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Full text of "Transactions for the year ... of the Essex Agricultural Society of the County of Essex, in Massachusetts"

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UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS 
LIBRARY 



s 

74 

E8E8 
1 891 -95 



TRANSACTIONS-^^iSSn^ 

FOR THE YEAR 1891,/ T«\C , . 



OF THE 



■^$z\ Qgi'icultui'al 



0RGANIZ£;D i8iS. 



FOR THE 



COUNTY OF ESSEX, 

In Massachusetts, 

AND ITS 

Sixty-Eighth Annual Address, 

BY 

HON. WILLI Am H- mOODY, 

OF HA VERHILL. 

With the Premium List for 1892, 



PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE SOCIETY. 



SALEM, MASS.-: 

OBSERVER BOOK AND JOB PB.WB^ 



liNiVERSiTY OF 
MASSACHUSETTS 

AMHERSUSSS. 



(p 3 O • O C 
f 



^5 



ANNUAL ADDRESS. 

BY HON. WILLIAM H. MOODY. 

An exaraiDation into the reports of your Society dis- 
closes that those who have been selected to deliver the 
annual address have been given a wide scope in the choice 
of subjects. It seems not to have been your purpose to 
confine the speakers to purely agricultural subjects. You 
seem to have taken all knowledge for your province, and to 
have encouraged the discussion of any matter which 
touched the public well being. It would be idle to expect 
those, whose days are busy in other avocations, to enlight- 
en you, where your own resources of information are far 
superior. In the old and more leisurely days, the profes- 
sional man was often a practical farmer as well, but the 
exacting demands of modern life compel from each the 
most constant attention to his own occupation. By the 
necessity of ignorance, I am forbidden to address you upon 
any subject relating to the cultivation of the soil, and your 
invitation was given and accepted with full knowledge of 
this limitation. I shall, however, endeavor to interest you 
in matters with which I am, or ought to be, somewhat 
familiar, and which are of practical concern to us all. 

At first sight it might appear that, of all persons in the 
world, the members of the Essex Agricultural Society would 
be the least interested in questions concerning the criminal 
law ; but yet, when we consider the great importance to 
the community in which we live, of checking and control- 



ling the rising tide of lawless acts, and of lessening the 
financial burden which the existence of the criminal 
class and the necessity of the detection and punishment of 
crime casts upon eaclrmember of the community, I think 
I need not excuse myself further for addressing you upon 
the administration of the criminal law, with the purpose of. 
suggesting for your consideration some changes which it 
appears to me the well being of the community demands. 

There is no surer way of attracting a man's attention 
than I)y touching his purse, and we will first ascertain as 
well as we may what it costs the County of Essex to de- 
tect and to punish crimes ; and in this consideration, we 
must omit altogether the enormous indirect financial bur- 
den upon the community by reason of the existence of a 
class of persons who add nothing to production and are 
worse than mere drones in the community. 

The following table shows the receipts and expenditures 
of the County in respect to the enforcement of the crimi- 
nal law for the year 1890. 

INCOME. 

Gross income of four jails, $15,070 71 

Bonds, costs and forfeitures paid by persons 

convicted to the Superior and lower courts, 40,677 65 



Total Income. $55,748 .36 

EXPENDITURES. 

Cost of maintenance of four jails and houses of 

correction, $75,826 13 

One-half cost of maintenance including salaries 
of the Lawrence and Newburyport Court 
Houses, 1,100 85 

One-fourth cost of maintenance including sala- 
ries of Salem Court House, 2,.323 15 

One-third cost of maintenance including sala- 
ries of Clerk of Courts office, 3,883 96 



Grand Jury pay roll, 1,802.36 

Traverse Jury pay roll, 5,125.74 

Paid officers for attendance at court and for 

summoning jurors, 1,617.06 

Two-thirds cost of maintenance including sala- 
ries of police and district courts, 16,777.28 
Amount expended for witnesses in the superior 

criminal court, 6,06S.9S 

Costs paid district and police courts, 30,326.70 

Capias and subpoenas, 298.09 

Salary of assistant district attorney and printing, 1,455.99 
Transportation o'f prisoners and convicts, 1,413.81 

Fees of medical examiners and for inquests, 2,469 07 

One-half Sheriff's salary, 1,000.00 

One-third expense of County Treasurer's office 

including salaries, 910.19 

Fines paid to complainants, 125 00 

Total expenditure, $152,024.36 

Total income, 55,748.36 

Balance of expenditure over income, $96,276.00 

This table, perhaps, needs a word or two of explanation. 
One-half of the expense of maintaining the Lawrence and 
Newburyport court houses is charged to the criminal 
court because of those two houses, at least one-half the 
use is for the transaction of criminal business. On the 
other hand, one-fourth only of the expense of maintaining 
the Salem court house is charged in this account to the 
administration of criminal law, although I doubt whether 
this is an adequate proportion. Two-thirds of the cost of 
maintenance of the police and district courts I have 
charged in this account because it seems that at least two- 
thirds of the uses of those courts are in administering 
criminal law. The same considerations apply to the esti- 
mated proportion of the sheriff's salary and the expense 
of the county treasurer's office. Of course these propor- 



6 

tions are rough estimates but, it seems to me, ntt unfair 
ones. 

The county tax during the year 1890 paid by the vaii- 
ous cities and towns to the county treasurer was 1205,000. 
You will thus see that nearly one-half of the amount raised 
by taxation for county purposes was spent directly in the 
detection and punishment of crime within the County of 
Essex. 

The county commissioners last year appraised the jail 
property of the county at $593,702. Add to this, say one- 
third of the appraised value of the court house property, 
$120,880, and there is 714,582 dollars worth of real estate 
devoted to the administration of criminal law. There is 
no income from this property except as allowed for in the 
above statement I have given you. If it is true, as real 
estate owners say, that all real estate investment ought to 
produce a gross income of ten per cent, in order to be as 
profitable as other kinds of investments, then you have an 
addition of interest account to the amount of $71,258.20; 
and 3'our direct yearl}'^ outgo, based upon the year 1890 is 
•■^167,7.34.20. But the expense by no means stops here. 
As tax payers, you pay through the Commonwealth the 
salaries of the judges, of the district attorney, and of the 
state police, and your part of the large expense of the con- 
struction and maintenance of the various state prisons and 
reformatories. If you will look at the account of the. 
expenses of the cities and towns in which you live and 
pay taxes, especially those of you who pay taxes in cities, 
you will sec the large amounts of money which are 3'early 
rcfjuired for the maintenance of an efficient police. 

I think that few adequately know or appreciate the 
weight of the financial burden upon tlic law abiding people 



of the community, which the existence of a lawless and 
criminal class imposes. I have called your attention to it, 
not for the purpose of criticising the expenditures, which 
I believe are carefully made and rigidly scrutinized by the 
public servants, but only that you might see the impor- 
tance of the subject to all, and the necessity that exists 
for intelligent and right-thinking men to give their best 
thought to those questions of reform in our methods of 
dealing with criminals, which are brought every year to the 
legislature for its consideration. 

Moreover, it is idle to complain of public expenditures 
in' the gross, we must attack them in detail. To change 
a hoiiiely expression we must save at the spigot as well as 
at the bung hole. We must cut off useless and expensive 
formalities and delays, abolish bad methods, and improve 
good ones. This demands criticism. Intelligent criticism 
[and any other is worse than useless] requires knowledge, 
attention and thought. 

A statute passed last winter will illustrate my meaning 
and show the necessity of attention to questions relating to 
the treatmentof criminals, by people who will consider the 
subject with some reference to the question of public ex- 
pense. Chapter 356 of the Acts of 1891 provides for the 
appointment for each of our police and district courts of a 
probation officer, whose duty it is to" investigate into the 
nature of every criminal case brought before the lower 
courts, and in proper cases, to recommend to the Justice of 
the court that the offender be placed on probation during 
his good behavior. The salary of this ofBcer is paid from 
the county treasury and he is forbidden to do other police 
work. 

In the County of Essex, this law compelled the appoint- 



8 

ment of seven probation officers at a yearly expense to 
the county of sixty-four hundred dollars. While in Suftblk 
county it may be necessary to appoint a number of these 
officers, in my judgment in the County of Essex, no such 
necessity exists, and the amount of money devoted to 
their compensation is so much money thrown away. I do 
not wish to be understood as opposing a thorough exami- 
nation into all criminal cases before sentence. One of the 
most important duties of those who have in charge the 
prosecution of offences is to know when not to punish. 
But the work now performed by the probation officers 
could be, and to a large extent was, before the passage of 
the law, performed by the city marshals and chiefs of police 
without any extra compensation whatever. It never has 
been, according to my experience, the practice of any 
judge to impose a penalty upon an offender without as 
extensive a knowledge of his history and surroundings of 
any kind as was possible. Public opinion needs but to be 
informed to demand and secure the repeal of this law, in 
the interest of economy. 

A reference to the figures which I have given you in 
regard to the expenses and income of our penal institutions, 
shows that the cost of keeping a convict in confinement 
far exceeds the^value of his labor. It is not likely that 
the gross cost of maintaining the houses of correction 
will be lessened, and in the present condition of public 
sentiment, the returns from convict labor are more likely 
to be decreased than increased. Public sentiment has 
condemned the employment of convict labor in any way 
which will bring it in competition with free labor, or which 
will tend to diminish the returns of the free laborer from 
his work. Whatever we may think of it, this is a senti- 



9 

ment which cannot be controlled and overcome. It has 
found voice in the legislation of the Commonwealth, and 
each year the lawful employment of convicts is restricted 
within narrower limits. 

An excellent example of the tendency of this legislation 
is furnished us in a neighboring county. Within the 
house of correction at Cambridge, the manufacture of 
brushes by the convicts had grown to be a profitable busi- 
ness, and the returns from this manufacture largely de- 
creased the prison expenses of the County of Middlesex. 
But a statute passed last winter restricted the number of 
prisoners to be employed in this industry to fifty, and the 
result is said to have been that the industry is practically 
destroyed, and the expense of the prison must be met 
hereafter in some other way. 

The employment of prisoners on some kind of labor is a 
humane necessity for their moral and physical well being, 
and it may well be that in the near future, in order to find 
adequate employment for its convicts, the state will be com- 
pelled to undertake public \vork of a kind which will not 
come in competition with free labor. In wliat direction 
shall we look for such employment. Is there any public 
work, which would not be undertaken at all if free labor 
had to be employed, which would furnish occupation for the 
convict, and be of benefit to tlie state. 

The roads of New England are considered to be among 
the worst in the world, and probably will continue to be so 
unless a vast system of reconstruction is begun, and in time, 
completed. Their maintenance is a source of expense, and 
their condition imposes an indirect tax upon the owner 
of every horse and vehicle. I commend to your thoughtful 
consideration whether it would be wise to employ those con- 
victs who are imprisoned for short terms and for minor 



lO 

offences upon the work of reconstruction of our highways, 
always carefully seeing to it that the work done by them is 
beyond and above that which would otherwise be done by 
free labor. I have not given the subject sufficient thought 
to advocate this proposition, and I can only say that it has 
been elsewhere tried with success, both in securing better 
highways and diminishing a certain class of convicts 
whose worst punishment is hard work. At least one mem- 
ber of the board of county commissioners has examined 
this plan, endorses it, and has unsuccessfully advocated it 
before different committees of the general court. 

But we may expect to find in the methods of inquiry and 
trial used by the criminal law, rather than in the methods 
of punishment, practices which are unduly wasteful and 
cause expensive delays and miscarriages of justice, and 
this especially because of the history of the origin of the 
law and the many rigid rules which have restricted the 
freedom of its development. 

The great body of our criminal, as of our civil law, was 
brought across the waters by our forefathers from England 
aud from that time to the present, the development of its 
rules has proceeded upon both sides of the water, naturally 
diverging somewhat, but in the main, today, presenting 
systems substantially identical. Many, if not most, of the 
rules governing the administration of criminal justice orig- 
inated and became fixed at a time when offences were 
punished with ferocious severity. At the opening of this 
century in England, offences which would now be deemed 
almost trivial, were punished by death. Prisoners upon trial 
were not allowed the l)onefit of counsel, and were not per- 
mitted to testify in their own behalf. The prosecuting power 
itself seemed something apart from the people. 

As an offset to these disadvantages, judges and juries 



II 

sought to avoid the results of this terrible code, bv inter- 
posing between the prisoner and conviction all manner of 
nice and subtle technicalities. The prisoner not only could 
not testify in his own behalf, but on the other hand, the 
government was not permitted to inquire of him with respect 
to the crime with which he was charged. 

But the law has become more humane. The atrocious 
penalties of former times have been abolished. The people 
have taken into their own hands the prosecution of offend- 
ers, with the determination that no man shall be unjustly 
convicted and punished. The prisoner is permitted at all 
times to testify in his own behalf, and deny and explain 
any evidence that may be produced against him. In short, 
the accused needs no longer the protection of technicalities 
and subtleties, but may rely with confidence upon the fair- 
ness of the prosecuting officers, the learning of the judges, 
and the determination of the jurors to see that justice is 
done between the Commonwealth and him. I believe the 
time has come when we can afford to sweep away many of 
the rules of the criminal law which have grown up in other 
times and under other circumstances, and which not only 
afford a shelter for the guilty, but increase largely the ex- 
pense of the administration of the law. 

I propose to discuss one or two venerable rules of the 
criminal law, and ask you to consider with me whether 
they could not, with profit to the community, be changed 
or abolished. But before so doing, I wish to refer to a 
detail of practice, the continuance of which shows how 
much easier it is to let things alone than to question and 
change them. You probably are aware in a vague sort of 
way that, with reference to the power of the courts to pass 
sentence upon offenders who have been found to be guilty. 



12 

there are three classes of cases: first, a class of mhior 
offences in which the judges of the jjolice and district 
courts have the duty of imposing a penalty if the accused is 
found guilty, always subject to his right to an appeal and to 
a trial by jury ; that there is a second class of cases, some- 
what more serious in their nature, in which the judges of 
the lower courts have what is called concurrent jurisdiction, 
that is either the power to impose a penalty within certain 
limits, or to bind over the accused to await the action of the 
grand jury ; and that there is a third class of cases where 
the power of the magistrate of the lower court is confined 
simply to committing the accused to await the action of the 
grand jury, and to answer to their presentment in the 
superior court. 

On the first Monday of October next, experience tells me 
that there will come for the consideration of the grand jury, 
a certain number of cases where the defendants have been 
accused in the lower courts of crimes not within the power 
of those courts to punish, and there have solemnly pleaded 
that they were guilty. Under the law, the cases nuist 
still be brought to the grand jury and proved against tiie 
defendant, an indictment found, returned to the superior 
court, and disposed of there. In the meantime, a man who 
has pleaded guilty in May or June may be kept in confine- 
ment until October, simply because no provision is made by 
the law for the speedy punishment of a man who has con- 
fessed that he is guilty and is ready to take the sentence 
which the law affixes to his crime. Consider what an 
amount of useless and expensive work is done. The pris- 
oner is confined at the expense of the county for perhaps 
several months. It is an injustice to him as well. The 
time of the grand jury, itself valuable and expensive, is 



occupied in the performance of useless formality. The 
punishment of his offence wliich might have been useful as 
an example to others, is deferred until perhaps the reason for 
it is forgotten and the value of the example is lost. Thus, 
if a man commits a crime serious enough, it seems to be 
considered that he deserves well of the Republic, and is 
entitled to a certain amount of solemn trifling, even if it is 
expensive to the people and burdensome to himself. I be- 
lieve that all this could be remedied, that provision could be 
made for sentencing offenders who have pleaded guilty, 
forthwith after they have confessed their guilt, either by 
judges of the lower court, or by some judge of the Superior 
Court sitting at some other time and place than a regular 
session of that court. 

The constitution of Massachusetts provides that "no 
subject shall be held to answer for any crimes or offence 
until the same is fully and plainly, substantially and for- 
mally described to him." This was the rule of common 
law, and our ancestors thought it of importance enough to 
the citizen to deserve a place in our Bill of Rights. Let us 
consider for a moment the practical working of this rule. 
In the first week of October next, the grand jury will have 
to consider accusations made against probably something 
more than one hundred persons. They are aided in their 
deliberations by the advice of the district attorney and his 
assistant, and the indictments which tliey find are drawn as 
accurately as the nature of the case will admit by those of- 
ficers. After their deliberations are concluded, the grand 
jury report their indictments to the court, and adjourn. 
They have considered over a hundred cases of which they 
knew nothing at all at the beginning of their sitting. They 
have had but a week to consider the evidence, and make 
up their judgment, and cause the indictments to be drawn. 



It is important and necessary that every name in the in- 
dictment should be almost absolutely correct, that every 
piece of property named in the indictment should be accu- 
rately described, and that the indictment should charge the 
crime with precision and fulness. If, after the grand jury 
has adjourned, it is discovered that it is charged against a 
thief, that he " did steal, take and carry '" certain goods, 
the indictment is imperfect, because it should have been 
charged that he " did steal, take and carry away " the 
goods. If he is charged with the larceny of a certain num- 
ber of bottles of whiskey, and the proof shows that the 
whiskey was not stolen in the bottles but was drawn by the 
thief into the bottles from the casks of the owner, he must 
be acquitted. If he is charged with the adulteration of a 
••' certain substance intended for food, to wit, one pound of 
confectionery," the indictment is insufficient because it should 
have been alleged what kind of confectionery he adulter- 
ated. If he is charged with stealing a number of diffei-ent 
articles of a certain collective value, and the jury find that 
he stole all the articles but one, he must be acquitted, al- 
though if the same articles had been alleged to have been 
of separate values, he may be convicted for those which the 
nroof shows he actually did steal, although the values may 
not be accurately stated. If he is charged with an assault 
upon John Smith and it appears that the assault was upon 
John A. Smith, he must be acquitted. If he is charged 
with maintaining a building as a liquor nuisance, and it ap- 
pears that he occupied a part only of the building, he must 
be acquitted. And in all these cases, justice has not been 
done, and great expense has been incurred. These are not 
fanciful cases, but are taken almost at random from the 
decisions of our Supreme Court. 

I believe that this could be remedied without in any way 



imperilling the rights of the citizen, and to the great finan- 
cial benefit of the community. Preserve if you will, all the 
technical requirements of the law in the drawing of indict- 
ments ; describe the offence fully, plainly, substantially, and 
formally. But after the grand jury has once passed upon 
the question of guilt or innocence, permit the proper officer 
of the court under such restriction as the judge may deem 
necessary to protect the rights of the accused, to amend 
the indictment, as the pleadings in a civil action may be 
amended, in order that the true crime which the grand jury 
intended to present for trial may be accurately and legally 
expressed. Thus the spirit of the constitution would be 
observed, and the grotesque results which are a reproach to 
our civilization would be avoided. 

Perhaps the most striking peculiarity of the law which 
governs all English speaking people is that which forbids 
the government to call the accused person as a witness 
against himself. The contrast between this rule and the 
practice which prevails in other countries was, not long ago, 
curiously emphasized in the minds of those who followed 
in the public press the accounts of two important trials 
pi'oceeding at' the same time ; one the trial of a man and 
woman in France for the strangling of their victim, and the 
other the trial of Isaac Sawtelle in the neighboring state of 
New Hampshire for the murder of his brother. In the 
former case the prisoners were not only examined by the 
government's counsel, but were subjected to rigid examina- 
tion by the presiding judge, who mingled with his questions 
a running fire of comment upon the prisoners' answers ; 
and finally the trial appeared to degenerate into a debate in 
which judge, counsel, witnesses and prisoners took part 
This examination was not by consent of the prisoners. 



i6 

At the same time in New Hampshire, many days were con- 
sumed by the court in carefully inquiring whether the pris- 
oner was in that State on certain days and nights, and there 
killed his brother. And throughout the trial, no one asked 
the prisoner a single question about a single fact connected 
with the case. And moreover, although he sat silent under 
the accusing evidence, no one suggested to the jury that 
his silence under these circumstances, his faikire to con- 
tradict testimony which, if false, he could easily do, created 
any presumption against him. 

In the dignity and decorum befitting a court of justice, 
the American trial was immeasurably superior to the 
French trial. Yet in spite of this, is there not something 
worthy of consideration in the contrasting methods ? A 
two hours' examination of Isaac Sawtelle by the attorney 
general of New Hampshire would probably have accom- 
plished more toward discovering his guilt or innocence, 
than all the rest of the evidence together accomplished. 

To trace the origin and growth of the rule that no man 
is bound to incriminate himself will certainly prove inter- 
esting to the student of social science, but is too far apart 
from the purposes of this discussion to be undertaken here. 
The rule certainly did not exist in England for a half 
century after the first settlement of New England. How- 
ever it originated, it has become firmly fixed in our jurispru- 
dence and holds a place in the Massachusetts Bill of Rights, 
which provides that " no subject shall be compelled to ac- 
cuse or furnish evidence against himself." To dispute the 
wisdom of a principle sanctioned by the constitution and 
by two centuries of almost unquestioned existence, requires 
something of temerity. But a righteous institution can en- 
dure criticism and profit by it, while none other has a right 



17 

to complain. Many of you can remember when a trial at 
law was fettered by rules of evidence which now seem to 
have been designed to conceal the truth, so devious and 
uncertain were the paths through which truth was sought. 
Parties to a civil suit, those interested in its result, persons- 
whose religious beliefs did not conform to the standards of 
the times, and persons who had been convicted of crimCr 
were absolutely excluded from the witness stand, and a 
person accused of crime was neither compelled nor per- 
mitted to testify upon his trial. 

With fear and hesitation, these restrictive rules have 
from time to time been abolished, until the one under con- 
sideration alone remains. After many years of agitation, 
parties to civil suits and persons interested were permitted 
to testify, although many predicted that the courts would 
be overrun by false and fraudulent claims, and that no one 
would be protected against the perjury of his neighlior. 
But the experience of many years has shown that this feat 
was unfounded, that men and women will not willingly^ 
commit perjury, and that jurors are entirely competent to 
judge what weight should be subtracted from the testimony 
of the party on account of his interest in the result of the' 
litigation. 

When the privilege of testifying in his own behalf was 
extended to a prisoner, it was feared that this privilege 
would afford a protection and a shield for the guilty, but 
the result has been far different, and has proved practicallj 
to be a great benefit in an unexpected direction. The riglit 
to testify has not only protected those unjustly accused of 
crime, but in a much greater degree has rendered certain 
the conviction of those justly accused of crime ; for it is 
the almost unvarying experience that when a guilty man 
avails himself of his right to testify, his examination fur- 
nishes the most convincing proof of bis guilt. 



i8 

When this privilege of giving testimony was accorded to 
"the accused, it was carefully provided, in deference to the 
constitutional provision which wc have under consideration, 
that his neglect or refusal to testify should not create any 
presumption against him, and juries are always carefully 
instructed not to allow the refusal of the accused to take 
the stand in his own behalf to affect their judgment unfav- 
orably to him. But it has been shown in this case as in all 
others that we cannot legislate against the laws of thought. 
And however faithfully judges, counsel or jurors may en- 
deavor to heed this caution of the law, it is impossible to 
see a man sit silent under accusing evidence, which he 
could contradict if it were untrue, and to consider that 
silence as devoid of all significance. If a man does not 
reply to the accusations against him, it is in truth an argu- 
ment that they are true. No man can help seeing it as 
such, and the law in its search for the truth ought to give 
it due weight. 

It is but a step further to require the accused to testify 
under oath upon his trial, at the call of the government. 
Society is engaged in a life and death struggle with its ene- 
mies, and it seems almost folly to discard from its armory a 
weapon so potent as this. The innocent need 'fear no open 
and straightforward methods of inquiry into the truth, and 
^what is it to us that the guilty object r Torture and the 
kindred institution of secret inquiry in the cell, threats and 
misrepresentations to a prisoner, are all abhorrent to the 
spirit of our institutions. But the time has come to con- 
sider, not hastily, but deliberately, whether our constitution 
-should not be so far modified as to permit the people, when 
through their representatives they have accused a man of a 
crime, to inquire of him under oath and in open court 



19 

whether the facts which criminate him are true or not. 
That no man was bound to furnish evidence against him- 
self, in other times, may have been a shield for the innocent, 
but to-day it is a shelter which the guilty alone seek. If 
this shelter were destroyed, the punishment of crime would 
be more speedy and certain. It is not the severity but the 
speedy certainty of punishment which deters. When jus- 
tice follows offence with halting and uncertain step, then 
crime flourishes and criminals multiply. 

There are other matters of interest in the adminiS(,tration 
of criminal law to which I should like to call your attention 
if time permitted. I should like to dwel! upon its merits 
as well as its defects. My justification in speaking of 
these things to you is that they are matters of practical 
concern to you all, and of especial importance to the 
County whose name your society bears. They are matters 
upon which the public mind does not commonly dwell, and 
it is only by now and then directing it to these neglected 
corners of the social fabric that that thought and discussion 
arises which is so essential to progress toward stronger and 
better institutions. It is only by arousing the interest and 
attention of the people that reforms in our social methods 
can be attained. The old times in Essex County when a 
crime was so rare that it startled the neighborhood in which 
it occurred, have passed away, and there is to-day a con- 
stant struggle between the community and the evil doers in 
its midst. The methods which were satisfactory a half 
century ago are inadequate to-day. Although I may not 
have convinced you of the truth of any of the propositions 
I have attempted to maintain, yet if I have in any degree 
directed your attention to a subject of great and increasing 
importance, I have in some measure repaid you for the 
honor which this invitation has done me. 



SEVENTY-FIRST 

Annual Cattle Show and Fair. 



The Cattle Show and Fair of this Society opened 
Tuesday, Sept. 22, 1891. at Lawrence, — the first time for 
thirteen years,~iinder very favorable circumstances, al- 
though in the morning appearances indicated rain, which 
made some of the entries late in arriving. 

The City Government and citizens generally worked 
with a will and tried in every way to lend their assistance 
so as to make the show a success, and they succeeded in a 
marked degree. 

The entries in some of the departments were notably 
less than they have been in some years previous, but the 
stock was all of the first quality, noticeably the horses 
and colts, and in some departments, especially in the hall 
and agricultural tools, many large entries were entered as 
collections, which reduced the number of entries as com- 
pared with the last few years. 

In the ploughing match this year the entries were on an 
average with former years, but more work was done with 
sulky ploughs than usual, and it was fully up to the stand- 
ard of our Essex County farmers. 

In the exhibition hall the exhibits were fully up to the 
standard of previous years, and as a rule the several 
committees found it dii^lcult to decide on the merits of 
fruit and manufactured articles, the general standard being 
so high. 



21 

On Wednesday, Sept. 23, the annual address was deliv- 
ered by Hon. William H. Moody, before a large audience, 
in Trinity church, the subject being "Criminal Law," which 
was listened to with marked attention. 

The Scripture reading and prayer by Rev. W. A. Keese 
of Lawrence, were very appropriate for the occasion, 
as was also the excellent singing by the quartette. 

After the conclusion of the services in the church, the 
annual dinner was served in Porter's Hall, after which 
President Ware called the assemblage to order and made 
introductory remarks, and introduced Hon. William 
Cogswell, President elect Francis H. Appleton, Judge 
Sherman of the Superior Court, and others, all of whom 
contributed very interesting and pleasant remarks 
concerning the history of the Society, and its work now 
and in the future, and agriculture in general. 

The Grange Exhibit in the vestry of the church . op- 
posite the hall was a new feature this year, and was 
a good show of itself. It created a feeling of interest and 
was an attraction to the general Fair. 

The entries in the several departments of the Fair for 
1891, and 1890 at Beverly, are tabulated for comparison as 
follows : 

STOCK, IMPLEMENTS, ETC. ON 

Class. 

Fat Cattle, 

Bulls, 

Milch Cows, 

Herds of Milch Cows, 

Heifers, Pure Bred, 

Heifers, Native or Grade, 

Heifer Calves, Pure Bred, 

Heifer Calves^Native or Grade, 

Working Oxen and Steers, 

Steers, 



FflEE 


SHOW 


GROUNDS. 


From From 
Entries Different Entries Different 
in 1891. Places in 1890. Places 
in 1891. in 1890. 


6 


o 


2 


2 


9 


4 


5 


3 


12 


2 


13 


3 


3 


9 


1 


1 


23 


4 


16 


5 


17 


5 


12 


5 


3 


2 


3 


2 


10 


3 


6 


3 


12 


4 


9 


5 


4 


3 


2 


2 



22 



Class 



From 
Entries Different 
in 1891. Places 
in 1891. 





2 
8 



From 
Entries DiflEerent 
in 1890. Places 
in 1890. 







2 

4 
13 
13 

6 
6 



Stallions, Farmland Draft, 

Town Teams, 

Stallions, Driving Purposes, 

Brood Mares, Farm and Draft, 

Brood Mares, Driving Purposes, 

Family Horses, 

Gents Driving Horses, 

Farm Horses, 

Pairs Farm Horses, over 2500 lbs., 2 
Pairs Farm Horses, less than 2500 

lbs., 5 

Colts, Farm and Draft, 6 

Colts, Driving Purposes, 30 

Swine, Large Breed, 12 

Swine, Small Breed, 2 

Sheep, 3 

Poultry, 31 

Harrows for Trial, 3 

Agricultural Implements, 13 

Carriages, 3 

Ploughing, 15 

♦Entered in collections in 1891. 



10 
4 
4 
2 

4 
5 

10 
6 
2 
2 
9 
2 
5 
2 
9 



1 

1 

12 

3 

6 
8 
7 
12 
3 

6 
10 
28 
16 

6 

2 
109 

2 
*234 

8 
15 



1 
1 

8 
3 
5 
♦5 
4 
T 
3 

3 

5 
14 

2 
1 
1 

9 

2 

4 
3 
5 



Total on Free Show Grounds, 268 20 458 23 



EXHIBITS IN HALL. 



From FroBi 

Entries Different Entries Different 



Uiase. 


in 1891. 


Places 
in 1891. 


in 1890. 


Places 
in 189». 


Dairy, 


3 


o 


7 


o 
O 


Bread and Canned Fruit, 


50 


14 


65 


12 


Honey, 


2 


2 


19 


4 


Pears, 


192 


16 


216 


17 


Apples, 


215 


16 


178 


17 


Peaches, Grapes and Assorted 










Fruit, 


83 


12 


105 


10 



23 



From Front 

^,„„_ Entries Different Entries Different 

"^^*^^- in 1891. Places in 1890. Places 

in 1891. in 1890. 



Flowers, 


70 


13 


155 


11 


Vegetables, 


369 


19 


327 


22 


Grain and Seed, 


23 


^ 


14 


7 


Counterpanes and Afghans, 


70 


7 


119 


11 


Carpetings and Rugs, 


40 


8 


103 


11 


Articles Manufactured from 










Leather, 


4 


2, 


21 


Q 


Manufactures and General Mdse. 


„ 28 


5 


29 


r 


Fancy Work, 


188 


12 


329 


13 


Work of Art, 


99 


7 


178 


10 


Work of Children under 12 










years of age, 


9 


3 


38 


10^ 


Special Premium, 


91 


13 






Grange Exhibit, 


. 5 


5 







1541 31 1633 29' 

Grand total, 1809 entries from 31 out of 35 towns and 
cities in Essex County against 2383 entries from 31 cities 
and towns last year. Gloucester, Manchester, Nahant and 
Wenham did not have exhibits this year. The entries 
were Andover, 125 ; Araesbury, 47 ; Boxford, 76 ; Beverly, 
13 , Bradford, 15 ; Dan vers, 48 ; Essex, 8 ; Georgetown, 
7 ; Groveland, 23 ; Hamilton, 14 ; Haverhill, 135 ; Ipswich, 
4; Lawrence, 457; Lynn, 56 ; Lynnfield, 4; Marblehead, 
7 ; Merrimac, 1 ; Methuen, 227 ; Middleton, 16 ; Newbury, 
88 ; Newburyport, 8 ; No. Andover, 240 ; Peabody, 64 ; 
Rockport, 7 ; Rowley, 13 ; Salem, 7 ; Salisbury, 5 ; Saugus^ 
7 ; Swampscott, 15 ; Topsfield, 28 ; West Newbury, 54. 



REPORT OF THE ANNUAL MEETING. 

The Society met in the Court House in Lawrence, Sept. 
22, at 10 o'clock, A. M., President Ware in the chair. 

William S. Phillips, jr., was appointed secretary pro 
tempo. 



24 

The marshals with Col. Melvin Beal of Lawrence as 
chief, were sworn in by the president. 

Vacancies in committees were filled. 

Voted that the chairman appoint a committee of three to 
receive, sort and count the votes for officers for the ensuing 
year. 

Messrs. Francis H. Appleton, Asa T. Newhalland S. W. 
Hopkinson were appointed. 

Committee reported whole number of votes cast, 112 ; 
necessary for a choice, 57. 

FOR PRESIDENT. 

Benjamin P. Ware of Marblehead, had 54 votes ; Francis 
H. Appleton of Peabody, had 45 ; Thomas Sanders of 
Haverhill, had 11 : Asa T. Newhall of Lynn, had 2. 

FOR VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

James J. H. Gregory of Marblehead, had 110 ; James P. 
King of Peabody, had 108 ; 0. S. Butler of Georgetown, 
liad 108 ; Aaron Low of Essex, had 61 ; T. C. Thurlow of 
West Newbury, had 50 ; Scattering, 2 ; and Messrs. Greg- 
•ory, King, Butler and Low were elected. 

FOR SECRETARY. 

John M. Danfortli of Lynnfield, had 112. 

There being no choice for president, Mr. Ware declined 
to have his name used, and the secretary was instructed 
unanimously to cast one ballot for Francis H. Appleton and 
Mr. Appleton was declared elected. 

During the counting of votes, Rev. 0. S. Butler eulo- 
gised the several members who have died during the year 
and it was voted, that the president and secretary with such 
others as they may choose, be a committee to prepare suit- 
able resolutions to be printed in the transactions. 

Voted, to adjourn this meeting to the call of the presi- 
'dent at the dinner to-morrow, Sept. 23. 



25 



Sept. 23rd, after the annual dinner, the president called 
the Society to order, according to adjournment, and re- 
viewed the work of the society for the past sixteen years 
since he had been its presiding officer, and thanked the 
members for the courtesy and co-operation they had shown 
him, and introduced Mayor Collins of Lawrence, who wel" 
comed the Society and Fair to Lawrence in behalf of the 
city. 

Hon. William Cogswell was then introduced who made 
an address and quoted statistics showing the increased 
agricultural products in the county, and also in Massachu- 
setts, with the general prices received for the products east 
and west and concluded by saying he thought there was as 
good a chance for the farmer in Essex County as anywhere. 

Judge Sherman and others made pleasant remarks in 
response to invitations, after which, on motion of Mr. Butler, 
a unanimous vote of thanks was passed to the Mayor and 
City Government of Lawrence for courtesies extended, to 
Rev. W. A. Keese and officers of Trinity church for its use, 
to the police force, and to the Boston & Maine Railroad for 
freight and other facilities offered the Society. 

Voted, that the reports of the several committees making 
awards to exhibitors and competitors be accepted and con- 
firmed, provided the rules of t!ie Society have been com- 
plied with. 



Report of Committees. 

1891. 



FAT CATTLE. 

The Committee on Fat Cattle have attended to their 
duties and respectively report to the Secretary that thej 
have made the following awards : 
$8. First premium, to James C. Poor, No. Andover, [for 

fat oxen. 
|6. Second premium, to Daniel A. Carlton, No.^Andover, 

for fat oxen. 
$3. Third premium, to J. P. Little, Amesbury, for fat 

steers. 
William Thornton, Charles H. Leach, W. H. Butters, 
Calvin Rea — Committee. 



BULLS. 

The Committee on Bulls have attended to their dutie» 

and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 

have made the'following awards : 
$4. First premium, to W. F. Kinsman, Ipswich, for Jersey 

bull, "Francines Redire," No. 28,101, 1 year old. 
^8. First premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, for 

Ayshire bull, "Ravenwood," No. 4323, 5 years old. 
'f8. First premium, to Shattuck Bros., No. Andover, for 

Holstein bull, 4 years old. 
•M. Second premium, to Wm. A. Russell, No. Andover, for 

Holstein-Fresian bull, "Royal Shepard," No. 17,507^ 

2 years old. 



27 

First premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover. for 
Ayshire bull calf, " Rosewood." 

First premium, to J. C. Poor, No. Andover, for 
Holstein-Fresian bull calf, "Essex Andinus." 

First premium, to E. C. Little, Haverhill, for Holstein 
bull, 15 months old. 

First premium, to F. H. Foster, Andover, for Guern- 
sey bull. 

To best bull of any age or breed with five of his stock. 

Premium to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, for his 
Ayshire bull, "Ravenwood," No. 4323, Ays. H. B. 
B. F. Barnes, Charles Haseltine, William Little — Com- 
mittee. 



MILCH COWS. 

The Committee on Milch Cows have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 
$10. First premium, to Leverett Swan, Methuen, for short 

horn cow, age 9 years. 
$10. First premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, for 

Guernsey cow, "Pops Sweetheart," No. 2298, age 7 

years. 
<flO. First premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, for 

Ayshire cow, "Julianna," No. 8541, age 5 years. 
-fi. Second premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, 

for Ayshire cow, "Mildred," No. 8547, age 5 years. 
$10. First premium, to James C. Poor, No. Andover, for 

Holstein-Fresian cow, "Betty 2nd," No. 1770, 9 years 

old. 
$10. First premium, to James C. Poor, No. Andover, for 

cow giving most milk in one month, Holstein cow, 

"Betty." 
$10. First premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover for 

Grade cow, "Marble," 4 years old. 



28 

$15. Special premium, for best cow of any age or breed, to 
Wra. A. Russell, No. Andover, for Holstein-Fresian 
cow, "Queen Ruiter," No. 4488, 6 years old. 

STATEMENT OF LEVEKETT SWAN, METHUEN. 

The short horn cow, I enter for premium, was raised in 
Vermont, age 9 years, record of milk for one year from 
Oct. 1, 1890, 5233 quarts. Feed, pasture and fall feed in 
summer with 2 quarts corn meal and 1^ bushels brewer's 
grain per day. 

Thomas H. O'Neil, Allen Smith, A. M. Robinson, William 
C. Sleeper — Oovimitiee. 

STATEMENT OF J. D. W. FRENCH. 

The feed has been moderate, the chief object being to keep 
the animals in good breeding condition rather than to force 
them to make a large milk recond. 

In summer the feed has been pasture, and in addition, 
beginning generally in August, green fodder or bran, 2 to 
4 quarts. In winter hay, 8 quarts mangolds, and 4 to 6 
quarts dry grain has been the average feed for cows in milk. 

The Guernsey cow, "Pops Sweetheart," dropped her last 
calf Oct. 9, 1890. Milk record from Oct. 9,; 1890 to Sept. 
1, 1891, 4648i- lbs. 

Milk record for Ayshire cow "Julianna," for the month 
of August, 1891, 956 lbs., weight of cow, 875i lbs. 

Milk record for Ayshire cow, "Mildred," in 1890, 5888 
lbs., first 10 days of Sept., 1891, 379 lbs. 

Milk record for Grade cow, -'Marble," dropped her last 
<jalf Jan. 20, 1891, yield of milk in 253 days, 5087 lbs. 

STATEMENT OF JAMES C. POOR. 

The summer feed for these cows has been pasture with 2 
•quarts cotton seed meal once a day, and since Aug. 10, a 
feed of fodder corn morning and night. The winter feed 
was hay and corn fodder, with six quarts of grain a day, 
consisting of bran, cottonseed and corn(cob) meal, equal 
parts, watered twice a day. 



29 

Milk record of Holstein cow, Betty 2nd, dropped her calf 
August 20, 1891, and in twenty days in September gave 
1051 lbs. of milk. 

STAEMENT OF WILLIAM A. RUSSELL. 

Summer feed, 3 quarts corn and cotton-seed meal, two 
parts corn and one part cotton-seed. Corn fodder and hay 
morning and night. Winter feed ensilage and hay once a 
day, 6 quarts grain, mixed, equal parts corn, and cotton- 
seed meal, and bran a day ; watered twice a day. 

Queen Ruiter dropped her last calf Nov. 14th, 1890, is 
due to calve, Jan. 8, 1892. From Nov. 20, 1890, to Sept. 
1, 1891, she has given 12,192^ lbs. of milk, and is now giv- 
ing 30 lbs. milk per day. 

HERDS OF MILCH COWS. 

The Committee on Herds of Milch Cows have attended 
to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 

•118. First premium, to Leverett Swan, Methuen, for herd 

of one grade Holstein, and four grade Ayshire cows. 

il2. Second premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, 

for five Ayshire cows. 
Diploma and 115 to William A. Russell, No. Andover, for 
five Holstein-Fresian cows. 
Eben'r Webster, Andrew Mansfield, H. L. Burpee, S. B. 
George — Committee. 

STATEMENT OF LEVERETT SWAX. 

Herd of 5 cows, "Lizzie," age 12 years, grade Ayshire, 
raised by myself, last year's milk record 4275 quarts. 

"Fairmaid," bred and raised by L. Swan, age 7 years, 
grade Ayshire, milk record for past year 4015 quarts. 

"Florence,'' raised by L. Swan, age 15 years, grade 
Ayshire and Holstein, milk record for past year 3617 quarts. 

"Creeper," grade Ayshire, bred and raised by L. Swan, 
age 5 years, milk record past year 3107 quarts. 



"Julia," grade Ayshire, bred and raised by L. Swau, age 
5 years, milk record, past year, 2493 quarts. 

This herd runs in pasture and fall feed, with nearly one 
bushel of brewery grain, and two quarts of gluten and 
cotton-seed meal per day. 

Total amount of milk for the herd for one year, 17,507 
quarts. 

STATEMENT OF J. D. W. FKENCH. 

''Roxanna 8th, 8536 A. R., 6 years old ; in milk 273 
days, yield 5670 lbs ; dropped last calf, Dec. 7, 1890 ; due 
to calve Nov, 7. 

"Fedalma," No. 8231, A. R., 7 years old; in milk 273 
days, yield 4985i lbs.; dropped last calf Dec. 30, 1890 ; due 
to calve Dec. 7. 

"Molly Burke," 8546, A. R., 6 years old ; in milk 244 
d^ys, yield 4709 lbs.; dropped last calf Jan. 30, 1891 ; due 
to calve Jan. 10. 

"Princess Rose," No. 10,163, A. R., 3 years old ; in milk 
273 days, yield 4254 lbs. ; dropped last calf Aug.. IG, 1890 ; 
due to calve Jan, 8 ; yield of milk from Aug. 16, 1890, to 
Sept. 1, 1891, 7403i lbs. 

"Nellie Day," 6745, A. R., 10 years old ; in milk 254 
days ; yield 3969 lbs.; dropped last calf Aug. 10, 1891, 
previous calf, May 9, 1890. Yield of milk from May 9th, 
to July 10, 1891, 9008 lbs. 

The record of yield extends from Jan. 1, 1891, to Sept. 
1, 1891 (8 months). Some of the cows being dry part of 
time. — Total yield of milk from Jan. 1, 1891, to Sept. 1, 
1891, 23,587i lbs. 

For statement of feed, see milch cows. 

STATEMENT OF WILLIAM A, RUSSELL, 

I enter for herd of milch cows, Holstein-Fresian cows, 
'^Lady Shepard," No. 1586. "Belle Fairfax," 1117. "Esther 
Shepard," No. 3008. "Queen Ruiter," No, 4488. "Lady 
Bess," L051. 



31 

"Lady Shepard" calved Aug. 14. "Belle Fairfax," Aug. 
2. "Esther Shepard," Aug. 15, "Lady Bess," July 19. 
"Queen Ruiter," Nov. 14, 1890. 

"Lady Shepard's'" milk record for the past three years is 
13,168 lbs., 12,274 lbs., and 14,250 lbs., respectively, and 
from Aug. 18th to Sept. 20, 1891, 1795 lbs. 

"Belle Fairfax's" milk record for the past three years is 
14,557 lbs., 15,157 lbs. and 14,500 lbs., respectively, and 
from Aug. 10 to Sept. 20, 1891, is 2320 lbs. 

''Esther Shepard's" 4 years old milk record is 12,110^ 
lbs.; from Aug. 16 to Sept. 20, 1891, is 1702^ lbs. 

"Queen Ruiter's" milk record for season of 1889-90 
13,235 lbs., and from Nov. 20, 1890, to Sept. 1, 1891, 
12,192ilbs. 

"Lady Bess's" milk record for the past 2 years has been 
11,952 lbs., and 12,535 lbs.; from Aug. 1st to Sept. 20th, 
2100 lbs. 

For feed see statement under milch cows. 
Respectfully submitted, 

William A. Russell, 
By Jas. C. 'Poor, Manager. 



' HEIFERS— PURE BRED. 

The Committee on Heifers, Pare Bred, have attended to 
rlieir duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
ihey have made the following awards : 
19. First premium, to J. F. Gulliver, Andover, for 3 year 

old Jersey heifer, "Sadie De Bonair," No. 58,672. 
15. First premium, to J. F. Gulliver, Andover, for Jersey 

heifer calf, 4 months old. 
1)9. First premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, for 

Ayshire heifer in milk, "Princess Rose," No. 10,163, 

3 years old. 
$6. Second premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, 

for Ayshire heifer, "Fedelma," No. 10,511, 3 years 

old. 



32 

$5. First premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, 

for Ayshire heifer, "Azalia," No. 10,968, 2 years 

old. 
$5. First premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, for 

Ayshire heifer, "Tessa," No. 10,972, 20 months old- 
$4. Second premium, J. D. W. French, No. Andover, for 

Ayshire heirer, "Rose Blossom," No. 10,971, 1 year 

old. 
i5. First premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, for 

Ayshire heifer calf, 9 months old. 
$4. Second premium, to Maurice H. Connor, West 

Newbury, for Ayshire heifer, "Brunette," 3rd, 

yearling. 
$4. Second premium, to Wm. A. Russell, No. Andover, 

for Holstein heifer, 2 years old. 
$5. First premium, to Wm. A. Russell, No. Andover, for 

Holstein heifer calf. 
•t6. Second premium, to Wm. A. Russell. No Andover, for 

Holstein heifer in milk, 2 years old. 
f9. First preminm, to Jas. C. Poor. No. Andover, for 

Holstein heifer in milk, 3 years old. 
$5. First premium, to Jas. C. Poor, No. Andover, for 

Holstein heifer, 2 years old. 
■"$6. Second premium, to E. C. Little, Haverhill, for Jersey 

heifer, 28 months old. 
15. First premium, to E. C. Little, Haverhill, for Jersey 

heifer, 14 months old. 
|4. Second premium, to E. C. Little, Haverhill, for Jersey 

heifer, 1 year old. 
i4. Second premium, to E. C. Little, Haverhill, for Hol- 
stein heifer calf, 4 months old. 
$5. First premium, to F. H. Foster, Andover, for Guern- 
sey heifer, 9091, 1 year old. 
James Noyes, E. K. Brown, Daniel A. Carlton — Com- 
mittee. 



HEIFERS— NATIVE OR GRADE. 

The Committee on Heifers, native or grade, have attend- 
ed to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary 
that they have made the following awards : 
$b. First premium, to George Ripley, Andover, for grade 

Jersey heifer. 
f 4. Second premium, to John F. Higgins, Middleton, for 

native heifer calf. 
^9, First premium, to Lewis Albegett, No. Andover, for 

grade Ayshire heifer, in milk, 3 years old. 
f 4. Second premium, to James J. Abbott, No. Andover, 

for grade Jersey heifer, 2 years old. 
$4. Second premium, to W. S. Huges, No. Andover, for 

grade Jersey heifer, 17 months old. 
$5. First premium, to D. M. Ayer, Methuen, for grade 

Holstein heifer, 2 years old. 
Chas. S. Emerton, D. L. Haskell, Doane Cogswell, W. 
H. Hopkinson, Henry A. Hay ward — Committee. 



WORKING OXEN AND STEERS. 

The Committee on Working Oxen and Steers have 
attended to tlieir duty, and respectfully report to the Sec- 
retary that they have made the following awards : 
ifl2. First premium, to J. P. Little, Amesbury, for pair of 

Hereford oxen, 5 years old, weight 8950 lbs. 
ilO. Second premium, to Wm. P. Christopher, Middleton, 
for pair brindle oxen, 7 years old, weight 2675 lbs. 
88. Third premium, to A. W. Peabody, Middleton, for 
pair red oxen, 7 years old, weight 3810 lbs. 
flO. First premium, to B. H. Farnham, No. Andover, for 
pair working steers, 4 years old, weight 2840 lbs. 
16. Second premium to James C. Poor, No. Andover, for 
pair of Holstein working steers. 
Eugene L. Wildes, B. F. Eaton, M. H. Poor, Richard S. 
Bray — Committee. 



34 

STEERS. 

The Committee on Steers have attended to their duty^ 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have^ 
made the following awards : 
$8. First premium, to B. W. Farnham, No. Andover, for 

3 year old steers. 
$6. Second premium, to B. H. Farnham, No. Andover, for 

3 year old steers. 
85. Second premium, to Wm. C. Christopher, Middleton, 

for pair 2 year old steers. 
S. Longfellow, R. Jacques, N, W. Moody, G. L. Averill 
— Committee. 



STALLIONS FOR DRIVING PURPOSES. 

The Committee on Stallions for driving purposes have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Sec- 
reiary that they have made the following awards. 
$10. First premium, to William S. Messerve, Haverhill, for 

bay stallion, "Little Phil." 
$6. Second premium, to Charles A. Luut, West Newbury, 

for seal brown stallion, " Gladstone." 
Diploma and !ffl5. To J. G. McAllister, Lawrence, for 

stallion of any age or breed, with five of his stock, 

for stallion, " Essex Hambletoniau." 
0. S. Butler, S. F. Newman, Geo. B. Blodgett — Commit- 
tee. 



BROOD MARES— FARM PURPOSES. 
The Committee on Brood Mares for farm purposes have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Sec- 
retary that they have made the following awards . 
$10. First premium, to E. C. Little, Haverhill, for gray 
mare. 
$6. Second premium, to B. H. Farnham, No. Andovery 
for gray mare. 



3d 



$4. Third premium, to John H. George, Metbueii, for 
sorrel mare, weight 1250 lbs. 
W. F. Kinsman, C. L. Tozier, H. H. Demsy — Committee. 



BROOD MARES— DRIVING PURPOSES. 

The Committee on Brood Mares for Driving purposes 

have attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the 

Secretary that they have made the following awards : 

$10. First premium, to Peter Holt, jr.. No. Andover, for 

Hambletonian mare, " Fanny." 

i)6. Second premium, to J. G. McAlUster, Lawrence, for 

brood mare," Linda." 
II. Third premium, to Towne Brothers, Bradford, for 
brood mare. 
Albert Kimball, 0. S. Butler, S. F. '^Q^m^n— Commit- 
tee. 



FAMILY HORSES. 
The Committee on Famil}^ Horses have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 

$10. First premium, to M. C. Andrews, Andover, for 
brown mare, '' Princess." 
$6. Second premium, to Maurice H. Connor, West New- 
bury, for mare, " Nellie.*' 
$4. Third premium, to William K. Cole, Boxford, for 
bay mare. 
David Pingree, L. E. Nickerson, Story D. Pool, Wm. P. 
Bailey — Committee. 



GENTS' DRIVING HORSES. 
The Committee on Gentlemen's Driving horses have at- 
tended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secre- 
tary that they have made the following awards :. 



36 

#10. First premium, to Byron G. Kimball, Bradford, for 
gray mare, '• Starlight." 
$=G. Second premium, to Charles C. Clarke, Lawrence, 

for HambJetonian mare, " Milly." 
$4. Tliird premium, to M. C. Andrews, Andover, for 

Knox mare, " Cyclone." 
J. Otis Winkley, David Warren, Joseph Shattuck — Com- 
mittee. 



SINGLE FARM HORSES. 
The Committee on Single Faim Horses have attended to 
their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the lollowing awards : 
S'lO. First j)remium, to Jolin II. Perkins, Lynnfield, for 
bay mare, " Maude," weight 1200 lbs. 
$G. Second premium, to Moses H. Poor, West Newbury, 

for draft horse, weight 1210 lbs. 
^4. Third premium, to James C. Poor, No. Andover, for 
draft horse, weight 1210 lbs. 
$10. First premium, to Fred Symonds, No. Andover, for 

black horse, weight 1000 lbs. 
^6. Second premium, to W. J. Currier, Danvers, for 
draft horse, weight 1050 lbs. 
Nathan F. Abbott, W^m. R. Roundy, E. P. Barrett— 
■Committee. 



PAIRS OF FARM HORSES WEIGHING LESS THAN 

2500 LBS. 
The Committee on Pairs of Farm Horses have attended 
to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 

First premium to Maurice H. Connor, West New- 
bury, for horses weighing 2250 lbs. 
f=8. Second premium to J. Horace Nason, Boxford, for 
horses weighing 2400 lbs. 
Albert Berry, Charles Ilaseltine— /o?- the Committee. 



2>7 

COLTS FOR FARM PURPOSES— THREE AND FOUR 
YEARS OLD. 

The Committee on Colts for Farm purposes three and 
four years old have attended to their duty, and respectfully 
report to the Secretary that they have made the following 
award : 

88. First premium, to Maurice H. Connor, West New- 
bury, for bay mare colt, 4 years old. 

James E. Page, H. M. Goodrich— yVr [he Committee. 



COLTS FOR FARM PURPOSES, ONE AND TWO 
YEARS OLD. 
The Committee on Colts for Farm purpose?, one and two 
years old have attended to their duty, and respectfully re- 
port to the Secretary that they have made the following- 
awards : 
-18. First premium, to Miclmael Dwyer, Methuen,for 2 year 

old filley. 
15. Second premium, to Maurice H. Connor, West New- 
bury, for 2 year old colt, '' Major," weight 960 lbs. 
|5. First premium, to R. T. Jaques, Newbury, for year- 
ling colt. 
$3. Second premium, to Harley E. Meade, No. Andover,. 
for yearling colt. 
William S. Phillips, jr., Henry Hobbs, Aaron Sawyer — 
Commitlee. 



COLTS FOR DRIVING PURPOSES, THREE AND 
FOUR YEARS OLD. 
The Committee on Colts for Driving purposes, three and 
four years old, have attended to their duty, and respect- 
fully report to the Secretary that they have made the 
following awards : 

i8. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for chestnut 
mare colt, 4 years old. 



38 

•ii^S. Second premium to L. F. Moulton, for 4 year old 

colt. 
$6. First premium, to Byron G. Kimball, Bradford, for 

bay colt, " Thornless," 3 years old. 
$3. Second premium, to C. Moynihan, Newbury, for 

brown colt, 3 years old. 
T. P. Harriman, C. Plarrington, D. Bradstreet — Commit- 
tee. 



COLTS FOR DRIVING PURPOSES, '*ONE AND TWO 
YEARS OLD. 

The Committee on Colts for Driving purposes one and 
•two years old have attended to their duty, and respectfully 
report to the Secretary that they have made the following 
awards : 
$8. First premium, to J. G, McAllister, Lawrence, for 2 

year old colt. 
15. Second premium, to W. H. & L. J. Tufts, Middleton, 

for Black Stallion Colt, 2 years old, S. X. 
$5. First premium, to J. E. Bicknel, jr., Lawrence, for 

chestnut colt 1 year old. 
$3. Second premium, to J. G. McAllister, Lawrence, for 

yearling colt, " Lawrence Cyclone." 
$3. Third premium, to' Benj. Pearson, jr., New])ury, for 

sorrel stallion colt 2 years old. 
S. n. Bailey. F. A. Rus?ell, Charles A. Mason— Co?w- 
miltee. 



SWINE -LARGE BREEDS. 

The Committee on Swine, large breeds, have attended to 
their duty, and respectfully report to tlie Secretary that 
they have made tlie following. awards. 

18. First premium, to J. G. McAllister, Lawrence, for 
Chester white l)oar. 



•i8. First premium, to J. G. McAllister, Lawrence, for 

Chester white sow. 
$8. First premium, to Alfred G. Playdon, Andover, for 

Chester white sow and pigs. 
•^8. First premium, to Geo. E. Littlefield, Salisbury, for 

English Berkshire boar. 
^5. Second premium, to Geo. E. Littlefield, Salisbury, for 

litter of 7 weaned pigs. 
f 8. First premium, to Geo. E. Littlefield, Salisbury, for 

English Berkshire sow. 
^5. Second premium, to Geo. E. Littlefield Salisbury for 

Chester white sow. 
'$8. First premium, to James C. Poor, No. Andover, for 

litter weaned pigs. 
$8. First premium, to M. B. Chesley, Amesbury, for 

Chester white boar. 
$5. Second premium, to E. C. Little, Haverhill, for Ches- 
ter white sow. 
^5. Second premium, to E. C. Little, Haverhill, for 

Chester white boar. 
John S. Crosby, George A. Dow, John Barker, A. A. 

Rutherford — Committee. 



SWINE-SMALL BREEDS. 

The Committee on Swine, small breeds, have attended to 
their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards . 

.f8. First premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, for 
small Yorkshire boar, Reg. No. 739. 

J. M. Pearl, N. S. Harris, John A. Ellis — Committee. 



SHEEP. 

The Committee on Sheep have attended to their duty, 
«nd respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards: 



40 

810. First premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, for 
twelve grade black faced ewes. 
$8. First premium to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, 

for Oxfordshire buck. 
•16. First premium, to C. H. Tenney, Methuen, for 10 
Oxford-down lambs, 5 months old. 
Jos. H. Blunt, Frank Marsh, Virgil Dow — Committee. 



POULTRY. 

The Committee on Poultry have attended to their duty, 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that tliey have 
made the following awards: 
$2 and diploma. To Frank E. Dresser, Lawrence, for 

breeding pen and pair Partridge Cochin chicks. 
$2. First premium, to Joseph Pearson, Newbury, for pair 

white Plymouth Rock chicks. 
$2. First premium, to Lewis W. Hawkes, Saugus, for Tou- 
louse geese. 
$2. First premium, to Lewis W. Hawkes, Saugus, for 

Toulouse goslings. 
$2. First premium, to Lewis W. Hawkes, Saugus, for 

Embden geese. 
$2. First premium, to Lewis W. Hawkes, Saugus, for 

Creeper fowls. 
81. Second premium, to Lewis W. Hawkes, Saugus, for 

Creeper chicks. 
■fl. Second premium, to Lewis W. Hawkes, Saugus, for 

Toulouse gosliugs. 
$1. Second premium, to Joseph Pearson, Newbury, for 

White Plymouth Rock fowls. 
.f2. First premium, to M. B. Bailey, Topsfield, for Indian 

game fowls. 
81. Second premium, to W. S. Hughs, No. Andover, for 

pair Plymouth Rock chicks. 
$2. First premium, to A. L. Grillin, Lawrence, for Black 

Minorcas. 



41 

$2. First premium, to A. L. Griffin, Lawrence, for Barred 

Plymouth Rocks. 
$2. First premium, to A. L. Griffin, Lawrence, for Mottled 

Minorca chicks. 
12. First premium, to K. B. Smith, No. Andover, for 

Pekin ducks. 
$1. Second premium, to B. B. Smith, No. Andover, for 

White Leghorn chicks. 
•12. First premium, to R. B. Smith, No. Andover, for pen 

White Leghorns. 
-SI. Second premium, to R. B. Smith, No. Andover, for 

White Leghorns. 
$2. First premium, to G. P. Wilkins, Middleton, for pair 

Bronze turkeys. 
'$2. First premium, to Geo. B. Parkhurst, Boxford, for 

Light Brahma chicks. 
-i;l. Second premium, to Geo. B. Parkhurst, Boxford, for 

pair White Wyandottes. 
$2. First premium, to Joseph Pearson, Newbury, for Ply- 
mouth Rocks. 
$1. Gratuity, to R. B. Smith, No. Andover, for Game 

chicks. 
$1. Gratuity, to Moses B. Abbott, Andover, for White 

Plymouth Rock chicks, 16 weeks old. 
M. A. Plummer, Lewis P. Hawkes," W. Burke Little— 
Committee. 



PLOUGHING WITH DOUBLE TEAMS. 

The Committee on Ploughing with Double teams have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Sec- 
retary that they have made the following awards : 
1)10. First premium, to J. P. Little, Amesbury, 4 oxen, 
Landside plough. 
^S. Second premium, to B. H. Farnham, No. Andover, 2 
oxen and horse, Landside plough. 
David M. Cole, Richard Bray, Abel Stickney— Commit- 

tee. 



42 

PLOUGHING SINGLE OX TEAMS. 

The Committee on Plouo;hing, Single Ox Teams have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secre- 
tary that the}' have made the following award : 
810. Fir^-t premium, to Wm. P. Christopher, Middleton, 
Landside plough. 

As there was hut one entry, your committee made ex- 
amination of the lands j)loughed and the work done by 
oihrr teams, and were convinced that Mr. Christopher had 
the most uneven land of all the lots ploughed, and that he 
did as good work in every particular as was done by any 
other team, therefore they award him the first premium. 

/Vmos ILiseltine, VV. C. Allyn, Wm. H. Greenleaf — Corn- 
in i/ fee. 



PLOUGHING SWIVEL PLOUGH, DOUBLE OX 
TEAMS. 

The Committee on Ploughing with Swivel Plough Double 
Ox Teams have attended to their duty, and. respectfully re- 
port to the Secretary that they have made the following 
award : 

•"^10 First premium, to Farnham and Wilkins, Topsfield, 
with 4 oxen. 

Joseph S. Howe, Joshua H. Chandler, C. D. Ordway — 
Cominitiee. 



PLOUGHING WITH HORSES, SWIVEL PLOUGH. 
The Committee on Ploughing with Horses, Swivel 
Plough, have attended to their duty and respectfully 
report to the Secretary that they have made the following 
awards : 

'SIO. First premium, to A. M. Pvobinson, No. Andover, 2 
horses, 76, A. plough. 
SS Second premium, to I. C. Brown, Methuen, 2 horses, 
Yankee swivel plough. 
John H. George, Albert Berry, C. M. Sawyer— Co?ww27- 
tee. 



43 

PLOUGHING WITH SINGLE OX TEAMS, SWIVEL 

PLOUGH. 

The Committee on Ploughing with Single Ox Teams, 
Swivel Plough, have attended to their duty, and respect- 
fully report to the Secretary that they have made the 
following award: 

flO. First premium, to A. W. Peabody,, Middleton, for 
Hubbell plough. 

James J. H. Gregory— ^or the Committee. 



PLOUGHING WITH THREE HORSES. 

The Committee on Ploughing with Three Horses have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Sec- 
retaiy that they have made the following award : 
|tO. First premium, to Maurice H. Connor, West New- 
bury, Oliver chilled plough. 

S. F. Newman, David Warren, Carlton Little — Ccmmit- 
iee. 



PLOUGHING WITH SULKY PLOUGH. 

The Committee on Ploughing with Sulky Plough have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the 
Secretary that they have made the following awards : 
110. First premium, to Fred A. Russell, Methuen, Syracuse 
sulky. 
fS. Second premium, to Geo. E. Kline, LaAvrence, Syra- 
cuse sulky. 
Aaron Low, A. P. Fuller, A. B. Fellows, M. C. Andrews, 
George B. Austin — Committee. 



HARROWS. 

The Committee on Harrows have attended to their duty 



44 

and respectfully report to the Secret;uy that they have 
made the following awards : 

$10. Fh-st premium to F. A. Russell, Methuen, for "Cli- 
max'' Harrow. 
•18. Second premium, to Henry Newhall & Co., Dan vers, 
for Spring Tooth Harrow. 
Sherman Nelson— /or t/ie Coinmiitee. 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

The Committee on Agricultural Implements have at- 
tended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Sec- 
retary that they have made the following awards. 
ilO. First premium to Henry Newhall & Co., Danvers, for 
collection of implements. 

$7. Second premium, to M. E. Austin, Lawrence, for col- 
lection of implements. 

§5. First premium, to S. J. Pedlar, Methuen, for a two 
horse cart. 

$5. First premium, to George E. Daniels, Rowley, for a 
one horse cart. 

•$3. First premium, to George E. Daniels, Rowley, for a 
two horse farm wagon. 

$3. Gratuity, to S. D. Hinxman, No. Andover, for a two- 
horse farm cart. 

$5. Gratuity, to George E. Daniels, Rowley, for market 
wagon. 

$2. Gratuity, to H. H. Spofford, Groveland, for a two- 
horse wagon. 

.S3. Gratuity, to H. H. Spofford, Groveland, for a one 
horse cart. 

*2. Gratuity, to H. G. Sears, Danvers, for a one or two- 
horse farm wagon. 

.$L Gratuity, to J. I). Dodge, Rowley, for a set of marsh 
shoes. 

m. Gratuity, to S. J. Pedlar, Methuen, for 1 set 1 wheel 
and axle. 



45 

f5. Gratuity, to the Lawrence Hardware Co., for 

creamery. 
f|5. Gratuity, to F. M. Victor, Lawrence, for collection. 

Geo. E. Johnson, Daniel Brickitt, B. F. Stanley 

(Jommitlee. 



CARRIAGES. 

The committee on Carriages have attended to their 
■duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 
f5. Gratuity, to F. A. Snow & Son, Lawrence, for one 

two-seated Democrat wagon. 
■$5. Gratuity, to J. W. Joyce & Co., Lawrence, for one 

furniture wagon. 
$2. Gratuity, to T. P. Harriraan, Andover, for one light 

market wagon. 
Henry Hobbs, James Wilson, Aaron Sawyer — Co}Ji?nit- 
iee. 



IN EXHIBITION HALL. 



REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT. 

The Exhibition of the Society-, in the City Hall at 
Lawrence, September, 1891, was a decided success, al- 
though the entries in some departments were much small- 
er than usual. Only one-third as many entries were made 
in the fancy work department as were made the previous 
year, and in the rug and counterpane departments about 
one-half as many. But as we stated in our report of last 
year, the merit of an exhibition does not consist in the 
large number of articles exhibited, so much as in the 
qualit3\ In this respect the exhibition in the above 
named departments was fully equal to any former year, 
and was a decided improvement in the fact that most of 
the articles entered were so far meritorious as to fully 
justify their being entered. It was quite a relief to the 
committee to find so few entries which they would desire 
to exclude. We would advise that no one person in 
bringing fancy work should enter too large a number of 
articles, but make a selection of such articles as are most 
worthy of notice. 

In the department of fancy work it is necessary to pro- 
tect the articles entered by placing them either in the 
wire covered cases which the society now owns or in 
glass cases. The cases owned by the society, are not suf- 
ficient, and it is necessary to borrow each year. This is 
difficult as those who own cases usually have them in use. 
Six cases in addition to those now owned b}- the society 
are needed. Would it not be advisable to authorize the 
secretary either to have that number made or to purchase 



47 

as he may have opportunity at a low price, such as would 
be suitable. Many articles entered in the art department 
need to be placed in cases. 

More than the usual interest was taken in the bread 
and dair}^ room by reason of a special premium offered by 
Mr. Whitney of Lawrence, of 115 for the best loaf of 
bread, is^lO for the best pound of butter, and $d for the 
heaviest dozen of eggs. The offer was an exceedingly 
generous one, and was the occasion of especial interest in 
that department of the exhibition. 

A good show of apples was made, quite as good as 
usual perhaps, and yet tlie liberal premiums and gratuities 
offered by the society ought to be an inducement for 
growers of fruit to make a more careful selection and for 
those who have choice specimens of any one kind to enter 
them. More than three hundred square feet of table 
room was covered with plates of. apples. Probably two- 
thirds of this space would have held all that could be 
called of especially superior quality. Many fine speci- 
mens were shown of most of the kinds for which gratui- 
ties and premiums are offered. There are many exhibitors 
who never fail to enter choice fruit and who will enter 
none that is not worthy of notice. But there are many 
entries made which do not add to the attractiveness of 
the exhibition. 

On the pear tables, notwithstanding the great quantity 
of pears grown this season, the quantity entered was not 
large. Many fine samples were shown of most of the 
kinds in general favour. 

An excellent show of peaches was made, and a fair ex- 
hibit of grapes. 

The usual difficulty of marking fruit so that each plate 
shall have and retain the name of the owner, still exists. 
Cards will get misplaced until some way is devised by 
which they can be securely attached to the plate. It is 
extremely annoying to one who enters a fine plate of fruit 
to find his card exchanged. These changes are usually 



48 

made by careless visitors, who in taking up a card put it 
on the wrong plate, but the annoyance is as great to the 
owner, who only knows that the change has been made, 
and cannot know how it was done. 

The vegetable department was in the basement of the 
City Hall, and an excellent show was made. Mr. Bradley 
and his assistant, who liad the arrangement of this depart- 
ment, gave especial attention to the same and arranged 
each kind of vegetables in groups, making the awarding 
of prizes and gratuities much easier for the committee, 
and more attractive to visitors. The baskets purchased 
for use in this department were of great convenience as 
each could be marked with a tag which would remain. 

A good variety of plants and flowers was entered for 
premium, among which were many fine specimens which 
added much to the attractiveness of the exhibition. 
Thornton Brothers of Lawrence occupied the platform 
with a great variety of beautiful plants and flowers ar- 
ranged in fine taste, forming an especially interesting fea- 
ture but these were not entered for premium. 

Many articles of manufacture in small wares of various 
kinds were entered Avorthy of especial notice. Tliis por- 
tion of the exhibition should be largely increased. An 
exhibit of files, horse shoes, tools, etc. in this department 
represent a class of manufactures which it is especially de- 
sirable to encourage. 

The exhibit of lamps and various articles in bronze 
entered by Craighead & Kintz Co., of paper and envel- 
opes exhibited in connection with and including the 
wood from which they were made in its various processes 
of reduction to pulp, by the Russell Paper Manufacturing 
Co., of braids made by the Wright Manufacturing Co., of 
Lawrence, were especially noticeable features worthy of 
especial mention. 

But that part of the exhibition which first attracted the 
attention of visitors on entering the hall, and which gave 
especial character to the general exhibit and made the ex- 



49 

hibition as a whole, the most attractive which has been 
made by the society, was that of the Pacific, Everett, Ar- 
lington, Atlantic and Pemberton Mills. The great variety. 
and excellent styles of dress goods made by a [)ortion of 
these mills, furnishes an opportunity by a skillful arrange- 
ment of the same, of making an exceedingly beautiful 
show, and also of furnishing to visitors, an object lesson 
of especial interest, in showing the great advance which 
has been made in the manufacture of dress fabrics in this 
flourishing city of less than half the age of this society. 
The managers of these mills deserve the thanks of this 
society for their efforts which contributed so largely to 
the success of this exhibition. An exhibition of hosiery 
with a machine for knitting the same, by the Lawrence 
Hosiery Co ., attracted much attention. The goods shown 
were of excellent quality. 

By the kindness of the Mayor of Lawrence and of those 
associated with him the common council room was placed 
at the disposal of the committee for the art exhibit, fur- 
nishing ample room to arrange this department of the 
exhibition. 

The exhibit of oil paintings was quite good and an un- 
usually large entry was made of hand painted ware of 
decidedly meritorious work. 

A new feature for this society was the grange exhibit 
in the vestry of the Baptist church, which formed a part 
of the general exhibit of the society. The room of the 
vestry was divided into five sections which were occupied 
b}' the Andover, North Andover, Methuen, Haverhill and 
Boxford granges. Each grange occupied the space as- 
signed to it and arranged the same in accordance with the 
taste and judgment of its members. Fruit, vegetables, 
counterpanes, rugs and fancy work were found in each 
grange, making of this department an interesting and at- 
tractive exhibition. 

It is probably true that some portion of the hall ex- 
hibit might have been more fully represented had it not 



been for the grange department, yet the exhibition as a 
whole was undoubtedly more successful, and the interest 
taken by the members of the several granges also con- 
tributed largely to the general interest. If the exhibition 
is held in Lawrence another year, the departments which 
have been referred to as deficient will probably be fully 
represented, especially that of fancy work, as it is known 
that this class of goods will be protected from injury. 

The several granges having made a successful exhibit 
in connection with the society, the individual members 
will become interested in its work. The work of the so- 
ciety has gradually advaiiced and extended ; and with 
such variety of manufacturing and. mechanical interests 
as exist in the County, the interest in fancy work and 
works of art, the cultivation of plants and flowers com- 
bined with the products of the farm and orchard, all find- 
ing an opportunity for exhibition in the annual gathering 
of this society, cannot fail of making it an occasion of 
general interest. 

The assistant superintendent with the ladies and gen- 
tlemen appointed to assist in arranging the articles in the 
hall, nearly all responded promptly for duty and rendered 
efficient service. 

Respectfully submitted, 

AMOS MERRILL, Superintendent of Hall. 



DAIRY. 

The Committee on Dairy have attended to their duty, 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 
•18. First premium, to Mrs. C. N. Gowen, West Newbury, 

^or 5 ll)s. butter. 
>ifQ. Second piemium, to Mrs. W. K. Cole, Boxford, for 5 

lbs. butter. 
'>4. Third iJreiuium, to Glen Creamery, Rowley, for 

butter. 
John K. Bancroft, Mrs. B. H. Farnham — Cornmittee. 



51 

BREAD AND CANNED FRUIT. 

The Committee on Bread and Canned Fruit have at- 
tended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Sec- 
retary that they have made the following awards : 
^3. First premium, to Mrs. A. L. Wales, Groveland, for 

wheat bread. 
$2. Second premium, to Mrs. J. A. Davis, Amesbury, 

for wheat bread. 
f 1. Third premium, to Miss S. Alice George, Grove- 
land, for wheat bread. 
f 1. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. W. Gowing, West Newbury, for 

wheat bread. 
f 1. Gratuity, to Mrs. H. M. Barker, No. Andover, for 

wheat bread. 
$2. First premium, to Mrs. E. Hazeltine, Haverhill, for 

graham bread. 
fl. Second premium, to Annie Horsch, Rowley, for 

graham bread. 
$1. Second premium, to Louisa Bailey, Andover, for 

brown bread. 
#3. First premium, to L. H. Bassett, No. Andover, for 

canned fruit. 
$2. Second premium, to Mrs. Lizzie Wilson, Beverly, for 
canned fruit and jellies. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Joseph Poor, Andover, for pickles. 
Mrs. N. E. Ladd, Mrs. J. Henry Hill, Mrs. J. Warren 
Moor — Committee. 

STATEMENT OF MRS. A. L. AVALES, FIRST PREMIUM^ 
WHEAT BREAD. 

One quart of flour, one half pint each of milk and water, 
one fourth of compressed yeast cake, dissolved in one 
half cup warm water, one small tablespoonful each of salt 
and sugar, one teaspoonful of shortening, melted in the 
pint of warm water, mix and knead well at night, rise un- 
til morning, shape for tin, rise again until about twice its 
size, bake 45 minutes. 



STATEMENT OF MRS. J. A. DAVIS, SKCO>^D PREMIUM, 
WHEAT BREAD. 

Flour used "Bridal Veil," one quart of flour, one table- 
spoonful of sugar, one teaspoonful of salt, one-quarter 
of compressed yeast cake. Mix flour, sugar and salt, dis- 
solve yeast in a little warm water, and stir it into the 
flour, stir into the mixture enough luke warm water to 
handle neatly with the hands, and knead fifteen minutes, 
return it to the bowl and rise four hours, then knead ten 
minutes and form it in a loaf, rise again until double the 
original size and bake forty minutes with a steady heat. 

STATEMENT OF MISS S. ALICE GEORGE, GROVBLAND, THIRD- 
PREMIUM, WHEAT BREAD. 

Three pints Haxall flour, one pint milk, half cake com- 
pressed 3^east, one tablespoonful of sugar, a heaping tea- 
spoonful of salt, knead ten minutes, then rise it seven 
liours, put it in the pan with as little kneading as possible, 
and rise an hour and one half, then bake forty minutes. 

STATEMENT OF MRS. EDWIN M. HASELTINE FOR FIRST 
PREMIU3I, GRAHAM BREAD. 

Three cups graham flour, three cups Haxall flour, one 
teaspoonful of salt, two tablespoonfuls of molasses, one 
cup of milk, one cup of water and one fourth of a cup of 
yeast made into a sponge. Mix and let rise over night, 
in the morning knead well and let it rise again, then 
knead, put into tins and let rise three fourths of an hour, 
bake three fourths of an hour. 

STATEMENT OF ANNIE C. HORSCH, ROWLEY, FOR SECOND 
PREMIUM, GRAHAM BREAD. 

At night take one ([uart of cool milk which has been 
scalded, one half cup sugar, two thirds cup of yeast, one 
tablespoonful salt, enough Glen Mills improved graham 
flour to stir stiff with a spoon. In the morning cut it 



r t I 

DO 

down with a knife, knead it into shape, let it rise until 
light, then put it into tins, when at the top bake until 
done. 

STATEMENT OF LOUISA BAILEY, INDOVER, FOR SECOND 
PREMIUM, r.ROWX BREAD. 

Three cups of Haxall flour, three cups of Indian meal, 
one cup of molasses, two teaspoonfuls of salaratus, one 
pint sour milk and a little salt. Steam three and one half 
hours. 

STATEMENT OF L. H. BASSETT, NO. ANDOVER, FOR FIRST 
PREMIUM CANNED FRUIT. 

The goods exhibited by me are what is called cold 
packed goods, all the fruit is prepared and then packed 
in the jars, the jars are then filled with syrup full, the 
cover and rubber ring are put on and half sealed, then 
they are put into cold water and slowly boil the water 
the proper length of time, thej^ are then taken out and 
sealed at once. 

STATEMENT OF MRS. LIZZIE J. ATILSON, BEVERLY, SECOND 
PREMIUM, FOR CANNED FRUIT AND JELLIES. 

Having secured the first and most important contribu- 
tion to the manufacture of preserves, the fruit, the next 
consideration is the preparation of the syrup in which the 
fruit'is to be suspended^ and this requires much care ; the 
principle thing to be acquainted with is the fact that in 
proportion as the syrup is longer boiled, its water will be- 
come evaporated and its consistency will be thicker. (The 
best sugar is the most economical for preserves) The syrup, 
a solution of sugar prepared by dissolving two parts of 
sugar to one of boiling water ; boil ten minutes, when it 
begins to swell and boil up throw in a little cold water, do 
this three or four times, then strain, this is a syrup which 
neither ferments or crj^stalizes. 

For Jellies — the fruit should first be washed, then cov- 



54 

ered with cold water and boiled until tender. Strain the 
juice through a flannel bag and to every pint of juice add 
one pound of sugar; the jell should be boiled twenty 
minutes after the sugar is added. Current jelly require* 
but eight minutes boiling. 

SPECIAL I'llE.MlUM OFFERED BY MR. H. M. WHITNEY OF 
LAWRENCE, FOR BREAD, BUTTER AND EGGS. 

•fl5. First premium, tOjMrs. M. S.Wright of Lawrence, for 

best loaf of bread. 
•110. First premium, to^Mrs. C. W. Gowen of West New- 
bury, for pound of best butter. 
85. First premium, to Henry Phillips, Bradford, for one 
dozen fresh hen's eggs, greatest weight, 41 ounces^ 
347^ grains. 
Gilbert E. Hood, Mrs. Fred S. C. Herrick, Mrs. George 
L. Averill — Committee. 



HONEY. 

The Committee on Honey have attended to their duty^ 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 

83. First premium, to John Barker, No. Andover. 
$2. Second premium, to F. W. Poor, Haverhill. 

E. A. Emerson, H. N. Harriman, Warren M. Cole — 
Committee. 



STATEMENT OF JOHN BARKER. 

Tlie honey that I enter for premium was taken from 
hives in July, 1891. I shall have 150 lbs. surplus honey 
this season. I had twenty swarms in the fall of 1890 of 
which fifteen swarms wintered, sold one swarm, and have 
twenty swarms now, mostly in frame hives; kind, common 
or black bees. 



55 

PEARS. 

The Committee on Pears have attended to their duty, 
and respectful!}^ report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 
$3. First premium, to H. G. Herrick, Lawrence, for 

Anjou pears. 
$3. First premium, to Allen Burr, Lawrence, for Bosc 

pears. 
83. First premium, to A. C. Osborn, Peabody, for Belle 

Lucrative pears. 
$3. First premium, to Z. J. Chase, Lynn, for Sheldon 

pears. 
13. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Louis 

Bonne pears. 
'f3. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Vicar 

pears. 
$3. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Howell 

pears. 
$3. First pi-emium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Lawrence 

pears. 
13. First premium, to B. F. Stanley, Newburyport, for 

Bartlett pears. 
$3. First premium to J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for 

Onandaga pears. 
$3. First premium, to G. W. Marsden, Lawrence, for 

Clairgeau pears. 
$3. First premium to Walter B. Allen, Lynn, for Urban- 

iste pears. 
$3. First premium, to E. F. Webster, Haverhill, for 

Seckle pears. 
16. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for collection 

of pears. 
11.50. Gratuity, to A. W. Stearns, Lawrence, for Anjou 

pears. 
$1.50. Gratuity, to J. W. Shirley, Methuen, for Seckle 

pears. 
$1.50. Gratuity, to Wra. Burke Little, Newbury, for Bosc 

pears. 



56 

Ji^l.oO. Gratuity, to James Wilson, Topsfield, fur Oimnda- 
ga pears. 

•■^=1.50. Gratuity, to Wm. Tlurke Little, Newbury, for 
Bartlett pears. 

$1.50. Gratuity, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Bosc pears. 

•i'LSO. Gratuity, to Mrs. G. ^Iclntire, Lawrence, for 
Seckle pears. 

f<3.00. Gratuity, to J. Henry Ilill, Amesbury, for collec- 
tion of pears. 

S2.00. Gratuity, to A. C. Lear, Danvers, for collection of 
pears. 
P. M. Neal-^or the Commitlee. 



APPLES. 
Tlie Committee on Apples have attended to their duty, 
and respectfully report to the rfecrctary tliat they have 
made the following awards : 
><1.50. First premium, to Rose Buxton, Peabody, for Crab 

apples, 
•■-•o. First i)rcniiura, to C. C. Blunt, Andover, for Hulburf. 
>-3. First premium, to M. Shea, Lawrence, for Gravens- 

tein. 
-". First premium, to G. F. .^'anoer, Pcal)ody, for Drap 

D'Or. 
^?y. First premium, to John Shehon, Lynn, for Baldwin. 
f<3. First premium, to S. F. Xewman, Newbury, for Tol- 

man Sweet. 
S3. First premium, to D. 11. Ilsley, Newbury, for R( xbnry 

Rnssct. 
>!S. First premium, to Joseph Ilsley, Newbury, for Hunt's 

Russet. 
^'^. First premium, to Daniel C. Lunt, Newbury, for R. L 

Gieening. 
$3. First premium, to David Warren, Swampscott. (or 

Pickman Pippin. 
-.. First premium, to E. F. Child^, Lawrence, for Porter. 



57 

$S. First preraium, to B. F. Huntington, Amcshuiy, for 

Sweet Baldwin. 
13. First premium, to Geo. D. Walton, Peabody, for King 

of Tompkins. 
$3. First premium, to T. C. Thurlovr, West Newbury, for 

Danvers Sweet. 
$3. First premium, to J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for 

Granite Beauty. 
13. First premium, to J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for 

Bailey Sweet. 
16. Fiist premium, to J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for best 

collection of apples. 
'f3. First premium, to J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for 

Smith's Cider. ' 

13. First premium, to J. A. Montgomery, No. Andover, 

for Hubbardston. 
f 1. Gratuity, to Horace Carlton, Methuen, for Sweet Rus- 
set. 
•II. Gratuity, to C. H. Bell, Andover, for President's 

Greening. 
-II. Gratuity, to D. N. Cole, Boxford, for Gravensteins. 
-11. Gratuity, to Patrick Lawson, Lawrence, for Riverside. 
II. Gratuity, to M. Shea, Lawrence, for Maiden Blush. 
$L Gratuity, to S. J. Chase, Lynn, for English Sweet. 
II. Gratuity, to Wm. Burke Little, Newbury, for Smith's 

Cider. 
|L Gratuity, to S. B. George, Groveland, for Groveland. 
$L Gratuity, to S. B. George, Groveland, for Danvers 

Sweet. 
$1. Gratuity, to Abel H. Stickney, Groveland, for R. L 

Greening 
|1. Gratuity, to Abel H. Stickney, Groveland, for Hunt's 

Russet. 
II. Gratuity, to P. M. Hsley, Newbury, for Roxbury 

Russet. 
$L Gratuity, to S. G. Bailey, Andover, for Hubbardston. 
$1. Gratuity, to E. F. Childs, Lawrence, for Baldwin. 
50c. Gratuity, to M. E. Ladd, Groveland, for Crab apple. 



58 

i^l. Gratuity, to EbcnV Webster. Haverhill, for 20 Ounce, 
81. Gratuity, to T. C. Tliurlow, West Newbury, lor Porter. 
%1. Gratuity, to J. Henry Hill, Aaiesbiiry, for King of 
Tomj)kins. 
John W. Allen, Walter B. Allen, S. B. Fall, B. F. Hunt- 
ington — Committee. 



PEACHES, GRAPES AND ASSORTED FRUIT. 

The Committee on Peaches, Grapes ami Assorted Fruit 
have attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the 
Secretary that they have made the following awards : 
$2.00. First premium, to E. H. Foster, Haverhill, for best 

plate of peaches. 
2.00. First premium, to B. F. Stanley, Newburyport, for 

Seedling j)caches. 
2.00. First premium, to John Barker, No. Andover, for 

old Mixon peaches. 
1.50. Gratuity, to W. H. Hayes, No. Andover, for four 

plates of peaches. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Carrie E. Walton, Salem, for White 
Flesh Freestone peaches. 
50c. Gratuity, to Joseph Kline, Lawrence, for peaches. 
50c. Gratuity, to Cochickewick Farm, No. Andover, for 

Yellow Flesh peach. 
50c. Gratuity, to Thomas S. Holmes, Lawrence, for late 

Crawford peaches. 
50c. Gratuity, to W. S. Huges, No. Andover, for Seedling. 

peaches. 
50c. Gratuity, to J. W. Goodell, Lynn, for Old Mixon- 

peaches. 
50c. Gratuity, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Yellow Flesh 

j)eaches. 
50c. Gratuity, to W. K. Cole, Boxford, for Seedling 

peaches. 
50c. Gratuity, to H. A. Southwick, Peabody, for Seedling 
peaches. 



59 

50c. Gratuity, to B. H. Fariiham, No. Andover, for Yellow 
Flesh peaches. 
1.50. Gratuity, to J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for three plates 

of peaches. 
3.00. First premium, to Mrs. S. J. Barr, Lawrence, for 

Martha grapes. 
3.00. First premium, to John J. Ragan, Lawrence, for 

Concord grapes. 
3.00. First premium, to Warren P. Hutchinson, Danvers, 

for Brighton grapes. 
3.00. First premium, to Warren P. Hutchinson, Danvers, 

for Niagara grapes. 
3.00. First premium, to Warren P. Hutchinson, Danvers, 

for Moore's early grapes. 
3.00. First premium, to Warren P. Hutchinson, Danvers, 

for Worden grapes 
3.00. First premium, to Warren P. Hutchinson, Danvers, 

for Hartford ProHfic grapes. 
2.00. Gratuity to A. W. Stearns, Lawrence, for cold house 

grapes. 
1.50. Gratuity, to C. H. Hall, Methuen, for Orange quinces. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Orange quinces. 
50c. Gratuity, to G. S. Armstrong, Lawrence, for Orange 

quinces. 
50c. Gratuity, to Cochickewick farm. No. Andover, for 

Champion quinces. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Eben S. Flint, Danvers, for blackberries. 
3.00. Second premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for basket 

assorted fruit. 
50c. Gratuity, to J. W. Goodell, Lynn, for Imperial Gage 

plums. 
5^0c. Gratuity, to John Homer, Peabody, for Weaver 

plums. 
50c. Gratuity, to W. G. Mclntire, Lawrence, for Ponds 

Seedling plums. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. N E. Ladd, Groveland, for Lom- 
bard plums. 



6o 

50c. Gratuity, to J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for Lombard 

plums. 
50c. Gratuity, to J. Henry Hill, Amcsliury, for Moore's 

Arctic plums. 
1.00. Gratuity, to C. H. & C. W. Mann, Methuen, for four 
varieties of strawberry plants. 
We would mention the plate of Japan Persimmons raised 
by Ml-. John .S. Page of Apopka, Florida, formerly of Dan- 
vers, l)ut having l)een grown without the County we could 
not make any award. 

Andrew Nichols, T. C. Thurlow, J. Henry Hill, J. W. 
Goodell — Committee. 



PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 

The Committee on Plants and Flowers have attended to 

their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 

they have made the following awards : 

85.00. Second premium, to Edward Flynn, Lawrence, for 
collection Foliage plants. 

1.00. First premium, to Mrs. A. L. Cain, Lynn, for 12 Sal- 
piglossis in variety. 

1.00. First premium, to Mrs. Geo. L. Burnham, No. An- 
dover, for collection of Sweet Peas. 

50c. Gratuity, to H. M. Moody, Andover, for Fig Tree. 
50c. Gratuity, to E. E. Dorman, Methuen, for Calla. 
50c. Gratuity, to G. L. Sheldon, Lawrence, for Cape Jes- 
samine. 

2.00. First premium, to T. C. Thurlow, West Newbury, for 
collection o^ Phlox. 

1.00. First premium, to Mrs. R. Buxton, Peabody, for Gar- 
den annuals, twelve varieties. 

1.00. First premium, to Mrs. J. R. Bailey, Lawrence, for 
twelve Asters. 

1.00. First premium, to E. & C. Woodman, Danvers, for 

Carnation Pinks, six varieties. 
50c. Gratuity, to Edward Flynn, Lawrence, for Roses. 



6i 

50c. Gratuity, to M. Wiiigate & Son, Lawrence, for Roses, 
2.00. First premium, to Mrs. E. Haseltine, Haverhill, for 

collection of Pansies, fifty specimens. 
50c. Gratuity, to Lawrence Davenport, Lawrence, for 

twelve Dahlias, six varieties. 
1.00. First premium, to Mrs. R. Buxton, Peabody, for 

twelve double Petunias, six varieties. 
1.00. Gratuity, to T. C. Thurlow, West Newbury, for twelve 

Gladiolas. 
50c. Gratuity, to G. A. Smith, Lawrence, for Gladiolas. 
1.00. First premium, to Mrs. J. A. Cain, Lynn, for twelve 

double Geraniums. 
1.00. First premium, to Mrs. J. A. Cain^, Lynn, for twelve 

single Geraniums. 
LOO. First premium, to Mrs. Oscar Young, No. Andover 

for twelve Nasturtiums, six varieties. 
2.00. First premium, to Mrs. E. Haseltine, Haverhill, for 

twenty-four Pansies in varieties. 
1.00. First premium, to Mrs. O.-^car Young, No. Andover 

for twenty-lour Double Zinnias. 
1.00. First premium, to Mrs. A. L. Cain, Lynn, for twentv- 

four African Marigolds in variety. 
1.00. First premium, to Mrs. A. L. Cain, Lynn, for twenty- 
four Dwarf French Marigolds. 
1.00. First premium, to Mrs. R. Buxton,* Peabody, for 

twenty-four single Petunias in variety. 
1.00. First premium, to Mrs. A. F. Clark, Methuen, for 

display of Coxcombs. 
1.00. First premium, to Mrs. R. Buxton, Peabody, for 

twelve Scabiosas in variety. 
5.00. First premium, to Mrs. J. A. Cain, Lynn, for collec- 
tion of cut flowers, one hundred varieties. 
3.00. Second premium, to Mrs. R. Buxton, Peabod}-, for 

collection of cut flowers. 
2.00. First premium, to B. F. Bickum, Haverhill, for pair 

of Bouquets for vases. 
1.00. Second premium, to Mrs. David Warren, Swampscott, 

for pair Bouquets for vases. 



62 

50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. R. Campbell, Lawrence, for Bou- 
quet for vases. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. G. If. Tufts, Middleton, for basket 
native flowers. 
The committee wish to mention a fine display of flowers 
on'the stage in the hall by Thornton Brothers of Lawrence, 
including elegant designs, baskets, and specimen plants. 

Edwin V, Gage, Charlotte N. S. Horner, L. P. Weston, 
J. D. Kinssburv — Committee. 



VEGETABLES. 
The Committee on Vegetables have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 
•13. First premium, to R. Jaques, Newbury, for Edmands 

beets. 
3.00. First pi-emium, to R. Jaques, Newbury, for Eclipse 

beets. 
3.00. First premium, to Virgil Dow, Methuen, for Dewiugs 

beets. 
3.00. First premium, to W. B. Little, Newbury, for Short 

Horn carrot. 
3.00. First premium, to W. B. Little, Newbury, for Long 

Orange carrot. 
3»00. First premium, to Warren K. Cole, Boxford, for half 

long carrot. 
3.00. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Mangold 

Wurtzels. 
3.00. First premium, to H. A. Stiles, Middleton, for White 

Flat turnip. 
3.00. First premium, to 0. G. Cilley, Hamilton, for Purple 

Top turnip. 
3.00. First premium, to R. Jaques, Newbury, for parsnips. 
3.00. First premium, to M. B. Abbott, Andover for White 

ruta bagas. 
3.00. First premium, to R. Jaques, Newbury, for Yellow 

ruta bagas. 



^3 

5.00. First premium, to E. G. Hardy, Andover, for corn in 
milk. 

.3.00. First premium, to Cochickewick farm for sweet corn. 

-3.00. First premium, to Andrew Lane, Rockport, for cran- 
berries. 

2.00. Second premium, to W. K. Cole, Boxford, for cran- 
berries. 

1.00. Third premium, to H. M. Killam, Boxford, for cran- 
berries. 

1.00. Gratuity, to A. C. Cilley, Hamilton, for Koll Rabbi. 

1.00. Gratuity, to S. C. Doble, Andover, for Mammoth 
sweet corn. 

5.00. Gratuity, to Cochickewick farm. No. Andover, for 
collection of vegetables. 
Wm. P. Bailey, 0. L. Kent— /or t/ie Committee. 

$2.00. Second premium, to S. P. Buxton, Peabody, for 
Drumhead Stone Mason cabbage. 

3.00. First premium, to S. P. Buxton, Peabody, for Marble- 
head squash. 

2.00. Second premium, to S. P. Buxton, Peabody, for cauli- 
flower. 

3.00. First premium, to F. A. Russell, Methuen, for Bay 
State squash. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Rufus Goodwin, Haverhill, for Empire 
State potatoes. 

2.00. Second premium, to Cochickewick farm. No. Andover, 
for deep head cabbage. 

3.00. First premium, to Cochickewick farm, No. Andover, 
for all seasons cabbage. 

3.00. First premium, to Moses B. Abbott, Andover, for 
cauliflower. 

3.00. First premium, to Moses B. Abbott, Andover, for 
Savoy cabbage. 

3.00. First premium, to W. Burke Little, Newbury, for 
Early Rose potatoes. 

1.00. Gratuity, to W. Burke Little, Newbury, for Everett 
potato. 



64 

3.00. First premium, to W. Burke Little, Newbury, for 

Marrow squash. 
3.00. First premium, to G. S. Armstrong, Lawrence, for 

Cantelope melon. 
3.00. First premium, to R. Jaques, Newbury, for Sibley 

squash. 
3.00. First premium, to R. Jaques, Newbury, for Yellow 

Flat onions. 
3.00. First premium, to R. Jaques, Newbury, for Red 

onions. 
1.00. Gratuity, to R. Jaques, Newbury, for Marrow squash. 
2.00. First premium, to R. Jaques, Newbury, for Salmon 

Fleshed melon. 
3.00. First premium, to Edwin Bates, J^ynn, for Acme 

tomatoes. 
1.00. Gratuity, to A. P. Fuller, No. Andovcr, for Essex 

H^'brid squash. 
1.00. Gratuity, to A. P. Fuller, No. Andover, for Clarke's 

No. 1 potatoes. 
3.00. First premium, to Chas. A. Mason, Beverly, for 

Beauty of Hebron potatoes. 
1.00. Gratuity, to L. S. Wilkins, Topsfield, for Champion 

tomatoes. 
1.00. Gratuity, to N. R. Bailey, Andover, for White Plume 

celery. 
2.00. First premium, to Virgil Dow, Methuen, for water 

melon. 
3.00. First premium, to W. K. Cole, Boxford, for Clarke's 

No. I potatoes. 
5.00. First premium, to J. J. H. Gregory, Marblehcad, for 

collection of vegetables. 
1.00. Gratuity, to W. K. Cole, Boxford, for Beauty of Heb- 
ron potatoes. 
1.00. Gratuity, to W. K. Cole, Boxford, for Pearl of Savoy 

potatoes. 
2.00. First premium, to A. P. Fuller, No. Andover, for 

Musk melon. 



65 

2.00. First premium, to John Maney, Lawrence, for White 

Pin me celery. 
1.00. Gratuity, to A. C. Cilley, Hamilton, for Early Rose 

potatoes. 
3.00. First premium, to A. C. Cilley, Hamilton, for Pearl 

of Savoy potatoes. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Aaron Low & Son, Essex, for Early Peer- 
less tomatoes. 
3.00. First premium, to Aaron Low & Son, Essex, for Es- 
sex Hybrid tomatoes. 
3.00. First premium, to Aaron Low & Son, Essex, for Car- 
dinal tomatoes. 
3.00. First premium, to Aaron Low & Son, Essex, for Em- 
ery tomatoes. 
3.00. First premium, to David Warren, Swampscott, for 

Essex Hybrid squash. 
3.00. First premium, to David Warren, Swampscott, for 

Deephead cabbage. 
3.00. First premium, to David Warren, Swampscott, for 

Stone Mason cabbage. 
2.00. Second premium, to David Warren, Swampscott, for 

American Improved Savoy cabbage. 
2.00. Second premium, to David Warren, Swampscott, for 

Red cabbage. 
3.00. First premium, to David Warren, Swampscott, for 

Yellow Danvers onions. 
3.00. First premium, to F. A. Russell, Methuen, for Hub- 
bard squash. 
LOO. Gratuity, to E. A. Emerson, Haverhill, for New 

Queen potatoes. 
1.00. Gratuity, to J. J. H. Gregory, Marblehead, for Red 

Cross tomato. 
3.00. First premium, to J. J. fl. Gregory, Marblehead, for 

American Turban squash. 
3.00. First premium, to E. & C. Woodman, Danvers, for 

Livingston's perfection tomatoes. 
3.00. First premium, to F. A. Russell, Methuen, for Red 
cabbage. 



66 

1.00. Gratuity, to John H. George, Metliuen, for Danvers 

onions. 
3.00. First premium, to .Simon P. Buxton, Peabody, for 
collection of tomatoes. 
E. A. Emerson, E. A. Fuller— /or the Committee. 



GRAIN AND SEED. 

Tlic Committee on Grain and Seed have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 
!?1.00. First premium, to H. A. Stiles, Middleton, for one 

peck Field corn. 
1.00. First premium, to James C. Poor, No. Andover, for 

one peck White oats. 
1.00. First premium, to Cochickewick Farm, No. Andover, 

for one peck Winter rye. 
1.00. First premium, to B. H. Farnham, No. Andover, for 

one peck Field beans. 
1.00. First premium, to J. O'Connor, West Newbury, for 

one peck Yellow Eye beans. 
5.00. First premium, to Geo. W. Chadwick, B oxford, for 

25 ears Lackawana corn. 
3.00. Second premium, to Mrs. John Stevens, Lawrence, 

for 25 ears Longfellow corn. 
2.00. Third premium, to H. W. Killam, Boxford, for 

Angel of Midnight corn. 
3.00. First premium, to Alfred K. Nas^n, Boxford, for 25 

ears of Rice Pop corn. 
2.00. Second premium, to S. H. Bailey, No. Andover, for 

25 cars Rice Pop corn. 
4.00. Third premium, to S. P. Buxton, Peabody, for col- 
lection of Field ami Garden seeds. 
Nathan A. Bushby, Daniel D. Adams, Chas. A. Mason 
— Committee. 



67 

COUNTERPANES AND AFGHANS. 

The Committee on Counterpanes and Afghans have at- 
tended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secre- 
tary that they have made the following awards : 
f4.00. First premium, to Mrs. James Wall, Methuen, for 

Lace quilt. 
2,00. Second premium, to Mrs. P. A. Fuller, Lawrence, 

for Silk quilt. 
1.50. Gratuity, to Miss Ella F. Davis, Lawrence, for Silk 

quilt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs, Donman Blanchard, No. Andover, 
for vSilk and Crochet quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. John Reddy, Lawrence, for Out- 
line quilt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. G. S. Armstrong, Lawrence, for 

Afghan. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Miss Lizzie Huse, Lawrence, for Bed 

spread and shams, 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. W. L. Steele, Lawrence, for Silk 

log cabin quilt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Hannah Danforth, Lawrence, for 
Print quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Clara M. Bell, Andover, for Silk 

quilt. 
..75. Gratuity, to Miss Mary Lewis, Lawrence, for Wheel 

Afghan. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. M. C. Wheelock, Lawrence, for 

white Knit quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Ida Merrill, Lawrence, for Afghan. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. S. J. Pedlar, Methuen, for Knit 

quilt. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. W. Heald, Lawrence, for Afghan. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. H. M. Whitney, Lawrence, for 

Afghan. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. M. S. Harmon, Lawrence, for 
Calico quilt. 
-75. Gratuity, to Miss S. R. Day, Bradford, for white 
Knit quilt. 



68 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. A. T. Lea, Methuen, for Baby 

Afghan. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. B. A. Ellis, Methuen, for Silk quilt. 
.75. Gratuity, to H. G. Little, Haverhill, for Patchwork 

quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Coburn, Methuen, for Silk quilt. 
Lottie Swan, Mrs. T. C. Thurlow, Sarah P. Blunt — Com- 
mittee. 



CARPETINGS AND RUGS. 

The Committee on Carpetings and Rugs have attended to 
their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 
$3.00. First premium, to Mrs. John H. Perkins, Lynnfield, 

for rug. 
2.00. Second premium, to Mrs. J. W. Poor, Andover, for 

rug. 
1.00, Gratuity, to Miss Durrell, Lawrence, for Silk rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. B. J. Mamion, No. Andover, for 

Drawn rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. E. S. Mann, Methuen, for Knit rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Moses E. Cook, Newbury port, for 

Braided mat. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. D. A. Moulton, No. Andover, for 

Drawn rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Granville E. Stevens, Methuen, for 

Knit rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Hannah Danforth, Lawrence, for 

Drawn rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. M. A. Sargent, Lawrence, for Wor- 
sted rug. 
75c. Gratuity, to Miss Abbie Towne, No. Andover, for 

Fancy rug. 
75c. Gratuity, to Mrs. F. A. Sargent, Merrimac, for 

Braided rug. 



69 

Y5c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Mary McPhee, Lawrence, for Drawn 

rug. • 

75c. Gratuity, to Mrs. IJames Starbird, Lawrence, for 

Braided rug. 
50c. Gratuity to Mrs. F. A. Sargent, Merrimac, for 

Braided rug. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. Y. Eaton, Methuen, for Knit 

rug. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Asa Hardy, Groveland, for Drawn 

rug. 
50c. Gratuity, to Miss Searle, Methuen, for Silk rug. 

Mrs. W. C. Allyn, Mrs. Oscar Young, Mrs. G. L. Burn- 
ham — Committee. 



MANUFACTURES FROM LEATHER. 

The Committee on Articles Manufactured from Leather 
have attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the 
Secretary that they have made the following awards : 
$5. First premium, to IMcDonald & Hanaford, No. Ando- 

ver, for Buggy harness. 
$2. Gratuity, to McDonald & Hanaford, No. Andover, 

for Coupe harness. 
'S3. Gratuity, to J. 0. Nash, Lawrence, for Carryall har- 
ness. 
$2. Gratuity, to J. O. Nash, Lawrence, for Wagon har- 
ness. 
Lyman Osborne, Geo. F. Sanger, F. H. Appleton— Cowz- 
miitee. 



FANCY WORK. 

The Committee on Fancy Work have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 
75c. Gratuity, to Mrs. E. F. Manahan, Lawrence, for 



70 

cluster of flowers. 

oOc. Gratuity, to Mrs>. John W. Porter, Lawrence, for 
travelling bag. 

75c. Gratuity, to Mrs. John W. Porter, Lawrence, for 
sofa pillow. 

75c. Gratuity, to Mrs. A. R. Sanborn, Lawrence, for 
chair back painting. 

50c. Gratuity, to Miss E. F. Coburn, Methuen, for tray- 
cloth. 

75c. Gratuity, to IVIiss Nellie Coburn, Methuen, for cro- 
chet suspenders. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Emma Pulsifer, No. Andover, for 
two knitted scarfs. 

50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Arthur W, Bean, Lawrence, for 

lace work. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Miss Annie Dunlap, Lawrence, for lace 
handkerchief. 

50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Julia E. Whittier, Lawrence, for 
blanket. 

75c. Gratuity, to Miss Emma B. Joslyn, Lawrence, for 

scarf. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. F. Whittridge, Lawrence, for 
Mexican silk table cloth. 

50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. F. S. C. Herrick, Lawrence, for 
table cloth. 

50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. F. S. C. Herrick, Lawrence, for 
lunch cloth. 

50c. Gratuity, to Charlotte Swan, Methuen, for table 
cover. 

75c. Gratuity, to Helen Barnes, Danvers, for set of un- 
derwear. 

50c. Gratuity, to V. A. Whitraarsh, Lawrence, for cro- 
chet skirt. 

50c. Gratuity, to Alice Maude Bennett, Lawrence, for 
cigar ribbon cover. 

50c. Gratuity, to Miss Heeby, Lawrence, for linen apron, 

75c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Carrie Wilson, Lawrence, for em- 
broidered blanket. 



50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. A. B. Davis, Lawrence, for point 

lace. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. S. H. Harris, Methuen, for table 

scarf. 
75c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Pbebe Merrill, Lawrence, for two 

white aprons. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. Ham, Lawrence, for crochet 

lace. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. E. W. Godfrey, Lawrence, for felt 

table scarf. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. George S. Merrill, Lawrence, for 

lunch set. 
75c. Gratuity, to Mrs. W. H. Salisbury, No. Andover, 

for lunch set. 
1.00. Gratuity to Mrs. S. U. Grant, Lawrence, for hand 

painted tidy. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. M. Madden, Lawrence, for pillow 

shams. 
50c. Gratuity, to Annie Marshland, Lawrence, for silk 

scarf. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. S. B. Pope, Danvers, for table 

cover. 
75c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Walter Rowe, Lawrence, for lunch 

cloth. 
1.00.^ Gratuity, to Mrs. Walter Rowe, Lawrence, for sofa 

pillow. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Walter Rowe, Lawrence, for cen- 
tre table piece. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mary Agnes Gage, Lawrence, for 

Roman stripe. 
50c. Gratuity, to Alice Russell, Metliuen, for lace hand- 
kerchief. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Ethel Emerson, Lawrence, for set of 

underwear. 
75c. Gratuity, to Eliza L. Scott, Lawrence, for two table 

scarfs. 
50c. Gratuity, to Julia A. Perley, Georgetown, for cro- 
chet shawl. 



72 

50c. Gratuity, to Louise Kimball, Georgetown, for silk 
stockings. 

50c. Gratuity, to Belle Anderson, Topsfield, for crochet 
edgings. 

75c. Gratuity, to Mrs. H. N. Coburn, Methuen, for Mexi- 
can handkerchief. 

50c. Gratuity, to Alice George, Groveland, for basket and 
fan. 

50c. Gratuity, to Alice George, Groveland, for Mexican 
tidies. 

75c. Gratuit}', to Alice George, Groveland, for white 
apron. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Walter Rowe, Lawrence, for em- 
broidered blanket. 

1.00. Gratuity, to A. C. Crowell, Lawrence, for screen. 

1.00. Gratuity, to L. D. Whittier, Lawrence, for bureau 
scarf. 
E. P. Nichols, Mrs. E. F. Childs, Emma F. Russell- 
Co //i?>ii7^ee. 



WORKS OF ART. 

The Committee on Works of Art have attended to their 

duty, aiid respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 

made the following awards : 

SI. 00. Gratuity, to M. A. Greeley, Lawrence, for oil paint- 
ing. 

1.00. Gratuity, to M. E. Nason, No. Andover, for oil 

painting. 
50c. Gratuity, to Anson L. Griffin, Lawrence, for white 
owl. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Chas. T. Main, Lawrence, for 

water color. 
50c. Gratuity, to Samuel Wilde, Lawrence, for brackets. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Geo. H. Eaton, Lawrence, for 
china painting. 

1.00. Gratuity, to S. E. Dwyer, Salem, for oil painting. 



1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Fred Swain, Methuen, for oil 

painting. 
50c. Gratuity, to Martin M. Wood, West Newbury, for 

hat lack. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. E. S. Chase, Methuen, for oil 

painting. 
1.00. Gratuity, to M. Swett, Lawrence, for china painting. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Editli M. Messer, Lawrence, for leather 

table cover. 
1.25. Gratuity, to Mrs. E. Bicknell, Lawrence, for china 

painting. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Dr. Howard, Lawrence, for china 

painting. 
LOO. Gratuity, to L. Foster, Methuen, for china painting. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mary Williams, No. Andover, for oil 

painting. 
1.00. (jratuity, to Mrs. A. B. Bruce, Lawrence, for china 

painting. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. D. F. Conlon, Lawrence, for china 

painting. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Sallie Cross, Lawrence, for water color. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mr. G. F. Cannon, Lawrence, for pen- 
manship. 
1.00. Gratuity, to L. Florence Cammett, Amesbury, oil 

painting. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Woodford, Lawrence, for china 

S }ainting. 
2.00. Giatuity, to W. H. Plummer, Lawrence, for oil 

painting. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Henrietta Safford, Lawrence, for oil 

painting. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Henrietta Safford, Lawrence, for china 

painting. 
1.0 . Gratuity, to Henrietta Safford, Lawrence, for crayon 

painting. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Howard I. Smith, Lawrence, for 

oil painting. 



74 

2.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. F. Whitti.'dge, Lawrence, for 
china painting. 

1.50. Gratuity, to E. 0. Woodfoid, Lawrence, for ( bina 
painting. 

1.00. Gratuity, to E. 0„ Woodluid, Lawrence, for oil 
painting. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. A. R. Sanborn, Lawrence, for oil 
painting. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Kate M. Clark, Lawrence, for china 
painting. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Carrie Wainwright, Lawrence, for china 
painting. 

l.OO. Gratuity, to G. Copp, Lawrence, for oil painting. 

1.00. Gratuity, to the Enterprise Portrait Co., Lawrence; 
for exhibit. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Clara Hood, Lawrence, for china paint- 
ing. 
50c. Gratuity, to Miss Morrison, Lawrence, for pen and 
ink linen. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Amanda French, Methuen, for oil paint- 
ing. 
50c. Gratuity, to Edmund Ketchum, Lawrence, for water 
color. 

1.00. Gratuity, to W. H. Allen, Lawrence, for pastel por- 
trait. 

1.50. Gratuity, to Samuel Hogle, Lawrence, for frames. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Charlotte Swan, Methuen, for oil paint- 
ing. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Charlotte Swan, Methuen, for china 
painting. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. E. F. Clark, Lawrence, for 
china painting. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. R. Stanley, Lawrence, for china 
painting. 

1.25. Gratuity, to Bessie Swan, Methuen, for china paint- 
ing. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Thomas H. Murray, Lawrence, for 
oil painting. 



75 

1.00. Gratuity, to Mrt?. H. Lyford, Lawrence, for oil 
painting. 

The committee would express the gratification afforded 
by tlie arrangements for the exhibition, and tender thanks 
to the city government, who cheerfully, though at great in- 
convenience, removed furniture, draperies, &c., from their 
commodious hall. The art exhibition was thereby unified, 
a critical examination rendered easy, and visitors were en- 
abled to perceive details, so desirable to those in quest of 
profit, as well as pleasure. 

Worthy of especial mention was the case of china en- 
tered by Mrs. \V. H. Giles, of Lawrence, who requested 
that it should receive no award. Its superiority was mani- 
fest to all, and we feel that hearty thanks are due, espec- 
ially from amateurs, for such an incitement to effort. 

The remainder of the exhibit, with the exception of Mrs. 
C. F. Whittridge's porcelain, and a water color painting by 
Miss Sallie Cross, vvas so uniformly meritorious that it was 
found exceedingly difficult to apportion $50 among forty- 
four exhibitors, giving not less than fifty cents, nor more 
than three dollars to one person. 

The award to Mr. W, R. Plummer of Lawrence, two 
dollars, the highest, was based on the assurance that he 
had never received instruction. 

The award to Mr. S. Hogle of Lawrence, for frames, was 
based on the artistic ornamentation with a composition dis- 
covered by him. 

A platter, entered by Mr. G. H. Tuttle of North Ando- 
ver, which was at the first fair, seventy-one years ago, at- 
tracted much attention, as did many other pieces of great 
age, which had been kindly loaned. 

Susan P. Boynton, Mrs. George W. Russell, Bessie 
Swan, Alice Gray BVster — Committee. 



76 

CHILDREN'S WORK. 

The Committee on Children's Work have attended to 
tlieir duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 
^2.00. Second premium, to Beulah I. Lee, Methuen, for 

paper cutter and two dolls. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Holland Little, Haverhill, for sofa pil- 
low. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Bertha Merrill, Lawrence, for crochet 

skirt. 
75c Gratuity, to Eva Welton, Methuen, for work bag, 

bureau scarf and splasher. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mary E. Cotter, Lawrence, for apron 

and pair of drawers. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mary Brewster, Lawrence, for lamp 

mat. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mary Brewster, Lawrence, for tidy. 
50c. Gratuity, to Sadie Taylor, Lawrence, for apron. 

Alice M. Russell, Mrs. L. R. Curjier, Mrs. G. L. Burn- 
ham — Committee. 



MANUFACTURES AND GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 
The Committee on Manufactures and General Merchan- 
dise have attended to their duty, and respectfully report to 
the Secretary that they have made the following awards : 
$1.00. Gratuity, to George A. Mori is, Lawrence, for case 

of horse shoes. 
50c. Gratuity, to J. L. Wales, Haverhill, for three chairs. 
3.00, Gratuity, to M. E. Austin & Co., Lawrence, for case 

of hardware, case of tools, case of cutlery. 
50c. Gratuity, to George A. Rogers, No. Andover, for 

copy of farm account book. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Scollay & Ruth, Lawrence, for diamond 

metal polish. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Byron Trull & Co., Lawrence, for car- 
pet sweepers. 



11 

50c. Gratuity, to Robert B. Smith, North Andover, for 
two tables. 

3.00. Gratuity, to Butler File Co., Lawrence, for case of 
files. 

3.00. Gratuity, to H. B. Robinson, Lawrence, for case of 

confectionery. 
50c. Gratuity, to E. H. McDuffee, Lawrence, for loom. 

3.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Howard Smith, Lawrence, for 
case of celuloid goods. 

1.00. Gratuity, to William Sellars, Haverhill, for portable 
hot water heater. 

2.00. Gratuity, to Hugo Burtt, Lawrence, for case of jew- 
elry. 

Diplomas, awarded to the Pacific, Arlington, and Everett 
Mills, for the extensive and beautiful exhibition 
of the production of their mills. 
The committee also desire to make special mention to 

the Altantic Mills, for its fine and valuable display of 

goods. 

The display of the Pemberton Mills was also especially 

notable. 

Diploma, to the Russell Paper Co., of Lawrence, for dis- 
play of paper goods. 

Diploma, to Craighead & Kintz, Ballardvale, for bronze 
goods. 

Diploma, to Wright Manufacturing Co., Lawrence, for 
Stearns braids. 

Diploma, to Briggs & Allen Manufacturing Co., for display 
of mantles. 
Geo. E. Herrick, John H. George, Bertha H. Chandler, 

W. H. GW^—Commiilee. 



GRANGE EXHIBIT. 

The Committee on Granges have attended to their duty, 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 
$40. Firyt premium, to the Andover Grange, for exhibit. 



78 

830. Second premium, to the Methuen Grange, lor exhibit. 
S20. Thii-d premium, to tlie Noith Andover Orange, for 

exhil)it. 
$10. Fourth premium, to the West Boxford Grantre. for 

exhihit. 
$10. Gratuity, to the Haverhill Grange, for exhibit. 

Sherman Nelson, Asa T. Newhall, Mrs. David Warren, 
Francis H. Appleton — Committee. 



THE GRANGE EXBIBIT OF 1891. 

The Trustees, at a special meeting in Februar3^ 1891, de- 
cided to offer four prizes of $10, -SSO, -$20 and flO, respective- 
ly, for exhibits by the different Granges in Essex County, 
to include all fruit, vegetables and domestic manufactures 
that were exhibited in any other department in Exhibition 
Hall. I believe that I am correct in saying that a " Grange" 
is a local branch of the " Patrons of Husbandry," which is 
an organization for mutual benefit among farmers and covers 
a considerable part of the United States. 

The whole basement of a church, adjoining the Exhibition 
Hall, was used for this purpose, and a most interesting and 
creditable exhibit was there displayed. It was a notable 
exhibit. 

By the most recent list at my command, I find in Essex 
County, there are granges in Amesbury, North Andover, 
Ipswich, West Newbury, Haverhill, Methuen, Merrimac, 
Andover and Topsfield. 

Of these Andover, Methuen, North Andover, West 
Boxford, and Haverhill made exhibitions and were awarded 
prizes after careful examination by the Committee, in the 
order named. 

Stepping into the vestibule of the building, where these 
granges made their display, we will pass through a door on 
the right into the largest of these rooms, where, on the right, 
or street side, was the Andover display, opposite the door 
West Boxford was located, while on the left side was the 



79 

Haverhill exhibit ; then, countermarching to the left, we 
enter by double-doors the room containing the North An- 
dover grange by itself; while to our left again, and at left 
of the vestibule, was the third room filled by the Methuen 
grange. 

The exhibits were placed with much care and taste, at- 
tracting many people during the two days of the Fair. The 
vegetables and fruits were judiciously selected, and flowers 
and decorated articles were numerous and well placed. 
The needlework and decorative painting on china, silk, etc., 
showed practice and study, and proved that the more intel- 
ligently prepared works of art were understood in our 
county, and the increasing appreciation of them in the 
county at large is known to our Essex County citizens, 
students and artists. 

The members of these granges showed that they had 
been united in their efforts to obtain a good collection of the 
proper articles, which is not difficult under such circum- 
stances. 

These displays were instructive in many ways to our 
citizens on account of the quality and varied character of 
the several exhibits; on account of proof that united effort is 
sure to bring a good degree of success; and as showing our 
people what the farmers of the several towns in our county 
can do for the credit of their home, if the members will unite 
under committees in the several places to send loads of 
home products to our annual show. 

We need to make special efforts to bring about the best 
results. Our Society has the highest of reputations in 
the State and we must value it highly and preserve and 
advance it. 

In Worcester, the present year, a liberal agriculturist 
desiring to encourage good farming offered prizes of gener- 
ous amounts for exhibits of collections of a certain farm 
product, and the granges of the same neighborhood decided 
to exhibit like collections of the same article near by and at 
about the same time. There were ten entries for the ten 



8o 

prizes, and a considerable larger number at the grange s 
hall. Both displays have been reported to me as being fine. 

1 think we here see again proof of the great value to the 
individual of organized effort, and also the same to the public. 

In union there certainly is strength. 

This is certainly a lesson for our own members to ever 
have before them in their work, and in it lies every possi- 
bility for success. 

Our Fairs, our Institutes, our usefulness to our State 
Board of Agriculture, to our Agricultural College and Exper- 
iment stations, and their value to us as agriculturists, de- 
pends directly upon our members working together for 
good results in all these directions. 

We also have in our county and promoting the object of 
our society : — Farmer's Clubs, or Horticultural and Land- 
scape Improvement Societies, in Lynn, Salem, Marblehead 
and Swampscott, Gloucester, Beverly, North Andover, West 
Peabody, Rowley, West Newbury and Danvers, with prob- 
ably others that are at present unknown to the writer, and 
not on record at office of the State Board of Agriculture. 

The Essex County Poultry Association also exists and at 
one time was active when there were special demands for 
its work. 

But the granges that exhibited at Lawrence set us an 
example at the Fair of 1891 in Lawrence, by which our 
society should profit through our members. 

Let a noble effort be made next year, in all directions, to 
fill our halls with the products of the farms from all over 
Essex County ; let each locality send, by united and indi- 
vidual effort, teams filled with such as we would attract by 
our premium list; and in the same proportion let our j)eople 
flock together to renew and enlarge that useful acquain- 
tance-ship which is peculiarly intimate among the agricul- 
turists of old Essex. 

We should indeed extend our congratulations to our 
members of the Granges who succeeded so well this year, 
and commend their example of the value of united action 
to attain good results to our members in general. 



8i 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON IMPROVING WASTE 

LAND. 

The Committee on Improving Waste Land have attended 
to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 
$15.00. First premium, to C. K. Ordway & Son, West 
Newbury. 
10.00. Second premium, to C. Moynihan, Newbury. 

STATEMENT OF C. K. ORDWAY & SON. 

In 1888 we cut off the wood and brush and blowed out 
the stumps, turned the water in a different course, made a 
dam at the outlet of stone that it might not wash. We 
filled the creek that was ten feet wide with dirt. It was 
planted the first year without manure or fertilizer with po- 
tatoes and corn fodder. The cost of the work that was done 
was one hundred dollars. 



1889. 



1890. 



1891. 









Dr. 


The cost of work clearing land, 




$100.00 


Cost of 5 cords manure. 






25.00 


Ploughing and harrowing. 






4.00 


Planting, 






2.00 


Cutting and hoeing. 






4.00 


Harvesting, 






3.00 


Seed, 






.50 


Six cords of manure, 






30.00 


Cabbage seed, 






1.00 


Spreading manure, ploughing and 


harrowing. 


4.00 


Planting, 






2.00 


Harvesting, 






3.00 


Did not use any manure or fertilizer, 


sowed 




it with rye and grass seed, 








Ploughing and harrowing. 






3.00 


One and one-half bushels rye, 






1.50 



Cost of improvement, 



$183.00 



82 

Cr. 

1888. By ten cords of wood, $20.00 

Twenty-five bushels potatoes, 17.50 

One ton corn fodder, 10.00 

1880. By thirty bushels corn, 22.50 

Two tons of cabbage, 40.00 

One ton of stover, 8.00 

1890. Cabbage sold, 100.00 
Two tons of stover, 16.00 

1891. Twenty bushels rye, 23.00 
2495 lbs. of straw, 17.47 

Improvement receipts, $284.47 

Net profit, $101.47 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. K. Okdway & Son. 



STATEMENT OF C. MOYNIHAN. 

I commenced the improvement of the pasture seven years 
ago, it being covered by bushes of various kinds ; first I cut 
the bushes, next I ploughed the land. The first year I 
raised squashes, the crop yielding well ; I put two cords of 
manure on four acres. The second year I planted it with 
potatoes and squashes, using about sixteen cords of stable 
manure, and I got 400 bushels of potatoes and five tons of 
squashes. Third year the crop was onions, potatoes, cab- 
bage and carrots. I had 200 bushels of onions, 300 bushels 
of potatoes, between fifty and sixty dozen cabbage, two 
tons carrots. Fourth year all in corn, hoed it level and 
sowed to grass; had a good yield. Fifth, sixth and seventh 
years grass, had by estimate six tons of hay on the four 
acres each year. 

Respectfully, 

Cornelius Moynihan. 

Geo. W. Adams, J. F. Smith, Charles 0. Cummings — 
Committee. 



83 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON ROOT CROPS. 

The Committee on Root Crops have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report nine entries from eight com- 
petitors as follows : 

E. C. Little, foreman of " Crystal Lake " farm, Haverhillj 
crop of onions. 

John H. George, Methuen, crop of onions. 

Chas. C. Blunt, Andover, crop of parsnips. 

Henry A. Ilayward, Andover, crop of cabbage. 

Isaac H. Laney, Methuen, crop of potatoes. 

James Manning, Topsfield, crops of onions and ruta baga 
turnips. 

David Warren, Swampscott, crop of squashes. 

Cornelius Moynihan, Newbury, crop of ruta baga turnips. 

The first visit we made on Sept. 8 to see the crops of 
onions. Mr. Little met us in the city and we were driven 
by him about four miles out to the Crystal Lake farm, which 
is owned by Mr. Marsh. The onions were not all dried down 
but were making good progress ; they were on dark heavy 
loam where a mixed crop was grown the year before. They 
had suffered some from blight but were of good size and 
promised a good crop, and the committee regret that Mr. 
Little did not send in a statement. 

After being hospitably entertained at dinner by Mr. and 
Mrs. Little we were driven by him to Methuen to see Mr. 
George's crop of onions. The crop was grown on a piece 
of reclaimed swamp land. Rows twelve inches apart, and 
at the time of our visit were all dried down, no scullions. 
no small ones. The piece was perfectly free from w^eeds. 
It is seldom so fine a crop of onions can be seen in this sec- 
tion. 

The crop of potatoes entered by Mr. Laney is on land 
near Mr. George, but on examination was found not to 
contain the amount of land required (one half acre), and 
we did not feel justified to take it into consideration. 

On Sept. 19 the committee visited Mr. Chas. C. Blunt, 



84 

of Andover, and looked at his crop of parsnips. The crop 
looked ver}^ thrifty and were about one half bottomed at 
the time of our visit. Mr. Blunt makes a specialty of rais- 
ing parsnips, and markets the greater part of them in the 
spring. Mr. Jos. Blunt was kind enough to drive us over 
to Mr. Hayward's. The crop of cabbage] looked thrifty 
and showed that they had plenty of plant food to feed upon. 

On Sept. 21, we went to Topsfield to see Mr. Manning's 
crop of onions, they were grown on a side hill, dark, shal- 
low loam. Mr. Manning bad taken advantage of the fine 
weather and pulled tbem before we got there but they were 
lying on the ground and were well dried and of good size. 

October 2nd, we went to Swampscott to see Mr. War- 
ren's crop of squashes, which we found well ripened, even 
^n size and very pure in stock 5 the crop was on light, grav- 
elly loam. As Mr. Warren took us about his farm, we were 
shown a fine piece of onions grown on low meadow land, 
of good quality and size, but they were not entered for pre- 
mium. 

On October 13, we again visited Mr. Manning of Tops- 
field, to see his crop of rata baga turnips ; they were planted 
on a side hill, gravelly loam and had suffered to such an 
extent from drought that the committee did not feel justi- 
fied in awarding him a premium. 

On the same day, we visited Mr. Moynihan of Newbury ; 
his crop of turnips as grown on a piece of reclaimed 
pasture, they were of good quality and of very even size, 
they were planted so far apart in the rows and many places 
were not transplanted, therefore he did not receive as large 
a crop as he otherwise would have. 

We have awarded the premiums as follows : 
$10. First premium, to John H. George, Methuen, for 
crop of onions. 

$5. Second premium, to James Manning, Topsfield, for 

crop of onions, 
'flu. First premium, to Chas. C. Blunt, Andover, for crop 
of parsnips. 



85 

110. First premium, to Henry A. Hay ward, Andover, for 

crop of cabbage. 
•110. First premium, to David Warren, Swampscott, for 

crop of squash. 
$10. First premium, to C. Moynihan, Newbury, for crop 

of ruta baga turnips. 
0. L, Carlton, John W. Frederick, Edward A. Fuller, 
Wilbur J. Munroe, John Perkins — Committee. 



STATEMENT OF JOHN H. GEORGE, METHUEN, CONCERNING 
A CROP OF ONIONS RAISED 1891. 

The crop of 1889 was grass, the crop of 1890 was pota- 
toes, manured with one ton of Stockbridge potato manure 
to the acre, the soil is peat meadow, ploughed in the fall of 
1890 about four inches deep. At the same time ploughed 
in about ten cords of manure to the acre, measured as cor- 
rectly as could be done by throwing on to the cart without 
treading, on one-half the piece was put horse and cow 
manure, on which had been a hog, on one-half of the rest 
was put dry horse manure as drawn from a village stable, 
on the other quarter (except two rods square on which no 
manure of any kind was put) was spread cow manure 
drawn out and spread as made ; the value of the manure 
was probably six dollars per cord on the piece. 

The land in the spring was brushed with a brush harrow ; 
dragged and sowed with three and three quarters pounds of 
yellow Danvers onion seed from Peter Henderson & Co.'s 
seed house, New York City. The seed, I was assured by 
the firm, was tested and of good germination, and I should 
think every seed grew, came up as fine a stand as I ever 
saw; the maggots thinned them some on one end where the 
onions grew to immense size, eighty of them filHng a bush- 
el ; they were not thinned at all by hand as I make it a 
practice not to thm onions no matter how thick they grow, 
believing it spoils the crop to do so. The yield was 5G4 
bushels of very fine onions on 24,000 feet of land, of which 



86 

I have sold about 400 bushels at an average of seventy 
cents per bushel. The cost is as follows : 

Crop of onions. J^>- 

5 cords of manure at 16, ^30 00 

Ploughing, 1 horse and man, ^ day, 1 50 

Bushing and dragging, man and horse, ^ day, 1 50 
Sowing seed one-half day, 75 

Hoeing five times, 3 75 

Weeding four times, boy labor 16 days, 12 00 

Cutting up and raking out, 1 day, 1 50 

Picking up, topping and marketing, 5c. per bush., 28 20 
Interest and taxes on land, 6 00 

3i lbs. seed at 81.20, 4 50 

Cr. 
By 564 bushels onions at 70 cts., |394 80 

Profit on crop, 305 10 

Respectfully submitted, 

John H. George. 

I hereby certify that I measured the land on which grew 
the crop of onions entered by John H. George of Methuen, 
with the Essex Agricultural Society and it measured 24,000 
square feet. 

I. H. Laney. 



STATEMENT OF JAMES MANNING, TOPSFIELD, ONION CROP. 

I had on the half acre of land entered for premium, 342 
bushels of onions of 52 pounds to the bushel. 

I put three cords of stable manure on the half acre and 
ploughed it in four inches deep, sowed the seed the 23rd 
day of April, at the rate of six pounds to the acre. 

Dr. 
To three cords manure at $6.00, il8 00 

Cost of seed, three pounds, 9 00 

Ploughing, 1 75 

Sowing seed, 75 

Cost of weeding three times, 15 00 

144 60 



8? 

Or. 

By 342 bushels onions at 80 cts., -$278 60 
Net profit, 229 10 

Respectfully submitted, 

James Manning. 

This is to certify that I measured for Mr. James Man- 
ning 21,780 square feet of land out of his onion bed, or 
one-half acre. 

John H. Towne. 



STATEMENT OF CHAS. C. BLUNT, ANDOVER. 

The land occupied by the crop of parsnips which I enter 
for premium is a light loam with a gravelly subsoil. The 
crop in 1889 was parsnips with barn manure at the rate of 
seven cords per acre. 

The crop of 1890 was onions, no barn manure was used 
but 1000 lbs. of phosphate. The land was ploughed in the 
fall of 1890 twelve inches deep, and barn manure eight 
cords to the acre, spread on and harrowed in, cross ploughed 
in the spring (no phosphate used this season), harrowed, 
brushed and raked, and sowed on the 15th day of April 
with four pounds of seed. As I usually leave a part of the 
crop in the ground over winter, as spring dug parsnips 
bring a good price, I have selected several rows, measured 
and weighed fifty-five pounds to the bushel, and the yield 
was at the rate of two hundred and eighty-eight bushels on 
the one-half acre. 

COST OF CROP. 

Preparation of land, $-3 75 

Manure four cords, 24 00 

Hoeing, weeding and thinning, 20 00 

Seed and sowing, 3 00 

Harvesting, 10 00 

$60 75 



8S 

288 bushels parsnips at 90 cts,, 8259 20 

Profit, ^198 -15 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. C. Blunt. 

This certifies that I have measured a tract of land hav- 
ing on it a crop of parsnips owned by Chas. C. Blunt of 
Andover and entered by him for a premium, and find it 
contains eighty square rods. Samuel Thayer. 

Having measured a portion of the parsnips on the above 
piece, the yield is at the rate of two hundred and eighty- 
eight bushels on one-half acre, of fifty pounds to the bushel. 

Samuel Thayer. 



STATEMENT OF HENRY A. HAYWARD, ANDOVER. 

The crop of cabbages which I enter for premium was 
srrown on one acre of land. The land is a dark loam with 
clay subsoil. It had been in grass for ten years, the sward 
was turned under, ploughed eight inches deep. Eleven 
cords of stable manure (measured) was spread on and har- 
rowed in. Ames fertilizer was used in the hill, nine hun- 
dred pounds to the acre, planted the 20th day of June in 
hills about twenty inches apart. Seed used David Warren's 
Stone Mason, one-half pound, afterward thinned to one 
plant to a hill, cultivated twice, hoed twice, weeded once, 
put in beds the last of October. 

COST OF CROP. 
Ploughing land. 
Manure at $7 per cord, 
Furrowing and preparing hill, 
Planting, 

Cultivating and hoeing twice, 
Fertilizer, 
Harvesting, 
Seed, 

Total cost of crop. 







$5 


00 






7.7 


00 






2 


50 






1 


50 






10 


00 






14 40 






12 


00 






1 


50 






193 


90 


Henry 


A. 


Hayward. 



89 

This certifies that I estimate the cabbage raised by 
Henry A. H«yward, on one acre of land to be four hundred 
barrels or twenty tons. 

S. H. Bailey. 

I hereby certify that I have measured a field of cabbage 
for Henry A. Hayward, entered for premium and find it 
contains one acre. 

C. C. Blunt. 



STATEMENT OF DAVID WARREN, SWAMPSCOTT. 

The crop of Essex Hybrid squashes which I enter for 
premium was raised on land that is a gravelly loam, 
the crop of 1889 was cabbage seed, 1890 potatoes. 
Stable manure applied each year at the rate of eight 
cords to the acre. The present year I ploughed it about 
six inches deep in the spring. Stable manure put on with 
Kemp's spreader, eight cords to the acre, wheel harrowed 
in, furrowed out, eight feet apart each way, planted four 
seeds to a hill the first week in May, cultivated three 
times, hoed twice. 



COST OF CROP. 




Rent of land. 


$8 00 


Ploughing, 


2 50 


Manure, eight cSrds at $4.00, 


32 00 


Furrowing, 


1 50 


Planting, 


1 00 


Cultivating and hoeing. 


6 00 


Harvesting, 


6 00 


Seed, 


2 00 



159 00 

I had fifteen loads and weighed three of them which 
averaged 2185 pounds to a load, making 32,775 pounds of 
marketable squashes. 

David Warren. 



90 

This certifies that a piece of land measured by me con- 
tained two hundred and one rods of squashes, raised by- 
David Warren of Swampscott. 

Allen Ro\ye. 



STATEMENT OF CORNELIUS MOYNIHAN, NEWBURY. 

The crop of ruta baga turnips that I enter for premium 
grew on new land broke up this spring. I put on at the 
rate of seven cords of barn cellar manure' to the acre," 
spread broadcast and harrowed, in. I then opened furrows 
three feet apart and filled them in as though I were cov- 
ering potatoes, and sowed the seed by hand. I weighed 
or had weighed, three separate baskets, sixty pounds to 
the bushel and measured the rest in the same basket. 
There were 304 bushels of good merchantable turnips on 
one-half acre. 

COST OF CROP. 
Ploughing and leveling, 
Manure three and one-half cords, 
Seed and sowing same. 
Cultivating once, 
Weeding and thinning twice, 
Harvesting, 



Value of 301 bushels turnips at 35 cts., 



,*4 


00 


21 


00 


1 


50 


1 


00 


6 


00 


7 


00 


840 50 


106 


40 



Profit, 



)5 90 



Respectfully, 



C. MOYNIHAN. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON ORNAMENTAL 

TREES. 
To the Trustees of the Essex Agricultural Society : 

Gentlemen:— On June 30th, the chairman of your 
committee on forest trees received notice from our secre- 



91 

taiy. under date of June 29tli, that Mr. James Flint of 
Middleton, had entered his planting of trees for premium. 

Your chairman immediately wrote to Mr. Flint to make 
an eailv appointment to visit liis home, but affliction in 
Mr. Flint's family made delay necessar}^, and for various 
reasons, the vinsit to his trees was necessarily postponed 
until Thursday, October 8th. 

The morning of this day was cold and stormy but your 
chairman made a second visit to Mr. Flint's, the first visit 
having been an infoi-mal inspection, Mr. Flint's home be- 
ins; within driving distance. No others of the committee 
were on the ground at the appointed hour, and the follow- 
ing report is entirely by your chairman. 

Mr. Flint's house is not far from the Paper Mills station 
on the Salem and Lowell Branch of the Boston and Maine 
system, just beyond that lovely bit of scenery which 
greets the eye as the bridge over the Ipswich river at 
that point is crossed. It is seldom that a prettier bit of 
such scenery, trees overhanging a lovel}^ river, is found 
this side of the mountains. 

The house is at the meeting of three roads and affords 
excellent opportunit}^ for varied planting and treatment. 
One road leads to Palem about eight miles, one to North 
Reading three miles, and one to Middleton Village two 
and one half miles. 

Mr. Flint's efforts and interest in the protection and 
decoration of his place by trees, began a number of years 
ago, and he takes great pleasure in them. 

There were over forty rock maples along parts of the 
roadside looking well, that had been set thirty to forty 
years and which came from New Hampshire. 

On the road leading towards Middleton, there were 
about thirty Honey Locusts which were raised from seed 
that Mr. Flint planted. 

He had twenty elms and two lindens. 

Mr. Flint sets an example well worth noting when he 
plants pine trees on the windward side of the road to 
keep back the snow in the winter season. It seems to the 



92 

writer that this grand tree of New England is also appro- 
priate as a roadside tree on the north, or northerly side of 
roads for such purposes as Mr. Flint thus emphasizes ; and 
especially for the reason that in the spring, when it is the 
season for the roads to thaw out, these beautiful ever- 
greens can not by their shade hinder the process of 
nature. 

Deciduous trees on the more sunny sides, and ever- 
green on the other sides of roads that are in service all 
the year round seems a wise disposition of natural beauty 
of the kind we have under discussion. 

There was a picturesque pine tree in his yard, that he 
set when young, or about sixty years ago, that measures 
around near the ground about nine feet, and is over sev- 
enty feet in height ; there was also a large willow that 
he helped set about sixty years ago which measures near 
the ground, sixteen and a half feet, while five feet higher 
it measures fifteen and a half feet. 

A fine ash tree that stands in front of his house has the 
name of being about one hundred years old, and meas- 
ures about thirteen feet, and is something over seventy- 
five feet high. 

There were several fir balsams trimmed into shape, and 
six to seven feet high. 

He had about forty rods of hemlock and arborvitae 
hedges. Mr. Flint's experience is in favor of the hemlock 
hedges, which he considers the more hardy. 

Your committee recommend the award of $10 to Mr. 
Flint for " ornamental trees, ten or more set on any street, 
road or farm, and cared for five years." 

The whole subject of tree culture, and the judicious or- 
namentation of and protection to homesteads and farms, 
by the proper disposition of trees is being every year re- 
garded as of increasing importance. 

Much personal satisfaction comes, and is not long in 
coming, from the plantings care and enjoyment of the ma- 
tured trees and shrubs. 

In the writer's case not a tree existed immediately 



about his house in Peabody, when it was built in 1874, 
but to-day it is well protected by many kinds of trees 
which were all very small trees set in nursery rows by 
him in 1869, when he left Cambridge and commenced his 
agricultural work. 

Some of his trees as stated in last year's transactions, 
are twenty-four and more feet high, and afford delightful 
shade or ample protection from winds or snow. 

This is only inserted here as an encouragement to others 
to plant and enjoy the results while yet young. At least 
the writer does not find reason to consider himself old as 
yet, and claims that his years are proof of the statement. 

His trees are not in what is called good ground and 
even with this condition not in their favor they have 
proved a success. With good land greater success can be 
readily attained. 

There are two important principles to guard against in 
the care and planting of all trees : — plant sufficiently 
close to have the trees protect each other well while 
young, and later cut out so that the individual trees shall 
not interfere in their growth, so as to negative the real 
object in planting, but allow them room to develop their 
natural beauty. 

The adoption of this principle has been largely the 
reason why the farms and country houses of old England, 
have by the addition of natural causes, given that land 
the value and reputation which it has for landscape, 
beauty and good pasturage. 

The beauty of the individual trees at Mr. Flint's proves 
the force of this reasoning. 

Respectfully submitted for committee, 

Francis H. Appleton, President. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON STRAWBERRIES 
AND OTHER SMALL FRUITS. 
The Committee on Strawberries and other small fruits 
have attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the 
Secretary tliat they have made the following awards : 



94 

ilO. First premium, to George J. Peircc, of West Newbury, 

for crop of strawberries. 
$10. First premium, to Daniel Stiles, North Andover, for 

crop of blackberries. 
Chas. P. rfavory, Augustus Verry, Elias Andrews, Warren 
K. Cole — Committee. 



STATEMENT OF GEORGE J. PEIRCE, AVEST NEWUUKY. 

The [)iece of land that I enter for premium for straw- 
berry crop was a wet swampy piece in my pasture, never 
cultivated before. In May, 1889, we mowed all the bushes, 
and ploughed it with four oxen and two horses, clearing off 
all rocks, bushes, etc., did some ditching and laid some 
tile to drain it, and sowed a part of it with oats, and plant- 
ed part for a kitchen garden; had about four dozen cabbages, 
a few cucumbers, summer squashes, etc. In 1890 I 
ploughed and prepared ray land for strawberries, put on 
three cords of manure, harrowed it in, and brushed and set 
the plants of the following varieties: Jessie, Bubuck, Cres- 
ent, Belmont, Prince of Berr\', Sharpless and May King, 
Commenced picking June 15th, ihiished July 21st. 

COST OF CRor. 

1889. Mowing bushes one day, S^LSO 

Ploughing two days, 16.00 

Clearing off rocks, bushes, etc., 4.00 

Ditching and drain tile, 20.00 

'1890. Ploughing, 4.00 

Manure, three cords, 12.00 

Harrowing, 1.00 

Strawberry plants, 5000, at #3.00, 15.00 

Setting and trimming three da^'s, 4.50 

Hoeing four times, 12.00 

Salt hay for mulching, lA tons, 12.00 

1391. Uncovering the bed, 1.00 

Mulching them in the rows, 1.00 

Picking berries, 2 cts. per qt, 93.74 

For marketing at 1 ct. \ er qt., 46.87 

Total exj)ense, •'ii=244.01 



95 

Cr. 
By 6,000 plants sold and used, $18.00 

" 4,687 quarts of berries, at an average 

price of 13 cts., 609.31 

Net profit, $346.70 

This is to certify that I measured the land entered by 
George J. Pierce, for premium on strawberry crop, and it 
contains one hundred and eleven rods. 

William Merrill. 



STATEMENT OF DANIEL STILES, NO. ANDOVER. 

The crop of blackberries, which I enter for premium was 
grown on three-eighths of an acre of land, which has been in 
bearing for several years. Variety, Wachusett. 

EXPENSE OF CROP, 1891. 

To 200 lbs. fertilizer, -$4.00 

Ploughing and Cultivating, .90 

Cutting out old stalks, l.;iO 

Picking 1116 qts. berries at li cts per qt., 16.74 



$23.14 



Cr. 

By 1116 qts. of blackberries at an average of 8 cts. 

per qt. at the door, $89.28 

Net profit, 166.14 



RASPBERRY CROP. 

The following statement by Rev. L. H. Sheldon, Andover, 
is printed, there not being land enough to come under the 
rules for a premium. 

Size of raspberry beds seven square rods. Variety of 
berries, " Cathlert " and " Ever Bearing." Planted in 
rows six feet apart. Bed ploughed and furrowed and vege- 



96 

tables raised between rows of raspberries the first year of 
planting, in 1890. 

This year ran a cultivator between the rows in the early 
spring. Put all my sifted coal ashes from day to day under 
the hen roost during the winter and this spring put two 
horse cart loads on the bed. Called the loads worth $2 
each; cost of cultivating the bed fifty cents. Clipped tops 
of vines this spring, leaving them three and four feet high. 

Began picking July 10 and finished August 19. No. of 
baskets gathered, 356i, or 11 bushels, 4i quarts. Price 
from 25 to 12^ cents per basket. 8old 305| baskets for 
$51.85. Used in the family 51^ quarts. 

A large proportion of the crop was sold at wholesale, 
direct from the field, or to neighbors coming to the house 
after them, none peddled by the owner. 

Respectfully submitted. 

L. H. Sheldon. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON GRAIN CROPS. 

The Committee on Grain Crops respectfully report that 

there were six entries, and we recommend the following 

premiums : 

ilO. First premium, to C. K. Ordway & Son of West 
Newbury, for oat crop. 

$10. First premium, to Henry M. Killam, of West Box- 
ford, for corn crop. 
$5. Second premium, to C. K. Ordway «& Son, of West 
Newbury, for corn crop. 

$10. First premium, to Abel Stickney, of Groveland, for 
hay crop. 

$10. First premium, to J. M. Pearl, of West Boxford, 
for barley crop. 

Owing to an accident to the threshing machine and an 
unusual delay in receiving repairs from New York, Mr. 



97 

Pearl was not able to complete his statement before Nov. 
1st, but the committee were well satisfied that his crop 
was worthy of the society's premium and we recommend 
it to him on condition that he furnish a full report in sea- 
son for publication in the Transactions of the Society for 
the present year. 

Mr. Pearl's crop was a very handsome one, perfectly free 
from weeds. He makes a specialty' of raising an extra 
quality of English hay for market and prefers to seed 
down with barley. He also showed the committee a field 
of corn that we then thought would be worthy to compete 
for the premium. 

At Messrs. Ordway & Son's, we viewed crops of rye, 
oats and corn. The r3^e was raised on land which has 
been reclaimed from an almost worthless condition to a 
very fine piece of tillage land. The crop was well worthy 
of premium, but the committee regret that on measuring 
the land it was found to contain a trifle short of an acre 
and therefore could not come within the rules of the 
society. The oat crop was a remarkably good one for so 
large a piece ; the whole field of over four acres averaging 
fifty-eight and a fraction bushels per acre. Messrs. Ord- 
way use no manure when seeding with oats, but manure 
well the year before and in that way avoid raising a heavy 
crop of straw at the expense of the grain crop. 

Messrs. Ordway and Killam both have heavy crops of 
corn. Mr. Killam's field contained three and a half acres 
and was a very even piece and we do not think he over- 
estimates it stating that an acre would average as much 
as the portion which was weighed. It was the heaviest 
piece of corn for its size we ever saw, there being twin 
ears of large size upon nearly every stalk. Messrs. Ord- 
way have the advantage of easier laud to work and make 
a much larger showing of profit, but we are well aware 
that a farmer's profit largely depends upon his ability to 
figure it out. But whatever their profit may be, both 
Messrs. Ordway and Killam have raised crops which 



98 

would be a credit to any farmer either east or west, and 
they can find a use for their crops on their own farms and 
we have no doubt that their profit will equal that of many 
farmers who have discarded raising corn and who the 
present year have been marketing vegetables at low prices 
in exchange for high priced western grain. 

Mr. Stickney's hay crop is also one of which any farmer 
could feel proud, he not only has a large yield, 2040 cubic 
feet of a solid bay of hay per acre, making with a second 
crop at least four tons per acre, but the quality of the 
crop is unusually fine for so large a yield. Mr. Stickney 
has literally made two spears of grass to grow, where but 
one grew before all over his farm and we think it fitting 
that such man should be one of the trustees of the Essex 
Agricultural Society, a position which Mr. Stickney has 
held for many years. 

For the committee, 

Daniel A. Carleton, Chairman. 



STATEMENT OF HENKY M. KILLAM, BOXFOED, CORN 

CROP. 

The crop of 1889 was hay, 1500 lbs. to the acre, no 
manure used. The crop of 1890, from 1200 lbs. to 1500 
lbs. of ha}', 200 to 300 lbs., phosphate used to the acre. 
Soil dark loam. 

Ploughed in May, eight inches deep, thoroughly harrowed 
with tooth harro^v. Cost of ploughing and harrowing per 
acre 88.00. Twenty-two loads of manure, thirty bushels to 
the load was used to the acre, fresh from the barn cellar, 
ploughed under. Valued at $2.00 per load. Finished 
planting May 20th. 

Planted by hand three and one-half feet each way, 
variety used " Angel of Midnight." 600 lbs. phosphate to 
the acre, applied in the hill, cost 11.60 per hundred. 
Planted five kernels to the hill, and thinned to four stalks. 
Cost of seed and planting ;$ 4.50. Cultivated three times 



99 

each way and hoed twice. Cost of cultivating and hoeing 
$5.00 per acre. 

The corn was cut and stocked in September, finished 
September 20th. Husked the last week in October. Cost 
of harvesting and husking $14.00. 

I measured five rods, and stocked it strictly by itself on 
September 28, husked the same and weighed it October 26. 
The weight of stover on five rods was 443 lbs., making 
14,176 lbs. to the acre at 15.00 per ton, S35.44. Ears of 
sound corn on five rods 267 lbs., making 213 3-5 bushels 
per acre, at 35 cents per bushel, $74.76. I think at least 
one acre of the field would average as heavy as these five 
rods. 

Cost of ploughing one acre, $8.00 

" Manure, 44.00 

" Phosphate, 9.60 

" Planting, 4.50 

" Hoeing, 5.00 

" Harvesting, 14.00 



Total cost, 




185.10 
Cr. 


5y Value of Stover, 




135.44 


" " " Corn, 




74.76 


Total, 
Profit, 




fllO ^'O 




$25.10 


Respectfully 


submitted. 






Henry M. Killam. 



STATEMEJ^T OF C. K. ORDWAY & SON, CORN CROP. 

The corn was raised on a piece of land that has been in 
grass ten years, and received no manure or fertilizer dui^ 
ing that time. In 1891 was ploughed in April, nine inches 
deep and harrowed, applied five cords of barnyard manure 
spread broadcast and harrowed with a Randall harrow, 
smoothed with a grain drag, marl^ed three and one-half 



lOO 



feet eacli way, planted May 12, using eight quarts of 
corn. There was no fertilizer used on this corn. 



COST OF CROP. 






Dr. 


To ploughing and harrowing. 








$6 00 


Manure, 5 cords, 








25 00 


Spreading manure and harrowing, 






3 00 


Seed and planting, 








1 00 


Hoeing and cultivating, 








5 00 


Topping corn, 








2 00 


Harvesting, 






i 


4 00 


Harvesting stover, < 








2 00 


Cost of crop. 








$48 00 






Or. 




By top stalks. 




$16 00 




The corn weighed 6,650 lbs. or 


95 








bushels shelled corn. 




95 


00 




Stover, 2i- tons. 




18 


00 




Two-thirds of manure in land, 




16 


75 





Value of crop, $145 75 

Profit, $97 75 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. K. Ordway & Son. 

This certifies that I measured the land on which the 
crop of corn was grown, entered for premium by C. K. 
Ordway & Son of West Newbury, and said land contained 
one acre. 

RiCHAED Newell. 



STATEMENT OF OAT CROP. 

1889, the piece was in grass. 

1890, it was ploughed ten inches deep and harrowed, 
six cords of barnyard manure to the acre, spread broad- 
cast, harrowed and planted with corn. 



lOI 

1891, the corn hills were split with a Randall harrow, 
ploughed seven inches deep, harrowed and sowed to oats, 
three bushels to the acre, without manure or fertilizer of 
any kind. Seed, White Dutch oats of my own raising, 
the soil is a clay loam. 

COST OF CROP. 

To ploughing and harrowing, 
" sowing, harrowing and smoothing. 
Seed, oats, 

Cutting and binding with machine. 
Drawing and moving, 
Threshing and winnowing. 

Cost of crop. 

By 7,680 lbs. or 240 bushels oats, 
3 tons of straw at $9.00, 

Profit, 867 25 

Fifty-eight bushels and a fraction per acre. 
Respectfully submitted, 

C. K. Ordway & Son. 

I hereby certify that I have measured the land on 
which the oats entered for premium grew owned by C. K. 
Ordway & Son, and it contains four acres and twenty-two 
rods. 

Richard Newell. 





Dr. 




115 00 


ng, 


5 00 




9 75 




20 00 




5 00 




25 00 




179 79 


6V. 




1120 GO 




27 00 





STATEMENT OF ABEL STICKNEY, GROVELAND, HAY CROP. 

The crop of English hay which I enter for the society's 
premium, was grown on one acre and sixty-four rods of 
land. This land slopes to the northwest, with a c\q,j sub- 
soil. 

The crop for 1889 was barley, sown at the rate of two 



102 

bushels of barley, one bushel of red top, one-half bushel 
of Timothy, and six pounds of clover seed per acre. 
About seven and one-half cords of barnyard manure was 
applied to the whole piece, ploughed under six inches 
deep. The two previous years this land was planted with 
corn, having both years a good crop, about six cords of 
barnyard manure, spread broadcast, and two hundred 
pounds of fertilizer per acre, put in the hill each year. 

The result of the crop of 1889 was a large barley hay 
lodged badly, injured the grass roots some, but as it was 
very wet after the barley was cut, it revived so that a very 
good crop was cut in September. 

In 1890 a large crop of clover hay was secured, nearly 
as much bulk as was cut the present year, also a handsome 
second crop of clover cut in August. 

The crop which your committee had their attention 
called to was cut June 27, mowed by machine and also 
raked by horse, put in cock in the usual way in this vi- 
cinity, spread and put in barn as soon as convenient. 
After the hay was well settled (October 3rd), it contained 
2,856 cubic feet, it being 2,040 cubic feet to the acre or 
twelve and three-fourths feet to the rod. The expense of 
securing this crop was about fifteen dollars. In Septem- 
ber a rowen crop was taken from this land, but owing to 
the dry weather in this part of the county at that time, 
the crop was not large, no manure has been applied to 
this land since the spring of 1889. 

As the committee saw this hay after it was well settled 
and satisfied themselves with the measure and quality, 
you can estimate the weight of the same. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Abel Stickney. 

This is to certify that I measured the land on which the 
above crop of hay grew, and it contained one acre and 
sixty-four rods. 

W. K. Colby. 



I03 



REPORT ON THE TREADWELL FARM. 

It was leased April 1st, for a term of three j^ears with 
a privilege of five years to Mr. L. D. Stan wood, for -^250 
per annum, who occupies the farm as a home which has 
not been done before by tenants for many years. 

The old farmhouse built in colonial times, has been 
shingled and with paint and paper inside presents a very 
comfortable and homelike appearance. 

Mr. Stanwood has put the whole farm in neat and tidy 
condition, quite commendable to the committee in charge. 
He has stocked it with sixteen cows, one bull, four heif- 
ers, two horses, six hogs, sixty fowls and all necessary 
farm implements. 

The crops the past season consist of thirty-five tons of 
hay, one acre of corn, fifty bushels potatoes, two bushels 
cranberries, sixtj^-five barrels of apples, with a suiiiciency 
of garden vegetables. The principal sale from the farm 
has been of milk. 

The experiments required by the committee have proved 
a failure from the fact of the potatoes that were planted 
not coming up on account of faulty seed. The commit- 
tee are pleased with Mr. Stanwood as a tenant. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Bknjamin p. Ware, 

Chairman of Committee. 



REPORT ON NEW MEMBERS. 

The premium awarded to the person who obtains the 
largest number of new members from any town or city in 
the County, up to November 1st, is this year awarded to 
Morris N. Howe, of Lawrence, for thirty-three new 
members. 

The total number of new members to Nov. 1, 1891, was 
eighty-two, including those who by receiving awards of 
seven dollars or upwards, became members under the rule 



I04 

which deducts three dollars from such awards to non- 
members for membershp, which membership is for life, 
without assessments, and entitles the member to a voice 
and vote in the Society's business, and a copy of its annual 
publication of its transactions. The following places fur- 
nished the new members : 

Andover 5, Manchester 1, 

Beverly 2, Methuen 7, 

Bradford 1, Nahant 2, 

Dan vers 1, North Andover 4, 

Essex 1, Rockport 3, 

Georgetown 1, Rowley 1, 

Haverhill 3, Salem 1, 

Lawrence 46, Salisbury 1, 

Sausfus 2. 



REPORT OF THE DELEGATE OF THE STATE 

BOARD OF AGRICULTURE TO THAT 

BOARD OF HIS VISIT TO THE ESSEX 

SOCIETY'S FAIR IN 1890. 

To the State Board of Agriculture. 

Gentlemen: — The delegate regularly appointed to 
attend the fair of the Essex County society, Mr. Harwood, 
of Barre, being unable to attend, I was requested by the 
Secretary to substitute for him. 

The Essex County Agricultural Society held its show 
this year in the town of Beverly, Sept. 23 and 24, and 
were favored with good weather both days. This society,, 
as the Board knows, has no grounds, nor money invested 
in a plant for exhibition purposes. It is a travelling show, 
and by being such it avoids a large expense. I understand 
that not only is it out of debt, but has an endowment 
fund, which together with what it receives from the state, 
enables it to pay fairly good premiums, and to conduct 
the affairs each year without possible loss, whether the 



I05 

weather be favorable or otherwise. In a county like 
Essex, with only one other agricultural society, in a remote 
corner of the county, I am inclined to think that this 
method is the best one. I certainly have never visited a 
fair where more personal interest was taken by the farmers 
in the exhibition than in this county. It was purely an 
old-time agricultural cattle-show, but I regret to say that 
while it is called a cattle show, it is in some respects a 
misnomer, for the cattle were not present in sufficient 
numbers to hardly warrant its classification under this 
head. 

I understand that this is a milk county, and that many 
of the best herds are not exhibited because it would inter- 
fere with the milk business. Also that many of the large 
breeders object to taking their cattle to an exhibition 
where there is no shelter. I suggested that the society 
own a large tent, and why would not this be a good plan 
for all societies of the state that do not have covered 
buildings? If Barnum can exhibit his valuable animals 
all over the country, in all sorts of weather, in tents, there 
is no reason wliy owners of valuable cattle should not be 
willing to exhibit them at cattle shows, provided they are 
sheltered by a good tent or tents, and there is no out-door 
exhibition so attractive as that given under canvas. It 
seems to me that this society could own and transport a 
tent from place to place quite as cheaply as the wooden 
pens which they now employ. 

As will be inferred, the show of cattle was meagre. 
There were some excellent working oxen, and an 
excellent herd from the Russell farm, but I did not see 
the grand cow " Eurotissima," owned by Mr. Daniel 
Appleton, that has beat in the record of the world. Mr. 
Russell's herd is a magnificent one, but it may almost be 
termed a professional herd, for it is exhibited at many 
shows, and is prepared for exhibition. I would like to 
have seen more amateur exhibitors, or rather more farmers 
present with their own stock. 



io6 

The show of horses, especially of colts, was good ; but 
the exhibitors were mostly " horsey '' men. Why docs the 
breeding of horses make a man a jockey, whether he be 
farmer or merchant, minister or layman. ? 

There was a very good show of swine, and an excellent 
display of poultry which was shown under a tent. There 
was one exhibition of perhaps one hundred fowls, made in 
the open ground, in a yard surrounded by wire fence, and 
this was the prettiest sight of all. Is it not possible, 
where the grounds are large enough, to display poultry in 
this way? There was but one pen of sheep exhibited, 
but they were good ones. It is said " that every dog has 
his da}^" the dogs are evidently having their day in Essex 
County. 

The exhibit of fruit and vegetables was made in the 
Town hall, and in a tent just outside. The exhibit in 
these departments was full and satisfactory. 1 never saw 
finer vegetables nor better fruit for the season. Mr. 
Gregory made an exhibit of vegetables, or rather of types, 
which was exceedingly interesting. He gave one valua- 
ble suggestion to me, which I want to repeat and empha- 
size in this report, namely, that there should be standards 
fixed for the various kinds of vegetables and fruits, and 
that overgrown as well as undersized specimens should 
be ruled out ; also that in the judging we should 
establish a scale of points, and that so many points should 
be given for size, so many for color and so many for text- 
ure, or any other qualities which it is desirable to take 
into consideration. I would add to his suggestion that 
the vegetables should be cooked, and their quality tested 
on the grounds. 

There was an art department wliich was not unlike the 
art department of every other agricultural fair. I suppose 
that it is necessary for agricultural shows to have an art 
department. There were many works of art, especially 
in the needle department, that were beautiful and worthy 
of exhibition anywhere ; but in the way of patchwork 



I07 

bedquilts and pictures on the wall, there was a great deal 
that were better omitted. If we are to teach art throug:h 
these agricultural societies, let it be good art. To award 
prizes for pictures which have not the slightest merit is 
misleading. It gives the exhibitor the idea that he has 
accomplished something, and encourages him to work in 
directions not suited to his talents. It is claimed that it 
is better for the heathen to remain ignorant than to carry 
anything but the true gospel to them. So it is better 
to not encourage art at all than to encourage that 
which is not art but a satire upon it. Would it not 
be well to send outside the limits of the society, and 
engage a committee to pass upon the merit of articles 
before they are admitted ? That is to employ something 
similar to the " hanging committee " of the great art 
exhibitions, whose duty it is to pass upon paintings 
and other works of art to determine whether they possess 
sufficient merit to be admitted to the exhibition. Such a 
committee, composed of strangers, people of tact, could 
quietly say to those who sent in these so-called works of 
art, that they were not suitable for public exhibition, 
pointing out, if they pleased, the defects, and so practically 
become teachers of the many misguided and ignorant ex- 
hibitors. If such a committee had been on the grounds 
before the exhibition was opened, more than half the paint- 
ings and drawings and patchwork bedquilts which were ex- 
hibited in Beverly Town hall would have been withdrawn. 
Quantity does not make up a successful exhibition — qual- 
ity does. It would be better to retain the half dollars and 
dollars given to such articles possessing no merit, and in- 
crease the prizes on those which do possess merit, and so 
encourage true art. 

One grand feature of this exhibition is the annual ad- 
dress by some distinguished citizen of our county. The 
address this year was upon " Road-Making, " and contained 
many valuable suggestions. It seemed like good old times 
when an audience of farmers, with their wives, to the 



io8 

numberof three or four hundred, assembled in the Baptist 
church to listen to good music by a quartette, and then 
for three-quarters of an hour to an address on road-making, 
which was of practical interest to the farmer. In modern 
cattle shows, so-called, there would have been a horse 
trot on the programme, against which the lecturer would 
have had to compete and who is equal to that? 

This society is doing admirable work in the way of ex- 
periment, upon farms throughout the county, and much 
attention is given to the work. Closing, I may call the 
society a model one in many respects, but it is so situated 
that it should lead in the work of agricultural exhibitions. 
That it does lead in many departments, I believe is true. 
That it might lead in all departments I believe is possible. 

Yours truly, 

W. H. BOWKER. 



FARMERS' INSTITUTES. 

The Society held seven Institutes during the season of 
1890-91 on as many different days,forenoon and afternoon, 
at which the following subjects were opened by carefully 
prepared essays, and freely discussed by any and all per- 
sons present who cared to discuss them, viz . — 

1. " Would Agriculture and the success of this society 
be better promoted by a permanent location of its Fairs ?" 

2. " The new South." 

3. " Fertilizers." 

4. " Description of the Natural Bridge of Virginia ; " 
" The Cave of Luray '' and " Lookout Mountain." 

5. " How can Farmers dispose of their milk to the best 
advantage?" 

G. " Taxation." 

7. " Is it for the interest of the Farmers of Essex 
County to develop the Farm Horse or the Roadster and 
Driving Horse?" 



log 

8. " Have the alleged causes of Agricultural Depres- 
sion a sound foundation ?" 

9. '• A Plea for the Forests " and " Woman's work in 
the Grange." 

10. " Home life on the Island of Capri " and " Wild 
and Native Flowers.'' 

11. " Fertilizers or Plant food." 

12. " Food rations for Farm stock." 

13. " How can Farmers increase their Profits ?" 

14. "Poultry." 

All of these discussions were reported quite fully in the 
" Essex Count}' Mercury " and a copy mailed to each 
member of the society in the county. 

The first Institute of the season and the 73rd of the 
course was held at the Town Hall, Peabody, Friday, Jan. 
2nd, 1891, President Ware presiding, the subject being 
" Would Agriculture and the success of this society be 
better promoted by a permanent location of its Fairs ?'' 
Owing to the very inclement state of the weather, it be- 
ing rainy and bad travelling, the attendance was corres- 
pondingly small. Mr. Nathan A. Bushby, of Peabody, 
opened the discussion by stating in a clear and forcible 
manner his reasons why he thought it better for the socie- 
ty, and better for the public. In the first place he did not 
want it for the sake of a Trotting course, but did believe 
the society needed some place where horses and colts 
could be shown to the committees and the public, either 
in harness or by halter, for the general good of everybody. 
He favored a permanent location because of the great 
trouble in moving from place to place, a work lasting 
three or four weeks to get the pens and other parapherna- 
lia moved and set up again, ready for a Fair, and he 
thought the time had arrived to do it because the old pens 
were about worn out and the societj' would have to have 
new ones soon. Again with permanent grounds and 
buildings the various parts of the show could all be 
brought together, whereas they are now often widely sep- 



I lO 

arated. In all of the cities and larger towns in the 
county, it is difficult if not impossible to find land for the 
display of live stock and ploughing, without going a long 
distance from the exhibition hall and buildings in connec- 
tion with other parts of the fair. When the society was 
organized, it was easier to move the show than the people, 
now with all of our railroad facilities it is easier to move 
the people than the show. A central point in the county, 
easy of access is what is wanted, and Dg,nvers is such a 
place. The society's farm at Topsfield is geographically 
more central but is not easy of access by steam and horse 
cars. It may be said that other societies having a perma- 
nent location are in debt, but they started in debt, whereas 
this society has money enough on hand to start with. 
Some of the old pens have been in existence forty years 
and the exhibition of horned cattle grows less every year, 
because the stock is not sheltered from the bad weather 
that is likely to occur, and by having a permanent location 
this objection could be overcome. 

Mr. Butler, of Georgetown, followed Mr. Bushby in 
much the same line of argument, but he did not wish it 
understood that he thought the society a failure under the 
present system, for it was not. He himself was not in 
favor of horse trotting (as the common acceptance of the 
term implies), but there are -^00,000 invested in horse 
stock farms in Essex county, and their owners are entitled 
to due consideration. He was in favor of a permanent 
location for the convenience of exhibitors in all depart- 
ments of the fair, and probable increase in the quantity 
and quality of all exhibits. With a permanent location we 
could have ample hall accommodations which now are 
oftentimes deficient and the fair could be continued to 
three or four days to the benefit of the society. 

At this time a letter was read from Mr. F. H. Appleton, 
who was unable to be present, and he was strongly op- 
posed to a permanent location. He cited other societies 
with permanent locations and said it only meant a local 



Ill 

organization within a short time, with local interests, 
rather than general. The letter also suggested canvas 
covering for the pens. 

Mr. C. C. Blunt, of Andover, opposed permanent loca- 
tion, but advocated Itents to protect the stock. He said 
the society was in the first rank of agricultural societies 
and hoped it would remain so. 

Mr. Andrews, of Essex, and Mr. Emerson, of Haverhill, 
answered some of the reasons alleged, why the location 
should be permanent, very ably. Mr. Emerson said stock 
must be moved the same with a permanent location as 
now, and tents, buildings and pens will rot there the same 
as now and wear out. 

President Ware took the floor and made able remarks 
against a permanent location. He said he thought a per- 
manent location meant a horse trot and nothing else. He 
believed a horse trot had no more to do with agriculture 
than a circus had. The Essex society oifers much larger 
premiums to exhibitors than other societies, and has ten 
times the invested funds of any of them (except the Ames- 
bury and Salisbury) and six times as much as they have. 

In the afternoon Vice President 0. S. Butler, presided 
and introduced President Ware, who gave an account of his 
recent travels through the South. Before the war, the en- 
tire energy of tlie planters was devoted to raising cotton, 
while meat, provisions and about everything was imported 
from the North and West, and in some few sections it is 
much the same to-day. In some localities watermelons, 
potatoes and other vegetables are raised and sent north at 
a good profit. 

A more shiftless, lazy and wasteful method of agriculture 
the speaker never saw than on some of these cotton planta- 
tions. Neither hay, corn, nor vegetables are raised for 
home sustenance but are purchased instead, and all the 
work put into the cotton crop. It is a very common custom 
for the farmer to mortgage his crop to the storekeeper in 
advance to get supplies on credit, and when the crop is har- 



I 12 

vested it all goes to the storekeeper, and the farmer is a 
little in debt beside. 

In time he mortgages his farm and eventually the store- 
keeper gains possession and some of them become owners 
of immense tracts of land in this way. 

Before tlic war it was much the same way, but when the 
farmer got in debt, he would sell a slave to save further 
indebtedness and save the farm. The usual crop of cotton 
to the acre is about half a bale or 250 pounds; from three 
to five dollars worth of fertilizer is applied to the acre, and 
a slack process of ploughing and hoeing gone through with. 
By doubling the amount of fertilizer per acre they could 
more than double their crop. 

The cotton grows ordinarily about eighteen or twenty 
inches in height, but with more fertilizer and better culture 
would grow to three or four feet. The houses of many of 
the farmers are mere hovels of logs with the chincks plas- 
tered with mud. 

A revolution is destined to be worked in the use of fer- 
tilizer for cotton through the utilization of steel slag and 
crushed cotton seed. The slag is rich in phosphoric acid 
and is ground to a fine meal for use, while the cotton seed 
hulls contain a very powerful concentrated potash. Cotton 
seed was formerly a waste but an oil is now obtained from 
it that easily passes for olive oil and is also used for the 
adulteration of lard, while the pressed and ground hulls 
yield us our cotton seed meal. The soil is of great fertility. 
The speaker had seen one hundred bushels of shelled corn 
raised to the acre in one place, though ten to twenty bushels 
is more often the crop. The speaker met one man that 
owned a nursery in Georgia and the growths of some of tlie 
stocks were remarkable. The growth of one year from the 
bud of a pear was eight feet in height and one iach in 
diameter; enormous fruit and hay crops can be raised, and 
the price of milk is double what it is here. The outlook 
for southern agriculture is good, and the local market is 
rapidly extending. 



113 

Iron, coal, clay, marble, granite and other natural pro- 
ducts abound in the mountains and of good quality. The 
whole New South is in a state of boom. The speaker de- 
scribes several other matters of interest, one of which was 
the way the people of Atlanta obtained their supply of 
water, an artesian well driven over 2000 feet with a six inch 
bore in the heart of the city. Tlie water rises to within 
a few feet of the surface and is distributed over the city in 
pipes with hydrants at intervals in the streets, but is never 
put into the houses or other buildings. A simple pi"essure 
of a lever draws the water, which is raised from the well by 
pumping. 

The 74th Institute was held at Parker Hall, Newbury, 
Friday, January 16th, 1891. In the forenoon the subject 
for discussion was " Fertilizers," opened by James J. H. 
Gregory, of Marblehead. 

The speaker in general gives a preference to fertilizers 
over manures. Phosphates, said he, is a general term in- 
correctly used to commercial fertilizers. They can gener- 
ally be purchased cheaper by the farmer in the form of 
wastes, than of the manufacturer all prepared. Thus fish 
waste, which is very rich in nitrogen, can be purchased for 
$3.50 per ton. The waste of slaughtering establishments is 
rich in phosphoric acid and nitrogen, and is also very cheap. 
Ashes contain the important items of potash and phosphoric 
acid, which with nitrogen, form the great elements of plant 
life, so that when using ashes as a fertilizer some other 
material should be used to supply the nitrogen. 

An excellent way of utilizing fertilizers he found to l)e by 
laying successive layers, each two inches deep, of good soil, 
ground bone, and unleached ashes. This mass he let heat 
for two weeks, and then broke up and applied to the land. 
By adding nitrate of soda to this we have one of the richest 
fertilizers made. 

He had tried different kinds of machines for distributing 
fertilizers, but had found but dne that would fill the bill, 
and this did not suit him for all kinds of crops. Mr. Greg- 



114 

ory cinpliasizcd the need of special fertilizers for different 
croi)s. Thus wheat does best with nitrate of soda-nitrogen. 
It is also especially good for asparagus. In like manner 
sulphate of ammonia is beneficial to spinach. Nitrate of 
soda will do wonders Avith tomatoes, though there must be 
a fair share of potash and phosphoric acid to get' these 
results. 

Feriihzcrs should be ground very fine to get the best im- 
mediate results. Barnyard manures, on the other hand, are 
not plant food, but they contain the elements of plant food 
and liave to await disintegration in the soil before they can 
be utilized by the plant. The effects of barnyard manures 
have been traced in the soil by chemists twenty years after 
application, though of course their real practical value is 
gone long before that time. In using fertilizers the nitrogen 
disappears the first year. In applying to drill the fertilizer 
should be dry. By favoring the use of fertilizers he did 
not wish himself to be understood as opposing the use of 
barnyard manures. He uses large quantities of it on his 
farm at Middleton, because he can buy it comparatively 
cheap, and transportation to his farm is easy by rail. But 
if anyone asked him if barnyard manure was as cheap at a 
gross cost of ^1.00 a cord as $7.00 worth of fertilizer, he 
would answer no. By the use of fertilizers he had grown 
cabbages three years in succession on the same land. 
Another advantage of fertilizers is they can be applied to 
growing crops at any stage of the crop. The advantage of 
using barnyard manures is that they add humus (black 
earth) to the soil, which holds the fertilizing elements and 
aids in the mechanical effects on the soil. 

The same result can be obtained by planting grains or 
clover in the fall and ploughing it under in the spring. 
Growing clover produces about 178 pounds of nitrogen per 
acre, which it takes from the air. This is equal to the 
nitrogen in seven cords of stable manure. In answer to a 
question whether " fire fanging " (baking and heating) in- 
jured manure, Mr. Gregory replied that it did by liberating 



115 

the ammonia, though this could be replaced by adding fish 
waste. 

Mr. George A. Tapley, of Revere, believed in stable 
manure. He got all he wanted for $2.00 per cord, and it 
acted promptly on the plants with good results. 

Mr. T. C. Thurlow, of West Newbury, believed in stable 
manure, but it cost him f 8.00 per cord on his farm, and the 
high cost compelled him to use fertilizers. He had used a 
mixture of 1000 pounds of ground bone, 500 pounds of 
muriate of potash, and 200 pounds of nitrate of soda, with 
excellent results. 

Mr. Charles W. Woods, of Newbury, expressed himself as 
in favor of fertilizers as compared with the high cost of 
stable manure. 

At the afternoon meeting Mr. Gregory presided, and 
President Ware gave an address, the subject being, " Look- 
out Mountain, The Natural Bridge and Luray Cave." 

From Lookout Mountain Mr. Ware said, on a clear day, 
one can see over an area of 500 miles, and parts of seven 
different states. There are two railroads up the mountain 
— one a cable road — and a spacious hotel, with pure air, 
pure water, gas, etc., when you get there. He referred 
briefly to the battle of Lookout Mountain, to Missionary 
Ridge, and several other noted and interesting places. The 
mountain, on three sides, is of precipitous overhanging rock. 
There is a locality (which has been given the title " Garden 
of ;the Gods") on the mountain, remarkable for its curious 
rock formations, resembling various animate and inanimate 
objects, which the speaker dwelt upon at length. He next 
spoke about the Natural Bridge, of Virginia. The rock is 
of hard blue limestone, that forms the bridge, connecting 
the opposite banks of a ravine. The width beneath the arch 
varies from 60 to 90 feet. The height from the bed of the 
ravine to the underside of arch is 165 feet, and the depth 
of the rock and earth composing the bridge 40 feet. 
The speaker described in detail the attractions of the place. 
The territory about here — some 3000 acres was granted to 



ii6 

Thomas Jefferson, by King George III, in 1774, but now it 
is largely owned by Essex County capitalists, who are devel- 
oping the property. The town of Luray where the Luray 
Caverns arc, is on the boom like a good many other south- 
ern towns. The land was sold by order of the court, and the 
discoverers of the cave bought it for what was considered a 
good price, but it has increased fabulously in price since. 

The cave has been made easy for travel with cement 
floors, bridges, etc. It is full of stalactites and stalagmites, 
some of which bear most striking resemblance to fish, veg- 
etables, organ-pipes, etc. It is well lighted by electric 
lights, but each visitor also carries a candle. The color of the 
formations is generally a dark, dirty brown, very few being 
white. One can walk three-fourths of a mile in the cave 
without retracing his steps, and the temperature rarely 
varies from about fifty-four degrees the year through. 

The speaking which followed took a wide field of natural 
phenomena. Mr. Gregory compared the bend in the 
Tennessee river, as seen from Lookout mountain, to that in 
the Connecticut, as seen from Mt. Holyoke, which, in 
his opinion, was the most beautiful of any view in New 
England. Mr. Nathaniel Dole, of Newbury, gave a descrip- 
tion of the Mammoth Cave of Kentucky and the surround- 
ings. Several others spoke of and described various noted 
places and freaks of nature that had come under their ob- 
servation until time to adjourn. 

The 75th Institute was held at Town Hall, Georgetown, 
Friday, Jan. 30, 1891. The subject for discussion in the 
forenoon was, " How can farmers dispose of their milk to 
the best advantage ?" opened by Mr. Willard F. Kinsman, 
of Ipswich, who said there are three prime essentials re- 
quisite to the advantageous or profitable disposal of our 
milk. (1) Good cows, (2) an abundant and economical 
^ood supply, and (3) a price above the cost of production. 

Mr. Kinsman quoted from the "Country Gentlemen," 
Col. F. D. Curtis, as saying that the farmers and dairy- 
men, in New York state, are carrying 1,000,000 unprofit- 



117 

able cows. Now the total number of cows put down for 
New York is 1,552,373, which would show that only one- 
third of the cows kept in that state pay for more than their 
keeping. In the thirty-five towns in Essex county, with an 
estimate of 30,000 cows, according to the same ratio, 7,000 
should be weeded out. How to find them out and how to 
get rid of them is the question for the farmer. Good 
judgment is needed for this. A cow whose milk may be 
profitable for butter making, may be unprofitable when her 
milk is sold. Decide for what purpose you want the cow 
first. If a cow's milk production falls short of 2000 quarts 
a year get rid of her. A cow producing 2500 quarts of 
milk a year the speaker considered a good one. If that is 
sold to a middleman at three and one-half cents a quart the 
income will be -187.50, admitting the cost of grain (at the 
present high prices) to be the same amount. The farmer 
has the manure for profit and it will pay to keep the animal. 

On the other hand if the milk is produced for butter mak- 
ing, suppose the animal does not exceed 2000 quarts, test 
her milk in a Cooley creamer by itself. Should her milk 
show a space of cream for every quart, even though she 
gives only six or seven quarts a day, she pays for keeping 
and her butter production will be a pound a day. Figure 
the profits of this cow ; from 2000 quarts 2000 spaces of 
cream, averaging three and one-half to four and one-half 
cents a space ; taking the lowest price the income from 
cream alone would be $70, and in addition there are 
left 1400 quarts of skim milk on the farm for feeding pur- 
poses, worth one cent a quart, and often selling as high as 
three cents. This brings the total income from the cow up to 
eighty-four dollars. The question is asked, where are our 
good cows to come from? and the speaker answered, raise 
them. Some farmers will move heaven and earth to sell 
their skim milk at one cent a quart, when there are various 
kinds of young stock on the farm actually suifering for it, 
and to which it may be fed at a profit. 

Dealing with the third point of his essay the speaker 



ii8 

considered the price of the milk. When a farmer is so 
situated that he can sell directly to the consumer at five or 
six cents a quart, he, no doubt, sells at a profit ; but the rest 
must sell to the middleman or the co-operative creamery. 
The middleman, as all know to their sorrow, has often 
proved a rope of sand, but the co-operative creamery, he be- 
lieved to be the remedy for surplus milk every time. Of 
good cream and fine butter there will probably never be an 
over supply, and co-operative dairying in New England is 
only in its infancy. He believes in making butter by this 
method and feeding the skim milk to calves, colts and poul- 
try, and it will pay. Mr. Butler, of Georgetown, asked for 
facts concerning the Ipswich creamery, in which Mr. 
Kinsman was interested. In reply, the speaker said, some 
had raised cream and sold to the creamery, and done very 
well out of it, while others said it would bring them to the 
almshouse if they sold it that way long enough. But to 
make a success from butter a man wants butter cows, his 
cows will average a pound of butter from six spaces of cream. 
As a rule he finds six and one-half spaces of cream make a 
pound of butter, but by feeding less grain it takes seven. 
The Ipswich creamery has been very successful in its oper- 
ations by having good cows adapted to butter, rather than 
to the large flow of milk, and had paid dividends of four per 
cent, to its stockholders. A general discussion followed, 
and the general sentiment was that when farmers are so 
situated that they cannot sell their milk direct to the con- 
sumer, the system of co-operative creameries was the best 
way for them to get the most from their milk. 

The subject for the afternoon was " Unequal Taxation," 
the speaker being George A. Tapley, Esq. , of Revere, who 
had evidently given the subject a good deal of thought and 
careful study. He spoke of the universal interest of land 
owners in the subject, of its agitation in the legislature and 
elsewhere. He said all legislation seemed to be in favor of 
the lender and against the borrower of money. It is time 
for farmers to unite and organize for a change. In 1885 



119 

there were 45,010 farmers in this state, and four times that 
number of small house holders ; if all work in concert they 
may accomplish the object sought. The man who does not 
pay his full share of taxes cheats his neighbor who does. 
One-half the buildings in the state are mortgaged, and the 
lender pays no tax on his mortgaged notes, but the 
mortgaged property does pay a tax, and because the mortgage 
note is untaxed, the borrower really pays the tax on that too. 
Assessors are now required, by law, to have sworn state- 
ments of property, but as there is no penalty' attached, he 
fails to do it. 

Mr. Tapley here read the Vermont tax law passed by 
farmers. Our own state provides that any one who thinks 
himself overtaxed may apply to the County Commissioners, 
but this is uncertain and unsatisfactory. In Boston, accord- 
ing to the best authority, -i^lOO, 000,000 of property is exempt 
from taxation. He said the tax rate in the state could prob- 
ably be reduced one-half if all property was taxed. Mr. 
Amos Hasletine, Jr., of Haverhill, followed Mr. Tapley, and 
said it was not too strong a statement|to say that one-third of 
the taxable property in the state is untaxed. The legislative 
act to prevent what is called " double taxation," is an injus- 
tice, and works directly against the man who mortgages 
his property, and in favor of the man holding the note. 
The state tax is about eleven and one-half mills on one 
hundred dollars, and the county tax not over one mill more, 
and the savings bank property, exempted, would pay the 
state and county tax if it were taxed. The tendency is to 
put all taxes on real estate. The trouble is the farmers 
are overthrown by the manufacturing interests. Mr. Ayer, 
of Methuen, ridiculed double taxation; he said there neither 
is nor has been double taxation ; all there was to it mortgage 
notes were exempt and they should be taxed. In addition to 
that the farmer, whose property is all in sight and taxed, 
bears the burden of invisible property which escapes taxa- 
tion. He cited and condemned a certain as-^ociation, in 



I20 

Boston, which sought to tax real estate only. Farmers are 
competent to make laws as shown in Vermont ; let them 
do so here. 

Pj-esident Ware spoke of the efforts the grange made last 
year in the interest of more equal taxation, but it tried to 
do too much and did not succeed. What we need is a law 
to tax all personal property. 

Mr. Little, of Amesbury, was in sympathy with the pre- 
vious speakers and went back to the first principles of gov- 
ernment, which made taxation a necessity for the public 
good. He believed in taxing all property whatsoever, and 
then rebate what was deemed advisable. 

The 76th Institute was held at Ipswich, Friday, Feb. 
13, 1891. The subject for discussion in the forenoon was, 
" Is it for the interest of the farmers of Essex County to 
develop the farm horse, or the roadster and driving horse ? " 
President Ware being absent in the morning, Vice President 
Butler presided, and being appointed to open the subject 
with an essay, he was obliged to do double duty. 

The breeding of horses, said the speaker, is profitable, like 
any other business, if you succeed, and success is always 
profitable. Success depends more upon the man and his 
conditions than upon the business. The conditions of suc- 
cess depend, first upon the farm and its location, second 
upon a clear conception of what you intend to raise, third up- 
on the selection of stock, fourth upon the development of the 
colt in a proper manner, and fifth upon the early and proper 
training of the colt. In regard to the first condition the 
farm should have good pasturage for summer, and good 
grass land to provide winter fodder. The farm should be 
far cnough"from the city to make the price of land reason-- 
al)lc. In choosing the kind of horses you will breed con- 
sider the market you arc to supply, ^aving determined 
the kind of a horse to bi-ecd, select the best strains, particu- 
larly for the sire, which transmits his form, color and tem- 
per. For a drivinghorso he recommended the Black Hawk 



121 

strain of^the Morgan, crossed with the Clyde, Percheron or 
French coach horse. If more speed is wanted cross the 
Black Hawk with a thoroughbred. 

Develop your colt rapidly and evenly, but not forcibly ; 
feed generously, but not over feed. Commence early to 
develop the habits and character of the colt; teach him 
that he is completely in your power, but that you are his 
best friend. Teach him the use of the bit young, but be 
careful when you put the bit in his mouth, never twitch or 
jerk the bit as it will make him hard mouthed. Teach him 
the use of reins, and in doing so use a few simple words 
with a meaning, always using the same words for the same 
thing. Then teach the colt to stand still in all places and 
under all circumstances, and not have him go, no matter 
how much he wants to, until you give him the word, and 
make him feel that he is under the entire control of his 
master. The speaker touched briefly upon shoeing, stabling, 
feed, and remedies for various diseases. Coming back to the 
profit, he considered the value of such a horse as he had 
described to be in excess of the cost of raising, which would 
probably be «300 to 1350. The satisfaction of having such a 
horse is a pleasure not only to yourself but to your family. 

Others spoke of the intelligence of the horse and thought 
there was a good field for success in raising the right kind of 
horses. Fine horses are raised in Maine, and why not raise 
them in Massachusetts. Some people think there is a stig- 
ma on a man that tries to raise a trotting horse, and very 
unjustly too, for it takes a man of brains to raise trotting 
horses and do it successfully. 

At the afternoon session, Mr. George W. Russell, of West 
Newbury, read a paper on the subject, " Have the alleged 
causes of Agricultural depression a sound foundation? if so 
what are the real causes of such depression." 

In opening Mr. Russell said that the gathering before 
him did not show much evidence that farming does not pay. 
We in New England do not know much about agricultural 
•depression, but their complaint of such depression, and 



122 

the alleged causes for it are : First, insufficient quantity of 
money ; second, protective tariffs ; third, trusts ; fourth, 
speculation in farm products; lifth, inequality in taxation ; 
sixth, too high rates of transportation. 

In regard to the insufficient quantity of money, the actual 
circulation in this country Jan. 1, was $1,529,000,000, or 
$29 per capita. In Great Britain the circulation per capita 
was 5^529.01; in France, $57.36, and in Germany, i>20.63, 
so that this country stands about even with Great Britain, 
and second only to France in this respect. The free coin- 
age of silver would quickly retire all the gold, and gold cer- 
tificates from circulation, really contract the currency and 
make it harder to get money on any kind of security than 
now. Any student of the condition of agriculture knows 
that protective tarilfs are necessary for agricultural pros- 
perity. No country, past or present, has a paying system 
of agriculture that does not or has not protected its home 
industries. 

If we protect our labor, trusts or syndicates will be a 
benefit to the masses and will give us cheap production and 
distribution. So far as speculation in farm products is con- 
cerned, there is no more than there is in other things, 
though if the producer could deal more directly with the 
consumer it would be advantageous. 

Transportation is as low as it can be at present and pay 
fair wages to labor and capital employed, thcugh improved 
methods may bring down rates as rapidly as in the past. 

The cost to the people of our railway services for freight 
and passengers is just one-third the cost of the same ser- 
vice in England, and English companies pay their employ- 
ees less than one-half what ours pay. So much for the 
alleged causes of agricultural depression. 

Now for the real causes, which the speaker enumerated as 
first, a greater increase in agricultural products than in 
population ; second, the vast increase in the production of 
cereals in other countries, and third the employment of 
people to do our manufacturing and produce our wool and 



123 

sugar whom we do not feed. These several points Mr. 
Russell considered at some length. While in the thirty- 
nine years ending in 1889, the popidation has increased 175 
per cent.; farms have increased 260 per cent; cattle, 185 
per cent. ; swine, 66 per cent.; cotton, 201 per cent.; corn, 
257 per cent. ; wheat, 389 per cent, and oats, 411 per cent. 
In addition to this the production of cereals has enormous- 
ly increased in Russia, India, Canada, and South America, 
where the soil is richest and the wages of laborers lowest. 
The black lands of Russia alone could feed the entire world 
if sufficient transportation were provided. We cannot 
compete in other markets except at the cost of American 
labor. In 1889 we imported more than 300,000,000 in 
agricultural products, but that of course displaced so much 
of American. 

The other great cause of agricultural depression is the 
employment of foreigners to do our manufacturing, whom 
we do not feed. We imported last year more than -tOOO,- 
000,000 worth of goods that we might better have produced 
ourselves. This means that we employed more than 
2,000,000 people that we did not feed. It would be safe to 
say that if we produced all the goods that we now import, 
our present production of meat and cereals would not feed 
our population. 

The 77th Institute was held at the Town Hall, Bradford, 
Friday, February 27. The driving snow storm in the morn- 
ing made it look very doubtful about there being many in 
attendance, and as it was " Woman's " day (for President 
Ware said that " woman " signified far more than lady), 
and as one subject was " The all around woman " perhaps 
he was right. But before noon the sun burst forth and 
there was a goodly number present. 

Mrs. Martha De M. Gage opened the meeting by reading 
an essay, and the subject she selected " A Plea for tlie 
Forests " indicated that she had given the subject careful 
consideration. She spoke first of the trees and groves in 
history, romance and poetry, commencing with the famous 



124 

cedars of Lebanon, proceeding to a more practical view of 
the subject. The essayist said that there is a greater varie- 
ty of trees in this country than any other, for it includes 
all those of the temperate and many of the torrid zones. 
She quoted official reports on forestry to show that the cut- 
ting off of forests tended to produce droughts and freshets. 
The leaves and debris that fall from the trees in forests re- 
tain the water and feed it out gradually to the ground, giv- 
ing rivers and brooks more steady supply through the year 
but when the forests are swept away the rainfall or melting 
snow and ice swell the rivers with a sudden rush and none 
is held in reserve. 

The cutting off of forests in New York state, Ohio, and 
other western states is bringing about this result with the 
large rivers. Ohio was a great fruit state and noted as such, 
but the cutting away of the forests has almost destroyed 
the industry. The essayist referred to early colonial laws 
to prevent the needless and unauthorized destruction of 
forests. 

Mrs. Harriet L. Bailey, of West Newbury, followed Mrs. 
Gage with an essay on " Woman's work in the Grange." 
Mrs. Bailey spoke of the valuable help that woman renders 
man in various organizations, among other things her work 
in the Woman's Relief Corps of the Grand Army. In the 
Grange her membership raises the moral and intellectual 
standard. It is in her province to make the meetings more 
interesting and thus draw the attendance of the young men 
who might otherwise be tempted to frequent questionable 
resorts. 

The farmers' calling was once not looked upon as desira- 
ble by young women, the clerk in the store with his social 
advantages was far preferable. This is now changed. 
Agriculture as a profession is rising in the general estima- 
mation. No one has better opportunity to secure education 
than the modern farmer. According to the last report the 
state granges numbered 8,964 members, and the increase in 
1890 was 1,364. In the literar}^ line, women can do much 



125 

to aid the grange. In all granges she holds four of the 
offices, and in some six, and the general comment is she 
does her work in those offices as well or better than men. 

Mrs. Fred H. Bishop, of the Massachusetts Ploughman, 
read the next paper and her subject was " The all around 
woman.'' Mrs. Bishop evidently considered the " all 
around woman " as one healthy and well developed physi- 
cally and mentally, capable of following a profession if need 
be, of participating in public affairs, of marrying wisely, or 
in case she does not marry, of following a happy and use- 
ful life in some profession or calling. The true man and 
the true woman like the same thing, but like them different- 
ly. The ideal woman is a reality to-day and is becoming 
more so. She will choose her own course in life. Many 
choose single lives for lofty reasons, that some of her mar- 
ried sisters do not comprehend. But should she decide on 
the '• highest relation " let her look carefully as to whether 
she will chain herself to a block or a helper ; if she is free 
from hereditary taint, and healthy, she will decide that she 
wants to marry. In closing Mrs. Bishop spoke of the ad- 
vance women are making. A century ago there were no 
girls in the public schools, now they are not only admitted 
in schools but in colleges on equal terms with boys and in 
many callings and professions in life, women are on an 
equal with men. 

The last paper of the forenoon was read by Miss Lizzie 
Huntington, of Amesbury, whose subject was, " What the 
farmer has done and may do to make home attractive'' 
The ideal home, said the essayist, must be in the country, 
and the tendency of the times is to devote more time and 
money to the aesthetics of the home. The old times when 
home ornamentation was not considered, have passed away 
with the people who lived in those days, and here the essay- 
ist drew a mental picture of the oldtime farmhouse kitchen 
with the mantle on which rested two or three brass candle- 
sticks, a row of flatirons, tobacco, pipes, and perhaps a 
pitcher of cider, and from this she gradually presented the 



126 

other extreme of modern times, of over adornment where 
the house is so packed with fancy ornamentation that tlie 
visitor is uncertain how he shall move about. 

The woman's sphere is her home, but she need not think 
of giving up her interest or participation in outside affairs 
on that account. The essayist believed in open windows, 
pure air, plenty of sunshine, instead of close musty parlors. 
Improve yourselves as well as your homes, do not neglect to 
set out shade and fruit trees, take care of the lawn and flow- 
er garden, and do not forget the vegetable garden. None 
need an education more than the farmer, and in this direc- 
tion the grange is a powerful agent, while it is next to the 
church in its influence for good. The memory of a beauti- 
ful and happy home is the richest legacy children can in- 
herit. 

The afternoon session was opened by the reading of an 
essay on '' Home life on the Island of Capri,'' by Mrs. Mar. 
garet B. Wright of Cambridge. A small island of some 
4,000 inhabitants and three and one-half miles long by two 
wide in its greatest length and breadth. The island rises 
abruptly from the water like a peak of a submerged moun- 
tain, the cliffs on one side rising sheerly up 900 feet from 
the water. With its 4,000 inhabitants, it has three villages, 
one of which is a little fishing hamlet. 

Until the government road was built, Anacapri (one of 
the villages) could be reached only by means of 535 enor- 
mous steps, very steep and high, being gouged out from the 
face of the precipitous rock straight up from the sea. Don- 
keys were trained to go up and down tlrese steps, heavily 
laden, and so did women themselves, creatures of burden, 
with stone crates of fruit and casks of wine on their head. 
At first sight Capri seems to be an Amazonian Isle with 
almost no men at all, and those few lounging about doing 
nothing. But this is explained when it is learned that the 
men are off coral fishing. The products of the island are 
oranges, lemons, grapes, figs, olives, fish, quails and wine. 
Quails are captured in immense numbers during their mi- 



127 

oration. Ploughins^, spinning, and the manufacture of oil 
are conducted now just the same as they were two thousand 
years ago, and their lamps or rather lights, for they use cot- 
ton rags dipped in liquid grease, and equally primitive 
stoves. The process of wine making is precisely the same 
as it was in Bible times, the grapes being all trodden. 

Among many other characteristics of the Islanders, Mrs. 
Wright mentioned the general absence of drunkenness, the 
natural inclination to dancing and music, and the wonder- 
fully sweet music the women will extract from jewsharps. 

Mrs. Charlotte N. S. Horner of Georgetown read a pa- 
per on " Wild Flowers and Native Trees " of which she 
has been a close student, and which was very interesting 
and instructive. Mrs. Horner commenced with a history 
of the early colonial interest in trees and wild flowers. 

Even before the coming of the white man the Indians 
had commenced their work of reclaiming, and to them we 
are indebted for corn, squashes, melons, beans, and tobac- 
co. The planting of fruit gardens and orchards, followed 
close upon the coming of the Pilgrims and Puritans, and 
were the rule in the border towns and islands of Massachu- 
setts Bay. 

Gov. Endicott planted his immediately after his arrival 
in 1620. The planting of shade and ornamental trees 
early received the thought of our ancestors, as is witnessed 
by the noble specimens about the old homesteads ; and in 
this connection especial mention is made of the Pearson 
elm in Newbury, the Hale elm in Boxford and many other 
ancient trees that are or were renowned for their size and 
age. 

Allusion was also made to the gardens of our great 
grandmothers, with their pinks, peonies, marigolds and 
hollyhocks, mingling with the medicinal herbs ; such as 
wormwood, spikyard, hoarhound, etc., traces of which may 
still be occasionally seen in some fence corner or clump of 
rose bushes, or lilacs, where they have bloomed for a hun- 
dred years. Mrs. Horner here gave a long list of wild 



128 

flowers wliich she had transplanted to our gardens with 
success. Nearly all our county trees are suitable for shade 
or ornament, but intelligent thought is necessary in selec- 
tion and location. For instauce trees with roots running 
near the surface of the ground like the elm, white maple 
and beech, although among the most beautiful of our shade 
trees, should not occupy roadsides bordering upon gardens. 
The hickory is a good shade tree if found growing in the 
right place, but rarely stands transplanting ; but the favor- 
ite ornamental tree is very plainly the rock maple. 

Preceding and interspersing tlie exercises through the day, 
there was very acceptably and finely rendered violin music 
by Miss Ladd, singing by Miss Kate Knight, and organ ac- 
companiments by Mrs. Bates, all of Bradford. 

A vote of thanks was here passed to all the ladies who 
had read the papers of the day, and also to those who had 
furnished the music, follow^ed by about half an hour's dis- 
cussion upon the various topics by the gentlemen present 
who had listened attentively all day to the ladies. 

The 78th Institute was held at Town Hall, Wenham, Fri- 
day, March 13, 1891, and although it was very rainy, and 
very bad travelling, there was a good attendance. Prof. 
George fi. Whitcher, of the New Hampshire experimental 
station was the speaker forenoon and afternoon. The sub- 
ject for the forenoon was " Plant Food." 

In opening the speaker expressed his appreciation of the 
attendance on such a day, as one that showed the enthusi- 
asm and interest in farming in this county. 

He should consider the subject from a scientific standpoint, 
but showing the practical operation of scientific principles. 
In the first place he considered the chemistry of the crop 
itself, and proceeded to find out from the elementary parts 
of the crop what elements are required to produce it. 

To illustrate this he gave the results of the analysis of a 
stalk of corn weighing about five pounds. About eighty 
per cent, of this stalk (which was immature) was water, a 
very considerable proportion of the remainder was starch, a 



129 

much smaller proportion sugar, a small quantity of oil, 
albumenoids and ash. The exact proportion of these different 
elements was exhibited in bottles, thus giving the audience 
a clear idea of the relative parts. Now all these substances 
are obtained from the soil or atmosphere, and it is impor- 
tant to know where each came from. Starch, sugar and oil 
are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, these three 
elements combining in different proportions in each of the 
substances named. 

The remaining solid from the corn — the albumenoids — 
is also composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, to which 
is added fifteen per cent, of nitrogen. The oxygen and 
hydrogen are drawn directly from the soil in the form of 
water, but primarily the water is furnished by the atmos- 
phere ; the carbon also comes from the atmosphere in the 
form of carbolic acid gas ; the source of the nitrogen is not 
known, but the speaker believed that, with few exceptions, 
it comes from the air. This would leave the ash alone to 
be supplied by the soil. 

Applying the analysis of the five pound stalk of corn to 
twenty tons (the crop of an acre) gives about the following 
component parts of the entire crop : 32,580 lbs. of water, 
2,400 lbs. of sugar, 1,394 lbs. of starch, 895 lbs. of fibre, 
237 lbs. of fat, 75G lbs. of albumenoids and 408 lbs of ash. 
Now the ash alone is supplied by the soil, while all the 
other parts come from the air, and the question arises, 
" Must we put back on the soil all of the ash taken by this 
crop ?" and the speaker replied in the negative. Of the 408 
lbs. of ash in the crop, 150 lbs. are silica (of which there 
is plenty in the soil), 17 lbs. of magnesium (which does not 
require replenishing), 17 of soda (which is not necessary 
to the plant), 44 lbs. of phosphoric acid, 120 lbs. of potash 
and 120 lbs. of nitrogen, the last three (284 lbs.) being the 
only essentials of the ash, or of the whole plant product, 
that it is necessary to put back into the soil. 

Here then are the necessary bases of manures and fertil- 
izers, viz : nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash. 



I30 

Barnyard manure is, and must continue to be, the great 
standard supply of fertilizer, but we are apt to mistake bulk 
for value. For instance a ton or 2000 lbs. of barnyard 
manure has only about twenty-four pounds of actual plant 
food. Phosphoric acid, potash and nitrogen combined will 
make a perfect fertilizer, and here the speaker urged the 
farmers to Ijuying the three parts of fertilizer and mix them 
at home. 

To show the value of the different elements entering 
into the chemical fertilizers and their compounds. Prof. 
Whitcher cited a series of experiments in raising corn in 
New Hampshire, the result being shown in the value of the 
crop per acre. Without fertilizer of any kind, -11^70 ; with 
potash alone, $94.70 ; phosphoric acid alone, $73.76 ; phos- 
phoric acid and potash, -llll ; phosphoric acid and nitro- 
gen, 156.99; nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash, $104; 
prepared fertiHzer,Nl^95.67 ; complete chemicals, $108.58 ; 
potash and nitrogen without the acid, $101.79 ; and ashes 
alone, $107.94. The best results all over the state were 
with complete fertilizers, in which nine parts were phos- 
phoric acid, eleven of potash, and three of nitrogen. In 
answering a request Prof. Whitcher gave the following 
formula for mixing chemicals for a crop of corn : 325 lbs. 
dissolved bone-black, 70 lbs. sulphate of ammonia, 100 lbs. 
muriate of potash. This gives a preparation of 500 lbs. for 
an acre at a cost of $10. 

For a potato crop he recommended 360 lbs. of bone- 
black, 140 lbs. muriate of potash, omitting the ammonia, at 
a cost of $8. There is no danger in mixing the chemicals, 
and it is easily done on the barn floor. 

In reply to a question Prof. Whitcher said that he consid- 
ered $1.00 invested in prepared fertilizer would raise corn 
to the value of $1.50, and $1.00 in chemical fertilizer to the 
value of $2.50. There is no danger in using as high as ten 
per cent, of potash in the fertilizer, but each one should 
find out how much his land required and apply accordingly. 

The afternoon subject, " Animal Foods," was like that 



131 

of the morning, treated by Prof. Whitcher from a scientific 
standpoint. The question is what rations will give the 
best results with animals, and experimenting in this line is 
still young yet. 

The subject may be divided into three parts : " Wluitis the 
food for ?" " How much should be fed ?" and "What kind 
should be fed ?" Every substance fed to animals contains 
starch, sugar, oil, albumenoids and other substances, but in 
different proportions. Now we feed to sustain life, and to 
do that it is necessary first, to produce heat ; second, to 
produce force or energy ; and third, to produce growth or 
increase the live weight. 

The temperature of the animal body must remain the 
same the year round, no matter whether the atmosphere is 
zero or ninety, and this heat is maintained by food, the 
same as coal in a boiler. In the second place we feed force 
and energy, and it is estimated that a working ox consumes 
three times as much as one standing still in the barn. And 
third we feed to increase the live weight, or growth, wheth- 
er fat, wool, muscle or whatever is desired, and dili'erent 
foods are adapted to these various needs. 

Milk contains about eighty-seven parts water, thirteen 
parts solids, and this latter substance contains nitrogen, 
the muscular parts of the animal, the wool of the sheep, etc., 
from the albumenoids of the food. Mr. Whitcher devoted 
himself principally to the feeding of milch cows, and gave 
as an excellent ration for a cow weighing 1000 pounds, for 
one day's feed, twenty pounds hay, five pounds of corn fod- 
der or oat straw, three pounds o[ corn meal, three pounds 
gluten and three pounds of middlings. If ensilage were 
used in place of hay, he would give forty-four pounds a day. 
Ensilage mixed with coarse fodder makes a good ration, 
and oat straw is as good as English hay when mixed with 
ensilage. Clover mixed with hay makes a good ration for 
butter ; but altogether too much starchy food, principally 
corn meal, is fed to milch cows. It would be better i^ 
farmers used no more corn meal than what they raised here 



132 

in New England. Either cotton seed meal, gluten or mid- 
dlinfjs would make a orood substitute. 

In answer to questions Prof. Whitclier said that the change 
of feed does not affect the quality of the milk, though it 
does the quantity. A possible exception to this rule may be 
found in the case of swill fed cows near the city, but even 
here the speaker was in doubt. If the feed changes the 
quality of the milk the cow is not in her normal condition, 
and the farmer is milking a sick cow. Cotton seed meal 
in the feed will produce hard butter, and some creameries 
rule it out altogether on that account ; but gluten meal 
makes soft butter ; no feed affects the butter fats. He did 
not believe cotton seed meal would cause garget if fed un- 
derstandingly. 

The 79th and last Institute of the season was held at 
Topsfield, Friday, March 27, and was weU attended. The 
subject for the forenoon was " How can farmers increase 
their profits " and was opened by a paper by Mr. E. A. 
Emerson of Haverhill. In opening he referred to the mis- 
taken policy of considering only as profits the money gain 
of a business, while in farming there are advantages that 
money can't buy, the freedom, the out of door life, and 
close communion with nature. It was man's first occupa- 
tion, and is now his most important one. The only one of 
all callings without which he could not live. And while, 
financially, nine out of ten in other business fail, very few 
farmers meet such disaster. 

There are three ways in which a farmer may increase his 
profits, first, by education, second, by business methods, 
and third, by organization. 

The farmer needs as thorough an education as the pror 
fessional man, both in practical farming and business meth- 
ods, and his opportunities for acquiring such education 
have greatly increased, with agricultural colleges, farmers' 
institutes, &c. 

In business the average farmer can better himself in 
many ways. As a rule he is troubled about his help ; his 



best help lie does not pay enough, and for poor help he 
pays too much. In some directions he could cut off unnec- 
essary expenses, particularly in stock feeding, which is 
rarely conducted on the best principles. Again he should 
know what his farm products cost him and sell them at a 
profit, the same as the merchant does, and not sell at a hap- 
hazard price named by his customers. The farm should be 
run to its full capacity, the same as manufacturing establish- 
ments. Manure should be applied heavily, and in many 
cases two crops be obtained in a season, where now the 
yield is only one. 

The farmer should also attend to his political duties, see 
to it that the milk standard for a certain per cent, of solids 
be abolished and in its place, substitute a law requiring that 
milk for the market be produced from healthy cows fed 
with wholesome food. 

He should" also buy his supplies in larger quantities and 
for cash, and in this connection he recommended organiza- 
tion, particularly that afforded by the grange, by which he 
can concentrate and utilize individual force, and in closing 
he made a special plea fur the grange, the object of which 
is to further the farmers' interests. 

Mr. Samuel Hawkes, of Saugus, said farming was much 
more depressed in the West than in the East. The cause is 
overproduction, brought about by the opening of new land 
by the railroads. He thought organization a good thing 
when properly directed, but in the West at the present time 
a bad thing for the farmers when directed by the farmers 
for a debased currency. 

Mr, N. P. Perkins, of Wenham, coincided with the essay- 
ist in the idea that farmers sliould work more intelligently 
and find what crops they could raise at a profit and stick to 
them, rather than to have visionary dreams of what they 
might do and change from year to year from one thing to 
another. 

The speaker had seen farm tools and machinery, such as 
mowing machines left out in the field all winter and thought 



134 

there could not be much profit in tliat. Farmers may gain 
much in organizing and pushing things for their interest. 

Mr. Hazeltine, of Haverhill, followed with remarks in 
sympathy with the former speakers, and said we in New 
England must be content to farm in a small way as com- 
pared with the large farmers of the West. We can make a 
living but cannot make large profits. He criticised sundry 
legislative acts as against the farmers' interest, and criti- 
cised the farmers for not taking proper interest in such 
things. 

0. S. Butler, of Georgetown, complimented the essayist 
for the able manner in which he had treated his subject, and 
finally told of many legislative laws that were burdensome 
to the farmers, and said that if the farmers would work as 
hard to protect their interests, as people in other callings, 
and organize for the purpose, they could have some say in 
the making of laws for their benefit and make money by it. 
Hon. Warren Brown, of Hampton Falls, was called upon 
and said that it was plain to everybody that the condition 
of the farmer had improved very much in the last fifty 
years. A flower garden near the house, an added bay win- 
dow, and a supply of daily and other newspapers on almost 
every farm gave evidence of it. He said he thought if some 
farmers would mind their business more and grumble less 
at what people in other vocations were doing, they would 
get along better. 

Mr. C. J. Peabody, of Topsfield, agreed with the former 
speaker in the last of his remarks, by illustrating cases 
that had come under his personal observation, ai?d cited 
cases of bookkeepers, clerks and others, where they were 
shut up in ill ventilated rooms all day and lost their 
health, and worked hard, and at the end of the year were 
no better off than the farmer, ihey only had earned their 
living, and the farmer had done that and had had pure 
air to breathe and was well, hearty and robust. 

vVt the opening of the afternoon session. President 
Ware said that this was the seventh and last of the 



successful series of Institutes conducted by the Society 
during the winter. He also read several very complimen- 
tary letters concerning the recently published transactions 
■of the Society from parties outside of the state as well as 
in the state. The subject for the afternoon was " Poul- 
try," to be opened by Mr. T. C. Durkee of Peabody, but 
on account of his unavoidable absence, President Ware 
called upon O. S. Butler of Georgetown. The speaker 
said before spending one dollar on poultry, make up your 
mind what you want to do, whether to raise spring chick- 
ens for an early market or raise eggs. 

To obtain these different results one should work dif- 
ferently and with different breeds ; the eggs that are pro- 
duced nearest to market bring the best prices. All these 
eggs that go into market would not find such ready pur- 
chasers if the customers knew their history. In the large 
poultry yards it is customary to examine the eggs in an 
incubator after seven or eight days, and to take out those 
that are infertile (they can be distinguished by that 
time), and send them into market. As long as eggs are 
sold by the dozen and one is raising them for the market, 
the Leghorn fowl is the variety to keep, but if one is 
raising eggs by the pound, the gray necked Brahma is 
better. For a good all around fowl the Plymouth Rock 
stands well. They are fair layers, and the fowl makes 
the best for the table ; he would keep the same breed all 
the time but would change cockerels every year ; he 
would advise any one engaging in the business to com- 
mence in a small way and work up. If he starts on a 
large scale and gets disease among them it is hard to 
eradicate it without quite a loss. A great mistake is 
made in overfeeding chickens. He rarely fed them 
until they were two or three days old, and then he gave 
them a little finely powdered cracker, boiled eggs or 
skimmed milk. In the winter he fed cabbage and onions 
to his fowls, and they ate it with a relish. In the winter 
the speaker keeps about six inches of sand on the floor of 



136 

the coop and puts a clean coat of whitewash on his coops 
every year. He fumigaU s his coops by burning a mixture 
of charcoal, sulphur, saltpetre, cayenne pepper and kero- 
sene oil in an open portable iron furnace. Ventilation is 
important and is best when conducted from near the floor. 
He usually put a shovelful of earth in the nest of a sit- 
tiiio- hen and found it beneficial ; dry cracked corn fed to 
3^oung chicks was injurious, but after they were six weeks 
old it was all right ; dry Indian meal and sprouted oats 
are good feed for chickens. A hen may lay as well when 
she is three or four years old as when she is two, but he 
makes it a practice to change and sell off old hens after 
two years. A chicken that is hatched out in April and 
commences to lay in October when eggs are scarce and 
high is what is wanted ; and this is not so apt to be done 
with a hen three or four years old. He would commence 
to feed a chicken with egg producing food — ground bone, 
03'ster shells, lime, &c., as soon as he commenced to feed 
them, and thus saturate them with egg food, then they 
will commence to la}'^ early and be profitable. He esti- 
mated his profits on fowls to average (exclusive of the 
work he gave them) i^l.SO each per year. 



REPORT ON ESSAYS AND REPORTS. 

The Committee on Essays and Reports have had 
unusual good fortune this year in having received several 
excellent papers for their consideration. In the matter of 
Essays we mti,j say, in the language of the farm, the yield 
has been large and the quaUty of the products excellent. ' 

Three essays were submitted to the committee, all of 
which were gladl}^ accepted and approved. To that by 
George A. Rogers, of North Andover, upon the theme, 
" Is it necessarily Hard Times for Good Farmers," the 
committee awarded the first premium of fifteen dollars. 
This paper is perhaps more in the line of political economy 



137 

than of agriculture, but as it " relates to agriculture," and 
contains excellent suggestions upon a subject which is at 
present of more than usual importance, and upon which a 
good deal of loose and demagogical talk is current, we 
have thought it both timely and instructive. The subject 
is not, of course, exhausted in this brief essay, and there is 
something to be said on the other side, as, doubtless, some 
influences, perhaps temporary, now tend to make profita- 
ble farming more difficult. But Mr. Rogers utters many 
wholesome truths which farmers everywhere would do 
well to read and consider. 

To Dr. J. W. Goodell, of Lynn, the committee have 
awarded the second premium of ten dollars for an essay on 
" Grapes and Grape Culture." The raising of grapes has 
received as much attention in Massachusetts in former 
years as in any other state, and several new and useful 
varieties have originated here, and some of them in Essex 
County. But the market for a few years past has been 
superabundantly supplied with fruit from the Lake region 
in New York, Ohio, and other more favored climes, and 
growers here have been somewhat discouraged. Dr. Good- 
ell's article is however well worthy of attention, and gives 
practical directions as the result of his own experience. 

To M. Sumner Perkins, of Dan vers, the committee 
have awarded the third premium of eight dollars for his 
essay upon " Six Crops of Greatest Value in Essex Coun- 

ty-" 

Only one report of sufficient importance to demand a 
premium was received by the committee, and this was an 
excellent one by O. S. Butler, of Georgetown, on the 
"• Comparative Value of Crops as Food for Cattle." For 
this the committee have awarded the highest premium of 
ten dollars. 

No "statement of actual farm accounts'' has been 
submitted. The attention of the committee has been 
drawn, however, to a " new and complete system of keep- 
ing farm accounts," which has recently been published by 



138 

George A. Rogers, of North Andover. It is simple and 
complete, and costs only fifty cents, and we recommend 
it to the farmers of our society. 

Just previous to making this report the writer was 
grieved to learn of the sudden death of Hon. Nathaniel 
A. Horton, of Salem, a member of this committee, who 
was prevented from participating in the present proceed- 
ings by his last illness. Mr. Horton was for many years 
a member of our society, and took a lively interest in its 
aiYairs and frequently served upon its committees. He was 
well and favorably known throughout the county, and it 
was his pleasure always to promote our farming interests, 
through the columns of the Salem Gazette, of which he was 
the senior editor. While it is not the place in this report 
to make an extended notice of Mr. Horton's character and 
services, it is doubtless proper, and is, perhaps, a duty, of 
the committee, to take this brief notice of the recent de- 
cease of an esteemed associate. 
For the committee, 

G, L. Streeter, Chairman. 

COMMITTEE— Gilbert L. Streeter, Salem; D. E. Safford, 
Salem: N. A. Horton, Salem; John M. Danforth, Lynn- 
field Centre ; N. M. Hawkes, Lynn. 



IS IT NECESSARILY HARD TIMES FOR GOOD 
FARMERS ? 

BY GEORGE A. ROGERS OF NORTH ANDOVER. 

Hardly a day passes but we read or hear about hard 
times. There are those who claim to believe that the far- 
mers are a much abused class, that all the rest of the 
world have conspired together to rob them of their hard 
earned dollars. That the banks, the railroads, the manu- 



139 

facturers, the merchants and middlemen are taking the 
lion's share of the accumulation of labor, leaving to the 
farmer only enough to supply his most pressing wants and 
to pay taxes. That the government, both state and 
national, legislate mainly in the interests of large capital- 
ists, that the interests of the farmer are almost entirely 
ignored, save that now and then a few crumbs are thrown 
to them to save or ivin votes. If all this and much more 
that is preached were true and I believed it, I would quit 
farming and engage in some other occupation, for I should 
carry about with me a feeling of degradation, a want of 
self respect, were I engaged in a business that was not in 
every way the most honorable and ennobling in the world. 
No man can do his best in any business in which he thinks 
the odds are against him. But much of this croaking is 
not true. I admit that in the past there have been laws 
enacted favoring other classes at the expense of the far- 
mer. Whose fault was it? No one's but the farmers 
themselves. As long as farmers belonged to the political 
parties and were driven by the party whip, other classes 
took advantage of the situation and profited by it. When 
the farmer entered politics as an independent factor, he 
got his right?, as the two past years will show, and here 
let me add that the farmer is in politics to stay. This 
means that in the future he will get what rightfully be- 
longs to him. Again as we all know there are too many 
middlemen. These fellows always make me think of leeches 
they produce nothing, and in nine cases out often are un- 
necessary. 

But to return to the subject. Go where you will 
throughout the state and you will find hundreds and 
thousands of men the owners and cultivators of improved 
farms, equipped with all the modern appliances of im- 
proved farming. Stocked with good cattle housed in 
comfortable barns, the farmers themselves living in pleas- 
ant houses furnished with good furniture and good books, 
with music to charm the ear and paintings to please the 



140 

eye. Ask this class of farmers about hard times and you 
will find that they know them not. Nine tenths of these 
men started in poor and all that you see about them is the 
honest product of legitimate farming. Aside from what 
you see, they have raised and educated children, have 
given the boys aid to start in business or the girls a mar- 
riage portion ; they have also helped to build roads, 
schoolhouses, churches, and public buildings, and have 
contributed towards the support of religion. 

A business that has enabled these men to accomplish 
such results in spite of governmental disfavor, middlemen, 
and the rest of the croaker's list, must in itself be a good 
business. Do we hear of one farmer failing when we hear 
of ten manufacturers or merchants ? Do you know of a 
single instance where an industrious, temperate man who 
has run in debt for a farm, has had it sold at mortgagee's 
sale, unless from some unforeseen misfortune? 

In every community you will find well to do men who 
have ac({uired all their property by tilling the soil. You 
will also find another set of men, who complain that farm- 
ing does not pay. In the latter case the trouble is not in 
the business but in the men. Were they engaged in other 
business they would go to the wall. 

The trouble with most of those who complain that 
farming does not pay, is laziness and shiftiessness, two very 
hard complaints to cure. They do not keep accounts 
and fail to credit the farm much that properly and justly 
belongs to it. For instance, let us suppose that a man 
with a family of five persons wanting a home, purchases a, 
farm of fifty acres, with good buildings thereon, within 
three miles of a railroad town, at -fSO per acre. The use 
of the house for a home would be worth ^150 ; fuel from 
the farm, |50 ; vegetables, milk, butter, eggs, poultry and 
pork, $150 ; use of horse aside from necessary farm work, 
%50, making f 400, ten per cent, on the whole investment. 
Not coming in ready cash we do not consider them as a 
part of the income. But they would form a very inipor- 



HI 

tant part of one's out goes if they had to be paid for. The 
majority of farmers do not realize what it costs a mechanic 
to provide the milk, eggs, fruit and vegetables for his 
family. 

Money in a farm at five per cent, is as well invested as 
money loaned at seven per cent., for one does not need to 
be looking for new places to invest, and then land well 
located is reasonably sure to advance in price. Money in- 
vested in real estate generally pays better than railroad 
stocks. The figures of 1888 which I have at hand, show 
that out of 650 railroad companies in the United States 
only eighty-three paid dividends to stockholders, of these 
only nine paid ten per cent. ; seven, eight per cent. ; four- 
teen, seven per cent.; twenty-four, six per cent, and the 
remainder paid from one to four per cent. 

The reason that a farmer cannot hope to make a million 
dollars out of his business, is because it cannot be carried 
on profitably only within narrow limits ; within that limit 
it may pay a better per cent, than a business that yields a 
million dollar revenue. 

The secret of large gains is contained in the saying 
" large sales and small profits.'' Philip Armour in his 
statement before the senate committee in reference to 
pressed beef trusts, claimed that his average profits on 
840,649 head of cattle, stamped and sold in one year, was 
only -f 1.22 per head, a per cent, of profit which the aver- 
age farmer would consider small indeed. If farmers kept 
accounts they would be surprised at the per cent, of pro- 
fit upon their products, even at the present low prices. 
They would take new courage and use every effort to in- 
crease production. For instance, in this year of low prices, 
I find that our potatoes sold in the open market, return us 
a net profit of 33 1-3 per cent, on tlie cost of production, 
and that our Hubbard squash if sold (as I think it will be) 
at $30 per ton, will for every dollar invested return two. 
Wliat other legitimate business can you name that will do 



142 

as well? Hundreds of cases like the above can be cited. 
What better proof need be furnished to prove that good 
farming does pay. An era of low prices is upon us. There 
are causes that have long been at work and are still work- 
ing, and we must expect lower rather than higher prices 
in the future. The tendency in all departments of indus- 
try is towards cheaper production, and there is no reason 
why we farmers should be able to buy a lumber wagon, a 
mowing machine, a shovel or hoe, a pound of sugar or a 
yard of cloth for half the price of twenty years ago, with 
out a corresponding reduction in the price of goods we 
have to sell. 

Now comes the question, " Can Massachusetts farmers 
at present prices get fair pay for their labor and interest 
on capital invested?" In answer to which I will say it 
depends upon how they farm. If he follows in the old 
rues made by his father, and sells hay, small and inferior 
vegetables and poor butter, I will answer no. But if he 
farms intelligently, making every acre cultivated pro- 
duce a good crop of somethingthat the market demands 
or that can be fed upon the farm, and thus be condensed 
and converted into more valuable forms, I answer yes. 

The farm is a factory where the raw materials are taken 
and converted into more valuable forms. The further we 
continue this process, provided the machines (animals) are 
good ones, the better it is for both farm and farmer. With 
eggs selling at thirty cents per dozen, and cabbage at fifty 
cents per barrel, just think how much easier it is to mar- 
ket a certain number of dollars worth of the former than 
the latter. Thirty dozen of the former can be put up in 
one hour and carried to market in a light wagon and will 
bring nine dollars. ^^It takes eighteen barrels of cabbage 
to come to that sum. It will take a man half a day to cut 
and barrel that amount, and a man and heavy team half a 
day to deliver it. The cost of putting up and marketing 
the eggs will not exceed one dollar. The cost of putting 



143 

up and selling the cabbage will amount to three. Farmers 
that live a distance from market should aim to produce 
such crops as can be profitably manufactured on the farm. 
Massachusetts cannot compete with the West in grain 
growing nor with the Southwest in beef production, but 
in products that require intelligence and skill, the odds 
will be in her favor. 

My object in writing this paper is to encourage young 
men who are about to enter upon their life work, to take 
up farming, and those that have had poor success to try 
again. That agriculture offers the best opportunity to de- 
velop the pliysical, intellectual and moral faculties of a 
man is not disputed. I believe that farming pays a better 
per cent, to a certain limit (and that limit depends upon 
the ability of the man) than any other business. The man 
that farms intelligently is sure of a comfortable living. 

The conditions of success are that we make our pro- 
ducts of the very best quality. That we study our busi- 
ness and then put the best there is in us into it. That we 
always do the best we know. So many of us fail to do 
this that the wonder is not that our farms pay so poorly, 
but that they pay as well as they do. Few of us realize 
how far we come short of making our farms produce what 
they might. None of us know the possibilities of pro- 
duction. To most of us 225 bushels of shelled corn, 1061 
bushels potatoes and 11 1-3 tons of Hubbard squash to the 
acre seems incredible. Nevertheless such crops have been 
raised. Many of us fail to save in the best possible man- 
ner what our farms have produced. 

Again how much we lose in failing to feed in such 
combinations and in such a way and at such a time as will 
give the best results. How much we lose by keeping in- 
ferior animals. The best are none too good for all. Farm- 
ing in the future will demand more thinking and less 
muscle. The successful farmer must plan wisely and ex- 
ecute his plans skilfully. As a business man he must 
adopt business methods. He must respect himself and his 
calling: and others will do the same. 



144 



GRAPES AND GRAPE CULTURE IN ESSEX 
COUNTY. 

BY DR. J. W. GOODELL, OF LYNN. 

There is an old saying, "■ Wine is the milk of old age." 
This may be substantially true for the sick, but our prefer- 
ence is to take it in the original package, of a well ripened 
bunch of good grapes, fresh from the vine, with the bloom 
and bouquet still on the outside. Then we can sa}^ with 
truth " It cheers without inebriating." In this form it 
stimulates digestion, and is an acknowledged blood maker, 
building up the system in all wasting diseases, like con- 
sumption, and its scrofulous kindred ailments. In cer- 
tain foreign countries the use of the grape has the title of 
the " Grape cure," each patient eating several pounds 
per day, and gaining both strength and flesh. We much 
prefer this form of the elixir of phosphates to that put up 
in bottles (and sold at one dollar per bottle or six for five 
dollars by some unprincipled quack). 

Granting that the grape is a good and wholesome fruit, 
we naturally have the desire to grow it in our own gardens, 
and are willing to receive any light gained by the experi- 
ence and observation of those who shall have spent time 
and money in striving to accomplish that object. 

The first question to be decided is, " In what kind of 
soil does the vine flourish best ?" The vine may grow in 
almost any soil, but does not flourish unless the ground is 
well drained, sandy loam well enriched with old well 
rotted fertilizer. It requires water but from the surface, 
instead of the sub-soil. The situation should be fully ex- 
posed to the sun, and a free circulation of air, though 
sheltered from the north and west winds, which are liable 
to cause blighting of the young fruit. 

Having decided upon your location and properly pre- 
pared the soil, comes the very important question as to 
the variety to be planted. 



145 

A prime factor entering into this question in our lati- 
tude is the length of time required to grow and ripen both 
fruit and cane. Certainly we must not take the season 
of 1891 to guide us in our decision, when three weeks of 
October have passed and the tenderest plant has not been 
injured by frost. We think we would be safe in saying 
that any grape which requires any portion of October to 
ripen its fruit should be discarded. 

In the average year we have damaging frosts by the 25th 
of September. The fruit will seldom improve after the 
foliage has been much chilled. If left on to absorb the 
frozen sap the fruit will lose its original character and 
becomes flat and tasteless, decaying in a short time. Any 
vine which does not ripen its wood in September will run 
the risk of being winter killed, and should be discarded, 
or tried as an experiment. 

If one has a well sheltered location or is willing to take 
the vines down from the trellis in the autumn, cover them 
with some coarse loose material and put them back each 
spring, he may succeed. Yet the most of our growers do 
not take the trouble, therefore should not be advised to 
put out tender or late ripening vines. The vine usually 
remains where it grows, and lives or dies according to its 
power of standing the effects of fierce winds and rapid 
changing temperature. 

The great majority of New England grape growers raise 
grapes for their own consumption and not for market. The 
first consideration is quality and early ripening. Our first 
vine would be Moore's Ear/i/, which possesses all the good 
qualities required. Second, Hartford, whose greatest fault 
is dropping, and can be in a great measure prevented 
hj free irrigation, while the fruit is ripening, and will im- 
prove the size and quality of the fruit. Third, Brighton, 
one of the finest flavored grapes which we have, that will 
ripen in September. Fourth, Concord, a good grape, hardy 
and prolific, yet often overtaken by the frost before its 
fruit is well ripened, therefore uncertain. 



146 

We should advise the planting of the Worden as superi- 
or in many respects, and ripening one week earlier. Fine» 
large, both in berry and bunch ; vine of hardy growth, 
ripening its wood in good season. Fruit of finest quality, 
rich and syrupy, and for the time it has been before the 
public has fulfilled more promises than any of its competi- 
tors. The Niagara, which was introduced to society with 
a great amount of ceremony (which, by the way, was 
dearly paid for by the purchaser), has not given satisfac- 
tion to its patrons and cultivators. In fact with us the 
present year it has behaved worse than any other, has not 
produced a single good bunch. It may reform, but we 
look upon it as being under investigation. Neither has 
the Pocklington given that satisfaction which was expec- 
ted of it. The Niagara has found its congenial climate in 
Florida, where it is being planted by the acre, and ripens 
its fruit in June. Our average season is too short for the 
last two varieties. 

Of all the Rodgers' thirty odd varieties, we think No. 4 
(Wilder) stands at the head and is well worthy of cultiva- 
tion. Most of Rodgers' appear to blight and are prone to 
take on all the fashionable vine diseases. If you have 
room for only two vines, plant a Moore's Early and a 
Worden, and you will rejoice rather than mourn as you 
look upon well ripened clusters of fruit, bright with the 
September sun. 

Always plant your vines in spring, after the frost is well 
out of the ground, the soil having been thoroughly prepared 
the previous autumn. If you have any old bones scattered 
about the premises gather them all up, break fine, and place 
among the roots as you plant. 

In most of our small gardens we can hardly spare the 
room for a grape vine to stand out where it must be sup- 
ported by a trellis, but tacked up to the fence or side of a 
building. In such case we should advise having a trellis 
which would hold the vine a foot or so away from the build- 
ing, and give a free circulation of air behind. The reflec- 



147 

tion of the rays of light and heat from a light colored 
surface would help to hasten the ripening of the fruit and 
wood of the vine. 

If you have more and desire to plant in vineyard form, 
set cedar posts ten feet apart, and six feet out of ground. 
Then commence eighteen inches from the ground and run 
strong galvanized wire from post to post, fastening firmly 
with fence staples. Three other strands may be placed 
fifteen inches apart. Plant your vines at each post and 
train both to right and left, fastening the vine to the wire 
by means of leather or soft pieces of cord. Copper wire 
is sometimes used for this purpose and is very durable, 
but is liable to cut the vines when lieavily laden with 
fruit. 

Fertilizing. In looking over the soils of those countries 
where the vine has been most successfully cultivated, we 
find such an abundance of mineral substances that the 
water is unfit to drink. Soda, sulphur, lime and iron 
abound with phosphorus in all sorts of combination. In 
New York state, where such large crops of grapes are 
raised, we find the whole region underlaid by a bed of 
lime rock. Hence we are to study the soil and find where- 
in it lacks the necessary elements of success, applying 
what is needed. All dressing for the vine should be 
thoroughly composted. Bone for the phosphorus, and 
wood ashes for the potash ; sulphur, iron and some vegeta- 
ble mould as an absorbant. Mix well and sprinkle the pile 
well over with land plaster to prevent the waste by the 
evaporation of gasses, especially ammonia. Apply in 
early spring and work in thoroughly. Saving your soap- 
suds on wash days and applying about the roots will well 
repay the trouble, or better, partly fill an old barrel with 
ashes, soot, old iron and ground bone, pour your suds on 
to it and apply from time to time. 

Thinning the fruit. Here will come the test of your 
moral courage. Taking your clippers and going through 
your vines, and cutting out all small and imperfect bunch- 



148 

es, sometimes even to one-third or one-half the number of 
bunches set. But experience proves that you will grow 
not only larger and finer clusters but actually more pounds 
oi fruit. 

Another thing our most careful cultivators and premium 
takers do. They bag the best bunches. When the grapes 
are about one-half grown they slip a common grocer's 
paper bag over the bunch they want to protect, and pin 
around the vine on both sides of the stem. This keeps it 
free from dust and many insect pests. Yet we are told 
it retards the ripening for about one week. But a frost 
that would cut the foliage would not harm the grapes thus 
protected. Another method to improve the fruit is to 
grow as little wood as possible. When a cane has attained 
the length you desire nip it in. Go over the vines every 
week or oftener nipping in all straggling shoots. Cutting 
away leaves to let the sun in is a great mistake and should 
never be done. The leaves are the lungs of the plant, and 
every considerable injury or destruction of or to the foli- 
age is an injury and leads to disease if not death. You 
will find your largest and finest bunches hidden beneath 
the dense foliage. 

The vine, like all vegetation, has its diseases and insect 
enemies to contend with, and often frustrates our best en- 
deavors. Maay washes have been recommended for appli- 
cation, as lime, sulphate of iron and sulphate of copper, 
sulphur, and even Paris green mixed with Bordeaux mix- 
ture for spraying the vines. I object to mixing poison with 
my food, and try to keep my vines in a healthy growing 
condition, so as to escape the need of these remedies of 
doubtful utility and safety. Sulphur is safe and useful and 
does not scorch the leaves. The stronger remedies may 
kill the disease, but destroy the vine as well, or the leaves 
which are its principle organs of life and growth. In fact 
the Bordeaux mixture could not be sprayed upon a vine 
trained upon a painted buiding without great detriment to 
the same. 



149 

We believe in the best and most thorough cultivation 
and liberal feeding. Such patients have the least need of 
medical attendance, and are the best prepared to ward off 
epidemics or contagion. 

We are persuaded that the electric lights are doing good 
service to the horticulturist by the destruction of millions 
of insect pests, which are attracted to them and their own 
death. The enthusiastic entomologist is often seen perched 
under the arc light with his scoop net in hand, gathering 
in many fine specimens of moths. 

Pruning should not be commenced until the vine has be- 
come thoroughly dormant, say in New England about the 
middle of November, as our object during the summer has 
been not to grow any superfluous wood. So in pruning we 
should leave only such canes as are needed as a renewal of 
the parent vine. Trim all laterals not required back to 
two buds, and see that the vine is securely fastened to its 
support (when not layered for winter). If it is not well 
secured, and such an ice storm as last winter gave us should 
occur, attended by violent wind, much damage would be 
done. It is good practice to rake up all grape foliage and 
trimmings and hum them. Whatever disease there may be 
present will be most likely to be found on the foliage and 
tender shoots. 

Tlirow a light covering of evergreen boughs, corn stalks 
or coarse, strawy manure around the roots for winter and 
let them rest. 



SIX CROPS OF GREATEST VALUE TO ESSEX 
COUNTY. 

BY M. SUMNER PERKINS OF DANVERS. 

Onions, cabbages, corn, potatoes, squashes and turnips 
may be justly termed the half dozen staple crops of Essex 



I50 

•County. Each is valuable either as a market crop or for 
stockfeeding, or both. True there are other crops which 
are cultivated more or less extensively, yet the above seem 
to deserve the distinction of being the six most important. 
In this essay the writer proposes to treat briefly of each, 
touching upon its culture, fertilization, uses, etc. 

ONIONS. 

The onion ranks foremost as a money crop. That is to 
say, speaking generally, the farmer realizes more cash from 
it than from any of the others. Three or four hundred 
bushels per acre may perhaps be considered an ordinary 
yield, though five or six hundred bushels on same area are 
by no means rare. Hence, at a fair price of il.OO a bushel, 
the product of an acre of onions figures well up into the 
hundreds in value. In selecting a piece of, ground for an 
onion bed, choose fairly level land, free from stones, and 
composed of rich, loamy soil. Old muck-beds, when prop- 
erly drained and sanded, often suit the onion perfectly, and 
produce enormous crops. Yet the product of such is natu- 
rally soft in texture and unreliable in keeping quality, as 
■compared with crops grown upon higher and firmer ground. 
The onion, unlike most other crops, does well when grown 
•on same land for a number of years in succession. Indeed 
larger yields are generally obtained the second and third 
years than the first. Land which it is intended to devote 
to onions, should have been highly cultivated for some 
years prior to its use for the above named crop. Liberal 
manuring from year to year is in order until soil is well 
stored with fertility. Another very important considera- 
tion is that the ground be comparatively free from the 
seeds of weeds, indeed, the expense of tending the crop 
depends very much on this condition, since if certain 
weeds, as purslane, witchgrass and chickweed have 
become established in the soil, onion culture is at best 
very discouraging work, and profit in the business is out of 
the question. Besides ordinary farm manure, unleached 



151 

wood ashes and ground bone may be named as especially 
suited to the growth of onions, producing large, solid, 
handsome bulbs. Wood ashes applied at the rate of one 
hundred bushels to the acre, supply a fertilizer that is at 
once cheap and effective. Onion seed is usually sown in the 
spring, as early as the soil can be properly worked, in drills 
a foot apart, using four or five pounds of seed to the acre. 
Cultivation should commence as soon as the rows are up 
so as to be distinctly seen, and continue throughout the 
growing season ; for success with every crop depends very 
much upon keeping the surface soil in a loose and porous 
state for admission of sun and air. Of late years the 
ravages of the so-called onion maggot has wrought great 
destruction to crops, and what is worse, there does not 
seem to be any reliable means, at present known, for effect- 
ually coping with the evil. A light dusting of the young 
plants with wood ashes or air-slaked lime, just as the eggs 
of the insect commence to hatch, will perhaps be found as 
useful as anything in the way of remedy. While onion 
growing requires much hand labor, and some back-aching 
work, yet, if a practice of destroying every weed as soon as 
it appears above ground is strictly adhered to, the battle is 
half won. 

CABBAGES. 

Cabbages may be classed next to onions as a money 
crop. As ordinarily grown, plants are allowed to stand 
two and one-half feet apart in each direction. This fixes 
the capacity of an acre at nearly 7,000 plants. Estimat- 
ing the good heads to be 6,000, and value of same to be four 
cents apiece, which may be called a fair price, we have 
$240.00 as the average gross receipts per acre devoted to 
this crop. The cost of tending a cabbage crop is much less 
than one of onions as a large portion of the work can be 
accomplished with horse and cultivator, and the remainder 
by use of hand hoes. Then when it happens, as it some- 
times will, that the cabbage has practically no value in market, 



152 

it can be turned to good account as stock food. Cows are 
very fond of it and it is excellent for producing milk. Nor 
will it affect the taste of milk if fed just before or during 
the process of milking. It is also of great value for the 
farm poultry, as ducks, geese and common fowl apparent- 
ly prefer it to any other species of green food. In order 
to raise large firm heads of cabbage a moist strong soil is 
required. They are great feeders and demand heavy ma- 
nuring. Surely five cords of good compost should be ap- 
plied to the acre, and better still would be eight or ten. 
Potash in form of wood ashess seem to be particularly 
adapted to cabbage growth, and a handful of same applied 
to each hill, or a broadcast distribution of say one hundred 
bushels to the acre, materially adds to size and quality 
of crop. Fish waste and refuse of glue works are also 
deemed by some economical fertilizers. For a general 
crop of cabbage it is more satisfactory to sow the seed 
where it is intended for the plants to grow, than to prac- 
tice transplanting, for the latter plan is more trouble, it 
can not be depended upon in times of great drought, and at 
best, it sets the crop back a fortnight more or less. 

CORN. 

The importance and value of the corn crop is shown by 
the fact that it forms the basis of our system of cattle 
feeding. Both the grain and stalk of the corn plant have 
always been of great value to our stockmen and dairymen, 
but with the advent of the silo, the cultivation and con- 
sumption of the crop have largely increased. At first 
farmers were skeptical concerning the benefits derived from 
feeding ensilage ; but the old-time prejudices have become 
dissipated under the influence of extended practical experi- 
ence in its use, until it is now generally acknowledged by 
stock owners, that good corn ensilage affords a most health- 
ful, nutritious and economical food for most farm animals, 
supplying as it does, green, succulent matter in winter, 
when there is a general dearth of such substances. Corn 



153 

is well adapted to much of the rough, rocky land of the 
county, since it is of vigorous growth and its strong, pene- 
trating roots spread out a considerable distance, running 
around rocks and stumps, and thus acquiring plant food, 
where crops of feebler habit would perish. It also has a 
beneficial effect upon the soil, loosening it and improving 
its mechanical condition. The common, yellow, field corn 
is cultivated to an extent in the county, and while it does 
not yield a large return in money value, yet it is a very 
useful crop, can be raised on cheap land, at small cost, and 
the product is all needed to feed the animals on the farm, 
thus removing any necessity of hunting up a profitable out- 
side market. The corn itself is usually ground on the ear, 
cob and all for cows and horses, and the stalks, when well 
preserved, equal in nutritive value a good quality of English 
hay pound for pound. At all events it is so regarded by 
men of science. The long coarse stalks are relished and 
eaten better, if cut a few inches in length and sprinkled 
with a little meal or shorts. It is quite a common practice 
to sow corn, when intended for foddering purposes, either 
broadcast or very thickly in rows. This does not seem to 
be the best way as a heavy growth of soft watery shoots are 
produced, that cannot ripen. Better always sow thinly in 
rows, allowing a few inches of space for each stalk and de- 
lay harvesting until plants are fully developed, and make 
respectable ears. A few handfuls of ashes, hen manure, or 
good fertilizer in the hill, is of benefit to the crops. The 
horse and cultivator should be able to do about all the work 
of tending the crop, so it is one of the easiest that we have 
to raise. 

POTATOES. 

In days gone by, when our fathers and grandfathers 
raised the old fashioned Chenangoes, about all that was 
necessary to produce a good crop of potatoes was to dig a 
hole in the ground, put in a little manure, drop seed and 
cover it. As soon as up, a hoeing was given and later on 



154 

perhaps another. In due season a good crop of large tu- 
bers was well nigh sure to be forthcoming. But now-a-days 
in this vicinity, results are very uncertain. With the ad- 
vent of the Colorado beetle and numerous kinds of blight 
and rot, we have found it safe not to count our potatoes, 
before they are dug. And even then the crop is far from a 
sure thing, since disease often appears after harvest. One 
of the first requisites for successful potato culture is good, 
strong, new land. By new land strictly speaking, is under- 
stood land that has never before been under the plow ; viz. 
newly cleared ground ; but niow land, that under crop rota- 
tation, has been recently under sod is called *' neivy Such 
soil is comparatively free from the various species of fun- 
gous growth. Nor are the bugs as numerous. As to fer- 
tilization, excellent crops of smooth, handsome tubers are 
produced on such new land, by the use of a small quantity 
of high grade fertilizer sprinkled in the hills. The various 
commercial manures, such as high grade fertilizers, phos- 
phates and dissolved bone certainly tend to the production 
of smooth, clean potatoes, whereas the fresh, green manure 
of our domestic animals, favors the growth of the scab and 
fungous diseases. If manure be used for potatoes at all, 
let it be old and well rotted, and apply it in the fall pre- 
vious to time of planting. Of late years, the so called 
trench system of growing potatoes has received consider- 
able attention and deservedly so. This plan consists 
essentially in opening deep furrows of eight or ten inches, 
covering bottom of furrow with a couple of inches of fine 
mellow soil, dropping the seed and covering three or four 
inches deep. The depression in the furrow is filled in dur- 
ing the successive hoeings of the crop. The advantages of 
the practice may be briefly summed up as follows. The 
roots of the vine are well down in the moist earth, where 
they can stand the drought. The tubers are well covered 
and out of the way of danger from sun scald. It is easy 
work to hoe the crop, which merely consists in levelling the 
ground about the plants, while by the old method of cul- 
ture, hills have to be formed. 



155 



SQUASHES. 

Squashes are an easy crop to raise and pleasant to han- 
dle. Most any otherwise vacant and useless spots on the 
.farm can be made to produce a hill of squashes, and the 
corn field will support a limited number of vines without 
injury to its mainly important crop. Rich soil is certainly 
needed to grow a large squash crop and six to ten cords of 
good manure per acre, are none too much for an applica- 
tion. Hills should be made ten feet apart in each direction, 
and a dozen seeds sown to each hill, in order that a suffi- 
cient number of plants may stand after the ravages of the 
bugs have ceased. Land plaster is commonly used to rid 
the vines of insects, sprinkling a handful or so upon each 
hill. As this merely keeps the bugs off and does not kill 
them, the application of a weak solution of Paris green, is 
a much surer remedy. In preparing land for squashes, it is 
well to spread on a heavy dressing of manure broadcast, 
and in addition where the hills come, to dig in a couple of 
shovelfuls of good fine compost, which is to be covered and 
the seed dropped on top. The entire cultivation until the 
vines commence to run, is readily done with the horse cul- 
tivator. It is a characteristic of the squash vine to form 
new roots at intervals, throughout its length. This feature 
should be encouraged by covering the vines with earth at 
these points, for not only does it aiford the vine an in- 
creased feeding area, but when it occurs, as it sometimes 
does, that borers destroy the main root, these auxiliary 
feeders save the vine from ruin. To be safely kept through 
the winter, squashes require a moderately warm and dry 
apartment for their storage. We have found that a cellar 
heated by steam or furnace heat is a most excellent place 
for the purpose. In this way we have kept them in good 
condition until late Spring. 

TUENIPS. 

The turnip is very useful on the farm, as a food for all 



156 

classes of stock. In connection with hay and grain, it 
forms a splendid winter ration for horses, cows and sheep. 
It should always be cut finely, if fed raw, to prevent chok- 
ing. Hogs and poultry thrive remarkably, when steamed 
or boiled turnips comprise a considerable portion of their 
diet. Fresh, new land is necessary to grow smooth, clean 
turnips, as old rich garden soil almost invariably produces 
prongy and worm-eaten bulbs. The large Ruta Baga tur- 
nip should be sown as early as May or June, while the com- 
mon round turnip does well when sown as late as August. 
Some farmers sow turnips broadcast, but the most satisfac- 
tory way seems to be, to plant in drills, three feet apart for 
Ruta Bagas and eighteen inches to two feet for round tur- 
nips, thinning the former to one foot apart in the row, and 
the latter to two or three inches. In this shape they may- 
be cultivated and thinned properly and with ease, which 
greatly adds to the chances of the crop. Turnips yield well, 
are little trouble to grow, and generally sell well at profit- 
able prices. 

Id couclusion let it be said that the majority of crop fail- 
ures are directly traceable to either lack of adequate fertili- 
zation or to insufficient cultivation. The soil cannot well 
become too rich for most crops. At all events it very rare- 
ly does in Essex County. Next to fertilization in impor- 
tance comes cultivation, which can hardly be too intensive. 
Keeping the weeds in check is insufficient. Always, the 
surface soil should be light and mellow. 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF CROPS AS FOOD FOR 

CATTLE. 

BY O. S. BUTLER, OF GEOKGETOWN. 

As no statement has been presented to the committee on 
the above subject, in regard to the comparative value of 



157 

crops as food for cattle, I have been requested to present 
the subject to the society, in the form of an essay or report. 

The reason why our farmers do not make practical tests 
and present the results to the society, is not for lack of in- 
terest in this subject, but because of the difficulty in ob- 
taining satisfactory data upon which to base an opinion that 
would become authority under different conditions and 
localities. Even our experiment stations caution our far- 
mers against taking their statements as authority under all 
conditions, for the value of any crop as food for cattle 
depends as much upon the cost of producing it, as upon its 
intrinsic value of nutrition, and the cost of producing a 
crop, depends upon the quality of the soil, and its adapta- 
tion to certain crops, and its entire unfitness for other 
crops. And then the location of the land is an important 
factor of expense in the production of a crop. Land that 
is located so near the city or village, as to be worth from 
five to ten hundred dollars per acre, could not be used for 
pasturing, or for a corn crop, no matter how nutritious the 
crop produced might be. A crop that might be produced 
with but little expense for labor, manure and land cost, 
would be of great value to the poor farmer, even though its 
intrinsic value, judged by its per cent, of nutrition, might 
not be as great as some other crops, that it would be impos- 
sible for him to produce under his conditions and environ- 
ments. And then the value of any crop is increased or 
diminished by the results to be realized. One kind of food 
may be of great value in producing milk, while quite a 
different crop would be requisite in producing beef, and 
still another crop entirely different, would be valuable as 
food for growing stock, such as colts, and calves, and lambs. 
So it will be seen, that the value of any crop aa food for 
cattle, depends upon the results to be realized. 

And still further, the value of any crop as food for cattle 
depends upon the condition of the animal to be fed, as to 
its healthfulness or its unhealthfulness. It would be more 
than waste to give a heavy, nutritious food to a dyspeptic 



158 

animal. It often happens that a very cheap food would be 
very valuable for an animal for a month or a year. When 
the digestive and assimilative organs are kept in good con- 
dition, the animal will thrive on comparatively cheap food. 
But there are certain general rules that may be observed 
under all conditions with comparative success, as our expe- 
rience and observation has proved. 

First, all crops as food for cattle, should be fully matured 
in order to obtain the best results ; not fully ripe, but well 
developed and matured. The early spring grass in our 
pastures may increase the flow of milk, but it does this at 
the expense of its quality. The milk and butter produced 
from the early spring grass, is not at all like the milk and 
butter produced from the mature grass of June and July. 
The time was when we filled our silos with green, imma- 
ture corn, but this ensilage had to be fed in connection with 
other more nutritious food in order to obtain the best re- 
sults. But now, no intelligent farmer thinks of cutting his 
corn for the silo until the ears have begun to glaze and 
harden, and this ensilage comes nearer to a perfect food for 
cattle than any other single crop, and this is true of all 
crops or foods that are used to develop and sustain animal 
life, whether gathered from the, field or the stall. Lamb or 
veal may be very palatable, but not as nutritious as mutton 
or beef. 

Another factor of great importance in estimating the 
value of any crop for food for cattle is the proper combina- 
tion of foods. There are certain kinds of food that are 
entirely useless when fed alone, but are of great value 
when fed in connection with some other kinds of food. The 
agricultural chemist informs us that turnips contain but 
six per cent, nutritious substance and ninety-four per cent, 
of water, that green fodder corn stands about the same, 
that straw, barley, oats or rye are incapable of sustaining 
animal life ; and yet practical science has demonstrated 
that a partial feed of green corn fodder to milch cows al- 
ways increases the flow of milk without diminishing the 



159 

quality, and that the best mutton and wool in any country 
is produced in Scotland from herds of sheep that never 
taste of a mouthful of food in winter except turnips and 
straw. We are informed, by good authority, that cabbages 
or potatoes are incapable of sustaining animal life, when 
fed alone, but we know that the strongest and healthiest 
race of men and women is the one that finds its chief diet 
in cabbage and potatoes. The mistake of the chemist is 
found in the fact that he claims all liquid as water when 
the facts are quite different. The liquid /)f turnips, of 
potatoes, of corn, of cabbage, of apples, and of grapes, are 
entirely different each from the other, and neither of them 
is pure and simple water, and either of them standing alone 
may not be able to sustain animal life, but when used in 
combination with each other may produce the best possible 
results. Of this there can be no doubt. If this is true, 
then in order to estimate the value of any crop as food for 
cattle, we must observe the above mentioned conditions. 

First — The crop best adapted to the land, its location 
and value. 

Second — The condition of the animals to be fed. 

Third — The results to be obtained. 

Fourth — Whatever the crop fed, it should be well matured. 

Fifth — It should be used in such combination as to con- 
stitute it the most natural food for the animal fed. 

I have been greatly interested in the experiments made 
at the New Hampshire Experiment Station, under the 
direction of Prof. Whitcher, as to the comparative value of 
corn ensilage with dry fodder, and I take the liberty to quote 
a few statements made in Bulletin No. 14. Prof. Whitcher 
says, " First, more actual food material can be produced 
from an acre of corn, than from any other of our common 
farm crops. Land capable of producing two tons of hay, 
will, as a rule, produce twenty tons of ensilage, having at 
least twenty-five per cent, of dry substance or actual food 
material. 

40,000 lbs. of ensilage equals 10,000 lbs. of dry matter and 
4,000 lbs. of hay equals 3,000 lbs. of dry matter. It is safe 



i6o 

therefore to say that three times as much dry substance 
may be produced from a given acre of corn, as from a like 
acre of grass. Second, the cost of a hundred pounds of dry 
matter is slightly less in corn than in hay, as the following 
statement will show : 

Cutting the corn in field, per acre, $2.00 

Loading and drawing to barn, 3.75 

Cutting and packing in silo, 2.40 

Use of engine and cutter, 1.25 



Total, -19.40 

Yield per acre, fifteen tons. Cost per ton, 62| cents. 
Under more favorable circumstances, as to distance and 
location, a seven acre field of corn was harvested with the 
following results per acre : 

Cutting and stocking, §2.16 

Drawing in, 2.56 

Husking corn, 5.00 

Drawing corn to mill, 1.50 

Grinding corn, 1.80 



$13.02 ' 
While I cannot give the exact figures as to the per cent, 
of dry matter in each crop, yet there was not above 6,000 
lbs. in the husked crop as against 7,500 lbs. in the crop put 
in the silo. One hundred pounds of dry matter, at the 
time of feeding out, would cost for harvesting alone, twen- 
ty-five cents in the husked crop, and fifteen and two-thirds 
cents in the silo. Add to this the greater efficiency of the 
dry matter, pound for pound, and it is evident that from 
an economic standpoint the silo has the advantage. In 
addition to the above statement I have the testimony of 
many others fully corroborating their truthfulness, and after 
giving this subject very careful consideration for the last ten 
years, and corresponding with persons in all parts of the 
country, I should say that for the country farmer, the corn 
crop stands at the head. Corn is King even in Essex 
County. 



i6i 
IN MEMORIAM. 



In obtaining the names of members of the society de- 
c eased, a list of members was sent to the Trustee in each 
town and city for revision, requesting date of death d 
age of each member deceased, with brief notice of each in 
printing or writing, from which and from others, the fol- 
lowing has been compiled by your committee : 

Hon. George B. Loring died suddenly at his home in 
Salem, Sept. 15, 1891, at the age of seventy-four years, 
six months. He had been sick about ten days but ap- 
peared to be improving and his friends were encouraged 
that he would recover, until within a few hours of his 
death. Dr. Loring was born in North Andover, Mass. 
His father was for more than forty years the Unitarian 
clergyman in that town, and was a descendant of John 
Alden of the Plymouth colony, while his mother was a 
niece of Samuel Osgood, the first Postmaster General un- 
der Washington. He was a graduate of Harvard College 
in the same class with James Russell Lowell, and took his 
degree in the Harvard Medical School, having been a stu- 
dent under Oliver Wendell Holmes. Soon after his grad- 
uation he was appointed surgeon of the Marine Hospital 
at Chelsea, where he remained in active practice seven 
years. He then resigned and went to Salem, where he 
came into possession of the Pickman Farm, which was his 
home during the remainder of his life. In 1864 he 
founded the New England Agricultural Society and was 
its president for nearly a quarter of a century. For four 
years he was a trustee of the Massachusetts Society for 
Promoting Agriculture and has for a long time been Vice 
President of the Essex Agricultural Society, in which he 
always took a great interest. As an author and public 
speaker he won distinction, his " Farm Yard Club of 
Jotham" papers being recognized as a standard in their 
line and his many contributions to the North American 
Review and other magazines making his name a household 
word. At the time of his death he was engaged on a 



l62 

work on Spain and Portugal. Dr. Loring was Postmaster 
of Salem from 1853 to 1858. In 1866-67 he was a member 
of the Massachusetts house of Representatives. In 1873- 
4-5-6 he was president of the Massachusetts Senate. In 
1876 he was elected to Congress from the old fifth District 
and was reelected in 1878. In 1881 he was appointed 
Commissioner of Agriculture by President Garfield, receiv- 
ing his commission and instructions from the President 
the day before the latter was shot. Soon after his inau- 
guration President Harrison appointed Dr. Loring as min* 
ister to Portugal which position he resigned within a year 
feeling the need of rest. He has since lived quietly at his 
farm in Salem engaged in literary work. He leaves a 
widow and one daughter. 

Dr. William Cogswell, who died August 15, 1891, 
was born in Atkinson, N. H., April 21, 1821. of stock well 
and highly known, educated in the schools of his native 
town. He chose medicine as his life study. He was a 
trustee of the Academy in his native town, President of 
the State Medical Society for two years, was appointed 
and served as medical examiner, was elected as a member 
of the Governor's Council, and served as Surgeon in the 
50th Massachusetts Regiment. In various ways prompted 
by a tender heart and generous nature, he endeared him- 
self to a large circle of friends through a long life, and 
laid down his work in the way that he himself had desired 
to lay it down without sufiering, without an interval of 
inactivity, surrounded by his friends and in his home. In 
the practice of his chosen profession Dr. Cogswell was 
faithful to its duties, responding promptly to the call of 
suffering and offering for its relief all that a kindly heart 
and an experience valuable, by reason of its variety, could 
suggest. To the younger members of this society he was 
a friend and counsellor, ever glad to hear of the success 
of another, and to aid it generously by advice or personal 
service. Positive in his convictions, and fearless in his 
expression of them, he was an active force in the world, 



i63 

and by the integrity of his character, his power was 
directed to the accomplishment of good. We desire to 
express to his wife and his family friends our sympathy, 
and to place on record our appreciation of the value of a 
life lived as his has been lived. He is mourned in the 
hearts of many and in these hearts will be reared monu- 
ments of remembrance to many kindly deeds unknown to 
the world. Dr. Cogswell was for many years a valuable 
member of the Essex Agricultural Society, and for several 
years Trustee of the Society. His lectures and addresses 
before the Society were characterized by careful prepara- 
tion, energetic delivery, and practical application. 

John A. Hoyt, of Georgetown, died May 29, 1891. He 
had been a member of the Societ}^ for a number of years 
and had taken a great interest in its prosperity, a man of 
business sagacity and keen insight into what affected the 
general welfare, of varied talents and of great value to the 
community where he resided. 

Thomas G. Ordway, of West Newbury, died January 
25, 1890, aged 71 years 11 months. 

Amos Poore, of West Newbury, died July 2, 1889,. 
aged 80 years. 

Calvin Rogers, of West Newbury, died June 15„ 
1889, aged 77 years 3 months. 

, Hon. Marcus Morton, ex-Chief Justice of the Su- 
preme Court of Massachusetts, died at his home in Ando- 
ver, Feb. 10, 1891, aged 71 years 10 months. Judge Mor- 
ton was the son of Marcus and Charlotte Morton and was- 
born in Taunton, April 8, 1819. He was a member of the 
famous Constitutional Convention of 1853, being elected 
from Andover in 1859. He was appointed Judge upon the 
Superior Bench of the State, and in 1869 was appointed 
Judge in the Supreme Court. Gov. Long appointed him 
Chief Justice in 1882, this position he filled with distinc- 
tion until about three months before his death, when ill 
health compelled him to resign. He was a valued citizen 
of Andover, long a member of this Society and took a. 



164 

general interest in all that pertained to elevate and edu- 
cate the people. 

Samuel K. Johnson, of Andover, was formerly a resi- 
dent of North Andover, where he had served as selectman 
of the town, afterward removed to Andover where he 
died May 16, 1891, aged 71 years. 

Henry A. Bod well, of Andover, died quite suddenly 
at his home May 17, 1891, aged 69 years. He had long 
been a member of this Society and had served as Trustee. 

Benjamin A. Gray, of Salem, died Feb. 27, 1891. 

Clement R. Hanson, of Salem, died April 5, 1891. 

Mr. John P. Foster, of North Andover, died June 4, 
1891. Mr. Foster was the first President of the North 
Andover farmers' club and was one of the most thrifty 
farmers in Essex County, a thoroughly honest and reliable 
man, a good neighbor and citizen. 

Nathaniel Peters, of North Andover, died March 16, 
1891, aged 74 years. The death of Mr. Peters at North 
Andover on the 16th inst, closed the earthly record of a 
life in some of its aspects so singular that no ordinary 
" notice '' can do more than hint its quality. Only a spir- 
itual biography of the man whose days were free from 
those outward things commonly called " eventful " could 
reveal with any clearness the depths of the surface, or the 
wonted play of his nature. His " soul was like a star, and 
dwelt apart." And if one star differs from another in 
glory, this spirit-star had a glory of its own. Yet with a 
radiance so calm and modest it shone, that even to some 
who had always known its existence and magnitude, its 
light seemed not fully to have reached their world. 

The seventy-four years of his life had so ripened all its 
fruit that it fell off like the olive, " blessing Nature who 
produced it, and thanking the tree on which it grew." 
And others repeat the blessing and the thanks. 

A " white pine Yankee," tall and straight, Mr. Peters 
was a type of the best old New England stock, grown 
likewise to the generosity of nature which embraces all 



i65 

the good of humankind. Even his severities were gentle. 
A certain survival of Puritan aspect was lighted up with 
the genial glance of an eye which bore recognition and 
sympathy for the common lot of earth. Modesty approach- 
ing to shy diffidence was supported by the manly integri- 
ty and courage of simplicity which turn the seeming 
weakness of a character into finer strength. There was 
an outward uprightness of carriage that spoke of the 
rectitude within. He was more like to do a good deed by 
stealth, than to wait for thanks or acknowledgment. 
Every man who so lives must help other men to live in the 
spirit of this creed. 

Samuel Hutchinson, of Peabody, died June 27, 1891, 
aged 76 years. For many years he had not enjoyed good 
health. 

Sidney C. Bancroft, of Peabody, died July 28, 1891, 
aged 65 years. For many years Mr. Bancroft was a dis- 
tinguished member of the Essex bar. He was born in 
Peabody in 1826, and began life as a mason. A love of 
literature rather than a distaste for mechanics prompted 
him to leave his trade and adopt a profession ; as a parlia- 
mentarian he had few equals. He was a regular atten- 
dant at all the meetings of this Society whenever health 
would permit, and his voice was always heard in all de- 
bates where he will be much missed. 

William H. Little, of Peabody, died August 16, 1891, 
aged 82 years 10 months. He was born in the same house 
where he died. For many years he was engaged in the 
leather business. He was a man of more than ordinary 
intellectual powers and had a marked taste for general 
mechanics. He was very genial, always having a sunny 
smile and a pleasant word for all he came in contact with. 
He had served his native town two years in the legisla- 
ture and for many years he had been a valued member of 
the trustees of the Peabody Institute, also he was a man 
who took a great interest in the fire department of the 
town, having for many years been a member in his young- 



1 66 

«r days, and always gave his best thought and intellect to 
whatever public trust he had to do with. 

Daniel D. Flanders, of Haverhill, died Dec. 12, 1890, 
aged 66 years. He was born in Sandown, N. H., but 
came to Haverhill when quite young, and learned the 
trade of currier, being an apprentice to the late Lyman 
Worthen. At a later date he became a shoe manufacturer, 
being for some time a member of the firm of Flanders & 
Dawson, and afterward the firm was Flanders & How. 
Mr. Flanders was never a farmer but was always inter- 
ested in this Society and its work. He was a man of 
commanding physique and was well known and respected 
by all. 

James A. Bartlett, of Danvers, died Sept. 20, 1891. 

Israel P. Boardman, of Danvers, died Feb. 17, 1891. 

Edwin F. Putnam, of Danvers, died Aug. 18, 1890. 

David Tuller Perley, of Ipswich, one of the best 
known and wealthiest farmers in Essex county, died at 
his residence in Linebrook Parish, Ipswich, August 16, 
1891. He had been sick only two days. The cause of 
death was measles. Mr. Perley was born in Linebrook, 
Jan. 17, 1824. He inherited a large farm from his father, 
and by his thrift and industry had amassed a large fortune. 
He was well known throughout the eastern part of this state 
:a8 a cattle dealer. His reputation had always been, that he 
■was upright and honest in his dealings, and square on a 
trade. Mr. Perley had been married three times, and leaves 
a widow and eight children to mourn his loss. The funeral 
took place Wednesday afternoon, it being delayed one day 
to allow Oscar Perley, his eldest son, time to arrive here 
from Nebraska. 

Horace Ware, who died May 2, 1891, at the age of 71, 
was born in Salem, on the Pickman Farm. At an early 
age he began farming on his own account at Marblehead 
Farms District. He was a man of unusual strength and 
vigor, of pronounced and persistent character and generous 
in all relations of life. He was a successful farmer, an 



i67 

eminent grower of vegetables, making onions a specialty. 
He was for many years an active member and trustee of 
this Society. 

W. P. DoLLivER, of Gloucester, died in September, 
1891. 

H. G. Sanford, of Gloucester, died in February, 1891. 

William Jones, of Newburyport, died March 14, 1890, 
aged 59 years 7 months. He was a carpenter by trade. 

Robert A. Smith, a farmer of Newburyport, died Nov. 
15, 1890, aged 70 years 11 months. 

George L. Walker, of Newburyport, died Jan. 22, 
1891, aged 70 years 11 months. 

George J. L. Colby, of Newburyport, died Nov. 30, 
1890, aged 71 years 10 months. Mr. Colby was widely 
known as an editor of ability and always took a deep inter- 
est in county aifairs. 

Robert G. Buxton, of Peabody, died Nov. 26, 1891. 



1 68 






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CONSTITUTION 

OF THE 

ESSEX AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Article 1. There shall be a President, four Vic& 
Presidents, a Secretary, and a Treasurer, who shall be 
Trustees, ex-officio. The President, Vice Presidents and 
Secretary shall be elected at the annual meeting by ballot 
and the Treasurer by the Trustees, annually, at their meet- 
ing in November. In addition to these, one Trustee shall 
be elected annually for each town in the County, and the 
Trustee for each town shall be elected by members of the 
Society in said town, at a meeting called for that purpose,* 
in accordance with notice issued by the Secretary, and 
shall continue in oJBEice until another is elected in his stead ; 
and such election shall be final, and shall constitute the 
Trustee so elected a member of the Board of Trustees of 
the Society ; and the result of the election in each town 
shall be communicated as early as possible to the Secretary. 

Art. 2. There shall be an Annual Meeting of the So- 
ciety, at such times as the Trustees shall determine, at 
which all officers shall be elected. Twenty members at 
least shall be necessary to constitute a quorum for the 
transaction of business. 

Art. 3. If at any meeting of the Society, or the Trus- 
tees, the President and Vice Presidents shall be absent, 
the members present may appoint one from among them to 
preside at such meeting. 

Art. 4. The President, or, in case of his absence, either 



♦These meetings are held the last Tuesday of October, and the Trustees^ 
•lected commence their duties at the November meeting of Trustees. 



170 

of the Vice Presidents, with the advice of the Trustees, 
may call a special meeting of the Society ; or whenever a 
written application, with the reason assigned therefore, 
shall be made by any twelve members of the Society, to the 
Presidents and Trustees, they shall call such meeting. 

Art. 5. The meetings of the Trustees shall be held at 
such time and place as they shall from time to time agree 
upon ; seven of whom with the presiding officer shall make 
a quorum. 

Art. 6. The Trustees shall regulate all the concerns of 
the Society, during the intervals of its meetings ; propose 
such objects of improvement to the attention of the public, 
publish such communications, and offer premiums in such 
form and value as they think proper (provided the pre- 
miums offered do not exceed the funds of the Society) ; 
and shall lay before the Society, at each of its meetings, a 
statement of their proceedings and of the communications 
made to them. 

Art. 7. The Secretary shall take minutes of all the 
votes and proceedings of the Society and of the Trustees, 
and enter them in separate books ; and shall record all 
such communications as the Trustees shall direct. He 
shall write and answer all letters relating to the business 
•of the Society. 

Art. 8. The Treasurer shall receive all monies due or 
payable to the Society, and all donations that may be made 
to it, for which he shall give duplicate receipts, one of 
which shall be lodged with the Secretary, who shall make 
a fair record thereof. The Treasurer shall from time to 
time pay out such monies as he shall have orders for 
from the Trustees; and shall annually, and whenever 
thereto required, render a fair account of all his receipts 
and payments to the Society or a committee thereof. He 
shall give bonds for the faithful discharge of his duty, in 
such sum as the Trustees shall direct, and with such sure- 
ties. 

Art. 9. A committee shall be appointed annually by 



171 

the Trustees, to audit the Treasurer's accounts, who shall 
report to the Society ; and the same being accepted, shall 
be entered by the Secretary in his books. 

Art. 10. In case of death, resignation, incapacity, or 
removal out of the County, of the Secretary or of the Treas- 
urer, the Trustees shall take charge of the official books, 
papers, and other effects, belonging to the office that may 
be vacated, and give receipts for the same ; which books, 
papers, etc., they may deliver to some person whom they 
may appoint to fill the office until the next meeting of the 
Society, at which time there shall be a new choice. 

Art. 11. *Any citizen of the County may become a 
member of the Society, by paying the sum of three dol- 
lars to increase the permanent fund of the institution. 

Art. 12. A committee shall be raised from time to 
time, to solicit and receive subscriptions for raising a fund 
for encouraging the noblest of pursuits, the Agriculture of 
our country ; the same to be sacredly appropriated to that 
purpose. 

Art. 13. All ordained ministers of the Gospel who re- 
side within the County, shall be admitted honorary mem- 
bers of the Society. 

Art. 14. In addition to the usual number of Trustees 
annually elected, the past Presidents of the Society shall be 
honorary members of the Board of Trustees. 

Art. 15. The foregoing constitution may be amended 
by a proposition of the amendment in writing by a member 
at a regular meeting ; the same to lie over for the action 
at the next annual meeting of the Society. 



•Members will receive from the Secretary a " certificate of membership." No 
tines or assessments are ever imposed. Members are entitled to vote in all its 
transactions, with free use of the Library and a copy of the printed "Transac- 
tions" each year. 

A premium of six dollars is now offered to the resident of the County obtain- 
ing the largest number of new members during the year ending Nov. 1. 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY 

"WOTt 1891-9S. 



PRESIDENT. 

FRANCIS H. APPLETON, of Peabody. 



VICE PRESIDENTS. 

JAMBS J. H. GREGORY, of Marblehead. 
JAMES P. KING, of Peabody. 
OLIVER S. BUTLER, of Georgetown. 
AARON LOW, of Essex. 



SECRETARY. 

JOHN M. DANFORTH, of Lynnfield. 



TREASUI^ER. 

GILBERT L. STREETER, of Salem. 



HONORARY TRUSTEES. 

JOSEPH HOW, of Methuen. 
BENJAMIN P. WARE, of Marblehead. 



DELEGATE TO THE STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

BENJAMIN P. WARE, of Marblehead. 

TRUSTEES. 

Charles C. Blunt, Andover. Wm. H. Allen, Manchester. 

Edmund Gale, Amesburj. Geo. B. Bradley, Methuen. 

John W. Lovett, Beverly. Geo. W. Sargent, Merrimac. 

J. W. Chadwick, Boxford. Hiram A. Stiles, Middleton. 



^7Z 

S. W. Hopkinson, Bradford. William D. Hodges, Nahant. 
Charles H. Preston, Danvers.B. F. Stanley, Newburyport. 
Elias Andrews, Essex. Edward Kent, Newbury. 

Sherman Nelson, Georgetown.J. D. W. French, N. Andover. 
A. F. Harvey, Gloucester. N, M. Quint, Peabody. 
Edw. Harrington, Groveland. Story D. Pool, Rockport. 
Alvin Smith, Hamilton. Frank P. Todd, Rowley. 

Thomas Sanders, Haverhill. Henry A. Hale, Salem. 
W. F. Kinsman, Ipswich. Wm. H. Greenleaf, Salisbury. 
H. G. Herrick, Lawrence. Samuel Hawkes, Saugus. 
Asa T. Newhall, Lynn. David Warren, Swampscott. 

John H. Perkins, Lynnfield. Eugene L. Wildes, Topsfield. 
Wm. S. Phillips, jr., Marblh'd. Henry Hobbs, Wenham. 
William P. Bailey, West Newbury. 

NEW MEMBERS. 

Milo H. Gould, Andover. William Oswald, Lawrence. 
J. Warren Moor, Andover. Wm. R. Pedrick, Lawrence. 
Henry McLawlin, Andover. H. B. Robinson, Lawrence. 
F. H. Foster, Andover. Joseph Ruht, Lawrence. 

Alfred G. Play don, Andover. Edwin M. Sanborn, Lawrence. 
Edw. H. Appleton, Beverly. Wm. H. Sylvester, Lawrence. 
Wm. Caleb Loring, Beverly. Caleb Saunders, Lawrence. 
Byron G. Kimball, Bradford. A. W. Stearns, Lawrence. 
J. Webb Barton, Danvers. A. E. Sargent, Lawrence. 
George P. Low, Essex. Jas. R. Simpson, Lawrence. 

Chas. W. Nelson, Georget'wn.J. J. Stanley, Lawrence. 
Benj. F. Brickett, Haverhill. N. S. S. Tompkins, Lawrence. 
Wm. S. Messerve, Haverhill. R. H. Tewksbury, Lawrence. 
Wm. H. Moody, Haverhill. C. C. Talbot, Lawrence. 
Warren C. Allyn, Lawrence. Byron Truell, Lawrence. 
M. C. Austin, Lawrence. H. K. Webster, Lawrence. 
Charles U. Bell, Lawrence. Gilman P. Wiggin, Lawrence. 
F. J. Ball, Lawrence. Cora M. Wardsworth, Law'ce. 

Albert C. Butler, Lawrence. Henry S. Wilson, Lawrence. 
Adolph G. Boehm, Lawrence.Chas. S. Hanks, Manchester. 
Geo. W. Colburn, Lawrence. Isaac C. Brown, Methuen. 



174 

Charles Clarke, Lawreii.'ie. Michael Dwyer, Methuen, 
Maurice K. Curran,Lavvrcnce.C. H. Hall, Methuen. 
Arthur W. Dyer, Lawrence. Fred A. Russell, Methuen. 
C. A. DeCourtney, Lawrence. Addison P. Russell, Methuen. 
George Ford, Lawrence. Leverett Swan, Methuen. 

John Farrell, Lawrence. Chas. M. Sawyer, Methuen. 

John F. Finn, Lawrence. William D. Hodges, Nahant. 
Wm. Fitzgerald, Lawrence. Herbert F. Otis, Nahant. 
Patrick Ford, Lawrence. Geo. L. Averill, No. Andover. 

William H. Gile, Lawrence. Lewis Albegett, No. Andover. 
Dyer S. Hall, Lawrence. Amos D. Carlton,No.Andov'r. 

Joseph Jackson, Lawrence. Walter H. Hayes,No.Andov'r . 
George S. Jenkins, Lawrence. Humprey P. Bray, Rockport. 
William S. Jewett, Lawrence. Lewis E. Nickerson, Rockp't. 
George E. Kline, Lawrence. George W. Tufts, Rockport. 
G. H. Kittredge, Lawrence. Thaddeus Hale, Rowley. 
W. 0. Mahoney, Lawrence. William A. Horton, Salem. 
L. C. Moore, Lawrence. Geo. E. Littlefield, Salisbury. 

Patrick McCarthy, Lawrence.John B. Faxon, Saugus. 
John K. Norwood, Lawrence.Lewis W. Hawkes, Saugus. 



CHANGES REPORTED BY TRUSTEES IN 1891. 

S. H. Jones, Danvers, from Middleton. 

John R. Rollins, Derry, N. H., from Lawrence. 

Israel H. Cole, Lynn, from Gloucester. 

Stephen Dodd, Rockport, from Gloucester. 

Frank J. Bradley, Haverhill, from Methuen. 

Nathaniel Shatswell, Washington, D. C, from Ipswich. 

C. U. Burbank, Alfred, Me., from Amesbury. 

B. G. Ladd, West Newbury, from Bradford. 

Horatio Bodge, Peabody, from Danvers. 

Edward L. Hill, Templeton, from Danvers. 

Ransom F. McCrillis, Salem from Danvers. 

George S. Perry, Brattleboro, Vt., from Danvers.. 

Samuel S. Pratt, Revere, from Danvers. 

Alfred M. Trask, Brockton, from Danverg. 



175 

Francis Marsh, Danvers, from Peabody. 
Edgar Bliss, Beverly, from Salem. 

CORRECTIONS OF 1890 LIST. 

Humphrey B. Bray, Rockport, should be Humphrey P. 
Bray. 

James B. Merriden, Rockport, should be James P. 
Merridew. 



List of Premiums Awarded in 1891. 



FAT CATTLE. 

James C. Poor, No. Andover, for oxen, first preraium, $8 00 
Daniel A. Carlton, No. Andover, for oxen, second pre- 
mium, 6 00 
J. P. Little, Amesbury, third premium, 3 00 

BULLS. 

W. F. Kinsman, Ipswich, Jersey, first premium, 4 00 

J. D. W. French, No. Andover, best bull with 5 of his 

stock, first premium, 10 00 

J. D. W. French, No. Andover, Ayshire, first premium, 8 00 
J. D. W. French, No. Andover, bull calf, first premium, 2 00 
Shattuck Brothers, No. Andover, Holstein, first premium, 8 00 
W. A. Russell, No. Andover, Holstein, second premium, 4 00 
James C. Poor, No. Andover, Holstein ca,lf, first premium, 2 00 

E. C. Little, Haverhill, Holstein, first premium, 4 00 

F. H. Foster, Andover, Guernsey, first premium, 4 00 

MILCH cows. 
Leverett Swan, Methuen, short horn, first premium, 10 00 
J. D. W. French, No. Andover, Guernsey, first premium, 10 00 
J. D. W. French, No. Andover, Ayshire, first premium, 10 00 
J. J). W. French, No. Andover, Ayshire, second premium, 4 00 
James C. Poor, No. Andover, Holstein, first premium, 10 00 
James C. Poor, No. Andover, most milk for twenty 

days, Holstein, first premium, 10 00 

J. D. W. French, No. Andover, grade, first premium, 10 00 
Wm. A. Russell, No Andover, for best cow of any age 
or breed, Holstein cow, " Queen Ruiter," first 
premium, Diploma and 15 00 

HERDS OF MILCH COWS. 

Leverett Swan, Methuen, five grade cows, first premium, 18 00 
J. D. W. French, No. Andover, Ayshires, second pre- 
mium, 12 00 
Wm. A. Russell, No. Andover, greatest produce of milk, 

Holsteins, Diploma and 15 00 



177 

HEIFERS PURE BRED, 

J. F. Gulliver, Andover, Jersey, first premium, 9 00 

M. H. Conner, West Newbury, Ayshire, second premium, 4 00 
J. F, Gulliver, Andover, Jersey calf, first premium, 5 00 

J. D. W. French, No. Andover, Ayshire, first premium, 9 00 
J, D. W. French, No. Andover, Ayshire, second premium, 6 00 
J. D. W. French, No. Andover, Ayshire, first premium, 5 00 
J. D. W. French, No. Andover, Ayshire, first premium, 5 00 
J. D. W. French, No. Andover, Ayshire, second premium, 4 00 
J. D. W. French, No. Andover, Ayshire calf, first pre- 
mium, 5 00 
Wm. A. Russell, No. Andover, Holstein, first premium, 5 00 
Wm. A. Russell, No. Andover, Holstein, second premium, 4 00 
Wm. A. Russell, No. Andover, Holstein, second premiam, 6 00 
James C. Poor, No. Andover, Holstein, first premium, 9 00 
James C. Poor, No. Andover, Holstein, first premium, 5 00 
E. C. Little, Haverhill, Jersey, second premium, 6 00 
E. C. Little, Haverhill, Jersey, first premium, 5 00 
E. C. Little, Haverhill, Jersey, second premium, 4 00 

E, C. Little, Haverhill, Holstein, second premium, 4 00 

F. H. Foster, Andover, Guernsey, first premium, 5 00 

HEIFERS NATIVE OR GRADE. 

D. M. Ayer, Methuen, grade Holstein, first premium, 5 00 
George Ripley, Andover, grade Jersey, first premium, 5 00 
S, H. Bailey, Andover, grade Jersey, first premium, 5 00 

L. Albegett, No. Andover, grade Ayshire, first premium, 9 00 
W. S. Hughs, No. Andover, grade Ayshire, second pre- 
mium, 4 00 
John F. Higgins, Middleton, native calf, second premium, 4 00 
James J. Abbott, No. Andover, grade Jersey, second 

premium, 4 00 

WORKING OXEN AND STEERS. 

J. P. Little, Amesbury, working oxen, first premium, 12 00 
Wm. P. Christopher, Middleton, for oxen, second pre- 
mium, 10 00 

A. W. Peabody, Middleton, for oxen, third premium, 8 00 

B. H. Farnham, No. Andover, for steers, first premium, 10 00 
James C. Poor, No. Andover, for steers, second premium, 6 00 



178 

STEKRS. 

B. W. Farnham, No. Audover, 3 years old, first premium, 8 00 
B. H. Farnham, No. Andover, 3 years old, second pre- 
mium, 6 00 
Wm. P. Christopher, ]\Iiddleton, 2 years old, second 

premium, 5 00 

STALLIONS FOR DRIVING. 

J. G. McAllister, Lawrence, for "Essex Hambleton- 

ian," Diploma and 15 00 

Wm. S. Messerve, Haverhill, for " Little Phil," first 

premium, 10 00 

Chas. A. Lunt, Newbury, for " Gladstone," second pre- 
mium, 6 00 

BROOD MARES FARM PURPOSES. 

E. C. Little, Haverhill, for gray mare, first premium, 10 00 
B. H. Farnham, No. Andover, for gray mare, second 

premium, 6 00 

John H. George, Methuen, for sorrel mare, third premium, 4 00 

BROOD MARES FOR DRIVING PURPOSES. 

Peter Holt, jr., No. Andover, first premium, 10 00 

J. G. McAllister, Lawrence, second premium, 6 00 

Towne Brothers, Haverhill, third premium, 4 00 

FAMILY HORSES. 

M. C. Andrews, Andover, mare " Princess," first pre- 
mium, 10 00 

M. H. Connor, West Newbury, mare " Nelly," second 

premium, 6 00 

Wm. K. Cole, Boxford, mare '* Beauty," third premium, 4 00 

gents' DRIVING HORSES. 

Byron G. Kimball, Bradford, horse " Starlight," first 

premium, 10 00 

Charles Clarke, Lawrence, mare " Milley," second pre- 
mium, 6 00 

M. C. Andrews, Andover, mare, " Cyclone," third pre- 
mium, 4 00 

SINGLE FARM HORSES. 

John H. Perkins, Lynnfield, first premium, 10 00 



179 



6 


00 


4 


00 


10 


00 


6 


00 


10 00 


8 


00 


10 


00 


8 


00 



Moses H, Poor, West Newbury, second premium, 
James C. Poor, No. Andover, third premium, 
Fred Symonds, No. Andover, first premium, 
W. J. Currier, Danvers, second premium, 

PAIRS OF FAKM HORSES. 

Isaac C. Brown, Methuen, first premium, 
A. M. Eobinson, No. Andover, second premium, 
M. H. Connor, West Newbury, first premium, 
J. Horace Nason, Boxford, second premium, 

COLTS FOR FARM WORK. 

M. H. Connor, West Newbury, 4 year old colt, first 

premium, 8 00 

M. Dwyer, Methuen, 2 year old colt, first premium, 8 00 

M. H. Connor, West Newbury, 2 year old colt, second 

premium, 5 00 

R. T. Jaques, Newbury, 1 year old colt, first premium, 5 00 
H. G. Meade, No. Andover, 1 year old colt, second 

premium, 3 00 

COLTS FOR DRIVING. 

Edwin Bates, Lynn, 4 year old colt, first premium, 8 00 

L. F. Moulton, Lawrence, 4 year old colt, second premium, o 00 
Byron G. Kimball, Bradford, 3 year old colt, first pre- 
mium, 6 00 
C. Moynihan, Newbury, 3 je&v old colt, second premium, 3 00 
J. G. McAllister, Lawrence, 2 year old colt, first premium, 8 00 
W. H. & L. J. Tufts, Middleton, 2 year old colt, second 

premium, 5 00 

Benj. Pearson, jr., Newbury, 2 year old colt, third pre- 
mium, 3 00 
J. E. Bickuell, jr., Lawrence, yearlingcolt, first premium, 5 00 
J. G. McAllister, Lawrence, yearling colt, second pre- 
mium, 3 00 

SWINE. 

J. G. McAllister, Lawrence, Chester white boar, first 

premium, 8 00 

J. G. McAllister, Lawrence, Chester white sow, first 

premium, 8 00 

A If red G. Playdon, Andover, sow and pigs, first premium, 8 00 



i8o 

Geo. E. Littlefield, Salisbury, Berkshire boar, first pre- 
mium, 8 00 

Geo. E. Littlefield, Salisbury, Chester white pigs, sec- 
ond premium, 5 00 

Geo. E. Littlefield, Salisbury, Chester white sow, second 

premium, 5 00 

Geo. E. "Littlefield, Salisbury, Berkshire sow, first pre- 
mium, 8 00 

James C. Poor, No. Andover, grade sow, first premium, 8 00 

M. B. Chesley, Amesbury, Chester white sow, first pre- 
mium, 8 00 

E. C. Little, Haverhill, 30 pigs, second premium, 5 00 

E. C. Little, Haverhill, Chester white boar, second pre- 

mium, 5 00 

J. D. W. French, No. Andover, small Yorkshire boar, 

first premium, 8 00 

SHEEP. 

J. D. W. French, No. Andover, 10 ewes, first premium, 10 00 
J. D. W. French, No. Andover, buck, first premium, 8 00 
C. H. Tenney, Methuen, 12 lambs, first premium, 6 00 

PLOUGHING WITH DOUBLE TEAM. 

J. P. Little, Amesbury, first premium, 

B. H. Farnham, No. Andover, second premium, 

PLOUGHING WITH SINGLE TEAM. 

Wm. P. Christopher, Middleton, first premium, 

PLOUGHING SWIVEL PLOUGH, DOUBLE TEAM. 

Farnham & Wilkins, Topsfield, first premium, 

SINGLE ox TEAM. 

A. W. Peabody, Middleton, first premium, 

HORSES, SWIVEL PLOUGH. 

A. M. Robinson, No. Andover, first premium, 
I. C. Brown, Methuen, second premium, 

PLOUGHING WITH THREE HORSES. 

M. H. Connor, West Newbury, first premium, 10 00 

PLOUGHING WITH SULKY PLOUGH. 

F. A. Russell, Methuen, first premium, 10 00 
Geo. E. Kline, Lawrence, second premium, 8 00 



8 00 


10 00 


10 00 


10 00 


10 00 


8 00 



I8I 



IMPROVING WASTE LAND. 

C. K. Ordway & Son, West Newbury, first premium, 15 00 
C. Moynihan, Newbury, second premium, 10 00 

GRAIN CROPS. 

C. K. Ordway & Son, West Newbury, crop of oats, first 

premium, 10 00 
Henry M. Killam, Boxford, crop of corn, first premium, 10 00 
C. K, Ordway & Son, West Newbury, crop of corn, sec- 
ond premium, 5 00 
Abel Stickney, Groveland, crop of hay, first premium, 10 00 
J. M. Pearl, Boxford, crop of barley, first premium, 10 00 

ROOT CROPS. 

Chas. C. Blunt, Andover, crop of parsnips, first premium, 10 00 

John H. George, Methuen, crop of onions, first pre- 
mium, 10 00 

Henry A. Hayward, Andover, crop of cabbage, first pre- 
mium, 10 00 

James Manning, Topsfield, crop of onions, second pre- 
mium, 5 00 

C. Moynihan, Newbury, crop of ruta baga turnips, first 

premium, 10 00 

David Warren, Swampscott, crop of squash, first pre- 
mium, 10 00 

SMALL FRUITS. 

Geo. J. Pierce, West Newbury, strawberry crop, first 

premium, 10 00 

Daniel Stiles, No. Andover, blackberry crop, first pre- 
mium, 10 00 

NEW MEMBERS. 

Morris N. Howe, Lawrence, for most new members, 

premium, 6 00 

ESSAYS AND REPORTS. 

George A. Rogers, North Andover, essay, first premium, 15 00 
Dr. J. W. Goodell, Lynn, essay, '' Grape culture," sec- 
ond premium, 10 00 
M, Sumner Perkins, Danvers, essay, third premium, 8 00 
0. S. Butler, Georgetown, report, first premium, 10 00 



l82 



OTHKR AWARDS. 

Awarded by Committee on Granges, 110 00 

" « " " Special Premium, 30 00 

" " " " Poultry, 39 00 

" « " " Harrows, 18 OO 

" " " " Agricultural Implements, 58 00 

« " " " Dairy, 18 00 

" " " " Carriages, 12 00 

« « « " Bread and Canned Fruit, etc.,22 50 

« " " " Pears, 60 50 

« " " " Apples, 76 00 

" " « " Peaches, Grapes, etc., 49 00 

" " " " Plants and Flowers, 42 00 

" " " " Vegetables, . 173 00 

" " « " Forest Trees, 10 00 

" " " " Grain and Seed, 24 00 

" " " « Counterpanes and Afghans, 22 75 

" " " " Carpets and Bugs, 18 00 

" " " " Manufactures from Leather, 12 00 

« " " " Fancy Work, 32 25 

" " " " Art Work, 50 00 

" " " " Children's Work, 6 75 

" " " " Manuf. and General Mdse., 20 00 



RECAPITULATION. 



Awarded for Improving Waste Land, 


$25 00 


(( 


Ii 


Ploughing, 


94 00 

$110 00 






FARM STOCK. 




Awarded for Fat Cattle, 


17 00 


(( 


ii 


Bulls, 


46 00 


i( 


it 


Milch Cows, 


79 00 


ti 


it 


Herds of Milch Cows, 


45 00 


11 


ii 


Heifers, 


131 00 


K 


It 


Heifer Calves, 


10 00 


t( 


ii 


Working Oxen and Steers, 


46 00 


ii 


ti 


Steers, 


19 00 


11 


it 


Horses, 


258 00 


<( 


ii 


Swine, 


84 00 


It 


ii 


Sheep, 


24 00 


<( 


ii 


Poultry, 


39 00 


11 


Ii 


Bees, Hives and Honey, 


5 00 

803 00 



FIELD AND EXPERIMENTAL CROPS. 

Awarded for Grain Crops, 45 00 

"■ " Root Crops, 55 00 

" " Fruit Crops, 20 00 



FARM AND GARDEN PRODUCTS. 


Awarded for Grain and Seed, 


24 00 


" " Vegetables, 


173 00 


" " Fruits, 


185 50 


" " Plants and Flowers, 


42 00 


DAIRY PRODUCT. 




Awarded for Butter, 


18 00 


" " Special Premium, 


30 00 



120 00 



424 50 



48 00 



i84 



DOMESTIC MANUFACTURES. 

Awarded for Bread, Canned Fruits, etc., 22 50 

" " Counterpanes and Afghans, 22 75 

" " Carpetiugs and Rugs, 18 00 

" " Articles Manuf. from Leather, 12 00 

" " Manufactures and General Mdse. 20 00 

« " Fancy Work, 32 25 

" " Work of Art, 50 00 

" " Children's Work, 6 75 





MISCELLANEOUS. 




Awarded for Agricultural Implements, 


76 00 




" Carriages, 


12 00 




" Forest Trees, 


10 00 




" Granges, 


110 00 




" New Members, 


6 00 




" Essays, Reports, etc.. 


43 00 



184 25 



257 00 

TOTAL, $1,955 75 

The amount of $1,955.75 was awarded to 389 individuals 

and firms in 31 different cities and towns in the county as 
follows, viz : 

Merrimac, $2 25 

Methueu, 190 50 

Middleton, 70 00 

Marblehead, 9 00 

Newbury, 97 00 

Newburyport, 6 00 

North Andover, 440 00 

Peabody, 28 50 

Rockport, 3 00 

Rowley, 19 00 

Salem, 2 00 

Salisbury, 26 00 

Saugus, 10 00 

Swampscott, 30 00 

Topsfield, 20 00 
West Newbury, $123. 



Amesbury, 


$60 50 


Andover, 


150 50 


Beverly, 


6 00 


Boxford, 


74 50 


Bradford, 


21 75 


Danvers, 


59 25 


Essex, 


10 00 


Georgetown, 


11 00 


Groveland, 


26 25 


Hamilton, 


8 00 


Haverhill, 


98 25 


Ipswich, 


4 00 


Lawrence, 


268 50 


Lynn, 


69 00 


Lynnfield, 


13 00 



i85 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 

Keceipts for Admission to Hall, $1642 00 

" " " " Dinner, 139 00 

" " Grounds for Caterers, Swings, etc., 149 25 

$1930 25 

Expenses, including Tent-hire, Halls and Dinner, 1095 52 



Amount paid Treasurer, $834 73 



1 8 9 S. 

PREMIUM LIST OF 

Essex Agricultural Society, 

FOB THE 

Seventy-Second Annual Cattle Show and Fair, 

To be held September 27 and 28, in Lawrence. 

^^»-«»-^ 

Duties of Trustees. 

The Trustee of each town is instructed to see the several mem- 
bers of Committees in his town previous to the Show, and urge 
upon them the importance of attending to their duties. Also im- 
press upon exhibitors from localities near to the Exhibition, the 
importance of entering their exhibits the afternoon and evening of 
Monday, in fairness to those from a distance, who are obliged to 
come Tuesday. 

To be prompt at the meeting in June for filling Committees, 
and at the meeting of the Society for filling vacancies in commit- 
tees on the first day of the Exhibition, making sure that the names 
proposed at those meetings are of persons who will serve. 



Duties of Committees. 

Committees on live stock and articles exhibited on the Fair 
Grounds should appear at the Secretary's oflice on the grounds, at 
one o'clock, punctually, on the first day of the exhibition, and 
there organize, take the books of entry, and proceed at once to 
business. Committees in hall, should take the books of entry from 
the Superintendent, promptly after the entries close. 

Full reports of awards by committees, on the blanks furnished 
by the Secretary, to be signed b}' all the members acting on the 
same, are required of each committee. 

Three members of any committee consisting of more than that 
number are authorized to act. 

No member of the Society shall act on any committee of which 
he is an exhibitor in the same chiss. 

The Diploma of the Society being considered the highest premi- 
um that can be awarded, no committee is authorized to award it, 
except for animals and articles of si^edal merit, deserving of in- 
dorsement and recommendation by the Society. 



i87 

No committee is authorized to award gratuities, except the com- 
mittee on agricultural implements, carriages, bread, honey, and 
canned fruits, domestic manufactures, fruits, vegetables in hall, 
and flowers; or any premium, unless the rules of the Society have 
been strictly complied with. I^either shall they award premiums 
or gratuities in excess of the amount appropriated. 

No gratuity is to be awarded of less than fifty cents. 

The several committees are requested to affix premium cards, 
and also on animals, blue, white, and red printed premium ribbons 
(which may be had of the Secretary or assistant on the grounds 
and at the hall), for the several animals or articles designating the 
grade of premium awarded each, and the name of the person to 
whom awarded, and special care should be taken that the card& 
issued correspond with the awards in their report to the Society. 

The reports of awards of premiums on ploughing and on animals 
and articles exhibited at the Show, must be delivered promptly to 
the Secretary for announcement on Wednesday. 

The Society offers liberal premiums for the best reports of com- 
mittees; and the chairmen of the several committees are requested 
to present to the Secretary a full report explanatory of the opinions 
of the committee on the matter referred to them, within two weeks 
after the awards are made at the Show, for publication in the Trans- 
actions.* 

Eeports on farms, crops, etc., to be presented previous to the 
meeting of the Trustees in November. 

Any member of a committee who cannot serve on the same is re- 
quested to give notice to the Secretary, before the Show, so that the 
vacancy may be filled. 

Each member of the several committees will receive a ticket of 
admission to the hall of exhibition, on application to the Secretary. 

•Chairmen of committees will please notice this request. 



General Rules. 

Competitors are requested to carefully 7-ead the rules and premium 
list before making entries. 

Claims (entries) for premiums to be awarded at the Exhibition 
on the Fair Grounds, must beTentered with the Secretary of the 
Society, or his agent, on or before 10 o'clock A. M., and in the Ex- 
hibition Hall, on or before 11 A. M-, of the first day thereof. 

All claims (entries) for premiums on Fair Grounds, must be 
handed or forwarded to the Secretary or his agent, in writing, pre- 
vious to the day of the Fair, if possible, or on or before 10 o'clock 
A. M., of the first day thereof. 

Any person not a member of the Society, awarded seven dollars 
and upwards, shall receive a certificate of membership, for which 
three dollars of his award will be taken to increase the funds of 
the Society. 

Diplomas awarded will be delivered and premiums paid, to the 
person to whom the premium or gratuity is awarded, or an agent 
duly authorized, on application to the Treasurer, at First National 
Bank, Salem, on and after the fourth Monday of November. 



i88 

All premiums and gratuities awarded, the payment of which is 
not demanded of the Treasurer on or before the first day of Sep- 
tember next succeeding the Exhibition, will be considered as given 
to increase the funds of the Societ)^ 

In all cases the reports of award of premiums and gratuities 
made by the several committees and adopted by the Society shall 
be final. Committees should see that the premium cards issued, cor- 
respond with the premiums and gratuities awarded in their reports. 

No person shall be entitled 1 o receive a premium, unless he com- 
plies with the conditions on which the premiums are offered, and by 
proper entry as required, gives notice of his intention to compete 
for the same; and committees are instructed to award no premium 
unless the animal or article offered is worthy. 

No animal or object that is entered in one class, with one com- 
mittee shall be entered in another class, except town teams, fat 
cattle, working oxen, working steers, and farm horses, which may 
be entered tor ploughing, and milch cows, which may be entered 
with a herd. 

In regard to all subjects for which premiums are offered it is to 
be distinctly understood that the Trustees reserve to themselves 
the right of judging the quality of the animal or article offered; 
and that no premium will be awarded unless the objects of them 
are of decidedly superior quality. 

Pure Bred Animals, defined by the State Board of Agriculture. 

The p'^oo/ that an animal is so bred should be a record of the an- 
imal or its ancestors, as recorded in some herd book, recognized by 
leading breeders and the public generally, as complete and authen- 
tic. 

Standards adopted: — American Jersey C. C. Register and 
American Jersey Herd Boek, Ayrshire Record and Holstein Herd 
Book. 



Premiums to be Awarded at the Show. 

The Committees xoill take notice that no premium will be awarded 
unless the animals or objects are of a decidedly superior quality. 

Diplomas may be awarded for animals or articles of 
special merit, in all departments of the Fair. 



Cattle and other Farm Stock 

TO BE ENTERED IN THE NAME OF THEIR REAL OWNER. 

All animals, to be eligible to a premium, shall have been raised 
by the owner within the County, or owned by the exhibitor within 
the County, four months previous to the date of Exhibition, ex- 
cept Working Oxen, and Working Steers. 

All animals, whether teams for ploughing, or animals entered for 
premium or exhibition, will be fed during the Exhibition, and 
longer when they are of necessity prevented from leaving, at the 
expense of the Society. 



i8g 



FAT CATTLE. 

Fat cattle, fatted within the County, regard beinsrhad to manner 
of feeding and the expense thereof, all of which shall be stated by 
the exhibitor in writing, and returned to the Secretary, with com- 
mittee's report. 

For Pairs of Fat Cattle, premiums, $8, 6, 3 

For Fat Cows, premiums, $7^ 5 

BULLS. 

*Ayrshire, Jersey, Short Horn, Devon, Holstein, Guernsey or of 
any other recognized breed, for each breed. 

Two years old and upwards, premiums, S8, 4 

Under two years, for each breed, ^4, 3 

Bull Calves under one year old, premium for each breed, $2 

BULLS OF ANY AGE OR BREED. 

For the best bull of any age or breed, with five of his stock not 
less than one year old, quality and condition to be taken into ac- 
count, and especially the adaptability of the animal to the agricul- 
ture of the County. Diploma and SIO 
Note.— Competitors are required to give a written statement of pedigree, and 
committees are requested to be particular in this respect, and return tbem to the 
Secretary with report. 

MILCH COWS. 

For the best Milch Cow any age or breed, with satisfactory 
record in quarts or pounds by her daily yield of milk for one oV 
more years, premium, $15 

For Milch Cows, either Foreign, Native or Grade, not less than 
four nor more than ten years old, with satisfactory evidence as to 
quantity and quality of milk, either by weight or measure, during 
the evening or morning of the first and last ten days of any month, 
premiums, $10, 4 

Milch Cows, Ayrshire, Jersey, Devon, Short Horn, Holstein, 
Guernsey, or any other recognized breed, four years old and up- 
wards, premiums, for each breed, .$10, 4 

For Native or Grade Cows, four years old and upwards, pre- 
miums, $10, 4 

For the Cows that make the most butter in any single week from 
June 1st to September 15th, premiums, $10, 4 

Note.— A written statement will be required of the age and breed of all Milch 
Cows entered, and time they dropped their last calf, and when they will next 
calve, the kind, quality and quantity of their food duriug the season, and the 
manner of their feeding, which statement is to be returned to the Secretary with 
Committee's report. 

HERDS OF MILCH COWS. 

For herds of Milch Cows, not less than five in number, to be ex- 
hibited at the Show, and a correct statement of manner of keeping 
and yield for one year preceding the Show, premiums, $18, 12 

For the greatest produce of milk on any farm, in proportion to 



the number of cows producins: it, not less than four, from April 1, 
1889, to April 1, 1890, statement to be made of the exchanges 
made, manner, and expense of food, use made of milk, and such 
other facts as will illustrate the entire management, special regard 
being had to the mode in which the account is kept, premium, 

Diploma, and S15 

Note.— The above mentioned statements are to be returned to the Secretary 
■with Committee's report. The Committee can accept statements dating from 
January 1st, preceding the Show. 

HEIFERS. 

FiKST Class. — Ayrshire, Jersey, Short Horn, Devon, Holstein, 

Guernsey, or any other recognized breed, under four years old, in 

milk, premiums, for each breed, S9, 6 

Two year olds of each breed, that have never calved, premiums, 

§5,4 
One year olds of each breed, premiums, .^5, 4 

Heifer Calves, under one year, premiums for each breed. §5,4 
Second Class. — Native or Grade Milch, under four years old, 
premiums, §9, 6 

Two year olds, that have never calved, premiums, §5, 4 

One year olds and less than two, premiums, §5, 4 

Heifer calves, Native or Grade, under one year old, premiums, 

§5,4 

WORKING OXEN AND STEERS. 

Stags excluded. For pairs of Working Oxen under eight and 
not less than five years old, taking into view their size, power, qual- 
it}'^ and training, premiums, §12, 10, 8 

For pairs of Working Steers, four years old, to be entered in the 
name of the owner, premiums, §10, 6 

XoTE. — Tlie Committee are required to consider tlie quality and shape of the 
cattle as well aj their working capacity. The training of working oxen and 
steers will be tested by trial on a cart or wagon containing a load weighing two 
tons for oxen, and 3000 pounds for steers. ^p'At the time of entry a certihcate 
of the weight of the cattle must be filed with the Secretary. 

TOWN TEAMS. 

For Town Teams of Oxen, ten yoke or more in a team, pre- 
miums, §20, 12 

For Town Teams of Horses, ten or more pairs in a team, pre- 
miums, §20, 12 

STEERS. 

For pairs of three year old Steers, broken to the yoke, premiums, • 

§8,6 
For pairs of two year old Steers, premiums, $6, 5 

For i)airs of yearling Steers, premiums, S5, 4 

For pairs of Steer Calves, premiums, $4, 2 

STALLIONS. 

First Class.— For Stallions for Farm and Draft purposes, four 
years old and upwards, diploma or premiums, SIO, 6, 4 



191 

For Stallions for Farm and Draft purposes, three years old, pre- 
miums, .^8, 5 
For best Stallion of any age, and Ave colts of his stock, not less 
than one year old, quality and condition to be taken into account. 

Diploma and $15 

Second Class. — For Stallions for Driving purposes, four years 

old and upwards, premiums, $10, 6, 4 

For Stallions for Driving purposes, three years old, premiums, 

$8, 5 

For best Stallion of any age and five colts of his stock, not less 

than one year old, quality and condition to be taken into account, 

Diploma and $15 

Note.— No Stallion will be entitled to a premium unless free from all apparent 
defects capable of being transmitted. All Stallions entered in either class must 
have been owned by the exhibitor four months previous to the exhibition. 

BROOD MAEES. 

First Class. —For Brood Mares for Farm and Draft purposes, 
with their foal not more than eight months old, by their side, pre- 
miums, $10, 6, 4 

Second Class. — For Brood Mares for Driving purposes, with 
their foal not m n-e tlian eight months old, by their side, premiums, 

$10, 6, 4 

Note.— No brood mare will be entitled to a premium unless free from all ap- 
parent defects capable of being transmitted. 

'FAMILY HORSES. 

For Family Horses, premiums, $10, 6, 4 

Note.— No horse will receive a premium unless free from all unsoundness. 

GENTLEMEN'S DRIV^ING HORSES. 
For Gentlemen's Driving Horses, premiums, $10, 6, 4 

FARM HORSES. 

For Farm Horses, weighing 1200 lbs. and over, premiums, 

$10, 6, 4 
For Farm H^orses weighing less than 1200 lbs. , premiums, $10, 6, 4 

Note— No horse will be allowed except those actually used on farms, whether 
the owner has a farm or not. The weight of load to be used in trial of Farm 
Horses is to be fixed upon by the committee of arrangements for drafting, the 
difference in the load for horses of 1200 lbs. and over, and those under 1200 lbs. to 
he 1000 lbs., and between the two classes of pairs 2000 lbs. No obstruction shall 
be placed either before or behiad the wheels in trials of Draft horses of either 
class. But wheels to be trigged to hold the load when they stop on a hill. If 
this rule is not complied with, the premiums shall be withheld. 

PAIRS OF FARM HORSES. 

First Class. — For pairs of Farm Horses, weighing 2500 lbs. 
and upwards, (see above note) premiums, $10, 8 

Second Class. — For pairs of Farm Horses, weighing less than 
2500 lbs. (see above note) premiums, SIO, 8 



192 



COLTS FOR DRAFT PURPOSES. 

First Class. — For Mare or Qelding four year old Colts, pre- 
miums, $8, 5, 3 

For Mare or Gelding three year old Colts, premiums, 86, 3 

Second Class.— For Stallion, Gelding, or Mare, two year old 
Colts, premiums, .^8, 0, 3 

For Stallion, Gelding or Mare, yearling Colts, premiums. So, 3 

COLTS FOR GENERAL PURPOSES. 

First Class. — For Mare or Gelding four year old Colts, pre- 
miums, S8, 5, 3 

For Mare or Gelding three year old Colts, premiums, .^6, 3 

Second Class. — For Stallion, Gelding or Mare, two year old 
Colts, premiums, ^8, 5, 3 

For Stallion, Gelding or Mare yearling Colts, premiums, $5, 3 

SWINE. 

First Class. — Large breeds, viz.: Cheshire, Berkshire, Ches- 
ter County White, Poland China, Large Yorkshire, and any other 
breed or grade weighing more than 800 lbs. at maturity. 

For Boars, premiums, $8, 5 

For Breeding Sows, with their pigs by their side, premiums, 

$8, 5 

For Litters of Weaned Pigs, not less than four, between two and 
four naonths old, premiums, $8, 5 

Second Class. — Small breeds, such as Suffolk, Essex, Small 
Yorkshire, China, and any other breed or grade weighing less than 
300 lbs. at maturity. 

For Boars, premiums, if 8, 5 

For Breeding Sows, with their pigs by their side, premiums, 

$8,5 

For Litters of Weaned Pigs, not less than four, between two and 
four months old, premiums, $S, 5 

SHEEP. 

For flocks of Sheep not less than ten in number, premiums, 

SIO, 6 

For best Buck, premium. ' S8 

For lots of Liimbs, not less than four in number, between four 

and twelve months old, premiums, $6, 4 

POULTRY. 

For pairs of Fowls, Light Brahmas, Dark Brahmas, Buff Co- 
chins, Partridge Cochins, Black Cochins, White Cochins, Plymouth 
Rocks, Dorainiques, White Les^horus, Brown Leghorns, Dominique 
Leghorns, Black Spanish, Hamburgs, Polish, Games, Dorking, 
Bantams, Black, White and Mottled Javas, Wyandottes, White 
Wyandottes, xVndalusian, Erminet, Langshangs, and Frizzle , and 
other recognized varieties, each variety, premiums, $2, 1 



193 

For pairs of Chickens of above varieties, premiums, S2, 1 

For tlie best breeding pen of each variety — Diploma of the So- 
ciety. 

For the best pairs of Native Fowls, premiums, S2, 1 

Pairs can be exhibited in "breeding pens," by marking the com- 
peting female (with a ribbon or colored string), which, with the 
male will form the pair. 

For lots of Turkeys, and Ale8bury,Eouen, Caouga, Pekin, White 
and Colored Muscovey, and Brazilian Ducks, and Toulouse, Em- 
den, Brown China, and African Geese, premiums. S2, 1 

For 10 or more Fowls exhibited, whether thoroughbreds, 
crossed or mixed, with an account for one year, showing cost and 
method of keeping, production and profit, premiums, .$8, 6, 5 

As above, with an account for six months, premiums, .f 5, 3, 2 

For the best pair of Dressed Fowls, Chickens, Ducks and Geese, 
weight to be given, premium for each pair, ^2 

For the best 12 Eggs from Asiatic, American, Game, French and 
Spanish classes (Hamburg?, Polish, Dorkings to compete in the 
Spanish class), premium for each class, $1 

Any exhibitor interfering with the Judges in the discharge of 
their duties or interfering with, or handling any specimen on ex- 
hibition, other than his own, shall forfeit all claim he may have in 
the premium list. 

All breeds exhibited separately and to be judged by the rules of 
the " American Standard of Excellence. " 

For best exhibit of Poultry Appliances, $5- 

PLOUGHING. 

General Note on Ploughing.— Stags are excluded. Teams must be entered 
in the names of their owners, and only double ox-teams to have drivers. A team 
consisting of one pair of oxen and a horse will be considered a double team. 
The owners of separate teams may unite the same and be allowed to comjiete for 
premiums. The ploughmen and drivers must have been residents of the County 
at least three months before the exhibition. Those who intend to be competitors 
must give notice to reach the Secretary on or before Saturday previous to the show. 
The lands will be staked, but each ploughman will be required to strike out his 
own lands in the presence of the "Committee on Striking out Grounds for 
Ploughing, " after half past nine o'clock on the morning t>f the trial. Plough- 
men with land side ploughs are to back furrow three furrows on each side of the 
stakes set, the last furrow to be of the depth required in the class. Ploughmen 
with swivel ploughs to turn the outside of their furrow to the stakes on one side, 
and to tinish one foot from the stake on the other. Committees to note and re- 
port the kind of plough used. 

Ploughing with Double Teams.— One-eighth of an acre,^ 
at least eight inches deep, premiums, .f 10, 8, 6 

Ploughing with Single Teams. — One-eighth of an acre, at 
least six inches deep, premiums, SIO, 8, 5 

Ploughing with Horses. — With any form of Plough, except 
Swivel, one-eighth of an acre, at least six inches deep, premiums, 

-f 10, 7, 5 

Ploughing with Three Horses.— One-eighth of an acre^ 
eight inches deep, without driver, premium, SIO 

Same with four horses, with driver, premium, $10 

Ploughing with Swivel Plough. — One-eighth of an acre, 
with double ox-teams, at least eight inches deep, premiums. $10, 8 

Same with single ox-teams, at least six inches deep, premiums, 

$10, 8 



194 

Same with Horse Teams, consistins: of two horses, ploughing at 
least six inches deep, premiums, SIO, 8 

Ploughing— Sulky Plough.— For the best performances 
taking into account ease of draft, amount and quality of work, 
premiums, -^10' ^ 

HARROWS. 

For the best Harrow exhibited and its merits shown by actual 
test upon the ploughed ground, SIO, 8 

Note.— Entry must be made with the Secretary before the day of the trial with 
description of Harrow. 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

For the best collection of Implements and Machines (no article 
offered in collection will be entitled to a separate premium), 

Diploma and .flO 
Best Market Wagon, premium, S5 

Best Farm Wagon, for one or two horses, premium, S3 

Best Horse Cart, premium, $5 

Best Hay, Straw, or Corn Cutter, premium, .§1.50 

Best Ox Yoke, complete, premium, ."ifl.SO 

Best Fruit Evaporator, with sample of work, premium, ^5 

Best set of Horse Shoes, including those for over-reaching, inter- 
fering and stumbling horses, premium, 15 
For implements not specified above, the Committee may at their 
discretion award $4:0. 

No premium or gratuity will be awarded for any Mower, Horse 
Rake, Tedder, or other Machine or Implement, the merit of 
which can be known only b\^ actual trial in the field; but manu- 
facturers are invited to offer the same for exhibition and inspection. 

CARRIAGES. 

For carriages built in the County, and exhibited by the manufac- 
turer, Diploma, and thirty dollars in gratuities, may be awarded by 
the Committee. 



In Exhibition Hall. 

Committees on articles exhibited in the hall should be especially 
careful that the premium or gratuity cards issued Avith the names, 
and sums awarded them, correspond with those in their reports to 
the Society. 

Committees and Exhibitors will be governed by instructions, un- 
der heading of '" Duties of Committee," " General Rules," " Pre- 
miums to be awarded at the Show," see first pages, and under 
" Fruit," " Domestic Manufactures," and "Flowers." 

Sgf=*All Fruit, Flowers, Vegetables, and Domestic Manufactures, 
must be the Product of Essex County, to be entitled to a premium 
or gratuity. 



195 



DAIRY. 

For specimenis of Butter made ou any farm within the County the 
present year, samples of not less than Ave pounds to be exhibited, 
with a full account of tlie process of making and management of 
the Butter, premiums. $8, 6, 4 

For Specimens of New Milk Cheese, made on any farm in the 
County the present year, samples of not less than fifty pounds to 
be exhibited, with statement in writing of the method of making 
and preserving the same, premiums, .f8, 6, 4 

Note.- Each lot presented for premium and the statement accompanying it, 
must be numbered, but not marked so as to indicate the claimant; any public or 
known mark must be completely concealed; nor must the competitors be present 
at the examination. 

To the person who shall furnish to the Society satisfactory evi- 
dence of the greatest quantity of Butter made from any quantit}^ of 
milk, being the whole produce of any single cow, for the first week 
of June, July, August, and September next, stating the whole 
amount of Butter produced in each week, also the time when the 
cow dropped her last calf, and her feed and management all to be 
taken into account in making the award, premiums, 

Diploma and $10, 5 

Note.— The object in offering these last premiums is to elicit inquiry as to the 
value and quality of milk for the production of butter. As far as practicable it 
is desirable that the race and pedigree of the cow shall be given. 

BREAD AND CANNED FRUIT. 

For White Bread made of Wheat flour, premiums, ^H, 2, 1 

For bread made from Graham flour, premiums, S2, 1 

For bread made from other grains, or other grains mixed with 
wheat, premiums, Sl-50, 1 

All bread, entered for premiums, to be in loaves weighing not 
less than one pound each, and to be not less than twenty-four hours 
old, with a full written statement over the signature and address of 
the maker, stating the kind of flour used, quantity of each ingredi- 
ent, how mixed, and length of time kneaded and raised, and how 
long baked, xohich statements on all premium bread are to he sent to 
the Secretary loitli report ol the Committee for puhli cation. 

For first and second best collection of Pickles, Preserved Fruits, 
and Jellies, made from products of the County, xohen premiums are 
awarded, the method of making to he sent to the Secretary hy the 
Committee, for publication, premiums, $3, 2 

For the first and second best five pounds of Dried Apples, grown 
and dried within the County, with statements of process used and 
amount of labor and time required in preparing and drying, such 
statement on premium fruit to he given to the Secretary for publication, 
premiums, S3, 2 

In addition to the above, are placed in the hands of the Com- 
mittee for gratuities on other articles entered in this department, 
products of this County deemed worthy. ^5 

BEES, HIVES AND HONEY. 

For first and second best display of Bees, Hives and Apiarian 
Implements, accompanied with a written description of the beei,' 



196 

hives, etc., number ©f hives in use and amount of surplus honey 
taken from Ihera during the season,ipremium8, S5, 3 

First and second best Honey, ten pounds in comb and one pound 
extracted, made in the County, with statement signed of kind of 
bees and hive, and lime of year wlien honey was made, premiums, 

S3, 2 



Fruit. 

All fruit must be entered in the name of the grower before 11 
o'clock on the first day of the exhibition, and each exhibitor must 
certify to the same on the Entry Book, or on lists of the varieties 
of each class of fruit, or be filed when entry is made. (Committees 
are not authorized to make awards to those who do not comply 
with this rule.) 

Tables will be labelled in a cons2ncuous manner by the hall com- 
mittee before the entry of exhibitors, with the names of fruit, for 
which premiums are offered, all others of same class fruit to be 
labelled miscellaneous. Exhibitors must place their several vari- 
eties of each class of fruit where indicated by such labels, or be 
considered by the committee as not competing for premium. 

Plates of collections of fruit, when premiums are offered there- 
for, must be entered and placed by the exhibitor on the table as- 
signed for the exhibit of collections of fruit. 

To entitle exhibitors to receive premiums and gratuities awarded, 
they are required (when requested by the committee) to give in- 
formation in regard to the culture of their fruit. 

PEAES. 

For best twelve specimens of the following varieties, which are 
recommended for cultivation in Essex County: Bartlett, Belle Luc- 
rative, Bosc,Anjou, Angouleme, Daua's Hovey, Lawrence, Louise 
Bonne, Onondaga, Paradise d'Automne, Seckle, Sheldon, Urban- 
iste. Vicar, Comice, Howell, and Clairgeau, each, premium, S^ 

Doyenne d'Ete, Gifford and Clapp's Favorite (ripening early), 
are recommended for cultivation, but no premium is offered. 

For each dish of twelve best specimens of any other varieties, 
deemed worthy by the committee, premium, S1.50 

For best collection of Pears, recommended for cultivation, pre- 
mium, $6 

In addition to the above, are placed at the disposal of the com- 
mittee, to be awarded in gratuities of not less than SI each, 

S20 

APPLES. 

For best twelve specimens of the following varieties, which are 
recommended for cultivation in Essex County, Baldwin, Dan- 
vers Sweet. Tompkins King, Granite Beauty, Red Russet, Tolman's 
Sweet, Bailey Sweet, Drap d'Or, Hubbardston, Hurlburt, Porter, 
Pickman Pippin, Roxbury Russet, Rhode Island Greening, Sweet 
Baldwin, Gravenstein, Hunt Russet, Smith's Cider, Snow, premi- 
um for each, $3 



197 

Ked Aslrachaa, William's Favourite, Tetof sky and Sweet Bough 
are recommended for cultivation, and no premium is offered (rip- 
ening early). 

For best twelve specimens of any other varieties deemed worthy 
by the committee, premium for each variety, SI. 50 

For best collection of Apples, recommended for cultivation, pre- 
mium, 16 

For best twenty-four specimens of any variety of Crab Apple 
deemed worthy by the committee, SI. 50 

In addition, are placed at the disposal of the committee, to be 
awarded in gratuities of not less than $1 each, $20 

PEACHES, GRAPES, AND ASSORTED FRUITS, 

For best nine specimens of Freestone, White Flesh, Yellow 
Flesh, Essex County Seedling, each variety, $2 

For best collection of Peaches, premium, $3 

For best four bunches of Concord, Worden's Seedling, Brighton, 
Hartford Prolitic, Delaware, Martha, Moore's Early, Niagara 
Grapes, each variety, premium, ^3 

For Cold House Grapes, produced with not over one month's arti- 
ficial heat, premiums, $4, 3 

For best collection of ten varieties, not less than ten pounds in 
all, premiums, $7 

For best specimens of four bunches of Grapes, varieties other 
than above, deemed worthy by the committee, premium, SI. 50. 

For baskets of Assorted Fruits, premiums, S4, 3 

In addition, are placed at the disposal of the committee, to be 
awarded in gratuities, of not less than 50 cents each, S25 

PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 

RULES AND REGULATIONS. 

1. All Plants and Flowers for competition and exhibition must ' 
be entered for examination by the Committee on or before eleven 
o'clock, on the first day of the Fair, and all such Plants and Flowers 
must have been grown by the competitor, except native plants and 
flowers, and flowers Used in bouquets, and baskets of flowers and 
floral designs, all of which (plants and flowers) must have been 
grown within the County. 

2. When a certain number or quantity of Plants and Flowers is 
designated in the schedule, there must be neither more nor less 
than that number or quantity of specimens shown. 

3. When only one premium from each exhibitor is offered for 
any article, only a single specimen or collection can conjpete, but 
when a second or third premium is offered, one, two or three spec- 
imens or collections may be exhibited for competition, but no vari- 
ety can be duplicated. 

4. No premium shall be awarded unless the specimens exhibited 
are of superior excellence, possessing points of superiority and 
worthy of such premium, not even if they are the only ones of their 
kind on exhibition. 

5. No specimen entered for one premium shall be admitted in 
competition for another different premium. 

6. Competitors will be required to furnish information (if the 



198 

committee so request), as to their modes of cultivation, or in the 
case of Native Plants and Flowers, where such were found. 

7. All Plants exhibited for premiums must have the name legi- 
bly and correctly written on stiff card, wood or some other perma- 
nent and suitable substance, and so attached to same as to be easi- 
ly seen. Flowers when specified to be named to comply also with 
above rule. 

8. Plants in Pots to be entitled to premiums must show skilful 
culture in the profusion of bloom and in the beauty, symmetry and 
vigor of the specimens; also Bouquets, Baskets, Design work, etc., 
must show taste, skill, and harmony in arrangement, both as to 
colors and material they are made of, and purposes for which they 
are intended. 

9. All flowers exhibited must be shown upon their own stem, 
flowers in "Design" work alone excepted; and this exception if 
overcome and avoided, to be taken into account by the committee 
in awarding the premiums. 

10. The Committee are authorized to award gratuities for any 
new and rare plants and flowers or "Designs" of merit for which 
no premium is offered, but in no case shall the total sum (premi- 
ums and gratuities together), exceed the amount .^150.00, limited 
by the Society for this department. 

11. No member of the Committee for awarding premiums or 
gratuities shall in any case vote or decide respecting an award for 
which such member may be a competitor, or in which he may have 
an interest, but in such case such member shall temporarily vacate 
his place upon the Committee, and such vacancy for the time being 
may be filled by the remaining members of the Committee, or they 
may act without. 

12. Attention is again called to above Eules and Regulations- 
for Plants and Flowers, and General Rules of the Society, and all 
articles not entered in conformity therewith will be disqualified, 
and premiums will be awarded only to exhibitors who have com- 
plied with said Rules, etc. 

PLANTS. 

Plants competing for these premiums must have been grown in 
pots, Native Plants excepted, etc. See Rules. 

For collections Flowering and Ornamental Foliage Plants, at 
least 25 specimens, premiums, ~ |;10, 5 

For collection Palms, at least 5 specimens. 5 varieties, prem., $1 

For collection Ferns (cultivated), at least 5 specimens, !t> varie- 
ties, premium, gl 

For collection Dracenas, at least 5 specimens, 5 varieties, pre- 
mium, ,$i 

For collection Crotons, at least 5 specimens, varieties, pre- 
mium, II 

For collection Fancy Caladiums, at least 5 specimens, 5 varieties, 
premium. gl 

For collection Gloxinias, at least 5 specimens, 5 varieties, pre- 
mium, ^1 

For collection Begonias, tuberous rooted, at least 5 specimens, 5 
varieties, premium. .fl 

For collection Begonias, 5 specimens, 5 varieties, premium, $1 



199 

For collection Coleus, 10 specimens, 10 varieties, premium, $1 
For collection Fuschias, 5 specimens, varieties, premium, SI 

For collection Cyclamen, 5 specimens, 5 varieties, premium, $1 
For collection Geraniums, double, 10 specimens, 10 varieties, pre- 
mium, SI 
For collection Geraniums, single, 10 specimens, 10 varieties, pre- 
mium, $1 
For collection Geraniums, fancy, 10 specimens, at least 5 varie- 
ties, premium, $1 
For collection Hibiscus, 5 specimens, 5 varieties, premium, SI 
For collection Carnation Pinks, 10 specimens, at least 5 varie- 
ties, premium, SI 
For collection Calla Lillies, 5 specimens, premium, SI 
For specimen English Ivy, premium, SI 
For collection of wood of native trees in sections, suitable for 
exhibition, showing bark and the grain of the wood, all correctly 
named with botanical and common name, at least 50 varieties, 
each variety to be shown in two sections, one of which to be a 
cross section and neither to be more than four inches in length or 
diameter, premiums, S5, 3 

FLOWEKS. 

For collection of Cut Flowers, cultivated, 100 specimens, at least 
50 varieties, named. So, 3 

For collection of Cut Flowers, native, 100 specimens, at least 50 
varieties, named, S5, 3 

For pair of Bouquets, for vases, green-house flowers, prem., S2, 1 
For pair ot Hand Bouquets, green-house flowers, prem., S2, 1 
For pair of Bouquets, for vases, of native flowers, prem., S2, 1 
For pair of Bouquets, for vases, of garden flowers, prem., S2,l 
For Basket of green-house flowers, premiums, S2, 1 

For Basket of Native Flowers, premiums, $2, 1 

For Basket of Garden Flowers, premiums, S2, 1 

For arrangement of Native Flowers and Autumn Leaves, pre- 
miums, •f'S, 2 
For Floral Designs, choice cultivated flowers, premiums, S5, 3 
For Floral Designs, native flowers, premiums, $3, 2 
For collections japan Lilies, hardy, named, premiums, S3, 2 
For collections Phlox, hardy perennial, named, premiums, S2, 1 
For collections Pansies, at least 50 specimens, neatly and artis- 
tically arranged, premiums, S2, 1 
For collecdons of Native and Introduced "Weeds, with common 
and botanical name attached, premiums, S3, 2 
For twelve Dahlias, large flowering, at least six varieties, named, 
premium, SI 
For twelve Dahlias, Pompon or Lilliputian, at least six varie- 
ties, named, premium, SI 
For twelve Dahlias, single, at least six varieties, named, pre- 
mium, SI 
For twelve Petunias, double, at least six varieties, named, pre- 
mium, SI 
For twelve Gladiolus (spikes), at least six varieties, named, pre- 
mium, SI 
For twelve Japan Lilies, at least six varieties, named, prem., SI 



200 

For twelve Geraniums, double, at least'six varieties, named, pre- 
mium, ^1 
For twelve Geraniums, single, at least six varieties, named, pre- 
mium, ^1 
For twelve Phlox, hardy perennial, at least six varieties, named, 
premium, f^ 
For twelve Cannas, at least six varieties, named, premium, $1 
For twenty-four Carnation Pinks, at least six varieties, named, 
premium, SI 
For twenty-four Verbenas, at least six varieties, named, pre- 
mium, ^1 
For tweuty-four Roses, at least six varieties, named, premium, SI 
For twenty-four Garden Annuals, at least twelve varieties, 
named, premium, SI 
For twelve Calendulas, at least two varieties, named, premium, SI 
For twelve Asters, Double Victoria, premium. 81 
For twelve Asters, Double, Truffaut's Peony tlowered, prem., 81 
For twelve Asters, Pompone, premium, 81 
For twelve Phlox, Drummondii, in variety, premium, SI 
For twelve Nasturtiums, at least six varieties, premium, SI 
For twenty-four Pansies, in variety, premium, $1 
For twenty-four Zinnias, double in variety, premium. SI 
For twenty-four Marigolds, African, in variety, premium, SI 
For twenty-four Marigolds, Dwarf French, in variety, prem., SI 
For tweuty-four Petunias, single, in variety, premium, SI 
For display of Coxcombs, in variety, premium, SI 
For twelve Scabiosas, in variety, premium, il 
For twelve Delphiniums, in variety, premium, SI 
For twelve Dianthus (double, annual), in variety, premium, SI 
For twelve Salpiglossis, in variety, premium, $1 
For collection of Sweet Peas, premium, SI 

VEGETABLES. 

Rules for Fruit apply to Vegetables. 

Beets — For best twelve specimens, Eclipse, Dewing, and Ed- 
mands, |)remiums, each variety, S3 

Carrots — For best twelve, short top, long Orange and Danvers 
Intermediate, premium, each variety, 83 

For best twelve, Short Horn Orange carrots, S3 

Mangold Wurtzels — For best six specimens, premium, 83 

Flat turnips — Twelve specimens. For best Purple Top and 
White Flat, premium, each variety, S3 

Ruta Bagcis — Twelve specimens. For best Yellow and White, 
premium, each variety. S3 

Parsnips — For the best twelve specimens, premium, S3 

Onions— One half peck. For best Danvers, Yellow Flat, and 
Red, premium, each variety, S3 

Potatoes — One half peck. For best Early Rose, Beauty of Heb- 
ron, Clark's No. 1, Pearl of Savoy, Early Maine, premium, each 
variety. S3 

Cabbages — For best three specimens. Savoy, Fottler's Drumhead, 
Stone Mason Drumhead, Red Cabbage, All Seasons, Deep Head, 
each variety, premium, S3 

For next best, each variety, premium, S2 



20I 

Cauliflowers— For best three specimens, premium, $3 

For next best, premium, $2 

Celery — For best four roots, premium, $2 

Sweet Corn — For twelve ears ripest and best Early, premium, $S 
For best twelve ears in milk. Late, premium, S3 

Squashes — For best three specimens, Marrow, American Turban, 
Hubbard, Marblehead, Essex Hybrid, Bay State, Sibley, Butman, 
each variety, premium, $3 

Melons — For best three specimens. Nutmeg, Musk, Cassaba, 
Salmon Fiesh, each variety, premium, $2 

For best two specimens Watermelons, premium, $2 

Tomatoes — For best twelve specimens, Acme, Emery, Cardinal, 
Essex Hybrid, Livingstone, or any other variety, each variety, pre- 
mium, S3 
For exhibition of greatest variety of Tomatoes, premium, S3 
Cranberries — For pecks of cultivated, premiums, S3, 2, 1 
For collection of vegetables, not less than three of a kind, pre- 
miums, S8, 6, 4, 2 
Placed at the disposal of the committee for whatever appears 
meritorious, S30 

i@=No competitor for premium to exhibit more or less number 
of specimens of any vegetables than the premiums are offered for. 

Collections of Vegetables where premiums are offered for a number of varieties 
must be entered aiid placed, not less than three of a kind, by themselves on the 
tables assigned for collections. No collection shall receive but one premium. 
Specimens of any varieties in such collections are not to compete with specimens 
of the same variety placed elsewhere. Exhibitors of such collections however, 
are not prevented from exhibiting additional specimens of any variety with and 
in competition with like variety. All vegetables must be entered in the name of 
the grower of them. 

Size of Vegetables. — Turnip Beets to be from 3 to 5 inches in diameter; Onions, 
21-2 to 4 inches in largest diameter; Potatoes to be of good size for family use; 
Squashes to be pure and well ripened, Turban, Marrow, Hubbard, Marblehead, 
each to weigh 8 to 16 lbs. 

GEAIN AND SEED. 

For best peck of Shelled Corn, Wheat, Oats, Barley, Rye, Buck- 
wheat, and Field Beans, each, premium, SI 
For 25 ears of Field Corn, premiums, S5, 3, 2 
For 2.5 ears of Pop Corn, premiums, $3, 2 
For collections of Field and Garden Seeds, premiums, .S8, 6, 4, 2 
All grain or seed must have been grown by the exhibitor in thfj 
'County to receive a premium. 



Domestic Manufactures. 

Contributors must deposit their articles at the Hall before 11 
o'clock on the first day of the Exhibition. Articles not thus depos- 
ited will not be entitled to a premium. Gratuities will be awarded 
for articles of special merit for which no premium is offered ; but 
no premium or gratuity will be awarded for any article manufac- 
tured out of the County, or previous to the last exhibition of the 
Society. 



202 



COUNTERPANES AND AFGHANS. 

For Wrought Counterpanes having regard to the quality and ex- 
pense of the material, premiums, S4, 2 

Gratuities will be awarded for articles belonging to this depart- 
ment, the whole amount of gratuities not to exceed S25 



CARPETINGS AND RUGS. 

For carpets, having regard to the quality and expense of the 
material, premiums, .$4. 2 

For Wrought Hearth Rug, having regard both to the quality of 
the work and expense of the materials, premiums, S3, 2 

Gratuities will be awarded for articles belonging to this depart- 
ment, the whole amount not to exceed $2& 



ARTICLES MANUFA(!TURED FROM LEATHER. 

For best pair hand made and machine made Men's Boots, 
Women's do., Children's do., each, premium, S2 

Best Team, Carriage, and Express Harness, each, premium, $5 

$10 are placed at the disposal of this committee, to be awarded 
in gratuities. 

For the best exhibition of Boots and Shoes, manufactured in the 
County, each, premium, Diploma of the Society. 

MANUFACTURES AND GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

For display of Bonnets, premiums, S4, 5 

For Horn Combs, not less than one dozen, premium, $2 

At the disposal of the committee in this department, to be 

awarded in gratuities not exceeding $3 in any one gratuity, S20 



FANCY WORK 

Of Domestic Manufacture are not included in the above. 

At the disposal of the committee in this department, to be 
awarded in gratuities not exceeding $3 in any one gratuity, .S50 

WORKS OF ART. 

At the disposal of the committee in this department, to be 
awarded in gratuities not exceeding $3 in any one gratuity, .$50 

WORK BY CHILDREN. 

For specimens of work performed by children under 12 years of 

age exhibiting industry and ingenuity, premiums, ' $3, 2 

At disposal of committee to be awarded in gratuities, $10 



203 



List of Premiums to be Awarded by the 
Trustees in November. 

FARMS. 

Competitors for this premium must give notice of their inten- 
tion to the Secretary on or before June 15th, and the farms entered 
for premium will be viewed by the committee twice during the 
year. Crops growing on farms that are entered for premium, can- 
not be entered with another committee for separate premiums — ex- 
cept crop specimens exhibited at the Fair. 

Any person desirous of having his farm inspected, without enter- 
ing it for premium, may make application to the Secretary, and it 
will be viewed and reported upon by the committee. 

For the best conducted and most improved farm, taking into 
Tiew the entire management and cultivation, including lands, 
buildings, fences, orchards, crops, stock, and all other appendages, 
with statements in detail, relating thereto, premium, 830 

IMPROVING WET MEADOW AND SWAMP LANDS. 

For best conducted experiments relating to wet meadow or 
swamp lands, on not less than one acre, the course of management, 
and the produce, etc., for a period of two years at least, to be de- 
tailed, with a statement of all the incidental expenses, pre- 
miums, S15, 10 
Note.— The Committee is instructed to ascertain liow many, if any, reclaimed 
gwamps in this County have been abundoned or have returned to natural grasses. 
Persons knowing of such are requested to notify the Secretary or Committee. 

IMPROVING PASTURE AND WASTE LANDS. 

For best conducted experiments in renovating and improving 
pasture land, other than by ploughing, so as to add to their value 
for pasturage, with a statement of the same, premiums, .§15, 10 

For best conducted experiments renovating and improving waste 
lands, so as to add to their agricultural value, with statement of 
the same, premiums, f 15, 10 

No premium to be awarded to any person for a repetition of an 
experiment in meadow, swamp or pasture lands, for which he has 
already received a premium. 

UNDER-DRAINING LAND. 

For best conducted experiments in under-draining land, regard 
being had to the variety of soil, sub-soil, and other local circum- 
stances, premiums, $15, 10 

Note— The same instructions under " Improving Wet Meadow and Swamp 
Lands " apply to this Committee. 

MANURES. 

For most exact and satisfactory experiments, in the preparation 
and application of manures, whether animal, vegetable or mineral, 
premiums, ^15' 1" 



204 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF CROPS AS FOOD FOR 

CATTLE. 

For most satisfactory experiments upon a stock of cattle, not less 
than four in number, in ascertaining the relative value of different 
kinds of fodder used in feeding stock for milk and other purposes, 
with a statement in detail of the quantity and value of the same, 
as compared with English hay, premium, S25 

FATTENING CATTLE AND SWINE. 

For most satisfactory experiments in Fattening Cattle or Swine, 
with a statement in detail of the process and result, prem., SIO, 5 

GRAIN AND OTHER FRUITS. 

Claimants on Grain and Root Crops will be required to state the 
size of the piece of land, when they enter, and conform to the fol- 
lowing rules: Entries of Grain Crops to be made on or before Sep- 
tember 10th; Root Crops on or before October 10; giving ample 
time for the crops to be examined by the committee before har- 
vesting. Statement to be made in conformity with the following 
form, must be forwarded to the Committee previous to November 
1st. 

All calculations and figures given in reports of, and statements of 
Crops are to be made on the basis of an acre, results in all cases, to 
be given at the rate per acre. 

In pursuance of authority delegated to the Board of Agriculture 
by Chap. 24 of Acts, 1862, Agricultural Societies receiving the 
bounty of the State are required to make use of the following 
form, and be governed by its conditions in the mode of ascertaining 
the amount of crops entered for premium. 

Essex Agricultural Society. — Statement concerning a crop 

of , raised by Mr. , in the town of , , 

1892. . ' ' 

What was the crop of 1890 ? What manure was used and how 
much ? What was the crop of 1891 ? What manure was used and 
how much ? What is the nature of the soil ? When, and how 
many times ploughed, and how deep ? What other preparation 
for the seed ? Cost of ploughing and other preparation ? Amount 
of manure, in loads of thirty l)ushels, and how applied ? 

Value of manure upon the ground ? How used ? (What amount 
of Commercial Fertilizer used ? How used ? Value of same when 
applied ?) When and how planted ? The amount and kind of seed? 
Cost of seed and planting ? How cultivated and how many times? 
Cost of cultivation, including weeding and thinning ? Time and 
manner of harvesting ? Cost of harvesting, including the storing 
and husking or threshing V Amount of crop, etc. Signed by 
Competitor. 

The committee, to whom is entrusted the award of the premiums 
on field crops, may award them according to their judgment, but 
for the purpose of furnishing accurate statistics for the benefit of 
agriculture, shall select certain of the crops, and require the 
owners thereof to measure the land and weigh the crops accurately, 



205 

giving to the committee a certificate of the same, and give all pos- 
sible information thereon over their own signatures, and return 
the same to the Secretary of the Society, to be published in the 
annual transactions. 

In ascertaining the amount of crop, any vessel maybe used and 
the weight of its contents once, multiplied by the number of times 
it is filled by the crop. 

In measuring the land or weighing crops, any competent person 
may be employed, whether a sworn surveyor or not, and must give 
certificate. 

The certificate shall state the weight of all crops only in a mer- 
chantable state. 

In ascertaining the amount of a hay crop entered for premium, 
the measurement of the hay in the barn may be employed. 

EtTLES OF Measure Practiced and Adopted by the State 
Board of Agriculture. 

Wheat, Potatoes, Sugar Beets, Ruta Bagas, Mangold Wurtzels, 

60 lbs. to bush.,. 
"White Beans and Peas, 62 " " 

Corn, Eye, 56 " " 

Oats, 32 " " 

Barley, Buckwheat, 48 " " 

Cracked Corn, Corn and Eye, and other meal, 

except Oat, 50 " " 

Parsnips, Carrots, 55 " " 

Onions, 52 " " 

1. For the best conducted experiments of Eye, not less than 
twenty bushels to the acre, fifty-six lbs. to the bushel, on not less 
than one acre, premiums, ,S10, 5 

2. For best conducted experiments of Wheat, not less than 
thirty bushels to the acre, sixty pounds to the bushel, on not less 
than one acre, premiums, SIO, 5 

3. For best conducted experiments of Oats, not less than fifty 
bushels to the acre, thirty-two pounds to the bushel, on not less 
than one acre, premiums, $10, 5 

4. For best conducted experiments of Barley, not less than for- 
ty bushels to the acre, forty-eight pounds to the bushel, on not less 
than one acre, premiums, $10, 5 

5. For best conducted experiments of Indian Corn, on not less 
than one acre, premiums, .^10, 5 

6. For largest quantity and best quality of English Hay, on not 
less than one acre, regard being had to the mode and cost of culti- 
vation, premiums, .f 10, 5 

7. For best yield of Field Beans, on not less than one-half acre, 
and not less than twenty-five bushels per acre, premiums, f 10, 5 

EOOT CEOPS. 

1. For best conducted experiments in raising Carrots, fifty-five 
pounds to the bushel, premiums, SIO, 6 

2. For best conducted experiments in raising Parsnips, fifty-five 
pounds to the bushel, premiums, SIO, 5 



2o6 

3. For best conducted experiments in raising Ruta Bagas, sixty 
pounds to the bushel, premiums, SIO, 5 

4. For best conducted experiments in raismg Mangold Wurt- 
zels, sixty pounds to the bushel, premiums, SIO, 6 

0. For best conducted experiments in raising Sugar Beets, 
sixty pounds to the bushel, premiums, SIO, 5 

6. For best conducted experiments in raising Onions, fifty-two 
pounds to the bushel, premiums, .iflO, 5 

7. For best conducted experiments in raising Potatoes, sixty 
pounds to the bushel, premiums, S19, 5 

8. For best conducted experiments in raising Cabbages, pre- 
miums, $10, 5 

9. For best conducted experiments in raising Squashes, pre- 
miums, - SIO, 5 

10. For best conducted experiments in raising Summer English 
Turnips for the market, premiums, SIO, 5 

Raised on not less than halt an acre, and the quantity of crop to 
be ascertained by weight; so far as practicable the crop to be free 
from dirt, without tops, and in a merchantable condition at the 
time of measurement. 

Claimants for premiums on Grain and Root Crops must forward 
statement to chairman of committee before Nov. 1st. 

FOREST TREES. 

1. For plantation of either of the following species of forest 
trees, viz : White Oak, Yellow Oak, Locust, Birch, White Ash, 
Maple, Walnut, or White Pine, not less than three years old, and 
not less than 1000 trees, premium. $20 

2. For plantation of not less than 600 trees, premium, SIO 

3. For ornamental trees, ten or more set on any street, road or 
farm, and cared for five years, premium, $10 

CRANBERRIES. 

For best conducted experiment in the cultivation of the Cran- 
"berry, at least two summers, on not less than twenty rods of land, 
with written statement of the quantity and quality of the land, ex- 
pense of planting, weeding and culture, and amount of crojis pro- 
duced. Premium to be paid in 1891 or 1892. $15 

For best experiment do., on not less than ten rods of land, pre- 
mium, $10 

For best do., on not less than five rods of land, premium, $5 

STRAWBERRIES AND OTHER SMALL FRUITS. 

For best crop of Strawberries, on not less than twenty rods of 
laud, expense of planting, culture, crop, etc., stated in writing, 
premium, $10 

For best 'crop of Currants, Raspberries and Blackberries, with 
statement as above, premiums, each, $10 

NEW WINTER APPLES. 

For a new variety of Winter Apple, originated in this County, 
■equal or superior to the Baldwin, premium, $100 



207 

For ;i new variety of like character originating elsewhere, pro- 
vided it has been cultivated in the County sufficiently to prove it 
equal or superior to the Baldwin for general purposes, pre- 
mium, f20 

For a successful experiment in destroying the codling moth and 
other worms destructive to the apple, premium, $^25 

Note.— Persons who consider themselves competitors will send Post Oflace ad- 
dress to Secretary, and others in the County wishing to compete for above must 
notify Secretary, and furnish a full statement of their apple, and also scions when 
called for under his directions, to be tested by the Society. 

SEEDLING POTATOES AND EXPERIMENTS. 

For best Seedling Potato, orieinating in Essex County, to equal 
in yield, earliness, and quality, the Early Rose, and to surpass it in 
one or more of these particulars, premium paid after three years' 
trial, ^ ^ f ^25 

In testing the value of a Seedling Potato, the committee are in- 
•structed to take sworn testimony of the cultivator with regard to 
the yield, after having inspected the crop. 

For the most satisfactory experiment to extend through five con- 
secutive years, to settle the following facts relative to raising po- 
tatoes: — premium, SSO 

1st. Will whole, medium sized Potatoes, yield better results 
than pieces cut to two eyes'? 

2nd. What will be the result of continuously planting small- 
sized potatoes of the same strain a series of years? 

3rd. Difference between hilling and flat cultivation. 

4th. Effect, if any, of cutting off seed ends before planting. 

5th. Effects of deep and shallow planting. 

6th. Raising from sprouts alone from same strain. 

7th. Can potatoes having dwarf vines be planted nearer than 
<others? 

8th. Best distances apart for seed in the drill. . 

9th. To show the effect of covering the top with earth at several 
times after they had come up. 

To be raised on not less than a half acre of land, uniform in 
character, and all to receive the same kind and quality of manure 
and cultivation, and to be inspected by the committee at the time 
of gathering the crops. 

ESSAYS AND FARM ACCOUNTS. 

The Essays must be transmitted to the Secretary by the 1st of 
November, with sealed envelopes containing the names of their 
authors, respectively, which shall not be opened by the committee, 
nor shall the names be known to the committee until they shall 
have decided upon the merits of the Essays. 

For original Essays on any subject connected with Agriculture, 
in a form worthy of publication, premiums, -If 15, 10, 8 

For best statement of Actual Farm Accounts, drawn from the ex- 
perience of the claimant, in a form worthv of publication, pre- 
mium, " .'$10 

For Reports of Committees upon subjects for which premiums 

are offered, premiums, " $10, 8, 6 

Committee— G. L. Streeter, Salem: N. M. Hawkes, Lynn; D. E. Safford, Hamil- 
ton ; J. M. Danforth, Lynnlield. 



208 



LIBRARY. 

Committee— Andrew Nichols, Danvers; Henry Brooks, Salem; B. P. "Ware, 
Marblehead; J. M. Danforth, Lynntield. 

ENCOURAGING AGRICULTURAL LIBRARIES. 

It shall be the duty of the Committee to communicate with such 
persons in the several cities and towns in the County, as, in their 
judgment, will best encourage the establishment of, or improvement 
of, collections of books, pamphlets, reports, essays, newspapers, 
etc., relating to agriculture, and request their aid in thus advanc- 
idg the cause of agriculture, and co-operate with such persons in 
promoting the object herein referred to. 

Committee— Francis H. Appleton, Peabody; Henry Wheatland, Salem; James 
J. H. Gregory, Marblehead. 

NEW MEMBERS. 

For the person who obtains the largest number of new members 
for the Society from any Town or City before the first day of 
November next, premium, $& 

Note.— Names of new members, with name of person procuring them, can be 
sent as fast as obtained, to the Secretary of the Society, who will make a record 
of them. 

Persons paying three dollars will receive a " Certificate of Membership" which 
is for life. No fines or assessments are ever imposed and members are entitled 
to vote in all its transactions, witli the free use of the Library and a copy of the 
publication of Society's transactions each year. 

Committee— Secretary, John M. Danforth, Lynnfleld. 

TREADWELL FARM. 

Committee— Benj. P. Ware, Marblehead; C. C. Blunt, Andover; B. P. Pike, 
Topstield; G. B. Blodgette, Rowley; George B. Bradley, Methuen; John M. Dan- 
forth, Lynntield. 

AUDITORS. 

Committee— J. Hardy Phippen, Salem; Benj. P. Ware, Marblehead; E. Pope 
Barrett, Peabody. 

FARMERS' INSTITUTES. 

Francis H. Appleton, James P. King, C. C. Blunt, O. S. Butler, John M. Dan- 
forth, Lynntield. 

DELEGATES. 

From the Essex Agricultural Society to attend Exhibitions of 
Societies, Farmers' Clubs and Fruit Growers' Associations in Es- 
sex County, and report any information that shall seem valuable 
for publication. 

The Secretary to be notified of time of holding their exhibition, 
who will notify the chairman of Committee to assign Delegate. 

COMMITTEES. 

All Committees, including committees to judge of Crops, of Ex- 
hibits at Fair, and of the Arrangements for the Fair, are chosen by 
the Trustees at their June meeting. 



CONTENTS. 



Address by William H. Moody, Esq 3 

Seventy-first Cattle Show and Fair 20 

Keport of the Annual Meeting 23 

Report on Fat Cattle 26 

Report on Bulls 26 

Report on Milch Cows 27 

Statements 28 

Report on Herds of Milch Cows 29 

Statements 29 

Report on Heifers, Pure Bred 31 

Report on Heifers, Native or Grade 33 

Report on Working Oxen 33 

Report on Steers 34 

Report on Stallions, Driving Purposes 34 

Report on Brood Mares, Farm Purposes 34 

Report on Brood Mares, Driving Purposes 35 

Report on Family Horses 35 

Report on Gents' Driving Horses 35 

Report on Single Farm Horses 36 

Report on Pairs of Farm Horses 36 

Report on Colts, Farm Purposes 37 

Report on Colts, Driving Purposes 37 

Report on Swine, Large Breeds .' 38 

Report on Swine, Small Breeds 39 

Report on Sheep 39 

Report on Poultry 40 

Report on Ploughing, Double Team 41 

Report on Ploughing, Single Team 42 

Report on Ploughing with Horses 42 

Report on Ploughing with Swivel Plough , 42 

Report on Ploughing with 3 Horses 43 

Report on Ploughing with Sulky Plough 43 

Report on Harrows 43 

Report on Agricultural Implements 44 

Report on Carriages 45 

Report of Sup't of Hall 46 

Report on Diary 50 

Report on Bread and Canned Fruit 51 

Report on Special Premium 54 

Report on Honey ...,.,,,,,,,,,,, 54 



210 

Report on Pears 55 

Report on Apples 56 

Report on Peaches, Grapes and Assorted Fruit 58 

Report on Plants and Floweis 60 

Report on Vegetables 62 

Report on Grain and Seed 66 

Report on Counterpanes and Afghans 67 

Report on Carpetings and Rugs 68 

Report on Manufactures from Leather 69 

Report on Fancy Work 69 

Report of Works of Art 72 

Report of Children's Work , •. . 76 

Report on Manufactures and General Mdse 76 

Report of Committee on Granges 77 

Report of Committee on Waste Land 81 

Statements of Same 81 

Report of Committee on Root Crops 83 

Statement of John H. George, Crop of Onions 85 

Statement of James Manning, Crop of Onions 86 

Statement of C. C. Blunt, Crop of Parsnips 87 

Statement of Henry A. Hayward, Cabbage Crop 88 

Statement ofiDavid Warren 89 

Statement of C. Moynihan 90 

Report of Committee on Ornamental Trees 90 

Report of Committee on Strawberries and other Small Fruit 93 

Statementlof George J. Pierce ; 94 

Statement of Daniel Stiles 95 

Report of Committee^on Grain Crops 96 

Statements of Grain Crops 98 

Report on Treadwell Farm 103 

Report on New Members 103 

Report of State Delegate to this Society 104 

Farmers' Institutes 108 

Report of Committee on Essays 136 

Essays and Reports 138 

In Memoriam 161 

Treasurer's Report 168 

Constitution of the Society 169 

Officers of the Society 172 

New Members 173 

Changes of Members 174 

Corrections 175 

List of Premiums Awarded 176 

Recapitulation of Premiums 183 

Amount to each City and Town 184 

Financial Statement 1891 Fair 185 

Duties of Trustees, Committees and Exhibitors 186 

Premiums offered for 1892 188 



TRANSACTIONS 

FOR THE YEAR 1892 

OF THE 

ESSEX A&RICULTUML SOCIETY 



{ORGAniz:ed iSis.) 



COUNTY OF ESSEX, 

IN JVIASSACJHUSETTS, 



AND ITS 



SIXTY-NINTH ANNUAL ADDRESS 

BY 

HON. E. P. DODGE, 

OF NE WB UR YPOR T. 

With the Premium List for 1893. 



PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE SOCIETY. 



SALEM, MASS.: 

OBSERVER BOOK AND JOB PRINT, 
■ 1892. 



ANNUAL ADDRESS. 



Mr. President and Members of the Essex Agri- 
cultural Society : — When I received the invitation of 
your Board of Trustees to address you to-day, I found it 
somewhat difficult to determine upon what subject I 
should speak. Before giving the matter any serious con- 
sideration, or even assuming that it was possible for me 
to undertake such a service, I had learned that I should 
not be confined to subjects specially connected with agri- 
culture. Had it been otherwise, I should have unhesi- 
tatingly declined to appear before you. 

Although I was born and bred on a farm, and until 
sixteen years of age was familiar, as all New England 
farmers' boys are, or ought to be, with the many duties 
of such a position in life, I do not feel now that I am in 
any important sense familiar with practical agriculture. 
In my youth I saw enough of farming to show me, when 
supplemented by my observation in later years, how com- 
plicated and difficult a science it is when wisely con- 
ducted. 

As has been said, all the knowledge we can acquire in 
this life will serve only to direct us towards the immeas- 
urable wisdom that will still be unexplored, so my little 
knowledge of farming has served to impress me with a 
lively sense of how much more there is in it that is to me 



entirely unknown. I may add, that it has also given me 
such a high appreciation of the ability and acquirements 
of you successful farmers, that I feel sure it would be 
presumptuous in me to attempt to interest you in any 
matter which comes within your special field of labor, 
. I shall therefore do nothing of that sort, but, instead, 
shall briefly ask your attention to some of the important 
principles which influence the production and distribu- 
tion of wealth, with the purpose of showing, if I can, the 
methods by which the material welfare of mankind has 
been, and may still further be, promoted. 

This is a subject in which T assume we all have a com- 
mon interest, whether we are farmers, merchants or manu- 
facturers. 

I use the word wealth in this connection not to desig- 
nate only money or accumulated savings, but I use it to 
represent all the different kinds of property in which men 
deal, and which are essential to our existence and happi- 
ness. Money, which many appear to esteem as the only 
thing of substantial value, in itself is not wealth, except in 
a limited degree. In the broad sense, wealth is improved 
lands, houses, barns and cattle, factories and stores, ships 
and railroads, and all the various products of the soil, the 
sea, the mines and the factories. 

The multiplication and more general possession of these 
things have been most important agencies in the civiliza- 
tion of mankind, and the better our understanding of the 
economic laws which govern their development and use, 
the clearer will be our perception of the way in which we 
can do most for our own and the common welfare. 

In the first place we should appreciate the fact that 
each of us is a part of that complex organism we call 



5 

society ; that our interests are common interests, and the 
highest material advantage of the individual is best at- 
tainable by means which at the same time promote the 
general prosperity. 

Men are bound together by conditions that make them 
dependent upon each other. Our personal welfare is so 
inextricably connected with the welfare of our neighbors, 
of our fellow countrymen, that we cannot separate our- 
selves from them if we would. We do not feel these 
bonds, for we have so grown into and with the society in 
which we live, that we are quite unconscious of the de- 
tails of its operations. 

We know that life has not always been what it now is. 
Its conditions have been slowly but constantly changing ; 
through "the survival of the fittest" and through many 
ages of development the world has been brought to the 
high standard of living which we enjoy. 

There was a time when individual men were much less 
dependent upon their fellow men than now. Their wants 
were few and, for the most part, were supplied by their 
own hands. They hunted the animal whose flesh they 
ate, and from whose skin was made all the clothing they 
required. Their shelter was either the natural caves in 
the hillside or rude huts of the simplest possible design. 
There was no science nor art that we should recognize as 
such, and little culture either of the brain or hand. Their 
rude training was in the simplest method of obtaining the 
barest necessities of existence. Life seems then to have 
been a mere animal existence, which to us would be abso- 
lutely unendurable. 

From that primitive condition how great the change to 
the civilization of the present time. The products of 



every quarter of the globe will be brought into requisition 
to furnish dinner which will be spread before you to-day, 
and in the preparation of it will be exhibited results of 
the thought and experience of a thousand years. 

In the clothing you wear, materials gathered from every 
zone have been wrought by skillful hands in many nations, 
and fashioned by art that kings could not command in 
former times. The abodes of the humblest among us are 
models of comfort and convenience, and in every village 
private citizens dwell in houses in some respects more 
magnificent than the palaces of ancient days. 

How marvelous now are the acquirements of the hu- 
man brain, and how wonderful the inventions it has 
wrought. The steam-engine, the telegraph, the telephone, 
the electric motor, but a few years ago the wildest fancy 
did not dream that such things were possible. I have 
sometimes thought that the stupendous facts which the 
telescope reveals are no more impreesive than the amazing 
power of the mind that invented the instruments by 
which the laws of planetary motion were discovered, and 
the vast distances to the fixed stars approximately de- 
termined. 

The most potent agencies in the development of this 
high civilization have been, first, the division of labor in 
the production of wealth, by which men have been made 
more and more dependent upon one another; and, second, 
co-operation in the distribution of wealth, through the 
means of exchanges or trade, by which men have been 
made more and more to help each other. In the begin- 
ning, each individual practiced all the arts that were 
known ; now, few are masters of more than a single de- 
partment in any of the great callings. Instead of each 



one producing all for himself that he requires, most men 
produce almost nothing directly for themselves. Each of 
us does some one thing for a hundred or a thousand others, 
perhaps, and exchanges that product of his labor for the 
many things he deems essential to his existence, comfort 
and happiness, for, in effect, we simply exchange com- 
modities when we sell for money that which we do not 
wish to use, and purchase with that money the things we 
need. 

If I may be permitted to draw an illustration from my 
own business, I think I can make clear the truth of my 
statement that men do little directly for themselves. I 
am a shoe manufacturer, but I do not make the shoes I 
wear myself. The specialization in business which com- 
petition has brought about has limited me to the pro- 
duction of women's shoes only. 

Those of you who have long been familiar with the busi- 
ness of Essex county will remember the time when George- 
town, Danvers and some other towns were extensively 
engaged in the manufacture of men's boots and shoes. 
They are so no longer, and, with a few unimportant ex- 
ceptions, all Essex county shoemakers are limited to the 
production of women's goods or those kinds of men's goods 
which are practically of the same character as those made 
for women. Other counties, notably Plymouth, Norfolk 
and Worcester are almost exclusively engaged in the pro- 
duction of men's goods, so far as they follow the shoe 
business, and these facts illustrate the tendency and the 
latest developments in the division of labor. 

So, while I make shoes, I do not make my own, but 
must buy them from some other manufacturer. In other 
words, by the aid of modern business methods I exchange 



8 

the women's shoes I make for the men's shoes I must 
wear. Neither do I supply myself directly with any of 
the commodities I must consume. I must go to one class 
of men for the food I eat, to another for the clothes I 
wear, to another for the house that shelters me ; in fact, I 
have looked over the two hundred and sixty-five different 
occupations reported in the United States census for 
1880, and I believe that at some time in my life I have 
been indebted for some service to the followers of every 
one of those two hundred and sixty- five different pur- 
suits except the corset makers and the undertakers, and, 
at least, the last of these will yet serve me, as I trust I 
shall be accorded Christian burial. 

What is true of myself in this respect is true of all 
other men as well. Each one of those more than two 
hundred and fifty classes into which the industry of the 
country is divided, are as dependent as I am upon all the 
others. 

But the United States census does not tell the whole 
story, for great as is the number of different occupations 
reported therein, that number does not by any means re- 
present the full extent of the subdivision of labor. Boot 
and shoe makers, for example, are classed as a single oc- 
cupation. You will find upon investigation, however, 
that shoemaking in factories is subdivided into more than 
thirty different branches, and each of those thirty is so 
different from all the others that a shoe factory operative 
is through life practically limited to employment in one 
of those thirty or more special kinds of work. 

Not that it is difficult for any one person to learn to do 
the work required in the different parts into which manu- 
facturing is divided, but constant practice in one particu- 



lar branch develops such superior rapidity in the perform- 
ance of the work, that the efficiency of a given number 
of men is very much greater than it formerly was when 
one man did all the work on the completed product. 

By the operation of economic laws 'the most efficient 
labor is the best paid, and is the kind of labor that is 
most constantly employed. Eventually it forces its com- 
petitors into some other employmant, or compels the 
other industries to adopt similar methods. While we may 
safely assume that a development on this line has been in 
progress from the earliest times, the introduction of mod- 
ern machinery has so greatly hastened it that the process 
and its effects are more generally recognized now than 
ever before. 

By division of labor its products have been vastly mul- 
tiplied ; fine art has been combined with mechanical pro- 
cess, so that cultivated and discriminating tastes may be 
gratified, and at the same time economies in methods have 
been adopted which have improved the quality as well as 
reduced the cost of the completed product. Through the 
medium of exchanges all these advantages have been 
utilized for the greater benefit of mankind. 

Every man who is engaged in productive enterprises 
attempts to create or develop some special commodity, not 
for his own use, but to sell in order that he may procure 
the things he wants. Primeval man supplied his own 
necessities, but he very early discovered that persons dif- 
fered in their ability to do certain things, and as men 
prefer to perform that kind of work for which they have 
special aptitude, our first ancestors soon contrived to do 
those things individually in which each one excelled. 
When the first man who excelled in the production of 



lO 

some particular thing learned to exchange that thing with 
some other man M'ho was able to produce advantageously 
some other commodity, then was learned the first great 
lesson in practical co-operation. 

It is practical, effective and beneficent co-operation 
when each man labors in the field in which he can accom- 
plish most, and gives of the fruits of his toil, in exchange 
for such commodity or service as he may require. All the 
agencies of trade, of transportation and of finance exist for 
and are devoted to, such a simple purpose as the taking 
from you and me what we do not want, and giving us in- 
stead the things we need. The more perfect the operation 
of this process of exchange, the more rapidly does our 
wealth increase, and the more general is the enjoyment of 
material prosperity. 

ObviousI}^ a great quantity of goods in our possession 
will be of little value if we cannot exchange them, or, in 
other words, sell them. If I make a great many shoes 
there must be a great many people who make no shoes at 
all, who will come to me for the supply they must have. 
If you raise great crops of grain, there must be a great 
number of people somewhere who raise no grain and who 
must come to you for so much of your surplus as may be 
necessary for their subsistence. The same conditions must 
prevail in relation to all the varieties of merchandise in 
which men deal. 

In this connection we should also take into consideration 
the fact that the needs of mankind are never quite satisfied 
and are continually increasing. As fast as the means of 
supplying our wants are multiplied, new wants appear. 
There may always be a demand somewhere for the surplus 
commodities we produce, no matter how great the quantity . 



II 

The great problem we have to solve is, how can we find an 
adequate market — how can the wealth we produce be most 
generally and economically distributed so that it may bring 
to all the greatest possible measure of satisfaction ? The 
most important means to this end is the multiplying and 
diversifying of the variety of employment in which our peo- 
ple may be profitably engaged. 

We can better appreciate the importance of a diversity 
of industry if we consider what would be our position under 
the narrowest limit of variety. If one-half were shoe- 
makers and the other half farmers — a condition which can 
exist only in theory — the quantity of the products of each 
class for which the country would furnish a market would 
be extremely limited. If, however, we suppose that one- 
third only were farmers, and one-third shoemakers, and one- 
third makers of clothing, it is obvious that this simple mul- 
tiplication of the variety of industries would double the 
market of both the farmers and the shoe manufacturers, 
considered as a class. A similar advantage, differing only 
in degree, will be gained if all the other pursuits are fol- 
lowed which are known to mankind, and which may be ad- 
vantageously followed in our country. If the constantly 
multiplying and broadening fields of human activity are 
■cultivated by our fellow citizens, is it not evident that there 
will be a constantly-increasing demand for the products of 
the farms and workshops already established ? 

Nor is the development of markets for our products the 
only advantage to be gained by diversifying our industry. 
One of the chief causes of poverty in these and all times is 
the fact that men cannot always find employment to which 
they may be adapted and where they can work advantage- 
ously. The number of productive laborers, as compare(j 



12 



with the whole population, is suggestively small. Out of a 
total population in 1880 of over 50,000,000, the census re- 
ports 17,392,000 engaged in gainful avocations, — only 
about one person in three being so engaged. Nor does this 
enumeration take into account the great loss of time for 
lack of steady employment. That system which offers to 
the greatest possible number the opportunity to work, is the 
system that will do most to promote the general welfare. 

That a greater diversity of industry does that, I think, is 
susceptible of proof. In 1870, 32.43 per cent, of the people 
of this country were engaged in productive employment, 
and in 1880, 34.68 per cent, were so engaged, an increase 
of more than 2 per cent, in 10 years, during which time the 
recent great tendency to a multiplication of industries was 
in operation. If there had been no increase in the percent- 
age of employed persons during that decade, 1,126,579 of 
the 17,392,000 employed ones would have been in idleness 
in 1880. The great benefit to the country of the labor of 
these 1,000,000 persons can hardly be overestimated. 
They added materially to your market and mine as well. 

The wealth of the country is the product of its labor, 
both mental and physical. Greater opportunity develops 
workers, and more workers make more wealth, and the 
more wealth there is in the country the greater will be the 
material welfare of all of its inhabitants. I believe this to 
be strictly true, notwithstanding the assertion so often 
made, but never substantiated by proof, that the "rich are 
growing richer, and the poor poorer." The rich may be 
growing richer, but it is equally true that the poor are also 
getting to be much better off. 

Inequalities in individual conditions will always exist, 
but they are more apparent than real. The great wealth 



13 

which in recent years has accumulated in a few hands, if 
an evil at all, is, I believe, only a temporary evil. The 
Vanderbilts, the Goulds, the Rockefellers, are the product 
of the sudden and vast increase of riches generally in the 
last thirty years. Thirty, fifty or a hundred years are but 
a little time in the history of the human race, and under 
the free laws which we have and other nations are adopting, 
the wealth which fortune has poured so bountifully into a 
few hands will be scattered into the hands of the many. 
The nation's wealth will ultimately benefit the whole 
people. 

A study of the processes by which wealth is produced 
and distributed must impress us with a sense of how small 
is the influence which any individual exerts, and how great 
is our dependence upon organized society. The whole fabric 
of it is employed in ministering to your wants and to mine. 
" No man liveth unto himself alone." In the process of 
helping ourselves we help each other, and we cannot avoid 
this result if we would. It has been said that the most 
enlightened selfishness will dictate the most orderly, virtu- 
ous and Christian life. In harmony with that doctrine 
may we not say — and this is the special point I would 
make — that the wisest and most effective method of secur- 
ing the greatest success to our own particular industry 
must have, as an essential part of its plan, the promotion 
of the prosperity of every other class of workers in the 
industrial field. 

I have stated what I believe to be the great agent in 
increasing wealth, viz., the division of labor, and the im- 
portant condition which will make it most generally bene- 
ficial by being most generally distributed, which is the 
greatest practicable diversification of industry. The econ- 



14 

omic policy which will best accomplish such a result I leave 
you to determine, urging you to deal with the question 
solely on the basis of reason and experience. No system 
or policy should be approved that cannot be reasonably 
shown to be for the benefit of the people at large and within 
the limits of our own country at least, where conditions of 
life are practically identical. There should be a free field 
and no favor. 

Trusts and combinations are against the public interest, 
because competition is the necessary stimulus to improve- 
ment and economy in production, and wealth accumulated 
by a monopoly does not as a rule make the nation better 
off. It is simply a process of taking the money out of the 
pockets of one class of citizens and putting it into the 
pockets of another class without rendering a fair equiva- 
lent therefor. 

Where competition is free among a people, neither profits 
of business nor wages of labor will, relatively, in the long 
run, be unduly increased or diminished. Profits and wages 
must vary in order that the requisite number of persons 
may be employed in different industries. 

As in tlie physical world floods and droughts at times 
alternately threaten destruction, while on the whole the 
productiveness of the earth increases, so in the industrial 
world, although in every department we have to meet dis- 
astrous experiences, we know that the condition of mankind 
has through the ages constantly improved. 

While we affirm this to be true, we are so constituted 
that we can never view the present situation with unalloyed 
satisfaction. Unfortunately, reasons always exist which 
compel tlie thoughtful man to regard the tendency of his 
times with anxiety. We are told that " Every rose must 



15 

have its thorn," so, for all the gains we make we are 
obliged to suffer a loss, which in some cases seems almost 
to make the gain of doubtful advantage. The great' in- 
crease in the productive capacity of mankind by the divis- 
ion of labor has been achieved, I fear, at the expense of 
some qualities of character where we can ill afford to lose. 
The man who spends his working days, year in and year 
out, in the performance of some simple branch of mechani- 
cal work may get a comfortable living thereby, but can 
hardly get anything of more substantial value, even if his 
mental and moral natures are not dwarfed by their en- 
forced inaction. 

The discipline of the wider practical knowledge and 
more persistent efforts which were necessary to gain a live- 
lihood in former times, developed a sturdy race. Living 
has been made easier, but has not something of indepen- 
dence and manliness been sacrificed ? It is certainly an 
open question whether the tendency to lessen the labor of 
life will result in making life any better. 

Von Moltke, that great German — great in the arts of 
peace as well as in the art of war — believed war to be es- 
sential to the highest welfare of the human race. We do 
not like to endorse that opinion, and yet we know that men 
develop the greatest capacity and highest character only in 
schools of adversity, or "in times which try men's souls." 

It is one of the many great advantages of the farmer's 
career that, so far, it has suffered least from the industrial 
changes I have been speaking of. You deal with affairs in 
a broader way than do the artisans, and you occupy a posi- 
tion of independence which no other calling can confer. 
While your work is hard it ministers to good health, and if 
its stimulus to mental activity moves you as it ought, it will 



i6 

develop in you wisdom and strength of character which 
constitute the triumphs of life. 

So while you may profit by adopting the methods by 
which the wealth of the world has been so greatly aug- 
mented, and devote your energies more to the develop- 
ment of some specialty in agriculture, do not lightly esteem 
the advantages of the old order of things, for when life was 
a severer struggle it surely possessed dignity and power, 
nor was it devoid of gladness. 

You may well rejoice that you can still to so great a de- 
gree respond to the old farmer's song, with which I will 
close : — 

" Let the wealthy rejoice, 

Roll in splendor and state, 
I envy them not, 1 declare it. 

I eat my own lamb, 

My chickens and ham, 
I shear my own fleece and I wear it. 

I have lawns, I have bowers, 

I have fruit, I have flowers, 
The lark is my morning alarmer; 

So jolly boys, now, 

Here's God-speed to the plough, 
Long life and success to the farmer." 



SEVENTY-SECOND 

Annual Cattle Show and Fair. 



The Cattle Show and Fair of this society opened Tues- 
day, Sept. 27th, 1892 at Lawrence, it being the second 
year in that city. As last year the citizens took an active 
interest to make the Fair a success, the weather being all 
that could be desired. 

The entries of live stock were largely in excess of last 
year, and would compare favorably as to quality with 
former years, although many of them were late in arriving. 

In the ploughing match there were a larger number of 
entries than usual, there being six entries of sulky ploughs, 
which are undoubtedly coming to the front with the rest of 
our modern farm implements. There seemed to be an un- 
usual interest taken in this department, and the work per- 
formed was excellent. 

In the exhibition hall the entries were below that of 
some previous years, and the quality was not in all cases 
what it should have been for Essex County. 

The Grange exhibit rather excelled that of one year 
ago, being a very handsome feature of the Fair, so artisti- 
cally arranged with fruit, flowers and vegetables that it 
was a fine show of itself. 

On Wednesday, Sept 28, the annual address was deliv- 
ered by Hon. E. P. Dodge of Newburyport, before a large 
audience in the Lawrence Street Church, the subject being 
a broad one, namely : "The Important Principles which 
influence the Production and Distribution of Wealth, with. 



i8 

the Purpose of showing tlie Methods by which the Ma- 
terial Welfare of Mankind has been and may still be 
promoted," which was listened to with the closest atten- 
tion. 

The Scripture reading and prayer by the Rev. Mr. Wol- 
cott, pastor of the church, were very appropriate for the oc- 
casion, as was also the excellent singing by the quartette. 

After the conclusion of the services at the church, the 
annual dinner was served in Pilgrim Hall, after which 
President Appleton called the assemblage to order and 
made introductor}' remarks, after which he introduced 
Mayor Doe of Lawrence who made some very pleas- 
ant remarks regarding the Society and the work it is en- 
gaged in, followed by Hon. Moses T. Stevens, Henry Cabot 
Lodge, Hon. W. H. Knox and others, all of whom con- 
tributed a good deal of spice and mirth for the occasion. 

The entries in the several departments of the Fair for 
1892 and 1891 are tabulated for comparison as follows : 



STOCK, IMPLEMENTS, ETC., ON FREE SHOW 


GROUNDS. 


Class. 


From 
Entries Different 
in 1892. Places 
in 1892. 


From 
Entries Different 
in 1891. Places 

in 1891. 


Fat Cattle, 


8 


4 


6 3 


Bulls, 


15 


7 


9 4 


Milch Cows, 


14 


3 


12 2 


Herds of Milch Cows, 


3 


3 


3 2 


Heifers, Pure Bred, 


25 


7 


23 4 


Heifers, Native or Grade, 


30 


7 


17 5 


Heifer Calves, Pure Bred, 


3 


2 


3 2 


Heifer Calves, Native or Grade, 


2 


2 


10 3 


Working Oxen and Steers, 


7 


4 


12 4 


Steers, 


3 


3 


4 3 


Stallions, Farm and Draft, 


1 


1 





Town Teams, 


1 


1 





Stallions for Driving Purposes, 


7 


5 


13 8 


Brood Mares, Farm and Draft, 


4 


3 


4 3 


Brood Mares, Driving Purposes, 


7 


5 


13 8 



19 



Class. 


Entries 
in 1892. 


From 
Different 
Places 
in 1892. 


Entries 
in 1891. 


From 
Different 
Places 
in 1891. 


Family Horses, 


9 


7 


13 


10 


Gent's Driving Horses, 


7 


5 


6 


4 


Farm Horses, 


9 


6 


6 


4 


Pairs of Farm Horses over 


2500 








lbs., 


11 


7 


2 


2 


Pairs of Farm Horses less 


than 








2500 lbs., 


7 


7 


5 


4 


Colts, Farm and Draft, 


12 


8 


6 


5 


Colts, Driving Purposes, 


16 


9 


30 


10 


Swine, Large Breeds, 


28 


8 


12 


6 


Swine, Small Breeds, 


■ 2 


1 


2 


2 


Sheep, 


6 


2 


3 


2 


Poultry, 


131 


13 


31 


9 


Harrows for Trial, 


1 


1 


3 


2 


Agricultural Implements, 


21 


7 


13 


5 


Carriages, 


15 


5 


3 


2 


Ploughing, 


19 


10 


15 


9 



Total on Free Show Grounds, 428 25 



268 



20 



EXHIBITS IN HALL. 



Class. 

Dairy, 

Bread and Canned Fruit, 

Honey, 

Pears, 

Apples, 

Peaches, Grapes and Assorted 

Fruit, 
Plants, 
Flowers, 
Vegetables, 
Grain and Seed, 
Counterpanes and Afghans, 



From 
Entries Different 
in 1892. Places 
in 1892. 


From 
Entries Different 
in 1891. Places 
in 1891. 


10 


5 


3 3 


46 


14 


50 14 








2 2 


144 


17 


192 16 


197 
1 


17 


215 16 


L 

91 


12 


83 12 


4 


1 





92 


14 


70 13 


308 


17 


369 19 


25 


10 


23 9 


59 


7 


70 7- 



20 



Class. 



Carpetings and Rugs, 

Articles Manufactured 
Leather, 

Manufactures and General Mdse.,36 

Fancy Work, 

Work of Art, 

Work of Children under 12 years 

of age, 24 5 9 3 

Special Premium by H. M. Whit- 
ney, 21 7 91 13 

Grange Exhibit, 4 4 5 5 



Entries 
in 1892. 


From 

Different 

Places 

in 1892. 


Entries 
in 1891. 


From 

Different 

Places 

in 1891. 


30 


7 


40 


8 


m 
9 


4 


4 


2 


}.,36 


7 


28 


5 


156 


11 


188 


12 


94 


6 


99 


7 



Total in Hall. 1350 27 1541 31 

Grand total, 1778 entries from 27 out of 35 towns and 
cities in Essex County against 1809 entries from 31 cities 
and towns last year. Bradford, Essex, Hamilton, Ipswich, 
Manchester, Nahant, Salisbury and Wenham did not have 
exhibits this year. The entries were Amesbury, 35 ; An- 
dover, 126; Beverly, 8; Boxford, 108; Danvers, 24; 
Georgetown, 14 ; Gloucester, 3 ; Groveland, 23 ; Haverhill, 
43 ; Lawrence, 507 ; Lynn, 57 ; Lynnfield, 5 ; Marblehead, 
21 ; Methuen, 214 ; Merrimac, 4 ; Middleton, 18 ; Newbury- 
port, 36 ; Newbury, 110 ; North Andover, 290 ; Peabody, 
49; Rockport, 1; Rowley, 11 ; Salem, 13 ; Saugus, 10 ; 
Swampscott, 3 ; Topsfield, 8 ; West Newbury, 37. 



REPORT OF THE ANNUAL MEETING. 

The annual meeting of the Society was held Tuesday, 
Sept. 27, at 10 o'clock, A. M., President Appleton presid- 
ing. 

William S. Phillips, jr. was appointed secretary pro 
tem. 

The marshals with Col. Melvin Beal of Lawrence as 
chief, were duly qualified. 



21 

Vacancies in committees were filled. 
At 11 o'clock the election of officers for the ensuing. year 
took place with the following result : 
Whole number of ballots cast, 81. 
For president, Francis H. Appleton had 81. 

FOR VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

James J. H. Gregory of Marblehead, had 80 ; Horatio G. 
Herrick of Lawrence, had 80 ; James P. King of Peabody, 
had 79 ; Oliver S. Butler of Georgetown, had 78. 

FOR SECRETARY. 

John M, Danforth of Lynnfield had 80 and was elected. 

Voted, That the trustees of the Society be requested to 
consider the expediency of making different arrangements 
for the annual meeting of the Society, that we may have 
more time for the transaction of business. 

Voted, To adjourn this meeting to the hall where the 
annual dinner is to be served, Wednesday, the 28th, subjec 
to the call of the president. 

Wednesday, Sept. 28, after the annual dinner. President 
Appleton called the assemblage to order, and after a few 
introductory remarks introduced Mayor Doe of Lawrence, 
Hon. Moses T. Stevens of North Andover, Henry Cabot 
Lodge, Hon. William S. Knox, Hon. C. S. Mills, delegate 
from the state board, and others, all of whom made excel- 
lent remarks suitable to the occasion. 

Voted, That the Society tender a vote of thanks to the 
Mayor and City Government of Lawrence, for the generous 
hospitality shown the Society, also to the citizens and all 
others who have aided to make the Fair a success. 



Report of Committees. 
189S. 



FAT CATTLE. 

The Committee on Fat Cattle have attended to their 
duty and respectfully report , to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 
$8. First premium, to Shattuck Brothers, Lawrence, for 

fat oxen. 
$Q. Second premium, to J. P. Little, Amesbury, for fat 

oxen. 
$7. First premium, to J. P. Little, Amesbury, for best 

fat ox. 
i5. Second premium, to James C. Poor, No. Andover, for 

'fat cow. 
Charles H. Leach, E. A. Dane , James Noyes — Commit- 
tee. 

BULLS. 
The Committee on Bulls have attended to their duty 

and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 

made the following awards .- 

Diploma and $10. First premium, to J. D. W. French, 
No. Andover, for his Ayrshire bull, " Ravenwood." 

|4. First premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, for 
his Ayrshire bull, "Rosewood." 

$2. First premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, for 
Ayrshire bull calf. 

$8. First premium, to E. C. Little, Haverhill, for his 2-year- 
old Holstein bull. 



23 

$2. First premium, to Plato Earaes, Andover,^for his Hol- 

stein bull, under 1 year. 
$2. First premium, to James C. Poor, No. Andover, for 

Holstein bull calf. 
14. First premium, to S. S. Lewis, Lawrence, for yearling 

Jersey bull. 
82. First premium, to E. C. Little, Haverhill, for Jersey 

bull calf. 
$8. First premium, to F. H. Foster, North Andover, for 

Guernsey bull, "Theseus of Avon." 
John Swinerton, Edward Kent, S. W. Weston — Commit- 
tee. 



MILCH COWS. 

The committee on Milch Cows have attended to their 
duty and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 
115. First premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, 

for the best cow of any age or breed, to his Ayr- 
shire cow, '"Nellie Day." 
$10. First premium, to J. D. W, French, No. Andover, 

for best Ayrshire cow, to "Roxanna 8th." 
$10. First premium, to J. Francis Gulliver, Andover, for 

his Jersey cow, "Young Petites Mere." 
$10. First premium, to J. Francis Gulliver, Andover, for 

his Jersey cow, "Sadie de Bonair," for cow making 

most butter in one week. 
$10. First premium, to James C. Poor, No. Andover, for 

his Holstein cow, "Lady Betts 2nd." 
$10. First premium, to James C. Poor, No. Andover, for 

Grade Holstein cow, "Bessie." 
$4. Second premium, to James C. Poor, No. Andover, 

for Grade Holstein cow, "Maude." 
George L. Averill, Sherman Nelson, Charles Haseltine 
— Committee. 



24 

STATEMENT OF J. D. W. FRENCH. 

"Nellie Day" gave in the year 1888—299 days in milk, 5988 lbs. 
" «• " '« " '' 1889—273 " '• " 6391 lbs. 

• ' " <' " " " 1890—267 " " " 5949 lbs. 

u a « u a u 1891—333 " " " 7788 lbs. 



Total, 26116 lbs. 

Average for 4 years, 6529 lbs. per year. 

Feed — Summer pasturage — green fodder or grain, 2 to 4 
qts. per day. Winter hay— 8 qts., 8 qts. mangolds, 4 qts. 
bran, and 2 Linseed Oil meal. 

Roxanna 8th, dropped Dec. 13th, 1884, Dam Roxanna, 
Sire 1816, Sire Rabens, 2696. 

Yield in 1891—328 days, 7170 lbs. milk. 

STATEMENT OF J. F, GULLIVER. 

"Sadie de Bonair," born Feb. 13, 1888. Last calf June, 
1892. Has milked in one day this summer 39 lbs., and in 
seven days made 12 lbs. 5 oz. butter; during that week her 
feed was pasture, and cut grass in stable with 2 quarts each 
corn meal, ground oats and bran, pint cotton seed meal, 
daily. 

To Committee on Milch Cows : I enter for your consid- 
eration the Holstein-Fresian cow "Lady Betz, 2d, 9 years 
old, dropped last calf Sept. 22d, was dry about three 
weeks. Gave the first 10 days in January 1892, 350 lbs. 
milk, and first ten days in June she gave 255 lbs. milk. 

Feed in winter, 12 qts. grain (3 parts bran, 2 parts cob 
meal and cotton seed meal), dry fodder, consisting of 1 
part English hay, 1 part oat fodder, 1 part corn fodder, 
watered twice a day. Summer feed, 4 qts. bran, 2 qts. 
meal (corn). 

Grade Holstein and Durham. 

The grade cow "Maud" is 9 years old, dropped last calf 
Mar. 15th, is due March, '93. For the first ten days in 
June she gave 46 lbs. milk per day, and the last ten days in 
August she gave 34 lbs. milk a day. 



25 

Holstein and Ayrshire. 

The grade "Bessie" is 5 years old, calved May 31st, 
1892, is due in April, 1893 ; gave 478 lbs. milk in ten days 
in June (June 19th to 20th) ; first ten days in September, 
360 lbs. milk ; feed pasture, 2 qts. corn meal, 4 qts. bran ; 
after August Ist, 3 qts. meal, 6 qts. bran, oat or corn fod- 
der nights. 

Respectfully submitted, 

James C. Poor. 



HERDS OF MILCH COWS. 

The Committee on Herds of Milch Cows have attended 

to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 

they have made the following awards : 

$18. First premium, to Leverett Swan, Methuen, for 5 
Grade Ayrshires. 

$12. Second premium, to J. D.W.French, No. Andover, 
for 5 Ayrshire Cows. 

Diploma and flS. First premium, to Charles J. Pea- 
body, Topsfield, for greatest product of milk on 
any farm in one year, according to the number of 
cows. 

STATEMENT OF LEVERETT SWAN. 

I enter a herd of 5 grade Ayrshire cows giving 17,717 
qts. of milk from Sept. 1, 1891 to Sept. 1, 1892, as follows : 
" Lizzie," aged 9 years, calved July 3, 1892, gave in 
Sept. 397 qts. Jan. 341 qts. May 195 qts. 

Oct. 405 " Feb. 309 " July 496 " 

Nov. 391 " Mar. 321 " Aug. 489 " 

Dec. 363 " April 306 " 

"Fairmaid," aged 8 yrs., calved Aug. 14, 1892, and gave in 

Sept. 485 qts. Jan. 349 qts. May 256 qts. 

Oct. 455 " Feb. 314 " June 223 " 

Nov. 395 " Mar. 293 " July 106 " 

Dec. 371 " Apr. 285 " Aug. 251 " 



26 

" Julia," aged 7 years, calved July 12, 1892, and gave in 
Sept. 341 qts. Jan. 252 qts. May 216 qts. 

Oct. 325 " Feb. 210 " June 72 " 

Nov. 322 « Mar. 235 " July 214 " 

Dec. 298 " Apr. 227 " Aug. 435 " 

" Creeper," aged 7 years, calved Aug. 7, 1892, and gave in 
Sept. 367 qts. Jan. 245 qts. May 235 qts. 

Oct. 332 " Feb. 226 " June 246 " 

Nov. 319 " Mar. 231 " July 28 " 

Dec. 278 " Apr. 216 " Aug. 280 » 

" Orphan," aged 7 years, calved Aug. 25, 1891, and gave in 
Sept. 447 qts. Jan. 353 qts. May 271 qts. 

Oct. 409 " Feb. 299 " June 247 " 

Nov. 397 " Mar. 336 " July 197 " 

Dec. 361 " Apr. 305 " Aug. 132 " 

I bred and raised all but '• Lizzie," and her I bought and 
raised but did not breed. 

I feed brewery grains and 2 quarts of corn or gluten 
meal daily except May, June, July and August, and then 
I feed no meal. They also have green corn, fall feed and 
pasturage. 

J. D. w. French's statement. 
I enter for a premium a herd of 5 Ayrshire cows, viz : 
" Nellie Day," No. 6,745, A. R., 10 yrs. old ; yield from 
Sept.l, 1891 to Sept. 1, 1892, 7711 lbs. milk. 

"Roxanna 8th," No. 8536, A. R., 7 yrs. old; yield from 
Sept. 1, 1891 to Sept. 1, 1892, 6419 lbs. milk. 

" Maid Douglass," No, 11,529, A. R., 7 yrs. old ; yield 
from Sept. 1, 1891 to Sept. 1, 1892, 6065 lbs. milk. 

"Julia Max," No. 10,160, A. R., 7 yrs. old; yield from 
Sept. 1, 1891 to Sept. 1, 1892, 6061 lbs. milk. 

" Princess Rose," No. 10,163, A. R., 4 yrs. old ; yield 
from Sept. 1, 1891 to Sept. 1, 1892, 5532 lbs. milk. 
Total yield, 31,788 lbs. 

STATEMENT OF CHAKLES J. PEABODY. 

I enter for premium my herd of 12 cows, and averaging 



27 

10 in milk for Uie time covered by this statement, which 
is from Jan. 1, 1892 to Sept. 1, 1892; five of my cows I 
raised ; all the herd are grade stock, mostly Jersey and 
Ayrshire, crossed with natives ; six of the cows have calved 
since January, two were farrow, one dropped her first calf 
June 25th; the others came in last fall ; but one exchange 
has been made ; a fat cow was exchanged for a new milch 
one in March. I feed two parts meadow and salt hay to 
one part of English, to the amount of 20 to 25 lbs. per day, 
with from 4 to 7 quarts of shorts and meal to those in 
^ milk. After May 20 the hay and grain were left off, and 
pasture only was given until August 1st, since which time 
small potatoes and corn fodder have been fed. 

The product of milk has been 1(5,636 quarts of milk, of 
which 14,196 quarts was sold, 1440 quarts used and 1000 
quarts estimated fed to calves. 

The value of milk sold, used and fed is $524.68. 

The average value to each cow is tf52.46. 

The cost of keeping is estimated as follows : 
• Hay, 1210. Grain, -180. Pasture, $10.. Corn fodder and 
potatoes, -SIS. Total cost, !|375. Profit, 'i:'149. 68. 
Respectlully submitted, 

Charles J. Peabody. 



HEIFERS— PURE BRED. 

The Committee on Heifers, Pure Bred, have attended to 
their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 
^9. First premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, for 

his Ayrshire heifer in milk " Fedalma 3rd," 3 yrs. 

old. 
15. First premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, 

for Ayrshire heifer " Anoraon," 1 year old. 
$4. Second premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, 

for Ayrshire heifer in milk " Fillippa -±th," aged 2 

years. 



28 

i5. First premium, to E. C. Little, Haverhill, for Holstein 

heifer, 1 year old. 
.f5. First premium, to M. H. Connor, West Newbury, for 

Ayrshire heifer, " Fedalma 4th," 2 years old. 
$5. First premium, to J. Francis Gulliver, Andover, for 

Jersey heifer, 2 years old. 
f 6. Second premium, to J. Francis Gulliver, Andover, 

for Jersey heifer in milk. 
$5. First premium, to S. S. Lewis, Lawrence, for Holstein 

heifer, 3 years old. 
$5. First premium, to S. D. Weston, Middleton, for Jer- 
sey heifer, 7 months old. 
$5. First premium, to James C. Poor, ' No. Andover, for 

Holstein heifer " Berth Lincoln," 11 months old. 
Henry A. Hayward, A. W. Feabody, E. G. Nason — 
— Committee. 



HEIFERS— NATIVE OR GRADE. 

The Committee on Heifers, Native or Grade, have at- 
tended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secre- 
tary that they have made the following awards : 
$5. First premium, to Plato Fames, Andover, for grade 

Holstein heifer, 10 months old. 
$5. First premium, to W. S. Hughes, No. Andover, for 

grade Jersey heifer,' 2 years old. 
$9. First premium, to James C. Poor, No. Andover, for 

grade Holstein heifer in milk " Belle C," 2 years 

old. 
f|4. Second premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, 

for grade Guernsey and'' Ayrshire " Topsy," 2 

years old. 
$4. Second premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, 

for grade Guernsey and Ayrshire " Brownie," 7 

months old. 
$4. Second premium, to Daniel A. Carlton, No. Andover, 

for grade Holstein heifer, 1 year old. 



29 

). First premium, to George Ripley, Andover, for grade 
Jersey heifer, 1 year old. 

I. Second premium, to George L. Burnham, No. An- 
dover, for grade Holstein in milk, 3 years old. 

Charles J. Peabody, Walter H. Hayes, Samuel T. Poor 

- Committee. 



WORKING OXEN AND STEERS. 
The Committee on Working Oxen and Steers, have at- 
tended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secre- 
tary that they have made the following awards : 
il2. First premium, to B. H. Farnham, No. Andover, for 

working oxen. 
|10. Second premium, to Daniel A. Carlton, No. Andover, 
for working oxen. 
18. Third premium, to Wm. P. Christopher, Middlcton, 
for working oxen. 
ilO. First premium, to J. P. Little, Amesbury, for work- 
ing steers. 
C. K. Ordway, N. S. Harris, D. G. Chapman— Com wiY- 
tee. 



STEERS. 

The Committee on Steers have attended to their duty, 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 
$5. First premium to Daniel Ingalls, No. Andover, for 

pair of twin yearling steers. 
$6. Second premium to Wm. P. Christopher, Middle- 
ton, for pair of 8 year old steers. 
$4. First premium to Benj. W. Farnham, No. Ando- 
ver, for pair of steer calves, 2 mos. old. 
James J. Abbott, Abel Stickney, D. D. Adams, R. 
Jaques — Committee. 



TOWN TEAMS. 

The Committee on Town Teams have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following award : 

$20. First premium, to North Andover Town Team, 13 
pairs of horses. 

T. P. Harriman, Frank W. Lyford, Richard Newell 
— Committee. 



STALLIONS FOR DRIVING PURPOSES. 

The Committee on Stallions for driving purposes have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the 
Secretary that they have made the following awards : 
$15. and diploma to Joseph Stowell, Lawrence, for bay 

stallion "Creditor" with five colts of his stock. 
$10. First premium, to Edward J. Castle, Lawrence, for 
bay Morgan stallion, "Levi,'' 4 years old. 
$8. First premium, to Mrs. J. J. Downing, Andover, 

for black Bambletonian stallion, 3 years old. 
$6. Second premium, to W. S. Messerve, Haverhill, for 

seal brown stallion, "Little Phil." 
$5. Second premium, to Rufus Goodwin, Haverhill, for 

black stallion, "Owessa," 3 years old. 
•14. Third premium, to A. J. Connor, Lawrence, for 

Fearnaught stallion, "Ned C." 13 years old. 
W. F. Kinsman, W. A. Keleher, John Flye — Committee. 



BROOD MARES— FARM AND DRAFT PURPOSES. 
The Committee on Brood Mares for farm and draft 
purposes have attended to their duty, and respectfully 
report to the Secretary that they have made the fol- 
lowing awards : 

$10. First premium, to Leverett Swan, Methuen, for 
chestnut mare, "Gypsey," weight 1200 lbs. 



$6. Second premium, to John H. George, Methuen, 

for chestnut mare, "Nell,'' weight 1250 lbs. 
'$4. Third premium, to S. F. Newman, Newbury, for 
bay mare. 
Henry H. Demsey, Thomas Sanders, Edw. Harrington 
Joseph H. Blunt — Committee. 



BROOD MARES— DRIVING PURPOSES. 

The Committee on Brood Mares for driving purposes 
have attended to their duty, and respectfully report to 
the Secretary that they have made the followiog awards: 
$10. First premium, to J. G. McAllister, Lawrence, for 

brood mare. 
$6. Second premium, to George B. Parkhurst, Box- 
ford, for bay mare. 
■14. Third premium, to Arthur H. Messerve, No. Ando- 
ver, for brown Morgan mare. 
O. S. Butler, M. B. Chesley, Story D. Pool— (7om- 
mittee. 



FAMILY HORSES. 

The Committee on Family Horses have attended to 

their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 

they have made the following awards : 

$10. First premium, to M. C. Andrews, Andover, for 

brown mare, "Princess.'' 

$6. Second premium, to M. H. Connor, West Newbury, 

for mare, "Nellie.'' 
'$1. Third premium, to J. M. Smith, Lawrence, for 
brown Morgan mare, "Jessie." 
O. S. Butler— /or the Committee. 



GENTS' DRIVING HORSES. 
The Committee on Gentlemen's Driving Horses have 



attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the 
Secretary that they have made the following awards : 
$10. First premium, to E. L. Barnes, Methuen, for 
chestnut mare. 
$6. Second premium, to Isaac C. Brown, Methuen, for 

driving horse. 
$4.. Third premium, to George L. Burnham, No. Ando- 
ver, for driving horse. 
O. S. Butler ^or the Committee. 



SINGLE FARM HORSES. 

The Committee on Single Farm Horses have attended 

to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary 

that they have made the following awards ^ 

|10. First premium, to Michael Dwyer, Methuen, for 

Percheron mare, weight 1350 lbs. 

$6. Second premium, to John H. Perkins, Lynnfield, 

for bay mare, weight 1250 lbs. 

$4. Third premium, to M. H. Poor, West Newbury, 

for farm horse, weight 1300 lbs. 

f 10. First premium, to J. D. W. French, North Ando- 

ver, for mare, "Kitty,'' weight 1100 lbs. 

$6. Second premium, to Fred Symonds, North Ando- 

ver, for horse, weight, 975 lbs. 
$4. Third premium, to Richard Newell, West New- 
bury, for brown mare, weight 1100 lbs. 
Nathan F. Abbott, David Warren, O. L. Carlton, E. S. 
Keyes, E. A. Emerson — Committee. 



PAIRS OF FARM HORSES WEIGHING OVER 

2500 LBS. 
The Committee on Pairs of Farm Horses weighing 
over 2500 lbs. have attended to their duty, and respect- 
fully report to the Secretary that they have made the 
following awards : 



33 

ilO. First premium, to George E. Kline, Lawrence, for 
pair of horses, weighing 2525 lbs. 
$8. Second premium, to Carlton Little, Newbury, for 
pair of horses, weighing 2525 lbs. 
E. P. Barrett, John Barker, B. F. Barnes — Committee. 



FAIRS OF FARM HORSES WEIGHING LESS 
THAN 2500 LBS. 
The Committee on Pairs of Farm Horses weighing less 
than 2500 lbs. have attended to their duty, and respect- 
fully report to the Secretary that they have made the 
following awards : 

flO. First premium, to Mrs. J. J. Downing, Andover, 
for pair of horses, weighing 2100 lbs. 
$8, Second premium, to James C. Poor, No. Andover, 
for pair of horses, weighing 2400 lbs. 
H. K. Webster, S. D. Hood— /or the Committee. 



COLTS FOR FARM AND DRAFT PURPOSES. 

The Committee on Colts for Farm and Draft purposes 

have attended to their duty, and respectfully report to 

the Secretary that they have made the following awards : 

$6. First premium, to John H. George, Methuen, for 

yearling colt. 
f 8. First premium, to John Barker, No. Andover, for 

2 year old. 
i8. First premium, to R. T. Jaques jr., Newbury. 
$5. Second premium, to M. H. Connor, West New- 
bury. 
$D. Second premium, to Woodburj^ Smith, Rowley. 
i3. Second premium, to P. Averill, Lawrence. 
i3. Third premium, to E. C. Little, Haverhill. 
Richard Newell, John W. Lovett, D. D. Adams — Com- 
mittee. 



34 

COLTS FOR DRIVING PURPOSES, THREE AND 
FOUR YEARS OLD. 
The Committee on Colts for Driving purposes, three 
and four years old, have attended to their duty, and re- 
spectfully report to the Secretary that they have made 
the following awards : 
$8, First premium, to Alfred Thorp, Methuen, for four 

year old colt. 
$5. Second premium, to M. H. Conner, West Newbury, 

for four year old colt. 
$6. First premium, to John H. Perkins, Lynnfield^ 

for three year old colt. 
$3. Second premium, to J. G. McAllister, Lawrence, 
for three year old bay colt. 
J. H. Nason, D. Bradstreet — for the Committee. 



COLTS FOR DRIVING PURPOSES ONE AND TWO 
YEARS OLD. 
The Committee on Colts for driving purposes one and 
two years old have attended to their duty, and respect- 
fully report to the Secretary that they have made the 
following awards : 
18. First premium, to Woodbury Smith, Rowley, for 

mare colt, 2 years old. 
i5. Second premium, to Chas. W. Mann, Methuen, for 

two year old colt. 
$5. First premium, to G. H. Hanscom, Haverhill, for 

colt, 16 months old. 
$3. Second premium, to J. H. Nason, Boxford, for bay 
yearling colt. 
James C. Poor, J. W. Chadwick, Walter F. Gould, 
Albert Berry, John W. Allen — Committee. 

SWINE— LARGE BREEDS. 
The Committee on Swine, large breeds, have attended to 



35 

their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 

$8. First premium, to Alfred G. Playdon, Andover, for 
Chester white sow and pigs. 

$8. First premium, to J. G. McAllister, Lawrence, for 
Chester white boar. 

$8. First premium, to M. B, Chesley, Amesbury, for 
Cheshire breeding sow. 

$5. Second premium, to M. B. Chesley, Amesbury, for 
Cheshire boar. 

$8. First premium, to M. B. Chesley, Amesbury, for 8 
weaned pigs. 

$8. First premium, to Milo H. Gould, Andover, for 
Cheshire boar. 

$8. First premium, to Richard Newell, West Newbury, 
for 9 weaned Cheshire pigs. 

$8. First premium, to W. L. Hill, Peabody, for York- 
shire sow and 7 pigs. 

$2. Second premium, to W. L. Hill, Peabody, for York- 
shire sow and 10 pigs. 

$5. Second premium, to W. L. Hill, Peabody, for Ches- 
ter white boar. 

$5. Second premium, to Isaac C. Brown, Methuen, for 
10 Chester weaned pigs. 

$5. Second premium, to Isaac C Brown, Methuen, for 
Yorkshire boar. 
J. S. Crosby, E. G. Nason, G. W. Sargent, J. H. Chand- 
ler — Committee. 



SWINE— SMALL BREEDS. 
The Committee on Swine, small breeds, have attended 
to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 
$8. * First premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, 
for small Yorkshire boar, '' Boxford," Reg. No» 
739. 



36 

|8. First premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, 
for small Yorkshire sow and pigs, " Katie Belle," 
Reg. No. 1327. 
F. H. Appleton, Aaron Sawyer, Charles H. Preston 
— Committee. 



SHEEP. 

The Committee on Sheep have attended to their duty, 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards: 
$10. First premium, to Richard Newell, West Newbury, 

for 10 grade South-down ewes. 
18. First premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, 

for best buck. 
$6. Second premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, 
for 10 grade Shropshire ewes. 
N. W. Moody, M. H. Connor, Chas. S. Bartlett— Com- 
miitee. 



POULTRY. 

The Committee on Poultry have attended to their duty, 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 
f 2. First premium, to P. Hoogerziel, Beverly, for Pekin 

bantam fowls. 
fl. Second premium, to P. Hoogerziel, Beverly, for Pekin 

bantam chicks. 
|2. First premium, to Lewis C. Wentworth, No. Andover, 

for trio of Pitt game fowls. 
$2. First premium, to B. S. Smith, jr., Andover, for trio 

bantam chicks. 
|2. First premium, to B. S. Smith, jr., Andover, for pair 

Polish chicks. 
$2. First premium, to E. C. Little, Haverhill, for pair 

Guinea chicks. 



37 

11. Second premium, to M. W. Kitchen, Lawrence, for 

pair of Pitt game fowls. 
|2. First premium, to M. W. Kitchen, Lawrence, for pair 
of red Pitt muff fowls. 

12. First premium, to Leander F. Brown, West Newbury, 

for coop of S. L. Wyandotte fowls. 
$2. First premium, to Leander F. Brown, West New- 
bury, for coop of S. L. Wyandotte chicks. 
Diploma, to Frank E. Dresser, Lawrence, for Partridge 

Cochin fowls. 
$2. First premium, to Frank E. Dresser, Lawrence, for 

Partridge Cochin chicks. 
$2. First premium, to Frank E. Dresser, Lawrence, for 

dark Brahma fowls. 
$1. Second premium, to John L. Noyes, Andover, for 

Pekin ducklings. 
$1. Second premium, to A. M. Whittier, No. Andover, 

for bantam hen, 4 chicks. 
$2. First premium, to J. E. Leaver, Methuen, for dark 

Brahma s. 
$1. Second premium, to Nathan Foster, Andover, for 

Brahma fowls. 
$2. First premium, to R. B. Smith, No. Andover, for 

White Leghorns. 
•fl. Second premium, to R. B. Smith, No. Andover, for 

White Leghorn chicks. 
12. First premium, to R. B. Smith, No. Andover, for 

White Plymouth Rocks. 
$1. Second premium, to R. B. Smith, No. Andover, for 

Dark Brahmas. 
$2. First premium, to R. B. Smith, No. Andover, for In- 
dian game fowls. 
|2. First premium, to R. B. Smith, No. Andover, for 

Pekin ducks. 
$1. Second premium, to R. B. Smith, No. Andover, for 

Pekin ducks. 
$2. First premium, to S. J. Baker, Methuen, for Blue 

Andalusian chicks. 



38 

$2. First premium, to John Turner, Methuen, for Black 

Spanish fowls. 
$i. Second premium, to John Turner, Methuen, tor 

Black Spanish chicks. 
$2. First premium, to Isaac M. Laney, Methuen, for 

Barred Plymouth Rocks. 
f 2. First premium, to Frank W. Webster, Methuen, for 

Barred Plymouth Rocks. 
^2. First premium, to Frank W. Webster, Methuen, for 

Buff Cochin chicks. 
f 2 and Diploma, to Frank W. Webster, Methuen, for pen 

and pair of Buff Leghorns. 
fl. Gratuity, to Frank W. Webster, Methuen, for 

pigeons. 
$1. Second premium, to H. D. Jenkins, Andover, for pen 

White Leghorn chicks. 
$2. First premium, J. 0. Connor, West Newbury, for 

Brown Leghorn Rose Combs. 
'fl. Second premium, to Ernest L. Holt, Lawrence, for 

Partridge Cochin fowls. 
fl. Second premium, to Ernest L, Holt, Lawrence, for 

Partridge Cochin chicks. 
^2. First premium, to Ernest L. Holt, Lawrence, for 

White Pekin ducklings. 
$2. First premium, to John E. Davis, Methuen, for 

Barred Plymouth rocks. 
$2. First premium, to L. B. Hawkes, Saugus, for pair 

bronze turkeys. 
$2. First premium, to L. B. Hawkes, Saugus, for Black 

Breasted Red game. 
<|2. First premium, to L. B. Hawkes, Saugus, for Guinea 

fowls. 
f 2. First premium, to L. B. Hawkes, Saugus, for Toulouse 

geese. 
$1. Second premium, to L. B. Hawkes, Saugus, for Tou- 
louse geese. 
$2. First premium, to L. B. Hawkes, Saugus, for Emb- 

den geese. 



39 

f 2. First premium, to L. B. Hawkes, Saugus, for Dark 

Brahma fowls. 
$2. First premium, to Anson L. Griffin, Lawrence, for 

Brown Leghorn fowls. 
$1. Second premium, to Anson L. Griffin, Lawrence, for 

Barred Plymouth Rocks. 
$2. First premium to Anson L. Griffin, Lawrence, for 

White Wyandotte fowls. 
^2. First premium, to Anson L. Griffin, Lawrence, for 

Indian game fowls. 
$2. First premium, to Anson L. Griffin, Lawrence, for 

Mottled Anconas. 
f 2. First premium, to Anson L. Grififin, Lawrence, for 

Black Minorcas. 
$1. Second premium, to Anson L. Griffin, Lawrence, for 

Indian Game chicks. 
$1. Second premium, to Anson L. Griffin, Lawrence, for 

Mottled Anconas. 
Diploma, to Anson L. Griffin, Lawrence, for breeding pen 

of Mottled Anconas. 
f 1. Second premium, to Anson L. Griffin, Lawrence, for 

Ancona chicks. 
$1. Second premium, to Geo. B. Parkhurst, Boxford, for 

Light Brahmas. 
$2. First premium, to James F. Holland, Audover, for 

Plymouth Rock chicks. 
$2. First premium, to Homer Dow, Methuen, for Ply- 
mouth Rock fowls. 
$1. Second premium, to Homer Dow, Methuen, for Ply- 
mouth Rock chicks. 
$2. First premium, to Homer Dow, Methuen, for Brahma 

chicks. 
$2. Frist premium, to John F. Jackson, Georgetown, for 

White Wyandottes. 
$1. Second premium, to Edward McLaughlin, Methuen, 

for White Wyandottes. 
$1. Second premiums, to Edward McLaughlin, Methuen, 

for White Wyandotte chicks. 
John Swinerton, W. H. Buttevs— for (he Committee. 



40 

PLOUGHING WITH DOUBLE TEAMS. 

The Committee on Ploughing with Double Teams have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secre- 
tary that they have made the following awards : 
$10. First premium, to J. P. Little, Amesbury, for 2 pair 
of oxen with Varney Clipper Plough, No. 2. 
18. Second premium, to B. H. Farnham, No. Andover, 
for Eagle Plough, No. 2. 
Amos Haseltine— /or the Committee. 



PLOUGHING WITH SINGLE OX TEAMS. 

The Committee on Ploughing with Single Ox Teams have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secre- 
tary that they have made the following award : 
$10. First premium, to Wm. P. Christopher, Middleton, 
for Landside plough. 

Sherman Nelson, A. P. Fuller— /or the Committee. 



PLOUGHING WITH SWIVEL PLOUGH. 

The Committee on Ploughing with Swivel Ploughs have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secre- 
tary that they have made the following awards : 
$10. First premium, to Daniel A. Carlton, No. Andover, 
for 1 pair oxen. 
$8. Second premium, to Lyman S. Wilkins, Topsfield, 
for 1 pair oxen. 
First premium, to F. A. Russell, Methuen, for Vic- 
tor, No. 2, with pair of horses. 
^8. Second premium, to Isaac C. Brown, Methuen, for 

Yankee plough, pair of horses. 
Jos. S. Howe, S. H. Bailey, Joseph N. Rolf — Committee. 



41 



PLOUGHING WITH HORSES ANY PLOUGH EX- 
CEPT SWIVEL. 

The Committee on Ploughing with Horses any Plough 
except Swivel have attended to their duty, and respect- 
fully report to the Secretary that they have made the 
following awards : 

$10. First premium, to Carlton Little, Newbury, for 
Hussey plough, No. 106. 
$7. Second premium, to Fred Poor, West Newbury, for 

Hussey plough, No. 106. 
15. Third premium, to E. C. Little, Haverhill, for the 
Frye steel plough. 
S. F. Newman, E. Harrington, J. W. Chad wick, T. P. 
Harriman — Cominittee. 



PLOUGHING WITH SULKY PLOUGH. 

The Committee on Ploughing with sulky ploughs have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Sec- 
retary that they have made the following awards : 
810. First premium, to F. A. Russell, Methuen, for Syra- 
cuse sulky. 
$8, Second premium, to George E. Kline, Lawrence, 
for Syracuse sulky. 
The Committee wish to mention Mr. E. C. Little's son 
of Haverhill, 9 years of age who ploughed with a sulky 
plough, who did commendable work and is entitled to 
merit; the Committee would like to have given him a pre- 
mium but with only two at their disposal, could not do so 
and do justice to others. 

Samuel T. Poor, David M. Cole, John W. Frederick— 
Commiltee. 



PLOUGHING WITH THREE HORSES. 

The Committee on Plousrhins with three horses have at- 



42 

tended to their duty and respectfully report to the Secre- 
tary that they have made the following award : 
$10. First premium, to M. H. Connor, West Newbury> 
for improved Doe plough. 
S. S. Lewis, George E. Johnson, Milo H. Gould — Com- 
mittee. 



HARROWS. 

The Committee on Harrows have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following award : 

%\Q. First premium, to James C. Poor, No. Andover, for 
trial of the Eureka Spring Tooth Harrow. 

J. Webb Barton, A. P. Russell— /or the Committee. 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

The Committee on Agricultural Implements have at- 
tended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secre- 
tary that they have made the following awards : 
$10. and Diploma to the Treat Hardware Co., of Law- 
rence, for collection of implements. 
$5. First premium, to J. M. Graham, Methuen, for 

market wagon. 
$5. First premium, to Geo. E. Daniels, Rowley, for 

two horse cart. 
$3. First premium, to S. J. Pedler, Methuen, for two 

horse farm wagon. 
$5. Gratuity, to Dole & Osgood, Peabody, for milk 

wagon. 
$2. Gratuity, to S. J. Pedler, Methuen, for set of 

Archibald wheels and axles. 
$L Gratuity, to Joseph D. Dodge, Rowley, for set of 
marsh shoes. 



43 

|1. Gratuity, to P. Hoogerziel, Beverly, for patent 

wheelbarrow for apples. 
S. W. Hopkinsou — for the Committee. 



CARRIAGES. 

The Committee on Carriages have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 
$5. and Diploma to Means & Hopkins, Merrimac, for 

open beach wagon. 
15. Gratuity, to H. B. Whipple, Peabody, for delivery 

wagon. 
$6. Gratuity, to D. M. Lane, Lawrence, for 3 spring 

grocery wagon. 
$2. Gratuity, to Kress Bros., Lawrence, for buggy. 
fl. Gratuity, to Kress Bros., Lawrence, for Democrat 

wagon. 
$5. Gratuity, to J. W. Joyce, Lawrence, for beer wagon. 
George E. Daniels, B. F. Lewis, J. H. Blunt — Com- 
mittee. 



IN EXHIBITION HALL. 



REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT. 

The Exhibition of the Society at the City Hall, Lawrence, 
Sept. 1892, though not as well patronized as last year, was 
on the whole, a decided success. Owing to the busy times 
at the different Corporations, it was impossible to interest 
them in the fair, so the exhibit in this line was not as large 
as last year, nor did they give their operatives a half holi- 
day, which I think took off some from the receipts. Only 
one mill made an exhibit of a fine line of Ladies' dress 
goods. 

The space allotted to the merchants and small manufac- 
turers was well taken up and filled with articles of interest 
to the public. 

The special premium offered by H. M. Whitney, for the ex- 
hibit of the most value, to the Lawrence Hospital, brought 
a very large and varied collection of articles that were of 
special use to them, the whole amounting to a very nice 
sum. 

The fancy work was so crowded in the cases that the 
society own that it was impossible for the committee to 
judge of the merits of many of the exhibits or for the pub- 
lic to see much of the fine work that was displayed. The 
number of entries in this department was not quite as large 
as last year but I think the amount was larger, as many 
ladies entered several articles under one number which I 
think was a mistake and I did not notice it until the entries 
were all in. 

There was more interest taken by the children this year 



45 

as it was more fully understood by them that premiums 
were given for such work. 

There was a very good showing of cut flowers but not 
many plants, also several collections of wild flowers which 
showed a great amount of work in collecting and classify- 
ing. 

The stage was well filled by J. B. Hally with a fine col- 
lection of ferns. 

Edward' Fly nn made a very good showing in the gallery 
of potted plants and flowers. 

Some of the fruit entered was of excellent quality but 
much of it is entered more for the purpose of receiving an 
entrance ticket than for a premium. 

The amount was about the same as last year, the pear 
exhibit was of good quality, and the table of peaches, 
grapes and assorted fruit was well filled, many varieties of 
excellent quality not being found on the premium list of the 
society, but worthy of culture, and always found in the mar- 
kets. 

The vegetable department was not as well filled as last 
year but most of the articles exhibited were of merit. This 
department was well looked after by Mr. Bradley, and the 
arrangement made a very good showing. 

By the kindness of the mayor the council chamber was 
again opened for our use as an art room, where valuable pic- 
tures and decorated china ware could be exhibited safely 
and apart from the bustle and crowd of the main hall, and 
where lovers of the beautiful could better examine the very 
fine exhibit which filled the room, being much larger and 
finer than last year. 

The grange exhibit was a good agricultural show in itself, 
in a very small space was gathered together from four 
towns, a collection of fruit, vegetables and ladies' work, the 
abundance of which shows willing hands, and the arrange- 
ment something of the work of the grange in matters of 
higher education. 

Some have thought that this special grange exhibit takes 



46 

away from the main hall, but I know that many entries 
were made both years in the hall and on the exhibition 
grounds by members of our granges, who would never have 
taken any interest in the fair if it had not been for the 
grange and the interest felt at our meetings, thus by the 
discussion advertising the fair to a great extent. 

I think the society would reap great benefits if they more 
fully advertised the different premiums offered, especially in 
the hall, as where it comes so seldom to a place the people 
forget, and new ones are continually coming in to our cities, 
so they do not understand, especially the foreign element, 
some of whom take a great interest when permitted to take 
part. 

To the ladies and gentlemen with the assistant superin- 
tendent, I owe many thanks, for the cheerful response to the 
call, and the faithful manner in which they attended to the 
arranging of the many entries, and if some way could be 
devised, so we could know, who of the committee of awards 
could not be present, so their places could be promptly filled, 
the duties of the superintendent would be lightened. 

W. C. ALLYN, Superintendent of Hall. 



DAIRY. 



The Committee on Diary have attended to their duty 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 

$10. First premium to Oscar Gowen, West Newbury, for 
the Dairy Cow making the most butter the first 
week in June, July, Aug. and Sept. 
,^5. First premium to Mrs. Wm. K. Cole, Boxford, for 

5 lbs. butter. 
$6. Second premium to Mrs. Chas. W. Gowen, West 

Newbury, for 5 lbs. butter. 
$4. Third premium to M. B. Chesley, Amesbury, for 5 
lbs. butter. 



47 



DRESSED FOWLS AND EGGS. 

$2. First premium to Mrs. Susan A. Stuart, Middleton, 

for 1 pair dressed fowls. 
|1. First premium to Mrs. Susan A. Stewart, Middleton, 

for 1 doz. Brahma eggs. 
|1. First premium to Wm. M. Cole, Boxford, for 1 doz. 

Wyandotte hens eggs. 
$1. First premium to Wm. M. Cole, Boxford, for 1 doz. 

Plymouth Rock hens eggs. 
fl. First premium to Wm. M. Cole, Boxford, for 1 doz. 

Red Cap hens eggs. 
Charles Ferley, Mrs. David Warren, Mrs. B. H. Farn- 
ham, Mrs. T. C. Thurlow — Committee. 

STATEMENT OF OSCAR GOWEN. 

To the Committee on Diary. 

The cow I wish to enter for the premium for the first 
week in June, July, August and Sept. for amount of but- 
ter from any quantity of milk is a grade Ayrshire. She 
dropped her last calf the 21st day of January, 1892. 

1st week in June she gave 181 lbs. of milk, which made 
10 lbs. of butter, her feed was grass with one quart of 
corn meal a day. 

1st week in July she gave 147 lbs. of milk, which made 
8-1 lbs. butter, her feed was the same as June. 

1st week in August she gave 144 lbs. of milk which 
made 8 lbs. of butter, her feed was grass with one quart 
of cotton seed meal in place of corn meal. 

1st week in Sept. she gave 165 lbs. of milk which made 
9 lbs. of butter, her feed was 2 quarts corn meal, grass 
and corn fodder. 

STATEMENT OF MRS. WM. K. COLE. 

The 5 lbs. of butter entered for premium was made 
from milk of grade Jersey cows, set in pans standing 36 
to 40 hours, churned when enough cream has accum- 



48 

ulated for a churning, is rinsed through two waters, then 
thoroughly worked, salted at the rate of one ounce to a 
lb. of butter, and immediately put up for market. Cows 
have a run of pasture and some green feed in the barn 
and one quart of meal per day. 

STATEMENT OP MRS. O. W. GOWEN. 

My butter entered for a premium is made from a grade 
Jersey cow fed upon what she gets from the pasture, 
without any grain. The milk is set in tin pans about one 
half full, then skimmed in 36 hours, when enough cream is 
collected, churn, wash and salt at the rate of one ounce 
to the pound. 



BREAD AND CANNED FRUIT. 

The Committee on Bread and Canned Fruit have at- 
tended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Sec- 
retary that they have made the following awards : 
$3. First premium to Ellen Condon, Beverly, for wheat 

bread. 
$2. First premium to Ellen Condon, Beverly, for gra- 
ham bread. 
$3. First premium to Mrs. A. C. Wilson, Danvers, for 

preserves and jelly. 
$3. First premium Mrs. Ella J. Andrew, Boxford, for 

basket of dried apples. 
$2. First premium to Miss M. J. Wilson, Methuen for 

case of canned fruit. 
$2. First premium to Mrs. B. H. Farnham, No. Ando- 

ver, for 5 lbs. of dried apples. 
$2. First premium to Mrs. Carrie Wales, Groveland, for 
loaf of white and graham bread. 
$1.50. First premium to Miss Clara L. Bailey, Andover, 
for brown bread. 



49 

II. Second premium to Mrs. Oscar Young, No. Ando- 

ver, for brown bread, 
II. Second premium to Mrs. Geo. L. Burnham, No. An- 

dover, for loaf of white and graham bread. 
II. Third premium to Mrs. Edwin Haseltine, ^Haverhill, 

for loaf of white, graham and brown bread. 
II. Gratuity to Page Catering Co., Lawrence, for case 
of bread and cake. 
50c. Gratuity to J. T. Remmens, Lawrence, for case of 

bread. 
50c. Gratuity to Misses Prescott, Lawrence, for 12 tum- 
blers jelly. 
50c. Gratuity to Mrs. M. N. Howe, Lawrence, for loaf 

of white bread. 
50c. Gratuity to Mrs. A. M. Brown, Lawrence, for loaf of 

cake. 
50c. Gratuity to Mrs. E. F. Holt, Andover, for canned 
pears. 

The Committee on Bread labored under a great disad- 
vantage as the best looking bread was not tasted, as it was 
entered without a statement, which excluded it from a 
premium, and as the exhibitors were probably not aware 
that a statement was required, felt that justice was not done 
them. Therefore the Committee would recommend that 
another year the fact be made known in some way, so 
that exhibitors shall have their statements and relieve the 
Committee from blame. 

Mrs. J. Henry Hill, Elizabeth P. Nichols, Mrs. J. H. 
Chandler — Committee. 

STATEMENT OF MRS. ELLEN CONDON FOB GRAHAM BREAD. 

1 quart graham flour, 3 qts. white flour, 1 cup sugar, 1 
large spoonful salt, 1 yeast cake. Do not sift the graham, 
mix the same as any bread, bake in a quick oven one hour 
and ten minutes, cover the bread with brown paper the 
first 20 minutes. 



50 

STATEMENT OF MRS. CARRIE B. WALES, RAISED WHEAT 

BREAD. 

1 quart Haxall flour, one half pint warm water, one half 
pint milk scalded, one half compressed yeast cake, 2 tea- 
spoonfuls sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls salt, 1 teaspoonful lard. 
Knead at night, let rise until morning, chop down with a 
knife in the morning, let rise in pan until light, put in tin 
and let rise till twice its size and bake 45 minutes. 

STATEMENT OF MRS. OSCAR YOUNG, BROWN BREAD. 

One half cup of flour, one cup of corn meal, two cups rye 
meal, measure rye before sifting, two teaspoonfuls soda 
heaped, nearly a cup of molasses, one pint sour milk, tea- 
spoonful salt, steam nearly all day. 

STATEMENT OF MRS. GEO. L. BURNHAM, GRAHAM BREAD. 

The kind of flour used is the Arlington graham, one 
quart of flour, one pint of milk, three tablespoonfuls sugar, 
one half teaspoonful of salt, one fourth yeast cake, mixed 
stiff with a spoon, let rise over night, then put in tins, let 
stand half an hour, then bake one hour. 

STATEMENT OF LIZZIE J. WILSON, FOR CANNED PEARS AND 
PEACHES. 

1 make a syrup of one part water and two parts sugar 
and let it boil ten minutes, then throw in one half cup cold 
water three times and boil five minutes longer and it is 
then ready for the fruit. The fruit I peel and throw in a 
pan of cold water until I have enough to start with, then I 
cook in boiling water until they are easily pierced with a 
straw, then let them simmer a few minutes in the syrup in 
the bottle. Plums and most all other fruit I cook in the 
same kind of syrup until they look clear. 

STATEMENT OF MISS M. J. WILSON FOR CANNED FRUIT. 

To every quart jar, one cup of sugar, boil until clear, then 
drop fruit in and cook until clear ; this applies to most all 
fruit. 



51 



SPECIAL PREMIUM OFFEPvED BY H. M. WHITNEY & CO. 

The Committee on Special Premium offered by H. M. 
Whitney & Co., for the benefit of the Hospital, have at- 
tended to tlieir duty, and respectfully report to the Secre- 
tary that they have made the following award : 
$15. First premium to Whitall, Taturn & Co., for glass 
ware and sundries. 

Mrs. O. T. Howe, Mrs. Moses Stevens, Mrs. Geo. W. Sar- 
gent, Miss C. E. M. Somerville, F. E. Clarke, Dr. C. N. 
Chamberlain, Dr. C. G. Carlton — Committee. 



PEARS. 



The Committee on Pears have attended to their duty and 
respectfully report to the Secretary that they have made 
the following awards : 
f3. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Bartlett 

pears. 
First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Bosc pears. 
First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Lawrence 

pears. 
First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Louise 

Bonne pears. 
First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Howell 

pears. 
First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for collection 

of pears. 
First premium, to J. J. H. Gregory & Son, Marble- 
head, for Belle Lucrative pears. 
First premium, to Jas. J. H. Gregory & Son, Mar- 

blehead, for Paradise d'Automne pears. 
First premium, to Wm. Burke Little, Newbury, for 

Anjou pears. 
First premium, to J. W. Goodell, Lynn, for Angou- 

leme pears. 



m 



52 

$3. First premium, to W. P. Hutchinson, Danvers, for 

Dana's Hovey pears. 
i3. First premium, to James Wilson, Topsfield, for 

Onondago pears. 
$3. First premium, to Frederic Samson, Salem, for 

Seckle pears. 
f3. First premium, to Robert Lindsay, Lawrence, for 

Sheldon pears. 
$3. First premium, to H. G. Herrick, Lawrence, for Ur- 

baniste pears. 
$3. First premium, to S. J. Richards, Lawrence, for 

Vicar of Wakefield pears. 
$3. First premium, to Elizabeth Mclntire, Lawrence, for 

Cornice pears. 
$3. First premium, to Geo. W. Marsden, Lawrence, for 

Clairgeau pears. 
$1. Gratuity, to Abel Stickney, Groveland, for Belle 

Lucrative pears. 
$1. Gratuity, to Allen Barr, Lawrence, for Buerre Bosc 

pears. 
$1. Gratuity, to Allen Barr, Lawrence, for Dana's 

Hovey pears. 
$1. Gratuity, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Anjou pears. 
$1. Gratuity, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Sheldon pears. 
$L Gratuity, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Vicar pears, 
$1. Gratuity, to Lester E. Prescott, Lawrence, for An- 

gouleme pears. 
$1. Gratuity, to Walter B. Allen, Lynn, for Lawrence 

pears. 
fl. Gratuity, to Walter B. Allen, Lynn, for Urbaniste 

pears. 
$1. Gratuity, to Alice Mclntire, Lawrence, for Seckle 

pears. 
|L Gratuity, to Wm. Burke Little, Newbury, for Clair- 
geau pears. 
fl. Gratuity, to B. Flanders, Haverhill, for Buerre 
Hardy pears. 



53 

Peter M. Neal, B. F. Huntington, Edmund Gale — Com- 
mittee. 



APPLES. 

The Committee on Apples have attended to their duty, 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 

|3. First premium, to D M. Cole, Boxford, for Graven- 
stein apples. 
f 3. First premium, to E. P. Noyes, Newbury, for Rox- 

bury Russetts. 
f 3. First premium, to Mrs. D. G. Berry, No. Andover, 

for Sweet Baldwins. 
f 3. First premium, to John Taylor, Amesbury, for Rhode 

Island Greening. 
'f 3. First premium, to T. K. Bartlett, Newburyport, for 

Drap D'Or. 
f 3. First premium, to J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for King 

of Tompkins. 
13. First premium, to J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for 

Bailey's Sweet. 
$3. First premium, to J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for 

Smith's Cider. 
$3. First premium, to David Warren, Swampscott, for 

Pickraan Pippin. 
$3. First premium, to S. G. Bailey, West Newbury, for 

Hubbardston. 
^3. First premium, to Wm. S. Horner, Georgetown, for 

Canada Snow. 
f3. First premium, to C. M. Lunt, Newbury, for Hunt's 

Russett. 
$3. First premium, to C. M. Lunt, Newbury, for Red 

Russett. 
$B. First premium, to E. T. Cliilds, Lawrence, for Porter. 
$3. First premium, to Lyman Osborne, Peabody, for 

Danvers Sweet. 



54 

$3. First premium, to Nnthan Longfellow, Groveland, for 
Baldwin. 

12. Second premium, to William Ijittle, Newbury, for 

Roxbury Russett. 
$1.50. Second premium, to S. B. George, Groveland, for 

Hunt's Russett. 
$1.50. Second premium, to C. M. Lunt, Newbury, for Bald- 
win. 
$1.00. Gratuity, to N. R. Fowler, Boxford, for Monmouth 

Pippin. 
$1.00. Gratuity, to S. M. Bailey, Andover, for Red Porter. 

$1.00. Gratuity, to Michael Shea, Lawrence, for Graven- 
stein, 

$1.50. Gratuity, to Geo. W. Chadwick, Boxford, for Kil- 
1am Hill. 

$1.00. Gratuity, to Wm. Burke Little, Newbury, for Mcin- 
tosh Red. 

$1.50. Gratuity, to B. F. Huntington, Amesbury, for North- 
ern Spy. 

$1.00. Gratuity, to E. K. Noyes, Newbury, for Bradford 
Nonsuch. 

$L50. Gratuity, to J. N. Rolf, Newbury, for Maiden's 
Blush. 

$1.50. Gratuity, to B. Griffin, Lawrence, for Gilliflower. 

$1.00. Gratuity, to S. B. Bodwell, No. Andover, for Presi- 
dent apple. 

$1.50. Gratuity, to D. Bradstreet, Topsfield, for Pickman 
Pippin. 

$1.00. Gratuity, to G. D. Walton, Peabody, for Hass apple. 

$1.50. Gratuity, to G. D. Walton, Peabody, for Unknown. 
The apple classed as " unknown " is reported to be 

worthy of the attention of the society, both for its keep- 
ing quality and excellent flavor, as reported by Andrew 

Nichols of Danvers, and your committee have taken this 

method of introducing it to your notice. 

W. H. B. Currier, Andrew Nichols, W. P. Hutchinson — 

Committee. 



55 

PEACHES, GRAPES AND'ASSORTED FRUIT. 

The Committee on Peaches, Grapes and Assorted Fruit 
have attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the 
Secretary that they have made the following awards : 
$2.00. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for White 

Flesh peach. 
2.00. First premium, to Geo. W. Chadwick, Boxford, for 

Seedling peach. 
2.00. First premium, to Wm. L. Hobbs, Lawrence, for 

Crawford peach. 
3.00. First premium, to C. D. Thompson, No. Andover, 

for Concord grapes. 
3.00. First premium, to Maggie Shea, Lawrence, for White 

Martha grapes. 
4.00. First premium, to James M. Teel, Lynn, for Black 

Hamburg grapes. 
3.00. First premium, to W. P. Hutchinson, Danvers, for 

Moore's Early grapes. 
3.00. First premium, to W. P. Hutchinson, Danvers, for 

Niagara grapes. 
3.00. First premium, to W. P. Hutchinson, Danvers, for 

Brighton grapes. 
1.50. Gratuity to W. P. Hutchinson, Danvers, for Eaton 

grapes. 
1.50. Gratuity to W. P. Hutchinson, Danvers, for Flor- 
ence grapes. 
1.00. Gratuity to W. P. Hutchinson, Danvers, for Hayes 

grapes. 
1.00. Gratuity to G. D. Walton, Peabody, ,for Clinton 

grapes. 
1.00. Gratuity to S. J. Baker, Methuen, for Moore's Early 

grapes. 
1.50. Gratuity to S. J. Baker, Methuen, for Lady grapes. 
1.00. Gratuity to S. J. Baker, Methuen, for Niagara 

grapes. 
1.00. Gratuity to S. J. Baker, Methuen, for Pocklington 

grapes. 



56 

1.00. Gratuity to Mrs. J. A. Sochrens, Andover, for 

Champion quinces. |^ 
1.00. Gratuity to Elizabeth Foley, Lawrence, for Lemon 

quinces. 
1.50. Gratuity to J. F. Gulliver, Andover, for Orange 

quinces. 
1.00. Gratuity to'E. L. Saunders, Lawrence, for Orange 

quinces. 
J, W. Goodell, Aaron Sawyer, Albert Emerson — Com- 
miitee. 1 1 ri ij 



'^ PLANTS. 

The Committee on Plants have attended to their duty 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 

$10. First premium to J. B. Hally, Lawrence, for Collec- 
tion of Plants. 
5.00. Second premium to Edward Flynn, Lawrence, for 

Collection of Plants. 
50c. Gratuity to Mrs. J. W. Porter, Lawrence, for Cactus. 
50c. Gratuity to Mrs. Benj. Griffin, Lawrence, for Night 
Blooming Cerius. 
T. C. Thurlow, Bertha Chandler, Mrs. Chas. Perley.— 
Committee. 



FLOWERS. 
The Committee on Flowers have attended to their duty 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 
2'00. First premium, to Benj. F. Bickum, Haverhill, for 

two Bouquets. 
1.00. First premium, to Mrs. Geo. E. Kline, Lawrence, 

for Marigolds. 
5.00. First premium to Mrs. Julia A. Cain, Lynn, for 

Collection 100 varieties. 



57 

1.00. First premium, to Mrs. Julia A. Cain, Lynn, for 

Geraniums. 
1.00. First premium, to Mrs. Julia A. Cain, Lynn, for 

Geraniums. 
2.00. First premium, to Mrs. Julia A. Cain, Lynn, for 

Bouquet. 
1.00. First premium, to Abbie L. Cain, Lynn, for Sal- 

piglossis. 
1.00. First premium, to S. P. Buxton, Peabody. for Car- 
nations. 
1.00. First premium, to S. P. Buxton, Peabody, for Gar- 
den Annuals. 
1.00. First premium, to S. P. Buxton, Peabody, for Scab- 

iosas. 
1.00. First premium, to Mrs. Oscar Young, No. Andover, 

for Double Phlox. 
1.00. First premium, to Mrs. Oscar Young, No. Andover, 

for Zinnias. 
1.00. First premium, to Mrs. George Burnham, No. An- 
dover, for Nasturtiums. 
1.00. First premium, to S. P. Buxton, Peabody, for Pan- 

sies. 
LOO. First premium, to Mrs. N. M. Powers, Lawrence, 

for Coxcombs. 
2.00. First premium, to E. H. Gage, Methuen, for basket 

of flowers. 
2.00, First premium, to Mrs. G. L. Averill, No. Andover, 

for Pansies. 
1.00. First premium, to Mrs. G. L. Averill, No. Andover, 

for Dianthus. 
1.00. First premium, to Mrs. G. L. Averill, No. Andover, 

for Marigolds. 
2.00. First premium, to T. C. ^Thurlow, West Newbury, 

for Phlox. 
1.00. First premium, to Carrie Fuller, No. Andover, for 

Petunias. 
3.00. First premium, to Bertha L. Jenkins, Lawrence, for 

Design. 



58 

5.00. First premium, to Helen M. Jenkins, Lawrence, for 

Cut flowers, 100 varieties. 
1.00. First premium, to Mrs. Edwin Haseltine, Haverhill, 

for Sweet Peas. 
6.00. First premium, to Charles E. Wingate, Lawrence, 

for Design of flowers. 
5.00. First premium, to J. B. Halley, Lawrence, for Floral 

design. 
1.00. Second premium, to Arthur Crosby, Methuen, for 

Sweet Peas. 
3.00. Second premium, to Mrs. Rose Buxton, Peabody, 

for collection of flowers. 
1.00. Second premium, to Mrs. Oscar Young, No. Ando- 

ver, for Basket of flowers. 
1.00. Second premium, to Annie C. Horch, Rowley, for 

Bouquet. 
2.00. Second premium, to T. C. Thurlow, West Newbury, 

for Japan Lillies. 
1.00. Second premium, to Mrs. Edwin Haseltine, Haver- 
hill, for Bouquet. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. N. M. Powers, Lawrence, for Cox- 
combs. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Thomas Milner, No. Andover, for Cox- 
combs. 
50c. Gratuity, to E. M. Eames, Andover, for Zinnias. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Geo. L. Gage, Lawrence, for Pinks, 
50c. Gratuity to Arthur Crosby, Methuen, for Pansies. 
60c. Gratuity, to Abbie L. Cain, Lynn, for Garden An- 
nuals. 
60c. Gratuity, to Abbie L. Cain, Lynn, for Calendulas. 
50c. Gratuity, to Abbie L. Cain, Lynn, for Marigolds. . 
60c. Gratuity, to S. P. Buxton, Peabody, for Bouquet. 
50c. Gratuity, to S. P. Buxton, Peabody, for Dahlias. 
75c. Gratuity, to S. P. Buxton, Peabody, for Geraniums. 
50c. Gratuity, to S. P. Buxton, Peabody, for Verbenas. 
60c. Gratuity, to S. P. Buxton, Peabody, for Garden An- 
nuals. 



59 

50c. Gratuity, to S. P. Buxton, Peabody, for Dianthus. 

50c. Gratuity, to R. P. Strutlms, Lynn, for Bouquet. 

50c. (xratuity, to Mrs. Oscar Young, No. Andover, for 
Nasturtiums. 

50c. Gratuity, to J. J. H. Gregory & Son, Marblehead, 
for Zinnias. 

75c. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. H. Hill, Amesbury, for Calen- 
dulas. 

50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. H. Hill, Amesbury, for Dahlias. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. H. Hill, Amesbury, for Dahlias. 

75c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Geo. L. Averill, No. Andover, for 
Garden Annuals. 

50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Geo. L. Averill, No. Andover, for 
Phlox. 

75c. Gratuity, to Bertha Chandler, Andover, for Mari- 
golds. 

50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Edwin Haseltine, Haverhill, for 
Pansies. 

50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Edwin Haseltine, Haverhill, for 
Garden Flowers. 

50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Edwin Haseltine, Haverhill, for 
Pansies. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. S. J. Baker, Methuen, for Tubrous 
Begonias. 

75c. Gratuity, to Mrs. .Tohn Griffin, Lawrence, for Dahlias. 

50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. S. F. Dearborn, Methuen, for As- 
ters. 

50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. S. F. Dearborn, Metlmen, for 
Heliotrope. 

60c. Gratuity, to M. Wingate & Son, Lawrence, for Roses. 

50c. Gratuity, to E. F. Childs, Lawrence, for Native 
Flowers. 

50c. Gratuity, to Edward Flynn, Lawrence, for Floral 
Exhibit. 

50c. Gratuity, to Edward Flynn, Lawrence, for Roses. 
J. D. Kingsbury, Mrs. David Warren, Charlotte N. S. 

Horner, Nellie E. Moore — Committee. 



6o 



VEGETABLES. 

The Committee on Vegetables have attended to their 

duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 

made the following awards : 

$5.00. First premium, to Cochickewick Farm, No. An- 
dover, for collection of vegetables. 

3.00. First premium, to G. S. Phippen, Methuen, for Mar- 
row squash. 

3.00. First premium, to G. S. Phippen, Methuen, for Tur- 
ban squash. 

3.00. First premium, to G. S. Phippen, Methuen, for Hub- 
bard squash. 

3.00. First premium, to G. S. Phippen, Methuen, for Early 
Rose potatoes. 

3.00. First premium, to John R. Shirley, Methuen, for 
Bay State Squash. 

3.00. First premium, to Geo. L. Burnham, No. Andover, 
for Fotler's cabbage. 

3.00. First premium, to S. H. Bailey, Andover, for Red 
cabbage. 

3.00. First premium, to Richard Jaques, Newbury, for 
Savoy cabbage. 

3.00. First premium, to Richard Jaques, Newbury, for 
Salmon Flesh melon. 

3.00 First premium, to Geo. W. Chadwick, Boxford, for 
Pearl of Savoy potatoes. 

3.00. First premium, to Walter Chadwick, Boxford, for 
Yellow Danvers onion. 

3.00. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for deep head 
cabbage. 

3.00. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for all sea- 
son's cabbage. 

3.00. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Red 
onions. 

3.00. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Living- 
ston's tomatoes. 



6i 

3.00. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Acme to- 
matoes. 

3.00. First premium, to C. R. Anderson, Boxford, for 
i^ Stone Mason cabbage. 

3.00. First premium, to John A. Shirley, Methuen, for 
Sibley squash. 

3.00. First premium, to J. L. Nudd, Lawrence, for Peach 
tomatoes. 

8.00. First premium, to A. P. Russell, Lawrence, for 
Beauty of Hebron potatoes. 

3.00. First premium, to J. J. H. Gregory, Marblehead, for 
Yellow Flat onions. 

3.00. First premium, to J. J. H. Gregory, Marblehead, for 
collection of vegetables. 

3.00. First premium, to J. J. H. Gregory, Marblehead, 
for greatest variety of Tomatoes. 

3.00. First premium, to S. H. Bailey, Andover, for Houl- 
ton Rose Potatoes. 

2.00. First premium, to W. K. Cole, Boxford, for Cauli- 
flower. 

2.00. First premium, to Virgil Dow, Methuen, for Water- 
melons. 

2.00. First premium, to C. H. Hall, Methuen, for Celery. 

3.00. First premium to J. W. Henderson, Andover, for 
Cauliflowers. 

3.00. First premium, to Chas. B. Carlton, Boxford, for 
Early Maine Potatoes. 

2.00. Second premium, to Cochickewick Farm, No. An- 
dover, for Stone Mason Cabbage. 

2.00. Second premium, to Cochickewick Farm, No. An- 
dover, for All Seasons Cabbage. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Cochickewick Farm, No. Andover, for 
Citron Melon. 

1.00. Gratuity, to John Harrington, Methuen, for Clark's 
No. 1 Potatoes. 

LOO. Gratuity, to A. P. Fuller, No. Andover, for Clark's 
No. 1 Potatoes. 



62 

1.00. Gratuity, to Richard Jacques, Newbury, for Marrow 

Squash. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Richard Jacques, Newbury, for Turban 

Squash. 
1.00. Gratuity, to H. N. Chubb, Lawrence, for Stone Ma- 
son Cabbage. 
1.00. Gratuity, to S. F. Newman, Newbury, for Stone 

Mason Cabbage. 
1.00. Gratuity, to N. R. Bailey, Andover, for Savoy 

Cabbage. 
1.00. Gratuity, to E. L. Saunders, Lawrence, for Toma- 
toes. 
LOO. Gratuity, to A. P. Russell, Methuen, for Water- 
melons. 
1.00. Gratuity, to A. P. Russell, Methuen, for Turban 

Squash. 
1.00. Gratuity, to F. A. Russell, Methuen, for Red Cab- 
bage. 
1.00. Gratuity, to F. A. Russell, Methuen, for Savoy 

Cabbage. 
1.00. Gratuity, to F. A. Russell, Methuen, for Stone Ma- 
son Cabbage. 
1.00. Gratuity, to G. L. Averill, No. Andover, for Early 

Rose Potatoes. 
1.00. Gratuity, to W. K. Cole, Boxford, for Marrow 

Squash. 
1.00. Gratuity, to J. C. Poor, No. Andover, for Savoy 

Cabbage. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Homer Dow, Methuen, for Onions. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Cochickewick Farm, No. Andover, for 

Early Maine Potatoes. 
LOO. Gratuity, to Cochickewick Farm, No. Andover, for 

Crookneck Squash. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Cochickewick Farm, No. Andover, for 

Essex Hybrid Squash. 
LOO. Gratuity, to Cochickewick Farm, No. Andover, for 
Citron Melons. 



63 

William P. Bailey, J. A. Lamson, John F. Chesley, G-. 
S. Phippen, Nathaniel Marble. — Committee. 



VEGETABLES -CLASS TWO. 

The Committee on Vegetables, second class, have at- 
tended to their duty and respectfully report to the Secre- 
tary that they have made the following awards : 
$3.00. First premium, to W. K. Cole, Boxford, for Stow- 

elPs Evergreen Corn. 
3.00. First premium, to W. K. Cole, Boxford, for Cory 

Sweet Corn. 
3.00. First premium, to W. Burke Little, Newbury, for 

Eclipse Beets. 
3.00. First premium, to W. Burke Little, Newbury, for 

Edmands Beets. 
3.00. First premium, to W. Burke Little, Newbury, for 

Short Horn Carrot. 
3.00. First premium, to John W. Shirley, Methuen, for 

Danvers Intermediate Carrot. 
3.00. First premium, to W. Burke Little, Newbury, for 

Long Orange Carrot. 
3.00. First premium, to R. Jacques, Newbury, for Man- 
gold Wurtzels. 
3.00. First premium, to H. A. Stiles, Middleton, for Pur- 
ple top Turnips. 
3.00. First premium, to H. A. Stiles, Middleton, for 

White Flat Turnips. 
3.00. First premium, to R. Jacques, Newbury, for Yellow 

Ruta Baga Turnips. 
3.00. First premium, to Geo. L. Averill, No. Andover, for 

White Ruta Baga Turnips. 
3.00. First premium, to R. Jacques, Newbury, for Pars- 
nips. 
3 00. First premium, to W. K. Cole, Boxford, for Cran- 
berries. 



64 

2.00. Second premium, to Andrew Lane, Rockport, for 
Cranberries. 

1.00. Third premium, to H. M. Killam, Boxford, for Cran- 
berries. 

1.00. Gratuity to E. G. Hardy, Andover, for Stowell's 
Evergreen Corn. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Geo. L. Averill, No. Andover, for Early 
Essex Sweet Corn. 

1.00. Gratuity to N. R. Bailey, Andover, for White Egg 
Turnips. 

1.00. Gratuity to W. Burke Little, Newbury, for Parsnips. 

1.00. Gratuity to Geo. L. Averill, No. Andover, for White 
Egg Turnips. 

1.00. Gratuity to W. J. Clark, Andover, for Yellow Ruta 
Baga Turnif s. 

1.00. Gratuity to C. L. Bailey, Andover, for Purple top 
Turnips. 

LOO. Gratuity to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Mangold Wurt- 
zels. 

1.00. Gratuity to W. H. Hayes, No. Andover, for Inter- 
mediate Dan vers Carrot. 
Warren M. Cole, William Hilton, Wilbur J. Munroe, W. 

F. Vining. — Committee. 



GRAIN AND SEED. 
The Committee on Grain and Seed have attended to their 
duty and respectfully report to the Secretary, that they 
have made the following awards : 
11.00. First premium to H. M. Killam, Boxford, for Shelled 

Corn. 
1.00. First premium to B. W. Farnham, No. Andover, for 

Field Beans. 
5.00. First premium to A. L. Longfellow, Groveland, for 

25 ears Field Corn. 
3.00. First premium to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for 25 ears 

Pop Corn. 



65 

8.00. First premium to J. J. H. Grej^jory & Son, Marble- 
head, for Collection of Seeds. 

3.00. Second premium to C. K. Ordway, West Newbury, 
for 25 ears Field Corn. 

2.00. Second premium to Virgil Dow, Methuen, for 25 
ears Pop Corn. 

2.00. Third premium to Geo. A. Rogers, No. Andover, 
for 25 ears Field Corn. 
Fred H. Bates, Thaddeus Hale, Joseph N. Rolf. — Gorn- 

mittee. 



COUNTERPANES AND AFGHANS. 
The Committee on Counterpanes and Afghans have at- 
tended to their duty and respectfully report to the Secre- 
tary that they have made the following awards : 
$4.00. First premium, to Mrs. W. H. Sumner, Newbury- 

port, for Crochet quilt. 
2.00. Second premium, to Nellie M. Standley, Newbury- 

port, for Satin quilt. 
2.00. Gratuity to Mrs. Anna Thompson, Lawrence, for 

Calico quilt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to S. Smith, Lawrence, for Outline quilt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Bertha Lawrence, Lawrence, for Silk 

quilt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. N. Stanley, Newburyport, for 
Satin quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to E. M. Stanley, Newburyport, for Cotton 

quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to J. Smith, Newburyport, for Crazy 
quilt. 
1.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. J.Brookings, Newburyport, Crazy 

quilt. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. G. E. Reed, Lawrence, for Cro- 
cheted quilt. 
1.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. M. J. Bemis, Lawrence, for Af- 
ghan. 



66 

1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Emerson Robbins, Lawrence, for 
Crazy quilt. 
.75. Gratuity, to Minnie Dowd, Methuen, for Crocheted 
Afghan. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Jennie M. Wilson, Lawrence, for Cro- 
cheted quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Augusta J. Bain, Lynn, for Patchwork 

quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. John Brierly, No. Andover, for 
Calico quilt. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Walter Sargent, Methuen, for 
Knit quilt. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Lucy Chubbs, Lawrence, for Kensing- 
ton quilt. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Helen Carruth, Andover, for Satin 
quilt. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Fannie Lee, Lawrence, for Crocheted 
Afghan. 
Mrs. H. F. Longfellow, Lottie Swan, Sarah P. Blunt — 

(Jommittee. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON COUNTERPANES 
AND AFGHANS. 

Counterpanes and Afghans ! How suggestive of prac- 
ticality and comfort ! At the close of the daily toil and 
duties as one " wraps the drapery of his couch about him," 
how the pleasant dreams are enhanced by the beauty and 
warmth of his coverings ! Whether king, peasant, soldier 
or peaceful citizen the necessity for these protective cov- 
erings is recognized. Whether the coarse blanket of 
earth's lowly or silken magnificence of royalty, were not 
their dreams the sweeter, or the treacherous, evil designs 
conjured in bad brains modified? We sincerely hope them 
less sanguinary. And what a multiplicity of material has 
been brought into requisition ! The cochineal sacrificed 



67 

its tiny life for its scarlet dye — the roots, barks, lichens 
give beautiful coloring, and "in our grandmother's days'' 
were utilized. Erect, thrifty dames of the colonial period 
cut, with mathematical precision, their "squares '' of patch- 
work with which they fashioned their marvel (ms quilts 
of intricate " Log Cabin " or "White House Steps," 
staid little maidens who, despite finger pricks and tear- 
bedewed faces have, at last, pieced a quilt, and with what 
contempt was regarded the " ne'er do weel " who had no 
ambitions. Looms have produced the richest stuffs, needles 
clicked, needles creaked with the stitchery brought upon 
them. And has not the faculty of these ancient grand- 
mothers descended upon the women of to-day ? We trust 
so, and to the products of our Essex County add greatly. 
Those who witnessed the display at the Agricultural Fair, 
where there was a large collection hung around the hall, 
like so many flaunting, royal banners, would say it was not 
a " lost art.'' Counterpanes of the dear beloved patchwork 
were there, the " crazy quilt, " the evolution of the older 
album quilt, irregular bits of silk, satin, velvet, joined by 
ornamental stitches, hand-painted, lace adorned — what 
more kaleidoscopic in coloring ! Afghans crocheted in 
brilliant wools or modest soft shades, how could it be an 
easy task for the committee to select those pre-eminently 
beautiful ? One of scarlet satin and ecru pongee silk was 
so artistic in its simple harmony of tints that it was 
awarded the first premium, while the second was secured 
by the maker of one of Glasgow linen thread of yellowish 
tint ; some sixty spools were required in its crocheting.. 
The evenness of the work, the beauty of the pattern made 
it incredibly pretty. Still another, displayed over a lin- 
ing of pink was very lace-like in eflfect, and received much 
praise. Seeing so much to approve, the committee had 
expended the sum allowed for premiums and gratuities, 
very disconsolately had to retrace steps and pass by many 
a deserving quilt. Those whose work was unrecognized 
by a conspicuous card may rest assured that it was not 



68 

unappreciated. Each possessed its merit — for ingenuity, 
for tasteful assortment of colors or nice needlework. And 
what an interesting study of historical periods — 
of changed conditions. All honor to the patchwork quilt, 
not to be superseded by these fanciful groupings of the 
present. Still may busy fingers sew, crochet, knit, or the 
sewing machine lend its aid in putting into form and 
shape these comfortable adjuncts to our sleeping hours, 
and the outer covering for our healthful drives, and then 
may they be brought to the County Fair to receive their 
meed of praise. Mrs. Horace F. Longfellow, 

Chairman of Committee. 



CARPETINGS AND RUGS. 

The Committee on Carpetings and Rugs have attended 
to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 
i3. First premium, to Mrs. J. W. Poor, Andover, for 

Drawn rug. 
Jtl2. Second premium, to Mrs. T. 0. Connor, Lawrence, 

for Knit curled rug. 
$L50 Gratuity, to Mrs. A. R. Sanborn, Lawrence, for Silk 

rug. 
fl.50 Gratuity, to Mabel P. Allison, Lawrence, for Silk 

rug. 
iL50 Gratuity, to Mrs. M. B. Cook, Newburyport, for 
Braided rug. 
$1. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. R. Marshall, Newburyport, for 

Braided rug. 
$1. Gratuity, to Mrs. W. F. Richardson, Lawrence, for 

Drawn rug. 
$1. Gratuity, to Mrs. Mary Lewis, Lawrence, for 

Braided rug. 
$1. Gratuity, to Mrs. G. L. Huntoon, Lawrence, for 
Curled knit rug. 



69 

$1. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. W. Frederick, Methuen, for 

Silk rug. 
$1. Gratuity, to Mrs. Eliza W. Stokes, Lawrence, for 

Silk rug. 
$1. Gratuity, to Mrs. H. E. Mead, No. Andover, for 

Drawn rug. 
#1. Gratuity, to Mrs. George Smith, Lawrence, for 
Drawn rug. 
75c. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. Anderson, Andover, for Drawn 

rug. 
75c Gratuity, to Miss Dora Ellis, No. Andover, for 

Shaker mat. 
60c. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. Emerson, Methuen, for Knit 

rug. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. H. Greenleaf, Lawrence, for 

Drawn rug. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. S. Eaton, Methuen, for Braided 

rug. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. B. Brookings, Newburyport, 
for Knit curled rug. 
Mrs. W. C. Allyn, Mrs. J. O. Parker, Mrs. Wm. M. 
Rogers, Mrs. Oscar Young — Committee. 



ARTICLES MANUFACTURED FROM LEATHER. 

The Committee on Articles Manufactured from Leather 
have attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the 
Secretary that they have made the following awards : 
$5. First premium, to McDonald & Hannaford, No. An- 
dover, for Express harness. 
i5. First premium to P. Carrow, Lawrence, for Car- 
riage harness. 
•12. First premium, to M. B. Bailey, Topsfield, [for 

Children's hand made shoes. 
$2. First premium, to M. B. Bailey, Topsfield, for 
Children's machine made shoes. 



70 

B5. Gratuity, to P. Carrow, Lawrence, for Exhibit of 

Leather Goods. 
Amos Haseltine— /or the Committee. 



FANCY WORK. 

The Committee on Fancy Work have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have^made the following awards: 

Gratuity, to Mrs. W. M. Gile, Lawrence, for table 

covers. 
Gratuity, to Mrs. A.^ M. Fowler, Lawrence, for 

apron and lace edging. 
Gratuity, to E. H. Gage, Methuen, for silk scarf 

and tray cloth. 
Gratuity, to Mrs. William Heald, Lawrence, for 

wool shawl. 
Gratuity, to Mrs. Alvah Locke, Lawrence, for 

handkerchief. 
Gratuity, to Mrs. M. H. Pulsifer, No. Andover, for 

tidy and doilies. 
Gratuity, to Mrs W. H. Sumner, Newburyport, 

for English point lace. 
Gratuity, to Helen B. Gile, Lawrence, for table, 

centres and doilies. 
Gratuity, Mrs. N. L. Sumner, Newburyport, for 

Mexican work and dress. 
Gratuity, to Mrs. Wilmot A. Reed, Gloucester, for 

tidies,'- Mexican work. 
Gratuity, to Mrs. Walter L. Rowe, Gloucester, for 

table cover and tidy. 
Gratuity, to Mrs. H. 0. Rowell, Newburyport, for 

bureau scarf. 
Gratuity, to Miss Lizzie G. Wilson, Lawrence, for 

pillow shams. 
Gratuity, to Mrs. J. C. White, Lawrence, for hand- 
kerchief. 



$1 

$1 
-tl 
'II 
11 
$1 
-11 
-II 
11 
II 



II 



71 

^1. Gratuity, to Mrs. Mary Wall, Methuen, for dresses, 

lace work, 
#1. Gratuity, to Helen Chamberlain, Lawrence, for 

centre piece and doilies. 
f 1. Gratuity, to Selma M. Rother, Lawrence, for tray 

cloth and handkerchief. 
$1. Gratuity, to Mrs. Milton Currier, Lawrence, for 

table covers and centre piece. 
$1. Gratuity, to Laura F. Farnham, No. Andover, for 

pillow shams. 
'fl. Gratuity, to Annie B. Shattuck, Lawrence, for 

point lace handkerchief. 
•f 1. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. F. Whittredge, Lawrence, for 
tray cloth and doilies. 
50c. Gratuity, to Sarah C. Laney, Methuen, for two sets 

table mats. 
75c. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. W. Turple, Newburyport, for 

tray cloths, etc. 
50c. Gratuity, to M. E. Johnson, Methuen, for crochet 

shawl. 
75c. Gratuity, to Miss Sheeler, Lawrence, for sofa pil- 
low. 
75c. Gratuity, to Lizzie Clarke, Newburyport, for table 

cover and lace work. 
75c. Gratuity, to Annie Brookings, Newburyport, for 

dresses. 
.50c. Gratuity, to Mary C. Wethern, Newburyport, for 

point lace handkerchief. 
75c. Gratuity, to Nellie M. Stanley, Newburyport, for 

cut work doilies. 
50c. Gratuity, to Louise M. Mathews, Lawrence, for 

doilies. 
75c. Gratuity, to Laura Haigh, Lawrence, for crochet 

dress. 
75c. Gratuity, to Mary L. Lane, Lawrence, for apron. 
75c. Gratuity, to Miss Tenney, Newburyport, for table 
doilies. 



72 

60c. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. S. Ricker, Lawrence, for flannel 

skirt. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Robert Lindsay, Lawrence, for 

pillow slips. 
60c. Gratuity, to Mrs. John E. Davis, Methuen, for 

crochet trimming. 
75c. Gratuity, to Mrs. E. A. Lawrence, Lawrence, for 

Mexican work. 
60c. Gratuity, to Mrs. V. J. Knot, Lawrence, for center 

piece and handkerchief. 
76c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Geo. Huntoon, Lawrence, for fire 

screen, &c. 
60c. Gratuity, to Maggie Blair, Lawrence, for apron. 
76c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Isaac Wilson, Lawrence, for apron. 
60c. Gratuity, to Miss M. H. Pulsifer, No. Andover, for 

apron and skirt. 
76c. Gratuity, to Nora Rowe, Lawrence, for night robes. 
76c. Gratuity, to Mrs. F. S. C. Herrick, Lawrence, for 

towels and table covers. 
75c. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. C. Fisher, Lawrence, for tray 

cloth. 
75c. Gratuity, to Alice Sherman, Lawrence, for table and 

tray cloths. 
75c. Gratuity, to Kate A. Swift, Andover, for butter cloth, 
75c. Gratuity, to Mrs. L. Vooholg, Lawrence, for apron. 
60c. Gratuity, to Henrietta McCarty, Lawrence, for lace 

apron. 
60c. Gratuity, to Gertie O'Connel, Lawrence, for tidy^ 

lamp shade. 
76c. Gratuity, to Grace A. Talbot, Lawrence, for tidy and 

apron. 
76c. Gratuity, to Annie Greaser, Lawrence, for apron. 
60c. Gratuity, to Edith Greaser, Lawrence, for handker- 
chief. 
60c. Gratuity, to M. L. Philbrick, Lawrence, for edging. 
50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Edward R. Noon, Lawrence, for 
tatting tidy. 



7Z 

Annie K. Day, Anna A. B. Childs, Mary A. Leach — 
Committee. 



WORKS OF ART. 

The Committee on Works of Art have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 
$3.00. Gratuity, to Gertrude Boardman, Lawrence, for 

water color painting. 
3.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. L. H. Fitch, Lawrence, for water 

color painting. 
3.00. Gratuity, to Miss Woodford, Lawrence, for china 

painting. 
3.00. Gratuity, to Serena Lane, Lawrence, for oil color. 
2.00. Gratuity, to the Sunday Telegram, Lawrence, for 

photogrames. 
1.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Carrie Whittredge, Lawrence, for 

china painting. 
L50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Sanborn, Lawrence, for china 

painting. 
1.60. Gratuity, to Miss C. Swan, Methuen, for china paint- 
ing. 
1.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. E. Bicknell, Lawrence, for china 

painting. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Winslow, Lawrence, for china 

painting. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Miss L. Lamprey, Lawrence, for china 

painting. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. James Joyce, Lawrence, for china 

painting. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Hattie Stowell, Lawrence, for china 

painting. 
1.00. Gratuity, to 0. A. Kenefick, Lawrence, for portraits. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Enterprise Photograph Co., Lawrence, 

for photographs. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mary Lee, Lawrence, for water color. 



74 

1.00. Gratuity, to Mr. Cooper, Lawrence, for water color. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Mary McCabe, Lawrence, for oil paint- 
ing. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Mary Williams, No. Andover, for oil 
painting. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Louise Mathews, Lawrence, for water 
color. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Annie Haley, Lawrence, for crayon. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Nellie Magoon, Lawrence, for oil paint- 
ing. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Charlotte Swan, Lawrence, for oil paint- 
ing. 

1.00. Gratuity, to M. A. Summers, Lawrence, for oil 
painting. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. John Porter, Lawrence, for oil 
painting. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Marion Jenkins, Lawrence, for oil 
painting. 

1.00. Gratuity, to A. Greeley, Lawrence, for oil color. 

75c. Gratuity, to Mary Swett, Lawrence, for china paint- 
ing. 

75c. Gratuity, to Ella Scott, Lawrence, for china painting. 

75c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Dane Scott, Lawrence, for china 
painting. 

75c. Gratuity, to Kate Clarke, Lawrence, for china paint- 
ing. 

75c. Gratuity, to Mary Bean, Lawrence, for china painting. 

75c. Gratuity, to Bessie Swan, Methuen, for china paint- 
ing. 

75c. Gratuity to Mrs. Bruce, Lawrence, for china painting. 

75c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Wainwright, Lawrence, for china 
painting. 

75c. Gratuity, to Miss Hodgdon, Methuen, for china paint- 
ing. 

75c. Gratuity, to Miss Fremmer, Lawrence, for china 
painting. 

75c. Gratuity, to Miss Bradley, Lawrence, for china paint- 
ing. 



75 

75c. Gratuity, to Miss Conlon, Lawrence, for china paint- 
ing. 

50c. Gratuity, to Miss Shepherd, Lawrence, for china 
painting. 

50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. G. H. Hadley, Lawrence, for 
china painting. 

50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Holt, Lawrence, for china painting. 

50c. Gratuity, to Marion C. Howard, Lawrence, for china 
painting. 

50c. Gratuity, to Miss G. M. Copp, Lawrence, for oil 
painting. 

50c. Gratuity, to W. E. Spear, Lawrence, for crayon 
painting. 
Mrs. F. E. Clarke, S. P. Boynton, Mrs. Nellie Winches- 
ter, Virginia Stevens — Committee. 



CHILDREN'S WORK. 
The Committee on Children's Work have attended to 

their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 

they have made the following awards : 

$3.00. First premium, to Ethel Churchill, Lawrence, for 
work on towels. 

2.00. Second premium, to',Lizzie Little, Haverhill, for mat. 

50c. Gratuity, to Hattie Rea, No. Andover, for apron and 
needlework. 

50c. Gratuity, to Arthur Packard, Lawrence, for table 
cover. 

50c. Gratuity, to Katherine Herrick, Lawrence, for skirt. 

50c. Gratuity, to Isabelle St.C. Herrick, Lawrence, for 
skirt. 

50c. Gratuity, to Sadie Taylor, Lawrence, for needlework. 

50c. Gratuity, to Alice E. Chase, Methuen, for com- 
fortable. 

50c. Gratuity to Lottie Griffin, Lawrence, for apron. 

50c. Gratuity, to Grace McAllister, Lawrence, for tray 
cloth. 



76 

There were several articles of merit that would have re- 
ceived special notice, but the ages of the children were 
above the required age of twelve years. 

The committee recommend that the age be changed from 
twelve to fourteen years. 

Alice U. Russell, Mrs. L. S. Currier, Mrs. G. L. Burn- 
ham, Mrs. Bennet Griffin — Committee. 



MANUFACTURES AND GENERAL MERCHAN- 
DISE. 
The Committee on Manufactures and General Mer- 
chandise have attended to their duty, and respectfully re- 
port to the Secretary that they have made the following 
awards : 

Diploma, to George E. Marsh, Lynn, for Good Will Soap. 
Diploma, to the Lawrence Gas Co., Lawrence, for stoves. 
Diploma, to M. E. Austin, Lawrence, for display of Hard- 
ware. 
Diploma, to the Beach Soap Co., Lawrence, for display 

of soap. 
Diploma, to the Briggs & AUyn Manufacturing Co., Law- 
rence, for display of mantels and woodwork. 
Diploma, to Brown & Acroyd, Lawrence, for dress goods. 
Diploma, to Byron Truell, Lawrence, for dress goods. 
Diploma, to the People's Furnishing Store for Gent's 

Furnishings. 
Diploma, to Mrs. D. A. Mathews for system of dress cut- 
ting. 
$5.00 Gratuity, to the Glen Mills, Rowley, for 16 varie- 
ties manufd cereals. 
1.00 Gratuity, to P. Hoogerziel, Beverly, for metal 

goods. 
1.00 Gratuity, to Carl A. Garris, for taxidermists' 

goods. 
1.00 Gratuity, to H. C. Carrol, for electric plating 
work. 



1.00 Gratuity, to Treat Hardware Co., Lawrence, for 
hardware. 

2.00 Gratuity, to Sanborn <fe Robinson, Lawrence, for 
display of hardware. 

1.00 Gratuity, to D. H. Flint, Danvers, for steam 
cooker. 

1.00 Gratuity, to Scollay & Rich, Lawrence, for dia- 
mond metal polish. 

50c. Gratuity, to Thos. Edge, Lawrence, for clocks. 

50c. Gratuity, to Samuel Walch, Lawrence, for stuffed 
birds. 

50c. Gratuity, to Edward Atherton, Lawrence, taxider- 
mist. 

75c. Gratuity, to Samuel Lake, Lawrence, taxidermist. 

oOc. Gratuity, to Anson L. Griffin, Lawrence, for snow 
owl, 

50c. Gratuity, to the Page Catering Co., Lawrence, con- 
fectionery. 

.50c. Gratuity, to J. J. Hannagan, Lawrence, for peat 
moss. 

50c. Gratuity, to Wm. Henderson, Lawrence, for 
stuffed loon. 
John H. George, W. J. Dole, Mrs. Frances Fitts, E. 
B. Dale — Committee. 



GRANGE EXHIBIT. 

The Committee on the Grange Exhibit have attended 
to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary 
that they have made the following awards : 
$40. First premium, to the Andover Grange for exhibit. 
30. Second premium, to the No. Andover Grange for 

exhibit. 
20. Third premium, to the West Boxford Grange for 

exhibit. 
10. Fourth premium, to the Methuen Grange for 
exhibit. 



78 

Sherman Nelson, Doane Cogswell, Chas. H. Preston,. 
S. F. Newman, Asa. F, Newhall — Coynmittee. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON ROOT CROPS. 

The Committee selected to examine the Root Crops en- 
tered for premium respectively submit the following report. 
We have received in all fifteen entries, viz. : 

David Warren, Swampscott, onions. John H. George, 
Methuen, potatoes and onions. Otis L. Kent, Newbury- 
port, onions. J. Henry Nason, West Boxford, potatoes. 
Chas. C. Blunt, Andover, cabbage, parsnips, carrots and 
turnips. Samuel H. Bailey, Andover, cabbage. Walter 
Smith, Methuen, cabbage. Chas. B. Carlton, West Box- 
ford, potatoes. Daniel A. Carlton, Andover, cabbage. E. 
C. Little, Haverhill, mangolds and potatoes. 

It is indeed an unfavorable season, when Essex County 
does not succeed in raising some extra large crops ; we 
were agreeably surprised to find, in a season like the pre- 
sent, such large crops, especially onions and potatoes. 

The Committee desire to thank each competitor, whom 
they had occasion to visit, for the cordial manner in which 
they were received and for the knowledge obtained in their 
special branch of farming. It is impossible for an observ- 
ing person to thus visit these representative farmers, with- 
out gaining valuable information in nearly every depart- 
ment of this most complicated, but noblest occupation of 
man. 

Although the duties of this Committee are as ^ rule, 
somewhat arduous, occupying considerable time, we feel 
that we have been amply rewarded for our services, by the 
knowledge gained by thus meeting our fellow farmers. 

Sept. 1, we commenced our duties by calling on Mr. 
David Warren, who many of the members of the society 
know as a specialist in growing and putting up superior 
seeds, such as cabbage, squash, carrot, sweet corn, etc. 
He occupies the Hooper farm in Swampscott, where that 



79 

famous cabbage, the Stone Mason, was originated by John 
Mason, who later in life, purchased and passed the re- 
mainder of his days on one of the best farms in Amesbury, 
which is situated on the borders of the lake made ever 
celebrated by Whittier's poem, Maids of Attitash. 
"In sky and wave the white clouds swam, 

And the blue hills of Nottingham 
Through gaps^of leafy green 
Across the lake were seen." 

Mr. Warren's onion crop was at the time of our visit 
completely dried^down, of good size, very thick and of 
extra fine quality. 

We are sorry to report that Mr. Warren decided not to 
put in his statement. In this connection the Committee 
wish to call the attention of the trustees to the rule, — "In 
ascertaining the amount of crop, any vessel may be used 
and the weight of its contents once, multiplied by the 
number of times it is filled by the crop." There are some 
crops in this department, such as carrots, parsnips, and es- 
pecially, cabbage, that it is impracticable to get at the 
amount of the crop in this way; these crops are not generally 
harvested at the time when the statements are called for 
(Nov. 1st,), thus we did not attempt to hold these crops to 
the rule. We believe there should be some definite method 
to guide the Committee in the future, in like cases. In re- 
gard to onions, it is the practice of many who wish to keep 
them for winter marketing, to store them with the tops 
on, so it is quite a task to correctly compute the crop ac- 
cording to this rule— this, as we understand, was the 
cause of Mr. Warren's failure to put in his statement. 

On returning from Mr. Warren's we saw Mr. Kent's 
field of onions at Newburyport, most of which were of 
good quality, the right size, but not quite as ripe at that 
time as the average crops this season. In order to make 
an half acre (the required area) he had to put in some 
twenty rods of new land which materially reduces his 
yield. It was quite evident that on Sept. 3, we undertook 
to accomplish too much work and to go over too much ter- 



8o 

ritory. Not being able to be on time to meet our last en- 
gagement, we had the pleasure of a walk of about four 
miles around the lake from No. Andover to West Boxford; 
we certainly realized that Andover is a large town. 

In the morning we were met at Methuen, by Mr. 
George. His onions and potatoes were grown on the rich 
meadow land, which all who have read his statements dur- 
ing the last few years in the transactions of this society, 
are familiar with. The variety he raised this season was 
the Southport Yellow Globe, which were well ripened, of 
fine size and no picklers, but in our judgment not quite up 
in quality to the Danvers Yellow. 

Mr. George called our attention to the ravages of the 
maggot. In a former statement he spoke of an experi- 
ment with gas-lime, which that season seemed to be a sure 
preventative, but this year the maggot worked worse where 
the most lime was applied. 

It has been the experience of the writer that land 
ploughed in the Fall and only harrowed in the Spring, 
which leaves the ground more compact, will be nearly free 
from this pest, in other words, the maggot works most in 
soft soil. 

Mr. George's potatoes were also on the meadow and 
were a good crop for this season. 

On adjoining ground Walter Smith showed us his field 
of cabbage which he entered for the society's premium. 

Leaving Methuen we next called on Mr. Blunt at Ando- 
ver; arriving there at noon, we were kindly invited to 
dine, after which we proceeded to Mr. Blunt's fields to 
view his parsnips, carrots, cabbage and turnips; each crop 
gave evidence of good fertilizing and care, free from weeds 
and very thrifty — we judge that Mr. Blunt is as good a 
farmer as he is Superintendent of Fair grounds. 

We also looked at a piece of cabbage entered by Samuel 
H. Bailey who lived near. All the cabbage crops which 
we saw were looking well — but it was early in the season 
to form any opinion as to the amount of the crop. 

J. Henry Nason of West Boxford has one of the few ex- 



tra pieces of potatoes this season — large, smooth, with 
scarcely any not marketable. 

Sept. 15, we were at Crystal Lake Farm, Haverhill, 
which is owned by Mr. Marsh ; the crops, potatoes and 
mangolds were entered by his energetic foreman, Mr. E. 
C. Little. The drive from the city to the farm, across the 
highlands, through No. Broadway was much enjoyed. Ar- 
riving at the farm we found a splendid piece of potatoes 
for any year, a crop of over four hundred bushels per acre; 
here, even with this large crop we are again reminded of 
the importance of a frequent change of seed, Mr. Little 
calling our attention to the fact that on two rows planted 
with seed which was raised from that which was brought 
from the East in 1891, the yield was 22 bushels, while on 
the two next rows, planted with seed, procured from the 
East this Spring, 36 bushels were grown. 

He has a fine crop of mangolds which we consider en- 
titled to a premium. 

Within a few years there has been a marked change in 
the method of growing potatoes. Tiie writer well remem- 
bers the old time way which was a tedious one, the plough- 
ing being done with a slow yoke of oxen, then harrowed 
with the same team with a square iron tooth-harrow, then 
opened with a hand hoe, now by the potato planter, or 
some other improved manner. Two seasons, I have used 
the Daniels furrower, which is a disc implement opening 
two rows at once, at equal distances and as straight as a 
pair of horses can be driven. The same machine covers 
in a fine manner, it also does the hilling better than any 
other implement, in fact it is the most satisfactory tool I 
have ever used. Li raising my potatoes I did not touch a 
hand hoe, and they were more free from weeds than I 
could have possibly kept them by the old process. 

Digging by hand which is at best a slow job, can be 
very much accelerated by the use of the horse machine, 
although most, including even such expert farmers as 
have raised the premium crops of the county, still cling to 



82 

the hand work in harvesting. To satisfy myself that there 
■was a quicker and easier way to do that work I borrowed 
of a neighbor, a digger (manufactured by the same firm 
as the furrower), and used it on one-half acre. In fifteen 
minutes I dug twenty-two bushels. 

It is true that it takes some longer to pick the potatoes, 
but its use is a great saving. 

Another point is that the tubers are not cut or pricked 
as in hand work. 

This tool works very much better where there are no 
weeds, and should its use become general it will have a 
tendency to better cultivation. 

Charles B. Carlton entered a piece of potatoes ; we saw 
Mr. Carlton on the day of the fair at Lawrence, and he 
decided not to have the Committee go to his place, saying 
that he should not put in a statement. 

Our next and last visit was at Daniel A. Carlton's, his 
crop as usual was cabbage and a fine field it was. 

If there is any evidence in the many premiums which 
he has obtained from the society for his cabbage crops, he 
certainly knows how to raise that vegetable. 

The Committee having inspected all the crops which 
were entered, with the exception of Mr. Carlton's potato 
crop, at West Boxford (which was withdrawn), and after 
examining the statements of each crop, recommend the 
following awards, viz. 

$10. First premium, to Kent & Marsh, Newbury port, 
for crop of onions. 
$5. Second premium, to John H. George, Methuen, for 
crop of onions. 
First premium, to Crystal Lake Farm, Haverhill, J. 
J. Marsh, Proprieter, E. C. Little, Superinten- 
dent, for crop of potatoes. 
Second premium, to J. Henry Nason, West Boxford, 

for crop of potatoes. 
First premium, to Daniel A. Carlton, Andover, for 
crop of cabbage. 



S3 

15. Second premium, to Walter Smith, Methuen, for 
crop of cabbage. 
110. First premium, to Crystal Lake Farm, Haverhill,, 
J. J. Marsh, Proprietor, E. C. Little, Superinten- 
dent, for crop of mangolds. 
$10. First premium, to Chas. C. Blunt, Andover, for crop 

of English turnips. 
f5. Second premium, to Chas. C. Blunt, Andaver, for 
crop of carrots. 
$10. First premium, to Chas. C. Blunt, Andover, for crop 
of parsnips. 
B. F. Huntington, William S. Phillips, Jr., E. A. Emer- 
son — Committee. 



STATEMENT OF KENT & MAKSH, ONION CROP. 

I submit the following statement of crop of onions en- 
tered for premium. It contains eighty-one rods, is a sandy 
loam, and on high ground. Has been under cultivation 
six years, the last three in onions, except about twenty rods 
which is the first crop of onions, has been manured the 
same, with four cords of stable manure the past three years. 
Was manured and ploughed last fall and ploughed again in 
April. Was sown with 2 1-4 lbs. of Danvers Yellow 
Globe Onion seed, April 18th, was hoed five times and 
weeded four. The new part of the bed was badly eaten by 
cut worm and maggot, taking fully one half of crop. Har- 
vested from the piece, four hundred and ten and three-fifths 
bush. (410 3-5). I measured five rods on the old bed and 
the result was thirty-six bush. 

CROP. Z)r. 

Ploughing and harrowing, |5 OO 

Manure, 4 cords at $5.00, • 20 00 

Seed, 2 1-4 lbs. at $3.00, 6 75 

Sowing, 1 00 

Hoeing and weeding, 22 00 

Harvesting, 8 00 

Topping, 10 15 

72 90' 



84 

Cr. 
By 410 3-5 bush, of onions at 75c., 1307 95 
Balance, $235 05 

My crop is not sold but I could sell today at prices 

above. 

Kent & Marsh. 

Newburyport, Sept. 2, 1892. 
This* is to certify that I have measured the onion land 
for Mr. Kent and find it to contain 87 rods and 26 yards. 

Submitted by 

C. W. Nelson. 



REPORT OF A CROP OF ONIONS, RAISED AND ENTERED 
BY JOHN H. GEORGE OP METHUEN, 1892. 

The crop last year was onions, manured with about 10 
cords of manure per acre. The crop of 1890 was grass, 
this year it was manured part of it with night soil and 
gravel, part with horse and cow manure drawn from the 
barn cellar, part with a fertilizer composed of 1,000 lbs. dis- 
solved from 300 muriate of potash and 200 lbs. nitrate of 
soda applied at the rate of 2,000 lbs. per acre, and on a 
small piece 2 feet of hen manure was put ; the land was 
prepared in the usual way, the manure applied in the Fall, the 
fertilizer in the Spring, as was also the hen manure. The 
ground was ploughed, harrowed, brushed and dragged, and 
seed sown at the rate of 5 lbs. per acre, the kind used 
being the Southport Yellow Globe from Peter Henderson 
of New York City. The seed came up splendid and had 
the maggots let them alone I should have had an enormous 
crop; as it was eaten quite badly in spots, the crop was only 
a medium one, but the quality is first-class in every re- 
spect. I have entered it not so much because I thought I 
had a large crop, but as an interesting experiment with dif- 
ferent kinds of manure. The crop where the hen manure 
was ap[Jied was poorest of the lot, that where night soil 



85 

was put was the best, the fertilizer next, and the manure 
last ; thej were troubled with the maggots most where hen 
manure was used and the least where the fertilizer was 
used, and the night soil next and manure about the same, 
I applied 1-2 cord of gas lime on part of the piece to pre- 
vent the maggots work, but where there was the most lime 
put there was the most maggots. I have told a great 
many people that gas lime was a preventative, as my for- 
mer use of it had given me a good reason to believe. I 
wish to take it all back and say that I don't know of any- 
thing that is of any use, as I have learned long ago that 
one swallow does not make a Summer and I have some- 
times thought that there was not anything sure about farm- 
ing any way, as what will produce a crop one year is sure 
to be a failure some other season. The piece which I en- 
ter contains one half an acre and the cost of the crop has 
been as follows : 

Manure, fertilizer &c., -"$35 00 

Ploughing, brushing and dragging, 3 00 

Seed, 5 00 

Sowing, 75 

Hoeing 5 times. 4 00 

Weeding 4 times, 12 00 

Harvesting and marketing, 30 00 

Interest and taxes on land, 6 00 



195 75 
The land was peat meadow. The crop was 332 bushels 
on one half acre and they are sold at 11.00 per bushel. 
To Onion crop, Or. 1332 00 

« " " Dr. 95 75 

.$237.75 

Respectfully submitted, 

John H. George. 

I hereby certify that I measured the land on which grew 



86 

the crop of onions entered by John H. George of Methuen, 
with the Essex Agricultural Society, and it measured 21,- 
780 feet. 

Isaac H. Laney. 

Methuen, Mass, Oct. 15th, 1892. 



STATEMENT OF E. C. LITTLE, SXJPT. CEYSTAL LAKE FARM. 

The crop of mangels which I enter for premium were 
raised on yellow loam land, quite rocky. The crop of 91 
was ensilage corn, the land being broken up in the 
spring and manure harrowed in. In the fall I spread on 
about six cords per acre of coarse stable manure drawn 
from the city, plowed it in. In the spring of '92, May 20, 
I gave the land a good harrowing, then used a brush 
harrow twice and picked off the rocks. I then put on 
Bradley's fertilizer with the corn planter, it being 
geared to use 400 pounds per acre, rows being three 
feet apart. I then sowed the seed with Sargent's 
machine, which sowed three lbs. of seed per acre, fol- 
lowing the drills that I had previously made with corn 
planter. We weeded and thinned them out twice, and 
cultivated them eleven times. 
Financial statement. 

To ploughing an acre of land. 

Harrowing one acre, 

Marking and putting on Fertilizer, 

400 lbs. of fertilizer, 

3 lbs. of seed. 

Weeding and thinning twice, 

Cultivating, 

Use of land. 

Sowing the seed. 

Six cords of manure, 

Pulling and storing, 

185 65 



Dr 




$5 


00 


2 


00 


1 


50 


8 


40 


1 


50 


9 


00 


5 


50 


6 


00 




75 


30 


00 


16 


00 



87 

6V. 

By 740 bu. at 30 cts. $257 00 

16 loads of tops, 16 00 

$21S 00 

The tops I consider worth the above amount, as when 
I commenced to feed them out, the 16 cows were giving 
an average of eleven cans of milk per day, with some 
grain. I stopped giving grain and fed one cart load of 
tops per day. They have the same pasture feed as be- 
fore and they gained after four days feeding up to fifteen 
cans. The last three days I fed them, they gave 

eighteen cans per day. 

Yours respectfully, 

E. C. Little. 
P. S. I used Stockbridge potato manure on four 
rows right through the middle of the piece and after 
the first of August could see a difference in their favor 
and at the time of harvesting, the mangels were much 
larger. 

This is to certify I measured a piece of land for E. 
•C. Little, on which was raised a crop of mangels, entered 
for premium, and it contained 106 rods. 

E. M. Emerson. 



.STATEMENT OF J. HENRY NASON, BOXFORD, POTATO 

CROP. 

The crop on this land in 1890 was grass, about one 
ton to the acre, no manure. 

The crop in 1891 was sweet corn and applied ten 
cords of manure to the acre. This piece of land is a 
rich loam, with a subsoil of gravel ; the manure on this 
piece was ploughed in about five inches deep in 1891. 

In 1892 used the same amount of manure and ploughed 
it in about six inches deep, 



Cost of manure per acre 10 cords at $4.00, 

Ploughing and harrowing. 

Eight bushels seed at 75 cts. per bush., 

Planting with potato planter, 

GOO lbs. phosphate applied with planter, 

Cost of cultivating horse and man 1st time, 

One man two days hoeing. 

Cultivating with horse and man second hoeing, 1 00 

Hoeing and weeding 2 men 2 days, 4 00 

Cost of harvesting crop, 12 00 



•140 


0(r 


3 


OU 


6 


00 


2 


00 


9 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 



■if^SO 00 



The number of bushels per acre of 60 lbs, each was 
328, variety Early Rose and Hebron, and I commenced to 
market them July 20th. 

J. Henry Nason. 

Essex Co., West Boxfoed, Mass., Sept. 17, 1892. 

This may certify that I have this day surveyed a 
potato field for J. Henry Nason of Boxford, containing 
one and one-third acres (or one and 19-57 acres is the 
exact measurement), from which Mr. Nason said he 
had raised four hundred and thirty-eight bushels of pota- 
toes this year (1892). 

James H. Webster, 

Surveyor, 



STATEMENT OF CROP OF POTATOES RAISED BY E. C. LIT- 
TLE, SUPT. OF CRYSTAL LAKE FARM. 

Crop of potatoes which I enter for premium was raised 
on yellow loam, quite rocky. The crop of '91 was Ensilage 
corn, the land being broken up in the Spring and 
manure harrowed in. In the Fall, I spread on about six 
cord per acre, of coarse stable manure drawn from the city, 
and ploughed it in. In the spring of '92, April 20th, I 



89 

gave the land a good harrowing, furrowed the land and 
sprinkled in the furrows at the rate of about 900 lbs. of 
Stockbridge's potato manure per acre. I started with the 
intention of seeing how cheap I could raise potatoes. We 
dropped them by hand about 12 inches apart, using large 
seeds cut so as to leave about two eyes in a piece and one 
piece in a place. We covered them with a horse-hoe and 
did no hand labor on them afterwards, except one man 
one half day weeding out the hills. There were two acres 
in the whole. I used for seeds, Holton Rose, Beauty of 
Hebron and New Queen which came from Maine. Holton 
Rose and New Queen were the best. The New Queen 
were on the half acre which I enter, it taking about 
twelve hills to a fill a bushel. They were very large with 
but very [ew small ones. The rows were three feet and a 
half apart, marked with a marker. I tried an experiment 
with the Hebron to plant two rows of small seed, the re- 
sult was I got about half the quantity per row. I also 
tried two rows with Bradley's Fertilizer. They did not do 
nearly as well as with the Stockbridge. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT. JDv. 

Ploughing one half acre of land, |2 50 

Harrowing, 1 50 

Marking and opening furrows, 75 

450 lbs. of Stockbridge potato manure, 8 40 

Paris green, 60 

Applying the same, 2 00 

Two lbs. of seed potatoes, 5 00 

Dropping and covering, 1 50 

3 cords of manure at 85.00, 15 00 

Applying the same, 75 

Cultivating and hilling seven times, 3 50 

Digging and storing, 15 00 

Use of land, 3 00 

$59 50 



90 

Cr. 

Ten bushels of small potatoes, $2 50 

Eleven bushels medium, 4 40 

230 bushels at 80 cts. 184 00 

1190 90 

The produce of the half acre was 251 bushels at the rate 
of 502 per acre. 

Yours respectfully, 

E. C. Little. 

This is to certify that I measured one half acre of land for 
E. C. Little, on which was crop of potatoes, entered for 
premium. 

E. M. Emerson. 



STATEMENT OF CROP OF CABBAGES, RAISED BY DANIEL A. 
CARLETON, NO. ANDOVER, MASS. 

The half acre of cabbage, entered by me, were raised on 
a piece of run out grass land, that had had no manure for 
several years. The soil was a dark shallow loam, with a 
subsoil so stony, that it was impossible to turn the sod 
smoothly. About twenty loads of cow manure per acre 
was plowed under six inches deep, the ground harrowed 
and Brunswick cabbage seed sown June 15, at the rate of 
I lbs. per acre, in rows 3^ ft. apart, afterwards the plants 
were thinned so as to stand li ft. apart in the rows, i ton 
Cumberland phosphate per acre, was sown in the drill. 
The piece was hoed three times. There are 3,750 
cabbages on the half acre ; by cutting and weighing what I 
consider an average lot, I find that they weigh about six 
lbs. each, which would give 45,000 lbs. or 450 bbls. per 
acre, allowing 100 lbs. per bbl. 



91 



COST PER ACRE. 


Dr. 


Plowing and preparing land, 


18 00 


Seed and sowing, 


2 00 


Hoeing, 


15 00 


Phosphate, 


17 00 


Manure, 


60 00 



Cost per acre before harvesting $102 00 

VALUE OF CROP IN THE FIELD. 

7500 cabbages at 4 cts. each, $300 00 

Profit per acre, $198 00 

I hereby certify that I have measured a field of cabbage, 
entered by Daniel A. Carleton, for premium, and find it 
contains one half acre. 

Amos D. Carleton. 



STATEMENT OF CHARLES C. BLUNT, ANDOVER, CARROT 
CROP, ONE-HALF ACRE. 

To the Committee on Root Crops : 

The land occupied by the crop of carrots, which I enter 
for premium is a light loam with a gravelly subsoil. The 
crop of 1890 was grass ; the crop of 1891, cabbage, 
manured at the rate of seven cords per acre after the cab- 
bage crop was harvested. The land was well ploughed ten 
inches deep, and in the spring barn manure was used at 
the rate of six cords per acre and 500 lbs. of phosphate, 
and again ploughed, harrowed, brushed and soveed the 20th 
of May, in drills fifteen inches apart, using at the rate of 
two pounds seed per acre, hoed by boys through twice, 
weeded three times by boys, and the yield was 325 bushels 
on the half acre. 



92 



COST OF CEOP. 


Dr. 


Preparation of land, 


84 00 


Manure, 3 cords. 


18 00 


Phosphate, 


7 00 


Hoeing, weeding and thinning, 


16 00 


Harvesting, 


7 50 


Seed and sowing. 


2 25 



154 75- 
Cr. 
By 325 bii. carrots at 50c. per bu., $162 50 
Profit per acre, f 215 50 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. C. Blunt. 

I hereby certify that I have measured a field of carrots 
for C. C. Blunt, entered for premium, and find it contains 
one-half acre. 

S. H. Bailey. 

Having measured a portion of the carrots on the piece 
of C. C. Blunt, the yield is at the rate of 325 bushels on 
one-half acre, of fifty-five pounds to the bushel. 

S. H. Bailey. 



STATEMENT OF WALTER SMITH, METHUEN, CABBAGE CROP. 

The crop of 1890 was a light crop of grass, not more 
than 800 per acre. The crop of 1891 was the same. There 
was a crop of grass fed off this spring and the land was 
ploughed the first of June, seed sown from the 18th to the 
20th of June. They were manured in the hill with a mix- 
ture of wool waste, night soil and horse manure, about five 
cords to the acre. The crop has not all been gathered yet, 
so we have measured 1 square rod, and the crop is esti- 
mated from that rod. 



93 





COST 


OF CROP. 


Dr. 


Ploughing, 








12 00 


Harrowing, 








1 00 


Furrowing, 








50 


Seed, 1-4 lb., 








1 00 


Manure, 








15 00 


Putting in hill, 








4 50 


Planting, 








1 50 


Hoeing once, 








1 50 


Cultivating twice. 








1 00 


Harvesting, 








2 50 


Interest and taxes 


on 


land, 


1 50 



132 00 
There was on the rod 2 1-2 barrels, or 400 barrels per 
acre. I am selling at |1.00 per barrel. 

Crop, Cr. $200 00 

" Dr. 32 00 



Profit, 1168 00 

Respectfully submitted, 

Walter Smith. 

I certify that I measured the rod of land on which grew 
the two and one-half barrels of cabbage. 

John H. George. 



statement of CHARLES C. BLUNT, CONCERNING CROP OF 

PARSNIPS. 

The land occupied by the crop of parsnips, which I en- 
ter for premium, is a dark loam, with a gravelly subsoil. 
The crop of 1890 was sweet corn, manured in the hill at 
the rate of four cords per acre. The crop of 1891 was 
squashes, manured at the rate of seven cords per acre. In 
the Fall after the sauashes were harvested, the land was 



94 

plowed fine twelve inches deep, and in the Spring, barn 
manure, at the rate of seven cords per acre, was plowed in 
and six hundred lbs. phosphate used, harrowed and 
brushed, and four lbs. of seed sowed on tlie 10th day of 
April, and the yield was two hundred and ninety-five 
(295) bushels on the one half acre. Hoed through three 
times, weeding done four times, boy labor. 

COST OF CROP. Dr. 

Preparation of land, $4 60 

Manure 3| cords, 21 00 

Hoeing, weeding and thinning, 24 00 

Seed and sowing, 5 00 

Harvesting, 12 00 

166 50 
CV. 
By 295 bu. parsnips at 11.00 per bu. $295 00 
Profit, $228 50 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. C. Blunt. 

This certifies that I have measured a tract of land, hav- 
ing on it a crop of parsnips, owned by Charles C. Blunt, 
of Andover, and entered by him for a premium, and find 
it contains eighty square rods. 

Samuel Thayer. 

Having measured a portion of the parsnips on the above 
piece, the yield is at the rate of two hundred and ninety- 
five bushels on one half acre, of fifty-five lbs. to the bushel. 

Samuel Thayer. 



STATEMENT OF CHARLES C. BLUNT, CONCERNING CROP 
OF SUMMER TURNIPS. 

The crop of summer turnips which I enter for premium,. 



95 

is a second crop, coming after a crop of early potatoes. 
The soil is the same as the other crops, light loam. The 
crop of 1891 was cabbage, seven cords of manure was 
used. The crop of 1892 was early potatoes, planted in the 
drill, fine rotted manure with six hundred lbs. phos- 
phate used in the drill, no manure or phosphate was used 
for the turnip crop. After the potatoes were dug, the land 
■was brushed and purple turnip seed sowed at the rate of 
one lb. to the acre, on the 8th of August, in drill 14 inches 
apart, hoed through once, and thinned by boys. The crop 
is smooth and handsome and the yield is three hundred 
and fifty (350) bushels on the half acre. 



COST OF CROP. 


Dr. 


Preparation of land, 


11 00 


Seed and sowing, 


1 35 


Hoeing and thinning, 


5 00 


Harvesting, 


8 00 



fl5 35 
Cr. 
By 350 bu. turnips, at 50 cts. per bu. $175 00 
Profit per acre, 159 65 

This certifies that I estimate the turnips raised by C. C. 
Blunt, and entered for premium, on one half acre, to be 
three hundred and fifty bushels. 

S. H. Bailey. 

I hereby certify, that I have measured a field of turnips, 
for C. C. Blunt, entered for premium, and find it contains 
one half acre. 

S. H. Bailey. 



REPORT OP COMMITTEE ON FOREST TREES. 
To the Trustees of the Essex Agricultural Society : 

Your committee was called upon twice to inspect plan- 
tations of trees. 



96 

The first visit was made on Wednesday, September 
21st, to the fruit farm of Charles W. Woods. Prof. John 
Robinson was joined to the committee for that day to fill 
a vacancy, and ]\Iessrs. George L. Hawkes of Lynnfield, 
J. Henry Hill of Amesbury, and the chairman were pres- 
ent. 

We met Mr. Woods at the station in Newburyport. 
Your committee drove thence to Sea View Fruit Farm, 
on a beautiful day, passing through one of New Eng- 
land's most interesting streets, the main avenue of the old 
sea-port Newburyport, with its fine mansions, both old 
and new. 

The out-of-door experience was a contrast to the wintry 
day of our successful "Institute" at Newbury, last 
spring ; but the indoor hospitality of the citizens was 
continued at the end of your committee's tour of inspec- 
tion. 

Mr. Woods' description and personal '^opinions, which 
accompany this report are commended to your attention. 

We first viewed the hedge that borders the highway, 
which had been injured by circumstances beyond the 
owner's control, but was otherwise in fair order. 

The hedge that bordered the avenue by which the 
buildings are approached was in excellent order and de- 
serving of praise. It was composed of arbor vitae trees 
kept low. It had been judiciously planted, and well cared 
for. 

Beyond the buildings and bordering the road avenue, 
or road, was another hedge of tall Norway spruces, kept 
trimmed in on the sides, and looking^ well. 

Your committee then inspected the vegetable and fruit 
lands. 

A lot of apple trees on the farm' are deserving of inci- 
dental attention, as being in an extremely healthy condi- 
tion, both as to the tree and its fruit. 

We recommend that the premium for ornamental trees, 
ten or more set on any street, road or farm, and cared for 



97 

five years, being flO, be awarded to Charles W. Woods of 
Newbury for his plantation. 

The second visit of your committee was made to the 
farm of Mr. M. C. Andrews of Andover. The chairman 
was prevented from being present and requested Mr. 
French of North Andover to fill his place in inspecting 
the plantation, and he, with Mx-. George L. Hawkes of 
Lynnfield, represented your board. 

Mr. French reported to your chairman, in substance as 
follows : — that the plantings seemed a worthy attempt in 
tree planting and an example which well deserves encour- 
agement and recognition. The trees were planted at 
various times and in several places, so it was somewhat 
difficult to judge of them as a whole on account of this 
and the different heighths and conditions, some of them 
being much more vigorous than others. 

The premium appears to be for a single variety and the 
maples come under the offer of the society, so that the 
premium of $520 is recommended to M. C. Andrews of 
Andover, for his plantation of maple trees, not less than 
three years old, and not less than 1000 trees. 

Mr. French refers to those of Mr. Andrews' trees that 
are on tlie roadside and raises the point that they would 
have been of better appearance if those of a similar kind 
had been planted together, and had the varieties not been 
mixed. 

Mr. Andrews has forwarded a statement which accom- 
panies this report, but if he feels inclined to enlarge upon 
it for publication in the " Transactions," it could not fail 
to be very useful in encouraging that work, whicli has 
resulted in being the most attractive feature in those local- 
ities that have, throughout New England, become attrac- 
tive to people who have chosen them for their homes. 

Planting on our roadsides was popular among a pre- 
vious generation of New Englanders, and to them we of 
to-day are indebted for very much of the beauty and at- 
tractiveness of localities that would otherwise have been 



98 

no better for homesteads than stretches of farming lands, 
or pastures, unprotected by trees. 

But these same farming lands, would be improved by a 
judicious roadside planting. Much of such results have 
started from the quiet work of agricultural and village 
improvement societies. 

To show what influence such societies have often, let 
me state some information that I gained upon visiting large 
rose glass-houses that cover a number of acres on the 
other side of Boston, where the railroads do so much to 
accommodate the land owners and its patrons. 

I knew that formerly all the roses grown there were 
shipped to New York City. I asked if the roses continued 
to be sent to New York, and was informed that they now 
went to Boston. Did the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society's influence tend to so cultivate and increase the 
taste of Bostonians for flowers that they became a market 
for what had, previously to late years, been sent else- 
where, I asked. Yes, very largely so. 

I want to impress upon our members the great value of 
our society, in establishing good ideas by keeping in the 
lead in the future as it has in the past, and in moulding 
public opinion as to what is best to do and have so far as 
our field of action can extend. 

We shall have important measures to consider to-day, 
and they demand unprejudiced, but reasonabl}^ conserva- 
tive thought. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Francis H. Applbton, Chairman. 



STATEMENT CONCERNING HEDGE OF NORWAY SPRUCE 

AND ARBORVIT^, GROWN BY CHARLES W. WOODS 

OF NEWBURY. 

Twenty years ago I bought 1000 seedling plants im- 
ported through T. C. Thurlow. They were five or six 



99 

inches high, and the whole bundle could have been car- 
ried in an overcoat pocket. I set them out in a nursery, 
and cared for them by shading and keeping clear of weeds 
about three years, when they were two and one-half to 
three feet high, when I planted them in the hedge rows 
four feet apart, being careful to move them in a warm, 
moist day in May. Care was taken in having the ground 
mellow where planted, also to keep as much soil as possi- 
ble on the roots and not allowing them to get the least 
dry. I saved a few in the nursery to replace in the hedge 
if needed, bat by exercising great care in setting have 
had little trouble that way. I believe if great care is 
taken in setting a hedge, or, in fact, in setting any kind of 
trees there will be little difficulty in making them live. 
The soil is a light loam with a thin strata of clay three 
feet below. I have used no manure except wood ashes 
years ago, nothing since. Used a mulch of dry leaves for 
the first three or four years. After the trees met in the 
rows, commenced to prune each year the last of August 
or first of September, by cutting square across the top, 
also the sides. I keep them about five feet high and now 
they are one solid wall. About six years ago I com- 
menced to let the row back of residence grow up to form^ 
a wind break by allowing the tops to grow but still prun- 
ing the sides. They are now twenty-five feet high and 
serve to break the cold northeast storms. My hedges if in 
a straight line would measure one-third of a mile. Would 
recommend to any one setting out a hedge to use wire for 
a fence as mine was somewhat injured by keeping a board 
fence too long before taking away. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Charles W. Woods. 



STATEMENT OF M. C. ANDREWS, ANDOVER, FOREST TREES- 

I enter for premium not less than 1100 maple trees, 
(mostly rock), grown and transplanted on my own land. 



lOO 

In addition to the above I have more than 300 of difierent 
varieties, viz. locust, birch, white ash, white pine, most 
of which were grown and transplanted on my own farm. 
Also white oak, yellow oak, locust, birch, walnut, which 
I raised from the seed. 

I have spruce and many other varieties which I think 
are not called for in your list. All of the above named 
trees are not less than three years old. 

I also enter for premium more than 100 ornamental 
trees, mostly by the roadside, others by the walks and 
driveways on my farm. My crops on the farm this season 
are very light on account of the great drought. Therefore 
a little help from the good old Essex Agricultural Society 
will help pay the taxes. 

Yours truly, 

M. C. Andrews. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON SMALL FRUITS. 

The Committee on Small Fruits have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they liave 
made the following award : 

$10. First premium, to J. Webb Barton, Danvers, for 
strawberry crop. 

I was requested by the secretary of the society to visit 
the grounds of J. W. Barton of Danvers, and view his 
crop of strawberries, which he had entered for a premium. 
I went as requested and was the only one present of the 
committee, at that time the crop was about one-half gath- 
ered, and was quite good for a year when most fields of 
strawberries in New England were very poor. 

The fruit this year brought good prices, owing to a deficit 
of production, which, with many growers, was almost a total 
failure. 

In Mr. Barton's report he makes no mention of cost of 
marketing or the worth of liis labor, or the cost of the use 



lOI 

of high priced land, and to my mind such reports are mis- 
leading. The owner's labor ought to be added to the cost 
as well as the hired labor. He cites the price he received 
in the city for his crop. Can any one go to market for 
nothing ? 

I never found any one that would market my products 
and find team for the fun of doing it. 

J. S. Needham, Committee. 



STATEMENT OF J. WEBB BARTON, DANVERS, OF STKAW- 
BEEKY CHOP. 

The land had been in grass several years and at the 
time of ploughing (1891) was largely June grass. The 
preparation of the soil was very thorough, and before set- 
ting plants, one ton of Canada ashes was harrowed in. 
The rows were four feet apart and the plants 18 to 24 in- 
ches apart. 

The varieties were Haverland, Buboch No. 5 and Cres- 
cent, with Chas. Downing as a fertilizer. There were also 
a few Gaudy, Warfield, Sharpless and Belmont. On a por- 
tion of the bed the plants made poor growth and also some 
were killed by the white worm, larva of the June beetle. 
Considerable work was done filling in tliese places in July, 
and some time was also spent in placing runners. The 
plants were allowed free growth. In July, 500 pounds of 
ground bone was cultivated in. After the ground had 
frozen the bed was covered with meadow hay. This was 
removed in the spring and 950 pounds home made fertili- 
zer applied, and the entire bed was weeded by hand. A 
large number of plants were taken up and I allow this to 
balance the first cost of plants. About ten days previous 
to the first picking, the foliage began to show signs of in- 
jury, and in the Warfield this proved serious enough to af- 
fect the fruit both in size and quantity. 

The first berries were picked June 13, and the last pick- 



I02 

ing for market was July 5th. Of the newer varieties I 
think Haverland proved the best. Bubach is also good but 
suffered more by wet weather. I should judge both would 
be too soft for shipment by rail to Boston. 

Warfield except for the injury of the foliage would be 
profitable to raise, though poor in quality, unless left a long 
time upon the vine. Gaudy is a good berry but a shy 
bearer, and it is very doubtful if it has a place outside of the 
home garden. Beverly, of which I had a small bed in 
another part of the field, is a very beautiful berry, larg-e 
size, and it promises to be very popular. 

It is perhaps not out of place to say here that 1 shall 
fruit the next season about eighteen varieties, most of which 
are new. I will call attention to the fact that there is no 
charge in the account for marketing, superintendence of 
packing and interest on land. 

3440 boxes strawberries, $4Q1 43 

Ploughing, harrowing etc., 

Setting and trimming plants, 

1 ton ashes and labor, 

Work on runners, &c.. 

Cultivating and weeding. 

Meadow hay and labor, 

Weeding in 1892, 

950 lbs. fertilizer, 

Cutting paths, &c., 

Picking, 



Net profit on crop (32,475 sq. ft.), 

EATE PER ACEE. 

Product 4,613 boxes, $618 60 

Cost, 244 37 



11 


15 






8 


41 






9 


50 






3 


75 






22 


15 






13 


65 






8 


15 






13 


50 






6 


00 






72 


00 


1182 








20 






279 


23 



Net profit, $374 23 

J. Webb Barton. 



lo- 



This certifies that I measured the strawberry bed entered 
for premium by J. Webb Barton and found it to contain 
32,475 feet. 

Charles H. Prestok. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON GRAIN CROPS. 

The Committee on Grain Crops respectfully report that 
they have awarded premiums as follows, viz. : 
$10. First premium, to C. K. Ordway & Son, West 

Newbury, for hay crop. 
#10. First premium, to Henry M. Killam, West Boxford, 
for corn crop. 
$5. Second premium, to Charles A. Andrew, West 
Boxford, for corn crop. 
-ilO. First premium, to C. K. Ordway & Son, West New- 
bury, for oat crop. 
$10. First premium, to Maurice H. Connor, West New- 
bury, for rye crop. 
$5. Second premium, to Hartwell B. Abbott, Andover, 
for rye crop. 
The Committee was first called to visit the farm of Mr. 
Abbott, early in July, where we saw several fields of rye 
besides the one entered for premium. The field to which 
our attention was called, was a splendid sight, as the grain 
was then growing in the field, some of it at a height above 
the reach of the Committee. We then felt quite confident 
that Mr. Abbott would receive the first premium and it was 
not until after considerable deliberation that we finally de. 
cided to give him the second. 

Mr. Abbott takes two acres and ten rods of land, and 
raises at the rate of twenty-eight bushels and a fraction per 
acre, while Mr. Connor raises from one acre, 32| bushels. 
Had Mr. Abbott staked off a single acre, we think his 
yield would have come very close to Mr. Connor's. Both 
•crops were remarkably good ones; twenty bushels of rye 
per acre being the amount required for a premium crop. 



I04 

Messrs Ordway & Son, usually give the Committee on 
Grain Crops a pleasant entertainment every year. This 
year we viewed the oat crop of sixty bushels per acre, and 
also a good hay crop, both for quality and quantity ; at 
the suggestion of the Committee, the entire crop of hay 
from a field of five acres was weighed. Mr. Ordway 
could have taken a single acre, within the field and shown 
a greater yield per acre. 

The two premiums for crops of corn, were awarded to 
Messrs Killam and Andrews of Boxford, and we believe 
Boxford usually receives the first premium for corn crop, 
therefore Boxford must be considered the banner town for 
corn raising, but we would suggest to the other towns that 
it will be for their credit to take Boxford down a peg, next 
year. 

Daniel A. Carleton, Benj. P. Ware, Chas. B. Emerson, 
Sidney F. Newman — Committee. 



STATEMENT OF H. M. KILLAM, CORN CROP. 

The crop of 1890 was hay, no manure used. The crop 
of 1891 was also hay, no manure used. 

Soil varies from dark heavy loam at the foot of the hill, 
to' shallow gravelly soil on top of the hill. 

Ploughed in May seven inches deep, harrowed with 
"Nash sod crusher", and levelled with tooth harrow, fur- 
rowed both ways, three and one half feet each way, cost 
of plowing and other preparations $8.00 per acre ; 24 loads 
of manure spread and plowed under •*48.00 ; six hundred 
lbs. of phosphate applied in the hill $10.50. 

Planted May 19th, dropped and covered by hand, six 
quarts of eight rowed yellow corn, cost of seed and plant- 
ing f 4.50, cultivated twice each way and kept as level as 
possible, cost of cultivating and hoeing $4.50, cut up and 
stooked Sept. 23rd, husked Oct. 24, cost of husking and 
harvesting $12.00 ; standing in stooks over a month both 



I05 

stover and corn were well dried ; weight of stover on one 
acre, four and one half tons at iT.OO per ton, $31.50; 
weight of ears 7632 lbs., weight of corn from one hundred 
lbs. of ears was 80 lbs., cobs twenty lbs., shrinking one- 
fifth. Weight of shelled corn on one acre was 6105 lbs. 
lOlf bushels at 75 cts. per bushel, $76.30. 



COST OF CROP. 




Dr. 


Plowing and preparation. 




$8 00 


Manure, 




48 00 


Phosphate, 




10 50 


Seed and planting, 




4 50 


Cultivating and hoeing. 




4 50 


Harvesting, 




12 00 


Total cost, 


Cr. 


187 50 


Stover, 


$31 50 




Corn, 


76 30 




Total, 


— '. 


$107 80 


Profit, 




20 30 



Respectfully submitted, 

H. M. KiLLAM. 



STATEMENT OF C. K. ORD\yAY AND SON, OAT CROP. 

1890, this piece was in grass. 

1891, it was plowed ten inches deep and harrowed, six 
cords of barnyard manure to the acre, spread broadcast, 
harrowed and planted with corn. 

1892, the corn hills were split with a Randall harrow, 
plowed seven inches deep, harrowed and sowed to oats, 
three bushels to the acre, without manure or fertilizer of 
any kind. Seed, White Dutch oats of my own raising, 
the soil is sandy loam. 



io6 



COST OF CROP. 

To plowing and harrowing, 

To sowing, harrowing and smoothing, 

Seed oats, 

Cutting with machine, 

Drawing and storing, 

Threshing and winnowing, 

Cost of crop, 

By 105 bush, of oats, 
1^ tons straw, 

Profit, 
Sixty bushels to the acre. 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. K. Oedway & Son. 







Dr. 






$6 00 


5 




2 50 






3 75 






8 00 






2 50 






9 00 




131 75 


Cr. 






$52 90 




13 


50 


S66 40 

$34 65 







STATEMENT OF C. K. ORDWAY AND SON, HAY CROP. 

1892, This piece of grass we enter for premium, con- 
tains five acres, | of an acre of this piece was in rye last 
year, the remainder of the piece has been in grass, for 
four years. 

The weight of the hay was 18,325 lbs. or 9 tons 325 lbs. 
at *20 per ton. $183 25 



Cutting and storing. 



16 00 



I1G8 25 



Profit, 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. K. Ordway & Son. 



STATEMENT OP HARTWELL B. ABBOTT, CROP OF EYE. 

Tlie raising of rye on the farm with which I have been 
connected for the last seventy-six years, can hardly be 



I07 

looked upon in any sense as experimental ; for I have 
good reason to believe that no year has passed witliout the 
raising of some acres of rye. 

If I am not counted out under the " rules of the 
society," I desire to say that the crop to which your atten- 
tion was called has been harvested with the following re- 
sults. 

Straw (all sold) 8395 lbs. at 80 cents per 

hundred, $67 16 

58 bushels of rye (about half sold) at 90 

cents per bushel, 52 '20 



$57 87 per acre. $119 36 

The land on which the above crop grew, measures two 
acres and ten rods ; is a part of an old pasture ; in the last 
twenty years has been in grass and rye, being plowed once 
in six or seven years. It was dressed with twenty loads 
of sood manure of thirty bushels each. Sown with one 
bushel of rye, six lbs. of clear red top and twelve pounds 
herds grass to acre. 

Yours respectfully, 

Hartwell B. Abbott. 



STATEMENT OF MAITBICE H. CONNOR, RYE CEOP. 

The acre of rye which I enter for premium was grown 
on land that had been a strawberry bed for the past two 
years ; it was well fertilized in 1890, but nothing in '91. 
The soil is a dark loam, the vines were plowed under in 
September with an Oliver chilled plough, that being the 
only one with which I can do it successfully ; the rye was 
cut with a scythe the middle of July, bundled and stocked 
and left about two weeks, then hauled to the barn and 
threshed and marketed. The entire crop on the acre was 
32i bushels of rye and 4275 lbs, of straw. 



io8 

Dr. 

2 bushels of rye at $1.00, $2 00 

Ploughing and harrowing, S 50 

Cutting and binding, 5 00 

Hauling and threshing, 5 00 

Marketing straw, 4 00 



32i bushels of rye at 11.00, 
4276 lbs. of straw at 118.00, 



Expense per acre, 

Profit per acre, 151 47 

I hereby certify that I have measured one acre of ground 
planted with rye and entered for premium by Maurice H. 
Connor of West Newbury. 

Moses Smith. 





il9 50 


Cr. 




*32 50 




38 47 






170 97 




19 50 



STATEMENT OF CHARLES A. ANDREW, CORN CROP, RAISED 
ON ONE ACRE OF LAND. 



Cost of ploughing and harrowing, 


.15 00 


Cost of hoeing once, 


5 00 


Cost of seed and planting. 


2 50 


(Used two horse planters.) 




Fertilizer market bone, 


6 08 


Harvesting, 


11 00 


Cultivating eight times. 


4 80 



$34 38 

Crop of 1890, potatoes, well manured. Crop of 1891, 
corn, no manure, fertilizer same as '92. Crop, fodder 
7502 lbs., corn on the ear, 67G0 lbs., at 70 lbs. per bushel, 



I09 

equals 95 bushels, 10 lbs. The soil is a heavy black loam, 
clay subsoil. 

Chakles a, Andrew. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON TREADWELL FARM. 

The Treadwell Farm has continued under the manage- 
ment of the tenant, L. D. Stanwood, during the year, in a 
very satisfactory manner to the Committee. The build- 
ings and fences are in good condition ; weeds have been 
kept under control, so that the general appearance of the 
farm is creditable to the society. The products are about 
as follows : — 

35 tons hay, 225 bushels potatoes, 88 tons ensilage corn ; 
53 cords of manure have been applied that was made on 
the farm, from stock consisting of 15 cows, 4 heifers, 1 
bull, and 2 horses. No apples or cranberries of any ac- 
count were raised. 

A new departure in the conduct of the farm, has been 
made this year, by the building of a silo; the Committee 
furnishing the material and Mr. Stanwood doing the labor 
of the stone and cement work of the foundation in the cel- 
lar, and part of the carpenter work. Mr. Stanwood has 
been required to keep an exact account of the production 
of a five acre lot of ensilage corn, and also of filling it into 
the silo which is given as a part of this report ; also the 
entire cost of building a first class silo. 

As the use of ensilage has passed through the experi- 
mental stage, and has been pronounced, after the most 
thorough tests in every way, the most economical method 
of providing feed for nearly all farm stock, the Committee 
think that in no other way could they have done the 
farming community more good than by presenting the re- 
sult of this experiment, required of the tenant, showing 
not only the cost of ensilage in the silo, but the cost of 
building a first class silo without any unusual or forced 



I lO 

methods of cultivation more than any ordinary farmer 
would usually take. 

The lot selected was plain land with a light soil resting 
on a loose gravelly subsoil, being fair corn land of easy 
cultivation, but not suitable for heavy grass crop. The 
corn was planted June 8th, part with Southern While corn 
and part with Stowell's Evergreen, sowed with Eclipse 
corn planter, and Thomas smoothing harrow was used in 
cultivation, but probably not as much as would have been 
profitable. The crop grew very well considering the 
amount of manure used and the quality of the land. A 
hard blow in August damaged it somewhat and lessened 
the amount to some extent, but on the whole, gave quite a 
satisfactory result, because it is what may usually be ex- 
pected under ordinary conditions ; there were six cords of 
barn manure applied per acre and plowed in, valued at $3 
per cord at the barn. The charges on account of the crop 
are as follows : — 

30 cords manure, at the barn, at $3 per cord, 

277 hours labor, by men, at 15 cents, 

175 " " by horses, at 10 cents, 

4 bushels seed corn, 

1155 80 

COST OF FILLING SILO. 

7 men, labor 6 days, 4 hrs. at $1.50, |67 20 

1 pair horses, 6 days, at $2.00, 12 00 $19 20 

Total cost of 88 tons in silo, $235 00 

Cost per ton of ensilage, $2 G7 

Inasmuch as Mr. Stanwood had a driver for plowing and 
cultivating, which with well-trained horses is unnecessary 
and which took 57 A^ hours for a man at 15 cents, cost #8.62, 
reducing the cost per ton $.098. This deduction would 
make the cost of ensilage $2.57 per ton. 

The silo was built in one bay of the barn from the cellar 
bottom to the beams of the barn. It is 24 feet high, 12 



^90 


00 


41 


55 


17 


50 


6 


75 



Ill 

feet wide by 13 feet long, with capacity for 8X tons of ensi- 
lage,, allowing 40 cubic feet per ton after settling 5 feet. 
At the bottom of the silo are two feet of stone wall laid in 
cement, upon which rests the frame made of 2 by 6 
inch studding with girths across, and is ceiled up with sin- 
gle planed and matched boarding. 

Cost of lumber, $67 26 

Cost of cement, 7 00 

Cost of labor, 38 67 

Total cost of silo, 8112 93 

Respectfully submitted, 

Benjamin P. Wake, 

Chairman. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON MANURES. 

To the Trustees of the Essex Agricultural Society. 

Your Committee on manures would respectfully report 
that they have received one entry, and that is from Hon, 
J. J. H. Gregory, to whom they would award the second 
premium of ten dollars. The question of fertilizers for 
our farms is one of the greatest importance, and any ex- 
periment, that will shed light on this question is certain- 
ly valuable. The statement of Mr. Gregory is very in- 
teresting and instructive, and we deem it worthy of 
publication in the transactions. 

E. A. Emerson— /or the Committee. 



STATEMENT OF J. J. H. GREGORY. 

To the Committee on Manures. 

Gentlemen : — I have often thought that the following 
experiment in the application of mineral manure was so 
clear and satisfactory in its result, that it should go on 
record, I therefore submit it for your consideration. 



112 

Six years ago I planted a piece of my hill land to 
onions. It was located on the top of what is known as 
Bear Hill, in the town of Middleton. The land was 
naturally strong and without being springy, like most 
land deposited during the ancient glacier period, never 
suffers from drought even in the driest season. The 
land, which had been in onions two or three years, re- 
ceived a fair coating of barn manure, about eight cords, 
and about 800 lbs. of onion fertilizer, composed of a 
combination which yielded, (in each case soluble), 
nitrogen 5, potash 9, and phosphoric 8 per cent. As the 
season advanced they did about as well as Hhe average 
of seasons up to the time they had attained about half 
their growth of top, when it became gradually evident 
that they were losing their vigor. The thrift had gone 
out of them and I agreed with visiting friends, who were 
expert onion growers, the crop looked badly and a fail- 
ure seemed probable. I had been in the habit for the 
last year or two of applying nitrate of soda, that most 
stimulating of fertilizers to my onion crop, just as it had 
begun to bottom, and with excellent results, but in this 
instance the crop had not advanced to that stage. Ni- 
trate of soda supplies but one of the three elements need- 
ed for the onion, and here was a case where the plant was 
in a state of general starvation, caused, as I had reason to 
expect, by a deficiencj' of potash and nitrogen in the 
stable manure. I inferred this because of the fact that the 
crop started off well at first, which would be the effect of 
the soluble elements contained in the fertilizer and when 
these were exhausted any defect in the food element of the 
stable manure would be sure to make itself manifest. 
In accordance with this reasoning, instead of making mj 
usual application of nitrate of soda only, I compounded 
a complete fertilizer, containing the three elements in 
their proper proportion, the same as I had used in the be- 
ginning of the season. This I applied at the rate of 
about eight hundred pounds to the acre, scattering it 



113 

broadcast over the piece, following immediately after 
with the slide hoe. Within a week the results were as 
striking as they were interesting, the onions began to 
rally, they had evidently begun to find the new supply 
of food, and from that time onward through tlie season, 
they kept on a vigorous and healthy growth and instead 
of being as it was, one of the poorest pieces among my 
twelve acres, it became one of my very best, and at the 
close of the season well fulfilled its promise by giving in 
a crop of over five hundred bushels of handsome onions 
to the acre. I think you will agree with me in finding 
in this successful experiment a good illustration of one 
characteristic of fertilizers, wherein from their very na- 
ture they can be used on growing crops in a way that it 
would be practically impossible to use barn manure ; and, 
secondly, a demonstration that our crops may be changed 
from a promise of failure into a success by an intelligent 
application of an additional supply of plant food adapted 
to their need. 

James J. H. Gregory. 



REPORT ON THE EXHIBITION OF THE ESSEX 
COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Delegated by the State Board of Agriculture to attend 
the seventy-first exhibition of the Essex County Agricultu- 
ral Society, I arrived at Lawrence on Tuesday morning, 
Sept. 22d, and readily found my way to the Fair grounds 
by the street cars passing conveniently close to the exhibi- 
tion, which was holden on a large and reasonably smooth 
field by the border of the McFrimac, directly across which 
arose great piles of buildings, resonant with the hum of 
machinery ; how significantly close agriculture and manu- 
factures, the glory of New England, seemed to be, and 
what a train of thought was started only to be switched 
off into the stock yard. 

The space was ample, more than enough to accommo- 



114 

date all the animals and the people who desired to inspect 
them. The arrangement of the pens was satisfactory, a 
long row of stalls for horses ran on the right or river side, 
in front, a wide space for exercising them, and then a 
parallel row of pens for cattle and a few sheep, while on a 
ridge conveniently far enough to be unoffensive, were the 
few enclosures for swine, a dozen in number, having some 
very good specimens of Chester whites and more mon- 
grels. But the swine were numerous to what the sheep 
were, there being but three entries. My disgust at the 
small number of sheep was however changed to sympathy 
for the few men who own the 650 sheep in Essex County, 
and who suffer the infliction of over 10,000 dogs, and their 
owners of equal number, as shown by the county treas- 
urer's books. 

Of the neat cattle there was a very good show, not great 
in numbers, there being 57 entries, but containing some 
good beasts, the Ayrshires of Mr. French, and the Hol- 
steins of Mr. Russell would make a show anywhere. Some 
very good cattle and steers were noticed, but as the details 
of the show and the premiums have been so fully printed 
in the city and county papers it is unnecessary for me to 
give them in detail. 

The show of horses was uncommonly good, especially of 
colts, there was a good deal of handsome trotting and 
driving stock, showing high breeding, and I was pleased to 
notice several of those very serviceable animals, Percher- 
ons and their grades. The drawing match on a gently as- 
cending road a short half mile from the grounds, was 
fairly tested by ox and horse teams, little shouting, and 
less whipping made the trial an interesting one. The 
plowing match was sharply contested, with single and 
double cattle teams and with horses, on the whole more 
satisfactory to the plowmen than to the plow manufac- 
turers. 

The show of poultry, that most important adjunct to 
prosperity on a farm, was unwisely small, considering that 



115 

the poultry products of Essex, aside from the living birds 
are over $225,000 annually. 

But the glory of this Society's exhibition was in the 
various halls crowded with fruits, flowers, the products of 
the dairy, domestic manufactures, fancy articles and fine 
arts, while in great piles arose the liberal contributions 
from the mills, of woolen, cotton and mixed fabrics. 
Essex County has been always celebrated for good fruit 
from its first introduction by the colonists, while for vege- 
tables the names of Gregory, Low, Buxton and Ware have 
made it famous through the whole extent of this country. 
I do not think such another display could be made in New 
England except by the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society, of which these Essex men are a part, and gen- 
erous contributors. 

1 am fully mindful of the extraordinarily fine displays 
made by the several granges and bear testimony to this 
evidence of the centering of agricultural interest in this 
old society. 

The second day is devoted to an address, a dinner, and 
subsequent oratory. The address was a very sensible dis- 
course on the evils of our criminal law and its enforce- 
ment, the dinner and the after speaking were about equally 
good. Much sorrow was manifested at the recent death of 
Dr. Loring,?always prominent and interesting at the meet- 
ings of the Essex Society. Both days were exceptionally 
fine, but I shuddered at the thought of what the condition 
of the poor animals would have been in their unprotected 
condition if there had happened a cold pitiless storm, so 
likely to occur at this season of the year. 

The question of a peripatetic society going from one 
town to another on difi'erent years, carrying their mov- 
able pens, with no protection for the. beasts against sun 
and storm, would now as a mode of operation by any new 
society, be both unwise and impracticable, but with this 
society it is a condition, not a theory, not a question, but 
an accepted fact of over seventy years duration. 



ii6 

The Essex County Agricultural Society was founded in 
1818, and held its first exhibition at Topsfield in 1820, so 
the one of this year is the seventy-first cattle show, or- 
dered, conducted and maintained just as it was at Tops- 
field in 1820. I do not like their custom of holding the 
annual meeting on the first morning of the exhibition. 
The best men should and must attend to the election of 
officers and the transaction of business, and the same men 
should be on the grounds looking after the stock, or ar- 
ranging the hall. 

This society has been largely blessed with donations 
and legacies, which have been most judiciously managed, 
and it is quite independent financially. 

The list of its officers and orators is simply an aggrega- 
tion of the names of the foremost men in the county. 

The agriculture of Essex County has never, from various 
palpable causes, been so influential nor so important as its 
manufactures, fisheries, and commerce. 

Unless by those who with some care and study have 
read the early history of the settlement of Massachusetts 
Bay, I do not think the strength and the importance and 
the influence of the County of Essex on the state and on 
the country have been generally known and appreciated. 

Before 1650 more towns, important then and now, were 
settled, established, and working in Essex County than in 
any other of the settlements, or colonies on our coast. 
Within thirty years after the first landing on Cape Ann, 
and the removal to Naumkeag, eight or ten thriving towns 
had been permanently settled, and stirring industries well 
commenced. 

While the whole country beyond a line thirty miles 
from the sea-coast, except the starving, straggling settlers 
at Springfield, was a wilderness, unindented by the heel 
of the white man's boot, Salem, Lynn, Gloucester, Marble- 
head, Ipswich, Haverhill and Rowley, were busy spinning, 
weaving, fulling cloth, grinding corn, sawing lumber, tan- 
ning and dressing leather, making shoes and boots, making 



117 

glass, making bricks, making iron from the ore, building 
boats and ships from which they caught the fish, which 
when cured they carried to other countries, returning with 
freight for the necessities and comfort of the people. 

Essex was providing for her people in the present, and 
commencing the foundation of those industries which have 
made her so prosperous and wealthy. 

A short sketch will show some of the branches of busi- 
ness and where commenced. 
In 1633, a corn mill was established in Lynn, said to be 

the second in the country. 
1664, a tannery was planted at Ipswich. 
1635, a rope walk at Salem. 

1635, two shoemakers Rutland and Bridge commenced 
shoemaking at Lynn ; which business largely in- 
creased, many men working their farms in summer 
and making shoes in winter. 

1639, goat skins and hides were tanned and dressed at 
Salem. 

1640, a fulling mill was built at Rowley the first in this 
country. 

1643, ship building was commenced at Salem, and for a 

hundred years the shipping of Salem dominated the 

commerce of the country. 
The same year it was commenced at Gloucester, four ships 

being launched there that year. 
The same year iron works commenced at Saugus, supplied 

with bog ore. 
1643, glass works were started at Salem. 

The saw mill was slow of introduction here as it had 
been in England where no saw mill was allowed by the 
Sawyers till late in the last century ; although invent- 
ed and used somewhat in German}^ the English 
sawed by hand. Here some sawing was done in the 
pit, but most of the plank, boards, clapboards and 
shingles were rived or split and hewed; in 1631 they 
were run in that part of Massachusetts adjoining Es- 



ii8 

sex, afterwards set off to Maine, and in Ipswich in 
1640. 

In the same year the General Court under the new code 
granted to Joseph Jenks of Lynn, the exclusive right of 
erecting mills to [be worked by water for all purposes. 
This Joseph Jenks was a remarkable man, and more than 
any one man gave that prominence in manufactures to 
Essex County which she has maintained to the present. 
He came to Lynn about 1640, probably with Mr. Winthrop, 
and engaged in the manufacture of iron ; it is well said of 
him that he was the Tubal Cain of New England, a won- 
derful inventor and artificer, and deserves to be held in 
perpetual remembrance as the first founder who worked in 
brass and iron in the western world ; by his hands the first 
models were made, and the first castings taken of many 
domestic implements, and iron tools ; he was the first to 
make hollow castings. He constructed grinding mills, saw 
mills, and for iron working. He contracted with the 
selectmen of Boston to build a fire engine. He made the 
dies in 1653 for the new coinage of Massachusetts. He 
was expert at wire drawing, but the invention of his that 
comes nearest to us as farmers, was in the design and con- 
struction of scythes ; the only scythe in use in England or 
on the continent, was a short thick instrument like a brush 
scythe ; he lengthened and lightened it, and stiffened the 
back by welding on a rib of iron, and no essential change 
in scythes to the present time has been made on the in- 
vention of Joseph Jenks, two hundred and forty years ago. 
I dwell on this man and his achievements as belonging to 
the City of Lynn in the County of Essex. 

In 1646 a general Market and Fair was established at 
Lynn. The fisheries off the coast, carried on by boats 
from Salem, Gloucester, Cape Ann, and especially Marble- 
head, had become most valuable and important, and as 
earl}' as 1633, so well established, on account of the great 
size and goodness of the fish at " Marble Harbor," after- 
wards Marblehead, that shiploads were cured, salted and 



119 

sent to Spain, Portugal and the West India Islands, form- 
ing a large portion of the food of the Catholics on their 
numerous fast days, and also furnishing a cheap diet for 
the slave population. 

In 1642, 300,000 dry fish were sent to market from Ips- 
wich, and in 1647 Marblehead alone sold .$25,000 worth. 
It was a great business and increased enormously. 

These disjointed facts picked up from such historians 
as Hubbard, Winthrop, Palfrey, Lewis, and various town 
histories, and the old statutes, show somewhat the lead 
Essex County took in manufactures and fisheries, and to 
some extent display the energy, the patience, and the for- 
titude of the men who first settled on and around Cape 
Ann and Naumkeag. 

In tracing the introduction of live stock it is not 
always easy to distinguish what were brought to Salem, 
Lynn, Boston and Plymouth, and very likely they were 
taken from one place to another on the coast and after- 
wards to the interior. One thing, however, is certain, 
that Mr. Winslow in 1624 returned in the Ann on a 
second voyage, and " brought three heifers and a bull, 
the first beginning of any cattle of that kind in the land." 

In 1628, were ordered from England by the "Lyons 
Whelpe," twenty cows and bulls, ten mares and horses. 

In 1623, the Dorchester Company landed live stock on 
Cape Ann, and in 1625 cattle and sheep were brought, 
and in 1629 one hundred and forty head of cattle and 
forty goats were landed at Salem; in 1631 a cow was val- 
ued at 1111.00, yoke of oxen $177.00; in 1634 Hon. John 
Humphrey brought to his farm at Swampscott fifteen 
heifers, at this time valued at -$75.00 each; in 1640 twenty 
sheep were appraised at $35.00. 

In 1629 "twelve cows, three calves, two mares and two 
foles were ordered to be sold forthwith rather than to 
pay their keepe all winter." 

1630, at Salem, wolves killed six calves. 

1631, White Angel brought cows, goats, and hogs, and 
twenty-one heifers. 



I20 

1631, Winthrop says "arrived ships bringing along all 
sorts of cattle, which with the blessing of heaven so in- 
creased that within a few years, the inhabitants were 
furnished not only with enough for their own use but 
were able to supply other places." In 16 33,5" farmers ^^^ 
large stock of cattle, sheep and goats, the cattle were fed 
in one drove and guarded by a man called a "hay ward." 

In 1635 two Dutch schooners brought in twenty-seven 
Flanders mares, sixty-three heifers and eighty-eight sheep. 
Winthrop says "It was hoped that these Netherland 
cattle, with the large yellow Danish cattle imported into 
the Piscataqua province by Gorges some years earlier, 
would increase the size of the Devon cattle brought by 
the English colonists. 

"The sheep, goats and swine were kept on Nahant, 
which had been sold to Thomas Dexter for a sheep pas- 
ture by Poquannon, or "Black Will", as he was called, 
Sachem of Nahant; the settlers built a high fence of 
rails put close together across the beach near Nahant, 
to keep out the wolves, as those animals don't climb." 
Black Will was killed in 1633, so that Nahant must, ac- 
cording to the old records, have been a well stocked pas- 
ture for sheep, goats and hogs, before that date. 

Importations of sheep are not mentioned often, they 
were few in number, and were probably darkfaced from 
Sussex and Hampshire along the south coast from which 
our ancestors sailed. 

The large white faced sheep were mostly brought from 
the Texel and other ports of Holland. Swine are seldom 
noticed as being brought in, but they had bred so fast as 
to become at times almost a nuisance; the colonial 
statutes are full for a hundred years of restrictions on 
swine, ringing, j^oking, enclosing, or shooting when do- 
ing damage. It seems they were troublesome to the 
fisherman, distroying the fish flakes, eating and trampling 
the fish, so that in 1633 it was ordered "that any swine 
coming within a quarter of a mile of the fishing stage at 
"Marble Harbor," shall be forfeited to the^ owner of the 



121 

stage." Later, in 1658, May 19, is this queer statute, 
"whereas there is a law respecting the regulating of 
swine in all townships to prevent harmes done by them, 
yett inasmuch as there is a necessitie of a more particular 
order respecting such towns wherein great numbers of 
swine are kept whereby many children are exposed to 
g reat dangers of loss of life or limbe through ravenous- 
ness of swine, and older persons to no small inconvenien- 
ces, besides the sad consequences it may be of to the 
whole country, in times of sickness through their infec- 
tion, it is therefor ordered by this court and authoritie 
thereof that the selectmen in the severall towns within 
this jurisdiction shall henceforth have power to make 
such orders in reference to swyne as may prevent all man- 
ner of damage." 

Goats were brought in large numbers and before sheep, 
but for what use I don't understand, for I see no mention 
of them for their milk, for their skins, nor for food, with 
one exception, in 3638, on the arrival of some ships, the 
people of Salem made a great feast for them of "hogs, 
kids, venison and store of poultry." John Joselyn in one 
of his voyages, 1638, says, "they were the first small 
cattle they had in the country, he was counted as nobody 
who had not a trip or a flock of goats." In 1651, Mr. 
Edward Johnson writes of Lynn, among other things, 
"their cattell exceedingly multiplied, goates which attheir 
first coming in great esteeme, are now almost quite ban- 
ished and now horse, kine and sheepe are most in request 
with them." 

These items will show the lead that Essex very early 
took in the manufactures and somewhat in the agricul- 
ture of the state from that time there was no census, no 
continuous record of our agriculture or our manufactures 
or commerce, till the very incomplete enumeration by 
United States Marshal Cox in 1810. It is not till with- 
in the past fifty years that any complete government 
enumeration of animals, and productions of agriculture 



122 

or of manufactures has been made in this or any other 
country. 

From tlie imperfect enumeration of 1810, I have select- 
ed a few of the items most prominent and interesting in 
Essex. Of sheep they had 1600. Looms 1436, and 
spinning wheels without number, for it must be remem- 
bered that every yard of cloth of every description was 
woven on a hand loom in this and every other country, 
for the power loom was not invented till about that time. 
Of fur hats they made annually 27,500, worth two dollars 
and nine pence each. Boston-made hats were 15.10. 
They tanned, curried and dressed hides and skins to the 
value of $290,000. 

Boots, shoes and slippers in number were 1,535,082 
pairs at about 72 cents per pair, while Boston-made boots, 
shoes and slippers were valued something over $5.50 per 
pair. Saddlery in those days of horseback riding was 
made to the amount of 121,000 in Essex. 

While there is no general enumeration of agricultural 
productions, we find mention of individual operations show- 
ing fine crops and great success in their farming. 

Of course in the conditions, as they were of the settle- 
ment and subsequent progress of Essex County, much 
greater activity and advance were made in the manufac- 
tures than in its agriculture. Excellent crops were raised 
there. Mr. Colman in his report, more than fifty years 
ago, mentions crops of wheat, 32 bushels to the acre, In- 
dian corn 115 and 117 bushels, potatoes 484-518 bushels, 
carrots 900 bushels, onions 651 bushels ; from two acres 
of land were sold $600 worth of winter squashes in 1837. 

Essex may also claim one or two specialties quite fa- 
mous in their day. As Mr. Colman tells us, somewhere in 
the thirties a farmer of Byfield, a parish of Newbury, found 
in market a pig, of uncommonly ^fine points; by careful 
breeding and selection he made what is called the Byfield 
breed, which extended through this couutry, and was 
known in England as a superior breed at that time. 



123 



The Oakes Cow owned in Danvers, was a prodigy in 
butter producing, her record standing unequalled for years, 
down to the present records of Jerseys and Holsteins ; in 
1816 she made 484^ lbs. of butter besides suckling a calf 
four weeks, and having one quart of milk per day reserved 
for family use. 

In later years the agriculture of Essex has been well 
kept up, and its methods and productions have been con- 
tinuously recorded in journals and the reports of its 
agricultural society, which in fullness, excellence and 
completeness excel those of any of our other societies. 

I append a few figures as curiosities, but from which no 
very satisfactory deductions can be made. 
Of sheep they had in 



By the census 
By assessors books 

Of neat cattle in 
By census 
By assessors 

Of horses in 
By census 
By assessors 

Of swine in 
By census 
By assessors 

In 1845 the tonnage of Essex County was 240,000 tons; 
for 1885 the census does not give it intelligibly, but it was 
in 1845 equal to all the other ports of the state. 

I should be false to my sentiments of sympathy and 
propriety on this occasion, and remiss in what would be 
expected of me by this society if I, a man from Franklin 
County, the northern third of the original county of Hamp- 
shire, should in writing of, and to, men descended from 



1635 


about 


1,600 


1838 


u 


5,800 


1845 


(( 


4,300 


1885 


n 


17,760 


1890 


(.1. 


665 


1845 


(< 


21,166 


1885 


u 


21,153 


1890 


u 


20,727 


1845 


a 


5,140 


1885 


a 


5,358 


1890 


a 


19,773 


1845 


a 


10,000 


1885 


u 


5,135 


1890 


(( 


3,749 



124 

the "Flower of Essex," content myself with a mere passing 
allusion to an event which, occurring more than two hun- 
dred and fifteen years ago, created a bond of feeling be- 
tween the people of these two counties, unreleased even in 
this long lapse of time. 

The colonists having strengthened themselves during 
the thirty years of their settlement on the line of the sea 
coast, determined to enlarge the bounds of their habita- 
tions, and to secure wider tracts, for better cultivation, and 
for more desirable pasturage. Having informed them- 
selves of the character of the land in the valley of the Con- 
necticut Kiver, they concluded treaties with, and made 
purchases from those who claimed to be, and were ac- 
knowledged as the chiefs of various Indian tribes on the 
Connecticut River, covering the land from Springfield to 
the Deerfield river on the north. 

It is true the consideration was small to those who 
bought the laud, and would seem puerile and trifling to us, 
but the articles pleased and satisfied the Indians, and they 
sold. 

They reserved a right to hunt the forests, to fish the 
rivers and streams, to cultivate some land, and to gather 
the nuts and berries of the woods, thus retaining really 
about all the rights they ever had or needed. 

These Indians were quiet and well disposed, coming 
and going and living among the settlers, and this con- 
tinued for twenty years till the brave and crafty Philip 
had combined all the Massachusetts Indians into a strong 
bitter league of extermination against the white settlers. 

This war commencing in the south-eastern part of the 
colony, was soon carried into the settlements on the Con- 
necticut River, and the flourishing and prosperous colonies 
from Springfield to Northfield were in great peril. It was 
determined to abandon the extreme frontiers of Northfield 
and Deerfield, and to concentrate all at Hatfield, Hadley 
and Northampton, then the strongest and ablest of the 
western settlements, and which were threatened by the 



125 

gathering hordes of Indians, numbering at times, even into 
the thousands. Accordingly it was deemed necessary, to 
thoroughly provision those towns, and as a superabun- 
dance of wheat had been grown and harvested on the fer- 
tile meadows of Deerfield, it was ordered^^that this, amount- 
ing to nearly three thousand bushels, should be sent by 
wagons and carts to the beleaguered colony of Hadley for 
security. 

This large shipment was to be conveyed and protected 
by troops from the eastern settlements, who were sent up 
for that purpose, a large part of whom, under the com- 
mand of Capt. Lothrop, about eighty in number, volunteers 
and drafted men, mostly from the various towns of Essex 
County, started on a beautiful bright morning, Sept. 18, 
1675. About half of their journey had been accomplished, 
when in crossing a small, sluggish stream called "Muddy 
brook'' in the south part of Deerfield, these men on a mis- 
sion of mercy and necessity, were suddenly ambuscaded by 
hundreds of Indians who surrounded them from all sides,, 
and at almost the first discharge of their arrows, and their 
guns, killed almost the whole escort, who fell, tinging with 
their blood the water of that little stream, giving it the bap- 
tismal appellation of "Bloody brook," which it has borne 
to this day; only three of the whole company escaped. 
Probably no event from the settlement of the colonies to 
the eventful fight at Lexington ever wrought such dismay 
and sorrow in the province of Massachusetts Bay as this. 
In the quaint language of the old historian "they were most 
untimely cut off, their dear relations at home mourning for 
them like Rachel for her children, and would not be com- 
forted because they were not." 

This sad affair has been celebrated in prose and in verse, 
A fitting commemoration was held on the ground in Sept. 
1835, when in the presence of a large assemblage of the 
people of the vicinity, a neat marble shaft was dedicated 
to the memory of the dead, the occasion illuminated by a 
most eloquent oration by Edward Everett, delivered under 



126 

the shade of a magnificent tree. The unpretentious mar- 
ble bears this inscription. "Erected Aug. 1838." "On 
this ground Capt. Thomas Lothrop and eighty-four men 
under his command including eighteen teamsters from 
Deerfield, conveying stores from that town to Hadley 
were ambuscaded by about 700 Indians, and the Captain 
and seventy-six men slain, Sept. 18, 1G75." The soldiers 
who fell were described by a cotemporary historian as a 
"choice company of young men, the very flower of the 
County of Essex, none of whom were ashamed to speak 
with the enemy in the gate." 

"And Sanguinetto tells you where the dead made the 
earth wet, and turned the unwilling waters red." 

I am sure you will pardon me if I quote the opening and 
the closing paragraphs of the address of the silver tongued 
orator of Massachusetts on this occasion. 

"Gathered together in this temple not made with hands, 
to commemorate an important event in the early history of 
the country, let our first thoughts ascend to Him whose 
heavens are spread out as a glorious canopy above our 
heads. As our eyes look up to the everlasting hills which 
rise before us, let us remember that in those dark and 
eventful days, the hand that lifted these eternal pillars to 
the clouds was the sole stay and support of our afflicted 
sires. On this sacred spot where they poured out their 
life blood in defence of that heritage which has de- 
scended to us, we this day solemnly bring our tribute of 
gratitude. 

Ages shall pass away, the stately tree which over- 
shadows us all shall wither and fall, and we who are now 
gathered beneath it shall mingle with the honored dust we 
eulogize, but "the flower of Essex" shall bloom in undying 
remembrance ; and with every century, these rites of 
commemoration shall be repeated as the lapse of time 
shall continually develop in richer abundance the fruits of 
what was done and suffered by our fathers.'' 

James S. Grinnell. 



127 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON AGRICULTURAL 
IMPLEMENTS. 

With but few exceptions the exhibit of implements at the 
fair were confined to the lots exhibited by the local dealers, 
but these included a large variety, and on the whole the 
fair in this department was about up to the average. The 
only decidedly original implement was a mowing machine, 
in which each knife had an independent action, instead of, 
as usual, being firmly fixed to the cross bar. A gentle- 
man who had seen one of the same kind in use, stated to 
the chairman, that while it worked well in heavy grass it 
did but poor work where the grass was light. The Com- 
mittee regret that there was no opportunity to see it in 
action. There is an opportunity to improve the practical 
work of our society just here; we have plows compete in 
actual operation, and harrows, of late, to follow them, but 
no competing meeting of rival mowers. Now while it is 
always rather difficult to find leisure for leaving the farm 
in haying time, yet I believe if it were known that half a 
dozen or more different machines were to test their capaci- 
ties in a contest with each other in some centrally located 
field, many farmers, especially those who were thinking of 
buying a mower, would manage to snatch a half day and be 
on hand. Had such a contest been had in years past it 
may be doubted whether that endless chain mower, which 
was one of the striking novelties at the last Mechanics' 
Fair, would ever liave been put upon the market. As the 
matter now stands, farmers at our fairs, have no opportu- 
nity to see mowing machines, cultivators, seed sowers, 
hoes, forks, hay rakes, or hand rakes in actual use, and 
have, therefore, to make their selections to a large degree 
under the guidance of the exhibitor, who often times is 
merely a salesman from some agricultural house, repeating 
faithfully the lesson taught before sending him out, but in 
reality without a particle of practical knowledge about the 
implement over whose excellencies he is so eloquent. We 



128 

have no word of blame for the young men ; they are hired 
to do certain work, to puff their machines, and they do it 
faithfully, if not well. Almost any farmer could give some 
illustration from his own experience of unfortunate invest- 
ments made in the purchasing of implements, by reason of 
having but the statements of the salesman to guide him. 
I will give two that occur to me from my own. Some years 
ago a fellow townsman having obtained the agency of a 
new hay rake then being made, called on me. As at that 
time I happened to be in great need of one, on his eloquent 
setting forth of its merits, I purchased. When taken into 
the field the implement proved to be utterly worthless, and 
I learned soon after that the company had discontinued 
the manufacture of them. A while ago a newly patented 
seed planter was sent me on trial. A neighbor coming to 
borrow a planter that day, I gave him the new comer. In 
the course of an hour he came back with it saying it would 
not work, and on writing to the firm who sent it out, I was 
informed that fatal defects had been found and it had been 
withdrawn from the market. Somewhat recently I pur- 
chased a much lauded mowing machine, which by reason 
of a defect in the planning, proved to be nearly worthless. 
Coming down to the smaller tools, how difiicult, yes, al- 
most impossible it is to find a rake with teeth that are 
really steel, (the makers instead of steeling their rakes, 
prefer to steal our money !) teeth that will not bend and 
curve in all directions after a year of use. Our dung forks 
are often times no better. The days of honest old Par- 
tridge who made his forks so faithfully that having tines 
about fifteen inches long when new, they would wear until 
but four inches were left of them, and yet line as accurately 
with each other as when they first came from the factory. 
As I write this article I have one such by my side. Our 
hand hoes, I am happy to be able to say are, as a rule, 
most excellent in their composition, their design and their 
make, a credit to the manufacturer and an honor to Ameri- 
can mechanics. Most of the different makes are thin 



129 

bladed and wear without either breaking or turning up at 
their edges. There are more varieties of this little but 
most useful implement, than farmers in general are aware 
of. It would not be a bad idea for some of our enterpris- 
ing manufacturers, to gather samples of all the various 
kinds in use in our vast domain and. exhibit them at that 
great gathering of the nations of the earth, the Great Fair. 
I believe such an exhibit would surprise even ourselves in 
the amount of inventive skill and superior workmanship 
invested in this little tool. I believe that many of us are 
apt to use our hoes too long ; they have neither gapped on 
their cutting edges, nor turned up at theirjfcorners, and at 
first thought the suggestion that they should be con- 
demned, strikes us as rather wasteful ; but when the cor- 
ners are rounded oflFit requires more effort to cut into the 
soil, and as the blade decreases in size, less earth can be 
moved with it. With first class hoes, at forty cents apiece 
no active farmer can afford to use one after half the area 
of the blade has been worn away. Among the many 
varieties in the market there are some that for specific use, 
are decided improvements on the standard kind. There 
are several kinds of toothed hoes, which I find valuable 
when it is desirable to gather at the least outlay of strength, 
the largest quantity of earth, of which the hoeing of cabbage 
is a good illustration. When the weeds are of any size 
these do not work as well as the common hoe. For a gen- 
eral purpose implement, I prefer a long, narrow thin 
bladed hoe ; its narrowness helps it to slip in and out in 
places where the common hoe could not be used without 
great danger to the plants. Another advantage of the 
narrow blades is their utility in thinning bed crops. One 
variety of the narrow hoe found in the market is thick 
bladed and, as might be anticipated, is made of poor steel, 
such a kind as a poor man cannot afford to take as a gift, 
I find occasionally workmen who prefer white wood han- 
dles, but these are easily broken and when using them the 
lack of weight in such handles has to be made up by extra 



I30 

muscular effort on the part of the workman. In using any- 
kind of hoe where twitch grass is to be encountered, it is 
well to give the edge a touch on the grindstone, or fasten- 
ing it in a vice, to sharpen with a file; in passing, I will 
remark that it is also well to bear in mind when dealing 
with twitch that a covering of three inches of earth will al- 
ways smother it, and even a slighter covering will mater- 
ially check its growth. 

Two new implements I have used on my seed farm the 
past season, with great profit and satisfaction, which has 
not yet found their way into our markets. I refer to an 
implement for distributing Paris green in a dry state^ 
directly on potato vines, without the diluting or mixing it 
with plaster, water, or any other substance, so that instead 
of having, as heretofore, to carry some hundreds of pounds- 
of water or about half as much of plaster to protect an 
acre, a pound of paris green and ten or twelve in the 
weight of the implement is all our outfit. It is named 
"Cyclone Insect Exterminator." The principle is that of 
the old fashioned bellows, blowing the Paris green in an 
almost imperceptible dust over the plants. From a pound 
to a pound and a half is sufficient for an acr.e, which can 
be gone over in an hour and a half. I have protected my 
ten acres wholly by this means the past season without a 
single leaf being injured. By the old plan of using water 
as every farmer knows, at times the leaves are so badly 
burned, we are left in doubt whether the bugs or the Paris 
green have done us most harm. This is caused by that 
portion of the arsenic that has been dissolved by the water, 
(and there is always more or less of it) for the Paris green 
of itself will do no harm. In practice I find I need to 
caution my men to hold the machine so as to blow the dust 
especially into the tops of the vines, which is the real home 
of the bugs. Some farmers who have used it state that one 
thorough going over, with a retouch here and there was 
all they found necessary to protect their vines during the 
season. My own experience is that we need to go over 



131 

the vines as often with this as when using water or plaster, 
the saving being in the time, the cost of material, the non- 
injury of the leaves and the heavy work. The price of 
the machine is eight dollars. The other new implement 
I have alluded to is the Hallock potato digger. I have 
used "Allen's" for a number of years and a year ago tried 
the "Common Sense." Both of these require to be 
followed by the hoe on all lands, let them be either clear or 
weedy, but this new applicant for patronage on land clear 
of tops and weeds does such good work that beyond har- 
rowing after it, no farther digging is needed. The pota- 
toes are thrown onto a series of long, open, horizontal 
rods, that follow each side of the mold board from which 
they are separated from the dirt and rolled off as the dig- 
ger moves along. Where the ground is weedy I find it 
necessary to remove these wings, when the work done is 
about the same as that by the Allen, with the advantage 
of being much easier to bold; neither of these cut the pota- 
toes which cannot be said of the Common Sense digger. 
The machine is sold at 120.00. This is one of the class 
of implements it might be wise for farmers to own in com- 
pany, for a day's work with it would dig the crop raised 
on the average of farms. Let me be clearly understood, 
to do its work thoroughly, the land must be clear of green 
tops, weeds or twitch grass ; when these abound, it will do 
no better work than the Allen digger, though it is easier to 
work. It is not every good plowman can succeed with the 
Allen, but any man who can plow, can handle the Hallock. 
The work by all the three machines I have named, as far 
as opening a furrow goes, is of the same class as that done 
by a double mold board plow but better, in that it has more 
of a scoop to it, opening a broader and more rounded side 
furrow with the advantage of throwing out the entire crop, 
no matter how scattering may be the habit of any variety 
in growing its tubers. All kinds of potato diggers have 
this great advantage over hand digging. They do not cut 
or injure a fraction of as many potatoes ; the best of them. 



132 

not a dozen in a day's work, while some hands using hoes 
and hooks will manage to prong or otherwise mar five or 
more i^er cent, of what they dig. 

What better way can there be to determine the real 
merits of new agricultural implements than by having 
them tested by our agricultural colleges, and these results 
published in the annual reports ? I believe that it would 
be wise to have our patent laws so far altered that each 
introducer of any new agricultural implement should be or- 
dered to deposit a sample in the agricultural college of his 
state. I believe that if this matter of having our colleges 
test and report on the real merits of new implements were 
once started manufacturers would so find it for their inter- 
est that it would become the law of custom on the part of 
both buyers and sellers to have the real status of every 
new implement determined by such intelligent and un- 
biased arbiters. We might then see "Implement Day" ap- 
pear in the catalogue, when you and I and all of us might 
be invited to join the budding young farmers, with their 
corps of professors, to determine what improvements the 
cunning hand of the inventor had been able to make in the 
agricultural implements of the year. 

James J. H. Gregory, 
Chairman of Committee on Agricultwal Implements. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON GRAPES, PEACHES 
AND ASSORTED FRUITS. 

The Committee would beg leave to make the following 
additional report : 

On entering on our duties as judges in this department, 
we found things in an unsatisfactory condition. One- 
fourth of our table had been taken by a catch-penny ad- 
vertising notion, about which we failed to see anything con- 
nected with either agriculture, horticulture, or any of the 
liberal arts, and we were forced to pile up our exhibits as 



^33 

b^st we could. Then when we came to arrange the plates, we 
found many plates, even of the finest fruits, with an in- 
definite number of specimens, when a certain number is 
called for, neither more nor less. This information we 
consider a very essential part of the entry clerk's duty, to 
communicate to the exhibitors. Although the directions 
are fully laid down in the books of the Society, many ex- 
hibitors have never had a chance to read, the same. This 
same difficulty has been continually encountered in other 
departments, when liberty has been taken to rectify the 
errors and those judges been reprimanded for work in that 
direction. Having knowledge of these facts, we could only 
do our best to find the exhibitors or some of their friends 
and allow them to rectify apart of the mistakes. But 
however good the uncorrected exhibits might be, we were 
unable to award either premium or gratuity, because of 
there being a greater or less number of specimens on the 
plate than the rules of the Society called for. We would 
suggest that the attention of all entry clerks be called to this 
matter, which will give marked relief to the judges, and 
satisfaction to those who exhibit. 

In awarding the premiums we took into consideration 
not only size, appearance and perfection, but maturity and 
adaptibility to the season and climate of Essex County. 

GRAPES. 

If we were to take the present season as a guide we 
should very much enlarge the list of grapes recommended 
for cultivation in Essex Co. But neither the season of '91 
or '92 is to be taken as an average. We have seen and 
eaten this season some oi the finest specimens of Isabella 
grapes — thoroughly ripened — that we have ever seen. Yet 
we should hesitate to advise the planting of that variety 
with the expectation of gathering ripe fruit oftener than 
once or twice in five years. There were many fine exhibits 
of Niagara, Pocklington and Concord, yet the most perfectly 
ripened fruit was found in the Moore's early, Worden and 



134 

Lady, whicli are pretty sure to give well-ripened fruit in 
the average season. 

The exhibit of Black Hauaburg grapes showed what 
could be done in the cold house, wliere there are no con- 
veniences for artificial heat. Such results must be highly 
satisfactory to the cultivators. 

The peach, plum and quince, which fifteen or twenty 
years ago were almost extinct, are fast coming to claim 
the attention of the horticulturist, and in our opinion 
should receive more attention from the Society. Within 
a few years we have been privileged to eat some most ex- 
cellent seedling peaches raised in Essex Co. We would 
warn the raisers of peaches not to be too hasty about dis- 
carding a tree because its first crop of fruit is not up to 
their standard of excellence. If the tree is well cared for, 
the fruit will improve, not only in size and appearance, 
but quality, in each of its subsequent crops. 

In the raising of peaches, the soil of America has given 
it one of its most flourishing homes out of its native land. 
The fruit is so highly prized in some countries that the 
trees are raised as pot plants, or as in England, trained 
on the buildings and fences like grapes, and they are 
thankful to get the fruit for the trouble. When we con- 
sider with what little trouble the trees can be raised, and 
how early they come into bearing, and how readily the 
surplus can be disposed of in these days of canning and. 
evaporation, we wonder that more attention is not given 
to their propagation. The heading in of the trees, say 
from one-third to one-half of the year's growth, late in 
Autumn, after the leaves have fallen, will cause the re- 
maining buds to become much stronger, and aid in 
prolonging the life of the tree. Many a young tree 
is ruined by allowing it to overbear. A pile of coal ashes 
immediatel}'" around the trunk of the tree is a good means 
for preventing the work of the borer and other insects 
that strive to destroy. The more wood you burn the 
better will be the ashes. A light, warm, gravelly soil is 
the kind in which they flourish best and live longest. 



135 

It has been said that " the exception establishes the 
rule." We think, however, that we can give a rule which 
has no exception. A jjeach yJiould always be ripened on 
the tree^ a pear always off] and we are quite confident 
that the rule governing the treatment of the peach is ap- 
plicable to the plum as well, to which we would call 
especial attention. In our book of arrangements I find 
no mention made of either plums or quinces, as fruits 
worthy of the notice and encouragement from the Society. 
We think specific premiums should be olifered for both of 
these fruits, and definite numbers designated for exhib- 
ition. With the plum we must keep in mind the adapti- 
bility of the fruit to our climate and length of season. In 
plums the Green Gage takes the place that the Seckle 
pear does in its class, at the head; not for size, but for 
its pure, intrinsic worth. The Imperial Gage, a seedling 
from the above, is a fruit of excellent quality, and a hardy 
tree. Of some of the earlier varieties, we should class 
them in about this order: Washington, Jefferson, Guii, 
Yellow Egg, later followed by Bradshaw, Lombard, 
Golden Esperine and Coe's Golden Drop. Of the latter 
we have this year had opportunity to taste, at Lawrence, 
Sept. 22 and Boston Oct. 4. The first specimen was 
green throughout; the second not ripe one-half way to 
the stone. Therefore we should hardly feel justified in 
recommending this variety for cultivation in Essex Co. 
We have been giving our trees about one quart of coarse 
salt to the tree, sown broadcast under the tree in April. 
Have succeeded in keeping clear of the black knot, 
whether by the use of salt we cannot say, but we have 
much faith in the remedy for the disease — it certainly 
must be detrimental to the multitude of larvae that are 
found in the soil — and its chemical action on many of the 
fertilizers used is decidedly beneficial. 

QUINCE. 

In the crop of 1892 we have seen some of the finest, 



136 

largest and best ripened specimens that we have ever seen 
placed on exhibition, the aroma of vv^hich carries the 
middle-aged person back to the days of his childhood, 
before the days of canning, not only of all manner of 
fruits, but fish, flesh and fowlas vrell —when the good, 
old-fashioned boiled cider apple sauce for a standard, 
with a small jar of peach or quince, or perhaps a little 
pure bee's honey in the comb —for special occasions — all 
the handiwork of the frugal housewife, sufficed to grace 
the festive board. 

But now how changed! Not only have we multiplied 
the varieties adapted to our climate, but the four quarters 
of the earth are forced to contribute to our bill of fare. 
The quince will flourish in any good garden soil, with 
plenty of sun, though it appears to do best when planted 
near some small water course, perhaps near the outlet of the 
sink drain. Its greatest enemy is the borer, and the heap 
of coal ashes about the trunk of the tree is its best pro- 
tection. Soap suds will well repay the trouble for the 
weekly application. 

Fruits, which not many years ago were looked upon as 
rare luxuries, have come to be classed as the necessities of 
life. This fact is abundantly attested by the fine and con- 
stant displays which meet our view on every hand as we go 
about the streets. The demand is still increasing, and 
when we say that ^I'e times as much fruit is used to every 
thousand persons as fifteen years ago, we think the 
statement beloiv the actual figure. And the general health 
of the community has been much improved thereby. 
Fresh, ripe fruits should be acceptable to every well- 
educated stomach. 



REPORT ON ESSAYS AND FARM ACCOUNTS. 

The Committee on Essays and Farm Accounts respect- 
fully report that their duties this year were light, as but 
few papers were submitted for their consideration. 



137 

But one essay was offered, and no premium was 
awarded. 

Two excellent Reports were considered by the Com- 
mittee, and to both premiums were given. Mr. J. J. H. 
Gregory, for his interesting and instructive report upon 
Agricultural Implements, was awarded the first premium 
of f 10. Dr. J. W. Goodell's suggestive Report on Grapes, 
Peaches and Assorted Fruits, as the committee determined, 
entitled him to the second premium of $S. 

The Committee think it would be well to stimulate our 
writers on agricultural subjects in some way, so that 
Essays may be more freely offered. With this end in 
\'iew, as one means to be adopted, they would suggest 
the propriety of offering premiums upon special topics, to 
be proposed by the society. These topics might be se- 
lected by the officers of the society, by a special com- 
mittee, by the committee on essays, or in any way satis- 
factory to the trustees. 

Whether this experiment would succeed in increasing 
the volume of agricultural literature for the Society's 
Transactions, is of course uncertain, but it seems to be 
worth trying. 

Respectfully, 

G. L. Streeter, Chairman. 

Gilbert L. Streeter, Salem ; D. E. Safford, Ham- 
ilton ; N. M. Hawkes, Lynn ; G. B. Blodgette, Row- 
ley ; J. M. Danforth, Lynnfield. — Committee. 



REPORT OF NEW MEMBERS. 

The premium awarded to the person who obtains the 
largest number of new members from any city or town in 
the County, up to November 1st, is this year awarded to 
Francis H. Appleton, for forty-one new members. 

The total uuoiber of new members to Nov. 1, 1892, was 
eighty-one, including those who, by receiving awards of 



138 

seven dollars or upwards, became members under the rule 
which deducts three dollars from each award to non- 
members for membership, which membership is for life, 
without assessments and entitles the member to a voice 
and vote in the Society's business, and a copy of its an- 
nua] publication of its transactions. The following places 
furnished the new members. 

Andover 5, Manchester 7, 

Amesbury 1, Marblehead 1, 

Beverly 10, Methuen 2, 

Bradford 1, Middleton 1, 

Danvers 4, Nahant 10, 

Georgetown 4, Newbury port 1, 
Gloucester 1, ^ Newbury 2, 

Hamilton 2, North Andover 4, 

Haverhill 3, Peabody 1, 

Lawrence 8, Eowley 1, 

Lynn 1, Salem 7, 

Lynnfield 1, Saugus 1, 
West Newbury 2, 



FARMERS' INSTITUTES. 

The Society held eight Institute meetings, including one 
field meeting, during the season of 1891-92 on as many 
different days, forenoon and afternoon, at which the fol- 
lowing subjects were opened by carefully prepared essays, 
and freely discussed by any and all persons present who 
cared to discuss them, viz.: — 

1. "The Horse which is the Most Profitable for the 
Essex County Farmer to Breed." 

2. "Originating, Crossing, and Improvement of Vege- 
table Seeds, and Varieties best adapted to General Cul- 
ture." 

3. "Manacrement of Milch Cows." 



139 

4. "What Benefit do Farmers derive from the State 
Board of Agriculture.'' 

5. "Economical Milk Production." 

6. "The Usefulness of the Boards of Agriculture." 

7. "What the National Government is doing to per- 
petuate the Salt Sea Fisheries." 

8. "Fish as a Fertilizer." 

9. "Sheep Husbandry." 

10. "The Laws of Competition as affecting the Massa- 
chusetts Farmer." 

11. "Fruits." The Best Varieties and Best Methods of 
Cultivation." 

12. "Vegetables and how to raise them," 

13. "Utilization for Plant Food, the Wastes of the 
Ocean." 

14. "The Judicious Use of Manures." 

15. "Field Institute." 

The eightieth "Farmers' Institu1e"of the Society and 
first of the season was held at Georgetown, on Tuesday, 
Dec. 29, 1891, and proved to be of much interest to those 
that were present, although owing to so much sickness by 
"La Grippe" in that vicinity, there was a small audience 
as compared with the usual meetings. President Apple- 
ton occupied the chair, and in a few introductory re- 
marks alluded to "the Horse" the subject for discussion ; 
he said this topic had suggested itself partly from the fact 
that in looking over the farm stock of Essex County, the 
horse is the most valuable, an animal every one be- 
comes attached to and likes to have for pleasure or work, 
and according to statistics there are over 20,000 horses in 
Essex County today, after which he introduced the Hon. 
Charles M. Winslow, of the Vermont State Board of Agri- 
culture. 

Mr. Winslow expressed pleasure in meeting so many 
farmers of Essex County, and spoke of the intimate con- 
nection of the horse and mankind; we all have to have 
them and he earnestly advocated raising them. There are 



140 

many breeds and every farmer should raise the breed best 
adapted for the work he was to do. He spoke very highly 
of the Morgans and Hambletonians as being the best all 
around horses for farmers, when they did not want ex- 
tremely heavy horses like the Clyde or Percheron, for slow 
heavy work. 

Mr. Winslow confined himself principally to the breed- 
ing of the family or road horse, and would not advise try- 
ing to raise trotters. The American road horse comes 
from a breed originating in England, and could be traced 
back to the Arab steed, just as the English thoroughbred 
can; he makes the best horse for the farmer. 

Mr. Winslow gave a very interesting account of the or- 
iginal Morgan horse which was stolen from a British Offi- 
cer and taken to Connecticut; this horse was the sire of old 
Justin Morgan, which animal was taken to Vermont; Jus- 
tin Morgan was used by ladies under the saddle and there 
was no stronger point of his docility than this, from the 
progeny. The Hambletonian is a direct descendant from 
the Morgan and Messenger, and therefore I think the 
Hambletonian the best i^horse for general purposes. If a 
man is going to raise a colt he wants to be particular 
about the mare, for one good brood mare will give better 
satisfaction than a hundred that were good roadsters but 
had vicious traits in their character; the mare gives char- 
acter to the colt ; he spoke of ascertaining the pedigree of 
the mare, and if he found several generations back there 
was a balker or kicker among them he would condemn her 
as a brood mare. The sire should also be of good dis- 
position, he wanted a horse that had energy and life, 
strength of limb, and a good mild eye. In breaking a 
colt, Mr. Winslow said, he would begin as soon as it was 
born by putting his arm around its neck and talking to it, 
so that it would have confidence in you, and you would 
have your colt broken before you knew it; he would never 
load a colt heavily, and never strike him when frightened. 
Colts, he thought, could be raised at a profit to sell for 



141 

1250. In closing he advised all to beware of the jockeys, 
and do your own breaking and training, then you know 
all about your horse. 

Mr. Winslow answered manyquestions, among others he 
thought the mare had more influence on the disposition, 
and the sire more upon the gait of the colt. 

Mr. Butler of Georgetown, said he found that thebreed- 
ing of horses depended full as much on conditions of lo- 
cality as upon quality of stock; he believed in Essex 
County where you could buy horses very reasonable, he 
doubted if colts could be at a profit with hay and grain at 
the prices common to this locality. Other remarks were 
made by several gentlemen after which the meeting ad- 
journed for dinner, prepared by the Ladies Aid Society, in 
the basement of the Congregational church 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

There was a larger attendance in the afternoon when 
President Appleton introduced Hon. Aaron Low of Es- 
sex, who had a carefully prepared essay on "Originating, 
Crossing and Improvement of Vegetable Seeds, and Vari- 
eties best adapted to General Culture." 

Mr. Low spoke from his own experience and practice as 
a grower of seeds for thirty years; he alluded to the im- 
portant principle in nature of reproduction, especiall}'- as 
shown in the varieties of plants and vegetables. There is 
no crop on which the common farmer depends so much as 
on the potato, which was introduced into Europe sometime 
during the latter part of the fifteenth century, but it was 
a long time before the people used it as a common food. 
There is no more difficult vegetable to produce new kinds 
from than the potato. It is propagated by divisions or 
slips of the tubers, the kinds now cultivated seldom pro- 
duce any seed balls, it is then very difiicult to procure seed 
intentionally crossed with choice varieties from which to 
produce new ones. 

Mr. Low advised the early planting of potatoes to escape 



142 

the ravages of the beetle and the blight upon the young 
plant, and also of the higher price obtained in the market 
for early potatoes ; a satisfactory plan among market 
gardeners is to have every fourth row of potatoes and plant 
it to squash about the 15th of June, thus utilizing the 
land for two crops, and the use of fertilizer was advocated 
as cheaper and better than manure. 

In cabbages the speaker said it was an easy matter to 
obtain new varieties by setting two varieties alongside 
of each other, so that the pollen of the blossoms of one 
should drop on the other ; the market gardener who se- 
cures a good crop of early cabb age a week or two before 
his neighbor and gets them to market, not only finds 
quick sales, but at a price where he gets a handsome 
profit not often produced by other vegetables. Celery 
has been in great demand for the last five years and its 
cultivation has been much simplified by the introduction 
of new varieties. High manuring is required. The best 
variety is the Golden Self Branch. Land used for early 
peas, beans or sweet corn can be utilized for celery as 
a second crop. 

Considerable space was given to onions and much 
credit to Daniel Buxton of Peabody, for perfecting the 
Danvers Yellow Globe Onion, which brings a higher 
price than any other. 

Peas can be easily improved by crossing, which is done 
by planting two varieties noted for their sweetness beside 
each other and the pollen of the flowers will readily mix.. 

For beans. Early Champion Bush, Valentine, Golden 
Wax, and Wardwell's Kidney are among the best. The 
pollen is transferred by bees and it is almost impossible 
to keep varieties of beans distinct even if planted some 
distance apart. 

Of sweet corn the early Barbauks, Early Corey, Per- 
fection and Crosby were recommended, and if a fair crop 
and average price the results ought to be satisfactory. 

Mr. Geo. A. Rogers of North Andover, said he had 



143 

tried the past season to see if it were possible to raise 
twenty tons of Hubbard squashes to the acre and had ob- 
tained only a little more than one half that amount. In 
answer to a question Mr. Low said the largest crop of 
squashes, with another crop he knew of being raised, was 
in Dedham, where 9 tons of squashes and 200 bushels of 
potatoes had been raised on an acre. 

After this a general discussion took place between Mr. 
Butler of Georgetown, Mr. Parker of Groveland, Mr. 
Knight of Newbury, Warren Brown of Hampton Fallsy 
Mr. Rogers, and others. 

The 81st Institute of this Society was held by invitation 
of the Newbury Farmers' Club at Parker Hall in that town 
on Friday, Jan. 15, 1892. 

The subject for discussion in the forenoon was "The 
Management of Milch Cows," the principal speaker at 
the morning and afternoon meetings being Secretary Ses- 
sions of the State Board of Agriculture. There was a 
large attendance at both meetings. 

President Appleton presided, and before introducing Mr. 
Sessions took the opportunity to say that it was with great 
pleasure that the Society met with so active a society as the 
Newbury Farmers' Club in holding an Institute, and, al- 
though the weather was so inclement as to oblige them to 
come inside, according to tlie old maxim it was taking care 
of their grass for them the coming season. 

Mr. Sessions said that he did not expect that his subject 
was at all new to Essex County farmers and therefore 
asked the audience not to be critical. 

He dwelt first on the importance of his topic here in New 
England. In 1880, according to the census, there were 
13,000,000 milch cows in the country, and he had no doubt 
but at the present time there were 16,000,000 cows requir- 
ing 60,000,000 acres of land and the labor of 700,000 men 
to keep the milk supply of the country good. He said what 
was needed especially for milk farming was a cow with a 



144 

large flow of milk of the proper standard, and he believed 
the state standard should be lived up to whether right or 
wrong. Then what was also needed was a cow to produce 
a calf of value, well made, with good quarters, well devel- 
oped in those parts from whence the beef comes, for he 
believed the time was coming when the production of beef 
would be profitable. It was hard to get such cows if you 
depended on buying. Having got such a cow, why not per- 
petuate her qualities by raising calves ? The speaker recog- 
nizing the difficulty with milk farmers who asked, how 
shall we raise calves if we sell our milk, advocated bringing 
the calf up by hand b}^ feeding flaxseed oil meal, wheat 
bran or middlings after a few weeks' old. The wheat 
bran or oat meal should be stirred in boiling water so as 
not to lump. Calves raised in this way were more gentle 
and kind, and not half the trouble to take care of. The 
speaker had raised about twenty calves a year and always 
used the thermometer in every mess of feed. It should be 
the aim to teach the calves to eat oil meal, bran, etc., dry 
as early as possible. The dry feed increases the saliva. At 
the age of three or four months they may be given a ration 
of grass or rowen hay to keep them growing, and at the age 
of two or three years the heifers may take their place in 
the herd. In regard to pastures, if a cow has got to hunt 
for food in a short pasture, it will be felt at the pail. So 
green fodder should be used and it is his practice to feed it 
at the barn. Cows should always be fed systematically, 
giving the same rations at the same time every day. He 
would sow winter rye in September for early Spring feed, 
and oats or barley sowed in the spring make good feed after 
the rye. Pasture grass on an old sod is as near a perfect 
food for the cow as anything you can get if there is only 
enough of it. It was important that a good cow should be 
liberally fed, through the milking season especially. Dairy 
men ought not to study how little they can keep a cow 
upon. Until there is a surplus she will not secrete milk 
unless at the expense of her system. The cow should be 



H5 

fed and milked regularly, so as to keep her in an even 
frame of mind. 

Mr. William Little of Newbury believed in following 
mother nature with the calf, instead of studying how to 
cheat the calf. If he had not milk enough for it until it 
was eight or nine weeks old he would buy more and feed 
it. 

Remarks were made by Mr. Holt of Andover, Mr. Ware 
and Mr. Bailey of Newbury, after which the meeting ad- 
journed for dinner. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The afternoon meeting was called to order at half-past 
one, when Mr. Sessions delivered an interesting address 
upon the subject " What Benefit do the Farmers Derive 
from the State Board of Agriculture." 

He spoke first of agriculture as the earliest occupation 
of mankind, and the calling upon which other industries 
depend. Wise rulers are now beginning to realize that no 
government can prosper without a thrifty agriculture. He 
quoted Washington's address in 1796, in which he said it 
would not be doubted with reference to the individual and 
national welfare, that agriculture was of primary impor- 
tance. In speaking of the work performed by the state 
board, reference was made to the eflectual stamping out of 
the pleuro-pneumonia in 1859 and 1860, when the state 
appropriated -f 100,000, and the disease was eradicated. If 
the state board had done nothing more that would have jus- 
tified its establishment. Allusion was also made to the state 
board for its efforts in securing- a law compelling the sale of 
commercial fertilizers under a guaranteed analysis, and for 
the protection of the farmer against impostors. Before the 
passage of that law the selling of fertilizers was a cut- 
throat business. The state board was instrumental in es- 
tablishing the Agricultural College in 1862, and now the 
state board are the trustees of the college, with a marked 
improvement of what it was formerly. The special mis- 



146 

sion of the state board has been to look after the agricul- 
tural societies of the state. It has not desired to act ar- 
bitrarily, but for the last three years it has been tightening 
its grasp on societies that had been a little lax, with a re- 
sulting great improvement. The Dairy Bureau went into 
effect last September and gave good promise of excellent 
results. 

In answer to a question Mr. Sessions said that the state 
board had no control over the Cattle Commissioners, they 
being an independent board. 

At this time quite a lively discussion took place in 
regard to some of Mr. Sessions' suggestions between Mr, 
Gregory, Mr. Little, Mr. Bailey of West Newbury, E. A. 
Emerson and others, after which the meeting adjourned, 
after passing a vote of thanks to the Newbury Farmers' 
Club. 

The 82d Institute was held at Memorial Hall, Methuen, 
Friday, Feb. 5th, 1892, the subject for the forenoon being 
"Economical Milk Production," by Prof. James Cheese- 
man, Secretary of the New England Creamery Association. 

Prof. Cheeseman first considered what kinds of feed 
should be provided, and said that the fodder in use is 
practically the same through all of the northern states, 
and the conditions of success depend more on the individ- 
ual operator than on the feed. The chief feeds he men- 
tioned as being corn in its various forms, cotton seed 
meal and clover. Mr. Cheeseman said he considered corn 
ensilage and clover as prime factors in the economic pro- 
duction of milk, and would also recommend oats, but, 
said the speaker, there is nothing so cheap as ensilage, 
which could be raised at from $20 to 150 per acre with a 
product of twenty tons to the acre. How much feed to 
give the cows, and how to apportion it must be determined 
by the individual feeding it ; his own experience was 
from 30 to 45 lbs. per day. He next considered the breeds 
of cattle, and evidently took but little stock in the Hoi- 



147 

steins, and said in a grade cow he would not have over 
50 per cent, of Holstein blood. Milkmen must become 
breeders. The number of good cows that it will pay to 
feed at a profit are becoming scarcer, and tuberculosis is 
on the increase in all parts of the world. He thought a 
cow of about 1000 lbs. weight about the right size to keep. 
He did not believe in a pure bred cow, the Jersey's milk 
being too rich, but that which remains after the top is 
turned off is very blue. As a cross he favored the off- 
spring of a Guernsey bull and a grade cow. Its milk 
product equals that of the Ayrshire in quantity, and 
equals or exceeds it in quality. 

He next spoke on the matter of buildings, believing 
that cheaper barns could be built at a cost of not over $25 
to -$30 per cow. A bad feature of the Massachusetts 
barns are the leaky scuttles behind the cows, through 
which too much cold air comes in winter and is very apt 
to result in disease. 

Returning to the subject of feed, he said that feeding 
•ensilage does not affect the taste of milk as it does of but- 
ter. With cows large enough to eat fifty pounds of ensil- 
age a dayno bad results are noticed in the milk, and 
with meal at present prices he would not use the corn 
plant in any other way, although he believed in feeding 
some hay with the ensilage. Cotton seed or new process 
linseed oil meal at present prices, with good manurial 
value he considered better than gluten meal ; gluten meal 
is too dry. He gave the following as a good formula for 
an economical milk feed : Ensilage, from 35 to 50 lbs. ; 
clover hay, 6 to 11 lbs. ; mixed grain, composed of 15 
parts cotton seed meal, 15 parts new process linseed ^ oil 
meal, 20 parts ryo bran, and 50 parts middlings ; total, 7 
to 10 lbs. One thing that needs remedying is the waste 
of over production of milk. This should be regulated by 
the dairies. The milk is needed, and can be used to good 
advantage at home on the farm, either by feeding to 
young stock or making butter and using the skim milk in 



148 

some way at a profit. As it is to-day, at certain times^ 
large quantities are turned into the sewers. 

There was quite an animated discussion among several 
gentlemen present on the subject, but no one seemed to 
doubt the speaker's statement, and there was little or no 
difference of opinion in the matter. 

B. P. Ware expressed himself as strongly in favor of 
ensilage, and also that dairymen should raise their own 
cows. He also indorsed the state law that 13 per cent, 
solids was not too high as a standard, and believed if 
milk did not come to that standard it was through negli- 
gence or poor feed. 

In response to questions Mr. Cheeseman said that he 
would not recommend a feed of ensilage and clover en- 
tirely. He suggested that farmers could with economy 
raise peas and oats to feed in place of grain when it is 
high, and he also recommended the Canadian practice of 
feeding a mixture of peas and oats, raised together and 
ground together. 

Hon. J. J. H. Gregory spoke of feeding large quantities 
of squash to cows with good results. It made a good 
quality of milk. He also spoke of the richness of milk 
where cows had good, rich feed, and compared it to milk 
from cows fed on a poor quality of food. 

At the afternoon session Hon. William R. Sessions 
spoke on the subject " Usefulness of the Boards of Agri- 
culture," the address being substantially the same as the 
one given at Newbury, but in addition to that, spoke at 
some length on the advisability of a law for analyzing ni- 
trogenous feed stuffs. Under such a law manufacturers 
and dealers would be required to maintain a certain 
standard, and the farmers could send samples to the state 
chemist for analysis free of charge. Other remarks were 
made by Hon, J. J. H. Gregory, James O. Parker, Esq. 
and others. 

The 83rd Institute was held at Plummer Hall, Salem, 



149 

in conjunction with the Bay State Society, Friday, Feb. 
19, 1892, the subject under consideration being " What 
the National Government is doing to perpetuate the Salt 
Sea Fisheries. Before the speaker, Col. McDonald of the 
U. S. Fish Commission, commenced on his subject. Presi- 
dent Appleton invited Mayor Rantoul of Salem to make 
some remarks. He welcomed the members of the Society 
to Salem, in behalf of the city, and made reference to the 
early fisheries of the colonies, to the symbolizing of the 
codfish as the emblem of early wealth (hence the term, 
codfish aristocracy), and to the great abundance of bass 
fish in Bass river in the early days. President Appleton 
then introduced the speaker. Col. McDonald of Washing- 
ton, D. C, who said he was poorly qualified for the task 
he was about to perform, but his paper showed he had 
given the subject great care and thought. The inquiry, 
he said, is a pertinent one, and if the work with which the 
•commissioner is charged is distinctly economic in its aims 
he must show results adequate to the expenditure in- 
curred, or else be judged incompetent. The commission 
prosecutes three different lines of work, but all contrib- 
uting to one ultimate end, which is to increase the re- 
sources of our waters, to render our fisheries more produc- 
tive and profitable, and to improve the conditions for our 
fishermen. 

The speaker paid a warm tribute to Prof. Baird, assis- 
tant secretary of the Smithsonian Institute, who was well- 
fitted for laying out and prosecuting the desired work. 

He first convinced himself that the fisheries of the New 
England coast were on the decline ; he then proceeded to 
see what could be done to remedy matters, but first he had 
got to make himself acquainted with the life and habits of 
all the species of fish in these waters. 

The commission has proceeded upon the lines marked 
out by Prof. Baird, to arrive at a complete life history of 
all the inhabitants of the waters, to study their habits, 
•determine their food, to determine their distribution and 
migration. 



I50 

Col. McDonald illustrated the scope and purpose of the 
enquiry as now conducted, by reference to three investi- 
gations now in progit^^^s. First of these he named that on 
the Pacific Coast by the Steamer Albatross, stationed 
there in the winter of 1887-8. He next spoke of the 
oyster investigation in Rhode Island, Connecticut and 
New York. The oyster beds of New England and the 
middle states are subject to the attacks of drills and star- 
fishes, which do several thousand dollars' worth of damage 
every year. 

For three years the Schooner Grampus has been investi- 
gating the temperature relations between the cold Labra- 
dor current and the warm waters of the Gulf Stream. 

In conclusion, the speaker related the successful efforts 
that had been made in the artificial propagation of cod 
and shad. 

At this time several gentlemen in the audience com- 
menced to ask questions of Col. McDonald, who answered 
all, and in that wa}'" a general discussion followed until 
adjournment for dinner. 

AFTERNOON MEETING. 

In the afternoon the subject for discussion was " Fish as 
a Fertilizer," opened by William H. Bowker, well-known as 
the manufacturer of Bowker's fertilizer. Mr. Bowker spoke 
from a business point of view, believing in catching all the 
fish you could or where you could, whether for food or fer- 
tilizer. The first great by product for plant food is stable 
manure, and another is bone — the latter being sold to fer-^ 
tilizer manufacturers or directly to the farmers. Mr. 
Bowker stated that experience had proved the value of fish 
as fertilizers, and quoted Prof. Trumbull as saying that tlie 
Indian names of menhaden and porgie signified ''fertilizer," 
and that the Indians were accustomed to use this species, 
together with herring and alewives, to enrich their corn 
fields. Fish is no better source of plant food than many 
other substances. It is the source of plant food because it 



15^ 

contains nitrogen and phosphoric acid. In some sections it 
has been injudiciously used, on some parts of the Cape, for 
instance, tliey believe it has exhausted the soil, and doubt- 
less this is so, as large quantities of oily fish ploughed in 
year after year will fill the soil with fatty matter, which, 
by rapid decomposition, parches, and tends to burn out, the 
organic matter. But fish, properly treated, is a valuable 
source of plant food, and, said the speaker, from an 
economic point of view, every pound of fish waste should 
be utilized, and every fish that can be caught out of the sea 
taken, whether it be by hook and line, net, trawl, siene or 
any other way, for it is a means of returning, in some 
measure, the lost fertility that is continually pouring into 
the sea. Mr. Bowker estimated that 5000 tons offish waste 
are produced along this coast. 

But the great source of plant food from the sea is the 
menhaden or porgie, which are evidently the scavengers of 
the sea, as many specimens which have been dissected 
show. A ton of menhaden fish, when the oil is pressed out 
and dried, to li2 per cent, moisture, contains oOO pounds of 
actual plant food, worth in the market from $30 to ^32 
per ton at retail. The use of these fish as a fertilizer has 
brought down the price of our best commercial fertilizers 
from 'if)80 to $35 and $40 per ton. 

As far as can be ascertained menhaden are not to any 
extent food for the food fish of the sea, so that the taking 
of them in a wholesale way is not an injury to the food fish 
industry in this direction. He quoted authorities, to show 
that trawling, seining and netting fish by the most im- 
proved methods did not materially lessen the supply, and 
said that if fishermen were still obliged to resort to the old 
methods, the demand would be so much greater than the 
supply that few could aflbrd fi^li for food. On the other 
hand he believed that increased facilities for catching fish 
should be encouraged. 

Mr. Ware did not agree with Mr. Bowker that the m^i- 
haden are scavengers. He said he lived within ten rods of 



152 

the ocean, and formerly took large quantities of menhaden 
for the fertilizing of his land. Now there are none come 
there except in small quantities, and those at a distance. 
He believed that the wholesale seining of them had killed 
them off, or driven them away. 

Mr. Gregory said that cod, hake and haddock are disap- 
pearing rapidly from our shores. They are much dearer 
than formerly, though he agreed with a statement advanced 
by Mr. Bowker that a larger population and vastly increased 
methods of transportation had increased the demand and 
thus made them dearer. But he believed the price had in- 
creased out of proportion to the population. 

There were other remarks by Mr. Andrews, Mr. 
Hawkes, Aaron Low and others, and at 4 o'clock the meet- 
ing adjourned. 

The 84th Institute was held at Beverly, Friday, Feb. 26, 
1892. President Appleton occupied the chair, and after a 
few brief remarks he invited the Rev. Mr. Butler of 
Beverly to make some remarks, which he did in a humor- 
ous strain. Among other things he said it was one of his 
greatest enjoyments to tramp across the fields with his dog 
and gun, and in doing so he had fallen in with and made 
the acquaintance of very many farmers, whom he num- 
bered among his plcasantest friends. He also spoke of his 
being brought up on a farm and his father, who is well ad- 
vanced in years, but still an active farmer. 

President Appleton next introduced the speaker of the 
morning, who was not any stranger to the farmers of Essex 
County, Hon. John E. Russell of Leicester, whose subject 
was "Sheep Husbandry." 

Mr. Russell, in opening, spoke of his first appearance be- 
fore this Institute and of his former position as Secretary 
of the State Board of Agriculture. If he had held the office 
for five years he said he should have considered his mission 
a failure if the number of sheep kept in Massachusetts had 
not been doubled, but he was, however, still pursuing his 



153 

mission and urging farmers to keep more sheep, although 
sheep were gradually declining. The great objection, 
heretofore raised by farmers against raising sheep, was the 
damage bj dogs. That objection, said the speaker, no 
longer exists. The laws have been so amended that the 
farmer can obtain not only the full value of his sheep, but 
for all the damage done to his flock. 

The question now, then, is sheep husbandry profitable ? 
Some farmers here in New England say we cannot keep 
sheep enough to make it pay. This is a mistaken idea. 
Ohio, one of the greatest sheep-raising states, only averages 
33 to a flock. Michigan, another sheep-raising state, aver- 
ages only 25. He considered 50 enough in a flock to obtain 
the greatest profit. The one great advantage in keeping 
tliem is in keeping up the fertility of our soil. Less time 
and labor are required for sheep than for any other farm 
stock. 

In response to a question, Mr. Russell said that any of 
our pasture land that had an ordinary stone wall around it 
can easily be used as a sheep pasture. Posts set along the 
wall, with barbed wire strung along inside just along the 
iop of the wall makes a very good enclosure. 

The wool from sheep always finds a ready market at 
standard prices with the commission dealers of Boston, 
and mutton, if well fatted, will bring satisfactory prices- 
Here the speaker spoke of the price of early spring lambs. 
In the month of March from $d to $13 can be obtained for 
a lamb weighing from 18 to 28 lbs. For years the 
speaker had averaged i 8 or $9 for his lambs right through. 
To secure the best prices for lambs they should be 
dropped in Jaimary or the first ten days in February. 
Ewes after dropping their lambs should "be fed with shorts, 
ground oats, linseed oil meal, or something to keep a good 
flow of milk to fatten their lambs. There is little or no 
danger in overfeeding ewes that have just dropped their 
lambs. He shears his sheep in March with great success, 
hnt would not recommend the plan to others where extreme 
care cannot be taken of them. 



154 

Mr. B. P. Ware said he was induced to try the raising^ 
of sheep by the speaker, and he bought a hundred sheep, 
but the experiment did not prove a success. Other speak- 
ers were C. S. Emerton of Peabody, who keeps sheep, Mr. 
Marsh of Danvers, Mr. Phillips and Mr. Whitcomb, after 
which the meeting adjourned for dinner. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

In the afternoon the subject for discussion was "The 
Laws of Competition as Affecting Massachusetts Farmers," 
by Charles A. Mills, Esq., of Southborough. 

Mr. Mills' address was an enlargement of the idea that 
the cheap and easy transportation have driven New Eng- 
land farmers out of the old established methods of agricul- 
ture, but the increased facilities, a growing population and 
new demands upon the farmer, open avenues for a success- 
ful business, and make his lot more desirable than thdt of 
his forefathers. 

Competition, said the speaker, is the struggle to reach 
something someone else is striving for. 

In farming the laws of competition are not as active as 
in many other things, but just as sure. 

The early history of our farmers was a struggle for exis- 
tance, but in the present advanced state of agricultural 
methods and improved machinery, one man can do the 
work that formerly required ten. The farmer now not 
only raises an ample supply for home needs, but has 
plenty to export. The increased facilities for transporta- 
tion have reached such a point that the speaker had heard 
it said, that a bushel of corn could be brought to the farmer 
in New England, from the field in Illinois, for a smaller 
sum than the cost of grinding. 

The New England farmer, with his increasing wants and 
comforts in living, cannot compete in tliose staples of the 
West, where land is fertile and cheap, and the primitive 
modes of living as compared with the East. Again the 
New England farmer is too easily diverted from the main 
object of his calling by thinking of the by-products. Thus 



155 

it has ceased to be profitable to raise beef in this section of 
the country, and the farmer whose object it is to produce 
milk, grumbles because he can get only a very low price 
for his cows from the butcher, when he should be studying 
to see how to make the cow give more milk. 

The speaker quoted statistics to show how competition 
had effected the production of live stock in New England^ 
he disagreed with Mr. Russell the speaker of the morning 
who had said that sheep could be profitably kept in New 
England. In Massachusetts between the years 1863 and 
1885 the loss of mutton raised was eighty-nine per cent.y 
and beef about in the same ratio. 

With cereals the tendency is the same way, though they 
do not amount to so much. Their production has fallen off 
forty-seven per cent, in forty years. 

But the speaker did not wish to be understood as de- 
claiming on the decadence of Massachusetts farming. On 
the contrary, agriculture in this state is being brought into 
new and more desirable limits. He didn't believe there 
was a better place in the whole world than Massachusetts 
to-day. The farmer's present field is to supply products 
that are perishable. The demand is constantly increas- 
ing. The consumption of milk, for instance, has increased 
enormously. The speaker argued that it would pay better 
to keep cows for milk than to raise sheep. He believed in 
a cheap milk supply, and in increasing the capacity of the 
cow. Civil laws have been passed for the protection of 
producers and consumers. Now let the natural laws 
operate for cheap production. 

A better quality of butter is demanded, and this our home 
farmers can supply. More fresh vegetables and fruit miglit 
be raised to good advantage, and very profitable increases 
are noted, particularly in regard to cranberries and straw- 
berries. The demand for eggs and poultry is also con- 
stantly on the increase, and so is the production at good 
prices. 

Competition means with the Massachusetts farmer a 



156 

wise choice in regard to the branches he shall pursue, and 
intelligent direction of his labors. It puts a premium upon 
energy, pluck and thrift. It makes the farmer a specialist, 
and puts the stamp of his individuality upon his product. 

The 85th Institute, and sixth of the season, was held in 
Odd Fellows' Hall, No. Andover, Friday, March 4, 1892, 
the subject for the morning being " Fruits; the Best Varie- 
ties and the Best Methods of Cultivation," the speaker 
being Mr. J. H. Hale of South Glastonbury, Conn. 

Mr. Hale is a practical fruit grower, and in company with 
his brother, owns one of the best, if not the best fruit farms 
in Connecticut. Mr. tiale was born on a New England 
farm, and necessity compelled him to stay there until he be- 
came of age, when as U. S. census agent in the last census, 
he had a chance to travel all over the United States, after 
which he returned to New England, where he was glad to 
make it his liome, and considers it the most desirable place 
in the country for a young man to make his home. In his 
travels he has noticed that horticulture is drifting into 
specialties. Formerly Delaware and New Jersey were the 
peach-producing states, but extensive orchards are now be- 
ing set in Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky and Southern 
Missouri. Pears, peaches and grapes are being extensive- 
ly planted in Colorado, apples in Missouri, and prunes In 
Oregon. California produces immense quantities of fruits 
which can be dried and shipped East. 

Certain climatic conditions, however, enable New Eng- 
land to produce better fruit than can be grown anywhere 
else in the United States. Speaking of the apple, he said 
that he believed the difficulty with our New England far- 
mers was that they didn't cultivate it on a sufficiently large 
scale. 

Our apple trees are stimulated for a year or two, and 
then allowed to go back. There is not sufficient care taken 
of them to make .them profitable. Letting pruning go back 
for a time, and then almost murdering the tree, and seldom 
if ever spraying them, did not inure to possible great pro- 



157 

fits. There is not much money in apples at 75 cents or $\ 
per barrel, but New England wants more apples and l)etter 
apples, for which the people will pay a price that will make 
them profitable. In the way of small fruits there is a won- 
derful opening. He knew that sometimes, when the prices 
were low, as they often were with strawberries, it was dis- 
couraging, but that is witli cheap berries. He himself had 
no trouble with good fruit. The danger of raising small 
fruits is the using of too much stable manure. He hinaself 
had done better with commercial fertilizers rich in potash 
and phosphoric acid. If there is a great use of stable 
manure we get a soft berry. 

In his peach ventures he began about twenty years ago. 
New England is rather out of the peach belt — not below, 
but above it — but he had found by observation that on liigh 
elevations, exposed ground, he was apt to get more peaches 
than in the hollows and around the buildings. He kept 
stable manure away from the trees, but used potash, which 
made the tree grow more slowly, but harder wood, firmer 
and wonderfully productive. Winter killing is the one bad 
thing for peach raisers to face. He had found that in 
trimming for shape of his trees he sacrificed their fruit by 
cutting off here and there a bud. Now he trims for fruit 
instead of looks, and has the most outlandish looking set of 
trees to be found anywhere, but they all bear largely. Mr. 
Hale saitl " thirty-five acres in 1889 gave us $28,000 from 
our peach trees." 

He advised to plant a few trees every year ; make it a 
rule to do it, and choose only the hardiest. We cannot ob- 
tain hardly two crops in five years, but one in four years is 
practically sure, and with some varieties a crop every year, 
and when you get your fruit to market you will find some- 
thing to learn there. Put your fruit in good, new, clean, 
white boxes, never use boxes for fruit of. any kind after 
they are colored, and regular travellers on the road. In 
good, clean, white boxes the fruit will bring enough more 
to pay for the boxes. 



158 

After this a very interesting discussion began and kept 
up until time to adjourn for dinner. 

AFTERNOON MEETING. 

On re-assembling after dinner the Hon. J. J. H. Gregory 
of Marblehead gave a very interesting address on '■* Vege- 
tables, and how to raise them." 

He said at the outset that an intelligent presentation of 
his subject involved location, manuring and preparation of 
the spil. Whether a man was a market farmer or a mar- 
ket gardener depended upon his distance from market. 
In either case he must reach it at least once a day, and a 
market gardener must reach it twice a day to get his 
prices. 

The market gardeners raise but bed stuff largely — let- 
tuce, radishes, cucumbers, melons, spinach, anything that 
can be started under glass, whereas the market farmer 
raises pickles, cabbages, squashes, onions, with peas, sweet 
corn and most anything that will sell, and recognizing 
that it is the early bird that catches the worm, he would 
choose the early varieties. The first thing to be consid- 
ered is the character of the soil and what crops are adapted 
to certain kinds of soil. For instance, for early crops we 
want early soil. All vines, peas, beans, want warm, early 
land. Cabbages and beets want cool land. The manur- 
ing of the soil depends on the character of the land. The 
first crop coming naturally is beans. Not much nitrogen 
is wanted for the pea or bean crop. Good manuring is 
required, but the nitrogen might be left out. Bone is a 
very good fertilizer for them. The manure does best har- 
rowed in. He earnestly advocated working the land well. 

Speaking of squashes, he said that a great mistake is 
that they must be raised in the midst of a great heap of 
manure. He furrowed out his 9x9 both ways ; put in a 
forkful of manure and pressed it with his foot. Squash 
roots were wonderful things and exceedingly fine ; the 
roots of a squash vine, it is estimated, will reach fifteen 



159 

miles. Plaster is best for squashes, but not air-slacked 
lime. There is no such thing as male and female 
squashes, but male and female blossoms. The male is the 
large, straight blossom coming directly up from the root, 
while the female blossom is smaller and comes along on 
the vine. 

Speaking generally of manures he said he would spread 
broadcast with most crops and harrow in. If plants are 
manured too heavily they will run to vine too much and 
be less productive. 

Mr. Gregory described the several kinds of peas and 
beans, and what kinds of plant food they require. For 
beets, he said a good deal of potash was required. If the 
farmer has any ashes he will find it an excellent fertilizer 
for that crop. Carrots want high and very liberal manur- 
ing. He would put on eight to ten cords to the acre. Tom- 
atoes want good manuring, muriate of potash, and nitrate 
of soda is good for them. Corn is also one of the best early 
crops. It should be planted in drills. Put in six cords of 
good, fair manure and five hundred pounds of fertilizer. 

The early cabbages should be started in hot beds. The 
secret of success is in getting those which had been hard- 
ened olf. For manure he would use ashes in the fall, 100 
bushels to the acre, and about eight cords of manure to the 
acre in the spring. 

For potatoes, Mr. Gregory endorsed the French system 
of planting, making a deep furrow, then putting in fertil- 
izer, placing over that a layer of earth, then dropping the 
potatoes and covering them over. 

Onions are a great crop, but it' is a make or break crop. 
Put in from ten to twelve cords of fish manure. He had 
used fifteen cords, ten cords good weight manure, well 
rotted down, that has more fish in it than any other ele- 
ments would perhaps answer. What is wanted is six per 
cent, nitrogen, six per cent, potash, and six percent, phos- 
phoric acid. The farmer should build up his manure for 
each special crop by studying results : then begin to fight 



i6o 

the weeds before you can see them, said the speaker : if you 
wait until you see them you are a little too late. 

The closing indoor Institute was lield in Abbot Hall, 
Marblehead, Friday, March 26,1892. President Apple- 
ton occupied his usual place in the chair. 

The Institute was the first one ever held in Marblehead, 
and during the morning, Mr. Gregory showed the visitors 
many places of interest and related such legends and rem- 
iniscences as were of interest to them. 

The subject for the forenoon was "Utilization for Plant 
Food the Wastes of the Ocean" by Hon. J. J. H. Gregory, 

Mr. Gregory commenced by considering the geological 
construction of the bed of the sea and the shores. The 
plant growth at the bottom of the sea, were the truth 
known, said the speaker, would be found to exceed that 
of the land. Mr. Gregory exhibited to the audience 
specimens of sea kelp, rockweed and other marine vegeta- 
tion, redolent of the sea. Sea vegetation, said the speaker, 
requires plant food the same as land plants. In the ocean, 
as upon the land, the different forms of life are dependent 
upon each other. Thus the cod fish is found in abundance 
only where there is plenty of kelp. It is often remarked 
that the sewerage that empties into the ocean from our large 
cities is wasted. That is not so. It fertilizes marine 
plants, the strong currents carry it away and distribute it 
along the bed of the ocean. The speaker believed rock- 
weed much more abundant now than formerly, on account 
of the sewerage. Sewerage might, perhaps, be used ta 
better advantage on the laiid, but it is not wasted in the sea. 
Next we come to Fish ; leaving out all consideration as a 
food supply. Fish skins and heads are now used exten- 
sively in the manufacture of isinglass and glue. The skins 
of the seal and porpoise are used largely for leather. The 
speaker expressed his regret that Dog fish, which at cer- 
tain seasons are very abundant, cannot be better utilized 
for fertilizer, they are so muscular that acids do not readily 



i6i 

work upon them, and the only way in which they can be 
used to advantage is by composting them with manures. 
He next spoke of Halibut chum. This consists of the 
head of the fish pressed dry into cakes. It is rich in phos- 
phoric acid, and is worth $30 per ton by analysis. Fish 
skins and porgies were next considered. The skins are 
rich in phosphoric acid and so are fish bones. These fer- 
tilizers are excellent for onions, cabbages and peas, but not 
good for squashes, cucumbers and the like. He did not 
think much of mussel bed mud. By analysis its value is 
one third that of barn manure. In former days all fish 
wastes were thrown away and anyone could have them by 
calling for them, but that is all changed now, everything is 
utilized one way or another. Complaint is sometimes 
made that the continual application of fish wears out the 
land, but it wouldn't if farmers would make a complete 
fertilizer. In itself it is not well balanced, but needs more 
potash. Halibut chum is the best balanced. Kelp is rich 
in potash, a constituent in which the sea animals are de- 
ficient. Rockweed is richer than kelp, and weight for 
weight is twice as rich in nitrogen. 

Farmers may smile at the idea of sand as a fertilizer. 
It is of the same constituency as our native rocks, rich in 
potash ; when mixed with dark rich soil the carbolic acid 
of the soil sets free the potash in tlie sand, and it becomes 
a valuable fertilizer. Salt has no value in itself, as a 
manure, but like plaster it sets free the plant foods in the 
soil. The black mud of the marshes is composed of de- 
cayed vegetable matter, the same as the prairies, except 
that it is salt. 

Dinner was served by the woman's relief corps in Odd 
Fellows' Hall and in the afternoon, Prof. Wm. E. Brooks, 
of Amherst Agricultural College, spoke on the " Judicious 
Use of Manures." 

Prof. Brooks had strung across the stage a series of 
tables illustrating experiments to which he referred. He 
gave the results of analysis of cellar manure from the well 



l62 

fed cows at the Agricultural College, which is materially 
above the specimens found in the average barn cellar, of 
which he had examined many. Prof. Brooks believed in 
applying manure to the land fresh. Many elements of 
value in it are otherwise lost in the course of a year, the 
action of the frost, snow and rain on it in the field is ben- 
eficial. It should be spread as soon as hauled on to the 
ground and not left in piles during the winter. He be- 
lieves it pays to use commercial fertilizers with manure, 
and did not believe it true that fertilizers ruin the land 
if their use is persisted in intelligently. 

One ton of English hay contains $6 worth of plant food. 
One ton of Clover hay contains $9 worth of plant food. 
Fifty bushels of corn with stover contains -$15 worth. One 
hundred bushels of potatoes contains -fS worth, but we 
have to use very much more than those values to obtain 
the crops named. As a rule only a very small per cent, 
of the plant food supplied is shown in the crops. Where 
does the surplus go to ? That is the question. Here the 
speaker explained the charts that showed the results of his 
experiments. He said that fertilizers for corn should 
be far richer in potash than that generally used. Too 
much Superphosphates have been used. 

Dry ground fish and muriate of potash make the best 
top dressing for grass land. Potash by all means is the 
best fertilizer for clover. Experiments with potatoes 
showed that potash increased the crops much more than 
phosphoric acid or nitrogen. Commercial fertilizers con- 
tain a much smaller percentage of potash than is needed. 
He was not prepared to give a formula for potatoes. 

In answer to a question about scab potatoes, Prof. Brooks 
quoted Prof. Bonner of Colorado, as having decided as a 
result of experiments that the scab was the result of a para- 
site growth in the cells which formed the scab and spread. 

For Oats with mixed grass and clover seeds, experiments 
seemed to indicate that it would pay to use a little nitrate 
of soda, but not phosphoric acid nor muriate of Potash. 



i63 

He highly recommended clover as a fertilizer. Clover ob- 
tains its nitrogen from the air, and nitrogen costs more 
than any other ingredient in the fertilizer. The clover 
may be used to good advantage by plowing it in, but it is 
a better plan to feed it to the animals and apply it in the 
form of manure. 

Nitrogen is soon lost after applying to the soil, but that 
is not the case with phosphoric acid and potash. Nitrogen 
should be fed out slowly and as it is needed. 

In conclusion, he advised farmers to buy ingredients for 
mixing with commercial fertilizers, varying the proportions 
for different crops. For corn, use more potash, he pre- 
ferring muriate of potash. For potatoes use more sul- 
phate of potash. For grains use a little nitrate of soda, 
except on very rich land. For clover use potash. In ap- 
plying fertilizers generally use phosphoric acid abundantly, 
but dole out nitroofen as needed. 



A FIELD INSTITUTE 

Was held at the Asylum Farm in Danvers, Tuesday, April 
19th. There was not so large a display of Implements as 
is sometimes the case, but very creditable exhibits were 
shown by Henry Newhall & Co. of Danvers, and Whit- 
comb & Carter of Beverly. The interested spectators, of 
which there were many, saw the different Implements test- 
ed and could be their own judge of what kind suited their 
own individual preferences. The Asylum barn drew the 
attention of many interested farmers. It is a model struc- 
ture and Dr. Charles W. Page, the superintendent, took 
good care to answer all the inquries made in regard to 
the different methods of feeding, watering the stock, etc., 
and the examination^of the silos in the barn was another 
interesting feature for some. 

The barn is light and airy, plastered wherever it is of 
any use to make it warm, but well ventilated so that the 



164 

air is pure and sweet all the time. The cows are nearly 
all grade Holsteins, aud the barn will accommodate about 
120 head. The cows are tied in comfortable stanchions 
that allow considerable scope for moving about, and are 
watered twice a day from shallow troughs in front of the 
stanchions, about 400 tons ensilage and 150 tons of hay 
are required to keep the stock at this farm. The piggery 
was another source of attraction, and the visitors bought 
quite a large number to be sent to their homes before 
leaving. Taken as a whole it was the most interesting 
field meeting the society has held for many years. 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF CROPS AS FOOD 
FOR CATTLE. 

BY DK, CHAS. W. PAGE, SUPT. ASYLUM FARM, DANVERS. 

Again your committee has to report, as in past years, that 
no one has presented a statement embodying his experience 
in testing the comparative value of different crops as food 
for cattle. 

It appears that the farmers of Essex County do not study 
this question by practical tests, or they do not care to tab- 
ulate and make public the results they obtain. 

If the first clause of this supposition is true, it is some- 
what surprising, since a solution of the questions involved, 
which can be reached in no other way, is of great pecuniary 
intererst to every farmer in the county. And besides, the 
gratuity at the disposal of the committee, although a hand- 
some reward in this connection, represents but a fraction of 
the ultimate gain which each man may surely expect as the 
outcome of intelligent experiments in this line of progress. 

Perhaps the second clause of the supposition conveys the 
truth in this case. 

It is more than possible that the average farmer dreads 
the extra care and labor necessary to keep an accurate ac- 



count of all his farm operations ; and yet it is the pains 
taken, the careful thinking which such records promote, and 
the common sense, based upon such personal experience, 
which enable him to increase the productiveness of his farm 
and better his financial condition. 

The sooner farmers adopt a system of records by the aid 
of which they can compare the money value of different crops 
and one year's results with those of another, the sooner will 
their farm work become more interesting and more profit- 
able. 

By efforts in this direction farmers can increase the dig- 
nity of their calling and raise it to a higher level in the scale 
of commercial enterprises. 

Success in any business demands frequent readjustments, 
and careful auditing of accounts is absolutely essential. 
What business man would not, sooner or later, find himself 
a financial wreck if he wholly neglected his bookkeeping ? 

Manufacturing, commerce, and merchandizing are ex- 
ceedingly sensitive to altered conditions of transportation, 
labor-saving devices, competition, tariff, etc., and well posted 
managers promptly relinquish unprofitable methods, grasp 
new lines of activity, and project new ventures. 

Agricultural methods are less flexible, less easily diverted 
from old fashioned ways for the reason, principally, that 
farmers do not keep day book and ledger accounts with their 
farming operations. 

Because the laws of nature with regard to vegetation are 
undeviating, New England farmers have relied too much 
upon hereditary methods of farm management, and have con- 
cluded too readily that farming cannot pay, because their own 
methods have been disappointing. And yet, if farmers will 
adapt their operations to the enormous changes which farm- 
ing as well as business in general, has undergone within 
forty years, they will find there is no limit to the wealth 
which can be taken from mother earth in old Massachusetts. 

New and intelligent methods must be put into farm work. 
Each farmer should test new plans and promising expe- 



1 66 

dients, until he discovers which ones are suited to his soil, 
his markets, or his tastes. 

It is unnecessary to commence on a hroad scale. Let 
each man select the experiments which interest him most, 
which give greatest promise to meet his wants, and pro- 
ceeding cautiously, record every step in the operation. 

The report of your committee for 1891 was an argument 
in favor of corn as the most profitable crop for feeding 
cattle. 

As the committee for 1892 entertain the same views con- 
cerning the value of the corn crop, and would not inten- 
tionally thrash old straw — and especially straw which has 
been so well thrashed by Mr. Butler — it is thought best to 
supplement last year's report with an account of a practical 
experiment in feeding milch cows with corn ensilage at 
the Danvers Lunatic Hospital farm. 

650 quarts of milk are required each day for use in the 
hospital. Previous to 1892, a part only of this necessary 
quantity of milk had been produced on the hospital farm. 
The amount purchased from outside parties for the six years 
immediately preceeding, cost the hospital more than 
$20,000.00. 

About one year ago a new cow stable was erected, and 
since its completion, forty additional cows have been pur- 
chased for the herd. 

Upon a farm which had previously supplied barely enough 
hay for eleven horses and sixty cattle, active measures had 
to be adopted to provide for the present stock which con- 
sists of thirteen horses and 120 cattle, including young stock. 

In May, 1891, seventeen acres were planted with ensilage 
corn. From these fields 440 tons were cut and stored in 
the following September. 

With that ensilage the stock has been easily carried to 
the present time ; all the milk used in the hospital since 
January, 1892, and nearly all that has been required since 
October 1st, 1891, has been made on the farm, while the 
cost of grain and meal consumed by the stock for the year 



i6y 

was less than the average yearly cost for the preceding six 
years. 

The system of feeding was as follows, viz. : Twice a day 
throughout the year the cows were fed three quarts of the 
following mixture, viz. : shorts 150 lbs., corn meal 100 lbs., 
cotton seed meal 50 lbs. 

Through the summer of 1891 the whole herd ran in the 
pasture. In August, each cow was given about four lbs. 
of hay once a day. From the 20th of October, 1891, all 
the milch cows have been wholly fed in the barn. At first 
they were given about six lbs. of hay twice a day, and green, 
— second crop, — grass once a day. 

On the 11th day of November, 1891, a silo was opened, 
and for more than six months the cows had the following 
for a steady diet, viz. : fifteen lbs. ensilage night and morn- 
ing, with about five lbs. hay at noon. For several months, 
beginning in December, the stock received one-half of a cart 
load of mangel wurzels, or turnips. In this way 72 tons 
of mangels and 300 bushels of turnips were fed. 

There was no deviation from the above bill of fare until 
the 20th of May, when green winter rye was substituted 
for ensilage at night. In less tlian a month the rye was 
used up, and as there was no early clover on the farm, 
green grass was fed at night. 

About the middle of July the supply of ensilage was ex- 
hausted. It had kept perfectly, undergoing no deterior- 
ation during the warm weather. The last portions were 
just as sweet as those fed earlier, and were just as greedily 
eaten by the cows. 

For a month green oats, with an occasional change to 
freshly cut grass, was given night and morning. After that 
for one week new hay was given three times a day. 

After the 25th of August, second crop clover was fed night 
and morning for five or six weeks, and subsequently pease 
and barley, with an occasional load of second crop grass. 

In all, about 175 tons of green fodder has been given since 
the ensilage was gone. 



1 68 

The cows have had dry hay daily at noon, through the 
year. They have been watered twice a day in the stable, 
which is well ventilated, but warm. At no time last winter 
did the temperature fall below 40 degrees in the cow stable* 

The health of the herd has been remarkably good, and 
the general condition, flesh, looks, &c., has been excellent. 

At every milking the quantity given by each cow was 
weighed separately and recorded on the daily milk chart. 
At the end of the month the whole amount and the daily 
average given by each cow was figured out, and reduced to 
quarts by allowing 2.15 lbs. to the quart. These monthly 
summaries have been grouped to cover the hospital year, 
and in that table the yearly product of each cow and her 
daily average for the whole year, 365 days, are given. 

The daily record demonstrates a number of interesting 
points, a few of which may be stated here. 

It shows that the quantity of milk is reduced whenever 
cows are subjected to change or excitement. 

In very cold weather they were turned into the yards 
about once a week only, and each time they went out, there 
was an immediate shrinking of several cows' milk, for a 
day or two following. The most abundant flow of milk 
came when the cows were fed on new diy hay three times a 
day. This hay was cut in June from turf upon which a 
commercial lawn fertilizer had been spread the season be- 
fore, and contained considerable red and white clover. 

Aside from this exceptional instance, there was an imme- 
diate shrinking of milk whenever the daily rations were 
changed, but usually the loss was made up within a few 
days. 

With none of the green stuff, winter rye, oats, pease and 
barley, green grass, and green clover, was the milk more 
abundant, or better in quality, so far as practical use could 
determine, than when the ensilage was being fed. 

In our experience, there are many points of advantage in 
favor of corn ensilage as food for milch cows ; such as the 
low cost per ton ; the certainty with which advance esti- 



4— First cow bearing the No. 
B, etc.,— Changes. 



DANVERS HOSPITAL FARM. 
AMOUNT OF MILK PRODUCED BY FORTY-FIVE COWS FROM OCTOBER i, 1891 TO SEPTEMBER 30. 



DECEMBER. 



FEBRUARY. 



Holstein 
KolsteiD 



Holstein 



Durham 
HolgteiD 



217 

288 
271 


67 
48 






289 


23 



318. S3 

230,43 



2 


63 


8 


J7 


5 


92 
35 

78 
66 



5 


72 


\ 


90 


11 


S 


8 

7 
9 


20 

91 
62 

33 



403 


60 


289 

41 
240 

346 
282 


53 

14 
12 


!!' 


94 


266 
239 
361 


33 

88 
33 



8 
10 

« 


28 
75 

97 
72 


s 


88 


9 

10 
8 

12 


18 
08 



47e.23 
374.36 



73-05 

236 80 
115-44 



8-87 258. 2C 



18.14 



370-58 
U319-68 



s 


s 


7 
12 


6} 


16 
8 


83 
37 


..« 


22 


6 


69 



275 
260 


23 


211 


63 


146 
228 

29 


64 
23 

64 
81 










193 
282 


95 
44 



264.01 
475.46 

420.00 



16 


44 
84 






'f 


i 


7 
9 


68 
38 




83 










1 


f? 



243-60 
466 23 



445.35 

24L97 

463-84 



379-18 
337.56 

11023.00 



54.24 
241.28 



Total quarts for year, 123,119.05. Daily Average for year, 337.31 quarts. Daily average per cow for year, 9.20 quarts. Average number of cows milked daily for year, 36.66. 



169 

mates can be made as to the amount required, and the num- 
ber of acres to be planted ; the facility with which a large 
quantity can be grown and harvested ; the limited space re- 
quired for housing ; the ease with which exact feeding can 
be regulated, and the relish with which it is eaten by the 
stock for long periods. 

Our tests of corn ensilage, which, if properly secured and 
stored, will never disappoint reasonable expectations, go to 
support Mr. Butler's conclusion that " Corn is king, even 
in Essex County." 

The record of 45 cows, all that were on the farm for the 
whole year, is herewith respectfully submitted, to be dis- 
posed of as deemed best by the society. The daily record 
for the whole herd made a still better showing, since quite 
a number of good cows have been purchased , within the 
year, and some were disposed of when the daily yield be- 
came low. This record, with report on ensilage, &c., is 
not offered in competition for the prize offered by the soci- 
ety, because of so many changes in the herd, and because 
the crop report did not cover points enough to place the 
experiment on a scientific basis. 

In classifying according to blood, the prevailing strain is 
given. Only 4 or 5 of the whole number are pure bred 
animals, but with pure blood, registered, Holstein and Ayr- 
shire bulls in our stock, and our complete mil-k records for 
each cow, we hope for success in breeding a herd of extra 
ffood milch cows in the future. 



IN MEMORIAM. 



In obtaining the names of members of the society de- 
ceased, a list of members was sent to the Trustee in each 
town and city for revision, requesting date of death and 
age of each member deceased, with brief notice of each in 
printing or writing, from which ;ind from others, the fol- 
lowing has been compiled by your committee : — 



170 

Moses B. Abbott, of Andover, died December 30, 1891, 
aged 49 years and 25 da3^s. He was a soldier in the late 
war. He was a very genial companion and a good neigh- 
bor, a good farmer and an expert in raising good vegetables, 
for which he fcund a ready market. 

George F. Mason, died in Andover, May 5, 1892, aged 
52 years and 7 months. He was a thrifty farmer, and was 
a frequent exhibitor at the annual Fairs. 

Branch G. Gutterson, of Andover, died suddenly at 
his home, January 11, 1892, aged 72 years and 6 months. 
He was born in Truro, N. S. He came to Methuen, Mass., 
and engaged in the shoe business. A few years ago he re- 
moved to Andover, and engaged in farming, which he fol- 
lowed until his death. He was a very worthy and upright 
citizen. 

Joseph S. Holt, died in Andover, November 4, 1892, 
aged 84 years and 8 months. Mr. Holt was one of the old- 
est members of the Society, always taking great interest in 
the transactions of the Society. When a young man he 
was engaged in farming, in which he took great pleasure, 
experimenting with different crops. Owing to poor health 
he removed to New York City, and was in the employ of 
the American Bible Society for more than forty years. A 
few years since he returned to spend his remaining years at 
his old home in Andover, which he so much loved. 

Jonathan H. Osborne, of Amesbury, who became a 
member of this Society in 1886, died April 1st, 1890, aged 
69 years. He was born in Weare, N. H., but in early life 
he came to Amesbury. Although the greater part of his 
active life was engaged in carpentering and in the carriage 
industry, he ever looked forward to the time when agricul- 
ture should claim his whole attention. That time had ar- 
rived. He was just ready to enjoy the fruits of his labor, 
when he was stricken with la grippe, which caused his 



death. He had served the town several terms as select- 
man, was a charter member of Amesbury Grange and its 
first Master, and was also President of the Amesbury and 
Salisbury Agricultural Society. 

Olivee p. Killam, of Boxford, died April 30, 1892. He 
was born in Boxford, August 29, 1819, and has always made 
his home in that town. Mr. Killam was a man highly 
respected by his neighbors and townspeople, as a straight- 
forward, plain, practical man. He was of the true type of 
the best New England citizenship. He was for several 
years Selectmen of Boxford, a member of the Legislature, 
and filled every ofiice of responsibility and trust which 
needed sound judgment, to the entire satisfaction of his 
townspeople. For many years he was a member of this So- 
ciety, and for several years was one of the Trustees, in 
which he took a great interest, and many premiums have 
been awarded him for the excellent products of his farm. 
His life was characterized by good works, and many in the 
community will remember him as one who gave modestly 
and generously to any worthy cause. 

Samuel Longfellow, died in Groveland, June 3, 1892. 
He was born on Newbury Highlands in 1808, and bought 
his farm in this town in 1869. Mr. Longfellow was a suc- 
cessful farmer, making it his life work. He was the orig- 
inator of the Longfellow corn, now so widely known, and 
has been a member of this Society for many years, inter- 
ested in all of its work, and always ready to answer to 
his name when assigned to any committee, which was 
often, and it was always a pleasure to him to attend the 
Society's Institutes. 

Zenas C. Wardwell, of Groveland, died October 10, 
1892, aged 60 years. He was born in Maine, and came to 
Groveland when a young man, and has been engaged in 



172 

farming and the manufacture of shoes. He was a mem- 
ber of this Society about 30 years. He has represented 
his town in the Legislature and been State Senator for 
two years ; also filled the office of Selectman and School 
Committee for several years. 

Eldred S. Parker, of Groveland, died Nov. 6, 1892, 
aged 72 years. Mr. Parker was a life-long resident, and 
died in the same house in which he was born. Always 
made farming his business, and was one of the oldest 
members of this Society, formerly being a Trustee. 

Mrs. Lucy J. Lefavour, of Danvers, died December 17, 
189 L She was the widow of John Lefavour. She became 
a member of the Society in 1876, having taken a premium 
on butter in that year. 

Elnathan Dodge, of Danvers, died January 7, 1892, 
aged 69 years. He became a member of the Society in 
1850, from Beverly ; that part of Danvers being a part of 
Beverly at the time. He was a farmer and carried on a 
large farm. He left a widow and two sons. 

Walter S. Merrill, of Danvers, died February 9, 
1892, aged 51 years, leaving a widow and two sons. He 
was a son of Levi Merrill, and succeeded his father in the 
drug business, which he carried on about 16 years. He 
became a member of the Society in 1874. 

Ansel W. Putnam, of Danvers, died January 30, 
1892, aged 70 years, 11 months, leaving a widow. When 
a young man he lived in Lexington, Boston, and 14. years 
in California. After his return he made his home on the 
old farm where Gen. Israel Putnam was born. He was a 
successful grower of small fruits, and very thorough in 
his methods. He became a member of the Society in 
1872, and took an active interest in it, serving on many 
committees, and writing reports. 



^7Z 

Edward Hutchinson, of Danvers, died June 21, 1892, 
aged 58 years, 9 months, leaving a son and daughter. He 
became a member of the Society in 1875. He was presi- 
dent of the E. & A. Mudge Shoe Co., and previously a 
member of the firm of E. & A. Mudge & Co. He was very 
active in the affairs of the First Church, Danvers Centre. 

Francis Marsfi, of Danvers, died September 24, 1892, 
aged about 54 years. He became a member of the Socie- 
ty in 1872, in Peabody, where most of his life was passed 
in farming. His father was James Marsh. He left a 
widow, three sons and a daughter. 

Mr. Daniel Carlton, of North Andover, died Jan. 2, 
1891, aged 92 years. He was born at the Carlton home- 
stead, where he had spent the most of a long and useful 
life. Years ago he was miller at the ancient grist mill 
then located where the Davis &Furber Machine Co.'s plant 
now prospers. As a farmer — the pursuit he followed the 
greater part of his life — he was progressive and successful. 
He had been a member of the Legislature ; he was select- 
man of the town for many years, both before and after it 
was divided from Andover. He was honest, independent 
and faithful in the discharge of every duty, and in his death 
the town loses one of its most respected citizens, and this 
society one of its oldest members, and formerly a trustee, 
and a man who always took an active interest in its 
welfare. 

Elizabeth P. Stiles, wife of Farnham Stiles, of Middle- 
ton, passed to the higher life, Nov. 16, 1891, aged 76 years 
and 6 months. She had been a member of the Essex Agri- 
cultural Society many years, had received premiums and 
diploma of the society, for the best butter presented at 
their fairs. She was respected and beloved by all who 
knew her. 

Calvin Rogers, who died June 15, 1889, was an honest 



174 

man, a good citiz<3n, a methodical farmer, and interested in 
all matters pertaining thereto. One of the founders of the 
West Newbury Farmers' Club in 1856, he was devoted to 
its welfare, and for several years its president. In 1860 he 
was representative in the State Legislature. 

Amos Poore died July 28, 1889. Like all intelligent 
farmers in the town, he was interested in the work of the 
West Newbury Farmers' Club, as in that of the County So- 
ciety. He was enthusiastic in military matters, and at one 
time captain of a company in Major Poore's Battalion of 
Rifles. 

Thomas G. Ordway, who died Jan. 2.5, 1890, was one of 
the most progressive, enterprising and successful farmers, 
a man who, while helping himself, was willing and pleased 
to extend a helping hand to others. He died full of years, 
holding the respect of all who knew him. 

En'och D. Carr died Nov. 26, 1891. Although inherit- 
ing a large farm, he was not particularly identified with 
farming, his attention being mostly given to the business of 
a butcher, in which he was successful, and he could be relied 
on to give good weight, sixteen ouncs to the pound every 
time. 

Daniel P. Nelson died Dec. 1, 1891. He was a life- 
long and successful farmer. For more than twenty years 
he was the efficient and humane manager of the town farm 
and almshouse, giving entire satisfaction to the inmates and 
authorities. 

Francis R. Edwards, of Wenham, died Aug. 8, 1891, 
aged 78 years, 8 months, 2 days. He was a whole-souled, 
generous farmer, of large physique and noble heart ; slow 
of motion, honest and firm in every act. His large farm, 
upon which he was born and where he lived and died — at 
peace with all the world — he inherited from his father. 
It was a part of a large tract formerly owned by his ances- 



175 

tors, who were among the earliest settlers in the vicinity ; 
these broad and fertile acres, with their fertility unimpaired 
he has left to liis children. 

George W. Parsons, of Wenham, died Jan. 22, 1S92, 
aged 62 years, 9 months, 24 days. He lived respected and 
died regretted by his neighbors. He was born at Glonces- 
ter; his ancestors had long lived on Cape Ann. He moved 
to Wenham when qnite young, and early learned shoemak- 
ing, but in later years was engaged in the fish trade. 

Charles W. Adams, of Newbury, died Feb. 7, 1892, aged 
75 years. By his death the society loses a member wlio 
always took an interest in agriculture. He was a farmer 
of the old school, who thought a farm was not complete 
without a good yoke of oxen. He lived on the farm where 
he was born until within two years of his death. He was 
well-known and respected by all. 

Mr. George A. Randall died March SO, 1892, aged 04 
years. He was one of the most successful farmers, and one 
of the largest onion growers in Essex County ; a man of 
shrewd business qualities, his judgment was excellent, and 
by his death the society loses an honored member, the town 
a good citizen, and his neighbors a good neighbor. He was 
selectman of Newbury for a number of years. 

Mr. James A. Hutchinson, of Middleton, passed 
away July 3, 1892, aged 51 years. He was a man of in- 
tegrity — firm in his convictions of right. He was inter- 
ested in political affairs, and, in fact, all those measures 
pertaining to the welfare of mankind, which made him a 
valued citizen. 

Dea. William A. Phelps, of Middleton, passed to the 
spirit life, October 3, 1891, aged 74 years. He was a car- 
penter by trade, but interested in agricultural pursuits 
and in all reformatory movements which are intended to 



176 

bless mankind. He assumed no borrowed appearances, 
but was indeed what he appeared to be, full of truth, can- 
dor and humanity, which made him highly esteemed by 
all. 

Daniel Bkickett, of Haverhill, died February 19, 
1892, aged 67 years. He was a native of Haverhill. 

Benjamin E. Emery, of Haverhill, died October 31, 

1891, aged 93 years 6 months. Born in Atkinson, N. H. 

Samuel Fellows, of Haverhill, died May 25, 1892, 
aged 81 years 8 months. A native of Sandown, N, H. 

Albert C. Heath, of Haverhill, died May 18, 1892, 
aged 78 years 9 months. A native of Newburj^port. 

Thomas H. West, of Haverhill, died April 24, 1892, 
aged 80 years 11 months. A native of Boston. 

Mr. Thomas K. Leach, of Topsfield, died June 2, 

1892. By the death of Mr. Leach the Society loses one 
of its oldest and most active members, and the town one 
of its most honored citizens. He was a constant atten- 
dent at all the meetings held by the Society, and had 
served as Trustee and Vice-President. 

Mr. Daniel S. Goss, of Rockport, after a few weeks' 
illness of pneumonia, died at his home in Rockport, April 
1, 1892, aged 64 years. Mr. Goss was a good citizen, a 
good neighbor and a good and successful farmer and mar- 
ket gardener. He has long been a member of the Essex 
County Agricultural Society. 

Mr. James Manning, of Rockport, died from a shock 
of paralysis, March 26, 1892, at the age of 86 years and 3 
months. He was a member of Granite Lodge of Odd Fel- 
lows over 39 years, and has filled many responsible posi- 
tions in the order. He was also a man who took great in- 



177 

terest in public affairs, and has held several important 
offices of trust in the town of Rockport. He was for sev- 
eral years a member of the Essex County Agricultural 
Society. 

Samuel S\yett, of Peabody, was born in Tuftenboro, 
N. H., Sept. 18, 1818, died May 20th, 1892, aged 73 ycar& 
and 8 months. Mr. Swett left the paternal homestead in 
early life, came to Massachusetts, sought and obtained 
service among farmers. After locating in Peabody he 
became acquainted with and married a daughter of the 
late John Bagley, who now survives him. Mr. Swett has^ 
rented and worked several farms, viz : — The Gardner and- 
Blaney farms in Peabody, and the Ephraim Brown farm on 
Marblehead Neck, now that beautiful summer resort. For 
several years he was Superintendent of the Town Farm in 
Peabody. He also served the town upon the board of 
Overseers of the Poor. Mr. Swett was a model farmer, 
always keeping ahead of his work ; never allowing the 
weeds to get the better of him. He was a man of decid- 
edly pronounced opinions in agriculture, politics, and re- 
ligion. A kind and devoted husband, an indulgent 
parent, a true and genial friend. 

M. G. Clea[ent, of Merrimac, died June IS, 1891, aged 
67 years 5 months. Mr. Clement was a member of the 
board of Selectmen, having been elected in March, 1890, 
and re-elected last spring. He has been a successful car- 
riage builder, and has been for 25 years interested in the 
various businesses that have been carried on in the felt 
boot factory building. He was the treasurer of the old 
axle company, and was a director in the manufactures 
which succeeded this business, on the premises. He was 
interested in the old Merino shoe business and also in the 
Bay State Felt Boot and Shoe Company. He has always 
taken an active interest in public affairs. He was an em- 
ployer whom all his workmen respected and loved ; a man. 



178 

of genial attributes, and always willing to assist in any 
work that had for its object the advancement of the 
town's prosperity. 

William Chase, of Merriraac, died October 14, 1891, 
aged 74 years. Mr." Chase was one of our oldest and 
most esteemed residents and has always been active in 
the municipal and social affairs of the town. He has 
been a member of the school board for three years, and al- 
ways took a decided stand on educational matters. He 
espoused the cause of the Republican part}'^ and was 
prominent in the work ; he represented the town in the 
Legislature, and has been at times quite prominent in 
local politics. In town affairs Mr. Chase was always in- 
terested in everything tending to our material prosperity. 
Before the division of the town of Amesbury he was a 
member of the board of Selectmen in the old town. 

*^Dayii) M. Tewksbury, of Merrimac. died October 26, 
1891, aged 74 years. He was a justice of the peace for 
many years, and was an old resident of this town, and 
had been engaged in farming and also in the ice business. 
Before the division of the town of Amesbury he took an 
active interest in town affairs, and for several years was 
one of the Selectmen. He was particularly active during 
the first years of the war in filling the town's quota of 
soldiers. Lately he has not shown so much interest in 
town matters. 

Hon. Nathaniel A. Horton, of Salem, died December 
14, 1891, aged 61 yeai's, after a brief illness of only seven 
days. He had been a member of this Society for many 
years, and always took an active interest in its welfare. • 

Mr. Horton was one of Salem's most respected citizens 
and at the time of his death was senior editor of the Sa- 
lem Gazette and Essex County Mercury. Hon. Caleb 
Foote, his life-long 'business partner very aptl}^ says of 
him": 



179 

" His self-possession, clear and resonant voice, and pun- 
gent humor, gave him calls for a speech (at all public so- 
<3ial meetings), which was always sure to be followed with 
applause, while his logical mastery of the subjects which 
he discussed in legislative bodies, always gave hira a large 
measure of influence and popularity which would {)roba- 
bly have sent him to Congress if he could have consented 
to encourage the plans which were proposed to him to 
that effect. 

In public life he possessed peculiar qualifications ; great 
readiness and pungency with either speech or pen — a 
sharp, inquiring and logical mind, entire self-possession, a 
clear and incisive voice, and ready utterance ; and in the 
legislative bodies of which he was a member, he had a 
larger than common share of influence. In social life he 
was hearty, frank, genial, and universally popular. Many 
hearts will be grieved at his departure, which, although at 
the ripe age of over threescore years, still appears un- 
timely. 

In his editorial and business relations he was upright 
and downright. No temptation of gain was sufficient to 
induce him to waver from the line of strict uprightnesss 
and fair dealing ; and what he consistently yielded to 
others he expected to have granted to the interests which 
he represented, jje engaged in no delusion, trickery or 
false pretences, and never intentionally went back from 
any engagement, bargain, or promise which he had made. 
His sense of duty to the public as a conservator of morals 
was in constant exercise, and he earnestly desired to pub- 
lish no sentence which he would wish to blot ; and he was 
able to attain in this matter a great degree of success. 
Knowing the sincerity and earnestness of his efforts in 
this and in other worthy respecfes, it is a satisfaction to me 
to indite these few words of remembrance." 



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CC C-1 e^ M U2 00 -^ lO — j2 



CONSTITUTION 

OF THE 

ESSEX AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY 



AiiTiCLE 1. There shall be a President, four Vice 
Presidents, a Secretary, and a Treasurer, who shall be 
"Trustees, ex-officio. The President, Vice Presidents and 
Secretary shall be elected at the annual meeting by ballot 
and the Treasurer by the Trustees, annually, at their meet- 
ing in November. In addition to these, one Trustee shall 
be elected annually for each town in the County, and the 
Trustee for each town shall be elected by members of the 
Society in said town, at a meeting called for that purpose,* 
in accordance with notice issued by the Secretary, and 
shall continue in office until another is elected in his stead ; 
and such election shall be final, and shall constitute the 
Trustee so elected a member of the Board of Trustees of 
the Society ; and the result of the election in each town 
shall be communicated as early as possible to the Secretary. 

Art. 2. There shall be an Annual Meeting of the So- 
ciety, at such times as the Trustees shall determine, at 
which all officers shall be elected. Twenty members at 
least shall be necessary to constitute a quorum for the 
transaction of business. 

Art. 3. If at any meeting of the Society, or the Trus- 
tees, the President and Vice Presidents shall be absent, 



*Tbese meetings are held the last Tuesday of October, and the Trustees 
elected commence their duties at the November meeting ot Trustees. 



l82 

the members present may appoint one from among them to 
preside at such meeting. 

Art. 4. The President, or in case of his absence, either 
of the Vice Presidents, with the advice of the Trustees, 
may call a special meeting of the Society ; or whenever a 
written application, with the reason assigned therefor, 
shall be made by any twelve members of the Society, to the 
Presidents and Trustees, they shall call such meeting. 

Akt. 5. The meetings of the Trustees shall be held at 
such time and place as they shall from time to time agree 
upon ; seven of whom, with the presiding officer, shall make 
a quorum. 

Art. 6. The Trustees shall regulate all the concerns of 
the Society, during the intervals of its meetings ; propose 
such objects of improvement to the attention of the public, 
publish such communications, and offer premiums in such 
form and value as they think proper (provided the prem- 
iums offered do not exceed the funds of the Society) ; 
and shall lay before the Society, at each of its meetings, a 
statement of their proceedings and of the communications 
made to them. 

Art. 7. The Secretary shall take minutes of all the 
votes and proceedings of the Society and of the Trustees, 
and enter them in separate books ; and shall record all 
such communications as the Trustees shall direct. He 
shall write and answer all letters relating to the business of 
the Society. 

Art. 8. The Treasurer shall receive all monies due or 
payable to the Society, and all donations that may l)e made 
to it, for which he shall give duplicate receipts, one of 
which shall be lodged with the Secretary, who shall maka 
a fair record thereof. The Treasurer shall from time to 
time pay out such monies as he shall have orders for 
from the Trustees ; and shall annually, and whenever 
thereto required, render a fair account of all his receipts- 
and payments to the Society or a committee thereof. He 
shall give bonds for the faithful discharge of his duty, in 



i83 

such sum as the Trustees shall diiect, and with such sure- 
ties. 

Art. 9. A committee shall be appointed annually by 
the Trustees, to audit the Treasurer's accounts, who shall 
report to the Society ; and the same being accepted, shall 
be entered by the Secretary in his books. 

Art. 10. In case of death, resignation, incapacity, or 
removal out of the County, of the Secretary or of the Treas- 
urer, the Trustees shall take charge of the official books, 
papers, and other effects, belonging to the office that may 
be vacated, and give receipts for the same ; which books, 
papers, etc., they may deliver to some person whom they 
may appoint to hll the office until the next meeting of the 
Society, at which time there shall be a new choice. 

Art. 11. *Any citizen of the County may become a 
member of the Society, by paying the sum of thiieb dol- 
lars to increase the permanent fund of the institution. 

Art. 12. A committee shall l)e i-aised from time to 
time, to solicit and receive subscriptions for raising a fund 
for encouraging the noblest of pursuits, the Agriculture of 
our county ; the same to be sacredly appropriated to that 
purpose. 

Art. 13. All ordained ministers of the Gospel who re- 
side within the County, shall be admitted honorary mem- 
bers of the Society. 

Art. 14. In addition to the usual number of Trustees 
annually elected, the past Presidents of the Society shall be 
honorary members of the Board of Trustees. 

Art. 15. The foregoing constitution may be amended 
by a proposition of the amendment in writing by a member 
at a regular meeting ; the same to lie over for the action 
at the next annual meeting of the Society. 



♦Members will receive from the Secretary a "certificate of membersliip." No 
fines or assessments are ever imposed. Members are entitled to vote in all its 
transactions, witb free use of tbe Library and a copy of the printed "Transac- 
tions" eacli year, 

A premium of six dollars is now offered to the resident of the County obtain- 
ing the largest number of new members during the year ending Nov. 1. 



orncERs or the society, 

:F'0:E^ 189S-93. 

PRESIDENT. 

FRANCIS H. APPLETON, of Peabodj. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

JAMES J. H. GREGORY, of Marblehead. 
JAMES P. KING, of Peabody. 
OLIVER S. BUTLER, of Georgetown. 
HORATIO G. HERRICK, of Lawrence. 



SECRETARY. 

JOHN M. DANFORTH, of Lynnfield. 



TREASURER. 

GILBERT L. STREETER, of Salem. 



HONORARY TRUSTEES. 

JOSEPH HOWE, of Methiien. 
BENJAMIN P. WARE, of Marblehead. 



DELEGATE TO THE STATE BOARD OP AGRICULTURE; 

FRANCIS H. APPLETON, of Peabody. 



TRUSTEES. 

Edmund Gale, Amesbury. Amos P. Alley, Marblehead. 
Charles C. Blunt, Andover. Geo. B. Bradley, Methuen. 



i85 

John W. Lovett, Beverly. Geo. W. Sargent. Merriniac. 
Chas. R. Anderson, Boxford. Hiram A. Stiles, Middleton. 
S. W. Hopkinson, Bradford. William D. Hodges, Nahant. 
Chas. H. Preston, Danvers. B. F. Stanle3% Newburyport. 
Albert E. Lufkin, Essex. Edward Kent, Newbury. 
Sherman Nelson, Georgetown. John Barker, No. Andover. 

A. F. Harvey, Gloucester. E. P. Barrett, Peabody. 

B. E. Merrill, Groveland. Story D. Pool, Pockport. 
Isaac F. Knowlton, Hamilton. Frank P. Todd, Rowley. 
Thomas Sanders, Haverhill. Henry A. Hale, Salem. 
James W. Bond, Ipswich. P. Albert True, Salisbury. 
Warren C. AUyn, Lawrence. Samuel Hawkes, Saugus. 
Asa T. Newhall, Lynn. David Warren, Swampscott. 
:Harry W. Munroc, Lynnfield. Frank H. Towne, Topsfield. 
Wm. H. Allen, Manchester. David Pingree, Wenham. 

L. W. Bailey, West Newbury. 



NEW MEMBERS. 

Joseph W. Poor, Andover. Frank L. FabGns,Marl)lehead. 
Joseph W. Smith, Andover. A. W. Peabody, Middleton. 
John N. Cole, Andover. T. D. Boardman, Manches'r. 

Plato Eames, Andover. C. A. Curtis, Manchester. 

Mrs. J. J. Dovvning,Andov'r. H. L. Higginson, Manches'r. 
John J. Mason. Amesbury. Chas. A. Prince, Manchest'r. 
Stephen A. Abbott, Beverly. John A. Burnham, Manch'r. 
Gordon Dexter, Beverly. Alfred P. Rockwell, Manch'r. 
William D. Sohier, Beverly. Geo. Wigglesworth, Manch'r. 
C. L. Pierson. Beverly. Alfred Thorp, Methuen. 

Robert Saltonstall, Beverly. Frank W. Webster, Methuen. 
Alex. Cochiane, Beverly. F. Merriam, Nahant. 
John L. Gardner, Beverly. James H. Beal, Nahant. 
Robt. H. Bancroft, Beverly. George P. Upham, Nahant. 
Dudley L. Pickman, Beverly.E. Francis Parker, Nahant. 
•Chas. H. Dalton, Beverly. George Whitney, Nahant. 
Herman W. Towne. Bradford. H. Cabot Lodge. Nahant. 
Alvah J. Brad>treet.Danvers.Edward W. Codman, Naha't. 
'Chas. W. Page, Danvers. Geo. Abbott James, Nahant. 



1 86 

H. Otis Verry, Danvers. Charles T. Lovering, Nahant. 
Geo. A. Peabody, Danvers. Arthur H. Parker, Nahant. 
Alfred E. Towne, Georget'n. E. P. Dodge, Newburyport. 
Henry Hilliard,Georgetown. Fred H. Poor. Newbury. 
M. N. Boardman,Georgeto'n. Benj. Pearson jr., Newbury. 
J. F. Jackson, Georgetown. Winfield S. Hughes, N. An'r. 
E. C. Hawkes, Gloucester. Geo. Matthewson, N. Ando'r. 
M. K. Abbott, Hamilton. Geo. L. Burnham, N. Ando'r, 
G. V. L. Meyer, Hamilton. Newton P. Frye, N. Andov'r. 
Geo. H. Hardy, Haverhill. W. L. Hill, Peabody. 
H. K. Swasey, Haverhill. Willard P. ISmith, Rowley. 
Frank S. Webster,Haverhill. Rob't S. Rantoul, Salem. 
Walter E. Parker,Lawrence. Willis H. Ropes, Salem. 
Alex. N. Bruce, Lawrence. Charles F. Ropes, Salem. > 
Lewis P. Collins, Lawrence. Philip Little, Salem. 
Anson L. Griffin, Lawrence. William Bickerton, Salem. 
Thos. F. Ryan, Lawrence. Edmund F. Knight, Salem. 
A. M. Fay, Lawrence. Ellis H. Porter, Salem. 

John Breen, Lawrence. Andrew A. Scott, Saugus. 

Joseph Stowell, Lawrence. Chas. M. Evans, W. Newb'y' 
Charles E. Allen, Lynn. L. F. Brown, W. Newbury. 

L. H. Wheeler, Lj^nnfield. 

CHANGES KEPOKTED BY THE TRUSTEES IN 1892. 

Hiram L. Burpee, Haverhill, from Bradford. 
John S. Armitage, Wellesley, from Danvers. 
Wm. H. Brown, Marblehead, from Danvers. 
J. E. Spring, Brooklyn, N. Y., from Danvers. 
Aaron Low, Hingham, Mass., from Essex. 
William H. Gray, N. H. from Beverly. 
Joseph W. Trask, Danvers, from Beverl3\ 
David Wier, from Beverly. 



Members of Essex Agricultural Society. 

DECEMBER, 1892. 



Previous printed, list was in 1890, corrected in 1891 and 
in 1892 Reports. If any errors are discovered in the follow- 
ing list, please report them to the Secretary. Trustees are 
requested to report death of meaibers as soon as they occur, 
with printed notice, when convenient. ^ 



Bailey, 0. S. 
Cainmet, Samuel 
Chesley, M. B. 
Chesley, John F. 
Currier, W. H. B. 
Davis, B. Lewis 
Feltch, Elbridge S. 
Gale, Edmund 



Abbott, James J. 
Abbott, Nathan F. 
Abbott, Hartwell B, 
Abbott, John B. 
Andrews, M. C. 
Barnard, Edwin H. 
Bailey, Moses A. 
Bailey, Samuel H. 
Blunt, Charles C. 
Blunt, Joseph H. 



AMESBUEY— 24. 

Gale, Foster 
Goodwin, E. A. 
Hill, Albert C. 
Hill, J. Henry 
Hollander, Lambert, 
Huntington, B. F. 
Little, J. P. 
Lane, T. W. 



ANDOVER— 54. 
Bodwell, H. A. 
Buchan, George 
Buchan, George W. 
Butterlield, J. P. 
Carter, Charles L. 
Carruth, Isaac 
Chandler, Joshua H, 
Cheever, James 0. 
Cole, John N. 
Cummings, C. 0. 



Mason, John J. 
Morrill, Geo. T. 
Morse, Daniel L. 
Nelson, David 0. 
Sawyer^ Aaron Jr. 
Tibbetts, William B. 
True, Eben 
Vining, William F. 



Downing, Mrs. J. J. 
Fames, Plato 
Flint, John H. 
Foster, George W. 
Foster, Moses 
Foster, George C. 
Foster, F. H. 
Gould, Milo H. 
Gulliver, E. Francis 
Harriman, Thos. P. 



i88 



Hay ward, Henry A. 
Hidden, David I. C. 
Holt, E. F. 
Holt, Ballard 
Jenkins, John B. 
Jenkins, E. Kendall 
Johnson, Francis H. 
Johnson, S. K. 



McLawlin, Henry 
Moor, J. Warren 
Noyes, Henry P. 
Poor, Joseph W. 
Play don, Alfred G. 
Rea, Jasper 
Reynolds, James H 
Ripley, George 



Smith, James B, 
Smith, John L. 
Smith, Peter D. 
Smith, Benjamin F. 
Smith, Joseph W. 
Thayer, Samuel 
Tucker, William 
Upton, Edward C. 



Abbott, Stephen A. 
Andrews, Joseph F. 
Appleton, Nathan D. 
Appleton, Edw. H. 
Appleton, Isaac 
Avery, Mark B. 
Baker, John T. 
Bancroft, Robert H. 
Bennett, Robert G. 
Buriiham, 0. B. 
Brewer, George 
Carter, John W. 
Caldwell, Charles E. 
Clark, George 
Clark, Arthur E. 
Clark, Aug. N. 
Clark, Peter E. 
Cochrane, Alex'r 
Connelly, Stephen 
Dalton, Charles H. 
^ Dan forth, E. F. 
Dexter, Gordon 
Dodge, Andrew 
Dodge, Benjamin N. 
Dodge, Benjamin B, 
Dodge, Fred A. 
Dodge, Israel W, 
Dodge, Joshua S. 



BEVERLY— 100. 

Dodge, Forest C. 
Dodge, Lucius B. 
Dodge, Walter F. 
Elliot, John T. 
Endicott, Robert R. 
Foster, David L. 
Foster, Issacher jr. 
Foster, William A. 
Foster, William B. 
Friend, Seth 
Giles, Benjamin V. 
Gardner, John L. 
Haven, Franklin 
Herrick, Joseph H. 
Hill, Hugh 
Howse, Thomas W. 
Lee, x\sa F. 
Lord, Cyrus W. 
Lovett, William H. 
Larcora, Rufus 
Lawrence, C. A. 
Loring, Augustus P. 
Loring, Wm. Caleb 
Lovett, Francis S. 
Lovett, John W. 
Lummus, Elijah E. 
Mason, Alfred A. 
Mason, George 



Mason, Charles A. 
Mason, Lyman 
Marsters, James A. 
Mayo, Josiah 
Mitchell, John E. 
Morgan, William C. 
Morse, John T. 
Moulton, Charles 
Moulton, John A. 
Munsey, John G. 
Murney, John M. 
Norwood, Francis 
Obear, Ezekiel F. 
Paine, Charles C. 
Perry, Albert 
Phillips, J. C. Mrs. 
Pickett, Charles 
Pierson, C. L. 
Pickman, D. L. 
Pitman, Mark 
Pope, Jasper 
Porter, Adoniram 
Preston, Ezra 
Raymond, John W. 
Raymond, J. W. jr. 
Saltonstall, Robert 
Sawyer, E. C. 
Sohier, Wm. D. 



i8g 



Stephens, Augustus Trask, Joseph W. Williams, Augustus 
Stickney, George W.Vittum, Albert Whitcomb, Austin 

Woodbury, L., jr. 

Woodbury, H. W. 

Woodbury, Kufus 



Stone, Samuel H. 
Swasey, E. 
Trask, J. G. 
Traftou, Darling F. 



Walker, Lawson 
Webb, Alden 
Wallis, Joseph A. 



Anderson, Charles R 
Andrew, Isaac W. 
Austin, Charles F. 
Austin, George B. 
Barnes, B. S. 
Chadwick, Geo. W. 
Chad wick, James W 
Chadwick, Walter I 
Cleveland, James P 



BOXFORD— 27. 
.Cole, David M. 
Cole, John K, 
Cole, Warren M. 
Cole, Wm. Kimball 
Day, Isaac C. 
Day, Mrs. John 
. Herri ck, Israel 
Ladd, John I. 
Nason, James H. 



Parkhursk, John 
Parkhur.st, John W. 
Pearl, Edw. E. 
Pearl, John M. 
Perley, Charles 
Sawyer, Thomas, 
Styles, Charles F. 
Wood, John T. 
Wood, William H. 



Bradstreet, Justin E, 
Cogswell, Doane 
Cogswell, George 
Ellis, John A. 
Emerson, Charles B 
Gage, Edwin V. 
Hale, H. H. 
Hazeltine, Charles 
Hazeltine, John 
Hilton, William 
Hilton, Charles M. 
Hopkinson, Sam'l W 



BRADFORD— 34. 
Johnson, Charles G.Ordway, Alfred 
Johnson, Laburton Peabody, Walter S. 
Kimball, Albert Peabody, Frank 
Kimball, Leverett Peabody, Daniel 
Kimball, William B. Perley, John 
Kimball, Byron G. Phillips, G. Franklin 
Kimball, M. TenneyTewksbury, John B. 
Kingsbury, John D.Thornton, William 
Knight, Albert A. Towne, Herman W. 
Ladd, George W. Wales, Herbert E. 
Little, Mrs. M. P. Webster, Charles E. 



Barton, J. Webb 
Berry, Alien A. 
Berry, Eben G. 



DAN VERS— 94 
Batchelder, J. Q A. Bradstreet, William 
Bradstreet, Alvah J.Butler, J. C. 
Biadstreet, Elijah Clark, N. J. 



90 



Carlton, 0. Loriug 
Carlton, Wm. B 
Day, Clarence 
Dempsey, L. P. 
Dodge, Francis 
Eaton, Win slow W. 
Fellows, Alfred 
Fernald, Oliver 
Fisher, Franklin W. 
Fowler, Augustus 
Fuller, Solomon 
Gould, Charles H. 
Gustin, John H. 
Harrigan, D. J. 
Hood, Joseph E. 
Hutchinson, W. P. 
Jacobs, Wm A. 
Jackson, Eben 
Jones, L. H. 
Juul, Conrad 
Kimball, Francis 0. 
Kimball, Joel 
Kirby, Patrick 
Langley, J. R. 
Learoyd, A. P. 
Legro, John C. P. 
I;yford, Francis W. 
Massey, Dudley A. 
Marston, Jacob 



jNIorrison, L. L. 
Mudge, Augustus 
Nichols, Andrew 
Nichols, Andrew, jr. 
Newhall, Benj. E. 
Newhall, Henry 
O'Neal, T. H. 
Page, Charles W. 
Patch, Abraham 
Peabody, George H. 
Peabody, George A. 
Peart, William B. 
Perley, Dean A. 
Perley, Edward P. 
Perkins, Henry A. 
Perkins, Wai-ren G. 
Perkins, William P. 
Perkins, M. Sumner 
Pettingill. David A. 
Pillsbury, H. H. 
Piper, G. M. T. 
Pope, Ira P. 
Pratt, Amos 
Preston, Charles H. 
Putnam, Israel H. 
Putnam, Joseph C. 
Putnam, John A. 
Putnam, Joel 
Putnam, Otis P. 



Pratt, George 
Porter, John W. 
Pope, Daniel P. 
Proctor, Nathan P, 
Richardson, James 
Richards, C. S. 
Roberts, Oliver 
Rollins, Jonas 
Ropes, Joseph E. 
Rice, Chas. B. 
Sears, John A. 
Spaulding, Sam'l W. 
Swinerton, John 
Smart, John L. 
Tapley, George 
Tapley, Gilbert A. 
Trask, Joseph W. 
Upton Franklin W. 
Verry, Augustus 
Yerry, H. Otis 
Verry, Henry 
Walcott, Wm. H. 
Waldron, E. T. 
Weston, Mrs. L. P. 
AVhite, Henry A. 
Woodis, Alden B. 
Woodman, Edw. E. 
Whipple, John F. 
Wilkins, Fred'k A. 



ESSEX— IG. 

Andrews, Elias Cogswell, Charles B. Lee, Edward K. 

Burnham, Wash. Haskell, David L. Low, George P. 
Burnham, D. B. Haskell, George 
Burnham, Wm.HoweKnowl ton, Aaron 
Choate, Rufus Knowlton, Moses 

Knowlton, Perry B 



Low, Josiah 
Lufkin, A. E. 
McDonald, Daniel 



191 



GEORGETOWN— 2.' 
Bateman, A. P. IMarble, ISTathaniel 

Boardman, Moses N. ISTelson, Charles W. 
Butler, Oliver S. Nelson, Sherman 
Chapman, Jonathan Osgood, Stephen 
Harriman, Hiram N.Perley, David E. 
Hilliard, Henry Pettingill, Henry 
Hoyt, Martin L. Pillsbury, J. 
Jackson, John L. Poor, Samuel T. 
Ridley , Amos 



Spofford, Sumner P. 
Tenney, George J. 
Teuney, Gorham D. 
Tenney, Moses 
Tenney, Orlando B. 
Towne, Alfred E. 
Weston, George S. 
Wheeler, William S. 



Babson, Fitz J. 
Babson, Horatio 
Babson, Osman 
Barrett, Charles P. 
Bennett, Charles 



GLOUCESTER— 79. 
Dolliver, William C. 
Dolliver, William P. 
Fears, Robert R. 
Ferguson, Thos. B. 
Foster. Jeremiah 



Bradford, George R. Garland, Joseph 
Brown, Edward H. Griffin, Bennett 



Burnham, A. M. 
Burnham, H. A. 
Burnham, S. A. 
Calef, John C. 
Carter, John S. 
Carter, Sherman J. 
Clark, John 
Cole, Israel H. 
Conant, Thomas 
Cook, Benjamin F. 



Grover, Charles E. 
Harvey, Alonzo F. 
Haskell, H. C. L. 
Haskell, William H. 
Hawkes, E. C. 
Herrick, GardnerW. 
Knowles, Thomas J. 
Lane, Andrew 
Lane, George 
Lawrence, R. C. 



Corliss, Benjamin H.Lovett, John H. 



Corliss, John 
Cronin, John 
Curtis, Samuel jr. 
Davis, James 
Davis, William P. 
Dennen, George 
Dodd, Stephen 
Dolliver, John S. 



Low, David W. 
Tx)w, Frederic F. 
Marr, Chester, jr. 
Mayo, Israel C. 
Norwood, George 
Parsons, W. Frank 
Patillo, Alexander 
Pew, William A. 
Phillips, N. H. 



Plumer, David. 
Presson, David S. 
Presson, Alfred 
Price, Augustus E. 
Proctor, Joseph 0. 
Proctor, Wilbur F. 
Ricker, Richai-d W. 
Roberts, Joshua 
Rogers, Allan 
Rogers, John S. 
Rust, William P. 
Sanford, H. G. 
Shepherd, Joseph C. 
Somes, John E. 
Stacy, John H. 
Stan wood, Barnard 
Story, Cyrus 
Thompson, Chas, P. 
Webster, Nathaniel 
Wetherell, M. L. 
Wilson, John J. 
Witham, Addison 
Wonson,AugustusH. 
Wonson, F. G. 
Wonson, George M." 
Wonson, J. W. 



192 



GROVELAXD— 20. 

Hopkinson, W. H. Savary, Charles P. 

Lada, J. B. P. Spofford, Henry H, 

Ladd, Nathaniel E. Stacy, Edward M. 

Longfellow, IS". Stickney, Abel 

Harrington, Edward Martino, Philip H. Tenney, George H. 
Harriman, Moses H. Merrill, Burton E. Woodbury, Louis A, 
Harriman, Abel S. Pemberton, L. K. 



Balch, Thomas H. 
Fegan, Henry C. 
George, Edwin B, 
George, Samuel B. 



Abbott, M. K. 
Allen, Francis R. 
Brown, William A, 
Creamer, George G. 
Dane, Ephraim A. 
Dane, George E. F. 
Dane, John jr. 
Dane, William A. 
Dane, Sylvester 
Dodge, Emerson P, 
Dodge, George B. 



HAMILTON— 31. 
Dodge, George R. 
Dunnels, Ira A. 
Ellis, George W. 
Gardner, A. P. 
Gibney, George H. 
Kimball, Isaac W. 
Knowlton, Franklin 
Knowlton, Isaac F. 
Lamsou, Jarvis, 
Meyer, Geo. V. L. 
Nason, Daniel A. 



Norris, George 
Norwood, C. J. 
Patch, Mrs. Oliver 
Putnam, Charles 0. 
Rankin, Eli D. 
Robinson, E. P. 
Safford, Daniel E. 
Smith, Alvin 
Whipple, Em. A. 



Barnes, B. Frank 
Berry, J. M. 
Brickett, Benj. F. 
Blake, J. Albert 
Bodwell, Stephen 
Brickett, Barnard 
Butters, Charles 
Chase, C. W. 
Cheever, H. W. 
Corliss, Charles 
Dewhurst, James 
Eaton, B. F. 
Eaton, Harrison 
Emerson, Albert 



HAVERHILL— 69. 
Emerson, E. A. 
Farnsworth, J. H. 
Fellows, C. H. 
Frost, Henry 
Gale, John E . 
Goodwin, Rufus 
Goodwin, John H. 
Hanson, M. W. 
Haseltine, Amos jr. 
Hardy, George H. 
Hooks, Daniel 
Howe, Moses 
Ingalls, E. T. 
Johnson, Henry H. 



Lackey, Andrew 
Little, E. C. 
Little, J. G. S. 
Marsh, John J. 
Messerve, Wm. S. 
Mitchell, E. 
Moody, Wm. H. 
Moody, H. L. 
Morse, John H. 
Merrill, Giles 
Nichols, John B. 
Nichols, J. B. 
Ordway, Joshua H. 
Peabody, Stephen 



193 



Peters, Daniel 
Poore, r. W. 
Porter, Dudley 
Quinby, T. \V. 
Randall, John P. 
Kichardson, John B. 
Eidgeway, Jos. 
Rhodes, C. N. 
Sanders, Thomas 



Smith, Geo. S. 
Sprague, W. W. 
Swasey, H. K. 
Stewart, John 
Taylor, Martin 
Taylor, Oliver 
Titcomb, Beniah 
Wadleigh, Levi C. 
Webster, Ebenezer 



Webster, Frank S. 
Webster, E. F. 
Webster, Richard 
West, H. K. 
West, James F. 
White, James D. 
Whittier, Alvah 
Whittier, Warner R. 
Winchell, James H. 



Abbott, Joseph B. 
Appleton, Francis R 
Appleton, Daniel F. 
Baker, S. N. jr. 
Bond, James W. 
Brown, Everett K. 
Brown, S. Albert 
Brown, William G. 
Caldwell, Abraham 
Clark, Erastus 
Fall, Tristam B. 
Fellows, Alonzt) B. 
Gould, John J. 
Gould, Walter F. 



IPSWICH— 41. 

Grant, Joshua B. 
Green, George H. 
Haskell, George 
Hobbs, John 
Hodgdon, George 
Hodgkius, Augustine 
Horton, Joseph 
Johnson, George E. 
Jordan, Mrs. Robert 
Kimball, Daniel 
Kinnear, James 
Kinsman, Joseph F. 
Kinsman, William H. 
Kinsman, Willard F. 



Marshall, Joseph 
Perkins, Isaac E. B. 
Reddy, Michael 
Ross, Joseph 
Rutherford, AaronA. 
Shatswell, Nathaniel 
Smith, Webster 
Stone, Augustine 
Story, Alden 
Treadwel], William 
Underbill, J. C. 
Wade, Asa 
Whittier, Maynard 



AUyn, Warren E. 
Ames, M. B. 
Austin, M. C. 
Ball, F. J. 
Bell, Charles U. 
Boehm, Adolph G. 
Breen, John 
Bruce, Alex'r N. 
Butler, Albert E. 
Cabot, George D. 



LAWRENCE— 81. 

Clarke, Charles 
Colburn, George W. 
Collins, Lewis P. 
Currier, Eben B. 
Cur ran, Maurice K. 
DeCourcey, C. A. 
Drew, J. D. 
Durant, W. A. 
Dyer, Arthur W. 
Farrell, John 



Fay, John 
Finn, John L. 
Flynn, Edward 
Fitzgerald, Win. 
Ford, George 
Ford, Patrick 
French, A. .1 . 
Gile, Williaii'i H. 
Griffin, Ausou L. 
Hall, Dyer S. 



194 



Herrick, H. G. 
Hills, George W. 
Hood, Gilbert E. 
Holt, Lewis G. 
Hubbard, Leavitt 
Jacksou, Joseph 
Jewett, William S. 
Joyce, James W. 
Junkins, George S. 
Kelleher, W. A. 
Kittredge, G. H. 
Kline, George E. 
Lewis, S. S. 
McAllister, J. G. 
Mahoney, W. 0. 
McCarthy, Patrick 
Merrill, George S. 



Aldrich, A. P. 
Allen, Charles 
Allen, Walter B. 
Andrews, Randall 
Baker, Ezra 
Bates, Edwin 
Bates, Walter E. 
Bates, William H. 
Bates, Ered H. 
Bates, Wallace 
Beckford, Ebenezer 
Beede, C. 0. 
Berry, Henry N. 
Berry, Benj. J, 
Bray, E. E. 
Bray, Wm. A. 
Breed, Amos E. 
Breed, George H. 
Breed, Henry H. 
Breed, Richard 



Moore, L. C. 
Norwood, John K. 
Oswald, William 
Page, E. F. 
Parker, Walter E. 
Patterson, D. H. 
Pedrick, W. R. 
Richardson, E. P. 
Robinson, H. B. 
Ruht, Joseph 
Russell, George W. 
Russell, W. A. 
Ryan, Thomas F. 
Sanborn, Edwin M. 
Sargent, A. E. 
Saunders, Daniel 
Saunders, Caleb 



LYNN— 104. 

Butman, Joseph E, 
Butman, Wm. W. 
Cain, Julia A. Mrs 
Chase, L. H. 
Chase, Amos F. 
Cross, Alfred 
Croscup, James A. 
Cressey, John S. 
Dwyer, Edward F. 
Emery, George E. 
Farrar, Joseph E. 
Foster, George 
Fry, Charles C. 
Goodell, J. W. 
Goodwin, Joseph W 
Haskell, John C. 
Haruden, Henry C. 
Harris, N. S. 
Hawkes, Nathan M 
Heath, Henry A. 



Shattuck, Joseph 
Simpson, James R, 
Small, Henry 
Stanley, J. J. 
Stearns, A. W. 
Stowell, Joseph 
Sylvester, Wm. H. 
Talbot, C. C. 
Tewksbury, R. H. 
Tompkins, N. S. S. 
Truell, Byron 
Vector, F. M. 
Wardsworth, CoraM, 
Webster, H. K. 
Wellman, John R. 
Wiggin, Gilman F. 
Wilson, Henry S. 



Heath, James 
Hill, E. L. 
Hopkins, Fred L 
Hovey, Rufus P. 
Ingalls, James W. 
Ireson, S. S. 
Johnson, Jacob A. 
Jepson, Eli 
Joint, William H. 
Kimball, Rufus 
King, W. P. 
Knox, David 
Lamphier, Joseph A. 
Lamphier, W. L. 
.Lewis, Jacob M. 
Mace, Frank W. 
Marsh, George E. 
Marsh, S. E. 
May, Lyman A. 
McBrien, Richard 



195 



McKenney, John H. 
Merritt, Timothy 
Mockett, Joseph E. 
Mower, A. A. 
Mower, M. V. B. 
Mudge, John 
Keal, Peter M. 
Newhall, Asa T. 
Newhall, G. A. 
Newhall, Hiram L. 
Newhall, George T. 
Nichols, H. S. 
Nichols, Otis 
Nichols, Thomas P. 
Norris, George jr. 



Noyes, George C. 
Oliver, John E. 
Parsons, Charles E, 
Pevear, G. K. 
Pevear, H. A. 
Phillips, B. Frank 
Potter, Edward P. 
Preble, J. H. 
Ramsdell, Charles H, 
Richards, Edward A 
Rogers, Ira D. 
Roney, Simon J. 
Rounds, Herbert L. 
Rowell, B. W. 
Sargent, George D. 



Sheehan, John 
Shorey, John L. 
Shorey, George L. 
Sawyer, J. A. J. 
Townes, Q. A. 
Tyler, Thaddeus W. 
Usher, Roland G. 
Vickary, J. C. 
Ward, Benj. A. 
.Whipple, Geo. H. 
Willey, James L. 
Wilson, J. C. 
Winslow, Aaron 
Winslow, G. W. 



Bancroft, J. K. 
Cox, Thomas E. jr. 
Cooper, C. A, 
Danforth, John M. 
Derby, Charles H. 
Gerry, Elbridge F. 
Griffin, George F. 



LYNNFIELD— 19. 

Hawkes, George L. Perkins, John 
Herrick, George E. Perkins, J. Winslow 
Mansfield, Andrew Roundy, George M, 
Muuroe, Harry W. Roundy, W. R. 
Munroe, Wilbur J, Smith, Henry E 
Newhall, Frank Wheeler, L. H. 



MANCHESTER— 18. 

Allen, Wm, H. Cheever, Wm. M. Price, John 

Baker, John Coolidge.T. JeffersonPrince, Chas. A, 

Boardman, T. DennieFriend, Daniel W. Rockwell, A. P. 
Burnham, John A. Higginson, Henry Rabardy, Julius F, 
Cheever, John H. Lee, Allen Sturgis, Russell 

Curtis, C. A. Merriam, Arthur M.Wigglesworth, Geo. 



MARBLEHEAD— 14. 

Alley, Amos P. Clough, A. W. Cronin, Michael 

Appleton, Thomas Cloutman, B. Henry Dennis, W. John 



196 

Gregory, J. J, H. Hathaway,Joseph B.Phillips, Wm. S. jr. 
Fabens, Frank L. Hathaway, Seth W. Ware, Benjamin P. 
Hathaway, Amos C. Paine, Thomas W. 



Adams, George 
Haskell, Wm. H. 
Loud, L. C. 



MERRIMAC— 8. 

Pike, James I). 
Sargent, M. Perry 
Sargent, Bailey 



Sargent, Geo. W, 
Sargent, P. Willis 



Bradley, George B. 
Buswell, Joseph E, 
Butters, George A. 
Butters, W. H. 
Crosby, John S. 
Dow, Virgil 
Dwyer, Michael 
Emerson, Jacob jr. 
Frederick, John W. 
George, John H. 
Goss, Chas. E. 



METHUEX— 33. 

Hall, C. H. 
How, Joseph 
How, Joseph S. 
Mann, C. W. 
Morrison, D. T. 
Noyes, David W. 
Pedlar, S. J. 
Phippen, G. S. 
Parker, James 0. 
Rogers, William M. 
Russell, Fred A. 



Russell, A. P. 
Sargent, S. G. 
Shirley, John W. 
Sawyer, Chas. M. 
Sleeper, Wm. C. 
Smith, Walter 
Swan, Leverett 
Thurlow, J. E. 
Tozier, C. L. 
Thorp, Alfred 
Webster, Frank W. 



MIDDLETON— 11. 

Berry, William Peabody, A. W. 

Christopher, Wm. P. Stiles, Farnum 
Currier, Geo. A. Stiles, Hiram A. - 
Flint, James Stewart, Mrs. S. A. 



Weston, Solomon W. 
Wilkins, George P. 
Wilkins, Lyman S. 



Beal, James H. 

Codman, Edw. W. 

Goodale, Byron 

Hodges, William D. Otis, Herbert F. 

James, Geo. Abbott 



NAHAl^T— 13. 

Lodge, Henry Cabot Parker, E. Francis 
Lovering, Charles T.Parker, Arthur H. 
Merriam F. Upham, George P. 



Whitney, George 



197 



Adams, Daniel D. 
Adams, George W. 
Adams, James K. 
Adams, George E. 
Adams, Charles E. 
Bray, Richard S. 
Bray, George W. 
Boyuton, Charles 
Coffin, Wm. P. 
Colraan, Moses 
Dole, Nathaniel 
Forbes, A. B. 
Hale, Stephen P. 
Howard, Horatio M, 
Ilsley, Edwin 
Ilsley, Paul M. 
Ilsley, Joseph 
Jaques, Richard 
Jaques, Richard T. 



NEWBURY— 57. 

Jaques, RichardT. jr.Noyes, Justin 
Jaques, William Noyes, Horace P. 



Kent, Edward 

Knight, Edward S. 
Little, Carleton 
Little, Edward F. 
Little, Joseph 



Noyes, James 
Noyes, Moses K. 
Perkins, Wm. W. 
Perkins, Frank 
Perkins, Paul A. 



Little, Nathaniel jr. Perkins, John W. 
Little, William Pearson, Benj. jr. 

Little, Wm. Burke Plummer, Daniel 
Longfellow, HoraceFPlummer, Geo. H. 
Longfellow, Joseph Rogers, Abial 
Longfellow,Jos. Mrs. Rolf, John C. 
Lucy, Gideon R. Rolfe, Joseph N. 
Lunt, Charles M. Tenney, Henry L. 
Moody, Nath'l W. Tenney, Elbridge 
Moynihan,Cornelius Tenney, Daniel G. 
Newman, Sidney F. Toomey, Mathew H. 
Noyes, Edwin P. Woods, Charles W. 



NEWBURYPORT— 58. 



Adams, Philip D. 
Adams, J. Quincy 
Adams, Rufus 
Allen, John W. 
Balch, John H. 
Bartlett, Chas. S. 
Bartlett, T. K. 
Batchelder, Dan'l C 
Bayley, Wm. H. 
Cashmau, Jeremiah 
Capers, Thomas 
Currier, Warren 
Colman, James C. 
Colman, William T. 



Cook, T. N. 
Cutter, Eben P. 
Delauo, Otis 
Dodge, E. P. 
Evans, Frank W. 
Griffin, Eliphalet 
Hale, Joshua 
,Hart, James S. 
Hewett, C. C. 
Huff, William 
Jackman, George W 
Johnson, Wm. R. 
Kent, Otis L. 
Knights, GeorgeW. 



Knight, Joseph 
Lewis, Samuel W. 
Little, Hector 
Little, John G. 
Lunt, Charles 
Maguire, C. N. 
Merrill, Enoch 
Moseley, Edward A. 
Moseley, Edward S. 
Mosely, Fred'k S. 
Moulton, Henry W. 
Moulton, Joseph 
Newhall, Asa T. 
Noyes, Isaac P. 



198 



Ordway, A. D. Rowe, D. T. 

Perley, R. M. Sargent, John W. 

Perkins, Charles Smith, Joseph B. 
Plummer, Moses A. Stanley, B. F. 
Plummer, Wm. C. Stanley, J. C. 
Poore, George H. 



Titcomb, Paul 
Tilton, Enoch 
Toppan, Edward S. 
Winkley, J. Otis 
Winkley, Paul T. jr. 



Adams, Edward 
Albeget, Lewis 
Averill, George L. 
Berry, Albert 
Bodwell, S. B. 



NO. ANDOVER— 52, 
Farnham, Byron K. 
Farnham, Mrs. B. 
Farnham, J. L. 
Farnham, W. Benj. 
Foster, J. Frank 



Butterfield,Chas. A. Foster, Orrin 
Bassett, Leon H. French, J. D. W. 



Barker, John 
Burnham, Geo. L. 
Carlton, Daniel A. 
Carlton, Amos D. 



Frye, Newton P. 
Fuller, Abijah P. 
Goodhue, Hiram P. 
Greene, E. W. 



Chever, William J. Hayes, Walter H. 
Davis, George G. Holt, Peter, jr. 



Davis, George E. 
Davis, Geo. L. 
Dale, William J. 
Dale, Wm. J. jr. 
Farnham, B. H. 



Appleton, FraucisH, 
Barrett, E. Pope 
Barrett, Edward P. 
Bodge, Henry 
Buxton, Henry V. 
Brown, Rufus H. 
Brown, Lewis 
Bushby, N. A. 
Batchelder, CyrusT, 
Brown, W. H. 



Huges, Winfield S. 
Jenkins, Benj. F. 
Jenkins, Milon S. 
Johnson, James T. 



PEABODY— 74. 
Brown, R. S. 
Blake, E. L. 
Blaney, Stephen 
Buxton, Simon P. 
Carroll, Thomas 
Chadwick, Orv.illeB, 
Clark, A. B. 
Cody, James F. 
Colcord, J. L. 
Cummings, Daniel 



Johnson, Charles F. 
Kittredge , HannahE. 
Loring, Geo. B. jr. 
Manion, John 
Mathewson, George 
Montgomery, Jas. A. 
Osgood, Isaac F. 
Phillips, Willard P. 
Poor, James C. 
Riley, Plenry 
Robinson, AddisonM. 
Stevens, Moses T. 
Stevens, Oliver 
Symonds, Frederick 
Wilson, Abiel 
Wardwell, T. 0. 
Wiley, John A. 



Curtis, Andrew 
Dole, William T. 
Durkee, T. C. 
Emerton, C. S. 
Foster, Ira 
Foster, George M. 
Goodale, Jacob 0. 
Hayes, Andrew J. 
Haven, C. B. 
Hill, W. L. 



199 



Hills, Benjamin M. 
Herrick, John E. 
Hoag, Charles E. 
Hubbard, A. J. 
Hutchinson, C. K. 
King, George H. 
King, J. Augustus 
King; James P. 
King, Jonathan 
Linehan, John 
Marsh, Fred 
Mansfield, E. 
Mansfield, ArthurW 
Merrill, Amos 
Morris, R. E. 



Needham, George A. 
Needham, Joseph S, 
Newhall, Orlando F. 
Nourse, SamuelW. 
Osborne, Abraham C. 
Osborn, Lyman E. 
Osgood, William 
O'Keefe, Timothy 
Pepper, George W. 
Preston, Levi 
Quint, Nicholas M. 
Raddin, Alonzo 
.Eichardson, W. B. 
Rogers, Jacob C. 
Saltonstall, Henry- 



Sheen, William E. 
Southwick, Sumner 
Taylor, Benj. H. 
Taylor, Geo. W. 
Thomas, Josiah B. 
Twiss, Everett M. 
Viles, Bowman 
Walcott, John G. 
Wallace, David B. 
Walton, George D. 
Wheeler,Benj. S. 
Whipple, Horace P. 
Wiley, William F. 
Wilson, Robert H. 



Appleton, Zeuo A. 
iBlatchford, Eben 
Bray, Humphrey P. 
Dodd, Stephen 
'Grimes, Loring 
Lane, Andrew 
Lane, Andrew, jr. 
Lane, Horace 



ROCKPORT— 23. 
Low,MarthaJ. Mrs. Patch, William H. 
Low, William Pool, Story D. 

Manning, John J. Rowe, Amos 
Manning, WilliamN.Smith, Allen 
Merridew, James B. Smith, William H. 
McNeil, William Smith, Solomon 
Nickersou, Lewis E. Tufts, George W. 
Norwood, Gorham 



Bartlett, B. W. 
Blodgette, George B. 
Daniels, George E. 
Dodge, Joseph D. 
Dummer, Nath'l N. 
Hale, Clara A. 
Hale, Daniel H. 
Hale, Thomas 
Hale, Thaddeus 



ROWLEY— 25. 

Hale, Agues H. 
Hale, T. P. 
Key es, Eben S 
Lambert, Mary G. 
Mahoney, John 
Mighill, Charles P. 
Pike, John 
Prime, Daniel B. 
Potter, Edward H. 



Smith, Willard P. 
Stockbridge, Seth 
Stockbridge, A. J. 
Tenney, John H. 
Todd, Frank P. 
Todd, John F. 
Todd, J. Scott 



200 



Andrews, Samuel P. 
Almy, James F. 
Abbott, Nathaniel 
Bickerton, William 
Cur wen, James B. 
Chase, George 
Curwen, Samuel H. 
Clark, Charles S. 
Collins, Wm. F. M. 
Creesy, George W. 
Daland, John 
Endicott, Wm. C. 
Felt, John 
Foote, Caleb 
Foster, Joseph C. 
Foster, William J. 
Goodhue, William P 
Gardner, D. B. 
Hathaway, John 
Hale, Henry A. 
Holman, Lyman 
Horton, William A 
Ives, John S. 



Bartlett, Moses J. 
Dole, Edward G. 
Dow, George A. 
Eaton, John F. 
Evans, John Q. 



Blodgett, J. W. 
Faxon, M. B. 
Faxon, John B. 
Flye, John 



SALEM— 66. 

Joues, Samuel G. 
Kemble, Arthur 
Knight, Edmund F. 
Lamson, Frederick 
Little, Philip 
Lord, William 
Lander, William A. 
Mack, William 
Manning, Robert 
Merrill, E. H. 
Merritt, David 
Morse, E. Henry 
Northend, Wm. D. 
Peabody, John P. 
Perkins, E. R. 
Porter, Ellis H. 
Putnam, Henry W. 
Phippen, Geo. D. 
Potter, William 
Pingree, David 
Pettingell, George 
Page, John G. 
Page, James E. 



Pickering, Benjamiri 
Rantoul, Robert S. 
Robinson, John 
Ropes, Reuben W. 
Rogers, A. D. 
Reynolds, Henry E, 
Rowell, E. F. 
Ropes, Willis H. 
Ropes, Charles F. 
Ropes, John C. 
Saunders, Robert J. 
Shreve, 0. B. 
Spencer, Charles P. 
Swasey, John A, 
Streeter, Gilbert L. 
Tracey, Patrick 
Ware, Horace C. 
Wheatland, Henry 
White, Frank W. 
Whitmore, Wm. F. 
Waters, David P. 
Wyman, Isaac C. 



SALISBURY— 15. 

Getchell, N. Tracy Pettengill, Wesley 
Greeley, Furmer H. Pettengill, JohnQ.A, 
Greenleaf, Wm. H. Smith, John F. 
Littlefield, Hiram Thornton, Robert 
Littlefield, George E.True, P. Albert 



SAUGUS— 15. 

Hawkes, Samuel 
Hawkes, Louis P. 
Hawkes, Lewis W. 
Hill, Alfred C. 



Newhall, Joseph 
Xoble, William 
Penney, George H. 
Scott, Andrew 



George, Henry M. Newhall, Herbert B. Whitehead, Joseph 



Crosman/S.'F. 
Pettingell, L. D. 
Pettingell, S. J. 



20I 

SWAMPSCOTT— 7. 

Rowe, Allen Warren, David 

Washburne, John Warren, Mrs. N. J. 



TOPSFIELD— 16. 



Averill, George F. Manning, James Towne, Frank H. 

Bradstreet, Dudley Mason, Alphonso Ward, Richard 

Herrick,[Charles Peabody, Charles J. Wildes, Eugene L. 

Hood, Salmon D. Pike, Baxter P. Wilson, James 

LamsoUj^J. Arthur Poole, Benjamin Woodbury, Isaac M. 
Leach, Charles H. 



WENHAM— 18. 
Alley, Henry Dodge, Robert F. 

Batchelder,T.WilsonDodge, George F. 
Cole, Zacariah Dodge, William P. 

Conant, John P. Hobbs, A. F. 
Day, Everett K. Hobbs, Henry 
Demsey, H. H. Kavanagh, J. 



Morgan, William B, 
Pingree, David 
Peabody, George 
Patch, Henry 
Perkins, Nath'l P. 
Tilton, George H. 



WEST NEWBURY— 45. 
Bailey, William P. Gordan, J. R. Newell, Richard 

Bailey, Lawrence H.Gowen, Mrs. C. W. Noyes, Stephen E. 
Bartlett, M. Walsh Gowen, Francis H. Ordway, Cyrus D. 
Boynton, Eben M. Gowen, Oscar Ordway, Cyrus K. 

Brown, Hayden Jacques, Romulus Ordway, Charles W. 
Brown, Leander F. Jacques, Stephen A. Pierce, George J. 



Bryant, William 
Carr, E. Dole 
Carr, Sanjuel 
Connor, M. H. 
Evans, Charles M. 
Follansbee, B. A. 
Flook, George L. 



King, T. J. 
Lane, Isaac N. 
Merrill, William 
Merrill, William E. 
Merrill, Henry 
Moore, Alfred L. 
Nason, Ezekiel G. 



Goodridge, David L. Nason, Henry F. 
Goodridge, H. M. Nelson, Daniel P. 



Pierce, Henry J. 
Poor, Fred H. 
Poore, Moses H. 
Prince, S. R. 
Rogers, George C. 
Stanwood, Moses P. 
Talton, John C. 
Thurlow, Thomas C, 
Titcomb, Silas M. C. 



202 



NON-RESIDENTS— 140. 
Allen, Henry C.,Keene,N. H. Drew, Charles R., Medford 
Alley, James E. Eaton, Thos., Harriston, 111, 

Ames, Amos L., Tacoma, Wash.Emanuel, Henry, New York 
Armitage, John S., Wellesley Estes,AldenC., SanLandro,Cal. 
Babson, Gustavus, jr., Seward, Oilman, Frederic, N. H. 

Neb. Farwell, Edwin C, Reading 

Ealch, Eustis, California Eelton, Wm. H., Sherborn 

Balch, William H., Maiden Fernald, Henry B., Washington 
Baker, John, Sanborn, Col. Flint, Horace P., Boston 
Barker, John G., Boston Foster, James B., Melrose 

Beckford, C. H., Boston Fowler, W. W., Plymouth 

Bennett, Charles, So. Gard- French, Charles, Davenport, 0. 

ner, Mass. French, Geo. H., Davenport, O. 

Blake, J. P., Newton Gannett, W. W., Boston 

Black, James D., Harvard Gaffney, Cornelius, So. Boston 
Bodwell, Henry A.,Keene,N.H.Gilman, S. E., Kingston, N. H. 
Bodwell, Jos.R.,Hallowell,Me.Gookin, Samuel F., Boston 
Brackett, H. Clarke, Virginia Green, John A., New York 
Burnham, Choate, Boston Greene, Arthur M.Philadelphia 

Burnham, IraT., Lexington Gulliver, Francis,Binghampton 
Butler, Benjamin F., Lowell N. Y. 
Caldwell, L., Jacksonville, Fla.Hadley, Wm., Boston 
Campbell, Charles H., New Ro-Hale, Joseph S., Lugonia, San 

chelle, N. Y. Bernandino Co., Cal. 

€arey, James, Quincy Hayes, J. F. C, Iowa 

Carey, James, New York Hicock, S. S., Rochester, N. H. 

€hapiu, W. C.,Providence,R. I.Hill, E. L., Templeton, Mass. 
Chase, Joseph S., Maiden Hill, Mark F., Derry, N. H. 

Cheever, John H., Somerville Holt, H. E., Lexington 
Clarke, Joseph F., Boston Hubbard,J.G.,Hampste'd,N.H. 
Cleveland, H. W. S., Chicago Hutchinson, C. H., Rhinebeck, 
Colby, Charles A., New York N. Y. 
Currier, William A., Boston Kent, Albert S., Colorado 
Day, Abraham, Boston Kimball, Jonathan, Boston 

Davis, Phineas E., Chicago Kimball, W.F.,Providence,R.I. 
Dodge, Albert W., Brighton King, D. Webster, Boston 
Dodge, John S., Chicopee Knight, J. M., Maine 

Dole, Francis F., Chicopee Lamb, Wm. D,, Southbridge 



203 

Xake, Chas. H., Churchill, Md. Raymond, Samuel, New York 

Loverinp^jJohuH., MarlboroughRea, Loring B., Miles City, 

Low, Sidney, Groton Mont. 

Low, Aaron, Hiugham Reynolds, W. B., Derry, N. H. 

Lyford, Geo. H., New York Robinson, John L., Manches- 

Mann, Otis, Springfield ter, N. H. 

Martin, Walter T., Dover,]S[.H.Rogers, Isaiah S., Somerville 

McFarland, L., Maine Rogers, Benjamin, Maiden 

Merrill, Geo. F., No. Hampton, Rogers, William, Illinois 

N. H. Safford, N. T.,Dunbarton,N.H. 

Merrill, Hay den A., Dedham Sargent, Elmer P., Maiden 
Mills, R. P., Abbott, Col. Sargent, G. P.,Philadelphia,Pa. 
Mitchell, Charles, Milton Shattuck, Chas. W.,Winchester 

Mitchell, Seth, Boston Shattuck, L. P., Boston 

Moulton, Beverly S., Boston Sleeper, S. C, Plaistow, N. H. 
Nelson, D. Oscar, Portsmouth, Smith, Beaman C.,Charlestown 

0. Smith, George J., Boston 

Nichols, Albert, Chicago, 111. Spofford, Farnham, Washington 
Nichols, D. P., Boston Spring, J. E., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Noyes, A. P., Lowell Stanley, Samuel S., Boston 

•Ordway, G. W., Manch'r, N.H.Stanwood, Joseph T., Maiden 
Page, Adino, Metaraora, 111. Stickney, (^harles, Fon du Lacj 
Page, Nathan jr., Wakefield Wis. 

Palmer, Charles L., Cotton Stickney, Niles T., Chicago,Ill. 

Wood, Idaho Co., Idaho Stone, Edwin M., Prov. R. I. 
Palmer, Frank H., N. Wey- Tappan, S. B., Arlington 

mouth, Mass. Taylor, George H., Everett 

Patch, A. H.,C]arkville,Tenn.Titcomb, Charles A., Boston 
Payson, Samuel F., New York Trask, Alfred M., Brockton 
Perry, GeorgeS.,Brattleboro,Vt. Walker, Dexter M., Boston 
Phelps, N. L., Iowa Ward, Winsor M., Wakefield 

Phillips, A. P., Medfield Ware, Darwin E., Boston 

Phillips, Samuel, Brighton Webb, Michael, jr., Cambridge 
Pierce, William, Boston Wentzel, David, Amherst 

Poor, Henry, New York Wheeler, H. T., Worcester 

Porter, Dudley H., Saratoga Whitman, P. A., Lexington 
Pratt, S. S., Revere Whittemore, Chas. A., Boston 

Putnam, Benjamin C, ChelseaWhittemore, J. R., Chicopee 
Putnam,MosesW.,Phila., N. Y. Wilder, S. W., Lowell 

Total number, December, 1892 — 1386 resident members, 

140 non-resident members. Grand total, 1526 members. 



List of Premiums Awarded 1892. 



FAT CATTLE. 

Shattuck Brothers, Lawrence, for oxen, first premium, $8 00 
J. P. Little, Amesbury, for oxen, second premium, 6 00 

J. P. Little, Amesbury, for fat ox, first premium, 7 00 

James C. Poor, No. Andover, for fat cow, second pre- 
mium, 5 00 

BULLS. 

J. D. W. French, No. Andover, best bull of any age or 

breed, with five of his stock, Diploma and 10 00 

J. D. W. French, No. Andover, bull calf, first premium, 2 00 

E. C. Little, Haverhill, Holstein bull, first premium, 8 00 
Plato Eames, Andover, Jersey bull, first premium, 4 00 

F. H. Foster, Andover, Guernsey bull, first premium, 8 00 
J. D. W. French, No. Andover, Ayshire bull, first pre- 
mium, 4 00 

E. C. Little, Haverhill, Jersey bull calf, first premium, 2 00 
S. S. Lewis, Lawrence, Yearling Jersey bull, first pre- 
mium, 4 00 
James C. Poor, No. Andover, Holstein bull calf, first pre- 
mium, 2 00' 

MILCH cows. 

J. D. W. French, No. Andover, Ayshire cow, first pre- 
mium, 15 00 

J. D. W. French, No. Andover, Ayshire cow, first pre- 
mium, 10 OO 

J. F. Gulliver, Andover, Jersey cow, first premium, 10 00 

J. F. Gulliver, Andover, Jersey cow, for most butter 

in one week, first premium, 10 00' 

James C. Poor, No. Andover, Holstein cow, first pre- 
mium, 10 00 

James C. Poor, No. Andover, grade cow, second pre- 
mium, 4 00 



205 
James C. Poor, No. Andover, Holstein cow, first pre- 



10 00 



HERDS OF MILCH COWS. 

Leverett Swan, Methuen, five grade cows, first pre- 
mium, 18 00 

J. D. W. French, No. Andover, five Ayshire cows, sec- 
ond premium, 12 00 

HEIFERS PURE BRED. 

J. D. W. French, No. Andover, Ayshire, first pre- 
mium, 9 00 
J. D. W. French, No. Andover, Ayshire, second pre- 
mium, 4 00 
J. D. W. French, No. Andover, Ayshire, first pre- 
mium, 5 00 
E. C. Little, Haverhill, Holstein, first premium, 5 00 
M. H. Connor, West Newbury, Ayshire, first premium, 5 00 
J. F. Gulliver, Andover, Jersey, first premium, 5 00 
J. F. Gulliver, Andover, Jersey, second premium, 6 00 
S. S. Lewis, Lawrence, Holstein, first premium, 5 00 
S. D. Weston, Middleton, Jersey calf, first premium 5 00 
James C. Poor, No. Andover, Holstein, first premium, 5 00 

HEIFERS NATIVE OR GRADE. 

J. D. W. French, No. Andover, grade Ayshire, sec- 
ond premium, 4 00 

J, D. W. French, No. Andover, grade Jersey, second 

premium, 4 00 

Daniel G. Carlton, No. Andover, grade Holstein, sec- 
ond premium, 4 00 

George Ripley, Andover, grade Jersey, first premium, 5 00 

George L. Burnhara, No. Andover, grade Holstein, sec- 
ond premium, 6 00 

Plato Fames, Andover, grade Holstein, first premium, 5 00 

W. S. Hughes, No. Andover, grade Jersey, first pre- 
mium, 5 00 

James C. Poor, No. Andover, grade Holstein, first pre- 
mium, 9 00 



206 



WOKKING OXEN AND STEERS. 

J. P. Little, Amesbury, for steers, first premiui^.i, $10 OO 

B. H. Farnham, No. Andover, for oxen, first premium, 12 00 
Daniel A. Carleton, No. Andover, for oxen, second pre- 
mium, 10 00 
Wm. P. Christopher, Middleton, for oxen, third pre- 
mium, 8 00 

TOWN TEAMS. 

North Andover Town Team, 13 pr. horses, first pre- 
mium, 20 OO 

STEERS. 

Wm. P. Christopher, Middleton, 3 year old steer, sec- 
ond premium, 6 00 
Daniel lugalls, No Andover, yearlings, first premium, 5 00 
B. W. Farnham, No. Andover, steer calves, first pre- 
mium, 4 00' 

STALLIONS FOR DRIVING. 

Joseph Stowell, Lawrence, stallion, "Creditor," with 

5 of his stock, Diploma and 15 00 

Edward J. Castle, Lawrence, bay stallion, first pre- 
mium, 10 00 

A. J. Connor, Lawrence, black stallion, third premium, 4 00 

Mrs. J. J. Downing, Andover, black stallion, first pre- 
mium, 8 00 

Eufus Goodwin, Haverhill, black stallion, second pre- 
mium, 5 00 

W. S. Messerve, Haverhill, brown stallion, seaond pre- 
mium, 6 00 

BROOD MARES FARM PURPOSES. 

Leverett Swan, ^Methuen, brood mare, first premium, 10 00 
John H. George, Methuen, chestnut mare, second pre- 
mium, 6 00^ 
S. F. Newman, Newbury, brood mare, third premium, 4 00 

BROOD MARES FOR DRIVING PURPOSES. 

J. G. McAllister, Lawrence, bay mare, first premium, 10 00 



207 

J. B. Parkhurst, Boxford, brood mare, second pre- 
mium, 6 OO 

Arthur H. Messerve, No. Andover, brood mare, third 
premium, 



4 00' 



6 00 


4 00 


10 00 


6 00' 


4 00 



FAMILY HORSES. 

M. C. Andrews, Andover, "Princess," first premium, 10 00 
M. H. Connor, West Newbury, "Nelly," second pre- 
mium, 
J. M. Smith, Lawrence, third premium, 

gents' driving horses. 
E. L. Barnes, Methuen, first premium, 
Isaac C. Brown, Methuen, second premium, 
Geo. L. Burnham, No. Andover, third premium, 

SINGLE FARM HORSES. 

Michael Dwyer, Methuen, Percheron mare, first pre- 
mium, 10 00 
John H. Perkins, Lyuufield, bay mare, second pre- 
mium, 
M. H. Poor, West Newbury, third premium, 
J. D. W. French, No. Andover, first premium, 
Fred Symonds, No, Andover, second premium, 
Richard Newell, West Newbury, third premium, 

PAIRS OF FARM HORSES. 

George E. Kline, Lawrence, first premium, 
Carlton Little, Newbury, second premium, 
Mrs. J. J. Downing, Andover, first premium, 
James C. Poor, No, Andover, second premium, 

COLTS FOR FARM PURPOSES, 

John H. George, Methuen, yearling, first premium, 

Woodbury Smith, Rowley, 2 yr. old, second premium, 

E. C. Little, Haverhill, third premium, 

P. Averill, Lawrence, second premium, 

John Barker, No. Andover, 2 yr. old. first premium, 

R. T. Jaques jr., Newbury, first premium, 

M. H. Connor, West Newbury, second premium, 



6 00 


4 


00 


10 00 


6 00 


4 


00 


10 


00 


8 


00 


10 


00 


8 


00 


6 


00 


5 


00 


3 


00 


3 


00 


8 


00 


8 


00 


5 


00 



208 



COLTS FOR GENERAL PURPOSES. 

Alfred Thorpe, Methuen, 4 yr. old, first premium, 8 00 
John H. Perkins, Lynnfield, 3 yr. old, first premium, 6 00 
J. G. McAllister, Lawrence, 3 yr. old, second premium, 3 00 
M. H. Connor, West Newbury, 4 yr. old, second pre- 
mium, 5 00 
Woodbury Smith, Kowley, 2 yr. old, first premium, 8 00 
Charles W. Mann, Methuen, second premium, 5 00 
J. H. Nason, Boxford, third premium, 3 00 
G. H, Hanscom, Haverhill, first premium, 5 00 
E. C. Little, Haverhill, second premium, 3 00 

SWINE. 

Isaac C. Brown, Methuen, Yorkshire boar, second pre- 
mium, 5 00 
Isaac C. Brown, Methuen, Chester pigs, second pre- 
mium, 5 00 
W. L. Hill, Peabody, Chester white boar, second pre- 
mium, 5 00 
W. L. Hill, Peabody, breeding sow, second premium, 5 00 
W. L. Hill, Peabody, Yorkshire sow, first premium, 8 00 
Kichard Newell, West Newbury, weaned pigs, first pre- 
mium, 8 00 
A. G. Playdon, Andover, sow and pigs, first premium, 8 00 
J. G. McAllister, Lawrence, Chester white boar, first 

premium, 8 00 

M. B. Chesley, Amesbury, breeding sow, first premium, 8 00 
M. B. Chesley, Amesbury, Cheshire sow, second pre- 
mium, 5 00 
M. B. Chesley, Amesbury, Cheshire pigs, first premium, 8 00 
M. H. Gould, Andover, Cheshire boar, first premium, 8 00 
J. D. W. French, No. Andover, small Yorkshire sow 

and pigs, first premium, 8 00 

J. D. W. French, No. Andover, small Yorkshire boar, 

first premium, 8 00 

SHEEP. 

Richard Newell, West Newbury, 10 grade Southdown 

ewes, first premium, 10 00 



209 

J. D. W. Freuch, ISTo. Andover, Oxfordshire buck, tirst 

premium, 8 00 

J. D. W. French, No. Andover, 10 grade Shropshire 

ewes, second premium, 6 00 

PLOUGHING WITH DOUBLE TEAM, 

J. P. Little, Amesbury, first premium, 10 00 

B. H. Farnham, No. Andover, second premium, 8 00 

PLOUGHING WITH SINGLE TEAM. 

Wm. P. Christopher, Middleton, first premium, 10 00 

PLOUGHING WITH HORSES. 

Carlton Little, Newbury, first premium, 

Moses H. Poor, West Newbury, second premium, 

E. C. Little, Haverhill, third premium, 

PLOUGHING WITH OXEN, SWIVEL PLOUGH. 

Lyman S. Wilkins, Topsfield, second premium, 
Daniel A. Carlton, No. Andover, first premium, 

PLOUGHING WITH HORSES, SWIVEL PLOUGH. 

F. A. Kussell, Methuen, first premium, 
Isaac C. Brown, Methuen, second premium, 

PLOUGHING WITH THREE HORSES. 

M. H. Connor, West Newbury, first premium, 10 00 

PLOUGHING WITH SULKY PLOUGH. 

F. A. Russell, Methuen, first premium, 10 00 

George E. Kline, Lawrence, second premium, 8 00 

GRAIN CROPS. 

Henry M. Killam, Boxford, crop of corn, first pre- 
mium, 10 00 

Chas. A. Andrews, Boxford, crop of corn, second pre- 
mium, 5 00 

C. K. Ordway & Son, West Newbury, crop of oats, 

first premium, 10 00 

C. K. Ordway & Sou, West Newbury, crop of hay, 

first premium, 10 00 

M. H. Connor, West Newbury, crop of rye, first pre- 
mium, 10 00' 



10 


00 


7 


00 


5 


00 


8 


00 


10 


00 


10 


00 


8 


00 



210 

Hartwell B. Abbott, Andover, crop of rye, first pre- 
mium, 5 00 

ROOT CROPS. 

C. C. Blunt, Andover, crop of English turnips, first 

premium, 10 00 

C. C. Blunt, Andover, crop of parsnips, first premium, 10 00 

C. C. Blunt, Andover, crop of carrots, second premium, 5 00 

Kent & Marsh, iSTewburyport, crop of onions, first pre- 
mium, " 10 00 

John H, George, Methuen, crop of onions, second pre- 
mium, 5 00 

E. C. Little, Haverhill, crop of potatoes, first premium, 10 00 

J, Henry ISTasoUj.Boxford, crop of potatoes, second pre- 
mium, 5 00 

Daniel A. Carlton, No. Andover, crop of cabbages, first 

premium, 10 00 

Walter Smith, Methuen, crop of cabbages, second pre- 
mium, ^ 5 00 

E. C. Little, Haverhill, crop of mangolds, first pre- 
mium, 10 00 

SMAIL FRUITS. 

J. Webb Barton, Danvers, crop of strawberries, first 

premium, 10 00 

ESSAYS AND REPORTS. 

Dr. Chas. W. Page, Danvers, Essay and tabulated 

statement of product of milk of Asylum farm, 25 00 

Jas. J. H. Gregory, Marblehead, report on Agricultural 

Implements, 10 00 

J. W. Goodell, Lynn report on grapes, peaches and as- 
sorted fruit, 8 00 

" OTHER AWARDS. 

Awarded by Committee on Granges, 100 00 

" Poultry, 101 00 

" Harrows, 10 00 

" Agricultural Implements, 32 00 

" " '•' " Dairy, 34 00 

" " " Carriages, 23 00 



211 

Awarded by Committee on Bread and Canned Fruit, 25 00 

" " " Pears, 68 00 

'' " " Apples, 70 50 

" " " Peaches, Grapes, etc., 39 50 

" " " Plants, 16 00 

" " " Flowers, 78 25 

" " " Vegetables, 169 50 

" " " Forest Trees, 30 00 

" " " Grain and Seed, 25 00 

" " " Counterpanes and Afghans, 24 75 

" "' " Carpets and Rugs, 21 00 

" " " Manufactures from Leather, 19 00 

" " " Manuf. and General Mdse., 17 25 

" " " Fancy Work, 42 75 

" " " Art Work, 50 00 

" " " Work by Children, 9 00 

" • " " Experiment with Manures, 10 00 



RECAPITULATION. 



Awarded for Ploughing, 








FARM STOCK. 




Awarded for 


Fat Cattle, 


26 00 


i( 




Bulls, 


44 00 


(I 




Milch Cows, 


69 00 


(1 




Herds of Milch Cows, 


45 00 


a 




Heifers, 


96 00 


t( 




Working Oxen and Steers, 


40 00 


(I 




Steers, 


. 15 00 


n 




Town Teams, 


20 00 


u 




Horses, 


288 00 


(I 




Swine, 


97 00 


11 




Sheep, 


24 00 


tt 




Poultry, 


101 00 



1114 oa 



865 00 

FIELD AND EXPERIMENTAL CROPS. 

Awarded for Grain Crops, 50 00 



Root Crops, 80 00 

Fruit Crops, 10 00 



FARM AND GARDEN PRODUCTS 




Awarded for Grain and Seed, 


25 00 


" " Vegetables, 


169 50 


" " Fruits, 


178 00 


" " Plants and Flowers, 


94 25 


DAIRY PRODUCT. 




Awarded for Butter, 


28 00 


Dressed Poultry and Eggs, 


6 00 



140 00 



466 75 



34 00 



213 



DOMESTIC MANUFACTURES. 

Awarded for Bread, Canned Fruit, etc., 25 00 

" " Counterpanes and Afghans, 24 75 

" " Carpetings and Kugs, 21 00 

" " Articles Manuf. from Leather, 19 00 

" " Manufactures and Gen. Mdse. 17 25 

" " Fancy Work, 42 75 

" " Work of Art, 50 00 

" " Children's Work, 9 00 





MISCELLANEOUS, 




Awarded for Agricultural Implements, 


42 00 




" Carriages, 


23 00 




" Forest Trees, 


30 00 




" Granges, 


100 00 




" New Members, 


6 00 




-' Essays, Reports, etc.. 


43 00 




" Experiment with Manures, 


10 00 



208 75 



254 00 



TOTAL. 

The amount of $2081. 50 was awarded to 395 individuals 
and firms, in 27 different cities and towns in the county as 
follows : 

Methuen, 

Marblehead, 

Middleton, 

Newbury, 

Newburyport, 

North Andover, 

Peabody, 

Rockport, 

Rowley, 



Amesbury, 

Andover, 

Beverly, 

Boxford, 

Danvers, 

Georgetown, 

•Gloucester, 

Groveland, 

Haverhill, 

Lawrence, 

Lynn, 

Lynnfield, 

Merrimac, 



$73 75 

217 25 

10 00 

97 50 

53 00 

5 00 

2 00 

12 50 

73 50 

342 50 

72 00 

12 00 

5 00 



Salem, 
Saugus, 
Swampscott, 
Topsfield, 



1232 75 
33 50 
38 00 
91 00 
32 50 
432 50 
44 75 

2 00 
25 00 

3 00 
13 00 

3 00 
31 50 



West Newbury, $123.00 



214 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 

Keceipts for Admission to Hall, $1083 00 

" " " " Dinner, 154 00 

" " Grounds for various purposes, 141 55 
" from Electric R. R. Co. 50 00 

$1428 55 

Expenses, including Tent-hire, Halls and Dinner, 1108 03 
Amount paid Treasurer, f 320 52 



1893. 
PREMIUM LIST OF 

Essex Agricultural Society, 

FOK THE 

Seventy-Third Annual Cattle Show and Fair, 
To be held at Haverhill. 



Duties of Trustees. 



The trustee of each town is iustructed to see the several mem- 
bers of Committees in his town previous to the Show, and urge 
upon them the importance of attending to their duties. Also im- 
press upon exhibitors from localities near to the Exhibition, the 
importance of entering their exhibits for the hall, the afternoon 
and evening of Monday, in fairness to those from a distance, who 
are obliged to come Tuesday. 

To be prompt at the meeting in June for filling Committees, 
and at the meeting of the Society for filling vacancies in commit- 
tees on the first day of the Exhibition, making sure that the names 
proposed at those meetings are of persons who will serve. 



Duties of Committees. 

Committees on live stock and articles exhibited on the Fair 
Grounds should appear at the Secretary's oflice on the grounds, at 
one o'clock, punctually, on the first day of the exhibition, and 
there organize, take the books of entry, and proceed at once to 
business. Committees in hall, should take the books of entry from 
the Superintendent, promptly after the entries close. 

Full reports of awards by committees, on the blanks furnished 
by the Secretary, to be signed by all the members acting on the 
same, are required of each committee. 

Three members of any committee consisting of more than that 
number are authorized to act. 

I^^No member of the Society shall act on any committee of 
which he is an exhibitor in the same class. 



2l6 

The Diploma of the Society being considered the highest premi- 
um that can be awarded, no committee is authorized to award it, 
except for animals and articles of special merit, deserving of in- 
dorsement and recommendation by the Society. 

No committee is authorized to award gratuities, except the com- 
mittee on agricultural implements, carriages, bread, honey, and 
canned fruits, domestic manufactures, fruits, vegetables in hall, 
and flowers; or any premium, unless the rules of the Society have 
been strictly complied with . jSTeither shall they award premiums 
or gratuities in excess of the amount appropriated. 

No gratuity is to be awarded of less than flftv cents. 

The several committees are requested to affix premium cards, 
and also on animals, blue, white, and red printed premium ribbons 
(which may be had of the Secretary or assistant on the grounds 
and at the hall), for the several animals or articles desiginating the 
grade of premium awarded each, and the name of the person to 
whom awarded, and special care should be taken that the cards 
issued correspond with the awards in their report to the Society. 

The reports of awards of premiums on ploughing and on animals 
and articles exhibited at the Show, must be delivered promptly to 
the Secretary for announcement on Thursday. 

The Society offers liberal premiums for the best reports of com- 
mittees; and the chairman of the several committees are requested 
to present to the Secretary a full report explanatory of the opinions 
of the committee on the matter referred to them, within two weeks 
after the awards are made at the Show, for publication in the 
Transactions.* 

Reports on farms, crops, etc., to be presented previous to the 
meeting of the Trustees in November, 

Any member of a committee who cannot serve on the same is re- 
quested to give notice to the Secretary, before the ,S}ww, so that the 
vacancy may be filled. 

Each member of the several committees will receive a ticket of 
admission to the hall of exhibition, on application to the Secretary. 



*Chairmen of committees will please notice this request. 



General Rules. 

(Jomxjetitors are requested to carefully read the rules and premium 
list before making Hntries. 

Claims (entries) for premiums to be awarded at the Exhibition 
on the Fair Grounds,) other than live stock, must be entered with 
the Secretary of the Society, or his agent, and in the Exhibition 
Hall, on or before 11 A. M., of the first day thereof. 

All entries of live stock must be entered with the Secretary at 
least one week previous to the holding of the Fair, and no entries 
will be received after that date. 

Any person not a member of the Society, awarded seven dollars 
and upwards, shall receive a certificate of membership, for which 
three dollars of his award will be takeu to increase the funds of 
the Society. 



217 

Diplomas awarded will be delivered and premiums paid, to the 
person to whom the premium or eratuity is awarded, or an asfent 
duly authorized, on application to the Treasurer, nt First National 
Bank, Salem, on and alter the fourth Monday of November. 

All premiums and gratuities awarded, the iiaynient of which is 
not demanded of the Treasurer on or before the tirst day of Sep- 
tember next succeeding the Exhil)ition, will be cons-idered as given 
to increase the funds of the Society. 

In all cases the reports of awards of premiums and gratuities 
made by the several committees and adopted by the Society shall 
be final. Committees should see that the premium curds issued, cor- 
respond with the premiums and gratuities awarded in their reports. 

No person shall be entitled to receive a premium, unless he com- 
plies with the conditions on which the premiums are offered, and 
by profjer entry as required, .i;ives notice of his intention to com- 
pete for the same; and committees are instructed to award no 
premium unless the animal or article offered is worthy. 

No animal or object that is entered in one class, with one com- 
mittee shall be entered in another class, except town teams, fat 
cattle, working oxen, working steers, and farm horses, which may 
be eutei'ed for ploughing, and milch cows, which may be entered 
with a herd. 

In reojard to all subjects for which premiums are offered it is to 
be distinctly understood that the Trustees reserve to themselves 
the right of judgiag the quality of the animal or article ottered; 
and that no premium will be awarded unless the objects of them 
are of decidedly superior quality. 

Pure Bred Animals, delined by the State Board of Agriculture. 

Tlie p7-oof ihnt an animal is so bred should be a record of the an- 
imal or its ancestors, as recorded in some herd book, recognized by 
leading breeders and the public generally, as complete and authen- 
tic. 

Standards adopted: — American Jersey C. C lle<rister and 
American Jersey Herd Book, Ayrshire Record and Holstein Herd 
Book. 



Premiums to be Awarded at the Show. 

The Committees loill take notice that no premium will he awarded 
unless the animals or objects are of a decidedly superior quality. 

Diplomas may be awarded for animals OR articles oispecial 
merit, in all departments of the Fair. 



Cattle and other Farm Stock. 

TO BE ENTERED IN THE NAME OF THEIR REAL OWNER. 

All animals to be eliirible to a premium, shall have been raised 
by the owner within the County, or owned by the exhibitor within 
the County, four months previous to the date of Exhibition, ex- 
cept Working Oxen, and Working Steers. 



2l8 

All animals, whether teams for ploughhig, or animals entered for 
premium or exhibitiou, will be fed during the Exhibition, and 
longer when they are of necessity prevented from leaving, at the 
expense of the Society. 

FAT CATTLE, 

Fat cattle, fatted within the County, regard being had to manner 
of feeding, and the expense thereof, all of which shall be stated by 
the exhibitor in writing, and returned to the Secretary, with com- 
mittee's report. 
For Pairs of Fat Cattle, premiums, S8, G, 3 

For Fat Cows, premiums, S7, 5 

BULLS. 

* Ayrshire, Jersey, Short Horn, Devon, Holstein, Guernsey or of 
any other recognized breed, for each breed. 

Two years old and upwards, premiums, .IfS, 4 

Under two years, for each breed, $4, 3 

Bull Calves under one year old, premium for each breed, $2 

BULLS OF ANY AGE OR BREED. 

For the best bull of any age or breed, with five of his stock not less 
than one year old, quality and condition to be taken into account, 
and especially the adaptability of the animal to the agriculture of 
the County. Diploma and SIO 

Note.— Competitors are required to give a written statement of pedigree, 
and committees are requested to be i>articular in this respect, and return 
them to tlie Secret iry witli reiiort. 

MILCH COWS. 

For the best Milch Cow any age or breed, with satisfactory 
record in quarts or pounds by her daily yield of milk for one or 
more years, premium, .'?15^ 

For''Milch Cows, either Foreign, Native or Grade, not less than 
four nor more than ten years old, with satisfactory evidence as to 
quantity and quality of milk by weight during one full month, prem- 
iums, " ^10, 4 

Milch Cows, Ayrshire, Jersey, Devon, Short Horn, Holstein, 
Guernsey, or any other recognized breed, four years old and up- 
wards, premiums, for each breed, ilO, 4 

For Native or Grade Cows, four years old and upwards, prem- 
iums, iiflO, 4 

For the Cows that make the most butter in any single week from 
June Islto September 15th, premiums, 'IrlO, 4 

Note. — A written statement will be required of tlie age and breed of all 
Milch Cows entered, and time they dropped their last calf, and when they 
will next calve, tlie kind, quality and quantity of their food during the sea- 
son, and the manner of their feeding, which statement is to be rettu'ued to 
the Secretary with Committee's report. 

HERDS OF MILCH COWS. 

For herds of Milch Cows, not less than five in number, to be ex- 
hibited at the Show, and a correct statement of manner of keeping. 
and yield for one year preceding the Show, premiums, .1fl8, 12. 



219 

For the greatest produce of milk on any farm, in proportion to 
the number of cows producing it, not less than four, from April 1, 
1889 to April 1. 1890, statement to be made of the exchanges made, 
manner, and expense of (ood, use made of milk, and such other 
facts as will illustrate the entire managament, special regard being 
had to the mode in which the account is kept, premium, 

Diploma and iff 15 

Note. — The above-mentioried statements are to be returned to the Secre- 
retary with Committee's report. The Committee can accept statements dat- 
ing from January 1st, preceding the Show. 

HEIFERS. 

First Class.— Ayrshire, Jersey, Short Horn, Devon, Holstein, 

Guernsey, or any other recognized breed, under four years old in 

milk, premiums, for each breed, $9, 6 

Two years old of each breed, that have never calved, premiums, 

.«5, 4 
One year olds of each breed, premiums, S5, 4 

Heifer Calves, under one year, j^remiums for each breed, $5 4 
Second Class.— Native or Grade Milch, under four years old, 
premiums, S9, 6 

Two year olds, that have never calved, premiums, S5, 4 

One year olds and less than two, premiums, $5, 4 

Heifer calves, Native or Grade, under one year old, premiums, 

S5, 4 

WORKING OXEN AND STEERS. 

Stags excluded. For pairs of Working oxen under eight and not 
less than five years old, taking inlo view their size, power, quality 
and training, premiums, .1^12, 10, 8 

For pairs of Working Steers, four years old, to be entered in the 
name of 'the owner, premiums, ,^10, 6 

Note. — Tlie Committee are required to consider the quality and shape of 
the cattle as well as their worldnii capacity. The training of working oxen 
and steers will be tested by trial on a cart or wagon containing a load 
weijihing two tons for oxen, and oOOO pounds for steers. jJ^^^At ithe time 
of entry a certilicate of tlie weight of the cattle must be tiled with the Sec- 
retary. 

TOWN TEAMS. 

For Town Tea'ns of Oxen, ten yoke or more in a team, prem- 
iums, S20, 12 

For Town Teams of Horses, ten or more pairs in a team, prem- 
iums, .$20, 12 

FARM TEAMS. 

For the best Farm Team of not less than two Pairs of Oxen, or 
two pairs of Horses, owned and used on one farm, premiums, .$5, 3 

STEERS. 

For paiis of three year old Steers, broken to the yoke, pre- 
miums. S8, 6 
For pairs of two year old Steers, premiums, $6, 5 
For pairs of yearling Steers, premiums, $5, 4 
For pairs of Steer Calves, premiums, f4, 2 



220 



STALLIONS. 

First Class. — For Stallions for Farm and Draft purposes, four 
years old and upwards, diploma or premiums, ^10, 6, 4 

For Stallions for Farm and Draft purposes, three years old, prem- 
iums, $8, 5 
For best Stallion of any a^re. and five colts of his stock, not less 
than one year old, quality and condition to be taken into account, 

Diploma and $15 
Skcond CLASS.^For Stallions for Driving purposes, four years 
old and upwards, premiums, .^10, 6, 4 

For Stallions for Driving purposes, three years old, premiums, 

S8, 5 
For best Stallion of any age and five colts of his stock, not less 
than one year old, quality and condition to be taken into account, 

Diploma and $15 

Note. — No Stallion will be entitled to a preminm unless free from all 
apparent defects capable of being transmitted. All Stallions entered in 
«ither class must have been owned by the exhibitor four mouths previous to 
the exhibition. 

BROOD MARES. 

First Class. — For Brood Mares for Farm and Draft Purposes, 
with iheir foal not more than eight months old, by their side, prem- 
iums, 810, 6, 4 

Second Class. — For Brood Mares for Driving jnirposes, with 
their foal not more than eight months old, by their side, premiums, 

$10, 6, 4 

Note. — No brood mare will be entitled to a premium unless free from all 
apparent defects capable of being transmitted. 

FAMILY HORSES. 

For Family horses, premiums, $10, 6, 4 

Note. — No horse will receive a premium unless free from all unsoundness. 

GENTLEMEN'S DRIVING HORSES. 
For Gentlemen's Driving Horses, premiums, $10, 6, 4 

FARM HORSES. 
For Farm Horses, weighing 1200 lbs. and over, premiums, 

$10, 6, 4 
For Farm Horses weighing less than 1200 lbs., premiums, $10, 6, 4 

Note. — No horse will be allowed except those actually iised on farms, 
whether the owner has a farm or not. The weight of load to be used in 
trial of Farm Horses is to be fixed upon by the committee of arrangements 
for drafting, the difference in the load for horses of 1200 lbs. and over, and 
those under 1'200 lbs. to be 1000 lbs., and between the two classes of pairs, 
2000 ll)s. No obstruction shall be placed either before or behind the wheels 
in trials of Draft Horses of either class. But wheels to be trigged to hold 
the load when they stop on a hill. If this rule is not comijiled with, the 
premiums shall be withheld. 

PAIRS OF FARM HORSES. 
First Class. — For pairs of Farm Horses, weighing 2500 lbs. 
and upwards, (see above note) premiums, $10, 8 



221 

Second Class. — For pairs of Farm Horses, weighing less than 
2500 lbs. (see above note) premiums, S^IO, 8 

COLTS FOR DRAFT PURPOSES. 

First Class. — For Mare or Gelding four year old Colts, pre- 
miums, §8, o, 3 

For Mare or Gelding three year old Colts, premiums, $6, 3 

Second Class. — For Stallion, Gelding or Mare, two year old 
Colts, premiums, S8. 5, 3 

For Stallion, Gelding or Mare, yearling Colts, premiums. So, 3 

COLTS FOR DRIYIN'G PURPOSES. 

First Class. — For Mare or Gelding four year old Colts. ])re- 
miums, ^ !$8, 5, 3 

For Mare or Gelding three year old Colts, premiums, $6, 3 

Second Class. — For Stallion, Gelding or Mare, two year old 
Colts, premiums, S8, 5, 3 

For Stallion, Gelding or Mare yearling Colts, premiums, So, 3 

SWINE. 

First Class. — Large breeds, viz: Cheshire, Berkshire, Ches- 
ter County White. Poland China, Large Yorkshire, and any other 
breed or grade weighing mora than 300 lbs. at maturity. 

For Boars, premiums, S8, 5 

For Breeding Sows, with their pigs by their side, premiums, 

SS, 5 

For Litters of Weaned Pigs, not less than four, between two and 
four months old, premiums, $8, 5 

Second Class. — Small breeds, such as Suffolk, Essex, Small 
Yorkshire, China, and any other breed or grade weighing less than 
300 lbs. at maturity. 

For Boars, premiums, ,S8, 5 

For breeding Sows, with their pigs by their side, premiums, 

S8,5 

For Litters of Weaned Pigs, not less than four, between two and 
four months old, premiums, $8, 5 

SHEEP, 

For flocks of Sheep not less than ten in number. 
For each Breed, premiums, SIO, 6 

For best Buck, premium, S8 

For lots of Lambs, not less than four in number, between four 
and twelve months old, premiums, |;6, 4 

POULTRY. 

For pairs of Fowls, Light Brahmas, Dark Brahmas, Buff Co- 
chins, Partridge Cochins, Black Cochins, White Cochins, Plymouth 
Rocks, White Plymouth Rocks, Dominiques, White Leghorns, 
Brown Leghorns, Dominique Leghorns, Black Sianish, Hamburgs, 
Polish, Games. Dorking, Bantams, Black, White and Mottled Javas,. 
Wyandottes, White Wyandottes, Golden Wyandnttes, Black and 
White Minorcas, Red Caps, Andalusias, Langshangs, and other 
recognized varieties, each variety, premiums, " S2, 1 



222 

For pairs of Chickens of above varieties, premiums, $2, 1 

For the best breeding pen of each variety — Diploma of the So- 
ciety. 

For the best pairs of Native Fowls, premiums, S2, 1 

Pairs can be exhibited in "breeding pens," by marking the com- 
peting female (with a ribbon or colored string), which, with the 
male will form the pair. 

For lots of Turkeys, and Alesbury, Rouen, Caouga, Pekin, White 
and Colored Muscovey, and Brazilian Ducks, and Toulouse, Em- 
den, Brown Chii a, and African Geese, premiums, #2, 1 

For 10 or raore Fowls exhibited, whether thoroughbreds, 
crossed or mixed, with an account for one year, showing cost and 
method of keeping, production and profit, premiums, 88, 6, 6 

As above, with an account for six months, premiums, to, 3,2 

Any exhibitor interfering with the Judges in the discharge of 
their duties or interfering with, or handling any specimen on ex- 
hibition, otlier than his own, shall forfeit all claim he may have in 
the premium list. 

All breeds exhibited separately and to be judged by the rules of 
the "American Standard of Excellence." 

For best exhibit of Poultry Appliances, $5 

PLOUGHING. 

General Note on Ploughing. — Stags are excluded. Teams must be 
entered in the names of their owners, and only double ox-teams to have 
drivers. A team consisting of one pair of oxeu and a horse will be con- 
sidered a double team. The owners of separate teams may unite the same 
and be allowed to compete for ijremiums. The ploughmen and drivers 
must have been residents of the County at least three months before the ex- 
hibition. Those who intend to be competitors must give notice to reach the 
Secretary on or before Saturday previoits to the show. The lands will be 
staked, but each ploughman will be required to strike out his own lands in 
the presence of the "Committee on Striking out grounds for Ploughing, " 
after half past nine o'clock in the morning of the trial. Ploughmen with 
land side ploughs are to back furrow three furrows on each side of the 
stakes set, the'last furrow to be of the depth required in the class. Plough- 
men, with swivel ploughs to turn the outside of their furrow to the stakes on 
one side, and to finish one foot from the stake on the other. Committees to 
note and report the kind of plough used. 

Ploughing with Double Teams.— One-eighth of an acre, at 
least eisht inches deep, premiums, SIO, 8, 6 

Ploughing with Single Teams. — One- eighth of an acre, at 
least six inches deep, premiums, SIO, 8, 5 

Ploughing with Horses.— With any form of Ploiish, except 
Swivel, one-eighth of an acre, at least six inches deep, premiums. 

SIO, 7, 5 

Ploughing with Three Horses.— One-eighth of an acre, 
eight inches deep, without driver, premium. SIO 

Same with lour horses, with driver, premium, SIO 

Ploughing with Swivel Plough — One-eighth of an acre, 
with double ox-teams, at least eight inches deep, premiums, $10, 8 

Same with single ox -teams, at least six inches deep, premiums, 

$10, 8 

Same with Horse Teams, consisting of two horses, ploughing at 
least six inches deep, premiums, $10, 8 

Ploughing— Sulky Plough.— For the best performances, 



223 

taking into account ease of draft, amount and quality of work, 
premiums, $10, 8 

HARROWS. 

For the hent Harrow exhibited, and its merits shown by actual 
test upon the ploughed ground, $10, 8 

Note. — Eutry must be made with the Secretary before the day of the 
trial with description of Harrow. 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

For the best collection of Implements and Machines (no article 
offered in collection will be entitled to a separate premium), 

Diploma and $10 
Best Market Wagon, premium, . $5 

Best Farm Wagon, for one or two horses, premium, S3 

Best Horse Cart, premium. $5 

Best Hay, Straw or Corn Cutter, premium, $1.50 

Best Ox Yoke, complete, premium, $1.50 

Best Fruit Evaporator, with sample of work, premium, $5 

Best set of Horse Shoes, including those for over-reaching, inter- 
fering and stumbling horses, premium, $5 
For implements not specified above, the Committee may at their 
discretion award $40. 

No premium or gratuity will be awarded for any Mower, Horse 
Rake, Tedder, or other Machine or Implement, the merit of which' 
can be known only by actual trial in the field; but manufacturers 
are invited to offer the same for exhibition and inspection. 

CARRIAGES. 

For carriages built in the County, and exhibited by the manufac- 
turer. Diploma, and thirty dollars in gratuities, may be awarded by 
the Committee. 



In Exhibition Hall. 

Committees on articles exhibited in the hall should be especially 
careful that the premium or eratuity cards issued with the names, 
and sums awarded them, correspond with those in their reports to 
the Societj'. 

Committees and Exhibitors will be governed by instructions, un- 
der heading of " Duties of Committee," "General Rules," ''Pre- 
miums to be awarded at the Show. " see first pages, and under 
"Fruit," "Domestic Manufactures, " and "Flowers." 

^=A11 Fruit. Flowers, Vegetables, and Domestic Manufactures, 
must be the Product of Essex County, to be entitled to a premium 
or gratuity. 

DAIRY. 

For specimens of Butter made on any farm within the County 
the present year, samples of not less than five pounds to be exhib- 
ited, with a full account of the process of making and management 
of the Butter premiums. $8, 6, 4 



224 

For Specimens of ^e\\ Milk Cheese, made on any farm in the 
County the present year, samples of not less than fifty pounds to 
be exhibited, with statement in writing of the method of making 
and preserving the same, premiums. !S=8, 6, 4 

Note. — Each lot presented for premium and the statement accompanying 
it, roust he numhered, hut not marked so as to indicate the claimant; any 
public or known mark must he comijletely concealed; nor must the compet- 
itors be present at the examination. 

To the person who shall furnish to the Society satisfactory evi- 
dence of the greatest quantity of Butter made from any quantity of 
milk, being the whole produce of any single cow, tor the first week 
of^June, July. August, and September next, stating the whole 
amount of Butter produced in each week, also the time when the 
cow dropped her last calf, and her feed and management all to be 
taken into account In making the award, premiums. 

Diploma and SIO, 5 

Note. — The object in offering these last premiums is to elicit inquiry as 
to the value and quantity of milk for the production of butter. As far as 
practicable it is desirable that the race and pedigree of the cow shall be 
given. 

DRESSED POULTRY AND EGGS. 

For the best pair of dressed Fowls, Chickens, Ducks, and Geese, 
weight to be given, premium for each pair, $2' 

For the best 12 eggs from Asiatic, American. Game, French 
and Spanish classes (Hamburgs, Polish, Dorkings to compete in 
the Spanish class), premium for each class, $1 



BREAD AND CANNED FRUIT. 

For White Bread made of Wheat tiour, premiums, S3, 2, 1 

For bread made from Graham flour, premiums, S2, 1 

For bread made from other grains, or other grains mixed with 
wheat, premiums, $1 50, 1 

All bread, entered for premiums, to be in loaves weighing not 
less than one pound each, and to be not les.s than twenty-four hours 
old, with a full written statement over the signature and address of 
the maker, stating the kind of flour used, quantity of each ingredi- 
ent, how mixed, and length ot time kneaded and raised, and how 
long baked, which statements on all premium bread are to he sent to 
the Secretary loith report of the Committee for publication. 

For first and second best collection of Pickles, Preserved Fruits, 
and Jellies, made from products of the County, lohen premiums are 
awarded, the method of making to be sent to the Secretary by the 
Committee, for publication, premiums, S3, 2 

For the first and second best five pounds of Dried Apples, grown 
and dried within the County, with statements of process used and 
amount of labor and time required in preparing and dryin<j, such 
statement on premium fruit to be given to the Secretary for publication, 
premiums, S3, 2 

In addition to the above, are i)laced in the hands of the Commit- 
tee for gratuities on other articles entered in this department, pro- 
ducts of this County, deemed worthy. S& 



225 



BEES, HIVES AND HONEY. 



For first and second best display of Bees, Hives and Apiiuian 
Implements, acconipanied with a written description of tlie bees, 
hives, etc., number of hives in use and amount of surplus honey 
taken from them during the season, premiums, $5, 3 

First and second best Honey, ten pounds in coinb and one pound 
extracted, made in the County, with stateiBent signed of kind of 
bees and hive, and time of year when honey was made, premiums, 

.^3, 2 



Fruit. 

All fruit must be entered in the name of the grower before 11 
o'clock on tlie first day of the exhibition, and each exhibitor must 
certify to the same on the Entry Book, or on lists of the varieties 
of each class of fruit, or be filed when entry is made. (Committees 
are not authorized to make awards to those who do not comply with 
this rule.) 

Tables will be labelled in a conspicuous manner by the liall com- 
mittee before the entry of exhibitors, with the names of fruit, for 
which premiums are offered, all others of same class fruit to be 
labelled miscellaneous. Exhibitors must place their several vari- 
eties of each class of fruit where indicated by such labels, or be 
considered by the committee as not competing for premium. 

Plates of collections of fruit, when premiums are offered there- 
for, must be entered and placed by the exhibitor on the table as- 
signed for the exhibit of collections of fruit. 

To entitle exhibitors to receive premiums and gratuities awarded, 
they are required (when requested by the committee) to give in- 
fermation in regard to the culture of their fruit. 

PEAKS. 

For best twelve specimens of the following varieties, which are 
recommended for cultvation in Essex County: Bartlett, Belle Luc- 
rative, Bosc, Anjou, Angouleme, Dana's Hovey, Lawrence, Louise 
Bonne, Ouondajia, Paradise d'Automne, Seckle, Sheldon, Urban- 
iste, Vicar, Cornice, H(jwell, and Clairgeau, each, premium, $B 

Do5'enne d'Ete, Giftbrd and Clapp's Favorite (ripeniuir early), 
are recommended lor cullivation, but no premrum is ofliered. 

For each dish of twelve best specimens of any other varieties, 
deemed worthy by the committee, premium, SI. 50 

For best collection ot Pears, recommended for cultivation, pre- 
mium, ^6 

In addition to the above, are placed at the disposal of the com- 
mittee, to be awarded in gratuities of not less than .?! each, S20 

APPLES. 

For best twelve specimens of the following varieties, which are 
recommended for cultvation in Essex County: Baldwin, Dan- 
vers Sweet, Tompkins King, Granite Beauty, Red Eusset, Tolman's 
Svveet, Bailey Sweet, Drap d'Or, Hubbardston, Hurlburt, Porter. 



226 

Pickman Pippin, Roxbury Russet, Rhode Island Greenino^, Sweet 
Baldwin, Gravenstein, Hunt Russet, Smith's Cider, Snow, pre- 
mium for each, ^3 

Red Astrachan, William's Favourite, Tetofsky and Sweet Bough 
are recommended for cultivation, and no premium is offered (rip- 
ening early). 

For best twelve specimens of any other varieties deemed worthy 
by the committee, premium for each variety, Sl-50 

For best collection of Apples, recommended for cultivation, pre- 
mium, $6 

For best twenty-four specimens of any variety of Crab Apple 
deemed worthy by the committee, ^1.50 

In addition are placed at the disposal of the committee, to be 
awarded in gratuities of not less than SI each, ^20 

PEACHES, GRAPES, AND ASSORTED FRUITS. 

For best nine specimens of Freestone, White Flesh, Yellow 
Flesh, Essex County Seedling, each variety, $2 

For best collection of Peaches, premium, $B 

For Champion, Lemon, or Orange Quinces, premium, S3 

For Plums, each variety, premium. $2 

For best four bunches of Concord, Worden's Seedling, Brighton, 
Hartford Prolific, Delaware, Martha, Moore's Early, Niagara 
Grapes, each variety, iH'emium. S3 

For Cold House Grapes, produced with not over one month's arti- 
ficial heat, premiums. 84, 3 
For best collection of ten varieties, not less than ten pounds in 
all, premiums, $7 
For best specimens of four bunches of Grapes, varieties other 
than above, deemed worthy by the committee, premium, Sl.oO 
For baskets of Assorted Fruits, premiums, ■^4, 3 
In addition are placed at the disposal of the committee, to be 
awarded in gratuities, of not less than 50 cents each, ^25 

PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 

RULES AND REGULATIONS. 

1. All Plants and Flowers for competition and exhibition must 
be entered for examination by the committee on or before eleven 
o'clock, on the first day of the Fair, and all such Plants and Flowers 
must have l^cou grown by the competitor, except native plants and 
flowers, and flowers used in bouquets, and baskets of flowers and 
floral designs, all of which (plants and flowers) must have been 
grown within the County. 

2. When a certain number or quantity of Plants and Flowers is 
designated in the schedule, there must be neither more nor less 
than that number or quantity of specimens shown. 

3. When only one premium from each exhibitor is offered for 
any article, only a single specimen or collection can compete, but 
when a second or third premium is offered, one, two or three speci- 
mens or collections may be exhibited for competition, but no vari- 
ety can be duplicated. 

4. No premium shall be awarded unless the specimens exhibited 
are of superior excellence, possessing points of superiority and 



227 

worthy of such premium, not even if they are the only ones of their 
kind on exliibition. 

5. No specimen entered for one premium shall be admitted in 
competition for another different premium. 

0, Competitors will be required to furnish information (if the 
committee so request), as to their modes of cultivation, or in the 
case of Native Plants and Flowers, where such were found. 

7. All plants exhibited for premiums must have the name leofi- 
bly and correctly written on stiff card, wood, or some other perma- 
nent and suitable substance, and so attached to same as to be easi- 
ly seen. Flowers when specified to be named to comply also with 
above rule. 

8. Plants in Pots to be entitled to premiums must show skilful 
culture in the profusion of bloom and in the beauty, symmetry and 
vigor of the specimens ; also Bouquets, Baskets, Design Work, etc., 
must show tante, fkill, and harmony in arrangement, both as to 
colors and material they are made of, and purposes for which they 
are intended. 

9. All flowers exhibited must be shown upon their cnvn stem, 
flowers in •'• Design " work alone excepted ; and this exception if 
overcome and avoided, to be taken into account by the committee 
in awarding the premiums. 

10. The Committee are authorized to award gratuities for any 
new and rare plants and flowers or " Designs " of merit for which 
no premium is offered, but in no case shall the total sum (premi- 
ums and gratuities together), exceed the amount .^150.00, limited 
by the Society for this department. 

11. No member of the Committee for avvarding premiums or 
gratuities shall in any case vote or decide respecting an award for 
which such member may be a competitor, or in which he may have 
an interest, but in such case such member shall temporarily vacate 
his place upon the Committee, and such vacancy for the time being 
may be filled by the remaining members of the Committee, or they 
may act without. 

12. Atteution is again called to above Rules and Regulations 
for Plants and Flowers, and General Rules of the Society, and all 
articles not entered in conformity therewith will be disqualified, 
and premiums will be awarded only to exhibitors who have com- 
plied with said Rules, etc. 

PLANTS. 

Plants competing for these premiums must have been grown in 
pots. Native Plants excepted, etc. See Rules. 

For collections Flowering and Ornamental Foliage Plants, at 
least 25 specimens, premiums, §10. 5 

For Colltciion Palms, at least 5 specimens, 5 varieties, pre- 
mium, gl 

For Collection Ferns (cultivated;, at least 5 specimens. 5 varie- 
ties, premium, .fl 

For collection Dracenas, at least 5 specimens, 5 varieties, pre- 
mium. ;ii;l 

For collection Caotons, at least 5 specimens, 5 varieties, pre- 
mium, SI 



228 

For collection Fancy Caladiunis, at least 5 specimens, 5 varie- 
ties, premium, SI 
For collection Gloxinias, at least 5 specimens, 5 varieties, pre- 
mium, $1 
For collection Begonias, tuberous rooted, at least 5 specimens, 5 
varieties, premium. 
For collection Begonias, 5 specimens, 5 varieties, premium, $1 
For collection Coleus, 10 specimens, 10 varieties, premium, SI 
For collection Fuschias, 5 specimens, varieties, premium, SI 
For ctilleclion Cyclamen, 5 specimens, 5 varieties, premium, SI 
For collection Geraniums, double, 10 specimens, 10 varieties, pre- 
mium, SI 
For collection Geraniums, single, 10 specimens, 10 varie'ies, pre- 
mium, §1 
For collection Geraniums, fancy, 10 specimens, at least 5 varie- 
ties, premium, SI 
For collection Hibiscus, 5 specimens, 5 varieties, premium, SI 
For collection Carnation Pinks, 10 specimens, at least 5 varieties, 
premium, SI 
For collection Calla Lillies, 5 specimens, premium, SI 
For specimen English Ivy, premium, SI 
For collection of wood of native trees in sections, suitable for 
exhibition, showing bark and the grain of the wood, all correctly 
named with botanical and common name, at least 50 varieties, each 
variety to be shown in two sections, one rf which to be a cross sec- 
tion and neither to be more than four inches in length or diameter, 
premiums, S5, 3 

FLOWEKS. 

For collection Cut Flowers, cultivated, 160 specimens, at least 
50 varieties, named, S5, 3 

For collection of Cut Flowers, native, 100 specimens, at least 50 
Tsrieties. named, S5, 3 

For pair of Bouquets, for vases, green-house flowers, prem., S2, 1 
For pair of Hand Bouquets, green-house flowers, prein., S2, 1 
For pair of Bouquets, for vases, of native flowers, prem., S2, 1 
For pair of Bouquets, for vases, of garden flowers, prera., S2, 1 
For Basket of green-house flowers, premiums, $2, 1 

For Basket of Native Flowers, premiums, S2, 1 

For Basket of Garden Flowers, premiums, S2, 1 

For arrangement of Native Flowers and Autumn Leaves, pre- 
miums. S3, 2 
For Floral Designs, choice cultivated flowers, premiums, S5, 3 
For Floral Designs, native flowers, premiums, S3, 2 
For collections Japan Lilies, hardy, named, premiums, S3, 2 
For collections Phlox, hardy perennial, named, premiums, S2, 1 
For collections Pansies, at least 50 specimens, neatly and artisti- 
cally arranged, premiums, S2, 1 
For collections of Native and Introduced Weeds, with common 
and botanical name attached, premiums, S3, 2 
For twelve Dahlias, large flowering, at least six varieties, 
named, premium, SI 
For twelve Dahlias, Pompon or Lilliputian, at least six varie- 
ties, named, premium, $1 



229 

For twelve Dahlias, single, at least six varieties, named, pre- 
mium, SI 
For twelve Petunias, double, at least six varieties, named, pre- 
mium, SI 
For twelve Gladiolus (spikes), at least six varieties, named, pre- 
mium, fl 
For twelve Japan Lilies, at least six varieties, named, prem., $1 
For twelve Geraniums, double, at least six varieties, named, pre- 
mium, $1 
For twelve Geraniums, single, at least six varieties, named, pre- 
mium, SI 
For twelve Phlox, hardy perennial, at least six varieties, named, 
premium, SI 
For twelve Cannas, at least six varieties, nnmed, premium, SI 
For twenty-!our Carnation Pinks, at least six varieties, named, 
premium, SI 
For twenty-four Verbenas, at least six varieties, named, pre- 
mium, SI 
For twenty-four Roses, at least six varieties, named, premium, SI 
For twenty-four Garden Annuals, at least twelve varieties, 
named premium, SI 
For twelve Calendulas, at least two varieties, named, prem., SI 
For twelve Asters, Double Victoria, premium, SI 
For twelve Asters, Double, Truffaut's Peony flowered, prem., SI 
For twelve Asters, Pompone, premium, SI 
For twelve Phlox Druramondii, in variety, premium, SI 
For twelve Nasturtiums, at least six varieties, premium, SI 
Ff)r twenty-four Pansies, in variety, premium, SI 
For twenty-four Zinnias, double in variety, premium. SI 
For twenLy-four Marigolds, African, in variety, premium, SI 
For twenty-four Marigolds, Dwarf French, in variety, prem., SI 
For twenty-four Petunias, single, in variety, premium, SI 
For display of Coxcombs, in variety, premium, SI 
For twelve Scabiosas, in variety, premium, SI 
For twelve Delphiniums, in variety, premium, SI 
For twelve Dianthus (double, annual), in variety, premium, SI 
For twelve Salpiglossis, in variety, premium, SI 
For collection of Sweet Peas, premium. Si 

VEGETABLES. 

Rules for Fruit apply to Vegetables. 

Beets —For best twelve specimens, Eclipse, Dewing, and E J- 

mands, premiums, each variety, S3 

Carrots — Fur best twelve, short top, long Orange and Danvers 

Intermediate, premium, each variety, S3 

For best twelve, Stioit Horn Grange carrots, S3 

Mangold Wurlzels — For best six specimens, premium, S3 

Flat turnips— Twelve specimens. For best Purple Top and While 

Flat, premium, each variety, S3 

Rula Bagas — Twelve specimens. For best Yellow and White 

premium, each variety, S3 

Parsnips — For the best twelve specimens, premium, S3 

Onions — Twelve specimens. For best Danvers, Yellow Flat, and 

Red, premium, each variety, S3 



2 30 

Potatoes — Twelve specimen . For best Early Rose, Beauty of 
Hebron, Clark's No. 1, Pearl of Savoy, Early Maine, premium, 
each variety, 'S3 

Cabbages— For best thite specimens, Savoy, Fott'er's Drum- 
head, Stone Mason Drumhead, Red Cabbage, All Seasons, Deep 
Head, each variety, premium, ^S 

For next best, each variety, premium, S2 

Cauliflowers — For best three specimens, premium, S3 

For next best, premium, S2 

Celery— For best four roots, premium, $2 

Sweet Corn — For twelve ears ripest and best Early, premium, §3 
For best twelve ears in milk, Late, premium, S3 

Squashes — For best three specimens, Marrow, American Turban, 
Hubbard. Marblehead, Essex Hybrid, Bay State, Sibley, Bulman^ 
each variety, premium, 83 

Melons — For best three specimens, Nutmeg, Musk, Cassaba, 
Salmon Flesh, each variety, premium, S2 

For best two specimens Watermelons, premium, S2 

Tomatoes — For best twelve specimens, Acme, Emery. Cardinal, 
Essex Hybrid, Livingstone, or any other variety, each variety. 



premuim. 



S3 



For exhibition of greatest variety of Tomatoes, premium, S3 
Cranberries — For pecks of cultivated, premiums, S3, 2, 1 

For collection of vegetables, not less than three of a kind, pre- 
miums, S8, 6, 4, 2 
Placed at the disposal of the committee for whatever appears 
meritorious, S30 

i@==No competitor for premium to exhibit more or less number 
of specimens of any vegetables than the premiums are offered for. 

Collections of Vegetables where premiums are offered for a number of 
varieties must be entered and placed, not less than three of a kind, by them- 
selves on the tables assigned for collections. No collection shall receive but 
one premium. Specimens of any varieties in such collections are not to 
compete with specimens of the same variety placed elsewhere. Exhibitors 
of such collections however, are not prevented from exhibiting additional 
specimens of any variety with and in competition with like variety. All 
vegetables must be entered in the name of the grower of them. 

Size of Veyeiables.—Tvirn'ip Beets to be from 2 to 4 inches in diameter; 
Onions, 2 1-2 lo 4 inches in largest diameter ; Potatoes to he of good size for 
family use ; Squashes to be pure and well ripened, Turban, Marrow, Hub- 
bard, Marblehead, all to be of uniform size. 

GRAIN AND SEED. 

For best peck of Shelled Corn, Wheat. Oats, Barley, Rye, Buck- 
wheat, and Field Beans, each, premium, SI 
For 25 ears of Field Corn, premiums, S5, 3, 2 
For 25 ears of Pop Corn, premiums, S'5, 2 
For collections of Field and Garden Seeds, premiums, S8, 0, 4. 2 
All grain or seed mu^t have been groivn by the exhibitor in the 
Gountij to receive a premium. 

Domestic Manufactures. 

Contributors must deposit their articles at the Hall before 11 
'clock on the first day of the Exhibition. Articles not thus depos- 



231 

ited will not be entitled to a premium. Gratuities will be awarded 
for articles of special merit for which no premium is offered; but 
no premium or gratuity will be awarded for any article manufac- 
tured out of the County, or previous to the last exhibition of the 
Society. 

COUNTERPANES AND AFGHANS. 

For Wrought Counterpanes having regard to the quality and ex- 
pense of the material, premiums, S4, 2 

Gratuities will be awarded for articles belonging to this depart- 
ment, the whole amount of gratuities not to exceed §25 

CARPETINGS AND RUGS. 

For carpets, having regard to the quality and expense of the 
material, premiums, .'S^4, 2 

For Wrought Hearth Rug, having regard both to the quality of 
the work and expense of the materials, premiums, 83, 2 

Gratuities will be awarded for articles belonging to this depart- 
ment, the whole amount not to exceed $25 

ARTICLES MANUFACTURED FROM LEATHER. 

For best pair hand made and machine made Men's Boots, 
Women's do., Childrens' do., each, premium, S2 

Best Team, Carriage, and Express Harness, each, premium, S5 

SIO are placed at the disposal of this committee, to be awarded 
in gratuities 

For the best exhibition of Boots and Shoes, manufactured in the 
County, each, premium. Diploma of the Society. 

MANUFACTURES AND GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

For display of Bonnets, premiums, .?4, 3 

For Horn Combs, not less than one dozen, premium, $2 

At the disposal of the committee in this department, to be 

awarded in gratuities not exceeding S3 in any one gratuity, .$20 

FANCY WORK 

Of Domestic Manufacture are not included in the above. 

At the disposal of the committee in this department, to be 
awarded in gratuities not exceeding .^3 in any one gratuity, .$50 

WORKS OF ART. 

At the disposal of the committee in this department, to be 
awarded in gratuities not exceeding $3 in any one gratuity, .f 50 

WORK BY CHILDREN. 

For specimens of work performed by children under 12 years. of 

age exhibiting industry and ingenuity, premiums, $3, 2 

At disposal of committee to be awarded in gratuities, SIO 



232 



List of Premiums to be Awarded by the 
Trustees in November. 

FARMS. 

Competitors for this premium must give notice of their inten- 
tion to the Secretary on or before Juue i5th, and the farms entered 
for premium will be viewed by the committee twice during the 
year. Crops growing on farms that are entered for premium, can- 
not be entered with another committee for separate premiums — ex- 
cept crop specimens exhibited at the fair. 

Any person desirous of having his farm inspected, icithout enter- 
ing it Jot premium, may make application to the Secretary, and it 
will be viewed and reported upon by the committee. 

For the best conducted and most improved farm, taking into 
view the entire management and cultivation, including lands, 
buildings, fences, orchards, crops, stock, and all other appendages, 
with statements in detail, relating thereto, premium, S30 

IMPROVING WET MEADOW AND SWAMP LANDS. 

For best conducted experiments relating to wet meadow or 
swamp lands, on not less than one acre, the course of management, 
and the produce, etc., for a period ot two years at least, to be de- 
tailed, with a statement of all the incidental expenses, pre- 
miums, .*15, 10 

Note. — The Committee is instructed to ascertain how manj', if aiy, re- 
claimed swamps in tliis County have been abandoned or have returned to 
natural grasses. Persons knowing of siich are requested to notify the Sec- 
retary or Committee. 

IMPROVING PASTURE AND WASTE LANDS. 

For best conducted experiments in renovating and improving 
pasture land, other than by ploughing, so as to add to their value 
for pasturage, with a statement of the same, premiums, ."JIS, 10 

For best conducted experiments renovating and improving waste 
lands, so as to add to their agricultural value, with statement of 
the same, premiums, $15, 10 

No pieraium to be awarded to any person for a repetition of an 
experiment in meadow, swamp or pasture lands, for which he has 
already received a premium. 

UNDER-DRAINING LAND. 

For best conducted experiments in under-draining land, regard 
being had to the variety of soil, sub-soil, and other local circum- 
stances, prem.iums, Slo, 10 

Note. — The same instructions under "Improving Wet Meadow and 
Swamj) Lands" apply to this Committee. 

MANURES. 

For most exact and satisfactory experiments, in the preparation 
and application of manures, whether animal, vegetable or mineral, 
premiums, S=15, 10 



233 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF CROPS AS FOOD FOR 

CATTLE. 

For most satisfactory experiments upon a stock of cattle, not less 
than four in number, "in ascertaining the relative value of different 
kinds of fodder used in feeding stock for milk and other purposes, 
with a statement in detail of the quantity^and the value of the same, 
as compared with English hay, premium, .^25 

FATTENING CATTLE AND SWINE. 

For most satisfactory experiments in Fattening Cattle or Swine, 
with a statement in detail of the process and result, prem., $10, 5 

GRAIN AND OTHER FRUITS. 

Claimants on Grain and Root Crops will be required to state the 
size of the piece of laud, when they enter, and conform to the fol- 
lowing rules: Entries of Grain Crops to be made on or before Sep- 
tember 10th ; Root Crops on or before October 10; giving ample 
time for the crops to be examined by the committee before harvest- 
ing. Statement to be made in conformity with the following 
form, must be forwarded to the Committee previous to November 
1st. 

All calculations and figures given in reports of, and statements of 
Crops, are to be made on the basis of an acre, results in all cases, to 
be given at the rate per acre. 

In pursuance of authority delegated to the Board of Agriculture 
by Chap. 24, of Acts 1862, Agricultural Societies receiving the 
bounty of the State are required to make use of the following 
form, and be governed by its conditions in the mode of ascertaining 
the amount of crops entered for premium. 

Essex Agricultural Society. — Statement concerning a crop 

of , raised by Mr. in the town of , , 

1892. 

What was the crop of 1890? What manure was used and how 
much? What was the crop of 1891? What manuie was used and 
how muchy What is the nature of the soil? When, and how 
many times ploughed, and how deep? What other preparation 
for the seed? Cost of jiloughiug and other preparation? Amount 
of manure, in loads of thirty bushels, and how applied? 

Value of manure upon the ground? How used? (What amount 
of Commercial Fertilizer used? How used? Value of same when 
applied?) When and how planted? The amount and kind of seed? 
Cost of seed and planting? How cultivated and how many times? 
Cost of cultivation, including weeding and thinning? Time and 
manner of harvesting? Cost of harvesting, including the storing 
and husking or threshing? Amount of crop, etc. Signed by 
Competitor. 

The committee, to whom is entrusted the award of the premiums 
on field crops, may award them according to their judgment, but 
for the purpose of furnishing accurate statistics for the benefit 
of agriculture, shall select certain of the crops, and require the 
owners thereof to measure the laud and weigh the crops accurately, 
giving to the committee a certificate of the same, and give all pps- 



234 

sible information thereon over their own signatures, and return the 
same to the Secretary of the Society, to be published in the an- 
nual transactions. 

In ascertaining the amount of crop, any vessel may be used and 
the weight of its contents once, multiplied by the number of times 
it is tilled by the crop. 

In measuring the land or weighing crops, any competent person 
may be employed, whether a sworn surveyor or not, and must give 
certificate. 

The certificate shall state the weight of all crops only in a mer- 
chantable state. 

In ascertaining the amount of a hay crop entered for premium, 
the measurement of the hay in the barn may be employed. 

EuiiES OF Measure Practiced and Adopted by the State 

Board of Agriculture. 
Wheat, Potatoes, Sugar Beets, Ruta Bagas, 

"White Beans and Peas, 

Corn, Rye, 

Oats, 

Barley, Buckwheat, 

Cracked Corn, Corn and Rye, and other meal, 

except Oat, 
Parsnips, Carrots, 
Onions, 

1. For the best conducted experiments of Rye, not less than 
twenty bushels to the acre, fifty-six lbs. to the bushel, on not less 
than one acre, premiums, -SIO, 5 

2. For best conducted experiments of Wheat, not less than 
thirty bushels to the acre, sixty pounds to the bushel, on not less 
than one acre, premiums, SIO, 5 

3. For best conducted experiments of Oats, not less than fifty 
bushels to the acre, thirty-two pounds to the bushel, on not less 
than one acre, premiums, $10, 5 

4. For best conducted experiments of Barley, not less than for- 
ty bushels to the acre, forty-eight pounds to the bushel, on not less 
than one acre, premiums, SIO, 5 

5. For best conducted experiments of In.lian Corn, on not less 
than one acre, premiums, SIO, 5 

6. For largest quantity and best quality of English Hay, on not 
less than one acre, regard being had to the mode and cost of culti- 
vation, premiums, ,§10, 5 

7. For best yield of Field Beans, on not less than one-half acre, 
and not less than twenty-five bushels per acre, premiums, §10, 5 

ROOT CROPS. 

1. For best conducted experiments in raising Carrots, fifty-five 
pounds to the bushel, premiums, |lO, 5 

2. For best conducted experiments in raising Parsnips, fifty-five 
pounds to the bushel, premiums, $10, 5 

3. For best conducted experiments in raising Ruta Bagas, sixty 
pounds to the bushel, premiums, $10, 5 



Man 


gold "Wtu'tzels, 




60 lbs. 


to bush 




62 - 


(1 




56 " 


(I 




82 '' 


(I 


1 


48 " 


(( 


Ll, 


50 ''• 


(( 




55 " 


" 




52 '' 


u 



235 

4. For best conducted experiments in raising Mangold Wurt- 
zels, sixty pounds to the bushel, premiums, $10,5 

5. For best conducted experiments in raising Sugar Beets, 
sixty pounds to the bushel, premiums, SIO, 5 

6. For best conducted experiments in raising Onions, fifty-two 
pounds to the bushel, premiums, |lO, 5 

7. For best conducted experiments in raising Potatoes, sixty 
pounds to the bushel, premiums, $10, 5 

8. For best conducted experiments in raising Cabbages, pre- 
miums. $10, 5 

9. For best conducted experiments in raising Squashes, pre- 
miums, $19, 5 

10. For best conducted experiments in raising Summer English 
Turnips for the market, premiums, $10, 5 

Eaised on not less than half an acre, and the quantity of crop to 
be ascertained by weight; so far as practicable the crop to be free 
from dirt, without tops, and in a merchantable condition at the 
time of measurement. 

Claimants for premiums on Grain and Hoot Crops must forward 
statement to chairman of committee before Wov. 1st. 

FOEEST TREES. 

1. For plantation of either of the following species of forest 
trees, viz: White Oak, Yellow Oak, Locust, Birch, White Ash, 
Maple, Walnut, or White Pine, not less than three years old, and 
not less than 1000 trees, premium, $20 

2. For plantation of not less than 600 trees, premium, $10 

3. For ornamental trees, ten or more set on any street, road or 
farm, and cared for five years, premium, $10 

CEANBERRIES. 

For best conducted experiment in the cultivation of the Cran 
berry, at least two summers, on not less than twenty rods of land 
with written statement of the quantity and quality of the laud, ex 
pense of planting, weeding and culture, and amount of crops pro 
duced. Premium to be paid in 1891 and 1892. $15 

For best experiment do., on not less than ten rods of land, pre- 
mium, $10 

For best do., on not less than five rods of land, premium, $5 

STEAWBEEEIES AND OTHEE SMALL FEUITS. 

For best crop of strawberries, on not less than twenty rods of 
land, expense of planting, culture, crop, etc., stated in writing, 
premium, $10 

For best crop of Currants, Easpberries and Blackberries, with 
statement as above, premiums, each, $10 

NEW WINTEE APPLES. 

For a new variety of VVinter Apple, originated in this County, 
equal or superior to the Baldwin, premium, $100 

For a new variety of like character originating elsewhere, pro- 
vided it hfis been cultivated in the County sufficiently to prove it 



236 

equal or superior to the Baldwin for general purposes, pre- 
mium, !g20 

For a successful experiment in destroying the codling moth and 
other worms destructive to the apple, premium, S2o 

Note. — Persons who consider themselves competitors will send Post Of- 
fice address to Secretary, and others in tlie County wishing to compete for 
ahove, must notify Secretary, and furnish a full statement of their apple, 
and also scions when called for under his directions, to be tested by the So- 
ciety. 

SEEDING POTATOES AND EXPERIMENTS. 

For best Seeding Potato, originating in Essex County, to equal 
in yield, earliness, and quality, the Early Rose, and to surpass it in 
one or more of these particulars, premium paid after three years' 
trial, .125 

lu testing the value of a Seeding Potato, the committee are in- 
structed to take sworn testimony of the cultivator with regard to 
the yield, after having inspected the crop. 

For the most satisfactory experiment to extend through five con- 
secutive years, to settle the following facts relative to raising po- 
tatoes: — premium, §50 

1st. Will whole, medium sized Potatoes, yield better results 
than pieces cut to two eyes? 

2iid. What will be the result of continuously planting small- 
sized potatops of the same strain a series of years? 

3rd. Difference between hilling and flat cultiv^ation. 

4th. Effect, if any, of cutting off seed ends before planting. 

5th. Effects of deep and shallow planting. 

6tii. Raising from sprouts alone from same strain. 

7tli. Can potatoes having dwarf vines be planted nearer than 
others? 

Rth. Best distance apart for seed in the drill. 

9th. To show the effect of covering the top with earth at several 
times after they had come up. 

To he raised on not less than a half acre of land, uniform in 
character, and all to receive the same kind and quality of manure 
and cultivation, and to be inspected by the committee at the time 
of gathering the crops. 

ESSAYS AND FARM ACCOUNTS. 

The E-says must be transmitted to the Secretary by the 1st of 
November, with sealed envelopes containing the names of their 
authors, respectively, which shall not be opened by the comaiittee, 
nor shall the names be known to the committee until they shall 
have decided upon the merit of the Essays. 

For original Essays on any subject connected with Agriculture, 
in a form worthy of publication, premiums, S15, 10, 8 

For best statement of Actual Farm Accounts, drawn from the 
experience of the claimant, in a form worthy of publication, pre- 
mium, SIO 

For Reports of Committees upon subiects for which premiums 
are offered, premiums, SIO, 8, 6 

Committee— G. L. Streeter, Salem ; Ji-M. Hawkes, Lynn; D. E. Safford, 
Hamilton ; Geo. E. Blodgette, Rowley; J. M. Danforth, Lynnfield. 



237 



LIBRABY. 

Committee — Andrew Nichols. Danvers ; Heury Brooks, Salem ; B. P^ 
"Ware, Marblehead; J. M. Danforth, Lyniitield. 

ENCOURAGING AGRICULTURAL LIBRARIES. 

It shall be the duty of the Coramittee to communicate with such 
persons in the several cities and towns in the County, as, in their 
judgment, will best encourage the establishment of, or improvement 
of, collections of books, pamphlets, reports, essays, newspapers, 
etc., relating to agriculture, and request their aid in thus advanc- 
ing the cause of agriculture, and co-operate with such persons in 
promoting the objects herein referred to. 

Committee — Francis H. Appleton, Peabody; Henry "Wheatland, Salem; 
James J. H. Gregory, Marblehead. 

NEW MEMBERS. 

For the person who obtains the largest number of new members 
for the Society from any Town or City before the first day of 
November next, premium, ,^6 

Note. — Names of new members, with name of person i^rocuring them, 
can be sent as fast as obtained, to the Secretary of the Society, who will 
make a record of them. 

Persons paying three dollars will receive a "Certificate of Membership" 
which is for life. No fines or assessments are ever imposed and members 
are entitled to vote in all its transactions, with the free use of the Library 
and a copy of the publication of Society's transactions each year. 

Committee — Secretary, John M. Danforth, Lynnfield. 

TREADWELL FARM. 

Committee — Benj. P. "Ware, Marblehead; C. C. Blunt, Andover; B. P. 
Pike, Topsfield; G. B. Blodgette, Rowley; George B. Bradley, Methuen; 
John M Danforth, Lynnfield. 

AUDITORS. 

Committees — J. Hardy Phippen, Salem; Benj. P. "Ware, Marblehead; E. 
Pope Barrett, Peabody. 

FARMERS' INSTITUTES. 

Francis H. Appleton, James P. King, C. C. Blunt, O. S. Butler, John 
M. Danforth, Lynnfield. 

DELEGATES. 

From the Essex Aorricultural Society to attend Exhibitions of 
Societies, Farmers' Clubs and Fruit Growers' Associations in Es- 
sex County, and report any information that shall seem valuable 
for publication. 

The Secretary to be notified of time of holding their exhibition, 
who will notify the chairman of Committee to assign Delesate. 

COMMITTEES. 

All Committees, including committees to iudsre of Crops, of ex- 
hibits at Fair, and of the Arrangements for the Fair, are chosen by 
the Trustees at their June meeting. 



CONTENTS. 



Address by Hon. E. P. Dodge 3 

Seventy-second Cattle Show and Fair 17 

Report of the Annual Meeting 20 

Report on Fat Cattle 22 

Report on Bulls 22 

Report on Milch Cows , 23 

Statements 24 

Report on Herds of Milch Cows 25 

Statements 25 

Report on Heifers, Pure Bred 27 

Report on Heifers, Native or Grade 28 

Report on Working Oxen 29 

Report on Steers 29 

Report on Stallions, Driving Purposes 30 

Report on Brood Mares, Farm Purposes 30 

Report on Br ood Mares, Driving Purposes 31 

Report on Family Horses 31 

Report on Gents' Driving Horses 31 

Report on Single Farm Horses 32 

Report on Pairs of Farm Horses 32 

Report on Colts, Farm Purposes 33 

Report on Colts, Driving Purposes 34 

Report on Swine, Large Breeds 34 

Report on Swine, Small Breeds 35 

Report on Sheep 36 

Report on Poultry 36 

Report on Ploughing, Double Team 40 

Report on Ploughing, Single Team 40 

Report on Ploughing with Swivel Plough 40 

Report on Ploughing with Horses 41 

Report on Ploughing with 3 Horses 41 

Report on Ploughing with Sulky Plough 41 

Report on Harrows 42 

Report on Agricultural Implements 42 

Report on Carriages 43 

Report of Sup't of Hail 44 

Report on Diary 46 

Report on Bread and Canned Fruit 48 

Report on Special Premium .' 51 

Report on Pears 51 

Report on Apples 53 

Report on Peaches, Grapes and Assorted Fruit 65 

Report on Plants 56 



240 

Report on Flowers 56 

Report on Vegetables 60 

Report on Grain and Seed 64 

Report on Counterpanes and Afghans 65 

Report on Carpetings and Rugs 68 

Report on Manufactures from Leather 69 

Report on Fancy Work 70 

Report on Works of Art 73 

Report on Children's Work 75 

Report on Manufactures and General Mdse 76 

Report of Committee on Granges 11 

Report of Committee on Root Crops 78 

Statements of Same 83 

Statement of Kent & Marsh, Onion Crop 83 

Statement of John H. Geoi'ge, Onion Crop 84 

Statement of E. C. Little, Mangel Crop 86 

Statement of J. H. Nason, Potato Crop 87 

Statement of E. B. Little, Crop of Potatoes 88 

Statement of Daniel A. Carieton, Cabbage Crop 90 

Statement of Walter Smith, Cabbage Crop 92 

Statement of C. C. Blunt, Crop of Parsnips 93 

Statement of C. C. Blunt, Crop of Turnips 94 

Report of Committee on Ornamental Trees 95 

Report of Committee on Strawberries and other Small Fruits 10 J 

Statement of J. Webb Barton 101 

Report of Committee on Grain Crops 1U3 

Statements of Grain Crops 104 

Report on Treadwell Farm 109 

Report of State Delegate to this Society 113 

Report of J. J. H. Gregory on Agricultural Implements Ik7 

Report of Dr. J. W. Goodell on Grapes 133^ 

Report on New Members 137 

Farmers' Institutes 138 

Dr. Charles E. Page's Report and Statement 164 

In Memoriam 169 

Treasurer's Report 180 

Constitution of the Society , 181 

Officers of the Society 184 

New Members 185 

Changes of Members 186 

Members of Society Ib7 

List of Premiums Awarded 204 

Recapitulation of Premiums 212 

Amount to each City and Town 213 

Financial Statement 1892 Fair 214 

Duties of Trustees, Committees and Exhibitors 215 



TRANSACTIONS 



FOR THE YEAR 1893 



ESSE 



lU 



rn 



FT 



(ORGANIZED iSiS) 

FOR THE 



COUNTY OF ESSEX, 



IJM JVlASSAejHUSETTS, 



AND ITS 



SEVENTIETH ANNUAL ADDRESS 



HON. NATHAN M. HAAYKES, 



OF LYNN. 



\A/^ith the Premium List for 1894. 



PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE SOCIETY- 



SA.LEM, MASS. : 

OBSERVER BOOK AND JOB PRINT, 
1893. 



ADDRESS. 

Mr. President and Fellow Members of the Essex 
Agricultural Society : 

Thoreau, the keen observer, the philosopher of nature, 
walking along the southern exposure of his neighbor's 
hill-top on a first day of March, noted in his journal 

''It is spring there, and Minot is puttering outside in 
the sun. How wise in his grandfather to select such a 
site for his house." 

The Essex Agricultural Society, the honored guild of 
the farmers of Essex, has had a corporate existence of 
seventy-five years, having been incorporated in 1818. 

To-day occurs the seventieth annual address. The 
Psalmist says that "three score years and ten are the 
length of man's days." The unbounded vitality of our 
Society after seventy-five years of usefulness is a strik- 
ing reversal of Shakespeare's aphorism "The evil that 
men do lives after them." We can say the good that 
men do lives after them. 

At such a milestone perhaps we may rest for one day 
from learned discussions and philosophical essays and 
glance back over the way we have traveled and then for- 
ward to see what lies before us. 

There is a fraternity of race blood in this Society 
which may not be apparent to outsiders. Strangers may 



query why so many names appear as the authors of an- 
nual addresses who are not practical farmers. The point 
cannot be better illustrated than here in this ancient and 
historic Haverhill. 

A few years since, an instructive address was delivered 
by your brilliant young District Attorne}'.- Readers of 
the wonderful self-revealing " Diary " of Chief Justice 
Samuel Sewall — the brave Witchcraft Judge, who pub- 
licly acknowledged his error — himself an Essex man, 
will appreciate the interest which the sons take in the 
affairs of the old County. Sewall's " Diary " abounds in 
references to Brother Moody, and whoever bears in his 
veins the colonial blood of the Sewalls and Moodys must 
respond to the call for service from his kin. 

Sewall's '• Diary " also lovingly dwells upon many 
cherished visits at Brother Northend's. Hence a descen- 
dant of Brother Northend of the old stock, going out to 
Nature for strength for forensic toils, came to the Society 
with words of experience. 

Another man of our own time, whose family lines run 
back to the planting of the colony, whose genial pres- 
ence has been a benison to our annual gatherings — the 
beloved Sheriff — has been a welcome speaker. 

Timothy Pickering, who delivered the first address and 
was the organizer and first President of this Society, may 
not be called a practical farmer, but every fibre of his 
being was in close touch with the men of the soil who 
made Essex County historic ground. 

Before the tragic scenes at Lexington and Concord had 
startled the world, Col. Timothy Pickering and the men 
of Salem had made (February 28 — 1775) the first armed 



resistance to British aggression at the old North Bridge. 
In February, the men of Salem and Marblehead struck 
the key note, which, in April, resounded from Middlesex. 

Col. Pickering was Post-master General, Secretary of 
War, and Secretary of State in the cabinets of Washing- 
ton and Adams. Later, he was Chief Justice of the 
Essex County Court of Common Pleas, United States 
Senator, and Representative in Congress from the Essex 
District. 

He rounded out a long and useful career by promoting 
and organizing the society under whose auspices we are 
assembled to-day. Under his call the first meeting was 
held at Cyrus Cummings' tavern, at Topsfield, on the 16th 
day of February, 1818. Ichabod Tucker was chosen 
moderator and David Cummings, secretary; these, with 
John Adams, Paul Kent and Elisha Mack, were appointed 
a committee to report a plan of organization. Timoth}' 
Pickering was chosen president ; and William Bartlett, 
Dr. Thomas Kittredge, John Heard and Ichabod Tuck- 
er, vice-presidents ; Leverett Saltonstall, secretary ; and 
Dr. Nehemiah Cleaveland, treasurer. Timothy Pickering- 
was annually chosen president for ten years, to 1829, 
when he again delivered the annual address. 

Col. Pickering was followed by Andrew Nichols, the 
botanist, the beloved physician of Danvers. 

Then came that liberal preacher, the Rev. Abiel 
Abbott, of Beverly, of whom President Monroe said that, 
he was the best talker he ever knew. 

From that day on, the clergymen have done their share 
of the talking, as was eminently fit in a society of Puritan 
descent. I shall not presume to speak of the living, so I 



6 

pass by the present pastor of the First Church (the Vil- 
lage Church), of Danvers, and mention his predecessor, 
the sturdy leader of Orthodox thought, the preacher of 
the faith of the fathers, the Rev. Milton P. Braman. 
And there is also recalled, that pious scholar, wit, and 
humorist, the Rev. Dr. Leonard Withington, of Newbury, 
who described himself as '' a modified Calvinist."' 

The Bar has been drawn upon for its leaders from " the 
silver tongued " James H. Duncan, and his cousin, the 
courtly ^Leveret Saltonstall, to the time of Judge Otis P. 
Lord and General Benjamin F. Butler. Caleb Cushing 
obeyed [-your call, he, of whom Isaac O. Barnes wittily 
and truthfully said : " There is a living, self-moving cyclo- 
pedia, from whom you can obtain information upon every 
question that has interested any people in any age of 
t'le world.'' 

Gen. Henry K. Oliver, the versatile, the teacher, the 
sweet singer, the mayor of two cities, made his contribu- 
tion and the fluent, ever ready Dr. George B. Loring was 
here, as everywhere among farmers, the popular favorite, 
for he delivered the annual address on three occasions. 

This is not a catalogue of names of those who have ad- 
dressed the Society, but I cannot refrain from naming 
two who were zealous in the cause of intelligent forestry, 
lien : Perley Poore made Indian Hill a magnet that drew 
wits, savants, and practical men of affairs from the world 
over. Richard S. Fay made Lyunmere an earthly para- 
dise. He created a forest which has become a profitable 
woodland. It is a stately memorial of the taste and gen- 
ius of a man who Avas devoted to the deveh^pment of ag- 
riculture. 



The actual farmers who have followed the calling near- 
est to nature as a vocation to which other matters were 
mere avocations have been prominent. 

Although honors came to such men as Hon. Daniel P. 
King, Gen. Josiah Newhall, and Hon. Asa Tarbell New- 
hall, enthusiastic devotion to and skilled direction of the 
farm were paramount and sufficient. 

Hon. Asa T. Newhall is recorded as delivering the ad- 
dress in 1849, and again in 1884, but of course you know 
as well as I that it was not the old Squire who addressed 
you in the latter year, but his grandson of the same name 
and inherited talents, who now makes hay while the sun 
shines on the home farm. Verily, the sons find it 
pleasant to tread the paths of labor and of honor in the 
footsteps of respected sires. 

These are but representative names in the galaxy of 
Essex men who have addressed this Society. Every ad- 
dress has been carefully prepared and a vast variety of 
interesting topics have been discussed. 

A collection of the whole would make a valuable li- 
brary for an intelligent household. 

I should shrink from being added to this list, if I did 
not feel that the honor came to me, not as a personal 
one, but as a recognition of a family whose successive 
generations have tilled the soil on the intervales of Sau- 
gus River, from the planting of the colony to the present 
day. Members of this family are active in the councils 
of the Society, and I am grateful to be allowed to link 
my name with those who have gone before me, as an ac- 
tive member of the Essex Agricultural Society. 

This Society is old enough to have made for itself an 
enviable history, but Essex agriculture had a world re- 



nowned origin long before the days of Col. Pickering 
and his worth}- associates. The first page of the first 
volume of " The liecords of the Governor and Company 
of the Massachusetts Bay in New England " bears a 
memorandum supposed to be in the hand-writing of Mr. 
Washborne, the first secretary of the Company, which is 
pregnant Avith and significant of a great event in the 
world's history. Its date is Marcli IG, (the year un- 
known), probably 1628. If so, Endicott had not sailed. 
Winthrop would not depart for two years. 

Without an}'' verbiage or sentimentality in a matter of 
fact paper, it reveals without the need of comment or 
concordance what the company thought were prime ob- 
jects and necessities in the great scheme of emigration. 

I quote from the memorandum : 

To p7'ovide to seMdfor Neive England : 
Ministers ; 
Patient vnder seale : 
A seale ; 
Wheate, rye, barly, oates, a hhed. of ech in the 

eare : 
benes, ^jease ; 
Stones of all sorts of f mites, as jyeaches, 2;^i(?ns, 

filberts, cherries ; 
Peare, aple, quince kernells, pomerjranats ; 
Saffron heads : 

Liquorice seed, rootes sent: &■ Madder routes ; 
Potatoes ; 
Hoprootes ; 
Hempseede ; 

Flaxeseede, aijenst wynter\ 
Connys y 

Currant plants : 
Tame Turheys : » 



9 

In that London chamber, with all the signs ominous of 
the Puritan revolt, Mathew Cradock, Thomas Goffe, 
Isaac Johnson, Sir Richard Saltonstall, John Humfrey, 
John Winthrop and their associates, with amazing shrewd- 
ness, yet in Christian humility, planned one of the epochs 
in the world's history. 

First, of course, they selected ministers — the spiritual 
guides and comforters of the flock. 

Secondly, they agreed to send over the Charter — the 
patent under seal. This instrument they regarded as 
their '^ Magna Charta," something which was to give 
them powers of government which Charles and his ad- 
visers never dreamed of when it was granted. 

Having provided for the religious and civil govern- 
ment, the next consideration was to stock the intending 
colony with choice seeds for planting in the new soil. 

The list was comprehensive — it embraced everything 
which was thought of value. From it one fact stands 
out boldly, namely, that the founders contemplated an 
agricultural and not a commercial community. The re- 
nown and wealth which came later from the fisheries, 
from commerce and then from manufactures, were not 
foreseen. 

The farmers have maintained the Canaan of the fathers, 
and, looking upon the exhibit of this fair, may we query 
if it is not about time for Essex farmers to bury the silly 
question, does farming pay ? and to ask instead, how 
many things besides the glitter of gold make it profit- 
able? 

It is time to cease to bewail the hard lot of the tillers 
of the soil. It is in order to tell the world that 



10 

our fathers did Dot find here a bleak and barren hind. 
There is not a farmer in Essex County who deserves suc- 
cess, who does not achieve it. Conditions change and 
our farmers adapt themselves to the new demands. It 
may be that the great West can produce our well beloved 
Indian corn cheaper than we can upon our smaller areas, 
but the compensation is sure to l)e found in less work and 
more profit in our milk, butter and cheese and nearness 
to markets. 

The free air of farm life does not alone fill the lungs 
with life-giving oxygen, and harden the muscles ; it makes 
and develops the brain that is to guide the affairs of men. 
Some time ago it was the fashion to apologize for Abra- 
ham Lincoln's lack of training. Short sighted mortals. 
All the colleges in the world could not have so equipped 
him for the peculiar work he was raised up to accomplish 
as the out-of-doors frontier life, which, under the Divine 
plan, was appointed him. 

Rufus Choate, whom, Peleg W. Chandler in a memorial 
address before the Massachusetts Historical Society styled 
"a glorified Yankee", was born on Hog Island in Os- 
good town of Essex. 

The name. Hog Island, is not particularly attractive, 
but the spot itself is a singularly beautiful one. The 
swift in-pouring tides of the ocean rush by it up the Essex 
River. Long reaches of gleaming sand bars lie at its 
feet. The blue Atlantic l)eats everlasting)}' against its 
rocky headlands. 

A plain old homestead with its broad inherited acres 
on the bluff was an ideal home for a contemplative man, 
as the farmer, watching the procession of the seasons, is 



11 

apt to be. The sense of environment entered the brain 
of the possessor of that old farm as he held the plough or 
swung the scythe. With such surroundings, with tem- 
perate life, with the serenity that goes with the owner- 
ship of the soil, man raises better crops than grass or 
vegetables, better stock than Holsteins or Jerseys ; he be- 
gets children of brains. Of such Rufus Choate was a type. 

And the annals of the County are resplendent with 
like examples of boys and girls born in the low studded 
comfortable houses that antedated those monstrosities in 
a northern climate, the — so-called Queen Anne houses — 
who have gone forth to charm the world and tell whether 
or not farming pays. 

The Puritan exodus from England to Massachusetts 
Bay was the most wisely conceived and the most grandly 
executed scheme of colonization that the annals of the 
human race relate. The van-guard of the peaceful army 
of occupation, which Endicott and Winthrop and Salton- 
stall and Dudley and Dummer led into Essex County, was 
carefully made up of the flower of the " country party " 
of England. Men did not come alone. They brought 
their wives and children with them. They were a select 
class of God-fearing, thinking men, who made the parish 
meetinghouse the center of temporal as well as of spiritual 
affairs, from which everything radiated. No drones and no 
paupers were allowed to come. The wise heads who di- 
rected the movement sent out the exact proportion of 
blacksmiths, weavers, tanners, millers and husbandmen 
needed to develop the country. 

There was no crowding, no reckless strife to reach the 
goal of wealth at the expense of one's fellows. When 



12 

the coast line became dotted with parishes, a minister of 
the Gospel led a little flock inland and obtained a grant 
for a new plantation. Where else could this sturdy 
stock have found elements so adapted to founding a new 
civilization and a better home? 

The people who^ pity us say that our soil is rocky — 
with swamps and forests — that our climate is bleak. 
They forget that Christ was born in a cave in rocky 
Judea — that the crags of bonny Scotland gave voice to 
the genius of Eobert Burns and AValter Scott — that ro- 
mance, chivalry and prowess in all eras have come down 
out of the hill countries. What would have become of 
the song of our Whittier if he had been shut up inside 
city walls or on a dull, endless flat land? 

The fathers appreciated the woods, even if the age did 
people them with demons. With the town lot and the 
tillage land each householder had set apart to him a 
wood lot. This wood lot furnished materials to build the 
house that has sheltered the planter's children even to 
this day. And it, by the kindness of Nature, renews it- 
self every generation, so that the same wood keeps his 
children's children warm and happy which sparkled and 
blazed in the original fire-place. 

The great salt marshes were awaiting the Englishman's 
scythe and his cattle, as they have every fall from that 
day to this. Frost and snow mantled the earth in win- 
ter, but both, as we know, are agencies under a benign 
Providence working for the tiller of the soil. The snow 
has as necessary a place in the economy of Nature in the 
night of the year, as the sun, in the day of the year. 
Even the loose stones in the earth, that others would 



13 

have considered a curse, were to our foreseeing fathers a 
blessing in disguise. For in the very first generation the 
yeoman and his boys constructed many miles of the ugly, 
yet enduring, stone walls that still stand — monuments 
alike of the thrift and grit of the founders and the loyal- 
ty of the sons of the soil. 

Facilities for education are important factors in de- 
ciding whether the calling that is followed is pi'ofitable. 
The mind must be fed as well as the body, else one is 
poor indeed, though with unlimited gold. The founders 
of Essex County brought with the pastor, his colleague, 
the teacher. Amidst the broadening influences of this 
virgin soil, the Puritan evolved the highest instrumental- 
ity in the growth of man — the common school. It was 
not possible under the old world forms of government 
and thought. The mediceval ecclesiastic fears it more 
than all the potentates of earth combined, and a threat 
against it sounds the alarm which unites all loyal Ameri- 
cans. The common school had its birth here, and here it 
has flourished and is to-day the model for all enlightened 
states. 

In the south gallery of the Manufactures and Liberal 
Arts Building at the World's Columbian Exposition 
hangs a map, which is attracting as mucli if not more at- 
tention than any other exhibit in the building. It is a- 
map of immense proportions and shows the number of 
schools that each city and towii in Massachusetts has es- 
tablished and is supporting. People from all parts of 
the United States have seen it and pronounced it the 
most wonderful exhibit yet produced. No other state — 
in fact no other country — can produce anything ecjual to- 
it. 



14 

As early as 1635, our towns established schools, sup- 
porting them in various ways, by subscriptions, by en- 
dowments, by grants of income from the common slock 
lauds, by fishing privileges, b}^ tuition fees, by direct 
taxation, and they have been steadily climbing to the 
top. At no time has the work been relaxed. And now, 
Massachusetts leads the world in educational privileges. 

Of this map the director of education of the State of 
New York is reported to have said to E. C. Hovey, 
Chairman of the Massachusetts World's Fair Commission, 
"If New York State could show a map such as that 
I would be willing to throw our entire exhibit into Lake 
Michigan. There is nothing which equals it." 

George H. Martin's descriptive account of our schools 
accompanying the map shows that from its beginning the 
State has had a complete system of public elementary 
schools, secondary schools, and the college. The second 
century of the educational history of the State is marked 
by an effort to adapt the school system to the needs of a 
widely scattered agricultural population. On this map 
our county stands second to none among the counties of 
the State. 

When you think of the great farms of the northwest 
and are inclined to repine because you cannot make such 
haste to get rich, look upon the other side of the shield. 
Set your schools against the hordes of foreign immigrants, 
who, in some of the farming states are controlling legisla- 
tion against teaching English and against the existence 
of the common school itself. Your children's priceless 
privileges weigh down the scale of advantages solidlj^ up- 
on your side. 



15 

Of the foundation of these schools, Lord Macaulay 
once said in parliament : " Illustrious forever in history 
were the founders of the Commonwealth of Massachu- 
setts ; though their love of freedom of conscience was 
illimitable and indestructible they could see nothing ser- 
vile or degrading in the principle that the State should 
take upon itself the charge of the education of the people. 
In the year 1642, they passed their first legislative enact- 
ment on this subject, in the preamble of which they 
distinctly pledged themselves to this principle, that 
education was a matter of the deepest possible impor- 
tance and the greatest possible interest to all nations and 
to all communities, and that as such it was, in an emi- 
nent degree, deserving of the peculiar attention of the 
State." 

The matter of race has much to do with success in 
farming. Down to the Revolution, the people of New 
England were, almost without exception, of pure English 
blood. The same statement is nearly as true to-day of 
the farmers of Essex County. As distinctive as the 
worship of the crocodile b}'- the dwellers on the Nile, or 
the adoration of the god of AVar by the Romans, has 
ever been the Anglo-Saxon reverence for land. 

With love of the land there is also associated regard and 
veneration for trees. It is true that the fathers waged 
war upon the forests, but that was a necessity of their 
situation. They wanted the sunshine to warm their 
virgin soil. They needed the wood for fuel, for rafters, 
sills and boards. Besides the requirement of cleared 
lands for cultivation, there was ever the thought that the 
clearings mi\de so many less lurking places for the skulk- 



16 

ing" Red Indian who was always a peril in the shadows 
of the forest. 

So far as we may properly go without being charged 
with the sin of idolatry, we Americans are tree worship- 
pers. It is perfectly natural for us to be so. It is bred in 
our bone. It is an inheritance from our English ances- 
tors. The Romans, who made a strong impression on the 
native tribes of England, venerated trees, erected tem- 
ples in their groves and ordained sacrifices in their honor. 
The Druids lived in them, as it was thought more sacred 
to dwell under trees and about their rock altars than in 
thei open plains. 

Trees are oiir most striking evidence in material 
things of our immortal life. We plant them and they 
live on far beyond our lives. In planting them we think 
not so much of ourselves as of the future generations. 
The myriad voices of the trees speak to us in the same 
tones that they did to onr fathers in the past and as they 
will to our chiklren in future ages. 

The magnificent Waverly oaks were mature trees 
when the keel of the Mayflower touched the gleaming' 
sands of Plymouth harbor. The south wind played the 
same soothing melodies through their branches then as 
now, though the Indian, whose moccasins noiselessly trod 
the sward at their feet, has vanished from the face of the 
earth and the humble Pilgrim from Leyden has inspired 
and created the greatest nation of the civilized world. 
Tlie old trees saw the Red man and the Englishman play 
their parts and are still sturdy — as well they need be — 
while they listen to the polyglot tongues that now bab- 
ble around them. 



17 

Seasons come and go, leaves ripen and fall, buds un- 
fold into leaf and blossom, but the tree grows on and on 
and recks not that the white headed old man who 
thoughtfully reposes in its shade is the same person wlio 
sported beneath its limbs in childhood's merry hours. 

In the good work of quickening an interest in forestry, 
this Society has held an advanced position, and among 
individuals interested, its present President is easily 
leader. 

Nathaniel Hawthorne, the greatest story teller of New 
England lore, tenderly related his journeyings in "Our 
Old Home." Do we realize that while old England is 
the old home to those of the stock who have remained 
hereabouts, there is a vastly greater company of the de- 
scendants of people of New England birth who have found 
new homes in the great West, even to the Golden Gate 
on the Pacific? To all these millions, Massachusetts and 
Essex County are the old home. The standard elms and 
the south-facing, long sloping back roofed houses with the 
great stack of chimneys in the centre, to all these people 
are home and history and the starting point of farailv 
lines. 

Over in Quincy, in such houses as are identical in form 
and construction and surroundings with hundreds in 
Essex County, the two Presidents of the United States, 
of Massachusetts birth were born. 

In Danvers, the room in which Israel Putnam was 
born is kept just as it was when the tough old ranger 
first saw the light. The whole County is dotted with 
these old earth-hugging houses upon which the storms of 
bleak winters have beaten, in vain, for centuries. 



is 

To-day at Chicago nothing wins more praise and ad- 
miration than the John Hancock house and it is said 
that the Colonial exhibit in the Massachusetts depart- 
ment exceeds in interest anything of the kind in the fair, 
and that the old bureaus, the old bedsteads, and the 
models of the old houses to be found there have a grace 
and beaut}- in point of size, and model, and execution 
that is not reached in the greater part of our modern 
furniture or our modern dwellings. 

These houses are to be found along the New England 
coast from Portsmouth, Rhode Island, to Wells, in 
Maine. But there are more of them in Essex County 
than any where else, more even than in Plymouth or 
Middlesex. They are historic houses of America, and, as 
a well-known writer says, they express both the English 
freedom of the seventeenth century and the regard for 
comfort and security and strength which our New Eng- 
land fathers were obliged to consider when they built 
homes of their own. 

They were wisely built by men who knew the climate 
and by men who were founding families. They over- 
looked the broad acres which their builders had redeemed 
from the wilderness. Square, prim and strong, admirably 
adapted to the age in which they were built, time has 
mellowed their surroundings and made them one and all 
pictliresque and important adjuncts in every hamlet in 
the County. Every one is full of the traditions and his- 
tor}- of its long departed occupants and of the people. 

From the windows of that house a child saw the gray 
stockinged young farmers from Danvers tarry for a drink 



19 

from the bucket in the well on the fateful morning of 
the 19th of April, 1775. The child looking from the 
windows saw upon the return from Lexington a sad 
sight for youthful eyes and for the mourners, though 
liberty on that day was born. The child saw the gray- 
stockinged forms cold in death as the rumbling wagons 
bore their sacred burdens back to wailing families. That 
child never forgot the scene, and in old age used to tell 
the story to j'ounger people, and he who heard it from 
her lips was himself an old man when he related it to 
me. 

Scenes an hundred years prior to Lexington have these 
old houses seen. Upon the bank of the North River, in 
the midst of the sloping fields, where to-day the Septem- 
ber sun is ripening farmer Jacobs' crops, stands the sub- 
stantial house with the surroundings practically as they 
were when its master, George Jacobs — Saint George of 
old Northfields as we call him now— was led away for 
shameful death in the dark days of the witchcraft troub- 
les in 1692. 

Here in Haverhill your late public spirited fellow 
citizen, James H. Carleton, did a characteristic and 
noble deed when, in his life time — not making it an after 
death benefaction — he secured the preservation of the birth- 
place of the sweet poet whose rhymed lines are in closest 
touch with the finest expression of New England life. 
Whittier is the immortal flower of rural New England. 
Mr. Carleton has made this plain farm house the jNIecca 
towards which throngs of lovers of the poet will be drawn 
and, say with him 



20 

"Nor farm house with its maple shade, 

Or rigid poplar colonnade, 

But lies distinct and full in sight, 

Beneath this gush of sunset light." 
The builders of these houses were brothers to the 
regicides across the sea. They were Commonwealth 
men. They were the advanced liberals of the age- 
They at home had dreamed of establishing beyond the 
ocean a greater England, freed from feudalism, prelacy 
and kingcraft. While they were setting up their Puri- 
tan theocracy, growing attached to the new homes, the 
experiment of the Commonwealth was tried in England 
and was lost when the great Cromwell died. 

The profligate reign of Charles the 2nd and the bigoted 
reign of James the 2nd were followed by the great Revo- 
lution of 1689, which brought in the Dutch William. 
And then came the day of the intriguing and venal place 
hunters of the reign of Anne. 

The Protestant Revolution of 1689 did well enough for 
conservative England, but the more radical Bay Colony 
had learned to walk alone. It wanted no Queen Anne 
houses with chimneys on the outside. These were adapted 
to negro quarters in the sunny South, but not for our 
north country. An American architecture had been 
evolved. American thought had been created, and from 
then on, our fathers planned for emancipation from the 
political yoke. 

Let us not learn from strangers to appreciate the historic 
value nor the substantial use of the stout houses that are 
gems set in the grassy lanes of old Essex, but let us so 
care for them as to make them still more attractive to the 
wanderer who returns to the home of his people. 



21 

It is almost striking to observe the traits and features 
of one generation repeated in its successors in a locality 
where the people have become fixed in their habits and 
are acclimated to their surroundings. Such resemblances 
are striking in English counties, in France, and in other 
localities where man and the climate and the soil harmo- 
nize. These conditions seem to be fast attached to our 
county. If the art of photography had existed in the 
17th century, the portrait of the first settler of what is 
now Middleton would have been a good likeness of the 
thrifty farmer of Middleton who took prizes for his stock 
at recent cattle shows. The same rule holds throughout 
the county. The same names prosper upon the same acres. 
They are still the deacons and selectmen and possessors of 
fat pocket-books, filled by working brains into the ances- 
tral — rough it may be — but loved acres. 

The charter granted the land to the Colony of the 
Massachusetts Bay in New England in fee. The Colony 
gave the same kind of title to towns, commoners and 
individuals, free from Old World services and limitations. 

Out of this absolute holding of land grew an indepen- 
dent yeomanry, which in the fullness of time stormed 
Louisburg, the Gibraltar of France in America, and a 
generation later defied England's power on Bunker Hill. 

Such men — the men of the town meeting — the men who 
made America the shining example of human development, 
came from the stock of owners and tillers of the soil. 

A peasantry never accomplished such results. A 
peasantry may tear down, but never build up. Wherever 
man owns his farm, his garden, or his house, it is safe to 



Ort 



say that modern Nationalism — the scheme of having a 
paternal government own everything and regulate every 
man's labor, will not be popular. Such doctrines will 
scarcely take root in Essex County. 

The general holding of farms in this county for two 
hundred and fifty years in family line, in fee simple, with- 
out any laws against alienation, is something without 
parallel in human history. Six cities have grown up 
(with a seventh about to assume the civic gown) withont 
materially taking from our arable territory. No land 
titles in the world stand upon so just a base. We care 
nothing for the original grant from the King of England. 
The settlement was made at just that period, when under 
the plan of the Creator, this portion of the earth was 
appointed for the occupation of a new race. Pestilence 
and war had swept away the once numerous tribes of 
Red Men, so that only a scattered remnant remained. 
Whatever rights they had in the earth, sky and water, in 
the prolix phraseology of the period, they willingly con- 
veyed to our shrewd ancestors. Thus all the lands are 
held by a triple title — first, the royal grant, second, the 
town grant, and third, the Indian release. 

Since that time neither pestilence, earthquake, cyclone, 
famine, nor war, has devastated our domain. To-day the 
only danger that threatens the stone fenced ancient farms 
is found in the incursion of cultured, but jaded city men, 
who have discovered the charms of rural life and seek to 
dispossess after the manner of Alexander of Macedon, 
who said, " I despair of taking no city into which I can 
introduce a mule laden with gold." Such taking may not 



23 

be unwelcome to some, but it will be in the far future 
when the Yankee farmer yields up his supremacy amidst 
the hills, dales and intervales of old Essex. 

Washington Irving has painted with loving minute- 
ness the master of Bracebridge Hall. 

His certain life, that never can deceive him, 

Is full of thousand sweets, and rich content ; 
The smooth-leaved beeches in the field receive him 
With coolest shade, till noontide's heat be spent. 
His life is neither tost in boisterous seas 
Or the vexatious world ; or lost in slothful ease. ; 
Pleased and full blessed he lives, when he his God can 
please. 
The genial squire lives in real life in every hamlet in 
this picturesque region of ours, from the serpentine 
Saugus to the majestic Merrimac. 

The farmers of Essex are not forced to lead isolated 
lives, as is the case in most rural districts. The steam 
railroad penetrates every town in the county, save 
Nahant, and the people there much prefer to be without 
the luxury. 

In the near future the electric car, both for freight and 
passengers, will stop at every farm house. This is not a 
Utopian dream, but a practical scheme, which the Engi- 
neering Magazine is strongly urging and which is already, 
so far as passengers are concerned, in actual operation in 
many towns; and on one line at least, freight cars run. 

The constant passing of cars over city pavements 
between brick walls is not an unmixed blessing, but 
stated trips of such cars will be a great benefit to the 
farmer and his family, especially in those seasons of the 



24 

year when country roads — even the best — are liable to be 
muddy and not comfortable for ordinary locomotion. 

Besides the economical uses of these cars, they will 
facilitate the enjoyment of another institution in which 
Massachusetts stands in the van — the public library 
system. 

" Of making many books there is no end," but the 
Public Library is one of the marvels of the nineteenth 
century. Public schools and newspapers have made 
readers of all, but no individual can expect to own, or if 
he did own, could furnish shelf-room for, all the books he 
may desire to read. The Public Library selects, houses, 
cares for, and distributes the printed treasures of the 
thought of the world in every town to every family. 

As many books are accessible to the village maiden to- 
day, as the scholars of the universities had at their com- 
mand a few years ago. 

Yes ! Thoreau was right. It was fortunate for us that 
our fathers made their landfall upon this coast of sand- 
bars and rocky headlands — upon this land of marsh and 
wooded hillside — this region with frost enough in the 
atmosphere to make man work for his bread with muscle 
and brain — this land now teeming with folk-lore of a plain 
God-fearing yeomanry — this favored home of the free 
common school and the free public library. 

They found here a soil that with industry would reward 
labor, — they found a land full of noble trees and charm- 
ing wild flowers — they built homely houses, which they 
have bequeathed to us with their records of well spent 
and often heroic lives. 



25 

While there is a part that dwells too much upon the 
past, yet there is much that has come down with the heir- 
looms that is worthy of our emulation. While we em- 
ploy all new inventions that lessen labor in our chosen 
callings we may ponder with profit upon the lives of our 
ancestors, who, with lesser means and with ruder imple- 
ments made their lives successful and their influence 
salutary upon those who followed them. 

These thoughts are trite, but when we observe the 
mad rush of life in cities, hearts broken and lives wrecked 
in the constant reverses of business, it is meet for the 
farmer to reflect upon his life so near to nature, so near 
to the things which were dear to his kin, so free from the 
corrosion of all other pursuits. 



SEVENTY-THIRD 

Annual Cattle Show and Fair. 



The Cattle Show and Fair of this Society opened 
Tuesday, Sept. 19, 1893, at Haverhill, the weather being- 
dull and threatening undoubtedly kept many people and 
some of the stock at home. The Mayor and City Govern- 
ijient did everything in their power to help along and 
make the Fair a success, but owing to the depressed state 
of business, it was not so successful financially, as it prob- 
ably would have been under other circumstances, 
although it was estimated there were 20,000 people on the 
grounds, Wednesday, the second day. 

The entries of live stock were below that of last year, 
but the quality was up to the standard of former years 
and they were all on the grounds in good season. 

In the ploughing match there were thirteen entries and 
an active competition took place with most excellent re- 
sults, the grounds adjoining being covered with spectators, 
who appeared to be as nuich interested as the Ploughmen 
themselves. 

In the Exhibition Hall the entries as elsewhere were 
below that of the last few years but that can be accounted 
for somewhat by it not being a good fruit year, and only 
one Grange exhibited as compared with five last year.- 

This was the first time the Society has held the fair 
three days and it seemed to be very satisfactory, as mem- 
bers had an opportunity to attend the annual meeting 
Wednesday and had plenty of time to visit all departs 
ments. 



27 

On Thursday, the last day, the annual address was de- 
livered by Hon. N. M. Hawkes of Lynn, before a good 
audience in the Center Church, and was highly com- 
mended by all who heard it. 

The scripture reading and prayer by Rev. T. E. St. 
John were appropriate for the occasion as was also the 
excellent singing by the " Philharmonic " Quartette. 

After the conclusion of the services at the church, the 
annual dinner was served in Tanner's Hall, after which 
Vice-President Butler, in the absence of the President, 
called the assemblage to order, and after introductory re- 
marks, introduced Mayor Taylor of Haverhill, who wel- 
comed the Society to Haverhill, followed by Hon. W. R. 
Sessions, Secretary of the State boardof Agriculture, Hon. 
F. T. Greenhalge, Hon. N. M. Hawkes, Hon. Wm. H. 
Knox and others, all of whom made interesting and spicy 
remarks, which added to the occasion. 

The entries in the several departments of the Fair for 
1893 and 1892, are tabulated for comparison as follows : 

STOCK, IMPLEMENTS, ETC. ON FEEE SHOW^ GROUNDS. 







From 




From 


Class. 


Entries 


Dififerent 


Entries 


Diflereut 




in 1893. 


Places 
in 1893. 


in 1892. 


Places, 
in 1892. 


Fat Cattle, 


2 


1 


8 


4 


Bulls, 


13 


5 


15 


7 


Milch Cows, 


3 


1 


14 


3 


Herds of Milch Cows, 


1 


1 


3 


3 


Heifers, Pure Bred, 


9 


4 


28 


7 


Heifers, Native or Grade, 


13 


5 


32 


8 


Working Oxen and Steers, 


4 


3 


7 


4 


Steers, 


8 


3 


3 


3 


Stallions, Farm and Draft, 


3 




1 


1 


Stallions for Driving Purposes, 


7 


4 


7 


5 , 


Brood Mares, Farm and Draft, 








4 


3 



28 



Class. 



Brood Mares, Driving Purposes, 18 
Family Horses, 
Gent's Driving Horses, 
Farm Horses, 
Pairs of Farm Horses, over 2500 
lbs., 2 

Pairs of Farm Horses, less then 



Entries 
in 1893. 


From 

Different 

Places 

in 1893. 


Entries 
in ISyj 


From 

Different 

Places 

in 1892, 


18 


6 


7 


5 


6 


'5 


9 


7 


8 


4 


7 


5 


8 


6 


9 


6 



11 



2500 lbs., 


2 


2 


7 


T 


Colts, Farm and Draft, 


6 


6 


12 


8 


Colts, Driving Purposes, 


14 


8 


16 


9 


Town Teams, 








1 


1 


Team, used on Farm, 


3 


3 








Swine, Large Breeds, 


15 


4 


28 


8 


Swine, Small Breeds, 


8 


3 


2 


1 


Sheep, 


4 


2 


6 


2 


Poultry, 


95 


15 


131 


13 


Harrows for Trial, 


4 


2 


1 


1 


Agricultural Implements, 


24 


9 


21 


7 


Carriages, 


4 


1 


15 


5 


Ploughing, 


13 


7 


19 


10 



Total on Free Show Grounds, 297 25 428 23 

EXHIBITS IN HALL. 



From 
Class. Entries DifTereut 


From , 
Entries Different 


in 1893. Places 


in 1892. T'laces 


in 1893. 


in 1892. 


Dairy, 5 3 


10 5 


Bread and Canned Fruits, 32 11 


46 14 


Honey, 2 2 





Pears, 99 15 


144 17 


Apples, 86 15 


197 17 


Peaches, Grapes, and Assorted 




Fruit, 62 11 


91 12 


Plants, 4 2 


4 1 



29 



Flowers, 
Vegetables, 
Grain and Seed, 
Counterpanes and Afghans, 
Carpetings and Rugs, 
Articles Manufactured from 

Leather, 
Manufactures and General Mdse., 12 
Fancy Work, 
Works of Art, 
Work of Childi'en under 12 years 

of age. 
Grange Exhibit, 

Total in Hall, 

Grand total, 1319 entries from 30 out of 35 cities and 
towns in Essex County, against 1778 entries from 27 
cities and towns last year. Essex, Gloucester, Hamilton, 
Manchester and Nahant did not have exhibits this year. 
The entries were Amesbury, 51 ; Andover, 9; Beverly, 
7 ; Boxford 70 ; Bradford, 57 ; Danvers, 21 ; George- 
town, 19; Groveland, 46 ; Haverhill, 468; Ipswich, 1 
Lawrence, 57; Lynn, 61 ; Lynnfield, 4; Marblehead, 6; 
Methuen, 55; Merrimac, 17; Middleton, 4; Newbury- 
port, 52 ; Newbury, 72 ; No. Andover, 67 ; Peabody, 23 ; 
Rockport, 1; Rowley, 20 ; Salem, 10; Salisbury, 3- 
Saugus, 12 ; Swampscott, 1 ; Topsfield, 6 ; Wenham, 2 ; 
West Newbury, 100. 





From 




Prom 


Entries 


Different 


Entries 


Different 


In 1893. 


Places 


in 1892. 


Places 




in 1893. 




in 1892. 


120 


9 


92 


14 


240 


14 


308 


17 


19 


7 


25 


10 


42 


7 


59 


7 


19 


6 


30 


7 


18 


3 


9 


4 


,12 


8 


36 


7 


140 


11 


156 


11 


109 


6 


94 


6 


3 

12 


6 


24 


6 • 


1 


1 


4 


4 


1022 


26 


1350 


27 



REPORT OF THE ANNUAL MEETING. 
The annual meeting of the Society was held in Grand 
Army Hall, Wednesday, Sept. 20, at 10 A. M., Pres. F. 
H.Appleton, presiding. On motion of Rev. O. S. Butler 



80 

of Georgetown, it was voted — that the Secretary cast one 
vote for Francis H. Appleton of Peabody, for Presidont, 
and he was elected. On motion of the same gentleman 
it was voted that the President be instructed to cast one 
vote for John M. Danforth of Lynnfield. for Secretary. 

The meeting then proceeded to ballot for four Vice- 
Presidents, and James J. H. Gregory of Marblehead ; 
James P. King, of Peabody ; O. S. Butler, of George- 
town and H. G. Herrick, of Lawrence, were unanimously 
elected. 

Voted to give the Janitor of Grand Army Hall -fo.OO 
for the care and cleaning of the Hall for this meeting. 

Voted that the Society tender a vote of thanks to the 
G. A. R. Post for the use of their Hall. Also to the 
Society for the use of their Church for the annual address, 
and all others who have so kindl}' lent their assistance ta 
make the Fair a success. 



Report of Committees. 
1893. 



FAT CATTLE. 

The Committee on Fat Cattle have attended to their 
duties and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 
•17. First premium, to J. P. Little, Ameshnry, for pair 

fat oxen. 
•15. Second premium, to J. P. Little, Ameshury, for 
best fat ox. 
Cliarles H. Leach, William Thornton, Romulus Jaques 
— Committee. 



BULLS. 



The Committee on Bulls have attended to their duties 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 
17. First premium, to Charles Perley, Boxford, for 

Ayrshire bull. 
•17. First premium, to Francis H. Foster, Andover, for 

Guernsey bull, " Theseus. '' 
•17. First premium, to E. C. Little, Haverhill, for 

Holstein bull. 
$7. First premium, to Thomas Sanders, Haverhill, for 

short horn bull, " White Cloud. " 
$5. First premium, to M. H. Connor, West Newbury, for 

Holstein bull. 
•15. First premium, to Horace Moody, West Newbuiy, for 

Jersey bull. 



32 

$5. First premium, to E. C. Little, Haverhill, for Aysliire 

bull. 
$5. Second premium, to A. E. Towne, Georgetown, for 

Guernsey bull. 
$-'>. Second premium, to Thomas Sanders, Haverhill, for 

short horned Imll. 
$3. Second premium, to E. C. Little, Haverhill, for 

Holstein bull. 
$3. Second premium, to E. C. Little, Haverhill, for Jersey 

bull. 
•f 3. Second premium, to Richard Newell, West Newbury, 

for Ayshire bull. 
Edward Kent, L. P. Harriman, B. F. Barnes — Gommittee. 



MILCH COWS. 

The Committee on Milch Cows have attended to their 
duties, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 
$8. First premium, tr) E. C. Little, Haverhill, for Holstein 

cow. 
i'S. First premium, to E. C. Little, Haverhill, for Ayshire 

cow. 
$8. First premium, to A. H. Adams, Haverhill, for Grade 

cow. 
H. F. Longfellow, John S. Crosby, Charles Haseltine — 
Committee. 

STATEMENT. 

To the Committee on Milch Cows : 

The black cow with the calf is Holstein, four years 
ulfl. This is her second calf. After her first she gave 
t^\■('lve quarts of milk a day for three months. 

'I'he full blood Ayshire, 8 3^ears old, due to calve, 
November 1st. Dro})ped lier las! calf November 5th, and 



averaged sixteen quarts of milk u day, Dec, Jan., Feb., 

a.nd March. 

Yours respectfully, 

E. C. Little, 
Supt. of Crystal Lake Farm. 

STATEMENT. 

T enter for premium the Black and White Grade cow, 
Holstein and Jersey. She gave, after dropping her last 
calf, 2 cans of milk a day for 3 or 4 months, and the milk 
is of the best quality. 

A. H. Adams. 



HERDS OF MILCH COWS. 

The Committee on Herds of Milch cows have attended 
to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary 
that they have made the following awards: 
$15. First premium to Thomas Sanders, Haverhill, for 
a herd of five grade Jerseys. 
Frank E. Todd, Charles Perley, H. K. Swasey, Alfred 
L. Moore — Committee. 



. HEIFERS— PURE BREED. 

The Committee on Heifers, Pure Bred, have attended 

to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary 

that they have made the following awards : 

$5. First premium, to Francis H. Foster, Andover, for 
Guernsey, 6 months old. 

15. First premium, to E. C. Liitle, Haverhill, for Hol- 
stein, 2 years old. 

$5. First premium, to E. C. Little, Haverhill, for Hol- 
stein, 1 year old. 

$5. First premium, to John C. Day, Bradford, for 
Ayshire, 1 year old. 



34 

$1. First premium, to M. H. Connor, West Newbury, 

for Ay shire in milk, 3 years old. 
$5. Second premium, to M. H. Connor, West Newbury, 
for Aj^shire in milk, 3 years old. 
E. G. Nason, S. F. Newman, Isaac C. Day, John A. 
Ellis — Committee. 



HEIFERS -NATIVE OR GRADE. 

The Committee on Heifers, native or grade, have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the 
Secretary that they have made the following awards : 
$7. First premium, to A. H. Adams, Haverhill, for two 

year old heifer. 
$b. Second premium, to Charles P. Balch, Groveland. 

for yearling heifer. 
|5. First premium, to A. E. Towne, Georgetown, for one 

year old heifer. 
$3. Second premium, to Richard Newell, West New- 
bury, for one year old heifer. 
J. R. Gordon, Henry A. Haywood, A. A. Rutherford, 
N. W. Moody — Committee. 



WORKING OXEN AND STEERS. 

The Committee on Working Oxen and Steers have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Sec- 
retary that they have made the following awards : 
$10. First premium, to Charles M. Witham, Georgetown, 

for working oxen. 
i8. Second premium, to C. K. Ordway & Son, West 

Newbury, for working oxen. 
•18. First premium, to C. K. Ordway*<fe Son, West New- 
bury, for working steers. 
J. E. Bradstreet, Martin L. Hoyt, Nathan Longfellow^ 
Nathaniel P. Perkins — Committee. 



35 

STEERS. 
The Committee on Steers have attended to their duty, 

and respectfully report to the Secretarj^ that they have 

made the following awards : 

'17. First premium, to J. P. Little, Amesbury, for 3 year 
old steers. 

85. Second premium, to Horace Moody, West New- 
bury, for 3 year old steers. 

$6. First premium, to Wm. H. Poor, West Newbury, for 
2 year old steers. 

'14. Second premium, to J. P. Little, Amesbury, for 
2 year old steers. 

$5. First premium, to Horace Moody, West Newbury, 
for 1 3'ear old steers. 

'$3. Second premium, to J. P. Little, Amesbury, for 
steer calves. 
J. Otis Winkley, M. H. Connor, Nathan P. Abbott— 

Committee. 



TEAMS USED ON A FARM. 
The Committee on Teams used on Farms, have attend- 
ed to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary 
that they have made the following awards : 
$5. First premium, to C. K. Ordway & Son, West New- 
bury, for two pair oxen. 
$3. Second premium, to J. P. Little, Amesbury, for two 

pair oxen. 
'$5. First premium, to E. C. Little, Haverhill, for three 
pair of horses. 
Thomas Sanders, A. P. Russell, W. E. Merrill, J. H. 
Nason — Committee . 



STALLIONS FOR FARM AND DRAFT PURPOSES. 

The C'Ommittee on Stallions for Farm and Draft 
Purposes have attended to their duty, and respectfully 



36 

report to the Secretary that they have made the following 

awards : 

'$10. First premium, to William Oswald, Lawrence, for 

bay Clysdale stallion, 5 years old. 
$1.. First premium, to J. W. Carlyle, Ipswich, for gray 

Clysdale stallion, 3 years old. 
$'6. Second premium, to Henry Garso, Lynn, for bay 

Clysdale stallion, 5 years old. 
W. F. Kinsman, John H. Perkins, S. D. Hood — Com- 
mittee. 



STALLIONS FOR DRIVING PURPOSES. 

The Committee on Stallions for Driving Purposes have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the 
Secretary that they have made the following awards: 
<f 10. First premium to Arthur J. Connor, Lawrence, for 

Fearnaught stallion, " Ned C, '' 14 years old. 
$Q. Second premium, to Leslie K. Morse, Haverhill, for 

stallion, " Pentucket, " 5 years old. 
il. First premium, to H. H. Demsey, Wenham, for 

Wilkes stallion, 3 years old. 
$5. Second premium, to J. W. Murphy, Lawrence, for 

stallion, three years old. 
O. S. Butler, Thomas Sanders, J. H. Drew, B. A. 
Follansbee — Committee. 



BROOD MARES— DRIVING PURPOSES. 

The Committee on Brood Mares for Driving Purposes 

have attended to their duty, and respectfully report to 

the Secretary that they have made the following awards : 

ilO First premium, to H. H. Demsey, Wenham, for bay 

mare, 8 years old. 
i6. Second premium, to Leslie K, Morse, Haverhill, for 
brood mare. 



37 



$4. Third premium, to J. H. Tower, Haverhill, for 
black mare, 11 years old. 
O. L. Carlton, Alonzo B. Fellows, Moses H. Poor, John 

Flye — Committee. 



FAMILY HORSES. 

The Committee on Family Horses have attended to 
their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary, that 
they have made the following awards : 
$8. First premium, to John L. Hobsou, Haverhill, for 

brown gelding. 
16. Second premium to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for bay 

mare, " Nellie Eaton. " 
14. Third premium, to Byron G. Kimball, Haverhill, for 

brown mare. 
M. M, Plummer, James O. Parker, Kichard Newell, 
Joseph H. Blunt — Committee. 



GENTS' DRIVING HORSES. 

The Committee on Gentlemen's Driving Horses have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the 
Secretary that they have made the following awards ; 
$8. First premium, to Byron G. Kimball, Haverhill, for 

gray mare. 
16. Second premium, to Wm. Merriraan, Haverhill, for 
bay mare. 
Benj. F. Brickett, W. H. Hayes, George L. Averill — 
Committee. 



SINGLE FARM HORSES. 
The Committee on Single Farm Horses have attended 
to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary 
that they have made the following awards: 



38 

-f 8. First premium, to John H. Perkins, Lynnfield, for bay 

mare, weighing 1250 lbs. 
$Q. Second premium, to W. L. Hill, Peabody, for black 

horse, weighing 1400 lbs. 
18. First premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, 

for brown mare weighing 1188 lbs. 
'16. Second premium, to E. C. Little, Haverhill, for bay 

gelding, weighing 1040 lbs. 
E. A. Emerson, Edwin Bates, H. M. Goodrich — Com- 
mittee. 



PAIRS OF FARM HORSES WEIGHING OVER 2500 

LBS. 

The Committee on Pairs of Farm Horses have attended 
to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary 
that they have made the following awards : 
$S. First premium, to Wm. C. Coffin, Newburyport, for 

pair of horses weighing 2800 lbs. 
■16. Second premium, to A. E. Towne, Georgetown, for 
pair of horses weighing 2600 lbs. 
W. P. Bailey, E. C. Little, C. N. Mag-uire — Committee. 



PAIRS OF FARM HORSES WEIGHING LESS THAN 

2500 LBS. 

The Committee on Pairs of Farm Horses have attended 
to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary 
that they have made the following awards : 
.ii<8. First premium, to W. E. Merrill, West Newbury, 

for pair black horses weighing 2220 lbs. 
|G. Second premium, to E. C. Little, Haverhill, for pair 
of bay horses weighing 2300 lbs. 
L. W. Hawkes, M. H. Connor— :/r>r the Committee. 



39 

COLTS FOR FARM PURPOSES— THREE AND FOUR 
YEARS OLD. 

The Committee on Colts for Farm Purposes three and 
four years old have attended to their duty, and respect- 
fully report to the Secretary that they have made the 
following awards : 
$1. First premium, to John H. Perkins, Lynnfield, for 

chestnut colt, 4 years old. 
$5. Second premium, to Woodbury Smith, Rowley, for 

roan mare colt, 3 years old. 
'fd. Third premium, to Richard Jaques, Newbury, for 

roan mare colt, 3 years old. 
Sherman Nelson, Edward H. Potter, John Parkhurst, 
D. D. Adams, C. K. Ordway — Committee. 



COLTS FOR FARM PURPOSES, ONE AND TWO 
YEARS OLD. 

The Committee on Colts for Farm Purposes, one and 
two years old have attended to their duty, and re- 
spectfully report to the Secretary that they have made 
the following award : 

•f7. First premium, to E. C. Little, Haverhill, for 2 
year old chestnut colt. 

John H. George, Thomas E. Snell, John S. Crosby — 
Committee. 



COLTS FOR DRIVING PURPOSES, THREE AND 
FOUR YEARS OLD. 

The Committee on Colts for Driving Purposes, three and 
four years old, have attended to their duty, and respect- 
fully report to the Secretary that they have made the 
following awards : 



40 

$7. First premium, to H. H. Hoyt, Haverhill, for brown 

colt, 4 years old. 
$5. Second premium, to John C. Day, Bradford, for 4 

years old colt. 
$5. First premium, to E. H. George, Groveland, for 

chestnut gelding, 3 years old. 
13. Second premium, to A. H. Adams, Haverhill, for 

bay mare colt, 3 years old. 
S. D. Hood, C. D, Ordway, R. T. Jaques Jr. — Oommit- 
tee. 



COLTS FOR DRIVING PURPOSES, ONE AND TWO 
YEARS OLD. 

The Committee on Colts for Driving Purposes, one and 
two years old, have attended to their duty, and respect- 
fully report to the Secretary that they have made the 
following awards : 
i7. First premium to Byron G. Kimball, Haverhill, for 

bay colt, 2 years old. 
^5. First premium, to John H. Perkins, Lynnfield, for 

brown colt, 15 months old. 
■|3. Second premium, to Arthur H. Meserve, No. 
Andover, for black Morgan colt, 14 months old. 
F. A. Russell, S. H. Bailey, B. F. Barnes — Committee. , 



SWINE— LARGE BREEDS. 

The Committee on Swine, large breeds, have attended 
to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary 
that they have made the following awards : 
$6. First premium, to W. L. Hill, Peabody, for Chester 

White boar. 
16. First premium, to W. L. Hill, Peabody, for York- 
shire sow and pigs. 



41 



16. First premium, to W. L. Hill, Peabody, for Berk- 
shire breeding sow. 

$6. First premium, to W. L. Hill. Peabody, for four 
weaned pigs. 

$4. Second premium, to W. L. Hill, Peabody, for seven 
weaned pigs. 

$6. First premium, to Nathan Longfellow, Groveland, 
for Chester White sow and pigs. 

16. First premium, to E. G. Nason, West Newbury, for 
seven weaned pigs. 

16. First premium, to A. W. Butrick, Haverhill, for 
Berkshire boar. 

|4. Second premium,, to Richard Newell, West New- 
bury, for Chester White boar. 

14. Second premium, to E. C. Little, Haverhill, for 
Chester sow and pigs. 
John Barker, George A. Dow, Leverett Swan — Com- 
mittee. 



SWINE— SMALL BREEDS. 

The Committee on Swine, small breeds, have attended 

to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary 

that they have made the following awards : 

i|6. First premium, to W. L. Hill, Peabody, for York- 
shire sow and six pigs. 

$6. First premium to J. F. Calhoun, Lawrence, for 
Yorkshire boar. 

$4. Second premium, to W. L. Hill, Peabody, for 
Duroc Jersey weaned pigs. 

14. Second premium to W. L. Hill, Peabody, for Poland 
China pigs. 

ii4. Second premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, 
for Yorkshire sow and pigs. 
T. H. O'Neil, Amos Haseltine, C. M. Lunt, NathU 

Marble, Henry F. Nason — Committee. 



42 

SHEEP. 
The Committee on Sheep have attended to their duty, 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 
18. First premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover,for 

Oxforddown buck. 
$5. First premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, for 

grade Oxforddown lambs. 
88. First premium, to Richard Newell, West Newbury, 

for Southdown buck. 
$6. Second premium, to Richard Newell, West Newbury, 
for grade Southdown sheep. 
C. C. Blunt, C. N. Maguire, Homer Dow — Committee. 



POULTRY. 

The Committee on Poultry have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 
i8. First premium, to Mrs. J. H. Perkins, Lynnfield, 

for flock of ten, with statement of a year's product 

from 50 hens. 
i2. First premium, to Lewis W. Hawkes, Saugus, for 

Toulouse geese. 
$2. First premium, to Lewis W. Hawkes, Saugus, for 

Embden geese. 
82. First premium, to Lewis W. Hawkes, Saugus, for 

Toulouse goslings. 
$2. First premium, to Lewis W. Hawkes, Saugus, for 

Rouen clucks. 
12. First premium, to Lewis W. Hawkes, Saugus, for 

Rouen ducklings. 
$2. First piemium, to' Lewis W. Hawkes, Saugus, for 

Pekin ducks. 
$2. First premium, to Lewis W. Hawkes, Saugus, for 
Pekiii ducklings. 



43 

■$2. First premium, to Lewis W. Hawkes, Saugus, for 

Pekin bantams. 
$2. First premium, to Lewis W. Hawkes, Saugus, for 

pair of turkeys. 
$2. First premium, to Geoige T. Bates, Lynn, for 

Minorca fowls. 
$1. Second premium, to John F. Jackson, Georgetown, 

for Langshan fowls. 
12. and diploma. First premium, to L. K. Pemberton, 

Groveland, for Plymouth Rock fowls. 
$1. Second premium, to C. H. Hardy, Groveland, for 

White Wyandotte chicks. 
|1. Gratuity, to Charles E. Symonds, Salem, for English 

Golden Pheasants. 
$2. and diploma. First premium, to Addison Noyes, 

Newburyport, for B. P. Black Minorcas. 
$2. First premium, to Addison Noyes, Newburyport, for 

Cornish Indian Game. 
$1. and diploma to W. Willis, West Newbury, for pen 

White Wyandottes. 
$1. Second premium, to Mrs. Homer Dow, Methuen, for 

Plymouth Rock chicks. 
$2. First premium, to E. R. Perkins, Salem, for Ply- 
mouth Rock chicks. 
|2. First premium, to E. R. Perkins, Salem, for Golden 

Wyandotte fowls. 
$2. First premium, to E. R. Perkins, Salem, for Golden 

Wyandotte chicks. 
12. First premium, to E. R. Perkins, Salem, for Creve- 

cour chicks. 
12. First premium, to Wm. W. Osgood, Haverhill, for 

coop Light Brahmas. 
12. First premium, to Wm. W. Osgood, Haverhill, for 

trio Dark Biahmas. 
$2. First premium, to Wm. W. Osgood, Haverhill, for 

S. C. Brown Leghorns. 



44 

$1. Second premium, to Wm. W. Osgood, Haverhill, for 

Browu Leghorn chicks. 
'II. Second premium, to Wm. W. Osgood, Haverhill, for 

Barred Plymouth Rocks. 
$2. First premium, to Wm. W. Osgood, Haverhill, for 

Indian Game fowls. 
II. Second premium, to Wm. W. Osgood, Haverhill, for 

Buff Cochin chicks. 
$2. First premium, to Wm. W. Osgood, Haverhill, for 

Partridge Cochin chicks. 
•II. Second premium, to Wm. W. Osgood, Haverhill, for 

Golden Wyandotte and Partridge Cochin hens. 

11. Second premium, to R. B. Smith, No. Andover, for 

S. C. White Leghorns. 
|2. First premium, to R. B. Smith, No. Andover, for 

Dark Brahma Fowls. 
12 First premium, to Martha A. Dummer, Newbury, for 

White Wyandottes. 

12. First premium, to Peter Hoogerziel, Beverly, for 

Pekin bantams. 
Diploma to M. H. Sands, Lawrence, for Brown Leghorn 
chicks. 

11. Second premium, to M. H. Sands, Lawrence, for 

trio Brown Leghorn chicks. 

12. First premium to E. N. Little, Haverhill, for Buff 

Wyandottes. 
$1. Second premium, to Homer Dow, Methuen, for 

Brown Leghorns. 
|2. First premium, to Joseph Pearson, Newbury, for 

White Cochins. 
|2. First premium, to J. S. Haddock, Haverhill, for 

White Plymouth Rock chicks. 
|2. First premium, to Edmund Torduff, Methuen, for 

Black Langshau chicks. 
12. First premium, to Anson L. Griffin, Lawrence, for 

Black Langshan fowls. 



45 

2. First premium, to Anson L. Griffin, Lawrence, for 

Barred Plymouth Rocks. 
2. First premium, to Anson L. Griffin, Lawrence, for 

Houdans. 

1. Second premium, to Anson L. Griffin, Lawrence, for 

Black Minorcas. 

2. First premium, to Anson L. Griffin, Lawrence, for 

Mottled Anconas. 
2. First premium, to Thomas Sanders, Haverhill, for 

Buff Cochins. 
>1. Second premium, to Thomas Sanders, Haverhill, for 

Bronze turkeys. 

1. Second premium, to Thomas Sanders, Haverhill, for 

wild turkey gobblers. 

2. First premium, to Willard W. Chace, Groveland, for 

White Plymouth Rock fowls. 

1. Second premium, to Willard W. Chace, Groveland, 

for White Plymouth Rock chicks. 

2. First premium, to Willard W. Chace, for S. L. 

Wyandotte fowls. 
2. First premium to John J. Collins, Haverhill, for 

Pitt Game fowls. 
!2. First premium, to S. P. Smith, Haverhill, for trio 

Andalusians. 
12. First premium, to George C. Perkins, Haverhill, for 

Black Java chicks. 
)2. First premium, to G. H. Grenman, Haverhill, for 

Black Cochins. 
i2. First premium, to J. J. Connor, West Newbury, for 

trio Game fowls. 
)1. Second premium, to J. J. Connor, West Newbury, for 

R. C. Leghorn fowls. 
52. First premium, to J. J. Connor, West Newbury, for 

R. C. Leghorn chicks. 
^2. First premium, to J. J. Connor, West Newbury, for 

R. C. Game chicks. 



46 

$5. Gratuity, to A. L. Griffin, Lawrence, for best poul- 
try appliances. 

J. H. Tenney, Virgil Dow, James O. Parker — Com- 
mittee. 

Your committee on poultrj^, entered upon their 
duties at the Fair recentl}' held at Haverhill with a 
great deal of distrust as to their qualifications to satisfac- 
torily discharge the trust reposed in them. They were 
plain, practical farmers, and not poultry experts or fanciers ; 
and from a plain, practical farmer's standpoint they only 
could judge of the poultry exhibit. To them the fowl that 
would lay the largest number of eggs, or the chicks 
that would make the finest market poultry and bring the 
highest price, would be the ones to be commended, rather 
than those whose combs, or wattles, or hackle feathers, or 
particular markings were exactly up to the standard of 
those who pose as infallible authority on poultry matters. 
While by no means ignoring the " points " which are 
regarded as necessary to make a fowl worthy to receive a 
first premium, still they considered that size, shape, fine- 
ness of bone and flesh, and a general appearance of healthi- 
ness, were of more than equal value. " With malice 
toward none and charity toward all " breeds of fowl, they 
endeavored to fulfil their duties honestly and impartially- 
The exhibit was very large and of unusual merit, and the 
committee soon perceived that it would be less difficult 
to decide what ought to be awarded premiums than what 
must be passed by. The exhibits of E. R. Perkins of 
Salem, L. W. Hawkes of Saugus, and A. L. Griffin of 
Lawrence, were large and of great excellence, and they 
are to be commended for the perfection to which they 
have bred their fowls. The noble geese and beautiful 
ducks exhibited by Mr. Hawkes, attracted much notice 
from the visitors and deservedly so. Of several varieties 
he exhibited two coops each of equal merit, so far as th& 



47 

committee could judge, and evidently Mr. Hawkes felt 
that he ought to receive both 1st and 2d premium on them. 
There being no competitors, and there being no question 
in the committee's mind as to their merit, they felt that 
if any premium was to be awarded it should be a 1st 
premium, and as two 1st premiums to the same exhibitor 
are not according to the rules of the society, as the 
committee understood them, they could not award them 
to him. Moreover they had already awarded him nine 
1st premiums, and these fowls being regarded by them as 
specimens of his 'flock, they could not conscientiously 
award him a 2d premium. 

The committee desire to ask, for the benefit of other 
committees that may come after them, that hereafter the 
poultry exhibit shall be arranged in groups according to 
breeds, instead of grouping each exhibitor's coops^ together, 
maybe of many different breeds. In this way the com- 
mittee can much more easily compare the exhibits and 
decide as to their merits. 

The committee were much hindered and troubled 
at the recent fair by the crowd of visitors that were con- 
stantly in the tent while they were making the examina- 
tions and were making up their decisions ; and they would 
respectfully ask the feasibility of a rail excliuiing all 
visitors from the tent for a reasonable time — one hour, or 
perhaps a little longer time. They feel certain that if 
the breeds had been arranged in groups together, and the 
crowd of visitors excluded from the tent, they could 
have accomplished more and have done the work more 
satisfactorily in one hour than they did in two. 
The committee regret that they feel the necessity of 
calling 3"0ur attention to one phase of their experience 
which was unpleasant and somewhat embarrassing, viz : — 
the disposition on the part of a few of the exhibitors to 
closely follow them and to hear whatever might be said 
about their exhibits or the exhibits of others, and in some 



48 

instances to interfere with them while in the discharge of 
their duties, and in one case it became so persistent that 
the committee informed him that according to the rules 
of the Society he had forfeited his claim to receive premi- 
ums. To the honor of most of the exhibitors be it said 
that there was no interference from them, but for the sake 
of the few who try to influence the judges in favor of 
their own exhibits they should be reminded of the rule 
forbidding all interference. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. H. TENNEY, 

Chairman of Committee. 
Rowley, Sept. 28. 1893. 



STATEMENT OF MRS. J. H. PERKINS, LYNXFIELD CENTRE, 

MASS. 

The fowls entered for premium are a cross between Red 
Legliorn and Light Bramah, hatched by Prairie State In- 
cubator, in May, 1892, and began laying in September. 

When hatched they were transferred to brooders, heated 
with kerosene lamp. At the seventh day all infertile 
eggs were tested from the incubator. These I boiled 
hard and fed to the chicks, with fine cracked corn sifted 
from the coarse. The second week I added baked pota- 
toes and whole wheat thoroughly scalded. When three 
weeks old a small quantity of animal meal and scraps 
were added to their fare, feeding five times a day, also 
leaves from white clover and fine 03^ster shell. When six 
weeks old I gave a soft feed, consisting of cracked corn, 
oats, wheat one fourth each, with a liberal quantity of 
animal meal and scraps, feeding morning and noon, at 
night I gave them cracked corn, wheat and barley, one 
third each. This course of feed was continued through 
the winter with the addition of clover hay cut fine and 
two qts. of cooked potatoes scalded with their morning 
feed, and sufficient salt to season the whole feed. 



49 

During the winter I gave them chopped cabbage, 
finding the.y ate it with greater relish than when served 
whole, also with less waste of the cabbage. 

I had cabbage furnished for them on exchange for]_the 
dressing made by the hens. 

Clean water was kept constantly by them. 

Egg production, eight thousand, seven hundred and 
twenty eggs, or seven hundred and twenty-six and two- 
thirds dozens. 

Average per hen one hundred and seventy-four and 
two-fifths. 

Cost of feed per hen for the year, one dollar and eight 
cents. 

Average per doz. eggs, twenty-eight cents. 

Profit per hen, two dollars and ninety-eight cents. 



PLOUGHING WITH DOUBLE TEAMS. 

The Committee on Ploughing with Double Teams have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the 
Secretary that they have made the following awards : 
$10. First premium, to J. P. Little, Amesburj', plough 
used " Varning " No. 2. 
18. Second premium, to C. K. Ordway, West Newbury, 
plough -Doe" C. 
110. First premium, to E. C. Little, Haverhill, 4 horses, 
plough '• Hussey '' 101. 

George L. Hawkes, Allen Smith, E. G. Nason — Com- 
onittee. 



PLOUGHING WITH HORSES, ANY PLOUGH 
EXCEPT SWIVEL. 
The Committee on Ploughing with Horses, any plough 
except Swivel, have attended to their dutj' and respect- 
fully report to the Secretary that they have made the 
following awards: 



50 

$8. First premium, Fred H. Poor, West Newbury, two- 
horses, 106 Hussey plough. 

16. Second premium, W. E. Merrill, West Newbury^ 
two horses, 106 Hussey plough. 

$4. Third premium, A. E. Towne, Georgetown, two 
horses, 104 Hussey plough. 
Alonzo B. Fellows, Chas. N. Maguire, L. H. Bailey, 

Abel Stickney — Committee. 



PLOUGHING WITH TWO HORSES, SWIVEL 
PLOUGH. 
The Committee on Ploughing with Swivel Plough 
have attended to their duty, and respectfully report to 
the Secretary that they have made the following awards i 
$8. First premium, to A. M. Robinson, Andover, plough 

76. 
$6. Second premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, 
plough, Yankee. 
B. F. Barnes, Geo. B. Austin, Daniel D. Adams, Peter 
Holt Jr. — Committee. 



PLOUGHING WITH THREE HORSES. 
The Committee on Ploughing with Three Horses have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the 
Secretary that they have made the following award : 
$8. First premium, to M. H. Connor, West Newbury, 
plough Doe No. 4. 
S. S. Lewis, Alvin Smith, Joshua H. Chandler — Comn 
mittee. 



PLOUGHING WITH SULKY PLOUGH. 

The Committee on Ploughing with Sulky Plough have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the- 
Secretary that they have made the following awards : 



51 

$8. First premium, to E. C. Little, Haverhill, National 

Reversible plough. 
$6. Second premium, to C. A. Bixby, Danvers, National 

Reversible plough. 
Asa T. Newhall, D. M. Cole, Isaac F. Knowlton — 
Committee. 



HARROWS. 

The Committee on Harrows have attended to their 
duty and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards : 
$8. First premium, to J. D. W. French, No. Andover, 

for Acme Harrow. 
$6. Second premium, to Henry Newhall & Co., Dan- 
vers, for Yankee Pulverizer. 
E. A. Emerson, Charles F. Austin, Daniel A. Carlton — 
Committee. 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

The Committee on Agricultural Implements have at- 
tended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Sec- 
retary that they have made the following awards : 
$10 and diploma, to Henry Newhall & Co., Danvers, for 

Collection of Implements. 
$5. First premium to Geo. E. Daniels, Rowley, for 2 

horse cart. 
$3. First premium, to Peter Hoogerziel, Beverly, for 

patent wheelbarrow. 
$1.50. First premium, to J. P. Little, Amesbury, for ox 

yoke. 
$6. Gratuity, to Hanscom Bros., Haverhill, for two 

Yankee ploughs. 
$5. Gratuity, to Inter National Scraper Co. for twa 

wheel road scraper. 



52 

^2. Gratuity, to Byron F. R. Perkins, Georgetown, for 

fruit basket. 
$2. Gratuity, to George E. Daniels, Rowley, for one 

horse cart. 
^2. Gratuity, to George E. Daniels, Rowley, for light 

tip cart. 
^5. Gratuity, to J. L. Colcord, Peabody, for champion 

mower. 
^1. Gratuity, to Joseph E. Dodge, Rowley, for set of 

marsh shoes. 
W. J. Munroe, Charles A. Ladd, H. F. Longfellow — 
■Committee. 



CARRIAGES. 

The Committee on Carriages have attended to their 
•duly, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards: 
^5. Gratuity, to Means & Hopkins, Merrimac, for 

Victoria beach wagon. 
$4. Gratuity, to Means & Hopkins, Merrimac, for sleighs. 

George E. Daniels, Edward Harrington, Richard New- 
•ell — Committee . 



Of the foregoing premiums five hundred and eight 
dollars and fifty cents are offered as State Premiums. 



IN EXHIBITION HALL. 



DAIRY. 



The Committee on Dairy have attended to their duty^ 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 

17. First premium, to Mrs. C. W. Gowen, West New- 
bury, for 5 lbs. butter. 
■$1. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for dozen 

hens eggs. 
$1. First premium, to N. K. Fowler, Boxford, for dozen 
Plymouth Rock eggs. 
John L. Shorey— /or the Committee. 

STATEMENT OF MRS. C. W. GOWEN. 

These five pounds of butter were made from the milk 
of Jersey cows. My milk was set in pans about one- 
half full and skimmed in 36 hours. After enough cream 
was collected, it was churned, washed and salted at the 
rate of one ounce to one pound of butter. After stand- 
ing several hours it was worked over and stamped. 



BREAD AND CANNED FRUIT. 
The Committee on Bread and Canned Fruit have at- 
tended to their duty, and respectfully report to the Sec- 
retary that they have made the following awards: 
$3.00. First premium, to Mrs. Chas. C. Anderson, Brad- 
ford, for white bread. 
$2.00. Second premium, to Mrs. Annie A. Foote, Danvers, 
for white bread. 



54 

^2.00. First premium, to Mrs. Lizzie J. Wilson, Danvers, 

for graham bread. 
^1.00. Second premium, to Mrs. Betsey Lyons, Groveland, 

for graham bread. 
$1.50. First premium, to Mrs. Lizzie J. Wilson, Danvers, 

for brown bread. 
#1.50. First premium, to Mrs. Lizzie J. Wilson, Danvers, 

for rye bread. 
•$1.00. Third premium, to Mrs. Frank W. Poore, Haverhill, 

for white bread. 
.50 Gratuity, to Edna E. Moore, Groveland, for white 

bread. 
.50 Gratuity, to Mrs. Carrie Wales, Groveland, for 

white bread. 
.50 Gratuity, to Mrs. Moses Smith, West Newbury, for 

white bread. 
83.00. First premium, to Mrs. Warren M. Cole, Boxford, 

for 30 jars canned fruit. 
$3.00. First premium, to L. H. Bassett, No. Andover, for 

a collection of canned fruit. 
$2.00. Second premium, to Mrs. J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, 

for 27 jars canned fruit. 
$2.00. Second premium, to Mrs. Thaddeus Hale, Rowley, 

for 12 tumblers jelly. 
$1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. C. W. Gowen, West Newbury, 

for 5 lbs dried apples. 
Mrs. E. P. Nichols, Mrs. Isaac C. Day, Mrs. J. H. Per- 
kins, Mrs. J. H. Chandler, Mrs. J. Henry HiW — Co^nmif- 
tee. 

STATEMENT OF MRS. M. J. ANDERSON, BRADFORD, FIRST 
PREMIUM, WHITE BREAD. 

This bread was made of Bridal Veil flour, Fleischman 
yeast cake, milk, three quarters of an hour baked, twen- 
ty-four hours old. 



55 

■STATEMENT OF MRS. LIZZIE J. WILSON DANVERS, FIRST, 
PREMIUM, GRAHAM BREAD. 

One pint graham flour, one-half pint wheat flour, one- 
half pint warm water, one-half pint compressed yeast 
cake, one tablespoon molasses, one teaspoon salt. Mix as 
stiff as can be stirred with a spoon. Let it rise over night 
and bake about an hour in a moderate oven. This quan- 
tity makes one loaf. 

STATEMENT OF MRS. BETSEY LYONS, GROVEL AND, SECOND 
PREMIUM, GRAHAM BREAD. 

Flour, Glen Mills ''Graham Meal" and St. Louis fl 
Time raised, eighteen hours; time kneaded, twenty min- 
utes ; time baked, one hour, fifteen minutes ; warm water, 
one quart ; yeast cake, one half "Fleischman's; "molasses 
one scant teacupful; lard, the size of a hen's egg; salt, 
two teaspoonfuls ; soda, one third teaspoonful ; Graham 
meal, four coffeecupfuls ; St. Louis Hour, five coffeecup- 
fuls. Mix at noon, bake next morning. Dissolve one- 
half yeast cake in one cup of water taken from the quart 
of warm water. Put molasses, lard, salt and soda into 
the pan with the remainder of the quart of water and 
mix thoroughly, add the yeast, then the meal and flour. 
Stir briskly into a stiff dough but not stiff enough to 
knead. Set in a warm place three hours, then in a cool 
place until bedtime. At bedtime take on to the mould- 
ing-board and add flour enough to knead and knead fif- 
teen minutes, return to the pan, set in a cool place until 
morning. Early in the morning, knead five minutes, 
make into loaves, raise until light enough to bake, bake 
one hour fifteen minutes. 

STATEMENT OF MRS. LIZZIE J. WILSON, DANVERS, MASS. 
BEOWN BREAD. 

Two cups Indian meal, two cups rye, one cup flour, 
two-thirds cup molasses, one pint milk — either sweet or 
sour, one and one-half teaspoonfuls soda, one teaspoonful 
salt, steam three hours. 



56 

RYE BBEAD. 

One pint rye meal, one-half pint corn meal, one-half 
pint wheat flour, one tablespoonful salt, one compressed 
yeast cake, one pint warm water, sift the rye, corn meal 
and flour together, add the water and salt and yeast cake ; 
let rise until light and bake in a moderate oven 45 min- 
utes. 

STATEMENT OF MRS. F. W. POOR. 

Two and one-half quarts flour, a pinch of salt, half cup 
of sugar, tablespoonful of lard, quarter of yeast cake, pint 
lukewarm milk, rise three times. " Urban Flour." 

STATEMENT OP ANNA L. COLE, WEST BOXFORD. 

This may certify that the preserves entered by me for 
premium are made one pound of sugar to one pound of 
fruit and cooked in the jars one-half hour. 

STATEMENT OF MRS. J. HENRY HILL, AMESBURY. 

In canning fruit, I use a syrup made by putting one 
quart of boiling water into 2 quarts of sugar and boiling a 
few minutes then I throw in one-half pint of cold water to 
clear it. — For pears and peaches I cook in clear water un- 
til a straw will pierce them easily then put them into the 
syrup and simmer a few moments. 

For sweet pickles I use 4 pounds of sugar to 1 quart of 
vinegar, cooking the fruit in the syrup, and spice to taste. 

STATEMENT OF MRS. THADDEUS HALE. 
JELLIES. 

Boil fruit in porcelain kettle twenty minutes. Strain 
through fine cheese cloth. Boil five minutes. Allow 
one pound of sugar to pint of juice. Heat sugar. Boil 
one minute after adding sugar. 

SPICED CURRANTS. 

Three pounds of sugar, one pint of vinegar, tablespoon- 
ful cloves, cinnamon and allspice. Make into a syrup 
add six pounds of currants ; boil twenty minutes. 



57 

HONEY. 

The Committee on Honey have attended to their duty 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 
•$3. First premium, to John Barker, No. Andover, for 

honey. 
$2. Second premium, to Edwin Hazeltine, Haverhill, for 

honey. 
•$1. Gratuity, to Cliarles Knight, Haverhill, for bees. 

Your Committee found two entries of honey in comb, 
and the same of extract or liquid honey. 

Mr. Charles Knight, of ' Haverhill, exhibited a few 
pounds of honey, and a hive of bees, but as no statement, 
as required by the rules of the Society, accompanied the 
exhibit, no premiums were awarded, but the Committee 
thought it best to award Mr. Knight a gratuity of one 
dollar. 

Henry Alley, John J. Gould, Warren M. Cole, John 
H. George — Committee. 



PEARS. 

The Committee on Pears have attended to their duty, 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 
•fS.OO First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Anjou 

pears. 
$3.00. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Bosc 

pears. 
$3.00. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, forBartlett 

pears. 
$3.00. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Louise 

Bonne pears. 
'$3.00. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Howell 

pears. 
ILOO. Gratuity, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Sheldon 

pears. 



58 

$1.00. Gratuity, to Edwin Bates, Lj^nn, for Duchess- 
pears. 
$1.00. Gratuity, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Lawrence 

pears. 
ILOO. Gratuity, to J. D. Foote, Haverhill, for Haverhill 

pears. 
$1.00. Gratuity, to B. Beckett, Haverhill, for Louise 

Bonne pears. 
$3.00. First premium, to S. J. Richards, Lawrence, for 

Vicar pears. 
$3.00. First premium, to Allen Barr, Lawrence, for Seckel 

pears. 
$3.00. First premium, to S. J. Barr, Lawrence, for Dana's 

Hovey pears. 
$1.00. Gratuity, to Maggie Shay, Lawrence, for Lawrence 

pears. 
$1.50. Gratuity to W. Burke Little, Newbury, for 

Clairgeau pears. 
$3.00. First premium, to J. W. Marsden, Lawrence, for 

Clairgeau pears. 
$3.00. First premium, to Mrs. Robert Lindsay, Lawrencer 

for Sheldon pears. 
$3.00. First premium, to James Wilson Topsfield, for 

Onondago. 
$L00. Gratuity, to J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for Bosc 

pears. 
$1.00. Gratuity, to J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for Anjou 

pears. 
$3.00. First premium, to J. J. H. Gregory, Marblehead, 

for Paradise d'Automne pears. 
$1.00. Gratuity, to J. J. H. Gregory, Marblehead, for 

Belle Lucrative pears. 
$1.00. Gratuity, to George Walton, Feabody, for Clapp's 

Favorite pears. 
$1.50. Gratuity, to George Walton, Peabody, for de 

Congrus pears. 



59 

$1.00. Gratuity, to E. F. Webster, Haverhill, for Merriam 

pears. 
$1.00 Gratuity, to E. F. Webster, Haverhill, for Vicar 

pears. 
13.00. First premium, to Roland Pray, Haverhill, for 

Duchess pears. 
$3.00. First premium, to Walter B. Allen, Lynn, for 

Lawrence pears. 
$3.00. First premium, to Walter B. Allen, Lynn, for 

Belle Lucrative pears. 
$3.00. First premium, to Walter B. Allen, fLynn, for 

Urban iste pears. 
$6.00. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn,'; for collection 

of pears. 
$3.00. Second premium, to J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for 

collection of pears. 
Peter M. Neal, A. C. Osborne, B. F. Huntington^ 
William Willcomb — Committee. 



APPLES. 

The Committee on Apples have attended to their duty, 

and respectfully i-eport to the Secretary- that they^have 

made the following awards : 

$3.00. First premium, to Mrs. John M. Haseltine, Haver- 
hill, for Gravenstein. 

$3.00. First premium, to S. F. Newman, Newbury, for 
Tolmans Sweet. 

$3.00, First premium, to W. Burke Little, Newbury, for 
Roxbury Russett. 

$L50. Second premium, to C. M. Lunt, Newbury, for 
Gloria Mundee. 

$1.50. Second premium, to C. M. Lunt, Newbury, for 
Red Mcintosh. 

$1.50. Second premium, to Michael Shea, Lawrence, for 
Maiden Blush. 



60 

$1.50. Second })remium, to Thomas P. Hale, Rowley, 

for Transcendent Crab. 
$3.00. First premium, to Charles F. Knight, Newbury, 

for Hubbardston. 
$3.00. Charles F. Knight, Newbury, for Farneuse. 
$3.00. First premium, to George F. Sanger, Peabody, for 

Drap 'VOr. 
$2.00. Fiilst premium, to Mrs. David Warren, Swampscott, 

for Pickman Pippin. 
$1.00. Gratuity to Beiij. Griffin, Lawrence, for Gille 

Flower. 
$3.00. First premium, to Walter F. Hutchinson, Dan- 

vers, for Hunts Russett. 
$1.50. Second premium, to Henry M. Killam, Boxford, 

for Golden Russett. 
$3.00. First premium, J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for 

Smiths Cider. 
$3.00. First i»remium, to J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for 

Granite Beauty. 
$3.00. First premium, to J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for 

Red Russett. 
$1.50. Gratuity, to J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for Collec- 
tion. 
$3.00. First premium, to George D. Walton, Peabody, for 

Tompkins King. 
$1.50. Second premium, to George D. Walton, Peabody, 

for Haas. 
$1.50. Second premium, to George D. Walton, Peabody, 

for Hawley's Seedling. 
$3.00. First premium, to Thaddeus Hale, Rowley, for 

Baldwin. 
$3.00. First premium, to C. W. Gowen, West Newbury, 

for R. I. Greening. 
$3.00. First premium, to E. F. Childs, Lawrence, for 

Porter. 



61 

$1.00. Gratuity, to O. L. Sargent, Haverhill, for R. I. 

Greening. 
$1.50. Second premium, to O. L. Sargent, Haverhill, for 

Northern Spy. 
$2.00. Gratuity, to D. B. Hill, Peabody, for Gravenstein. 
$1.50. Second premium, to George D. Walton, Peabody, 

for Essex County Baldwin. 
W. H. B. Currier, Andrew Nichols, E. F. Webster, J. 
W. Goodell, S. G. Sargent — Committee. 



PEACHES, GPvAPES AND ASSORTED FRUITS. 
The Committee on Peaches, Grapes and Assorted Fruit 

have attended to their duty, and respectfully report to 

the Secretary that they have made the following awards: 

$2.00. First premium, Charles Knight, Haverhill, for 
Late Crawford. 

50c. Gratuity, to Charles Knight, Haverhill, for Old 
Mixon. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Yellow flesh. 

1.00. Gratuity, to P. M. Neal, Lynn, for Foster Peach. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Charles F. Knight, Newbury, for 

Mammoth. 
50c. Gratuity, to Henry Merrill, Haverhill, for Victoria- 
50c. Gratuity, to John Barker, No. Andover, for Mixon. 

2.00. First premium, to John Barker, No. Andover, for 
Foster. 

1.50. Gratuity, to Mary E. Lindsay, Lawrence, for Fos- 
ter. 
50c. Gratuity, to J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for Seedling. 

2.00. First premium, to Geo. W. Sargent, Merrimac, for 
Seedling. 

2.00. First premium, to E. H. Foster, Haverhill, for Yel- 
low flesh. 
50c. Gratuity, to E. F. Webster, Haverhill, for Seed- 
ling. 



62 



GRAPES. 



3.00. Fii-st premium, to S. M. Titcomb, West Newbury, 

for Worden. 
3.00. First premium, to Annie Griers, Lawrence, for 

Concord. 
3.00. First premium, to W. P. Hutchinson, Dan vers, for 

Niagara. 
50c. Gratuity, to Charles Knight, Haverhill, for Der- 

reula. 
50c. Gratuity, to Charles Knight, Haverhill, for Pock- 

lington. 
50c. Gratuity, to Charles Knight, Haverhill, for Dracut 

Amber. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Champion. 

50c. Gratuity, to S. J. Barr, Lawrence, for Martha. 
1.00. Gratuity, to S. J. Barr, Lawrence, for Worden's 

Seedling. 
1.00. Gratuity to Virgil Dow, Methuen, no name. 
50c. Gratuity, to W. P. Hutchinson, Danvers, for 

Moore's Early. 
50c. Gratuity, to W. P. Hutchinson, Danvers, for Dia- 
mond. 

QUINCES. 

^.00. First premium, to L. K. Pemberton, Groveland, for 

Orange Quince. 
1.00. Gratuity, to James A. Day, Haverhill, for Orange. 
1.00. Gratuity, to George A. Rogers, No. Audover, for 

Champion. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Orange, 

PLUMS AND ASSOllTED FKUIT. 

1.00. Gratuity, to J. W. Goodell, Lynn, for Washington 

Plum. 
50c. Gratuit}', to J. \V. Goodell, Lynn, for Gini Plum. 
.2.00. First premium, to. J. W. Goodell, Lynn, for Down- 

ing's Early Plum. 



63 

1.00. Gratuity, to Charles F. Knight, Newbury, for Pur- 
ple Egg Plum. 

2.00. First premium, to Charles F. Knight, Newbury* 
Seedling Plum. 

50c. Gratuity, to Charles F. Knight, Newbury, for Yel- 
low Gage. 

50c. Gratuity, to J. H. Tenney, Rowley, for Quacken- 
bos Plum. 

2.00. First premium, to J. H. Tenney, Rowley, for Reine 
Claud Plum. 

50,c. Gratuity, to C. H. Foster, Lawrence, for Weaver 
Plum. 

50c. Gratuity, to J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for Moore's 
Arctic. 

2.00. First premium, to W. K. Cole, Boxford, for Lom- 
bard Plum. 

50c. Gratuity, to J. Henry Hill, Amesbury, for Native 

Plum. 
4.00. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Basket 
of Assorted Fruit. 
Walter B. Allen, George B. Bradley, John F. Jackson 

— Committee. 



PLANTS. 

The Committee on Plants have attended to their duty, 
and respectfully report to the Secretary that they have 
made the following awards : 
1.00. First premium, to Frank W. Poor, Haverhill, for 

2 Dracenas. 
1.00. First premium, to Mrs. V. A. Gardner, Haverhill, 

for English Ivy. 
1.00. First premium, to Mrs. Charles Perley, Boxford, 

for English Ivy. 
50c. Gratuitv, to A. R. Dodge, Haverhill, for Amaryllis 

Lily." 



64 

T. C. Thurlow, Mrs. N. C. Ladd, Miss' Clara A. Hale, 
Mrs. J. W. Chadwick — Committee. 



FLOWERS. 

The Committee on Plants and Flowers'^have attended 
to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary 
that they have made the following awards : 
1.00. First premium, to Emma H. Gage, Methuen, for 

Calendulas. 
1.00. First premium, to Emma H. Gage, jMethuen, for 

Salpiglosis. 
50c. Gratuity, to Emma H. Gage, Methuen, for Basket 

Garden Flowers. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Daniel Mighill, Boxford, for^32 Varie- 
ties Wild Flowers. 
2.00. First premium, to B. F. Bickam, Haverhill, for 2 

Bouquets Wild Flowers. 
50c. Gratuity, to Sarah B. Barnes, Haverhill, for Bou- 
quet of Poppies. 
3.00. Second premium, to George fl. Hill, Haverhill, for 

Floral Design. 
1.00. First premium, to Andrew Lackey, Haverhill, for 

Assorted Dahlias. 
7.00. First premium, to Mrs. Geo. L. Averill, No. Ando- 

ver, for Floral Design. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Geo. L. Averill, No. Andover, for 

Bouquets for Vases. 
2.00. First premium, to M. N. Brancold, Haverhill, for 

Collection Pansies. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Jennie G. Kimball, Methuen, for 

Star design in Pansies. 
2.00. First premium, to Mrs. Edwin Haseltine, Haverhill 

for Garden Bouquet. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Edwin Hazeltine, Haverhill^ 

for Native Bouquet. 



65 

75c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Edna Hazeltine, Haverhill, for 
Sweet Peas. 

1.00 First premium, to Mrs. M. E. Burleigh, Haverhill, 
for 24 Zinnias. 

1.00. First premium, to Mrs. M. E. Burleigh, Haverhill, 
for Drum Phlox. 

1.00 First premium, to Mrs. M. E. Burleigh, Haverhill, 
for 12 Dianthus. 

1.00. First premium, to Mrs. M. E. Burleigh, Haverhilh 
for Scabioscas. 

50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. Henry Merrill, Haverhill, for 
Pompon Astors. 

2.00. First Premium, to Stanley O. Ladd, Groveland, 
Basket Native Flowers. 

50c. Gratuity, to Mrs. N. E. Ladd, Groveland, for Gar- 
den Flowers. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Charles Perley, Boxford, for 
Sweet Peas. 

1.00. First premium, to City Farm, Haverhill, for Sweet 
Peas. 

1.00. First premium, to City Farm, Haverhill, for two 
Bouquets. 

1.00. First premium, to City Farm, Haverhill, for Bou- 
quet of Dahlias. 

1.00. First premium, to City Farm, Haverhill, for Nastur- 
tiums. 

50c. Gratuity, to Frank W. Poor, Haverhill, for Carna- 
tions. 

1.00. First premium, to Dr. Sawyer, Haverhill, for 12 
Double Petunias. 

1.00. First premium, to Blanch Emerson, Haverhill, for 
24 Single Petunias. 

1.00. Gratuity, to William Ferguson, Groveland, for 
Collection Gladiolas. 

2.00. First premium, to Mrs. J. H. Hill, Amesbury, for 
Basket Garden Flowers. 



66 

1.00. Second premium, to Mrs. J. H. Hill, Amesbury, 
for Perennials. 

1.00. First premium, to Mrs. J. H. Hill, Amesbury, for 
Single Dahlias. 

1.00. First premium, to Mrs. A. L. Cain, Lynn, for Pom- 
pon Dahlias. 

1.00. First premium, to Mrs. A. L. Cain, Lynn, for 24 
Annuals. 

1.00. First premium, to Mrs. J. A. Cain, Lynn, Single 
Geraniums. 

1.00. First premium, to Mrs. J. A. Cain, Lynn, for Dou- 
ble Geraniums. 

1.00. Second premium, to Mrs. J. A. Cain, Lynn, for 2 
Garden Bouquets. 

5.00. First premium, to Mrs. J. A. Cain, Lynn, for 100 
Specimens Flowers. 

2.00. First premium, to T. C. Thurlow, West Newbury, 
for Hardy Phlox. 

1.00. Gratuity, to T. C. Thurlow, West Newbury, for 
25 Cannas. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. E. A. Perley, Boxford, for Col- 
lection of Flowers. 

5.00. Gratuity, to Charles Tassanario, Danvers, for Flo- 
ral Design. 
E. E. Woodman, Mrs. William Horner, Mrs. E. V. 

Gage, Mrs. C. W. Go wen, Mrs. Paul Perkins — Committee. 



VEGETABLES. 
The Committee on Vegetables have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made thg following awards : 
f 3.00. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for sweet 

corn. 
3.00. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Mangel 
Wurtzels. 



67 

.50. Gratuity, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Edmands 

beets. 
3.00. First premium, to W. Burke Little, Newbury, for 

Short Horn carrot. 
3.00. First premium, to W. Burke Little, Newbury, for 

Long Orange carrot. 
3.00. First premium, to W. Burke Little, Newbury, for 

Edmands beets. 
.50. Gratuity, to E. C. Little, Haverhill, for Mangel 

Wurtzels. 
1.00. Gratuity, to George B. Austin, Boxford, for Purple 

Top turnip. 
5.00. First premium, to Cochickewick Farm, No. Ando- 

ver, for collection of vegetables. 
.60. Gratuity, to Cochickewick Farm, No. Andover, for 

Edmands beets. 
.50. Gratuity, to W. Jaques, Newbury, for Danvers 

Intermediate carrot. 
3.00. First premium, to L. H. Bassett, No. Andover, for 

Short Top carrot. 
3.00. First premium, to Andrew Lane, Rockport, for 

Cranberries. 
1.00. Gratuity, to H. A. Stiles, Middleton, for Cran- 
berries. 
3.00. First premium, to H. A. Stiles, Middleton, for Strap 

Leaf turnip. 
.50. Gratuity, to G. S. Phippen, Methuen, for sweet 

corn. 
3.00. First premium, to Virgil Dow, Methuen, for Inter- 
mediate carrot. 
.50. Gratuity, to George L. Averill, No. Andover, for 

sweet corn. 
1.00. Third premium, to Henry M. Killam, Boxford, for 

Cranberries. 
.50. Gratuity, to D. M. Cole, Boxford, for Danvers 

Carrot. 



68 

.50. Gratuity, to Virgil Dow, Methuen, for Dewings 

Blood beet. 
3.00. First premium, to Virgil Dow, Methuen, for par- 
snips. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Virgil Dow, Methuen, for sweet corn. 
.50. Gratuity, to T. G. Phillips, Bradford, for early 

sweet corn. 
.50. Gratuity, to R. Jaques, Newbury, for Danvers 

carrot. 
3.00. First premium, to R. Jaques, Newbury, for Eclipse 

beet. 
.50. Gratuity, to R. Jaques, Newbury, for Mangel 

Wurtzels. 
1.00. Gratuity, to A. N. Currier, Haverhill, for sweet 

corn. 
3.00. First premium, to W. K. Cole, Boxford, for sweet 

corn. 
2.00. Second premium, to W. K. Cole, Boxford, for 

cranberries. 
3.00. First premium, to J. 0. Connor, West Newbury, for 

Ruta bagas. 
.50. Gratuity, to W. K. Cole, Boxford, for Corey sweet 

corn. 
1.00. Gratuity, to G. M. Sargent, Groveland, for carrots. 
.50. Gratuity, to E. Webster, Haverhill, for sweet corn. 
2.00. Second premium, to A. P. Russell, Methuen, for 

Stone Mason cabbage. 
3.00. First premium, to A. P. Russell, Methuen, for red 

cabbage. 
3.00. First premium, to A. P. Russell, Methuen, for 

Beauty of Hebron potatoes. 
3.00. First premium, to E. Webster, Haverhill, for Early 

Rose potatoes. 
3.00. First premium, to E. Webster, Haverhill, for Early 

Maine potatoes. 



69 

"3.00. First premium, to Fred A. Russell, Methuen, for 

Hubbard squash. 
2.00. Second premium, to Fred A. Russell, Methuen, for 

Savo}^ cabbage. 
2.00. First premium, to E. Webster, Haverhill, for Chris- 
tian melons. 
5.00. First premium, to Cochickewick Farm, No. Ando- 

ver, for collection of vegetables No. 2. 
3.00. First premium, to Cochickewick Farm, No. Ando- 

ver, for Turban squash. 
3.00. First premium, to Cochickewick Farm, No. Ando- 

ver, for Essex Hybrid squash. 
3.00. First premium, to George B. Austin, Boxford, for 

Sibley squash. 
3.00. First premium, to George B. Austin, Boxford, for 

Bay State squash. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Walter I. Chadwick, Boxford, for 

Danvers Yellow onions. 
3.00. First premium, to W. Burke Little, Newbury, for 

Red Globe onion. 
1.00. Gratuity, to W. Burke Little, Newbury, for Cum- 
berland Red tomatoes. 
3.00. First premium, to Charles W. Webster, Haverhill,' 

for Brunswick cabbage. 
3.00. First premium, to Charles W. Webster, Haverhill, 

for Essex Hybrid tomatoes. 
3.00. First premium, to Richard Newell, West Newbury, 

for Savoy cabbage. 
.50. Gratuity, to George W. Gallison, Haverhill, for 

Hubbard squash. 
2.00. Second premium, to L. H. Bassett, No. Andover, 

for Red cabbage. 
3.00. First premium, to L. H. Bassett, No. Andover, for 

Stone Mason cabbage. 
3.00. First premium, to L. H. Bassett, No. Andover, for 

Acme tomato. 



70 

3.00. First premium, to L. H. Bassett, No. Andover, for 
Red Cross tomato. 

2.00. Second premium, to W. H. Greenleaf, Salisbury, 
for Cauliflower. 

3.00. First premium, to J. J. H. Gregory, Marblehead, 
for Yellow flat onions. 

1.00. Gratuity, to J. J. H. Gregory, Marblehead, for 
Red onions. 

2.00. First premium, to Homer Dow, Methuen, for water 
melons. 

2.00. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Salmon 
fleshed melon. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for Acme toma- 
toes. 

3.00. First premium, to D. M. Cole, Boxford, for Living- 
ston's Beauty tomato. 

1.00. Gratuity, to J. Warren Chadwick, Boxford, for 
Marrow squash. 
.50. Gratuity, to T. G. Phillips, Bradford, for Freeman 

potatoes. 
.50. Gratuity, to T. G. Phillips, Bradford, for Marrow 
squash. 

1.00. Gratuity, to R. Jaques, Newbury, for Boston Mar- 
row squash. 

1.00. Gratuity, to W. K. Cole, Boxford, for Hebron po- 
tatoes. 

3.00. First premium, to W. K. Cole, Boxford, for Clarke's 
No. 1 potato. 

3.00. First premium, to W. K. Cole, Boxford, for Cauli- 
flower. 

3.00. First premium, to W. K. Cole, Boxford, for. All 
Seasons cabbage. 

1.00. Gratuity, to M. J. Connor, West Newbury, for 
Rural New York potatoes. 

1.00. Gratuity, to John Litch, Newbury, for Danvers 
Globe onions. 



71 

3.00. First premium, to M. K. Noyes, Newbury, for Dan- 

vers onions. 
3.00. First premium, to A. G. Whitten, Bradford, for 

Marrow squash. 
2,00. First premium, to A. G. Whitten, Bradford, for 

Musk melon. 
Asa T. Newhall, W. K, Cole, L. H. Bassett, Eben True, 
E. P. Barrett — Committee. 



GRAIN AND SEED. 

The Committee on Grain and Seed have attended ta 
their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards: 
$3.00. First premium, to Edwin Bates, Lynn, for 25 ears 

Pop corn. 
2.00. Third premium, to C. K. Ordway & Son, West 

Newbury, for 25 ears Field corn. 
1.00. First premium, to C. K. Ordway & Son, West 

Newbury, for White Dutch oats. 
3.00. Second premium, to Henry M. Killam, Boxford, 

for Trace of field corn. 
1.00. First premium, to Henry M. Killam, Boxford, for 

shelled corn. 
5.00. First premium, to A. S. Longfellow, Groveland, 

for 25 ears Field corn. 
1.00. First premium, to J. O. Connor, West Newbury, 

for winter rye. 
1.00. First premium, to J. O. Connor, West Newbury, 

for yellow eye beans. 
2.00. Second premium, to Virgil Dow, Methuen, for 

Trace pop corn. 
L. H. Bailey, E. A. Emerson, R. L. Smith — Committee, 



72 



COUNTERPANES AND AFGHANS. 

The Committee on Counterpanes and Afghans have 
attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the 
Secretary that they have made the following awards: 
$4.00. First premium, to M. Blanch Whitman, Haverhill, 

for Crochet quilt. 
^.00. Second premium, to Mrs. Lewis Killam, Haverhill, 

for Cotton quilt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. L. Ricard, Haverhill, for Silk 

quilt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Rufus Williams, Haverhill, for 
Silk quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. O. Warren, West Newbury, for 
Silk quilt. 
1.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Bernard Copping, Groveland, for 

Knitted afghan. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. W. S. Whittier, Haverhill, for 

Crochet afghan. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. S. A. Brookings, Newburyport, 

for Cotton quilt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. E. W. Killam, Boxford, for 
Knitted quilt. 
.75. Gratuity, to Mrs. A. M. Tilton, Haverhill, for 

Crochet afghan. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. G. W. Walton, Haverhill, for 

Silk quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Lucy E. Millet, Georgetown, for Silk 

quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Dillie Mellen, Haverhill, for Crochet 

afghan. 
.75. Gratuity to Dillie Mellen, Haverhill, for Crochet 

afghan. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Eliza Fuller, Newburyport, for 
Crochet quilt. 
1.00. Gratuity to Mrs. A. Copp, Haverhill, for Silk quilt. 



73 

.50. Gratuity, to Bessie Knapp, Newburyport, for Sofa 

throw. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. L. C. Hanscom, Haverhill, for 
Cotton quilt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. S. J. Morey, Haverhill, for Silk 

quilt. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. B. F. Kelley, Haverhill, for Knit 
quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. H. M. Richardson, Newburyport, 

for Silk quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to R. C. Harriman, Haverhill, for Cotton 

quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Fannie Knapp, Newburyport, for 

Silk quilt. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss I. Smith, Newburyport, for Log- 
Cabin quilt. 
.50. Gratuity to Mrs. N. R. Stanley, Newburyj^ort, for 

Satin quilt. 
The Committee found a Finely Quilted Flannel spread 
that was not among the entries, of which they wish to 
make honorable mention. 

Mrs. H. F. Longfellow — for the Committee. 



CARPETINGS AND RUGS. 

The Committee on Carpetings and Rugs have attended 

to their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 

they have made the following awards : 

13.00. First premium, to Mary J. Symonds, Salem, 
for Braided mat. 

2.00. Second Premium, to Mrs. Moses E. Cook, New- 
buryport, for Braided mat. 

LOO. Gratuity, to Mrs. Aseneth Sanborn, West New- 
bury, for Hooked rug. 

l.Ol). Gratuity, to Mrs. H. M. Ricard, Haverhill, for 
Braided mat. 



74 

1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. B. F. Kelley, Haverhill, for 

Hooked rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Hichard A. Sargent, Merrimac, 

for Braided mat. 
1.00. Gratuity, to jNIrs. C. H. Ordway, West Newbury, 

for Chenille rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. B. McAuliff, West Newbury, for 

Knit rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. S. A. Brookings, Newburyportv 

for Knit rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Hannah H. Knowlton. West 

Newbury, for Drawn in rug. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Michael Burke, Haverhill, for 

Braided carpet. 
Mrs. Geo. B. Bradley — :for the Committee. 



MANUFACTURED FROM LEATHER. 
The Committee on Articles Manufactured from Leather 

have attended to their duty, and respectfully report to 

the Secretary that they have made the following awards : 

$5.00. First premium to F. G. Richards, Haverhill, for 
team harnesses. 

5.00. First premium to I. W. Hanson, Haverhill, for 
Goddard harness. 

2.00. Gratuity, to S. Osgood, Georgetown, for head rest. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Jackson Webster, Haverhill, for sad- 
dle, bridle and whip. 

2.00. Gratuity, to I. W. Hanson, Haverhill, for case of 
harness trimmings. 

Diploma to C. K. Fox, Haverhill, for samples of shoes. 

Diploma, to H. B. Goodrich, Haverhill, for samples of 
shoes. 

Diploma, to G. C. Howe, Haverhill, for 12 pair shoes. 

Diploma, to Hunkings and Wilds, Haverhill, for 12 pair 
shoes. 



Diploma, to L. Johnson & Son, llaveihill, for samples of 

shoes. 
Diploma to Poor & Dole, Haverhill, for samples of shoes. 
Diploma to H. H. Hoyt, Haverhill, for 20 pair shoes. 
Diploma to F. S. and H. H. (lage, Haverhill, for samples 

of shoes. 
Diploma to Blake Brothers, Haverhill, for button boots. 
Frank J. Bradley, James Dewhiirsc, I. E. Perk ns» 
Aaron Sawyer, F. H. Gulliver — Committee. 



FANCY WORK. 

The Committee on Fancy Work have attended to their 

duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that thev 

have made the following awards : 

.50. Gratuity, to S. A. Eastman, Haverhill, for towel. 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. F. S. Newman, Haverhill, for 

roman skirt. 

1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. H. M. Ricard, Plaverhill, for 

handkerchief. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. E. B. Bishop. Haverhill, for sam- 
ples of lace. 
.50. Gratuity, to ^Irs. .Alary F. Geyer, Haverhill, for 

doll. 
.50. Gratuity, to S. D. Gage, Methuen, for table scarf. 
.50. Gratuity, to Miss Virginia Brisett, Haverhill, for 

picture throw. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. F. Ring, Haverhill, for doylies. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. F. Hanson, Newbuiyport, for 

infant's dress. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. T. M. Tyler, Lynn, for seven 

pieces fancy work. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. A. Blake, Haverhill, for cen- 
tre piece, mat, &c. 
2.00. Gratuity, to INIrs. Caroline Blake, Haverhill, for 
table cover and sofa pillow. 



76 

3.00. Gratuity, to Marc Ami, Methuen, for twelve sheets, 

socks and chemise. 
3.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. N. L. Sumner, Newburyport, for 

bolting scarf. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. E. M. Lewis, Newburyport, for 
lace handkerchief. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Fred J. Morey, Haverhill, for 

silk table cover. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. N. K. Stanley, Newburyport, for 

cigar table cover. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. S. E. Poor, Bradford, for edging. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. David Boardman, Georgetown 

for bureau scarf. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Bertha M. Larkin, Georgetown, for 

bureau scarf and doylies. 
50. Gratuity, to Nellie Stanley, Newburyport, for scarf. 
50. Gratuity, to M. A. Whittier, Haverhill, for centre 

piece. 
.50. Gratuity, to M. A. Whittier, Haverhill, for tea 

cloth. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. G. W. Walker, Haverhill, for 
picture throw. 

1.50. Gratuity, to Helen J. Yeaton, Georgetown, for pen 

and ink work. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. G. H. Grennan, Haverhill, for 

scarf. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. G. H. Grennan, Haverhill, for 

handkerchief. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. S. A. Hall, Middleton, for lace 

edging. 
3.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Mary P. Sprague, Haverhill, for 

table cover. 
.50. Gratuity, to Dillie Mullen, Haverhill, for banner. 
-50. Gratuity, to Mrs. E. B. Bishop, Haverhill, for balls. 
.50. Gratuity, to S. Alice George, Groveland, for apron. 
-50. Gratuity, to S. Alice George, Groveland, for table 

mat. 



77 

.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. E. F. Triestler, Haverhill, for 

doylies. 
50. Gratuity, to Dillie Mullen, Haverhill, for Whit- 
tier's birthplace. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Pauline Edelstein, Haverhill, for two 

scarfs. 
3.00. Gratuity, to Miss Bonney, Haverhill, for case of 

fancy work. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Miss Tapley, Haverhill, for case of 

millinery. 
3.00. Gratuity, to Miss Holbrook, Merrimac, for table 

cover. 
.50. Gratuity, to Mrs. Eben Mitchell, Haverhill, for 

table cover. 
2.00. Gratuity, to E. E. Graves, Haverhill, for case of 

millinery. 
3.00. Gratuity, to O. M. Paulus, Haverhill, for baby's 

cloak. 
Mrs. James How, Mrs. Fred G. Richards — ifor the Com- 
mittee. 



WORKS OF ART. 
The Committee on Works of Art have attended to 
their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 
they have made the following awards : 
1.00. Gratuity, to Gertrude Stan wood. West Newbury- 

for apples and jug. 
3.00. Gratuity, to Gertrude Stanwood, West Newbury, 

for crayon drawings. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Henry Sprague, Haverhill, for 

winter scene. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. M. H. Ricard, Haverhill, for 

Lake George. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Miss S. F. Franklin, Bradford, for 

Franklin Park. 



78 

8.00. Gratuity, to Miss S. F. Franklin, Bradford, for 

jar and drapery. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Miss S. F. Franklin, Bradford, for 

Japanese study. 
1.00. Gratuitj^, to Miss S. F. Franklin, Bradford, for 

celery. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Miss S. F. Franklin, Bradford, for 

wood duck. 
3.00. Gratuity, to Miss S. F. Franklin, Bradford, for 

lemons. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Helen E. Carew, Methuen, for fruit. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Helen E. Carew, Methuen, for Ken- 

oza Lake. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. H. S. Snelling, Bradford, for dog. 
1.00. Gratuit3% to Mrs. M. H. Ricard, Haverhill, for St. 

Helena. 
1.00. Gratuit}^ to Mrs. L. A. Dow, Haverhill, for peo- 
nies. 
3.00. Gratuit3% to Marion Warren, West Newbury, for 

wood carving. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Maggie M. Clark, Haverhill, for bull's 

head. 
3.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. J. JNI. Littlefield, Haverhill, for 

crayon children. 
2.00. Gratuity, to P. Holdenon, Haverhill, for flowers. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Miss Carrow, Bradford, for roses. 
1.00. Gratuity, to Miss Bingham, Lawrence, for painted 

china. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. Snelling, Bradford, for painted 

china. 
2.00. Gratuity, to Mrs. B. G. Kimball, Haverhill, for 

case of china. 
3.00. Gratuity, to Miss Farns worth, Haverhill, for two 
cases of china. 
Ruth Farnsworth, J\Irs. B. G. Kimball— ^/by the Comynit- 
tee. 



79 

CHILDKEN'S WORK. 
The Committee on Children's Work have attended to 

their duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that 

they have made the following awards: 

3.00. First premium, to Ethel A. Chamberlain, Law- 
rence, for table cover. 

2.00. Second premium, to Alice H. Ellis, Bradford, for 
quilt. 

2.00. Gratuity, to Helen G. Sargent, Methuen, for hand- 
kerchief. 

2.00. Gratuity, to Helen Maguire, Newburyport, for 
shopping bag. 

2.00. Gratuity, to Constance L. Abbott, Haverhill, for 
jelly. 

2.00. Gratuity, to Edith Pinkham, Haverhill, for mat. 

2.00. Gratuity, to Susie Walker, Haverhill, for quilt. 

Mrs. F. E. Day, Mrs. Isaac C. Day, Mrs, J. W. Chad- 
wick — for file Committee. 



MANUFACTURES AND GENERAL MERCHAN- 
DISE. 
The Committee on Manufactures and General Mer- 
chandise have attended to their duty, and respectfully 
report to the Secretary that they have made the follow- 
ing awards : 
2.00. Gratuity, to Thomas P. Harriman, Andover, for 

case horse shoes. 
2.00. Gratuity, to A. D. Griffin, Lawrence, for carpen- 
ter's tools, 150 years old. 
1.00. Gratuity, to P. Hoogerzill, Beverly, for baking 

pan. 
2. CO. Gratuity, to Moses Smith, West Newbury, for coll. 

of birds' eggs and nests. 
Diploma, to the Haverhill Hat Company for display of 
hats. 



80 

Diploma, to Jacobs & Co., Haverhill, for display of 

cloaks, dresses, &c. 
Diploma, to Brooks & Co. Haverhill, for carpets and rugs. 
Diploma, to Symonds Horse Shoe Co., Salem, for exhibit 

of horse shoes. 
Diploma, to C. H. Cox, Haverhill, for exhibit of flour^ 

grain, and meal. 
Diploma, to Chace Bros., Haverhill, for blank books and 

stationery. 
Frank J. Bradley, I. E. Perkins, F. H. Gulliver — Com- 
mittee. 



GRANGE EXHIBIT. 
The Committee on Granges have attended to their 
duty, and respectfully report to the Secretary that they 
have made the following awards: 
25.00. First premium, to Haverhill Grange, No. 154. 



REPORT. 

We were surprised on learning that the Haverhill 
griinge — No. 154 was the sole contributor to the fair as 
an organization. This exhibit was very commendable, 
and imposed on the committee the slight and agreeable 
du'^y of awarding it the first premium. 

Although not strictly in the line of duty of the com- 
mittee, we did try to learn the reasons that held ten of 
the eleven granges in Essex Co. aloof in the matter. The 
prevailing motive seemed to be "too much work." Here- 
tofore, we had supposed that the grangers were a set of 
workers. Certainly their facilities are ample — so are the 
prizes offered by the Agricultural Society. 

How can a spirit of emulation be aroused among the 
granges to bring out something like a general effort at 
the next annual fair of the Agricultural Society ? 



81 

Haydn Brown, Sherman Nelson, Mrs. David Warren — 

Committee. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON ROOT CROPS. 

To the Members of the Essex Agricultural Society: 

The Committee selected to examine root crops entered 
for premium, have the pleasure of submitting the follow- 
ing report : 

The number of ^entries this year was less than usual, 
being eight, viz.: 

John H. George, Methuen, onions ; Walter Smith, Me- 
thuen, potatoes and cabbage; Crystal Lake Farm, Haver- 
hill, J. J. Marsh, proprietor ; E. C. Little, superinten- 
dent, mangolds and onions ; Kent & Marsh, Newbury- 
port, onions; Dr. J. 0. McAllister, Lawrence, cabbage; 
Maurice H. Conner, West Newbury, cabbage. The Com- 
mittee desire to thank each competitor whom they had 
occasion to visit, for the cordial manner in which they 
were received. 

Our first visit was made Sept. 6, at the field of onions 
entered by Mr. John H. George, Methuen. At the time 
of our visit the onions had not been pulled, but nearly 
every onion in the field was thoroughly ripened down, 
ready for market. 

The onions were grown upon a peat meadow — the soil 
seeming to be particularly adapted to that crop. 

Mr. George evidently believes in producing the largest 
possible crop, on a given area. The rows were a little 
less than twelve inches apart, and the onions were grown 
so closely together, that they were literally piled one 
above another. We noticed several places where from 
thirteen to sixteen onions of marketable size, were pro- 
duced upon one foot of the row. The onions when 
pulled, are not allowed to remain in the field, exposed to 



82 

the sun, but are packed in crates or boxes, and placed at 
once in the storehouse, ready for marketing, thus saving 
time and labor in handling. 

So far as your Committee can judge, Mr. George 
seemed to have reduced the culture of onions almost to an 
art. 

The same da}^ we visited the fields of potatoes and cab- 
bage entered by Mr. Walter Smith, JMethuen. About one- 
half of the piece of potatoes was grown on peat meadow, 
and the appearance was rather above the average, for the 
season. The remainder of the piece was on upland, 
which was quite rocky, and was hardly an average crop. 

Owing to the incompleteness of Mr. Smith's statement, 
no mention being made of cost of manure, nor to value 
of crop, your committee do not feel justified in recom- 
mending an award. 

The field of cabbage entered by Mr. Smith, we did not 
consider eligible for a premium, as at the time of our visit 
some of them were headed, large enough for market, 
while others were but fair sized plants — causing the field 
to present a very uneven appearance. 

Sept. 16, we went to Haverhill, where we were met by 
Mr. E. C. Little, who conveyed us to Crystal Lake Farm, 
of which he is superintendent. We spent some time in 
looking over the farm, which showed evidence of thrift 
and good management. The piece of mangolds entered 
for premium looked ver}^ finely. 

As Mr. Little cultivates comparatively large fields, he 
finds it better to have the rows sufficiently wide apart to 
admit of the use of the horse hoe and cultivator in caring 
for his crops, thus saving much hand work. 

On another part of the farm, Mr. Little showed us the 
piece of onions which had been entered for premium. 
Here, as in the field of mangolds, Mr. Little beheves in 
having plenty of room to work, the rows being fifteen or 
sixteen inches apart. At the time of our visit, the onions 



had not been pulled, but were generally well ripened, and 
nearly all were of marketable size. One unusual feature in 
regard to this crop was, that although a part of the field 
was in grass in 1892, and was plowed and manured in 
August of that year, there was no perceptible difference 
between the yield upon that part of the field, and the por- 
tion which had previously produced root crops. 

On the afternoon of the same day we went to New- 
buryport. Here we were met by Mr. Kent, who took us 
to view the field of onions, entered by Messrs. Kent and 
Marsh. Here we found that the onions had been pulled 
but not gathered. Mr. Marsh informed us that in this 
field the rows were about fourteen inches apart, and 
judging from the way that the onions covered the ground, 
they must have grown very thickly. The field was situ- 
ated on quite an elevation, and the soil appeared to be 
well adapted to the production of root crops generall}'. 
Here, as in all the other fields shown us by Messrs. Kent 
and ]Marsh, there was ample proof that the managers un- 
derstood their business. 

Our next visit was made at the farm of Dr. J. G. Mc- 
Allister, Methuen. Here we found a field of very nice 
cabbage, all ready for market. Variety, Henderson's Suc- 
cession. The heads were remarkably uniform in size, and 
presented a fine appearance. The field gave evidence of 
having been carefully cultivated, and well cared for. 

The last visit of the season was made at the farm of 
Mr. Maurice H. Conner, West Newbury. Here we found 
an excellent crop of cabbage, variety. Stone Mason. One 
point in which we were specially interested, is that Mr. 
C'Onner has for several years used seed raised by himself. 
By careful selection and cultivation he has succeeded in 
greatly improving the original strain, and producing very 
deep and solid heads of cabbage. 

A comparison of the statements concerning the various 
crops of onions, will be interesting in showing that under 



84 

favorable conditions, onions be planted closer, and better 
results obtained. 

The Committee have inspected all the crops that were 
entered and after examining the statement of each crop, 
recommend the following awards : 

I|10. First premium to John H. George, Methuen, for 
crop of onions. 
'^5. Second premium to Kent & Marsh, Newburyport, 

for crop of onions. 
••^S. Second premium to Crystal Lake Farm, Haverhill, 
J. J. Marsh, Proprietor, E. C. Little, Superin- 
tendent, for crop of mangolds, 
•f 10. First premium to Maurice H. Connor, West New- 
bury, for crop of cabbage. 
f5. Second premium to Dr. J. G. McAllister, Methuen, 
for crop of cabbage. 
Frederick A. Russell, William S. Phillips, Jr., Albert 
Emerson — Committee. 



STATEMENT OF A CROP OF ONIONS RAISED BY JOHN H. 
GEORGE, OF METHUEN, ESSEX CO., MASS. 

The land on which the crop was raised was Peat Mead- 
ow. The land in 1891 was in grass, in 1892 there was a 
crop of potatoes raised on it, manured with chemical ma- 
nure one ton per acre. In the fall, after the potatoes were 
dug, there was applied about eight cords per acre of gravel 
into which had been run ten one horse loads of night-soil. 
Tt laid on top of the ground all winter. In the spring it 
was ploughed in, the ground was harrowed, brushed and 
sowed with 3i pounds of Yellow Globe Danvers onion 
seed. The rows were a scant foot apart, they were hoed 
five times, weeded thoroughly three times. They were 
liarvested and put into the onion house in ten hours by 
one man and four boys. The crop was five hundred and 



85 

seventeen bushels to the half acre of medium sized onions, 
very few small ones and none overgrown, no scullions. 
The manure cost me less than nothing on the ground but 
for a fair statement 1 shall call it the price of ordinary ma- 
nure on the ground. The onions are all sold at an aver- 
age of 90 cts. per bushel but are not all delivered. They 
were measured in crates which your committee saw. Ont; 
hundred bushels topped and the shrinkage reckoned on 
that basis. The statement is as follows : 



To four cords manure on land, 
'■* ploughing one half acre, 
'■' harrowing and brushing, 
" sowing, 

" Si lbs. seed at -13.00, 
" hoeing five times, 

" weeding three times, 12 days boy work, 
*' harvesting, 

"■ topping and marketing at 3 cts. per bush., 
" interest and taxes. 



By 517 bushels onions at 90 cts. 

Less 

Profit per ^ acre. 
Profit per acre. 

Respectfully submitted, 

John H. George. 

This may certify that I have measured the piece of land 
on which grew the onions which John H. George entered 
with the Essex Agricultural Society for premium and it 
contains one half acre. 

Walter Smith. 



B 


•r. 


$24 00 


2 


00 




75 




75 


10 


50 


' 7 


50 


9 


00 


5 


00 


, 15 


51 


3 


00 


$78 


01 


Ci 




$465 30 


78 


01 


$387 


29 


$774 


58 



86 

STATEMENT CONCERNING A CIlOP OF CABBAGES RAISED- 
BY J. G. MCALLISTER IN THE TOWN OF 
METHUEN, IN 1893. 

Hay crop in 1891, no manure; hay crop in 1892, no 
manure: medium heavy, dry soil; plowed once in 1893^ 
from six to eight inches deep. 

Dr. 
Plowing, $2 00 

Harrowing, 2 00 

5 cords manure at <f5.00, 25 00 

Seed " Henderson's Succession," 2 00 

Planting, 2 00 

Phosphate, 500 pounds, 7 00 

Cultivating, 2 00 

Hoeing and thinning, 5 00 

Harvesting and marketing, 10 00 

Interest on land and taxes, 6 00 



By 232 bbls. cabbages at 50c., 
" plants sold, 
" 10 loads leaves sold at 50c., 



Expenses, 

Profit per half acre, $63 00 

Profit per acre, $426 00 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. G. McAllister. 

I hereby certify that I measured the land on which was 
grown the half acre of cabbages entered for premium by 
J. G. McAllister in the town of Methueu in 1893. 

Abram Stave. 



$63 00 


Cr. 


$116 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


$126 


00 


63 


00 



87 

STATEMENT OF MAURICE H. CONNOR, CABBAGE CROP. 

The half acre of cabbages entered by me were raised on 
land that has been in grass for the last five years, the crop 
last year being about one ton to the acre. The soil is a 
gravelly loam, the manure was ploughed under in May 
about six inches deep 25 loads per acre and 400 pounds of 
phosphate in the hill ; the seed was dropped about the 
10th of June and cultivated and hoed three times. There 
were 2925 heads on the half acre and we find by weighing 
the product of two rods they will average eight pounds 
each, which would give 46,-^00 lbs. or 464 bbls. per acre 
allowing 100 pounds to the barrel. 

COST PER ACRE. 

Ploughing and preparing land, -110 00 

Seed and sowing, 4 00 

Cultivating and hoeing, 16 00 

40 lbs. of Bradley's phosphate, 6 50 

25 loads of manure, 50 00 



Cost per acre before harvesting, 186 50 

VALUE OF CROP IN THE FIELD. 

5850 cabbages at 4c. each, 234 00 



Profit per acre, $147 50 

I hereby certify that I have measured a field of cab- 
bages entered for premium by Maurice H. Connor and find 
it contains one-half acre. 

Moses Smith. 



STATEMENT OF A CROP OF ONIONS RAISED BY E. C. 
LITTLE, SUPT. CRYSTAL LAKE FARM. 
To the Committee on Root Crops: 

The crop last was beets, carrots and cabbages. The 
land is a sandy loam ; ploughed the manure in last fall at 
the rate of ten cords per acre, harrowed this spring and 
sowed the seed the 25th of April. The seed came up 
well but one side was washed out badly by rain. 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 

Br. 

To ploughing one-half acre of land, $2 00 

" harrowing, 1 00 

" raking and picking stones, 2 60 

" sowing seed, .75 
" 3 lbs. of seed, Yellow Globe, raised bj 

Chas. A. Lunt, Newbury, 9 00 

" weeding four times, 12 00 

" hoeing, 3 00 

" harvesting, 25 00 

" use of land, 6 00 

" manure, 30 00 

" topping, 10 00 



By 345 bush, onions at 75cts. per bush., 
" 6 bush, small ones at 50 cts., 



Net profit, $160 60 

Respectfully submitted, 

E. C. Little. 

This to certify that I measured a piece of land for E. 
C. Little and it contained one-half an acre. 

Henry W. Lang. 



$101 


25 


Cr. 




$258 


75 


3 


00 


$261 


75 


101 


25 



statement of e. c. little, supt. crystal lake 

FARM. 

To the Committee on Root Crops : 

The crop of mangels which I enter for premium were 
raised on yellow loam land, quite rocky. The crop of 



89 



1892 was onions ; in the fall I spread on about six cords 
of stable manure and ploughed it in ; in the spring of 

1893 J gave the land a good harrowing and picked oif the 
rocks. I used Stockbridge root manure, put on with corn 
planter, four hundred pounds to the acre, the rows being 
three feet apart. I then sowed the seed with Sargent's 
onion machine, running in the drills I had previously 
made with the corn planter. 1 weeded and thinned them 
out twice and cultivated them eight times. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 
Dr. 
To plowing I acre and 5 rods of land, 
" harrowing, 

" marking and putting on fertilizer, 
" 300 lbs. fertilizer, 
" 2 lbs. seed, 

•' weeding and thinning out twice, 
" cultivating, 
" use of land, 
" 6 cords manure, 
" pulling and storing, 



By 700 bush, of mangles, 
" 18 loads of tops. 



Or. 



13 


00 


2 


00 


1 


50 


6 


00 


1 


60 


12 


00 


5 


00 


6 


00 


30 


00 


16 


00 



183 00 

$225 00 
18 00 

$243 00 
83 00 



Profit, 1160 00 

Respectfully submitted, 

E. C. Little. 

This is to certify that I measured a piece of land for 
E. C. Little on which was raised a crop of mangels which 
measured | of an acre and 5 rods. 

Henky W. Lang. 



90 

STATEMENT OF A CROP OF ONIONS RAISED BY 
KENT & MAESH. 

The half acre of onions we enter for premium is on the 
same piece of land that we entered last year, the treat- 
ment being different. We spread 4i cords of stable ma- 
nure last fall and let it lay until the spring. It was 
ploughed April 18th and sown April 24th with 2 lbs. Dan- 
vers Yellow Globe and i lb. Cracker Onion seed. The seed 
came up splendid but the maggots thinned them some- 
what. Had we sown all Danvers Globe seed the result 
would have been larger, as we found the Cracker onion 
not near the cropper as the Danvers. We have had three 
good crops from the same piece and shall sow it again 
with onion next season. 

CROP. 

Ploughing and preparing, 

42 cords manure at $5.00, 

2i lbs. seed at 13.00, 

Sowing, 

Hoeing and weeding, 

Harvesting, 

175 00 

Or. 

By 404 bush, onions at 60 cts., $242 40 

Profit, $168 40 

Respectfully submitted, 

Kent & Marsh. 

This is to certify that I have measured the onion land 
for Kent& Marsh and find it to contain eighty rods. 

Chas. W. Nelson. 



Br. 


4 


00 


22 


50 


7 


50 


1 


00 


25 


00 


15 


00 



91 

ilEPORT OF COMMITTEE ON STRAWBERRIES 
AND OTHER SMALL FRUITS. 

The Committee on Strawberries and other small fruits 
have attended to their duty, and respectfully report to the 
Secretary that they have made the following awards : 

The first visit was made to the crop of B. W. Farnum, 
of No. Andover, which gave evidence of good manage- 
ment. The crop was large and the vines were in a very 
healthy condition. The varieties were Charles Downing 
and Crescent. 

The next visit was made to the farm of J. W. Barton, of 
Danvers, near Hospital. This crop was not so large in 
proportion to the land cultivated, as that of Mr. Farnum, 
but the berries were very fine in appearance and excellent 
in quality. Here we saw for the first time the Beverly in 
full bearing, a new variety of great promise, of fine form, of 
large size, good flavor and eminently worthy of cultivation. 

The crop of Strawberries on the farm of Fred Stultz, of 
West Newbury was very good for the season and much 
skill was manifested, not only in the cultivation and ar- 
rangement of the rows, but good judgment also in the se- 
lection of the varieties. 

The Committee after discussing all the points in rela- 
tion to the crops visited, agree that the berries of Mr. 
Barton were larger and finer than any which we saw and 
his vines were healthy. While duty compels us to award 
the premium of Ten Dollars to Mr. Barton, still as there 
is no second premium offered for Strawberries, the Com- 
mittee recommend that a gratuity of Five Dollars be 
awarded to Mr. Farnum. 

The crop of blackberries entered for premium by Mr. 
Stultz of West Newbury were very fine and considering 
the age of the plants, the, crop was a very good one. 

As there was no competition, the Committee awarded 
the premium of Ten Dollars to Mr. Stultz. 

Chas. B. Emerson, Andrew Lackey, William Hilton — 
Committee. 



92 

STATEMENT OF STRAWBERRY CROP, J. WEBB BARTON,. 
DANVERS, MASS. 

The piece of- land which I enter, bore a good crop of 
strawberries in 1890 and again in 1891, and after picking, 
was phmted to cucumbers for pickling. The next spring 
(1892) the plants bearing the present crop were set out. 
The land is moist, somewhat heav}^ but free from stand- 
ing water. 

The stable manure, bone and potash, were harrowed in 
just before setting the plants. The rows were four feet 
distant from each other and the plants two feet more or 
less, in the row. For the most part runners were allowed 
to grow freely. A few rows were set out in August and 
kept in ''hills" and these were very satisfactory — yet to 
be successful in getting a good crop of fruit the next year 
from plants set so late, all things must be favorable for a 
good growth, and above all, good plants to start with. 

A covering of meadow hay was put on in December, 
removed the middle of April and immediately 437 lbs. of 
home-made fertilizer applied directly upon the vines. 

The first picking was June 19th and the last for market, 
July 15th. Upon land similar to this many varieties will 
blight or rust badly. An experiment in spraying with 
Bordeaux Mixture to prevent this rust did not prove suc- 
cessful. I made two applications with a Knapsack ma- 
chine and I regret to say I could see no difference between 
sprayed and unsprayed vines, yet there may have been 
some good reason for this, and I hope others may not be 
discouraged from similar experiments. 

The varieties were Belmont, Beverly, Haverland, Cres- 
cent, Downing, Babach No. 5, Beder Wood and Warfield 
No. 2. Of these Beverly in " hills '' and Haverland in 
matted rows were very satisfactory. There were also a 
few plants of perhaps ten other varieties for testing. 



93 

Cr. 
By 3388 boxes sold $431 73 

Dr. 
Ploughing, $2 25 

3 cords manure, 15 00 

400 lbs. Bone and 100 lbs. Mur. Potash, 8 00 

Labor preparing land and putting on manure, 10 52 
2500 plants and setting same, 16 50 

Cultivating and weeding in 1892, 37 79 

Hen manure, 2 00 

Hay for covering and labor, 10 00 

Weeding, etc., in 1893, 27 95 

Chemicals in spraying, 33 

437 lbs. fertilizer in 1893, 7 35 

Picking crop, 71 00 

Marketing, 50 82 





1257 51 


Profit on crop 22,295 sq. ft.. 


$174 22 


RATE PER ACRE. 




6537 boxes. 


$832 81 


Cost of production and marketing. 


500 94 



Net Profit, $331 87 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. Webb Barton. 
I hereby certify that the strawberry bed entered by J. 
■Webb Barton contains 22,295 sq. ft. 

Joshua W. Nichols. 



statement of benjamin w. farnum, north ando- 
ver, on strawberry crop, 1893. 
The piece of land which I enter for premium on straw- 
berry crop, contains 20 rods. The soil is a gravelly loam, 
rocky sub soil, sloping to the south. 



94 

In 1891 I raised a crop of peas and a crop of barley^ 
putting on plenty of barn manure each time. In May,. 
1892, set out strawberry plants, Crescent and Downing, 
the rows being 3^ feet apart, and plants one foot apart in 
the rows. I kept the weeds out clean, and allowed run- 
ners to cover the ground. June 19, 1893, commenced 
picking the berries, and finished July 12. 

Or. 



956 boxes of berries, at 12 


7-10 cts. 


$121 64 






Dr. 




Ploughing ground 




50 




Setting plants 




1 50 




Manure 




3 00 




Cultivating and weeding 




4 00 




Covering with pine needles 




1 00 




Uncovering in spring 




50 




Picking 956 boxes at 2 cts. 




19 12 




Marketing" " " " " 




19 12 


48 74 


Net profit on crop 






72 90 


Rate per 


acre: 






7648 boxes 






973 12 


Cost 






389 92 



Net profit, 583 20 

Respectfully submitted, 

Benjamin W. Farnum. 

I hereby certify that I measured the land on which 
grew the crop of strawberries entered by Benj. W. Far- 
num, for premium, and find it contains one eighth of an acre. 

Amos D. Caelton. 



STATEMENT OF FRED STULTZ, WEST NEWBURY, OF BLACK- 
BERRY CROP. 

The i acre of land on which I raised the blackberries 
•which I enter for premium, was wet land, badly run out. 



95 

T ploughed it two years before I set the vines and raised 
the first year a crop of field corn, and the second fodder 
corn. Let me say, just here, that I selected this particu- 
lar piece of land, as to location, as carefully as though I 
intended sowing it to Canada Thistles, for the spreading 
of blackberry vines into one's field land is a joke not apt 
to be appreciated. 

In the spring of 1892 I ploughed without putting on 
any manure, and harrowed with a spring tooth harrow. 
With the plough I drew furrows 6^ ft. apart. I had a com- 
post made of sods taken from the roadside, and I put one 
shovelful under each plant. Set plants, or vines 8^ feet 
apart in the row. The variety was Agawam and 1 plant- 
ed about 600 vines. I run the cultivator through them 
several times and hoed at odd times. Blackberries are a 
thing you can work at all the time or let alone, because the 
young ones come up so fast, but I tried to keep the weeds 
out, and young shoots back. In the spring of 1893 I cut 
them back and set stakes down each row about five rods 
apart, and nailed around fencing wire onto the stakes 
down one side of each row and back the other, and trained 
the vines between these wires. I made a mistake in not 
cutting the vines back in the fall of '92, the first year they 
were set. In the spring of 1893 they had grown and tan- 
gled so badly that in order to train between the wires I 
had to cut the vines severely, thereby somewhat injuring 
my fruit crop for this year, '93. I had to cut off long run- 
ners in full blossom. It is a mistake I shall try not to make 
again. I have them now as your Committee saw, so that 
I can cultivate easily between the rows. I left about two 
vines in a place for next year and a few more to sell to 
cover the first cost of the vines. I should have stated 
that the first year they were set I raised small crops be- 
tween the rows, mostly beans, so the loss of land is noth- 
ing. It must be borne in mind that a crop like this is 
different from a strawberry crop, as after being once 



96 

started it goes on indefinitely, so that the net profit on 
first year can hardly be estimated. 









Cr. 


400 boxes blackberries 






$48 00 
Br. 


Wire 






16 00 


Stakes and work 






10 00 


Picking 






8 00 

^24 00 


Net profit, 


$24 00 


Respectfully 


subi 


nitted. 








Feed S 


TULTZ. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON GRAIN CROPS. 

The Committee on Grain Crops respectfuU}^ report that 
there were six entries, and we recommend the following 
premiums: 

$10. First premium, to C. K. Ordway & Son, West New- 
bury, for crop of corn. 
$5. Second premium, to Newton Jaquith, Jr., Andover, 
for crop of corn. 
$10. First premium, to J. J. H. Gregory, Middletou, for 

crop of rye. 
$10. First premium, to C. K. Ordway & Son, West New- 
bury, for crop of English hay. 
A crop of Rye was also entered for premium by Hart- 
well B. Abbott of Andover, but owing to illness at the 
time of harvesting Mr. Abbott failed to make a statement, 
his crop although perhaps not equal to the unusual crop 
of Mr. Gregory's, was a good one, and would have been 
worthy of a premium. 

Daniel A. Carltoo, John Barker, Peter D. Smith, C. C. 
Blunt — Commillee. 



97 

STATEMENT OF C. K. ORDWAY & SON, CORN CROP. 

This corn was raised on land that has been in grass for 
14 years and received no manure, or fertilizer during that 
time. Plowed the first week in May ten inches deep, and 
applied six cords of barn-yard manure spread broadcast, 
and harrowed with Randall Harrow, smoothed with a 
grain drag, marked three and one half feet each way, 
planted with a hand planter, May 22, with eight quarts 
of corn, of my own raising. 

There was no fertilizer used on the corn. 

The corn looked very well when the committee saw it. 
Later the high wind and storm broke it down, and dam- 
aged the crop very much. 

The pleasant fall weather has ripened the corn well. 

The corn was harvested Oct. 21 and 25. 

COST OF CROP PER ACRE. 





Br. 


Ploughing and harrowing, 


■16 00 


Six cords of manure, 


30 00 


Spreading and harrowing, 


3 00 


Seed and planting, 


1 00 


Hoeing and cultivating, 


5 00 


Topping corn. 


2 00 


Harvesting, 


6 00 


Harvesting Stover, 


2 00 




•f-55 00 


Gr. 




Top Stalks, 115 00 




(Corn weighed 5,670 lbs.) 




Bushels of shelled corn to acre, 81 60 75 




Stover, 12 00 




Two thirds manure in land, 20 00 




Value of crop, $175 00 




Profit, $52 75 




Respectfully submitted. 




C. K. Ordway 


&SON. 



98 



West Newbury, Oct. 23, 1893. 
This is to certify that I have measured the land belong- 
ing to C. K. Ordway & Son on which the corn grew, that 
they entered for premium. It contains one acre. 

Wm. E. Ambrose. 



STATEMENT OF NEWTON JAQUITH, JR., CORN CROP. 

The piece of corn entered by me for premium wa& 
raised on ground that in 1891 was in grass and received 
no manure that year. In 1892 the crop was corn, well 
manured with barn manure. The present year no manure 
was used except a small amount of fertilizer in the drill. 
On the acre 132 baskets or 66 bushels of shelled corn 
were raised. 

The cost of the crop was as follows, viz. 

Ploughing, 

Harrowing, ' 

Planting, 

Fertilizer, 

Hoeing twice, 

Cutting, 

Husking, 

Carting to Barn, 

136 80 
Respectfully submitted, 

Newton Jaqutth, Jr. 



13 00 


1 


50 


6 


50 


4 


50 


4 


50 


5 


80 


6 


50 


4 


50 



statement of C. K. ordway & SON, HAY CROP. 

This piece of land has been in grass four years. It is 
intervale land on the bank of the river. 
It contains two and one half acres, (2^). 



99 

The weight of the hay 11,400 lbs. or 5 tons, 1400 lbs., 
making 2 tons, 660 lbs. to the acre, at 120 per ton. 

1114 00 
Cutting and storing, 12 50 



il02 50 
Respectfully submitted, 

C. K. Oedway & Son. 
West Newbury, Oct. 23, 1893. 
This is to certify that I have measured the land belong- 
ing to C. K. Ordway & Son, on which the hay grew that 
they entered for premium. It contains 2 1-2 acres. 

Wm. E. Ambrose. 



STATEMENT CONCERNING A CROP OF RYE RAISED BY 
J. J. H. GREGORY. IN THE TOWN OF MIDDLETON, 1893. 

Crop of 1891 was sweet corn for seed, manured with 
stable manure, about 4 cords harrowed in and 500 lbs. of 
corn fertilizer used in the drill. Crop of IS92 was peas, 
raised for seed and hence ripened. About 6 cords of 
manure harrowed in, and 500 lbs. of dissolved bone black 
used in the drill. Soil, a good loam, somewhat stony, of 
the drift formation. It was ploughed once for the peas 
about 7 inches deep, and after peas were removed the same 
depth for the rye. No manure or commercial fertilizer 
was used on the rye ; it fed on what was left over from 
that applied to the pea crop. One bushel of seed was 
broadcasted by hand and harrowed in. 

COST OF CROP. 

Seed and sowing, %1 00 

Ploughing and harrowing, 4 00 

Mowing and binding, 4 50 

Carting to seed house, 2 5 

Threshing, 10 00 

$2-2 25 



100 



VALUE OF CROP PER ACRE. 



42 1-7 bushels, 
4785 lbs. of straw, 



$42 


14 


35 


78 


177 


92 


22 


25 



$55 67 
Respectfully submitted, 

J. J. H. Gregory. 
I hereby certify that I measured the land and noted the 
weight of the crop of rye that was raised in Middleton, 
Mass., this year, 1893, on the farm of J. J. H. Gregory, 
and that the land measured 50,625 square feet, and the 
rye grain that grew thereon weighed 2,780 lbs. and the 
straw 5,565 lbs. 

C. A. Hill. 



REPORT OF DELEGATE FROM STATE BOARD 
OF AGRICULTURE. 

Your delegate attended the fair of the Essex Agricul- 
tural Society held at Lawrence, Sept. 27th and 28th. The 
weather was favorable to success ; the pi'ogramme was 
carried out in a commendable manner. The exhibition of 
horticulture, domestic manufactures and works of art, 
was held in the City Hall, a place easy of access, and well 
adapted for the classification and arrangement of the va- 
rious exhibits. Here the exhibitors must have felt that 
their various offerings were shown to advantage ; while 
the visitor gained instruction and pleasure from the merit 
and variety of articles shown. The Grange exhibition 
was in an adjoining hall ; the variety and completeness of 
these exhibits excited universal commendation. Your del- 
egate questions however the wisdom of making the 



101 

Grange exhibitions a separate and distinct department. 
The show of Farm Stock, Poidtry, &c., was held in a 
vacant lot on the bank of the Merrimac river. Here also 
was the creditable display of agricultural tools, a depart- 
ment worthy of generous recognition in all of our fairs. 
The Ayrshire herd of Mr. J. D. W. French, of Andover, 
deserves especial mention, among the numerous entries of 
dairy stock. The show of horses was inferior in quality. 
The lack of comfortable stalls, with the absence of a suit- 
able place for showing horses, either to halter or in harness^ 
doubtless dampens the enthusiasm of horse owners to com- 
pete at this fair. Your delegate found some of the horses 
on exhibition confined in their stalls by boards nailed in 
front. It was easy to see how the animal was put in, but 
how could he be gotten out ? As the classes were called-, 
this difficulty was solved by the use of an axe. If our 
fairs are designed as object lessons in the best agricul- 
tural methods, surely methods so primitive and wasteful 
should be avoided. The poultry exhibit was large, and 
many fine specimens were shown ; an entire lack of class- 
ification and arrangement detracted much from its pur- 
pose of giving either instruction or pleasure. The draw- 
ing contests were shown on one of the rising streets of the 
city. Certainly the most sensitive could have found 
nothing here to offend. There was neither the harsh 
word, nor more cruel whip. Not the extreme limit of 
strength was called for, but the ability to move heavy 
loads with firmness and ease. The plowing match, though 
a mile distant, was a splendid object lesson in this impor- 
tant branch of successful tillage. The Essex Society em 
phasizes by its generous premiums, its belief that good 
ploughing is an important step in good farming. I close 
this hasty report, assured that the Old Essex Society, with 
its accumulation of wisdom, gained from the Fathers that 
sleep, and from her sons still loyal and true, needs not 
the advice of the stranger within her gates. Many of 



102 

these sons are asking whether the years of wandering, 
should not now give place to the permanent home? Does 
not a wise answer demand a recognition of facts as they 
exist today^ not as they may have been fifty years ago ? 
The above is respectfully submitted by 

Chas. a. Mills. 



FARMERS' INSTITUTES. 

The Society held six Institutes and one field meeting 
during the season of 1892-3, on as many different days 
forenoon and afternoon, at which the following subjects 
were opened by carefully prepared essays, and freely dis- 
cussed by any and all persons present who cared to dis- 
cuss them, viz: 

1. "How to make Poultry keeping profitable.'' 

2. '■• Cooking." 

3. " The advantages of Special and General Farming." 

4. " A Brief History of Agricultural work in the 
United States." 

5. " Highways and Road Building." 

6. " Fruit in general, and Pears in particular." 

7. '' Underdraining." 

8. '^Cranberry Culture." 

9. " Poultry." 

10. " Milch Cows." ■ 

11. " How to make small farms pay." 

12. " Experience among Farmers of California." 

The first Institute of the season, and 88th of the series, 
■was held at the Town Hall, West Newbury, in connection 
with the State Board of Agriculture, Friday, Jan. 18, 1898. 
The subject in the forenoon being " How to make Poul- 
try-keeping Profitable," by Dr. George M. Twitchell, of 
Augusta, Maine, who was introduced b}^ President Ap- 
pleton. The speaker prefaced his remarks by saying that 
as he was a professional man he did not wish his hearers 



103 

to get (lie impiession that he was not afarmei'. for he was ; 
he had been in piactice professionally, but owing to fail- 
ins^ health had returned to his first love — the farm. He 
said he wanted to speak to the every da}^ farmer who 
made his living from his farm, and not to the iancy farm- 
er, oi' breeder. We are to talk about an industry that 
seems small, but yet is one of our leading and most profit- 
able ones. What is necessary for success? In the first 
place if you want to produce an egg, you must find out 
the cost of production, and for this one must have a 
knowledge of the business. There must be an enthusi- 
asm in the work. A man who is a farmer simply because 
he must be, will not succeed. If you desire eggs you 
must cultivate your hen accordingly, and a long narrow 
bird is the desired one. If you want meat then she must 
be short and blocky. Theie must be a distinct separation 
of the two classes, you cannot combine them. I do not 
think a man as a farmer can breed pure stock at a piofit. 
By the use of grade hens you avail yourselves of the labors 
of the specialist, without the trouble of attaining that end; 
In mapping out the business for a year, first have an inex- 
pensive building, say 12x20 costing from $25 to $35, 
this is room enough for 40 or 50 hens. The rations 
should be balanced to the needs of the creature. Two 
things are essential, (juantity and quality. It must be 
easily digested and not too rich in food elements ; 40 parts 
of oats, 40 of shorts, 10 of corn, 5 of scraps, 5 of linseed is 
a good mixture, which should be steamed over night. If 
you want to get good results get up and feed them as 
soon as they come from the roost, feed a little at a time, 
and regulate it according to the size of your flock. If 
they are given a large amount, the hens will eat ravenous- 
ly, gorging themselves with too much food, and you want 
to regulate this so they will leave nothing, and still have 
food enough. At noon give them vegetables and at 3 or 4 
o'clock a quart of grain to twenty hens will be found suffi- 



104 

cient, the question is not how much they will eat, but how 
much they need. Farmers are really most wasteful be- 
cause as a rule they feed too liberally, the speaker then 
described the component parts and elements of an egg, 
and demonstrated that the hen will perform her duty in 
such structure if you but give her the proper food to sup- 
ply them. If you want good eggs you must give healthy 
food ; stimulating foods, such as some of the advertised 
ones, are bad and produce unnatural eggs, and in the end 
defeat the object sought. Very cold nights it is bad to 
give an extra supply of corn as it is slower to digest, and 
in this connection do not let your hens out in the winter, 
except an hour in the middle of a pleasant da}^ as the 
chill seriously affects their laying ; pure air, pure water, 
and pure ventilation, with cleanliness, is most essential 
for profit. It followed on these lines, a profit of -$2 can be 
realized on a flock of 25 to 50, $i.50 on flocks from 100 
to 500, and $1 apiece for over that. This has been 
proved by repeated experiments. The best food for 
chickens is 30 parts corn, 30 of bran, 5 of ground oats, 5 
of meat scraps, 5 of linseed mixed with skim milk, and 
bake hard, pound up and feed in small quantities eight 
times a day. It has been proved that incubators are not 
profitable unless you are going to raise from 300 to 1,000 
chickens. The speaker then said it was no place for hens 
on your front door steps, but they want a good run where 
they can have plenty of work to do, they want to work to 
thrive, and they want plenty of shade, do not expose them 
to the broiling sun. A fat hen or a poro one cannot lay 
well, but a good healthy hen will lay. Just as soon as you 
can detect the sex of your chickens, separate them, and 
give the pullets the widest range, and feed the cockerels 
for the market. 

The speaker was interrupted with questions all through 
his remarks and answered them fully and satisfactorily. 



10.") 

The afteinoon meeting was called to order at half past 
one, when the President introduced Miss Anna Barrows, of 
Boston, who gave a verj^ interesting and instructive talk 
on cooking. Miss Barrows perfaced her remarks by ex- 
I)laining that in one afternoon a person cannot get any- 
thing more than a birds-eye of cookery, but she would 
illustrate" as far as time would permit. AV'liat she pro- 
posed to do was to take up the articles of food needed 
daily and show how to make them more attractive. At 
first she considered Macaroni with Tomato, fully ex- 
plaining the composition of Macaroni and dwelling on its 
nutritious nature ; as it is very starchy it should be put in- 
to boiling water at once, boiling twenty minutes, after 
which drain it and put cold water over it, then heat and, 
strain your tomato. We realize the system of bettei- 
arrangement of our work and for this reason we have 
applied our cooking school to our school system, where the 
boys and girls alike are doing most excellent work. In 
beginning work one should measure out everything before 
mixing, and in greasing a pan it is a good idea to dust a 
little flour over it to prevent sticking. All ordinary 
things like sugar, flour, etc., are measured by the rounded 
spoonful, and all strong things by the even spoonful. 
Sifted flour, salt and baking powder are called prepared 
flour and can be purchased at stores as such. It is well 
to mix quite a quantity at a time and have it on hand. 
It is important to measure everything you use in cooking 
notwithstanding old housekeepers have learned to meas- 
ure with their eye. 

A thin mixture is called a batter, a stiff one dough, and 
there is a great difference in flour, for bread and pastr3% 
which should be borne in mind. The cooking school is 
trying to teach judgment, care and forethought. It is. 
only possible to get pupils started in the right direction, 
not to make trained cooks. She then went on to the fin- 
ishing of an apple pudding which she had previously be- 



106 

gun, and said that in summer it might be used with ber- 
ries in the same way. In regard to the baking she dwelt 
At length on the condition of the oven. If it be too hot, 
a thick crust forms on the dough before it rises; if it be 
too cold, little bubbles form and the dough falls flat. 
There are as many different kinds of sauces as there are 
c.ike, but they can all be reduced to a simple formula. 
The plan of work is exactly the same, having the simple 
foundation it can be treated with an endless variation. 
The kitchen utensils are improving constantly and grow- 
ing cheaper in price. 

The majority of our homes are painfully lacking in good 
"Utensils, and if every home had moi-e it would be surpris- 
ing to see how much labor might be saved. 

In referring to canned goods she said the}' were all 
right if used at once upon opening, but on no account 
should they be allowed to stand in the can exposed to the 
air. 

At this point she urged the use of oil stoves in summer 
for cooking and heating purposes. By judicious manage- 
ment one can arrange to cook an entire dinner on one of 
t!ie single oil stoves. She here gave the formula for the 
s uice to go with the macaroni which she had previously 
cooked, and also several other receipts so that a person 
could use up all the odds and ends to make them palata- 
ble. In conclusion she gave some most useful and prac- 
tical hints on bread making, and answered many questions 
that were asked. 

The 89th Institute and second of the season was held 
at Rockport, Jan. 27, President Appleton presiding, who, 
after making some introductory remarks introduced Rev. 
O. S. Butler of Georgetown, who spoke on the "advan- 
tages of Special and General Farming." 

Mr. Butler said it was a great pleasure to meet the 
farmers of Essex County and especially so when he saw 



107 

so many of the older farmers present. He would speak 
on the general principles and then on the detail work. 
We first want to know what is meant by general and 
special farming. And he would endeavor to clearly de- 
fine the two. The general farm is what is represented 
by the typical New England farm of fifty years ago, 
when the farmer raised very nearly everything he used, 
sold but little of his produce and exchanged or bartered 
for desired articles and bought scarcely anything. They 
had their barns full of hay and stock and everything need- 
ful was at hand. No one special crop was raised to re- 
plenish the farm or increase the income, but a general 
production. 

Now special farming implies that you devote your- 
self to one or two special crops, by which you receive your 
income and to which you devote all your energies. It 
does not imply that you cannot raise other things for 
home use. The general farm offers the attraction- of a 
happy home for yourself and children, but the special one 
is the farm to make money. The man of today to make 
money must keep step to the music of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, and your profession is as much a one as theology or 
law. A few years ago our county was dotted over with 
little shoe shops where a good boot or shoe was made; to- 
day this business is all done in large factories, and one 
man does one part and one another ; and it is so in most 
all branches of business, a specialist performs a certain 
portion of the work; today you can build a house much 
cheaper than formerly, owing to the specialist and ma- 
chinery to complete the different parts, and wages are 
very much higher. It is so in farming, a specialist in 
farming can raise more in his line per acre at less cost 
and more remunerative prices than formerly. Today a 
man raises one kind of crop and buys the rest as it is 
more profitable, such as hay, grain and so forth ; also the 
stock farm is equally divided in its limitations, in that 



108 

• they make money by using their capital and labor in: 
special lines. He dwelt at length on the usefulness of 
the Amherst experimental station and the benefit derived 
from sending soils to be analyzed to find out what they 
are deficient in, so as to properly enrich them. The ad- 
vantages to young farmers of this line of work are these, 
— a better selection of soil and a choice of proper imple- 
ments suited to the crop on this selected soil. If you 
are going into farming choose one line and make every- 
thing bend to it, and you will be sure to succeed. 

Mr. Gregory was then called upon and referred very 
pleasantly to Mr. Butlei's address, and said that of all 
places in the United States suited for special farming Es- 
sex County was the best, on account of its closely settled 
area, its facility for transporting perishable goods, and the 
demand of the larger cities. He went quite extensively 
into the various branches of market gardening, and the 
excellent opportunities his own town of Marblehead 
offered for certain lines of this very subject. 

Mr. Ware was next called upon and took exceptions to 
following too closely the lines of the specialist. The 
specialist business may be over done, and if your eggs are 
all in one basket, where are you ; his advice was to be 
careful and cautious and not to narrow down too much. 

At the afternoon meeting the President called upon 
Vice President Jas. J. H. Gregory to preside, as he. Presi- 
dent Appleton was to read an essay, giving "A Brief His- 
tory of Agricultural Work in the United States. 

Organized agriculture in this countrj'' dates from the 
year 1785, when the Philadelphia Agricultural Society 
and the South Carolina Society were formed. In regard 
to the latter, nothing definite is given in any readily ac- 
cessible record, and it appears to have been short lived. 
The Philadelphia Society had a prosperous and useful ex- 
istence, having George Washington for an honorary mem- 
ber, he receiving his election July 4th, 1785. In 17',>1 an 



109 

agricultural society was established in New York, and in 
1792, the Massachusetts Society was formed under a char- 
ter granted by the General Court. Numerous other so- 
cieties were formed in the years immediately following 
in the various states. The British Board of Agriculture 
was chartered in 1793, and soon afterward its president. 
Sir John Sinclair, in a correspondence with General 
Washington, suggested that it would be a worthy undei- 
taking on the part of our national government to promote 
in an official way the interests of agriculture here. 
Washington replied approvingly, qualifying his remarks 
'by reference to the circumstances of the new country. 
This letter was indeed prophetic, for it was not until 1837 
that anything in the way of official oversight or recog- 
nition of agriculture was done under the national govern- 
ment; and even then the initial act was not that of 
the government, but of one of its zealous officials whose 
routine of duty pertained to other matters. Washington 
reverted to the subject in his final address to both houses 
of Congress, on Dec. 7, 1796. 

The Department of Agriculture has now reached a de- 
velopment that calls for an annual expenditure of nearly 
three millions of dollars and the employment of several 
thousand officials of various grades ; and beside exerting 
its influence through its publications, distributions of 
plants and seeds, it finds a field of activit}^ in what are 
called "■ experiment stations " in every state and territory 
in the union. As already intimated its origin is due to 
the action of Henry L. Ellsworth, the first Commissioner 
of Patents, who, in his first official report, submitted Jan- 
uary 1, 1838, referred to it and in such a manner as to be 
quite outside of his official purview. The Commissioner's 
suggestion was not seconded by Congress at once, but on 
January 21, 1839, the chairman of the Congressional Com- 
mittee addressed a letter to the Commissioner relative to 
the distribution of seeds and plants. As an outcome of 



110 

this and subsequent corresp iidence he collected, as far as 
j)ossible, agricultural statistics from different sections of 
the country, and presented the same to Congress in his 
annual report. In consequence of this, Congress on 
March 3, 1839, approved an act appropriating f 1000 for 
agricultural statistics and other agricultural purposes. 
This department continued as a sub-department of the 
Patent Office until 1862, when it was organized as the 
Department of Agriculture. This frugal appropriation 
was omitted in 1810-11, but reappears in 1812, and an- 
nually until 1816, when it was omitted. 

In 1817 it was renewed and regularly continued with 
some increase from time to time until 1851; but in no 
} ear did it exceed -f 5,500, and generally it was less. In 
1851 it was augmented to ■§35,000, and in no instance 
thereafter was it diminished. The total expenditure for 
agriculture, including the printing of the reports, from 
1839 to June 30, 1872, was but $2,216,963. In 1867 a 
building was ordered for the department and was finished 
the following year, at a cost of (i>110,000. The appropria- 
tion for this department for the year ending June 30,1892, 
was $2,811,663.50. A considerable portion of this was 
applied to the weather bureau service, which, by recent 
statute, has transferred it from the department of the army 
where it was known as the "signal service.'' Here fol- 
lowed a detailed account of the miuutse of the appropria- 
tions of this bill, giving a very clear idea of its character 
and scope. It is very wide in its scope, covering a vast 
amount of subjects appertaining directly and indirectly 
to the subject in hand. That part which relates to the 
quarantining of diseased animals and the spread of the 
disease is very effective. 

In 1862 the first step was taken by Congress toward a 
provision for agricultural education, in which it granted 
to each state and territor}^ complying with certain con- 
ditions, public land or land script, to the amount of 30.- 



Ill 

000 acres for each senator and representative to which 
such state was entitled under the preceding census. It 
provided for the investment of money received as pro- 
ceeds of sales of such lands, so that the income shall be 
applied to endow at least one college where the leading 
object shall be to teach agriculture and the mechanic arts. 
Furthermore, in case the capital sum should at any time 
be diminished or lost, it shall be replaced by the state, and 
the college is to make an annual report to the Secretary 
of the Interior. An act approved March 2, 1887, provides 
for the establishment of agricultural experiment stations 
to be conducted under the direction of any college estab- 
lished in accordance with the act of 1862. Certain modi- 
fications have been made where a station has been estab- 
lished by a state but not connected with a college. By 
this act !|15,000 is annually paid to each state and terri- 
tory entitled to the same under provisions of foregoing 
legislation. Here followed a definition of the object and 
duty of these stations at length. An act of Congress 
approved August 30, 1890, grants to each state and terri- 
tory, out of the sale of public lands, il5,000 for the year 
ending June ^^30, 1890, and an annual increase of 
11,000 for ten years, to be applied only in the instruction 
in agriculture, the mechanic arts, the English language 
and the mathematical, physical, natural and economic 
sciences. By the most recent report of the Secretary of 
Agriculture there are now fifty-four of these experimenc 
stations in forty-six different states and territories. 
Alabama has four, Louisiana three, and Connecticut, 
Massachusetts and New York two each. No other na- 
tional government has so wide an opportunity for investi- 
gation, covering contiguous territory. However much 
the system may hereafter be expanded and elaborated 
in its details, its descriptive title will be that of the 
United States agriculture. There are at present 61 
colleges in this country benefitted by these acts of 1862 



112 

-.md 1890. The two Massachusetts institutions are the 
-Massachusetts Agricultural College and the Bussey 
Institution of Harvard University. There has been an 
.issociation of the officers of the American Agricultural 
Colleges, which should not fail to be conducive to that 
unity of action and uniformity of standard which it is 
the aim of the Department of Agriculture to maintain. 

The State Board of Agriculture consists of forty-five 
membere, four of whom, the governor, lieutenant-governor, 
the secretary of the ('ommonwealth and the president of 
the Agricultural College, are members ex-officio. The 
working organization of the Board includes also a secre- 
tary, a chemist and an entomologist. The forty-one 
regular members are chosen severally by incorporated 
agricultural societies. Here followed a summary of the 
various payments from the state treasury for the agricul- 
tural department for the year 1891. Following was a 
showing of the returns in the secretary's annual report 
of the various agricultural societies, in which our society 
was far in the lead for number of Farmer's Institutes. The 
■gypsy moth extermination cost $69,247.55 for 1891 and 
175,000 for 1892. In conclusion, he said he had 
been more and more impressed with the little that was 
known about this subject, and he strongly advised his 
hearers to go to Amherst and see the working of the 
•experiment station and thereby get a deal of information. 

The 90th Institute was held at the Town Hall, Brad- 
ford, Friday, Feb. 10. President Appleton called the 
meeting to order at 9.30 o'clock, and after a few intro- 
iloctory remarks introduced the speaker, Mr. Lysander S. 
Richards of Marsh field, whose subject was " How to 
inoake small farms pay." 

In his preface he said the weather was very unfavorable 
■for the meeting, but he would try and make his subject 
plain. He had no patent on his topic, and had nothing 



113 

new to offer, but was going to tell them simply what had 
been his experience, not what he had heard or read. He 
was not born a farmer but was in active business in Bos- 
ton until he was forty years of age, and then owing to ill 
health he went on to a farm where he spent ten years in 
various experiments and failures before he made the farm 
pay. He said he thought farmers needed a more busi- 
ness knowledge of their work to become successful, a quick 
perception and action ; delay is the cause of many of the 
failures upon the farm. To begin with planting corn 
for food for cattle is one of the essentials, and a great 
many make the error of putting off the planting until too 
late, thus losing the opportunity of getting it, in in good 
condition. He, the speaker said, would plant as early 
as the first of M?lj, and take his chances of a frost, and 
get it in by the middle of September or just as soon as 
the kernels were hard. All that a cow will eat of corn 
fodder pound per pound is as good as timothy hay. 

He said he fed on corn fodder twice a day and fed hay 
at night, but what works well on my farm may not apply 
to others. A chemical analysis of the soil is not feasible, 
as it only gives you the limited space examined. His 
farm is a fruit farm, and here he would say, he is sur- 
prised to see how few farmers have gardens for household 
use to supplement the table, as they are a great help in 
making the farm pay. Strawberries are one of the easiest 
things to raise in a small way for the family ; he raises 
strawberries for a money crop not for the fun of it. Do 
not pick your berries too soon, wait until they are all 
ripe. The trouble is pickers are apt to pick them half 
grown. Raspberries are also a good fruit for the market 
and a paying crop. He has known the vines to last for 
twenty years with good care. You must keep them 
trimmed and the soil free, do your trimming in the 
spring. Blackberries do not pay well now, the price is so 
low, but they are very productive. Currants are also a 



114 

good crop and require little attention and should be one 
of the garden fruits. A good A 1 article sent to Boston 
market will always meet with a ready sale, while a com- 
mon article will not. He does not believe in buying 
Peach trees to set out, but by planting a native seed, 
good results have been attained. The last crop to dwell 
upon is that of the hen crop. It is the most important 
factor in helping out in the winter. The common error 
is to go into it too largely at first, and with no experience 
one is almost sure to fail. Better go slow and learn the 
ways and habits of the fowls before j^ou go into it too 
largely. He began with twenty-five that paid a profit of 
one dollar and a half each, and increased it to sixty hens, 
that paid a profit of two dollars and twenty-five cents each ; 
this he does by both eggs and chicks. In the winter, hens 
must get to the ground and the conditions must be made 
as near summer as possible. Brush the snow away and 
let them get at the grass. Grass is a great promoter to 
fertilizing the eggs. For the all around farmer the Wy- 
andotte and the Plymouth Rocks are the best breeds. 
Give them egg producing food as soon as hatched if you 
want them to lay early. In a word the qualities necessary 
to make a successful farmer are, a thorough genuine love 
for tilling the soil, for plant growth, harvesting, care of 
live stock, and the continuous improvement of his farm. 
He must be prompt, active, methodical, economical, handy 
at carpenters' tools, temperate and progressive. 

The speaker was frequently interrupted by questions, 
and answered them as they were asked. 

President Appleton spoke at length on various ques- 
tions suggested by the essay. 

At the afternoon session, Mrs. E. V. Gage and Hayden 
Brown were expected to speak, but owing to illness and 
unavoidable absence the speaker of the morning was asked 
to speak again, and he related his experience in Califor- 
nia some seventeen years before, and again a year ago. 



115 

He found several changes a year since when he was 
there from his former visit, one of which was formerly 
manure was considered a nuisance and was deposited on 
sand roads or anywhere to get rid of it. It is now put in 
compost heaps, as a noticeable decrease in the crops is 
discernable, and this manure is necessary for the enrich- 
ment of the soil. The ranch life is very primitive, the 
dwellings poor, nothing such as we would put up with, 
and not until a man has accumulated a small fortune does 
he build himself a fair house. If our New England 
farmers lived as primitively and economically as the Cal- 
ifornian ones do they would accumulate money quite as 
fast. To make a profit, one must cultivate largely, and as 
an example, he explained the working of a gang plough of 
six that it would take an entire day to go around a piece 
once, and about six weeks steady work to plow and sow. 
Grain raising must be carried on on a large scale, and to 
do this one must have the modern machines to accompHsh 
it, many of which are very expensive. The barns are 
slightly different from ours here in the East. All the 
wheat straw is dumped into them and protected by a rail- 
ing, then the cattle and horses can go and help themselves 
as often as they like, eating what they want and then go 
away. The farms are irrigated by ditches, no rain falling 
from May to September. The Pacific slope in summer is 
not an attractive place to a New Englander, who is accus- 
tomed to the beautiful green hills. The speaker gave a 
very full account of the Orange culture in Southern 
California, and also the apricots, figs and grapes describ- 
ing the vineyards, their construction, &c.,at length. 

The 91st Institute was held at the Town Hall, Beverly, 
Friday, Feb. 2-lth, the subject for the morning being, 
Highways and road building, by James Owens of Newark, 
N. J., who has been a practical road builder for twenty 
years. Mr. Owens said that probably no one question 



110 

was being more agitated, at the present time, than roads 
and their condition. In New Jersey they have in some 
localities the same trap rock that we have. The problem 
is the betterment and improvement of our roads, we must 
endeavor to give the people a dollar's worth of road for a 
dollar's outlay. He, the speaker, has had and seen his 
faults and errors in the past and at first trials, and hopes 
that others may profit by his mistakes. In 186S, when 
he took charge of the road work in New Jersey, the roads 
were but a parody on means of communication. The move- 
ment began with the Essex road board, which at first met 
with much opposition, but power was finally obtained to 
pave with the Telford process. At that time there had 
only been constructed dirt roads, no thought of macad 
amizing having been given to the subject. He here showed 
a chart illustrating the Telford process of pavements 
with a foundation five or six inches thick and three 
inches of broken stone on top which is the best plan. No 
road should ever be buih on a level grade and it should 
never be less than six inches to the one hundred feet, and 
as much more up to twelve inches in one hundred feet. 
The steepness should not be over ten feet in one hun- 
dred feet. As to crowning, it should be twelve inches in 
every thirty feet. Ruts in roads are worse than holes, 
and constant travel keeps them open and deepens them. 
The custom of having a steep rise of twelve to fifteen feet 
to a hundred in hilly roads, is too severe on the horses 
and should not be allowed and if possible you should 
eliminate the steep grades in the country roads, wliicli 
will be a great improvement and will be appreciated. 
He, the speaker, would lay special stress upon drainage, 
if a road is well drained it will last much longer and be 
much better than if water be allowed to stand on or near 
it. The foundation may be of any obtainable stone, 
although worn round stone should be broken as a round 
stone will work to the surface. The foundation should 



117 

be laid by hand and placed in position and sledged firmly 
in place. Before patting on the broken stone, it is well 
to put on a slight covering of loam, to keep the founda- 
tion firml}^ in place, and after the broken stone is put on. 
the roller should be kept at work until the road is per- 
fectly hard. Here he gave a brief resume of the New 
Jersey State road laws in all their workings, from the first 
up to date. President Appleton invited Mayor Rantoul to 
ijpeak on the subject of roads and he responded by saying 
that we must remember that the soil in New Jersey was 
very much different from the soil in Essex County, ]\Iass. 
He made a plea for Avide tires to wheels which was a 
roller of itself when going over the road instead of open- 
ing a rut and advanced the idea of the county owning 
one or more of the improved costly road machines and 
loaning them to the smaller country towns. 

The afternoon meeting was called to order at 1.30 
o'clock, when President x\ppleton introduced Hon. Peter 
M. Neal of Lynn, who spoke on fruit in general, and 
pears in particular. The speaker began by saying that 
knowledge is the accumulation in a vast storehouse, and 
we may, as the Essex Agricultural Society, go there and 
take out what we will. 

Fruit seems to have been the food of primeval man. 
The peach is superior, however, and what is more delic- 
ious than a fine dish of peaches ; but pears are of longer 
duration, he having had pears all the year round. The 
pear is like sponge cake, and the apple like bread, the 
staff of life. The pear is the fruit for the few, the apple 
for the million. By this he does not wish to disparage 
the pear, but to give it its proper place. Essex County 
raises more pears than any other county in Massachusetts, 
As has been said before, Lynn looks like a city that has 
gone out into the country to spend the summer. The 
speaker then said he now had too many pears, and too 
few apples. The pear is a very ancient fruit, three hun- 



118 

dred and fifty years before the Christian era it was raised, 
and Theocrastus at such a time speaks of it in a work on 
Botany. The pear is not indigenous to America, but was 
brought here. It was first carried from Syria to Greece, 
and then to Rome, and from there all over Europe, and 
from there to this country, and within the last two hun- 
dred years many fine varieties have been produced, some 
of the best of them being of American oi-igin. Do not set 
out too many varieties, ten or a dozen being enough, that 
will yield fruit from the middle of July to January. The 
Bartlett was brought to this country ninety-four years ago 
this spring, and is a well known and delicious pear. The 
pear that takes one year with another in the market is the 
Clairgeau. Its beauty sells it, not its quality. Some new 
pears promise well ; many pear trees live to a very great 
age, some of them being known to be three oi' four hun- 
dred years old, the well known Endicott pear tree, 
which still bears fruit, being over two hundred years old. 
The borer that makes havoc among the apple trees rarely 
troubles the pear. The lazy man has no right to expect 
to raise good fruit as eternal vigilance is i-equired to get 
it. Do not be afraid of a good knife and lop off all 
the useless branches, and let in light, in peaches it is well 
to trim off one-half of the last year's growth; pear blight 
can only be safely treated with the knife. In conclusion 
he would say that he got lost in the maze of the portico, 
and did not get beyond the vestibule of that great store- 
house and, while telling them nothing new, could onlj' apol- 
ogize for the time taken up. 

President Appleton then made some remarks in relation 
to insect pests and the method of spraying, laying particu- 
lar stress on the fact of delicate spraying, not going over 
the same ground twice, thus washing off what had been 
previously put on, after which Mr. Gregory spoke on his 
personal experience in fruit raising, followed by Mr. Man- 
ning of Reading, and Mr. Foster of Beverly. 



119 

The 92nd Institute was held at the Town Hall, Tops- 
field, Feb. 17th. The essayist of the morning was 
the Hon. Jas. J. H. Gregory, of Marblehead, who read a 
paper on " Underdraining." The speaker said he would 
consider the improvement of our low land in conjunction 
with his announced subject, which would broaden his 
field for treatment. Too large a part of New England is 
still unimproved. The question now at hand is the best 
way of handling this unimproved wet land, and it is his 
opinion that it is in the line of the higher agriculture 
for the census to take up the topic and give us accurate 
statistics of land that can be improved and brought into 
tillage by drainage, dykage and by getting the water out 
of it. The latter method pays in Holland and the time 
will come when it will pay here as well. The speaker 
hoped in the near future the Agricultural College would 
send out experts to examine this question abroad and re- 
port thereon. In this matter of redeeming land one will 
find it very handy to sound with an iron rod, having a 
curved handle in order to avail ones self of the rich soil 
that lies under the surface. 

Muck is a vegetable matter that does not decay beyond 
a certain point. It decays just so far and then the cold 
arrests it and muck or peat forms. It is very useful 
therefore as a fertilizer, for the nitrogen does not escape, 
and it is equal in some conditions to stable manure. It 
is useful to use with stable manure and makes a rich com- 
bination, as the manure warms it and sets the nitrogen 
free. 

In draining land it is well to follow the natural slope 
of the land as much as possible. To begin with, look for 
your springs and tap them first. Also look out for your 
outlet, for if you have none, it is useless to drain your 
land. No roots can grow in dead water, and what we 
aim at is to remove it, and where water stands, there can 
be no decomposition, and only when the water is drained 



120 

off, and tlie sun and heat gets to it does this process take 
place. It is a question to him whether mucky land pays 
to till or sinipl}^ let it go to grass. This is something 
each individual must settle for himself. In coming to 
crop lands we (ind they ai-e pretty difficult to handle. 
You must dig your drains and put in your tiles and some- 
times loose stones, you have to go through the hard pan 
and it is quite a job to dig it up. The speaker thought 
it a good plan to bury the useless stone walls on the 
farms and convert them into drains. For draining there 
is nothing better than the round tile. The joints will 
take care of themselves and when once covered the dirt 
will pi event any spreading or movement of the tile. 
After the tile is laid be sure to cover with loose stones 
and scraps of leather or something of the kind and be 
sure to leave none uncovered over night, as a little rain 
or any caving of earth might fill the tile and it would not 
be noticed. There is now a theory of "under-airing" the 
soil the same as underdraining, that is to get the air into 
the soil, which is claimed to be very beneficial to the 
crops. In draining, do" not lay your drains over two feet 
deep, as three or four feet in a dryyear will cause the land 
to suffer from drought accordingly. 

Mr. David Warren, of Swampscott, here gave some very 
interesting personal experiences that clearly demonstrated 
this, your crops will always be the best just over the drains, 
and you can readil}^ mark the course of your drains by 
the crops, especially in grass. 

President Appleton spoke in the general line of re- 
claimed land and also of irrigation, that would be so use- 
ful to the market gardeners and horticulturist. 

Mr. Emerson, of Haverhill, spoke at length on the 
question of underdraining and the urgency of knowing 
how to drain before attempting the operation, so that one 
will not have to do the work all over again. In draining 



121 

near trees, a person must look out for the roots, as they 
will grow for an incredible distance and will get into a 
tile drain in a very minute space, and after once there will 
fill the drain, and choke it so that it will be useless. He 
advises Portland cement to be put over the joints, and to 
be careful that they are made perfectly tight. 

At the afternoon session, President Appleton intro- 
duced jNIr. Edmund Hersey of Hingham, who spoke on 
" Cranberry Culture." He began by saying that it is 
only known very much about in the southeastern part of 
Massachusetts. He commenced years ago in an experimen- 
tal sort of a way. For years he allowed the matter to rest, 
but twelve or fourteen years ago he looked the matter over 
again and found out he had made a mistake in not going 
into it more extensively.- He immediately began to take 
steps to increase his field of area in his part of the state. 
The berry does not like to grow in too wet land, al- 
though some people suppose they require a great deal of 
water, but this is not so. On the contrary a good sand 
hill is preferable. There are three things necessary for 
success; first, drainage, you must be able to drain your 
meadow; second, sand, that is coarse sand, not the very 
fine variety, and if this is not obtainable, use fine gravel; 
and the last condition is water, that you can command 
at all seasons of the year, so that you can let it on, or 
drain it off when you like. This proper condition of 
things he illustrated by a chart, showing a good cranberry 
lot with its proper drainage, and water supply. You must 
have good conditions to start with to make it pay. If you 
strike a spring in your meadow, you must drain it off in- 
to the nearest ditch, and in time it will stop of its owd 
accord. You want a sufficient depth of sand on your 
meadow, if you do not have this, the grass will grow and 
choke out your vines. 

If your sand is handy, 3 or 4 inches is about the right 
depth and if some grass comes up through this amount 



122 

the cranberry vines will grow very rapidly and soon kill 
out the grass. It is not necessary that the bog should 
have a peat foundation. Do not spread your sand until 
you are ready to set your vines, the best time being the 
last of April or first of May. He does not buy vines nor 
does he advise any one to do so, but gets the best wild 
ones he can find. If you must buy your vines do not go 
south for them, but rather go north as the northern ones 
ripen earlier than the southern berries do. In buying 
vines you must look out for insects which will ruin your 
whole crop. The speaker then answered many questions, 
relative to the topic, by several of the audience, after 
which a general discussion followed. 

The 93rd Institute of this society was held in the Town 
Hall, Ipswich, Friday, March 31st. The speaker in the 
morning was O. S. Butler of Georgetown, on Poultry, and 
in the afternoon Francis H. Appleton, Esq., of Peabody. 
on Milch Cows. 

President Appleton -presided, and after a few remarks, 
introduced Mr. Butler who said to begin with, that he 
wanted every thing informed and therefore hoped if any 
one had an^^ questions to ask, they would interrupt him 
at any time and ask or discuss anything tliat might occur 
to them. 

The speaker said his experience in poultr}- raising was 
not so extensive as some others, as he had never had more 
than 250 chickens at one time. He desired, however, to 
handle the subject in a familiar ^vay. 

First a person, in order to succeed in any business 
or profession should have a taste for it. The speaker be- 
lieved in intelligent action, no forcing of anything 
whether in the school room or the raising of poultiy. 

There is something more than the mere keeping of fowl 
if we would obtain the best results. W a should seek for 
the profit of tlie thing. One great (juestion has arisen 



123 

and that was, whether it was best to use artificial means 
in the production of chickens, or be content to follow the 
old and natural method. This depended whether the 
raiser wished to produce poultry for the early or late mar- 
ket. The speaker in referring to the best breed of fowl, 
said that he preferred the middle Aveights, such as the 
Plymouth rocks, as they were better for early birds. 

If it was desired to raise for the late fall market, the 
larger birds were preferable, say those weighing five o^^" 
six pounds dressed, as they brought a larger price in the 
market. If poultry was raised for egg production, the 
smaller birds should be preferred, because as a rule more 
egsrs were obtainable from them. 

The greatest number of eggs which had been found in 
embryo in a hen was 750. If a hen did not deposit her 
full quota, it was a question whether it was best to force 
her to do it. One of the greatest obstacles we had to 
overcome was in breeding. We should get rid of our 
Growers every fall and get some from a distance. He sold 
eggs every spring for hatching, and this helped out the 
expenses of the hennery very much. His favorite breed 
was the Plymouth rock. Mr. Butler cautioned all against 
going into the poultry business on a large scale. Begin 
in a small way and then the great essential for success — 
experience, would be secured. Every poultry raiser should 
thoroughly understand the incubator before using it. 
Poultry needed two sets of buildings, a summer house 
and winter house, with plenty of yard room. The build- 
ings should be high and roomy. The roof of the winter 
house should slant toward the sun to make it warmer. 
Carbonic acid gas was as dangerous to poultry as it was 
to people and there is nothing that will create so much 
carbonic acid gas as a hen. Ventilation should, of course, 
be from the bottom of the hen house, and the speaker 
thought the best way to secure it was to have conductors 
run from within a few inches of the floor to an opening 
a' the eaves.^ind the draft would take out the impure ait 



124 

Anything contributing to the healthfulness of the fowl 
contributed to its profitableness. The speaker did not 
believe in unnatural development. This violation of 
nature's law was illustrated in many ways, especiall}'' in 
horses; there were many very pretty to look upon, but 
when you put them to service they were good for nothing. 
Jt was the same with poultry. 

Hens and chickens should never go to the roost with 
empty stomachs, but satisfied. Whole corn was good to 
feed them at night. If the point to be attained in any- 
thing was development, it was essential to begin with the 
primary condition. The principle held good in every 
phase and condition of life. 

The speaker said that with him the actual cost of keep- 
ing a hen a year was from $1.00 to $1.25. Hens would 
average from 160 to 170 eggs a year. Some hens would 
lay 200 eggs in a year. Fifteen dozen eggs at 25 cents 
]>er dozen and the value of the hen, less the keeping, 
would be the yearly profit. 

The afternoon meeting was called to order at 1.30, by 
Vice President James P. King, who introduced President 
Appleton, as the afternoon speaker, whose subject was 
" Milch Cows.'' Mr. Appleton began by saying that the 
cow in her wild state only yielded milk enough to nourish 
her young for a few weeks after birth or until it can sup- 
port itself and then goes dry for the balance of the year. 
Ill her condition, as we know it,]intelligent care and treat- 
ment have increased her flow of milk and made her use- 
ful to the human family, and have changed her habits in 
the onward progress of civilization. The natural tendency 
<if the improved animal— our cow of today — is to constant- 
1 Y revert to the natural condition as she was first found 
by our distant ancestors. 

It is only by intelligent treatment, a continuance of 
t;ood breeding, and all reasonable encouragement in that 



125 

direction, that the useful characteristics of our animal t^ 
can be preserved and advanced. When individual 
citizens are so busy with their own affairs, for the interest 
of farmer's prosperity, it becomes a necessary considera- 
tion, and a most important one, how the state can best 
promote the general agricultural interests of her people, 
by encouraging with instruction and object teaching, 
those ways and systems that will promote a knowledge 
of and demand for the best in all kinds of live-stock, in- 
cluding milch stock, and the best results in growing and 
acquiring their food, as well as how to present it to them 
injudicious and profitable rations. The housing of ani- 
mals, food and manurial substances, demand economy 
in all details, to secure best profits in each case. Constant 
vigilance in all ways is as necessary to preserve the pro- 
fit condition of a milch cow as it is of life or anything 
else in the world. 

I want to make it clear that it is as important for our 
agricultural organizations, experiment stations, and boai d 
of Agriculture to constantly direct their efforts towaid 
the promotion of high ideas as to what our live stock of 
all kinds should be, as it is to endeavor to experiment 
with methods of feeding the animals, and the crops which 
they consume. High quality in the livestock brought 
into our markets and onto our farms, is desirable and 
profitable. 

For one I feel that we can well press forward such 
efforts. I trust these ideas will meet with favorable 
consideration at your hands in the discussion that shall 
follow. 

It has been only by many years of constant care with 
most judicious selection and treatment in localities of 
most healthful kind, that our breeds of cattle have been 
preserved and brouglit to this best known condition in 
our part of the world. And in the older countries the 
well known breeds were made possible only by the 



126 

enforcement of strict rules and popular demand and con- 
stant encouragement, with also public decoration and 
acknowledgment of successful achievements of real 
merit, freely given. A highly successful breeder was 
placed in the front ranks of prominent men. The present 
source of supply of very many of the cows that make up 
our milch stock, is very largely from distant breeders, 
and beyond state limits, of the condition of whose barns 
we have no guarantee as to their freedom from disease 
germs, or as to whose care in early training of the live- 
stock we must be equally uncertain. 

If we can only establish a price for milk in proportion 
to its intrinsic value, shall we not be establishing a value 
for carefully bred cows that will enable the farmer to se- 
sure a price for milk which shall more justly remunerate 
oareful home breeding and milk farming. It seems to 
me that this suggests more profit to the milk producer 
and protection to quality in milk. 

With less advantageous surroundings for the making 
of milk in our more thickly populated districts, we find 
the greatest demand for it and the increased difficulty to 
secure that milk which is of pure quality and such as 
meets the wishes of the consumers. One cause is the 
bad condition of many cow stables which exist in the 
more immediate vicinity of our cities and large towns, 
where animals are forced as to kinds of food and fed with 
the poorest quality of air, and where their surroundings 
are not otherwise properly healthful. 

Such cheaply raised lacteal fluid tends to lower the value 
of the honest product, coming from the forest and free 
country atmosphere. Is not this a temptation to some] 
one to extend the quantity to meet the quality that is 
lower, where the price received per quart is not the best. 

The well fed. well cared foi' eow is at a disadvantage 
unless the market for her product is directly that of the 
consumer, or until sucli time as her product is sold for its 



127 

quality and standard. Here we have a work for most 
thoughtful consumers, and farmers to unite in pressing up- 
on our established authorities that the public ma}' the bet- 
ter appreciate the advantages of pure milk. 



REPORT OF COxMMITTEE ON TREADWELL 
FARM. 

The Treadwell Farm still continues under the manage- 
ment of L. D. Stan wood as tenant. Everything about the 
farm appears to be kept in a neat, tidy condition. 
About the usual amount of hay has been raised this sea- 
son, 33 tons, potatoes, cabbages, ruta bagas and other 
vegetables, to some extent. Five acres of ensilage corn 
of the southern white variety have been grown, produc- 
ing 81.4 tons at a cost of 13.39 per ton in the silo; to grow 
this 16.2 tons per acre, five cords of barn manure and 
500 lbs. of Ames' fertilizer per acre were applied. Mr. 
Stanwood is more than pleased with the experiment of 
feeding the ensilage of last year's production. The new 
silo built last year has proved entirely successful. 

There were three acres of field corn of the Angel of 
Midnight variety, grown upon the farm this year. Five 
cords of barn manureapplied in the hill, per acre, produced 
forty-one and one-half bushels and two tons of stover per 
acre, at a cost of production of -^40.25. As it is conceded 
by some, that good corn stover is worth as much per ton 
as English hay, for producing milk, and if this is so, which 
we hardly admit, as hay this year is worth i|20 per ton 
in the barn, it will be seen, that the two tons of stover 
is worth as much as the cost of cultivation of an acre of 
corn. And thus Mr. Stanwood gets his corn for nothing, 
or it may be called his net profit. In considering the 
value of stover in comparison with hay, some conserva- 
tive men, while admitting the fact of its being of equal 



128 

value, add providing it is all eaten. The committee in 
this case saw it fed, and were pleased to know that the 
cows eat it all up. The stock on the farm consists of 16 
cows, 5 heifers, uae bull and 2 horses. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Benjamin P. Ware, Chairman. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON IMPROVING 
WET MEADOW AND SWAMP LANDS. 

The same committee has been reappointed by the society 
for two or three years in succession. 

There appears to be at present, very little interest in 
this important subject — either by the committee, or the 
farmers at large throughout the county. There have been 
but two entries made during the last two years, both be- 
ing by Maurice H. Connor, of West Newbury, for a piece 
of about five acres of wet pasture or swampy land very 
near his house. The chairman made several efforts to 
get the committee together to examine this land in 1892 — 
but no one appeared except Mr. E. Francis Holt of An- 
dover. We did not feel authorized under the circum- 
stances to make any award last year, but this year, as 
Mr. Connor entered the same lot again, and as no one ap- 
peared but Mr. Holt and myself, we thought it advisable 
to call in a neighbor to our assistance, when we three 
concluded to award to Mr. Connor the Society's first pre- 
mium of fifteen dollars. As your chairman is a near neigh- 
bor to Mr. Connor, he invited Mr. Holt to make a report, 
which he very kindly did, as appears below. 

STATEMENT OF MAURICE H. CONNOR. 

The piece of meadow which I enter for the society's 
premium contains about four acres. The soil is a dark 
loam, with a clay and sand subsoil ; and was when we be- 
gun operations upon it, about six years ago, one of the 



129 

roughest fresh meadows iu Essex County, having been 
used for a cow pasture for a number of years previous, and 
its surface was completely covered with hassocks, clumps 
of bushes and cranberry vines. In the fall of 1886 we 
started to plough it with four horses, but found it impos- 
sible to find a plough that would turn it over, the sod be- 
ing so touofh it would fall back in the furrow after the 
plough. We finally obtained a marsh share for the Oliver 
plough that cut all the roots clean at the bottom of the 
furrow. After we got it ploughed, the next question was 
how to get loose soil enough so we could plant a crop. 
We tried several tools for that purpose, with varying suc- 
cess, and finally succeeded in getting a portion of it ready 
for fodder corn the first spring ; we then planted about an 
acre each year. After the first year it was comparatively 
easy to work, and we now have it in long beds, ridged in 
the centre, from forty to sixty feet wide, with surface 
drains between each bed, with a good outlet for the water, 
one-fourth mile in length. It can be ploughed at any time 
with an ordinary team, and is now bearing a good crop 
of English hay. 

The principle cost was the first ploughing ; since then 

I have been well paid for my labor, by the crops raised 

each year. The expense per acre was about as follows. 

Ploughing with 3 men and 4 horses 2 days $16 00 

Harrowing, 1 man and 2 horses 1 day 4 00 



120 00 
To balance which we have the hay crop for the past 
two seasons, one and a half tons per acre, worth ten dol- 
lars per ton standing. 

3 tons of hay at $10. $30 00 

All it needs now, is fertilizer of some sort, and the hay- 
crop for another year may be doubled. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Maurice H. Connor. 



130 

REPORT OF E. FRAXCIS HOLT. 

The committee on improved wet meadow lands, having 
visited and examined the piece offered for premium by 
Maurice Connor of West Newbury, submit the following. 
We find in this field the result of courage, persistence and 
patience, united with good sense and muscle. Four of 
these qualities should and must be the possession of every 
successful farmer ; and the latter if not possessed, is ordina- 
rily attainable at not extreme expense. These facts maj* 
suggest to the possessors of many an unsightly and use- 
less piece of land in Essex Co. the possibility with the 
means within their possession or reach, of bringing the 
same into a condition that shall make it at once a pleasure 
to the beholder and a source of profit to the owner thereof. 
It is in the hope of fostering and encouraging such efforst 
on the part of such owners, that your committee suggest 
for Mr. Connor the premium of fifteen dollars. In so do- 
inff we do not overlook the fact that the statement of Mr. 
Connor is not as much itemized or detailed as regards ex- 
penses and receipts as would be desirable ; but since the 
premium is for tlic improvement in the Jand^ and your com- 
mittee are, because of close examination and questioning, 
satisfied that from the first ploughing it has returned at 
least and probably more than an equivalent for all ex- 
penditures; and is now in a clean, arable condition, ready 
to give almost unlimited returns for liberable cultivation ; 
they take pleasure in recommending as above. 
Respectfully submitted, 

E. Francis Holt. 

The Chairman would fully indorse Mr. Holt's remarks, 
and would further suggest, that we consider Mr. Con- 
nor's estimates of the cost of ploughing and harrowing 
rather low, but as it was done mostly with his own 
team, and with the help of other members of the family, 
the cost may not to him appear very great ; but those of 



131 

us who hire all such work done, are fortunate if tlie cost 
does not double his figures. Mr. Connor went to consid- 
erable expense in making an outlet for the water. A 
long ditch had to be dug through another man's land, and 
a bridge across a road was taken up and relaid. As 
the land is drained wholly by surface draining, we suggest 
to Mr. Connor in future, the great importance of keeping 
the drains open — especially that the outlet does not be- 
come clogged, either by dirt, roots of trees, or coarse 
grasses. This is of the utmost importance, as through 
one or two years neglect, the cultivated grasses will be 
killed out, and rushes and other swamp grasses will take 
possession. The writer is a firm believer in thoroughly re- 
claiming these wet, boggy, and swampy places — land, 
especially, near our buildings, which has been receiving 
the deposit from the upland for ages, is too valuable to'be 
neglected, or lay idle and useless. Judicious improve- 
ments of this kind will pay the farmers of our county, 
much better interest on the outlay, than western mort- 
gages, or shares in some alluring speculation. In the 
first place, it is necessary to remove all HtmnHiKj irater. so 
that the land may not retain excessive moisture during 
any portion of the year. TJiere must he sufficioU f((IL and 
a good outlet, or this draining wet land will ultimately 
prove a failure. 

For several years past, there has been a " Note " 
inserted in the Committee's book, under the head of 
waste land and underdraining ; thus : 

"The committee is instructed to ascertain hnw many, if any, reclaimed swamps 
in this County have been abandoned or have returned to natural grasses. Per- 
sons knowin-i' of such are requested to notify the Secretary or Committee." 

It is quite evident that the person through whose in- 
fluence this note was first inserted, was not a believer in 
reclaiming these wet places, or at least had lost faith in 
its practicability. For one, I can sa}^ I have lost no faith 
in it. Having practised underdraining in a small way for 
over twenty years, believe now. that careful systematic 



132 

underdraining has paid me better than any other invest- 
ment; failures occur everywhere, but they generally come 
through carelessness or neglect. 

There is a large meadow in full view from the windows 
where I write, which was forty years ago in the best state 
of cultivation. Large crops of English grass, grain and 
vegetables were every year grown upon it. It was 
drained in the lowest place, through its entire length, by 
a large deep ditch, perhaps five feet wide and four deep. 
The land on either side of this large ditch, was ploughed 
up into beds, with sufficient drains between them, to 
take the surface water rapidly away. In process of time 
the main ditch became clogged ; willow roots were allowed 
to penetrate and interlace, till the ditch became entirely 
filled, and is now grown up to hassocks and bushes, 
Foi'ty acres of this once valuable land is now used for a 
pasture, the lowest part cutting nothing but the poorest 
quality of coarse grass. Is not this a sample of other 
lands in this county, which were once reclaimed and pro. 
ductive? There is within twenty rods of my own build- 
ings, a rough piece of about five acres of pasture land, 
which was valued a few years ago at '|'25 per acre. This 
land has never been ploughed till the past season, but 
has been allowed to grow up to bushes and wood. The 
bulk of the land is a gentle slope to the west, and there is 
a good fall to a meadow and brook. In the easterly corner 
of the lot, there has always been a small pond, which was 
seldom dry. This pond caused about an acre and a half 
of the' best land to be too wet to cultivate, or even to 
drive over during the early season. 

To drain this pond and wet corner, we had to cut a 
very deep wide ditch, about fifteen rods long, through a 
ridge of stiff clay, which prevented the water from pene- 
trating through it. The land on either side of this ridge, 
was very rough; full of large holes that made it almost 
impossible to mow the bushes. We comnu'iiced about 



133 

three years ago to drain our land, by striking out a wide 
ditch with a pair of horses and plough. Next we used a 
horse scraper, and drew the dirt back, dumping it in 
holes, from twenty to sixty feet on each side of the ditch. 
Then by ploughing again and scraping out more dirt, we 
formed a ditch, some twelve or fifteen feet wide at the 
top, tapering down to a foot or less at the bottom. 
Through the deepest rut our ditch is nearly eight feet 
deep, but the sides are so sloping that grass will and does 
grow down to the bottom of the ditch. Clover and 
other high ground grasses came in the second season 
ivithout seeding, so that we cut this present year, on the 
ditch banks and sides, over a ton of fair upland hay. 
These ditch banks will not be likely to " cave in,'' or the 
ditch to get "clogged." 

About four rods below the pond, we built a rough 
stone bridge, and last year thoroughly under-drained the 
land through and around the pond, about an acre and a 
half, at a cost of over $100. Below the bridge, we pro- 
pose to leave this wide, open ditch, about twelve to fif- 
teen feet wide at the top, and slanting down to a foot o\ 
less at the bottom. The expense thus far has been over 
'1200, but we have what will be in a few years, some of 
the most valuable land on the place — all down hill, with- 
in a " stone's throw " of the stable. 

I should not have gone a mile from home to spend so 
much on a rough wet piece of pasture, but being right at 
our very doors, a strong clay and sandy loam — just the 
land I needed to raise certain kinds of stock upon that 
cannot be grown to advantage on high land — I think it 
has been a wise investment. 

For the committee, 

T. C. Thuklow. 



134 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FARMS RE- 
LATING TO THE FARM OF THE MESSRS. 
BUTTERS BROTHERS, IN METHUEN. 

There were two farms entered for premium this year. 
That of Butters Brothers of Methueii and the farm of the 
Danvers Lunatic Hospital. 

The farm of Butters Brothers is beautifully situated 
in the village of Methuen, containing sixteen acres of 
undulating surface of excellent soil. 

With a small exception for kitchen garden, the farm is 
kept in grass, and with the manure from sixteen cows and 
three horses applied as a top-dressing, heavy crops are 
annually produced. This manure is dropped directly in- 
to the barn cellar. Suflicient coarse sand from a knoll 
near by is used to absorb all of the urine so that the 
manure is of full strength and excellent quality. 

The hay crop this year was about thirty tons with six 
tons of rowen which is to be fed to the stock on the 
farm. 

It will be perceived that this, with the additional grain 
fed to keep up a good supply of milk, is ample to keep 
the farm in a good state of fertility. 

There is no pasturage, hence the cows are fed during 
summer with some green grass, and an acre of land was 
ploughed up after haying and barle}^ sown, yielding a 
good crop. This was fed green, cut from day to day as 
needed. 

No further attempt was made to grow rye, oats or 
cornfodder to keep up a succession of green fodder. 

The buildings are in good condition, and consist of a 
double one story cottage which accommodates the two 
families, an excellent barn of sufficient size to hold the 
hay crop, and with convenient stable room for the stock. 

There is a cellar under the whole barn open at the 
south, that afiords good shed room for the farm utensils, 



135 

of which there is an ample supply of modern patterns, 
and also a receptacle for the manure, as before mentioned. 

Each brother owns his eight cows and one horse ; the 
third horse is old and kept for his past good service. 

The product of the farm is fed in common ; each pro- 
viding his own grain and retailing his own milk. The 
farms yielded this year about fifty barrels of first quality 
apples and thii'ty bushels of pears, with sufficient vege- 
tables for the two families. 

These brothers present examples of apparently enjoy- 
ing happy, comfortable farmers' homes, the income from 
the farm being ample to supply all necessary wants, 
which means to them, what to many would be luxuries. 
This is done without any hurrying, fretting or anxiety, 
and presents a happy illustration of what comforts a small 
Massachusetts farm has to offer for two families. 

If these brothers cared to increase their business and 
profits, the committee would suggest that by building a 
silo and growing ensilage, with more attention to green 
crops for soiling, double the number of cows could be 
easily kept. That the two milk routes might be consoli- 
dated and an active young man could with one horse de- 
liver the milk ; but as they are satisfied, the committee 
ought to be. 

As no statement of details of the farm management has 
been furnished as required by the rules of the society, 
the Butters Brothers are debarred from receiving the 
premium. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OX FARMS RE- 
LATING TO THE FARM OF THE DAN VERS 
LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

ENTERED FOR PllExMIUM BY Dll. CHAKLES W. PAGE, 
SUPERINTENDENT. 

In making this report your ct)mmiLtee have in mind 
the necessary diffe.'ence in the management of a farm, as 



136 

a part of a public institution, cultivated as a part of it, 
and for its most economic maintenance, and the manage 
ment of the average farmer who is struggling against 
many adverse circumstances, such as a want of capital, a 
glut in the market, caused by overproduction, undue 
competition, unequal taxation, high price and scarcity of 
competent labor, etc. These do not affect an institution 
like the Danvers Hospital, where labor is of no account, 
except for oversight and direction, and where any re- 
quired amount of money can be had for the asking. So 
without making any comparison between the two, your 
committee will consider the condition of the farm under 
the several heads as requested by Dr. Page in his state- 
ment which follows and is a part of this report. 

FAllM BUILDINGS. 

lo does a farmer good to see ideal buildings containing 
all the most approved modern appliances and convenience 
for the very best condition of all the stock and for the 
storing of the several crops of the farm ; even if he cannot 
afford them himself, he can gain some hints by which he 
may be able to improve his own to some extent. Such 
may be seen on this farm, and for details reference is 
made to the very full and complete descriptions in Dr. 
Page's statement. 

But we desire to call especial attention to some striking 
features of these buildings. 

What first attracts the attention of a visitor, is the per- 
fect order and cleanliness, especially in the cow barn, at- 
tached as an ell to the main building, at a right angle 
with it. Here the seventy cows are confined with swing- 
ing stanchals in two rows facing each other with ample 
room between for feeding and behind them for passing* 
The walls are plastered with cement and tight. Ample 
provision is made for light and ventilation overhead, so 
that little or no odor is perceptible. The mangers are 
watertight so that a stream of water, cold or warm as de- 







^S< 






5-r 


















l^i s c 



t I 



;3 






'^ 
^ 




137 

sired, can pass through the whole length by turning a 
faucet, for watering the cattle. When they are fed they 
eat all that is put before them, so nothing is left; not a 
straw is to be seen either before or behind them. All 
droppings take care of themselves through the gratings 
into a wooden trench, as fully described in the statement. 
Here every particle of the manure passed is saved and 
-carted upon the land as made. 

Now that it is a well established fact that the urine of 
an animal contains as much plant food as the solid portion 
it behooves every farmer who allows the half of his ma- 
nure or at least a large portion of it, to run to waste as 
many farmers do, to study this object lesson and in some 
way prevent that great loss. 

No well appointed farm is without a silo. Here is one, 
near to the cows and yet wholly separated from them, 
with five hundred tons capacity suitably divided into sec- 
tions, with all the necessary appliances for unloading the 
corn for ensilage, cutting and carrying it to the several 
divisions of the silo, all done by steam power, of which 
there is an ample supply. 

Besides the cellar under the cowbarn, there is an excel- 
lent cellar under the main barn, offering ample room for 
storing the large quantity of roots and vegetables that are 
grown upon the farm. 

The new piggery is just finished, and occupied by breed- 
ing sows. Already there are between three and four hun- 
dred pigs and more coming. The litters average eight or 
nine each, and all looking in fine, healthy, growing condi- 
tion. This building is constructed on a somewhat new 
and novel plan, containing sixty breeding pens. Hogs 
are cleanly animals if they are allowed a chance to keep 
clean ; and here the opportunity is given to prove them- 
selves so, which is done most effectively. The Stewart's 
self-clearing grate and downward draft (see statement and 
plan for particulars) are a complete success ; for not only 



138 

are the hogs and pigs strict!}^ clean, but there is little or 
none of the odor that usually pertains to a hogpen and 
that renders them so objectionable. 

The new hennery just being completed is admirable in 
design and contains all the modern appliances for the suc- 
cessful production of eggs and poultry for which there is 
ample demand in the Hospital. 

STOCK RAISING. 

Statistics prove that at least one half of the milch cows 
kept in New England and probably throughout the coun- 
try do not pay for their keeping, requiring a large part of 
the profit of the other half to make up the deficit, which 
of course lessens immensely the profit of the dairy in this 
country. All of this may be changed by more careful 
breeding and slaughtering at once all found not to yield 
profitable returns. 

The committee are much pleased with the plan adopted 
on this farm of raising the heifer calves from the best cows, 
and by the use of a thoroughbred bull. And they feel 
that it cannot be too strongly urged that success depends 
more upon the bull being selected from the best milking 
strain, as it is unquestionable that the sire is more potent 
to transmit milking qualities than the dam. This fact is 
often overlooked in breeding stock for dairy purposes. 

There is always more or less danger of introducing tu- 
berculosis or other infectious diseases by the purchase of 
stock from sources that may be infected. Dr. Page is of 
the opinion that grade or full blood Holsteins are less 
subject to tuberculosis than other breeds. By raising 
calves from stock not infected, that danger which is quite 
considerable is avoided. 

The young heifers that have been raised are certainly 
very promising, but until they come into milk, their milk- 
ing qualities cannot be assured ; hence the importance 
when a bull has proved a getter of good milking stock, he 
should be kept and made much of. Balls are usually 









^ 






^ i^ 



r?^il-'5 



139 

slaughtered before their real quality is proved, so that the 
benefit of a very superior animal may be very limited. 

The general average production of the cows is remark- 
ably good, eight and six-tenths quarts, actual product, 
per cow ; but so many changes have been made, the aver- 
age of a herd of the same cows for one year is not given, 
which would if possible, be of much interest. 

By referring to the accompanying statement it will be 
noticed that these have no pasturage and that their sum- 
mer feed (with the usual amount of grain) consists mostly 
of green rye, oats, peas, and barley, grown as they should 
be in abundance for a full supply. 

The committee are of the opinion that a judicious sys- 
tem of soiling in the summer season with a liberal supply 
of ensilage in the winter, is by far the most economical 
method of producing milk. 

The committee noted the general good appearance of the 
stock that has been purchased as well as raised upon the 
farm, which indicates excellent judgment in selection, both 
iu purchasing and breeding, for really successful breeding 
is one of the fine arts, dealing in the most subtle forces of 
nature ; and we learn with pleasure that the credit of this 
belongs to the farm manager, G. L. Barnes, who shows 
equal ability in the conduct of the general farm manage- 
ment. 

FARM PRODUCTS. 

The committee observed with much interest the experi- 
ment of topdressing in renovating grass land with hard 
wood ashes and several brands of fertilizers ; they saw the 
good effects on their visit in June, just before the grass 
was cut. 

There are many fields of grass situated like those around 
the Hospital where it is undesirable to have them ploughed 
up, and this experiment confirms what had been shown 
in other localities, that grass land may be kept in good 
productive condition indetinitely by top dressing with 



140 

either manure or commercial fertilizers. One of the most 
successful farmers in Worcester manages the whole of his 
large farm in this way. And yet in the ordinary system 
of farming, where hoed crops and grain are cultivated, it 
is better to have grass included in the rotation. 

HAY. 

The committee desire to call attention to the fact that 
in all cases of weights of crops given in the statements, 
that actual weights are given, no estimates, as is too often 
relied upon, in many reports. So that the twenty-five and 
four fifths tons of first crop and seven and one-half tons 
second crop making a total of thirty-three and three tenths 
tons or three and two-thirds tons per acre grown on nine 
acres of land was the actual weight. This is a remark- 
able crop, without top dressing. 

Previously this land was for two years cropped with 
ensilage corn, showing that the heavy manuring given 
those crops was felt in this result and the committee think 
it very likely as this land had formerly received the bene- 
fit of sewage irrigation, some credit should be given to that. 

It will be observed by referring to the statements ac- 
companying this report, that heavy manuring and a liberal 
use of commercial fertilizers is the system adopted which 
produces large crops, in some instances extraordinary. 
Of course in most cases the crop does not consume all of 
the plant food of the manure applied, and it is a question 
how much of the cost of the manure applied should be 
charged to the crop grown, but in as much as the cultivated 
land is supposed to be well supplied with plant food of 
previous years application, we think it is fair to charge 
each crop with the fertilizers applied each year ; of course 
the land will continue to increase in fertility, as all good 
husbandry requires. 

The crop of four hundred tons of ensilage grown on 
twenty acres of land is a good crop, but not extraordinary, 
and reckoning the manure, which was of first quality, at 



141 

five dollars per cord on the land, which is not a high price, 
and the fertilizer at cost, with labor of men at one dollar 
and a half a day, and a team of a pair of horses and two 
men at five dollars per day, cost in the silo four dollars 
and seventy-four cents per ton notwithstanding the use of 
the best machinery for the handling of the ensilage. 

The average cost of ensilage in the silo by accounts 
kept by fourteen growers in Essex county ten years ago, 
was two dollars and sixty-three cents per ton. The same 
year from the accounts of many growers the cost varied 
from ninety-two cents in Nebraska to four dollars per ton 
in Lawrence and Noith Andover. 

The fact of planting the Learning corn accounts for what 
would seem a moderate cro|) considering the amount of 
fertilizers used, while this variety does not grow so large 
stalks as the Southern White, it is more prolific in ears, 
hence yielding a better balanced ration and of more feed- 
ing value per ton, and is growing more popular among 
prominent ensilage growers. 

POTATOES. 

The experiment with the potato crop is exceedingly in- 
teresting and well worthy of a careful study of the method 
of growing an early crop. Those which were dug in July 
yielded at the rate of two hundred and forty-eight bushels 
per acre, followed with a second crop of first class cab- 
bages. By this system the early crop, which usually suf- 
fers in quantity with the earliness of the planting, averaged 
more than any of the later seeded lots. 

ONIONS. 

The product from one and three hundred twenty-five 
one thousandths acres was one thousand four hundred and 
thirty-four bushels of the very best quality of onions, 
equal to one thousand and eighty-two bushels per acre. 
A yield unprecedented in Essex county or anywhere else 
so far as is known by the committee. 



142 

This and all other crops of vegetables were grown abso- 
lutely free from weeds, but as the weeding is done by the 
patients, which cost nothing, our fellow farmers need not 
feel that we are reflecting upon them by stating this fact. 
Doubtless the crop was aided by it however. 

By accident, the sowing machine cast more seed than 
was intended, six pounds per acre were sown ; in this in- 
stance it proved fortunate, as the fourteen cords of first 
quality manure, which doubtless was sufficient to cany 
the crop through, and with the addition of sixteen hundred 
pounds of Bradley's fertilizer per acre, insured ample sup- 
ply of plant food for this enormous crop. Under some 
circumstances that large quantity of seed would have been 
disastrous. A large portion of the crop would have been 
much under size. A photograph of the whole crop as it 
laid upon the ground may be found in the accompanying 
statement. To see the crop before pulling, in continuous 
rows of onion piled up one upon another, some of the top 
ones were crowded up three or four inches from the ground, 
was a sight worth going miles to see. 

The committee saw with much satisfaction the various 
crops of vegetables on their two visits, in their early 
growth and when ready for the harvest, and were sur- 
prised at the uniform success of all of them ; for we us- 
ually expect more or less failures, and we learn that this 
success is due to the skill and good judgment of Ettord 
Tassinari, who has for several years been known to mem- 
bers of the committee as a florist who has shown great skill 
in artistic designs with which the grounds about the Hos- 
pital have been decorated, and this year he has surpassed 
his previous efforts. The two lions made up of growing 
sedums are wonderful specimens of artistic gardening. 
We would also especially commend his successful manage- 
ment of the rose and pink culture in the greenhouses. For 
detailed accounts of these crops we urge a careful study 
of statements attached to this report. 



143 

The most remarkable instance of reclaiming land in Es- 
sex county or probably in the state has been going on at 
the Hospital farm ever since its occupancy as such. The 
whole northerl}^ slope of the hill on which stands the Hos- 
pital was literally covered with boulders and stones, which 
have been gradually removed and the land converted into 
fertile and productive fields. This has required a great 
amount of labor, which has been, and is possible by hav- 
ing a large number of patients, whose most successful 
treatment requires more or less labor. 

Within two years this improvement has been applied to 
about fifteen acres of certainly the most forbidding lot of 
all; covered not only with boulders and stones of all sizes, 
but trees and bushes, butby the indefatigable efforts of Mr. 
G. H. Barnes, the farm manager, with his corps of patients 
who are willing to work, and the necessary hired labor, 
backed up by nine yokes of heavy oxen and a liberal use of 
dynamite, good progress has been made. A few acres were 
planted this year and a prospect of the whole being culti- 
vated next season. Some seven thousand tons of rock 
have already been dug out and used in building a neces- 
sary road through the lot, filling in foundations for the 
piggery, hennery, etc 

It is a rare sight of late years to see oxen at work on the 
farm. While it is conceded that ordinarily horses are 
better adapted to our cleared fields; but for work in clear- 
ing such land as this, oxen are obviously better, requiring 
three yokes to draw the heavy plough through the stones 
and roots. Besides there is an economy in their use; for 
as here practiced, thrifty cattle are purchased, fed and 
worked in such a manner that they continue to gain in 
weight, and at any time, or for any reason can be slaugh- 
tered for use at the Hospital; so that their labor costs 
little or nothing. 

SEWERAGE. 

Probably no problem has proved so difficult to solve by 
the more civilized nations than as to the best method of dis- 



144 

posing of sewage made necessary by the introduction of 
water into the cities and its free use by the people. 

Many costly systems of sewerage have been adopted 
and proved complete failures or unsatisfactory. 

The discharging of sewage into rivers and harbors has 
resulted in their pollution and becoming sources of sick- 
ness and death. 

Clarification by precipitation is not purification, as six 
sevenths of putrescible matter may remain after clarifica- 
tion, as analysis proves. 

A commission appointed by Parliament, composed of 
Messrs. Dennison, Frankland and Morton reported : — 
"That the actual resources of chemistry do not permit the 
hope that the polluting matter of sewage can be precipi- 
tated and sent away b}^ the appliance of chemical reac- 
tion, and unless new chemical laws are discovered it is 
useless to attempt the employment of chemical agents. 
Epuration must be confided to Dame Nature.'' 

I. Babut du Maris says . — "Millions of dollars have 
been expended in France in chemical experiments on sew- 
age, all of which have been condemned.'' 

Thirty years ago in an address before this society Hon. 
Darwin E. Ware said: — "The subject of sewerage has 
vital relations to progress of civilization. Through the 
sewers of cities discharging into the ocean, the highest 
properties of the soil are irrecoverably lost. The turbid cur- 
rents of the North River, the Thames and the Seine are 
richer than Pactolus with its sands of gold. For that 
which is pollution to their waters, is the touch of magic to 
the fields and the power of food for successive generations 
of men. The invention of a plan by which the slime and 
sediment of cities can be transformed into corn and wheat 
gives scope for one of the most beneficial systems of econ- 
omy yet devised." 

Liebig said of the cloaca of Rome discharging into the 
Tiber : — "That it swallowed up in a few hundred years all 



145 

that could make the Roman peasantry prosperous, and 
when their fields were no longer able to produce the nee. 
essaries of life for the Roman people, then were the 
riches of Sicily, Sardinia and the fertile coasts of Africa 
irretrievably sunk in this cloaca." 

"The value of this material as a fertilizer is obvious, 
but it has been comparatively estimated, and put beyond 
controversy by the experiments of the Prussian govern- 
ment reclaiming lands with sewage of Dresden and Ber- 
lin. Land which without any application yielded but 
three for one of seed sown, and seven for one when treated 
with common barn manure, yielded fourteen for one when 
fertilized with sewage." Many other equally good or 
better results from judicious irrigation of farm lands with 
sewage might be named. 

Many cities in Europe are adopting this system as the 
only means of disposing of it, that does not endanger the 
health of the people, and at the same time save the im- 
mense amount of plant food otherwise lost. The experi- 
ence of Rome is a lesson that should be heeded by all mod- 
ern cities, as it effects the future prosperity of the nation. 

Dr. Earnest Hart has recently said: — "Within thirty 
years Great Britain has expended five hundred million 
pounds sterling, for adopting a system of sewage irriga- 
tion of the soil, with the result of making the country 
practically cholera proof, besides the benefit of utilizing the 
plant food otherwise wasted. 

It may be asked, what has all this to do with the man- 
agement of the Danvers Hospital farm? Much; very 
much. For that institution, in common with other insti- 
tutions of the state, has been troubled with the vexed 
question of "What can we do with the sewage'' ? Several 
attempts have been made. The first, made by the civil en- 
gineers employed by the Building Commissioners was a 
complete and expensive failure. 

The second, it was thought by members of this commit- 
tee, would prove a solution of the whole difficulty, which 



146 

was by means of conducting the sewage along the brow 
of the hill by troughs, to be distributed on the surface as 
needed, the land being previously underdrained ; and it 
did remarkably well for a time, as many crops that took 
this society's first premiums proved ; but this land being 
naturally wet and heavy, soon became clogged by an over- 
supply and resulted in a nuisance. 

The third attempt was to purchase, adjoining the farm, 
a five acre lot of barren, sandy land, which absorbed large 
quantities of the sewage and has brought the field into a 
state of fertility ; but there is a limit that cannot be ex- 
ceeded, and this field now cries enough ; for the present at 
least. Of late, most of it has been conducted through a 
ten inch drain pipe off the premises and it gradually finds 
its way into Ipswich river and this will soon be cause for 
complaint. 

The next plan is an ingenious device adopted by Dr. 
Page, to turn the sewage into a system of underdrains in 
the fifteen acre lot, being reclaimed as previously described; 
for particulars see diagram attached. By this system it will 
be observed that it is subirrigation, none coming nearer 
the surface than eighteen inches, as this land is of a some- 
what sandy or loose nature about four or five feet deep, 
resting on hardpan, it will absorb an immense amount of 
sewage ; and as the getting rid of it is the superintendent's 
main object, he will doubtless succeed in that respect, and 
unquestionably b}^ capillary attraction it will rise sufii- 
ciently to prevent any hoed crops or grass from suffering 
from drought, and supply a portion of plant food, but 
probably much the larger part will be lost. 

Subirrigation is practised in California, in fruitgrowing, 
with good success, especially in Fresno county where grape- 
culture for raisins is extensively and successfully con- 
ducted. 

In the manifest zeal to get rid of the Hospital sewage, 
it is hoped that the former forty or fifty acres that were 



147 

treated with the surface irrigation will not be wholly 
overlooked, so that a larger portion of the three thousand 
dollars' worth of plant food contained in the annual flow 
from this institution may be used. 

This valuation is shown in the following calculation 
contributed by J. Q. Evans, a member of this committee: — 
At our request samples of this sewage were taken 
and analyzed by Dr. Guessman, and a review of the fig- 
ures are most interesting. All the sewage from this 
Hospital containing one thousand people, together with 
the water from the sinks and washrooms amounts to one 
hundred and fifty thousand gallons daily. 

This sewage contains in million partes, nitrogen, 28 
parts; potash, 33 parts; phosphoric acid, 12 parts. 

An estimate for a day's run shows that 33.6 lbs. of nitro- 
gen, 39.6 lbs. of potash, and 14.1 lbs. phoshoric acid are 
each day carried away in the sewage from this institu- 
tion ; while in a year there is the enormous loss of 12,226 
lbs. of nitrogen, worth at 15 cents per pound — $1,839.60, 
14,445 lbs. potash worth at 5^ cents per pound— 1794.47, 
5,256 lbs. phosphoric acid worth at 7 cents per pound — 
f 367.92, a total value of over $3,000 of plant food in the 
sewage. Compared with one of the best known brands 
of commercial fertilizer, this sewage for one year con- 
tains more nitrogen than is found in 200 tons ; more 
potash than is found in 100 tons ; and more phosphoric 
acid than is found in 20 tons of such commercial fertilizer.- 
It will be noted that this sewage is especially rich in 
nitrogen, and to this is undoubtedly due the lodging of 
grass crops ; excess of nitrogen causing a rank growth of 
a soft nature, while the small amount of phosphoric acid 
mighG fail to produce a full amount of grain in proportion 
to the straw in such crops. 

One of the difficulties to a better use of this sewage 
has been the naturally moist condition of the soil, which 
is of a heavy clayey character, the water not leaching 
down readily. Dr. Page is at present engaged on a field 



148 

of some fifteen acres better adapted to this work, where- 
by a system of covered drains the sewage can be diffused 
through the soil. A complete diagram of this work has 
been prepared by Dr. Page for this report. We are 
pleased to note the deep interest he is giving to this exper- 
iment, and are satisfied that with his characteristic energy 
he will give this problem of sewage utilization a most 
careful trial, and the results, be they favorable or unfavor- 
able, will prove of interest as bearing upon this important 
question, '' What shall we do with the sewage of our cities 
and towns, at present allowed to flow into our rivers?" 
and carrying disease along their course to the ocean. 

An important feature of this system of sewerage is the 
construction of a separating basin at the highest point on 
Hospital Hill possible, being now constructed, and is six- 
ty feet long, about six feet wide, and ten feet deep, with 
numerous compartments substantially built of brick, laid 
in cement, under ground. (See plan attached.) By this 
means the sewage will pass into the pipes and drains free 
from all clogging matter, a great improvement over the usual 
method of distribution. The plan contemplates a stone 
drain, similar to those in the fifteen acre lot, to extend 
around the Hospital hill on a level with the top of the 
separating basin, so that the sewage may be turned either 
way as may appear necessary for the better distribution of 
it. By this plan it is hoped that the fifty acres on the slope 
of the hill may receive the benefit of sewage irrigation. 
It is gratifying to the committee to be able to present 
to the society so much of progressive agriculture, as the 
report of the conduct of this farm offers. For which, we 
make the merited award of the society's premium of thirty 
dollars. 

Benjamin P. Ware. 

James P. King. 

C. C. Blunt. 

Geo. B. Bradley. 

John M. Danforth. 

J. Q. Evans. 



REPORT ON FARM OPERATIONS. DANVERS 
LUNATIC HOSPITAL, NOV. 1, 1893. 



To THE COMMITTEK ON FaRMS, EsSEX AgRICCTLTURAL 

Society. 
Grentlemen : 

111 asking your committee to pass judgment upon the 
operations of the Danvers Lunatic Hospital farm the man- 
agement desires you to consider the following points, viz : 

1st. The improved farm buildings. 

2nd. Stock raising. 

3rd. Products of the farm and garden. 

4th. Reclaiming wild land. 

5th. Improved sewerage and irrigation system. 

IMPROVED FARM BUILDINGS. 

Two years ago the plan to raise on the i^remises all the 
milk required for hospital use was decided upon. Prev- 
ious to that time about one half the milk consumed in the 
hospital had been purchased from neighboring farmers at 
an average annual cost of about #3,000.00. 

Additional stable room for 70 cows became necessary, 
and re-fitting the old barn seemed unadvisable for the rea- 
son that bovine tuberculosis had existed in the stock for. 
several years. 

The new cow stable is a monitor roof, one story, L, 120 
feet long. 

This arrangement insures quiet for the cows and an at- 
mosphere comparatively free from floating dust. 

The cows are ranged in two lines facing each other, 
their heads being 14 feet apart. 

The stanchions (chain swivel) in use permit great free- 
dom of motion. 



150 

The mangers are simple V shaped depressions in the 
floor. Twice a day a valve is turned and a stream of 
water flows through the entire length of the manger and is 
finally conducted into an outside drain. By this plan one 
man can water all the cattle in the barn, 125 head, witliin 
15 minutes. The floor upon which the cows stand is per- 
fectly flat. The hind feet of the animals when standing, 
rest upon the Stewart self-cleaning stable grate. These 
grates cover a tight trench made of plank, •> ft. wide and 
2 ft. deep, sufficiently large to hold the dropping, for from 
10 to 14 days. All the solid and liquid manure falls 
through the grating. At least once a day dry loam, always 
kept on hand, is sifted upon the contents of the trench to 
absorb liquids and obviate foul odors. Ground plaster is 
also used in the same way. No straw is used for litter, so 
the grates never clog. This system keeps all the fertilizing 
properties of the manure under perfect control, and there 
need be no loss whatever. It insures perfect cleanliness of 
the animals and the purity of the milk. 

When the trenches are filled, a trap in the bottom at a 
central point is raised and the contents, on being pushed 
to the opening, fall into a cart set below, to be taken directly 
into the field. 

349 cords of this full-strength manure were removed 
from the trench during the year. 

It was found best to allow the excess of urine to drain 
into pans and a lead lined tank on wheels set in the base- 
ment, rather than attempt to absorb it all by the use of 
loam. The tank holds about 500 gallons and as this is 
filled only once in ten or twelve days by the 70 cows, it is 
certain that the larger part of the urine is absorbed by the 
earth and other solid, or semi-solid, contents of the 
trenches. 

When tlie liquid tank is full, it is drawn out and dis- 
charged through a sprinkler upon grass land. The grass 
thus stimulated makes a surprisingly vigorous growth and 



151 

no farmer who has once observed the results of this method 
woukl rest easy so long as his barn liquids were allowed to 
leach away to no purpose. The re-modelled stables for 
young stock and oxen are fitted with the same self-cleaning 
grates. When care is exercised in shoeing oxen they soon 
learn to handle their feet on these grates without tearing 
off shoes. 

PIGGERY. 

The new piggery containing 60 pens was designed to se- 
cure dry floors and perfect ventilation. An iron grate, 
Steward's self- cleaning, 4x4 feet, is inserted in the floor of 
each pen. Through these grates liquids, manure and foul 
cold air fall to the cellar below. A steady downward 
draft can be maintained in cold weather, as air is excluded 
from the cellar except as it passes through the grates and 
the circulation is kept up by a foul air lifting shaft which 
opens (bell shape) 2 feet above cellar bottom at its lowest 
point and runs up (6 feet square) through the roof of the 
building. This shaft is heated by an iron smoke pijje, from 
the boiler fire box, which passes up through the entire 
length of the shaft. 

In warm Aveather when all the doors and windows are 
open the air currents are reversed and a strong up draught 
is maintained tlirough the grate in each pen giving great 
comfort to the hogs. 

Hot water pipes for heating enter half the pens, so a 
comfortable temperature can be maintained in winter. 

The cellar floor is made of concrete and pitched 3 feet in 
the length of the building. 

This incline accelerates the current of cold foul air along 
the cellar floor towards the mouth of the foul air lifting 
shaft. It also causes the liquids to gravitate to the low 
point where a trap and drain pipe lead to an outside tank 
or compost heap. Experiments will be made to prove the 
value of liquids thus collected when sprinkled upon grass 
land. 



152 



HENNERY. 



A hennery 198 feet long has been located in the rear of 
the piggery, also a brooder 40 feet long fitted with hot 
water pipe from the piggery. A boiler has also been set 
up near at hand. There are no original fixtures or com- 
bination of fixtures in these hen and chicken houses, but 
an attem})t has been made to adopt the most approved 
plans. 

2nd, stock raising. 

The management of the farm stock has been in the hands 
of Gains H. Barnes. 

Three years ago raising promising heifer calves with a 
view to improve our herd of milch cows assumed consider- 
able importance. By the aid of our accurate milk record 
the best cows are easily detected and by keeping pure 
blood bulls successful results can be pretty safely assured. 

We have kept Holstein and Ayrshire bulls. On the 
average one heifer calf a month is selected to be raised. 

The cows are mostly grade Holsteins, but there are a 
few full blooded Holstein cows. 

Oct. 31, 1893, the farm stock was made up as follows : 

100 cows. 

36 heifers, from 1 to 3 years old. 

1 Holstein bull. 

10 horses. 

85 brood sows. 

350 pigs. 

9 yoke of oxen. 

The value of the stock increased $1800 during the past 
year. 



Management of the farm, the farm buildings, stock, farm 
proper, land clearing, grading, etc., is under the supervis- 
ion of Gaius H. Barnes, head farmer. 

The vegetable garden and horticultural department are 
under the supervision of Ettore Tassinari, gardener. 



153 

The most valuable product of the farm is milk. During 
the past year 243,837 quarts were produced, which at 4 
cents per quart, was worth $9,753.00. The quality of the 
milk was excellent. At no time during the winter had it 
any peculiar barn flavor or odor. 

Because of the many changes in individual cows during 
the year, poor ones being disposed of and new ones being 
purchased, as opportunity offered or required, it would be 
manifestly unfair to assume that the 100 cows now on hand 
have been contributing to the whole amount of milk for 
the whole year, and yet estimated upon that basis the daily 
average for each day of the year is about 7 quarts for each 
cow. As a matter of fact the number of patients in the 
hospital rapidly increased the last quarter, necessitating the 
purchase of many new cows late in the year. 

MONTHLY MILK PRODUCT. 



1892. 



1893. 



October 


Aggregate. 

19,358.87 


Daily average. 

624.48 


Daily average for 
each cow. 

8.67 qts. 


November 


17,914.37 


597.14 


8.18 


December 


19,436.84 


676.94 


8.47 


January 


20,346.19 


688.59 


8.41 


Februar}' 


19,334.18 


690.50 


9.72 


March 


20,004.01 


645.29 


8.60 


April 


18,137.58 


604.58 


7.55 


May 


20,590.56 


664.21 


8.40 


June 


20,068.64 


702.28 


9-36 


July 


20,885.56 


673.73 


9.35 


August 


22,218.81 


716.73 


8.43 


September 


24,542.00 


818.00 


8.60 



243,837.61 
Total daily average per cow, 8.64 

HAY. 

120 tons of good English hay were cut and stored prev- 
ious to July 15th. 



154 

Because of the early drought, the 2d crop of hay was 
light, only 15 tons being stored. During the season 125 tons 
of green fodder — ^grass, rye, barley, oats and peas — were 
cut, and fed immediately to the cows in the barn. 25 4-5 
tons of good hay were cut in June, and 7 1-2 tons of 2d crop 
in August, from one lot of 9 acres, being an average of 3 2-8 
tons per acre. This land received no dressing during the 
year. 

The largest quantity per acre, and the best in quality of 
all the hay cut came from a small lot seeded the previous 
year at the last hoeing of the ensilage corn, then gi-owing 
there. 

Some experiments with top dressing were undertaken. 

TOP DRESSING WITH ASHES. 

The grass on the lawn surrounding the hospital had run 
out, and it was desirable to bring in new growth without 
ploughing. 

In the early spring four acres were cut up by running a 
dice harrow several times over it. Ashes, 100 bushels to 
the acre, were then spread, grass seed was sown, and 
the whole rolled down. In June a fine crop of hay, aver- 
aging 2 tons to the acre, was cut from that land. 

Of course we expect even better returns the coming 
season horn the same land. 

COMMERCIAL TOP DRESSING. 

Other sections of the same la^vn were treated Avith grass 
fertilizei-s. Three varieties were used in sections side by 
side. The hay grown in carefully selected half acres in 
each section was weighed with following results: 

Bradley's Fertilizer section 2120 lbs. 

Bowker's " " practically same. 

Odorless " " much less. 

SEEDING DOWN WITH ASHES. 

2 3-4 acres planted with potatoes on Bradley's ferti- 
lizer in the spring, were seeded down with rye and grass seed 



155 

in the fall of 1S91. after ashes at the rate of 100 bushels to 
the acre had been applied. A good crop of rye followed 
in 1892. and from the same land Julv 1. ISOo" 16.711 lbs. 
dried hay were cut. this being at the rate of 3 tons. 451 lbs . 
per acre. 

ENSILAGE. 

20 acres — yield 4^0 tons. 

Land was j^repared as follows : 

10 cords of manure, (mostly from horee stable.^ to the 
acre were ploughed under. 

Leaming corn was planted Avith phosphate, 400 lbs. per 
acre, between the 30th of May and the 15th of June. 

Bradleys fertilizer was used on 1-2 the field. 

Bowker's •• the other half. 

*150 days" labor (^man), and 100 days' labor of team (^man 
and two horses.) were requu-ed to plant, cultivate, harvest 
and put in silo the 400 tons ensilage. 

*T