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.U\1 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE 



ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY. 



« « J * . "" 






Vol. XIX. — igoi 



MANCHESTER: 
RICHARD GILL, TIB LANE, CROSS STREET. 

1902. 



The Council of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian 
Society )lesire it to be knoicn that the Authors alone are 
responsible for any statements or opinions contained in 
tlieir contributions to the Transactions of the Society. 

This volume is edited by Mri^Glizrles W. Sutton. 



. 1 






OFFICERS FOR igoi. 



Dr. W. BOYD DAWKINS, F.R.S. 



IDiccsspreeidente. 

Lieut. -Colonel Fishwick, F.S.A. 
Mr. J. Holme Nicholson, M.A. 
Mr. Charles W. Sutton, F.L.A. 
Mr. W. E. A. Axon, LL.D. 
The Rev. E. F. Letts, M.A. 
Dr. Renaud, F.S.A. 



Mr. Samuel Andrew. 

Mr. C. T. Tallent-Bateman. 

Mr. F. A. Bromwich. 

Mr. W. S. Churchill. 

Mr. Alfred Darbyshire, F.S.A 

Lieut-Colonel G. J. French. 

Mr. Henry Guppy. 



Ot tbe Council. 

Mr. D. F. Howorth, F.S.A. (Scot.) 

Mr. Nathan Heywood, 

Rev. H. A. Hudson, M.A. 

Mr. Fletcher Moss. 

Mr. George Pearson. 

Mr. J. J. Phelps. 

Mr. W. J. Redford. 



Mr. J. E. Sandbach. 



C^reasurer. 

Mr. WILLIAM HARRISON. 



Donorari? Secrctarij. 

Mr. GEORGE C. YATES, F.S.A. 



VISITS AND EXCURSIONS MADE BY THE 

SOCIETY IN 1901. 



May 4th. — Wigan and Upholland. 

May i8th.— Colne and WycoUar Hall. 

June loth. — Eccles Old Church. 

June 15th. — Poole's Cavern and Micah Salt's Museum, Buxton. 

July 6th.— Chester. 

Aug. 1 2th. — ^Ashton Old Church. 

Aug. 17th.— Dieu la Cresse Abbey and St. Edward's Church, 

Sept. 14th.— Convray Castle, Plas Mawr, and Conway Church. 



Meetings for the reading of Papers, Discussions, and 
Exhibition of Antiquities were held monthly during the Winter 
Session in the Chetham College, Manchester. 

The opening meeting of the Winter Session was held in 
the Owens College Museum on Friday, October nth. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Ancient Forests, Chases, and Deer Parks in Lancashire. 

By William Harrison i 

MOTTRUM OF MOTTRUM, IN THE PARISH OF PrESTBURY. By F. 

Renaud, M.D. 38 

The Old Castles of Lancashire. By Henry Fishwick, F.S.A. 45 

Prehistoric and Subsequent Mining at Alderley Edge, with 
A Sketch of the Archaeological Features of the Neigh- 
bourhood. By Charles Roeder 77 

Hanging Bridge: an Etymological Examination. By H. T. 

Crofton 119 

The Ancient Crosses of Lancashire. By Henry Taylor - - 136 

Proceedings 239 

Appendix L By Norman HoUins : 

Bibliography of Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquities 

AND Biography. Publications during 1901 - - - 276 

"Dictionary of National Biography" . . . . 283 

Appendix H.: 

Subject Index to the Bibliography 284 

Report of the Council 291 

Treasurer's Account 297 

Rules _ . . - 298 

List of Members 303 

Index 3^4 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE 

Ancient Forests, Chases, and Deer Parks in Lancashire - i 

Pedigree of Mottrum of Mottrum Andrew - - - - 41 

The Old Castles of Lancashire: 

Clithekoe 48 

Gleaston 64 

Prehistoric and Subsequent Mining at Alderley Edge : 

Map to Illustrate Archeology - 77 

Chief Types of Stons: Hammers found - - - - 84 

Roman Roads connecting' ------- 96 

Ancient Superficial Pits 114 

Archeological Map of District — "Hamestan" Hundred - 118 

The Ancient Crosses of Lancashire : 

Map of West Derby Hundred 137 

Little Crosby Park Cross, Little Crosby Cross and 

Well, Lydiate Cross, Scarisbrick Park Cross - - 180 

Map of Old Liverpool 190 

Outline Map of Warrington, 1465 215 

Fragments of Pre-Norman Cross in Winwick Churchyard 220 

WiNwicK Cross: Proposed Restoration - . . - 224 

WiGAN AND THE RiVER DoUGLAS (Map) 227 

The Moot Hall in time of Charles II. - - - - 229 
Mab's Cross (Wigan), Cross and Stocks at Walton-on-the- 
Hill, Walton-on-the-Hill Churchyard, Windleshaw, 

Cronton, Blundell's Hill 232 



p) 



ANCIENT FORESTS, CHASES, AND 
DEER PARKS IN LANCASHIRE. 

BY WILLIAM HARRISON. ' ' 

THE word "forest" has in modern dictionaries two 
principal definitions. The first (which I may call 
the popular one) treats it as denoting an extensive tract of 
land covered with trees and undergrowth, the existence 
of the trees being in the popular mind an essential part of 
the definition. The second one is not so simple, and 
contains some elements which the popular mind rarely 
takes into account. By this definition a forest is a 
territory of woody grounds and pastures privileged for 
wild beasts and fowls of chase and warren to rest and 
abide in, generally belonging to the sovereign, and set 
apart for his recreation or granted by him to others, 
under special laws, and having officers specially appointed 
to look after it. That the forest land should be whollj-, 
or even mainly, covered with trees is, it will be observed, 
quite unnecessary. The essence of the definition is in 
the setting apart of the land for special uses, subject to 
special privileges and special laws. This agrees with the 
meaning of the word, for "forest" is derived from foris, 
out of doors, the land outside the ordinary jurisdiction. 
It is, I need hardly say, in this aspect and not the other. 



2 ANCIENT FORESTS, CHASES, AND 

that is to say from the antiquarian and not the natural 
history point of view, that I propose to examine the 
subject in this paper. 

But, to begin really at the beginning, we cannot escape 
altogether from the natural history point of view, for 
when man first appeared upon the scene, he found " the 
forest primaeval" already in existence, with no privileges, 
no laws but those of nature. Then began that long 
struggle to obtain dominion over her forces which has 
been going on ever since, but which in its earliest ages 
must have been a painful one, in the times when the land 
was waste — 

Thick with wet woods, and many a beast therein, 
And none or few to scare or chase the beast. 

A struggle which must have had many a set back, owing 
to the internecine strife of men themselves, who — 

Ever waging war 
Each upon other wasted all the land. 
And so there grew great tracts of wilderness 
Wherein the beast was ever more and more. 
But man was less and less. 

Then again would come one like the half-mythical 
Arthur, who 

Slew the beast, and fell'd 
The forest, letting in the sun, and made 
Broad pathways for the hunter and the knight. 

And so, bit by bit, and age by age, man reclaimed from 
the forest so much of the land as sufficed to grow his 
grain and provide for his simple wants. 

But as in process of time clearings became more 
numerous, we can well understand that it would become 
less and less possible to find sufficiently large areas in 



DEER PARKS IN LANCASHIRE. 3 

which the sport of hunting could be uninterruptedly 
carried on — a sport, it must be remembered, dear to the 
heart of partly civilised man. Hence, just as in these 
days the putting of considerable quantities of ground to 
industrial uses begets a desire for the reservation and 
dedication of particular lands for public recreation as 
parks or playgrounds, so the tendency to extensive 
clearings would in those times lead to the reservation of 
large areas in which the wild animals should be free to 
roam, and where sport could be carried on uninterruptedly. 
The areas selected were generally waste lands, belonging 
therefore to the king, and in them his will was law. 
Hence the royal prerogative so continuously claimed in 
regard to the forests, and in virtue of which he made 
stringent laws for the protection of the beasts. 

After the Norman Conquest, as is well known, the king 
extended the existing forests and made new ones, and in 
doing so desolated large territories previously occupied by 
human beings. But here, bearing in mind our second 
definition of forest, we must observe that the act of 
afforestation is simply a converting into hunting ground, 
and does not imply that the ownership of all the land in 
the forest is vested in the king. What is called the 
"forest," i.e., the right of forest, is a branch of the king's 
prerogative which, when passed on to a subject, is a 
franchise or liberty, and may be compared to a right of 
way. I may acquire a right of way over my neighbour's 
ground without taking away the ownership from him. 
Similarly, the king's right of forest may extend over land 
belonging to a subject. Afforestation in such a case 
means not that the owner ceases to be such, but that 
henceforward he is seriously crippled in his use of the 
land. It is now outside the common law and is subject 
to the special forest laws. He may not erect any new 



4 ANCIENT FORESTS. CHASES. AND 

building upon it or make any pools or dykes, or convert 
it into arable ground or enclose it, or in fact make any 
improvement. His dogs must be lawed by the forester, 
that is, have the claws of the forefeet cut off. He must 
not cut or destroy the greenwood or vert on which the 
deer may feed. His right even to feed his cattle or swine 
on his own land is denied or subject to vexatious 
regulations. He is liable to oppressive imposts, as for 
Scothal, a forced contribution levied on the pretence or 
occasion of a festivity ; puture, a claim made by foresters 
that they and their servants, horses, and dogs should be 
supported with victuals when in the forest by those 
residing therein ; and chivtmage, a toll upon wagons and 
carriages going through the forest; and to all the petty 
persecution which irresponsible officers placed in authority 
know so well how to exact. If he owns a wood within 
the forest area he must keep a forester, known as a 
"woodward," sworn to protect the king's vert and 
venison. And, over and above all these, he is subject to 
the severe code of laws, which makes it death to kill one 
of the king's deer, and decrees loss of eyes or other 
mutilation to any who disregard th^ other numerous 
prohibitions. » 

When we recollect that the dwellers within a forest 
were subject to all these disabilities, and that those 
without it had no guarantee that they might not at any 
moment, by a purely arbitrary act under the king's 
prerogative, be placed in the same category, we can 
understand the popular discontent which made itself felt 
for a couple of centuries until it finally succeeded in 
removing the sting of the grievance. 

It is one of the greatest complaints of the subject in 
the early Norman reigns that the king claimed and exer- 
cised the prerogative of creating and extending forests at 



DEER PARKS IN LANCASHIRE. 5 

his will, and thus with a stroke of the pen withdrawing 
lands from the operation of the common law and subject- 
ing them to these severe forest laws. The Conqueror 
set the example; "his son made the practice burdensome 
to baron and villein alike ; a vexation to the one, destruc- 
tion and extermination to the other," and in his reign the 
forest law seems to have reached the extreme of severity 
and cruelty. Henry I. continued the practice; his 
charter expressly reserved the forests. The nobles 
exacted from Stephen in 1136 a charter* in which, while 
reserving the forests created by the Conqueror and Rufus, 
he promised to surrender those created by Henry I., but 
the promise was not kept. Cheered by a military success, 
he held a great court of enquiry into the forests, im- 
pleading and punishing at his pleasure. 

Henry II. resuscitated the jurisdiction. In 1167 there 
was an itinerant survey of the forests, and in 1175 the 
king held at Nottingham a great visitation of the forests, 
and exacted large sums as fines for the waste of the vert 
and venison which he had himself during the war 
authorised his supporters to destroy. In 1184 he pro- 
mulgated the Assize of Woodstock, a code of forest 
ordinances which were very stringent, but somewhat 
less inhuman than the customs of his grandfather. The 
punishments prescribed by this assize are milder, but 
the vigour with which the law was enforced was a great 
ground of complaint against the second Henry, and this 
is altogether the part of his administration that savours 
most strongly of tyranny. He was an ardent and inde- 
fatigable hunter, and some of his most important councils 
were held and acts performed at his hunting palaces, such 
as Clarendon, Woodstock, and Marlborough. 

In the succeeding reign of Richard, Geoffrey Fitz 
Peter, the justiciar, began his career in 1198 by a severe 



6 ANCIENT FORESTS, CHASES, AND 

forest visitation, in the conducting of which he reissued 
and enlarged the Assize of Woodstock.* 

The demands of the people for relief from the strin- 
gency of the forest laws had been increasing in intensity, 
but listened to with stubborn disregard for a century and 
a half, until at last in the Great Charter of John some 
concessions were made. All the forests made in the 
present reign are now disafforested; a thorough investi- 
gation of all the forest usages is to be made by an inquest 
of twelve sworn knights, and all the bad customs are to 
be abolished forthwith. 

In 1217, when Henry III. had succeeded to the throne, 
there was a reissue of the Great Charter without the 
clauses relating to the forests, which were thrown into a 
separate document. The Charter of the Forest, issued 
at the same time, was a great measure of relief. It 
directed the disafforesting of all forests made by King 
Henry II., Richard, or John, beyond his own demesne, 
and invalidated all encroachments since made; the 
dwellers without the forest were no longer to be sum- 
moned, as they had been liable since the Assize of 
Woodstock in 1184, to attend the forest courts. Regu- 
lations are laid down to prevent oppression by the 
foresters and beadles as to the lawing of dogs, as to 
forced contributions, and as to the holding of swanimotes 
or forest courts. Every freeman may agist his own wood 
at his pleasure, and take his own pawnage, i.e., feed his 
swine. He may also drive his swine through the king's 
demesne woods, and even let them lie one night within 
the forest. No man is in future to lose life or member 
for killing the king's deer, fine or imprisonment being 



•Stubbs' Constit. Hist., i. 302, 322, 384. 471, 483, 489; Early Plantageuets 
17; Select Charters, 157, 258. 



DEER PARKS IN LANCASHIRE. 7 

substituted. And noblemen going to the king at his com- 
mand may kill one or two deer, provided it be done 
openly. Freemen owning land within the forest may 
make mills, springs, pools, marlpits, dykes, or arable 
ground, so that it be not enclosed, and may keep eyries of 
hawks. Chimmage is not to be charged, except in certain 
prescribed cases. Persons previously outlawed for the 
forest only are to be pardoned. And the forest courts are 
to be held by the forester and not by any inferior official. 

It is, perhaps, necessary to say that the disafforesting 
directed by the Charter did not mean the cutting down 
of trees any more than the afforesting meant planting 
them. It simply meant the relinquishment of the king's 
right of forest. in respect to the lands in question. It is a 
legal and not a physical act, something done with the 
stroke of a pen, not with the blow of a hatchet. 

The fixing of what should be disafforested had, of 
course, to be deputed to commissioners. The charter 
directed that all forests which King Henry II. had af- 
forested should be viewed by good and lawful men, and 
if he made forest of any other wood more than of his own 
demesne, whereby the owner of the wood had hurt, it 
should be disafforested, and that all woods made forest 
by Richard or John should be forthwith disafforested. 
Perambulations were consequently made defining the 
bounds of the forests which were to remain, so that hence- 
forth it might be clear what was and what was not forest. 
As Manwood says, "Many great woods and lands were 
not only disforested but also assarted and improved to 
arable land by the owners thereof. And so, not only men 
that then were dwellers and inhabitants in those places, 
but also dogs, which for safeguard of the game were 
accustomed before to lose their claws, had good cause 
to rejoice for these disafforestations." "But yet, never- 



S . ANCIENT FORESTS, CHASES, AND 

theless/' he adds, "the greatest part of these new 
afforestations were still remaining to be disforested during 
the life of the said King Henry III." In the long list of 
grievances presented at the Parliament at Oxford in 1257, 
is one that the forest laws had been disregarded. It was 
not till the reign of Edward I. was well advanced that 
the full demands of the people were satisfied. From even 
that enlightened king the confirmation of the charters had 
to be struggled for. The "saving the right of our crown/' 
with which he qualified his first confirmation, had to be 
withdrawn (1299).* It may be that some injustice has 
been done to him in this connection, for I find, in 1297, a 
recognition by him of the perambulations made in the 
time of Henry III., "as it has never since been challenged, 
as the king wills that his father's Charter of the Forest be 
inviolably observed in all its articles." And again, in 
June, 1299, he sends a notification to the commonalty of 
each county that he has ordered the persons appointed to 
make the perambulation of the forest to be at the 
appointed place at Michaelmas at the latest, and adds, 
"He would have sent them sooner had it not been for 
some people who were giving him much trouble. He 
also prays all people not to believe the contrary of these 
things, and has issued this proclamation because he has 
heard some people go about saying that he is not going 
to keep Magna Charta, or the Carta de Foresta, or to 
suffer the perambulation to be made according to his 
promise, whereas the King's will is that it shall be made, 
to wit, according to the form of his recent grant, which 
was to be as soon as possible after he had finished the 
business concerning the apostolic message, which is now 
settled and sworn on both sides, thank God."t The 

* Stubbs' Constit. Hist., ii. 148. 
jCal. Pat. Rolls, Edward I., 1292-1301, pp. 312, 424. 



DEER PARKS IN LANCASHIRE, 9 

king evidently intended to comply substantially with the 
people's demands, but resented the suspicions thrown on 
his good faith, and was perhaps unduly punctilious about 
the maintenance to the utmost extent of the royal prero- 
gatives, which he deemed it his duty to preserve and 
hand on to his successors. However this may be, the 
disforesting was still delayed and new suspicions were 
aroused among the people. The perambulation was at 
last completed in 1300, and the report of the commissioners 
was presented to the king at the Parliament at Lincoln 
in January, 1301. He at first refused to ratify the 
disafforest men ts till assured that it could be done without 
a breach of his royal obligations and without detriment 
to the Crown. Thd barons demanded the immediate 
execution of the disafforestments. He yielded to com- 
pulsion, consented to the demand, and again confirmed 
the charters. But the struggle was still to go on a little 
longer. It is one of the few blots on the fair fame and 
good faith of the greatest of the Plantagenets, whose 
motto was " Pactum serva," that he sought for and 
obtained from the Pope a bull absolving him from his 
consent. But he sought it only to obtain a nominal 
mastery. He used it only to revoke the disafforestments, 
in regard to which his feelings had been deeply wounded, 
and he revoked them only to enable him to pardon 
trespasses committed. Practically, the long struggle as 
to the forests was ended, and ended in the victory of the 
people.* 

The Lancashire Forests. 

All accounts tend to show that Lancashire at the 
dawn of civilisation was exceptionally well wooded. The 

• Stubbs' Constit. Hist., ii. 150, 151 ; Select Charters, 494. 



10 ANCIENT FORESTS, CHASES, AND 

county is specially noticed in this respect in the disserta- 
tion on the English woods in Pearson's Historical Maps, 
The first record we get of the extent of the ancient woods 
is in Domesday, There, in the account of the country 
between Ribble and Mersey, we have the frequent 
statement, "There is a wood so many leagues long 
and' so many broad." Mr. Farrer has worked out the 
quantities in acres and gives them in his paper in the 
sixteenth volume of our Transactions. In Derby hundred 
were 10,380 acres situate at West Derby, Roby, 
Knowsley, Kirkby, Crosby, Maghull, Aughton, Little 
Woolton, Lathom, Melling, and Lydiate. In Newton 
hundred the quantity is given as 88,800 acres, but, as 
this exceeds the whole area of the hundred, the woods 
are supposed to have extended into the surrounding 
hundreds, and more especially as one of these, Warring- 
ton, is not credited with any woods at all. In Blackburn 
hundred were 34,560 acres, which is about the area of the 
forests of Pendle, Trawden, Accrington, and Rossendale. 
In Salford hundred the area of wood is set down at 
69,540 acres, besides 12,960 acres belonging to the 
demesne. And in Leyland hundred the quantity is given 
at 28,800 acres. 

The information thus given can be supplemented from 
other sources. Thus, in the Cockcrsand Charttilary^ we 
find references to Simonswood, and to woods in Melling, 
Bickersteth, Whiston, Knowsley, Haigh, Bold, Rainford, 
Dalton, Hindley, Orrel, Abram, Pemberton, Houghton, 
AspuU, Monton, Astley, and Tyldesley. These are in 
charters of from c. 1 184-1286 a.d. 

North of the Ribble the Domesday Survey is less 
explicit as to the area of wood. The proportion must, 



*Chet. Soc, n.s., vol. 43. 



DEER PARKS IN LANCASHIRE. ii 

however, have been large. Leland says, "All Amounder- 
ness for the most part in time past hath been full of 
wood." The Furness district was largely wooded, for we 
know the trees served as fuel for the bloomeries formerly 
common there. And Walney Island, now almost without 
a tree or shrub, was once covered with wood.* 

What proportion of these extensive woods was forest 
in the conventional sense of the term ? The Elizabethan 
topographer, whose Christian and surname I have the 
honour to bear, and who wrote the most interesting and 
readable part of Hollinshed, said he could prove by the 
book of forest law that the whole county of Lancaster 
had been forest. Pearson, in the dissertation already 
referred to, asserts that the whole county was under 
forest law in John's time, giving as his authority the 
Rotuli de Oblatis, p. 14. I think there is a misconception 
somewhere in these statements. King Richard I. granted 
to John, count of Mortain, afterwards king, the honor of 
Lancaster and the royal prerogative of forest in the 
county. In the first year of John's reign, Benedict 
Garnet, according to the Rotuli^ gives forty marks for the 
serjeanty of the forest of the whole county. It is easy 
to see how these expressions might be taken to mean 
that the whole county was forest, while all that was really 
spoken of was the whole of the forest which existed within 
the county. 

We are on safer ground in taking it from Mr. Farrert 
that at the commencement of the twelfth century 
Henry I. enclosed the whole of Lonsdale hundred 
between the rivers Cocker and Keer (exclusive of the 
lordship of Hornby) within the metes of the forest of 



* West's Antiquities 0/ Furness, 1805, p. xviii. 

j Transactions, xviii. 109, H2. See also Lancashire Pipe RollSf pp. 425, 
426, where the boundaries are given. 



12 ANCIENT FORESTS, CHASES, AND 

Lancaster; and that the whole of the wapentake of 
Amounderness was subject to the forest laws. And in 
addition to these areas, known as the Forests of Lonsdale 
and Amounderness, there were certainly Toxteth, West 
Derby (within the precincts of which was Ravensmeols), 
and Burtonwood. Probably Henry L put all the wood- 
lands of the demesne manors between Ribble and Mersey 
into the forest, and included all neighbouring townships 
which came into his hands by forfeiture or escheat. 

Many of the lands in the neighbourhood of the forests 
were held by the tenure of serjeanty, that is on condition 
of rendering personal service to the king. Thus in 
Lonsdale hundred we have Burrow, Leek, Halton, 
Overton, Heysham, Oxcliffe, Torrisholme, Skerton, 
Nether Kellet, &c., so held; in Amounderness, Ashton, 
Lea, Little Singleton, Broughton, and Fishwick.* 

As the king seldom visited these outlying parts of his 
kingdom for any purpose save hunting, the service to 
be rendered was often in connection with forestry. 
Tending the king's hawks or being foresters was a usual 
service by which lands were held.t The office of Chief or 
Master Forester of Lancaster was a serjeanty held by the 
Gernet family from the time of Henry L 

John, who, as already stated, had a grant of the Lanca- 
shire forests before his accession to the throne, sold 
to the knights, thanes, and freeholders dwelling within 
the metes of the forest the right to improve, sell, and give 
their forest woods without being subject to the forest 
regulations, and to hunt and take hares, foxes, rabbits, 
and all kinds of wild beasts, except stag, hind, and 
roebuck and wild hogs, in all parts within his forests 

* Transactions^ xviii., p. 96, tables iv. and v. 

t Baines* Hist, of Lane, v. 489. References to Baines in this paper 
are to the third edition, by Croston. 



DEER PARKS IN LANCASHIRE. 13 



• 



beyond the demesne hays of the county, and granted to 
them acquittance of the regard of the forest. The grant 
was confirmed by him after his accession, and again by 
Henry III. in 1228. This must not be considered as a 
disafforestment ; it was only a partial release of the royal 
rights, and assizes of the forest continued to be held at 
intervals. 

In 1228 the perambulation of the forests of Lancashire, 
according to the Charter of the Forest, was made by 
twelve knights of the county. A full copy of it will be 
found (taken from the Lansdowne MSS.) in appendix 
ii. to vol. i. of Baines.* By it the knights certified that 
the whole county ought to be disafforested except certain 
woods, the boundaries of which they go on to define 
minutely: (i) Quernmore, near Lancaster, (2) Covet and 
Bleasdale, (3) Fulwood, (4) Toxteth, (5) Derby, (6) Burton- 
wood. After thus defining what only is to remain forest, 
the perambulation goes on to specify certain woods which 
in particular should be disafforested, viz., Croxteth Park, 
Altcar, Hales, and Simonswood, on the ground that they 
had been afforested since the coronation of Henry II. 
"Put in defence" or " placed in protection" is the precise 
phrase used in connection with these latter, and it appears 
to mean that the sovereign had not assumed full forest 
rights ovQr them, but had prohibited hunting in them by 
others than himself, or sometimes that he had merely 
ordered the exclusion of sheep and cattle from pasture.t 

This perambulation was evidently a corrected document, 
superseding an incorrect one previously issued. The facts 
in this connection appear in Mr. G. J. Turner's Intro- 
duction to the Select Pleas of the Forest, opportunely 
published by the Selden Society quite recently, indeed 



* See also Lancashire Pipe Rolls, by Farrer, p. 420. 
t Selden Society, vol. xiii., p. xciv. 



14 ANCIENT FORESTS, CHASES, AND 

« 

since the bulk of this paper was written. The Charter of 
the Forest was issued, as already stated, in 1217, the 
king being then a minor. In fulfilment of its provisions 
letters patent were issued on 24th July, 1218, directing 
perambulations of the forest to be made by twelve knights 
elected for the purpose by view of John Marshall, who 
was then justice of the forest; but it is doubtful whether 
perambulations were then made in all the counties in 
which there were forests. On the nth February, 1224, 
the charter was again issued without alteration in its 
provisions, and five days later justices were appointed to 
make perambulations — in some counties three justices, in 
others, including Lancashire, two. That a perambulation 
was made in Lancashire at or soon after this time seems 
clear from what follows. In January, 1227, the king 
declared himself of full age, and one of his first acts was 
to challenge the disafforestments made in his infancy and 
which, in so far as they diminished his revenue, amounted 
to a disinheritance. In many cases there was reason for 
believing that portions of the forest had been wrongly 
disafforested, and the very next month the knights who 
had made the perambulations in the counties of Leicester, 
Rutland, and Huntingdon came before the king and 
acknowledged that they had made mistakes. In August 
the king sent letters to the sheriffs of seventeen (unnamed) 
counties, directing them to cause the persons who had 
made the perambulations to come before him to show 
why they had disafforested certain parts of the forest 
which had been afforested before the coronation of Henry 
II., and why they had disafforested certain of his demesne 
lands and woods. Lancashire must have been one of 
these counties, for we find that on the 20th April in the 
next year (1228) the knights who had made perambulations 
in six named counties, of which Lancashire is one, were 



DEER PARKS IN LANCASHIRE. 15 

pardoned by the king for their errors. Ttie recorded 
perambulation, as already stated, bears date this very 
year, and so it no doubt embodied the corrections which 
the king desired.* 

It will be noticed that this perambulation (except in 
regard to the four woods said to have been put in defence) 
does not particularise what is to be disafforested, but 
what is to remain forest, saying that the rest of the 
county ought to be disafforested. It will also be observed • 
that the list of the forests to remain does not in- 
clude considerable tracts of country which were called 
forest to a much later date, such as Wyersdale, the 
forests of Blackburn hundred and Rowland. And this 
leads to the reminder that under the Charter of the 
Forest, which was the charter of the king, only kingly 
rights could be disposed of. In saying that (with certain 
exceptions) the whole county ought to be disafforested, 
the knights evidently meant the whole county to the 
extent of the king's rights in it, and so that henceforth 
he should have none except in the forests specified. 
This indeed is expressed in the copy given in Lancashire 
Pipe Rolls, which speaks of "the whole forest which was 
the lord king's in county Lancaster." Now it happened 
that in Lancashire the unusual course had been taken, as 
it was afterwards taken in greater measure, of granting 
to a subject all, or nearly all, the kingly rights in certain 
forests. It was not unusual elsewhere to grant to a 
favourite subject a forest, the right, namely, of hunting 
over a given area, but without what were called the pleas 
of the forest, that is, the right, which properly belongs to 
the sovereign only, to hold forest courts and administer 
the forest laws. A forest so granted ceased to be a forest 
in the strict sehse of the word, and was known as a chase. 

* Selden Society, vol. xiii., pp. xciv to c. 



i6 ANCIENT FORESTS, CHASES, AND 

In Lancashire, perhaps owing to the distance from the 
seat of government, the kings were more prodigal. 
Robert Ferrers, earl of Derby, had previously applied for 
leave to hold pleas of the forest in his forest between 
Ribble and Mersey,* though whether or not the petition 
was granted does not appear. The answer of the king 
was a direction for an enquiry as to what had been done 
in the matter on previous occasions, and whether the 
men of the forest ought to follqw pleas of the forest at 
Lancaster or elsewhere. 

Again, in 1193, King Richard L had confirmed 
Amounderness to Theobald Walter, and included the 
entire wapentake and the whole forest of Amounderness, 
with all the venison and with all the forest pleadings. 
There is a case among the Select Pleas of the Crown, 
in vol. i. of the Selden's Society's publications, which may 
have resulted from some dispute as to these forest rights. 
Ralph Long, in 1203, cites William of Winwick, for that 
he wickedly and in premeditated assault robbed him at 
Langshaw (near Chipping) of fifteen marks of silver, part 
of his lord's rent and a cloak of vert, and a tunic and a 
half-mark of his own. There are seven other pairs of 
plaintiffs and defendants (appellors and appellees they 
are termed), each of the latter being charged with being 
in the force which robbed the fifteen marks, and with 
having also robbed his own particular appellor of either a 
sum of money, or a cloak, a sword, a cap, a tunic, a shirt, 
an axe, or a bow and arrows. The defence of one, 
evidently the principal, is that he was one of the forest 
servants of Theobald Walter, and having found the 
appellors doing damage in the forest, hunting and de- 
stroying the beasts, they took distresses from them, viz., 
a sword and a bow and arrows. The result*, unfortunately^ 



* Selden Society, vol. xiii., p. cxii. 



DEER PARKS IN LANCASHIRE. 17 

is not given, but, as one of the appellors is stated to have 
made mention of the king's peace, it may be that there 
was an attempt to question the rights of Theobald Walter 
as owner of the regal jurisdiction in the forest. 

On the death of Theobald Walter, in or before 1205, 
Amounderness again came into the possession of the 
Crown, therefore the perambulation of 1228 would be 
effective in disafforesting the whole of it except Bleasdale 
and Fulwood. We, nevertheless, find subsequent re- 
ferences to the forest of Amounderness, even down to the 
present time. They must be taken to allude to what 
remains of that forest. 

Other forests which were, in 1228, in the hands of a 
subject were those of Pendle, Trawden, Accrington, and 
Rossendale (in Blackburn hundred), and Rowland. 
Of the last named the largest part was situate in the 
adjoining county of York. These had for a long period 
belonged to the Lacies, as part of the honor of Clitheroe. 
That there was any right to pleas of the forest is very 
unlikely, and so the term "chase" was more properly 
applicable than that of "forest," which was generally 
used. 

Wyersdale was granted to Hubert de Burgh in 1227. 
If this grant included forest rights the fact would account 
for its not being mentioned in the perambulation. 

Another forest not named in the perambulation is that 
of Horwich. A prescriptive liberty of chase appears to 
have subsisted there.* Henry III.'s grant of free warren 
to Thomas Greslet was in 1249. It applied to his 
demesne lands in the barony of Manchester, which in- 
cluded Horwich. Mr. Harland (in Mamecestre) thought 
that though in terms free warren the grant was meant 
to be one of forest, but that the grantee shrunk from the 

* Hibbert-Ware, Foundations of Manchester, iv. 57. 



i8 ANCIENT FORESTS, CHASES, AND 

expense of the necessary courts and officers. A more 
likely reason is that, after the charter of the forest and 
the perambulations under it, the king could not lawfully 
create new forests, but was willing to grant free warren 
and perhaps connived at the assumption of the larger 
right of forest. Horwich is described as a forest in the 
record relating to the escheat in the 38 Henry III., and 
again in the inquisitions on the death of Robert Grelley, 
A.D. 1282. There were then eight vaccaries and one 
plot which was not a full vaccary, and there were three 
foresters. 

No part of Furness, again, is excepted in the peram- 
bulation. King Stephen had included in his grant to 
Furness Abbey the forest of Furness and the Isle of 
Walney with the chase therein and all the venison in it. 
The abbey would, therefore, hold this territory as a chase, 
and such it would remain, notwithstanding the peram- 
bulation, although in course of time the hunting seems to 
have been largely discontinued as the country became 
enclosed and settled. The previous grant to Michael le 
Fleming of the adjoining territory, subsequently known 
as Muchland, also carried with it rights of chase. 

Roeburndale's very name, like that of the neighbouring 
Hindburn, a tributary of the Lune, proclaims the 
proximity of the deer. It was a chase attached to the 
lordship of Hornby, which, as we have seen, was excepted 
from the part of Lonsdale made forest by Henry I. It 
had been granted to Roger de Montbegon, and the wood- 
lands of Roeburndale being in the hands of a subject 
form a good example of a chase as distinguished from a 
forest. The deer and chase of Roeburndale are included 
by name in a lease of the manor of Hornby and its 
demesnes in 1354.* 

• Baines, i. 150. 



DEER PARKS IN LANCASHIRE. 19 

The chase of Cawood was another part of the lordship 
of Hornby granted to Geoffrey de Neville in 1280.* 

Tottington is in very early documents named as a 
forest. Thus, in 1176, Robert de Lacy made a grant of 
certain lands near Holcombe, described as in the forest 
of Tottington.t **Todlinton" is named by Thomas, earl 
of Lancaster, in 1313-4, as one of his free chases. And 
**the whole forest of Holcombe" was given by that name 
to the Monk Bretton Monastery by Roger de Montbegon 
early in the reign of Henry HL and before the 
perambulation. It thus seems most rightly designated 
as a chase. Tottington manor and chase are named in 
the inquisition post mortem in 1362 as possessions of the 
deceased Duke of Lancaster. 

Hoddesden and Ramsgreave are named as chases in 
a complaint by Thomas, earl of Lancaster, in the 
7 Edward H. (1313-4)4 Hoddesden Wood is specified as 
one of the duchy possessions in the inquisition of 1362. § 

Myerscough also is not named in the perambulation. 
It was a relic of the ancient forest of Amounderness, and 
-was in a.d. 12 12 part of the demesne of the honor of 
Lancaster. !| Therefore, although disafforested, there was 
nothing to prevent its being retained as woodland and con- 
verted into a park. We find it described as a park in the 
third year of Edward II. (i309-io).1[ As such, being an out- 
lying part of Lancaster parish, it may have been attached 
to Quernmore Forest, as suggested by the words of the 
survey of 1320-46. In 1362 it is described as Mirestagh 
Park. In 1482 it is described in a duchy document 
merely as a wood, though its officers are called foresters. 
In 1485 an Act of Parliament calls it a chase and park. 



* Baines, v. 544. § Ibid, i. 147. 

t Ibid, iii. 94. || Transactions, xviii., p. 96, table v. 

X Ibidf iii. 427. ^1 Baines, v. 440. 



20 ANCIENT FORESTS, CHASES, AND 

Leland describes it as a great park, parti}' enclosed with 
hedge, partly, all on the moor side, with pale, and as 
replenished with red deer. Park is also the word used in 
the book of the Duchy of Lancaster, c. 158S.* And this 
leads me to the subject of 

Deer Parks. 

A park is a tract of land enclosed with a pale for the 
better preservation of deer. Unlike a forest or a chase 
its owner can enjoy no rights over the land of others. 
It is, in fact, a mode of ordinary' ownership, and although 
there are instances of the king's licence to impark being 
obtained, especialh' where the land was in or near a 
forest, it does not seem to have been necessary in ordinary' 
cases. A park near a forest would be a nuisance, because 
of the possibility of the game being enticed awa}'. 
Chases, when enclosed, were often called parks, and such 
parks had, of course, all the privileges of a chase. Other 
parks were not subject to the forest law, unless they were 
actually situate within the forest. The term is sometimes 
used of a place for the mere enclosure of cattle, as at 
Wray, near Hornby, and in Furness.t 

**Over park, over pale," flies the fair}' in the Midsiujimcr 
Xighfs Dream. "By park and pale" rides Tennyson's 
Galahad. The pale is the natural accompaniment of the 
park, for without it the park cannot properly exist, 
enclosure being of the essence of the definition. In the 
old maps the pale is clearly shown semi-pictorially. It is 
noticeable that while the scenes of the Midsummer Xis^hfs 
Dream and As You Like It are mostly laid in forests, 
those of Love's Labours Lost are entireh' laid in a park, 
and in it hunting goes on. 



• Baines, i. 54, 72, 147. i Rickmondshire, ii. 255. 



DEER PARKS IN LANCASHIRE. 21 

While speaking of parks a word may be said as to free 
-warren. This was a franchise granted by the Crown to 
a subject for the preservation or custody on his own 
land of beasts or fowls of warren, i.e., hare, coney, roe, 
partridge, quail, pheasant, woodcock, mallard, heron, 
and animals of a like kind. It did not extend to deer or 
other beasts of chase. 

Grants of free warren in Plantagenet times were very 
numerous, and there are many instances in Lancashire; 
but the mere grant of free warren did not constitute a 
park, and therefore I do not pretend to enumerate them. 
Some particulars of the Lancashire deer parks will be 
found in the Appendix to this paper. 

The Royal Forests. 

Reverting now to the Lancashire forests which were 
reserved by the perambulation, these did not long remain 
royal possessions. In the very same year (1228), Ranulf 
de Blundeville, in the confirmation he obtained from the 
king of his lands between Ribble and Mersey, was made 
chief lord under the king of the whole county of Lancaster 
with all its forests.* On his death his daughter Agnes, 
married to the Earl of Ferrers and Derby, succeeded to 
the Ribble and Mersey lands. Her son forfeited them by 
his participation in Montfort's rebellion. The king, in 
1266, granted these, and in the following year the honor, 
county, castle, and town of Lancaster, and all the king's 
demesnes in the county, with the vaccaries and forests of 
Wyersdale and Lonsdale, to his second son, Edmund 
" Crouchback," earl of Lancaster. The full right of 
forest was not at first granted. 

But in 1285, Edward being now king, the regal rights 

* Baines, i. 47. 



22 ANCIENT FORESTS. CHASES. AND 

were conferred. Edward granted to his brother Edmund 
the right to have justices to hold pleas of the forest, in 
other words, the right to hold courts as if he were the 
sovereign. This applied to the forests of Lancashire and 
Pickering, in Yorkshire, which thus obtained an altogether 
exceptional position. Henceforth, although in the hands 
of a subject, they had all the incidents of a royal forest. 
That they were not royal forests is clear from the fact 
that Lancashire figures in the list of counties in which 
there were no forests in the year 1300. But that the full 
body of the forest laws was enforced in those forests is 
also clear.* Manwood, writing in 1598, says that the earl 
executed, in his forest of Lancaster, the forest laws as 
largely as ever any king of this realm did, "and even at 
this day," he adds, ** there are no records so much 
followed in the execution of the forest laws within the 
Queen's Majesty's forests as those that were executed by 
the said earl in his forests." And throughout his book 
he cites frequently, as authorities for general forest law, 
cases decided at Lancaster. From these and other 
sources we find instances of forest assizes there in the 
tenth and fifteenth years of Edward L, and the eighth, 
tenth, and twelfth years of Edward IIL, appointments of 
justices in eyre for pleas of the forest in 1359-60, and 
appointments of verderers in 1378, 1383, 1387; that the 
forest of Lancaster was divided into wards ; that it had a 
full panoply of officers — foresters, regarders, verderers, 
agisters, woodwards, and bailiffs ; and that twice every year, 
fifteen days before midsummer and fifteen days before 
Michaelmas, these officers and the reeve of every town 
assembled for a drift — that is, to drive the forest, clearing 
away all animals that had no right in the forest, or could 
not be allowed during the fawning season. 

* Selden Society, vol. xiii., pp. cvii, cxii. 



DEER PARKS IN LANCASHIRE, 23 

The officers for forest administration were the justice of 
the forest, whose duty was one of execution of the law ; 
the wardens, each of whom had the custody of one or more 
forests, and is often described as steward, bailiff, or chief 
forester; the verderers, whose chief work was attending 
the forest courts; the foresters, appointed by the wardens, 
and who often paid them for their office, and took their 
own remuneration from the inhabitants of the forests by 
means of various acts of extortion, which they claimed as 
customary rights; and the regarders, knights appointed 
every three years to inspect the woods and certify what 
changes had taken place, and assess the dues for new 
assarts, purprestures, and wastes. King John, as already 
stated, granted acquittance of the regard. For years 
previously sums of money had been periodically paid for 
a respite of the view of the forest. 

The forest eyre was a court called into being by the 
appointing of justices to hear and determine pleas of the 
forest. It was held at irregular intervals, the shortest 
being seven years, and was chiefly concerned with fines 
and amercements for breaches of the laws of the forest. 

A court of attachments (sometimes called a swanimote) 
was held usually every sixth week to- try cases of small 
trespasses against the Vert, and in cases of large trespasses 
to attach the accused to appear before the justices in eyre. 
There were besides special inquisitions held whenever a 
beast of the forest was found dead or wounded, or to 
attach trespassers against the venison to appear at the 
next forest eyre.* 

The Earl of Lancaster's son and successor, Thomas, 
after acquiring by marriage the lands and fprests of the 
Lacies, was beheaded (1330). Through his brother 

* Selden Society, vol. xiii., Introduction. 



24 ANCIENT FORESTS, CHASES, AND 

Henry and the latter's son Henry, who was the first Duke 
of Lancaster, the forests of Lancashire passed to John of 
Gaunt, and became part of the possessions of the duchy 
of Lancaster, passing eventually with the duchy into the 
hands of the Crown, though as a separate inheritance. 

The Inquisition post mortem in 1362 shows that the first 
duke died possessed of "Quernmore park, Wyersdale 
vaccary, Bleasdale vaccary, Hydil park, Fulwood wood, 
Mirestagh park, Penhull chase, Trogden chase, Rossen- 
dale chase, Tottinton manor and chase and the park 
there, and Hoddesden wood."* 

There are appointments of keepers of Toxteth park 
and Quernmore park.t 

In 1374 a forester is appointed for Pendle, Trawden, 
and Rossendale.J 

In 1482 we find Simonswood had a head forester and 
Croxteth a parker, Quernmore a forester and a keeper of 
the park, Wyersdale two foresters, Hyde and Fulwood 
one parker between them, Toxteth a parker, Myerscough 
two foresters, Bleasdale two foresters, Musbury, Ighten- 
hill, and Lathegryne each a parker, and the chase of 
Trowden a keeper. § 

Penalties and Privileges. 

Punishments for breaches of the forest law, even after 
the charter, were often severe. In 1360-61, 520 marks 
were levied from the freeholders of Quernmore Forest 
and the natives of Lonsdale as their portion of a fine of 
£1,000 for trespasses against the assize of the forest. 



* Baines, i. 147. Hydil (Hidley) or Hyde appears to be the equivalent 
of Cadley, adjacent to or part of Fulwood. 

t Ibid, i. 147. § Baines, i. 54, 147. 

I Newbigging, 48. || Ibid, v. 440. 



DEER PARKS IN LANCASHIRE. 25 

Cutting greenwood is an offence frequently referred to in 
the court rolls of the honor of Clitheroe. It was originally 
a serious offence, as it took away the sustenance of the 
deer, but in later times the punishment was not usually 
very heavy. In 141 1 the sheriff of Lancashire was 
directed to make public proclamation at the next sessions 
at Lancaster against hunting and killing deer in the 
king's forests of Bowland, Pendle, Rossendale, and 
Trawden. In the duchy pleadings in the time of 
Elizabeth we find not infrequently proceedings against 
parties for destruction of the deer and game in the duchy 
forests, and sometimes for refusal to do suit and service 
at the Swanimote Courts.* And so late as the reign of 
William III. we find a warrant issued by the king and 
addressed to his master foresters, bow-bearers, and 
keepers of the forests, parks, and chases in the county 
palatine of Lancaster, complaining that great destruction 
had been made of the deer, and requiring an account at 
the close of every season, showing the number killed, by 
whom, for whom, and by whose authority, and the stock 
remaining. 

Although the administration of the forest law was 
strict, there were certain alleviations. Tenants of woods 
were allowed the right of cutting wood for fuel and the 
repair of their property, and sometimes pasture for 
cattle and feeding for swine, and rights of this kind were 
expressly recognised in the perambulation in the cases of 
Fulwood, Derby, and Burtonwdod. The men of Preston 
were to have building timber from Fulwood for their 
houses and for fuel, and pasture for their cattle. The 
men of Derby were to have all necessaries in the wood of 
West Derby. And in Burtonwood William Pincerna 

* E.g.f Calendar of Pleadings, vol. iii., p. 331. ^ 



26 ANCIENT FORESTS, CHASES, AND 

and his heirs were to have common of pasture for their 
beasts in store and feeding for their swine, and building- 
timber at his castle for his building and burning. Many 
clearings in the woods were also allowed, for we find 
frequent references to assarts, as in the Cockersand 
Chartulary already alluded to. With the assart is some- 
times conveyed acquittance of pannage, either altogether 
or for a definite number of swine — ten, sixteen, thirty, 
or as the case may be, or the right of mast-fall, i.e., 
apparently the droppings of acorns and other fruit of the 
forest trees. 

Special privileges were also often granted by charter. 
King John's charter, which was general, has been already 
alluded to. By another charter he granted to the bur- 
gesses of Lancaster pasturage of his woods, dead wood 
for burning and timber for building. For the repair 
of the bridge at Lancaster he allowed timber from his 
forest. To the Lepers of St. Leonard of Lancaster 
he granted the privilege of grazing their cattle in the 
forest of Lonsdale and of taking therein wood for fuel 
and timber for building. In the next reign the lepers 
are found complaining to the king of the hardships 
inflicted upon them by Roger Gernet, the forester. 
Having had the misfortune to lose their charter, they are 
not allowed their rights. The king directs the sheriff to 
see that they are not molested;* 

In 1335 permission was granted to the prior of St. 
Mary's, Lancaster, to take two loads of dead wood every 
day from the earl's forest. At a subsequent assize the 
prior was held to be in merey, because he had taken living 
instead of dead wood, and had to pay a fine.t 

In 1372 a warrant from John of Gaunt to Richard de 
Radclif, his chief forester in Blackburnshire, authorised 

* BaineSjV. 439, 440. f Manwood. 



DEER PARKS IN LANCASHIRE. 27 

him to deliver to Robert Dyngley, esquire, two harts of 
grease in the chase of Rossendale and two does in the 
chase of Pendle.* 

A survey of Bowland made in 1556 showed that since 
the beginning of the reign (three years before) 493 trees 
had been felled. Of these 346 were for necessary repairs 
of tenants' houses, according to ancient custom ; forty 
were for repairs of houses in Clitheroe, thirteen for 
repairing the lodge at Leagram, and sixty-three for the 
neighbouring mills. And in 1588 Lady Stanley had a 
warrant to take wood from Toxteth Park to build her 
house in Liverpool.t For royal or duchy purposes, such 
as the repair of the castles, the woods were constantly 
resorted to for timber. Several instances will be found 
in Colonel Fish wick's paper in the present volume. 



The Decay of the Forests. 

At an early period it seems to have been discovered 
that the forest lands, barren and desolate as they largely 
were, might be utilised for the breeding and depasturing 
of cattle, and so they were laid out as vaccaries. We 
find mention of the vaccary and forest of Wyersdale in 
1267, and of the vaccaries of Bleasdale, Calder, and 
Grisdale in 1362. The De Lacy inquisition of 131 1 
describes the four forests of Trawden, Pendle, Rossendale, 
and Accrington as each containing so many vaccaries, the 
yearly worth of the herbage and agistment being stated. 
These vaccaries were under the management of staurators 
or boothmen, so called from the booths erected for their 
accommodation, and which gave names to places, such as 
Barley Booth and Crawshaw Booth. 



* Newbigging, 48. fBaines, v. 210. 



28 ANCIENT FORESTS, CHASES, AND 

m 

Early in the fifteenth century a new plan came into 
vogue of leasing the vaccaries for short terms to 
"farmers," who sublet in smaller plots to small tenants 
or squatters. This leasing was not strictly legal, and so 
in 1506 King Henry VII. authorised the steward of his 
lands and possessions in Blackburnshire, Rossendale, and 
Accrington to make copyhold leases of the demesne lands 
for not more than twelve years or more than 40s. a year. 
A fuller authority was given by a document of the 
following year by which what is called **The Granting of 
the Forests" was carried out. It was addressed by the 
king to the steward of his possessions of Blackburn, &c., 
and contained a schedule of lands, leases of which had 
been promised for life or years after the custom of the 
manor by copy of court roll, and authorised the granting 
of these leases. 

Mr. Farrer treats this as a disafforesting of the four 
forests of Blackburnshire. It is not so in terms, whatever 
may have been the practical effect. As Whitaker says,* 
it was a commission to approve {i.e., enclose), and not to 
disforest. So long as any of the lands remained ungranted 
the forest rights would remain in regard to them, and it 
would be quite possible to reserve those rights even in 
regard to the lands granted. However, it would appear 
that some change took place at this time, for the wood- 
motes ceased to be held, and instead an inquisition was 
held at the same time as, though distinct from, the courts 
of the honor. And the grant is undoubtedly significant 
of the changes that were theq taking place. Here we see 
the Norman system in full decay, the old order giving 
place to new. 

It is interesting to notice that not many years after- 
wards (in 1534) King Henry VIII. was informed that the 

* Whalley, 4th ed., i. 287. 



DEER PARKS IN LANCASHIRE. 29 

occupiers of the pieces of land newly let out had severed 

them into many small "quillets" to little value to the 

deterioration of the inhabitants in the same, and he by 

letters patent to his steward required that every tenement 

should be at the least to the clear yearly value of 26s. 8d. 

About the same period complaints were made and 

disputes arose in regard to the letting of the vaccaries in 

Bleasdale. In 1553, a lease of the herbage and pasturage 

of eighty acres in Bowland led to disputes, and the lessees 

were forcibly kept out of possession. It was contended 

that these eighty acres had always been kept for feeding 

the deer of the forest, and without it they would feed 

either on the mountains or on the grounds of other 

inhabitants, who were not allowed to drive them away, 

and would thus be undone. Previous enclosures, it was 

said, had resulted in great decay of the king's game. The 

two thousand deer of an earlier time had become reduced 

to about three hundred. A century later we find that 

great changes had taken place. King James and King 

Charles had sold most of the lands in fee farm, and so 

the tenements had increased nearly fourfold, while the 

deer had been reduced to twenty red and forty fallow. 

Leland, in the time of Henry VIII., mentions that up 
towards the hills by Grenehaugh there were three forests 
of red deer — "Wyredale, Bouland, and Blesdale" — and 
that they were partly wooded, partly heathy. 

In 1556, Leagram was disparked on the report of a 
commission that the pale was in great decay and quite 
uoable to keep any deer in the park, and that there were in 
fact no deer; and Toxteth Park, which in 1588 had been 
reported well wooded, suffered the same fate at the end of 
the century. Times were changed since the Conqueror 
and his successors put men to death for killing deer. 
Manwood, in 1598, complains (p. 15) that the negligent 



30 ANCIENT FORESTS, CHASES, AND 

execution of the forest laws had been the decay and 
destruction of the deer almost everywhere, and also of 
great wood and timber, **for those laws now," he says, 
"are not only out of use in most places, but also grown 
into contempt with many inhabitants in forests." 

James I., while staying at Hoghton in 1617, hunted in 
Myerscough, but I do not find any later instance of royal 
hunting in the county. 

The necessities of the Stuart kings now led to the 
disposal of much duchy property. In 1628, Charles I. 
sold the manor of West Derby. A great part of Bowland 
was likewise sold in fee farm, and though the freeholders 
were bound to allow the deer to go unmolested, they 
naturally suffered from the enclosing which followed. 
By 1652 they were reduced to twenty red and forty fallow, 
but the courts of swanimote and woodmote were still kept 
up, and those were fined who felled any wood or killed 
any deer, or without licence kept any dog bigger than 
would go through the stirrup, which some of us remember 
to have seen at Browsholme a few years ago. 

Deer still ranged Bowland hill less than a century ago, 
but in 1805 a fine herd of wild deer, Whitaker tells us, 
was destroyed. But, meanwhile, the honor of Clitheroe, 
which included Bowland as well as the four forests of 
Blackburnshire, had passed out of the hands of the 
duchy, having been bestowed by Charles II. upon the 
Duke of Albemarle. Through him it passed to the Duke 
of Buccleuch, and now in these degenerate days the lords 
of the honor are a limited company, realising in sober fact 
something of the imaginations of Gilbertian comic opera. 

In the other forests and parks belonging to the duchy 
the rights tended to become of a more and more shadowy 
character, as the hunting grew less and less, and the 
grantees of the soil became virtually proprietors. The 



DEER PARKS IN LANCASHIRE. 31 

ducal revenue profited little, and the duchy officials seem 
to have obtained the venison. In the book of the duchy 
(c. 1588)* there is a list of the forests, chases, and parks 
out of which venison was to be supplied summer and 
winter to the chancellor, attorney-general, receiver- 
general, and two auditors. The list includes Bowland, 
Wyersdale, and Bleasdale (described as forests), and 
Leagram, Myetscough,Toxteth, and Quernmore (described 
as parks). The omission of the forests of Blackburn 
seems to show that their disafforestment was by then 
complete. As the deer became fewer no doubt these 
officials would have to be content with a smaller quantity 
of venison. Myerscough had, during the reign of Henry 
VIII., been in keepership of the first Stanley, earl of 
Derby, and the Tyldesleys afterwards became deputy 
keepers, chief rangers, and ultimately freeholders. There 
were deer in it until 1778. Fulwood'was leased to the 
Earl of Derby about 1786, and in 1810 was enclosed. 
Quernmore had been partly enclosed in the time of 
Edward I., and the enclosure was completed in i8ii.t 

Bleasdale, as already mentioned, was divided into 
vaccaries at an early date, and its landowners purchased 
what remained of the forest rights from the duchy so 
lately as 1880. 

And so one by one the forests disappeared. Honorary 
offices such as that of steward or bowbearer remained, 
but without real duties to fulfil. And even these can 
hardly keep alive the memory of those far distant days 
when the forest jurisdiction was something to beware of. 
Not long ago an article appeared in a Manchester news- 
paper on ** Stag hunting in Lancashire," treating it as a 
new and marvellous thing that in our smoky county any 

• Baines, i. 72. f Ihid, v. 433, 434, 488. 



32 ANCIENT FORESTS. CHASES, AND 

one should attempt, as Mr. Peter Ormrod has recently 
done, to set up a pack of staghounds. That Wyersdale, 
the scene of the experiment, should ever before have been 
used for a similar purpose does not seem to have occurred 
to the writer. After what has been already said, we need 
not be surprised at the statement that the country is as 
favourable for stag hunting as the better known wilds of 
Exmoor. Only the wild red deer are hunted, and they 
are free to roam over extensive moorlands, where their 
solitude is seldom broken by the human voice. The 
Pendle Forest Hunt, too, still chase the deer. Thus are 
the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries brought 
back into the twentieth. And thus may w^ in these 
latter days personally find some faint realisation of the 
Ancient Forests and Deer Parks of Lancashire. 



APPENDIX. 



Lancashire Deer Parks. 

Of parks in Lancashire there were, besides Myerscough, 
those attached to the forests of the Lacies, enclosed, as 
Whitaker says, in order to chase the deer with greater 
facility or by confinement to produce fatter venison. 
Attached to Bowland were Radholme (in Yorkshire) and 
Leagram, to Pendle Ightenhill, where was an Equitium, 
or horse breeding establishment, and which was disparked 
and granted on lease in loth Henry VIIL; to Rossendale 
MusBURY, which seems to have been the park near 
Tottington which Henry de Lacy was enclosing in 1305, 
and which was leased to Richard Radclifife in 9th Edward 
IV.; and to Accrington Newlaund.* 

* IV h alley, 206, 222. 



DEER PARKS IN LANCASHIRE, 33 

At MoRHOLM, in Warton, a park was authorised by 
an undated and, therefore, early charter. Farleton had 
a park which has now entirely disappeared with the 
hall to which it appertained. Hornby had in Eliza- 
beth's time two parks, one called old and the other new.* 
Halton also appears to have had one.t 

A licence to make a park at Knowsley, Roby, and 
Anlasargh was granted by Edward III. in 1339, and a 
further licence to hold the same was granted by the 
duchy in 1360-61. 

At Lathom is the New Park, in the midst of which, it 
is said, formerly stood a castle called Horton Castle. J 

A park at Blackley, "of which the herbage, with the 
windfall, wood pannage, and aery of sparrow-hawks is 
worth yearly £6, 13. 4,'' is mentioned in the inquisition 
of 1282 on the death of Robert Grelley. And the same 
inquisition mentions "a certain little park which is called 
Alde-parc," otherwise Aldport, the site of which is now 
in the centre of the city of Manchester, and which was 
used by the tenants of Manchester for pannage, and 
contained within it an aery of hawks and eagles. 

Dale Park, near Satterthwaite, in Hawkshead parish, 
owes its name, says Mr. Swainson Cowper,§ to Abbot 
Banke, who in 1516 made a park five miles in circum- 
ference to put deer into. There is, according to Mr. 
Cowper, no record of any other parks formed in that 
parish for the same purpose, although Statements have 
been made, for which no authority can be found, that an 
abbot in the time of Edward I. obtained licence from the 
king to enclose large tracts in Furness Fells. The other 
parks disclosed in place-names in Hawkshead parish 



♦Baines, v. 514, 542, 543. jBaines, i. 152; v. 265, 267. 

t Whitaker's Richmondshire , ii. 224. § Hawkshead, pp. 49, 91. 

I) 



34 ANCIENT FORESTS, CHASES, AND 

were mere enclosures of fell or woodland, or were used 
for cattle or horses. Oxen Park, Stott Park, and Colt 
Park are examples.* A licence was granted by King 
Edward III. to the abbot and convent of Furness to 
enclose their woods of Ramesheved, Soureby, Roheved, 
Greneschow, Hagg, Milnewood, Clayf, and Fournes fell, 
and of them make parks, which should be theirs without 
impediment so long as they were not within the bounds 
of the royal forests.t 

The PAROUS DE Hapton is mentioned in a document 
of 1329-30. Two others in the same neighbourhood were 
successively imparked at a much later date by Sir John 
Townley under licences dated 12th Henry VII. and 6th 
Henry VIII. The deer in this park had been destroyed 
before 161 5, though it was not divided into tenements 
before the beginning of the eighteenth century. Within 
the contiguous demesne of Habergham is a hollow in the 
ground, which tradition points out as a pitfall dug for 
impounding the stray deer, when the two families of 
Townley and Habergham lived upon terms of bad neigh- 
bourhood together.! 

At Townley, the six-inch ordnance map shows 
''Deer-park," and adjacent to it ''The Old Park." A 
licence for enclosing the old park of Townley bears date, 
as per inquisition, the 6th year of Henry VII. § In the 
neighbourhood also is Palace H-ouse, a name derived 
from Paliz, the old plural of pale, i.e., the house of the 
keeper of the pales, or parker;,| c/., French "palais." 

At Wrightington the map shows "Old Park or Deer 
Park." BainesH merely states that the park abounds 



• Beck's Annates Furnesienses, p. 15. § Ihid, 4th ed., ii. 188. 

t Chet. Soc, n.s., 9, p. 175. II Baines, iii. 379. 

X Whitaker's WhalUy, 4th ed., ii. 58, 64. II Ihid, iv. 200. 



DEER PARKS IN LANCASHIRE. 35 

with deer and game, and gives nothing of its history. 
The ordnance sheets also show deer parks at Bardsea, 
Holker, Burrow, Wennington, Ashton (near Lancaster), 
Stonyhurst, Whalley (near), I nee Blundell, and Trafford. 
Some of those may be comparatively modern, but the one 
at AsHTON appears to be identified with Lymparke, 
which was imparked by John de Ashton, in the eleventh 
year of Edward III.* Trafford Park retained its deer 
to our own times. 

At Whalley, the park belonged to the dean or abbot. 
By inquisition, in the ninth year of Henry VIII., it was 
found that the abbot's park at Whalley was enclosed in 
the twenty-second year of Henry VII., but it is probable 
this refers only to a licentia imparcandi of a later date than 
the time at which it was actually enclosed. The survey 
taken after the dissolution stated that the park contained 
about by estimation two miles, and there were then in 
it thirty deer.t 

A licence was granted in 1490 to Thomas Stanley, 
earl of Derby, to make a park at Greenhalgh, near 
Garstang, and to have in it free warren and chase. J 

A petition for liberty to impark lands at Rishton, and 
for confirmation of a grant of free warren and liberty of 
hunting, made by Edward II., was presented to King 
Charles II., in 1664, by Richard Walmesley.§ 

Radcliffe is described by Whitaker as "once a park.'' 

At Middleton, the one-time park is no longer a pasture 
for deer, but has been converted into farms. || 

Bradley, near Newton, had, in the time of Leland, a 
park, which has now disappeared.^! Being within 



• Shirley on English Deer Parks, p. 212. § Cat. State Papers, Dom. 
t Whitaker's Whalley, 4th ed., i. 183. I| Baines, ii. 410. 

\ Baines, v. 427. •! Ibid, iv. 385, 434. 



36 ANCIENT FORESTS, CHASES. AND 

Burtonwood it was, perhaps, the last remnant of the old 
forest. 

Heapey had an ancient park belonging to it.* To Sir 
Richard de Hoghton was granted in 1337 by the king the 
privilege of making a park at Hoghton, and in 1385-6 
by John of Gaunt licence to enlarge it.t 

Many of the deer parks already mentioned are shown 
in Saxton's Map of Lancashire, temp, Elizabeth, and in 
the seventeenth century maps based upon it. In those 
maps the pale or enclosure can be distinctly traced. In 
Saxton's map we find the following, of which other 
records are scanty : Salesbury, Osbaldeston (** Osbaston "), 
Samlesbury, Pilkington, Barton, Hulme (** Holme," see 
Baines, ii. loi), Atherton, Bryn, Ashton-in-Makeriield, 
Newton, Bewsey, Leek, Leigh ton. Shirley's English Deer 
Parks give also Gresgarth, but the park shown by Saxton 
near to this name is more likely Quernmore. 

ToxTETH is in the perambulation treated as a forest 
and its boundaries are carefully traced. It appears that 
only recently King John had enclosed the adjacent 
Smithdown with it to form the park for the castle of 
Liverpool. It seems to be always afterwards described 
as a park rather than a forest and the officer in charge of 
it is called a parker or keeper, not a forester. In letters 
patent of 1529 there appears to be an attempt to treat it 
as both forest and park. Sir Thomas Butler being 
appointed chief forester of the forests and chases of 
Simonswood, Croxteth, and Toxteth, and parker of 
Toxteth and Croxteth. Toxteth is said, in 1426, to be 
well stocked with deer, and in 1588 to have been well 
wooded, t 



* A park at Healey near by, with its pale, is mentioned in a charter of 
A.D. 1159-64 in Lancashire Pipe Rolls, p. 376. 

t Baines, iv. 176-8. { Ibid, v. 209-10. 



DEER PARKS IN LANCASHIRE. 37 

Croxteth, although disafforested by the perambulation, 
seems to have afterwards come into the possession of 
Edmund, earl of Lancaster, nick-named " Crouchback," 
and been used as a park. In 1446 Henry VI. granted it 
to Sir Richard Molyneux, in whose family, now ennobled, 
it has ever since remained. 

SiMONSWOOD is found by the perarhbulation to belong 
to the heirs of Richard Fitz Roger, and from them it 
seems to have eventually passed to the Molineux family. 
But Edmund, earl of Lancaster, viz., **Crouchback," 
had some rights in it in 1297, when, however, it is 
described simply as a wood.* 



* Baines, v. iii, 209. 




MOTTRUM OF MOTTRUM, IN THE 
PARISH OF PRESTBURY. 

BY F. RENAUD. M.D, 

AN endeavour to track the territorial descents of 
ancient and partially extinct families through the 
intricate windings of blood relationships, without detect- 
ing some flaw calculated to vitiate the inquiry, is a 
difficult and tedious task at best, seeing that nothing 
short of demonstration will suffice for its accomplishment, 
and that the only evidence available but too frequently 
lies concealed in ancient deeds and documents not at all 
times accessible. From this circumstance some obscuri- 
ties and errors in descent and devolution of the above 
family have crept into the only hitherto published 
accotmt, for which I made myself partly answerable 
some years ago, and which call for a present amendment. 
Passing by fruitless inquiries touching exact limitations 
of manorial and township lands, and omitting doubtful 
progenitors, the first person unquestionably bearing this 
patronymic was Richard de Mottrum, whose son, Richard 
de Mottrum, was signatory to a Davenport deed relating 
to Chorley, in Cheshire, in the reign of Henry III.* 
This same Richard, junior, had a son named Robert, and 

' Ormerod's CAMAir;, 2nd edit., vol. iii.. p. 600. 



MOTTRUM OF MOTTRUM. 39 

their joint names as father and son are appended as 
witnesses to a thirteenth century deed {circa 1240, penes 
Legh of AdHngton), in which Reginald Orme quitclaimed 
possessions in Prestbury to the monastery of St. Werburgh 
at Chester. 

Robert de Mottrum was succeeded by John and Simon, 
both of whom were married and left issue. John's name 
occurs in a Titherington deed made towards the latter 
end of the thirteenth century; also in another deed (penes 
Legh), in which Hugh de Corona, of Adlington, conveyed 
lands to Wasse del Hope and Richard Worth. 

In the 32 Edward I. (13 14) Ralph de Vernon claimed 
the overlordship of Mottrum, making the above John 
grantee of the same, with certain reservations, as appears 
from the following entry in the Welsh Records (Report 
28, p. 14) : *' Ralph son of Ralph de Vernon granted to 
John de Mottrum the manor of Mottrum (except 200 
acres of w^ood therein) at a yearly rental of sixteen 
shillings and eightpence, the said manor to revert to the 
said Ralph and his heirs on the death of the said John 
and Robert de Mottershed, and Roger son of John de 
Mottrum put in their claim against the above fine." 
Without attempting to appraise the merits of this con- 
tention, certain it is that John became de facto lord of 
the manor, was holder of a knight's fee, and in this 
capacity was retained in the king's service during this 
monarch's wars in Wales.* At the date of his death 
John left three sons, viz., Roger, Edmund, and John, 
the two first of whom were of full age and married. 

Roger de Mottrum married one Agnes, and predeceased 
his brother Edmund, seeing that his widow claimed 
dower not only against him, but against his son Edmund 



* Welsh Records, Report 26, p. 41. 



40 MOTTRUM OF MOTTRUM, 

and his wife Margaret. "Agnes who was the wife of 
Roger de Mottrum claimed dower against Edmund son 
of John de Mottrum, and also against Edmund son of 
Edmund de Mottrum and Margaret his wife."* 

Roger de Mottrum left issue Thomas, and died ante 
1377, 50 Edward Ill.t This Thomas, at his death, was 
succeeded by an only daughter and heiress named Cecily, 
who became the wife of Jordan surnamed " le Leper," by 
whom she left no issue, and as a consequence this branch 
of the family became extinct. 

Edmund, son of Edmund, and grandson of John de 
Mottrum, as already shown, and husband of Margaret, 
left issue a son, rilimed Adam, who lived through the 
long reign of the third Edward, and married Ellen, 
daughter and co-heiress of John de Somerford, in right of 
\vhom he held the office of gaoler of Macclesfield, and 
who, when a quo warranto was issued by the Earl of 
Chester challenging the right of Macclesfield to this 
prerogative, defended it successfully in his capacity of 
custodian. Along with others, he took part in the 
French wars in the train of the Black Prince, in con- 
sideration of which services he received a pardon from 
the king, in 1357, condoning sundry felonious acts 
previously committed by him in Cheshire. When Cecily, 
wife of Jordan the Leper, died, she made a bequest of all 
the lands and tenements of which she had stood possessed 
in Mottrum to Adam. "Cecily, who was the wife of 
Jordan le Leper, and daughter and heiress of Thomas, 
son of Roger de Mottrum, quitclaimed, by Charter, all 
her right in any lands and tenements in Mottrum, &c., in 
favour of Adam de Mottrum."! At his death, in 1379, he 



* Welsh Records, Report 27, p. log. \Loc. cit.. Report 28, p. 70. 

\ Loc. cit., Report 28, p. 70. 




pe&iflree of 
/Dottrum of /Dottrum an&rew. 



Richard dk Mottrum = 



Richard dk Mottrum = 



Robert dk Mottrum = 



John dk Mottkum = 



Simon dk Mottrum = 

I 



Richard Simoni)ks<)nk = 



Edmund de Mottrum = 



Edmund de Mottrum = Margaret . 



Roger de Mottrum = Agnes . 



I 



Thomas dk MoTTKUM = A}(nes . 



Adam de MoTTRUM = E]len, daughter and 

co-heiress of J. 
Soqnerford. 



Cecily, daughter=Jordan le Leper, 
and heiress, 
o.s.p. 



Agnrs, daughter= David de Calverley. Roger dk Mottrum = Joyce Sherd, 

and heiress. I 



Richard. 



Roger Mottrum,= 
of Disley 
Stanley. 



Roger Mottrum = 

I 



John dk Mottklm= . . . 
. . . John dk MoTTRL'M = Enen 



I I 

Ralph. Richard. Robert. 



Roger Mottrum = Isabel, daughter and coheiress 

of David le Walker, of 
Heywood. 



William de Mottklm = 



Thomas Mottram = 

I 



I 



daughter and = Richard Mottershead. 
heiress. 



I 



Margaret, daughter and heiress = Henry Savage. 



IN THE PARISH OF PRESTBURY. 41 

left an only daughter and heiress, who married David de 
Calverley, in whose family the manor remained till the 
middle of the seventeenth century, when it passed to 
the Booths. 

Two divisions of the Mottrum family having thus been 
traced down to heiresses, the current must now be turned 
back to the thirteenth century as far as Simon, brother to 
John de Mottrum, the first of that name, who until 
recently has proved a genealogical stumbling block or 
missing link, whose very existence has been inferred 
rather than demonstrated, yet through whom the family 
is traceable in male descent for some three hundred years, 
until the landed estate once more and finally lapsed to a 
female inheritrix. 

The main paradox centred in the fact that the issue of 
this Simon, in lieu of being styled '*de Mottrum," were 
designated as "Symkynsone" and *'Simondessone," and 
hence it came to be inferred that if a son or sons of Simon 
existed he or they must of necessity have had a parent so 
designated. By a discovery of two deeds {penes Legh) a 
direct affirmation can be furnished to this effiect, one of 
which deeds is dated in the eleventh and the other in the 
seventeenth year of the reign of Richard II., the essential 
parts of which, as bearing on the present inquiry, read as 
follows: **To all faithful in Christ &c. Richard son of 
Richard Symkenesson wishes health. Know that I have 
leased to John son of Robert de Legh a certain place and 
lands Called *le Leghes' in the township of Mottrum- 
Andrewe lately held by me from John son of John de 
Mottrum, &c. As witness, Richard son of Simon de 
Mottrum, Roger son of Richard Symkynsone, & others." 
And again, after usual salutations, "Know that I John, 
son of John de Mottrum, have leased to Reginald 
Downes, and Richard son of Richard Symkynesson 



42 MOTTRUM OF MOTTRUM, 

of Mottrum-Andrewe, le Leghes in Mottrum-Andrewe, 

In these two abbreviated extracts conclusive evidence 
is secured of the presence of six generations of this 
family, reckoning from below upwards, viz., that of John, 
son of John de Mottrum, Roger and his brother Richard, 
Richard their father, and Simon de Mottrum their 
progenitor: also that "le Leghes" or the Lee Hall estate 
was their portion. 

The descent is now traceable forwards from Richard 
Symkynesson to his son Roger, who married Joyce, 
daughter of Richard de Stanley, of Disley Stanley, in 
1357, at which time Edward, the Black Prince, granted 
him a licence for the enfeoffment of the inheritance of 
sergeancy in the forest of Macclesfield, until then held by 
Richard de Stanley, in recognition of the good service 
rendered him at the battle of Poictiers. In this licence 
he is severally called Roger Mottrum and Roger Simon- 
dessone. After his death in 1381 Joyce, his widow, 
recovered dower against John, his son.* Joyce's post 
mortem inquisition is dated i Henry IV. (1399). 

This John was bailiff of Macclesfield Forest and also 
keeper of the town gaol, in fee, from the year 1400 to 
1410, and hence came to be known as ** John the Gailor."t 
Subsequently he was appointed a justice itinerant for the 
three hundreds of the eyre to be held in Macclesfield. 
At his death he left a son, likewise named John, who 
married Ellen . . . and appears to have died in 1433 
(12 Henry VI.), when his widow claimed dower against 
William de Macclesfield, alias William de Mottrum, his 
son and successor. J Whilst living this John de Mottrum, 



• Welsh Records, Reports 25, 29, and 36, pp. 51, 53, 434- 
f Loc. cit.. Report 36, p. 355. 
I Loc. cit.. Report 29, p. 82. 



IN THE PARISH OF PRESTEtURY. 43 

junior, leased "le leghes'* to Reginald Downes and 
Richard Symkyenson. William de Mottrum, by his 
marriage, had an only daughter, his inheritrix, Margery, 
who married Richard de Mottershead, and thus this male 
division of the family became extinct.* 

It now qnly remains to trace briefly to its close the 
family descent through the Disley Stanley junior branch, 
viz., through Roger, son of Roger de Mottrum, and Joyce 
Sherd, the whole of the manorial possessions having now 
been alienated. His post-mortem inquisition is dated 
1452-3, when it was found that he died seised of his 
demesne as of fee in Disley Stanley, held of the Earl of 
Chester by knight's service, and that he held no other 
land in Cheshire ; also that his son Roger was his heir 
and at that time forty years old.t This Roger, of Disley 
Stanley, also left a son by his marriage, of like Christian 
name, who married Isabel, daughter and co-heiress of 
David le Walker, of Heywood, in the parish of Nether 
Alderley, who had all her landed possessions jointly 
settled on herself and her husband, which were subse- 
quently conveyed to Richard Savage. In the 3 Henry 
VII. he alienated all his estate in Disley Stanley, and 
conveyed it, together with the office of bailiff of the new 
park (Swanscoe) of Macclesfield to Peter Legh, of Lyme 
Hanley.J 

The only son by the above marriage, named Thomas 
Mottrum, by his marriage had an only daughter named 
Margaret, who married Henry Savage, and thus brought 
the patronymic to a close in the early part of the 
sixteenth century. 

The armorials of Mottrum (presumably differenced 



• Tabley MSS., vol. ii. f Welsh Records, Report 37, p. 556. 

\Loc. cit.. Report 29, p. 94. 



44 MOTTRUM OF MOTTRUM. 

from those of Davenport), as shown in John de 
Warwick's early MSS., and attested later on by Robert 
Cooke, herald, were sable, a chevron argent charged with 
three quatrefoils gules between three cross croslets or 
two and one. 

Note. — Heywood, in Nether Alderley, was sold by the Savages to the 
Hollingsheads, in which latter family it continued till the reign of Henry 
VIII., when once more, and in like manner, it passed to that of Fallows 
of Fallows, in Nether Alderley, until the year i8oi, when Sir John T. 
Stanley by purchase incorporated it with his other estates. 

Test. W. NoRBURY, Wilmslow. 




THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 

BY HENRY FISHWICK. F.S.A. 

DURING the time of the Heptarchy, when what is 
now known as Lancashire formed part of the 
kingdom of Northumbria, no doubt several of its most 
powerful Saxon thanes caused strongly fortified places to 
be built, some of which might well be included in the list 
of Lancashire castles ; but unfortunately, although there 
still remain Saxon crosses and fragments of Saxon 
churches, we search in vain for any tangible evidence of 
these early structures. We find, indeed, as at Aldingham 
Moat Hill (in Furness), the earthworks and the ditch whicli 
surrounded the "burh" or fortified house of an Anglo- 
Saxon chief, but the castle — if it existed — has entirely 
disappeared. At Pennington (in Furness) a mound with 
some of these characteristics is still known as Castle 
Hill, as is also a piece of rising ground at Halton, Many 
reasons may be given to account for the disappearance of 
these castles, but the two most powerful ones were the 
nature of the buildings themselves and ravages made bj- 
the Danes. 

The Domesday Sur\'ey only names one castle as existing 
in Lancashire in a.d. 1086, but this would, of course, not 
justify an assertion that there were no others. The one 



46 THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 

mentioned was at Penwortham, and the record is distinct, 
" Now there is a castle there." It is further mentioned 
that Penwortham belonged to Edward the Confessor, 
and that appertaining to it were six burgesses, who 
probably held their burgages by service to the castle. 
There were also three " radmen," or riding men, eight 
villeins, and four neatherds, or cattle keepers. Before 
the great survey all the land between the Ribble and the 
Mersey had been granted by the Conqueror to Roger de 
Poictou, so that it is possible that the castle at Pen- 
wortham may have been erected by him, and that it was 
not a remnant of Saxon times. In the time of Henry III. 
Randulph de Blundeville, earl of Chester and baron of 
Lancaster (who died in 1232), held his court within the 
castle of Penwortham,* but subsequently it appears to 
have been allowed to fall into ruin, and all trace of it has 
centuries ago been swept away, but its commanding site 
is still known as Castle Hill. 

The particulars given in Domesday Book referring to 
Rochdale are very meagre, the names of the various 
ancient "vills" not even being given; nevertheless, we 
may safely assume that Castleton took its name from a 
Saxon castle which some time stood within its boundaries. 
In the twelfth century many charters refer to **the vill of 
the castle of Rachedal," and in a deed without date, but 
executed in or about 1238, a distinct reference is made to 
land which was bounded on one side by " the ditch of 
the castle," and to a right of ingoing and exit to " the 
place of the castle."t The details given in this charter 
show clearly that this castle stood on the rising ground 
overlooking and commanding the valley of the Roche 



•Coucher Book, Duchy Office, No. 78. 
jCoucher Book of IVhalley, p. 608. 



THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE, 47 

and still known as Castle Hill, and near which was the 
large sheet of water called Castle Mere. 

In 1626 Gabriel Taylor held a house, known as " Castle 
Hill," by a lease from the duchy, and it is described as 
situate on the "reputed scite of a castle standing there, 
but now clean defaced."* The mound upon which the 
structure stood rises over one hundred feet from the level 
of the old river bed, and has every characteristic of a 
Saxon thane's fortified dwelling. It would not improbably 
be partially built of stone, and was surrounded with 
earthworks and moats. A plan taken before the con- 
struction of the new Manchester turnpike-road shows 
clearly the then formation of the hill. Near the top were 
two level areas, one slightly above the other; the lower 
comprised two acres and ten perches, and the upper one 
over seventeen perches. On the southern and western 
sides mounds of earth had been thrown up, but the other 
sides were protected by the naturally inclined ground. 
In the charter just referred to, and in which the ditch of 
the castle is named, a detailed description is given of the 
land to which a right of road was reserved; one of the 
boundaries is described as beginning between the high 
banks between Great and Little Bromyrode (now Brim- 
rod), proceeding to Sudden, from thence to the water of 
"Rach," and then ascending the Rach as far as the dead 
water called "Twofoldhee." 

We have not been able exactly to fix the locality of 
Twofoldhee, but it was undoubtedly in the hamlet of 
Chadwick, and not far from the ford over the river, which 
in the thirteenth century was known as Trefford, and 
could not be many hundred yards from where to-day the 
river is bridged across at Oakenrod. This "dead water," 



• Manor Sun-ey. 



48 THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 

therefore, must have almost filled the valley on the south- 
western side of Castle Hill. From the geological map of 
the valley v^e find that just where the "dead water" 
stood in the thirteenth century is marked as alluvium 
deposit, whilst on the hill in question as well as on the 
rising ground on the opposite side of the river we have 
only the coal measures. This hill in the Saxon times 
must have occupied such a commanding situation that it 
could not. have escaped the notice of any thane of Roch- 
dale who wished to protect his territory from invaders. 
The land on the south-east side is known as Kill Danes 
Fields, but as we have not met with any early reference 
to this name it would be hazardous to presume that it 
has any reference to a slaughter of Danish invaders. 

Clitheroe Castle. 

It is held by some authorities that castles built with 
stone walls, and intended for residence and defence, were 
not introduced into England before the Norman Conquest. 
At the date of Domesday (a.d. 1086) Roger de Poictou had 
lost the vast possessions which he had held in Lancashire 
under Edward the Confessor, which had included the 
honour of Clitheroe and all the land lying between the 
Ribble and the Mersey. To govern these estates, as well 
as others in Yorkshire, he must have had a residence in 
some convenient centre, which in Domesday Book is 
referred to as *' Castellatus Rogeri.*' It is now agreed by 
local antiquaries that this castle was at Clitheroe, the 
castle at Lancaster not having been built until some 
years later. William Rufus restored Clitheroe and other 
estates to Roger de Poictou, who between logo and 
1095 granted the whole of Blackburnshire to Robert de 
Lacy, who in his turn forfeited it for treason, but only to 



THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 49 

again have restored to him by Henry I. Clitheroe remained 
in the hands of the De Lacy family until Thomas, earl of 
Lancaster (who married Alice, daughter and heiress of 
Henry de Lacy, earl of Lincoln), was executed for high 
treason, 23rd March, 1322, when the honour reverted to 
the Crown, and subsequently Edward IIL granted it to 
Queen Isabella for the term of her life, and she thus 
became "lady of the manor and castle of Clitheroe." 

For some three hundred years it continued to be part 
of the duchy possessions. In 1661 Charles II. gave it to 
the Duke of Albemarle for services rendered, from whom 
it passed to the Duke of Buccleuch, whose descendant. 
Lord Montagu of Beaulieu, holds it to-day. The honour 
dependent upon this castle extended over a very large 
portion of the county, including Whalley, Blackburn, 
Chipping, Ribchester, Tottington, and Rochdale. No 
doubt these vast manorial rights, being held by this 
family, led to the common Lancashire ;s?iyiiig applied 
to a person who assumes a dignity to' which* he was 
not born, that ** he might be the Duke of Buccleugh." 
Originally the castle would be of very small dimensions, 
and built partly for defence, but in the time of Henry de 
Lacy it was used as a temporary residence for the lord of 
the honour, a fortress, a gaol, and a courthouse. Here 
were held all the leet courts of the wapentake, the halmote 
courts of the demesne manors, and the courts baron. 
We find a record that in or about the year 1286 one 
Nicholas de Werdhyll, having slain a buck in the forest 
of Rochdale, was seized by the Earl of Lincoln's keepers 
and dragged to Clitheroe Castle, where he was imprisoned 
until he paid a fine of four marks.* Within the castle 
walls was also a chapel dedicated to St. Michael, the 

• Plac. de Quo War, Edward I. 



50 THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 

foundation of which was almost as early as that of the 
castle. 

In a coiVipotus of the lands of Henry de Lacy, earl of 
Lincoln, taken in 1304, occur the following items of 
expenditure: — 

Covering and repairing houses within 

the castle £^3 9 

Hay bought for the castle - - - - o 10 o 
Fee of seneschall for three quarters of 

a year 10 00 

Fee for constable for half a year - - 3 15 o 
Wages of the porter of the castle for 

half a year 129 

And amongst the receipts are : — 

Herbage of the castle ditches ---£016 

Herbage of the garden and toft adjoining 030 

In the inquisition taken in 131 1, after the death of the 

last De Lacy, the castle with the moat and ditches are 

mentioned, also an orchard "under the castle," and the 

advowson of the chapel in the castle yard. 

In 19 Edward III. (1345-6) the chapel formed the 
subject of a dispute between the king and the abbot of 
Whalley, and we find mention made of William de Tate- 
ham, steward of the castle, in the time of Edward II.* 

The great gate of the castle was repaired in 1324, and 
it took a carpenter twenty-nine days to make it, for 
which he was paid 3^. a day; the lock and key cost 
los. lod. At the same time extensive repairs were done 
at the house in the castle and a new room was added. 
Amongst other details preserved are the carriage of thirty 
waggon loads of timber from Bowland, 38s.; twelve 
waggon loads from Leagrim Park, i6s. ; forty-five waggon 



♦ Placita (Lancashire), 19 Edward III., No. 18. 



THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 51 

loads of sclatstons for the roof, 27s. 6d.; when the old 
room was pulled down 4s. 2jd. was spent on bread, ale, 
butter, and cheese.* 

Further repairs were ordered to be made, in 1480, by 
Edward IV., who was anxious to strengthen this fortress 
in anticipation of the border warfare which followed. 
The constable of the castle held his office by patent and 
it was a life appointment ; the salary attached to it being 
£10 a year. The porter of the castle received £^. os. 8d. 
a year. One of these porters was the subject of a case 
heard in the Duchy Court in September, 1504. It 
appears that Sir Richard Sherburn, knight, caused a pro- 
clamation to be made in certain churches in Lancashire 
and Yorkshire commanding the king's subjects to muster 
**in harnesse and fensable araye" on Whalley Moor; but 
before the day fixed for this muster another proclamation 
was made at the " King's Court held at his Castle of 
Cliderowe" forbidding the meeting. Yet notwithstanding 
this John King, the porter of the castle and the king's 
tenant, "retaigned and sworn to his Grace," assembled 
with about three hundred men at the place named, and 
was consequently at the instance of Sir Piers Legh, Knt., 
arrested, and placed as a prisoner in the castle of which 
he was the porter.t Two years later Robert Russheden 
held the porter's office by letters patent from the king, but 
Sir Piers Legh (so he alleged) had ''expulsed" him from 
his office '* without ground or cause with force and 
mighty hard. "J After the decisive battle of Flodden in 
1513 probably Clitheroe Castle gradually lost its im- 
portance as a fortified stronghold and assumed more the 
position of the civil centre of the honour. The chapel 



* Receiver's Compotus, §1,4 Henry VI., chap, xxix., bundle 220. 
\ Duchy Pleadings, Henry VII., vol. ii., s. 6. 
J Ibid, r. 27. 



52 THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 

within its walls had disappeared before the time of 
Edward VI. 

In March, 1648-g, a body of two thousand militia, 
under Colonel Ashton, after refusing to disband, made an 
unsuccessful attempt to fortify themselves in Clitheroe 
Castle.* After the ejectment of this force by Major- 
General Lambert, an order was passed on 27th March, 
1649, to the effect that the Council of State should 
consider the propriety of demolishing Clitheroe Castle, 
but a medium course was adopted, and instructions were 
given, which must very much have puzzled the recipients, 
viz., that they were **to put it in such a condition that it 
might neither be a charge to the Commonwealth to keep 
it nor a danger to have it kept against them," and they 
further directed '* that the guns were to be sent to 
Liverpool.*' t A few years prior to this (in 1644) Prince 
Rupert placed Captain Cuthbert Bradkirk, of Kirkham, 
in command of the castle, and with a view to a siege he 
repaired the gatehouse and laid in a stock of provisions, 
but, according to the testimony of a Parliamentarian 
writer, after the defeat of the prince at York, he put all 
the provisions into the draw-well, and then deserted the 
castle. t What remained of the castle was now left to 
the destroying hand of time, until only the crumbling 
ruin of the ancient keep was left standing. 

A. drawing, taken for the Society of Antiquaries, shows 
what was left in 1753. The surrounding wall, with its 
ancient Norman door, was still standing, but except the 
tower all the buildings had been demolished. In 1775, 
only the ancient tower or keep remained, and within the 
area formerly surrounded by walls had been built an 



* Civil War Tracts, Chet. Soc, ii., p. 277. 

jCal. State Papers, Dom. Ser. 

I Discourse of the Warr in Lane, Chet. Soc, Ixii. 513. 



THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 53 

embattled house for the use of the steward of the honour. 
Another drawing, made by Moses Griffith in 1801, shows 
the tower still standing, almost beneath the shadow of 
Pendle Hill; although it is now nearly surrounded with 
houses enough remains to be still recognised as the 
ancient keep. A drawing, by Copley Fielding, engraved 
in 1 83 1, is taken from a different point, and shows a 
portion of the old walls. There is also an engraving by 
G. C. Barber. 

Lancaster Castle. 

As early as the time of Trajan (a.d. 98-117) a castrum 
was built at Lancaster, which long before the Norman 
Conquest had been destroyed or had fallen into ruins. 
In Domesday Book '*Loncastre" was described as one 
of the vills dependent upon the manor of Halton, which 
the Conqueror bestowed upon Roger de Poictou, who 
lost no time in erecting a strong keep upon the site which 
had centuries before been selected by a Roman com- 
mander as pre-eminently suited for the purpose. Parts 
of this building still remain. 

At Clitheroe the Ribble runs below the fortified hill, 
and at Lancaster the Lune ebbs and flows within sight 
of the castle walls, which more than once were found 
impregnable by the invading Scots. In 10 King John 
(1208), orders were given to the Earl of Chester and 
others to find men to construct moats and fosses for this 
castle,* and for many years afterward this powerful earl 
retained the wardship; but, in 13 Edward I. (1284-5), 
the castle and the honour of Lancaster were conferred 
upon Edmund, nicknamed "Crouchback," earl of Lan- 
caster, second son of Henry III. Notwithstanding the 

*Rot. Pat., 10 John. 



54 THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 

position and strength of this castle, its defenders were 
in 1322 unable to prevent the Scots taking the town, 
which they partially destroyed by fire; but the castle 
itself, though somewhat damaged, resisted the attacks. 

John of Gaunt was declared Duke of Lancaster in 1362, 
and was the owner of the honour and castle; he died in 
1399. There is, however, no evidence that he ever for 
any length of time resided at the castle, but there 
undoubtedly were held most of the courts belonging to 
his vast domains. To this duke is attributed the building 
of the Gatew^ay Tower, which still bears his name, and 
upon one side of which are engraved the arms of France 
semi-quartered with those of England, and on the 
opposite side a label ermine of three points, which form 
the distinction of John of Gaunt. 

About this time that some extensive alterations were in 
progress is evident, as in 1377 Adam de Hoghton, keeper 
of the Quernemore Forest, had orders to cut dow^n two 
hundred oak trees within the foreign wood there for the' 
repairs of the castle.* Ten years later we find the castle 
used as a prison, a writ being issued in 1386 to the keeper 
of Lancaster Forest to accept bail for William Warde, 
then a prisoner in the castle.t Again, in 1434, recognisance 
was taken that William de Radcliffe, of Todmorden, the 
younger, did not escape from the same prison ; and, in 
1437, he being still confined there, the recognisance taken 
amounted to four hundred marks. J During the long 
Wars of the Roses, the castle probably more than once 
changed hands, but none of the battles took place in its 
vicinity. 

Early in the sixteenth century {ante 1535) Richard 



* Duchy Rolls of Fines, chap, xxv., A. 6, No. 6. 

t Ibid, chap, xxv., A. 6, No. i. 

} Chancery Rolls, chap, xxv., Hen. VI., Nos. 23 and 34. 



THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 55 

Norris, of Kirkby, complained to the chancellor of the 
duchy that he had for three months been "in ward in 
the castle of Lancaster to the utter undoing of his poor 
wife and children." The reason for his imprisonment 
was (as he alleged) that some time previously he had been 
robbed by a household servant. Sir Edward Molyneux 
was rector of Sefton, and because through his evidence 
the guilty party was convicted, the rector, bearing 
"extreme and utter malice" against him, had said that 
within a year he would see him hanged if it cost him 
3^100, and he accordingly had caused the plaintiff to be 
wrongfully indicted for felony and sent to prison.* 

Amongst the prisoners confined in the castle during 
the sixteenth century may be named John Paslew, the 
last abbot of Whalley, and George Marsh, the martyr. 

The following letter evidently refers to materials, taken 
from one of the discharged chantries, which had been 
used to repair the castle : — 

" After my moste hertie recomendacons understandinge 
by youre Ires (of the xij*^ of may) to me sent by my 
servauntte that youe arre not fully satifyed by my layte 
certificat to youe mayd of the leade remayninge in 
Lancastre castell but that theire shuld remayne yet of 
the seyd leade (as appearythe by the Kynge and Queues 
maiesties recorde) over and besyde the alowaunce of suche 
leade as was bestowed and occupyed abowte the repare 
of the seyd Castell accordinge to the rate expresed in my 
seyd tres twelve fuderst and a half at the leaste — willinge 
me further by youre seyd tres to examyn the premyss and 
to geove youe further adustysment of the same in mydsoni 
tearme next. Wherefre these shalbe to Signefie unto 

* Pleadings, vol. xxi., n.d., Hen. VIII. 
t A fother = nineteen cwt. 



56 THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 

youe that I have accordingly mayde dyligent inquysition 
thereof by all wayes and meanes I possible might but 
more than I have already certefyed I cannot fynde and 
certen I ame that noo more hayth gone furthe of the seyd 
Castell than I have already certefyed and theire is noo 
more remayninge than by the same lykewyse appearyth 
wherfo^ if any Deceipte were in this matter it is moste 
lyke to be by hyme that Delyiid the seyd leade into the 
seyd Castell whoo ought to have delyud the sam. by 
Indenture whiche he dydd not. Albe it if you have me 
in this matter suspected anythinge (wherof the Indenture 
beinge spoken of in the audyter's books may give you 
occasyon) I shall wishe and desyre you to trye me theryn 
by Comyssyon or other wyse as shall Stand with your 
pleasures to the uttermoste And thus wishinge unto 
youe all helth — as to my Self I Comytt youe to the 
Trynitie frome Skargill the xx firste day of June 1556 

** your frynd not aquatyd 

*' Marmaduke tonstall. 

[Endorsed'] " To the wurshipfuU Wiltm Berners Thomas 

myldmay and John Wyseman the Kynge 
and Quenes Mate Coifiyss for Leade 
and other theire heighnes debte from 
Marmaduke Tunstall knight for Lead."* 

During the time of Elizabeth the castle was repaired 
and put in a defensible condition, and the battlements of 
the great keep were raised to a height of seventy feet. 
In this tower is a stone engraved " e.r. 1585. r.a." The 
initials standing for Queen Elizabeth and Richard 
Ashton, the high sheriff of the county. 

The assizes were now, and for several centuries pre- 



•Land Revenue Records. "Church Goods." Bundle 442, a.d. 1556, 
No. 10. 



THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 57 

viously, held at Lancaster, and in 1623 the judges issued 
an order to the justices in their several divisions to 
collect money for the maintenance of the gaol.* 

A calendar of the names of prisoners in the castle at 
the assizes in August, 1636, has been preserved. There 
were nearly fifty, and amongst them no less than ten who 
were set down as witches, some of whom were kept in a 
dark chamber, above which, in a large room without 
furniture, was confined Henry Burton, who, for writing 
the work entitled For God and the King, had been 
sentenced to perpetual imprisonment and to lose his ears. 
Whilst in the Lancaster gaol he was not permitted the 
use of pen, ink, or paper, and was only allowed to read 
the Bible and the prayer book.t 

At the commencement of the Civil War, Lancaster 
Castle was held by the Royalists, but after the successful 
siege of Preston in February, 1642-3, it was captured by 
Cromwell's troops, who at once set free all the prisoners 
there. But they found the castle ill fitted to sustain a 
siege as it had few (if any) guns, but as Nathaniel Barnet, 
the Puritan minister of Lancaster, puts it, **the lift up 
hand of the God of the seas was working with the winds 
to bring a man of War that came from Spain furnished 
with one and twenty peeces of Brasse and Iron Ordnance." 
This ship was stranded near Rossall (in the Wyre), and, 
being seized by the Earl of Derby, was burnt, but by 
some means the Parliamentary forces got the guns and 
carried them to Lancaster Castle, and, in consequence, 
when the earl marched his troops to Lancaster, 
although they partly destroyed the town, they were 
unable to enter its castle. When the Commonwealth 
had secured the country, the Privy Council perceived a 

• MSS. of Lord Kenyon (Hist. MSS. Com.), p. 28. 
t State Papers, Dom. Ser., Charles I., ccclxi. and ccclxii. 



58 THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 

source of danger lurking behind the battlements of the 
castle, and in June, 1649, an order was made that it 
should be demolished, except the parts required for 
courts of justice and the gaol, and that the guns and 
ammunition should be sent to Liverpool. And in August, 
the same year, directions were given that the lead and 
timber and the portcullis were to be used for the repairs of 
the castles of Liverpool and Chester. These orders were 
evidently reluctantly carried out, for in March, 165 1, a 
mandate was received to the effect that notwithstanding 
the order given the castle was not yet made untenable, but 
might be used by the enemy, and, therefore, a party of horse 
and foot should be stationed there.* Some portion of the 
roof must have been taken down, as in 1649 the people 
of Preston obtained sufficient lead, taken from Lancaster 
Castle, as was required to re-cover the chancel of the 
church, as they had used the old lead to make bullets 
during the siege. According to one authority only the 
walls of the quadrangle were pulled down.t However this 
may be, the days of the old castle as a fortress were now 
over, gradually its ancient features disappeared. At the 
beginning of this century the southern tower and the 
dungeon tower were both taken down, and during 
the process much interesting evidence of their great 
antiquity was discovered. 

In 1679-80 the judges complained that they did not 
wish to hold the assizes at Lancaster because the ruins 
of the castle made it dangerous to sit in the courts there.J 
It was not until after the passing of the Act of Parliament 
for improving prisons in 1788 that a great portion of the 
more modern buildings was erected. 

* State Papers, Dom. Ser., xv. 14 (Calendar). 

t A Discourse of the Warr, Chet. Soc, Ixii. 64. 

} MSS. of Lord Kenyan (Hist. MSS. Com.), p. 115. 



THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 59 

The oldest view of Lancaster Castle is the small one in 
Speed's map of the town, taken early in the seventeenth 
century. It shows six towers, but the ancient seal of the 
borough on the same map only gives four towers. The 
south-east view, drawn by Buck, gives a striking picture 
of the isolated castle as it stood in 1727. The plate 
engraved for the Society of Antiquaries in 1734 is much 
more elaborate in details, and, if it be correct, would 
prove that between the two dates considerable additions 
had been made. Neither of these views quite agrees with 
Views of Lancaster published by Alex. Hogg in 1727. 

Of John of Gaunt's Gateway many views have been 
taken. The best is that by T. Hearne, dated 1778. 
Another, by W. Westall, A.R.A., was drawn in the 
middle of the last century. A second by Westall gives 
view of castle from south. There is an oil painting in 
possession of the Lancashire and Cheshire Historic 
Society, taken about the year 1750. A vignette, by T. 
Creswick, gives the castle from the opposite side of the 
Lune. There are two views taken by T. Physick about 
1830, one giving the church and castle, and the other the 
interior of the courtyard. 

Peel Castle, or the Pele of Fouldrey. 

This castle stood on a small island near to the larger 
island of Walney, from which at low tide it can be 
approached. It is sometimes called the Pele of Foulney. 
It occupied a most commanding position, as ships could 
only get to the mainland by passing through a narrow 
channel at high tide. It is said to have been built in the 
time of Stephen, and in 1 126-7 i^ was given by the king 
to the abbots and monks of Furness Abbey, on condition 
that they sustained and kept it in repair for the defence 



6o THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE, 

of the country. This they appear to have done for nearly 
three centuries, but in 1403 the then abbot dismantled it 
and it was seized by the Crown, but shortly afterwards a 
precept was issued to the escheator for the county to 
** amove the king's hands from the castle or fortress called 
La Pele de Fotheray."* It is not improbable that soon 
after this date the monks of Furness repaired or rebuilt 
the castle, the ruins of which remain to this day. 

It was at Peel Castle that Martin Swart and Lambert 
Simnel landed from Ireland in 1487 with a band of some 
two thousand Germans, who took part in the battle at 
Stoke. 

A century later (in 1588) we find the "Pylle of Folder" 
described as "an old decayed castell," and the harbour as 
' **a dangerous place for landing." t The poet Drayton, 
writing in 1619, refers to this castle: — 

To Fournesse ridged Front, whereas the rocky pile 
Of Foudra is at hand, to guard our out-layd Isle 
Of Walney, and those grosse and foggy Fells awoke. 

Part of the outer fortifications included six towers, the 
north-eastern one being fourteen feet square. Inside 
these walls were the small chapel and the principal tower 
or keep, which was three storeys high. 

A drawing was sent to Samuel Pepys, secretary to the 
Admiralty, in 1667, which shows the position of the 
fortress and of the islands in its vicinity (a facsimile 
exhibited). Buck's north-west view, taken in 1727, shows 
the main tower .nearly complete. From the drawing 
made by T. Hearne, in 1783, it is clear that by this date 
much of the building had fallen to pieces, and a large 

* Chancery Rolls, chap, xxv., A. 7, No. 14 ; and Coiicher Book of Furness, 
Chet. Soc. (n.s.), vol. ix., 215. 

t Lands. MSS., Cod. 56, Art. 51 ; also Chet. Soc, 1. 201. 



THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 6i 

detached block forms part of the picture. West's History 
of Furness has a small outline sketch, dated 1805, which 
marks a further decadence. A drawing by N. G. 
Philips is a fine view of the portion of the ruins still 
standing. A view from the east was taken by J. Buckler 
in 1822. G. Pickering's beautiful drawing (in 1832) shows 
little more than one wall standing. An etching, dated 
i860, gives a more recent view. 

Liverpool. 

Tradition says that the castle of Liverpool was erected 
by King John, but we find no mention of it in any 
authentic records of it until 1347, when amongst the 
estates of the honour of Lancaster appears '*at Lyverpoll 
a certain castle with four towers, whose trench and 
herbage" were valued at 2s. a year. Beneath the castle 
was a dovecote worth 6s. 8d., and there was a borough in 
which were divers free tenants who held burgage tene- 
ments for which they paid £8. 8s., and also a market, 
ferry, park, and windmill.* 

About the year 1357 a grant was made of a messuage 
in **Castelstrete," which formerly belonged to Benedict 
le Stedeman, late constable of Liverpool Castle, t and in 
1359 several grants and pardons issued in the name of 
the Duke of Lancaster were dated from Liverpool Castle. 
Amongst these was a permission for William de Liverpool 
to take two cartloads '^gorstorum" (of gorse) from Toxteth 
Park annually on paying I2d. 

The inquisition post mort. of Henry, duke of Lancaster, 
taken 36 Edward IIL (1362-3) names "Lyverpoll" Castle 
amongst his possessions, and in the accounts of the receiver 

* Inquisition, 20 Edward III. 
t Duchy Rolls (1355-61), class xxv., A. 3, No. 2. 



62 THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 

of the duchy for the year 1441 there is a charge entered 
of ^46. 13s. lod. for construction of a new tower on the 
south side. Between 1352 and 1446 we find notices of 
the appointment of constable of the castle, but in the 
latter year the office was granted to Sir Richard Mollineux 
and his heirs, and then became hereditary.* 

Until the breaking out of the Civil Wars there is little 
to be noted respecting the castle. At the siege of Liver- 
pool in 1643 the castle was occupied by the Royalists 
under command of Colonel Norris, who surrendered to 
the Parliamentary forces, who thus got possession of the 
ten guns used for the defence. At the second siege of 
Liverpool, in 1644, Colonel Moore had possession of the 
castle, from which he was driven by Prince Rupert, who 
for some days made it his head-quarters. On the 20th , 
August following Liverpool was again besieged, and, after 
a fortnight's resistance, was surrendered. During these 
repeated attacks upon the town the castle must have 
severely suffered, and we have already seen that in 1649 
materials for its repairs were sent from Lancaster, but it 
appears that certain guns were also sent from Lancaster, 
as on 9th November, 1649, Colonel Birch, the governor 
of Liverpool, complains that he has received the guns, 
but that their carriages had not been forwarded. t On 
the 29th April in the following year (1650) Colonel Birch 
was ordered to use such timber lying about Lathom 
House as he thought necessary for the further repairs of 
his castle, t 

Nine years after this (in 1659) Parliament passed an 
order that it was for the interest of the state that this 
castle with its walls and towers should be demolished 



• Rot., 24 Henry VI., par. 52. 

t Crt/. State Papers, Dom. Ser., iii. 19. 

\ Ibid, ix. 12. 



THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 63 

and made untenable, and that, in consideration of this 
being done, the site thereof to be granted to Colonel 
Thomas Birch and his heirs.* This order was only 
partially carried out, the great gatehouse and a portion 
of the walls only being pulled down. When Charles II. 
was restored to the throne and for many years afterwards 
there were frequent disputes as to the ownership of the 
site, but finally in 1704 the corporation succeeded in 
getting a lease of it from the Crown for fifty years. The 
corporation (after the manner of such bodies) at once set 
about pulling down and making improvements. The 
result being that in 1725 the last vestige of the old castle* 
was swept away to make room for St. George's Church, 
which has also in its turn been cleared away for street 
improvements. The only view of this castle which we 
have been able to obtain is one drawn by Daniel King 
about i656.t There are several plates in Herdman's 
Ancient Liverpool, which include the castle. In the 
Gentleman's Magazine for May, 18 13, is a small engraving 
of the castle taken from a painting. 

Liverpool Tower 

Was a fortified house of the Stanleys. Its early history 
is obscure, but in 1406 a royal grant was made to Sir 
John Stanley to crenellate and embattle it. In 1715 
some of the rebels were confined in this tower, and it was 
used as a gaol for criminals and debtors down to 1811, 
and eight years afterwards it was pulled down entirely, 
and Castle Mills were built on the site. W. G. Herdman, 
in his Ancient Liverpool, has a view of the tower drawn on 
stone about 1842. 



• Commons Journal, vol. vii., 704. 
t Engraved in Gregson's Portfolio, p. 33. 



64 THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 



West Derby Castle. 

In the township of West Derby, near to the church, is 
a place still known as Castle Field, and here, undoubtedly, 
at an early period stood some kind of a tower or castle, 
which, probably, was only of small dimensions, and may 
have simply been the fortified manor-house. 



Gleaston Castle. 

About a mile and a half from the waters of Morecambe 
Bay stood this ancient castle. Its origin and early 
history are alike unknown, but it is thought by most 
antiquaries to have been built by one of the Harrington 
family late in the fourteenth or early in the fifteenth 
century, at which latter date it certainly existed, as 
appears by a grant from Robert, abbot of St. Mary 
and the convent of Furness, to William Harrington, lord 
of Aldingham, and Margaret his wife, of a right of way to 
and from the castle of Gleaston over the abbot's land to 
Barry on foot or with carriages and horses.* 

Leland, writing at the time of Henry VIII., records 
that there was then at Gleaston **a ruine and walles of a 
castle," Camden refers to its four towers of great height 
and portions of very thick walls still remaining. The 
yard enclosed by the walls was two hundred and eighty- 
eight feet long and one hundred and sixty-eight feet wide. 

In the time of Queen Mary it belonged to the Duke of 
Suffolk, who perished on the scaffold for high treason, his 
estates being confiscated to the Crown. 



* "Duchy Records," see Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society, 
vol. iii., 2IO. 



THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 65 

Buck's view, taken in 1727, gives a very accurate idea 
of the ruins as they then stood and of what the castle 
must have been before it fell into decay. A small drawing 
by W. Close, taken about 1805,* shows what havoc a 
century of neglect had made. Another picture, drawn 
by W. Green in 1809, exhibits a better view of what then 
remained of the two lofty towers.t 

Dalton Castle (or Tower). 

Tradition says that somewhere about the time of 
Edward III. the monks of Furness had a castle in 
Dalton, and that the tower now standing is all that is 
left of it. As no mention of it is found in the Coucher 
Book of Furness, it is more probable that it was originally 
erected to serve as a gaol and courthouse ; certainly it 
was used for these purposes in the fifteenth century, as is 
clear from the following extract from instructions given by 
Henry VIII. (in 1545-6) to the steward and receiver of the 
duchy estate in Furness : *' Whereas we be credibly informed 
that our castle or prison of Dalton which heretofore has 
always been used as a prison and common gaol . . . 
which said castle is now in great ruin and decai^ ... 
We intending the preservation thereof for the better 
quietness of our subjects there desire you ... to 
repair our said castle as well in the towers as in the 
gaol & other places and to state what the repairs will 
cost and to certify what store of stone, lead & timber &c. 
we have about our late monastery, available for this 
work." 

In compliance with this, a report was made to the 
effect that there were three chambers from the floor, one 

• West's Antiquities of Furness, 2nd edit., p. 346. 
t Engraved in Gregson's Portfolio. 



66 THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 

above another, and that these floors were so rotten from 
water, which had come through the roof, that none of the 
timbers could be again used. The thatch of the roof was 
decayed for lack of thatch ; the windows, doors, and 
hinges were also rotten and '*cankerred;" and, finally, 
the walls were partly decayed. To do all these repairs 
six fothers of lead were required. It was suggested that 
the lead should be taken from Furness, the timber got 
from the king's woods, and a ton of iron purchased for 
£4. The entire cost would be £20.* 

A rather poor drawing of this building, by W. Close, 
about 1805, will be found in West's Antiquities of Furness, 
A much better is that drawn by G. Cuitt and engraved in 
Gregson's Portfolio. The date of this is about 1853. 

Wraysholme Tower. 

This is another of the fortified towers which guarded 
the bay of Morecambe. It was formerly several stories 
high, the lower portion being windowless and the higher 
ones approached by a small spiral stone staircase. What 
is left of it now is used as a farm building. 



Broughton Tower (in Furness). 

What remains of this is partially built up to by the 
modern edifice. Its age is uncertain, and of its early 
history nothing is known. It stands on a hill, and from 
the summit of the tower can be seen the water of More- 
cambe Bay and the river Leven. There is an engraving 
of it as it stood in 1786, when only the tower remained of 
the old buildings. 



Depositions, Henry VIII., xlv., r. 14. 



the old castles of lancashire. 67 

Thurland Castle 

Is situate at Tunstall, and, unlike most of the other 
fortified buildings, it is ten miles from the coast. 
The Tunstall family was settled here certainly early 
in the fourteenth century, but it was not until a 
century later that Sir Thomas Tunstall obtained 
permission to crenellate and embattle his house at Thur- 
land. This knight was one of the heroes of Agincourt. 
Within the walls of the castle was a chapel, in which 
about the same time Sir Thomas founded a chantry. 
At the time of the dissolution of the smaller religious 
foundation, the priest incumbent here was Abraham 
Clidero.* Sir Brear Tunstall, knight, was slain on the 
field of Flodden (1513). He is referred to more than once 
in Sir Walter Scott's ** Marmion," as ** the stainless 
knight." Leland, writing in the time of Henry VIH., 
mentions the ** ancient castle or manor-place of stone of 
the Tonstalls." Early in the seventeenth century it 
passed to the Girlingtons. During the Civil Wars, Sir 
John Girlington, of Thurland, held the castle against the 
Parliamentary forces, but after a siege of seven weeks he 
was obliged to surrender. By an order of the Committee 
for Compounding, dated i6th October, 1646, the castle, 
orchards, gardens, and demesne lands were leased for 
thirty-one years. 

The castle was surrounded by a moat about seven feet 
wide, the only entrance being over a narrow bridge and 
through a gatehouse. At the beginning of the nineteenth 
century there still remained the ruins of the old tower and 
an ancient stone gateway, which is thought to date back to 
the time of Edward HI. About the year 1826 a rebuilding 



* Lancashire Chantries, Chet. Soc, Ix. 233. 



68 THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 

took place, which almost swallowed up the ruins. This^ 
modern castle was nearly destroyed by fire in 1879, but 
the ancient portions were but little damaged. 

There are two views of Thurland, both by G. N. 
Philips, and taken in 1823. One of these shows the 
ancient arch. 

Hornby Castle 

Stood on a commanding situation on the rising ground 
above the village, and from the top of its watch-tower 
overlooked the lovely valley of Lonsdale. About 1830 the 
foundation of two very ancient round towers and the base 
work of the keep were taken up ; one of the walls thus 
destroyed was thirty-six feet thick. The portion re- 
maining is the large square tower or keep. 

The earliest mention of this castle is in 36 Edward III. 
(1362-3), when it and the manor were returned as part of 
the possessions of Henry, the first duke of Lancaster. 
The second Duke of Lancaster appears to have granted 
them in fee to Robert Nevill, who died seised of them 
4th April, 1413. He held them by knight's service.* 
His heiress was his grand-daughter, Margaret, who had 
married Thomas Beaufort, earl of Dorset. The property 
subsequently passed to the Stanleys. On one of the 
walls is engraved the motto of Sir Edward Stanley, 
''Glav et gant. E. Stanley." 

Like all the other castles in the time of Henry VIH., 
Hornby was used as a prison, and in' 1522 John Standish 
(the deputy-keeper of Lancaster) had a suit in the Duchy 
Court against William Sclater, the mayor of Lancaster, 
respecting false imprisonment at Hornby Castle. t 



* luq. Post. Mort., Townley MSS., 436, No. 2,039. 
^Pleadings, 14 Henry VIII. 



THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 69 

From a survey taken in 1584 we get some details of 
the castle as it then was.* It had several gates and 
wards outside its walls. The first gate was at the foot of 
the hill; round there were orchards and gardens; on the 
south-west side was the new park, where there were red 
and fallow deer. The castle itself is described as "verie 
faire built." 

James I., in August, 1617, stayed here for two nights 
on his return from Scotland, and was royally feasted by 
the Earl of Cumberland.t 

In June, 1643, Hornby was garrisoned by a number of 
cavaliers, when the castle was besieged by Colonel 
Ashton's troops, who were not very sanguine of success. 
One of the Parliamentary historians described it as 
"lowest at the Gate House and ever longer the Castle 
goes the higher it riseth soe that it is impregnable any- 
where but before the gates."! Fortune favoured them, 
and they captured a soldier* of the enemy, who told them 
that the weak point was a large window at the end of the 
hall, whereupon an attempt was made to burn down one 
of the gates, and having by this means driven the Royalist 
soldiers to that side of the castle, a detachment with 
''ladders, great hammers, ropes, and mattocks" entered 
through the window, and presently the place was 
surrendered. § 

Shortly after this orders were given to dismantle this 
castle, which order was probably at least partially carried 
out, and after this date it certainly became a ruin, which 
Thomas Gray, the poet (about 1760), mentions as "an 
ancient keep" then "only a shell, the rafters laid within 



• Original MSS. at Hornby, see Baines's Hist. Lane, ii. 617 (2nd edit.). 

t Cal. State Papers, James I., p. 481. 

{ A Discourse of the Warr, Chet. Soc, Ixii. 40. 

§ Civil War Tracts, Chet. Soc, ii. 139. 



70 THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 

it as for flooring." At one corner was *'a single hexagon 
watch tower fitting up in the taste of a modern summer 
house with sash windows in gilt frames, a stucco cupola 
and on the top a vast gilt eagle."* 

The castle was partly rebuilt about 1800, and in 1847 ^ 
modern Gothic hall was erected on the site, and little of 
the old edifice was left. 

The best view of this castle is the one by N. Buck, 
giving the east side as it was in 1727; it shows peculiar 
perspective, the Lune and Wenning, as well as the little 
village and its church. Over the door of the keep is a 
sundial let into the wall. Another view, taken in 1774, 
by T. Chubbard, and reproduced in Gregson's Portfolio, 
shows the west view. An engraving from a drawing by 
Turner, dated 1822, shows the castle as seen from Tatham 
Church. Pickering's drawing in 1832 is taken from 
another point, but all of these give the cupola at the top 
of the tower. 

Greenhalgh Castle. 

This is one of the more modern castles. It was not 
built until 1490, when Thomas, earl of Derby, being in 
some doubts as to the friendly feeling of some of the 
nobility living in the county, obtained the royal consent 
to erect a building of stone, and to embattle, turrellate, 
crenellate, machicollate, and otherwise fortify it. At the 
same time, the earl was allowed to enclose a park, and 
have in it free warren and chase.t Leland, in the time 
of Henry VIII., describes '*Greenhaugh" as **a pretty 
castle of the lord of Darbys." The following description 
of the siege of Greenhalgh in 1645 was written by a 



• The Traveller's Companion. 
fDodsworth MSS., vol. Ixxxvii., fol. 346. 



THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 71 

contemporary: "Colonell Dodding with his Regiment 
with Major Joseph Rigbies companies laid siege to 
Grenall Castle keeping their maine Guard at Garstang 
towne into which were gotten many desperat Papists. 
Their Governor was one Mr. Anderton. They vexed the 
country thereabouts extreamly, fetching in the night time 
many honest men from their houses making a commoditie 
of it. . . . The leaguers had thought to have under- 
mined the Castle and have blown it up with gunpowder 
and great cost was spent about it to pioners but to no 
effect. The ground was so sandy it would not stand. 
At last Mr. Anderton died and them there within being 
thereby discoradged, they were glad to come to a com- 
position to deliver it up upon conditions — which were 
that they might go to their own houses and be safe. It 
was ordered that the Castle should be demolished and 
made untenable and all the timber taken out of it and 
sold which was done. And soe it lyes ruinated. It was 
very strong and builded so that it was thought im- 
prignable with any ordenance whatsoever having but one 
dore to it and the walls of an exceeding thickness and 
very well secured together."* The castle was never 
rebuilt. Pennant in 1772 refers to '*the poor remains of 
Greenhaugh Castle," which was then no doubt much as 
shown on the drawing, by Dewhurst, taken in 1780. A 
small miniature sketch by Baker, made in 1802, gives 
another view of what was left. There is, however, a 
striking difference between the two, the latter showing a 
round tower and the former a square one. The original 
structure was of rectangular form, with probably four 
towers, and surrounded by a moat. 



* A Discourse of the Warr in Lancashire, Chet. Soc, Ixii. 60. 



72 THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 



Lathom Castle (House). 

The manor of Lathom was for several centuries in the 
possession of the Lathom family, but in the time of 
Henry IV. (1399-1413) it passed to the Stanley family. 
There is no evidence to show that a castle was then on 
the estate; but some time before 1495 Thomas Stanley, 
first earl of Derby, pulled down the old manorial hall, 
and built what was afterwards known as Lathom Hall or 
Lathom House, but which to all intents and purposes 
was a fortified castle. The second wife of this Earl of 
Derby was the mother of Henry VH., who in 1495 
visited her at Lathom, and remained there several days. 
Seacome describes Lathom as surrounded with a wall six 
feet thick upon which were nine towers, in each of which 
were six pieces of *' ordinance that plaid three one way 
and three the other." Outside the wall was a moat eight 
yards wide; inside there a high strong tower, called the 
Eagle Tower, also two other towers. Bishop Stanley, in 
his Metrical History , referring to the first earl : — 

First he builded fayre Lathom Hall out of the ground, 
Such a house of that age cannot be found. 

A poet of the time of Henry VHL writes: — 

Farewell, Lathom ! that bright bower 

Nine towers thou bearest on hye, 
And other nine thou bearest on the outer walls, 

Within thee may be lodged kynges three. 

The siege of Lathom House has been so often told that 
it will only be necessary to say that, after a prolonged 
and gallant resistance, on 9th December, 1645, it was 
surrendered to the Parliamentary forces, who straightway 
razed to the ground the walls and towers, leaving only a 



THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 73 

* 

few buildings used for domestic purposes. The present 
house was built in 1734, not a trace of the castle being 
left. The engraving by Finden (1829), from a drawing 
by G. Pickering, represents what the castle was believed 
to have been in 1645. There is no authentic view of it. 



TuRTON Tower. 

The early history of this building is lost if the township, 
as is generally believed, was originally the tower-ton. It 
is clear that there was not an early castle here. It has, 
by more than one writer, been stated that it was built in 
iioi, and that at the same time a licence to crenellate was 
granted. This is obviously wrong, as such licences were 
not required for nearly a century after this date. The 
fact is, little or nothing is known about Turton Tower, 
except what is recorded by Camden (in 1603), who says 
that it was originally built for defence, that in the four- 
teenth century tournaments were held here, and that in 
1594 it was entirely rebuilt of stone. In 1835 i^ was 
renovated and restored, so that all trace of the original 
structure is gone. There is a good engraving of the 
tower before the last restoration in Philips's Old Halls. 
No drawing of the original tower exists. 

Radcliffe Tower. 

This was originally a strongly fortified manor-house, 
but we find no record of it until 1358, when Richard 
Radcliffe, the high sheriff of Lancashire, was described as 
of ** Radcliffe Tower.'* The tower was rebuilt in 1403, 
when Henry IV. granted to James de Redcliffe a licence 
to erect on his manor a hall of stone with two towers, 
and to crenellate and embattle the walls. 



74 THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 

» 

Towards the end of the eighteenth century portions of 
the building were allowed to fall into decay, but in 1818 
the old hall adjoining the tower is described by Whitaker 
as then being intact and a fine specimen of its kind. 
From a sketch taken by Thomas Barrett {ante 1820) it 
appears that the buildings formed two sides of a quad- 
rangle, and that there was only one tower. 

In Whitaker's Whalley is a view of the interior of the 
hall, and another was engraved by G. Hollis. A very 
good drawing, by Finden, of the ruins is contained in 
Roby*s Traditions of Lancashire,^ Dr. Whitaker is respon- 
sible for the statement (accepted by Roby) that this js 
the place referred to in the Percy ballad, '' The Lady 
Isabella's Tragedy." 

HoGHTON Tower. 

This fortified house was built by Thomas Hoghton in 
1565. James I. stayed at Hoghton for several days in 
16 17. During the Civil Wars it was garrisoned for the 
king by Sir Gilbert Hoghton, but was eventually captured 
by the Parliamentary forces, and during their occupation, 
either by accident or design, a large quantity of gun- 
powder was ignited and one of the large towers blown 
up, together with about one hundred soldiers. After the 
wars the ruins were never restored, but from what is 
left it is evident that the structure was built on a very 
extensive scale, and included at least three towers and 
two quadrangles with embattled walls. 

A view of Hoghton, drawn by Moses Griffith, shows 
what remained in 1801. A later drawing, by G. Pickering, 
in 1829, is given in Roby's Traditions of Lancashire. 



•Reproductions of five views of RadclifFe Tower, by Mr. G. H. 
Rowbotham, appear in vol. vii., p. 282, of the Lancashire and Cheshire 
Antiquarian Society. 



THE OLD CASTLES OF LANCASHIRE. 75 



Broughton Tower (Amounderness) 

Was built as a fortified manor-house by one of the 
Singletons. In the sixteenth century it was a strongly 
built house, well suited for defence, and surrounded 
by a moat. The last remains of the place were taken 
down in 1800. In 1515, during a family feud, one of the 
parties entered *'the chief place or tower," and kept 
possession vi et armis. They also broke into the chapel 
there, and placed ** gownnys [guns] crossbowys and other 
artillery of wer," and when the other parties appeared they 
*' caused a bagpipe to play and in great deryson daunced." 
After this there was a good deal of shooting, but ulti- 
mately the aggressors were bound over to keep the peace. 
No drawing of this ancient tower has been preserved. 

We have now, in a necessarily brief manner, sketched 
the outline history of the old Lancashire castles and 
towers, and endeavoured to show what a powerful factor 
they were in far distant days, when every owner of a 
large manor, for the safety of his family and his relatives, 
was obliged to entrench behind thick fortresses of stone, 
which could only be approached by the drawbridges which 
crossed the moats surrounding the castles, and thus gave 
access 

To the embattled portal arch . . . 
Whose ponderous grate and massy bar 
Had oft rolled back the tide of war. 

But in times of peace the courtyards of these old buildings 
had been the scene of many a grand tournament and 
festive show, witnessed by fair ladies with approving 
smiles, and in the banquet halls kings had been feasted 
right royally. 



Mat 




Alder LEY Railway Station 




^ 

Q 



i_^ 





\ 



PREHISTORIC AND SUBSEQUENT 
MINING AT ALDERLEY EDGE, 
WITH A SKETCH OF THE 
ARCH^OLOGICAL FEATURES OF 
THE NEIGHBOURHOOD. 

BY CHARLES ROEDER. 
I. — IN'TKODL'CTION. 

ALDERLEY EDGE is a bold projecting ridge, rising 
gradually Irom Macclesfield, till at the end of about 
five miles it terminates abruptly towards the north. Its 
highest point is reached at the beacon, si.x hundred and 
fifty feet above the sea, and four hundred feet from the 
plain. The visitor is much struck with the vast extent 
of country which opens out to view. The whole 
plain of the county of Chester, with part of Lancashire, 
stretches before him. The pastures, wood, and villages, 
the towns of Stockport and Manchester, the distti'nt smoke 
of Northwich, with the blue mountains of Wales on the 
horizon, form part of the features of the scene. On the 
east rise the Derbyshire and Yorkshire hills. The whole 
prospect, says Bakewell* in 1810, comprises a panorama 
of extensive and varied majesty, which can scarcelj' be 
equalled in the kingdom. 

'Monthly Magazini, February, iSii, 



78 MINING AT ALDER LEY EDGE, WITH SKETCH OF 

This picturesque escarpment owes its origin to a massive 
upheaval of the red rock along the line of a double fault 
running partly east and west and north and south. Its 
lofty crest is crowned with a precipitous and sharp mural 
cliff of conglomerates and variegated sandstone, which 
adds so much to the beauty of the place. 

On the opposite side towards the north-east, in the 
valley, and divided from it, lies Mottram St. Andrew, 
where we find the conglomerates rising to the surface, 
which at one time were continuous with the strata 
cropping out at the summit of the Edge. 

One of its great modern attractions is its fine forest of 
Scotch firs and beeches, but this feature is of but com- 
paratively recent date. It was an open common until 
enclosed in 1779 ; the beeches were added early in the 
seventeenth century by Sir Thomas Stanley,* procuring 
beech-mast from Worcestershire, the tree not being then 
common in Cheshire, whilst the -Scotch firs were planted 
by Sir James and Sir Edward Stanley between 1745 and 
^755' When the beacon was erected, about 1578, the 
whole country around offered an unbroken vista. 

This conspicuous promontory was resorted to and 
occupied at a very remote period. The Edge, in con- 
sequence of its metalliferous nature, attracted the early 
attention of the miner, and the evidence I shall place 
before you has considerably widened our horizon as 
regards its early history. The ores found here were the 
galena and green malachite, which for their striking 
colour and metallic lustre made their discovery an easy 
matter. It occurs particularly on the north-east flanks 
of the Edge in the superficial strata. 

I have to say a few words, however, at this point, to 
explain their exceptional occurrence in these quarters. 

* History of East Cheshire, by John P. Earwaker, vol. ii., pp. 6io, 599. 



ARCHMOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEIGHBOURHOOD. 79 

II. — Geological Features. 

The ore here is deposited in the sandstone, marls, and, 
conglomerates of the lower keuper. We really stand on 
the Edge on an old seashore, with a regular coast line 
stretching north and south, of which at Alton Towers 
chance has left another small patch. The sea reached 
far out into West Cheshire, for at Peckforton Hills we 
have the identical cupriferous breccia.* 

The shore at Alderley and Mottram St. Andrew was 
lined with raised pebble beds, often t violently shifted 
and whirled about by heavy tidal swells and currents; 
while further out to sea loomed those immense wastes of 
fine sands and red clays, which now form the compacted 
sandstones and marls to be seen in the formation of the 
Edge. 

The presence of the metalliferous deposits in the strata 
is owing to the intermittent discharges of mineral springs 
bursting up in the regions of Derbyshire, then still in 
a state of great volcanic unrest and tension. These and 
the highly charged rivers poured their volumes into this 
estuary, where finally the mineral constituents had their 
outlet, and impregnated and percolated X the shore with its 
additional pools and mudbanks. 

There were periods of dry seasons and stagnation, with 
less water supply from the uplands and a consequent 
larger evaporation at the coast, which allowed of greater 
concentration and of a more regular and copious precipita- 
tion of the dissolved salts,§ followed in turn by seasons of 



* General View 0/ the Agriculture of Cheshire, Henry Holland, 1808, p. 18. 

fThe individual pebbles are often found polished and abraded in 
consequence. 

J So noticeable in the conglomerates. 

§Of vanadium, silver, copper, lead, nickel, cobalt, iron, manganese, 
arsenic, barium, sulphur, phosphorus, &c. 



8o MINING AT ALDERLEY EDGE, WITH SKETCH OF 

floods and greater outflow from the rivers, which washed 
and dispersed the salts, of course, in greater diffusion 
further out to sea, as seen at Peckforton Hills, where the 
presence of ore is more uncertain and poor. 

To these circumstances must be attributed the 
alternate fluctuation and repetitions of the metalliferous 
strata at the Edge and the highly interesting manner of 
their distribution in the beds, and their greater or lesser 
frequency. 

Their occurrence in regular, and false or current bedding 
also proves their estuarine nature. We also meet the ore 
occasionally on the Edge in veins and vertical courses 
which, however, refers to a later stage, when the strata 
became subjected to stresses, causing fissures and faults. 

After these few unavoidable explanations, I return now 
to the prehistoric miners, who had invaded the Edge in 
quest of the lead and copper here so unexpectedly found 
by them in the sides of the hill ridge. 



III. — Prehistoric Mining at the Edge. 

The Copper Mining Company in 1874, in opening out 
some new adits, not far away from the reducing tanks, 
accidentally came upon a part which evidently had been 
already worked at one time. Professor Dawkins, who 
had come, just then, to visit the mines, by chance picked 
up on the surface of the ground a few stray stone hammers, 
which led him to undertake fuller investigations. He 
found that we really had here some old surface-workings 
which had in course of time fallen into decay. He says : 
"The rock where these tools were met with was hollowed 
out irregularly and artificially to a depth of eight to eleven 
feet from the surface, and the workers had worked the 
metalliferous portion from above without making galleries. 



ARCH^OLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEIGHBOURHOOD. 8i 

* 

The tools, of which altogether above a hundred were 

found, lay in the debris which had been thrown into the 

» 

old surface-workings after they had been discontinued, 
and were seen in the greatest abundance near the 
bottom."* 

The late Dr. Sainter, of Macclesfield, who also examined 
the site a little later, remarks: "That some hammers were 
lying upon the sand and gravel, from one to two feet 
below the surface, together with foreign boulders and 
pebbles belonging to the drift period ; others had been left 
in some old diggings of the copper ore, from twelve to 
sixteen feet in depth, along with an old, very roughly used 
oaken shovel."t 

These old superficial workings, the position of which 
has since been forgotten, have been reidentified by the 
former captain of the mine, Mr. John Lawton, now an old 
man; they are situated in the part of the Edge called 
Brindlow, and which I have marked on the map. The 
discovery at the time created widespread interest, and 
attracted Mr. R. D. Darbishire, the late Mr. John Plant, 
the North Staffordshire Naturalists, and all our local 
societies. The speculations it led to were divergent, some 
of them highly amusing — particularly those of Plant, 
who tried to pour ridicule on their real nature, and declared 
them in all earnest to be stones used for the attachment 
of tents, or for the rope-weights to hold the thatch on the 
roofs of the huts of miners, and not perhaps gone long out 
of existence. As the discovery formed an isolated case, 

* Journal of the Anthropol. Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, vol. v., 
pp. 3-5, 1876, "On the Stone-mining Tools from Alderley Edge," by- 
Professor Boyd Dawkins. Transactions of the Manch. Lit. and Philosophical 
Soc, vol. xiv., pp. 74-8, 1875, "On the Stone-mining Tools from Alderley 
Edge," by Professor Boyd Dawkins. 

\ The Jottings of some Geol., Archaol., Botanical, Ornith., and Zool. Rambles 
round Macclesfield, by J. D. Sainter, p. 47. 1878. Macclesfield. 

G 



82 MINING AT ALDERLEY EDGE, WITH SKETCH OF 

Professor Dawkins suggested that probably the Brindlow 
mines referred to the Bronze Age.* 

Within the last few years we have advanced a step 
further, thanks to the fresh and interesting discoveries 
that have been made by Mr. F. S. Graves, of Alderley 
Edge, who has given great attention to the matter, and 
undertaken a very systematic search of the whole Edge, 
which puts the whole subject on a new basis. He has 
taken me repeatedly over the ground to point out all the 
places of archaeological interest for examination. 

Directing our steps from the disused copper works 
towards Windmill Wood, on the western side of the Edge, 
near the Hagg, there is an old mine, which has been 
reworked in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries for 
lead and copper. From the heap of old rubbish, which is 
piled up at the foot of this level, he obtained two complete 
and four fragmentary stone hammers. 

At the Engine Vein, a mine at the back of the Wizard 
Inn, where we have conglomerates and sandstones, which 
have been extensively worked in the last century for the 
galena and malachite, he collected from the old rubbish 
heap six complete and thirteen incomplete stone hammers. 
Deep shafts and tunnels have been driven here by the 
more recent miners. Near the surface, half way up the 
mine, some circular pits appear to have been sunk by 
the early miner into the superficial sandstone beds, which 
are here very rich in blue nodules of silicate of copper. 
On the south-east side of the Engine Vein, and close by 
the road, he found an additional number of these hammers, 
all fragmentary; another quantity on the opposite side of 

*I am since informed by an old resident that there was a tradition of a 
hidden treasure being buried in Brindlow, and different attempts were made 
by the miners, driving a tunnel, to find it — which is rather significant in 
connection with this prehistoric mine. 



ARCHMOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEIGHBOURHOOD. 83 

the road, and fragments, in addition, on the Httle footpath, 
striking off across the fields, that drops into Macclesfield 
Road. 

Proceeding now to Dickens Wood, still further up in a 
north-eastern direction, we meet two levels, an upper and 
lower one, the latter worked early in the eighteenth 
century by a Mr. Abbadine. We have here the soft, 
mottled, cupriferous, false-bedded, sandstone beds and con- 
glomerate, which have been diligently followed. From the 
old rubbish heap, which has been tipped down the slope, he 
rescued five complete and at least twelve broken hammers. 

Crossing over to Mottram St. A ndrew we find a repetition of 
the metalliferous beds, containing lead and copper, the latter 
predominating. This also has been originally an old mine, 
visited by the prehistoric explorers. From this place he 
records twelve complete and twenty fragmentary hammers. 

There may be other old levels, not sufficently patent, 
near Stormy Point, Holy Well, &c., awaiting discovery. 
Although the number of mining tools found by Mr. Graves 
at the various levels described falls far below that obtained 
at Brindlow, we must not forget that the Brindlow level, 
on being abandoned, was left in its undisturbed original 
state, with its hammers untouched, and so filled up again. 
At the other levels mining operations have, it is well • 
known, been carried on during the last two hundred and 
fifty or three hundred years. Evidence of the earlier 
stages has consequently been more or less obliterated by 
clearing out the old places, while the old rubbish heaps 
were covered up and lost to view. It is, therefore, due 
more to good luck, a sharp eye, and perseverance that 
Mr. Graves has procured us these proofs. 

From all this we see these early miners were hard at 
work in all directions, and that it is not a question of a 
single or temporary attempt at one point only. A study of 



84 MINING AT ALDER LEY EDGE, WITH SKETCH OF 

the various stone tools is highly instructive in more than 
one respect. Their make and shape, and the particular 
condition in which they have descended to us plainly 
reveal their story from beginning to end. We can trace 
the stages of manufacture and interrogate each single 
hammer. An interpretation, however, is only possible by 
a careful inter-comparison, and the features they present 
have been properly tabulated at the end of the paper. The 
specimens examined belong to the Manchester Museum, 
to Mr. F. S. Graves, and Mr. John Lawton, of Alderley. 

IV. — Description of the Mining Tools. 

MateriaL — The stones of which the miners at the Edge 
wrought their hammers were near at hand and obtained 
from the boulders found in the glacial drift of the 
immediate neighbourhood. There is no doubt that each 
individual stone was deliberately selected for the particular 
purpose intended for, and not at haphazard. 

The majority of the implements consist of a hard, 
brownish-green, micaceous sandstone; and a few types 
are of an igneous origin, such as those made of greenstone, 
hornblende, granite, &c. ; at Mottram St. Andrew we 
also meet with hammers of mountain limestone. 

The Weights range from lib. to I5^1b., as follows: — 

Upto2lb. 3lb. 4lb. 5lb. 6lb. y\h. 81b. lolb. 151b. 

6 57361221 

Varying in length and width from : — 

44''X3j^ 5''X3i'' 6''X5i'' y^^^i" ^"^di" Q'xe* 10* x 5" 11}" x 6* 

238632 I I 

The width of the groove runs from 1" to ij", average 
I J", and the depth to which the groove sinks in is from 
i" to f ", average f ". 



Chief Types of Ston 



LAWTON J!f95 



LAWTON jyPtf 




\ 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEIGHBOURHOOD. 85 

Out of twenty-nine hammers — 

21 show a single central groove; 
7 show a central and tranverse groove ; 
I shows a triple groove, that is, a central, transverse, 
and lateral groove. 

The tools may be classified as : — 

xV^mV^O ••• ••• •■« ••• ••• ••• ^ 

Ordinary hammers 7 

Flat, conical-shaped hammers ... 4 
Dumbbell-shaped hammers 17 

We can clearly follow the miner from the moment he 
began dressing the stone for use. We see him first 
forming a broad central groove round the stone, for the 
carriage of the withy. For this purpose he fixed up a 
pointed and harder block for chipping pits into the 
intended hammer. The thus cratered surface often 
splintered a little during the process towards the outer 
edges, and had a width of two inches or • so. He next 
procured a strong withy, probably of., the hazel, of a 
diameter of from i" to if", fastening the haft below by 
thongs, or straps of green hide. We notice from the 
unequal polish of the groove that it was difficult to procure 
a tight fit, in consequence of the uneven surface of the 
stick, which caused a sort of wabble in the descent of 
the blow. 

In some cases the groove remains very shallow and fresh, 
and the pits seem scarcely worn, indicating a slight use of 
the hammer, due frequently to a flaw and consequent 
fracture. On the other hand, we have examples where the 
groove by long use has made a deep hollow, sunk down 
f" in depth. Hammer No. 6, of Mr. Graves's collection, 
one of the best of that class, is beautifully and uniformly 



86 MINING AT ALDERLEY EDGE. WITH SKETCH OF 

polished down to a depth of f", and the original pitting 
has entirely disappeared. Another hammer of his has a 
central elevation along the groove — a proof that the withy 
had received a double turn round the hammer. 

To avoid the great inconvenience of a slippy withy the 
miner, w^hen he had to use more weighty hammers, or 
hammers made from igneous rock, such as, for example : — 

Owens 2,684. Oldham. 2,693. Lawton. 2,686. 



41b. 4flb. 61b. lolb. I52lb. 

felstone, sandstone, felstone, sandstone, greenstone, 

ran a transverse groove for establishing greater steadiness. 
He did this in various ways. He either pitted the front 
and back down to the centre groove, or he merely made 
a deep groove at the centre of the back, or he only 
roughly deepened and notched the central apex of the 
back. We see from No. 2,685 (of sandstone, 8Jlb.) that 
the thongs were fastened and carried und,er and over the 
withy, for the transverse groove slides across the central 
groove. We also have cases of a triple arrangement; in 
addition to the central and transverse groove there is a 
lateral groove, the transverse thongs apparently not 
having been enough for stopping the see-saw motion of 
the hammer. 

The greater part of the implements are of the dumbbell- 
shaped form. They exhibit either a single central groove 
or an additional transverse one. They seem to have been 
used for pounding and crushing the fine metalliferous 
sandstone. The semi-globular sides offer a perfect convex 
surface, not unlike a pestle. They are quite smooth, 
without the slightest trace of roughness, and balanced in 
the centre, while the axes, on the other hand, have the 
withies near the end, being fixed like our hatchets, picks. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEIGHBOURHOOD. 87 

or axes. When we come to the hammers proper, used 
for striking, we find that only the pointed side has 
been used, which, consequently, is often jagged out or 
fractured. 

No. 2,692 has the ridges and sides roughly pitted, not, 
however, for the formation of a groove, for the hammer 
was worked with the hands only, without using a withy. 
It has two fine, convex pestle-surfaces, which were 
alternately used, while the flatted and roughly pitted sides 
and ridges were also employed for breaking up an 
apparently coarser material. It was 'thus adopted for a 
triple use. 

We have also two hammers where the apex is sharpened 
down to a keel, as if for cutting. From the preponderance 
of these dumbbell hammers it would seem that the 
miners worked much in the soft superficial deposits, and 
to a lesser degree in the coarser conglomerates. Of 
pointed stone wedges we have no indication. Probably 
wooden wedges were used, if required, as was the case in 
many other Roman mines; stone wedges, made of sand- 
stone, would almost certainly be broken at the first blow 
given to the back. We see from the greatly shattered 
condition of the pointed hammers that they could not 
stand very severe usage. 

For very rough work they seem to have selected the 
flat-coned hammers of ten to fifteen pounds weight. The 
delicate work performed is indicated by the great propor- 
tion of light hammers, for while we have eighteen hammers 
from one pound twelve ounces to four pounds, we have 
only fifteen for the whole remaining range of from five to 
fifteen pounds, which again points to the softness of the 
beds worked. 

At Mottram St. Andrew the tools are of the most primi- 
tive kind ; there they seem to have used the first stone 



88 MINING AT ALDERLEY EDGE. WITH SKETCH OF 

that fell into their way; instead of the carefully and 
laboriously contrived central and transverse grooves, we 
have the sides only deeply and roughly knocked out for 
attaching the withy and thongs. The men who worked 
here were either less particular or of an inferior status 
compared to the miners of the Edge, where, amongst all 
the hammers examined, there is but one (No. 2,696) with 
a sho^ of mere lateral notches. 

At Brindlow, the only level accessible for examination 
in its original state, we meet, pell-mell thrown together, a 
heap of partly, or Wholly broken, or shattered and split 
hammers, side by side with others in good and fresh 
condition. The place was probably suddenly abandoned 
and left open to fill up slowly with detritus in course of 
time, for some of the hammers had time to become 
delicately incrusted with patches of malachite, formed by 
rain and water trickling from the cupriferous beds, then 
exposed. The roughly pitted surface of hammers has 
also in various instances assumed a soft appearance by 
subsequent atmospheric exposure. 

A dumbbell-shaped hammer, in the possession of Mr. 
Oldham, from Brindlow, is wonderfully fresh and well 
preserved, and looks as if only picked up yesterday ; we 
only miss the original withy, which seems to be still 
indicated by a black, carbonaceous, and shining broad 
coat round the smooth central groove. 

So much, then, of these hammers. 

We have other indications of the occupation of the 
Edge in prehistoric times. 

At the margin of the Engine Vein Mine, I have dis- 
covered at various times in 1894 and 1901 a fair number 
of tiny flint flakes, cores, knives, and a scraper, and recently 
Mr. Graves picked up various chert implements at the same 
place, and near the so-called druidical stone circle (a 



ARCHMOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEIGHBOURHOOD. 89 

modern erection) some small flint knives and an additional 
one a little to the*south-west of it. 

Then close to the Engine Vein, on its southern side, we 
have the distinct ramparts of an earthen circle or entrench- 
ment, twelve yards in diameter, known popularly as the 
^^ Seven Firs;'' another one, in proximity, six yards across; 
not far away on its northern side another one, seven and 
a half yards across and two feet high; near the Golden 
Stone, north-west of the Edge Farm in Dickens Wood, 
we distinguish another fine example in good preservation, 
sixteen yards in diameter; another at Windmill Wood; 
and south-east of the Wizard, in a field a little away from 
the Macclesfield Road, we encounter a much larger earthen 
circle, thirty yards in diameter and four feet six inches 
high in one place, which is also marked on the recent six- 
inch ordnance map, and of which Mr. Graves has taken a 
photograph. 

Again, consider the place-names on the Edge terminating 
in low, as Findlow Wood and Hill, Brindlow Wood and 
Dell, and Brownlow, near Welsh Row, and Wilmslow, 
close to the foot of Alderley Edge; all of which, and 
the latter proven, pointing to prehistoric burial-places, 
analogous to the multitude of lows scattered broadcast 
over Derbyshire and other places in East Cheshire. 

In order to throw light on the question. Who were the 
early miners who penetrated the Edge? it is, however, 
necessary to review rapidly the methods and conditions of 
mining in Britain in Roman times,* and to advert a little 
to the Roman mining districts on record. We know how 
keenly the metallic treasures in Britain attracted the 
Roman mining explorers. 



•See "Roman Mining Operations on the Borders of Wales," by 
Thomas Wright. Intellectual Observer, May, 1862, pp. 295-309. 



go MINING AT ALDERLEY EDGE, WITH SKETCH OF 

V. — Method of Roman Mining .in Britain. 

In the Forest of Dean they established large ironworks. 
They excavated a large cavity into the side of Great and 
Little Doward, and followed the iron vein into the moun- 
tain. It is crowded with rude galleries and the entrance 
cave is locally called King Arthur's Hall, and popular 
legend connects it with fairy dwellers and hidden treasures. 
On the Little Doward is an ancient extended enclosure. 

At Coleford, in the Forest of Dean, they began opera- 
tions by sinking a large pit, sometimes twenty to thirty 
feet in diameter, at the bottom they followed the veins. 
Roman coins and pottery are frequently found at these 
pits. Wood was used for the smelting, and pieces of charcoal 
are often found in the cinders. 

The Shropshire mountains produced lead. Shelve Hill is 
full of lead ore, which runs in almost horizontal veins 
from east to west, and when the Romans came to these 
parts all the veins cropped out on the surface on the 
western side of the hill. The pigs of lead traced to 
Shelve Hill Mine refer to Hadrian (i 17-138). Pliny, 
writing before 79 a.d., says that lead {nigrum plumbum) 
was found in Britain so plentifully on the surface of the 
ground that it was thought necessary to pass a law to 
limit its extraction, which was here literally true, for 
some eight or nine parallel veins came out upon the 
surface of the rock, and all these the Romans worked, 
beginning apparently from the bottom of the hill. Where 
the veins of ore did not appear to run deep they soon 
stopped, and have left but a shallow cutting. In other 
places, where the vein of ore had been more massive, 
the Romans had hollowed here cavern-like chambers 
in the rock, from which galleries ran in different 
directions. 



ARCHMOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEIGHBOURHOOD. 91. 

Early mining tools and. Roman coins and pottery and 
oaken spades have been found here, the latter for shovelling 
the broken stones containing the lead ore in narrow 
passages, where there was no space for giving much 
movement to the body. 

Most of the Roman mines in Montgomeryshire are formed 
by shafts sunk from the surface or from caverns made in 
the bank. 

At Machynlleth a Roman mine was reopened 1856 ; like 
most of these ancient excavations it had been an object of 
superstition and was believed to be the dwelling of the 
fairies, and had obtained the popular name of Ogo 
Gwyddsyg or Witch's Cave. 

At Llanymynech, on the northern borders of Shropshire 
and Montgomeryshire, the Romans got from the limestone 
hill an orange-coloured ochre and green plumose carbonate of 
copper in the interbedded tenacious clay, and here the 
remains of their extensive work are found consisting of 
shallow pits. 

In the neighbourhood of these pits are found traces of 
vitrification, showing that here the Romans smelted their 
copper on open hearths. They did not confine their 
excavations to the surface, for there still remains an Ogo 
at Llanymynech, popularly believed to be inhabited by 
fairies and similar beings. Roman coins, mining imple- 
ments, and a roughly made iron implement resembling a 
pick were found here. 

In the mountains of Flintshire Roman lead mines are 
met with in almost every part. Thick layers of lead 
scoriae are found at Croes Ati, close to Flint, and rudely 
made pickaxes in the Roman mines in Flintshire, and 
distinct marks of fire in the deep parts, as though the 
rock had been heated and cold water thrown on it while 
hot, to crack it, a process alluded to by Pliny. They also 



92 MINING AT ALDERLEY EDGE, WITH SKETCH OF 

found lead in the limestone mountains behind Abergele, 
Some curious hammers and tools were discovered here in 
the ffos y Claiddiaid, or the Wolves' Ditch, an old cavern 
formerly worked by the Romans. 

They found copper at Great Orrne's Heady and worked it 
successfully. In the neighbourhood of Caerhen a cake of 
copper of forty-two pounds weight was found, which had 
evidently come fresh from the smelting. 

Wright says : " It is more than probable that in these dis- 
tricts no miners had preceded the Romans, who therefore 
found the metallic ore on the surface, and followed them 
on afterwards by shafts and galleries. They evidently 
preferred, where it was possible, to make a cave on the 
side of a mountain, or sink a pit in the ground, till they 
came to a vein, which they followed and cleared away 
itself." 

The miners employed worked with rude implements, 
including wooden shovels and wedges and chisels of stone. 
The ore itself they seemed to have worked out with chisels 
and axes ; the hard rock, if any, was cracked by the appli- 
cation of fire, and then split with wedges of iron or stone, 
and pulled apart with rough iron picks. For smelting the 
ore, evidently wood only was used, and the smelting was 
performed on the spot in an imperfect way. 

The wildest mountainous districts, even hardly ap- 
proachable since the Roman period, were covered then 
with numerous excellent roads and settlements of various 
description — such as stations, country villas, and towns — 
and the Romans had established permanently at the 
southern and northern extremities of the borders of the 
mountain mining district two of their three legions not, in 
all probability, to hold in check independent and turbulent 
natives, but to overawe a large population of slaves and 
condemned criminals, who were employed by them in the 



ARCHMOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEIGHBOURHOOD. 93 

extensive mining operations, and many of the numerous 
early entrenched enclosures scattered over the mountains 
in which the mines were situated contained probably 
settlements of miners, or places for works in connection 
with the mines, or possibly posts occupied from time to 
time by detachments of troops when their presence 
happened to be necessar}\ 

The early date of Roman mining is proved sufficiently 
by the great number of Roman pigs of lead found in 
Britain. They begin with Britannicus (44-48), Claudius 
(41-54), Nero (60-68), Vespasian (74-76) — ^when Man- 
cunium was probably founded — Domitian (81), Hadrian 
(117-138), Antoninus and Verus (163-169). The fine pig 
of lead found in April, 1894,* in the moors near Matlock, 
has the inscription of P. Rubrius Abascantus, 'of the 
Lutudarensian mine. Other pigs have been found near 
Matlock. Lutudae is supposed to refer to the mines of 
Middleton and Youlgreave. The Derbyshire mines are 
the only ones in Britain bearing the names of private 
lessees. Out of five varieties traceable to Lutudae, four 
resemble in general formula the one above mentioned, the 
fifth only bearing the name of Hadrian (i 17-138), which 
probably indicates the date when exploitations in Derby- 
shire were commenced, which seem to have been later 
than those in the country of the Cangi and other parts in 
Wales and the south-west. 

Alderley Edge, situated next door to the Derbyshire 
borderland, would not escape the eye of the Roman 
explorers, who were busily occupied in the Peakland — at 
Castleton, Middleton, and Youlgreave — in the extraction 
of the rich lead mines. At the Edge, too, they found 



•See Manchester Guardian: "A Roman Find near Matlock," 21st 
April, 1894. 



94 MINING AT ALDERLEY EDGE, WITH SKETCH OF 



• 



lead* and copper. The deeper beds at Alderley, although 
yielding now only a return of two to five per cent, are no 
measure of the richer superficial beds in existence in these 
early times. 

At Mottram St. Andrew some pieces, even in recent 
times, yielded as much as twenty-two per cent of copper 
ore, while on the Edge some of the coarse grained sand- 
stone, containing galena, produced in some places as 
much as forty per cent of the matrix and an average of 
thirty per cent, and I have collected myself from the old 
heaps of debris at Windmill Wood and the Engine Vein 
large massive lumps of galena, while in some of the upper 
sandstones and conglomerates the malachite is to be 
found in great abundance. 

Many of the points characteristic of the picture of 
Roman mining in Wales and other parts, of which I 
have just given a short outline, apply, though on a minor 
scale, to the various features that surround the district 
round the Edge. 

VI. — Archaeological Features of the Edge. 

Let us examine the archaeological appearance it pre- 
sented in Brito- Roman times. 

Looking at the little sketch-map I have prepared, we 
see on the western side a minor Roman road striking along 
Stockport in an almost straight line to Handforth and 
Wilmslow, pushing then past Alderley, as Street Lane, 
via Monks Heath, Capethorne, Hulme Walfield, to 
Congleton ; on the eastern side another Roman road of 
greater importance and preservation breaks off at Stock- 
port from the common stem, trending towards Buxton, 



* The Britons appear to have been ignorant of the use of lead previous 
to the Roman advent. The name of it is in Welsh //tw», it is clearly a 
loanword from the Latin plumbum. 



ARCH^OLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEIGHBOURHOOD. 95 

and thus tightly grasping and embracing the mountainous 
ranges of Macclesfield hundred and West Derbyshire, 
the two Roman roads apparently connected by a network 
of longitudinal and transverse by-roads, probably at one 
time British short cuts and tracks, and the whole enclosed 
country dotted with tumuli, lows, stone circles, dolmen, 
and camps and entrenchments. And particularly do we 
notice the presence of tumuli on and near both the 
Roman roads and British tracks. 

Then on the Edge itself we have the six earthen circles 
or entrenchments in proximity to the mines; we find a 
neolithic floor near the Engine vein and an original surface 
covered with bits of charcoal and vitrified copper scoriae ; 
and, side by side with the charcoal, pieces of molten and 
laminated pieces of copper still united to the charcoal, at 
the Windmill level — evidence of smelting operations con- 
ducted close by in rude, open hearths. 

On Castle Hill the walls of an old destroyed structure 
were found yet at the beginning of last centur}% and a 
paved boulder road leading away from it, and, according 
to Mr. Nathan Hey wood, Roman coins have, moreover, 
been found at the Edge; and as in Wales, where the old 
disused Roman mines and caves have popularly been 
connected with fairy-dwellers, hidden treasures, and King 
Arthur, who in one of the Welsh mining caverns has 
his hall, so here on the Edge we meet Merlin, the wizard 
who keeps King Arthur and his fighting men, white steeds, 
and treasures in durance to reappear when the country is 
beset with danger and enemies. Curiously enough, the 
wizard leads the belated farmer, who tells the tale,* along 



* Alderley Edge and its Neighbourhood, by the Hon. Miss L. D. Stanley. 
Macclesfield. 1843. See legend, pp. 19 to 27. Also "The Iron Gates, 
a Legend of Alderley." by Is. Roscoe. of Knutsford, Blackwood's 
Edinburgh Magazine, February, 1839, pp. 271-274. 



yS MfSmO AT ALDERLEY EDGE. WITH SKETCH OF 

the Stz^n Firs^ the Gddcn Stom, Holy nV.V, to Si< 
Pointy all which places mark the line of ancient mi 
leveh and entrenched earthen circles^ At the latter 
and not ias awav from it, he touches soddenlv the z 
with his wand, and two iron gates spring open, thi 
which the\' then enter the subterraneous chambers 
hide the sleepers. Mr. Graves has quite recenth 
discovered this traditional and long-lost cavern, whic 
easily overlooked, and the two finely cut arches 
pillars, visible in the red rock, have a really imposing . 
mysterious appearance, and thus this legend forms 
interesting link in connection \i-ith the popular be 
attached to King Arthur^ % Hall in the Forest of Dean.* 
We may now attempt an outline of the appearance 
the Edge in the days of the early miners- 

VII. — ^The Edge ix the Earlier Mixing Times. 

The Edge then formed a wild stretch of moorianc 
sharply standing out to the north from the plain; clac 
with heather, furze, and broom; and covered in man\ 
places wth soft, bogg}' pools; hazel and alder lining its 
slopes and little ravines. The pine, fir, and oak were 
absent, and confined to the south-east and south-west 
sides towards Macclesfield, where the glacial sands and 
clavs offered better conditions for their growth. 

Its metalliferous beds, superficially greatly weathered 
and decomposed by long sustained sub-aerial action, and 
abounding in loose galena and malachite, soon attracted 
the Roman miners from Derbyshire. We know that by 
the time of Hadrian (i 17-138) the mountainous regions of 
Castleton, Middleton, and Youlgreav-e were great mining 



• Mr, Graves quite recently found some good flint implements at the 
Wizard's Cave. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEIGHBOURHOOD. 97 

centres worked for their richness of lead, calamine, and 
copper to a lesser degree, and probably the Edge and 
Mottram St. Andrew were worked by the Roman prospec- 
tors simultaneous and contemporaneously for their lead 
and copper. There too, as elsewhere, it was the British 
slave or captive who had to perform their work, which 
was done in a rude manner and with the help of stone 
hammers. They may also have used the iron pickaxe, as 
in other places; but discovery has been less favour- 
able here, for we know that these ancient levels were 
cleared out in subsequent times for the prosecution of the 
work, and little or no attention has been paid at any time 
to their preservation when found. And the same must be 
saiS with regard to any pottery, coins, &c., which must 
have been scattered over the place. These,^ Jjowever, may 
still turn up by chance, for previous to Mf.. Graves' suc- 
cessful endeavours the abundance of prehistoric vestiges 
had never been even suspected. 

The ore was obtained first from the rich surface- deposits. 
Pits were sunk subsequently, one of which in Brindlow 
was reopened and carefully examined by Professor 
Dawkins. They, no doubt, cut shafts and levels in other 
parts of the Edge to follow the superficial strata, which 
were inclined at an easy angle ; but these, of course, were 
lost to us in their original form by the succeeding modern 
miners, who found them conveniently ready for deeper 
penetration into the hill. 

These miners on the Edge lived close to the mining 
levels, and they were probably the same folk who 
occupied the entrenched enclosures, which remind us 
(to link past to present times for a parallel), although on a 
smaller scale, of the compounds provided for the Kaffirs 
in the gold and diamond fields of South Africa. The ore 
was smelted close by in open-air hearths, indicated by the 

H 



98 MINING AT ALDERLEY EDGE, WITH SKETCH OF 

presence of charcoal and scoriae in the debris of the ancient 
sites of the mines. They attacked the Edge at all points 
where ore was in evidence, which was cut out, crushed, 
and pounded with stone tools of various makes and shape. 

As in other Roman mining districts, so also here we 
find minor roads, militarily unnecessary, carried along the 
mountainous parts for the purpose of facilitating access to 
the mines. That Alderley belonged to the same category 
has, I think, become clear by now. It was not the 
original dweller who was in search of ore at the Edge 
and Mottram St. Andrew, but the rapacious Roman 
colonist. The yield of metal was here certainly much 
less rich, but the evidence of Roman presence is as 
complete to my mind as the traces we have obtained*of 
them on a large scale in the Welsh border country. 

For what length of time they continued their mining 
efforts we have no accurate knowledge, but some Roman 
coins may turn up yet to fix approximately the date of 
cessation. 

We • know that the place was in full activity, to 
judge from the number of entrenched enclosures, and the 
large quantity of tools left behind, which can only represent 
a small percentage of the total used by the various 
gangs of men employed in the levels. The Pennine Chain 
and its ramifications, including also Derbyshire and the 
uplands of East Cheshire, were held at that time by the 
Brythonic Brigantes — the men of the mountains, to 
which in all probability the hill-dwellers of the Edge 
belonged. Of the density of the population we have 
convincing evidence. 

Taking but Derbyshire for illustration, Bateman alone 
enumerates one hundred and forty-one lows or tumuli 
successfully excavated by him. When we meet them 
here they lived in that transition state where the waning 



archjEological features of neighbourhood. 99 

neolithic, and the more prevailing bronze stage seem to 
coalesce, as shown by the objects these various lows 
enclose. We have burial and cremation going hand in 
hand, one tumulus yielding neolithic implements, another, 
often within short distance, giving up bronze weapons. 

We find the same case prevailing in East Cheshire, 
which for archaeological purposes cannot be divided from 
the Derbyshire borderland. 

This is well seen in the neighbourhood, and as I do not 
wish to confine myself to the Edge alone to illustrate the 
appearance of the locality in those times, I must be 
permitted to take a larger bird's-eye view. 

« 

VIII. — Prehistoric Features of the District. 

Near Stockport, at Shaw Heath,* sixteen to seventeen 
feet deep in an old boggy heath, a fine bronze palstave 
has recently been brought to light ; and following 
the Roman road to Wilmslow three urns relating to the 
bronze period have been found, one containing the 
charred bones and teeth of a young person and a bone 
stud, and another fragments of a small dagger. From 
Blackshaw Farm, near Nether Alderley, a large perforated 
polished stone hammer is on record ;t at Capethorne, 
Monksheath, a few tumuli still await excavation ; near 
Butley, Ormerod describes an old British cemetery, where 
fragments of an ornamental food vessel and calcined 
bones, contained in an urn taken from a large destroyed 
stone circle, have been discovered'; at Langley we have a 
large cinerary urn, with a flint arrow in it; on the Edge 



* It is preserved in the offices of the Urban District Council of Cheadle 
and Gatley, Cheadle, and Mr. E. Sykes, the engineer, has kindly made 
a cast of it, to be presented to the Manchester Museum. 

t In possession of Sir Humphrey de Trafford, was found i860; see also ." 
our Society's vol. ii., 1884, meeting nth January. t.. 



loo MINING AT ALDERLEY EDGE, WITH SKETCH OF 

itself numbers of small neolithic implements; at Clulow 
Cross, some very large flint-knives from a stone circle; we 
have a tumulus at Macclesfield, opened in Whitaker's 
time, and we have the tumuli at Pikelow, lanslow, Brook- 
low, Mutlow, the once imposing stone circle at Brtdestones, 
and the stone circle and dolmen near Rock Hill, and on 
the Edge again I remind you of Findlow, Brindlow, and 
Brownlow. I have only given a few instances within the 
radius of the Edge for illustration. 

Looking down now from the Edge to the west, the 
spectator saw at his feet the undulating expanse of the 
great Cheshire plain, the old home and county of 
the neighbouring Cornavii, whose sway spread up to the 
southern banks of the Mersey, and right across to, and 
including the Cheshire peninsula of Wirral. They like- 
wise were of Brythonic descent. They had to face 
different natural surroundings ; their territor}^ was for the 
most a flat, low-lying country; rich in extensive meres, 
lakelets, heaths, and forests ; cleared already here and there, 
with tracks running through them in different directions. 
These forests crept up to the very edge of the rivers and 
the seashore beyond, extending up the Fylde and West 
Lancashire. 

At one time, the plains of Cheshire** and Lancashire 
received the immense off-scour of detritus of clay, sand, 
and gravel borne from the glaciated lake county, which 
bestrewed and buried up the scooped and riven Triassic 
red sandstone. It produced in its progress most of the 
numerous meres and lakelets, moraines, ridges, and drum- 
lins impressed upon the physical face of the country. 

Lindow, now dwindled into a mere peaty flat, and already 
mentioned in 1200* as the Black Lathe or Black Lake, 



* See Earwaker's East Cheshire. 



ARCH^OLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEIGHBOURHOOD. loi 

presented in Cornavian times the appearance of an exten- 
sive lake, called by them by their Brythonic name, Llyn 
doo, equivalent to the Anglo-Saxon Black Lake. Of this 
ancient lake we have clear proof, for below its former reedy 
and sedgy bottom we find the boles of fir and underscrub 
buried in situ. Dane Moss, at Macclesfield, is another of 
these subsequent lake basins, and from its moss a per- 
forated limestone hammer and an oaken paddle, and small 
antlers have been recovered and a net-sinker of baked 
clay.* Here we also find the yew, hazel, alder, and fir 
trees bedded below, and, though less so, the oak. Many 
of the trunks and stumps left in situ, especially of the fir, 
show the signs of having been fired, and in some places 
bear the marks of the axe.t From Marion Mere we have 
a stone hammer. But before these local lakes were 
formed the district was densely packed with thick forests, 
the fir predominating, which with the oak, yew, ash, and 
birch waved their tops over the sandy waste, while an 
undergrowth of hazel, alder, and willow indicated the 
presence of swamps and the courses of the streams. In 
these forests ranged the wild horse, the stag, roe, bear, 
wolf, fox, and badger, when the neolithic and bronze using 
hunters made their appearance in Cheshire, while the 
meres and wild heaths swarmed with big flocks of the 
wild goose, duck, moorhen, partridge, woodcock, plover, 
teal, &c. 

Of the people who lived at the foot of Alderley Edge, 
on the verges of these former meres, later transformed 
into peat bogs and commons, such as Lindow, William 
Norbury, an old resident, gives us an interesting account : J 



* See SBiniex's Jottings. 
t Ihid. 

{Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society, vol. ii., "Lindow 
Common, its age and its people," by William Norbury, pp. 61-75. 



I02 MINING AT ALDERLEY EDGE, WITH SKETCH OF 

** From actual observation of their physical characteristics 
and habits, during the last fifty years (he wrote this in 
1884), I am of opinion that they are of a very ancient 
race, totally different from the surrounding people. The 
physical peculiarities are very marked. They have the 
long head, projecting eyebrows, high cheek bones, strong 
coarse limbs, leaden aspect, slow motions, and in a very 
marked degree, the Moorish skin — the colour of the skin 
very like the gipsy's, but very unlike in every other 
feature. Their habits and modes of life in the early part 
of the present centur}" were peculiar. They were often 
buck-stealers, poachers, and fishers, the transmitted in- 
stincts of the chase having come down with them through 
ages. This would lead them to the commons and most 
neglected parts of the county. Their callings and handi- 
crafts also seem to point to their being of a primitive 
people who have kept their ancient habits. They are 
expert in using twigs, or osiers, in making besoms, from 
birch and broom; also in making straw- work, beehives, 
&c., from split briars and straw, and they are very 
expert in making primitive traps and snares from withes 
and bands. Those who kept animals had the most 
primitive kinds, as dogs, pigs, geese, and ducks, but 
especially asses, for carrying their baskets and brooms to 
where they could sell them. They were very sly and very 
suspicious, as aboriginal races always are, apparently ver}^ 
harmless, but not so safe as they appeared. When ex- 
asperated they would fight with anything that lay next 
them — bills, spades, pickels, swippels, or any of their 
rude implements. Some of the fiercer kind, if close 
pressed, would fight with their mouths or bite like 
bulldogs. In a general way they shunned society and 
appeared to be almost destitute of religion. Let any one 
who is acquainted with the different localities, and who 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEIGHBOURHOOD. 103 

can remember fifty years back, recall the kind of people 
there were on Lindow Common, Sale Moor, Heyhead, 
Lifeless Moss, Mottram Common, Broken Cross, Rud- 
heath, and Biddulph Moor, and I think he will arrive at 
the fact that these different peoples were until recently of 
a distinct race from the people of the rest of the county." 

IX. — Post-Roman View of the District. 

We know nothing definite of the history of the district 
and the Macclesfield hundred after the formal withdrawal 
of the Romans. It lay outside the temptations of the 
northern marauders, in a wild and inhospitable situation, 
without large or thriving communities that would invite 
plunder. There were no commanding Roman highways 
traversing its confines, and the natives lived retired in 
inaccessible hill-duns, or in the dreary forests and meres 
of the plains, difficult of approach or pursuit. 

Chester, the great attraction of the roving plunderer, 
stood away to the far west, and Roman life had only 
touched imperfectly this out-of-the-way fringe of the 
district. Probably the inhabitants, given to mere pastoral 
life and the chase and fishing, and to depredation and 
cattle-lifting, amongst the border clans, were left to 
themselves until the irruption of bands of straggling Mid- 
Engle. 

The great Watling Street, replacing the great Roman 
military road, steered via Shrewsbury direct to Chester, 
leaving East Cheshire untouched, and the invaders who 
came made their incursions into Macclesfield hundred in 
fullest strength and force from the Derbyshire side. 
Their advance here was facilitated by the many previous 
Brito-Roman cross-roads which lined the bordering terri- 
tories, such as the Tor, Ridge, Dirty, and Lache Gates, and 



I04 MINING AT ALDERLEY EDGE, WITH SKETCH OF 

Goyt and Ermine Lane, all of which afforded connection 
with Buxton for a centre. The Domesday Book* has 
allowed us a slight insight into the Anglo-Saxon Hamestan 
or Macclesfield hundred at the time the Conqueror had 
at last forced it into final submission. He encountered 
fierce opposition before he could wrest the tough and 
sturdy Mercian landholders from their possessions. Black 
devastation marked the whole country side; of the 
seventy-one settlements probably existing on his advent 
forty-one are not mentioned at all in the survey ; fire and 
sword had made radical work; of the thirty places 
adduced many lay in sheer waste. There was even then, 
however, a large part occupied by forest land, stretching 
together about seventy-eight leagues in length and forty 
leagues in breadth, foremost amongst them the royal 
forest of Macclesfield. 

Of Anglian and Norse surnames attached to the district 
we have an interesting and instructive show, and such as: 
Aldred, Berwulf, Brun, Brinning, Cerdring, Edulvin, 
Godric, Godwin, Gamel, Hacun, Hundun, Kettle, Torking, 
Uluric, Ulvic, and Withing. Amongst the various places 
then in existence, or laid waste, we find seventeen termi- 
nating in ton, fifteen terminating in ley, three terminating 
in worth, and two terminating in ham. 

If we accept the reasoning of Round,t the places ter- 
minating in ham were probably founded by the first 
settlers, and closely connected with the rivers; the tuns 
came next in priority, and lay away from the rivers and 
were formed by timbering a forest clearing in a part not 
yet previously settled; the leys, plots of sweet meadow 
land or pasture, either in the valleys or woods, are of later 

• Domesday Book of Cheshire and Lancashire, edited by William Beamont 
1863. 

t The Commune 0/ London, J. H. Round. 1899. 



ARCHMOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEIGHBOURHOOD. 105 

growth. The worths were originally earthen hills or 
mounds in the marshy parts on which the little farms and 
homesteads were erected. The fields, shaws, hursts, woods, 
of which there are a few instances, are indicative 
and distinctive of those regions untouched yet by the 
earlier settlers. And by following up the location and 
topographical range of these settlements an industrious 
and well- equipped topographer might with care retrace 
the various waves and streams of the progressive ingressions 
of the Mid-Engle into the Hamestan hundred. 

Edwin, the last Mercian earl, had for his demesne 
Macclesfield and Adlington. Wm. Smith, the Rouge 
Dragon, tells us in 1656 that the Cheshire men lived 
much as their Mercian forefathers had done in centuries 
past. They kept their fires in the middle of the house 
against a hob of clay, and their oxen shared the same roof. 
The men were "of stomack, stout, bold, and hardy, of 
stature tall and mighty." And in that goodly condition I 
must leave them at present. 

I must now once more step back, before closing my short 
review, which has wandered over a large area, to Alderley 
Edge, as it breaks upon our eyes again in 1086, after a 
lapse of almost ten centuries between, when we met, and 
left the miners plodding on the Edge. The Domesday 
Survey affords us a passing glimpse of it, when Norman 
yoke had put the Mercian tenantry under its heel. 

We read: "William Malbedeng holds of the Earl (of 
Chester) Aldredelie. Brun held it and was a free man. 
There is i hide rateable to the geld. The land is 4 
carucates. It was and is waste. There is a wood 2 
leagues long and 2 broad. In King Edward's {i.e., 
Edward the Confessor) time it was worth 20/-. This 
refers to Over Alderley. 

''Nether Alderley: Bigot holds Aldredelie. Godwin 



io6 MINING AT ALDER LEY EDGE, WITH SKETCH OF 

held it as a free man. There is i hide rateable to the 
geld (tax). The land is 8 carucates. There is one in the 
demesne with 2 neatherds and 3 villeins and i radman 
with I carucate and there is i acre of meadow and a 
wood I league and ^ long and i league broad and 2 
hays. In King Edward's time it was worth 20/- and now 
10/-. The Earl found it waste."* 



X. — Later Mining at the Edge. 

It only remains for me now to take a short survey of 
the later development and history of the mines. We 
possess no records of any mining operations subsequent 
to the Brito-Roman times; no allusion is made in the 
Doomsday Book, nor can we discover any documentary 
reference during mediaeval times. 

The first trace we obtain is towards the i6th or 17th 
century. On the steep and elevated northern part of the 

« 

Edge we have fortunately preserved a place-name, called 
Saddle Bole, now more popularly known as the Winberry 
Hill, and on the west side of Windmill Wood (named so 
because a windmill was erected there for crushing the ore 
in the time when the mines were workedt) we have the 
i/a^g^, particularly alluded to by the late Hon. Miss Stanley. 
According to Forster,X the boles were piles of stones, 
placed round a fire on the western brow of an eminence, 
as near as possible the mouth of a mine, and so arranged 
as to leave openings which served for the admission of 
air and the escape of the gaseous products of combustion. 
Fuel was supplied from the neighbouring wood which on 



•Earwaker, vol. ii., p. 594. 
t See Stanley, p. 32. 

J A Treatise of a Section of the Strata from Newcastle-upon-Tyne to Cross 
Fell J by Westgarth Forster, 1821, p. 364. 



ARCHMOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEIGHBOURHOOD. 107 

that account was called Haghill and Hagbank. Bishop 
Watson, in his Treatise of the Smelting of Lead Ore, as 
practised in Derbyshire, says: *' There are several places in 
Derbyshire, called Boles'^ by the inhabitants, where lead 
was artificially smelted, before the invention of moving 
bellows by water. These places are discovered by the 
slags of lead which are found near them. The smelters 
seem chiefly to have relied upon the strength of the wind 
for the success of the operation, the boles being always 
situated upon high ground, and mostly upon that side of 
a hill which faces the west. The situation," he adds, 
"was not fixed upon without design, since the wind blows 
in England in the course of a year near twice as many 
days from that quarter as from any other. It was 
conducted in that rude way in Derbyshire so late as the 
seventeenth century.'' 

The Saddle Bole, apparently so called from its saddle- 
shaped form, is simply the site of one of these ancient 
boles, or wind-smelting places. We have now properly 
identified its situation and obtained specimens of calcined 
ore from it in abundance. The Hagg, now marked by a 
desolate sand waste, was the wood then extending to the 
south of this open eminence, which supplied the snielters 
with the charcoal and wood for the reduction of the ore. 

Percyt iremarks : " Copper smelting was first introduced 
into Lancashire by the ancestors of the present Colonel 
Patten, the works were at Bank Quay, near Warrington. 
The building of these works commenced in 1717 or 1718, 
and some of its ore was also got from Alderley Edge." 
About 1708, Mr. Abbadine, a Shropshire gentleman, cut 



* Perhaps from bdl, Welsh, a prominence, peak, because their smelting 
places were erected on eminences. 

t Metallurgy, "Copper," pp. 291-2, by John Percy, London, 1861. 



io8 MINING AT ALDERLEY EDGE, WITH SKETCH OF 

a tunnel* from Dickens Wood to the engine shaft, near 
the great quarry. It was five feet high and three feet 
wide, wholly cut through the sandstone, at a depth of 
about thirty yards from the highest surface. He also 
built a smelting house near the Edge House,f next to Edge 
Farm. The result seems to have been little remunerative. 
Holland says: **He met with nothing but sandstone until 
he arrived at the centre, and finding there that the 
valuable part of the ore w^as considerably below the level 
of his tunnel, he abandoned the enterprise, and was ruined 
by his speculations.''^ 

Since that time different parties, according to the same 
authority, have engaged in the same speculation, and have 
driven tunnels and sunk shafts into various parts of the 
hill, but without finding an ore sufficiently pure to render 
the mine valuable.^ 

The next who took the mines was the celebrated 
Charles Roe, of Macclesfield (1717-1781). At the decease 
of Sir Edward Stanley (1755), or soon after, he rented ;| 
them in association with a Mr. Mills, who was at the 
head of the copper company at Macclesfield, and under- 
took the management. They opened the tunnel in 
Brindlow Dell,1I to draw off the water which was lodged 
in the bottom of the old shafts. This tunnel, however, 
was not carried as far as they intended by twenty yards, 
and they subsequently abandoned it and all their works 

* General View of the Agriculture of Cheshire, Henry Holland, London, 
1808, p. 16; and also Stanley, p. 33. 

t The Edge House is already mentioned, 1541. See East Cheshire, by 
Earwaker. We have also discovered the foundation walls of this old 
smelting house, and fine specimens of copper and lead slag from it, and 
unsmelted pieces of copper ore itself. 

} Stanley, p. 33. 

§ Holland, p. 17. 

II Stanley, pp. 33, 34. 

IT Ibid, p. 35. 



/ 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEIGHBOURHOOD. 109 

on the Edge when their company made the discovery 
of the great beds of copper at the Parys mountains in 
Anglesey. They kept not less than forty or fifty men 
constantly employed while working the Edge. The 
copper was taken to Macclesfield, and with calamine from 
Derbyshire made into brass at this place.* For a time 
they got a considerable quantity, of ore, so giuch, it is 
said, as to give them a clear profit of ^^50 per week.t 
It appears Roe and his partner left the Edge about 1770, 
taking all their miners with them into Wales.! They 
were succeeded by Mr. Whitfield and Mr. Heaton, of 
London, who searched the Edge and abandoned it. 
Next, Mr. Patten, of Warrington, worked the mines with 
some profits, and in 1791, Mr. Radcliffe, probably the 
manager, writes to Sir John Stanley: " The mine goes on 
well, but the lead is not in one place. The copper con- 
tinues good. Eight women are employed in dressing the 
copper, and a woman came out of Derbyshire to wash 
the lead." 

1804. James Ashton, a Derbyshire man, searched the 
Edge, and on the unexpected discovery of a few veins of 
good ore at the extremity of the old works§ a company 
was formed, consisting of him. Bury and Dodge, of 
Stockport, Thorne and Stackhouse, Dr. Jarrold, &c., who 
had taken a lease for fourteen years from the ist of 
January, 1805. 

1808. Holland says: "Their prospect of success, |1 at 
present, appears good; large quantities both of copper and 
lead ore have been obtained, and they are now engaged in 
the erection of works for preparing and smelting it." 



♦See Monthly Magazine, February ist, 181 1, "The Cobalt Mines at 
Alderley Edge," Robert Bakewell. 

f Stanley, p. 35. § Holland, p. 17. 

J Bakewell, ditto. ji Ibid. 



no MINING AT ALDERLEY EDGE, WITH SKETCH OF 

1810. Bakewell writes : " Last summer an attempt 
was made again to get the ore, and a furnace erected for 
reducing it. I was there the day after the trial, which 
had not succeeded, owing to the poorness of the ore and 
want of skill in the persons employed. Something like a 
regular vein was opened last summer, its direction nearly 
vertical, it^ width about three feet, with a flow of cauk 
interspersed between the ore and the rock on one side. 
The other was united with the sand rock. The works 
were suspended at the close of 1810." 

A miner who had worked upon the Continent and seen 
the cobalt ores of Saxony discovered cobalt on the estate 
of a gentleman in the neighbourhood. The attention of 
the tenants of the Alderley mine was then directed to the 
subject, and the cobalt mines were let for ^f 1,000 to Mr. 
Plowes, of the Pontefract company, in Yorkshire,* by Sir 
John Thomas Stanley. It was packed in tubs and sent 
♦to near Pontefract for making the smelt. Plowes was 
after a few years released from his bargain, but the com- 
pany still found cobalt enough to make them think it 
worth while to establish works at the Wallasey Pool, 
opposite Liverpool.t Mining operations for copper seem 
to have been taken up again thirty years later. 

In or about i860 the captain of the mines was Jonathan 
Down, followed by Captain Osborn (1866), the miners 
being Cornishmen ; he was succeeded by John Lawton in 
1874. The latter gentleman is still living at Over 
Alderley, a hale and cheerful old man. The mines were 
ultimately closed in 1879. 

In 1867 the copper mines supplied fifteen thousand one 
hundred and fifty-two tons of copper ore, of which three 
hundred and one tons of copper (equal to two per cent), 

* Bakewell. f Stanley, p. 36. 



ARCH^OLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEIGHBOURHOOD, iii 

of the value of ^f 22,570 (or 3^75 per ton), were extracted. 
At Mottram St. Andrew, a mile or two to the north-east of 
Alderley Edge, in the lands of Lawrence Wright, both 
lead, copper, and some cobalt have been met with. He 
erected in 1807 a smelting house near Keighly Ditch. 
These works were also abandoned, and at a later period, 
about 1865, the mines were reopened by the Magnesium 
Metal Company, of Patricroft, but only continued for a 
short time. It was from this locality that Sir Henry 
Roscoe first obtained the materials for his classical 
investigations into the Vanadium group, the results of 
which are laid down in his Researches on Vanadium, read 
before the Royal Society in 1867. 

We have also indications of an old Bloomery near the 
Edge, situated east of Welsh Row, towards Bradford 
House. Here, in a place which now is a pasturage, along 
a slope that is grown over with an old oak and some ash 
trees, we find below the greensward a very extensive 
accumulation of pure iron slag,* which runs for ninety 
yards in length, the deposit being something like three 
feet in depth. The old trees, which have sent their roots 
into the slag which it intertwines, shows the great age of 
the slag. It cannot have been used in connection with 
the copper and lead mining carried on at the Edge, nor 
tipped here for road metal. The slag occurs at a place 
quite out of the way for any useful purpose, and has 
only been accidentally laid bare by the fall and uprooting 
of one of the old trees. The iron ore must have been 
carried hither at one time from North Staffordshire, 
perhaps for making ploughs or other farming tools in 
past times. Further additional discoveries, however, 
may throw more light on the subject. 

* As analytically determined by my friend, Frank Scudder, Esq., F.I.C , 
of Manchester. 



112 MINING AT ALDERLEY EDGE, WITH SKETCH OF 



XL — Various Processes Employed. 

We have seen that probably the Romans smelted 
their ore on rude hearths, in the open air, using charcoal 
for that purpose. The old smelters of Derbyshire had 
their boles, which were not very unlike that old process. 
Later on on the Edge the Ore Hearth, an artificial blast, 
was used as a substitute for the unreliable natural currents 
of the air. Then followed the reverberatory furnace, known 
as the Derbyshire Cupola, worked with pit coal instead of 
wood as fuel, and the last process employed at Alderley 
Edge, in more recent times, was the Flintshire Furnace, 
with limestone for a flux. 

In 1 541 there was already the Edge House on the 
Edge, which has disappeared since to make room for 
the Edge Farm, built a little higher up, and held now by 
Mr. Ralph Powell, as tenant. 

I think that old house at the skirts of the Edge and in 
close proximity to the Engine Vein must have been 
constructed for the purpose of the smelters, and at the 
time when the Derbyshire miners were employed here, 
who no doubt erected the Saddle Bole for smelting the 
ore, or even perhaps earlier, already in the sixteenth 
century. 

XIL — ^The Mineral Features of the Edge. 

I must not omit in this place to give an account of the 
interesting observation with reference to the mineralogical 
occurrence of the ore in the rock, as described by Henry 
Holland (1808) and Robert Bakewell (1811), as they are 

■ 

extremely valuable, and as the mines are actually closed 
and inaccessible for exploring. The former says : 
"The sandstone rock breaks out in many places on the 



ARCHMOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEIGHBOURHOOD. 113 

summit and northern side of the hill, having an inclination 
from south-west to north-east, at an angle of fourteen 
degrees. Some of the strata of this stone are three to 
four yards in thickness, and are separated from those 
above and below by thin seams of marl, here and there 
tinged with a slight colouring of copper. There appears 
to be three or four great breaks or interruptions of the 
sandstone strata in the structure of the hill, these extend 
across it from west to east, and are filled irregularly with 
sandstone and masses of sulphate of barytes, amongst 
which are many veins of lead and copper, and in some 
places distinct from each other, in others so mixed as to 
render it somewhat difficult to ascertain, from mere ob- 
servation, which of the two metals predominate. The 
veins of all these metals approach very near the surface, 
and have been found to ramify with increasing richness 
to a depth of thirty or forty yards, in all probability they 
extend much further into the body of the hill." And the 
latter writes: "In the white sandstone are found various 
ores of lead as small portions of compact galena and the 
same in a granular slab, intermixed with sandstone. In 
other places, particles of blue and brown ore were collected 
in nodules of various sizes and imbedded along with 
pebbles in the sandstone rock, like currants in a pudding. 
The black ore or earth of lead is here met with and the 
carbonate or white ore, but intermixed like the others 
with sandstone. These ores do not lie in regular veins, 
horizontally or vertically inclined, but are found in masses 
or intersecting and mixing with the sandstone and pebbles. 
In some few places are appearances of a regular vein, in 
which there are seams of cauk (sulphate of barytes) 
interspersed between sandrock and the ore, but these 
appearances are soon lost and the vein is broken off and 
thrown into confusion. The cauk is also mixed with 
I 



114 MINING AT ALDERLEY EDGE. WITH SKETCH OF 

quartz pebbles. Copper ore ^zs formerly got here in large 
quantities, as appears by the scoriae and slagg which 
remain. The cobalt ore is in the black ochre in the form 
of grains of a blueish-black colour, the best specimens 
resemble grains of gunpowder disseminated in red sand- 
stone, and lies eight to ten yards under the surface. It is 
chiefly in the red sandstone, and lies near the surface, and 
is evidently of a later formation than the other part of the 
hill, as the red sandstone where it is found always lies 
upon or intersects the white sandstone. It is intimately 
combined with iron, nickel, and arsenic, so that its 
separation in a state of perfect purity requires great care, 
and is attended with considerable difficulty. The white 
stone is the repository of the other metals." 

To give an idea of the peculiar manner in which the ore 
appears at the Edge I subjoin a section* taken at the western 
end of the excavation to show the order of the beds : — 

ft. in. 

1. Fine sandstone 4 6 

2. Shaly clay, with band of copper ore at bottom 2 6 

3. Ferrugineous sandstone, with large nodular 

rcidiSSQS contdiinmg carbonate of lead ... 6 o 

4. Cobalt beds, laminated sandstone, with 

cobalt ore 4 ^ 

5. White compact sandstone, with carbonate 

01 veaa ... ... ... ••• ... •>> •*. ^ u 

6. Ferrugineous sandstone, with ores of man- 

ganese^ cobalt^ 2Sidi iron 12 o 

XIII. — Superficial Pits. 

I have already alluded to the existence of circular pits 
at Engine Vein (p. 82) ; we have more recently examined 

•See Memoirs of the Geology round Stockport , "Macclesfield," by 
Professor Hull, 1866, p. 39. 



shma TiajiunerfyunAuhTiolicH'h^iy i^is pit. 



. s /t> 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEIGHBOURHOOD. 115 

these again for their exceptional interest and conspicuous- 
ness, and, as they are too important to be passed over 
without a more detailed account of them, Mr. Graves has 
surveyed them very carefully, to demonstrate their 
particular nature and construction. We have a whole 
series. No. i measures at the top nine feet across and is 
six feet deep ; near the bottom it takes a fresh turn and 
contracts into a lesser ring-shaped pit ; a little away from 
it, at A, we come on a patch of original marly surface 
with a layer of black soil; two of these black beds occur 
again on the further side, at B, and run into two separate 
layers, each nine inches thick, divided by four feet of loose 
marly soil, and composed of decayed and partly burnt 
matted gorse, and small fragments of bones. Pit No. 2 
measures seven feet by three feet six inches. No. 3 is 
twelve feet across, and there are three other little incur- 
vated segments visible between No. 3 and No. 4. The 
latter, which is the largest of the set, measures fourteen 
feet at the top, and appears to be twelve to fifteen feet 
deep, with three smaller hollows proceeding froni the 
sides. The actual depth cannot be exactly defined, as 
the bottom has been cut away and opens into a large 
hollow bellow, where Mr. Graves found a stone hammer, 
probably dropped into it from the pit above. Another 
pit, six feet across, is traceable at No. 5. 

These shallow pits exist now only in a bisected form, 
due to later mining operations, carried longitudinally 
through them, so that but half or less of the original 
body of these decapitated pits remains in view. 
The remaining segments are remarkably smooth in 
appearance. 

Another of these semi-circular, transsected shafts is to 
be seen in the upper level in Dickens Wood Mine, When 
digging down the bottom we came upon two thin layers of 



ii6 MINING AT ALDERLEY EDGE. 

charcoal and a piece of calcined ore. This pit is four feet 
across and four feet six inches deep. 

From both mines we have numerous stone hammers, 
at the east side in the old rubbish, and it is evident that 
all these pits in question w^ere alone the work of the 
prehistoric miners, and have to be correlated with the 
one in Brindlow, twelve to sixteen feet deep, where so 
many stone tools were found in situ when explored by 
Professor Boyd Dawkins and Dr. Sainter in 1874. The 
pits at Engine Vein and Dickens Wood, on the other 
hand, having, as we have seen, been cut through and their 
bottoms absorbed by the large hollows and excavations 
below, driven for the subsequent large level, any stone 
hammers would naturally drop into it from above, as we 
actually find for instance at Pit 4. These would be 
cleared out from here along with the rubbish collected in 
the lower level, and thus disappear to any seeker who 
looked for them, at these particular points. 



Note. — Only five plans and drawings have been reproduced for this 
paper. The whole bulk of all the sketches, photos, and sections attaching 
to it have been given to the Reference Library, King Street, where they 
can be examined in detail. 









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HANGING BRIDGE: AN ETYMOLOGICAL 
EXAMINATION. 

BY H. T. CROFTON. 

IN Procter's Memorials of Manchester Streets (p. 329), 
which was published in 1874, the late Mr. James 
Croston, F.S.A., alleges, in a chapter on "Old Man- 
chester and its Worthies," that "a drawbridge was 
thrown over the fosse or ditch surrOuriding the manorial 
residence [and was] called the Hanging Bridge, which 
in later times was succeeded by one of stone, the 
arches of which remain at the present day." The late 
Mr. John Leigh, in 1880, wrote in the appendix to 
Procter's Byegone Manchester, page 378, " Certainly 
Cateaton Street, in Manchester, was formerly a hollow 
way, and continued so till very recent times. Hanging 
Ditch and Cateaton Street were originally occupied by 
the fosse, which connected the Irk with the Irwell. . . . 
It is said that executions for serious crimes took place 
upon the bridge over the fosse, and hence its name, . . . 
The name of Hanging Ditch is connected with that of 
the Bridge, under which the water of the fosse ran. . . . 
I have frequently heard my father say that, when he was 
a boy, the centre or roadway of Cateaton Street was about 
sixteen feet below the footpath, and a stream of water ran 
along it." This was between 1750 and 1800. 



120 HANGING BRIDGE: 

The Manchester City News ** Notes and Queries/' in the 
month of December, 1901, contain several communica- 
tions about skeletons, coins, and other antiquities found 
under the old arches of the Hanging Bridge, and Messrs. 
Falkner have published an illustrated leaflet giving views 
and description of the bridge. 

Notwithstanding the recent amount of correspondence 
and controversy on the subject, we do not seem much 
nearer finality respecting the meaning of this place-name, 
and it is doubtful if we shall ever absolutely solve the 
question. In any case, however, the name must be con- 
sidered in conjunction with the adjacent place-name 
Hanging Ditch, and the first step is to ascertain as far as 
can be the earliest date when the names, or either of 
them, occur in local records. 

The Manchester Court Leet Records, edited by Mr. 
Earwaker, are imperfectly indexed so far as these two 
items in the first volume are concerned. ** Hengynge 
dyche," on page 3, is one of the streets or localities for 
which Byelawmen were appointed on October 4th, 
1552. "Skevengers for hengynge dyche" were appointed 
at the same time. On December nth, 1554, officers 
were appointed to see that "no horse nor mare, cowe 
nor oxe, shall go over hanginge brydge thorow the 
churche yard ; " and on October ist, 1561, an order was 
made against carting any dung, filth, or muck, upon or 
over the hanginge bridge, and that no one should ride 
over, or either pass or repass over and upon the same 
bridge with horse or such.* 



* Colonel Fishwick has called attention to the word Hengandechadre, 
which occurs December i8th, 1324, in an entry of Perquisites of the 
Wapentake of Salford, held at Salford (Lancashire and Cheshire Record 
Society, vol. 41, p. 153). The .entry reads, "Of Richard de Hengan- 
dechadre in mercy for an agreement broken, 6d." Colonel Fishwick 
reads the word as Hengan-dech-adre, but admits that he cannot explain 



AN ETYMOLOGICAL EXAMINATION. 121 

The bridge is, however, named in another Manchester 
record three-quarters of a century earlier, namely, in 
1473. The Rental of the Barony of Mamecestre at that 
date comprised ** for one burgage lying near the Hanging 
Bridge on the east side, I2d., and for half a burgage lying 
on the east side of the said bridge, 6d." These entries 
conclusively show that the two names are of considerable 
antiquity. Possibly they occur in deeds or records of 
even earlier date, but I do not recall any at present. 

The next step is to note the position of the two places, 
and for this purpose a modern map of Manchester is of 
comparatively little use, as most of the land between 
the bridge and the river and up to St. Mary's Gate 
has been remodelled. The story of the earliest Map 
of Manchester, in 1650, is given in Procter's Byegone 
Manchester, page 369, but does not help us. The next 
map, first published by Casson and Berry in 1741, is the 
first that gives details. A copy of the 1751 edition 
accompanies Procter's Byegone Manchester (see page 350). 
This shows and names the old "bridge" over the Irwell, 
with *' Smithy Bank" running upwards towards Hanging 
Bridge on the left, and meeting *' Deansgate" on the 
right, where Deansgate curved round into " Cateaton 
Street," with " Smithy Door" and "Old Mill Gate" on 
the right. Hanging Bridge is shown on the left, but is 
not named. Cateaton Street extended beyond Clap Gate 
(unnamed, and now renamed Cathedral Gates), leading to 
" Half Street " on the left, and ran as far as " Hunter's 
Lane" on the right, and from there the continuation of 
the street figures as "Hanging Ditch" up to "Fennel 



the final -adre. The word is most probably Hengande-chadre, and means 
the place on the road between Rochdale and Royton called Hanging- 
chadder or chatter, as in Chadderton, Chatterton. See also ManchesUr 
City News "Notes and Queries," No. 9,970, December 14th, 1901. 



122 HANGING BRIDGE: 

* 

Street'' on the left and "Withing Grove," which was 
also called Hyde's Cross, on the right, and continued 
forward as "Toad Lane" beyond, curving round to Long 
Mill Gate and descending Mill Brow to the bridge over 
the Irk. The next earliest map is made by Green in 
1787 (published in 1794), and was followed by that of 
Laurent in 1793, and these corroborate Casson and 
Berry, with the exception that both name Hanging 
Bridge, and Green calls Smithy Bank by the alternative 
name of Old Bridge Street. In 1714 it was called 
Smithy Door Bank. 

Of these street names that of Cateaton Street seems to 
have been a comparatively modern concession to the 
spirit of snobbery of its inhabitants, who were too 
aristocratic to live in a street vulgarly called not merely 
a Ditch but a Hanging Ditch, which however was, so far 
as is known, the name which the street bore in ancient 
days from Fennel Street to Smithy Door where it fused 
into Deansgate. Similarly the Old Mill Gate of 1741 
was a transformation of Meal Gate, which led to the 
Meal House, and which was early corrupted into Mill 
Gate, with Milne Gate as a variant form. The com- 
parative modernness of the name Cateaton Street is 
shown by the fact that it does not occur at all in the first 
six volumes of Mr. Earwaker's edition of the Court Leet 
Records covering the period from 1552 to 1687. The 
records are missing from 1687 ^^ I73i> but are resumed 
in the latter year when Bylawmen were appointed for 
Old Milngate and Cateaton Street, and scavengers for 
Cateaton Street, Hanging Ditch, Old Millgate, and 
Hanging Bridge, as well as officers for muzzling mastiff 
dogs and bitches for both market places, Hanging Ditch, 
and Cateaton Street. The street from 1731 onwards is 
frequently mentioned, but no mention of Hanging Ditch, 



AN ETYMOLOGICAL EXAMINATION. 123 

Hanging Bridge, or Cateaton Street occurs in the three 
printed volumes of Manchester Constables' Accounts, from 
1612 to 1647 and from 1743 to 1776, omitting the period 
1647-1743. On the other hand, Cateaton Street is 
named in the Manchester Poll Tax of 1668 and in the 
Manchester Poll Book of 1690. 

The Court Leet in 1552 appointed three sets of Bylaw- 
men, namely: One for Market Stede Lane, now Market 
Street; the second for "the deyngate;" and the third for 
the mylne gate, wethinge grene, hangynge Dyche, fenell 
strete, and so to Irkes Brydge down Toad Lane. At the 
same time there were officers appointed for making clean 
the market place, and Skevingers for (i) Market Stead 
Lane, (2) the deyngate and St Mary Gate, (3) Old Market 
Stead, (4) Smithy Door, (5) the hangynge Dyche and meyle 
gate, (6) the Fennell Street, (7) the [Long] mylne gate 
and Hunts Bank. 

The result of this examination so far is to show that 
Hanging Bridge abutted on Hanging Ditch, and this 
contiguity leads us to the conclusion that probably the 
epithet in each case originated in the same set of 
circumstances. 

Between 1550 and 1750 there was no great alteration 
in this district, and in all probability it had been in 
much the same condition for centuries. It is, however, 
as well to try and picture the natural state of the land 
at the time when the Celtic aborigines selected the 
tongue of land between the Irk and Irwell for the site 
of their village and protected it by a trench, the line of 
which was still, in 1750, indicated by the curve of Toad 
Lane, Hanging Ditch, Cateaton Street, and Smithy Bank. 
Outside this curving trench there was a slight shelf or 
table land extending towards the slope of the present 
Shude Hill and Market Street. Theoretically it is 



124 HANGING BRIDGE: 

possible that this shelf was named The Hanging, and so 
gave its name to both bridge and ditch, but there is no 
other indication of such a name having been applied to 
this shelf. 

At this stage of the enquiry, and in support of this 
theory that both bridge and ditch took their name from 
a table-land called The Hanging, we naturally turn to the 
invaluable New English Dictionary by Dr. Murray, where 
the verb to hang and its derivatives take up no less than 
seventeen closely-printed columns arranged on historical 
principles. Here we find the third meaning of the verb 
is to suspend on a cross or gibbet; the fourth, to let 
droop or bend downward, to cause to lean or slope over; 
the ninth, to be suspended on a cross, gibbet, gallows, &c. ; 
the eleventh, to incline steeply. The substantive word 
hang is shown to mean a downward inclination, slope or 
bend, a declivity. The verbal substantive hanging, 
besides meaning putting or being put to death on the 
gallows, means thirdly a downward slope or curve; 
seventhly, a steep slope or declivity of a hill. Dr. Murray 
here quotes from G. Venables' Garianonum Greetings, 
1888, ii. 3 — "The Hanging," which forms part of the 
garden and grounds of the rectory here. The participial 
adjective hanging means secondly steep, with a sub- 
meaning applicable to a wood, garden, walk, &c., situated 
on a steep slope, top of a wall, &c., so as to appear to 
hang over, and here Dr. Murray mentions the Hanging 
Gardens of Babylon (which Quintus Curtius styled 
pensiles horti), and quotes from Addison's Italy, 1705, 
p. 315 — We call hanging gardens such as are planted on 
the top of the house. 

After reading Dr. Murray's luminous explanations and 
definitions we can more easily understand that a person 
lounging on the Old Bridge (which in 1368 replaced the 



AN ETYMOLOGICAL EXAMINATION. 125 

ford over the Irwell), and looking up at the Old Church, 
might be struck by the elevated and suspended appear- 
ance of the Hanging Bridge at the edge of the shelf or 
table-land. Compare Mr. R. Falkner's sketch of old 
Manchester, which appeared in the Manchester City News 
in the latter part of 1901. 

Unfortunately, however, there is little to prove that the 
word hanging was in local use for such a position,* but, 
on the contrary, the Lancashire usage is in favour of 
bank or brow or broo for such a declivity. Thus, we 
have Smithy Bank, Hunt's Bank (in 1422 it was Hunt's 
Hull or Hill), Tin Brow, Mill Bank or Brow, Parsonage 
Bank, Red Bank, Caley Bongs or Banks (now the Palace 
of Varieties), Bank Top (London Road), Pinmill Brow, 
Thorniley Brow, Fallowfield Brow, and in Salford Broken 
Bank, Green Bank, Shaw's Brow, Blacklock's Brow. 

If we take hanging to mean simply sloping, it is open 
to remark that most bridges slope and all streams do so 
naturally. It is not at all likely that the bridge, which 
presumably came into existence later than the ditch, was 
originally called Hanging Ditch Bridge, and was then 
shortened to Hanging Bridge, nor is it very likely that 
the bridge passed its distinguishing name to the ditch, 
which flowed down towards it: streams, as a rule, are 
named from their sources downwards. It is also to be 
remarked that the slope of the bridge itself was in no 
sense remarkable, and it is very improbable that any one 



* G. H. R.,mManchester City News "Notesand Queries," October 5th, 190 r, 
No. 9,900, has found mention in Manchester Mercury, 1751, of " the Hanging 
Meadow or Hollow Meadow at the town end in Salford." This equation 
of Hanging and Hollow is very striking. Hanging Ditch was in the 
Hollow and Hanging Bridge was over the Hollow. He adds that in 1282 
there was a " hengende-bank " on the Irwell, near Eccles, and at the 
present day there is a "hanging bank" on a hillside near Lees, Oldham. 
Hengandre-chadre in 1324 has been mentioned in a note ante. 



126 HANGING BRIDGE: 

would single out its slope as such an extraordinary cir- 
cumstance that it alone should be the designation of the 
bridge, when, close at hand, there was the bridge over 
the Irwell, sloping sharply from the high land on the 
Manchester side to the low-lying Stany-hurst or Stanierst 
on the Salford side. 

It has been surmised that the name Hanging Bridge, 
as applied to the existing old stone structure, is a survival 
of the name given to a previously existing drawbridge. 
This is pure conjecture. There is no evidence extant of 
such a drawbridge nor of any fortifications such as are 
usually found in connection with bridges of that character, 
though the Romans undoubtedly had, by way of Deans- 
gate, a road from their new fort at Knott Mill to the old 
circular Celtic village at Hunt's Bank, and the Roman 
road may have entered the village at this point and the 
village may have had some sort of a wall round it with 
entrances and drawbridges over the trench outside. It, 
however, lies a little wide and to the east of the direct 
line of Deansgate, which, after passing through the 
village, went northward over Hunt's Bank Bridge and 
along the line of Great Ducie Street.* 

The existing stone bridge was probably built about 
1420 to provide convenient access on foot for the inhabi- 
tants resorting to their parish church, which was rebuilt 
and coUegiated at that time, or perhaps the bridge was 



*The late Mr. Harland (Mamecestre, vol. i., p. 175) suggested that "the 
town had probably four gates, the Denegate, St. Mary's Gate, the 
Millgate, and the Mealgate, still represented by the streets at whose 
extremities the old gates inclosed the town." This, however, is 
exceedingly doubtful, and in any case does not help us, because a gate at 
Hanging Bridge would not be on the line of wall running from one to the 
other of the ends of the four streets named. Gate in all these names 
most probably is only the old Saxon name for street or road. For the 
lines of the Roman roads hereabouts see also Mr. Roeder's careful account 
in vol. xvii. of Transactions. 



AN ETYMOLOGICAL EXAMINATION. 127 

built about 1368, when the old bridge over the Irwell 
was built. 

It remains for us to examine the claims of the ditch and 
bridge to have derived their names from the alleged circum- 
stance that capital punishments were carried out in their 
vicinity, and this involves an enquiry into a gruesome 
subject which is wrapped up in a good deal of obscurity. 
Before we examine the evidence as to whether the 
minor jurisdiction of the lords of Manchester included, 
as we shall hereafter see it did, the power of inflicting a 
death penalty, we may as well search for evidence of 
capital sentences having been carried out at or near 
Manchester pursuant to the general law of the land in 
very early days, or later on under the Palatinate jurisdic- 
tion of the Dukes of Lancaster, of which jurisdiction the 
relics most appropriate to our present subject are the fact 
that the Sheriff of Lancashire, who is charged with the 
duty of hanging criminals, is not pricked in the ordinary 
way that sheriffs of other counties are, but is separately 
chosen by the king himself as Duke of Lancaster, and 
when the judges go circuit the senior judge, on entering 
Lancashire, takes the Crown Court, as '*Red or Hanging 
Judge," to use an expression of the people. 

The probabilities, or possibilities, of what happened in 
the earliest days may be inferred from what we know of 
capital punishment in more recent times. Down almost 
to our own days we know that the law was of great 
severity, and that its severity was regarded with the 
utmost callousness. About the year 1800 there were 
literally scores of oifences for which a death penalty might 
be imposed, and the executions were regarded as a kind 

of popular pastime. 

* 

By the Act 10 and 11 William IIL, chapter 23, those 
who obtained the conviction of a person charged with a 



128 HANGING BRIDGE: 

capital offence were entitled to exemption from serving 
parochial offices. The Act was repealed by 58 George 
III., chapter 70; but, in the meantime, in 1806, the lord 
of the manor of Manchester had tried to compel two 
persons, named Stonehouse and Railton, to serve as con- 
stables, and they had claimed exemption as holders of 
certificates known as Tyburn tickets, and their claim was 
allowed (Axon's Annals of Manchester, 1886, p. 136); and, 
in 18 16, the value of a Tyburn ticket in Manchester was 
from 3^350 to 3^400, whilst in London they sold for £2^ 
(Axon's Annals, p. 151). Trafficking in such things is 
grossly repugnant to present ideas, but less than a century 
ago respectable people were not averse from availing them- 
selves of this statutory privilege. 

Even at the present day it is felony if the value of a 
thing stolen is five shillings or upwards, and larceny if 
less than five shillings. At one time a death sentence 
could be passed for any felony. When Manchester 
and Salford were still within the jurisdiction of the 
county justices, and all cases came before them at 
the New Bailey Courthouse, as they used to do in the 
time of Mr. William Smalley Rutter, the predecessor 
and father of Mr. Frederick Rutter, the present clerk to 
the magistrates for the Manchester Petty Sessional Division 
of the county, it was commonly remarked that the maid- 
servants of Broughton were the best Sessions customers, 
as they stole so frequently sufficient to constitute a felony 
for which they must be tried at Sessions. Nowadays, the 
Summary Jurisdiction Acts have rendered the distinction 
of no importance between larceny and felony. 

A note. No. 984, in the Preston Herald a few years ago, 
recorded that Edward Barlow was hangman at Lancaster 
for thirty years. He was sentenced to be hanged in March, 
1806, but was pardoned and turned hangman. Out of 



AN ETYMOLOGICAL EXAMINATION. 129 

two hundred and fifty-six persons hanged at Lancaster 
Castle, between 1782 and 1835, one hundred and thirty- 
one were hanged by Barlow, who was a Welshman. On 
one occasion he hanged nine at once, and chuckled that 
he had spared himself a second "stringing up" of them. 
Less than ten were hanged each year between the dates 
named, except nineteen in 1801, eleven in 1806, thirteen 
in 1809, thirteen in 1812, and twenty in 1817. 

These were all hanged at Lancaster Castle, and not in 
the localities where their offences were committed. There 
was, however, no law then in existence to prevent the 
sheriff carrying out the sentences wherever he chose. 
The formula used in passing sentence was that the con- 
demned person was to be imprisoned and taken thence 
to the place of execution, there to be hanged by the neck 
until dead. The place of execution is now restricted and 
regulated by statute, but the sheriff is still free to hang 
when he likes, and only a merciful custom interposes three 
Sundays between sentence and execution. 

The Manchester Constables' Accounts contain plenty of 
entries concerning the conveyance of prisoners to Lan- 
caster for trial, but it was the sheriff who had to carry 
out the death penalty and probably saved himself both 
trouble and expense by hanging at Lancaster Castle in 
the great majority of cases. As the criminal was not 
entitled to Christian burial, the parish registers throw no 
light on whether executions were evef carried out locally, 
but we know that the body of a man who was hanged at 
Lancaster in August, 1826, for a murder at Winton, near 
Worsley, was brought from Lancaster to Manchester, and 
deposited at the Manchester Infirmary for public inspec- 
tion by crowds of people before it was dissected. In 1831 
the body of a murderer was similarly treated. On 
September nth, 1790, a man was hanged on Kersal Moor 

J 



130 HANGING BRIDGE: 

for burglary at the Dog and Partridge Inn, Old Trafford. 
In 1786 a man was hanged at Bolton for croftbreaking. 
Thirty years or so earlier a man was hanged on the moor 
at Lancaster for murder, but his body was brought away 
and gibbeted on Pendleton Moor, at the corner of Cross 
Lane, Salford. In 1759 a man was hanged at Newton 
Heath for croftbreaking at Scotland Bridge, Manchester. 
In 1812 eight persons from Manchester were hanged at 
Lancaster for oifences connected with food riots, and they 
included a starving woman condemned to death for the 
heinous offence of stealing potatoes at Bank Top ! In 
1817 four persons, a father with his son, brother, and 
son-in-law, were hanged at Lancaster for a murder at 
Pendleton, and a fifth was hanged at Lancaster for arson 
at Knott Mill. In 1820 a man was hanged at Lancaster 
for a murder at Manchester, and in 1831 two men were 
hanged at the same place for a murder at Failsworth. 
These instances are gleaned from Mr. Axon's Annals of 
Manchester, and from the same book, page 76, we gather 
that at the Bloody Assize after the Jacobite Rising in 
1715, Tom Syddall, a Manchester blacksmith, was tried 
at Liverpool, and sent for the death penalty, with five 
other rebels, to Manchester, and it is traditionally stated 
that Knott Mill was the place of execution. The sheriffs 
** charge at Manchester on executing Sydall, &c." was 
^8. los. od. {Palatine Note-Book, iv. 93). 

The instances adduced carry us back to the days when 
there were no newspapers to chronicle such every-day 
affairs, and, in more remote times, it is only when the 
criminal was a person of note that anything is known. 
Ordinary criminals were hanged and buried without 
remark, wholesale and economically, as shown by Pope in 
1712-14, when in the Rape of the Lock, iii. 22, he wrote, 
''wretches hang that jurymen may dine," and in 1785, 



AN ETYMOLOGICAL EXAMINATION. 131 

when Grose in his Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue recorded 
that the expression Hangman's Wages meant thirteen 
pence halfpenny, which, according to vulgar tradition, was 
thus allotted, one shilling for the execution, and three 
halfpence for the rope. 

The Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536, resulted in a hanging 
at Whalley Abbey, which again confirms the statement 
that the sheriff was Aaw unto himself as to the place of 
execution. We may also refer to the well-known fact of 
numberless executions at Tyburn, where there was no 
prison but the Roman Edgware Road, biranched off from 
that other Roman Road which is represented by Holborn, 
Oxford Street, and Bayswater. Executions took place at 
Tyburn from time immemorial, as witness the mention of 
the "hangeman of tyborne" in 1393, in Langland's Piers 
Plowman's C, vii. 368. The executions of those condemned 
for the Jacobite Rising in 1745 took place on Kennington 
Common, and the heads of two were sent to be fixed on 
the Manchester Exchange. 

I have sought in vain for any explicit mention of any 
definite place for execution in the oldest extant records. 
The first volume of the Selden Society contains Select 
Pleas of the Crown, from a.d. 1200 to 1225, edited by F. 
W. Maitland. In his Introduction he states, "from the 
beginning of Henry the third's reign we get the first 
commissions of gaol delivery, and this work was com- 
monly entrusted to laymen. We have Eyre Rolls, that 
is, the rolls of justices, who, at irregular intervals — five, 
six, seven years — are sent to hold all manner of pleas. 
We have, Mr. Maitland says, also Assize Rolls and Gaol 
Delivery Rolls, though these come to us but rarely from 
the time with which that volume was dealing. It may 
well be doubted, he adds, whether when laymen were 
sent as Commissioners they kept any written account of 



132 HANGING BRIDGE: 

their doings. There are many recorded cases in Bracton's 
Note-Book which seem to imply that they did not. The 
Somersetshire Gaol Delivery Roll of 1225, extracts from 
which are given, is, Mr. Maitland says, the only Gaol 
Delivery Roll that he had found coming from the period 
covered by that book. He adds that a superficial perusal 
of all the rolls of John's reign leads him to say that 
criminal justice was extremely ineffectual; the punish- 
ment of a criminal was a rare event ; the law may have 
been cruel, but bloody it was not. He also remarks that 
in Henry HI.'s time some satisfactory hanging was 
accomplished, but the number of presentments of undis- 
covered crime is very large. Amongst the extracts from 
the Somersetshire Roll of 1225 the first one is for murder 
and arson, and records the sentence on two of the 
prisoners thus, Et ideo detrahantur et tunc suspendantur, 
meaning, and, therefore, let them be drawn to the place of 
execution and then hanged ; but the sentence on another 
two was simply, Et ideo suspendantur, and the same 
phrase (in the singular) occurs in three other instances. 
The earlier records in Mr. Maitland's volume show that 
the practice of fines and ordeals of heated iron or water 
were still in vogue as also the ordeal of battle; while of 
one woman in Shropshire, for the death of a woman slain 
at Lilleshall, it is said in Latin, "therefore, she has 
deserved death, but by way of compensation let her eyes 
be torn out." A Lancashire case, in which Winwick and 
Chipping are named, is recorded in 1203 (page 45), but 
the result is not stated, the record ending by fixing a date 
for the accused to attend to hear their doom. In 1212 
two men, who confessed a robbery of thirty-three pence, 
were at York sentenced to be hanged, and another man 
was similarly sentenced there for murder. In 12 14, in 
Middlesex, a man for being accessory to a murder waS 



AN ETYMOLOGICAL EXAMINATION. 133 

adjudged to purge himself by the water. The record 
concludes thus, he has failed and is hanged. In 1221, in 
Warwickshire, a man was sentenced to be hanged for 
being a thief of all things, both cattle and other things, 
and for harbouring a known thief, who was afterwards 
hanged at Campden. This, at least, is some corroboration 
of the place of execution not being confined to one place. 
In other cases up and down England, throughout Mr. 
Maitland's volume, the formula is simply, let him or them 
be hanged, and, by way of frontispiece, part of an illus- 
trated record is given of a judicial combat in the time of 
Henry III., showing the duellists armed with shields and 
(pick)axes, and showing, too, the fate of the vanquished, 
where he hangs on a gallows formed by two upright 
posts, forked at the top, and bearing a cross beam in the 
two forks. The Assize Roll from which this is taken says 
of the vanquished, Ideo ad judicium de eo, etc., that is to 
say, therefore to judgment against him, &c., as if hanging 
was too common-place a thing to be worth further waste 
of pen and ink. 

These references are not very conclusive one way or the 
other, but they show no restriction on the sheriff as to 
the place of execution. If such sentences were carried 
out at Manchester, this part of the town would be as 
likely as any on account of the junction of highways 
thereabouts, where usually criminals and suicides were 
buried, and it was near to the only prisons in Salford 
hundred, namely the old prison at Hunt's Bank, and the 
dungeon on the old bridge, which was built as an oratory 
in 1368, was converted into a prison in 1505, and was used 
as such until taken down in 1776. The New Fleet at Hunt's 
Bank was built in 1580. The county sessions and the 
manor court were also held in a building in Market Place, 
which was within a stone's throw of the bridge and ditch. 



134 HANGING BRIDGE: 

To summarise our materials so far, the name Hanging 
Bridge has been traced back to 1473, and it has been 
shown that executions took place locally elsewhere than 
at Lancaster after that date ; and the state of the law has 
been examined back from 1473 to 1200, showing that 
about 1200 the old Anglo-Saxon laws of fines and ordeals 
were still in use, but passing away. If now we look back 
to the Anglo-Saxon days, when the Salford hundred or 
shire was organised, disregarding the county of Lancaster, 
which, as now existing, was a creation of later but un- 
known date, we are brought to days in which there would 
be a shire-reeve, or sheriff, of Salfordshire, who would carry 
out the law not at Lancaster, bfit at either Manchester or 
Salford,* and if, as is most probable, at Manchester he 
would find the neighbourhood of Hanging Bridge a fairly 
wide open space, still shown as such in the map of 1750, 
just outside the ancient Celtic enclosure, at a point where 
Deansgate, the Roman road from the south, met the only 
road from Salford, and so was, like Tyburn, adapted for 
publicity, which was so frequently sought on a hill, that 
many instances of the name Gallows Hill still exist 
throughout England. 

We are, however, not left altogether to inference as to 
capital punishment having been inflicted at Manchester 
in days of yore. Thus, in the same rental of 1473, which 
gives us our first mention of the Hanging Bridge, we find 
that Edmund Prestwiche held as tenant at will a field 
iuxta le galloz (which mongrel expression means near the 
gallows) in Mancestr (Harland's Mamecestre, vol. iii., pages 
485-503). Moreover, if we go back a century beyond 1473 
we come across the clearest possible proof of the power of 
the lords of Manchester to inflict the death penalty. On 

* There was a field in Salford called Hanging Gals. 



AN ETYMOLOGICAL EXAMINATION. 135 

March 8th, 1359, Henry, duke of Lancaster, at Preston, 
sealed letters patent appointing commissioners to inquire 
into a petition presented to him by Sir Roger la Warre, 
lord of Manchester, complaining that the duchy officials 
had unjustly interfered with his privileges, amongst which 
he claimed that for the town and manor of Mamecestre 
he had liberty of infangen-thef, and other liberties of 
gallows, pit, pillory, and tumbrell (furcas, puteum, pullori, et 
tumbrell). The inquiry was held at Preston on March nth 
or i8th, 1359, before a jury who returned as their verdict 
that a tempore quo non extat memoria (from a time to which 
memory goeth not) Manchester was not a borough but 
was a market town, that the lords of the same town had 
liberty of infangen-thef, and other liberties of gallows, pit, 
pillory, and tumbrel — using the same Latin and English 
words as before (Harland's Mamecestre, vol. iii., pp. 447- 
459). The pillory and tumbrel were minor punishments 
for naughty bakers and ale-wives, but the gallows were 
for hanging men on, and the pit was for ducking women 
in, and it is not impossible that the Hanging Ditch was 
used for the latter purpose. In-fangen-thef meant the 
right to try thieves caught within the town or manor, and 
in 1322 the Manchester Manor Survey states that the lord 
of Mancester had not only the right of in-fangen-thef, but 
also of out-fangen-thef, which entitled him to require 
any man dwelling in his manor, and seized for felony 
outside the manor, to be brought to the Manor Court for 
trial, and to be hanged there if found guilty (Harland's 
Mamecestre, vol. ii., p. 296). 

The result of this somewhat lengthy examination is, 
I think it will be admitted, that the capital meaning of 
the word hanging has the strongest claims for acceptance, 
as explaining the title Hanging Bridge. 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF 
LANCASHIRE. 

BY HENRY TAYLOR. 

THE HUNDREEl.OF WEST DERBY. 

THIS hundred is ^»oanded on the north by that of 
Leyland, on the south by the river Mersey, which 
divides it from the county of Chester, on the east by the 
hundred of Salford, and on the west by the Irish Sea, 
The extreme length from the Snotter Stone at Hundred 
End on the north to Hale Head on the south is about 
twenty-six miles, and from Astley on the east to Formby 
Point on the west thirty miles. 

The coast line between Liverpool and Preston has 
altered much during the last fifty years, as a comparison 
of the old and new ordnance maps indicates, for the wild 
Atlantic winds, blowing on the vast accumulation of sand 
brought down by the Kibble, the Mersey, and the Dee 
upon this shallow shore have had the customary effect in 
such circumstances, and many square miles have thus 
been added to the land. Between Preston and South- 
port, in the estuary of the Ribble, this change is very 
noticeable, indeed the mouth of the Douglas, once a 
viking's haunt, has assumed a totally changed appearance. 

Although the country between the Ribble and the 
Mersey is divided into two hundreds, those of Leyland 






■*■ ... 




••* 



I ' 







/ 



:^ _- 



/■• 




\ 




THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF' LANCASHIRE. 137 

and West Derby, yet geographically it is one bit of land 
and may almost be considered a peninsula, for it is 
bounded by water on three sides. Indeed, from the 
earliest times it has been thus regarded, for in a deed 
prior to the Norman Conquest (the will of Wulfric, a.d. 
1002) it is described as " L'anda betwae Ribbel and 
Moerse," and subsequently it was known as "Terra 
inter Ripam et Mersham." 

In this district between the two rivers no less than 
forty-two settlements are recorded in the Domesday 
Survey, and amongst them we recognise many existing 
towns and villages. I may mention Mele (Ravens 
Meols), Latune (Lathom), Heleshale (Halsall), Fornebei 
(Formby), Hoiland (Down Holland), Scelmeresdele 
(Skelmersdale), Cherchebi (Kirkby), Magele (MaghuU), 
Crosebi (Crosby), Sextone (Sefton),Waleton (Walton-on- 
the-Hill), Spec (Speke), and Walintune (Warrington).* 

The western half of the hundred is in the main flat and 
low lying, and contains, as in the Leyland hundred, much 
mossland. Slight eminences, however, of clay rise here 
out of the bog, and were chosen for habitation- in early 
times. Scarisbrick, Halsall, Lydiate, Aughton, and 
Ormskirk are instances, and here ancient crosses abound; 
upwards of thirty are shown on the maps in this imme- 
diate locality. The two first names on this list indicate 
rising or sloping ground. 

The southern and eastern portions of the hundred are 
undulating and in parts hilly. The highest ground is 
to be found in the Pennine Range, five miles long, 



* A valuable paper on the "Domesday Survey of North Lancashire," 
illustrated by copious tables and maps, by Mr. W. Farrer, is printed in 
the Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society for 1900; 
and the investigations of Mr. G. H. Lumby on the "Domesday Survey of 
South Lancashire," with a map, appear in the volume for the same year 
of the Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire. 



138 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

between Dalton and Billinge, in the midst of which, on a 
defensive site, was placed the castle of Upholland. 

The valley of the Douglas, which from Rufford to 
Wigan divides this hundred from that of Leyland, is 
of much beauty, running as it does in parts through 
broken hilly ground of sandstone formation. 

Upwards of twenty ancient parks are to be found in 
the hundred of West Derby. They are mainly in the 
south and east, but the smoke from Wigan, Warrington, 
St. Helens, Widnes, and Liverpool has told its tale upon 
vegetation. Excluding, however, the district where these 
towns are placed, it may be said that quite three 
quarters of the hundred is given up to agriculture. The 
western half is drained almost entirely by the river Alt 
and its numerous tributaries, and the northern by the 
Douglas and Martin Mere. On the south there are many 
small streams and brooks running into the Mersey. A 
Roman road through this part of England runs almost 
due north and south, on which at Wigan and Warrington 
there were stations. 

Ancient crosses in this hundred were numerous, for we 
find upwards of one hundred recorded on the ordnance 
maps and elsewhere. At the period in English history 
when most of these crosses were put up forests and 
marshes abounded, and a great part of the country was 
unenclosed. The necessity for boundary crosses and 
meare stones in the earlier centuries is thus apparent. 
The disforesting went on during the course of centuries, 
and is frequently mentioned in ancient documents ; 
indeed. Dr. Jessopp tells us* that a rage for dividing up 
and enclosing the open country set in, first, in the latter 
half of the fifteenth century, but came to a stop about the 



m II 



The English Peasantry," Nineteenth Century for January, 1901. 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 139 

end of Elizabeth's reign. It did not begin again till late in 
the eighteenth century, but then it went on vigorously, 
stimulated by the writings of Arthur Young. There can 
be little doubt that many village crosses were thus 
destroyed. 

Pre-Reformation Churches and Chapels. 

The churches built prior to the middle of the sixteenth 
century are as follows : S. Mary, Prescot ; All Saints, 
Childwall ; S. Michael, Huyton ; S. Mary, Walton-on- 
the-Hill; S. Nicholas, Liverpool; S. Helen, Sefton; 
SS. Peter and Paul, Ormskirk; S. Cuthbert, North 
Meols ; S. Michael, Aughton ; S. Wilfrid, Farnworth ; 
S. Cuthbert, Halsall ; All Saints, Wigan ; S. Oswald, 
Winwick ; S. Elphin, Warrington ; S. Mary, Leigh. 

Pre-Reformation Chapels. — S. Mary, Hale; Mag- 
hull (old Episcopal chapel of early date, dedication un- 
known); S. Mary, West Derby; S. Chad, Kirkby (where 
is a so-called Saxon font); S. Luke, Formby; Harkirke 
(said to be site of ancient church) ; S. Luke, Great Crosby 
(formerly dedicated to S. Michael); S. Michael, Altcar; 
S. Helen, Hollinfare; S, Ellin's Chapel (re-dedicated to 
S. Mary) at St. Helens; Rainford Chapel (patron saint 
unknown) ; Windleshaw, ancient chapel ; Lydiate, ancient 
chapel attached to the hall, dedicated to S. Catherine; 
MeUing; Garston, dedicated to S. Michael; Lathom; 
Southworth Hall; Ashton-in-Makerfield; Billinge; and 
probably some others of uncertain date. 

The monastic institutions were: Burscough Priory 
(dedicated to S. Nicholas) ; Upholland Priory (now used 
as parish church), dedicated to S. Thomas the Martyr; 
and the settlement of the Austin Friars, at Warrington. 



140 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

The men who, in their piety, planned and built these 
churches would hardly have anticipated that in the year 
1900 the total number in the West Derby hundred 
would have amounted to no less than two hundred and 
twelve. 

Holy Wells. — The subjoined list is in the main 
taken from the 1848 ordnance maps. Information on 
such subjects was, I understand, usually obtained from 
local antiquaries by the Government surveyors. The 
subject is a likely one for imposition, and I have dis- 
covered at least one such case in this and in another 
hundred. I have, however, taken much trouble in local 
investigations, and I hope that the following list includes 
only those which were dedicated in mediaeval times to the 
saints whose names they bear. The word ''well" is 
usually understood to mean a walled-in structure, but 
many so-called holy wells are merely natural springs. 
In most cases the water is of a chalybeate character, 
and is still utilised for the cure of rheumatism, inflamed 
eyes, and other diseases : — 

Mikelswell, on Great Crosby village green; S. Oswald's 
Well, Winwick; S. Ann's Well, Rainhill; the Chantry 
Well, Huyton ; Maudlin Well, Lathom ; well and cross 
ii\ Little Crosby village; S. Thomas's Well, Windleshaw; 
S. Elphin's Well, Warrington; S. Mary's Well, AUerton 
"(mentioned in the Chartulary of Cockersand Abbey); 
S. Ann's Well, Crouton ; Everton Well ; Wavertree 
Well; St. Helen's Well, Sefton; Le Haly Well, Wygan; 
Holy Well, Torbock. Near the cross in Scarisbrick Park 
is a well, on the cover of which a cross has been incised. 
The words *'Well Cross Brow" occur on the ordnance 
map, near Upholland. 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 141 



Ormskirk, Burscough, Halsall, and Scarisbrick. 

In the introductory chapter reference has been made 
to the large number of crosses which at one time existed 
in this part of the hundred of West Derby. At the time 
of the first Ordnance Survey, fifty years ago, no less than 
eighteen ancient crosses or their remains were to be 
found within a circle four miles in diameter, which 
included Scarisbrick, Ormskirk, and Halsall. Our 
curiosity is naturally excited as to the motives which 
actuated the persons who put up so many of these monu- 
ments within so small an area, and as to the date of 
erection. I had hoped that some light would have beeii 
thrown on the subject by an examination of the Burscough 
Priory Charters. I have been favoured by Mr. W. Farrer 
by an inspection of the MSS., but the references, except 
in one or two doubtful cases, are to crosses cut on 
trees or similarly marked on natural objects. 

We gain, however, some valuable information from 
the charters which are preserved at Scarisbrick Hall, and 
which have been translated by the late Rev. E. Powell, 
and printed in the Transactions of the Historic Society of 
Lancashire and Cheshire for the years 1896 and 1897. 
Quotations are given below from these deeds where 
reference is made to the crosses of the district, from 
which it would appear that some of these monuments 
were in existence at the dates when the various 
deeds were signed. They relate mainly to the end of 
the thirteenth and the beginning of the fourteenth 
century. 

From the following documentary evidence it seems 
likely that in this district, when it was necessary to define 
lands otherwise than by ditches, natural features, and 



142 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE, 

existing crosses, this was done by the erection of meare 
stones : — 

[C. 1303.] On Wednesday in Whitweek in the 31st year of the reign 
of King Edward as a dispute having arisen between Brother Richard 
Prior of Burscough and the Canons thereof and Gilbert Scaresbrek and 
Robert of Hurlton regarding the boundaries between Ormeskyrck and 
Hurlton and between Merton and Scaresbrek and their boundary stones* 
and divisions it was finally settled. 

(Date of Deed, circa a.d. 1395-1396.) This indenture witnesseth that 
as a dispute had for a long time existed between 'brother John the Prior 
of Burscogh and the Canons thereof on the one side and Henry son of 
Gilbert of Scaresbrek and Henry son of the same on the other part about 
the boundaries of the territory of the same. , . . Beginning at 
Thoraldestub in Malle Lane near Ormeskyrk where a large stone has 
been placed and following the boundaries as marked by stones between 
the holding of the Prior on the one part and the holding of the same Henry 
. . . on the other part as well as the holding of the said Prior . . . 
on the other side as far as Hankelhedeseche where a large stone is placed, 
then following the boundaries between the holdings of Richard of Sutton 
called Musturland which he holds. 

The question therefore arises, whether the numerous 
crosses in this district were put up to mark lands at a 
date prior to the deeds translated by the Rev. E. Powell, 
or whether they had their origin, as in Switzerland, 
France, Italy, and many other parts of Europe, as way- 
side crosses for devotional purposes. It is, indeed, 
difficult for us to realise at the present day that England 
before the Reformation was a thoroughly Roman Catholic 
country, with customs similar to those which we find 
abroad, where that form of religion prevails. It should 
also be remembered that the Crusades gave a great 
impetus to the erection of wayside and other crosses. 

We may, therefore, possibly not be wrong in surmising 
that the two long ranges of crosses, one beginning near 



* The late Mr. E. W. Cox has given a characteristic sketch of some 
ancient meare stones in the Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire 
and Cheshire for 1896. 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 143 

the westerly side of Scarisbrick Park and ending at 
Ormskirk Church, and the other on the easterly side, 
leading to Burscough Priory, were placed there as 
resting-places for funeral processions not merely for the 
Scarisbrick family, who had rights of burial at both 
churches, but for their tenants and the inhabitants of the 
district generally, or it may be that they were there 
placed merely for devotional purposes. Reference to the 
ordnance map shows that neither of these lines of crosses 
is connected with parish boundaries. The people of the 
Scarisbrick township, I am informed, have right to one 
chapel in Ormskirk Church and right to elect two 
wardens, and the same with the Burscough township. 
Thus, the Scarisbrick and Burscough people may have 
erected these crosses (or some of them) where the funeral 
processions stopped for rest and prayer. On the road 
between Southport and Ormskirk, a distance of eight 
miles, the sites of no less than nine ancient crosses are 
marked on the 1848 ordnance maps. 

Owing to Protestant feeling, natural decay, vandalism, 
straightening of roads, and other causes, only one actual 
cross and the bases of two others are still in situ. But 
the late Colonel Welsby, who for sixty years was accus- 
tomed to drive between these towns, informed me that 
he remembered seeing several of these crosses in position, 
and that until quite recent times Roman Catholic funeral 
processions stopped wherever these crosses or their bases 
were to be found. 

Carr Cross. — The words Carr Cross occur on all the 
ordnance maps at the intersection of roads three and a 
half miles inland from Southport and about three 
hundred yards to the west of Snape Green, and, on the 
1893 six-inch map, the words **site of cross" also appear 



144 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

at this point. Although the cross has long since dis- 
appeared, "Carr Cross" is a well-known locality. The 
cross has given its name to the hamlet. It was standing 
so late as the year 1577, as the following deed testifies: — 

[Date of deed, circa 1577.] This indenture made September 220 in 
the 19th year of Queen Elizabeth etc. between Edward Scarisbreke and 
James Gorsuche. Witnesseth that the said Edward Scarisbreke for 
diverse considerations and a sum of money, grants unto the said James 
Gorsuche a sufficient way and passage . between the house of 

James Gorsuche and a closure of land or Meadow in North Meles called 
Baldmonyhokes that is to wit beginning at the high way near the said 
houses following it to Carre Cross in Snape thence to Snape Green along 
the lane between the high road and the said green over Snape . . . 
(Scarisbrick Charters, Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and 
Cheshire for 1897). 



GoRSUCH (ANCIENTLY Goosefordsyke) Cross. — The 
words "pedestal of stone cross" occur on the map at the 
meeting of Gorsuch Lane with Fleet Street,* one mile in 
a south-easterly direction from Cari; Cross, and about 
half a mile west from Scarisbrick Hall. Fleet Street skirts 
the westerly side of Scarisbrick Park. Gorsuch Hall is 
about half a mile in a south-westerly direction from this 
cross. 

[Date of deed, c. 1286.] Let all present and future know that I Walter 
of Gosefordesiche have granted to Adam son of Henry son of Hawe and 
his heirs for homage and service a certain portion of my land in the vill 
of Scaresbrec lying between my land in Longefeld and the King's Highway 
which runs between Halsale and Scarhsbrec and between the Cross and 
the land of Henry. . . . 

[Circa 1288.] To all the faithful of Christ who shall see or hear this 
writing John of Gosefordesiche wishes health in the Lord. Know ye that 
I have granted to Gilbert my son and his heirs all my land with appur- 
tenances in the territory of Scaresbrec which I have acquired from William 
son of Richard of Scaresbrec lying within these divisions. Beginning at 
the eastern corner following a certain ditch to the corner near the cross 
on the south to a boundary mark. . . . 

• Fleets were water meadows. 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 145 

\Circa 1300.] To all the faithful in Christ, health in the Lord. Know 
ye that I John of Gosfordsiche have granted to Gilbert my son and his 
heirs all my land etc. in the territory of Scarisbrek which I hold of 
William son of Richard of Scarisbreck lying within these boundaries. 
Beginning at the eastern corner thence albng a ditch to the corner 
near the cross on the south along a ditch to a certain boundary stone 
(or ridge) on the west which separates it from the land of Richard 
Scarisbrek. . . . 

\Circa 1300.] Be it known to all present and future that I, Walter of 
Gosefordisiche have granted to John my son and his heirs . 
Witnesses . . . John of the Cross. . . . 

In the Scarisbrick Charters references are made to John 
of the Cross {circa 1300), Magotha, daughter of Richard del 
Crosse, Robert son of Richard del Crosse of Scaresbrec> 
as in the following quotation: "[C. 1336.] Let it be 
clear to all that I Robert son of Richard del Crosse 
of Scaresbrec have quitclaimed to Gilbert son of 
Henry . . ." My conjecture that this family took their 
name from living in a house near one of the ancient crosses 
is supported by Mr. R. D. Radcliffe, who writes : '* You 
are quite right in your surmise . . . The late head 
of the Crosse family, of Shaw Hill, Chorley, used to tell 
me that he had always believed that his remote ancestors 
who lived in Wigan resided near the cross there." 

This family is first heard of at Wigan or at Cross Hall 
in Lathom about 1250, next at Liverpool in 1350, then 
at Crosse Hall, Chorley, circa 1650, and at Shaw Hill, 
Chorley, circa 1760. 

In the Crosse Charters {Historic Society of Lancashire 
and Cheshire for 1891-2) similar references are made to 
members of this family, who apparently lived close to one 
of the five ancient crosses in Liverpool. Again, it is 
quite clear that persons who lived near the cross in the 
village of Stretford were named after it.* 

*Chetham Society, vol. xlv., part ii. 
K 



146 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

Not merely were persons living near ancient crosses in 
pre- Reformation times named after the cross, but there 
can be little doubt that proximity to a holy well gave rise 
to a similar custom. Thus we find from the Brindle 
parish registers that Jo: Seed, alias Halliwell, son of 
Mary, was born in the year 1680. S. Ellin's Well, 
Brindle, was one of the most celebrated in the county, 
and presumably this man lived near it. 

ScARisBRiCK Park Cross. — This cross, simple in form 
and rude in workmanship, stands just within the modern 
park wall, near its south-westerly corner, three miles 
north-west from Ormskirk. The accompanying illustra- 
tion represents its present condition, now somewhat 
mutilated, but originally cut out of a slab of rough stone 
seven feet high, three feet wide, and twelve inches thick. 
The stem of the cross, twelve inches square at the bottom 
and slightly tapering upwards, is socketted into a base- 
stone about two feet six inches square on plan. It will 
be hazardous to express an opinion as to its date. Holes 
are sunk into the cross apparently to support a crucifix. 
John Wright, gamekeeper at Scarisbrick Park, tells me 
that he has known this cross for fifty-three years, and 
that it was once, as a casual inspection of the site shows, 
a wayside cross open to the public road, standing, as it 
stands now, in a little lay-bye or wave of the hedge back- 
wards. The bank of the old hedge is still there, and 
flowers have been planted on it near the cross. Thus, 
when funeral processions stopped here for rest and 
prayer, the mourners would not obstruct the traffic on 
the high road. When the boundary wall was built the 
park was slightly enlarged, enclosing cross and hedge 
and ditch. J. Wright remembers the cross when it was 
exactly six feet high, but a part of the top arm has been 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 147 

knocked off. The side arms were mutilated before his 
time. 

A few yards to the north of this cross is a well which, 
before the erection of the park wall, was apparently 
accessible from the road for the benefit of wayfarers. It 
is covered by a roughly shaped oval stone, on which a 
small floriated cross has been cut, similar to that at the 
White Dial Farm, near Rufford. The cross is square 
with the points of the compass. 

Pinfold Cross. — The map shows the "pedestal of 
stone cross" at the meeting of Halsall and Harleton 
Green Lanes with Fleet Street, one-third of a mile south- 
east from Scarisbrick Park Cross, at a small hamlet, 
called Pinfold, where doubtless the pinfold once stood. 

Harleton Gate Cross. — The words " pedestal of 
stone cross" occur in the 1893 six-inch ordnance map, 
near a spot called Harleton Gate, formed by the inter- 
section of Harleton Lane with the high-road between 
Scarisbrick and Ormskirk. The spot is about one-third 
of a mile south of the ancient building known as Harleton 
or Hurlston Hall. The cross is gone, but the pedestal is 
in situ, measuring about two feet six inches square on plan, 
socketted for the missing stone cross, whose shaft must 
have been about eleven inches square. The stone is of 
the usual hard coarse character. It stands on the sward 
in an ancient lay-bye or wave of the hedge back to the 
west, so that (as in a previous instance) the worshippers at 
funeral processions would not interrupt the traffic on the 
high-road. It may be that at one time the mile of road 
between Pinfold and Harleton Gate had similar crosses 
(two or three), so completing the five-mile range between 
Carr Cross and Ormskirk, divided into nearly equal 



148 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

spaces of a third of a mile or so in length, but they are 
not shown on the maps. 

Wood End Cross. — The word "cross" occurs in 
ancient Gothic letters on the 1848 ordnance map at the 
meeting of Blind Man's Lane and Marsh Lane with the 
main road to Ormskirk, one quarter of a mile south-east 
from Harleton Gate Cross. This, therefore, was one of 
the stone crosses seen by the late Colonel Welsby in his 
drives between Ormskirk and Southport. All traces of it 
have now disappeared. 

Heskin Hall Cross. — The site of this cross is marked 
on the map at the junction of Heskin Hall Lane with the 
Southport Road, a quarter of a mile south-east from the 
Wood End Cross. 

Hales Cross. — The word "cross" again occurs on 
the map a quarter of a mile south-east from Heskin Hall 
Cross, in the Ormskirk direction, showing that in 1848 
an ancient cross was still in situ here, and distant half a 
mile from Ormskirk Parish Church. 

Stock Bridge Cross. — In the direction of Ormskirk 
the last cross was at Stock Bridge, at the meeting of 
Grimshaw Lane with the Southport Road. The base 
only remains and stands in a garden. It was recently in 
imminent danger of destruction, but is now, I hope, 
saved. It is distant a full quarter of a mile from 
Ormskirk Church and about a sixth of a mile beyond the 
cross at Hales Cottage. This cross was placed in a 
prominent position near the bottom of the hill on which 
Ormskirk Church stands. 






the ancient crosses of lancashire, 149 

Crosses between Scarisbrick Park and Burscough 

Priory. 

Several crosses stood in the three miles of winding 
lanes which lead from the northerly side of Scarisbrick 
Park to Burscough Priory. Their pedestals and sites are 
marked on the ordnance maps, but I have not been able 
to find a single pedestal, and was informed by an old 
inhabitant that they had all disappeared. 

Bescar Brow Cross. — The words "pedestal of stone 
cross" occur on the map in the picturesque, old-fashioned 
village of Bescar, formerly Birch Carr, half a mile north 
of Scarisbrick Hall and just opposite the Scarisbrick 
Roman Catholic Chapel. The road in which the cross 
stood skirts the park. Bescar Brow, as its name indi- 
cates, is a knoll or small hill rising steeply out of the 
marsh, which from this point is continuous to the coast. 
The site is thus likely to have been chosen in the far 
away past by invaders as a settlement. 

Cliffe Wood Cross. — In a paper by Mr. James 
Dixon (vol. xxix.. Historic Society of Lancashire and 
Cheshire), read in April, 1877, it is stated that at that 
date vestiges of this cross were to be seen near the 
eastern entrance to Scarisbrick Park. 

Turton's Cross. — The map shows ''the pedestal of 
stone cross" at the junction of Harleton Green Lane 
with Barrison Green Lane, one mile south-east from 
Scarisbrick Hall. 

Barrison Green Cross. — Proceeding in a south-east 
direction from Scarisbrick Park to Burscough Priory, the 



148 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE, 

spaces of a third of a mile or so in length, but they are 
not shown on the maps. 

Wood End Cross. — The word "cross" occurs in 
ancient Gothic letters on the 1848 ordnance map at the 
meeting of Blind Man's Lane and Marsh Lane with the 
main road to Ormskirk, one quarter of a mile south-east 
from Harleton Gate Cross. This, therefore, was one of 
the stone crosses seen by the late Colonel Welsby in his 
drives between Ormskirk and Southport. All traces of it 
have now disappeared. 

Heskin Hall Cross. — The site of this cross is marked 
on the map at the junction of Heskin Hall Lane with the 
Southport Road, a quarter of a mile south-east from the 
Wood End Cross. 

Hales Cross. — The word "cross" again occurs on 
the map a quarter of a mile south-east from Heskin Hall 
Cross, in the Ormskirk direction, showing that in 1848 
an ancient cross was still in situ here, and distant half a 
mile from Ormskirk Parish Church. 

Stock Bridge Cross. — In the direction of Ormskirk 
the last cross was at Stock Bridge, at the meeting of 
Grimshaw Lane with the Southport Road. The base 
only remains and stands in a garden. It was recently in 
imminent danger of destruction, but is now, I hope, 
saved. It is distant a full quarter of a mile from 
Ormskirk Church and about a sixth of a mile beyond the 
cross at Hales Cottage. This cross was placed in a 
prominent position near the bottom of the hill on which 
Ormskirk Church stands. 



the ancient crosses of lancashire. 149 

Crosses between Scarisbrick Park and Burscough 

Priory. 

Several crosses stood in the three miles of winding 
lanes which lead from the northerly side of Scarisbrick 
Park to Burscough Priory. Their pedestals and sites are 
marked on the ordnance maps, but I have not been able 
to find a single pedestal, and was informed by an old 
inhabitant that they had all disappeared. 

Bescar Brow Cross. — The words "pedestal of stone 
cross" occur on the map in the picturesque, old-fashioned 
village of Bescar, formerly Birch Carr, half a mile north 
of Scarisbrick Hall and just opposite the Scarisbrick 
Roman Catholic Chapel. The road in which the cross 
stood skirts the park. Bescar Brow, as its name indi- 
cates, is a knoll or small hill rising steeply out of the 
marsh, which from this point is continuous to the coast. 
The site is thus likely to have been chosen in the far 
away past by invaders as a settlement. 

Cliffe Wood Cross. — In a paper by Mr. James 
Dixon (vol. xxix., Historic Society of Lancashire and 
Cheshire), read in April, 1877, it is stated that at that 
date vestiges of this cross were to be seen near the 
eastern entrance to Scarisbrick Park. 

Turton's Cross. — The map shows "the pedestal of 
stone cross" at the junction of Harleton Green Lane 
with Barrison Green Lane, one mile south-east from 
Scarisbrick Hall. 

Barrison Green Cross. — Proceeding in a south-east 
direction from Scarisbrick Park to Burscough Priory, the 



152 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

Brooklands Cross. — The word '* cross" appears on 
1848 ordnance map in Narrow Moss Lane, three-quarters 
of a mile north of Ormskirk Church, near a junction of 
roads (Green Lane and another). The late Colonel 
Welsby informed me (i8th November, 1896) that he 
remembered this cross standing up in its ancient and com- 
plete form. It was about five feet high. Several of these 
crosses are said to have been of oak fixed in stone bases. 

Amidst this record of destruction and desolation it may 
not be amiss if we pause for a few minutes and try to 
picture to ourselves the stately and gorgeous processions 
and ceremonies which took place at Burscough Priory 
and Ormskirk Church in mediaeval times, when the 
Stanleys and the Scarisbricks were carried to their long 
home at these resting-places for the dead ; the processions 
stopping on their way at the various wayside crosses 
which then graced the adjacent roads and lanes for rest 
and prayer. 

The Scarisbricks were buried both at Burscough 
Abbey and at Ormskirk. The will of Gilbert Scarisbrec, 
A.D. 1359, ^^s recently been published.* In this docu- 
ment the following words occur: "And my body to be 
buried in the old chapel on the northern side of the 
church at Burscough near my mother and my wife. 
Furthermore, I wish that all the funeral rites to be made 
over my body be in accordance with the instructions of 
my son Henry and of my executors." In Ormskirk 
Church the monumental brass of a Scarisbrick of the 
time of Henry VI. is to be seen in the Scarisbrick chapel. 
This fine building is certainly wanting at the present day 
in colour and ornament, but in mediaeval times it must 
have been very different. 

* Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, 1896. 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 153 

In the Nineteenth Century magazine for January and 
March, 1898, Dr. Jessopp* describes the magnificent 
possessions which had accumulated in almost every 
parish in England as appurtenances of the church, in the 
shape of ornaments and vestments, in the last century or 
so prior to the Reformation. Bearing these facts in 
mind we may, in imagination, realise to some extent the 
pomp and splendour of the funeral of Gilbert Skarisbrec 
at Burscough Priory, then in its full glory and magni- 
ficence. 

The taste for ostentation and display is now-a-days 
much on the decline, and stately funerals are reserved for 
royal personages; but in mediaeval times, such as those 
in which Gilbert Skaresbrec lived and until long after- 
wards, the funerals of great landowners were often very 
magnificent, as is evidenced by the gorgeous funeral of 
the third Earl of Derby, who was buried at Ormskirk 
Church in the year 1572. The ceremonial is described in 
Baines's History of Lancashire, in Dr. Halley's Puritanism 
in Lancashire, and elsewhere. 

Burscough Priory Cross. — The old road from 
Ormskirk to Burscough Priory runs in a winding north- 
easterly direction from the church, and at the meeting of 
roads near "Abbey Bridge," a quarter of a mile south of 
the priory, we find the word ''cross" on the map in 
ancient Gothic letters, at the meeting of Hob Cross Lane 
with Abbey Lane, showing that in 1848 the cross was in 
existence. The pedestal only now remains. An old- 
fashioned building called Cross House adjoins it. 

Hob Cross stood in Hob Cross Lane, near Lathom 
Park, one and a half miles in a north-easterly direction 



* " Parish Life in England before the Great Pillage." 



154 ^^^ ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

from Burscough Priory. The pedestal only remains, but, 
as in the preceding case, the map indicates that at the 
time of the surveyor's visit in 1848 the cross itself was 
there, as the words '* Hob Cross" appear on the map. 

Ormskirk. 

Canon Raines, in his notes to GastrelPs Notitia 
Cestriensis (vol. i., p. 89), writes: '* Edward I. in the year 
1286 granted to the Prior and Convent [of Burscough] 
a market every Thursday within their manor of Ormskirk 
and a fair once a year on 29th August." 

The market place is on the crest of the low hill on 
which this ancient town was built, and is separated from 
the church by a short street. The shape is that of a 
hypothenuse triangle, the sides measuring each about 
one hundred yards and the upper or north-easterly end 
about twenty-four yards. At this end (always called 
"The Cross") stands a massive modern clock tower. 
Previous to its erection a lamp stood on the site, and in 
all probability, in mediaeval times, a market cross. Now 
that the ancient charters relating to this part of England 
are being translated and printed, some documentary 
evidence about this structure (if it ever existed) is likely 
to come to light. It is, however, in the highest degree 
improbable that in a district where public crosses 
abounded, and where the market was subject to a priory, 
the market place was unadorned by the customary market 
cross. 

A secondary market is held in that part of Moor Lane 
which abuts upon "The Cross." It is of similar propor- 
tions to that just described. 

Mr. George Lea, in his Handbook to Ormskirk, writes 
that the stocks were removable and kept in the tower of 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 155 

the parish church. When required for use they were 
erected by the church gates or by the fish-stones in the 
market place. 

At some late date, according to Mr. Bromley, permanent 
stocks of cast iron were placed close to the main entrance 
of the church, with the seat against the wall. 

The ducking stool was in Aughton Street, in the Little 
Town Field at the bottom end of the market place, and 
the large cage and pillory in the Town Field on the 
opposite side of the street. The lower end of the market 
place is named Town End. 

Mr. Lea tells us that it was at "The Cross" that John 
Entwistle proclaimed the "Restoration" of Charles IL 
in 1660. He lived in the house known as the Mass 
House. 

About one mile to the east of Ormskirk are the remains 
of Cross Hall, the seat of one branch of the Stanley 
family. The house was reached from Ormskirk by Cross 
Hall Lane. 

Maudlin Well,* Lathom. — The medicinal spring 
which made this holy well famous was tapped by mining 
operations at Skelmersdale early in the nineteenth century. 
Following many seventeenth century precedents, the well 
was made into a fashionable (and, we must hope, a 
remunerative) "Spaw," by the impoverished son of the 
ill-fated seventh earl of Derby soon after the Restoration. 



* The tendency in the seventeenth century and onwards to get rid of 
everything savouring of "Popery," and to convert holy wells into spaws, 
is illustrated by a map of London, published by I. Harris in 1700. On 
this map, close to Holborn Brook and half a mile north of Holborn, occur 
the words "Black Mary's Well," and near it are the words "London 
Spaw." On another map of old London, published by Act of Parliament 
in 1749, "Black Mary's Well" becomes "Black Mary's Hole," as "S. 
Mary's Holy Well," near Accrington, degenerated into " May Hole Well." 



156 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE, 

The site of the well (of which no traces now remain) is 
indicated on the 1848 ordnance maps by the words " Spa 
Roughs," three-quarters of a mile south-east from Lathom 
House, and by some lines showing the position of the 
avenues and pleasure grounds which formed one of the 
attractions for visitors coming to drink the waters. In 
accordance with the exclusive spirit of those times, 
indigent sufferers were allowed to drink the water which 
flowed over into the road. The well itself was walled 
round and had a wooden roof. 

The virtues of the Lathom Spaw are described by a 
Dr. Borlase, in a small book published in 1670 by Robert 
Clavel, of London. The author describes it as a medicinal 
well, commonly called "Maudlin Well." Possibly the 
dedication to S. Mary Magdalene was made by the 
neighbouring monks of Burscough Prior}'. Dr. Borlase 
writes that **a fathom scarce sounds the bottom where 
there is laid a large millstone through a hole of which 
the spring forces a passage, casting up within a foot of the 
surface a cleer silver sand. . . . This spaw hath a 
blewish cream or skin which swims upon the water after 
it hath stood a ver^' little while." The cures of various 
extraordinar\' and we must hope extinct diseases are 
described in this book in vivid language. The waters 
seem to have been similar to those at Harrogate. The 
well was visited about the year 1672 by WiUiam Blundell, 
the cavalier, of Little Crosby Hall. He wrote: "To 
these waters next under God I do certainly owe my life. 
'Tis now about four or five weeks since I gave them 
another visit by reason of our old acquaintance. I was 
pretty well when I w ent ; I drank them eleven or twelve 
days and returned perfectly well home. Yet I find them 
somewhat costly, for my stomach is so good that I eat all 
before me." His grandson, Nicholas Blundell, visited 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 157 

the spaw to drink the waters in 1703. He probably 
went there to reduce his weight, which, we must 
conclude, was considerable, for, being hunted as a 
Recusant and Jacobite after the 1715 rising, he had to 
take refuge in the somewhat microscopic priest's hiding- 
place in his ancestral home. His diary for November in 
that year contains the following entry: **I set in a streat 
place for a fat man." 

Newburgh Village Cross. — The remains of this 
cross (which consist of a pedestal two feet square on plan 
and twelve inches thick, carried on two steps) are to be 
found in the middle of this highly picturesque old Lanca- 
shire village, at the upper end of the triangularly-shaped 
green. The neighbouring country is hilly, and the green, 
which is surrounded by ancient dated houses, slopes 
rapidly in an easterly direction towards the river Douglas, 
from which it is distant about half a mile. The site is 
four and a half miles in a north-easterly direction from 
Ormskirk, and three and a half miles east from Burscough 
Priory. A highly interesting paper describing this village 
and neighbourhood, by Mr. W. F. Price (under whose 
supervision the cross has just been restored), appeared 
in the Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and 
Cheshire for 1899. ^^ writes: — 

Two hundred and fifty years ago or more Newburgh seems to have 
been one of the most important villages in the Douglas valley. It is in the 
township of Lathom, situated about one mile east of Lathom Park. . . . 
Newburgh Fair is still celebrated with a great ingathering of the country- 
side, merry-go-rounds, Aunt Sally, toffee stalls, and "fairin* cakes." . . . 
At fair time the stalls and booths are erected on the village green, where, 
on a little green knoll, once stood the village cross. . . . Newburgh 
Cross would, no doubt, be destroyed by the Parliamentarian army, about 
the time of the siege of Lathom. . . . The fame of Newburgh may 
have waned, but its fairs and markets, mock corporation and attendant 
masquerades, country sports, and court leet must have provided its 
inhabitants with a fair share of jollity and merriment in the "good old 



158 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

days." . . . The traditions and superstitions which have gathered 
round Boars Den seem to be very similar to those associated generally 
with tumali in other parts of the kingdom, the prevailing idea being that 
the neighbourhood is infested with spirits, boggarts, and fairies. . . . 
A road, called Robin Hood Lane, runs past Boars Den. Between a 
certain gate and Dangerous Corner, the old man assured me, this road is 
haunted by a boggart. His brother had seen it many times, and it "went 
clankin' round th' field in chains." Some two years ago, during the 
sickness of one of the inmates of Boggart House, the visitations of the 
house ghost became so frequent and terrifying that the inhabitants finally 
fled in terror, and the house was empty at the time of my visit. An old 
labourer at Boars Den Farm, after relating some blood-curdling details of 
these recent ghostly visitations to Boggart House, also told me that 
"sperrits" were frequently seen at Hill House Fold, an adjacent farm on 
the hill near by. . . . 

Cross House. — These words occur on the map two 
miles in a south-easterly direction from Newburgh. 



The Halsall Crosses. 

Halsall Churchyard Cross. — If we are to judge by 
the remains of this cross, which consist of a beautifully 
moulded pedestal or base-stone, standing about ten yards 
to the south of the chancel, the cross must, indeed, have 
been one of singular interest. The stone is octagonal on 
plan, tapering upwards, and is twenty-two inches deep. 
It is socketted for the missing cross, the stem of which 
was ten inches square on plan. Some day it may be dug 
up in making graves. It belongs to the "Decorated" 
period of architecture. 

Halsall Village Cross. — The pedestal of this cross 
is shown on the 1848 ordnance map at three lane ends, 
close to the village green, near the church, but since that 
date roads have been diverted and cottages pulled down, 
so that the little village green is now enclosed and the 
pedestal has disappeared. The cross stood about fifty 
yards north-east from the church. 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 159 

North Moor Cross. — The words *' pedestal of stone 
cross" occur on the map near the junction of Gregory 
and North Moor Lanes with the road between Halsall 
and Scarisbrick, half a mile north-east from Halsall 
Church. 

Morris Lane Cross. — This cross, according to the 
1848 ordnance map, stood complete at that date at the 
junction of Renacre's and Morris Lane with the Halsall 
Road, three-quarters of a mile north-east from Halsall 
Church, and about one mile south-west from Scarisbrick 
Hall. 

Reference has already been made to two long ranges 
of crosses leading, the one from the westerly side of 
Scarisbrick Park to Ormskirk Church, and the other from 
the easterly side to Burscough Priory. A glance at the 
map will show that a similar, though shorter, range led 
from Scarisbrick Park to Halsall Church. 

The number of public wayside crosses, which at one 
time were in existence within a circle four miles in 
diameter, including Scarisbrick, Halsall, Ormskirk, and 
Burscough (as recorded en the ordnance maps and other- 
wise), amounted to no less than twenty-two, though there 
may have been others which perished long ago. Eight 
of these (or possibly more) remained intact at the date of 
the 1848 survey, namely, those in Scarisbrick Park, at 
Wood End, Hales Cottages, Morris Lane, Bath Wood, 
Brooklands, Burscough Priory, and that in Hob Cross 
Lane, Lathom. 

The following extract from the Scarisbrick Charters 
relates to the Halsall district: — 

[Date of deed, 1476.] This indenture witnesses that as strife had 
arisen between Henry Halsall Lord of Halsall and James Scarisbrek 
Lord of Scarisbrek about boundaries . . . Beginning at the end of 



i6o THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

Sewker where the Whitsuch falls into it where a stone is now placed, 
thence to an old ditch between Rynakirs and Shirwallacres to a large 
stone thence following the stones places by the arbitrators to the Rodelath 
lying between Wolfehawe and Shirwallacres thence to two large stones to 
the bank of Shirwallacres Mewre so that all the lands and moor on the 
north as far as Snape remain to James Scarisbrek and his heirs and all 
lands and moor outside the stones and boundaries on the west as far as 
the church of Halsall remain to Henry Halsall and his heirs. 



Crossens, North Meols, and Birkdale. 

The parish of North Meols is nine miles in length from 
the "Snotter Stone" at Hundred End (the boundary 
between the hundreds of Leyland and West Derby) to 
Ainsdale. It contains two townships — North Meols (or 
Churchtown) and Birkdale. 

The Snotter Stone, for many years buried under 
accumulating sand, was discovered on the coastline a 
few years ago by the Rev. W. T. Bulpit, with the help of 
some fishermen, who knew it of old. He informs me that 
in Lancashire the words "snotter" and **snutter" refer 
to divisions or boundaries. Thus, "Snuttering Lane," in 
Birkdale, starts from the "Breeing Stone," which, as we 
shall see hereafter, was one of the boundaries of the 
township. The Snotter Stone is thus referred to in a 
deed in the muniment room at Croxteth Hall: "Certain 
privileges such as the right to wreck of the sea, royal 
fishes etc. between Hale Head and Snotter Stone in the 
county of Lancaster granted to Sir William Molyneux of 
Sefton by King Henry VL were confirmed to his heirs by 
royal grant dated 8 May, 20 Henry VI I L" 

The Rev. W. T. Bulpit informs me that some years 
ago an old deed, in crabbed Latin, relating to the parish 
of North Meols was handed to him for inspection. It 
was subsequently translated by the late Canon Hume, of 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. i6i 

Liverpool. The deed mentioned three crosses, one of 
them being at Crossens and the others in Birkdale. 

Crossens Cross* stood, Mr. Bulpit tells me, on the 
triangular-shaped piece of ground opposite the Plough 
Inn, and was thus in the centre of the old part of the 
village. The cross and the surrounding houses were 
judiciously placed on a little knoll or low hill standing up 
a few yards above the sea and the neighbouring marshes, 
and were thus safe from inundation. The village of 
Crossens is in the parish of North Meols, and is distant 
one mile from the parish church. A maypole followed 
the cross, the site being a place of general assernbly. 
Bull baitings were held here so late as the year 1837. 
The maypole was succeeded by the present massive but 
ugly lamp pillar. 

Birkdale Breeing Stone. — This ancient cross 
marked one pf the northern boundaries of the township 
of Birkdale, separating it from North Meols. It stood 
about three-quarters of a mile inland frpm the coast, in 
Snuttering Lane, and close to the windmill in the once 
little village of Birkdale. In the year 1800 Birkdale and 
Southport were small hamlets ; now they form one large 
town of sixty thousand inhabitants, and most ancient 
landmarks have been swept away. Indeed, the site of 
this cross has now been built over. In this once bare 
and scantily inhabited district the old parish church at 

• Mr. Harrison in his Place- Names of the Liverpool District says that 
"the eariiest form of the name, viz., erossnes in the Scarisbrick deeds 
(thirteenth century) and crosnes . . . point to but one etymology — 
Old Norse (or Icelandic) kross, 'cross,' and nes, 'a ness or slip of land,' in 
allusion to the comparatively elevated position occupied by the place 
under discussion between Martin Mere and the estuary of the Ribble." 

L 



i62 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE, 

North Meols was the only one for many miles around. 
The inhabitants of Birkdale and Ainsdale reached it 
through "Church Gates," a narrow lane or bridle-road, 
running in a perfectly straight line between high cops, 
two and a half miles in length, from the end of Snuttering 
Lane to North Meols village. A portion of this lane still 
exists. The cross is described in the deed as between the 
Carr Land and the Sand Land. 

The base of the cross remained for many years in a 
ditch. Mr. T. Marshall, a Birkdale man, remembers it 
as a boy. It was called the "Breeing" or Ghost Stone, 
"breeing" meaning to frighten. At this point the funeral 
processions stopped and the coffins were asperged with 
water from the socket of the base-stone. Tom Marshall, 
as a boy, used to rush past it in terror. An old inhabitant 
of Birkdale tells me that as many as forty male mourners 
used to help in the "carrying" along the two miles from 
that hamlet through the lane called "Church Gates" to 
North Meols Church. It may be mentioned that even at 
the present day, in localities where the roads are so rough 
as to be difficult for vehicular traffic, the distances for 
carrying are often surprisingly long. Quite recently a 
corpse was carried six miles for interment in Crossens 
Churchyard. Mr. Bulpit thinks that as this cross 
was on the old road from Liverpool, through old 
Roman Catholic villages, it would be used for devotional 
purposes. 
• 

Shore Cross. — The third cross was placed near the 
sea about three-quarters of a mile in a north-westerly 
direction from the Breeing Stone. Bland, in his Annals 
of Southport, quotes a deed, date 1529, concerning the 
rights of Richard Aghton, the lord of the manor, in which 
these words occur: "As well by land as by water and sea, 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 163 

namely, from the cross in the Hose* of the Town of 
North Mylls as far as Snotterston and to a distance at 
sea [a cruce in le Hose in Villa de North Mylls usque ad 
SnotstanJ ." 

North Meols. 

The parish church of North Meols (dedicated to S. 
Cuthbert) has been rebuilt out of all recognition during 
the centuries which have elapsed since its foundation in 
pre-Norman times. 

The markets in this old-fashioned village have been 
discontinued, but they were held in the large open space 
adjoining the south side of the churchyard. The stocks 
are still in situ, close to the old grammar school in which 
mass was said in private in post- Reformation times. The 
pump stood close to the Bold Arms Inn in the market 
place. Proclamations were made on Sundays (as at 
Aughton) from a stone in the churchyard, relating mainly 
to local events, and announcements of victories during 
the Napoleonic and other wars were given forth from the 
same spot. 

Aughton, Lydiate, Downholland, and Maghull. 

At a distance of four miles south-west from Ormskirk 
and six inland from the coast, we reach the centre of a 
group of old-world villages — Lydiate,* Aughton, and 
Maghull — and here, within a circle of three miles 
diameter, no less than fourteen ancient crosses are shown 
on the map. Unfortunately, most of them have been 
destroyed, but the bases of several are in situ. 

• There is a monument in North Meols Churchyard to the memory of 
Captain William Ball, of "South Haw's," 1771; and to another Captain 
Ball, of "South Hawes." 



i64 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

In the introductory chapter to these notes reference is 
made to lands held by the ffarington family at Leyland, 
under the order of S. John of Jerusalem,* at the nominal 
rent of a rose, so as to avoid payment of the tenth and 
fifteenth to the king, and it was stated that crosses marked 
these lands. 

The erection of some of the crosses in this district may 
have been due to a similar cause, for the Rev. T. E. 
Gibson tells us that in the inquisition (1523, P.M. of Henry 
Halsall) it is stated that he held lands in Melling and 
DownhoUand of the Prior of S. John of Jerusalem. Crosses 
also may have been erected to mark the lands granted to 
the Abbey of Cockersand by Simon, William, and Alan 
de Lydiate, for the Rev. T. E. Gibson furthermore tells 
us that the family of De Lydiate were about this time 
great benefactors to Cockersand Abbey, founded by 
William de Lancaster, second baron of Kendal, between 
1 180-84. t 

The following extracts from the Chartulary of Cockersand 
Abbey relate to the crosses of this district: — 

Grant in frankalmoign from William son of Benedict de Lydiate . . . 
of his part of Orshaw-Head within these bounds . . . following that 
dyke to the road which leads from Lydiate to Orshaw and so in a straight 
line to the cross, from the cross to the oak tree next that road and from 
that oak tree to the next dyke on the east. . . . 

• The Rev. T. E. Gibson, in his History of Lydiate Hall, writes: "The 
Knights Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem were first established in 
that city to continue to the poor Christians the service initiated by the 
seven deacons. The order took its name from an hospital built at 
Jerusalem for the use of pilgrims, dedicated to S. John the Baptist : the 
Knights were afterwards called Knights of Rhodes and Malta, from their 
settlement in those places. When the order of Knights Templars was 
suppressed in Edward II. 's time, its possessions were assigned chiefly to 
the Hospitallers as a kindred institution. In Preston an ancient hospital 
occurs in the taxation of Pope Nicholas IV., 1291, but disappeared at the 
wreck of all monastic property under Henry VIII." 

t Vidtf Introduction to the Chartulary of Cockersand Abbey f Chetham 
Society, 1898-1900. 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 165 

Confirmation by William le Boteler ... by these bounds, to wit 
from the cross standing on the north side of Orshaw to the ditch on the 
south side, in the further part of Orshaw-field in length. . . . 

[S.D. 1220-1233.] 

Grant in frankalmoign from Alan de Lydiate ... of land contained 
in these bounds, to wit, 15 perches in length from Sandyford to the cross 
on the western side & from the cross in breadth sixty six perches to the 
cross which is at the head of Bechak. from that cross twenty six perches 
in length to the brook to the aforesaid Sandyford, saving the site of a 
mill ... of the town of Halsall. . . . 

[S.D. 1 190-1220 c] 

Grant in frankalmoign from Esward, son of Robert de Bickerstath [to 
the canons of Cockersand] of a portion of his land in Bickerstath to wit, 
by Wildmereford, on both sides of the road, and between Whiteleach and 
Orfelles unto the cross. . . . 



The Aughton Crosses. 

Holt Green Cross.* — The pedestal of an ancient 
cross stands in the middle of Holt Green, a triangular 
piece of ground about seventy yards long near the centre 
of this old-fashioned village. Mr. Newstead, the author 
of the Annals of Aughton, to whom I am indebted for 
much information about this parish, informs me that at 
one time the pedestal stood on a flight of steps. 

Bold Lane Cross. — The word "cross" in ancient 
Gothic letters appears on the one-inch scale ordnance 
map at the meeting of Bold Lane with Prescot Road, 
about three-quarters of a mile in a north-easterly direction 
from the parish church. Mr. Newstead tells me that, 
although all vestiges of it are lost, a cross once stood here 
opposite the corner of Codpiece Green. 

Cross Mount Cross. — The pedestal of an ancient 



•This name Holt Green (Holt = a wood, Words and Places^ page 125), 
meaning a well- wooded district, appears in the parish accounts for 1764, 
although the 1848 ordnance map gives it as "Old Green." 



i66 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

cross is to be seen at the meeting of Mill Lane with the 
the Liverpool and Preston road, a quarter of a mile north 
from the old parish church. The pedestal is in a good 
state of preservation. 

Birch's Brow Cross. — Mr. Newstead informs me that 
a cross at one time stood close to Birch's Brow Farm, 
at a junction of lanes half a mile in a north-westerly 
direction from the old church, and that the late Mr. 
John Harrison, once of Walsh Hall, distinctly remembers 
in his youth (he was seventy-seven in the year i8g8) the 
customs of the Roman Catholic inhabitants in connection 
with funerals. The processions stopped on arriving at 
the crosses (this being one of them), the mourners 
alighted, and, kneeling, repeated the '* De Profundis." 

Cross Brow Cross. — The pedestal of an ancient cross 
stood here in the angle of the road, about three-quarters 
of a mile north-west from Aughton Parish Church, at a 
place called " Cross Brow." The base was visible a few 
years ago, and is well remembered by old parishioners. 
A portion of the stone is hidden in the hedge of Birch's 
Brow Farm. 

Clieve Hills Cross. — ^The late Mr. Harrison said 
that at one time a cross stood on the Downholland 
road at the foot of Clieve Hills, about half a mile to the 
north of Walsh Hall, and one mile in a north-westerly 
direction from Aughton Parish Church. 

Green's Lane Cross stood at an angle or sharp bend 
in Green's Lane, close to Green's House, half a mile 
south-east from Downholland Cross. The pedestal, about 
two feet high, can still be seen. It is distant one and a 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 167 

quarter miles north-west by west from Aughton old 
church and three-quarters of a mile north-east by north 
from Lydiate Hall. 

There were thus, if we include the DownhoUand Cross 
hereafter to be described, no less than eight crosses 
standing in the various lanes and roads leading up to the 
old church. 

I am informed that something akin to proclamations 
from a cross used to be made from the steps of the 
sun-dial in the old churchyard, which stands in the 
position usually chosen for the churchyard cross, south 
of the chancel. It is possible that this custom may be a 
survival from pre- Reformation times, when probably an 
ancient cross stood here. These proclamations were 
made by the parish clerk on Sundays, and related mainly 
to local events. 

A curious instance of the way in which the market 
town and its cross were utilised for the diffusion of infor- 
mation and for purposes of agitation, before the advent 
of railways and daily newspapers, is given in the Annals 
of Aughton. Mr. Newstead there describes how the body 
of a Quaker, named Oliver Atherton, of Bickersteth, in 
the year 1663 (who had died in prison, where he was 
confined for refusing to pay tithes), was carried by his 
friends through certain towns in Lancashire, to the 
market crosses of which they affixed the following in- 
scription, which was also on his coffin : — 

Here lies Oliver Atherton, from the parish of 
Ormskirk, who by the Countess of Derby had been 
persecuted to death for keeping a good conscience 
towards God and Christ, in not paying of tithes 
to her. 

It is worthy of note that there were at one time no 
less than five village greens in this comparatively small 



i68 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

parish : Holt Green, Town • Green, Codpiece Green, 
Bowker's Green, and HoUinhurst Green. They have 
all been enclosed* except the first on this list. 

The 1848 ordnance map, however, shows that in the 
middle of the nineteenth century "Town Green," sur- 
rounded in the customary way by houses, was in existence. 
No vestige of the green remains, and most of the houses 
have been pulled down. 

As we have already seen (under the Leyland hundred), 
the terms Town Green, Town Gate, Town Road indicate 
the site of ancient settlements, and it is not impossible 
that "Town Green," Aughton, was in existence long 
before the old parish church was built, and that on 
this spot primaeval assemblies met around their cross. 
Mention of this green is found so far back as 1531. 
It is referred to (Rev. T. E. Gibson tells us in his History 
of Lydiate Hall) as "le towne greene" in a marriage 
settlement in that year; one of the witnesses being 
Thomas Walshe. Mr. Farrer writes: "Before the open 
fields of a town or village were allotted and enclosed 
severally, the fields, roads, gates, etc., belonging to the 
town were so called in distinction to the demesne or 
Lords fields, roads, etc., etc." 

DOWNHOLLAND. 

DowNHOLLAND Cross. — These words occur on the 
1848 ordnance map at the intersection of roads one mile 



• A highly interesting paper was contributed by Mr. William Harrison 
on " Commons Enclosures in Lancashire and Cheshire in the Eighteenth 
Century" to the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society volume 
for 1888. Few people can know what a large number of village greens 
and commons have been enclosed since mediaeval times, and no doubt in 
numerous cases the village cross was destroyed when the green was 
ploughed over. 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 169 

north of Lydiate Hall and one and three-quarter miles in 
a north-westerly direction from Aughton Church. The 
words are not in the old English character, and, therefore, 
the cross was probably not there at the time of the 1848 
survey, or possibly the words merely mean the intersection 
of roads. But the late Rev. E. Powell told me that the 
pedestal was to be seen near Downholland Bridge. In 
Lydiate Hall and its Associations, Rev. T. E. Gibson gives 
a romantic account of the finding of an ancient Latin 
cross (which he assumes was the Downholland Cross) in 
the year 1870 in a cop on the west side of the road 
between Downholland Bridge and Lydiate Church, at a 
distance of about a quarter of a mile from the latter and 
half a mile from the former. This cross now stands in 
the new Roman Catholic Churchyard at Lydiate. It is 
clearly of ancient date, and may perhaps be taken as a 
type commonly used in this locality. The cross is about 
five feet high, and the shaft and arms (in section) are of 
octagonal shape (see "Lydiate Cross")* 

Altcar. 

Altcar Cross. — During the last rebuilding of the 
church several old stones were dug up. One of them 
appears to be the bottom portion of the shaft of a lofty 
cross, for it is not less than twelve inches in diameter. 
It is octagonal on plan and stop chamfered. At some 
subsequent time it has been used for some other purpose, 
as a fluted perforation has been made through it from 
top to bottom. The church, which stands in the middle 
of this picturesque, straggling, old-fashioned village, is 
dedicated to S. Michael, and is six miles in a south-westerly 
<iirection from Ormskirk, and three miles west of Lydiate. 
The Rev. W. Warburton in his history of the parish. 



I70 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

printed in the Transactions of the Historic Society of 
Lancashire and Cheshire for 1895, writes: — 

From the old folkmoots has descended the custom of choosing a mock 
mayor, at such times as the rushbearing, in the Altcar history of some 
years ago. The stone marking the site of the newly-established village 
was usually planted under some tree, or by some river side, and to it 
the head man of the village made an offering once a year. Much later 
on, when the Saxons had established themselves and had become 
Christians, the cross took the place of the rude unchiselled stone, and, 
although in Altcar all trace of the original stone has been lost in the 
distant prehistoric past, we still have the base of the old cross, round 
which possibly the Altcar folkmoots of centuries ago used to meet, whence 
all village proclamations were made, and beneath which the clergy from 
the monasteries held their open-air services before parishes were in 
existence. 



Lydiate. 

Lydiate Cross. — The word "cross," in old English 
letters, occurs on the 1848 ordnance map, at the meeting 
of Hough Lane with the main road, between Maghull 
and Halsall, close to S. Thomas's Church, indicating 
that the cross was at that date in existence, and a dot 
marks this site. The late Rev. E. Powell told me that it 
was taken down one night by Messrs. Shacklady and 
Sumner (waywardens) within the memory of the present 
generation, being in the way of carts, and "nobody 
knows where it is." 

A description has, however, been given on a previous 
page of the finding of an ancient cross in a cop (or bank 
of a hedge) in a field, near the road between Lydiate and 
DownhoUand, in the year 1870. Now, as the site is 
much nearer Lydiate than DownhoUand and as there is 
some doubt that a DownhoUand . cross ever existed, I 
surmise that the cross so found in 1870 was the one 
stolen from Hough Lane, Lydiate, some thirty years ago 
by Messrs. Shacklady and Sumner, and that the Rev. T. 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 171 

E. Gibson has made a mistake {see " Downholland 
Cross")- 

Lydiate Hall Cross. — The steps of this cross can 
still be seen in the ** Quarry Field," two hundred yards 
north-east of Lydiate Hall, and about seventy-five yards 
west of the road between Lydiate and Maghull. This 
cross must have been in existence in the year 1848, for 
the word "cross" in Gothic letters appears on the six- 
inch ordnance map. 

School Brow Cross. — This cross stood on the east 
side of the road between Lydiate and Maghull, three- 
quarters of a mile south of Lydiate Hall, and one and 
three-quarter miles south-west from Aughton Old Church, 
near the intersection of Smith's Lane with the high-road. 
It is marked as an actually existing cross on the 1848 
map. The late Rev. E. Powell told me it is buried 
under the footpath, but the old people remember the time 
when funerals used to stop at it, the mourners repeating 
the**DeProfundis." 



Maghull. 

Woodlands' Cross. — The Woodlands' Cross stood 
at the junction of Green Lane with the turnpike- 
road between Liverpool and Preston, close to the "Coach 
and Horses" Inn. The pedestal of this cross, socketted 
for the shaft, is just visible above the footpath. It is of 
unusual size, measuring two feet nine inches square on 
plan. 

Clent Farm Cross.— The Rev. E. Powell informed 
me that an ancient cross stood in the village of 



172 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

MaghuU, about half a mile south of the "Coach and 
Horses" Inn, and one hundred yards east of the turnpike- 
road between Liverpool and Preston. The stones of the 
cross were removed soon after the year 1890. 

Back Lane Cross. — The Rev. E. Powell lately told 
me that another ancient cross in the village of MaghuU 
stood on the west side of the turnpikfe-road between 
Liverpool and Preston, a quarter of a mile west of the 
Clent Cross in Back Lane. 



SiMONSWOOD. 

SiMONSWOOD Cross. — Simonswood is three miles in a 
south-easterly direction from Aughton and one and a half 
miles north-east from Kirkby. The cross is not shown 
on the ordnance map and the neighbourhood has been 
searched, but without avail, for any remains of it. It is, 
however, thus referred to in the Chartulary of Cockersand 
Abbey, date 1302. It was then an ancient cross: — 

Whereas contention had been moved between Ralph de Bickerstath 
and the Abbot of Cockersand in the year of our Lord 1302 respecting a 
portion of moss ground lying between Cunscough and the Crosses and 
ditches raised at the time of the making of this agreement beyond the 
moss towards the north, from the ancient cross standing below the wood 
of Simonswood, be it known by this present writing that the same was 
composed in this manner, to wit that Ralph for himself and his heirs 
released to the Abbot and Convent and their successors, all his right in 
the said moss ground, land and wood from the crosses and ditches afore- 
said towards Cunscough. . . . 

If this cross was "ancient" in the year 1302, possibly it 
was of pre-Norman date. Whether it was a pre-Norman 
cross or not, covered with imaginative foliated carving, 
or with weird stories from the Norse sagas, or with scenes 
from the Gospel narratives (such as are to be found at 
Halton, Heysham, and Whalley), it is clear that artists 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 173 

who did work of this class were in the neighbourhood at 
some time within the two or three centuries preceding 
the Norman Conquest, as the fonts in the churches at 
Kirkby, Huyton, and Walton-on-the-Hill testify. 



KiRKBY. 

Kirkby Cross. — The word "cross" occurs on the 
1848 ordnance map half a mile north-west from the old 
episcopal chapel, which is about six miles south of 
Ormskirk. Kirkby is defined by Canon Isaac Taylor in 
Names and their Histories as a "church village;" the name 
is common in Danish districts. The same author tells us 
in Words and Places that Kirkby always means a very old 
settlement. The font here is of pre-Norman date. 

Parts Brow Cross. — ^The site of this cross is indicated 
on the 1848 ordnance map one and a half miles south- 
east from Kirkby at Three Lane Ends. The remains 
consist of the portion of the shaft of a cross fixed into a 
stone pedestal. The vicar, the Rev. J. Leach, writes: 
"It used to be lying down when I first came; the late 
Lord Sefton had it replaced. Before this the Roman 
Catholics used to rest the coffins of their dead on the way 
to burial" [on the pedestal] . 

The Villages of Inge Blundell, Great and Little 
Crosby, Thornton, Sefton, and Formby. 

About six miles to the north of Liverpool and near the 
coast we come to another group of old-world villages, which 
have been immortalised by Mrs. Frances Arnold Foster 
in her recent novels, of which, perhaps, the most famous 
is In a North Country Village, In most of these villages 



174 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE, 

the Roman Catholic religion greatly predominates, owing 
chiefly to the influence of the principal landowners — the 
Blundells of Ince Blundell and of Little Crosby, who 
have been in possession for many centuries. Indeed, 
in West Lancashire the Reformers never succeeded in 
exterminating the old faith, and if you enter almost any 
cottage in these parts to enquire your way you are 
encountered by a portrait of his Holiness the Pope and 
by pictures of many saints, who are justly revered by all 
religious people. 

My prolonged search in quest of documentary evidence 
bearing upon the erection of the numerous crosses in this 
part of Lancashire has not been rewarded with a great 
amount of success. The information collected by Mr. 
W. E. Gregson, of Liverpool, has been kindly placed at 
my disposal, and I am similarly indebted for some 
interesting facts to Miss Josephine Blundell and Mr. 
Walter Weld. 

Some light, however, is thrown upon the ecclesiastical 
history of this district by the writings of that most genial 
and learned of Roman Catholic priests, the late Reverend 
T. E. Gibson. These books are as follows : — 

(i) Lydiate Hall and its Associations, by the Rev. 
Thomas Ellison Gibson, priest of Our Lady's Church, 
Lydiate, 1876. 

(2) Crosby Records : A Cavalier's Note-Book, being 
notes, anecdotes, and observations of William Blundell 
of Crosby,* Lancashire, esquire, captain of dragoons 
under Major-General Sir Thos. Tildesley, Knt., in the 

* Crosby. — The name of this Norse settlement was spelt Crosebi in 
Domesday, Crossby in the Testa de Nevill, and by 1645 it had reached its 
present stage (Crosby). This was "the hamlet of the (stone) cross." 
Old Norse Kross, combined with Old Norse byr, Scandinavian by, 
"village," "town." — (Harrison's Liverpool District Place-Names.) 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 175 

Royalist army of 1642. Edited, with introductory 
chapters, by the Rev. T. Ellison Gibson. London : 
Longmans, Green, & Co., 1880. 

(3) Crosby Records: A Chapter of Lancashire Recu- 
sancy, containing a relation of troubles and persecutions 
sustained by William Blundell, of Crosby Hall, Lan- 
cashire, Esq. (1560-1638), and an account of an ancient 
burial-ground for recusants, called the ** Harkirke," and of 
coins discovered there. With an introduction by the late 
Rev. Alexander Goss, D.D. Edited by the Rev. Thomas 
Ellison Gibson, author oi Lydiate Hall and its Associations. 
Printed for the Chetham Society, 1887. 

(4) Crosby Records : Blundell's Diary, comprising selec- 
tions from the diary of Nicholas Blundell, Esq., from 
1702 to 1728. Edited by Rev. T. Ellison Gibson. 
Liverpool: Gilbert G. Walmsley, 1895. 

In these books a vivid picture is given of the religious 
struggles which took place during the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth and of some of her successors on the throne, 
many hundred people having been prosecuted for re- 
cusancy and many executed. It will easily, therefore, be 
understood that in those days of upheaval, everything 
which was in any way supposed to be superstitious was 
treated with scant courtesy by the Reformers, and no 
doubt, as other evidence shows, wayside and other crosses 
were ruthlessly destroyed. 

In the preface to (3) Crosby Records, Chetham Soc, 
n.s., 12 ("Wm. Blundell's Note-Book, 1560-1638") Mr. 
Gibson writes, p. vii: *'The Blundells of Crosby were, to 
use the language of the times, 'stout recusants.' They 
stood almost alone in the tenacity with which they clung 
to the faith of their forefathers. . . . For more than 
two centuries they bore without flinching all the fines, 



176 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

imprisonments, exactions, and disabilities which were 
the necessary outcome of the penal laws." 

Inge Blundell Village Cross. — The site of this 
cross is half a mile north-west from Ince Blundell Hall, 
on the outskirts of the park, two and a half miles in a 
south-easterly direction from Formby village green and 
three miles north-west of Sefton Church. Several roads 
meet here — Lady Green Lane, Carr House Lane, Moor 
Lane, and Back o'th' Town Lane. The use of the word 
"town" in connection with small Lancashire villages 
has already been commented on. 

The village green has been converted into gardens, in 
one of which stands the cross. The oval shape of 
the green — about one hundred and thirty yards in 
length — is clearly indicated by the arrangement of the 
cottages surrounding it. When the enclosure took place 
I cannot find out. 

The cross, which is about nine feet in height, with 
floriated arms and the sacred monogram i.H.s. in the 
middle, was placed here about the year 1876 by the late 
Mr. Thomas Weld-Blundell. I was told by a villager 
that it replaced a wooden cross. It faces due north 
and south, and stands on a flight of seven steps, 
which are possibly ancient. The steps are built upon 
a stone platform three feet three inches high. The 
top of the cross is thus about twenty feet above the 
ground. 

In the Diary of Nicholas Blundell the following entries 
occur : — 

1707, June 24. I went to Ince with an intention to goe to ye flowering 
of Ince Cross with Mr. Blund : if he went, but he not being at home I 
came back, some of ye servants went. 

1710, June 24. Dr Cawood went to the Flowering of Ince Cross. 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 177 

1715, June 22. I gave a great many Flowers towards ye Flowering of 
I nee Cross. 

24. My children went to ye Flowering of Ince Cross. 

1727, June 24. My maids went to ye Flowering of Ince Cross. 

Some interesting notes on the subject of the flowering 
of village crosses occur in a paper contributed by the late 
Rev. T. E. Gibson to the Historic Society of Lancashire 
and Cheshire, vol. xxxiii., on some Old Country Sports. 
He quotes the foregoing passages, and states that "the 
uniform day for these celebrations was 24th June, being 
the Feast of the Nativity of S. John the Baptist, a very 
appropriate time, seeing that it is midsummer, when 
flowers most abound. Moreover, it was a term day in 
ancient grants, and in many cases rent and services for 
land were payable, etc., etc., at the Feast of the Nativity 
of S. John the Baptist. Mr. Gibson quotes the references 
in BlundelPs diary to Maypole festivities and flowering 
of marl pits. 



Lady Green Cross. — Lady Green, like so many others, 
was (before being enclosed) in shape an isosceles triangle. 
Near the apex stands the oak cross, seven feet in height, 
let into a circular stone base forty-two inches in diameter. 

A labourer, Molyneux by name (aged eighty-three in 
1899), living in a cottage by the side of the green, told 
me that when he was a young man the green was enclosed 
and made into the present field. His cottage marks the 
width of the green previously. The wooden cross has 
been there all his life. The stone base looks ancient, 
though the wooden cross may have been renewed. Four 
roads meet here — Scaffold Lane, Marsh Lane, Lady 
Green Lane, and another. The pinfold is near the green, 
which is about a quarter of a mile in a north-westerly 
direction from Ince Blundell Green. 

M 



178 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

A station cross for funerals is painted on the Ince 
Blundell Park wall at a distance of about half a mile 
from the Ince Blundell village cross, on the way to 
Sefton. 

The Hightown Cross stands near the sea-shore, 
about half way between Liverpool and Southport, close 
to the mouth of the river Alt. This part of the coast is 
highly dangerous and many shipwrecks have taken place 
here. Thus the bodies of sailors for generations past 
have been washed up at this point, and the cross is said 
to have formed one of the series of five used as resting- 
places for funeral processions to Sefton Church, distant 
about four miles. 

A new cross, with floriated terminations, similar in 
character to that at Ince Blundell, was placed in the old 
socket about the year 1880 by the late Colonel Blundell. 
The old one was destroyed by some drunken men. It is 
a wayside cross built flush with a garden wall. 

Great Crosby Cross. — The ancient village of Great 
Crosby is two miles south of that of Ince Blundell, 
two and a half miles in a south-westerly direction 
from Sefton Church, and one mile inland from the 
sea- shore, on slightly rising ground. Fifty years ago it 
was quite a small village with three miles of open country 
between it and Liverpool, but now the speculating builder 
has covered the land with villas, and many old landmarks 
have disappeared. The green was manifestly at one time 
of considerable size and of an irregular rectangular shape, 
the sides measuring each about one hundred and fifty 
yards. It has, however, been much encroached upon. 
Three main roads meet here from Little Crosby, Thornton, 
and Liverpool. 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 179 

The cross and well are on the southerly side of the 
green; the cross, which is of wood, replaces an older one. 
Mr. Gregson thinks it was put up about the year 1890, 
The old church, dedicated to S. Michael, was for some 
years in ruins. It stood near the cross. A new church, 
dedicated to S. Luke, was built on another site a few 
years ago. The cross is set in a stone pedestal, on which 
are cut the words, **St. Micheals Well." The pedestal is 
carried on a calvary or flight of three steps. The bottom 
step is about four feet six inches square. The total height 
of the cross and steps is about ten feet. The cross is 
protected by an iron railing and is under the charge of the 
district council. Mr. Gregson tells me that in the old 
Court Rolls of the manor of Great Crosby, in the time of 
Henry VIII., this well is always referred to as "Mikels- 
well," and that the proclamations of the manorial court 
were made at the base of the cross. We have here, 
therefore, another holy well, that is, a well dedicated to a 
saint, the Archangel Michael. 

The pinfold and stocks were on the site of the present 
constabulary station. 

The cross is thus referred to in Nicholas Blunders 
Diary : — 

1708 June 23. ... I gathered some Flowers for Flowering Great 
Crosby Cross tomorrow. 

1708 June 24. My wife & I were at the Flowering of Great Crosby 
Cross. 

It has been supposed by some that the old stone cross 
standing near the western boundary wall, within Little 
Crosby Park, was removed for safety from Great Crosby 
Green. 

The following highly interesting notes connected 
with the flowering of crosses, maypoles, &c., are 



i8o THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

taken from Mr. Elworthy's work on The Evil Eye, 
page 6 1 : — 

We also include here all the many harvest customs, the Maypoles, the 
Jacks in the Green, with all their dancing and merry making, as being 
more or less dramatic representations of the ends all these acts and 
ceremonies were originally intended to produce. Surely the Lord and 
Lady of the May, the King and Queen of the May, the actual marriage 
of trees are something more than mere types or emblems of animal 
and vegetable fertility, which, primarily, all these things were believed and 
intended to procure or to stimulate. There is abundant evidence that 
those now practised are survivals of very ancient rituals: that the 
marriage of Dionysius and Ariadne, said to have been acted every year in 
Crete, is the forerunner of the little drama acted by the French peasants 
of the Alps, where a King and Queen are chosen on the first of May and 
are set on a throne for all tg see. Persons dressed up in leaves represent 
the spirit of vegetation ; our Jack in the Green is his personification. In 
several parts of France and Germany the children dress up a little leaf 
man and go about with him in spring, singing and dancing from house to 
house. Throughout Europe the Maypole is supposed to impart a 
fertilising influence over both women and cattle as well as vegetation. 



Little Crosby Village Cross and Well. — The 
accompanying illustration shows the present condition of 
this structure, described on the six-inch 1848 ordnance 
map as ** Town's Well and Cross." The word "Town" 
is used in the old-fashioned Lancashire sense, for the 
**Town" is only a straggling village built along the north- 
westerly side of Little Crosby Park. It contains some 
ancient dated houses. 

At the time of the 1848 survey the northerly part of 
the village, where the cross and well are situated, con- 
sisted of a row of houses set back about seventy feet from 
the park wall, and the cottage doors opened on to a long 
village green, through which the high-road passed. The 
well and cross were thus quite in the "open" on the 
green. A flight of large steps led down to the well under 
the cross, shown in the picture in Nicholas BlundelVs 
Diary. 



.."5. . J 



> -- wi 




♦1, 



•rin 






■ ■*-. I 



■< '■ 



^hat When a "i J 7^ ^'^ ^^ adjoin W eou 

weJJ. -Th ^"^^ ^he often went ^. ", '^^' *^^ =e 

'hen .ebuu. Tl! ST' ^' ^-'^^^o.^!^ 
^n, ab s^eO, o^'j ,' X^ Vr-^ '"^'^ 

"any vicissitudes'' "°f^ ""I "^ ««J« have „„H_ 
='»P-. for instate T, """"^ »' 'i"'- 0„e^ 

children ,. t ' '^ «r=ally worn P, u "' ""^ 

uaren who now clfmb „„ ,i ^ '"""n fe.. . ,k. 

A pump placed i„ .i,"" """-^ =°"U no( have^L t^ 

p ' ' f""" '"'^ Colonel Bi?„dem T '° "^ '^'■"^ "•>■ 
P« a pump." '""i'"] shut up the „e|| „„, 

Thefollowin reference Mtf 
f" .he Z„Vy „/;v,V*„^ ^__^-^-oss and we,, i. ,„i.,„ 

^710, Aug. 2^ Th O 

0» Ihe bottom of ,h ,. , "* 

"e ot the stones of the 



i84 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE, 

Thornton Cross. — The word "cross," in ancient 
Gothic letters, occurs on the 1848 ordnance map opposite 
the village inn, on the edge of what was once an extensive 
unenclosed space or common (now hedged round) one 
mile east from Little Crosby Hall. The cross has dis- 
appeared, but in its place is a sun-dial of Jacobean date. 
Close to it are the iron stocks, which are described in 
Mrs. BlundelPs delightful novel, In a North Country 
Village, 

Broom's Cross. — At the intersection of roads, distant 
about a quarter of a mile north of Thornton village green, 
the words '* Broom's Cross," in ancient Gothic letters, 
occur on the six-inch 1848 ordnance maps, indicating that 
at that date the cross itself was in existence. A square 
pedestal, with socket for the missing shaft, now remains. 
Close by is a field known as the ** Mass Field." 

Sefton. 

The highly picturesque village of Sefton, standing a 
few hundred yards to the west of the river Alt, is full of 
interest, for close together are the fine old church, the 
moat of Sefton Hall (the ancient residence of the Moly- 
neuxes), the celebrated S. Helen's Well, and the old 
water-mill, overshadowed by many fine trees. Several 
ancient crosses were to be found at one time near the 
boundaries of the ancient park, which was about three- 
quarters of a mile in length and half a mile in width. 

Sefton Town Cross. — Sefton Town is a little village 
at the meeting of roads at the south-westerly corner of 
the park, and here we find the circular pedestal of an 
ancient cross adjoining the ** Pinfold." 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 185 

Brick Wall Lane Cross stood half way between 
Sefton Town and the church. Nothing now remains of 
it, except a four-sided pyramidal pedestal with a square 
socket for the missing cross. 

Old Hall Cross, Sefton. — This is an octagonal 
pedestal in the centre of a field in front of the site of the 
old moated hall. 



Sefton Churchyard Cross. — This was standing in 
1817, and the shaft is in all probability now used as 
part of the old sun-dial and is marked with initials, 
**T.G." It is set in a square socket (see Ashcroft's Sefton 
Church). 



Buckley Hill Cross. — The pedestal of a stone cross 
may be seen at the meeting of five roads at Buckley Hill, 
one and a quarter miles in a south-westerly direction 
from Sefton Church. 

Sterrix Lane Cross. — The pedestal of this cross is to 
be seen at the junction of Sterrix Lane with the main 
road from Sefton to Liverpool, distant about one and a 
half miles in a south-easterly direction from Great 
Crosby. 

Orrell Cross. — The pedestal of this cross is to be 
found on the road between Litherland and Fazakerley. 
The site is two and a half miles in a south-westerly 
direction from Sefton Church, and about one and a half 
miles inland from the coast. 

The ancient crosses in this locality are thus commented 



i86 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

on by a late rector (the Rev. E. Horley) in his History of 
Sefton : — 

Two stones by the roadside (one just above the schools and the other 
near the pound) are still to be seen, and are said to be the bases of stone 
crosses, as each has a hole, which might have been a mortise in it. Ash- 
croft informs us that in his day (i8ig) there was an ancient cross in the 
churchyard, "and, indeed, there were many in the neighbourhood. At 
these crosses the corpse, in carrying to the church, was set down that all 
the people might pray for the soul of the departed." The cross he 
mentions as extant at that date is no longer to be seen. The others to 
which he refers may be those still standing in or near the adjoining 
villages of Little Crosby and Ince Blundell, or they may be those of which 
only the pedestals now remain in Brick wall Lane (Sefton). A local story 
says that the hollows in the stone blocks were intended to hold holy water, 
and that the coffins were rested on the stones to ease the bearers on the 
way to the church. The theory, however, seems more plausible that they 
halted by these crosses to say prayers for the dead. The fact that the 
crosses are no longer there may have given rise to the story that the bier 
was rested on the stones. 



S. Helen's Well, Sefton. — This celebrated spring 
rises at a distance of three hundred yards in a westerly 
direction from Sefton Church. In the year 1891 the well 
was walled round, and a handsome canopy placed over it, 
from the designs of Mr. John Douglas, at the cost of 
William Philip, fourth earl of Sefton. 

The traditions connected with this holy well are thus 
graphically summed up in the ^History of Sefton : — 

We must not omit to mention S. Helen's Well, jvhich springs near the 
first cottage in the Thornton Road, beyond the inn. Formerly a " pad-road " 
only led from the well to the church, the Thornton Road passing through 
the Rectory grounds. In the Churchwarden's accounts we find several 
items of expenditure incurred for the keeping in order of S. Helen's Well. 
Thus we read in 1758: "For a new Dish and Chain for S. Ellen's Well 
2/-." Ashcroft [writing about the year i8ig] tells us "that this well was 
once in great repute for curing rheumatism, strains, bruises, and weakness 
of the nerves. It has no mineral quality, however, and he remarks that 
its principal virtue seems to have been its coldness." In distant times 

* Sefton: A Descriptive and Historical Account, comprising the Collected 
Notes and Researches of the late Rev. Engelbert Horley, M.A. (Rector 1871- 
1883). By W. D. Caroe and E. J. A. Gordon. Longmans, 1893. 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 187 

great respect was paid to wells "eminent for curing distempers upon the 
Saint's Day whose name the well bore," and it was once the custom to 
decorate the wells on Holy Thursday with boughs of trees, garlands of 
flowers, etc., placed in various devices, and after service in the church the 
parson and singers repaired to the well, where they sang psalms and 
prayed. The bottom of the well, which is of no great depth and very 
clear, may generally be seen strewn with pins which are dropped in by 
superstitious young country folks to denote to them the probability of 
their marriage, which is said to be near if the pin falls pointing towards 
the church. Pins and pebbles were often dropped into wells, and the 
circles formed thereby on the surface of the water (or the question 
whether the water was troubled at all) were used as omens by which the 
observers drew inferences of future events. Mr. Hampson, in his Medii 
ALvi Kalendarium, says: "I have frequently seen theJjottom of S. Helen's 
Well, near Sefton, Lancashire, almost covered with pins, which I suppose 
must have been thrown in for like purposes." 

There is much bearing upon this highly interesting 
subject in Mr. Gomme's Ethnology in Folk-Lore. 

Mr. Gregson writes: "With regard to the curious 
frequency of well dedication to S. Helen, I formed a 
theory many years ago that the S. Helen of the county of 
Lancaster is not unconnected with the Celtic S. Elian, 
who is a frequent patron of wells in North Wales. Do 
they not both draw a common ancestry from Ella, the 
water sprite?" 

The cursing well of S. Elian, near Colwyn, once so 
celebrated as to be a terror to the Principality, is thus 
described in the Gossiping Guide to Wales: '*If you had a 
spite against a neighbour, all you had to do was to go to 
the custodian of the well, pay a fee, have your enemy's 
name written on paper (through which a pin was stuck), 
and thrown into the well; and he would be 'cursed' 
until he managed to get himself out." 

FORMBY. 

FoRMBY Village Cross. — The word "cross," in old 
Gothic letters, occurs on the 1848 six-inch ordnance 
map, in the. middle of the village green, indicating that 



i88 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

an ancient cross stood here at that date. The green is in 
the shape of an isosceles triangle, the sides being about 
fifty yards long and the base thirty-five yards. The site 
is eight miles nearly due west from Ormskirk and about 
two miles inland from the sea-shore. The green is called 
" Cross Green." Near it is Cross House. Several roads 
meet here — Duke Street, Gore's Lane, Watch Lane, and 
Philip's Lane. 

The old cross, eight feet six inches in height, thus 
recorded on the map, was of oak mortised into a stone 
pedestal two feet square and ten inches deep, carried on 
a flight of three steps. 

The Roman Catholics of this district still adhere to the 
ancient custom frequently referred to in these pages, 
their funeral processions invariably stopping for prayer 
opposite the cross. As many as forty mourners, indeed, 
have recently been seen kneeling in the road for this 
purpose. 

In the year 1879 the late Mr. Weld-Blundell claimed 
the Formby village green as his own. He took down the 
old market cross and steps, and erected the present hand- 
some cross in stone. The green was fenced round and a 
notice put on the cross that the place belongs to the 
Weld-Blundell family. The old cross and steps were 
then removed from the market place and re-erected in 
the S. Luke's old churchyard (one and a half miles to the 
west, near the shore) by Richard Formby, Esq., whose 
ancestors have been buried for generations here. A brass 
plate on the cross explains the circumstances. The steps 
are numbered, probably cut in when moved in 1879. A 
saucer-like depression in one of them may have been 
to hold vinegar, with which to wash money in plague 
time. 

In an interesting article on ** Plague in Lancashire and 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 189 

Cheshire" (Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society, 
vol. xii.) Mr. Axon writes: — 

To stay the contagion every ingenious method was adopted, and those 
exchanging money for goods dropped their coins into water before the 
other party would handle it. By means of tongs articles were held at 
arm's length in the fire and then placed on the ground for the customer 
to take up. There are still "plague stones," that is, cubical blocks with 
hollowed tops to fill with water for change of money, lo be seen at some 
of the outlets of the borough ; notably one near Congleton Edge. Within 
the last half century a dwarf stone cross stood near Dairy Brook, in 
Astbury, to mark the spot where the temporary market was^held during 
the plague period. On occasion of the "intake" of the roadside waste, 
this cross was removed to a neighbouring gentleman's garden about forty 
years ago. 

The stocks, now in a dilapidated condition, are in a 
garden at the junction of Philip's Lane with the Liver- 
pool Road. The top bar, to which the men's hands were 
chained, is still there. Near it was the ** lock-up" or 
cage, pulled down about the year 1893. 

The Cop Cross. — The words ''pedestal of stone cross" 
occur on the map three-quarters of a mile west from the 
Formby village cross. Mr. Jonathan Formby tells me 
that this pedestal had an incised cross on the top. It 
was used as a Roman Catholic funeral resting-place, but 
has disappeared. 

S. Luke's Churchyard Cross. — This is the old 
Formby market cross, rebuilt here in the year 1879 ^^ 
already described. The facts are thus recorded on a 
brass plate fastened to the pedestal : " This ancient 
market cross and pedestal removed from the original site 
on the Formby village green, was re-erected here by 
Richard Formby, jun., of Shorrocks Hill, Formby Point, 
A.D. 1879." The oak cross, Mr. Jonathan Formby tells 
me, was much decayed, and it has been cemented over. 



I90 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

I cannot hazard a guess as to its real age. The church 
has been rebuilt. There are some curious and interesting 
tombstones in the churchyard. 

Mr. Cox writes {Lancashire and Cheshire Historic 
Society, Transactions, volume 1895): "In the churchyard 
is a rudely wrought stone set upright : on it is a cross 
incised, rising •from a circle. The cross is about nine 
inches long. Round this stone it was till recently the 
custom to- carry a corpse three times before buriaJ." 

A somewhat gruesome story was told me about this 
churchyard. A skuUhouse once stood there, a poor old 
woman being allowed to live in it. In her youth her 
lover died and was buried. In the course of years 
his bones were laid in the skuUhouse. The woman's 
affections were strong, and she used his skull as a sugar 
basin. 



Liverpool. 
In Raines's Lancashire an old print is reproduced 

* 

showing the village of Liverpool as it existed when both 
the castle (of which the Molyneux family were hereditary 
constables) and the embattled house of the Stanleys were 
still standing near the river. Between the retainers of 
these great families actual fighting took place in the 
streets in 1424. Owing to the rapid and enormous 
increase of this city almost all landmarks, including 
these buildings, have been swept away.* Liverpool, 
however, w^as not without the symbols at least of 
Christianity and peace and goodwill to men, for it had 
no less than five crosses. These are shown on an old 



• It seems almost incredible that in the year 1565 the population was 
only about seven hundred. 




••r-^*- 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 191 

map in the Binns Collection at Liverpool. They were 
as follows : — 

The High Cross, at the junction of Castle Street, 
High Street, Water Street, and Dale Street. 

The White Cross, at the junction of Tithebarn 
Street, Oldhall Street, and Chapel Street. 

The Red Cross, at the junction of Castle Street with 
Red Cross Street. 

Towns-end Cross, at the junction of Williap Brown 
Street and Byrom Street, where the Technical Schools are 
now built. 

S. Patrick's Cross, at the junction of Tithebarn 
Street, Vauxhall Road, Marybone, and Hatton Garden. 

The whole of these crosses have disappeared, but I give 
below all the information which I have been able to glean 
about them. 

The history of the "Red Cross" is involved in some 
obscurity. On the map of Liverpool already referred to 
representing the chief features of the town as they existed 
in the year 1539, the '*Red Cross" is distinctly marked in 
the position described above. 

In Brooke's History of Liverpool (published in 1853), the 
author states that a market for the sale of provisions, 
vegetables, butter, &c., was established early in the 
eighteenth century on the south side of S. George's 
Church, where Alderman Tarleton afterwards erected 
an obelisk of red stone, which was called the '*Red 
Cross" or ''Tarleton's Obelisk." This fact, however. 



191 THE ANCIEST CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

does not necessarily prove that a mediaeval cross did not 
stand on this site, for market crosses were rebuilt all ovev 
England many times over in the course of centuries. 

The same author states that the " High Cross," which 
was known to have stood at the junction of Castle Street, 
Water Street, and Dale Street, at the middle of the 
sixteenth century, for butchers' meat, fish, and vegetables, 
was removed in the year 1673 to make way for the new 
town hall. Mr. Brooke tells us that a portion of the 
ancient cross called the "White Cross" was in existence 
within the memory of persons recently living, close to 
where the "White Cross" Market used to be held, and 
that the remains of " S. Patrick's Cross" were not 
removed until a few years after the year 1775. 

In an interesting article on " Lancashire Hearth Taxes " 
{Transactions of the Historic Society, Lancashire and Cheshire, 
1900) Mr. W. Fergusson Irvine says: "In 1701, the Earl 
of Macclesfield, who had superseded Lord Molyneux as 
constable of the castle, died, and the office, in spite of 
Lord Molyneux's claim to it as hereditary in his family, 
was given to Lord Rivers. The Corporation of Liverpool 
was at this time the tenant of the site . . ." One of 
the main objects of the application for the grant of the 
site of the castle was the scheme for making the new 
market there. The town suffered great inconvenience 
from the want of a proper market. The corn market was 
at the High Cross ; the butchers occupied part of the area 
of the present exchange; the potato, shoe, and yarn 
market was at the White Cross, between Oldhall Street 

article, quotes a letter written at that 
rkets, as follows: "I would propose, 
lok faire, that the Butchers be at the 
lutter. Cheese, and Poultry about the 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 193 

Change, as the Butchers were: The Come markett as 
formerly ; the Yarn markett, Shoe markett, and Pottatos 
at the White Cross." 

Some additional notes on the Liverpool crosses are given 
in the Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and 
Cheshire (1897), recording some discoveries recently made 
through the laying of electric wires. These notes are as 
follows : — 

Almost at the centre of the street [the ancient High Street] , and close 
to the surface, lay three large blocks of yellow stone about three feet long, 
two wide, and one thick, much worn and damaged. These lay exactly on 
the spot where the White Cross is known to have stood, and though they 
cannot be said with certainty to have belonged to its base, their position 
and character are suggestive. 

The following notes occur in a paper contributed by 
Lieutenant-Colonel Fishwick, on "Lancashire in the 
Time of Charles IL," to the Historic Society of Lanca- 
shire and Cheshire, vol. xxxiii. : "In 1654 the streets 
of Liverpool were first lighted, the order on the town 
books being *that two lanthorne's with two candles 
burning every night in the dark moon be set out at the 
High Cross and at the White Cross, and places prepared 
to set them in every night till eight of the clock.' " * 

There can be little doubt that religion was promoted 
and stimulated in Liverpool by the inmates of Birkenhead 
Priory, and it may be that the erection of some of the 
ancient crosses in that town is due to their piety. Dr. 
Halley writes : — 

Liverpool was becoming at that time a place of some importance. As 
early as the reign of Henry II. its fishermen and traders had been 
incorporated, and in the time of Edward I. they were able to defray the 



• In Liverpool in the Reign of Charles II., by Sir Edward Moore, edited 
by W, F. Irvine, are several references to the various crosses and markets 
in the town, which would interest those who desire to follow up this 
subject; and similairly in The Moore Rental (Chetham Society, 1847). 

N 



194 ^^^ ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

expenses of sending two representatives to Parliament. In the reign of 
Edward III. the ancient chapel of St. Nicholas, an appurtenance of the 
Vicarage of Walton, was consecrated as a sanctuary, in and around which 
the inhabitants of the chapelry had the privilege of interring their 
dead. ... Of the ecclesiastics residing near Liverpool the prior of 
Birkenhead was the most considerable. He claimed property in the ferry 
for carrying passengers and goods across the Mersey, and the monopoly 
of providing accommodation for them on his own side of the water. . . . 

The invention and general adoption of railways brought 
about an amazing change throughout the whole of the 
country towns of England. During the eighteenth 
century and at the beginning of the nineteenth the 
Lancashire and Cheshire gentry, when the weather be- 
came dreary in the autumn and winter, and the roads 
impassable,* moved for a time into their town houses in 
Manchester, Liverpool, Chester, Stockport, Preston, 
Lancaster, Ormskirk, and elsewhere. These towns were 
thus for a time the centres of social life, the market place 
and the market cross being places of resort for the dis- 
cussion of foreign and domestic affairs. Not merely were 
punishments inflicted at the market cross, but "Notices" 
of every description were affixed to it. Thus, in Notes and 
Queries for January 12th, 1901, we are informed that lists 
of those persons who took out certificates for hair powder 
(one guinea each) were to be fixed on the market cross 
and on the church or chapel. 

Walton - on - the - Hill Churchyard Cross. — The 
pedestal of this cross was dug up by the gravedigger a few 



• The following extract from the Diary of Nicholas Blundell shows 
the terrible state of the roads at the beginning of the eighteenth 
century: *'i724, Dec. 8. — Fanny and I went to Wigan to be under 
Dr. Frans. Worthington, our health being very bad. The coach was 
overturned, and when we came neare Wigan it was laid fast the rode 
being so deep ; we left it in the laine all night, and we went with our 
horses to Wigan, where we lodged at Kendall's, the leggs of man." 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 19' 

years ago and has been left above ground in the churr 
yard. It is of rough stone and much time-worn. Ine 
stone measures five feet square at the base, is two feet 
thick, and the socket for the missing cross is eighteen 
inches by fifteen inches and fourteen inches deep. The 
cross was, therefore, a large and probably lofty one. 
The majority of the shafts in Lancashire were much 
smaller than this. In pre-Norman crosses the calvary, or 
flight of three steps, were often worked, as in this case, 
on one stone, and this fact leads to the conclusion that 
the cross was of pre-Norman date. A notable example 
is to be seen in Halton Churchyard, near Lancaster. In 
the church is preserved a portion of the circular head of 
a cross with cable moulding, likewise dug up in the 
churchyard, which may have formed part of this early 
cross. 

The church is of pre-Norman foundation and is named 
in Domesday. The sculptures on the font were clearly 
chiselled before the date of that survey. The parish was 
a large one and was indeed the mother church of the 
district. The site is opposite the mouth of the Mersey, 
about one and a half miles inland. 

Walton-on-the-Hill Village Cross and Stocks. — 
In the Binns Collection, vol. ii., p. 26, an illustration is 
given of this structure, consisting of a classical pillar 
carried on three steps. Adjoining it are the stocks, so 
arranged that the culprits sit on the bottom step. The 
pillar may have carried a sun-dial, replacing the ancient 
cross. The drawing is dated 1818. The structure is 
shown in an open space opposite a half-timbered building. 

Rev. E. Horley, in his History of Sefton, writes: "It is 
within our memory that there was at Walton-on-the-Hill 
a pair of stocks close to the churchyard wall, where we 



196 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

find that in 1858 a person was confined by order of the 
local magistrates." 

EvERTON Cross. — A water-colour drawing in the 
Binns Collection shows this cross in an open space near a 
cottage. A church appears in the distance. The head 
of the cross is gone, but a portion of the square shaft is 
shown socketted in the customary way into a pedestal, 
carried on a calvary or flight of three steps. The remains 
are almost exactly a facsimile of what may now be seen 
any day at Crouton. In Syer's History of Everton, 
published in 1830, a plan of the village is given, taken 
from an old deed, showing the "Headless Cross" on the 
common, near the beacon. 

Mr. Cox writes: **The remains of the cross which 
stood in the centre of the village were put into the 
Roundhouse when taken down. It was a market cross." 
The site of the cross was one and a half miles south 
of Walton-on-the-Hill, and the same distance inland 
from the river bank. 

EvERTON Well. — Mr. Hope writes in his Legendary 
Lore of the Holy Wells of England : "There is a well here 
which has the reputation of being haunted, a fratricide 
having been committed there. It was a haunt of pick- 
pockets and other disorderly characters. It is now built 
over, and in a few short years the subterranean passage 
leading to the well will be forgotton." 

The following extracts from the Crosse Deeds relate to 
this town : — 

1412. Quitclaim from Nicholas de Lyverpull, clerk, to John le Dey, of 
Lyverpull, his heirs and assigns, of one land of ground, lying between the 
Crosses next the Shootsacres, which Gilbert de Ever ton holds by the 
devise of Matilda de Sefton and the above Nicholas. Witnesses: — Robert 
de Derby, then Mayor of Lyverpull, Thomas de Bold and Roger de 



I 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 197 

Holland, then Bailiffs of Lyverpull, Hugh de Botyll, Thomas de Gleest, 
and others. Given at Lyverpull, in the third week of Lent [4-10 
March] 14 Henry IV. [1412] . 

Grant from John Wodes and Alice his wife of Lyverpull, to John 
Crosse, of one selion of land, called le Dobul lond lying between the 
Crosses, in the field of Lyverpull, viz., two hallands lying upon the road 
leading to the Breke and one halland on the same road, between the selion 
late of Derby on the north and land of the late John More on the 
south. Witnesses: — Hugh Harebron . . . Given at Lyverpull on 
the 20th day of May 12 Edward IV. [1472]. 

Grant from Richard Crosse, son and heir of John Crosse of Lyverpull, 
to William Crosse his brother and son of the said John of one tenement 
with houses and gardens, in le Dale strete Lyverpull, in the tenure of 
Henry Plombe, and of two buildings with chambers next the Cross in 
the same town. Witnesses, James Molyneux rector of Sefton . . . 
Given at Lyverpull on loth September 18 Henry VII. [1502] . 



Crosses in the Southern Part of the West Derby 
Hundred, between Liverpool and Warrington. 

The ordnance maps show the sites or remains of no 
less than twenty ancient crosses in this part of Lanca- 
shire. Many have disappeared since the date of the 1848 
survey. Some highly interesting notes by the Rev. Austin 
Powell concerning the crosses of this district appear in 
the volume for 1887 of the Historic Society of Lancashire 
and Cheshire. This district (about ten miles from east to 
west and five from north to south) is a small oasis of old-, 
world rural Lancashire hedged in by great manufacturing 
towns. The country is pretty and undulating, and 
contains several fine parks. 

Wavertree Cross and Well. — Considerable doubt 
exists as to the history of this structure. Three views of 
it are given in the Binns Collection in the Liverpool Free 
Library ; two of them are practically identical, showing 
an Early Gothic arched recess in a wall, below which is a 



igS THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

well square in shape surrounded by masonry. Above the 
arch are indications of an inscription. A later engraving 
shows the arch surmounted by a cross bearing the inscrip- 
tion, ** Deus dedit homo bibit." A recent photograph 
appears to indicate that the whole structure has been 
rebuilt since the date of the last engraving, with sundry 
variations from the original design, which shows an 
ancient structure in ruins. 

Mr. Cox {Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire 
for 1895) writes: "An old man remembered this well 
open, and told me that the descent to it was by several 
steps. The source of the water is not at the well, but 
under the lawn of * Monkswell,' and a passage led to it. 
The inscription formerly over it is well known — * Qui 
non dat quod habet. Daemon infra videt. Anno 1414."* 
In the rebuilt structure this inscription appears to have 
been inaccurately copied. 

Hope, in his Holy Wells of England, gives the same 
inscription as Mr. Cox, and adds, ** Tradition says at one 
period there was a cross above it inscribed * Deus dedit 
homo bibit,' and that all travellers gave alms on drinking. 
If they omitted to do so, a devil who was chained at the 
bottom laughed." 

I have not as yet come upon any documentary evidence 
to prove whether or not the structure represented by the 
Binns engravings is of really ancient date. 

Childwall Cross. — The word "cross" in Gothic 
letters appears on the 1848 map one and a half miles east 
of Wavertree. Mr. Cox thus describes it in the Transac- 
tions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire 
(volume for 1895) : " On the roadside, near Well Lane, 
stood the slender octagonal shaft of a cross, on an octagon 
socket and three steps. It was a wayside cross, probably 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 199 

marking the lands of the monks of Stanlaw and Whalley, 
who had a cell there. The stones were thrown over into 
the field when the road was widened, and were thence 
carted away." The church is of ancient foundation, and 
is mentioned in the Domesday Survey. 

Mr. W. Bowdon, of Gorsefield, Patricroft, writes June 
24th, 1901 : ** I was at Childwall on Friday, and looked 
up what remains of the cross there. Two steps, base 
about twenty- seven inches, with a socket of about twelve 
inches, shaft and arms gone." 

Mr. Harrison, in his Liverpool District Place-Names, 
tells us that the modern English equivalent of Childwall 
is Wellfield or Springfield. We have thus another 
instance of a well and a cross together. 

RoBY Cross. — The site is on the southerly side of the 
road, between Liverpool and Prescot, distant three miles 
in a south-westerly direction from the latter town. The 
remains consist of a portion of the shaft, four feet six 
inches in height and twelve inches square, socketted into 
a venerable pedestal, two feet six inches square on plan 
and twelve inches thick. The pedestal is carried on a step 
eight inches wide. There may be other steps buried in 
the ground. The shaft looks newer than the pedestal. A 
villager named Hesketh told me in April, 1900, that this 
cross was called "The Stocks" by the people about, and 
old inhabitants remember seeing men in the stocks, which 
were close to the cross. An old inn used to be opposite. 
It appears to have been a custom to place this instrument 
of punishment for drunkenness opposite the principal inn. 

There is still. a good deal of old-world character about 
this village, which is three-quarters of a mile south- 
west from Huyton. Roby was in that ancient parish. 
Baines states that in 1304 Robert de Lathom had a 



200 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

charter for a market and fair for his manor of Robye. It 
is quite possible, therefore, that the cross which I have 
just described was the ancient market cross, standing in 
the market place, which has disappeared under the 
Enclosures Act. 

HuYTON Village Cross. — The church (dedicated to 
S. Michael) is of ancient foundation. The ornamentation 
of the font testifies to the pre-Norman date of the edifice. 
A handsome cross was erected on the village green, near 
the south-west corner of the churchyard in the jubilee 
year, 1897. It replaced an older cross, which was erected 
about the year 1819 from the design of the late Mr. 
Rickman. His original drawing is to be seen in an 
adjoining cottage. A photograph of the cross, taken 
about the year 1878, shows a slender Gothic pillar on 
a flight of stone steps. 

Mr. F. T. Turton informs me that: "Prior to this date 
[1819] no cross existed. The ground was used for the 
purposes of buUbaiting and cockfighting; occupations 
which caused much trouble to the then young vicar of 
the parish, Ellis Ashton, and I have always understood 
that it was with the view of somewhat filling up the open 
space or green, that he was instrumental in having this 
cross erected. It is related of this vicar that the annoy- 
ance being so great, he did on more than one occasion 
take off his coat and severely castigate some of the 
offenders." 

The Chantry Well, Huyton. — These words occur 
on the 1848 six-inch ordnance map close to some old 
cottages, about one hundred yards to the north of the 
church. They have recently been pulled down. The 
well, when I saw it (in April, 1900), was a walled-in 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 201 

dipping well, on the east side of the lane, running due 
north from Huyton village. It does npt appear to be 
known why the well has its present designation, but 
Baines states that two chantries were founded here, the 
first by John de Winwick, rector of Wigan, in 1350 
(dedicated to the Virgin); the other by his brother, 
Richard de Winwick, rector of Walton-on-the-Hill (dedi- 
cated to S. Michael the Archangel). Possibly, chantry 
priests lived in the cottages. 

Much Woolton Cross. — The ancient village of Much 
Woolton is two miles and a half inland from the bank of- 
the Mersey and six and a half miles in a south-easterly 
direction from Walton-on-the-Hill. The Knights of S. 
John of Jerusalem had a grange here. A wake was held 
on Woolton Green on Midsummer Day. Mr. Cox {Transac- 
tions, Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, for 1895) 
describes the remains of the market cross as consisting of 
a short pyramidal chamfered shaft, socketted into an old 
base, which was carried on two steps. The site was the 
centre of the old village, where the district council offices 
now stand. The structure, I understand, was taken 
down about the year 1900, and given to Mr. Reynolds, 
who placed it in his garden. 

S. Mary's Well, Allerton. — This holy well is 
referred to in the following terms m the Chartulary of 
Cockersand A bbey : — 

Grant in frankalmoign from Robert, son of Richard de Allerton, to 
God and St. Werburgh of Warburton and the canons there with the 
consent of Gilbert, son of Robert de Allerton, of three acres of land in 
Allerton with the toft between Twiss and St. Mary's Well, next to four 
acres which Richard, son of Robert, son of Henry. . . . [S.D. 
c. 1240-1250.] 

Allerton is distant about three-quarters of a mile in a 



202 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

south-westerly direction from Much Woolton. So far, I 
have been unabje to discover any traces of the well, but 
the words "Spring Wood" occur on the map close to 
AUerton Hall. 

The following deed from the Chartulary of Cockersand 
Abbey may refer to some of the crosses in this district: — 

Grant in frankalmoign from Richard de Allerton, to God and St 
Werburgh of Warburton, of four acres of land in Allerton with the toft 
upon Brook-Carr, from a certain Twiss going down the syke to a cross 
and so westward to another cross. , . . [S.D. c. 1240-1250.] 

Skeat describes the word Twiss as used of the place 
where two streams meet. 

Knotty Cross. — These words occur on the six-inch 
ordnance map at the intersection of coads one-third of a 
mile south-east from the centre of Gateacre village and 
about half a mile in a north-easterly direction from Much 
Woolton Church. 

Hunt's Cross. — The words "pedestal of stone cross" 
occur on the 1848 six-inch ordnance map at " Hunt's 
Cross," close to Hunt's Cross Station, at the intersection 
of Hunt's Cross Lane and Sandy Lane, two miles inland 
from the river Mersey. The words " Hunt's Cross 
House" occur on the map close to the site of the cross. 

Mr. Cox writes, 1895, that the remains of this cross 
consist of a massive square stone socket lying by a barn 
at the cross-roads near the station. The words " Cross 
Hillocks" and "Cross Hillock's Farm" occur at the 
meeting of roads three miles east from Much Woolton 
Church. 

An interesting history of Garston from the pen of Mr. 
E. W. Cox is printed in the Transactions of the Historic 
Society of Lancashire and Cheshire for 1888, with pictures 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 203 

of the village and crosses as they existed in the year 
1850. At that date Garston was an old-fashioned fishing 
village near the Otter's Pool, on the north bank of the 
Mersey, but of late years everything has been changed by 
the formation of the docks and the advent of various 
manufacturing industries. 

Garston Churchyard Cross. — Mr. Cox writes (in 
1888): "The base of the churchyard cross still lies 
opposite the site of the old south porch." There is, 
however, some doubt whether this stone is the base of 
the cross, or the base of a column of the nave arcade of 
an older church, but Mr. Cox's notes, which I give belpw, 
are of much interest: *'Now, this hollowing at the top 
of the shaft . . . must have had another purpose. 
At Derby and many other places, the stump of the cross 
was so hollowed in order that in time of pestilence money 
might be placed in vinegar and disinfected before it was 
exchanged for the goods brought there. The seller left 
his goods and the buyer his money at the stone, but did 
not meet, for fear of infection. A stone closely resembling 
this was found by Dr. Kendrick at Warrington, and is 
now, I believe, in the museum. Is this old Garston 
Cross a plague stone? That churchyards were used as 
markets in the middle ages is a well-established fact." 

Garston Village Cross. — Mr. Cox writes: ''The 
other cross stood below the rock on which was built 
Garst6n Hall at the head of the mill-dam, and just 
opposite to the bridge where the stream entered the pool ; 
its site would be near the present centre of the junction 
of St. Mary's Road and Chapel Road." 

The remains consisted of a square solid base or pedestal 
and a portion of the square shaft. A view of it is given 



204 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

in the Binns Collection at Liverpool, in which is shown 
on one side of the base-stone the socket-holes for the 
stocks. 

Writing again in 1895 Mr. Cox says : " It is shown by 
Troughton on two steps, and probably marked a well, or 
limits of land belonging to the Abbey of Stanlaw. It 
was buried when St. Mary's Road was made, and a 
public-house built over it. It was found again in making 
a drain, and was kept for many years by Mr. Owen, 
stonemason, and finally erected by Father Smith on a 
new site. Inscribed on the new plinth is the appropriate 
motto, *Ecce crucem reddientem.'" 

The old base-stone and shaft, as rebuilt, are carried on 
a flight of four steps. Below the Latin inscription are 
these words : " The Garston Cross formerly erected by 
our Catholic forefathers in memory of the faith for which 
they suffered and of which they were robbed by the tyranny 
of their oppressors." 

Cronton Cross. — The site is three miles north of the 
river Mersey, and about six miles west from Warrington, 
at the meeting of roads opposite Cronton Hall, once the 
residence of the Wright family, who owned a good estate 
and lived here for two or three hundred years. It was 
thus the ''Squire's" house. It was rebuilt about the 
year 1740, as we see it now, in the characteristic archi- 
tecture of that period. The remains of the cross consist 
of a time-worn pedestal — two feet six inches square on 
plan, and one foot ten inches thick — carried on a* flight 
of three steps. A portion of the tapering shaft, two feet 
six inches high, is all that remains of the cross. The 
words ''Town End" appear on the map close to Cronton 
Hall. "The town" consists of two or three houses only, 
and apparently was never any larger. 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 205 

The Cronton Stocks. — These ancient stocks stand 
in the middle of the village opposite an old inn, the 
''Unicorn." They consist of massive stone posts, with 
venerable oak beams between for holding the two 
criminals. The stocks are about a quarter of a mile 
south of the cross. 

S. Ann's Well, Cronton. — The postmaster (Mr. 
Worrall) tells me that a ''Stocks Well" (dedicated to 
Saint Ann) was close to the ancient stocks. It was a 
natural well, with a great flow of water, which cured 
rheumatic patients. It was filled up a few years ago, the 
water having been poisoned by the body of some dead 
animal. The map marks Stocks Well Lane, near the 
stocks. 

The words "Stockswell House" appear on the map, 
near Cronton ; and three and a quarter miles north-east 
by east from Much Woolton Church we find "Brunt 
Boggart," apparently the name of a small house in Brunt 
Boggart Lane. 

"T. H. H.," writing in the Spectator, January 25th, 
1902, on "Village Superstitions," says: "The opinion of 
an old Lancashire gamekeeper, who was my instructor in 
the art of shooting nearly fifty years ago, on the subject 
of ghosts, seems worth quoting as a parallel : ' Folk talk 
a deal o' them boggarts, but I dunnot believe in them. 
I've been aboot o' neets mair nor maist folk, an' if there 
wor any boggarts agait I mun ha' leet o' one, for 



sure.' " 



Pexhill Cross. — The word "Cross," in ancient Gothic 
letters, occurs on the 1848 ordnance map at a distance of 
about one-third of a mile east from the Cronton Cross. I 



2o6 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

visited the site on the 8th May, igoo, and give below the 
upshot of my talks with various old inhabitants. Pexhill 
was purchased in 1868 by the Widnes Corporation for 
the purpose of erecting reservoirs. The cross was then 
destroyed. 

There are various legends in the village about the cross. 
One of the stories is that a maiden, named Margaret or 
Peg Pusey, the daughter of a farmer at Bold, was killed 
by a young man from Crouton Hall about two hundred 
years ago, by enticing her to the top of Pexhill, and then 
throwing her down. To commemorate her death a cross 
was erected. Her ghost haunts the place. Another 
legend is that she was cast off by her lover. In her 
despair, she came to see him at Crouton Hall. He 
slammed the door in her face. She went mad, and 
rambled about on Pexhill (or Peg's Hill) — then a wood — 
until she died. This was the origin of her being called 
a witch. 

The "cross" was described to me as consisting of about 
six steps, on which was the shaft of the cross, in height 
about nine feet. One of the villagers told me that the 
shaft had staples in it for a flag-pole, and that Squire 
Atherton, who built Pexhill House more than a hundred 
years ago, put up flags to celebrate the victories during 
the Peninsular War. 

Kendrick's Cross. — These words occur in ancient 
Gothic letters on the six-inch 1848 ordnance map at the 
meeting of roads in the middle of Rainhill village, three 
miles in a south-westerly direction from the town of 
St. Helens. My sketch of this cross shows a stone 
pillar four feet six inches in height inserted into an 
ancient stone pedestal. At the top of the stone, 
facing south, is an incised cross, and under it the date 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 207 

1821. The vicar of Rainhill (the Rev. J. E. Gull) informs 
me that it was put up by Mr. Bartholomew Bretherton. 

S. Ann's Well, Rainhill. — These words, in ancient 
Gothic letters, occur on the maps, half a mile to the east 
of the village of Rainhill. This holy well is now nearly 
filled up. In a paper by the Rev. W. H. Higgins on the 
history 'of Rainhill, the author remarks that S. Ann's 
Well consists of a cavity filled with water, but overgrown 
with grass and weeds. The site is in an open field. The 
water has a reputation for healing properties, especially 
for diseases of the eyes. The author once saw here a poor 
girl who had come from Billinge to bathe her eyes. She 
was nearly blind, but seemed full of hope that her 
pilgrimage would be successful. 

One mile in a south-easterly direction from Rainhill we 
come to Rainhill Stoops, a hamlet named after the stocks 
or stoops which stood on an open space at the meeting of 
roads. 

Blundell's Hill Cross. — I am informed that the 
comparatively modern Latin cross which we find here 
was erected by Mr. Bretherton. It is fixed into an 
ancient socket-stone two feet ten inches square, carried 
on a flight of three steps. The site is on high ground 
near ** The Old Hall," about half a mile south of the 
village of Rainhill and near Rainhill Stoops. 

Whiston Cross. — The word *' cross" in ancient Gothic 
letters occurs on the ordnance map at the meeting of 
roads one and a quarter miles west from Rainhill village. 
The roads are Dragon Lane and Stank Lane. The 
stocks are shown near the cross. 

Mr. Harrison, in his Place-Names of the Liverpool 



2o8 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

District, tells us that Whiston means white stone, a cor- 
ruption from the Anglo-Saxon. 

EccLESTON Cross. — These words occur in ancient 
Gothic letters on the 1848 maps at the meeting of roads 
three-quarters of a mile south of Eccleston Chapel. The 
latter is one and a half miles west of the town of 
St. Helens. 

Mr. William Ashton, of Wigan, writes, 31st December, 
1897: "Did you read a speech by the Premier of New 
Zealand when at St. Helens recently? He referred to a 
cross which used to stand in the schoolyard at Eccleston 
when he was a boy. In this speech he lamented its 
removal, as it was an old landmark." 



St. Helens. 

Chemical and glass works have swept away almost all 
antiquities from this district. The town took its name 
from a chapel dedicated to S. Helen.* Baines states that 
"there was no chapelry attached to it, and the district 
called St. Helens, and anciently S. Ellen's, comprehended 
little more than the site of the old chapel. When the 
commissioners made their return of church goods in West 
Derby hundred, 1552, they reported that there was *one 
chalis and a lyttle beele belongynge to Seynt Elleyn's 
Chapell.' " A church was built in 1713, and the 
dedication changed to S. Mary. 

WiNDLESHAW CROSS.^An old chapel existed at Windle- 
shaw, one mile in a north-westerly direction from the 

* Hollinfare, in the extreme south-east corner of the hundred, is said to 
have derived its name by a process of evolution from S. Helen. 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 209 

town of St. Helens. The churchyard has been used as a 
burial-place for Roman Catholics. In 1780, Mr. Barritt, 
of Manchester, made a sketch of the stone cross carried 
on three steps. 

A view of this cross is given in volume xii. of the Binns 
Collection, Liverpool Free Library, and in Wright and 
Allen's History of Lancashire. The design resembles so 
many others in this part of the county ; a cross mortised 
into a solid block of stone, commonly called the pedestal. 
The pedestal carried on a flight of three steps. In this 
case the steps are unusually wide, the bottom step 
covering a space of about twelve feet. The head of the 
cross has been knocked off, a portion of the shaft only 
remaining. On each face of the shaft a cross is cut in 
relief. The pedestal is dated 1627. A long and poetical 
description of this cross and its associations is given in 
the Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and 
Cheshire for 1887 by Rev. Austin Powell. He calls it a 
''cross of Calvary," a term applied when there are three 
steps. 

S. Thomas's Well, Windleshaw. — Mr. Barritt, de- 
scribing this burial-place, says: "When this place was 
founded or by whom or to what saint dedicated I have 
not learned, but suspect the patron saint to be S. Thomas, 
for near here is a well which goes by his name and bath'd 
in oft in summer in regard of extraordinary virtues being 
ascrib'd to the water. The chapell is but small about 12 
yards long and 3 wide." 

In the History of Lancashire Chantries Canon Raines 
states that it was an old chantry chapel dedicated to S. 
Thomas and founded by Sir Thomas Gerard, of Bryn, 
who was living in 1435, "To celebrat ther for the sowles 
of his antecessors." 
o 



2IO THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

The Rev. Austin Powell writes {Historic Society of 
Lancashire and Cheshire for 1887) : — 

The well is some three hundred yards from the chantry ruins. It is 
far larger than any ordinary well, being some nine yards long by six 
yards wide. At present the water is but two feet deep, and there is a fall 
of some seven feet before the surface of the water is reached. ... At 
the head of the well is the inscription. 

The initials represent William and Elizabeth Hill, the then proprietors 
of the adjacent land, the date referring to the building up of the sides of 
the well. Since the above date the water was obtained by letting down 
cans into it. It is said to be very efficacious for the curing of sore eyes. 
. . . The tradition with regard to the well — a tradition which comes 
from ancient sources, but does not appear to have been widely circulated — 
is, that a priest sa3dng mass at Windleshaw was discovered by the 
pursuivants ; that he fled, was pursued, overtaken at the spot where the 
well is, cut down and his head struck ofif and that where his head fell, 
the spring gushed forth. 

The following extract is from the Chartulary of Cocker- 
sand A bbey : — 

Confirmation by Alan de Windhall ... of the whole land of 
Hartfelling within the crosses placed around the same . . . belonging 
to the town of Windle. . . . [Date of deed, 1201-1220 c] 

Peasley Cross. — The pedestal of this cross is marked 
on the ordnance maps at a spot one mile in a south-easterly 
direction from S. Thomas's Church, St. Helens, at 
"Four Lane Ends," — the intersection of Cross Lane 
with Hells Bess Lane. 

Marshall's Cross. — These words occur on the 
ordnance map at "Four Lane Ends," one and three- 
quarter miles south-east by south from the parish church, 
St. Helens, and three miles east of Prescot. The lanes 
are Marshall's Cross Road, Chester Lane, Sutton Lane, 
and Mill Lane. 

Tibb's Cross. — These words occur on the 1848 
ordnance map, at a point where Cross Lane meets the 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 211, 

main road between Prescot and Warrington. The site is 
four miles in a south-easterly direction from the former 
town. A villager (John Whitfield, of Bold Heath) told 
me that he had heard of a cross being here. He has 
known the locality for forty years, but it had disappeared 
before his time. Much waste land, he says, has been 
taken in in this locality. 

Bold Heath Cross. — These words occur on the ord- 
nance map half a mile east of Tibb's Cross, at the corner 
of another Cross Lane with the Prescot and Warrington 
turnpike road. The site is one mile in a south-westerly 
direction from Old Bold. Hall. John Whitfield tells me 
that this cross was taken down about the year 1870. It 
stood on a small green or open space since made into a 
garden. The arms of the cross had been knocked off. 
He remembered the shaft fixed into a flight of steps, like 
that at Cronton. The pinfold was near the cross. The 
following notes, taken from the ordnance maps in this 
locality, are of interest : — 

Parr Stocks one and a half miles east of S. Thomas's Church, St. 
Helens; Ditch Hillock one and a half miles sonth-east from the same 
building ; Maypole Farm one mile north of Old Bold Hall ; Abbots Hall 
two and three-quarter miles south-east from S. Thomas's Church, St. 
Helens; Boggart House two miles south-west from Winwick Hall. 

Farn WORTH Churchyard Cross. — Farnw6rth is a 
characteristic old-world Lancashire village, with painfully 
prominent cobble-stones in the roads leading up to the 
church, which is five miles west from Warrington and two 
miles north of the river Mersey. The ancient chapelry is 
dedicated to S. Wilfrid. The cross consists of a modern 
shaft, about nine feet in height, finishing at the top with 
cusped gablets, and socketted into the topmost of a flight 



212 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

of ancient steps. Only two are visible. The site is 
between the south porch and the^south transept. 

Plumpton's Cross. — These words occur on the map, 
in ancient Gothic letters, one mile south-east by south 
from Farnworth Church, at the meeting of roads. 



SIMM's Cross. — ^These words occur on the map one 
and a quarter miles south of Farnworth Church, at the 
meeting of roads, one mile north of the river, and close to 
the great manufacturing town of Widnes. 

CuERDLEY Cross. — These words occur on the map 
one and a half miles in a south-easterly direction from 
Farnworth Church, at the meeting of roads in the middle 
of Cuerdley village, which is about one mile and three- 
quarters north of the Mersey. The words "Intrench-, 
ment" and "Cromwell's Bank" appear on Cuerdley 
Marsh close to the river. 

Whitfield's Cross. — These words occur at the meet- 
ing of roads one mile south-east by east from Farnworth 
Church, in Barrows Green Lane, one mile north of the 
Mersey. 

Cross Hillocks. — These words occur on the map 
three miles south-west by west from Farnworth Church, 
probably, as in so many other cases, recording the site of 
a cross on rising ground. The site is in Old Lane, three- 
quarters of a mile in a south-easterly direction from Tar- 
bock Green. 

Holy Well, Tarbock. — Tarbock Hall and Tarbock 
Green are three and a half miles to the west of Farnworth 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 213 

Church. Baines states that Torboc with Hitune belonged 
to Dot at the time of the Domesday Survey, and during 
the thirteenth century gave name to a member of the 
Lathom family. . . . Henry was lord of Torbock, 
Roby, Huyton, Knowsley, and other manors. Tarbock 
Brook, a tributary of the Mersey, passes a little to the 
west of Tarbock Green. The following extract from the 
Cockersand Chartulary shows that there was a holy well 
here, known as such, towards the close of the twelfth 
century. 

From the Cockersand Chartulary : — 

Grant in frankalmoign from Richard, son of Henry de Tarbock . . . 
of a portion of his land . called " Old Torbock," whereof the 

eastern head extends to Holywell Brook . . . (c. 11 80-1 200). 

It is possible that several of the preceding notes merely 
refer to the intersection of roads, but in other cases there 
is no doubt that they record the sites of crosses which 
may have long ago disappeared or been' removed to make 
way for modern buildings. 



Warrington. 

Warrington is now a great manufacturing town, and 
most of its mediaeval features have consequently dis- 
appeared. Dr. Aitken visited the place towards the end 
of the eighteenth century, before these overwhelming 
changes in its aspect had taken place, and thus describes 
it: **The principal. part of the town consists of 4 streets 
crossing at the centre. ... It has the common 
fault of being most straightened at the centre a great 
inconvenience to a town w**- is one of the principal 
thoroughfares to the north, being the only entrance from 
the south to all the north western part of England." 



214 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

These four principal streets, which run very nearly 
north, south, east, and west, are shown on the 1848 
ordnance maps, and are there named as follows : ** Butter 
Market Street," leading eastwards, passes an open space 
about one hundred and fifty yards from the " Market Gate," 
or centre of the town, and as it approaches the parish 
church, is called Church Street (this open space was pre- 
sumably the butter market); *' Sankey Street" runs due 
west to the White Cross; " Horsemarket Street" (the 
north street) leads to Wigan and Preston ; and " Bridge 
Street," passing southwards, leads over the Friar's Bridge 
into Cheshire. 

In 1824 the town was full of coaching inns. Their 
numbers were quite amazing and their names fantastic. 
A place of ancient assembly is probably recorded by the 
words "Town Hill" on the 1848 ordnance map. The site 
is about one hundred yards north-east from the " Market 
Gate," between Horsemarket Street and Butter Market 
Street. 

The centre of the market place is about one hundred 
yards north-west from the Market Gate. Its length 
originally appears to have been about eighty yards and 
its width thirty yards, clear of encroachments. On the 
west side were the Cloth Hall and Town Hall, and on 
the south the old manor court room. No less than seven 
inns stood in this square, occupying almost all the rest 
of the frontages. 

The town was built on the north side of the river 
Mersey, which hereabouts takes a very sinuous course. 
The Roman camp was on the south or Cheshire side of 
the river, about one mile south-south-east of the centre 
of the town and near the river bank, but not within any 
of its loops. 

The principal distances are as follows: the t)arish 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 



215 



church and the White Cross are both a full half mile 
from the centre of the town ; from the Friar's Bridge on 
the Mersey to the Market Gate is about four hundred 
yards. The Friary (the home of the Hermit Friars of the 




A. Market Place. 

B S. Elfin's Church. 



REFERENCES. 

C S. Elfin's Well. 
I> AuGUSTiNiAN Friary. 



Order of S. Augustine) stood on the west side of Bridge 
Street, near the river, on Friars' Green. The friars had a 
chapel on the bridge. An interesting account of recent 
discoveries of the foundations of the friarage appears from 



^jp LANCASHIRK- 
THE «CIE»T CKOS^eST 

„hich run verj' neart.>' 
:hes= tour prmcipal streets -^^^ ^^_^^^_^ ^„ ,^^ ^8^^ 
■th, south, east, at"! »«''^ed as follows : " Butt..- 
Inance maps, and are there ^^^ p^53^s j,„ op^n space 
irket Street," leading «"'*' from the " Market Gate,- 
out one hundred and fifty yat _^ jipptoaches the parish 
centre of the town, and as ^^is open space was pre- 

urch, is called Church Street ^^^,^5,. Street " runs due 
mably the butter markets ;^^^_^g^arket street" (the 
ist to the White Cross; ' Preston; and " Brid^ 

•rth street) leads to Wigan an^^ ^ver the Friar's Bri ' 
reel," passing southwards, lea 

to Cheshire. c coaching inns. 

In r824 the town was f"" , ^i,eir namo> 
mbers were quite amazing a ^^j^bly rei- 
jiace of ancient assembly rsP^^^^^^ 
rds "Town Hill" on the '*■* _^j5, ( 
ibout or.e hundred )^n>' ""street 
te, " betxv-een Horsemarket 

«•■ _tet pl»' 
rhe ^ M 

rds ^ V, 

igii len 

s V h 



tie 



THE ASCIES'T CROSSE.- :■ - -• *'7 

church and the While Cns = ■- '^^ (as pre- 

from the centre of the towx rir r- " map half a 

the Mersey- to the Maite: ^ ■■ ' '^se to Bank 

yards. Tlie Friaji Ithe hait : ■:.- -^- "'ly. ^^ three 

, iver. It is thus 
.irrington:— 

a one Henry BuUinger of 

■viih a barn under the same 

lie White Cross, (Alba CruxJ 

nglon to the bridge at Sankey. 

[he site where il stood near the 

wn place, and at the time of our 

.il every year near the spot. There 

L the Cross and the origin of this fair. 

Iirated the Dedication of the Cross. 

,vays draw a crowd logelher, and an 

■r thoughts of worldly gain. 

US referred to in an old MS. 
f Lyme, who had property in 
n 1465, Clietham Society, 1849, 



n aforesaid holds of Ibe said Peter s 
e roof, and with a garden and a place 
irbs of the aforesaid town near to tb« 
way leading from the aforesaid town a; 



hin's Well. — This holy well adjoins the 

which was in existence at the time of the 

lay Survey. Close to the well "S. Elphin's 

." are shown on the 1848 ordnance map. The 

.cation is singular. Beamont, in his Warrington 

arch Notes, writes, quoting from Domesday, that in 

.rrington (Walintune) " Saint Elfin held one carucate of 

i. . . . From which it may be inferred that Saint 

jn, who does not occur in the Romish Calendar, and 

mentioned nowhere except in the above extract, was 



2i6 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

the pen of Mr. William Owen in the Transactions of the 
Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire for 1889. Mr. 
Beamont, in his Walks about Warrington, writes: — 

While the Friary stood, one or other of the cowled brethren daily 
repaired to each of the following stations, namely, The Hermitage at 
Winwick, the Spital Bridges at Wilderspool, Walton, and Sankey, and 
their great oratory on Warrington Bridge, to offer up prayers for travellers 
going on a journey, or thanksgivings for those returning home. They 
had that narrow passage leading from the Friary to the bridge, and still 
called the Friars' Walk, which served them as a cloister. 

Fresh discoveries as to the exact location of the Roman 
camp at Wilderspool were made during the formation of the 
Manchester Ship Canal, and are recorded in the volumes 
for 1896 and 1900 of the Historic Society of Lancashire 
and Cheshire. The earliest known plan of Warrington 
is reproduced from the Legh MS. in vol. xvii. of the 
Chetham Society's Proceedings, Warrington in 1465, by 
William Beamont. The town must have been at that 
time a delightfully picturesque place, if we are to judge 
by the sketches of the many-gabled half-timbered houses 
which appear on both sides of most of the streets. The 
nomenclature is in a curious mixture of English, French, 
and Latin. 

The church is defined as BXZTB J6CCXJ6S5B, probably 
to distinguish it from the church of the Augustinian 
brothers, but S. Helen's or S. Elfin's Well is not showi\. 
Church Street is Xc fcgrftc Strctc. Butter Market Street 
is called Strata Queens at) altam ecclceiam. The words 
Xc TWlbBtc CrO00 appear conspicuously in the position 
shown on more modern maps at the west end of SonftCB 
(5ate, and so do jfratrcfi Buguetincneca close to a sketch of 
their house to the north-west of the bridge over the 
Acracc TWlater. The market place is described as the 
jforum, but no market cross, nor any other but the White 
Cross, is shown. 



I 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 217 

The White Cross. — The site of this cross (as pre- 
viously stated) is marked on the ordnance map half a 
mile west from the centre of the town close to Bank 
Hall, the ancient seat of the Patten family, and three 
hundred yards to the north of the river. It is thus 
described in Beamont's Walks about Warrington : — 

W^e read in the Lyme Manuscript of 1465 that one Henry Bullinger of 
Warrington, held of Peter Legh, a messuage with a barn under the same 
roof in the suburbs of Warrington, near to the White Cross, (Alba Crux) 
which stood in the way leading from Warrington to the bridge at Sankey. 
The White Cross no longer remains, but the site where it stood near the 
Pottery at Bank Quay is still a well-known place, and at the time of our 
walk, a fair called Calf Gin fair was held every year near the spot. There 
was evidently some connection between the Cross and the origin of this fair. 
It may have been that the fair celebrated the Dedication of the Cross. 
The religious ceremonies would always draw a crowd together, and an 
evil spirit was ever ready to whisper thoughts of worldly gain. 

The White Cross is thus referred to in an old MS. 
belonging to the Leghs of Lyme, who had property in 
Warrington (Warrington in 1465, Chetham Society, 1849, 
by W. Beamont) : — 

Henry Bullynge of Weryngton aforesaid holds of the said Peter a 
messuage with a barn under same roof, and with a garden and a place 
called Folstead, lying in the suburbs of the aforesaid town near to the 
White Cross, which stands in the way leading from the aforesaid town as 
far as the bridge of Sankey. 

S. Elfhin's Well. — This holy well adjoins the 
church, which was in existence at the time of the 
Domesday Survey. Close to the well *'S. Elphin's 
Baths" are shown on the 1848 ordnance map. The 
dedication is singular. Beamont, in his Warrington 
Church Notes, writes, quoting from Domesday, that in 
Warrington (Walintune) "Saint Elfin held one carucate of 
land. . . . From which it may be inferred that Saint 
Elfin, who does not occur in the Romish Calendar, and 
is mentioned nowhere except in the above extract, was 



2i8 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

some local benefactor canonized, like many others, for 
his good deeds by the people whom he had benefitted, 
without the pompous ceremonial which attends a papal 
canonization. His name, or any other very like it, rarely 
occurs in English history." Mr. Beamont goes on to say 
that the Anglo-Saxon Elfenne, like our English Elfin, 
means a female fairy . . . and he describes the Irish 
See of Elphin as signifying a white rock or a stream of 
pure spring water. 

Since Mr. Beamont's time, investigations into folk-lore 
superstitions have gone on apace, and the names of 
springs and wells are shown to be of the most ancient 
and enduring character. It is thus possible that the 
dedication of the church had its origin in superstitions 
which gathered round the adjoining holy well. Miss 
Arnold-Forster gives the dedication of the church as "S. 
Elphin, sometime S. Helen, ancient." 

Mr. Beamont tells us that the ancient dedication to S. 
Elphin was reverted to when the church was rebuilt in 
1859, ^^^y ^^ the same work, gives the following transla- 
tion of an old deed naming a well, called *' Hallumswalle," 
which the author thinks may mean S. Helen's Well: — 

Henry Garnet, son and heir of William Garnet late of Warrington, 
lawyer, holds of the said Peter Legh in capite by military service one fair 
hall called the hall near le Hallumswalle, with two high chambers, a 
kitchen, stable, cowhouse, barn, appleyard and a croft containing near an 
acre of fresh land, in a street of the said town of Weryngton leading from 
the place called Markethyate as far as the high church of the said town, 
and a certain fountain of springing water is before the north door of the 
said hall called Hallumswall . . ." 

In a footnote to Hallumswalle, Mr. Beamont writes: — 

This word is written with a contraction thus Halluswalle and it is not 
easy to say whether it is meant for Hallumswalle or Hallunswalle. It is 
certain, however, that the fountain gave name to a wellknown place in 
Warrington called Running Pump and where until a very recent period, 
there was an iron conduit and a perpetual stream of spring water. If the 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 219 

word is Hallunswalle, it is probably a corruption from Helenswell ; and 
in that case, the fountain may have claimed St. Helena, according to some 
authorities the patron saint of the church, for its patroness. 

Fearnhead Cross. — These words occur on the map 
at the meeting of roads two miles north-east from S. 
Elphin's Church, Warrington. Fearnhead Cross House 
stands close to this spot. Half a mile in a north-easterly 
direction from the site of this cross is Black Clerk's 
House, presumably connected with the Dominican order. 
The words '* Cross Lane Farm" occur on the map in 
Cross Lane, four miles north-east from Warrington 
Church and two and a half east from Winwick Church. 
The words "Monk's House" appears on the map one 
mile north of Winwick Church, near S. Oswald's Well. 

Hulme's Cross. — The following passage (quoted in 
Raines's Lane. Chantries, i. 73) occurs in the will (dated 
14th April, 1546) of G. Legh, Esq.: "To be buried within 
5^e parish ch. of Wynwyke . . . To the makyng of a 
good and substanciall pavement for horse & man in the 
lane between Wynwicke towne and Hulme's Crosse, xl^." 
The hamlet of Hulme is one mile south of Winwick 
Church, where four roads meet. 

Winwick Churchyard Cross. — The church of S. 
Oswald, Winwick, one of the few in Lancashire men- 
tioned in Domesday, stands on rising ground about three 
miles to the north of Warrington, but many are the 
alterations and rebuildings which have taken place in the 
structure during the course of centuries. Nothing now 
remains of the pre-Norman churchyard cross, which must 
have been one of the finest and loftiest in Lancashire, 
except the centre and cross arms, consisting of a block of 
stone four feet eleven inches long, eighteen inches deep, 



220 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

and eleven inches thick. The stone was found in the year 
1843, i^ digging 2L grave, and was then placed in its present 
position on two short stone pillars, the wrong way up, in 
the churchyard, close to the east wall of the chancel. 

The passion which the pre-Norman artists evinced for 
ornamenting every available piece of surface, whether it 
be stone, wood, gold, iron, or silver, is shown in the 
wonderful illustrations which accompany Du Chaillu's 
book on the Viking Age,* and this fertility of design is 
found in a remarkable degree when we examine the ^ 
remains of the cross at Winwick. Not merely have both 
sides of the stone been elaborately carved, but also the 
ends and the soffit. The latter feature is an incidental 
proof that the cross must have been lofty enough for this 
ornament on its under surface to be seen by passers by. 
Possibly other portions of the cross may be found some 
day by the grave-digger. 

The ornament is so sharp and clear that it is difficult 
for us to realise that it was cut in all probability more 
than one thousand years ago, possibly during the reign of 
Alfred the Great. The side which now accidentally faces 
east is covered chiefly by the interlacing rope ornament' 
which is so characteristic of much of the pre-Norman 
work which we find in the north and west of England. 
Instances occur on the Standing Cross, Addingham ; the 
Standing Cross, Aspatria ; in the churchyard at Becker- 
met, on the cross shaft at Bromfield, the Standing Cross, 
Irton, and others in Cumberland and Westmorland, 
illustrated in the late Rev. W. S. Calverley's work on 
Early Sculptured Crosses in the Carlisle Diocese.f In 



* John Murray, 1889. With one thousand three hundred and thirty- 
six illustrations. 

fT. Wilson, Kendal, 1899. Vol. xi., Cumberland and Westmorland 

Antiq.'Archaol. Society. 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 221 

Cornwall similar work is portrayed in Langdon's Old 
Cornish Crosses. 

The casual way in which different kinds of ornament 
appear in juxtaposition on the Winwick Cross and others 
of pre-Norman date is suggestive of the methods of 
Japanese artists, but in both cases the ornament is in- 
variably beautiful. The other pattern, geonietrical and 
rectangular in form, which is thus mixed up with the 
rope ornament on the Winwick Cross, appears on one of 
the Whalley crosses and at Llantwit Major, depicted in 
an article on " Celtic Sculpture," by Mr. J. Romilly 
Allen, in the Studio for August, 1898, and named by him 
'* diaper key pattern." Rewrites: "The best examples 
of it that I know of are on a cross-base now used as a 
font at Penmon Priory, Anglesey, and on the cross at 
Termonfechin, Co. Louth {see Miss M. Stoke's posthumous 
publication in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, 
recently issued). This kind of key pattern seems to have 
survived longer than any other, as there are instances on 
the sculptured details of churches in Ireland of the twelfth 
century, also on late cross at Kilfenora." 

Both patterns on the east face of the Winwick Cross 
occur in the Isle of Man, as at Kirk Bride. A raised 
boss, a common feature in these early monuments, is in 
the centre of the cross, back and front. 

The ornament on the west side of the cross was almost 
obliterated when the stone was used as a monument in 
the year 1793 to the memory of a person named Roger 
Lowe. The faint lines which are left here indicate the 
figures of beasts, which are thus described by the Bishop 
of Bristol: "It has had a large central boss. . . . 
Round this boss are huge misshapen animals with 
specially abnormal heads. Their tails observe carefully 
the law of alternate, 'under and over,' which lies at the 



222 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

foundation of all interlacing patterns. . . . The 
presence of theSe rude animals of necessity reminds us of 
the great animals on each side of the vertical shaft on the 
Scottish cross slabs, and it is practically impossible to 
dissociate the two, especially when we consider the 
exceedingly Celtic character of the ornamentation already 
spoken of on various parts of this head." 

The carvings on the ends of the cross are of special 
interest. On the north end is the figure of man in a long 
robe, like a surplice or smock frock, carrying in each hand 
either a bucket or a handbell. Antiquaries have differed 
over this subject, but in the Anglo-Saxon room in the 
British Museum there are side by side a bell and a bucket 
almost identical in outward form, and of the size por- 
trayed on this carving. They measure each about nine 
inches in height. The bucket is labelled as a bronze 
bucket from Hexham, probable date a.d. 867, and the bell 
as from Kinlough, Co. Antrim. The bronze bell of S. 
Cummin, of Kilcommon, is also in this room, a.d. 662, 
and another Irish bell, the capped bell of S. Culan, who 
died A.D. 908. Many illustrations of similar bells are 
given in Anderson's Scotland in Early Christian Times, 

Returning to the Winwick sculptures, a representation 
of what may be a church appears on the left of the man's 
head, for we seem to see the south door and some ridge 
cresting on the roof. Below it is either a sword or a 
cross. On the right of his head is a cross of the pro- 
cessional or resurrection type, that is, with a long shaft. 
The Bishop of Bristol thinks that the man may be 
carrying water from S. Oswald's Well. 

The sculpture at the other end is popularly supposed 
to represent the dismemberment of S. Oswald. The 
victim is shown — head downwards — suspended by a rope 
tied to his left foot. The head rests on the ground. His 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE, 223 

legs are grasped by the right hand of one of the execu- 
tioners and by the left hand of the other. The men appear 
to be either piercing the lower part of his body with spears 
or cutting off his legs with swords or knives. His head 
is held down by their feet. His hands have already been 
cut off, and the arms hang down, nearly touching the 
ground. The heads of the executioners are of a marked 
Dolichocephalic type — prominent noses and sloping fore- 
heads. It is not a murder, but a dismemberment, for the 
saint is clearly dead ; there is no sign of a struggle. 

The accompanying illustrations are reproduced from 
photographs, which have been skilfully taken for me by 
Mr. Rose, of Southport. As the stone is placed in the 
churchyard in a topsy-turvy position the shadows are, 
of course, reversed, and in the case of the dismemberment 
there is in consequence some difficulty in interpreting the 
details of the tragedy. I have, therefore, made a sketch 
which appears in the bottom right hand corner of the 
sheet showing the shadows as they would appear if the 
cross is ever restored. 

Another view of the meaning of these remarkable 
sculptures has, however, been taken by Mr. J. Romilly 
Allen, who is one of the chief living authorities on this 
subject. He inclines to the belief that the scene carved 
on the south end of the cross represents the martyrdom 
of Isaiah, whose body is being sawn in two by the 
executioners. His theory is illustrated by a sketch on 
page 329 of his book on Christian Symbolism in Great 
Britain and Ireland. 

In an article in The Studio, referred to above, Mr. J. 
Romilly Allen says: — 

The peculiar style of art with which the Christian Monuments of the 
pre-Norman period in Great Britain are decorated has been called Irish, 
because some of the best known and finest examples of metal work 



224 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

illuminated MSS. and crosses in this style were produced in Ireland. 
But as monuments exhibiting the same style of decoration with 
certain local modifications are found also in Scotland, Wales, Corn- 
wall, and the Isle of Man, it will be preferable to apply the term 
Celtic to it, so as to include those parts of Great Britain where* 
the inhabitants are still mainly of Celtic origin. The Christianising of 
Northumbria by Celtic missionaries from lona, who settled at Lindis-. 
fame in a.d. 635, spread the Celtic style throughout the north of England 
and in the south of England it became so blended with the Saxon style 
that there is hardly any part of Great Britain where Celtic influence has 
not made itself more or less felt. Recent discoveries show that it is 
really impossible to draw any distinct line of demarcation between the art 
of the Celtic and of the Anglo-Saxon Christian monuments. We prefer 
to call the style Celtic rather than Hiberno-Saxon, because the Celtic 
element in it is always the predominant one. The Celticism is strongest 
in Ireland, Scotland and the North of England, and weakest in the south. 

It does not necessarily follow that the cross was carved 
immediately after the death of Oswald. Traditions of 
his life would be handed on for generations, and thus the 
cross may possibly not have been erected for a hundred 
years or more after his death. 

Much has been written about Oswald, King of 
Northumbria, his battles, and the place where he is 
supposed to have fallen fighting for his faith and country. 
Many pages are devoted to this subject in the Venerable 
Bede's Ecclesiastical History, in Green's History of the 
English People, and elsewhere. Lancashire antiquaries 
naturally favour the conclusion that a palace in the 
parish of Winwick was his favourite residence, and that 
the place which Bede calls Maserfelth, where Oswald 
was slain in battle on the 5th August, a.d. 642, is Maker- 
field, a district about two miles to the north of Winwick. 
The words ** Castle Hill" occur on the ordnance maps 
one-third of a mile north of Newton-in-Makerfield Church. 
Other writers contend that Oswestry was the scene of 
the battle. 

The late Mr. J. E. Worsley, F.S.A., in a paper on 
"Winwick" {Transactions, Lancashire and Cheshire Anti- 




ROPOSED RESTORATION 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 225 

qtiarian Society ^ for 1886), goes over the arguments as to 
whether Oswestry or Winwick was the scene of the 
battle and the death of Oswald, and in narrating the 
legend from Bede, he makes the following suggestion : 
"After Oswald's death, Penda caused his hpad and arms 
to be cut off and fixed upon stakes, and the friends of 
Oswestry say this accounts for the name of Oswald's 
tree; but might this not have been by Penda on his 
return to his own kingdom of Mercia ? The question is, 
was Oswald invading Mercia, or was he attacked in his 
own kingdom of Northumberland by Penda ? " 

S. Oswald's Well, Winwick. — The site of this once 
celebrated well is close to Hermitage Green (there is no 
green there now), three-quarters of a mile north of 
Winwick Church, near the roadside. The water.'hasi of 
late been drying up. A writer in The Antiquary, twenty 
years ago (vol. iii., page 261), described it as having a 
very modest appearance for so famous a spot, looking 
merely like a hole in the hillside. The writer goes on to 
say: '* Passing through a small cottage garden, a well- 
trodden path leads to the well, which is merely a fosse, as 
described by Bede, and, situated as it is at the bottom of 
a tolerable declivity, derives its supply from the drainage 
of the upper ground rather than from any spring. The 
water is not very bright, but the well is substantially 
walled inside, and two or three deeply worn steps lead to 
the water." 

The Venerable Bede gives an account of numerous 
miracles which took place at S. Oswald's Well. He 
says : — 

After which period Oswald was killed in a great battle by the same 
Pagan nation and Pagan King of the Mercians who had slain his prede- 
cessor Edwin at a place called in the English tongue Maserfield in the 

P 



226 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

thirty eighth year of his age on the fifth day of the month of August. 
How great his faith was towards God, and how remarkable his devotion, 
has been made evident by miracles since his death ; for in the place where 
he was killed by the pagans fighting for his country, infirm men and cattle 
are healed to this day. Whereupon many took up the very dust of the 
place where his body fell, and putting it into water did much good with it 
to their friends who were sick. This custom came so much into use. that 
the earth being carried away by degrees, there remained a hole as deep as 
the height of a man. . . . Many miracles are said to have been 
wrought in that place, or with the earth carried from thence; but we 
have thought it sufficient to mention two, which we heard from our 
ancestors. 

The tradition is that the hole so formed became filled 
with water, and hence the origin of the well. May not 
the man carved on the end of the cross be carrying away 
earth rather than water, as suggested by the Bishop of 
Bristol? Blundell the Cavalier visited the well about 
three hundred years ago. He describes it in the quaint 
and poetical language of that period (Chetham Soc, vol. 
12, 1887). 

WiGAN. 

Although Wigan has become during the last century 
one of the largest towns in Lancashire, yet its chief 
mediaeval features may be ascertained with a fair amount 
of accuracy by an examination of the 1848 ordnance 
maps, and by sundry engravings of the old buildings 
which are in the possession of Mr. Giles Shaw, of 
Southport, and in the Wigan Public Free Library. 

The town was built — in accordance with so many 
ancient precedents — on rising ground, within the loop of 
a river, and it was (according to Mr. Thompson Watkin) 
on this plateau that the Romans had formed their camp, 
although in other cases, as at Preston and Manchester, 
they had selected the low ground close to the encircling 
water. Further investigation may possibly show that 
this was the case here. 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 



227 



The Roman road running northwards, through War- 
rington and Preston, passed through the centre of Wigan. 
Four streets radiate from the market place : Standishgate, 
running north; Wallgate, in a south-westerly direction; 
Millgate, to the rector's mills on the Douglas, towards 
the south-east; and Hallgate, to the rectory (always 
called The Hall), towards the north-west. 

The chief distances, measuring as the crow flies, from 




the market place are : To Wigan Hall, about a quarter 
of a mile ; the same to the rector's mills on the Douglas 
at the end of Mill Gate ; to Mab's Cross one-third of a 
mile. The Douglas, as it sweeps round the southernmost 
part of the town, is distant a full half mile from the 
church. 

Much interesting information about the church and 
the town of Wigan is contained in the History of the 
Church and Manor (Chetham Society, vols. 15, 16, 



228 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

17, 18, n.s.) by the Rev. the Hon. George T. O. 
Bridgeman, 1888. He says: "Amongst the ancient 
ecclesiastical establishments of the county of Lancaster, 
that of Wigan holds a prominent position. There was a 
church here in Saxon times, as we learn from the survey 
of William the Conqueror. . . ." 

The church was built close to the " market place," 
near its south-west side. In the following notes, how- 
ever, when referring to the " market place," it must be 
understood that we mean this triangular space in the 
middle of the town, so designated on the 1848 ordnance 
maps. It is about one hundred and thirty yards in 
length and about fifty yards across the base of the 
triangle; but Mr. Bridgeman's investigations have led 
him to the conclusion that the market place in early 
times was probably in some other position, and in support 
of this view he quotes Leland, who visited the town 
between the years 1536 and 1542 and wrote, " Dugles 
Ryver cumming by Wigan Market goith into the Se by 
hit self toward Latham." 

Mr. Bridgeman had not perhaps noticed that a rapid 
inward bend of the river brings it to within a hundred 
and fifty yards of the east side of the market place, but 
in an important town, like Wigan there is no reason why 
there may not have been two or more market places, as at 
Rouen and in some English towns. The stocks and the 
pump were certainly in the open space at the top of 
Wallgate, about a hundred yards south of the " market 
place," so this may have been the original or a secondary 
market. Stalls are shown here on an old print. 

The stocks were fixed close to the main entrance to the 
churchyard from Wallgate, so that the offenders would 
be subject to the full gaze and jeers of the people as they 
left the church on Sunday mornings, for the law was 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 319 

doubtless carried out here as elsewhere, and the public- 
houses were searched for drunkards by the wardens as 
soon as service began, 

Wigan was still (in 1848) full of old coaching inns. 
Half-timbered houses abounded here, as in other Lan- 
cashire towns. 

The 1848 map shows a moot hall at the southern 
corner of the " Market Place." This building, on the 
1827 map of the town, is called the old town hall. A 
lithograph of it, from an old drawing (date about 1700), 
shows it to have been a three-storeyed brick building, 
with a turret in half-timbered work. This building was 



pulled down and rebuilt with a sort of colonnade. A 
print dated 1838, from the Wigan Free Library, shows it 
so built. The same print shows a. small but somewhat 
ornamental building at the westerly corner of the market 
place, with outside stairs leading to an upper room. 
The 1848 plan of the town calls this structure the 
"Town Hall," and shows shambles below it. These 
buildings have both disappeared. The fish stones are 
shown on the 1848 map at the northerly end of the 
market place. 

The corporation seal (the central portion of which 
appears above) gives a charming representation of the Moot 
Hall as it stood (Baines says) in the reign of Charles II., 



230 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

but the architecture indicates a building of much earlier 
date, possibly of the time of Henry VII. Parker, in his 
Domestic Architecture, gives representations of many similar 
buildings in diiferent parts of England. Four wooden 
columns, forming an arcade of three arches, carry the 
building. A door from the middle of it opens on to a 
small balcony, from which, no doubt, proclamations were 
made. A cross, which we must assume to have been the 
market cross, is shown in a central position under the 
balcony. The cross is fixed into a pedestal, carried on a 
calvary of three steps. 

Considerable ambiguity exists as to the position of the 
original Moot Hall, to which many references are made 
in Mr. Bridgeman's history. In reading the following 
notes about this building, taken from his book, it has to 
be remembered that the rector was lord of the manor, 
and has always been an important person. Mr. Bridge- 
man says: — 

A charter was granted in the reign of Edward I. to John Maunsell, 
parson of the church of Wigan for a market and fair in that town and 
that the burgesses should have a " Merchant-Guild " with a hanse. 

"Porte-mote" [date about 1246]; a local court having jurisdiction in 
matters of trade ; hence, probably, the origin of the old Moot Hall lately- 
pulled down in Wigan. 

In the year 1598 there was a butcher's shop under the 
Moot Hall. 

A dispute occurred in 1618 between the town of Wigan and the rector 
about the "ffares, marketts, Leets, courts of pleas, and Moot Hall there." 
The fair was held on Ascension Day, market held every Monday, the 
other fair was held on S. Lukes Day (year 161 8). The use of the Moot 
Hall shall be common to the parson and to the Corporation for the 
keeping of their Courts. 

Bishop Bridgeman (1624) records that as it had been a use among the 
townsmen " to have that barbarous & beastly game of bear-baiting," at 
the wakes or on the day after, the bear wards went to the Mayor, James 
Pilkington, to ask leave to bait the bears on the market hill on the next 
Monday. 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 231 

Whatever may have been the original position of the 
market place, judging from the following description of 
the town written by Dr. Kuerden about the year 1695, 
the market place at that date would appear to have been 
in the place shown on the 1848 ordnance maps. 

After this you enter into Wigan [from the south from Warrington] 
and passing the Wall-gate bars you go by the Town Hall, under which is 
a Meal House . . . and on the left the church and a street called 
Hall gate at the end whereof stands a sumptuous building called the 
Parsonage. . . . Having passed the Market Place, on the right is 
the Mill gate. . . . Having passed the Standish Gate bars about a 
quarter of a mile, a little below a place called Mab Cross. 

The description goes on, "In this town are four open 
streets, a large market place with the old town hall." It 
may be that during the Civil Wars both the Moot Hall 
and Market Cross were destroyed, for Mr. Bridgeman 
says : — 

In the Civil War in 1643 the Earl of Derby was defeated after a 
desperate battle. . . . Finding that the inhabitants were warmly 
attached to the royal cause. Colonel Ashton ordered the outworks and 
foundations of the town to be demolished, and the gates and posts placed 
in aid of the works at the entrances to Standish-gate, Wall-gate, Hall- 
gate, and Mill-gate, were pulled up and destroyed. 

The Market Cross. — Sinclair, in his History of 
Wigan, quoting from a jury report of 1640, says: 
"Amongst the cases settled was *We find that Crosse 
shall sitt ffour houres in the Stocks at the Market Cross 
or else pay 3/3^.' " There may have been two or more 
crosses in Wigan. That shown on the corporation seal 
may have been the High Cross, as at Preston, and used 
mainly for official purposes, and another near the stocks 
in Wallgate, close to the Dog and Partridge Inn. Mr. 
Sinclair goes on to say that Thomas Laithwaite had a 
similar sentence passed on him for using "divers abusive 
words against Mr. Mayor that now is." 



232 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

Mr. Bridgeman writes: — 

In 31st Henry VIII. (1539) a serious riot occurred during the election 
of the Mayor, one of the rioters Gilbert Asheton exclaimed after the Mayor 
had ordered them to disperse "Yf the Meyre come agayne here to give 
any more commandments he shall have hys hede full of buffetes;" after 
which, calling all their company together they went to the church to 
mass, and from thence to the house of James Hyde and notwithstanding 
that the Mayor caused a proclamation to be made at the Market Cross of 
the said town, they continued the said riot and went from house to house 
"facyng and braggyng" from 9 o'clock in the morning until 2 o'clock in 
the afternoon. 

Lancashire men have always had a reputation for being 
robust and masterful. In April, 1598, some rioters were 
tried for an assault on the curate, Robert Thompson, 
'* Minister of Wigan." Questions were asked whether he 
was assaulted by the said defendants, struck on the head 
with staves, and his hat knocked off; also as to whether 
defendant Snarte called the said Thompson a " red-hedded 
knave," and said to him " Farewell and be hanged," or 
other such " disdainful speeches." 

Mab's Cross. — The remains of this cross are embedded 
in the footpath at the end of Standishgate. The street- 
level has apparently been raised, thus partially concealing 
the steps of the cross. Possibly, when some gas or water 
man has the pavement up, an investigation may be made 
to ascertain whether there is a long flight of steps or not. 
The steps carry a plain stone pedestal and the pedestal 
carries a portion of the shaft. A small green was at one 
time in existence on this spot. 

The romantic story connected with Mab's Cross is too 
well known to be given here in much detail. It has 
provided material for an interesting chapter in Roby's 
Traditions of Lancashire, and it is the basis of Sir Walter 
Scott's novel. The Betrothed. The tale is briefly told by 
Baines, quoting from the family pedigree at Haigh Hall. 
Haigh is about a mile and a half north of Mab's Cross. 






A::f! 






THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 233 

Sir William Bradshaighe, second son of Sir John, was a great traveller 
and a souldger and married to Mabell daughter and sole heire of Hugh 
Norris de Haghe and Blackrode and had issue in 8 Edward II. Of this 
Mabell is a story by tradition of undoubted verity that in Sir William 
Bradshaighe's absence (being ten years away in the holy wars) she 
married a Welsh Knight. Sir William returning from the wars came in 
a palmer's habett amongst the poor to Haghe, who when she saw and 
congetringe that he favoured her former husband, wept, for which the 
Knight chastised her, at which Sir William went and made himself 
known to his tenants ; in which space the Knight fled but near to Newton 
Parke Sir William overtook him and slew him.* The said Dame Mabell 
was enjoined by her confessor to doe penances by going onest every week 
barefoot and bare-legged to a crosse ner Wigan from the Haghe whilst 
she lived, and is called Mab + to this day ; and ther monument lyes in 
Wigan Church as you see them ther portry'd. 

The monument in Wigan Church, in memory- of these 
persons, represents Dame Mabel at the foot of the cross, 
and the two knights in deadly combat. 

Mr. Bridgeman describes the Bradshaigh Chapel, 
founded by Dame Mabel, widow of Sir William Brad- 
shaigh, in the year 1338. He sums up the romantic 
incidents connected with her second marriage, as given 
in Roby's Traditions of Lancashire, and he also gives 
another version of the story preserved in the Harleian 
MSS., 1563. 

However the two stories may differ in details they correspond so exactly 
in substance that we may be fairly sure that the legend is true. . . . 
Part of the old Haigh Hall which was pulled down in the time of James 
Earl of Crawford and Balcarres, Grandfather of the present peer, bore 
the name of "Mab's Gallery" in remembrance of Mabel Norris whose 
ghost was said to haunt it. 



Mr. Bridgeman says: — 

The old cross, still known as Mab's Cross of which only the lower 
portion now remains, is yet standing at the top of Standishgate, where 
Wigan Lane or the road to Standish joins it, and where the northern or 
Standishgate of the town formerly stood. 



* A stone near Winwick is called to this day "The Bloody Stone." It 
has red marks on it, and the legend is that the encounter occurred here. 



234 ^^^ ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

This old cross probably gives a name to the family of Crosse of Crosse 
Hall Liverpool and Shaw Hill near Chorley, who were possessed of a 
messuage and lands near this spot, held under the rectors of Wigan from 
the time of Edward IH. or Earlier as appears from their family evidences. 

Le Haly Welle, Wygan. — In one of the deeds of 
the .Crosse family of Shawe Hill, Chorley, of a date prior 
to the year 1293 {Historic Society of Lancashire and 

Cheshire, Transactions, 1889) these words occur: — 

• 

Grant from William fil' William del Sedheuyd to Adam de la Croz of a 
certain part of his land in the town of Wygan, called Le Haly Welle 
Kar. ... 

The **kar" — or, in modern language, car — would pro- 
bably mean a low-lying field, and would thus be near the 
river Douglas. Le "Haliwalle Karr" is referred to again 
in the same Transactions (p. 213 of volume for 1889) as 
"between the land of Nicholas de Tildesleye and the 
water of Dogles." 

The exact site of this holy well is not known, but it 
was presumably not far from the medicinal spring at the 
bottom of Millgate, called Harrowgate. The 1848 map 
shows the buildings connected with this spaw. 

The following description of it is given in England 
Described; or, the Traveller's Companion, 1788 : — 

Wigan Spaw, or New Harrogate is a strong sulphureous water, 
lately discovered in boring for coal in a field near the Scoles Bridge ; it is 
said to greatly resemble the water of Harrowgate in Yorkshire, only that 
it does not contain so much saline matter as that does, it contains a con- 
siderable quantity of a very fine sulphur; and has been found useful in 
most complaints for which sulphur waters have been recommended : it 
has been made use of in a variety of complaints, and frequently with good 
effect : amongst others the following may particularly be mentioned ; sore 
eyes, particularly those of long standing; old sore legs and other old 
sores; scald heads, the scurvy, itch and many other eruptions or cutaneous 
complaints scrofulous sores etc. ; in all these disorders patients have 
frequently been known to obtain a perfect cure by the use of this water. 
There is now a very elegant building erected for the use of those who 
resort to this spring, with convenience for drinking the water and for 
using it either as a hot or cold bath. 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 235 

Goose Green Cross. — At Goose Green, about one 
and a half miles in a south-westerly direction from Wigan 
Parish Church, the pedestal and portion of the shaft of 
a cross are to be seen in the playground of the National 
School, on or near the Roman road between Wigan and 
Warrington. 

Four Footed Cross. — This cross has long since dis- 
appeared, though it has given its name to the district, 
which is at the intersection of lanes with the main road, 
between Wigan and Warrington, distant three miles' 
south from the former town, and on the same Roman 
road as the preceding. Several Lancashire crosses are 
known by this appellation. "Four Footed" meaning, 
I imagine, that the cross had four footings or steps, that 
is, the three steps or calvary, and the pedestal; just as 
the walls of buildings usually have several footings, or 
projecting bricks or stones at the bottom. 

AsHTON Cross. — ^These words occur on the ordnance 
map at the intersection of roads at the north-western 
corner of Newhall Park and one and a quarter miles in a 
south-westerly direction from the ancient village of 
Ashton-in-Makerfield. The cross (which we must assume 
once existed here) has disappeared, but has given its 
name to the locality, once thoroughly rural, and chosen 
as the residence of several old Lancashire families, for 
four parks cover as many miles of country with hardly 
any break: Garswood, New Hall, Haydock, and 
Golborne. Now colliery chimneys blacken the sky with 
their smoke. 

The words "Tithe Barn Hillock" occur on the map 
one and a half miles west from Ashton-in-Makerfield 
Church. 



236 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

Newton - in - Makerfield Market Cross. — Baines 
states that the old Market Cross, on which were cut the 
arms of Legh of Lyme, was taken down in 1819. The 
town at the beginning of the nineteenth century consisted 
only of a long wide street, principally of whitewashed 
thatched dwellings. It returned, however, two members 
to Parliament until the Reforfn Act of 1832. 

Stubshaw Cross. — These words occur on the map at 
the meeting of roads near "Town Green, ' three-quarters 
of a mile in a north-easterly direction from the village of 
Ashton-in-Makerfield. The cross has gone. 

Inge Cross (near Wigan). — Mr. W. Ashton writes 
that this cross up to about sixty years ago stood a short 
distance from the old hall of Ince. There are a few men 
living yet who remember it, and one who helped to 
remove it to Westwood House, the residence of the lord 
of the manor of Ince. 

The Hillogk. — These words occur a quarter of a 
mile south-east from S. John's Church, Chowbent, and 
Boggart House a full mile south-east by east from 
Hindley Church. In this part of Lancashire, for a few 
miles to the east of Wigan, the maps record the names of 
no less than forty-three "Folds" or homesteads built 
defensively (moated or otherwise), some bearing fantastic 
names, as "Break Temper Fold," "Mort Fold," "Hag 
Fold," "Fish Fold." Although this part of the country 
is flat, two "Windy Banks" are to be found on the map 
not far from the village of Leigh. 

Stone Cross Lane. — These words occur on the 
map at the intersection of Stone Cross Lane with 



THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 237 

the main turnpike road between Newton and Leigh, 
indicating the existence at one time of an ancient cross, 
and about three hundred yards to the south-west of this 
corner stood the village stocks, called on the map 
"Locking Stoup." 

The following extract from the Chartulary of Cockersand 
A bbey relates to this district : — 

Grant in frankalmoign from Hugh de Tildesley ... of a portion 
of his land in Astley, beginning at the water which is called the Fleet, 
following the brook southward to the upper part of Limepit hurst as 
defined by the crosses which have been set there, thence following the 
Bruneaves southward by the crosses put there, unto the aforesaid water 
called the Fleet, saving the land of Albin and the Bradmeadow and 
Stryndes and the moiety of the riddings which are between the twisted 
oak and the fleet. . . . 



Upholland. 

This eagle's nest has always had a fascination for those 
who like to picture the far past in English history, for 
here was the baron's castle and a priory church. In the 
quaint old village some of the streets are too steep for 
vehicular traffic, and the whole place savours of antiquity. 
The height is so great that the ships in the Merse}-, 
sixteen miles off, can distinctly be seen. Upholland is 
three and a half miles west from the Roman camp at 
Wigan. 

Well Cross Brow. — These words occur on the 
ordnance map half a mile in a south-westerly direction 
from the priory, probably indicating the site of an ancient 
holy well and cross, but I could find no vestiges of either. 

White Cross. — These words occur on the ordnance 
map at a distance of half a mile in a north-westerly 
direction from Upholland Priory, at the meeting of White 



136 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

Newton- IN -Makerfield Market Cross. — Baines 
states that the old Market Cross, on which were cut the 
arms of Legb of Lyme, was taken down in 1819. The 
town at the beginning of the nineteenth century consisted 
only of a long wide street, principally of whitewashed 
thatched dwellings. It returned, however, two members 
to Parliament until the Reform Act of 1832. 

Stubshaw Cross. — These words occur on the map at 
the meeting of roads near "Town Green, ' three-quarters 
of a mile in a north-easterly direction from the village of 
Ashton-in-Makerfield. The cross has gone. 

Ince Cross (near Wigan). — Mr. W. Ashton writes 



THE ANCIENT CROSSE. 

the main turnpike road bet^ 
indicating the existence at one 
and about three hundred yarc 
corner stood the village st 
" Locking Stoup." 

The following extract from t 
Abbey relates to this district: — 

Giant in frankalmoign from Hugh < 
of bis land in Astley, beginning al Ihi 
following the brook southward to the 
defined by the crosses which have be 
Bruneaves southward by the crosses | 
CEilled the Fleet, saving the land of 
Stryndes and the moiety of the riddii 
oak and the fleet. . , . 



Upholi 
agle's nest has always 
: to picture the far p 
\ the baron's castle an 
lid village some of th 
r traffic, and the whole 
ght is so great that 
miles off, can distinci 
id a half miles west 



Cross Brow.— T1 

map half a mite in 

i priory, probably indie 

ill and cross, but I ecu! 

1 Cross. — These wo 
a distance of half ; 
'-om Upholland Fric 



236 THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF LANCASHIRE. 

N EWTON - IN - Makerfield MARKET CROSS. — Baines 
states that the old Market Cross, on which were cut the 
arms of Legh of Lyme, was taken down in 1819. The 
town at the beginning of the nineteenth century consisted 
only of a long wide street, principally of whitewashed 
thatched dwellings. It returned, however, two members 
to Parliament until the Reforfti Act of 1832. 

Stubshaw Cross. — These words occur on the map at 
the meeting of roads near "Town Green, ' three-quarters 
of a mile in a north-easterly direction from the village of 
Ashton-in-Makerfield. The cross has gone. 

Inge Cross (near Wigan). — Mr. W. Ashton writes 



244 PROCEEDINGS. 

It was in this period, from 795 to 850, that in all directions 
Irish monasteries were plundered by vikings, and books 
and relics carried off or destroyed; and, in the end, a 
strong Danish kingdom was established in Dublin. But 
Irish cloisters were entered by Scandinavian converts as 
well as by robbers. Among the poems ascribed to St. 
Columba, is one that refers to stone walls erected in the 
Termon of Durrow by three abbots, whose names were 
Tiwulf, Thorolf, and Heriolf. And monkish faceson high 
crosses begin to wear the heavy moustache that charac- 
terises the artistic work of the Vikings. Z<5omorphic 
interlacements are now seen to pervade Irish art, and to 
cover parchment and stone; but the "feeling" is frankly 
decorative, and offers no suggestion of any specific 
popular legend. The meaning of those intrecci and 
symbols that occur in the pagan-Christian decoration of 
Ireland was dealt with in much detail, and they were 
assigned to a Teuto-Scandinavian influence, to an under- 
lying Romano-Celtic influence, and beneath all to the 
influence of the Orient. 

At the conclusion of the paper, the President made some 
remarks on the subject, which were supplemented by 
Mr. J. J. Phelps. 

The following exhibits were made: Mr. Geo. C. Yates, 
stone axes from Hayti, New Zealand, and Solomon 
Islands, and two Jade axes from the South Sea Islands; 
Mr. A. Nicholson, Syrian stamped wire money and a 
series of coronation medallets; Rev. H. A. Hudson, 
photographs of Kilpeck Church, Hereford. 



Friday, April 12th, 1901. 

Meeting held at the Chetham College, Manchester, Mr. 
Charles W. Sutton in the chair. 



WIG AN, 245 

Mr. Henry Taylor read a paper on the ** Ancient Crosses 
and Holy Wells of the Hundred of West Derby." (See 
page 136.) 

Mr. R. Hamnett exhibited silver denarii of Galba and 
Trajan, a fragment of violet-blue glass found in a trench 
at Melandra Castle, also a fragment of pottery ornamented 
with concentric rings, &c. 

Mr. G. C. Yates exhibited a Scotch communion token 
of Ricartoun, 1744; a copper badge of an official in the 
French regal service, with the initials of Louis, reverse 
**M.P.;" also a token (matrix), obverse '*J. Watt & Co., 
Engineers, London and Soho, Birmingham," reverse 
'*Hong Kong Mint, China, 1814." 

Mr. S. Jackson sent a short communication on the 
discovery of a bronze-socketed celt at Pilling Moss, and also 
of the remains of a cinerary urn found in digging a sewer 
near Alfred Street, Lancaster. It was much damaged 
by the workmen. The incense cup was much compressed, 
like the urns found on Lancaster Moor some years ago. 
The urns are larger and much coarser than those from 
Bleasdale. 



Saturday, May ^th, 1901. 

A party of members visited Wigan, where they were re- 
ceived at the Free Library by Councillor Thomas Fyans, 
mayor of Wigan, Councillor J. T. Gee, J. P., ex-mayor and 
deputy-chairman of the Free Library Committee, Mr. G. 
L. Campbell, J. P., and other members of the Committee. 
Mr. Henry T. Folkard, F.S.A., borough librarian, and Mr. 
Henry Brierley, honorary secretary of the Lancashire 
Parish Register Society, were also in attendance. After a 
brief inspection of the library, and of the ancient charters 
of the borough, the part)' adjourned to the town hall, 



246 PROCEEDINGS. 

where refreshments were kindly provided by the mayor 
and ex-mayor. The fine series of maces, staves, and 
tankards was inspected with interest, and Mr. Folkard 
explained the elaborate heraldic decorations of the windows 
and ceilings of the council chamber. A move was then 
made to the parish church, where 

Mr. Folkard read a paper on the ** Wigan Parish 
Church." There was a church at Wigan, the late rector 
(Canon Bridgeman) says, as far back as King Edward 
Confessor's time, but of any subsequent rebuilding or 
restoration, there is no record extant till the year 1620, 
when the chancel was rebuilt by Bishop Bridgeman, at 
that time rector of the parish. The oldest parts of the 
existing church are the lower portion of the tower and 
the lower portions of the two turrets, with winding stone 
stairs leading to the roof on the north and south of the 
chancel arch, which are built of red sandstone like that 
used in the tower. The old tower is an immensely solid 
structure, the walls of which are nearly seven feet thick, 
as may be seen where it is cut through to connect the 
vestry with the choir vestry or robing-room for the choir. 
Mr. Bridgeman suggests it might have been used in very 
early times as a place of safety to which the inhabitants 
of Wigan could retire in times of public danger. The 
late Mr. Burland, of Poolstock, who was one of the con- 
tractors in the work of restoration, made notes of the 
church as he recollected it before it was taken down, in 
which he says that a number of carved stones were found 
built into the old structure, indicating the existence of 
former buildings of different dates as early as and earlier 
than the Norman period. An interesting specimen of one 
of these built-in antiquities is yet to be seen in the portion 
of a Roman altar, of which the head only is visible, and 
which was found during the alterations at the church in 



IVIGAN. 247 

1847 under the communion table, and was then built up 
into the splay of the east side of the window of the church 
tower which forms the north transept. The semi-effaced 
inscription to be deciphered on it is, however, of the 
seventeenth century. In 1845 the chancel and the 
Bradshaigh Chapel were taken down and rebuilt by the 
rector and the Earl of Crawford respectively. The body 
of the church was pulled down in 1849, ^.nd the restora- 
tion completed in 1850. The old tower was subsequently 
raised to make room for the clock. An engraving of the 
church as it was before the restoration will be found in 
Baines's History of Lancashire. The Bradshaigh Chapel, 
now the property of the Earl of Crawford, has an old 
history of its own. The original chantry attached to the 
church, and dedicated to St. Mary the Virgin, was founded 
by **Dame Mabel, widow of Sir William Bradshaigh, 
knight, with the assent of Roger, bishop of Lichfield and 
Coventry, Henry, earl of Lancaster, and John de Langton, 
rector of Wigan *' (1338). The Dame Mabel mentioned 
was daughter and heiress of Hugh le Norreys, lord of 
Haigh and Blackrod. Those acquainted with Sir Walter 
Scott's Betrothed, and with Roby's Traditions of Lancashire, 
will be familiar with the romantic story of her second 
marriage during her husband's long absence from home 
in the wars. What is left of this ancient cross (the base 
of a pillar and the lower portion of a four-sided shaft, 
much worn by time) stands at the top of Standishgate at 
the entrance of Wigan Lane. The tomb of Sir William 
and his lady will be found in the Bradshaigh Chapel, on 
the south side of the chancel, from which it is separated 
by a screen. The knight lies beside Dame Mabel, clad in 
a coat of mail, cross-legged, with his sword partially 
drawn from the scabbard on the left side, and on his 
shoulder his shield charged with two bends; she, in a 



248 PROCEEDINGS. 

long robe, veiled, her hands elevated and conjoined in the 
attitude of prayer. The church contains other monuments 
relating to the Bradshaighs and Earls of Crawford, the 
Walmesleys, and others. 

After visiting the old parish church, wagonnettes were 
provided to take the members to Upholland. Driving 
through Pemberton and Orrell, the party was received at 
Upholland Church, in the absence of the vicar, by Mr. 
J. F. Morris, churchwarden. The church is the finest 
ecclesiastical structure in the ancient parish of Wigan, 
and the members were particularly struck with the stately 
interior. If only the flat unsightly ceiling were removed, 
and the open-roof timbers (if, as is supposed, they still 
exist) were exposed to view, the effect would be vastly 
improved. The church was originally connected with 
the Benedictine priory of Upholland, and became a 
parochial chapel at the dissolution of the monastery. 
Only a wall or two remain of the old priory buildings. 
The church is situated high up on the hill, and as one 
stands by the side of the decaying walls of the old build- 
ing, the view from the churchyard is both extensive and 
beautiful. The old stone houses and the narrow winding 
streets, which climb still further up the hill, make 
Upholland unexpectedly picturesque. 

Assembled in the priory grounds, the party listened to 
the following paper, read by Mr. Henry Brierley : It has 
been found impossible, owing to lack of opportunity, to 
add anything to the particulars furnished by Dugdale in 
his Monasticon respecting this once not unimportant 
priory. As these, however, are not readily accessible and 
the documents are in Latin, it may be interesting to 
summarise what we find relating to the priory in his 
admirable work. Before doing so, however, it should be 
stated that Upholland Priory (or ** Holland," as it is 



\ 

\ 



WIG AN. 249 

locally termed) was situate on the highway from Wigan 
to Ormskirk, about four miles from the former, and on a 
commanding site. Such slender remains as exist are to 
the south of Upholland Church, and consist of one wall 
with a portion of a doorway still visible — the tracery of 
a window lying on the ground being no part of the 
priory building. Only one view of the priory of any 
degree of antiquity is known to exist. This is Buck's, 
engraved in 1727. The earliest document found in 
Dugdale is dated Lady Day, 1318., at Pontefract, and is 
addressed to "Walter, Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, 
by Sir Robert de Holland, Patron of the Church or 
Collegiate Chapel of St. Thomas the Martyr, of Holland." 
It sets forth that there had in former days been secular 
canons in the said church for worshipping God for whose 
maintenance Sir Robert had assigned certain revenues. 
But that Sir Robert considered it a position more suited 
for "religious" rather than "secular" men, having regard 
to its situation for fertility, especially as the secular 
canons had only been able to agree for a brief period and 
then left the place. And that on these grounds he had 
determined to establish there monks of the Order of St. 
Benedict, wearing the black habit, reserving the rights of 
patronage. And that in case of a vacancy in the office 
of prior the chapter of the priory should choose three fit 
members and present them to him, and from the three he 
should select the new prior. The next document is a 
royal charter dated at Lichfield, loth June, 1319. This 
sets forth that Bishop Walter had held a public inquiry, 
after due notice, "with great maturity," and that the 
commission had adopted the views of the patron (Sir 
Robert de Holland) that the priory was a suitable place 
for religious men, "monks of the Order of St. Benedict, 
wearing the black habit." And thereupon Bishop Walter 



250 PROCEEDINGS. 

§ 

proceeds to appoint ''Brother Thomas of Doncaster," 
who had been presented to him by Sir Robert de Holland, 
as first prior. And he institutes him and his brother 
monks to the number of twelve to the priory itself with 
the advowsons of Whicwerke (Whitwick in Leicestershire) 
and Childwall attached. But all pontifical, archdiaconal, 
and parochial rights in the churches of Holland and 
Childwall are reserved to Bishop Walter, and a payment 
of forty shillings, payable by Childwall Church to Holland 
Church, is also reserved to Lichfield. Provision is made 
for supplying a vacancy in the office of prior in manner 
already mentioned, and during vacancy the patron might 
appoint one of his servants as gatekeeper, who should be 
allowed during such vacancy food for himself, one horse, 
and one groom. And the monks were enjoined to pray 
for the souls of all for whom the original chaplains had 
the duty of praying — who in particular these were is 
unfortunately not stated. Of the history of the priory 
thenceforward we glean nothing from Dugdale until the 
time of its dissolution, when its revenues amounted to a 
net sum of 3^53. 3s. 4d., made up of rents in Holland, 
Markland, and Garston in Lancashire, but principally of 
tithes from Childwall in Lancashire and Wytewyke in 
Leicestershire. In 36 King Henry VHL John Holcroft, 
esquire, bought the site of the priory and all other the 
lands belonging to it (the field-names are all given and 
can still be identified) for ^^344. 12s. lod., the sum being 
calculated at twenty years' purchase on the rents. The 
only exceptions from the purchase being the church, 
the steeple and bells, a chamber at the west end of the 
church, a garden thereunto adjoining, and the churchyard. 
The members, in returning by another route to Wigan, 
were treated to a beautiful country drive in faultless 
weather. Leaving the main road, they proceeded by the 



WIG AN. 251 

new Roman Catholic College to Roby Mill, and on 
through Appley Bridge to Dangerous Corner. Thence 
the journey continued through Wrightington, past the 
estate of the Honourable Robert Gerard- Dicconson — 
whose park, with its handsome lake and preserves, were 
much admired — through the extensive village of Standish 
to Wigan. Mab's Cross and the Tyldesley monument 
were observed at the entrance into the borough, and the 
drive finished at the old coaching hostelry of the Eagle 
and Child, now known as the Royal Hotel. 

The mayor, in responding after tea to a vote of thanks 
to himself and the ex-mayor, intimated that many 
societies and associations had visited Wigan, and the 
universal opinion at the conclusion had been an expres- 
sion of surprise. No doubt they heard of Wigan from 
time to time as a somewhat black spot ; its charming 
surroundings had not always been described. Black it 
no doubt was beneath the surface, but all Wigan 's 
treasures were not deposited there. The library was 
second to none of any town of similar size in the 
kingdom, and the librarian second to none in his pro- 
fession. The Council of Wigan had done all they could 
to preserve antiquities of interest, and, whilst they should 
be glad to see modern improvements, there was a desire 
on the part of the town's authorities to preserve all that 
was possible of ancient relics. 



Saturday, May 18th, 1901. 

The members visited Colne and Wycollar. Having 
been received at Colne Station by Mr. Henry Hewitt, 
J. P., they were driven up to Colne Church. During the 
journey "Tum Hill" or Tumulus Hill, crowned by 
the remains of the permanent Roman encampment on 



252 PROCEEDINGS, 

"Caster Cliffe," was pointed out to them. At the Church 
they were received by the rural dean (the Rev. W. 
CHfford, M.A.). A member examined the little door dis- 
covered in the wall on the north-east corner of the chancel, 
and declared it to be a Norman doorway leading into the 
churchyard at one time. As both the north and south 
chapels were not built till the church was restored in 
1513, this may be accepted as correct, and is another 
proof that the rebuilding of the church under the com- 
mission of Mr. Townley (of Barnside) and Mr. Braddyl 
was a removing of the roof, and about half the upper 
part, and on that foundation building the present "late 
perpendicular" structure, according to the fashion of the 
times. The entrance through the tower and the newly- 
found Norman doorway are the best samples of De 
Lacy's church of the twelfth century. The "flowery 
cross*' in the Barnside Chapel also caused great interest. 
On resuming the drive "Walton Spire" was asked 
about, and immediately in front was "Winwall," now 
Winewall, conjectured to be the last "place of conten- 
tion" after the battle of Brunabergh. Making a detour 
of two miles to avoid the hills, they arrived at the back of 
Winewall village and in what was once the royal forest 
of Trawden. Here they had a view of Boulsworth, with 
its traditionary "kist of gold" waiting to be dug up 
from its side, and then suddenly dropped into the village 
of Wycollar, which, we understand, gets its name from 
" Y Calder," but a doubt was thrown on this by some of 
the members, who were under the impression that the 
main stream ran through Burnley. Here they examined 
the well-preserved and well-shaped "Pack Horse Bridge" 
and the well-worn foot bridges, with their immense 
stones of unusual length. Then they examined Wycollar 
Hall, with much criticism. As usual, the fireplace end 



COLNE AND WYCOLLAR. 253 

of the banqueting hall aroused most interest, and it was 
said of the little room on the right of the fireplace, ** It 
was used for guns and gunpowder to keep them dry, 
without danger, as in many other old halls." The mem- 
bers settled the question of where the "Italian porch," 
now at Emmott House, had been, viz., on the south side. 
The visitor turning to the left would go up the staircase 
and to the right into the banqueting hall. They could 
not settle the question where the oriel window with 
doorway had been, which is now to be seen at Trawden. 
The tale of the "Spectre Horseman'* had not the 
slightest effect on them, and, if fate or stormy weather 
had compelled them to pass the night there, no sleep 
would have been lost on that account. 

The ladies were pleased to hear that some old folks 
had been spoken to who had remembered the Misses 
Bronte coming down from Barnside ; also that Wycollar 
was the original of " Fern Dene" in Jane Eyre, and that 
the heights above were " Wuthering Heights." 

The conveyances having been sent round to Emmott, the 
members had a pleasant walk across the fields to the hall, 
permission having been kindly granted by Mrs. Emmott 
to examine the objects of interest. Having inspected the 
cross, which was generally agreed to be about the same 
age as Colne Church (twelfth century), they passed in 
front of the hall, the central fa9ade of which was agreed 
to be of the end of the seventeenth century or the 
beginning of the eighteenth. Then on to the "Hullown" 
("Hallowin") or Saints' Well, once famous for curing 
rheumatism and other ills. This famous and powerful 
spring gives the name to the place and family, Ea (Water) 
Mewt (Mouth). It was identified by one of the Society's 
now deceased members (the late Mr. T. T. Wilkinson, 
Burnley) as the " Ea-mot," where Athelstan made peace 



254 PROCEEDINGS. 

with the tributary kings, and certainly no place can 
show better claims. It will probably be considered the 
most interesting spot visited, and was rightly left to the 
last. On driving back, when nearing the station, Blacko 
Tower was seen on the right front, on the right of which 
, was Malkin Tower, and some distance on the left Rough 
Lea, both mentioned in Ainsworth's Lancashire Witches, 
and in front Pendle Hill. 

[The above is taken from a report furnished by Mr. 
J. T. Marquis. Reference may be made to vol. iv. of our 
Transactions for further particulars of Wycollar.] 



Monday, June loth, 1901. 

A party of the members visited Eccles. At the church 
the party were met by the Rev. Canon Cremer (vicar). 
Major Andrew, Mr. J. J. Phelps, Mr. Charles William 
Bayley, and other local members. Mr. Bayley acted as 
leader, and he and the vicar gave particulars of the 
ancient edifice, and pointed out the objects of antiquarian 
interest. 



Saturday, June i^th, 1901. 

On this date a number of members of the Society visited 
Poole's Cavern, Buxton, under the leadership of Dr. 
Boyd Dawkins, the President. Before entering the cave 
the party assembled in the museum at the entrance, where 
Dr. Boyd Dawkins made a few introductory observations. 
He said it would be noticed that the lower part of the 
cavern was dry, the reason being that the stream had 
found an exit at a lower level and forsaken its ancient 
channel. The earliest period when the cavern was 
used for purposes of habitation he could not tell. 
Some skulls had been found belonging to people of 



POOLE'S CAVERN, BUXTON. 255 

the Neolithic Age, but he had no proof that it was used in 
the Bronze or prehistoric Iron Age. Quantities of relics 
had, however, been found belonging to the period of the 
Romans and a little later. The chief interest centred in 
the fact that it represents a well-defined epoch in the 
history of this country, namely, that immediately after 
the close of the Roman period. 

Buxton was a fashionable spa in the time of the Romans, 
a small edition of Bath, connected with Manchester by a 
Roman road. The very name is the equivalent of Big 
Stones, the ruins of the spa left behind by the Romans. 
It is a strange chance that these relics in this museum 
should have been preserved in such abundance in the 
cavern. At the beginning of the seventh century the 
English swept over this district like a great destructive 
flood. That period of destruction marks the latest phase 
of the long period of anarchy lasting from the departure 
of the Romans, a.d. 410 till 613. It was at this time that 
the cavern was occupied by unfortunate refugees, who 
fled thither when their homes were destroyed. The 
articles found indicate that they were persons accustomed 
to a luxurious life — bronze brooches, some of very perfect 
art and workmanship, finger rings, and pins of various 
kinds made of bronze, fragments of Samian pottery, and 
articles of many different kinds illustrating the daily life 
of the period. Three coins of Trajan were also found. 
Amongst the animal remains there were those of the 
horse, the hog, sheep and goats, and the short-horned ox. 
The bones discovered are to be looked upon merely as an 
old refuse heap, as they were used for food. The horse 
was an exceedingly common article of food down to the 
close of the eighth century after Christ. The reason 
horse flesh was afterwards not partaken of was owing to 
an edict of one of the' popes, and the result of this 



256 PROCEEDINGS. 

prejudice was felt to-day. Among the materials of the 
refuse heap the broken pots form an important element. 
They are of the kind then in use for household purposes, 
and some were wine jars. 

Dr. Dawkins then led the way into the cavern, which 
was brilliantly illuminated, pointing out as the party pro- 
ceeded the different objects of interest, and the spots where 
most of the Roman relics were found. Poole's Cavern is 
said to derive its appellation from an outlaw named Poole, 
who is traditionally reported to have made it his place of 
refuge. It is stated that Mary Queen of Scots visited it 
during her sojourn at the Old Hall, Buxton, when she was 
in the custody of the Earl and Countess of Shrewsbury. 

Leaving the cavern, the party made their way to the 
residence, in Higher Buxton, of Mr. Micah Salt, who has 
excavated in many parts of the hills around Buxton, and 
has been rewarded by numerous finds of great interest. 
Such of the objects as had not been given to museums 
were neatly arranged in cases, and Mr. Salt attended to 
explain them and the circumstances attending their dis- 
covery. In one case were remains obtained from barrows 
of the Neolithic age, polished stone axes, and the like. 
In another were articles of the Bronze Age, socketed celts 
and palstaves, daggers, and similar implements. Another 
was devoted to the Deepdale Cave, the articles in which 
were of distinctly Roman date. They included brooches, 
some ornamented with enamel in colours, an art which 
had its centre in Northern Britain before the Romans 
invaded this country; some fragments of Samian pottery; 
a bit of glass teserae, bronze pins, Roman knives, an 
armlet, very perfect and of pretty design, and a series of 
Roman coins. An unusual find was a set of three articles 
in common use by Roman dandies and ladies for their 
toilet. 



CHESTER. 257 

Saturday, July 6th, 1901. 

The members to the number of sixty visited Chester. 
Mr. George C. Yates was the leader. At St. Mary's 
Church they were received by the Ven. Archdeacon 
Barber, who described the church and the fifteenth 
century roof therein, which has only been recently 
discovered. It is in a wonderfully good state of 
preservation. 

The Potter collection of antiquities in the Grosvenor 
Museum was next inspected. It was presented by Mr. 
T. S. Gleadowe in 1899. The collection, which belonged 
to the late Mr. Charles Potter, of Liverpool, is the labour 
of practically a lifetime, as that gentleman not only spent 
the whole of his spare moments in collecting these relics 
from the shores of the Dee, but he also employed a 
resident to search in his absence. It is very rich and 
varied in the objects it contains, and covers a very long 
period, from prehistoric down to mediaeval times, scarcely 
anything having been found of a more recent character 
than the latter. The older relics of prehistoric man 
consist chiefly of arrow heads and numerous other small 
implements in flint. Four of the arrow heads are of great 
beauty, two of them being the finest that have yet been 
discovered either in Cheshire or in North Wales. There 
are also remains of two wooden bowls, and a number of 
hones or sharpeners of this remote period, the latter ap- 
pearing to have been worn on the person, and fastened by 
means of a string or some such attachment. These older 
relics were naturallv found in the lower strata which from 
time to time is exposed by the high tides. Next in 
sequence are the relics of the Roman period, and these 
consist of coins, brooches, hairpins, needles, fishhooks, 
surgical implements, &c. Of the coins one belongs to the 

R 



258 PROCEEDINGS. 

time of Nero, another of Claudius I., and another of 
Constantine II. There are several other Roman coins, 
but in very imperfect condition and scarcely decipherable. 
The collection of Roman brooches (fibulae) is exceedingly 
fine; no fewer than five being of the harp type and richly 
enamelled, being quite different to any of the same design 
found in our own city. There is also a long series, 
varied in form and character, of the simple ring type. 
The hairpins are numerous and varied in design, some 
with the simple large rounded head, others sculptured, 
and others, again, with large rings attached. The latter 
type is not often met with in Chester. The needles are 
numerous and interesting. They are chiefly made of 
bronze, and were evidently manufactured from sheet 
metal. The fishhooks were also manufactured from the 
same material and in a similar way, and are almost 
identical with the modern article. The surgical imple- 
ments consist of three pairs of tweezers, each differing 
from the other in construction, but probably used for one 
and the same purpose. There is also a neatly made 
spatula, and another instrument that appears to have been 
used as a lance. Pottery is not extensively represented, 
but there is a perfect example of a large circular dish and 
a very small cup, both of which are in terra cotta. There 
is also an interesting fragment of a mortarium, bearing 
the potter's mark. Nearly all these Roman remains were 
found in the stratum knowA as the forest bed, and date 
back from the fourth century. The Saxon relics are 
somewhat difficult to determine from the others, but 
there are two shields belonging to this period, several 
knives, some keys, and a few other relics of equal interest. 
One of the shields is almost perfect, the umbo being of 
iron, the base work of leather, and the handle of wood. 
The concentric rings of bronze or iron studs are, however. 



CHESTER. 259 

wanting. This relic was much prized by its late owner, 
and we are informed that the authorities of the British 
Museum offered a very large sum for it when it was dis- 
covered some years ago. The second shield is less 
perfect ; it has the umbo and the outer iron rim, but there 
is no trace of the leather base work. There are several 
hunting knives and dirks, and smaller specimens which 
appear to be domestic knives. Other of these relics are a 
very imperfect spear head, and a portion of an iron sword 
blade. The keys form a very perfect series, and are 
manufactured in bronze and iron. Naturally the mediaeval 
things are much more numerous, and equally varied in 
their character. The ecclesiastical relics of this period 
are not the least interesting. There is a very good series 
of metal spoons, often spoken of as apostles* spoons. Two 
of these bear the following inscription: "Jesus Nazarenus 
rex judeorum ; " and a small brooch of the ring type bears 
the same inscription. There is also a portion of an 
osculatory. bearing an imaginary portrait of the Virgin, 
this probably belonging to the twelfth century. A metal 
band from a reliquary is inscribed **In God is all." The 
collection also includes a series of small crosses in lead or 
other soft metal, rudely cast, and probably worn as per- 
sonal ornaments. Another object which the late Mr. 
Potter much valued is a triple taper holder which has 
probably been used before a shrine. Then there is a 
pretty series of ampulae. These small vessels in soft 
metal represent on one side the pecten, and on the other 
in one instance the Jerusalem cross, and in another the 
arms of All Souls' College. There are also several other 
pilgrims' signs, including some from the shrine of St. 
James, of Compostella. The collection also includes a 
number of interesting agricultural implements, among 
which is an almost perfect three-ponged instrument 



26o PROCEEDINGS. 

resembling somewhat a modern fork. There is also a 
spade, made partly of iron and wood, with three other 
spades, showing the transition from the former to an 
almost complete iron spade. The other objects in this 
department are of somewhat doubtful character, but many 
of them are probably unique. There is a part of an oxen 
yoke, two wooden hammers, and an iron axe. The coins 
include seven Saxon specimens, the earliest of which 
belongs to the time of Canute (883-900), and the latest of 
Edward the Confessor (1042-1066). There is also a large 
series of English silver coins, the earliest being of 
Henry I. and the latest of Elizabeth. Some interesting 
Scotch money is also to be seen, the earliest being of 
William the Lion, Alexander II., and Alexander III. Not 
the least interesting is a series of halfpennies and farthings 
made from silver pennies. The coins also include two 
quarter nobles of Edward. The whole collection will 
well repay a careful inspection, as the designs of some of 
the objects are very cleverly brought out. 

[The above description is taken from the Cheshire 
Observer, 3rd June, 1899]. 

Mr. Newstead, the curator, acted as guide, giving much 
valuable information. 

Thence along the city walls to St. John's Church, the 
interior of which the Rev. Canon Cooper described. He 
then led the way to the beautiful old ruins of the priory 
church. 

The cathedral formed the concluding object of the tour 
of inspection. Here the Rev. Harold Wright, the pre- 
centor, gave a history of the building, conducted the 
party to the cloisters, the refectory, and the crypt, and 
showed the restorations now being carried on by the 
Duke of Westminster in memory of the late duke. 



ASHTON OLD CHURCH. 261 

Monday, August 12th, 1901. 

The members visited Ashton Old Church under the 
conductorship of the Rev. George A. Pugh, M.A., the 
rector, who at the outset read an interesting account of 
the church. The parish church of Ashton, he said, is a 
large structure, of the age of Henry V. (about 1413), 
dedicated to St. Michael, and it superseded an earlier 
fabric. Many of the Assheton family lie interred here, 
having become the patrons in 1427. In 1469 the church, 
then called the Chapel of Assheton, was repaired and the 
cemetery enclosed at the cost of Sir Thomas Assheton. 
In 1516 the church was enlarged, and a new tower 
erected. In 1792 the church underwent another repair. 
In 1818-21 the north side of the church and tower were 
rebuilt. While these improvements were advancing, a 
fire broke out in the interior of the church, on the evening 
of Sunday, March 31st, 1821, owing to one of the flues 
under the western gallery being overheated. The flames 
spread their destructive ravages to all the timber in the 
vicinity of the place where they originated, and before 
they could be subdued the valuable fine-toned organ was 
destroyed, and considerable damage was done to the 
nave. The south side of the edifice was completely 
restored in 1840-4. In 1845 an organ was presented to 
the church which cost one thousand guineas. The 
registers begin in 1594. 

After the reading of the paper the rector conducted the 
members round the church, and pointed out the objects 
of interest. The church has some valuable old stained- 
glass windows* well worth careful study. The tower was 
ascended, and some ancient carved stones built into the 
tower were noticed. The exterior of the church was 
examined, and some amusing epitaphs on tombstones 



262 PROCEEDINGS. 

were pointed out. The members then adjourned to the 
rector>' grounds, and after tea the parish registers were 
inspected. 

Mr. Yates announced that a most interesting discovery 
had been made by Mr. Tattersall Wilkinson at Broughton 
Hall, near Skipton. From time immemorial a number 
of small conical mounds have been known to exist in a 
field within a short distance of the fine old mansion. Mr. 
Wilkinson had examined ten of these mounds, and in 
each one a piece of wood, much decayed, was found right 
in the centre. At first it was thought that the wood 
formed the root of a tree that had formerly grown there, 
but on investigation it was found that the decayed wood 
was the lower end of a pile which had been placed there 
by the hands of man, and it is highly probable that 
they were put up in prehistoric times. The exact use 
of the piles has not yet been discovered, but a thorough 
investigation will be made shortly and the results made 
public. 



Saturday August lyth, 1901. 

The members visited Leek, and were met by Sir 
Thomas Wardle, Mr. Charles Lynam, the Rev. W. 
Beresford, Messrs. William Carr and Samuel Unwin, 
and others. The party drove to the remains of Dieu la 
Cresse Abbey. This abbey was built by Ranulph de 
Blundeville, sixth earl of Chester, at the beginning of the 
thirteenth century, and to it he removed the Cistercian 
or white monks from Pulton Abbey, Cheshire, where they 
lay too much exposed to the incursions of the Welsh. 
Little is now to be seen of the abbey, which was for a 
long period the centre of religious life for North Stafford- 
shire and East Cheshire. Some of the materials have 



LEEK. 263 

been used in the erection of the stables and outbuildings 
of the old black-and-white house which adjoined the 
abbey building. Built into the walls are many beautiful 
bosses of Gothic graining, gargoyles, copes, corbels, 
circles, two statues, a piscina, and a stone coffin with a 
sword and crozier carved on it. Through the kindness 
of Mr. Rennie, the members were allowed to examine 
both the exterior and interior of this beautiful old hall, 
and also the anchorite's cell which is situated in his 
grounds. Mr. Beresford gave some interesting particulars 
both of the hall and the cell. 

From the Abbey Dieu la Cresse the party were led by 
the Rev. W. Beresford to a fine rampart of earth in a field 
adjacent. That rampart, he said, was part of a boundary 
line running across the county, apd, indeed, across 
England. It appeared to have been first raised when 
Ostorius Scapula, the Roman general, having conquered 
the south-eastern part of England, ruled off by that ram- 
part the Britons dwelling in Cheshire, Lancashire, and 
part of Yorkshire and the north. That was about the 
middle of the first century. After the death of the 
Emperor Severus, the same line seems to have been used 
to divide the county into Upper and Lower Britain; and 
again, when the Saxons found it no less difficult than the 
Romans to subdue the men of Cheshire and Lancashire, 
the Roman rampart was used as the dividing line, being 
known as the Mark or March. Green, in his Making of 
England, says that the Middle English got their name 
of Mercians or Men of the Mark from their march through 
the Staffordshire moorlands; and that this was the Mark 
was proved by the fact that it not only ran in the direction 
pointed to by Tacitus, Dion Cassius, and Green, but also 
by the fact that not far away a brook trickling from it 
gave the name to Meerbrook or Marbrook. Such a mound 



264 PROCEEDINGS. 

was a poor defence in itself. But they noticed that 
adjacent earthworks spoke of a Roman station there; and 
another similar station occupied a place a couple of miles 
away. Moreover, south of Leek the line became known 
as The Wall, and at another place called Wall, in the 
south of Staffordshire, the oaken piles which composed 
such walls had been found and described in the Gentle- 
man^ s Magazine for 1797, pp. no, 112. A correspondent, 
who was writing on Offa's Dyke, had also pointed out 
that hollies were extensively used in such defences, and 
they had not only abundance of such hollies on the line 
north of Leek, but they had in the town the sign of an 
inn which reminded them of what had happened to 
inquisitive females who had been sent, perhaps, by their 
lords, to peep through them. 

The party was then conducted to a hermitage or cave 
in the red sandstone rock, and there was pointed out the 
living-cell, orator}', and storeroom of the hermit, his 
fireplace, chimney and door, and an aumbry in the 
oratory wall. The place next visited was an ancient 
British settlement at Abbey Green, where the end of a 
rocky promontory was cut off from the adjacent hill by 
a deep trench, and its outer faces strengthened by two 
tiers of perpendicular escarpments and an upper platform 
defended by a trench. This position he had only dis- 
covered a few years ago, and no learned society had 
previously visited it. The top area of the hill was a fir 
plantation, and of very ifregular surface, and the members 
agreed with Mr. Beresford that, a rich archaeological 
find might be made by excavating the mounds of ruins. 
The fragments of a mediaeval cross were pointed out, and 
the quarry in which for six years the monks of Dieulacres 
were hewing stone for their abbey. The floor of the 
superintendent monk's cell had been found some years 



LEEK. 265 

ago by Mr. George Hulme, and had led to the discovery 
of the camp above it. The tiles were still in situ, and a 
flagstone for a hearth in the middle of them. 

The old church was next visited, where a paper was 
read by Mr. Charles Lynam, F.S.A. The parish church 
of Leek is dedicated to St. Edward the Confessor, and 
originally built in the eleventh century. Owing to 
restorations of the building having been made at various 
times without any alteration to the original style of 
architecture, it now presents many styles — the tower 
being the oldest, which is of Norman design. There is 
also a plain Norman font in the church. In the tower 
hang six bells with inscriptions as follows : — 

(i) A. R., 1721. God be our speed. 

(2) Glory be to God on high. 

(3) Reverence my sanctuary. 

(4) Prosperity to all our benefactors. 

(5) Prosperity to this town. 

(6) On earth peace, goodwill towards men. 

Inside the church are various monuments and brasses, 
the most noticeable being a brass in memory of the 
Ashenhurst family. On it are engraved the figures — all 
kneeling — of John Ashenhurst and his four wives, together 
with his ten children. One monument, erected in memory 
of Thomas Osborn, who died April 21st, 1749, has the 
inscription : — 

As I was, so be ye ; 
As I am, so shall ye be; 
That I gave, that I have ; 
That I spent, that I had. 
Thus I end all my cost ; 
What I left, that I lost. 

In Sleigh's History of Leek a record is given of the vicars 
of this church from the time of King John down to the 



266 PROCEEDINGS. 

present. The old parish accounts contain some most 
curious and interesting information. For instance, of one 
of the vicars, Roger Banne, who was vicar for fifty-two 
years, and died 1619, there is an entry as follows: "For 
killing an urchin, 4d.; a badger, is.; my part of three fox- 
heads, gd.; getting and leading rushes for ye church 
against ye Bishop came, is. 6d." At the eastern end of 
the yard is a small upright stone to the memory of William 
Trafford, of Swythamley , esquire, the " Royalist," depicting 
a thrashing flail in his hands, a wheat sheaf at his feet, 
and the words "Now thus" at his head. The story con- 
nected with this is that the hall of Swythamley, where he 
resided, having fallen into the hands of some of Cromwell's 
troops, he bade his servants leave the place and take with 
them the horses and cattle to a small dale, now known as 
Solomon's Hollow, so called in commemoration of what 
proved to be a wise act on Squire Trafford's part. Having 
done this, he got all his plate and valuables together, and 
buried them in the barn, covering them with flags, on 
which he stood, dressed as a labourer, thrashing wheat 
when the soldiers came up to him and questioned him as 
to his master's whereabouts. The only answer he gave 
at each stroke of the flail being "Now thus," "Now, 
thus," which led them to suppose him some rustic idiot, 
who could not understand the danger his fellow-servants 
had fled from; and remained at his post in the barn. 
The trick, however, succeeded, and the "Ironsides" 
departed, leaving him unmolested. The Trafford family 
after that had on their arms a man thrashing wheat, and 
the words "Now thus." 

After tea the members proceeded to the William Carr 
Gymnasium. At the entrance is a bronze tablet with the 
following inscription: "This building, for the purposes 
of the physical education of the youth of Leek, is the gift 



LEEK. 267 

of William Carr, a native of the town. This corner stone 
was laid by His Royal Highness Prince George Frederick 
Ernest Albert, Duke of York, on the twenty-eighth day of 
July, 1900." Whilst in the building Sir Thomas Wardle 
read a paper on a pre-Norman carved stone found at 
Leek; also on a curious ceiling, which had been removed 
from an old house in Leek, and was carefully preserved in 
the gymnasium. He also alluded to the munificence of 
Mr. Carr, an old member of the Lancashire and Cheshire 
Antiquarian Society, who had handed to the Duke of 
York a cheque for 3^1,000, when the foundation stone was 
laid. A visit to the Nicholson Institute, under the leader- 
ship of Mr. Kineton Parkes, brought the meeting to a 
close. 



Saturday, September i^th, 1901. 

A party of the members visited Conway, and on arrival 
were met by Mr. W. Morrison Sever, who acted as leader, 
the Rev. Canon Henn, Rev. W. Pollock-Hill, and other 
local friends. They first inspected the fine old church 
of Conway, where the rector read an interesting paper 
thereon. An adjournment was afterwards made to 
Conway Castle, under the leadership of Mr. De la Motte, 
the borough surveyor, who conducted the members round 
the castle, and gave some most interesting descriptions. 
After signing the mayor's book, specially provided for the 
occasion, the party proceeded to Nant-y-Coed, the resi- 
dence of Mr. Sever, where lunch was provided for the 
party. After a ramble round the grounds, from which 
most extensive views of the Welsh hills were obtainable, 
Mr. Fletcher Moss was called to the chair, and a vote of 
thanks to Mr. Sever for his kind help and hospitality was 
passed, on the motion of Mr. Albert Nicholson, seconded 



268 PROCEEDINGS. 

by Mr. Richard Marsden. The party then returned by the 
Conway suspension bridge, and visited Plas Mawr, a fine 
old Elizabethan house, now the home of the Cambrian 
Academy of Art, of which Mr. Clarence Whaite is the 
president. The members were received by the curator, 
who described the works of art with which the building 
is filled. 



Friday, October nth, 1901. 

The opening meeting of the winter session was held in 
the Owens College Museum. The members were wel- 
comed by Dr. Hopkinson, the principal of the college, 
and Dr. Boyd Dawkins, the President of the Society. 
An interesting collection of palaeolithic implements was 
exhibited. They were contributed by Lady Constance 
Knox, the Hon. Auberon Herbert, Dr. Dawkins, the Rev. 
A. Dixon, Dr. Edward Willett, Messrs. R. D. Darbishire, 
F.S.A., W. Monkhouse, H. S. Thoms, Charles Roeder, 
and Henry Willett. 

Dr. Boyd Dawkins gave an interesting description of 
the exhibits and said: As President of the Lancashire 
and Cheshire Antiquarian Society, it falls to my lot at 
this opening meeting of the session to give something 
of the nature of a presidential address, and it occurred 
to me that I might usefully make some remarks about 
the recent discoveries of large quantities of palaeolithic 
implements in the south of England. 

The very earliest traces of man I know occur in the 
river gravel, and everywhere they belong to the same 
geological period, a period when some animals now 
extinct were living, but when the great mass of animal 
life was represented by still living species. The question 
is often asked whether these traces of man were before 



PRESIDENTS ADDRESS. 269 

or after the glacial period, but it is immaterial, because 
the glacial period is merely a local phenomenon, un- 
represented south of the estuary of the Severn and of the 
Thames. 

It is extremely dangerous to attempt to supply uses 
for these implements. I can only say, as Lord Avebury 
said, when asked to specify the various purposes for 
which they were made: "For what could they not be 
used?" The Hon. Auberon Herbert has recently called 
attention to the enormous quantity of implements 
found at Savernake. There are on the table three 
groups of implements which have been contributed by 
Mr.Willett of Brighton, Dr. Edgar Willett, and Mr. H. S. 
Thoms. Mr. Thoms found two hundred and ninety- 
five implements in the course of three days without 
having had any previous experience of the kind, and of 
these two hundred and ninety-two are flint. Some of 
these are very curiously polished, the effect of sand being 
blown over them by the action of the wind. There is 
a tray containing a fine collection, mostly got by myself 
some time ago in Somersetshire, and Mr. Darbishire has 
been good enough to contribute a few more. These are 
made of chert instead of flint. Implements of chert are 
found widely spread over Somersetshire. The implements, 
which have been battered about, probably belong to an 
earlier period than those with sharp edges, and were 
probably derived from an older bed of gravel. As to the 
numbers of these implements, there is no particular 
difficulty. In the course of ten thousand years, a tribe 
following the same route of migration would accumulate 
vast quantities. 

Why do we not find any of these implements in 
Lancashire? In Lancashire the glacial conditions were 
dominant. Nearly all the surface accumulations in 



270 PROCEEDINGS. 

preglacial Lancashire, when Britain was joined on to 
Ireland and the land extended beyond into the Atlantic, 
were swept away by the erosive action of the ice or by 
the action of the sea upon the sinking line of shore, 
leaving only two fragments, one at Northwich, and 
another near Crewe. They prove that the mammoth 
was here; with these exceptions every trace has been 
removed. Of course, during the time when Lancashire 
was covered with ice or with the waters of the glacial sea, 
man was absent. In the postglacial deposits of Lanca- 
shire there are no palaeolithic implements, while they 
occur in abundance in the southern and eastern counties. 
This is due to the existence of a barrier of a ice or of sea, 
which prevented migration. 

At the end of the table is a group of stones from New 
Zealand, which illustrate the effect of sand in cutting 
pebbles, cut into singular and almost geometric forms, 
merely by the action of wind. The unwary archaeologist 
would be inclined to put these down as artificial. 

Mr. Auberon Herbert has earned our gratitude by 
showing us what quantities of palaeolithic implements 
are to be found existing in the gravel pits of Hampshire. 
But, unfortunately, he has approached the question in the 
collection before us without due regard to the possiblility 
of nature having done a great deal of the work which he 
attributes to man. 



Friday, November 8th, 1901. 

At the monthly meeting, held in Chetham's Hospital, 
the President (Professor Boyd Dawkins) occupied the 
chair. 

Lieut. -Colonel Fishwick, F.S.A., read a paper on the \ 
"Old Castles of Lancashire." (See page 45.) 



s 






PILGRIM'S CROSS, HOLCOMBE MOOR, 271 

A discussion on this paper took place, in which Messrs. 
J. D. Andrew, Wm. Harrison, A. Nicholson, J. J. Phelps, 
and the Chairman took part. 

Mr. H. T. Crofton contributed a paper on the ''Origin 
of the Name of Hanging Ditch and Hanging Bridge." 
(See page 119). 

Mr. S. Jackson exhibited, a bronze-winged celt found at 
Scronkey Farm, Pilling Moss, also an oak block showing 
the axe marks. It was found under the horizontal logs in 
the small trench at Bleasdale. Mr. Samuel Andrew 
exhibited a bronze spearhead found at Piethorn, also a 
local perforated hammer stone. Mr. R. D. Darbishire, 
F.S.A., exhibited some interesting photographs of 
carvings on walrus ivory from Alaska. 

Mr. Harper Gaythorpe sent a short communication on 
a perforated stone hammer found on Walney Island. 

Mr. Henry Hewitt, of Colne, presented a series of 
photographs of Wycollar Hall and the four primitive 
bridges. 

Mr. W. Harrison reported that the base-stone of the 
Pilgrim's Cross, on Holcombe Moor, of which he exhibited 
a photograph a few years ago, had been wantonly and 
secretly destroyed. The stone was seen intact by the 
Rev. H. Dowsett, rector of Holcombe, on the 3rd August, 
but a few days afterwards it had utterly disappeared. 
Later on the fragments were found buried in a wet bog- 
hole not far away. The stone weighed perhaps a ton, 
and showed a cavity squared for the cross, which had 
long previously disappeared, probably at or soon after 
the Reformation. In very early documents allusions are 
made to this cross. Pilgrim crosse-slack, in the forest 
of Tottington, is mentioned in a charter dated from 
Ightenhill in 22 Henry II., a.d. i 176, and Pilgrim cross 
shaw is referred to in the charter of 1225, by which Roger 



272 PROCEEDINGS. 

de Montbegon granted land hard by to Monk Bretton 
Priory. Baines also refers to the cross as one where the 
pilgrims reposed themselves and offered up their religious 
services in their pilgrimages to Whalley. It was likewise, 
no doubt, very useful as a landmark, enabling travellers 
to keep the track which passes close by along the top of 
the moor. Endeavours were being made to find out the 
perpetrators of the outrage, and it had been suggested 
that a memorial stone marking the site should be set up 
and bear a suitable inscription.* 



Friday, December i^th, 1901. 

At the meeting of the Society, held in Chetham 
Library, the President (Dr. Boyd Dawkins) in the chair, 

Mr. William Harrison read a paper on "Ancient 
Forests, Chases, and Deer Parks in Lancashire." (See 
page I.) 

After the paper there was a discussion, in which Colonel 
French, Messrs. Fletcher Moss, Abraham Stansfield, 
Albert Nicholson, Leo Grindon, and the President took 
part. 

Dr. Boyd Dawkins exhibited on behalf of Mr. Sheard, 
of Heaton Chapel, a perforated stone hammer found at 
Heaton Chapel. Mr. A. Nicholson exhibited a bronze 
medal of Cardinal the Duke of York, grandson of 
James IL 



*This idea was afterwards carried out, the necessary funds being 
subscribed locally, and the memorial stone was dedicated to the public, in 
the presence of a large and influential company, on the 28th June, 1902. 
It is five feet in height, stands on a base-stone four and a half feet square, 
and has an inscription on each of its four sides. 



HISTORY IN DOCUMENTS OF TITLE. 273 

Friday, January 10th, 1902. 

At the meeting of the Society, held in the Chetham 
Library, Mr. George Pearson presiding, 

Mr. Charles Roeder read a paper on " Early and Later 
Mining at Alderley Edge." (See page 77.) 

A discussion followed, in which Messrs. W. Bowden, 
William Harrison, the Hon. Secretary, and others took 
part. 

Mr. G. C. Yates exhibited two stone hammers from 
Alderley. 

Mr. C. T. Tallent-Bateman read a paper on " Local 
History in Ordinary Legal Documents of Title." At the 
outset he remarked that an antiquary need not be an 
historian, but the best, the most trustworthy, of historians 
must be antiquaries. The antiquary supplies the material 
with the most generally interesting parts of which the 
historian builds his structure. The best historian is 
the one who (in margin or foot-note, or, as in Mr. Green's 
case, the .head note of chapter) gives his authorities and 
references ; and it will be found that these authorities and 
references are almost invariably the records of purely 
antiquarian or archaeological investigation and research. 
How important it is, therefore, that antiquarian research 
should be exhaustive, both in matters topographical and 
genealogical — for this furnishes or founds both county and 
national history. Most lawyers are antiquaries either in 
practice or in spirit, and the remainder are antiquaries 
unconsciously. This assertion particularly applies to 
conveyancers. Much of county and national history 
is made up from the records of litigation. How de- 
pendent the historian is, not only on " pipe-rolls,'' 
and " exchequer " and *' poll-tax " registers, but on 
chancery records and common law judgments and 
s 



274 PROCEEDINGS. 

pleadings ! It is the preservation of records that is now 
urged. It is the practice in most lawyers' offices for a 
periodical clearance to take place, when an accumulation 
of dingy drafts and of clients' correspondence is 
committed to the flames. " What I plead for," said 
Mr. Tallent-Bateman — "and I am addressing the pro- 
fession through this Society — is that such clearances 
should be as wide apart as possible, and that old papers 
should be carefully scanned before destruction. It is 
fortunate for archaeology and history that lawyers, like 
their predecessors the clerics, are generally conservative, 
and work less mischief than other business men in this 
direction. My fellow practitioners, however, I have 
reason to know, do not sufficiently realise what wealth of 
historical material lies in their cupboards and pigeon- 
holes, quite apart from their safes and strong-rooms." 
Such documents should not be published, of course, until 
at least a couple of generations after their date, when 
Statutes of Limitation will prevent any harm from being 
done to present holders of property, and when no one 
living may have his private affairs written or talked about. 
It would not be amiss if the Historical Manuscripts' Com- 
mission were directed or authorised to visit certain lawyers 
of repute, and courteously asked these to produce what 
was stored with them not known to belong to any client 
then living. The age of the record might be stipulated 
to be a minimum of two hundred years. The essayist 
gave numerous examples of local history formation by 
means of ancient conveyancing documents, not of public 
record. 

Mr. Harrison (also a solicitor), Mr. Sandbach, Mr. 
Phelps, and other members expressed their full agreement 
with the essayist, and gave other instances in point. Mr. 
Harrison, as an instance of the light documents of the 



HISTORY IN DOCUMENTS OF TITLE. . 



275 



kind might throw on questions such as that of the 
Hanging Bridge, referred to a deed dated March 25th, 
1789, relating to a field in Salford then called " Hanging 
Bank," and previously called the ''Hanging Half Acre." 
It was near the river Irwell, a little to the south of the 
New Bailey. 




APPENDIX I. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1901. 



Brierley (Alice), Sti Lancashire Parish Register Society, ii. 
Brierley (Henry). Set Lancashire Parish ReRisler Society, lo and ll. 
Brownbill (J.). Cheshire in Domesday Book, Tians. Historic Sociiiy of 

Laac. and Chis., n.s., xv., pp. i-z6. Mafr. 
Barnet (W. H.), Lancashire in the seventeenth century, Sunday 

Chroviclt, April 27th, 1901. 
Carr (Thomas), Blackpool as a health resort : with special reference to 

its climatological conditions. Manchester: A. Hey wood & Son, 190 



:ntli century, by C. 
and Ibe stik trade. 



inings, historical and 
North Wales, Edited 
iam Fergusson Irvine. 



The place- 


name 


Greasby. 






Cheater. 




hard 


Blundell 




•s, Witlon (OT 


ihe Chestii 


re D, 




.f Chester a 


ildCa 




MarrlaBe i 


rtslste 





cclesiastical Court of 
ike, M.A, [Salford], 

of Streltord in Man- 
jwnship of Stretford. 
ns. By H. T, Crofton. 



' BIOGRAPHY, t90.. 



t be puDUbii- 

■ the J",' 



e ist- 
An old Manchester library, Mamhtsin GumdiJl^'"^^'^'^- *''^"'^'' 

Ashworth (Thomas Edwin). A fraRment of TodmorlU'^ *■" 

morden; Fredk. Lee & Co.. 1901. iimii, pp. i(>. ^s' Ct jj,))er^ 183' 
Includes John Flcldon, ^f.]>., mA TodmunlQn mid Itie 

An account of the Todmorden poor-law ririlH of No\ 

and the Plug Plot of Autfiist, 1841. Todmorden, 1901 . . 

Axon (Ernest). Sie Kecnrd Society. 42. 

Axon (W, I£. . 
teenth centi 
61-69. 

Bailey (Sir William H.). See Mtiuchcsiir City Nrirs. 

i. Ihsi 

Bateman (Charles Tallenl Tallenl-). I^ngford and Edge l.n 

Reprinted from (he Strtlfatd TiUgrapli, May 24lh. 1901. 
Beeching (H. C). Provincial letters, ■■ Manchester '■ Corn, 



BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1901. 



277 






SO 



\. " 



iU 



U Sociely '- 

., Strctfonl 
mo, pp ^ 



Brakspear (Harold, F.S.A.). On the first church at Furness. Trans. 
Lane, and Ches. Antiq. Society, vol. xviii., pp. 70-87. Plans. 

Brierley (Alice). See Lancashire Parish Register Society, 11. 

Brierley (Henry). See Lancashire Parish Register Society, 10 and 11. 

Brownbill (J.). Cheshire in Domesday Book. Trans. Historic Society of 
Lane, and Ches., n.s., xv., pp. 1-26. Map. 

Burnet (W. H.), Lancashire in the seventeenth century. Sunday 
Chronicle, April 27th, 1901. 

Carr (Thomas). Blackpool as a health resort: with special reference to 
its climatological conditions. Manchester: A. Heywood & Son, 190 
i2mo, pp. viii, 79. 



Cash (Sarah). See Cheshire Notes and Queries. 



New 



\ 



Cheshire Notes and Queries. Edited by William Astle. Vol. v., pt. 4. 

and enlarged edition. Stockport: Swain & Co., 1 900-1. 4to. 

Principal Contents. — Middlewich during the nineteenth century, by C. 
Frederick Lawrence. Cheshire Freemasonry. Stockport and the silk trade. 
Mark Yarwood. A legend of Alderley. William Lewins, the highwayman. 
Henry Bradshaw, the Cheshire poet, by Charles F. Forshaw. A former 
Cheshire clergyman (the Rev. Thurstan Forshaw). Duttons of Dutton. Knuts- 
ford and its surroundings some sixty years ago, by Sarah Cash. Cheshire 
customs, idioms, metaphors, and proverbs, by Robert Holland. 

Cheshire Sheaf. Third series. Being local gleanings, historical and 

antiquarian, relating to Cheshire, Chester, and North Wales. Edited 

by the Rev. Francis Sanders, M.A., and William Fergusson Irvine. 

Reprinted, after revision and correction, from the Chester Courant. 

Vol. iii., January, 1899, to January, 1900. Chester: The Chester 

Courant Offices, 1901. la. 8vo, pp. iv, 161. 

Principal Contents.— Deans of Chester. Documents relating to Nether 
Peover. Cheshire clergy in 1559. Roman Catholic martyrs at Chester in 1679. 
The chapel and parsonage hall of S. N icholas, Chester. Audlem Free Grammar 
School, by W. F. Irvine. Story of George Marsh. The place-name Greasby. 
Early Nonconformity in Cheshire, by W. F. Irvine. James II. at Chester. 
Bishop George Lloyd. The Parliamentary election, 1727. Richard Blundell, 
the collier artist of Neston, by G. Gleave. Cheshire martyrs. Witton (or 
Northwich) Grammar School. Some notes on the Cheshire Domesday. 
Pedigree of the Barrows of Barrow, etc., as sheriflfs of Chester and Cambridge. 
Backford parish. Political riot at Nantwich, 1734. Marriage registers of St. 
Oswald's, Chester. The Grosvenours of Hulme. Bishop Lloyd's house. Min- 
shull and Torbock. Randle Holme's notes on Cheshire churches. The Bolds 
of Upton. Monumental inscriptions in Bidston Church. The town and port of 
Great Neston. 

Chatham Society, n.s., 44. Act book of the Ecclesiastical Coiirt of 
Whalley, 1510-1538. Edited by Alice M. Cooke, M.A. [Salford], 
1 901. 4to. 

■ n.s., 45- A history of the ancient chapel of Stretford in Man- 
chester parish. Including sketches of the township of Stretford, 
together with notices of local families and persons. By H. T. Crofton. 
Vol. 2. [Salford], 1901. 4to. Illns. 



>onc Sochly 




^78 BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1901. 

C[okayne] (G. E.), editor. Complete baronetage. Exeter, 1900. 8vo, 
pp. xvi, 276. Contains the following : — 

Vol. I (1611-1625): Assheton or Ashton of Great Lever. Booth or Bouthe 
of Dunham Massey. Cholraondeley of Chomondeley. Delves of Doddington. 
Egerton of Egerton. Fitton or Phytton of Gaws worth. Gerard or Gerrard of 
Bryn. Grosvenor of Eaton. Hoghton or Houghton of Hoghton Tower. 
Molyneux of Sefton. Savage of Rock Savage. Wilbraham of Woodhey. 

Cooke (Alice M.). See Chetham Society, n.s., 44. 

Cooper (Rev. Canon Thos. John). George Preston and Cartmel Priory 
Church. Trans. Historic Society of Lane, and dies., n.s., xv., pp. 221-227. 

Creighton (Bishop Mandell). Story of some English shires. London: 
Religious Tract Society [1901] . pp. 348. 

Contains: Lancashire, pp. 163-180; Cheshire, pp. 181-194. 

Crewe Hall, seat of the Earl of Crewe. Country Life, vol. xi., pp. 400-11. 

Crofton (H. T.). See also Chetham Society, n.s., 45, Manchester City 
News, and Lancashire Parish Register Society. 

Dawkins (W. Boyd, D.Sc, F.R.S., F.S.A.). On the exploration of pre- 
historic sepulchral remains of the bronze age at Bleasdale, by S. 
Jackson. Trans, Lane, and Ckes. Antiq. Society, vol. xviii., pp. 114-124. 
Plan and illus. 

Dowsett (Henry). Notes on Holcombe. Manchester: John Heywood, 
i2mo, pp. 142. Illus. 

Dutton family. Memorials of the Duttons of Dutton in Cheshire, with 
notes respecting the Sherborne [Gloucestershire] branch of the family. 
London, 1901. 4to, pp. xxvi, 296. Ports, and illus. 

Endowed Charities (County of Lancaster). Return and digest of endowed 
charities [Parishes of Dalton-in-Furness, Leigh, Middleton, Mossley, 
Radcliffe, Bury, Hawkshead, Penwortham, Ulverston, Whalley, Win- 
wick, and Ashton-under-Lyne] . London : Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1900. 

Evans (Horace C). Records of the Fourth Volunteer Battalion Man- 
chester Regiment. [Manchester, 1901.] 8vo, pp. 227. 

Farrer (William). Domesday survey of North Lancashire, etc. Trans. 
Lane, and Chcs. Antiq. Society, vol. Xviii., pp. 88-113. Maps. 

Fishwick (Henry). A genealogical memorial of the family of Buckley of 
Derby and Saddleworth. . . Privately printed, 1900. 4to, pp. 38. 

Hesketh of Cheshire. Notes and Queries, ninth s., viii. 371. 

Note on a discovery of sepulchral urns in Bleasdale. Proc. Society 

Antiq., second s., xviii., pp. 33-34. 

Fleetwood. Official guide to Fleetwood. Fleetwood: Chronicle Office, 
Albert Square [ 1 901]. ob. 4to. Illus. 

Fletcher (Robert J.). A short history of Hazel Grove. Stockport: Hurst 
Bros., Mottram Street, 1901. i2mo, pp. [iv]. 64. Ports, and illus. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1901. 279 

Forshaw (Chas. F.) See Cheshire Notes and Queries. 

Gaythorpe (Harper). Prehistoric implements in Furness and Cartmel. 
Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian Society, xvi., pp. 152-156. 

Gleave (George). See Cheshire Sheaf. 

HamiU (Isabel Maude). The story of John Byrom, author of " Christians, 
awake!" Good Words, igoi. pp. 802-7. 

Harrod (Henry D.). A defence of the liberties of Chester, 1450. Arch., 
Ivii., pp. 71-86. 

Origin of the Chester Rows. Chester and N. Wales Archaological 

and Historic Society, 1901 . 

Heywood (Nathan). Lodge of Friendship, No. 44, Bye-laws and history. 
Manchester: Geo. W. Pilkington & Co., 1901. 8vo, pp. 23. 

Historical Manuscripts Commission. Report on the manuscripts of . . 

the Duke of Portland, K.G., preserved at Welbeck Abbey. Vol. vii. 

London, 1901. 8vo, pp. xxii, 272, 390, 391, etc. 

Consists of letters written by Dr. William Stratford, son of Dr. Nicholas 
Stratford, warden of the Manchester Collegiate Church, in which are some 
references to the struggle in relation to the wardenship of Manchester College 
(pp. xxii, 272, 390, 391, etc.). 

Hollins (Norman). Bibliography of Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquities 
and Biography. Publications during 1900. Trans. Lane, and Ches. 
Antiq. Society, vol. xviii., pp. 165-176. 

Hope (W. H. St. John). The abbey of St.-Mary-in-Furness, Lancashire. 
Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian Society, xvi.. pp. 221-302. 

Howard (Joseph Jackson) and Crisp (Frederick Arthur). Visitation of 

England and' Wales. Vol. ix. Privately printed, 1901. fol. 

Includes pedigrees of Gerard of Bryn, co. Lancashire, and Brocklebank of 
Liverpool. 

Hughes (T. Cann). Discoveries at Bleasdale. British Archaological Asso- 
ciation, 1901. 8vo. 

Irvine (William F.). Some old halls in Wirral. British Archaological 
Association, 1901. 8vo. 

Jackson (Shadrach). See Dawkins (W. Boyd). 

Jacques (Rev. K.). See Lancashire Parish Register Society, ii. 

Johns (Rev. W. S.). The church and parish of Plemstall. . . Chester 
and N. Wales Archaological and Historic Society, 1900. 

Kent (Philip). Darcy Lever. [The last male representative of the 
Levers of Alkrington.] Notes and Queries, ninth series, vii., pp. 1-3. 

Lancashire Faces and Places, vol. i. Manchester. Among the articles are 

the following (illustrated): — 

Burnley. Sir J. W. Maclure, obituary. Bolton-le-Moors. Hope Chapel, 
Salford. Owens College. Mrs. Gaskell and Knutsford. Baldingstone House, 
Bury (birthplace of Samuel Kay, M.D.). Reuben Spencer. Lord Crawford's 
manuscripts. Bamford Chapel. 



28o BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1901. 

Lancashire Parish Raster Society. 9. The registers of St. James. 
Didsbnry. . . Christenings, burials, and weddings, 1 561-1737. 
Transcribed and edited by H. T. Crofton and the Rev. E. Abbey 
Tindall. Part ii. Wigan, 1901. 8vo, pp. [iv]. 251-497 [11]. 

10. The registers of the Parish Church of Bury. Vol. ii.. 



Christenings, burials, and weddings. 1617-1646. Transcribed and 
edited by the late Rev. W. J. Lowenberg and Henry Brierley. 
Rochdale, 1901. 8vo, pp. vi, 207-467. 

II. The rasters of the Parish Church of Brindle. . , 



Christenings, burials, and weddings. 1 558-1714. Transcribed and 
edited by the Rev. K. Jacques and Henry Brierley. The indexes by 
Alice Brierley. Rochdale. 1901. 8vo, pp. vii. 272. 

Lancaster. Duchy. List of the records of the Duchy of Lancaster 
preserved in the Public Record Ofl&ce. London. 1901. fol.. pp. viii, 
142. Public Record Office Lists and Indax.s, 14. 

Lawrence (C. Frederick). See Cheshire Notes and Queries. 

Lowenberg (Rev. W. J.). See Lancashire Parish Register Society, 10. 

Mc. Knight (Edward). Myles Standish. ChotUy Library Journal, 1900-1.. 
December, March, and June. Port. 

McLean (John) and Hewitt (A.). Fifty years of the Compstall Co- 
operative Industrial Society Limited, 1851-1901. A souvenir of the 
Jubilee celebration. Manchester: Co-operative Wholesale Society, 
1901. i2mo. pp. [iv] . 98. Illus. 

Maclure (Very Rev. Edward C). See Oesterley (W. O. E.) 

Madan (Falconer, M.A.). The Gresleys of Drakelowe. Oxford, 1899. 
4to, pp. xi, 335. 

Contains an account of the Grellys, barons of Manchester. 

Manchester Amateur Photographic Society. A photographic survey of 
Manchester and Salford. Two hundred and thirty- two photographs, 
1 892-1900. A description and list of plates appeared in the Manchester 
Public Free Libraries' Quarterly Record, vol. v., pp. 32-34. Sets of these 
photographs have been presented by the society to the Free Reference 
Library, King Street, and the Peel Park Library, Salford. 

Manchester City News. The following articles have appeared during 

I 901 : — 

Richard C. Christie, obituary (January 12). Cateaton Street, origin of name, 
by Charles Roeder (January 19). Sir J. W. Maclure, obituary (February 2). 
Failsworth, by P. P[ercival] (March 2, 16, April 13). Mayes' Charity, by Fletcher 
Moss (March 30). Sea work on the Lancashire coast. Double stanner at 
St. Annes-on-the-Sea, by Henry T. Crofton (April 6). Reuben Spencer, obituary 
(May 25). Fairfield, by P. P[ercival] (July 6, 13, 20). "King Edward held 
Salford," by Sir W. H. Bailey (July 20). Memories of old Cheetham Hill, by 
P. P[ercival] (November 23, December 7, 21). 

Moore (Colonel John). Catalogue of the collection of documents, letters, 
papers, etc., of Col. John Moore, of Bank Hall, Liverpool . . one 



BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1901. 281 

of the Regicides, to which additions were . . made by Sir John 
Moore, of Kentwell, Suffolk . . also a collection of deeds principally 
relating to Liverpool, Lancashire, Cheshire, etc., 1400-1600. . . Sold 
by auction . . 1901. London. 8vo, pp. 51. Articles on this 
collection appeared in the Liverpool Mercury of November 19th and 
2ist, 1901. 

Mortimer (John). Robert Langton: in memoriam. Manchester Quarterly, 
vol. XX., pp. 1-12. Port. 

Mosleys of Manchester. Manchester Guardian, July 13th. 

Moss (Fletcher). Pilgrimages in Cheshire and Shropshire. Manchester, 

igoi. la. Svo, pp. xviii, 283. Illus, Contains the following Cheshire 

places illustrated and described : — 

Dutton Hall, Bunbury Church, Beeston Castle, Utkynton Hall, Alford, Farn- 
don, Holt, Malpas, Shocklach, Vale Royal, Tabley Old Hall, Gawsworth, Speke, 
Baguley, Hawthorne, Chorley, Soss Moss, Peover, Cheadle and Prestbury, and 
Over. 

See Manchester City News. 



Newstead (Robert). Antiquities found in the north-western end of the 
Wirral peninsula. Chester and N. Wales Archaological and Historic 
Society, 1900. 

Discoveries of Roman antiquities at Chester. Reliquary and Illus- 



trated Archaologist, vol. vii., pp. 45-51. Illus. 

Roman remains in Chester. British Archaological Association, 

1901. Svo. 

Oesterley (W. O. E.). Walks in Jewry. With a preface by the Very 
Rev. Edward C. Maclure, D.D., dean of Manchester. London, 1901. 
Svo, pp. viii, 84. Illus. 

Contains an article on S. Saviour's, Cheetham. 

Owen (J. P.). Dutton family. Notes and Queries, ninth s., vii., pp. 433-4. 

Peet (Henry). Notefe on the churches of St. George and St. John, 
Liverpool. Trans. Historic Society of Lane, and Ches.y n.s., xv., pp. 27-44. 
Jllns. 

Percival (Percival). Failsworth folk and Failsworth memories. Re- 
miniscences associated with Ben Brierley's native place. Manchester: 
G. Hargreaves, 45a, Market Street, 1901. la. Svo, pp. 44. Ports, and 
illus. 

See Manchester City News. 



Pilkington (John). Origin of the name Pilkington. Trans. Historic Society 
of Lane, and Ches., n.s., xv., pp. 229-232. 

Price (William P.). Notes on some of the places, traditions, and folk-lore 
of the Douglas Valley. Trans. Historic Society of Lane, and Ches., n.s., 
XV., pp. 183-220. Map and illus. 



^78 BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1901. 

C[okayne] (G. E.), editor. Complete baronetage. Exeter, 1900. 8vo, 

pp. xvi, 276. Contains the following : — 

Vol. I (1611-1625): Assheton or Ashton of Great Lever. Booth or Bouthe 
of Dunham Massey. Cholmondeley of Chomondeley. Delves of Doddington. 
Egerton of Egerton. Fitton or Phytton of Gawsworth. Gerard or Gerrard of 
Bryn. Grosvenor of Eaton. Hoghton or Houghton of Hoghton Tower. 
Molyneux of Scfton. Savage of Rock Savage. Wilbraham of Woodhey. 

Cooke (Alice M.). See Chetham Society, n.s., 44. 

Cooper (Rev. Canon Thos. John). George Preston and Cartmel Priory 
Church. Trans. Historic Society of Lane, and Ches., n.s., xv., pp. 221-227. 

Creighton (Bishop Mandell). Story of some English shires. London: 
Religious Tract Society [190 1] . pp. 348. 

Contains: Lancashire, pp. 163-180; Cheshire, pp. 181-194. 

Crewe Hall, seat of the Earl of Crewe. Country Life, vol. xi , pp. 400-11. 

Crofton (H. T.). See also Chetham Society, n.s., 45, Manchester City 
News, and Lancashire Parish Register Society. 

Dawkins (W. Boyd, D.Sc, F.R.S., F.S.A.). On the exploration of pre- 
historic sepulchral remains of the bronze age at Bleasdale, by S. 
Jackson. Trans. Lane, and Ches. Antiq. Society, vol. xviii., pp. 114-124. 
Plan and illus. 

Dowsett (Henry). Notes on Holcombe. Manchester: John Heywood, 
i2mo, pp. 142. Illus. 

Dutton family. Memorials of the Duttons of Dutton in Cheshire, with 
notes respecting the Sherborne [Gloucestershire] branch of the family. 
London, 1901. 4to, pp. xxvi, 296. Ports, and illus. 

Endowed Charities (County of Lancaster). Return and digest of endowed 
charities [Parishes of Dalton-in-Furness, Leigh, Middleton, Mossley, 
Radcliffe, Bury, Hawkshead, Penwortham, Ulverston, Whalley, Win- 
wick, and Ashton-under-Lyne] . London : Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1900. 

Evans (Horace C). Records of the Fourth Volunteer Battalion Man- 
chester Regiment. [Manchester, 1901.] Svo, pp. 227. 

Farrer (William). Domesday survey of North Lancashire, etc. Trans. 
Lane, and Ches. Antiq. Society, vol. Xviii., pp. 88-113. Maps, 

Fishwick (Henry). A genealogical memorial of the family of Buckley of 
Derby and Saddleworth. . . Privately printed, 1900. 4to, pp. 38. 

Hesketh of Cheshire. Notes and Qwries, ninth s., viii. 371. 

Note on a discovery of sepulchral urns in Bleasdale. Proc. Society 

Antiq., second s., xviii., pp. 33-34. 

Fleetwood. Official guide to Fleetwood. Fleetwood: Chronicle Office. 
Albert Square [1901] . ob. 4to. Illus. 

Fletcher (Robert J.). A short history of Hazel Grove. Stockport: Hurst 
Bros., Mottram Street, 190 1. i2mo, pp. [iv]. 64. Ports, and illus. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1901. 279 

Forshaw (Chas. F.) See Cheshire Notes and Queries. 

Gaythorpe (Harper). Prehistoric implements in Furness and Cartmel. 
Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian Society, xvi., pp. 152-156. 

Gleave (George). See Cheshire Sheaf. 

Hamill (Isabel Maude). The story of John Byrom, author of " Christians, 
awake!" Good Words, 1901. pp. 802-7. 

Harrod (Henry D.). A defence of the liberties of Chester, 1450. Arch., 
Ivii., pp. 71-86. 

Origin of the Chester Rows. Chester and N. Wales Archaological 

and Historic Society, 1901 . 

Heywood (Nathan). Lodge of Friendship, No. 44, Bye-laws and history. 
Manchester: Geo. W. Pilkington & Co., 1901. 8vo, pp. 23. 

Historical Manuscripts Commission. Report on the manuscripts of . . 

the Duke of Portland, K.G., preserved at Welbeck Abbey. Vol. vii. 

London, 1901. 8vo, pp. xxii, 272, 390, 391, etc. 

Consists of letters written by Dr. William Stratford, son of Dr. Nicholas 
Stratford, warden of the Manchester Collegiate Church, in which are some 
references to the struggle in relation to the wardenship of Manchester College 
(pp. xxii, 272, 390, 391, etc.). 

Hollins (Norman). Bibliography of Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquities 
and Biography. Publications during 1900. Trans. Lane, and Ches. 
Antiq. Society, vol. xviii., pp. 165-176. 

Hope (W. H. St. John). The abbey of St.-Mary-in-Furness, Lancashire. 
Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian Society, xvi., pp. 221-302. 

Howard (Joseph Jackson) and Crisp (Frederick Arthur). Visitation of 

England and' Wales. Vol. ix. Privately printed, 1901. fol. 

Includes pedigrees of Gerard of Bryn, co. Lancashire, and Brocklebank of 
Liverpool. 

Hughes (T. Cann). Discoveries at Bleasdale. British Archaological Asso- 
ciation, 1901. 8vo. 

Irvine (William F.). Some old halls in Wirral. British Archaological 
Association, 1901. 8vo. 

Jackson (Shadrach). See Dawkins (W. Boyd). 

Jacques (Rev. K.). See Lancashire Parish Register Society, 11. 

Johns (Rev. W. S.). The church and parish of Plemstall. . . Chester 
and N. Wales Archaological and Historic Society, 1900. 

Kent (Philip). Darcy Lever. [The last male representative of the 
Levers of Alkrington.] Notes and Queries, ninth series, vii., pp. 1-3. 

Lancashire Faces and Places, vol. i. Manchester. Among the articles are 

the following (illustrated): — 

Burnley. Sir J. W. Maclure, obituary. Bolton-le-Moors. Hope Chapel, 
Salford. Owens College. Mrs. Gaskell and Knutsford. Baldingstone House, 
Bury (birthplace of Samuel Kay, M.D.). Reuben Spencer. Lord Crawford's 
manuscripts. Bamford Chapel. 



28o BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1901. 

Lancashire Parish Register Society, 9. The registers of St. James, 
Didsbury. . . Christenings, burials, and weddings, 1 561-1757. 
Transcribed and edited by H. T. Crofton and the Rev. E. Abbey 
Tindall. Part ii. Wigan, 1901. 8vo, pp. [iv]. 251-497 [11]. 

10. The registers of the Parish Church of Bury. Vol. ii.. 



Christenings, burials, and weddings, 1617-1646. Transcribed and 
edited by the late Rev. W. J. Lowenberg and Henry Brierley. 
Rochdale, 1901. 8vo, pp. vi, 207-467. 

II. The registers of the Parish Church of Brindle. . . 



Christenings, burials, and weddings, 1558-1714. Transcribed and 
edited by the Rev. K. Jacques and Henry Brierley. The indexes by 
Alice Brierley. Rochdale, 1901. 8vo, pp. vii, 272. 

Lancaster, Duchy. List of the records of the Duchy of Lancaster 
preserved in the Public Record Ofi&ce. London, 1901. fol., pp. viii, 
142. Public Record Office Lists and Indexes, 14. 

Lawrence (C. Frederick). See Cheshire Notes and Queries. 

Lowenberg (Rev. W. J.). See Lancashire Parish Register Society, 10. 

Mc. Knight (Edward). Myles Standish. Choi ley Library Journal, 1900-1.. 
December, March, and June. Port. 

McLean (John) and Hewitt (A.). Fifty years of the Compstall Co- 
operative Industrial Society Limited, 1851-1901. A souvenir of the 
Jubilee celebration. Manchester: Co-operative Wholesale Society, 
1901. i2mo, pp. [iv].98. Illus. 

Maclure (Very Rev. Edward C). See Oesterley (W. O. E.) 

Madan (Falconer, M.A.). The Gresleys of Drakelowe. Oxford, 1899. 
4to, pp. xi, 335. 

Contains an account of the Grellys, barons of Manchester. 

Manchester Amateur Photographic Society. A photographic survey of 
Manchester and Salford. Two hundred and thirty-two photographs, 
1892-1900. A description and list of plates appeared in the Manchester 
Public Free Libraries' Quarterly Record, vol. v., pp. 32-34. Sets of these 
photographs have been presented by the society to the Free Reference 
Library, King Street, and the Peel Park Library, Salford. 

Manchester City News. The following articles have appeared during 

I 901 : — 

Richard C. Christie, obituary (January 12). Cateaton Street, origin of name, 
by Charles Roeder (January 19). Sir J. W. Maclure, obituary (February 2). 
Fails worth, by P. P[ercival] (March 2, 16, April 13). Mayes' Charity, by Fletcher 
Moss (March 30). Sea work on the Lancashire coast. Double stanner at 
St. Annes-on-the-Sea, by Henry T. Crofton (April 6). Reuben Spencer, obituary 
(May 25). Fairfield, by P. P[ercival] (July 6, 13, 20). "King Edward held 
Salford," by Sir W. H. Bailey (July 20). Memories of old Cheetham Hill, by 
P. P[ercival] (November 23, December 7, 21). 

Moore (Colonel John). Catalogue of the collection of documents, letters, 
papers, etc., of Col. John Moore, of Bank Hall, Liverpool . . one 



BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1901. 281 

of the Regicides, to which additions were . . made by Sir John 
Moore, of Kentwell, Suffolk . . also a collection of deeds principally 
relating to Liverpool, Lancashire, Cheshire, etc., 1 400-1600. . . Sold 
by auction . 1901. London. 8vo, pp. 51. Articles on this 

collection appeared in the Liverpool Mercury of November 19th and 
2ist, 1901. 

Mortimer (John). Robert Langton: in memoriam. Manchester Quarterly, 
vol. XX., pp. 1-12. Port. 

Mosleys of Manchester. Manchester Guardian, July 13th. 

Moss (Fletcher). Pilgrimages in Cheshire and Shropshire. Manchester, 

1901. la. Svo, pp. xviii, 283. Illus. Contains the following Cheshire 

places illustrated and described : — 

Dutton Hall, Bunbury Church, Beeston Castle, Utkynton Hall, Alford, Farn- 
don. Holt, Malpas, Shocklach, Vale Royal, Tabley Old Hall, Gawsworth. Speke, 
Baguley, Hawthorne, Chorley, Soss Moss, Peover, Cheadle and Prestbury, and 
Over. 

See Manchester City News. 



Newstead (Robert). Antiquities found in the north-western end of the 
Wirral peninsula. Chester and N. Wales Archaological and Historic 
Society, 1900. 

Discoveries of Roman antiquities at Chester. Reliquary and Illus- 



trated Archaologist, vol. vii., pp. 45-51. Illus. 

Roman remains in Chester. British Archaological Association, 

1901. Svo. 

Oesterley (W. O. E.). Walks in Jewry. With a preface by the Very 
Rev. Edward C. Maclure, D.D., dean of Manchester. London, 1901. 
Svo, pp. viii, 84. Illus. 

Contains an article on S. Saviour's, Cheetham. 

Owen (J. P.). Dutton family. Notes and Queries, ninth s., vii., pp. 433-4. 

Peet (Henry). Notefe on the churches of St. George and St. John, 
Liverpool. Trans. Historic Society of Lane, and Ches., n.s., xv., pp. 27-44. 
Jllus. 

Percival (Percival). Failsworth folk and Failsworth memories. Re- 
miniscences associated with Ben Brierley's native place. Manchester: 
G. Hargreaves, 45a, Market Street, 1901. la. Svo, pp. 44. Ports, and 
illus. 

See Manchester City News. 



Pilkington (John). Origin of the name Pilkington. Trans. Historic Society 
of Lane, and Ches., n.s., xv., pp. 229-232. 

Price (William F.). Notes on some of the places, traditions, and folk-lore 
of the Douglas Valley. Trans. Historic Society of Lane, and Ches., n.s., 
XV., pp. 183-220. Map and illus. 



282 BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1901. 

Radcliffe (R. D.). Memoir of Thomas Glazebrook Rylands, of High- 
fields, Thelwall, Cheshire. Privately printed [Exeter], 1901. 8vo, 
pp. 47. Port. 

Reade (Aleyn L.). Thomas Samuel Mulock, 1789-1869. Notes and Queries, 
ninth s., vii., pp. 482-4 and 501-3. 

Record Society, vol. 42. Manchester sessions. Notes of proceedings 
before Oswald Mosley (1616-1630), Nicholas Mosley (1661-1672), and 
Sir Oswald Mosley (1734-1739), and other magistrates. Ed. from the 
MS. in the Reference Library, Manchester, by Ernest Axon. [Exeter] , 
1901. 8vo. Vol. I, 1616-1622-3. 

Roeder (Charles). Mamuciun and Mancunium. Trans. Lane, and Ches. 
Antiq. Society, vol. xviii., pp. 163-4. 

See Manchester City News. 



Rowbotham (John F.). The history of Rossall School. 2nd ed. Man- 
chester, 1901. 8vo, pp. X, 469. Ports, and illus. 

Ryland (W. H.). Freemasonry in Lancashire and Cheshire (seventeenth 
century). Part ii. Trans. Historic Society of Lane, and Ches., n.s., xv., 
pp. 85-154. Illus. 

Stephens (Dr. George). Old northern runic monuments of Scandinavia 
and England. Vol. iv. 1901. fol. Overchurch, The Wirral, 
Cheshire, pp. 53-55. 

Stretton (Clement E.). History of the amalgamation and the formation 
of the London and North- Western Railway Company. 2nd edition. 
Leeds, 1901. 8vo, pp. 7. 

History of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. 1901. i2mo, 



pp. 15. Reprinted from the Lancaster Observer, June 14th, 1901. 

History of the Manchester and Birmingham Railway. 2nd 



edition enlarged. . Leeds, 1901. 8vo, pp. 7. 

Sylvan (Urbanus) pseud. See Beeching (H. C). 

Taylor (Henry). Four recent discoveries of Roman remains in Chester. 
Proc. Soc. Antiq., second s., xviii., pp. 91-98. 

The ancient crosses of Lancashire: the hundred of Blackburn. 



Trans. Lane, and Ches. Antiq. Society, vol. xviii., pp. 1-60. Map and illus. 

Thompson (E. Skefl&ngton). First foot in Lancashire. Folk-Lore, xi., 
pp. 220. 

Williams (W. R.). Official lists of the Duchy and County Palatine of 
Lancaster from the earliest times to the present day, with biographical 
and genealogical notices. • • [ ] 1901. 8vo, pp. viii, 136. 

Worsley and the great Duke of Bridgwater. Manchester Guardian, 
September 2nd. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1901. 283 



"Dictionary of National Biography." 

Following Lancashire and Cheshire persons [natives or closely connected]: — 

Supplement, vol. i: Richard Ansdell, painter (1815-1897) ; Thomas Ashe, 
poet (1836-1889); Isabella Banks, novelist (1821-1897); Thomas O. 
Barlow, mezzotint engraver (i 824-1889) : James Bateman, horticulturist 
(1811-1897); Joseph Baxendell, meteorologist and astronomer (1815- 
1897); Sir Thomas Bazley, manufacturer and politician (1797-1885); 
CharlesBeard, unitarian divineandauthor(i827-i888); Lydia E.Becker, 
advocate of women's suffrage (1827-1890); Samuel Birch, egyptologist 
(1813-1885) ; Sir Francis John Bolton, soldier and electrician (1831- 
1887); Sir William Bowman, ophthalmic surgeon (1816-1892); Ben- 
jamin Brierley, Lancashire dialect writer (1825-1896) ; Sir Oswald 
Walters Brierly, marine painter (1817-1894) ; John Bright, orator and 
statesman (1811-1889); Sir Edwin Chadwick, sanitary reformer (1800- 
1890). 

vol. 2 : Richard Copley Christie, scholar and bibliophile) 1830- 



1901); Charles Clay, ovariotomist (1801-1893) ; Richard Durnford, 
bishop of Chichester (1802- 1 895); John Parsons Earwaker, antiquary 
(1847-1895) ; Sir George Findlay, general manager of the London and 
North- Western Railway (1829-1893) ; Jessie Fothergill, novelist (1851- 
1891); Sir Edward Frankland, chemist (1825-1899); William Ewart 
Gladstone, statesman and author (1809-1898) ; Hugh Lupus Grosvenor, 
first duke of Westminster (i 825-1 899) ; Charles Hall6, pianist and 
conductor (1819-1895) ; Philip Gilbert Hamerton, artist and essayist 
(1834-1894) ; Brian Houghton Hodgson, Indian civilian and orientalist 
(1800-1894); John Hopkinson, electrical engineer (1849-1898); Sir 
Geoffrey Thomas Hornby, admiral of the fleet (1825-1895). 

vol. 3: Alexander Ireland, journalist (1810-1894); Sir Edward 



Ebenezer Kay, judge (1822-1897) ; William Senhouse Kirkes, physician 
(1824-1864); Thomas Leeke Massie, admiral (1817-1898); Thomas 
Bayley Potter, politician (1817-1898); Sir Joseph Prestwich, geologist 
(1812-1896) ; Sir William Roberts, physician (1830-1899) ; John Charles 
Ryle, bishop of Liverpool (i 816-1900) ; Anna Swanwick, authoress 
(1813-1899) ; Sir Henry Tate (1819-1899) ; Edward Morison Wimperis, 
water-colour painter (i 835-1900). 



284 



APPENDIX II. 



SUBJECT INDEX TO THE BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



Contractions: C. N. and Q., Cheshire Notes and Queries; C. S., Cheshire Sheaf; 
D. N. B., Dictionary of National Biography; L. F. and P., Lancashire Faces and Places; 
M. C. N., Manchester City News. 



Alderley, Legend of C. N. and Q. 

Alford Moss ' 

Ansdell (Richard) D.N.B. Supp. i 

Antiquities, Lancashire and 
Cheshire, Bibliography Hollins 

Archery in Manchester A xon 

Ashe (Thomas) D. N. B. Supp. i 

Ashton, see Assheton 

Ashton-under-Lyne charities En- 
dowed 

Assheton of Great Lever C lokayne] 

Audlem Free Grammar School 
C. S. 

Backford Parish C. 5. 

Baguley Moss 

Bamford Chapel L. F. and P. 

Banks (Isabella) D. N. B. Supp. i 

Barlow (Thomas O.) D. N. B. 
Supp. I 

Barrows of Barrow C. S. 

Bateman (James) D. N. B. Supp. i 

Baxendell (Joseph) D. N. B. 
Supp. I 

Bazley (Sir Thomas) D. N, B. 
Supp. I 

Beard (Charles) D. N. B. Supp. i 

Becker (Lydia E.) D.N.B. Supp. i 

Beeston Castle Moss 

Bidston Church, Monumental in- 
scriptions in C. S. 

Biography, Lancashire and 
Cheshire, Bibliography Hollins 



Birch (Safnuel) D. N. B. Supp. i 
Blackburn Hundred Crosses 

Taylor 
Blackpool Carr 
Bleasdale, Discoveries at Hughes, 

Prehistoric sepulchral remains 

Dawkins, Sepulchral urns in 

Fishwick 
Blundell (Richard) C. 5. 
Bolds of Upton C. 5. 
Bolton (Sir Francis John) D. N. B. 

Supp. I 
Bolton-le-Moors L. F. and P. 
Bowman (Sir William) D. N. B, 

Supp. I 
Booth of Dunham Massey 

C [okayne"] 
Bouthe see Booth 
Bradshaw (Henry) C. N. and Q. 
Bridgwater, Duke of, and Worsley 

IVorsley 
Brierley (Benjamin) D. N. B. 

Supp. I 
Brierly (Sir Oswald W.) D. N. B. 

Supp. I 
Bright (John) D.N.B. Supp. i 
Brindle Parish Registers Lane. 

Par. Reg. Soc. 11 
Brocklebank of Liverpool Pedi- 
gree Howard 
Buckley Family Fishwick 
Bunbury Church Moss 



SUBJECT INDEX TO BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



285 



Burnley L. F. and P. 

Bury charities Endowed, Parish 
, Registers Lane. Par. Reg. Soc. 10 

Byrom (John) Ham ill 

Cartmel, Prehistoric implements 
in Gaythorpe, Priory Church 
Cooper 

Chadwick (Sir Edwin) D. N. B. 
Supp. I 

Cheadle Moss 

Cheetham Hill M. C. N. 

Cheshire Antiquities and Bio- 
graphy, Bibliography Hollins 
Churches, Notes on, Holme 
C. S., Clergy in 1559 C. 5., 
Customs etc. C. N. and Q., 
Domesday, Notes on C. S., 
Early Nonconformity in C. S., 
Freemasonry C. N. and Q., 
Freemasonry (seventeenth cen- 
tury) Ry lands, In Domesday 
Book Brownbill, Martyrs C. S., 
Parliamentary election 1727 C 
5., Pilgrimages in Moss, Story 
of Creighton 

Chester, Deans of C. 5., Defence 
of liberties Harrod, James II. at 
C. 5., Roman antiquities at 
Newsteadf Roman Catholic 
martyrs at, in 1679 C. S., Roman 
remains in Newstead, Roman 
remains in Taylor, Rows, origin 
Harrod, St. Oswald's, marriage 
registers C. S., The chapel and 
parsonage hall of S. Nicholas 
at C. S. 

Cholmondeley .of Cholmondeley 
C [okayne] 

Chorley Moss 

Christie (Richard C.) D. N. B. 
Supp. 2, M. C. N. 

Clay (Charles) D. N. B. Supp. 2 

Compstall Co-operative Society 
Jubilee McLean 

Crawford (Lord) Manuscripts of 
L. F. and P. 

Crosses, Ancient, of Lancashire 
Taylor 



Dalton-in-Furness charities En- 
dowed 
Deeds relating to Lancashire and 

Cheshire Moore 
Delves of Doddington C [okayne] 
Didsbury, St. James's Church, 

Registers Lane. Par. Reg. 

Soc. 9 
Domesday Book and Cheshire 

Brownbill, survey of North 

Lancashire Farrer 
Douglas Valley, Notes on Price 
Durnford (Richard) D. N. B. 

Supp. 2 
Dutton family Dutton, Owen 
Dutton Hall Moss 
Duttons of Dutton C. N. and Q. 
Earwaker Qohn P.) D. N. B. 

Supp. 2 
Egerton of Egerton C [oka^ ne] 
Failsworth M. C. N., Percival 
Fairfield M. C. N. 
Farndon Moss 

Fielden (John, M.P.) Ashworth 
Findlay (Sir George) D. N. B. 

Supp. 2 
* Fitton of Gawsworth C {okayne^ 
Forshaw (Rev. Thurstan) C. N. 

and Q. 
Fothergill (Jessie) D. N. B. Supp. 2 

Frankland (Sir Edward) D. N. B. 
Supp. 2 

Freemasonry, Lancashire and 
Cheshire (seventeenth century) 
Rylands, Lancashire Heywood 

Furness Abbey of St. Mary Hope 

Furness, First church at Brak- 
spear. Prehistoric implements in 
Gaythorpe 

Gaskell (Mrs.) and Knutsford L. 
F. and P. 

Gawsworth Moss 

Gerard of Bryn C[pkayne], Pedi- 
gree Howard 

Gerrard, see Gerard 

Greasby, Place-name C. S. 

Great Neston C. S. 

Grellys family Madan 



^78 BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1901. 

C[okayne] (G. E.), editor. Complete baronetage. Exeter, 1900. 8vo, 

pp. xvi, 276. Contains the following : — 

Vol. I (1611-1625): Assheton or Ashton of Great Lever. Booth or Bouthe 
of Dunham Massey. Cholmondeley of Chomondeley. Delves of Doddington. 
Egerton of Egerton. Fitton or Phytton of Gawsworth. Gerard or Gerrard of 
Bryn. Grosvenor of Eaton. Hoghton or Houghton of Hoghton Tower. 
Molyneux of Sefton. Savage of Rock Savage. Wilbraham of Woodhey. 

Cooke (Alice M.). See Chetham Society, n.s., 44. 

Cooper (Rev. Canon Thos. John). George Preston and Cartmel Priory 
Church. Trans. Historic Society of Lane, and Cites., n.s., xv., pp. 221-227. 

Creighton (Bishop Mandell). Story of some English shires. London: 
Religious Tract Society [1901] . pp. 348. 

Contains: Lancashire, pp. 163-180; Cheshire, pp. 181-194. 

Crewe Hall, seat of the Earl of Crewe. Country Life, vol. xi , pp. 400-11. 

Crofton (H. T.). See also Chetham Society, n.s., 45, Manchester City 
News, and Lancashire Parish Register Society. 

Dawkins (W. Boyd, D.Sc, F.R.S., F.S.A.). On the exploration of pre- 
historic sepulchral remains of the bronze age at Bleasdale, by S. 
Jackson. Trans. Lane, and Ches. Antiq. Society, vol. xviii., pp. 114-124. 
Plan and illus. 

Dowsett (Henry). Notes on Holcombe. Manchester: John Heywood, 
i2mo, pp. 142. Ilhis. 

Dutton family. Memorials of the Duttons of Dutton in Cheshire, with 
notes respecting the Sherborne [Gloucestershire] branch of the family. 
London, 1901. 4to, pp. xxvi, 296. Ports, and illus. 

Endowed Charities (County of Lancaster). Return and digest of endowed 
charities [Parishes of Dalton-in-Furness, Leigh, Middleton, Mossley, 
Radcliffe, Bury, Hawkshead, Penwortham, Ulverston, Whalley, Win- 
wick, and Ashton-under-Lyne] . London : Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1900. 
iaL 

Evans (Horace C). Records of the Fourth Volunteer Battalion Man- 
chester Regiment. [Manchester, 1901.] Svo, pp. 227. 

Farrer (William). Domesday survey of North Lancashire, etc. Trans. 
Lane, and Chcs. Antiq. Society, vol. Jtviii., pp. 88-113. Maps. 

Fishwick (Henry). A genealogical memorial of the family of Buckley of 
Derby and Saddleworth. . . Privately printed, 1900. 4to, pp. 38. 

Hesketh of Cheshire. Notes and Queries, ninth s., viii. 371. 

Note on a discovery of sepulchral urns in Bleasdale. Proc. Society 

Antiq., second s., xviii., pp. 33-34. 

Fleetwood. Official guide to Fleetwood. Fleetwood: Chronicle Office, 
Albert Square [ 1 901]. ob. 4to. Illus. 

Fletcher (Robert J.). A short history of Hazel Grove. Stockport: Hurst 
Bros., Mottram Street, 1901. i2mo, pp. [iv]. 64. Ports, and illus. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1901. 279 

Forshaw (Chas. F.) See Cheshire Notes and Queries. 

Gaythorpe (Harper). Prehistoric implements in Furness and Cartmel. 
Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian Society, xvi., pp. 152-156. 

Gleave (George). See Cheshire Sheaf. 

Hamill (Isabel Maude). The story of John Byrom, author of " Christians, 
awake!" Good Words, 1901. pp. 802-7. 

Harrod (Henry D.). A defence of the liberties of Chester, 1450. Arch., 
Ivii., pp. 71-86. 

Origin of the Chester Rows. Chester and N. Wales Archaological 

and Historic Society, 1901 . 

Hey wood (Nathan). Lodge of Friendship, No. 44, Bye-laws and history. 
Manchester: Geo. W. Pilkington & Co., 1901. 8vo, pp. 23. 

Historical Manuscripts Commission. Report on the manuscripts of . . 

the Duke of Portland, K.G., preserved at Welbeck Abbey. Vol. vii. 

London, 1901. 8vo, pp. xxii, 272, 390, 391, etc. 

Consists of letters written by Dr. William Stratford, son of Dr. Nicholas 
Stratford, warden of the Manchester Collegiate Church, in which are some 
references to the struggle in relation to the wardenship of Manchester College 
(pp. xxii, 272, 390, 391, etc.). 

HoUins (Norman). Bibliography of Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquities 
and Biography. Publications during 1900. Trans. Lane, and Ches. 
Antiq. Society, vol. xviii., pp. 165-176. 

Hope (W. H. St. John). The abbey of St.-Mary-in-Furness, Lancashire. 
Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian Society, xvi., pp. 221-302. 

Howard (Joseph Jackson) and Crisp (Frederick Arthur). Visitation of 

England and Wales. Vol. ix. Privately printed, 1901. fol. 

Includes pedigrees of Gerard of Bryn, co. Lancashire, and Brocklebank of 
Liverpool. 

Hughes (T. Cann). Discoveries at Bleasdale. British Archaological Asso- 
ciation, 1901. 8vo. 

Irvine (William F.). Some old halls in Wirral. British Archaological 
Association, 1901. 8vo. 

Jackson (Shadrach). See Dawkins (W. Boyd). 

Jacques (Rev. K.). See Lancashire Parish Register Society, 11. 

Johns (Rev. W. S.). The church and parish of Plemstall. . . Chester 
and N. Wales Archaological and Historic Society, 1900. 

Kent (Philip). Darcy Lever. [The last male representative of the 
Levers of Alkrington.] Notes and Queries, ninth series, vii., pp. 1-3. 

Lancashire Faces and Places, vol. i. Manchester. Among the articles are 

the following (illustrated): — 

Burnley. Sir J. W. Maclure, obituary. Bolton-le-Moors. Hope Chapel, 
Salford. Owens College. Mrs. Gaskell and Knutsford. Baldingstone House, 
Bury (birthplace of Samuel Kay, M.D.). Reuben Spencer. Lord Crawford's 
manuscripts. Bamford Chapel. 



28o BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1901. 

Lancashire Parish Register Society, 9. The registers of St. James, 
Didsbury. . . Christenings, burials, and weddings, 1 561-1757. 
Transcribed and edited by H. T. Crofton and the Rev. E. Abbey 
Tindall. Part ii. Wigan, 1901. 8vo, pp. [iv]. 251-497 [11]. 

10. The registers of the Parish Church of Bury. Vol. ii., 



Christenings, burials, and weddings, 161 7-1646. Transcribed and 
edited by the late Rev. W. J. Lowenberg and Henry Brierley. 
Rochdale, 1901. 8vo, pp. vi, 207-467. 



II. The registers of the Parish Church of Brindle. 



Christenings, burials, and weddings, 1558-1714. Transcribed and 
edited by the Rev. K. Jacques and Henry Brierley. The indexes by 
Alice Brierley. Rochdale, 1901. 8vo, pp. vii, 272. 

Lancaster, Duchy. List of the records of the Duchy of Lancaster 
preserved in the Public Record Ofl&ce. London, 1901. fol., pp. viii, 
142. Public Record Office Lists and Ind^x^s, 14. 

Lawrence (C. Frederick). See Cheshire Notes and Queries. 

Lowenberg (Rev. W. J.). See Lancashire Parish Register Society, 10. 

Mc. Knight (Edward). Myles Standish. Choi ley Library Journal, 1900-1.. 
December, March, and June. Port. 

McLean (John) and Hewitt (A.). Fifty years of the Compstall Co- 
operative Industrial Society Limited, 1851-1901. A souvenir of the 
Jubilee celebration. Manchester: Co-operative Wholesale Society, 
1901. i2mo, pp. [iv] . 98. Illus. 

Maclure (Very Rev. Edward C). See Oesterley (W. O. E.) 

Madan (Falconer, M.A.). The Gresleys of Drakelowe. Oxford, 1899. 
4to, pp. xi, 335. 

Contains an account of the Grellys, barons of Manchester. 

Manchester Amateur Photographic Society. A photographic survey of 
Manchester and Salford. Two hundred and thirty-two photographs, 
1 892-1900. A description and list of plates appeared in the Manchester 
Public Free Libraries' Quarterly Record, vol. v., pp. 32-34. Sets of these 
photographs have been presented by the society to the Free Reference 
Library, King Street, and the Peel Park Library, Salford. 

Manchester City News. The following articles have appeared during 

1901 : — 

Richard C. Christie, obituary (January 12). Cateaton Street, origin of name, 
by Charles Roeder (January 19). Sir J. W. Maclure, obituary (February 2). 
Failsworth, by P. P[ercival] (March 2, 16, April 13). Mayes' Charity, by Fletcher 
Moss (March 30). Sea work on the Lancashire coast. Double stanner at 
St. Annes-on-the-Sea, by Henry T. Crofton (April 6). Reuben Spencer, obituary 
(May 25). Fairfield, by P. P[ercival] (July 6, 13, 20). "King Edward held 
Salford," by Sir W. H. Bailey (July 20). Memories of old Cheetham Hill, by 
P. P[ercival] (November 23, December 7, 21). 

Moore (Colonel John). Catalogue of the collection of documents, letters, 
papers, etc., of Col. John Moore, of Bank Hall, Liverpool . . one 



BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1901. 281 

of the Regicides, to which additions were . . made by Sir John 
Moore, of Kent well, Suffolk . . also a collection of deeds principally 
relating to Liverpool, Lancashire, Cheshire, etc., 1400-1600. . . Sold 
by auction . . 1901. London. 8vo, pp. 51. Articles on this 
collection appeared in the Liverpool Mercury of November 19th and 
2ist, 1901. 

Mortimer (John). Robert Langton: in memoriam. Manchester Quarterly, 
vol. XX., pp. 1-12. Port. 

Mosleys of Manchester. Manchester Guardian, July 13th. 

Moss (Fletcher). Pilgrimages in Cheshire and Shropshire. Manchester, 

1901. la. Svo, pp. xviii, 283. Illus. Contains the following Cheshire 

places illustrated and described : — 

Dutton Hall, Bunbury Church, Beeston Castle, Utkynton Hall, Alford, Farn- 
don. Holt, Malpas, Shocklach, Vale Royal, Tabley Old Hall, Gawsworth, Speke, 
Baguley, Hawthorne, Chorley, Soss Moss, Peover, Cheadle and Prestbury, and 
Over. 

See Manchester City News. 



Newstead (Robert). Antiquities found in the north-western end of the 
Wirral peninsula. Chester and N. Wales Archaclogical and Historic 
Society, 1900. 

Discoveries of Roman antiquities at Chester. Reliquary and Illus- 



trated Archaologist, vol. vii., pp. 45-51. Ilhis. 

Roman remains in Chester. British Archaological Association, 

1901. 8vo. 

Oesterley (W. O. E.). Walks in Jewry. With a preface by the Very 
Rev. Edward C. Maclure, D.D., dean of Manchester. London, 1901. 
Svo, pp. viii, 84. Illus. 

Contains an article on S. Saviour's, Cheetham. 

Owen (J. P.). Dutton family. Notes and Queries, ninth s., vii., pp. 433-4. 

Peet (Henry). Note^ on the churches of St. George and St. John, 
Liverpool. Trans. Historic Society of Lane, and Ches.j n.s., xv., pp. 27-44. 
Jllns. 

Percival (Percival). Failsworth folk and Failsworth memories. Re- 
miniscences associated with Ben Brierley's native place. Manchester : 
G. Hargreaves, 45a, Market Street, 1901. la. Svo, pp. 44. Ports, and 
illus. 

See Manchester City News. 



Pilkington (John). Origin of the name Pilkington. Trans. Historic Society 
of Lane, and Ches., n.s., xv., pp. 229-232. 

Price (William F.). Notes on some of the places, traditions, and folk-lore 
of the Douglas Valley. Trans. Historic Society of Lane, and Ches., n.s., 
XV., pp. 183-220. Map and illus. 



282 BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1907. 

Radcliflfe (R. D.). Memoir of Thomas Glazebrook Rylands, of High- 
fields, Thelwall, Cheshire. Privately printed [Exeter], 1901. 8vo, 
pp. 47. Port. 

Reade (Aleyn L.). Thomas Samuel Mulock, 1789-1869. Notes and Queries, 
ninth s., vii., pp. 482-4 and 501-3. 

Record Society, vol. 42. Manchester sessions. Notes of proceedings 
before Oswald Mosley (1616-1630), Nicholas Mosley (1661-1672), and 
Sir Oswald Mosley (i 734-1 739). and other magistrates. Ed. from the 
MS. in the Reference Library, Manchester, by Ernest Axon. [Exeter] , 
1901. 8vo. Vol. I, 1616-1622-3. 

Roeder (Charles). Mamuciun and Mancunium. Trans. Lane, and Ches. 
Antiq. Society, vol. xviii., pp. 163-4. 



See Manchester City News. 



Rowbotham (John F.). The history of Rossall School. 2nd ed. Man- 
chester, 1901. 8vo, pp. X, 469. Ports, and illus. 

Ryland (W. H.). Freemasonry in Lancashire and Cheshire (seventeenth 
century). Part ii. Trans. Historic Society of Lane, and Ches., n.s., xv., 
pp. 85-154. Illus. 

Stephens (Dr. George). Old northern runic monuments of Scandinavia 
and England. Vol. iv. 1901. fol. Overchurch, The Wirral, 
Cheshire, pp. 53-55. 

Stretton (Clement E.). History of the amalgamation and the formation 
of the London and North- Western Railway Company. 2nd edition. 
Leeds, 1901. 8vo, pp. 7. 

History of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. 1901. i2mo, 

pp. 15. Reprinted from the Lancaster Observer, June 14th, 1901. 

History of the Manchester and Birmingham Railway. 2nd 



edition enlarged. . Leeds, 1901. 8vo, pp. 7. 

Sylvan (Urbanus) pseud. See Beeching (H. C). 

Taylor (Henry). Four recent discoveries of Roman remains in Chester. 
Proc. Soc. Antiq., second s., xviii., pp. 91-98. 

The ancient crosses of Lancashire: the hundred of Blackburn. 

Trans. Lane, and Ches. Antiq. Society, vol. xviii., pp. 1-60. Map and illus. 

Thompson (E. Skeffington). First foot in Lancashire. Folk-Lore, xi., 
pp. 220. 

Williams (W. R.).' Official lists of the Duchy and County Palatine of 
Lancaster from the earliest times to the present day, with biographical 
and genealogical notices. . . [ ] 1901. 8vo, pp. viii, 136. 

Worsley and the great Duke of Bridgwater. Manchester Guardian^ 
September 2nd. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1901. 283 



"Dictionary of National Biography." 

Following Lancashire and Cheshire persons [natives or closely connected] : — 

Supplement, vol. i: Richard Ansdell, painter (1815-1897) ; Thomas Ashe, 
poet (1836-1889); Isabella Banks, novelist (1821-1897); Thomas O. 
Barlow, mezzotint engraver (1824-1889) : James Bateman, horticulturist 
(1811-1897); Joseph Baxendell, meteorologist and astronomer (1815- 
1897); Sir Thomas Bazley, manufacturer and politician (1797-1885): 
Charles Beard, unitarian divine and author (1827- 1 888); LydiaE. Becker, 
advocate of women's suffrage (1827-1890); Samuel Birch, egyptologist 
(1813-1885); Sir Francis John Bolton, soldier and electrician (1831- 
1887) ; Sir William Bowman, ophthalmic surgeon (1816-1892) ; Ben- 
jamin Brierley, Lancashire dialect writer (1825-1896) ; Sir Oswald 
Walters Brierly, marine painter (1817-1894); John Bright, orator and 
statesman (1811-1889); Sir Edwin Chadwick, sanitary reformer (1800- 
1890). 

vol. 2 : Richard Copley Christie, scholar and bibliophile) 1830- 



1901); Charles Clay, ovariotomist (1801-1893) ; Richard Durnford, 
bishop of Chichester (1802-1895) ; John Parsons Earwaker, antiquary 
( 1 847-1 895) ; Sir George Findlay, general manager of the London and 
North- Western Railway (1829-1893) ; Jessie Fothergill, novelist (1851- 
1891) ; Sir Edward Frankland, chemist (1825- 1899) ; William Ewart 
Gladstone, statesman and author (1809-1898) ; Hugh Lupus Grosvenor, 
first duke of Westminster (1825-1899) ; Charles Halle, pianist and 
conductor (1819-1895) ; Philip Gilbert Hamerton, artist and essayist 
(1834-1894) ; Brian Houghton Hodgson, Indian civilian and orientalist 
(1800-1894); John Hopkinson, electrical engineer ( 1 849-1 898) ; Sir 
Geoffrey Thomas Hornby, admiral of the fleet (1825-1895). 

vol. 3 : Alexander Ireland, journalist (1810-1894) ; Sir Edward 



Ebenezer Kay, judge (1822-1897) ; William Senhouse Kirkes, physician 
(1824-1864); Thomas Leeke Massie, admiral (1817-1898); Thomas 
Bayley Potter, politician (1817-1898) ; Sir Joseph Prestwich, geologist 
(1812-1896) ; Sir William Roberts, physician (1830-1899) ; John Charles 
Ryle, bishop of Liverpool (1816-1900) ; Anna Swanwick, authoress 
(1813-1899) ; Sir Henry Tate (1819-1899) ; Edward Morison Wimperis, 
water-colour painter (1835-1900). 



284 



APPENDIX II. 



SUBJECT INDEX TO THE BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



Contractions: C. N. and Q., Cheshire Notes and Queries; C. S., Cheshire Sheaf; 
D. N. B., Dictionary of National Biography; L. F. and P., Lancashire Faces and Places; 
M. C. N., Manchester City News. 



Alderley, Legend of C. N. and Q. 

Alford Moss ' 

Ansdell (Richard) D.N.B. Supp. i 

Antiquities, Lancashire and 
Cheshire, Bibliography HolUns 

Archery in Manchester Axon 

Ashe (Thomas) D. N. B. Supp. i 

Ashton, see Assheton 

Ashton-under-Lyne charities En- 
dowed 

Assheton of Great Lever C \okayne'] 

Audlem Free Grammar School 
C. 5. 

Backford Parish C. S. 

Baguley Moss 

Bamford Chapel L. F. and P. 

Banks (Isabella) D.N.B. Supp. i 

Barlow (Thomas O.) D. N. B. 
Supp. I 

Barrows of Barrow C. S. 

Bateman (James) D.N .B. Supp. i 

Baxendell (Joseph) D. N, B. 
Supp. I 

Bazley (Sir Thomas) D. N, B. 
Supp. I 

Beard (Charles) D. N. B. Supp. i 

Becker (Lydia E.) D.N.B. Supp. i 

Beeston Castle Moss 

Bidston Church, Monumental in- 
scriptions in C. 5. 

Biography, Lancashire and 
Cheshire, Bibliography HolUns 



Birch (Samuel) D.N. B. Supp. i 
Blackburn Hundred Crosses 

Taylor 
Blackpool Carr 
Bleasdale, Discoveries at Hughes, 

Prehistoric sepulchral remains 

Dawk ins, Sepulchral urns in 

Fish wick 
Blundell (Richard) C. S. 
Bolds of Upton C. 5. 
Bolton (Sir Francis John) D. N. B. 

Supp. I 
Bolton-le-Moors L. F. and P. 
Bowman (Sir William) D. N. B. 

Supp. I 
Booth of Dunham Massey 

C [okayne] 
Bouthe see Booth 
Bradshaw (Henry) C. N. and Q. 
Bridgwater, Duke of, and Worsley 

IVorsley 
Brierley (Benjamin) D. N. B. 

Supp. I 
Brierly (Sir Oswald W.) D. N. B. 

Supp. I 
Bright (John) D. N. B. Supp. i 
Brindle Parish Registers Lane. 

Par. Reg. Soc. 11 
Brocklebank of Liverpool Pedi- 
gree Howard 
Buckley Family Fishwick 
Bunbury Church Moss 



SUBJECT INDEX TO BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



285 



Burnley L. F. and P. 

Bury charities Endowed, Parish 
, Registers Lane. Par. Reg. Soc. 10 

Byrom (John) Hamill 

Cartmel, Prehistoric implements 
in Gaythorpe, Priory Church 
Cooper 

Chadwick (Sir Edwin) D. N. B. 
Supp. I 

Cheadle Moss 

Cheetham Hill M. C. N. 

Cheshire Antiquities and Bio- 
graphy, Bibliography Hollins 
Churches, Notes on, Holme 
C. 5., Clergy in 1559 C. 5., 
Customs etc. C. N. and Q., 
Domesday, Notes on C. 5., 
Early Nonconformity in C. S., 
Freemasonry C. N. and Q., 
Freemasonry (seventeenth cen- 
tury) Rylands, In Domesday 
Book Brownbill, Martyrs C. S., 
Parliamentary election 1727 C. 
5., Pilgrimages in Moss, Story 
of Creighton 

Chester, Deans of C. 5., Defence 
of liberties Harrod, James II. at 
C. S., Roman antiquities at 
Newsteadj Roman Catholic 
martyrs at, in 1679 C. S., Roman 
remains in Newstead, Roman 
remains in Taylor, Rows, origin 
Harrod, St. Oswald's, marriage 
registers C. S., The chapel and 
parsonage hall of S. Nicholas 
at C. S. 

Cholmondeley .of Cholmondeley 
C [okayne] 

Chorley Moss 

Christie (Richard C.) D. N. B. 
Supp. 2, M. C. N. 

Clay (Charles) D. N. B. Supp. 2 

Compstall Co-operative Society 
Jubilee McLean 

Crawford (Lord) Manuscripts of 
L. F. and P. 

Crosses, Ancient, of Lancashire 
Taylor 



Dalton-in-Furness charities En- 
dowed 
Deeds relating to Lancashire and 

Cheshire Moore 
Delves of Doddington C [okayne] 
Didsbury, St. James's Church, 

Registers Lane. Par. Reg. 

Soc. 9 
Domesday Book and Cheshire 

Brownbill, survey of North 

Lancashire Farrer 
Douglas Valley, Notes on Price 
Durnford (Richard) D. N. B. 

Supp. 2 
Dutton family Dtitton, Owen 
Dutton Hall Moss 
Duttons of Dutton C. N. and Q. 
Earwaker (John P.) D. N. B. 

Supp. 2 
Egerton of Egerton C [oka) ne] 
Failsworth M. C. N., Percival 
Fairfield M. C. N. 
Farndon Moss 

Field en (John, M.P.) Ash worth 
Findlay (Sir George) D. N. B. 

Supp. 2 
' Fitton of Gawsworth C [okayne] 
Forshaw (Rev. Thurstan) C. N. 

and Q. 
Fothergill (Jessie) D. N. B. Supp. 2 

Frankland (Sir Edward) D. N. B. 
Supp. 2 

Freemasonry, Lancashire and 
Cheshire (seventeenth century) 
Rylands, Lancashire Heywood 

Furness Abbey of St. Mary Hope 

Furness, First church at Brak- 
spear. Prehistoric implements in 
Gaythorpe 

Gaskell (Mrs.) and Knutsford L 
F. and P. 

Gawsworth Moss 

Gerard of Bryn C [okayne]. Pedi- 
gree Howard 

Gerrard, see Gerard 

Greasby, Place-name C. 5. 

Great Neston C. 5. 

Grellys family Madan 



286 



SUBJECT INDEX TO BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



Grosvenor (Hugh L., first duke 
of Westminster) D. N. B. Suj>p. 2 

Grosvenor of Eaton C [okayue] 

Grosvenours of Hulme C. S. 

Halle (Charles) D. N. B. Supp. 2 

Halls, Old, in Wirral Irvine 

Hamerton (Philp G.) D. N, B. 
Supp. 2 

Hawkshead charities Endowtd 

Hawthorne Moss 

Hazel Grove Fletcher 

Hesketh of Cheshire Fishwick 

Hodgson (Brian H.) D, N. B. 
Supp. 2 

Hoghton of Hoghton Tower 
C [okayne'] 

Holcombe, Notes on Dowsett 

Holme (Randle) Notes on Cheshire 
churches C 5. 

Holt M088 

Hopkinson Qohn) D. N. B. 
Supp. 2 

Hornby (Sir Geoffrey T.) D. N. B. 
Supp. 2 

Houghton see Hoghton 

Ireland (Alexander) D. N. B. 
Supp. 3 

James II. at Chester C. S. 

Jews in Liverpool Benas, In Man- 
chester Oesterley 

Kay (Samuel) Birthplace L. F. 
and P. 

Kay (Sir Edward E.) D. N. B. 
Supp. 3 

Kirkes (William S.) D. N. B. 
Supp. 3 

Knutsford C. N. and Q., L. F. 
and P. 

Lancashire Antiquities and Bio- 
graphy, Bibliography HolUns, 
Crosses, Blackburn hundred 
Taylor, First foot in Thompson, 
Freemasonry (seventeenth cen- 
tury) Hy lands, In the seventeenth 
century Burnet, North, Domes- 
day survey Fairer, Story of 
Creighton 

Lancaster duchy Williams, Duchy 
records Lancaster 



Langton (Robert) Mortimer 

Leigh charities Endowed 

Lever (Darcy) Kent 

Lewins (William) C. N. and Q. 

Liverpool and Manchester Rail- 
way .History Stretton,Bank Hall, 
documents Moore, Churches, St. 
George and St. John Peei, Jews 
in Benas 

Lloyd (Bishop George) C. S., 
House of C. 5. 

London and North- Western Rail- 
way, History Stretton 

Maclure (Sir J. W.) L. F. and P., 
M. C. N. 

Malpas Moss 

Manchester Beech ing. An old 
Manchester library Manchester 
Guardian, Barons of Madan, and 
Birmingham Railway, History 
Stretton, and Liverpool Rail- 
way, History Stretton, Archery 
in Axon, Cateaton Street 
M.C.N., Jews in Oesterley, Pho- 
tographic survey Manchester, 
Roman Roeder, Sessions. 1616- 
. 1622-3, see Record Society 42, 
Volunteers, fourth battalion 
Evans 

Marsh (George) Story of C.S. 

Massie (Thomas L.) D. N. B. 
Supp. 3 

Mayes' charity M. C. N. 

Middleton charities Endowed 

Middlewich during nineteeth cen- 
tury C. N . and Q. 

Minshull family C. S. 

Molyneux of Sifton C\pkayne'] 

Mosley (Nicholas) see Record 
.Society 42 

Mosley (Oswald) see Record 
Society 42 

Mosley (Sir Oswald) see Record 
Society 42 

Mosley s of Manchester Mosley s 

Mossley charities Endowed 

Mulock (Thomas S.) Reade 

Nantwich, Political riot at, 1734 
C.S. 



SUBJECT INDEX TO BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



287 



Nether Peover, Documents re- 
lating to C. S. 
Over Moss 

Owens College L. F. and P. 
Penwortham charities Endoived 
Peover Moss 
Phytton see Fitfon 
Pilkington, Origin of the name 

Pilkington 
Plemstall, Church and parish of 

Johns 
Potter (Thomas B.) D. N. B, 

Supp. 3 
Prehistoric sepulchral remains at 

Bleasdale Dawkins 
Prestbury Moss 
Preston (George) Cooper 
Prestwich (Sir Joseph) D. N. B. 

Supp. 3 
Radcliife charities Endowed 
Registers, Parish Lane. Par. Reg. 

Soc. 
Roberts (Sir William) D. N. B. 

Supp. 3 
Roman antiquities at Chester 

Newstead, Remains in Chester 

Taylor 
Rossall School, history Rowhotham 
Runic monument at Overchurch, 

Cheshire Stephens 
Ryland (Thomas G.) Radcliffe 
Ryle (John Charles) D. N. B. 

Supp. 3 
St. Annes-on-the-Sea, Double 

stanner at M. C N. 
Salford, Hope Chapel L. F. and 

P.," King Edward held Salford" 

M. C. N. 
Savage of Rock Ssivsige C [okayne] 
Sepulchral urns in Bleasdale 

Fish wick 



Shocklach Moss 

Soss Moss Moss 

Speke Moss 

Spencer (Reuben) L. F. and P., 

M. C. N. 
Standish (Myles) Mc. Knight 
Stockport and the silk trade C. 

N. and Q. 
Stratford (Dr. William) Hist. Man. 

Comm. 
Stretford Chapel, History Chetham 

Soc. n.s. 45, Longford and Edge 

Lane Bateman 
Swan wick (Anna) D. N. B. 

Supp. 3 
Tabley Old Hall Moss 
Tate (Sir Henry) D. N. B. Supp. 3 
Todmorden and the cotton famine 

Ash worth, History, Fragment of 

Ashworth, Plug plot Ashworth, 

Poor-law riots Ashworth 
Torbock Family C. S. 
Ulverston charities Endowed 
Utkynton Hall Moss 
Vale Royal Moss 
Volunteers, Fourth Battalion 

Manchester Register Evans 
Warrington Church, Plate Ball 
Whalley , Act book Cooke, Charities 

Endowed 
Wilbraham of Woodhey C [okaynej 
Wimperis (Edward M.) D. N. B. 

Supp. 3 
Winwick charities Endowed 
Wirral, Old halls in Irvine, Penin- 
sula, Antiquities found on the 

Newstead 
Witton (or Northwich) Grammar 

School C. S. 
Yarwood (Mark) C. N. and Q. 




REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



The Council of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian 
Society, in presenting their Nineteenth Annual Report, have 
to record a year which, if not marked by anything of special 
importance, has been one of steady progress. 

They are glad to be able to again congratulate the Society 
on the maintenance of the number of members, a satisfactory 
indication that interest in things antiquarian in this district is 
not lessening, notwithstanding the increasing pressure of 
other interests. At the same time they would remind 
members of the importance of securing the adhesion of all 
who are interested in those studies which it is the object of 
the Society to forward, and in this connection they would call 
attention to the privilege of introducing a friend at any one 
meeting of the Society during the Winter Session or at one 
of the summer excursions. By a greater use of this privilege 
more members might be got and the sphere of the Society's 
influence widened. 

Members. —During the year twenty new members have 
joined, whilst eleven have been lost by death, resignation, 
and other causes. The number now on the roll is — 

Ordinary Members 295 

Life Members 43 

Honorary Members 5 



292 REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

Winter Meetings. — The monthly meetings, during the 
periods January- April and October-December inclusive, have 
been held as usual at the Chetham Hospital, and have been 
attended by about the same average number as in former 
years. The titles of the papers and short communications 
are given in the following list : — 

1901. 
Jan. 25. — Annual Meeting. 

Feb. 8. — The First Church at Fumess. Mr. Harold Brakspear, F.S.A. 
March 8. — Early Christian Intrecci : their Origin and Meaning. Dr. H. 

Colley March, F.S.A. 
April 12. — Ancient Crosses of Lancashire (the Hundred of West Derby). 

Mr. Henry Taylor. 
Oct. II. — Recent Finds of Palaeolithic Implements. Dr. Boyd Dawkins, 

F.R.S. 
Nov. 8. — ^The Old Lancashire Castles. Lieut.-Col. Fish wick, F.S.A. 

,, 8. — Hanging Bridge, Manchester. Mr. H. T. Crofton. 
Dec. 13. — ^Ancient Forests and Deer Parks in Lancashire. Mr. William 

Harrison. 
1902. 
Jan. 10. — Early Mining at Alderley Edge. Mr. Charles Roeder. 

,, 10. — Local History in Ordinary Documents of Title. Mr. C. T. 

Tallent-Bateman . 

At each meeting many objects of antiquarian interest were 
exhibited. On October nth a special meeting was held in 
the Museum, Owens College, by the kind permission of the 
Principal (Dr. Hopkinson, K.C.), who, along with our 
President, welcomed the members on their arrival. There 
was a good collection of stone implements exhibited by Lady 
Constance Knox, the Hon. Auberon Herbert, Dr. Willett, 
Messrs. R. D. Darbishire, F.S.A., H. J. Willett, Charles 
Roeder, and the President and Honorary Secretary. 

Summer Meetings were held as follows: — 
1901. 

May 4. — Wigan and Upholland. 

,, 18.— Colne and Wycollar Hall. 
June 10. — Eccles Old Church. 

,, 15. — Poole's Cavern and Micah Salt's Museum, Buxton. 
July 6. — Chester. 
Aug. 12. — Ashton Old Church. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 293 

1901. 
Aug. 17. — Dieu la Cresse Abbey and St. Edward's Church, Leek. 
Sept. 14. — Conway Castle, Plas Mawr, and Conway Church. 

Whilst the attendance at these meetings was about up to 
the average, the Council take this opportunity of inviting a 
greater number of members to interest themselves in this 
branch of the Society's educational work, so that not only 
may the Society itself not be inadequately represented upon 
its visits, but also that those who lead and those who 
co-operate with them in the localities to make the visits 
successful may feel that their labours have not been without 
due appreciation. The Council are always ready to receive 
suggestions from members as to places they may think 
suitable for visiting. 

The financial position of the Society is satisfactory, but it 
may be well to state that the balance in hand, as shown by 
the Treasurer's statement, will be reduced to a more normal 
figure when the overdue volume of Transactions has been paid 
for. An appeal made by the Council to the members for 
small individual additional contributions to meet the extra 
expense of the illustrations to volume xvii. met with a 
gratifying response, the Treasurer having received on this 
account (including a few contributions which fell into the 
previous financial year) a total sum of £sz^ ^A^* from one 
hundred and eighty-eight members. Two life memberships 
have been constituted during the year, and the amounts 
received as composition have been carried to a separate 
account. 

Conference of ARCHiEOLOGicAL Societies. — The twelfth 
Archaeological Conference, in union with the Society of 
Antiquaries, was held on July loth last, at Burlington 
House, London, under the presidency of J. Willis Bund, 
Esq., M.A., F.S.A., and Sir Henry Howorth, K.C.I.E., 
F.R.S., F.S.A. Our Society was represented on this as on 
former occasions by Messrs. A. Brooke and C. C. Smith. 



296 REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

course of the Roman road through Tatham and Bentham, 
the bloomery at Tatham, and the mounds in the Lune Valley 
had already appeared in the Society's Transactions. 

Richard Webb, who died at an advanced age in 1901, joined 
the Society in 1883, ^^^ 7^^^ ^^ ^^^ foundation, was a frequent 
and interested attendant at its meetings. He was for a 
considerable period employed in the registrar's office, Owens 
College. 

Acknowledgments are gratefully made to the Feoffees of 
Chetham's Hospital and Library for use of rooms for the 
winter meetings; to Mr. W. T. Browne, house governor of 
Chetham's Hospital, for his polite attention to the comfort 
of the members ; to Dr. Hopkinson for use of Owens College 
Museum; to the Mayor of Wigan and local members; to 
the Rev. G. A. Pugh, M.A., of Ashton- under- Lyne; to the 
President and Mr. W. Morrison Sever for kind hospitality; 
to Messrs. H. Hewitt and J. T. Marquis, of Colne; to Mr. 
Samuel Unwin and Sir Thomas Wardle for assistance at 
Leek, and to the Editor, Honorary Secretary, Treasurer, and 
Auditors for their valuable services. 




REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 295 

use in Manchester Free Reference Library. Full particulars 
of these invaluable MSS. are given in Mr. Ernest Axon's 
paper in vol. xvii. of our Transactions, and in the same 
gentleman's Index to the Owen MSS, 

Richard ffolliott Crofton^ M.A., died on 29th January, 1901, 
aged forty-eight. He was a son of the late General John 
ffolliott Crofton, and brother of our esteemed members, the 
"Rev. Addison Crofton and Mr. H. T. Crofton. He was 
educated at Worcester College, Oxford, where he graduated 
B.A. in 1871 and M.A. in 1883. H® was called to the bar at 
the Inner Temple in 1875. 

James Finney died at Bolton on 21st April, 1901, aged fifty- 
four. He was an alderman of Bolton and chairman of the 
Free Library Committee of that corporation, and was greatly 
respected in the town, where for many years he conducted a 
men's class at St. Mark's Church School. He was by 
profession a solicitor, and took considerable interest in 
literature and antiquarian matters. He joined our Society in 
1884, 3Jid was also a member of the Library Association. 

George Frederick Buckley ^ J«Pm died on nth February, 1901, 
aged sixty-four. He was a retired woollen manufacturer, a 
member of the West Riding County Council, and the senior 
magistrate for Saddleworth, where he resided. He was a 
member of the Chetham and other societies, and joined our 
Society in March, 1886. 

Edmund Ashworth, J. P., of Egerton Hall, Bolton, died on 
loth May, 1901. He was a feoffee of Chetham's Hospital 
and a magistrate for the county of Lancaster. He was 
elected a life member of the Society in April, 1885.. 

John Shadrach Slinger, of Lancaster, who was born at 
Clapham-in-Craven on 29th September, 1828, and died on the 
ist December, 1901, had only been a member from 1898, but 
had for long previously taken a keen interest in archaeological 
research. His local knowledge had been made use of in the 
preparation of the Archaological Survey of Lancashire, and short 
contributions from his pen, particularly in regard to the 



296 REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

course of the Roman road through Tatham and Bentham, 
the bloomery at Tatham, and the mounds in the Lune Valley 
had already appeared in the Society's Transactions. 

Richard Webb, who died at an advanced age in 1901, joined 
the Society in 1883, ^^® 7®^^ ^^ ^^^ foundation, was a frequent 
and interested attendant at its meetings. He was for a 
considerable period employed in the registrar's office, Owens 
College. I 

Acknowledgments are gratefully made to the Feoffees of 
Chetham's Hospital and Library for use of rooms for the 
winter meetings; to Mr. W. T. Browne, house governor of 
Chetham's Hospital, for his polite att-ention to the comfort 
of the members; to Dr. Hopkinson for use of Owens College 
Museum; to the Mayor of Wigan and local members; to 
the Rev. G. A. Pugh, M.A., of Asht on- under- Lyne; to the 
President and Mr. W. Morrison Sever for kind hospitality; 
to Messrs. H. Hewitt and J. T. Marquis, of Colne; to Mr. 
Samuel Unwin and Sir Thomas Wardle for assistance at 
Leek, and to the Editor, Honorary Secretary, Treasurer, and 
Auditors for their valuable services. 







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RULES. 

Stvised January, 1897. 

1. Preamble. — This Society is instituted to examine, pre- 
serve, and illustrate ancient Monuments and Records, and to 
promote the study of History, Literature, Arts, Customs, and 
Traditions, with particular reference to the antiquities of 
Lancashire and Cheshire. 

2. Name, &c. — This Society shall be called the " Lanca- 
shire AND Cheshire Antiquarian Society." 

3. Election of Members. — Candidates for admission to 
the Society must be proposed by one member of the Society, 
and seconded by another. Applications for admission must 
be submitted in writing to the Council, who shall, as soon 
as possible after the receipt of the application, determine 
the election or otherwise of the candidate. Each new 
member shall have his election notified to him by the 
Honorary Secretary, and shall at the same time be furnished 
with a copy of the Rules, and be required to remit to the 
Treasurer, within two months after such notiiication, his 
entrance fee and subscription; and if the same shall be 
thereafter unpaid for more than two months, his name may 
be struck off the list of members unless he can justify 
the delay to the satisfaction of the Council. No new 
member shall participate in any of the advantages of the 
Society until he has paid his entrance fee and subscription. 



RULES. 299 

Each member shall be entitled to admission to all meetings 
of the Society, and to introduce a visitor, provided that the 
same person be not introduced to two ordinary or general 
meetings in the same year. Each member shall receive, free 
of charge, such ordinary publications of the Society as shall 
have been issued since the commencement of the year in 
which he shall have been elected, provided that he shall have 
paid all subscriptions then due from him. The Council shall 
have power to remove any name from the list of members on 
due cause being shown to them. Members wishing to resign 
at the termination of the year can do so by informing the 
Honorary Secretary, in writing, of their intention, on or before 
the 30th November, in that year. 

4. Honorary Members. — The Council shall have the 
power of recommending persons for election as honorary 
members. 

5. Honorary Local Secretaries. — The CounciJ shall 
have power to appoint any person Honorary Local Secretary, 
whether he be a member or not, for the town or district 
wherein he may reside, in order to facilitate the collection of 
accurate information as to objects and discoveries of local 
interest. 

6. Subscriptions. — An annual subscription of ten shillings 
and sixpence shall be paid by each member. All such sub- 
scriptions shall be due in advance on the first day of January. 

7. Entrance Fee. — Each person on election shall pay an 
entrance fee of half a guinea in addition to his first year's 
subscription. 

8. Life Membership. — A payment of seven guineas shall 
. constitute the composition for life membership, including the 

entrance fee. 

9. Government. — The affairs of the Society shall be 
conducted by a Council, consisting of the President of the 



300 RULES. 

Society, not more than six Vice-Presidents, the Honorary 
Secretary and Treasurer, and fifteen members elected out of 
the general body of the members. The Council shall retire 
annually, but the members of it shall be eligible for re-election. 
Any intermediate vacancy by death or retirement may be 
filled up by the Council. Four members of the Council to 
constitute a quorum. The Council shall meet at least four 
times yearly. A meeting may at any time be convened by 
the Honorary Secretary by direction of the President, or on 
the requisition of four members of the Council. Two Auditors 
shall be appointed by the members at the ordinary meeting 
next preceding the final meeting of the Session. 

10. Mode of Electing Officers other than the 
Auditors. — The Honorary Secretary shall send out notices 
convening the annual meeting, and with such notices enclose 
blank nomination papers of members to fill the vacancies in 
the Council and Officers, other than the Auditor. The said 
notice and nomination paper to be sent to each member 
twenty-one days prior to the annual meeting. The nomina- 
tion paper shall be returned to the Secretary not less than 
seven days before the annual meeting, such paper being signed 
by the proposer and seconder. Should such nominations not 
be sufficient to fill the several offices becoming vacant, the 
Council shall nominate members to supply the remaining 
vacancies. A complete list shall be printed, and in case of a 
contest such list shall be used as a ballot paper. 

11. Sectional Committees. — The Council may from 
time to time appoint Sectional Committees, consisting of 
members of their own body and of such other members 
of the Society as they may think can, from their special 
knowledge, afford aid in such branches of archaeology as 
the following: i. Prehistoric Remains. 2. British and 
Roman Antiquities. 3. Mediaeval, Architectural, and other 
Remains. 4. Ancient Manners and Customs, Folk-Lore, 
History of Local Trades and Commerce. 5. Records, 



RULES. 301 

Deeds, and other MSS. 6. Numismatics. 7. Genealogy, 
Family History, and Heraldry. 8. Local Bibliography and 
Authorship. 

12. Duties of Officers. — The duty of the President 
shall be to preside at the meetings of the Society, and to 
maintain order. His decision in all questions of precedence 
among speakers, and on all disputes which may arise during 
the meeting, to be absolute. In the absence of the President 
or Vice-Presidents it shall be competent for the members 
present to elect a chairman. The Treasurer shall take 
charge of all moneys belonging to the Society, pay all 
accounts passed by the Council, and submit his accounts and 
books, duly audited, to the annual meeting, the same having 
been submitted to the meeting of the Council immediately 
preceding such annual meeting. The duties of the Honorary 
Secretary shall be to attend all meetings of the Council and 
Society, enter in detail, as far as practicable, the proceedings 
at each meeting, conduct the correspondence, preserve all 
letters received, and convene all meetings by circular if 
requisite. He shall also prepare and present to the Council 
a Report of the year's work, and, after confirmation by the 
Council, shall read the same to the members at the annual 
meeting. 

13. Annual Meeting. — The annual meeting of the Society 
shall be held in the last week of January. 

14. Ordinary Meetings. — Ordinary meetings shall be 
held in Manchester at 6-15 p.m., on the second Friday of each 
month, from October to April, or at such other times as the 
Council may appoint, for the reading of papers, the exbibition 
of objects of antiquity, and the discussion of subjects connected 
therewith. 

15. General Meetings. — The Council may, from time to 
time, convene general meetings at different places rendered 
interesting by their antiquities, architecture, or historic 



1^78 BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1901. 

C[okayne] (G. E.), editor. Complete baronetage. Exeter, 1900. 8vo, 

pp. xvi, 276. Contains the following : — 

Vol. I (1611-1625): Assheton or Ashton of Great Lever. Booth or Bouthe 
of Dunham Massey. Cholmondeley of Chomondeley. Delves of Doddington. 
Egerton of Egerton. Fitton or Phytton of Gawsworth. Gerard or Gerrard of 
Bryn. Grosvenor of Eaton. Hoghton or Houghton of Hoghton Tower. 
Molyneux of Sefton. Savage of Rock Savage. Wilbraham of Woodhey. 

Cooke (Alice M.). See Chetham Society, n.s., 44. 

Cooper (Rev. Canon Thos. John). George Preston and Cartmel Priory 
Church. Trans. Historic Society of Lane, and Ches., n.s., xv., pp. 221-227. 

Creighton (Bishop Mandell). Story of some English shires. London: 
Religious Tract Society [1901]. pp. 348. 

Contains: Lancashire, pp. 163-180; Cheshire, pp. 181-194. 

Crewe Hall, seat of the Earl of Crewe. Country Life, vol. xi., pp. 400-11. 

Crofton (H. T.). See also Chetham Society, n.s., 45, Manchester City 
News, and Lancashire Parish Register Society. 

Dawkins (W. Boyd, D.Sc, F.R.S., F.S.A.). On the exploration of pre- 
historic sepulchral remains of the bronze age at Bleasdale, by S. 
Jackson. Trans. Lane, and Ches. Antiq. Society, vol. xviii., pp. 1 14-124. 
Plan and illus. 

Dowsett (Henry). Notes on Holcombe. Manchester: John Heywood, 
i2mo, pp. 142. Illus. 

Dutton family. Memorials of the Duttons of Dutton in Cheshire, with 
notes respecting the Sherborne [Gloucestershire] branch of the family. 
London, igoi. 4to, pp. xxvi, 296. Ports, and illus. 

Endowed Charities (County of Lancaster). Return and digest of endowed 
charities [Parishes of Dalton-in-Furness, Leigh, Middleton, Mossley, 
Radcliffe, Bury, Hawkshead, Penwortham, Ulverston, Whalley, Win- 
wick, and Ashton-under-Lyne] . London : Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1900. 



Evans (Horace C). Records of the Fourth Volunteer Battalion Man- 
chester Regiment. [Manchester, 1901.] Svo, pp. 227. 

Farrer (William). Domesday survey of North Lancashire, etc. Trans. 
Lane, and Ches. Antiq. Society, vol. Xviii., pp. 88-113. Maps. 

Fishwick (Henry). A genealogical memorial of the family of Buckley of 
Derby and Saddleworth. . . Privately printed, 1900. 4to, pp. 38. 

Hesketh of Cheshire. Notes and Queries, ninth s., viii. 371. 

Note on a discovery of sepulchral urns in Bleasdale. Proc. Society 

Antiq., second s., xviii., pp. 33-34. 

Fleetwood. Official guide to Fleetwood. Fleetwood: Chronicle Office, 
Albert Square [1901]. ob. 4to. Illus. 

Fletcher (Robert J.). A short history of Hazel Grove. Stockport: Hurst 
Bros., Mottram Street, 1901. i2mo, pp. [iv] . 64. Ports, and illus. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1901. 279 

Forshaw (Chas. F.) See Cheshire Notes and Queries. 

Gaythorpe (Harper). Prehistoric implements in Furness and Cartmel. 
Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian Society, xvi., pp. 152-156. 

Gleave (George). See Cheshire Sheaf. 

Hamill (Isabel Maude). The story of John Byrom, author of " Christians, 
awake!" Good Words, 1901. pp. 802-7. 

Harrod (Henry D.). A defence of the liberties of Chester, 1450. Arch., 
Ivii., pp. 71-86. 

Origin of the Chester Rows. Chester and N. Wales Archaological 

and Historic Society, 1901. 

Hey wood (Nathan). Lodge of Friendship, No. 44, Bye-laws and history. 
Manchester: Geo. W. Pilkington & Co., 1901. 8vo, pp. 23. 

Historical Manuscripts Commission. Report on the manuscripts of . . 

the Duke of Portland, K.G., preserved at Welbeck Abbey. Vol. vii. 

London, 1901. 8vo, pp. xxii, 272, 390, 391, etc. 

Consists of letters written by Dr. William Stratford, son of Dr. Nicholas 
Stratford, warden of the Manchester Collegiate Church, in which are some 
references to the struggle in relation to the wardenship of Manchester College 
(pp. xxii, 272, 390, 391, etc.). 

Hollins (Norman). Bibliography of Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquities 
and Biography. Publications during 1900. Trans. Lane, and Ches. 
Antiq. Society, vol. xviii., pp. 165-176. 

Hope (W. H. St. John). The abbey of St.-Mary-in- Furness, Lancashire. 
Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian Society, xvi., pp. 221-302. 

Howard (Joseph Jackson) and Crisp (Frederick Arthur). Visitation of 

England and Wales. Vol. ix. Privately printed, 1901. fol. 

Includes pedigrees of Gerard of Bryn, co. Lancashire, and Brocklebank of 
Liverpool. 

Hughes (T. Cann). Discoveries at Bleasdale. British Archaological Asso- 
ciation, 1901. 8vo. 

Irvine (William F.). Some old halls in Wirral. British Archaological 
Association, 1901, 8vo. 

Jackson (Shadrach). See Dawkins (W. Boyd). 

Jacques (Rev. K.). See Lancashire Parish Register Society, 11. 

Johns (Rev. W. S.). The church and parish of Plemstall. . . Chester 
and N. Wales Archaological and Historic Society, 1900. 

Kent (Philip). Darcy Lever. [The last male representative of the 
Levers of Alkrington.] Notes and Queries, ninth series, vii., pp. 1-3. 

Lancashire Faces and Places, vol. i. Manchester. Among the articles are 

the following (illustrated): — 

Burnley. Sir J. W. Maclure, obituary. Bolton-le-Moors. Hope Chapel, 
Salford. Owens College. Mrs. Gaskell and Knutsford. Baldingstone House, 
Bury (birthplace of Samuel Kay, M.D.). Reuben Spencer. Lord Crawford's 
manuscripts. Bamford Chapel. 



28o BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1901. 

Lancashire Parish Register Society, 9. The registers of St. James, 
Didsbury. . . Christenings, burials, and weddings, 1 561-1757. 
Transcribed and edited by H. T. Crofton and the Rev. E. Abbey 
Tindall. Part ii. Wigan, 1901. 8vo, pp. [iv]. 251-497 [11]. 

10. The registers of the Parish Church of Bury. Vol. ii., 

Christenings, burials, and weddings, 161 7-1646. Transcribed and 
edited by the late Rev. W. J. Lowenberg and Henry Brierley. 
Rochdale, 1901. 8vo, pp. vi, 207-467. 

II. The registers of the Parish Church of Brindle. . . 



Christenings, burials, and weddings, 1558-1714. Transcribed and 
edited by the Rev. K. Jacques and Henry Brierley. The indexes by 
Alice Brierley. Rochdale, 1901. 8vo, pp. vii, 272. 

Lancaster, Duchy. List of the records of the Duchy of Lancaster 
preserved in the Public Record Office. London, 1901. fol., pp. viii, 
142. Public Record Office Lists and Indax^s, 14. 

Lawrence (C. Frederick). See Cheshire Notes and Queries. 

Lowenberg (Rev. W. J.). See Lancashire Parish Register Society, 10. 

Mc. Knight (Edward). Myles Standish. Chotley Library Journal, 1900-1.. 
December, March, and June. Port. 

McLean (John) and Hewitt (A.). Fifty years of the Compstall Co- 
operative Industrial Society Limited, 1851-1901. A souvenir of the 
Jubilee celebration. Manchester: Co-operative Wholesale Society, 
1901. i2mo, pp. [iv] . 98. Illus. 

Maclure (Very Rev. Edward C). See Oesterley (W. O. E.) 

Madan (Falconer, M.A.). The Gresleys of Drakelowe. Oxford, 1899. 
4to, pp. xi, 335. 

Contains an account of the Grellys, barons of Manchester. 

Manchester Amateur Photographic Society. A photographic survey of 
Manchester and Salford. Two hundred and thirty- two photographs, 
1 892-1900. A description and list of plates appeared in the Manchester 
Public Free Libraries' Quarterly Record, vol. v., pp. 32-34. Sets of these 
photographs have been presented by the society to the Free Reference 
Library, King Street, and the Peel Park Library, Salford. 

Manchester City News. The following articles have appeared during 

1901 : — 

Richard C. Christie, obituary (January 12). Cateaton Street, origin of name, 
by Charles Roeder (January 19). Sir J. W. Maclure, obituary (February 2). 
Failsworth, by P. P[ercival] (March 2, 16, April 13). Mayes' Charity, by Fletcher 
Moss (March 30). Sea work on the Lancashire coast. Double stanner at 
St. Annes-on-the-Sea, by Henry T. Crofton (April 6). Reuben Spencer, obituary 
(May 25). Fairfield, by P. P[ercival] (July 6, 13, 20). "King Edward held 
Salford," by Sir W. H. Bailey (July 20). Memories of old Cheetham Hill, by 
P. P[ercival] (November 23, December 7, 21). 

Moore (Colonel John). Catalogue of the collection of documents, letters, 
papers, etc., of Col. John Moore, of Bank Hall, Liverpool . . one 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 1901. 281 

of the Regicides, to which additions were . . made by Sir John 
Moore, of Kentwell, Suffolk . . also a collection of deeds principally 
relating to Liverpool, Lancashire, Cheshire, etc., 1400-1600. . . Sold 
by auction . 1901. London. 8vo, pp. 51. Articles on this 

collection appeared in the Liverpool Mercury of November igth and 
2ist, 1901. 

Mortimer (John). Robert Langton : in memoriam. Manchester Quarterly, 
vol. XX., pp. 1-12. Port. 

Mosleys of Manchester. Manchester Guardian, July 13th. 

Moss (Fletcher). Pilgrimages in Cheshire and Shropshire. Manchester, 

1901. la. Svo. pp. xviii, 283. Illus. Contains the following Cheshire 

places illustrated and described : — 

Dutton Hall, Bunbury Church, Beeston Castle, Utkynton Hall, Alford, Farn- 
don, Holt, Malpas, Shocklach, Vale Royal, Tabley Old Hall, Gawsworth. Speke, 
Baguley, Hawthorne, Chorley, Soss Moss, Peover, Cheadle and Prestbury, and 
Over. 



See Manchester City Netvs. 



Newstead (Robert). Antiquities found in the north-western end of the 
Wirral peninsula. Chester and N. Wales Archaological and Historic 
Society, 1900. 

Discoveries of Roman antiquities at Chester. Reliquary and Illus- 



trated Archaologist, vol. vii., pp. 45-51. Illus. 

Roman remains in Chester. British Archaological Association, 

1901. Svo. 

Oesterley (W. O. E.). Walks in Jewry. With a preface by the Very 
Rev. Edward C. Maclure, D.D., dean of Manchester. London, 1901. 
8vo, pp. viii, 84. Illus. 

Contains an article on S. Saviour's, Cheetham. 

Owen (J. P.). Dutton family. Notes and Queries, ninth s., vii., pp. 433-4. 

Peet (Henry). Note^ on the churches of St. George and St. John, 
Liverpool. Trans. Historic Society 0/ Lane, and Ches.f n.s., xv., pp. 27-44. 
Jllns. 

Percival (Percival). Failsworth folk and Failsworth memories. Re- 
miniscences associated with Ben Brierley's native place. Manchester : 
G. Hargreaves, 45a, Market Street, 1901. la. 8vo, pp. 44. Ports, and 
illus. 

See Manchester City News. 



Pilkington (John). Origin of the name Pilkington. Trans. Historic Society 
of Lane, and Ches., n.s., xv., pp. 229-232. 

I'rice (William F.). Notes on some of the places, traditions, and folk-lore 
of the Douglas Valley. Trans. Historic Society of Lane, and Ches., n.s., 
XV., pp. 183-220. Map and illus. 



282 BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1901. 

Radcliffe (R. D.). Memoir of Thomas Glazebrook Ry lands, of High- 
fields. Thelwall, Cheshire. Privately printed [Exeter], 190 1. 8vo, 
pp. 47. Port. 

Reade (Aleym L.). Thomas Samuel Mulock, 1 789-1 869. Notts and Queries, 
ninth s., vii., pp. 482-4 and 501-3. 

Record Society, vol. 42. Manchester sessions. Notes of proceedings 
before Oswald Mosley {1616-1630), Nicholas Mosley (1661-1672), and 
Sir Oswald Mosley (i 734-1 739). and other magistrates. Ed. from the 
MS. in the Reference Library, Manchester, by Ernest Axon. [Exeter] , 
1901. 8vo. Vol. I, 1616-1622-3. 

Roeder (Charles). Mamuciun and Mancunium. Trans. Lane, and Ches. 
Antiq. Society, vol. xviii., pp. 163-4. 

See Manchester City News. 



Rowbotham (John F.). The history of Rossall School. 2nd ed. Man- 
chester, 1901. 8vo, pp. X, 469. Ports, and illus. 

Ryland (W. H.). Freemasonry in Lancashire and Cheshire (seventeenth 
century). Part ii. Trans. Historic Society of Lane, and Ches., n.s., xv., 
PP- 85-154. Illus. 

Stephens (Dr. George). Old northern runic monuments of Scandinavia 
and England. Vol. iv. 1901. fol. Overchurch, The Wirral. 
Cheshire, pp. 53-55. 

Stretton (Clement E.). History of the amalgamation and the formation 
of the London and North- Western Railway Company. 2nd edition. 
Leeds, 1901. 8vo, pp. 7. 

History of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. 1901. i2mo. 

pp. 15. Reprinted from the Lancaster Observer, June 14th, 190 1. 

History of the Manchester and Birmingham Railway. 2nd 



edition enlarged. . Leeds, 1901. 8vo, pp. 7. 

Sylvan (Urbanus) pseud. See Beeching (H. C). 

Taylor (Henry). Four recent discoveries of Roman remains in Chester. 
Proc. Soc. Antiq., second s., xviii., pp. 91-98. 

The ancient crosses of Lancashire: the hundred of Blackburn. 



Trans. Lane, and Ches. Antiq. Society, vol. xviii., pp. 1-60. Map and illus. 

Thompson (E. Skeffington). First foot in Lancashire. Folk-Lore, xi.. 
pp. 220. 

Williams (W. R.). Official lists of the Duchy and County Palatine of 
Lancaster from the earliest times to the present day, with biographical 
and genealogical notices. • - [ ] 1901. 8vo, pp. viii, 136. 

Worsley and the great Duke of Bridgwater. Manchester Guardian, 
September 2nd. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1901. 283 



I 

1! 



"Dictionary of National Biography." 

Following Lancashire and Cheshire persons [natives or closely connected] : — 

Supplement, vol. i: Richard Ansdell, painter (1815-1897); Thomas Ashe, 
poet (1836-1889) ; Isabella Banks, novelist (1821-1897); Thomas O. 
Barlow, mezzotint engraver (1824-1889) ; James Bateman, horticulturist 
{1811-1897): Joseph Baxendell, meteorologist and astronomer (1815- 
1897); Sir Thomas Bazley, manufacturer and politician (1797-1885); 
Charles Beard , un itarian divine and author ( 1 82 7- 1 888) ; Lydia E . Becker, 
advocate of women's suffrage (1827-1890); Samuel Birch, egyptologist 
(1813-1885) ; Sir Francis John Bolton, soldier and electrician (1831- 
1887) ; Sir William Bowman, ophthalmic surgeon (1816-1892) ; Ben- 
jamin Brierley, Lancashire dialect writer (1825-1896) ; Sir Oswald 
"Walters Brierly, marine painter (1817-1894); John Bright, orator and 
statesman (1811-1889); Sir Edwin Chadwick, sanitary reformer (1800- 
1890). 

vol. 2 : Richard Copley Christie, scholar and bibliophile) 1830- 



1901) ; Charles Clay, ovariotomist {1801-1893) ; Richard Durnford, 
bishop of Chichester (1802-1895); John Parsons Earwaker, antiquary 
( 1 847-1 895) ; Sir George Findlay, general manager of the London and 
North- Western Railway (1829-1893) ; Jessie Fothergill, novelist (1851- 
1891); Sir Edward Frankland, chemist (1825-1899); William Ewart 
Gladstone, statesman and author (1809-1898) ; Hugh Lupus Grosvenor, 
first duke of Westminster (1825-1899) ; Charles Halle, pianist and 
conductor (1819-1895); Philip Gilbert Hamerton, artist and essayist 
( 1 834-1 894) ; Brian Houghton Hodgson, Indian civilian and orientalist 
(i 800-1894); John Hopkinson, electrical engineer (1849-1898); Sir 
Geoffrey Thomas Hornby, admiral of the fleet (1825-1895). 

vol. 3 : Alexander Ireland, journalist (1810-1894) ; Sir Edward 



Ebenezer Kay, judge (1822-1897) ; William Senhouse Kirkes, physician 
(1824-1864) ; Thomas Leeke Massie, admiral (1817-1898) ; Thomas 
Bayley Potter, politician (1817-1898); Sir Joseph Prestwich, geologist 
(1812-1896) ; Sir William Roberts, physician (1830-1899) ; John Charles 
Ryle, bishop of Liverpool (1816-1900) ; Anna Swanwick, authoress 
(1813-1899) ; Sir Henry Tate (1819-1899) ; Edward Morison Wimperis, 
water-colour painter (i 835-1900). 



284 



APPENDIX 11. 



SUBJECT INDEX TO THE BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



Contractions: C. N. and Q., Cheshire Notes and Queries; C. S., Cheshire Sheaf; 
D. N. B., Dictionary of National Biography; L. F. and P., Lancashire Faces and Places; 
M. C. N., Manchester City News. 



Alder ley, Legend of C. N. and Q. 

Alford Moss ' 

Ansdell (Richard) D. N.B. Supp. i 

Antiquities, Lancashire and 
Cheshire, Bibliography Hollins 

Archery in Manchester A xon 

Ashe (Thomas) D. N. B. Supp. i 

Ashton, see Assheton 

Ashton-under-Lyne charities En- 
dowed 

Assheton of Great Lever C lokayne] 

Audlem Free Grammar School 
C. 5. 

Back ford Parish C. S. 

Baguley Moss 

Bamford Chapel L. F. and P. 

Banks (Isabella) D.N .B. Supp. i 

Barlow (Thomas O.) D. N. B. 
Supp. I 

Barrows of Barrow C. S. 

Bateman (James) D.N.B, Supp. i 

Baxendell (Joseph) D. N. B. 
Supp. I 

Bazley (Sir Thomas) D. N. B. 
Supp. I 

Beard (Charles) D. N. B. Supp. i 

Becker (Lydia E.) D.N.B. Supp. i 

Beeston Castle Moss 

Bidston Church, Monumental in- 
scriptions in C. S. 

Biography, Lancashire and 
Cheshire, Bibliography Hollins 



Birch (Samuel) D. N. B. Supp. i 
Blackburn Hundred Crosses 

Taylor 
Blackpool Carr 
Bleasdale, Discoveries at Hughes, 

Prehistoric sepulchral remains 

Dawkins, Sepulchral urns in 

Fish wick 
Blundell (Richard) C. S. 
Bolds of Upton C. S. 
Bolton (Sir Francis John) D. N. B. 

Supp. I 
Bolton-le-Moors L. F. and P. 
Bowman (Sir William) D.N.B, 

Supp. I 
Booth of Dunham Massey 

C [okayne] 
Bouthe see Booth 
Bradshaw (Henry) C. N. and Q. 
Bridgwater, Duke of, and Worsley 

IVorsley 
Brierley (Benjamin) D. N. B. 

Supp. I 
Brierly (Sir Oswald W.) D. N. B. 

Supp. I 
Bright (John) D. N.B. Supp. i 
Brindle Parish Registers Lane. 

Par. Reg. Soc. 11 
Brocklebank of Liverpool Pedi- 
gree Howard 
Buckley Family Fish wick 
Bunbury Church Moss 



J 



SUBJECT INDEX TO BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



285 



Burnley L. F. and P. 

Bury charities Endowed, Parish 
, Registers Lane. Par. Reg. Soc. 10 

Byrom (John) Ham ill 

Cartmel, Prehistoric implements 
in Gaythorpe, Priory Church 
Cooper 

Chadwick (Sir Edwin) D. N. B. 
Supp. I 

Cheadle Moss 

Cheetham Hill M. C. N. 

Cheshire Antiquities and Bio- 
graphy, Bibliography Hollins 
Churches, Notes on, Holme 
C. S., Clergy in 1559 C. S., 
Customs etc. C. N. and Q., 
Domesday, Notes on C. 5., 
Early Nonconformity in C. S., 
Freemasonry C. N. and Q., 
Freemasonry (seventeenth cen- 
tury) Rylands, In Domesday 
Book Brownhill, Martyrs C S., 
Parliamentary election 1727 C. 
5., Pilgrimages in Moss, Story 
of Crdghton 

Chester, Deans of C. S., Defence 
of liberties Harrod, James II. at 
C. S., Roman antiquities at 
Newsteadt Roman Catholic 
martyrs at, in 1679 C. S., Roman 
remains in Newstcad, Roman 
remains in Taylor, Rows, origin 
Harrod, St. Oswald's, marriage 
registers C. S., The chapel and 
parsonage hall of S. Nicholas 
at C. S. 

Cholmondeley .of Cholmondeley 
C [okay tie'] 

Chorley Moss 

Christie (Richard C.) D. N. B. 
Supp. 2, M. C. N. 

Clay (Charles) D. N. B. Supp. 2 

Compstall Co-operative Society 
Jubilee McLean 

Crawford (Lord) Manuscripts of 
L. F. and P. 

Crosses, Ancient, of Lancashire 
Taylor 



Dalton-in-Furness charities En- 
dowed 
Deeds relating to Lancashire and 

Cheshire Moore 
Delves of Doddington C [phayne'] 
Didsbury, St. James's Church, 

Registers Lane. Par. Reg. 

Soc. 9 
Domesday Book and Cheshire 

Brownhill, survey of North 

Lancashire Farrer 
Douglas Valley, Notes on Price 
Durnford (Richard) D. N. B. 

Supp. 2 
Dutton family Button, Owen 
Dutton Hall Moss 
Duttons of Dutton C. N. and Q. 
Earwaker (John P.) D. N. B. 

Supp. 2 
Egerton of Egerton C [okay ne] 
Failsworth M. C. N., Percival 
Fairfield M. C. N. 
Farndon Moss 

Fielden (John, M.P.) Ashworth 
Findlay (Sir George) D. N. B. 

Supp. 2 
Fitton of Gawsworth C[okayne] 
Forshaw (Rev. Thurstan) C. N. 

and Q. 
Fothergill (Jessie) D.N.B. Supp. 2 

Frankland (Sir Edward) D. N. B. 
Supp. 2 

Freemasonry, Lancashire and 
Cheshire (seventeenth century) 
Rylands, Lancashire Heywood 

Furness Abbey of St. Mary Hope 

Furness, First church at Brak- 
spear, Prehistoric implements in 
Gaythorpe 

Gaskell (Mrs.) and Knutsford L. 
F. and P. 

Gawsworth Moss 

Gerard of Bryn C\pkaync], Pedi- 
gree Howard 

Gerrard, see Gerard 

Greasby, Place-name C. S. 

Great Neston C. 5. 

Grellys family Madan 



284 



APPENDIX II. 



SUBJECT INDEX TO THE BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



Contractions: C. JV. and Q., Cheshire Notes and Queries; C. S., Cheshire Sheaf; 
D. N. B., Dictionary of National Biography; L. F. and P., Lancashire Faces and Places; 
M. C. N., Manchester City News. 



Alderley, Legend of C. N. and Q. 

Alford Moss ' 

Ansdell (Richard) D.N.B. Supp. i 

Antiquities, Lancashire and 
Cheshire, Bibliography Hollins 

Archery in Manchester A xon 

Ashe (Thomas) D. N. B. Supp. i 

Ashton, see Assheton 

Ashton-under-Lyne charities En- 
dowed 

Assheton of Great Lever C [okayne] 

Audlem Free Grammar School 
C. S. 

Backford Parish C. S. 

Baguley Moss 

Bamford Chapel L. F. and P. 

Banks (Isabella) D. N. B. Supp. i 

Barlow (Thomas O.) D. N. B. 
Supp. I 

Barrows of Barrow C. S. 

Bateman (James) D.N.B. Supp. i 

Baxendell (Joseph) D. N. B. 
Supp. I 

Bazley (Sir Thomas) D. N. B. 
Supp. I 

Beard (Charles) D. N. B. Supp. i 

Becker (Lydia E.) D. N. B. Supp. i 

Beeston Castle Moss 

Bidston Church, Monumental in- 
scriptions in C. S. 

Biography, Lancashire and 
Cheshire, Bibliography Hollins 



Birch (Samuel) D.N. B. Supp. i 
Blackburn Hundred Crosses 

Taylor 
Blackpool Carr 
Bleasdale, Discoveries at Hughes, 

Prehistoric sepulchral remains 

Dawk ins. Sepulchral urns in 

Fish wick 
Blundell (Richard) C. S. 
Bolds of Upton C. S. 
Bolton (Sir Francis John) D. N. B. 

Supp. I 
Bolton-le-Moors L. F. and P. 
Bowman (Sir William) D. N.B, 

Supp. I 
Booth of Dunham Massey 

C [okayne] 
Bouthe see Booth 
Bradshaw (Henry) C. N. and Q. 
Bridgwater, Duke of, and Worsley 

IVorsley 
Brierley (Benjamin) D. N. B. 

Supp. I 
Brierly (Sir Oswald W.) D. N. B. 

Supp. I 
Bright (John) D. N.B. Supp. i 
Brindle Parish Registers Lane, 

Par. Reg. Soc. 11 
Brocklebank of Liverpool Pedi- 
gree Howard 
Buckley Family Fishwick 
Bunbury Church Moss 






SUBJECT INDEX TO BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



285 



Burnley L. F. and P. 

Bury charities Endowed, Parish 
, Registers Lane. Par. Reg. Soc. 10 

Byrom (John) Ham ill 

Cartmel, Prehistoric implements 
in Gaythorpe, Priory Church 
Cooper 

Chadwick (Sir Edwin) D. N. B. 
Supp. I 

Cheadle Moss 

Cheetham Hill M. C. N. 

Cheshire Antiquities and Bio- 
graphy, Bibliography Hollins 
Churches, Notes on. Holme 
C. S., Clergy in 1559 C. S 
Customs etc. C. N. and Q 
Domesday, Notes on C. S 
Early Nonconformity in C. S 
Freemasonry C. N. and Q 
Freemasonry (seventeenth cen- 
tury) Rylands, In Domesday 
Book Brownhill, Martyrs C S., 
Parliamentary election 1727 C. 
S.y Pilgrimages in Moss, Story 
of Creighton 

Chester, Deans of C. 5., Defence 
of liberties Harrod, James II. at 
C. S., Roman antiquities at 
Newsteadf Roman Catholic 
martyrs at, in 1679 C. S., Roman 
remains in Newstead, Roman 
remains in Taylor, Rows, origin 
Harrod, St. Oswald's, marriage 
registers C. S., The chapel and 
parsonage hall of S. Nicholas 
at C. S. 

Cholmondeley .of Cholmondeley 
C [okayne] 

Chorley Moss 

Christie (Richard C.) D. N. B. 
Supp. 2, M. C. N. 

Clay (Charles) D. N. B. Supp. 2 

Compstall Co-operative Society 
Jubilee McLean 

Crawford (Lord) Manuscripts of 
L. F. and P. 

Crosses, Ancient, of Lancashire 
Taylor 



Dalton-in-Furness charities En- 
dowed 
Deeds relating to Lancashire and 

Cheshire Moore 
Delves of Doddington C \phayne'] 
Didsbury, St. James's Church, 

Registers Lane. Par. Reg. 

Soc. 9 
Domesday Book and Cheshire 

Brownhill, survey of North 

Lancashire Farrer 
Douglas Valley, Notes on Price 
Durnford (Richard) D. N. B. 

Supp. 2 
Dutton family Button, Owen 
Dutton Hall Moss 
Duttons of Dutton C. N. and Q. 
Earwaker (John P.) D. N. B. 

Supp. 2 
Egerton of Egerton C [okay ;/<?] 
Failsworth M. C. N., Percival 
Fairfield M. C. N. 
Farndon Moss 

Fielden (John, M.P.) Ashworth 
Findlay (Sir George) D. N. B. 

Supp. 2 
Fitton of Gawsworth C [okayne] 
Forshaw (Rev. Thurstan) C. N. 

and Q. 
Fothergill (Jessie) D.N.B. Supp. 2 

Frankland (Sir Edward) D.N.B. 
Supp. 2 

Freemasonry, Lancashire and 
Cheshire (seventeenth century) 
Rylands, Lancashire Hey wood 

Furness Abbey of St. Mary Hope 

Furness, First church at Brak- 
spear, Prehistoric implements in 
Gaythorpe 

Gaskell (Mrs.) and Knutsford L. 
F. and P. 

Gawsworth Moss 

Gerard of Bryn C [okayne], Pedi- 
gree Howard 

Gerrard, see Gerard 

Greasby, Place-name C. S. 

Great Neston C. S. 

Grellys family Madan 



296 REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

course of the Roman road through Tatham and Bentham, 
the bloomery at Tatham, and the mounds in the Lune Valley 
had already appeared in the Society's Transactions. 

Richard Webb, who died at an advanced age in 1901, joined 
the Society in 1883, the year of its foundation, was a frequent 
and interested attendant at its meetings. He was for a 
considerable period employed in the registrar's office, Owens 
College. 

Acknowledgments are gratefully made to the Feoffees of 
Chetham's Hospital and Library for use of rooms for the 
winter meetings; to Mr. W. T. Browne, house governor of 
Chetham's Hospital, for his polite attention to the comfort 
of the members ; to Dr. Hopkinson for use of Owens College 
Museum; to the Mayor of Wigan and local members; to 
the Rev. G. A. Pugh, M.A., of Ashton-under-Lyne; to the 
President and Mr. W. Morrison Sever for kind hospitality; 
to Messrs. H. Hewitt and J. T. Marquis, of Colne; to Mr. 
Samuel Unwin and Sir Thomas Wardle for assistance at 
Leek, and to the Editor, Honorary Secretary, Treasurer, and 
Auditors for their valuable services. 




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RULES. 

Reviiid January, 1897, 

1. Preamble. — This Society is instituted to examine, pre- 
serve, and illustrate ancient Monuments and Records, and to 
promote the study of History, Literature, Arts, Customs, and 
Traditions, with particular reference to the antiquities of 
Lancashire and Cheshire. 

2. Name, &c.— This Society shall be called the "Lanca- 
shire AND Cheshire Antiquarian Society." 

3. Election of Members. — Candidates for admission to 
the Society must be proposed by one member of the Society, 
and seconded by another. Applications for admission must 
be submitted in writing to the Council, who shall, as soon 
as possible after the receipt of the application, determine 
the election or otherwise of the candidate. Each new 
member shall have his election notified to him by the 
Honorary Secretary, and shall at the same time be furnished 
with a copy of the Rules, and be required to remit to the 
Treasurer, within two months after such notification, his 
entrance fee and subscription; and if the same shall be 
thereafter unpaid for more than two months, his name may 
be struck off the list of members unless he can justify 
the delay to the satisfaction of the Council. No new 
member shall participate in any of the advantages of the 
Society until he has paid his entrance fee and subscription. 



RULES. 299 

Each member shall be entitled to admission to all meetings 
of the Society, and to introduce a visitor, provided that the 
same person be not introduced to two ordinary or general 
meetings in the same year. Each member shall receive, free 
of charge, such ordinary publications of the Society as shall 
have been issued since the commencement of the year in 
which he shall have been elected, provided that he shall have 
paid all subscriptions then due from him. The Council shall 
have power to remove any name from the list of members on 
due cause being shown to them. Members wishing to resign 
at the termination of the year can do so by informing the 
Honorary Secretary, in writing, of their intention, on or before 
the 30th November^ in that year. 

4. Honorary Members. — The Council shall have the 
power of recommending persons for election as honorary 
members. 

5. Honorary Local Secretaries. — The CounciJ shall 
have power to appoint any person Honorary Local Secretary, 
whether he be a member or not, for the town or district 
wherein he may reside, in order to facilitate the collection of 
accurate information as to objects and discoveries of local 
interest. 

6. Subscriptions. — An annual subscription of ten shillings 
and sixpence shall be paid by each member. All such sub- 
scriptions shall be due in advance on the first day of January. 

7. Entrance Fee. — Each person on election shall pay an 
entrance fee of half a guinea in* addition to his first year's 
subscription. 

8. Life Membership. — A payment of seven guineas shall 
constitute the composition for life membership, including the 
entrance fee. 

9. Government. — The affairs of the Society shall be 
conducted by a Council, consisting of the President of the 



300 RULES. 

Society, not more than six Vice-Presidents, the Honorary 
Secretary and Treasurer, and fifteen members elected out of 
the general body of the members. The Council shall retire 
annually, but the members of it shall be eligible for re-election. 
Any intermediate vacancy by death or retirement may be 
filled up by the Council. Four members of the Council to 
constitute a quorum. The Council shall meet at least four 
times yearly. A meeting may at any time be convened by 
the Honorary Secretary by direction of the President, or on 
the requisition of four members of the Council. Two Auditors 
shall be appointed by the members at the ordinary meeting 
next preceding the final meeting of the Session. 

10. Mode of Electing Officers other than the 
Auditors. — The Honorary Secretary shall send out notices 
convening the annual meeting, and with such notices enclose 
blank nomination papers of members to fill the vacancies in 
the Council and Officers, other than the Auditor. The said 
notice and nomination paper to be sent to each member 
twenty-one days prior to the annual meeting. The nomina- 
tion paper shall be returned to the Secretary not less than 
seven days before the annual meeting, such paper being signed 
by the proposer and seconder. Should such nominations not 
be sufficient to fill the several offices becoming vacant, the 
Council shall nominate members to supply the remaining 
vacancies. A complete list shall be printed, and in case of a 
contest such list shall be used as a ballot paper. 

11. Sectional Committees. — The Council may from 
time to time appoint Sectional Committees, consisting of 
members of their own body and of such other members 
of the Society as they may think can, from their special 
knowledge, afford aid in such branches of archaeology as 
the following: i. Prehistoric Remains. 2. British and 
Roman Antiquities. 3. Mediaeval, Architectural, and other 
Remains. 4. Ancient Manners and Customs, Folk-Lore, 
History of Local Trades and Commerce. 5. Records, 



RULES. 301 

Deeds, and other MSS. 6. Numismatics. 7. Genealogy, 
Family History, and Heraldry. 8. Local Bibliography and 
Authorship. 

12. Duties of Officers. — The duty of the President 
shall be to preside at the meetings of the Society, and to 
maintain order. His decision in all questions of precedence 
among speakers, and on all disputes which may arise during 
the meeting, to be absolute. In the absence of the President 
or Vice-Presidents it shall be competent for the members 
present to elect a chairman. The Treasurer shall take 
charge of all moneys belonging to the Society, pay all 
accounts passed by the Council, and submit his accounts and 
books, duly audited, to the annual meeting, the same having 
been submitted to the meeting of the Council immediately 
preceding such annual meeting. The duties of the Honorary 
Secretary shall be to attend all meetings of the Council and 
Society, enter in detail, as far as practicable, the proceedings 
at each meeting, conduct the correspondence, preserve all 
letters received, and convene all meetings by circular if 
requisite. He shall also prepare and present to the Council 
a Report of the year's work, and, after confirmation by the 
Council, shall read the same to the members at the annual 
meeting. 

13. Annual Meeting. — The annual meeting of the Society 
shall be held in the last week of January. 

14. Ordinary Meetings. — Ordinary meetings shall be 
held in Manchester at 6-15 p.m., on the second Friday of each 
month, from October to April, or at such other times as the 
Council may appoint, for the reading of papers, the exhibition 
of objects of antiquity, and the discussion of subjects connected 
therewith. 

15. General Meetings. — The Council may, from time to 
time, convene general meetings at different places rendered 
interesting by their antiquities, architecture, or historic