
walk about as in their very footsteps, and stand as it 
were in their very presence. The very ground on which 
we tread, in many parts of this county seems almost 
resonant with the echoes of their footsteps, and the air 
filled with the voices of the sturdy men and brave 
women, the picture of whose lives and character two cen- 
turies have not dimmed, to him who looks upon it with 
loving eyes. 

Here in Essex, the best farmer — as he is the best citizen 
always — believes in Essex county, in her history, her 
traditions, the character of her people from the first until 
now ; nor does witchcraft or the persecution of Quakers 
and heretics shake his faith. He believes in the seed 
originally planted here more than two hundred and fifty 
years ago, and in the vitality and product of it, as it has 
appeared and grown generation after generation until 
now. He believes in Conant and Endicott, and Brad- 



i6 

street and Saltonstall and Nathaniel Ward of Ipswich and 
his " Body of Laws."' and their compeers and successors, 
names equally worthy, hut too long - a list to call here, — 
in their independence, their courage, their endurance, 
their faith and piety — that the high qualities which dis- 
tinguished them have been perpetuated in their descen- 
dants, and that we owe them a debt of gratitude it were 
hard to pay. And as they, with all our early ancestors, 
came across the sea for freedom of conscience, and to 
escape the intolerable exactions of church and state, to 
hardship, to privation, and to an unbroken wilderness, 
the best citizen, whether farmer or not, remembering 
their immigration and our descent, and the many thou- 
sands who have since come to us from every land, English- 
men, Irishmen, Germans and Scandinavians, and who 
have become a part of our best citizenship in every sphere 
of life, welcomes those who still come to us, provided they 
are of the kind who wish to become, and will make good 
citizens, honest, law-abiding, ready to do any honest 
work : but he has no welcome nor open arms for, but the 
strongest possible protest against, paupers, criminals, and 
anarchists. 

He believes that no other county in the Commonwealth 
has a Merrimac river running its entire length on one 
side — once making its way unvexed to the sea, but now, 
subject to the brain and hand of man, turning hundreds 
of wheels and driving innumerable spindles, supporting, 
or the smiling witness to the multiform industries, and 
the homes of its beautiful, busy and thriving towns and 
cities ; and, on the other, a sea coast like that from 
Nahant to the extreme point of Cape Ann. 

That nowhere else in this Commonwealth, as in our 
own count}' — with an area of less than five hundred 



17 

-square miles, being territorially one of the smaller coun- 
ties, while it is the third in the aggregate, and second in 
the density, of population, can be found so many cities 
and large and populous towns, as well distributed over 
the county, the people of which are chiefly engaged in 
manufactures, where all are consumers and few producers 
of the farmers' products, furnishing a market almost at 
his door for every product of farm and garden, and a 
steam railroad to every town in the county save Nahant 
and West Newbury, and to the latter, a horse railroad. 

Consider for a moment, and as you consider, imagine 
you have a map of the county before you. There are 
I/ynn with 50,000 inhabitants ; Salem with 30,000; Glou- 
cester with nearly or quite 25,000 ; Newburyport with 
15,000 : Haverhill with about 25,000 ; Lawrence with 
40,000, together with the large towns of Marblehead, 
Peabody, Beverly, Danvers, Amesbury and the Andovers. 
And then add to the permanent population, the large and 
constantly increasing number of summer residents, almost 
literally covering our marvellously beautiful sea-shore, 
for three or four months of the year, giving employment 
to hundreds of mechanics and laborers, and ready to eat 
and pay for about everything the farmers of that part of 
the county can raise. And consider further, that of the 
three hundred and fifty towns in the Commonwealth 
more than half of the towns of Essex are within the first 
one hundred in population — that in the manufacture of 
boots and shoes, leather, carriages, clothing (including 
hats), and flax, hemp and jute goods, in fisheries and 
quarrying, and ship building, the county of Essex takes 
the lead of every other, except, in some few instances, 
Suffolk. 

Think again of the mills and machine shops of Law- 



i8 

rence, Metlmen, the Audovers and Amesbury; the tan- 
neries of Peabody and Salem ; the shoe factories of Lynn 
and Haverhill, and many of the smaller towns : the car- 
riage manufacturing of Amesbury and Merrimac : the 
fisheries of Gloucester and the quarrying of Rockport y 
with the great variety of smaller industries in almost 
every town; and then ask yourselves if the farmer's 
opportunities and advantages in Essex county are equalled 
by those of any other. 

But " does farming pay?" is the question often asked, 
and properly. Without stopping to ask what the ques- 
tioner means by "pay," or to discuss what is a fair equiva- 
lent for a man's labor of brain, or hand, or both, save to 
answer no, if he means a great fortune, as that word goes 
nowadays, 1 have only time to say this, in closing this 
address. 

Confessedly agriculture is the great business of this 
country. It leads every other, almost all others put to- 
gether. It is the foundation of all material national 
prosperity and success. However many failures there are 
in it, however many who are poor, who live from hand to 
mouth (and all statistics, confirmed by any careful obser- 
vation and investigation, will show there are less than in 
any other occupation), can it be possible that a business 
which has more invested in it, and the products of which 
are greater than in any other, that carries every other on 
its back and the back not broken yet, but rather growing 
stiffer and stronger every dny y can fail to be reasonably 
remunerative at least, to him who conducts it wisely ? 
The truth is, some it pays, and some it does not ; like 
every other business, it depends on the man. 

To the farmer his farm is the principal part of his 
capital. If he allows a large part of it to lie idle, neg- 



19 

lected and unimproved, he cannot expect any return 
from it, but rather, with its inevitable depreciation, with 
taxes, cost of fences, etc., that not only it, but himself, 
will grow poorer. And herein is a fair illustration of 
what demagogues ring the charges on, that "the rich 
grow richer and the poor poorer." It is as true now as 
when the words were first uttered, and will be forever 
true — " To him that hath shall be given, and from him 
that hath not shall be taken awa} T even that he hath." 

It may possibly do sometimes, under some circumstan- 
ces, to allow ground to lie fallow — it may do for the pur- 
pose of experiment, by scientific men — a man may do so 
who has so much land that he does not know what to do 
with it, but as a practice it don't do at all. The old 
prophets who cried so vigorously to their countrymen to 
break up the fallow ground of their hearts, evidentlj'- knew 
what fallow ground was, and that fallow ground and 
hard hearts are alike unproductive of any good thing 
and will surely bring the possessor to grief. 

To the farmer who complies with all reasonable require- 
ments and conditions of success in his occupation equally 
with the manufacturer, the merchant, the mechanic, the 
lawyer or the doctor in his ; who lays his plans for more 
than one season : who thinks the ground is equal to and 
the season long enough for more than one crop, often for 
several ; who believes that he, as well as the sagacious 
merchant or capitalist, can turn his capital over often ; 
who takes advantage of the teachings of science, of his 
own and other people's observation and experience : who 
has learned how to draw up the moisture from below the 
surface and to bring it down from above ; who believes 
the time has gone by in a farmer's business when brain is 
divorced from hand, — to him the ground will respond, 



20 



and respond generously, to every reasonable demand. 
He will then conclude, after all, as 1 doubt not most of 
us have concluded, that the actual productive capabilities 
of a single acre of land have not yet been fully ascer- 
tained. 



SIXTY-EIGHTH 

Annual Cattle Show and Fair 



The Cattle Show and Fair of this Society opened under 
very favorable circumstances on Sept. 25th, at Peabody, 
with good weather, a good show and good attendance, giv- 
ing promise of a great success, which changed before the 
dawn of the 26th to bad weather, very bad, with a miser- 
able show (on the grounds), and no attendance except 
from necessity, and curiosity for effects. 

The exhibits on the Show Grounds exceeded by 126 the 
number of the previous year. In the Exhibition Halls the 
entries were seven more than the previous year ; the show of 
fruit was less in quantity although of average quality. The 
exhibit of Domestic Manufactures was larger and better as a 
whole than the year previous. For particulars of Hall Ex- 
hibits reference may be had to the report of Superintendent 
of Hall, preceding reports of Hall Committees. 

On the morning of the second day, the violent gale blew 
down the k - Poultry Tent," damaging it badly, although 
with very little damage to its contents. Some of the coops 
were broken, and their inmates, when captured, were put 
into the first coops handy, causing a mixture of breeds and 
ownerships that took days to straighten. The Poultry 
Judge, who was at work in the tent with a few lookers on, 
had to jump and run, at the warning rip of the tent, and 
narrowly escaped injury ; the Superintendent of the Grounds 
barely escaping a heavy blow on the head from a slatting 
stake as the tent went down. 

In a short time the lk Implement Tent," also containing the 
exhibit of Carriages, went down without damage to its con- 
tents other than by water. At 10 A. M. not a tent re- 
mained standing upon the grounds. Most of the stock had 



been provided for under cover, but the storm was so severe 
and having done so much damage, it was decided to allow 
the stock to he taken away, and indefinitely postpone the 
plowing match and trial of harrows. 

A fine evening following the storm brought out a fair at- 
tendance at the hall, and it having heen decided to keep 
the hall exhibit open another day, the attendance on 
the third day saved the Society from financial loss, the 
total receipts meeting the expenses of the Fair with a small 
balance left. 

On Wednesday, the second day of the Fair, notwith- 
standing the storm and without the formality of the usual 
procession, the memhers and others, with a good sprinkling 
of ladies, went to the Peabody Institute and listened to an 
excellent address from Hon. Horatio G. Herrick of Law- 
rence, as all who listened to it and all who have read the 
preceding pages will testify. The audience joined in sing- 
ing "America," after the opening prayer by Rev. Mr. 
Sprague, of Peabody, and with "Old Hundred" before 
the benediction, and they were sung with fervency and zeal. 

After the address steps were taken to the Rink, where 
the Annual Dinner was well served and appreciated, after 
which President Ware was " caned " very handsomely by 
Dr. William Cogswell of Bradford, in behalf of the mem- 
hers of the Society, who desired to present him with some 
testimonial of their esteem and appreciation of his long, 
faithful service and interest in the Society's welfare. The 
speeches which followed from Hon. William R. Sessions, 
Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture, Hon. George 
B. Loring, Gen. William Cogswell, M. C, Hon. H. G. Her- 
rick, Hon. Asa T. Newhall, and others, were the best of 
after-dinner speeches, — witty, patriotic, enthusiastic and 
instructive, — and those who were kept away by the storm 
will never know what they lost, which those present did. 
Letters of regret at their inability to be present from Gen. 
B. F. Butler, and members of Congress from Essex County 
Districts, were read. A resolution was passed extending 
the Society's thanks to the Boston & Maine Railroad, the 



23 

Town Officers of Peabocly, the Chief Marshal and his aids, 
and others who had rendered efficient aid in arranging and 
managing the Annual Exhibition. Those present, also by 
vote, expressed themselves in favor of the Trustees having 
the Fair held another year in Peabody. 

The Entries in the several departments of the Fair for the 
two years in Peabody, 1887 and 1888, are tabulated for 
comparison, as follows: — 

STOCK, IMPLEMENTS, ETC., ON FREE SHOW GROUNDS. 



Entries 
Class. in 
188S. 


From Dif- 
ferent pi aces 
in 1888. 


Entries From 
in ferent pli 

1887. . in 188' 


Dif- 

ices 


Fat Cattle, 4 


4 


4 


4 


Bulls, 10 


5 


10 


4 


Milch Cows, 9 


3 


10 


4 


Herd of Milch Cows, 1 


1 


1 


1 


Heifers, First Class, 6 


2 


7 


3 


Heifer Calves, First Class, 4 


3 


5 


3 


Heifers, Second Class, 18 


6 


17 


5 


Heifer Calves, Sec. Class, 5 


3 


3 


2 


Working Oxen & Steers, 10 


4 


8 


o 
O 


Town Teams, 3$ 


prs. Horses? 
prs. Oxen. ) " 


T S 11 Yoke ? 
1 I Oxen. $ 


1 


Steers, 2 


1 


1 


1 


Stallions, First Class, 4 


4 


3 


3 


Stallions, Second Class, 4 


3 


2 


2 


Brood Mares, 10 


5 


10 


6 


Family Horses, 8 


6 


1 


1 


Gents' Driving Horses, 7 


6 


6 


5 


Farm Horses, 10 


7 


9 


7 


Pairs of Farm Horses, 8 


6 


11 


8 


Colts for Draft Purposes, 2 


2 


4 


3 


Colts for Gen'l Purposes, 16 


7 


16 


10 


Swine, First Class, 14 


5 


. 3 


1 


Swine, Second Class, 5 


3 


3 


2 


Sheep, 5 


3 


4 


1 


Poultry, 123 


11 


71 


10 


Harrows for trial, 3* 


2 








Agricultural Implements,63 


4 


15 


6 


New exhibit. 









?4 



Carriages, 


10 


9 


12 


3 


Ploughing, 


17 


9 


18 


10 


Total on Free Show 





— 








Grounds, 


381 


26 


255 


21 



EXHIBITS IX HALL. 



Class. 

Dairy, 

Bread, Honey and 

Preserves, 
Pears, 
Apples, 
Peaches, Grapes and 

Assorted Fruits, 
Flowers, 
Vegetables, 
Grain and Seed, 
Counterpanes and 

Afghans, 
Carpetings and Rugs, 
Articles mauufactured 

from Leather, 
Manufactures and 

General Mdse., 
Fancy Work and Works 

of Art, 
Work of Children 

under 12 years, 



Entries 
in 

1888. 


From Dif- 
ferent Towns 
and cities 
in 1888. 


From Dif- 

Kntiies feieiit Towns 
in and ( iiie> 
1887. in 1887. 


8 


6 


8 


8 


96 


12 


61 


11 


236 


18 


275 


2.0 


246 


23 


320 


25 


86 


6 


121 


15 


84 


11 


70 


11 


399 


22 


299 


26 


18 


10 


35 


17 


105 


10 


74 


6 


51 


10 


05 


7 


13 


5 


32 


4 


2!> 


7 


26 


7 


ks 








257 


17 


22; » 


9 


45 


9 


21 


5 



1673 



31 



1666 



33 



Grand Total, 2054 entries from 32, out of 35 towns and 
cities in Essex County, against 1921 entries from 33 towns 
and cities last year. Merrimac, Methuen and Nahant did 
not have exhibits this year. The entries were from 
Amesbury, 26: Andover, 11 ; Beverly, 36 ; Boxford, 27 :. 



25 

Bradford, 22 ; Danvers, 211 ; Essex, 82; Georgetown, 1]^ 
Gloucester, 1 ; Groveland, 11 ; Hamilton, 5 ; Haverhill, 
32; Ipswich, 13; Lawrence, 12; Lynn, 103; Lynnfield, 
22; Manchester, 1; xMarblehead, 110; Middleton, 37; 
Newbury, 62 ; Newburyport, 11 ; North Andover, 17 ; 
Peabody, 831; Rockport, 1; Rowley, 21; Salem, 180; 
Salisbury, 2; Saugus, 19; Swampscott, 17; Topsneld, 20; 
Wenhain, 9 ; West Newbury, 31 ; Out of the County, 26 ; 
Unknown, 2. 



KEPOKTS OF COMMITTEES. 



FAT CATTLE. 

The Committee on Fat Cattle have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 
$>8. First premium, to Daniel Carlton, North Andover, 

for 1 pair of oxen, weight 3360 lbs;. 
$6. Second premium, to B. P. Richardson, Middleton, 

for 1 pair of oxen, weight 3705 lbs. 
$7. First premium, to Win. A. Russell, Lawrence, for 
Holstein Fresian fat cow, 3 years old, weight 1125 
lbs. 
$5. Second premium, to Francis O. Kimball, Danvers, 
for 1 fat cow, " Topsy," weight 1200 lbs. ; breed, 
Hereford. Has given milk one year. Comes in 
again in January. 
J. N. Rolfe, Wm. H. Smith, S. Swett — Committee. 

STATEMENT OF DANIEL CARLTON. 

To the Committee on Fat Cattle : 
Gentlemen. — The fat cattle I offer for premium are 5 



26 

years old, and weighed Sept. 15, on Andover scales, 3360 
lbs. They have been worked, more or less, nearly every 
day during the summer, having hauled 75 tons of hay, a 
large portion from meadows, besides doing other farm 
work. When not at work they were given the run of a 
brush pasture near the barn, and were stabled every night, 
and given two quarts of Indian meal each, with hay or 
corn fodder. When doing heavy work in the spring their 
grain ration was increased by giving them two quarts each 
of cotton seed meal mixed with an equal quantity of shorts 
in addition to the Indian meal. 

Yours respectfully, 

Daniel Carlton. 
No. Andover. Sept. 25, 1888. 

STATEMENT OP B. P. RICHARDSON. 

Sept. 24th. 
To tli e Committee on Fat Cattle: 

The cattle which T enter for premium are seven years 
old and weigh to-day 3705 pounds. I bought them a little 
more than a year ago. At that time they were very thin 
in flesh and weighed only 2500 pounds. While I have 
owned them they have done all the heavy teaming on my 
farm. I have fed them on English and meadow hay and 
about four quarts of meal each per day, until within about 
a month, when I have fed sweet corn fodder instead. 

Yours, 

B. P. Richardson. 

STATEMENT <>K YVM. A. UTSSELL. 

To the Committee on Fat Cattle : 

I enter for your consideration one three-year-old im- 
ported, Registered, Bolstein Fresian heifer, weight 1425 lbs. 
This heifer is barren and has never been in heat. Her 



2 7 

feed the past summer has been pasture and 4 qts. of meal 
per day. 

Respectfully submitted, 

\\\m. A. Russell, 

By Jas. C. Poor, Manager. 



BULLS. 



The Committee on Bulls, have attended to their duty, 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following' awards : 

$8. First premium, to Heirs of C. S. Bradley, West 
Newbury, for Short Horn Bull, " Edmond 7th," 6 
years old. Registered in A. S. H. B., Vol. 28, Page 
131. Bred by C. S. Bradley, West Newbury, Mass. 
Sire, " Edmond 3d," 62,647 ; Dam, "Flora" (Vol. 
15, Page 556) by " Young- Prince John." 18,825. 

$4. First premium, to Heirs of C. S. Bradley, West 
Newbury, for Short Horn Bull, under 2 years 
*Farm, No. 14, calved, Nov. 24, 1886. Bred byC. S. 
Bradley, West Newbury, Mass. Sire, " Glenwood 
3d," 62,887 ; Dam, » Starbrow E.," (Vol. 28, Page 
488) by " Lord Dunmore," 39,664. 

|2. First premium, to Heirs of C. S. Bradley, West 
Newbury, for Short Horn Calf. Numbered at Farm 
35, calved, Oct. 4, 1887. Bred by C. S. Bradley, 
West Newbury. Sire, " Dunmore 5th," 45,987 ; 
Dam, " Rena of Crane Neck," (Vol. 21) by 
" Lowland Comet," 42,198. 

$4. Second premium, to Joshua W, Nichols, Danvers, 
for Jersey Bull " Dirego," 2 years old. 

$4. First premium, to William A. Russell, Lawrence, 
for Holstein Yearling bull, " Ned Bellows," calved, 
May 15, 1887. Sire, "Sir Bellows of Meadow- 
braak." Dam, " Forester," No. 7475, H. H. B. 

Number at Farm. 



28 

$2. First premium, to William A. Russell, Lawrence, 
for Holstein Bull Calf, " Daniel Alexander, 1 " calved, 
Oct. 12, 1887. Sire, •• Lavinia 2d Bismark," No. 
2128, LI. F. H. B. Dam, " Jacoba Alexanda," 
1437. 
$4. Second premium, to W. ('. Cahill, Danvers, for Ayr- 
shire Bull, '" Mars Jr.," No. 1073 j over 2 years old. 
George B. Blodgette, John A. Hoyt, John Parkhurst, 
Horace C. Ware — Committee. 



MILCH COWS. 

The Committee on Milch Cows have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 

-$15. First premium, to Win. A. Russell, Lawrence, for 
best milch cow of any age or breed, Holstein Fre- 
sian cow. " Lady Lyons. " 
$10. First premium, to Win. A. Russell, Lawrence, for 
best milch cow, foreign, native, or grade, Holstein 
Fresian cow, •• Belle Fairfax." 
$4. Second premium, to VVm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for 
milch cow, foreign, native or grade, Holstein Fre- 
sian cow, •• Madam Wit." 
$10. First premium, for milch cow, 4 years old or over, 
Holstein Fresian cow. " Nitallia." 
$4. Second premium, to Win. A. Russell, Lawrence, for 
milch cow, 4 years old and over, Holstein Fresian 
cow, •• Lady Bess." 
$10. First premium, to Heirs of Hon. C. S. Bradley, 
West Newbury, for short horn milch cow, "Earl's 
Dot 4th."' Roan, calved April 5, 1881. Register- 
ed in Vol. 21 of A. S. IL B., bred by C. S.Bradley, 
West Newbury. Sire, " 2d Earl of Autumn." No. 
38,675 : Dam. •• Earl's Dot" (Vol. 3, Page 562) by 
•■ Earl of Autumn,"' No. 38,07.'). 
Win. B. Carlton, George A. Dow, John Barker — Com- 
mittee. 



2 9 
STATEMENT OF RUSSELL COWS. 

To Committee on Milch Cows: 

I enter for best milch cow, of any age or breed, Hol- 
stein-Fresian cow, " Lady Lyons," No. 6805, H. H. B., 7 
years old. Imported in 1884. Milk record from July 
1, 1886s to July 1, 1887, 12,815 pounds. Milk record 
from Aug. I 1887, to July 1, 1888, 14,313 pounds. 
Dropped last calf, Aug. 7, 1888. 10 days' milk in Sept., 
633i pounds. 

For best milch cows, either foreign, native-, or grade, 
Holstein-Fresian cows. 

"Madam Wit," No. 7470, H. H. B„ 6 years old. "Belle 
Fairfax," No. 1117, H. H. B., 7 years old. "Madam Wit" 
■dropped last calf, Dec. 16th, 1887. Milk record from 
Dec. 18 to Aug. 1, 11544 pounds. Due to calve Dec. 17. 
" Belle Fairfax"' dropped last calf, Sept. 18, 1887. Milk 
record from Sept. 18, 1887, to Sept. 25, 1888, 14,840 
pounds. Due to calve Dec. 17. 

For Holstein-Fresian cows 4 years old and upwards. 

"Lady Bess," No. 1051, H. H. B., 9 years old. " Nital- 
lia, M No. 7028, H. H. B., 6 years old. "Lady Bess" 
dropped last calf, April 23, 1888. Due to calve April 19, 
1889. " Nitallia" dropped last calf, March 21, 1888. Due 
to calve April 1, 1889. " Lady Bess" milk record from 
May 1, to Sept. 25, 1888, 6349 pounds. She gave milk 
all of the season before, not going dry at all. " Nitallia" 
milk record from April 1, to Sept. 25, 1888, 7362 pounds. 

For Feed, and manner of feeding, see statement of 
Herd of Milch Cows. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Wm. A. Russell. 

By J. C. Poor, Manager. 



HERD OF MILCH COWS. 

The Committee on Herds of Milch Cows have attended 



30 

to their duty, ami respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 
$18. First premium, to Win. A. Russell, Lawrence, for 
herd of milch cows, Holstcin Fresians. 
Osman Babson — for Committee. 

STATEMENT OF RUSSELL HEKD. 

To the Committee on Herds of Milch Cows : 

I enter for herd of milch cows, Holstein-Fresian cows, 
« Lady Lyons," No. 6805, H. H. B. " Madam Wit," No. 
7476, H. H. B. -Belle Fairfax," No. HIT, H. H. B. 
k - Lady Bess," No. 1051, H. H. B. "Nitallia," No. 7028, 
H. H. B. 

" Lady Lyons " dropped last calf, Aug. 7, 1888. "Madam 
Wit" dropped last calf, Dec. 16, 1887. " Belle Fairfax' 1 
dropped last calf, Sept. 18, 1887. •• Lady Bess " dropped 
last calf, Apr. 23, 1888. ■' Nitallia " dropped last calf, 
Mar. 21, 1888. 

" Lady Lyons" milk record from Sept. 1, 1887, to June 
15, 1888, 12525 lbs. She was dried oft" and turned out to 
pasture June 20, and was not taken to the barn until after 
calving, and Irom Aug. 11 to Sept. 1 she gave 1080 lbs. of 
milk ; 10 days in Sept. (3331 lbs. '■ Lady Bess " milk rec- 
ord from Sept. 1, 1887, to Sept. 1, 1888, is 11564A- lbs. She 
didn't go dry at all, milked the season through without 
going dry. " Madam Wit " milk record from Dec. 18 to 
Sept. 1, 12111 lbs.; for Sept. 1887, 287 lbs. She was dry 
from Sept. 20 to date of calving, Dec. 16. In the month 
of Jan. she gave 2107 lbs. " Belle Fairfax " milk record 
from Sept. 18,1887, to Sept. 25, 1888, 14840 lbs. '■ Na- 
tallia's" milk record from Sept. 1, 1887, to Sept. 1, 1888, 
109142 lbs. She was dry from Feb. 10 to date of calving, 
Mar. 21. 

Care and Feed of Herd of Milch Cows. 

The winter feed of these cows was from 8 to 12 qts. 
bran, four qts. corn meal, and one qt. linseed oil meal. 



3i 

About one-half of this quantity of grain was fed in the* 
morning directly after milking, mixed with ensilage. The 
balance was fed dry at 2.30 P. M. After eating the grain 
they were ted with good hay, with oat, barley or corn fod- 
der mixed with it, and watered in barn twice a day; carded 
and brushed off once a day. 

Two-years-old heifers in milk were fed in same way, but 
not given so much grain as the cows. 

In summer the cows were turned to pasture, which is 
small for the number kept ^about forty head), and have 
been fed two qts. meal morning and night, with Jiay, corn 
or other fodder twice a day, and those giving large flow of 
milk were milked and fed three times a day. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Wm. A. Russell, 

By Jas. C. Poor, Manager. 



HEIFERS, FIRST CLASS. 

The Committee on Heifers, first class, have attended to 
their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 

$4. First premium to heirs of C. S. Bradley, West New- 
bury, for short horn breed, heifer, No. 20, 2 year 
old, never calved. 

$3. Second premium to heirs of C. S. Bradley, West 
Newbury, for short horn heifer, No. 17, 2 years old. 
never calved. 

•^4. First premium to heirs of C. S. Bradley, West New- 
bury, for short horn heifer, No. 29, 1 year old. 

$3. Second premium to heirs of C. S. Bradley, West 
Newbury, for short horn heifer, No. 26, 1 year old. 

$4. First premium to heirs of C. S. Bradley, West New- 
bury, for short horn heifer calf, No. 39. 

$3. Second premium to heirs of C. S. Bradley, West 
Newbury, for short horn heifer calf, No. 40. 



32 

$4. First premium to William A. Russell, Lawrence, for 

Holstein heifer, " Gerrits Emily," No. 4465, H. F. 

H. B., 3 years old, in milk. 
S3. Second premium to William A. Russell, Lawrence, 

for Holstein heifer, " Jacoba Alexanda," No. 4437, 

H. F. H. B., 3 years old, in milk. 
$4. First premium to James C. Poor, North Andover, 

for Holstein heifer calf, " Ereraa P." Calved May 

13, 1888, Sire, " Casuality," No. 4355, H. F. H. B. 

Dam, "Erema 6th," No. 9227. H. F. H. B. 

H. A. Haywood, T. N. Cook, G. W. Sargent, Andrew 
Lane, Jr. — Committee. 



STATEMENT OF SHORT HORN HEIFERS, BRED BY C. S. BRADLEY, 
CRANE NECK HILL FARM, WEST NEWBURY. 

SHORT HORN STOCK. 

No. 20, heifer, calved March 31, 1886. Sire, " Edmond 
7th/' 62648. Dam " Starbrow D." (Vol. 28. Page 438), 
by Lord Dun more, 39664. 

No. 17, heifer, deep red. Calved March 16, 1885. Sire, 
" Edmond 7th," 62648. Dam, " Imperial Rose 9th » (Vol. 
28, Page 438), by " Lord Dunmore." 

No. 29, heifer, head, neck and shoulders red, large star 
in forehead. Calved May 5, 1887. Sire", " Edmond 7th,'' 
62648. Dam, « Imperial Rose 8th " (Vol. 23), by " Oxford 
Gwyne." 

No. 26, heifer, head and neck red with white marks. 
Calved Dec. 1, 1886. Sire, " Edmond 7th," 62648. Dam, 
"Little Buttercup 2d" (Vol. 23), by « Glenwood," 3910:!. 

No. 39, heifer, light roan head and neck. Calved Nov., 
25, 1887. Sire, " Rawley 2d." Dam, " Imperial Rose 9th » 
(Vol. 28, Page 438), by " Lord Dunmore." 

No. 40, heifer, dark red. Calved Feb. 26, 1888. Sire, 
" Rawley 2d." Dam, "Starbrow E." (Vol. 28, Page 438), 
by " Lord Dunmore.'" 



HEIFERS, SECOND CLASS. 

The Committee on Heifers, second class, have attended 
to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 

$8. First premium to James F. Cody. Peabody, for Grade 
Jersey and Dutch, 3 years, 8 mos. old, under 4 yrs. 
in milk. 

$5. Second premium to Wm. A. Jacobs, Danversport. 
for native 3 year old. 

$4. First premium to Francis 0. Kimball, Danvers, for 
Grade Holstein, 2 years old, not calved. 

$L First premium to Wm. Perkins, 2d, Peabody, for 
Grade 1 year old, Jersey and Holstein. 

$3. Second premium to Ira F. Trask, Hamilton, for Jer- 
sey and Native, twin yearling. 

*4. First premium to Peter Shehan, Peabody, for 5 mos. 
calf, Holstein and Ayrshire. 

$3. Second premium to Arthur E. Fuller, Danvers, for 
4 mos. calf, native. 

John Haseltinc, N. P. Perkins, B. Frank Barnes — Com- 
mittee. 



WORKING OXEN AND STEERS. 

The Committee on Working Oxen and Steers have at- 
tended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secre- 
tary that they have made the following awards : 

$12. First premium to Lyman S. Wilkins, JVLddleton, for 

working oxen, 5 years old, weight 2580 lbs. 
$10. Second premium, to B. H. Farnum, North Andover. 

for working oxen, 4 years old, weight 2765 lbs. 
88. Third premium, to James C. Poor, North Andover, 

for working oxen, 5 years old, weight 3260 lbs. 
810. First premium, to Samuel Thayer, Andover, for 

working steers, 4 years old, weight 2425 lbs. 



$6. Second premium, to Jacob L. Farnura, North An- 
dover, for working steers, 4 years old, weight 28615 
lbs. 

Abel Srickney, J. A. Lamson, B. S. Barnes, J. P. Little 
— Committee. 

SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT ON WORKING OXEN AND STEERS. 

The Committee on Working Oxen and Steers were 
pleased to see so much interest manifested, and so many 
ready to enter their teams to compete for the premiums 
offered by the Society. There were on the ground eight 
pairs of oxen, and two pairs of steers that were ready to 
start when the committee were ready to watch their move- 
ments, and we thought that a good number for these days 
of u no-oxen." 

The place which the Committee on Drafting had selected 
for this trial was not satisfactory to our Committee, and by 
their consent the place was changed to a comparatively new 
street not much used, where the work of the road was not 
wide, and the road-bed soft, which gave the teams a good 
chance to show the mettle they were made of. In going 
up the hill it required strength, in making the turn •■ good 
training.'' and on the return, when called upon to back the 
load, if it went back the Committee called them good 
" backers." The weight of the oxen on the grounds 
ranged from 2530 to 3260 pounds per pair. The Com- 
mittee were all " ox men," and entered into this trial with 
pleasure, and watched the movement of every pair closely, 
and were unanimous in all their awards. 

Most of the teams on trial did good work and the Com- 
mittee would say that they were good " workers." We 
would say that the oxen owned by Mr. Lyman Wilkins of 
Middleton, which did particularly good work, oxen whose 
weight was only 2530 pounds, the smallest oxen on the 
road ; this pair moved the load of two tons up this hill with- 
out any great effort, tinned handsome, and on the return 
backed the load up hill with more ease than any of the 
larger oxen which went over the road. These oxen were 



well matched and good shape, but small, making the prov- 
erb true, " precious things are done up in small bundles," 
and the Committee felt it their duty to award the first pre- 
mium to Mr. Wilkins, yet thinking that the Committee on 
" Collection of Live Stock " would have taken but little 
notice of this pair among the many much more noble look- 
ing oxen. 

At request and in behalf of the Committee, 

Abel Stickney, Chairman. 

STATEMENT OF JAMES C. POOR. 

To the Committee on Working Oxen : 

I enter for your consideration one pair of oxen, 5 years 
old, weight 3350 lbs. They are grade Holstein. May 1 
they weighed 3000 lbs. Have been worked almost every 
clay since, and fed 6 qts. meal and good hay. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Jas. C. Poor. 



TOWN TEAMS. 

The Committee on Town Teams have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 

First premium, to Town of Lynnfield, for town team 

of 10 pairs of horses. 

First premium, to Town of Topsfield, for town team 

of 11 pairs of oxen. 
$15. First premium, to Town of Middleton, for town team 

of 8 yoke of oxen. 

James P. King, O. L. Carlton, Leverett Herrick — Com- 
mittee. 



STEERS. 

The Committee on Steers have attended to their duty, 



36 

and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 
$5. First premium, to Benj. \Y. Farnum, No. Audover, 

for Yearling Steers. 
$2. Second premium, to Benj. W. Farnum, No. Ando- 
ver, for Steer Calves. -I months old. 
In eonsequence of the storm, the Committee were 
unable to keep an appointment, to meet and examine the 
stock on Wednesday morning, and were prevented by 
other duties and by the delay of the entry book in the 
Secretary's office, from making the awards on Tuesda} r . 
I however, examined the Steers, and am of opinion that 
they should receive the above named premiums, both be* 
cause of merit, and as an encouragement to the young 
man who raised them. The boy who likes a steer team, 
will be likely to stay on the farm if he takes a premium 
now and then at our shows. It is a saying in their part 
of the county, "Where the Farnums are you will find 
good oxen."' Our young friend is following in his father's 
steps in this respect. We hope to see the yearlings take 
the ribbons at the future exhibitions of the Society. 
Charles J. Peabody, 

Chairman of Committee- 



STALLIONS, FIRST CLASS. 

The Committee on Stallions for Farm and Draft Pur- 
poses have attended to their duty, and respectfully report 
to the Secretary that they have made the following 
awards : 

$10. First premium, to Harry Ff. Hale, Bradford, for 
5 years old, " Major Dome." Imported 1885, No. 
4345. 
$5. Second premium, to L. G. Burnham, Essex, for 4| 

years old, " Prince Jr.," weight, 1635 pounds. 
$4. Third premium, to John Parkhurst, Boxford, for 
4 3^ear8 old, " Romeo," weight, about 1300 pounds. 



$8. First premium, to James Kinnear, Ipswich, for 3 
years old, " Wallace,'' weight, about 1100 pounds. 
Geo. B. Loring, Chairman. 

There were four entries in this class ; three of four 
years and upwards, and one of three years old. 

Two of these stallions. " Major Dome" and " Prince 
Jr.," were from imported stock and are valuable horses. 
"Major Dome " is a black horse, purchased by Col. Hale 
of Mr. Dunham of Illinois, one of the largest and most 
successful importers and breeders of his class of horses in 
the country. This horse combines all those qualities 
which give the Percherons their value. His "sire was 
fully up to their best standard and his proportions are in 
admirable conformity with his weight. His gait is light 
and easy for a horse of his size, and the quality of his 
bone and muscle cannot be surpassed. " Prince Jr.," 
born in Lebanon County, Pennsylvania, is also a Percher- 
on of pure blood and great value, nearly equal in his 
points to " Major Dome." The grade Percherons " Wal- 
lace '' and " Romeo,"' are fine specimens of their class. 

M. C. Andrews, S. M. Titcomb, S. D. Hood — Commit- 
tee. 

STATEMENT OF L. G. BURNHAM. 

Description of Percheron Norman Stallion " Prince 
Jr.," Iron Roan, 4| years old, 16i hands high, weight 
1635 pounds, silver mane and tail, remarkably hand- 
some, well proportioned horse with great muscular de- 
velopment and power. Bred in Lebanon County, Pa. Sire, 
"Young Prince," Grand Sire, " Old Prince Imperial," 
Dam, a Percheron Norman mare of great beauty, Dam's 
sire "Pleasant Valley Bill." 



STALLIONS, SECOND CLASS. 

The Committee on Stallions, Second Class (for Driv- 
ing Purposes), have attended to their duty, and respect- 



38 

fully report to the Secretary thai they have made the 
following awards: 

$10. First premium, to C. H. Walker, Georgetown, for 
Stallion, " Fred Knox," ;> > years old. 
$6. Second premium, to Alfred C. Hill, East Saugus, 

for Stallion, "Alex Patchen," 11 years old. 
$5. Second premium, to John Looney, Salem, for Stal- 
lion, " Independence," :> > years old, " NV edge wood" 
stock; color black. 
O.S.Butler, (has. H.. Gould, Edward Harrington — 
Committee. 

STATEMENT OF ALFRED C. HILL. 

Pedigree of Stallion " Alex Patchen," color, Seal 
Brown, age, 11 years, weight, 1030 pounds, by " Rex 
Patchen," 2.o0 : he by "Godfrey's Patchen," sire of 
Hopeful, 2.141 : he by " George M. Patchen.'* Dam, 
" Patty " by " Paddy," a Black Hawk Stallion taken to 
Maine from Vermont. Second dam by " Othello," he by 
Morgan " Eclipse," sired by Morgan " Cesar.'" His sec- 
ond clam was out of a thorough bred mare. 



BROOD MARES. 

The Committee on Brood Mares have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 

$10. First premium, to John Swinerton, Danvers, for bay 

brood mare and foal, " Nellie Hawes,"' sired by 

" Nonpareil," weight 925 lbs. Foaled Apr. 14, 1888. 

$6. Second premium, to 0. N. Fernald, Danvers, for bay 

brood mare and foal, 6 years old, sired by " Hector." 

$4. Third premium, to S. F. Newman, Newbury, for 7 

years old brood mare, weight 1100 lbs. Foal 5 

mos. : weight 470 lbs. 

Asa T. Newhall, David Warren, Nathan R. Morse — 

Committee. 



39 
FAMILY HORSES. 

The Committee on Family Horses have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 

|10. First premium, to M. C. Andrews, Andovcr, for 
family horse " Princess," " Almont " breed, brown 
mare, 7 years old, weight 1060 lbs. 
$6. Second premium, to James A. Croscup, of Lynn, for 
family horse "Fanny," "Morgan" breed, roan 
mare, 6 years old, weight lOoO lbs. 
$4. Third premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for family 
horse, " Nellie Eaton," chestnut mare, 12. years old, 
weight 1100 lbs. 
*The Committee would recommend a gratuity for family 
ponies "Becky" and " Gypsey," exhibited by Charles H. 
Chase, Haverhill. 

Samuel W. Hopkinson, Andrew Lane, Sidney F. New- 
man, David Stiles — CommitUe. 



Note.— 'The Trustees did not suspend the rules to award as recommended. 



GENTS' DRIVING HORSES. 

The Committee on Gents' Driving Horses have attended 
to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 

$10. First premium, to M. C. Andrews, Andover, for dark 
bay mare " Cyclone,'' 7 years old, weight 1075 lbs. 
$6. Second premium, to J. Henry Nason, West Boxford, 
for iron gray Hambletonian gelding, " Doctor," 4| 
years old, weight 975 lbs. 
$i. Third premium, to M. Looney, Salem, for chestnut 
mare, "Kitty Fearnaught," 6 years old, weight 1000 
lbs. 

E. A. Emerson, Chairman, T. R. Leach, A. B. Woodis — 
Committee. 



40 

FARM HORSES. 

The Committee on Farm Horses have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards*: 

110. First premium, to J. II. Perkins, Lynn field Centre, 
for dark bay marc "Maud," 9 years old. weight 1200 
lbs. 
$6. Francis 0. Kimball, Dan vers Centre, for dark brown 

gelding, 9 years old, weight 1165 lbs. 
|4. Third premium, to Fred'k Symonds, North Andover, 
for 9 years old, weight 1060 lbs. 
The Committee have found it a very difficult matter, 
with but three premiums to offer, to select from the twelve 
horses entered — each doing so well. To those most de- 
serving, we have decided upon the above awards. 
Yours respectfully, 

E. S. Parker, 

For the Committee. 



PAIRS OF FARM HORSES. 

The Committee on Pairs of Farm Horses have attended 
to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 
|12. First premium, to Col. PI. H. Hale, Bradford, for 
farm horses, pair of black mares, " Vivian " and 
" Vianda," 5 years old, weight 3560 lbs. 
|8. Second premium, to Amos Pratt, Danvers, for 
"Topsy " and w - Bill/' black mare 7 years old, and 
gray gelding 9 years old, weight 2500 lbs. 
•it'4. Third premium, to T. E. Cox, Jr., Lynnfield Centre, 
for pair 7 and 8 years old. weight 2500 lbs. 
Chas M. Lunt, Albeit Kimball. Moses H. Poore, John 
H. Perkins — Committee. 



COLTS FOR DRAFT PURPOSES. FIRST CLASS. 
No entries. 






4* 

COLTS FOR DRAFT PURPOSES, SECOND CLASS. 

The Committee on Colts for Draft Purposes, Second 
Class, have attended to their duty, and respectfully report 
to the Secretary that they have made the following awards : 
$8. First premium, to H. II. Hale, Bradford, for black 
colt, " Beatrice," 13 months old, weight 843 pounds- 
We consider this colt, an extra colt in all points. 
$5. Second premium, to James J. H. Gregory, Middle- 
ton, for black mare colt, " Fannie," 18 months old, 
weight 750 pounds. Very good for all purposes. 
E. G. Berry, X. S. Harris, G. F. Averill— Committee. 



COLTS FOR GENERAL PURPOSES, FIRST CLASS. 

The Committee on Colts for General Purposes, First 
Class, have attended to their duty, and respectfully report 
to the Secretary that they have made the following awards: 
$8. First premium, to Harry H. Hale, Bradford, Ham- 
bletonian, black mare, " Silver Sea," 4 years old, 
weight 1100 pounds. 
$5. Second premium, to L. L. Morrison, Dan vers, for 
sorrel gelding, 4 years old, Knox breed, weight 1000 
pounds. 
$6. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for " Eaton 
Wilkes," 3 years old, color chestnut, weight 1100 
pounds. 
$3. Second premium, to Harry H. Hale, Bradford, for 
black gelding " Dennis," 3 years old, Morrill breed, 
weight 925 pounds. 
D. A. Pettengill, C. N. Maguire, John Mudge — Commit- 
tee. 



COLTS FOR GENERAL PURPOSES, SECOND CLASS. 
The Committee on Colts for General Purposes, Second 



42 

Class, have attended to their duty, and respectfullyjreport 
to the Secretary that they have made the following awards : 
$5. First premium, to Edwin Hates. Lynn, for yearling- 
colt, " Daisy,'* weight 850 pounds. 
$3. Second premium, to Herbert Jepson, Lynn, for bay 
mare yearling colt. " May Wilkes."' sired by w * Geo. 
"Wilkes." 
$5. First premium, to Charles Saunders, Salem, for bay 
gelding, " Jennie 0.," 2 years old, sired by "Smug- 
gler," weight 820 pounds. 
•$3. Second premium, to Daniel G. Tenney, Newbury, 
for bay mare, "Spright," 2 years old, sired by "Red- 
path," weight 785 pounds. 
*Your Committee would recommend a gratuity to M. 
Looney of Salem, for his yearling colt, "Fearnaught,'" 
Wedgewood, 1 year old. 

Alonzo B. Fellows, Wesley Pettengill, Wm. A. Brown, 
George M. Roundy — Committee. 

The Trustees iiiii ao1 suspend tin' rules, to make award, as recommended. 



SWINE, FIRST CLASS. 

The Committee on Swine, First Class, have attended to 
their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 

$5. Second premium, to John Mahoney, Rowley, for 
Berkshire boar " Rowley." 

$8. First premium, to John Mahoney, Rowley, for Berk- 
shire sow " Margaret." 

!$5. Second premium, to John Mahoney, Rowley, for 
Berkshire sow "Hannah." 

|8. First premium, to Robert G. Buxton, Peabody, for 
Yorkshire boar. 

$5. Second premium, to Danvers Hospital, Danvers, for 
Yorkshire boar. 

|8. First premium, to Simon P. Buxton, Peabody, for 
Yorkshire sow. 



$5. Second premium, to Danvers Hospital, Danvers, for 

Yorkshire sow. 
$8. First premium, to Simon P. Buxton, Peabody, for 
litter of weaned pigs. 
Daniel D. Adams, George Buchan, E. K. Lee, Geo. B, 
Blodgett — Committee. 



SWINE, SECOND CLASS. 

The Committee on Swine, Second Class, have attended 
to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 
$8. First premium, to Arthur C. Buxton, Peabody, for 

sow and ten pigs. 
$5. Second premium, to Simon P. Buxton, Peabody, for 

sow and ten pigs. 
$8. First premium, to H. H. Hale, Bradford, for 5 York- 
shire weaned pigs. 
$5. Second premium, to R. G. Buxton, Peabody, for 4 
Yorkshire weaned pigs. 
John Swinerton, Edward E. Herrick — Committee. 
The committee aid not consider the boar entered by 
Monroe brothers, fit for service and consequently did not 
award any prize to the same. 



SHEEP. 



The Committee on Sheep have attended to their duty, 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have made 
the following awards : 

$10. First premium, to H. H. Hale, Bradford, for flock 
sheep. 
$4. First premium, to H. H. Hale, Bradford, for lambs. 
$8. First premium, to S. S. Pratt, Danvers, for Cotswold 
buck. 

Geo. W. Adams, John L. Shorey, Horace C. Ware — 
Committee. 



44 

POULTRY. 

The Committee on Poultry have attended to their duty, 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 

-II DGED I'.Y \YM. F. BACON. 

$2.00. First premium, to Win. P. Perkins, Danvers, for 

pair Pekin Bantam Game fowls. 
Diploma, to Wm. P. Perkins. Danvers, for pen of Pekin 
Bantam Game fowls. 
2.00. First premium, to Wm. P. Perkins, Danvers, for 

pair Game Duckwing Bantam fowls. 
Diploma, to Wm. P. Perkins. Danvers, for pen Game 
Duckwing Bantam fowls. 
2.00. First premium, to Wm. P. Perkins, Danvers, for 

pair Red Pile Bantam fowls. 
2.00. First premium, to Wm. P. Perkins, Danvers, for 

pair Black Japanese Bantam fowls. 
2.00 First premium, to Wm. P. Perkins, Danvers, for 

pair Erminette chicks. 
2.00. First premium, to Wm. P. Perkins, Danvers, for 

pair Aylesbury ducks. 
1.00. Second premium, to Wm. P. Perkins, Danvers, for 

pair Aylesbury ducks. 
2.00. First premium, to Wm. P. Perkins, Danvers, for 

pair Rouen ducks. 
i.00. First premium, to Wm. P. Perkins, Danvers, for 

pair Cayuga ducks. 
2.00. First premium, to Wm. P. Perkins, Danvers, for 

pair Pekin ducks. 
1.00. Second premium, to Wm. P. Perkins, Danvers, for 

pair Pekin ducks. 
2.00. First premium, to Win, P. Perkins, Danvers, for 

pair White Muscovey ducks. 
2.00. First premium, to Wm. P. Perkins, Danvers, for 

pair Brazillian ducks. 
1.00. Second premium, to Wm. P. Perkins, Danvers, for 

pair Brazillian chicks. 



45 

2.00. First premium, to Win. P. Perkins, Danvers, for 

pair Toulouse geese fowls. 
1.00. Second premium, to Wm, P. Perkins, Danvers, for 

pair Toulouse geese fowls. 
2.00 First premium, to Wm. P. Perkins, Danvers, for 

pair Emden geese fowls. 
2.00. First premium, to Wm. P. Perkins, Danvers, for 

pair African geese fowls. 
2.00. First premium, to Wm. P. Perkins, Danvers, for 

pair Brown China geese. 
1.00. Second premium, to Wm. P. Perkins, Danvers, for 

pair Brown China geese. 
1.00. Second premium, to Louis H. Elliot, Danvers, for 

pair Silver Spangled Hamburg's. 
1.00. Second premium, to Louis H. Elliot, Danvers, for 

pair Golden Seabright Bantams. 
Diploma, to Francis 0. Kimball, Danvers, for pen turkeys. 
Diploma, to Frank H. Wood. Haverhill, for B. B. R. Game 

Bantam chicks. 
2.00. First premium, to Frank H. Wood, Haverhill, for 

pair B. B. R. Game Bantam chicks. 
2.00. First premium, to Sam. Rogers, West Newbury, for 

pair White Wyandotte chicks. 
Diploma, to L. W. Copp, Saugus, for pen Black Leghorn 

chicks. 
2.00. First premium, to L. W. Copp, Saugus, for pair 

Black Leghorn chicks. 
2.00. First premium, to L. W. Copp, Saugus, for pair 

Black Leghorn fowls. 
2.00. First premium, to H. A. Harrington, Peabody, for 

pair Plymouth Rock chicks. 
1.00. Second premium, to H. A. Harrington, Peabody, 

for pair Plymouth Rock fowls. 
Diploma, to C. M. Poor, Peabody, for pen Dark Brahma 

chicks. 
2.00. First premium, to C. M. Poor, Peabody, for pair 

Dark Brahma chicks. 
2.00. First premium, to C. M. Poor. Peabody, for pair 

Dark Brahma fowls. 



4 6 

1.00. Second premium, to 0. D. Woodman, Newbury, for 

pair B. B. Red (Jame chicks. 
2.00. First premium, to O. D. Woodman, Newbury, for 

pair Buff Cochin chicks. 
1.00. Second premium, to O. D. Woodman, Newbury, for 

pair Buff Cochin chicks. 
2.00. First premium, to Wm. E. Sheen, West Peabody, 

for pair Brown Leghorn fowls. 
2.00. First premium, to Reuben W. Ropes, Salem, for 

pair S. Comb White Leghorn fowls. 
2.00. First premium, to Reubes W. Ropes, Salem, for 

pair S. Comb White Leghorn chicks. 
Diploma, to Reuben W. Ropes, Salem, for pen S. Comb 

White Leghorn fowls. 
Diploma, for special merit, to E. R. Perkins, Salem, for 

pair Prolific fowls. 
1.00. Second premium, to Martin J. Kane, Lynn, for 

pair Black Leghorn chicks. 
Diploma, to Martin J. Kane, Lynn, for pen White Leghorn 

chicks. 
Diploma, for special merit, to Fred. H. Wiley, Peabody, for 

Light Brahmas. 
Diploma, for special merit, to Joseph H. Pearson, New- 
bury, for pair English Red chicks. 
1.00. First premium, to Geo. Buchan, Andover, for 12 

Black Minorca eggs. 
2.00. First premium, to Geo. D. Walton, Peabody, for 2 

pairs Dressed ducks. 
2.00. First premium to Geo. D. Walton, Peabody, for 2 

pairs Dressed fowls. 

JUDGED BY C. L. BECKET OF PEABODY. 

Diploma, to F. M. Allen, Lynn, for pen Light Brahma 

fowls. 
.$2.00. First premium, to F. M. Allen, Lynn, for pair 

Light Brahma fowls. 
1.00. Second premium, to F. M. Allen, Lynn, for pair 

Light Brahma chicks. 



47 

2.00. First premium to David L. Story, Beverly, for 

pair Light Brahma chicks. 
1.00. Second premium, to David L. Story, Beverly, for 

pair Light Brahma fowls. 



To the Committee on Poultry : 

Gentlemen. — Having finished my duties in judging the 
Poultry Department of your exhibition, I beg to hand you 
herewith my report. I was unable to complete the work, 
as the high wind of this morning entirely demolished the 
tent, stopping further work. I was therefore obliged to 
leave the *Light Brahma Class, and Eggs, without being 
passed upon. 

I am pleased to inform you, that in my opinion, the 
quality of your Poultry Exhibition is far in advance of last 
year, and as last year was superior to the one preceding, 
it is plain that poultry culture is advancing in your section 
and this department of your show is on the gain. 

I had the pleasure of recommending, in my report of last 
year, a few changes in the arrangement of your premiums, 
which you did me the honor to adopt ; the increase in the 
exhibit of those specialties, and the better quality of the 
same, prove the change to have been wise. 

I would suggest that at the next exhibition your Society 
offer a premium of — say five dollars — for the best display 
of Poultry Appliances. There are a great many new and 
ingenious devices now in the market, very interesting to 
Farmers and Poultry Breeders, and some of them are of 
great practical value. 

Respectfully yours, 

W. F. Bacon, Judge. 
Sept. 26, 11 



Judged after the storm, by C. L. Becket. 



Maj. D. W. Low : 
Sir. — The committee beg to submit to you the following 



report of the Poultry Department of the Essex Agricultural 
Fair of Sept. 25 and 26, l Ss ^. Your committee were 
much pleased with the exhibition of Fancy Poultry, Tur- 
keys and Geese. The display was quite large, very much 
in advance of the last four years, so much so that we feel 
no hesitation in saying that the interest in this department 
is decidedly on the increase. The interest which the large 
numbers in attendance manifested was very gratifying evi- 
dence that this was one of the important features of the 
exhibition. The display of <lrcssed poultry, although not 
as large as we could wish, was nevertheless quite fine, and 
we feel confident that when it becomes better known that 
the Society wish people to compete in this line, we shall 
make a better display from year to year, and we look for a 
good display in the near future. There was also a good 
display of eggs. We think that the increased interest in 
these lines is owing to the generosity of the Society in offer- 
ing larger premiums from year to year for the last four 
years. We think this fact and the employing of an ex- 
pert as Judge has met with very general approval. Next 
year an additional premium will be offered on Poultry 
Appliances. 

It seems to the committee that almost every other busi- 
ness is overdone while in this there is room for more. The 
United States does not produce eggs enough for her own 
consumption. New York City alone consumes 135,000 
eggs daily. Statistics show that in 1882 the value of the 
poultry produced in the United States exceeded the value 
of either of the hay, cotton, wheat or dairy products, as the 
following figures show : — The Hay crop was $436,000,000 ; 
Wheat, $488,000,000 ; Cotton, #410,000,000 ; Dairy prod- 
ucts, #254,000,000 ; Poultry products, 8560,000,000. Even 
at this rate it is necessary for us to receive a large impor- 
tation of eggs. Managed with the same care and attention 
to details that one would give to any other business, we 
assert that no business will pay so large a return for the 
amount invested. 

Respectfully yours, 

A. F. HaKVBY, Chair man Poultry Committee.- 



49 
AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

The Committee on Agricultural Implements have attend- 
ed to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary 
that they have made the following awards : 

$5. First premium, to Jas. W. Joyce, Lawrence, for mar- 
ket wagon. 

$3. First premium, to H. P. Whipple, Peabody, for farm 
wagon, for 2 horses. 

$3. Gratuity, to H. P. Whipple, Peabody, for business 
wagon. 

S3. Gratuity, to H. P. Whipple, for lumber wagon. 

$3. Gratuity, to Dole & Osgood, Peabody, for hose wag- 
on. 

83. Gratuity, to Geo. E. Daniels, Rowley, for hay wagon. 

$1. Gratuity, to G. L. Richardson, So. Peabody, for 
drinking fountain. 
810. First premium, to J. L. Colcord & Son, Peabody, for 
collection of 16 varieties. 

|3. Gratuity, to E. L. Blake & Co., Peabody, for seed 
drills. 

|1. Gratuity, to E. L. Blake & Co., Peabody, for com- 
bination banker hoe. 

11. Gratuity, to E. L. Blake & Co., Peabody, for cutting- 
hoe. 

$1. Gratuity, to E. L. Blake & Co., Peabody, for 1 wlieeL 
hoe. 

$1. Gratuity, to E. L. Blake & Co., Peabody, for onion 
sett machine. 

11. Gratuity, to E. L. Blake & Co., Peabody, for collec- 
tion wheel hoe blades. 
^Diploma, to C. H. Thompson <fc Co., Boston, for excellence 
of display of agricultural implements (23 varieties). 

John L. Shorey, Horace C. Ware, Geo. W. Adams — 
Committee. 



♦Awarded by Trustees at November meeting. Car containing the Implements 
was delayed, and no entry made with Secretary in time for ( ( r. 



5o 

CARRIAGES. 

The Committee on Carriages have attended to their duty, 

and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 

made the following awards: 

$5. Gratuity, to IL II. Pillsbury, Danvers, for box buggy. 

$3. Gratuity, to IT. II. Pillsbury. Danvers, for Goddard. 

$3. Gratuity, to II. II. Pillsbury, Danvers, for Doctor's 

Rockaway. 
$5. Gratuity, to Lambert, Hollander & Co., Amesbury, 

for Goddard 
$2. Gratuity, to Lambert, Hollander & Co., Amesbury, for 

open Surry. 
$2. Gratuity, to Lambert, Hollander & Co., Amesbury, 

for box top buggy. 
$4. Gratuity, to T. W. Lane, Amesbury, for Corning 

top buggy. 
$3. Gratuity, to T. W. Lane, Amesbury, for open 
buggy. 
T. P. Harriman, Alfred Cross, Rufus Kimball — Commit- 
tee. 



IN EXHIBITION HALL. 



REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF HALL. 

1 would respectfully report that the Exhibition of the 
Society, held in the Town Hall, in Peabody, on the 25th, 
26th and 27th of September, 1888, indicated a good de- 
gree of interest on the part of exhibitors. The contribu- 
tions on the whole were remarkably good, and the atten- 
dance on the first day was quite large, giving every 
promise of a still larger attendance for the second day and 
a highly satisfactory financial result. But the very re- 
markable storm of rain and wind, beginning on the night 
of the first day and continuing through**the forenoon of 
the second day. made the attendance of any considerable 
number of visitors quite impossible, and although the 



5i 

•exhibition in the hall was continued through another day 
and evening, the tide of success had been turned ; people 
from other towns had returned to their homes, and those 
kept at home by the storm of Wednesday did not arrive 
on Thursday. The continuance of the exhibition on 
Thursday added about $125 to the net receipts, and so 
far helped to make up the deficiency. 

In the exhibition hall there was an excellent exhibit of 
fancy work and works of art, probably quite equal both 
in quantity and quality to any former exhibit of the 
Society. 

*I would suggest the appointment of a special commit- 
tee on works of art, and another on fancy work, in- 
stead of combining the two as at present, and that the 
sum of fifty dollars, to be given in gratuities, be placed at 
the disposal of each committee. There is throughout the 
community a growing interest in each of these depart- 
ments, and no part of the general exhibit is more attrac- 
tive than the Art Department and Fancy Work. Ladies 
especially are attracted to these more than to all others, 
and the encouragement given to contributors by the 
award of gratuities will be sure to amply compensate for 
a little more expenditure by drawing in a larger number 
of visitors. There is an unwillingness to exhibit valuable 
articles in the fancy department, unless the same can be 
protected by being placed in glass cases. Several cases 
were borrowed this year for that purpose. Would it not 
be advisable for the Society to own a few cases for use in 
this department ? 

There was a large exhibition of Afghans and Quilts. 
Many of these were in excellent design and fine work- 
manship. In the Rug department there was a great 
variety of style and patterns. Some of these were beau- 
tiful in design and finish ; one especially, drawing the 
'first prize, was of a remarkably artistic design and ar- 



*This recommendation, except that .*30 was voted for each instead 
of $-")0, was adopted by Trustees at November meeting. 



52 

rangement of colors, and would compare favorably with 
a fine quality of imported rugs. The Afghans, Quilts 
and Rugs, arranged around the front of the balcony, made 
quite an attractive feature of the exhibition. The exhi- 
bition of white and colored wool mats, entered by H. E. 
Foan, is worthy of especial mention, and was a surprise 
to those not otherwise informed of the excellent work 
which is done in the finish of these goods. 

In the Flower department it was feared that the show 
would prove a, failure, in consequence of the earl)- frost; 
but notwithstanding this, quite a good exhibit was made, 
and many fine specimens were shown of cut flowers, 
foliage plants and bouquets of native flowers. 

The Fruit tables were well filled, and of many kinds of 
Apples and Pears excellent specimens were contributed. 
The fact that the season had been unfavorable to the 
ripening and growth of fruit did not greatly reduce either 
the quantity or quality of this important part of the 
exhibition. 

The show of Grapes and Peaches was quite limited. A 
few plates only of each were exhibited. 

The room for the exhibition of vegetables was well 
filled. Several excellent collections were shown ; and* 
fine specimens of individual kinds were also shown by 
man}- others. 

A very large number contributed to the Bread depart- 
ment, and the specimens furnished seemed to be of ex- 
cellent quality. 

A glass case filled with specimens of Cake, made by 
young ladies, members of a Cooking Club, was on exhi- 
bition. The samples exhibited were quite creditable to 
the members of the club. 

In General Manufactures the supply was not all that 
ought to be expected of an Essex County exhibit. A 
great variety of small wares are manufactured in the 
county ; many of these could be exhibited with but little 
trouble or expense. While the society cannot offer prizes 
as an inducement to exhibitors, except to a limited extent, 



. 53 

yet it can not fail to be of benefit to manufacturers of 
small wares to call public attention to their work, espec- 
ially where the hall accommodations are ample for the 
purpose. Fine needle-work and works of art are an 
attraction to one portion of visitors ; farmers are especial- 
ly interested in orchard and farm products ; but there is 
another class, who, though interested in these, would be 
especially attracted by a larger exhibit of the many arti- 
cles of handicraft and manufactures which are produced 
in great variety in this county. If a larger number and 
greater variety of articles, classified under Articles of 
General Merchandise, were exhibited, with the same 
variety and quantity exhibited this year, in all other de- 
partments, the Essex County Agricultural Exhibition, in 
the Hall department, would be all that could be desired. 

The Superintendent was greatly assisted by the Com- 
mittees appointed to receive and arrange the contributions 
to the several departments, and also to those who served 
as Clerks. Most of them, both on Committees and as 
Clerks, served the previous year, and that experience was 
of great service. Without the assistance of those who 
have had such experience it is hardly possible to receive 
the exhibits which arrive on the morning previous to the 
opening of the hall, and arrange them properly for ex- 
hibition. By reason of the efficient aid of Committees 
and Clerks the hall was made ready for the Examining 
Committees to make their awards at the appointed time. 

Many persons appointed on committees to make awards, 
failed to appear, and on some committees only one or two 
were present. It was necessary to appoint others to fill 
their places. This could only be done by appointing 
some who had served on the Committee of Arrangement. 

Some provision should be made for that purpose. Some 
authority given either to the Superintendent or to some 
person or persons who should be in the hall to fill vacan- 
cies when the books are given to committees. 

The selection of committees to make awards is of much 
importance, and should be made with especial reference 



54 . 

to the fitness of each person to judge of the merits and 
comparative worth of articles in the department in which 
lie or she may be appointed to serve. The acting com- 
mittees of this year, some of whom were informally ap- 
pointed, were quite prompt in making their awards and 
in returning their hooks and reports to the Superinten- 
dent. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Am<»s Merrill, Superintendent of Hall. 



DAIRY. 

Correction of Error of 1887. By some mistake, the Dairy Committee of 
1887 returned to the Secretary the statement of Mrs. ):. B. Farnum of her exhibit 
of butter as that of *'L). (i. Tenney." and his statement as hers, and they were 
so published in the Transactions of the Society, much to the surprise of Mrs. 
Farnum who disowned any such statement as appeared under her name. In be- 
half of the Society, I express its regret lor the mistake and trust Mrs. Farnum 

will pardon it. 

D. W. Low, Secretary. 

The Committee on Dairy have attended to their duty, 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards: 
$8. First premium, to C. W. Gowen, West Newbury, 

for 5 lbs. butter. 
§6. Second premium, to W. K. Cole, West Boxford, for 

box butter, 5 lbs.. 
$4. Third premium, to Mrs. II. A. Perkins, Peabody, for 

box butter, 6 lbs. 
N. Longfellow, J. K. Bancroft, Ezekiel G. Xason, D- 
Bradstreet — Committee. 

STATEMENT OF MRS. C. W. GOWEN. 

This is Jersey butter, made by setting milk in pans- 
about half full, and skimming in thirty-six hours. It is 
churned and salted at the rate of 1 oz. of salt to a pound 
of butter. I wash it in two or three waters before salt- 
ing. After standing awhile, it is ready to put up in 
pound balls as exhibited. 



55 

STATEMENT OF WILLIAM K. COLL. 

The butter (5 lbs.) which I enter for premium is madfe 
from the milk of two grade Jersey cows, as follows : 
Milk set in pans in cellar; after 36 hours skimmed, and 
cream churned once a week. As soon as the butter 
comes it is washed with cold water, then rinsed again 
and is immediately worked over, and put up in packages 
for market or for the table. Salted about 1 oz. to a pound 
of butter. No coloring matter was used on this butter. 

One of the cows had 1 qt. of meal and 1 qt. of shorts 
per day : the other none. They were fed some corn fod- 
der night and" morning, and had the run of a poor pasture. 

STATEMENT OF MLS. H. A. PERKINS. 

Milk set, 48 hours. Churned, 15 minutes. Butter- 
milk drawn and butter rinsed in water and salted 1 oz. 
to lb., and worked by hand until all the water is removed. 
This butter is made from pure Jersey cream and no col- 
oring used. 



BREAD, HONEY AND CANNED FRUIT. 

The Committee on Bread, Honey, etc., have attended 
to their duty, and respectfull}' report to the Secretary 
that they have made the following awards : 
f>3. First premium, to Winnie Manning, Topsfield, for 

white bread. 
$2. First premium, to Mrs. Lura Mafuta, Salem, for 
graham bread. 
*$>5. First premium, Dummer Special, to Mrs. Lura 
Mafuta, Salem, for Glen Mills Improved graham 
bread. 
$2. Second premium, to Olivia J. Spencer. Peabody, 

for white bread. 
$1. Second premium, to Mrs. N. E. Ladd, Groveland, 
for graham bread. 



56 

*<$2. Second premium. Dummer Special, to Mrs. N. E. 
Ladd, Groveland, for Glen Mills Improved guaham 
bread. 
*$1. Third premium, 'Dummer Special, to Mrs. D. II. 
Southwick, Peabody, for (Hen Mills Improved gra- 
ham bread. 
$1. Third premium, to Miss Mary Lyons, Salem, for 

white bread. 
50e. Gratuity, to Mrs. A. McGregor, Peabody, for 
brown bread. 
$3. First premium, to Mrs. A. Wilson, No. Beverly, for 
best collection of Preserves and Jellies. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. L. II. Perry, Danvers, for graham 
bread. 
$2. Second premium, to Mrs. W. H. Fellows, Peabody, 

for preserves and pickles. 
")0c. Gratuity, to Mrs. II. C. Torr, Peabody, for pickles 

and preserves. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. II. White, Danvers, for 1 doz. 

jelly. 
$2. Gratuity, to Cooking Club, Peabody, for collection 
of cake and pastry. 
oOc. Gratuity, to Mrs. A. Harrington, Peabody, for angel 
cake. 
$3. First premium, to J. H. Nagle, Danvers, for honey. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Arthur P. Reed, Danvers, for 

white bread. 
Diploma, to X. N. Dummer, Glen Mills, Rowley, for pre- 
pared cereals and < ooke'd food. 
$5. First premium, to B. A. Blake, Peabody, for apia- 
rian implements. 

Mrs. .1. Henry Hill. Mrs. I). W. Low, Mrs. W. L. [Sow- 
doin, Mrs. 0. M. Poor — Committee. 

Note. -Given by N\ X. Dummer, Glen Mills, Rowley. 

FIRST PREMIUM GRAHAM BREAD. 

1 qt. of graham flour, 1 teaspoonful of salt, J gill of mo- 



57 

lasses, h cup of p::tato yeast, dessert spoonful of lard; 
raised 9 hours; kneaded 10 minutes; baked li hours. 
Made from Glen Mills Improved graham flour. 

Mrs. Laura Mafuta. 
85 Lafayette St., Salem, Mass. 

SECOND PREMIUM GRAHAM BREAD. 

Hread made from Glen Mills Improved graham flour, 
put up by N. N. Dummer, Rowley, Mass. 

Process of making : One quart Graham flour, one tea- 
spoonful salt, one large spoonful sugar, piece of butter size 
of walnut, I of a Vienna yeast cake, one pint new milk. 
Rise over night ; in the morning knead, put in pan and 
rise again one hour. Bake one hour in a moderately 
heated oven. 

Mrs. N. E. Ladd, Groveland. 

THIRD PREMIUM GRAHAM BREAD. 

Graham bread made from Dummer's Glen Mills flour. 

Put two quarts of graham Hour into the bread bowl, make 
a hole in the middle, pour in a pint of water, add half a 
tablespoonful of butter, a little salt, a gill of molasses, one 
half cake of compressed yeast, dissolved in one cup of 
warm water, stir all together twenty minutes, and rise over 
night; then mould into loaves, then rise in the pans ; bake 
one hour and fifteen minutes. 

Mrs. D. EL Southwick, Peabody. 

FIRST PREMIUM WHITE BREAD. 

This bread was made as follows : To 3 quarts IJaxall 
flour add one pint each of milk and water, milk warm, one- 
half yeast cake, one tablespoonful of salt. Knead half an 
hour and leave to rise over night. Knead again in morn- 
ing and let rise. Mould into loaves and leave on pans for 
an hour and a quarter. Then bake in a moderate oven one 
hour. 

WlNNIEFRED E. MANNING, 

Age. 14 years. Topsfield, Mass. 



58 

SECOND PREMIUM FLOUR BREAD. 

1 pint milk, 1 pint water, 1 tablespoon lard, 1 tablespoon- 
white sugar, 1 "teaspoon salt, 1 quart flour, | compressed 
yeast cake. At night I made a sponge of the above, slight- 
ly wanning the milk and water. In the morning I kneaded 
it five minutes, working in 1 more quart of flour. (The 
flour is Imperial flaxall.) Then 1 placed it in a pan and 
let it rise three hours, kneading it down once or twice dur- 
ing the time. Then I moulded it into shape and let it stand 
for one-half hour in its pan. Baked it three-quarters of an 
hour, in a moderate oven. 

Olivia J. Spencer, 

Peabody, Mass. 

THIRD PREMIUM BREAD. 

Made with Haxall flour, raised with Compressed yeast, 
and milk scalded, small piece butter, raised over night, 
kneaded for five minutes, put into pans and raised again, 
and baked forty (40 ) minutes. 

Mary Lyons, Salem. 



STATEMENT OF E. L. BLAKE & CO. OF PEABODY, 

Concerning their exhibition of Bees, //ires and Apiarian Imple- 
ments at the fair of the Essex Agricultural Society, held at 
Peabody, Mass., Sept. 25 and 26, 1888. 

In regard to bee hives, we use three styles of our own 
manufacture. The hive that we consider the best of the 
three styles, and also the best we think ever got up, is 
called Blake's Improved American Hive. It is a double 
walled hive, designed to be packed with chaff in the cold 
season, which we consider an improvement over the styles 
that are not intended to be packed. It is the most sim- 
ple hive possible. We are able to remove the bees and 
frame in from two to five minutes when we wish so to do. 
It is called complete with eight brood frames, but is capa- 
ple of being increased to twelve. The surplus is taken 



59 

care of in a crate holding 24 one-pound section boxes 
placed directly on the frames, separated by a honey board 
when desired to exclude the Queen. The frames rest 
upon a cleat upon the bottom board, about | of an inch 
high above the bottom, giving plenty of room for the 
access of the bees and also a free circulation of air. We 
use a feeder with this hive placed upon the top-board 
inside of the hive directly over the frames, thereby pre- 
venting all robbing, which is a great annoyance with out- 
side feeders. This hive is made of good sound pine, and 
painted two coats, and is made throughout in the best 
possible manner. 

We also make and exhibit and also use a hive styled 
Blake's Eclipse Observatory Hive. This hive is a single 
walled eight frame hive with removable glass door in the 
back. It is intended for ladies and amateurs desiring to 
study the bees at work, and it is a superior article for this 
purpose, as the bees can be seen through the glass back. 
The frames are skeleton frames and are removable. We 
have none of this style in use at the present time. The 
surplus is taken off by a crate of ten 2-lb. boxes 
placed in the second story. This hive also is fed upon 
the inside by a feeder placed in the second story. 

Our box hive is the common box hive in use fifty years 
or more ago. It has no frames whatever, and contains 
two ten-pound boxes for the reception of the surplus 
honey. We consider almost any frame hive superior to 
the box hive. 

We use a small quantity of foundation in all of our 
frames and consider it a great improvement. We use 
Clark's cold blast smoker for smoking bees, and consider 
it a superior article in every respect. 

Hive No. 1. Italian Bees. 

This swarm is in our Improved American Hive des- 
cribed above. We consider this variety of bees as the 
best for all purposes, as they are quieter and better work- 
ers, and increase faster, and winter well, and also are less 



6o 

liable to run away. This swarm has produced some 25 
lbs. of honey this season and still have some in the comb. 
They have thrown two swarms this season. Our honey 
was taken up on the last of August and the first of Sep- 
tember. It has been a very poor season for honey in this 
vicinity. We carry seven swarms of Italians. 

Hive No. 2. Hybrid Bees. 
This is also in our American Hive. These are a cross 
between the Italian and common bees. They are a very 
good variety if a person does not mind their being a little 
treacherous. They are excellent workers and winter 
well, coining out vigorous and healthy in the spring. 
They have produced about 20 lbs. of hone} 7 , and have 
thrown two or three swarms. We carry three stands of 
this variety. 

Hive No. 3. Black Bees. 
This swarm is shown in our box hive. They are the 
most unprofitable of any that we have, their main recom- 
mendation being in their wintering well and also being 
great stingers. They are good garners of honey and also 
great consumers of honey. They have produced from 10 
to 15 lbs. of honey. Have also thrown two swarms. 
We carry one hive of this kind, which we retain more for 
fancy than profit. 



TEARS. 

The Committee on Pears have attended to their duty, 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that the} 7 have 
made the following awards: 
$8.00. First premium, to M. W. Bartlett, West Newbury, 

for Bartlett pears. 
3.00. First premium, to A. K. Raddin, Peabody, for 

Belle Lucrative pears. 
3.00. First premium, to G. D. Walton, Peabody, for 

Bosc pears. 



6i 

3.00. First premium, to Edwin Bates. Lynn, for cTAnjou. 

3.00. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lyun, for d'Au- 
gonleme pears. 

3.00. First premium, to W. J*. Hutchinson, Danvers, for 
Dana Hovey pears. 

3.00. First premium, to C. B. Haven, Peabody, for Law- 
rence pears. 

3.00. First premium, to J. C. Burbeck, Salem, for Louis 
Bon de Jersey pears. 

3.00. First premium, to A. J. Hubbard, Peabody, for 
Maria Louise pears. 

3.00. First premium, to C. B. Haven, Peabody, for Onon- 
daga pears. 

3.00. First premium, to Benj. R. Symonds, Salem, for 
Paradise d'Automne pears. 

3.00. First premium, to J. H. Hill, Amesbury, for Seekle. 

3.00. First premium, to Aaron Low, Essex, for Sheldon. 

3.00. First premium, to Stephen Fernald, Peabody, for 
Urbaniste pears. 

3.00. First premium, to M. W. Bartlett, West Newbury, 
for Vicar pears. 

3.00. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Howell. 

3.00. First premium, to J. E. F. Bartlett, Peabody, for 
Beurre Hardy pears. 

3.00. First premium, to A. J. Hubbard, Peabody, for 
Beurre Clairgeau pears. 

1.50. Gratuity, to J. M. Ward, Peabody, for Goodell. 

1.00. Gratuity, to M. J. Pollock. Salem, for Belle Lucra- 
tive pears. 

1.00. Gratuity, to M. J. Pollock, Salem, for Bartlett, 

1.00. Gratuity, to Edwin Bates,. Lynn, for Louis Bon de 
Jersey pears. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Lawrence. 

1.00. Gratuity, to D. A. Pettengill, Danvers, for Vicar. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Benj. R. Symonds, Salem, for Seekle. 

1.00. Gratuity, to J. H. Mill, Amesbury, for Dana 
Hovey pears. 

1.00. Gratuity, to J. H. Hill, Amesbmry, for Bosc pears. 



62 

1.00. Gratuity, to S. W. Spanieling, Danvers, for d'Anjou. 

1.00. Gratuity, to W. B. Little, Newbury, for Sheldon. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Geo. Pettengill, Salem, for Congress. 

1.00. Gratuity, to E. P. Webster, Haverhill, for Beurre 
Hardy pears. 

1.50. Gratuity, to J. W. Dodge, Danvers, for Dodge 
Seedling pears. 

1.50. Gratuity, to Geo. D. Walton, Peabody, for Branch 
of Howell pears. 

6.00. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for collec- 
tion of 13 varieties. 
Geo. Pettengill, Edwin V. Gage, P. M. Neal, J. Henry 

Hill — Committee. 



APPLES. 

The Committee on Apples have attended to their duty, 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 
$3.00. First premium, to Alfred McLeod, Danvers, for 

Porter. 
3.00. First premium, to B. P. Ware, Marblehead, for 

Sweet Baldwin. 
3.00. First premium, to S. F. Newman, Newbury, for 

Tolman's Sweet. 
3.00. First premium, to E. A. Emerson, Haverhill, for 

Hubbardston. 
3.00. First premium, to S. Fuller, Danvers, for Bailey's 

Sweet. • 
3.00. First premium, to George Buchan, Andover, for 

Granite Beauty. 
3.00. First premium, to W. Burke Little, Newbury, for 

Smith's ( !ider. 
3.00. First premium, to C. L. Beckett, Peabody, for R. 

I. Greening. 
3.00. First premium, to Mrs. David Warren, Swamp- 

scott, for Pickman Pippin. 



63 

3.00. First premium, to J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for 
lied Russett. 

3.00. First premium, to S. B. George, Groveland, for 
Baldwin. 

3.00. First premium, to Wm. Burke Little, Newbury, 
for Tompkin's King. 

3.00. First premium, to D. A. Pettingill, Dan vers, for 
Dan vers Winter Sweet. 

3.00. First Premium, to P. M. Ilsley, Newbury, for 
Roxbury Russett. 

1.50. First premium, to Mrs. N. E. Lacld, Groveland, for 
H3 r slop Crab Apples. 

0.00. First premium, to J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for 
Collection. 

1.50. Gratuity, to Frank Whitman, Wenham, for Dan- 
vers Winter sweet. 

1.50. Gratuity, to B. P. Ware, Marblehead, for Baldwin. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Hattie T. Osborn, Peabody, for Hy- 
slop Crab. 

1.50. Gratuity, to John Bowen, Peabody, for Hubbard- 
ston. 

1.50. Gratuity, to Susan P. Newhall, Peabody, for Porter. 

3.00. First premium, to S. B. George, Groveland, for 
Hunt's Russett. 

3.00. First premium, to Augustus Very, Danvers, for 
Hurlburt. 

3.00. First premium, to E. L. Hill, Danvers, for Graven- 
stein. 

1.00. Gratuity, to S. WSpaulding, Danvers, for Wealthy. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Charles T. Bushby, Peabody, for 
Northern Spy. 

1.50. Gratuity, to W. H.Perkins, Peabody, for Graven- 
stein. 

1.50. Gratuity, to Abel Stickney, Groveland, for King 
of Tompkins County. 

1.50. Gratuity, to Wm. Burke Little, Newbury, for Rox- 
bury Russett. 

1.00. Gratuity, to J. N. Rolfe, Newbury, for Maiden's 
Blush. 



64 

1.00. Gratuity, to Alfred Ordway, Bradford, for Ordwav 

Apple. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Munroe Brothers, Lynn, for Baldwin. 
1.00. Gratuity, to William K. Cole, West Boxford, for 

Williams Favorite. 
1.50. Gratuity, to Horace Ware, Marblehead, for Sweet 

Baldwin. 
1.50. Gratuity, to W. Petting-ill, Salisbury, for R. I. 

( ireening. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. H. White, Danvers, for Ko- 

manite. 
1.00. Gratuity, to David L. Haskell, Essex, for 20 ounce 

Pippin. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Oliver P. Killam, West Boxford, for 

Dutch Codlin. 
1.00. Gratuity, to David L. Haskell, Essex, for King of 

Tompkins County. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Kendall Osborn, Peabody, for Sum- 
mer Baldwin. 
1.00. Gratuity, to 1). N, Stoddard, Peabody, for Osgood 

Favorite. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Abel Stickney, Groveland, for Snow. 
1.00. Gratuity, to George C. Goldthwait, Salem, for 

Killam Hill. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Kendall Oiborn, Peabody, for Fall- 

a water. 
o.OO. First Premium, to George F. Sanger, Peabody, for 

Drap d'Or. 
1.50. Second premium, to J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for 

Smith's Cider. 
1.00. Gratuity, to J Henry Hill, Amesbury, for King of 

Tompkins County. 
J. J. H. Gregory, Joseph How, Geo. W. Chad wick, 
Thomas Hale — Committee. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON APPLES. 
The exhibition of 1888 was not of average excellence, 



65 

the samples being of smaller size than usual, while the 
individual specimens were more often wormy, or not as- 
fair. Without doubt, the exceptional coldness of the 
past season, and, possibly in some localities, the effect of 
hail storms on the fruit, were the agencies which contrib- 
uted largely to produce its inferior size and poor con- 
dition. 

Without doubt, the apple is, and is to be, the King fruit 
of New England. We dwell within that fortunate zone 
where it reaches perfection, for, within the area of New 
England nearly every known variety attains its highest 
quality. The Cherry, the Peach, and the Plum grace our 
tables for a short season ; the Pear is with us a little lon- 
ger, and a few varieties, b} r tender care, accompany us 
into the winter months, luxuries on the table of those 
who can afford to indulge in them, — but the democratic 
Apple, in its hundreds of varieties, enters every household 
in plenteous abundance, too common to be called a lux- 
ury, and just above being a necessity. 

The good province of the apple tree is, by no means 
exhausted, when we say it bears sweet fruit or sour fruit ; 
erisp fruit or spicy fruit ; early or late fruit ; or that the 
tree is a good cropper or a good grower. It would be a 
sorry time for the race were the mouth and the pocket to 
be the sole measures of value. There' are utilities in 
things which are essential to our higher happiness that 
the mouth and the pocket know not of. Do we appre- 
ciate our apples at their full desert, for the pleasure they 
afford our other senses besides that of taste? Certainly 
the rich red of the William's Favorite, the delicate bloom 
on the Astracan, the clear, transparent straw color of the 
Porter, the brilliant gold and carmine of the Gravenstein, 
and the delicate beauty of the Maiden's Blush are a feast 
to the eye, and make these of more value to us than 
though they had just us good eating qualities as now, but 
were each contained within a green or drab skin. No 
class of fruits can compare with the apple in richness and 
variety of color. The peach, the pear, and the plum, 



66 

have each its attractions, bul at every fruit show the 
apple will always bear the palm of superiority for the 
greatest difference in brilliant colors in their various at- 
tractive combinations. Even the citrus fruits, of which 
the orange is a type, though attractive to the eye, are 
limited in their coloring to two or three shades of uniform 
orange and yellow. 

Again, do we appreciate our apples for the variety of 
delicious odors which they exhale that are grateful to the 
sense of smell beyond those from any other fruit, not 
even the quince excepted. Is there, the wide world over, 
to be found a more delicious fruit odor than that which 
fills the air from a freshly opened barrel of the Red Astra- 
can apples ? The store of the fruit dealer exhales a richer 
fragrance than the shop of the apothecary, who is sup- 
posed to deal in perfumes directly from " Araby the 
Blest." No, we do not appreciate, and, therefore, do not 
enjoy half as much as we may the characteristic fragrance 
belonging to many varieties of the apple. A lady friend 
was in the habit of keeping a dish of the Red Astracan 
in her parlor, as long as they were in season, and to every 
one who entered it their delicate boquet was a delightful 
surprise. I keep one or two apples in my drawer with 
writing materials, not to eat, but to catch the rich odor as 
I open it. They 'remind me of the fragrance which comes 
from pansies growing in a cold frame, when the sash is 
raised. 

Not only is it the province of the fruit to afford us 
other enjoyments than that which comes through the 
sense of taste (for if not, why then did the Creator 
bestow upon it color and fragrance ?), but it is the sphere 
of the tree itself to administer to the esthetic side of our 
natures. Is there any tree in the vegetable kingdom of 
the north temperate zone so beautiful as an apple tree in 
bloom? The peach, the plum, the cherry and the pear, 
each are beautiful, but in the three former it is a mere 
mass of dead color, while in the latter the blossoms are all 
white, besides being disagreeable in their odor, but those 
of the apple, in various shades of delicate pink in the 



67 

•opening buds, passing into white as the bud develops into 
the open flower, with bud and blossom elegantly inter- 
mingled in their wax-like structure, and each separate 
bunch set in a background made up of a circle of fresh 
young leaves, with their color of delicate green, make the 
-most charming sight of spring. Then their delicious fra- 
grance, laden with the very breath of spring-time! The 
large apple-tree directly front of my house, in its season 
of blossoming, calls out more exclamations of delight than 
do all the flowers of the garden through the entire season, 
and bear as heavy as it may of excellent fruit, to us by 
far the most valuable crop it yields are its ten thousand 
boquets of fragrant blossoms, " the home of the ever busy 
bee, alive through all its leaves." 

Again, the characteristic forms peculiar to different trees 
make in the orchard a pleasing variety. In the Killam 
Hill we always find an eccentric angularity in its limbs, 
while in the Sweet Bough we have a type of perfect 
symmetry : and it is a singular fact that the fruit of these 
two trees partake in their shape of the trees themselves. 
Among the various forms which characterize different 
trees I think that of the 20 ounce Pippin surpasses all for 
beauty. The form natural to the tree is one of nearly 
perfect symmetry, and its habit of growth is to make more 
■fine branches than other varieties, and hang its fruits on 
the very tips of these branches ; the result is that when 
the large, symmetrical., elegantly colored apples are mature, 
they hang down as elegant pendants all over the tree, 
.and so please the eye, that any lover of the beautiful hav- 
ing once seen the sight will never forget it. 

It seems to me that a classification of apples is needed 
to include those varieties which are the best adapted for 
our comparatively new and growing industry, that of 
•evaporated fruit, for it is a well-known fact that some 
varieties are better than others for this purpose. There 
is another limited use to which we put this king of all 
our fruits, for which some varieties are better than others. 
I refer to the manufacture of jellies and marmalade. 
These are probably the most easily made and the cheap- 



68 

est of all our home preserves, and as usually made prob*- 
ably the poorest, too; but when made from the varieties 
best adapted to this purpose, there are but few put upon 
the table that are preferred to it. It is with apples as 
with grapes, while wine of some sort can be made from 
all varieties, some (such as the Isabella) will be almost 
worthless, while that from others (such as the Catawba 
and Ives), will rank with the very best. In all our home 
experiments, in the making of jelly and marmalade, we 
have found none to equal in quality that made from ma- 
tured Pickman Pippins. It is to be regretted that the 
fine variety is so little planted nowadays. The tree is 
long lived, grows to a large size, and is a heavy cropper. 
The apples are full average in size, elegant in their gold 
and carmine color, very crisp in their flesh, and possess a 
very brisk, sub-tart flavor, which is very much liked by 
many. For all cooking purposes they cannot be sur- 
passed. I believe it would make a first-class variety for 
evaporated fruit. Its time for perfection is the late fall 
and early winter. The one objection to it is that it is 
not a very good keeper, but with so many good qualities 
that can be utilized it ought to be found in every nursery 
catalogue. 

While there is but little danger amid the present 
apathy in orchard planting of our entering on apple cul- 
ture so extensively as to overstock the market, native and 
foreign, yet before entering on any plan for cultivating 
the late varieties on a large scale, it might be wise for us 
to bear in mind what our Nova Scotia neighbors are doing 
in this line of business. They have almost unlimited 
area in Annapolis and an adjoining county which are 
capitally adapted to apple raising, and as their fruit is 
taking the precedence not only in the English market but 
also in our own, by reason of the care with which it is 
packed as well as for its excellent quality and for supe- 
rior keeping qualities, paying them a much larger profit 
than any other crop they raise, they are fully aroused to 
their opportunities, and arc planting out thousands of 
acres of new orcharding with every year. As it has been 



6 9 

estimated that the two counties which appear to be spec- 
ially adapted to apple culture, are capable of raising from 
'five to ten millions of barrels annually, it is obvious that 
the future of the apple market will probably be to a large 
extent in their hands. Under such a present and pros- 
pective condition of affairs could the Department of Ag- 
riculture better serve the farmers of New England than 
by sending a commission to Nova Scotia to get at all the 
facts in the case, and more especially to determine 
whether or not there are any varieties which the Euro- 
pean market would take that we can raise here better 
than they can there ? 

A word from my experience with the Russet Baldwin, a 
variety which has been highly praised at some of our insti- 
tute gatherings — and as far as quality goes not over- 
praised for in this respect it is superior to the famous Bald- 
win itself. In its cropping qualities I find it to be decid- 
edly inferior to the Baldwin. On my farm I had many 
native trees grafted to it which I now intend to regraft 
with the Baldwin. 

For several years I have sold my apple crop on the trees 
either at a fixed price per barrel or by the lump, the pur- 
chaser in the former case to take all on the ground after a 
given date, previous to which I had all the windfalls picked 
up, this condition being made in order that I might not 
lose by any storm that might occur after the sale. I have 
found on figuring over the matter that the profit on the 
apple crop, where pickers are hired, is not so large as is 
.generally believed. My figures are as follows. In them I 
assume that 8 barrels is an average days' work by a care- 
iul hand, taking the whole orchard as it averages : — 

Dr. 
Barrel of Apples, 

To picking, $0 19 

Barrel, 20 

Sorting, filling and heading, 10 

Marketing at rate of ten barrels per day, 25 

$0 74 



Or. 

Barrel of Apples, 

•2-3 of barrel good, at rate of 81.50 per bbl., $1 00' 
1-3 seconds, at #1.00 per bbl., 33 



81 33 
74 



Profit per barrel, 59 

If these figures are correct it follows that in case 
we have to hire men to pick our apple orchards, we should 
do better to sell our apples on the average at GO cts. per 
barrel. I have made no account of the cider class, for I 
consider that those just about pay for their picking up. 

I have devoted the larger portion of the paper to a pre- 
sentation of the esthetic side of our king of fruits. Should 
any good friend inquire why 1 have done so I will reply in 
the word of a distinguished philosopher, lt It is wise to care 
for the beautiful in life ; the useful will take care of itself." 
James J. H. Gregory, for the Committee. 



PEACHES, GRAPES, AND ASSORTED FRUITS. 

The Committee on Peaches, Grapes, and Assorted 
Fruits have attended to their duty, and respectfully re- 
port to the Secretary that they have made the folio wing- 
awards : 
#2.00. First premium, to Edwin Very, Dan vers, for Essex 

County Seedling peaches. 
2.00. First premium, to E. S. Burbeck, Peabody, for 

Freestone White Flesh Grove Mignone peaches. 
2.00. First premium, to E. S. Burbeck, Peabody, for 

Yellow Flesh Crawford peaches. 
1.50. Gratuity, to J. A. Peasley, Peabody, for White 

Flesh Old Mixon peaches. 
1.50. Gratuity, to Minnie Walton, Salem, for White 

Flesh Seedling peaches. 



7i 

1.50. Gratuity, to George Pettengill, Salem, for Ives' 
Blood peaches. 

1.00. Gratuity, to C. B. Haven, Peabody, for Haven's 
Seedling peaches. 

50c. Gratuity, to David Loud, Peabody, for Yellow 
Flesh Crawford peaches. 

3.00. First premium, to Frederick Lamson, Salem, for 
collection of peaches. 

1.00. Gratuity, to E. F. Coleord, Dauvers, for Crawford 
peaches. 

GRAPES. 

3.00. First premium, to C. B. Haven, Peabodj", for Con- 
cord grapes. 

3.00. First premium, to Dr. J. W. Goodell, Lynn, for 
Hartford Prolific grapes. 

3.00. First premium, to W. P. Hutchinson, Danvers, for 
Moore's Early grapes. 

3.00. First premium, to W. P. Hutchinson, Danvers, for 
Niagara grapes. 

3.00. First premium, to C. B. Haven, Peabody, for Del- 
aware grapes. 

3. GO. First premium, to E. P. Hutchinson, Danvers, for 
Worden grapes. 

3.00. First premium, to Samuel Cammett, Amesbury, 
for Martha grapes. 

1.50. Gratuity, to W. H. Little, Peabody, for Lee's 
Early grapes. 

1.50. Gratuity, to J. X. Estes, Peabody, for Salem, No. 
2 grapes. 

1.50. Second premium, to Geo. F. Barnes, Peabody, for 
Concord grapes. 

50c. Gratuity, to A. C. Osborne, Peabody, for Champion 
grapes. 

50c. Gratuity, to W. P. Hutchinson, Danvers, for Lady- 
grapes. 

COLD HOUSE GRAPES. 
6.00. First premium, to R. F. Morris, Peabody, for Black 
Hamburg grapes. 



72 

4.00. Second premium, to R. F. Morris, Peabody, for 
Barbarosa grapes. 

QUINCES. 

1.00. Gratuity, to C. B. Haven, Peabody, Cor Orange 
quinces. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Alfred McLeod, Danvers, for Cham- 
pion quinces* 

1.00. Gratuity, to Henry O. Wade, Essex, for Orange 
quinces. 

PLUMS, ETC. 

1.00- Gratuity, to Geo. P. Osborne, Peabody, for Yellow 

Egg plums. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Otis Brown, Peabody, for Lombard 

plums. 
75c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Joseph Henderson, Peabod}^ for 

Coe"s Golden Drop plums. 
50c. Gratuity, to J. M. Burbeck, Peabody, for Weaver 

plums. 
50c, Gratuity, to Susan P. Newhall, Peabody, for Green 

Gage. 
50c. Gratuity, to J. II. Hall, Lynn, for cluster Cuthburt 

Raspberries. 

ASSORTED FRUITS. 

1.00. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Basket. 
: ;.<i(). Second premium, to A. J. Hubbard, Peabody, for 

Basket. 
1.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Heylingberg, Peabody, for 

Basket. 
oOc. Gratuity, to Sumner Southwick, Peabody, for 

Pyramid Tears. 
50c. Gratuity, to Sumner Southwick, Peabody, for 

Pyramid Apples. 
John Preston, W. B. Foster, Geo. Pettengill — Com- 
mittee. 



FLOWERS. 

The Committee on Flowers have attended to their 



73 

duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 

have made the following awards : 

$1.00. First premium, to Mrs. J. S. Hodgkins, Peabody, 
for Amaryllis. 

1.00. First premium, to Miss M. E. Peirce, Peabody, for 
Asters. 

1.00. First premium, to Miss M. E. Peirce, Peabody, for 
Pansies. 

50c. Gratuity, to Agnes H. Hale, Rowley (12 years of 
age), for boquet Wild Flowers. 

1.00. First premium, to Mrs. Alonzo Raddin, .Peabody, 
for Garden Dahlias. 

50c. Gratuity, to Abbie Felton Wilson, Peabody, for 
boquet Garden Flowers. 

50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Chas. E. Marsh, Lynn, for col- 
lection of Gladioli. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. James Buxton, Peabody, for col- 
lection of Dahlias. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Mr. M. B. Faxon, Saugus, for collec- 
tion of Nasturtiums. 

50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Heylingberg, Peabody, for 
Begonia. 

50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. Henry Hill, Amesbuiy, for 
collection of Garden Phlox. 

50c. Gratuity, to Chas. H. Robinson, Lynn, for two 
boquets. 

1.00. First premium, to Mrs. David Warren, Swamps- 
cott, for Basket of Garden Flowers. 

50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. David Warren, Swampscott, for 
Boquet of Garden Flowers. 

50c Gratuity, to Mrs. David Warren, Swampscott, for 
Boquet of Native Flowers. 

1.00. First premium, to Mrs. Susie Vickary, Lynn, for 
Boquet of Garden Flowers. 

1.00. First premium, to Mrs. J. C. Vickary, Lynn, for 
Drummond Phlox. 

1.00. First premium, to Mrs. H. A. Perkins, Peabody, 
for Begonia. 



74 

2.00. Gratuity, to R. F. Morris, gardener to Jacob C. 

Rogers, Peabody, for collection of Plants. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Kattie L. Forniss, Peabody, for 

collection of White Dahlias. 
1.00. First premium, to Mrs. Joshua Buxton, Peabody, 

for Nasturtiums. 
50c. Gratuity, to Miss Carrie S.-Dummer, Rowley, for 

Boquet Native Flowers. 
2.00. First premium, to Mrs. M. E. Fuller, Middleton, 

for Design Native Flowers. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Miss L. H. Newhall, Peabody, for 10 

Coleus. 
1.00. First premium, to Miss L. H. Newhall, Peabody, 

for Roses. 
50c. Gratuity, lo Sylvester Parrott, Lynn, for Coxs- 

comb. 
1.00. First premium, to S. C. Lord, Peabody, for Single 

Dahlias. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Simon Buxton, Peabody, for 

Marigolds. 
1.00. Gratuity, to J. M. Ward, Peabody, for Hand Bo- 

quet. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. A. Cain, Lynn, for Pansies. 
1.00. First premium, to Mrs. J. A. Cain, Lynn, for Mari- 
golds. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. A. Cain, Lynn, for Cut 

Flowers. 
2.00. Second premium, to Mrs. J. A. Cain, Lynn, for 

collection Cut Flowers. 
50c. Gratuity, to M. S. Perkins, Danvers, for Boquet 

Native Flowers. 
1.00. First premium, to T. C. Thurlow, W. Newbury, 

for 12 Japan Lilies. 
1.00. Gratuity, to T. C. Thurlow, W. Newbury, for 

collection of Lilies. 
1.00. First premium, to T. C. Thurlow, W. Newbury, 

for Garden Phlox. 
50c. Gratuity, to C. A. Buxton, Salem, for collection of 

Pansies. 



75 

2.00. Gratuity, to E. & C. Woodman," r Dan vers, for 

Begonias. 
1.00. Gratuity, to J. M. Ward, Peabody, for collection 

of Plants. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for 
Basket of Flowers. 
We desire to call special attention to specimen flowers 
of " Desmodium pendulifolium," a hardy shrub exhibited 
by T. C. Thurlow, W. Newbury. Also to display of 
Single Petunias exhibited by Mrs. J. Henry Hill, Ames- 
bury, Mass. 

Edward E. Woodman, Mrs. E. V. Gage, Mrs. William 
Horner, Clara A. Hale, Henry N. Berry — Committee. 



Note— The Chairman, Mr. Woodman, made recommendations to the Trustees, 
revising the Rules and Premium List of Flowers, which were partially adopted. 
See the list tor 1889, near the last pages. 

D. W. Low, Secretary. 



VEGETABLES. 

The Committee on Vegetables have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 
$3.00. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Eclipse 

beets. 
3.00. First premium, to Aaron Low, Essex, for Dewing's 

beets. 
3.00. First premium, to Aaron Low, Esses, for Edmand's 

beets. 
3.00. First premium, to Henry Bushby, Peabody, for 

Danvers carrots. 
3.00. First premium, to Nathan Bushby, Peabody, for 

Short Horn carrots. 
3.00. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Mangold 

Wurtzels. 
3.00. First premium, to H. A. Stiles, Middlcton, for 

purple top turnips. 



7 6 

-3.00. First premium, to H. A. Stiles, Middleton, for White 

flat turnips. 
o.OO. First premium, to Richard Jaques, Newbury, for 

Yellow Ruta Baga turnips. 
3.00. First premium, to M. B. Faxon, Saugus, for White 

Ruta Baga turnips. 
3.00. First premium, to Wm. A. Jacobs, Danversport, for 

Maltese parsnips. 
3.00. First premium, to David Warren, Swampscott, for 

Danvers onions. 
3.00. First premium, to Richard Jaques, Newbury, for 

Yellow Flat onions. 
3.00. First premium, to S. F. Newman, Newbury, for Red 

Globe onions. 
3.00. First premium, to M. B. Faxon, Saugus, for Early 

Rose potatoes. 
3.00. First premium, to M. B. Faxon, Saugus, for Beauty 

of Hebron potatoes. 
3.00. First premium, to Wm. E. Sheen, West Peabody, 

for Clark's No. 1 potatoes. 
3.00. First premium, to M. B. Faxon, Saugus, for Pearl 

of Savoy potatoes. 
3.00. First premium, to J. J. H. Gregory, Marblehead, for 

Early Maine potatoes. 
3.00. First premium, to Henry Bushby, Peabody, for 

Savoy cabbage. 
'2.00. Second premium, to S. F. Newman, Newbury, for 

Savoy cabbage. 
■3.00. First premium, to Aaron Low, Essex, for Deephead 

Brunswick cabbage. 
"2.00. Second premium, to Jerry Bresnehan, Peabody, for 

Fottler's Brunswick cabbage. 
3.00. First premium, to David Warren, Swampscott, for 

Stone Mason cabbage. 
2.00. Second premium, to Philip Bushby, Peabody, for 

Stone Mason cabbage. 
3.00. First premium, to S. P. Buxton, Peabody, for Red 

Drumhead cabbage. 



77 

2.00. Second premium, to Jacob G. Bodge, Feabody, for 

Red Drumhead cabbage. 
3.00. First premium, to C. R. Anderson, West Boxford, 

for cauliflower. 
2.00. Second premium, to Jacob G. Bodge, Peabody, for 

cauliflower. 
2.00. First premium, to E. C. Smith & Son, Rowley, for 

celery. 
3.00. First premium, to Aaron Low, Essex, for Early Cory 

sweet corn. 
3.00. First premium, to M. B. Faxon, Saugus, for Stow- 

ell's Evergreen corn. 
3.00. First premium, to Wm. A. Jacobs, Danversport, for 

Dunlap's Prolific Marrow squash. 
3.00. First premium, to A. G. Osborn, Peabody, for Tur- 
ban squash. 
3.00. First premium, to David Warren, Swampscott, for 

Hubbard squash. 
3.00. First premium, to Aaron. Low, Essex, for Essex 

Hybrid squash. 
3.00. First premium, to Wm. A. Jacobs, Danversport, for 

Bay State squash. 
2.00. First premium, to Aaron Low, Essex, for Musk 

melons. 
2.00. First premium, to B. P. Ware, Marblehead, for 

Nutmeg melons. 
2.00. First premium, to B. P. Ware, Marblehead, for 

Boss watermelons. 
3.00. First premium, to E. & C. Woodman, Danvers, for 

Paragon tomatoes. 
3.00. First premium, to E. & C. Woodman, Danvers, for 

Volunteer tomatoes. 
3.00 First premium, to Aaron Low, Essex, for Cardinal 

tomatoes. 
3.00. First premium, to Aaron Low, Essex, for Dwarf 

Champion tomatoes. 
3.00. First premium, to Aaron Low, Essex, for Essex Hy- 
brid tomatoes. 



78 

8.00. First premium, to Aaron Low, Essex, for collection 
of tomatoes. 

3.00. First premium, to Wm. K. Cole, West Boxford, for 
peck cranberries. 

2.00. Second premium, to Andrew Lane, Rockport, for 
peck cranberries. 

1.00. Third premium, to Francis Marston, Danvers, for 
peck cranberries. 

8.00. First premium, to J. J. H. Gregory, Marblehead, 
for collection. 

6.00. Second premium, to Aaron Low, Essex, for collec- 
tion. 

50c. Gratuity, to John V. Warner, No. Beverly, for citron 
melon. 

3.00. Gratuity, to E. C. Larrabee, Peabody, for collection. 

50c. Gratuity, to Wm. A. Jacobs, Danversporr, for Hub- 
bard squash. 

50c. Gratuity, to Wm. Martin, Wenham. for cucumbers 
and corn. 

1.00. Gratuity, to H. F. Broderick, Peabody, for mam- 
moth squashes. 

50c. Gratuity, to Munroe Bros., Lynnfield, for sweet corn 
and beets. 

2.00. Gratuity, to Wm E. Sheen, West Peabody, for col- 
lection of potatoes. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Richard Jaques, Newbury, for Guerande 
carrots. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Richard Jaques, Newbury, for parsnips. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Philip Bushby, Peabody, for Butman 
squashes. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Philip Bushby, Peabody, for Danvers 
carrots. 

50c. Gratuity, to E. & C. Woodman, Danvers, for pepper 
plant in pot. 

50c. Gratuity, to George Buchan, Andover, for Cleveland 
tomatoes. 

1.00. Gratuity, to George Reynolds, Peabody, for six pots 
sweet herbs. 



79 

1.00. Gratuity, to C. R. Anderson, West Boxford, for 
White Egg turnips. 

1.00. Gratuity, to S. W. Spaulding, Danvers, for Marrow 
squashes. 

2.00. Gratuity, to Aaron Low, Essex, for new varieties 
potatoes. 

2.00. Gratuity, to M. B. Faxon, Saugus, for turnips and 
sweet corn. 

50c. Gratuity, to Xellie J. Horace, Topsfield, for cauli- 
flower. 

50e. Gratuity, to Nathan Bushby, Peabody, for Lentz 

beets. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Nathan Bushby, Peabody, for Dleer's 

Improved Lima beans. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Nathan Bushby, Peabody, for Long 

Orange carrots. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Chas. B. Haven, Peabody, for Ancient 

Egyptian corn. 
50c. Gratuity, to George Foan, Peabody, for Marrow 

squash. 
50c. Gratuity, to H. J. Foan, Peabody, for Marrow 

squash. 
50c. Gratuity, to Samuel Killam, Boxford, for Burbank 

Seedling potatoes. 
50c. Gratuity, to Geo. Hawkes, Lynnfield, for potatoes. 
1.00. Gratuity, to F. H. Appleton, W. Peabody, for corn 

and Lima beans. 
50c. Gratuity, to J. W. Osborn, Peabody, for squashes. 
50c. Gratuity, to Aug. Harrington, Peabody, for corn and 

potatoes. 
50c. Gratuity, to R. H. Wilson, Peabody, for cabbages 

and potatoes. 
2.00. Gratuity, to S. P. Buxton, Peabody, for collection. 
50c. Gratuity, to G. H. Tufts, Middleton, for cranberries. 
50c. Gratuity, to L. G. Moulton, West Peabody, for 

cranberries. 

Your committee arc pleased to report that the display 
•of vegetables offered for premiums was both large in 



So 

quantity and excellent in quality. The beets and ear- 
rots shown were for the most part well grown, especially 
Mr. Low's beets and Mr. Henry Bushby's Danvers carrots, 
which were very perfect specimens. Quite a number of the 
exhibitors showed beets and carrots with the tops on, which 
took up a large amount of unnecessary space, crowded the 
tables, and did not improve the appearance of the vegeta- 
bles in the least, and the committee would suggest that in 
future all roots be shown without tops. 

H. A. Stiles, as usual, received the premiums for Purple 
Top and White Flat turnips ; both lots were very smooth 
and of uniform size. Mangold Wurtzcls and Ruta Baga 
turnips were well represented. Onions as a rule were 
poorly ripened, although Mr. Gregory's Yellow Danvers, 
Yellow Flat and Red were excellent, and David Warren's 
Yellow Danvers were all that could be desired. 

The display of potatoes was large and for the most part 
of good quality, being free from rot and very smooth, but 
most of the exhibitors pay too much attention to size, and 
as a result exhibited tubers that were too large for family 
use, and in making the awards your committee followed 
the foot-note in regard to size of vegetables which says that 
potatoes shall be of good size for family use, and a most, 
excellent rule it is, as mere size -is certainly one of the last 
requisites of a good potato. Wm. E. Sheen made an ex- 
hibit of twelve varieties of potatoes, all of which were well 
grown, smooth, and of the proper size. The manner in 
which he arranged them on the tables deserves commenda- 
tion, they being displayed in wooden boxes of uniform size 
which made a very neat appearance. M. B. Faxon re- 
ceived first premium for Early Rose, Pearl of Savoy, and 
Beauty of Hebron potatoes. 

The large number of entries and good quality of the 
cabbages made it a very diffcult matter for your committee 
to decide on the premiums. Warren's Stone Mason, Low's 
Peerless, and Deep Head Brunswick cabbages were well 
represented, and arc three tine varieties and deserve a place 
in every kitchen garden. The Cauliflower and Celery was 
fair, although only a few entries were made. 



8i 

Mr. Low's twelve ears of Early Cory sweet corn received 
the first premium for the ripest and best early, and M. B. 
Faxon was awarded the prize for late corn in milk, for 
Stowell's Evergreen. Squashes are remarkably good this 
year and are well ripened. Some fine specimens of Dun- 
lap's Prolific Early Marrow were shown. This squash, 
though a comparatively new variety, is fast gaining in pop- 
ular favor. It is a true type of marrow squash, very early, 
and a great improvement on the common variety. Low's 
New Bay State squash is also an early ripening sort and 
very prolific, and Mr. Low tells us that it is an excellent 
keeper. Some nice Hubbard, American Turban and But- 
man squashes were also on the tables. 

The wet weather has not been favorable for ripening 
melons, the specimens shown being only of fair quality, 
although some very nice Boss watermelons were noticed. 

The usual good display of tomatoes was made. Messrs. 
Woodman exhibited a plate called A r olunteer, a round, 
smooth tomato of good quality. Your committee would 
advise a change in the prizes offered for tomatoes, as it is 
almost impossible to tell where the line should be drawn 
between round and flat and flat and spherical tomatoes, 
therefore we suggest that prizes for tomatoes be as follows : 
*" For best twelve specimens Acme, Emery, Cardinal, Essex 
Hybrid, or any other variety, each variety, premium of 
three dollars ; the prize for exhibition of greatest variety to 
remain as at present." 

There were five entries of cranberries, all of which were 
of inorft excellent quality. The first prize for collection 
was awarded to James J. H. Gregory, who placed upon the 
tables eighty varieties of vegetables, amongst which were 
noticed a collection of twenty-five varieties of sweet corn, 
including the standard kinds, Old Colony, Potter's Excel- 
sior, and Stowell's Evergreen ; peppers, cucumbers, and 
potatoes were shown in good variety, and his display of 
melons, squashes, pumpkins and onions w T as not only large 



'Suggestion adopted by Trustees, with flight amendment, at November meet- 
ing. 



S2 

but ofmosl excellent quality, making altogether a collection 
of which Mr. Gregory may well be proud. 

11. F. Broderick exhibited Mammoth pumpkins. Porter's 
Market of Salem was represented by a largo horn of plenty, 
well filled with flowers, fruits and vegetables, ('has. B. 
Haven's ancient Egyptian corn proved quite a novelty. 
This corn was the growth of three years, from seed obtained 
from an Egyptian mummy ante-dating four thousand years. 

S. \V. Spaulding brought thirteen large marrow squashes 
which were raised on a single vine. These squashes would 
easily have filled two barrels, which is of course a most 
remarkable yield. Having mentioned the leading features 
of this department and referring to the list of premiums and 
gratuities attached for the details, your committee would 
call the attention of our exhibitors to the following rule 
which in many cases seems to have been forgotten : " No 
competitor for premium to exhibit more or less number of 
specimens of any vegetables than the premiums are offered 
for.'' In several cases fourteen and fifteen specimens were 
shown where the schedule called for twelve, and sometimes 
as low as nine or ten were exhibited when twelve was the 
required number. As a result your committee were 
obliged to debar these exhibitors from competition. But 
as a whole the display in this department was very satis- 
factory. 

Respectfully submitted, 

M. B. Faxon. Chairman. 



GRAIN AND SEED. 

The Committee on Grain and Seed have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully n p >rt to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 
#8. First premium, to Aaron Low, Essex, for 285 varieties 

Field and Garden seeds. 
- i. Second premium, to J. J. II. Gregory, Marblchcad, 
for '2'>1 varieties Field and Garden seeds. 



S3 

$1. First premium, to S. W. Weston, Middle con, for 1 

peck barley. 
$1. First premium, to S. W. Weston, Middleton, for 1 peck 

rye. 
|1. First premium, to F. 0. Kimball, Danvers, for 1 peck 

shelled corn. 
$5. First premium, to M. L. Emmerson, Haverhill, for 25 

ears field corn. 
$3. Second premium, to Chas. J. Peabody, Top field, for 

25 ears field corn. 
$2. Third premium, to John B. King, Middleton, for 25 

ears field corn. 
$3. First premium, to J. A. Curtis, Peabody, for 25 ears 

pop corn. 
$2. Second premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for 25 ears 

pop corn. 
Rufus Kimball, Albert W. Howe, D. Bradstreer, James 
W. Kimball — Committee. 



COUNTERPANES AND AFGHANS. 

The Committee on Counterpanes and Afghan^ have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to th. Secre- 
tary that they have made the following awards : 

$3. First premium, to Miss Anna Bushby, Peabody, for 

silk quilt. 
$2. Second premium, to Mrs. Augustus Southwick, Pea- 
body, for afghan. 
$2. Second premium, to Mrs. Chas. M. Osborn, Peabody, 

for silk quilt. 
$1. Gratuity, to Mrs. Chas. H. Brooks, Peabody, for silk 
quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to L. A. Israel, Peabody, for silk quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Mary T. Weston, Peabody, for 

patch quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Nellie A. Huntington, Amesbury, 
for woolen quilt 



§4 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Thomas Carroll, Peabody, for silk 

quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Anna H. Little, Newburyport, for 

silk puff. 
50. Gratuity, to Miss Lola M. Cate, Peabody, for woolen 

quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Sarah Paul, Beach Bluff, for silk 

quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Susan Howard, Peabody, for knit 

quilt. 
.50- Gratuity, to Mrs. Webster Pane, Salem, for velvet 

quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Susan Hind, Taple} T ville, for patch 

quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Carrie B. Swan, South Peabody, 

for plush quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Henry Farnum, Peabody, for silk 

quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Frank T. Arnold, Peabody, for silk 

quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. G. B. Beckett, Peabody, for *ilk 

quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. Roberts, Salem, for patch quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Helen Bushby, Peabody, for silk 

quilt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Chas. Goldthwait, Peabody, for 

afghan. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Miss Miunie Osborn, Peabody, for 

afghan. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Miss Alice Nelson, Peabody, for afghan. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. A. A. Foster, Salem, for afghan. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. H. Brooks, Peabody, for afghan. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Amos Buxton, Peabody, for afghan. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Mary A. Chceny, Danvers, for 

afghan. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Frank M. Goss, Peabody, for 

afghan. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. C. Pike, Peabody, for afghan. 



»5 

1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. E. M. Little, Peabody, for afghan. 

.50. Gratuity, to Miss Alice Nelson, Peabody, for afghan. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. M. A. Hill, Peabody, for afghan. 
Mrs. Chas. H. Brooks, Mrs. Elizabeth A. King, Mrs. A. 
F. Harvey, Mrs. A. Raddin — Committee. 



CARPETINGS AND RUGS. 

The Committee on Carpetings and Rugs have attended to 
their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 
■$3.00. First premium, to Mrs. J. Fairbanks, Salem, for rug. 
2.00. Second premium, to Mrs. David Warren, Swamp- 

scott, for rug. 
Diploma, to Herbert J. Foan, Peabody, for wool skin rugs. 
1.50. Gratuity, to Miss M. M. Plummer, Salem, for rug. 
1.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Moses E. Cook, Newburyport, for 

rug. 
1.50. Gratuity, to Delia D. Hale, Rowley, for wrought rug. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Chas. T. Mooney, Salem, for 2 rugs. 
1.50. Gratuity, to Miss M. A. Chute, Salem, for 2 rugs. 
1.00. Gratuity, to H. F. Savory, Salem, for rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Miss F. C. Smith, Salem, for knit rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to M. M., 101 Washington St., Peabody, 

for rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Henrietta Pushee, Beverly, for rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. George Gammell, Peabody, for 

drawn rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Frank A. Witham, Middleton, for 

drawn mat. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. G. W. Gardner, Danvers, for rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to F. W. Steinbeck, Lynn, for 2 rugs. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Charlotte P. Dodge, Beverly, for rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. M. E. Roberts, Salem, for rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mr. Calvin Foster, Beverly, for 2 rugs. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Daniel Emerson, So. Lynnfield, 

for rug. 



86 

.50. Gratuity, to Mr. Freeman Murray, Lynn, for rug. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss R. E. M. Richardson, So. Peabody,. 

for rug. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Mary D. Bomer, Pcabody, for rug. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Lizzie Baxter, Beverly, for rug. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. S. P. Stoddard, Peabody, for rug. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Win. Gray, Peabody, for rug. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Win. Gray, Peabody, for rug. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Frank A. Winchester, Peabody, 

for nig. 
.50. Gracuity, to Mrs. L. E. Andrews, Salem, for 2 rugs. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. George Gammell, Peabody, for rug. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Mary 0. Smith, Danversport, for 

kni* rug. 
Andrew Nichols, Sarah B. Shorey, Isabelle S. Ladd — 
Com in idee. 



ARTICLES MANUFACTURED FROM LEATHER. 

The Committee on Articles Manufactured from Leather 
have attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the 
Secretary that they have made the following awards : 
$5.00. First premium, to C. P. Spencer, Salem, for carriage 

harness. 
5.00. First premium, to Chas. McTernan. Danvers, for 

team harness. 
5.00. First premium, to Herbert Gardner, Peabody, for 

express harness. 
3.00. Gratuity, to C. P. Spencer, Salem, for case of leather 

goodc. 
2.00. First premium, to John F. Todd, Rowley, for hand 

made boots. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Alonzo Raddin. Peabody, for hand 

made Congress boots. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Chas. R, Smith, Lynn, for women's but- 
ton boots. 
1.00 Gratuity, to A. T. Blake, Peabody, for leather cases. 



§7 

2.00. First premium, to Alonzo Raddin, Peabody, for 

machine made women's shoes. 
2.00. First premium, to Chas. R. Smith, Lynn, for hand 

made women's shoes. 
2.00. First premium, to P. If. Flint, Danvers, for chil- 
dren's shoes. 
Diploma recommended to be given to Alonzo Raddin of 
Peabody, Mass , for best exhibition of boots and shoes man- 
ufactured in Essex County. 

Hiram N. Ilarriman, Augustus T. Billings, D. 13. Burn- 
ham — Committee. 



MANUFACTURES AND GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

The Committee on Manufactures and General Merchan- 
dise have attended to their duty, and respectfully report to 
the Secretary that they have made the following awards : 
$3.00. Gratuity, to Newhall M. Jewett, for horn goods. 
3.00. Gratuity, to Wheeler & Wilson, Salem, for sewing 

machines. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Fred Friend, Salem, for boat. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Geo. R. Norton, Peabody, for stoves. 
2.00. Gratuity, to F. L. Sears, Peabody, for stoves. 
2.00. Gratuity, to W. Noyes, Newburyport, for safe. 
.50. Gratuity, to Hamlett& Powers, Salem, for cases of 

corn. 
.50. Gratuity, to G. L. Richardson, So. Peabody, for 

drinking fountain. 
.50. Gratuity, to Edward C. Sanger, Peabody, for shells. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Jesse R. Smith, Peabody, for horse 
shoes. 
.50. Gratuity, to Geo. R. Knowlton, Hamilton, for tin 

ware. 
.50. Gratuity, to J. R. Fogg, Amesbury, for fruit picker. 
Diploma, to F. Osborn Jr. & Co., Peabody, for kip leather 

and splits. 
Diploma, to A. J], Clark, Peabody, for calfskins. 



88 

Diploma, to A. B. Clark, Peabody, for skivers and skins. 
Diploma, to Murray & Carroll, Salem, for horse shoes. 
Diploma, to Dole & Osgood, Peabody, for horse shoes. 
Diploma, to R. B. Pray & Co., Danvers, for cigars. 
Diploma, to Wm. Mayhew. Peabody, for grocers' index. 
Diploma, to M. Bodge, Lynn, for plated ware. 
Diploma, to Wiley & Poor, Peabody, for splits and dongola. 
Diploma, to IT. A. Southvvick, Peabody, for I. S. dongola. 
Diploma, to J. F. Ingraham, W. Peabody, for fancy skins. 
Diploma, to Geo. E. Marsh & Co., Lynn, for soap. 



FANCY WORK AND WORKS OF ART. 

The Committee on Fancy Work and Works of Art have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Sec- 
retary that they have made the following awards : 
Diploma, to Mrs. L. G. Howard, Salem, for fancy work in 

fish scales. 
$1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Daniel Emerson, Lynnfield, for 6 

oil paintings. 
1.00. Gratuity, to M. N. Pond, Salem, for oil paintings. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Mary A. Southvvick, Peabody, for fancy 
articles. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Olive E. Rodie, Peabody, for hand- 
kerchief. 
1.50. Gratuity, to Miss M. O. Barrett, Peabody, for pen 
sketchings. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss M. O. Barrett, Peabody, for wash 

paintings. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Franklin Osborne, Peabody, for 

table mats. 
.75. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. C. Pike, Peabody, for two tidies. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. M. Poor, Peabody, for 3 oil 
paintings. 
.75. Gratuity, to Annie Jones, Danvers, for pillow shams. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Mary F. Shirley, Danvers, for 
infant's dress. 



8 9 

1.00. Gratuity, to Miss Lizzie M. Goodrich, Lynnfield, for 

2 charcoal drawings. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Nellie F. Everett, Danvers, for 2 oil 
paintings. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. W. O. Gray, Peabody, for banner. 
.50. Gratuity, to L. J. Putnam, Danvers, for apron. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Horace C. Ware, Salem, for oil 

painting. 
1.00. Gratuity, to A. R. Thaeher, Peabody, for 2 crayons. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. S. P. Baker, Peabody, for doilies. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Lizzie T. Fallon, Peabody, ,for 3 oil 

paintings. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Percy Grosvenor, Peabody, for tray 

cloth and tidy. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Percy Grosvenor, Peabody, for 3 oil 
paintings. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Mary F. Pierce, Peabody, for knit 
lace. 
1.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. A. P. Xewhall, Lynn, for handker- 
chiefs, tidies and doilies. 
.75. Gratuity, to Lillie S. Heylingberg, Peabody, for 2 

oil paintings. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. S. L. Hardy, Peabody, for 2 

netted tidies. 
.50. Gratuity, to Georgie S. Hart, Peabody, for scarf. 
.75. Gratuity, to Mrs. Chas. P. Mills, New bury port, for 

placque. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. E. W. Thomas, Salem, for towels. 
.75. Gratuity, to Miss Nellie Magoon, Danvers, for 2 oil 
paintings. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Annie S. Symonds, Peabody, for 2 oil 

paintings. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Frank M. Goss, Peabody, for ham- 
mered brass. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. R. W. Wilkinson, Peabody, for 

knit lace. 
.50. Gratuity, to Alice Sawyer, Peabody, for paper 
flowers. 



9 o 

.50. Gratuity, to Miss Amanda D. Low, Gloucester, for 
crochet skirt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. G. H. Jacobs, Peabody, for water 

colors. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Carrie B. Si van, So. Peabody, for oil 
painting. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss P. T. Arnold, Peabody, for table 

scarf. 
.50. Gratuity, to Gennie Arnold, Peabody, for pillow 
shams. 
1.00. Gratuity, to J. S. Tufts, Peabody, for crochet apron. 
.75. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. L. Taylor, Salem, for embroidery. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Alice H. Berry, Peabody, for portrait. 
1.00. Gratuity, to M. H. Pierce, Peabody, for pillow shams. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Lizzie Arnold, Salem, for 2 oil paintings. 
.50. Gratuity, to Fannie Thomas, Peabody, lor handker- 
chief. 
1.00. Gratuity, to S. B. Manslield, So. Peabody, for 3 oil 

paintings. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Apphia C. Symonds, Salem, for '1 oil 

paintings. 
1.00. Gratuity, to N. Vickary, Lynn, for 4 cases of birds. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Geo. II. Jacobs, Peabody, for china 
paintings. 
.75. Gratuity, to L. M. Goodrich, Lynnlield, for blanket. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Webster Dane, Salem, for skirt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Hattie P. Allen, Beverly, for tidy. 
.50. Gratuity, to Lizzie Arnold, Salem, for painted necktie_ 
.75. Gratuity, to Louise E. Osborne, Peabody, for table 
cover. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Osman Jewett, Salem, for 3 oil paintings. 

.50. Gratuity, to Margaret Lord, Peabody, for scarf 
1.00. Gratuity, to John S. Sutton, Peabody, for 2 oil 

paintings. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Julia M. Smith, Danvcrsport, for col- 
lection of crocheting. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. R. Peabody, Topsfield, for table 
cover. 



9i 

1.00. Gratuity, to Miss Alice Stoyle, Peabody, for crayon 
sketch. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. Hayden Smith, Lynn, for cu- 
rious jewelry. 

The number of entries in this department were two hun- 
dred and sixty. Nearly four hours were devoted to the 
awarding of the gratuities. *We, as the committee, recom- 
mend the separation of Fancy Work and Works of Art. 
$50 is certainly needed in each department in order to do 
justice to the many meritorious exhibits ; we most earnestly 
request the Trustees to act on this before the next annual 
fair. 

The paintings completely occupied the wall on one side 
of the hall, while two long tables were devoted to fancy 
articles. Nearly every article deserved special notice. We 
doubt if there was ever a larger display or one of finer 
work in this department, at our county fair. 

Lizzie I. Huntington, Mrs. D. P. Grosvenor, Emily H. 
Campbell — Committee. 



^Xote. — The recommendation was adopted by the Trustees as far as separation 
and allowing; .?:;() to each Committee for gratuities. 



WORK OF CHILDREN UNDER TWELVE YEARS 

OF AGE. 

The Committee on Work of Children under Twelve 
Years of Age have attended to their duty, and respectfully 
report to the Secretary that they have made the following- 
awards : 

•13.00. First premium, to Ida F. Searle, Salem, for crazy 
quilt. 

2.00. Second premium, to Reuhamur M. Holmes, Essex, 
for two quilts. 

1.50. Gratuity, to Mary II. Woodbury, Salem, for hand- 
made shirt. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Belle Ferren, Peabody, for sofa pillow. 



92 

.50. Gratuity, to Mabel Perkins, Peabody, for knit edging. 
.50. Gratuity, to Hattie Pushee, Beverly, for chair 

cushion. 
1.50. Gratuity, to Lena G. Morgan, Manchester, for afghan. 
.50. Gratuity, to Hannah G. Blaney, Peabody, for paper 

flowers and tidy. 
1.00. Gratuity, to P. W. Legro, Lynn, for Lord's prayer. 
.50. Gratuity, to Gertrude P. Cole, Peabody, for flannel 

skirt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Annie and Marian Warner, Peabody, 

for afghan. 
.50. Gratuity, to Ben Lester Porter, Peabody, for bureau 

scarf. 
.50. Gratuity, to Linda M. Balcora, Peabody, for tidy. 
.50. Gratuity, to Gertrude and Alice Barrett, Peabody, 

for towel and tea tray. 
.50. Gratuity, to Ethel and Annie Longfellow, Byfield, 

for lamp mats. 
••>0. Gratuity, to Norah Conroy, Peabody, for tidy. 
Mrs. Chas. J. Peabody, Mrs. M. E. Fuller, Mrs. David 
Warreu, Mrs. Frances O. Perkins — Committee. 



IMPROVING WASTE LANDS. 

In recommending an award of first premium, -115, to C. 
K. Ordway & Son of West Newbury, would respectfully 
report that Mr. Ordway's improvement of waste land is 
rather exceptional in its character, but nevertheless it is an 
improvement, the best evidence of which is the fact that his 
neighbors are preparing to follow his example, though be- 
fore he had attempted it they had given it that smile of 
incredulity which is the benison usually bestowed upon 
enterprises that are regarded either as impracticable or 
impossible. Every one who has sailed on our New England 
rivers, in whose eyes good land has a value, has felt regret 
at the great waste of the alluvium, the very richest of soil, 
which is so often made evident by bare, perpendicular 



93 

banks of dark, rich soil, eaten away by the devouring' 
water. The waste of so much fertile land along the banks 
of all our large streams is an enormous loss to agriculture. 
The erosian by some of our larger rivers is so extensive 
that in some portions of their course they have changed 
their entire bed in a single season, leaving stranded inland 
towns that were built upon their banks, thus utterly de- 
stroying their commerce and all enterprises founded on it. 
This eating away and devouring the rich soil which it has 
itself deposited in the course of the ages, is strikingly 
illustrated by our own Connecticut, in what is known as 
the great " ox-bow " in the vicinity of Northampton. What 
the possibility of this means as regards the comfort and 
happiness of the inhabitants of such districts, may be 
learned by talking with the farmers of old Hadley, who will 
point out to you a bend at the centre of the town, against 
which, during the spring freshets, the river impinges with 
such force, that in spite of all the precautions taken, as 
evinced by an extensive series of piles driven near the bank 
and the masses of brush and stone used as a defensive 
backing, and the arrangement by which all the inhabitants, 
with their teams and tools came hurrying to the point of 
danger at the warning tone of the alarm bell at any hour 
of the day or night, it is still the firm belief of the inhabi- 
tants of that old puritan town, that it is merely a matter of 
time when the mighty river shall break through all bar- 
riers, and cut its way directly across the centre, bearing 
along the Academy and other buildings which are regarded 
as fated, on its angry waters. Our Merrimac does not 
carry so mighty a stream within its banks, nevertheless all 
along its course, can be seen the effects of the wasting 
action of its waters, ancient or recent, caused either by the 
impinging of floating logs or ice against its banks, or by the 
sucking friction of the water of high freshets. How to pre- 
vent the denuding of its shores and check the erosive action 
of the running water, is the problem which the brave enter- 
prise of Mr. Ordway has attempted to solve. It was one 
out of the beaten track such as required a man of some 
originality of mind to conceive. 



94 

Your committee found the extensive river border of Mr. 
Ordway's farm sloping gently to the water, all well graded 
over and capable of being cut with a mowing machine. 
Adjoining the farm the hanks of the river were in their 
natural state, and showed, very plainly by contrast, just 
what Mr. 0. had accomplished. These were covered with 
trees and bushes, were steep in many places, full of irregu- 
larity and depression, mostly the effects of former river 
action, and every here and there were areas washed out by 
the recent action of the waters of the Merrimac. Mr. 0. 
has not only reclaimed a waste and levelled its irregular 
surface by plowing down here and filling up there, so that 
a mowing machine can run over it, but, best of all he has 
made his slope at such an angle as to prevent from the pos- 
sibility of future erosion. I have never seen the subject 
discussed, but will venture the suggestion that the angle at 
which the slope of the soil meets the water to insure pro- 
tection from wearing away in the future, must be about the 
same along our river bank as that known as the " beach 
angle."' along the coast of the ocean. The fact that there 
is such an angle, and that the coast or any structure to 
which the waves have access is liable to destruction until 
that is formed, is a discovery of comparatively recent years. 
When the great breakwaters were being built off the coast 
of Cherburg in France and Plymouth in England, the fust 
attempts failed, every heavy storm tearing them to pieces 
and frustrating the skill of the ablest engineers of their day. 
Finally it was noted that where the slope of stones made an 
angle with the water of about 20 degrees they were no 
longer disturbed. Some scientist, on studying into the 
matter, found that the same angle was the one at which 
beaches meet the ocean, where they protested the land from 
erotion. and hence it was called the '•' beach angle." I 
would therefore suggest that in making these protecting 
slopes in improving the banks of our river, the angle of 
safety to the ocean coast be had in mind. For protection 
from the effects of the impinging of floating logs and ice 
there can be no angle of safety : the price for them must 
be eternal vigilance. 



95 

Mr. Oil I way and his neighbors are fortunate in having 

apparently an unlimited depth of friable clay on their land 

bordering the river ; they have no poor subsoil to bother 

them while making their improvements. On ascending 

from the river meadows to the upland we found the clay 

gradually replaced by a sandy soil, which brought to mind 

the old quail rain, which contains a hint worth acting on: 

" Clay on sand 
Makes very good land; 
Sand on clay 
Throws money away." 

James J. II. Gregory, for the Committee. 



STATEMENT OP C. K. ORDWAY <v SON OP WEST NEWBURY. 

This piece of land we offer for premium, measuring BOO 
rods, is on the banks of the Merrimac river between the 
Intervale and the water. It was covered with wood and 
bushes. We cut off and pastured it with sheep two years. 

In 1884, we plowed and dug out the stumps, graded 
down the bank, harrowed, and planted it with potatoes, 
without manure, at the expense of $75. (The bank that 
we graded down was washed out eight feet deep in places. 
We have graded it so that we can mow with a machine to 
I he water's edge) We raised 120 bushels of potatoes that 
sold for $1.25 per bushel. 

In 1885. The second year we put on seven cords of 
manure, plowed and planted with corn and raised 100 
bushels of shelled corn, worth 75 cents per bushel. 

In 188(3. We plowed and sowed it with oats and grass 
seed. Raised 50 bushels of oats worth 50 cents per bush. 

In 1887. We mowed from it two tons of English hay, 
worth $18 per ton, and one and a half tons of swale hay 
worth $10 per ton. 

In 1888. We mowed from it two tons of English hay 
worth $18 per ton, and 3200 lbs. of swale hay worth $10 
per ton. 



56 


00 


6 


00 


o 


00 


4 


00 


12 


00 



184 <i0 



80 00 



96 

IMPROVEMENTS. Df. 

1884. — Cost of preparing ground for planting. $75 00 
Cost of potatoes for seed, 9 60 

Cost of hoeing them once, 2 00 

Cost of harvesting, 8 00 

1885. — Cost of 7 cords manure put on, 

Cost of ploughing and harrowing, 
Cost of seed and planting, 
Cost of hoeing, 
Cost of harvesting, 

1886. — Cost of ploughing, harrowing and 

sowing, 7 00 

Cost of oats for seed, 2 50 

Cost of grass seed, 3 00 

Cost of harvesting oats, 11 00 

23 50 

1887. — Cost of cutting and storing hay, 10 00 

1888. — Cost of cutting and storing hay, 10 00 

Total cost for five years, $208 10 

Or. 
1884. — 120 bushels potatoes raised, 
1885. — 100 bushels shelled corn, 
3 tons of stover, 

1886. — 50 bushels oats, 
Straw, 

1887. — 2 tons English hay, 
li ton swale hay, 

1888.— 2 tons English hay, 
Swale hay, 

Total value products for five years, $388 50 

Profit for five years $180.40, or $36.08 yearly. 

See Note next page. 



*150 


00 


75 00 




24 00 




- 99 


00 


25 00 




12 00 




37 


00 


36 00 




15 00 




51 


00 


36 00 




15 50 




51 


50 



97 

Note. — 5 years products per acre, average $41.44 yearly, $207 20 

5 years expenses per acre, average $22.19 yearly, 1 10 95 

."> years profit per acre, average $19.25 yearly, $96 25 

beside increased value of land. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE OX GRAIN CROPS. 

The Committee on Grain Crops report but two entries 
for the society's premiums. One by Oliver P. Killam of 
Boxford, of Indian corn ; his statement is imperfect inas- 
much as he does not state the amount of shelled corn his 
158 bushels would yield, nor should it be inferred that 
from this quantity of ears that the crops was very heavy, 
yet as the year has been very unfavorable, and as when 
viewed there was evidence of good care and thorough 
culture we recommend that Mr. Killam be given the pre- 
mium of $10. 

The other entry was of a crop of barley by William 
W. Perkins of Newbury. This was one of the best fields 
of " waving grain " seen for many years. The Committee 
regret that Mr. Perkins did not give the weight of straw 
upon the acre entered as this is an important element in 
the value of the crop. We know that it was heavy, and 
in the scarcity of straw in Essex County, think it of 
about two-thirds of the value of the grain. We recom- 
mend that Mr. Perkins be given the first premium of $10. 
Respectfully submitted, 

William Little, James P. King, Baxter P. Pike — Com- 
mittee. 

STATEMENT OF OLIVER P. KILLAM. 

To Es&ex Agricultural Society. Statement concerning a 
crop of corn raised by Oliver P. Killam in the town of 
Boxford, 1888. The crop of 188G was English hay about 
1200 pounds per acre. No manure was used. The crop 
of 1887, English hay, about 1000 pounds. No manure 
was used. The soil is a light gravel loam. Ploughing 



9 S 

was done about the middle of May, six inches deep. 
Barn manure was spread and plowed under, twenty-four 
loads to the acre of thirty bushels each. Value of manure 
$2 per load. Cost of plowing and harrowing $9. Used 
300 pounds of fertilizer in the hills at a cost of $4.80. 
Planted the field May 22, by hand, using one peck of 
eight-rowed yellow corn with hills three and one-half 
feet apart each way. Cost of planting $3.50. Cultivated 
four times each way, and hoed by hand twice. Cost of 
both $7. Commenced cutting and stooking Sept. 10. 
Cost of harvesting $13. Amount of crop 158 bushels of 
corn on the ear. I think the smuts discounted from five 
to ten bushels of ears per acre. 



COST OF CROP. 



Barn manure, 

Fertilizer. 

Plowing and harrowing, 

Seed and planting, 

Cultivating and hoeing, 

Harvesting, 



55 GO 

Allowing half value of manure to remain in ground, 20 40 



$48 00 


4 


80 


9 


00 


3 


80 


it 


00 


13 


00 



Total cost per acre, $59 20 

Nov. 9,11 



I hereby certify that I have measured one acre of land, 
planted to corn, for Oliver P. Killam, of Boxford, to be 
entered for premium with Essex Agricultural Society. 

Moody K. Stacy. 

This is to certify that 1 have helped husk, and seen to 
measuring the corn grown on the above acre which 
amounted to one hundred and fifty-eight bushels. 

Moody K. Stacy. 

Nov. 9, 1888. 



99 

STATEMENT OF WM. W. PERKINS OF WEST NEWBURY OF 
BARLEY CROPS. 

To the Committee, on Grain Crops, Essex Agricultural 
Soeir/ //. 

Gentlemen : — The acre of barley which I have entered 
for premium was a part of three acres and thirty-five rods. 
The ground was plowed the middle of May, six inches 
deep; harrowed and sowed with three bushels of seed, 
after the seed was sown, brushed in with brush harrow 
and rolled with heavy roller. The soil is clay loam, clay 
predominates, ground quite low, underdrained a few years 
since. I used no manure, as the ground had been planted 
with onions for ten or fifteen years, highly manured and 
generally kept clean from weeds. Harvested the middle 
of August, threshed and measured. Whole amount of 
barley on the lot, three acres and thirty-five rods. 133 
bushels. On the acre I present for premium, forty-three 
bushels and three peeks weighing forty-eight pounds per 
bushel. Cannot estimate straw. Was offered 80 cents 
per bushel for barley. 

EXPENSES. 

Plowing acre, $2 50 

Harrowing '• 1 00 

Sowing " 50 

Brush Rolling acre, 50 

Seed 3 bushels, at $1.35, 4 05 

Harvesting, 1 50 

Threshing, 6 00 

Cleaning, 1 50 

Mowing, 1 50 



Nov., 1888. 



$19 05 
Wm. W. Perkins, Newbury. 



Note. — 43 3-4 bushels barley at 80 cents, $35 00 

Straw estimated, 23 33 

$58 33 
Expenses, 19 05 

Profit, $39 28 



IOO 

1 hereby certify that I have measured one acre of 
ground, planted, with barley, entered Tor premium by 
Wm. W. Perkins of Newbury. 

Nov., 1888. 

James PI. IlSLey, Newbury. 

This may certify that I have measured for Wm. W. 
Perkins of Newbury, forty-three and three-fourths bush- 
els barley, grown on one acre of ground. 

HENllY MORUISSEY. 

Newbury, Nov., 1888. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON ROOT CROPS. 

The committee selected to examine the Root Crops 
entered for the society's premiums, have attended to that 
duty, and report ten entries from seven competitors, viz. : 

John H. George, Methuen, crop of onions. Chas. W. 
Mann, Methuen, crop of onions and cabbage. H. Gr. 
Herrick, Lawrence, crop of carrots. Paul M. llsley, 
Newbury, crop of squashes. Romulus Jaques, West 
Newbury, crops, Swede turnips, and onions. C. K. Ord- 
way & Son, West Newbury, crop carrots. David Warren, 
Swampscott, crops, cabbages and squashes. 

Your committee feel that they have been amply repaid 
for the time and expense they have incurred in visiting 
the different competitors for premiums, as they have been 
most hospitably entertained in every case, and our hosts 
were not only willing and desirous to show all of their 
farm products and talk freely of the different methods of 
farming, but were willing and anxious to show us other 
farms or anything that might be of interest in their res- 
pective towns, to an extent that would consume more 
time than was at our command. 

The first visit we made was to see Mr. John PI. George's 
crop of onions on Sept. 11, and found a heavy crop of 
medium size, all dried down, and ready to pull and mar- 



IOI 

ket, with scarcely a scullion or pickler on the piece. They 
grew on a piece of reclaimed swamp land with no under- 
drain, hut an open ditch all around the piece. The rows 
were sowed only twelve inches apart. Mr. George has 
but a few acres of land, and that is all made to produce a 
crop that any farmer might well feel proud of. 

On the same day we visited the crops of onions and 
cabbage entered by Mr. Chas. W. Mann. Mr. Mann's 
onions were on a piece of good, strong dark loam soil, 
sloping slightly to the west, that was suitable to raise a 
good crop of any farm product. His crop was some two or 
three weeks later than Mr. George's, being hut partly 
dried down, but it was a fine piece of onions for the size 
of it, there being some four acres devoted to that crop, 
and the committee were somewhat at a loss to tell where 
the best half acre was he had entered for a premium. 
The rows were fourteen inches apart and the onions being 
thin grew of large size, with very few picklers, and if 
they had been sowed a little thicker would have been a 
very heavy crop. 

Mr. Mann's crop of cabbage was on a piece of strong 
land near the base of quite a high hill sloping somewhat 
to the westward. It was a very heavy crop of "Mr. 
Mann's strain of Stone Mason," the heaviest crop, the 
committee thought, they ever saw. They stood higher 
on the stump than the common Stone Mason. In looking 
over the field the committee could not find a cabbage but 
what had a good solid head of very large size for that 
time of the year, it being early in the season for the crop 
to have its full growth. The rows were three feet apart, 
the plants two feet in the row. 

While in Methuen Mr. George took us to see Capt H. 
G. Herrick's farm in that town, and we were fortunate in 
finding the genial Captain there. He took us over his 
whole place and showed us the many improvements which 
he is making, and among other things he showed us a fine 
piece of carrots, which he has since entered for a pre- 
mium. The carrots were on a piece of dark loam, on 



102 

which was an orchard of young apple trees. Mr. Herrick 
bought the seed for Danvers carrot, but to his disgust 
about one-half of it was the Gerande. If it had all been 
the Danvers the crop would have been very heavy, there 
being nearly thirteen tons to the half acre as it was. 

On Sept. 21 the committee visited Mr. Paul M. llsley 
of Newbury, who had entered a crop of squashes, and also 
on the same day visited Messrs. C. K. Ordway & Son of 
West Newbury, who had entered a crop of carrots, and 
Mr. Komulus Jaques of the same town, who had entered 
a crop of Swede turnips and onions. 

Mr. Usley had an acre of fine Essex Hybrid squash on 
a piece of land of the nature of a sandy loam. That was 
planted in 1886 to corn, manured with barnyard manure. 
In 1887 it was planted to potatoes manured with fer- 
tilizer. The crop was not so heavy as some, but was very 
even, all well ripened, and ready to gather ; very few 
small or inferior ones ; so much so that one of the com- 
mittee asked him what he had done with the poor ones or 
seconds. 

Messrs. C. K. Ordway & Son, whose farm is located on 
the banks of the Merrimac Kiver, and a considerable por- 
tion of it is fine intervale land that is capable of produc- 
ing a good crop of anything they see fit to cultivate. 
Our object was to see a half acre of carrots which the} r 
had entered for a premium. They were of the Chanter- 
noy variety, which in our opinion are not so profitable to 
raise as the Danvers, although they had a very good crop. 
The} r were short, but held their size the whole length, 
and could be pulled as easily as turnips, requiring no 
digging. But carrots are not the only good crop they 
raise, they having several acres in corn, and one of their 
pieces some of the committee estimated to produce very 
near one hundred bushels of shell corn to the acre. They 
also took pride in showing us their dairy, in the shape of a 
fine lot of homemade cheese, for which they find a ready 
market in Haverhill at an advance in price from the com- 
mon article. The Messrs. < udway are experimenting this 



103 

season, selling one-half of their milk, and making the 
other half in cheese and feeding the whey to several large 
fat hogs to see where the most profit is. We are inclined 
to think that the most profit will come from the cheese 
and pork. 

Mr. Komulus Jaques had a very promising crop of tur- 
nips planted on soil of a loamy nature. His onions were 
a fair crop of good quality and size, but rather late. 

On Oct. 3 we went to Swampscott to see a crop of 
squash, and cabbage entered by David Warren. It was 
an unfavorable time to visit Mr. Warren as his land is 
rather low and flat, although it is all underdrained. The 
heavy rains of the preceding week made the land very 
wet and in many places being covered with water, espec- 
ially where his cabbages were. He had a good crop of 
cabbages, every head being perfect and very solid, set 
close to the ground on a short stump. The heads were 
not so large as Mr. Mann's, but we should say more pref- 
erable for family use, although comparing the weight to- 
the acre we should say Mr. Mann had decidedly the most. 

Mr. Warren's crop of Bay State squashes grew on black 
loam with gravelly subsoil, partly underdrained. The 
squashes were of good size, hard and well-ripened. 

The committee feel that it is somewhat difficult to 
decide on the cabbage and squash crops, everything being 
so nearly equal, and for that reason have given it to the 
largest crop. 

The committee award the following premiums: 
ftlO. First premium, to John II. George, Methuen, for 
crop onions. 
|5. Second premium, to Chas. W. Mann. Methuen, for 
crop onions. 
810. First premium, to David Warren, Swampscott, for 
crop squashes. 
$5. Second premium, to Paul M. Ilsley, Newbury, for 
crop sq uashes. 
$10. First premium, to ('has. W. Mann. Methuen, for 
crop cabbages. 



104 

$5. Second premium, to David Warren, Swampscott, 
for crop cabbages. 
$10. First premium, to Horatio G. Herrick, Lawrence, 
for crop carrots. 
$5. Second premium, to 0. K. Ordway & Son, West 
Newbury, for crop carrots. 
$10. First premium, to Romulus Jaques, West Newbury, 
for crop turnips. 

John M. Danforth, For the Committee. 

STATEMENT OF A CROP OF ONIONS, GROWN BY JOHN 
H. GEORGE, OF METHUEN. 

The land on which they were grown, is peat meadow. 
The crops of 1886 and 1887 were onions ; manure, in form 
of compost, applied at rate of 8 cords per acre. This year 
it had at rate of 10 cords, good horse manure and night 
soil, per acre, ploughed in about 4 inches deep, in the fall; 
in the spring it was harrowed, brushed, and dragged, and 
sown with Yellow Danvers seed, 4 lbs. per acre; hoed five 
times ; weeded three times ; harvested 372 bushels on the 
half acre. 

CROP. 

Dr. 

To Preparation of Land, $1.50 

Manure, 5 cords at $5.00, 25.00 

Seed and sowing, 7.00 

Hoeing five times, 2.00 

Weeding three times, boy labor, 6.00 
Harvesting and topping, at 5 cents per bushel, 18.60 

Interest and taxes on land, 6.00 



$70.10 
Cr. 
By 372 hush, onions (sold early) at 90c, average 

price per bushel, $334.80 

70.10 



Balance, $264.70 

See Note next page. 



io5 

Note— Crop per acre. 744 bushels at 90 cents. $669.60 

Cost per acre, 140.20 



$529.40 



I hereby certify that the land upon which grew the crop 
of onions entered for premium, by John H. George, meas- 
ured eighty rods. 

Jos. S. Howe, Surveyor. 
Methuen, Sept. 11, 1888. 

STATEMENT OF CHARLES \V. MANN, OF METHUEN, ON 
ONION CROP. 

To the Committee on Root Crops : 

The piece of onions that I enter, was grown on a west- 
erly slope of rather heavy loam, and has been in cultiva- 
tion live or six years, once stony but now quite free from 
large stones, though small ones are still plenty. I find it 
difficult to give the expense and crop from a half acre 
and so shall give the account of one bed as taken from 
my crop book, and though this will not show as heavy a 
yield as a picked half acre, or two quarters, the premium 
is offered for the ' ; best experiment" so I may stand some 
chance of winning even if the yield be not the largest. 

The bed measures 102,000 feet or about 2 1-8 acres. 
Eighty spreader loads of a compost of stable manure 
muck, night soil and grease waste or mudgeon was applied 
and plowed under last October, after removing a crop of 
onions, and onion, beet, cabbage and parsnip seed. The 
crop in 188G was seed and cabbage, being only fairly 
manured in 1886 and 1887, perhaps seven cords per acre 
or its equivalent in other fertilizers. 

April 25, began harrowing with Climax wheel harrow, 
applied 1200 pounds Tucker's Bay State Phosphate to 
the upper part of the field and had the piece smoothed 
down with the Meeker harrow ready for sowing April 30, 
using Danvers Yellow Globe seed of my own growing, 
crop of 1887. The crop started well, though rather 
slowly and a little thinner than some years, but later in 



io6 

the season, grew rapidly and were plenty thick enough 
to be good size and yield well. The crop ripened well 
except in one wet corner where there were some scullions 
and there were no picklers, all the onions being large. 
The first weeding begun May 30, just 30 days from sow- 
ing, the second June 20, third July 6 and fourth July 23, 
after which they had very little attention. 
Here is the account : 

Dr. 

20 cords manure. $160 00 

1200 pounds phosphate, 21 00 

Applying phosphate, 1 ^0 

Plowing, 15 hours at 40c, (i 00 

Harrowing, 10 '• " " 4 00 

Meeker, 8 " " 30c, 2 40 

8 pounds seed at $5, 40 00 

Sowing, 10 hours at 20c, 2 00 

6 bags salt applied, 4 00 

1st weeding, T^c. to 20c. per hour, 40 70 

2d '• 36 45 

3d •■ 21 70 

4th - 19 60 

Removing weeds &c, 3 75 

Pulling, 7 00 

Raking and drying, 6 00 

Picking up, 12 50 

Teaming and storing, 25 00 

Total, 841 3 10 

Yield 1250 bushels. 

Cost stored per bushel, $ 33 

Cost per acre, 177 00 

Yield per acre, 535 bushels. 

I do not know what the crop will sell for, but hope to 
realize a fair profit. There are really man)' items that 
enter into the cost of our farming that are not charged to 
these special crops such as taxes, interest, insurance, c«>st 
of tools and teams and repairs on same, depreciation of 



107 

value of horses and harnesses, keep of team in winter 
and stormy weather, and a thousand and one others that 
we might think of, a certain portion of which should be 
charged to each crop, but they never are, at least when 
we figure for a premium. Whatever the profit may prove 
to be I feel that " seedtime and harvest " have not failed 
as far as this crop is concerned. 

Chas. W. Mann. 

I hereby certify that the piece of land on which the 
crop of onions, entered for premium by Mr. Mann, was 
grown, measures, 102,000 feet. 

C. H. T. Mann. 

STATEMENT OF DAVID WARREN, OF SWAMPSCOTT, ON 
SQUASH CROP. 

The following is a statement concerning a crop of Ba} r 
State squashes raised by David Warren, of Swampscott, 
on one hundred and twelve rods of land. 

The crop of 1886 was squashes, one application of 
stable manure at the rate of seven to eight cords to the 
acre. 

The crop of 1887 consisted of cabbages, manure applied 
at the rate of eight cords to the acre. 

The soil is a dark loam with gravelly sub-soil. It was 
ploughed in the fall of 1887, and cross ploughed in the 
spring of 1888, and stable manure applied with Kemp's 
spreader, by going over it twice, then harrowed with 
Randall harrow ; planted 22d of May in hills eight feet 
apart, four seeds to a hill, cultivated twice, and hoed 
twice. 

COST OF SQUASH CROP. 

Rent of land, $3 00 

Ploughing in the fall of 1887, 1 50 

Ploughing in the spring of 1888, 1 50 

Cost of manure used on the piece, - :> > 00 

Furrowing and preparing hills, 75 

Planting, 1 00 



io8 

Cultivating and hoeing twice, 

Cost of harvesting, 

Seed, 



Cost on 110 sq. rods, $40 25 

Product on 110 sq. rods, 19,380 lbs. 



3 


00 


5 


00 


1 


50 



Note.— Product per acre, 27,6S."> lbs. 
Expenses per acre, $57.50. 

David Warren. 

Swampscott, Oct. 6, 1888. 
This certifies that I have this day measured a tract of 
land having on it a crop of squashes, owned by David 
Warren of Swampscott, and entered by him for the Essex 
Agricultural Society's premium, and that such tract con- 
tains one hundred and twelve rods of land. 

Allen Rowe. 

Swampscott, Oct. 4, 1888. 
From David Warren, loads of Bay State squashes, gross 
47,940 lbs. ; tare 28,560 lbs. : net 19,380 lbs. 

C. S. Lewis, Weigher. 

STATEMENT OF PAUL M. ILSLEV, OF NEWBURY, ON SQUASH 

CROP. 

The crop, of squashes which I enter for premium was 
grown on a soil of sandy loam, planted in 1886 with corn, 
manured with 5-V cords of strong barn manure, and 
planted in 1887 with potatoes, manured with 900 lbs. 
fertilizer in the drill. 

In the spring of 1888 ploughed seven inches deep, turn- 
ing under about 5 cords of barn manure, and put in each 
hill two forkfuls of manure in which was mixed a quan- 
tity of fish offal, about 61- cords altogether. 

The hills were made 8£ feet each way, and planted 
about May 25, with Essex Hybrid seed, six to the hill, 
and thinned to three plants. 



109 

The crop was cultivated twice each way, hoed twice,. 
and harvested October 5. 

Quantity of No. 1 squashes on 1 acre, 24,488 lbs. 

Seconds estimated, 1,000 lbs- 

This certifies that I weighed one load of the squashes 
which P. M. Ilsley entered for premium, and loaded the 
remainder as near as possible to an equal weight, and that 
the above figures are correct. 

John M. Little, Jr. 

Cost of crop : 

Ploughing and preparing ground, about $5 00 

Value of manure applied, about 58 00 

Seed and planting, about 3 00 

Cultivation and care, 10 00 

Harvesting and storing, about 12 00 



-183 00 
Paul M. Ilsley. 
Newbury, Oct. 25. 

This certifies that I measured the land on which P. M. 
Ilsley raised the above crop of squashes, and that its area 
is one acre. 

Joseph Ilsley. 

statement of charles w. mann, ok methuen, on 
cabbage crop. 

To the Committer, on Root Crops : 

The crop of cabbages that I enter for premium was 
grown on a sidehill piece running from wet meadow to 
gravelly knoll. 

In 1885 and 188G the land yielded a crop of stone that 
would certainly have taken a premium had there been 
one offered for that crop. The yield was fully 800 perch 
per acre and perhaps more, as it was just cram full of 
them and big ones too. The land was first ploughed in 
November, 1886, with a team of four, two oxen and two 
horses, and it was a tough job. 



I IO 

In 1887 more stones were taken off, and about 4 cords 
of manure, put on and harrowed in as well as possible, 
and sowed to oats, which gave perhaps a ton of dry fodder. 
Late in the fall the piece was cross ploughed and more 
stone removed. Soon after June 1st we spread on 25 
cartloads of strong- manure from barn cellar mixed with 
some stable manure from the city, and June 12th it was 
ploughed and harrowed and more stone picked. Fur- 
rowed three feet apart and dropped a handful of phos- 
phate to the hill a little over 2 feet apart, covered with a 
hoe, and dropped seed and covered that with a hoe, being 
careful to cover it very lightly and stamp it well : this 
was done on the 13th and 14th of June. The variety 
was my own strain of Stone Mason. The crop was cul- 
tivated and hoed twice in July, after which only one half 
day's work pulling weeds was required to keep it clean 
until the harvest which began Oct. 11th, pulling them 
and storing in barn cellar to keep for seed purposes. 

The seed came up in four days and lost no time through 
the season. The land measures 23,920 feet, 2140 over 
one-half acre. 

Here is the account as taken from my crop book : 

Dr. 

6i cords manure at $8.00, 150 00 

600 lbs. Tucker's Bay State, 10 50 

Plowing and harrowing, 3 00 

Furrowing and planting, 6 00 

6 oz. seed, 1 50 

Cultivation, 12 00 



Total cost ready to harvest, $ 83 00 

Yield 3630 heads or 300 bbls.. for 12 heads would fill a 
barrel on the average and I rather think that ten would. 
The cost to raise was 27 2-3 cts. per bbl. ; cost to cut and 
market 20 cts. per bbl., and selling price in Lawrence 40 
cts. per bbl., which would have made a loss, if sold, of 
about 8 cts. per bbl. The cost of pulling, teaming a half 
mile and storing was f of a cent a head. 



1 1 1 

Where the wliole cost of manure is charged to the one 
crop I think it unnecessary to charge interest and taxes. 
The cost per acre was $140.00 ; the yield per acre 6600 
heads or 550 bids., and the profit or loss per acre no man 
knoweth until sold, but whether it be a profitable crop 
this year or not, ifc was the heaviest field of Stone Mason 
I ever raised or saw, and there is some satisfaction in a 
big crop outside of its cash value. 

Chas. W. Mann. 

I hereby certify that the piece of land on which the 
crop of cabbages, entered for premium by Mr. Mann, was 
grown, measures 23,920 feet. 

A. A. Tarr. 

STATEMENT OF DAVID WARREN, OF SWAMPSCOTT, ON 
CABBAGE CROP. 

The crop of cabbages which I enter for premium was 
grown on land that had been in grass two years preced- 
ing. The soil is a dark loam with gravelly sub-soil ; 
ploughed in the fall of 1887, six inches deep; stable ma- 
nure applied in the spring of 1888 with Kemp's spreader, 
at the rate of eight cords to the acre, wheel harrowed in 
with Randall harrow first of June. The seed put in with 
seed sower, in rows three feet four inches apart, thinned 
down from two to two and a half feet apart, cultivated 
twice and hoed twice, and thinned. 

Cost of ploughing in the fall. 

Cost of wheel harrowing in the spring, 

Value of manure on land, 

Cultivating, hoeing and thinning, 

Seed, 

Rent of land, 

Expense of crop on one and one 

quarter acres, $76 00 



$4 


00 


2 


00 


50 


00 


8 


00 


6 


00 


6 


00 



Note. — Expenses per aero, $60.80 

David Warren. 



I 12 

The piece of land of David Warren's, having a crop of 
cabbage, contains one acre and a quarter of land. 

Allen Rowe. 

statement <>f h. g. kerrick, of lawrence, on carrot 

CROP. 

The land occupied by this crop is an apple orchard, the 
trees of six years planting, twenty-five feet apart, and is 
one-half acre in Methuen. The land is a dark, heavy 
loam and rather wet. 

The crop of 1880 was mangolds, manured with stable 
manure. The crop of 1887 was corn ; manure 18 loads 
(30 bushels per load), stable manure, and Mapes' corn 
fertilizer broadcast and in hills, 500 lbs. 

The land was ploughed in fall of 1887, cross ploughed 
in spring of 1888, 7 to 8 inches deep, harrowed with 
wheel and smoothing harrows. The land was too wet 
and heavy to be pulverized as well as it ought to have 
been. Manured with 5 cords stable manure ploughed in. 
Sowed May "I'd. The seed was bought for Danvers, but 
proved, to my great disgust, about one-half (leronde. 
Rows 17 inches apart ; weeded and hoed twice, thinned 
and cultivated with a small tooth cultivator about as close 
as possible. Harvested last week in October. 
Amount of crop : 458 bushels = 12.6 tons. 

Cost, manure, 

Hauling and spreading manure, 

Ploughing and harrowing, 

Seed, 

Sowing, 

Weeding and hoeing, 

Harvesting, 

Total cost, 



Note— Product per acre, 2(3.9.") tons, at $12 per ton, 
Cost per acre, 



•$25 


00 




5 


00 




5 


00 




1 


87 
75 




10 


00 




10 


00 




$57 


(32 






$323. 


40 




P23 


.33 



Profit per acre, £200.07 



H3 

This certifies that the piece of land on which the crop 
of carrots, entered by Capt. H. G. Herrick, for Essex 
County Agricultural Society's premium, was grown, 
measures 20,350 square feet; and the lot of carrots grown 
thereon measures 458 bushels. 

('has. II. F. Mann- 
Met hi- kx. Nov 13, 1888. 

STATEMENT OF C. K ORDWAY & SON, OF AVEST NEWBUET, 
OX CARROT CROP. 

This crop of carrots we offer for premium was raised 
on land that one-half was carrots, the other half in corn 
last year. This year we put on two cords of barn-yard 
manure, and ploughed from nine to ten inches deep, and 
sowed to carrots. The seed was Chantenoy seed. The 
seed was obtained from Mr. J. J. H. Gregory of Marble- 
head. We hoed and weeded three times din'ing the sea- 
son, and thinned to about five inches the second weeding. 
Finished harvesting Oct. 18. Weighed the entire crop 
on the public scales and had 18,594 lbs. 
Cost of crop : 

Manure, 2 cords, |20 00 

Ploughing and harrowing, 2 00 

Raking and sowing, 2 00 

One pound of seed, 1 15 

Hoeing and weeding, 18 00 

Harvesting, 10 00 



#53 15 



Products 9 tons, 594 lbs. at $12 per ton, 111 55 
Less eo<t. 53 15 



$58 40 
Allowing half the value of the manure 

remaining in the land, 10 00 



The result will be a profit, %C)$ 40 

See Jfote next pn 



ii4 

Note — Product per acre, 

L8.6 tons at $12, $223.20* 

Cost per acre, 106.30 

Profit per acre, s l 16.90 

Allowing manure left in ground for land rent. 

I certify that I measured the land on which the above 
crop of carrots was raised, and that it contained eighty 
square rods and no more. 

C. D. Ordwav. 

STATEMENT OF R. JAQTJBS, OF WEST NEWBURY, ON RUTA 
BAGA TURNIP CROP. 

My turnip crop I offer for premium. The crop of 1886 
and 1887 was grass, one-half ton to acre. This year I 
used for the turnips stable manure, at the rate of five 
cords per acre, no commercial fertilizer being used. Soil 
is sandy loam. One-half pound of seed was used, sown 
in drills two feet apart. Was cultivated once. Was 
weighed in baskets, sixty pounds to the bushel. The 
result was 275 bushels of merchantable turnips on the 
half acre. 

Cost of ploughing and levelling, $4 00 

Value of manure, two cords and one-half, 17 50 
Value of seed and sowing same, 2 00 

Cultivating once, 60 

Weeding and thinning, 5 00 

Harvesting, 12 00 



Whole expense, 


HI 10 


Value of ruta bagas, 275 bushels at 




40 cts. per bushel, 


110 00 


Expense, 


41 10 



Profit of half acre, $68 90 

Rate of turnip crop per acre, 550 bush., $220 00 
Kate of cost of crop per acre, 82 20 

Profit per acre, $137 80 



H5 

This is to certify that I, J. 0. Jaques, surveyed the 
land for Mr. R. Jaques, where the 275 bushels ruta bagas 
grew, and found it to be one-half acre. 

J. O. Jaques. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON STRAWBERRIES 
AND OTHER SMALL FRUITS. 

The committee appointed to act on Strawberries and 
other Small Fruits, have attended to their duty, and 
would submit the following report : 

There were but two entries, one of strawberries and 
one of grapes. Mr. George J. Pierce, of West Newbury, 
entered strawberries, 180 sq. rods. Two of the committee 
(Mr. Ilsley and myself), visited Mr. Pierce and viewed 
his strawberries early in July, found the beds clean and 
free from weeds. The berries were not as large as last 
year, but we thought Mr. Pierce entitled to the premium 
and awarded it to him. 

A vineyard of Niagara grapes was entered by E. A. 
Goodwin of Amesbury, for examination and report, no 
premium being offered by the society. Three of the com- 
mittee, Mr. Woodman, Mr. Ilsley and myself, visited Mr. 
Goodwin's vineyard, Oct. 3, found the vines loaded with 
fruit, but not ripe, and a part of the vines had been 
frosted at that time and would not ripen, and the re- 
mainder of the vines were frosted the 5th, so they were a 
total loss to Mr. Goodwin. He estimated the crop at 
about two tons. I think we are too far north to raise 
grapes at a profit in Essex County. 

Respectfully, 

J. Henry Hill. 

6TATEMKXT OF GEO. .1. TIERCE (»F BRAKE HILL FARM ; 
WEST NEWBURY. 

Of erop of " Charles Downing,'' " Wilson," and " Cres- 
cent " strawberries, on 180 rods of land. Soil gravelly 



n6 

loam, sloping to the west and southwest. Plants set in 
the spring of 1 887, about the same quantity of each variety. 
Cost of ploughing, harrowing, and preparing the 
and for setting out the plants, #4.50 per day, for man 
and team two days. 9500 plants to the acre were set, at 
a cost per thousand of $2.50. Planting, $7. Hoeing, 
19. For mulching. 2 tons of salt hay, at $8 per ton. 
Picking cost two cents per quart ; marketing, two cents 
per quart. First picking, June 2*2d, 50 quarts. Last 
picking, July 21st, II quarts. Total crop, 5452 quarts. 
Average selling price, L3i cents. Rent of land and in- 
terest, $5 per acre. 

Crop report per acre : 

Product per acre 4846 qts. of strawberries 

at 13£ eta., $654 21 

Expenses: 

Ploughing, harrowing and preparing land 

for setting out plants, 
0500 strawberry plants, 
Planting, 
Hoeing, 
Mulching, 

Picking 4846 qts. at 2 cts., 
Marketing same at 2 cts., 
Kent of land and interest, 

$250 04 



$8 


00 


23 


75 


6 


22 


8 


00 


14 


23 


96 


02 


96 


92 


5 


00 



Profit per acre, $395 17 



ESSAY ON ANNUALS AND THEIR CULTIVA- 
TION.— Part II. 

It is with a feeling of great pleasure that I continue 
my talk to you about annuals, and you will pardon me if 
before proceeding I for a moment speak of the four 
flowers we considered last year. Not that I have any- 



ii 7 

thing more to say at present about Asters, Pansies, Sweet 
Peas or Nasturtiums, but believing these four flowers to 
be the perfection of annuals, I cannot leave them without 
urging every one to include them in their list of (lowers 
to be planted in next summer's garden. Their cultiva- 
tion is simple ; good soil, good seed and some care, which 
will be amply repaid by flowers that can well be said 
" To charm the fishes." 

Asters should be planted early in the spring in the 
house, and set in the open ground in June, kept free from 
weeds and watered in dry weather. Pansy plants, after 
being set in the open ground, should have all buds picked 
off until thoroughly established, and until the latter part 
of August if large flowers are wanted. Sweet Peas 
should be planted early and deep, all blossoms picked off 
as soon as fully opened so they will not go to seed and 
stop blooming. Nasturtiums, as soon as well up should 
be thinned to not nearer than eighteen inches apart, but 
must be planted thickly as the seed as a rule does not 
germinate very well. These are the essential points, by 
the neglect of which most of the failures occur in grow- 
ing these annuals. For fuller cultural notes see Part I 
in last season's transactions. I hope no one will think 
that annuals are at all difficult to grow, because so many 
little points should be borne in mind, as they are not ; it 
is simply that the observance of these little minor matters 
help us greatly if we wish to grow them to perfection. 
I do not propose to devote much space to the cultivation 
of the llowers that follow, unless their culture should 
.differ in some essential point from the methods already 
described. Let us now consider the single dahlia, grown 
from seed, as an annual. 

SINGLE DAHLIA. 

Single dahlias have of late years become very popular 
and deservedly so, as when cut with plenty of foliage 
they are certainly very pretty. But the seed must be 
started early in the house or greenhouse, that good large 



nS 

stocky plants may be ready to set out as soon as the 
weather is warm and settled. The seed should be planted 
in March or the first part of April : as soon as the plants 
have been set out where they are to remain, and have 
made a good start, they should be tied to stout stakes, 
and carefully trimmed from time to time to make them 
symmetrical. Do not set the plants nearer in the rows 
than four feet apart and cultivate often. As regards 
varieties a good strain of mixed seed is what we need. 

AGERATUM. 

There arc several varieties of this popular plant ; blue, 
pink, lavender blue, and white. The Ageratum is valuable, 
on account of the length of time it remains in bloom and 
for contrast of color with the more brilliant flowers. It is 
good in clumps or masses, and the dwarf sorts are excel- 
lent bedding plants; it blooms constantly all summer, 
and if removed to the house will bloom in winter. The 
flowers are always clear in color and very desirable for 
boquet work. Their culture is easy as they succeed well 
in almost any soil ; the seeds should be started early and 
the plants transplanted. The species Mexicanum is the 
one usually cultivated; color, lavender blue, and grows 
two feet in height ; other varieties are Lasseauxii, pink; 
Mexicanum Album, white ; Little Dorrit, a dwarf azure 
blue bedding variety, and Imperial Dwarf, also blue. 

MARIGOLD. 

The African and French marigolds are old favorites in 
our gardens, the former (Tagetes Erecta) have large 
yellow or orange colored flowers, and usually attain a 
couple of feet in height ; the latter (Tagetes patula) are 
more dwarf, and have their flowers striped with deep 
brown, purple and } r ellow. The African is the most 
striking in large beds, or mixed borders, while the Dwarf 
French makes an excellent foreground to tall plants and 
is much used for edgings ; but both varieties are very 
showy when planted in masses ; they bloom continuous!}' 



ii 9 

all summer and fall until stopped by frost. Lemon and 
orange are the leading colors of the African type, while 
the French include brown, golden striped, yellow, brown 
and yellow, etc. One of the recent introductions amongst 
African marigolds is the "El Dorado," and I will give 
the originator's description which it has fulfilled in every 
respect : " Without exception the very finest type of this 
showy autumn flower. The flowers are from three to 
four inches in diameter, perfectly imbricated, and very 
double. The colors run through all shades of yellow, 
from very light primrose to the deepest orange, and the 
proportion of double flowers is greater than in almost any 
other selection." Another beautiful class of marigolds 
is the Calendula or pot marigolds ; these are of the easiest 
culture and bloom almost the whole year outdoors or in 
the greenhouse ; in fact the word Calendula is derived 
from calendar meaning the first days of the months, in 
reference to its flowers being produced almost every 
month. The annual varieties mostly cultivated are the 
Meteor and Prince of Orange. The Meteor is light gol- 
den yellow in color, striped with intense orange, and 
blooms continually from May until late autumn. The 
Prince of Orange many consider surpasses the above in 
beauty, the flowers being striped with a more intense 
shade of orange, and this glowing tone is imparted to the 
whole flower ; a bed of either is superb. There is also a 
white calendula but it is seldom grown. 

BALSAM. 

The Balsam (Lady's Slipper) being a tender annual 
should not be planted outdoors until warm, dry weather. 
They should be started in heat and set out when they 
have made two leaves, in rows or beds not nearer than 
two feet apart each way. The soil should be made as 
rich as possible, and the plants, as soon as they become 
well started, should be securely staked ; being very pro- 
fuse bloomers it is necessary to pinch off a portion of the 
shoots, which will increase the size of the flowers and add 



120 

vigor to the plants. Frequent waterings of liquid manure 
will be found very beneficial, as the balsam must be very 
highly fertilized if fine flowers are expected. This I lower 
has been greatly improved during the last few years, and 
we now have the most beautiful colored flowers, including 
white, deep blood red, satiny white, white spotted and 
striped with lilac, and scarlet, etc. The finest strain is 
probably the camellia flowered, some of these flowers 
being - almost as perfect and as double as a camellia : a 
mixture of this seed, containing all the self and fancy 
varieties is what we need. 

CANDYTUFT. 

The annual candytuft which we will now consider is 
universally known, and no garden is complete without it. 
It is much used in beds, borders, ribbon gardening, and 
for boquets, and single plants transplanted also look well 
and bloom abundantly. Seed sown in the fall and 
slightly protected with leaves or other light mulching,, 
will bloom early in the spring, and sown from April to 
June will bloom from July until frost. The colors in- 
clude white, purple, crimson and flesh color ; the varieties 
are all hardy and easy to cultivate. Some of the sorts 
are very fine. Carter's New Carmine is a beautiful vivid 
carmine; Dunnett's Crimson is also good; Empress, a 
new variety, is pure white. The old favorite, White 
Rocket, if given more growing space than the others, and 
not planted nearer than two feet apart in rich soil, will 
completely cover the ground, and it is a fine variety with 
large white trusses. 

PETUNIA. 

The petunia, a small genus of half hardy herbaceous 
perennials, are all natives of South America, and mostly 
confined to Brazil. Though strictly perennial they may 
be grown as hard} 7 annuals. As bedding plants they are 
unsurpassed if indeed equalled, and as they succeed in 
almost any soil, they are found in almost every garden : 



121 

also as house plants they are very popular, growing finely 
in the window-box or hanging basket. Either indoors or 
outdoors their richness of color, duration of bloom, and 
easy culture will always render them favorites. The 
seed can be sown in spring in the open ground, or planted 
still earlier in the hot-bed or a box in a sunny window, 
and the plants transplanted into beds from eighteen 
inches to two feet apart. By starting the plants early 
and transplanting them, the}* will come into bloom earlier 
though they flourish perfectly well sown in the open 
ground. The seeds being very small should be simply 
scattered over the soil, and slightly pressed into it ; if 
covered deeply they will not germinate at all. At the 
present time there is a great variety of kinds, single, 
double, striped and blotched, fringed, etc., in great variety 
of colors and markings, and any one purchasing petunia 
seed will make a great mistake if they do not have the 
best, for the best petunias are simply superb. 

PHLOX DRUMMONDII. 

The common phlox of our gardens, phlox drummondii, 
is a native of Texas, and was discovered in 1835 by a Mr. 
Drummond, a botanical collector, sent out by the Glasgow 
Botonical Society, hence its name. Like the petunia it is 
universally grown, which is the strongest proof of its 
beauty and value as a flowering plant. Its culture is the 
same in all respects as the petunia. It remains in bloom 
a long time, and the colors are very rich, including white, 
rose, scarlet, purple and pale yellow. 

ZINNIA. 

To grow zinnias . to perfection the seed should be 
started early in heat, and transplanted at least twice 
before they are set out where they are to remain ; to 
make the plants stocky set them about two feet apart 
each way, more rather than less, and they will completely 
cover the ground. If large blossoms are wanted it will 
be. necessary to pinch off a great many of the buds, as if 



122 

•all are allowed to remain the flowers will be small. 
Should any plants show themselves to be single they must 
be immediately pulled up and thrown away. Zinnias 
being very thrifty growers do not need very rich soil and 
are not very particular as regards location, doing well 
almost anywhere. They grow easily from seed planted 
in May in the open ground, and having once blossomed 
remain in flower until frost, looking well until the seed is 
quite ripe. The fact of the flowers remaining so long 
perfect has given the plant one of its common names, 
"Youth and Old Age.'" Some of the varieties are grand, 
the beautiful scarlet, purple, orange and lilac flowers 
being perfectly double and as evenly imbricated as a 
camellia. Zinnias are certainly one of our best fall 
annuals. 

CYPRESS VINE. 

This half hardy climbing annual deserves to be more 
•extensively cultivated than it is. Its delicate dark green 
feathery foliage, combined with an abundance of white, 
rose and scarlet flowers, make a very pretty appearance 
when properly trained on a veranda or trellis. The cy- 
press vine requires a rich soil made very fine and porous, 
and if the seeds are soaked in hot water just before being 
sown they will germinate more freely than otherwise, 
some cultivators pour hot water on the ground after 
planting, but I have had better success by soaking the 
seed as above stated. Like other annuals, if the seed is 
planted in pots in the hot-bed or greenhouse, a much 
earlier growth can be obtained. One of the most unique, 
and I may say beautiful features of my garden has been 
what I call my " Cypress Vine Cone." It is made in the 
following manner and always attracts a great deal of 
attention : Select a good stout hard wood bean pole about 
ten feet or so long, and having made a slightly raised hill 
as for beans, set the pole firmly in the centre : around the 
pole draw a circle say three or four feet in diameter with 
the pole as a centre, and every three inches on the cir- 



123 

cumference of this circle drive a small stake strong 
enough to hold a strong twine running from it to the top 
of the pole ; now fasten twine from all these little stakes 
to the top of the pole ; this makes our cone. The next 
step is to plant the seed so that the vines will, when 
grown, completely hide both pole and strings making a 
solid mass of foliage and flowers. This is done by plant- 
ing the seed thickly around the circle of stakes and 
watering until the young plants begin to run up the 
strings when they will look out for themselves. This 
cone can be made of various colors or of one color as may 
be preferred ; in either case the effect is charming, and I 
hope this desirable climber will be more used in the 
future than it has been in the past. 

MORNING GLORY. 

While we are considering climbing annuals let us for a 
moment speak of that old familiar and alwa) T s attractive 
plant, the morning glory. It will grow anywhere, on 
rockwork, stumps of trees or rough fences, and for cover- 
ing trellises or rustic work is hardly equalled. The 
colors include blue, dark red, striped, white, etc. The 
dwarf morning glory has very rich colored flowers and is 
much used for beds and borders. The variety Mauri- 
tanicus which has blue flowers and is very fioriferous is 
very desirable for hanging baskets. 

MIGNONETTE. 

It is hardly necessary to say that sweet mignonette 
(Resedaodorata) deserves a place in every garden, but 
without doubt it already has its corner. This plant suc- 
ceeds best in a light sandy soil, as when grown in rich 
loam it loses its fragrance. Do not allow the plants to 
become crowded but keep them well thinned and they 
will grow strong and produce large spikes of bloom. If 
sown at intervals during the spring and summer migno- 
nette will bloom until stopped by frost. Seed planted in 
-the fall will flower in the spring, as when protected it 



124 

becomes a perennial. The best flowers are produced in 
cool weather, and if the seed is sown in July it will bloom 
to perfection from the first of September until cold 
weather. The seed must be firmly pressed into the soil 
and watered till well established, as when planted at this 
season the ground is usually pretty dry. There are quite 
a number of varieties, but the old and well-known fra- 
grant sort called Sweet Mignonette is as good as any. 
One of the newer kinds called Machet is becoming quite 
a favorite for pot culture; it is a French sort of pyramidal 
growth, with thick dark green leaves, and throws up 
numerous stout flower stalks, bearing large spikes of very 
fragrant reddish flowers. Other varieties are Parson's 
White, Mile's Spiral and Crimson Giant, the best of some 
dozen or fifteen sorts. 

1 have already written more than was my intention, 
but one liower after another came to my mind and I could 
not slight any of my favorites ; but now having mentioned 
some of the leading varieties of annuals which represent 
the various modes of cultivation, I will close this paper 
by asking you all to give in future more attention to this 
class of plants. 



CABBAGE AND ONIONS. 

BY CHAS. W. MANN, METHUEN. 

Cabbage is one of the standard money crops grown 
among our Essex and Middlesex county farmers. The soil 
may be quite heavy if well drained, but good corn land, 
though not sandy, is about the thing for this crop. The 
manure may be strong and the more of it the better, and 
phosphate should also be used in connection with it for the 
best results. The best variety for fall and especially winter 
and spring market is the Stone Mason, by some called the 
Warren cabbage, as this when grown from true seed devel- 
ops a deep, round head rather than a large flat one, being 
therefore very desirable for storing, as it peels well when 



125 

taken out, and is still of good shape when seen in the mar- 
ket in April and May. In selecting seed for our most val- 
uable crops we should either grow it ourselves or buy of 
those who do grow it honestly and carefully, but never rely 
on such dealers as those who profess honesty yet never sell 
a package of anything without labelling it, "While we 
exercise the greatest care to have all Seeds pure and 
reliable, we do not give any warranty expressed or implied. 
If the purchaser does not accept the seeds on these condi- 
tions, they must be returned at once." For if the seed 
seller can't be sure of what he is selling, how can the seed 
buyer be sure of what he is getting ? 

Cabbage is quite a speciality among the farmers around 
Lowell, where it is extensively grown for winter and spring 
market. The Stone Mason of the best strains is the only 
variety planted to any amount, unless through ignorance or 
to save time somebody goes to the store for their seed, and 
then they raise a great variety of fodder and possibly a few 
heads of varied shapes and colors, but most of the farmers 
about there know their business too well to be caught nap- 
ping that way. They believe in manuring heavily, plowing 
or harrowing it in, though sometimes putting it in the hill if 
the quantity is limited, and many of them use a little phos- 
phate in the hill. For manure they go to Lowell or buy in 
Boston. They plant the seed in the hills where the plants 
arc to grow and mature, from the first to the middle of 
June, and often set plants as late as the middle or last of 
July, if they have a little room to use where some early 
crop has been removed, but the heaviest crops are grown 
without transplanting. The cabbage crop should be culti- 
vated and hoed often and thoroughly until the plants cover 
the ground ; from three to four hoeings will be required to 
keep the crop clean and doing well. Winter cabbages will 
be ready to put away from the middle of October to the 
10th of November, being about the last crop to harvest, 
unless we except turnips, for they are not injured by light 
or (piite heavy frosts, and though the ground may freeze a 
little they will be unhurt ; yet it is better to get them in a 



126 

day or two before you are obliged to, rather than leave 
them out one day too long, for repeated freezing and thaw- 
ing will greatly injure their keeping qualities. 

There are two methods of disposing of the crop. One is 
to sell at the going price directly from the field, getting 
from forty cents to a dollar a bbl., according to the market : 
this method gives very little if any waste, and makes very 
easy and clean trimming, and sometimes gives the best 
returns, for some years the price is as good at harvest time 
as in March or April following. The other method is to 
hold the crop until winter or spring, and this makes stor- 
ing necessary. The farmers of Dracut practice storing in 
cellars, and a number of them have built large cellars for 
this purpose, while others use their barn cellars or the 
basement of some outbuilding. One of the largest of these 
storage cellars is about 60x40 feet, and 10 feet high, built 
in a side hill, with doors and shutters in the south side and 
a hen house in the roof over it ; this cellar gives room for 
perhaps 1500 bbls. of cabbage, beside having one end par- 
titioned off for storing 300 or 400 bbls. of onions. The 
cabbages are cut up about half way of the stump, the loose 
leaves trimmed off and the heads packed away in racks 
that are built from the floor to the top of the cellar ; these 
racks are so arranged as to allow a passage every six feet 
or so, and the heads are laid in only one deep so as to allow 
a thorough circulation of air and frequent inspection. In 
such a cellar the cabbage can be taken out very con- 
veniently at any time that the price is good enough to suit 
the owner, and if the temperature has been .properly at- 
tended to will be fresh and crisp and bring the best price 
in the market. 

Another way of storing is to cut them up about half-way 
of the stump if well headed, but if loose pulling roots and 
all, and set them heads up on grass ground and cover with 
pine shiver, oak leaves or meadow hay, but it requires 
much more hay than leaves to keep out the frost. And 
still another way of bedding is practised by some of the 
gardeners near Boston as well as by some seed growers, 



127 

who pack them away in a broad shallow pit, cover with 
hay or straw and then with dirt, and I have seen beds cov- 
ered first with dirt and then with seaweed. The object 
being in all these different ways to so cover them as to keep 
them warm enough not to freeze much, a little freezing does 
not harm, and keep them cool enough not to heat and decay. 
This all seems simple enough, but when put in practice it 
is often found quite difficult to make a perfect success of it. 
Cabbage should be bedded in some well-drained spot, for 
wet ground or standing water will draw frost, so it is nec- 
essary to have the rain find a quick passage from the bed 
or frost will often follow it down and hurt or spoil the cab- 
bage. I have tried to make plain the different methods of 
keeping the crop, and now as to the objects of keeping it, 
which are two, one to save valuable time at harvest and the 
other to gain money in selling. 

Although there is sometimes a year when the price rises 
but little on account of an extra large crop somewhere, or 
for some such good reason, yet the price is generally much 
higher in winter or spring than when harvested, as was the 
case last year when the price rose from 50 cts. a barrel in 
Nov. to $2.50 and $3.00 in April and first week in May, and 
in Boston somewhat higher, although those who sold in 
January or February received only from 75 cts. to $1.25. 
To know just how to keep the crop and just when to sell it 
requires experience and a close watching of both the mar- 
ket and the supply, but the reward when you get it is suffi- 
cient to pay well for the work and expense incurred. 

We often hear of a crop of 400 bbls. per acre, but 300 
bbls. is a good crop, and perhaps 200 or 250 would be 
nearer the average. One man near Lowell told me last 
winter that he had grown 1000 bbls. on 3 acres, and was 
just beginning to sell them at $ 2.00 per bbl., and he really 
seemed quite happy about it. 

Another man near Boston had the crop from six or seven 
acres bedded in and started them to market when the price 
reached $2.50 per bbl. ; he was doubtless happy, too, but I 
know a man who bedded a hundred barrels or so, covered 



128 

with hay a little too lightly, and nearly lost the whole by 
too much freezing, and another who stored a large cellar 
full, kept them a little too warm and shrunk them badly ; 
they were sad. The cabbage grown around Lowell and 
Lawrence is partly sold in the cities named, but the bulk of 
the crop is shipped to Boston or further, and some days as 
many as ten carloads will be sent in from that vicinity. 

Cabbage shades the ground so closely as to kill out such 
troublesome weeds as " pussly " and witch-grass quite 
easily. It would seem as though every one ought to know 
by this time that cabbage will not follow cabbage or turnips 
on the same ground without an interval of three years or 
more, on account of that once mysterious disease, the stump- 
foot, but every year someone gets caught and loses his crop 
because he does not know this, or because he does not be- 
lieve what others tell him, or perhaps he knows more than 
any man can tell him. 

I will give you the accDimt of my premium crop of cab- 
bage grown the past season. Of course it is the record of 
the best piece, but the rest did nearly as well. The soil is a 
deep, dark, mellow loam, somewhat stony, and located on a 
high hill naturally pretty well drained; for the three years 
previous it was cropped with beans and Hungarian, having 
but a slight application of phosphate. The land was in 
pasture at the time I bought it some four years ago, and 
has had no manure for at least ten years. It was plowed 
and harrowed June 4th, spreading twenty loads of barn 
manure on the piece before plowing, and applying 1200 
lbs. of ground steamed bone before harrowing, and using 
950 lbs. of Tucker's Bay State Phosphate in the hill, mix- 
ing it well with the soil before dropping the seed, which I 
prefer to plant where it is to grow rather than to do much 
transplanting. 

The seed w;?>s planted in the hill, June 8 and 9, and the 
crop was cultivated and hoed three times; one hundred 
days from seed I could cut plenty of 8 and 10 lb. heads, 
the largest and best cabbage being found where there was 
the heaviest application of phosphate. The land measured 



I2 9 

24,946 sq. ft., being 8166 feet more than a half acre. Cut 
and sold 108 bbls. in Lawrence and Methuen, 3 and 2 miles 
•distant, and put away 1886 fine heads for seed purposes. 
Here is the account as taken from my crop book : 

Dr. 
5 cords manure at $8.00 per cord applied, $40 00 
1200 lbs. bone, bought and hired it ground, 12 00 
950 lbs. Bay State phosphate, 18 05 

Plowing and harrowing, 3 00 

Planting, 4 12 

Seed, 2 00 

Cultivation, 15 00 

•Cutting and marketing at 20 cts. a bbl., 21 60 



Total cost, -$115 77 

Or. 

108 bbls. sold, $92 05 

Fodder sold and used, 6 00 

250 plants sold, 75 

1886 heads stored, worth 5 cts. each in field, 94 30 



Total receipts, $193 10 

Profit about 40 per cent., $77 38 

Receipts per acre, $338 08 

Cost per acre, 202 70 

Profit per acre, 135 38 

Amount of crop about 400 bbls. per acre, and estimated 
weight of crop 32| tons per acre. You will notice that I 
charge the whole amount of fertilizers to the one crop and 
also make a liberal allowance for harvesting and market- 
ing, believing that it is just as well to figure that I get fair 
pay for fertilizers and labor as to make out a tremendous 
profit and leave the impression that I do the work for noth- 
ing. Interest and taxes I have omitted for the land is 
certainly benefitted to that small amount. 

The onion crop is another of our standard money crops, 
there being as many as 175 acres grown in Danvers alone, 



130 

while in the little town of Revere, only three miles from 
Boston, there were 40,000 bushels grown in 1886. The 
gardeners in Revere have somewhat the advantage of us in 
having a large supply of manure very handy and at a very 
low price ; they will not pay anything for cow manure, and 
some will not take it away, as they say they can get very 
much better crops from horse manure, which starts the 
crops quicker, drives them faster and matures them earlier, 
while it is much easier to handle and team: they use very 
little commercial fertilizers as they can see no money in it; 
it does not seem to affect the crop at all, and why should 
it? If we country farmers could plow in 15 or 20 cords of 
manure twice a year, we wouldn't pay much for fertilizers 1 
think, and we would be just as good farmers as anybody. 
It is the amount of manure used, and not the number of 
acres cultivated that makes the prosperous farmer. The 
secret of success in farming or gardening is found in the 
size of the manure pile rather than in the large extent of 
the farm or garden. 

It is not the strength of the soil that gives the gardens of 
Arlington their fame, for much of their land is but a sandy 
plain that we should think only fit to grow white beans, or 
at best small corn, but it is horse manure and water that 
gives them their immense crops ; they use 20 to 30 cords 
to the acre, and perhaps more, and turn on the hose when- 
ever it is needed, and it is no wonder that things grow, but 
give us manure as plenty and water as free and we could 
beat them out and out with our strong soils, and our land 
would be growing better every year, while theirs would 
soon run out if left alone. 

But to come back to onions again. 1 sowed three-fourths 
of an acre in 188G on deep, black, heavy soil, somewhat 
stony, that had been cultivated for five or six years, but 
only a small portion of the piece had ever grown onions. 
I was somewhat doubtful of getting a full crop the first year 
on the land, as I heard so many say that " it took a number 
of years to get an onion bed started so as to do well,'* and 
the longer you sowed the same bed the better the results 



i3i 

would be, but I find that many an old theory goes to pieces 
when put to the test, and it was so in this case, but 1 will 
give my experience in detail. 

Eight cords of good manure from a city stable was spread 
on the ground and plowed in April 20 and 21 ; the next 
day it was harrowed with the Acme, and dragged with the 
old smoothing drag, then harrowed again and hand raked 
with iron rakes, the small stones and rubbish being carted 
away. Seven barrels of home-made phosphate, mostly bone 
and ashes, was applied just before harrowing. The raking 
took thirteen days' work. 3i lbs. of Danvers Yellow Globe 
seed of my own growing was sown April 23 and 24 with 
the old-style Danvers seed-sower, a wooden machine that 
was invented about 1803, and for accurate sowing of small 
seed it has never been equalled or beaten, and I doubt if it 
ever will be. The rows were 14 inches apart. Onions 
were up so as to be seen across the piece May 8, fourteen 
days alter sowing, and May 14 I began hoeing them with a 
Gregory finger wceder which 1 used until they were six 
inches high, when 1 found the Arlington slide hoe much 
better adapted to the work for the rest of the season. We 
finished first weeding June 1; second, June 21; third, July 
12; fourth, July 30, and then went over the bed once in Au_ 
gust, as much for the looks as anything, though it saved 
many weeds going to seed. Began raking out the onions 
Sept. 14, and in a few days they were dried and undercover 
and were soon sold. Most of the topping was done in rough 
weather and at odd times. Now for the figures, and it is 
not guess-work, for they arc taken from the account kept 
through the season, and though I cannot figure the cost as 
small as some who win premiums, yet my statement may 
be just as correct . 
The crop is charged with 

Manure, 8 cords at #8.00, *G4 00 

Phosphate, 17 50 

Flowing, harrowing and dragging, 5 00 

Raking, 13 days at #1.50, 1 ( .» 50 

Horse, 1 day, 1 25 



132 

Seed. :\\ lbs. at $2 50, 8 13 

Sowing, 7 hours at 20 cts., 1 40 

Hoeing, at -0 cts. per hour, 8 00 

1st weeding, at $1.25 per day, 11 50 

2d weeding, 10 00 

3d weeding, 8 00 

4th weeding, 10 00 

5tl) weeding, 7 50 

Interest and taxes, 15 00 

Harvesting and marketing at 12cts. per bu., 71 82 





$448.87 




190 27 


$598 49 




344 80 




253.69 





Total cost, -1258 60 

Or. 

598i bushels onions at 75 cts., 

Leaving profit, 

Receipts per acre, 

Expense " " 

Profit " " 42 per cent., 

Yield per acre 800 bushels. 

Included in the above were 17 bushels of Early Red 
Globes from 2 ounces of seed, many of which were perfect- 
ly sound when taken out of the cellar, May 10. 

The whole crop was very free from scullions, and as a 
Danvers man said when looking at them after they were in 
the shed, " They were as good looking a lot of onions as 
anybody need to see." Remember, these were grown on 
land that never grew an onion before. The year's experi- 
ence, as given above, taught me a good many things by 
which I have profited in the year past. One thing that I 
learned was to get the manure all into the ground in the 
fall instead of having to cart and spread it in the spring 
when we ought to be harrowing and seeding, for every day 
then counts on the growth of the crop, while time is less 
valuable in the fall, and the manure gets better mixed with 
the soil and is better assimilated by the time the crop 
needs it. It is therefore much more available for plan! 
food than when applied at time of sowing. I also plowed 



my beds the fall before, turning the manure in about four 
inches and so leaving them ready to smooth down and sow 
the first day the ground was ready in the spring, and 
though the season was eleven days behind at the time of 
sowing yet I put in the first seed on the same day as the 
year before, and by so doing saved most of that eleven days 
on the growth of the crop which resulted in my getting a 
paying, though not a highly profitable crop, instead of little 
or none had 1 been ten days later getting the seed sowed. 
I raised three, acres of onions the past season, getting a 
crop of some 1000 to 1100 bushels in all, and proving quite 
profitable. 

I will give the report for the best half acre, it being a 
part of the same piece of land that made up the three- 
quarters of an acre sowed the year before. Twenty 
spreader loads of composted horse manure, muck and 
nightsoil were spread on Nov. 8, 1886 and plowed in three 
days later to the depth of five inches, using a Syracuse 
chilled swivel plow, which is the neatest general purpose 
plow, 1 know of. April 22, a dressing of ground bono and 
unleached ashes was applied and worked in with a common 
steel share harrow, and finally smoothed off with the 
Meeker which left it in fine shape for sowing. Tlie cost of 
smoothing this piece with the Meeker was but o0 cents, 
while it cost me $13 to hand rake the same piece the year 
before, and the Meeker leaves the best seed bed ; this little 
item, together with the fact that the Meeker saved over $50 
in smoothing down the three acres, will give an idea of the 
value of good, machinery and tools on the farm. 1 will say 
right here, that the Meeker should be run over the beds 
both ways, and the last time should be at right angles to, 
or across the way that the rows are to run so that the 
slight mark left by it may not interfere with the track of 
the seed sower and cause crooked rows. It is much easier 
to run the sower across the track of any harrow, than to 
run with it, and this is as true in planting corn as in sow- 
ing onions. The sowing was done April 25 and 28, using 
five and a half pounds of seed per acre, about a pound too 



134 

much I think, for general use. The crop was hoed three 
times with the Arlington slide hoe which I have concluded 
is the best for my kind of land, for it will do the finest 
work on land a little rough and stony of any hoe I have 
used, and on smooth, easy land it must do it to perfection, 
leaving very little for the hands to do except to pull the 
weeds between the plants ; it pays to go slow with the 
slide hoe and run as close to the rows as possible, for one 
hour's work with the hoe will save more than two hours' 
hand weeding, and every hour's work saved, is money in 
the farmer's pocket. Keep the hoes going, start them be- 
fore the weeds show and keep the soil stirring. The 
Arlington hoe is made by a blacksmith in Arlington and is 
a good serviceable tool, much better than the imitations in 
the market without his name on them. The fourth hoeing 
was done with a common scuffle hoe cut down to about 7 
inches, as I found that the latter worked best of any, where 
the weeds were somewhat large, as I am sorry to say they 
were on this piece at the last weeding. 

Finished first weeding May 31; second June 27 and third 
July 15 after which no more was necessary. The crop 
grew vigorously until the hot, sticky, moist weather, the 
last of July when they began to fall and were ready to rake 
out Aug. 25. After lying on the ground till Sept. 20, they 
were picked up into crate? and allowed to stand out doors 
covered up with a waterproof cloth until Nov. 1, when they 
were taken in and weighed, there being 266 bushels on the 
half acre, all marketable onions, though not as large as 
those grown on the same ground the year before when the 
same half acre yielded 400 bushels. There were no scul- 
lions among them and a bushel of scullions could not be 
found on the whole three acres. The crop was not effected 
by maggots, smut or lice, but the blight seems to have 
spared no particular locality in its coming and my crop 



Note. — I bave also used the wheel hoes made by E.L. Blake & Co., Peabody, 
and find tbem very useful after the onions are up five or six inches, ami think 
they will do more work in a day than any other I hive used; one point in their 
favor is that they are honestly and thoroughly made, which is more than we can 
say of many of our farming tools 



135 

was smaller on account of it, though but htly hurt aslig 
compared with the crop in the older onion sections of our 
county. I believe the cause of the blight to have been the 
exceedingly hot, and very wet weather of the month of 
July. Here is the account kept in the crop book with this 
half acre. 

Dr. 
Plowing, 
Harrowing, 

Smoothing with Meeker, 
5 cords manure at $8, 
800 pounds ground bone, 
20 bushels leached ashes, 
Applying bone and ashes, 
Seed, 2f pounds at $3, 
Sowing at 20 cts. per hour, 
Hoeing, four times at 20 cts. per hour, 
Weeding three times at 7| cts. to 15 cts. per hour, 
Raking out. 

Topping at 5 cts. per bushel, 
Marketing at 7 cts. per bushel, 

Total cost, 8136 43 

Or. 
260 bushels, worth 00 cts. Oct. 1, 1239 40 

Leaving profit, 102 97 

Product per acre, 534 bushels worth, 478 80 

Expenses per acre, 272 86 

Profit per acre, 42 2-3 per cent, 205 94 

You will notice that 1 have charged 20 cts. per hour for 
my own time in sowiug and hoeing, as I think I ought to 
be worth at least as much at my business as a common 
carpenter or stone layer ; the weeding is charged at just 
what was paid for it. Interest and taxes might change 
the above account about $10, but I think the improvement 
of the land will cover that. This half acre shows that the 
onion crop can still be called profitable in some places even 
in a very bad season. 



$ 1 


25 




95 




50 


40 


00 


8 


00 


5 


00 




80 


8 


25 




80 


9.64 


25 


82 


3 


50 


13 


30 


18 


62 



136 

My method of curing and storing the onion crop is some- 
what different from any other that J have noticed. After 
raking out I allow them to dry a few days, just enough to 
get the outside moisture off from them, and then pick them 
uj) into crates, which I make about the size of a bushel box 
only somewhat deeper and slat two sides in place of mak- 
ing them solid all round. These crates when filled are 
piled up perhaps six high and two wide and as long a row 
as necessary, and are then covered with a strip of water- 
proof cloth, which 1 buy for this purpose in strips 5 ft. wide 
and 50 feet long, and are then allowed to stand out doors 
till November, perhaps six weeks after raking out. The 
sun shines on them and the drying autumn winds blow 
through and ripen them perfectly, so that they will keep 
through the winter without sprouting or rotting. 

In topping onions I find it most convenient to have a low 
table, perhaps 4 feet by 6 feet and set up on boxes or bar- 
rels to a handy height to sit up to : such a table will hold 
four to five bushels and it is very convenient topping, being 
much handier than topping from the floor which is so com- 
mon a custom. 

The crates that I have, cost about 7 cents each besides the 
work, would cost perhaps 12 cents to buy all made ; they 
will last for years and will almost or quite pay for them- 
selves the first year in the saving of labor in handling the 
crop as well as in the improvement in quality. I have 
about 700 of them and should not know how to get along 
without them. 



NOTE — Of Crops of David Warren that could not be completed on 
Pages 108 and 111, the information not being received soon enough. 

SQUASH CROP. 

Product per acre, 27,685 lbs. squashes, $276.85 

Expenses per acre, 57.50 



Profit per acre, si'19.35 

CABBAGE CHOP. 

Product per acre, 5000 cabbages, valued in the field o cents 
each, although of much more value to him for seed 
stock, which he retains them for, than the market value, $153.00 

Expenses per acre, 60 SO 

Prolit, $89.20 



*37 
REPORT ON NEW MEMBERS. 

The largest number of new members added to the So- 
ciety's list in 1888, up to November 1st, was by Edwin 
Bates of Lynn, who is awarded the premium of six dollars 
for adding thirty-eight new members. 

The total number of new members to January 1, 1889, 
including those who became members by reason of re- 
ceiving awards of seven dollars or upwards, from the So- 
ciety in 1888, three dollars of it, under the rules, making 
each a member if not one previous, were sixty-seven in 
number, from the following named places: 



Amesbury, 
Beverly, 
Bradford, 
Danvers, 

Georgetown, 


1 
2 
1 
3 
2 

9 


Marblehead, 

Peabody, 

Rowley, 

Salem, 

West Newbury, 


1 
9 
1 
3 
3 


Jpswicli, 

Lawrence, 

Lynn, 


1 

38 


Total, 


67 



It will be seen by the list of members published this 
year, that there ought to be missionary work done in 
several places, even without the stimulus of a premium 
for the largest number of new members obtained, but 
rather that the next published list will not be so meagre 
in number under the name of some towns and cities, as 
to make its members ashamed of it, or others for them. 
Respectfully submitted, 

David W. Low, Secretary, 

Committee. 



TREADWELL FARM REPORT. 

The Committee on the Treadwell Farm submit the fol- 
lowing Report : 

In the report of last year the new shingling of the two 
barns and shed was mentioned as having been commenced. 



i3§ 

This lias been duly finished, and also the cellar wall of 
the sheep barn rebuilt. The chimney of the house was 
found to be in a shaky and unsafe condition and has been 
rebuilt from the chamber floor up. Two new pumps have 
been furnished, and other necessary repairs made, which, 
in the aggregate, have drawn heavily upon the income of 
the farm to the society. But little repairing has been 
done for many years previous, so that necessity required 
these thorough and permanent repairs at this time. The 
buildings are now in good condition. 

The committee have respected and cared for the many 
ornamental trees that the late Dr. Treadwell delighted to 
plant, and that have greatly beautified the farm ; but a 
portion of them were in a decaying condition, and such 
have been cut and sold either for wood or timber, without 
seriously marring the beauty of the landscape, which the 
committee are anxious to preserve. The proceeds helped 
to their extent to lessen the expense of the repairs on 
the buildings. 

The farm was leased last April 1st, to Mr. J. Plummer, 
Jr., on satisfactory terms, provided the conditions were 
faithfully complied with, but which the committee regret 
have not been as yet. One of which was the conduct of 
certain prescribed experiments, but his statement of them 
and of the crops grown upon the farm this season are so 
unsatisfactory, that it is deemed unadvisable to insert 
them here. 

For the committee, 

Benjamin P. Ware. 



FARMERS INSTITUTES. 

The Society held eight Institutes during the season of 
1887-88. The fifth one at Amesbury, was with the Ames- 
bury and Salisbury Agricultural Society, and the eighth 
one was a Field Institute, for exhibition and trial of Im- 
plements used for Cultivation of Crops. All of them 



139 

were good, and every season shows how well they are 
appreciated, by the increased interest and attendance at 
them, where the practical knowledge, by personal ex- 
perience, of those who take part in them are of great 
value to others. 

The 53d Institute was held Dec. 13, 1887, at the Town 
Hall, Bradford, to listen to a carefully prepared and in- 
structive paper, by T. C. Thurlow of West Newbury, upon 
"Insects Injurious to Vegetation, especially to Farm 
Crops." Insects, he said, increase as civilization advan- 
ces. In Missouri, a quarter of a century ago, not a wormy 
apple was seen ; now they are more wormy than here. 
In Northern Illinois the codling moth is almost beyond 
control. In California insect pests are numerous, where 
they were unknown a few years ago. He uses, with 
good effect in destroying the tent caterpillar, the old 
fashioned way of a conical brush on a pole, just after 
hatching, early in the morning or when rainy. His result 
was a good crop of apples last year. The green aphis is 
destroyed by sponging or dipping the ends where thev 
congregate in strong soap suds. Horse manure which 
has been used for mulching during the winter, when raked 
off in the spring, creates a smell that attracts the June 
Bug Beetles, who filled his heap with countless small 
grubs which he took to his poultry to dispose of. Birds, 
he said, are the natural enemies of the insect pests, and 
are fast disappearing, and in losing the robin, bobolink, 
thrush, and others of our common, native birds we are 
losing some of the greatest attractions, as well as benefits 
to rural life. We need a national law to protect our na- 
tive birds, for no state laws can efficiently do the work 
for saving migratory birds. 

President Ware destroys canker worms and codling 
moths witli Paris Green and explained his method. Hon. 
Joseph How of Methuen, spoke of his experiences ill 
contending with the enemies of the apple. 

Before the afternoon meeting a visit was made by some 
to the stock* farm of Col. Harry H. Hale, where some 



140 

seventy horses were seen, from the light trotter to the 
heavy Percheron, showing some fine stock. 

The subject of afternoon discussion was the injury done 
to farm crops by insects. 

Aaron Low of Essex, thought ashes as good as any- 
thing to check the ravages of the onion magrerot. The 
squash maggot may be escaped by late planting. A solu- 
tion of Paris Green is the best remedy for all squash vine 
enemies. The best remedy for cabbage worms is to grow 
the cabbages so rapidly that they cannot get into the 
head, a solid head being worm proof. 

Mr. Hills, of Plaistow, N. H., said the cabbage flea is 
got rid of by plaster or ashes. No plum is proof against 
curculio. The "Arctic" does not drop so readily after 
being bit, as others. 

Dr. Win. Cogswell and others made brief remarks on 
the subject. 

The 54th Institute was held in the Town Hall, Tops- 
field, January 5, 1888. The subject for the day was the 
question, "Is Free Trade or Protection the best for Far- 
mers," which was opened by a long and exhaustive paper 
on the subject, by Benjamin P. Ware of Marblehead, in 
which he made many strong points in favor of the benefits 
of Protection. He urged that a home market for asrri- 
cultural and manufactured products was the best market. 
The consumption is in proportion to the ability of the 
consumer to purchase. The price of all products are 
governed by the law of supply and demand. That nation 
whose legislature best protects the labor element, is the 
best governed country. History proves that a protective 
tariff best secures the preceding conditions. A protec- 
tive tariff is not a tax upon the consumer of any product 
that his country can produce. He quoted from statistics 
to show the advantages of high over low tariff as judged 
by the periods of low tariff between 1850 and I860, and of 
high tariff between I860 and 1870. He spoke of the im- 
portation of eggs, free of duty, 14,465,764 dozen in 1886. 
He believed the hen should be protected. He urged the 



141 

taking oft' of the duty on sugar to reduce the revenue, and 
payment of bounty to Americans Planters, and removing 
the tax on tobacco, and increasing the tariff on imported 
agricultural products to stimulate increased production in 
this country, thus employing more home labor, without 
increased cost to the consumer. 

Sidney C. Bancroft declared that he was not for free 
trade but tariff reform, a tariff for revenue only. He 
desired all raw material admitted free, and took issue 
with Mr. Ware that " free trade " and " tariff reform " 
were synonymous terms. He also took issue with other 
points of Mr. Ware's address. 

A motion, by Rev. O. S. Butler of Georgetown, limit- 
ing the time of each speaker to fifteen minutes, was car- 
ried. 

Rev. C. W. Luck of Topsfleld, was in favor of free 
trade. Considered it a sign of weakness that Americans 
were not willing to enter into competition with our Eng- 
lish brethren. If it was to continue, the best protection 
would be to build a Chinese wall around the United 
States and keep all foreigners out. He opposed freeino- 
tobacco, and asserted there was as much poverty and des- 
titution, in proportion, in New York as in London. 

George W. Russell of West Newbury, made remarks 
that showed that he had given the tariff question, as to 
effects upon the laboring man, much thought. He uro-ed 
that all our happiness and success depended upon the 
treatment of labor. He should be surprised if anyone 
present and looking at such a gathering of Essex County 
farmers, after looking at a similar gathering of English 
farmers, could vote for free trade. He showed that it was 
home competition that lowered the price of our products. 
The duty on any article had nothing to do with it. The 
tariff was not a tax. The imports last year were 
$200,000,000 and the exports $240,000,000. 

.lames .1. II. Gregory of Marblehead, was surprised, he 
said, that the advocates of free trade or tariff reform had 
given them no answering arguments, nothing but irony 



142 

and sarcasm in answer to the solid arguments and very 
valuable information of the other side. They had none 
that were real. He supported Mr. Ware in many of his 
points. 

J). W. Low of Gloucester, gave a few facts, showing 
the difference that the times of protection and the times 
of reciprocity, or free trade, has had on the fishing inter- 
ests uf the county, which largely interest the farmers, as 
they are large consumers of their products. He showed 
that with free trade the American fishing fleet decreased 
and the foreign fleet increased, and with protection the 
opposite was the case. 

Charles W. Mann, one of the speakers of the day, in- 
troduced the following resolutions, which were adopted: 

Resolved, That we favor the removal of the tariff upon sugar and 
favor a bounty to Southern Planters, to cover their loss. 

Resolved, That we consider it advisable that a tariff of 40 per cent, 
be laid upon all vegetables possible of production in this country, 
and on poultry, eggs.and bed feathers. 

The 55th Institute was held at Memorial Hall, Methuen, 
Jan. 24th, 1888, to consider, in the forenoon, " The Im- 
provement of Waste Land." Opened by James C. Poor, 
of Morth Andover, manager of the Stock Farm of Hon. 
Wm. A. Russell, who said the term " Reclaiming of 
Waste Lands," may be applied to the bringing back to 
fertility of a worn out field, pasture, or land overgrown 
with bushes or brush, so that cultivated crops may be 
raised thereon, or more commonly applied to the clearing 
and draining of meadows and swamps to make them pro- 
duce two heavy crops of English hay yearly ; that land 
where alders grow abundantly will make splendid grass 
land and will pay a man to hire money to reclaim it and 
let his rocky fields go to pasture. 

Fields from which certain kinds of crops have been 
taken yearly, are said to be worn out, and they are, for 
that kind of crop, but not for others. The farmer should 
find out what can be grown, and what fertilizer is needed. 
This he can do by sending a sample of his soil to the 
Massachusetts Agricultural College, for analysis, or by 



143 

experimenting with fertilizers and crops. He advocated 
the ploughing in of green crops for manure, in renovating 
land. One of the best is rye, as it grows fast. Red 
clover is perhaps the best, and turnips are good. Herds 
grass on reclaimed swamp land should not be cut below 
the first joint, if so, it will die. He thought the best land 
in Essex County and in the State was in the swamps, 
bogs, and marshes, which are full of decayed vegetable 
matter. Mr. Poor gave his experience in reclaiming 
twenty-five acres of swamp, underdrained with eight 
miles of stone and tiles, now yielding two crops of hay 
of two tons to the acre. 

S. H. Boutvvell of Andover, gave his experience in re- 
claiming six or eight acres of stony pasture land. Such 
work done at odd times pays : it would not pay to hire 
money to do it. 

Hon. Warren Brown of Hampton Falls, N. H., believed 
in keeping sheep to eat down small bushes, and that dy- 
namite was safer and better than powder for clearing 
land of stumps and rocks. His experience in that line 
was interesting. 

W. H. Clark of Methuen, stated that he run in debt 
for a forty acre farm ; now owns it all. Mostly reclaimed 
land. Says sand or coal ash put on swamp land makes 
all crops stand up. 

John H. George for #30 cleared a quarter acre of oak 
stumps with dynamite. C. W. Mann of Methuen and 
Sheriff Herrickall had had experience in improving waste 
land, and spoke on the subject. 

In the afternoon, George M. Whittaker, of the New 
England Farmer, spoke on "Little Neglects,'' an address 
full of good advice, contrasting the well kept farm house 
and farm and its influence upon the town and county, 
with the loosely kept one, in such a vivid and truthful 
manner that the contrasts came home to every mind. He 
spoke of a Stockbridge man that main' years ago, set out 
four elms in front of his house, in less than a day's work, 
which added #1000 to the value of his farm when he sold 



144 

it. Little neglects impair the looks and value of any- 
place, more especially the farm. 

President Ware endorsed Mr. Whittaker, and said he 
knew manufacturers who had been doing a losing- busi- 
ness, had, by utilizing what had been waste products 
before, made it a profitable business. 

Hon. Joseph How of Methuen, urged those present to 
take the lesson of Mr. Whittaker home and profit by it. 

Hon. Warren Brown spoke, as he usually does, in a 
humorous vein, but with good, sound sense mixed with 
it. He believed in destroying any old rubbish, and never 
regretted it. He used a boiler on his place, and all the 
rubbish, including the hired men's old clothes, boots, and 
such things, left lying around, found their way into it. 
Burdocks should be cut down and then killed by kerosene 
oil poured on them. It should be the duty of road sur- 
veyors to mow the roadsides. 

James P. King and President Ware thought front fen- 
ces should be done away with, and advocated the setting 
out of shade trees. 

Messrs. O. L. Carlton of Danvers, Frank Marsh of Pea- 
body, Mr. Case of North Reading, and others took part 
in the discussion. 

The 56th Institute was held at the Town Hall, Pea- 
body, February 14th, 1888, and was opened by Charles 
W. Mann of Methuen, on " Cabbage, Onion and Potato 
Crops," who said the secret of success for all crops of the 
farm and garden is more in the size of the manure pile 
than in the size of the field. Manure should be got into 
the ground in the fall, not in the spring, as it mixes bet- 
ter with the soil, and time is not so valuable. Keep the 
soil stirring by keeping the hoes going. Mr. Mann related 
his, experiences with his crops, and said he had a book 
account with every crop. 

Mr. J. J. H. Gregory of Marblehead, «said there could 
be no accurate farming without farm accounts. Fruits 
and cabbages do better where they originate than else- 
where. Used ashes on cabbage land year after year, 



H5 

without trouble from stump foot. Fish manure is good 
for cabbage land. 

Mr. Tapley of Revere, planted a piece of land twice 
with beets and once with parsnips, last yea,r. None came 
up. Turned over the soil and planted spinnage, and had 
100 bushels on 1200 sq. ft. of land. 

S. S. Pratt, James P. King, Aaron Low, T. C. Thur- 
low were among others who spoke on the subject. 

In the afternoon, G. A. Tapley of Revere, spoke on 
"Fruit Culture.'* He said that pears need strong, rich, 
clayey soil or clay sub-soil to do best. He scatters three 
■quarts of coarse, ground bone around the roots in setting 
out, and sets them three inches below surface, not over 
six inches in setting dwarfs on clay soil. Standards on 
gravelly soil must be set deeper. In setting on high land 
put wheelbarrow of clay under them ; on clay land, loam. 
Sets Bartletts, Beurre Bosc, and Anjou's for money. If 
trees grow fast you cannot prune too much. Grafting 
can be done warm days in February, from then to time of 
blossoming. Would pick off half the fruit on tree ; one 
good pear is worth four poor ones. Bartletts pick six or 
eight days before ripe. He commenced 2d of August, 
poorest fruit ; next picking, picked half off. Don't prop a 
tree ; pick the fruit off. Sorting important ; putting poor 
with good makes all poor ; difference of 75 cts. to $1.00 
per bushel between first and second quality Duchess. 
Totofsky is the earliest apple he raises. Sold at $2 per 
bushel, from the tree, the past year. To keep apples in 
storage the temperature should be kept between freezing 
point and forty degrees, with occasional change of air. 

T. C. Thurlow of West Newbury, didn't agree with 
Mr. Tapley about the Totofsky apple. He thought the 
Gravenstein the best apple for the market. Fruits 
brought here from a distance do not do as well as those 
originating here, such as the Baldwin and Hubbardston. 
Tol man's and Jacob's Sweet apples he considered the best 
for winter. He believed that hogs were of great value in 
an orchard, as also in the barn cellar, and more should be 



146 

kept. Hens are good. An apple orchard should be 
ploughed until it bears, and even after, unless sheep or 
hogs are kept. Potash and phosphate are needed for fer- 
tilizers. 

Thadeus Hale of Rowley, said that strawberry beds 
will stand all the manure that can be put on them. The 
more the better. 

J. S. Needham of West Peabody, spoke of the Hurlburt 
being a fine eating, but poor cooking apple. Will bear 
four or five years before the Baldwin. 

James P. King of Peabody, believed that mulching 
peach trees would be a preventive from freezing. 

Joseph How of Methuen, and one or two other speak- 
ers followed. 

All the speakers agreed that the peach crop was a very 
uncertain one, but occasionally paid well. Potash 
recommended for the yellows. 

The 57th Institute was held with the Amesbury and 
Salisbury Agricultural Society, at the new Opera House, 
Amesbury, Feb. 24th, 1888, where the "Care and Treat- 
ment of the Horse " was considered. 

David Stiles of Middleton, who for over a half century 
has owned and shod them, opened the meeting. In re- 
gard to feeding horses, the amount of grain fed should 
vary with the size and condition of the horse, and never 
be over eight quarts of meal a day. Horse shoeing he 
considered a necessary evil, and improperly done a fruit- 
ful source of lameness and disease to the animal. Heavy 
shoes are a very common source of injury ; the size and 
shape of the hoof should govern the size and shape of the 
shoe. To illustrate, the amount of weight a horse car- 
ries, wearing a two pound shoe on each foot, and taking 
a step every second, would, in an hour, lift 28,800 pounds. 
Many horses are required to do a great deal more than 
this. A horse's hoofs should be kept clean, and a better 
knowledge of its anatom} r is needed. As a general rule, 
in giving medicine, a horse requires five times as much as 
would be a dose for a man. 



H7 

B. P. Ware stated that he had never known a tlatfooted 
horse suffer from contraction of hoof. 

Albert Kimball of Bradford, would rather have his 
horses go bare than to touch their hoofs with hot iron. 
He believed in washing a horse's hoofs, and further that 
the vernicular disease and contraction could be cured, 
disagreeing with Mr. Stiles on those points. 

James P. King of Peabody, broke a horse from running 
away by letting the animal run up hill and making him 
run until he was glad to stop from exhaustion. He cured 
a horse of colic by giving him two heaping spoonfuls of 
black pepper in warm water. 

J. E. Page, foreman of Dr. Loring's farm, Salem, where 
some seventy horses are wintered, gave some experiences. 
The shoes are taken off their feet and they are allowed to 
run barefooted two to three hours every day all winter. 
They are given cut feed, ten or twelve pounds of hay 
with four quart mixture of grain and oats. 

Quite a discussion was raised as to the best remedy for 
curing horses of worms. Among the medicines named 
were white mustard seed, wood ashes (two quarts mixed 
with feed for a dose), savin berries, dogwood bark (three 
or four ounces for a dose), cayenne pepper and sulpher. 
Garget and salt petre often used for cows, are death to 
horses. 

The address for the afternoon, on " The Progress of 
Agriculture," by Edmund Hersey of Hingham, owing to 
the failure of his appearance, was given by President 
Ware, in an extemporaneous speech, in which he said that 
agriculture had its ups and downs, but history showed a 
successful nation to be one whose agriculture is prosper- 
ous, and where it is a failure that country is on the de- 
cline. In corn culture the Pilgrims took lessons from the 
Indian, scratching places in the rough ground to drop the 
seed, putting a fish in each, for a fertilizer, Next, a high 
hill was thought necessary for its successful cultivation, 
and now level cultivation is deemed best. The hard work 
formerly done with scythe and hoe is now done by ma- 



148 

chines, drawn by horses. The premium crops of this so- 
ciety, in earlier times as large as we get now, was because 
of virgin soil, but with harder work. We are obliged to 
make up this loss of fertility. A few generations from 
the carl)' settlers farmers were obliged to keep animals to 
fertilize their soil ; to-da}% the farmer is obliged to use 
commercial fertilizers. 

He then spoke of the progress in crops. Within his 
remembrance nearly all that was raised was hay, long 
red potatoes, a little barley, and a few cabbages, while 
nearly all of the standard vegetables of to-day originated, 
or were developed in Essex County. The ideas of some 
of the best implements started in this County. 

A long discussion followed, some agreeing that agricul- 
ture was progressive, and others taking the opposite view. 
E. S. Nason of West Newbury, claimed that a young man 
could not run in debt for a farm, pay interest and taxes, 
keep the buildings in repair, and pay the mortgage, as 
well to-day as twenty-five years ago. 

A. H. Coombs of Amesbury, agreed with Mr. Nason, 
but said that the reason he could not succeed as well to- 
day on a farm, was, because he wanted the best of every- 
thing there is going. 

Warren Brown of Hampton Falls, referring to Mr. 
Ware's statement that with the improved machinery of 
to-day, one man can do what it formerly took ten to do, 
said there were a hundred ways to spend money now 
where there were ten formerly. 

James P. King and John Q. Evans of Salisbury, and 
others, followed. 

The 58th Institute was held March 13, 1888, at the 
Town Hall, Beverly. The subject of "Milk Production" 
was to be opened in the forenoon by John Q. Evans of 
Salisbury, but the violent storm kept him away as well as 
Edmund Hersey of Hingham, who was to open the after- 
noon discussion on " Fertilizers." The forenoon was 
profitably spent in listening to Mr. Gregory and others on 
milk production. Mr. Gregory urged the necessity of 



149 

giving attention to the quality of the feed for obtaining 
good milk. The nearer to English hay the better results. 
K} T e hay cut early had been fed, with good success. He 
claimed that the Sawyer bean of Japanese origin is the 
richest feed. The beans pod out on the stock with beans 
round like peas, and will grow twenty bushels to the 
acre — with early and late varieties. They can be pulled 
before they are ripe and make excellent fodder for cows. 
Apple pummace he believed to be better than beets and 
mangolds, and had fed Hubbard squashes with good 
results. Corn ensilage cut in milk is economical feed for 
new milch cows. Ensilage takes the place of roots which 
have almost had their day for feeding. Cotton-seed meal 
he pronounced the cheapest food but it should be reduced 
with bran or a little common meal. In feeding cows it is 
a general rule that one-fifth of its value returns in the 
manure. A warm barn will pay its cost in increased pro- 
duction of milk. Green corn ensilage with one-third hay 
is as good as all hay. 

President Ware said that Mr. Thompson of Southboro, 
had fed his stock on nothing but apple pummace and 
grain with apparently good results. Considerable discus- 
sion followed with the weight of evidence being that 
shorts alone as feed had no merit, but mixed with other 
feed they improved their value. 

The afternoon discussion on " Fertilizers " was also 
opened by Mr. Gregory, who with other speakers all 
agreed that the best results follow their use in connection 
with other manures. He said potatoes should be planted 
deep as the roots need moisture. The largest growth of 
corn he ever raised was by plowing rye into the ground. 
Farmers could buy fertilizers at a saving of about $"> per 
ton, by a number of them buying a car-load. \n answer 
to question, he said he believed liquid manure as valuable 
as solid. 

James P. King spoke of the value of night soil for 
manure, should mix with compost, one cord of night soil 
to two of compost, for onions, at a cost to him of about 



i5o 

$3 per cord, and do its work as well as stable manure that 
would cost him $7 per cord. He thought night soil could 
be used five years continuously on land without detriment, 
and the continual use of fertilizers on land would not be 
detrimental. Other speakers gave their experiences with 
fertilizers. 

The 59th Institute, " Ladies' Day," was held at Plum- 
mer Hall, Salem, on March 29th, 1888, with " The Ameri- 
can Farmer, his Blessings and Privileges " for the opening 
subject for forenoon by Mrs. Martha DeM. Gage of 
Bradford, followed by a paper on" The Grange, from a 
Woman's Standpoint,*' by Miss Lizzie J. Huntington of 
Amesbury. 

Mrs. (J age said that the American farmer is a very dif- 
ferent being from the foreign peasant. Under the 
American social organization, he is the equal of represen- 
tatives of other trades and professions. In no other 
country has equal mental activity and alertness been 
applied to the cultivation of the soil and a farmer requires 
mental and physical energy, interest in his work and 
judgment. The American farmer has the best blood of 
other nations in his veins. — the tenacity of the English, 
the versatility of the French, the stolid perseverance of 
the German, the mechanical ingenuity of the Swiss, and 
the energy of the more northern nations. He has im- 
proved machinery and the ability to use and care for it. 

Mrs. Gage gave comparisons of wages received by 
farmers in different countries. In Massachusetts the farm 
laborer averages $30.66 per month, in Iowa, -ft 17.41 
monthly, for the year, including board and lodging and 
in some counties 140 per month, without. 

In western England, miles, $14.60 per month and 
females S5.84, in summer and without board : in Wiltshire 
and Dorsetshire, males $11.64 in summer, and $10.08 in 
winter; in Hull district $29 to $72 for the year with 
board and lodging : in Yorkshire, the first man per week 
with cottage, #4.0fi. second man, without cottage or board 
$■''>. 70, in Kent, $4.13 without board, and so on. 



i5i 

In Alsace Lorraine, Germany, farm laborers receive, 
with board and lodging, $67.30 per year ; in Saxony, 
males $44.26 and females $22.84, much of the farm labor 
in Germany being done by women. In Japan with 12 
hours work a day and five holidays a month, males receive 
$8.50 to $12.75 per year with food and lodgings ; females 
with same hours work but no holidays, $6 per annum 
with food and lodgings. 

Comparison was also made of farming methods of this 
country with all its improved appliances and that of India 
whose methods were antiquated centuries ago. 

Statistics for 1887 showed a valuation of leading farm 
products in this country of four billion dollars and 77 per 
cent, of total exports were agricultural products. The 
essayist pleaded for more thorough education of the far- 
mer and argued in favor of establishing agricultural 
schools, where boys could be sent to learn the farmer's 
business and serve apprenticeship at it, as they do at 
other trades and professions. 

Miss Lizzie J. Huntington spoke of the advanced posi- 
tion which women hold in the " Grange '' as compared 
with the old farmer's Societies and Clubs. The organiza- 
tion had met with opposition, as a " Woman's Rights As- 
sociation, '' the women being treated on an equal footing 
with men. The Grange is now represented in every 
state in the union. Other trades combine for mutual 
benefit, why shouldn't farmers? No other calling requires 
science and education more, which the grange supplies in 
part, it also increases the social spirit among farmers, an 
important feature in a farmer's life, a religious and tem- 
perate life is encouraged, and the mission of the grange 
will not be accomplished until every farmer in the land 
has received some benefit from it. The speaker gave a 
short history of the granges in Essex County from its first 
one, started less than two years before in Amesbury, and 
now having a county grange with a number of subordi- 
nate granges, all on a firm foundation with bright futures 
before them, already showing an improvement in the 



J 5 2 

social and mental condition of the farmers in the vicinity 
of them. 

Miss Huntington's paper was followed by speaking on 
the subject by President Ware, Mrs. Wm. Horner of 
Georgetown, O. I). Hadwen of Worcester, James P. King 
of Peabody, Aaron Low of Essex, M. W. Bartlett of West 
Newbury. 

Mr. Ware said he knew of no organization so well cal- 
culated to educate and cater to the social enjoyment and 
advancement of the farmer as the Grange. He also 
thought that farmers did not properly appreciate the ad- 
vantages of a farmer's life and in illustration drew a 
picture between two farmer's boys starting out in life — 
one staying on the farm, the other going to the city and 
receiving, perhaps, $2000 as salary. He contended that if 
the bo} r s were equally endowed mentally and physically,, 
the one who stayed on the farm would do best. 

In the afternoon Mrs. Fannie A. Deane of Edgartown 
read a paper on "The Influence of Flowers on National 
Growth. "' No brief report can do justice to such an essay, 
it should be heard or read to be appreciated. It covered a 
wide field touching upon positions flowers had occupied as 
emblems of religious faith and national life, in architecture 
and in literature. Children should be trained to love 
flowers — it will make their lives purer and better. Flowers 
have a value in art, in manufactures, and in commerce, 
well illustrated by the essayist. Contrast the greenhouses 
of to-day in number with years ago and the varied and in- 
creased demands for flowers now, and then. The raising 
of flowers for perfumes is to acquire more importance in 
the future. It is being now done to small extent in Cali- 
fornia and the southern states. 

The 'tender care of flowers by sailors in Holland and 
Germany was alluded to, also of the white and red roses 
as emblems of the great struggle in England. The "War 
of the Roses," The great love for flowers and the at- 
tention paid to their cultivation in Japan, was alluded 
to. 



33 



President Ware followed, mentioning the immense 
power for good that a dozen flowering plants did on board 
ship on a long voyage at sea — the captain of the ship 
stating that in his long experience he had never seen a 
more potent agency for good aboard his ship. Mr. Ware 
also spoke of the prizes offered by the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society for window gardens and flowers 
generally. 

John Robinson of Salem took an interest in the subject 
from a botanical point of view. The desirability of be- 
coming acquainted with native flowering plants, and trees 
and grasses was dwelt upon. 

Andrew Nichols, Jr. of Dan vers, spoke upon wild flow- 
ers. He believed that botany should be a study in our pri- 
mary schools instead of wating until the pupil was ad- 
vanced in the High school. 

Aaron Low of Essex spoke of the improvements made, 
and great varieties in the colorings of flowers by their 
training and hybridizing, most of the improvements com- 
ing from Germany. 

Remarks were also made on the subject by Mrs. Wm. 
Horner of Georgetown, Mrs. Nancy C. Andrews of Essex, 
Mrs. Martha De M. Gage of Bradford and others, which 
were interesting. 

A vote of thanks was passed to the essayists of the day, 
for their interesting, instructive and valuable papers. 

The 60th Institute and last of the season was a Field 
Institute and was held on the Gardner Farm, Peabody, on 
April 17, 1888. " For the Exhibition and Trial of all 
Implements used in the Cultivation of Farm Crops," at 
which some 200 or more were in attendance. 

The largest exhibitor was J. L. Colcord it Son of Pea- 
body, whose show of ploughs, harrows, cultivators and 
other machines and tools, was quite extensive. 

Whitcomb & Carter of Beverly, also showed a line of 
machines of similar nature as well as C. H. Thompson of 
Boston. 

In the trial of the ploughs a dynomometer was attached 



154 

to them to ascertain the draught required. The result 
was as follows. 

No. 3 Yankee side hill plough — furrow 7 inches deep 
and 14 inches wide : draught, 650 pounds. 

Granger side hill — furrow 7 inches deep, 15 1-2 inches 
wide ; draught, 350 pounds. 

North American side hill — furrow 7 inches deep, 14 
inches wide ; draught, 550 pounds. 

Plough 76 — furrow 7 inches deep, 13 inches wide ; 
draught 575 pounds. 

National sulky reversible — furrow 7 inches deep, 14 
inches wide ; draught, 500 pounds. 

Oliver chilled plough, side hill — furrow 7 inches deep, 
15 inches wide ; draught, 350 pounds. 

Hussey plough, land side — furrow 6 1-2 inches deep, 14 
inches wide ; draught, 300 pounds. 

Swivel steel Yankee plough — furrow 7 inches deep, 14 
inches wide ; draught, 400 pounds. 

It will be seen by these figures that the Granger side 
1 i 111 plough made a furrow one-half inch wider than any 
other tested and as deep as any other — 7 1-2 inches, while 
its draught was only 350 pounds. The Hussey land side 
plough was the only one having a lighter draught, and 
this may be explained by the fact that its furrow was only 
6 1-2 inches deep and 14 inches wide. The Granger 
plough was tested with one pair of horses which worked 
slow, and another pair which worked faster — both show- 
ing the same result. 

The harrows Mere also given a practical test, but no 
figures could be taken to give the relative quantity or 
quality of their work. Each spectator was his own 
judge. 

Altogether, the institute was a success and a benefit to 
farmers. 

For the success which has attended our season's Insti- 
tutes thanks are due to the Farmer's Clubs and other 
societies, who with members and friends of this society 
have procured the free use of halls, comfortably heated, in 



155 

the various places where they have been held, thus pro- 
moting the good attendance at them which we believe is 
productive of much good to the farming interests of our 
county. Thanks are also due to the essayists who have 
prepared so carefully such valuable papers for the meet- 
ings. 

The ladies at nearly all the places visited, interested in 
charitable objects, provided good dinners for us at a fair 
price. 

DAVID W. LOW, Secretary. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON ESSAYS, 
REPORTS AND STATEMENTS. 

The committee received but a single Essay this year, 
that of Mr. Charles W. Mann, of Methuen, upon " Cab- 
bage and Onions," published herewith, for which they 
have awarded the second premium of $10. Fortunately 
Mr. Faxon contributed the second part of his Essay on 
"Annuals and their Cultivation," so that this department 
is not so deficient as it would otherwise have been. Mr. 
Faxon's essay is so meritorious, in the judgment of the 
committee, that they recommend to the Trustees that he 
be paid five dollars additional to the award of last year, 
which will raise the premium granted him, to the rank of 
first-class. 

The committee hope that they may be able to report 
more essays another year. It can hardly be that with the 
constantly increasing interest in such writings there can 
be any permanent disinclination among our people to thus 
furnish us with the results of their experience and study. 
The essays are among the most valued features of our 
annual volume, and are eagerly read in the families of 
the farmers of Essex County, and by many interested 
persons not embraced in the membership of the society. 
These papers, hitherto published, have been extremely 
valuable and entertaining, and have largely contributed 



156 

to the excellent reputation which the Society enjoys 
throughout the state. We have, happily, many gentle- 
men who, in all respects, are competent to furnish such 
papers for the Transactions, and the committee would be 
greatly pleased if they should be induced to favor the 
society and the public with their thoughts upon some of 
the many topics which interest the agricultural public. 

The committee have decided to make two awards for 
best Reports and Statements, namely, 1st premium of $10 
to Hon. J. J. H. Gregory, of Marblehead, for his report 
upon Apples, and the 3d premium of $6 to Mr. John M. 
Danforth, for his report on Hoot Crops. Other than these 
the committee made no awards. 
For the committee, 

Gilbert L. Streeter, Chairman. 

G. L. Streeter, Daniel E. Safford, Xathan M. Hawkes, 
David W. Low, Geo. W. Foster. — CommiLlee. 



IX ME MORI AM. 



Royal Day, of Bradford, who died in 1888, was a 
member of our Society over twenty years. "He was a 
well to do farmer, about 65 years of age; unmarried. 
He was much interested in the Society, serving on its 
Committees, and constant in his attendance at our Fairs." 

John O'Brien, of Bradford, who met his death by 
the "Haverhill Accident," being killed in a building 
crushed by the cars, joined this Society in 1878, and for 
several years previous took premiums for fruit at our 
Fairs, mostly on Pears, of which he made a specialty. In 
1879 he took the first premium on report of Committee, 
he having served as Chairman of the Committee on Pears. 
In the following winter, at a " Farmers' Institute," in 
Lynn, he read a paper on " Fruit Culture." He was a 
constant and working member at our Annual Fairs and 
his fruit was always among the best. 



i57 

Richard Dodge, of Beverly, died May 17, 1888. He 
was one of our oldest members, having joined in 1848. 
He owned and cultivated a large farm ; was a good neigh- 
bor, pleasant and social, and was interested in his town, 
schools and church. 

John Meacom, of Beverly, died December 1, 1888, on 
his 77th birthday, the last three years of his life having 
been one of the Trustees of this Society, joining it in 
1858, and having been active since in its service, on im- 
portant committees. He early learned the carpenter's 
trade and became a master builder, and the most promi- 
nent school-houses, churches, halls, and dwelling houses in 
Beverly are monuments of his skill. He was a great 
lover of his native town and served on its Board of Select- 
men from 1859 to 1863 inclusive, the war period. Chair- 
man of the Board a part of the time. A Representative 
in 1862. Overseer of the Poor from 1865 to 1873, most 
of the time Chairman. Was Director of the Beverly 
Savings Bank and of the South Danvers (Peabody) 
Mutual Insurance Company. In Masonic circles he was 
well known. He was a wise counsellor, a loyal friend, 
an enterprising citizen of most exemplary character and 
of large influence for good. He accumulated a large 
amount of real estate which became valuable, and portions 
of which he tilled to advantage. 

John Bell, of Beverly, died Dec. 2, 1888, aged 67, 
having for the past twenty years been a member of this 
Society. He was owner of many acres and a successful 
milk farmer. He was a citizen of energy and capacity 
and had served as Assessor for the town of Beverly, of 
which he w r as a native, and was connected with its Mason- 
ic and Odd-Fellows organizations at the time of his death. 

John Hale, of Boxford, died March 7, 1888, aged 
86 years, 6 months, 27 days. He was an early exhibitor 
and member, taking premiums fifty years ago. for his ex- 
hibits of stock, at our exhibition, and was also an exhibit- 
or of boots and shoes, in the department of Domestic 
Manufactures, of which for many years he was an exten- 



158 

sive manufacturer, until he met with heavy losses, after 
which he spent his time farming and marketing at Salem 
market, which he kept up until the last winter of his 
life. He was always sure to be at every Cattle Show of 
our society. 

Samuel P. Fowler, of Danvers, died Dec. 15, 1888, 
in his 89th year, naving been born April 22, 1800. He 
wus a direct descendent of Philip Fowler, born in Wilt- 
shire, Eng., in 1590, who settled in Ipswich, Mass., in 
1681. His ancestry was of the genuine sturdy New Eng- 
land type. His tastes were literary, although his onlv 
early education was from a country school, but he con- 
tinued a student, taking a keen interest in nature, and 
wrote interesting articles on the tk Birds of New England," 
also many botanical papers on trees and shrubs, and took 
an active part in the meetings of this Society of which 
he was long a valuable member. 

He served Danvers as Selectman and Assessor, five 
years; Auditor, three years ; frequently Moderator; on 
School Committee, seven years; Board of Health, three 
years ; one of its Firewards when its Fire Department 
was first organized. Representative in 1837, '38 and '39. 
Was a member of the State Constitutional Convention, 
in 1853. Was President of the Peabody Institute for 
some time, serving on its most important committees. He 
was an officer of the banks and seems to have been placed 
in many responsible positions, on committees and else- 
where. His longest and most important public service 
was as member of the Board of Overseers of the Poor 
for forty-three years, most of the time as Chairman. He 
joined Jordan Lodge of Masons, in 1823, and remained 
one of its members until his death. No citizen of Dan- 
vers was more beloved or will be more missed. To very 
few is given such a long and useful life. 

Amos Prince, of Danvers, died March 11, 1888, aged 
<o6 years, 9 mos., 11 days. Became a member of this 
Society in 1870. 



i59 

Samuel Wallis, of Danvers, died Sept. 9, 1888, aged 
79 years, 3 days ; followed the occupation of farming the 
most of his life. For thirty years he was a member of 
this Society, and always interested in its doings. He 
usually attended its Annual Fairs, and in the latter part 
of his life very many of its Farmers' Institutes. 

David Knowltok, of Essex, died March 29, 1888, 
aged 68 }'ears. He was a farmer and teamster, taking- 
loads of hay, wood, or piling to Gloucester, and bringing 
back rigging, and cables and anchors, for the new vessels, 
building in Essex, for the Gloucester fisheries, or else 
bringing back loads of manure to enrich his farm. He 
joined this Society in 1858 ; has served on many of its 
committees, and taken many premiums for horses. 

Miles S. Andrews, of Essex, died Nov. 25, 1888, 
aged 76 yrs., 7 mos., 22 days. Became a member in 1856 
and has served on its committees. He made farming a 
success, being especially successful in the cultivation of 
Asparagus and Strawberries. 

Daniel E. Moultox, of Georgetown, died May 15, 
1888. He was born July 10, 1821, in West Newbury, 
and worked on the old homestead farm until he moved to 
Georgetown, about forty years ago. For twenty years 
he has been a member of this Society, and has taken 
great interest in all that pertained to its welfare. Reared 
on a farm, although later in life he was activelv en<?ao-ed 
in manufacturing pursuits, yet his interest in agriculture 
never waned, and, on retiring from business his inclina- 
tions were toward the cultivation of the soil. His death 
was caused by injuries received while ploughing in his 
field. He served in several important official positions, 
and did a great deal towards building up the town. He 
was very benevolent toward the suffering, and kind and 
solicitous in sickness. Few men would do more to relieve 
the distressed. 

James R. Nichols, of Haverhill, died Jan. 2, 1888, 
aged 68 yrs., 5 mos., 13 days, was one of our most valued 



i6o 

members. He joined in 1855, and the same year was 
selected to deliver the annual address, and again in 1881, 
in which last he reviewed the progress of Agriculture in 
the County, in the twenty-five years since his first address. 
He was one of the Trustees of the Society for several 
years. 

Dr. Nichols was one of the most scientific and success- 
ful chemists of his time, and the result of his research, 
with an inventive mind, were many important discoveries 
and inventions, of which the public are now enjoying the 
fruits. In 1855 and 1857 he travelled extensively in 
Europe, and his information there gained by observation, 
inquiry, and study, proved of great advantage to his 
future, in the production of chemicals used in printing, 
dyeing, photographing, and other arts which had hitherto 
only been supplied from the laboratories of Europe. His 
early education upon a farm caused him to apply chemis- 
try to agriculture, and in 1863 he purchased a farm on 
the westerly shore of Lake Kenoza, known as the " Darl- 
ing Estate," which he designed " for an experimental 
farm in the application of science in agriculture,'' and it 
was probably the oldest experimental farm in the country. 
His changes in process of cultivation proved a great suc- 
cess, as shown in the State Agricultural Reports and in 
the running history of the work, appearing in the " Jour- 
nal of Chemistry," which had been established by him in 
Boston in 1866, and in other scientific and agricultural 
journals. He made hitherto unproductive territory teem 
with abundant crops, and its results are shown on Essex 
Count) r farms, especially by improved methods and more 
science applied. In 1878 he was appointed by Gov. Rice 
on the Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture and was 
continued a member until .his death, contributing many 
valuable papers to the literature of agriculture. Among 
the most prominent were, "The Proper way of Reclaim- 
ing Wet Meadows," " Water in Agriculture," '■ Artificial 
Fertilizers." ki What Science has accomplished for Hus- 
bandry," " Muck — its Uses in Agriculture," and many 
others of kindred nature. 



i6i 

Prior to 1872, his works, "Fireside Science,''' and 
" Chemistry of the Farm and Sea," were issued and ex- 
tensivety read, contributing to increase his literary repu- 
tation, and in 1883, his book entitled, " Whence, What, 
Where?" proved to be the most popular of all his publi- 
cations, with immense sales. His interest in the diffusion 
of useful knowledge caused him to found a public library 
in his native town of Merrimae. Besides his scientific, 
agricultural and literary pursuits, he held very important 
official positions, having been from 1873 to 1878, Presi- 
dent of the Vermont State Railroad, and from 1873 to 
his death, a Director of the Boston and Maine Railroad. 

James E. Gale, of Haverhill, died Aug. 20, 1888,. 
aged 56 years. He became a member in 1855. 

William Merrill, of Haverhill, died Sept. 7, 1888, 
aged 76 years. He joined the Society from Andover, in 
1865. 

Edmund Gage, of Haverhill, died Dec. 6, 1888, aged 
86 yrs., 6 mos., 26 days. He had been a member about 
fifteen years. 

Addison Gilbert, of Gloucester, died July 2, 1888, 
at the age of 79 years, having been a member since 1872. 
Although not a farmer, he took great pleasure in culti- 
vating fruits, flowers and vegetables in his garden. At 
the time of his death he was President of the City 
National Bank and the Cape Ann Savings Bank, and 
under the Town Government he served many years on 
its Board of Selectmen, most of the time chairman. He 
had, during his life, accumulated a large property, and 
left for the benefit of his native city, Gloucester, nearly 
#200,000 to found a free hospital and an Aged Couples' 
Home, and for other charitable and like institutions in 
the city. 

Francis M. Loring, of Gloucester, died Aug. 17,1888, 
aged 77 years. He was born in Boston, Aug. 27, 1811, and 
went to Gloucester forty-five years ago, as a journeyman 
tinsmith. Afterwards he was in business, winning 



l62 

-the confidence and esteem of all with whom he had deal- 
ings, and attracting a large circle of friends by his genial 
and social qualities. Elected in 1879, by the votes of all 
parties, on the Board of Aldermen, he rendered faithful 
and valuable service on its most important committees. 
He was a veteran Odd-Fellow and Mason, and joined this 
Society in 1872. 

Daniel S. Russell, of Ipswich, died Feb. 5, 1888, 
ao-ed 03 yrs., 4 mos. Tii early life he was a Lynn shoe- 
maker, but for the past twenty-five years a farmer. He 
was an active member of the Ipswich Grange, and of this 
Society, having joined it in 1881. At the time of his 
death he was a member of the Board of Selectmen. He 
was a man of strict integrity, honest in all his dealings 
with others. 

YORICK Gr. HtJRD, of Ipswich, died Sept. 24. 1888, 
..ao-ed 61 yrs., 7 mos., 7 days. He was born in Lempsten, 
N. H. Dr. Hurd was widely known as a successful phy- 
sician and surgeon. In early life he worked on a farm. 
During the late Rebellion as surgeon of the 48th Becr't 
of Mass. Volunteers, he gained a high reputation for his 
skill. In 1865-6 he served in the State Senate, and in 
18t)<> was appointed Master of the House of Correction, 
and Superintendent of the Insane Asylum at Ipswich, 
which he held for twenty-one years, and under his direc- 
tion the farm was both improved and made remunerative, 
growing large and profitable crops. He was trustee of 
the Manning School Fund, and of the Ipswich Savings 
Bank. He took an active part in agriculture, as a mem- 
ber of this Society for nearly twenty years ; also, in town 
affairs, and favored all improvements that he saw would 
bring good results. Was kind and obliging, ever ready 
and willing to lend a helping hand to all. He will be 
missed by all who knew his sterling qualities. 

EnWAUD A. FlSKE, of Lawrence, died, after a lingering 
illness of two years, Dec. 28, 1887, aged 49 years. Major 
Fiske was born in Lowell, and was brother of General 
W. O. Fiske who died some over a year ago. When the 



163 

war broke out lie was 23 years old and exploring- timber 
lands one hundred miles north of Montreal. When the 
news reached him of the assault on our country's flag he 
set out for home which he reached at noon of a Septem- 
ber day in '61, immediately going to a recruiting office, 
where he was rejected as below the required, height. 
That night he had two thicknesses of leather placed on 
his shoes and returned next day and was again rejected, 
but he was so persistent to go that he was finally passed, 
and sent to Camp Chase and attached to Co. B. where he 
was elected 2d Lieut. Nov. 27, '61, and advanced to 1st 
Lieut. Aug. 21, '62. The Company was part of the 30th 
Reg't. On Oct. 21, '62, he was promoted to Captain. At 
the siege of Yicksburg, his regiment was on the river; 
the Rebel gunboat Arkansas was near by, doing a great 
deal of damage. Two Union gun-boats were ordered in 
pursuit, and Capt. Fiske had charge of one. A conflict 
resulted, that raged for six hours. During that time, the 
Captain stood by the pilot-house, pistol in hand, directing 
its movements. Men were falling on all sides of him, 
but he bravely held his position until the battle closed. 
On General Banks' expedition, anxious to beat the front, 
he got changed from the charge of the commissary dep't 
to Gen'l Berges' staff, and on the campaign had two 
horses shot from under him, the last one pinning him 
down by falling upon his sword, and he was compelled to 
cut the straps and flee for his life. Being sent to Wash- 
ington on business, he came home on furlough and was 
presented with two beautiful swords. On his return to 
his regiment he took an active part in the closing engage- 
ments of the war, and on Feb. IT, 1865 was brevetted 
Major for gallant services in the field. His service was 
four years and four months. 

At the close of the war the Major leased a plantation 
in South Carolina, investing several thousand dollars, but 
before his first crop was harvested sectional hatred was 
such in that locality that he was threatened with death 
if he persisted in remaining He left for Pennsylvania, 



164 

and in 1868 came to Lawrence, where he engaged in 
business until the disease contracted in the army fastened' 
upon him, causing a lingering illness of two years before 
his death. He was a member of the Loyal Legion of 
Massachusetts, a Knight Templar of Tuscan Masonic Lodge 
and prominent in the Grand Army. His obituary, pub- 
lished in the Laivrence American, from which the above 
extracts are taken, ends with this paragraph, which, not- 
withstanding the space already occupied for notice of his 
death, we know the patriotic farmers of this Society will 
pardon its addition. 

" No braver soldier, more discreet and capable officer 
went from Massachusetts into the service of his country : 
no truer comrade of the Grand Army, with deeper, more- 
constant devotion to the interests of all who had defend- 
ed the flag, ever lived in our city : no more generous- 
hearted, open-handed, public-spirited citizen has blessed 
any community : A more unselfish, steadfast, self-sacri- 
ficing friend has not been born or lived in this generation 
than Major Edward A. Fiske. 

Wilbur Fisk Gile, of Lawrence, died Feb. 5, 1888,. 
aged 56 }^ears. Was born in East Bradford, now Grove- 
land. Before he was twenty he began teaching school, 
his success winning advancement and attention of 
educators. In 1855 he became principal of the Grammar 
school in Lawrence, proving a superior teacher; but hav- 
ing a taste for legal matters he resigned, to study law. 
In 1860 he was admitted to the bar, and obtained a large 
and successful practice. For a number of years past he 
lias been Associate Justice of the Lawrence Police Court. 
He took active interest in school matters. He served on 
the Republican State Committee, and was a member of 
several social clubs of Boston and Lawrence, and of the 
Masonic fraternity. He was of a remarkable genial and 
sunny disposition, large hearted, liberal and true to his 
friends. 

Reuben Alley, of Marblehead, died Jan. 7, '88. He 
was a Trustee of this Society at the time of his death. 



i6 5 

:ancl a member since 1875. He was one of the most suc- 
cessful of Marblehead market gardeners, and was a fre- 
quent and successful competitor at oar exhibitions ; quiet 
and unobtrusive in his manners, a good citizen and a kind 
neighbor, his example as a farmer and citizen was valu- 
able in the neighborhood in which he lived and he is 
missed and lamented by all who knew him. He was a 
member of the Masonic Fraternity and Knights of Pyth- 
ias. 

Charles Adams, of Newbury, a member of this So- 
ciety since 1869, was born May 18, 1824, and died April 
-30, 1888. Mr. Adams lived all his life upon a farm in- 
herited from his father, in the centre of that town. He 
was a good citizen and a good farmer and he will be 
thought of as one who rose in our esteem as we came to 
know him better. His peculiar taste, one which may be 
too rare among us in like circumstances, was shown in the 
beautiful bank of flowers between his house and the road, 
-cultivated each year with care, by him, for many years, 
which came to be a pleasing land-mark on the way from 
Dummer Academy to Newburyport. He left a widow 
but no children. 

HlRAM YOUNG, of Newburyport, was born in New- 
bury, Nov. 18. 1834, and died in Newbury, Feb. 12, 1888. 
Though always dependent upon his own labor for support 
•of himself and family, neither owning nor managing a 
farm, Mr. Young was always noted for his interest in all 
agricultural affairs, and for his skill and capacity in all 
farm work. That skill is shown by the award to him, 
from 1855 to 1880, of 15 first, 4 second, and 1 third pre- 
miums for his work upon the ploughing fields, at this So- 
ciety's Fairs: in a larger part of these eases with a single 
•ox-team, as driver and also holder of the plough. He 
joined this Society in 1858. 

William II. Husk, of Newburyport, Mayor of the city, 
Editor of the Newburyport Herald, member of this So- 
ciety, died suddenly March 28, 1888, aged 64 yrs., 3 mos., 
'2?> days. He became a member in 1855, and has always 



1 66 

been interested in its welfare, and at the Fair held in that 
city, in 1885 and 1886 gave it personal help by word and 
deed. His loss was felt keenly in Newburyport, and its 
City Council said of him, k ' That in the death of Hon. 
William H. Huse, Mayor of this city, we are called to^ 
mourn lor one who in many capacities, and during a long 
term of years, has faithfully administered every trust de- 
volving upon him, and as Mayor has in the most able and 
impartial manner discharged the duties of the office. In 
every department he has proved of great usefulness, and 
attended carefully to every duty required at his hands, and 
ever been active to advance the interests and promote the 
welfare of our city, and his record is — ' Well done, thou 
good and faithful servant/ which will also apply to other 
local, state and national positions which he had held.'" 

William Thurlow, of Newburyport, who died Dec. 1-L 
188S, aged about 70 years, was a sea Captain, and for 
several years a Pilot, and for many years a grocer in that 
city. Has served as Alderman and in other offices. Had 
been a member of this Society about twenty years and 
was interested in its welfare. 

Edward W. Jacobs, of Peabody, who died 22d of April. 
1888, at the age of 56 years, had been a member of this 
Society nearly twenty years. He had been prominently 
identified with the business interests of Peabody and an 
active worker for its welfare and prosperity, showing him- 
self to be large hearted and charitable, but often too liberal 
for his own good. He not only succeeded his father in a 
large business, but also as President of the South Danvers 
National Bank and as Trustee of Peabody Institute: and 
held many places of honor in the town. He finally met 
with financial misfortune. While he was a business man 
he was also a farmer, his buildings being about one ami 
a half miles from the town hall. Ilis barn was thought- 
fully arranged for practical utility, and he showed a strong 
liking for good stock and a desire to accomplish thorough 
work in conducting farming operations. He was one who 
was in life active in building up a business which helped 



i6 7 

make the most desirable kind of a market that fain.cis ca» 
wish for, one that is nearest their homes. 

Nathaniel S. York, of Rockport, died March 7, 1888,. 
aged. bi> years. A member of this Society since 187- : was 
a native of North Yarmouth, Me., and resident of Rock- 
port since 183U. He was a Master Mariner; afterwards, 
Overseer in the Steam Cotton Mill there ; aiterwards, Su- 
perintendent, in 1872 he was made a Trial Justice which 
oifice lie held at death. He was on the School Committee 
eighteen years, most of the time chairman, and did much, 
to improve the schools. He was one of the Selectmen six 
years, and a past master of Ashler Masonic Lodge. Mr. 
1'ork was a man of strong convictions and wise in council. 
Taking great interest in his town, he was always ready to 
promote its best interests, and his qualities of heart and 
mind will cause him to be greatly missed. 

John B. Hodgkins, of Rockport, died Aug. 13, '88, aged 
74 years. About fifteen years a member of this Society. 
Worked on a farm, as a boy, by the day or month. Later, 
hired land or took it on shares ; later, butchering business i 
later, he excavated and formed a pond in his meadow r 
built two ice-houses and carried on the ice business several 
years. In later years he has been engaged in the milk 
business, and, notwithstanding poor health, he continued to 
supply his customers to within a few weeks of his death. 
He was a hard working, industrious man, large hearted, 
performing many acts of kindness, especially to the sick. 

Elijah P. Robinson, of Saugus, died Sept. 2. 188$ 
aged 71 years. Born m E*st Bridge water, May 19, 1817. 
He for fifteen years ploughed the seas, sailing once around 
the world and five tunes around Cape Horn, serving seven 
years as first mute. Later, he was Conductor on the Old 
Colony Railroad two years, until disabled by an accident- 
Afterwards for twenty-live years as Clerk of Births, Mar- 
riages and Heaths, in the ofliee of the Secretary of State. 
As a citizen he was interested and active in town affairs, 
serving on its School Committee and other places of trust- 



1 63 

He joined this Society about twenty years ago, and has 
served as Trustee, and on various committees. 

Charles A. Stetson, of Swampscott, for over twenty- 
five years a member of this Society, was a hotel keeper in 
New York City, as well as a farmer in Swampscott. He 
died in the latter place during the past year. 

William Putnam Endicott died March 11, 1888, at his 
residence on Essex street, Salem. Born in Salem, March 
5, 1803, son of Capt. Samuel and Elizabeth (Putnam) En- 
dicott. Graduated from Harvard in the Class of '22, in the 
same class with Nath'l I. Bovvditch, Robert Treat Paine, 
and other men of subsequent note. He sailed as super- 
cargo on several voyages to the East Indies. In his earlier 
years he attained the rank of Major in the militia. In 
1835 he became a member of the East India Marine So- 
ciety, and in 1844 represented Salem in the General Court. 
His son, William C. Endicott, is Secretary of War. 

Naturally of a retiring disposition, and habitually with- 
drawn from society, becoming almost a recluse in his later 
years, yet never losing, when the exigencies of life brought 
him into the company of others, the gracious deportment of 
an accomplished gentleman and a scholarly, kind and friend- 
ly man. He joined this Society nearly forty years ago, and 
has served it on its most important committees. 

Moses M. Ridgway, of West Newbury, died Jan. 7, 1888. 
He was born in March, 1800, being a little short of 88 
years of age. He was among the oldest members of this 
Society, having joined it in 1838, fifty years before his 
death. In all those years he was thoroughly interested in 
agriculture and showed it by not only keeping up, but in 
raising the standard of his own farm, and making of farm- 
ing, as well as of himself, a success. 

M. B. Merrill, of West Newbury, who died Feb. 13, 
1838, aged 64 years, became a member in 1877. He went 
out in September, 18*52, from that town, as 2d Lieut., Co. 
B, 48th Regt., Mass. Vols. In July, '63, he was promoted 
to Captain, in which capacity he served with honor and 



169 

efficiency. Since his service in the army lie has suffered 
from malarial poisoning - , especially in the later years of 
his life. He was a warm supporter of the Union cause 
and carried his spirit of enthusiastic loyalty with him into 
the army. He was connected with, and a warm friend of 
the Major Boyd Post of the Grand Army in West New- 
bury. His death will he a recognized loss to his family, 
his comrades, and to the public. 

Hon. Chables S. Bradley, of West Newbury, died 
April 29, 1888, aged 08 yrs., 9 mos., 19 days, in New York 
City. He was formerly Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court of Rhode Island. Judge Bradley was born in 
Xewburyport, July 19, 1819; Avas a student in Boston 
Latin School, and graduated with highest honors from 
Brown University in the class of 1838, which graduated 
so many distinguished men. He studied law in the Har- 
vard Law School, and in Providence. He had his farm 
at Crane Neck Hill, West Newbury, and was owner of a 
fine herd of Short Horn Cattle, for specimens of which 
a number of premiums were awarded at the late Fair. Dur- 
ing his life Mr. Bradley vras interested in the Society, and 
frequently exhibited stock. He became a member in 1875. 

Again we have been called upon to record a large death 
roll, and that not only of men prominent in the affairs of 
our Society, but also occupying important stations in other 
walks of life, showing that a good farmer is reliable any- 
where. Another point will be noticed, the advanced age of 
those who have left us, confirming the statistical fact that of 
those who die in Massachusetts, above the age of twenty 
years, the farmer lives eighteen years longer than those en- 
gaged in any other occupation or profession. 

This Society tenders to the relatives of its deceased 
members its deepest sympathy in their affliction, which is a 
mutual loss. 

Beni. P. Ware. David W. Low — Committee. - 



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List of Premiums Awarded in 1888. 



FAT CATTLE. 

Daniel Carlton, North Andover, for oxen, first pre- 
mium, $8 00 

B. P. Richardson, Middleton, for oxen, second pre- 

mium, 6 00 
Win. A. Russell, Lawrence, for cow, first premium, 7 00 
Francis O. Kimball, Danvers, for cow, second pre- 
mium, 5 00 

BULLS. 

C. S. Bradley heirs, West Newbury, for •' Short 

Horn," first premium, 8 00 

C. S. Bradley heirs, West Newbury, for "Short 

Horn,'" under 2 years, first premium. 4 00 

C. S. Bradley heirs, West Newbury, for "Short 

Horn" calf, first premium, 2 00 

Joshua W. Nichols, Danvers, for Jersey, 2 years old, 

first premium, 4 00 

Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for yearling Holstein, 

first premium, 4 00 

Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for Holstein calf, first 

premium, 2 00 

Wm. 0. Cahill, Danvers, Ayrshire, second premium, 

over 2 years old, 4 00 

MILCH COWS. 

Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for best milch cow, 

Holstein, first premium, 15 <)(► 

Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for any age or breed, first 

premium, 10 00 

Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for any age or breed, 

second premium, I 00 

Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for 4 years old and up- 
wards, first premium, I" 00 

Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for 4 years old and up- 
wards, second premium, • 00 

C. S. Bradley heirs, West Newbury, Shm-i Horn, 

first premium, 10 ,,(> 



172 

HERD OK MILCH COWS. 

Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, Holstein herd, first pre- 



18 00 



HEIFERS — FIRST CLASS. 

C. S. Bradley heirs, West Newbury, for Short Horn, 

2 years old, never calved, first premium, 4 00 

C. S. Bradley heirs. West Newbury, for Short Horn, 

2 years old. never calved, second premium, '■'> 00 

C. S. Bradley heirs. West Newbury, for Short Horn, 

1 year old, never calved, first premium, -1 00 

C. S. Bradley heirs, West Newbury, for Short Horn, 

1 year old, second premium, 3 00 

C. S. Bradley heirs, West Newbury, for heifer calf, 

first premium. 4 00 

C.S.Bradley heirs, West Newbury, for heifer calf, 

second premium, 3 00 

Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for Holstein under 4 

years old in milk, first premium, *8 00 

Wm. A. Russell, Lawrence, for Holstein, under 4 

years old in milk, second premium, *5 00 

James ( '. Poor, North Andover, for Holstein calf, 

first premium. 4 00 



• si and $3 on :;•_' page, are incorrect. 

HEIFERS — SECOND (LASS. 

James F. Cody, Peabody, for milch grade, first pre- 
mium. 

Wm. A. Jacobs, Danvers, for milch native, second 
premium, 

Francis 0. Kimball, Danvers, for grade 2 years old, 

never calved, first premium. 4 00 

Wm. Perkins 2d, Peabody, for grade yearling, first 

premium, 4 00 

Ira F. Trask, Hamilton, for native twin yearling, 

second premium, 3 00 

Peter Shehan, Peabody, for grade calf, first premium, 4 00 

Arthur E. Fuller, Danvers, for native calf, second 

premium, 3 <"> 

WORKING OXEN AND STEERS. 

Lyman S. Wilkins, Middleton. for oxen, first premium, 12 00 



8 00 
5 00 



10 


00 


8 


0<> 


in 


00 


6 


00 



173 

B. H. Farnuni, North Andover, second premium, 
James C. Poor, North Andover, third premium, 
Samuel Thayer, Andover, for working steers, first 

premium, 
Jacob L. Farnum, North Andover, second premium. 

TOWN TEAMS. 

Town of Lynnfield, for 10 pair horses, first premium, 20 00 
Town of Topstield, for 11 pair oxen, first premium. 20 00 

Town of Middleton, for 8 pair oxen, second premium, 15 00 

STEERS. 

Benj. W. Farnum, North Andover, for yearling steers, 

first premium, „ o 00 

Benj. W. Farnum, North Andover, for steer calves, 

second premium, 2 00 

STALLIONS — FIRST CLASS, 

Harry H. Hale, Bradford, for Percheron, ."> years old, 

first premium, 10 00 

Lamont G. Bumham, Essex, for Percheron, 4| years 

old, second premium, *6 00* 

John Parkhurst, Boxford, for grade Percheron, 4 

years old. third premium. 1 00 

James Kinnear, Ipswich, for grade Percheron, 3 years 

old, first premium, 8 00 



$5 is incorrect mi page •"><>. 

STALLIONS — SECOND CLASS, 

Charles H. Walker, Georgetown, 3 year old, for driv- 
ing horses, first premium, 10 00 

Alfred C. Hill, Saugus, 11 year old, for driving- 
horses, second premium, 6 00 

John Looney, Salem, 3 year old, for driving horses. 

second premium, ."> 00 

BROOD MAKES. 

John Swinerton, Danvers, for mare and foal, first 

premium, 111 00 

0. N. Fernald, Danvers, for marc and foal, second 

premium, (> 00 

S. F. Newman, Newbury, mare and foal, third pre- 
mium, A 00 



174 

FAMILY HORSES. 

M. C. Andrews, Andover, for brown mare, first pre- 
mium, 10 00 

James A. Croscup, Lynn, for roan mare, second pre- 
mium, 6 00 

Edwin Bates, Lynn, for chestnut mare, third pre- 
mium, 4 00 
gentlemen's driving horses. 

M. C. Andrews, Andover. for dark bay mare, first pre- 
mium, 10 00 

J. Henry Nason, Boxford, for iron gray gelding, sec- 
ond premium, 6 00 

M. Looney, Salem, for chestnut mare, third premium, 4 00 

FA KM HORSES. 

J. H. Perkins, Lynnfield, for dark bay mare, first 
premium, 

Francis 0. Kimball, Dan vers, for dark brown geld- 
ing, second premium, 

Frederick Symonds, North Andover, for a nine year 
old, third premium, 

PAIRS OF FARM HORSES. 

H. H. Hale, Bradford, first premium, 
Amos Pratt, Danvers, second premium, 
T. E. Cox, Jr., Lynnfield, third premium, 

COLTS FOR DRAFT PURPOSES, SECOND CLASS. 

H. H. Hale, Bradford, first premium, 

J. J. H. Gregory, Marblehead, second premium, 

COLTS FOR GENERAL PURPOSES FTRST CLASS. 

Harry H. Hale, Bradford, for " 4 years old,'' first 

premium, 8 00 

L. L. Morrison, Danvers. for 4 3 r ears old, second pre- 
mium, 5 -00 

Edwin Bates, Lynn, for 3 years old, first premium, 6 00 

Harry H. Hale, Bradford, for 3 years old, second 

premium, 3 00 

COLTS FOR GENERAL PURPOSES — SECOND CLASS. 

Edwin Bates, Lynn, for yearling colt, first premium, 5 00 



10 00 


6 00 


4 00 


12 00 


8 00 


4 00 


8 00 


5 00 



175 

Herbert Jepson, Lynn, for yearling colt, second pre- 
mium, 

■Charles Saunders, Salem, for 2 years old, first pre- 
mium. 

Daniel G. Tenney, Newbury, for 2 years old, second 
premium, 

SWINE FIRST CLASS. 

John Mahoney, Rowley, for Berkshire hoar, second 
premium, 

John Mahoney, Rowley, for Berkshire sow, first pre- 
mium, 

John Mahoney, Rowley, for Berkshire sow, second 
premium, 

Robert G Buxton, Peabody, for Yorkshire boar, 
first premium, 

I), in vers Hospital, for Yorkshire boar, second pre- 
mium, 

Danvers Hospital, for Yorkshire sow, second premium, 

Simon P. Buxton, Peabody, for Yorkshire sow, first 
premium, f 

Simon P. Buxton. Peabody, for litter of weaned pigs, 
first premium, 

SWINE — SECOND CLASS. 

Arthur C. Buxton, Peabody, for sow and ten pigs, 

first premium, 8 00 

Simon P. Buxton, Peabody, for sow and ten pigs, 

second premium, 5 00 

H. H. Hale, Bradford, for weaned pigs, first premium, 8 00 

R. G. Buxton, Peabody, for weaned pigs, second pre- 
mium. 5 00 

SHEEP. 

H. H. Hale, Bradford, for flock of sheep, first pre- 
mium, 10 00 
H. H. Hale, Bradford, for lambs, first premium, 4 00 
S. S. Pratt, Danvers lor Cotswold buck, first pre- 
mium, 8 00 

IMPROVING WASTE LANDS. 

<C. K. Ordway & Son, West Newbury, first premium, 15 00 

GRAIN CROPS. 

Oliver P. Killani, Boxford, corn crop, first premium, 10 00 
Win, W. Perkins, Newbury, barley crop, first pre- 
mium, 10 00 



3 00 


5 


00 


3 00 


5 


00 


8 


00 


5 


00 


8 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


8 


00 


8 


00 



176 

ROOT CROPS. 

-John H. George, Methuen, onion crop, first premium, LO 00* 

Charles \Y. Mann, Methuen, onion crop, second pre- 
mium, 5 00 

David Warren. Swampscott, squash crop, first pre- 
mium. 10 00 

Paul M. Ilsley, Newbury, squash crop, second pre- 
mium, 5 00' 

Charles W. Mann, Methuen, cabbage crop, first pre- 
mium. 10 00 

David Warren. Swampscott, cabbage crop, second 

premium, 5 00' 

Horatio G. Herrick, Lawrence, carrot crop, first pre- 
mium. 

C. K. Ordway & Son, West Newbury, carrot crop, 
second premium, 

liomulus Jaques, West Newbury, turnip crop, first 
premium, 

SMALL FRUITS. 

George J. Peirce, West Newbury, strawberry crop, 
first premium, 

NEW MEMBERS. 

Edwin Bates, Lynn, most new r members, premium, 

ESSAYS AND REPORTS. 

Charles W. Mann, Methuen, essay on cabbages and 

onions, second premium, 
J. J. H. Gregory, Marblehead, report on apples, first 

premium, 
.John M. Danforth, Lynnfield, report on root crops, 

third premium, 

OTHER AWARDS. 

Awarded by Committee on Poultry, 

'< «. " " Agricultural Implements, 

" " " " Carriages, 

" " " Dairy, 

" " " " Bread, Honey, etc., 

" « " '• Pears, 

" " " " Apples, 

« » " " Peaches, Grapes, etc., 

i> " " " Flowers, 



10 


00 


5 


00 


10 


00 


10 


00 


G 


00 



10 


00 


10 


00 


6 


00 


74 


00 


39 


00 


27 


00 


18 


00 


35 


00 


76 


50 


93 


50 


69 


25 


37 


00' 



176 



Awarded by Committee on Vegetables,* 

" " Grain and .Seed, 



183 50 
32 00 

" Counterpanes and Afghans, 25 00 
" Carpets and lings, 30 00 

'• Articles manuf . from Leather,31 Of) 
" Manufact's and Gen'] Mdse, 17 50 
" Fancy and Art Work. 50 50 

•• Children's work, 15 00 



$1606 75 



•Award oi S3, First Premium, to S. F. Newman, Newbury, for Fotlers.' 
Brunswick, omitted on Report printed, 



RECAPITULATION. 







FAR3IS. 




Awarded for 


Improving Waste Land, 








FARM STOCK. 




Awarded for Fat Cattle, 


$26 00 


t< 


a 


Bulls, 


28 00 


« 


ti 


Milch Cows, 


71 00 


ii 


ii 


Heifers, 


51 00 


a 


ti 


Heifer Calves, 


18 00 


a 


ti 


Working Oxen and Steers, 


46 00 


a 


it 


Town Teams, Oxen, Horses, 


55 00 


a 


ii 


Steers, 


7 00 


a 


1 1 


Horses, 


153 00 


(i 


it 


Colts, 


51 00 


« 


it 


Swine, 


78 00 


a 


it 


Sheep, 


22 00 


1 1 


it 


I 'oultry , 

FARM PRODUCTS. 


74 00 






Awarded for Grain Crops, 


$20 00 


a 


it 


Root Crops, 


70 00 



$15 00 



$680 00 



177 

Awarded for Fruit Crops, 

„ " Fruits, 

" " Dairy, 

" " Bread, Honey, etc., 

" " Flowers, 

" " Vegetables, 

" " Grain and Seed, 

M [SCELLANEOUS. 

Awarded for Agricultural Implements, 

" " Domestic Manufactures, 
" '• Carriages, 

" " Obtaining New Members, 
" " Essays and Reports, 



$1,606 73 

Awarded to 402 different individuals and firms, in 33 differ- 
ent towns and cities in the county. All in the county receiv- 
ing awards except Merrimac and Nahant, as follows, viz : — 
Amesburv, 837.50; Andover, $34.50; Beverly, $11.50; Box- 
ford, $35.50; Bradford, $64; Danvers, $202.50; Essex, $59; 
Georgetown, 810; Gloucester, 50 cents; Groveland, $13; Ham. 
ilton, $ 3.50 ; Haverhill, $11 ; Ipswich, $11 ; Lawrence, $102; 
Lynn, $85.50 ; Lynnfield, .844.25; Manchester, $1.50; Marble- 
head, $42.50 ; Methuen, $35 ; Middleton, $46.50 ; Newbury, 
s.~', i ; Newbury port, $4.75; North Andover, $47 ; Peabody, 
$341; llockport, 82; Rowley, $27.50; Salem, $82.25; Salis. 
bury, $1.50; Saugus, $28; Swampscott, $31; Topsfield, $27 . 
Wenham, $2; West Niwbury, $103. 



10 


00 




239 


25 




18 


00 




35 


00 




37 


00 




183 


50 




32 


00 






$644 


75 


$39 00 




1G9 


00 




27 


00 




6 


00 




26 


00 






$267 


00 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY 

FOB 1888-9. 



PRESIDENT, 

BENJAMIN P. WARE, of Marblehead. 



VICE PRESIDENTS. 

GEORGE B. LORING, of Salem. 
JAMES J. H. GREGORY, of Marblehead. 
THOS. C. THURLOW, of West Newbury. 
JAMES P. KING, of Peabody. 



SECRETARY, 

DAVID W. LOW, of Gloucester. 



TREASURER, 

GILBERT L. STREETER, of Salem. 



HONORARY TRUSTEE, 

JOSEPH HOW, of Methuen. 



TRUSTEES. 

Charles C. Blunt, Andover. Alvin Smith, Hamilton. 
B. F. Huntington. Amesbury.E. A. Emerson, Haverhill. 
Andrew Dodge, Beverly. Alonzo B. Fellows, Ipswich. 
George B, Austin, Boxford. Horatio G. Herrick, Lawr nee 
Albert Kimball, Bradford. Asa T. Newhall, Lynn. 
Edw. E. Woodman, Danvers. John M. Danforth, Lynnfield. 
Aaron Low, Essex. John Baker, Manchester. 

Sherman Nelson, Georget'wn.Wm. S. Phillips, jr. Marble'd 
Alon/.o F. Harvey, Gloucest "rJames D. Pike, Merrimac. 
Abel Stickney, Oroveland. George B. Bradley, Methuen. 



179 



David Stiles, Middleton. Henry A. Hale, Salem. 
"William Little, Newbury. John F. Smith, Salisbury, 
Wm. H. Bayley, Newburyp't. Samuel Hawkes, Saugus. 
Albert Berry, No. Andover. David Warren, Swampscott. 
Francis H. Appleton,Peab'dy Salmon D. Hood, Topsfield. 
Andrew Lane, Rockport. Zachariah Cole, Wenham. 
Thos. P. Hale, Rowley. Oscar Go wen, W. Newbury. 



68— NEW MEMBERS— 1888. 

LambertHollander,Amesbury.E. E. Bray, Lynn. 
Austin Whitcomb, Beverly. W. L. Lamphier, Lynn. 
Luther Woodbury, Beverly. S. S. Ireson, Lynn. 
Hiram L. Burpee, Bradford. Henry H. Breed, Lynn. 
Oliver Roberts, Danvers. Lyman A. May, Lynn. 
W. P. Hutchinson, Danvers. Eli Jepson, Lynn. 
William Bradstreet, Danvers. M. V". B. Mower, Lynn. 
Geo. S. Weston, Georgetown. J. C. Wilson, Lynn. 
Chas. H. Walker,Georgetown.Benj. A. Ward, Lynn. 
Everett K. Brown, Ipswich. Ebenezer Beckford, Lynn. 
Walter F. Gould, Ipswich. Fred II . Bates, Lynn. 
James W. Joyce, Lawrence. H. S. Nichols, Lynn. 
Amos F. Breed, Lynn. A. P. Aldrich, Lynn. 

Joseph A. Lamper, Lynn. Q. A. Townes, Lynn. 



Joseph E. Butman, Lynn. 
James W. Ingalls, Lynn. 
Frank W. Mace, Lynn. 
Jacob M. Lewis, Lynn. 
Joseph E. Mockett, Lynn. 
Walter B. Allen, Lynn. 
James L. Willey, Lynn. 
Jacob A. Johnson, Lynn. 
Henry A. Heath, Lynn. 
Herbert L. Rounds, Lynn. 
James Heath, Lynn. 
Jobn Sheehan, Lynn. 
Wm. W. Butman, Lynn. 
A. A. Mower, Lynn. 
Wm. A. Bray, Lynn. 



B. Frank Phillips, Lynn. 
George H. Breed, Lynn. 
Charles H. Ramsdell, Lynn.- 
Edward F. Dyer, Lynn. 
Richard McBride, Lynn. 
Fred I. Hopkins, Lynn. 
John H. McKenney, Lynn. 
A. W. Clougb, Marblehead. 
Benj. H. Taylor, Peabody. 
Amos L. Ames, Peabody. 
Wm. E. Sheen, Peabody. 
George II. King, Peabody. 
Robert H. Wilson, Peabody. 
E. L. Blake, Peabody. 
Arthur C. Buxton, Peabody. 



i8o 

<J. B. Haven, Peabody. Nathan R. Morse, Salem. 

K. F. Morris, Peabody. *John Flye, Saugus. 

John Mahoney, Rowley. Geo. J. Peirce, W. Newbury. 

George W. Creesy, Salem. Mrs. C. W. Gowen, W.Newb'y. 

George Chase, Salem. Henry H. Johnson, W.Newb'y 



*Added tu list by Trustees. 



CHANGES REPORTED IN 1888. 

Andover — Francis Gulliver to Binghampton, N. Y. 
Beverly — "William Lord to Salem, Mass. 
Danvers — Henry C. Allen to Keene, N. H. 

Henry Bodge to Peabody (West), Mass. 
George E. Johnson to Ipswich. 
Wm. B. Morgan to Wenham. 
•Groveland — Walter S. Peabody to Bradford. 

George S. Walker to Newburyport. 
William F. Whitmore to Salem. 
Lawrence — Virgil Dow to Methuen. 

Charles W. Shattuck to Winchester. 
Lynn — E. H. Merrill to Salem. 
Methuen — Frank J. Bradley to Haverhill. 
Middleton — O. Loring Carlton to Danvers. 
Newburyport — George F. Merrill to North Hampton, N. H. 
North Andover — Loring B. Rea to Mills City, Mont. 
Peabody — Henry Gardner to Salem. 

Winsor M. Ward to Wakefield 
Rockport — R. P. Mills to Abbott, Colorado. 

Beaman C. Smith to Charlestown. 
Salem — Randall Andrews to Lynn. 

Francis W. Lyford to Danvers. 
Topsheld — Joseph T. Stanwood to Maiden. 
fcYenham — Charles 0. Putnam to Hamilton. 
F. A. Whitman to Lexington. 



i8i 

CORRECTIONS OF L880— LIST. 

Essex — Grover Dodge died in 1885. 

Groveland— J. B. B. Ladd should be J. B. P. Ladd, 

Haverhill—]). F. Fitts died in 1883. 

Ipswich — Isaiah H. Rogers should be Isaiah A. 

Lawrence — Charles Shattuck should be Charles W. 

George Hills should be George W. 
Lynn — Charles E. Fry should be Charles C. 

H. C. Whippen died April 2, 1885. 
Manchester — Arthur M. Merriman should be Arthur] jVL 

Merriam. 
North Andover — J. Ralph Farnhani died Aug. 31, 1885. 



Members of Essex Agricultural Society, 

DECEMBER, 1888. 



Previous printed list was in 18S6', errors in which have been 
corrected in 1887 and 1888 Keports. If any errors are dis- 
covered iu the following list, please report them to the Secre- 
tary. Trustees are requested to report deaths of members as 
soon as they occur, with printed notice, when convenient. 



Bailey, 0. S. 
Burbank, C. U. 
Cammetj Samuel 
Chesley, M. B. 
Chesley, John P. 
Currier, W. H. B. 
Feltch, Elbridge S. 
Gale, Edmund 



AMESBURY— 22. 

Gale, Foster 

Goodwin, E. A. 

Hill, Albert C. 

Hill, J. Henry 

Hollander, Lambert True, Eben 

Huntington, B. F. Vining, William F. 

Little, J. P. 

Lane, T. W. 



Morse Daniel L. 
Osborne, dona. If. 
Sawyer, Aaron 
Tibbets, William B. 



Abbott, James J. 
Abbott, Nathan F. 
Abbott, Moses B. 
Abbott, Hartwell B, 
Abbott, John B. 
Andrews, M. < '. 
Barnard, Edwin H. 
Bailey, Moses A. 
Bailey, Samuel H. 
Bean, Samuel G. 
Blunt, Charles < '. 
Blunt, J. H. 
Bod well, It. A. 
Buchan, George 
Buchan, George W. 
Buttertield, J. P. 



AXDoVER— 48. 

Callahan, Robert 
Carter, Charles L. 
( 'arruth, Isaac 
Chandler, Joshua II 
Cheever, James 0. 
Cummings, C. 0. 
Downing, J. J. 
Flint, John H. 
Foster, George W. 
Foster, Moses 
Foster, George C. 
Harriman, Thos. P. 
I lay ward, Henry A. 
Hidden, David I. C. 
Holt, E. F. 
Holt, Joseph S. 



Holt, Ballard 
Jenkins, John B. 
Jenkins, E. Kendall 
Johnson, Francis If. 
Johnson, S. K. 
Mason, George F. 
Morton, Marcus 
Noyes, Henry P. 
Rea, .las per 
Ripley, George 
Smith, James B. 
Smith, .John L. 
Smith, Peter D. 
Smith, Benjamin F. 
Thayer, Samuel 
Upton, Edward C. 



iS 



Appleton, Nathan I). 
Appleton, Isaac 
Avery, Mark B. 
Baker, John I. 
Bennett, Robert < i. 
Bliss, Edgar J. 
Burnham, < >. 1!. 
Carter, John W. 
('lark, George 
Clark Peter E. 
Connelley, Stephen 
Cressy, Joseph 
Danforth, E. F. 
])odge, Andrew 
Dodgv, Benjamin X. 
Dodge, Benjamin S. 
Dodge, Joshua S. 
Dodge, Forest C. 
Dodge, Walter F. 
Elliot, John T. 



BEVERLY— 60. 

Foster, David L. 
Foster, Henry W. 
Foster, William A. 
Foster. William B. 
Friend, Seth 
Giles, Benjamin V. 
Gould, Thomas 
Haven, Franklin 
Herrick, Joseph II. 
Hill, Hugh 
Lee, Asa F. 
Lord, Cyrus W. 
Lawrence, C. A. 
Loring, Augustus P 
Lovett, Francis S. 
Lovett, John W. 
Lummus, E. E. 
Mason, Alfred A. 
Mason, George 
Mason, Lyman 



Mayo, Josiah 
Mitchell, John 
Morse, John T. 
Munsey, John G. 
Paine, Charles C. 
Phillips, Mrs. J. C. 
Pickett, Charles 
Pitman, Mark 
Pope. Jasper 
Porter, Adoniram 
Preston, Ezra 
Raymond, John W. 
Stephens, Augustus 
Swasey, E. 
Trask, J. G. 
Trask, Joseph W. 
Walker, Lawson 
Waters, William C. 
Whitcomb, Austin 
Woodbury, Luther jr. 



Anderson, Chas. R. 
Andrew. Isaac W. 
Austin, George B. 
Barnes, B. S. 
Chadwick, Geo. W. 
Ohadwick. James W 
Parkhurst, John 
Parkhurst, John W. 
Pearl, Edw. E. 



BOXFORD— 26. 

Cleveland, James P, 
Cole, David M. 
Cole, John K. 
Cole, Warren M. 
Cole, Win, Kimball 
Day. Isaac C. 
Pearl, John M. 
Pearl, John 
Perley, Charles 



Day, Mrs. John 
Herrick, Israel 
Killam, Oliver P. 
Ladd, John I. 
Xason, James H. 
Sawyer, Thomas 
Styles, Charles F. 
Wood, John T. 



Bradstreet , J ustin E 
Burpee, Hiram L. 
Cogswell, Doane 
Cogswell, George 

Cogswell, William 
Day, Albert J. 
Ellis, John A. 
Emerson, Charles B. 
Gage, Edwin Y. 
Hale, II. II. 



BRADFORD— 38. 

Hazel tine, Charles Kimball W. Eustace 
Hazeltine, John Kimball, M. Tenney 
Hilton, William Kingsbury, John D. 
Hopkinson, Sam'l W.Knight, Albert H. 
Johnson, Charles G. Ladd, B. G. 
Johnson, Laburton Ladd, George AY. 
Kimball, Albert Little, Mrs. M. P. 
Kimball, A. LaburtonOrdway, Alfred 
Kimball, Leverett Peabody, Walter S. 
Kimball, Win. B. Peabody, Frank 



1 84 



Peabody, Daniel Poor, Charles H. Wales, Herbert E. 
Perley, John Tewksbury, John B. Webster, Charles E. 

Phillips, G. FranklinThornton, William 



DANVERS— 110. 

Armitage, John S. Kirby, Patrick 
Bartlett, James A. Langley, J. R. 
Berry, Allen A. Learoyd, A. P. 

Berry, Eben (i. Lefavour, Mrs. 

Batchelder, J. Q. A.Legro, Edmund 
Bradstreet, Elijah Legro, John C. P. 
Bodge, Horatio Lyford, Francis W. 

Bradstreet, William Massey, Dudley A. 
Brown, William H. Martin George B. 



Boardman, I. P. 
Butler, J. C. 
Clark, N. J. 
Carlton. 0. Loring 
Carlton, Win. B. 
Day, Clarence 
Dempsey, L. P. 
Dodge, Elnathan 
Dodge, Francis 



McCrillis,Ransom F 
Merrill, Walt