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Full text of "Transactions of the American Entomological Society"

mm 



iilli^ 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



AMERICAN 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



;^2i^ 







VOLUME XLI 



Hall of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 

LOGAN square 

1915 



:^3AZ^^ 



LIST OF PAPERS 



BOWDITCH (F. C.) 

Notes on Some South American Halticidae . . 487 

(Issued October 16, 1915.) 

Fall (H. C.) 

A Revision of the North American Species of Pachy- 
brachys ........ 291 

(Issued September 27, 1915.) 

Hebard (Morgan) 

See Rehn and Hebard. 

Merrill (J. H.) 

On Some Genera of the Pimpline Ichneumonidae . 109 

(Issued May 24, 1915.) 

Rehn (James A. G.) and Hebard (Morgan) 

Studies in American Tettigoniidae (Orthoptera). IV. 

A Synopsis of the Species of the Genus Orchelimum . 11 

(Issued April 12, 1915.) 

Studies in American Tettigoniidae (Orthoptera). V. 
A Synopsis of the Species of the Genus Conocephalus 
found in North America North of Mexico . . 155 

(Issued June 19, 1915.) 

Studies in American Tettigoniidae (Orthoptera). VI. 
A Synopsis of the Species of the Genus Conocephahis 
found in America South of the Southern Border of 
the United States ...... 225 

(Issued July 14, 1915.) 
SCHAUS (W.) 

New Species of Heterocera from Tropical America . 1 
(Issued February 20, 1915.) 

Wilson (H. F.) 

Miscellaneous Aphid Notes Chiefly from Oregon . 85 

(Issued May 3, 1915.) 



INDEX 



The names of new genera and of new species are followed by the name of 
the author. 



PAGE 

Abdominalis (Pachybrachys) 

313, 353 

aberrans (Xiphidium) 235 

acronyctoides (Pucialia) Schaus 4 
aeneipennis (Metriotes) Bow- 
ditch 506 

Afrida polyglotta Schaus 1 

sceletozona Schaus 1 

agile (Orchelimum) 24, 27, 29 

agilis (Locusta) 15, 29 

aigialus (Conocephalus) Rehn 

and Hebard 164, 202 

alacris (Pachybrachys) Fall 314, 366 

alaskensis (Rhyssa) 142 

albiapicata (Titya) Schaus. ... 6 

albomaculata (Rhyssa) 142 

allardi (Conocephalus) .... 161, 169 

allardi (Xiphidion) 169 

alticola (Pachybrachys) Fall 

321,442 
amabilis (Chlorhoda) Schaus . . 3 
Amphorophora subterrans Wil- 
son 99 

analis (Pachybrachys) Fall 309, 331 
Anarthropus Rehn and Hebard 

159,165,216,226 
angustifrons (Conocephalus) 

231,260 

angustifrons (Xiphidium) 260 

Anisoptcra 155 

Apechoncura (key to North 

American species) 148 

carinifrons 149 

nigritarsis 1 42 

Aphauropus Rehn and Hebard 

226, 234, 286 

Aphis art emesicola 88, 95 

chrysothamni Wilson 101 

frigichie 88, 95 



PAGE 

Aphis hermistonii Wilson .... 88, 93 

lithospermii Wilson 100 

oregonensis Wilson 88, 92 

reticulata Wilson 88, 92 

trident at ae Wilson 88, 94 

aphrodite (Dii-phia) Schaus. ... 9 
apicaHs (Tetragonotes) Bow- 
ditch 492 

apicatus (Cerichrestis) Bow- 
ditch 504 

aquilonis (Pachybrachys) Fall 

315, 375, 480 
arizonensis (Pachybrachys) 311, 344 

Aq:)ema ScJiaus 5 

megalopia Schaus 5 

arpi (Repnoa) Schaus 9 

artemesiae (Chaitophorus) .... 90 
artemesiae (Microsiphum) ... 88, 90 
artemesiae (Nectarophora). . . . 97 

art emesicola (Aphis) 88, 95 

artemesicola (Macrosiphum) 89, 96 
atomarius (Pachybrachys) 

319,325,413,480 

atrata (Ichneumon) 128 

atrata (Megarhyssa) . . 125, 126, 128 

attenuatum (Xiphidium) 207 

attenuatus (Conocephalus) 165, 207 
autolycus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

322, 458 

Radius (Pachybrachys) Fall 318, 404 
bajulus (Pachybrachys) . . .318, 408 

barbara (Pharga) Schaus 5 

bituberculatum (Xiphidium). . 13 
bivit t a1 us (Pachybrachys) 

322, 447, 480 
blerura (Misogada) Schaus. ... 6 
bolivianus (HomotjTshus) Bou- 

ditch 496 



VI 



INDEX 



bolivianus (Loxoprosopus) Boic- 

ditch 499 

borelli (Conocephalus). . . .233, 278 

borelli (Xiphidium) 278 

brachypterum (Xiphidium) . . . 269 
bradleyi (Orchelinium) Rehn 

and Hebard 26, 73 

brevicoUis (Pachybrachys) .317, 393 
brevicornis (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 320,380 

brevipenne (Xiphidion) 212 

brevipenne (Xiphidium) . . . 177, 216 
brevipemiis (Conocephalus) 

162, 182, 202 
brevipennis (Xiphidium). . . 182, 212 
brachii (Rhinotmetus) Bowditch 490 

bruneri (Orchclimum) 72 

brunneus (Pachybrachys) .. 309, 335 
bullatum (Orchelimum) Rehn 

and Hehard 25,27,50 

bullatus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

313, 361, 480 
bumehae (Prociphilus) 85 

Caelatus (Pachybrachys) 

313, 317, 392 

caizanum (Xiphidium) 235 

calcaratum (Orchelimiun) Rehn 

and Hehard 24,27,46 

calcaratus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

316, 389 
calidus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

315, 379, 480 
californicus (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 316,325,437 

campestre (OrcheUmum) 60 

camurum (Xiphidium) 191 

canadensis (Cryptosiphum) ... 90 
canadensis (Microsiphum) . . .88, 90 
canadensis (Megarhyssa) 

125, 126, 129 

canadensis (Rhyssa) 129 

carbonarius (Pachybrachys) 

325, 461, 480 

carinifrons (Apechoneura) 149 

carinifrons (Rhyssa) 149 

carinipcnnis (Tctragonotes) 

Bowditch 493 



carolinensis (Pachybrachys) 319, 425 

caudatum (Xiphidium) 191 

cephalicus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

319, 418 
Cerichrestis apicatus Bowditch . 504 

curvilinea Bowditch 505 

jacobyi Bowditch 505 

chacoensis (Metriotes) Bow- 
ditch 507 

Chaitophorus artemesiae 90 

tridentatae Wilson 88, 89 

chaoticus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

314, 367 
characteristicus (Pachybrachys) 

315,375 
Chlorhoda amabilis Schaus. ... 3 
chrysothamni (Aphis) Wilson.. 101 
cinereus (Conocephalus) . . . 230, 243 
circumcmctus (Pachybrachys) 

322, 449 
Claphe semif unebris Schaus ... 7 
clarkii (Loxoprosopus) Bow- 
ditch 500 

clavator (Ichneumon) 125 

clavatus (Megarhyssa) 125 

coloradensis (Pachybrachys) 

312, 350 
concinnum (OrcheUmum) . 25, 27, 60 
confederatus (Pachybrachj's) 

Fall 316,387 

conformis (Pachybrachys). .319, 427 
confusus (Pachybrachys) 

316, 325, 468, 480 
connexus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

309, 328 
Conocephalus .... 155, 159, 225, 226 

(key to subgenera) 226 

(key to North American 

subgenera) 158 

(key to North American 

species) 161 

(key to species of South 

and Central America) . . 229 
aigiakis Rehn and Hebard 

164, 202 

allardi 161,169 

angustifrons 231, 260 

attenuatus 165, 207 



INDEX 



Vll 



Conocephalus borelli 233,278 

brevipennis 162, 182, 202 

cinereus 230, 243 

conocephalus 155 

ensiferus 199 

equatorialis 232, 266 

fasciatus 162, 170, 230, 248 

graciUimus 162, 180 

hemipterus 155 

hygrophilus Rehn and Heb- 

ard 164, 197 

ictus 231,250 

insularis 231, 256 

iriodes Rehn and Hebard 

231, 258 
leptopterus Rehn and Heb- 
ard 234,287 

longipes 229,240 

nemoralis 163, 189 

nigropleuroides 165, 210 

nigropleurum 164, 205 

occidentalis 163, 191 

ochrotelus Rehn and Heb- 
ard 233,283 

recticaudus 264 

resacensis Rehn and Heb- 
ard 163, 188, 232 

saltans 165, 216 

saltator 232,269 

spartinae 165, 212 

spinosus 162, 180, 230, 254 

stictomenis Reh7i and Heb- 
ard 164, 199 

strictoides 233,285 

strictus 163, 193, 231 

truncatus 233,280 

unicolor 232,264 

versicolor 233,281 

vicinus 162, 177, 230 

vitticolUs 229,242 

conocephalus (Conocephahis) . . 155 

conocephalus (Locusta) 155 

consiniilis (Pachybrachys) F(dl 

322, 450 
conspirator (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 312,321,445 

contract if rons (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 314,365 



convictus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

311, 315, 344 

coweni (Nectarophora) 97 

crassus (IIomotjT)hus) Bow- 
ditch 496 

crassus (Pachybrachys). . . .311, 358 

crevieri (Epu'hyssa) 142 

croftus (Pachybrachys).. . .320,433 
cruentus (Pachybrachys) . . 324, 475 

cruscukmi (Orchelinium) 68 

Crj'ptocentrum lineolat um .... 142 

Ciyptocephakis 300 

Cryptosiphum canadensis 90 

curtipenne (Xiphidium) 189 

ciu*vilinea (Corichrestis) Bow- 
ditch 505 

cuticulare (Orchelimum) 

12, 16, 19, 34, 58 

cuticulare (Xiphidium) 46 

cyanipennis (Loxoprosopus) 

Bowditch 500 

cyanipennis (Zeteticus) Bow- 
ditch 501 

cylindricus (Pachybrachys) 316, 390 

Delicatum (Orchelimum) 60 

delumbis (Pachybrachys) Fall 

318,407 
densus (Pachybrachys) . . . .311, 339 
desertus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

309, 332 
Dicellura Relm and Hebard 

158, 161, 169, 226 
difficilis (Pachybrachys) Fall 

323,324,459 
dilatatus (Pachybrachys) . . 324, 475 

Dirphia aphrodite Schaus 9 

discoideus (Pachybrachys) .324, 473 
diversus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

313,355 
dixianus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

319,419 
donneri (Pachybrachys) . . .310, 334 

doryphonnn (Xiphidion) 235 

dubiosus (Pachybrachys) . . 323, 452 
duryi (Pachybrachys) Fall .316. 385 

Ensifer (Xiphidium) 182, 193 



Vlll 



INDEX 



ensiferum (Xiphidium)177, 180, 182 

ensiferus (Conocephalus) 199 

ephippium (Phylacticus) Boio- 

ditch 494 

Epirhyssa 140 

crevieri 142 

mexicana 131 

equatoriale (Xiphidium) 266 

equatorialis (Conocephalus) 

232, 266 
erythrocephalum(Orchelimum) 34 
eubleptica (Pseudocraspedia) 

Schaus 3 

Eutelia inconstrictrLx Schaus. . 4 
exitiosum (Xiphidium) 235 

Fasciata (Locusta) 170, 248 

fascial um (Xiphidium) 177 

fasciatus (Conocephalus) 

162, 170, 230, 248 
femoratus (Pachybrachys) 

315, 374, 480 

festae (Xiphidium) 281 

festivus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

315, 470 
fidicinium (Orchehmum) 25, 27, 68 
flaveola (Loxoprosopus) Bow- 
ditch 499 

flavicomis (Pachybrachys) .... 440 
fortis (Pachybrachys) Fall 315, 373 
foveolatus (Ptinomorpha) Bow- 
ditch 509 

fractus (Pachybrachys) Fall 320, 430 
fratemum (Orchelimum) Rehn 

and Hebard 26,79 

fraxini-dipetalae (Prociphilus) . 85 
friburga (Malocampa) Schaus . 6 
friburgensis (Micrattacus) 

Schaus 8 

frigidae (Aphis) 88,95 

frigidae (Macrosiphum) 89 

frigidae (Siphonaphora) 97 

fuscipes (Pachybrachys) Fall 

318, 410 

Gagates (Pachybrachys) Fall . . 438 
gagatinus (Pachybrachys) .... 325 
glaberimum (Orchelimum) ... 12, 19 



glaberrimum (Orchelimum) 

16, 24, 27, 34, 76 
gladiator (OrcheUmum). . .24, 26, 44 

glaucum (Orchelimum) 16, 29 

gorgas (Ocha) Schaus 7 

gossypii (Xiphidium) 182 

gracile (Orchelunum) . ... 15, 60, 170 
gracilipes (Pachybrachys) Fall 

316, 386 

gracillimum (Xiphidium) 180 

graciUimus (Conocephalus) 162, 180 

gracilinum (Xiphidium) 60 

grandirena (Hemicephalis) 

Schaus 4 

greenei (Megarhyssa) 126, 136 

Griburius 300 

Haematodes (Pachybrachys) 

309, 326 
Hapolotrius parvulus Bowditch 504 

plagiatus Bowditch 503 

roseiihergii Bowditch 504 

haroldi (Tetragonotes) Bow- 
ditch 492 

HemicephaUs grandirena Schaus 4 
hemipterus (Conocephalus) . . . 155 
hepaticus (Pachybrachys). .326, 476 
herbaceum (Orchelimum) .... 16, 68 
hermistonii (Aphis) Wilson. . .88, 93 
heteroderus (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 478 

histrio (Thalessa) 152 

homogramma (Lycaugesia) 

Schaus 3 

Homotyphus 487 

bolivianus Bowditch 496 

crassus Bowditch 496 

uidipennis Bowditch 495 

rosenbergii Bowditch 495 

spinipemiis Bowditch 497 

humida (Megarhyssa) 125, 126 

humida (Pimpla) 126 

humida (Rhyssa) 126 

hybridus (Pachybrachys) 

324, 472, 480 
hygrophilus (Conocephalus) 

Rehn and Hebard. . . 164, 197 
Ilylcsia multii)lex Schaus .... 8 



INDEX 



IX 



Ichneumon atrata 128 

clavator 125 

lunator 133 

persuasorius 140, 142 

ictum (Xiphidium) 250 

ictus (Conocephalus) 231, 250 

iUectus (Pachybrachys) Fall 314, 370 
immaculatus (Pachybrachys) 

311, 339 
i m p e r f e ctus (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 323,454 

impurus (Pachybrachys) . . . 315, 377 
mcoastrictrLx (Eutelia) Schaus . 4 

indiancnsc (OrcheUmum) 60 

inernie (Orchelimum) 17 

inerme (Xiphidium) 60 

insidiosus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

320, 340 
iustabilis (Pachybrachys) Fall 

321,324,471 
insularis (Conocephalus).. .231, 256 
integratus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

309, 327 
iridipennis (Homotyphus) Bow- 
ditch 495 

iriodes (Conocephalus) Rehn 

and Hebard 231 

Jacobyi (Cerichrestis) Bowditch 505 
jacobyi (Loxoprosopus) Bow- 
ditch 498 

jacobyi (Pachybrachys). . . .311, 337 
jacobyi (Rhinotmetus) Bow- 
ditch 489 

janus (Pachybrachys) Fall .... 462 

Lachnus laricifoliae Wilson. . . 102 

orcgonensis Wihoii 103 

parvus Wilson 104 

rul)icundus Wilsoji 104 

lachrymosus (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 325,417 

laevis (Pachybrachys) 321, 443 

lanceolatum (Xiphidium) 207 

laricifoliae (Lachnus) Wilson. . 102 
lateralis (Metriotes) Bowditch . 507 
lateralis (Octogonotus) Bow- 
ditch 502 



laticauda (Orchelimum) 

17, 18, 25, 27, 53 

laticauda (Xiphidium) 53 

laticollis (Pachybrachys). . .316, 384 
leptopterus (Conocephalus) 

Rehn and Hebard 287 

Uebecki (Pachybrachys) Fall 

311,447 
lineolatum (Cryptocentrum) . . 142 

Lissonotini 124 

lithospermii (Aphis) Wilson . . . 100 
litigiosus (Pachybrachys). .322, 450 
livens (Pachybrachys) 312, 347, 480 

Locusta agilis 15, 29 

conocephalus 155 

fasciata 170, 248 

vitticollis 242 

lodingi (Pachybrachys) . . . ,311, 345 
longimacula (Robinsonia) 

Schaus 2 

longipenne (Orchelimum) 50 

longipennis (Orchelimum) 60 

longipes (Conocephalus) . . .229, 240 

longipes (Xi])hidium) 240 

longus (Pachybrachys) 260, 312 

Loxoprosopus bolivianus Bow- 
ditch 499 

clarkii Bowditch 500 

cyanipennisi?o«Y7z7c/; 500 

flaveola Bowditch 499 

jacobyi BowdUch 498 

luctuosus (Pachybrachys). 319, 425 
ludovicianae (Macrosiphum) .89, 98 

lunator (Ichneumon) 133 

lunator (Megarhyssa) 126, 133 

luridus (Pachybrachys) 

325, 469, 480 
lustrans (Pachybrachys) 

321, 325, 436, 4S0 
Lycaugesia homogramnui 

Scha us 3 

Macro.si])hum artemesicola. . .89, 96 

frigidae 89 

ludovicianae 89, 98 

mentzeliac Wilson 99 

pteridis Wilson 101 

Malocampa friburga Schaus ... 6 



INDEX 



manitobense (Orchelimum) . . . . 44 
marginatus (Metriotes) Boxo- 

ditch 508 

marginatus (Pachybrachys) 

324, 474 
marginatus (Rhinotmetus) 

Bowditch 489 

marginipennis (Pachybrachys) 

311,341 
marmoratus (Pachybrachys) 

309, 333 
megalopia (Arpema) Schaus ... 5 

Megarhyssa 125 

(table to North American 

species) 125 

atrata 125,126,128 

canadensis 125, 126, 129 

clavatus 125 

greenei 126, 136 

humida 125,126 

lunator 126,133 

mexicana 125, 131 

nitida 126,137 

nortonii 12G, 131 

superbus 125 

melanostictus (Pachybrachys) 

317, 397, 480 
mellitus (Pachybrachys) . . .310, 336 
mentzeUae (Macrosiphum) Wil- 
son 99 

mercurialis (Pachybrachys) Fall 

311,312,347 
meridionale (Xiphidium).. .269,285 
Metarhoptrum Rehn and Heb- 

ard 19, 21 

Metriotes aeneipennisJ5owdi<c/i. 508 

chacoensis Bowditch 507 

laterahs Bowditch 507 

marginatus Bowditch 508 

sericeus Bowditch 508 

mexicana (Epirhyssa) 131 

mexicana (Megarhyssa) . . . 125, 131 

mexicanum (Xiphidium) 250 

M icrattacus f riburgensis Schaus 8 
microps (Pachybrachys) Fall 

326, 478 

Microsiphum artemesiae 88, 90 

canadensis 88, 90 



Microsiphum oregonensis Wil- 
son 88,91 

mihtare (Orchehmimi). . . .25, 26, 70 
minerva (Pseudahs) Schaus. . . 2 

minor (Orchehmum) 25, 27, 58 

minor (Pachybrachys) 312, 351 

Misogada blerura Schaus 6 

mitis (Pachybrachys) Fall. 312, 349 
m-nignim (Pachybrachys) 

319, 465, 480 
mobiUs (Pachybrachys) FoZZ 318, 406 

molossum (Orchehmum) 29 

multiplex (Hylesia) Schaus .... 8 

Nectarophora artemesiae 97 

coweni 97 

nemorale (Xiphidion) 189, 212 

nemoralis (Conocephalus) . 163, 189 

Neoxiphidion 170 

nero (Pachybrachys) 312, 352 

nigranalis (Prumala) Schaus. . . 2 

nigrinus (Pachybrachys) 470 

nigricornis (Pachybrachys) 324, 460 
nigripes (Orchelimum). . . .25, 27, 56 

nigritarsis (Apechoneura) 142 

nigritarsis (Rhyssa) 142 

nigropleura (Xiphidium) 205 

nigropleuroides (Conocephalus) 

165,210 
nigropleuroides (Xiphidium) . . 210 
nigropleurum (Conocephalus) 

164, 205 
nigropleurum (Xiphidion) . 202, 210 
nigropleurum (Xiphidium) .... 205 

nitida (Megarhyssa) 126, 137 

nitida (Rhyssa) 137 

nitidum (Orchelimmn) 17, 18 

nitidum (Xiphidium) 29 

nobilis (Pachybrachj's) Fall 

318, 409, 480 
nogalicus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

320, 432 

nortonii (Megarhyssa) 126, 131 

nortonii( Rhyssa) 131 

nortonii (Thalessa) 131 

notatus (Pachybrach3^s) . . .317,391 
nubigenus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

317, 394 



INDEX 



XI 



nubilus (Pachybrachys) 

312, 316, 444 
nunenmacheri (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 314,372 

Obfuscatus (Pachybrachj^s) Fall 

319,416 
obsoletus (Pachybrachys) 

320, 440, 480 

occidentale (Xiphidmm) 191 

occidentaHs (Conocephalus)163, 191 

Ocha gorgas Schaus 7 

ochreata (Trochuda) Schaus. . . 7 

ochrida (Prumala) Schaus 2 

ochrotelus (Conocephalus) Rehn 

and Hebard 233,283 

Octogonotus later alis Bo wditch . 502 

plagiatus Bowditch 501 

similis Bowditch 502 

Omototus 487 

Opeastyliis Rchn and Hebard 

226, 229, 239 

OrcheUmiim 12 

(key to species) 24 

agile 24,27,29 

bradleyi Rchn and Hebard 

20, 73 

bruneri 72 

bullatum Rehn and Hebard 

25, 27, 50 
calcaratum Rehn and Heb- 
ard 24,27,46 

campestre 60 

concinnum 25, 27, 60 

crusculum 68 

cuticulare 12, 16, 19, 34, 58 

dehcatum 60 

erj'throcephakim 34 

fidicinium 25, 27, 08 

fratemum Rehn and Heb- 
ard 2(), 79 

glabcMTimum 

12, 16, 19, 24, 27, 34, 76 

glaucum 16, 29 

gladiator 24, 26, 44 

gracile 15, 60, 170 

herbaceum 16, 68 

indiancnse 60 



Orchelimum inerme 17 

laticauda 17, 18, 25, 27, 53 

longipennis 60 

longipenne 50 

manitobense 44 

militare 25, 26, 70 

minor 25, 27, 58 

molossum 29 

nigripes 25, 27, 56 

nitidum 17, 18 

ortoni 243 

pulchellum 53 

robustum 17 

senegalensc 13 

silvaticum 29 

spinulosum 17, 18 

superbum Rehn and Heb- 
ard 25,26,76 

unispina 25, 81 

vahdum 17 

volantum 19,26,72,73 

vulgare 24,27,38 

oregonensis (Aphis) Wilson ... 88, 92 
oregonensis (Lachnus) Wilson. 103 
oregonensis (Microsiphuni) Wil- 
son 88, 91 

ortoni (OrcheUmum) 243 

osceola (Pachybrachys) Fam\<d, 428 
othonus (Pachybrach3^s) 

322, 456, 480 

Pachj'brachys 300 

(key to North American 

species) 308 

abdominahs 313, 353 

alacrisFoW 314,366 

2i\iico\a. Fall 321,442 

analisFa/Z 309,331 

aqiiilonisFaM. . . .315, 375, 480 

arizonensis 311, 344 

atomarius 319, 325, 413, 480 

autolycus T^aH 322, 458 

badiusfV/« 318,404 

bajulus 318,408 

bivittatus 322, 447, 480 

brevicoUis 317, 393 

brevicornis Fall 320, 380 

brunneus 309, 335 



xu 



INDEX 



Pachybrachys buUatus Fall 

313, 361, 480 

calcaTRtus Fall 316, 389 

calidus Fall 315, 379, 480 

caXiiormcus Fall. .Sm, 325, 437 

carbonarius 325, 461, 480 

carolinensis 319, 425 

caelatus 313,317,392 

cephalicus /^aH 319, 418 

chaoticus Fall 314, 367 

characteristicus 315, 375 

circumcinctus 322, 449 

coloradensis 312, 350 

confederatus Fa« 316, 387 

conformis 319, 427 

confusus 316, 325, 468, 480 

connexus Fall 309,328 

consimilis /^rtM 322, 45C 

conspirator Fa«. . .312, 321, 445 
contractifrons FoH . . . .314,365 

convictus Fall 311, 315, 344 

crassus 311, 358 

cruentus 324, 475 

croftus 320,433 

cylindricus 316, 390 

delumbisFflH 318,407 

densus 311, 339 

desertus Fall 309,332 

difficilis Fall 323, 324, 459 

dilatatus 324,475 

discoideus 324,473 

diversus Fall 313, 355 

dixianusFaH 319,419 

donneri 310,334 

dubiosus 323,452 

duryiFall 316,385 

femoratus 315, 374, 480 

iestivus Fall 315,470 

flavicornis 440 

iortis Fall 315,373 

fractus Fall 320, 430 

iuscipes Fall 318,410 

gagates Fall 438 

■ gagatiniis 325 

gracilipos /^'aZZ 316, 386 

hacmat odes 309, 326 

hejmt icus 326, 476 

hetcrodcrus Fall 478 



Pachybrachys hybridus324, 472 

illectus fViZZ 314 

immaculatiis 311 

imperfect us Fall 323 

impurus 315 

insidiosus f'oZZ 320 

instabiUs F«ZZ 321,324 

integratus Fall 309 

jacobyi 311 

janus Fall 

lachrymosus i^aZZ 325 

laevis 321 

laticollis 316 

liebecki FaZZ 311 

litigiosus 322 

hvens 312,347 

lodingi 311 

longus 312 

kictuosus 319 

luridus 325,469 

lustrans 321,325,436 

marginatus 324 

marginipemiis 311 

marmoratus 309 

melanostictus . . . .317, 397 

mellitus 310 

mercurialis FoZZ. . .311, 31 

microps Fall 326 

mitis FaZZ 312 

mobilis /'>;ZZ 318 

minor 312 

m-nigrum 319, 465 

noro 312 

nigricornis 324 

nigrinus 

nobihs FaZZ 318,409 

nogalicus Fall 320 

notatus 317 

nubigenus f aZZ 317 

nubilus 312,316 

nunenmacheri FrtZZ . . . .314 

obf uscatus FffZZ 319 

obsoletus 320,440 

osceola FaZZ 319 

ot lionus 322, 456 

l)allidiponnis 310 

parvinot at us FaZZ 312 

parvus F<ill 319 



INDEX 



Xlll 



Pachybrachys pawnee Fall . 322, 453 

peccans 317,398,480 

pectoralis 314, 363 

peltatusFaH 314,367 

peninsularis Fall 314, 368 

petronius Fall 312, 352 

picturatus 323, 4G3 

pinguescons Fall . . 317, 325, 438 

placidus Fall 311, 346 

pluripunctatusFaZL . . .318,408 

post fasciat VIS Fa« 317,402 

praeclarus 324, 457 

precarius Fall 320, 431, 480 

prosopis/^aM 315, 381, 480 

proximus 314, 371 

pubescens 309, 326 

pulviiiatus 323, 467 

punctatus 311, 315, 342 

punicusFaZ; 317,396 

purgatus Fall 318, 411, 480 

\)m\xsFall 310,336 

pusillus 313, 357 

quadratus /^«ZZ 318, 405 

quadri-oculatus Fall . . .320, 429 

relictusFflH 319,424 

rohovi^ Fall 319, 420, 480 

sanguineus Fall 324, 474 

sanrita 318,412 

Shasta 311,315,342 

signatifrons 317, 325, 400 

signatus 318,401 

snowi 316, 383 

sobrinus 314, 364, 480 

sonorensis 320, 434 

spumarius 319, 422 

subfasciatus 324, 376, 480 

sublimatusFflZZ. . .311, 322, 449 

subvittatus 321, 446 

stygicus Fall 325, 416 

imiiVLsFall 321,353 

te.xanus 314, 362, 481 

thoracicus Fall 309, 330 

tridens 320,439,481 

trinotatus 323, 466, 481 

truncatus 320, 321, 430 

turbidus 316,383 

turgi(licollisF«/Z 314, 369 

tybeensis Fall 316, 388 



Pachybrachys umbraculatus 

323, 454 

umbrosus Fall 325, 379 

uncinatus /^a7Z 314, 363 

uteanus Fall 310, 335 

vacillatus Fall 317, 403 

varians 319,426 

varicolor. . . .321, 324, 435, 481 

vau Fall 322, 453 

vestigialis Fall 319, 325, 415 

viduatus 322,464 

\ig\\sinsFall 309, 329 

vii-gatus 323,451 

vulnerosus Fall 324, 471 

wahsatchensis FoZZ 323, 324, 459 

wenzeliFaW 315, 325, 382 

wickliami Fall 309, 330 

xanti 309,333 

xantliias 311, 378 

xantholucens i^oZZ 312, 337 

pallidipennis (Pachybrachj^s) 

310, 455 

Palotta 155, 158, 226 

Panchi-estus prasinusJSo wr/iZc/i . 498 

Pararhyssa 140 

partalba (Trochuda) Schmis. . . 8 
parvinotatus (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 312,348 

parvuhis (Hapolotrius) Bow- 
ditch 504 

parvus (Lachnus) Wilson 104 

parvus (Pachybrachys) FaW 319, 419 
pawnee (Pachybrachys) FaW 322, 452 
peccans (Pachybrachys) 

317, 398, 480 
pectoraHs (Pachybrachys) 

314, 363 
peltatus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

314, 367 
peninsularis (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 314,368 

Perissacanthus Refin and Heh- 

ard 226, 233, 284 

persuasorius (Ichneumon).. 140, 142 

persuasoria (Rhyssa) 141, 142 

petronius (Pachybrachj'-s) Fall 

312, 352 
Pharga barbara Schaus 5 



XIV 



INDEX 



Phylacticus ephippium Boiv- 

ditch 494 

Physimerus spinosus Bowditch . 493 
picturatus (Pachybrachys) . 323, 463 
pinguescens (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 317,325,438 

Pimpla humida 126 

Pimplinae (key to tribes) 124 

Pimphni 123 

(key to certain genera) . . . 124 
placidus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

311,346 
plagiatus (Hapolotrius)fiotydite/i 503 
plagiatus (Octogonotus) Bow- 
ditch 501 

pluripunctatus (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 318,408 

polyglotta (Afrida) Schaus .... 1 
postfasciatus (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 317,402 

praeclarus (Pachybrachys) 

324, 457, 480 
prasinus (Panchrestus) Bow- 
ditch 498 

precarius (Pachybrachys) Fall 

320, 431 

Prociphikis bumeHae 85 

fraxini-dipetalae 85 

venafuscus 85 

productum (Xiphidium) 177 

propinquum (Xiphidium) 269 

prosopis (Pachybrachys) Fall 

315,381,480 
proximus (Pachybrachys).. 314, 371 
Prumala nigranahs Schaus. ... 2 

ochrida Schaus 2 

PseudaUsminerva*Sc/?«M,s 2 

Pseudocraspedia eubleptica 

Schaus 3 

Pseudorhyssa Wilson. . 124, 125, 150 

stemata Wilson 150 

pteridis (Macrosiphum) Wilson 101 
Ptinomorpha foveolatus Bow- 
ditch 509 

pubescens (Pachybrachys) 309, 326 
Pucialia acronyct oidcs Schaus. . 4 
pulclielluni (Orchehiiiuni) .... 53 



purgatus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

318, 411, 480 

pulvinatus (Pachybrachys). 323, 467 

pnnctatus (Pachybrachys) 

311, 315, 342 

punicus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

317, 396 

purus (Pachybrachys) FaH.. 3 10, 336 

pusillus (Pachybrachys). . .313,357 

Quadratus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

318, 405 
quadri-oculatus (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 320, 429 

quebecensis (Thalessa) 131 

Recticaudus (Conocephalus) . . 264 
reUctus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

319, 424 

Repnoa arpi Schaus 9 

resacensis (Conocephahis) Rehn 

and Hebard...im, 188, 232 

resinum (Xiphidium) 235 

reticulata (Aphis) Wilson .... 88, 92 
Rhinotmetus bruchii Bowditch . 490 

jacobyi Bowditch 489 

marginatus Bowditch 489 

simihs Bowditch 488 

trifasciata Bowditch 488 

Rhyssa 125,140 

(key to species) 141 

alaskensis 142 

albomaculata 142 

canadensis 129 

carinifrons 149 

humida 126 

nigritarsis 142 

nitida 137 

nortonii 131 

persuasoria 141, 142 

skinneri 141 

terminalis 148 

Robinsonia longimacula Schaus 2 
roboris (Pachybrachys) Fall 

319, 420, 480 

robustum (OrchoHinuni) 17 

robustum (Xiphidium) 56 



INDEX 



XV 



rosenbergii (Tetragonotes) Bow- 
ditch 490 

rosenbergii (Hapolotrius) Boiv- 

ditch 504 

rosenbergii (Homotyphus)5ou;- 

dilch 495 

rubicundus (Lachnus) Wilson.. 104 

Saltans (Conocephalus). . . .165,216 

saltans (Xipliidium) 216 

saltator (Conocephalus). . . .232, 269 

saltator (Xiphidium) 269 

sanguineus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

324, 474 
sani'ita (Pachybrachys) . . . .318, 412 
sceletozona (Afrida) Schaus. . . 1 

scudderi (Xiphidium) 207 

semifunebris (Claphe) Schaus. 7 
senegalense (Orchelimum) .... 13 
senegalense (Thyi-idorhoptrum) 13 
sericeus (Metriotes)Bo»'c/i7c/i. . 508 
sericeus (Tetragonotes) Bow- 
ditch 491 

Shasta (Pachybrachys) 311, 315, 343 
signatifrons (Pachybrachys) 

317, 325, 400 
signatus (Pachybrachys).. .318,401 
similis (Octogonotus) Boivditch 502 
similis (Rhinotmetus) Bowditch 488 
similissima (Vespola) Schaus. . . 3 

Siphonaphora frigidae 97 

silvaticum (Orchelimum) 29 

skinneri (Rhyssa) 141 

snowi (Pachybrachys) 316, 383 

sobrinus (Pachybrachys) 

314, 364, 480 
sonorensis (Pachybrachys) . 320, 434 
spartinae (Conocephalus) . . 165, 212 

spartinae (Xiphidium) 212 

spinipennis (Homotyphus) Bow- 

dilch 497 

spinosus (Conocephalus) 

162, 180, 230, 254 

spinosus (Xiphidium) 254 

spinulosum (Orchelimum). ... 17, 18 

spinulosum (Xiphidium) 29 

spinosus (Physimerus) Bowditch 493 
spinosus (Xiphidium) 180 



spumarius (Pachybrachys) .319, 422 
Stenorhoptrum Rehn and Heb- 

ard 19, 21 

sternata (Pseudorhyssa) Wilson 150 
stictomerus (Conocephalus) 

Rehn and Hebard. . . 164, 199 
strictoidcs (Conocephalus) . 233, 285 

strictoides (Xiphidium) 285 

strictus (Conocephalus) 163, 193, 231 

strictum (Xiphidium) 193 

stygicus (Pachybrach3^s) Fall 

325, 416 
subfasciatus (Pachybrachys) 

324, 376, 480 
sublimatus (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 311,322,449 

subterrans (Amphorophora) 

Wilson 99 

subvittatus (Pachybrachys) 321, 446 
superbum (Orchelimum) Rehn 

and Hebard 25, 26, 76 

superbus (Megarhyssa) 125 

Tacitus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

312, 353 

terminalis (Rhyssa) 148 

Tetragonotes SLpicalis Boivditch . 492 

csLvimpenms Bowditch 493 

haroldi Bowditch 492 

rosenbergii Bowditch 490 

sericeus Bowditch 491 

truncatipennisi?0M;di7c/i. . . 493 
texanus (Pachybrachys) . 

314, 362, 481 

Thalessa histrio 125, 152 

nortonii 131 

quebecensis 131 

Thecoxiphidion 170 

thoracicus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

309, 330 
Thyridorhoptrum Rehn snd 

Hebard 13 

senegalense 13 

Titya albiapicata (Sc/i«ws 6 

tridcns (Pachybrachys) 320, 439, 481 
tridentatae (Aphis) Wilson ... 88, 94 
tridentatae (Chaitophorus) 

Wilson 88,89 



XVI 



INDEX 



trifasciata (Rhinotmetus) Bow- 

diich 488 

trinotatus (Pachybrachys) 

323, 466, 481 
Trochuda ochrcata Schaus .... 7 

partalba Schaus 8 

truncatipennis (Tetragonotes) 

Boivditch 493 

truncatum (Xiphidium) 280 

truncatus (Conocephalus) . .233, 280 
truncatus (Pachybrachys) 

320,321,430 
turbidus (Pachybrachys) . .316,383 
turgidicoUis (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 314,369 

tybeensis (Pachybrachys) Fall 

316, 388 

Umbraculatus (Pachybrachys) 

323, 454 
umbrosus (Pacliybrachys) Fall 

325, 379 
uncinatus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

314, 363 
unicolor (Conocephalus) . . . 232, 264 

unispina (Orchehmum) 26, 81 

unispina (Xiphidium) 19, 81 

uteanus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

310, 335 

Vacillatus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

317, 403 

validum (Orchelimum) 17 

validum (Xiphidium) 56 

varians (Pachybrachys).. . .319, 426 
varicolor (Pachybrachys) 

321, 324, 435, 481 
vau (Pachybrachys) i^oM. . .322, 453 

venafuscus (Prociphikis) 85 

vestigialis (Pachybrachys) Fall 

319, 325, 415 
versicolor (Conoccphahis) . .233, 2S1 

versicolor (Xiphidium) 281 

Vespola simiUssima Sc/kh/s . ... 3 

vicinum (Xiphidium) 177 

vicinus (Conocephalus) 162, 177, 230 
viduatus (Pachybrachys) . . 322, 464 



vigilans (Pachybrachys) Fall 

309, 329 
virgatus (Pachybrachys).. .323,451 
viridipennis (Zeteticus) Bow- 
ditch 501 

vitticoUis (Conocephalus) . .229, 242 

vitticoUis (Locusta) 242 

volantum (Orchelimum) 

19, 26, 72, 73 
vulgare (Orchelimum) .... 24, 27, 38 
vulnerosus (Pachybrachys) Fall 

324, 471 

Wahsatchensis (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 323,324,459 

wenzeli (Pachybrachys) Fall 

315, 325, 382 
wickhami (Pachybrachys) Fall 

309, 330 

Xanthias (Pachybrachys) . .311, 378 
xantholucens (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 312,337 

xanti (Pachybrachys) 309, 333 

Xiphidion 155, 158, 161 

170, 226, 229, 243 

allardi 169 

brevipenne 212 

doryphorum 235 

nemorale 212 

nigropleui-um 202, 210 

Xiphidium 12, 155 

aberrans 235 

angustifrons 260 

attenuatum 207 

bituberculatum 13 

boreUi 278 

brachypterum 269 

brevipenne 177, 216 

brevipennis 182, 212 

caizanum 235 

camurum 191 

caudatum 191 

curtipenne 189 

cuticulare 46 

ensifer 182,193 

ensiferum 177, 180, 182 



INDEX 



XVll 



Xiphidiutn equatoriale 266 

exitiosum 235 

fasciatum 177 

festae 281 

gossypii 182 

gracilinum 60 

gracillimum 180 

ictum 250 

inerme 60 

insularis 256 

lanceolatum 207 

laticauda 53 

longipes 240 

meridionale 269, 285 

mexicanum 250 

nemorale 189 

nitidum 29 

nigropleura 205 

nigropleuroides 210 

nigropleurum 205 

occidentale 191 



Xiphidium productum 177 

propinqumn 269 

resinum 235 

robustum 56 

saltans 216 

saltator 269 

scudderi 207 

spartinae 212 

spinosus 180, 254 

spinulosum 29 

strictoides 285 

strictum 193 

tnmcatum 280 

validum 56 

versicolor 281 

vicinum 177 

unispina 19, 81 

Xoridini 124 

Zeteticus cyanipennis Bowdilch 501 

viridipennis Bowditch 501 



VOLUME XLI NUMBER 1 

MARCH 1915 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 




PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY AT THE 
ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

PHILADELPHIA 
SUBSCRIPTION PRICE FOUR DOLLARS PER VOLUME 



TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

VOLUME XLI 



NEW SPECIES OF HETEROCERA FROM TROPICAL 
AMERICA 

BY W. SCHAUS 

All my types up to date are in the United States National 
Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Arctiidae 
Afrida sceletozona sp. n. 

cf . Fore wings white ; base of costa and a subbasal half Hne black, the latter 
angled; a dentate line of dark scales across middle of wing, followed by a curved 
mark in the cell, and a similar outer Une outangled below subcostal and fol- 
lowed by a small dot on discocellular; a dot on upper third of termen; some 
dark scales at apex, and on fringe. Hind wings whitish shaded with pale gray 
on veins and margin; a round discal dot; a curved postmedial line. Expanse, 
13 mm. 

Habitat: Juan Vinas, Costa Rica. 

Afrida polyglotta sp. n. 

9 . Fore wings silvery white; costa with three black dashes, the outer two 
convergent, with a yellow shade between, and an arc before apex; a large 
purple gray patch on outer margin, covering tornus and projecting roundedly 
inward, edged above by an irregular black hne, broken central!}^ by a vertical 
dash; above the end of the purple patch a black dot sends a hne outward and 
downward, dentate and broken below, leaving a dot on inner margin; a dentate 
double hne on basal third of inner margin forming a closed loop above; a black 
dash beyond it below the second costal dash. Hind wings gray, the apex and 
discal dot a little darker. Expanse, 15 mm. 

Habitat: .Juan \'ifias, (^)sta Rica. 

TRAXS. \\l. K\T. SOC. XLI. (1) 



2 TROPICAL AMERICAN HETEROCERA 

Robinsonia longimacula sp. n. 

cf. Palpi brown spotted with white. Head white with two transverse 
black hnes. Thorax white with a dorsal yellow streak; patagiae and tegula 
white edged with bro^\'n. Abdomen above black; a dorsal yellow line; a 
lateral white hne; abdomen below whitish. Fore wings olive brown, the veins 
paler; a series of elongated white spots from apex to submedian fold, the spot 
below cell extending from base to termen, the others from cell not reaching 
termen; the spots above veins 6 and 7 shorter. Hind wings white; some 
fuscous shading from anal angle upwards, and terminally at vein 2. Expanse, 
42 mm. 

Habitat: Joinville, southeastern Brazil. 

Prumala ochrida sp. n. 

cf. Head, collar, and thorax orange brown. Abdomen above roseate, 
underneath yellowish. Fore wings yellowish, the markings brown; the veins 
from cell orange brown; basal third suffused with brown leaving a yellow streak 
above subcostal, a spot at base of cell, a streak below cell, and a spot on sub- 
median, also an antemedial spot on fold yellow, all partly edged with red; 
some brown suffusions at end of cell; some postmedial spots on interspaces; a 
broad outer band, narrowest from vein 5 to vein 2, suffusing below vein 2 
and cell with dark basal space, leaving only a large yellow spot medially on 
inner margin, and a smaller spot above it; a subterminal row of broken spots; 
spots at ends of veins; cilia whitish with black spots at veins. Hind wings 
yellow suffused with roseate. Expanse, 36 mm. 

Habitat: Joinville, southeastern Brazil. 

Prumala nigranalis sp. n. 

9 . Head, collar, thorax and fore wings Ulacine brown. Abdomen yellow, 
the last three segments steel black above, steel gray below; a lateral gray 
streak. Hind wings yellow. Expanse, 32 mm. 

Habitat: Joinville, southeastern Brazil. 
Very close to P. jalapa Druce. 

Pseudalus minerva sp. n. 

(f. Antennae and body rose red; abdomen white underneath. Fore wings 
red; a gray streak on costa; some grayish irrorations antemedially and post- 
medially with traces of darker rod lines; a large semihyaline yellowish space 
postmedially from al:»ove subcostal to termen at vein 2; an apical square red 
patch from vein 5 to costa; a white point at base. Hind wings yellowish 
white; some roseate hairs close to inner margin and terminal red irrorations. 
Expanse, 35 mm. 

Habitat: Nova Friburgo, Brazil. 



W. SCHAUS 6 

Chlorhoda amabilis sp. n. 

cf . Head, collar, thorax above, front of fore legs, and fore wings bright 
green; patagiae edged with crimson. Abdomen above, thorax below, and 
legs crimson; abdomen below yellowish roseate. Fore wings: the costal 
edge yellowish; small black linear spots antemedially, postmedially at sub- 
costal vein and on inner margin. Hind wings roseate, the termen shaded 
with pale green. Wings below duller and paler; the costal margins shaded 
with roseate, also the inner margin of hind wings. Expanse, 32 mm. 

Habitat: Nova Friburgo, Brazil. 



NOCTUIDAE 

Vespola similissima sp. n. 

cf . Differs from V. plumipes Schs. in the absence of the long fringe on hind 
tibiae; also very similar to V. caeruiifera Wlk., but larger and darker, and with- 
out any traces of white on the abdomen below. Expanse, 36 mm. 

Habitat: Nova Friburgo, Brazil. 

Pseudocraspedia eubleptica sp. n. 

Fore wing tinged with yellow along costa and apex, the rest of the wing 
blackish gray; a very oblique black line from inner margin near base directed 
toward the upper sinus of outer margin but stopping before it; an obhque 
white Une from middle of inner margin running up toward apex. Hind wing 
with a broad white band in the middle, straight within, cm-ved without; base 
dark gray with a black band outwardly; margin rather broadly gray. Ex-panse, 
12 to 14 mm. 

Habitat: Cache, Tuis, Juan Viiias, Costa Rica. 

Allied to P. leucozona Hampson. 

Lycaugesia homogramma sp. n. 

P'ore wing pointed at apex, outer margin oblique; brownish straw-color 
irrorated with purple and reddish scales; a row of three dark dots for the ante- 
medial line; reniform large, rounded, purplish gray; outer margin shaded 
with purplish forming an oblique streak from apex toward reniform. Hind 
wing crossed by straight, transverse bands; a double middle one, with its 
outer edge more distinct than its inner, a median reddish shaded one and a 
brown one close to the margin. Terminal black dots on both wings. Expanse, 
15 mm. 

Habitat: Juan Vinas, Costa Rica. 

Allied to L. semiclara Dj^ar. The wings are without the black- 
ish transverse bands on the under side shown in L. hypozonata 
Hampson, the fore wing having only a longitudinal shading in 
the cell. 

TRANS. .\M. KXT. SOC, XLI. 



4 TROPICAL AMERICAN HETEROCERA 

Euteiia inconstrictrix sp. n. 

Dark chocolate brown, with little or no red shading, sometimes a small patch 
beyond the brown discal mark. Inner line slender, white, strongly outcurved 
centrally; postmedial line similar, obsolete on costa, running below median 
vein near to inner line; reniform narrow, not constricted, straight without., 
convex within, pale-lined, filled by the ground color, followed by a large 
dark brown patch which is pointed at its upper angle; two slender white lines 
from costa subapically joining on termen and enclosing a dark browm cunei- 
form mark; traces only of sub terminal Une below; an obhque brown patch 
above the angle in the termen; a terminal row of dark dots, obsolete below. 
Hind wing l)lacker, the base on inner margin white to below discal spot. Ex- 
panse, 27 to 29 mm. 

Habitat: Juan Vinas, Tuis, Costa Rica. 

Allied to E. auratrix Walker, but darker and the reniform not 
constricted. 

Pucialia acronyctoides sp. n. 

cf. Palpi ocher white, laterally streaked with black at base. Body v/hit- 
ish gray streaked with black, the vertex and collar medially shaded with black. 
Fore wings whitish gray, somewhat silvery beyond basal space; base irrorated 
with black; antemedial line fine, black, wavy, slightly outcurved, followed by a 
straight heavier black line, oblique and not reaching iimer margin, this line 
is followed by a short black streak above subcostal vein, a small spot in cell, 
and one below cell, also a slate gray shade above median to just beyond cell; 
an irregular black mark across discoceUular intoothed in front; postmedial 
hne black, outcurved around cell, very wavy from vein 3 to inner margin, 
followed by a grayish browTi shade from vein 3 to vein 7, where it extends more 
obliquely to costa; a subterminal irregular white line followed by black mot- 
tling on costa; marginal black points on interspaces; ciha with darker shading 
opposite marginal points. Hind wings semihyaline white, the costa faintly 
tinged with luteous. Fore wings below dark gray, the inner margin broadly 
whitish. Expanse, 43 mm. 

Habitat: Nova Friburgo, Brazil. 

Hemicephalis grandirena sp. n. 

9 . Head, collar, thorax and forewings brownish lilacine. Abdomen above 
dull brownish gray. Fore wings: the base darker shaded; a fine whitish 
vertical subbasal line; antemedial line fine, dark olive green, slightly incurved 
across median, followed in cell by a large white orbicular spot, suffusing with 
a white shade on costa; reniform very large, dark olive green consisting of 
two round superimposed spots finely edged with white, the spots .suffusing on 
inner edge, and also in front with a green shade on costa; postmedial out- 
curved, very fine, geminate; an olive green triangular spot on costa before 
apex, finely edged with white; traces of a whitish dentate subterminal line; 
a dark olive brown tenninal line. Hind wings white, the veins brown; termen 



W. SCHAUS ;) 

very broadly black; cilia white. Wings below whitish, the terminal third 
tinged with lilacine browTi; on fore wings a large black postmedial shade, not 
reaching costa, or inner margin; apex white. Expanse, 37 mm. 

Habitat: St. Jean, Maroni River, French Guiana. 

Pharga barbara sp. n. 

cT'. Palpi fuscous bro^\Ti fringed above with ocher. Head, collar, thorax, 
basal and anal hairs of abdomen, and fore wings yellowish ocher. Abdomen 
and hind wings dull fuscous brown. Fore wings irrorated with brown; the 
inner margin shaded with brown from base to beyond middle; a black discal 
point; a postmedial outciu'ved i:)rownish shade, somewhat macular, followed 
by similar lunular-dentate lines except between veins 4 and 6; the veins de- 
fined by darker irrorations on either side. Marginal l)lack points on inter- 
spaces. Hind wings: cilia yellowish ochor. Fore wings below shaded with 
fuscous except on margins. Hind wings below yellowish ocher irrorated with 
brown on costal and outer margins; a dark round discal spot and faint post- 
medial shade. E.xpanse, 4.5 mm. 

Habitat: Nova Friburgo, Brazil. 

XOTODONTIDAE 
ARPEMA gen. nov. 

cT. Palpi uptiu-ned, short, not reaching vertex; second joint heavily fringed; 
third joint very small, roughly scaled. Head without prominent tufts. An- 
tennae bipectinated for two-thirds of their length. Abdomen long. Fore 
wings: outer margin oblique; vein 2 well beyond middle of cell; vein 3 before 
lower angle; 4 from lower angle; .5 just above middle of discocehular; areole 
long and narrow; vein 6 before middle of areole; 7, 8 and 9, 10 from end of 
areole; 11 free. Hind wings triangular; costal margin convex at base; veins 
3 and 4 from lower angle; 5 above middle of discocellular; 6 and 7 from upper 
angle; 8 connected with 7 before middle of cell by a bar. 

Type of genus, Arpema megaJopia Schaus. 

Arpema megalopia sp. n. 

d". Va\]i'i fuscous brown. Head yellow brown. Collar fuscous brown 
Thorax light bro\\ii, the patagiae lilacine irrorated with dark browii. Abdo- 
men orange brown. Fore wings: base narrowly mottled steel gray and white, 
limited by an inbent, irregular whiter line, the costal edge orange bro\\-n; an- 
temedial space brown, the scales broad, each scale ti[)ped with fuscor.s brown, 
vaguely limited by a fine, iiTegular, outcurved line; space beyond gray irro- 
rated with brown, hmited by a fine dark line, angled on costa, and faintly 
incurved, so the gray space is widest on costa and inner margin; this line is 
followed by a white line which is outbent on costa, is outwardly shatled with 
orange brown and then followed by a broad dark brown shade extending to 
costa and tormis, the scales forniing it smaller than on antoniodial sj)ace; and 

TKAXS. AM. EXT. SOC., XLI. 



6 TROPICAL AMERICAN HETEROCERA 

also tipped with fuscous brown; terminal space broadly lilacine, the subter- 
minal indicated by darker lilacine shading; brown marginal lunules, and nar- 
rower terminal lunules partly on cilia. Hind wings orange brown, paler shaded 
postmedially, and crossed by a dark brown Une. Wings below creamy white, 
the costal and apical spaces of fore wings shaded with brown, only narrowly 
so on hind wings. Expanse, 58 mm. 

Habitat: Joinville, southeastern Brazil. 

Misogada blerura sp. n. 

cf . Head, collar and thorax mottled dark olive green and white. Abdo- 
men purplish brown above, whitish laterally and underneath. Fore wings 
whitish irrorated with olive green; a black basal point below median; a broad 
antemedial dark olive green fascia from costa to submedian edged by black 
lines, both inbent on submedian, the inner edge deeply curved, the outer oblique, 
closely followed by a fine olive green Une, which suffuses on inner margin with 
a similar outcurved postmedial line; two black points on discocellular; the 
postmedial followed by a black line from inner margin to vein 2, by black 
points on veins 3-5, by a black shade between 6 and 8, and an oUve green shade 
on casta; ciha shaded with olive green and with some dark spots. 

Hind wings whitish, shaded with fuscous gray terminally. Cilia olive green 
tipped with white. Expanse, 30 mm. 

Habitat: Nova Friburgo, Brazil. 

Malocampa friburga sp. v. 

cf . Head, collar, and thorax streaked whitish and dark brown. Abdomen 
brownish gray, the anal segment whitish gray with dark brown irrorations; 
base of abdomen dorsally tinged with orange. Fore wings pale brown, the 
inner margin broadly whitish, the whole irrorated with fuscous; a fine dark 
antemedial hue, vertical, lunular, inangled close below subcostal; two small 
black spots on discocellular; a fine brown postmedial line incurved to inner 
margin near antemedial, followed by geminate black points on veins with 
white streaks between them; a faint subterminal narrow darker shade; ter- 
minal black spots on interspaces; black spots on cilia at veins. Hind wings 
whitish suffused with pale brown, the costal margin and veins darkest; a faint 
postmedial line with a black spot close to inner margin, and a similar spot 
below it at anal angle. Fore wings below suffused with dull brown; ciha with 
dark spots. Hind wings below dull white. Expanse, 49 mm. 

Habitat: Nova Friburgo, Brazil. 

Lasiocampidae 

Titya albiapicata s)^ n. 

cf . Head, collar, and thorax light brown. Abdomen darker brown. Fore 
wings brownish gray suffused with fuscous, the inner margin narrowly, and 
termen more broadly light brown; the veins pale; lines very indistinct; an 
outcurved fuscous antemedial line; two medial lines, the outer one suffusing 



W. SCHAUS 7 

on inner margin with first postmedial line; thi'ee postmedial lines, somewhat 
lunular, the middle one barely traceable; a whitish subterminal line; the 
apex fuscous crossed by a small white spot. Hind wings semihyahne, fuscous 
brown; the inner margin and ciUa hght brovra. Expanse, 28 mm. 

Habitat: Nova Friburgo, Brazil. 

Claphe semifunebris sp. n. 

o"". Body mottled whitish, brown, and black. Fore wings: Vjase to near 
middle black, limited by a fine velvety black hne having a few whitish scales 
on its inner side, finely wavy, vertical, inangled below submedian fold; outer 
space white with brownish irro rations, more thickly terminally; a small black 
spot on discocellular; a fine black postmedial Une, outbent on costa, then 
shghtly incurved and vertical below vein 4; an irregular subterminal macular 
black shade, outcurved from costa, incurved opposite cell and near inner mar- 
gin. Hind wings: basal space fuscous brown limited by a vertical broad 
black hne from costa to inner margin near angle; terminal space as on fore- 
wings, but shaded with brown from below vein 5 to mner margin; very faint 
traces of a black subterminal line. Wings below whitish tinged with brown 
and gray. Fore wings : postmedial line whitish defined by shadings, straighter 
below costal cm-ve; subterminal better defined. Hind wings: a fuscous brown 
vertical outer hne. Expanse, 35 mm. 

Habitat: Nova Friburgo, Brazil. 

Ocha gorgas sp. n. 

d^. Body pale lilacine brown. Fore wings above median and vein 4 gray- 
ish, below them light brown; two fuscous points on discocellular; traces of 
fine darker, antemedial, and medial fines; the postmedial outcurved, better 
defined, followed by a pale outer line incmwed opposite cell, the interspaces 
between them from vein 4 to \ein 8 darker gray; a subterminal lunular white 
line, preceded by an orange browTi shade between veins 4 and 5, and dark gray 
shades between 5 and 6, and 7 and 9; a terminal whitish line; the cilia dark 
brovni on interspaces. Hind wings yellowish, with darker shading on costa 
and short hues at apex. Wings below bro^\Tiish yellow. Expanse, 25 mm. 

Habitat: Joinville, southeastern Brazil. 

Lymantriidae 
Trochuda ochreata sp. n. 

(^. Body and wings pale ochreous brown, the inner margin of fore wings, 
and costal margin of hind wings tinged with white. Fore wings: a fine whit- 
ish hne on discocellular preceded and followed by a fuscous brown shade, and 
similar shading close to cell between veins 3 and 5. On abdomen dorsally at 
end some pm-ple red shading. Wings below whitish, the costal half of fore 
wings shaded with l)rown, very dark along costal edge. Expanse, 33 mm. 

Habitat: Southern Brazil. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



8 TROPICAL AMERICAN HETEROCERA 

Trochuda partalba sp. n. 

cf . Body white, the palj)! outwardly brown; some fauit brownish shading 
dorsally on abdomen. Fore wings pale ochreous brown; base and inner mar- 
gin tinged with white; a white spot edged with darker brown on discocellular, 
outbent behind between veins 4 and 5. Hind wings white, very faintly tinged 
with brown towards apex. Wings below white, the costal halt' of fore wings 
tinged with oclu'aceous brown extending along termen to near tornus; eilia 
on both wings tinged with brown. Expanse, 32 mm. 

Habitat: Nova Friburgo, Brazil. 

Trochuda roseidorsum sp. n. 

cf. Palpi dark brown. Head white. Collar, thorax, and wings whitish 
ocher. Abdomen white at base, then dorsally brilliant roseate. Fore wings: 
a white line on discocellular, preceded by a narrow black shade, and followed 
b}^ diffuse black shadings on interspaces from below vein 3 to vein 7. Hind 
wings slightly paler than fore wings. Wings below white; costa of fore wings 
shaded with fuscous brown, the apex with whitish ocher. Expanse, 33 mm. 

Habitat: Joinville, southeastern Brazil. 

These three species are congeneric with stilpnotia Walker. 

Saturniidae 

Micrattacus friburgensis sp. n- 

cT. Head, collar, and thorax gray. Abdomen light reddish brown. Fore 
wings gray irrorated with black hairlike scales; costal space above median 
and vein 4 shaded with hght reddish brown; lines straight, ocher white, out- 
wardly dark shaded; the basal line very oblique from costa near base; ante- 
medial Une very slightly outbent; postmedial line slightly inbent; a fuscous 
gray streak on discocellular edged with ocher white; a zigzag subterminal 
pale line from vein 4 to tornus; the costal edge grayish. Hind wings light 
reddish brown; a fine fuscous shade on discocellular; a fine outer black line 
followed by an irregular fuscous shade; cilia tipped with white. Fore wings 
below yellow, the costa shaded with reddish brown; a dark streak on discocel- 
lular, and a fine postmedial line. Hind wings below shaded with reddish 
brown; a fuscous line on discocellular; a fine outer Une from costa near apex 
to inner margin at two-thu-ds from base. Expanse, 39 mm. 

Habitat: Nova Friburgo, Brazil. 

Hylesia multiplex sp. n. 

Rosy brown, head, thorax, and abdomen alike with dense rosy brown hairs; 
antennae browni, not yellow. Fore wings scarcely falcate, rosy brown with 
darker lines; basal space nearly solidly filled; outer hne broad, incurved below, 
toufhing ths discal spot at bass of vein 3; submarginal line scalloped, lightly 
shaded; terminal half-band darker. Hind wing with narrow clouded discal 
mark, th? two narrow curved outer lines alike in tone, dark. Expan.se, 4S 
mm. 



W. SCHAUS 9 

Type. — cf, Sixola River, Costa Rica. September. Xo. 14,989, 
U. S. National Museum. 

Dirphia aphrodite sp. n. 

cf . Head, collar, and front of thorax fuscous brown; thorax behind dark 
reddish browii. Abdomen above black with fine orange brown segmental 
lines; base clothed with dark reddish hairs; sublateral whitish streaks. Fore 
wings rosy hlacine brown before antemedial and beyond postmedial lines; 
basal space limited by the antemedial line, outbent across cell and shghtly 
curved to inner margin; medial space dark chestnut brown, paler from vein 
2 to inner margin; a sinuous, white spot containing some brown scaling on 
discocellular, its hind edge straight, toothed to base of vein .3, and outwardly 
across postmedial hne; postmedial line straight, fine, lilacine, parallel with 
termen; a subterminal fuscous gray shade expanding towards costa. Hind 
wings grayish brown; the inner margin with roseate hairs; a postmedial 
darker brown curved shade; an irregular and indistinct subterminal shade. 
Wings below whitish bro\\-n; the browni postmedial Hne straight on both wings; 
the cell and costal margin of fore wings and termen of hind wings shaded with 
brown. Expanse, 48 mm. 

Habitat: Curitiba, .southeastern Brazil. 

Megalopygidae 
Repnoa arpi sp. n. 

c/'. Body black; abdomen with segmental whitish Unes. Fore wings black 
to end of cell, terminating obhquely from costa to vein 5, with a small black 
spot between 5 and 4, a shghtly larger spot between 4 and 3, an incurve be- 
tween 3 and 2, a slight projection below 2, and above submedian. then inset 
and abrupt on inner margin; terminal space pale brownish ocher, with slightly 
darker subterminal patches on interspaces; an outer small black spot between 
veins 6 and 7. Hind wings: basal third black, otherwise whitish ocher brown. 
Wings below with the terminal space white. Expanse, 28 mm. 

Habitat: Nova Friburgo, Brazil. 



TRANS. .\M. EiVT. SOC, XLI. 



REHN AND HEBARD H 



STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE 

(ORTHOPTERA) 

IV 

BY JAMES A. G. REHN AND MORGAN HEBARD 

A SYNOPSIS OF THE SPECIES OF THE GENUS 
ORCHELIMUM 

For a number of years the species of the present genus have 
been greatly in need of study, the litei-ature covering the same 
shomng a considerable number of specific names the exact rela- 
tionship of which was not known at all or only very indefinitely 
understood. The keys to the species which we possess 'd, i. e., 
those of Redtenbacher, McNeill, Blatchley, and Karny, were 
based largely on characters the value of which our own studies 
show to be nil or but relative. The attempts made b}- many 
workers, ourselves among them, to use the previous keys have 
resulted in a great mass of misidentifications, due to the fact 
that the tables used, almost "without exception, emphasized 
valueless or but secondary characters and entirely ignored those of 
greatest value. Another factor, which has contributed its share 
to the confusion in the past, has been the difficult}' of positively 
locating some of the older names; a matter which has caused 
error on the part of everyone who has published at all on the 
genus. 

The examination or possession of types and paratypes of the 
majority of the species has enabled us to straighten out the 
tangles and present a clear idea of the relationship of the forms, 
while much study and correspondence has permitted us to place 
to our own satisfaction practically all of the older names which 
caused trouble in the past. The present situation in Europe has 
precluded our securing certain desirable information concerning 
these older types, but we feel that anj^thing further would be 
merely confirmatory and that we have carefully weighed and 
considered everj^ possible source of information in the literature. 

TRANS. AM. ENT, SOC, XLI. 



12 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

The characters used by us to differentiate the species are 
easily comprehended, and we feel that the student will have little 
difficulty in securing from the text, with the aid of the figures, 
an understanding of the species of the genus. 

ORCHELIMUM ServiUe 

1839. Orchelinium Serville, Hist. Nat. Ins., Orthopt., p. 522. 

1891. Xiphidium Redtenbacher, Verhandl. k.-k. zool.-botan. Gesellschaft 

Wien, xli, p. 493. (In part; not restricted Xiphidion Serville, 1831.) 
1907. Orchelinium Karny, Abh. k.-k. zool.-botan. Gesellschaft Wien, iv, 

heft 3, p. 82. 

Genotype. — Orchelimum cuticulare ^erviWe = glaberrimmn 
(Burmeister) (by designation of Kirby, 1906 0. 

Differential Generic Characters.— When compared with the 
related genus Conocephalus {Xiphidium of authors) the genus 
Orchelimum is found to differ not in one or several invariable 
characters, but instead can be distinguished by combinations of 
characters and a general complex not found in the other genus. 
In Orchelimum the stridulating field of the male tegmina is larger, 
broader and in general more extensive, with the lateral section 
more strongly produced and occasionally almost overhanging 
(in subgenus Stenorhoptrum less indicated and in Metarhoptrum 
little different from that found in Conocephalus). The male 
cerci are never strongly and sharply deplanate distad, instead of 
generally so as in Conocephalus; the dorsum of the same is 
occasionally carinate and almost invariably more or less excavate 
at or near the base of the median tooth (this never found in 
Conocephalus), while the cerci are also always unidentate instead 
of untoothed, unidentate or bidentate as in Conocephalus. The 
male subgenital plate has the distal margin almost always more 
or less V or U-emarginate, while in Conocephalus this portion is 
generally more or less truncate. The ovipositor has the ventral 
margin always arcuate in the distal half except in militare, while 
in Conocephalus the rule is to have the margins straight. In all 
the species the prostcrnum is bispinose instead of unarmed as is 
occasional in Conocephalus, while the distal tibial spurs always 
number three pairs, instead of less as is found in several subgenera 
of Conocephalus. 

iSynon. Catal. Orthopt., ii, p. 271,(1906). 



REHN AND HEBARD 13 

The features separating Orchelimum from Teratura, Para- 
xiphidium, Odontoxiphidium , XiphiUinutn and Karniella are very 
decided and have been previously emphasized, so it seems unnec- 
essary to discuss them at the present time. 

Erroneously Referred Species. — Aside from the American species 
here treated, and to which we restrict Orchelirninn, the genus lias 
been considered by some authors to include two Old World 
species. The first of these, senegalense Krauss, is certainly 
distinct generically and we here separate it as a related but well 
characterized genus ^. Karn}'^ has placed the species Xiphidiuvi 
bituberculatum Redtenbacher, from Australia, in the genus 
Orchelimum. This is undoubtedh' not an Orchelimum, as the 
untoothed cercus shows. Just what its relationship to Con- 
cephalus {Xiphidium of authors) is, we cannot say, but that the 
species has no place in Orchelimum is certain. 

Generic Distribution. — From southern Maine, southern Ontario 
and southern Manitoba (Ashdown) south to southern Florida 
(Homestead), the Gulf Coast and southern Texas (Bi-ownsville), 
and in Mexico as far as Orizaba in the eastern part and the state 
of Jalisco in the west, in the United States west to northern 
California (Sisson). The genus is apparently absent from the 
whole desert region of the southwestern United States and also 

2 THYRIDORHOPTRUM new genus {Ovpis window, powrpov tambourine). 
1877. Orchelimum Krauss (not of Serville), Sitzungsberichte k. Akad. Wis- 
sensch. Wien, Math. -Nat. CI. Ixxvi, p. 60. 
Genotype. — Orchelimum senegalense Krauss. 

Related to Orchelimum but differing in the more abbreviate dorsum of the 
pronotum, which in the male sex has the caudal width subequal to the greatest 
length, in the very narrow lateral lobes of the pronotum, these in the male 
sex being distinctly deeper than the greatest length of same, in the extremely 
large stridulating field of the male tegmina, which has the speculum of great 
size and in width at least two-thirds that of the whole stridulating field, in the 
more ample tegmina of the male, the bidentate male cerci, the non-spinose 
character of the genicular lobes of the cephalic and median femora and in the 
broad fluting of the lateral faces of the ovipositor abruptly terminating shortly 
proximad of the apex. 

Only species: 
Thyridorhoptrum senegalense (Kjauss) 

1877. Orchelimum senegalense Krauss, Ibid., pi. I, figs. 12, 12a. [Bakel, 
Senegal.] 

We have before us specimens representing both sexes of this interesting 
genus. 

^ Genera Insectorum, fasc. 135, Conocephalinae, p. 7, (1912). 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



14 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

from the Great Basin region, no specimens having been examined 
from southern Cahfornia, Nevada, Utah, southern Idaho, western 
Wyoming and Colorado, or Arizona and New Mexico west of the 
Rio Grande. 

The center of distribution of the genus is in the Middle Atlantic 
states, the greatest percentage of the forms occurring in the 
region comprising the states of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Dela- 
ware, Maryland and Virginia, where in the northern end of the 
Coastal Plain no less than ten of the species of the genus occur. 
To the southward the number of forms decreases slightly and in 
the Mississippi Valley region there is a still further diminution, 
until but three forms are known to reach the region of the Rocky 
Mountains and of these but one is known to occur west of that 
uplift. In coastal and southern Texas the number of species is 
lower than in the Middle West and from the whole of Mexico we 
at present know of but two forms. 

Variation. — An examination of certain characters which have 
been used by previous authors for differentiating the species of 
this genus shows that they are either entirely unreliable or only 
of occasional application. The first and most important of 
these is the number of spines on the ventro-external margins of 
the caudal femora. This character has been given a position of 
prime importance; as a matter of fact, as in Conocephalus {Xiphid- 
ium of authors), quite a few species show considerable individual 
variation in the presence or absence of these spines, while prac- 
tically all the forms show great individual variation in the number 
of the same when they are present. In consequence we have 
not utilized the spination of the limbs as a major character in 
making our key, but under each species will be found a sum- 
mary of the amount of variation in this feature. 

The proportionate length of the tegmina and wings is another 
feature which is, in the majority of cases, of no diagnostic value. 
This genus, with many other Orthopterous genera, exhibits con- 
siderable individual variation in the length of these appendages, 
individuals taken at the same place and at the same time showing 
marked diversity in this respect. In over half the species of the 
genus we find a mesopterous type {i. e. with tegmina and wings 
little or not at all surpassing the apices of the caudal femora) and 
a macropterous type (with same very considerably surpassing 
the femoral apices). The extremes of these conditions often 



REHN AND HEBARD 15 

look very different but a careful examination, particularly of the 
genitalia, will show them to be identical. "We have given data 
on these features under the specific treatments. The width of 
the fastigium is occasionally variable within specific limits, as in 
the case of the very plastic concinnum. This, however, is quite 
exceptional, as the fastigial width is generally a constant character. 
In the stridulating field of the male tegmina we find some varia- 
tion in the exact form of the speculum, the bounding veins vary- 
ing somewhat in their exact curve or in their degree of divergence 
from the body axis when straight, but these differences are of 
secondary importance and the relative proportions of the specu- 
lum and direction of the stridulating vein remain the same. 
The peculiarly elongate form of the speculum in volantwn and 
hradleyi is Cjuite distinctive and in no way approached in the other 
species of the genus. The exact curve and relative length of the 
ovipositor show little individual variation except in the very plas- 
tic conci7i7ium, where we have certain female individuals in 
certain localities and all the female individuals in other localities 
developing a much longer and relatively straighter ovipositor 
than usual. Between the two extremes of ovipositor form in this 
remarkable species we find numerous intermediates and Ave have 
gone into this question of ovipositor form quite fully under the 
specific treatment. 

Synonymic Notes. — Two species have been referred to, or 
described under, this genus which have caused much difference 
of opinion. These are Locusta agilis DeGeer from Pennsylvania^ 
and Orchelimum gracile Harris from Massachusetts.^ The 
identity of the first as a species of the genus Orchelimum is uni- 
versally admitted, but it has been variously considered the same 
as Harris' vulgare, Redtenbacher's laticcmda and Scudder's con- 
cinnum. Several times DeGeer's species was correctlj^ identified 
but it was never associated with the Redtenbacherian species, 
two of which (spinulosum and nitidum) are sj^nonj'ms of it. 
Harris' gracile we are certain was correctly referred by Scudder 
when he synonj^mized it under Conocephalus fasciatus (DeGeer). 
The description fits that species, but unfortunately the figure 

* M6m. Hist. Ins., iii, p. 4.57, pi. 40, fi^. 3,(1773). 
s Treat. Ins. New Eng. Inj. Veget., p. 131,(1841). 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



16 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (ORTHOPTERA) 

given in the Flint edition of Harris® shows an individual with a 
curved ovipositor {%. e. a true Orchelimum and probably 0. con- 
cinnum). The figures in this edition were drawn under the direc- 
tion of Agassiz, so the preface informs us, and the ovipositor 
character of the figure is belied by the text on the same page, this 
being a reprint of that of the original edition. It is quite evident 
that the specimen drawn was not the one described by Harris. 
The name gracile certainly does not properly apply to any form 
of Orchelimum. It has been considered to represent the pale- 
faced phase of concinnum, by a few authors, but that it has no 
right to be so considered is very evident. 

There has been so much irregularity in the use of the name 
agile that the records quoted under it are almost valueless in 
mapping the distribution of the species. In the majority of 
cases it is quite impossible to say which species the author who 
recorded "agile" had before him, and unless the material on 
which such records were based is definitely recognizable in the 
the series examined by us, we have felt compelled to ignore the 
indefinite records in our mapping work. 

The other names, the apphcation of which has given difficulty 
in the past or has given trouble to the present authors, are best 
discussed here. Burmeister's glaherrimum has been frequently 
recorded, but generally the specimens proved to be long-winged 
individuals of vulgare. We have carefully studied the very brief 
description, have studied the movements of Zimmermann who 
collected the specimens, eliminated the other forms occurring 
in the teritory where he collected at that time, and there is no 
doubt in our minds that we have properly located the form. An 
effort to locate the original specimen has met with no success 
other than the proof that it does not exist in the Halle collection. 
Serville described three species of the genus when he originally 
founded the same, i. e., cuticulare, glaucum and herbaceum. The 
first of these undoubtedly equals Burmeister's glaherrimum, as a 
careful analysis of the description and comparison with all the 
known species shows. The second species, glaucum, just as 
certaily equals agile (DeGeer) when examined in the same fashion. 
The last name, herbaceum, has been generally placed as the same 
as concinnum Scudder, chiefly because Serville says it has a black 

« Ibid., Flint Edit., p. 163,(1862). 



REHN AND HEBARD 17 

area on its face above the clypeus. Unfortunately Serville says 
this is transverse, which is never true of concinnum, but frequently 
in drying out, individuals of a number of the species show black 
areas below the eyes and to a similar feature we feel he must 
refer. The other characters given for herbaceum are few and 
generally non-diagnostic, except that the ovipositor is twelve 
lines long and lightly concave dorsad, a condition occurring in 
but a few species. Of these fidicinium alone would at all answer 
the other points of the description and of the identity of the two 
we are not at all convinced, J:»ut we are placing the older name 
with a query under the more recent name, waiting for future 
examination of the original material, if such still exists, to deter- 
mine the matter. 

The description of Walker's validum we have examined very 
carefully, and have also had through the kindness of Mr. A. N. 
Caudell the notes made by the latter on the type of the species, 
which Kirby considered to be the same as nigripes. The original 
description is very insufficient and Mr. Caudell comments as 
follows on the specimen; " Last year I saw also his type of validum, 
but without material for comparison I could not definitely deter- 
mine what it is. I am very sure it is not the same as our nigripes. 
The type is a unique female and the following note was hurriedly 
made regarding it while I was in London." We are unable to 
definitely say what the insect is, but it appears to l)e nearer 
nigripes than anything else. However, it seem^; best to await 
more complete study of the original material and we have pro- 
visionally placed the name with a query under nigripes. 

Of the new species described by Redtenl)acher in his paper on 
the subfamily, i. e., rohustum, inerme, nitidum, spinulosum and 
laticauda, we are able to easily dispose of three, these being 
inerme, nitidum and spinulosum. The first of these was admit- 
tedly proposed to replace longipennis Scudder, which equals 
concinnum. Regarding nitidum and spinulosurn we had formed 
definite conclusions, when through the kindness of Mr. W. T. 
Davis we were placed in possession of copies of correspondence 
which passed between that gentleman, Mr. Caudell and Doctors 
Karny and Holdhaus relative to this subject. A portion of a 
series of specimens used by the latter gentlemen for comparison 
has also been placed in our hands so that we are thus al)le to 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 
2 



18 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

judge what nitidum and spinulosuni are. Doctor Holdhaus 
states that, "0. nitidum and s-pinulosum differ externally only 
by the characters stated by Redtenbacher and may possibly 
prove forms of the same species." This is quite true, and the 
characters given by Redtenbacher are valueless in this genus 
while the size differences are due to locality as we show beyond. 
Both of these names equal the much older agile (DeGeer). The 
great difficulty encountered with the Redtenbacherian species 
concerns the other species, robustum and laticauda, the first of 
which, as discussed beyond, in all probability equals nigripes 
with abnormal or unassociated leg or legs. It is based on a 
unique female which in every feature of the description but the 
caudal limbs is typical nigripes. The other species, laticauda, 
appears to us to be the same as Davis's pulchellimi, the author of 
which has gone over the description with us and agrees that it 
probably represents the same form. It was our intention to 
have material carefully compared in Vienna, particularly with 
regard to the important genital characters, but the unfortunate 
conflict now raging has made this impossible. 

The present authors at one time very doubtfully determined as 
0. cuticulare Serville^ a single male from Thomasville, Georgia. 
The specimen is not cuticulare as we now know it { = glaberrimum) , 
but instead is an aberrant individual of 0. minor. 

Relation of the Genus. — Redtenbacher ^ considered Orchelimum 
but a subgenus of "Xiphidiu7n," as the supposedly diagnostic 
features given by previous authors, i. e. the spined prosternum 
and the curved ovipositor were found by him to be present in 
"Xiphidium." Karny in his several papers on the group has al- 
lowed Orchelimum to retain generic rank and divided Conoce- 
phalus {Xiphidium of authors) into a number of subgenera. The 
latter author's position seems to us the most logical, but the char- 
acters separating the two genera are largely ones of degree and in 
consequence hard to express. It is necessary, as well, to divide 
Orchelimum into three subgenera, this being done below. As we 
will show in a future treatment of the genus Conocephalus, the 
characters separating the subgenera of that genus are as impor- 
tant as the characters separating Orchelimum s. s. from several of 
the subgenera of Conocephalus, but we find other groups which 

' Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1904, p. 796, (1905). 

8 Verb. k.-k. zool.-botan. Gesell. Wien, xli, p. 494, (1891). 



REHN AND HEBARD 19 

are more related to Orchelimum than to Conocephalus occupj'ing 
a more or less intermediate position, yet in themselves clearly- 
cut divisions of equal rank to certain other aggregations of the 
subfamily Conocephalinae. We have been forced to realize that 
we have more groups in the Orchelimum-Conocephalus complex 
than have previously been recognized bj^ name and the only 
solution appears to be to designate those divisions which are 
found to be distinguished by characters of comparative impor- 
tance, and assemble them as subgenera under the two generic 
names Orchelimum and Conocephalus according to the extent of 
agreement or degree of development of certain features. 

Subgenera and Specific Groups. — The three subgenera of Orche- 
limum which we here recognize can be distinguished as follows : 

Stridulating field of male tegmina relatively large and broad, 
as large in area as dorsum of pronotum, speculum not elongate. 
Humeral sinus of lateral lobes of pronotum more or less distinctly 
indicated, rarely {gladiator) obsolete. Genicular lobes of caudal 
femora bispinose. Ovipositor with ventral margin regularly 
arcuate (except in militare). Orchelimum s. s. 

(Type — 0. cuticulare SeryiWe = glaherrimum Burmeister.) 

Stridulating field of male tegmina relatively large, about as 
large in area as dorsum of pronotum, speculum decidedly elon- 
gate, narrow. Humeral sinus of lateral lobes of pronotum well 
indicated, arcuato-emarginate. Genicular lobes of caudal femora 
bispinose. Ovipositor with ventral margin gently arcuate or 

straight proximad, arcuate distad. o^ ? j o u 

^ ^ ' Stenorhoptrum ^ new subgenus 

(Type— 0. volantum McNeill.) 
Stridulating field of male tegmina relatively small, not as large 
in area as dorsum of pronotum, speculum of normal shape but 
small (except in superhum) and Conocephalus-Y\^& in form. Hu- 
meral sinus of lateral lobes not at all or but weakly indicated. 
Genicular lobes of caudal femora unispinose. Ovipositor ? (fe- 
male unknown) ir . 7 j m i 

Metarhoptrum 1° new subgenus 

(Type — Xiphidium unispina Saussurc and Pictet.) 

' Srews narrow, poirrpov tambourine. 

^^ Ultra between, poirrpov tambourine. In allusion to the intorniodiate char- 
acter of the male speculum. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



20 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

The species of this genus fall. into nine groups, which appear to 
be natural in character. One of these groups forms the new sub- 
genus Stenorhoptrum, two constitute the other new subgenus 
Metarhoptrum and the remainder can be assembled under the 
restricted subgenus Orchelimum. The chief criteria which we 
have used in delimiting these groups are the number of caudal 
genicular spines and the general form of the male cercus, but we 
have also taken into consideration other features, as the form of 
the ovipositor of the female, form and general character of the 
stridulating field of the male tegmina, the form of the lateral 
lobes of the pronotum and the general build. 

This group arrangement is as follows: 

Orchelimum s. s. 



Group A. (agile) 
Cerci with simple, Ovipositor falcate. Stridulating field 
rect-divergeiit me- of male tegmen 

dian tooth. normal. 



Lateral lobes with 
deeply and broad- 
ly indicated hu- 
meral sinus. 



Group B. (glaberrimum, vulgare, gladiator, calcaralum) 



Cerci with simple 
to produced rect- 
divergent or sub- 
falcate (distad) 
median tooth. 



Ovipositor falcate 
or with nearly 
straight dorsal 
outline, occasion- 
ally very deep. 



Stridulating field 
normal, but large 
proportionately. 



Lateral lobes 
broad, with well 
indicated and 
broad to but little 
indicated humeral 
sinus. 



Cerci heavy, cari- 
nate dorsad, with 
median tooth di- 
rected more or less 
strongly p r o x i- 
mad. 



Group C. {hidlatum, lalicauda, nigripes) 
Ovipositor strong- Stridulating field 
ly falcate, broader normal but broad, 
mesad than proxi- 
mad. 



Lateral lobes with 
humeral sinus 
hardly indicated, 
ventrad of same 
caudal margin is 
httle arcuate. 



Group D. (minor) 

Cerci much as in Ovipositor falcate, Stridulating field Lateral lobes 

group C but more long, broad and normal but broad, broad with well in- 

incrassate and less heavy. dicated and broad 

carinate. humeral sinus. 



REHN AND HEBARD 



21 



C e r c i elongate, 
thickened, taper- 
ing, tooth proxi- 
mad and directed 
distinctly pro.xi- 
mad. 



Cerci very elong- 
ate, incrassate, 
tapering, apex 
slightly incurved, 
tooth decidedly 
proximad and di- 
rected distinctly 
proximad. 



Cerci elongate, 
thickened, taper- 
ing, tooth proxi- 
mad and directed 
nearly at a right 
angle or decidedly 
curved and ex- 
tending proximad 
in dii-ection. 



Cerci much as in 
bradleyi of Group 
G but with distal 
portion heavier 
and thicker. 



Cerci with distal 
extremity taper- 
ing, tooth nearly 
median, not 
heavy, directed 
weakly proximad. 



Group E. (concinnum, fidicinium) 
Ovipositor moder- Stridulating field 
ately falcate, of normal, 
variable length. 



Group F. {militare) 

Ovipositor Stridulating field 

straight, subequal normal, 
in depth, elongate. 



Lateral lobes with 
humeral sinus in- 
dicated quite dis- 
tinctly and rather 
broadly. 



Lateral lobes with 
h u m e r a 1 sinus 
very shallowly in- 
dicated. 



Stenorhoptrum new subgenus 
Group G. {volantum, bradleyi) 



Ovipositor with 
ventral margin 
straight proximad 
or gently arcuate, 
dorsal margin 
straight. 



Stridulating field 
of male tegmen 
narrow 
speculum 
elongate. 



, with 
greatlv 



Metarhoptrum new subgenus 



Group H. 
Ovipositor ? 

Genicular lobes 
of caudal femora 
unispinose. 



{superbum) 
Stridulating field 
of male tegmen 
narrow but of nor- 
mal character. 



Group L {fraternum, unispina) 



Ovipositor ? 

Genicular lobes 
of caudal femora 
unispinose. 



Stridulating field 
small, stridulating 
vein vcrv weak. 



Lateral lobes with 
humeral sinus 
moderately indi- 
cated, and broad 
but shallow. 



Lateral lobes with 
no humeral sinus. 



Lateral lobes with 
at most only a 
very shallow hu- 
meral sinus. 



TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



22 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 



The probable relationship of these groups can be best expressed 
diagrammatically as shown herewith. 

Group C 

bullatum 
laticaiida 
nigripes 

Group D 

{minor) 



Group A 
(agile) 



Group B 

glaberrimum 
vulgare 
gladiator 
calcaratum 



Group E 

concinnum 1 
fidicinium J 



Group F 

{militare) 



(Stenorhoptrum)- 



( Metarhoptrum) • 



Group G 

J volantum 
\ bradleyi 

Group H 

{superbum) 



I Group I 

1^ j fraternum 
\ unispina 

Group A is probably the most primitive member of the genus, 
as it certainly is the simplest type. Group B is less homogeneous 
than most of the other groups but its specific units are unques- 
tionably of a common origin. While gladiator and calcaratum 
show a somewhat analogous development of the tooth of the 
male cercus and of the lateral lobes of the pronotum, it is also 
very evident that gladiator is in certain respects closer to vulgare, 
i. €., in the presence of the peculiar node on the dorsal face of the 
male cercus and in the general character of the tegmina, while 
the ovipositor of gladiator in general type suggests more relation- 
ship to glaberrimum, which, however, has many features of dif- 
ference. Taken as a whole the four members of the group are 
closely related in sum total of characters but specifically diver- 
gent in certain single characters. Group C is somewhat similar 
in complexion to group B but the relationship of bullatum and 
laticauda is close and nigripes is a divergent type, the peculiar 



REHN AND HEBARD 23 

adpressed character of the cereal tooth giving it a rather unique 
position, although in general its relationship to the other two 
species is readily perceived. This group (C) is quite divergent 
from group B, its probable ancestral type. Group D is probably 
a link connecting groups B and E, but distinct enough in char- 
acter from either of these to be given an independent position. 
In Groups E and F the elongation of the cercus is progressively 
pronounced, much resembling that found in one species of Group 
G and one of Group I, which, however, are members of other 
phyla of the genus. The ovipositor in these groups shows the 
extreme development of the elongate arcuate type. Group F 
was apparently derived from a Group E-like ancestor, and in it 
we find the extreme development of the cercus in elongation 
(equalled in unispina of Group I), this also being gently inbowed 
distad, the tooth proximal and distinctly directed proximad, 
while the ovipositor is straight and elongate. Group G is very 
distinct in character, being sharply defined by the pecuUarity 
of the speculum of the male tegmina, and the straight dorsal 
margin of the ovipositor (this in volantum resembling that of 
gladiator of Group B, but this is probably due to convergence 
caused by the use of similar oviposition sites). In this group (G) 
the cercus is elongated, the tooth is distinctly proximal, although 
the direction of the tooth is different in the two included species. 
Group H occupies a peculiar position, showing a number of fea- 
tures of relationship to Group I and some apparently superficial 
resemblance to Group G, but the greater affinity is with Group I. 
Group I shows a decided tendency toward Conocephalus, but in 
general it is distinctly a member of the genus Orchelimum. The 
unispinose caudal genicular lobes of the species of Groups H and 
I readily separate them from those of the other groups. Group 
I has its extreme condition in unispina with its obsolete humeral 
sinus. 

Key to the Syecies 

The following key is largely artificial, particularly in the female 
sex, but it will be found to separate the majority of the species 
with little difficulty. Some few forms which are easily distin- 
guishable in the male are difficult to separate in the opposite sex 
and vice versa. In case any difficulty is encountered in forming 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



24 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

a clear idea of the differential features of a certain form or forms, 
we would suggest that the figures given in this paper for the 
species involved be examined. With the aid of the figures we 
feel that proper identification can readily be made. 

MALES 
A. Cercus of average length, portion distad of insertion of median tooth not 
markedly longer than that proximad of same. General form relatively more 
robust. 

B. Tooth of cercus distinctly longer than distal portion of cereal shaft 
and greatly produced, decidedly aciculate. (Humeral sinus. hardly indi- 
cated; ventro-external margin of caudal femora armed.) 

calcaratum new species 
BB. Tooth of cercus not longer than distal portion of cereal shaft, not 
decidedly aciculate. 

C. Dorsal surface of shaft of cercus without a very decided sinuate 
carination. 

D. Cercus distinctly depressed, tooth particularly so. (Tooth 
of cercus directed at a right angle to general axis of cereal shaft, 
also moderately uncinate at apex. Humeral sinus well indi- 
cated.) agUe (DeGeer) 
DD. Cercus not distinctly depressed, tooth more or less thick- 
ened in its proximal half. 

E. Dorsal surface of cereal shaft without a decided elevated 
"boss" or node between insertion of tooth and apex of shaft. 
Speculum of stridulating field more decidedly longitudinal. 
(Head more or less reddish.) glaberrimum (Burmeister) 
EE. Dorsal surface of cereal shaft with a decided elevated 
"boss" or node between insertion of tooth and apex of shaft. 
Speculum of stridulating field subquadrate. 

F. Tooth of cercus as long as distal half of shaft of 
same, apex of shaft blunt acute. Humeral sinus hardly 
indicated, ventro-caudal angle of lateral lobes rectangu- 
late. gladiator Bruner 

FF. Tooth of cercus not as long as distal half of shaft 
of same, apex of shaft bluntly rounded. Humeral sinus 
well indicated, ventro-caudal angle of lateral lobes 
obtusely rounded. vulgare Harris 

CC. Dorsal sui-face of shaft of cercus with a very decided sinuate 
carination. 

D. Tooth of cercus not strongly adpressed against proximal 
portion of sinuate carina. Caudal margin of lateral lobes of 
pronotum with humeral sinus appreciably indicated and re- 
mainder of margin weakly arcuate. Tibiae not blackish. 

E. Fastigrium relatively broader. Metazona occupying but 
little less than half of dorsal length of pronotum. Lateral 
lobes of pronotum relatively shorter, ventro-caudal angle 



REHN AND HEBARD 25 

acute. (Ventro-external margin of caudal femora generally 
unarmed.) bullatum new species 

EE. Fastigium relatively narrower. Metazona occupying 
distinctly less than half of dorsal length of pronotum. 
Lateral lobes of pronotum relatively broader, ventro- 
caudal ang'e less acute. (Ventro-external margin of caudal 
femora with from two to eight spines.) 

laticauda Rcdtenbacher 

D. Tooth of cercus strongly adpressed against proximal portion 

of sinuate carina. Caudal margin of lateral lobes of pronotum 

wdth httle indication of humeral sinus and remainder of margin 

distinctly sinuate. All tibiae blackish. (Ventro-external margin 

of caudal femora armed.) nigripes Scudder 

AA. Cercus moderately elongate or very elongate, portion distad of insertion 

of median tooth markedly longer than that proximad of same. General form 

relatively more slender. 

B. Apex of cercus not decidedly acuminate. Tooth of cercus in position 
usual in genus, not dorsad or distinctly ventro-mesad in insertion or not 
strongly proximad in trend (except in superbum, which has the tooth dis- 
tinctly ventro-mesad in insertion). 

C. Lateral lobes of pronotum with no humeral sinus. Genicular 
lobes of caudal femora, unispinose. superbum new species 

CC. Lateral lobes of pronotmn with more or less decided himaeral 
sinus. Genicular lobes of caudal femora bispinose. 

D. Lateral lobes of pronotum broad, slightly broader than deep. 

Ventro-external margin of caudal femora always armed. General 

coloration variegated. (Size small.) minor Bruner 

DD. Lateral lobes of pronotum narrower, not quite as broad as 

deep. Ventro-external margin of caudal femora verj'^ rarely 

armed. General coloration, except face, more uniform. (Size 

small to large.) concinnum Scudder 

BB. Apex of cercus decidedly acuminate (except in superbum). Tooth of 

cercus inserted on level with dorsal plane of cercus (volantum), diverging 

from ventro-internal face {bradleyi and unispina) or directed strongly 

proximad {fidicinium, militare and fraiernum) . 

C. Speculum of stridulating field less elongate and narrow, but 
slightly longitudinal. 

D. Stridulating area of tegmina of type usual in genus. Dorsal 
line of pronotum appreciably ascending dorso-caudad on jneta- 
zona. Genicular lobes of caudal femora bispinose. 

E. Lateral lobes of pronotum distinctly deeper than broad. 
Cercus relatively more slender. Fastigium broader. 

militare Rehn and Hebard 
EE. Lateral lobes of pronotum as broad as deep. Cercus 
relatively more robust. Fastigium narrower. 

fidicinium Rehn and Hebard 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



26 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

DD. Stridulating area of tegmina of type more characteristic of 
Conocephalus, relatively smaller (except in superbum). Dorsal 
line of pronotum not appreciably ascending dorso-caudad on 
metazona. Genicular lobes of caudal femora unispinose. 

E. Lateral lobes of pronotum relatively narrower, without 
a distinct humeral sinus. 

F. Cercus very attenuate and not flattened distad. 
Speculum of stridulating field short, rather broad. 
(Size small.) unispina (Saussm-e and Zehntner) 

FF. Cercus not attenuate but thick and somewhat 
flattened distad. Speculum of stridulating field rather 
narrow, elongate (not as extreme as in bradleyi and vol- 
antum). superbum new species 

EE. Lateral lobes of pronotum relatively broader, with a 
distinct though shallow humeral sinus. 

fraternum new species 
CC. Speculum of stridulating field decidedly elongate, very narrow, 
strongly longitudinal. 

D. Tooth of cercus diverging on a plane with dorsum of cereal 
shaft, straight, tapering, slightly proximad in trend; distal por- 
tion of cereal shaft regularly tapering, quite acute, not strongly 
depressed when seen from lateral aspect. Tolantum McNeiU 
DD. Tooth of cercus diverging from ventro-internal face, pro- 
jecting distinctly proximad; distal portion of cereal shaft sub- 
arcuate, moderately acute, strongly depressed when seen from 
lateral aspect. bradleyi new species 

FEMALES 
Females of superbum, unispina and fraternum are unknown. 
A. Dorsal outline of ovipositor wholly or in greater portion straight. (Length 
of ovipositor always more than one-half that of caudal femur.) 

B. Ovipositor not equal to two-thirds of length of caudal femur. 

C. Ventral margin of ovipositor regularly arcuate, greatest depth 
approximately mesad. Ventro-caudal angle of lateral lobes more 
rounded. volantum McNeill 

CC. Ventral margin of ovipositor straight for over half its length, 
proximal half of ovipositor subequal in depth, narrowing on distal 
half. Ventro-caudal angle of lateral lobes more acute. 

bradleyi new species 
BB. Ovipositor equal to two-thirds or more of length of caudal femur. 
C. Ovipositor very heavy, ensiform, ventral margin arcuate, greatest 
depth mesad. Humeral sinus not strongly indicated. 

gladiator Bruner 

CC. Ovipositor narrow, elongate, subequal in depth, both margins 

straight for greater portion of their length. Humeral sinus strongly 

indicated. militare Rehn and Ilebard 

AA. Dorsal outline of ovipositor always regularly, but more or less decidedly, 

arcuate. 



REHX AND HEBARD 27 

B. Ovipositor less than half as long as the caudal femur. 

C. Ovipositor not deeper at some point distad of base than at base. 
(Lateral lobes of pronotum narrow.) agile (DeGeer) 

CC. Ovipositor deeper at some point distad of base than at base. 
D. Ovipositor with general form less arcuate. 

E. Lateral lobes of pronotum broader, ventral portion of 
caudal margin of same consideral:)ly arcuate, convex cal- 
losity very broad. glaberrimum (Burmeister) 
EE. Lateral lobes of pronotum naiTower, ventral portion of 
caudal margin of same little arcuate, convex callosity com- 
paratively narrower. concinnum Scudder (Part) 
DD. Ovipositor with general form more arcuate. 

E. Fastigium more robust. Caudal margin of lateral lobes 
of pronotum with deeply impressed humeral sinus. Ventro- 
external margin of caudal femora generally unspined. 

vulgare Harris 
EE. Fastigium less robust. Caudal margin of lateral lobes 
of pronotum with but sUght indication of humeral sinus. 
Ventro-external margin of caudal femora always spined. 

calcaratum new species 
BB. Ovipositor more than half as long as the caudal femur. 
C. Ovipositor strongly falcate. 

D. Caudal margin of latetal lobes of pronotum sinuate or sub- 
sinuate ventrad of humeral sinus. 

E. Ventro-cephaUc angle of lateral lobes little indicated. 

Ventro-external margin of caudal femora generally uiLspined. 

Tibiae not blackish. bullatum new species 

EE. Ventro-cephalic angle of lateral lobes more pronounced. 

Ventro-external margin of caudal femora spined. Tibiae 

blackish. nigripes Scudder 

DD. Caudal margin of lateral lobes of pronotum gently arcuate 

ventrad of humeral sinus. (Ventro-external margin of caudal 

femora with 2 to 8 spines.) laticauda Rcdtenbacher 

C. Ovipositor gently arcuate, never falcate in degi-ee of curvature. 

D. Lateral lobes of pronotum deeper than greatest breadth. 

Humeral sinus moderately indicated. 

concmniun Scudder (Part) 
DD. Lateral lobes of pronotum broader than deep. Humeral 
sinus of average (minor) or decided {fidicinium) indication. 

E. Ovipositor proportionately deeper, dorsal line straighter. 
Tegmen more coriaceous. (Coloration variegated.) 

minor Bruner 
EE. Ovipositor proportionately shallower, dorsal line more 
arcuate. Tegmen more vitreous. (Coloration more uni- 
form.) fidicinium Rehn and Hebard 



TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



28 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

Specimens Examined. — ^The total number of specimens listed 
in the present paper is 2590, of which almost one-half were col- 
lected by one or both of the present authors. In addition to the 
specimens listed in the present paper some hundreds of individ- 
uals which had been previously recorded by us were re-examined 
and used in forming the conclusions here reached by us. These, 
however, have not been treated in detail but will be found indi- 
cated by localities at the end of the individual summaries of 
material under the species. 

The abbreviations used in tabulating specimens will, we feel, 
be perfectly clear to anyone using the paper, as they are of the 
general type which we have been uniformly using for some time. 
The present authors are indicated by their respective initials and 
the institutions by the initial letters of their names. In the case 
of other individuals the name is given in full. Specimens col- 
lected by the authors which are not indicated as in the collection 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia or the Hebard 
Collection are to be understood as jointly the property of these 
two collections, between which they are to be divided. 

The types of the following forms have been examined in the 
preparation of the present study. 

0. molossum Rehn and Hebard = agile (DeGeer) 

0. erythrocephalum Dsivis — glaherrimu7n (Burmeister) 

0. gladiator Bruner 

0. calcaratum new species 

0. hullatum new species 

0. pulchellum Davis = laticauda Redtenbacher 

0. nigripes Scudder 

0. minor Bruner 

0. concinnum Scudder 

0. longipennis Scudder = concww/m Scudder 

0. gracile Bruner {deUcatum Bruner) = concinnum Scudder 

0. fidicinium Rehn and Hebard 

0. crusculum T>&y\^= fidicinium Rehn and Hebard 

0. militare Rehn and Hebard 

0. bradleyi new species 

0. superbum new species 

0. fraternu7>i new species 
In addition to these wc have examined authentic material, 
labelled by the author, of Orchelimum indianense, campestre and 
volantum Blatchley. 



REHN AND HEBARD 29 

Acknowledgments. — We wish to tender our thanks to Dr. Sam- 
uel Henshaw of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Mr. A. N. 
Caudell of the United States National Museum, Mr. W. T. Davis 
of New Brighton, New York, and Prof. A. P. Morse of Wellesley, 
Massachusetts, for their courtesy in placing at our disposal the 
material of the genus in the collections under their charge or in 
their possession. To Mr. Davis, especially, we are under great 
obligation for not only material but numerous suggestions, as 
well as copies of important correspondence relative to the identity 
of certain species of the genus. Any call we have made on him 
has been cheerfully answered to the fullest extent of his ability. 

Orchelimum agUe (DeGeer) (Figs. 6, 18, 35, 36 and 69.) 

1773. Locusia agilis DeGeer, Mem. Hist. Ins., iii, p. 457, pi. 40, fig. 3. [Penn- 
sylvania.] 

1839. Orchelimum glaucum Serville, Hist. Nat. Ins., Orth., p. 524. [North 
America.] 

1891. Orchelimum silvalicum McNeill, Fsyche, vi, p. 2Q. (February.) [Rock 
Island, Illinois.] 

1891. Xiphidium {Orchelimum) nitidum Redtenbacher, Verb. k.-k. zool.- 
botan. Gesellschaft Wien, xli, pp. 494, 503. (July.) [Georgia.] 

1891. Xiphidium {Orchelimum) spimdosum Redtenbacher, Ibid., pp. 495, 503. 
(July.) [North Carohna.] 

1907. Orchelimum molossum Rehn and Hebard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1907, p. 307, figs. 4 to 6. [Pablo Beach, Florida.] 

While previously of the opinion that agilis of DeGeer was the 
same as Harris' vulgare,^^ we now feel that this view is erroneous 
and that the name properly belongs to the present species. Ana- 
lyzing DeGeer's description and comparing it with females of the 
present species and imlgare, we find that in size {%. e., of Pennsyl- 
vania material), in the relative length of the ovipositor, which 
Stal in discussing DeGeer's type says is ''femoribus posticis plus 
dimidio breviore," in the several spines on the caudal femora 
and in the greenish costal edging of the tegmina the present species 
is in agreement with the description, while in the same features 
vulgare shows differences. The relative proportions of the head, 
pronotum and caudal limbs in the original figure are also those 
of the present species. 

The remainder of the above synonymy has been established 
only after a careful study of the literature involved, typical mate- 

11 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1910, p. 640, (1911). 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



30 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

rial of molossum and the extensive representation of this species 
now in our hands. The description of silvaticum is brief and 
unsatisfactory, only non-essential characters being mentioned, 
but there is sufficient in the way of proportions and remarks on 
the relationship, supplemented later by McNeill's key, to enable 
us to place the name with some degree of certainty. In the 
synonymizing of molossum and nitidum we are compelled to re- 
verse our previous definition of the latter^-, which name we for- 
merly considered to belong to the species later named pulchellum 
by Davis, and for which we here use Redtenbacher's name lati'- 
cauda. This reversal we feel is warranted, as we are now able 
to state that the species to which we tl^en applied the name niti- 
dum was before Redtenbacher when he described the latter and 
formed the basis of his laticauda. By changing our views we 
must place molossum in the synonymy. The name spinulosum 
was based on small, shorter winged individuals of nitidum, which 
had the dorsum of the pronotum infuscate or possessed paired 
pronotal bars, while the typical material of nitidum was uni- 
colorous on the pronotum. This more or less varied infuscation 
of the dorsum of the pronotum with additional dark bars means 
nothing of diagnostic value in this or several other species of the 
genus, while our series shows greater range in general size and 
tegminal proportions than given in the descriptions of nitidum and 
spinulosum by Redtenbacher. 

In size we find a general, or rather average, increase southward. 
In using the word "southward" it should here be qualified in 
meaning to designate the Austroriparian element which extends 
northward along the low coastal region, instead of mere southern 
latitude. However, this average southern increase is not in- 
variable, as in numerous series, such as those from Tinicum, Lake 
Waccamaw, Tybee Island, Jacksonville, Ortega and Atlantic 
Beach, we find very considerable individual variation. In addi- 
tion, local, probably environmental, factors seem to influence 
size, as the Atlantic Beach series averages appreciably smaller 
than the Jacksonville representation, while the Wrightsville and 
Tybee Island salt marsh specimens are as a whole decidedly 
smaller than specimens from the comparatively close localities 
of Winter Park and Cumberland Island respectively. 

12 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1907, p. 306, (1907). 



REHN AND HEBARD 31 

Individuals with greatly produced tegmina and wings crop out 
unexpectedly in several of the series, there being one from Phila- 
delphia, one from Cornwells, Pennsylvania, several from Washing- 
ton, a number from Virginia, one from Raleigh, one from Wil- 
mington, North Carolina, several from Winter Park, North 
Carolina, one from Albany, Georgia, and one from Live Oak, 
Florida. 

The number of spines on the distal portion of the ventro- 
external margin of the caudal femora was found on the examina- 
tion of thirt}^ indiscriminately selected individuals in the largest 
series, i. e. that from Tinicum, Pennsylvania, to vary from to 
5. The exact figures are as follows: and 3 spines, 1 specimen; 

1 and 3 spines, 2 specimens; 2 and 2 spines, 3 specimens; 2 and 
3 spines, 7 specimens; 3 and 3 spines, 10 specimens; 3 and 4 
spines, 3 specimens; 3 and 5 spines, 1 specimen; 4 and 4 spines, 

2 specimens; 4 and 5 spines, 1 specimen. 

From this it is seen that in half the total the number of spines 
on the same margin of the caudal femora agrees, while in an 
equal number there is a more or less marked discrepancy. Very 
marked discrepancy is, apparently, not as frequent as a discrep- 
ancy of a single spine. 

In the coloration of the dorsal surface of the head and pronotum 
w^e find every conceivable transition between one with that sur- 
face of the clear glass greenish of the lateral aspects and of the 
tegmina, to the other extreme with paired diverging dark brown- 
ish lines extending caudad at least to the principal transverse 
sulcus, between which lines the dorsum is more or less infuscate, 
occasionally so much so that these bordering lines are distin- 
guished with difficult}-. 

Distribution. — Coastal Plain and adjacent portion of the Pied- 
mont Region of the eastern states from as far north as south- 
eastern Pennsylvania (CoUegeville, Cornwells, Chestnut Hill, 
Philadelphia and Tinicum) and southern New Jersey (north as 
far as Westvillc and Ventnor) south to southern Floritla, west 
as far as south-central Kansas (Wichita; Isely), Arkansas and the 
Mississip])i Valley section of Louisiana (Buras and Milnelnirg), 
and north in the Mississippi Valley at least as far as northern 
Illinois (Rock Island; McNeill) and west central Indiana (Vigo 
County; Blatchley). 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



■32 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

Specimens Examined: 519; 280 &, 231 9 , 2 juv. cf, 6 juv. 9 . 

Collegeville, Pennsylvania, IX, 21 and 22, 1909, (H. Fox; meadow), 3 cf , 
:8 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Cornwells, Pennsylvania, X, 1906, (R. & H.; in meadow land), 1 cf, 1 9 ; 
IX, 7, 1914, (H.; in vegetation along river and in marsh), 17 c?', 16 9 . 

Chestnut Hill, Pennsylvania, IX, 18, 1903, (H.), 4 0=^, 4 9 . 

Addingham, Pennsylvania, VIII, 8, 1914, (D. E. Culver), 1 cf , 1 9, [A. N. 
S. P.]. 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, (Westcott), 1 9 , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Gibson's Pomt, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, VIII, 11, 1910, VIII, 19, 1911, 
(H. Fox), 13 o^, 3 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Tinicum, Pennsylvania, VIII, 13, 1911, IX, 29, 1903 and 1913, IX, 9, 1904, 
(R. & H.; in meadow land), 71 cT, 53 9 • 

WestviUe, New Jersey, VIII, 31, 1899, (G. M. Greene), 2 9, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Jericho, New Jersey, IX, 6, 1910, (H. Fox; in marsh), 1 cf , 2 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Ventnor, New Jersey, VIII, 17 and 26, 1914, (H.; grasses and marshy spots 
as well as grassy clumps on the higher areas), 27 cf , 20 9,2 juv. cf , 6 juv. 9 . 

Canton, New Jersey, IX, 7, 1910, (H. Fox), 1 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Dorchester, New Jersey, IX, 4, 1910, (H. Fox; marsh), 3 d", 3 9, [A. N. 
S. P.]. 

Cedar Springs, New Jersey, VIII, 14 and 26, 1914, (H.; common in fresh 
marsh grasses and rushes along river), 19 cf', 20 9 • 

Ocean View, New Jersey, IX, 4 and 6, 1909, (H. Fox; upland meadow bor- 
dering salt marsh), 6 cf 5 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Sea Isle City, New Jersey, VIII, 15, 1910, (H. Fox; in tall grasses and Cyperis), 
11 c^,2 9,[A. N. S. P.]. 

Goshen, New Jersey, VIII, 22, 1910, VIII, 27, 1912, (H. Fox), 4 d^, 3 9, 
[A. N. S. P.]. 

Avalon, New Jersey, VIII, 12 and 20, 1910, VIII, 12, 1911, (H. Fox; in sedge 
in dune depression), 6 cf, 8 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Anglesea, New Jersey, IX, 6, (W. T. Davis) 1 c?, 1 9, [Davis Cln.]. 

Near Town Bank, New Jersey, VIII, 15, 1912, (W. T. Davis), 1 d", [U. S. 
N. M.]. 

Erma, New Jersey, VIII, 19, 1912, (W. T. Davis), 1 9, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Cape May, New Jersey, IX, 24, 1910, (H. Fox), 2 c^, 4 9, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Newcastle, Delaware, VIII, 6, 1911, (H. Fox), 1 cf , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Montgomery Co., Maryland, IX, 23, 1911, (W. T. Davis), Id',! 9, [Davis 
Chi.]. 

Chestertown, Maryland, VIII, 25, 1899, (E. G. Vanatta), 1 9, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Cedar Point, Morgantown, Maryland, VIII, 24, 1913, (W. L. McAtee), 1 d, 
1 9,[U. S. N. M.]. 

HyattsviUe, Maryland, IX, 17, 1911, (W. T. Davis), 1 d, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Wasliington, D. C, IX, 1883, 1 c^, 3 9, [Hebard Cln.]; IX, 3 to 11, (A. N. 
Caudell), 5 cf, 3 9, [U. S. N. M.]; VII and VIII, 1904 and 1909, (H. A. 
AUard), 3 cr,3 9, [U.S.N. M.]. 

Virginia, VIII, 14, X, 1, 1883, 3 c^, 9 9 , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Rosslyn, Virginia, IX, X, 20, (A. N. Caudell), 4 cf , 2 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 



REHN AND HEBARD 33 

Addison, Virginia, X, 6, 1912, (A. N. Caudell), 1 c?, 1 9, [U. S. X. M.]. 

Appomattox, Virginia, IX, 6, 1903, (Morse), 3 cf , 6 9 , [Morse Cln.]. 

Virginia Beach, Virginia, IX, 7, 1903, (Morse), Id',! 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

Hamlet, North Carolina, X, 1906, (F. Sherman), 1 9 , [X. C. Dept. of Agric.]. 

Lake Waccamaw, North Carolina, IX, 8, 1911, (R. & H.; in high weeds near 
lake shore), 9 cf , 10 9. 

Wilmington, North Carohna, VII, 23, 1905, (J. P. Spoon), 1 o^ [X. C. Dept. 
of Agi-ic.]. 

Winter Park, North CaroUna, IX, 7, 1911, (R. & H.; in grasses in field), 2 c?. 

Wrightsville, North Carolina, IX, 7, 1911, (R. & H.; in weeds on barrier 
beach), 1 cf. 

Yemassee, South Carohna, IX, 4, 1911, (R. & H.; in grasses), 1 cf , 3 9 . 

Thompson's Mills, Georgia, 1908, X, 1909, (H. A. AUard), 2 c?, 1 9, [U. S. 
N. M.]. 

Stone Mountain, Georgia, IX, 12, 1913, (J. C. Bradley), 1 d, [Ga. State 
Cln.]. 

Albany, Georgia, VIII, 1, 1913, (R. & H.; attracted to light at night), 1 9 . 

IlebardviUe, Georgia, VIII, 28, 1911, (H.) 1 d. 

Jesup, Georgia, IX, 1, 1911, (R. & H.; in swamp in pine woods), 1 d^, 1 9 . 

Cumberland Island, Georgia, VIII, 31, 1911, (R. & H.; in weeds on beach), 
3 cf, 1 9. 

Tybee Island, Georgia, IX, 2, 1911, (R. & H.; scarce in marsh grass), 3cf , 
29. 

Savamiah, Georgia, VIII, 13 to 14, 1903, (Morse), 11 cf , 8 9 , [Morse Cln.]. 

Live Oak, Florida, VIII, 26, 1911, (R. & H.), 1 d. 

Jacksonville, Florida, (Priddey), 3 d; VIII, 1885, (Ashmead), 2 d^, 2 9, 
[Hebard Cln.]. 

South Jacksonville, Florida, IX, 28, 1913, (W. T. Davis), 1 9 , [Davis Cln.]. 

Ortega, Florida, IX, 6, 1913, (W. T. Davis), 2 cf , 3 9 , [Davis Cln.]. 

Pablo Beach, Florida, IX, 27, 1913, (W. T. Davis), 1 d, [Davis Chi.]. 

Atlantic Beach, Florida, VIII, 24, 1911, (R. & H.; fairly common on high 
weeds in hammock jungle), 5 cf , 2 9 . 

Hastings, Florida, VIII, 7 to X. 15, (A. J. Brown), 2 c?, 4 9 , [Morse Cln.]. 

Sanford, Florida, (G. B. Frazer), 2 d, [M. C. Z.]. 

Carrabelle, Florida, VIII, 9, 1903, (Morse), 1 d, [Morse Cln.]. 

Marianna, Florida, VIII, 6, 1903, (Morse) 1 d", [Morse Cln.]. 

Quincy, Florida, X, 27, 1905, (W. A. Hooker), 1 d, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Alabama, 1 d, [Hebard Cln.]; 1 d, [Morse Cln.]. 

Chattanooga, Tennessee, VIII, 24, 1903, (Mor.se), 3 cf , 4 9 , [Morse Cln.]. 

Lafayette, Indiana, X, 14, 1914, (H. Fox), 1 9, [Fox Cln.]. 

Southern Illinois, 1 9 , [M. C. Z.]. 

Arkansas, 1 9, [U.S. N. M.]. 

Milneburg, Louisiana, VII, 22, 1905, (Morse), 7 cf, 9 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

Buras, Louisiana, VII, 23, 1905, (Morse), 1 d, [Morse Cln.]. 

We have also recorded this species from Thomasville, Georgia, as nilidum; 
from Pablo Beach, Gainesville, Lakeland and Everglade, Florida, Edenton, 
Newbern and Raleigh, North Carolina and Rosslyn, \irginia, as molossum 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



34 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

and from Raleigh, North Carolina, and Chestnut Hill and Tinicum, Penn- 
sylvania as spinulosum. 

Orchelimum glaberrimum (Burmeister) (Figs. 7, 19, 37, 38 and 70.) 

1838. X[iphidium] (jlaberrimum Burmeister, Handb. der Entom., ii, abth. ii, 
pt. 1, p. 707. [Georgetown, South Carolina.] 

1839. Orchelimum cuticulare Serville, Hist. Nat. Ins. Orth., p. 523. [No 
locality.] 

1905. Orchelimum erythrocephalum Davis, Canad. Entom., xxxvii, p. 288. 
[Lakehurst, Toms River and "Ocean Co.," New Jersey.] 

'We have traced out the movements of Zimmermann, who 
collected the material on which Burmeister founded the species, 
and find that Georgetown, South Carolina, is the only locality 
which he had visited in "South Carolina" up to the time Bur- 
meister 's work appeared. Accordingly we have selected that 
place as the type locality. An effort to locate the original mate- 
rial has been unsuccessful, the only thing positive being the 
assurance from Prof. 0. Taschenberg that it does not exist in the 
Halle collections. 

Regarding the synonymy of cuticulare with the present species, 
a careful study of the description of Serville's species shows con- 
clusively that they are the same. The name cuticulare has been 
erroneously used by Redtenbacher for a species which we are 
here naming calcaratum. The lack of appreciation by some 
European workers of American geography and the settlement of 
the country is evidenced by the reference of a form described as 
long ago as 1839, to a species found only in a region which up to 
that time was largely the proverbial howling wilderness, trav- 
ersed only by pioneers and strong government detachments. 

Mr. Davis has been kind enough to place in our hands an exten- 
sive series of New Jersey, North Carohna and Florida specimens 
of this species, those from the first mentioned state being typical 
of his erythrocephalum. These confirm the previously expressed 
opinion of the authors regarding the synonymy of the two forms. 
The smaller size of the New Jersey specimens is explained when 
a series representing localities extending from that state to Florida 
is laid out, as the increase in size southward is in general regular, 
with, however, the usual amount and percentage of individual 
variation found in forms of this genus. Environment also is 
without doubt an influencing factor in regard to size. In no 



REHN AND HEBARD 35 

case, however, is a New Jersey specimen as large as the average 
North Carohna individual. 

As an index to the average amount of this geographic size 
variation we here present the proportions (in millimeters) of 
representative pairs of average dimensions for the series from 
that locality. 

Lakehurst, Fayetteville, Florence, 

New Jersey North Carolina South Carolina 

d' 9 d' 9 d" 9 

Length of body 20.2 22. Tj 25 2.3.2 25. .5 24.7 

Length of pronotum 5.9 5.9 6.5 6.5 6.8 7 

Length of caudal femur 17.3 18 19.8 20.5 20 21 

Length of o\ipositor 9.2 .... 10.2 .... 10 

Billy's Island, South Jackson- 
Georgia ville, Florida 

d' ? cf 9 

Length of body 22.5 27 24 23.2 

Length of pronotum 7 7.3 8 7.5 

Length of caudal femiu- 21 21.8 23 . 3 22 

Length of ovipositor 10 .... 10 

The body length is, as usual, unreliable on account of the 
frequent unnatural compression or extension. 

The length of the tegmina and wings is as variable in this 
species as in vulgare, the caudate type of tegmen and wing appear- 
ing in any extensive series. We have before us specimens with 
the tegmina and wings considerably surpassing the apices of the 
caudal femora from Lakehurst, Chatsworth, Jamesburg, Park- 
dale and Atsion, New Jersey; Bayville, Virginia; Fayetteville 
and Lake Waccamaw, North Carolina; Florence and Yemassee, 
South Carolina; Albany, Groveland, Thomasville, Billy's Island, 
Tybee Island and Jesup, Georgia, and Jacksonville, South Jack- 
sonville, Pablo Beach, La Grange and Cedar Keys, Florida. 

An examination of one hundred and eleven specimens for the 
presence or absence of spines on the ventro-external margin of 
the caudal femora gives figures which support our former con- 
tention ^'^ regarding the variability of this feature. We are able 
here to go more fully into this matter and present details of the 
spine count. Twenty-one New Jersey specimens bear no spines 
on this margin, while fifty-three have one or more spines. Of this 
fiftj'-thrce, the combinations of spines and number for each are 
given below with the figures for series from four other localities. 

isproc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1910, p. 639, (1911). 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



36 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 





Various New 
Jersey localities 


Raleigh, 
North Carolina 


Florence, Billy's Island, 
South Carolina Georgia 


South Jackson 
ville, Florida 


0-0 


21 


1 


3 


2 


1 


0-1 


8 


2 





2 


1 


0-2 


7' 














0-3 


1 














1-1 


7 





1 


2 


1 


1-2 


9 





2 


1 





1-3 


3 





1 


1 


1 


2-2 


7 








1 


3 


2-3 


6 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2-4 





1 











3-3 





1 











3-4 


4 











2 


3-5 





1 











3-6 





1 











4-4 


1 















In forty-two specimens from Lakehurst, New Jersey, we find 
thirty-two with the external margin of the caudal femora with 
one or more spines and ten without spines. 

. The red or reddish coloration of the head is almost invariably 
well marked in northern (i. e., New Jersey) specimens, but in 
material from the southern portion of the range of the species 
this is not as decidedly indicated, being often of a paler shade, 
although occasionally individuals are just as highly, or rather 
deeply, colored as New Jersey specimens. 

Distribution. — -As shown by material before us, the range of 
this species extends over the greater portion of the Coastal Plain 
of the eastern United States from north-central New Jersey 
(Old Bridge, Helmetta and Jamesburg) south to southern Florida, 
inland at least as far as the western edge of the Pine Barren 
region in New Jersey, in North Carolina as far as Raleigh and in 
Georgia extending at least as far inland as Macon. Westward 
along the Gulf Coast we know the species ranges at least as far 
asj^southern Mississippi. Redtenbacher has also recorded it 
from Tennessee, Missouri, Texas and "Rocky Mountains, Colo- 
rado," the last certainly in error and the others possibly so. 
Ashmead has recorded glaherrimum from Utica, Mississippi and 
Allard credits it to Thompsons Mills, Georgia, but in the former 
case there may be some confusion with long-winged vulgare, and 
in the latter we find from the material this to be the case, so it 
seems most advisable to base our summary of the geographic 



REHN AND HEBARD 37 

range of the species solely on the specimens examined b}^ us. 
For comments on other records of glaberrimum see under the 
distribution of vulgare. 

Specimens Examined: 247, 191 cf, 48 9,4 juv. cf , 4 juv. 9 . 

Ocean County, New Jersey, VIII, 25, 1 9 , [Davis Cln.]. 

Lakehm-st, New Jersey, VII, 16 to 30, VIII, 15 to 22, IX, 4 to 24, X, 18, 
(W. T. Davis), 40 cf , 4 9, [Davis Cln.]. Paratypes of Orchelimum eryUiro- 
cephalum Davis. 

Jamesbiirg, New Jersey, VIII, 11, IX, 19 to 20, (W. T. Davis), 10 d', [Davis 
Cln.]. 

Old Bridge, New Jersey, X, 8, 1909, (W. T. Davis), 1 o", [Davis Cln.]. 

Cassville, New Jersey, VIII, 1910,, (W. T. Davis), 2 cf , [Davis Cln.]. 

South of Cassville, New Jersey, VIII, 12, 1911, (\V. T. Davis). 1 c?, [Davis 
Cln.]. 

WhitesviUe, New Jersey, VIII, 22, 1912, (W. T. Davis), 3 cf , [Davis Cln.]. 

Chatsworth, New Jersey, VIII, 14 to 21, 1912, (W. T. Davis), 12 cf, 2 9, 
[Davis Cln.]. 

High Bridge, Ocean County, New Jersey, VIII, 12, 1911, (W. T. Davis), 
1 &, [Davis Cln.]. 

Toms River, New Jersey, VIII, 15, 1S85, (W. T. Davis), 2 d", [Davis Cln., 
and Hebard Cln.]. 

Brown's Mills Junction, New Jersey, VIII, 4, 1905, (E. Daecke), 1 cf , [Hebard 
Cln.]. 

Atsion, New Jersey, VII, 3, 1911, X, 8, 1903, (R. & H.), 1 cf , 1 9 , [Hebard 
Cln.]; VIII, 14, 1911, (W. T. Davis), 1 c^, [Davis Cln.]. 

Parkdale, New Jensey, VII, 30, 1911, (R. & H.), 2 c?, 1 9 • 

May's Landing, New Jersey, VIII, 26 and 29, 1914, (H.; moderately com- 
mon in marshy area, singing loudly in afternoon, scarcely at all after dark), 
15 &. 

Reega, New Jersey, VIII, 20 and 29, 1914, (H.; in high grass in open glade 
in pine woods, immature individuals found on first date), 4 d^, 1 9,1 juv. 9 • 

Between Woodbine and Belleplain, New Jersey, VIII, 21, 1912, (H. Fo.x), 
1 d^, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Belleplain, New Jersey, VIII, 21, 1912, IX, 2, 1909, (H. Fox; gi-assy area 
in pine woods), 3 c?, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Great Cedar Swamp near Sea Isle Junction, New Jersey, VII, 29, 1911, VIII, 
27, 1910, X, 15, 1910, (H. Fox), 15 cf , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Cedar Swamp Bog, two miles east of North Dennisville, New Jersey, \'III, 
18, 1908, (H. Fox), 1 o^, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Virginia Beach, Virginia, IX, 7, 1903, (Morse), 1 9 , [Morse Cln.]. 

Cape Henry, Virginia, IX, 7, 1903, (Morse), 1 9 , [Morse Cln.]. 

Raleigh, North Carolina, X, 3 d", 7 9 , [Davis Cln.]. 

Goldsboro, North Carohna, VII, 25, 1913, (R. & II.), 1 juv. 9 . 

FayetteviUe, North Carolina, IX, 9, 1911, (R. & H.; common in grasses and 
weeds), 1 d^, 4 9. 

Lake Waccamaw, North Carolina, IX, 8, 1911, (R. & H.), 2 d". 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



38 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

Wilmington, North Carolina, IX, 8, 1911, (R. & H.; in boggy area where 
Venus-fly-trap (Dionca) grew), 1 cf , 1 9 ; VIII, 1, (G. P. Engelhardt) , 1 cf , 
[Davis Cln.]. 

Wrightsville, North Carolina, IX, 7, 1911, (R. & H.; in oak scrub), 1 cf . 

Smithville, North CaroHna, XI, 22, 2 d", [M. C. Z.J. 

Florence, South Carolina, IX, 6, 1911, (R. & H.; in open space with high 
grass), 5 cf , 3 9 . 

Ashley Junction, South CaroUna, VIII, 15, 1913, (R.; in wet spots in pine 
woods), 1 juv. 9 . 

Yemassee, South CaroUna, IX, 4, 1911, (R. & H.; in green grasses along 
railroad), 3 cf . 

Denmark, South Carohna, VIII, 15, 1903, (Morse), 1 d', 1 ?, [Morse Cln.]. 

Macon, Georgia, VII, 30 to 31, 1913, (R. &. H), 3 juv. cf , 1 juv. 9 ■ 

Tybee Island, Georgia, IX, 2, 1911, (H. ; in high grasses along edge of tidal 
marsh), 2 d^. 

Savannah, Georgia, VIII, 14, 1903, (Morse), 4 d', 2 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

Groveland, Cannoche River, Georgia, VIII, 28, 1913, (J. C. Bradley), 1 cf , 
[Ga. State Cln.]. 

Jesup, Georgia, IX, 1, 1911, (H.; in swamp in pine woods), 2 cf , 1 9 . 

BiUy's Island, Georgia, IX, 1 to 5, 1913, (J. C. Bradley), 10 cf , 1 9 • 

HomerviUe, Georgia, VIII, 27, 1911, (R. & H.), 1 d. 

Albany, Georgia, VIII, 1, 1913, (R. & H.; in tangles), 1 cf . 

Atlantic Beach, Florida, VIII, 24, 1911, (R. & H.; in marshy land on edge 
of hammocks), 1 cf . 

Pablo Beach, Florida, IX, 5, 1913, (W. T. Davis), 1 cf , [Davis Cln.]. 

South Jacksonville, Florida, IX, 7 and 28, 1913, (W. T. Davis), 11 cf, 2 9, 
[Davis Cln.]. 

Hastings, Florida, VIII, 7 to X, 15, (A. J. Brown), 16 cf , 11 9 , [Morse Chi.]. 

La Grange, Florida, IX, 9 & X, 1913, (W. T. Davis), 2 cf , 1 9 , [Davis Cln.]. 

Alabama, 1 cf , 1 9 , [Morse Cln.]. 

Flomaton, Alabama, VIII, 2, 1903, (Morse), 1 cf , [Morse Chi.]. 

Nugent, Mississippi, VII, 20, 1905, (Morse), 19,1 juv. 9, [Morse Chi.]. 

Biloxi, Mississippi, VII, 19, 1905, (Morse), 1 cf , [Morse Cln.]. 

Gulfport, Mississippi, VII, 18, 1905, (Morse)^ 1 cf , [Morse Cln.]. 

In addition to these records Smith has reported the species from Tuckerton, 
New Lisbon and Lahaway, New Jersey; while the present authors have re- 
corded specimens from Bayville, Virginia; Newbern and Winter Park, North 
CaroUna; Thomasville and Waynesville, Georgia, and San Pablo, Jacksonville. 
Gainesville, Cedar Keys and Everglade, Florida. The present authors' record 
from Edenton, North CaroUna, refers to vulgare, under which species it is cor- 
rected. Fox has erroneously recorded this species from Rockville, Pennsyl- 
vania, the material being vulgare, and from between Winslow and Folsom, 
New Jersey, the latter specimens belonging to our new superhutn. 

Orchelimum vulgare Harris (Figs. 8, 20, 39, 40 and 71.) 

1841. Orchelimu7n vulgare Harris, Ins. Inj. Veget., p. 130. [Massachusetts.] 

Tliis species is very closely related to 0. glaherrimiim (Burmeis- 
ter), but wliile the present form ranges over the Carolinian, 



REHN AND HEBARD 39 

Transition and portions of the Canadian life zones, glaberrimum 
is chiefly restricted to the Austroriparian zone. The ranges 
of the two touch and possibly to a slight degree overlap, but 
there is no definite intergradation of the material, typical indi- 
viduals of each occurring side by side at certain localities on the 
meeting ground of the two species. 

The great difficulty in the past with these two names {i. e., 
glaberrimum and vulgare) has been due to the failure of authors 
to comprehend the real characters separating them. Large 
specimens of vulgare and individuals of the same with caudate 
tegmina and wings were called glaberrimum regardless of the 
good structural characters which separate the two. All the 
glaberrimum records from the normal range of vulgare are pro- 
bably these long-winged vulgare, but those records from the line 
where the species meet cannot be assigned without examination 
of the original material. 

The general characters separating the two species are; the 
generally larger, frequently much larger, size of glaberrimum, the 
relatively broader and shallower fastigium of the same form, the 
broader lateral lobes of the pronotum of vulgare, the generallj^more 
elongate speculum of the stridulating field of the male tegmina 
of glaberrimum, the preapical node on the dorsal surface of the 
male cercus in vulgare, this being absent in glaberriuium, and the 
straighter and less falcate ovipositor of the female of glaberrimum. 

In general size vulgare holds rather small northward, material 
from the more southern localities averaging larger, this being 
quite noticeable in specimens from North Carolina, Missouri, 
south-central Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas localities. However, 
like the other forms of this genus, individual variation at any 
one place is very considerable, and in series averaging large we 
will find small or medium sized individuals and vice versa. In 
no case, however, does this species reach the great size frequently 
attained by glaberrimum. 

Individuals with elongate tegmina and wings, i. e., these very 
considerably exceeding the tips of the caudal femora, occur in 
the material before us from all over the range of the species. The 
localities represented by this phase in the series before us are: 
North Saugus and Seekonk, Massachusetts; Port Allegany and 
Rockville, Pennsylvania; Delaware; Chestertown, Maryland; 

PEANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



40 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

Washington, District of Columbia; Virginia; Grant County, West 
Virginia; Linville, North Carolina; Thompsons Mills, Georgia; 
Indiana; Illinois; Clarksville, Tennessee; St. Louis, Missouri; Iowa 
City and Dallas County, Iowa; West Point, Kearney, Lincoln 
and Neligh, Nebraska; Topeka, Barber County, Hiawatha and 
Belpre, Kansas, and Dallas, Texas. 

An examination of the series before us shows that normally the 
ventro-external margins of the caudal femora are unspined in 
this species, only occasional specimens having one or two spines. 
Forty-eight specimens from five representative localities show 
counts as follows: 



Saunderatown, 
Rhode Island 


Tinicum, 
Pennsylvania 


Sulphur Springs, 
North Carolina 


St. Louis, 
Missouri 


West Point, 
Nebraska 


0-0 0-0 


0-0 


0-0 


2-2 


0-0 


0-0 


0-0 


0-0 0-0 


0-0 0-0 


0-0 


0-0 


0-0 


0-0 


0-0 


0-1 


0-0 0-0 


0-0 0-0 


0-0 


0-0 


0-0 


0-0 


0-0 


0-1 


1-1 0-0 


0-0 0-0 


0-0 


0-0 


0-0 


0-0 


0-0 


0-0 


0-0 0-0 


0-0 


0-0 


0-0 


0-0 




0-0 


0-0 


0-0 0-0 



Distribution^^. — Extending from southern Maine (Norway; 
Smith), southern Quebec (Montreal; Caulfield), the Muskoka 
region of Ontario (Walker) , north shore of Lake Superior (Caul- 
field) and Minnesota (Lugger), south in the east as far as north- 
ern Georgia (Thompsons Mills; Allard), north of the Carolinas 
extending eastward to the coast, in the Carolinas east as far as 
Raleigh (Brimley) and Edenton, in the interior south to at least 
Tennessee, northwest Arkansas (Fayette ville) and northeast 
Texas (Dallas), west to the foot of the Rocky Mountains in Colo- 
rado (Manitou) and eastern Wyoming (Thomas). Certainly the 
majority of the glaherrimum records from this region refer to 
long-winged vulgare, except in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey 
where glaherrimum reaches its northern limit, while it is possible 
some of the interior records refer to gladiator and calcaratum. 
The record of this species from Chokoloskee, Florida, by the pres- 
ent authors is erroneous, the material having been from else- 
where. 

Specimens Examined: 467; 248 cf; 195 9; 10 juv. cT; 14 juv. 9. 
Montreal, Quebec, Canada, (Lyman), 1 9 , [M. C. Z.j. 
Windsor, Ontario, Canada, IX, 1894, 3 cT, [Cornell Univ.]. 

1* Owing to the great confusion previously existing between the present 
species and 0. glaherrimum, we are here considering as trustworthy only such 
records as our material gives reason to believe are correct. 



REHN AND HEBARD 41 

Brunswick, Maine, IX, 2, 1913, (Morse), 1 cf, [Morse Cln.]. 

Norway, Maine, (S. I. Smith), 4 c?, 2 9, [M. C. Z.]. 

Vermont, 2 cf , 1 9 , [M. C. Z.]. 

Jaffrey, New Hampshire, IX, 5 to 18, 1896, (S. Henshaw), 4 9, [M. C. Z.]. 

Seabrook, New Hampshire, (A. A. Eaton), 1 d", [U. S. N. M.]. 

Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 1 c^, 1 9 , [M. C. Z.]. 

Provincetown, Massachusetts, 1 9, [M. C. Z.]. 

Chatham, Massachusetts, VIII, 1904, (Morse), 2 9, [Morse On.]. 

Seekonk, Massachusetts, (Mrs. Brigham), 1 cT, [M. C. Z.]. 

North Saugus, Massachusetts, IX, 6, 1906, (C. C. Gowday), 1 9 , [U. S. N. M.J. 

Truro, Massachusetts, IX, 4, 1904, (Morse), 1 c?, [Morse Cln.]. 

Vicinity of Boston, Massachusetts, (Scudder), 1 9, [M. C. Z.]. 

WoUaston, Massachusetts, VII, 1896, VIII, 1895, (F. H. Sprague), 2 d^, 4 9 , 
[M. C. Z.]. 

Wellesley, Massachusetts, VII, 18, 1892, (Mor.se), 1 cf , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Sharon, Massachusetts, VIII, 1, 1897, (F. H. Sprague), 1 c?, [M. C. Z.]. 

Marion, Massachusetts, VIII, 1905, (H.), 3 c?, 1 9. 

Nantucket, Massachusetts, (Scudder), 5 cf , 3 9, [M. C. Z.|. 

Saunderstomi, Rhode Ishmd, IX, 3 to 9, 1913, (H.), 5 d', 4 9 . 

Wesquage Beach, Rhode IsLand, IX, 8 and 10, 1913, (H.), 2 9 . 

Cattaraugus, New York, IX, 1894, 1 o^, 3 9 , [M. C. Z. and Cornell Univ.]. 

Chfton Springs, New York, 1 d', 3 9, [M. C. Z. and Cornell Univ.]. 

Ithaca, New York, VII, 27 to 30, 1885, VIII, 4 to 26, 1885, (O. E. Pearce), 
19cf , 14 9 , [M. C. Z. and Cornell Univ.]; VIII, 15 and 22, 1890 and 1891, 2 d^, 
1 9 , [Morse Cln.]. 

Berkshire, New York, 1 d', [M. C. Z.]. 

Mosholu, New York, X, 18, 1 9 , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Port Allegany, Pennsylvania, VIII, 1 to 8, 1904^ (H. W. Fowler), 1 9 , [A. N. 
S. P.]. 

Tobyhanna, Pennsylvania, IX, 2, 1903 (H.), 2 d", [Hebard Chi.]. 

Blairsville, Pennsylvania, VIII, 27, 3 d', 4 9, [Penna. State Dept. Zool.]. 

Diamond Valley, Huntington Co., Pennsylvania, IX, 10, 1905, (R.), 1 9, 
[A. N. S. P.]. 

Rockville, Pennsylvania, VIII, 5 to 29, 4 d', 4 9, 1 juv. 9, [Penna. State 
Dept. Zool.]. 

Camphill, Pennsylvania, IX, 22, 1 9 , [Penna. State Dept. Zool.]. 
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, VII, 9, VIII, 2 to 18, 4 d", 4 9,1 juv. 9 , [Penna. 
State Dept. Zool.]. 

Dauphin, Pennsylvania, IX, 15, 1 d", 1 9 , [Penna. State Dept. Zool.]. 
Middletown, Pennsylvania, X, 19, 1 d", [Penna. State Dept. Zool.]. 
Highspire, Pennsylvania, VII, 28, 1 juv. 9 , [Penna. State Dept. Zool.]. 
Perkasie, Pennsylvania, VIII, 4, 1911, (H. Fox), 2 d^, [A. N. S. P.]. 
Cornwells, Pennsylvania, IX, 7, 1914, (H.; scarce in marsh vegetation, com- 
mon in clumps of weeds in fields), 4 d^, 1 9 • 

Devon, Pennsylvania, IX, 14, 1905, 1 cf , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Fern Hill, Pennsylvania, VII, 15, 1911, IX, 19, 1908, (R. & H.), 2 d^, 1 9 • 

Castle Rock, Pennsylvania, IX, 19, 1908, (R. & H.), 1 d', 4 9 . 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



42 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

Chestnut Hill, Pennsylvania, IX, 2, 1904, IX, 13 to 18, 1903, (H.), 4 d', 
[Hebard Cln.]. 

Mount Airy, Pennsylvania, VII, 15, VIII, 4, 1911, (H. Fox), 3 c?, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Addingham, Pennsylvania, VIII, 8, 1914, (D. E. Culver), 2 cf , 1 9, [A. 
N. S. P.] 

Gibson's Point, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, VII, 20, 1911, VIII, 1, 1912, 
VIII, 9, 1911, (H. Fox), 11 c^, 4 9, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Tinicum, Pennsylvania, VIII, 13, 1911, IX, 9, 1904, IX, 19, 1908, IX, 29, 
1903 and 1913, (R. & H.), 9 c^, 21 9 . 

Essington, Pennsylvania, VII, 27, 1911, (H. Fox), 1 c?, 3 9, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Riverton, New Jersey, X, 8, 1911, (H. Viereck), 1 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Washington Park, New Jersey, VIII, 11, 1911, (H. Fox), 2 c^, 2 9 , [A. N. 

S. P.]. 

Clementon, New Jersey, VII, 25, 1911, (H. Fox; in humid field), 1 9 , [A. N. 

S. P.]. 

Canton, New Jersey, IX, 7, 1910, (H. Fox), 1 9, [A. N. S. P.]. 

May's Landing, New Jersey, VIII, 29, 1914, (H.), 2 d". 

Reega, New Jersey, VII, 31, VIII, 10, 16 and 29, 1914, (H.; in undergrowth 
in pine woods), 8 cT, 2 9, 1 juv. cf, 2 juv. 9, (immature individuals on the 
two earhest dates). 

Pleasantville, New Jersey, VIII, 17, 1914, (H.), 1 cT. 

Ventnor, New Jersey, VIII, 6 and 11, 1914, (H.; in low bushes and heavy 
weeds and grasses), 6 cT, 3 9,2 juv. cf, 2 juv. 9, (two instars represented, 
taken on the first date) . 

Margate, New Jersey, VII, 24, 1914, (H.; in barrier dune vegetation), 2 
juv. cf , 1 juv. 9 , (former in different instars). 

Tuckahoe, New Jersey, VIII, 26, 1914, (H.; in glade\ 1 c?. 

Cedar Springs, New Jersey, VIII, 14 and 26, 1914, (H.; occasional in fresh- 
marsh with agile and concinnum) , 3 c? , 5 9 . 

Ocean View, New Jersey, IX, 7, 1908, (H. Fox), 1 d", [A. N. S. P.]; VII, 27, 
1914, (H.; common in high grasses and in field), 3 cT, 1 juv. cf, 5 juv. 9, (two 
instars) . 

Swainton, New Jersey, VIII, 8, 1914, (H.; occasional, in late afternoon with 
a low continuous buzzing with but few cHcks, a quite different song from that 
of midday), '2 d", 1 juv. 9. 

Cape May Court House, New Jersey, VIII, 21, 1914, (H.; in high cattails 
and rushes, after dark), 1 d'. 

Wildwood Junction, New Jersey, VII, 27, VIII, 8 and 21, 1914, (H.; in 
open field), 3 c?, 2 juv. d', 1 juv. 9 , (first adult on second date). 

Mount Pleasant, New Jersey, IX, 5, 1904, (H. Fox), 2 9, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Sea Isle Junction, New. Jersey, X, 2, 1909, X, 15, 1910, (H. Fox; in swamp), 
2 d, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Chestertown, Maryland, VII, 31, 1904, VIII, 22, 1899, (E. G. Vanatta), 2 
d, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Washington, District of Columbia, IX, (W. T. Davis, part), 3 cf , 1 9 , [Davis 
and Hebard Clns.]; VIII, 25 to X, 31, (A. N. Caudell), 5cf , 4 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Virginia, VIII, 14, X, 1, 1883, 1 d^, 2 9, [Hebard Cln.]. 



REHN AND HEBARD 43 

FaUs Church, Virginia, IX, 4, 1906, (A. X. Caudell), 1 9 , [U. S. X. M.]. 

Dryden, Virginia, IX, 3, 1899, 1 cf , [Morse Chi.]. 

Xorfolk, Virginia, IX, 8, 1903, (Morse), 1 d", [Morse Chi.]. 

Wytheville, Virginia, IX, 5, 1903, (Morse), 1 cf , [Mor.se Cln.]. 

Grant County, West Virginia, (Shaler), 1 cf, [M. C. Z.]. 

Kanawha Station, West Virginia, VIII, 23, 1905, (A. D. Hopkins), 1 cT, 
[U. S. N. M.]. 

, Blowing Rock, Xorth Carohna, VIII, 1906, (R. S. Wogluni), 1 cf , [North 
Carohna Dept. Agr. Cln.]. 

Blantyre, North Carolina, IX, 1906, (R. S. Woglum), 1 9 , [North Carolina 
Dept. Agr. Cln.]. 

Linville, North Carolina, VIII, 30, 1903, (Morse), 1 c?, 1 9, [Morse Chi.]. 

Raleigh, North Carolina, X, 10 and 29, 1900, (Sherman), 1 c?, 1 9, [North 
Carolina Dept. Agr. Chi.]. 
. Edenton, North Carohna, VIII, 20, 1908, (R.), 2 cf , [A. N. S. P.]'^ 

Thompson's MiUs, Georgia, X, 1909 and 1910, (H. A. Allard), 8 cf , 2 9, 
[U. S. N. M.]. 

Gun Lake, Michigan, VII, 13 to 26, 1912, (M. A. Carriker, Jr.), 3 cT, 1 9, 
[Hebard Chi.]. 

Tuscarawas City, Ohio, IX, 26, 1891, 19, [M. C. Z.]. 

Salineville, Ohio, IX, 4 to 10, 1892, 3 9 , [Cornell Univ.]. 

Indiana, (Blatchley), 2 c?, 2 9 , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Sedan, Indiana, VIII, 29, 1905, (W. PhiUips), 2 c?, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Illinois, (McNeill), 2 cf', 2 9, [Hebard Cln.]. 

West Northfield, Illinois, (Kennicott), 1 9 , [M. C. Z.]. 

Urbana, Illinois, IX, 10, X, 17 and 19, 1904, (F. Knab), 1 cf, 2 9 , [U. S. 
N. M.]. 

Ogle County, Illinois, (Allen), 1 9, (M- C. Z.]. 

Peoria, lUinois, VII, 15, 1 d", [Cornell Univ.]. 

Roan Mountain Station, Tennessee, IX, 3, 1903, (Morse), 2 9 , [Morse Cln.]. 

Chattanooga, Tennessee, VIII, 24, 1903, (Morse), 1 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

Clarksville, Tennessee, VIII, 15, 1912, (S. E. Crumb), 1 c?, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Ramsey County, Minne.sota, 1 9, [Hebard Cln.]. 

St. Peters, Minnesota, 1880, 1 c^, [U. S. N. M.]. 

DaUas County, Iowa, VIII, 8 to 23, IX, 1 to 3, (AUen), 17c?, 12 9 , [M. C. Z.]. 

Denison, Iowa, VII, 20, (Allen), 1 cf , [M. C. Z.]. 

Jefferson, Iowa, VII, 20 to 24, (Allen), 2 c^, 2 9 , [M. C. Z.]. 

Iowa City, Iowa, (M. P. Somes), 1 9 , [Hebard Cln.]. 

St. Louis, Missouri, IX, 25, 1876, X, 17, 1875, 4 c?, 1 9, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Bushberg, Misisouri, VIII, 1870, 1 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Kirkwood, Missouri, X, 1877, 1 d", [U. S. N. M.]. 

Fayetteville, Arkansas, IX, 5, 1905, (Morse), 1 c?, 1 9, [Morse Chi.]; X, 
1891, 1 d', 1 9 , [Cornell Univ.]. 

Neligh, Nebraska, VIII, (Gary), 1 cf , [Hebard Cln.]. 

1^ Previously recorded by us as 0. glnberrimum: Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1910, p. 639, (1911). 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



44 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

West Point, Nebraska, VIII, 17 and 19, IX, 1 and 5, (Bruner), 3 c?, 13 9, 
[Hebard Cln.j. 

Albion, Nebraska, IX, U, 1904, (Bruner), 2 9, [Hebard Cln.j. 

Kearney, Nebraska, VII, 27, 1910, (R. & H.), 5 d^, 1 9 . 

Lincoln, Nebraska, VIII, IX, 3, 1909, X, 1, 1909, (L. Bruner and C. H. 
Gable), 5 cf , 4 9, [Hebard Cln.]. 

South Bend, Nebraska, X, 15, 1910, 1 6^,2 9 , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Weeping Water, Nebraska, IX, 24, 1909, (Bruner), 2 9, [Hebard Cln.]. 

Topeka, Kansas, (F. W. Cragin), 2 9, [Hebard Cln.]. 

Belpre, Kansas, IX, 13, 1909, (H.; stridulating high on tassel of corn), 2 cf. 

Zenith, Kansas, IX, 11, 1907, (H.), 1 9. 

Hiawatha, Kansas, VIII, (F. B. Isely), 1 &, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Wichita, Kansas, IX, 7, 1904, (F. B. Isely), 1 c^, 1 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Shawnee County, Kansas, (Cragin), 1 d', [Hebard Cln.]. 

Barbe County, Kansas, (Cragin), 1 cf , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Wilburton, Oklahoma, VIII, 27, 1905, (Morse), 1 d^, [Morse Cln.]. 

Ardmore, Oklahoma, VIII, 18, (F. C. Bishopp), 1 cf , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Caddo, Oklahoma, VIII, 8, 1905, (Morse), 1 cf , [Morse Cln.]. 

Denison, Texas, VIII, 11, 1905, (Morse), 19,1 juv. 9, [Morse Cln.j. 

Dallas, Texas, (BoU), 3 cf , 1 c?, [M. C. Z.j. 

Manitou, Colorado, VIII, 1887, 1 d^, [Hebard Cln.j. 

The present authors or the senior author alone have previously recorded 
this species from West Creek and Atsion, New Jersey, and St. Louis, Missouri, 
as vulgare, and from Sulphur Springs and Raleigh, North CaroUna, and Mont- 
gomery County, Virginia, as agile. Rehn has by error reported vulgare from 
Brownsville, Texas (probably buUaium but specimen not available), and Rehn 
and Hebard have credited it to Chokoloskee. Florida. The locality of the 
latter is unquestionably erroneous. 

Orchelimum gladiator Bruner (Figs. 9, 21, 41, 42 and 72.) 

1891. Orchelimum gladiator Bruner, Canad. Entom., xxiii, p. 71. [West Point, 

Nebraska.] 
1910. Orchelimum m,anitobense E. M. Walker, Canad. Entom., xlii, p. 351, 

figs. 17 and 18. [Ashdown, Manitoba.] 

On comparison of the female type of gladiator, now before us, 
with the available series and the description of manitobe?ise , which 
was based on two males, the above synonymy is clearly evident. 
The failure of Bruner to mention the form of the lateral lobes of 
the pronotum, one of the few diagnostic characters shared by 
both sexes, probably was responsible for Walker's re-description 
of the species. 

The present form has been mistaken by numerous students 
for vulgare, particularly in the male sex, aiul in consequence there 
are doubtless in the literature of vulgare, many erroneous deter- 
minations of material from the region in which both gladiator 



REHN AND HEBARD 45 

and vulgare occur, Avhich really refer to the present species. Un- 
less the material on which the record is based is in existence there 
is, however, little probability of these errors being detected and 
corrected. 

In the female sex the very robust ovipositor with a straight 
dorsal outline will readily separate this form from all the other 
species of the genus except volantum, which, however, has a less 
robust and less expanded form of the same, although the two 
species superficially resemble one another in this respect. The 
form of the cercus in the male sex is very distinctive. The shape 
of the lateral lobes of the pronotum, and to a lesser degree the 
shape of the fastigium, will aid in separating both sexes of the 
present species from vulgare. 

As a rule this species has the ventro-external margin of the 
caudal femora unarmed, l)ut in the series before us there are 
three specimens having a single spine on this margin and a single 
individual having two spines on the same. 

There is an appreciable amount of variation in size in both 
sexes, but the diagnostic characters are quite constant. 

Distribution. — Covering the grassland areas and liottom lands 
of the northern United States and southern Canada, extending 
from at least the vicinity of Montreal, southwestern Maine and 
eastern Massachusetts, west to the eastern slopes of the Cascades 
in west-central Washington (Ellensburg) and to northern Cali- 
fornia (Sisson), south as far as southwestern Connecticut (Stam- 
ford), southern New Jersey (Winslow Junction), Tennessee, 
northeastern Kansas (Douglas County), south-central Nebraska 
(North Platte) and south-central Montana (Billings). 

Specimens Examined: 87; 5.3 cf, 34 9. 

Montreal, Quebec, Canada, VII, 15, (Caulfield), 1 o", [M. C. Z.j. 

Norway, Maine, (Smith), 1 cf, IM. C. Z.]. 

Montgomery, Vermont, VII, 18, 1891, (Morse), 1 d", [Morse Cln.]. 

Stowe, Vermont, VII, 22, 1891, (Morse), 1 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

White Mountains, alpine and valleys, New Hampshire, (Scudder), 8 cf , 3 9 , 
[M. C. Z.]; IX, 8, 1889, (F. H. Sprague), 1 9, [M. C. Z.j. 

Faneuil Station, Massachusetts, VII, 22, 1892, (Morse), 1 cf , [Morse Cln.]. 

Readville, Massachusetts, VII, 21, 1892, (Morse), 1 cf, 2 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

Stamford, Connecticut, VIII, 22, 1894, (Mor.se), 1 cf , [Morse Cln.]. 

Ithaca, New York, VII, 19, 1904, VIII, 16, 1890, 1 cf , 1 9, [Morse Cln.]; 
VIII, 4, 1885, 3 cf , [Cornell Univ.]. 

Winslow Junction, New Jersey, VII, 8, 1911, (H. Fox; in hog along tracks 
of Cape May division R. R.), I cf , [A. N. S. P.j. 

TR.\NS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



46 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

Steuben County, Indiana, VIII, 6 and 8, 1902, (W. S. Blatchley), 2 9 , [Hebard 
Cln. and A. N. s". P.], 

Marshall County, Indiana, VII, 27 and 29, VIII, 15, 1902, (W. S. Blatchley), 
1 cf , 4 9 , [Hebard Cln. A. N. S. P. and U. S. N. M.l. 

Gary, Indiana, VII, 26, 1906, 1 d', [Penna. State Dept. Zool.]. 

Southern IlUnois, (Thomas), 1 d', [M. C. Z.]. 

Tennessee, 1 9 , [M. C. Z.]. 

Cranmoor, Wisconsin, VIII, 16, 1909, (C. W. Hooker), 1 d, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Dallas County, Iowa, VIII, (Allen) 5 d, {M. C. Z.]. 

Staples, Minnesota, VII, 21, 1909, (H.; in ditch of high weeds), 6 cf , 14 9 . 

Bismarck, North Dakota, VIII, 9, 1885, 1 d, [Hebard Cln.]. 

Mandan, North Dakota, VII, 25, 1909, (H.; from thistle), 1 d. 

Glendive, Montana, VII, 2o, 1909, (H.; from sage on river plain — extremely 
shy), 4 d', 1 9. 

BilHngs, Montana, VII, 28, 1909, (R. & H.; in sedgy area in Yellowstone 
flood plain), 1 cf ■ 

North Platte, Nebraska, elev. 2,800 feet, VII, 28, 1910, (R. & H.; in swampy 
tracts in Platte flood plain), 3 cf . 

West Point, Nebraska, VIII, 1887, IX, 1 (L. Bruner), 1 cf , 2 9, type and 
paratype, [Hebard Cln.]. , 

Montana, 1 d, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Olmstead's, near EUensburg, Washington, VII, 14 to 15, 1882, 1 d, [M. C. Z.]. 

Sisson, Cahfornia, VII, (Dyar and Caudell), 1 d, [U. S. N. M.]; VIII, 29, 
1897. (Morse), 1 9 , [Morse Cln.]. 

Morse (Canad. Entom., XXXIII, p. 201) and Caudell (Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., XXXIV, p. 78) have erroneously recorded this species as O. agile from 
Sisson, California, and Scudder (in Hitchcock, Geol. of New Hampsh., 1, p. 
368) reported it as 0. vulgare from the White Mountains, New Hampshire, 
and in similar fashion from the same locahty and also from Mt. Greylock, 
Massachusetts, 3500 feet (Appalachia, VIII, p. 317). The original material 
for these references has been examined bv us. 

Orchelimum calcaratum new species (Figs. 1, 22, 43, 44 and 73.) 
1891. Xiphidium {Orchelimum) cuticulare Redtonbacher (not of Serville, 
1839), Verh. k.-k. zool.-bot. GeseU., Wien, xh, pp. 495, 503. [Texas.] 

A member of the same group as glaherrimum, vulgare and glad- 
iator, but differing from all in the greatly elongate tooth of the 
male cercus, this being distinctly longer than the distal portion 
of the cereal shaft and aciculate in character, while in the female 
sex the species can be separated from vulgare by the less robust 
fastigium, by the very slight indication of a humeral sinus and 
by the always armed ventro-external margin of the caudal femora. 
The female is readily separable from glaherrimum and gladiator 
by the distinctly arcuate ovipositor, as well as by a number of 
other characters. 



REHN AND HEBARD 47 

TTjpe. — cf ; San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. August 15 to 
16, 1912. (Rehn and Hebard.) [Hebard Collection Type Xo. 
164.] 

Desa-iption of Type. — Size medium (for the genus); form robust; surface 
moderately polished. Head with the fastigium gently ascending from the level 
of the occiput, the width of fastigium faintly greater than width of proximal 
antennal joint, the margins when seen from the cephalic aspect regularly but not 
strongW converging ventrad; eyes moderately prominent, faintly ovate in basal 
outhne; antennaewhen in perfect condition nearly four times as long as the body. 
Pronotum very faintly sellate, this being due to the gently ascending character 
of the metazona, the line of the prozona nearly straight when seen from the side; 
greatest caudal width of the metazona contained one and one-third times in 
the entire pronotal length; cephaUc margin subtruncate, caudal margin gently 
arcuate, metazona about two-thirds the length of the prozona, well separated 
from the latter by an appreciable transverse sulcus; lateral lobes of pronotum 
with their greatest dorsal length surpassing their depth, cephaUc margin 
oblique subtruncate, ventro-cephalic angle very broadly rounded, ventral 
margin strongly oblique truncate, ventro-caudal angle rectangulate, caudal 
margin gently arcuate, humeral sinus hardly indicated, convex callosity subo- 
vate, with pomted extremities and moderately broad. Tegmina not reaching 
the tips of the caudal femora, in general form resembUng those of vulgare; 
stridulating area subequal in extent to the dorsum of the pronotum, stridulat- 
ing vein transverse, robust. Wings very slightly surpassing the tegmina. 
Disto-dorsat abdominal segment wath the median emargination U-shaped, 
relatively broad and deep, the flanking processes considerably produced and 
recurved ventrad; cerci rather heavy, proximal half straight, rounded in form, 
subcolumnar, median tooth aciculate, placed immediately distad of the middle, 
elongate, but Httle shorter than the length of the entire shaft of the cercus, 
directed inwards and gently falcate distad, subdepressed proximad, distal 
portion of the shaft of the cercus tapering to a blunt point, depressed; sub- 
genital plate with distal margin subrectangularly emarginate, styles short, 
subrobust, lateral margins regularly converging to the bases of the styles, 
venter of plate with distinct paired ridge-Kke carinae extending cephalad from 
the base of the styles, a much fainter median carina also present. Caudal 
femora robust, distal portion rather slender, ven tro-external margin armed 
distad with three to four spines, ventro-internal margin unarmed, genicular 
lobes bispinose. 

Allotype. — 9 ; Same data as type. 

Description of Allotype. — Differing from the description of the type in the 
following respects. Dorsal line of pronotum nearly straight when seen from 
the side, not ascending on the metazona; greatest caudal width of metazona 
contained one and one-half times in entire pronotal length. Ovipositor slightly 
less than half the length of the caudal femora, regularly falcate, rather broad, 
ventral margin very faintly serrulate distad, subgenital plate of the form usual 
m the genus. 

TRANS. .\M. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



48 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

Paratypic Series. — We have selected as paratypic a series of 
twelve males and ten females having the same data as the type 
and allotype. 

Measurements {in millimelers) 
d" <f d" 9 9 9 
Type Paratype Paratype Allotype Paralype Paralype 
Length of body (in 9 
exclusive of oviposi- 
tor) 19. G 20 23.2 18.3 17.1 20 

Length of pronotum 6 5.2 6.2 5.8 5.6 6 
Length of tegmeu. . . 17 15.7 18.9 17 16.5 18 
Length of caudal fe- 
mur ..18.2 17 20.8 19.8 19.1 20 

Length of ovipositor .... 9.1 9 9.6 

Color Notes. — General color light turtle green to olivine, prac- 
tically pure on the face, sides of the head, lateral lobes of the 
pronotum, pleura and sides of the abdomen, clearer turtle green 
on the limbs. Median line on the head, expanding caudad, weak 
vinaceous-rufous to ochraceous buff, continued over the dorsum 
of the pronotum and there more or less strongly Ijordered laterad 
on the prozona by lines of mahogany red to bay. These stripes 
gently diverge caudad and occasionally are entirely absent. Teg- 
mina very faint glaucous, more or less weakly tinged with snuff 
brown on the dorsal aspect, particularly in the female. Stridu- 
lating field of male tegmina with three spots of blackish brown on 
each tegmen, placed in the same position as those found in vulgare, 
i. e., one at base of anal vein, one at apex of arc of the same and 
the third on the sutural margin near the disto-sutural angle of the 
speculum. Abdomen of male generally with a broad median 
area of ferruginous on the dorsum of the apex, this frequently 
absent. Ovipositor chestnut brown. Eyes walnut brown. 

Distribution. ^R&nging from the Central Texan region, north 
to northeastern Kansas (Topeka and Hiawatha) and southeast- 
ern Illinois (Olney), extending south to Flatonia and San iVnto- 
nio, Texas, east to Doucette, Texas, western Arkansas (Fayette- 
ville and Magazine Mountain) and southeastern Illinois, and 
west to Colorado and west-central Texas (Kerrville). 

Biological Note.^. — This species is clumsy in its actions and 
comparatively easy to capture after being located. It was found 
in a great variety of situations, ranging from high grass to twelve 
feet above the ground in }K)st oak. It was taken in grass among 



REHX AND HEBARD 49 

cotton, in green weeds, in low l)ushes and in tall nettles, as well 
as in bushes in pine woods. The stridulation is not loud. 

Morphological Notes. — An analysis of a portion of the series 
of the present species for constancy of spines on the ventro- 
external margin of the caudal femora gives the following results: 
1-1, 2 specimens; 1-2, 3 specimens; 2-2, 3 specimens; 2-3, 7 
specimens; 2-4, 2 specimens; 2-5, 1 specimen; 3-3, 3 specimens; 
3-4, 4 specimens; 3-5, 2 specimens; 4-4, 3 specimens; 4-5, 1 
specimen; 5-5, 1 specimen. Individuals lacking one caudal limb 
have not been considered. No specimens have been examined 
with these margins unspined. In all of the specimens before us 
the tegmina and wings do not surpass, and in but two instances 
reach, the tips of the caudal femora. 

Synonymy. — Serville's cuticulare is clearly not this species but 
is a synonym of 0. glaherrimum, the name having been used in 
error by Redtenbacher, who has been followed by sul)sequent 
authors. 

Specimens Examined: 85; 42 cf , 41 9, 2 juv. 9. 

Olncy, Illinois, (R. Ridgway), 1 9 , [U. S. X. M.]. 

Central Missom-i, 1 cf , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Hiawatha, Kansas, VIII, 1904, (F. B. Isely), 1 d", [U. S. N. M.]. 

Topeka, Kansas (F. W. Cragin), 1 cf , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Zenith, Stafford County, Kansas, IX, 11, 1907, (H.), 1 d. 

Wichita, Kansas, VII, 18, 1904, (F. B. Isely), 1 cf , 1 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Fayetteville, .\rkansas, IX, 5, 1905, (Morse), 1 d', [Morse Cln.]. 

Magazine Mountain, Arkansas, 2000 feet elev., VIII, 29, 1905, (Morse), 1 cf , 
[Morse Cln.l. 

South McAlester, Oklahoma, VIII, 7, 1905, (Morse), 1 cf , [Morse Cln.j. 

Shawnee, Oklahoma, VIII, 26, 1905, (Morse), 5 cf , 3 9, [Morse Chi.]. 

Waurika, Oklahoma, X, 12, 1909, (F. C. Bishopp), 1 9, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Colorado, VIII, 1873, 2 9 , [Morse Cln.l. 

Denison, Texas, VIII, 11, 1905, (Morse), 1 cf , 1 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

Dallas, Te.xas, IX, 25 and 26, 1912, (R. & H.), 1 d", 1 9 , [U. S. X. M.]; IX. 
10, 1908, [F. C. Bishopp), 1 9, [U. S. X. M.]; (Boll), 4 cf , 7 9,1 juv. 9, 
[M. C. Z.]. 

Piano, Texas, X, 1907, (E. S. Tucker), 1 9, [U. S. X. M.]. 

Weatherford, Texas, IX, 23, 1912, (R. k H.), 2 d . 

Wichita FaUs, Texas, VIII, 15, 1905, (Morse), 2 a", 2 9 , [Morse Cln.]. 

Temple, Texas, IX, 24, 1912, (R. & H.), 3 a^. 

Terrell, Texas, VIII, 27, 1904, (on cotton), 1 9 , [U. S. X. M.]. 

Doucette, Texas, VII, 24, 1912, (H.), 1 cf . 

Flatonia, Texas, VIII, 19 and 20, 1912, (R. <fe H.), 1 d", 5 9. 

Victoria, Texas, VII, 2() and 27, 1912, (H.), 1 9 . 

TRANS. AM. KNT. SOC, XLI. 



50 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

San Antonio, Texas, VIII, 15 and 16, 1912, (R. & H.), Ud", 12 9,1 juv. 9 , 
type, allotype and paratypes; X, 29, 1905, (F. C. Pratt), 1 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 
Kerrville, Texas, VIII, 17 and 18, 1912, (R. & H.), 1 d". 

Orchelimum buliatum new species (Figs. 2, 23, 45, 45, 46 and 74.) 
1903. Orchelimum lotigipenne Caudell (not Orchelimum longipennis Scudder, 
1862), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xxvi, p. 806. ["Southern Texas."] (Part.) 

A member of the same group as laticauda and riigripes, but 
separable from the former by the relatively broader fastigium, 
by the more extensive metazona of the dorsum of the pronotum 
and the shorter and marginally more acute lateral lobes- of the 
same, while from nigripes the male is readily separated by the 
less strongly adpressed cereal tooth and the appreciably indi- 
cated humeral sinus of the lateral lobes of the pronotum. The 
female is separated from that of nigripes by the less angulate 
ventro-cephalic angle of the lateral lobes and the generally un- 
spined caudal femora, while from laticauda the same sex differs 
in the sinuate ventral section of the caudal margin of the lateral 
lobes. 

Type. — c^ ; Galveston, Galveston County, Texas. July 21,1912. 
(Hebard.) [Hebard Collection Type No. 165.] 

Description of Type. — Size very large (for the genus); form robust. Head 
with the dorsum of the occiput plane, hardly ascending to the fastigium, the 
latter subcompressed, not as thick as the proximal antennal joint and when seen 
from the facial aspect with its margins gently converging ventrad, with the 
extremity at the interfastigial suture distinctly truncate; eyes moderately 
prominent, subcircular in basal outhne; antennae very elongate, when in perfect 
condition at least thi-ee times as long as the body. Pronotmii subsellate, when 
seen from the lateral aspect the metazona is distinctly and in a subbullate 
fashion ascending dorso-caudad, when seen from the dorsal aspect the meta- 
zona is seen to be somewhat inflated laterad, its gi'eatest width about five-sixths 
the length of the entire pronotum; length of the metazona about two-fifths 
the length of the entire pronotum, transverse sulcus deeply and broadly im- 
pressed on the dorsum; cephalic margin of disk weakly arcuato-emarginate 
mesad, caudal margin of disk strongly and regularly arcuate, no indications 
of lateral shoulders present on prozona, but on the metazona these are well 
indicated and slightly projecting though well rounded; lateral lobes of the 
pronotum with the greatest dorsal length subequal to the greatest depth, 
cephahc margin oblique, straight, ventro-cephalic angle rounded obtuse, 
ventral margin moderately oblique, ventro-caudal angle sharper than a right 
angle with the angle proper strongly rounded, caudal margin oblique sinuate, 
humeral sinus but faintly indicated, convex callosity well indicated but elongate 
and narrow. Tegmina surpassing the apices of the caudal femora by about the 
length of the pronotum, moderately broad, apex moderately rounded; stridu- 



REHN AND HEBARD 51 

lating field quite ample, rather bullate, in area surpassing that of the dorsum 
of the head and pronotum, stridulating vein straight, transverse, crassate, 
speculum broader than usual in the genus. Wings surpassing the tegmina by 
nearly the pronotal length. Cerci robust, rather short, median tooth directed 
proximo-mesad and subdepressed, shaft of cercus with a sinuate medio-longi- 
tudinal carination on the dorsal surface, the distal section subacuminate when 
seen from the dorsum, tapering regularly when seen from the side ; subgenital 
plate moderately produced, distal margin obtuse-angulate emarginate, styles 
brief, articulate, a moderately distinct and complete medio-longitudinal and 
distinct lateral carinae indicated. Caudal femora about four-fifths the length 
of the body, moderately inflateii proximad, ventral margins unspined, genicular 
lobes bispinose. 

Allotype. — 9 ; Rosenberg, Fort Bend County, Texas. July 25 
and 26, 1912. (Hebard.) [Hebard Collection.] 

Description of Allotijpe. — The features here given are those of difference from 
the male sex. Size smaller than in the male sex; form more slender. Prono- 
tum not at all sellate, when seen from the lateral aspect the dorsal outline is 
straight, greatest width of raetazona about two-thirds the length of the whole 
pronotum; length of the metazona almost one-half the entire pronotal length, 
transverse sulcus well indicated on the dorsum but by no means so impressed 
as in the male; lateral shoulders not appreciably indicated anywhere. Teg- 
mina slightly surpassing the apices of the caudal femora. Wings surpassing 
the tips of the tegmina by several millimeters. Ovipositor sUghtly more than 
half the length of the caudal femora, rather strongly falcate, comparatively 
bi'oad, apex acute, ventral margin of ovipositor appreciably but very finely 
serrulate on distal half; subgenital plate of female shallowly and narrowly 
emarginate disto-mesad. 

Paratypic Series. — We have selected as paratypes two males 
from Galveston, Texas, bearing the same data as the type, one 
male from Rosenberg, Texas, bearing the same data as the allo- 
type and six males from Gregory, San Patricio County, Texas, 
July 30, 1912 (Hebard). 

Measurements {in miUiynelers) 

d' cf c^ c? 

Galveston Galveston Rosenberg Gregory 

{Type) [Paratype) iParatype) (Paratype) 

Length of body 22 2:-! . 5 20 22 .8 

Length of pronotum 5.5 5.8 53 5.3 

Greatest caudal width of pronotum 4.5 4.5 4.1 4.3 

Length of tegmen 29 27 23.5 28.6 

Greatest width of stridulating field of 

tegmen 4.7 4.9 4.5 4.G 

Length of caudal femur 18.9 20 16.8 19 

Length of ovipositor .... ... ■ ■ • • 

TIi.\XS. .\M. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



52 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

Mission Brownsville Rosenberg 

(Allotype) 

Length of body 17.5 20.2 19.5 

Length of pronotum 4.9 4.9 4.8 

Greatest caudal width of pronot um 3.9 4 3.6 

Length of tegmen 24 . 2 23 . 5 21.7 

Greatest width of stridulating field of 

tegmen 4.2 4.2 .... 

Length of caudal femur 15 16. S 17.3 

Length of ovipositor 8.3 

Color Notes. — General color ranging from light chalcedony 
yellow to clear dull green-yellow (Ridgway), occasionally em- 
browned by desiccation until it is nearly old gold, the greater 
portion of the tegmina more brilliant, varying from light oriental 
green to nearly dull citrine; dorsum of the head, pronotum and 
stridulating field of the male tegmina washed with cinnamon-buff 
to clay color. Occiput generallj^ with indications of a pair of 
hessian brown lines diverging caudad; eyes ranging from rood's 
brown to seal brown; antennae ochraceous-buff to ochraceous- 
tawny, rather weakly annulate with darker. Pronotum with the 
dorsum bearing abbreviate diverging lines similar to but less 
frequently indicated than those on the occiput. Tegmina with 
three spots of seal brown always indicated in the male sex, one 
proximad, another at the apex of the arcuate portion of the anal 
vein at its junction with the speculum and the third near the 
other (toward the free margin) angle of the speculum. Limbs 
quite greenish, rarely quite brownish (sudaii brown) on the caudal 
tibiae, a blackish mark between the slits of the tympana of the 
cephalic tibiae; all spines black, at least at the tips, on the caudal 
tibiae largely brownish black. Apex of the abdomen more or less 
yellow-ocher, the cerci ochraceous-orange to mars yellow. Ovi- 
positor prout's brown. 

Distribution. — This species is found from the coastal prairie 
region of Texas, south as far as the Brownsville region, north to 
northern Texas (Wichita Falls and Dallas) . west as far as Co- 
manche and Mission (Hidalgo County) in the same state, while 
to the eastward the species ranges as far as eastern Louisiana 
(Milneburg). It doubtless occurs in northeastern Mexico. 

Biological Notes. — This species was found fre(|uenting high 
grasses along streams or in depressions (Rosenberg), in areas of 



REHN AND HEBARD 53 

marsh vegetation (Gregory) or in dense clumps of coffee bean 
{Sesban macrocarpa) growing from six to ten feet high on sandy 
soil back from the gulf beach (Galveston). Its note was a long 
buzzing zeeeeeee, somewhat resembling that of some cicadas, with 
but few interspersed clicking sounds. At Gregory the song was 
noticed to be especially loud during the morning, again increasing 
in volume at night, but in a more subdued tone and different key. 

Morphological Notes. — -Theventro-external margin of the caudal 
femora is usually unarmed, but in two specimens we find a single 
spine on one or the other margin, another has two spines on one 
margin and a third specimen has a single spine on one limb and 
three on the other. 

The two Galveston paratypes and the Rosenberg pair have the 
tegmina and wings shorter than the remainder of the material, 
which have proportions about as in the type. 

Specimens Examined: 25; 18 cf , 7 9 • 

Milneburg, Louisiana, VII, 22, 1905, (Morse), 2 9, [Morse Cln.|. 

Dallas, Texas, (Boll), 1 9 , [M. C. Z.]. 

Wichita Falls, Texas, VIII, 15, 1905, (Morse), 1 d', [Morse Cln.]. 

Comanche, Texas, VII, 22, 1909, (C. R. Jones; on cotton), Icf , [U. 8. X. M.]. 

Galveston, Texas, VII, 21, 1912, (H.), 3 cf, tijpe and paratypes. 

Rosenberg, Texas, VII, 25 and 26, 1912, (H.), 1 cf, 1 9, allotijpe and 
paratype. 

Victoria, Texas, VI, (Caudell), 1 c?, 1 9 ; VII, 22, (W. E. Hinds), 1 9 ; VI, 
19, 190S, (E. S. Tucker on corn), 1 d^, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Gregory, Texas, VII, 30, 1912, (H.), 6 (f, paratypes. 

Mission, Texas, VIII, 5 and 6, 1912, (H.), 1 d'. 

Brownsville, Texas, VII, 31 to VIII, 5, 1912, (H.), 2 d. 

Coast of Texas (Aaron), Icf, 1 9, [M. C. Z.]. 

This is in part the Orchelimum longipenne recorded by Caudell from "south 
ern Texas, " as mater'al before us so labelled shows. 

Orchelimum laticauda Redtenbachcri" (Figs. 10, 24, 47, 48 and 75.) 
1891. X[iphidium] {Orchelimum) laticauda Redtenbacher, Verh. k.-k. zool.- 

bot. Gesell. Wien, xh, pp. 495, 504. [New Orleans, Louisiana.] 
1909. Orchelimum pulchellum. Davis, Canad. Entom., xli, p. 33. [Dcnnisville, 

Helmetta and Trenton, New .Jersey.! 

A careful study of Redtenbacher's description has resulted in 
our placing pulchellum as a synonym of laticaudu. Mr. Davis 

""' The present authors or the senior author alone have erroneously recorded 
this species as O. nigripes (Entoni. News, xiii, p. 315; Proc .\('ad. Nat. Sei. 
Phila., 1904, p. 79() and Hep- X- J- '"^tate Mus., 190!), p. 1S9) antl as (). nitidnm 

TR.WS. AM. ENT. SOC, .XLI. 



54 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

has gone over the ground with us and agrees that the description 
fits hirge Florida specimens, which are specifically identical with 
his New Jersey material. Through the kindness ot the same 
gentleman we have before us eight of his typical New Jersey 
specimens of pulcheUum for comparison. 

Redtenbacher has given as one of the main characters of this 
species the presence of spines on the ventro-internal margin of 
the caudal femora. This we find occurs in but few specimens, 
the vast majority having the internal margin unarmed. The 
number of spines on the ventro-external margin varies from two 
to eight. 

Davis was correct in giving nigripes as the closest relative of 
this species, the present authors' comment on this point^'' being 
due to a misconception of nigripes. 

The average size of specimens from the northern portion of the 
range of the species is distinctly under that of individuals from 
the southern states, but this is by no means an absolute rule, as 
series show very considerable individual variation, which almost 
or quite equals the geographic averages. Female specimens from 
Tinicum, Pennsylvania, and Florence, South Carohna, show the 
following extremes in size (measurements in millimeters). 

Tinicum, Florence, 

Pennsylvania South Carolina 

Length of body (exclusive of ovipositor) 18.3 22.8 .20 20 

Length of pronotum 4.2 5.3 5 5.7 

Length of tegmen 18.7 28.3 21.9 26.3 

Length of caudal femiu- 15.3 19.2 18.3 19.2 

Length of ovipositor 9 10.7 10.3 11.2 

The intensity of the coloration and the brilliancy of certain 
shades varies considerably in the series before us. 

Distribution. — Covering the Atlantic Coastal Plain region 
from north central New Jersey (Helmetta, Spotswood and James- 
burg) south to southern Florida, westward to New Orleans, 
Louisiana; in the eastern states occurring at suitable valley 

(Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1904, p. 796 (Part); Ibid., 1905, p. 48 and Ibid., 
1907, p. 306). The first misidentification was due to the fact that true nigripes 
was not at hand for examination, and the second was due fu-st to the confusion 
of two species and later, when this was found to be the case, error was made 
in restricting nitidum to the wrong component. The present species has also 
been erroneously recorded as nigripes by Smith, Brimlcy and AUard. 
" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1910, p. 642, (1911). 



REHN AND HEBARD 55 

localities in the Piedmont region above the fall-line (Chestnut 
Hill, Pennsylvania, Montgomery County, Maryland, and Thomp- 
son's Mills, Georgia). 

Specimens Examined: 219, 1200", 97 9 , 1 juv. d^, 1 juv. 9 • 

Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, IX, 18, 190o, (H.; in cattails), 
2 c^,3 9. 

Cornwells, Pennsylvania, X, 1906, (R. & H.; in cattails), 2 cf , 1 9 , IX, 7, 
191-1, (H.; in great numbers in tall plants along river and in marsh vegetation), 
18 cT, 26 9. 

Tinicum, Pennsylvania, VIII, 13, 1911, IX, 9 to 29, 1903 to 1913, (R. & 
H.; in numbers in cattails and high reeds), 46 cT, 28 9,1 juv. c?- 

Riverton, New Jersey, IX, 11, 1904, (G. M. Greene), 1 d', 1 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Spotswood, New Jersey, IX, 22, 1909, (W. T. Davis), 1 d^, [Davis Cln.]. 

Helmetta, New Jersey, IX, 21, 1909, (W. T. Davis), 4 o^, [Davis Chi.]. 
Paralyses of Orchelinmm pulchellum Davis. 

Jamesburg, New Jersey, IX, 23, 1909, (W. T. Davis), 1 c^, [Da via Chi.]; 
1 c^, 1 9, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Maple Shade, New Jersey, X, 10, 1914, (B.Long), 1 d^, 2 9, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Dennisville, New Jersey, IX, 5, 1909 (W. T. Davis), 1 d^, [U. S. N. M.]. 
Paratype of Orrhelimum, pulchellum Davis. 

Near Town Bank, Cape May County, New Jersey, VIII, 15, 1912, 1 <f, 
[Davis Chi.]. 

Anglesea, New Jersey, IX, 6, 1 d^, 1 9 , [Hebard Clu.]. 

Tolehester, Maryland, VIII, 30, 1 a^, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Plummer's Island, Maryland, IX, 2, (A. N. Caudell), 1 cf, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Montgomery County, Maryland, IX, 25, 1911, (W. T. Davis), 1 d", [Davis 
Chi.]. 

Hyattsville, Maryland, IX, 17, 1911, (W. T. Davis), 1 d', [Davis Cln.]. 

Washington, D. C, VIII, 1883, 1 d^, 2 9, [Hebard Cln.]; VIII, 23, 1878, 
IX, 27, 1896, X, 21, 1902, 1 d', 2 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Anolostan Island, Virginia, IX, 6, 1912, (A. N. Caudell), 3 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Rosslyn, Virginia, IX, (A. N. Caudell), 1 cf , 3 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Fredericksburg, Vu-ginia, VII, 20, 1913, (R. & H.; in tall weeds along 
river), 1 d'. 

Weldon, North Carolina, VII, 24, 1913, (R. & H.), 1 juv. d. 

Newbern, North Carolina (Ardway), 2 9, [M. C. Z.]. 

Lake Waccamaw, North Carolina, IX, 8, 1911, (R. & H.; among low swamp 
plants in timbered swamp), 2 d^, 5 9 . 

Florence, South Carohna, IX, 6, 1911, (R. & H; in swamp grasses along 
branch in open spot in deciduous woods), 4 d', 8 9 . 

Thompson's Mills, Georgia, X, 1909, (H. A. AUard), 26", 1 9, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Jesup, Georgia, IX, 1, 1911, (H.; among buUrushes in pond in pine forest), 
1 d. 

BiUy's Island, Georgia, VI and VII, 1912, (J. C. Bradley), 2 cf , 1 9 . 

Atlantic Beach, Florida, VIII 24, 1911, (R. & H.; in hammock land and 
saw-grass and reed marsh), 1 d^, 5 9 . 

TRANS. .\M. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



56 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

Jacksonville, Florida, (Priddey), 2 cT, 1 9, [Hebard Cln.]. 

South Jacksonville, Florida, IX, 7 and 28, 1913, (W. T. Davis), ScT, [Davis 
Cln.]. 

Ortega, Florida, IX, 6 and 27, 1913, (W. T. Davis), 3 cT, [Davis Cln.]. 

Sanford, Florida, (G. B. Frazer), 2 c^, [M. C. Z.]. 

In addition to these localities we have already recorded the species as nigripes, 
nitiduniand as the synonymous pulchcllum from Belleplain, Riverton, Lucaston, 
Gloucester, Clemen ton. West Creek and Sea Isle City, New Jersey; Edenton 
aijd Raleigh, North Carolina; Thomasville, Georgia, and Jacksonville, Palatka, 
Detroit, Lakeland and Chokoloskee, Florida. 

Orchelimum nigripes Scudder (Figs. 11, 25, 49, 50 and 76.) 

?1869. Xvphidiuvi validum Walker, Catal. Derm. Salt. Brit. Mus., ii, p. 277. 

[No locahty.] 
1875. Orchelimum nigripes Scudder, Proc. Boston. Soc. Nat. Hist., xvii, p. 

459. [Dallas, Texas.] 
1891. X[iphidium] {Orchelimum) robustum Redtenbacher, Verh. k.-k. zool.- 

bot. Gesell. Wien, xh, pp. 494, 499. [New Orleans, Louisiana.] 

We have examined the type of the present species in the col- 
lection of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. It is a male 
from Dallas, Texas, bearing labels reading, "8cudder's Type 
1875, Orchelimum nigripes Scudd.," also, "Boll's no. 21." The 
measurements of the type are as follows: length of body, 17 mm.; 
length of pronotum, 5; greatest caudal width of pronotum, 3.5; 
length of tegmen, 21 ; length of caudal femur, 16.6. 

Through the kindness of Mr. A. N. Caudell we have before us 
notes which he made from the type of Walker's validum. Taken 
with the characters given in the original description of the same 
the combination appears to fit the present form better than any 
other in the genus, this being the position assigned validum by 
Kirby. However, there is nothing really conclusive in the agree- 
ment of these features and Mr. Caudell's comment is, that, while 
he had time to make but a hurried examination of the specimen, 
he is "very sure it is not the same as our nigripes. " Taken alto- 
gether it seems best to give the name validum a queried position 
under this species, leaving for the future the exact determination 
of its status. 

The above synonymy is evident after carefully studying the 
literature. Redtenbacher's rohustum is certainly 'nigripes with 
the exception of the caudal limbs, these in all probability not be- 
longing to the specimen. Their size, i. e., length of the femora, 
is distinctly less than that normal for specimens of the genus of 



REHN AND HEBARD 57 

similar body bulk to the single female of robustum, while their 
spineless character shows they in all probability belong to a 
smaller individual of a different species of the genus. The color 
of the cephalic and median tibiae and all of the other color fea- 
tures of robust um are those of nigripes, while the peculiar features 
of the lateral lobes of the pronotum of this species are well 
described. 

This species is closely related to 0. laticauda, which it replaces 
throughout the central valley and prairie region of the United 
States. The eastern species, laticauda, has on numerous occa- 
sions been mistaken for nigripes and so recorded, but there need 
be no confusion of the two forms after they have once been 
compared. The shape of the lateral lobes of the pronotum alone 
serves as a ready means for separating the species. We have seen 
two specimens of this species from Lafayette, Indiana, which 
show practically no black on the tibiae. 

In size this species shows much the same features as laticauda, 
averaging smaller in the northern portion of its range and larger 
in the southern, but individual variation is everywhere evident. 
The caudate winged type is typically represented by two females, 
one from Lincoln, Nebraska, and the other from Victoria, Texas. 
In addition a number of both sexes have the tegmina and wings 
more elongate than in the majority of the series. Two specimens 
in the present series have the caudal femora spined on the ventro- 
internal margin. 

Distribution. — The central valleys and prairies of the United 
States, from as far north as the shores of the Mississippi in 
Minnesota (Lugger), south to New Orleans (Redtenbacher) and 
Victoria, Texas, east to Point Pelee, southern Ontario (E. ^L 
Walker), Columbus, Ohio, and Clarksville, Tennessee, west as 
far as Gering, on the Platte River, in western Nebraska and 
Denver and "Rocky Mountains" (Redtenbacher), Colorado. 

Specimens Examined: 68; 23 cf, 43 9,2 juv. 9 . 
Columbus, Ohio (C. M. Mead), 1 9, [Hel)ard Cln.]. 
Indiana, (W. S. Blatchjey), 3 d", 4 9, [Hebard Cln. and Morse Cln.]. 
Lafayette, Indiana, X, 14, 1913, (H. Fox), 18, 1 9, [A. N. S. P.]. 
Vigo County, Indiana, (\V. S. Blatehley), 1 cr\ 1 9, [Morse Cln. and U. S. 
X. M.). 

Goose Pond, Indiana, IX, tj, 1892, (Blatchley), 1 9, [f. S. X. M.]. 
Illinois, 1 o^,[M.C. Z.|. 

THA.NS. .\.M. HN'T. SOC, XLl. 



58 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

Clarksville, Tennessee, X, 1, 1913, (S. E. Crumb; feeding on tobacco), 1 cf, 
2 9, [U.S. N. M.]. 

Lone Rock, Wisconsin, VIII, 23, 1906, 1 9, [Penna. State Dept. Zool.]. 

Ames, Iowa, VIII, 28, 1897, 1 9 , [M. C. Z.]. 

Iowa City, Iowa, (Shimek), 1 d", 10 9, [Hebard Cln.]. 

Omaha, Nebraska, 1 d', [Hebard Cln.]. 

Lincoln, Nebraska, IX, 3, 1909, IX, 15, IX, 1888, 2 o^, 7 9 , [Hebard Cln.]; 
IX, (Bruner), 1 9, [Cornell Univ.]. 

Weeping Water, Nebraska, IX, 24, 1909, (Bruner), 1 9 , [Hebard Cbi.]. 

Gering, Nebraska, 1 9 , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Shawnee County, Kansas, 1882, 1 cT, 1 9 , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Topeka, Kansas, (Cragin), 1 cf , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Wichita, Kansas, X, 3, 1909, (F. B. Isely), 1 cf , 1 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Fayetteville, Arkansas, IX, 5, 1905, (Morse), 1 cf , 2 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

De Queen, Arkansas, VII, 29, 1905, (Morse), 1 c?, [Morse Cln.]. 

Arkadelphia, Arkansas, IX, 13, 1914, (C. B. Jones), 1 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Denver, Colorado, 2 9 , [M. C. Z.]. 

Denison, Texas, VIII, 11, 1905, (Morse), 1 cT, [Morse Cln.]. 

Dallas, Texas, (Boll), 1 d^, [M. C. Z.], type; IX, 10, 1909, (E. S. Tucker; 
on Polygonum blossoms), 1 c?, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Wichita Falls, Texas, VIII, 16, 1905, (Morse), 1 cf , [Morse Cln.]. 

Beaumont, Texas, VII, 23, 1912, (H.; swampy land), 3 c?, 2 9,2 juv. 9- 

Victoria, Texas, VII, 26 to 27, 1912, (H.; high weeds in "Branch"), 2 cf , 1 9 . 

Orchelimum minoi Bruner (Figs. 3, 26, 51, 52 and 77.) 

1891. Orchelimum minor Bnuier, Canad. Entom., xxiii, p. 72. [District of 

Columbia.] 
1905. Orchelimum cuticulare? Rehn and Hebard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

1904, p. 796. [Thomasville, Georgia.) 

An examination of the present series of specimens of both sexes 
of this rare species shows that the number of spines on the ventro- 
external margin of the caiichxl femora varies from two to seven, 
one individual possessing two on one limb and six on the other. 

In general size there is some variation which may be geo- 
graphic, as the largest individual is from the most southern 
point from which the species has been recorded, although the 
series in hand is not sufficient to more than call attention to this " 
feature. 

The male cerci show some variation in the length of the distal 
portion of the shaft, this being most apparent in the large Thomas- 
ville specimen. This, like the size extreme of the same individual, 
may possibly be explained on geographic grounds. 

The speculum of the stridulating field of the male tegmina 
varies to an appreciable degree in the exact ratio of length and 



REHN AND HEBARD 59 

breadth, in fact more so than in any other form except 0. con- 
cinnum, but an exact expression of this variation is hardly possi- 
ble, as, while tangible and apparent to the eye after study of the 
genus, it is relatively so slight that a satisfactory and convincing 
measurement of it is hard to secure. 

The type of the species, a female, is now before us and meas- 
urements of it have never been published. We here give these 
and the proportions of several representative males as well as 
the large Thomasville individual of the same sex. 
Measurements {in millimeters) 

Length of Length of Length of Length of Length of 
body pronotum tegmen caudal femur ovipositor 

Atsior, New Jersey 16 4.4 15 1.3.2 

Sulphur Springs, North 

CaroHiui 15.9 4.2 Itj 1.3.2 

Thomasville, Georgia ... . 20.8 4.8 15.6 15.6 

9 
District of Columbia 
Type 15.4 4.2 16.2 14.5 11 

Synonymy. — ^In the prefatory remarks (p. 18) we have already 
commented upon our queried determination of this species as 
0. cuticulare. The specimen so named had lost all of its original 
coloration, was of larger size than the average of the species and 
had the cerci rather longer than usual. The true cuticulare of 
Serville, as we have shown elsewhere in this paper, equals the 
earlier glaherrimum and the form called cuticulare by Redten- 
bacher is the very different calcaratum. 

Distribution.- — ^The Coastal Plain of the eastern United States 
from central New Jersey (Helmetta and I.akehurst), south to 
southern Georgia (Thomasville), west as far as the mountain 
valleys of North Carolina (Sulphur Springs) at an elevation of 
2500 feet and the vicinity of Washington. To the localities 
from which the species has been recorded we may add Florence, 
South Carolina, where its note was heard coming from about 
twelve feet up in a short-leaf pine. 

Specimens Examined: 47; 33 cf , 8 9,1 juv. cf , 5 juv. 9 ■ 

Almost all of the material before us has been previously recorded, but we 
are hstiug it here to show the som'ces of information for the present study. 

Brown's Mills Junction, New Jersey, X, 6, 1907, (E. Daecke), 1 9, [Hebard 
Cln.l. 

Lakehurst, New Jersey, IX, 6, X, 19, (W. T. Davis), 1 cf , 1 9, [Davis Cln.]. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



60 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

Stafford's Forge, New Jersey, IX, 16, 1905, (H.), 1 ^, [Hebard Cln.]. 

Atsion, New Jersey, X, 8, 1903, (H.), 2 d', [Hebard Cln. and A. N. S. P.|. 

Reega, New Jersey, VIII, 10, 1914, (H., undergrowth in pine barrens), 1 
juv. cf, 4 juv. 9 ; VIII, 29, 1914, (H.; common in pines, males continuing to 
sing after dark), 1 cf , 1 9,1 juv. 9 . 

Maryland opposite Plummer's Island, IX, 6, 1909, (H. A. AUard; on pine), 
3 cf , l' 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 

D'strict of Columbia, IX, 15, 1884, 1 9, type, [Hebard Cln.]. 

Sulphur Springs, North Carolina, IX, 2 and X, 6, 1905, (H.), 3cf, [Hebard 
Cln. and A. N. S. P.l. 

Raleigh, North Carolina, IX, 20, 1904, (Brimley), 1 9 , [Hebard Chi.]. 

Thompson's Mills, Georgia, 1908, X, 1909 and 1910, (H. A. AUard), 20 cf , 
2 9 , [Hebard, Cln., A. N. S. P., and U. S. N. M.]. 

Hoschton, Georgia, X, 5, 1908, (H. A. AUard), 1 d", [U. S. N. M.]. 

Thomasville, Georgia, VIII, 28, 1903, 1 d, [Hebard Cln.]. 

Orchelimum concinnum Scudder (Figs. 12, 27, 53, 54, 78 and 79.) 
1862. ()[rchclit)ium] concinnum Scudder, Boston Journ. Nat. Hist., vii, p. 

452. [Cape Cod, Massachusetts.] 
1862. 0[rch€limum] longi-pennis Scudder, Ibid., p. 453. [Texas.] 
1891. Orchelimum gracile Bruner (not Orchelimum gracilis Harris), Canad. 

Entom., xxiii, p. 70. [West Point and Lincoln, and Wheeler, Garfield and 

Holt Counties, Nebraska.] 

1891. X[iphirlium] {Orchelimum) inerme Redtenbacher, Verh. k.-k. zool.- 
bot. Gesell. Wien, xli, pp. 495, 501 [Texas; Kansas.]. 

1892. Orchelimum delicatum Bruner, Entom. News, iii, p. 265. [New name 
for 0. gracile Bruner, not of Harris.]. 

1893. Orchelimum indianense Blatchley, Canad. Entom., xxv, p. 90. 
[Kewanna, Fulton County, Indiana.]. 

1893. Orchelimum. canipcsire Blatchley, Ibid., p. 91. [Vigo and Fulton 

Counties, Indiana.]. 
1899. Xiphidium gracilinum Griffini, Miscell. Entom., vii, p. 96. [New 

name for Orchelimum gracile Bruner, not of Harris.] 

The present species is probably the most variable, as it is the 
most widely distributed, form in the genus and the above synon- 
ymy illustrates the difficulty previous authors have encountered 
in endeavoring to determine material belonging to it. The 
present authors have given more time and consideration to it 
than to any other member of the genus, and after the most critical 
examination of the specimens in hand and a careful testing of the 
evidence on which the numerous synonyms were erected, we are 
thoroughly convinced that concinnum is a very variable form, 
showing decided geographic size variation, probable environ- 
mental adaptations in ovipositor characters in the female and 



REHN AND HEBARD 61 

certainly great individual variation in certain structural and 
several color features. 

We have examined eleven specimens of the original Cape Cod 
series on which Scudder based concinnum. Ten of these are now 
in the Museum of Comparative Zoology and one, a male, is in 
the United States National Museum. Of the former lot we select 
as lectotype a male labelled: "0. concinnum, Cape Cod," with an 
additional round red paper label. The single type of 0. longipen- 
nis, a female, is in the Museum of Comparative Zoology labelled: 
"Texas. A. Agassiz. 0. longipennis Scudd.," with an addi- 
tional red type label. 

The type and paratypes of Orchelimum gracile Bruner (Orcheli- 
mum delicatum Bruner) are now before us and the only tangible 
character to separate them from pale faced eastern specimens of 
concinnum is the longer, straighter ovipositor, which is discussed 
beyond. Redtenbacher's inerme was proposed merely to replace 
longipennis, which name was preoccupied in the genus Xiphidium 
in which he placed it. The description of inerme, when exam- 
ined, is also seen to be based on the same condition of this species 
as that to which Scudder gave the name longipeniiis. Blatchley's 
indianense is absolutely inseparable from dark faced concinnum, 
while campestre is the pale faced condition of this species, para- 
types of both forms, now before us, demonstrating this very 
clearly. 

Taking up the features of variation in this species, we find they 
can readily be classified under three headings, i. e., geographic 
and individual size variation, ovipositor variation and general 
color and structure variation. 

Individual size variation at any one locality is less pronounced 
in this species than in most of the other forms of the genus, but 
the geographic size variation is very great. Material from New 
England is minimum in size, southward along the east coast the 
bulk increasing until individuals from the southeastern states are 
very decidedly larger than those from New Hampshire. Speci- 
mens from Indiana and Iowa are larger than New England indi- 
viduals but not greatly so, while in eastern Nebraska and eastern 
Kansas the size is in general as great as in representatives from 
the coast of Georgia; southward in Texas and northern New Mex- 
ico the bulk regularly increases, until on the central Gulf coast of 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



62 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTBRA) 

Texas we find maximum sized individuals nearly twice as large 
as New England specimens and at first glance apparently very 
different. From west central Nebraska northward to south 
central Montana we find the species holds a fairly uniform size. 

The most puzzling variation feature is in the length and curve 
of the ovipositor. Over almost the entire range of the species 
there is little variation in the relative size and curve of the ovi- 
positor, which shows only very minor variations in depth, etc. 
In the central area, however, and to a lesser degree in Montana, 
we find a part or all of the females from certain localities possess- 
ing ovipositors far longer, more robust and straighter than the 
average type. This is the form called delicaium (gracile) by 
Bruner and it and the more normal concinnum type were both 
taken by him at West Point and Lincoln, Nebraska, while nu- 
merous female specimens from Nehgh, Kearney, North Platte and 
Haigler, Nebraska, and Billings, Montana, are nearer this type 
than average concinnum, or intermediate between the two. No 
other structural character stands the tests for correlation with 
this ovipositor feature and it is impossible to sort the males before 
us into two species, those, fourteen in number, for instance, from 
Billings, a locality having no typical concinnum ovipositor among 
its sixteen females, being quite inseparable from more eastern 
specimens, while the males from West Point and Lincoln are 
certainly one species, the male type of delicaium being the same 
as dozens of others which are undoubted concinnum. The 
explanation of this ovipositor development should, we think, be 
looked for in the immediate environment in which the long ovi- 
positor individuals occur, the fact that both have been taken at 
one locality strongly suggesting this. 

Among the general structural variations we find the width of 
the fastigium and the degree of divergence of the margins of the 
same, when seen from the cephaHc aspect, to be quite variable, 
while the degree of straightness or arcuation of the ventro- 
caudal margin of the lateral lobes of the pronotum and the degree 
of angulation of the caudal margin of the same are inconstant, 
varying in nearly every series from a single locality. The form 
of the stridulating field of the male tegmina is rather plastic, while 
the male cerci show certain variational features in length, degree 
of slenderness of the distal extremity and the strength of the 



REHN AND HEBARD 63 

dorsal carination. In the present species the majority of the 
specimens are decidedly' long-winged, i. e., having the tegmina 
and wings strongly surpassing the apices of the caudal femora, 
while in a number of specimens, these outnumbering the more 
usual type in the eastern Nebraska representation, the teg- 
mina and wings are extremely elongate, surpassing the caudal 
femora by from one-half to two-thirds their length. The long- 
winged type is that to which Scudder gave his name longipen- 
nis. The tegmina and wings average shorter in the specimens 
from Kearney, Neligh, North Platte and Haigler, Nebraska, and 
Billings, Montana, than in those from any other locality. Every 
one of seven specimens collected at electric lights at Lincoln, 
Nebraska, by Prof. Bruner is of the very long-winged type, while 
of thirty specimens from Billings, all taken in a sedgy area, but 
two are of the verj^ long-winged form. 

The color variation is chiefly in that of the dorsum of the 
pronotum and of the face. The former area may be uniform 
with the general body color or ma}^ be supplied with a pair of 
brownish diverging lines, the area between these may or maj- not 
be infuscate or washed with ferruginous, while the extent and 
depth of these lines and the embrownment of the enclosed area 
on the occiput is variable in the same proportion as on the prono- 
tum. The face may be concolorous with the remainder of the 
head or supplied with a more or less distinct median vertical bar, 
which in the more intensely colored specimens is almost blackish 
and generally considerably expanding ventrad, although it ma}' 
be nearly subequal in width. Interior specimens do not show 
this dark l^ar, as far as our material goes, except in the case of the 
Indiana material called indianense by Blatchley and of a single 
female labelled "Colorado," but from the coastal sections this 
form generally outnumbers the pale faced type which occurs in 
exactly the same situations. In the coastal area of Texas the 
pale faced type is proportionately more numerous tlian in the 
eastern coastal section. The occasional presence of a similar 
facial bar has also been noted bj' us in 0. luilitare. 

From observations made in New Jersey by the junior author 
during the summer of 1914, it is evident that the young of the 
present species found in the eastern coastal region exhil)it two 
color forms, one with a striped face, the other with a uniformly 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



64 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

green face. The striped face form retains that condition through 
the ecdyses to the adult condition, the other reaches the adult 
condition without acquiring the barred face, but within a few 
days after becoming adult, as the chitin thoroughly hardens the 
stripe develops and becomes as prominent as in the other type. 
This was ascertained by keeping specimens under observation 
from the immature stages to that of thoroughly hardened adults. 
It is very probable that green face adult specimens from New 
Jersey were taken before they had fully acquired their permanent 
adult coloration. 

Measurements (in millimeters) of a number of average pairs 
from representative localities .are here presented. 





Rye Beach, Chestnut Neck, 


Wrightsville, 


Tybee Island, 




New Hampshire 


New Jersey 


North Carolina 


Georgia 




c? 9 


cf 9 




cf 9 


& 9 


Length of pronotum . . 


,3.7 4.2 


4.1 4. 


1 


4.1 4.1 


4.4 4.8 


Length of tegmen .... 


19 16.7 


21 . 1 20 




21.5 21.2 


22.4 23 


Length of caudal femur 


13.2 13.5 


14.8 15 




16.5 15.7 


16.6 17.5 


Length of ovipositor . . 


7.5 


.... 7. 


,8 


.... 8.2 


8.1 




Homestead, 


Vigo Co. 




West Point, 


West Point, 




Florida 


Indiana 




Nebraska 


Nebraska 






(Paratypes ( 


Df 


(0. delicatum) 








0. campestre) 


[type) (para- 
type) 






d^ 9 


o^ 9 




& 9 


o^ 9 


Length of pronotum . . 


4.1 4.5 


4.2 4 


2 


3.9 3.8 


4.2 4.7 


Length of tegmen .... 


21.4 22.5 


22 . 8 20 


.8 


18 18.2 


22.7 23.2 


Length of caudal femur 


14.5 17 


16 15 


.6 


14 14.5 


16.5 18.5 


Length of ovipositor . . 


8.1 


.... 7 


.5 


.... 10.5 


.... 7.5 




Lincoln, North Platte, 




Billings, 


Texas 




Nebraska Nebraska 




Montana 


{TypeoiO. 












tongipennis) 




9 c? 9 




& 9 


& 


Length of pronotum . . . 


4.5 4 


.5 4.3 




4.6 4.6 


5 


Length of tegmen 


26.2 19 


.8 20.2 




22 21.3 


29 . 6 


Length of caudal femur . 


17.1 14 


.5 14.7 




15.7 16.2 


19 


Length of ovipositor . . . 


13 


9 




9 


8.5 




Virginia Point, 


Giegory, 


Del Rio, 


Beulah, 




Texas 


Texas 




Texas New Mexico 




d' 9 


cf 


cf 


9 


d 9 


Length of pronotum . . . 


4.9 5 


5,2 


5 


.5 4.9 4.6 5 


Length of tegmen .... 


. 25 25.5 


30.7 


23 


.9 20 24.7 26.8 


Length of caudal femur 


. 17. S 18.6 


18.9 


18 


.5 16 17 17.5 


Length of ovipositor . 


9 






. . 8.4 


. .. 11.2 



Normally this species has the ventro-external margin of the 
caudal femora unspined, an occasional specimen, however, having 



REHN AND HEBARD 65 

a single adventitious spine on one limb and much more rarely 
two spines on but a single limb. We have examined no specimen 
with spines on both caudal femora. Curiously all individuals 
noticed to have any spines at all are from localities west of the 
Mississippi (Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska and Texas). 

Distribution. — In the eastern United States apparenth' re- 
stricted to the general vicinity of the coast, generally in or near 
salt marsh, and distributed from New Hampshire (Rye Beach) 
south to southern Florida (Homestead); in the interior ranging 
from extreme southern Ontario (five localities reported by 
Walker), northern peninsula of Michigan (Menominee), south- 
eastern Minnesota (see Lugger) and south-central Montana 
(Billings) south to the Gulf Coast of Florida and Mississippi, to 
at least south-central Texas (Gregory and Del Rio), west to at 
least Billings, Montana, eastern Colorado (La Junta and Jules- 
burg) and Albuquerque, New Mexico. The vertical range of 
the species is easily the greatest in the genus, extending from 
sea-level to approximately 8000 feet (Beulah, New Mexico). 
From the eastern states we know of no correct record of the 
occurrence of the species at a locality away from the general 
vicinity of the coast. Allard has reported longipenne from 
Thompson's Mills, Georgia, but the material, which we have seen 
collected by him an 1 so labelled, is referable to 0. agile. 

Specimens Examined: 472; 235 d', 212 9, 13 juv. cf, 12 juv. 9. 

Rye Beach, New Hampshire, IX, 1 and 2, 1913, (H.; in salt marsh grass), 
3 d^, 4 9. 

Vicinity of Boston, Massachusetts, (Scudder), 2 cT, [M. C. Z.]. 

Cape Cod, Massachusetts, (Scudder), 9 c?', 2 9, type and paratypes, [M. C. 
Z.; U. S. N. M.]. 

Scituate, Massachusetts, VIII, 29, 1897, (F. H. Sprague), 2 9, [M. C. Z.]. 

Wesquage Beach, Rhode Island, IX, S to 10, 1913, (H ; in salt marsh grass), 
1 d". 

Stony Creek, Connecticut, IX, 2, 1904, (H. L. Viereck), 1 9, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Saybrook, Connecticut, VII, 27, 1904, (H. L. Viereck), 1 d", [A. N. S. P.]. 

Lighthouse Point, New Haven, Connecticut, IX, 27, 1904, (B. H. Walden), 

1 9, [Hebard Chi.]. 

Spray Beach, New Jersey, IX, 6, 1906, (Bayard Long), 2 c?", [A. N. S. P.). 

Mullica River meadows near New Gretna, New Jersey, VIII, 24, 1914, (H.; 
in short grass far out on flats and in bordering rush swamp), 19 c?', 20 9, 1 
juv. cT, 1 juv. 9 . 

Chestnut Neck, New Jersey, VII, 16, 1911, (R. & H.; in salt marsh grass), 

2 c^,6 9. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



66 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

Canton, New Jersey, IX, 7, 1910, (H. Fox); 1 cf', [A. N. S. P.]. 

Ventnor, New Jersey, VIII, 5 to VIII, 26, 1914, (H.; abundant in marshy 
depression in sand), 40 c?, 28 9.6 juv. c?, 7 juv. 9 • 

Margate City, New Jersey, VIII, 24, VIII, 17, 1914, (H.; scarce in salt marsh 
chiefly of Panicularia fluitans), 2 cf, 2 9 . 

Pleasantville, New Jersey, VIII, 17, 1914, (H. ; sliore margin of salt meadow), 
1 d". 

Ocean City, New Jersey, VIII, 14, 1914, (H.; middle of salt marsh), 1 d'. 

Tiickahoe, New Jersey, VIII, 26, 1914, (H.; in freshwater marsh), 1 (f. 

Cedar Springs, New Jersey, VIII, 14 and 26, 1914, (H.; in fresh marsh gi-asses 
and rushes), 13 cf, 7 9 • 

Between Woodbine and Belleplain, New Jersey, VIII, 21, 1912, (H. Fox; 
in wet bog of J uncus canadensis), 2 cf, 3 9, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Ocean View, New Jersey, VII, 30, 1908, VII, 16, 1911, IX, 8, 1911, (H. Fox), 
7 c?', 9 9 , [A. N. S. P.]; VII, 27, 1914, (H.; in upland field and on edge of salt 
marsh). Id',! 9,1 juv. 9- 

Sea Isle City, New Jersey, X, 9, 1910, (H. Fox), 1 c?, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Piermont, New Jersey, VIII, 26, 1909, (H. Fox; salt marsh), 2 cf, 1 9, 
[A. N. S. P.]. 

Avalon, New Jersey, VIII, 12, 1911, (H. Fox), 3 c?, 4 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Swainton, New Jersey, VIII, 8, 1914, (H.; in swampy field), 1 9 . 

Cape May Court House, New Jersey, VII, 20, VIII, 14 and 21, 1914, (H.; 
common in salt marsh of Spartina patens and Distichlis spicala) ,2 cf , 5 9,6 
juv. o^, 2 juv. 9 , (immature individuals on the earliest date). 

Anglesea, New Jersey, IX, 5, 3 cf , 5 9, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Cold Spring, New Jersey, IX, 4, 1907, (Bayard Long), 2 9 , [A. N. S. P.]; 
VIII, 28, 1912, (H. Fox), 2 9, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Cape May, New Jersey, VII, 22, 1910, (H.; in salt marsh), 1 &■ 

Chestertown, Maryland, VIII, 4, 1912, VIII, 24, 1900, (E. G. Vanattaj, 1 
c?,2 9, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Virginia, VIII, 14, 1 9 , [Hebard Chi.]. 

Ocean View, Virginia, VIII, 9, 1904, (A. N. Caudell), 1 c?, 2 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Vii-ginia Beach, Virginia, VIII, 31, 1903, (E. S. G. Titus), 1 d^, 1 9, [U. S. 
N. M.]. 

Wrightsville, North Carohna, IX, 7, 1911, (R. & H.; fairly abundant in 
high grasses growuig on edge of dry land) ,6 cf , 6 9 • 

Smith Island, North Carolina; X, 1906, (F. Sherman), 1 9, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Tybee Island, Georgia, IX, 2, 1911, (R. & H.; very common in salt marsh), 
24 cf , 14 9 ; VIII, 12, 1903, (Morse), 5 cf , 3 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

Warrington, Florida, VIII, 4, 1903, (Morse), 2 cf , 1 9 , [Morse Cln.]. 

Fort Barrancas, Florida, VIII, 3, 1903, (Morse), 4 cf , 3 9, [Morse Chi.]. 

Biloxi, Mississippi, VII, 19, 1905, (Morse), 1 cf, 1 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

Buras, Louisiana, VII, 23, 190.5, (Morse), 1 9 , [Morse Chi.]. 

Crowley, Louisiana, IX, 23, 1911, (E. S. Tucker; in rice field), 2 cf, 2 9, 
[U. S. N. M.]. 

Cleveland, Ohio, VIII, 19, 1 cf , [M. C. Z.]. 

Cedar Point, Ohio, VIII, 1912, (W. J. Kostir), 1 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 



REHN AND HEBARD 67 

Gypsum, Ohio, VIII, 20, (J. L. King), 1 ^, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Menominee, Michigan, IX, 5, 1904, (E. S. G. Titus), 1 cf , [U. S. X. M.]. 

Vigo County, Indiana, VIII, 27 and IX, 8, 1893, (Blatchley), 2 d', 2 9.. 
[Hebard Chi., and U. S. N. M.]. Paraiijpes of 0. cainpestre. 

Kewannee, Indiana, IX, 24, 1892, X, 7, 1893, (Blatchley) 3 d^, 1 9 , [Hebard 
Chi. M. C. Z. and U. S. N. M.]. Paralypes of 0. indianense. 

Starke County, Indiana, VIII, 11, 1904, VIII, 15, 20 and21, 1902, (Blatchley), 
2 cf, 4 9 . [Hebard Chi., A. N. S. P., and U. S. N. M.]. 

Marshall County, Indiana, VII, 29, 1902, X, 5 and 15, 1904, (Blatchley), 
2 d^, 4 9 , [Hebard Chi., A. N. S. P., and U. S. N. M.]. 

Lake Maxinkuckee, Indiana, VIII, 17, 1893, (Blatchley), Icf, [Morse Chi.]. 

Steuben Coimty, Indiana, VIII, 6 and 8, 1902, IX, 8, 1902, (Blatchley) od^, 
1 9 , [Hebard Cln., A. N. S. P., and U. S. N. M.]. 

Kosciusko County, Indiana, VIII, 8 and 27, 1902, (Blatchley), 1 o^ 1 9 , 
[A. N. S. P. and U. S. N. M.]. 

Fulton County, Indiana, IX, 24, 1892, (Blatchley), 1 cf, 1 9, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Lake County, Indiana, IX, 1, 1902, (Blatchley), 2 9 , [A. X. S. P., and U. S. 
N. M.]. 

Moline, lUinois, VIII, 4, (McNeill), 1 9, [M. C. Z.]. 

La^ai Ridge, Illinois, (A. Agassiz), 1 9, [M. C. Z.]. 

Arkansas, 1 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Fort Dodge, Iowa, VIII, 27, 1910, (M. P. Somes), 1 9 , [Hebard Chi.]. 

Dallas County, Iowa, VIII, 20 to 23, (Allen), 1 9 , [M. C. Z.]. 

Hollister, Missouri, VIII, 12, 1912, (H. H. Knight), 2o^, 1 9 , [Cornell Univ.]. 

West Pomt, Nebraska, VII, 1884, VIII, 17, IX, 4 and 5, (L. Bruner), 8 cT, 
7 9 [Hebard Chi.]; VIII, 17, (L. Bruner), 1 d^, 1 9, [Cornell Univ.]. Type 
and five paratypes of gracile Bruner. 

Lincok, Nebraska, VII, VIII, (L. Bruner), 7 d', 6 9, [Hebard Cln., and 
U. S. N. M.]. 

Burnham, Nebraska, VIII, 30, 1911, (L. Bruner), 1 d", [Hebard Chi.]. 

Cedar Bluffs, Nebraska, 2 9 , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Neligh, Nebraska, VIII, (M. Gary), 2 9 , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Kearney, Nebraska, VII, 27, 1910, (R. & H.; in gra.ssy patch), 1 9 . 

North Platte, Nebraska, VII, 28, 1910, (R. & H.; in marshy tract), G o', 8 9 . 

Haigler, Nebraska, VIII, 10, 1901, (L. Bruner), 1 9, [Hebard Cln.]. 

Clearwater, Kansas, VIII, 30, 1904, (F. B. Isely), 1 d^, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Billings, Montana, VII, 28, 1909, (R. & H.; in marshy area of sedges), 
14 d', 16 9,1 juv. 9. 

Julesburg, Colorado, VII, 29, 1910, (R. & H.; in grasses in river bottom), 
1 d^, 1 9. 

Near La Jimta, Colorado, IX, 11, 1909, (R. &H.; in Arkansas River bottom 
land), 1 d'. 

Barber County, Kansas, (F. W. Cragin), 2 d^, [Hebard Cln.]. 

DaUas, Texas, (Boll), 1 9, [M. C. Z.]. 

Vii-ginia Point, Texas, VII, 21, 1912, (H.; in lu.xuriant salt marsh vegetation), 
5 d^,7 9. 

Victoria, Texas, VI, (A. N. Caudell), 1 9 . [U. S. N. M.]. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



68 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

Gregory, Texas, VII, 30, 1912, (H.; in fresh marsh vegetation), 1 cf. 

Del Rio, Texas, VIII, 22 and 23, 1912, (R. & H.; in heavy grasses in Rio 
Grande bottom), 2 cf, 1 9 • 

Albuquerque, New Mexico, VII, 13 and 16, (Oslar), 2 cf , 1 9 , [A. N. S. P.]; 
IX, 14, 1907, (H.; in cultivated ground), 1 c^, [Hebard Cln.]. 

Beulah, New Mexico, VIII, 17, (H. Skinner), 1 o", 2 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 

The present authors or the senior author alone have already recorded this 
species from Atlantic City, New Jersey and Punta Gorda, Fort Myers, South 
Bay of Lake Okeechobee, Chokoloskee and Homestead, Florida, and as longi- 
penne from Hannibal, Missouri. 

Orchelimum fidicinium Rehn and Hebard (Figs. 13, 28, 55, 56 and 80.) 
?1839. Orchelimum herbaceu-m Serville, Hist. Nat. Ins. Orth., p. 524. [North 
America.] 

1907. Orchelimum, fidicinium Rehn and Hebard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1907, p. 309, figs. 7 to 9. [Cedar Keys and Gainesville, Florida.] 

1908. Orchelimum crusculum Davis, Journ. N. Y. Entom. Soc, xvi, p. 223. 
[Tucker ton. New Jersey; Staten Island and Rockaway, New York.] 

As we liave a]ready stated in tlie preliminary remarks on the 
genus, Serville's herhaceum, which has generally been associated 
with Scudder's concinnum, seems to resemble this species more 
closely in the length and form of the ovipositor than any other 
of which we know the female, except the long ovipositor type of 
concinnum. The latter condition, however, as far as known, occurs 
only in a region which at that time was almost unexplored and 
there is little possibility of it having been in Serville's possession, 
particularly as he says the specimen came from Latreille, who 
died in 1833. The character of the facial marking described by 
Serville is not normally found in any form known to us, that is 
no form has an "almost transverse" black spot on the face. A 
similar condition is found below the eyes in specimens of a num- 
ber of species which have discolored in drying. However, we 
have no definite proof that herhaceum is the same as fidicinium, 
and, until we have some positive information of this sort, we do 
not care to replace a well understood name by another of doubt- 
ful status. We have endeavored to locate Serville's type and 
have the same examined, but unfortunately without success. 

The synonymy of crusculum is evident on comparison of typi- 
cal material of the same, kindly loaned to us by Mr. Davis, with 
the typical series of fidicinium. 

As in other species of the genus there is a general increase in 
size southward, but in the Cumberland Island series we find a 



1-2 


1-2 


2-1 


1-2 


3-3 


1-0 


3-31 s 


1-0 


4-1 


1-2 


1-1 


5-3 


3-2 


3-2 


2-1 


3-2 


1-1 


1-1 


2-4 


1-1 





REHN AND HEBARD 69 

very considerable amount of individual variation in this respect 
in both sexes. The smaller New Jersey individuals, however, 
are very appreciably smaller than the smallest Cumberland Island 
specimens. 

The ovipositor curve varies somewhat, in one extreme this 
appendage being straighter than in others, with its dorsal margin 
but little arcuate, while the more usual condition has the whole 
ovipositor with its margins more regularly but not strongly arcu- 
ate. The distal section of the ventro-external margin of the caudal 
femora is either unarmed or supplied with from one to five spines. 
An examination of thirty specimens, taken at random, for the 
number of these spines shows the following: 

Cape May, New Jersey Wrightsville, North Carolina Cumberland Island, Georgia 

1-0 4-1 

1-0 o-o 

0-0 0-1 

0-0 1-1 

2-1 3-2 



There is a great amount of variation in the depth of the gen- 
eral coloration, but in the vast majority the dark dorsal band is 
indicated. The Cumberland Island and numerous New Jersey 
specimens average dark in general tone, with generally strongly 
contrasted pattern. When fresh many specimens from these 
localities were distinctly thalassine in tone. 

Distribution. — Salt marsh and maritime region from western 
Long Island, New York (Rockaway) to southern Georgia (Cum- 
berland Island) and western Florida (Cedar Keys). It has l)een 
recorded inland in but a single instance, that from Gainesville, 
Florida, although two females labelled "Swansea, South Caro- 
lina," a locality approximately one hundred miles inland, are now 
in hand. We feel very doubtful, with our personal knowledge of 
the habits of this species, as to the correctness of these two records. 
The Gainesville one was reported by us when our knowledge of 
the insect was l)y no means as full as at present, and in all proba- 
bility the specimen reported was secured the jjrevious day at 
Cedar Keys and accidentally confused in labelling. 

1* The ventro-internal margins of the caudal femora liavo a singk' .spine 
instead of being unarmed as usual. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



70 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

Specimens Examined: 248; 112 c/', 117 9 , 6 juv. cf , 13 juv. 9. 

Tuckerton, New Jersey, IX, 1, (W. T. Davis), 1 d', 1 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. Para- 
types of 0. crusculum Davis. 

Ventnor, New Jersey, VIII, 24, 1914, (H.; common in and about tall fringing 
borders of Spartina strida far out on tidal flats), 15 cf , 17 9 , 4 juv. cf, 2 juv. 9 . 

Ocean City, New Jersey, VIII, 14, 1914, (H.; middle of salt marsh), 5 cf, 
5 9. 

Townsend's Inlet, New Jersey, VIII, 10, 1908, (H. Fox; in grassy marsh 
and grassy meadow), 2 9, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Avalon, New Jersey, VIII, 14, 1908, (H. Fox; in Scir pus iftar beach), 1 9, 
[A. N. S. P.]; VIII, 20, 1910, VIII, 12, 1911, VIII, 26, 1912, (H. Fox; in Spar- 
tina in salt marsh), 5 d", 16 9,1 juv. 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Ocean View, New Jersey, VIII, 12, 1908, VIII, 29, 1910, (H. Fox; grassy 
places in salt marsh), 1 d', 5 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Sea Isle City Turnpike, New Jersey, VIII, 12, 1911, VIII, 15, 1910, (H. Fox; 
in Spartina in salt marsh), 10 cf , H 9,1 juv. cf, 9 juv. 9, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Goshen, New Jersey, VIII, 22, 1910, (H. Fox), 1 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 

South Dennisville, New Jersey, VIII, 27, 1912, (H. Fox; in Spartina glabra), 
3 c?, 1 9, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Cape May Court House, New Jersey, VIII, 14, 1914, (H.; in salt marsh in 
Spartina striata), 1 cf, 1 9 • 

Anglesea, New Jersey, IX, 8, 1 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Cape May, New Jersey, VII, 22, 1910, (H.; in salt marsh), 4 d', 3 9 ; VIII, 
8, 1914, (H.; out on salt marsh in Spartina striata), 3 d^, 2 9 . 

Ocean View, Virginia, VIII. 9, (Caudell), 7 d', 1 9,1 juv. d", 1 juv. 9, [U. 
S. N. M. and A. N. S. P.]. 

Wrightsville, North Carolina, IX, 7, 1911, (R. & H.; scarce in marsh grass), 
5 d^, 10 9. 

Swansea, South Carolina, VIII, 7, 1911, (F. Knab), 2 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Coast of South Carolina, 1 d', [A. N. S. P.]. 

Savannah, Georgia, VIII, 20, 1895, (A. Oemler), 1 9 , [U. S. N. M.J. 

Tybee Island, Georgia, VII, 26, 1913, (J. C. Bradley), 2 c?, 1 9 , [Ga. State 
Cln.]; VIII, 13, 1903, (Morse), 8 o^, 3 9, [Morse Chi.]. 

Cumberland Island, Georgia, VIII, 31, 1911, (H.; in high salt marsh grass 
growing between high and low tide beach lines on boggy gi'ound), 41 d^, 32 9 • 

The species has been recorded previously from Cedar Keys (and Gainesville, 
incorrectly) Florida; Rockaway and Staten Island, New York, and Tuckerton, 
Ocean View, Townsend's Inlet and Anglesea, New Jersey. 

Orchelimum tailitare Rehu and Hcbard (Figs. 14, 29, 57, 58 and 81.) 
1907. Orchelimum militare Rehn and Hebard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1907, p. 311, figs. 10 and 11. [Gainesville, Florida.] 

Tliis very distinct species has some relationship to 0. fidicin- 
ium, but the sum total of its characters give it an isolated posi- 
tion. 

In size it answers to the general rule of the genus, in that the 
smaller individuals are more frequent at the more northern local- 



REHN AND HEBARD 71 

ities and the average size southward is greater, but the Florence 
series is sufficient to show that the individual size variation is 
very great. 

As with glaberrimum this species occasionally develops a red- 
dish coloration of the head, as rich and decided as in the most 
extreme individual of the larger species, while other specimens of 
militare have a vertical facial bar ranging in color from pale red- 
dish to walnut brown, which condition is quite similar to that 
frequently found in 0. concinnum. This facial marking occa- 
sionally spreads out laterad over the ventral portion of the genae 
and again in some few specimens the infra-ocular and infra- 
antennal regions are quite blackish. 

The number of spines on the distal portion of the ventro-ex- 
ternal margin of the caudal femora either varies from one to two 
or the margin is unarmed. A count of twentj^ specimens shows 
the following results: 

Florence, South Carolina Winter Park, North CaroUna 

0-0 0-0 0-0 0-2 

2-2 1-1 0-0 1-0 

2-1 2-1 1-0 0-0 

0-0 1-1 0-0 0-0 

0-0 0-1 0-0 1-1 

Distribution. — -Coastal Plain region. Gulf coast and Florida, 
ranging from south-central New Jersey (Speedwell) south to 
southern Florida (Detroit), west at least as far as southern Mis- 
sissippi (Nugent) and southeastern Louisiana (Buras). The 
known limits of its range inland toward the Piedmont region are 
Florence, South Carolina, and Tifton, Georgia. 

Specimens Examined: 74; 45 cf, 28 9 , 1 juv. 9. 

Speedwell, New Jersey, VIII, 31, 1905, (Witmer Stone), IcT^, [A. N. S. P.]'». 

Winter Park, North Carolina, IX, 7, 1911, (R. & H.; in gi-een grasses on edge 
of field), 12 d^, 2 9. 

Lake Waccamaw, North Carolina, IX, 8, 1911, (R. & H.; in high weeds near 
lake shore), 1 cf, 2 9 . 

Florence, South Carolina, IX, 6, 1911, (R. & H.; in open phices in short- 
leaf pine or oak woods, in grasses several feet high), 15 c?, 10 9 . 

Jesup, Georgia, IX, 1, 1911, (H.; in bulrushes in swamp in pine woods)-", 2 9 . 

^8 This specimen was recorded l)y Smith (1909 List of New Jersey Insects) 
under 0. herbaceum. 

-" This specimen was seen to dive off of tlic rushes into the water and swim 
swiftly to a leaf under which it chnig, being perfectly concealed an inch or 
more under water. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



72 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

Waycross, Georgia, VIII, 11, 1903, (Morse), 2 c^, 2 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

Jordan's. Billy's Island, Georgia, VIII, 31, 1913, (J. C. Bradley), 1 cf , 1 9- 

Homerville, Georgia, VIII, 27, 1911, (R. & H.), 1 Juv. 9 • 

Tifton, Georgia, IX, 8, 1910, (J. C. Bradley), 1 d", [Ga. State Cln.]. 

Bainbridge, Georgia, IX, 17 to X, 19, 1910, (J. C. Bradley), 1 9 , [Ga. State 
Cln.]. 

Jacksonville, Florida, (Priddey), Id'; VIII, 1885, (Ashmead), IcT, [Hebard 
Cln.]. 

Atlantic Beach, Florida, VIII, 24, 1911, (R. & H.; swampy area on edge of 
hammock), 1 9 . 

Hastings, Florida, V, 22 to X, 15, (A. G. Brown), 8 c?^, 4 9 , [Morse Cln.]. 

Nugent, Mississippi, VII, 20, 1905, (Morse), 1 d', 3 9, [Morse Chi.]. 

Buras, Louisiana, VII, 23, 1905, (Morse), 1 cf, [Morse Cln.]. 

We have previously recorded this species from Gainesville and Detroit, 
Florida; Okeefenokee Swamp, Georgia, and Winter Park, North Carolina. 

Orchelimum volantum McNeill (Figs. 15, 30, 59, 60 and 82.) 

1891. Orchelimum volantum McNeill, Psyche, vi, p. 26. [Rock River near 

Cleveland, Henry County, Illinois.] 
1893. Orchelimum bruneri Blatchley, Canad. Entom. xxv, p. 92. [Vigo 
County, Indiana.] 

The above synonymy has l^een estalihshed by Blatchley after 
the examination of typical material on which the two names were 
based.-^ The paired dark lines on the dorsum of the head and 
pronotum are indicated in the majority of the specimens, occa- 
sionally, however, entirely absent. 

The ventro-external margin of the caudal femora shows from 
one to four spines present distad, eight specimens, which possess 
one or both caudal limbs, showing the following formulae; 3-4, 
2-4, 2-4, 2-1, 2-3, 2-3, 3-?, 3-?. 

Distribution. — North-central Mis.sissippi and lower Missouri 
valleys, southern Great Lake region; from south-central Ontario 
(Niagara Kiver) and northern Ohio (Cedar Point), west to east- 
ern Nebraska (Cedar Bluffs) and Kansas (Douglas County), the 
latter and Vigo County, Indiana, being the most southern locali- 
ties, while Sarnia, Ontario is the most northern point from which 
it is known. 

Specimens Examined: 15; 4 cf, 11 9. 

Point Pelee, Ontario, VIII, 8, 1901, (E. M. Walker), 1 d', 1 9 , [A. N. S. P.], 

Lake Maxinkuckee, Indiana, VIII, 17, 1893, (W. S. Blatchley), 1 d', 2 9, 
[Morse Cln., U. S. N. M. and M. C. Z.]. Paratypcs of 0. bruneri Blatchley. 

21 Orthoi)t. of Indiana, ]). 391, (1903). 



REHN AND HEBARD 73 

Vigo County, Indiana, VIII, 17 and 18, IX, 28 and X, 1, 1893, (W. S. Blatch- 

ley), 1 cf, 5 9, [Hebard Cln. and U. S. N. M.]. Parntypes of 0. bruneri. 
Iowa City, Iowa, (Shimek), 3 9, [Hebard Cln.]. 
Cedar Bluffs, Iowa, 1 d', [Hebard Cln.]. 

Orchelimum bradleyi new specie.s (Figs. 4, 31, 61, 62 and 83.) 

1911. Orchelimum volantum Rehn and Hebard (not Orchelimum volnnlum 

McNeill, 1891), Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1910, p. 595. [Okefenokee 

Swamp, Georgia.] 
1911. Orchelimum volantum Sherman and Brimley (not McNeiU, 1891), 

Entom. News, xxii, p. 391. [Wilmington, North Carolina.] 

The acquisition of male individuals of this striking species, and 
the ability to judge the constancy of the ovipositor characters 
previously pointed out (vide supra), enal)le us to differentiate the 
present form from its nearest ally, the interior volantum. While 
the general form is very similar the new species is distinctly the 
larger, the cephalic and median femora are more distinctly taper- 
ing and the caudal femora are slightly more inflated proximad. 
In the male sex the differential characters are cereal, the new 
form having the cercus more attenuate distad, mesad more 
inflated on the dorsal surface and with the median tooth de- 
cidedly proximal in position and directed more ventro-proximad. 
Another cereal feature in the new form is the decided depression 
at the base of the tooth. In the female sex the ovipositor of 
bradleyi is similar in general character and dorsal curve to that 
of volantum, but it is narrow disto-mesad w^ith the ventral margin 
regularly and gently arcuate. 

Type. — cf ; Chase Prairie, OkeefT3nokee Swamp, Georgia. Sep- 
tember 5, 1913. (J. Chester Bradley.) [Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
Type no. 5242.] 

DescripHon of Type. — Size medium; form elongate, slender. Head with the 
fastigium roundly and appreciably elevated dorsad of the occiput, as in volantum 
regularly rounding, when seen from the lateral aspect, to the interfastigial 
suture, narrow, ventral portion with the adjacent facial fastigium strongly 
compressed; eyes subovate in basal outline, moderately prominent when seen 
from the dorsum ; antennae at least two and one-half times as long as the body. 
Pronotum with the dorsal outline of the metanotum moderately ascending 
caudad; cephalic margin of the pronotum emarginato-truncate, caudal margin 
moderately arcuate; prozona slightly more than one and one-half times the 
length of the metazona, greatest dorsal width of metazona four-fifths the dorsal 
length of the entire pronotum; lateral loties of the pronotum with the greatest 
dorsal length of the lobes subequal to their greatest depth, ventro-ccphalic 
angle obtusely-rounded, ventral margin oblique, straight, ventro-cephaUc 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



74 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

angle rotundato-obtuse-angulate, caudal margin arcuate but slightly flattened 
ventrad, humeral sinus distinct, broad, convex callosity of lateral lobes broad, 
elliptical. Tegmina nearly one and one-half times as long as the caudal femora, 
elongate lanceolate, moderately acute; structure of the stridulating field as in 
volanlum. Wings surpassing the tegmina by about half the ])ronotal length. 
Cerci elongate, robust, distal portion tapering, internal tooth place distinctly 
proximad of the middle, the tooth depressed, directed ventro-proximad and 
moderately acute, the distal portion of the tooth alone tapering, the proximal 
portion subequal in width, dorsal surface of cereal shaft inflated dorso-mesad, 
this developed proximad into a carinate ridge which curves around the base of 
the tooth, distal portion of shaft depressed, tapering and with the apex gently 
incurved; subgenital plate fuU, lateral margins arcuate, distal margin very 
shallowly obtuse-angulate emarginate, styles articulate, slender. Cephalic 
and median femora very appreciable tapering distad; caudal femora consid- 
erably inflated proximad, very slender distad, distal portion of ventro-external 
margins armed with two to three spines. 

Allotype. — 9 ; Same data as the type. 

Description of Allotype. — Differing from the description of the male in the 
following features. Ovipositor very slightly longer than half the caudal 
femoral length, rather heavy, dorsal margin nearly straight, ventral margin 
straight proximad, gently arcuate distad, apex very acute, width subequal in 
proximal five-eighths. Subgenital plate simple, narrowly emarginate disto- 
mesad. 

Paratypic Series. — ^We have in addition to the type and allo- 
type a paratypic series of four males from the tj'pe locality. 

Measurements {in inillimeters) 
& 



Length of body 

Length of pronotum . . 

Length of tegmen 

Length of wing distad of 

tegmen 

Length of caudal femur. 



Length of body 

Length of pronotum . . 
Length of tegmen .... 
Length of wing distad of 

tegmen 

Length of caudal femur 
Length of ovipositor . . 

-2 Greatly shrivelled. 



(Type) 
23.2 


Chase Prairie, Georgia 

(Paralype) (Paratype) 

24 25 


(Paratype) 
23.2 


4.9 


4.8 


4.8 


5 


26.8 


25.7 


26 


27.7 


2.7 


3 


2.8 


2.6 


20 


19.5 


19 


19.2 


9 

Wilmington, 
forth Carolina 

1822 


Chase Prairie, 
Georgia 
(Allotype) 

23.2 


Okeefenokee 
Swamp, Georgia 

21.5 


Jacksonville, 
Florida 

23.6 


5.2 


5 


4.9 


5 


28.9 


26 


26.1 


28.6 


1.6 


broken 


2.5 


2.7 


21.2 


18.9 


20.2 


19.2 


11.3 


10.4 


10.7 


11.5 



REHN AND HEBARD 75 

Color Notes. — General color (in well preserved specimens) light 
paris green to light oriental green, becoming more biscay green 
on the caudal limbs. Dorsmn of head occasionally, and of pro- 
notum and stridulating field of tegmina always, more or less 
ochraceous-buff; as far as the present material goes always 
bearing on the prozona a pair of brownish (russet to bone-brown) 
lines, which become w^eakened on the metazona and there diverge; 
these lines are rarely present on the occiput. Eyes chocolate. 
Antennae ochraceous-orange, each joint uni-annulate with bone 
brown. Abdominal appendages of male washed with honey 
yellow. Ovipositor weakly washed with kaiser brown or uni- 
colorous with the body. Tibial spines black tipped. 

Morphological Notes. — The number of spines on the ventro- 
external margins of the caudal femora varies from one to four. 

Biological Notes. — Dr. J. Chester Bradley, in whose honor we 
have named the species and who collected the typical material, 
has supplied us with the following notes on the habits of these 
insects. "In the eastern half of the Okeefenokee Swamp are 
extensive so-called prairies. These are really inundated plains 
grown up with sawgrass, maiden-cane, or in places open shallow 
lakes covered with a multitude of water plants. The natives of 
the Okeefenokee told us of diving grasshoppers which lived on 
these prairies, and in making a trip to the Chase Prairies in 
September 1913, I found these grasshoppers in great abundance 
in the grasslike plants growing out of the water or growing 
along the banks of the old canal. As the boat approached them 
they jumped from the grass into the water, completely disap- 
pearing, and so quick were they to do this when alarmed that 
it was only after some difficulty that we succeeded in catching 
a series of specimens." 

Distribution. — Extending from southeastern North Carolina 
(Wilmington) south to northern Florida (Jacksonville and Tal- 
lahassee), inland as far as the Okeefenokee Swamp, southern 
Georgia. 

Specimens Examined: 10; 6 cf, 4 9 . 

Wilmington, North Carolina, VIII, 1, 1 9 , [Davis Cln.]. 

Okeefenokee Swamp, Georgia, IX, 10, (J. C. Bradley), 1 9, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Chase Prairie, Okeefenokee Swamp, Georgia, IX, .5, 1913, (J. C. Bradley), 5 
cf, 1 9 , [A. N. S. P., Hebard Cln. and Cornell University]. Type, allotype and 
paratypes. 

TRA.NS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



76 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

Jacksonville, Florida, (Priddey) 1 9 , [Hebard Cln.]. 
Tallahassee, Florida, (T. Glover), 1 d", [M. C. Z.]. 

Orchelimum superbum new species (Figs. 5, 32, 63 and 64.) 

1914. Orchelimum glaberrimum Fox, (not of Burmeister, 1838), Proc. Acad. 

Nat. Sci. Phila., 1914, p. 526. (Part.) [Between Winslow and Folsom, New 

Jersey.] 

A very distinct species belonging to the same subgenus as 
fraternum and unispina, but also showing tendencies toward 
bradleyi. In the unispinose genicular lobes of the caudal femora 
it shows affinity to fraternum and unispina, but the much greater 
size, form of the stridulating field of the male tegmina and other 
features remove it from their immediate vicinity. Of the two 
it is nearer unispina, which, however, also differs from superbum 
in having acuminate cerci in the male. It resembles bradleyi 
somewhat in general plan of the stridulating field but the de- 
tails are quite different and the cerci and lateral lobes of the 
pronotum as well as the caudal genicular spines are different 
from those found in bradleyi. The female sex is not known. 

Type. — d^; Winslow Junction, Camden County, New Jersey. 
July 8, 1911. (Henry Fox; in bog toward Folsom along Cape 
May Division of Atl. City R. R.) [Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Type 
no. 5266.] 

Description oj Type. — Size moderately large; foi'm subcompressed, elongate. 
Head with the plane of the occiput and fastigium horizontal, the latter well 
rounded into the outline of the moderately retreating face when viewed from the 
lateral aspect; fastigium moderately broad, arcuate dorsad in transverse sec- 
tion, cephalic outhne blunt arcuate, the lateral margins, when seen from the 
cephalic aspect, moderately concavo-arcuate convergent ventrad, the ventral 
point truncate and closely in contact with the fastigium of the face; eyes nearly 
circular in basal outline, which is fairly flattened cephalad, the depth of the eye 
but faintly more than half that of the infra-ocular portion of the genae, when 
viewed from the dorsum the eyes are not prominent and are appreciably 
flattened; antennae at least twice as long as the body, proximal joint with a 
very distinct distal rounded lobe on the internal face. Pronotum faintly 
sellate, the dorsal line, when seen from the lateral aspect, horizontal on the 
prozona and faintly ascending on the metazona, the greatest dorsal width of 
disk of pronotum contained one and one-half times in the length of same; 
cephalic margin of pronotal disk very faintly arcuato-emarginate, caudal mar- 
gin of pronotal disk regularly arcuate; prozona constituting slightly less than 
two-thirds the length of the pronotal disk, separated from the metazona by a 
weakly impressed transverse depression, a weak medio-longitudinal sulcus 
faintly indicated on the caudal section of the prozona and somewhat more 
strongly on the metazona; lateral lobes of the pronotum broadly rounding into 



REHN AND HEBARD 77 

the prozonal disk and separated from the dorsal surface by a distmct but 
rounded shoulder on the metazona, in outline the lobes areas deep as the greatest 
dorsal length of the same, cephahc margin broadly rounding into the straight 
and very oblique ventral margin, ventro-oaudal angle narrowly rounded acute- 
angulate, caudal margin extending slightly ventro-cephalad in du-ection but 
nearly vertical, straight with a very faint sinuosity, no distinct humeral sinus 
present, convex callosity elongate, narrow. Tegmina elongate, sublanceolate, 
surpassing the apex of the abdomen by the combined length of the head and 
pronotum, distal half of the tegmina appreciably narrower than the proximal 
portion, apex narrowly rounded; stridulating area shorter than the dorsum of 
the pronotum, no wider than the same, stridulating vein nearly transverse, 
strongly thickened toward the humeral trunk, the greatest width of the specu- 
lum, i. e., along the stridulating vein, contained nearly one and one-half 
times in the greatest length of the same. Wings very briefly surpassing the 
tips of the tegmina. Cerci with the portion proximad of the tooth short and 
relatively slender, the median portion very robust and inflated, the distal 
extremity subdepressed, an indication of a carina is present on the dorsal 
surface proximad of the tooth, the latter internal in position and ventro- 
cephahc in trend, in length subequal to the section of the cereal shaft proximad 
of the tooth, tapering, the immediate apex sharply acuminate and uncinate, 
median inflation of shaft bulbous, apex of shaft very bluntly narrowing, 
slightly directed inwards, internal margui of that portion faintly arcuato- 
concave, the plane of depression tilted ventro-laterad; subgenital plate obtuse- 
angulate emarginate, styles rather short, shghtly tapering, ventral surface of 
plate moderately tricarinate, the median one much stronger than those ex- 
tending from the style bases. Cephalic and median tibiae each with six pairs 
of spines. Caudal femora equal to about three-fourths of the tegminal length, 
considerably inflated proximad but passing evenly and gradually into the 
slender distal portion, genicular lobes unispinose, ventral margins unarmed; 
caudal tibiae with margins well spined. 

Paratypic Series. — We have selected the type from a series of 
four males bearing the same data and one male from Sewell, 
Gloucester County, New Jersey, taken July 10, 1910, by Dr. 
Henry Fox. The four specimens other than the type we indicate 
as paratypes. 

Measurements {in millimeters) 

■71 Length of Length of Length of Length of 

'^ body pronotum tegmen caudal femur 

Winslow Junction, New Jer- 
sey.... T^/pe 24.6 6 24.4 18 

Winslow Junction, New Jer- 
sey .... Parafype 24.5 6.1 25.4 18.2 

Winslow Junction, New 

Jersey .... Paratype 23 6 25 17. & 

Sewell, New Jersey ... .Par- 

atype 19.6 5 22 15. ft 

TR.\NS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



78 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

Color Notes. — General color ranging from lime green to light 
cress green, the discoidal and stridulating fields of the tegmina 
weakly washed with wood brown, the usual longitudinal expand- 
ing bar on the dorsum of the head and pronotum hazel to russet 
on the pronotum, becoming obsolete on the metazona and inten- 
sified on the head, the paired bordering lines on the pronotum 
bone brown, sharply pencilled, moderately broad and slightly 
converging caudad on the metazona, contrasted laterad by a 
yellowish wash, the dark lines subobsolete on the head. Tegmina 
with the veins of the costal section of the marginal field sulphate 
green, the distal section of the same field toward the humeral 
trunk, including the mediastine vein, lined in similar fashion with 
acajou red, area of the humeral trunk weakly lined with buff- 
yellow. Abdomen with a broad subequal medio-longitudinal bar 
of claret brown of variable intensity, this bordered laterad by 
distinct but narrow lines of buff-yellow, these varying in inten- 
sity and continuity. Eyes auburn to chestnut. Antennae with 
the proximal joint of the general color, the remainder washed 
with auburn to bay, becoming stronger distad. Cerci pale ochra- 
ceous-orange, more or less washed distad and mesad with fer- 
ruginous. Caudal tibiae washed with russet, the spines black 
with pale bases. 

Distribution. — The species is only known from two localities in 
or along the western edge of the Pine Barren area of southern 
New Jersey. 

Biological Notes. — All the material known of this species was 
taken in bogs or reedy swamps. At Sewell, according to infor- 
mation with the specimen taken at that locality, several individ- 
uals were heard singing. 

Morphological Notes. — The specimens examined are quite uni- 
form in structure, the only variation being in size and this is 
probably geographic, as those individuals from the type locality 
are of very similar size, while that from Sewell is distinctly 
smaller. 

Specimens Examined: 5 cf . 

Sewell, New Jersey, VII, 10, 1910, (H. Fox; in reedy swamp), Icf, paraiype, 
[A. N. S. P.]. 

Winslow Junction, New Jersey, VII, 8, 1911, (H. Fox; in bog), 4 o"', type 
and paralypes, [A. N. S. P.]. 



KEHN AND HEBARD 79 

Orchelimum fraternum new ispt'fios (Figs. 16, 33, 65 and 66.) 

As shown in the key this is a species related to 0. unispina, 
differing in the possession of a distinct though shallow humeral 
sinus to the lateral lobes of the pronotum, in the relatively 
greater width of the same lateral lobes, in the relatively broader 
convex callosity of the lobes and in the relatively blunter and 
less attenuate cerci of the male. 

Type. — cf ; Guadalajara, State of Jalisco, Mexico. (D. L. 
Crawford.) [Acad, of Nat. Sci. Phila., Type no. 5269.] 

Description of Type. — Size medium; form moderately robust, subcompressed. 
Head with the line of the occiput and fastigium on a plane with that of the 
dorsum of the pronotum when seen from the side, the fastigial outline well 
rounding into the subarcuate and but moderately retreating facial outline; 
fastigium heavy, when viewed from the dorsum apprecialjly thicker than the 
width of the proximal antennal joint, when seen from the facial aspect the 
lateral margins of the fastigium are strongly arcuato-concave convergent 
ventrad, rather narrowly in contact with the facial fastigium, the interfastigial 
suture arcuate, the fastigium of the face narrow; eyes subcircular in basal 
outline, this flattened cephalad, in depth the eyes are equal to about one and 
one-half times that of the infra-ocular portion of the genae, when viewed from 
the dorsum the eyes are but little prominent and somewhat flattened; antennae 
at least twice as long as the body, proximal joint with a distinct rounded pro- 
jection distad on the internal margin. Pronotum when seen from the side 
with the dorsal line nearly straight, very faintly ascending caudad on the 
metazona, greatest dorsal width (caudad) of pronotal disk contained about one 
and two-fifths time in the dorsal length, on the prozona the disk rounds laterad 
into the lateral lobes but is separated on the metazona l)y distmct though 
rounded shoulders ; cephalic margin of pronotal disk faintly emarginate, caudal 
margin of pronotal disk arcuate, slightly flattened mesad, prozona nearly twice 
the length of the metazona, separated by a distinct but not very deep trans- 
verse impression, faint indications of a medio-longitudinai sulcus present on 
the prozona, this being continuous though slight on the metazona; lateral 
lobes of the pronotum with their greatest dorsal length slightly surpassing the 
greatest depth of the lobes, cephalic margin of lol^es moderately oblique, 
truncate, passing into the sinuato-truncate ventral margin by a well roimded 
obtuse angle, ventro-caudal angle narrowly rounded, rectangulate, caudal 
margin oblique truncate, with a distinct and broad though shallow humeral 
sinus, convex callosity distinct, elongate elliptical, with its greatest width con- 
tained about three times in its length. Tegmina decidedly surpassing the 
apex of the abdomen and falling short of the apices of the caudal femora by 
about the same distance, elongate lanceolate, the margins regularly converging 
in their distal two-thirds, apex acuminate with the extremity very narrowly 
rounded; stridulating field relatively small, distinctly shorter than tlie pro- 
notal disk and not quite as wide as the greatest width of the same, stridulating 
vein nearly straight, slender, subecjual in width. Wings slightly surpassing 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



80 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

the tegminal apices. Pros'ternum bispinose. Cerci acuminate, straight, the 
section of the shaft proximad of the tooth more slender than the median portion, 
which is subinflated, tooth pkced at about the proximal third on the internal 
face and directed cephalo-laterad, the tooth being subequal in length to the 
proximal portion of the shaft, greatly thickened at the base and with a very 
slender and subspiniform apex, median portion of shaft subequal in width, the 
distal third tapering with the immediate apex blunt; subgenital plate with the 
distal margin subtruncate, styles small, slender and tapering, ventral surface 
of plate with a weak median and much thicker paired lateral carinae. Caudal 
femora sUghtly shorter than the body length, slightly surpassing the tips of the 
wings, strongly inflated in the proximal half and regularly tapering to the 
slender distal portion, ventral margins unarmed, genicular lobes very briefly 
and rather bluntly unispinose. 

The type specimen is unique. 

Measurements of Type (in millimeters) . — Length of body, 18.2; 
length of pronotum, 4.9; length of tegmen, 16.6; length of caudal 
femur, 16.1. 

Color Notes. — General color on the lateral lobes of the prono- 
tum and on the abdomen kildare green, passing into mignonette 
green on the limbs and chrysolite green on the face and genae, 
the apex of the abdomen passing into chamois. Dorsum of the 
fastigium, occiput and dorsum of pronotum snuff brown, becom- 
ing tawny-olive on the middle of the pronotal disk, a fine median 
dividing line of the general color present on the head, while on 
the pronotum the distinct dark bordering margins of the area 
and a continuation of the dividing line of the head are seal brown, 
the lateral bordering sections regularly arcuato-convex and thus 
converging caudad as well as cephalad. Cerci weakly washed 
distad with Indian red. Dorsal tibial spines black for the greater 
portion of their length, ventral tibial spines with black less exten- 
sive. Eyes vinaceous-tawny. Antennae, except the two proximal 
joints, ferruginous, sparsely annulate with seal brown. 

Distribution. — This species is only known from the type locality 
in western Mexico-Guadalajara, state of Jalisco. 

Remarks. — This species is quite close to 0. miispina and addi- 
tional material may show them to be inseparable specifically, but 
at the present writing we have found no indications elsewhere in 
the genus, of variation sufficiently decided to cover the differences 
in the character of the humeral sinus and of the cerci seen in 
these two forms. There is no alternative to our present course 
but to arbitrarily consider them to be the same form, which would 
not be warranted by our knowledge of the general fixity within 



REHN AND HEBARD 81 

the genus, of the features here given as diagnostic of this form. 

The species is, however, from a locality at which unispina also 

occurs. 

Specimens Examined: 1 d'. 

Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico, (D. L. Cra^v'ford), 1 cf , type, [A. X. S. P.]. 

Orchelimum unispina (Saussure and Pictet) (Figs. 17, 34, 67 and 68.) 
1898. Xiphidium unispina Saussure and Pictet, Biol. Cent.-Amer., Orth., i, 

p. 398. [Jalisco and Orizaba, Mexico.] 

This species was originally described as a species of Xiphidium 
( = Conocephalus as at present restricted), but it is clearly a mem- 
ber of the genus Orchelimum, although belonging to a subgenus 
which approaches Conocephalus. Saussure and Pictet described 
only the male sex, but by a lapsus calami they give the sex of the 
measured material as female. 

It is evident that this species shows considerable variability 
in tegminal and wing length, the original material having had 
the tegmina surpassing the caudal femora and the wings surpass- 
ing the tegmina, while the only adult seen by us has the tegmina 
decidedly failing to reach the tips of the caudal femora and the 
wings subequal to the tegmina distad. 

Measurements {in millimeters) 



d" 
Jalisco or Orizaba, Mexico. 


Length of 
body 


Length of 
pronotum 


Length of 
tegmen 


Length of 
caudal femur 


(Ex Saussure and Pictet) 

Types 

Guadalajara, Mexico 


17 

18.2 


4 

4.5 


20 

14 


15 
13.7 



We have before us a male in the second instar preceding ma- 
turity, and this shows that the cerci do not develop their character- 
istic structure until the last or next to the last ecdysis. 

This species is known only from central and south central 
Mexico, the records being from Orizaba, state of Vera Cruz, and 
the state of JaUsco, and specifically Guadalajara and Ocotlan in 
the latter state. 

Specimens Examined: 2; 1 o^, 1 juv. cf. 

Guadalajara, Jal'sco, Mexico, (D. L. Crawiord), 1 d^, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Ocotlan, Jalisco, Mexico, 5000 feet elevation, VIII, 29 to IX, 1, 1906, (P. P. 
Calvert), 1 juv. d, [A. N. S. P.]. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



82 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (ORTHOPTERA) 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES 

Plate I 
Fig. 1. — Orchelimum calcaratum. Lateral outline of type. San Antonio. 

Texas. ( X 2) 
Fig. 2. — Orchelimum huUatum. Lateral outline of type. Galveston, Texas. 

(X2) 
Fig. 3. — Orchelimum minor. Lateral outline of male. Stafford's Forge, New 

Jersey. (X 2) 
Fig. 4. — Orchelimum bradleyi. Lateral outline of type. Chase Prairie., 

Georgia. (X 2) 
Fig. 5. — Orchelmmm superbum. Lateral outline of tyj)e. Winslow Junction, 

New Jersey. ( X 2) 
Outlines of lateral lobe of pronotum of male. ( X 3) 
Fig. 6. — Orchelimum agile. Tinicum, Pennsylvania. 
Fig. 7. — Orchelimum gldberrimum. Florence, South CaroUna. 
Fig. 8. — Orchelimum vulgare. Marion, Massachusetts. 
Fig. 9. — Orchelimum gladiator. West Point, Nebraska. ^ 

Fig. 10. — Orchelimum laticauda. Washington, D. C. 
Fig. IL — Orchelimum nigripes. Victoria, Texas. 
Fig. 12. — Orchelimum concinnum. Rye Beach, New Hampshire. 

Plate II 

Outlines of lateral lobe of pronotum of male. (X 3) 
Fig. 13. — Orchelimum fidicinium. Type. Cedar Keys, Florida. 
Fig. 14. — Orchelimum militare. Type. Gainesville, Florida. 
Fig. 15. — Orchelimum volantum. Cedar Bluffs, Nebraska. 
Fig. 16. — Orchelimum fraternum. Type. Guadalajara, Mexico. 
Fig. Vl .—Orchelimum unispina. Lateral outline of male. Guadalajara, Mex- 
ico. (X2) 

Outlines of stridulating field of male. ( X 3) 
Fig. 18. — Orchelimum agile. Tinicum, Pennsylvania. 
Fig. \% .—Orchelimuvi glaberrimum. Florence, South Carolina. 
Fig. 20. — Orchelimum vulgare. Marion, Massachusetts. 
Fig. 21. — Orchelimum gladiator. West Point, Nebraska. 
Fig. 22. — Orchelimum calcaratum. Type. San Antonio, Texas. 
Fig. 23. — Orchelimum bullatum. Type. Galveston, Texas. 
Fig. 24. — Orchelimum laticauda. Washington, D. C. 
Fig. 25. — Orchelim,um nigripes. Victoria, Texas. 
Fig. 26. — Orchelimum minor. Stafford's Forge, New Jersey. 
Fig. 27. — Orchelimum concinnum. Rye Beach, New Hampshire. 
Fig. 28. — Orchelimum fidicinium. Type. Cedar Keys, Florida. 
Fig. 29. — Orchelimum militare. Type. Gainesville, Florida. 
Fig. 30. — Orchelimum volantum. Cedar Bluffs, Nebraska. 
Fig. 31. — Orchelimum bradleyi. Type. Chase Prairie, Georgia. 
Fig. 32. — Orchelimum superbum. Type. Winslow Junction, New Jersey. 
Fig. 33. — Orchelimum fraternum. Type. Guadalajara, Mexico. 
Fig. 34. — Orchelimum unispina. Guadalajara, Mexico. 



REHN AND HEBARD 83 



Plate III 

Dorsal (first) and lateral (second) outlines of left cercus of male. ( X 10) 
Figs. 35 and 36. — Orchelimum agile. Tinicum, Pennsylvania. 
Figs. 37 and 38. — Orchelimum glaberrimum. Florence, South Carolina. 
Figs. 39 and 40. — Orchelimum vulgare. Marion, Massachusetts. 
Figs. 41 and 42. — Orchelimum gladiator. West Point, Nebraska. 
Figs. 43 and 44. — Orchelimum calcaralum. Type. San Antonio, Texas. 
Figs. 45 and 46. — Orchelimum bullatum. Type. Galveston, Texas. 
Figs. 47 and 48. — Orchelimum laticauda. Washington, D. C. 
Figs. 49 and 50. — Orchelimum nigripes. Victoria, Texas. 
Figs. 51 and 52. — Orchelimum minor. Stafford's Forge, New Jersey. 
Figs. 53 and 54. — Orchelimum concinnum. Rye Beach, New Hampshire. 
Figs. 55 and 56. — Orchelimum fidicinium. Type. Cedar Keys, Florida. 
Figs. 57 and 58. Orchelimum militare. Type. Gainesville, Florida. 

Plate IV 

Dorsal (first) and lateral (second) outlines of left cercus of male. ( X 10) 
Figs. 59 and 60. — Orchelimum volantum. Cedar Bluffs, Nebraska. 
Figs. 61 and 62. — Orchelimum bradleyi. Type. Chase Prairie, Georgia. 
Figs. 63 and 64. — ■Orchelimum superbum. Type. Winslow Junction, New 

Jersey. 
Figs. 65 and 66. — OrcJiclimum Jraternum. Type. Guadalajara, Mexico. 
Figs. 67 and 68. — Orchelimum unispina. Guadalajara, Mexico. 

Outlines of ovipositor of female. ( X 2) 
Fig. 69. — Orchelimum agile. Tinicum, Pennsylvania. 
Fig. 70. — Orchelimum glaberrimum. Florence, South Carolina. 
Fig. 71. — Orchelimum vulgare. Marion, Massachusetts. 
Fig. 72. — Orchelimum gladiator. Type. West Point, Nebraska. 
Fig. 73. — Orchelimum calcaralum. Allotype. San Antonio, Texas. 
Fig. 74. — Orchelimum bullatum. Allotype. Rosenberg, Texas. 
Pig. 75. — Orchelimum laticauda. Tinicum, Pennsylvania. 
Fig. 76. — Orchelimum nigripes. Lincoln, Nebraska. 
Fig. 77. — Orchelimum minor. Type. District of Columbia. 
Fig. 78. — Orchelimum concinnum. Rye Beach, New Hampshire. 
Fig. 79. — Orchelimum concinnum. Lincoln, Nebraska. 
Fig. 80. — Orchelimum fidicijiium. Allotype. Cedar Keys, Florida. 
Fig. 81. — Orchelimum militare. Allotype. Gainesville, Florida. 
Fig. 82. — Orchelimum volantum. Vigo County, Indiana. 
Fig. 83. — Orchelimum bradleyi. Allotype. Chase Prairie, Georgia. 



TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC. XLI. 



Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. XLI. 



PI. i. 





REHN AND HEBARD-AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE 



Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. XLI. 



PI. II. 













22 




/„ / 





23 



25 




26 




'27 




28 




29 




30 






33 34 

31 32 

REHN AND HEBARD-AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE 



Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. XLI. 



PI. III. 




REHN AND HEBARD—AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE 



Trans. Am. Eiit. Soc, Vol. XLI. 



PI. IV 







66 



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80 82 8 3 

REHN AND HEBARD AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE 



CONTENTS 



New Species of Heterocera from Tropical America. By 

W. Schaus . . .1 

(Issued February 20, 1915) 

Studies in American Tettigoniidae (Orthoptera). IV. A 

Synopsis of the Species of the Genus Orchelimum. By 

James A. G. Rehn and Morgan Hebard . . . .11 
(Issued April 12, 1915) 



.VOLUME XLI 



NUMBER 2 



JUNE 1915 



TRANSACTION? 



OF THE 



AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 




./ 



PUnUSIIED BY THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY \T THE 
ACADEMY' OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

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SUBSCRIPTION PRICE FOUR DOLLARS PER VOLUME 



H. F. WILSON 85 



MISCELLANEOUS APHID NOTES, CHIEFLY FROM 

OREGON 

BY H. F. WILSON 

Unless otherwise stated, the types of the new species described 
in these Notes are in the private collection of the author. 

I. LIFE HISTORY NOTES ON PROCIPHILUS FRAXINI- 
DIPETALAE Essig^ 

That the Pemphiginids in the genus Prociphilus and feeding 
on ash have the conifers for their alternate food plants, was 
demonstrated in Europe a number of years ago. In the fall of 
1909, the writer, in an attempt to trace a winged aphid which 
was flying through the air in great numbers at Washington, D. C, 
located them on the roots of the white pine, Pinus strobus, and 
as this species was later found to develop on Fraxinus sp.,^ the 
writer was able to work out the relationship of the present species 
on Fraxinus oregona Nuttall and Pseudotsuga taxifolia (Poir) 
Brit., in Oregon. 

Each spring there appears on the leaves of the ash a purphsh 
globose aphid which causes the leaves to curl and assume a gall-like 
formation. Inside the curled leaves these early spring forms, the 
stem mothers, produce alive a number of young greenish aphids 
which become mature pupae about the last of May, and attain- 
ing wings, usually disappear about the first week in June. These 
winged forms supposedly^ go to the roots of Douglas fir and 

1 In Europe there are two similar Pemphiginids on ash; owing to a lack of 
sufficient material, the author is unable at this time to compare the American 
species with European forms; but as there seems to be practically no distin- 
guishing characters between them, the American species may prove to be the 
same as those in Europe. 

2 This species was later described as P. venafuscus by Dr. Edith M. Patch, 
Entomologist of the Maine Experiment Station. 

3 The writer has tried for three years to colonize the alate form from the ash 
on Douglas fir for seedlings, but without success. The migi-atory forms from 
this latter plant have been transferred to ash seedlings with the successful 
production of eggs and the stem mothers the following sjjring. 



TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XH. ^y^^m'': ' 1* 




yZ^ 



86 APHID NOTES 

produce alive a number of pale whitish young, which develop 
into apterous viviparous females and are the first of a series of 
summer generations. 

In the fall, part of the aphids then present on the roots migrate 
to the ash and produce alive the sexual forms. Those remaining 
do not acquire wings but continue feeding, and one can find these 
apterous viviparous forms present on the roots in all stages 
throughout the year. The sexual forms are minute, brownish, 
and have no mouth parts. After copulation, each female pro- 
duces a single elongate egg. In this stage the insect is carried 
over the winter on the ash. 

A second species which has been imported into this state (Oregon) 
on red and white ash, the writer is calling Prociphilus humeliae 
Schrank. This species seems to be entirely distinct from the 
first species, in that it feeds on the tips of the shoots and does not 
ordinarily get on to the leaves. The stem mothers of the two 
are quite similar, but the migratory forms show a decided differ- 
ence in several ways. A description of the various stages of 
Prociphilus fraxini-dipetaliae Essig follows : 

Stem mother: Globose, body nearly as wide as long. General color choco- 
late brown and mottled with green above. Sutures between body segments 
dark green. Head and legs black, antennae black at the base, light brown 
toward the tip. Each eye is composed of three smaller eyes. The wax plates 
on the head are very variable in that the two larger ones at the base of each 
section of the occiput oftentimes merge into one long plate, the smaller ones 
varying in number from five to six, and apparently without regular size or 
position. Those on the body are in series of six to each segment and are more 
or less regular in position. 

Measurements: Length of body, 4 mm.; width, 2.75 mm. Length of anten- 
nal segments, I, 0.09 mm.; II, 0.11 mm.; Ill, 0.176 mm.; IV, 0.11 mm.; V, 
0.09 mm.; VI, 0.135 mm.; spur, 0.05 mm.; total length, 0.75 mm. 

Pupa: General color lemon yellow, except the v/ing pads which are dusky. 
The entire body above is covered with long waxy white threads which have a 
blue tinge. When they are about ready to change to alate forms, they become 
a Httler darker in color with occasional pinkish and bluish variations. Each 
abdominal segment with a row of six oblong wax plates. Cauda, short and 
broad, rounded at the tip. Color black to dusky. Length of body, 3 to 4 
mm.; width, 2 mm. 

Spring migrant (Plate V, fig. l): General color blui.sh green with the entire 
body pulverulent. The legs, antennae and thorax are bluish l)lack ; the abdomen 
is dark greenish blue. On account of the fact that the waxy threads on the 
body of the insect are easily rubbed off, it is hard to tell just how nmch of this 



H. F. WILSON 87 

material should be present, but in all specimens examined, only long threads 
were found along the sides and at the tip of the abdomen. The wax plates 
are apparently limited to two on the head at the base of the occiput, four on 
the prothorax, two at the top and center and one on each side, and two large 
plates on the mesathorax, one on each side of the median line, and at the 
base of the segment. The wings are hyaline with the stigma dusky at the 
thinner portion to black at the thicker 

Measurements: Length of body, 3.8 mm.; width, 1.8 mm. Length of anten- 
nal segments: I, 0.0G6 mm.; II, 0.09 mm.; Ill, 0.49 mm.; IV, 0.242 mm.; V, 
0.3 mm.; VI, 0.3 mm.; spur, 0.066 mm.; wing expanse, 11 mm. 

Apterous viviparous female: On roots of Douglas fir. General color white 
with a dusky tinge; head, antennae and cauda dusky to nearly black. Where- 
ever they have been feeding, the bark and earth have a bluish tinge. Head 
with four pairs of wax plates, sometimes the center plate is absent and the two 
basal plates are merged into one long plate. Antennae and legs set with 
numerous short hairs. Fifth segment with one small sensoria at the distal 
end. 

Measurements: Length of body, 2 mm. ; width, 1.5 mm. Length of antennae 
by segments: I, 0.066 mm.; II, 0.11 mm.; Ill, 0.12 mm.; IV, 0.135 mm.; V, 
0.2 mm.; VI and spur, 0.176 mm. 

Fall migrant (Plate V, fig. 2): General appearance, wings smoky; head and 
thorax l^luish black; abdomen bluish green, covered with a heavy coating 
of white waxy threads. Antennae and legs dusky. Antennae with six 
segments, the spur being but a thumb-like projection. The third segment 
with 21 to 24 transverse sensoria; foui-th with 8 to 12; fifth with 6 to 11; sixth 
with 3 to 6. Abdomen spindle shaped and with a row of 7 or 8 nipple-like 
protuberances along each side. Cauda short and bluntly angled at the tip. 
Anal plate broad and slightly rounded. 

Measurements: Length of body, 2.25 mm.; width, 0.9 mm.; wing expanse, 
8.5 mm. Length of antennae by segments: I, 0.066 mm.; II, 0.09 mm.; Ill, 
0.38 mm.; IV, 0.22 mm.; V, 0.242 mim.; VI, 0.176 mm.; spur, 0.045 mm.; total 
length, 1.219 mm. 

Sexual forms: The sexual forms are minute, light brown and the only devel- 
opment which takes place after birth may be a single molt, as reported from 
other related species. Both sexes are without mouth parts and each female 
develops but a single egg. Copulation apparently takes place shortly after 
birth and both males and females live but a short time. The males are broader 
and shorter than the females and the body segments are more distinct. The 
antennae have fine hairs in both cases. 

Measurements: Males— Length of body, 0.56 mm.; width, 0.31 mm.; 
antennae, 0.22 mm. Females— Length of body, 0.71 mm.; width, 0.242 mm.; 
antennae, 0.242 mm. 

The eggs are light brown when first deposited and later turn brownish black. 



TRANS. .\M. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



88 APHID NOTES 

II. THE APHIDIDAE INFESTING SAGE BRUSH 
(ARTEMESIA SPP.) IN OREGON 

Nine species of aphids have heretofore been described as new 
from the various species of Artemesia in America. Of these at 
least seven are found in Oregon. Six additional species are here 
recorded and it is possible that two of these, Microsiphum ore- 
gonensis and Aphis hermistonii, may prove to be Western forms 
of M. canadensis Williams and Aphis canae Williams. A key 
to the Oregon species is included below: 

I. Nectaries less than four times as long as wide. II. 

Nectaries more than four times as long as wide. V. 

II. Body with speciaHzed setae. III. 

Body without specialized setae. IV. 

III. SpeciaHzed setae broadly fan-like at tip. Nectaries shorter than 

width. 

Chaitophorus tridentatae new species 
Specialized setae narrowly fan-hke at tip. Nectaries twice as long 
as broad. 

Microsiphum oregonensis new species 

IV. Setae pointed at tip. Nectaries as broad as long. 

Color green. Microsiphum canadensis (Williams) 

Color red or brown. Microsiphum artemesiae (Gillette) 
V. Antennae shorter than the body. VI. 

Antennae longer than the body. IX. 

VI. Body with specialized setae (fan-hke at tip). VII. 

Body without speciahzed setae (pointed at the tip) . VIII . 

VII. Nectaries cylindrical and straight, mouth enlarged. 

Aphis frigidae Oestlund 
Nectaries curved and slightly clavate, held close to the body. 

Aphis tridentatae new species 
VIII. Color of body dark green. 

Aphis hermistonii new species 
Color of body shining wine red. 

Aphis artemesicola Wilhams 
Color of body brown. 

Third antennal segment with numerous small sensoria. 

Aphis reticulata new species 
Third antennal segment with less than ten large sensoria. 

Aphis oregonensis new species 



H. F. WILSON 89 

IX. Body covered with specialized setae. (Fan-like at tip.) 

Macrosiphum artemesicola Williams 
Body covered with capitate setae. 

Macrosiphum frigidae Oestlund 
Body covered with pointed setae. 

Macrosiphum ludovicianae Oestlund 

Chaitophorus tridentatae new species (Plate VI, figs. 22 to 25.) 

Found throughout eastern Oregon on Artemesia tridentata. 
This species is not always easy to locate on account of the simi- 
lai'ity in color of the l)ody to that of the plant. The entire body 
is covered with specialized setae which are fan shaped at the tip. 
These give the appearance of fine white hairs or powder. Most 
of the individuals are found in rows, one behind the other on the 
leaves. A good many are found in around the base of the leaf 
and flower stems. 

Apterozis viviparous female: General color, light green with more or less of 
a powdery appearance. Abdomen with a darker green line along the center. 
Antennae dusky at the tip and shading to light green at the base. Legs with 
tarsi black; remaining parts and the cauda dusky. Body covered with spe- 
cialized setae which are broadly fan shaped at the apex. Nectaries not much 
more than pores and hardly distinguishable among the speciaUzed setae. 
Antennae shorter than the body and without distinct tubercles. First anten- 
nal segment strongly gibbous and with two or three specialized setae, one of 
which is found at the apex of the segment. Second segment with one, third 
with four, fourth with two and fifth and sixth without setae. Legs have no 
specialized setae. Cauda slightly ensrform and not visible from above. 
Nectaries so short that shape and size cannot be definitely settled with material 
at hand. 

Measurements: Length of body L38 mm.; width 0.67 mm. Length of 
antennal segments: III, 0.154 mm.; IV, 0.11 mm.; V. 0.135 mm.; VI, 0.11 mm.; 
spur, 0.154 mm.; length of cauda, 0.11 mm. 

Alate viviparous female: Light green in color as in apterous form. Head and 
thorax light brown. Antennae Ijlack at the tip and shading to light green at 
the ba.se. Legs light green with tips of the tibiae and the tarsi black. Cauda 
light green, nectaries invisible. Entire body covered with specialized setae 
as in the apterous form. Third antennal segment with 4 or 5 large sensoria, 
wings long and slender, venation normal. Cauda rounded and tapering at 
the tip. 

Measurements: Length of body, 0.88 mm.; width, 0.30 mm. Length of 
antennal segments: III, 0.22 mm.; IV, 0.135 mm.; V, 0.176 mm.; VI, 0.135 
mm.; spur, 22 mm. Length of cauda, 0.09 mm.; length of wing, 1.84 mm.; 
width, 0.71 mm. 

TIi.\NS. AM. ENT. .SOC, XLI. 



90 APHID NOTES 

Microsiphum canadensis (Williams) (Plate "\'I, figs. 1 to 7.) 

Cryptosiphum canadensis ( Williams). ■* 

Except for a difference in color there is practically no difference 
between this species and M. (Chaitophorus) arteinesiae Gillette. 
M. oregonensis differs from the latter in the specialized setae, so 
that there is a possibility that these species may be only different 
forms of the same species. 

Apterous viviparous female: General color pale green. Antennae deep 
black at the tip and through segments 4 to 6; third segment dusky at the 
distal end and shading to light gi-een at the base. Legs with the tarsi and 
tips of the tibiae and femora black, the other parts dusky. Body globular 
and broadly ovate from above; sparsely set with heavy blunt setae. Antennae 
as long as the body and on semi-distinct tubercles. Third segment with one 
large sensoria near the base (notes from type slide in U. S. Nat. Museum). 
Davis ^ has figured this segment with 5 small sensoria; nectaries about as broad 
as long and tapering. Cauda very short and broad. 

Measurements: Length of body, 1.9 mm.; width, 1.22 mm. Length of 
antennal segments: III, 0.4 mm.; IV, 0.4 mm.; V, 0.2 mm.; VI, 0.11 mm.; 
spur, 0.55 mm. Length of nectaries, 0.45 mm.; length of cauda, 0.45 mm. 

Alate viviparous female: General color, head and thorax dusky or black, 
abdomen dark green ?, nectaries and cauda dusky to black. Abdomen wide 
and rounded; tip widely rounded, and not pointed as in other species. Anten- 
nae as long as the body, black at the tips and lighter at the base. Antennal 
tubercles distinct but not extensive. Third antennal segment with from 2 to 
4 large sensoria. Wings with normal venation but with veins slightly dusky. 
Nectaries short, slightly tapering and about as broad as long. Cauda trian- 
gular and acute at the tip. 

Measurements: Length of body, 1.45 mm.; width, 0.9 mm. Length of 
antennal segments: III, 0.33 mm.; IV, 0.27 mm.; V, 0.27 mm.; VI, 0.135 mm.; 
spur, 0.622 mm. Length of nectaries; length of cauda 0.066 mm.; length of 
wing, 2.1 mm.; width, 0.84 mm. 

Microsiphum artemesiae (Gillette) (Plate VI, figs. 8 to 16.) 
Chaitophorus artemesiae Gillette. ^ 

Collected on Artemesia tridentata at Salisbury, Oregon, July 
26, 1914. 

Apterous viviparous female: General color wine red and shining. In this 
case not brownish lilack as in the original description. Antennae black at the 

^ "The Aphididae of Nebraska," University of Nebraska Studies, X, no. 2, 
p. 89. 

^ WiUiams, "The Aphididae of Nebraska," a critical review, ibid, XI, 
no. 3, July 1911, plate I. 

BEnt. News, XXII, p. 443, 1911. 



H. F. WILSON 91 

tips, shading to opaque yellow at the base. Legs black except the basal por- 
tions of the tibiae and tarsi which are yellow. Nectaries and Cauda concolorous 
with the body. Antennae as long or slightly longer than the body. Antenna! 
tubercles semi-distinct. Third antennal segment with 1 or 2 large sensoria. 
Abdomen globose; nectaries as broad as wide and slightly tapering. Cauda 
short and triangular. Body covered with thick, pointed setae. 

Measurements: Length of body, 1.75 mm.; width, 1 mm. Length of 
antennal segments: III, 0.51 mm.; IV, 0.38 mm.; V, 0.34 mm.; VI, 0.066 mm.; 
spur, 0.69 mm. Length of cauda and nectaries cannot be determined in speci- 
mens at hand. 

Alate viid parous female: General color, head and thorax black with a reddish 
tinge. Abdomen shining browiiish red. Antennae black at the tip, yellowish 
at the base. Legs, except base of tibiae and femora, black. Nectaries and 
Cauda concolorous with the body. Wings with stigma and veins dusky; 
antennae reaching to the tip of the abdomen and the third segment with as 
many as 10 large sensoria, although Gillette only gives 4. The number appar- 
ently varies considerably, since I have found some specimens sent me by Mr. 
L. C. Bragg with six sensoria. 

Measurements: Length of body, 1.44 mm.; width, 0.84 mm. Length of 
antennal segments; III, 0.51 mm.; IV, 0.38 mm.; V, 0.35 mm.; VI, 0.135 mm.; 
spur, 0.67 mm. Length of nectaries ?; length of cauda 0.066 mm.; length of 
wings, 2.58 mm.; width, 1 mm. 

Microsiphum oregonensis new species? (Plate VI, figs. 17 to 21.) 

Found on Artemesia tridentata at Salisbury, Oregon, July 26, 
1914. That two species of such similar and unusual characters 
should exist on the same host in the same locality is more or less 
open to question, but the present species is questionably described 
as new on the fact that the setae of the individuals here included 
are entirely different from those of the preceding species, and 
while the nectaries are more or less similar there is still a distinct 
difference. The alate form has not been taken. 

Apterous viviparous female: General color light wine red, with a more 
or less shining or metalhc appearance. Antennae and legs dusky red except 
the basal half of the former and the tibiae of the latter. Body globose, 
oval from above, and sparsely set with long curved specialized setae each of 
which bears a fiat fan-shaped tip. Antennae as long as the body. Antennal 
tubercles semi-distinct. Thu-d segment with a single large sensoria near the 
base. First, second and thu-d segments with spines similar to those on the 
body. On the third segment these are all on one side. Nectaries twice as 
long as broad and slightly tapering. Cauda short, broad and blunt. 

Measurements: Length of body, 1.66 mm.; width, 0.88 mm. Length of 
antennal segments: III, 0.31 mm.; IV, 0.3 mm.; V, 0.27 mm.; VI, 0.11 mm.; 
spur, 0.49 nun. Length of nectaries, 0.066 mm. ; length of cauda, 0.066 mm. 

TR.VNS. AM. F:NT. SOC. XLI. 



92 APHID NOTES 

Aphis reticulata new species (Plate VII, figs. 1 to 7.) 

On Arte7nesia tridenfata, Klamath Falls, Oregon, July 9, 1914, 
and in company with M. frigidae Oestlund. 

Apterous viviparous female: General color brown. Antennae black at the 
tip and shading to dusky at the base of the third segment. Segments one and 
two brownish opaque. Legs dark brown except at the base of the femora; 
nectaries and Cauda dark bro\«i to black. The important character of this 
species is the reticulation found over the entire body. The structure of the 
outer sheath of the antennae is unusually different in that it seems to be made 
up of numerous small ridges which gives an additional opaqueness and after 
clearing they can hardly be seen through. Antennae not quite as long as the 
body and on slight tubercles. The nectaries slightly tapering and slightly 
curved inward, no reticulations are found at the tip. Thorax bears a single 
finger-hke tubercle on each side and the abdomen with others, a large pair 
just back of the thorax. Cauda shghtly more than half as long as the nectaries 
and tapering to a blunt rounded point. 

Measurements: Length of body, 1.72 mm.; width, 0.88 mm. Length of 
antennal segments: III, 0.49 mm.; IV, 0.24 mm.; V, 0.2 mm.; VI, 0.11 mm.; 
spur, 0.33 mm. Length of nectaries, 0.49 mm.; length of cauda, 0.18 mm. 

Alate viviparous female: General color of head, thorax, antennae and legs, 
black. Abdomen dark brown. Antennae reaching to the base of the nec- 
taries, third segment with about 40 irregular, raised sensoria. Ocular tubercles 
unusually prominent. Prothorax with a single finger-hke tubercle on each 
side. Abdomen with tubercle above base of hind pair of legs. Nectaries 
reaching beyond the tip of the cauda, cyhndi'ical and tips slightly bent out- 
ward and downward. Cauda tapering, curved upward and blunt at the tip. 

Measurements: Length of body, 1.5 mm.; width, 0.58 mm. Length of 
antennal segments: III, 0.4 mm.; IV, 0.2 mm.; V, 0.22 mm.; VI, 0.11 mm; 
spur, 0.35 mm. Length of nectaries, 0.31 mm.; length of cauda, 0.154 mm.; 
length of wings, 3.1 mm.; width, 1.04 mm. 

Aphis oregonensis new species (Plate VII, figs. 8 to 17.) 

Collected at Klamath Falls, Oregon, July 8, 1913, on Artemesia 
tridentata. 

A peculiar condition of the plant Avas found in connection with 
each colony of this species. In every instance the stem of the 
plant had been broken and bent over. There were indications 
present that some insect had almost eaten away the stem at 
that point. 

Apterous viviparous female: General color, greyish brown tinged with wine 
red. Nectaries with the first four and the basal half of the fifth segments 
yellow, remaining parts black. Legs, except the tip of the til)iae and the tarsi, 
yellowish; rest black. Nectaries and cauda black. Antennae about one-half 
the length of the body. Prothorax with a single blunt tubercle. Abdomen 



H. F. WILSON 93 

broadly oval, pointed at the tip and with a row of 4 or more blunt tubercles 
along the side of the abdomen. Nectaries slightly tapering and curved; cauda 
short, broad at the base and tapering to a rounded tip. 

Measurements : Length of body, 1.71 mm. ; width of body, 1.11 mm. Length 
of antennal segments; III, 0.242 m.m.; IV, 0.22 mm.; V, 0.176 mm.; VI, 0.135 
mm. ; spur, 0.242 mm. Length of nectaries, 0.42 mm. ; length of cauda, 0.09 mm. 

Alate viviparous female: General color of head and thorax black; abdomen 
greyish brown tinged with wine red. Antennae dusky yellow at base, black 
at the tip. Legs with middle of tibiae and femora dusky yellow; remaining 
parts black. Nectaries dusky red; cauda yellowish at the base, black at the 
tip. Antennae reaching to the base of the nectaries, third segment with 4 or 
5 large sensoria. Prothorax with a single finger-like tubercle at the base of 
each side. Just back of that and apparently between the prothorax and the 
mesathorax on each side is a larger and broader tubercle or hump. Abdomen 
with a number of large tubercles along the side, two of which are finger-hke 
projections one on each side midway between the nectaries and the cauda. 
Wing venation normal, nectaries tapering, smaller at the base than at the 
tip and reaching to the base of the Cauda. Cauda short and tapering, tip 
bluntly rounded. Caudal plate broad and shghtly rounded. 

Measurements: Length of body, 1.34 mm.; width, 0.67 mm. Length of 
antennal segments: III, 0.242 mm.; IV, 0.154 mm.; V, 0.154 mm.; VI, 
0.11 mm.; spur, 0.176 mm. Length of nectaries, 0.198 mm.; length of cauda, 
0.11 mm. Length of wing, 2.22 mm.; width, 0.33 mm. 

Aphis hermistonii new species (Plate VII, figs. 18 to 25.) 

First taken at Hermiston, Oregon, 1912; later taken at Klamath 
Falls and other points in eastern Oregon. Found on Artemesia 
tridentata. 

Apterous viviparous female: General color dark green, body flecked with 
patches of whitish powder. Antennae dusky yellow at the base, black toward 
the tip. Legs, nectaries and cauda dusky to black. Antennae not quite 
reaching to the base of the nectaries. Third segment with one sensorium 
and this is lacking in a great many individuals. Prothorax with a single well 
developed finger-like tubercle on each side. Abdomen with four large tuber- 
cles, two on each side. The first two are found one on each side of the abdomen 
near the thorax. The other two are found half way between the nectaries 
and the base of the cauda. Nectaries cyHndrical with the tip much broader 
than the nectary proper. Cauda short and tapering. 

Measurements: Length of body, 1.35 mm.; width, 0.777 mm. Length of 
antennal segments: III, 0.176mm.; IV, 0.154 mm.; V, 0.156mm.; VI, 0.11 mm.; 
spur, 0.18 mm.; length of nectaries, 0.35 mm.; length of cauda, 0.66 mm. 

Alale viviparous female: General color head and thorax black; abdomen 
dark green with scattered spots of white powder; antennae, legs, nectaries 
and cauda dusky or black with a greenish tinge. Antennae not quite reaching 
to the base of nectaries. Third segment with 4 or 5 large sensoria. Pro- 
thorax with tubercles as in the apterous form and aljdomen with a single large 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



94 APHID NOTES 

tubercle on each side just behind the metathorax. Nectaries thicker at the 
base and at the tip than in the middle. Flange at the tip broadest part of 
nectaries. Cauda short, tapering and turned upward. 

Measurements: Length of body, 1.2 mm.; width, 0.5 mm. Length of 
antennal segments: III, 0.198 mm.; IV, 0.11 mm.; V, 0.135 mm.; VI, 0.01 mm.; 
spur, 0.176 mm. Length of nectaries, 1.54 mm.; length of cauda, 0.05 mm.; 
length of wing, 1.62 mm.; width, 0.67 mm. 

Aphis tridentatae new species (Plate VII, figs. 26 to 30.) 

Found in company with M. artemesiae Boyer and Ch. triden- 
tatae during May and June. 

This species resembles Ch. tridentatae on the plants and the 
only distinction is the wider body and pinkish color of some 
individuals. iTnder the microscope the spines are found to be 
different and the presence of well developed nectaries readily 
separates this species from the other. There is no present genus 
into which this species can be placed so it is deemed best to desig- 
nate it as an Aphis for the time being. 

Apterous viviparous female: General color light pink or white, covered with 
numerous white fan-like specialized setae. Antennae black at the tip shading 
to dusky at the base; legs dusky at the tip of the femora and tibiae and the 
tarsi black. Head shghtly convex, abdomen obovate, caudal end broadly 
rounded, cauda not apparent from above, very short and rounded. Antennae 
slightly longer than one-half the body and antennal tubercles present as ridges. 
Antennae without specialized setae. Legs sparsely set with setae like those 
on the body but not quite so heavy. Eyes hardly tuberculate. Nectaries 
curved and clavate with the tip cut obliquely. In many individuals the 
nectaries cling so closely to the body that they cannot be seen. 

Measin-ements: Length of body, 1.54 mm.; width, 0.8 mm. Length of 
antennal segments: III, 0.14 mm.; IV, 0.135 mm.; V, 0.135 mm.; VI, 0.11 mm.; 
spm", 0.22 mm. Length of nectaries, 0.22 mm.; length of cauda, 0.45 mm.; 
length of speciaUzed setae, 0.045 mm. 

Alate viviparous female: General color pink or light green with hght Ijrown 
head and thorax. Antennae black at the tip and shading to hght or dusky 
green at the base. Legs with femora light, tibiae dusky and tarsi black. 
Cauda hght gi-een. The spines are not nearly as numerous as in the apterous 
forms but they are sparsely found over the entire body and on the legs. Those 
on the legs are much finer than those on the body. Antennae normally 
nearly as long as the body and rather slender. Third segment with 4 round 
sensoria placed as in drawing. Wings long and slender, venation normal. 
Nectaries as in the apterous form. Cauda almost cylindrical and extending 
slightly beyond the tip of the abdomen. 

Measurements: Length of body, 1 mm.; width, 0.35 mm. Length of anten- 
nal segments: III, 0.2 mm.; IV, 0.176 mm.; V, 0.154 nun.; VI, 0.09 mm.; spur. 



H. F. WILSON 95 

0.27 mm. Length of nectaries, 0.22 mm.; length of cauda, 0.066 mm.; length 
of wing, 2.22 mm.; width, 0.67 mm. 

Aphis frigidae Oestlund ^ (Plate VIII, figs. 20 to 24.) 

Found in company with M. frigidae Oestlund on Artemesia 
tridentata throughout the eastern part of Oregon. 

General color dark brown with a greenish tinge which is not at first evident 
on account of a general light colored appearance produced by a coating of fine 
white powder. In the original description of this species Oestlund speaks of 
"a rather thick pubescence of fine and short hairs" which I have been unable 
to discover. The entire body is, however, covered with long curved hairs 
having flared tips. Antennae black except at the base of the third and the 
first and second segments. Legs, nectaries and cauda dusky to black. The 
antennae are as long as the body and are not mounted on antennal tubercles. 
Head nearly straight in front, eyes black and with ocellus weak or entirely 
wanting. Abdomen oval and round and curved with numerous light spots 
which are the tubercles from which the hairs originate. The nectaries form 
one of the most important specific characters of this species. They are cylin- 
drical throughout and the tip is widened out to twice the width of the main 
part. Cauda short and rounded at the tip. 

Measurements: Length of body, 1.6 mm.; width, 0.78 mm.; length of anten- 
nal segments: III, 0.25 mm.; IV, 0.23 mm.; V, 0.22 mm.; VI, 0.11 mm.; spur, 
0.42 mm. Length of nectaries, 0.42 mm.; length of cauda, 0.12 mm. 

Aphis artemesicola Williams* (Plate VIII, figs. 16 to 19.) 

What is beheved to be this species was taken on Artemesia 
tridentata in company with M. canadensis Williams at Salisbury, 
Oregon, July 26, 1914, Only the apterous forms were taken 
but the specimens agree fairly well with Williams' description. 
The number of sensoria on the third antennal segment do not, 
however, correspond with those shown by Davis in his critical 
review of Williams' species.^ 

General color shining wine red; antennae about two-thu'ds the length of the 
body. Antennal segments one, two and the greater part of three dusky yeUow; 
remaining parts deep black. Legs black except at base of femora and the basal 
half of the tibiae. Nectaries black; cauda black at tip, dusky red toward base. 
Antennae with from 2 to 8 sensoria on the third segments, mostly 2 to 4. Nec- 
taries slightly tapering and each one with about four haii's; tip flanged. Cauda 
short and broad at the base, and pointed at the end. Body with pointed 
hairs. 

^ Fourteenth Annual Kept. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Surv. Minn., 1886, p. 46. 
^ "The Aphididae of Nebraska," University of Nebraska Studies, X, no. 2, 
p. 37. 
' Loc. cit. 

TR.\NS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



96 APHID NOTES 

Measurements: Length of body, 1.21 mm.; width, 1.154 mm. Length of 
antennal segments: III, 0.44 mm.; IV, 0.33 mm.; V, 0.27 mm.; VI, 0.135 mm.; 
spur, 0.49 mm. Length of nectaries, 0.15 mm.; length of cauda, 0.11 mm. 

Macrosiphum artemesicola Williams i" (Plate VIII, figs. 11 to 15.) 

On Artemesia vulgaris at Corvallis, Oregon, July 2, 1911. 

General color pale green and appearing as if covered with minute particles 
of fine white powder. This appearance is in reality due to numerous capitate 
hairs which cover the entire body but are not found on the appendages. This 
species is a very active one and may be found in company with M. ludovi- 
cianae on the above host on the stems and leaves, mostly on the former. 

Apterous viviparous female: General color light gi-een and almost identical 
with that of the food plant. Antennae black except the first and second and 
basal parts of the thu-d segments. Legs dusky to black except the basal part 
of the tibiae and femora. Nectaries black. Cauda dusky. Antennae long 
and slender and reaching beyond the nectaries and cauda. Each antennal 
tubercle with a single capitate hair at its apex. First antennal segment 
strongly gibbous on the inner side. Thu-d segment with two visible sensoria 
near the base, fifth with one near the distal end and sixth with the usual number 
at the base of the spur. The entire body is thickly set with toadstool-like 
setae of which there appears to be two forms. They are in reality about the 
same size and shape except that those on the head and at the base of the cauda 
have a longer stem than those on the rest of the body. The antennae are very 
sparsely set with fine short hairs. The same is true of the femora and while 
there are a greater number on the tibiae they are not as numerous as in the 
previous species. The hairs on the cauda and caudal plate are rather sparse 
and are longer than those on the legs and antennae. Nectaries slender and 
slightly tapering. Cauda ensiform and rounded at the tip. The outer sur- 
face of the latter seems to be made up of fine short pointed scales. 

Measurements: Length of body, 1.73 mm.; width, 0.88 mm. Length of 
antennal segments: III, 0.58 mm.; IV, 0.49 mm.; V, 0.49 mm.; VI, 0.11 mm.; 
spur, 0.75 mm. Length of nectaries, 0.44 mm.; length of cauda, 0.154 mm. 

Alate viviparous female: General color of head and thorax dusky brown or 
black; abdomen similar in appearance to that of apterous form. Antennae 
black at the tip shading to light green at the base. Legs dusky green at distal 
end of tibiae and femora, lighter at base; tarsi black. Nectaries and cauda 
dusky to black. Antennae longer than the body. Antennal tubercles strong 
and each with three capitate hairs, center of forehead with two. Fu'st antennal 
segment strongly gibbous and without hairs or bristles. Third segment with 
about 14 round sensoria on the outer side of the segment, fourth apparently 
with none, the fifth with one and the sixth normal. Wings hyaline but with 
dark veins. Nectaries more slender than in the apterous form and thicker at 
the base and tip than in the middle. Cauda tapering and with a broadly 
rounded tip. 

^^ "The Aphididae of Nebraska," University of Nebraska Studies, X, no. 2, 
p. 73. 



H. F. WILSOX 97 

Measurements: Length of body, 2.11 mm.; width, 0.95 mm. Length of 
antennal segments: III, 0.86 mm.; IV, 0.75 mm.; V, 0.73 mm.; VI, 0.15-i mm.; 
spur, .122 mm. Length of nectaries, 0.644 mm.; length of Cauda, 0.154 mm.; 
length of wing, 3.11 mm.; width, 1.11 mm. 

Macrosiphum artemesiae Boyer ^^ (Plate VIII, figs. 6 to 10.) 
Siphonaphora frigidae Oestlund.^'' 
Nectarophora artemesiae Cowen. ^^ 
Nectarophora coiceni Hunter. " 

This species is found in all sections of Oregon where Artemesia 
tridentata grows. It has been collected in a very isolated patch 
of this plant on top of Grays Peak, Grant County, Oregon, eleva- 
tion about 7000 feet. It apparently does not occur in the Wil- 
lamette valley. Two forms of this species are generally found, 
one a dark shining green and the other a light moss green. Both 
forms are found together on the same plant, and in late July 
colonies of the lighter form may be found separate from the 
others. The following description is made from the dark form: 

Apterous viviparous female: General color dark metallic green; legs and 
antennal black except the basal parts of the femora, and the first, second and 
a part of the third antennal segments. Eyes, nectaries and cauda black. 
Antennae longer than the body, third segment with from six to nine irregular 
round sensoria. Nectaries long, stout, tapering, and reaching bej^ond the tip 
of the Cauda. Each nectary with about four capitate setae. Cauda long, 
heavy, broadly pointed and ensiform. Nectaries reticulated for a very short 
distance back of the tip. The chief character of this species is the capitate 
hairs which are found sparsely over the body. 

Measurements: Length of body, 2 mm.; width, at widest part of abdomen, 
1.25 mm. Length of antennal segments: III, 0.74 mm.; IV, 0.6 mm.; V, 0.5 
mm.; VI, 0.154 mm.; spur, 0.8 mm. Length of nectaries, 0.73 mm.; length of 
Cauda, 0.30 mm. 

Alate viviparous female: General color, head and thorax shining black. 
Abdomen shining dark green. Antennae except base of third segment and 
legs except base of femora black; eyes, nectaries and cauda also black. Anten- 
nae longer than the body and on strong gibbous tubercles. Third segment 
with 11 to 15 visible round irregular sized sensoria, fourth with about seven 
and fifth and sixth with usual number. It is impossible to make out all of the 
sensoria on the third and fourth segments without clearing. Wing venation 

"Ann. Soc. Ent. France, X, p. 162, 1841. 

^ Fourteenth Ann. Rcpt. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey Minn., 18S6, p. 20. 

" Colo. Agl. Exp. Sta. Bull. 31, Tec. Ser. 1, p. 123, 1895 (Mr. L. C. Bragg 
wTites me that Cowen's species is the same as that of Oestlund.) 

1^ Iowa Ex. Sta. Bull. 60, 1901, p. 114, A new name for N. artemesiae 
Cowen, which is preoccupied. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



98 APHID NOTES 

normal. Nectaries thick, long and almost cylindrical but with a slight taper. 
They reach to about the tip of the cauda, which is similar in shape to that of 
the apterous form. 

Measurements: Length of body, 2 mm.; width, 0.9 mm. Length of anten- 
nal segments: III, 0.75 mm.; IV, 0.51 mm.; V, 0.47 mm.; VI, 0.154 mm.; spur, 
0.75 mm. Length of nectaries, 0.52 mm.; length of cauda, 0.27 mm.; length of 
wing, 4 mm.; width, 1.34 mm. 

Macrosiphum ludovicianiae Oestlund (Plate VIII, figs. 1 to 5.) 

Collected at Corvallis, Oregon, July 2, 1911. On Artemesia 
vulgaris and on the same plant at Salisbury, Oregon, July 26, 
1914. A very large greyish green species feeding mostly on the 
stems. 

Apterous viviparous female: General color pale green, entire body covered 
with a fine white powder, eyes reddish. Antennae longer than the body and 
black except the first and second segments and the basal half of the third which 
are dusky. Legs black except the basal part of the femora. Nectaries black 
and cauda yellow. Third segment of antennae with 9 to 12 visible irregular 
sensoria, which are more or less roundish in shape. Nectaries and cauda as 
in the alate form. 

Measurements: Length of body, 2.5 mm.; width, 1.1 mm. Length of anten- 
nal segments: III, 1.11 mm.; IV, 1.07 mm.; V, 0.86 mm.; VI, 0.3 mm.; spur, 
1.25 mm. Length of nectaries, 0.86 mm.; length of cauda, 0.53 mm. 

Alate viviparous female: General color light green; abdomen and legs 
covered with a white powder which gives them about the color of the plants 
upon which they are found. Eyes red. Antennae deep black except the two 
basal segments and a part of the third. Legs dusky to black except the basal 
one-third of the femora which is fighter. Nectaries black, cauda yellowish 
green. Antennae longer than the body and on strong tubercles. Third 
segment with about 55 visible sensoria, variable in size and oval to round in 
shape; the fourth segment apparently has none and the fifth bears one large 
one near the distal end. Sixth with the usual sensoria at the base of the spur. 
Nectaries somewhat slender and tapering; thickest at the base and flanged at 
the tip ; the distal half distinctly different in appearance from the basal half 
on account of the reticulated surface. Cauda nearly as long as the nectaries 
and shaped like a spear head with the broadest part in the middle. 

Measurements: Length of body, 3 mm.; width, 1 mm. Length of antennal 
segments: III, 1.22 mm.; IV, 1.08 mm.; V, 0.9 mm.; VI, 0.3 mm.; spur, 1.24 
mm. Length of wing, 4 mm.; width at widest part, 1.31 mm. Length of necta- 
ries, 0.71 mm.; length of cauda, 0.51 mm. 



H. F. WILSON 99 

III. NEW SPECIES OF APHIDS 

Amphorophora subterrans new species (Plate IX, figs. 1 to 4.) 

Collected on roots of Dactylis glomerata Linn, at Corvallis, 
Oregon, April 6, 1912. Very abundant 6 to 8 inches below the 
surface of the ground in loose soil. Apterous, alate and pupae 
forms found. 

Apterous iriviparmis female: General color dark green with a bro^sTiish tinge- 
Antennae black, eyes dark red. Legs j^ellow except at the tips of femora and 
tibiae and tarsi, which parts are black. Nectaries and cauda black. Body 
sparsely set with short haii-s. Antennae reaching beyond the tip of the cauda, 
third segment with two circular sensoria near the Ijase. Nectaries reaching 
to the base of the cauda and swollen in the middle. Cauda tapering and 
blunt at the tip. 

Measurements: Length of body, 1.95 mm.; width, 1 mm. Length of 
antennal segments; III, 0.56 mm.; IV, 0.42 mm.; V, 0.3 mm.; VI, 0.135 mm.; 
spur, 0.67 mm. Length of nectaries, 0.46 mm.; length of cauda, 0.154 mm. 

Alate mviparous female: General color head and thorax dark green or black; 
abdomen moss gi-een with a dorsal dark green spot which is slightly narrower 
behind. Antennae black; legs dusky or black except femora, which have the 
basal part dusky yellow. Nectaries black; cauda black at the tip. Antennae 
longer than the body and on distinct antennal tubercles, third segment with 
8 to 11 large circular sensoria. In some species an occasional small sensorium 
may be found adjacent to one of the larger ones. Body, antennae and femora 
sparsely set with short hau-s. A distinguishing characteristic of this species 
is found in the ocular tubercles which themselves bear two or three smaller 
tubercles. Wing venation normal. Nectaries as in the apterous forms and 
semi-annulated just back of the tip which is strongly flanged. Cauda ensi- 
form and tapering to a blunt tip. 

Measurements: Length of body, 1.9 mm.; width, 0.9 mm. Length of 
antennal segments: III, 0.53 mm.; IV, 0.42 mm.; V, 0.38 mm.; VI, 0.176 mm.; 
spur, 0.73 mm. Length of nectaries, 0.4 mm.; length of cauda, 0.16 mm.; 
length of wing, 3 mm.; width at widest part, 1.22 mm. 

Macrosiphum mentzeliae new species (Plate IX, figs. 5 to 9.) 

Collected on Mentzelia at Monclova, Mexico, Nov. 23, 1909. 
This aphid was sent to me by Mr. F. C. Bishopp of the U. S. 
Bureau of Entomology. The specimens obtained are in alcohol 
but from the general light color they must have been of a pale 
green color. The color markings are not necessary for the easy 
determination of this species, however, as the entire body, legs 
and antennae bear short curved, capitate hairs. 

Apterous viviparous female: Antennae longer than the luxly, dark at the 
tips and rather slender. Third segment with two small sensoria. Abdomen 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



100 APHID NOTES 

long and slender. Nectaries reaching beyond the tip of the abdomen and 
long and slender. Cauda long and unusually broad. 

Measurements: Length of body, not including cauda, 1.8 mm.; width, 0.67 
mm. Length of antennal segments: III, 0.5 mm.; IV, 0.48 mm.; V, 0.4 mm.; 
VI, 0.135 mm.; spur, 0.75 mm. Length of nectaries, 0.55 mm.; length of 
Cauda, 0.31 mm. 

Alate viviparous female: Antennae reaching beyond the tips of the nec- 
taries, dark at the tips and the third segment with about 10 to 12 round sen- 
soria. Nectaries long and slender and reaching beyond the tip of the cauda. 
Cauda as in the apterous form. 

Measurements: Length of body, 2 mm.; width, 0.75 mm. Length of anten- 
nal segments: III, 0.6 mm.; IV, 0.48 mm.; V, 0.4 mm.; VI, 0.135 mm.; spur, 
0.8 mm. Length of nectaries, 0.6 mm.; length of cauda, 0.3 mm.; length of 
wing, 3 mm.; width, 0.9 mm. 

Aphis lithospermii new species (Plate IX, figs. 10 to 14.) 

A very common species on Lithospermum pilosiim Nuttall in 
the southeastern part of Oregon during June and July. 

Apterous viviparous female: General color dark green with 4 or 5 black 
transverse bars on the forepart of the abdomen and one at the base of the 
nectaries; head black and thorax dusky. Antennae black except at the base, 
tibia black at the ends and light in the middle. Nectaries and cauda black. 
Body robust and broadly oval. Nectaries reaching to about one-third the 
length of the body. Pro thorax with one large finger-like tubercle. Abdomen 
with two tubercles on each side. One pair is found not quite half way from 
the thorax to the nectaries and the other pair is foimd between the base of the 
cauda and the nectaries. Nectaries short, about the same length as the cauda 
and tapering. Cauda short and tapering to a bluntly rounded tip. Entire 
body with a sparse pruinose covering. 

Measurements: Length of body, 2.1 mm.; width, 1.38 mm. Length of 
antennal segments: III, 0.3 mm.; IV, 0.134 mm.; V, 0.154 mm.; VI, 0.11 mm.; 
spur, 0.198 mm. Length of nectaries, 0.176 mm.; length of cauda, 0.176 mm, 

Alale viviparous female: General color head and thorax black; abdomen 
green with three transverse black bands just in front of the base of the cauda. 
Antennae black except at the base, and legs black except the middle part of 
the tibiae. Body stout, antennae about half as long as the body; third seg- 
ment with about 9 to 12 irregular sensoria, and the fourth with two on the 
distal half of the segment. Thorax apparently without tubercles. Abdomen 
with two pairs of tubercles as in the apterous form but it is necessary to have 
the specimen turned slightly sidewise in order to make them out. Nectaries 
short and tapering and about as long as the cauda, which is short, tapering 
and with a blunt, rounded tip. 

Measurements: Length of body, 1.67 mm.; width, 0.84 mm. Length of 
antennal segments: III, 0.31 mm.; IV, 0.156 mm.; V, 0.135 nun.; VI, 0.135 nun.; 
spur, 0.242 mm. Length of nectaries, 0.154 mm.; length of cauda, 0.15 mm.; 
length of wing, 2.62 mm.; width, 0.95 mm. 



H. F. WILSON 101 

Aphis chrysothamni new species (Plate IX, figs. 15 to IS.) 

Collected at Salisbury, Oregon, during July, 1912 and 1914, 
on Chrysothamnns lanceoJatvs Gr. This aphis is very abundant 
on side hills along the canyons. General color green to red. 
The young lice are green and the mature forms are red. 

Apterous viviparous female: General color: head dark wine red, pro- 
thorax a lighter red and segment corresponding to metathorax greyish green; 
abdomen light green, mottled with darker green and with a large dark green 
spot in the center of the dorsum; last two segments covered with a greyish 
powder. . In other stages the entire body assumes a pinkish tinge. Other 
mature forms are wine red mottled with dark green. Antennae light 
colored at the base, darker toward the tip; nectaries and cauda black. Body 
broadly ovate. Antennae less than half as long as the body and apparently 
without tubercles; thoracic segments with two pairs of lateral tubercles, the 
front pair broad and rounded, the second pair more slender tind thumb-like 
in shape. Abdomen with only one pair of apparent tubercles, which are 
rather .short and are situated between the nectaries and the cauda. Nectaries 
short and slightly tapering. In some cases they appear very slightly con- 
stricted just back of the tip. Cauda very short and broadly pointed. 

Measurements: Length of body, 2.35 mm.; width, 1.62 mm. Length of 
antennal segments: III, 0.33 mm.; 0.242 mm.; IV, 0.198 mm.; V, 0.198 mm.; 
VI, 0.11 mm.; spur, 0.154 mm. Length of nectaries, 0.242 mm.; length of 
cauda, 0.1 mm. 

Alate viviparous female: General color: antennae, head and thorax black; 
abdomen green mottled with darker green ; legs black with tibiae dusky. Body 
elongate and broad for its length. Antennae about two-thu-ds as long as the 
body, the third segment with 4 to 6 large sensoria in more or less of a straight 
line with each other; fourth with 4 to 7 sensoria. Wings with veins hairy and 
dusky. Veins m^ and m^ form a fork rather shorter and smaller than usual. 
Nectaries short and cylindrical. Cauda short, and ahnost triangular, tip 
rather sharp. 

Measurements: Length of body, 1.55 mm.; width, 0.8 mm. Length of 
antennal segments: III, 0.33 mm.; IV, 0.242 mm.; V, 0.22 mm.; VI, 0.135 mm.; 
spur 0.198 mm. Length of nectary, 0.242 mm.; length of cauda, 0.11 mm.; 
length of wing, 2.22 mm.; width, 0.8 mm. 

Macros! phum pteridis new species (Plate IX, figs. 19a to 19c.) 

Found throughout western Oregon on the fronds of Pteris 
aquilina Linn. Very common but disappears almost entirely 
from open places during heat of summer. Can be found in 
shaded spots along hillsides at all times. 

Apterous viviparous female: General color yellowish white; legs dusky white 
and antennae white except sixth segment and spur. Body long and medium 
slender; antennae exceedingly long and slender; nectaries long, slender and 

TR.\NS. AM. ENT. SOC. XLI. 



102 APHID NOTES 

tip curved outward as in Myzus. Cauda short and ensiform. Entire body 
with medium length capitate hairs. 

Measurements: Length of body, 2.77 mm.; width, 1.22 mm. Length of 
antennal segments: III, 1.2 mm.; IV, 0.88 mm.; V, 0.73 mm.; VI, 0.154 mm.; 
spur, 1.2 mm. Length of nectaries, 1.2 mm.; length of cauda, 0.3 mm. 

Alale viviparous female: General color green with the head and thorax 
orange brown. Antennae black except the first two segments, which are 
dusky green or browTi. Legs with base of femora yellowish, nectaries dusky 
orange at the tip, green at the base. Cauda green. Antennae long and 
slender and thu-d segment with from 20 to 26 regular round sensoria in straight 
ahgnment. Wing venation normal. Antennae long, slender and with the 
distal half strongly curved outward. Cauda short and ensiform. Entire 
body except cauda and nectaries set with short capitate hairs. Cauda and 
caudal plate with pointed hairs. 

Measurements: Length of body, 2.5 mm.; width, 0.9 mm. Length of 
antennal segments: III, 1 mm.; IV, 0.84 mm.; V, 0.777 mm.; VI, 0.242 mm.; 
spur, 1.33 mm. Length of nectaries, 0.67 mm.; length of cauda, 0.27 mm.; 
length of wing, 4.4 mm.; width, 1.66 mm. 

Lachnus laricifoliae new species (Plate X, figs. 9 to 14.) 

Collected on Larix occidentalis in Baker and Grant Counties, 
Oregon. The apterous forms are rather easy to find but not 
exceedingly numerous, while the alate forms are scarcer and harder 
to find. They are for the most part found about the base of the 
needle clusters. 

Apterous viviparous female: General color black with a covering of white 
powder and with a hght streak down the center of the dorsum. The antennae 
are dusky yellow at the base and black toward the tip. The legs are black 
except the basal portions of the femora and the center of the tibiae, which are 
dusky yeUow. Cauda black. Body broadly oval and elongate. Antennae 
rea(!hing to the base of the middle pair of legs and beak reaching to base of 
hind pair. Nectaries of medium diameter at the base and narrowly tapering 
to a wide funnel-shaped mouth. Cauda short and broadly rounded at the 
tip. Entire body, legs, nectaries and antennae covered with hairs. 

Measurements: Length of body, 4.23 mm.; width, 2.22 mm. Length of 
antennal segments: III, 0.73 mm.; IV, 0.27 mm.; V, 0.31 mm.; VI, 0.154 mm.; 
length of cauda, 0.154 mm.; width at base, 0.42 mm. Length of hind tibiae, 
2.22 mm.; length of hind tarsus, 0.35 mm.; length of hind metatarsus, 0.13 mm. 

Alate viviparous female: General color black covered with a white powder 
and with a light streak down the center of the abdomen. Antennae and legs 
the same as in the apterous form. Head and thorax shining black. Nectaries 
black, with a large white spot at the base of the nectaries and which does not 
become conspicuous until the specimens have been put in alcohol. Cauda as 
in the apterous form. Antennae reaching to the base of the wings and the 
third segment with from 8 to 11 regular small sensoria; fourth segment with 



H. F. WILSON 103 

one or two near the distal end and fifth with two large ones near the distal 
end. Spur of sixth short and ending in a thick short spine. Wings normal 
and with the median vein distinct and with two branches. Abdomen with a 
row of six blunt tubercles on each side. Nectaries and cauda as in the apterous 
form. Entire body, antennae, legs and nectaries covered with hairs. 

Measurements: Length of body, 4.78 ram.; width, 2.1 mm. Length of 
antennal segments: III, 0.69 mm.; IV, 0.27 mm.; V, 0.35 mm.; VI, 0.135 mm. 
Length of hind tibia, 3.22 mm.; hind tarsi, first segment, 0.135 mm.; second 
segment, 0.35 mm.; length of beak, 1.9 mm.; length of wing, 5.33 mm.; width, 
2.55 mm. 

Lachnus oregonensis new species (Plate X, figs. 1 to 8.) 

Collected on Pmus sp., Fort Klamath, Oregon, July G, 1914. 
Found only on the cones. Mate and apterous forms. Possibly 
this species extends its feeding to the shoots later in the season. 

Apterous viviparous female: General color shining brown, with the dorsum 
dusky to black. (In balsam immediately after mounting, there appears to 
be a slight streak down the center of the back with a dark black band extending 
from the base of the al^domen to the cauda.) Antennae yellowish at the base 
and black toward the tip. Legs dusky yeUow at the base and black toward 
the tips; cauda black, nectaries black. Body obovate, robust and set with 
numerous fine hairs. Antennae slender and reaching to the middle of the 
mesothoracic segment; fifth segment with one or two large sensoria. Legs 
and antennae set with fine hairs, rather more plentiful on tibiae than on the 
femora. Nectaries broad and sHghtly tapering toward the central tube which 
is flanged at the tip. Cauda broadly rounded. The beak reaches beyond the 
tip of the abdomen. 

Measurements: Length of body, 3 mm.; width, 1.5 mm. Length of antennal 
segments: III, 0.35 mm.; IV, 0.135 mm.; V, 0.135 mm.; VI, and spur, 0.135 
mm. Length of hind tibia, 1.84 mm.; length of hind tarsus, 0.35 mm.; length 
of hind metatarsus, 0.09 mm. 

Alale viviparous female: General color dark brown to black; abdomen with 
the dorsum of each segment black. Antennae light at the base, shading to 
black at the tip. Legs dusky yellow at the base of the femora and tibia and 
black at the tips; tarsi black. Antennae reaching to the base of the wings, 
the third segment with about 3 to 6 irregular sized round sensoria of medium 
size; fourth with one or two large sensoria; fifth with two and the sixth with the 
usual large and small sensoria. Abdomen with a row of fine tubercles along 
each side and on a line below the nectaries. Nectaries broadly cone-shaped. 
The beak reaches to the tip of the abdomen or slightly beyond. \Mng vena- 
tion complete. Median vein entire but appearing as an outline. 

Measurements: Length of body, 2.4 mm. ; width, 1 mm. Length of antennal 
segments: III, 0.38 mm.; IV, 0.154 mm.; V, 0.2 mm.; VI and spur, 0.154 mm. 
Length of wing, 3.8 mm.; width, 1.22 mm.; length of hind tibia, 1.86 mm.; 
length of hind tarsus, 0.4 mm.; length of hind metatarsus, 0.09 mm.; length 
of beak, 2.58 mm. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



104 APHID NOTES 

Lachnus rubicundus new species (Plate XI, figs. 8 to 14.) 

Found on Juniperus occidentalis along the dry ridges of eastern 
Oregon. Specimens not very abundant and would probably 
escape being seen if it were not for the ants running about over 
the infested twigs. Only two alate forms taken in a half day's 

search. 

Apterous viviparous female: General color, when young, light brown or pink; 
later they become covered with powder except a thin streak do\ra the center 
of the back. Along each side of the abdomen and dorsally placed may be 
found a row of black dots, one to each segment. The first and largest are 
found on the prothoracic segment, the others growing smaller toward the end 
of the body. Below these and on the side may be found still another row of 
dots. As the aphids grow larger the spots become hidden under a fine white 
or pinkish pruinose covering. This powder with the browai body of the insect 
gives a decided pinkish appearance. Other stages or forms are dark brown 
mottled with black. 

The body is exceedingly robust and globose. The antennae reach to about 
the second pair of legs and both legs and antennae are set with fine short 
hairs. The third and foiu-th antennal segments appear to be without sensoria; 
the fifth and sixth segments bear one each. The nectaries are broad and 
rounded without much depth. The cauda is broadly rounded. 

Measm-ements : Length of body 3.55 mm. ; width, 2 mm. Length of anten- 
nal segments: III, 0.44 mm.; IV, 0.135 mm.; V, 0.22 mm.; VI, and spur, 0.135 
mm. Length of hind tibia, 1.51 mm.; length of huad tarsus, 0.27 mm.; hind 
metatarsus, 0.09 mm.; length of beak, 1.74 mm. 

Alate viviparous female: General color: head nearly black, thorax dark 
brown, abdomen light brown mottled with dark brown to black splotches, 
body more or less pruinose. Antennae and legs hght at the base and dark 
toward the ends. The former are somewhat stout and reach to the base of 
the metathorax; the third segment bears 5 to 7 large sensoria (sometimes less) ; 
the fourth, one or two; and the fifth, one large one at the distal end. The 
wings are long and wide with the median vein three branched. The stigma is 
long and narrow. Beak slender and sharp, reaching to within a short distance 
of the base of the cauda. Nectaries broad, cone-shaped and of medium thick- 
ness. Cauda broadly rounded. 

Measurements: Length of abdomen, 2.9 mm.; width, 1.45 mm. Length 
of antennal segments: III, 0.4 mm.; IV, 0.176 mm.; V, 0.23 mm.; VI and spur, 
0.154 mm. Length of wing, 3.8mm.; width, 1.3 mm.; length of hind tibia, 
1.9 mm.; length of hind tarsus, 0.242 mm.; length of hind metatarsus, 0.09 
mm.; length of beak, 1.9 mm. 

Lachnus parvus new species (Plate XI, figs, l.to 7.) 

Collected at Washington, D. C, July 4, September 15 and 
October 21, 1909. This species is quite distinct from all others 
collected l)y myself in the vicinity of Washington in that it is 



H. F. WILSON 105 

covered with very fine waxy threads, and was found in rows 
along the needles of Pinus virginiana and Pinus rigida. This 
species was taken while collecting with Prof. C. P. Gillette, who 
has already indicated the species in the Journal of Economic 
Entomology, II, p. 385, 1909. This is the smallest species of this 
group known to me. 

General color beneath the waxy threads, browTiish tinged with green. These 
waxy threads are also spread about over the needles causing them to appear 
as if covered with a bluish powder. No other color notes were taken. 

Apterous viviparous female: Body more robust than that of the alate form, 
antennae reaching to the third pair of coxae and the beak reaching to the 
second pair. Beak broad and blunt at the tip. Legs and antennae with 
numerous long and slender hairs. Third and fourth antennal segments ap- 
parently without sensoria, fifth and sixth segments with one each. Nectaries 
small and cone-shaped with a sUght inchnation to bell-shaped. The opening 
rather large for the base. Cauda bluntly angled. 

Measurements: Length of body, 1.7 mm.; width, 0.84 mm. Length of 
antennal segments: III, 0.32 mm.; IV, 0.135 mm.; V, 0.14 mm.; VI and spur, 
0.12 mm. Length of hind tibia, 0.94 mm.; length of hind tarsus, 0.33 mm.; 
length of hind metatarsus, 0.066 mm. Length of beak, 0.44 mm. 

Alate males and ovoviparous females taken the last of October. 

Alate viviparous female: Body elongate and slender, antennae and legs 
medium slender and thickly covered with long slender hairs. Antennae rea(5h- 
ing to the third pair of coxae and the beak reaching to the second pair; beak 
broad and blunt at the tip. The third antennal segment bears about eight 
small sensoria; the fourth two and the fifth a single large one near the distal 
end; sixth with the usual large one near the base of the antennal spur. Wings 
hyaline and the median vein but a very indistinct single piece as indicated in 
the accompanying figure. Nectaries small and more or less bell-shaped. The 
opening rather large for the base. Cauda bluntly angled. 

Measurements: Length of body, 1.48 mm.; width, 0.6 mm. Length of 
antennal segments: III, 0.32 mm.; IV, 0.154 mm.; V, 0.176 mm.; VI and spur 
0.154 mm. Length of wing, 2.5 mm.; length of hind tibia, 0.92 mm.; length of 
hind tarsus, 0.3 mm.; length of hind metatarsus, 0.066 mm.; length of beak, 
0.49 mm. 

The writer is making an attempt to prepare a contri})ution 
toward a monograph of the Lachninae, and would appreciate 
receiving material from all sections of the world. Specimens 
may be mounted on slides but specimens in 70% alcohol are 
preferred. In either case, include such color notes as are obtain- 
able. If specimens are sent in alcohol, put a small amount of 
cotton in the vial and push down until the material is held firmly 

TR.\NS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI, 



106 APHID NOTES 

against the bottom; otherwise the specimens may lose their 
appendages. Credit will be given in all cases. 

Note. — In the June, 1914, number of the Entomological News, 
an aphis from sugar cane was described as new by myself. Mr. 
T. E. HoUoway, of the U. S. Bureau of Entomology, should have 
received credit for collecting the specimens. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES 

Plate V 

Fig. 1. — Prociphilus fraxini-dipelalae Essig. Antenna and wings of spring 
migrant from ash. 

Fig. 2.— Prociphilus fraxini-dipelalae Essig. Antenna and wings of fall 
migrant from Douglas fir. 

Plate VI 

Microsiphum canadensis Williams, alate viviparous female: fig. 1, an- 
tenna; fig. 2, third antennal segment (much enlarged) ; fig. 4, nectary (enlarged) ; 
fig. 5, Cauda. Apterous viviparous female: fig. 3, third antennal segment 
(much enlarged) ; fig. 6, specialized setae on frons; figs. 7, setae on body. 

Microsiphum artemesiae Gillette, alate viviparous female: fig. 8, antenna; 
fig. 9, third antennal segment (much enlarged), Colo, specimens; fig. 13, do., 
Oregon specimens; fig. 11, nectary; fig. 12, setae; fig. 15, frons; fig. 16, cauda. 
Apterous viviparous female: fig. 10, third antennal segment, Colorado speci- 
mens; fig. 14, do., Oregon specimens. 

Microsiphum oregonensis new species ?, apterous viviparous female: fig. 
17, antenna; fig. 18, third segment (much enlarged) ; fig. 19, two views of body 
setae; fig. 20, frons; fig. 21, portion of abdomen showing nectaries and cau a. 

Chaitophorus tridentatae new species, alate viviparous female : fig. 22, head 
with antenna and a diagrammatic sketch of the arrangement of the special- 
ized setae; fig. 23, nectary; fig. 24, speciahzed seta (much enlarged); fig. 25, 
Cauda. 

Plate VII 

Aphis reticulata new species, alate viviparous female: fig. 1, antenna; fig. 
2, third antennal segment (much enlarged) ; fig. 5, nectary; fig. 6, cauda. Apte- 
rous viviparous female: fig. 3, prothoracic tubercle; fig. 4, nectary; fig. 7, 
reticulations on body. 

Aphis oregonensis new species, alate viviparous female: fig. 8, antenna; 
fig. 9, third antennal segment (much enlarged) ; fig. 10, tubercles on abdomen 
between cauda and nectaries; fig. 12, cauda; fig. 14, prothoracic tubercle; fig. 

16, nectary. Apterous viviparous female: fig. 11, abdominal tubercles be- 
tween cauda and nectaries; fig. 13, cauda; fig. 15, prothoracic tubercle; fig. 

17, nectary. 



H. F. WILSON 107 

Aphis hermistonii new species, alate viviparous female: fig. 18, antenna; 
fig. 19, third antennal segment (much enlarged) ; fig. 20, prothoracic tubercles; 
fig. 21, nectary; fig. 23, cauda. Apterous viviparous female: fig. 22, nectary; 
fig. 24, Cauda; fig. 25, tubercles along the side of the abdomen. 

Aphis tridentatae new species, alate viviparous female: fig. 26, antenna; 
fig. 27, speciahzed seta; fig. 28, frons; fig. 29, cauda; fig. 30, nectary, 

Plate VIII 

Macrosiphum ludovidanae Oestlund, alate viviparous female: fig. 1, 
antenna; fig. 2, third antennal segment (much enlarged) ; fig. 4, nectary; fig. 5, 
cauda. Apterous viviparous female: fig. 3, third antennal segment (much 
enlarged) . 

Macrosiphum artemesiae Boyer, alate viviparous female: fig. 6, antenna; 
fig. 7, third antennal segment much enlarged and showing specialized setae; 
fig. 8, nectary; fig. 10, cauda. Apterous viviparous female: fig. 9, third anten- 
nal segment (much enlarged). 

Macrosiphum artemesicola Williams, alate viviparous female: fig. 11, 
antenna; fig. 12, nectary; fig. 13, frons; fig. 14, speciahzed setae; fig. 15, cauda. 

Aphis artemesicola Williams, apterous viviparous female: fig. 16, antenna; 
fig 17, third antennal segment (much enlarged) ; fig. 18, nectary; fig. 19, cauda. 

Aphis frigidae Oestlund, apterous viviparous female: fig. 20, antenna; 
fig. 21, nectary; fig. 22, frons; fig. 23, specialized seta; fig. 24, cauda. 

Plate IX 

Amphorophora subterrans new species, alate viviparous female: fig. 1, 
antenna; fig. 2, nectary; fig. 4, cauda. Apterous viviparous female: fig. 3, 
third antennal segment. 

Macrosiphum menlzeliae new species, alate viviparous female: fig. 5, 
antenna; fig. 6, nectary; fig. 8, cauda; fig. 9, capitate hair. Apterous vivi- 
parous female : fig. 7, third antennal segment. 

Aphis lithospermi new species, alate viviparous female: fig. 10, antenna; 
fig. 11, nectary; fig. 12, cauda; fig. 14, abdominal tubercles. Apterous vivi- 
parous female: fig. 13, nectary. 

Aphis chrysothamnii new species, alate viviparous female: fig. 15, antenna; 
fig. 16, nectary; fig. 17, cauda. Apterous viviparous female: fig. 18, nectary. 

Macrosiphum pteridis new species, alate viviparous female: fig, 19a, 
antennae; fig. 19b, cauda; fig. 19c, nectary. 

Plate X 

Lachnus oregonensis new species, alate viviparous female: fig. 1, wing; 
fig. 2, beak; fig. 3, hind leg; fig. 4, nectary ; fig. 5, antenna; fig. 7, tip of abdomen; 
fig. 8, prothoracic segment. Apterous viviparous female: fig. 6, antenna. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



108 APHID NOTES 

Lachnus laricifoliae new species, alate viviparous female: fig. 9, wing; 
fig. 10, beak; fig. 11, hind leg; fig. 12, nectary; fig. 14, antenna. Apterous 
viviparous female: fig. 13, antenna. 

Plate XI 

Lachnus parvus new species, alate viviparous female: fig. 1, wing; fig. 2, 
hind leg; fig. 3, antenna; fig. 5, nectary; fig. 6, cauda; fig. 7, beak. Apterous 
viviparous female: fig. 4, antenna. 

Lachnus ruhicundus new species, alate viviparous female: fig. 8, wing; 
fig. 9, hind leg; fig. 10, antenna; fig. 12, nectary; fig. 13, cauda; fig. 14, beak. 
Apterous viviparous female: fig. 11, antenna. 



Trans. Am. Ent. Hoc, Vol. XLI. 



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WILSON APHIDIDAE 



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WILSON — APH I DI DAE 



J. H. MERRILL 109 

ON SOME GENERA OF THE PIMPLINE 
ICHNEUMONIDAE 

by j. h. merrill, ph.d. ^ 

Introduction 

This paper is the result of three years' work done at the Massa- 
chusetts Agricultural College as a partial requirement for the 
degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 

I wish to acknowledge my obligations to Dr. H. T. Fernald, 
under whose direction this work was carried on, to C. H. Fernald 
for his kindly suggestions, to Dr. G. C. Crampton for valuable 
advice and criticism, to W. S. Regan for the valuable assistance 
rendered me l)y securing specimens for study from the museums 
at Philadelphia, Washington, and New York, and making notes 
on the comparisons of these insects with their types, and to Dr. 
C. Gordon Hewitt for the loan of a large number of specimens. 

Mr. F. A. Johnston began work on this group and had brought 
together copies of the descriptions of nearly all the insects treated 
here, when he accepted a position with the Bureau of Entomology, 
and the subject was given to me to continue. 

Fourteen species and four genera are treated here. Of these, 
one genus and one species are described for the first time. Most 
of the other North American species are redescribed, wherever it 
was possible to obtain specimens from which to make the descrip- 
tions. The genus Epirhyssa has been abandoned, as it did not 
seem to have enough distinctive generic characteristics to sepa- 
rate it from Rhyssa. A new genus Pseudorhyssa has been estab- 
lished. Its transversely wrinkled mesonotum places it within 
the scope of the genera treated here; the entire sternal plates 
of its abdomen, however, separate it from the other genera. 
The type of this genus, Pseurhrhyssa sternata is here described. 
The description of Thalessa histrio, an unlocated species, is also 
included. 

Probably the largest and most valuable collection in this 
country of the insects treated here is at the Academy of Natural 

' Contribution from the Entomological Laboratorj' of the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College, Amherst, Mass. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



110 PIMPLINE ICHNEUMONIDAE 

Sciences in Philadelphia. Other collections from which material 
used in the preparation of this paper was borrowed, were those 
at the National Museum in Washington, the American Museum 
in New York, the Museum of the Boston Society of Natural 
History in Boston, the Children's Museum in Brooklyn and the 
collection of the Dominion Entomologist of Canada. The 
collections at the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia and the National Museum in Washington are 
especially valuable, in that a number of type specimens are 
located there. 

Historical 

Linnaeus was the first to describe insects in this group. From 
his time down to the present, there have been numerous workers, 
but beyond synoptic tables to the genera, they have done 
nothing except to describe some of the species. 

Holmgren- called the genus Megarhyssa, Thalessa, in 1859, 
but Adams had used this name in 1858 for a genus of mollusks. 
Ashmead^ proposed the name Megarhyssa on account of the 
name Thalessa being preoccupied in another branch of zoology. 
Dalla Torre ^ places "non Adams 1858" after the reference to 
Ashmead; this should have been placed after the reference to 
Holmgren. 

The chief workers in this group have been Linnaeus, Fabricius, 
Kriechbaumer, Cameron, Cresson and Viereck. Both Cresson 
and Kriechbaumer not only described and named several new 
species but each established a new genus. 

In the Proceedings of the United States National Museum 
for 1901, vol. xxiii, Ashmead divides the sub-family Pimplinae 
into tribes and establishes among others the tribe Pimplini. 
Up to this point his synoptic tables may be made use of, but 
when it is desired to determine the genera treated here it will 
be necessary to use a new key, because other generic values 
have been given to some characters, while the value of others 
has been lessened. The 62nd fascicle of the Genera Insectorum 
uses a key similar to the one used by Ashmead and the same 
criticism applies to it. In Cresson's Synopsis of the Ilymen- 

= 5fver.s. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Forh., xvi, 18.59, p. 122. 
' Canadian Entomologist, xxxii, 1900, p. 3G8. 
■• Catalof^us Hymenoptororuni, viii, j). 479. 



J. H. MERRILL 111 

optera, no division of the sub-family is attempted but the key 
is similar to the two preceding ones in the generic characters used. 
The genus Alegarhyssa is fairly constant in both color and 
structural characteristics, while the genus Rhyssa exhibits con- 
siderable variation in both. For that reason it would seem unsafe 
to describe a new species from a single specimen in Rhyssa. 

External Anatomy 

The following description is taken mainly from Megarhyssa 
lunator. Certain modifications have been made to describe 
such differences as may occur in different species of the group 
treated here. 

Head 

The head is hypognathous, broader than long. Its general 
shape when viewed from in front is rounded-triangular. The 
compound eyes are large, extending from the top of the head to 
the clypeus. They are broad, together constituting one-half 
the width of the head when viewed from in front and when viewed 
from the side, at their widest part, forming a little more than 
half the width of the head. The inner margins of the compound 
eyes are slightly emarginated on its upper third, but nearly 
form two parallel lines with each other. The posterior margins 
are entire. The eyes are naked. 

The clypeus occupies the lower portion of the front of the head 
and extends up to the lower borders of the compound eyes. 
The clypeus is narrow and elongated transversely. Laterally 
below the eyes it has fused with the cheeks. There is an impres- 
sion reaching from the eyes to about the middle of the mandibles 
which suggests that it was a suture marking the division between 
the clypeus and the cheeks. If this is true, then the clypeus 
and cheeks together form the basal support of the mandibles. 
The lower border of the clypeus between the mandibles varies 
in outline, in different genera, from concave to convex. This 
fact is made use of in the determination of genera. 

The frons, vertex, occiput and upper ends of the genae are 
fused, but the occiput and genae are fused dorsally, while later- 
ally they are separated by a suture, and ventrally by a ridge. 
The occiput may be considered as that portion of the back of 
the head which is nearly vertical. It is concave from side to 
side, and the prothorax attaches at about its center. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



112 PIMPLINE ICHNEUMONIDAE 

The lack of definite sutures separating the plates of the head, 
necessitates the establishment of artificial boundaries. The 
vertex will be considered as extending from a line drawn through 
the posterior ocelli, back to a line from the ends of the sutures 
separating the genae from the occiput. The lateral limits of 
the vertex can be definitely fixed, but will be considered as 
extending to the compound eyes. 

The portion of the head behind the compound eyes, extending 
from the vertex to the clypeus and back to the occiput, will 
be considered as the genae. The greatest width of the genae 
is at the lower border of the compound eyes. They gradually 
become narrower towards the top of the head. 

The labrum is attached to the clypeus between the front 
borders of the mandibles. Being attached to the lower and 
inner side of the clypeus, it leaves the anterior borders of the 
latter clearly defined. The labrum bears a thick row of long 
spines on its outer edge. 

The mandibles are situated on either side of the labrum. 
They are broad at the base, taper gradually toward the apex 
and the tip is slightly incurved. They have two teeth, the 
anterior one being blunt, while the posterior one is produced 
to a point. The maxillae lie behind the mandibles and each 
has a five-segmented palpus. The labium is so well concealed 
by the maxillae that it was impossible to separate it for careful 
study in the time at my disposal. 

The antennae are filiform, long, slender and composed of about 
forty segments. They are covered by a large number of minute 
spines. The main portion of the scape is bluntly spindle-shaped 
when viewed from the mid line of the body, or from somewhat 
below the point of attachment. From this angle, the fact that 
the upper, outer side of this spindle has quite a deep, oval exca- 
vation from which the pedicel arises, is not perceptible. At 
its widest part, the scape is about twice as wide as the other 
segments. The bulb below the constriction enlarges so that 
its outline is triangular. The first segment of the antenna is 
globular and very much differentiated from the others. It is 
broader than long and about one-fifth the length of the second 
segment. The remaining segments are cylindrical and a gradual 
decrease in size appears on the outer half of the antenna. The 



J. H. MERRILL 113 

last segment is nearly twice as long as the preceding segment 
and narrows rather suddenly towards the tip. 

Thorax 

The prothorax consists of four visible plates; the notum, two 
episterna, and a sternum. Each episternum (Eps.i) at its an- 
terior end, articulates with the head by a hooked process which 
is the remains of the cervical sclerite. The episterna are sepa- 
rated ventrally by a median longitudinal suture. At the point 
of articulation with the head, each is quite slender, Imt posteriorly 
it enlarges and flattens out into a lobe which passes downward 
and backward below the pronotum and articulates at its posterior 
end with the procoxa (Cx.i) of an anterior leg. As in most 
Hymenoptera, the episternum constitutes the greater part of 
the pleural portion of the prothorax, the epimeron being reduced 
to a strip so narrow that it is almost negligible, on the posterior 
border of the episternum and is hidden under the pronotum. 

The pronotum (N.i) is very broad laterally, its anterior face, 
being narrowed, forms a connection between the lateral plates. 
The sides are highly polished. The pronotum reaches the base 
of the tegulae (Tg.) and is produced downward to the episternum, 
coxae and sternum ventrally. The pronotal lobe (Pnl.) is dis- 
tinct, though small, forming a peritremal sclerite overlapping 
the first thoracic spiracle (Tsp.). The sternum is overlapped 
and largely concealed by the approximated lobes of the episterna. 

In the mesonotum, the prescutum, scutum and scutellum are 
plainly distinguishable. The postscutellum is small and for 
the most part is a phragma or internal process. 

Near the upper, posterior corner of the pronotum, on each 
side and just below the anterior end of the attachment of the 
fore wing to the body is the first thoracic spiracle (Tsp.). 

The prescutum (Psc.2) is a triangular shaped plate, above the 
pronotum and separated from the scutum by two sutures which 
posteriorly converge and become transformed into flattened 
grooves. The front portion of the prescutum is nearty vertical 
and forms almost a right angle with its hinder portion, when 
viewed from the side. 

Medially, the scutum (Set. 2) extends to the raised median 
portion of the scutellum. Posteriorly the scutum is sunken 

TKANS. AM. ENl, SOC, XLI. 



114 PIMPLINE ICHNEUMONIDAE 

between the lateral plates of the scutellum (Scl.2), so that its 
lateral margins are concealed. Both the prescutum and scutum 
are transversely rugose. The lateral margin of the prescutum 
is deflexed. The anterior portion of this deflexed margin is 
overlapped by the dorsal border of the pronotum. From the 
top of the pronotal lobe, just above the first thoracic spiracle, 
is a ridge extending to the anterior corner of the lateral lobe 
of the scutellum, behind which point, the margin of the scutum 
is concealed by this lobe, as already stated. Below and behind 
this ridge, the scutum bends abruptly and is somewhat hollowed, 
the lower margin of this portion of the plate extending backward 
until opposite the front end of the lateral lobe of the scutellum. 
The margin now turns upward and forms a suture with the front 
margin of the lateral lobe of the scutellum. 

The scutellum (Scl.2) consists of a median raised portion and 
two deflexed regions. From the front of the median portion of 
the scutellum a ridge runs downward on the side of the body 
toward the lower, hinder angle of the plate, and may be considered 
as marking the line between the median portion and the lateral 
lobe. The lateral lobe, as thus indicated, is approximately 
rectangular, its lower, hinder angle being somewhat drawn out 
and its lower border somewhat emarginated. The hinder margin 
of the median portion of the scutellum is practically a straight 
line, running obliquely backward on either side. 

The fore wing has a much elongated attachment to the body, 
its humeral angle appearing just behind the pronotal lobe, and 
its internal margin near the lower, posterior corner of the lateral 
lobe of the scutellum. Beneath this wing attachment lies the 
upper margin of the mesoepisternum (Eps.2). 

The tegula (Tg.) which lies over the anterior portion of the 
base of the wing is a small chitinous plate, which appears to be 
attached medially to the front end of the hollowed portion of the 
scutum, just below the front edge of the ridge already described. 
Its real attachment and relation to the wing are considered under 
a separate heading elsewhere in this paper. Two tiny basal wing 
sclerites lie beneath the costal and anal regions of the wing. 

As in the prothorax, the episternum (Eps.2) constitutes the 
greater part of the pleural region. It is fused with the sternum 
(S.) which has a narrow, deep, mid-ventral groove extending 



J. H. MERRILL 115 

longitudinally throughout its whole length. On the cpisternuni, 
a short distance behind its front margin, is a nearly vertical 
suture extending about half way up to the dorsal margin of the 
plate, crossing it beneath and continuous with the corresponding 
suture of the other side, separating the lower, anterior portion of 
each episternum from the remainder. This portion is called the 
prepectus (Ppct.o). The epimeron (Epm.2) is a narrow band 
separated from the episternum by a suture extending in a straight 
line from the hinder base of the fore wing downward and back- 
ward to the mesocoxa (Cx.2). The sternal area is flat beneath, 
punctured and sometimes striated. 

The distinguishable plates of the metanotum are the scutum, 
scutellum and postscutellum. The region here called metanotum 
is the one which has been usually termed the postscutellum of 
the mesothorax by the systematists. The metascutum (Sct.2) 
lies immediately behind the scutellum of the mesothorax. Its 
narrow dorsal surface is sunken below the surfaces of both the 
mesoscutellum and the metascutellum. Laterally it consists of 
two deflexed regions. The hind wings are dorsally attached 
by a membrane, to the scutum, and behind and below are simi- 
larly attached by a forward projecting process of the metapleuron. 
In the anal and humeral angles are borne the small, sub-alar 
basal wing sclerites. The scutellum (Scl.3) consists of a raised 
median portion. Immediately posterior to the scutellum lies 
the postscutellum (Pscl.3) which is a sunken, narrow, transverse 
bank-like region fusing laterally with the metaepimeron. 

The pleurum consists of an episternal and epimeral region, 
of which the former is much the larger. That portion of the 
pleurum which is fused with the metapostscutellum is epimeral 
(Epm.3). The suture which separates the epimeron from the 
first abdominal segment becomes lost for most of the distance 
along the ventral margin of the latter segment, reappearing 
again for a short distance at its hinder, ventral portion. The 
main part of the episternum (Eps.3) lies beneath the metae- 
pimeron and its hinder margin articulates with the metacoxa 
(Cx.3). The upper, anterior corner is prolonged into a narrow 
bank-like region lying betwecni the mesoepimeron and the fused 
metapostscutellum, and metaepimei-on. It is separated from 
each by sutures. The pleura are fused with the sternum which 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



116 PIMPLINE ICHNEUMONIDAE 

is marked by a longitudinal mid-ventral groove, as in the meso- 
thorax, and is continuous with it. 

Wings 

The wings are long and narrow, quite large, usually hyaline* 
marked more or less with dark spots. In some species the wings 
are entirely cloudy. The fore and hind wings are connected 
when in flight, by a row of frenal hooks on the hind wing hooking 
into the frenal fold of the front wing. 

In describing the veins and cells, the terminology used by 
Cresson in his "Synopsis of the Hymenoptera of North America," 
will be followed here. 

In the fore wing, the costal and subcostal veins are blended, 
therefore the costal cell is absent. They extend to a point a 
little beyond the middle of the wing, where there is a slight 
notch in the costa. From this notch, to a point about half 
way from it to the apex, is a thickened, darker strip which may 
be regarded as the stigma. Behind the blended costa and sub- 
costa, lie the externo-medial and anal nervures. The externo- 
medial nervure at its outer end, meets the basal nerve obliquely; 
this basal nervure joins the subcosta at a point a little before the 
stigma. The cell outlined by these nervures is called the sub- 
median or interno-medial cell. The anal nervure lies behind 
the externo-medial nervure and extends outward until it joins 
the anal margin at a point nearly two-thirds the length of the 
wing from the base. At the junction of the basal nervure with 
the externo-medial nervure, the transverse-medial nervure 
extends at nearly a right angle with the latter, to the anal nerv- 
ure; thus outlining the sub-median or interno-medial cell. 
Behind the anal vein and in front of the anal margin lies the 
long, narrow, anal cell. The marginal or radial nervure appar- 
ently arises from the hinder edge of the stigma and extends 
toward the apex, but before reaching it, turns forward to the 
front margin, thus enclosing the marginal or radial cell. The 
cliscoidal nervure extends from the junction of the externo- 
medial, basal, and transverse-medial nervures, outward until 
it joins the cubital nervure, where it bends abruptly backward 
and joins the anal nervure just before the latter reaches the anal 
margin. The cell outlined by the transverse-medial nervure 



J. H. MERRILL 117 

on its inner margin, the discoidal nervure on its front and outer 
margins, and the anal nervure on its hinder margin, is the second 
discoidal cell. The cubital nervure extends outward from the 
point where the discoidal nervure bends abruptly backward, and 
becomes lost a short distance before the outer margin. About 
the middle of the marginal nervure arises a cross nervure which 
passes backward and joins the cubital at about its middle. This 
nervure has been termed the first transverse cubital, and forms 
the outer margin of the very large, somewhat triangular cell 
lying behind the base of the stigma, called the cubito-discoidal 
cell. A short stump of a nervure projecting from the cubital 
into the cubito-discoidal cell is called by Cresson an ''abbreviated 
cubital nervure." The real significance of this nervure will be 
discussed later. A short distance external to the first transverse 
cubital is another cross nervure, the second transverse cubital. 
The relation of these two nervures differs greatly, their anterior 
ends may be close together on the marginal nervure, while their 
posterior ends are some distance apart. These nervures enclose 
the areolet or second submarginal cell. In some cases, the anterior 
ends of the two transverse-cubital nervures are united for about 
half their length. In this case, the areolet is said to be petio- 
lated. Occasionally, the second transverse cubital is lost or 
reduced to an abbreviated stub, in which case, the areolet is 
absent. The presence or absence of an areolet which has here- 
tofore been used as a generic character, is not even a specific 
one, as both conditions have been found to occur in the same 
species. 

The second transverse cubital nervure forms the inner margin 
of the third submarginal cell which extends outward to the outer 
margin of the wing. Its front border is formed by the outer 
half of the marginal or radial nervure, and its hinder border 
by the outer portion of the cubital nervures. Between the 
cubital nervure and the internal margin of the wing, extending 
nearly to the outer margin from about the middle of the back- 
wardly turned portion of the discoidal nervure, is the subdiscoidal 
nervure. That portion of the discoidal nervure between the 
cubital and subdiscoidal nervures is the first recurrent nervure, 
according to Cresson, though here described as part of the dis- 
coidal. The second recurrent is a somewhat curved nervure 

TRANS. AM, ENT. SOC, XLI. 



lis PIMPLINE ICHNEUMONIDAE 

extending backward from the middle of the areolet to near 
the outer end of the subdiscoidal. The recurrent nervures 
form the inner and outer margin of the third discoidal cell, with 
the cubital forming its front and the subdiscoidal joining 
its hinder borders. The subdiscoidal nervure forms the front 
margin of the first apical cell, while its inner margin is formed 
by the outer part of the discoidal nervure and behind it is bounded 
by a small portion of the anal nervure, the outer part of the 
internal margin, the anal angle and the hinder portion of the 
outer margin of the wing. Between the cubital and subdiscoidal 
nervures and extending from the second recurrent nervure to 
the outer margin, lies the second apical cell. The frenal fold 
is near the outer end of the anal cell. 

The writer is inclined to agree with Snodgrass^ in his inter- 
pretation of the venation of an Ichneumonid wing, as indicated 
by his Figure 76, rather than with that used by Cresson.^ 

The two systems agree in the main, the points of disagreement 
being the discoidal and first recurrent nervures. According to 
the system used by Cresson, the first recurrent nervure (1.) sep- 
arates the two parts of the discoidal nervure (j.). 

In the fore wing of Mellinus which Cresson ^ uses as a typical 
Hymenopteron wing, the two recurrent nervures are very distinct 
and there can be no question raised as to their identity. Here, 
the first recurrent nervure extends from the discoidal nervure 
(j.) to the cubital nervure (k.). In the fore wing of Megarhyssa 
lunator, the cubital nervure at its anterior end is but an abbre- 
viated stump. According to Snodgrass, the vein from (j.) to 
(k.) forms the first recurrent nervure (No. 16, fig. 76). This agrees 
with the condition found in Mellinus and seems to be a more 
plausible explanation than calling it part of the discoidal nervure 
(1.) with parts of the latter on either side of it (j.). If Snod- 
grass's interpretation is accepted, then the discoidal nervure 
remains as such from beginning to end. 

In Mellinus the first transverse cubital nervure extends for- 
ward from the point where the first recurrent nervure joins the 
cubital, to the marginal or radial nervure, but in the fore wing 

5 'Thorax of Hymenoptera,' 1910, pi. G, fig. 76. 

^ Synopsis of the Hymenoptera of North America, p. 38, fig. 9. 

^ Synopsis of the Hymenoptera of North America, p. 5, fig. 4. 



J. H. MERRILL 119 

of Megarhyssa lunator, the transverse cubital nervure is lost. 
As a result of this, the so-called cubito-discoidal cell includes 
not only the first, but the second cubital cell, and the cells spoken 
of by Cresson as the second and third cubital cells are in reality 
the third and fourth cubital cells. The nervures (f.) and (g.) 
though called the first and second transverse cubitals are actually 
the second and third. 

In the hind wing the nervures and cells are fewer in number 
than in the fore wing. The subcostal nervure runs outward 
from the base of the wing for nearly two-thirds the length of 
the latter, joining the costa at a small notch in the costal margin. 
From this point the radial or marginal nervure passes obliquely 
outward and backward to the outer margin some little distance 
behind the apex. Behind the subcostal lies the externo-medial 
nervure, which passes outward, gradually diverging from the 
former till intersected by two cross nervures. Bej'ond the inter- 
section it continues to the hinder margin, this portion being 
termed the discoidal nervure. Behind the externo-medial 
nervure is a third longitudinal nervure w^hich extends from the 
base of the wing to its hinder margin, which it reaches a short 
distance before the middle of the margin. The externo-medial 
nervure is intersected in front by the cubital nervure, the two 
uniting at nearly right angles. The latter abruptly turns out- 
ward, however, and gradually backward and reaches the hinder 
margin of the wing about half w^ay between the ends of the dis- 
coidal and marginal nervures. At about its middle, it is joined 
by the hinder end of the transverse cubital nervure which passes 
forward, then outward, then forward and unites with the mar- 
ginal nervure near its middle. From the point of intersection 
of the externo-medial and cubital nervures the transverse medial 
originates, extending backward and inward and joins the anal 
nervure a short distance before the latter reaches the wing 
margin. 

The cell lying between the costa and the subcostal nervure is 
known as the costal cell: that in front of the marginal or radial 
nervure, as the marginal or radial cell : that bounded in front by 
the costal and part of the radial nervures, behind by the externo- 
medial and the inner part of the cubital nervures, and externally 
by the transverse cubital nervure — the largest cell of the wing — 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



120 PIMPLINE ICHNEUMONIDAE 

is the median ceU. Between the outer parts of the marginal and 
cubital nervures, external to the transverse cubital nervure is 
the submarginal or cubital cell. Behind this, between the 
cubital and discoidal nervures lies the first discoidal cell. Be- 
tween the externo-medial and anal nervures and extending from 
the base of the wing to the transverse medial nervure, lies the 
submedian cell, external to which and separated from it by the 
transverse medial nervure lies the second discoidal cell. The 
area behind the anal nervure is known as the anal cell. 

Legs 

The legs are long and slender, the coxa being the stoutest 
part of each leg. The coxae, trochanters, femora and tibiae, 
which are clothed with minute hairs or spines, are sometimes 
almost pubescent. At the outer end of each tibia are two long 
spines of unequal length, on the sides towards the body. The 
tarsi are covered with short spines becoming longer at the end 
of each segment. 

On the fore legs, the coxae are large, but are the shortest ones 
of the three sets. Each is sub-conical in form, with the tro- 
chanter articulating at its apex. The trochanter is well devel- 
oped and composed of two segments, the first being the larger. 
Its base is cylindrical, but at the tip of the second section where 
it articulates with the femur it is flattened. 

The fore femur is the shortest of any. At its articulation with 
the trochanter, it is flattened and for a short distance it decreases 
in width. It then begins to widen and thicken, becoming sub- 
cylindrical just before articulating with the tibia. 

The fore tibia is the only one which is shorter than its femur. 
It is narrow and cylindrical at its base of articulation, but 
gradually increases in size to its outer end. Its outer side is 
clothed with short spines. 

The tarsus is composed of five segments, all of which are 
cylindrical and slightly enlarged at their outer ends. They 
decrease in length from the tibia outward to the fifth segment 
which is slightly longer than the fourth. On that portion of 
the tarsus overlapped by the tibial spurs is a raised area, which 
together with the latter, forms a cleaning apparatus. The 
longest spines of the tarsus are found at the tip of the fourth 



J. H. MERRILL 121 

segment. At the tip of the fifth is a pair of strong, well-developed, 
incurved claws, between which is a large pulvillus. 

The middle coxa is larger than the fore coxa and is more cylin- 
drical than conical. The middle femur is straighter and longer 
than the foi'e femur. At its base it is narrow, but soon broadens 
out and remains the same width for the rest of its length. The 
middle tibia is longer than the fore tibia and also longer than 
the middle femur. In all other respects the middle leg is like 
the fore leg. 

The hind legs are the longest and in all respects they resemble 
the middle legs rather than the fore legs. 

.4 bdomen 

The abdomen consists of nine visible segments. It is depressed 
behind the propodeum but towards the end is mostly compressed. 
It has lateral impressed lines on segments three to six, which 
converge toward the middle of the base. The abdomen is some- 
times finely, transversely- aciculated. The dorsal portion is 
coriaceous. 

The first segment of the abdomen is the median segment or 
propodeum, and has often been considered to be part of the 
metathorax. Anteriorly it articulates with the metapostscu- 
tellum and the metaepimeron. The latter extends along its 
lower border. The sternum of this segment is either lost or 
has fused with the metasternum. The pleural elements have 
fused with the notum forming a single continuous plate. It is 
usually smooth, but in some cases has a channeled groove along 
its mid-dorsal line and may even be areolated. The presence 
or absence of these areolations is used for generic distinction. 
On either side it bears a large spiracle, these forming the largest 
spiracles found in the abdomen. 

The actual second segment, usually rated as the first by sys- 
tematists, is constricted at its base, joining the true first segment 
or propodeum as by a stem. Its attachment is such that it is 
enabled to articulate freely. Here as in all the rest of the seg- 
ments, the pleura are fused with the notum. It is straight, with 
its spiracles placed before the middle and closer to each other 
than to the apical margin. These facts are made use of in 
classifying to the tribe. At the base of this segment, the fused 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



122 PIMPLINE ICHNEUMONIDAE 

notum and pleura become fused with the sternum for a greater 
or lesser distance. The amount of this fusion is used in classi- 
fication to species, and the presence or absence of it is made use 
of for generic distinction. The sternum is divided into an anterior 
and a posterior portion by a transverse groove. The latter 
portion is again divided into two parts by a longitudinal mid- 
ventral groove. 

Considerable variation from the typical form in regard to the 
construction of the sternal plate has been found. A large part, 
often as much as half of the posterior portions of this plate may 
be membranous in place of being mainly composed of chitin, 
as is the case in some species. It is impossible to determine 
whether this characteristic is the primitive condition or is a 
degeneration, though the weight of evidence would point towards 
the latter, as the few species possessing this modification are in 
other respects the most highly developed of this group. 

The third segment, like the second, is truncate at its apex, 
while the fourth, fifth and sixth segments are prolonged laterally 
at the apex. There is a gradual increase in size in these segments, 
otherwise their structures closely resemble each other. In each, 
the notum and pleura are fused, but the sternum is a separate 
plate. On the pleura are laterally impressed lines converging 
toward the base. The sternal plates of these segments are 
separated by a mid-ventral longitudinal groove. On eithej* side 
of this groove is a small projection, the tips of which point toward 
each other. The size and position of these projections vary in 
different genera. This character is used for generic classification. 

In the female the last three segments of the abdomen are 
highly specialized. Ventrally they are plow-share shaped. 
The seventh is the deepest segment of the abdomen. Its ventral 
plate, however, is very small. Between the dorsal portions of 
the seventh and eighth segments is the membrane used by the 
female for coiling up the ovipositor, before thrusting it into the 
tree in which she desires to oviposit. The ovipositor becomes 
external on the ventral side between the seventh and eighth 
segments. It is long and slender, varying in length; in some 
species attaining a length of five or six inches and is always 
longer than the body of the insect. It is composed of three 
lateral sections which interlock. The ventral plates of the eighth 



J. H. MERRILL 123 

and ninth segments are for the most part membranous. The 
base of the sheaths of the ovipositor arises in these ventral 
plates and extends thus nearly to the apex of the abdomen. 
Near the apex comes a decided break where the sheaths proper 
are articulated. These are long and slender, equalling the ovi- 
positor in length. They are concaved inwardly and convex 
with ridged rings outwardly. The nota of the eighth and ninth 
segments are small, but their pleura extend backward and are 
overlapped and partially concealed by those of the seventh 
segment. On the apex of the ninth segment is a small, blunt, 
rod-like projection, and beneath on either side of the groove 
which receives the sheaths is a small cercus. Both of these 
parts are probably tactile in their nature. 

Sex Distinction 

The presence or absence of the ovipositor anil its sheaths is 
the most readily noticed sex distinction, but there are others 
not so easily noticed. The sternal plates of the female are longi- 
tudinally divided and the small projections described above 
are usually present, while in the males, the sternal plates are 
entire and the projections are absent. The abdomen of the 
female increases in size towards its apex while that of the male 
is long, slender, and approximately of the same width throughout. 
The small rod-like projections on the ninth segment of the female 
are, of course, lacking in the male, their positions being occupied 
by the male external genital organ. The ventral cerci of the 
female are absent in the male but the male has a pair of small 
cerci on the dorsal apex of the eighth segment which are not 
found in the female. 

Classification 

Tribe Pimplini 

Ashmead, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., iii, p. 278, (1895). 
Schmiedeknecht, Genera Insectorum, 62nd fascicle, p. 18, (1907). 

On May 3, 1895, Ashmead read a paper before the Entomolog- 
ical Society of Washington, which was later published in the 
Proceedings of that society, in which he proposed the breaking 
up of the sub-family Pitnplinae into a number of tribes, one of 
which was to be called Pimplini. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



124 PIMPLINE ICHNEUMONIDAE 

The following synoptic table leading to the tribe Pimplini is 
taken from the ()2nd fascicle of the Genera Insectorum. 

1. Head more or less cubical, more rarely globular. Mandibles extended, 

and with the clypeus downwardly bent at the tip, as a rule, forming the 

mouth opening. Antennae and legs mostly long and thin, Tribe Xoridini 

Head transverse, rarely somewhat elevated. Mandibles with the clypeus 

fonning no apparent mouth opening 2 

2. Abdomen depressed, rarely somewhat compressed at the tip. The last 

abdominal segment not large. Hind legs, particularly, not the hind coxae, 
neither strikingly long nor stout. Antennae almost entirely long and 

slender 3 

Abdomen behind more or less laterally compressed. The last ventral 
segment, generally plow-share shaped and standing out, sometimes very 
large, lancet-shaped, very rarely small and transverse. Hind legs or 
at least hind coxae strongly lengthened and generally strongly thickened. 

Antennae more or less short and stout, 

(Tribes not included in this paper) 

3. Abdomen with more or less distinct impressions, mostly also strongly 

punctured. When smoother and without elevations, then segments 
2 to 5 have deep impressed, obhque lines on both sides which converge 

toward the middle of the base Tribe Pimplini 

Abdomen without, or with entirely indistinct impressions, and without 
coarse sculpturing, more or less smooth or finely punctured or leather- 
like Tribe Lissonotini 

The characters of the tribe Pimplini are: Head transverse, 
rarely somewhat elevated. Abdomen depressed, only toward 
the end mostly compressed, with more or less distinct impressions 
or elevations, usually punctured, rarely smooth, if smooth 
alutaceous or coriaceous, always with lateral impressed lines 
on segments 2 to 5 which converge toward the middle of the 
base. Mandibles with front border of clypeus not forming a 
mouth-opening. Hind legs not conspicuously lengthened and 
thickened. 

Synoptic Table to Genera Here Treated 

Females 

1; Mesonotum transversely rugose 2 

Mesonotum not transversely rugose (Genera not tnnited.) 

2. Head with carina between the antennae Apechoneura 

Head with a carina between the antennae 3 

3. Sternal plates of abdomen entire Pseudorhyssa 

Sternal plates of abdomen divided by a median-longitudinal groove 4 



J. H. MERRILL 125 

4. Projections along groove of the sternal plate nearer the base of each seg- 
ment than its apex Megarhyssa 

Projections on sternal plate situated about mid-way between base and 
apex of each segment Rhyssa 

Males 

1. Propodeum areolated: head without a carina between the antennae 

Pseudorhyssa 

Propodeum not areolated 2 

2. Pleura and sternum of second abdominal segment fused for a short dis- 

tance Megarhyssa 

Pleura and sternum of second abdominal segment not fused Rhyssa 

Genus MEGARHYSSA Ashmead 

Thalessa Holmgren, Ofvers. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Forh., xvi, 1859, p. 132. 

Megarhyssa Ashmead, Can. Ent., xxxii, 1900, p. 369. 

Megarhyssa Dalla Torre, Cat. Hym., iii, 1901-2, p. 479. 

Thalessa Schmiedeknecht, Gen. Ins. Fasc. 62, 1907, p. 63. 

Genotype: {Ichneumon clavator Fahricms) . [Sic]= (Ichneumon) Megarhyssa 
clavatus (Fabricius) = (7c/mewmori) Megarhyssa Superbus (Schrank). (Vide 
Viereck, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. S3, p. 144, (1914).) 

In Megarhyssa the clypeus is usually anteriorly truncate, the 
abdominal segments in the male are smooth, with segments 
3 to 7 at the apex emarginate or deeplj^ excavated. The sternal 
plate of the second abdominal segment is for a greater or lesser 
distance fused with the pleura at its anterior end. The amount 
of fusion varies with the species. The sternal plate of this 
segment is largely membranous, the chitin being apparently 
degenerated. Between the seventh and eighth segments, issues 
the membrane used by the female in ovipositing, as already 
described. The projections of the sternal plates of segments 
3 to 6, on either side of the mid-ventral groove are longer than 
in Rhyssa, and are situated nearer the base than the apex of 
each segment. 

Table to Females 

1. Insects black or fnostly black 2 

Insects yellow or yellowish red 4 

2. Black with white spots on the abdomen humida (Sa}-) (p. 126) 

Black without white spots on the abdomen 3 

3. Ovipositor at least twice as long as the body atrata (Fabr.) (p. 128) 

Ovipositor not twice as long as the body canadensis (Cress.) (p. 129) 

4. Areolet in fore-wings absent mesdcana (Cress.) (p. 131) 

Areolet in fore-wings present 5 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



126 PIMPLINE ICHNEUMONIDAE 

5. Rounded spots on the sides of the abdomen. . .nortonii (Cress.) (p. 131) 
No rounded spots on the sides of the abdomen 6 

6. Yellow band behind the eyes bordered posteriorly with a black band. 

In second abdominal segment, pleura and sternum fused as far as or 

but shghtly l^eyond the spiracles, wings clouded at their tips 

lunator (Fabr.) (p. 133) 

Yellow band behind the eyes not bordered posteriorly with a black band. 
Fusion of pleura and sternimi extending twice the distance from base 
of segment to spiracles, wings not clouded at tips . greenei (Vier.) (p. 136) 

Table to Males 

1. Black or mostly black 2 

Xot black 3 

2. Abdomen with white spots on its sides nitida (Cress.) (p. 137) 

Abdomen without white spots on its sides canadensis (Cress.) (p. 129) 

3. Recurrent nervure interstitial with outer transverse cubital 

nortonii (Cress.) (p. 131) 

Recurrent nervure not interstitial 4 

4. Wings fuscous atrata (Fabr.) (p. 128) 

Wings not fuscous 5 

5. Yellow behind the eyes bordered by a black band extending around the 

head nearly to the mandibles, wings clouded at tips 

lunator (Fabr.) (p. 133) 

Yellow behind the eyes merging into a hght brown band, wings not clouded 
at tips greenei (Vier.) (p. 136) 

Megarhyssa humida (Say) 

Pimpla humida Say, Boston Journ. Nat. Hist., i, pt. 3, 1836, p. 224, n. 1, $ . 
Pivipla humida LeConte, Writings of Thos. Say, ii, 1859, p. 683. 
Rhyssa humida DaUa Torre, Cat. Hym., iii, 1901-2, p. 483. 

Type. As this species was named by Say, the type cannot be 
located. 

The female of this species is about half an inch long with an ovipositor 
slightly longer than the body. The head is yellowish-white with the vertex 
and a broad central band extending to the base of the insertion of the antennae 
dark, as is also the clypeus. There is a large dark spot in the middle of the 
lower margin of the frons from which a dark band extends to the antennae. 
The mandibles are black but the palpi are white. The antennae are brownish- 
black. 

A broad yeUowish-white band extends forward along the upper bordcn- of the 
prothorax from the tegula nearly to the middle line in front and downward 
at its posterior end, making the spot somewhat L-shaped. Beneath this band 
is a broad dark band running parallel to it, which occupies almost all of the 
remaining portion of the prothorax. Just below this dark band and above 
the procoxa is a pale rufous streak. The prosternum is pale rufous. The 
mcsonotum is darlc as is the prescutum. This dark color from the prcscutum 



J. H. MERRILL 127 

extends backward between two parallel, longitudinal, yellowish-white bands 
on the mesonotum to the mesoscutellum. The center of the rnesoscutellum 
has a square yellowish-white spot on it, and is interrupted at its front margin 
by a dark one. The posterior margin of the entire plate has a narrow white 
line, the remainder of the plate is black. On the metascutellum (generally 
called postscutellum) is an oblong yellowish-white spot. Both front and 
rear margins of this plate have a yellowish-white Une, each side is black and 
a black line crosses from one side to the other just in front of the oblong spot. 
The mesosternum and metasternum as well as their pleura are pale rufous. 
The tegula, a raised spot beneath the fore wing and another spot below this 
are yellowish-white. The uotum of the propodeum is dark with a yellowish- 
whitre spot separating it from the rufous pleura at its posterior end. The legs 
are pale rufous, with the knees, tibiae and tarsi whitish. The exterior surface 
of the middle tibiae and tarsi as well as the tarsal tips and sutures are darker. 
In the posterior tibiae the outer extremitj' is darkened and the tarsal segments 
become darker toward the tarsal claws, which are brownish-black. The wings 
are hyaline with dark brown nervures. The stigma is pale fuscous at its 
base but becomes darker towards its apex. The areolet is petiolated and the 
recurrent nerv'ure enters it in the middle. 

The abdomen is dark brown, pohshed and transversely aciculated above, 
and obhquely aciculated at the sides. On the notum of the second segment 
is a broad, dorsal depression extending from the base nearly to its tip. On 
the third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth segments are roundish, 
3'ello wish-white spots, which on the last two segments become elongated, 
with their axis at right angles to that of the bod3^ The venter is yellowish- 
white with brown bands. The ovipositor is of a reddish-brown with darker 
colored sheaths. 

]Male unknown. 

Megarhyssa humida is more apt to be confused with Rhyssa 
persuasoria than with any other species, yet an examination of 
the sternal plates will show a marked difference. The fact 
that the pleura and sternum of the second abdominal segment 
are fused for a short distance will serve to distinguish it from 
Rhyssa persuasoria. The fact that the mesosternum and meta- 
sternum of M. humida are rufous and not l^lack is another dis- 
tinguishing character. It can be distinguished from M. atrata 
by the absence of the yellowish-white markings found on the 
latter. It can be distinguished from Megarhyssa norionii, 
canadensis, lunator, greenei, and mexicana by the presence of its 
yellowish-white orbits. 

This species was described by Saj- as Pimpla humida and was 
later put into the genus Rhyssa by Walsh, but the structural 
characters of the sternal plates, the fusion of the pleura and 
sternum of the second abdominal segment, the ends of the 

TRANS. .VM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



128 PIMPLINE ICHNEUMONIDAE 

abdominal segments being acute instead of truncate, would seem 
to place it in Megarhyssa. It would also seem that this might 
be the female of M. nitida on account of the similarity of color- 
markings, size, and its petiolated areolet. If this should prove 
true the name M. nitida would fall into synonj-my. 

Megarhyssa atrata (Fabricius) 

Ichneumon nirula Fabricius, Spec. Insect., i, 1781, p. 436. 

The following references are in addition to those given by Dalla Torre: 

Lintner, Country Gentleman, July, 1883, p. 561. 

Harrington, Can. Ent., xix, 1887, p. 206. 

Riley, Insect Life, i, 1888-89, p. 168 et seq. 

Smith, Insects of New Jersey, 1909, p. 627. 

This species varies from about an inch to an inch and three-quarters in 
length, with a very long, dark-browni ovipositor, which in some cases attains a 
length of five or six inches. The head and antennae are yeUow. The ocelli 
are embedded in a transverse dark band extending between the compound 
eyes. There is another transverse dark band at the point of insertion of the an- 
tennae, not quite reaching the compound eyes, and a black spot on the face just 
above the clypeus. The ground color of the thorax is a glossy black with a 
yellow spot in the prothorax just in front of the fore wing, one beneath the fore 
wing, and one on each side of the propodeum near where it articulates with the 
second abdominal segment. On each side of the mesoscutellum is a short, longi- 
tudinal dash, while in the center of the metascutellum (generally called post- 
scutellum) is a transverse yellow dash. The legs are yellow with the coxae, 
middle and hind trochanters, black and the fore-trochanters partly yellow. 
The procoxae each bear a more or less indistinguishable yellow spot. The 
middle and posterior femora are black with yellow tips. The tibiae are yellow, 
but the tarsal segments are darker at their outer extremities and the tips of 
the tarsal claws are black. The wings are fusco-hyaline and show an irides- 
cence in some lights. The stigma is pale ferruginous at its base becoming 
darker toward its apex. The abdomen is brownish-black, some parts being 
slightly hghter than others. 

M. atrata may be distinguished from M. lunator, greenei, 
and mexicana by its very dark abdomen. Its yellow antennae 
will distinguish it from nitida, canadensis, and humida. Its 
larger size would also serve to distinguish it as well as the length 
of the ovipositor, which is several times the length of the body. 

Its life history is similar to that of M. lunator and M. greenei 
with which it is commonly found associated. The dates of cap- 
ture of specimens seen range from June 2 to September 15. 

The male of M. atrata differs from the female very markedly 
in its color markings. The structural sex differences are the 
same in M. atrata as in M. lunator. In general the male has 



J. H. MERRILL 129 

more yellow upon it than the female. The dark spot on the 
face just above the clypeus may or may not be present. The 
antennae are dark-brown but lighter beneath toward their tips. 
The upper margin of the prothorax is marked by yellow and 
this color may in some instances form a border around it, leaving 
a polished black spot in the center. Beneath the fore-wing is 
a raised yellow spot. Just below it and extending backward 
to the mesoepimeron and nearly down to the sternum is a yellow 
area. This area maj^ be partly divided into two by a darker 
stain running through it. The prescutum is yelloAvish-brown 
and from it two bands of yellow or light brown pass backward 
over the mesonotum throughout its whole length, and it may be 
also more or less completely margined by the same color. A large 
yellow spot starts on each side of the metathorax at its upper 
margin and extends dorsally, covering the pleura of the propo- 
deum and nearly meeting the other on the notum. Jast before 
the hinder margin of the notum of the second and sometimes 
of the third abdominal segment is a narrow transverse yellow 
band. The rest of the abdomen is brownish-black, lighter in 
spots. M. atrata may be distinguished from lunator by the 
absence of clouded areas in the fore-wings, from M. greenei by 
its fusco-hyaline wings, and from nortonii by receiving the recur- 
rent nervure in the middle of the areolet. 

Megarhyssa canadensis (Cresson) 

(Rhyssa canadensis Cresson, Can. Ent., i, 1885, p. 35, 9 . 

Location of type.— In the collection of the American Entomo- 
logical Society of Philadelphia. 

The female of this species is about half an inch long with an ovipositor 
slightly longer than the body. The head is dark bro^\-n to black. The facial 
orbits are marked with a yellowish-white band interrupted at the point of 
insertion of the antennae and ending at the vertex. The posterior orbits 
in the hghter colored specimens are marked by a lighter broNvTi. The palpi 
are whitish. The dark portion below the antennae is slightly raised medially 
and the whole is irregularly, transversely, striated. The antennae are dark 
brown becoming lighter and somewhat larger toward their tips. 

The thorax is dark brown to black and its sides are clothed with numerous 
short, erect, whitish hairs. The tegulae are yellowish -white. The meso- 
scutellum and metascuteUum (or postscutellum) are transversely striated. 
The sides of the t*horax are highly poUshed and in the mesothorax are densely 
punctured. In the hghter specimens the prothorax is marked with a hghter 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



130 PIMPLINE ICHNEUMONIDAE 

brown similar to that of the posterior orbits. In the hghter specimens the 
rear margin of the mesoscutellum, an oblong spot in the centre of the meta- 
Bcutellum and a line on its rear margin are rufous. In the darker specimens 
these plates show no color markings. The propodeum is transversely striated 
above, punctured below, with a median longitudinal depression extending ' 
nearly to its posterior margin. The wings are fusco-hyaUne tinged with yellow, 
and shghtly more fuscous nervures and stigma except at their base where 
they are lighter. The areolet is small, petiolated, with the recurrent nervure 
entering at its middle. The legs are pale rufous. The fifth segment of the 
anterior and middle tarsi, and the claws are dark. The posterior femur 
bears a dark spot at its extremity as does the tibia near its base. The tibia is 
darker along its external surface completely enveloping its outer half. The 
posterior tarsal segments are darker on their external surface, this dark color 
increasing towards the claws, which are all dark. 

The abdomen is dark brown to black, transversely aciculated above, these 
aciculations bending forward at the sides. The ovipositor is dark brown 
with darker sheaths. 

The male of this species, from the collection of the U. S. National Museum 
(here described for the first time), is shghtly less than half an inch long. The 
head is black. The antennae are black at their base but become lighter and 
somewhat larger toward their tips. From the base of the antennae down 
to the clypeus the face is yellowish-white. This spot is prolonged to the ver- 
tex in the form of bands margining the compound eyes. 

The thorax is black and poUshed. The sides of the mesothorax and meta- 
thorax are densely punctured. The mesoscutellum and metascutellum are 
transversely striated. The propodeum is transversely striated except along 
the median, longitudinal depression, which extends nearly to its posterior 
margin. Its sides are punctured. Nimierous short, erect, whitish hairs clothe 
the thorax. 

The wings, legs and abdomen are as in the female. 

In size and general appearance M. canadensis resembles humida 
more closely than the other Megarhyssae but the absence of white 
spots on the side of the abdomen would serve to distinguish 
it from humida as well as from atrata. Its dark brown to black 
color with whitish color markings would distinguish it from 
lunator, greenei, nortonii and mexicana. 

This species was originally described by Cresson as Rhyssa 
canadensis, but the structure of its sternal plates, the fusion of 
the pleura and sternum of the second abdominal segment, and the 
acutely angled tip of the abdominal segments would seem to 
place it in Megarhyssa. 



J. H. MERRILL 131 

Megarhyssa mexicana (Cresson) 
Epirhyssa mexicaiia Cresson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1893, p. 394, 9 . 

No statement about the types accompanies the description, 
but a range in length measurement impHes that more than one 
specimen was examined and there are two specimens labeled, 
"Type No. 599," from Mexico, in the collection of the American 
Entomological Society of Philadelphia. 

9 , This species is about an inch long, with an ovipositor a httle longer 
than the body. The head is yellow but the mandibles are black. The region 
in which the ocelh are imbedded and extending between the compound eyes 
is slightly darker than the ground color of the head. Parallel and posterior 
to this darkened area is a dark band which nearly encircles the head. The 
sutm-e from the compound eyes to the mandibles and extending across the 
upper part of the clypeus is also dark. The antemiae are dark brown, except 
the under side of the scape which is Ughter colored than the flageUum. 

The gromid color of the thorax is pale yellow. The sutures separating the 
mesonotum from the prescutum, prothorax and mesoscutellum are dark. 
A dark band runs along the center of the prescutum and another on each side 
of the mesonotum runs from the prescutum back to the mesoscutellum. The 
suture separating the mesothorax from the metathorax and the propodeum 
is also dark. The legs are yellow and the tarsi become darker toward the 
tarsal claws which are dark brown or black. The suture dividing the posterior 
femur from its trochanter is dark. The wings are faintly yellow-hyaline, 
clouded at theii- tips and without an areolet in the specimens examined. 

The abdomen is yellow, smooth, and ghstening. The tips of the second, 
third, fourth, fifth and sLxth segments are each bordered with a black band. 
In the remaining segments these bands are nearly obsolete. The ovipositor 
is dark brown. 

Male unknown. 

Distinguishing characters. — Mexicana may be distinguished 
from the other species of Megarhyssa by its yellow abdomen 
without spots and probably by the absence of the areolet in its 
fore wings. 

This species was placed in Epirhyssa by Cresson, but the struc- 
ture of its sternal plates agrees with those of Megarhyssa and the 
presence of the areolet seems to be a variable character in thip 
group. 

Megarhyssa nortonii (Cresson) 

Rhyssa nortonii Cresson, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila., iii, p. 317, 9 . 

Thalessa quebecensis Provancher, Natural Canad., v, 1873, p. 317, 9 cT. 

Thalessa nortonii Provancher, Faun. Ent. Canad.; H\'men., 1SS3, p. 445. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



132 PIMPLINE ICHNEUMONIDAE 

Type. — In the collection of the American Entomological 
Society of Philadelphia. 

The female of this species varies from about an inch to an inch and a haK in 
length, with an ovipositor about twice the length of the body. The head is 
yellow, marked with dark-brown or black. There is a dark band extending 
across the upper part of the head between the front margins of the compound 
eyes, in which the ocelli are embedded. From this dark band back to the 
occiput extends a dark brown to black area, slightly lighter in color than the 
transverse band. From the latter, a dark band extends down to the labrum, 
where it broadens out, extending to the lower margins of the compound eyes, 
and thence downward covering all of the lower part of the head in front. 
The antennae are dark brown to black with the scape and pedicel more glis- 
tening than the flagellum . The ground color of the thorax varies from brown 
to black. There is a yellow spot on the side of the prothorax, another beneath 
the wing, on the side of the metathorax, and on the propodeum just above. 
In the lighter specimens these propodeal spots may be confluent over the 
dorsum. The mesonotmn may be brown with black markings, black with 
ferruginous markings, or entirely black. The mesoscutellum has a square 
yellow spot in its center and the metascutelliun (generally called postscutellum) 
has an oblong yellow spot. The wings are hyaUne, tinged with yellow, giving 
a faint violet reflection in some hghts. The stigma is pale-ferruginous. The 
legs arg yellow varying with darker shades of the same color. The coxae 
vary from dark brown to black. The middle and posterior femora are dark 
with their tips yellow, as are also the tibiae. The tips of the tarsal claws are 
black. The abdomen is slightly hghter in color than the thorax. Just before 
the hinder margin of the notum of the second and also of the third abdominal 
segments is a small transverse yellow band. In the darker colored specimens, 
reddish-yellow spots are found on the sides of the segments. The spots on the 
anterior portion of the abdomen are about in the middle of each segment, 
but they gradually move forward, so that in the posterior segments they are 
found on the anterior margins. In the lighter colored specimens they are 
not distinct and form spots only a little Hghter than their surroundings. On 
each side of the fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth segments is a yellow 
spot, more or less oval in form. The long axis of the spot on the last two 
segments is nearly at right angles to the body axis. 

In M. nortonii the yellow spots on the sides of the abdomen 
are rounded-oval, while in the closely related M. lunator and 
M. greenei they form angled bands. In M. nortonii there is a 
dark stripe extending from the vertex to and including the man- 
dibles, in M. lunator there are two dark lines running from the 
antennae to the mandibles, and in M. greenei these lines are 
absent. M. nortonii can be distinguished from M. mexicana 
in that the latter has a pale-yellow ground color, with black 
markings on the abdomen. The wings of the latter are clouded 



J. H. MERRILL 133 

at the tips, and possess no areolet, neither are there any dark 
markings on the face. M. nortonii may be distinguished from 
M. atrata, humida, canadensis and nitida by the fact that in these 
latter forms the greater part of the surface of the bod}' is black, 
with white, yellow, or fuscous body markings. 

Megarhyssa nortonii is widely distributed throughout the 
United States, Canada, and Alaska. Specimens taken from the 
Pacific coast ranging from Alaska down through California, 
exhiljit in general much darker color markings than those taken 
east of the Rocky Mountains. 

Provancher described M. nortonii as Thalessa quehecensis in 
1873, but as he applied the identical description to Thalessa 
nortonii in 1883, it shows that he recognized that the two were 
identical. The dates of capture of specimens seen range from 
May 20 to Aug. 7. 

Male. Not having seen what he would consider a bona-fide 
specimen of a male nortonii, the writer will use a translation of 
Provancher's description of a male.^ 

Male. Length one and one-tenth inches. Differ little from the female. 
The poUshed plaque of the two sides of the prothorax is without yeUow spots. 
The metathorax is clearer towards its extremity, without spots on the sides 
and flanks are of a uniform, shiny red. Segments one and two have a yeUow 
band towards the summit. The second segment is the same as that of the 
female, bordered with black at both ends and on the sides. The recurrent 
nervure is interstitial with the outer transverse cubital. 

Megarhyssa lunator (Fabricius) 

Idineumon lunator Fabricius, Spec. Insect., i, 1781, p. 4.30, n. 64. 

The following references are additions to the Hst given by Dalla Torre: 

Lintner, Country Gentleman, July 1883, p. 561. 

Harrington, Canadian Entomologist, xix, 1887, p. 206. 

Riley, Insect Life, i, 1888-89, p. 168 et seq. 

Smith, Insects of New Jersey, 1909, p. 627. 

There seems to be no record of the present location of the type 
of this species. 

9 . The individuals of this sex vary in length from three-quarters of an 
inch to an inch and a half, and the ovipositor from an inch and a half to three 
and three-quarters inches. The head is yellow with a transverse dark band 
on its vertex, in which are inserted the three ocelli. Another dark band behind 
the former and running parallel to it, ahiiost encircles the head. A dark line 
runs from the base of each antenna to the labrum. The mandibles are dark 
brown, stout and bidentate. The antennae are dark brown and slender, 

*Le Naturaliste Canadien, v, 1873, p. 445. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



134 PIMPLINE ICHNEUMOXIDAE 

The ground color of the thorax and propodeum is j^ellow, varying somewhat 
in shade but generally rather Ught. The markings range from yellowish- 
brown to black and seem in some places to be situated on the margin of the 
scleritcs to quite an extent. The ground color of the legs is yellow, like the 
thorax, becoming darker toward the tips. Spots and streaks of brown occur 
here and there. 

The prescutum which is practically circular in outline is margined with 
brown or black, and from its hinder margin a band of this color extends to 
the hinder end of the mesoscutum and a broader band narrowing posteriorly, 
extends backward on either side. The ground color of the mesoscutum 
appears as a pair of longitudinal bands and a narrow margin above the 
tegula at each side. 

In the fore wing there is a brown, sometimes almost blackish, area covering 
the stigma and extending backward across the radial cell, the tip of the cubito- 
discoidal cell and frequently more or less involving the areolet. The tip of the 
third submarginal cell is also covered by a spot of this kind, less pronounced, 
however, than the other. 

The abdomen is browTi, varying considerably in shade, with bands and Unes 
of yellow. Just in front of the hinder margin of the notum of the second and 
also of the third segments is a transverse yeUow band, shghtly bent forward 
• at its ends. These yellow bands in the hghter forms are margined with bro\\Ti 
distinctly darker than that of the segments as a whole. In the darker form 
these margins are not in evidence On the fourth, fifth and sixth segments, 
these bands are extended forward almost to the spiracles, then toward the hinder 
end and upward, following the general outline of the end of the segments, 
the two parts of the band forming an acute angle. These bands are not con- 
tinuous across the dorsum, nor are the dark bands which margin them, but 
in the eighth segment the yellow band is continuous. 

The fusion of the pleura with the sternum of the second abdominal segment 
extends from the base of that segment out to, or but shghtly beyond the spira- 
cles. 

The male lunator differs from the female only in the following respects: 
the abdomen of the male is sub-cylindrical throughout and not plow-share 
shaped as, in the female. The pleura are extended downward completely 
enveloping the sterna of aU but the second, third and a small portion of the 
fourth segments. The sterna are not longitudinally divided by a groove and 
therefore cannot show the median-sternal projections which may be seen in 
the female. There is more variation in the color markings of the male, some 
specimens showing a dark spot on the face above the clypeus: just before the 
apex of the second and also of the third abdominal segments is a short trans- 
verse yellow band, slightly notched at the center of its inner margin. These 
bands are the only color markings on the abdomen. This sex may be distin- 
guished from the male atrata by the spotted wings, and from nortonii by the 
recurrent nervure entering at the middle of the areolet. 

Distinguishing Characters. — Lunator may be distinguished from 
greenei by the following differences. It has dark lines from the 
base of the antennae to the labrum, a dark band parallel to the 



J. H. MERRILL 135 

one in which the ocelli are imbedded, dark patches on the tips 
of its wings, which characters are absent in greeyiei. In lunator 
the fusion of the pleura with the sternum of the second abdominal 
segment extends to or but slightly beyond the spiracle, while 
in greenei it extends as far beyond the spiracle as the distance 
between the spiracle and base of the segment. In lunator the 
dark bands on the abdominal segments are not continuous 
over the dorsum, while they are in greenei. On the eighth seg- 
ment of lunator the yellow band is continuous but this condition 
does not occur in greenei. In lunator the ovipositors are relatively 
longer than in greenei, being from two to two and a half times 
the length of the body, and in greenei from one to one and a 
half times. 

Lunator may be distinguished from nortonii by the shape of 
the markings on the 4th, 5th and 6th abdominal segments. 
In lunator they are acutely angulated bands, while in nortonii 
they are roundish spots. The wings of lunator are hyaline, with 
dark spots, while in nortonii they are transparent, fuscous and 
with no dark patches. It can be distinguished from mexicana 
in that the latter is bright yellow marked with black. The 
apical margins of the abdominal segments of mexicana are bor- 
dered with black bands continuous over the dorsum. The 
areolet of the fore wings of mexicana is absent. It also has a 
dark patch on the tip of the fore wing but none in the region of 
the stigma. Mexicana has no dark lines from the base of the 
antennae to the labrum. 

Lunator may be distinguished from atrata, humida, canadensis 
and nitida by the fact that in these forms the greater part of 
the surface of the body is black with white, yellow or fuscous 
body markings. 

This species is widely distributed throughout the United 
States and Canada. It is found in abundance on trees and logs 
which are infested with Tremex, working in company with M. 
atrata and M. greenei. They appear earlj'- in the summer and 
throughout the whole season may be seen crawling about, seeking 
a favorable spot for ovipositions. After laying its egg the insect 
is often unable to extricate its ovipositor and is held a prisoner 
by it until death. Mr. C. W. Johnson, Curator of the Boston 
Society of Natural History, observed a large number of males 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



136 PIMPLTXE ICHXEUMONIDAE 

massed together on a log in Maine. He attempted to cap- 
ture them with his net, but they all flew away. Returning 
to the same spot later, he found the males again assembled there. 
This time he reached out and caught a number with his hand. 
Upon being examined they were found to be males of both 
M. lunator and M. greenei. The female, which later emerged, 
proved to be a specimen of M. lunator. Whether there was a 
female of M. greenei about to emerge near where the M. lunator 
came out, or whether the males are unable to know in advance, 
the species to which the emerging insect belongs, is a question. 

The dates of capture of the specimens of this species which 
have come under my observation range from May 13 to Sep- 
tember 30, although these are very probably not the outside 
limits. 

Megarhyssa greenei Viereck 

Megarhyssa greenei Viereck, Proe. U. S. Nat. Mus., xl, p. 191, 9 cf . 
Smith, Insects of New Jersey, 1909, p. 627. 
Viereck, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., xiii, no. 2, p. 96. 

Type.— Cat. No. 13,499, U. S. N. M. 

Type locality: Harrisburg, Pennsylvania; female, June 25, 
male, August 22, 1908. 

Megarhyssa greenei agrees with M. lunator except in the 
following details. It has no dark lines extending from the 
base of the antennae to the labrum. The band parallel to 
the one in which the ocelli are imbedded, which in M. lunator 
is dark brown or black, in M. greenei is but slightly darker 
than the yellow ground color of the head. There is no 
dark patch on the tip of the wings. The fusion of the sternum 
and pleura extends about twice as far from the base of the second 
abdominal segment as it does in M. lunator, reaching as far 
beyond the spiracles as the distance from the base of the segment 
to the spiracles. On the abdomen, the black bands which border 
the yellow markings are continuous over the dorsum, but the 
yellow band on the eighth segment is not continuous. The ovi- 
positors are relatively shorter, being only from one to one and 
a half times the length of the body. 

The description of M. lunator applies to the male of M. greenei 
in all respects except those named above. 

For characters distinguishing this species from others in the 
same genus, see list of distinguishing characters given after 
the description of M. lunator. 



J. H. MERRILL 137 

The dates of capture of specimens seen, range from June 2 
to September 25. 

The male of M. greenei differs from the female (jreenei in the 
same respects as found in lunator, although the color markings 
more closely resemble each other in the two sexes than in lunator. 
It may be distinguished from the male of lunator by the absence 
of the clouded spots in the wing. 

Megarhyssa nitida (Cresson) 

Rhyssa nitida Cresson, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila., iii, p. 319, d^ . 

Type. — There is one type specimen from Virginia, in the 
collection of the American Entomological Society of Philadelphia. 

The male of this species is about half an inch long. The head is black. 
The antennae are dark, the scape is yellowish-white beneath, and the flagellum 
becomes lighter towards its tip. The mandibles are black but the palpi are 
yellowish-white. The clypeus is yellowish-white and this color extends 
upwards over the face, spreading to the compound eyes; to the base of the in- 
sertion of the antennae where it is interrupted, and sometimes to the vertex, 
as two yellowish-white bands margining the compound eyes. Behind the 
compound eyes are yellowish white bands, stopping just short of the mandibles 
and the vertex. The thorax is black. Beginning at the tegula a triangular 
shaped white band, which later becomes reduced to a line, passes forward 
along the upper border of the prothorax nearly to its middle line. A white 
streak appears just above the procoxa. The prescutum and mesonotum are 
black, the latter with a pair of fine longitudinal A-ellowish-white lines near 
its center. The center of the mesoscutellum has a large yellowish-white 
spot on it, nearly divided at its front margin by a dark one. The posterior 
margin of the entire plate has a narrow white line. On the metascutellum 
(postscutellum) is an oblong white spot. The rear margin of the plate bears 
a yellowish-white line. The tegulae and a raised spot beneath the fore wing 
are yellowish-white. The metapleurae are pale rufous. The wings are hyaline, 
iridescent, with fuscous nervures which are pale at their base. The stigma 
is fuscous except its base, which is pale. The areolet is small and petiolated. 
The anterior legs are yellowish-white, on the outer side of the tibiae are slightly 
darker markings. The extremities of the tarsal segments are darker than 
their bases and the claws are dark. The middle coxae are pale rufous, the 
trochanters, femora, tibiae, and tarsi are yellowish-white. The tip and a 
spot at the base of the femora are dark. The extremities of the tarsal claws 
are much darker than in the anterior legs, the last four segments being almost 
completely dark, as are the tarsal claws. The posterior coxae aie i^ale rufous, 
the trochanters are yellowish-white, with their extremities dark. The femora 
are rufous with a dark spot on their outer extremities. The tibiae are lighter 
but each has a dark spot on its extremity, and another fainter one near its 
base. The first two tarsal segments are yellowish-white, their tips dark, the 
third, fourth, and fifth are dark, the claws are rufous. The abdomen is black 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



138 PIMPLINE ICHNEUMONIDAE 

and polished. On each side of the third segment is a small yellowish-white 
spot: similar spots are found on the remaining segments, increasing in size 
up to the fifth, after which they decrease. 
$ Unknown. 

M. nitida may be distinguished from the rest of the Megar- 
hyssae by means of its dark abdomen with the yellowish-white 
markings. 

In all probability M. nitida is the male form of M. humida as 
previously stated. 

Habits of Megarhyssa 

The following extracts are taken from an article by C. V, 
Riley,'' because he gives the best description of the habits of 
Megarhyssa. 

" . . . In preparing for the act (oviposition) the position 
is generally longitudinal or in a line with the axis of the trunk or 
branch, the head either up or down. With the abdomen raised 
in the air the ovipositor is taken and managed with the hind legs, 
and the tip guided by the front tarsi. The two outer sheaths 
are used as props and do not enter the wood with the ovipositor 
proper. They are generally crossed — a position which gives 
additional strength and securit}^ to them. Now, by a movement 
from side to side, and by arching the abdomen and bearing upon 
the ovipositor she gradually forces this back through the tip 
of the abdomen into a membrane which issues from between 
the sixth and seventh joints dorsally. There is a wonderful 
muscular power in the anal joints, and the ovipositor is forced 
back until it forms a perfect coil, so that when the abdomen is 
stretched in a straight line to its utmost the ovipositor within 
the membrane makes a circle almost as large as a quarter of a 
dollar, the anal joint having made a three-fourths turn within 
the membrane. In this manner the ovipositor under the venter 
has been sufficiently shortened to bring its tip against the bark. 
During this operation, however, the outer sheaths, which have 
not followed the ovipositor within the menibrane, have been 
obliged to make a more or less irregular coil opposite to and in 
front of the membrane on the ventral side. Now commences 
the operation of boring, and with the wonderful muscular power 
in the anal joint and the elasticity of the membrane, the insertion 
of the ovipositor goes on quite steadily if the wood be in the 

» Insect Life, i, 1888-89, p. 168. 



J. H. MERRILL 139 

least soft. As the borer enters, the sheaths make a larger and 
larger loop on one side of the body, or even a valve on each side. 
. . . In withdrawing the ovipositor the reverse action takes 
place and the loops of the outer sheaths gradually become 
smaller and smaller; the ovipositor is again forced back into the 
tough bladder-like membrane between the sixth and seventh 
joints dorsally and we have a repetition of the appearance." 

The old idea was that the Megarhyssa probed a burrow with 
her ovipositor until she came in contact with the larva of a 
Tremex, which she pierced and deposited an egg therein. The 
observation has also been made that the insect is lignivorous and 
not parasitic. Both of these conclusions have been shown to 
be false. Riley quotes J. A. Lintner,^'' as follows: 

". . . In all instances wdiere I have found the female 
depositing, it has been in trees infested with Tremex columha, 
and I have found her more numerous on badly affected or injured 
trees, or even on stumps or broken trunks already partly decayed. 
The instinct to reach the egg or larva of Tremex, so dwelt upon 
in popular accounts, is imaginary. She bores directly through 
the outer parts of the tree, and doubtless probes for a burrow; 
but her egg is consigned anywhere in the burrow; the young larva 
seeks its prey, and lives and develops without penetrating the 
body of its victim, but fastened to the exterior. This habit 
among parasites is much more common than is generally sup- 
posed. A great many Rhyssa (i. e. Megarhyssa) larvae doubtless 
perish without finding food, and a great many females die in 
probing for a burrow, especially when they burrow through wood 
that is sound and hard. " 

In this same paper, Riley in speaking of some personal observa- 
tions, says, ''. . . We examined the burrows very carefully 
and found Thalessa (i. e. Megarhyssa) in all stages at that time — 
larvae, pupae of both sexes, and imagines of both sexes within 
the tree — the larvae being of various sizes and invariably external 
to the Tremex: i. e. not within, but holding on to its victim and 
sucking the latter's life away, without in any case entering the 
body." 

The insect remains within the tree until it becomes adult, then 
it gnaws its way to the surface and escapes. The males usually 

" Country Gentleman, xlix, 1S84, p. 331. 

« 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



140 PIMPLINE ICHNEUMONIDAE 

appear first. W. H. Harrington" has given a series of obser- 
vations made in June, 1887, in which he showed that the males 
having issued first, awaited the females, and were able to locate 
the spot at which a given female would emerge, some time before 
she made her appearance. In one instance which he records, 
a particular spot was crowded with males for two days before 
the female emerged, and even then, she was assisted by the 
removal of the bark by the observer. The males, in waiting, 
make every effort to reach the female, inserting the tips of their 
abdomen into crevices in the bark. On emerging the female 
is instantly seized, the legs of the male clasping the yet unused 
wings and abdomen, thus preventing her from flying. 

Genus RHYSSA Gravenhorst 

Rhyssa Gravenhorst, Ichneum. Europ., iii, 1829, p. 260. 

Epirhyssa Cresson, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila., iv, 1865, p. 39. 

Pararhyssa Walsh, Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, v, 1873, p. 109. 

Rhyssa Riley, Ins. Life, i, 1888-9, p. 169 (habits). 

Rhyssa Dalla Torre, Cat. Hym., iii, 1901-2, p. 482. 

Epirhyssa Schmiedeknecht, Gen. Ins., fasc. 62, 1907, p. 59. 

Rhyssa Schmiedeknecht, Gen. Ins., fasc. 62, 1907, p. 62. 

Rhyssa Ramsey, The Entom., xlvii, 1914, ]■>. 20 (habits). 

Genotype: Ichneumon persuasorms Linn. 

Rhyssa, a primitive and widespread genus, occurs both in 
America and Europe. In North America it is found from 
Alaska to Mexico and from the Pacific to the Atlantic coast, 
and is also found on the island of Cuba. There are two records 
of fossil Rhyssae being found, one in the Lower Miocene and the 
other in the Oligocene.^^ It occurs under such a variety of 
climates and conditions that considerable variation both in 
color and structural characters is found. It would seem as though 
it were trying to break up into a number of races and thence 
to species, but its variations have not become fixed to such an 
extent that they may be considered as permanent. Rhyssa 
persuasoria, the oldest described species of this genus, was de- 
scribed by Linnaeus; since there have been several new species 
described, in some instances from a single specimen, but the 
amount of variation is so great that it does not seem safe to 
accept as a new species, one described from a single specimen. 

" Can. Ent. xix, 1887, p. 206. 

'2 Scudder, Tert. Insect, t. 10, 1890, p. 19. 



J. H. MERRILL 141 

In 1864, Cresson described Rhyssa alhomaculata. He separated 
this species from R. persuasoria on the grounds that the former 
had a white band on its antennae, a slight difference in color 
markings and a small petiolated areolet, but as specimens occur 
with white banded antennae and areolets similar to those with 
black antennae and vice versa, and as there is a great range in 
both thoracic and abdominal markings which do not adhere 
always to the antennal or areolet differences, it would seem that 
R. alhomaculata is really R. persuasoria. R. skinneri Viereck 
is described from one specimen, mainly upon structural characters, 
with some difference in color markings, but in R. persuasoria 
there is a marked variability in structural as well as in color 
markings. The clypeus may range from pointed to truncate, 
the face may be medially elevated and smooth or striated or 
the whole face may be elevated. There is considerable variation 
' in the puncturing and rugulose characters of the thorax. The 
notum of the propodeum may or may not have a medial-longi- 
tudinal depression. As for the differences in color it would 
seem that no dependence could be placed upon them, and that 
Rhyssa skinneri will probably prove to be a synonym. Rhyssa 
ala&kensis was described by Ashmead from one specimen. The 
description of this species will apply equally well to Rhyssa 
persuasoria and it will probably prove to belong to the latter 
species. 

Table to Species of Rhyssa 

1 . Face elevation longitudinally rugulose skinneri Viereck 

2. Face elevation not longitudinally rugulose persuasoria Linnaeus 

Rhyssa skinneri Viereck 

Rhyssa skinneri Viereck, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, xxix, 1903, p. 87, 9. 

Type. — In collection of Acad, of Nat. Sci. Phila., from Beulah, 
New Mexico, Aug. 17, 1901, (H. Skinner). 

"Face rugulose; mesonotum almost uniformly transversely striate, the 
striae not apparently gibbose. Raised line separating metanotum and pleura 
poorly defined, being obsolete below the spiracles. Length, 23 mm., face 
somewhat elevated medially, the elevation rather longitudinally rugulose, 
sides and anterior margins of the face, polished and moderately sparsely jjunc- 
tured. Clypeus highly pohshed, distinctly produced to a point medially, and 
with a row of deep punctures. Cheeks polished, almost impunctate. Dor- 
sulum transversely striate, the striae delicate but well defined posteriorly. 

TRANS. AM. EXT. SOC, XLI. 



142 PIMPLINE ICHNEUMONIDAE 

Carina on anterior haK of mesopleura becoming indistinct half way upon the 
pleura, strongly striato-punctate, the superior half, highly polished. Scutellum 
flattened, transversely striate. ^Sletanotum with a sUght median longitudinal 
impression, deUcately, transversely sculptured, laterally shining, rugulose; me- 
tapleura pohshed, sparsely punctured, rugulose on the superior margin. Wings 
hyaline, with a brown cast, nervures and stigma dark brown, second recurrent 
nervure interstitial with the second transverse cubitus. Dorsal abdominal 
segments finely transversely sculptured, having a satiny luster. Ovipositor 
about 29 mm. in length. Black, a line from malar space to apex of the eye, 
a band on the superior border of the propleurae, a spot below on the tubercle, 
a spot on the anterior coxae, greater part of the tegulae, a large spot beneath, 
a small spot on the mesopleurae, a spot on the medial coxae, a short line to 
the sides and apex of first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth, and a lateral 
line on the seventh dorsal segments, white. Greater part of four anterior 
legs (excluding coxae) ochraceous. Apex of first, all of second trochanters and 
the femora of posterior legs ferruginous; the tibiae and tarsi dark brown. 
Described from one female specimen "closely related to R. persuasoria but 
distinguished by the difference in sculpture, very distinct in coloration." 

As the writer has never seen the type of this species, the original 
description by Viereck is here given. 

Rhyssa persuasoria (Linnaeus) 

Ichneumon persuasoria Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., Ed. x, 1758, p. 256, n. 67. 
Cryptocentrum lineolatum Kirby, Fauna Bor. Amer., iv, 1837, p. 260. 
Rhyssa albomaculata Cresson, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila., iii, 1864, p. 318. 
Rhyssa (Pararhyssa) albimaculata Walsh, Trans. Acad. St. Louis, iii, 1873, 

p. 109. 
Cryptocentrum lineolatum Kirby, Can. Ent., ix, 1877, p. 150. 
Epirhyssa crevieri Provancher, Nat. Canad., xii, 1880, p. 17. 
Rhyssa persuasoria Riley, Insect Life, i, 1888-89, p. 169. 
Rhyssa albomaculata Hopkins, Bull. 32, West Va. Exp. Sta., 1893, p. 217. 
Rhyssa persuasoria Morley, The Entomologist, xhi, 1909, p. 133, note. 
Rhyssa persuasoria Morley, The Entomologist, xliii, 1910, p. 243. 
.^ Rhyssa alaskensis Ashmead, Harr. Alaska Exp., ix, 1910, p. 205. 

Type. — Location unknown. Type of Cryptocentrum lineo- 
latum in British Museum. 

The female of this species is from about half an inch to nearly an inch in 
length. Its color markings are also very variable. The head is dark brown 
to black. In most instances the orbits of the compound eyes are white, 
rarely interrupted at the vertex, and extending downward as far as the clypeus 
on each side of the eye. In some specimens there is a white band just above 
the clypeus connecting the lower ends of the bands of the facial orbits, in 
others the lower part of the face below the antennae and above the clypeus 
is white. The clypeus may be pointed or vary toward truncate. Below the 
antennae the face may be raised centrally or entirely, and its surface may be 



J. H. MERRILL 143 

smooth or striated. The antennae are dark brown to black. Some are all 
black, some have a suggestion of white, some one or two segments that are 
white, while in others there may be a number of distinct, white segments 
forming a band on the antennae. The individuals having this last-named 
characteristic have been regarded by some as forming a separate species, 
Rhyssa albomamdata. 

The thorax is dark brown to black. There is a variable amount of thoracic 
punctures and striations. The prothorax is bordered above and below with 
a varying amount of white. In some the sides of the prothorax have such an 
amount of white that the dark ground color only shows as a spot in the center. 
The mesonotum is immaculate. On the center of the mesoscutellum is a 
square white spot, and usually there is a white Une on the rear margin of the 
entire plate. There is an oblong white spot on the center of the metascutellum 
(postscutellmn) and this plate may or may not have its rear margin marked 
by a white line. The tegulae and a raised spot beneath the fore wings are 
always white. On the mesopleuron just below the attachment of hind wing 
is a white spot and another just above and in front of the middle coxae. The 
size of these spots is variable and they may even coalesce, margming the post- 
erior border of the mesopleuron. There is a variable white spot on the side 
of the metathorax and another just above it on the propodeum. In some 
specimens there is a median longitudinal depression on the notum of the pro- 
podeum; in others it is suggested, while in some it is absent. The wings are 
hyaUne sometimes tinged with yellow. The nervures and stigma are fuscous 
except at their base, where they are paler. The shape, size, and even the pres- 
ence of the areolet are variable. The recurrent nervure is usually interstitial 
with the outer transverse cubital nervure. In some the latter nervure is 
present and assists in forming the areolet, in others but a stub of it remains 
while in some cases it is absent. In some cases the areolet is petiolated, 
receiving the recurrent nervure in its middle. The legs vary from light yellow 
to rufous, the coxae from white to black with white spots. In general the 
posterior legs are darker than the others. The color is even more variable 
in the legs than in the thorax. The abdomen is dark brown to black, lustrous, 
and finely, transversely aciculated above. The lower borders of the pleura 
of the second segment are each margined with a white band, which bends 
upward at its posterior margin and usually meets its fellow of the opposite 
side, above. The third segment is sunilarly marked except that the bands do 
not quite meet above. Usually on the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh seg- 
ments these bands are interrupted so that a spot is formed on the upper 
side of the pleuron, while its lower border remains marked with a white band. 
In some, the spot and band are connected on the seventh segment. On the 
last segment the white marking is continuous along the posterior margin but 
does not meet its fellow above. This line is not always continuous. The 
ovipositor is shghtly longer than the body, dark brown to black, with darker 
colored sheaths. 

The male differs from the female in that the face below the antennae is 
whiter and the anterior coxae and femora are lighter colored. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



144 PIMPLINE ICHNEUMONIDAE 

I have not seen the type of Rhyssa skinneri Viereck, as already- 
stated, but from the description, it does not seem impossible 
that it may be a form of this species. 

Habits of Rhyssa 

The Rhyssae by means of their ovipositors bore into trees 
infested with borers and there deposit their eggs. They are 
primary parasites on Sirex, Monohammus and Urocerus cyaneus. 
As their life from hatching to adult is spent within the trunks 
of trees, it has made a study of their history practically impossible. 
It has been generally assumed that they were external parasites, 
but H. J. Erne ^^ gives an account of raising Rhyssa from Sirex. 
According to him the eggs were laid within the larvae. It has 
been clearly shown that in the closely related genus Megarhyssa, 
the eggs are external to the larvae. The tip of the ovipositor 
is constructed for sawing into wood and not for piercing other 
insects. It does not seem probable that the members of one 
genus live as external while those of so similar a genus should live 
as internal parasites. Yet the only published evidence that has 
been found asserts that Rhyssa live as internal parasites. Erne's 
observations will be given here though their accuracy is doubted. 

"In studying Serropalpiis I had an opportunity to observe 
Pimpla persuasoria. The eggs of Pimpla were usually laid in 
the larva of a species of Sirex, which were very inactive on that 
account, and did not put up any resistance. After they hatched 
the little larva remained in the Sirex larva until the latter died. 
The larva of Pimpla had by this time attained a size of two or 
three lines. 

"They left the Sirex larva after it was dead, and from time 
to time fed on the remains. If the Sirex larva is large the Pimpla 
larva has food enough, but if it is small, the food supply is not 
sufficient, and since the Pimpla does not try any other nourish- 
ment it dies in the wood. Frequently the Sirex larva with the 
parasite larva in its body, penetrates deeply into the wood, so 
that the developed Pimpla has to bite its way out of the wood 
from a depth of two lines in order to get free. For a space of 
three days it thus works itself forward; if it does not get free 
in three days its strength' becomes weakened and it dies in the 

" Mittheil. Schweiz. Entom. Gesell., iv, 1876, p. 9, p. 518. 



J. H. MERRILL 145 

wood. If one would rear the larva of a Pwipla persuasoria, one 
must give it the remains of the same larva for nourishment in 
which it was hatched." 

Riley says ^•^ that Ratzeburg states that both Nordlinger and 
himself raised Rhyssa persuasoria from Sirex spectrum, but does 
not give any details of his observations nor does he state that 
the parasite in ovipositing pierces the wood-boring grub. 

The subject of the habits of Rhyssa is by no means a clear 
one, and it awaits some worker who will be fortunate enough 
to observe its complete life history. 

The genus Rhyssa Gravenhorst, has its clypeus medially 
lengthened or unidentate and its abdominal segments rounded 
at the apices. The sternal plate of the second abdominal 
segment is not fused with the pleura. The projections of the 
sternal plates on either side of the mid-ventral groove are placed 
about mid-way between the base and apex of each segment. 
The sternal plate of the second abdominal segment is composed 
almost wholly of chitin. The ovipositors of Rhyssa are but 
little longer than the body, consequently they do not need the 
membrane which is used by Megarhyssa in forcing its long ovi- 
positor into the wood. 

Since the above was written an article has appeared on the 
habits of oviposition by Rhyssa by L. N. G. Ramsay,^-'' as follows: 

"The remarkable insects of the genus Rhyssa have for long 
been known to prey on the wood-boring larvae of Siricidae, 
introducing their eggs into the tunnels of the latter by means of 
their enormously elongated ovipositor. The ovipositor is some- 
times even found sticking in a »S/re.r-infested log (as, for example, 
the specimens exhibited in the insect gallery at South Kensing- 
ton), but, I understand, the manner in which the insect contrives 
to insert this unwieldy appliance into the tree-trunk has not 
hitherto been fully described. I hope, therefore, that the follow- 
ing account may be of interest to entomologists. 

"The event described was witnessed in the summer of 1909, 
while I was staying in the southern part of the Black Forest, 
to the west of the Wehratal. On the afternoon of August 29th, 

" Insect Life, i, 1888-89, p. 1G9. 

15 The Entomologist, xlvii, p. 20, f. U, (1914). 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



146 PIMPLINE ICHNEUMONIDAE 

while skirting a wood — the very finest conifers of the Black 
Forest flourish in this locality — I happened to pause beside a pile 
of small pine logs, and as I stood there one of these extraordinary 
insects appeared and settled on one of the logs. I will quote 
verbatim from my notes written the same day: — 'It sat still for 
some time, and then began to walk about, feeling every hole 
and (p. 21) corner in the rough bark with its long antennae. 
After a minute or two of this it stopped, and drew up its long 
body, doubling the long black ovipositor underneath itself; 
it had to hitch itself up several times before it got the long needle 
into position underneath, with the tip in a crevice. Then it 
gripped the bark with its claws and gradually thrust the ovipositor 
about half an inch into the bark, then suddenly flew away, per- 
haps because it had completed laying the eggs, perhaps because 
I had gone too close. . . . 

"Immediately after, I made the rough sketches of the beast 
which accompany this note. These are probably a little larger 
than life, although the insect was a very large one. I noted that 
the abdomen was black and white, the legs pale, and the antennae 
black. 

"At the time I was unaware of the insect's identity, but on 
seeing the specimens of Rhyssa exhibited at the Natural History 
Museum this year, I at once recognized my old acquaintance, 
and comparison of the other species of the genus in the cabinet 
collections there leaves little, if any doubt, that this was R. 
persuasoria. 

"The figures will help to indicate the manner in which the 
insect succeeded in bringing its unwieldy ovipositor to bear on 
the log. As mentioned above, these were drawn before I left 
the spot (with the exception of the second, which I have added 
now to make the action clearer), and they are reproduced without 
any change from my original rough drawings. As the insect 
had already taken its departure, they are necessarily crude, as 
it was the only example of its kind on which I had ever set eyes. 
For this and for their obvious artistic defects I shall make no 
further apology, as they are merely intended to convey the 
manner in which the insect accomplished its object." 

Sharp ^^ figures (after Riley) the allied genus Thalessa (now 

'^ Cambridge Natural History, Insects, pt. i, p. 554, 1895. 



J. H. MERRILL 147 

Megarhijssa) in the act of oviposition, and states that in both 
these genera the ovipositor is ''brought into use by being bent 
on itself over the back of the insect, so as to bring the tip ver- 
tically clown onto the wood, through which it is then forced by 
a series of efforts; the sheaths do not enter the wood." 

It is evident that this description does not tally with the 
foregoing observations on Rhyssa. The insect figured by Sharp 
follow^s his statements in having its long ovipositor bent on itself, 
out of its normal and approximately straight form, into an almost 
complete circle. From purely physical considerations, is it not 
a little difficult to understand how a non-muscular structure 
could be curved at will in this way? The possibility suggests 
itself to the present writer that the insect there figured, after 
having inserted its ovipositor in the manner described in this 
note for Rhyssa, may have pivoted its body through an angle 
of 180° around the flexible fixed ovipositor, in its efforts to thrust 
the latter into an unusually resistant piece of wood. This might 
easily happen through the insect's shifting its feet again and 
again to obtain a better purchase, and would explain the whole 
matter very simply, as the ovipositor in such a case would natu- 
rally assume the position figured. 

There can be no doubt at all that Mr. Ramsay's notes refer 
to R. persuasoria (Linnaeus), which has an extremely wide dis- 
tribution through Europe to Canada and the United States in 
the West, and the Himalayas in the East, since it is to the best 
of my knowledge the only species attacking phytophagous larvae. 
R, approximator (Fabricius), is said by Holmgren to attack 
Xyphydria prolongata, which feeds in oaks; and there are several 
interesting accounts of the American species' economy ^^ and Har- 
rington has^^ put on record "The Nuptials of Thalessa." jMr. 
Ramsay appears to take it for granted that these insects bore 
for themselves an egg-passage through the solid wood; but it is 
by no means proved that they do not oftener introduce them 
along the tunnel of the host larva. ^^ 

" Canad. Entom., xi, 1879, p. 15 etc. 

18 L. c. xLx, p. 206. 

19 Cf. Morley, Ichn. Brit., iii, p. 25, and Revision Ichn. Brit. Mus. ii, p. 10 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



148 PIMPLINE ICHNEUMONIDAE 

Genus APECHONEURA Kreichbaumer 

Apechoneura Kreichbaumer, Ann. Naturli. Mus. Wien, v, 1890, p. 485. 
Apechoneura Schmiedeknecht, Genera Insectorum, Fasc. 62, 1907, p. 60. 
Apechoneura Morley, Rev. Ichneumon Brit. Mus., ii, 1913, pp. 3, 22, 23. 

Genotype: Rhyssa terminalis BruUe. 

The head is square with a distinct carina between the antennae. 
The antennae are long and filiform. The mesonotum is trans- 
versely rugose. The propodeum is distinctly areolated anteriorly, 
but posteriorly is less distinctly so. The transverse median 
nervure is straight, not broken. The sub-discoidal nervure origi- 
nates from the median vein far beyond the apex of the sub-median 
cell. The areolet in the fore-wing is trapezoidal or three cor- 
nered, sessile, or shortly petiolated. The abdomen is long and 
cylindrical, with an ovipositor as long or longer than the body. 
The largest species usually have a dark spot in the tip of the 
wing. 

Table to Species 

This table is taken from Morley's Revision of Ichneumonidae, 
Part II. The types of these two species are in the British Mu- 
seum, and therefore Mr. Morley has had an opportunity to ex- 
amine them. Not having seen Mocsary's paper -" I am unable 
to include his species. 

Abdomen with only a discal line black nigritarsis Cameron 

Abdomen black and flavous, not at all red carinifrons Cameron 

Apechoneura nigritarsis (Cameron) 

Rhyssa nigritarsis Cameron, Biol. Cent.-Am., Hymen., i, 1886, p. 260, 9 . 
Rhyssa nigritarsis Schmiedeknecht, Gen. Ins., Fasc. 62, 1907, p. 63. 
Apechoneura nigritarsis Morley, Rev. Ichneumon., ii, 1913, p. 23. 

Type. — In the British Museum. 

"Fulvo testacea; antennis, mesonoto (medio-excepto), linea metanoti, 
abdomine, supra tarsisque, nigris; alls hyaUne, apice fumata. Habitat, 
Panama, Volcan de Chiriqui at 2000-4000 ft. 

"Length 22 mm. Antennae nearly as long as the body, stout, gradually 
thickened towards the apex; the base testaceous on the lower side. Head, 
if anything, broader than the mesothorax, the face strongly punctured, the 
clypeus obscurely, transversely, striated, with two deep shining black depres- 
sions above the antennae, separated by a thin, rather sharp partition, vertex 
punctured in front, laterally behind the ocelli aciculated; mandibles black 

20 Ann. Mus. Nat. Hungar., iii, 1905. 



J. H. MERRILL 149 

at the apex. Pronotum reaching to near the top of the head, rising rather 
perpendicularly in front; the mesonotum projects a little over it, and rises 
from the scutellum to the apex, which has a distinct margin; the margin pro- 
jects upward in the center and is depressed in the middle. Mesonotum 
transversely striated as usual and with a longitudinal furrow on each side of 
the apical three-fourths, scutellum shining, obscurely punctured, broader 
than long, shghtly narrower towards the apex. Pleurae shining, obscurely 
punctured, a longish longitudinal hoUow in the middle. The mesonotum is 
black except laterally in front and down the center. Scutellum testaceous, 
the sutures black. There is a longish black mark under the fore-wings; 
the base and apex of the metanotum, and a broad line down its center are 
black. The longish curved spiracles are bordered with black. Metanotum 
shining, impunctate, a curved transverse keel runs across its center and an 
obhque one from the spiracles to the apex. Abdomen shining, somewhat com- 
pressed, black above, the apex pilose, in the center of the penultimate segment 
is a somewhat triangular depression, covered with a white membrane; the 
last segment above forms a projecting thickly pilose lobe; on the lower side 
it projects more and ends in two horny processes which clasp the ovipositor 
Ovipositor nearly three times longer than the body, white at the apex. Legs 
shining, the hind coxae black at the base on the lower side. Areolet large, 
triangular, receiving the recurrent nervure in the middle." Original descrip- 
tion from Cameron. 

Apechoneura carinifrons (Cameron) 

Rhyssn carinifrons Cameron, Biol. Cent.-Am., Hymen., i, 1886, p. 261, 9 d^ . 
Apechoneura carinifrons Schmiedeknecht, Gen. Ins., Fasc. 62, 1907, p. 60. 
Apechoneura carinifrons Morley, Rev. Ichneumon., ii, 1913, p. 24. 

Type. — In the British Museum. 

"Testacea, nigro varia, antennis nigris, medio apicique subtus testaceis; 
pedibus rufo-testaceis; basis et apice coxarum posticarum, apice femorum, 
dimidio apicali tibiarum posticarum tarsisque, nigris; ahs hyahne, apice 
fumato. Habitat, Nicaragua. 

"Antennae as long as the body, the base, the middle narrowly and the apex 
(except the extreme point), testaceous on the lower side. Face transversely 
punctured, the vertex impunctate, a distinct keel (separating the antennal 
depression) runs down from the ocelli to a little below the base of the antennae ; 
eyes margined, especially on the inner side and above; testaceous, the mandi- 
bles, the antennal depressions, a broad transverse band on the vertex enclosing 
the ocelli and the hind region, black. Thorax formed as in nigritarsis, 
testaceous; the mesonotum (except a broad mark on the center), the sutures, 
the base of the metanotum broadly, the sides of the prothorax in front, a 
large mark on the mesopleura, and the metaplcura close to the sternum, black. 
In the center of the metanotum two short keels run from the transverse keel, 
forming a somewhat square area. Abdomen black; the ventral surface, a 
longish mark at the base of the first segment in the center, its apex and the 
apices of the other segments broadly testaceous. The middle coxae are black 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



150 PIMPLINE ICHNEUMONIDAE 

beneath, the hind coxae are black on the lower side at the base and bear a 
longer black mark on the apex above, on the inner side they are entirely 
black except a small testaceous spot; the hind femora are infuscate toward 
the apex, and more than the apical half of the hind tibiae is black, tarsi black, 
testaceous in the middle. What appears to be the male from Panama differs 
from the specimens from Nicaragua in having a broad white band on the 
antennae close to the apex and the yellow on the head and legs brighter in 
tint; there is no black on the coxae nor are the hind femora infuscate toward 
the apex; the black on the hind is only on the outer side; and the abdomen 
is broadly dilated laterally at the apex." 

This species was originally described by Cameron as Rhyssa 
carinifrons but in the Genera Insectorum it is placed in Apecho- 
neura, probably on account of the carina between the antennae 
and its areolated propodeum. 

Genus PSEUDORHYSSA new genus 

Genotpye: Pseudorhyssa siernaia new species. 

This genus is characterized by its abdominal sterna being 
entire instead of being separated by a median longitudinal groove. 
It has an areolated propodeum consisting of three areas. The 
nota of the second and third abdominal segments are laterally 
bordered with a ridge forming a depression, which is not found in 
the other Pimplini genera which have the transversely rugose 
mesonotum. There is no carina between the antennae. 

Pseudorhyssa sternata new species 

Tijpe: 9 ; Toronto, Ontario, Canada. August 20, 1892. Col- 
lection of the American Entomological Society, Type No. 4007. 

Six paratypes in same collection. 

The females of this species range from three-quarters of an inch up to an 
inch and a quarter in length. The head is black, polished, and slightly punc- 
tured. The clypeus varies in outline from unidentate to bidentate. Below 
the antennae the face is brown marked by two parallel longitudinal yellow 
bands, which extend from the base of the antennae to the clypeus. On the 
base of each mandible is a yellow spot. The clypeus is rufous at its base and 
darker at its tip. The palpi are yellowish-white marked with black. The 
antennae are dark brown to black, and the scape has a yellow spot beneath. 
The thorax is black and bears a number of short, erect, whitish hairs. The 
pronotum is deeply excavated on both sides, highly polishetl and ahnost 
impunctate. The first thoracic spiracle is bordered with yellow and this 
color may extend forward for a short distance on the upper border of the 
pronotum. The tegulae are yellow. The mesonotum is flat on top and is 
separated from the prescutum, only by two short parallel longitudinal grooves 
along its anterior portion. Posteriorly the prescutum is continuous with the 



J. H. MERRILL 151 

mesonotum, the transverse rugulae of the latter passing over the former in a 
continuous hne. The anterior portion of the prescutum is punctured. 

The mesopleura are smooth, poUshed on their superior portions, punctured 
and clothed with short white hairs on theii* inferior portions. A short groove 
extends forward on the mesopleura from the mesoepimeron, starting at a 
point about two-thirds of the distance from its base to its apex. The meso- 
scutellum and metascutellum are smooth on their sides, with obhque to longi- 
tudinal striations, their centers are punctured and clothed with hairs. The 
metathorax is smooth, slightly punctm'ed and clothed with short, white hairs. 
The propodeum is coarsely punctured, except for a dorsal area enclosed by 
ridges, which is pohshed and but sUghtly punctured. These ridges start at, 
or near the base of the segment, pass posteriorly, as two gradually diverging 
straight lines for about two-thirds its length, where they become circularly 
dilated to such an extent, that at their posterior extremities they reach to 
the lateral margins of the notum, thus forming three areolated areas on the 
propodeum. The wings are hyaline, tinged with yellow, the nervures and 
stigma are dark brown except at their base, where they are lighter. The 
recurrent nervure is interstitial with the outer transverse cubitus. The legs 
are rufous, paler beneath. The tarsal segments are sometimes darker towards 
the tarsal claws, which are also dark. The postexior femora each have a 
dark spot on its extremity. The posterior tarsi are darker than the others. 
The abdomen is coarsely punctured and irregularly wrinkled. The notum of 
the second abdominal segment is laterally bordered with a strong ridge. From 
each anterior extremity of the notum extends a ridge to its apex. These 
ridges gradually converge and enclose a median longitudinal channel, which 
at its base is polished and impunctate but becomes coarsely punctured 
and irregularly wrinkled. From this depression a number of transverse 
wrinkles extend to the lateral margins of the notum. The pleura of this 
segment are coarsely punctured and do not fuse with the notum. There is a 
small obtusely rounded projection on the outer margin of the segment at the 
point where the ridges end. This projection is bordered by a rufous streak. 
The notum of the third segment has transversely wrinkled, oblique depressions 
ext.ending from either side of the projecting lobe of the second segment out- 
ward to the lateral margin of the notum. The rest of the notum is coarsely 
punctured and irregularly wrinkled, except a raised portion at the truncate, 
outer margin which is finely punctured. The sternal plates are not divided 
by a median longitudinal groove, consequently there are no mid-ventral 
projections. This segment, as are also the fourth, fifth, and sixth, is bordered 
with a rufous band. The remaining segments are coarsely punctured and 
irregularly wrinkled on their nota. The fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth 
segments have truncate outer margins laterally, with slight emarginations 
on their nota. The ovipositor is longer than the body, dark brown but 
lighter at its tip, with darker colored sheaths. 

This specie.s is described from seven specimens, one each from 
"Maine," "Colorado" and "Toronto, Canada," and four from 
"Washington Territorj-. " It may be distinguished from Megar- 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



152 PIMPLINE ICHNEUMONIDAE 

hyssa, Rhyssa, and Epirhyssa by its entire abdominal sterna, 
areolated propodeum, and by the excavations on the nota of the 
second and third abdominal segments, and may be distinguished 
from Apechoneura by the absence of a carina between its antennae. 

Unlocated Species 

Thalessa ? histrio Kreichljaumer 

Thalessa? histrio Kriechbaumer, Ann. Naturh. Hof-Mus., Wien., v, p. 
487, cf. 

"Head, thorax, and feet black, varied with rufo-flavous, abdomen rufous, 
base black segments 1 and 2 banded, 3 on both sides, apical spots flavous. 
Wings hyaline, stigma flavous, this sunken triangular spot and apex of the 
wings fuscous, areola wanting. Length, 13 mm. Because of the absence of 
the areola perhaps forming a proper genus, which I have omitted to establish 
since the female as yet unknown might fail to show the very imperfect charac- 
teristic marks. Head flavous, apex of mandibles, eyes, occipital bands be- 
neath on both sides reddish, ocellar region, the line on the vertex joined with 
it, and antennae black, of this the first two segments beneath, the upper line 
and two facial sutures rufous. Thorax black, nearly the whole margin of 
the anterior pleura, pronotum, two longitudinal striae and two punctures 
before the mesonotum, striae below the wings, tegulae, scutellvma, postscutel- 
lum, three lateral metathoracic spots, tip of dorsum near place of junction, 
slightly golden-yellow. Nearly the whole of the anterior coxae, the posterior 
above and on the sides flavous, summit angulated and below fuscous, anterior 
trochanter flavous, dark punctured, posterior ones fuscous, top flavous or 
rufous, hind part more or less fulvous, in front flavous, above rufous, bended, 
on both sides, posteriorly below fuscous lined, posterior rufous, top flavous, 
anterior tibiae and tarsi flavous, posterior rufous, base of exlerior radial nervure 
of wing irregularly bent. Forceps on the last anal segment short on top, 
simimit triangularly greatly impressed, segments straight. Ends of segments 
abruptly truncated. 

Habitat: White Mountains." 



J. H. MERRILL 153 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES 

Plate XII 

Fig. 1. — Antenna of Megarhyssa lunator. 
Fig. 2. — Maxilla of Megarhyssa lunalor. 

C — cardo. Gr— galea. L — lacinia. P — palpus. S — stipes. 
Fig. 3. — Head of Megarhyssa lunator. 

CE — compound e3'e. CL — clypeus. GE — gena. L — labrum. MD — 
mandible. 
Fig. 4. — Mandible of Megarhyssa lunator. 
Fig. 5. — Dorsal view of thorax of Megarhyssa lunator. 
Fig. 6. — Lateral view of thorax of Megarhyssa lunator. 
a2 — second abdominal segment, cxl — procoxa. cx2 — mesocoxa. cx.3 — 
metacoxa. epm2 — mesoepimeron. epmS — metaepimeron. epsl — proepi- 
sternum. eps2 — mesoepisternum. eps3 — metaepisternum. nl — pronotum. 
ppct2 — prepectus. psc2 — prescutum. sp — spiracle. scl2 — mesoscutellum. 
sclS — metascutellum. sct2 — mesoscutum. sct3 — metascutum. tg — tegula. 
tsp — thoracic spiracle. 

Plate XIII 

Fig. 1. — Abdomen of Megarhyssa lunator. 

Fig. 2. — Sternal plate of abdomen of Megarhyssa. 

Fig. 3. — Sternal plate of abdomen of Rhyssa. 

Fig. 4. — Second abdominal segment of Rhyssa. 

Fig. 5. — Second abdominal segment of Megarhyssa. 

Fig. 6. — Hind leg of Megarhyssa hmator. 

Fig. 7. — Fore leg of Megarhyssa lunator. 

Plate XIV 

Fig. 1. — Fore wing of Megarhyssa lunator according to Snodgrass. 

1 — costal vein. 2 — sub-costal vein. 3 — radial vein. 4 — median or ex- 
terno-median vein. 5 — anal, sub-median or interno-median vein. 7 — basal 
vein. 9 — cubital vein. 11 — transverse cubital vein. 12 — transverse cubital 
vein. 13 — transverse medial vein. 14 — discoidal vein. 15 — subdiscoidal 
vein. 16 — first recurrent vein. 17 — second recurrent vein. 19 — stigma. 

Fig. 2 — Fore wing of Megarhyssa lunator according to Cresson. 

a — costal and sub-costal nervures blended, b — externo-mcd'al nervure. 
c — anal nerviire. d — basal nervure. e — marginal or radial nervure. f— 
first transverse cubital nervure. g — second transverse cubital nervure. 
h — transverse medial nervure. i — abbreviated cubital or stump of ner\-ure. 
j — discoidal nervure. k — cubital nervure. 1 — recurrent nervure. m — sub- 
discoidal nervure. n — stigma. 

TRANS. AM. EXT. SOC, XLI. 



154 PIMPLINE ICHNEUMONIDAE 

Fig. 3. — Hind wing of Megarhyssa lunator. 

a — costal nervure. b — sub-costal nervure. c — externo-medial nervure. 
d — anal nervure. e — marginal or radial nervure. g — discoidal nervure. 
h — transverse medial nervure. i — transverse cubital nervure. 
Fig. 4 — Fore wing of Megarhyssa lunator. 
Fig. 5 — Hind wing of Megarhyssa limator. 

a — anal, c — costa. d — cu. cubitus, r — radius. sc — sub-costa. m — 
medius. 



Trans. Am. Eut. Soc, \o\. XL]. 



ri. XH. 




PSC2 SCT2 



3 

SCI2 SCtj SClj 




epni2 psci, 
5 ^ 

P^^^ tspt. ,,,^ ,,^^ ^^^^ p^^,^ 




MERRILL- PIMPLINE ICHNEUMONIDAE 



Trans. Am. Eiit. Soc, Vol. X]J. 



PI. XIII. 





MERRILL — PIMPLINE ICHNEUMONIDAE 



Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, \o\. XLI. 



I'l. XIV 




CU, >lj CI + A ^ ,M, 



C ^ SC R ^ Al 



RS - M 




MERRILL PIMPL I NE ICHNEUMONIDAE 



REHN AND HEBARD 155 



STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE 
(ORTHOPTERA) 

V 

BY JAMES A. G. REHN AND MORGAN HEBARD 

A SYNOPSIS OF THE SPECIES OF THE GENUS 

CONOCEPHALUS (XIPHIDIUM OF AUTHORS) 

FOUND IN NORTH AMERICA NORTH OF 

MEXICO^ 

CONOCEPHALUS Thunberg 

1815. Conocephalus Thunberg, ]\lem. Acad. Imp. .Sci. St. Petersbourg, v, 

p. 271. 

1829. Anisoptera LatreiUe, Regne Anim., Ed. 2, v. p. 184. 

1831. Xiphidion Sen-ille, Ann. Sci. Xat., xvii, p. 159. 

1838. Xiphidium Burmeister, Handb. Entom., ii, abth. ii, pt. i, p. 707. 

1869. PaloUa F. Walker, Cat. Dermapt. Salt. Brit. Mus., ii, p. 249. 

1912. Conocephalus Karny, Gen. Ins., Orth., Subf. Conocephalinae, p. 8. 

Genotype (by tautonymy). — Conocejjhalus heniiptenis Thun- 
berg =Conocephah(s conocephalus [Locnsta conocephalus] (Fabri- 
cius) . 

This genus is a member of the Tettigoniidae and of the sub- 
family Conocephalinae, and has been placed by Karny at the 
end of his restricted subfamily Conocephalinae, after the very 
closely allied genus Orchelinmm. It is evident, however, that 
the North American genus Odontoxiphidium should be placed 
at the end of this group, following the present genus. 

It is extremely important to note that the many subgenera of 
Conocephalus are readily separable one from the other by one 
or more striking characters in every instance, while the genus 
Orchelinmm, though forming a distinct unit which is readily 
recognizable in the vast majority of specimens examined, affords 
no single constant character for its ready separation from the 
present genus. 

1 Published with the aid of the Orthoptera Fund. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



156 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

Differential Generic Characters. — The genus Conocephalus is 
separated with great difficulty from the genus OrcheUmum. The 
present genus includes diminutive forms; but the smallest indi- 
viduals of several species of OrcheUmum, the majority of these 
found onlj^ in the extreme northern part of the range of the re- 
spective species, are not as large as the largest specimens of Con- 
ocephalus before us. In the present genus the stridulating field of 
the male tegmen is normally smaller, narrower and less extensive 
than in OrcheUmum, the vicinity of the arcuate vein not strongly 
produced or overhanging ^ and, when looking from the dorsum, 
the humeral trunk is never hidden.^ The male cerci, though 
showing many different types, do not in any of the North 
American species exhibit the type found in the majority of the 
species of OrcheUmwn, in which the tooth is placed in a more or 
less decided socket-like depression; all of the American species 
of the genus have the cerci unispinose. Further usual differen- 
ces are found in the male subgenital plate which is truncate 
distad in the great majority of American species. ■* The females of 
all the North American species do not have the ovipositor de- 
cidedly arcuate, though distinctly arcuate in C. nemoraUs, 
occasionally of this type in C. nigropleur aides, and such a 
condition even more weakly indicated in other species.^ Mate- 
rial of the two genera is easily separated by a decidedly 
different general appearance, but when the characters of the 
two are compared, the variation in each of the genera leaves us 
unable to state a single absolute difference. 

History. — In 1815, Thunberg erected the genus Conocephalus, 
including in it twenty-four species; under one of these, C. hemip- 
terus (p. 272), he placed as a synonym Locusfa conocephalus of 
Fabricius, which citation forms, under the International Nomen- 
clature rules, t^q^e designation by tautonjany, and in consequence 

2 The opposite of this is true for the majority of, but not all, the species of 
OrcheUmum. 

^ This is the normal condition in the species of OrcheUmum, excepting in 
0. volanlum and 0. hradleiji, and to a less degree in 0. gladiator. 

''This is not true of C. allardi, which has a distinctive and remarkal)le male 
subgenital plate. 

'' In Orchelimuhi, mililare is the only species having a straight ovipositor; 
several other species have the ovipositor with dorsal margin straight but with 
ventral margin curved. 



REHN AND HEBARD 157 

the species becomes type of the genus Conocephalus. This 
unfortunate condition has been remarked by certain authors in 
recent years, and requires the abandonment of the name Cono- 
cephalus for the large cone-headed katydids to -which it has 
generally been applied, and its use for the present genus, which 
appears in most literature under Xiphidion or Xiphidium. 

The name Anisoptera of Latreille, 1829, was based on two 
species, dorsalis and brachypterus; the former has been selected 
as the type of Anisoptera ])y Kirby,*^ the latter is a member of 
the Decticinae. Karny "^ takes exception to the use of Anisoptera 
for the present genus by Kirby; the latter 's non-use of Cono- 
cephalus is apparently incomprehensible to him, but is probably 
due to Kirby's personal objection to the use of tautonymic names, 
which objection has been shared by numerous workers. 

Walker's genus Palotta, 1869, includes the single species 
inornata, which has been synonymized by Kirby under Xiphi- 
dium iris of Stal. 

Classification. — Karny has recently divided the present genus 
into five subgenera.^ His new Xeoxipkidion includes thirtj-'-two 
species and in the absence of a designated genotype we select 
C. {X .) fasciatus (DeGeer). The subgenus XtpAid^'on Serville has 
the type fixed by Kirby ^ as fuscum (Fabricius). Karny 's new 
Thecoxiphidion includes six species and, in the absence of a desig- 
nated genotype, we select C. (T.) strictus (Scudder). The subgenus 
Palotta F. Walker has inornata {iris Serville) type by monotypy, 
while the tj'pe of the subgenus Conocephalus is C. (C.) conocephalus 
by tautonymy, as discussed above. Of these subgenera we find 
Xiphidion, Palotta and Conocephalus possessing sufficient and 
distinguishable characters, but under Xiphidion we must place 
Xeoxiphidion and Thecoxiphidion. The first of these is separated 
by Karny by the male cerci being heavy, depressed and short 
distad, the majority of species American, in contrast to Xiphidion 
having the male cerci slender, acuminate, not or but little de- 
pressed distad, the majority of species from the Eastern Hemi- 
sphere. Study of the genotypes and the numerous species of the 

« Syn. Cat. Orth., ii, p. 274, (1906). 

' Verb. k.-k. zool.-botan. Gesell. Wien, lix, p. 27, (1909). 
* Gen. Ins., Orth., Subf. Conoccphalinae, p. 8, (1912). 
'Syn. Cat. Orth., ii, p. 274, (190()). 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



158 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

genus before us convinces us that the above characters are in- 
sufficient. Moreover we are certain that the type species of 
these subgenera, fasciatus and fuscus, possess no other differential 
characters of sufficient importance to warrant the erection of 
subgenera. The North American species which we place under 
the subgenus Xiphidion are naturally separated into three groups, 
but it would be necessary to erect countless subgenera for the 
genus were these considered subgenerically distinct. The Old 
World species having no teeth, or two, instead of the usual one on 
each male cercus, are certainly more distinctive than these and 
may constitute valid subgenera, while the variation, within the 
genus, of the male subgenital plate affords even more decided 
genital characters, being acutely produced distad without styles 
in some, acutely produced distad with styles in others and not 
produced but bearing styles in the majority of species. 

The very long ovipositor and very brief tegmina are used to 
separate Thecoxiphidion from Xiphidion. The variation in the 
ovipositor, not only in the type of this subgenus but in the majority 
of the species which we havestudied, convinces us that this charac- 
ter is insufficient for subgeneric use, and the tegminal length is 
not to be considered of even specific value, as the genotype 
itself, normally decidedly brachypterous, develops a macrop- 
terous form. 

Key to the Subgenera of the Genus Conocephalus 

A. Prosternum bispinose. (Caudal tibiae armed at distal extremity with 
three pairs of spurs.) 

B. Ventral margins of cephalic and median tibiae armed with five to seven i" 
well spaced spines. 

C. Male subgenital plate very strongly produced meso-distad in two 
sharp straight spikes, styles absent. 

Dicellura new subgenus 

CC. Male subgenital plate with distal margin more or less decidedly 

truncate, with no decided emargination or production; small, slender, 

filiform styles present laterad. Xiphidion Serville 

BB. Ventral margins of cephalic and median tibiae armed with nine to ten 

closely set spines. Palotta F. \\'alker 

AA. Prosternum unarmed. (Ventral margins of cephalic and median tibiae 

armed with five to seven '" well spaced spines.) 

'" In all of the North American species of the genus, the cephalic and median 
tibiae have both ventro-cephahc and ventro-caudal margins armed uniformly 
with six well spaced spines. 



REHN AND HEBARD 



159 



B. Caudal tibiae amied at distal extremity with three pairs of sj)urs. 

Conocephalus Thunberg 
BB. Caudal tibiae armed at distal extremity with a single pair of spurs 
(dorsal and ventral pairs absent. IVIale subgenital plate as in Xiphidion.) 

Anarthropus new subgenus 

The following diagram illustrates the relationship of the forms 
here considered. 



-nllanli 

^fascial us fasciatus 
"^ — fa scia tus v icin us 

s'pinosus 

'jrdcillim us 

hrevipen n is 

rcsacensis 



iicniorolii 



-occidental is 



-sirictui 



njgrnphilus 



stictotncrus 



-aigicdus 

nigroplcurum 

aUcn uatus 

niffrDphuroides 



-spartinae 



-saltans 



The numbers given above designate the three subgenera known 
from North America; the letters indicate the natural groups of 
the very large subgenus Xiphidion, each of which includes species 
showing a greater or less degree of affinity, as given in the above 
diagram. Of the species of group A, resacensis shows much the 
greatest affinity to the species of group C. Group B is distinctive 
and forms a decided unit, not a transition, between groups A and 
C. Group C divides into two portions, the species forming the 
first of these showing somewhat greater affinity to those of Group 
A. 

In certain respects otherwise very different species show decided 
similarity, thus allardi and nemorcdis both have unusually broad 
tegmina with apices very broadly rounded and tympana of 
males in proportion decidedly wider tlian is usual; brevipennis 



TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



160 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

and spartinae are so similar in general appearance that they long 
remained unrecognized in collections as very distinct species. 

Distribution (over the region under consideration). — The 
present genus is found everywhere in Canada as far north as ade- 
quate collecting has been done and probably extends in distribu- 
tion northward at least as far as the spruce belt. It is also found 
everj^where in the United States; l^ut in the semi-desert and desert 
regions of the west it is confined to mountains, rivers, streams, 
lakes and irrigated tracts where a more constant water supply 
is to be found. The genus is found in the greatest numbers in 
the Mississippi Valley region and in the central Atlantic states. 

Material Examined. — In addition to a series of over 1000 speci- 
mens already correctly recorded, we have examined and recorded 
in the present paper 2907 specimens, of which 1924 are in the 
Hebard Collection and that of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia. For the privilege of studying the additional 
material we wish to express our deep appreciation to Mr. A. N. 
Caudell, of the United States National Museum and to Dr. 
Samuel Henshaw, of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, who 
have enabled us to study all of the material in the collections of 
those institutions, to Prof. A. P. Morse who has generously 
requested us to study and record the interesting series in his col- 
lection taken by him outside of New England, and to Mr. Wm. 
T. Davis and Dr. J. Chester Bradley whose careful w^ork in the 
field and kind cooperation has greatly assisted us in this and other 
studies. The privilege of studying and recording the material 
belonging to the Pennsylvania State Department of Zoology 
has also aided us in the present work. 

In the preparation of the present paper the following types have 
been before us: 

Conocephalus allardi (Caudell) 

Conocephalus fasciatus vicinus (Morse) 

{Xiphidium vicinum var. productum Morse, synonym of Cono- 
cephalus fasciatus vicinus (Morse).) 

Conocephalus spinosus (Morse) 

Conocephalus gracillinius (Morse) 

Conocephalus brevipennis (Scudder) 

{Xiphidium ensifer Scudder, synonym of Conocephalus brevi- 
pennis (Scudder).) 



REHN AND HEBARD IGl 

{Xiphidium gossypii Scudder, synonym of Conocephalus brevi- 
pennis (Scudder).) 

Conocephalus resacensis new species 

Conocephalus nemoralis (Scudder) 

Conocephalus occidentalis (Morse) 

{Xiphidium occidentale var. camurum. Moi'se, synonym of 
Conocephalus occidentalis (Morse).) 

(Xiphidium occidentale var. caudatum iNIorse, synonym of 
Conocephalus occidentalis (Morse).) 

Conocephalus strictus (Scudder) 

Conocephalus hygrophilus new species 

Conocephalus stictomerus new species 

Conocephalus aigialus new species 

Conocephalus nigropleurum (Bruner) 

Conocephalus attenuatus (Scudder) 

Conocephalus nigropleuroides (H. Fox) 

Conocephalus spartinae (H. Fox) 

Conocephalus saltans (Scudder) 

{Xiphidium modestum Bruner, synonym of Conocephalus sal- 
tans (Scudder).) 

Key to Males of the North American Species of the Genus 
Conocephalus found north of Mexico 

A. Prosfernum bispinose. Caudal tibiae armed at distal extremity with 
three pairs of spurs. 

B. Subgenital plate very strongly produced meso-distad in two sharp 
straight spikes which are weakly divergent, styles absent, distal margin 
of plate between productions obtuse-angulate emarginate. 

(Subgenus Dicellura) 
(Size medium, form robust, ^\'rtox very weakly ascending, sides moder- 
ately divergent, greatest width two-thirds that of proximal antennal joint. 
Eyes normal. Convex callosity of lateral lobes very broad. Tegmina 
broad at apex, tympanum of same unusually large. Dorsvun of abdomen, 
including cerei, dark brown. Cerci heavy, with mcsal portion not contrast- 
ingly swollen, armed with a heavy mesal (vertical) tooth which is flat and 
broad at the base, situated interno-mesad. Ventral margins of caudal 
femora unarmed.) allardi (Caudell) 

BB. Subgenital i)late not produced distad, disto-lateral styk>s small and 
filiform, distal margin of plate nearlj' or quite transverse. 

(Subgenus Xiphidion) 
C. Cerci armed with a heavy mesal (vertical) tooth, so that its base is 
visible from above, this tooth situated interno-mesad. 

TR.\NS. .\M. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



162 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

D. Cerci with niesal portion not contrastingly swollen. 

E. Cerci with distal portion weakly to very decidedly depressed 
and with apex broad and rounded. (Size small to medium.) 

F. Tympanum of tegmina not unusually elongate. Convex callos- 
ity of lateral lobes not very broad. Vertex moderately produced, 
(weakly to very weakly ascending). 

G. Cerci with distal portion moderately produced, the depres- 
sion of the same being general and not more decided on the in- 
ternal side. 

H. Vertex with sides moderately divergent, greatest width 
about two-thirds that of proximal antennal point. Eyes 
decidedly small. Convex callosity of lateral lobes moderately 
but not decidedly broad. Dorsum of abdomen trifasciate, 
with median line broad. Cerci not decidedly hea\'y or elon- 
gate, with distal portion weakly depressed. Ventral margins 
of caudal femora normally unarmed. 

I. Form slender. Abdominal fasciae moderately distinct, 
colors not brilliant. fasciatus fascia tus (DeOeer) 

II. Form moderately slender. Abdominal fasciae very 
distinct, colors brilliant (particularly so in life). 

fasciatus vicinus (Morse) 
HH. Vertex with sides decidedly divergent, greatest width 
equaUing that of proximal antennal joint. Eyes normal. 
Convex callosity of lateral lobes very narrow. Abdomen 
immaculate, with distal portion, including cerci, pale yellow. 
Cerci heavy, elongate, with distal portion very decidedly 
depressed. Ventro-external margins of caudal femora bear- 
ing normally four to five spines. (Form moderately rolsust.) 

spinosus (Morse) 
GG. Cerci with distal portion more decidedly produced and very 
sti'ongly depressed, particularly on the internal side. (Fonn 
moderately slender. Vertex with sides moderately divergent, 
greatest width two-thirds that of proximal antennal joint. 
Eyes normal. Convex callosity of lateral lobes modei'ately 
but not decidedly broad. Dorsum of abdomen dark brown, 
in pale examples yellowish. Ventral margins of caudal femora 
normally unarmed.) brevipennis (Scudder) 

FF. Tympanum of tegmina unusually elongate. Convex callosity 
of lateral lobes very broad. Vertex distinctly produced. (Form 
very slender. Vertex weakly ascending, sides moderately diver- 
gent, greatest width about two-thu-ds that of proximal antennal 
joint. Eyes normal. Dorsum of abdomen narrowly but usually 
strikingly trifasciate. Cerci of similar type to those of Jasciatus 
but distinctly more elongate and attenuate, with distal portion 
very strongly depressed. Ventral margins of caudal femora 
unarmed.) gracillimus (Morse) 



REHN AND HEBARD 163 

EE. Cerci with cUstal portion not at all or very weakly depressed, 
with apex narrow, acuminate. (Eyes normal. \'entral margins of 
caudal femora unarmed.) 

F. Vertex broad and blunt, very weakly ascending, sides strongly 
divergent. 8ize mediimi to slightly smaller. 

G. Form distinctly robust. Vertex with greatest width slightly 
greater than that of proximal antennal joint. '^ Convex callosity 
of lateral lobes moderately broad. General color dark brown, 
occasionally washed with green, veins and veinlets of tegmina 
pale and conspicuous. Tegmina broad at apex, tympanum of 
same luiusuallj' large. Cerci shoii, distal portion short, conical, 
with blunt apex not at all depressed. nemoralis (Scudder) 

GG. Form moderately robust. Vertex with greatest width 
averaging about one and three-fourths times that of proximal 
antennal joint which is unusually small. Convex callosity of 
lateral lobes very broad. General color dark bro-^vn or bright 
green, abdomen uniformly dark or very dark meso-dorsad with 
a dark line on each side, veins of tegmina not conspicuous. 
Tegmina not broad at apex, tympammi of same unusually small. 
Cerci similar to those of ne?noral(S but with distal portion more 
produced, elongate, attenuate, almost imperceptibly or not at 
all depressed, with apex more acuminate. 

occidentalis (Morse) 
FF. Vertex very broad and exceedingly blunt, not at all ascending, 
sides very strongly divergent, (greatest width about one and one- 
half times that of proximal antennal joint). Size large to very 
large. (Form robust. Convex callosity of lateral lobes very 
broad. Dorsum of abdomen infuscated except in very pale 
examples. Tegmina broad at apex. Cerci of same general type 
as those of nemoralis but with distal portion very greatly pro- 
duced, very elongate and attenuate, very weakly depressed distad, 
with apex strongly acuminate.) strictus (Scudder) 

' DD. Cerci with mesal portion very contrastingly swollen, (this portion 
elongate ovate, distal portion moderately produced and very weakly 
depressed, apex sharply rounded. Size rather large, form distinctly 
attenuate. Vertex not ascending, sides strongly divergent, greatest 
width slightly greater than that of proximal antennal joint. Eyes 
normal. Lateral lobes of pronotum very broad, convex callosity of 
same very broad. Abdomen immaculate, with distal portion, including 
cerci, pale yeUow. Ventral margins of caudal femora unarmed.) 

resacensis new species 

^^ One male of C. nemoralis is before us having the vertex unusually narrow, 
not as wide as the basal antennal joint. Though this character is of decided 
importance in the species of the present genus, the above instance shows that, 
no matter how constant a single character may appear to be. occasional speci- 
mens are sui-e to be found in which the variation from the normal is decided. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



164 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOFTERA) 

CC. Cerci armed with a more delicate (ventral) tooth, so that but Uttle 
of this tooth is visible from above, (mesal portion of cercus very contrast- 
ingly swollen), tooth situated at proximal base of this swelling, (distal 
portion of cercus greatly depressed. Vertex distinctly ascending). 

D. Cerci with swollen mesal portion not attenuate elongate. (Eyes 
unusually protuberant. Abdomen immaculate, with distal portion, 
including cerci, a bright and striking yellow in life.) 

E. Swollen mesal portion of cerci with that portion above tooth 
produced in an overhanging knob-like protuberance, distal portion 
strongly produced with sides very weakly converging to broadly 
rounded apex. 

F. Vertex with sides strongly divergent, greatest width equalling 
that of proximal antennal joint. Convex callosity of lateral lobes 
of pronotum broad. Cerci with swollen mesal portion bulbous, 
ovate. Coloration not unusual. Size large, form robust and 
rather elongate. Eyes large. Ventro-external margins of caudal 
femora bearing t-wo to four spines. hygrophilus new species 

FF. Vertex with sides very weakly divergent, greatest width little 
more than half that of proximal antennal joint. Convex callosity 
of lateral lobes of pronotuni very narrow. Cerci with swollen 
mesal portion brief, so that entire distal half of cercus is flattened. 
Coloration unusual. 12 Size rather large, form rather slender, 
Eyes normal. Ventro-external margins of caudal femora bearing 
normally three and three spines. stictomerus new species 

EE. Cerci with swollen mesal portion not i)rodu('ed above tooth, 
(this portion nearly circular), distal portion less strongly produced 
with margins strongly converging to sharply rounded apex. (Vertex 
with sides moderately divergent, greatest width about two-thirds 
that of proximal antennal joint. Convex callosity of lateral lobes 
broad. Size medium, form robust and rather truncate. Eyes large. 
Ventro-exlernal margins of caudal femora bearing normally four and 
five spines.) aigialus new species 

DD. Cerci with swoUen mesal portion attenuate, elongate ovate, 
(distal portion with margins subparallel to broadly rounded apex.) 
E. Vertex with greatest width very little over one-half that of prox- 
imal antennal joint. Eyes of normal size but unusually protuberant. 
F. Coloration solid, distinctive and vivid, abdomen solid shining 
black, with meso-dorsal portion occasionally \-er}- dark brown. 
(Cerci heavy, with swollen mesal portion broadly elongate ovate. 
Size medium, form moderately robust. Convex callosity of lateral 
lobes very narrow but distinct. Ventro-external margins of 
caudal femora liearing normally three and three spines.) 

nigropleurum (Bruner) 
FF. Coloration of head and pronotum trifasciate, abdomen not solid 
shining l)lack. (Size .small to medium, form distinctly slender.) 

^^ The caudal femora are in life strikingly marked witli sj^ots and dots of 
coral red. 



REHN AND HEBARD ICo 

G. Coloration not as brilliant. Convex callosity of lateral lobes 
very narrow and subobsolete. Cerci of similar type to those 
of nigropleurum but longer though but little more slender, with 
distal portion curved outward. Ventro-external margins of 
caudal femora bearing nornialh' two and two spines. 

attenuatus (Scudder) 
GG. Coloration very brilliant. Convex caUo.sity of lateral 
lobes moderately but not decidedly broad. Cerci of similar 
type to those of nigropleurum but much more slender, with en- 
larged portion and distal portion both more attenuate, slightly 
irregular in outUne. Ventro-external margins of caudal femora 
in much more than half of the examples unarmed, when 
spines are present these range from one to two. 

nigropleuroides (H. Fox) 
EE. Vertex with greatest width two-thirds that of proximal antennal 
joint. Eyes normal. (Coloration not striking, resembling that of 
aigialus but with the j-ellow less extensive and decidedly paler. 
Convex callosity of lateral lobes moderately but not decidedly broad. 
Size small, form moderately slender. Male cerci similar to those of 
nigropleuroides but not irregular in outline. Ventro-external margins 
of caudal femora bearing normalh* one and two spines.) 

spartinae (H. Fox) 
AA. Prosternum unarmed. Caudal tibiae armed at distal extremity with 
one pair of spurs. (Subgenus Anarthropus) 

(Size medium to verj' small, form rather slender. \'ertex moderately ascend- 
ing, sides decidedly divergent, greatest width nearh' one and one-half times that 
of proximal antennal joint. E3-es normal. Convex callosity of lateral lobes 
very broad. Abdomen with dorsum dark, bordered laterad with a narrow 
pale line, sides infuscated. Cerci very slender, with a long, slender, median 
(vertical) tooth situated interno-mesad, the diameter of which at its base is 
nearly that of diameter there of shaft of cercus. Ventral margins of caudal 
femora unarmed.) saltans (Scudder) 

It must be remembered in using the above key that single 
characters are seldom if ever absolutely constant and that varia- 
tion exists in all species, the characters given above, when taken 
singly, being only correct for the great majority and not for 
every example of the species considered. 

In every group we have carefully studied, the absolute necessity 
of determining material not from one or two apparently striking 
differences but from the sum total of characters, has convinced 
us that, for correct conceptions and accurate determinations, the 
latter method is the only safe one to follow. In conseciuence a 
brief key for the species treated here would in our opinion only 
lead to confusion, and in the use of the present key we feel that 

TRANS. AM. EXT. SOC, XLI. 



166 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 



success depends upon following each species out in each character 
and basing conclusions upon the net result. Should single characters 
be taken as all important, confusion is an almost certain result. 
We give below in tabular form the extremes, found in the species 
in tegminal and ovipositor length (in millimeters), and have also 
included the general form of the ovipositor and the results ob- 
tained from counting the spines of the ventro-external margins 
of the caudal femora. The ventro-internal margins of the caudal 
femora are furnished with one to two spines in but five specimens, 
two of C. fasciatus fasciatus and three of C. attenuatus, in the 
very large series examined. 



Tegmina Ovipositor Spines of ventro- 

Brachyp- external margins 

terous of caudal femora 



allardi* 
f. fasciatus 
f. vicinus 
spinosus* 

gracillimus 
brevipennis 

resacensis* 
neni oralis 

occidcntalis 

slriclus 
hygroyhilus 



Macropterous 

cf 6.7-6.S straight. 

9 5.3-5.4 15.3-16.8 

o" 11.7-19.3 straight. 

9 10-21.1 7-9.9 

d" 16.4-18.7 9.9-13.1 straight. 

9 15.6-18.5 10.6-13.9 7.5-13 

cf 14.3-15. 1 very weakly 



9 16.2 
c^ 14.4-19.1 
9 15.3-20.7 
cf 13.9-16.3 

9 14.9-18.1 
& 



6-10.3 

5.4-9.3 

7.1-8.8 



normally 0. 

23% 1 to 5. 
none. 



normally 0. 
12.5% 1 to 3. 
normally 0. 
4% 1 to 2. 
normally 4 and 5. 
curved, broader, extremes 4 to 6. 
7-8.8 
straight. none. 

7.8-10.9 

straight or 
nearly straight. 
8.9-14.7 
straight. 
15.2-15.6 
7.2-9.2 distinctly 

curved. 
4.3-7.7 7.8-9.8 
7-9.4 very weakly 

curved to nearly 
straight. 
4.3-6.9 8-15.7 
5 . 1-7 . 3 nearly straight. 
2.8-5.8 17.7-32.3 
10.3 weakly sigmoid, 

broader. 
9 18.6 10.4 

'^ A single female from Appomattox, Virginia, exhibits an intermediate con- 
dition between the brachypterous and macropterous forms of the present 
species; tegminal length 10.5 mm. 



9 5.6-6 

9 



15.7-16.7 



9 16.4 
& 15.7-17.8 
9 15.4-2213 
& 



normally 2 and 3. 
extremes 2 to 4. 



REHX AXD HEBARD 



IG- 



sHctomerus 



aigialus 



nigropleurum 



attenuatus 



Tegmina 

Brachyp- 
Macropterous terous 

cf 18.3-18.4 8-11.6 



Ovipositor 



Spines of ventro- 
external margins 
of caudal femora 



9 18.3-18.8 
cf 16-17.7 



9 18.1-19.7 
c^ 

9 16-18.6 
cf 18.1 

9 19.4-20.9 



very weakly sig- normally 3 and 4. 

moid, broader, extremes to 7. 
6.9-9.8 13.7-19.8 
6 . 8-9 . 6 straight to normally 4 and 5. 

weakly sigmoid, 

extremes 1 to 7. 



broader. 
7.1-10.6 10.6-13.7 
5.7-9.4 straight, 

broader. 
6.6-9.3 13.4-18.7 ' 
10.1-10.6 very weakly 

curved. 
8.7-10.6 19.9-27.8 



normally 3 and 3. 
extremes to 6. 

normalh^2 and 2. 
extremes to 5. 



nigropleuroides cf 5 . 7-8 . 7 



weakly sigmoid considerabty 
or distinctlv over half 0. 



spartinae 



saltans 



9 15.5-17.8 
d' 15.3-18.2 

9 16.2-18.9 
cf 14.3-17.1 



9 16.2-20.3 



5.3-8.2 cm-ved. 

5 . 9-9 . 3 verj- weakly 

curved. 
5.2-9.3 7.1-9.9 
3 . 1-6 . 3 very weakly 

curved to nearly 

straight. 
1.6-3.8 9.7-16.4 



extremes to 2. 
normally 1 and 2. 
extremes to 5. 



In the species marked with an asterisk greater extremes doubt- 
less exist, as adequate material for such determination is not as 
yet contained in collections. The macropterous forms have 
the wings decidedly surpassing the tegmina, the brachj^pterous 
forms have the tegmina as long as, or longer, than the wings. 
Such macropterism and brachypterism is found in twelve of 
the seventeen species here considered. No such brachyptorous 
form is developed in fasciatus vicinus; a semi-brachypterous 
form ])cing the normal condition in this race, and macropterism 
appearing in the southernmost portions of its distribution. Three 
species — not including the above mentioned geographic race of 
one of these — show only a macropterous condition, while two 
species are known from only l)rachyptcrous material. So little 
material is known of one of the only macropterous and both of 
the only brachypterous species, that both conditions will very 
probably be found in one or possibly all of these species when 
larger series have been gathered. Of the twelve species showing 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



168 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

both conditions, the normal type is brachypterous in all of which 
we have sufficient material to reach any conclusion; two of these,. 
stictomerus and spartinae, alone show a macropterous type ap- 
parently in preponderance in portions of their southernmost dis- 
tribution. 

The ovipositor length is taken from the base of the basal plica 
to the apex of the ovipositor, it has been a general practice to 
take this length from the juncture of the subgenital plate to the 
apex of the ovipositor, but due to the mobility of the subgenital 
plate this method can not be as accurate. In consequence our 
measurements average about .4 mm. less than they would if 
taken the other way. 

The spines of the ventro-external margins of the caudal femora, 
when present in fasciatus fasciatus, fasciatus vicinus and hrevi- 
pennis, are almost invariably decidedly smaller than in the species 
in which such spines are normally present. 

The genicular lobes of the caudal femora are always unispinose 
in occidentalis, stridus and saltans, normally so in nemoralis and 
apparently so in allardi and resacensis; in all of the other species 
they are normally bispinose. A single abnormal specimen of 
spartinae has one of these genicular lobes trispinose. The varia- 
bility of this character in the majority of species causes it to be 
of little diagnostic importance. 

The abdominal coloration is important, particularly in the 
males of the species of this genus. Some forms are distinctive 
in coloration and these factors are discussed in the specific treat- 
ment. Man}- species are similar in having head, pronotum, 
thorax and limbs green, with a dark medio-dorsal stripe on head 
and pronotum usually narrowly bordered by buff. In the specific 
treatment of such species, it has not been considered necessary 
to discuss these features unless specific variations occur. 

As the present work is considered by no means monographic, 
we have thought it best to omit detailed descriptions under the 
treatment of all but the new species. The most important char- 
acters are given in the keys and tables of the introduction. In 
the following treatment of the known species, we have more 
fully discussed these characters where further details of interest 
exist, and have also considered other less important characters 
which have been omitted from the kevs and tal)les of the intro- 



REHN AND HEBARD 169 

duction. As a result, in determining material with the present 
paper, we would advise the use primarily of the keys, tables and 
figures; the specific treatment of known species being here 
employed mainh'^ to set forth the variation in each species and 
its distribution. 

Subgenus Dicellura '■* new subgenus 

The subgenus includes a single species, from the Appalachian 
region of the southeastern United States. 

Type of Subgenus. — Conocephalus allardi [Xiphidion allardi] 
(Caudell). 

Suhgeneric Description. — Prosternum bispinosc. Subgenital 
plate of male very strongly produced meso-distad in two sharp 
straight spikes which are weakly divergent, styles absent; be- 
tween the productions the distal margin of the plate is obtuse- 
angulate emarginate at an angle of slightly over ninetj^ degrees. 
Ventral margins of cephalic and median femora armed with six 
well spaced spines. Caudal tibiae armed at distal extremities 
with three pairs of spurs. Size medium for the genus, form ro- 
bust. 

Conocephalus allardi (Caudell) (Pis. XV-XVII, fifj. 1: XVIII. 1 and 2; 

XIX, 9; XX, 1.1 
1910. Xiphidion allardi Caudell, ^^ Ent. News, xxi, p. 58. [Tray and Blue 

^Mountains, Towns County, Georgia.] 

The present insect is widely separated from any other known 
species of the genus by the characters given in the subgeneric 
description. The species bears a slight superficial resemblance 
to C. brevipennis but differs greatly in the characters mentioned 
above, in the very broad tegmina of which the male tympanum 
is unusually large for the species of the genus, and in the ovipositor 
which is rigidly straight and exceeds in length the maxinmm 
found in brevipennis. The anomalous male subgenital plate l^i'ings 
to mind that of the South American species, C. vitticoUis and C. 
longipes, but this plate is found upon examination to be an en- 
tirely different development in the present insect. 

"From 6keXXa = fork and oiipd=tail, in allusion to the exceptional form of 
the male subgenital i)late. 

15 Single type designated by Caudell and Heliard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1912, p. 164, (1912). 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



170 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

Lateral lobes of pronotum decidedly broad, cephalic margin 
moderately oblique and nearly straight to the broadly obtuse-an- 
gulate ventro-cephalic angle, thence nearly straight and decidedly 
more horizontal than is usual to the rather sharply rounded ven- 
tro-caudal angle which is rectangulate, caudal margin weakly sin- 
uate but nearly straight, humeral sinus obsolete, convex callosity 
very broad. Tegmina broadly rounded at apex. Genicular 
lobes of caudal femora normally unispinose, sometimes supplied 
with a small supplementary spine; genicular areas of same dark- 
ened; ventral margins of caudal femora unarmed. 

In addition to the type series (the type and allotype in the 
United States National Museum and a paratypic pair in the 
Hebard Collection), we have examined but two unrecorded speci- 
mens. The species is further known only from specimens taken 
by Allard at Indian Grave Gap, Towns County, Georgia. 

Wytheville, Virginia, IX, 5, 1903, (Morse), 1 (f, [Morse Cln.]. 

Rabun County, Georgia, VII, 1910, (W. T. Davis), 1 juv. 9 , [Davis Cln.]. 

Subgenus Xiphidion Serville ^^ 
1912. Xvphidioyi Karny, Gen. Ins., Fasc. 135, Subf. Conocephalinae, p. S. 
1912. Neoxiphidion Karny, ibid. 
1912. Thecoxiphidion Karny, ibid. 

Conocephalus fasciatus fasciatus (DeGeer)i^ (PL XV, figs. 2, 3 and 5; 

XVI and XVII, 2; XVIII, 3 and 4; XIX, 10; XX, 2.) 
1773. Locusla fasciata DeGeer, Mem. Hist. Ins., iii, p. 458, pi. 40, fig. 4. 

[Pen(ii).sylvania.] 
1841. Orchelimum gracile Harris, Ins. Inj. Veget., p. 131. [Ma.ssachusetts.] 

Harris' description of his gracile, giving a nearly straight ovi- 
positor and other characters, shows unquestionably the present 
synonymy; the figure of a female accompanying the same 
description in the Flint edition ^* belongs, however, to an Orcheli- 
vium, probably concinnum Scudder, the curved ovipositor show- 
ing at once that the specimen selected for the figure by Dr. 
Agassiz was not the species described by Harris. 

The present species is not, as has been generally supposed, 
found far south of the borders of the United States, and the only 
exotic material of the species now before us is from Bermuda. 

^^ See page 157 for the type of this subgenus and tlie s^'nonj-niy. 
" For a more descriptive discussion of the present species see following study 
by Rehn and Hebard, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, xli, (1915). 
18 Harris, Ins. Inj. Veget., Flint Ed., p. 163, fig. 78, (1862). 



REHN AND HEBARD 171 

The Antillean records and those from Panama apply to a closely 
allied but distinct species C. cinereus, while those from Mexico 
may be in part correct, as the present species certainly inhabits 
the northern portion of that country; the South American rec- 
ords, however, belong either to the above mentioned or still 
another species. 

The tegmina normally surpass the tips of the caudal femora 
when in repose; no brachypterous condition exists in this insect 
and only very occasional specimens have the tegmina barely 
reaching the extremities of the caudal femora. This latter con- 
dition is found only in rare specimens from northern localities 
and in western series approaching C. f. vicinus. 

The male cerci in the present species are usually bright green; 
in drying some specimens, as in the other species of the genus, 
lose all of their normal green general coloration, becoming a 
uniform straw color. The genicular areas of the caudal femora 
are not darkened; the genicular lobes of the same are normally 
bispinose; the ventro-external margins of the caudal femora are 
normally unarmed, verj' small (usually microscopic) spines are 
present in two hundred and eight perfect specimens examined as 
follows : 

Number of spines, 0-0 0-1 1-1 1-2 2-2 

Number of specimens, 182 19 5 1 1 

This shows 12.5 %of the material to have these margins armed, 
geographic distribution apparently having no effect on this con- 
dition in the present species. In the specimen having the ventro- 
external margins of the caudal femora armed with 2 and 2 sjoines, 
one of the ventro-internal margins is also furnished with a single 
minute spine, this is also found in a single specimen having the 
ventro-external margins unarmed. 

The ovipositor length is as follows: Bothwell, Prince Edward 
Island, 8-9.2; Northeast Harbor, Maine, 7-7.8; Fredericksburg, 
Virginia, 8-9.3; Jacksonville, Florida, 7.3-8.3; West Point, Ne- 
braska, 9.2-9.6; Pinebluft", Wyoming, 8.3-9.9; Carrizo Springs. 
Texas, 8.6-9.7; Jemez Hot Springs, New Mexico, ^'^ 8.6-9.4 mm. 

The present species is found in the United States from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific, the typical form being supplanted by a 

1' These specimens are intermediate between the eastern and western races 
of this species. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



172 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

geographic race in the region of Pacific drainage. The insect 
will probably be found to occur in Canada far north of its pres- 
ent known range (Prince Edward Island to North Bay and White- 
mouth, Ontario, to Aweme, Manitoba) as it is a hardy species 
even more abundant in the meadows of northern Maine and 
Michigan than in the south and E. M. Walker states that it is 
"one of the few common locustids in northern Ontario." South- 
ward it is found to the extremity of southern Florida and along 
the gulf coast to Mexico. 

Specimens Examined: Previously recorded, over 300. Here recorded, 698; 
339 males, 355 females and 4 immature females. Intermediates, 20; 7 males, 
11 females and 2 immature females. 

Bothwell, Prince Edward Island, VIII, 24, 1912, (B. Long), 4 c?, 7 9, 
[A. N. S. P.]. 

St. Andrews, Prince Edward Island, VIII, 26, 1912, (B. Long), 1 d', 2 9, 
[A. N. S. P.]. 

Dundee, Prince Edward Island, VIII, 26, 1912, (B. Long; in black spruce 
swamp), 1 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, IX, 1912, (B. Long), 1 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Bunbury, Prince Edward Island, VIII, 28, 1912, (B. Long; in marsh), 5 9 , 
[A. N. S. P.]. 

Cape Aylesbur}', Prince Edward Island, VIII, 27, 1912, (B. Long; among 
sand dunes), 2 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Great Cranberry Island, Maine, VIII, 24, 1913, (H.; occasional in short 
grasses), 1 9 • 

Northeast Harbor, Maine, VIII, 16 and 21, 1913, (H.; common in short 
grasses), 5 9 . 

Baileys Island, Casco Bay, Maine, VIII,25, 1907, (B. Long), 3 9 ,[A.N.S.P.]. 

Rye Beach, New Hampshire, IX, 1 and 2, 1913, (H.), 1 c^. 

Marion, Massachusetts, VIII, 1905, (H.), 1 d" ■ 

Amherst, Massachusetts, X, 1907, (J. A. Hyslop), 1 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Wesquage Beach, Rhode Island, IX, 8 and 10, 1913, (H.; grasses near salt 
marsh), 4 cT, 2 9. 

Chateaugay Lake, New York, VIII, 20 to IX, 11, 1878, (Scudder), 1 d", 3 
9, [M. C. Z.]. 

Clifton Springs, New York, 5 d", 7 9, [Cornell Univ.]. 

Ithaca, New York, VIII, I to X, 4, 1885 to 1894, 13 c^, 5 9 , [Cornell Univ.]. 

Cattaraugus, New York, IX, 11, 1894, 1 9 , [Cornell Univ.]. 

Tol)yhanna, Pennsylvania, IX, 1903, (H.), 2 d . 

Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, IX, 1903, (H.), 1 d". 

Cornwclls, Pennsylvania, IX, 11, 1906, (R. & H.), 1 9 . 

Tinicum Island, Pennsylvania, IX, 9 and 29, 1903 and 1904, (R. & II.), 
1 c^, 1 9. 

Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, X, 13, 1906, (E. T. Cresson Jr.),2 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 



REHN AND HEBARD 173 

Pink Hill, Delaware County, Pennsylvania, VII, 9, 1908, (R. & H.; grasses 
on serpentine outcrop), 1 cf. 

Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, VII, 20 to VIII, 30, 5 d', 3 9, [Pa. St. Dept. 
Zool.]. 

Rockville, Pennsylvania, VII, 4 to 29, 8 cf, 11 9 , [Pa. St. Dept. Zool.]. 

CamphiU, Cumberland Countj^, Pennsylvania, VII, 31, 1 cf , [Pa. St. Dept. 
Zool.]. 

Beatty, PeuBsylvania, (C. Brugger), 2 d^, 2 9 , [A. X. S. P.]. 

Mullica River flats, Bui-lington County, New Jersey, VIII, 24, 1914, (H.; 
border of marsh), 1 c?, 1 9 ■ 

Chestnut Xeck, Atlantic County, New Jersey, VII, 16, 1911, (R. & H.; 
grasses near salt marsh), 1 d^. 

Ventnor, Xew Jersey, VIII, 5, 1914, (H.; among weeds in marshy spots on 
barrier beach), 2 c?, 2 9,1 juv. 9 . 

Margate City, Xew Jersey, VII, 24, 1914, (H.), 1 juv. 9 ; VIII, 17, 1914, 
(H.; salt marsh border), 1 9 . 

Ocean City, X'ew Jersey, VIII, 14, 1914, (H.; grasses beside road, in middle 
of salt marsh), 1 c?. 

Cedar Springs, Xew Jersey, VIII, 14, 1914, (H.; common in grasses near 
fresh marsh), 1 cf . 

Cape May, Xew Jersey, VII. 22, 1910, (H.), 1 cf , 2 9 . 

Chestertown, Maryland, VIII, 10 to 30, 1899 to 1904, (E. G. Vanatta), 3 cT, 
3 9 , [A. X. S. P.]. ' 

Island Creek, Maryland, VII, 20, 1912, (C.R.Shoemaker), 1 cf , [U. S. X. M.]. 

Washington, District of Columbia, 1 9, [U. S. X. M.] 

Fredericksburg, Virginia, VII, 20, 1913, (R. & H.; common in meadowland), 
9 cf, 7 9. 

Vu-ginia Beach, Virginia, VII, 4, 1903, (Morse), 1 cf , [Morse Chi.]. 

Xorfolk, Virginia, IX, 8, 1903, (Morse), 2 cf , 5 9 , [Morse Chi.]. 

Hickory, Virginia, VII, 3, 1903, (Morse), 9 c?, 10 9 , [Morse Chi.]. 

Appomattox, Virginia, IX, 6, 1903, (Morse), 1 d', 3 9 , [Morse Chi.]. 

Wytheville, Virginia, IX, 5, 1903, (Morse), 1 d", [Morse Cln.]. 

Eure, Xorth Carohna, VII, 5, 1903, (:\Iorse), 2 cT, 2 9 , [Morse Chi.]. 

Selma, Xorth Carohna, VII, 7, 1903, (Morse), 1 cf , 1 9 , [Morse Chi.]. 

Winter Park, Xorth Carolina, IX, 7, 1911, (R. & H.; occasional in weeds 
and undergrowth), 1 9 . 

Lake Waccamaw, Xorth Carolina, IX, 8, 1911, (R. & H.; occasional in 
high weeds), 2 cf . 

Greensboro, Xorth Carolina, VII, 10, 1903, (INIorse), 3 d", 1 9 , [Morse Cln.]. 

Sahsbury, Xorth Carohna, VII, 11, 1903, (Morse), 7 c?, 4 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

Roan Mountain. Xorth Carolina. VIII, 31, 1903, (Morse), 3 d", 3 9 , [Morse 
Cln.]. 

Linville, Xorth Carolina, VIII, 30, 1903, (Morse), 8 d', 12 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

IMorganton, Xorth Carolina, VII, 12, 1903, (Morse), 3 d", 3 9 , [Morse Cln.]. 

Balsam, Xorth Carolina, VIII, 20, 1903, (Morse), 1 d", [Morse Cln.]. 

Governors Island, Xorth Carolina, VIII, 20, 1903, (Morse), 1 c", [Morse 
Cln.]. 

TRANS. AM. EXT. SOC, XLI. 



174 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (ORTHOPTERA) 

Topton, North Carolina, VIII, 21, 1903, (Morse), 1 c?, [Morse Cln.]. 

Denmark, South Carohna, VIII, 14, 1903, (Morse), 1 c?, [Morse Cln.]. 

Yemassee, South Carohna, IX, 4, 1911, (R. & H.), 2 cf. 

Trenton, Georgia, VII, 10, 1905, (Morse), 4 d", [Morse Chi.]. 

Marietta, Georgia, VII, 27, 1903, (Morse), 8 d', 2 9 , [Morse Chi.]. 

Atlanta, Georgia, VII, 26, 1910, 1 9 , [Ga. State Cln.]; VIII, 2, 1913, (R. & 
H.), 1 cf", 2 9. 

Augusta, Georgia, VII, 29, 1913, (R. & H.), 1 9 . 

Savannah, Georgia, VIII, 13, 1903, (Morse), 1 9 , [Morse Cln.]. 

Tybee Island, Georgia, VIII, 12, 1903, (Morse), 3 c?, [Morse Cln.]. 

Isle of Hope, Georgia, IX, 3, 1911, (R. & H.), 1 cT. 

Jesup, Georgia, IX, 1, 1911, (R. & H.), 1 c^. 

St. Simon's Island, Georgia, VIII, 30, 1911, (R. & H.), 1 9 . 

Brunswick, Georgia, VIII, 30, 1911, (H.), 1 9. 

Cumberland Island, Georgia, VIII, 31, 1911, (R. & H.), 3 c?. 

Waycross, Georgia, VIII, 11, 1903, (Morse), 2 a", 1 9 , [Morse Cln.]. 

Billy's Island, Okeefenokee Swamp, Georgia, VI and VII, 1912, (J. C. 
Bradley), 2 cf, 6 9 , [Cornell Univ.]. 

Macon, Georgia, VII, 30 and 31, 1913, (R. & H.; in high grasses on edge of 
forest), 1 &,2, 9 ; IX, 18, 1878, (in pasture), 2 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Westpoint, Georgia, VII, 30, 1903, (Morse), 1 9 , [Morse Chi.]. 

Columbus, Georgia, VII, 16, 1913, (J. C. Bradley), 1 d^, 3 9 ,[Ga. State Chi.]. 

Albany, Georgia, VIII, 1, 1913, (R. & H.; very few in wet grass), 1 cf. 

Bambridge, Georgia, IX and X, 1910, (J. C. Bradley), 1 cf , 2 9 , [Ga. State 
Chi.]. 

JacksonviUe, Florida, XI, 3, 1911, (W. T. Davis), 2 d', 3 9 , [Davis Chi.]. 

South JacksonviUe, Florida, IX. 27 and 28, 1911, (W. T. Davis), 1 d', 2 9 , 
[Davis Chi.]. 

Atlantic Beach, Florida, VIII, 24, 1911, (R. & H.; in sandy field of low 
grass.), 2 9 . 

Pablo Beach, Florida, IX, 27, 1913, XI, 4, 1911, (W. T. Davis), 1 c?, 1 9, 
[Davis Cln.]. 

Live Oak, Florida, VIII, 10, 1903, (Morse), 1 d', [Morse Cln.]; VIII, 26, 1911, 
(R. &H.), 1 cf. 

Tallahassee, Florida, VIII, 8, 1903, (Morse), 9 d", 2 9 , [Morse Cln.]. 

Marianna, Florida, VIII, 7, 1903, (Morse), 1 d^, 2 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

Cedar Keys, Florida, VI, 3, 1 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Tampa, Florida, XI, 23, 1911, (G. P. Englehardt), 1 9 , [BkljTi. Inst. A. 
& S.]. 

Little River, Florida, XI, 25, 1912, (F. Knab), 1 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Lemon City, Florida, (E. J. BrowTi), 1 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Miami, Florida, XI, 26, 1912, (F. Knab), 1 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 

North Bay, Ontario, IX, 1 to 8, 1906, (G. S. Miller Jr.), 3 d', 6 9 , [M. C. Z.]. 

Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio, VIII, 14, 1904, (W. V. Werner), 1 d^, [U, S. N. M.j. 

SahneviUe, Ohio, IX, 10, 1892, 1 d', [Cornell Univ.]. 

Brul6, Wisconsin, VIII, 16 and 17, 1912, (Witmer Stone), 1 d^, 2 9, [A. N. 
S. P.]. 



KEHN AND HEBARD 175 

Cranmoor, Wisconsin, X, 17, 1910, (C. W. Hooker), 2 9 , [U. S. X. M.]. 

Chicago, Illinois, IX, 9, 1903, (H.; in waste field), I d",! 9 . 

Waldo, Minnesota, VIII, 1906, (Witmer Stone), 1 9, [A. X. S. P.]. 

Duluth, Minnesota, VIII, 1906 and 1912, (Witmer Stone), 3 d', 7 9, [A. X. 
S. P.]. 

Staples, Minnesota, VII, 21, 1909, (H.), 3 d', 1 9,1 juv. 9. 

St. Peter, Minnesota, 1880, 1 9, [U. S. X. M.]. 

Johnson City, Tennessee, VIII, 27, 1903, (Morse), 1 9 , [Morse Cln.]. 

Chattanooga, Tennessee, X, 19, 1888, (F. G. Martin), 1 d', 1 9 , [U.S. X. M.]; 
2 cf, [HebardChi.]. 

Columbia, Tennessee, 1 cf , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Anniston, Alabama, VII, 12, 1905, (Morse), 3 cf , 2 9 , [Morse Cbi.]. 

Tuscaloosa, Alabama, VII, 15, 1905, (Morse), 3 d", 1 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

Greenville, Alabama, VII, 31, 1903, (Morse), 6 cf , 3 9 , [Morse Cln.]. 

Flomaton, Alabama, VIII, 2, 1903, (Morse), 2 cf , 3 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

Agricultural College, Mississippi, 1 c?, [Hebard Cln.]. 

IVIeridian, Mississippi, VII, 16, 1905, (Morse), 1 9 , [Morse Chi.]. 

Hattiesburg, Mississippi, VII, 17, 1905, (Morse), 1 cf, [Morse Chi.]. 

Gulfport, Mississippi, VII, 21, 1905, (Morse), 3 cf , [Morse Cln.]. 

Xatchez, Mississippi, V, 14, 1909, (E. S. Tucker), 1 cf , [U. S. X. M.]. 

Fort Dodge, Iowa, VIII, 27, 1910, (M. P. Somes), 1 9 , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Iowa City, Iowa, VIII, 5, 1910, (M. P. Somes), 1 9 , [Hebard Chi.]. 

St. Louis, Missouri, VII, 24, 1877, 1 cf , [U. S. X. M.]. 

Ivirl'.wood, Missouri, X, 1877, 1 cf , 3 9 , [U. S. X. M.]. 

Fayetteville, Arkansas, IX, 5, 1905, (Morse), 3 cf , 1 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

Van Buren, Arkansas, IX, 1, 1905, (Morse), 5 cf , 6 9, [Morse Chi.]. 

Dardanelle, Arkansas, VIII, 31, 1905, (Morse), 1 cf , [Morse Chi.]. 

Magazine Mountain, Arkansas, VIII, 29, 1905, (Morse), 1 cf , [Morse'Cln.]. 

Mena, Arkansas, VIII, 31, 1905, (Morse), Icf, [Morse Chi.]. 

De Queen, Arkansas, VII, 29, 1905, (Morse), 1 9 , [Morse Chi.]. 

AshdowTi, Arkansas, VII, 27, 1905, (Morse), 3 cf , 1 9 , [Morse Chi.]. 

Bayou Sara, Louisiana, I, 20, 1879, 1 cf , [U. S. X. M.]. 

Milneburg, Louisiana, VII, 22, 1905, (Morse), 3 cf , 4 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

Xew Orleans, Louisiana, VI, 1883, (Shufeld), 3 cf , 1 9 ; VI, 7, 1902, (at 
light), 2 9 ; X to XI, 15, 1882, 1 cf , 1 9 , [aU U. S. X. M.]. 

Crowley, Louisiana, IX, 28 and 30, 1911, (E. S. Tucker; in rice field), 14 cf , 
11 9, [U.S. X. M.]. 

Winnipeg, Manitoba, VIII, 22, 1877, 1 cf , [U. S. X. M.]. 

Harney's Peak, Black Hills, South Dakota, 7000 to 8000 ft. (Bruner), 1 9 , 
[U. S. X. M.]. 

West Point, Xebraska, VIII to IX, 6 cf , 5 9, [Hebard Cln.]. 

Lincoln, Xebraska, VII to IX, 3 cf , 3 9,1 juv. 9 , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Xorth Platte, Xebraska, VII, 28, 1910, (R. & H.; swampy areas on river 
plain), 2 (f , 3 9. 

Fort Robinson, Xebraska, VII, 1888, 1 9 , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Glen, Xebraska, VIII, 1903, (L. Bruner), 4 cf, 5 9, [Hebard Cln.]. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



176 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

Sidney, Nebraska, VII, 30, 1910, (R. & H.), 1 c?; VIII, 25, 1893, 1 9, 
[Hebard Cln.]. 
Belpre, Kansas, IX, 13, 1909, (H.; in field of short grass), 1 9 . 
Independence, Kansas, (A. Birckfield), 1 d", [U. S. N. M.]. 
Howe, Oklahoma, VIII, 4, 1905, (Morse), 5 cf , [Morse Cln.]. 
Wilburton, Oklahoma, VIII, 27, 1905, (Morse), 2 cT, 4 9, [Morse Cln.]. 
Haileyville, Oklahoma, VIII, 6, 1905, (Morse), 1 c^, [Morse Cln.]. 
Okmulgee, Oklahoma, VI, 24, (J. D. Mitchell; at light), 1 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 
Shawnee, Oklahoma, VIII, 26, 1905; (Morse), 1 cT, [Morse Cln.]. 
Bonita, Texas, VIII, 14, 1905, (Morse), 1 c?, 1 9 , [Morse Cln.]. 
Pittsburg, Texas, IX, 9, 1904, (F. C. Bishopp), 2 cf , [U. S. N. M.]. 
Terrell, Texas, VI, 9, 1904, (F. C. Bishopp), 1 cT, [U. S. N. M.]. 
Dallas, Texas, IX, 25 and 26, 1912, (R. & H.; common in field of high gi-ass), 
5 c^, 8 9. 

Sagamore Hill, Tarrant County, Texas, IX, 27, 1912, (R. & H.; areas of 
low grass in open), 2 cf . 
Doucette, Texas, VII, 24, 1912, (H.), 1 &. 

Beaumont, Texas, VII, 23, 1912, (H.;not common on grassy swampy gi-ound), 
3 cf, 5 9. 

Calvert, Texas, VIII, 1903, (A. W. Morrill), 1 d, [U. S. N. M.]. 
Shovel Mount, Texas, VI, 30, 1901, (F. G. Schaupp), 1 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 
Paige, Texas, VIII, 3, 1904, (C. R. Jones; on cotton), 1 c?, [U. S. N. M.]. 
Kerrville, Texas, VIII, 17 and 18, 1912, (R. & H.), 1 d". 
San Antonio, Texas, VIII, 15 and 16, 1912, (R. & H.; common in high 
grass), 3 9 . 
Galveston, Texas, VII, 19 to 21, 1912, (H.), 8 c?, 1 9 . 
La Marque, Texas, VII, 22, 1912, (H.), 1 9 . 

Webster, Texas, VII, 19, 1912, (H.; common on grass prairie), 1 c?, 3 9 • 
Virginia Point, Texas, VII, 21, 1912, (H.), 1 cf , 3 9 . 
Rosenberg, Texas, VII, 25 and 26, 1912, (H.), 2 d. 

Wharton, Texas, VII, 12, 1904, (C. R. Jones; on cotton), 1 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 
Victoria, Texas, VII, 26 and 27, 1912, (H.; common in stream bottom), 2 cf, 
1 9. 
Corpus Christi, Texas, VII, 29, 1912, (H.), 1 d. 
Gregory, Texas, VII, 30, 1912, (H.), 1 d', 1 9 . 
Lyford, Texas, VIII, 6 and 7, 1912, (R. & H.), 1 d,l 9 . 
Mission, Texas, VIII, 5 and 6, 1912, (H.), 1 d', 1 9 . 
BrownsviUe, Texas, VII, 31 to VIII, 5, 1912, (H.), 1 d,2 9 . 
Piper Plantation, near Brownsville, Texas, VIII, 3, 1912, (R. & H.; grassy 
spots in heavy river bottom tangle), 3 cf , 2 9 . 

Uvalde, Texas, VIII, 21 and 22, 1912, (R. & H.), 1 &. 
Del Rio, Texas, VIII, 22 and 23, 1912, (R. & H.; common in grasses of river 
bottom), 2 cf, 1 9. 

Carrizo Springs, Texas, X, 1884, (A. Wadgymar), 4 o", 9 9, [Hebard Cln.]. 
Benavides, Texas, VIII, 9 and 10, 1912, (R. & H.), 1 d. 
Glendive, Montana, VII, 26, 1909, (H.; on river l)ottoms), 3 cf, 3 9 ■ 
Forsyth, Montana, VII, 27, 1909, (H.), 1 d. 



REHN AND HEBARD 177 

Billings, Montana, VII, 28, 1909,(R. & H.; on grassy river plain), IG a, 'J 9 . 

\\'orland, Wyoming, VIII, 1911, 1 9, [Hebard Cln.]. 

Pinebluff, Wyoming, 9 d', 27 9 , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Julesburg, Colorado, VII, 29, 1910, (R. & H.), 1 cf , 1 9 . 

Livermore, Colorado, X, 4, 1898, 2 d^, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Boulder, Colorado, 1 9, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Pueblo, Colorado, VIII, 30 and 31, 1877, (Scudder), 1 9 , [M. C. Z.]. 

Garland, Colorado, VIII, 28 and 29, 1877, (Scudder), 1 cf , 3 9 , [M. C. Z.]. 

Springer, New Mexico, IX, 15, (C. N. Ainslie), 1 a", [U. S. N. M.]. 

Rociada, New Mexico, VIII, 8, (Cockerell), 2 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 
Intermediate material between typical C. fasciatus and C. fasciatus vicinus. 

Jemez Mountains, New Mexico, VIII, 1909, 1 9 , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Jemez Hot Springs, New Mexico, VIII,1 to 29, 1912 and 1913, (J. Woodgate), 
7 cf, 11 9,2 juv. 9, [Hebard Cln.]. 

Conocephalus fasciatus vicinus (Morse) (Pis. XVI, XVII and XX, fig. 3; 

XVII, figs. 5 and 6.) 
1881. Xiphidium ensiferum Scudder (not of 1862), Second Rept. U. S. Ent. 

Comm., 1880, App. ii, p. 23. [Glenbrook and Reno, Nevada.] 
1881. Xiphidium brevipenne Scudder (not of 1862), Second Rept. U. S. Ent. 

Comm., 1880, App. ii, p. 23. [Sisson and Strawberry Valley, California.] 
1881. Xiphidium fasdatum Scudder, Second Rei)t. U. S. Ent. Comm., 1880, 

App. ii, p. 23. [Portland, Oregon.] 
1901. Xiphidium vicinum Morse,^'' Can. Ent., xxxiii, p. 203. [Palm Springs, 

San Bernardino, Colton, Los Angeles, Kern City, Lathrop, \^'est Berkeley, 

Mill Valley, Sisson and Gazelle, California; Ashland, Glendale, Drain and 

Divide, Oregon; Tenino, Washington.] 
1901. Xiphidium vicitiu?n variety productum Morse,^! Can. Ent., xxxiii, p. 

204. (Macropterous material in above series.) 

This insect has been adequately described bj' INIorse; the dis- 
tinctive characters given, when compared with typical fasciatus, 
being, in the female, a normally longer ovipositor both actually 
and in proportion to the caudal femora, and in the male, cerci 
which are slightly broader just distad of the tooth with the exter- 
nal margins less sinuous. The present series shows further that in 
this race the form is normally somewhat more robust and the lat- 
eral lobes of the pronotum are broader, with cephalic margin 
more broadly convex and ventro-caudal angle even more l>roa(lly 

-"Single type designated: cf; Palm Springs, California, VII, 10, 1897, 
(Morse), [Morse Chi.]. (Morse and Hebard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1915, 
p. 1C6, (1915).) 

^'Single type designated: 9; San Bernardino, California, Vll, 15, 1897, 
(Morse), [Morse Cln.]. (Morse and Hebard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1915, p. 106, (1915).) 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



178 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

rounded. The great majority of individuals of this race differ 
from the average of fasciatus fasciatus in having the tegmina just 
reaching the tips of the caudal femora or falling short of these as 
much as 3 mm. Examples occur, however, having as long teg- 
mina as are found in fasciatus s.s., which condition is more fre- 
quently met with in the southern portion of the range of the insect 
and has been given the name productumhy Morse. As further dif- 
ferences are wanting to distinguish such material, we are obliged 
to place this name in the synonymy of the present form. The 
phase having very long tegmina and wings is represented by the 
following material before us: 2 d", Mountain Home, Idaho; 1 
d^, 2 9 , Shoshone, Idaho; 1 d', Milford, Utah; 1 d', Reno, Ne- 
vada; 2 d^,Alamitos Bay, California, and 1 d^, Los Angeles, 
California. An almost intermediate condition is shown in a num- 
ber of individuals from Council Crest and Divide, Oregon, and in 
two d" from Milford, Utah. 

In life the present race is normally quite as green in general 
coloration with abdominal markings brighter than in typical fas- 
ciatus; the following field note taken from fresh material at Sho- 
shone and Mountain Home, Idaho, demonstrates this very clearly 
— "Abdomen with a medio-dorsal band of vandyke brown, wider 
cephalad, narrowing gradually caudad, bordered by lemon yellow 
bands about half as wide. In the males the rest of the abdomen is 
grass green, in the females these lemon yellow bands are in turn 
bordered on each side by very narrow bands of vandyke brown." 
The large series before us, though otherwise in excellent condi- 
tion, is almost without exception much discolored and faded, the 
cerci of the males retaining a green coloration in only a few cases. 

The genicular areas of the caudal femora are not darkened ; the 
genicular lobes of the same are normally bispinose; the ventro- 
external margins of the caudal femora are normally unarmed, 
very small (usually microscopic) spines are present in one hun- 
dred and fifty-two specimens examined as follows: 
Number of spines, 0-0 0-1 0-2 
Number of specimens, 146 5 1 

This shows 3.9% of the material to have these margins armed 
with such adventitious spines. 

The ovipositor length is as follows: Mountain Home, Idaho, 
11.2-12.6; Soda Springs, Idaho, 9.2-10.7; Council Crest, Oregon, 



REHN AND HEBARD 179 

9-10.7; Sisson, California, 9.8-11.2; Los Angeles, California, 
12; Reno, Nevada, 10.3-11.7; Milford, t'tah, 10.7-11.7 mm. 
Morse, in his excellent series of measurements given with the 
original description, shows the extremes of ovipositor length to 
be 7.5 to 13 mm. in the present insect. 

The present geographic race is distributed over the region of 
Pacific drainage in the United States, having been found from 
Soda Springs, Idaho, and Milford, Utah, as far north as Tenino, 
Washington, and Agassiz, British Columbia,-- and south to Alami- 
tos Bay and Palm Springs, California. In the desert regions of 
this area, the species is to be found often very numerous in green 
vegetation in irrigated areas or where other constant sources of 
water supply exist. 

Speciniens Examined: Previously recorded, 122. Here recorded, 201; 104 
males, 92 females and 5 immature females. 

Soda Springs, Idaho, 7 cf , 7 9 , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Shoshone, Idaho, VIII, 8, 1910, (R. & H.; occasional in an irrigated area), 

4 c^, 4 9. 

Mountain Home, Idaho, VIII. 9, 1910, (R. & H.; scarce in an irrigated area), 
1 6^,29. 

Nampa, Idaho, VIII, 9, 1910, (R. & H.; in a marshy meadow), 5 c?, 1 9 - 

Reno, Nevada, IX, 2, 1910, (R. & Hi; in gi-assy irrigated tract), 14 d^,Q 9 ■ 

Wabuska, Nevada, IX, 5, 1910, (H.; common in grasses about water tank), 
1 cT, 3 9. 

Salt Lake VaUey, Utah, VIII, 1 to 4, 1877, (Scudder), 18 d", 11 9, 
[M. C. Z.]. 

Provo, Utah, VIII, 23 and 24, 1877, (Scudder), 2 d^, 4 9 , [M. C. Z.]. 

Milford, Utah, IX, 5, 1909, (R. & H.; very common in grasses along river), 
28 d", 39 9. 

Longmire's Springs, Mount Rainier, Washington, 2700 ft., VIII, 23, 1910, 
III.; grasses about springs], 1 cf . 

PuUman, Washington, VIII, 19, 1909, (J. A. Hyslop), 1 cf , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Newaukum, Washington, VIII, 8, 1909, (H; in buh-ushes and l)racken), 
1 juv. 9 . 

Mount Tabor, Oregon, VIII, 9, 1909, (R. ; high grasses in open) ,19. 

Council Crest, Oregon, VIII, 9, 1909, (H.; not common in fiekl of high dry 
grass), 8 cf , 8 9,2 juv. 9 . 

Clackamas, Oregon, VIII, 9, 1909, (H.; in high grasses), 1 9- 

West Albany, Oregon, VIII, 10, 1909, (R. & H.), 1 cf , 1 9 . 

Divide, Oregon, VIII, 11, 1909, (R. & H.; occasional in dry meadow grasses) 

5 cf, 1 9. 

-- This record of F. Walker as fasciatus we have been unable to verifj-, but 
there is httle doubt that the material will })e found to belong to the present race. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



180 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

Sacramento, California, VIII, 18, 1907, (E. S. G. Titus), 1 cT, 1 9, [U. S. N. M.]. 
Bakersfield, California, IX, 14, 1910, (R. & H.; grasses along irrigating 
ditch), 3 o", 1 9. 

Los Angeles, California, 1889, (Coquillett), 4 cf , 1 9 , 2 juv. 9 , [Heljard Cln.]. 

Conocephalus spinosus (Morse) ^3 (Pis. XVI, XVII and XX, fig. 4; XVIII, 

figs. 7 and 8.) 
1901. Xiplddium spinosum Morse, ^'' Can. Ent., xxxiii, p. 201. [Coronado, 

California.) 

As the author of this species has given a really excellent descrip- 
tion, it is rather irritating to find it synonymized by Karnj^^* 
under C. saUator, where, without material for comparison, that 
author briefly states that it is a smaller variation. 

The species is known only from the salt marshes about San Diego 
Bay, California; the type series of three males, two females and 
one immature female in the Morse Collection and Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, and in addition three males and one fe- 
male in Philadelphia, have been examined. 

Conocephalus gracillimus (Morse) (PI. XV, fig. 8; XVI, XVII and XX, 5; 
XVIII, 9 and 10; XIX, 11.) 

1877. Xiphidium ensiferum Scudder, (not ensifer of Scudder, 1862), Proc. 

Best., Soc. Nat. Hist., xix, p. 83. [Fort Reed, Florida.] 
1901. Xiphidium gracillimum Morse, ^^ Can. Ent., xxxiii, p. 236. [Capron 

[Viking] and Bisca3Tie Bay [Miami], Florida.] 

The present species belongs to a small group, the other species 
of which are Antillean and tropical American, which is in the 
main distinguished from the forms more nearly related to C. 
fasciatus by the majority of the characters given in the key for 
the present insect. When compared with fasciatus, the more 
produced vertex and broader convex callosities of the lateral lobes 
of gracillimus are found to be characters which are somewhat less 
conspicuous than might be expected; the present species is more 

^3 For a full discussion of the present species see following study by Rehn 
and Hebard, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, xU, (1915). 

2* Single type designated: cf ; Coronado, California, VII, 24, 1897, (Morse; 
on salt marsh), [Morse Cln.]. (Morse and Hebard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1915, p. 105, (1915).) 

" Abh. k.-k. zool.-botan. Gesell. Wien, iv, p. 94, (1907). 

-"Single type here designated: cf; [Miami] Biscayne Bay, Florida, (Mrs. 
A. T. SloKson), [M. C. Z.]. (Morse and Hebard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 
1915, p. 105, (1915).) 



REHX AND HEBARD 181 

readily distinguished by the decidedly more slender form, differ- 
ently shaped lateral lobes of the pronotum, narrower tegmina 
with male tympanum decidedly more elongate, different colora- 
tion, and different male cerci. 

Lateral lobes of pronotum broad, cephalic margin moderately 
oblique and nearly straight to the very broadly obtuse-angulate 
ventro-cephalic angle, thence very weakly concave and slightly 
more horizontal than usual to the sharply rounded ventro-caudal 
angle which is slighth' less than 90°, caudal margin convex to the 
broad and distinct humeral sinus, convex callosit}^ very broad. 
These lobes are often more or less distinctly marked mesad with 
a diffused dark postocular stripe. The abdomen is marked in 
dark individuals with three narrow dark bands, one meso-dorsal, 
the others lateral, the two intervening spaces forming usually 
bright yellow bands. The pronotal markings, combined with the 
narrowness of the abdominal bands, give individuals showing the 
intensive color pattern a much more striped appearance than 
is ever found in fasciatus. The cerci are bright green or dark 
brown; -" the greater production, especialh' of the distal portion, 
eausing the internal tooth to be situated in relative position just 
proximad of the point which it occupies in fasciatus. Though 
the genicular lobes of the caudal femora are normally bispinose, 
fifteen of the series of sixty-six specimens examined for this 
character have one of these lobes unispinose, two have two of the 
same showing this condition, while two have three of the genicular 
lobes unispinose. In this species the genicular areas of the caudal 
femora are not darkened; the ventral margins of the caudal 
femora are unarmed. Immature examples of gracilUmus are 
very slender and very strongly tristriate. -"^ 

The present species is confined in distribution to the Florida 
Keys and the mainland of southern Florida as far north as Fort 

^^ In life tfie male cerci are probably always green or gi-eenish, this color is 
one of the most likely to disappear in dried material. 

^^ Of the immature specimens recorded as this species by the present authors, 
Proc. Acad. Xat. Sci. Phila., 1912, p. 268, (1912), those from Miarni and Home- 
stead, Florida, are immature examples of Ordtelivmm concinnum, while the 
two immature individuals from Key \'aca and Kej' West, Florida, are speci- 
mens of Odonloxiphidium apterum. These errors were due to our then very 
limited knowledge of the early stages of these species, which exhibit indeed a 
general (though not detailed) similarity to gradllimus. 

TR.\XS. AM. EXT. SOC, XLI. 



182 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

Reed and Tampa, in which region the authors have taken a 
series of eighty-three specimens. 

Specimens Examined: Previously correctly recorded, 95. Here recorded, 
1 male, 1 female and 1 immature female. 

Fort Reed, Florida, IV, 21, 1876, (J. H. Comstock), 1 juv. 9, [Cornell Univ.]. 

Lemon City, Florida, (E. J. Brown), 1 &, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Biscayne, Florida, V, 2,3. 1 ? , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Conocephalus brevipennis (Scudder) (Pis. XVI and XVII, fig. 6; XVIII, 

11 and 12; XX, 6 and 7. 
1862. Xiphidium brevipennis Scudder,'-^ Can. Nat. and Geo!., vii, p. 285.3" 

[New England.] 
1862. X[iphidium] ensifer Scudder, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., vii, p. 451. 

[Lawn Ridge, Illinois.] (In part.) 
1869. Xiphidium ensiferum F. Walker, Cat. Dermapt. Salt. Br. Mus., ii, p. 

270. [United States.] 
1875. Xiphidium gossijpii Scudder,'! Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xvii, p. 462. 

[Texas; Mississippi.] 

Scudder's ensifer, emended ensiferum by F. Walker, is ])ased 
upon two females from Lawn Ridge, Illinois, now in the IVIuseum 
of Comparative Zoology; one of these, which we here select as 
single type, is a brachypterous example of Conocephalus brevi- 
pennis; in this specimen the caudal femur is 13.1, the ovipositor 
13.7 mm. in length. The other specimen is a brachypterous 
example of C. stridus. At that time the latter species w^as un- 
described, but the confusion of two so very distinct species is 
almost incredible. 

Scudder's gossypii is also a synonym of the present species, 
based upon material from Texas and INIississippi, which agrees 
throughout with typical brevipennis from New England, except 
in the somewhat greater size. 

The present species and C. spartinae, though distantly re- 
lated, are very similar in general appearance and have been fully 

23 Single type here designated: 9 ; Massachusetts, [M. C. Z.]. Measurements; 
length of body 13.2, of tegmen 9, of caudal femm- 11, of ovipositor 9.4 mm. 

'<• Scnidder's description of X [iphidium] brevipennis, in the Bost. Journ. Nat. 
Hist., vii, p. 451, was published in November 1862, while this, the original 
description, appeared in August and September of the same year; to it was 
added a record from the Red River Settlements, Manitoba, properly assigned 
to C. saltans here. 

31 Single type here designated: 9 ; Texas, (Belfrage), [M. C. Z.]. Measure- 
ments; length of body 14.1, of tegmen 8.4, of caudal femur 16.8, of ovi- 
positor 13.1 mm. 



REHN AND HEBARD 183 

compared under the latter species. Females of the two species 
are difficult to separate, but, in addition to a somewhat different 
facies, this sex of brevipennis is found to have the ovipositor aver- 
aging distinctly longer and straighter. 

Lateral lobes of pronotum moderately broad, cephalic margin 
straight to the broadly obtuse-angulate ventro-cephalic angle, 
thence straight to the rather broadh rounded ventro-caudal 
angle which is slightly less than 90°, caudal margin weakly con- 
vex to the distinct humeral sinus, convex callosity moderately 
broad. 

Though the distinctive male cerci of this species usually show 
little or no variation, a single specimen in the series from Corn- 
wells, Pennsylvania, has the apex of these organs acute and very 
nai-rowly rounded, an abnormality found in no other male of the 
species before us. 

The tegmina in the males usually just reach the bases of the 
brown cerci, in the females they are shorter, covering usually 
about two-thirds of the dorsum of the abdomen; somewhat 
greater tegminal abbreviation sometimes occurs, however, and 
macrQpterism very rarely takes place, this condition being rep- 
resented in 3.2% of the examples in the series here recorded, 
7 males and 11 females. 

The genicular areas of the caudal femora are usually weakly 
infuscated in the present species; the genicular lobes of the same 
are normally bispinose but frequent examples are met with which 
have one, two or three of these lobes unispinose, examples are 
very rare in which all of the genicular lobes of the caudal femora 
are unispinose. The ventro-external margins of the caudal 
femora are normally unarmed, small spines are present in three 
hundred and forty-one perfect specimens examined as follows: 
Number of spines, 0-0 0-1 0-2 0-3 1-1 1-2 1-3 2-2 2-3 2-5 

Number of specimens, 267 43 6 1 116 1 4 1 1 

This shows 21.7% of the material to have these margins 
armed; as in fasciatus, geographic distribution apparently does 
not influence this condition, but in the present species the spines 
when present are usually heavier than in that insect. 

The ovipositor length is as follows: Saunderstown, Khode 
Island, 9.1-10.8; Diamond Valley, Pennsylvania, 11.6-12.7; 
Cornwells, Pennsylvania, 10.3-13.4; Chestnut IIi!l, Pennsylvania, 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



184 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

11.4-14.7; Tinicum, Pennsylvania, 8.9-11.8; Castle Rock, Penn- 
sylvania, 11.4-13.6; Cedar Springs, New Jersey, 9.3-10.8; Fay- 
etteville. North Carolina, 9.7-10.8; Wilmington, North Carolina, 
9.2-9.6; Florence, South Carolina, 10.6-11.9; Yemassee, South 
Carohna, 9.3-9.6; Atlantic Beach, Florida, 9.4; Moline, Illinois, 
11.4-13.7; West Point, Nebraska, 10.5-14.7 mm. The oviposi- 
tor varies slightly from the normal perfectly straight type to one 
in which an extremely weak upward curvature is appreciable, 
suggesting the type found in spartinae, and one in which an open 
sigmoid curvature is barely indicated, to the weakest appreciable 
degree. The specimens from West Point, Nebraska, have the 
ovipositor slightly heavier and averaging longer than in any 
eastern series. Of the eastern material, that from drier upland 
situations (Diamond Valley, Corn wells (back from the river), 
Chestnut Hill, Castle Hock, Pennsylvania; Fayetteville, North 
Carolina; Florence, South Carolina, and a number of other 
localities) has the ovipositor frequently showing a suggestion of 
an open-sigmoid curvature and averaging longer than in material 
from marsh or swamp lands (Tinicum, Pennsylvania; Wilming- 
ton, North Carolina; Yemassee, South Carolina; Atlantic Beach, 
Florida, and other localities), and we believe the differences dis- 
cussed above probably to be due wholly to environmental con- 
ditions, ^^ particularly those governing oviposition, which in 
situations of different character would indicate that different 
plants are selected as the receptacles for the eggs. 

The present species is known from Eastport, Maine; Montreal, 
Quebec, and Algonciuin Park, Ontario to Atlantic Beach, Flor- 
ida,^^ and the Gulf coast as far as Beaumont, Texas. The 

'2 Different variations are found in occasional species, primarily due it would 
seem to immediate environmental conditions and not sufficient to warrant 
trinomial recognition. See under C. rngropleuroides in the present paper and 
under C. cinereus and saltator in the next paper of the present series. Also 
under Or chelimum concinnum, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, xU, pp. 15 and 62, (1915), 
and under Nemohius fasciatus fascinlus and its geographic race socius, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1913, pp. 410 and 424, (1913). 

'^ Further south in Florida this species has not been found. Scudder's 1S77 
record, with a query, of an immature individual from Fort Reed as his ensiferum, 
ai)i)lies to ConocepJialus gradUimus; while the present authors' record from 
Chokoloskee we now know to be based upon material incorrectly labelled and 
probably taken in the vicinity of New York, New York. 



REHX AND HEBARD 185 

westernmost records are ^Nlinncsota'^'*; North Platte, Nebraska, 
and Texas (probably Dallas), the species apparently not reaching 
far beyond the limits of the naturally well watered regions. ^^ 
The insect is numerous and widely distributed over the Upper 
Austral Zone of the central Atlantic and upper Mississippi 
Valley regions of the United States, but is found local and usually 
quite scarce in the lowlands of the southeastern states. 

Specimens Examined: Previously recorded, over 100. Here recorded, 555; 
257 males, 286 females, 2 immatm-e males and 10 immatm-e females. 

Montreal, Quebec, VIII, 30, 1902, (C. Stevenson), 1 9, [U. S. X. :\I.]. 

Seabrook, New Hampshire, (A. A. Eaton), 1 9, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Jaffrey, New Hampshire, IX, 23, 1896, (S. Henshaw), 6 cf, 16 9. [M. 
C. Z.j. 

Marion, Massachusetts, VIII, 1905, (H.; grasses in woods), 4 cf, 5 9 . 

Saunderstowii, Rhode Island, IX, 3 to 7, 1913, (H.; common in upland 
grasses and vines near woods), 7 cf , 11 9 . 

Wesquage Beach, Rhode Island, IX, 8 and 10, 1913, (H.; in grasses and vines 
near woods and on edge of salt marsh), 2 cf, 6 9 . 

Niverville, New York, VIII, 24, 1904, (Morse), 3 a", [Morse Cln.]. 

Chatham, New York, VIII, 9, 1904, (Morse), 4 <i^, 2 9, [Morse Chi.]. 

Chfton Springs, X'ew York, 1 d^, 1 9, [Cornell Univ.], (macropterous). 

Ithaca, New York, VIII, 4 to X, 12, 1885 to 1894, 22 cf , 24 9, [Cornell 
Univ.], (1 cf macropterous). 

Tobyhanna, Penn.sylvania, IX, 1903, (H.), I cf, 5 9 . 

Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, IX, 1903, (H.; in high grasses), 2 d^, 1 9. 

Dauphin, Penn.sylvania, IX, 15, 1 cf , [Pa. State Dept. Zool.]. 

Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, VIII, 16, 1 9, [Pa. State Dept. Zool.]. 

Progress, Pennsylvania, X, 10, 1 9, [Pa. State Dept. Zool.]. » 

Marysville, Pennsylvania, X, 6 and 7, 4 d", 1 9 , [Pa. State Dept. Zool.]. 

Bristol, Pennsylvania, IX, 1912, (H. W. Fowler), 1 9, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Woodlands Cemeteiy, Philadelphia, Permsylvania, X, 7, 1906, (B. Long), 
1 cf, 1 9, [A. N. S. PJ. 

Cornwells, Pennsylvania, IX, 7, 1914, (H.; everywhere in low shrul)bery 
and grasses along river and on edge of woods), 10 cf , 3 9,2 juv. 9 ; IX, 11, 
1906, (R. & H.), 1 cf , 6 9. 

Ashbourne, Peimsvlvania, X, 27, 1906, (B. Long), 2 cf, 5 9, [A. N. 
S. P.]. 

^ Though not so stated by Lugger, it is vii'tually certain that the species is 
common in Minnesota only as far north as the border of the Canadian Zone. 
Scudder's record of this species from the Red River Settlements, Manitoba, 
applies to C. saltans. 

^^ Scudder's records of hrevipennis from California and ensifer from Nevada 
Sipply to C . fasciaius vicinus, to which insect the present species shows decided 
similarity in manj' respects, but rriay be readily separated by the differences 
of coloration and genitaUa. 

TRANS. .\M. EXT. SOC, XLI. 



186 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

Chestnut HiU, Pennsylvania, VIII, 5, to X, 4, 1903 to 1911, (H.; in grasses 
near woods), 3 cf , 7 9- 

Wissahickon Creek, Chestnut Hill, Pennsylvania, IX, 9, 1914, (H.; grasses 
in openings of forest), 2 c?, 1 9 . 

Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, X, 13, 1906, (E. T. Cresson Jr.), 1 9 , [A. N. 
S.P.]. 

Castle Rock, Delaware County, Pennsylvania, IX, 19, 1909, (R. & H.; 
common in luxuriant undergrowth of heavy deciduous forest), 5 cT, 14 9, 
(2 9 macropterous) . 

Devon, Pennsylvania, IX, 14, 1905, 1 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Tinicum Island, Pennsylvania, VIII, 13 to IX, 29, 1903 to 1911, (R. & H.; 
very abundant near marsh in rank grass), 38 c?', 42 9 • 

Fern Hill, Chester County, Pennsylvania, IX, 19, 1909, (R. & H.; grasses 
on serpentine outcrop), 3 cf, 7 9 • 

Shady Nook, SuUivan County, Pennsylvania, VIII, 6 and 7, 1908, (Witmer 
Stone), 1 cf , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Diamond Valley, Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania, IX, 10, 1905, (R.), 
3 o', 4 9. 

Emporium, Pennsylvania, X, 1905, (H. W. Fowler), 2 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Beatty, Pennsylvania, (O. Brugger), 2 cf , 2 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Lindenwold, New Jersey, X, 31, 1914, (B. Long), 2 o^, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Woodbury, New Jersey, X, 2, 1907, (C. B. Hardenberg), 1 cf , 1 9 , [A. N. 
S. P.]. 

Stafford's Forge, New Jersey, VIII, 12 to IX, 16, 1905 to 1908, (R. & H.), 
6 c?, 5 9. 

Mays Landing, New Jersey, VIII, 29, 1914, (H.; in boggy pine barrens), 
1 9. 

Reega, New Jersey, VIII, 29, 1914, (H.; scarce in undergrowth of pine 
barrens), 1 cf , 1 9 . 

Margate City, New Jersey, VIII, 17, 1914, (H.; grasses on dry ground on 
edge of salt marsh), 1 c?, 2 9 . 

Cedar Springs, New Jersey, VIII, 14 and 26, 1914, (H.; tall grasses on border 
of fresh marsh), 38 cf , 9 9,2 juv. 9 , (Ic? macropterous). 

Plummers Island, Maryland, VIII, 6 and 29, 1901 and 1904, (Currie, Bar- 
ber), 1 cf , 1 9, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Cabin John, Maryland, IX, 23, 1911, 1 d^, 2 9, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Washington, District of Columbia, IX, 1883, 1 9 , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Anolostan Island, District of Columbia, IX, 6, 1912, (Caudell), 1 9 , [U. S. 
N. M.). 

Marshall Hall, Maryland, VIII, 9, 1883, 1 juv. 9, [Hebard Cln.]. 

Rosslyn, Virginia, IX, (Caudell), 1 d", [U. S. N. M.]. 

Falls Church, Virginia, IX, 4 and 28, 1906, 3 c?, 2 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Appomattox, Virginia, IX, 6, 1903, (Morse), 2 d", 3 9 , [Morse Cln.]. 

Wytheville, Virginia, IX, 4, 1903, (Morse), 1 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

Cape Henry, Virginia, IX, 7, 1903, (Morse), 1 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

Norfolk, Virginia, IX, 8, 1903, (Morse), 2 9,1 juv. 9, [Morse Cln.]. 



REHN AND HEBARD 187 

Virginia Beach, Virginia, IX, 7, 1908, (Morse), 1 cf, 2 9, [Morse Cln.]; 
X, 6, (F. Knab), 1 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Fayetteville, North Carohna, IX, 9, 1911, (R. & H.), 4 cf, 4 9 . 

Roan Mountain, North Carolina, VIII, 31, 1903, (Morse), 3 d", 2 9, 
[Morse Chi.]. 

Linville, North Carohna, VIII, 30, 1903, (Morse), 7 cf, 3 9,2 juv. 9, 
[Morse Chi.]. 

Sahida, North Carohna, VIII, 17, 1903, (Morse), 2 o^, [Morse Chi.]. 

Governors Island, North Carolina, VIII, 20, 1903, (Morse), 1 cT, 3 juv. 
9 , [Morse Cln.]. 

Wilmington, North Carolina, IX, 8, 1911, (R. & H.), 4 d^, 3 9. 

Lake Waccamaw, North Carolina, IX, 8, 1911, (R. & H.: in high weeds on 
lake shore), 3 d", 3 9 • 

Spartanburg, South Carolina, VIII, G, 1913, (H.), 1 juv. cf. 

Florence, South Carolina, IX, G, 1911, (R. & H.; in green undergrowth of 
deep forest and in grasses on its edge), 7 d^, 5 9 . 

Yemassee, South Carolina, IX, 4, 1911, (R. & H.; grasses on edge of forest), 
3 c", 2 9,1 jviv. 9. 

Atlanta, Georgia, VIII, 2, 1913, (R. & H.), 1 juv. o^. 

Savannah, Georgia, VIII, 14, 1903, (Morse), 1 cT, [Morse Cln.]. 

Sandfly, Georgia, IX, 3, 1911, (R. & H.), 1 cT, 1 9 . 

Homerville, Georgia, VIII, 27, 1911, (R. & H.), 1 c?. 

Billy's Island, Okeefenokee Swamp, Georgia, IX, 1 to 5, 1913, (J. C. Brad- 
ley), 1 9 , [Cornell Univ.]. 

Atlantic Beach, Florida, VIII, 24, 1911, (R. & H.), 2 cf , 1 9 . 

South Jacksonville, Florida, IX, 7, 1913, (W. T. Davis), 1 9, [Davis Cln.]. 

Windsor, Ontario, IX, 1894, 2 d", [Cornell Univ.]. 

Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio, VIII, 14, 1904, (W. V. Warner), 1 c^, [U. S. N. M.j. 

Salineville, Ohio, IX, 10, 1892, 1 9, [Cornell Univ.], (macropterous). 

Roan Mountain Station, Tennessee, IX, 3, 1903, (Morse), 3 9 , [Morse Cln.]. 

Johnson City, Tennessee, VIII, 27, 1903, (Morse), 1 cf , 1 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

Chattanooga, Tennessee, VIII, 24, 1903, (Morse), 4 cf , 5 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

Flomaton, Alabama, VIII, 2, 1903, (Morse), 1 d", [Morse Cln.]. 

Chicago, Ilhnois, IX, 9, 1904, (H.; in waste field), 1 9 . 

Moline, Illinois, IX, (McNeill), 1 a', 2 9, [Hebard Cln.]. 

West Point, Nebraska, IX and X, 1884 and 1885, (L. Bruner), 19 d, 33 9 , 
[Hebard Cln.], (4 cf, G 9 macropterous). 

Weeping Water, Nebraska, IX, 24, 1909, (L. Bruner), 1 9. [Hebard 
Chi.]. 

Lincoln, Nebraska, VIII (taken at light), 1 9, [Hebard Cln.], (macropter- 
ous). 

Table Rock, Nebraska, VIII, 25, 1904, (H.; in high grass), 1 9 . 

North Platte, Nebraska, VIII, 28, 1910, (R. & H.; swamjjy areas on river 
plain), 1 cf. 

Hopkins, Arkansas, IX, 12, 1904, (C. R. .Jones), 1 d, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Beaumont, Texas, VIII, 23, 1912, (IL; grasses on swampy ground), 1 cf . 

TR.\NS. AM. ENT. SOC, XI. I. 



188 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oETHOPTERa) 

Conocephalus resacensis ^^ new species (PL XV, fig. 6; XVI, 7; XVII, 7; 

XVIII, 13 and 14; XX, 8.) 

The present species somewhat resembles C. allardi and C. 
hrevipennis but differs from both in the attenuate form, wider 
vertex, smoother pronotum with lateral lobes even more elongate 
than in allardi, different and paler coloration, much more elongate 
caudal femora with genicular areas not darkened, (genicular lobes 
normally unispinose as in allardi), and very different male geni- 
talia, though with subgenital plate of the normal type of the 
subgenus Xiphidion, as found in hrevipennis. 

Type. — cf ; Piper Plantation near Brownsville, Texas. August 
3, 1912. (Rehn and Hebard.) [Hebard Collection, Type No. 171 .] 

Description of Type. — Size rather large for the genus, form slender and 
surface very smooth. Head with dorsum of vertex, when seen from the lateral 
aspect, scarcely at all depressed proximad, in same plane as the occiput; 
fastigium of vertex nearly as wide as basal antennal joint, narrowing with a 
decided concavity to facial suture; eyes normal. Pronotum elongate, round- 
mg smoothly into the lateral lobes which are considerably longer than deep 
with surface very smooth, cephalic margin of lateral lobes broadly and evenly 
arcuate to the ventro-caudal angle which is moderately rounded and rectangu- 
late, caudal margin of same very weakly convex to the very shallow and 
scarcely appreciable humeral sinus, convex callosity very broad, somewhat 
broader than in allardi and decidedly broader than in hrevipennis. Tegmina 
slightly more than half the length of the caudal femora, structure very deh- 
cate with veins weaker than in hrevipennis; stridulating area similar but smaller 
in proportion with stridulating vein and veins of the speculum decidedly 
heavier than in that species, in this latter respect more as in allardi; wings 
shghtly shorter than tegmina. Abdomen and cerci unicolorous. Cerci elong- 
ate; the median half quite evenly and decidedly swollen and bearing on the 
internal margin at the point of gi-eatest diameter a rather long tooth, which 
is broad at its base and is situated slightly lower than mesad (in vertical sense) 
but entirely visible from above, this tooth directed meso-ventrad with apex 
sharp and decurved; external margin of cercus very weakly concave, nearly 
straight; distad the cercus narrows evenly from the swollen portion to the nai-- 
row blunted apex, which portion of the cercus is very weakly depressed. Sub- 
genital plate bearing disto-laterad styles .7 mm. in length, the sockets of which 
are produced beyond the transverse distal margin of the plate. Cephalic and 
median femora much as in hrevipennis, caudal femora very long and more 
attenuate than in hrevipennis, with enlarged proximal portion tapering much 
more gently and with ventral margins unarmed, genicular lol^cs unispinose.'^ 

2'^ In reference to the "resacas" or ancient and now cut off and dried out 
curves of the Rio Grande, in the gi-asses of which, surrounded by the low heavy 
jungle of the river plain, the present species makes its home. 

^~ The immature male before us shows this character to be varial)l(\ as this 
specimen has the genicular loljes Ijispinose. 



EEHN AND HEBARD 189 

Allotype. — 9 ; data same as the tj'pe. 

Description of Allotype. — Similar to type, very slightly larger. Lateral 
lobes of pronotiim longer with caudal margin straight and humeral sinus 
obsolete. Tegmina lanceolate with rather sharply rounded apex, half as long 
as abdomen; wings very shghtly longer. Ovipositor longer than caudal femur, 
straight. The subgenital plate embraces the base of the ovipositor and has 
the distal margin broadly arcuate. 

Measurements {in miUimeters) 
Length of Length of Length of Length of Length of Length of 
body pronotum tegmen caudal femur cercus ovipositor 

Type, d". 17.2 3.7 7.1 13.4 2.1 

Paratype, d'. 16.7 3.9 8.8 14.2 2.1 

Allotype, 9. 16.7 4.1 6 14.4 15.2 

Paratype, 9. 16.8 4.1 5.6 14,9 15.6 

In the paratypic female before us the ovipositor shows a very 
shght curvature. 

Coloration. — Dorsum of head and pronotum with a very broad 
median band of cinnamon brown, margined laterad with Ught 
buff. Eyes tawny. Tegmina and wings transparent and pale 
buff. Abdomen (of male) uniform ochraceous tawny including 
cerci, (of female) dorso-proximal and entire distal portion 
including ovipositor cinnamon brown tinged with tawny. The 
remaining portions of head, body and limbs, including the gen- 
icular areas of the caudal femora, Vanderpoel's green (Ridgeway). 
The allotype has alone retained in large measure the original 
coloration. 

The present material was taken among luxuriant grasses 
growing in the openings of the almost impenetrable jungles of 
palm, huisache, ebony and many other trees, which occupy the 
low country along the Rio Grande below Brownsville. 

Specimens Examined: 6; 2 males, 2 females, 1 immature male and 1 inmiaturc 
female. 

Piper Plantation near Brownsville, Texas, VIII, 3, 1912, (R. & H.), 2 cT, 
2 9 , type, allotype and parntypes, 1 juv. cT, 1 juv. 9 . 
Conocephalus nemoralis (Scudder) (PI. XVI, figs. 8 and 9; XMI, 8; 

XVIII, 15 and 16; XIX, 12; XX, 9.) 
1875. Xiphidium nemorale Scudder,^^ Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xvii, p. 462. 

[Dallas County, Iowa.] 
1891. Xiphidium curlipenne Redtenl)acher, Verb. Zool.-botan. Gesell. Wien, 

xli, pp. 498, 522. [Missouri.] 

'^ Single type here designated: c? ; Dallas County, Iowa, IX, 3, (J. A. Allen), 
[M. C. Z.]. Measurements; length of body 10.8, of tegmen 8, of caudal femur 
12.2 mm. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



190 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

Scudder has properlj' synonyniized Eedtenbacher's curtipenne 
with the present species. ^^ 

The present insect is veiy striking in form, coloration and 
ovipositor, which latter, though not strongly, is more decid- 
edly curved than in any other North American species of the 
genus. The species is dark brown in general coloration, often 
stronglj^ tinged with burnt lake and sometimes with green; the 
dorsum of the pronotum, particularly in paler individuals, is 
bordered bj^ very narrow lateral lines of the same pale color which 
make the tegminal veins and veinlets so conspicuous in the pres- 
ent species, these lateral hues are continued on the head, con- 
verging to the vertex which they border. 

Lateral lobes of pronotum with cephalic margin moderatel}^ 
convex to the ventro-caudal angle with the ventro-cephalic angle 
weakly indicated, ventro-caudal angle rather broadly rounded, 
rectangulate, caudal margin exceedingly weakly convex to the 
subobsolete humeral sinus, convex callosity moderately broad. 

Macropterism is very rare, we have but two examples of this 
condition before us, females from Plummer's Island, Maryland, 
and Asheville, North Carolina. 

The genicular areas of the caudal femora are alwaj^s iiifuscated; 
the genicular lobes of the same are each furnished with a single 
rather heavy spine or very occasional^ bispinose; the ventral 
margins of the caudal femora are unarmed. 

The ovipositor length is as follows: Beatt^-, Pennsylvania, 
9.2; Asheville, North Carolina, 8.6-9.5; Marion County, Indiana, 
8.8-9; Mohne, IlHnois, 8.6; West Point, Nebraska,^" 7.8-8.7 
mm. Though normally distinctly but not very strongly curved, 
the ovipositor is found to vary occasionally in the degree of this 
curvature as well as in length and heaviness. 

The present species is widely distributed over the upper Miss- 
issippi valley region as far north as West Spring Green, Wiscon- 
sin, and is known eastward as far as the Hudson Palisades in 
New Jerscj^; Harrisburg, Pennsylvania; Washington, D. C, and 
Asheville, North Carolina, and westward as far as West Point 
and Lincoln, Nebraska, and Wichita, Kansas. 

"Can. Ent., xxx, p. 184, (1898). 

*" One female from West Point, Nel)raska, lias the ovipositor only 6.7 mm. 
in length, but the whole organ appears to be somewhat abnormal and we have 
consequently omitted reference to this individual elsewhere. 



REHX AND HEBARD 191 

Specimens Examined: Previously recorded, over 70. Here recorded 77; 
23 males, 44 females, 4 immature males and 6 immature females. 

Dauphin, Pemisylvania, IX, 15, 1 9, [Pa. State Dept. Zool.]. 

Harrisbm-g, Pennsylvania, VIII, IS, 1 d^, 2 9, 2 juv. 9, [Pa. State Dept. Zool.]. 

Highspire, Pennsylvania, IX, 20, 1 9, [Pa. State Dept. Zool.]. 

Middleto^ni, Pennsylvania, IX, 5, 2 9 , [Pa. State Dept. Zool.]. 

Beatty, Pennsylvania, (O. Brugger), 1 o", 1 9, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Sharpsbm-g, Maryland, IX, IS, 1903, (CaudeU), 1 c?, [U. S. X. .M.]. 

Plummer's Island, Maryland, VIII, 2.5 to X, 25, (Caudell, Barber, Fisher, 
McAtee, Clemons), 9 cf , 7 9, [U. S. X. M.], (1 9 macropterous). 

Washington, District of Columbia, VIII, 1883, (A.Koebele), 1 9 , [HebardChi.] 

Luray, Virginia, IX, 2, 1906, (F. Ivnab), 1 9 , [U. S. X. M.]. 

Roan Mountain Station, Tennessee, IX, 3, 1903, (Mor.se), 4 cf, 4 9,4 
juv. cf, 3 juv. 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

ClarksviUe, Tennessee, IX, 24 and 25, 1913, (S. E. Crumlj; on tobacco), 
2 d", [U. S. X. M.]. 

Springvale, Tennessee, VIII, 30, 1900, 1 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

West Spring Green, Wisconsin, VIII, 26, 1906, (J. D. Hood), 1 9 , [Pa. State 
Dept. Zool.]. 

West Point, Xebraska, IX, 1, (Bruner), 4 9 , [Hebard Chi.]. 

Omaha, Xebraska, 1 a", 1 9, [A. X. S. P.]. 

Ashland, Xebraska, 1 9 , [A. X. S. P.]. 

Weepmg Water, Xebraska, IX, 24, 1909, (Bruner), 2 cr", 8 9 , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Lincoln, Xebraska, IX, 15, (Bruner), 1 cf , 1 9, [Hebard Cln.]. 

Des Momes, Iowa, VIII, 26, 1903, (CaudeU), 1 9 , (U. S. X. M.]. 

St. Louis, Missouri, IX, 25 to X, 27, 1875 and 1876, 1 cf , 4 9 , [U. S. X. M.]. 

Kh-kwood, Mis.souri, IX, 6, 1873 and X, 7, 1877, 2 9, [U. S. X. M.j. 

Dardanelle, Arkansas, VIII, 31, 1905, (Morse), 1 juv. 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

Conocephalus occidentalis (Morse) (PI. XVI, fig. 10; XVII, 9; XVIII, 

17 and IS; XIX, 13; XX, 10.) 
1901. Xiphidium occidentale Morse," Can. Ent., xxxiii, p. 202. [Tehachapij 

Ahwa(h)nee, Wawona, Yosemite Valley, Berkeley, Sisson[s] and Gazelle, 

California; Ashland, Grant's Pass, Roseburg and Corvallis, Oregon.] 
1901. X[iphidium] occidentale variety camurum Morse, Can. Ent., x.v\iii, 

p. 202. [Ashland, Oregon.] 
1901. X[iphidium] occidentale variety caudatum Morse,^ Can. Ent., xxxiii, 

p. 203. [Mt. Shasta district, California.] 

The use of such varietal names as given above appears wholly 
inadvisable. The one, camurum, is based solely upon a macrop- 

*i Single type designated: cf; Tehachapi, California, VIII, 3, 1897, (Morse), 
[Morse Chi.]. (Morse and Hebard, Proc. Acad. Xat. Sci. Phila., 1915, p. 105, 
(1915).) 

" Single t3T)e designated : 9; Mount Shasta district, California, VII, (H. 
Edwards), [M. C. Z.]. (Morse and Hebard, Proc. Xat. Sci. Phila., 1915, p. 
105, (1915). 

TRAXS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLl. 



192 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

terous specimen of the present insect; tlie otlier, caiidatum, on 
three specimens exhibiting a maximum of ovipositor length. 
When we consider the prevalence of macropterism and brachyp- 
terism in the species of this and many other genera, and know 
that such forms are often if not always the offspring of the same 
parent, we feel satisfied that such names are absolute synonyms, 
the use of which can only lead to confusion and misconception 
of the importance of trinomials designating valid and constant 
geographic races. Morse's very large series and our own speci- 
mens show considerable variation in length of ovipositor and 
caudal femur; the material showing the caudal femora rather 
short and the ovipositor rather long, named coudafum by Morse, 
is not worthy of name designation as there is no geographic 
correlation and such variations are frequent in the species of the 
genus. 

The present species, although differing ver}^ decidedly in many 
important characters, shows much the nearest affinity to C. 
nenioralis, to which insect it also l^ears a closer general resem- 
blance than to any other American species. 

The great majority of specimens before us have the limbs 
and sides of head, pronotum and abdomen, brown; a very few 
examples have these portions green. The females have the 
a])domen usually rather distinctly marked dorso-mesad with a 
double row of dark markings, while on each side is situated a 
narrow band, usually of even darker coloration. 

The lateral lobes of the pronotum are rather similar to those 
of nemoraUs, but are somewhat broader, with angles more broadly 
rounded and humeral sinus slightly more appreciable. 

Macropterism is very rare, we have examined the unique 
female in the Morse collection which exhibits this condition. 

The genicular areas of the caudal femora are weakly or not 
at all infuscated; the genicular lobes of the same are unispinose 
in all of the specimens we have examined; the ventral margins 
of the caudal femora are unarmed. 

The ovipositor length is as follows: Sisson, Cafifornia, 14.2- 
15.7; Shasta County, California, 11.1; Sentinel, California, 
10.3-12.6; Mariposa Grove, California, 10.1-11; Mill Valley, 
Cafifornia, 8.7 mm. The ovipositor is usually very weakly 
curved but in some specimens it is almost absolutely' straight. 



REHN AND HEBARD 193 

The present species is peculiar to the Pacific coast and has l)ecn 
found there from Corvalhs, Oregon, southward through the moun- 
tains as far as Tehachapi, Cahfornia, and on the coast in the 
vicinity of San Francisco. 

SpecimeHs Examined: Previously recorded 156. Here recorded, 19; 7 male.s, 
10 females and 2 immature females. 

Mount Shasta, California, IX, 1885, (J. Behrens), 1 d", [Hebard Cln.]. 

Shasta County, California, VII, 1885, (J. Behrens), 1 juv. 9 ; VIII to IX, 
1885, (J. Behrens), 1 cf , 1 9, [all Hebard Cln.]. 

Sisson, California, VIII, 15, 1909, (R. & H.; in grasses of marsliy meadow), 
4 cf , 9 9,1 juv. 9. 

Sacramento, California, VIII, 20, 1904, {M. Xawa), 1 cf , [U. S. N. M.]. 
Conocephalus strictus (Scudder) (PI. XVI, fig. 11; XVII, 10; XVIII, 19 

and 20; XX, 11.) 
1862. X[iphidium] ensifer Scudder, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., vii, p. 451. [Lawn 

Ridge, Illinois.] (In part.) 
1875. XipJddium siridum Scudder,''^ Proc. Bost. Soc. Xat. Hist., xvii, p. 400. 

[Dallas, Texas.] 

This species averages larger and has the ovipositor averaging 
longer than in an}'' other species found in the United States. 
Though differing very decidedly from C. nemoralis and occiden- 
talis, the present insect shows unquestionably an extreme devel- 
opment from a common ancestor with these species. 

In coloration the dorsum of the abdomen, the cerci and the 
ovipositor are dark brown, the remaining portions of the insect 
are green excepting the usual medio-dorsal dark stripe on the head 
and pronotum which is narrowly bordered with buff, in the females 
these narrow dorso-lateral buff lines are continued on the abdo- 
men to the base of the ovipositor. Material from the arid south- 
west usually shows a decidedly paler type of coloration in which 
the dorsum of the abdomen is often very weakly infuscated or 
greenish yellow; frequently in pale females from this region the 
color pattern described alcove is strongly defined, the abdomen 
showing a very broad medio-dorsal fuscous band bordered by a 
narrow buffy band on each side, the sides of the abdomen below 
this infuscated, this coloration heaviest dorsad along the bor- 
ders of the pale dorso-lateral bands, thus making them very pro- 
nounced. 

^3 Single type here designated: 9 ; Dallas, Texas, (Boll), [M. C. Z.j. Meas- 
urements; length of body 16.6, of tegmen 4.2, of caudal femur 16.4, of ovi- 
positor 24.7 mm. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



194 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

Lateral lobes of pronotum large, cephalic margins straight to the 
distinct but broadly obtuse-angulate ventro-cephaHc angle, thence 
straight to the broadly rounded ventro-caudal angle which is ap- 
proximately rectangulate, caudal margin distinctly convex to the 
distinct humeral sinus, convex callosity very broad. 

jMacropterism is very rare in the present species, 11 of over 
5C0 adult specimens at present before us represent this condition. 

The genicular areas of the caudal femora are not infuscated; 
the genicular lobes of the same are unispinose; the ventral mar- 
gins of the caudal femora are unarmed. 

The ovipositor length is as follows: Mount Airy, Pennsylvania, 
17.7-23.1; Fern Hill, Pennsylvania, 19.4-28.1; Marshall County, 
Indiana, 20.1-21.8; St. Louis, Missouri, 20.9-21.3; West Point, 
Nebraska, 17.7-22.8;"Dodge City, Kansas, 17.9-22.6; Dickinson, 
Texas, 21.2-25; Beeville, Texas, 25.2-32.3; Sycamore Canon, 
Baboquivari Mts., Arizona, 19.7-24.4 mm. The ovipositor usu- 
ally shows a very weak curvature but in occasional specimens it 
is almost absolutely straight. Nowhere in the series of the pres- 
ent genus before us is the variability in ovipositor length more 
strikingly illustrated, for the range in length is from 17.7 to 32.3, 
showing a variation of 14.6 mm. The material before us shows 
that in some localities the species develops an ovipositor averag- 
ing longer or shorter than in others, but the fact is also proven 
by this material that nowhere in the wide distribution of the 
species does a recognizable geographic race occur, or even a form 
which might usually be distinguishable, in spite of the wide range 
of ovipositor length. 

On the Atlantic coast the species is known from Staten Island, 
New York, south to Newbern, North CaroUna; westward it 
has been taken as far north as southwestern Minnesota, other 
westernmost records being Hot Springs, South Dakota; Kearney, 
Nebraska ; Syracuse, Kansas, and Cisco, Texas, while on the Rio 
Grande it has been taken at Brownsville and Del Rio, Texas. 
In the mountain regions of the arid southwest the species is 
again found (Marathon, Texas; Mesilla, New Mexico, and the 
Baboquivari Mountains, Arizona), and it will almost certainly 
be found to have a wide range over the highest portions of north- 
ern Mexico and for some distance along the Gulf coast of that 
country. 



REHN AND HEBARD 195 

Specimens Examined: Previously recorded, over 50. Here recordcnl, oOo; 
217 males, 249 females, 4 immature males and 35 immatvu'o females. 

Cornwells, Pennsylvania, IX, 7, 1914 (H.; j)asture, in area of Andropoqon), 
3 c^, 1 9 ; IX, 11, 1906, (R. & H.), 19. 

Ashbourne, Pennsylvania, X, 27, 1900, (B. Long), 1 c?, 4 9, [A. X. S. P.], 
(1 9 maci-opterous). 

Mount Airy, Pennsylvania, IX, 12, 1903, (H.), 1 cf ; IX, 24, 1914, II.: up- 
land pasture, very abundant in Andropogon virginicus), 6 cf , 10 9 . 

Tinicum Island, Pennsylvania, IX, 9, 1904, (R. & H.), 1 o^, 1 9, 1 juv. 9. 

Addingham, Peiuisvlvania, VIII, 13. 1914, (D. Culver), 1 cf , 2 juv. 9, [A. 
N. S. P.]. 

Castle Rock, Delaware County, Pennsylvania, IX, 19, 1909, (R. & II.: luxu- 
riant vegetation in deciduous forest), 4 cf , 7 9 , (1 9 macropterous). 

Fern Hill, Chester County, Pennsylvania, IX, 19, 1908, (R. & H.; gras.scs 
on serpentine outcrop), 11 cf , 13 9, (1 cf and 1 9 macropterous). 

Marcus Hook, Pennsvlvania, VIII, 11, 1905, (P. Lorrilliere), 1 juv. 9 , [A. \. 
S. P.]. 

Harrisbm-g, Pennsylvania, Wetzel's swamp, IX, 30, 1 9 , [Pa. State Dept. 
Zool.], (macropterous). 

Rockville, Pennsylvania, VII, 29, 1 juv. 9, [Pa. State Dept. Zool.[. 

Ocean View, Xew Jersey, VII, 27, 1914, (H; upland field), 1 juv. a , 3 juv. 
9 ; IX, 8 to X, 9, 1909 to 1911, (H. Fox), 2 cT, 3 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Wiklwood Junction, Xew Jersey, VIII, 27 to VIII, 8, 1914, (H.; hi waste field 
particularly about baybcrry l)ushes), 3 juv. cf, 5 juv. 9. 

Washington, District of Columbia, VIII and IX, 1883, 2 cf, 2 9, [Hebard 
Cln.], (1 9 macropterous; VIII, IS to XI, 14, (Caudell, Allard), 3 o", 7 9, 
[U. S. X. M.], 3 9 (macropterous). 

Arlington, Virginia, X, 10, 1912, (Allard), 1 cf , 2 9, [U. S. X. M.]. 

Falls Church, Virginia, IX, 4, 1906, (Caudell), 1 juv. 9 , [U. S. X. M.]. 

Xorfolk, Virginia, IX. 8, 1903, (Mor.se), 2 cf , 2 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

Virginia Beach, Virginia, IX, 7, 1903, (Morse), 1 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

Appomattox, Virginia, IX, 6, 1903, (Morse), 15 cf, 15 9, 2 juv. 9, [Mor.se 
Cln.]. 

Utica, Mississippi, VIII, 1 juv. 9, [U. S. X. M.]. 

Lawn Ridge, Illinois, 1 9, one of the types of X iphidium ensifer Scudder, 
[M. C. Z.]. 

Urbana, Ilhnois, X, 15, 1905, (C. A. Hart), 1 o^, 1 9, [Hel)ard Cln.]. 

Iowa City, Iowa, VIII, 1889, (B. Shimek), 1 cf , 1 juv. 9 , [IIel)ard Cln.]. 

Des Moines, Iowa, VIII, 26, 1903, (Caudell), 1 cf , 1 9, [U. S. X. M.]. 

St. Louis, Missouri, IX, 25 to X, 27, 1875 and 1876, 1 cf . 7 9 , [U. S. X. M.j; 
X, 9, 1904, (C. L. Heink), 4 9, [Hebard Cln.j. 

Kirkwood, Missouri, X, 1877, 1 cf, 3 9, [U. S. X. M.]. 

Fayetteville, Arkansas, IX, 5, 1905, (Morse), 9 cf , 6 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

Hot Springs, South Dakota, X, 1888, 1 9 , [Hebard, Cln.]. 

West Point, Xebraska, VIII to X, 1884, (L. Bruner), 3 cf , 9 9, [Hebard 
Cln.j. 

South Bend, Xebraska, X, 15, 1910, (L. Bruner), 1 9, [Hebard Cln.]. 

TRAXS. AM. F.XT. SOC, XI.I. 



196 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

Weeping Water, Nebraska, IX, 29, 1909, (L. Bruner), 3 9, [Hebard CIn.]. 

Lincoln, Nebraska, IX, 3 and 15, 1909, (L. Bruner), 3 c?, 6 9, [Hebard 
Cln.], (1 9 macropterous). 

Kearney, Nebraska, VII, 27, 1910, (R. & H.; in patches of higher grasses on 
river bottoms), 9 c?, 9 9,2 juv. 9 . 

Howe, Oklahoma, VIII, 4, 1905, (Morse), 3 c^, 2 juv. 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

Wilburton, Oklahoma, VIII, 27, 1905, (Morse), 7 c?, 4 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

South McAlester, Oklahoma, VIII, 7, 1905, (Morse), 11 cf , 6 juv. 9 , [Morse 
Cln.]. 

Caddo, Oklahoma, VIII, 8, 1905, (Morse), 1 o", 1 9,1 juv. 9 , [Morse Chi.]. 

ShawTiee, Oklahoma, VIII, 26, 1905, (Morse), A 6^,2 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

Base of Mount Sheridan, Oklahoma, VIII, 24, 1905, (Morse), 2 9 , [Morse 
Cln.]. 

Cache, Oklahoma, VIII, 23, 1905, (Morse), 5 c?, 6 9, [Morse Cln.]. 

Mountain Park, Oklahoma, VIII, 22, 1905, (Morse), 2 c^, 3 9 , [Morse Cln.]. 

Denison, Texas, VIII, 12, 1905, (Morse), 4 cf , 3 9, [Morse Chi.]. 

Wichita FaUs, Texas, VIII, 15, 1905, (Morse), 4 d^, 11 9 , [Morse Cln.]. 

Dodge City, Kansas, IX, 13, 1909, (H.; higher grasses in prairie depressions), 
14 cf', 15 9, (1 cf macropterous). 

Syracuse, Kansas, IX, 12, 1909, (R. &H.; higher grasses in prairie depres- 
sions), 1 c?', 9 9. 

Piano, Texas, VIII, 1907, (E. S. Tucker), 1 d", [U. S. N. M.]. 

Sagamore Hill, Tarrant County, Texas, IX, 27, 1912, (R. & H.), 1 juv. 9 . 

Cisco, Texas, IX, 21 and 22, 1912 (R. & H.; scarce in high meadow grasses), 
2 cf, 2 9. 

Flatonia, Texas, VIII, 19 and 20, 1912, (R. & H.; in bunch grass, immature 
specimens occasional), 1 9 . 

Galveston, Texas, VII, 19 to 21, 1912, (H.), 3 c?, 3 9 . 

Virginia Point, Texas, VII, 21, 1912, (H.; in moderate numbers in weeds 
and tall grass growing at a level slightly higher than tidal marsh) ,3 cf , 3 9 . 

La Marque, Texas, VIII, 22, 1912, (H.), 10 cf , 3 9 . 

Dickinson, Texas, VII, 20, 1912, (H.; nowhere common but widely distrib- 
uted in low green plants in pine woods), 3 d^, 8 9 . 

Webster, Texas, VII, 19, 1912, (H. ; occasional in plant clumps on prairie), 1 d' . 

Rosenberg, Texas, VII, 25 and 2G, 1912, (H.; common and widely distributed 
in weeds and gra.sses), 4 c?, 3 9 • 

Victoria, Texas, VII, 26 and 27, 1912, (H.; occasional in weeds), 2 d", 3 9. 

Beeville, Texas, VII, 28, 1912, (H.), 3 d,3 9. 

Gregory, Texas, VII, 30, 1912, (H.), 2 cf , 2 9. 

RobstowTi, Texas, VIII, 9, 1912, (IL), 1 cf , 2 9 . 

Lyford, Texas, VIII, 6 and 7, 1912, (R. & H.), 2 cf, 2 9,1 juv. 9 . 

BrownsviUe, Texas, VII, 30 to VIII, 5, 1912, (H.), 2 d', 2 9 ■ 

Clarendon, Texas, VIII, 18, 1905, (Morse), 9 d', 6 9, [Morse Cln.], (1 9 
macropterous) . 

Amarillo, Texas, VIII, 19, 1905, (Morse), 1 cT, [Morse Cln.]. 

Del Rio, Texas, VIII, 22 and 23, 1912, (H.; area of hea\y grass with clumps 
of cat-tails in river bottoms), 1 d. 



REHN AND HEBARD 197 

Marathon, Texas, VIII, 26 and IX, 13, 1912, (R. & H.; scarce in hifih jirecn 
grass in wet spots), 5 d^, 3 9 . 

Boulder, Colorado, VIII, 9, 190.5, (T. A. D. Cockerel!), i d,l 9,4 juv. 9 , 
[U. S. X. M.]. 

Sycamore Caiion, Baboquivari Mountains, Ai-izona, X, 8, 1910, c. 4700 ft., 
(H.; common in dry grasses on canon slopes at upper forks), 21 d^, 23 9 . 

Oonocephalus hygrophilus " new species (PI. XV, fig. 9, XVI, 12; XVII, 
11; XVIII, 21 and 22; XX, 12.) 

This insect shows nearest relationship to C. stictomerus, and 
some affinity to C aigialus, differing from the latter species in 
the larger size, much broader but otherwise similar vertex, deeper 
lateral lobes of the pronotum with the ventro-caudal angle more 
acute, not strikingly truncate distal extremity of the male abdo- 
men, different male cerci and longer caudal femora. The male 
cerci are distinctive, the nearest development in this respect 
being found in C. stictomerus. 

The species probably will be found in numerous localities in 
the heavier vegetation along the margins of salt marshes and 
about brackish and fresh water swamps on the Gulf coast, Httle 
work has as yet been done there in such environment. 

Type. — 9 ; Virginia Point, Galveston County, Texas. July 21, 
1912. (Hebard.) [Hebard Collection, Type No. 172.] 

Description of Type. — Size large for the genus, form robust and rather elon- 
gate. Head with dorsum of vertex when seen from the lateral aspect not 
strongly but distinctly ascending above the plane of the occiput (shghtly more 
so than in C. aigialus and much as in C. stictomerus), fastigium of vertex ahnost 
as wide as basal antennal joint, narrowing with a distinct concavity to the facial 
suture, when seen from front about half again as deep as wide. Eyes large for 
the genus and unusually protruding. When seen from above the lateral lobes 
of pronotum diverge rather strongly ventro-laterad; cephalic margin of lateral 
lobes with the ventro-cephalic angle very weakly indicated, broadh^ arcuate 
to the ventro-caudal angle which is very sharply rounded and weakly acute- 
angulate, caudal margin very weakly convex to the very shallow humeral sinus, 
convex callosity broad. Tegmina delicate in structure, elongate, reaching a 
little beyond tips of caudal femora; wings decidedly longer, extending beyond 
apex of ovipositor. Ovipositor decidedly shorter than caudal femur, broad, 
approximately straight in direction but showing a very evident open-sigmoid 
curve. Subgenital plate flat, with lateral margins convex and tiirned upward 
sharply, thus embracing the base of the ovipositor, meso-caudal portion of 
margin transverse. Cephalic and median limbs much as in aigialus, caudal 
limbs decidedly longer, caudal femora with ventro-external margins armed with 
a few small stout spines (2 and 2), genicular lobes strongly bi-spinose. 

*• From hypo, and <^tXos, a lover of the watery ways. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



198 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

Allotype. — cf" ; Milneburg, Orleans Parish, Louisiana. Juty 22, 
1905. (A. P. Morse.) [Morse Collection.] 

Descripiion of Allolype. — Very similar to type, size slightly smaller. Tegmina 
very similar to those of aigialus, delicate in structure, abbreviate, reaching to 
base of penultimate dorsal abdominal segment, tympanum short and broad, 
veins and veinlets very delicate; wings slightly shorter than tegmina. Distal 
portion of abdomen, including cerci, raw sienna. Cerci elongate, mesal por- 
tion ovate, bulbous and swollen with that portion above ventro-proximal tooth 
produced in an overhanging knob-like protuberance, at the proximal base of 
this swelling is situated interno-ventrad a slender decurved tooth, directed mesad 
and nearly perpendicular to the shaft of the cercus, the external margin of which 
is weakly concave, beyond the mesal sweUing the cercus is greatly depressed 
and flattened, this distal portion strongly produced with sides very weakly 
converging to the broadly rounded aiyex. Subgenital plate bearing disto- 
laterad short styles, the distal margin of the plate is weakly convex. 

Measuronents (in millinietcrs) 

Length of 
Length of Length of Length of caudal Length Length of 
body pronotuni tegmen femur of cercus ovipositor 

Milnehnrcr, La., Allotype. IG.S 3.7 10.. 3 13.8 2 

9 
Virginia Point, Tex., T.vpf. 17.2 3.8 18.6 13.9 10.4 

Coloration. — General color pale green (bright green in life). 
Eyes cinnamon brown. Dorsum of head and pronotum with a 
weakly indicated band of pale brown. Tegmina and wings trans- 
parent, warm buff. Distal half of male abdomen, including cerci, 
raw sienna; in life prol^ably much more brilliant and approaching 
orange more closely in shade. In the female the abdomen at the 
base of the ovipositor is washed weakly with this color. Genic- 
ular areas of caudal femora yellowish. 

The unique female of the present species before us is macro p- 
terous, while the unique male is brachypterous. 

The ventro-external margins of the caudal femora are armed 
with small but heavy spines; in the female 2-2, and in the male 
3-4. 

The present species is only known from the localities given 
below. 

Specimens Examined: 2; 1 male and 1 female. 

Mikieburg, Louisiana, VII, 22, 190.5, (Morse), 1 cf , allotype, [Morse Chi.], 
(brachypterous) . 

Virginia Point, Texas, VII, 21, 1912, (H.; in heavy grasses on edge of salt 
marsh), 1 9, type, (macropterous). 



REHN AND HEBARD 199 

Conocephalus stictomerus ^^ new species (PL XV, fig. 10; XVI, 13; XVII, 

12; XVIIl, 23 and 24; XX, 13.) 
1911. Conocephalus ensiferus Rehn and Hebard (not Xiphidiinn ensifer 

Scudder, 1862), Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1910, p. 643. (In part.) 

[Macropterous pair; Ptaleigh, North Carolina.] 

The above error was a result of the specimens being in a very- 
bad state of preservation, combined with the fact that at the time 
many of the characters of the greatest importance in distinguish- 
ing the North American species of the genus remained unstudied. 

This species shows a development almost intermediate be- 
tween C. hygrophilus and C. nigiahis, but differs from both of 
these species in the very nnich narrower vertex, in the male cerci 
which are similar to those of hygrophilus but distinctly less special- 
ized, and in the ovipositor which is very decidedly longer than 
the maximum found in either of the above mentioned forms. 
The coloration is very distinctive, no approach to it being found 
in an}^ of the known species of the genus. 

The present insect inhabits the middle Atlantic coastal plain, 
where it is to be found in the luxuriant grasses growing al^out the 
borders of marshes near fresh and Ijrackish water. 

Type. — cf ; Cedar Springs, Cape Alay County, New Jersey-. 
August 26, 1914. (Hebard.) [Hebard Collection, Type No. 173J. 

Description of Type. — Size rather large for the genus, form rather slender. 
Head with dorsum of vertex when seen from the lateral aspect distinctly ascend- 
ing above the plane of the occiput (much as in C. fiygrophilus and more so than 
in C. aigialus), fastigium of vertex narrow, very little more than half as wide as 
the basal antennal joint, narrowing with a scarcely appreciable concavity to the 
facial suture, when seen from front over twice as deep as the greatest width. 
Eyes normal in size but unusually protruding. Pronotum moderately con- 
stricted, with lateral lobes narrower than in C. hygrophilus and C. aigialus, 
similar in this respect to C. hrevipennis, cephalic margin nearly straight, ventro- 
cephalic angle very broadly rounded obtuse-angulate, ventral margin very 
weakly concave to the broadly rounded but acute-angulate ventro-caudal angle, 
caudal margin weakly convex to the very shallow humeral sinus, coiivex ('allos- 
ity very narrow. Tegmina delicate in structure, abbreviate, reaching to mid- 
dle of penultimate dorsal aljdominal segment, tympanum much as in hrevipen- 
nis; wings slightly shorter than tegmina. Cerci elongate, mesal portion 
with proximal section enlarged and produced above ventro-proximal tooth in 
an overlianging heavy knob-like protuberance, at the l)ase of this swelling is 

■'^ From srtKr OS = spotted and ;U77p6s= thigh, in allusion to the remarkal)le 
spots and dots of coral red found on the thighs of individuals of this species 
during life. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



200 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

situated a slender decurved tooth which is, however, broad at its base, this tooth 
directed mesad and nearly perpendicular to the shaft of the cercus, the external 
margin of which is weakly angulato-concave, beyond the proximo-mesal 
swelling the cercus is greatly depressed and flattened particularly on the inner 
side, this distal half strongly produced with sides very weakly converging to 
the broadly rounded apex. Subgenital plate bearing disto-laterad very short 
styles, distal margin of the plate very weakly convex, nearly transverse. 
Cephalic and median limbs much as in brevipennis, caudal limbs decidedly 
longer, caudal femora with ventro-external margins armed with a number of 
small stout teeth (3 and 3), genicular lobes strongly bispinose. Coloration of 
insect distinctive and striking. 

Allotype. — 9 ; data same as the type. 

Description of Allotype. — Similar to type, very shghtly larger. Tegmina 
lanceolate with rather sharply rounded apex, half as long as abdomen; wings 
sHghtly shorter. Ovipositor distinctly but not decidedly longer than caudal 
femur, broad, approximately straight in du-ection but showing a very evident 
open-sigmoid curve. Subgenital plate similar to that of hygrophilus. Colora- 
tion distinctive and striking as in type. 

Measurements {in millimeters) 
-71 Length of Length of Length of Length of Lensjth of 

O body pronotum legmen caudal femur cercus 

Cedar Springs, N. J., 

Type 14.4 3,2 8.7 12.4 2 

Cedar Springs, N. J., 

Paratypes 13.4-14.4 3-3.3 8-9.2 12.3-13.7 1.9-2.1 

Chestertown, Md 12.4-13.6 2.9-3 8.7-11.6 13-13.8 2-2.2 

Raleigh, N. C 14.9-15 3.4-3.5 18.3-18.4 14-15.1 2.1-2.2 

Q Length of 

V ovipositor 

Cedar Springs, N. J., 

Allotype 15,3 3.3 9.8 14.7 15 

Cedar Springs, N. J., 

Paratypes 11.1-lG 2.9-3.4 6.9-9.8 12.6-14.7 13.7-15.1 

Chestertown, Md 13.4 3.7 7.8 15.3 IS.l 

Churchland, Va 14.5 3.7 9.2 15.6 19.8 

Raleigh, N. C 14.3-15.5 3.4-3.6 18.3-18.8 14.3-15.2 16.1-16.7 

Color ation.^^ — ^Lower portions of lateral lobes of pronotum, all 
of thorax, proximal two-fifths of male abdomen and all femora 
lettuce green. In life the swollen portions of the caudal femora 

■""' The material upon which these color notes are based was, when fresh, 
kept in a 3% solution of formaldehyde for about ten hours. This treatment 
has preserved the gi-een coloration almost in its entirety, but the other delicate 
colors are not as brilliant as in life and the coral red spots of the caudal femora 
have wholly disappeared. Still weaker solutions of formaldehyde, applied for 
a longer time, may l)e found to hold these evanescent colors. At present our 
exj)criinents are preliminary but have shown a definite im])rovement over sim- 
ply drying the material. 



REHN AND HEBARD 201 

are strikingly marked with irregularly placed spots and dots of 
coral red; these in the immature condition are much darker, 
reddish brown in color, and are still evident in dried mate- 
rial. Tibiae green, much suffused with brown. Face capucine 
orange with a median vertical stripe of mahogany red extending 
from the vertex to the base of the clypeus, genae clouded with 
mahogany red. Dorsum of head and pronotum with a broad me- 
dian band of mahogany red, the remaining lateral portions of the 
occiput and pronotum including the upper portions of the lateral 
lobes capucine buff, the area between this and the green portion 
of the lateral lobes clouded with mahogany red. Eyes very deep 
mahogany red. Tegmina and wings transparent, salmon buff. 
Distal three-fifths of male abdomen, including cerci, orange 
rufous. Abdomen and ovipositor of female sudan brown, shaft 
of latter washed with green. Genicular areas of caudal femora 
suffused with reddish brown. 

The material before us shows httle local size variabilitj^; in 
southward distribution there is a slight increase in size. 

All of the specimens before us from New Jersey and Maryland 
are brachypterous, while those from North Carolina are all 
macropterous. 

The ventro-external margins of the caudal femora are armed 
with small but heavj^ spines, (approximate average, three and 
four) ; these are found in the thirty-two perfect specimens before 
us as follows: 

Number of spines, 0-0 0-1 1-2 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-.5 3-3 

Number of specimens, 1113 1127 

Number of spines, 3-4 3-.5 3-6 3-7 4-4 4-5 5-5 6-6 

Number of specimens, 3 2 113 3 1 1 

The series from which the present species is described was 
taken in a heavy growth of panic grass (Panicum virgatum), one 
to one and one-half feet high, interspersed with various marsh 
plants in a limited marshy area on the border of a brackish stream. 
Two hours strenuous and continuous beating was nocessaiy to 
secure the series, as the species was very scarce. Though not un- 
usually active in their movements, the insects proved to possess 
extreme facility in concealing themselves. The species is known to 
range from Cedar Springs, New Jersey, to Raleigh. North Carolina. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



202 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oETHOPTERA) 

Specimens Examined: 42; \1 males, 23 females and 2 immature females. 

Cedar Springs, New Jersey, VIII, 14, 1914, (H.; in high marsh grass), 1 juv. 
9 ; VIII, 26, 1914, (H.; in high marsh gi-ass), 12 cf, 13 9,1 juv. 9 , ty-pe, allo- 
type and paratypes, [Hebard Cln.]. 

Chestertown, Maryland, VIII, 19 and 23, 1899, (E. G. Vanatta), 2 o^, 1 9 , 
[A. N. S. P.]. 

Churchland, Vii'ginia, VIII, 8 and IX, 15, 1914, (H. Fox; in brackish marsh, 
one in Sparlina glabra), 2 9, [Fox Chi.]. 

Raleigh, North Carolina, VIII, 6 and 16, 1904, (C. S. Brimley; hght at night), 
1 cf , 1 9 , [Hebard Cln.]; IX, 9 and 16, 1905, (C. S. Brimley), 2 c?, 6 9 , [U. S. 
N. M.], (aU macropterous) . 

Conocephalus aigialus^' new species (PI. XV, fig. 7; XVI, 14; XVII, 13; 

XVIIl, 25 and 26; XX, 14.) 
1907. Xiphidion nigropleurum (?) Rehn and Hebard (not Xiphidium nigro- 

pleurum Bruner, 1891), Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1907, p. 313. (In part.) 

[1 9 ; Pablo Beach, Florida.] 
1911. Conocephalus brevipennis Rehn and Hebard (not Xiphidium brevipennis 

Scudder, 1862), Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1910, p. 643. (In part.) [1 

d" ; Cape Henry, Virginia.] 

As noted above the present authors have twice failed to recog- 
nize single specimens of the present species as distinct from the 
then known species. This was chiefly due to the fact that 
scarcely any material from the salt marshes of the Atlantic 
coast was then availalile, and, in a genus showing such great 
variability as the present, no definite knowledge of the forms 
already described and the number of species really present could 
be gleaned from the inadequate series at that time in hand. 

The present species bears a shght superficial resemblance^ to 
C. brevipennis and C. spartinae, but may at once be separated 
from these by the decidedly more rol)ust and compact structui'c, 
unusually prominent eyes, heavy truncate distal portion of the 
male abdomen, which in life is a bright and striking yellow and 
bears concolorous cerci which are distinctive (but plainly a de- 
velopment of the type found in C. stidomerus and C. hygrophilus), 
broad and weakly sigmoid ovipositor, and short, heavy limbs 
with the vcntro-cxternal margins of the caudal femora l)earing 
normally a number of heavy spines. 

Along the coast of Georgia and Florida, where spartinae is 
also found in the salt marshes, the present insect averages decid- 
edly larger in size than that sjjccies. 

■•^ From al7taX6s=the sea shore. 



REHN AND HEBARD 203 

As its name implies the present insect inhabits salt marsh 
vegetation, on the beaches and along the tidal rivers of the Atlan- 
tic coast, where its habits are very similar to those of spartinae; 
in the present case, however, the insect is found not out on the 
marshes but in the halophytic vegetation along their borders and 
in similar vegetation on the beaches. 

Tijpe. — cf; Wrightsville, New Hanover County, North Caro- 
lina. September 7, 1911. (Rehn and Hebard.) [Hel)ard Col- 
lection, Type No. 17-4.]. 

Description of Type. — Size medium, form robust and compart. Head with 
dorsum of vertex when seen from the lateral aspect distinctly though sUghtly 
ascending above the plane of the occiput, fastigium of vertex narrow, little 
more than half as wide as the basal antennal joint, narrowing with a scarcely 
appreciable concavity to the facial sutm-e, when seen from front over twice a.s 
deep as the greatest width. Eyes large for the genus and unusually protruding. 
Pronotum short with lateral lobes diverging rather strongly ventro-laterad, 
lateral lobes with cephalic margin broadly and evenly arcuate to (h> veutro- 
caudal angle which is rather sharply rounded and nearly rectangulate, caudal 
margin very weakly convex to the very shallow humeral siniLs, convex callosity 
broad. Tegmina delicate in structure, al)breviate, reaching to base of penulti- 
mate dorsal abdominal segment; tympanum small, short and broad; veins and 
veinlets very delicate, more so than in brevipennis . Wings slightly shorter than 
tegmina. Abdomen with distal extremity enlarged and truncate, distal half 
including cerci bright and striking yellow in life. Cerci short, Inilbous and 
swollen mesad in a large and nearly circular area at the proximal base of which 
is situated a slender ventro-internal tooth directed mesad and nearly perpen- 
dicular to the shaft of the cercus, the external margin of which is very weakly 
concave, beyond the mesal swelling the cercus is gi-eatly depressed, this distal 
portion with sides rapidly and evenly converging to the rather shari)ly rounded 
apex. Subgenital plate bearing disto-laterad very short styles, the distal 
margin of the plate is very weakly convex, nearly transverse. Limbs shorter 
and heavier than in spartinae or brevipennis, caudal femora with ventro-external 
margins armed with a number of small stout teeth (.5 and 5), genicular lobes 
strongly bispinose. 

Allotype. — ■ 9 ; data same as the type. 

Description of Allotype. — Very similar to type, size somewhat larger. Teg- 
mina lanceolate, ta[)ering to the very sharply rounded apex, reaching to distal 
third of abdomen. Ovipositor distinctly but not decidedly shorter than caudal 
femur, broad, approximately straight in direction but showing a very evident 
open-sigmoid curve. Sul)genital plate flat, with lateral margins turnetl ujjward 
sharply and embracing the base of the ovipositor, distal margin of flat surface 
transverse. 

TRANS. .\M. EXT. SOC, XLI.. 



204 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

Measurements {in millimeters) 

Length of Length of Length of Length of Length of 

body pronotum tegmen caudal femur cercus 

Cape Henry, Va. .. . 12.6 3.1 8.6 11.9 1.8 

Wright svilie, N. C, 

Type 12.9 3.1 7.3 10.9 1.8 

Wrightsville, N. C, 

Parntypes . . . . 11.9-13.7 3.1-3.4 6.8-8.3 10.7-12.3 1.6-1.9 
Tybee Island, Ga. 14.2-15.2 3.3-3.8 8.2-9.6 12.2-13.3 1.8-2 
South Jacksonville, 

Fla 13.6-14.9 3.7-3.8 16-17.7 12.6-13 1.9-2 

Q Length of 

^ ovipositor 

Wrightsville, N.C., 

Allotype 13.7 3.4 7.8 12.2 10.7 

Wrightsville, N.C., 

Paratypes . . . . 11.6-15.8 3.2-3.8 7.1-7.4 12.1-13.2 10.6-10.8 
Tybee Island, Ga. 14-15.9 3.7-4.3 7.2-9.3 12.7-15 10.7-11.7 
South Jacksonville, 

Fla 15.3-17.2 3.8-4.3 18.1-19.7 14-14.4 11.9-13.7 

South Jacksonville, 

Fla 16.3 4.1 9.7 15 12.8 

Pablo Beach, Fla. 15.2 4.1 10.6 15.3 13.4 

Coloration. — General color pale green (bright green in life). 
Dorsum of head and pronotum with a broad median band of 
cinnamon brown. Eyes natal brown to ecru drab (in life some- 
times orange buff). Tegmina and wings transparent, light buff. 
Distal half of male abdomen, including cerci, orange buff (brighter 
and very striking in life), in living females the abdomen at the 
base of the russet ovipositor is usually washed with this color. 
Genicular areas of caudal femora frequently very weakly suffused 
with brown. 

A distinct increase in size in the southward distribution of the 
species is noted, but each large series shows a decided amount of 
local size variability as well. 

Macropterism is found in two males and three females from 
the vicinity of Jacksonville, Florida, out of the thirty-four speci- 
mens before us. 

The degree of production of the distal portion of the male 
cerci is found to be occasionally variable. 

The ventro-external margins of the caudal femora are armed 
with small but heavy spines, in number averaging four and five; 



2-2 


3-4 


3-5 


3-6 


4-4 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


4-5 


4-G 


5-5 


5-6 


5-7 


9 


1 


5 


3 


1 



EEHN AND HEBARD 205 

these are present in the twenty-nine perfect specimens before us 

as follows : 

Number of spines, 1-4 

Number of specimens, 1 

Number of spines, 

Number of specimens, 

The present species is found in salt marsh vegetation on the 
beaches and along the tidal rivers of the Atlantic coast from Cape 
Henry, Virginia, to Pablo Beach, Florida. 

Specimens Examined: 34; 14 males and 20 females. 

Cape Henry, Virginia, VIII, 18, 1908, (R.; in dune vegetation on beach), 1 cf . 

Oceanview, Virginia, VIII, 9, 1904, (Caudellj, 1 9, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Wrightsville, North Carolina, IX, 7, 1911, (R. & H.; in undergrowth near 
beach and under live oaks in grass on edge of marsh), 5 cf , 8 9 , type, allotype 
and paralypes. 

Tybee Island, Georgia, VIII, 12 and 13, 1903, (Morse), 3 o^, 6 9 ; IX, 2, 

1911, (H.; occasional along edge and in borders of salt marsh in high grasses), 
6 cf, 6 9. 

Jacksonville, Florida, (T. J. Priddey), 1 9, [Hebard Cln.], (macro])terous). 
South Jacksonville, Florida, IX, 6 and 7, 1913, (W. T. Davis), 2 d , S 9, 
[Davis Cln.], (2 cf , 2 9 macropterous). 

Pablo Beach, Florida. VIII, 11, 190.5, (R. & H.), 1 9. 

Conocephalus nigropleurum (Bruner) (PI. XVI, fig. 1.5; XVII, 14: XVIII, 

27 and 2S; XIX, 14; XX. 1.5.) 
1891. Xiphidium nigropleurum Bruner,^'* Can. Ent., xxiii, p. 58. [Eastern 

Nebraska to Antelope County.] 
1898. Xiphidium nigropleura Scudder, Can. Ent., xxx, p. 184. (Emendation, 

in key to species.) 

The coloration of the present insect makes it the most l)eauti- 
ful, and one of the most distinctive in appearance, of the North 
American forms. The margins of the lateral lobes and of the 
dorsum of the pronotum, the limbs, tegmina and cerci are a rich 
and vivid green; the face and genae, sides of boch' just below 
proximal portion of the tegmina and median areas of the lateral 
lobes and the dorsum of the pronotum, are dark brown; the 
dorsal surface of the head is marked with a median black line, 
the portions between this and the eyes are yellowish brown. Tlie 
abdomen is shining black, the dorsum of the same sometimes 
dark brown, particularly in females. 

••^ Single type selected by Rehn and Hebard, Proc. .\cad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

1912, p. 124, (1912). 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



206 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

Lateral lobes of pronotum ample (larger than in C. attenuatus) , 
cephalic margin straight to the distinct but broadly obtuse-angu- 
late ventro-cephalic angle, thence straight to the rather narrowly 
rounded ventro-caudal angle which is less than 90° (not as nar- 
row as in attenuatus), caudal margin nearly straight, almost im- 
perceptibly convex to the very weakly defined humeral sinus, con- 
vex callosity narrow but distinct. 

Three females are macropterous in the series of ninety-two 
specimens of the present species which we have examined. 

When compared with those of attenuatus, the male cerci are 
found to be of similar general type but decidedly straighter and 
less attenuate; the swollen portion is shorter and larger and the 
distal portion is shorter, moderately but distinctly depressed and 
not directed outward, the tooth is in the same position but has 
its base broader and more flattened. 

The caudal femora are rather long but with the proximal 
portion well developed; the genicular areas of the same are occa- 
sionally infuscated, while the genicular lobes are bispinose. 

The ventro-external margins of the caudal femora are armed 
as follows in forty-seven perfect specimens examined: 



Number of spines, 


0-3 


1-2 


1-3 


1-4 


2-2 


2-3 


2-4 


Number of specimens, 


1 


3 


4 


1 


5 


8 


2 


Number of spines, 


3-3 


3-4 


4-4 


4-5 


4-6 


5-5 




Number of specimens, 


8 


10 


1 


2 


1 


1 





The present species is found in the upper Mississippi valley 
region and northward to Ithaca, New York; extreme south- 
western Ontario; Gun Lake, Michigan, and Lone Rock, Wiscon- 
sin: in western distribution it will probably not be found to occur 
far west of the well watered portions of eastern Nebraska (Halsey 
being the westernmost record) and in eastward distribution it is 
probably limited by the Appalachians. 

Specimens Examined: Previously definitely recorded, 16. Here recorded, 
76; 34 males, 29 females, 6 immature males and 7 immatiu-e females. 

Ithaca, New York, VIII, 22 and 25, 1<S91, (Morse), 15 o^ 12 9 , 2 juv. 9 , 
[Morse Cln.]; VIII, 4 to X, 12, 1885 to 1912, 13 cf, H 9, [Cornell Univ.], 
(1 9 macropterous); VI, 28 to VIII, 4, 1885 and 1887, 6 juv. d", 3 juv. 9, 
[Cornell Univ.]. 

Gun Lake, Michigan, VIII, Hi to 20, 1912, (M. X. Carriker, Jr.), 1 cT, 1 9 , 
Hebard Cln.]. 



REHN AND HEBARD 207 

Lone Rock, Wisconsin, VIII, 12, 1906, (J. D. Hood), 1 9, [Pa. State Dept. 
Zool.]. 

Denison, Iowa, VII, 20, (J. A. Allen), 1 9, [M. C. Z.]. 

West Point, Nebraska, VIII and IX, 1884 and 1887, (Bruner), 5 cT, type 
and paratypes, [Heljard CIn. and A. N. S. P.]. 

Lincoln, Nebraska, VIII and IX, 1888, (Bruner), 2 9 , allotype and paralype, 
[Hebard Cln.], (1 macropterous). 

Halsey, Nebraska, VII, 12, 1909, (R.; in grasses on river plain), 2 juv. 9 . 

Watertown, Illinois, VIII, 9, (McNeill), 1 9, [M. C. Z.]. 
Conocephalus attenuatus (Scudder) (PI. XVI, fig. IG; XVII, 15; XVIII, 

29 antl 30; XX, 16.) 
1869. Xiphidiian allcnuatum Scudder," Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, ii, p. :305. 

[Illinois.] 
1891. Xiphidium sp.? McNeill, Psyche, vi, p. 24. [Illinois. | 

1891. [Xiphidium] hinccolatnm Bruner, Can. Ent., xxiii, p. 59. (Nomen 
nudum.) 

1892. Xiphidium .scudderi Blatchley, Can. Ent., xxiv, p. 26. [Vigo Count\-, 
Indiana.] 

1892. [Xiphidium] lanceolatum Bnmer, Ent. News, iii, p. 265. (Explanation 
of nomen nudum.) 

Blatchley states, in 1903, that h\s scudderi was based upon the 
brachypterous condition of the present species.^" This is true, 
and the name is consequently placed in the synonymy here 
without reservation. 

The position of the present species is in group C of the sub- 
genus Xiphidion, between C. nigropleurum and C. nigroplenroides. 
The form and length of the ovipositor in the female, and cereal 
characters in the male, afford features by which the species can 
be readily distinguished. The coloration and color pattern is 
also distinctive; the color pattern, however, showing a closer 
similarity to that of nigropleuroides than to any other form. 

The face is warm buff with median portion mahogan}- red, 
radiating below to form a dark suffusion on the genae and ex- 
tending upward on the sides, thus enveloping the postocular 
region; the lateral lobes of the pronotum, excepting the dorsal 
margin, are of the same color, while the medio-dorsal stripe of 
head and pronotinn is somewhat darker. The remaining por- 
tions of the head, broad margins of the medio-dorsal strij)e of 
head and pronotum, and the limbs, are warm buff, the femora 
very finely speckled with mahogany red. In the male, the abdo- 

^^ The type of this species has been destroyed. 
*» Orth. of Indiana, p. S79. 

TRANS. AM. EXT. SOC, XLI. 



208 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (ORTHOPTERA) 

men is amber brown with cerci slightly paler and more buffy; in 
the female, the abdon:ien is mahogany red with narrow and much 
interrupted dorso-lateral paler bands weakly suggested while the 
ovioositor is cinnamon brown. 

Lateral lobes of pronotum moderately large with ventral 
margin and particularly ventro-caudal angle distinctly curved 
outward; cephalic margin broadly convex, with ventro-cephahc 
angle subobsolete, to the very sharply rounded ventro-caudal 
angle which is distinctly less than 90°, caudal margin nearly 
straight, almost imperceptibly convex, to the very weakly defined 
humeral sinus, convex callosity very narrow, subobsolete. 

But seven of the series of sixty-five specimens here recorded 
are macropterous. 

The male cerci are of a type almost intermediate betw^een those 
of C. nigropleurum and C. spartinae; when compared with those 
of the latter species they are seen to be decidedly more ample and 
somewhat heavier, with tooth slightly heavier and directed proxi- 
mad at a sharper angle; the externo-lateral margin is more con- 
cave than in either of the above species. An abnormality, which 
we have never before seen, is found in a single male from Corn- 
wells, Pennsylvania; this specimen is adult, but the cerci have 
remained as in the instar preceding maturity. 

The ovipositor is very gently curved upward, tapering very 
gently distad to the sharp apex, with greater portion of dorsal 
margin and distal portion of ventral margin supplied with widely 
spaced microscopic serrulations, a condition not found in any 
other species of the present genus here considered, but the normal 
condition in the genus Orchelimum. The ovipositor length is as 
follows: Cornwells, Pennsylvania, 24.6-27.5; Vigo County, In- 
diana, 23.4-26.2; West Point, Nebraska, 19.9-26.3; Lincoln, 
Nebraska, 25.4-27.8 mm. 

The genicular areas of the caudal femora are not darkened and 
the genicular lobes of the same are normally strongly bispinose, 
occasionally unispinose. The caudal femora are long and slender 
and have the ventro-external margins armed as follows in 54 
perfect specimens examined: 

Number of spines, 0-0 0-1 2 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 2-2 

Number of specimens, 3 2 2 4 10 4 1 5 



REHX AND HEBARD 209 

Number of spines, 2-3 2-4 3-3 3-4 3-5 4-4 4-5 

Number of specimens, 9 14 5 1 12 

Two examples have the ventro-internal margins of these femora 
armed with 0-1 and one with 1-2 spines, this is a very unusual 
condition found elsewhere in the North American species even 
more rarely in C. fasciatus alone. 

On a special excursion to Cornwells, Pennsylvania, under- 
taken to secure a series of this species, it was found very scarce 
in high grasses, {Panicum virgatum), and plants along the shore of 
the Delaware river, and in moderate numbers in a small marshy 
area, particularly in a restricted growth of low marsh grass, 
{Panicularia septentrionalis) . The males were usually found in 
the grass or perched on nearby plant leaves, whence the}^ sprang 
away with alacrity. The females were never as conspicuous and 
sprang away with great swift leaps, then, hiding on the opposite 
sides of grass stems and leaves in the deepest tangles of vegeta- 
tion, the}' proved very difficult to locate. The species may be 
said to be easily the most alert and active of the genus found 
about Philadelphia. Over its wide distribution it is doubtless re- 
stricted to damp spots and marsh areas. 

The present species is known from Ithaca, New York, and the 
vicinity of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, westward to eastern 
Nebraska and Kansas; it apparently enjoys the most general 
distribution in the region south of the Great Lakes, and is prob- 
ably very local and usually scarce everywhere east of the Appa- 
lachians. The most northern records are extreme southwestern 
Ontario (Rondeau and Point Pelee) and Minnesota. 

Specimens Examined: Previously recorded, 15. Here recorded, 65; 28 
males, 34 females, 1 immature male and 2 immature females. 

The Cove, Ithaca, New York, X, 27, 1912, 2 cf , 3 9 , [CorneU Univ.]. 

Cornwells, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, IX, 7, 1914, (H.), 25 a", 14 9, 
1 juv. d", 1 juv. 9 ; X, 11, 1906, (R. & H.), 1 9 • 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1897, (C. W. Johnson), 1 9, [Morse Cln.], 
(macropterous). 

Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, VIII, 19, 1 juv. 9, [Pa. State Dept. Zool.]. 

Watertown, Illinois, VIII, 23, (McNeill), 1 9, [M. C. Z.]. 

West Point, Nebraska, IX, 1885, (Bruner), 11 9, [Hebard Chi.], (4 macrop- 
terous). 

Lincoln, Nebraska, VIII, (1 9 macropterous collected at light), 1 cf , 3 9, 
[Hebard Cln.], (1 cf , 1 9 macropterous). 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. , 



210 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

Conocephalus nigropleuroides (H. Fox) (PI. XVI, fig. 17; XVII, 16; 

XIX, 1 and 2; XX, 17.) 
1907. Xiphidion nigropleurum (?) Rehn and Hebard (not Xiphidium nigro- 

pleurum Bruner, 1891), Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1907, p. 313. (In 

part.) [Cedar Keys, Florida.^'] 
1912. Xiphidium nigropleuroides H. Fox,*^ Ent. News, xxiii, p. 116, PI. IX, 

figs. 1 to 5. [Cape May County, New Jersey.] 

Tlie present insect resembles C. spartinae more closely than 
any other species in the form of the male cerci. The color 
pattern, though distinctive, shows the nearest similarity to that 
of C. attenuatus. The shades of color in this insect, particularly 
striking and brilliant in life, are not found in any other North 
American species. The species, though decidedly smaller and 
more slender than spartinae in New Jersey, increases southward 
in size and robustness to a very decided degree, as does spartinae 
in size to a considerably less extent; so that in material of the 
two species from Florida, the present insect is distinctly the larger 
and more robust of the two. The variation in shape of the 
ovipositor is far greater in nigropleuroides than in any other 
American species of the genus. 

The medio-dorsal stripe of head and pronotum is blackish- 
brown; the face, postocular portion of genae and lateral lobes 
of pronotum very dark brown, these markings giving the insect 
a trifasciate appearance. This is greatly intensified by the pale 
coloration of the intervening portions of head and pronotum, 
which are cream color. In fresh material the tegmina, limbs 
and male cerci are ver}^ bi-ight sea green, or grass green in 
some series, while the distal portion of the male abdomen is bril- 
liantly marked with orange. In the female this latter color is 
weaker and occupies a decidedly lesser area. The brightest colors 
in this insect are unusually hard to preserve, only traces of the 
same remaining in the majority of dried specimens before us. 

Lateral lobes of pronotum with cephalic margin broadly con- 
vex to the ventro-caudal angle, with ventro-cephalic angle weakly 
defined and ventral margin often irregular and slightly concave 
before the ventro-caudal angle which is broadly rounded, angu- 

'•''^ The authors' record of a single specimen of this species from Gainesville, 
Florida, is here corrected as it is due to a mistake in labelling, the specimen 
having been taken at Cedar Keys, Florida, the day previous. 

•'■-Single type selected by H. P'ox, Ent. News, xxiii, p. 232, (1912). 



REHN AND HEBARD 211 

lation of same a little less than 90°, caudal margin rather irregu- 
larly convex to the rather weak humeral sinus, convex callosity 
moderately but not decidedly broad. As in attenuatus, the 
ventral margin and particularly the ventro-caudal angle is 
sharply but narrowly curved outward. 

Macropterism is found in but four females, all from Cumberland 
Island, Georgia, in the series of over one hundred and sixty- 
eight specimens before us. 

When compared with spartinae, the male cerci are found to 
be very similar but more attenuate and slightly irregular in out- 
line, this irregularity giving the organs the appearance of being 
a little malformed. 

The ovipositor is normally rather broad and approximately 
straight in direction with a weak open-sigmoid curvature. In 
the series of eight specimens from Cedar Keys, Florida, we 
find this type in three, and a distinctly thought not strongly 
upward curved type in five, the ovipositor in these being broader 
and showing an even greater curvature than is normal in spar- 
tinae. The development of two distinct types of ovipositor in 
the same species at one locality is a problem which we have also 
encountered in Orchelimum concinnum. The females here con- 
sidered belong without the slightest doubt to the same species 
and the cause of this varied development is yet highly prob- 
lematical. Elsewhere in the species of the genus some individual 
variation naturally occurs in degree of curvature and heaviness 
of the ovipositor, but the appearance here of two distinct tj^pes, 
elsew^here of decided importance and value as specific characters, 
is very surprising. Differentiation in method of oviposition 
and selection of certain different plants for this purpose has 
probably been a major factor in the development of the different 
types of ovipositor now to be found in various species of the 
genus, but when two distinct types are found in the same species 
it would lead one to suppose them to be the result of these same 
factors. The difficulty is that with such development the 
different forms have as a rule developed into distinct species, 
which in the present instance is not the case. The ovipositor 
length is as follows: Ventnor, New Jersey, 10.7-12; Ocean 
View, New Jersey, 11.1-12.8; Ocean View, Virginia, 12.7-13.8; 
Wrightsville, North Carolina, 11.4-12; Cumberland Island, 

TRANS. AM. EXT. SOC, XLI. 



"212 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

Georgia, 13.9-15.9; Cedar Keys, Florida, open-sigmoid, 13.2- 
14.1, arcuate, 12.4-14.6 mm. 

The genicular areas of the caudal femora are not darkened, 
the genicular lobes are normally bispinose but occasionally uni- 
spinose; the caudal femora are elongate but with the proximal 
portion more swollen than in spartinae, the ventro-external margins 
are unarmed in all but two of the ninety specimens from New 
Jersey before us, in the more southern material these margins are 
armed as follows in forty-one perfect specimens examined: 
Number of spines, 0-0 0-1 0-2 1-1 1-2 2-2 

Number of specimens, 24 6 5 3 1 2 

The present insect appears to be absolutely limited in distribu- 
tion to the salt-marsh tidal flats. It is known from Ventnor, 
New Jersey, to Cumberland Island, Georgia, on the Atlantic 
Coast, and from Cedar Keys, Florida, on the Gulf coast. 

Specimens Examined: Previously recorded, over 30. Here recorded, 1.38; 
67 males, 54 females, 5 immatm-e males and 12 immature females. 

Ventnor, New Jersey, VIII, 5, 1914, (H.; very abundant in high Spartina 
slricla and in nearby Spartina patens, many immature individuals but few 
adults), 40 d", 22 9,5 juv. cT, 12 juv. 9 • 

Ocean City, New Jersey, VIII, 14, 1914, (H.; occasional in Spartina stricta 
far out on tidal marsh), 5 cf, 4 9 . 

Cape May Court House, New Jersey, VIII, 14, 1914, (H.; scarce in Spartina 
stricta far out on tidal marsh), 2 cT. 

Oceanview, Virginia, VIII, 9, 1904, (Caudell), 2 9 , [U. S. N. IM.]. 

Wrightsville, North Carolina, IX, 7, 1911, (H.; along tidal channels on salt 
marsh), 1 cf, 4 9. 

Cumberland Island, Georgia, VIII, 31, 1911, (H.; in fringing tidal salt 
marsh), 12 cT, 14 9 , (4 9 macropterous). 

Cedar Keys, Florida, VIII, 15, 1905, (H.; in tidal salt marsh), 7 cj^, 8 9 . 

Conocephalus spartinae (H. Fox) (PI. XVI, fig. 19; XVII, 17; XIX, 3 and 

4; XX, 18.) 

1862. X[iphidium] brevipennis Scudder (not Xiphidiurn hrevipennis Scudder, 
August and September, 1862), Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., vii, p. 451. Novem- 
ber, 1862. (In part.) [Cape Cod, Massachusetts.] 

1902. Xiphidion nemorale Rehn (not Xiphidiurn nemorale Scudder, 1875), 
Ent. News, xiii, p. 315. [Atlantic City, New Jersey.] 

1904. Xiphidion brevipenne Rehn (not Xiphidiurn brevipennis Scudder, 1862), 
Ent. News, xv, p. 330. (In part.) [Atlantic City and Cape May, New Jersey.] 

1912. Xiphidium spartinae H. Fox," Ent. News, xxiii, p. Ill, p\. VIII, figs. 1 
to 6. [Wood's Hole, Massachusetts; salt marshes of southern New Jersey.] 

"Single type .selected by H. Fox, Ent. News, xxiii, p. 232, (1912). 



REHN AND HEBARD 213 

The descriptions by Fox of this species and C. nigropleuroides 
are complete, thorough and very different from the usual care- 
less and insufficient descriptions of the species of the present 
genus. 

The present species bears a very decided general resemblance 
to C. brevipennis, so close that, until studied by Fox, virtually 
all of the material in collections had been confused with that 
species. When compared with brevipennis, we find that spar- 
tinae differs signally in the male cerci, while females may usually 
be separated by the ovipositor which normally shows a very 
weak but appreciable curvature, this appendage in brevipennis 
being normally straight. In addition, material of the present 
■species from the North Atlantic coast is small and more slender 
than brevipennis, but in southward distribution it attains a size 
quite as great as the largest examples of that species. The pro- 
notum is much as in brevipennis but has the lateral lobes not 
quite as deep with the ventro-caudal angle rather sharply rounded, 
the tegmina are more delicate (not quite as delicate as in C 
aigialus), with the male tympanum having the stridulating 
vein distinctly longer, this area being slightly more transverse 
in proportion to the length than in brevipennis — -this is true of 
aigialus which, however, has the tympanal area appreciably 
smaller. The distinctive male cerci show at once that the 
position of the species is in group C, while brevipennis belongs to 
group A. These cerci are slender and symmetrical, an elongate 
bulbous swelling occupies the mesal half, at the base of which is 
■situated interno-ventrada small slender tooth directed mesad with 
a very weak inclination proximad, the extei-nal margin of the 
cercus is moderately concave, beyond the bulbous area the cercus 
is weakly depressed, this distal portion with sides subparallel 
to the broadly rounded apex. These cerci differ from those of 
brevipennis not only in shape ])ut in coloration as well, being 
bright green except in the darkest individuals in which they are 
pale olive. 

In coloration, material from New Jersey often shows an inten- 
sive condition, in this the medio-dorsal stripe of the head and 
particularly the pronotum is very broadly margined by pale 
buff, and below this the lateral lobes of the pronotum are marked 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



214 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

with a postocular reddish brown suffusion; no examples of such 
coloration are found in southern material. In hrevipennis, when 
the lateral lobes of the pronotum are suffused with a darker 
color, this color usually extends upward nearly to the medio- 
dorsal stripe of the dorsum, as the pale margins of this stripe are 
normally very narrow in that species, and as a result the intensive 
types of coloration in the two species are normally distinctly 
different in appearance. In general coloration, with the excep- 
tion of the differences mentioned above and the green male cerci, 
this species agrees Avith brevipennis. 

The genicular areas of the caudal femora are normally not 
darkened, in occasional specimens they are weakly infuscated; 
the genicular lobes of the same are normally bispinose, rarely 
they are found to be unispinose, while a single female (Wesquage 
Beach, Rhode Island) has one genicular lobe trispinose;the ventro- 
externai margins of the caudal femora are armed in one hundred 
and eighty-one perfect specimens examined as follows: 
Number of spines, 0-0 
Number of specimens, 15 
Number of spines, 
Number of specimens, 

Macropterism is very rare in material from the Atlantic coastr 
but appears to be of frequent occurrence on the Gulf coast- 
As there is a gradual but not decided increase in size southward 
in the distribution of the species, we find such macropterous 
examples from the Gulf coast to be, in general appearance only, 
very similar to C. fasciatus. 

The ovipositor is very weakly curved upward but varies to an 
almost straight condition; specimens showing the extreme of 
this variation are often frequently difficult to separate from fe- 
males of brevipennis, which have the ovipositor approaching the 
minimum length found in that species. The ovipositor length^* 
is as follows: Wesquage Beach, Rhode Island, 9; Chestnut 

'■''^ Our ovipositor length measurements are, as elsewhere in the present series 
of papers, taken from the base of the basal plica to the apex of the ovipositor; 
this explains the measurements of other authors exceeding ours by about .4 
mm. where the length has been taken from the juncture of ovipositor and sub- 
genital plate to apex of ovipositor. We have not used this dimension as it is not 
sufficiently accurate, the position of the movable subgenital plate affecting it. 



0-1 


0-2 


0-3 


1-1 


1-2 


1-3 


1-4 


32 


12 


2 


20 


40 


10 


2 


2-2 


2-3 


2-4 


2-5 


3-3 


3-4 


4-4 


20 


16 


4 


1 


3 


3 


1 



REHN AND HEBARD 215 

Neck, New Jersey, 7.2-8.3; Atlantic City, New Jersey, 7.1-8.8; 
Ventnor, New Jersey, 7.6-8.7; Ocean City, New Jersey, 8-9.7; 
Oceanview, Virginia, 9; Wrightsville, North Carolina, 9.1; 
Tybee Island, Georgia, 8.1-9.8; Virginia Point, Texas, 8.2-9.9 mm. 

This species has almost without exception been found in salt 
marshes, usually in Spariina patens, covering the tidal flats. The 
chiefl}' maeropterous series taken at Virginia Point, Texas, was, 
however, in high and heavy grasses, where the following field note 
was made, "A difficult species to capture as individuals are very 
restless and immediately seek shelter by jumping down low in 
the bunches of grass where they are very hard to follow." On 
the coast of New Jersey the species is frequentl}' to be found in 
great numl)ers on the salt marshes, both in Spariina patent 
and Panicularia fluitans, where large series could be taken with 
ease. The present insect is now known from Cape Cod, Mas- 
sachusetts, to Miami, Florida on the Atlantic coast, and on 
the Gulf coast from Mrginia Point, Texas, to Everglade, Florida. 

Specimens Examined: Previously correctly recorded, over 30. Here re- 
corded, 2.53; 123 males, 106 females, 8 immature males and 16 immature 
females. 

Cape Cod, :Massachusetts, (Scudder), 8 cT, 15 9, [M. C. Z.]. 

Saunderstown, Rhode Island, IX, 9, 1913, (H.; in marsh grasses), 1 cf . 

Wesquage Beach, Rhode Island, IX, 10, 1913, (H.; salt marsh), 1 9 . 

New Haven, Connecticut, VIII, 27, 1904, (B. H. Walden), la", [Hebard Chi.]. 

Mullica River flats, Burhngton County, New Jersey, VIII, 24, 1914, (H.; 
occasional in short grasses, Panicularia fluitans, on salt marsh), 2 o", 1 9. 

Chestnut Neck, Atlantic County, New Jersey, VIII, 16, 1911, (R. & H.; 
very common on tidal flats in Spartina patens), 15 cf , 6 9 . 

Atlantic City, New Jersey, IX, 11, 1902, (R.; tidal flats), 3 9 . 

Ventnor, New Jersey, VIII, 5, 1914, (H.; 1 9 in marshy depression on harrier 
beach, and moderately numerous but adults few on tidal flats in Spartina 
patens), 10 cf , 5 9,9 juv. 9 . 

Margate City, New Jersey, VII, 24, 1914, (H.; in gi-eat numbers but adults 
occasional in salt marsh particularly in areas of Panicularia fluitans) , 9 cf, 11 
9, 5 juv. 6", 4 juv. 9. 

Ocean City, New Jersey, VIII, 14, 1914, (H.; adults in moderate numbers 
on tidal flats in Spartina patens), 4 cT, 7 9 , 1 juv. cf , (1 cf maeropterous). 

Cedar Springs, New Jersey, VIII, 26, 1914, (H.; very scarce in fresh marsh), 

1 cf. 

Cape May Court House, New Jersey, VII, 20, 1914, (H.; exceedingly abun- 
dant but adults very scarce on tidal flats in Spartina patens), 2 cf , 1 juv. cf, 

2 juv. 9; VIII, 14, 1914, (H.; adults only, moderately numerous in same 
locality), 13 c?, 12 9, (1 cf maeropterous). 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



216 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

Cold Spring, New Jersey, IX, 4, 1907, (B. Long), 1 ? , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Cape May, New Jersey, VIII, 7, 1903, (H. L. Viereck), 2c^, 1 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Oceanview, Virginia, VIII, 8, 1904, (Caudell), 1 d^, 1 9, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Virginia Beach, Virginia, VII, 2, 1903, (Morse), 1 d", 1 9, [Morse Cln.], 
(macropterous). 

Wrightsville, North Carolina, IX, 7, 1911, (H.; very scarce in grasses fring- 
ing barrier beach tidal lagoon), 1 cf, 1 9- 

Tybee Island, Georgia, VIII, 12 and 13, 1903, (Morse), 7 cf , 5 9, [Morse 
Cln.]; IX, 2, 1911, (H.; common and found far out on tidal flats in low grass), 
25 d", 18 9,1 juv. d", 1 juv. 9, (1 9 macropterous). 

Miami, Florida, (Mrs. A. T. Slosson), 1 d", [Morse Cln.]. 

Buras, Louisiana, VII, 25, 1905, (Morse), 8 d^, 5 9, [Morse Cln.], (1 d" 
macropterous). 

Virginia Point, Texas, VII, 21, 1912, (H.; common in heavy grasses in salt 
marsh), 11 d", 12 9, (9 d", 12 9 macropterous). 

Subgenus Anarthropus ^^ new subgenus 

The subgenus is known to include two species; of these one, 
C. (A.) saltans (Scudder), is North American and the other, 
C. (A.) javanicus (Redtenbacher),^^ is Javan. 

Type of subgenus. — Conocephalus saltans [Xiphidium saltans] 
(Scudder). 

Subgeneric Description.- — Prosternum unarmed. Subgenital 
plate of male of the normal type found in the genus; distal margin 
transverse, bearing minute styles laterad. Ventral margins of 
cephalic and median femora armed with six well spaced spines. 
Caudal tibiae with dorsal and ventral pairs of distal spurs absent, 
armed at the distal extremities with a single pair of well-de- 
veloped median spurs. Size small to very small for the genus, 
form rather slender. 
Conocephalus saltans (Scudder) (PI. XVI, fig. 19; XVII, 18; XIX, 7, 8 

and 15; XX, 19.) 
1862. Xiphidium hrevipenne Scudder, Can. Nat. and Geol., vii, p. 285. (In 

part.) [Red River Settlements, Manitoba.] 
1872. Xiphidium saltans Scudder," Fin. Rept. U. S. Geol. Surv. Nebr., [). 

249. [Banks of the Platte River, Nebraska.] 

^^ From a.papdpos=weak and 7roi)s=foot, in allusion to the missing dorsal and 
ventral pairs of spurs of the caudal tibiae. 

^s Abh. k.-k. zool.-botan. Gesell. Wien, xh, p. 526, (1891). The male of this 
species has the cercus similar to that of saltans, but with tooth exceedingly long, 
evenly and decidedly curved downward. 

"Single type here designated: 9; Platte [River, Nebraska], (Ilayden), 
[M. C. Z.]. Measurements; length of body 12.8, of tcgmen 2.7, (caudal 
femora missing), of ovipositor 13.7 mm. 



REHN AND HEBARD 217 

1891. Xiphidium modestum Bruner, Can. Ent., xxiii, p. 56. [Eastern and 

middle Nebraska.] 
1891. Xiphidium taeniatum Redtenbacher, Verb. Zoob-botan. (losclb Wien 

xli, pp. 498, 520. [Texas.] 

Scudder has properly placed modestum and taeniatum. in the 
S3'nonymy under the present species. ^"^ 

Typical saltans is normally small to very small, and both slender 
and delicate in structure. A brown phase of coloration is fre- 
quently met with, particularly in the southeastern states, but 
a green color form is also not unusual elsewhere, and in this 
phase the insect verj^ closely resembles a small example of C. 
stricius. 

Pronotum with cephalic margin convex and ventro-cephalic 
angle weakly indicated to the broadly rounded ventro-caudal 
angle which is almost 90°, caudal margin weakly convex to the 
verj' broad and distinct humeral sinus, convex callosity very 
broad. 

An extremely brachypterous type is normal, and it is con- 
sequently rather surprising to find twelve of the two hundred and 
six specimens recorded strongly macropterous, all of these being 
from the western portions of the insect's distribution. 

The caudal femora have the ventral margins unarmed, the 
genicular areas not darkened and the genicular lobes uni- 
spinose. 

The male cerci are of a wholly different type from that of any 
other North American species, being very slender with a very 
long slender tooth situated interno-mesad and slightly beyond the 
middle of the shaft; the distal portion of the cercus tapers evenly 
to the narrowly rounded apex and is very weakly indented above. 

The ovipositor is normally weakly curved and in length meas- 
ures as follows: Atsion, New Jersey, 10.5-10.7; Fern Hill, 
Pennsylvania, 12.6-12.9; Asheville, North Carohna, 10.9 13; 
Thomasville, Georgia, 13.8-15.8; West Point, Nebraska, 9.7- 
13.8; Sidney, Nebraska, 10.8-13.2; southwestern Nebraska, 
15; Dodge City, Kansas, 15.2; Colorado Springs. Colorado,. 
14.1-15.3; Dallas, Texas, 15.9. 

The present insect is one of the latest species to appc^ar in the 
southeastern United States, the great majority wei-e found on 

*8Can. Ent., xxx, p. 184, (1898). 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



218 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

the coast of the Carohnas to be immature as late as early Septem- 
ber. Among the nearly adult females taken there, the ovipos- 
itor ranges from 13.7 to 14.9 mm., which, with our adult series 
from Thomasville, Georgia, shows that over the lowlands of 
the southeastern United States the ovipositor averages very 
long. Males from this region also show the cerci averaging 
slightly longer and more slender than elsewhere in the distribu- 
tion of the insect, but, when the variation in almost every large 
series is noted, the above results, though showing very possibly 
an incipient geographic differentiation, are by no means sufficient 
to warrant the recognition of a geographic race. Individuals 
from Texas and Okhihoma average much the largest of any 
specimens before us. 

The species is widely and generally distributed over the prairies 
of the middle west, east of this its distribution appears to be more 
or less discontinuous, the insect preferring sandy or other areas 
of poor soil such as the serpentine outcrops in Pennsylvania. 

The present species is known on the Atlantic coast from the 
East Plains and Brown's Mills, New Jersey, southward to Yemas- 
see. South Carolina and Thomasville, Georgia, and is probably 
distributed, except in the northern portion of this region, west- 
ward to the base of the Appalachians. The northernmost points 
of distribution are Toronto, Ontario; the Red River, Aweme and 
the Souris River, Manitoba, and Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan. In 
western distribution it has been found along the Yellowstone 
River as far as Livingston, Montana, and has been taken in 
Colorado at Fort Collins and Manitou. The most southwestern 
records are Springer, New Mexico, and Amarillo and Dallas, 
Texas. 

Specimenti Exatniitcd: Previously recorded, over 30. Here recorded. 208; 
73 males, 87 females, 17 in mature males and 31 im.mature females. 

Fern Hill, Chester County, Pcnr.sylvania, IX, 19, 1808, (R. & H.; in grasses 
on serpentine outcrop), 6 cf , 6 9 • 

Whitinf^s, New Jersey, IX, 28, 190(), (B. Long), 1 cf , [A. N. S. P.]. 

East Plains, Ocean County, New .Jersey, VIII, 24, 1914, (H.; in glade of tall 
grass and also among dwarf pine and oak), 1 d^, 3 juv. 9 . 

Reega, New Jersey, VIII, 2.) an J 31, 1914, (H.; vuidergrowtli of pine barren) 
1 juv. o', 2 juv. 9 . 

Petersburg, New Jersey, X, 1, 1910, (II. Fo.\; dry poor land among red 
cedars), 1 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 



REHN AND HEBARD 219 

Somerset Heights, Maryland, V, 24, 1905, (E S. G. Titus), Icf, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Cabin John Run, Maryland, X, 1907, (W. Palmer), 1 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Washington, District of Cohnnbia, VIII, 22 and IX, 6, 1878 1 c?" 1 9 
[U. S. N. M.]. 

Fayetteville, North Carolina, IX, 9, 1911, (R. & H.; immature specimens 
abundant), 7 juv. cf . 

Wilmington, North CaroKna, IX, 9, 1911, (R. & H.; immature individuals 
common tlu'ough undergrowth of pine woods, particularly in clumps of scrub 
oak shoots), 4 c?', 2 juv. cf, 3 juv. 9 • 

Winter Park, North CaroHna, IX, 7, 1911, (R. & H.; as at Wilmington), 3 cf , 
4 juv. 9 . 

Wrightsville, North Carohna, IX, 7, 1911, (R. & H.; in sandy pine woods), 
1 juv. 9 . 

Lake Waccamaw, North Carolina, IX, 8, 1911, (R. & H.), 1 juv. d". 

Florence, South Carolina, IX, 6, 1911, (R. & H.; immature specimens common 
in open grassy glade and in undergrowth of pine woods), 5 juv. cf , 3 juv. 9 . 

Yemassee, South Carolina, IX, 4, 1911, (R. & H.; in clumps of scrub oak 
shoots in pine woods), 4 juv. c?, 2 juv. 9 . 

Atlanta, Georgia, VIII, 2, 1913, (R. & H.), 1 juv. d". 

Stone Mountain, Georgia, VIII, 3, 1913, (R. & H.; immature specimens 
moderately numerous in bunch grass areas in pine woods on mountain), 1 
juv. o". 

Spring Creek, Decatur County, Georgia, VII, 16 to 29, 1912, (J. C. Bradley), 

1 very small juv., [Ga. State Cln.]. 

Pine, Indiana, IX, 3, 1906, (J. D. Hood), 1 9 , [Pa. State Dept. Zool.]. 

Chicago, Illinois, IX, 9, 1903, (H.; in waste field), 1 9 . 

Staples, Minnesota, VII, 21, 1909, (H.; in sandy spot among wild strawberry 
and other low plants), 7 cf , 4 9,1 juv. 9 . 

Jefferson County, Iowa, VII, 20 to 24, (J. A. Allen), 3 juv. 9 , [M. C. Z.J. 

DaUas County, Iowa, VIII, 20 to 23, (J. A. AUen), 4 9 , [M. C. Z.]. 

Hillsboro, North Dakota, VII, 24, 1891, 1 o^, [Hebard Chi.]. 

Bismarck, North Dakota, VIII, 9, 1889, (Bruner), 2 cf , 2 9, [Hebard Chi.]. 

Mandan, North Dakota, VII, 25, 1909, (H.; along streamlet on prairie in 
grasses), 1 o"', 1 juv. 9 . 

Dickinson, North Dakota, VII, 25, 1909, (H.), 1 juv. 9 . 

West Point, Nebraska, IX to X, 1882 to 1885, (Bruner), 4 cf , 21 9 , [Hebard 
Cln.], (1 cf, 2 9 macropterous). 

Badger, Nebraska, 1 d^, [Hebard Chi.]. 

Valentine, Nebraska, VIII, 10, 1888, 2 o", 1 9, [Hebard Cln.]; 1 o^, 3 9, 
[U. S. N. M.], (1 9 macropterous). 

Gordon, Nebraska, (Bruner), 1 9, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Fort Robinson, Nebraska, VIII, 21, 1888, (Bruner), 2 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Glen, Nebraska, VIII, 6 to 20, 1903, 1 cf , 3 9 , [Hebard Cln.], (1 9 macrop- 
terous). 

Kearney, Nebraska, VII, 27, 1910, (R. & H.; river bottom grassland), 2 c?, 

2 9. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



220 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

North Platte, Nebraska, VII, 28, 1910, (R. & H.; river bottom grassland), 
5 cf , 5 9 , ( 1 cf macropterous). 

Sidney, Nebraska, VII, 30, 1910, (R. & H.; river bottom grassland), 15 cf , 
13 9, (1 cf, 1 9 macropterous). 

Wichita, Kansas, IX, 7, 1904, (F. B. Isely), 2 9, [U. S. N. M.], (1 macrop- 
terous). 

Dodge City, Kansas, IX, 13, 1909, (H.; in depressions of prairie), 2 0?,! 9 . 

Waurika, Oklahoma, X, 14, 1909, (F. C. Bishopp), 1 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Summit of Mount Sheridan, Oklahoma, VIII, 24, 1905, (Morse), 1 9, 
[Morse Cln.]. 

Dallas, Texas, 1 d^, 3 9, [M. C. Z.], (1 cf , 2 9 macropterous). 

Clarendon, Texas, VIII, 18, 1905, (Morse), 1 d', [Morse Cln.]. 

Amarillo, Texas, VIII, 19, 1905, (Morse), 3 cf , [Morse Cln.]. 

Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, VIII, 24, 1903, (Caudell), 1 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Glendive, Montana, VII, 26, 1909, (H.; river bottom area of grass and sage- 
brush), 1 juv. 9 . 

Forsythe, Montana, VII, 27, 1909, (H.; in caiion and in grassy depressions 
above bluffs), 2 cf,4 9- 

Billings, Montana, VII, 28, 1909, (R. & H.), 2 c^. 

Livingston, Montana, VII, 29, 1909, (R. & H.; in field of dry grass), 1 d". 

Julesburg, Colorado, VII, 29, 1910, (R. & H.; river bottom grassland), 2 cf, 
1 9. 

Manitou, Colorado, VIII, 1889, 1 9 , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Springer, New Mexico, IX, 15, 1909, (C. N. Ainslie), 1 d", [U. S. N. AI.]. 



REHN AND HEBARD 221 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES 

Plate XV 

-Conocephalus allardi (Caudell). Tray Mountain, Georgia. Sub- 
genital plate of male (paratype). (X Sf) 

-Conocephalus fa^cialua fasciatus (DeGeer). Aweme, JManitoba. Sub- 
genital plate of male. (X5|) 

-Conocephalus fasciatus fasciatus (DeGeer). Aweme, Manitoba. Male. 
Distal extremity of caudal tibia. (X 20) 

-Conocephalus saltans (Scudder). Fem Hill, Pennsylvania. Male. 
Distal extremity of caudal tibia. (X 20) 

-Conocephalus fasciatus fasciatus (DeGeer). Aweme, Manitoba. Male. 
Lateral outline of head. ( X 10) 

-Conocephalus resacensis new species. Piper Plantation, Brownsville, 
Texas. Male {type). Lateral outline. (X 3§) 

-Conocephalus aigialus new species. Wrightsville, North Carolina. 
Male {type). Lateral outline. (X 3f) [Figure number omitted 
on plate.] 

-Conocephalus gracillimus (Morse). Homestead, Florida. Male. 
Lateral outline of head. (X 10) 

-Conocephalus hygrophilus new species. Milneburg, Louisiana. Male 
{allotype). Lateral outline. (X 4) 

-Conocephalus stictomerus new species. Cedar Springs, New Jersey.. 
Male (type). Lateral outline. (X 4) 

Plate XVI 
Outline of cephalic view of fastigium. (X 25) 

Fig. 1.— Conocephalus allardi (Caudell). Tray Mountain, Georgia. Male 
(paratype). 

Fig. 2.— Conocephalus fasciatus fasciatus CDeGeer). Aweme, Manitoba. Male. 

Fig. 3. — Conocephalus fasciatus vicinus (Morse). Sisson, California. Male. 

Fig. 4. — Conocephalus spinosus (Morse). Coronado Beach, California. 
Female. 

Fig. 5. — Conocephalus gracillimus (Morse). Homestead, Florida. Male. 

Fig. 6. — Conocephalus breripennis (Scudder). Tinicum, Pennsylvania. Male, 

Fig. 7. — Conocephalus resacensis new species. Piper Plantation, Browns- 
ville, Texas. Male (type). 

Fig. 8. — Conocephalus nemoralis (Scudder). Asheville, Norfh Carolina. 
Male. 

Fig. 9. — Conocephalus nemoralis (Scudder). Asheville, North Carolina, 
Male. Unusually narrow condition. 

Fig. 10. — Conocephalus occidentalis (Morse). Sentinel, California. Male. 

Fig. n. — Conocephalus sirictuA (^enddex). Mt. Airj^ Pennsylvania. Male. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



Fig. 


\. 


Fig. 


2_ 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8.- 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 



222 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

Fig. 12. — Conocephalus hygrophilus new species. Milnebiirg, Louisiana. 

Male {allotype). 
Fig. 13. — Conocephalus sliciomerus new species. Cedar Springs, New Jersey. 

Male {type). 
Fig. 14. — Conocephalus aiyiahis new species. Wrightsville, North Carolina. 

Male {type). 
Fig. 15. — Conocephalus nigropleurum (Bruner). West Point, Nebraska. Male 

{type). 
Fig. 16. — Conocephalus allenualns (Scudder). Vigo County, Indiana. Male. 
Fig. 17. — Conocephalus nigra pleuroides (Fox). Wrightsville, North Carolina. 

Male. 
Fig. 18. — Conocephalus spartinae {Fox). Chestnut Neck, New Jersey. Male. 
Fig. 19. — Conocephalus saltans {Scudder) . Fern Hill, Pennsylvania. Male. 

Plate XVII 

Outline of lateral lolie of pronotum. (X 6) 

Fig. 1. — Conocephalus allardi (Caudell). Tray Mountain, Georgia. Male 

{paralype) . 
Fig. 2. — Conocephalus fasciatus fa.sciatus (DeGeer). Aweme,'Manitoba. Male. 
Fig. 3. — Conocephalus fasciatus vicinus {Morse) . Sisson, California. Male. 
Fig. 4. — Conocephalus spinosus {Morse). Coronado Beach, California. Male. 
Fig. 5. — Conocephaln^ gracillimus {Morse). Homestead, Florida. Male. 
Fig. 6. — Conocephalus brevipennis {Scudder) . Tinicum, Pennsylvania. Male. 
Fig. 7. — Conocephalus resacensis new species. Piper Plantation, Browns- 
ville, Texas. Male {type). 
Fig. S. — Conocephalus nemoralis (Scudder). Asheville, North Carolina. 

Male. 
Fig. 9. — Conocephalus occidentalis (Morse). Sentinel, California. Male. 
Fig. 10. — Conocephalus strictus (Scudder). Mt. Airy, Pennsylvania. Male. 
Fig. 11. — Conocephalus hygrophilus new species. Milneburg, Louisiana. 

Male {allotype). 
Fig. 12. — Conocephalus stictomeriis new species. Cedar Springs, New Jersey. 

Male {type). 
Fig. 13. — Conocephalus aigialus new species, Wrightsville, North Carolina. 

Male {type). 
Fig. 14. — Conocephalus nigropleurum {Bruner). West Point, Nebraska. Male 

(type). 
Fig. 15. — Conocephalus altenuatus (Scudder). Vigo County, Indiana. Male. 
Fig. 16. — Conocephalus nigro pleuroides (Fox). Wrightsville, North Carolina. 

Male. 
Fig. 17. — Conocephalus spartinae {Fox). Chestnut Neck, New Jersey. Male. 
Fig. 18. — Conocephalus saltans (Scudder). Fern Hill, Pennsylvania. Male. 



REHN AND HEBARD 223 

Plate XVIII 
Dorsal (shaded) and lateral outlines of male cercus. (X 10) 

Figs. 1 and 2. — Conocephalus allardi (Caudell). Tray Mountain, Georgia. 
{Paratype.) 

Figs. 3 and 4. — Conocephalus fasciatus fascialus (DeGeer). Aweme, 
Manitoba. 

Figs. 5 and 6. — Conocephalus fascialus vicinus (Morse). Sisson, California. 

Figs. 7 and 8. — Conocephalus spinosus (Morse). Coronado Beach, California. 

Figs. 9 and 10. — Conocephalus gracillimus (Morse). Homestead, Florida. 

Figs. 11 and 12. — Conocephalus brevipennis (Scudder). Tinicum Island, Penn- 
sylvania. 

Figs. 13 and 14. — Conocephalus resacensis new species. Piper Plantation, 
Bro\\TisviUe, Texas. (Type.) 

Figs. 15 and 16. — Conocephalus nemoralis (Scudder). Asheville, North Caro- 
lina. 

Figs. 17 and IS. — Conocephalus occidenlalis (Morse). Sentinel, California. 

Figs. 19 and 20. — Conocephalus striclus (Scudder). Mt. Ah-y, Pennsylvania. 

Figs. 21 and 22. — Conocephalus hygrophilus new species. Milney)urg, Louis- 
iana. (Allotype.) 

Figs. 23 and 24. — Conocephalus stictomerus new species. Cedar Springs, New 
Jersey. (Type.) 

Figs. 25 and 26. — Conocephalus aigialus new species. Wrightsville, North 
Carolina. (Type.) 

Figs. 27 and 28. — Conocephalus nigropleurum (Bruner). West Point, Ne- 
braska. (Type.) 

Figs. 29 and 30. — Conocephalus altenuatus (Scudder). Vigo County, Indiana. 

Plate XIX 

Dorsal (shaded) and lateral outlines of male cercus. (X 10) 

Figs. 1 and 2. — Conocephalus nigropleuroides (Fox). Wrightsville, North 

Carolina. 
Figs. 3 and 4. — Conocephalus sparlinae (Fox). Chestnut Neck, New Jersey. 
Figs. 5 and 6. — Conocephalus saltans (Scudder). Fern Hill, Pennsylvania, 
Figs. 7 and 8. — Conocephalus saltans (Scudder). Wilmington, North Caro- 
Una. 
Stridulating field of male tegmen. (X 71) 
Fig. 9. — Conocephalus allardi (Caudell). Tray Mountain, Georgia. (Para- 
type.) 
Fig. 10. — Conocephalus fasciatus jasciatus (DeGeer). Aweme, Manitoba. 
Fig. 11. — Conocephalus gracillimus (Morse). Homestead, Florida. 
Fig. 12. — Conocephalus nemoralis (Scudder). Asheville, North Carolina. 
Fig. 13. — Conocephalus occidenlalis (INIorse). Sentinel, California. 
Fig. 14. — Conocephalus nigropleurum (Bruner). West Point, Nebraska. 

(Type.) 
Fig. 15. — Conocephalus saltans (Scudder). Fern Hill, Pennsylvania. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



224 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

Plate XX 
Outline of ovipositor. ( X 2) 
Fig. 1. — Conocephalus allardi (Caudell). Tray Mountain, Georgia. {Para- 
type.) 
-Conocephalus fasciatus fasciatus (DeGeer). Aweme, Manitoba, 
-Conocephalus fasciatus tncinus (Morse). Sisson, California. 
-Conocephalus spinosus (Morse). Coronado Beach, California. 
-Conocephalus gracillimus (Morse). Homestead, Florida. 
-Conocephalus brevipennis (Scudder). Tinicum, Pennsylvania. 
-Conocephalus brevipennis (Scudder). Asheville, North Carolina. 
-Conocephalus resacensis new species. Piper Plantation, Brownsville, 

Texas. (Allotype.) 
-Conocephalus nemoralis (Scudder). Asheville, North Carolina. 
-Conocephalus occidentalis (Morse). Sisson, CaUfornia. 
-Conocephalus sirictus (Scudder). Raleigh, North CaroUna. 
-Conocephalus hygrophilus new species. Virginia Point, Texas. 
(Type.) 
Fig. 13. — Conocephalus strictomerus new species. Cedar Springs, New Jersey. 

{Allotype.) 
Fig. 14. — Conocephalus aigialus new species. Wrightsville, North Carolina. 

(Allotype.) 
Fig. 15. — Conocephalus nigropleurum (Bruner). Lincoln, Nebraska. (Para- 
type.) 
Fig. 16. — Conocephalus attenuatus (Scudder). West Point, Nebraska. 
Fig. 17. — Conocephalus nigropleur aides (Fox). Wrightsville, North Carolina. 
Fig. 18. — Conocephalus spartinae (Fox). Chestnut Neck, New Jersey. 
Fig. 19. — Conocephalus saltans (Scudder). Fern Hill, Pennsylvania. 



Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7, 


Fig. 


8, 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 



Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. XLI. 



PI. XV 










REHN AND HEBARD AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE 



Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, A'ol. XLI. 



PI. XVI. 





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17 




18 




REHN AND HEBARD -AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE 



Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. XLI. 



PI XVU. 





















REHN AND HEBARD- AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE 



Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. XLI. 



PI. XVIII. 









1 1 







12 



16 




20 




21 




23 




25 



27 




29 



22 



r-r 



30 



REHN AND HEBARD — AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE 



Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. XLI. 



PI. XIX. 













13 





REHN AND HEBARD — AMERICAN TETTIGONliDAE 



Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. XLI. 



PI. XX. 



12 



13 



15 



<^ 




18 



19 



REHN AND HEBARD AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE 



REHX AND HEBARD 225 



STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE 
(ORTHOPTERA) 

VI. 

BY JAMES A. G. REHX AND MORGAX HEBARD 

A SYNOPSIS OF THE SPECIES OF THE GENUS 
CONOCEPHALUS FOUND IN AMERICA SOUTH OF 
THE SOUTHERN BORDER OF THE UNITED 

STATES 1 

In a recent paper,- the authors have studied the species of the 
genus Conocephalus found in North America north of Mexico; 
in that paper the generic references, genotype, description and 
discussion of the history of the genus and its then recognized 
subgenera have been fully treated. We were obliged at that 
time to examine our series of the genus from the other portions 
of America, and, finding that we had material of the great major- 
it}^ of the species before us and the opportunity to correct many 
misconceptions, to give man}" important but hitherto wholly 
neglected or hurriedly considered characters, as well as to establish 
a number of very confusing names as synon^ans, we determined 
to study all of the American forms of the genus. The present 
paper is bj^ no means as complete as the first portion of the study, 
for in much of the territory considered there has been little or no 
collecting accomplished and the series before us, though far 
larger than any others previously studied, contain few specimens 
of some species and none of several of which the types are inac- 
cessable to us and the original descriptions of the same vague 
and uncertain. Our efforts are here concentrated in defining the 
species known to us as accurately as we are able, with the hope 
that by so doing many of the difficulties and misconceptions of 
the past may be eradicated from future study of the American 
forms of the genus. 

1 Published with the aid of the Orthoptera Fund. 

2 Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, xH, pp. 155 to 224, (1915). 

• TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 
1.5 



226 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

The following key includes, in addition to the subgenera recog- 
nized by us in the first paper, others here erected. Unquestion- 
ably numerous other subgenera exist and will be described when 
careful study of the species of the w^orld is made. 

Key to the Subgenera of the Genus Conocephalus 

A. Prosternum bispinose. 

B. Caudal tibiae armed at distal extremity with three pairs of spurs. 

C. Ventral margins of cephalic and median tibiae armed with five to 
seven (normally six) well spaced spines. 

D. Male subgenital plate produced in long sharp spikes. 

E. Productions situated meso-distad, intervening space strongly 
obtuse-angulate emarginate; styles absent. 

Dicellura Rehn and Hebard 

EE. Productions situated disto-laterad, intervening space roundly 

emarginate; awl-like styles present, situated on ventral surfaces of 

lateral productions. Opeastylus new subgenus 

DD. Male subgenital plate with distal margin more or less decidedly 

truncate with no decided emargination or production; small, slender, 

fihform styles present disto-laterad. Xiphidion Serville 

CC. Ventral margins of cephalic and median tibiae armed with nine to 

ten closely set spines. . Palotta F. Walker 

BB. Caudal tibiae armed at distal extremity with five spurs (interno-dorsal 

spur missing). Ventral margins of cephalic and median tibiae armed with 

six well spaced spines. Male subgenital phite as in Xiphidion. 

Perissacanthus new subgenus 
BBB. Caudal tibiae armed at distal extremity with a single pair of spurs 
(dorsal and ventral pairs absent)'. Ventral margins of cephalic and median 
tibiae armed with seven to eight well spaced spines. 

Aphauropus new subgenus 
AA. Prosternum unarmed. (Ventral margins of cephalic and median tibiae 
armed with five to seven well spaced spines.) 

B. Caudal tibiae armed at distal extremity with three pairs of spurs. 

Conocephalus Thunberg 
BB. Caudal tibiae armed at distal extremity with a single pair of spurs 
(dorsal and ventral pairs absent). (Male subgenital plate as in Xiphidion.) 

Anarthropus Rehn and Hebard 

As yet, Dicellura is known only from the southern Appalach- 
ian region of the eastern United States, Opeastylus is widely dis- 
tributed in temperate and subtropical South America and the 
only subgenus found in the former region, Xiphidion is the 
dominant subgenus from subtropical South America northward 



REHN AND HEBARD 227 

and is circiimorbital in distribution, Palotta and Conocephalus 
are known from the Old World only, Perissacanthus has been 
found only in Paraguay, Aphauroyus is known only from Tepic, 
Mexico, while Anarthropus is known from a species widely dis- 
tributed in the United States and southern Canada, and from 
another species from Java. 

The genus is probably found everywhere over the region under 
consideration south as far as the extremity of the mainland of 
South America. Lack of material from northern Mexico is 
much to be regretted. The following forms, treated fully in the 
authors' first paper on the genus, are unquestionably present in 
that region, Conocephalus fasciatus fasciatus, fasciatus vicinus, 
spinosiis, resacensis and strictus; for all of these have been taken 
in the United States on the Mexican border, and the first and 
third of these forms are here recorded from farther southward. 
In addition Co7iocephalus hygrophilns and spartinae will very 
possibly be found to occur in the salt marsh vegetation along 
the Gulf Coast, south of the Rio Grande, in Mexico. In 
desert regions the genus is, as in the United States, doubtless 
confined to mountains, rivers, streams, lakes and irrigated tracts 
where a constant supply of water is to be found. The low water- 
sheds of the Orinoco, Amazon and La Plata systems do not act 
as controls in the distribution of the species, but the main chain 
of the Andes appears to afford an absolute barrier. A single 
species, widely distributed in North America, alone is known 
from Bermuda. The Greater Antilles have, apparently, but two 
species, the least abundant, C. insvlaris, peculiar to these islands, 
the other, C. cinereus, in addition widely distributed from central 
Mexico to the headwaters of the Amazon. The Lesser Antilles, 
on the other hand, appear to have but one species, C. saltafor, 
which is the most widely distributed and, apparently, the 
most abundant species from Costa Rica southward throughout 
South America to Paraguay and Eastern Peru. 

The following table illustrates the relationship of the American 
forms of the genus known to us; showing, in addition to the forms 
here studied, the position of the forms restricted to North America 
which have been treated in the previous paper. 



TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



228 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 



-longipes 

vitt icoH is 



cinereus 
fasciatus fasciatus 
fasciatus vicinus 
— ictus 

spinosus 

nsularis 

iodes 



r—ins 



graci n imus 
angust if rons 



brevipennis 
- resacensis 

— unicoloK 






occidental is 



. hygrophilus 



■ at ictomerus 



-aigialus 



I — equatorialis 
-1- saltator 
Lborelli 

, truncatus . , 

I r versicolor 

I ochrotelus 



■ nigropleurum 

attenuatus 

nigropleuroides 



spartinae 



-strictoides 
leptopterus 



The numbers given above designate the six subgenera known 
from America, the letters indicate the American groups of the 
very large subgenus Xiphidion. Of these, A, B, C and D form 
more or less of a unit, while E contains two species which are 
nearly intermediate in position between this and the unit formed 
by the groups, G, H and I, all three of which latter groups are, 
however, somewhat more widely separated one from the other 
than are the first four groups. Group F is distinctive. Com- 
paring the male cerci of the American species of the other sub- 
genera with those of the species constituting groups of the 
subgenus Xiphidion, we find that C. (Dicellura) allardi agrees best 
with group A; the two species C. (Opeastylus) longipes and ritti- 
collis are distinctive; C. {Perissacanthiis) strictoides agrees best 
with group I; C. (Aphauropus) leptopterus, being known only 
from the female sex, can not in this respect be definitely asso- 
ciated, though the general structure of the insect suggests that 
the male cerci may agree best with group F; while C. (Anar- 
thropus) saltans is distinctive. 

Material Exaynincd. — We have studied the material of the 
genus from North America north of Mexico, nearly 3800 speci- 
mens, and, in addition to a series of nearly 100 specimens prc^ 



REHN AND HEBARD 229 

vioiisly correctly recorded, we have examined and recorded in 
the present paper 804 specimens, of which 571 are in the Hebard 
Collection and that of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia. The combined figures form a total of about 4700 
American specimens of Conocephalus. 

We desire to express our deep obligation to Mr. A. X. CaudcU 
of the United States National Museum, Dr. Samuel Henshaw of 
the Museum of Comparative Zoology and Dr. F. E. Lutz of the 
American Museum of Natural History, for the great privilege of 
examining and studying all of the material of the genus contained 
in the collections of those institutions. With the exception of 
McNeill's exitiosum. and Bruners's two recently described species 
we have had before us all of the types of the valid forms of the 
genus located in America. 

Key to Males of the Species of the Genus Conocephalus found in 
America north to the southern border of the United States.^ 

(No species of the genus with prosternum unarmed is known 
from the region under consideration.) 

A. Caudal tibiae armed distad with three pairs of spurs. 

B. Subgenital plate very strongly and sharply produced latero-distad in 

sharp straight spikes which are weakly divergent, on the ventral surfaces of 

which productions are situated awl-like styles, distal margin of plate roundly 

emarginate mesad. (Subgenus Opeastylus) 

C. Form moderately slender. Fastigium of vertex little over one-half 

width of proximal antennal joint. Convex callosity of lateral lobes very 

broad. Swollen shelf above cereal tooth less extensive. Caudal femora 

with ventro-external margins armed normally with two and three spines. 

longipes (Redtenbacher) 
CC. Fonii moderately robust. Fastigium of vertex somewhat more 
than two-thirds width of proximal antennal joint. Convex callosity of 
lateral lobes exceedingly broad. Swollen shelf above cereal tooth more 
extensive. Caudal femora with ventral margins imarmed. 

vitticollis (Blanchard) 
BB. Subgenital plate not produced disto-laterad, disto-lateral styles small 
and filiform, distal margin of jjlate nearly or exactly transverse. 

(Subgenus Xiphidion) 
C. Cerci armed with a heavy mesal (vertical) tooth so that its base is 
entirely visible from above, this tooth situateil mesad. 
D. Cerci with mesal jjortion not contrastingly swollen. 

' See p. 235 for a discussion of the species not represented in om- material. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



230 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

E. Cerci with distal portion not greatly produced, weakly to very 
decidedly depressed, and with apex broad and rounded. 

F. Tympanum of tegmina not unusually elongate. Convex 
callosity of lateral lobes not very broad. Vertex moderately pro- 
duced. 

G. Cerci with distal portion moderately produced, the depres- 
sion of the same being general and not more decided on the 
inner side. 

H. Fastigium of vertex about two-thirds^ width of basal an- 
tennal joint. Ventral margins of caudal femora normally 
unarmed (spines when present never more than one to three). 

I. Eyes moderately large. Convex callosity of lateral 
lobes very narrow. Abdomen immaculate, with distal half, 
including cerci, uniform and striking yellow. Distal por- 
tion of cerci decidedly depressed and narrowing more sharply 
to the more narrowly (but still rather broadly) rounded 
apex. (Form moderately slender.) cinereus (Thunberg) 

II. Eyes decidedly small. Convex callosity of lateral 
lobes moderately but not decidedly broad. Dorsum of 
abdomen trifasciate, with median line broad. Distal por- 
tion of cerci weakly depressed, scarcely narrowing to the very 
broadly rounded apex. 

J. Form slender. Abdominal fasciae moderately dis- 
tinct, colors not brilliant, fasciatus fasciatus (DeGeer) 
JJ. Form moderately slender. Abdominal fasciae very 
distinct, colors brilliant (particularly so in life). 

fasciatus vicinus (Morse) 
HH. Fastigium of vertex as wide as proximal antennal joint.* 
Ventro-e.xternal margins of caudal femora normally armed. 
I. Form moderately robust. Convex callosity of lateral 
lobes very narrow. Abdomen immaculate, with distal por- 
tion, including cerci, clear pale yellow. Cerci heavy, 
elongate, with distal portion decidedly depressed, scarcely 
narrowing to the very broadly rounded apex. \'entro- 
extemal margins of caudal femora bearing normally three 
and four spines. spinosus (Morse) 

^ Though the above is the normal condition in C. cinereus, this usually very 
constant character varies occasionally in that species from slightly less than 
two-thirds of to fully the width of the proximal antennal joint, as discussed in 
the specific treatment. 

^ This usually very constant character shows a decided variability in C. 
ictus; one series from the state of Vera Cruz, Mexico, including specimens in 
which the fastigium of the vertex is but two-thirds as wide as the proximal 
antennal joint. In consequence this variation is important in determining 
material from thai region and must not be overk)oked. 



KEHN AND HEBARD 231 

II. Form very robust and truncate. Convex callosity of 
lateral lobes moderately broad. Distal portion of abdomen, 
including cerei, tawny. Cerci similar to those of cinereus. 
Ventro-external margins of caudal femora bearing normally 
two and three spines.'^ ictus (Scudder) 

GG. Cerci with distal portion more strongly produced and 
distinctly curved outward, the depression of the same being more 
decided on the inner side. (Form very robust. Fastigium of 
vertex strongly ascending, greatest width slightly less than one- 
half that of proximal antennal joint. Eyes large and protruding. 
Convex callosity of lateral lobes exceedingly narrow. Abdomen, 
including cerci, mahogany red. Ventro-external margins of 
caudal femora bearing normally three and four spines.' 

angustifrons (Redtenbacher) 
FF. Tympanum of tegmina unusually elongate. Convex callosity 
of lateral lobes very broad. Vertex distinctly produced.* 

G. Coloration not unusually brilliant; dorsum of abdomen 
narrowly, but usually strikingly, trifasciate. Cerci normally 
green, of similar type to those of fasciatus but distinctly more 
elongate and attenuate, with distal portion very strongly de- 
pressed (as in C. gracillimus). Ventro-external margins of 
caudal femora sometimes unarmed, sometimes supplied with 
one to three spines. insularis (Morse) 

GG. Coloration unusually brilliant; wings iridescent; dorsum 
of abdomen broadly, but not strikingly, trifasciate. Cerci 
burnt lake, slightly longer than in fasciatus, distal portion weakly 
but distinctly curved outward, with broadly rounded apex 
briefly but strongly depressed. Ventral margins of caudal 
femora unarmed. iriodes new species 

EE. Cerci with distal portion very greatly produced, very elongate 
and attenuate, very weakly depressed distad, with apex strongly 
acuminate. (Fastigium of vertex about one and one-half times 
width of proximal antennal joint. Convex callositj^ of lateral lobes 
very broad. Dorsum of abdomen normally infuscated, cerci dark. 
Ventral margins of caudal femora unarmed.) strictus (Hcudder) 

^ A number of specimens from the state of \'era Cruz, Mexico, have the 
ventral margins of the caudal femora unarmed, but are otherwise typical of 
smaller individuals of the species, as are the spechnens showing the variation 
remarked in the preceding foot-note. 

' In this species the armament of the ventral margins of the cephalic and 
median tibiae is decidedly unusual, in every specimen before us at least one of 
these margins bears seven, instead of six, spines. 

8 As in C. gracillimus, which has the vertex even more distinctly produced, 
the occiput ascends evenly toward the vertex, the vertex ascending slightly 
more decidedly but very nearly in the same plane. 

TRANS. AM. EXT. SOC, XLI. 



232 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

DD. Cerci with mesal portion contrastingly swollen. 

E. Form moderately slender. Vertex not strongly but distinctly 
ascending, fastigium of vertex two-thirds width of proximal antennal 
joint. Eyes moderately large. Convex callosity of lateral lobes 
moderately broad. Abdomen immaculate, with distal portion, in- 
cluding cerci, pale yellow brown. Ventro-external margins of caudal 
femora armed with four to six spines. unicolor Bruner 

EE. Form very slender, distinctly attenuate. Vertex not ascending, 
fastigium of vertex slightly wider than proximal antennal joint. 
Eyes normal. Convex callosity of lateral lobes very broad. Abdo- 
men immaculate with distal portion, including cerci, pale yellowish. 
Ventral margins of caudal femora unarmed. 

resacensis Ilehn and Hebard 
CC. Cerci armed with a more delicate ventral (vertical) tooth so that its 
base and often the greater portion is concealed from above, mesal portion 
of cercus very contrastingly swollen, tooth situated at proximal base of 
this swelling, (distal portion of cercus greatly depressed). 
D. Coloration not unusually brilliant or distinctive. 

E. Fastigium of vertex slightly less to slightly more than one-half 
width of proximal antennal joint. Convex callosity of lateral lobes 
moderately broad. Ventro-internal margins of caudal femora armed. 
Discoidal and anal fields of tegmina, and adjacent portion of wings 
when at rest, distinctly darkened. (Swollen mesal portion of cercus 
with section above tooth produced overhanging and rather sharply 
rounded, distal portion elongate, very strongly depressed, particularly 
on inner side. Form moderately slender. Eyes moderately large. 
Ventro-external margins of caudal femora armed normally with 
four and four spines. Wings iridescent.) equatorialis (Giglio-Tos) 
EE. Fastigium of vertex broader. Convex callosity of lateral lobes 
very narrow. Ventro-internal margins of caudal femora unarmed. 
Discoidal and anal fields of tegmina, and adjacent portion of wings, 
when at rest, not darkened. 

F. Cerci of same type as in equatorialis but decidedly elongate, 
varying in production and outward curvature of distal portion to 
very elongate. Form moderately slender to moderately robust. 
Eyes moderately large. Fastigium of vertex slightly less than, to 
fully two-thirds as broad as proximal antennal joint. Ventro- 
external margins of caudal femora armed normally with two and 
three spines.^ (Wings somewhat iridescent.) saltator (Saussurc) 

^ In five specimens from the large series from Trinidad and Venezuela, these 
margins are unarmed ; in four specimens from considerable series from Domin- 
ica and Trinidad, the cephalic and meilian tibiae have the ventro-cei)halic 
margins armed with seven, instead of the normal six, spines. The jiresent 
species is the most abundant and the most variable over the greater portion 
of South America, and material nmst be studied from every aspect if accurate 
results are to be obtained. 



REHN AND HEBARD 233 

FF. Cerci?i° Form decidedly robust. Eyes distinctly larger. 
Fastigium of vertex slightly less than two-thirds as broad as prox- 
imal antennal joint.'' Ventro -external margins of caudal femora 
armed with four to five spines. borelli (Giglio-Tos) 

DD. Coloration unusually brilliant and distinctive. (Form moderately 
robust. Convex callosity of lateral lobes very narrow. Cereal tooth 
dii'ected strongly meso-proximad. 

E. Caudal femora with ventral margins unarmed. Abdomen not 
unusually colored. (Fastigium of vertex one-half width of proximal 
antennal joint. Apex of tegmina broadly rounded, truncate. 
Distal portion of cercus shorter than in versicolor, lateral margins 
converging to the acute apex.) truncatus (Redtenbacher) 

EE. Caudal femora with ventro-external margins armed. Abdomen 
conspicuously and remarkably colored. 

F. Fastigium of vertex one-half width of proximal antennal joint. 
Apex of tegmina (in brachypterous condition as well) sharjjly 
rounded. Distal portion of cercus elongate with lateral margins 
weakly irregular but converging very gently and evenly to the 
rather sharply rounded apex. Caudal femora with ventro-external 
margins armed with three to five spines. 

versicolor (Redtenbacher) 
FF. Fastigium of vertex narrow but about two-thirds width of 
proximal antennal joint. Apex of tegmina broadly rounded, trun- 
cate. Mesal swollen portion of cercus more ample and decidedly 
more elongate than in versicolor, distal portion broad and elongate, 
with lateral margins arcuato-convergent distad to the very sharply 
rounded apex, thus forming a very narrow got hie arch. 
Ventro-external margins of caudal femora armed with five to eight 
spines. ochrotelus new species 

AA. Caudal tibiae armed at distal extremity with five spurs, the interno- 
dorsal spur being absent. (Cephalic and median tibiae armed with six well 
spaced spines. Male subgenital plate as in Xiphidiott.) 

(Subgenus Perissacanthus) 
(Form very slender. Vertex strongly produced, not ascending, fastigium of 
vertex slightly more than one-half width of proximal antennal joint. Eyes 
rather small for South American species. Convex callosity of lateral lobes 
rather narrow. Apex of tegmina broadly rounded, truncate. Cerci suggesting 
type found in group I of Xiphidion, but distinctive in the characters given in 
the specific discussion. Ventral margins of caudal femora unarmed.) 

strictoides (Caudell) 

'" Though we have no males of this species before us, we arc convinced, 
from the original description and the evident close relationship shown by the 
females, that males of the species have cerci agreeing at least in general form 
with those of C. saltalor. 

'1 Distinctly narrower than in material of C. salkdor where the ranges of the 
two coincide. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



234 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

AAA. Caudal tibiae armed at distal extremity with one pair of spurs, the 
dorsal and ventral pairs of spurs being absent. (Agreeing with Anarthropus 
in this respect, but differing in the armed prosternum and annament of the 
cephalic and median tibiae, the ventral margins of which are armed with seven 
to eight well spaced spines.) (Subgenus Aphauropus) 

(Form robust. Vertex not decidedly produced, not ascending, fastigium of 
vertex two-thirds width of proximal antennal joint. Convex callosity of 
lateral lobes exceedingly broad. Tegmina greatly aborted and whollj- con- 
cealed by pronotum, wings absent. Ventral margins of caudal femora 
unarmed.) leptopterus new species 

In the above key it must be noted that only the usually most 
useful and also the most distinctive characters are given; in 
numerous cases material can only be determined properly through 
careful consideration of all the specific details which are given, 
as far as we are able, in the specific treatment. The figures are 
of great importance in showing frequently complicated differences 
very difficult to describe clearly, and also degrees of difference, 
while for females only characters common to both sexes will be 
found in the above key, the characters peculiar to that sex being 
discussed in the specific treatment, shown by figures, and tabu- 
lated in part on pages 237 to 239. 

Many species have individual characters of decided value, 
which in a key would be cumbersome and confusing. Some of 
these are: the depth of the fastigium of the vertex and the form 
of its lateral margins, the shape of the lateral lobes of the pro- 
notum and the humeral sinus, the minor specific differences of the 
male tegminal tympanum, the spination of the genicular lobes 
of the caudal femora and the coloration of the genicular areas of 
the same, the general though obscure pattern of coloration in 
species not strikingly marked and the length of the styles of the 
subgenital plate. 

Extremely slight variations are found which cannot be wholly 
overlooked, but which can hardly be considered in the treat- 
ment of each species without giving them undue emphasis. 
Such is the fact, only determinable after examination of large 
series, that in species having both macropterous and brachyp- 
terous forms, the latter type is almost always accompanied bj^ a 
slight pronotal change, the dorsum of the pronotum being usually 
slightly less produced caudad, with a proportionate reduction 
in the depth of the humeral sinus and the caudal margin of the 
lateral lobes becoming slightly less sinuous than in the macrop- 
terous condition. 



REHN AND HEBARD 235 

We have observed that the antennal length is decidedly greater 
in some species than in others, but accurate measurements of 
the same are very difficult and these delicate organs are found to 
be incomplete in so many cases that we have deemed it best to 
omit discussions of the same. 

Efforts to include all the known species in the keys of Redten- 
bacher/- Saussure and Pictet/^ Karny" and Bruner'-^ without 
having material of many of the species for examination, com- 
bined with the employment of such usually worthless characters 
xis tegminal and ovipositor length — given with scarcely any re- 
gard to the extremes of variation and in complete disregard of 
the probabilit}' of macropterism and brachypterism appearing in 
the same species — has made these keys virtually worthless and in 
many cases misleading in the extreme. 

The following described species do not appear to he included in 
the material before us. In future studies with the present paper 
they must be carefully considered, but at present we feel only 
justified in giving the following brief remarks resulting from study 
of the various original descriptions and in tabulating these species 
from the same source as far as possible on pages 238 and 239. 

caizanum 

1897. [Xiphidium] caizanum Giglio-Tos, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. comp. Univ- 
Torino, xii, no. 302, p. 42. [1 cf : Caiza, Ecuador.] 

The form of the cerci and subgenital plate is apparentl}^ differ- 
ent from any other known American species. The species very 
possibly belongs to an undescribed subgenus, apparently between 
the subgenera DiceUura and Xiphidion. 

exitiosum 

1901. Xiphidium exitiosum McNeill, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., iii, p. 501, 
fig. 42. [2 cf , 3 9 , 3 juv.: Indefatigable Island, Galapagos Islands.) 

This species is so poorly described and the rough sketchy out- 
line figure of the female so unsatisfactory, that we can Init state 
that the species may be related to C. cincrcus. 

•2 Verb. k.-k. zool.-bot. Gesell, W'ieii, .\li, pp. 49.')-499, (1891). 
" Biol. Cent.-Amer., Orth. i, pi). 396-397, (1S9S). 
" Abh. k.-k. zool.-bot. Gesell. Wien, xli, pp. 85-94, (1907). 
'5 Ann. Carneg. Mus., i.x, pp. 372-374, (June 1815). 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



236 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

resinum 

1898. Xiphidium resinum Saussure and Pictet, Biol. Cent.-Amer., Orth., ir 
p. 398, pi. xi.v, fig.s. 26, 27. [1 c? : Orizaba, Mexico.] 

The brief and very unsatisfactory description, accompanied 
by good figures of the vertex, affords insufficient evidence for the 
proper placing of the species. It ma}' be very near C. angusti- 
frons, or instead aUied to C. gracillimus. The characters given 
agree with avgustifrons excepting that the vertex is more pro- 
duced, the specimen is strongly macropterous and the caudal 
femora have, we are led to suppose, the ventral margins unarmed. 
The vertex is decidedly too narrow for graciUimus. The species 
with which it is compared, unispina, is a member of the genus 
Orchelimum. 

doryphorum 

1907. Xiphidion doryphorum Karny, Abh. k.-k. zool.-bot. Gesell. Wien, iv, 
p. 96. [1 9 : Uruguay.] 

This diminutive species may be very closely allied to C. stric- 
toides. The strongly oblique caudal margin of the lateral lobes 
of the pronotum and different measurements indicate that it is 
distinct. Length: body 9, pronotum 3.3, tegmen 0.3, caudal 
femur 9.7, ovipositor 11 mm. 

aberrans 

1901. Xiphidium aberrans Redtenbacher, Verh. k.-k. zool.-bot. Gesell. Wien, 
xli, p. 516. [More than one 9 : Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.] 

The nine to ten spines of the ventral margins of the cephalic 
tibiae would apparently place this species in a different subgenus 
from any of those known from America. The fastigium of the 
vertex is narrow; the caudal margin of the lateral lobes is dis- 
tinctly sinuate, the convex callosity oval and distinct. 

Of the species previously referred to this genus or its synonyms 
from North America, Xiphidium imispina is known to be a 
member of the genus Orchelimum}^ We must also bear in 
mind that the genus Conocephalus of authors has applied until 
recently, not to the present forms, but to those American species 
which n>ust now be placed in the genera Neoconocephalus and 
Homocoryphus. 

"^ Viile Rehn and Mcbard, Trans. Amer. Entom. Soc, xli, p. 81, (191.5). 



REHN AND HEBARD 237 

We give below in tabular form the extremes found in species 
in tegminal and ovipositor length (in millimeters), and have also 
stated the general form of the ovipositor and the results obtained 
from counting the spines of the ventro-external margins of the 
caudal femora. The normal counts for these spines give the 
number for each limb individually, the extremes are based on 
single limbs. 

Tegmina ^ • •, Spines of ventro- 

Macropterous Brachypterous "^''Po^'to'' external margins 

ot raudal femora 

lorigipes d' 15.. 3-20. 9 straight. normally 2 and 3. 

9 16.9-23.3 7.4-9.8" extremes 1 to 5. 

vitlicoUis o" 12.8-19.8 straight. none. 

? 14.6-20.7 7.6-10.2 

cinereus cf 20.9 ranging to 8'^ straight. normally 0. 

9 19.8 ranging to 9 7-11.2 U% 1 to 2 

f. fasciatus o^ 11.7-19,3 straight. normally 0. 

9 10-21 .1 7-9.9 13% 1 tO 3. 

/. idcin us d" 16.4-18.7 9 . 9-1 3 . 1 ^ ^ st raight . normally . 

9 15.6-18.5 10.6-13.9 7.5-13 4%ltj2. 

ictus d 15.2-19.9 6-9.3-0 straight. normally 2 and 3. 

9 19.1 4.8-10.1 9.3-13.9 14% 0. 

extremes to 7. 
spinosus cf 14.3-21 .1 very weakly normally 3 and 4. 

9 16.2-22.8 curved, extremes 2 to 6. 

broader. 
7-10.1 

insularis cf 18.6 ranging to -^ 9. 1 straight. normally and 1. 

9 19.3 ranging to 11.3 8.9-10.1 417o 0. 

extremes to 3. 

"^ Our measurements are taken from the base of the basal i)lica to the ai)ex 
of the ovipositor. Redtenbacher gives 10.2 mm. for the maximum ovipositor 
length of this species, measuring probably from the juncture of the subgenital 
plate and ovipositor; this measurement is not constant, due to the mobility 
of the subgenital plate, and would frequently exceed the dimension given by 
us by about .4 mm. 

'5 In this species the intergradation between the extremes of the macrop- 
terous and semi-macropterous condition is gradual, and mnnerons intermed- 
iate specimens are before us. 

'^ No truly brachypterous form occurs in this geographic race, the material 
treated in this column being more accuratelj' termed senii-maciopterous. 

-"Tegminal length of one intermediate male 11.4 mm., and of one inter- 
mediate female 13.9 mm. This is the only American species known to us in 
which intermediates are found, though rarely, between a strongly macrop- 
terous and a strongly brachypterous condition. 

^' As in cinereus, the intergradation between the extremes of the macrop- 
terous and semi-macropterous condition is gradual. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



238 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 



Macropterous Brachypterous Ovipositor 

iriodes cf 15.2-16.4 nearly straight. 

9 16.2-19.3 7.3-7.9 

angusLifrons d" 8.2-9.4 nearly straight. 

9 15.9 6.5-8.7 8-10 

resacensis* cP 7.1-8.8 straight. 

9 5.6-6 15.2-15.6 

unicolor* cf 17 nearly straight. 

9 18.4-18.9 14.7-16.4 

stridus d" 15.7-17.8 5.1-7.3 nearly straight. 

9 15.4-22 2.8-5.8 17.7-32.3 

equatorialis o" 17.3-19.6 12.2-14.6 nearly straight . 

9 18.1-19.5 1P2-1522 7.2-9.9« 

saltator & 15-20.4 5.8-8.8 weakly curved 

9 16.7-21.3 3.3-6.1 to nearly 
straight. 
8.4-14.9 

horelli* & 4^2 distinctly 

9 2.5"-3,9 curved. 

7.82'-10.1 

truncatus cf 5 . 2-5 . 8 weakly but dis- 

9 2.6-2.9 tinctly curved. 

8-8,9 

versicolor* cf 19" 5.5-^-7.6 nearly straight. 

9 20.3-22=^ 626-726 925_i3 

ochrotelus** d" 4.9 and 5.2^6 

9 ? 

strictoides* & 7.6-7.9 nearly straight. 

9 322-3.522 21.1-2422 

leptopterus** cf nearly straight. 

9 concealed. 30. 1 

INCERTAE SEDIS2": 

caizanum** cT "4" ? 

9 

exitiosum a' "6" "very slightly 

curved." 

9 "8" "12" 



Spines of ventro- 
external margins 
of caudal femora 

none. 



normally 3 and 4. 
extremes 1 to 7. 
none. 

normally 4 and 5. 
extremes 4 to 6. 
none. 

normally 4 and 4. 
extremes 1 to 6. 
normally 2 and 3. 
-2% 0. 
extremes to 6. 

normally 4 and 5. 
extremes 4 to 5. 



normally 4 and 4. 
extremes 3 to 5. 
extremes 5 to 8. 



"none." 



"none." 



22 This measurement is taken from the original description. 

23 Though the extremes of the series before us are as given here, we find that 
a length of over 8. mm. is very exceptional in the present species. 

2'' Giglio-Tos gives this measurement in his description of the female of this 
species. 

26 Giglio-Tos gives this measurement m his original description of the 
synonymous fcsUic. 

2''' In this unique tyi)e the tegmina are not of ecjual length. 

27 The following data is ((uoted from the various original descriptions. 



REHN AND HEBARD 239 

Tegmina ^. . -^ Spines of ventro- 

Macropterous Brachypterous Ovipositor external margins 

of caudal femora 

resinum** cf "19" ? none (by infer- 

9 ence). 

aberrans* _ cf "subrectus." "none." 

9 "17-20.5" "8.5-9" 

doryphorum** (^ "rectus." "none." 

Q ... "0.3" "11" 

In the species marked with an asterisk not sufficient material 
is known to give the probable extremes of the above diinensions, 
those marked with two asterisks are known from the unique 
types. 

In the known females of the species here considered, the ovi- 
positors of all range from scarcely arcuate to straight excepting 
in C. borelli and C. truncatus, and in C. spinosus the arcuation is 
nearly as pronounced as in those species, accompanied by a dis- 
tinctive shape. 

Comparison with an analogous chart -^ in the authors' first 
paper on the present genus shows, that in tropical America fewer 
species are known to develop both macropterous and brachypter- 
ous conditions than in the United States. This is doubtless 
partially due to the fact that our knowledge of the tropical species 
is in almost every case more limited. In future time, experi- 
mentation and study will doubtless bring to light many interest- 
ing factors governing the development and relative abundance 
of the macropterous and brachypterous condition in the species 
of this genus. 

Subgenus Opeastylus^^ new subgenus 

The subgenus includes two species, both from temperate and 
subtropical South America. 

Type of Subgenus — Conocephalus I'itticoUis [Locusta vitticoUis] 
(Blanchard). 

Subgeneric Description. — Prosternum bispinose. Subgcnital 
plate of male very strongly and sharply produced disto-laterad 
in sharp straight spikes which are weakly divergent, on the ven- 
tral surfaces of these productions are situated awl-like styles, 

28 Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, xli, p. 167, (1915). 

25 From 67r£as=awl and (rTOXoj=a pillar (the stj'les), in allusion to the 
awl-like styles of the male subgenital plate in the species of the subgenus. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



240 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

above which the produced portions are bent suddenly upAvard 
thence again horizontal, their apices reaching as far as the 
extremity of the enlarged proximal portion of the styles; between 
these productions the distal margin of the plate is roundly emar- 
ginate at an angle of a little less than ninety degrees. Ventral 
margins of cephalic and median femora armed with six well 
spaced spines. Caudal tibiae armed at distal extremities with 
three pairs of spurs. Size medium for the genus. 

Conocephalus longipes (Redtenbacher) (PI. XXII, fig. 1; XX,; 1, 2, 32 
and 33; XXIV, 1.) 

1891. Xiphidium longipes Redtenbacher, Verh. k.-k. zool.-bot. Gesell. Wien, 
xli, p. 505, pi. iv, figs. 81 a and b. [Buenos Aires [Argentina]; Montevideo 
[Uruguay]; Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catharina [Brazil].] 

The present insect is closely related to C. vitticolUs, but may 
be readily separated by the narrow fastigium of the vertex, 
more slender form, less extensive enlarged portion of male cerci 
overhanging the cereal tooth, somewhat narrower ovipositor in 
the female and armed ventro-external margins of the caudal 
femora. 

Redtenbacher has given a portion of the major differences, 
but has misrepresented others in his brief and unsatisfactory 
original description. 

Vertex rather decidedly produced for the genus.^" Fastigium 
of vertex but little over one-half as wide as proximal antennal 
joint, narrowing with a distinct but weak concavity to the facial 
suture, when seen from front distinctly twice as deep as great- 
est width. Eyes small. Lateral lobes of pronotum of moderate 
width, cephalic margin weakly arcuate, with scarcely a trace of 
the ventro-cephalic angle, to the broadly rounded ventro-caudal 
angle which is a little less than ninety degrees, caudal margin 
weakly arcuate to the broad and distinct humeral sinus, convex 
callosity very l)road. Tegmina long and slender, ^^ particularly 
toward the sharply rounded apex; tympanal field of males rather 

'" This species and C gracillimus have the vertex more distinctly produced 
than in any other American forms known to us, and agree in having the occiput 
ascending evenly toward the vertex and the vertex ascending slightly more 
decidedly but very nearly in the same plane. In other respects the two si)ecies 
are greatly dissimilar. 

31 The extremes of tegminal length for this and the o^^her species here treated 
are given in tubular form on pages 237 to 239. 



REHN AND HEBARD 241 

large for the genus, nearly quadrate. Male cercus moderately 
stout and rather short; with a long slender weakly incurved 
ventral tooth, which is directed weakly proximo-ventrad, situated 
just distad of the median point; above this tooth the shaft of the 
cercus is produced in an overhanging shelf, which extends nearly 
two-thirds the distance to the base of the cercus and is narrow 
but evenly rounded in outline; beyond the tooth the shaft of the 
cercus narrows regularly and rapidly to the sharply rounded 
apex and is somewhat flattened vertically on inner side, not 
depressed. No approach toward brachypterism is apparent, the 
decided amount of variation in tegminal length in the twenty- 
three specimens before us being due to a general greater or lesser 
size development, which in this series we believe to be the result 
of local environmental conditions. The caudal femora vary 
similarly in length, cf 11-12.8, 9 11.8-14.8 mm.; the genicular 
lobes are normally bispinose; the genicular areas are not darkened; 
the ventro-external margins are armed in the eighteen perfect 
individuals before us as follows: 

Number of spines, 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 2-2 2-3 2-4 

Number of specimens, 2 13 12 11 

Number of spines, 3-3 3-4 3-5 4-5 5-5 

Number of specimens, 2 4 2 1 1 

The dorsum of the abdomen bears on each side an indistinct 
pale yellowish line. 

The localities represented in the typical series and the material 
before us cover the entire known range of the species. The 
localities represented by our series of twenty-four recorded speci- 
mens are: Rio Grande do Sul, BraziP^- Sapucay, Paraguay; Mis- 
iones, Buenos Aires, Chacras de Coria and San Ignacio, Province 
of Mendoza, Argentina. We have but three unrecorded speci- 
mens of the insect. 

Puerto Camera, Alto Parand. Paraguay, XII. 9, 19i:3. (C. Schrottkv), 1 9, 
[A. N. S. P.]. 
Carcarana, Santa Fe, Argentina, 1 cf , 1 9 , [.\. N. 8. P.]. 

^- Two females before us from this locality are paratypes, sent to the .-\cad- 
emy of Natural Sciences by Saussure. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 
16 



242 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

Conocephalus vitticoUis (Blanchard) (PI. XXII, fig. 2; XXIII, 3 and 4; 

XXIV, 2.) 
1851. Locusta vitticoUis Blanchard, in Gay, Hist, fisica polit. Chile, ZooL, vi, p. 

46, Orth. pi. II, figs. 5, a and b. [Coquimbo Province, Chile.] 

This species, which replaces C. longipes in Chile, is a closely 
related form, but readily separable by the characters given under 
that species. 

Vertex not as much produced as in longi/pes and accordingly 
slightly less ascending. Fastigium of vertex over two-thirds 
width of proximal antennal joint, narrowing with a distinct 
concavity to facial suture, when seen from front about one and two- 
thirds times as deep as greatest width. Eyes moderately large. 
Lateral lobes of pronotum similar to those of longipes excepting 
that they are distinctly broader and the ventro-cephalic angle is 
noticeable as a very broadly rounded obtuse-angulation, convex 
callosity exceedingly broad. Tegmina proportionately shorter 
than in longipes, becoming extremely slender distad toward the 
sharply rounded apex; tympanal field of males as in longipes. 
Male cerci much as in longipes but proportionately shorter and 
more compact, with portion overhanging tooth thicker and ex- 
tending a full two-thirds of the distance to the base of the cercus. 
No approach toward brachypterism is apparent though the 
measurements^^ show decided variability due to a general greater 
or lesser size development^^; the proportionate tegminal length 
when compared with that of longipes is distinctly less than in that 
species. The caudal femora vary similarly in length, cT 10.7- 
14.3, 9 12.9-15.6 mm.; the genicular lobes are normally bi- 
spinose; the genicular areas are not darkened ^^; the ventral mar- 
gins are unarmed. The dorsum of the abdomen is frequently 
infuscated in the present species and in such material the narrow 
lateral yellowish lines, found weakly indicated in longipes, are 
very striking. 

33 Vide page 237. 

3* The large series from El Olivar, Chile, averages very decidedly larger than 
any of the other specimens before us. A warmer and more humid environ- 
ment accompanied by more; luxuriant vegc^tation ap])arently ])rodu('('s a de- 
cided size increase in many s])('cies of Orthoptera. 

35 In some, more richly colored specimens of this and other species, the tissue 
in drying is found to settle to a certain extent in th(>se areas, and careful exam- 
ination is sometimes necessary to detect the fact that such (iarkeuing is due 
to discoloration. 



EEHN AND HEBARD 243 

The species is known only from Chile, from the province of 
Coquimbo southward to Valdivia. The Andes undoubtedly 
separate its distril:)ution from that of longipes. 

Specimens Examiticd: (5(); 22 males, 12 females, 10 immature males and 22 
immature females. 

El Olivar, Colchagua, Chile, 1, 1»H)5, (C. 8. Reed), 19 d",! 9, 10 juv. cf, 
22 juv. 9, [A. N. 8. P.]. 

Penco, Concepcion, Chile, II, 1904, (C. S. Reed), 1 9 , [A. X. S. P.]. 

Concepcion, Concepcion, Chile, II, 10, 1904, (C. 8. Reed), 1 a", [A. X. 8. P.]. 

Hualqui, Concepcion, Chile, II, 25, 1904, (C. 8. Reed), 2 9 , [A. X. 8. P.]. 

Coronel, Concepcion, Chile, I, 1904, (C. S. Reed), 1 d", 1 9 , [A. X. 8. P.]. 

Lota, Concepcion, Chile, I, 1904, (C. S. Reed), 1 9, [A. X. 8. PJ. 

8ubgenus Xiphidion 8erville 
1S31. Xiphidiim 8erville, Ann. 8ci. X"at., xxii, p. 159. 
1912. XipltvlioH Karny, Cen. Ins., fasc. 135, Subfam. Conocephalinae, {). 8. 

Conocephalus cinereus Thunberg (PI. XXII, fig. 12; XXIII, 5 and 6.) 

1.S15. C[oiu)C(jjli.(tlu.s] cinereus Thunberg, Mem. Acad. Imp. 8ci. 8t. Pet.ers- 

bourg, V, ]). 273. [Jamaica.] 
1S74. Orchelimnm ortnni 8cud(ler, Proc. Bost. 8oc. X'^at. Hist., wii, p. 265. 

[Peruvian IMaran )n.] 

Thunberg's description is very brief and unsatisfactory, but 
recent collections made in Jamaica have enabled us to place this 
species beyond question. 

Constant misconception of C/a.sc/a<;/.s' has, however, resulted 
in the present insect being recorded as that species many times, 
by Burmeister, Gundlach, Redtenbacher, Griffini, Saussure and 
Pictet, Karn}', Morse and Rehn, while semi-brachypterous indi- 
viduals from Cuba have been recorded as hrevipennis by Bolivar 
and Gundlach, and from Cuba, Jamaica and the Bahamas by 
Rehn. To these mistakes have been added misidentifications 
as snltator by Redtenbacher, Brunner and Saussure and Pictet 
and as fasciatum variety saltator by Griffini. All of these difficul- 
ties were due to the then universally supposed importance of teg- 
minal length and complete disregard of the not as readily observed 
male genitalic characters, the form of the lateral lobes of the 
pronotum and the color pattern in both sexes. 

Examination of the type of Scudder's Orchelimum ortoni proves 
that it is an absolute synonym of the present species, based upon 
a unique dried-alcoholic female in the macropterous condition. 

The present insect is related to C. fasciatus, differing from that 

TR.'VNS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



244 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

species mainly in the somewhat more robust form; larger and 
more prominent eyes; broader and differently shaped lateral 
iobes of the pronotum; immaculate abdomen, the distal half of 
which in males of cinereus is uniform and striking yellow in life 
(in various specimens varying in shade from cadmium to capu- 
cine yellow), and in the male cerci being more elongate with the 
distal portion decidedly depressed and lateral margins of same 
distinctly converging (this more noticeable as the distal portion 
is decidedly more elongate than in fasciatus) , and with the apex 
more narrowly but still broadly rounded. The male cerci are con- 
colorous with the distal portion of the abdomen in this species; 
in fasciatus they are green unless discolored in drying. 

Vertex not strongly but distinctly ascending. Fastigium of 
vertex normally about two-thirds, varying occasionally from less 
than two-thirds to fully the width of the proximal antennal joint, 
narrowing with a distinct but very weak concavity to facial 
suture, when seen from front about one and one-half times as 
deep as greatest width. Eyes moderately large and prominent. 
Lateral lobes of pronotum broader than in fasciatus, cephalic mar- 
gin moderately oblique and nearly straight to the broadly rounded 
obtuse-angulate ventro-cephalic angle, thence nearly straight to 
the sharply rounded ventro-caudal angle which is distinctly less 
than ninety degrees, caudal margin weakly sinuous, nearly 
straight to the shallow humeral sinus, convex callosity very nar- 
row. Tegmina macropterous, varying to a semi-brachypterous 
condition in all large series from various portions of the range of 
the species, apex of tegmina always sharply rounded. Male cerci 
as described above. The genicular lobes of the caudal femora are 
normally bispinose^'^; the genicular areas are not darkened; but 
sixteen of a series of over one hundred perfect specimens before us 
have the ventro-external margins of the caudal femora armed as 
follows: 

Number of spines, 0-1 0-2 1-1 1-2 2-2 2-3 

Number of specimens," 6 16 111 

3^ As in almost all of the species showing this condition, rare individuals are 
found having one, two or three of these lobes unispinose, and very rarely this 
is tnie for all four of the genicular lobes of the caudal femoru. In species 
having these lobes normally unispinose, a bispinose condition of even one or 
two of the lobes is very rarely found. 

''From the Bahamas, one" .Jamaica, five; Costa Rica, one; Panama, one; 
Venezuela, one; FlViich (!uian;i, two; Peru, five (of six before us.)- 



REHN AND HEBARD 245 

In females the yellow area of the distal portion of the abdo- 
men is reduced in size and decidedly less brilliant than in males. 

The specimens from Puntarenas, and Rio Grande, Costa Rica, 
have the vertex unusually narrow, appreciably less than two- 
thirds the width of the proximal antennal joint; a number of 
specimens have the vertex decidedly wider than usual, and the 
specimens from St. Thomas, West Indies, and Medellin, Mexico, 
have this width fully equal to that of the proximal antennal joint. 
In spite of such variation in this and a few other species, the 
character may be said to be on the whole of considerable diag- 
nostic value, particularly when considered in conjunction with 
other important characters. No single characters may be relied 
upon for specific determinations in the present genus without 
disastrous results. 

Measiiretncnts {in. iiiilliiudcrs) of extremes 

Length of tecmen Length of raudal femur Length of 

ovipositor 

o"^ 9.0' 9 

Havana. Cuba 10.9-17.3 11.1-19.7 10.1-12.9 10.9-14.3 S-10.7 

Montego Bay, 

Jamaica... 9.4-17.1 9-17.1 9.2-12.1 9.9-12.3 7-9.2 

Costa Rica. ... 13 . 9-19 . 2 12 . 3-lS .6 12 . 2-13 . 2 12 . 7-13 .2 9.1-9.7 

Ancon, Panama 14.9-18.7 15.7-19.8 13-13.4 13.6-14.4 10.1-11.2 

La Pedrita, Ven- 
ezuela 13- U). 9 1.1. 7-16.9 12-12 2 12.7-13.1 8.S-8.9 

Cayeime, French 

Cuiana ... 17.2 19.4 13.2 14.0 10.1 

Ea.'^tern Peru . 19-20.9 19.1 13. 3-1."). 4 14.7 9 4 

At Montego Bay, Jamaica, a series was taken in sliort grass 
along the Montego River — these specimens are distinctly depaup- 
erate; specimens taken in areas of heavier grass near the jungle 
at the same locality' are of normal size. Observation of the 
species elsewhere in the field in Jamaica and Panama, convinces 
us that the considerable variation in size and tegminal length is 
due chiefly to immediate environment; local luxuriance of vc^ge- 
tation appears to be usually accompanied by local aggrandize- 
ment of individuals of the species of this and many oiher genera 
of Orthoptera. 

The present insect is known from the Bahamas, Cuba, Haj'ti, 
Porto Rico and adjacent smaller islands, Jamaica, continental 
America from A'era Cruz, Mexico, southward through Costa Rica 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



246 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

and Panama to northern South America, where it is known south- 
eastward as far as Cayenne, French Guiana, and southwestward 
as far as Contamano, Peru. It is the dominant species of the 
genus only in the Bahamas, Greater Antilles and northernmost 
Lesser Antilles. 

In the present instance, we have included below material 
previously misidentified and now before us, to assist in future 
distributional and other studies. 

Specimens Examined: 200; 104 males, 77 females, 6 immature males and 13 
immature females. 

Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas, I, 31, 190-4, (Hebard; in short 
grass), 2 cf , 2 9 ,^« [Hebard Cln.]; VI, 28, 1904, (G. M. Allen), 1 cf, 1 9," 
[M. C. Z.], (aU semi-macr.).4o 

Guane, Pinar del Rio, Cuba, IX, 24 to 26, 1913, (F. E. Lutz), 6 d^, 5 9,1 
juv. 9 , [Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.], (3 cf , 3 9 semi-macr.). 

North of Vinales, Pinar del Rio, Cuba, IX, 16 to 22, 1913, (F. E. Lutz), 1 
cT, [Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.]. 

Pinar del Rio, Pinar del Rio, Cuba, IX, 9 to 24, 1913, (F. E. Lutz), 4:d', 5 
9, [Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.]. 

Cabanas, Pinar del Rio, Cuba, IX, 5 to 8, 1913, (F. E. Lutz), 4 d", [Am. 
Mus. Nat. Hist.], (3 semi-macr.). 

Havana, Cuba,", I, 23, 1904, (Hebard), 6 cf, 1 9,1 juv. 9 , [Hebard Cln.]; 
(C. F. Baker), 1 cf , 2 9 , [A. N. S. P.], (2 c^, 1 9 semi-macr.). 

Cayamas, Oriente, Cuba, XII, 21 to II, 28, (E. A. Schwarz), 2 d', 2 9, 
[LT. S. N. M.], (1 9 semi-macr.). 

Cristo, Oriente, Cuba, X, 3, 1913, (F. E. Lutz), 2 juv. 9, [Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist.]. 

Guantanamo, Oriente, Cuba, X, 4 to 8, 1913, (F. E. Lutz), 5 cT, 3 9,2 juv. 
9, [Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.], (3 cd', 4 9 semi-macr.). 

Baracoa, Oriente, Cuba, IX, 15 to X, 4, 1901, (A. Busck), 2 c/", 3 9, [U. S. 
N. M.], (3 9 semi-macr.). 

San Francisco Mountains, San Domingo, IX, 1905, (A. Busck), 5 cf , 3 9, 
[U. S. N. M.]. 

Mona Island, Porto Rico, II, 21 to 26, 1914, 1 d^, 3 juv. cf , 2 juv. 9 , [Am. 
Mus. Nat. Hist.], {(f semi-macr.). 

38 Recorded by Rehn as A', hrevipenne, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., xxii, 
p. 116, (1906). 

33 Recorded by Morse as X. Jaaciatum, Psyche, xii, p. 20, (1905). 

^0 The less usual conditions of tegminal development are given in ])arcn- 
theses at the end of each record in the i)resent paper except where, in certain 
species, it has been thought best to give the condition for each specimen. 
Macr. = macroi)terous and brach. = brachyi)terous. Dried alcoholic material 
is also indicated by "dr. alch." 

^1 The semi-ma cropterous material of this series has been recorded as X. 
hrevipenne (in part), the macropterous as A', fasciahun (in part) by Rehn, 
Cent. Exp. Sta. Rept. Cuba, p. 216, (1909). 



REHN AND HEBARD 247 

Mayaguez, Mayaguez, Porto Rico, XII, 18, 1911, II, 23, 1912, (C. W. 
Hooker), 1 d", 1 9," [U. S. N. M.], (semi-macr.); I, 1899, (A. Busck), 1 9, 
[U. S. N. M.]. 

Arecibo, Arecibo, Porto Rico, VII, 30 to VIII, 1, 19U, 2 juv. a , [Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist.]. 

San Juan, Porto Rico, VIII, 2 and 3, 1914, 1 juv. a", 1 juv. 9 , [Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist.].^2 

Bayamon, San Juan, Porto Rico, I, 1899, (A. Busck), 2 o", [U. S. X. M.], 
(1 semi-macr.). 

Rio Piedras, Humacao, Porto Rico, VI, 1902, (O. W. Barrett), 2 cf, 1 9," 
[A. X. S. P.]; IX, 24, 1912, (T. H. Jones), 1 cf , [U. S. X. 'SI.]. 

Arroyo, Guayama, Porto Rico, II, 1899, (A. Busck), 1 d", 2 9« [U. S. X. M.], 
(1 9 semi-macr.). 

Culebra Iskmd, Porto Rico, II, 1899, (A. Busck), 2 9 ,'- [U. S. X. M.], (semi- 
macr., dr. alch.). 

Vieques Islaji.l, Porto Rico, III, 27, 1900, (C. W. Richmond), 1 9," [I'. S. 
N. M.]. 

St. Thomas, West Indies, VIII, 2, (A. Busck), 1 cf , 1 9 , [V. S. X. M.]. 

Lapknd, Catadupa, Jamaica, III. 9, 1911, 1 9, [Am. Mus. Xat. Hist.], 
(semi-macr.). 

Montego Bay, Jamaica, III, 6, 1911, [Am. Mus. Xat. Hist.], 1 9 ; XI, 3 and 
4, 1913, (Hebard), 6 d", 5 9, [Hebard CIn.], (5 cf , 3 9 semi-macr.). 

Mandeville, Jamaica, XI, 6, 1913, (Hebard; grassy pasture), 1 cf , [Hebard 
Chi.]. 

Rio Cobre near Bogwalk, Jamaica, X, 25, 1913, (Hebard; open gi'assy areas), 
2 cf , 1 9, [Hebard Chi.], (1 cf, semi-macr.). 

Grange Lane, Jamaica, X, 25, 1913, (Hebard; heavy grass near forest), 1 cf, 
1 9 , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Kingston, Jamaica, X, 23, 1913, (Hebard; grassy pasture), 8 c?', 7 9 , [Hebard 
CIn.], (7 c?, 5 9 semi-macr.). 

Stony Hill, Jamaica, X, 25, 1913, (Hebard), 2 c?, [Hebard Chi.], (semi-macr.). 

Hope Gardens, Jamaica, II, 22, 1911, 1 cf, [Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.], (semi- 
macr.). 

MedeUin, Vera Cruz, Mexico, IX, 1895, (L. Bruner), 1 9, [Hebard Cln.], 
(semi-macr.). 

Old Vera Cruz, Vera Cruz, Mexico, XII, 8, 1909, (F. C Bishopp), 1 cf , 
[U. S. X. M.], (semi-macr.). 

San Rafael, Vera Cruz, Mexico, (C. H. T. Tovvnsend), 1 c^, 1 9, [Hebard 
CIn.], (semi-macr.). 

^-Recorded by Rehn as X- fa.^ciatum, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, xxix, p. 134, 
1903. 

« Recorded by Rehn as X. fasciatum, Bull. .\m. Mus. Xat . Hist ., xxviii, 
p. 76, (1910). 



TR.\XS. AM. EXT. SOC, XLI. 



248 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

Isla del Coco, Costa Rica, III, 1902, (P. Biolley), 2 d^, 2 ?, [A. N. S. P.], 
(semi-macr.). 

Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica, 1 9 , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Puntarenas, Costa Rica, II, 1907, (P. Biolley; strand, leaves of Ipomaca),^ 
1 9, [A. N. S. P.], (semi-macr.). 

San Jose, Costa Rica, III and VI, 1904 to 1906, 1160 meters elevation, (P. 
Biolley), 3 9,^* [A. N. S. P.], (1 semi-macr.). 

Rio Grande, Costa Rica, III, 6, 1902, (M. Gary), 1 d", [Hebard Cln.], (semi- 
macr.). 

Carillo, Costa Rica, III, 1902, (P. Biolley), 1 9 , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Guatel, Costa Rica, (C. F. Underwood), 1 o^,« [A. N. S. P.]. 

Paraiso, Costa Rica, IV, 20. 1910, (P. P. Calvert), 1 9 , [A. N. S. P.], (semi- 
macr.). 

Juan Vinas, Costa Rica, VII, 31, 1909, (P. P. Calvert), 1 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Siquires, Costa Rica, VIII, 3, 1903, (M. A. Carriker, Jr.), 2 a", [Hebard Cln.]. 

Ancon, Canal Zone, Panama, XI, 12, 1913, (Hebard; open marshy grass- 
land), 6 cf, 6 9, (1 cf, 2 9 nearly semi-macr.). 

La Piedrita, Venezuela, II, 16, 1911, (S. Brown), 14 c?, 2 9,4 juv. 9, 
[A. N. S. P.], (8 cT semi-macr.). 

Cali, Cauca Valley, Colombia, V, 26, 1914, (H. S. Parish), 3 o^, [A. N. 8. P.], 
(2 semi-macr.). 

Cayenne, French Guiana, 1 cT, (W. Schaus), [U. S. N. M.]; 1 9, (Ex Saus- 
sure, labelled /a .scia^ MS), [A. N. S. P.], (dr. alch.). 

Rio Maranon, Peru, 1 9 , [M. C. Z.], type oi Orchelimum ortoni Scudder, (dr. 
alch.). 

Rio Pacaya, Peru, VII, 1912, 1 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Contamano, Rio Ucayali, Peru, X-XII, 1912, 3 c^, 2 9, [A. N. S. P.], (dr. 
alch.). 

Conocephalus fasciatus fasciatus (DeGeer)**^ 

1773. Locudn Jascwtn De Gecr, Mem. I'Hist. Ins., iii, p. 458, pi. 40, fig. 4. 
[Pennsylvania.] 

This species has been widely confused in studjdng tropical 
American material with the allied but distinctive C. cinereus, and 
with the very diiferent C. saltator. Careful study of the very 

*^ The finding of a specimen on strand vegetation, from which spot we have 
an example of C- spinosus, is not surprising. C. spinosus has been taken in 
salt marsh at Coronado Beach, California, a few feet from grasses and strand 
plants where C. fasciatus vicinus is to be found. The present species supplants 
C. f. fasciatus and its race and is found imder similar local environmon^^al con- 
ditions. 

■"^ Recorded by Rehn as A', fasciatuin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 190.5, 
p. 826, (1906). 

^^ For a more detailed discussion of the present species, vide Rehn and 
Hebard, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, xU, p. 170, (1915). 



REHN AND HEBARD 249 

large series of these species before us shows conckisively, that the 
present insect is found only in North America southward 
through northern Mexico on the Gulf coast as far as ^'era Cruz, 
and also on the island of Bermuda. With no material of the 
genus from northern Mexico, we are unable to state how far south- 
ward the ranges of fasciatus fasciatus and fasciatus vicinus 
extend, though both races occur along the Mexican bound- 
ary. The single small specimen from Vera Cruz, in the fairly 
large series of the genus from that region before us, would sug- 
gest that the species is not found farther south. Study of the 
Bermudan fauna shows /asc/oius s.s. to be the sole representative 
of the genus on that island, one male and three females before us 
not differing at all from typical material of the species. 

Under cinereus and saUator the "frequent misconceptions of the 
present species are discussed. Normally the form of the lateral 
lobes of the pronotum in fasciatus s.s. and fasciatus vicinus is 
particularly distinctive when compared with that of the other 
American species of the genus. 

Vertex not strongly but distinctly ascending. Fastigium of 
vertex fully to very slightly more than two-thirds the width of 
the proximal antennal joint, narrowing with a distinct but very 
weak concavity to facial suture, when seen from front about one 
and one-half times as deep as greatest width. Eyes decidedly 
small. Lateral lobes of pronotum rather narrow, cephalic margin 
evenly and distinctly convex to the rather broadly rounded 
ventro-caudal angle,**^ thence weakly but distinctly convex to the 
distinct humeral sinus; convex callosity moderately broad. Teg- 
mina always macropterous in typical fasciatus, varying to semi- 
brachypterous in the western race fasciatus vicinus, in which race 
this condition is the normal. Male cerci rather short and stout, 
mesal portion very slightly larger than proximal portion, with a 
very broad and heavy mesal (vertical) internal tooth which is ])er- 
pendicular to the shaft of the cercus and directed inter no-mesad 
with sharp thorn-like apex weakly decurved. In both races of 

"Variation occnirs in which this margin becomes weakly concave before 
reaching the ventro-caudal angle and, in such si)ecimens, the ventro-cephalic 
angle is in consequence weakly indicated and the form of the lateral lobes 
more similar to the general type found in the species of the present subgenus. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



250 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

fasciatus the abdomen, particularly in males, is distinctly tris- 
triate, which contrasts strongly in that sex with the green cerci/^ 
In addition to nearly one thousand recorded specimens which 
have been recently examined by us, we here record a single 
female. 

Vera Cruz, Vera Cruz, Mexico, XII, 1SS7, (L. Bruner), 1 9 , (Hebard Cln.]. 

Conocephalus ictus (Scudder) (PI. XXII, figs. 3, 13 and 20; XXIII, 7, 8 

and 9; XXIV, 3.) 
1859. X[iphidium] me.ricanum Saussure, Rev. et Mag. de Zuol., 2<^ ser., xi, p. 

208. [Mexico]. 
1875. Xiphidimn ictum Scudder, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xvii, j). 461. 

[Mexico; Guatemala]. 

Saussure's name, Xiphidium mexicanum, based uponniacrop- 
terous examples of this species,'*^ is unfortunately not available 
at the present day; the present use of the name Conocephalus 
for the genus then called Xiphidium prevents the use of his 
■specific name, as on the same page of the work in which the 
present species is described, and having line priority, we find 
Conocephalus mexicanus described, which species is now placed 
in the genus Neoconocephalus. Scudder described brachypterous 
examples of the same species as Xiphidium ictum, which specific 
name must be used as the first available for the species. 

The position of the present insect is between C. cinereus and 
C. spinosus, from both of which species it differs decidedly in 
general appearance; the males suggesting very heavy and deeply 
colored males of C. stricius, while the females suggest, to some 
degree, large and very heavy examples of that sex of C. brevi- 
pennis. From cinereus this species differs in the much more 
robust structure, more truncate form, normally broader vertex, 
decidedly more quadrate lateral lobes of the pronotum and 
decidedly larger tympanum of the male tegmina with much 
longer stridulating vein. The male cerci of the two species are 

^8 In life, certain species of the genus have the cerci green; this excellent 
character can not be used for dried material as the green coloration often fades 
or even completely disappears in drying. 

^9 We have before us a brachypterous male specimen taken by Sumi(?hrast 
in Mexico, received from Saussure and identified by him as his A', mexicanum, 
probably originally from the same series on which Scudder's name is in part 
based. 



REHN AND HEBARD 251 

quite similar, the ovipositor of idus is of the normal type but 
averages decidedly longer and distinctly broader than in cincreus. 
When compared with spinosus the present species is found to 
differ in the more robust structure, much more truncate form, 
very much more quadrate lateral lobes of the pronotuni, longer 
stridulating vein of male tegminal tympanum, different colora- 
tion and very different genitalic characters of l)oth sexes. The 
species is decidedly variable in several usually very constant 
characters for the species of the genus. 

Size medium to large, form very robust. Vertex not strongly 
but distinctly ascending. Fastigium of vextex broad, greatest 
width fully that of proximal antennal joint .^^ one and one-half 
times as deep as wide, narrowing with a distinct concavity to 
facial suture. Eyes of medium size, moderately protruding. 
Lateral lobes of pronotum rather broad, cephaUc margin straight 
to the broadly rounded ventro-cephalic angle, then straight and 
more nearly horizontal than usual to the sharply rounded nearly 
rectangulate ventro-caudal angle, caudal margin distinctly but 
weakly convex to the shallow humeral sinus, convex callosity mod- 
erately broad and distinct. Tegmina normally semi-brachyp- 
terous, reaching distal extremity of male abdomen and covering 
about two-thirds of female abdomen, broad, \^dth distal portion 
narrowing rather sharply and immediate apex sharply rounded. 
We have before us several specimens in which the tegmina are 
unusually truncate and in these the immediate apex is very 
broadly rounded. Rarely specimens are macropterous. i\Iale 
tegminal tympanum very large, not elongate, stridulating vein 

50 A series of four cf , one 9 and one juv. 9 from Texolo, Vera Cruz, Moxico» 
have the vertex unusually narrow, two-thirds the width of the i)n)xunai 
antennal joint in the males and about four-fifths the width of the same m 
the females, with sides, as would be expected, less concave, 'fhe specimens 
are otherwise inseparable from other smaller indivi(hials of the species. 



TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



0-0 


0-1 


1-1 


1-2 


1-3 


1-4 


2-2 


12 


6 


2 


5 


7 


1 


1 


2-3 


2-4 


2-6 


3-3 


3-4 


3-5 


4-4 


16 


3 


1 


7 


6 


3 


6 


4-5 


4-6 


4-7 


5-5 


5-6 


5-7 




4 


2 


1 


2 


3 


1 





252 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

unusually long with veins prominent. Male cerci^' as in cinereus 
{vide key). Subgenital plate with distal margin truncate be- 
tween the rather long disto-lateral styles (these .7 mm. in length). 
The caudal femora are heavy, with genicular areas usually very 
dark in color; the genicular lobes are normally bispinose; the 
ventro-external margins of the caudal femora are armed in the 
eighty-nine perfect specimens before us as follows: 

Number of spines, 
Number of specimens, 
Number of spines, 
Number of specimens. 
Number of spines, 
Number of specimens. 

The series of 12 specimens with these margins unarmed *are 
from the State of Vera Cruz; the great majority having more 
than eight spines in all are from Lower California. 

The large series before us shows variability in size, vertex, lat- 
eral lobes of pronotum, tegmina and particularly apex of the same, 
male cerci, ovipositor length, coloration of genicular areas of the 
caudal femora and armament of the ventro-external margins 
of the same; which is convincing evidence that the present insect 
is one of the most plastic of the American species of the genus. 

Measurements {in millimeters) of extremes 

y. Length of 

O" body 

San Jof^edelCabo, 

Lower California 13-14.5 

Tepic, Mexico ... 14 . 3 

Orizaba, Mexico . 12 . 4-15 . 4 

Medellin, Mexico 13 . 7 

51 The entire series of males before us from Lower California and Tepic, 
Mexico, have the distal portion of the cercus somewhat wider than normal with 
apex more broadly rounded (though not nearly as broadly rounded as in C. 
spinosus). No other note^vorthy variation occiu-s in the series and, as we 
have found that in eastern Mexico there is occasionally a marked contrast in 
the degree of production and narrowness of the distal portion of the cercus, we 
do not consider that sufficient differentiation has taken place to waiTant the 
recognition of a western geograjjhic race. 

A male before us from Santa Rosa, Mexico, has the distal portion of the 
cercus unusually produced for the species ajid narrowing decidedly to the very 
sharply rounded apex. In a single specimen of the very large series of C. 
hrcvipennis before us, a similarly unusual development has occurred. 



Length of 
pronotum 


Length of 

tegmcn 


Length of 
caudal femur 


Length of 
cercus 


3.6-4.2 


8.3-11.4 


11.6-14.2 


1.7-1.9 


3.8 


16.8* 


13.2 


1.7 


3.6-4.1 


8.2-9.3 


11.6-14.6 


1.6-1.8 


3.7 


7.9 


13 


1.7 



REHX AND HEBARD 



253 



& 


Length of 
body 


Length of 
pronotum 


Length of 
tegnien 


Length of 
caudal femur 


Length of 
cercua 


Santa Rosa, 












Mexico 


15.5 


4.2 


19.9* 


15 7 


1.9 


La Zaouulpa, 












Mexico 


15.5 


3.7 


15.2* 


13.9 


19 


Tonala, Mexico . 


14.5 


3.8 


17.8* 


13.8 


1.8 


Cacao Trece 












Aguas, Guate- 












mala 


ll.S-15 


3.3-3.8 


6-S . 3 


12.2-13.6 


1 ()-1.8 


San Marcos. Nic- 












aragua 


13-14.3 


3 . 3-3 . 7 


7 . 3-8 . t) 


12-12 6 


1 7-1. 8 


9 










Length of 
ovipositor 


San Jose del Cabo, 












Lower California 


12-15.3 


3.7-4.3 


8.8-19.1* 


14-15.3 


12 5-13.9 


Orizaba, ^Mexico . 


13-13.3 


3.3-3.7 


t) . 3-(5 . 5 


12.9-13.2 


10.6-12 


Jalapa, Mexico. . 


12.7 


3.7 


5.9 


12 8 


9.3 


Medellin, Mexico 


13-18 


3.7-3.9 


5 . 8-6 . 3 


13-14 7 


10 1-12.8 


Secanquin, Guate- 












mala 


13.7 


3.8 


4.8 


12.5 


10 3 


San Marcos, 












Nicaragua .... 


14-16 


3 .7-3.8 


6.8-8 


13.7-13.9 


12-12.3 



Of the four males and one female which are macropteroiis and 
are marked with an asterisk above, the length to the apex of the 
wing is 20.6, 24.8, 19.9, 23.3 and 24.3 mm. respectively. 

In coloration the present species has the medio-longitudinal 
stripe of head and pronotum very striking; shining and very dark 
blackish brown, usually ver}' narrowly margined with yellowish. 
The general coloration is pale green. The male sex has the 
ventro-proximal portion of the abdomen green, the concealed 
portion argus brown bilineate dorso-laterad with buff, the entire 
distal portion including the cerci uniform tawny, varying in 
different examples to ochraceous tawny. In females the abdomen 
is suffused with brown dorsad, bilineate with a paler shade dorso- 
laterad. 

The species is not known from without the range defined i)y 
the localities given below. 

In addition to a number of specimens j)reviously recorded as 
this species or as the synonymous A', mexicanum, we Ikm'c record 
the following series of 103 specimens; 43 males, 46 females, 4 
immature males and 10 inunature females. 



TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



254 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

San Jose del Cabo, Lower California, Mexico, 19 cT, IS 9,3 juv. d^, 
[Hebard Cln.], (1 9 macr., 1 9 semi-macr., all dr. alch.)- 

Tepic, Tepic, Mexico, 2 d", 1 9 , [Hebard Cln.], (1 d", macr., all dr. alcli.). 

Venis Mecas, Mexico, I, 6, 1878, (E. Palmer), 1 9 , [M. C. Z.]. 

Jalapa, Vera Cruz, Mexico, VI, 1894, 1 cf , 1 9 , [Hebard Cln.], (dr. alch.). 

Cordoba, Vera Cruz, Mexico, VI, 11 and 12, (F. Knab), 1 o", 1 9,2 juv. 9 , 
[U. S. N. M.]. 

Orizaba, Vera Cruz, Mexico, I, 1892, 2 9 , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Medellin, Vera Cruz, Mexico, IX to XI, 1895, (L. Bruner), 1 d', 5 9, 
[Hebard Cln.]. 

Otoj'ac, Vera Cruz, Mexico, XI to XII, 1887, (L. Bruner), 2 cf , 2 9, [He- 
bard Cln.]. 

Santa Rosa, Vera Cruz, Mexico, VIII, (Wm. Schaus), 1 cf , [Hebard Cln.], 
(macr.). 

La Buena Ventura Plantation, near Santa Rosa, Vera Cruz, Mexico, VII, 
13, 1909, (A. Petrunkivitch; swept from grasses), 1 9 , [Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.]. 

Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico, VII, 7, 1900, 5000 ft., (C. C. Deam), 1 9, 
[U.S. N. M.], (dr. alch.). 

Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico, VII 1o VIII, 3, 1903, (W. L. Tower), 4 (f', 5 9, 
5 juv. 9 , [Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.]. 

Jojutla, Morelos, Mexico, VIII, 6, 1903, (W. L. Tower), 2 o^ 2 9 , [Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist.]. 

Matamoros, Morelos, Mexico, VIII, 12, 1903, (W. L. Tower), 1 d', [Am. 
Mus. Nat. Hist.]. 

Tonala, Chiapas, Mexico, VIII, 1, 1909, (A. Petrunkivitch), 1 d", [Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist.], (macr.). 

La Zacualpa, Chiapas, Mexico, VIII, 11, 1909, (A. Petrunkivitch), 1 d", 
[Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.], (macr.). 

Secanquin, Guatemala, IV, 14, 1905, (A. McLachlan), 1 d", 1 9,2 juv. 9, 
[U. S. N. M.], (dr. alch.). 

San Felipe, Retalhuleu, Guatemala, II, 23, 1905, 1 9, [U. S. N. M.], (dr. 
alch.). 

Cacao Trece Aguas, Alta Vera Paz, Guatemala, III, 24 and IV, 25, (Schwarz 
and Barber), 4 d", 1 juv. d', 1 juv. 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. 

Quirigua, Izabal, Guatemala, II, 1912, (W. P. Cockerell), 1 9 , [U. S. N. M.], 
(dr. alch.). 

San Marcos, Nicaragua, (C. F. Baker), 2 d', 2 9 " [A. N. S. P. and Morse 
Cln.l. 

Conocephalus spinosus ( Morse) *^ 

UiOl. Xijihi'liiiiH sj/ino.suni Morse, Can. Ent., xxxiii, p. 201. [Coronado, 
California.] 

^' Recorded by Rehn in Baker as X. propinquum and there also queried by 
Morse as X. gossi/pii, Invertebr. Pacifica, i, p. 78, (1905). 

S3 For further data on this species see Rehn and Ilel)ar(l, Trans. Am. Ent. 
Soc, xh, p. 180, (1915). 



REHN AND HEBARD 255 

When compared with its nearest relative, C. fasdatus, the pres- 
ent species is found to differ in the more robust form, wider 
vertex, larger (normal) eyes, differently shaped lateral lobes of 
the pronotum and very narrow convex callosity of the same, 
immaculate abdomen with distal portion pale yellow (in males 
this coloration including the cerci and showing in this respect a 
greater similarity to C. cinereus), heavier and decidedly longer 
cerci with straight distal portion broader and very tlecidedly 
depressed for a much greater distance, ventro-external margins 
of the caudal femora bearing normally a number of heavier 
spines and ovipositor which is heavier and differs in outline from 
all other American species in being noticeably widest meso-distad. 

Vertex weakly ascending. Fastigium of vertex as wide as 
l)roximal antennal joint, narrowing with a decided concavity to 
facial suture, when seen from front about one and one-third 
times as deep as wide. Lateral lobes of pronotum deep, cephalic 
margin straight, ventro-cephalic angle l)roadly rounded, ventral 
margin straight and oblique to the sharply rounded ventro-caudal 
angle, caudal margin sinuous and nearly perpendicular to the dis- 
tinct hum(M-al sinus. Cereal tooth much as in fasciatus Init sit- 
uated relatively proximad, this due to the elongation of the mesal 
and distal portions of the cercus in the present species. The 
genicular lobes of the caudal femora are normally bispinose; the 
genicular areas are not darkened; the ventro-external margins of 
the caudal femora are armed in the eight perfect specimens from 
lower California before us as follows: 

Numl)er of spines, 2 2 2-3 2-4 3 3 3-4 4-4 4-G 

Number of specimens, 1 1 1 1 2'^' 1 1 

The above material agrees fully with the types except that the 
specimens average in all proportions somewhat larger. The 
single specinuMi, recorded below from Costa Rica, is perfectly 
typical except that the ventro-external margins of the caudal 
femora are unarmed. 

'^ One of these specimens bears a single si)ine on one of the venlro-inteinal 
niartrins of the caudal femora. 



TH.^NS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



256 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

Measurements (in millimeters) of extremes 
San Jose del Cabo, Lower California, Mexico 



O o3 0|3 O'^ O 

-*j>i *3s -i^c -w-s *^r 

MT3 Mo Mt;, Ms acf; 

flo cti si' Cc; Co 

(uja ojo, tui:- ojc ojo 

M I-) 1-^ hJ hJ 



<j^ 14.9-16.6 3.4-3.8 16.8-21.1 13.6-13.9 2.2-2.3 

9 13-16.7 3.2-4 18.3-22.8 13.6-15.3 9.5-10.1 

Puntarenas, Costa Rica 

cT 14.9 3.3 14.3 13.2 2 



The present species is now known on the Pacific coast from 
Coronado Bay, California, to Puntarenas, Costa Rica. It is a 
halophytic insect, the only species of the genus known as yet 
from the salt marshes of the Pacific coast. 

In addition to 10 recorded specimens which have been recently examined 
by us, we here record the following series of 11 specimens; 6 males and 5 
females. 

San Jose del Cabo, Lower California, Mexico, 5 cf, 5 9, [Hebard Cln.], 
(dr. alch.). 

Puntarenas, Costa Rica, II, 1907, (P. BioUey; strand, on leaves of I pomaen), 
1 cf , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Conocephalus insularis (Morse) (PI. XXII, fig. 14; XXIII, 10 and 11; 
XXIV, 4.) 

1905. Xiphi'lium insularis Morse, Psyche, xii, p. 20. [Stranger Cay, Bahama 
Islands]. 

The present insect is, as stated by Morse, closely allied to C. 
gracillimus, but differs from that species in the wider and less 
produced vertex (width of same two-thirds that of proximal 
antennal joint), broader and decidedly shallower lateral lobes of 
the pronotum which causes the ventro-cephalic angle to become 
more prominent, ""^ slightly less attenuate form and proportion- 
ately shorter limbs. As in the other species of group C, gracil- 
limus and iriodes, the convex callosity of the lateral lobes of the 
pronotum is very broad. A semi-macropterous form is present 
in this species, which is found to grade without a break into a very 

55 "Distinctly polygonal in outline instead of triangular," Morse, (in com- 
parison with C. gracillinius). This is rather too brief, for, although the lateral 
lobes of the pronotum in gracillimus show a nearer approach to a triangular 
form, the ventro-cephalic angle is distinct in that species also, though very 
broadly rounded. 



0-1 


0-2 


1-1 


1-2 


2-2 


2-3 


10 


2 


2 


3 


1 


2 



REHN AND HEBARD 257 

strongly macropterous condition. Only a strongly macropterous 
phase has been found in graciUimus. In darker specimens the 
abdomen is strikingly marked as in graciUimiis with three narrow 
dark bands, one mesal and the others lateral, the two intervening 
spaces forming iisualty bright 3'ellow bands. In such specimens 
the lateral lobes of the pronotum are usually marked mesad with 
a diffused dark postocular stripe. The cerci are of the same form 
as in gracillimus and bright green in coloration during life. The 
genicular lobes of the caudal femora are normally bispinose; the 
genicular areas are not darkened; unlike graciUimus the ventro- 
external margins are often armed with one to three very small 
spines, in the series of thirty-four perfect specimens before us 20 
being armed as follows: 

Number of spines, 
Number of specimens. 

Of twenty-four Cuban specimens before us sixteen are macrop- 
terous to varying degrees, while the entire series of thirteen 
examples from Jamaica are semi-macropterous. 

Of the two species of the genus found in both Cuba and Jamaica, 
this insect is much the less numerous, being found rarely and then 
in small numbers in open areas of short grass. The species is now 
known from Nassau, New Providence Island, Mangrove Cay 
and Stranger Cay, Bahamas; Cuba; Hayti and Jamaica. 

In addition to the tj'pe, a macropterous male, we have examined the follow- 
ing series of 43 specimens; 28 males, 10 females, 2 immature males and 6 im- 
mature females. 

Guane, Pinar del Rio. Cuba, IX, 24 to 2(1, 1913, (F. E. Lutz), 2 d" , [Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist.], (macr.) 

North of Viiiales, Pinar del Rio, Cuba, IX, IG to 22, 1913, (F. E. Lutz). 4 o", 
19,2 juv. ? , [Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.], (2 cf , 1 9 , macr.). 

Pinar del Rio, Pinar del Rio, Cuba, IX, 9 to 24, 1913, (F. E. Ltitz), 7 d", 1 
9 , [Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.], (4 cj", 1 9 macr.). 

Cabanas, Pinar del Rio, Cuba, IX, r> to 8, 1913, (F. E. Lutz), 2 d, [Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist.], ( 1 cf macr.). 

Havana, Cuba,^^ (C. F. Baker), 2 o^ [A. X. S. P.j; I. 23, 1904. (Hebard), 
1 o^, [Hebard Cln.], (1 macr.). 

Jesus del Monte, Havana, Cuba, I, 23, 1904, ( Hebard >, 1 juv. o", 1 juv. 
9, [Hebard Cln.]. 

5^ The macropterous six'cimeii was recorded as A'./rt.sa«/».s- (in part) and the 
semi-macropterous specimens as A', brevipenni.s (in part) by Rehn, Cent. 
Exp. Sta. Rept. Cuba, p. 21G. (1909). 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 
17 



258 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

Cayamas,Oriente, Cuba, III, 7 to VI, 10, (E. A. Schwarz), 3 9 , [U. S. N. M.], 
(macr.). 

Cristo, Oriente, Cuba, X, 3, 1913, (F. E. Lutz), 1 juv. 9, [Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist.]. 

Baracoa, Oriente, Cuba, (A. Busck), 1 9 , [V- S. N. M.], (macr.). 

San Domingo, (M. A. Frazer), 1 9 , [M. C. Z.]. 

Montego Bay, Jamaica, HI, 6, 1911, 1 cf , [A. M. N. H.]; X, 29, to XI, 3, 
1913, (Hebard; scant grasses on hillside near forest), 5 d', 1 juv. cf, [Hebard 
Cln.]. 

Kingston, Jamaica, X, 23, 1913, (Hebard; grassy pasture), 1 d", 1 9, 
[Hebard Cln.]. 

Stony Hill, Jamaica, X, 25, 1913, (Hebard; grasses in oi)ening of forested 
hills), 19,2 juv. 9 , [Hebard Cln.]. 

Hope Gardens, Jamaica, X, 23, 1913, (Hebard; grassy pasture), 3 d", 1 9, 
[Hebard Cln.]. 

Conocephalus Modes ^" new species (PI. XXI, tig. 6; XXII, 5 and 23; 
XXIII, 12 and 13; XXIV, 5.) 

This insect with C. graciUinms and C. insularis forms a group 
(E) of the subgenus Xiphidion agreeing in the slender form, 
broad convex callosity of the lateral lobes of the pronotum, elon- 
gate male tegminal tympanum and distinctive color pattern. The 
present species resembles insularis somewhat the more nearly, 
agreeing with that species in the form of the vertex, but having 
the ventro-cephalic angle of the lateral lobes of the pronotum 
less pronounced (as in graciUimus). The coloration of iriodes is 
normally much more intense than in either of the above species, 
the tympanum of the male tegmina even more elongate, while the 
male cerci are very different, showing a distinct resemblance to 
the similar but more decidedly specialized type found in the 
otherwise different and distinctive C. angusiijrons. 

Tijpe: &; Kaiteur, British Guiana. July 31, 1911. (F. E. 
Lutz.) [American Museum of Natural History.] 

Description of Type. — Size medium, form slender, coloration distinctive. 
Head with dorsum of vertex, when seen from lateral aspect, weakly but distinctly 
ascending above the plane of the occiput (much as in insularis). Fastigium 
of vertex approximately two-thirds the width of basal antennal joint, narrow- 
ing with a distinct concavity to facial suture, when seen from front api)rox- 
imately twice as deep as wide. Eyes moderately large, not imusually pro- 
truding. Lat(>ral lobes of jjronolum vertical, cephalic margin broadly convex 
to the ventro-caudal angle which is very sharjjly rounded, caudal margin weakly 
convex to the broad and shallow hunicral sinus, convex callositj^ very broad. 
Tegmina elongate and slender, narrowing dcH-idedly to sharply nninded ai)ex, 

6' From ipico577s = like the rainbow, in allusion to the strikingly beautiful 
iridescence of the wings and transparent ])ortions of the male teguiin.al lympa- 
num. 



REHN AND HEBARD 



259 



t>Tnpanum very elongate (deoidcdly more longitudinal than in (jracillvnus or 
insularis), veins and veiiilets of tegmina decided; wings more than usually 
narrow. Cerci heavy and not very elongate (decidedly shorter than in insu- 
laris, a little longer than in C.fasciatus), w'ith mesal portion not contrastingly 
swollen, armed with a heavy mesal (vertical) tooth, which is flat and broad at 
the base, situated intern:)-mesad and directed slightly cephalad of peri)eudicular 
to shaft, distal third of ccrcus showing a distinct but weak outward cm-vature 
with broadly rounded apex briefly but decidedly depressed. Subgenital plate 
with distal margin weakly but distinctly convex between the short disto-lateral 
.styles. Cephalic and median limbs as in insularis, caudal limbs similar to 
those of that species (swollen proximal portion narrowing more abrui)tly and 
decidedly than in gracillimus), with genicular lobes bispinose but with ventral 
margins unarmed. Caudal tibiae with the three pairs of distal sjnirs small, the 
dorsal pairs and interno-ventral sj^urs being only slightly heavier than the 
larger tibial spines. 

Allotype: 9 ; data same as type but taken August 7, 1911. 

Description of Allotype. — Very similar to lype with little difference in size. 
Tegmina similar with exception of sexual ditTerences. Ovipositor very similar 
to that of insularis, short, very slender, virtually straight but with distal 
third ha\-ing a very weak upward curvature. Subgenital plate flat, with 
lateral margins turned upward roundly but sharph' and embracing the base 
of the ovipositor, brief distal margin of flat surface transverse. 

Mrasurtntcnts (in niillinu'ters) 



Kaiteur, British Guiana. 

Type 1.5.2 3 l().l 

Kaiteur, British ( Juiana, 

Paratypes 14-1 L 7 3 . 1-3 .3 1.5 . 2-l() . 4 12 

Rockstone, British 

Guiana 13.7 3.2 Iti 

9 

Ciudad Bolivar, \'ene- 

zuela 14. .5 3.3 19.3 

Maripa, Rio Caura, 

Venezuela 14 3.2 17.2 

Kaiteur. Brit ish Guiana, 

Allotype 13 3.3 1C..3 

Ireng River near lioi- 

aima, Brazil 13.2 3 1(1.2 

Bonito, Pernambuco, 

Brazil 14. (S 3 IS. 7 

TK.\XS. .^M. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



M 3 


tc j; 


12 . 1 


1.8 


.4-13.2 


1 (i-1 . 7 


12. i) 


1.7 




Length of 




ovipositor 


14 


7.9 


13.2 


7.() 


12.7 


7.4 


12. S 


7 3 


13.4 


7.S 



260 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

Coloration. — cf. Head and pronotum burnt lake, with the 
exception of the occiput and dorsum of the pronotum, which 
have the medio-longitudinal stripe very deep burnt lake and the 
remaining portions buff yellow. Eyes prussian brown varying 
to cinnamon in different individuals. Tegmina infuscated, with 
veins shamrock green, hyaline areas of tympanum iridescent; 
wings with hyaline portion iridescent and with costal margin and 
brief distal exposed (when at rest) portion rather strongly infus- 
cated. Abdomen buff yellow considerably infuscated, with 
broad median and lateral stripes of burnt lake, ccrci burnt lake. 
Limbs tawny, washed with burnt lake. 

o . Head, lateral lobes of pronotum (below a very narrow 
postocular stripe of burnt lake) and femora shamrock green 
somewhat infuscated. The buff yellow lateral margins of the 
burnt lake medio-longitudinal stripe of the occiput and dorsum 
of the pronotum are decidedly broader than in the male, on the 
pronotum extending over the dorsal portions of the lateral lobes. 
Tegmina, including veins, infuscated; wings as in the male. 
Abdomen colored much as in that sex. Ti])iae and ovipositor 
hazel, weakly suffused with greenish. 

The Venezuelan females are the palest examples before us and 
lack dark markings on the lateral lobes of the pronotum, 
while the dark abdominal stripes are greath^ reduced in breadth. 

Specimens Examined: 9; 4 males and 5 females. 

Ciudad Bolivar, Venezuela, IX, 1909, (M. A. Carriker, Jr.), 1 9 , [A. X.S.P.l. 

Maripa, Rio Caura, Venezurla, X, 1909, (M. A. Carriker Jr.), 1 cf, [A. X. 
S. P.]. 

Ireng River near Roraima, Brazil, VIII, 9, 1911, (Crampton), 1 9 . pnralype, 
[Hebard Cln.l. 

Kaitem-, British Guiana, VII, ol to Vlll. 7. 1911 (F. E. Lutz), 3 d", 1 9, 
type, allotype, paratypes, [A. !\I. X. H.l. 

Rockstone, British Guiana, \'il, S, 1911, (Cramjitoii and Lutz). 1 o"', para- 
type, [A. M. X. H.]. 

Bonito, Province of Pernait.bueo, Brazil, MI, 1S,S3. (A. Koebele), 1 9, 
[U. S. X. M.], (dr. alch.). 

Conocephalus angustifrons (Redtenbacher) (PI. XXII, figs. 6 and 15; 

XXIII, 14 and If); XXI\', (i.) 
1S91. Xiphidium angustifrons Redtenbacher, Verh. Zool.-Bot. Gesell. Wien, 

xli, p. 524. [Santa Fe de Bogota and Tolima, Colombia.] . 

The present insect bears a close general rc^scMublance to the 
brachypterous condition of ('. sdlhilor, but may l)e readily scp- 



REHN AND HEBARD 261 

arated by the very different fastigiuin of Iho vertex, coloration 
(which in hfe is probably very distinctive and in dried specimens 
before us is still striking in the male sex and in a few of the fe- 
males), larger and more bulging eyes and male cerci which are 
very different from any other South American species, being of 
the type found in C. brevipennis, but differing from that species 
in proportions, contour of apical portion and external instead of 
mesal position of apex. 

The ventro-cephalic margins of the cephalic and median tibiae 
are also distinctive in having, in ever}'' specimen before us, from 
one to the four of these margins armed with seven instead of the 
normal six spines ^^- this is never found in saltator in the regions 
where the distribution of the two species is coextensive,''^ in 
which regions the ovipositor of the present species also averages 
distinctly shorter. 

The species agrees in width of vertex with C. versicolor but is 
otherwise very different. Giglio-Tos considered his A", fcstae^'^ 
( = versicolor) more nearly related to the present species than we 
find is the case after study of all the American species. 

Size medium, form veiy robust, coloration unusual. Fastigium 
of vertex narrow and strongly ascending above plane of occiput 
but not unusually produced, greatest width slightly less than 
one-half that of proximal antennal joint, two and one-half times 
as deep as wide, narrowing very slightly to facial suture. Eyes 
large and protruding. Lateral loljes of pronotum of moderate 
width, cephalic margin straight to the broadly rounded ventro- 
cephalic angle, then straight to the narrowly rounded ventro-cau- 
dal angle, caudal margin weakly concave and often subsinuate, 
humeral sinus exceedingly weak or wholly absent, convex cal- 
losity exceedingly narrow but distinct. Tegmina normally 

^^ The careful work of Gip;lio-ToH is shown by his remarks on tliis less not ice- 
able differentiation, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. eoinp. I'niv. Torino, xi, no. 2'A'2, 
p. 29, (1896); a character which had been wholly overlooked by Redtenbacher. 

" Fou'r depauperate brachypterons individuals of C- mltalor from Dominica 
and Trinidad a^ree in this respect, and represent the only specimens of the 
subgeiuis Xiphidion which possess a supplementary seventh spine, excei)tins 
material of C. aiujusiijrons; moreover such depauperate females from those 
islaruls have the o\-ipositor length quite as short as in the present siiecies. 

«o Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. comp. Univ. Torino, xiii, no. 311, p. 93, (1S98). 

TR.WS. .\M. EXT. SOC, XLI. 



262 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

abbreviate, lanceolate, with apex sharply rounded. ^^ Male teg- 
minal tympanum unusually small, short and broad, with veins 
prominent. Cerci short, proximal two-thirds heavy with mesal 
(vertical and longitudinal) internal tooth heavy at base, directed 
mesad and perpendicular to the shaft of the cercus, distal 
third of cercus directed strongly outward with broadly rounded 
apex external instead of mesal in position, this third decidedly 
flattened and slanting toward the internal margin with the 
flattened portion merging with the proximal swollen portion 
gradually, much more evenly than in brevipennis. Subgenital 
plate with distal margin truncate between the very short disto- 
lateral styles, which are set in slightly but appreciably raised 
sockets. Cephalic and median tibiae with from one to all of the 
ventral margins bearing seven, instead of the normal six, spines. 
Caudal femora heavy and elongate, bearing on their ventro- 
external margins spines which are heavier than is usual. Ovi- 
positor short, very weakly curved and virtually straight. 

Measurements {in millimeters) 

3 
C O 3 O jj O]^ O 

.c. J30 J3JJ jajs jz% 

MT3 Mo MS, Ms Mfc 

ao au aj? sS coJ 

_7i 0.J2 oa dS <Uc aj" 

cr iJ ^ >j\ hj^ 
Juan Vinas, Costa 

Rica 13-14 3.3-3.6 8.2-9.4 12.7-12.8 1.6-1.7 

Rio Grande, Costa 

Rica 13-14 3.3-3.6 8.2-8.6 12.3-12.4 1.7-1.8 

San Jose, Costa Rica . 12.7 3.4 8.8 13 1.8 



9 



Length of 
ovipositor 



Juan Vinas,Costa Rica 12 3.3 7.1 13.3 S.9 
Rio Grande, Costa 

Rica 15 3.7 8.6 13.7 9.3 

Carillo, Costa Rica. . 16 3.9 8.7 14.6 10 

Carillo, Costa Rica . . 1.5 3.6 15.9 14.8 9.6 

San Jose, Costa Rica . 11.5 3.3 7 12.4 8.6 

Cincinnati, Colombia 12.8-14.2 3.3-3.4 6.5-6.9 12-13.1 8-9.6 

La Combre, Colombia 15 3.4 7.6 13.7 8.6 

«' The single macropterous specimen of the species known, has the tcgmina 
moderately broad, as in the nuu-ropterous condition of C. saltator, with apex 
not quite as narrowly roundeil as in the bracliypterous condition. 



REHN AND HEBARD 263 

Color Notes. — Males. Head, pronotuiii, thorax, togmina and 
base of abdomen forest green; the niedio-dorsal stripe of head 
and pronotum brownish oUve and weakly defined with no trace 
of pale lateral coloration. Eyes dark brown. All femora tawny, 
genicular areas of caudal femora deep bay, tibiae tawny strongly 
washed with green. All of abdomen excepting basal portion 
mahogany red, cerci of the same color. In the females the 
coloration is less intense, the abdomen Ijeing decidedly less vivid.^- 

The perfect material before us shows the following armament 
of the ventro-cephalic margins of the cephalic and median tibiae: 
Number of spines, 6-6 6-7 7-7 7-8 

Specimens with cephalic tibiae so armed, 4 12 1 

Specimens with median tibiae so armed, 6 8 3 

Two specimens of this series have one of the ventro-caudal 
margins of the cephalic tibiae armed with but five spines, while 
one individual has the ventro-caudal margin of one of the median 
tibiae armed with seven spines. 

The genicular lobes of the caudal femora are normally bispinose, 
a single specimen in the series before us has one of these lobes 
unispinose. The ventro-external margins of the caudal femora 
are armed in the seventeen perfect specimens before us as follows: 
Number of spines, 1-2 2-3 2-4 3-3 3-4 3-5 

Number of specimens, 12 15 4 1 

Number of spines, 4-4 4-5 4-7 

Number of specimens. 111 

The present species is known from Punta di Sabana and Colon, 
Panama, in addition to the original localities and those given 
below. It appears to be generally distributed at somewhat 
higher elevations than salfafor. The coloration suggests to us 
the possibility of the insect being an inhabitant of the luxuriant 
vegetation in and about the forests rather than the grasslands. 

Specimens Examined: 19; 6 males, 11 females and 2 immature males. 

San Jose, Costa Rica, 1160 meters elevation. (P. BioUey), 1 9 ; 1 cf, [all 
Hebard Cln.]. 

Carillo, Costa Rica, VIII, to IX, 19(«, (C. F. X'nderwood), 2 9, [Hebard 
Cln.], (1 macr.). 

"The females before us from South America are much discolored; such 
poorly preserved material is foimd to lose almost all traces of distinctive color- 
ation. 

TRAXS AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



264 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

Rio Grande, Costa Rica, III, 6, 1902, (M. Gary), 2 o^, 1 9,1 juv. d", 
[Hebard Gin.]. 

Juan Vinas, Gosta Rica, III, 12, 1902, (L. Bruner), 3 d', 1 9 , [Hebard Gin.]; 
VI, 28, 1909, (P. P. Calvert), 1 9 , [A N. S. P.]. 

Zent, Gosta Rica, IX, 26, (F. Knab), 19,1 juv. d', [U. S. N. AI.]. 

Cincinnati near Santa Marta, Colombia, VII, 9 to 10, 1913, 4000 to 5000 ft., 
(M. A. Carriker Jr.), 3 9 , [Hebard Cln.]. 

La Gombre, Cordillera Occidentale near Call, Colombia, V, 19, 1914, (H. S. 
Parish), 1 9, [A. X. 8. P.]. 

Conocephalus unicolor (Bruner) (PI. XXI, fig. 3.) 

1915. Conocephalus imicolar Bruner, Ann. Garneg. Mas., ix, p. 374. (June.) 

[Gorumbd, Brazil.] [Macropterou.s.] 
1915. Co7iocephalus recticaudus Bruner, Ann. Garneg. Mus., ix, p. 374. 

(June.) (In part?) [Gorumba, Brazil.] [Brachypterous.] 

This species, with C. resacensis,^^ forms group E of the sub- 
genus Xiphidion, these species showing a distinct tendency toward 
the general form of the male cerci found in groups G, H and I. 
The present insect has this tendency somewhat the more pro- 
nounced, as may be observed by reference to the descriptions. 
In general appearance the specimens before us resemble large 
macropterous individuals of C. cinereus, but the somewhat nar- 
rower vertex, longer limbs, larger male tegminal tympanum, 
more ample lateral lobes of the pronotum, heavily armed ventro- 
external margins of caudal femora, distinctive male cerci and 
different ovipositor show how chstinct the two species really are. 

Description of d^. — Size large, form graceful but with limbs and wings 
large and decidedly elongate. Head with dorsum of vertex, when seen from 
lateral aspect, not strongly but distinctly ascending above the plane of the 
occiput (much as in cinereus), fastigium of vertex slightly less than two-thirds 
the width of proximal antennal joint, nearly two and one-half times as deep as 
wide and narrowing with a very weak concavity to facial suture. Eyes mod- 
erately large and not unusually protruding. Lateral lobes of pronotum with 
cephalic margin straight to the very broadly rounded ventro-cephalic angle, 
then straight to the sharply rounded ventro-caudal angle (which is distinctly less 
than a right angle), caudal margin weakly convex to the broad and very shallow 
humeral sinus, convex callosity distinct and moderately broad. Tegmina 
elongate, slender, narrowing gradually to sharply rounded apex, veins and 
veinlets very delicate, tympanum large and distinctly longitudinal with veins 
pronounced, stridulating vein short with only proximal half decidedly swollen. 
Cerci elongate with i)roximal i)ortion stout, mesal port ion elongate anil decid- 
edly but evenly enlarged, at base (vertical and longitudinal) of mesal tiiird is 
situated a large flattened internal horizontal looth directed a little ccijlialad 

fi3 Described in, Trans. Am. Knt. Soc., xli, p. 188, (1915). 



REHN AND HEBARD 265 

with immediate apex sharp and decurved, distal portion of cercus elongate, 
horizontally strongly depressed, lateral margins converging evenly and decid- 
edly to sharply rounded apex. Subgenital plate with distal margin weakly 
convex between the short disto-lateral styles. Cephalic and median limbs 
well developed but with spination not unusually heavy. Caudal femora 
elongate with proximal portion decidedly swollen, ventro-external margins 
armed with a number of very small stout spines, genicular lobes strongly 
bispinose, genicular areas very weakly infuscated. 

Descripiion of 9 . — Very similar to type, size slightly larger. Tegmina 
similar to d' except for sex differences. Ovipositor ''^ elongate, nearly straight 
but with a perceptible downward curvature. ''= Subgenital plate flat with 
lateral margins turned upward roundly and embracing the base of the ovi- 
positor, very brief distal margin of flat surface transverse. 

Measurements {in inilliineters) 

u 

3 

"3 0= c- o]^ o :rt 

Corumba, Brazil -3"" -5" -" -2' -: -^'' 

cj^ 10.1 :i.<,) 17 15.7 2.:> 

9 17.4 3.'t IS. 9 17.1 .... 16.4 

9 17.1 :^7 IS. 4 15.3 14.7 

The other female before us has the lateral lobes of the pro- 
notuni distinctly shallower with the ventral margin distinctly 
less obliciue, the specimen is however unciuestionably conspecific. 

The coloration of the species is not unusual, the general color 
being pale green (much faded in these specimens) with the medio- 
longitudinal stripe of head and pronotum subobsolete.'^'' In the 
male sex the distal portion of the abdomen, including the cerci, 
is pale yellow brown; this is weakly indicated in the females. 
The genicular areas of the caudal femora are very briefly and 
weakly infuscated. 

" In both females before us the dorsal valves of the ovipositor surpass the 
ventral valves by .7 mm. This is unusual in the genus but is probably of little 
value as a specific character. 

^^ In the other topotypic female before us, the downward curvature of the 
ovipositor, though still suggested, is even less pronounced. 

•"^ In but one of the three decidedly faded specimens before us this stripe is 
indicated on the dorsum of the vertex, with margins alone defined by weak 
l)arallel lines on th(> pronotum. 



TRAXS. AM. EXT. SOC, XLI. 



266 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

In the three specimens before us the armament of the ventro- 
external margins of the caudal femora is 4-4, 4-5 and 5-6 spines. 

The species is an inhabitant of the lowlands (probably marshes) 
of the upper Paraguay. 

Specimens Examined: 3; 1 male and 2 females. 

Corumba, Brazil, III, (H. H. Smith), 1 d^, 2 9 , topotypes, [U. S. N. M. and 
A. N. S. P.]. 

Conocephalus equatorialis (Giglio-Tos) (PI. XXIII, figs. 16 and 17.) 
1898. X[iphidium] equaloriale Giglio-Tos, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. comp. 
Univ. Torino, xiii, no. 311, p. 92. [Gualaqiiiza and San Jose, Ecuador.] 

The present species finds nearest relationship in C. saltator, 
differing from macropterous examples of that species in the 
narrower vertex, darker coloration of the discoidal and anal fields 
of the tegmina and adjacent portions of the wings when at rest, 
more iridescent hyaline area of the wings, green or greenish cerci 
of similar general form but distinctly less specialized, and ovi- 
positor which is normally shorter than in typical saltator. Fur- 
thermore the present insect is the only American species known 
to us which always has the ventro-internal margins of the caudal 
femora armed. In the examination of several thousand examples 
of other American species of the genus, but seven specimens, two 
C. fasciatus fasciatus, one C. spinosus, one C. saltator and three 
C. attenuatus, have been found by us bearing a single spine on 
one of the ventro-internal margins of the caudal femora. 

Size medium to small," form moderately slender. Fastigium 
of vertex narrow, greatest width slightly less than to slightly more 
than one-half^ that of proximal antennal joint, two and one-half 
to two and three-fourths times as deep as broad, narrowing with 
scarcely any concavity to facial suture. Eyes moderately large, 
but slightly protruding. Cephalic margin of lateral lobes broadly 
convex to the ventro-caudal angle, with the ventro-cephalic angle 
very weakly indicated, ventro-caudal angle sharply rounded (dis- 
tinctly less than a right angle), caudal margin nearly straight (very 
weakly convex) to the distinct but shallow humeral sinus, convex 

^7 The typical series from Ecuador, of which a pair are in tlie Academy, 
averages decidedly smaller than the material here recorded and the tegmina 
of many specimens of that series are semi-macro pterous. 

"8 Material having this greatest width of vertex is from British Guiana, this 
does not appear to be the normal condition for the species. 



REHX AND HEBARD 267 

callosity moderately broad.'''-* Tegmina elongate, slender, nar- 
rowing evenly to the rather sharply- rounded apex, male tympa- 
num much as in saltcttor. The species is apparently normally 
macropterous, only occasional specimens being semi-macropterous 
over the greater portion of its range, but the type series demon- 
strates that in Ecuador a semi-macropterous condition is often 
found. Male cerci similar to those of saltator but not as elon- 
gate, the enlarged portion very slightly overhangs the base of 
the tooth and the margins of the distal portion are slightly con- 
vergent, thus making the apex rather sharply roun(l(>d. Sub- 
genital plate with distal margin weakly convex between the rather 
long disto-lateral styles. Caudal femora much as in saltator, 
but with both ventro-external and ventro-internal margins 
armed; genicular lobes normally bispinose; genicular areas 
apically darkened; the ventro-external margins are armed in the 
thirty-one perfect specimens before us as follows: 
Number of spines, 12 2-3 2-4 3-3 3-4 4-4 

Number of specimens, 1 12 19 7 

Number of spines, 4-5 4-6 5-3 5-5 5-6 

Number of specimens, 6 1111 

The ventro-internal margins of the caudal femora are also 
armed, as follows: 

Number of spines, 0-1 0-2 1-1 1-2 1-3 2-2 

Number of specimens, 9 1 7 111 2 

The ovipositor is short, slender and usually almost straight. 

Meatiwremetttti {in niilUnieters) 



■£>. -52 5| -54 -3 

M— Mj Mjj M- aft; 

^ Ji J^ Si c-2 p 

Rio Mato, Vene- 
zuela 1:3. 2-14 3.3-3.5 13.9-19.6 13 3-U 1 S-1 9 

Bartica, British Ciui- 

ana 12.6-15.5 3-3.4 13.9-17.1 12.8-13 9 lS-1.9 

"3 In the original description, Giglio-Tos states that the convex callosity is 
narrow; it is narrow, but when (-ompared ^"ith the other American species we 
can but describe it as we have done above. The shades of meaning for such 
characters are very difficult to express and uniformity is difficult to maintain 
even in one and the same paper. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



268 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 



° °l '°s °^ J,^ 

:S>. :== SB 5-3 5 3 

g"© -i- Ctu C<S CO 

O" ^ _; -J -^ - 

Contamano, Peru . . 13.5 3.4 19.2 13.9 1.9 

Gualaquiza, Ecuador, 

imrahji>e 11 2.9 12.2 .... 1.7 

Length of 
$ ovipositor 

Rio Mato, Vene- 
zuela U 3.3 18.7 14 7.4 

Bartica,British Gui- 
ana 13-14.5 3.3-3.7 18.7-19 13.4-14.2 7.2-8'° 

Contamano, Peru. . 13.8-14.2 3.3-3.4 19-19.5 13.9-14.7 7.7-7.9 

Gualaquiza, Ecuador, 

pamiupe. 12 3 13.3 12.4 7.2 'i 

A female before us from Perene, Peru, has the ovipositor length 
8.3 mm. 

We have thought it best to give the measurements of the two 
paratypes before us from Ecuador, for although inseparable 
from the other specimens here recorded, they, and as is shown by 
Giglio-Tos in his description, the entire series from Ecuador, are 
decidedly smaller with shorter tegmina. This variation may, 
however, be due rather to local environmental conditions than 
to purely geographic influences. 

The type series is dried alcoholic, fresh material before us shows 
the following coloration. Male: Head and pronotum (except- 
ing the very dark medio-dorsal brownish black stripe), thorax, 
exposed portions of the five proximal dorsal alxlominal segments, 
entire ventral surface of abdomen, cerci, sul:)genital plate, cephalic 
and median limbs and bases of caudal femora, lettuce green. 
Proximal (concealed) portion of dorsum of abdomen dark brown 
mesad, bordered laterad with yellowish, distal four dorsal seg- 
ments of abdomen and adjacent portions of caudal femora ochra- 
ceous orange fading gradually into the green portions. Tegmina 

'° A single female in this series has the ovipositor unusually long, 9.9 mm. in 
length. 

"Giglio-Tos gives 7.5-8 nun. as tlie extremes of ovipositor length in the 
type series. Our measurement is taken, as elsewhere in the ]:)resen1 jjaper, 
from the base of the basal plica to the ai)e\ of the ovipositor; his, doubtless 
from the juncture of subgenital plate and ovipositor to apex of the latter, 
thus adding on an average about .4 mm. to the ovipositor length when com- 
pared with our methoil of measuring the same. 



REHN AND HEBARD 269 

and adjacent portions of wings when at rest very dark and sug- 
gesting a suffused continuation of the medio-dorsal stripe, hya- 
line portion of wings iridescent and wing veins burnt hike (in 
this respect suggesting the otherwise distinctive ('. iriodes). 
Genicular areas of caudal femora apically darkened. A darker 
phase of the species also occurs in which the green color is sup- 
planted by yellowish brown. The female resembles the male in 
coloration excepting that the abdominal colors are much paler 
and more indistinct. 

The localities given below and those of the type series define 
the known distribution of the species. 

In addition to a paratypic pair from Gualaquiza, Ecuador, \vc havo had \h'- 
fore us the following series of 38 specimens; 15 males and 23 females. 

Rio Mato, Venezuela, X to XI, 1909, (M. A. Carriker Jr.), 3 o", 1 9, 
lA. S. N. P.], (1 d" semi-macr.). 

Bartica, British Guiana, XI, 30, 1912 to III, 6, 1913, (H. S. Parish), 10 d", 
16 9, [A. N. S. P.], (2 d" semi-macr.). 

Rockstone, British Guiana, VII, 9, 1911, (Crampton and Lutz), 1 9 , [A. M. 
N.H.]. 

Paramaribo. Dutch Guiana, (K. Mayo), 1 o', 2 9, [A. X.S. P.], (1 o^ 1 9 
semi-macr.). 

Perene, Peru, 1 9 , [A. X. S. P.]. 

Contamano, Rio Ucayali, Peru, X to XII, 1912, 1 c^, 2 9, [A. X. S. P.], 
{dr. alch.). 

Conocephaius saltator (Saussure) (PI. XXII, fig. 16; XXIIl, 18, 19, 20' 

21, 22 and 23. i 
1859. Xiiphi'lium] saltator Saussure, Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 2e ser. xi, p. 208. 

[Guiana.] [Macropterous 9 •] 
1875. Xiphulium meridionale Scudder, Proc. B<;)st. Soc. Xat. Hist., xvii, 

p. 460. [Brazil.] [Brachypterous 9 .] 
1901. Xiphi'lvnn propinquum Redtenbacher, Vorh. k.-k. zool.-bot. Gesell. 

Wien, xli, p. 522. [Guatemala; Merida, Venezuela; St. Vincent, Lesser 

Antilles.] [Brachypterous series.] 
1901. Xiphrliiim hrachypterum Redtenbacher, \'crh. k.-k. yahA. -hoi. Gesell. 

Wien, xli, p. 523. [Venezuela; Colombia; Brazil; Peru.] [Brachypterous 

series.] 

The description of saltator is very brief, but, although we iiave 
been unable to examine the type, \\c are convinced that it con- 
stitutes the basis of the present species. The present insect is 
the dominant species in the Guianas, tlie only other form found 
there to which could apply Saussure's very bric^f description being 
macropterous C. cinereus, which speci(>s we have from ("ayeime, 

TR.\NS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



270 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

French Guiana, labelled fasciatus bj^ Saussure. Scudder's type 
of meridionalis, now before us, is a female showing the extreme 
of the braehypterous condition and having a decidedly longer 
and weakly (though more noticeably) curved ovipositor than 
normal; this specimen he quite naturally believed to be an unde- 
scribed species. It remained for Redtenbacher, however, to 
throw the nomenclature surrounding this, the dominant and most 
plastic species in tropical America, into hopeless confusion. In 
1891 that author, in his "Monographic der Conocephaliden," 
sorted out all macropterous examples of the present species, 
recording them as X. Jasciatum and probably as A', saltator in 
company with other macropterous examples of fasciatus, cinereus 
and probably other species; he then, having divided the braehyp- 
terous material into two series, erected the synonyms propincpium 
and hrachypterum, suggesting the affinity of iiemorale (for which 
he erected the synonym X. curtipenne on the previous page) and 
gossijpii (Scudder's synonym of C. hrevipennis) to propin- 
qman, and Scudder's meridionale to hrachypterum — the value of 
the resultant key may be imagined. Without long study of the 
series which Redtenbacher had before him it will be impossible 
to say to what species each individual record belongs, but the 
data given above will need but little modification. Karny, in his 
"Revisio Conocephalidarum," has made few changes from Red- 
tenbacher's work which paper has succeeded only in bringing con- 
fusion to the study of this and doubtless the other American 
groups of the subfamily. The species is to be found in the lit- 
erature frequently quoted as the above synonyms and also as 
fasciatus J ~ 

This insect, whose position in the genus is between C. equato- 
rialis and C. borelli in group G of the subgenus Xiphidion, is the 
most abundant and widely distributed of the tropical American 
species. As is often the case with such species very great varia- 
tion is found, and in the present case material from various por- 
tions or often from the same portion of its range exhibits diversity 
in width of vertex, form of lateral lobes of the pronotum, length 
and form of tegmina, production of male c(>rci (which, however, 
never differentiate from the typical general contour, thus fixing 

"Recorded by Giglio-'I'os, lioU. Mus. Zool. Anat. com]). I'liiv. Torino, ix, 
no. ISI, ]). 40, (1894), as A'. Jaaciahuit fr,)in Sai\ I'cdro Province, Farafiuay, 
and as A', hrnchiiplcritm from Asuncion and San I'chIto Province, Paraguay, 
(macropterous and l)rachyi)1('rous examples prot)ably). 



REHN AXD HEBARD 271 

with certainty males of the species), length and degree of weak 
curvature or straightness of the ovipositor, coloration of the 
genicular areas of the caudal femora and armament of the ventro- 
external margins of the same. Even in the armament of the 
ventro-cephalic margins of the cephalic and median tibiae, three 
specimens from Dominica and Trinidad have seven instead of the 
normal six spines, a condition elsewhere found in the American 
species only in C. angustifrons, in which form it apparently 
always occurs. It would seem that several species or at least 
geographic races must exist, but this is certainly not the case. 
Certain variations, it is true, are found to be the usual condition 
over certain regions, but these are not fixed, and the same varia- 
tion can almost invariably be found in other more t^'pical series; 
often two series of the most distinctive appearing variations are 
from the same locality and we are inclined to believe that immedi- 
ate environment has as much or more to do with the majority of 
such differences as geographic influences. 

The species has been compared with its nearest ally, ('. equa- 
torialis, under that species. 

As the species is nowhere fully described we here give the char- 
acters for a typical male and female as a basis for further discus- 
sion of the characters and variations of the species. 

Bartica, British Guiana, I, 10, 1913, (H. S. Parish), [A. X. S. P.]. Size 
medium, form moderately slender. Vertex not strongly but distinctly ascend- 
ing. Fastigium of vertex moderately broad, greatest width two-thirds that of 
proximal antennal joint, when seen from front about twice as deep as broad, 
narrowing with a weak concavity to facial suture. Exes moderately hirge 
and but shghtly protruding. Lateral lobes of pronotum with cephalic margin 
broadly arcuate to the ventro-caudal angle with the ventro-cejihalic angle very 
weakly indicated, ventro-caudal angle sharply rounded (distinctly less than a 
right angle), caudal margin almost straight (nearly imperceptibly subsinuate), 
humeral sinus subobsolete, convex callosity very narrow (often sulxibsolete). 
Tegmina elongate, moderately broad, narrowing evenly to the rather sharjjly 
rounded apex; male tegminal tympanum not large, weakly longitudinal, 
stridulating vein not unusually elongate. Male cerci decidedly elongate, 
proximal portion stout, widening strongly and briefly swollen so as to over- 
hang a small ventro-internal tooth, which is situated at the proximal base of 
the mesal portion and directed meso-proximad with the sharp apex strongly 
decurved, from near the base of this tooth to the apex of the cercus the entire 
cercus (excepting the proximo-external portion) is very greatly ilepresseil, 
slanting strongly toward the internal margin, this elongate portion is not in a 
line with the base of the cercus but is directed moderately ovitward so that the 

TR.\N-S. .\.M. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



272 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

external margin of the cercus is broadly concave, the distal produced portion 
has the margins subparallel with the apex rather broadly rounded. Subgenital 
plate with distal margin weakly convex between the rather short disto-lateral 
styles (which are very slightly shorter than in equatorialis) . Caudal femora not 
elongate for the genus, proximal portion decidedly swollen, ventro-external 
margins bearing a few small spines. Ovipositor moderately long, very slender 
and very weakly curved (almost straight). 

Two brachypterous examples from the same locality agree in every respect 
excepting in the humeral sinus, which is wholly obsolete, '» and in tegminal 
and wing length. 

Series from Venezuela and Panama agree almost perfectly 
with those from Guiana. The brachypterous specimens demon- 
strate that the degree of sharpness of the rounded apex of the 
tegmina varies somewhat, as does also the degree of reduction of 
the tegmina. ^^ 

Large series from Trinidad show numerous specimens with the 
vertex very slightly narrower than normal, while the majority of 
the large macropterous males and two large brachypterous males 
■ have the cerci abnormally elongate, the flattened distal portion 
being greatly produced and curved outward with the immediate 
apex sharply rounded. This condition is due to elongation and is 
decidedly variable in degree ; the extremes would suggest distinct 
specific status, but in general contour no differences exist and all 
intermediate conditions are present. 

The smallest brachypterous individuals from Trinidad agree 
well with a depauperate condition found predominant in the 
Lesser Antilles. These specimens are distinctly smaller than 
typical brachypterous material, the male cerci are slightly 
more attenuate while the ovipositor is shorter, some individuals 
showing as well the extreme condition of tegminal al)l)reviation 
for the species. 

A series of large macropterous and brachypterous specimens 
from Philadelphia, Costa Rica, have the cerci decidedly produced 

'3 Macropterism is often, if not always, accompanit d by an api)r( ciable jiro- 
duction of the caudal margin of the dorsum of tlu- i)r()notinn and a rosultai.t 
increase in the depth of the humeral sinus. 

'* This variation, the weakly or not suffused genicular areas of the caudal 
femora and th(> very weakly arcuate or almost straight ovipositor, appears to 
constitute the means by which Rcnltenbacher sei)arated his series into what 
he called brachyplermn and prnpittquum. Careful consideration would have 
shown these characters to be mere variations and ea<'h found to various degrees 
in various specimens. 



REHN AND HEBARD 273 

but not to the degree of the maximum from Trinidad. Other 
specimens from Guatel, Costa Rica, are normal in this and other 
characters. 

Southward from Guiana through Brazil the insect appears 
to become slightly more robust. In a series from Contanamo, 
Peru, this is appreciable, while in these the brachypterous speci- 
mens have the humeral sinus very weakly indicated and the 
macropterous specimens have it slightly more decided. The 
male cerci of these specimens are also slightly more robust. 

A series from Santa Ana, Peru, taken at an elevation of three 
thousand feet, are all verj' depauperate, averaging the smallest 
of any series l^efore us, but otherwise normal. 

The consideral)le series from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and Sapu- 
cay, Paraguay, shows the features found in the series from Con- 
tanamo, Peru, still more pronounced, though with some individual 
variation, in the Sapucay females the ovipositor shows the great- 
est length found in the species excepting in the females from the 
Alto Parana (Puerto Cantera), Paraguay. 

The only geographic differences appear to be the slight increase 
in general robustness in the southward (listril)ution in South 
America and various ranges in ovipositor length, which, when we 
consider the plasticity of the species, certainly do not warrant 
the erection of a geographic race. 

Mcdsurcmettts {in nnl'imeters) of extreiytes 



O o3 O- C~ O 

_r._ ^'q _;;0 ^~ _~ "> 

M-j' Mc 5fii_ ^- ifii 

■71 t^ ta. Si Ci; £u 

Long Dittoii, 

Dominica ... 11.7-14 2.9-3.3 5.8-0.3 11-11 7 2-2.2 

Philadelphia, 

Costa Rica... 13.5 3.2 18 9 13.6 2.3 

Philadelphia, 

Costa Rica... 13.2-14.8 3. 3-3.(5 0.0-7.(1 13.4-14.2 2.3-2.4 

Rio Mato, Ven- 
ezuela 1.5 . .5-16 .5 3.2-3.3 10.9-19.7 129 2 . 3-2 . 4 

La Piedrita, Ven- 
ezuela 12.5 3.4 0.3 13.7 2.3 

Caparo,Trini(la<l 14.3-10.4 3-3.4 15-18 9 12-14.3 2.1-2.0 



TRANS. AM. EXT. .SQC, XLI. 
18 



274 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 



o c 3 2 a 03^ O 

ja JO ;=§ jafl j;2 

S-o "m§ Mg) "!'§ Mg 

flo ct- re fls Co 

QJ^ CC- "^fJ G>o wO 



Caparo, Trinidad 14.2-15.2 3.1-3.3 6.4-6.5 11.7-13.8 2-2.6 
Bartica, British 

Guiana 13.3-15. 3 3 . 2-3 .7 17 . 3-18 .8 12 . 6-14 2-2 . 2 

Bartica, British 

Guiana 14 3.7 7.4 13.3 2.2 

Para, Brazil ... . 13.3 3.1 17.3 12.7 2 

Tijuca, Brazil . . 11.5-13.4 2.7-3.3 7.1-7.2 11-13.3 1.8-2.2 
Chanchamayo, 

Peru 15.4 3.4 20.4 13.9 2.3 

Contamano, Peru 13.4-13.6 3-3.3 17.4-18.9 12.8-13.4 2-2.1 

Contamano, Peru 11.8-13.4 3.1-3.6 7.3-7.9 12.7-12.8 1.9-2.2 
Santa Ana, Peru, 

3000 ft 10 . 8-12 . 7 3-3 .4 6 . 3-8 .6 10 . 3-12 1 . 9-2 

Sapucay,Paraguay 15-165 3.6-3.7 20 13.4-14.4 2.1-2.2 

Sapucay,Paraguay 12.9-15.4 3.3-3.6 7.3-8.8 12.1-13.7 2.1-2.3 
Extreme range of 

variation .... 10.8-16.5 2.9-3.7 5.8-8.8 10.3-14.4 2-2.6 

15-20.4 



-t3 . JO —'a Aj^ J d 

&•§ ^e =?! S'i gf 

9 ^^ ^°- ^" ^^ -2 = 

Laudet, Dominica 12.8 3.2 3.3 8.4 

Long Ditton, 

Dominica.... 12.2-14.3 3.7-3.8 3.3-4.2 12.9 9-9.9 

Philadelphia, 

Costa Rica .. . 14.5-18 3.6-3.7 19.2-20.1 14.8-15.2 12.9-13 

Philadelphia, 

Costa Rica... 14.5 3.8 6.1 15.8 12.8 

Rio Mato, Ven- 
ezuela 14-16 . 5 3 . 3-3 .7 17 . 3-19 . 2 13 . 8-15 10 . 6-11 . 8 

La Piedrita, Ven- 
ezuela 12 . 5-13 .8 3 . 4-3 . 6 4-5 .2 13 . 1-15 10 . 4-1 1 

Caparo, Trinidad 15.5-18 3.6-3.7 16.7-19 14.9-15.9 9.9-12.1 

Caparo, Trinidad 15.5-16 3.7-3.8 5.1-5.2 14,2-15.3 11-11.1 

Trinidad 12.7 3.4 3.7 12.8 9.7 

Bartica, British 

Guiana" 14.6-15.3 3.4-3.6 17.7-19.4 13.8-14 9.7-10.6 

'5 This series is topotypic and, agreeing in every respect with t he brief orig- 
inal description, may be considered typical. 



REHN AND HEBARD 






_ o 

5 3 



St. Jean, French 

Guiana 14 3.3 18.2 14.3 12.7 

Brazil. {Type of 

meridionalc.) . . 13.2 3.7 5.1 13.1 12.7'« 

Tijuca, Brazil .. 13.3-15 3.6-3.8 4.4-5.0 13.4-15 11.7-13.4 

Perene, Peru 14 3.3 20.8 13.4 11.7 

Contamano, Peru 14.8 3.5 19 13.6 11.6 

Contamano, Peru 13-14 .7 3 . 6-3 .8 4 . 9-5 .2 13.7-14. 3 10 . 3-1 1 . 7 
Santa Ana, Peru, 

3000 ft 12.3 3.3 5.6 V2 10.6 

Alto Parana, Par- 
aguay 14 1 3.7 21 14.6 14.1 

Puerto Canteni, 

Paraguay 17.4-19.2 3.4-4 20.2-21.7 14.1-14.6 12.7-14.9 

Puerto Cant era, 

Paraguay 15.2 3.8 7.1 14.6 13.4 

Sapucay,Paraguay 15.7-16,4 3.4-3.8 18.8-21.3 13.4-14.2 13. 3-13. S 

Sapucay,Paraguay 14-16.6 3.3-3.8 4.8-5.7 13-13 8 12-13.3 
Extreme range of 

variation 12 . 2-19 . 2 3 2-4 3 . 3-6 .1 12-15.9 8 . 4-14 . 9 

16.7-21.7 

In this species the head and pronotum (excepting for a well 
defined, but not very dark, brown medio-longitudinal stripe), 
limbs (excepting that the genicular areas of the caudal femora are 
often somewhat, but not heavih% suffused with l^rown), thorax 
and proximal exposed portion of abdomen, green; dorsum, and 
in males all of distal portion of al)domen including cerci (which 
are in some series uniform in color, but in others nuich suffused 
with green) tawny with paler lateral stripes weakly indicated in 
concealed proximal portion. Females have the dorsum of the 
abdomen usually uniform tawny or ])rownish, but in some exam- 
ples the paler lateral stripes appear and are occasionally con- 
tinued to the base of the ovipositor. 

The ventro-cephalic margins of the cephalic femora ar(> armed 
with 6 and 7 spines in three spcM'imens l)efore us, and with 7 and 
7 in one. Three of these are from Long Ditton, Dominica, the 

"' Scudder gives the ovipositor length as 13 mm. Our measurement of this 
dimension are all taken from the base of the basal plica to the ajiex of the ovi- 
positor, hence the slight differvnce. 

TR.\XS. .\M. EXT. SOC, XLI. 



0-0 


0-1 


0-2 


0-3 


0-4 


1-1 


1-2 


5 


11 


9 


1 


1 


15 


20 


1-3 


1-4 


1-5 


2-2 


2-3 


2-4 


2-5 


10 


6 


1 


19 


23 


12 


1 


3-3 


3-4 


3-5 


3-6 


4-4 


4-5 


5-5 


13 


26 


5 


1 


7 


6 


2 



276 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

other from Port of Spain, Trinidad, which specimen has the ven- 
tro-cephahc margins of the median femora armed with 7 and 7 
spines. In these specimens the extra (proximal) seventh spine 
is decidedly smaller than any of the others and abnormal in ap. 
pearance; in C. a7igustifrons this spine is much more like the 
other six. 

The ventro-external margins of the caudal femora are armed 
in the one hundred and ninetj'-four perfect specimens before us 
as follows: 
Number of spines, 
Number of specimens. 
Number of spines, 
Number of specimens, 
Number of spines. 
Number of specimens, 

Of the five specimens with these margins unarmed, four are 
.from Trinidad and one from Venezuela. The Paraguayan series 
average nearer the maximum number than do the others and one 
specimen bears a single spine on one of the ventro-internal mar- 
gins as well; otherwise every series exhibits about the same 
amount of variability. 

The genicular lo])es of the caudal femora are normally bispinose, 
in the series before us one of these lobes is unispinose in thirteen 
specimens, two are so in one specimen, while all are in this con- 
dition in one. 

Specimens Examined: 276; 114 males, 1.51 females, 4 immature males and 7 
immature females. 

Montserrat, West Indies, III, 1, 1S94, (H. G. Hubbard), 1 o^ [U. S. N. M.], 

(brach.). 

Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, West Indies. VI. 6, 1911, (Crampton and Lutz), 
2 d^, 1 9. [A. M.N. H.], (brach.). 

Roseau, Dominica, West Indies, VI, S, 1911, (Crampton and Lutz), 1 d', 
[A. M. N. H.], (brach.). 

Laudet, Dominica, West Indies, VI, 12, 1911. (Crampton and Lutz), 1 cf , 
1 9, [A. M. N. H.], (brach.). 

Long Ditton, Dominica, West Indies, VI, 20. 1911, (Crampton and Lutz), 
7 cf,4 9. [A. M. N. H.], (brach.). 

Martinique, West Indies, VII, 26, 190.5, (A. Ikisck), 1 9, [V. S. X. M.], 
(brach.). 

Saint Lucia, West Indies, XI, 25, 1912, (H. 8. Parish), 1 9, [A. X. 8. P.], 
Macr.). 

San Mateo, Costa Rica, I, 1903, 250 meters elevation, (P. BioUey), 1 9, 
Hcbard Chi.], (macr.). 



REHN AND HEBARD 277 

Rio Grande, Costa Rica, III, G, 1912, (M. Gary), 1 Q, [Hebard Gin.], 
(brach.). 

Pozo Azul, Gosta Rica, 1 9 , [Hcbard Gin.], (macr.) 

Juan Viiias, Gosta Rica, XI, 1906, (Wni. .Schaus), 1 9, [r. S. X. M.j, 
(brach.). 

Siquirres, Gosta Rica, VII, 3, 1903, (M. A. Garrikcr Jr.), 2 9, [Hcbard Gin.], 
(1 brach.). 

Guatel, Gosta Rica, IV, 20 to 22, 1902, (G. F. Underwood), 1 cf , 2 9, [He- 
bard Gin.], (brach.). 

Philadelphia Banana Ranch, Gosta Rica, (F. Knab), 5 d", 4 9 , [U. S. X. M.], 
(3 cf, 1 9 brach.). 

Ancon, Ganal Zone, Panama, XI, 12 and l(i, 1913, (Hebard; lush grasses on 
hillside). 3 cf , 3 9, [Hebard Gin.], (brach.). 

Old Panama, Panama, XI, 13. 1913, (Hebard; grasses near jungle), 3 d', 3 
9, [Hebard Ghi.], (brach.). 

Zone limit three miles west of Empire, Panama, XI, 14, 1913, (Hebard; 
grasses near jungle), 2 c?, [Hebard Gin.], (brach.). 

Gulebra, Ganal Zone, Panama, (H. H. Rousseau), 1 9 , [U. S. X. M.], (macr.; 
dr. alch.). 

Buenaventura, Golombia, V, 7 and S, 1914, (H. S. Parish), 2 9 , [A. X. S. P.], 
(brach.). 

Gali, Golombia, V, 2(5, 1914, (H. S. Parish), 1 9, [A. X. S. P.], (brach.). 

San Esteban, Venezuela, X to XI, 1910, (M. A. Garriker .Jr.), 2 d", 2 9,1 
juv. o^, [A. X. S. P.]. 

La Guira, Venezuela, (Robinson), 1 9, [M. G. Z.], (macr.). 

Rio Mato, Venezuela, X and XI, 1909, (M. A. Garriker .Jr.), 3 d", 9, 
[A. X. S. P.], (macr.). 

Las Quiguas, Venezuela, IX, 1910, (M. A. Garriker Jr.), 2 d", 2 9,2 juv. 
9, [A. X. S. P.], (adults brach.). 

Gariaquito, Venezuela, I, 18 to 22, 1911, (8. Brown), 1 d^, 4 9,1 juv. cd, 
[A. X. S. P.], (adults brach.). 

La Piedrita, Venezuela, II, 16, 1911, (.S. Brown), 2 o^, 5 9, [A. X. .S. P.], 
(brach.). 

Buelta Tri.ste, Venezuela, II, 20, 1911, (S. Brown), 1 9, [A. X. S. P.], 
(brach.). 

Port of Spain, Trinidad, VI, 19 to 20, 190.3, (A. Busck), 5 d', 2 9, 
[U.S.X. M.], (2 d" macr.). 

Gaparo, Trinidad, VIII, 1913, (S. M. Klages). 15 o^ 28 9, [Hel)anl Gin.], 
(2 d^, .5 9 brach.). 

Heights of Aripo, Trinidad, VIII, 20 to IX. 21, 1909, (M. A. Garriker Jr.), 
4 d', 7 9,2 juv. d, 1 juv. 9 , [A. X. S. P.], (1 o", 2 9 macr.). 

Garenage, Trinidad, VIII, 1909, (M. A. Garriker Jr.), 2 d", 1 9 , [A. X. S. P.], 
(9 macr.). 

Bartica, British Guiana, XII, 3, 1912, to III, 28. 1913, (H. S. Parish), 11 d, 
21 9 ]A. X. S. P.], (1 d, brach.); V, 8, 1901, (R. J. Grew, 1 9, [A. X. S. P.], 
(macr.). 

TRAX.S. AM. EXT. SOC, XLI. 



278 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

Georgetown, British Guiana, VII, 2, 1911, (Crampton and Lutz), 1 cf, 
[A. M. N. H.], (macr.). 

Rockstone, British Guiana, VII, S and 9, 1911, (Crampton and Lutz), 1 d", 
1 9, [A. M. N. H.], (9 macr.). 

Tumatumari, British Guiana, VII, 11, 1911, (Crampton and Lutz), 2 d", 
[A. M.N.H.], (Imacr.). 

Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana, (K. Mayo), 4 d', 5 9, [A. N. S. P.], (2 d^, 4 9 
macr.). 

St. Jean, Maroni River, French Guiana, VI, (Wm. Schaus), 1 9 , [U. S. X. M.], 
(macr.). 

Pard, Brazil, (C. F. Baker), 1 d^, [A. X. S. P.], (macr.). 

Igarape-Assu, Para, Brazil, I, 17, 1912, (H. 8. Parish), 1 d", [A. S. X. P.], 
(macr.). 

Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, IV, 9 to 11, 1913, (M. Burr), 8 d', 5 9,1 
juv. 9 , [A. N. S. P. and Oxford Univ. Mus.]. 

Perene, Peru, III, 1900, 1 9, [A. X. S. P.], (macr.). 

Chanchamayo, Peru, 1 d", [A. X. S. P.], (macr.). 

Santa Ana, Eastern Peru, 3000 ft., (Yale Peruvian Exp. 1911), 5 d', 1 9, 
1 juv. 9 , [U. S. N. M.], (adults brach., dr. alch.). 

Contamano, Rio Ucayali, Peru, X to XII, 1912, 10 d', 3 9,1 juv. 9, 
[A. N. S. P.], (3 d^, 1 9 macr., dr. alch.). 

Alto Parand, Paraguay, III, 1914, 1 9 , [A. X. S. P.], (macr.). 

Puerto Cantera, Alto Parana, Paraguay, XII, 9, 1913, (C. Schrottky), 3 9 , 
[A. X. S. P.], (2 macr.)." 

Sapucay, Paraguay, I, 5-III, 21, 1900 to 1905, (W. T. Foster), 7 c?, 19 9, 
1 juv. 9 , [U. S. X. M. and Hebard Cln.], (3 d', 9 9 macr.). 

Conocephalus borelli (Giglio-Tos) (PI. XXII, figs. 21 and 24.) 
1897. X[iphi(liu)»] borellii Giglio-Tos, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. comp. LTniv. 
Torino, xii, no. 302, p. 41. [San Lorenzo and Caiza, Bolivia.] 

The present insect is represented in the material before us by 
but two females, which agree with the original description but 
are slightly larger than the maximum measurements. 

These specimens show, as Giglio-Tos states, that the species is 
very near C. saltator (that author, however, using the synonymous 
name X. hrachypterum). When compared with brachypterous 
but otherwise typical females of saltator, we find our specimens, 
as Giglio-Tos has observed, to be differentiated by the decidedly 

" This series has been recorded in part by Caudell, the macropterous indi- 
viduals correctly, the brachypterous examples as the synonymous merulionale, 
Proc. U. S. Xat. Mus., xxx, p. 242, (1906), and macropterous specimens 
correctly by Rehn, Proc. Acad. Xat. Sci. Phila., 1907, p. 393, (1907). In 
following Redtenbacher's Monograph, subsequent authors have ahnost with- 
out exception been led into the error of considering the macropterous and 
brachypterous conditions of llie present insect separate specific units. 



REHN AND HEBARD 279 

broader tegmina with apices truncate and very broadly rounded 
(very much more so than in any examples of saltator), with veins 
decidedly less cUstinct and by the much more decidedly curved 
ovipositor. The males are said to have the distinguishing char- 
acters of the tegmina equally pronounced. We find the wings 
of the females to be distinctly aborted, but not reduced to a 
filiform condition. We do not consider the incision of tiie female 
subgenital plate given by Giglio-Tos to be of any value. 

In addition to the characters given above, we would say that 
in the specimens before us the form is distinctly heavier than 
even the extreme of this tendency found in saltator in Paraguay'. 
The eyes are distinctly larger and more protruding, while the 
vertex is narrower than is normal in saltator, being slightly less 
than two-thirds the width of the proximal antennal joint, and 
decidedly deeper, being two and three-fourths times as deep as 
greatest width, with sides distinctly but weakly convergent, 
almost straight. The lateral lobes of the pronotum have the 
cephalic margin broadly rounded to the ventro-caudal angle with 
the ventro-cephalic angle weakly indicated, the ventro-caudal 
angle is sharply rounded, the caudal margin straight with the 
humeral sinus absent, the convex callosity is very narrow. The 
latero-dorsal pale bands of the abdomen are slightly more dis- 
tinct than in any specimens of saltator before us, while the gen- 
icular areas are contrastingly darkened. The ovipositor is not 
only more decidedly curved than in that species but differs also 
in shape, narrowing appreciabh' from the median point to the 
acute apex, which narrowing begins in saltator near the apex as 
is normal for the great majority of the American species. The 
specimens before us have the ventro-external margins of the 
caudal femora armed with 4 and 5 and 5 and 5 spines, which are 
heavier than normal in the allied species. Their measurenumts 
are: length of body 15.5-16.3, pronotum 3.7-4, tegmen 3 3.9, 
caudal femur 15.4-16, ovipositor 9.7-10.1 and width of tc^gmen 
2.6-2.7 mm. 

Specimeiis Examined: 2; 2 females. 

Sapucay, Paraguay, I, 24, to 25 ami II, 1901, (\V. T. Fo^^ter), 2 9 [V . S. X. 
M. and Hcbard Cln.]. (t^rach.). 



TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



280 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

Conocephaius truncatus (Redtenbacher) (PI. XXII, figs. 7, 17 and 22; 

XXIII, 24 and 25; XXIV, 7). 
1901. Xiphidium truncatum Redtenbacher, Verb. k.-k. zool.-bot. Gesell. 

Wien, xli, p. 522. [Brazil] 

In general form, tegminal structure, vertex and male cerci 
the present insect shows its close affinity to C. versicolor and C. 
ochrotelus. In the last two characters it more closely agrees with 
the former species; the cerci are, however, less elongate with 
swollen portion overhanging the tooth more decided and distal 
portion narrowing to a sharper apex. In the tegminal structure 
close affinity is shown to ochrotelus. In coloration and unarmed 
ventral margins of the caudal femora, it agrees with neither of 
the above species. 

Size medium, form moderately robust. Vertex not strongly 
but distinctly ascending, narrow, greatest width one-half that of 
proximal antennal joint, about two and three-fourths times as 
deep as wide, sides straight and very weakly convergent. Eyes 
moderately large and decidedly protruding. Antennae greenish 
with each joint weakly annulate with brown at the suture, not 
of the extreme length found in versicolor. Lateral lobes of pro- 
notum with cephalic margin convex to the sharply rounded ven- 
tro-caudal angle, ventro-cephalic angle weakly defined, caudal 
margin subsinuous, almost straight, humeral sinus absent, convex 
callosity very narrow. Tegmina of male similar to those of 
ochrotelus but with veinlets distinct and large tympanum con- 
siderably more elongate, distinctly longitudinal; wings small and 
aborted, about half as long as tegmina. Tegmina of female small 
rounded pads, usually overlapping dorsad; wings small aborted 
pads of nearly equal length. Male cerci with liasal third mod- 
erately stout, mesal third distinctly swollen and decidedly pro- 
duced above a rather long and slender ventral tooth, which is 
straight to the sharp and decurved apex, the tooth situated 
proximad of the middle and directed meso-proximad, distal 
portion of cercus directed weakly outward, distinctly and evenly 
flattened, with margins converging evenly to the acute apex. 
Subgenital plate of male truncate between the rather short disto- 
lateral styles. Ovipositor short and weakly but distinctly arcuate 
dorsad. Subgenital plate of female flat with lateral margins 
strongly and rather broadly curved upward, embracing the base 
of the ovipositor. Caudal femora with proximal portion 



REHN AND HEBARD 281 

decidedly swollen, genicular lobes bispinose, ventral margins 
unarmed. 

Coloration. — Male: Head excepting eyes and dorsal surface, 
lateral lobes of pronotum, body and exposed proximal portion 
of abdomen, cephalic and median limbs and greater part of 
swollen portion of caudal femora light oriental green, caudal 
margin of pronotum, tegmina, abdomen and cerci uniform cinna- 
mon. Remaining portions of caudal limbs greenish washed with 
cinnamon, excepting the genicular lobes which are briefly suf- 
fused with chestnut. Medio-dorsal stripe of head and pronotum 
very broad, shining blackish brown, with pale margins buffy 
and wider than is usual. Eyes chestnut l)rown. In the female 
the coloration is similar, excepting that the abdomen shows 
traces of darker longitudinal stripes on the dorsum and sides, in 
one specimen before us these stripes being pronounced, those on 
the sides darkest, chestnut brown. The coloration of part of the 
series is apparently well preserved. 

Mcasuretneuts {in miUinietcrs) of extreines 



a o 
Pctropolis, Brazil. ^"^ 

cT 10.. 5-13 

9 12 -U 

Specimens Exaniiiic'l: 17; 6 males and 11 females. 

Petropolis, Rio de .Janeiro, Brazil, IV, 12 to 14, 1913, (M. Burr), C. o^ 10 9 , 
[A. N. S. P. and Oxford Univ. Cln.]. 

Tijuca, Rio de .Janeiro, Brazil, IV, 9 to 11, 1913, (M. liurr), 1 9 , l.\. X. S. P.]. 

Conocephalus versicolor (Redtenbaeher) (PI. XXII, Hgs. 8 and IS; XXIII> 

2(3 and 27; XXIV, 8.) 
1S91. Xiphidiiim versicolor Redtenbaeher, Verli. i<.-k. zool.-bot. Ciescll, \\ ien, 

xli, [). .507. [Fonteboa, Brazil.] [Macropterous d^.\. 
1898. X[iplii<linm] feslae Gi^lio-Tos, Boll. Mus. Zool. .\nat . eoini). Univ. 

Torino, xiii, no. 311, p. 92. [San .lose, Guala(iuiza and Valleys of Santiago 

and Zamora, Ecuador.] [Bracliypterous series.]. 

With the present knowledge of the genus it is perfectly evident 
th{itfestae is an absolute synonym of the present species, based on 
bracliypterous material; from three of the four localities given 

TR.\N.S. .A.M. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



s: o 
■^ a 














—, 6 
a > 


3 , 1-3 . 


3 


r> 


.2-.5.8 


10 


.8-12 






3.2-3 


3 


2 


. (5-2 . (J 


11 


.7-12 


3 


8-8 , 9 



282 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

for festac, Giglio-Tos records versicolor as well and suggests the 
possibility of festae being but a variety of that species. 

The present species is a member of the distii\ctive South 
American group H of the subgenus Xiphidion, remarkable for 
the brilliant and very distinctive coloration of the species. 

The male sex of the species is very striking, the green cephalic 
and median limbs, wings and cerci contrasting brilliantly with 
the yellow head, lateral lobes of the pronotum, caudal femora 
(excepting the dark genicular areas) and abdomen, which latter 
furthermore has the dorsal abdominal segments strikingly marked 
as follows: the proximal five are shining black dorsad and laterad, 
the sixth and seventh maculate with black meso-dorsad, while 
the greater part of the eighth and all of the ninth and tenth are 
shining black. The female has the abdomen similarly but much 
less strongly darkened. 

Size rather large, form graceful with limbs decidedly elongate. 
Vertex not strongly but distinctly ascending, narrow, greatest 
width one-half that of proximal antennal joint, slightly over two 
and three-fourths times as deep as wide, sides straight and very 
weakly convergent. Eyes moderately large and decidedly pro- 
truding. Antennae greenish with each joint annulate at the 
suture with brown, in material before us 62 mm. in length. 
Lateral lobes with cephalic margin convex to the sharply rounded 
ventro-caudal angle, ventro-cephalic angle broadly rounded 
but evident, caudal margin subsinuous, almost straight, humeral 
sinus absent, convex callosity very narrow. Tegmina, in macrop- 
terous and brachypterous material, with apex sharply rounded; 
male tympanum very small and distinctly though not strongly 
longitudinal. Male cerci moderately elongate (2 to 2.2 mm. in 
material before us), very slightly but noticeably irregular in 
outline, basal third moderately stout, mesal third distinctly and 
evenly swollen, this swelling more decided, however, above a 
rather long and rather slender ventral tooth which is straight to 
the sharp decurved apex, the tooth situated proximad of the 
middle and directed strongly meso-proximad, distal portion curved 
weakly outward, distinctly but regularly flattened, particularly 
on the inner side, with margins very weakly irregular but con- 
verging evenly to the rather shar])ly rounded ai)ex. The ccm-cus 
has the same appearance found in the North American (\ ni'iiro- 
pleuroides, suggesting minor irregularities more strongly than do 



REHN AND HEBARD 283 

the normal hard and rigid appearing cerci of the other species of 
the genus. Subgenital plate truncate l:)et\veen the short (Usto- 
lateral styles. Ovipositor elongate (in the specimen l)efore us 
13 mm.), nearly straight. The caudal femora are elongate 
(cT', 13.7-15.7; 9 , 16.2 in the material Ijefore us) and armed with 
(cf, 3 ami 4 and 4 and "); 9,4 and o, in our material) long, 
heavy spines. 

Specimens Examined: 3; 2 males ancl 1 female. 

Caparo, Trinidad, VIII, 1913, (S. AI. Klages), 2 d^, [Hehard Cln.], (brach.). 
Contamano, Rio I'cayali, Peru, X to XII, 1012, 1 9, [A. X. S. P.], (macr., 
dr. alch.). 

Conocephalus ochrotelus^^ new species (PI. XXI, fig. 7; XXII, 9; XXIII, 
28 and 29; XXIV, 9.) 

Apparently nearest in relationship to C. truncatii.s'''' and allied 
to C versicolor, but distinctive in coloration and several other 
important characters given below. 

Type: cf, Itatiba, ?ao Paulo, Brazil. April 10. (J. Lima.) 
[Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia, Type No. 5268.] 

Description of Type. — Size medium, form moderatelj' robust. Coloration 
verj' distinctive. Head with dorsum of vertex when seen from lateral aspect 
scarcely ascending (not as much as in versicolor), fastigium of vertex narrow, but 
about two-thirds as wide as basal antennal joint, two and one-fourth times as 
long as broad, sides straight and not decidedly convergent. Eyes moderately 
large, moderately protruding (not as much so as in versicolor). Lateral lobes 
of pronotum with cei)halic margin convex to the ventro-caudal angle, ventro- 
cephalic angle very broadly rounded but distinct, ventro-caudal angle sharply 
rounded and rectangulate, humeral sinus absent, convex callosity very narrow. 
Tegmina broad and truncate with very broadly rounded apex, covering half 
the distance from the pronotum to the apices of the cerci, veins distinct, vein- 
lets subobsolete, tympanum large and distinctly though not strongly longi- 
tudinal (somewhat more nearly transvei'se than in versicolor); wings small 
aborted pads broadly rounded at apex, extending half the distance from the 
tegminal speculum to the apices of the tegmina. Cerci heavy and elongate, 
proximal portion stout and very brief, mesal portion very ekmgate and much 
swollen, protluced weakly interno-proximad in a rounded narrow shelf, in the 
mesal portion of which is situated ventrad a rather heavy tooth directed 
strongly meso-i)roximad with its sharp apex weakly decurved, distal portion 
of shaft broad and rather elongate, decidedly dei)resscd, sides subi):irallel to 
apical portion, where they become (>venly convc^xo-convergent to the \ery 

^^ From d!Xpos=pale antl T€Xos=end, in alhision to the pale and strongly 
contrasting coloration of the two distal dorsal abdominal segments. 
"^ See page 280 for comparison with this species. 

TR.\NS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



284 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERa) 

sharply rounded apex, giving the contour of a very narrow Gothic arch. 
Subgenital plate short, truncate distad between the short disto-lateral styles. 
Cephalic and median limbs very slightly shorter and heavier than in versicolor y 
with ventral margins of tibiae each likewise armed with six heavy spines 
(slightly heavier than in versicolor). Caudal femora proportionately shorter 
than in versicolor with proximal decidedly swollen portion similar, ventro- 
external margins bearing 5 and 8 spines, genicular lobes of caudal femora 
heavily bispinose, genicular areas weakly darkened. 

The measurements of the type are: length of body 13.5, 
pronotum 3.6, tegmhia 4.9 and 5.2, caudal femur 13.4, cercus 2.3 
and approximate width of tegmen if flattened out 3.3 mm. 

The coloration is distinctive. Head, lateral lol)es of pronotum, 
thorax, limbs, exposed lateral portions of dorsal abdominal seg- 
ments and cerci pale bice green. Medio-dorsal stripe of head 
and pronotum warm sepia shading mesad on pronotum to verona 
brown, rather l)roadly margined laterad with cinnamon buff. 
Eyes and tegmina cinnamon, humeral trunk of tegmina cinnamon 
bufT. Concealed proximal portion of dorsum of alxlomen tawny 
olive paler mesad (cinnamon buff) and showing rather Inroad 
lines of the same color meso-laterad. Exposed portion of dorsum 
of abdomen with sixth segment weakly, and seventh and eighth 
heavily and broadly suffused with sepia, the marg;ins of these 
segments marked with a greenish suffusion, ninth and tenth 
segments, subgenital plate and ventral abdominal segments 
pinkish cinnamon contrasting strongly with the proximal dorsal 
abdominal segments and cerci, tenth abdominal segment with 
distal margin strongly suffused with warm sepia. Genicular 
areas of caudal femora suffused (but not strikingly so) with 
bistre. 

The present species is known from the imiciue type. 

Subgenus Perissacanthus *" new subgenus 
The subgenus includes a single species from Paraguay. 
Type of Subgenus. — Conocephalus strictoides [Xiphidinm 
stridoides] (( 'audell) . 

Subgeneric Description. — Prostermun bispinose. Alale sub- 
genital plate as in th(^ subgenus Xiphidion. \rn\vii\ margins of 
cephalic; and median tibiae armed with six well spaced spines. 
Interno-dorsal of distal spurs of caudal tibiae absent so that their 

8" From 7r6pt(To-6s = ()dd (nunibci) and clk ai>9 a =\\\orn, in allusJDn to tli(> five 
instead of six distal si)urs of the caudal tibiae. 



REHX AND HEBARD 285 

number is five, instead of six as found in the ^reat majority of 
the species of the genus. Size medium for the genus, form very 
attenuate. 

Conocephalus strictoides (Caudell) (PI. XXI. figs. 2 and ."); XXII. 10 and 

19; XXIII, 30 and 31. J 
1906. Xiphidium meridionale Caudell (not of Scudder, 187.5), Proc. U. S. 

Xat. Mus., XXX, p. 242. (In part.) [Sapucay, Paraguay.] [2 c^.] 
1906. Xiphidium slrictoideg Caudell, Proc. U. 8. Xat. Mus. .xxx, p. 242. 

[Sapucay. Paraguay.] [3 9,1 juv. ? .] 

This distinctive species shows a slight amount of simihirity to 
the North American C. spartinae in the general form of the male 
cercus; the ovipositor is decidedly longer than in any other 
American species excepting C. stn'ctus and C. leptopterus, all of 
which species differing greatly in most important respects. 

Caudell unfortunatel}' included males before him with a series 
of brachypterous C. saUato7-, recording them as meridionale, a 
synonym of saltator. We consequently here select and describe 
the allotype. 

Allotype: cf ; Sapucay, Paraguay. January 29. 1901. (W. T. 
Foster.) [United States National Museum.] 

Description nj Allotype. — Very siiniiar to type excepting in sex characters. 
Size medium, form very slender. Head with vertex strongly produced, when 
seen from lateral aspect not ascending above plane of occiput; fastigium of 
vertex narrow, greatest width verj- slightly more than one-half that of pro.xi- 
mal antennal joint, narrowing strongly to point two-thirds of the ilistance 
from apex to facial suture, thence subparallel to latter, two and one-half times 
as long as broad. Eyes rather small for the South American species of the 
genus (about as in C. brevipennis and C. spartinae) and also not strongly pro- 
truding. Lateral lobes of pronotum with cephalic margin very broadly and 
evenly convex and unusually oblique to the rather sharply rounded ventro- 
caudal angle which is rectangulate, caudal margin ahiiost straight but with a 
subobsolete convexity at convex callositj^ humeral sinus absent, convex callosity 
moderately broad. Tegmina rather narrow, reaching two-thirds of the dis- 
tance to the apex of abdomen with apices truncate and broadly rounded, veins 
distinct but very delicate, veinlets exceedingly delicate, tympanum very small 
and distinctly longitudinal (slightly more so than in C. versicolor), with stridu- 
lating vein decidedly swollen for two-thirds of its length; wings about four- 
fifths as long as tegmina with broadly rounded apices showing a tendency 
toward an aborted condition. Cerci rather slender and elongate, brief prox- 
imal portion rather stout, very elongate mesal portion decidedly and evenl\- 
swollen except above the proximo-ventral rather slender tooth, which it over- 
hangs in a squared projection with immediate angle rounded, the tooth 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC. XLL 



286 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 

directed strongly meso-proximad with sharp apex weakly decurved, internal 
margin of swollen portion straight, external margin of cercus concave, distal 
portion strongly depressed and directed outward with margins converging to 
the rather broadly rounded apex. Subgenital plate with distal margin very 
w-eakly concave between the comparatively long disto-lateral styles. Ventral 
margins of the caudal femora unarmed, genicular areas not darkened, genicular 
lobes normally bispinose; tarsi, comparatively, rather short. 

Females rather similar excepting for sex characters but slightly more slender, 
with caudal margins of lateral lobes of pronotum straight. Tegniina not as 
long as pronotum, much shorter than in male, rather broadly rounded at apex; 
wings reaching to tips of tegmina, rather broadly rounded at apices and dis- 
tinctly aborted. Ovipositor very long and slender and very weakly curved, 
approximately straight. Subgenital plate shield-shaped, mainly flat, briefly 
curving upward laterad and embracing base of ovipositor, brief distal margin 
of flat surface transverse. 

MeasurcmctUs (in millimeters) 



O 0_g Or; 'o'^ °— • ° ° °''^ 

Sapucay, ?■= |§ fa 2| |g ^t f-^ ^•S' 

Paraguay. ^^ r-i ^^ > ^^ j-^h-) 

Alloiyve,&.. 16 3.2 7.9 2.S 12.6 2.2 .6 

cf 16 3.1 7.6 2.8 12.9 2.2 .7 

9 1.5.5 3.3 3.2 ... 13.3 21.1 

The type series and males in the United States National Mu- 
seum examined by us, and an additional female taken by the 
same collector at the same locality and in the Hebard Collection, 
these specimens taken from December to April 1900-1902, two 
males, four females and one immature female, are the only speci- 
mens known of this interestinp; species. 

Subgenus Aphauropus*'^ new subgenus 
The subgenus includes a single species from Tepic, IMexico. 
Tyye of Subgenus. — Conocephalus leptoptenis new species. 
Subgencric Description. — Prosternum bispinose. Subgenital 
plate of male unknowni. Ventral margins of cephalic and median 
tibiae armed with seven or eight well spaced spines. Caudal 
tibiae with dorsal and ventral pairs of distal spurs absent, armed 
at the distal extremities with a single (well-developed) pair of 
median spurs as in the sul)g(Mms Anarthro])i(s. Tegmina of fe- 
male greatly aV)()rted, wings missing. Size nuMlium for the genus, 
form robust. 

8' Approximately, if ilattciicd out. 

*2 From ot^aupos = weak and 7ro0s = foot, in allusion to absence of the nor- 
mal dorsal and ventral pairs of distal spurs of the caudal tibiae. 



REHN AND HEBARD 287 

Conocephalus leptopterus^ new species (PI. XXI, figs. 1 and -1; XXII, 11.) 
This distinctive species would suggest C. sirictus in the robust 
form, unarmed ventral margins of the caudal femora, unispinose 
genicular lobes and very long ovipositor, l)ut when examined is 
found to be widely separated from any known form of the geims. 
The insect agrees with C. snltai^s in having the caudal tibiae 
armed distad with but a single pair of spurs, but in the present 
insect the prosternum is bispinose and the cephalic and median 
tibiae have their margins armed with seven or eight instead of 
six spines. In a number of characters the insect is unique. 

Type: 9 ; Tepic, Tepic, Mexico. [Hebard Collection, Tvi)e 
No. 385.] 

Description of Type. — .Size medium, form robust. Dark medio-dorsal band 
of head and pronotum continued solid and uninterrupted on abdomen to base 
of ovipositor. Head with vertex, when seen from lateral aspect, in same hori- 
zontal plane as occiput, fastigium of vertex narrow but about two-thirds as 
wide as proximal antennal joint, nearly two ami one-half times as deep as 
broad, narrowing evenly three-fourths of the distance from apex to facial 
suture, then subparallel, this whole outline almost imperceptibly concave. 
Eyes medium for the genus (small for so robust an insect), not strongly pro- 
truding. Pronotum unusually long anrl of exceptional shape, lateral lobes 
broadly rounded to the ventro-caudal angle which is distinctly obtuse-angulate, 
caudal margin straight, very weakly subsinuate, humeral sinus absent, convex 
callosity exceedingly broad, swollen and conspicuous; the cephahc and caudal 
margins are strongly oblique to the ventro-caudal angle, which is abnost mesal 
in position. Tegmina greatly aborted, small rounded i)ads wholly concealed 
by pronotum; wings absent. Ovipositor very long and slender showing a very 
weak upward curvature, approximately straight. Subgenital plate broadly 
shield-shaped, mainly flat, briefly curved upward laterad and embracing the 
base of the ovipositor, distal rather broad margin of flat surface transverse. 

The measurements of the type are: length of i)ody 13.5, pro- 
notum 4.2, caudal femur 13.9, ovipositor 30.1 mm. 
The type is unique, a dried alcoholic individual. 

^3 From Xe7rT6s = minute and 7r7€pw=wing, in allusion to the minute, abor- 
ted and wholly concealed tegmina found in tlie fcinale sex of this extraordi- 
nary species. 



TR.\NS. AM. EXT. SOC, XLI. 



288 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (ORTHOPTERA) 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 



Plate XXI 



Fig. 1. — Conocephalus leptopterus new species. Tepic, Mexico. Female 
(type). Lateral outline. (X3) 

Fig. 2. — Conocephalus strictoides (Caudell). Sapucay, Paraguay. Male {allo- 
type). Lateral outline of vertex. (X25) 

Fig. 3. — Conocephalus unicolor (Bruner). Corumba, Brazil. Female (/o;jo/;/pe). 
Lateral outline. ( X 3) 

Fig. 4. — Conocephalus leptopterus new species. Tepic, Mexico. Female 
{type). Distal extremity of caudal tibia, internal aspect. (X 20) 

Fig. 5. — Conocephalus strictoides (Caudell). Sapucay, Paraguay. Male {allo- 
type). Distal extremity of caudal tibia, internal aspect. ( X 20) 

Fig. 6. — Conocephalus iriodes new species. Kaiteur, British Guiana. Male 
{type). Lateral outline. (X 3) 

Fig. 7. — Conocephalus ochrotelus new species. Itatiba, Brazil. Male {type). 
Lateral outline ( X 3) 

Plate XXII 

Outline of cephalic view of fastigium. (X 25) 
Fig. 1. — Conocephalus Imujipes (Redtenbacher). Carcarafia, Argentina. 

Male. 
Fig. 2. — Conocephalus vUticollis (Blanchard). El Olivar, Colchagua, Chile. 

Male. 
Fig. 3. — Conocephalus ictus (Scudder). Otoyac, Mexico. Male. 
Fig. 4. — Conocephalus insularis (Morse). Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Male. 
Fig. 5. — Conocephalus iriodes new species. Kaiteur, British Guiana. Male 

{type). 
Fig. 6. — Conocephalus angnstifrons (Redtenbacher). Juan Vinas, Costa 

Rica. Male. 
Fig. 7." — Conocephalus truncalus (Redtenbacher). Petropolis, Brazil. Male. 
Fig. 8. — Conocephalus versicolor (Redtenbacher). Caparo, Trinidad. Male. 
Fig. 9. — Conocephalus ochrotelus new species. Itatiba, Brazil. Male {type). 
Fig. 10. — Conocephalus strictoides (Caudell). Sapucay, Paraguay. Male 

{allotype) . 
Fig. IL — Conocephalus lcptnpter)is new species. Tepic, Mexico. Female 

{type). 

Outline of lateral lobe of pronotum. (X <3) 
Fig. 12. — Conocephalus cinereus (Thunberg). Kingston, .Jamaica. Male 

(topotype). 
Fig. 13. — Co7wcephalus ictus {Hcudder). Santa Rosa, Mexico. Atypical male. 
Fig. 14. — Conocephalus insularis (Morse). Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Male. 
Fig. 15. — Conocephalus angnstifrons (Redtenl)acher). Juan Vinas, Costa Rica. 

Male. 
Fig. 16. — Conocephalus saltator (Saussure). Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana. 

Male (topotype). 



REHN AND HEBARD 289 

Fig. 17. — Conocephalus Iruncalus (Redtenbacher). Petropolis, Brazil. Male. 
Fig. 18. — Conocephalus versicolor (Redtenbacher). C'aparo, Trinidad. Male. 
Fig. 19. — Conocephalus slrictoides (Caudell). Sapucay, Paraguay. Male 

(allotype) . 
Fig. 20. — Conocephalus ictus (Scudder). Otoyac, Mexico. Male. 

Outline of female tegmen. (X 3) 
Fig. 21. — Conocephalus borelli (Giglio-Tos). Sapucay, Paraguay. 
Fig. 22. — Conocephalus truncatus (Redtenbacher). Petropolis, Brazil. 

Outline of ovipositor. ( X 2) 
Fig. 23. — Conocephalus iriodes new species. Kaiteur, British Guiana. (/l/^>- 

typc.) 

Fig. 24. — Conocephalus borelli (C5iglio-Tos). Sapiicay, Paraguay. 

Plate XXIII 

Dorsal (first numl)er) and lateral (second number) outlines of male 

cercus. (X 10) 

Figs. 1 and 2. — Conocephalus longipes (Redtenbacher). Carcarana, Argentina. 

.Figs. 8 and 4. — Conocephalus vitticollis (Blanchard). El Olivar, Golchagua, 

Chile. 
Figs. 5 and (i. — Conocephalus cinereus (Thunberg). Kingston, Jamaica. 

(Topotype.) 
Fig. 7. — Conocephalus ictxis (Scudder). Santa Rosa, Mexico. Atypical. 
Figs. 8 and 9. — Conocephalus ictus (Scudder). Otoyac, Mexico. 
Figs. 10 and 11. — Conocephalus insularis (Morse). Pinar del Rio, Cuba. 
Figs. 12 and 13. — Conocephalus iriodes new species. Kaiteur, British Guiana. 

(Type.) 
Figs. 14 and 15. — Conocephalus angustifrons (Redtenbacher). Juan Vinas, 

Costa Rica. 
Figs. 16 and 17. — Conocephalus cquatorialis (Giglio-Tos). Bartica, British 

Guiana. 
Figs. 18 and 19. — r'oNocep/ia/w« .sa/ta/or (Sau.ssure). Caparo, Trinidad. More 

elongate condition. 
Figs. 20 and 21. — Couocephalus saltator (Saussure). Paramaribo, Dutch 

Guiana. (Topotype.) Normal condition. 
Figs. 22 and 23. — Conocephalus saltator (Saussure). Tijuca, Brazil. More 

robust condition. 
Figs. 24 and 25. — Conocephalus truncatus (Redtenbacher). Petropolis, Brazil. 
Figs. 26 and 27. — Conocephalus versicolor (Redtenbacher). Caparo, Trinidad. 
Figs. 28 and 29. — Conocephalus ochrotelus new species. Itatiba, Brazil. 

(Type.) 
Figs. 30 and 31. — (Conocephalus slrictoides (C'audell). Sapucay, Paraguay. 

{Type.) 
Outline of male subgenital plate. (X 5h) 
Figs. 32 and 33. — Conocephalus longipes (Redtenbacher). Carcarana, Argen- 
tina. 

TRANS. .\M. ENT. SOC, XLI. 
10 



290 STUDIES IN AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE (oRTHOPTERA) 



Plate XXIV 

Stridulating field of male tegmen. (X 10) 
Fig. l.—Conoccphabis longipes (Redtenbaoher). Carcarana, Argentina. 
Fig. 2.—Conocepfmlus vitticollis (Blanchard). El Olivar, Colchagua, Chile. 
Fig. 3. — Conocephaliis ictus (Scudder). Otoyac, Mexico. 
Fig. 4. — Conocephaliis insularis (Morse). Pinar del Rio, Cuba. 
Fig. 5. — Conocephalus iriodes new species. Kaiteur, British Guiana. (Type.) 
Fig. 6. — Conocephahis angustifrons (Redtenbacher). Juan Vinas, Costa Rica. 
Fig. 7. — Conocephalus truncatus (Redtenbacher). Petropolis, Brazil. 
Fig. 8. — Conocephalus versicolor (Redtenbacher). Caparo, Trinidad. 
Fig. 9. — Conocephalus ochrotelus new species. Itatiba, Brazil. (Type.) 



Trans. Am. Eiit. 8oc., \'ol. XLI. 



PI. XXI. 











REHN AND HEBARD- AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE 



Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. XIJ. 



PI. XXII 













10 













20 




21 




23 



24 



REHN AND HEBARD— AMERICAN TETTIGONIIDAE 



Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. XLI. 







PI. X.XIII 






13 




12 M/ 14 








20 




11 




22 




32 



25 



27 



29 



31 33 

RF.HN AND HEB.^RD AMERICAN TF.TTIGONIIDAE 



Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. XLI. 



I'l. XXIV 





^^^ )A 










REHN AND HEBARD AMERICAN TETTIGONllDAE 



CONTENTS 



Miscellaneous Aphid Notes chiefly from Oregon. By H. F. 

Wilson 85 

(Issued May 3, 1915) 

On Some Genera of the Pimpline Ichneumonidae. By J. H. 

Merrill, Ph.D 109 

(Issued May 24, 1915) 

Studies in American Tettigoniidae (Orthoptera). V. A 
Synopsis of the Species of the Genus Conocephalus 
found in North America north of Mexico. By James 

A. G. Rehn and Morgan Hebard 155 

(Issued June 19, 1915) 

Studies in American Tettigoniidae (Orthoptera). VI. A 
Sj'-nopsis of the Species of the Genus Conocephalus 
found in America, south of the Southern Border of the 
United States. By James A. G. Rehn and Morgan 

Hebard 225 

(Issued July 14, 1915) 



VOLUME XLI NUMBER 3 

SEPTEMBER, 1915 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 




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\ 



PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY AT THE 
ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

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SUBSCRIPTION PRICE FOUR DOLLARS PER VOLUME 



H. C. FALL 291 



A REVISION OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF 
PACHYBRACHYS 

BY H. C. FALL 

For reasons, which to the initiated are obvious and sufficient, 
no realh^ serious attempt at a comprehensive treatment of our 
species of Pachyhrachys has been made since the appearance of 
Suffrian's paper on the North American CryptocephaUni. In 
1880, Dr. LeConte essayed to give a table for the separation of 
the more easily defined species, but in addition to the twenty- 
nine thus treated, he was compelled to append a list of at least 
twenty forms which were too indefinite or too little known to 
permit of tabulation. 

Briefly stated, the natural conditions which have discouraged 
any attempt at a systematic treatment of our species of this 
genus are, — the great number of species involved; their indefinite- 
ness, due to the lack of salient diagnostic characters, and the 
great individual variability, more especially in the superficial 
characters of sculpture and markings, upon which specific dis- 
tinctions have been largely based. In addition to these inherent 
difficulties, a further serious obstacle to progress has been the 
impossibility of recognizing — in the absence of types — a consider- 
able number of the Suffrian species, the descriptions of which, 
though lengthy, are of little use for purposes of identification. 
This last obstacle has been in part overcome by the opportunity 
of examining a number of the Suffrian types kindly sent to Mr. 
Bowditch and to the writer by Dr. Taschenberg of Halle, through 
the intercession of Dr. Walt her Horn of Berlin. The natural 
difficulties are of course still with us, and their complete solution 
is purely a question of time and experience — and will certainly 
require a large measure of both. The writer realizes — probaljly 
more fully than any one else — the shortcomings and incomplete- 
ness of the present revision, but to wait the solution of all ques- 
tions of relationship and synonymy would simply mean that the 
results of an already protracted study wouM never be published. 
It is, moreover, undoubtedly true that the interest of students and 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, Xl.I. 



292 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERA) 

collectors will be stimulated and the ends aimed at be more 
speedily attained by placing before them the results so far as 
reached. 

The present investigation has been spread over some six or 
eight years and has been prosecuted more or less continually 
during the last three or four. There have been, however, during 
this time many longer or shorter interruptions of active work, 
and because of this, a certain irregularity, or lack of uniformity of 
treatment may be noticeable to the critical reader, but it is 
hoped that the usefulness of the work has not suffered in conse- 
quence. 

Owing to the great difficulty experienced in identifying many 
of the species of Suffrian and Jacoby from the descriptions, and 
inability to obtain authentic examples for study, it is not un- 
Hkely that a few of the forms here described as new may prove 
to be identical with, or merely variations of, certain Mexican 
species; it is, however, thought best to risk this small amount of 
synonymy in the interest of completeness of treatment of the 
material at hand. After making all possible assignments, there 
remains of course the inevitable residue of unplaceable speci- 
mens. There are some fifty or sixty of these — less than one per 
cent of the total number studied — nearly all of them females, and 
many unique. Among them are unquestionably a number of 
undescribed species, but we must await further examples, espe- 
cially males, before they can be properly characterized. 

According to Bowditch, eburifer Suffr. occurs at Brownsville, 
Texas, and he has doubtfully recognized rubronotatus Jac. from 
Iowa and Illinois. The doubt in the latter case I believe to be 
well founded, and as ehurifer was described from South America 
there is more than a chance that there is some mistake in the 
identification; at all events, I have not sufficient information to 
permit my including either of these doubtful things in my tables. 

.4 cknoivledgments 

As usual I have found my entomological friends and corre- 
spondents generous in contri))uting material for study, and it is a 
pleasure to here acknowledge this assistance. No less than 
seven thousand specimens have been examined, among them 
almost the entire material of the National Museum Collection, 



H. C. FALL 293 

for which I am indebted to the unfailing courtesy of Dr. Howard 
and Messrs. Schwarz and Barber; that of the American Entomo- 
logical Society of Philadelphia, including the Horn Collection, 
through the kindness of Dr. Skinner; and also that of the Snow 
Collection in the University of Kansas. From private collec- 
tions I have received substantial aid — in most cases their 
entire material — from Messrs. Leng and Beyer of New York, 
Mr. Schaeffer of Brooklyn, INIessrs. Liebeck and the Wenzels 
of Philadelphia, Professor Wickham of Iowa City, ]\Ir. Warren 
Knaus of McPherson, Kansas, Mr. Chas. Dury of Cincinnati, 
Mr. C. A. Frost of South Framingham, Mass., Mr. Loding 
of Mobile, Mr. A. B. Wolcott of Chicago, Dr. Blaisdell and 
Dr. Van Dyke of San Francisco, and Dr. Fenyes of Pasadena, 
Cal. I have also gone over carefully the collection of the 
late Frederick Blanchard of Tyngsboro, ^Nlass.; have several 
times — thanks to IMr. Henshaw's courtesy — examined the Le- 
Conte types at Cambridge, Mass., and am indel^ted to Mr. 
Bowditch not only for the privilege of studying many of the 
tjpes of his lately described species, but also for the opportunity 
of taking a look at a number of the Suffrian types sent to him by 
Dr. Taschenberg of Halle. Since then I have myself received 
from Dr. Taschenberg, through the kind offices of Dr. Walther 
Horn of Berlin, several Suffrian types, which have enabled me 
to fix the identity of a number of species not hitherto known or 
properly interpreted by American students. Quite recently, in 
response to a request to the British Museum, kindly seconded by 
Mr. Champion, Mr. C. J. Gahan has sent me for study represen- 
tatives of about a dozen Mexican species, including several of 
Jaeoby's and a number of Suft'rian's as determined by Jacoby. 
The consideration so kindly^ shown by ]\Ir. Gahan and the ^lu- 
soum authorities is especially appreciated, coming as it does at a 
time when the working force of the Museum is much reduced, and 
the hazards of transportation considerably enhanced by the 
existing European war. Finally I am under especial obligation 
to Mr. Schwarz of the National [Museum and my neighbor. Dr. 
Fenyes, for bibliographical notes or the loan of some of the older 
papers not in my own librarj-. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



294 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERA) 

Origin of the genus Pachybrachys 

A glance at the literature of the subject shows that there 
exists a considerable difference of opinion as to whom the genus 
Pachybrachys should be accredited. American students, follow- 
ing without question the lead of Dr. LeConte, seem to have been 
unanimous in writing Pachybrachys Chevrolat. Jacoby, in the 
Biologia, gives Suffrian as authority but adds Chevrolat's name 
in brackets. In the next to the last edition of the European 
Catalog by Heyden, Reitter and Weise, it is written Pachybrachys 
Suffrian, while the last edition puts it Pachybrachis Redten- 
bacher. The facts seem to be as follows: 

1834. The name Pachybrachis Chevr. first appears in Dejean's 
Catalog. No description of the genus is given, but the 
species included leave no doubt as to its significance. 

1836. In the reprint of the third edition of the Dejean Catalog, 
numerous species of Pachybrachis Chevr. are listed, including 
a number of North American species described by the 
older authors (Fabricius, Olivier, etc.). 

1837. In the fourth edition of Dejean's Catalog, the species of 
Pachybrachis Chevr. are given verbatim as in the preceding 
edition without additions. 

1847. Dr. E. Suffrian, in a Revision of the European species 
of the genus Cryptocephalus (Linnaea Entom., Vol. II), 
contends that Chevrolat's division of the genus into five 
so-called genera, are mere names, but incidentally changes 
the spelling of Pachybrachis to Pachybrachys for philological 
reasons. 

1848. Dr. E. Suffrian, in concluding the Revision of the Euro- 
pean species of Cryptocephalus (Linn. Ent. Vol. Ill), gives 
on pp. 111-113 a lengthy description of "Pachybrachys 
Chevrolat, " without any reference to Dejean's Catalog. 

1849. L. Redtenbacher (Fauna Austriaca, 1st Edition, p. 563) 
describes the genus "Pachybrachys Chevrolat." 

In the 2d edition of Fauna Austriaca, Redtenbacher uses 
Pachybrachys in the text, and Pachybrachis in the index. 

In the 3d Edition, with fine impartiality, the genus a]ipears 
as Pachybrachys in the table of species, but Pachybrachis 
in the table of genera. 



H. C. FALL 295 

As there is obviously no doubt as to what Chevrolat's name was 
intended to cover, I shall cite him as authority for the genus, and 
I shall spell the name correctly.^ This seems to me the common 
sense of the matter, and the conclusion is to me all the more 
satisfactory since it coincides with the views of Dr. LeConte, 
and recjuires no deviation from American custom. 

Chronology 

Chronologically our species have been described as follows: 

1798. Fabricius — Suppl. Ent. Syst., p. 109. Here appears 
luridus, the first of our species to receive a name. A com- 
mon species, known to all collectors. 

1801. Fabricius — Syst. Eleuth., II, p. 49 — makes known 
viduatus from "Carolina" in a very brief description of ten 
words. The species is confined to the Southeastern states 
and is not overly common in collections. Until recently 
the name viduatus has been commonly and erroneously 
applied to the hivittatus of Say. 

1808. Olivier — Entomologie, VI, p. 810, 820 — describes femora- 
tus and puhescens. The former is one of the numerous 
mottled species, and the description is insufficient for posi- 
tive identification. I have followed LeConte's interpreta- 
tion, which I believe to be correct. Puhescens is a well 
known species which has been more often alluded to under 
Haldeman's name morosa. 

1824. Say— Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., III. pp. 436-440— 
describes abdominalis, hivittatus, nigricornis and Jemoratus. 
The last named is a synonym of luridus Fab. Hivittatus 
is a well known species which has passed as viduatus Fab. 
LeConte seems to have properly identified ahdominalis, 
but both this and nigricornis have remained unknown to 
most American entomologists. 

1824. LeConte (Major)— Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., I, p. 173— 
describes subfasciatus. A well known species. 

1824. Germar— Ins. Sp., p. 560— describes picturatus. Our 
interpretation of this species is not entirely certain; it is of 
rare occurrence. 

i[It is the author's wish that the cmend(><l form of the '^merk name be 
used, but it is done contrary to the judgment and practice of the Publication 
Committee of the Society. Ed.] 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 

J 



296 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERa) 

1825. Say — Amer, Ent., II, PI. 28 — othonus; common, and 

familiar to all collectors. 
1838. Randall — Boston Jour. Nat. Hist., II, p. 46 — describes 

marginaticollis. A synonym of othonus Say. 

1840. Newman — Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, p. 250 — describes limba- 
tus. This name is preoccupied by Menetries (1836) for a 
species from Asia Minor; discoideus Bowditch (1909) replaces 
it. 

1841. Newman — Entomologist, p. 78 — describes sparsiis which 
has been declared to be the same as femoratus Oliv. 

1843. Mannerheim — Bull. Mosc, II, p. 311 — describes sig- 
iiatijrons. The first species from the Pacific coast to receive 
a name. 

1847. Melsheimer— Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Ill, pp. 170- 
172 — describes in the following order — m-nigrum, atomarius, 
trinotatus, aesculi, pectoralis, hepaticus, tridens, flavicornis. 
Of these, aesculi and flavicornis are slight varieties of luridus 
and tridens respectively. The others are all more or less 
common in the North Atlantic Coast region, though atoma- 
rius and pectoralis are usually wrongly identified in collec- 
tions. 

1849. Haldeman — Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 2d Series, I, pp. 
257-263 — describes punctatus (^hepaticus Melsh.), morosus 
( = pubescens Oliv.), carhonarius, infaustus ( = atomarius 
Melsh.), sohrinus and mollis { = tridens Melsh.). 

1853. Suffrian — Linn. Ent., VII — describes a large number of 
species from the United States, Mexico and the West Indies. 
Many of these have remained unknown to American stu- 
dents, but the recent loan to Mr. Bowditch and myself of 
certain types from the Suffrian collection has enabled us to 
clear up much of this uncertainty. I give below in the order 
of their description the species occurring (so far as known) 
in our fauna, with some notes as to our present knowledge 
of them. 
haematodes. Described from Mexico, but known to us from 

the states along the Mexican border. 
pulvinatus. Identified with certainty from a type sent by 

Dr. Taschenberg of Halle. 
varicolor. Determined by comparison with specimens sent 



H. C. FALL 297 

me from the British Museum Collection, identified by 
Jacoby who had seen Suffrian's type. Renidens Lee. 
and laevicollis Bowd. are not distinct from these Jacobyan 
specimens. 

dilatatus. Confused with siibfasciatiis in all American col- 
lections. A type recently sent me by Dr. Taschenberg 
enables me to fix the species with certainty; it is thus 
far very rare in collections. 

bajulus. Identified from specimens sent me by Mr. Cahan 
from the British Museum Collection and determined by 
Jacoby from Suffrian's type. 

charaderisticus. Recently identified from Suffrian type. 

oculatus. A type sent to Bowditch seems not to be separable 
from sobjinus Hald. 

spumarius. A male type from the Suffrian Collection was 
sent to Bowditch, and lately a female type to me. An 
interval of six years has dulled my remembrance of the 
former and I do not feel sure that the two are identical. 
I am Inising the species on the female type but I feel that 
there is still some uncertainty here. 

wipurus. Identity established from type. 

melanostictus. Identity established from type. 

peccans. Identity established from type. 

xanthias. Identity established from type. 

obsoletus. Of this we have seen no type, and my interpre- 
tation is open to doubt. As I have identified it, this is 
the species which Haldeman erroneously took for the 
tridens of Melsheimer. 

conformis. Identity not established with certainty. I 
have accepted as this species an example so labeled in the 
LeConte Collection. 

umhraculatus. Specimens from our Mexican Ijorder states 
are identical with Mexican examples in the National 
Museum Collection so labeled ))y Schwarz. Others from 
the British Museum identified as umbracidatus by Jacoby 
appear to be a nearly immaculate form of the same thing. 

litigiosus. Well known for many years, though the name 

has been somewhat promiscuously applied in collections. 

1858. Suffrian— Linn. Ent. XU, pp. 401, 404, 406— describes 

the following: 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



298 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERa) 

luctuosus. Identity established with reasonable certainty 

from type. 
albescens. A type from the Suffrian Collection shows this 

to be the same as hivittatus Say. 
pallidipennis. Identity established from type. 
1858. LeConte — Proc. Acad. Nat. Soc. Phila., p. 84 — describes 

livens and caelatus. 
1861. LeConte — Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 357 — describes 
analis. 

1873. Crotch— Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 32— describes 
xanti. 

1874. Crotch— Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, V, pp. 78-79— describes 
donneri and circumcinctus. Crotch's types are in the Le- 
Conte Collection. 

1880. LeConte— Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, VIII, p. 205-209— 
makes the first attempt at a tabulation of our species. 
Only 29 are thus treated, the remaining 20 or more being 
listed at the end as too indefinite for tabulation. The fol- 
lowing new species are made known: 

striatus { = pallidipemiis Suffr.), virgatus, dubiosus, cruentus, 
lustrans, renidens { = umbraculatus Suffr.), subvittatus, 
iurhidus and hrevicollis. 

1880. Jacoby — Biologia Centr.-Amer., Coleoptera, VI, Part I, 
p. 72 — describes laticolUs from Mexico. Of this species, first 
recognized by Bowditch from Brownsville, Tex., I have seen 
typical examples, sent me by Mr. Gahan. 

1889. Jacoby — Biol. Centr.-Amer., Coleop., Part VI, Suppl., 
pp. 136 to 151 — describes from Mexico — thoracicus, marmo- 
ratus, immaculatus, and sonorensis. Thoracicus is at once 
recognizable from Jacoby 's figure; the other identifications 
are due to Bowditch. 

1909. Bowditch— Canadian Entomologist, XLI, pp. 237-244, 
285-292, 312-324— describes a large number of North 
American and a few Mexican species. The following are 
those from our territory, listed in order of description: 

brunneus jacohyi minor 

wickhami mellitus lodingi 

discoideus coloradensis marginipennis 

marginatus densus punctatus 





H. C. FALL 




arizonensis 


nuhilus 


texanus 


signatus 


longus 


pusilliis 


sanrita 


proximus 


rotundicollis 


snowi 


truncatus 


atomus 


crassus 


nero 


C07lfuSUS 


cylindricus 


sevier 


varians 


tumidus 


laevis 


croftus 
laevicoUis 



299 



Of these I have seen types, cotypes or topotypes of all 
except discoideus, which is represented solely l)y tho unique 
type in the Snow Collection. From the description I am 
quite positive it is only a slight variant of what we have 
long known as Uruhatus Newm., but as Xewman's name is 
preoccupied by Menetries (1836), discoideus becomes the 
name of the species. Sevier also seems to be not distinct 
from curolinensis; atottuis is in my opinion a form of atoma- 
rius; rotundicollis I believe to be the true abdominalis of 
Say; and laevicoUis is nearly typical renidens Lee. which in 
turn is not separable from the older varicolor of Suffrian. 

1910. Bowditch— Can. Ent., XLII, pp. 53-56— describes notatus, 
carolinensis and shasta. Of these the unique type of notatus 
is in the Snow Collection and the species is unknown to me. 
Shasta is a maculate form of punctatus Bowd. 

1910. Blatchley— Coleoptera of Indiana pp. 1127. 1130— de- 
scribes elegans and sticticus. The former name is preoccu- 
pied by Graells— Mem. Acad. Madrid, 1851, p. 153— and the 
species has been renamed praeclarus by Weise ( Wien. Ent. 
Zeit., 1913, p. 219). Sticticus, I am convinced, is the same 
as sobrinus Hald. 

Generic Affinities 

The only genera of the Cryptocephalini with which Pachybra- 
chys might by any possibility be confused are Crypiocephalus and 
Griburius.^ Of these, Cryptocephalus is separable with certainty 
by a number of structural differences; Pachybrachys and Gribu- 
riiis are, however, very closely allied, and while the latter, by 
its comparatively large size, very robust body and regular series 

2 The use of the name Scolochrus Suffr. in place of the older Grihurius Hald. 
by European author-s is entirely unwarranted. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



300 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERa) 

of elytral punctures possesses quite a distinct facies, there are 
really scarcely any constant taxonomic characters by which they 
maj^ be separated. The prosternal character given in the Le- 
Conte & Horn Classification is not constant, and that given by 
Suffrian — ''prosternum sulcate" in Pachybrachys and "feebly 
longitudinally tumid at middle in Grihurius" is open to the same 
criticism. In the rather slender material in Grihnrius in my own 
collection, including five native species, I note that the tibiae are 
completelj'- unarmed at tip in the males of all species, and in 
both sexes of some. Whether or not this holds true in the numer- 
ous Mexican species I know not, but the character may be useful 
in our own fauna at least. The following table presents the 
characters observed for separating the three genera in question. 

Prothorax not margined at base, the edge finely crenulate; anterior margin of 
prosternum prominent at middle, the intercoxal process impresso-emarginate 
at tip with more or less sharply prominent angles; front thighs not incrassate, 
tibiae without terminal spurs. Cryptocephalus 

Prothorax margined at base, the edge not crenulate ; anterior margin of proster- 
num sinuate at middle, intercoxal process not emarginate at tip ; front thighs 
incrassate (except hepaticus group). 

Prosternum often flat or feebly tumid along the median line, intercoxal 
process longer, cordate pointed, the angle narrowly rounded; all tibiae 
unarmed in the c?- Griburius 

Prosternum sulcate, intercoxal process less produced, the apex more ob- 
tusely but more sharply angulate; middle tibiae with terminal spur in both 
sexes (except hepaticus group). Pachybrachys 

Review of Structural Characters Useful in Taxonomy 

In order to avoid a considerable amount of circumlocution and 
useless repetition in the systematic part of the work, it will be 
profitable before proceeding to the tables and specific descrip- 
tions to pass in review the various parts of the body, pointing out 
those characters which are of value in the separation of species, 
as well as those which from their universality or individual 
variability are of little use in this respect, and may therefore in 
great part be omitted from the descriptions. 

General form. — The form of body throughout the genus does 
not vary greatly and may be dcs('ril)ed as short, compact, sub- 
cylindrical. The ratio of length to width averages about 100 to 
56, varying, according to measurements made, from 100 to 48 
in a particularly slender male of sobrinus, to 100 to 63 in an 



H. C. FALL 301 

especially robust xanti. Unless the form is either exceptionallj' 
elongate or robust, no mention will be made of it in the descrip- 
tions. 

Head. — The head is relatively larger and less deeply inserted 
in the prothorax than in Cryptocephalus, always visible from 
above, varying in width from slightly more than half that of the 
prothorax to very nearly that of the latter, the extremes being 
represented in but very few species. In a large majority of 
species the eyes are not appreciably more prominent than the 
anterior thoracic angles, or in other words, a line continuing 
the side margins of the prothorax at the front angles would pass 
tangent to the eyes or very nearly so. In a small number of 
species the eyes are distinctly more prominent and would be in- 
tersected by the produced side margins of the prothorax. These 
differences are covered in the descriptions by such expressions as 
"head not wider than the thoracic apex," or "eyes more promi- 
nent than the thoracic angles." The front is nearly flat or broadly 
feebly convex in all species, the median line more or less impressed, 
especially toward the vertex. The punctuation is uniform 
throughout in a few species, but as a rule is denser on the vertex, 
in and adjacent to the median line, and about the base of the 
antennae. As the punctures are nearly always of some shade of 
brown or blackish, it follows naturally that the more densely punc- 
tate areas are darker in color, and in fact determine the position 
of what are called in the descriptions the standard markings. 
As a corollary of this proposition it follows that the uniformly 
punctate head is unicolorous, but it should be remarked that the 
converse of this is not necessarily true. 

Ocular lines. — In all species there is a more or less distinct 
impressed line around and contiguous to the upper margin of the 
eye. This impressed line, in the majority of species, continues 
strictly marginal around the upper lobe of the eye and ])ccomes 
gradually evanescent in the emargination; but in many species 
the groove around the upper margin diverges more or less from 
the eye and is continued on the front between the upper lobes as 
an impressed line of punctures gradually disappearing inferiorly. 
These two conditions are indicated in the descriptions l)y the 
expressions "front with (or without) ocular lines," or more 
briefly "ocular lines present" — "or wanting." This character, 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



302 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERa) 

though seemingly trivial, is unusually constant, seldom difficult 
to interpret, and of great value in the tabulation of the species. 

Eyes. — The eyes vary greatly specificallj^ in size and degree of 
approximation and are therefore of very great aid in classification. 
In order to make full use of them, however, it is necessary to 
express their distance asunder more exactly than by the terms 
"near" or "remote" as hitherto, and I have for this purpose 
chosen as a standard of comparison either the length of the basal 
joint of the antennae, or the vertical width of the upper lobe of 
the eye. In the greater number of species the eyes in the male 
are separated by a distance from one to two times the length of 
the basal antennal joint. If the distance be less than the length 
of the basal joint the eyes may properly be called near, and if 
greater than twice the length of this joint they may be called 
remote; these terms, however, are not much used in the following 
descriptions. It should be remembered that since the width of 
the front between the eyes is measured in terms of the length of 
the basal antennal joint of the insect itself, and since the length 
of this joint is often somewhat greater in the male than in the 
female, the results cannot be directly compared. 

Antennae. — These organs are remarkably uniform in structure, 
and aside from some variation in length and thickness offer very 
little in the way of specific differences. In the aberrant mic- 
rops the antennae are sensibly thickened externally, but in all 
other species they are virtually filiform. The first joint is 
always stouter, more or less broadly oval; the second somewhat 
similar in form but much smaller; third more slender and longer 
than the second, gradually wider apically; the next two or three 
similar but increasing in length, the outer five or six subequal in 
length, the tenth usually visibly shorter; the eleventh appendicu- 
late. In hepaticus and microps these organs are scarcely half 
as long as the body in the male, while in males of Ivridus, trinota- 
tus, nuhilus and several others they are nearly or quite as long 
as the body. In the great majority of species the antennae are 
about three-fourths the length of the body in the male, the 
length — with very few exceptions — being somewhat shorter in 
the female. In the descriptions following, the length in terms of 
the body is usually given, and frequently the length of the tenth 
joint in terms of the width, this ratio being a fair index of the 



H. C. FALL 303 

degree of slenderness of the organ. Other details would be of 
little use and largely a matter of repetition. 

Prothorax. — The form of the prothorax varies somewhat but 
is not of much use in the separation of species. It is more or 
less wider than long in all species, and is nearly always distinctly 
widened posteriorly, but in a few species, e. g., quadratus, the 
base is scarcely wider than the apex. There is a definite basic 
color scheme which will be alluded to below, and it may be said 
here as of the head, that the darker areas arc more closely punc- 
tate. The density and coarseness of punctuation naturally 
varies consideraljly in so large a genus, but in only one respect 
have I found it signally useful in tabulating the species. In a 
large majority of species the punctuation becomes distinctly 
sparser or almost disappears along the side margins, ))ut in quite 
a number of forms the surface is nearly equally densely punctured 
to the extreme margins. 

Elytra. — The only important characters drawn from tlie elytra 
aside from the markings are those of punctuation. In the most 
completely striate forms, of which pdUidipennis is the best 
example, there are a sutural, marginal and eight discal striae on 
each elytron. The sutural stria diverges oljliquely from the 
suture anteriorly and within it in the scutellar region arc one or 
two short lines of punctures which are, however, in most species 
quite irregular or completely confused. In the following descrip- 
tions the discal striae only are nundDcred, that next to the sutural 
being called the first, and the one next within the marginal the 
eighth or submarginal stria. From the completely striate paUidi- 
pennis to the entirely confusedly punctate microps there is every 
intermediate stage of regularity or irregularity of strial develop- 
ment. In the vast majority of species the striae are, in part at 
least, more or less obvious, the eighth being most persistent, while 
fragments at least of some of the others are visible on the decliv- 
ity. The first discal stiia diverges from the suture anteriorly 
as does the sutural one, and both arc often lost in the confused 
punctuation of what I have called the baso-sutural region or 
triangle. In very many species the first stria suffers either a 
gradual or an abrupt displacement toward the suture, at or al)Out 
the middle of the elytra, enclosing between it and th(> second 
stria at this point a small area which Mr. Bowditch has called the 

TKAXS. AM. KN'T. SOC, XLI. 



304 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERa) 

shield. This area is usually a little elevated, often quite small, 
and in many species suboljsolete or completely wanting. In 
the great bulk of more or less obviously striate species, striae 
three, four, seven and eight are most likely to be well developed 
or entire, while five and six are very often broken or confused at 
and in front of the middle, remaining distinct in their posterior 
half. In most species there is a sinuation, displacement or 
confusion of the punctures of the eighth stria just behind the 
humerus, which I have spoken of in the descriptions as the sub- 
basal interruption of the eighth stria. A character of some value 
exists in the punctuation of the marginal interspace, this being 
virtually free from punctures in numerous species, while in many 
others it is variablj^ punctate. 

Body beneath. — No characters of any moment have been drawn 
from the under body, the structure, sculpture and vestiture being 
sensibly uniform throughout. 

Legs. — The front thighs are distinctly incrassate in all species 
except the aberrant hepaticus and niicrops, in which, moreover, 
the tibiae are entirely without apical spurs. In all our other 
species the middle tibiae are armed with a slender apical spur. 
The front tibiae are armed with a somewhat thicker and shorter 
spur except in a very few species — m-nigrum, trinotatus and 
pidvinatus — in which it appears to be wanting. The hind tibiae 
are unarmed except in three of the pubescent species — viz., 
pubescens, haematodes and integratus. The front claws are in 
many species obviously larger than those of the middle and hind 
feet. This is especially noticeable in the males, but is in these 
species also detectable in the females. In many others there is 
scarcely any difference in the size of the claws, though careful 
comparison will almost always show the front ones to be a trifle 
larger. 

Vestiture.- — Some fourteen species have the upper as well as the 
under surface distinctly pubescent, and these are naturally 
tabulated together as a group. Of the remaining species, one 
only — fortis — shows any appreciable signs of pubescence above. 

Color and Markings. — The typical Pachybrachys is of some shade 
of yellow, with markings of black or brown, which — following 
Bowditch — I have called the standard spots. These are as 
follows: On the head, a vertex spot — usually transverse — an 



H. C. FALL 305 

elongate frontal spot, often connected with the one on the vertex 
and usually forked inferiorly, a branch extending on either side 
to the antennal fovea, the branches not infrequently interrupted, 
leaving an isolated antennal spot. In a reduction of the markings 
the antennal spots first disappear, then the frontal one, and finally 
the vertex spot, which is rarely entirely lacking. On the other 
hand all spots may become larger and by suffusion the entire 
surface becomes dark, the entire obliteration of the pale color 
from the head being, however, of rare occurrence. On the pro- 
thorax there are three standard spots extending forward from 
the base a variable distance, the middle one divided anteriorly and 
joining the lateral ones, forming an M-shaped mark, which in 
descriptions is briefly called the M. Here bj' reduction the spots 
become smaller and disconnected, finally disappearing at the 
base; or on the other hand they may become nuicli heavier, 
leaving only two basal spots, a narrow median anterior line, the 
outer margin — wider at the front angles — and the anterior mar- 
gin, pale; or they may be irregularly developed and suffused, and 
finally the whole surface becomes black. On the elytra the stand- 
ard spots are six in number; an outer marginal or submarginal 
series of three, and a corresponding discal series of like number. 
Not rarely the spots are all more or less completely isolated or 
individually distinct; in a few species the spots of each series are 
longitudinally confluent into more or less regular vittae, but in a 
far greater number they are more or less unequally developed 
and irregularly confluent both longitudinally and transversely, 
giving rise to a mottled appearance difficult to describe, and often 
so variable within specific limits that it can only be characterized 
as one of the broadly typical varieties of the standard markings. 

Pygidium. — Blackish with a small marginal pale spot each 
side and two obliquely oval apical spots of variable size, often 
confluent with each other and with the small lateral spots. By 
a reduction of the pale spots the surface may become entirely 
black, or by their extension the black area is reduced to a basal 
band produced backward a little at its extremities and having 
a median cusp-like prominence, and in a few species the surface 
becomes entirely pale. 

Body heloiv. — Blackish or brownish, usually with the epimera, 
sides of the abdomen and last ventral segment paler. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



306 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERa) 

Appendages. — The antennae are rarely entirely yellow or 
entirely black; typically they are pale basally with the first two 
joints more or less blackish on the upper side, and the outer four 
to six joints more or less dusky or blackish. Legs yellow with the 
tarsi dusky, tibiae with a dark apical or subapical cloud, the 
femora with a median dark spot or ring. By reduction the legs 
may become entirely pale, while by an extension of the dark 
marks they become black with the extremities of the femora and 
bases of the tibiae narrowl}^ pale — and more rarely entirely 
black. 

Sexual characters. — In common with most Coleoptera the males 
are, on the average, smaller and less robust than the females. 
The abdomen in the male is flat or more or less concave in pro- 
file, the last ventral fiat or broadly feebly impressed; in the 
female the abdomen is convex beneath, the last segment with a 
deep rounded fovea. With few exceptions the antennae are 
obviously longer in the male; the basal joint is also often some- 
what larger in this sex, but these organs are not otherwise modi- 
fied sexually in our species.^ The terminal joint of the maxillary 
palpi is in many species more widely truncate at apex in the male; 
the front tibiae are modified at apex in two species, the front 
tarsi are sometimes visibly broader, while the front claws are 
slightly to c^uite strongly enlarged in numerous species in this 
sex. In the female the terminal joint of the maxillary palpi is 
pointed with the tip narrowly truncate as a rule, and the front 
claws are usually just visibly larger than those of the four posterior 
feet. The hind thighs are in general more elongate in the males 
according to Jacob^y, but I am inclined to believe this is more 
apparent than real, the thighs seeming to be shorter in the female 
because of the greater length of the ventral surface in this sex. 
As a result, they attain the last segment in the female, while they 
reach the abdominal apex in the male. There is obvious a 
general tendency to a broader, more suffused maculation in the 
female, as well as a denser more confused punctuation. 

The tabulation of the grcuit number of species involved in this 
revision, even in the imperfect way in which it has been accom- 
plished, has proven a very difficult task. Just as was found to l)e 

'The tcniiinal joint is somewliat dilated in the male of laticolUs. 



H. C. FALL 307 

the case in a recent review of our species of Diplotaxis, so in 
Pachyhrachys there seem to be ahnost no characters which afford 
the means of divichng the genus into natural groups. As in 
Diplotaxis, so here, a small number of species — less than one- 
tenth of the whole number — are separable with certainty by- 
reason of the pubescent upper surface. Two other species — 
hepaficus and microps — are differentiated by good characters, 
but the great mass of species seems incapable of further reduction 
in this manner. In this great complex of species I have been 
forced to adopt color as a basis for primary grouping, and this 
notwithstanding the fact that color — in its smaller details — 
is the most variable of all the characters used. In the l)roader 
sense, however, it is quite serviceable, and it is usuall}- possible 
for even the inexperienced student to decide whether his speci- 
men should be looked for among the black, the yellow, the vitiate 
or the maculate species. The great difficulty comes of course in 
the last named group, for here the variation may be so great that 
individuals of the same species may be referred to either the 
black, variegated or yellow groups. This difficulty has been in 
large measure overcome by tabulating in more than one group 
those species known to be except ionably variable. It has 
manifestly not been possible to provide for all contingencies of 
this sort, and it would therefore be well if the student doss not 
find his species in the group in which it would appear to belong 
to try the next most probable group before giving up the search. 

In the reading of the specific descriptions which follow, it 
must be remembered that there are no fixed characters; every- 
thing wdthout exception is subject to individual variation. The 
study is really a most difficult one and the student nuist not 
expect to be able at all times to identify uniques, expecially if 
they be females. Even with a good series and considerable ex- 
perience the problem will often be difficult enough. 

It is hoped that the short diagnosis before the more detailed 
descriptions will prove of service by enabling the student to 
very quickly decide upon the possibility, or at least probability, 
of that particular species being the one in hantl. The average 
length given in the short diagnosis is in general that of either a 
large male or a small female, and of course will serve only as a 
general guide, the actual known limits of size being given at the 

TRAXS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



308 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERa) 

end of the detailed description. Unless otherwise stated, all types 
are in the author's collection. 

Table of Groups 
Front thighs not at all stouter; tibiae completely unarmed; eyes 

very small and remote Group F 

Front thighs always thickened; middle tibiae always, and front 
tibiae except very rarely, with terminal spur; eyes large and 
less remote. 

Upper surface distinctly pubescent Group A 

Upper surface glabrous or virtually so. 

Species wholly or in great part yellow or testaceous, the 
legs never entirely black; thoracic M not sharply defined 
(except palUdipennis) though often faintly or vaguely 
indicated by diffuse brownish clouds; punctures usually 
of some shade of brown; elytra with rare exceptions with- 
out dorsal cloud or traces of standard spots. . . .Group B 
Species yellow or testaceous with black or brown markings 
representing the standard spots, the markings varying 
greatly in development, both by reduction and extension, 
and often irregularly confluent or confusedly mottled. 

Group C 

Species having the elytra more or less distinctly vittate. 

Group D 

Species wholly or in great part black, the pale areas gener- 
ally few and small, but in a few species more extensive 
and definitely arranged Group E 

Table of Species 

Group A 
Pubescent species 
The group character possessed by all the species here included, 
is so definite as to need no elucidation. In only one species 
(fortis) of the following groups have I observed any appreciable 
pubescence on the upper surface, and there it is so sparse and 
inconspicuous as to easily escape notice. 

1. Hind tibiae without terminal spin- 2 

Hind tibiae with slender terminal .spur. 

Elytral punctuation completely confused, ej^es widely distant. 



H. C. FALL 309 

Sides of prothorax less rounded, pubescence shorter and less con- 
spicuous, color entirely black 1. pubescens 

Sides of prothorax more rounded posteriorly, pubescence longer and 
more conspicuous, color black, frequently with diffuse rufous mark- 
ings 2. haematodes 

Elyt.ral punctuation in part serially arranged; color yellowish with broad 
diffuse brown or fuscous markings; eyes ahnost in contact in the a^. 

o. integratus 

2. Eyes contiguous in cf •"). vigilans 

Eyes not in contact. 

Pubescence unusually dense, obscuring or nearly concealing t he sculpture 
of the head or prothorax or both. 

Head not much narrower than the prothorax; black, cl\H:i with 

fulvous markings ti. wickhami 

Head much narrower than the prothorax; black, ])r()thorax red in 

posterior thiixl or fourth 7. thoracicus 

Pubescence much sparser, not conceahng the scidjjture 3 

3. Prothorax without trace of median smooth line 4 

Prothorax with narrow- entire or subentire smooth median line. 

Prothorax with sides more rounded, not or scarcely wider at base than 
at basal third. 

Black, side margins of prothorax and humeral and apical margins 
of elytra yellow, the disk also frequently with pale markings; more 

rarely in great part pale S. analis 

Rufo-testaceous with faint rufous or livid clouds, which are rarely 
more pronounced; eyes as a rule less widely separated . .9. desertus 
Prothorax conical, widest at base, sides less rounded. 

Rufo-testaceous, the prothoracic M faintly indicated by brownish 
shades, interstitial punctures of the elj-tra coarser and n.ore muiier- 

ous; form stouter as a rule 10. xanti 

Fulvo-testaceous, prothoracic M black and sharply outlined, rarely 
fainter; elytra either entirely yellow or with blackish markings 
which vary much in extent and intensity, interstitial punctures finer 
and less numerous; form a little less robust as a rule. 

11. marmoratus 

4. Surface pohshed throughout; rufo-testaceous, elytra with subsutural and 

marginal black stripes, which are connected narrowly along the base and 

more broadlj- along the declivity ■!• connesrus 

Surface alutaceous and more or less strongly opaque. 

Testaceous, with faint diffuse darker shades, the latter sometimes more 
pronounced and occasionally involving the entire disk of both thorax 
and elji^ra except a narrow pale external margin; eyes in the d^ sepa- 
rated by about I5 times the length of the basal antennal joint. 

14. brunneus 

Black, side margin of jirothorax and occasionally of the elytra, csix'cially 

at the humeri, pale, disk rarely feebly and obscvu-ely varied with i)ale; 

eyes in the cf separated by much more than twice the lengtii of the 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



310 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERA) 

basal antennal joint, their distance asunder nearly equalling the verti- 
cal length of the eye 12. donneri 

Color similar to donneri, except that the discal pale markings are more 
conspicuous; eyes in the cf separated by twice the length of the basal 
antennal joint, the distance obviously less than the vertical length of the 
eye; prothoracic punctuation finer 13. uteanus 

Group B 
(Starred species (*) are tabulated in more than one group.) 
This group includes those species which are — so far as our 
experience goes — normally almost entirely yellow or testaceous, 
at least so far as the elytra are concerned. In diversus and 
petronius the elytra are sometimes more or less suffused with 
brown along the suture, but seemingly always without lateral 
spots. In tacitus the brown color of the punctures may also 
become suffused along the striae posteriorly, forming incipient 
markings, while in pundatus * (especially in the female), con- 
victus* suhlimatus* nuhilus* conspirator* caelatus * and tnitis, 
specimens have been seen with some of the elytral markings 
more or less developed, though these are usually quite small and 
inconspicuous. 

1. Prothorax with broad heavily marked black M; size rather large (3.5 to 4..5 

mm.); elytral striae all regular and entire 138. pallidipennis 

Prothoracic M never black and sharply defined; elytral striation les.s perfect, 
often very imperfect or wanting 2 

2. Prothorax as wide at base as the base of the elytra (at least in the 9), 

strongly narrowed in front; punctuation very much finer than that of the 

elytra 15. purus 

Prothorax often very nearly but never with the basal width absolutely equal 
to that of the elytra 3 

3. Prothorax and elytra with a more or less evident secondary system of fine 

rather sparse interstitial punctures 16. mellitus 

Prothorax and elytra without obvious interstitial punctuation (a few very 
minute punctures are detectable — especially on the prothorax — of certain 
species) 4 

4. Marginal interspace of the elytra more or less conspicuously punctate, the 

submarginal (8th) stria often ill defined or even completely confused with 

the punctures of the interspace 5 

Marginal interspace of elytra either impunctatc or at most with a few punc- 
tures at or near the post-humeral interruption of the 8th stria 11 

5. Front with ocular lines 6 

Front without ocular lines 9 

6. Front claws of cf not appreciably larger than those of the middle and hind 

feet " 

Front claws of tf obviously enlarged 8 



H. C. FALL 311 

7. Submarginal stria of elytra fairly regular, the marginal interspace nearly 

or quite devoid of punctures in apical half; prothorax more narrowed in 
front and more rounded on the sides; eyes not more prominent than the 
anterior angles of the prothorax; elytral shield well develojied; ocular lines 

quite near the eyes 20. immaculatus 

Submarginal stria of elytra less regular, often completely undefined or con- 
fused with the punctures of the marginal interspace, which is punctured 
from base to apex; sides of prothorax straighter and less convergent in front • 
eyes more prominent; ocular hues more distant from the eyes; elytral shield 
feebly indicated or entirely w'anting. 

Eyes in c? separated by more than twice the length of the basal anteniial 

joint; color pale whitish yellow, size larger (3 to 4 mm.) . . IS. jacobyi 

Eyes in c? separated by about twice the length of the basal antennal 

joint, color darker, more dingy yellow, size smaller (IJ to 2J mm.). 

19. densus 

8. Sutural edge, and usually the posterior two-thirds of the outer marginal 

edge of the elytra very narrowly blackish; front claws of d" rath.er si roiigly 

enlarged 22. marginipennis 

Sutural edge blackish, margin not at all so. 

Front claws of d^ not very strongly enlarged though ob\-iously so, elytral 

shield nearly or quite absent 23. punctatus 

Elytra maculate with black var. shasta* 

Front claws of cf quite strongly enlarged; punctuation somewhat coarser, 
the elytral striae better defined and more impressed; elytral shield 

evident 24. convietus 

Sutural edge not darker; front claws of cf obviously but not stronglj- en- 
larged; elytral lobe nearly or quite devoid of the usual marginal series of 
punctures 2.o. arizonensis 

9. Integuments poKshed 29. mercurialis \ ar. 

Integuments alutaceous and not shining 10 

10. Eyes much more distant in both sexes than the vertical width of their 

upper lobes. 

Submarginal stria of elytra impressed, regular 2(). lodingi 

Submarginal stria of elytra not distinctly impressed, the punctures con- 
fused 129. sublimatus^ 

Eyes less distant in the cf , but not in the 9 , than the vertical width of their 
upper lobes Gl. impurus var. xanthus 

Eyes less distant in both sexes than the vertical width of their ujiper lobes. 

27. placidus 

11. Submarginal interspace of elytra more or less prominent or subcostifonn; 

size rather large (3^ to 4 mm.) 127. liebecki 

Submarginal interspace of elytra not i)rominently convex 12 

12. Eyes of ? separated by fully twice the length of the basal antennal joint 13 
Eyes of 9 separated by barely twice the length of the basal antennal 

joint 21 

Ej^es of 9 separated by about l-J times the length of the basal antennal 
joint; front without ocular hues 41. crassus 

TR.\NS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



312 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERa) 

Eyes of 9 separated by the length of the basal antennal joint or scarcely 
more; front with feeble ocular lines 42. longus 

13. Front claws of cf not appreciably larger than those of the middle and hind 

feet 14 

Front claws of cf evidently larger than the others 20 

14. Front without ocular lines 15 

Front with more or less distinct ocular lines 18 

15. Integuments poUshed; front as a rule more sparsely punctate 16 

Integuments finely alutaceous, scarcely shining; front more closely 

punctate 17 

16. Labrum rather deeply emarginate; form more robust; elytra more con- 

spicuously wider at base than the prothorax; color deeper yellow, size 

larger 17. xantholucens 

Labrum broadly feebly sinuato-truncate; form less robust, humeri less 
broadly exposed, size smaller. 
Eyes in cf separated by fully twice the length of the basal antennal joint ; 
antennae (cT) not quite so long, the 10th joint scarcely 3 times as long 

as wide; elytral striae more regular 29. mercurialis 

Eyes in (f separated by about If times the length of the basal an- 
tennal joint; antennae (d^) nearly as long as the entire body, the 10th 

joint 4 times as long as wide 124. nubilus* 

Eyes in <^ separated by about If times the length of the basal an- 
tennal joint; antennae as in nubilus; elytral striae more broken and 
confused 125. conspirator* 

17. Prothoracic M diffuse but nearly complete, punctuation of elytra coarser 

and less confused, size smaller 31. mitis 

Prothoracic M represented by three small basal spots, of which the lateral 
ones are often faint; punctures of elytra finer, more numerous and more 
confused 30. parvinotatus 

18. Eyes separated by fully 3 times the length of the basal antennal joint in 

the cf; front polished, ocular lines fine; color pale whitish yellow. 

32. coloradensis 
Eyes separated by from 2 to 2f times the length of the basal antennal 
joint in the cf ; ocular lines very distinct. 
Prothorax with a usually nearly parallel and entire rufo-testaceous stripe 

occupying the middle third 28. livens 

Prothorax without median darker stripe 33. minor 

Eyes separated by about If times the length of the basal antennal joint 
in the cT 19 

19. Elytral striae nearly regular throughout, confused only in a small scutellar 

area; prothorax small, sides nearly straight 34. nero 

Elytral striae badly broken or contorted at the middle of the disk. 

Prothorax a little shorter and more transverse, median spot narrowly 
divided apically; striae finer, elytra with seemingly no tendency to lat- 
eral maculation but with the suture often darker 35. petronius 

Prothorax slightly less transverse, sides a trifle more rounded, median 
spot less narrowly divid(Hl; lateral spots of elytra sometimes imlicated; 
striae less fine, more imjiressed 36. tacitus 



H. C. FALL 313 

20. Front with ocular lines. 

Prothorax a little larf^(>r and more rounded on the .sides; eyes very 

slightly more distant; sutural edge blackish 37. abdominalis 

Prothorax smaller, sides less rounded; eyes slightly less distant : elytral 

suture not or scarcely darker SH. di versus 

Front without ocular lines 7G. caelatus* 

21. Front wit-h fine ocular lines; front claws of cf not apprecial)ly larger. 

•'!•'. pusillus 
Front witliout ocular lines; front claws of o" very large . 4U. macronychus 

Group C 
(Starred species (*) are tabulated in more than one group.) 

In this, the central and largest group of the genus, there is 
great variation in the extent of maculation, and consequently 
in the relative proportions of the dark and pale areas. In vittati- 
coUis, fractus, varicolor* fortis, alacris, caelatus * nubilus * and 
conspirator* the elytra are — at least in some individuals — almost 
entirely yellow; while in ivenzeU* signatifrons* mdanostictus, 
vestigialis* colifornicus* pinguescens* varicolor * and luciuosus, 
the elytra may become almost entirely black. Tabulation has 
proved especially difficult in some parts of this series, and the 
student may fairly expect to find it hard at times to decide which 
line to follow. In such cases, both alternatives may have to be 
tested, and final judgment based upon the detailed descriptions. 

A'otatus Bowd. is for the present placed near pinguescens in 
the table. I have not seen the unique type, and a letter of in- 
quiry concerning it to Prof. S. J. Hunter, in charge of the Snow 
Collection, l)rings the information that both front tarsi arc miss- 
ing, hence the impossibility of placing it with certainty in the 
scheme here adopted. 

1. Eyes in the cf separated by a flistance less than th(> length of the basal 

antennal joint {alacris tentativel}' placed, cf not 3^et known) 2 

Eyes in the cf separated bj' a distance equal to or greater than the length 
of the basal antennal joint, but not greater (usually distinct Ij' less) than 

the length of the first two joiiats 6 

Eyes in the cf separated by a distance greater than the length of the basal 
two joints of the antennae (not at all greater in one example of roboris, 
scarcely so in californicus and onlj- slightly greater in precaritts) 18 

2. Front claws of d' very small, not at all larger than those of the middle and 

hind feet. (Arizona.) 43. buUatus 

Front claws of d' more or less enlarged 3 

TR.\NS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



314 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERa) 

3. Front tibiae of c? sinuate on the inner margin at the apex and with a long 

hook-like spur or process at the inner angle. 

Eyes separated in the d" by about f , and in the 9 by barely the length 
of the basal antennal joint ; size smaller (2.4 to 2.8 mm.). (Brownsville, 

Texas.) 44. texanus 

Eyes separated in the d" by about f , and in the 9 by just visibly more 
than the length of the basal antennal joint; size larger (2.9 to 3.5 mm.). 

(Arizona.) 45. uncinatus 

Front tibiae sinuate on the inner margin beyond the middle in both sexes. 

(New England to Illinois.) 46. pectoraUs 

Front tibiae umnodified 4 

4. Front with ocular hues; form narrower. (Eastern United States.) 

47. sobrinus 
Front without ocular lines; form generally stouter 5 

5. Antennae less slender, the 10th joint (c?) not more than three times as long 

as wide. 

Intermediate elytral striae broken and irregular. (Arizona.) 

48. contractifrons 

Elytral striae nearly regular. (Arizona.) 49. alacris 

Antennae more slender, the 10th joint (o") five times as long as wide; front 
claws of cf very large. 

Punctuation throughout sparse except in the small darker pronotal 
markings; elytral punctuation very irregularly disposed, the submargi- 
nal and some short fragments of striae on the declivity alone evident. 

(Arizona.) 50. chaoticus 

Punctuation of pronotiun dense throughout the broad suffused darker 
areas; elytra moderately nmnerously punctate, the striae better defined. 
(Lower California.) 52. peninsularis* 

6. Front claws of cf very distinctly enlarged 7 

Front claws of cf not or but little enlarged 10 

7. Sides of prothorax widely impunctate along the margin 51. peitatus 

Sides of prothorax narrowly impunctate along the margin S 

Sides of prothorax not or scarcely smoother, the punctuation extending 

nearly or quite to the extreme margin 9 

8. Eyes in the cf separated by a distance subequal to the length of the basal 

antennal joint. 

Size large (about 4 mm.); prothorax strongly rounded and inflated at 

sides posteriorly. (Texas.) 53. turgidicoUis 

Size much smaller (2f mm.); prothorax normally rounded at sides. 

Florida.) 54. illectus 

Eyes in the cf separated by I3 to 1| times the length of the basal antennal 
joint (a little more widely in some punctaius). 
Front without ocular lines. 

Pale yellow, markings faint, those of the elytra represented by faint 
lateral spots only; head a little wider than the thoracic apex. (Utah.) 

55. proximus 

Markings larger and darker, the standard spots all present, head not 

wider than the thoracic apex. (Arizona.) 56. nunenmacheri 



H. C. FALL 315 

Front with fine ocular lines which are rather near the ej-es; males nor- 
mally entirely yellow, rarely with traces of spots, females more often 
spotted (see table B). (California.) 

23. punctatus*, especially var. shasta 
24. convictus* 

9. Antennae more slender and elongate, the 10th joint four to five times as 

long as wide. 

Eyes in cf separated by scarcely or but little more than the length of the 
basal antennal joint; prothorax pale yellow with faint brown markings; 

size large (4 to 5 mm.). (Arizona.) 57. fortis 

Eyes in cf separated by about the length of the basal two joints of the 
antennae; prothorax in great part black as in typical luridus; size 
smaller (3 to 4 mm.). (Minnesota to Arizona.) 

150. luridus* var. festivus 
Antennae less elongate, the 10th joint two to three times as long as wide, 
size medium (less than 31 mm.); eyes in the cf separated by \\ to rather 
more than \\ times the length of the basal antennal joint. 

Dull whitish yellow or dingy testaceous, thicklj' punctate, and more or 

less suffused with brown to fuscous, the standard spots sometimes fairly 

distinct but usually vaguely defined. 

Marginal interspace of el>i;ra not wider posteriorly than the adjacent 

one; punctures and shading fuscous or blackish, this color usually 

predominating. (Atlantic and Gulf States.) 

Legs bicolored 58. femoratus 

Legs entirely dark var. aquilonis 

Marginal interspace of elytra wider than the adjacent one (except 
rarely), the punctures and shading brown, the pale yellowish white 
or testaceous ground color predominant. (Florida.) 

59. characteristicus 

Rufo-testaceous, punctures and suffused areas reddish brown in the 9 , 

darker brown to fuscous in the cf (rarely so in the 9). (Mississippi 

Valley.) 61. impurus 

10. Front with ocular lines 11 

Front without ocular lines 12 

11. Eyes in c?' separated by about ^ the vertical width of their upper Iol)es; 

size larger (2.8 to 3.4 mm.). (Texas; Arizona.) 62. calidus 

Eyes in cf separated by a distance subequal to the vertical width of their 
upper lobes; size smaller (2.3 to 3 mm.). (California; Arizona.) 

64. prosopis 

12. Marginal interspace of elytra numerously pimctate, size large (3.4 to 4.3 

mm.) (Texas to Arizona.) 65. wenzeli* 

Marginal interspace of elytra impunctate or nearly so 13 

13. Front claws of d^ obviously though not conspicuously enlargetl; size large 

(3.7 to 4.7 mm.) 14 

Front claws of cf not appreciably enlarged; size small or moderate (2.3 
to 3.3 mm.) 15 

TRANS. AM. EXT. SOC, XLI. 



316 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERa) 

14. Lustre dull, prothorax very densely punctate, terminal joint of antennae 

dilated in the c?; elytral striae deeply impressed. (Texas and Arizona.) 

68. laticoUis 
Lustre moderately shining, prothorax not very densely punctate, terminal 
joint of antennae not dilated. 

Elytral punctuation much confused, striae feebly impressed. (Arizona.) 

66. snowi 

Elytral punctuation more regular, striae rather deeply impressed. 

(Kansas; Texas.) 67. turbidus 

15. Eyes more narrowly separated in both sexes than the vertical width of 

their upper lobes; elytra with a small but conspicuous blackish sutural 

spot on the convexity. (Brownsville, Texas.) 69. duryi 

Eyes in the 9 as widely separated at least as the vertical width of their 
upper lobes ; elytra without conspicuous sutural spot on the convexity . . 16 

16. Integuments polished 124. nubilus* 

Integvnnents with more or less distinct alutaceous sculpture 17 

17. Side margins of prothorax smooth, markings throughout black or nearly 

so, and more sharply contrasting. (Texas.) 70. gracilipes 

Side margins of prothorax punctate more or less completely; markings 
brown to fuscous and less sharply defined. 

Eyes in cf separated by fully 1| times the length of the basal anten- 
nal joint; prothorax less densely punctured along the side margins. 

(Atlantic States.) 71. confederatus 

Eyes in the cf separated by scarcely more than the length of the basal 
antennal joint; prothorax more densely punctured along the side mar- 
gins. (Georgia.) 72. tybeensis 

IS. Front tibiae of cf emarginate inwardly at apex and with a long si)iu--like 

process at the inner angle 73. calcaratus 

Front tibiae of cf unmodified 19 

19. Front claws of cf strongly enlarged 20 

Front claws of c? perceptibly larger than the others but in variable degree 

(quite conspicuously so in badius and nubigenus, only very sUghtly so in 

bajulus and delumbis) 22 

Front claws of cf not appreciably enlarged (perceptibly larger in sribvittatus , 
presumably so in spumarius and quite distinctly so iu some examples of 
roboris) 29 

20. Prothoracic punctuation equally close to the extreme side margin (a little 

smoother in those examples of caiifornicus having the side margins yellow) ; 
predominant color black. 

Elytral punctuation confused throughout; lustre dull. (Southern 

States.) 149. confusus* 

Elytra distinctly striate toward the sides and rear; lustre .strongly 

shining 118. caiifornicus* 

Prothoracic punctuation sparser or absent along the side margins 21 

21. Prothorax fiiK^ly sparsely punctate, elytral striae mucli broken, color pre- 

dominantly pale yellow, size rather large (3.3 to 4.3 mm.). (Arizona.) 

74. cylindricus 



H. C. FALL 317 

Prothorax less finely and more densely punctate. 

Size rather large (3.5 to 4 mm.); black markings heavy and more or 
less broadly suffused. 
Antennae with 10th joint (cf ) less than 3§ times as long as wide. 

(Arizona.) [Species doubtfully placed.] 75. notatus 

Antennae with 10th joint (cf ) four times as long as wide. (Arizona; 

CaUfornia.) 119. pinguescens* 

Size moderate (2.5 to 3.2 mm.); color i)redominantly yellow (except 
rarely in caelatus). 
Eyes separated by fully twice the length of the basal antennal joint 
in the cf , and by nearly the entire length of the eye in the $ ; striae 

nearly regular. (Texas to Cahfornia.) Tti. caelatus* 

Eyes separated by much less than twice the length of the basal anten- 
nal joint in the o"^, and much less than the length of the eye in 
the 9 . (Texas.) 77. brevicollis 

22. Front with ocular lines 23 

Front with ocular lines faintly indicated and quite near the eyes; markings 

black, variable; elytral striae generally ill-defined and feebly impressed; 
front claws rather strongly enlarged. (California to Colorado.) 

85. vacillatus 
Front without ocular lines 26 

23. Elytral punctuation largely confused, striae at sides and rear very irregular 

or fragmentary; markings brown and diffuse, a posterior fascia some- 
times conspicuous; ocular lines often feeble or subobsolete. (Texas to 

Arizona.) 84. postfasciatus 

El^^tra more or less distinctly striate at sides and rear 24 

24. Punctures and markings of upper surface brown or rust colored, sometimes 

becoming blackish on the elytral disk in the cf ; eyes in the cf separated 
by a httle less than twice the length of the basal antennal joint. 

Elytral striae much confused, only one or two outer striae and the api- 
cal portions of the discal ones well defined; ocular lines quite near the 
eyes; marginal interspace of elytra numerously punctate, size larger 

(3.2 to 3.5 mm.). (California.) 78. nubigenus 

Elj'tral striae fairly regular from base to apex in more than outer half; 

ocular lines distant from the eyes; marginal interspace of elytra with 

very few punctures; size smaller (2.5 mm.). (California.) . 79. punicus 

Punctures and markings of upper surface entirely black or fuscous in 

mature specimens (except possibly in some examples of signatus) 25 

25. Front claws of c^ distinctly enlarged, perceptibly so in the 9 ; eyes in the 

cf separated by barely twice the length of the basal antennal joint. 

(Maine to British Columbia.) 81. peccans 

Front claws of cf only shghtly larger, scarcely so in the 9 ; eyes of c'' sepa- 
rated by fully twice the length of the basal antennal joint. 

Markings very variable in development; front claws of cf a little more 

obviously enlarged. (Pacific States.) SO. melanostictus 

Black, yellow markings few and small; front claws of o' \ery little en- 
larg(>d. (California.) 82. signatifrons* 

TRANS. AM. EXT. SOC, XLI. 



318 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERa) 

Yellow, with median thoracic stripe and posterior elytral fascia black- 
ish; front claws of cf but little enlarged. (Arizona to Texas.) 

8.3. signatus 

26. Prothoracic markings always more or less diffuse, reddish or pale brown to 

fuscous, elytral spots more or less pronounced 27 

Prothoracic markings in the form of three somewhat irregular heavily 
marked black vittae, which are not or only narrowly connected in front, 
and are sharply defined; elytral spots nearly or quite wanting. (Arizona.) 

91. bajulus 

27. Pronotum almost completely suffused with reddish brown, the punctua- 

tion of the disk dense and nearly uniform; front claws of cf rather 

strongly enlarged. (California.) 8G. badius 

Pronotum lightly to heavily variegated with pale brown to fuscous, the 
punctuation less dense and more uneven, the front claws of the (f less 
conspicuously enlarged 28 

28. Front claws of cT quite noticeably though not strongly enlarged. 

Prothorax only just perceptibly wider than the head, scarcely at all nar- 
rowed in front, the base and apex subequal. (California.) 

87. quadra tus 
Prothorax obviously wider than the head though not greatly so, sides a 
little convergent in front, the apex never as wide as the base. 

Punctuation less dense, front claws of cf slightly more enlarged. 

(Cahfornia to Texas.) 88. mobilis 

Punctuation more dense, front claws of cf rather less enlarged. 

(California.) 90. pluripunctatus 

Front claws of cf only very slightly larger than the others, eyes a little less 
distant. (Texas.) 89. delumbis 

29. Head and prothorax and usually the elytra distinctly alutaceous, dull or 

at most moderately shining 30 

Head and upper surface strongly shining, polished or with but the faintest 
trace of alutaceous sculpture 47 

30. Size large (4 to 6 mm.) ; elytral punctuation almost completely confused . 31 
Size somewhat smaller (3.7 to 4.25 mm.); elytral striae very imperfect and 

fragmentary but present at least toward and on the posterior convexity; 
prothoracic markings reddish brown, broadly suffused, the elytra) spots 

black, heavy. (Arizona.) 94. sanrita 

Size moderate or small, always less than 4 mm., rarely over 3.5 mm 32 

31. Antennae extremely slender and filiform, 10th joint four to five times as 

long as wide; pygidium of 9 widely margined. (Arizona.). .92. nobilis 
Antennae less slender, 10th joint about three times as long as wide; pygi- 
dium of 9 normally margined. 

Legs fuscous. (New Mexico.) 93. fuscipes 

Legs rufo-testaceous. (Arizona.) . .var. purgatus 

32. Prothoracic punctuation dense to side margins 33 

Prothoracic punctuation sparser or absent along the side margins, the 

latter narrowh' smooth, at least in part 35 

33. Punctures antl markings black or fuscous 34 



H. C. FALL 319 

Punctures and markings rust colored or brown in the 9 , sometimes fuscous 
in the c?- (Eastern United States.) 101. roboris 

34. Head not wider than the thoracic apex. 

Pygidium entirely blackish. 

Eyes less distant; basal antennal joint bicolored, at least in the cf . 

(Eastern United States.) 03. atomarius* 

Eyes more distant, basal antennal joint black, or with at most tlie tip 

nubilously paler. (Kansas to Te.xas.) 96. vestigialis* 

Pygidium with pale spots, front claws of cf a little larger, eyes closer. 

(New York to North Carohna.) 97. obfuscatus 

Head a little wider than the thoracic apex. (Gulf and Atlantic Coast 

States.) 100. cephalicus 

var. dixianus 
var. parvus 

35. Front without ocular lines 3G 

Front with ocular lines 46 

36. Species of the Atlantic, Mississippi and Gulf Region 37 

Species of New Mexico and Arizona 44 

37. Anterior tibiae without terminal spur, eyes subequally distant in the 

sexes; 10th antennal joint more than four times as long as wide. (Eastern 

United States.) 146. m-nigrum 

Anterior tibiae with terminal spur, eyes evidently more distant in the 9 . . 38 

38. Antennae nearly as long as the body in the cf, the 10th joint "nearly or quite 

four times as long as wide. (Eastern United States.) 103. relictus 

Antennae evidently shorter, the 10th joint from two to thi'ee times as long 
as wide 39 

39. Striae of elytra unusually even and continuous from base to apex 40 

Striae of eljiira more or less broken and irregular except toward the decliv- 
ity; color as a rule predominantly yellow (except spianarius) 41 

40. Black, and pale yellow, the colors rather strongly contrasting. 

104. carolinensis 

Black or fuscous, yellow spots few and inconspicuous. (Georgia to North 

CaroUna.) 105. luctuosus 

41. Marginal interspace of elytra conspicuously punctate nearly throughout 

its length. (Georgia; Carolina.) 102. spumarius 

Marginal interspace of elytra impunctate or virtually so (sparsely punctate 
in fracl us) 42 

42. Markings brown, head very unevenly punctate. (Florida.) . . lOS. osceola 
Markings black, head more evenly punctate 43 

43. Standard elytral spots generally all present and sharply defined. 

Prothoracic M normal, the median vitta widely forked or Y shaped an- 
teriorly and connected with the lateral spots; elytra without conspicu- 
ous sutural black stripe. (Gulf States.) 106. varians 

Prothorax trivittate, the median vitta usually entire, a little dilated but 
not or scarcely divided in front and not connected with the lateral vit- 
tae (or spots) ; elytra with a somewhat conspicuous black sut ural stripe 
for I of its length. (Florida.) 107. conf ormls 

TR.\XS. AM. EXT. SOC, XLI. 



320 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERa) 

Standard elj^tral spots wanting except the basal and apical ones of the outer 
series. (Georgia.) 109. quadri-oculatus 

Standard elytral spots — except the one on the humeral umbo — wanting or 
but faintly indicated. (Texas.) 110. fractus 

44. Front claws of cf more perceptibly enlarged; eyes in cf separated b>- about 

If times the length of the basal antennal joint; 10th joint of antennae less 
than three times as long as wide; legs almost entirely j-ellow. (Arizona.) 

111. truncatus 
Front claws of c^ scarcely perceptibly enlarged 45 

45. Elytral punctuation confused in baso-sutural region, elsewhere more or 

less distinctly striate. 

Baso-sutural region of confused punctuation rather small, pygidial yel- 
low spots moderate to large. 

Eyes of d^ separated by about 1| times the length of the basal an- 
tennal joint or slightly more, or by a distance scarcely or barely as 
great as the vertical width of their upper lobes; antennae more 
slender, the 10th joint more than three times as long as wide. 

(Arizona to Texas.) 112. precarius 

Eyes of c? separated by twice the length of the basal antennal joint, 
a distance distinctly greater than the width of their upper lobes; 
antennae a Httle less slender, the 10th joint (cf) not more than 

three times as long as wide. (Arizona.) 113. nogalicus 

Baso-sutural region of confused punctuation much more extended, the 
punctures more densely placed; prothorax and pygidium predomi- 
nantly black, apical spots of the latter small or wanting. (New 

Mexico to Arizona.) 114. croftus 

Elytral punctuation confused as far as the submarginal stria, no well de- 
fined striae postero-laterally; size larger. (Arizona to Texas.) 

115. sonorensis 

46. Elytra without impressed striae, the punctures confusedly dispersed 

almost throughout. (Arizona.) 21. insidiosus 

Elytra with distinct striae at rear and sides; punctures confused in baso- 
sutural region. 

More robust, prothorax widest at basal ^ or |, sides strongly rounded. 

(Texas.) 6.3. brevicornis 

Less robust, prothorax widest very near the base, sides slight h- to mod- 
erately rounded. 

Lateral thoracic spot quadrate, solid or entire, not connected with 
the median stripe (rarely slightly so) ; elytral spots usually fused 
into two sharply outlined transverse fasciae connected along the 
suture, the humeral spots, however, often isolated. (Eastern 

United States.) 120. tridens 

Lateral thoracic spot more or less irregular or disintegrated exteri- 
orly, often connected with the median stripe; elytral maculation 
more irregular, the standard sjjots all more or less distinct, though 
frecjuently confluent in part. (Eastern United States.) 

121. obsoletus 



H. C. FALL 321 

47. Front with ocular lines. 

Prothorax moderately narrowed in front. (New Mexico to Colorado.) 

122. alticola 
Prothorax transversely quadrate, scarceh' narrowed in front; eyes 
slightly closer; elj-tral striae a little less impressed. (Arizona.) 

111. truncatus* 
Front without ocular lines. 

Eyes separated in the cf by twice the length of the basal antennal joint; 
size rather large (.3.5 mm. or more). 
Form less robust, prothorax feebly narrowed in front, side margins 
rather broadly impunctate, color predominantly black. (Cali- 
fornia.) 117. lustrans* 

Form very robust, prothorax moderately (suhnllaluf;) to st rough- 
(inistabilis) narrowed in front, the side margin very narrowh- or 
partially smooth. 

Yellow, prothorax shorter, trivittate with black, the median vitta 

divided in front, legs pale. (Texas.) 120. subvittatus 

Red or reddish yellow and black, thorax not trivittate, legs black. 

(Texas to Kansas.) 1.52. instabilis"^ 

Eyes separated in the cf by less than twice the length of the basal 
antennal joint. 

Size large (3.5 to 5 mm.); elytral punctuation almost completely 

confused. (Colorado to Arizona.) 116. varicolor* 

Size much smaller (2.25 to 3.1 mm.); eh-tral striae evident. 

Antennae less elongate, the 10th joint less than three times as 
long as wide in the cT; eljiral striae more regular. (Texas to 

CaUfornia.) 123. laevis 

Antennae more elongate, 10th joint four times as long as wide; 
elytral striae much broken; size generally larger. (Arizona.) 

125. conspirator* 

Group D 
(Specie.s starred (*) are tabulated in more than one group.) 
The species of this group are not very numerous, and are 
generally easily recognized. In the typically marked forms the 
elytra are yellow or testaceous with the suttire and two vittae 
on each, black. The outer vitta is more subject to reduction or 
disintegration than the inner, and in hivittatus and allies is com- 
monly interrupted to form three spots, one or more of which 
may be lacking (as in hivittatus), or the two vittae may 1)C fused 
into a single broad stripe- — as in circumcindus and consimihs. 
In sublimatus the inner vitta also may be entirely lacking, in 
consequence of which it has been necessary to also tabulate the 
species in Group C. In autolycus varieties difficilis and wahsat- 

TRAXS. AM. EXT. SOC, XM. 



322 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERa) 

clieyisis the elytra are mostly black, and to lessen the chances of 
error these have been tabulated also in Group E. 

1. Punctuation of elytra in great part confused 2 

Punctuation of elytra arranged in tolerably regular series (less conspicu- 
ously so in piduratus) 4 

2. Terminal spur of front tibia wanting or very rudimentary; last joint of 

maxillary palpi scarcely differing in the sexes; punctuation coarser and 

denser 145. viduatus 

Terminal spur of front tibia normally developed; last joint of maxillary 
palpi more widely truncate in the cf ; punctuation finer and less dense. . . .3 

3. Eyes in cf separated by a distance evidently less than twice the length of 

the basal antennal joint; elytra bivittate, the outer stripe rarely if ever 
continuous, and usually interrupted to form three sjjots, one or more of 

which may be lacking 128. bivittatus 

Eyes in cf separated by at least twice the length of the basal antennal joint. 
Elj^ra occasionally with a single narrow vitta, with or without faint 
traces of lateral spots, but usually entirely destitute of markings; sub- 
marginal stria much confused; eyes in cf separated by twice the length 

of the basal antennal joint, or a little more 129. sublimatus* 

Elytra each with a single broad discal vitta; eyes separated by from 2 J 
to 3 times the length of the basal antennal joint. 

Eyes in 9 less widely separated than their own vertical length ; the 

submarginal stria nearly regular 130. circumcinctus 

Eyes in 9 more widely separated than their own vertical length; 
submarginal stria more confused 131. consimilis 

4. Prothorax densely strigate punctate, a smooth median yellow line which 

does not reach the base 139. othonus 

Prothorax less densely, usually rather sparsely punctate, not strigose (rarely 
somewhat so towards the sides in some examples oijanus) 5 

5. Elytra yellow, with suture or sutural bead and two discal vittae on each 

black or brownish. 

Front claws of cf distinctly enlarged; lustre dull, outer eK-lral vitta con- 
fined to the 7th and 8th interspaces 135. pawnee 

Front claws of cf not enlarged. 

Head and prothorax with more or less evident alutaceous sculi)ture 
(very fine and visible only on the head and toward the sides of the 
prothorax in some examples of aulolycus). 

Prothorax strongly trans-^verse, more closely punctate. (Plains 
west of Mississippi River to the Rocky Mts.) . . 141. autolycus 
Prothorax moderately transverse, more sparsely pimctate, and 
always distinctly alutaceous. (Atlantic Coast.).. 132. litigiosus 
Integuments pohshed, alutaceous sculpture not present except occa- 
sionally very faintly on the head. 

Outer elytral vitta confined to the 7th and 8th interspaces; me- 
dian pronotal stripe conspicuous^ V-shaped. 
Vittae black 136. vau 



H. C. FALL 323 

Vittae more or less imperfect and usually brow-nish. 

^■ar. imperfectus 
Outer el>iral vitta beginning on the 7th and Sth interspaces, and 
ending on the 6th and 7th. 

Median pronotal stripe narrowly V-shaped; size smaller (2.7 to 

3.8 mm.) 134. dubiosus 

Median pronotal stripe not V-shaped but merely dilated a little 
anteriorly, the dilated portion usually showing a very narrow 
more or less obscure paler median line; size larger (3.7 to 

4.4 mm.) 133. virgatus 

Elytra yellow with a single narrow, often imperfect or subobsolete median 
vitta; the shoulder knob and a posterior spot (representing an outer vitta) 

black 137. umbraculatus 

Elytra yellow with a single straight sharply defined but narrow vitta and 

the shoulder knob black 144. picturatus 

Eljira black, with a narrow subsutural vitta, an intrahumeral basal spot, 
and the lateral and apical margin atIIow; legs rufo-testaceous. 

141. autolycus var. difficilis* 

El>i;ra black, with narrow subsutural vitta and external margin yellow; legs 

browniish black in great part 141. autolycus var. wahsatchensis* 

Group E 

(Starred species (*) are tabulated in more than one group) 
Species wholly or in great part black, or if the pale areas are 
more extensive they are definitely arranged (discoideus, margina- 
tus, cruentus, dilatatus, subfasciatus), not irregular and fragmen- 
tary as is typically the case in Group C. Occasionally in stygicus, 
and more often in luridus, lustrans and confusus, the pale spots 
are larger or more numerous, for which reason the three last 
named species have been tabulated also in Group C. 

1. Anterior tibiae without terminal spur; last joint of maxillary palpi nearl}^ 

similar in the sexes; antennae nearly as long as the entire body in the cf . 
Black, prothorax with side margins, apical edge and three discal spots 

reddish yellow, legs entirely black 147. trinotatus 

Similar, but with prothorax narrower, sides straight er; elytra usually 
with small scattered fulvous spots, even more densely but less coarsely 

punctate; legs with small yellow spots 14S. pulvinatus 

Anterior tibiae with terminal spur, last joint of maxillary palpi more or less 
obviously more widely truncate at apex in the cf ; antennae les< elongate . . 2 

2. Pale areas or markings generally broader and definite in arrangement or 

design 3 

Pale markings as a rule irregularly disposed, generally small and inconsjjic- 
uous (much more extensive in some examples of lustrmis and luri'lus); pro- 
thoracic markings, when present, consisting typically of a narrow median 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



324 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERA) 

anterior, and two oblicjue basal spots, the lateral margin and a verj' nar- 
row anterior margin, yellow 9 

3. Elytra with a narrow subsutural vitta — often interrupted — and the lateral 

and apical margins, yellow; prothorax with two basal spots and a median 
anterior spot or line, yellow. 

Legs almost entirely rufo-testaceous. (Maine; Michigan.) 

141. autolycus var. difficilis* 
Legs dark in great part. (Utah; Montana.) 

141. autolycus var. wahsatchensis* 

Elytra similarly marked, but with the sutural vitta and external margins 

obscure rufous and often almost completely obsolete; prothorax with at 

most only faint traces of markings 142. nigricornis 

Elytra without sutural vitta 4 

4. Front claws of cf very strongly enlarged; black, prothorax red varying to 

black with red side margins 153. hybridus 

Front claws of c? not or scarcely enlarged (except subfasciatus, in which 
they are moderately so) 5 

5. Punctures of prothorax elongate laterally, with a distinct tendency toward 

strigosity; black with external margins of thorax and elytra pale yellow or 

yellowish white 140. praeclarus 

Prothorax normally punctured, pale areas of eh'tra red or reddish 6 

6. Side margins of prothorax yellowish white (rarely entirely black), head and 

legs often spotted with yellowish white; elytra orange red with a broad 

black sutural stripe not attaining the apex 154. discoideus 

Side margins of ])rothorax never yellowish white, legs and usually the head 
entirely black, or virtually so 7 

7. Prothorax with distinct entire smooth median line; prothorax and elytra 

with wide red border, which may become partially or completely inter- 
rupted at the elytral convexity 155. marginatus 

Upper surface dull red, the prothorax with three small basal black sjjots; 

elytral disk sometimes clouded var. sanguineus 

Prothorax without distinct median smooth line 8 

8. Prothorax entirely black, elytra with a broad red margin interrupted ut the 

convexity 156. cruentus 

Prothorax margined with red or reddish yellow. 

Elytra with a large subquadrate spot extending from the margin § to 

suture, and apical spot, red 157. dilatatus 

Elytra with a broad irregular or indented median fascia, often inter- 
rupted at the suture, and apical spot, red 60. subfasciatus 

9. Prothorax more or less strongly shining, either polished or finely alutaceous. 10 
Prothorax alutaceous, lustre dull or but slightly shining 15 

10. Elytral punctuation confused, without trace of serial arrangement except 

in the imperfect submarginal stria 116. varicolor* 

Elytral punctures more or less obviously arranged in impressed lines later- 
ally and posteriorly 11 

11. Size larger, more robust, pale markings red or reddish yellow. 

Prothoracic punctuation dense. (Texas.) 152. instabilis 

Prothoracic punctuation sparse. (Arizona.) 151. vulnerosus 



H. C. FALL 325 

Size smaller and less robust, pale markings \-ellow. (Pacific Coast 
species.) 12 

12. Front claws of cf very little or scarcely larger than the others 13 

Front claws of cf quite conspicuously enlarged 14 

13. Sides of prothorax narrowly smooth, yellow markings fretjuently con- 

spicuous 117. lustrans 

Sides of prothorax closely jjunctured to the extreme margin, yelldw niaik- 
ings almost wanting S2. signatifrons* 

14. Sides of prothorax distinctly' smooth or subimpimctate along the margin, 

strongly rounded in both sexes; last ventral segment with yellow marks. 

110. pinguescens* 
Sides of prothorax closely punctate to the extreme margin, or with the 
punctuation only very narrowly sparser when the margin is j-ellow; sides 
moderately to strong]}^ rounded in the cf , much less so in the 9 ; last ven- 
tral segment always entirely black. 

Yellow markings few to many 118. californicus * 

Yellow markings entirely lacking var. gagatinus 

15. Front claws of cf small 16 

Front claws of cf obviously but not strongly enlarged 17 

Front claws of cf conspicuously enlarged 18 

16. Entirely black or very nearly so. 

Punctures of prothorax nearly or quite as coarse, as those of the elytra; 
eyes of cf separated by barely twice the length of the basal antennal 
joint. 

Prothorax of cf without narrow smooth margin; form shorter; elyt- 

ral striae better defined. (Florida.) 9S. stygicus 

Prothorax of cf with narrow smooth margin; form a littl(> mor(> elon- 
gate; elytral striae ill-defined. (Arizona.) 99. lachrymosus 

Punctures of prothoi'ax distinctty finer than those of the eljtra and 
more evenly distributed; eyes of cf separated bj- nearh' three times 

the length'of the basal anteimal joint 113. carbonarius 

Black or fuscous, sometimes with few, but usually with numerous small 
yellow spots, at least on the eMra; eyes of cf separated by twice the length 
of the basal antennal joint or a little more 95. atomarius* 

17. Size much smaller (not over 3 mm. in length); eyes of cf separated by 

fullv twice the length of the basal antennal joint, the basal joint black or 

fuscous throughout. (Lower Mississippi Vallej'.) 96. vestigialis* 

Size larger (3.4 to 4.3 mm.); eyes in cf separated by distinctly less than 
twice the length of the basal antennal joint. (Western Texas to Arizona.) 

(')'). wenzeli 
IS. Ej^es of cf separated by fully twice the length of the basal nntennal joint. 

149. confusus* 
Eyes of cf separated by H times the length of the basal antennal joint, or 
less. 
Size smaller (about 3 mm.), front claws of cf It'ss strongly enlarged. 

61. ixnpurus \ar. umbrosus 
Size larger, front claws of cf more strongly enlarged . . .l.JO. luridus 

THANS. ^UI. ExNT. SOC, XLI. 



326 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERa) 

Group F 

The two species here segregated constitute the most natural of 
the groups into which I have separated our species. The group 
characters are as stated in the table and are easily appreciable. 
The species separate readily by their color. 

Grayish or yellowish brown with a more or less distinct dark svibapical 

siitural spot 158. hepaticus 

Black, with scarcely a trace of paler marks 159. microps 

1. Pachybrachys pubescens Olivier 

Robust, black throughout, with sparse short grayish pubes- 
cence. Eyes small and distant. Ave. length 4.1 mm. Atlantic 
Coast Region. 

Head closely to densely punctate throughout; eyes small, their distance 
apart obviously greater than their vertical length in the male, and fully one- 
half greater than their length in the female. 

Prothorax about three-fifths wider than long, widest near the base, sides 
strongly convergent and nearly straight or feebly arcuate; punctuation rather 
coarse, close throughout, denser laterally, less dense toward the middle of the 
disk; a narrow more or less incomplete or imperfect smooth median line often 
present. 

Elytra slightly longer than wide, punctuation usually distinctly coarser than 
that of the prothorax, close, evenly distributed, without trace of serial arrange- 
ment. 

Length 3.4 to 4.8 mm.; width 2 to 2.8 mm. 

Distribution. — Occurs from New York to South Carolina, 
usually at no great distance from the coast. The following 
localities are known to me or are authoritatively reported. 

New York: Watkins, June 12 (Nat. Mus. Coll.). Pennsylvania: Water 
Gap. (Van Dyke Coll.). New Jersey: Ocean Co. (Leng); Cape May Co., V- 
28 (Wenzel); Atco, May 29; (Liebeck); Newtonville, June (Boerner); Clemen- 
ton, May; Da Costa. NorthCarolina: Wilmington (Wenzel Coll.). South 
Carolina: In Hubbard and Schwarz and Liebeck Colls, without definite local- 
ity. Ohio: Cincinnati (Dury). 

It may be remarked that this is the jnorosus Hald. of the Hen- 
shaw List. In the Henshaw Supplement the viduatus of Fab. 
has unaccountably been recorded as the equivalent of pubescens 
Oliv., two species which are totally unlike in general appearance. 

2. Pachybrachys haematodes SulTrian 

Very similar to pubescens and differing as follows: 



H. C. FALL 327 

Average size somewhat smaller, and scarce!}' as robust ; pubescence longer 
and more conspicuous; prothorax slightly less transverse, less strongh- narrowed 
in front, the sides more arcuately prominent behind the middle; punctuation 
of the elytra scarcely or but little coarser than that of the prothorax; upper 
surface, more often of the ehira, more or less variegated with diffuse rufous 
spots or markings. 

Distribution. — Occurs in Texas, Colorado, New ^Mexico and 
Arizona. Described from Mexico. The following localities 
are represented before me. 

Texas: Texas (Belfrage). Colorado: "Col" (Baker); Colorado Springs, 
along the creeks (^\'ickham). A'ew Mexico: San Ignacio, June 27 (Cockorell); 
Cloudcroft, June 14 (Knaus), May 22 (Viereck); Silver City (Dury); near Las 
Vegas Hot Springs, July (Snow). Arizona: Huachuca Mts., May 16 (Clem- 
ence); Palmerlee, July 27 (Wenzel); Chiricahua Mts., May 16 (Clemence). 

"While the characters given above would seem to be sufficient 
to separate haematodes from pube.scens, they are I find all subject 
to variation and manj- examples are fairly intermediate between 
the typical forms; I am therefore not at all sure of their specific 
distinctness. 

3. Pachybrachys integratus new species 

Yellowish, thinly pubescent above, with broad suffused pale 
brown to fuscous markings; surface shining, without alutaceous 
sculpture; eyes narrowly separated. Ave. length 3.7 mm. Cali- 
fornia and Arizona. 

Head closely and evenly punctate, an impressed line between the ej-es; 
entirely pale, or with the impressed line and a small spot at base of antenna 
darker. Eyes large, separated in the male by a distance not greater than the 
length of the second antemial joint; in the female by rather less than the 
length of the first two joints. Antennae very slender throughout, subequal in 
length to half the body in the male, somewhat shorter in the female, entirely 
rufo-testaceous or with the outer joints darker. 

Prothorax widest at or a little behind the middle, sides strongly arcuate, base 
a little wider than the apex; punctuation rather close, fairly regular, with 
scattered minute interstitial punctures, more obvious in the female; margins 
not smoother; markings diffuse. 

Elytra j)arallel or slightly narrowed behind, siiles moderately sinuate behind 
the humeri; punctures rather fine and confused in a small triangular scutellar 
region, the next two discal striae and the two outer ones well defined, the inter- 
mediate region confusedly punctured; the strial punctures moderate in size 
basally but finer toward the apex. The pubescence arises from a system of 
interstitial punctures which are barely visible basally but are gradually larger 

TRANS. AM. EXT. SOC, XLI. 



328 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERA) 

toward the rear and outer margins, becoming ajjically slightly asperate and 
subequal in size to the strial punctures. 

PygvHum, body beneath and legs nearly uniformly rufo-testaceous except in 
one male, in which the body beneath is black except the apical half of the last 
abdominal segment. Front tibiae distinctly nearly evenly arcuate, and feebly 
widened apically ; terminal spur very small; hind tibiae with very slender spur; 
claws of front tarsi not appreciably larger. 

Length 3 to 4.4 mm.; width 1..55 to 2.4 mm. 

Distribution. — California : Colorado River, 1 9 ; Raymond, 1 cf (Fenyes) ; 
Kaweah, 1 9 (Hopping). Arizona: Hot Springs, 1 cf, 2 9 's (Barber and 
Schwarz). 

The type is the female from the Colorado River. The Ray- 
mond male differs in having the markings quite black, the body 
beneath also black; it is, however, undoubtedly identical with the 
Arizona male. The tabular characters easily differentiate this 
species from any other now known, but it should be borne in 
mind that the spur of the hind tibia is very slender and easily 
broken off — as indeed it seems to be in one of the specimens at 
hand. The eyes are more closely approximate than in any other 
of our pubescent species except vigilans, in which, however, they 
are in actual contact in the male. 
4. Pachybrachys connexus new species 

Not very robust, rufo-testaceous, elytra with subsutural and 
marginal black stripes, which are connected narrowly along the 
base and more broadly on the declivity; metasternum and abdo- 
men in great part black; pubescence sparse and short, recurved 
on the prothorax, suberect on the elytra; integuments shining, 
without trace of alutaceous sculpture. Length 3.25 mm. Arizona. 

Head clear rufo-testaceous without marks, rather coarsely closely punctate, 
front not impressed. Eyes in female separated by about two and one-half times 
the length of the rather small basal antennal joint. Antennae lacking except 
the two basal joints, which are entirely pale. 

Prothorax rufo-testaceous, a little paler along the side margins, without 
spots, moderately transverse, widest at or a little before the basal third, sides 
rather strongly rounded, surface a little uneven, closely subevenly punctate 
throughout. 

Elytra one-fourth wider than the prothorax, two-sevenths longer than wide, 
sides somewhat sinuate behind the humeri; punctures confused in a narrow 
sutural region to behind the middle, elsewhere arranged in nearly regular 
feebly impressed series; interstitial punctures moderately numerous and 
distinct though rather fine, forming more or less even single series on the nar- 
rower intervals. The color of the elytra may be described as flavate, the broad 



H. C. FALL 329 

discal black stripe confluent with the suture posteriorly, and so connected 
with the narrower marginal stripe as to leave an irregular antero-lateral spot 
and a smaller apical spot, pale. 

Legs entirely rufotestaceous. 

Length 3.25 mm.; width 2.25 mm. 

Distribution. — The unique type is a female collected at Hot 
Springs, Arizona, June 27, by Barber and Schwarz and is in the 
National ]\Iuseum Collection. 

This species strikingly resembles in general form and sculpture 
integratus, but differs in coloration and in its much more widely 
separated eyes, and apparently in lacking the terminal spur of 
the hind tibiae; this spur, however, is very slender in integratus 
and may be easily broken off, so that it is not impossible that 
future specimens may show it to be present in conjiexus. 

5. Pachybrachys vigilans new species 

Pale yellowish testaceous with fuscous markings, surface mod- 
erately shining without alutaceous sculpture, thinly pubescent. 
Eyes contiguous in the male. Length, 3.5 mm. Lower Cal- 
ifornia. 

Head. — Front yellow without markings, closely evenly punctate. Antennae 
slender, attaining the middle of the elytra (male). 

Prothorax moderately transverse, widest at about the basal two-fifths, sides 
strongly arcuate, apex three-fourths as wide as the base, rather densely i)unc- 
tate to the extreme margins, the punctures moderate in size, nearly evenly 
distributed but leaving a few scattered very small slightly elevated smooth 
areas; disk broadly transversely depressed basally and less obviously so across 
the apex, leaving the median portions rather strongly convex when viewed in 
profile. Thoracic M imperfect, consisting of a narrow median anteriorly 
divided stripe and an irregular lateral spot inclosing a pale area, none of the 
marks extending much in advance of the middle. 

Elytra slightly narrowed posteriorly, sides sinuate behind the humeri, closely 
fairly evenly punctate throughout, the punctures forming one or two imper- 
fect series at the middle of the disk, and again towartl the side margins; a 
secondary system of very small sparse and inconspicuous or barely detectable 
interstitial punctures: color pale testaceous with fuscous markings as follows: 
— a postscutellar and a subapical sutural spot, the hum(>ral knob and median 
and subapical marginal spots, all quite irregular. 

Beneath, body and legs entirely pale; front tibiae distinctly arcuate, rather 
feebly w-idened apicallj-; claws small, subequal. 

Length 3.5 mm.; width l.S mm. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



330 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERA) 

Distribution. — Lower California (San Felipe) — a single male 
given me by Mr. Beyer. 

In most respects this species is much like integratus, and it is 
not impossible that further specimens may prove the hind tibiae 
to be similarly armed with a slender terminal spur. It is the 
only species in our fauna, thus far known, with absolutely con- 
tiguous eyes. 

6. Pachybrachys wickhami Bowditch 

Form rather short and stout; black, not shining; pubescence 
dense, white, recumbent, nearly or quite concealing the sculpture 
of the head and prothorax, and obscuring that of the elytra; 
elytra luteous with black markings. Ave. length 3.1 mm. 
Arizona to Lower California. 

Head very densely punctate, eyes more prominent than the anterior angles 
of the prothorax, separated in the male by barely twice the length of the basal 
antennal joint, slightly more distant in the female. Antennae (male) fully 
attaining the middle of the elytra, much shorter in the female, pale at base, 
outer joints more or less infuscate. 

Prothorax quite strongly transverse, sides feebly arcuate, base not much 
wider than the apex as a rule, surface throughout rather finely, excessively 
densely punctured and opaque. 

Elytra dull luteous with the typical spots black, the inner ones more or less 
irregular and usually produced backward and inward to join the suture; all 
the spots variable in extent and sometimes much reduced or in part wanting; 
punctures moderately strong, irregular in the scutellar region, but forming 
some more or less regular but scarcely impressed series on the disk and laterally, 
the submarginal stria best defined and feebly impressed; secondary system of 
finer interstitial punctures bearing the pubescence quite dense and conspicuous 
over the entire surface. 

Beneath, body black, pubescence rather dense; legs rarely almost entirely 
pale, the thighs usually more or less distinctly annulate with black — except 
the front ones, the tibiae blackish in apical half; front claws not appreciably 
enlarged in the male. 

Length 2.8 to 3.5 mm.; width 1.5 to 2 mm. 

Distribution. — Arizona: Tucson (Wickham), type; Hot Springs (Barber & 
Schwarz). California: Palm Springs (Fenyes). Lower California: Santa 
Rosa (Beyer). 

7. Pachybrachys thoracicus Jacoby 

Robust, black, prothorax at base and the raised basal margin 
of the elytra red; rather densely silvery white pubescent, espec- 
ially the head, pygidium and under surface. Ave. length 4.3 
mm. Arizona. 



H. C. FALL 331 

Head finely moderately closely punctate and dull, the sculpture nearly or 
quite concealed by the dense pubescence; eyes separated in the male by twice 
the length of the basal joint of the antennae; in the female by about two and a 
half times the length of the basal joint : antennae slender anrj rather more than 
half as long as the body in the male, shorter in the female, blackish, scarcely 
paler at base. 

Prothorax subconical with sides broadly rounded, not ciuite one-half wider 
than long, widest immediately before the base, the latter one-half wider than 
the apex; surface somewhat shining, very minutely alutaceous, closely rather 
finely punctate, with still finer interstitial punctures; red basal margin wider 
laterally, involving fully one-haK of the side margins. 

Elytra not at all or scarcely wider at base than the prothorax, very slight Ij' 
longer than wide, a little narrowed behind; surface alutaceous, dull; coarser 
punctures serially or subserially arranged in great part except in the scutcUar 
region; interstitial punctures moderately numerous but very small and incon- 
spicuous. 

Beneath very densely pubescent; legs rather stout, middle and hind thighs 
pale at extreme base; front claws not appreciably enlarged in the male. 

Length 3.7 to 5 mm.; width 2 to 2.7 mm. 

Distribution. — Arizona: Bill Williams' Fork (Snow); Hot Springs, June 
24-27 (Barber and Schwarz); Williams, June (Wenzel). Described from 
Chihuahua (Pinos Altos), Mexico. 

The large size, dense recumbent pubescence and color, render 
this species instantly recognizable. 

8. Pachybrachys analis LeConte 

]Moderateh' robust, with sparse semi-erect pubescence. Pro- 
thorax shining, \vith narrow smooth median line. Elytra more 
or less densely subrugose punctate, less shining. Black, sides of 
prothorax, lateral margins of elytra at base, and apex of elytra 
testaceous; disk of prothorax and elytra either entirely black, or 
more often variegated with testaceous. Ave. length 3.75 nmi. 
Utah to Lower California. 

Head black or variegated with testaceous, front more or less longitudinally 
impressed, punctuation rather dense and evenly distributed. Eyes remote, 
separated in the male by a distance subequal to the length of the basal four 
joints of the antennae or rather less than their own vertical length; in the 
female by more than the vertical length. Antennae (male) moderately slender, 
reaching the basal third of the elytra, the outer joints fully twice as long as 
wide; in female not passing the humeri, outer joints scarcely twice as long as 
wide. 

Prothorax rather long, one-fourth to two-fifths wider than long, more trans- 
verse in the female as usual, apex seven-tenths as wide as the base, sides 
moderately rounded, subparallel in basal half or less, especially in the male; 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



332 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERa) 

surface polished, densely rather finely punctate, the median line narrowly 
smooth or sparsely punctate; disk sometimes entirely black, more commonly 
with two basal spots and a narrow apical median vitta yellow. 

Elytra slightly longer than wide, sides parallel, punctuation dense and more 
or less rugose, coarser punctures in part serially arranged, one or two lateral 
and two discal intervals usually feebly costiform; finer interstitial punctures 
numerous, most evident toward the elylral apex. 

Beneath black, apical part of last ventral segment pale; legs bicolored; front 
claws of cf scarcely larger. 

Length 3 to 4.5 mm., width 1.7 to 2.4 mm. 

Distrihuiion. — California: San Diego, May; Arrowhead Springs, May 31; 
Mokelumne Hill (Blaisdell); Sobre Vista, Sonoma Co., July, Shasta Co., and 
Marin Co. (Van Dyke); Mt. Breckenridge, Kern Co., June 6, (F. Grinnell). 
Man}^ specimens, including the LeConte type, are labeled simply "Cal." 
Nevada: Reno (Wickham); Las Vegas (Spaulding). Utah: American Fork, 
June 24, (Hubbard & Schwarz). Arizona: Catalina Springs (Hubbard & 
Schwarz); not quite typical and doubtfully referred. Lower California: 
Ensenada (Beyer). 

A rather widely dispersed species in the Southwest, and showing 
a good deal of variability in the extent of the pale markings. 
The prevailing color is nearly always black, but a few specimens 
have the elytra in great part testaceous and less densely and 
roughly punctured; these bear a strong resemblance to viarmora- 
tus Jac, in which, however, the prothorax is more conical in form. 
In what I take to be the typical form the prothorax is almost 
devoid of fine interstitial pimctuation, but in other examples 
these are quite evident, and intermediates are not wanting. 
There is also noticeable some variation in the width of the front 
between the eyes. 

9. Pachybrachys desertus new species 

Very similar in size, form, sculpture and pubescence to analis; 
color entirely rufo-testaceous, the body beneath blackish in some 
males. 

Head with the standard spots brown or fuscous, upper surface with faint 
rufous or livid clouds representing the prothoracic M, and occasionally with 
faint diffuse traces of one or more of the standard elytral spots. 

Prothorax not very strongly narrowed toward the front, the sides as a rule 
more evenly rounded than in analis, the punctuation always intermixed, the 
finer punctures less fine than in those specimens of analis in which they occm*; 
legs rufo-testaceous. 

Length 3 to 4.5 mm. 

Distribution. — California: Mojave (Wickham), June 1 (Fenyes), type cf ; 
Old Beach, Colorado Desert, April; San Tiernardino Co., San Diego Co. (Co- 



H. C. FALL 333 

•quillett); Inyo Mts., 7,000-9,000 feet (Wickham). Arizona: two pxamjjles 
without definite locality referred here with some doubt. 

In color desertus resembles xanti quite closely, but the latter 
is more robust, thorax more conical in form, elytral intervals 
wider with more numerous interstitial punctures. Its affinity 
with analis is, however, more marked as indicated aljove, and, as 
in analis, there exists an unusual instability in the degree of 
separation of the eyes, which as a rule are rather closer in the 
present species. 

10. Pachybrachys xanti Crotrh 

Very robust, rufo-testaceous, prothorax unusually long, sub- 
conical with smooth median line, with or without faint darker 
shades; metasternum more or less infuscate; pubescence short, 
sparse, inclined. Average length 4.3 mm. Texas to Utah and 
Southern California. 

Head rather closely evenl}- punctate, frontal spots vague to fairly distinct, 
.surface shining, scarcely visibly alutaceous. Eyes separated in the male by 
twice the length of the basal antennal joint or slightly more, in the female by 
three times the length of the basal joint, or by about the length of the basal 
four joints. Antennae extending a little beyond the humeri in the male, 
scarcely attaining the hind angles of the thoi-ax in the female, pale throughout, 
or with the outer joints dusk}'. 

Prothorax unusually long, subconical, widest at base, sides nearly straight 
or but slightly curved, usually perceptibly sinuate before the hind angles; 
surface polished, denselj- nearly evenly punctate with very narrow entire or 
subentire smooth median line; punctures not very coarse, of nearly equal size, 
less dense along the side margins, minute interstitial punctures nearly wanting. 

Elytra a little wider than the prothorax, very little longer than wide, obviously 
narrowed from the humeri to the apex; surface finely alutaceous, dull, coarser 
punctures forming fairly regular but not or but feebly impressed series; inter- 
vals wide, rather densely confusedly punctate, these latter punctures nearly 
as coarse on the disk as those of the strial series. 

Beneath body punctured and pubescent as usual; legs rather stout; front 
claws of male not enlarged. 

Length 3.5 to 4.8 mm.; width 2.2 to 2.8 mm. 

Distribution. — Lower California: type, collected by Xantus. California: 
Jacumba, San Diego Co., July 1 (Field). Arizona: Bill Williams Fork and 
"Cactus Plain" (Snow); Phoenix, feeding on Atriplex, June 8, (H. B. Shaw); 
Hot Springs, June 27 (Barber & Schwarz) ; "Ari" numerous collections. Utah: 
St. George, July (Wickham). Texas: El Paso (Wickham; Barber and Schwarz) . 

11. Pachybrachys marmoratus Jacoby 

Very similar to xanti in nearly all respects, the differences being as follows: 
Size a trifle smaller on the average, with the form rather less robust; color pale 

TRANS. AM. EXT. SOC, XLI. 



334 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERa) 

fiavo-testaceoiis, frontal and thoracic markings black and heavy as a rule, the 
latter varying to pale brown; antennae with basal two joints blackish above, 
three to five mostly pale, following joints blackish; body beneath frequently 
blackish in great part, but variable: elytra varying from entirely pale to 
strongly marked with fuscous or black, the markings tending to form diffuse 
vittae following the lines of serial punctures; interstitial punctuation of ehi:ra 
somewhat finer and less dense than in xanti. 

Length 2.9 to 4.2 mm.; width 1.6 to 2.5 mm. 

Distribution. — Texas: El Paso, June 7 (Knaus); Davis Mts., Julj- 7 to 10 
(Wenzel). Colorado: one example without definite locality (C. F. Baker). 
A'etr Mexico: Alamogordo, Apr. 23, May 10, (Viereck). Arizona: Riverside 
(Wickham); Globe (Wickham); Ncgales, Aug. 10 to 13 (Wickham); Phoenix, 
May 16; Hot Springs, June 2S (Barber & Schwarz). 

12. Paehybrachys donneri Crotch 

Black, opaque, side margins of prothorax, basal raised margin 
of elytra also side margins for a variable distance from the base, 
yellow; lustre throughout alutaceous; pubescence gray, decum- 
bent, rather plentiful; disk of elytra and prothorax sometimes 
feebly and indefinitely irrorate with dull j^ellow. Ave. length 
4.5 mm. California and Washington. 

Head black, often with small yellow markings, thickh- punctate, feebly 
impressed. Eyes in male separated by a little less than three times the length 
of the basal antennal joint, or by a little less than their own vertical length; 
in the female by about three and one-half times the length of the basal joint, 
or rather more than their own vertical length. Antennae attaining the humeri 
in the female, considerably longer in the male, more or less pale basally, black 
beyond the middle. 

Prothorax moderate^ transverse, widest at base, sides arcuate, very slightly 
sinuate before the hind angles; rather densely moderately coarsely punctate 
with intermixed finer punctures; no trace of smooth median line; yellow side 
margin more sparsely punctate. 

Elytra abruptly a little wider than the prothorax, one-fourth longer than 
wide, sides feeblj' sinuate, punctures for the most part irregularh' dispersed 
but with some nearly regular series especially at sides; interstitial punctures 
very fine but moderately numerous. 

Pygidimn black, the sides sometimes narrowly yellow. Legs entirely black 
or with the tips of the thighs pale. 

Length 3.75 to 4.9 mm.; width 2 to 2.6 mm. 

Distribution. — California: East end of Donner Lake on willows (type, 
Crotch); Yreka; Santa Rosa (Ricksecker) ; Blair's Ranch, Redwood Creek, 
Humboldt Co., June 9 (H. S. Barber); Sonoma Co. (Van Dyke). Washing- 
ion: Olympia, May 20 (Liebeck Coll.). 



H. C. FALL 335 

13. Pachybrachys uteanus new species 

Very closely allied to donneri and perhaps merely a geographical race of that 
species; the eyes, however, are in all specimens seen less widely separated and 
the thoracic punctuation uniformly finer; the upper surface also more often 
variegated with yellow. These latter specimens look greatly like the darker 
examples oihrunneus and really form a good connecting link between donneri 
and typical brimneus; they are, however, quite surely distinct from the latter. 

DislribuHon : — Utah: American Fork, June 24 (Hubbard & .Schwarz); type 
cT. New Mexico: Pecos (Cockerell). 

14. Pachybrachys brunneus Bowditch 

Form narrower than ustial in this section, testaceous with pale 
brown punctures, the thoracic M indicated by faint brownish 
clouds, which occasionally become fuscous or black and involve 
the whole disk except narrow side margins; elytra frequently 
with diffuse shades which, as on the thorax, tend to become 
darker and spread broadly over the disk; surface finely aluta- 
ceous, lustre dull, pubescence rather plentiful, short, decumbent. 
Ave. length 3.6 mm. Texas to Southern California. 

Heail not very thickly punctate, vertex impressed, markings faint to distinct. 
Eyes (in the male) separated by one and one-half times the length of the basal 
joint of the antennae or by rather less than the vertical width of their upper 
lobes; in the female by a little more than twice the length of the basal joint. 
Antennae thin, attaining the humeri in the female and fully the basal third 
of the elytra in the male, the outer joints more than twice as long as wide. 

Prothorax subconical, not very strongly transverse, sides convergent from 
the base, nearly straight in the male, broadly curved in the female, punctua- 
tion moderately close, not very coarse, with finer punctures intermixed; no 
trace of smooth median line. 

Elytra a little %vider at base than the prothorax, one-fourth longer than wide, 
.slightly sinuate behind the humeri and feebly narrowed posteriorly; punctua- 
tion rather fine and irregular but with the submarginal and usually some discal 
series more or less well marked, not or scarcely impressed. In some specimens 
— more often females — two or three narrow discal smooth lines extend from the 
base backward becoming gradually lost posteriorly. Interstitial punctures 
fine, moderately numerous, most evident in the darker specimens. 

Body beneath variable from entirely pale to almost completely infuscate. 
Legs in the darker specimens' broadly dark ringed; front tibiae straight, claws 
subequal on all feet. 

Length. 3 to 4.25 mm.; width 1.5 to 2.3 mm. 

Distribution. — Arizona: Phoenix and Prescott — type series (Bowditch); 
Phoenix, June 4 (Wickham Coll.); Bill Williams' Fork, August (Snow); Tucson 
(Am. Ent. Soc. Coll.); Tucson, Tempo and Verde River (Liebeck Coll.); "Ari" 
many collections. California: S. E. Desert Region (Am. Ent. Soc. Coll.). 
New Mexico: N. Mex. (Snow) bearing label xanti. Colorado: (Baker). 
Texas: Davis Mts. (Wenzel). 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



336 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERa) 

15. Pachybrachys purus new species 

Subcylindric, rather strongly convex, pale yellowish testaceous, 
feebly shining, integuments very minutely alutaceous, virtually 
immaculate, the thoracic markings pale brownish, diffuse and 
barely detectable; elytral punctures pale brown, those of the 
prothorax much finer and scarcely or but little darker than the 
surrounding surface. Ave. length 4 mm. Colorado River. 

Head moderately punctate, more closely on the vertex and in a triangular 
frontal area, spots faint. Eyes separated in the male by a distance subequal 
to the vertical width of their upper lobes, or by about one and three-fourths 
times the length of the basal joint of the antennae; in the female by two and 
one-half times the length of the basal antennal joint; ocular lines distinct and 
at rather less than one-fourth the distance from the eye to the median line. 
Antennae attaining the hind coxae in the male, or the humeri in the female, 
terminal joint and apices of several of the outer joints dusky. 

Prothorax moderately transverse, sides convergent from base to apex, 
more feebly so in basal fifth, feebly arcuate; surface finely not very closely 
nearly evenly punctate, with a few minute interstitial punctures; side margins 
narrowly smooth, the median hne sometimes imperfectly so. 

Elytra not ( 9 ) or just perceptibly (cT) wider at base than the prothorax, 
slightly narrowed posteriorly; punctures not very coarse, striae not impressed, 
apical portion of the first and second, and the seventh and eighth throughout 
regular, otherwise striae much confused, though variably so; scutellar area 
rather closely confusedly punctured; marginal interspace wide, impunctate; 
submarginal interspace narrower but nearly even throughout. 

Body beneath entirely pale; legs pale, femoral clouds very faint. 

Length 3.5 to 4.5 mm; width 1.75 to 2.5 mm. 

Distribution. — Occurs along the Lower Colorado River in 
California and Arizona. Three examples only are before me, 
the type a female collected by myself at Yuma, Cal., July 3; 
a male collected by Dr. Fenyes at Yuma, Apr. 22, and a female 
taken by Professor Wickham at East Bridge, Ariz., Aug. 21 
(Leng. Coll.). 

This is a very neat and pretty species, easily separable from 
all others by the tabular characters. The front claws in the 
male are noticeably a little larger than, the others but not con- 
spicuously so. 

IG. Pachybrachys mellitus Bowditch 

Robust, dark honey yellow, immaculate, integuments very 
minutely alutaceous but rather strongly shining, punctures not 
or scarcely darker; eyes rather distant, ocular lines fine and quite 



H. C. FALL 337 

near the eyes; front claws of male not evidently enlarged. Ave. 
length 3.7 mm. Western Texas to California. 

Head thickh' punctate in the frontal marks, which are broad, faint and ill 
defined. Eyes prominent, separated by twice (cf) or three times (9) the 
length of the basal antennal joint. Antennae short , barely n>aching the humeri 
in the female and not passing the middle of the metastenium in the male; 
outer joints blackish. 

Prothorax moderately transverse, not much narrowed in front, sides slightly 
mcurved at base, surface coarsely somewhat unevenly i)unctate, with scattered 
minute interstitial punctures, a narrow incomplete .smooth median line some- 
times present. 

Elytra nearh' parallel, i>imctuation broadly confused on the disk, the two 
outer striae entire and distinctly impressed, the interior ones distinct only 
posteriorly, gradually shorter and less impressed toward the suture, interstices 
minutely punctulate, elj-tral shield wanting or very small; submarginal stria 
with a strong sigmoid flexure behind the humerus; marginal interspace more 
or less punctate. 

Body beneath yellow with the metasternum and abdomen, except the margins, 
more or less rufo-testaceous or pale brown. Legs yellow with diffuse darker 
shades at middle of femora. 

Length 3.2 to 4.2 mm; width 1.65 to 2.3 mm. 

Distribution. — Texas: without definite localit}' (Beyer Coll.); El Paso. 
Arizona: Tucson, Dec. 14 (Hubbard), July 13-15 (Wickham); Phoenix; 
Florence, Aug. 10 (Biederman); Bill ^^'illiams Fork, Aug. (Eugene Smyth). 
Utah: St. George, July (Wickham). California: Palm Springs, Feb. 14 (Hub- 
bard); Olancha, Jime (Fenyes); Needles (Wickham). Bowditch also gives 
IMojave, Inyo Mts. and Darwin — all collected by Wickham. 

17. Pachybrachys xantholucens new species 

Very similar in form, size and color to mellitus, differing as follows: Color 
a slightly deeper yellow as a rule, with, in most specimens, faint traces of the 
basal portions of the thoracic M; upper surface poUshed throughout, without 
trace of minute alutaceous sculpture; front without ocular lines, the supra- 
orbital groove being strictly marginal throughout ; eyes more distant, separated 
by about two and one-half times (cf ) or 4 times ( 9 ) the length of the basal 
antennal joint, the distance in the latter sex being as great or slightly greater 
than the vertical length of the eye. Elytral striae more regular than in 
mellitus, punctures much sparser and more nearly serial in the scutellar area; 
second elj-tral interspace wide in posterior half; marginal intersi)ace nearh- 
or quite impunctate. 

Length 2.6 to 4 mm; width 1.4 to 2.35 mm. 

Distribution. —Texas: El Paso (type c?); "Texas" (Horn Coll.), (Wickliam); 
Chisos jVlts., July 16 (Wenzel). New Mexico: Alamogordo, Apr. 29 (Viereck.). 

18. Pachybrachys jacobyi Bowditch 

^Moderately robust, pale whitish or grayish yellow, thickly, 
finely and for the most part diffusedly punctate, the punctures 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



338 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERa) 

often pale brown but sometimes without color, integuments 
shining, not at all or scarcely alutaceous; eyes distant in both 
sexes; ocular lines present; front claws of male not enlarged. 
Ave. length 3.5 mm. Texas to Colorado and California. 

Head rather closely punctate except in front and near the eyes, frontal 
marks wanting or with only the impressed line darker and faint traces of a 
vertical spot; ocular lines distinct, one-third to one-fourth the distance from 
the eye to the median line, blackish above, becoming colorless and fine between 
the eyes, evanescent inferiorly. Eyes small but somewhat prominent, in 
the male separated by the vertical length of the eye or about three times the 
length of the basal antennal joint; in the female by about three and one-half 
times the length of the basal joint. Antennae blackish apically, attaining the 
hind coxae in the male and the middle of the metasternum in the female. 

Prothorax not strongly transverse, about one-third wider than long, sides 
broadly arcuate, feebly narrowed in front, surface rather closely, subevenly, 
not coarsely punctate, side margins smoother. 

Elytra one-sixth to one-fifth wider than the prothorax, sides parallel, punc- 
tuation confused, sometimes arranged toward the rear and sides in unimpressed 
lines of greater or less length; the elytral shield sometimes indicated but usually 
not. 

Body beneath entirely pale or with the metasternum and abdomen more or 
less blackish. Legs pale. 

Length 3 to 4 mm; width 1.5 to 2 mm. 

Distribution. — California: Amadee, July 21; Bridgeport; Indio, Aug. 19 
(all collected by Wickham); San Diego Co. (Coquil'ett); Brawley, May 2. 
Arizona: Phoenix (Am. Ent. Soc. Coll.); Cottonia, Apr. 18; Bright Angel, 
July 5; "Ariz" (Morrison); Winslow (Wickham); Seligman, July 30 (Wick- 
ham). Utah: St. George, July (Wickham); South Creek, Beaver Co., June 22 
(Schafer Coll). New Mexico: Coolidge (Hubbard & Schwarz Coll.); Bernalillo 
Co. (Leng Coll.). Colorado: Grand Junction (H. Osborn); "Col" (Am. Ent. 
Soc. Coll.); La Junta (var. fide Bowditch). Texas: without specific locality. 

There is in this species very little sexual difference in the form 
of the terminal joint of the maxillary palpus, this being nearlj^ as 
pointed in the male as in the female. A considerable amount of 
variation in elytral punctuation is observable in the series at hand. 
According to Bowditch the La Junta, Colorado, specimens (which 
I have not seen) are much more coarsely punctate, almost scab- 
rous in some females; these he considered to have no more than 
varietal standing. In a Bridgeport, California, female there is 
a very indefinite M on the thorax and the standard outside 
elytral spots are faintly indicated (fide Bowditch), 

Specimens of this species from N. Sonora, Mexico, collected 
by Morrison and bearing the label "P. livens Lee, Jacobj' det." 
have recently been sent to me from the British Museum. These 



H. C. FALL 339 

are doul^tless some of the ^Mexican specimens recorded as livens 
in the Biologia. 

19. Paehybrachys densus Piowditch 

Small, above pale testaceous or dirty yellow, ver}- thickly 
finely diffusely punctate, scarcely shining; eyes moderatel)^ dis- 
tant, ocular lines distinct, front claws of male not enlarged. 
Ave. length 2.1 mm. Arizona and southeastern California. 

Head closely punctate as a rule, but varying considerably, frontal niark.s 
vague or nearly wanting. Eyes a little more prominent than the front angles 
of the prothorax, separated in the male by twice, and in the female by two 
and one-half times the length of the basal antennal joint. Antennae attain- 
ing the middle of the elytra in the male, about the middle of the humeral lobe 
in the female, dusky toward the tip. 

Prothorax moderately transverse, very little narrowed in front, sides feebly 
arcuate to nearly straight, disk without or with at most faint traces of basal 
marks; punctuation dense, but a little uneven, extending nearly or cjuite to the 
side margins. 

Elytra more or less densely, diffusely punctate throughout, sometimes with 
one or two lines of punctures defined at sides, while two or three narrower inter- 
vals may be traceable on the disk in some examples — usually females. 

Body beneath black except for the side and apical margins. Legs pale, 
usually with darker clouds at the middle of the femora and tibiae — more often 
the four posterior ones. 

Length 1.8 to 2. .5 mm; width 1.1 to 1.4.5 mm. 

Distribution. — Arizona: Tucson (Am. Ent. Soc. Coll.), (Liebeck Coll.); 
Bill Williams Fork (Snow Coll.); also many specimens from "Ariz" in Xat. 
IMus. Coll. (Morrison), Horn Coll., Leng Coll. etc. A variety (?) in the Xat. 
jNIus. Coll. (Hubbard & Schwarz) was taken at Catalina Springs, May 7. 
California: Needles (Wickham). 

An easily recognized species by its small size, dull dingy yellow 
color and dense diffuse punctuation. 

20. Paehybrachys immaculatus .Jacoby 

Rather robust, pale dull yellow above with brown iMuictures, 
finely alutaceous, scarcely shining; prothoracic markings pale, 
diffuse and nearly obsolete; elytra immaculate, rarely with faint 
traces of standard spots; ocular hnes fine and near the eyes; the 
latter moderately distant; front claws of male not enlarged. 
Ave. length 2.8 mm. Texas to Arizona. 

i/c«(/ rather small, moderately closely jmnctato, frontal spots nearly wanting. 
Eyes not prominent, separated by about two {d') to two and one-half (9) 
times the length of the basal antennal joint. Antennae pale basally. dusky 
toward the apex, reaching about the middle of the elytra in the male, some- 
what shorter in the female. 

TR.\NS. AM. ENT. .SOC, XLI. 



340 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERA) 

Prothorax not strongly transverse, sides broadly arcuately convergent from 
near the base, punctuation close and nearly uniformly dispersed, side margins 
narrowly smooth. 

Elytra a Uttle less than twice as long as the prothorax, rather finely confusedly 
punctate or with subregular close set short lines of punctures between the base 
and the conspicuous elytral shield; externally with a variable nimiber of un- 
impressed striae, marginal interspace usually with a few punctures near the 
base, more rarely extending to or behind the middle. Pygidiimi yellow, 
scarcely maculate basally. 

Body beneath browai or fuscous except the side and apical abdominal mar- 
gins. Legs pale, femora with diffuse brown median spot, tibiae feebly brown- 
ish apically. 

Length 2.3 to 3.3 mm.; width 1.35 to 1.8 mm. 

Distribution. — Texas: Lee Co. (Leng Coll.); Dimmit Co. (Hubbard & 
Schwarz); "Tex" (Horn Coll.); San Diego, May 6 and June 13; Corpus Christi; 
Brownsville, May and June (Nat. Mus. Coll.); Brownsville, July (Beyer), 
July 28 (Schaeffer). New Mexico: Colorado, July 10 (Cockerell). Arizona: 
Santa Rita Mts., 5C00-S000 ft., July (Snow); San Bernardino Ranch, Cochise 
Co., 3750 ft. (Snow and E. G. Smyth); Nogales, 4000 ft., Aug. 19 (Xunen- 
macher); Chiricahua Mts., June 1 (Nat. Mus. Coll.); Florence (Horn Coll.), 
May 8, and Aug. 10 (Am. Ent. Soc. Coll.); Tucson (Liebeck Coll.). 

This appears to be a common species along om- southern border. 
It has been identified a,s inuuacidatus by Bowditch, doubtless 
from comparison with authentic examples, and the description 
seems to fit well enough. It was described from near the City 
of Mexico (H. H. Smith) and from La Paroda (Salle). 

21. Pachybrachys insidiosus new species. 

Pale grayish yellow, feebly and obscurely maculate with brown ; 
thickly rather finely almost entirely confusedly brown punctate, 
integuments very finely alutaceous; eyes widely separated; front 
with ocular lines; front claws of male not appreciably enlarged. 
Length 2.9 mm. Arizona. 

Head thickly nearly uniformly punctate, markings obsolete. Eyes separated 
in the male by a distance almost as great as their vertical length, or by about 
three times the length of the basal antennal joint; in the female by a distance 
somewhat greater than their vertical length or by about three and one-half 
times the length of the basal antennal joint. Antennae dusky, paler basally, 
scarcely haK the length of the body in either sex, tenth joint but little more 
than twice as long as wide. 

Prothorax moderately transverse, sides broadly arcuate and moderately 
convergent from near the base; puncluatiou close, nearly evenly distributed, 
narrowly sparser along the side margins, the latter smooth for a short distance 
basally, the M vaguely represented by brownish clouds. 

Elytral punctuation diffuse, with only a few short fragments of unimi)ressed 



H. C. FALL 341 

striae on the convexity, and with the submarginal striae in part defined; a 
lateral series of three small faint darker spots, and vague traces of small discal 
clouds; shield small but distinct. 

Pygidium entirely pale; body beneath brown, the abdomen with pale mar- 
gins. Legs testaceous, middle and hind thighs with diffuse dark rings. 

Length 2.9 mm.; width 1.75 mm. 

Distribution. — Arizona: Tempe, Mar. 28. The type is a female example 
sent by Professor Cockerell, and reported as having occurred on date palm. 
A male from "Ari" is quite surely identical. 

This species is very similar to immaculatus in most respects but 
the latter rarely shows any traces of elytral spots, the basal 
antennal joint is larger and there are several well defined unim- 
pressed lateral striae. In general aspect intsidiosu.s is also not 
unlike some examples of hepaticus but the resemblance is purely 
superficial, insidiosus being a perfectly normal Pachybrachys 
in all essential respects. 
22. Pachybrachys marginipennis Bowditch 

Yellow, surface finely alutaceous and scarcely or at most only 
moderately shining; head and prothorax with the standard marks 
represented by diffuse pale reddish brown clouds, elytra immac- 
ulate with sutural and lateral edge very narrowly black; ocular 
lines present, rather close to the eyes; front claws of male rather 
strongly enlarged. Ave. length 2.75 mm. Southern California. 

Head closely browai punctate, more densely so in the darker areas as usual. 
Eyes as a rule separated by about one and one-half times the length of the basal 
antennal joint, and by twice the length of the basal joint in the female. An- 
tennae long, fully reaching the hind coxae in the. female, and the middle of the 
abdomen in the male, outer joints dusky or blackish, basal three joints more 
or less blackish above, pale below. 

Prothorax moderately transverse, sides broadly but somewhat angularly 
rounded at basal fourth, whence they are slightly arcuate and convergent 
to the apex, less obviously so to base, with a small sinuation before the sharplj^ 
defined basal angles; punctuation moderately close, a little uneven in distribu- 
tion, sparse or narrowly wanting along the side margins. 

Elytra about twice as long as the prothorax, one-third longer th;in wide, 
parallel sides barely perceptibly sinuate, punctures very nearly equal in size 
and density to those of the prothorax, largely diffuse but often arranged in 
lines toward the sides and on the convexity, the marginal inter.space punctate 
throughout. Pygidium black and yellow. 

Body beneath sometimes entirely yellow, but usually with the metasternum 
and abdomen in part black. Legs pale throughout or tlie femora and tibiae 
with diffuse median clouds. 

TRAXS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



342 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERA) 

Length 2.5 to 3 mm.; width 1.35 to 1.65 mm. 

Distribution. — California: San Diego, May 1 to June 1; Los Angeles Co. 
(Coquillett in Nat. Mas. Coll.); Pasadena. Type from San Diego (Bowditch 
Coll.). 

There is very little variation in color of upper surface in this 
species, but a considerable amount in punctuation of the elytra. 
In some specimens the diffusion is almost complete, but in most 
examples the submarginal (eighth) stria is fairly regular, as are 
often the seventh and the terminal portions of others, no two 
specimens, however, being quite alike. The punctures of the 
marginal interspace are variable in number, but extend through- 
out its length and are scarcely different in size from those of the 
submarginal stria, with which they are often confused. 

23. Pachybrachys punctatus Bowditch. 

Flavo- to rufo-testaceous, finely alutaceous and moderatel}^ 
or feebly shining; frontal marks small, prothorax with faint 
diffuse livid or pale brown clouds, elytra either immaculate or 
with some or all of the standard spots indicated, punctures brown, 
largely diffuse, sutural edge blackish; ocular lines fine, usually 
quite close to the eyes; front claws of male distinctly enlarged. 
Ave. length 3.2 mm. California. 

Head moderately, but unevenly punctate; eyes not prominent, separated by 
from rather less than one and one-half to about one and three-fourths times 
the length of the basal antennal joint in the male and by a little more than 
twice the basal joint in the female. Antennae very slender, attaining or 
slightly passing the middle of the ejj^ra in the male, shorter in the female, 
yellow basally, dusky beyond the middle. 

Prothorax not very strongly transverse in the male, moderately so in the 
female, sides narrowed in front, broadly subangulate posteriorly and a little 
convergent before the basal angles; not very thickly, somewhat unevenly 
punctate, side margins narrowly smoother. 

Elytra broadly diffusely punctate on the disk, one or two of the lateral striae 
more or less distinct — especially in the male — but scarcely at all impressed, the 
punctures also becoming subserial on the declivity; marginal interspace 
punctured throughout its length as a rule (rarely with but few punctures), 
and in the female the punctures are usually confused with those of the sub- 
marginal stria; elytral shield wanting or but faintly indicated. 

Pygidium pale, the base, from which projects a median spur, and a small 
spot each side blackish. 

Body beneath varying from entirely pale to almost entirely blackish. Legs 
pale, the hind femora often with small median spot. 

Length 2.8 to 3.G mm.; width 1.1 to 1.9 mm. 



H. C. FALL 343 

Distribulion . — Widely diffused in California. The 1yi)e locality is San 
Bernardino Mts. Bowditeh also gives Independence. The following locali- 
ties are represented before me: San Bernardino Mts., 5000 ft., July 12; 
Los Gatos (Hubbard & Schwarz); Santa Cruz Mts. (Xut. Mus. Coll.); Santa 
Cruz, June (Nunenmacher) ; Vine Hill, Contra Costa Co., June 7 (Blaisdell); 
Burlingame, San Mateo Co., July 10; Fairfax, Marin Co., July 2, and Sabre 
Vista, Sonoma Co., July 11 (Van Dyke); Bartlett Springs, June (Fenyes); 
Yreka (Am. Ent. Soc. Coll.); Santa Catalina Island, July 30 :iiid Aug. 21. 

Yav. shasta Bowditeh 

The type of thi.s supposed species repr(>seiUs only an extreme 
form of pundatus, in which the elytral spots are well developed. 
I have precisely similar specimens from northern CaHfornia and 
these are connected gradually with typical piinctatu.'s in my own 
collection, and seemingly in Bowditch's collection judging from 
his description, although he did not recognize the relationship. 
He mentions only females in his description, and in my experi- 
ence it is only in this sex that the spots are completely developed. 
In the most conspicuously marked examples the rear spots 
coalesce into an irregular transverse band, and also unite with 
the middle interior spot. 

Specimens are known to me from Castle Crag (type locality — 
coll. by Fen^'es) ; McCloud, June (Fenyes); Marin Co. (Van 
Dyke's and my own collection). 

Aside from the rather extreme variation in markings from 
immaculate in some pinidatus to completely maculate in t3-pical 
shasta, this species is also more variable than usual in some other 
respects, more especially in the width of the front between the 
eyes, and in the punctuation at the sides of the elytra. Bow- 
ditch describes this from one male and seven females. I have seen 
the single male, which is marked "type," but have seen none of 
the females of the type series; I have, however, before me a female 
from the type region — San Bernardino Mts. — labeled }))indati(s 
in Bowditch's handwriting and upon it I am depending largely 
for ni}^ conception of the species. P)(ndatu-s is very closely 
allied to both arizonensis and inarginijjennis; indeed I have seen 
an example of the latter labeled pundatus by Bowditeh; as yet, 
however, I have seen no indication whatever of elytral markings 
in either arizonensis or marginipennis and the tabular characters 
may perhaps prove to be quite reliable. 

TRAN.S. AM. ENT. SOC, XIJ. 



344 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERA) 

24. Pachybrachys convictus new species 

Rufo-testaceous, finely alutaceous, lustre dull; prothorax with 
small pale brown spots representing the basal parts of the stand- 
ard M; elytra immaculate, more rarely with the standard spots 
more or less developed; ocular lines present but not very con- 
spicuous and quite close to the eyes; front claws of male much 
enlarged. Ave. length 3.25 mm. California. 

Head moderately punctate; eyes not prominent, separated in the male by 
one and one-half times the length of the basal antennal joint, or by a distance a 
trifle greater than the length of the first two joints; in the female by barely 
twice the length of the basal joint. Antennae passing the middle of the elytra 
in the male and attaining the basal third in the female. 

Prothorax moderately transverse, sides quite strongly rounded behind the 
middle, punctuation moderately strong and close, leaving scattered small 
smooth areas which are a little more elevated. 

Ehjtral striae more or less impressed in the male, irregular but fairly contin- 
uous except in the baso-sutural triangle, the fifth and sixth striae much broken 
or confused at middle. In the female the punctuation is more confused, with 
three more or less clearly defined intervals, the marginal interval more numer- 
ously punctate and the submarginal stria more confused than in the inale, as 
is frequently the case in other species; shield small but evident. 

Body beneath blackish in great part; legs pale, the femora scarcely or feebly 
clouded at middle. 

Length 3.1 to 3.4 mm.; width 1.6 to 1.75 mm. 

Distribution.— California: Folsom, Aug. 7 (Nat. Mus. Coll.) type; Sacra- 
mento Co., July. Several specimens collected by Coquillett in Los Angeles 
Co. are a little smaller (2.8 to 3 mm.) with darker punctures; these look a 
little different from the typical form, but a search for characters fails to reveal 
a sufficient basis for a distinctive name. 

25. Pachybrachys arizonensis Bowditch 

Cylindrical, light yellow or pale rufo-testaceous, pale brown 
punctate, minutely alutaceous and feebly or not shining, pro- 
thorax with faint diffuse rufous clouds; ocular lines distinct, 
finely impressed; front claws of male obviously enlarged. Ave. 
length 3.4 mm. Kansas and Texas to California. 

Head moderal(>ly thickly punctate, except within the ocular emarginations, 
with the usual rufous or brownish markings. Eyes scarcely prominent, sepa- 
rated by the length of the basal two joints of the antennae or slightly more in 
the male, and by about two and one-half times the length of the basal joint in 
the female. Antennae very slender, attaining the posterior third of the elytra 
in the male and the hind coxae in the female, pale yellow, dusky at tip. 

Prothorax moderately transverse, rather small in the female, sides arcuately 
subparallel basally and narrowed in front in the male, slightly convergent 



H. C. FALL 345 

from the base in the female, and either nearly straight or with a slight post- 
median angulation; punctuation moderately close, not coarse, side margins 
smooth. 

Elytra with the striae broadly discally more or less irregular or confused, more 
distinct on the declivity, the seventh and eighth fairly regular as a rule in the 
male (the seventh less so in the female), a little imi)ressed and with close set 
roimd punctures; marginal interspace with numerous punctures in basal half 
or two-thirds; shield small or nearly wanting; marginal j^unctures of the 
humeral lobe wanting or nearly so. 

Pygidium, under surface and legs entirely pale. 

Length 2.8 to 4 mm.; width 1.4 to 2.1 mm. 

Distribution. — Arizona: Prescott (type); Grand Canon, July 4; "Ari." 
(Am. Ent. Soc. Coll.). New Mexico: Jemez Springs (Casey). California: 
Bishop, June (Fenyes); '-Cal." (Horn Coll.). Utah: Utah Lake, June 20 
(Hubbard & Schwarz). Colorado: (Beyer Coll.). Kanma: Douglas Co. 
(Snow); Salina (Knaus). Texas: Davis Mts., July 11 (Weii/.el). 

The Kansas specimens are all females. There seem to be no 
differences of any moment Ijetween them and the typical Ari- 
zona form, but in the absence of males the reference here is 
tentative. 

26. Pachybrachys lodingi Bo wd itch 

Robust, convex, suboval, dull pale yellow with blackish lirown 
punctures, elytra with subregular impressed striae; prothoracic 
M much broken and usually feebly marked, elytra without spots, 
rarely with the standard spots faintly indicated; front without 
ocular lines, these being strictly contiguous to the eyes; front 
claws of male not enlarged. Ave. length 2.7 mm. North Caro- 
lina to Florida. 

Head rather sparsely punctate, frontal marks small, eyes distant in both 
sexes, separated in the male by nearly three times the length of the basal 
antennal joint or by nearly or quite the vertical length of the eye; usually a 
little more di.stant in the female. Antennae rather short, scarcely more than 
half the length of the body in the male, still shorter in the female. 

Prothorax rather long, arcuately narrowed in front, i)unctuation rather 
coarse, not dense, somewhat irregular, lateral margin smooth. 

Elytra usually distinctly less than twice as long as the i)rothorax, widest at 
base, pimctures mostly in fairly regular series, somewhat confused in a small 
scutellar area, also with striae four to six more or less confused at middle; 
marginal interspace with a row of coarse punctures, rather remote basally, but 
as a rule more numerous toward the apex; point of humeral vunbo, and suture 
very narrowly blackish; shield fairly distinct. 

Pygidium and legs almost entirely pale; body beneath in great part l)lackish. 

Length 2. 'S to 3 mm.; width 1.35 to 1.05 mm. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



346 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERA) 

Distribution.- — Alabama: Mobile cand vicinity, May and June (Loding); 
Oak Grove, June 17 (Soltau). Florida: Crescent City (Hubbard & Schwarz, 
Van Duzee); Enterprise, May, and Key West (Leng Coll.); Hillsboro, 
Tampa and Crescent City (Nat. Mus. Coll.); Jacksonville (Ashmead Coll.); 
Kissimmee (Van Dyke Coll.). Georgia: without definite locality, various 
collections. North Carolina: Southern Pines, June (Manee). Ohio: A 
single specimen sent by Diiry bears label Cincinnati. 

This species is quite easil}^ recognized by its stout suboval 
form, pale color and subregular striae. There is considerable 
variation in several respects; the ocular lines are usually ap- 
parently absent, but occasionally are detectable a little removed 
from the eyes. The sexes differ less than usual in cephalic 
characters, the eyes in some males being fully as distant as in 
some females, and the terminal joint of the maxillary palpi is usu- 
ally — or at least often — nearly as pointed as in the female. 

27. Pachybrachys placidus new species 

Dull yellow, prothorax reddish yellow, head reddish brown, 
lustre dull, upper surface without spots, venter dusky except 
the margins; ocular lines wanting. Ave. length 3 mm. Ari- 
zona. 

Head thickly punctate, uniformly dark reddish brown. Eyes lai'ge but 
scarcely prominent, separated in the female by a distance equal to the length 
of the first two antennal joints, and much less than the vertical width of their 
upper lobes. Antennae short, not ciuite half as long as the body ( 9 ), joints 
nine and ten twice as long as wide, outer joints dusky. 

Prothorax moderately transverse, widest at about basal fourth, sides a little 
retracted and slightly sinuate before the basal angles, moderately convergent 
and broadly arcuate toward the front, closely punctate almost to side margins, 
the latter very narrowly smooth. 

Elytra parallel, about twice as long as the prothorax, quite regularly striate 
in posterior half, the punctures more or less confused anteriorly, more especially 
in a narrow baso-sutural triangle; striae everywhere finely impressed, a little 
more noticeably at sides, the punctures fine and scarcely at all brownish; sub- 
marginal stria nearly regular, the mai'ginal interspace punctured subserially 
in basal half; shield small but distinct. 

Legs pale throughout; front claws (9) barely appreciably larger than the 
others. 

Length 2.75 to 3.15 mm.; width 1.4 to 1.7 mm. 

Distribution. — Arizona: Huachuca Mts., July 14-20 (Wenzcl). 

Only two examples of this species — both females — have l)een 
submitted to me. It is easih' recognizable among the yellow 
species by the narrowly separated eyes and absence of ocular 



H. C. FALL 347 

lines. Judging from analogy the eyes must ])e quite closely 
approximate in the male. As frequently occurs, two or three of 
the discal elytral intervals are more regular and entire, and these 
attract the eye; this may not be true in the male, it being espe- 
cially characteristic of the females in numerous species. 

28. Pachybrachys livens LeConte 

Pale yellow, fineh' alutaceous, scarcely or foc^bly shining, 
punctures not or but little darker, prothorax with a median, 
rufo-testaceous or pale brownish stripe; ocular lines distinct and 
distant from the eyes; front claws of male not apprccialjly en- 
larged. Ave. length 2.7 mm. California. 

Head rather sparsely punctate, spots small and pale excei)t that on the 
vertex, which is usually well developed and pale brown, the others often nearly 
or quite obsolete. Eyes separated by twice (cf ) or about three ( 9 ) times the 
length of the basal antennal joint. Antennae long in the male, attaining the 
middle of the abdomen, in the female reaching about to the hind coxae, almost 
entirely pale, the apices of the outer joints dusky. 

Prothorax moderately transverse, sides moderately convergent from the 
hind angles, feebly very obtusely subangulate at about the basal third, punctu- 
ation not very close, side margins smooth, a rufo-testaceous or i)ale brown 
entire nearly parallel sided median stripe occupying a little less than the middle 
third; lateral spots wanting. 

Elytra entirely yellow, punctures rather dense and confused in a moderate- 
sized baso-sutural triangle, the striae elsewhere fairly regular, lightly impressed 
laterally and posteriorly; submarginal stria nearly straight; marginal inter- 
space with one or two punctures near the base; shield small and inconspicuous. 

Pygidium entirely yellow; body beneath more or less reddish brown with the 
usual pale margins; legs entirely pale. 

Length 2..3 to 3 mm.; width 1.2.5 to 1.65 mm. 

Distribution. — California: Colorado River on Salix (type); Yuma, July 3; 
Pomona, June 11; Los Angeles, Aug. 16 (Wickham); Tulare Co. (Leng Coll.); 
Kaweah (Hopping); Los Angeles Co. (Coquillett in Nat. :\Ius. Coll.); Bishop, 
June (Wickham). 

Jacoby records this species from Mexico, but some of the speci- 
mens which he so identifies recently sent me, prove to be jacobiji 
Bowd. 

29. Pachybrachys mercurialis new species 

Light yellow, pale brown punctate, integuments polished, 
elytra immaculate, prothorax with small diffuse pale l)rownish 
clouds, the three representing the basal extremities of the M 
most evident; front claws of male not enlarged. Ave. length 
2.75 mm. California and Utah. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



348 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERa) 

Head sparsely finely punctate, front broadly feebly convex, spots small or 
nearly wanting; ocular lines wanting or feebly indicated and close to the eyes; 
eyes separated by from rather more than twice to nearly three times the 
length of the basal antennal joint in the male, and by from three to three and 
one-half times the length of the basal joint in the female; antennae slender, 
blackish in outer half, fuUy two-thirds the length of the body in the male, the 
tenth joint more than twice as long as wide. 

Prothomx moderately transverse, sides nearly straight and moderately 
convergent from the base, feebly roundly dilated at about the basal third, 
especially in the male, punctuation rather fine and not very close, side margins 
smooth. 

Elytra twice as long as the prothorax, striae lightly impressed and for the 
most part distinct, the intermediate ones (3 to 6) often sinuous or somewhat 
confused, seventh and eighth regular, marginal interspace rarely completely 
impunctate, typically with a few punctures at and behind the subbasal dis- 
location of the eighth stria; baso-sutural triangle of confused punctures rather 
small; shield large, elongate, occupying about two-thirds the post-median 
part of the interval. 

Pygidiimi black at base, a median spur and two small subdetached spots of 
same color. Legs pale, median femoral clouds barely visible. 

Length 2.5 to 3.2 mm.; width 1.2 to 1.7 mm. 

Distribution. — California: Isabella, Kern Co., June 1 (Pilate), type cT) 
Olancha, Kern Co., June 4 (Fenyes); Siskiyou Co., July (Nat. Mas. Coll.); 
"Cal" (Am. Ent. Soc. Coll.). Utah : Salt Lake, June 13 (Hubbard & Schwarz). 

In the type series there is more or less evidence of faint ocular 
lines very near the eyes. These are not noticeable in the Siski- 
you specimens nor in the series from "Cal" (Am. Ent. Soc. Coll.). 
These last — all females — differ further in having the front more 
coarsely and closely punctate. These differences do not seem 
of much moment, more especially since there is a tendency 
toward a somewhat coarser punctuation of the front in the females 
of the typical form, and moreover in this sex the faint ocular 
lines are least discernable. A small male from Monterey, Cali- 
fornia (collected by Fenyes), is placed here provisionally. It has 
the elytral punctures darker and seemingly coarser, and the point 
of the shoulder knol) dark; it may possibly be a variety of laevis. 

30. Pachybrachys parvinotatus new species 

Yellow, lustre dull, head and prothorax finely alutaceous, the 
former with the standard marks dark l^rown or l)lackish, the 
latter usually with three small basal fuscous spots, the middle one 
usually darkest, the lateral ones often faint; elytra with the 
point of the shoulder knot), and the sutural edge blackish; front 



H. C. FALL 349 

without ocular lines; front claws of male not enlarged. Ave. 
length 2.9 mm. Colorado and Kansas. 

Head finely and rather closely punctate; eyes separatccl in the male by a 
distance subequal to the length of the basal two joints of the antennae or to 
the vertical width of the upper lobe of the eye; in the female by fully twice 
the length of the basal joint. Antennae moderate, half as long as the body in 
the female, basal two joints with more or less distinct black spots above, outer 
joints blackish. 

Prothorax densely punctate, the side margins smooth as a rule, though usually 
very narrowly so; the M i-epresented by the three basal spots. 

Elytra excessively minutely wrinkled, lustre dull, punctures more or less 
completely confused in a rather large baso-sutural triangle, the striae fairly 
distinct and moderately impressed posterioi'ly and at sides. 

Pygidium narrowly blackish at base, the median spur of the blackish border 
small, the lateral spots faint or obsolete; body beneath blackish, the abdomen 
more or less yellow; legs j-ellow with faint pale brown femoral clouds. 

Length 2.7 to 3.1. mm.; width 1.4 to 1.65 mm. 

Distribution. — Colorado: (type 9) withovit definite locality. (Horn and 
Nat. Mus. Colls.). Kansas: Hamilton Co. (Snow); Meade, June 12 (Knaus). 

One specimen (Horn Coll.) is labeled "Cal," possibly in error for Col. 

31. Pachybrachys mitis new species 

Dull yellow, minutely alutaceous, not shining, brown punctate, 
cephalic spots well developed, darker brown; prothoracic spots 
rather small but diffuse, paler brown; ocular lines wanting; front 
claws of male not enlarged. Ave. length 2.6 mm. Texas. 

Head moderately punctate, closer as usual in the darker areas. Ej-es 
separated in the male by slighth^ less than twice the length of the basal anten- 
nal joint, or by a distance slightly greater than the vertical width of the upper 
lobe of the eye; m the female by a little more than twice the length of the basal 
joint of the antennae. .Antennae three-fourths as long as the body in the 
male, tenth joint more than twice as long as wide, basal joints i)ale, the first 
two with dark spots on the upper side, outer joints blackish. 

Prothorax moderately large in the male, ahnost as wide as the elytra, widest 
at basal fourth or fifth, distinctly and somewhat arcuately narrowed anteri- 
orly; smaller in the female with the sides less rounded behind; jiunct nation 
close and fairly even, side margins more or less narrowly smooth. 

Elytra cylindrical, sides parallel, scarcely sinuate behind the humeri, with- 
out spots, sutural edge darker, and sometimes also the humeral innbo; punc- 
tures arranged in lines throughout except in a small scut ellar i\roii, the striae 
obviously impressed, brown from the color of the close set punctures, the 
middle ones — especially five and six — more or less broken and irr>'gular at and 
in front of the middle; submarginal stria with a strong sigmoiil dislocation at 
base; marginal intersjjace impunctate; shield distinct. 

TRANS. AM. EXT. SOC, XLI. 



350 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERa) 

Pijgidium black and yellow; body beneath blackish, apical ventral margin 
pale. Legs pale with median blackish or brown shades on the femora, and 
traces of such on the tibiae. 

Length 2.4 to 2.75 mm.; width 1.3 to 1.45 mm. 

Distribution.— Texas: Flatonia, July 30 (H. A. Wenzel), d' t^pe; Seabrook, 
Aug. 6 (Wenzel); San Diego, May 3 (Schwarz); Lavaca Co. (Hubbard & 
Schwarz); "Tex." (Nat. Mus. Coll.). Several females from Columbus (Hub- 
bard & Schwarz) have the marginal interspace of the el>^ra punctate; they are 
placed here provisionally. 

In a general way this species is rather close to the preceding, 
but is smaller, the thoracic M more completely represented, the 
elytral punctures coarser, less numerous and less confused. The 
frontal spots are unusually heavy for a yellow species. In two 
examples small faint standard spots are evident on the elytra. 

32. Pachybrachys coloradensis Bowditch 

Small, pale whitish or grayish yellow, brown punctate, elytra 
fairly regularly punctate striate, head and prothorax polished, 
elytra a little less shining but not visibly alutaceous; eyes widely 
distant; ocular lines distinct but fine; front claws of male not 
enlarged. Ave. length 2.3 mm. Hocky ]\Iountains, Montana to 
Arizona. 

Head rather large, front feebly convex, the standard markings nearly 
obsolete, or at most represented by a narrow median line and an ill-defined 
spot on the vertex; punctuation not close; ocular lines fine, not or scarcely 
impressed inferiorly. Eyes small, distant by more than their own length in 
both sexes, a little more widely in the female as usual. Antennae moderate, 
blackish in outer half, attaining the hind coxae in the male. 

Prothorax with moderately close nearly evenly diffused rather coarse punc- 
tures, side margins narrowly smoother, spots entirely wanting or small and 
faint. 

Elytra with finely imi)ressed striae, which are fairly distinct throughout 
except in a moderate sized baso-sutural triangle, where they are confused; 
shield wanting; marginal interspace with a few punctiu'es at base. 

Pygidium entirely yellow or with the base very narrowly black, bod^- be- 
neath blackish with the usual ptde margins. Legs pale, with small brownish 
spots on the thighs. 

Length 2 to 2.65 mm.; width 1 to 1.35. 

Distribution. — Colorado: Cok)ra(lo Springs, .Tune 15 to 30, type (Coll. by 
Wickham). A'ew Mexico: Coolidge (VVickhamJ. Arizona: Winslow, July 
31 (Barber & Schwarz). Utah: Salt Lake, July 4 (Hubbard & Schwarz); 
Clear Lake (Wickham); Sevier Lake (type sevier Bowd. — Bowditch Coll.). 
Montana: Without definite locality (Leng Coll.). Wyoming: Green River 
(Bowditch Coll. as sevier). 



H. C. FALL 351 

This species is easily recognized by the small size, pale color, 
subequal elytral striae, very distant eyes,- fine ocular lines and 
small front claws in the male. It is cjuite widely dispersed in the 
Rocky Mountain region. After a careful examination of the 
type of sevier Bowd. I am unable to separate it from coloradcnsis. 
It differs from a cotype of the latter, kindly given me by ^Ir. 
Bowditch, only in being a grain stouter, and more yellow; the 
marginal interval of the elytra is a bit more numerously punctate 
basally and there are three punctures behind the middle; this, 
however, is everywhere a somewhat variable character. 

33. Pachybraehys minor Bowditch 

^'crv similar to coloradensis, and distinguishable as follows: The size is 
slightly larger, color more distinctly yellow, surface less shining, minutely 
alutaceous, prothoracic markings more evident though small, and diffuse as 
a rule, and occasionally entirely wanting; side margins of prothorax more 
widely smooth. Eyes less distant, separated in both sexes by less than their 
own length, though but slightly so in the female; in the male by about two and 
one-half times the length of the basal antennal joint. Ocular lines very con- 
spicuous and widely distant from the eyes, about two-fifths the distance to 
the median line in the male. EMral striae nearly as in coloradensis, the 
fifth and sixth more commonly confused at the middle; marginal interspace 
without punctures; shield fairly disticnt; abdomen often entirely yellow. 

Length 2.3 to 2.9 mm. 

Distribution. — Arizona: Walnut — type (coll. by Wickham); Riverside 
(\Mckham). A'ew Mexico: (Leng Coll.). California: Pomona; Pasadena; 
Azusa, June and July; Los Angeles Co. (Coquillett in Xat. i\Ius. Coll.); Inde- 
pendence, July 7. (Wickham) not quite t^^)ical. Texas: a single specimen 
without specific locality seems to be identical. 

\av. a 

Two examples from San Felipe, Lower California, sent me by 
Mr. Beyer, are of a more grayish yellow and show a line of punc- 
tures on the marginal interspace extending behind the middle; 
the form also seems a trifle stouter. 

Although comparison is here made with coloradensis to which 
it is closely allied and near which it stands in the table, the resem- 
blance of minor to some specimens of viercurialis is even more 
striking, but the latter is at once separable by the absence of 
ocular lines. 

TR.\N.S. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



352 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERA) 

34. Fachybrachys nero Bowditch 

Dull pale 3'ellow, finely alutaceous, brown punctate, elytral 
striae nearly regular, very lightly impressed; prothoracic M 
usually pale and poorly defined, more rarely darker and quite 
distinct; front with ocular lines; front claws of male not dis- 
tinctly enlarged. Ave. length 3 mm. Arizona to western Texas. 

Head moderately ])imctate, spots small or moderate, that on the vertex 
best developed ; ocular lines distinct, rather near the eyes as a rule but sometimes 
a little more distant, notably in the type. Eyes separated by one and three- 
fifths to one and four-fifths ( cf ) or by about two and three-fourths ( 9 ) 
times the length of the basal antennal joint. Antennae long and thin, at- 
taining the middle of the abdomen in the male, and the hind coxae in the female. 

Prof orax short, strongly transverse, sides nearly straight and moderately 
convergent from base to apex; punctuation a little uneven, rather sparse 
except in the darker areas, these varying from quite distinct to almost entirely 
wanting; side margins rather broadly smooth. 

Elytra more than twice as long as the prothorax, sides parallel; punctures 
confused in a small scutellar area, elsewhere forming nearly regular browoi 
lines, submarginal stria nearly straight at base, marginal interspace without 
punctures or with but one or two in the position of the subhumeral dislocation 
of the eighth stria; discal intervals — more especially the second and third — wide 
posteriorly, the second dilated in the usual position to form the moderate shield, 
which is not at all more convex. 

Pi/gi'lium yellow, with sometimes a narrow basal blackish margin. Body 
beneath brownish or fuscous with the usual paler margins. Legs pale. 

LenCfth 2.6 to 3.4 mm.; width 1.3 to 1.8 mm. 

Distribution. — Arizona: Type from Prescott. Several examples from this 
locality are before me; also a number of specimens labeled simply "Ari." 
New Mexico: Albuquerque (Wickham). Texas: Davis Mountains and Mac- 
dona, July (Wenzel). 

All the Texas examples are females; they have a slightly dif- 
ferent appearance, due perhaps more than anything else to a 
little brighter color; I have little doubt, however, that they belong 
here. 

35. Fachybrachys petronius new species 

Rather close to 7iero, the color a brighter yellow, surface finely 
alutaceous but somewhat shining, prothoracic markings rather 
broad and clearly defined, reddish brown, the median stripe 
narrowly divided anteriorly by a pale line; elytral striae less 
regular than in nero; often more or less suffused with brown along 
the suture. Ave. length 3.1 nun. New Mexico and Arizona. 

Head moderately punctate, vertex spot conspicuous, others small; ocular 
lines distinct, moderately distant from the eyes. Eyes separated by about 



H. C. FALL 353 

one and three-fifths (6^) or three ( $ ) tunes the length of the basal antcnnal 
joint. 

Proihorax strongly transverse, in the female almost twice as wide as long, 
not much narrowed in front in the male, the sides very broadly subangulate 
behind the middle; in the female straighter and a little more convergent; sur- 
face unevenly punctured, the paler areas smooth or much more sparsely punc- 
tured, side margins rather broadly smooth. 

Elytra fully two and one-half times as long as the prothorax, striae lightly 
impressed, four to six more or less contorted or broken at middle, the others 
fairh' regular; punctures confused in a narrow baso-sutural region; submarginal 
stria with sigmoid dislocation near base, marginal interspace without punctures; 
shield distinct. 

Body beneath brown with usual pale margins; legs pale, thighs sometimes 
with faint median clouds. Front claws of male not apj^rcciably enlarged. 

Length 2.75 to 3. .5 mm.; width 1.5 to 1.85 mm. 

Distribution. — New Mexico: Jemez Springs (type d^); Las Vegas Hot 
Springs, Aug. 2 to 10 (Barber & Schwarz); near Las Vegas Hot Springs, 7000 
ft., July (Snow). Arizona: (Morrison — in Xat. Mus. Coll.); -'Ari" (Liebeck 
Coll). 

36. Pachybrachys tacitus new species 

Very closety related to petroni us, the description of which applies 
except as follows. The prothorax is a little less transverse, the 
sides a trifle more rounded, the markings less complete and less 
sharply dejfined, the elytral striae a little coarser and more im- 
pressed, the sutiiral region not darker, but with a tendency in 
some specimens toward the development of lateral spots. 

Distribution. — Arizona: Miller Caiion, Huachuca Mts., (Wenzel) tj'pe 
cf , also taken in these mountains bj' Beyer and Schaeffer; Santa Rita 
Mts., 5,000 to 8,000 ft. (Snow); Chiricahua Mts., June 1. (Hubbard & 
Schwarz); Nogales, Sept. 6. (Nunenmacher); "Ari " (Am. Ent. Soc. Coll.). 

37. Pachybrachys abdominalis Say 

Cylindrical, convex, pale yellow, minutely alutaceous, not or 
feebly shining, punctures pale brown to blackish, arranged in 
fairly regular feebly or scarcely impressed striae on the elytra 
except in the scutellar region; cephalic and prothoracic spots 
small or subobsolete; ocular lines distinct, well removed from the 
eye on the front; front claws of male distinctly larger than the 
others. Ave. length 3.5 mm. Manitoba to Texas. 

Head unevenly, sparsely to moderately closely punctate; frontal spots small, 
vertex spot small, faint, often nearly or quite wanting. Eyes separated by 
slightly less than twice the length of the basal antennal joint in the male, and 
by about two and three-fourths times the length of this joint in the female. 

TRANS. AM, ENT. SOC, XLI. 



354 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERA) 

Antennae long, attaining the middle of the abdomen in the male, yellow, outer 
joints blackish. 

Prothorax rather large, distinctly narrowed in front, sides rather strongly 
arcuate posteriorly, rounded in somewhat at base, more noticeably so in the 
male, punctuation moderately coarse, not dense, side margins smooth. 

Elytra twice as long as the prothorax and shghtly wider, punctures confused 
in the scutellar region, striae two to eight more or less regular, the eighth with 
or without a subhumeral dislocation; marginal interspace with very few punc- 
tures, usually near the base, but occasionally one or two may be at or behind 
the middle; shield usually ill-defined but occasionally quite distinct. 

Pygidium yellow with small black spots, which are occasionally wanting. 
Body beneath black with the usual pale abdominal margins more or less 
developed. Legs pale, femora with median brownish spots. 

Length 3.2.5 to 3.75 mm.; width 1.8 to 2 mm. 

Distribution. — The locality given by Say is Missouri, which as 
is well known means the Plains of Western Kansas or Nebraska 
or possibly Eastern Colorado. The specimens before me bear 
the following locality labels: 

Manitoba: Winnipeg (Wickham Coll.). South Dakota: Erwin, June (Van 
Dyke Coll.). Nebraska: McCook (Wickham). Kansas: Hamilton, Morton 
and Clark Cos. (Snow); McPherson and Sahna, June (Knaus). Colorado: 
"Col" (Van Dyke Coll.); Greeley and La Junta (Bowditch Coll. as roiundi- 
collis). Texas: Bowditch Coll. as rotundicollis. 

It cannot be positively asserted that this is the true abdominalis 
of Say but I have little doubt of it. It fits the short description 
sufficiently well, and rather better than any other; it is from the 
same region, and is the species so identified by LeConte. Bow- 
ditch describes the present species under the name rotundicollis 
and identifies abdominalis differently. A specimen in the Snow 
Coll. of what I consider to be the western form of peccans, and 
one of diversus n. sp. in the Blanchard Coll. bear the name 
abdominalis in Bowditch's handwriting. This confusion — if it 
be such — is not strange, for the species peccans is very variable 
in its wide range, and in some of its western forms approaches 
both abdominalis and diversus so closely as to make the placing 
of some examples purely a matter of individual judgment, and 
to suggest specific identity of the three. The extremes, however, 
look very different, and it is probable that there are really three 
distinct species — perhaps more — although I am not now able to 
definitely draw the lines of separation. 



H. C. FALL 600 

Ahdominalis is as a rule slightly larger and more robust, of a 
pale grayish yellow color, the head and thorax with at least traces 
of the standard spots, Init the elytra without markings — at least 
none are mentioned either in the short diagnosis of Say or in the 
longer description by Suffrian, who had seen an authentic example 
from Say in the Germar Collection. 

Peccans averages a trifle smaller, the yellow color somewhat 
variable, frequently a little brighter in tint than in ahdominalis 
but often not so, the black markings of the head and prothorax 
distinct, often large, the elytra nearly always with at least traces 
of spots, and not infrequently more black than yellow. 

Diversus is somewhat smaller, typically, and indeed almost 
always of a brighter yellow than ahdominalis. Many specimens 
are as free from markings as ahdominalis, but in others the upper 
surface throughout is more or less varied with rust red to fuscous 
shades, and some of the more distinctly marked forms are so 
like lightly marked western specimens of peccans as to be scarcely 
distinguishable. 

38. Pachybrachys diversus new species 

Yellow, minutely alutaceous, scarcely or slightly shining, 
Ih'owu punctured, markings usually pale rust colored and feeble 
or nearly wanting, but sometimes darker and more distinct; 
ocular lines distinct, moderately distant from the eyes; front 
claws evidently enlarged in the male. Ave. length 2.9 mm. 
Illinois to Nebraska and south to Texas. 

Head unevenly punctured, spots feeble and due chiefly to the grouping of 
the brown punctures. Eyes separated in the male by a little more than twice 
the length of the basal antennal joint, or by a distance subequal to or slightly 
greater than the vertical width of the upper lobe of the eye; in the female by 
about three times the length of the basal joint of the antennae. Antennae 
thin, outer joints more or less dusky, attaining the apical third of the elytra in 
the male and the hind coxae in the female. 

Prothorax moderately transverse, widest and moderately strongly arcuate 
sHghtly before the base, the sides a little retracted behind, distinctly conver- 
gent and broadly rounded or nearly straight anteriorly; disk rather coarsch', 
unevenly and not very closely punctate, side margins smooth; standard spots 
obsolete or represented by feebly developed and diffuse reddish brown shades. 

Elytral striae a little impressed, more or less sinuous — the fifth and sixth 
generally the most irregular — but fairly well defined except in a rather small 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



356 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERA) 

baso-sutural triangle; submarginal stria with the usual subhumeral interrup- 
tion; markings often entirely wanting, and when present usually feeble, con- 
sisting of traces of some of the standard spots in pale brown. Rarely the pro- 
thoracic markings become heavy and the disk of the elytra is suffused with 
darker brown along the suture. 

Pygidium pale, the darker basal margin and spots usually feebly defined. 
Body beneath variable in color, the abdomen sometimes nearly uniformly 
yellow, but more commonly with the median portions darker; sterna usually 
of some shade of brown. Legs pale with diffuse light brown shades on the 
thighs. 

Length 2.5 to 3.3. mm.; width 1.3 to 1.75 mm. 

Distribution. — Illinois: Quincy, June 14 (Knaus); "S. 111." (Nat. Mus. 
Coll.-Soltau). Iowa: Eastport (Wickham Coll.). Missouri: St. Louis (Nat. 
Mus. Coll.-Soltau). Kansas: Clark Co., 1962 ft.. May, and Douglas Co. 
(Snow); Salina (Knaus); Rago, August; Medora (Leng Coll.); others from 
"Ks" without definite locality. Nebraska: Nebraska City (Wickham Coll. — 
Elliott). Dakota: (Wcnzel Coll.). Texas: Dallas (Wickham); Columbus, 
June 21, July 28 (Hubbard & Schwarz); Austin (Casey); Camp San Saba, 
May 27 (Knaus); Brownsville, May 1 (H. S. Barber); Galveston, May (Snow); 
Texas (Leng Coll.); Scabrook, Aug. 5 to 7, identity doubtful (Wenzel). El 
Paso, var.? (Fenyes). 

The type is a male from Douglas Co., Kansas. 

In common with Mr. Bowditch, I had supposed this species to 
be the xanthias of Siiffrian until a type of the latter sent nie ])y 
Prof. Taschenberg showed it to be an entirely different species. 

In its typical form the present species is readily separated 
from all others, but in certain of the diverse variations which I 
have felt compelled to include under the name there is a very 
definite approach to both ahdominalis and peccaiis, so that the 
disposition of sundry individuals is purely a matter of opinion. 
The tabular characters and remarks under abdominalis will gen- 
erally suffice for the separation of the latter from diversus. As 
peccans is tabulated in a different part of the genus, a somewhat 
detailed comparison may fittingly be given here. Diversus is in 
general a rather smaller species than peccans, of a brighter yellow 
color, the markings typically nearly wanting and rarely having 
anything more than faint rust colored traces of the standard 
spots; the pygidium is nearly always in great part yellow; the 
upper surface is always finely alutaceous and scarcely or l)ut 
feebly shining; the eyes are less distant, being separated in the 
male by evidently less than twice the length of the basal an- 
tennal joint. In peccans the color is typically and generally of 



H. C. FALL 357 

a paler grayish yellow, the markings black or fuscous and more 
or less conspicuously developed, the pygidium in great part black, 
rarely as much yellow as black; the upper surface often distinctly 
shining and sometimes even polished, with faint traces of aluta- 
ceous sculpture; eyes more distant, as a rule separated in the 
male by twice the length of the basal antennal joint. These 
characters — or in fact almost any one of them — will suffice in the 
vast majority of cases to distinguish the two species, but it must 
be said that occasionally one or another fails and in rare in- 
stances about all of them do, and then — especially when dealing 
with single specimens — the experience and judgment of the stu- 
dent can alone decide. 

39. Pachybrachys pusillus Bowditch 

Cylindrical, convex, dull yellow, surface minutely alutaceous 
and feebly shining, punctures pale brown, spots almost wanting, 
el^'tra subregularly striate, ocular lines fine but traceable, front 
claws of male scarcely perceptibly enlarged. Ave. length 2.6 
mm. Texas and Arizona. 

Head rather sparsely irregularlj- punctate; eyes separated in the male by a 
distance subequal to the length of the first two antennal joints or by distinctly 
less than the vertical width of the upper lobe of the eye; in the female by nearly 
twice the length of the basal joint or by a distance equal to or slightly greater 
than the vertical width of the upper lobe. Antennae short, barely reaching 
the hind coxae in the male, outer joints dusky at their tips. 

Prothorax rather large, moderately transverse, sides arcuate and moderately 
convergent toward the front; punctuation somewhat uneven, moderately 
close, side margins smooth, the M faintly or scarcely indicated in slightly 
darker tint. 

Elytra without markings; striae a little impressed, subregular except in the 
scutellar region, the fifth and sixth often broken at middle, the eighth some- 
times interrupted, sometimes merelj' sinuate behind the humerus; marginal 
interspace devoid of punctures; shield distinct. 

Pygidium pale yellow, the spots small and faint, or subobsolete. Body 
beneath a little darker in color, the metasternum reddish brown. 

Length 2.2 to 3 mm.; width 1.2 to 1.6 mm. 

Distribution. — Texas: Brownsville (type) and San Antonio (in Bowditch 
Collection); Brownsville, May 24 (H. S. Barber in Nat. IMus. Coll.), July 23 
(Wolcott), June (Snow), Aug. (Beyer), Apr. and May (Dury), June and July 
(Schaeffer); San Antonio (Wickham); Macdona, July 28 (Wenzel); New 
Braunfels, Aug. 9 (Schwarz); Uvalde, 930 ft., June 18 to 20 (Wickham); 
S. W. Tex. (Am. Ent. Soc. Coll.); Tex. (Leng Coll.). Arizona: San Bernardino 
Ranch, Cochise Co., 3,750 ft. (Snow). 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



358 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERa) 

The species most likely to be confused with the present one 
are diversus, ahdominalis and longus, but all are quite easily 
separated by the tabular characters. In addition to the more 
remote eyes, both diversus and ahdo7ninalis have the front claws 
distinctly enlarged in the male and the ocular lines are more 
conspicuous. 

40. Pachybrachys macronychus new species 

Rather large, yellow, brown punctate, minutely alutaceous, 
moderately shining; cephalic spots small, pale brown, thoracic 
M represented by pale diffuse rust colored shades, elytra without 
spots; ocular lines wanting, front claws of male very large. Ave. 
length 3.8 mm. Texas. 

Head densely punctate in the darker areas, elsewhere sparsely so or nearly 
smooth. Eyes separated in the male by about one and one-half times the 
length of the basal antennal joint, the distance nearly the same as the vertical 
width of the upper lobe of the eye. Antennae (d^) long and thin, not much 
shorter than the body, tenth joint four times as long as wide. 

Prothorax two-fifths wider than long, sides distinctly convergent in front, 
strongly rounded posteriorly, incui'ved at base, surface moderately closely 
punctate, quite thickly so in the shaded areas, median line narrowly and im- 
perfectly or incompletely smooth, side margins smooth. 

Elytra less than twice as long as the prothorax, coarsely punctate, the second, 
third and eighth striae fairly regular in one example, the second and eighth in a 
second specimen, the other striae much broken or confused; eighth stria 
moderately impressed and with a subhumeral dislocation, other striae less 
evidently impressed; shield indicated but not very well defined. 

Pygidium blackish in basal half, marked as usual. Body beneath blackish 
brown, the propleura lighter browm, margin of last ventral segment broadly 
yellow. Legs rufo-testaceous, ends of middle and hind tibiae. pale. 

Length 3.7 to 3.85 mm.; width 1.9 mm. 

Distribution. — Texas: Green Valley, Chisos Mts., Brewster Co., July 15 
(type c?), and Davis Mts., July 8 (H. A. Wenzel). 

Three males of this fine species are before me, submitted by 
Mr. Henry Wenzel. 

41. Pachybrachys erassus Bowditch 

Robust, pale yellow, brown punctate, finely alutaceous, not 
shining, markings small on the head and prothorax, usually 
wanting on the elytra, the lateral spots sometimes indicated; 
eyes more narrowly separated than the width of tlicir upper 
lobes in the female, ocular lines wanting. Ave. length (9) 
4.2 mm. Utah and Arizona. 



H. C. FALL 359 

Head slightly convex, the darker areas, especially the median line, thickly 
punctate, elsewhere sparsely so. Eyes ( 9 ) separated by a distance equal to 
the length of the basal two joints of the antennae, or by about three-fourths 
the vertical width of the upper lobe of the eye. Antennae ( 9 ) about half the 
length of the body, pale yellow, outer joints dusky, tenth joint three times as 
long as wide. 

Prothorax fully one-half wider than long, moderately narrowed in front, sides 
arcuate posteriorly, feebly incurved at base; surface thickly punctate in 
numerous small semi-detached brown spots which combined make up the 
standard M; elsewhere sparsely punctate, the side margins rather widely 
smooth. 

Elytra coarsely brown punctured, the punctm-es arranged in moderately 
impressed more or less regular lines posteriorly, but much broken anteriorly 
except the eighth and perhaps the second and third striae, which are entire; 
completely confused in the scutellar region; eighth stria with sigmoid disloca- 
tion behind the humerus; marginal interspace without or with a few coarse 
punctures near the interruption; shield moderate. 

Pygidiimi yellow, basal margin with large median spur and a small spot on 
each side, fuscous; body beneath more or less brown, the margins paler. Legs 
yellow, femoral spots small, pale brown; front claws sUghtly larger than the 
others in the female and presumably very distinctly so in the male. 

Length 4 to 4.3 mm.; width 2.15 to 2.3.5 mm. 

Distribution . — Utah: St. George (Wickliam), type 9 in Bowditch Coll. 
Arizona: Bill Williams Fork (Snow); Yuma, Apr. 22 (Fenyes). 

Three examples are before me, all females. In the Bill Wil- 
liams Fork example, there are small but quite distinct lateral 
elytral spots, the middle spot faintly indicated. The eyes are 
quite narrowly separated in the female and in the male will 
without doubt be found still more approximate. There are in 
the material before me two males, one from Arizona, the other 
without any locality but unquestionably of the same species, 
which agree so well in all essentials with the above females that 
I am provisionally placing them together. At first glance they 
differ so notably by their more elongate form, that the name 
longus would seem to apply much better than crassus; however, 
sexual differences in the robustness of body are often quite marked 
and need occasion no surprise. The punctures are a little denser 
in the dark areas of the pronotum and seem slightly coarser on 
the elytra and of deeper tint generally — fuscous in one of the two 
examples. The eyes are separated by about three-fourths the 
length of the basal antennal joint; the front claws are moderately 
strongly enlarged; the terminal joint of the maxillary palpus is 
broadly truncate, in fact not at all narrowed apically. 

TRAXS. .\M. EXT. .SOC, XLI. 



360 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERA) 

This is one of our largest species, and in point of size is not 
closely approached by any other of this group. It most nearly 
resembles fortis, which because of the feeble markings of the 
elj^tra has been placed among the mottled species. As stated 
above, however, one example of crassus shows small lateral spots 
on the elytra, and it is not unlikely that specimens of fortis may 
occur without elytral spots, in which case the tSvo species might 
easily be confused. The eyes \n fortis are less approximate than 
in crassus, and in the female are more widely distant than the 
vertical width of their upper lobes; the marginal interspace of 
the elytra is also more numerously punctate in fortis. 

42. Pachybrachys longus Bowditch 

Pale yellow, scarcely shining, brown punctate, head and pro- 
thorax lightly marked with pale brown or rust colored spots or 
clouds; elytra typically without spots, but occasionally with the 
spots faintly indicated; eyes narrowly separated, ocular lines fine 
and near the eyes, elytral striae subregular; front claws of male 
perceptibly but not conspicuously larger than the others. Ave. 
length 2.7 mm. Arizona. 

Head moderately punctate, more closely on the vertex and in the median 
impressed line. Eyes separated by rather less than ( cT), or by about the length 
( 9 ), of the basal antennal joint or a trifle more. Antennae pale, outer joints 
dusky, in the male about three-fourths and in the female about one-half the 
length of the body. 

Prothorax moderately transverse, sides moderately rounded, incurved a 
little at base, not greatly narrowed anteriorly, somewhat irregularly punctate, 
more closely in the dark areas, rather sparsely elsewhere, side margins smooth. 

Elytra confusedly punctate in a rather small baso-sutural area, elsewhere 
with subregular striae, the fifth and sixth, however, often more or less broken 
or irregular; striae a little impressed, more noticeably so toward the sides; 
marginal interspace with at most a few punctures near the subbasal inter- 
ruption or sinuation of the eighth stria; shield usually well developed. 

Pygidium and lower surface brownish or fuscous and yellow, the colors dis- 
tributed as usual; legs pale yellow with light brownish shades at middle of 
thighs. 

Length 2.4 to 3 mm.; width 1.25 to 1.6 mm. 

Distribution. — Arizona: Tucson (Wickham), July 21 (Hul)l)ard & Schwarz). 

The type in the Bowditch Collection is a femal(% also from 
Tucson. 

This species is notable in its narrowly separated eyes, which 
character will distinguish it from others of lik(> api)earance. 



H. C. FALL 361 

43. Pachybrachys bullatus new species 

Form rather narrow, yellow, variegated with pale to dark 
brown, surface polished, eyes very approximate in the male, 
no ocular lines, elytra -with a transverse row of more or less con- 
spicuous convex pale spots behind the middle: front claws of male 
not at all larger than the others. Ave. length 2.7 mm. Arizona; 
Texas. 

Head rather closely brown punctate, median line fine, front mostly yellow 
in the male, more brown than j-ellow in the female. Eyes separated in the 
male by from less than one-half to about four-fifths the length of the basal 
antennal joint, in the female by shghtly less than twice the length of the basal 
joint. Antennae about two-thirds the length of the body in the male, a little 
shorter in the female, color either entireh' pale or with the outer joints duskj-, 
tenth joint less than three times as long as wide. 

Prothorax moderately transverse, distinctly narrowed in front, sides strongly 
rounded behind the middle, incurved and sinuate before the basal angles, 
nearh- straight or sometimes feebly sinuate anteriorly; surface densely, some- 
what unevenly, rather coarsely punctate, with small raised Loipunctate spots; 
M represented bj- three basal and two median spots in transverse rows, the 
spots varying from fairly distinct to quite diffuse and occasionally involving 
the greater part of the surface. 

Elytra one-fifth wider than the prothorax and about twice as long, sides dis- 
tinctly sinuate behind the humeri: punctuation quite dense and usuall}- 
broadly confused on the disk, the marginal interspace and some portions of 
the others more or less evident and convex, especially toward the rear; a trans- 
verse row of smaU raised pale yellow spots beginning just behind and outside 
the sliield and e.\t ending to the side margin; shield small, sometimes indistinct; 
marginal stria well impressed, more or less irregular near the base: marginal 
interspace with coarse punctures in basal half. The color is somewhat vari- 
able. In two females and one male the base, apex and transverse row of 
spots are alone yellow, and contrast strongly with the general brown color of 
the disk; in the remaining specimens — all males — the brown color is less ex- 
tensive and paler, and though diffuse, roughly indicates the standard spots. 

Pyffidiutn j-ellow, slightly darker basally but without any evident maculation. 
Body beneath brown, apical margin of last ventral yellow. Legs j'eUow with- 
out spots. 

Length 2.4 to .3 mm.; width 1.3 to 1.7 mm. 

Diiitribution. — Arizoiia: male t\T3e taken by the writer July 3, 1904. at 
Williams. Also taken by Barber «t Schwarz at the same place during June and 
July. Xogales, Aug. 26 (Xunenmacherj ; Rincon Mts., 5,000 ft., July (Beyer); 
Huachuca Mts., July 14 (Wenzelj; "Ari" (Morrison, in Xat'l. Mus. Coll.). 
Texas: Davis Mts., July 8 (Wenzel). 

This species is one of the most distinct in our faima. It is 
notable for the very narrowly separated eyes in the male, their 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



362 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERA) 

distance apart, however, showing a rather unusual degree of 
variation. In the Rincon Mountains specimen they are ahnost 
in contact, and in the Nogales one are more approximate than 
in any of the Williams examples. In these two the thoracic 
punctuation is also denser than in the others. 

44. Pachybrachys texanus Bowditch 

Dull yellow with brown markings which vary much in shade 
and distinctness; eyes narrowly separated; elytra distinctly 
striate at sides and rear; front tibiae of the male sinuate on the 
inner side near the apex, the inner angle produced in a long stout 
curved spur; front claws of male obviously larger than the others. 
Ave. length 2.4 mm. Texas. 

Head moderately closely punctate, front flat with fine impressed median line, 
markings varying from distinct to almost wanting, no ocular lines. Eyes 
separated in the male by about two-thirds the length of the basal antennal 
joint, in the female by the length of the basal joint or a little less. Antennae 
pale basally, outer joints dusky, half the length of the body in the female, about 
two-thirds the length of the body in the male. 

Prothorax moderately transverse, sides broadly rounded, widest behind the 
middle, very slight^ convergent behind, more obviously so in front; surface 
densely but a little unevenly punctate, side margins smooth; markings diffuse, 
pale rust colored to dark brown. 

Elytra closely confusedly punctate in the scutellar region, elsewhere with 
impressed striae which are more or less irregular or broken at the middle of 
each elytron; two outer striae regular, the eighth feebly or scarcely interrupted 
behind the humerus; marginal interspace with a few punctures toward the 
base; shield distinct; markings variable in distinctness, the standard spots 
usually indicated, but occasionally wanting. 

Pygidium brown and yellow; body beneath brown and yellow, the colors 
distributed as usual; legs yellow with brown spots on the thighs. 

Length 1.9 to 2.8 mm.; width 1 to 1.45 mm. 

Dislribulion. — Texas: The type and great majority of specimens seen by 
me are from Brownsville, taken from April to August by Wickham, Barber, 
Dury, Wolcott, Schaeffer and others; Arroyo, Dec. 10 (Townsend); Columbus, 
June (Hubbard & Schwarz); Victoria, Mar. 3 to Apr. 2 (Schwarz). 

The narrowly separated eyes combined with the greatly 
developed terminal spur of the front tibiae distinguish this species 
from all others known to me except the following, which see for 
a statement of differences. In calcaratus there is a similar devel- 
opment of the tibial spur, but in this species the eyes are nuich 
less approximate. 



H. C. FALL 363 

45. Pachybrachys uncinatus new species 

Very similar in essential characters to texanus, from which it differs as fol- 
lows. The size is distinctly larger, the yellow ground color a little paler, the 
punctures and markings darker, being uniformly blackish fuscous in all males 
of the series before me, but somewhat less dark in the single female. Eyes 
slightly less approximate than in texanus, being separated by about three- 
fourths the length of the basal antennal joint in the male, and by just visibly 
more than the length of this joint in the female. The male sexual develop- 
ment of the front tibiae is nearly identical with that in texanus but the tibiae 
seem a trifle more widened apically, while the spur at the inner angle is not 
quite as long. The posthumeral sinuation or interruption of the submarginal 
elj'tral stria is here the rule, while in texanus it is the exception. The front 
claws of the male are evidently a little larger than the others but the difference 
is not quite as marked as in texamis. The pronotal standard markings are well 
developed, but as a rule the elytral spots are small, the posterior ones con- 
sisting generally of broader fuscous streaks along the striae. The punctua- 
tion of the elytra is rather dense and confused in a broad baso-sutural tri- 
angle, the striae defined at sides and rear; shield well developed. 

Length 2.9 to 3.5 mm. 

Distribution. — Arizona: Four males, one female sent by Mr. Schaeffer. 
The type is a male. A female from Tucson, Apr. 21 (Hubbard & Schwarz), 
appears to belong here. 

46. Pachybrachys pectoralis Melslieimer 

Form — especially of the male — narrower than usual; dull 
yellow, maculate with brown or black, not or scarcely shining; 
eyes narrowly separated, ocular lines present; front tibiae sinuate 
on the inner margin beyond the middle, front claws of male 
obviously though not greatly enlarged. Ave. length 2.5 mm. 
Northeastern States, extending to Georgia and westward to 
Iowa. 

Head small, unevenly punctured, yellow, a brown central line connected 
with a small vertex spot; ocular lines usually rather fine, but somewhat variable. 
Eyes separated in the male by about three-fourths the length of the basal 
antennal joint, and by very little more than the length of this joint in the 
female. Antennae moderate, about two-thirds ( cf ) or one-half ( ? ) the length 
of the body, outer joints blackish. 

Prothorax moderately narrowed in front, widest behind the middle, sides 
slightly convergent and a little sinuate before the hind angles, surface rather 
thickly but somewhat unevenly punctate, side margins smooth ; standard spots 
fairly distinct, the general impression given being a transverse basal row of 
three spots, and anterior to these a spot each side of the middle, often reaching 
nearly to the apical margin. Elytra rather conspicuously wider than the 
prothorax, rather deeply striate externally and on the posterior convexity, 
punctures confused in a scutellar area of variable size, the striae much broken 

TKANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



364 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERa) 

medially on each elytron; eighth stria more or less interrupted behind the 
humerus, marginal interspace with a few coarse punctures (rarely lacking) 
subbasally; shield small, usually indistinct; standard spots not large, usually 
distinct except the basal one of the inner series which is rarely if ever present. 

Pygidium mostly yellow, basal margin brown. Body beneath brown or 
blackish with dull yellow abdominal margins more or less developed. Legs 
yellow with small dark femoral spots. 

Length 2.25 to 2.7 mm.; width 1.15 to 1.45 mm. 

Distribution. — New Ham-psJiire: (BlanchardColl.). Massachusetts: Lowell; 
Tyngsboro; Wakefield; Wellfleet (Colls. Blanchard, Wickham, and my own). 
Rhode Island: Berkeley, Aug. 27. New York: Staten Island, July (Leng). 
New Jersey: Anglesea, July 23 (Hubbard & Schwarz) ; Greenwood Lake (Leng) ; 
"N. J." (Liebeck). Pennsylvania: (Liebeck). Maryland: Plummer's Island, 
June and July (Schwarz & Barber). Virginia: without definite locality. 
Georgia: Clayton (Leng). Alabama: Pineapple (Hubbard ct Schwarz). 
Michigan: Detroit (Hubbard & Schwarz). Illinois: Algonquin (Nason). 
Iowa: Elma, June 30 (Snow Coll.). 

This is a well characterized species and not confusable with 
any other except sobrinus, which it greatly reseml^les. The 
sinuation of the anterior tibia is unique and apparently inde- 
pendent of sex, and though rather small and shallow is sufficiently 
obvious when the tibia is in a proper position for observation. 

My interpretation of this species is based on undou]:)tedly 
authentic specimens in the old Melsheimer and Ziegier Collec- 
tions. 

47. Pachybrachys sobrinus Haldeman 

Almost precisely like pectoralis in general appearance and differing only as 
follows. Ej^es not quite so approximate, distant in the male by the length of 
the basal antennal joint and in the female by about the length of the first two 
joints of the antennae; front tibiae not sinuate on the inner margin. Taking 
the material at hand as a whole, the elytral striae are apt to be less deep in 
sobrinus, the maculation more variable both in extent and depth of color, the 
two posterior spots more often confluent. The size is also distinctly greater 
on the average in sobrinus. 

Length 2.6 to 3.25 mm.; width 1.25 to 1.65 mm. 

Distribution. — Equally as widely dispersed as pectorolis and 
over nearly the same area, but pectoralis is the more common of 
the two in the northern or at least in the northeastern part of its 
range, while sobrinus is more abundant toward the south. It 
was described from the "Southern States." 

I have seen specimens from the following localities: 



H. C. FALL 365 

Vermont: Bennington (Leng Coll.). New York: Staten Island (Leng); 
"N. Y." (Van Dyke Coll.). Pennsylvania: Enola, June 26; Allegheny (Snow 
& Leng Coil's.). Maryland: Plummer's Island, May and June (H. S. Barber; 
W. V. \\'arner); Baltimore, June 26 (Blaisdell). Virginia: Newport News 
(Horn Coll.); Va. (Leng CoU.). West Virginia: White Sulphur Springs 
(Fenyes). Norlh Carolina: Black Mts., June (Van Dyke). Ohio: Cincin- 
nati (Dury). Indiana: Floyd Co., June 28 (Type of slicticus — Blatchley 
Coll.). Illinois: Algonquin, Aug. 28 (Nason); Quincy, June 14; "111." 
(Horn Coll.). Iowa: Eastport (Wickham Coll.). Missouri: "C. Mo.," 
June, on locust (Riley — in Nat. Mus. Coll.). Nebraska: Crete (Schacffer Coll.). 
Kansas: Wallace Co., (Snow); Medora (Leng Coll.); Salina (Knaus); Ks. 
(Horn and Liebeck Colls.). Arkansas: Fayette, Aug. 5 (Knaus Coll.). 
Texas: Fort Worth, May 25; Tex. (Horn Coll.). 

I have followed LeConte in his interpretation of sobrinus. 
Suffrian makes this name a synonym of pedoralis Melsh.; a very 
natural error, and one ahnost sure to be made by anyone over- 
looking the ocular and tibial characters. 

I have seen the specimen which Bowditch mentions as pur- 
porting to be the type of oculatus Suffr. and which he referred to 
jyedoralis. My own observation satisfied me that the specimen 
in question was identical with sobrinus rather than pectoralis, 
and if the specimen sent to Bowditch by Prof. Taschenberg was 
the true oculatus, the name must fall into synonymy. 

Mr. Blatchley has very kindly sent me his type of sticticus for 
examination, and there can be no question of its identity with 
sobrinus. 
48. Pachybrachys contractifrons new species 

Small, pale whitish yellow, not shining, pale brown punctate 
with brown markings, distinct on the prothorax, faint on the 
elytra. Eyes narrowly separated, no ocular lines. Front claws 
of male distinctly enlarged. Length 2.25 mm. Arizona. 

Head flat, unevenly punctate, a dark central line, wider below, and con- 
nected above with a small vertex spot. Eyes (cf) separated b}^ three-fourths 
the length of the basal antennal joint. Antennae (o^) two-thirds as long as 
the body, outer joints dusky. 

Prothorax moderately transverse, widest at basal fourth, gradually feebly 
arcuately naiTOwed in front, a little retracted behind but without distinct sinu- 
ation before the hind angles; surface unevenl}' punctate, densely so in the dark 
areas, sparsely elsewhere, the basal portions of the M well defined, tiie apical 
parts disintegrated; side margins smoother. 

Elytra short, distinctly less than twice as long as the prothorax, striae in 
great jmrt sinuous or broken, intervals moderately convex at the sides and rear; 

TKANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



366 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERA) 

shield distinct; eighth stria sinuous, dislocated behind the humei-us, marginal 
interspace impunctate; standard spots incompletely and vaguely indicated, 
the median lateral spots wanting, the posterior spots coalescent. 

Pygidium brown and whitish yellow. Body beneath brown, abdominal 
apex pale. Legs pale with hght brown femoral spots or shades. 

Length 2.25 mm.; width 1.2 mm. 

Distribution. — Arizona: Hot Springs, June 27 (Barber & Schwarz). The 
unique male type is in the National Museum Collection. A female from 
Tucson, Ariz., April 21 (Hubbard & Schwarz Coll.), is doubtfully associated. 
In it the eyes are separated by the length of the basal antennal joint; the 
lateral interspace of the el>^ra is sparsely punctate, the yellow color is brighter 
and the form seems a bit more elongate; length 3 mm. 

49. Pachybrachys alacris new species 

Rufo- to flavo-testaceous, finely alutaceoiis, the thorax scarcely, 
the elytra feebly shining; standard spots brown, small and feebly 
indicated; elytra distinctly striate; eyes (9) separated by not 
more than three-fourths the vertical width of their upper lobes; 
front claws of male probably not appreciably larger. Ave. length 
3.15 mm. Arizona. 

Head evenly not very densely punctate, markings obsolete; ocular hnes 
feebly indicated, very fine and close to the eyes. Eyes ( 9 ) separated by a 
little more than the length of the rather small basal antennal joint. Antennae 
(cf ) scarcely passing the humeral mnbo, the tenth joint twice as long as wide, 
outer joints dusky. 

Prothorax moderately transverse, widest at basal fourth or third, sides 
broadly arcuate, moderately convergent in front; punctures not dense, uneven, 
rather sparse except in the small and rather indistinct darker markings; 
smoother along the side margins. 

Elijtra confusedly punctate in the baso-sutural triangle, elsewhere with 
fairly regular impressed striae, the fifth and sixth broken or confused at middle; 
eighth stria dislocated near the base; marginal interspace impunctate; shield 
elongate, distinct; standard spots feebly indicated. 

Pygidium predominantly pale. Body beneath blackish brown, the sides 
of the abdomen and the last ventral segment in great part pale. Legs rufo- 
testaceous, with feeble or obsolete femoral clouds. 

Length ( 9 ) 3 to 3.25 mm.; width 1.5 to 1.6 mm. 

Distribution. — Arizona: type ( 9 ) without definite locality; a second female 
from San Bernardino Ranch, Cochise Co., 3,750 ft. (E. G. Smyth in Knaus 
Coll.). 

This species bears a general resemblance to calidus, but is more 
obscurely marked and with more approximate eyes, the latter 
being as close in the female of alacris as in the male of calidu.s. 
The ocular lines are more distinct in calicbis, ])arely detectable 
in alacris. 



H. C. FALL 367 

50. Pachybrachys chaoticus new species 

Robust, yellow, brown punctate and with ratiier sharph- de- 
fined brown markings; eyes narrowl}- separated, front without 
ocuhir lines; punctuation throughout sparse and irregular; front 
claws of male strongly enlarged. Ave. length 3.8 nnn. Arizona. 

Head with few punctures except in the dark median Hne and vertex spot. 
Eyes separated in the male by barely the length of the basal antcnnal joint, 
and by about one and one-half times the length of the basal joint in the female. 
Antennae verj' slender, nearly the length of the body in the male, the tenth 
joint four times as long as wide. 

Prothorax rather large, sides arcuately convergent from near the base to 
the front angles, rounded in a little at base, without evident sinuation before 
the angles; markings sharply defined and consisting entirely (in the type) of 
aggregations of brown punctures roughly forming the thoracic M, the remain- 
ing portions of the disk with sparse scattered punctures, the side margins 
broadly subimpunctate. 

Elytra very irregularlj'- and sparsely punctate, with broad impunctate spaces, 
the eighth stria entire but strongly sinuate, the others scarcely evident except 
for their short apical portions on the posterior convexity; shield large, rounded; 
marginal interspace impunctate; standard spots distinct, rather small, the 
two posterior ones of the inner series confluent. 

Pygidium brown and yellow, body beneath brown, abdominal apex pale. 
Legs yellow, with median brown shades on the femora and tibiae. 

Length 3.4 to 4.2 mm.; width 2.1 to 2.35 mm. 

Distribution. — Arizona: The male type was given me years ago by a non- 
entomological friend who took it if I am not mistaken near the Colorado 
River. The above description is drawn from the type, but I have since seen 
a female from the Rincon Mts. (5,000 ft., July) in Mr. Beyer's Collection and 
a pair from Oracle (July 6 to 15) in the Hubbard & Schwarz Collection. These 
do not necessitate any change in the original description except as to measure- 
ments of length and width, the original male being smaller than any of the 
specimens subsequently seen. 

51. Pachybrachys peltatus new species 

Yellow, wdth sharply defined but not very heavy black mark- 
ings, surface minuteh' alutaceous but somewhat shining. Pro- 
thoracic M entire; elytra with the inner row of standard spots 
irregularly confluent and surrounding the large orbicular yellow 
shield, which is very conspicuous. Front without ocular lines; 
claws of front tarsi obviously though not strongly enlarged. Ave. 
length 3.25 mm. Lower California; Mexico. 

Head not wider than the thoracic apex, front feebly convex, rather sparsely 
and finely subevcnly punctate; color largely yellow, a short median line and 
small vertex spot fuscous. Eyes separated in the male by a distance subequal 
to the length of the first two antennal joints, or by a little less than the 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLl. 



368 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERA) 

vertical width of their upper lobes; in the female by slightly more than the 
width of their upper lobes. Antennae thin, nearly as long as the entire body 
in the male, but little longer than half the body in the female, the tenth joint 
(c^) fully four times as long as wide, color yellow, the outer joints dusky. 

Prothorax widest shghtly in front of the base, sides distinctly convergent 
from this point to the apex, surface sparsely irregularly punctured, the pale 
areas with very few punctures, the M rather narrow, a little irregular, but 
sharply defined and nearly attaining the front margin; side margins broadly 
smooth. 

Elytra twice as long as the prothorax, striae irregular, first strongly deflected 
about the shield, and in front of the latter geminate with a short scutellar 
stria; second and third geminate and entire, fourth irregular but entire, fifth 
and sixth represented by a few confused basal punctures, three or four others 
at the middle and a short impressed fragment at the declivity; seventh and 
eighth entire, the latter with a pronounced subhumeral dislocation; marginal 
interspace impunctate. The black markings represent the standard spots, 
of which the humeral spot is isolated, the middle and posterior ones of the 
outer series are connected along the margin, and each is connected to the 
corresponding one of the inner series; the spots of the inner series are longi- 
tudinally confluent so as to leave an impunctate juxta-scutellar spot, the large 
shield and the apex yellow. 

Pygidiuni almost entirelj^ yellow; body beneath blackish, sides and tip of 
abdomen pale. 

Legs yellow, the middle and posterior femora and tibiae with faint median 
fuscous spots or shades, the tips of the thighs whitish yeUow. 

Length 3.2 to 3.5 mm.; width 1.6 to 1.95 mm. 

Distribution. — The type is a female from "Lower California," 
sent by Mr. Liebeck. There is a single male from Tepic, Mex- 
ico, in the National Miis. Coll. This latter bears the name P. 
inclusus Jac, but is quite distinct from a specimen of the latter 
sent me from the British Museum Collection, and bearing the 
name inclusus in Jacoby's handwriting. This species, by the 
peculiar elytral striae and large shield, looks quite unlike any- 
thing else in our fauna, and though it is not impossible that it 
has been described from Mexico, I am unable to locate it and 
venture to give it a name. 

52. Pachybrachys peninsularis new species 

Rather large, dark brown and yellow mottled, the darker 
color predominant on the thorax, the elytra either with the brown 
predominating or with the colors about c(iual in extent. Eyes 
separated by a distance less than the length of the basal anlennal 
joint. Antennae very slendcT, the terminal joint in the male 



H. C. FALL 369 

slightly inflated at apical third. Front claws of male much 
enlarged. Ave. length 3.4 mm. Lower California. 

Head rather small, eyes not at all prominent, punctures sparse except in the 
dark median line; eyes separated in the male by scarcely half the vertical width 
of their upper lobes or by a little less than the length of the basal antennal 
joint. Antennae slender, fully four-fifths as long as the body in the male, 
tenth joint four times as long as wide. 

Prothorax large, strongly narrowed in front, scarcely narrower than the 
elytra, sides subparallel or at least not distinctly incurved in ])asal third, the 
lateral edge slightly wider and narrowly sub-explanate toward the hind angles, 
distinctly visible from a vertical view point; basal lobe narrower and more 
prominent than usual; surface dull and densely punctate, sparser in two dis- 
integrated yellow basal spots and along the yellow median anterior line; side 
margins smooth, yellow. 

Elytra minutely alutaceous but distinctly shining, punctuation confused 
baso-suturaJly, striae impressed, the two lateral ones continuous, the others 
for the most part broken or irregular except on the rear convexity; shield 
irregularl}' rounded, convex, yellow; marginal interspace without punctures, 
the eighth stria with sul^basal interruption; standard spots indefinite, the 
surface more or less predominantly brown, with numerous small raised yellow 
spots, either isolated, or forming parts of the convex interspaces. 

Pygidium brown with two large confluent apical yellow spots. Body be- 
neath brown, last ventral largely yellow. Legs yellow with brown or fuscous 
femoral and tibial rings or .shades. 

Length 3 to 3.75 mm.; width 1.65 to 2.1 mm. 

Distribution. — Lower California: San Felipe (type cf), and El Taste (Beyer). 

In size, color and sculpture, this species is nearly- identical 
with turgidicoUis, but the latter may be distinguished by the less 
approximate eyes and posteriorly inflated prothorax with sides 
strongly incurved basally, the reflexed side margin normally 
narrow. 

53. Pachybrachys turgidicoUis new species 

Black or fuscous and yellow maculate, the darker color pre- 
dominating. Eyes separated by a distance distinctly less than, 
in the male, or, in the female, subequal to the vertical width of 
their upper lobes; front without ocular lines. Prothorax strongly 
inflated behind the middle especiall.y in the male; elytral shield 
large and conspicuous; front claws of male much enlarged. Ave. 
length 3.75 mm. Western Texas. 

Head barely as wide as the thoracic apex, darker areas closely punctate, 
yellow areas sparsely punctate or impunctate; eyes separated by only slightly 
more than the length of the basal antennal joint in the male, and in the female 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



370 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERA) 

by about three-fourths times the length of this joint or by a distance subequal 
to the vertical width of their upper lobes. Antennae very slender, more than 
three-fourths the length of the body in the male, the tenth joint four times as 
long as wide; in the female somewhat shorter, tenth joint fully three times as 
long as wide. 

Proihorax distinctly narrowed in front, widest not far behind the middle in 
the male, at about the basal third in the female; sides strongly rounded at 
point of greatest width; dark areas densely punctate, pale areas smooth or 
sparsely punctate, interspaces sparsely minutely punctulate; side margins 
impunctate, more broadly so posteriorly; M broad and entire leaving three 
rather small elongate discal pale spots and the side margin yellow, the latter 
wider at front angles and extending narrowly along the anterior margin. 

Elytra a little wider than the prothorax in the female, scarcely at all so in 
the male, punctuation moderately dense and broadly confused on the disk, 
the third and fourth striae not impressed but traceable nearly throughout in 
the male, less distinct in the female, fifth and sixth intricately confused, 
seventh irregular or interrupted, eighth entire and impressed; marginal inter- 
space impunctate (9), a single puncture at middle in the male type; shield 
large broadly subtriangular; maculation irregular, the lateral standard spots 
separated by irregular pale areas, the discal spots diffuse and confluent, the 
shield yellow^ and conspicuous. 

Pygidium black and 3-ellow; body beneath blackish, last ventral segment 
yellow in apical half. Front femora yellow, middle and hind femora with 
median dark spots; tibiae dusky, sometimes in part pale. 

Length 3.7 to 3.8 mm.; width 2 to 2.15 mm. 

Distribution. — Texas: Green Valley, Chisos Mts., Brewster Co., July 15 
(type c?); Chisos Mts., July 23 ( 9). A single pair collected by Mr. H. A. 
Wenzel. 

54. Pachybrachys illectus new species 

Brown and yellow mottled, finelj^ aliitaceous; e3'es separated 
in the male by barely the length of the basal antennal joint, 
and by about one and three-fourths times the length of the basal 
joint in the female; front without ocular lines; front claws of 
male very large. Ave. length 2.75 mm. Florida. 

Head not very closely somewhat unevenly punctate, front predominantly 
yellow, the median line and a rather large vertex spot brown; eyes not promi- 
nent; antennae about two-thirds (d^) or one-half ( 9 ) the length of the body, 
yellow, the apices of the outer joints dusky, tenth joint barely three times as 
long as wide (d^) or slightly shorter ( 9 ). 

ProUiorax of moderate length (cf ), or rather short ( 9 ), widest and broadly 
very obtusely sul)angulate near the basal fourth, sides nearly straight and not 
strongly convergent in front; ])unctuation uneven, closer in the dark areas, 
side margins narrowly smooth; M brown, consisting of broad nearly entire but 
somewhat irregular lateral areas, imperfectly connected at apex with an entire 
median stripe which is wider in its anterior half and divided in front by a fine 
yellow line. 



H. C. FALL 371 

Elytra confusedly punctured in a not very large l)a.so-sutural triangle, else- 
where with distinctly impressed rather coarsely punctate undulating striae, of 
which the fourth and fifth are most irregular; intervals convex, rather narrow, 
the marginal one with a single puncture behind the su})t)asal interruption; 
shield small; markings brown and yellow mottled, the colors about eciually 
divided, the outer standard spots definable, the inner ones much broken u j). 

Pygidium l)rown and j-ellow, the colors not sharj^ly limited. Body beneath 
brown with last ventral in great ])urt yellow. Legs rufo-testaceous, the femora 
with paler tips. 

Length 2.7 to 2.8 mm.; width 1.-4 to 1.(3 mm. 

Distribution. — Florida: Enterprise, May 20; one pair in the Hubbard & 
Schwarz Collection (type cf), now a part of the National Museum Collection. 

55. Pachybrachys proximus Bowditch 

Pale yellow, with typical marginal elytral spots indicated, 
but small. Head wider than the elytral apex; front flat, finely 
alutaceous, without ocular lines; eyes (cf ) separated by about one 
and one-third times the length of the basal antennal joint. Pro- 
thorax finely alutaceous, moderately thickly but unevenly punc- 
tate, sides rather narrowly smooth; elytra minutely wrinkled, 
moderately shining. Front claws of male distinctly enlarged. 
Length 2.5 mm. Utah. 

The above notes — for the most part supplementary to the 
original description — were drawn from the unique type several 
years ago, and I have seen nothing since which seemed identical. 
Following is Bowditch's description. 

" Medium sized, cylindrical, pale yellow, with livid clouds and ]iunctures. 
Length 2\ mm. 

"Head with pubescent and nearly flat front, jiunctured, with heavj' frontal 
and vertex marks, the former divided so as to include the roots of the antennae, 
which are quite dark throughout, but have the basal joints somewhat brown- 
red, and reach a little beyond the middle of the body; eyes distant (cf ), thorax 
yellow, wider than long, narrowed at front and also a little at rear, in its greatest 
length not quite half as long as the elytra, thickly but unevenly, finely, livid- 
brown punctured, M diffusely indicated by the thickening of the punctures, 
which leave the edges more or less free, especially the sides and anterior angles, 
lateral edge subangulate and well forward of the middle, transverse impres- 
sion not well defined; elytra parallel, pale yellow, with moderate livid-brown 
punctures, which are diffused on the anterior half up to about the eighth inter- 
val, except that the third and fifth intervals are narrowly complete^ to the 
base and show a well marked triangular shield, the rear and side is regularly 
striate punctate, the color from the pvmctures more or less suffusing the inter- 
vals, the exterior standard spots also show faintly in livid, marginal stria 
lightly curved and barely sinuate, lobe well developed, with a strong row of 

TRANS. A.M. EXT. 80C., XLI. 



372 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERa) 

marginal punctures, body below very dark brown, with the usual parts picked 
out in dark red, legs light reddish yellow, with light ends to femurs and shanks. 

"One (f, Leeds, Utah. Type coll. Bowditch. 

"As compared with longus the thorax is more transverse and not as long; 
the eyes in proximus are much more distant and the antennae and body below 
darker. The punctuation of the elytra is very similar." 

56. Pachybrachys nunenmacheri new species 

Yellow, with red-brown to dark brown standard markings 
and brown elytral striae; eyes separated by a distance which is a 
little less in the male, and a little greater in the female than the 
vertical width of their upper lobes; front without ocular lines; 
front claws of male moderately enlarged. Ave. length 2.9 mm. 
Extreme southern portions of Arizona and California. 

Head not wider than the thoracic apex, markings rather broad, punctuation 
uneven, close in the darker areas. Eyes separated by the length of the first 
two antennal joints in the male, and by about two and one-half times the 
length of the basal joint in the female. Antennae moderate, outer joints 
darker, tenth joint three times as long as wide in the male, a little less elongate 
in the female. 

Proihorax widest at basal two-fifths, obviously though not strongly narrowed 
in front, sides rather strongly rounded posteriorly, incurved at base, not dis- 
tinctly sinuate before the angles; the M moderate to heavy, more or less diffuse; 
punctuation dense in the dark areas, elsewhere sparser, with small scattered 
smooth spots of lighter color; side margins smooth. 

Elytra not very much wider than the prothorax, punctuation confused in the 
baso-sutural region, striae two to four variable, one or more of these nearly 
entire, five and six much confused except on the convexity, seven and eight 
entire, the latter with the usual subbasal interruption; marginal interspace 
impunctate or with but two or three punctures near the subbasal interruption 
in the male, more numerously punctate in basal half in the female; shield 
small, sometimes entirely undefined; spots rather small, those of the outer 
series distinct, the middle and posterior inner spots usually more or less con- 
fluent, the basal one sometimes wanting. 

Pygidium blackish brown with the usual confluent apical pale spots. Body 
beneath brown with the last ventral segment and sometimes the sides of the 
abdomen pale. Legs yellow, with median parts of femora and tibiae dark; 
front thighs mostly dark with a small pale spot at middle. 

Length 2.7 to 3.1 mm.; width L4 to 1.75 mm. 

Distribution. — Arizona: Nogales (type cf ), Aug. IS to Sept. 22 (Nunen- 
macher); Santa Rita INIts., 5,000 to 8,000 ft. (Snow). 

With the above I have associated two examples — male and 
female — taken at or near San Diego, California, by Professor 
Wickham. They have the elytral spots somewhat less dis- 
tinctly marked, especially in the female, and in the male the eyes 
are a little more prominent than the thoracic apex. 



H. C. FALL 373 

57. Pachybrachys fortis new species 

Large, robust, yellow, with standard markings, in pale brown, 
rather lightly indicated on the elytra; lustre dull, surface with 
very fine, short and sparse pubescence; no ocular lines; front 
claws of male rather large. Ave. length 4.7 nun. Southern 
Arizona. 

Head flat, impressed along the median line, densely punctate in the large 
dark areas, with smaller yellow subimpunctate spots. Eyes separated by from 
one-fifth to about one-third more than the length of the basal antennal joint in 
the male, and b}' rather more than twice the length of this joint in the female. 
Antennae very slender, fully three-fourths the length of the body in the male, 
and passing the middle in the female; outer joints blackish, the tenth more 
than four times as long as wide. 

Prothorax widest at about basal two-fifths, sides nearly straight and moder- 
ately convergent in front, a little convergent behind and with a slight sinuation 
before the hind angles; punctuation fine, dense in the more heavily shaded 
areas, sparse in the unshaded portions but extending to the side margins; 
basal portions of the M broadly distinct, the apical portions lighter and evanes- 
cent anteriorly. 

Elytra fully twice as long as the prothorax and more coarsely punctured; 
punctures confused in the baso-sutural region, elsewhere generally serially 
arranged, the striae in part entire, in part interrupted, notably striae four to 
six in front of the middle; eighth stria sinuate behind the humerus; marginal 
interspace with numerous punctures in basal half; shield small or nearly want- 
ing. 

Pycjidiuni Ijrown and yellow; body beneath brown, with abdominal apex 
pale. Legs pale, with median darker shades on both femora and tibiae. 

Length 4.5 to 5 mm.; width 2.3 to 2.75 mm. 

Distribution. — Arizona: Xogales, 4,000 ft., Aug. 15 (Xunenmacher). Type 
(male). 

Two males and one female of this fine species are before me, 
for which I am indebted to Mr. Nunenmacher, in whose collec- 
tion are further specimens. It is most likely to be confused with 
crassus and has been referred to under that species. The ej'es 
are more approximate in crassus, nor have I seen any indication 
in that species of the short pubescence which is noticeable in all 
of the specimens oi fortis. In crassus the serial punctures along 
the side margin of the prothorax are imcolored or nearly so and 
from sixteen to nineteen in number, while in fortis these punc- 
tures are brown and al)Oiit twenty-three in number. I have for 
the present associated two smaller females takcMi also at Xogales 
by Mr. Nunenmacher. These are three and three and one-half 

TR.\NS. .■VM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



374 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERA) 

mm. long, very similar in nearly every respect, but the eyes seem 
slightly more distant and there is no trace of the short sparse 
pubescence seen in typical fortis, though this I suspect may easily 
be lost by abrasion. 
58. Pachybrachys femoratus Olivier 

Small to medium in size, females quite robust, blackish and 
dull yellow, mottled, the darker color usually in excess on the 
prothorax, and often on the elytra; punctuation rather dense, 
broadly confused on the elytral disk; no ocular lines; front claws of 
male distinctly enlarged. Ave. length 2.75 mm. Atlantic Coast 
and Gulf States. 

Head not wider than the thoracic apex, blackish markings more or less 
broad and closely punctate, yellow areas sparsely so. Eyes separated by the 
length of the basal two joints of the antennae in the male and by twice the 
length of the basal joint in the female. Antennae one-half ( 9 ) or two-thirds 
(cT) the length of the body, dull yellow basally, tenth joint scarcely more than 
twice as long as wide. 

Prothorax distinctly narrowed in front, widest and rather strongly rounded 
before the base, especially in the male, sides a little incurved before the hind 
angles; markings broad and diffuse, pale areas usually small and a little con- 
vex, the punctuation dense in the dark spaces; side margins not smooth or only 
partially and very narrowly so. 

Elytra broadly confusedly punctate baso-medially, elsewhere with irregular 
unimpressed series of punctures, becoming lightly impressed striae only at the 
sides and on the rear convexity; shield small and in some examples scarcely 
defined; marginal interspace narrowed apically, not wider than the adjacent 
one, more or less punctate (rarely almost impunctate) in the male, in the 
female punctate almost or quite tliroughout, the punctures of the interval 
frequently confused with those of the stria basally; maculation variable, the 
standard spots — especially the inner ones — poorly defined. 

Pygidium black with two oblique apical spots, often confluent at their tijis, 
and a small spot at the middle of each side margin, yellow; this latter con- 
tiguous to a yellow spot at the side of the last abdominal segment, the abdomi- 
nal spot sometimes produced along the apical margin of the segment. Legs 
yellow, femora and tibiae with black or brown more or less diffuse median 
spots. 

Length 2.6 to 3 mm.; width 1.45 to 1.75 mm. 

Distribution. — New York: West Hebron, June 20, and Staten Island 
(Leng); Coney Island, June 29 (Nat. Mus. Coll.). New Jersey: Ocean Co. 
(Leng Coll.). North Carolina: (Leng Coll.). South Carolina: (Liebeck 
Coll.). Georgia: (Nat. Mus. Coll.). Florida: (Nat. Mus. Coll.); Key West 
(Leng Coll.); Enterprise (Laurent). Alabama: Mobile and vicinity, April and 
May, "on oak" (Loding). Texas: Dallas (Blanchard Coll.). 



H. C. FALL 375 

The locality named by Olivier in his original description is 
"Carolina." Haldeman says "Middle and Southern States," 
and adds, "In Pennsylvania it appears in June and July on trees 
of the genus Carya." It is by no means certain, however, that 
Haldeman's femoratus is the species here described, his charac- 
terization being short and about equally applicable to several 
other Atlantic Coast species. For the same reason Olivier's 
description is of little value and I have thought it the best course 
to accept as femoratus the species so labeled in the LeConte Col- 
lection. This agrees well enough with the original description 
as well as with those of Haldeman and Suffrian, and is a common 
species in the region from which Olivier's type is reported to have ' 
come. 

In the northeastern States the following variety to a large 
extent replaces the more typical form of the southern States. 

Var. aquilonis new variety 

Legs darker, sometimes almost entirely black, the hind tibiae quite con- 
stantly dark brown or blackish throughout, while in true Jemoratus they are 
always yellow in about the basal half and more or less so at apex. The black 
color is more strongly predominant as a rule (though with numerous excep- 
tions) than in typical femoratus, the pale spots of the pygidium smaller and 
often absent, and that at the side of the last abdominal segment is here rarely 
present (constantly present in ivxie Jemoratus). 

Distribution. — Massachusetts: Framingham, June 2 (type c^), also May 
23, beating oak (Frost); Tyngsboro, July 17; Melrose Highlands, June 17 
(D. H. demons in Nat. Mus. CoU.); Marion, on oak (Bowditch); Winchester, 
June 15 (Blanchard). Rhode Island: Berkeley, June 17, on oak. New York: 
(Nat. Mus. Coll.). New Jersey: Anglesea, May 30 (Wenzel). Peyinsylvania: 
Carlisle Junction, June 27 (Fisher?). Virginia: A d' in my own collection 
without definite locality. 

59. Pachybrachys characteristicus Suffrian 

Dull grayi.sh or whitish yellow, thickly speckled with brown or 
fuscous diffused punctures, and with brown or fuscous markings 
which are very variable in extent and distinctness, elytral striae 
indistinct and unimpressed except on the convexity; lateral inter- 
space as a rule wider posteriorly than the next inner one; other 
characters as in femoratus. Ave. length 3 mm. Florida. 

This species is very closely related to femoratus and there is little to add in 
the way of distinction to the above diagnosis. The color when not obscured 
by the markings is distinctive; the standard M is sometimes nearly fuscous 
in color and is then quite sharply outlined; more often, however, it is of some 

TRANS. AU. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



376 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERA) 

shade of brown and quite diffuse, in some specimens suffusing the entire disk. 
The standard spots are sometimes moderately distinct along the elytral mar- 
gin, the inner ones, however, rarely if ever so, the two anterior ones frequently 
absent, and broadly suffused if present; the posterior one apparently always 
present and more or less confluent with the marginal spot to form a more or 
less defined transverse fascia on the convexity. The punctuation is even 
more diffuse than in jemoratus, but varies much. In some females the punc- 
tures are broadly confused over the greater portion of the surface, there being 
but faint evidences of striae and these only at the rear; in other examples the 
lines of punctures are more evident, but they — including even the submar- 
ginal stria — are not appreciably impressed, or at most only lightly so behind. 
The lateral interspace is almost always wider than the adjacent one, and this 
though a somewhat trifling character is perhaps one of the most reliable. 

Length 2.8 to 3.2 mm.; width 1.5 to 1.8 mm. 

Distribution. — Florida: Lake Mary; Haulover, Mar. 10 (Schwarz); Enter- 
prise (Liebeck Coll.); Key West and "P. Orange," Mar. 17 (Leng Coll.); 
Jacksonville (Ashmead — in Nat. Mus. Coll.). 

My conception of this species is based on a Suffrian tj-pe sent 
to Bowditch, and all similar examples thus far seen by me are 
from Florida. This Suffrian type looks quite different from the 
darker northern form of femoratus, but toward the south the 
two approach each other so closely that it is next to impossible 
to draw any definite line between them, and it may yet be 
necessary to reduce character isticus to varietal standing. 

60. Pachybrachys subfasciatus LeConte 

Black, prothorax with sides, and elytra with a more or less 
broad irregular or indented transverse median fascia often inter- 
rupted at suture, and apical spot, red or yellow; disk of prothorax 
often, and head more rarely variegated with reddish yellow. 
Eyes distant by but little more than the length of the basal anten- 
nal joint in the male, and by about twice the length of the basal 
joint in the female; front without ocular lines; front claws of 
male distinctly enlarged. Ave. length 3 mm. Massachusetts to 
Missouri and Louisiana. 

Head not at all wider than the thoracic apex, moderately closely punctatC) 
usually entirely l:)lack, rarely — especially in the male — with pale markings. 
Eyes much less widely separated than the vertical width of their upper lolics 
in the male, a little more widely distant than the width of the upper lobes 
in the female. Antennae three-fourths (c?) or one-half ( 9 ) the length of the 
body, tenth joint three times as long as wide or a little less in the male, basal 
and outer joints blacki.sh. 



H. C. FALL 377 

Prothorax distinctly narrowed in front, sides rounded posteriorly, rather 
coarsely somewhat unevenly punctate, the sides at most very narrowly or 
indistinctly smoother, the pale margin narrowed behind, and sometimes al- 
most lacking. 

Elytra more minutely alutaceous and somewhat less o})afiue than the pro- 
thorax, coarsely rather densely punctate, with more or less impressed striae 
at sides and rear; one or two narrow slightly elevated discal costae usually 
visible in the female; shield inconspicuous; marginal interspace wide, i)unc- 
tate, more numerously so basally. 

Pygidium, body beneath and legs black, the latter oftcni with the tibiae 
piceo-testaceous, especially of the anterior legs; base of femora sometimes 
gradually paler. Front claws of male quite noticeably enlarged though less 
strongly so than in limbatus. 

Length 2.75 to 3.25 mm.; width 1.4 to l.S mm. 

Distribuf'ion. — Ma-'isachusetts: Melrose Highlands, May 23 (D. H. demons 
in Nat. Mus. Coll.); Marion, June 17 (Bowditch); "Mass." (many collections). 
Connecticut: (no definite locality). Nexv York: New York City and vicinity 
(Leng); Staten Island (Soltauin Nat. Mus. Coll.); Peekskill, May (Sherman). 
New Jersey: Orange (Soltau); Spotswood (Leng); So. Orange, June 22 (Leng); 
Atco, June 2 (Boerner) ; Da Costa, June 12 (Wenzel) ; "N. J." (Liebeck) ; Wood- 
bury (Wenzel). Pennsylvania: Allegheny, May and June (Hamilton); Jean- 
nette (H. G. Klages); Pa. (Liebeck). Maryland: Plummer's Island, May 
(Schwarz and Barber). District of Columbia: Washington, May IG (Hubbard 
& Schwarz). Virginia: (Beyer). Ontario: (Nat. Mus. Coll.). Michigan: 
Detroit, June and July (Hubbard & Schwarz). Ohio: Cincinnati (Durj-); 
"Ohio" (Liebeck Coll.). Kentucky: near Cincinnati,*June 21 (Dury); Frank- 
fort, June G (Soltau in Nat. Mus. Coll.). Indiana: (Liebeck Coll.); Blatchley 
gives "Marshall, Vermillion and Lawrence Cos.; scarce May 11-June 14." 
Illinois: So. 111. (Nat. Mus. Coll.). Missouri: C. Mo. (Nat. Mus. Coll.); 
St. Louis (Nat. Mus. Coll.); Mo. (Liebeck Coll.). Louisiana: ()pelou.sas, 
Aju. 7 (Wenzel). 

A common species in the eastern United States and one that 
is easily recognizable — at least in the Atlantic region. It seems 
rather more variable in the Mississippi Valley, and the various 
forms of impurus which do not seem to differ from it structurally 
may really be only still more diverse color phases of this species. 

Gl. Pachybrachys impurus Suffrian 

Of medium size, markings broad and diffuse, dark brown to 
fuscous in the male, ferruginous in the female, front between the 
eyes but little wider than the length of the basal antennal joint 
in the male, ocular lines wanting; elytral striae much confused, 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



378 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERA) 

front claws of male distinctly enlarged. Ave. length 3 mm. 
Illinois to Nebraska and Texas. 

Head not wider than the thoracic apex, front closely punctate in the broad 
confluent markings, eyes separated by one and one-fourth to one and one-third 
times the length of the basal joint of the antennae in the male, and by twice 
the length of the basal joint or slightly more in the female. Antennae mod- 
erate, fully attaining the hind coxae in the male, outer joints dusky. 

Prothorax distinctly narrowed in front, rather strongly rounded posteriorly, 
especially in the male, sides sUghtly briefly sinuate immediately before the 
hind angles, punctuation rather dense in the heavily marked shades represent- 
ing the M, the smaller pale areas, including the side margins, sparsely punctate. 

Elytra broadly confusedly punctate baso-medially, the striae elsewhere in 
great part more or less irregular or fragmentary, eighth stria sinuous but well 
defined in the male, sometimes a little confused in the female; marginal inter- 
space punctate, more numei'ously and completely so in the female; shield 
small and inconspicuous as a rule, sometimes obsolete. 

Pygidium marked as usual. Body beneath (c?) blackish, except the ab- 
dominal apex; ( 9 ) ferruginous with the abdominal margins or even the whole 
abdomen paler. Legs rufo-testaceous to yellow with darker or blackish median 
femoral and tibial spots. 

Length 2.75 to 3.2 mm.; wider 1.4 to 1.7 mm. 

Distribution. — Texas: (type 9). Kansas: Onaga (Crevecoeur). Iowa: 
Iowa City, May and June (Wickham); Ebna, June 30 (Snow Coll.). Illinois: 
Algonquin, June 10 (Nason); So. 111. (Soltau — Nat. Mus. Coll.), abnost pre- 
cisely like the Suffrian type sent me bj^ Pi-ofessor Taschenberg. 

Var. xanthias Suffrian 

Yellowish, with slightly darker vague and diffuse rufo-testaceous or rust 
colored shades. This is nothing more than a paler nearly uniformly colored 
impurus, and all specimens seen by mo are females. 

Distribution. — The type localities are Pennsylvania and Mis- 
souri. I have never seen a specimen of the true impurus or the 
form xanthias from the Atlantic Slope and it is not unlikely that 
Suffrian has mixed two species under this name. An example 
from Nebraska in my collection is almost exactly like the Suf- 
frian specimen sent me by Taschenberg, and others from Iowa 
City, Algonquin, 111., and West Point, Neb., differ but slightly. 
Before receiving this type from the Suffrian Collection for study, 
I had — ^in common with Bowditch — provisionally identified as 
xanthias the diversus new species of the present ])ai)c'r. This 
latter, however, is abundantly distinct from the true xanthias 
by its more shining surface, better marked elytral striae, distinct 
ocular lines, and less enlarged front claws of the male. 



H. C. FALL 379 

Var. umbrosus new variety 

Upper surface black with a few very small scattered yellowish spots; head 
and legs obscurely variegated with dull yellow. An extreme rnelanic variety 
or race which superficially may very easily be confused with a nunil)er of other 
species unless careful attention be given to the characters. 

Distribution. — The type is one of two males from 8alina, Kan- 
sas, sent me by Mr. Knaus. 

This species is allied very closely indeed to subfasciatus, in 
fact there is in the females a complete gradation in color from 
subfasciatus through impurus to xanthias with apparently abso- 
lutely no structural differences in either sex. It must, however, 
be stated that all males that I have seen are either of the typical 
subfasciatus form (including of course variations in the devel- 
opment of the pale elytral fascia and spots), or they are of the 
fusco-variegated form of the male of the true impurus including 
the melanic extreme — umbrosus. Imjiuriis, xanthias and umbro- 
sus are almost surely forms of one variable species, but until the 
males are more perfectly connected I do not feel quite safe in 
uniting them with subfasciatus. 

62. Pachybrachys calidus new species 

Dull yellow with rather broad fuscous markings, surface finely 
alutaceous but frequently somewhat shining; eyes separated in 
the male by about one-half the vertical width of their upper lobes, 
and in the female by somewhat less than the width of their upper 
lobes; ocular lines fine, cjuite near the eyes; marginal interspace 
of the elytra nearly or quite impunctate; front claws of male 
only slightly larger than the others. Ave. length 3.1 mm. West- 
ern Texas to Arizona. 

Head not wider than the thoracic apex, moderately punctate, median line 
feebly or scarcely impressed, markings variable. Eyes separated in the male 
by the length of the basal antennal joint, in the female by the length of the 
first two joints or a Uttle more. Antennae (d^) attaining the hind coxae, a 
little shorter in the female, the tenth joint scarcely more than two and one-half 
times as long as wide in either sex; outer joints infuscate as usual. 

Prothorax rather strongly transverse in the female, distinctly n'\rrowed in 
front, widest behind the middle; sides moderately arcuate, more strongly so 
in the male; punctuation close in the dark areas, side margins smoother; M 
broad, extending from base to apex leaving two basal spots, a median line in 
front, and the side margins pale. 

Elytral striae somewhat impressed and distinct outside of the baso-sutvu'al 
triangle; striae five to six often more or less broken at middle; shield distinct, 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



380 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERA) 

triangular; marginal interspace impunctate in the male, often with one or two 
punctures at middle in the female; spots moderate in size to rather large, 
usually quite distinct, but with some tendency to diffusion. 

Pygidium almost entirely dark or with varyingly developed apical pale 
spots. Body beneath fuscous, the abdominal apex pale. Legs pale with small 
median darker spots or shades on femora and tibiae, these sometimes almost 
obsolete. 

Length 2.8 to 3.4 mm; width 1.45 to 1.85 mm. 

Distribution. — Texas: El Paso, April (Fenyes), type $. N'eiv Mexico: 
(Nat. Mus. Coll.). Arizona: Santa Rita Mountains, Apr. 17 (Clemence); 
Catalina Springs, Apr. 12 to May 7 (Hubbard & Schwarz); "Ari" (Morrison — 
Nat. Mus. Coll.), (Leng Coll.), (Schaeffer Coll.). 

63. Pachybrachys brevicornis new species 

Robust, yellow, with more or less heavy fuscous standard 
markings; eyes moderately distant, front with ocular lines; 
antennae unusually short (9); elytra strongly striate; front 
claws of male not ap])reciably enlarged. Ave. length 2.9 mm. 
Texas. 

Head moderate in size but with the eyes rather prominent, standard sjiots 
usually small or wanting except the one on the vertex, which is well developed. 
Eyes ( 9 ) separated by rather more than twice the length of the basal antennal 
joint. Antemiae ( 9 ) short, scarcely passing the shoulder knob, the tenth 
joint scarcely twice as long as wide; outer joints infuscate. 

Prothorax strongly transverse, widest at basal third, or two-fifths, sides 
rather strongly rounded and strongly narrowed in front; punctuation close, 
dense in the dark areas, the latter usually broad leaving the side margins and 
three discal spots pale; punctuation less dense along the margin, which is 
narrowly smooth posteriorly. 

Elytra diffusely pimctate in a not very large basal-sutural triangle, elsewhere 
with distinct striae which are rather strongly impressed laterally, the fifth and 
sixth more or less broken or irregular at middle, the eighth with a subljasal 
dislocation; marginal interspace impunctate; shield conspicuous, elongate 
triangular. The color may be described as yellow with more or less heavy 
confluent standard spots which vary from brown to nearly black; or as brown 
or blackish with the basal margin, some short spurs e.xtending backward from 
it, two short interrupted lateral transverse fasciae, the shield, and the apex, 
yellow. 

Pygidium brown or fuscous with or without the usual yellow spots. Body 
beneath brown to fuscous with the last ventral in part yellow. Legs brownish 
yellow, with darker femoral rings or clouds var3-ing in intensity. 

Length 2.75 to 3.1 mm. width 1.5 to 1.8 mm. 

Distribution. — Texas: Goliad, Apr. 18 (Schwarz); Cypress Mills, May 26 
(Leng Coll.). The type is labeled simply "Tex," as ar(> other examph^s in the 
Ijeng and Liebeck Collections. 



H. C. FALL 381 

The type and all other specimens but one are females; this one 
being a male from Brownsville which is doubtfully referred. In 
it the eyes are separated bj' a distance just visibly greater than 
the length of the first two antennal joints, and on this character 
the species is given the place it occupies in the table. In appear- 
ance it is more like califiiis, in which, however, the eyes are very 
distinctly more approximate. The front claws of the Browns- 
ville male are not appreciabh' enlarged nor is any such modifica- 
tion indicated for the male by the size of the front claws in the 
female. 

64. Pachybrachys prosopis new .species 

Dull fiavous to rufo-testaceous, varialjly maculate with brown 
or fuscous; eyes in male separated by the vertical width of their 
up]ier lobes; ocular lines fine but evident; elytral striae fairly 
regular; front claws of male onh- slightly larger than the others. 
Ave. length 2.6 mm. Desert region of California and Arizona. 

Head coar.sely somewhat irregularly punctate, ocular lines rather fine, more 
distant from the eyes than in calidus. Eyes separated in the male by the 
length of the first two antennal joints, and in the female by two and one-half 
to nearly three times the length of the basal joint. Antennae short, in the 
male not passing the hind coxae, in the female scarcely half as long as the body, 
tenth joint not or scarcely more than twice as long as wide, at least in the 
female. 

Proihorax a little narrowed in front, more coarsely punctate than in calidus, 
the M very variable in development, sometimes almost obsolete, sometimes by 
difi'usion involving ahnost the entire disk, usually rather broad and not as 
sharply defined as in calidus. Eh-tral markings similarly variable, the spots 
typically well developed nearly as in calidus, but in some males much reduced; 
surface striate except in the baso-sutural triangle, the striae more or less sin- 
uous but entire, some or all of striae four to six, however, more or less inter- 
rupted or broken at middle; shield rather large and conspicuous, subtriangular; 
marginal interspace nearly or quite impunctate. 

Pygidium, under surface and legs as in calidus. 

Length 2.3 to 3 mm.: width 1.2 to 1.65 mm. 

Distrihuiioyi. — Calljornia: Palm Springs, April (type 9 ) on inesquite; 
Yuma, April (Fenyes); Inyo Co. (Ricksecker); Death Vallej', April (Koebele 
in Nat. Mus. Coll.); S. E. Cal. (Am. Ent. Soc. Coll.). Arizona: Laguna Dam, 
Mar. 10 (Clemence); "Ari." (Morrison— Nat. Mus. Coll.). 

This species, as indicated in the flescri])ti()n, is similar in many 
ways to calidus. It is on the average a distinctly smaller insect, 
relatively more coarsely punctured, apparently more variable in 
color, with more widely separated eyes and larger elytral shield. 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



382 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERA) 

65. Pachybrachys wenzeli new species 

Robust, varying from almost entirely black to yellow, more or 
less heavily maculate and irrorate with l^lack; prothoracic punc- 
tuation nearly equally dense to the extreme margins, elytral 
punctuation largely confused; eyes in the male less distant than 
the vertical width of their upper lobes; front without ocular lines; 
front claws of male a little larger than the others. Ave. length 
3.8 mm. Arizona to El Paso, Texas. 

Head not wider than the thoracic apex, markings heavy, sometimes so 
broadly diffused as to leave only a few small yellow spots, the dark areas 
densely punctate. Eyes in the male separated by about four-fifths the width 
of their upper lobes, or by the length of the basal two joints of the antennae or 
slightly more, in the female by a distance greater than the width of their upper 
lobes or rather more than twice the length of the basal joint of the antennae. 
Antennae fully three-fourths as long as the body in the male, the tenth joint 
about three times as long as wide, shorter as usual in the female, pale at base, 
outer joints dusky. 

Prothorax moderately transverse, relatively a little longer and more dilated 
posteriorly in the male, distinctly narrowed in front, sides strongly rounded 
behind the middle, especially in the male, widest at about basal third, punctua- 
tion dense throughout, side margins not smoother; AI heavily marked, leaving 
three discal spots and side margin yellow, the discal spots sometimes reduced 
to mere dots, or the surface may become entirely black. 

Elytra but slightty wider than the prothorax, densely more coarsely punctate 
than the latter, striae scarcely evident except along the side margin and some 
short remnants on the rear convexity; shield wanting; eighth and sometimes 
the seventh stria distinct and more or less impressed; marginal interspace 
punctate; markings heavy, the lateral spots usually separable, the inner ones 
less distinct and more or less diffuse and comiected with each other or with the 
lateral spots; entire surface sometimes black irrorate with numerous small yel- 
low spots, or occasionally entirely black. 

Pygidium black, with or without apical yellow spots; body beneath black, 
the last ventral segment sometimes margined with yellow. Legs variable, 
thighs yellow with blackish spots, the tibiae pale at base, in the lighter colored 
examples; in the darker ones the legs may be black with the femora at base 
alone paler. 

Length 3.4 to 4.3 mm.; width 1.9 to 2.6 mm. 

Distribution. — Arizona: This is appai*ently an abundant species in the 
Huachuca, Chiricahua and Santa Rita Mountains of Southern Arizona, where 
it has been taken by H. A. Wenzel, Skinner, Beyer, Schaeffer, Snow, Hubbard 
and Schwarz and perhaps others — May to August. The type (cf ) was taken 
by Wenzel in the Huachuca Mountains. The following localities are also rep- 
resented: Williams, May and June (Nat. Mus. Coll.), also collected by myself . 
July 3; Prescott (Snow Coll.); Pinal Mountains (Wickham). New Mexico: 
Silver City (Dury). Texas: EI Paso (Am. Ent. Soc. Coll.). 



II. C. FALL 383 

In this species the head and especially the prothorax are dis- 
tinctly alutaceous, and the latter shows scattered minute punc- 
tures between the larger punctures. The elytra are moderately 
shining and barely detectably alutaceo-rugulose. 

66. Pachybrachys snowi Bowrlitch 

Large, robust, yellow with red-brown to piceous markings; 
eyes in male separated lyy one-half the vertical width, and in the 
female by scarcely the width of their upper lol)es; front without 
ocular lines; lateral intersj)ace of elytra impunctate behind the 
subbasal interruption; front claws of mak^ a little enlarged. Ave. 
length 4.4 mm. Arizona. 

Head with the usual marks, broader and more diffuse in the female with 
correspondingly more diffuse punctuation. Eyes (cT) separated by the length 
of the basal joint of the antennae, in the female by one and three-fourths times 
the length of the basal joint or a little more. Antennae short, scarcely passing 
the humeral umbo in the female; about two-thirds the length of the body in the 
male; tenth joint three times as long as wide. 

Prothorax moderately (cf) or more strongly (9) transverse, narrowed in 
front, rather strongly rounded at sides behind the middle, esperialb' in the 
male; surface verj' minutely alutaceous and moderately shining, punctuation 
rather fine, not dense, though somewhat closer in the darker areas, a narrow 
smooth median line in anterior half; the side margins smooth, more broadly 
so behind; M rather broad, somewhat broken but with distinct outlines. 

Elytra very little wider than the prothorax, punctuation coarser than in the 
latter, broadly confused on the disk, serially arranged on the convexity and 
with the two outer striae distinct, only lightly impressed; shield undeveloped 
or small and inconspicuous. Standard spots evident, the lateral ones well 
marked; the front one of the inner series diffuse and indistinct, the other two 
elongate, the middle one extending back and joining the posterior one on its 
outer side, the effect being to form a broken posterior fascia on the convexity. 

Pygidium brown with yellow apical spots. Body beneath red-brown, the 
last ventral segment more or less yellow. Femora yellow with dark rings; 
tibiae brownish yellow, paler at base. 

Length 4 to 4.75 mm.; width 2.2 to 2.7 mm. 

Distribution. — Arizona: Bowditch reports it from Baboquivari Mountains, 
Santa Rita Mountains, Douglas and Prescott. Specimens are l)efore me from 
the first two named localities from the Snow and National Museum Collections 
respectively, also from the Huachuca Mountains (Beyer), and a specimen 
from ^^'ickham labeled "Riverside to Tucson." 

67. Pachybrachys turbidus LeConte 

Medium to large, yellow with red-brown markings which ma^- 
become nearly black on the elytra; elytral striae deep with convex 
intervals; surface shining though minutely alutaceous; front 

TR.\NS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



384 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERA) 

without ocular lines; eyes separated by the length of the basal 
joint of the antennae in the male; front claws of male slightly 
larger. Ave. length 4 mm. Kansas to Texas. 

Head moderate, punctuation close, a little uneven in distribution, markings 
variable, usually more distinctly defined in the male, broader and diffuse in 
the female, sometimes almost uniformly rufous (cf 9). Eyes in the male 
separated by the length of the first antennal joint, in the female by one and 
three-fourths to nearly twice the length of the basal joint. Antennae very 
slender, fully three-fourths the length of the body in the male, tenth joint more 
than three times as long as wide. 

Prothorox widest at basal one-third or two-fifths, much narrowed in front, 
strongly rounded at sides behind the middle, punctuation rather coarse, fairly 
close in the darker areas, elsewhere sparser, side margins narrowly smooth 
anteriorly, more widely so behind; markings as a rule very broad and cjuite 
diffuse; sometimes involving the whole disk, leaving only the side margins 
pale, the anterior angles more broadly so. 

Elytra very coarsely punctate, closely diffusely so in the scutellar region, 
striae rather deeply impressed throughout, the first terminating anteriorly at 
the shield, two and three entire, four variable, five and six distinct in posterior 
half, seven and eight entire; marginal interspace impunctate, all the intervals 
convex, strongly so at sides and posteriorly; shield subtriangular, more or less 
distinct; standard spots more or less defined, the anterior two and Ukewise the 
posterior ones usually subcoalescent to form two more or less irregular trans- 
verse fasciae. 

Pygidium red-brown and yellow, the latter predominating. Body beneath 
reddish brown, last ventral segment pale at apex. Legs rufo-testaceous 
throughout, or yellowish with the middle and hind thighs faintly clouded with 
rufous. 

Length 3.7 to 4.3 mm.; width 2 to 2.45 mm. 

Distribution.— Texas: (Type— LeConte Coll.); (Belf rage— Nat. Mus. Coll.); 
"P. Saddle" (Leng Coll.); Round Mountain, and Seabrook, Aug. 9 (Wenzel). 
Kansas: Douglas Co.; 900 ft. (Snow); Onaga (Wickham Coll.); Sahna (Knaus); 
"Kans." (various collections). 

68. Pachybrachys laticollis Jacoby 

Size large, reddish brown variegated with numerous small 
yellow spots, lustre dull; eyes separated in the female by a dis- 
tance subequal to the vertical width of their upjoer lobes, front 
without ocular lines; elytra deeply striate at sides and behind; 
front claws of male prol)ably distinctly enlarged (not yet seen). 
Ave. length 4 mm. Texas and Arizona. 

Head moderately punctate, yellow with broad reddish brown markings; eyes 
( 9 ) separated by barely twice the length of the basal antennal joint; antennae 
( 9 ) about three-fifths the length of the body, paler toward the base, tenth joint 
scarcely two and oiic-liiilf times as long as wide. 

Prothorax rather long, nearly as wide as the elj-tra, sides, subi)arallel or 



H. C. FALL 385 

slightly convergent posteriorly from the basal third, quite strongly so in front, 
standard markings broadly suffusing the disk, punctuation rather fine and 
very dense, disk with small scattered sUghtly more convex smooth yellow 
flecks; narrowly smooth or sparsely punctured along the side margins. 

Elytral punctuation coarser than that of the prothorax, densely confused 
in a broad baso-sutural triangle, sides and rear striate, the striae deep and 
nearly regular on the convexity; marginal interspace punctate in basal half; 
shield small, sometimes indistinct. 

Pygidium yellow with basal margin and median spur brown; bodj' beneath 
brown, last ventral segment in part yellow. Front thighs brown, paler basally, 
middle and hind thighs rufo-testaceous with broad black rings; tibiae brownish, 
paler toward the base. 

Length 4 to 4.25 mm.; width 2.3 to 2.3.5 mm. 

Distribution. — Texas: Brownsville, June (Schaeffer), April and May (Dury). 
Arizona: San Bernardino Ranch, Cochise Co. (Snow). 

In the Arizona .specimen the broad suffused markings are 
l)kickish fuscous instead of reddish brown but otherwise it seems 
identical. This species resembles turhidus in size and general 
facies but is more densely and less coarsely punctate, the baso- 
sutural area of confused punctures much larger, the lustre dull — 
moderately to distinctly shining in turhidus. The width of 
front between the eyes is a trifle less in turhidus in the female, 
and I suspect that males of the two species will not prove to be 
very different in this respect; on this assumption the present 
species is tabulated near turhidus. 

G9. Pachybrachys duryi new species 

Yellow, l)rown punctate, thoracic M moderate, elytra with a 
common sutural spot on the convexity and some small marginal 
markings; front rather narrow, the eyes separated by a distance 
less than the vertical width of their upper lobes, even in the 
female; no ocular lines; front claws of male not appreciably 
enlarged. Ave. length 2.3 mm. Brownsville, Texas. 

Head not appreciably wider than the thoracic apex, front sparsely punctate 
except in the median impressed line, markings small. Eyes separated by the 
length of the basal antennal joint in the male, and by the length of the first two 
joints in the female. Antennae moderate, outer joints dusky. 

Protfwra.v distinctly narrowed in front, widest and moderatelj' rounded at 
basal third, punctuation close in the dark areas, elsewhere sparse, side margins 
smooth. Elytra confusedly jjunctate in moderate baso-sutm-al area, striae 
two to three and seven to eight entire, the intermediate ones broken and veiy 
irregular; shield small, inconspicuous, marginal interspace without i)unctures, 
the eighth stria with a strong sigmoid dislocation: standard s])ots very obvious, 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



386 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERa) 

those of the marginal series small and rather sharply defined, dark brown, the 
two posterior connected; inner spots represented by vague diffuse brown 
shades, a darker sutural spot at the beginning of the declivity. 

Pygidium brown and yellow. Body beneath dark brown with abdominal 
sides and apex pale. Legs pale with small diffuse slightly darker median 
clouds on the femora and tibiae. 
Length 2.25 to 2.4 mm.; width 1.25 to 1.3 mm. 

Distribution. — Texas: Brownsville, Apr. 12 to May 20 (Dury), type cf ; St. 
Tomas, Brownsville, April (>Schaeffer). 

This species may easily be confused with texamis, which occurs 
abundantly in the same region, but the latter has more approxi- 
mate eyes, strongly modified male front tibiae, and the standard 
elytral spots are disposed as usual. The sutural s])ot on the 
convexity in duryi is not large, but is quite conspicuous, and will 
probably prove characteristic. 

70. Pachybrachys gracilipes new species 

Of medium size, rather brightly black and yellow mottled; 
eyes in the male separated by a distance which is less, and in the 
female more, than the vertical width of their upper lobes; no 
ocular lines; front tibiae scarcely widened apically; front claws 
of male small. Ave. length 2.85 mm. Western Texas. 

Head not wider than the thoracic apex, markings light to heavy, punctuation 
close in the dark areas, elsewhere sparse. Eyes separated by one and one-third 
(cT) or one and three-fourths ( 9 ) times the length of the basal antennal joint. 
Antennae thin, fully three-fourths the length of the body in the male, the 
tenth joint three times as long as wide; in the female scarcely more than half 
the length of the body; color yellow, outer joints blackish as usual. 

Prothorax moderately narrowed in front, widest at basal third, sides broadly 
arcuate, slightly incurved basally; punctuation rather coarse and close in the 
dai"k areas, which vary much in development but are quite sharply defined 
and usually rather broad; side margins smooth. 

Elytra with striae two to three and seven to eight entire and evidently im- 
pressed, the outer ones rather strongly so; striae four to six much broken or 
confused anteriorly, but distinct on the posterior convexity; shield distinct, con- 
vex, sub-triangular; marginal interspace without punctures, the submarginal 
stria deflexed to the margin behind the shoulder. 

Pygidium black with the usual oblique converging yellow spots. Body 
beneath black, a yellow spot usually present at side of last ventral segment, 
and the sides of the abdomen sometimes narrowly yellow. Legs yellow with 
sharply defined black rings on the femora and tibiae. 

Length 2.7 to 3 mm.; width 1.4 to 1.G5 mm. 

Distribution.— Texas: Alpine, 4,400 to 6,000 ft., June 28 to 30 (\>'ickham) 
type cf ; Davis Mountains, Chisos Mountains and Green ^'alley, Chisos Moun- 
tains, July 9 to 10 (Wenzel). 



H. C. FALL 387 

The front tibiae are not distinctly widened apically in this 
S])ecies, as they usually are, and the apical spur projects inward 
nearly at right angles to the axis of the tibia. 

71. Pachybrachys confederatus new species 

Yellow, with dark brown or fuscous standard markings, variable 
in development; eyes of male somewhat less distant than the 
vertical width of their upper lobes, in the female separated by a 
distance subequal to the width of their u])])er lobes; front with- 
out ocular lines; elytral striae impressed, more or less broken; 
front claws not appreciably enlarged in the male. Ave. length 
2.9 mm. New York to North Carolina. 

Head not appreciably wider than the thoracic apex, markings moderate to 
broad. Eyes separated by one and one-third to one and two-fifths times the 
length of the basal antennal joint in the male, and by the length of the first 
two joints or slightly more in the female. Antennae fully four-fifths as long 
as the body in the male, the tenth joint not much less than four times as long 
as wide, yellow with basal and outer joints more or less infuscate. 

Prolhorax moderately transverse, sides moderately arcuately narrowed from 
a little before the base; punctuation moderately coarse and close; M more or 
less broken and diffuse but usually rather broadly marked, and consisting of 
dark brown or fuscous spots overlaid upon stiU more vague and diffuse shades 
of paler brown; side margins not smooth or only partially and imperfectly so. 

Elytral disk confusedly punctate in the baso-sutural region, striae distinctly 
impressed, especially at sides and rear, where they are well defined, becoming 
broken or confused at the middle of the disk; submarginal stria with strong 
subhumeral dislocation; marginal intersj^ace impunctate or nearly so; shield 
small, yellow, and moderately convex; standard spots varj-ing from rather 
small and well isolated to broad and more or less confluent. 

Pygidium fuscous with the usual yellow spots. Body beneath blackish with 
sides of ventral segments — especially the terminal one — yellow. Legs yellow 
with broad median femoral and tibial fuscous rings or shades. 

Length 2.8 to 3.1 mm.; width 1.5 to l.G mm. 

Distrihuiion. — New York: cf type, without definite locality, but j^robabh- 
from the vicinity of New York City. Connecticut: exact locality not indicated. 
Virginia: Pennington Gap, June 26 (Hubbard & Schwarz). A'orth Carolina: 
Black Mountains, June (Van Dyke). Missouri: Kansas City, June (Alacken- 
zie in Am. Ent. Soc. Coll.), 1 9 , identity doul)tful. 

This species is very closely alli(Ml to and almost exactly identical 
in appearance to 7-elictus, differing, however, in its distinctly less 
distant eyes, which fact of course accounts for its remoteness from 
the latter species in the tabular arrangement. The side margins 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC. XLI. 



388 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERa) 

of the prothorax are more completely ]iunc'tured here than in 
relictus, which has a fairly well defined smooth margin, and the 
front claws of the male are possibly a trifle larger, though small 
in both. The relation of confederatus to tyheensis is about equally 
close and the tabular characters seem to offer the only means of 
separation. 

72. Pachybrachys tybeensis new species 

Yellow, with reddish brown to dark brown punctures and 
indistinct markings; front between the eyes rather narrow, ocular 
lines wanting; front claws of male not enlarged. Ave. length 3 
mm. Tybee Island, Georgia. 

Head not wider than the thoracic apex (slightly so in one female), front 
moderately closely punctate, markings somewhat diffuse. Eyes separated in 
the male by a distance which is much less than the vertical width of their upper 
lobes, and exceeds but slightly the length of the basal antennal joint; in the 
female by a distance subecjual to the width of their upper lobes and about one 
and two-thirds times the length of the basal antennal joint. Antennae very 
slender, outer joints more or less dusky, in the male fully three-fourths as long 
as the body, in the female but little more than half the length of the body, the 
tenth joint more than three times as long as wide in the male, a little shorter 
in the female. 

Prothorax distinctly arcuately narrowed in front, widest just before the base, 
punctuation dense, rather coarse, with scattered small, smooth, more convex 
spots; side margins only very narrowly and incompletely smoother; markings 
red-brown, broad, very diffuse. 

Elytra confusedly punctured in a rather narrow baso-sutural ai'ea, elsewhere 
with the punctures in broken or irregular series, of which the second and third 
are sometimes fairly regular, and the seventh and eighth and apical portions 
of the others are moderately impressed and distinct, marginal interspace with 
a few coarse punctures behind the subhumeral interruption; shield small but 
convex and distinct; markings rather light and diffuse, the standard spots 
rather indistinct, especiall}^ the inner series, which may be in part or entirely 
lacking. 

Pygidium rufo-testaceous, darker at base, apical parts paler, the spots some- 
times evident, but usually vaguely diffuse. Body beneath brown or fuscous, 
sides and apex of abdomen more or less evidently paler. Legs yellow with 
median darker femoral and tibial bands. 

Length 2.8 to 3.25 mm.; width 1.5-1.75 mm. 

Distribution. — Georgia: Tybee Island, July 2 to 6 (Wenzel), type cT. 

This species bears a certain resemblance to some examples of 
characteristicus and JentoraUit^. It differs from the former in its 
less broadly diffuse ])unctuation and better defined elytral striae, 
and from both by the more approximate eyes and small front 



H. C. FALL 389 

claws of the male. Its close relationship to confederatns is alluded 
to under that species. 

73. Pachybrachys calcaratus new species 

Sordid yellow with tliti'use fuscous niarkings which may be so 
extensive as to constitute the prevailing color; clytral striae evi- 
dent at sides and rear, front without ocular lines; front tibiae of 
male with subapical rectangular tooth on the inner margin due to 
the abrupt narrowing of the tibia, and a long stout curved termi- 
nal spur; front claws of male not appreciably enlarged. Ave. 
length 2.9 mm. Michigan to Louisiana. 

Head not wider than the thoracic apex, front coarsely moderately closely 
punctate, markings variable. Eyes separated in the male by one and one-half 
times the length of the basal antennal joint, or by a distance equal to or very 
slightly greater than the vertical width of their upper lobes; in the female by 
approximately two and one-half times the length of the basal joint of the 
antennae. Antennae moderate, attaining the hind coxae in the female, longer 
in the male, tenth joint about three times as long as wide, outer joints fuscous. 

Prothorax distinctly arcuately narrowed from near the base, a very short 
slight sinuation at the hind angles; punctuation coarse, rather close, side mar- 
gins narrowly smooth, at least in part; markings variable but usually broad, 
leaving two basal and a median apical s])ot and the front angles irregularly pale. 

Elytra coarsely punctate, the two outer striae distinct and moderately im- 
pressed, the discal ones much confused or broken, sometimes with one or two 
subentire; shield not large but usually well defined and convex; marginal inter- 
space with coarse punctures, usually more numerous in the female, but some- 
times nearly wanting; markings variable, the standard spots sometimes small 
and isolated but more frequently broad and confluent, the general color fuscous 
with numerous small scattered yellow areas. 

Pi/gidium blackish with two oblique yellow spots. Body beneath blackish, 
the last ventral and side margins of the abdomen sometimes marked with 
yellow. Legs brownish fuscous, base and apex of middle and hind thighs 
yellow; front thighs with large yellow spot or stripe on the anterior face. 

Length 2.6 to 3.2 mm.; width 1.4 to l.S mm. 

Distribution. — Illinois: Hinsdale, June 21 (Bebb), type d'; 111. (Stromberg 
in Blanchard Coll.); (Liebeck Coll.). Michigan: Detroit (Hubbard and 
Schwarz). Iowa: One cf without specific locaUty. Kansas: Salina (Knaus). 
Louisiana: Vernon Parish (Leng Coll.); Vowell's Mills (Leng). 

The Louisiana specimens are less heavily marked than the 
Illinois and Iowa ones, but they agree with each other, and one of 
them is a male with the remarkable front tibial character pre- 
cisely as in type. This species in general facies resembles pretty 
closely some examples of atomarins and other similar species, but 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



390 AMEBICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERA) 

the sexual tibial character of the male at once identifies it. In 
this particular it is almost unique, texanus and uncinatus only 
possessing a similar structure. In these two, however, there is no 
subapical tooth and the eyes are much more approximate. Cal- 
caratus is apparently rather rare or else quite local as it is repre- 
sented in but few collections that I have seen. 

* 

74. Pachybrachys cylindrieus Bowdit ch 

Light yellow, prothorax and elytra strongly shining, the alu- 
taceous sculpture either lacking or so fine as to be scarcely'' detect- 
able; standard markings present, the spots as a rule quite sharply 
defined and rather small, the prothoracic M extending from base 
to apical two-fifths or one-third, rarely beyond. Eyes more 
distant in the male than the width of their upper lobes, front 
without ocular lines; elytral striae scarcely impressed and much 
confused; front claws of male strongly enlarged. Ave. length 
3.75 mm. Utah to southeastern California. 

Head as wide as the prothoracic apex, front mostly yellow, finely and sparsely 
punctate, supra-antennal spots nearly wanting, triangular frontal spots rather 
small and narrowly connected with the broad black vertex spot, the latter 
closely punctate. Eyes separated by twice the length of the basal antenna! 
joint in the male, and by fully three times the length of this joint in the female, 
or in the latter sex by a distance as great as the entire length of the eye. An- 
tennae very long and slender in the male, nearly or quite attaining the elytral 
apex, the tenth joint four to five times as long as wide; in the female not more 
than two-thirds as long as the body, the tenth joint about three times as long 
as wide. 

Prothorax less transverse than usual, apex a little narrower than the base, 
sides moderately arcuate behind the middle, a little incurved basally, surface 
sparsely finely punctate except in the darker areas, the latter variable in devel- 
opment, sometimes nearly wanting, again black and sharply defined, never very 
broad, and rarely extending in front of the apical third; the central stripe dis- 
tinctly forked in front and usually joining the lateral arms so as to enclose two 
basal pale spots. 

Elytra rather sparsely and finely punctured, the striae much broken, two and 
three usually entire, seven more or less regular, eight well defined and some- 
what impressed; shield small or moderate, marginal interspace impunctate or 
with one or two punctures near the middle; outer standard spots distinct, not 
large; posterior inner spot joining the outer to form a distinct transverse fascia; 
the middle inner spot forming an oblique projecting si)ur from this fascia; 
anterior inner spot often more or less vague or diffuse. 

Pygidium black and yellow. Body beneath black, with the fianks of the 
prothorax, metasternum in part, and sides and apex of abdomen more or less 
pale. Legs almost entirely pale yellow. 



H. C. FALL 391 

Length 3.3 to 4.25 mm.; width 1.75 to 2.3 mm. 

Distribulion. — Arizona: Prescott (type); Ash Fork, Juni- 18 (Barber & 
Schwarz); Williams, July 18 (Barber & Schwarz). Utah: American Fork 
Caiion, June 23 (Hubbard & Schwarz); Chad's Ranch (var? in Bowditch Coll.). 
Nevada: Esmerakla, June 27 (Xunenmacher). Calif ornia: Los Angeles Co., 
May (Am. Ent. Soc. Coll.). 

75. Pachybrachus notatus Bowditch 

Original description. "Large .sized, stout, dull black and bright yellow, 
thorax with three prominent yellow spots on top, elytra ftiirly regularly striate 
punctate. Length 3^ mm." 

"Head j'ellow, flat, with black vertex, connected with center line, wliich 
runs into a crescent mark which ends at the antennae on either side, black 
marks thickly punctate, clypeal edge also black, sparingly whitish pubescent, 
especially in the angles of the eyes, which are distant; antennae dark, lighter 
toward the base, reaching the hmd coxa in cT ; thorax constricted in front and 
narrowed behind, yellow, with very narrow beading on front margin black, the 
surface covered bj^ a broad black j\I, which occupies nearly the whole rear 
margin and leaves a lateral and anterior border of yellow, the former being 
the widest; there is also a pear shaped 3'ellow spot placed obhquelj' and pointing 
to the scutel on either side of the disk at the rear, dilated end to the front and 
an anterior median spot, which joins the yellow^ margin, also a small yellow 
dot on each side; surface with sparse punctures, closer toward the anterior 
corners, the yellow margins, except as aforesaid, are about free from punctures, 
lateral edge very slightly subangulate in d' ; elytra parallel, slightly compressed 
behind the shoulders, yellow, with suture and margin narrowly black; the inside 
standard spots suffused longitudinally into an irregular black mark joining a 
transverse band on the convexity formed by the suffusion of the four rear 
spots, the external middle spot is not suffused, the humeral spot is also distinct, 
the punctuation is a little coarser than the thorax, largety confused, but the 
intervals from the third outwards on the the rear half of the elytra are more or 
less distinctly indicated, though the costae are everywhere flat, the third and 
fourth and the marginal and next to it are the most marked intervals, there is 
also a prominent smooth yellow sutural shield and another patch occupying 
three or four intervals and forming a transverse spot on the side just before the 
convexity; marginal stria barely sinuate behind the lobe, w^hich is wide and 
smooth, with a fine row of marginal punctures; under side black, with silveiy 
pubescence, prosternum semisulcate; legs yellow, with spots on thighs, and 
tibiae and tarsi darker; hind thighs with a white spot on end, and front thighs 
with light spot on front." 

"One d^ Santa Rita Mts., Arizona. Collected by the late Professor Snow. 
In form, size and general appearance very similar to inclusus Jac. Type in 
Snow collections." 

I have not seen the unique type of this species, and as the above 
description does not touch upon the characters most needful for 

TRANS. AM. ENT. SOC, XLI. 



392 AMERICAN PACHYBRACHYS (cOLEOPTERa) 

assigning the species a place in the classification here adopted, 
I addressed a letter of inquiry to Prof. S. J. Hunter of the Uni- 
versity of Kansas, who very kindl,y examined the type and 
answered my questions so far as possible. Unfortunately the 
claws are lacking on both front tarsi of the type, which makes 
it impossible to place the species with any certainty. The sur- 
face is somewhat shining though with distinct alutaceous sculp- 
ture; the eyes are separated by twice the length of the basal 
antennal joint, tenth joint "