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Full text of "Transactions of the Entomological Society of London"

Class 

Book JS.U^ 



SMITHSONIAM DEPOSIT 



^a1x-<-^ "^ 



TRANSACTIONS 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



LONDON 




AUG 1 1908 



THE 



TRANSACTIONS 



-,1 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OP 



LONDON 



FOR THE YEAR 



1907. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOE THE SOCIETY BY RICHARD CLAY AND SONS, LIMITED, 
LONDON AND BUNGAY. 

SOLD AT THE SOCIETY'S ROOMS, 11, CHANDOS STREET, 

CAVENDISH SQUARE, W., 

AND BY LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO., 

PATERNOSTER ROW, E.C. ; AND NEW YORK. 

1907-1908. 






DATES OF PUBLICATION IN PARTS. 



Part I. (Tkans., p. 1-182, Proc, i-xxxii) was published 20 June, 1907 
„ II. ( „ 183-382, „ xxxiii-xlviii) „ 26 Sept., „ 

III. ( „ 383-414, „ 20 Nov., „ 

IV. ( „ 415-512, „ xlix-lxxxviii) „ 14 Feb., 1908 
,, V. ( „ Ixxxix-clxvi) ,, 14 April, „ 



< ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 

^ Founded, 1833. 

Incorporated by Royal Charter, 1885. 



OFFICERS and COUNCIL for the Session 1907-1908. 
Ipveel&ent. 

CHARLES OWEN WATERHOUSE. 

IDicc-ipi'esiDents. 

FREDERIC MERRIFIELD. 
EDWARD SAUNDERS, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
GEORGE HENRY VERRALL. 

n^reasurer. 

ALBERT HUGH JONES. 

Secretaries. 

HENRY ROWLAND-BROWN, M.A. 
Commander JAMES J. WALKER, M.A., R.N., F.L.S. 

Xibrarian. 

GEORGE C. CHAMPION, F.Z.S. 

©tber /Iftembers of CouiicU. 

GILBERT JOHN ARROW. 

ARTHUR JOHN CHITTY, M.A. 

THOMAS ALGERNON CHAPMAN, M.D., F.Z.S. 

WILLIAM JAMES KAYE, F.L.S. 

GEORGE BLUNDELL LONGSTAFF, M.D. 

GUY ANSTRUTHER KNOX MARSHALL. 

Prof. RAPHAEL MELDOLA, F.R.S., F.C.S. 

LOUIS BEETHOVEN PROUT. 
ROBERT SHELFORD, M.A., F.L.S., C.M.Z S. 



Resident Librarian. 
GEORGE BETHELL, F.R.HisT.S. 



CONTENTS 



PAOE 

Explanation of the plates ... ... ... ... ... ... ... viii 

List of Fellows... ... ... ... ... ... ... ix 

Additions to the Library ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xxv 

Errata and Corrigendum ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xsxix 



MEMOIRS. 

PAGE 

I. Notes on the Indo-Australian Papilionida;. By Percy L Lathy, 

F.Z.S., F.E.S 1 

n. On the Hynienopterous Parasites of Coleoptera. By Ernest A. 

Elliott, F.Z.S., and Claude MoRLEY, F.E.S 7 

III. Descriptions of some new Butterflies from Tropical Africa. By 

Hamilton H. Druce,F.Z.S., F.E.S 77 

IV. The Larva of Colly ris emar(jinatits,'D&]. By R. Shelford, M.A., 

F.L.S 83 

V. A preliminary revision of the Forjiculidw (sensu stricto) and 
of the Chdisochidie, families of the Dermatoptera. By 
Malcolm Burr, B.A., F.E.S., F.Z.S., F.L.S. , F.G.S. ... 91 

VI. Catalogue of the Australian and Tasmanian Byrrhidm ; with 
Descriptions of New Species. By Arthur M. Lea, F.E.S., 
Government Entomologist, Tasmania 135 

VII. Entomology in N.W. Spain (Galicia and Leon). By T. A. 
Chapman, M.D., F.Z.S. (Lejmlojjtera), and G. C. Champion, 
F.Z.S. {Coleoptera and Hemiptera) ... ... ... ... 147 

VIII. On Some Teratological Specimens. By T. A. Chapman, M.D., 

F.Z.S 173 

IX. On a remarkable undescribed form of Moth belonging to 
the family Tineidse. By Lieut. -Colonel Charles T. 
Bingham, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 177 

X. On the remarkable resemblance between two specie's of Molippa. 

By E. DuKiNFiELD Jones, F.Z.S., F.E.S 181 

XI. The Life History of Tetropiiuii gahrieli, Ws. = T. fuscum. 
Sharp — T. crawshayi. Sharp, etc. By the Rev. G. A. Ceaw- 

shay, M.A., F.E.S 183 

XII. Studies of the Tetriqinw {Orthoptera) in the Oxford University 

Museum. By J. L. Hancock, M.D., F.E.S. (Chicago) ... 213 

XIII. The Life History of Spindasis lohita, Horsf . By John C. "VV. 

Kershaw, F.Z.S 245 

XIV. On the egg-cases and early stages of some South China 

Cassididte. By J. C. Kershaw, F.Z.S., and Frederick 
MuiR, F.E.S 249 



( 



XV. 

XVI. 
XVII. 

XVIII. 
XIX. 

XX. 

XXI. 

XXII. 

XXIII. 

XXIV. 



Life History of Tf^saratoma pfipiNo.^a, Thunberg. By J. C. 
Kershaw, F.Z.S. With Notes on the stridulatiug oi'gan 
and stiuk-glands by Frederick MuiE, F.E.S. 253 

The Structure and Life History of the Holly-fly. By Pro- 
fessor L. C. MiALL, F.R.S., and T. H. Taylor 259 

The Vinegar-fly {Drosojjhila funehris). By Ernest Ewart 
Unwin, M.Sc. Communicated by Peofessob L. C. Miall, 
F.R.S 285 

OdoiKita collected by Lieut.-Colonel Nurse, chiefly in Noi-th- 
We,stern India. By Kenneth J. Morton, F.E.S 303 

Entomological Observations and Captures during the vi.sit of 
the British Association to South Africa iu 1905. By F. A. 
DiXEY, M.A., M.D., F.E.S. , and G. B. Longstaff, M.A., 
M.D., F.R.C.P., F.E.S 309 

A List of the Coleoptera of the Maltese Islands. By Malcolm 
Cameron, M.B., E.N., and A. Caruana Gatto, LL.D. ... 383 

Life History of Cydimon {Urania) htlus, L. By L. Guppy, 
jun " 405 

The Hibernation of Jfaivismarcha. By T. A. Chapman, M.D., 
F.Z.S 411 

The Life History, and Occurrence as British, of Loincchnui 
strumosa, F. By H. St. J. Donisthorpe, F.Z.S., F.E.S. ... 415 

On a large series of Nycterihiidw, para.sitic Dipteva, from Cey- 
lon. By Hugh Scott, B.A. (Cantab). Communicated by 
J. E.Collin, F.E.S 421 



XXV. The Butterflies of Mauritius and Bourbon. 
N. Manders, F.Z.S. , F.E.S. 



By Lieut. -Colonel 



XXVI. 
XXVII. 



429 

455 

Notes and Descriptions of Pterophoridai and Oviuodidw. 
By E. Meyrick, B.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S. 471 



Studies of the Blattidw. By E. Shelford, M.A., F.L.S. 



Proceedings for 1907 
Annual Meeting 
President's Address 
General Index 
Special Index 



i-l.\xxviii 

Ixxsix 

xcv 

cviii 

cxv 



EXPLANATION 


OF THE PLATES. 




Plate I. 


See page 


6 


Plate XXI. See page 


244 


Plate II. 


,^ 


82 


Plate XXII. 


248 


Plate III. 


,^ 


88 


Plate XXIII. 


258 


Plate IV. 


^, 


134 


Plate XXIV. 


308 


Plates V-XI. 


,, 


171 


Plate XXV. 


381 


Plate XII. 


^, 


176 


Plates XXVL XXVII. „ 


410 


Plate XIII. 


J, 


179 


Plate XX\aiI. 


414 


Plate XIV. 


,, 


182 


Plate XXIX. 


454 


Plates XV-XX. 


„ 


212 







( ix ) 

fist of JfcHofos 

OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 



p,teof HONORARY FELLOAVS. 

Election. 

1900 AuRiviLLius, Professor Christopher, Stockholm. 

1905 Bolivar, Don Ignacio, Paseo de Becoletos Bajo, 20, Madrid. 

1901 Fabre, J. H., Serignan, Vauchise, France. 

1894 FoREL, Professor Augnste, M.D., Chignj/, 2'>res 2£orf/es, Switzerland. 

1906 Ganglbauer, Professor Ludwig von, Hof Museum, Vienna. 
1898 Grassi, Professor Battista, The Universifi/, Home. 

1906 Reuter, Professor Odo Morannal, The University, Flelsimjfors, 
Finland. 

1895 ScuDDER, Samuel Hubbard, Cambridge, lilass., U.S.A. 
1885 Snellen, P. C. T., Rotterdam. 

1893 Wattenwyl, Hofrath Dr. Carl Brunner Voii, Lerchenfeldstrasse 28, 

Vienna. 
1898 Weismann, Dr. August, Freiburg, Baden. 



FELLOWS. 



Marked f have compounded for their Annual Subscriptions. 
Marked * have died during the year. 



Date of 
Election. 

1901 t Adair, Sir Frederick E. S., Bart., Flixton Hall, Bungay. 

1877 Adams, Frederick Charlstrom, F.Z.S., 50, Ashley-gardens, Victoria- 
street, S.W. 
1877 Adams, Herbert J., Roseneath, London-road, Enfield, N. 

1902 Adkin, Benaiah Wliitley, Trenoiveth, Hope-park, Bromley, Kent. 
1885 Adkin, Robert, Wellfield, Lingards-road, Leioisham, S.E. 

1904 Agar, E. A., La Haul, Dominica, B. W. Indies. 
1904 Alderson, Miss E. Maude, Park House, Worksop, Notts. 
1899 Andrews, Henry W., Shirley, Welling, S.O., Kent. 
1901 Anning, William, 39, Lime Street, E.G. 
1907 Arnold, G., University of Liverpool, Liverpool. 
18991 Arrow, Gilbert J., 87, Union-grove, Clapham, S.W. ; and British 
Musexhm {Naturcd History), Cromivell-road, S.W. 



( ^, ) 

1907 AsHBY, Sydney R., 119, Greenvale-road, EUham-jxirk, Kent. 
1886 Atmore, E. a., 48, High-street, King's Lynn. 

1850t AvEBURY, The Right Honble. Lord, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 
etc., High Elms, Farnhoroiigh, Kent. 

1901 Bacot, Arthur W., 154, Lower Clapton-road, N.E. 
1904 t Bagnall, Richard S., South Hylton, nr. Sunderland. 

1903 Baldock, G. R., Oakhnrn Villa, Enfield Highway, Middlesex. 
1886 Bankes, Eustace R., M.A., Norden, Corfe Castle, Wareham. 

1890 Barclay, Francis H., F.G.S., 27*6 Warren, Cromer. 

1886 Bargagli, Marchese Piero, Piazza S. Maria, Palazzo Tempi No. 1, 

Florence, Italy. 
1895 Barker, Cecil W., The Bungalow, Malvern, Natal, South Africa. 

1887 Barker, H. W., 147, Gordon-road, Pechham, S.E. 

1902 Barraud, Philip J., Bushey Heath, Watford. 

1907 Bartlett, H. Frederick D., 113, Richmond-parh-road,Bournemouth. 
1894 1 Bateson, William, M.A., F.R.S., Fellow of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, Merton House, Grantchester. Gamhridge. 

1904 Bayne, Arthur F., Gerencia, Ferro Carril del Sud, Plaza Constitu- 

tion, Buenos Ayres. 
1896tBEARE, Prof. T. Hudson, B.Sc, F.R.S.E., 10, Eegent Terrace, 
Edi')hburgh. 

1905 Bedford, The Duke of, K.G., Pres. Z.S., etc., Woburn Abbey, Beds. 
1899 Bedwell, Ernest C, Bonnicot, The Grove, Coulsdon, Surrey. 

1903 Bell-Marley, H. W., c/o Messrs. Chiazzari and Co., P.O. Box 3, 

Point-street, Natal. 

1904 Bengtsson, Simon, Ph.D., Lecturer, L^niversity of Lund, Sweden ; 

Curator, Entomological Collection of the University. 
1897 Bennett, W. H., 15, Wellington-place, Hastings. 

1906 Bentall, E. E., Tlie Towers, Heybridge, Essex. 

1885 Bethune-Baker, George T., F.L.S., 19, Clarendon-road, Edghaston, 

Birmingham. 
1895 Be van. Lieutenant H. G. R., R.N., 38, The Common, Woolwich. 
1880 BiGNELL, George Carter, The Ferns, HomeparJc-road, Saltash. 
1895 Bingham, Lieut.-Col. Charles T., F.Z.S., Bombay Staff Corps, 

6 Givendwr-road, West Kensington, W. 

1891 Blaber, W. H., F.L.S., 12, Great Castle-street, Regent-street, W. 
1904 Black, James E., Nethercroft, Peebles. 

1904 Blair, Kenneth G., 23, West Hill, Highgate, N. 
1889 Blandford, Walter F. H., M.A., F.Z.S., 12, Arundel Gardens, 
Ladbrohe-grove, W. 

1885 Blathwayt, Lieut.-Col. Linley, F.L.S., Eagle House, Batheaston, 

Bath. 
1904 Bliss, Maurice Frederick, Coningsburgh, Montpelier-road, Ecding,\y. 

1886 Bloomfield, The Rev. Edwin Newsou, M.A., Guestling Rectory, 

Hastings. 



( xi ) 

1903 BoGUE, W. A., Wilts and Dorset Bank, Salisbury. 

1907 Bonnet, Alexandre, 36'"'«. Boulevard Bineau {Neuilly-sur- Seine), 
Seine. 

1891 Booth, George A., Fern Hill, Grange-over-Sands, Cariiforth. 

1875 Borrer, Wm., F.G.S., Pahjns Manor House, Hurstpierpomt, 

Hassochs, R.S.O., Sussex. 
1902 BosTOCK, E. D., Holly House, Stone, Staffs. 

1904 Bourgeois, Jules, Ste. Marie-aux-Mlnes, Marldrch, Germany. 

1892 Bouskell, Frank, Market Bosworth, Nimeaton. 

1888 Bower, Benjamin A., Langley, Willow Grove, Gliislehurst. 
1894 f Bowles, E. Augustus, M.A., Mijddelton House, Waltham Cross. 
1852 t Boyd, Tlios., Woodvale Lodge, South Norwood Hill, S.E. 

1893 Brabant, Edouard, Chateau de Morenchies, par Cambrai (Nord), 

France. 

1905 Bracken, Charles W., B.A., 5, Garfrce Terrace, Lipson, Plymouth. 
1907 Brain, Charles Kimberlin, 29, Bosmead Avenue, Tamboers Kloof, 

Cape Colony. 
1904 Bridgeman, Lieut. The Hon. Richard 0. B., R.N., Weston Park, 
Shifnal, Salop, and H.M.S. " Hibernia," Channel Fleet. 

1877 Briggs, Charles Adolphus, Rock House, Lynmouth, B.S. 0., N. Devon. 
1870 Briggs, Thomas Henry, M.A., Rock House, Lynmouth, E.S.O., N. 

Devon. 

1894 Bright, Percy M., Chunar, Lansdowne-road, Bournemouth. 

1878 Broun, Major Thomas, Drury, Auckland, Neio Zealand. 

1902 Broughton, Captain T. Delves, R.E., B. A. and B. E. Mess, Malta. 

1904 Brown, Henry H., Castlefield Toiver, Cupar, Fife, N.B. 
1886 Brown, John, 123, Mawson-road, Cambridge. 

1898 1 Buchan-Hepburn, Sir Archibald, Bart., J. P., D.L., Smeaton- 

Hepburn, Prestonkirk. 
1907 BuLLElD, Arthur, F.S.A., The Old Vicarage, Midsomer Norton, 

Somersetshire. 
1902 BuLLER, Arthur Percival, Wellington, New Zealand. 
1896 1 Burr, Malcolm, B.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.G.S., A.R.S.M., Boyal 

Societies Club, St. James's, S.W., and Shepherdsivell, nr. Dover. 
1868 t Butler, Arthur G., Ph.D., F.L.S., F.Z.S., The Lilies, Penge-roud, 

Beckenham. 
1883 Butler, Edward Albert, B.A., B.Sc, 56, Cecile-Park, Grouch End, N. 
1902 Butler, William E., Hayling House, Oxford-road, Beading. 

1905 Butterfield, Jas. A., B.Sc, Comrie, Eglinton Hill, Plumstead. 
1904 Byatt, Horace A., B.A., Berbera (via Aden), Somaliland Protectorctte. 

1902 Cameron, Malcolm, M.B., R.N., R.N. Hospital, Chatham. 

1885 Campbell, Francis Maule, F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c., Byrnlhvydtvy7i 

Machynlleth, Alontgomery shire. 
1898 Candeze, L^on, 3Iont St. Martin, 75, Liege. 
1880 Cansdale, W. D., Sunny Bank, South Norwood, S.E. 



( ^ii ) 

1889 Cant, A., 33, Festing-road, Putney, S.W.; and c/o Fredk. DuCane 

Godman, Esq., F.'R.ii., 4:5, Font-street, S.W. 

1890 Capper, Samuel James (President of the Lancashire and Cheshire 

Entomological Society), Huyton Park, Liverpool. 

1894 Caracciolo, H., H.M. Customs, Port of Spain, Trinidad, British 

West Indies. 
1892 Carpenter, The Honble. Mrs. Beatrice, 22, Grosvenor-rond, S.W. 

1895 Carpenter, G. H., B.Sc, Pioyal College of Science, Dublin. 
1898 Carpenter, J. H., Redcot, Belmont-road, Leatherhead. 
1868 Carrington, Charles, Mcadowcroft, Horley, Surrey. 

1890 Carter, George Wm., M.A., F.L.S., Eccleshall Castle, Staffordshire. 
1895 Carter, Sir Gilbert, K.C.M.G., 43, Charing Cross, W.C, and 

Government House, Nassau, Bahamas. 
1906 Carter, H. J., B.A., Ascham, Darling Point, Sydney, N.S. Wales. 
1900 Carter, J. W., 28, Mannheim-road, Bradford. 
1900 Cassal, R. T., M.R.C.S., Ballaiujh, Isle of Man. 

1903 Cattle, John Rowland, Nettleton 3Ianor, Caistor, Lincolnshire. 
1889 t Cave, Charles J. P., Ditcham Park, Petersfield. 

1900 Chamberlain, Neville, Highbiory, Moor Green, Birmingham. 

1871 Champion, George C, F.Z.S., Librarian, Heatherside, Horscll, 
Woking ; and 45, Font-street, S.W. 

1891 Chapman, Thomas Algernon, M.D., F.Z.S., Betula, Reigate. 

1902 Charnley, James Roland, The Avenue, Moor Park, Preston, 

Lancashire. 
1897 Chawner, Miss Ethel F., Forest Banl; Lyndhurst, R.S.O., Hants. 
1902 Cheesman, E. IL, c/o Mrs. G. Lindgrin, 75, North-street, Greyville, 

Durhan. 
1891*f Chitty, Arthur John, M.A., 27, Hereford -square, S.W.; and Hnnt- 

ingfield, Faversham, Kent. 

1905 Chopard, Lucien, 98, Bd. St. Germain, Paris. 

1889 Christy, William M., M.A., F.L.S., Watergate, Emsivorth. 
1886 t Clark, John Adolphus, 57, Weston Park, Crouch End, N. 
1867 Clarke, Alex. Henry, 109, Wurivihh-road, Earl's Court, S.W. 

1904 Cockayne, Edward A., 16, Gamhridge-sqnare, London, W. 
1873 Cole, William, F.L.S., Springfield, Buckhurst Hill, Essex. 

1899 Collin, James E., Sussex Lodge, Newmarket. 

1906 CoLLiNGE, Walter E., M.Sc, Director of the Cooper Research 

Lab oratory, Berkha msted. 

1901 CoNNOLD, Edward, F.Z.S., 1, St. Feter's-road, St. Leonards-on-Sea. 

1900 Cotton, Dr. John, 126, Prescot-road, St. Helens. 

1892 Cowan, Thomas William, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.M.S., Upcot House, 

Taunton. 
1886 CowELL, Peter (Librarian of the Liverpool Free Public Library). 

William Broicn-street, Liverpool. 
1867 Cox, Plerbert Ed., Glaremont, Jamaica. 
1895 Crabtree, Benjamin Hill, The Oaklands, Levenshulme, Manchester. 



( ^iii ) 

1906 Crawshay, The Rev. George A., M.A., Melchhourn Vicarage, 

Sharnhrook, S.O.^ Beds. 
1890 Crewe, Sir Vauncey Harpur, Bart., Calke Abbey, Derbyshire. 
1880 1 Crisp, Frank, LL.B., B.A., J. P., 17, Throgmorton-avenue, E.G., 

and Friar Pari; Henley-on-Thames. 

1907 Croft, Edward Octavius, M.D., 28, Hyde-terrace, Leeds. 

1902 Gruttwell, The Rev. Canon Charles Thomas, M.A., Eiuelme 

Rectory, Wallingford. 

1901 Dadd, Edward Martin, Annastrasse 6, Zehlendorf, bei Berlin. 

1900 Dalglish, Andrew Adie, 21, Prince' s-street, Glasgow. 

1907 Dames, Felix L., Steglitz, Berlin. 

1886 Dannatt, Walter, Dounington, 75, Vanbrugh Park, Blachheath, S.E. 
1905 Davidson, James D., 32, Drumsheugh Gardens, Editiburgh. 

1903 Day, F. H., 151, Goodtvin-terrace, Carlisle. 
1898 Day, G. 0., Parr's Bank-house. Knutsford. 

1905 Dewar, W. R., Government Entomologist, Orange River Colony. 
1875 Distant, Wm. Lucas, Shannon-lodge, Selhwst-road, South Norwood, 
S.E. 

1887 DiXEY, Frederick Augustus, M.A., M.D., Fellow and Bursar of 

Wadham College, Wadham College, Oxford. 
1895 DoBSON, H. T., Ivy House, Acacia Grove, New ]\[alden, S.O., Surrey. 

1905 DoDD, Frederick P., Kuranda, via Cairns, North Queensland. 

1906 DoLLMAN, Hereward, Hove House, Neivton-grovc, Bedford-park, W. 

1903 DoLLMAN, J. C, Hove House, Nervton-grove, Bedford-park, W. 

1906 DoNCASTER, Leonard, M.A., The University, Birmingham. 

1891 DoNlSTHORPE, Horace St. John K., F.Z.S., 58, Kensington-mansions, 

South Kensington, S.W. 
1885 Donovan, Major Charles, M.D., R.A.M.C, Ardmore, Passage West, 

County Cork. 
1884 Druce, Hamilton H. C. J., F.Z.S., 43, Circus-road, St. John's 

Wood, N.W. 
1867 Druce, Herbert, F.L.S., F.Z.S., 43, Circus-road, St. John's Wood, 

N.W. 
1900 Drury, W. D., Rocquaine, West Hill Park, Woking. 
1894 Dudgeon, G. C, The Imperial Institute, South Kensington. 

1907 Duer, Yeend, Tokyo, Japan. 

1906 Dukinfield-Jones, E., Castro, Reigate. 

1883 Durrant, John Hartley, The Cottage, Merton Hall, Thetford. 

1890 Eastwood, John Edmund, Enton Lodge, Witley, Godalming. 
1865 Eaton, The Rev. Alfred Edwin, M.A., Pentlands, Mill-road, West 
Wortliing, Sussex. 

1904 EcKFORD, George, F.Z.S., c/o Sir Morgan Tnite, Bart., Kilruane, 

Nenagh, co. Tipjierary, Ireland. 
1902 Edelsten, Hubert M., The Elms, Forty Hill, Enfield, Middlesex. 



( xiv ) 

1886 Edwards, James, Colesborne, Cheltenham. 

1884 Edwards, Stanley, F.L.S., F.Z.S., 15, St. Germans-place, Blade 

heath, S.E. 
1900 Elliott, E. A., 16, Belsize Grove, Hampstead, N.W. 
1900 Ellis, H. Willoiighby, Knoide, Birmingham. 
1886 Ellis, John W., M.B., L.R.C.P., 18, Rodney-street, Liverpool. 
1903 Eltringham, Harry, M.A., F.Z.S., Eastgarth, Westoe, South Skidds. 
1878 Elwes, Henry John, J.P., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Colesborne, 

Cheltenham. 
1886 Enock, Frederick, F.L.S., 13, Tufiiell Park Road, London, N. 
1903 Etheridge, Eobert, Curator, Australian Museum, Sydney, N.S.W. 

1899 Farmborough, Percy W., F.Z.S., Lower Edmonton, N. 

1890 Earn, Albert Brydges, Brinton Lodge, near Hereford. 

1907 Feather, Walter, c/o British Somaliland Fibre and Development 
Co., Berhera, Soinaliland, E. Africa. 

1900 Feltham, H. L. L., P. 0. Box, 46, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
1861 Fenn, Charles, Erersden Mouse, Burnt Ash Hill, Lee, S.E. 
1886 Fenwick, Nicohis Percival, The Gables, New-road, Esher. 
1-889 Fernald, Prof. C. H., Amherst, Mass., U.S.A. 

1878 FiNZi, John A., 53, Hamilton-terrace, N.W. 

1900 Firth, J. Digby, F.L.S., Boi/s' Modern School, Leeds. 

1874 Fitch, Edward A., F.L.S., Brick House, Maldon. 

1905 Fleet, Wilfred James, Imatra, King's Road, Bournemouth. 

1900 Flemyng, The Rev. W. Westropp^ M.A., Coolfin, Portlaw, Go. 

Waterford. 
1898 Fletcher, T. Bainbrigge, R.N., H.M.S. " Sealark," Special Service. 
1883 f Fletcher, William Holland B., M.A., Aldwick Manor, Borjnor. 
1905 Floersheim, Cecil, 16, Kensington Court Mansions, S.W. 

1885 Fokker, a. J. F., Zierihzee, Zeeland, Netherlands. 

1900 Foulkes, p. Hedworth, B.Sc, Harper-Adams Agricultural College, 

Newport, Salop. 
1898 Fountaine, Miss Margaret, The Studios, 1, Shireff-road, West 

Hampstead, N.W. ; and Orrisdale, Florida-road, Durban, Natal. 
1880 Fowler, The Rev. Canon, D.Sc, M.A., F.L.S., Earley Vicarage, 

near Reading. 
1883 Freeman, Francis Ford, Ahbotsjield, Tavisfocl: 
1896 Freke, Percy Evans, Southpoint, Limes-road, Folkestone. 
1888 Fremlin, H. Stuart, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., Mereworth, Maidstone. 
1903 French, Charles, F.L.S., Government Entomologist, Victoria, 

Australia. 

1891 Frohawk, F. W., Ashmount, Rayleigh. 

1906 1 Fry, Harold Armstrong, P.O. Box 46, Johannesburg, Transvaa 

Colony. 
1900 Fryer, H. Fortescne, The Priory, Chatteris, Cambs. 
1907 Fryer, John Claud Fortescue, The Priory, Chatteris, Cambs. 



( XV ) 

1876 Fuller, The Rev. Alfred, M.A., The Lodge, 7, SydenJmm-hill, 
Sydenham, S.E. 

1898 Fuller, Claude, Government Entomologist, Pietermaritzburg, Natal. 
1904 FuRNiVAL, Thomas F., 63, Goleman-st, E.G. 

1887 Gahan, Charles Joseph, M.A., Whyola, Lonsdale-road, Bedford 

Park, W. ; and British iMuaeum (Natural Hintory), Cromivell- 
road, S.W. 

1892 Garde, Philip de la, R.N., 44, Northumberland-place, Teignmouth. 
1890 Gardner, John, Laurel Lodge, Hart, West Hartlepool. 

1901 1 Gardner, Willonghby, F.L.S., Deganwy, N. Wales. 

1899 Geldart, William Martin, M.A., Trinity College, Oxford. 
1906tGiBBS, Arthur Ernest, F.L.S., F.R.H.S., Kitchener's Meads, St. 

Albans. 
1907 Giles, Henry Murray, Perth, W. Australia. 
1902 Gillanders, A. T., Park Cottage, Ahmnck. 
1904 GiLLiAT, Francis, B.A., Forest Dene, Worth, Sussex. ' 
1865tG0DMAN, Frederick Du Cane, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., South 

Lodge, Loioer Beeding, Horsham; 7, Carlos-place, Grosvenor- 

square ; and 45, Pont-street, S.W. 

1890 GoLDTHWAiT, Oliver C, 5, Queen's-road, South Norwood, S.E. 
1886 f Goodrich, Captain Arthur Mainwaring, Brislington House, near 

Bristol. 

1904 Goodwin, Edward, Canon Court, Wateringbury, Kent. 

1898 Gordon, J. G. McH., Corsemahie, Whauphill, R.S.O., Wigtoxonshire. 
1898 Gordon, R. S. G. McH., Corsemahie, Whauphill, R.S.O., Wigtown- 
shire. 
1855 GoRHAM, The Rev. Henry Stephen, F.Z.S., Highcroft, Great Malvern. 
1874 Goss, Herbert, F.L.S., The Avenue, Surbiton Hill, Surrey. 

1891 f Green, E. Ernest, Government Entomologist, Royal Botanic 

Gardens, Peradeniya, Ceylon ; and Mote Hall, Bearsted, Kent. 
1894 Green, J. F., F.Z.S., West Lodge, Blackheath, S.E. 

1898 Greenshields, Alexander, 38, Blenheim-gardens, Willesden, N.W. 

1899 Greenwood, Edgar, 49, Melrose-avenue, Orickleivood, N.W. 

1893 f Greenwood, Henry Powys, F.L.S., Whitsbury House, Salisbury. 

1888 Griffiths, G. C, F.Z.S., 43, Caledonian-place, Clifton, Bristol. 

1894 Grimshaw, Percy H., Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh . 

1905 Grist, Charles J., Apsley, Banstead, Surrey. 

1869 Grose-Smith, Henley, J. P., B.A., F.Z.S.,5, Br yanston- square, Hyde 
Park, W. 

1906 Guinness, H. S. A., Balliol College, Oxford, and Chesterfield, 

Blackrock, County Dublin. 
1906 GuRNEY, Gerard H., Keswick Hall, Norwich. 

1906 Hall, Arthur, 16, Park Hill Rise, Croydon. 
1890 t Hall, A. E., Cranfield House, Southwell, Notts. 



( xvi ) 

1885 Hall, Thomas William, Slanhope, The Crescent, Croi/don. 

1898 IIamlyn-Harris, R., D.Sc, F.Z.S., F.R.M.S., Toowoomba Grammar 

School, Queensland, Anstralia. 
1891 Hampson, Sir George Francis, Bart., B.A., F.Z.S., 62, Stanliope- 

gardens, S.W. 
1891 Hanbury, Frederick J., F.L.S., Slainforth House, Upper Clapton, N.E. 
1905 t Hancock, Josej^h L., 3757, Indiana Avenue, Chicago, U.S.A. 

1903 Hare, E. J., DunJiam, Boscombe, Hants. 

1904 Harris, Edward, iS^. Conan's, Ch'mgford, Essex. 

1897 1 Harrison, Albert, F.L.S., F.C.S., Delumere, Grove-road, South 

Woodford, Essex. 
1907 Harrison, Bernard H. D., Claremont, AsJdeigh-road, Barnstaple. 
1906*Heale, The Rev. William Henry, Penn Vicarage, Wolverhampton. 
1881 Henry, George, Ivy Bank, 112, London-road, St. Leonards-on-Sea. 
1903 Herrop, William, W.B.G. Apiary, Old Bedford-road, Luton, Beds. 
1898 Heron, Francis A., B.A., British Museum (Natural History), 

Cronaoell-road, S.W. 
1876 f Hillman, Thomas Stanton, Eastgate-street, Lewes. 
1907 Hoar, Thomas Frank Partridge, Quex-lodcje, West End Lane, 

Hampstead, N.W. 
1888 HoDSON, The Rev. J. H., B.A., B.D., lihyddington, Clifton Drive, 

Lytham. 

1902 Hole, R. S., c/o Messrs. King and Co., Bombay. 

1887 Holland, The Rev. W. J., D.D., Ph.D., bth Avenue, Pittsburg, 

Penn., U.S.A. 
1898 Holman-Hunt, C. B., Elm Estate, Jasin, Malacca. 
1901 Hopson, Montagn F., L.D.S., R.C.S.Eng., F.L.S., 30, Thurlo%v-road, 

Rosslyn Hill, N.W. 
1897 HoRNE, Arthur, 60, Gladstone-place, Aberdeen. 

1903 Houghton, J. T., 1, Portland-place, fVorksop. 
1907 Howard, C. W., Acting Government, Transvacd. 
1900 Howes, George H., Box 180, Dunedin, Ne^v Zealand. 

1907 Howlett, Frank M., M.A., TIte Agricultural Department, Pusa, 

Bengcd, India. 
1865 t HuDD, A. E., 108, Pemhrohe-road, Clifton, Bristol. 

1888 Hudson, George Vernon, Hill View, Karorl, Wellington, Neio 

Zealand. 
1907 Hughes, C. N., Knightstone, Cobham, Surrey. 

1897 Image, Selwyn, M.A., 20, Filzroy-street, Fitzroy- square, W. 

1891 IsABELL, The Rev. John, Sunmjcroft, St. Sennen, B.S.O., Cornwall. 

1907 Jack, Rupert Wellstood, Assistant Entomologist, Department of 

Agriculture, Gape of Good Hope. 
1907 Jackson, P. H., 112, Balham-park-road, S.W. 
1907 Jacobi, Professor Doctor A., Director of Zoology, and Anthropology 

in the Ethnographical Museum, Dresden, Saxony, 



( xvii ) 

1886* Jacoby, Martin, 1, The Mansions, Hillfield-road, West Hampstead, 

N.W. 
1869 Janson, Oliver E., Cestria, Claremont-road, Highgate, N. ; and 44, 

Great Russell-street, Bloomshury, W.C. 

1898 Janson, Oliver J., Cestria, Claremont-road, Highgate, N. 
1886 Jenner, James Herbert Augustus, 209, School Hill, Lewes. 

1899 Jennings, F. B., 152, Silver-street, Upper Edmonton, N. 

1886 John, Evan, Llantrlsant, B.S.O., Glamorganshire. 

1907 Johnson, Chas. Fielding, Mhyfield, Brinington Crescent, Stockport. 

1889 Johnson, The Eev. W. F., M.A., Acton Rectory, Poyntz Pass, 

Co. Armagh. 

1888 Jones, Albert H., Treasurer, Shruhlands, Eltham, Kent. 

1894 f Jordan, Dr. K., The Museum, Tring. 

1902 Joy, Norman H., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., Bradfield, Reading. 

1884 Kane, W. F. de Vismes, M.A., M.R.I.A., Brumleashe House, 

Monaghan. 
1884 Kappel, a. W., F.L.S., Linnean Society, Burlington House, W. 
1876 t Kay, John Dunning, Leeds. 

1896 f Kaye, William James, Caracas, Ditton Hill, Surhiton. 
1907 Kelly, Albert Ernest McCIure, Assistant Entomologist, Department 

of Agriculture, Natal, S.A. 
1902 Kemp, Stanley W., 21, Upper Fitzwilliam- street, Dublin. 

1890 Kenrick, G. H., Whetstone, Somerset-road, Edgbaston, Birminghayn. 

1904 Kershaw, G. Bertram, Ingleside, West Wickham, Kent. 

1898 Kershaw, J. A., Morton Banks, Lewisham-road, Windsor, 

Melbourne, Victoria. 
1901 Kershaw, John C, Macao, China. 
1906 Keynes, John Neville, M.A., D.Sc, 6, Harvey-road, Cambridge. 

1900 Keys, James H., Monoell, Freedom-villas, Lipson-road, Plymouth. 

1889 King, J. J. F. X., Lecturer on Economic Entomology at the West of 

Scotland Agricultural College, 1, Athole Gardens-terrace, Kelvin- 
side, Glasgow. 

1861 KiRBY, William F., F.L.S., Hilden, 18, Sutton Court-road, Chistoick,'W . 

1893 Kirkaldy, George Willis, Honohdu, Hawaii. 

1905 Kitchen, Vernon Parry, The Priory, Watford. 

1889 Klapalek, Professor Franz, Karlin 263, Pragne, Bohemia. 

1887 t Klein, Sydney T., F.L.S>.,F.R.A.S>.,Hatherlow, Raglan-road, Reigate. 
1876 Kraatz, Dr. G., 28, Link-strasse, Berlin. 

1868 Lang, Colonel A. M., R.E., Box Grove Lodge, Guildford. 

1900 Lang, The Rev. H. C, M.T>.,All Saints' Vicarage, Southend-on-Sea. 

1901 Lathy, Percy I., Fox Hall, Enfield. 

1895 Latter, Oswald H., M.A., Charterhouse, Godalming. 

1899 Lea, Arthur M., Government Entomologist, Hobart, Tasmania. 
1901 Leigh, George F., 4, Cuthberfs Buildings, West-street, Durban, 

Natal. / 

b / 



( xviii ) 

1883 Lemann, Fredk. Charles, Blachfriars House, Plymouth. 

1892 Leslie, J. Henry, 5, Cecil Mansions, Marius-road, Balham, S.AV. 

1898 Lethbridge, Ambrose G., Nordrach-on-Dee, Banchory, N.B.; 

Guards Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 
1903 1 Levett, The Rev. Thomas Prinsep, Frenehgate, Richmond, YorJcs. 

1898 Lewis, E. J., F.L.S., Stainmore, South Hill, Bromley, Kent. 

1876 Lewis, George, F.L.S., Victoria Cottage, Little Common, Bexhill- 
on-Sea. 

1902 Lewis, J. H., Ophir, Otago, Neio Zealand. 

1892 LiGHTFOOT, R. M., Bree-st., Cajje Toion, Cape of Good Hope. 

1903 Littler, Frank M., Althorne, High-street. Launceston, Tasmania, 
1865 1 Llewelyn, Sir John Talbot Dillwyn, Bart., M.A., F.L.S., 

Penllergare, Sivansea. 
1881 1 Lloyd, Alfred, F.C.S., The Dome, Bognor. 
1885 f Lloyd, Robert Wylie, 1, 5 and 6, TJie Albany, Piccadilly, W. 

1903 LoFTHOUSE, Thomas Ashton, The Croft, Linthorpe, Middlesbrough. 

1904 t LoNGSTAFP, George Blundell, M.D., Highlands, Putney Heath, S.W. 

1899 LouNSBURY, Charles P., B.Sc, Government Entomologist, Cape 

Town, S. Africa. 
1894 Lowe, The Rev. Frank E., M.A., St. Stephen^s Vicarage, Guernsey. 

1893 Lower, Oswald B., St. Oswalds, Bartley Crescent, Wayville, South 

Australia. 
1901 Lower, Rupert S., Davonport-terrace, Wayville, South Atistralia. 
1898 Lucas, William John, B.A., 28, Knighfs Park, Kingston-on-Thames. 

1904 LuFP, W. A., La Chaumiere, Brock-road, Guernsey. 
1880 LuPTON, Henry, Devonia, Torquay. 

1903 Lyell, G., Junr., Gisborne, Victoria, Australia. 
1901 Lyman, Henry H., M.A., F.R.G.S., 74, McTavish-street, Montreal, 
Canada. 

1906 McCarrison, D. L., Indian Police Forces, Madras Club, Madras. 

1887 M'Dougall, James Thomas, Dunolly, Alorden-road, Blachheath, S,E. 

1888 MACKINNON, P. W., Lynndale, Mussoorie, N.W.P., India. 

1900 Mackwood, The Hon. F. M., M.L.C., Colombo, Ceylon. 

1898 Maddison, T., South Bailey, Durham. 

1899 t Main, Hugh, B.Sc, Almondale, Buckingham-road, South Woodford, 

N.E. 

1905 Mally, Charles Wm., M.Sc, Graham's Town, Cape Colony. 

1887 Manders, Lieut.-Colonel Neville, R.A.M.C, F.Z.S., c/o Sir C. 

McGrigor, 25, Charles-street, St. James's- square, S.W. 
1892 Mansbridge, William, 4, Norwich-road, Waver tree, Liverpool. 

1894 f Marshall, Alick, Auchinraith, Bexley, S.O., Kent. 

1895 Marshall, Guy Anstruther Knox, 6, Chester-place, Hyde Park- 

square, W. 

1896 Marshall, P., M.A., B.Sc, F.G.S., University School of Mines, 

Dmhedin, Neiv Zealand. 



( XIX ) 

1856 t Marshall, William, V.M.H., F.R.H.S., AuchinraitJi, Bexley, S.O., 

Kent. 
1897 Martineau, Alfred H., Solihull, Birmingham. 

1895 Massey, Herbert, Ivy-Lea, Burnage, Didsbury, Manchester. 

1865 Mathew, Gervase F., F.L.S., Paymaster-in-chief, R.N., Lee House, 

Dovercourt, Harioich. 
1887 Matthews, Coryntlon, Stentaioay, Plymstoch, Plymouth. 
1900 Maxwell-Lefroy, H., Entomologist to the Government of India, 

Agricultural Institute, Pusa, Bengal. 
1899 May, Harry Haden, 12, Windsor Terrace, Plymouth. 

1904 Meade-Waldo, Geoffrey, Stoneivall Park, Edenhridge, Kent. 

1872 f Meldola, Professor Raphael, F.R.S., F.C.S., 6, Brunmoich- 
sqtiare, W.C. 

1885 Melvill, James Cosmo, M.A., F.L.S., Mcole Brace Hcdl, Shrewsbury. 

1887 Merrifield, Frederic, Vice-President, 14, Clifton-terrace, Brighton. 

1906 Merriman, Gordon, 96, Finchley-road, Hampstead, N.W. 

1905 Merry, Rev. W. Mansell, M.A., St. Michael's, Oxford. 

1888 Meyer-Darcis, G., c/o Sogin and Meyer, Wohleii, Sioitzerland. 
1880 Meyrick, EdAvard, B.A., F.Z.S., F.R.S., Thornhanger, Marlborough. 

1894 MiALL, Louis Compton, F.R.S., Norton Way, N. Letchworth. 
1883 Miles, W. H., The Ncv) Club, Calcutta. 

1906 Mitchell-Hedges, Frederic Albert, 42, Kensington Park Gardens,W. 

1905 Mitford, Robert Sidney, C.B., 35, Bedcliffe Square, S.W. 

1896 MoBERLY, J. C., M.A., Woodlands, Bassett, Southampton. 

1879 Monteiro, Dr. Antonio Augusto de Carvalho, 70, Rua do Alecrinar, 

Lisbon. 
1902 Montgomery, Arthur Meadows, 34, Shcdimar Gardens, Pembridge- 

road, North Acton, N. 
1853* Moore, Frederic, D.Sc, A.L.S., F.Z.S., 17, Maj^le-road, Penge, S.E. 

1899 Moore, Harry, 12, Lower-road, Rotherhithe. 

1907 Moore, Mrs. Catharine Maria, Holmefield, Oakholme-rd., Sheffield. 

1886 Morgan, A. C. F., F.L.S., 135, Oalaoood-court, Kensington, W. 

1889 t MoRiCE, The Rev. F. D., M.A., Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford, 

BrunswicJc, Mount Herman, Woking. 

1895 t MoRLEY, Claude, The Hill House, Monk's Soham, Suffolk. 

1907 Mortimer, Charles H., Wigmore, Holmxoood. 

1893 Morton, Kenneth J., 13, Blackford-road, Edinburgh. 

1900 Moser, Julius, 60, Bulow-strasse, Berlin. 

1882 MosLEY, S. L., The Museum and Technical College, Huddersfield. 

1907 MouLTON, John C, The Hall, Bradford-on-Avon, Wilts. 

1901 1 'M.viR,FredeTic'k,H.S.P.A.Experime7it Station, Honolulu, Oahu,H.T. 

1907 Mukhi, M. G., Hyderabad (Sind), India. 

1869tMuLLER, Albert, F.R.G.S., c/o Herr A. Mtiller-Mechel, Gren- 

zacherstrasse, 60, Basle, Switzerland. 
1872 f Murray, Lieut.-Col. H., 43, Cromwell Houses, Crom.well-road, S.W. 

1906 MuscHAMP, Percy A. H., Institut, Stdfa, nr. Zurich, Switzerland. 



( XX ) 

1903 Neave, S. a., B.A., Mill Green Park, Lujatestone. 

1896 Nesham, Robert, Utrecht House, Queen's-road, Clapham Park, S.W. 

1889 Nevinson, Basil George, M.A., F.Z.S., 3, Tedworth-square, 

Chelsea, S.W. 

1901 Nevinson, E. B., Morland, Cuhham, Surrey. 

1907 Newman, Leonard Woods, Bexley, Kent. 

1890 Newstead, R., Johnston Tropical Laboratory, University, Liverpool. 
1900 NiCHOLL, Mrs. M. De la B., Merthyr Matvr, Bridgend, Glamorganshire. 

1904 Nicholson, W. A., 36, Promenade, Portohello, N.B. 
1886 Nicholson, William E., School Hill, Lewes. 

190G Nix, John Ashburner, Tilgate, Crawley, Sussex. 
1893 Nonfried, A. F., Rakonitz, Bohemia. 

1878 Nottidge, Thomas, Ashford, Kent. 

1895 Nurse, Lt. -Colonel C. G., 33rd Punjabis, Jubbulpore, Central 
Provinces, India. 

1869 Oberthur, Charles, Rennes {Ille-et-Vila'me), France. 
1877 Oberthur, Rene, Rennes [Ille-et-Vilaine), France. 
1893 f Ogle, Bertram S., Steeple Aston, Oxfordshire. 

1893 Oliver, John Baxter, 22, Banelagli Villas, Hove, Brighton. 
1873 Olivier, Ernest, Ramillons, pres Moulins (Allier), France. 

1895 Page, Herbert 'E.,Bertrose, Gellatly-road, St. Catherine's Park, S.E. 
1898 Palliser, H. G., Hohnwood, Addlestone, Snrrey. 
1907 Pead, Clement H., Box 83, East Band, Transvaal. 

1883 P^RINGUEY, Louis, South African Museum, Cape Town, South Africa. 
1903 f Perkins, R. C. L., B.A., Board of Agriculture, Division of Ento- 
mology, Honohdu, Hawaii. 

1879 Perkins, Vincent Robert, Wotton-under-Edge. 
1907 t Perrins, J. A. D., Ardross Castle, by Alness, N.B. 

1900 Philips, The Rev. W. J. Leigh, The Cottage, Parhwood-road, 

Tavistock. 

1897 Phillips, Hubert C, M.R.C.S., L.S.A., 262, Gloucester-terrace, Hyde- 

park, W. 
1903 1 Phillips, Montagu A., F.R.G.S., F.Z.S., 22, Pei/ierto«-roac^, High- 
bury, New Park, N. 

1901 Pickett, C. P., 99, Datvlish-road, Leyton, Essex. 

1891 Pierce, Frank Nelson, 1, The Elms, Dingle, Liverpool. 
1901 PiFFARD, Albert, Felden, Boxmoor, Hemel Hempstead. 

1903 PiLCHER, Colonel Jesse George, I. M.S., F.R.C.S., 133, Gloucester- 
road, Kensington, S.W. 
1885 Poll, J. R. H. Neerwort van de, Driebergen, Netherlands. 

1870 t PORRITT, Geo. T., F.L.S., Magfield, Edgerton, Huddersfield. 

1884 t PouLTON, Professor Edward B., D.Sc, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 

F.Z.S., Hope Professor of Zoology in the University of Oxford, 
Wykehum House, Banbury-road, Oxford. 

1905 Powell, Harold, 7, Rue Mireille, Hyeres (Var), France. 



( xxi ) 

190G Pratt, H. C, Government Entomologist, Federated Malay States, 

Kwala L\impui\ Malaii States. 
1878 Price, David, 48, West-street, Horsham. 

1904 Priske, Eichard A. E., 9, Melbourne Avenne, West Enling. 
1893 Prout, Louis Beethoven, 246, Richmond -road, Dahton, N.E. 

1900 Eainbow, William J.. The Australian Museum, Sydney, N.S. W. 

1907 Eayward, Arthur Leslie, 3, Albert Mansions, Lansdowne Road, 

Croydon. 

1874 Eeed, E. C, Director del Museo de Concepcion, Goneepcion, Chile. 

1893 Eeid, Captain Savile G., late E.E., The Elms, Yalding, Maidstone. 
1898 Eelton, E. H., c/o Perkins and Co., Ltd., Brisbane, Queensland. 
1890 Eendlesham, The Eight Honble. Lord, Rendlesham Hall, Wood- 

liridge. 
1898 Eeuter, Professor Enzio, Helsingfors, Finland. 

1894 EiDiNG, William Steer, B.A., M.D., Bucherell Lodge, Honiton. 
1853 EiPON, The Most Honble. the Marquis of, K.G., D.C.L., F.E.S.,F.L.S., 

etc., 9, Chelsea Embanhment, S.W. 

1905 EoBiNSON, Herbert C, Curator of State Museum, Kuala Lumpur^ 

Selangor. 
1892 EOBINSON, Sydney C, 10, Inchmory-road, Catford, S.E. 
1869 1 EoBiNSON-DouGLAS, William Douglas, M.A., F.L.S., F.E.G.S., 

Orchardton, Castle Douglas. 

1886 EosE, Arthur J., Glanmor, Berkhamstead. 
1907 EosENBERG, W. F. H., 57, Haverstock-hill, N.W. 

1868 EoTHNEY, George Alexander James, Pembury, Tudor -road. Upper 

Norioood, S.E. 
1894 t Rothschild, The Honble. Nathaniel Charles, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S., 

148, Piccadilly, W. ; and Tring Park, Tring. 
1888 t Rothschild, The Honble. Walter, D.Sc, M.P., F.L.S., F.Z.S., 148, 

Piccadilly, W. ; and Tring Park, Tring. 
1890 EoDTLEDGE, G. B., Tam Lodge, Heads Nook, Carlisle. 

1887 Eowland-Brown, Henry, M.A., Secretary, Oxhey-grove, Harrow 

Weald. 
1903 EowLANDS, Osbert William, Lickey Grange, nr. Bromsgrove. 

1898 EussELL, A., Wilverley, Dale-road, Parley. 
1892 EusSELL, S, G. C, 19, Lombard-street, E.C. 

1899 Eyles, William E., B.A., 14, Arthur-street, Nottingham. 

1905 St. Quintin, W. H., Scampton Hall, Rillington, York. 

1906 Sampson, Major F. Winns, Senior Officers' Mess, Calabar, Southern 

Nigeria, and Junior Carlton Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 
1865 f Saunders, Edward, Vice-President, F.'R.ii.,F.L.S.,St. Ann's, Mount 

Hermon, Woking. 
1861 f Saunders, G. S., F.L.S., 20, Dents-road, Wandsworth Common, S.W. 
1886 Saunders, Prof. Wm., Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. 
1901 Schaus, W,, F.Z.S., Trentham House, Twickenham. 



( xxii ) 

1907 ScHMASSMAN, W., 2, Kiimoul-villati, Freezywater, Waltharn Cross, 

Herts. 
1881 ScOLLiCK, A. J., 8, Mayfield-ruad, Merton Park, Wimbledon. 
1864 Semper, George, Elopstock-strasse 23, Altona, Elbe, Germany. 
1862 Sharp, David, M.A., M.B., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Laionslde, 

Brockenhurst, Hants. ; and University Museum of Zoology and 

Comparative Anatomy, Cambridge. 
1902 Sharp, W. E., 9, Queen's-road, Soidh Norwood, S.E. 

1905 Sheldon, W. George, Youlgreave, Soxdh Croydon. 

1901 Shelford, Robert, M.A., F.L.S., C.M.Z.S., University Museum 

{Hope Department), Oxford. 
1883*tSHELLET, Capt. George Ernest, F.G.S., F.Z.S., 39, Egerton-yardens, 

S.W. 
1900 1 Shepheard-Walwyn, H. W., M.A., Doliohinnie, Kenley, Surrey. 
1887 Sich, Alfred, Carney House, Chiswick, W. 
1904 SiMMONDS, Hubert W., The Mansions, Wellington, New Zealand. 

1902 Sladen, Frederick William Lambart, The Fiis, Eipple, Dover. 
1904 Slipper, Rev. T. J. R. A., M.A., Tivetshall Eectory, Nortvich. 
1902 Sloper, Gerard Orby, Westro}) House, Hightvorth, Wilts. 
1907 Sly, Harold Baker, Bracldey, Enoll-road, Sidcup, Kent. 

1906 Smallman, Raleigh S., Wl-essil Lodge, Wimbledon Common, S.W. 
1901 Smith, Arthur, County Museum, Lincoln. 

1898 SoPP, Erasmus John Burgess, F.R.Met.S., 104, Liverpool-road, 

Birkdale, Lancashire. 
1906 Southcombe, Herbert W., J.P., 16, Stanford Avenue, Brighton. 
1885 South, Richard, 96, Dralejield-road, U2yper Tooting, S.W. 

1889 Standen, Richard S., F.L.S., Townhuids, Lindfield, Sussex. 

1898 Stares, C. L. B., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., TJie Limes, Swanley Junction, 
Kent. 

1890 Stearns, A. E., 99, Gloucester-terrace, Hyde-park, W. 

1898 Stebbing, Henry, Norham House, Sheen-road, Eichmond, Sthrrey. 

1889 Straton, C. R., F.R.C.S., West Lodge, Wilton, Salisbury. 

1896 Strickland, T. A. Gerald, Darlingworth House, Cirencester. 

1900 Studd, E. a. C., Kerremens, B.C. 

1895 Studd, E. F., M.A., B.C.L., Oxton, Exeter. 

1882 SwANZY, Francis, Stanley House, Granville-road, SevenoaJcs. 

1884 Swinhoe, Colonel Charles, M.A., F.L.S. , F.Z.S., 19, Cecil-court, 

Eedcliffe-Gardens, S.W. 
1894 Swinhoe, Ernest, G, Gunter stone- road, Kensington, W. 
1876 SwiNTON, A. H., c/o Mrs. Callander, Vineyard, Totnes. 

1893 Taylor, Charles B., Gap, Lancaster County, Penn., U.S.A. 

1903 Taylor, Thomas Harold, M.A., Yorkshire College, Leeds. 

1901 Thompson, Matthew Lawson, 20, Emerald- street, Saltburn-by-the-Sea. 
1007 TiLLYARD, R. J,, B.A., The Grammar School, Sydney, New South 

Wales. 



( xxiii ) 

1892 Thornley, The Eev. A., M.A., F.L.S., 17, Mapperley-road, 

Nott'tnghmn. 
1897 ToMLiN, J. E. le B., M.A., Stoneley, Alexandra-road, Reading. 
1907 ToNGE, Alfred Ernest, Aincroft, Reigate, Surrey. 
1907 Tragardh, Dr. Ivar, The University, Upsala, Sweden. 
1859t Trimen, Roland, M.A.,F.E.S., F.L.S., 133, Woodstock-road, Oxford. 
1906 Tryhane, George E., St. Ann's, Trinidad, British West Indies. 
1906 TuLLOCH, Captain James Bruce Gregorie, The King's Oivn Yorkshire 

Light Infantry ; c/o Messrs. Cox & Co., 16, CJiaring Gross, S.W. 
1895 TuNALEY, Henry, 13, Begmead-avenue, Streatham, S.W. 

1 897 TuNSTALL, Wilmot, Caerleon, Greeulatv Drive, Paisley. 

1898 Turner, A. J., M.D., Widsham Terrace, Brisbane, Australia. 

1893 Turner, Henry Jerome, 98, Dr akef ell-road, St. Catherine's Pari; 

Hatcham, S.E. 
1906 Turner, Roland E., 21, Emperor's Gate, S.W. 

1894 Turner, Thomas, Cullompton, Devon. 

1886 TuTT, James W., Rayleigh Villa, Westcombe Hill, S.E. 

1904 Tylecote, Edward F. S., M.A., Union Cluh, Trafalgar-square, S.W. 

1893 Urich, Frederick William, C.M.L.S., Port of Spain, Trinidad, 
British West Indies. 

1904 t Vaughan, W., Cocogalla, Madulsima, Ceylon. 

1866 Verrall, George Henry, ViCE-PRKSlDENT,Sussex Lodge, Neiomarhet. 

1897 Vice, William A., M.B., 19, Belvoir-street, Leicester. 

1895 Wacher, Sidney, F.R.C.S., Dane John, Canterbury. 
1901 Waddington, John, Park Holme, Harehill-avenue, Leeds. 

1899 Wade, Albert, 52, Frenchioood-street, Preston, Lancashire. 

1897 Wainwright, Colbran J., 45, Handsworth Wood-road, Handsworth , 

Birmingham. 
1878 Walker, James J., M.A., R.N., F.L.S., Secretary, Aorangi, 

Lonsdtde-road, Summertoicn, Oxford. 
1863 1 Wallace, Alfred Russel, D.C.L., Oxon., F R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., 

Broadstone, Wimborne, Dorset. 
1866 t Walsingham, The Right Honble. Lord, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., 

F.Z.S., High Steward of the University of Cambridge, Merton 

Hall, Thetford ; and 66a, Eaton-square, S.W. 
1906 Walton, Captain H. J., M.B., F.R.C.S., Indian Medical Service ; 

c/o Messrs. King, King & Co., Bombay. 
1886 Warren, Wm., M.A., 33, Western-road, Tring, Herts. 
1869 Waterhouse, Charles 0., President, Ingleside, Avenue-gardens, 

Acton, W. ; and British Museum {Natihral History), Cromivell- 

road, S.W. 
1901 Waterhouse, Gustavus A., B.Sc, F.C.S., Rogcd Mint, Sydney, New 

South Wales, Australia. 
1900* Watkins, C. J., ^' Belle Vue," Watledge, Nailsworth, Gloucestershire. 



( xxiv ) 

1904 Watson, Rev. W. Beresford, St. Martins Vicarage, St. Philip, 
Barbados, W. Indies. 

1893 Webb, John Cooper, 218, Upland-road, Dtdwich, S.E. 
1876 t Western, E. Young, 36, Lancaster Gate, Hyde Park, W. 

1886 Wheeler, Francis D., M.A., LL.D., Paragon House School, Norwich. 

1906 Wheeler, The Eev. George, M.A., Briarfield, Guildford. 

1907 White, Harold J., 42, Nevern-sq., Kensington, S.AV. 

1906 WiCKAR, Oswin S., Crescent Cottage, Cambridge Place, Colombo, 
Ceylon. 

1903 Wiggins, Clare A., M.R.C.S., Entebbe, Uganda. 

1896 WiLEMAN, A. E., c/o H.B.M.'s Consul, Anping, Formosa. 

1904 WiNTERSCALE, J. C, F.Z.S., Karangari, Kedah, c/o Messrs. Patterson, 

Simons and Co., Penang, Straits Settlement. 

1894 WoLLEY-DoD, F. H., Millarville P. 0., Alberta, N.W.T., Canada. 
1900 Wood, H., 9, Church-road, Ashford, Kent. 

1881 Wood, The Rev. Theodore, The Vicarage, Lyford-road, Wandsworth 
Common, S.W. 

1905 WooDBRiDGE,Francis Charles, The Briars, Gerrard's Cross, S. 0.,Buclcs. 

1891 Wroughton, R. C, Inspector General of Forests, Indian Forest 

Service, c/o Army and Navy Co-operative Society, Ltd., 105, 
Victoria-street, S.W. 

1888 Yerbury, Colonel John W., late R.A., F.Z.S., Army and Navy 
Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 

1892 YoUDALE, William Henry., F.R.M.S., Daltonleigh, Cochermouth. 
1904 * Young, L. C. H., c/o Henry S. King & Co., 65, Cornhill, E.G. 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY 

During the Year 1907. 



AnLERZ (Gottfrid). Lefnadsforhallandeu och lustiukter iuom Familjerna 
Pompilidse och Sphegid«, II. 
[Kungl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handlinger, Baud XLII., No. 1.] 

The Author. 
Apiahies, Report of Inspectors of. 

[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Bull. No. 70, 1907.] U- S. Dept. Af/ric. 

AuEiviLLius (Chr.). Svensk Insektfauua : Hymenoptera Aculeata. Stock- 
holm, 1905. 

Svensk Insektfauna : Hymenoptera : Aculeata, Pompilidse. Uppsala, 
1906. 

Nagra iakttagelser ofver iusekter fran trakteu af Varberg. 
[Entomologisk Tidskrift, 1907.] 

Carl vou Linne sasom entomolog. Uppsala, 1907. 

Neue westafrikanische Cerambycideu des Deutschen Eutomologischen 

National-Museums. (Col.). 
[Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. 1907.] 

Diagnosen neuer Lepidopteren aus Afrika. 
[Arkiv for Zoologi, Vol. Ill, No. 19.] 

Neue oder wenig bekannte Coleoptera Longicornia. 
[Arkiv for Zoologi, Vol. III.] 

Ueber einige formen des Weibcheus von Papilio dardanus, Brown. 
[Arkiv for Zoologi, Vol. III.] I'he Author. 

Austen (Ernest E.). British Blood-Sucking Flies, London, 1906. 

i?y Exchange. 

Ball (E. D.). The Genus Evtettix. 

[Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. , Vol. XII, 1907.] The Author. 

Banks (N.). Catalogue of the Acarina, or Mites, of the United States. 
[Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XXXII, 1907.] 

The Smithsonian Institution. 

Baegagli (P.). Contribuzioni alio studio degli insetti che danneggiano i 
seminella Colonia Eritrea. 
[Agricoltura Coloniale, Ann. I, Fa.sc. 2, 1907.] Tlie Author. 

Beeicht liber die wissenschaftlichen Leistungen im Gebiete der En- 
tomologie wahrend des Jahres 1900-1905. Published in 1903- 
1907. By Drs. G. Seidlitz, R. Lucas, Th. Kahlgatz and B. 
"WandoUeck. Purchased. 

Bbblese (Antonio). Gli Insetti, Vol. I, Pts. 1 to 24, 1906-1907. 

By Exchange. 

Bingham (Lt.-Col. C. T.). The Fauna of British India: Butterflies, Vols. 
I and II. The India Ofjice. 



( xxvi ) 

BioLOGiA Centrali-Ameeicana. Au account of its progress, by P. P, 
Calvert. 
[Ent. News, Dec. 1905.] G. C. Champion. 

[See GoDMAN (F. D.).] 

BisHOPP (T. C.) and Jones (0. R.). The Cotton Bollworm. 

[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Bull. 1907.] U. S. Dept. Agric. 

Bode (Wilhelm). Die Schmetterlings fauna. 

[IVIitteiluugeu aus den Roemer Museum, Hildesheim, Dec. 1907.] 

The Author. 

Bolivar (I.). Especies Nuevas 6 criticas de Oi-topteros. 
[Anales de la Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., XVI, 1887.] 

El geuero Tfeniopoda, Stal. 

[Boletin de la Soc. E.sp. Hist. Nat., 1901.] 

Contributions a I'etude des Phaueropterinre de la Nouvelle-Guin^e. 
[Termes. Fiizetek, Vol. XXV, 1902.] The Author. 

Brants (A.). Nederlandsche Vlinders. Beschreveu en Affebeeld. Derde 
Serie. Pts. I to IV. Gravenhage, 1907. Purchased. 

Brown (Henry Hilton). By Meadow, Grove and Stream, 1907. 

The Author. 

Bruner (L.). [See Godman (F. D.). Biologia Centrali-Americana. ] 

Brunner von Wattenwyl (K.) nnd Redtenbacher (Jos.). 
Die Insekten familie der Phasmiden. 

I Lief. Bogen 1-23 und Tafel I-VI. 
[Phasmidte Areolatte, 1906.] 

II Lief. Bogen 24-43 und Tafel VII-XV. 

[Phasmida3 Anareolata3, 1907.] Purchased. 

Buechell (Wm. John). [See Poulton (E. B.).] 

BusCK (August). Revision of the American Moths of the Genus Argyresthia. 
[Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XXXII, 1907.] 

The Smithsonian Institution. 

Butler (E. J.) and Lefroy (A. M.). Report on Trials of the South African 
Locust Fungus in India. 
[Agric. Research Inst., Pusa Bull. No. 5, 1907.] The Authors. 

Calvert (P. P.). [See Godman (F. D.). Biologia Centrali-Americana.] 

Casey (Thos. L.). A Revision of the American Components of the Tene- 
brionid Sub-Family Tentyriinse. 
[Proc. Washington Acad, of Sciences, 1907.] The Atdhor. 

Caudell (A. N.). Orthoptera from South- Western Texas. Collected by 
the Museum Expeditions of 1903 and 1904. 
[Brooklyn Inst, of S. & Art., Bull. Vol. I, No. 4.] The Author. 

On some Earwigs (Forficulida) collected in Guatemala by 

Messrs. Schwarz and Barber. 
[Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1907.] The Smithsonian Institution. 

The Decticinsg (A group of Orthoptera) of North America. 

[U. S. Dept. of Agric. , Bull. 1907.] U. S. Dept. Agric. 

Champion (G. C). Itinerary of his Travels in Central America (1879-1883). 
[Entom. News, 1907.] The Author. 

[See GoDjiAN (F. D.). Biologia Centrali-Americana.] 



( xxvii ) 

Chittenden (F. H.). The Asparagus Miner. Notes on the Asparagus 
Beetles. 
[U. S. Dept. of Agric.Bull. 66, Pt. 1, 1907.] 
Water-Cress Sowbug and Water-Cress Leaf-Beetle. 
[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Bull. 66, Pt. II, 1907.] 
Some Insects injurious to Small Crops : The Cranberry Spanworm ; 

the Striped Garden Caterpillar. 
[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Bull, m, Pt. Ill, 1907.] 
Colorado Potato Beetle. 
[U. S. Dept. of Agric. , Circular No. 87, 1907.] U. S. Dept. Ayric. 

CoCKERELL (T. D. A.). An Enumeration of the Localities in the Florissant 
Basin from which Fossils were obtained in 1906. Fossil Dragon- 
Hies from Florissant, Colorado. 

[Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Feb. 1907.] 

Some Coleoptera and Arachnida from Florissant, Colorado, 1907. 

[Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. XXIII. ] 

Some Fossil Arthropods from Florissant, Colorado, 1907. 

[Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. XXIII.] 

The Scale Insects of the Date Palm, 1907]. 

[University of Arizona, Agric. Exp. Station Bull. No. 56.] 

The Author. 

Cotes (E. C). Miscellaneous Notes from the Entomological Section. 
[Indian Museum Notes, Vol. Ill, No. 6, 1896.] 

The India Office. 

Distant (W. L.). Fauna of British India: Ehynchota, 3 Vols., 1902-1906, 
8vo. The India Office. 

A Synonymic Catalogue of Homoptera-CicadidEe, Vol. I, 1906. 

By Exchange. 
Insecta Transvaaliensia. Pt. VIII. Purchased. 

Dedce (Hamilton H.). Descriptions of some New Butterflies from Tropical 

[Trans. Ent. See. Lond., 1907.] 

Neotropical Lycsenidre, with descriptions of New Species. 

[Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1907.] The Author. 

(Herbert). Descriptions of some New Species of Heterocera from 

Tropical South America. 
[Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1906.] The Author. 

Dyae (H. G.). Descriptions of New Species of Moths of the Family 
CochUdiidte. 
[Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XXXII, 1907.] 
Report on the Mosquitoes of the Coast Region of California, with 

descriptions of New Species. 
[Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XXXII, 1907.] 

Tlie Smithsonian Institution. 

FoEBES (R. H.). The Extermination of Date-Palm Scales. 1907. 

[University of Arizona, Agric. Exp. Station Bull. No. 56.] 

The Author. 

FoEEL (A.). Formiciden aus dem Naturhistorischen Museum in Hamburg. 
[Mitteil. Naturhistorischen Mus., Vol. XXIV.] 
Ameisen von Madagaskerden Comoren imd Ostafrika. Stuttgart, 

1907. 
Formicides do Musee National Hongrois. 
[Annales Musei Nationalis Hungarici, Tome V, 1907.] 
La Faune Malgache des Fourmis. 
[Revue Suisse de Zool., Tome XV, 1907.] 
Nova Speco kaj nova gentonomo de Formikoj. 
[Internacia Scienca Revuo, 1907.] The Author. 



( xxviii ) 

Froggatt (W. W.). Australian Insects. Sydney, 1907. Purchased. 

Garcia (F.). Codling Moth Investigations during 1903-1904. 
[New Mexico Coll. of Agric, Bull. No. 65, May 1907.] 

The Author. 
GiRAULT (A. A. ). The Lesser Peach Borer. 

[U. S. Dept. of Agric., Bull. 68, Pt. IV, 1907.] 

C S. Dept. Agric. 

GoDMAN (F. D.). Biologia Centrali-Amerieana, Pts. CXCV-CXCVIII. 
Insecta by L. Bruner, P. P. Calvert, G. C. Champion and K. 
Jordan. The Editor. 

Notes on the American Hesperiidae described by Plotz. 
[Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 7, Vol. XX, 1907.] The Author. 
Grassi (B.). Ricerche sui Flebotomi. Roma, 1907. The Author. 

Green (E. E.). Description of a New Coccid. 
[Indian Museum Notes, Vol. V, No. 3.] 

Remarks on Indian Scale Insects (Coccidts), with descriptions of New 

Species. 
[Indian Museum Notes, Vol. V, No. 3.] The Author. 

and Mann (H. H.). The Coccidre attacking the Tea Plant in India 

and Ceylon. 
[Mem. of the Dept. of Agric. in India, Vol. I, No. 5, 1907.] 

The Authors. 

GuMPPENBERG (C. F. von). Systema Geometrarum zon» temperatioris 
septentrionalis. Th. IX. 
[Nova Acta Akad. Leopold. LXIV.] By E.vchanye. 

Hampson (Sir Geo. F.). Catalogue of the Noctuidse in the collection of the 
British Museum, Vol. VI, and one Vol. of Plates, 1906. 

By Exchange. 

Herms CW. B.). An Ecological and Exjjerimental Study of Sarcophagidse 
with relation to Lake Beach Debris. 
[Journ. Exper. Zoology, Vol. IV, 1907.] The Author. 

Hetden (L. v.), Reitter (E.), und Weise (J.). Catalogus Coleopterorum 
Em'opje, Caucasi de Armenipe Ros.sicaj. Paskau, 1906. 

Furchased. 

Hinds (W. E.). An Ant Enemy of the Cotton Boll Wee\'il. 
[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Bull. No. 63, Pt. Ill, 1907.] 

U. S. Dept. Ayric. 

Hine (J. S.). Habits and Life Histories of some Flies of the Family 

[U. S. Dept. of Agric, 1906.] U. S. Dept. Ayric. 

Hodgkins (H. E.). [See Parrott (P. J.).] 

Hooker (W. A.). The Tobacco Thrips. 

[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Bull. No. 65, 1907.] U. S. Dept. Ayric. 
[See Hunter (W. D.).] 

Hopkins (A D.). Additional data on the Locust Borer. 

[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Bull. No. 58, Pt. Ill, 1907.] 

Pinhole injury to girdled Cypress in the South Atlantic and Gulf 

States. 
[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Circular No. 82, 1907.] 

The Locust Borer and methods for its control. 
[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Circular No. 83, 1907.J 

The White Pine Weevil. 

[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Circular No. 90, 1907.] 

U. S. Dept. Ayric. 



( xxix ) 

Howard (L. O.)- Mites and Lice on Poultry. 

[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Circular No. 92, 1907.] 

New Genera and Species of Aphelininse. 

[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Techn. Ser. No. 12, Pt. IV, 1907.] 

The Gipsy Moth and how to control it. 

[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Farmer's Bull. 257, 1907.] 

U. iS. Bept. Ayric. 

Hunter (W. D.). Note on the Occurrence of the N. American Fever Tick 
on Sheep. 
[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Circular No. 91, 1907.] 

The most important step in the Control of the P3oll Weevil. 
[U. S. Dept. of Agric, No. 95, 1907.] U. S. Dept. Agric. 

and Hooker (W. A.). Noi'th-American Fever Tick. 

[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Bull. No. 72, 1907.] U. S. Dept. Agric. 

HuTTON (F. W.). The Lesson of Evolution. 2nd Ed., 1907. 

Tlie Author. 

J.'iGERSKiOLD (L. A.). Results of the Swedish Zoological Expedition to 
Egypt and the White Nile, 1901 : No. 10a, Coleoptera. 
[By E. Mjoberg, A. Fauvel, A. Grouvelle, M. Pic, H. d'Orbigny, 
E. Brenske, F. Ohaus, C. Kerremans, E. Fleutiaux, E. Olivier, 
S. Schenkling, P. Lesne, H. Gebien, Chr. Aurivillius, and 
J. Weise.] 

L. A . Jiigerskiold, 
Jones (C. R.). [See Bishopp (H.).] 

Jordan (K.). [See Godman (F. D.). Biologia Centrali-Americana.] 

Kellogg (V. L.). Is there Determinate Variation ? 
[Science, N. S., Vol. XXIV, 1906.] 

Second Collection of Mallophaga from Birds of the Galapagos Islands 

and Neighbouring Waters. 
[Trans. Amer. Entom. Soc, XXXII, 1906.] 

Some Silkworm Moth Reflexes. 

[? Proc. Cahf. Acad. Sci., 1906.] T/)e Author. 

Kerremans (CI.). Monographie des Buprestides, Vol. I, Pts. XIII to XVI, 
Vol. II, Pts. I to XX. Furchased. 

Kershaw (J. C. ). Butterflies of Hong Kong and S. E. China, Pts. I to VI 
1905-1907. Furchased. 

Kerville (Henri G. de). Note sur accouplement ceufs et amour Maternel 
des Forficulides. Rouen, 1907. The Author. 

KiRBY (W. F.). Catalogue of Synonymic Orthoptera. Vol. II, Orthoptera 
Saltatoria. Pt. I (Achetidse et Phasgonuridse), 1906. 

By Exchange. 

Lateeille (Citoyen). Precis de caracteres generiques des insectes disposes 
dans un Ordre Naturel. 
[Reprint, 1907.] Furchased. 

Lefroy (H. M.). a Preliminary Account of the Biting Flies of India. 
Calcutta, 1907. The Author. 

The Bombay Locust {Acridium succinctmn, Linn.). 
[Mem. Dept. of Agriculture in India, Vol. I, Pt. I. 1907.] 
[See Butler (E.J.).] The Author. 



( XXX ) 

LiNNE (LiNN.'EUs) (Carl von). Classes Plantarum. Uppsala, 1907. 
[Reprint of the Original Edition.] 
Flora Lapponica. Uppsala, 1905. 
[Reprint of the Original Edition.] 
Sasom Naturf Och Liikare. Uppsala, 1907. 
[Reprint of the Original Edition.] 
Valda Smarra Skriftir. Uppsala, 1906. 
[Reprint of the Original Edition.] Univ. of Uppsala. 

LoNGSTAFF (G. B.). Lepidoptera and other Insecta observed in the parish 
of Mortehoe, N. Devon, 3rd Edit. To which is added a list of 
Lepidoptera noted in Lundy Island by the same. Together with 
a first list of the Land and Fresh Water Mollusca of Mortehoe, 
by Mrs. G. B. Longstaff (Jane Donald). Tlie Author. 

Manx (H. H.). [See Gkeen (E. E.).] 

Marchal (Paul). La Cecidomyie des Poires {Diplosis {Contarinin) pirivora, 
Riley). 
[Ann. Soc. Entom. France, Vol. LXXVI, 1907.] 

Rapport sur la teigne de la Betterave et sur les degats cxerces par 

cet insecte en 1906. 
[Bull. Mensuel del'Office de renseignements agricoles, Janvier 1907.] 

La Lutte centre la Mouche des olives (Daciis ohfe). 

[Bull. Mensuel de I'OflEice de renseignements agricoles, Aoiit 1907.] 

Sur le Ly(jdlus epilachnse, Giard (Parasitisme ; erreur de rinstinct ; 

Evolution). 
[Bull. Soc. Ent. France, 1907.] 

L'Acario.se des Avoines ou Maladie des Avoines Vrillees. 
[Ann. de L'Institut National Agronomique, Ser. 2, Vol. VI.] 

The Author. 

et Vercieb (J.). Un nouvel enuemi du Framboisier {Agrilus 

chrysoderes, var. riihicola). 
[BuU. Mensuel de TOffice de renseignements agricoles, Decembre 
1906.] The Authors. 

Mablatt (C. L.). The Bedbug. 

[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Circular No. 47, 1907.] 

U. S. Dept. Agric. 
Morgan (A. C). The Cotton Stalk-Borer. 

[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Bull. No. 63, Pt. VII, 1907.] 

A Predatory Bug reported as an enemy of the Cotton Boll Weevil. 
[U. 8. Dept. of Agric, No. 63, Pt. IV, 1907.] 

U. S. Dept. Agric. 

Morley (Claude). Ichneumonologia Britaunica : The Ichneumons of Great 
Britain. Vol. II, 8vo. Plymouth, 1907. Purchased. 

Morrill (A. W.). The Strawberrv Weevil in the S. Central States in 1905. 
[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Bull. No. 63, Pt. VI.] 

U. S. Dept. Agric. 

Moulton (Dudley). Contribution to our knowledge of the Thysanoptera of 
California. Washington, 1907. The Author. 

The Pear Thrips. 

[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Bull. No. 68, Pt. I, 1907.] 

U. S. Dept. Agric. 

Newstead (R.). Preliminary Report on the Habits, Life-cycle and Breeding 
Places of the Common House Fly (Musca domestica, Linn.) as 
observed in the city of Liverpool, with suggestions as to the 
best means of checking its increase. Liverpool, 1907. 

The Attthor. 



( xxxi ) 

Olivier (Ernest). A List of the Works by Guillaume Antoiue Olivier, aud 
of the Biographical Notices concerning him, 25 in all. 

Descriptions de Deux JSTouvelles Especes de Lampyridse. 
[Bull. Soc. Ent. France, 1883.] 

Lampyrides Nouveaux ou peu connus. 
[Revue d'Entomologie, 1883.] 

Lampyrides Nouveaux ou peu connus (Deuxieme Memoire). 
[Revue d'Entomologie, 1883.] 

Les Lampyrides d'Olivier dans I'Entomologie et I'Encyclopedie 

Methodique. 
[Revue d'Entomologie, 1885.] 

Nouvelle Espece de Lampyride, Liiciola hirticcpf. 

[Ann. Mus. Civico di Storia Nat. Genova, Ser. 2, Vol. VI, 1888.] ; 

Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regione vicine : Lampyrides. 
[Ann. Mus. Civico di Storia Nat. Genova, Ser. 2, Vol. X, 1891.] 

Descriptions de deux nouvelles especes du genre Luciola. 
[Ann. Mus. Civico di Storia Nat. Genova, Ser. 2, Vol. X, 1892.] 

Description d'une nouvelle espece de Lampyride du Chili. 
[Actes Soc. Scieut. Chili, Tome IV, 1894]. 

Description d'un Lampyris Nouveau d'Algerie. 
[Bull. Soc. Ent. France, 1894, No. 18.] 

Descriptions d'especes nouvelles de Lampyrides. 
[Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1894.] 

Lampyrides rapportes des lies Batu par H. Raap. 

[Ann. Mus. Civico di Storia Nat. Genova, Ser. 2, Vol. XVIII, 1897.] 

Les Lampyrides des Antilles. 

[Report of the International Congress of Zoology. Cambridge, 

1898.] 
Malacodermidae. 
[Expedition Antarctique Beige, 1897-1899, Anvers, 1906.] 

Revision des Coleopteres Lampyrides des Antilles et description des 

especes nouvelles. 
[Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1899.] 

Contribution a I'etude des Lampyiides. 
[Bull. Soc. Ent. France, 1899.] 

Les Lampyrides typiques du Museum. 
[Bull. Mus. d'Hist. Nat., 1899, No. 7.] 

Voyage de M. E. Simon an Venezuela (Decembre 1887-Aout-1888) : 

Lampyrides. 
[Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1900.] 

Description d'un Lampja'ide Nouveau de Borneo. 
[Bull. Soc. Ent. France, 1900.] 

Contribution a I'etude de la faune entomologique de Sumatra: 

Lampyrides determines et decrits. 
[Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., Tome XLIV, 1900.] 

Catalogue Synonymique et Systematique des especes de Luciola 
et Genres Voisins. Moulins, 1902. 

Coleopteres Lampyrides recueillis aux environs de Tokio (Japan) par 

M. le Dr. Harmand. 
[Bull. Mus. d'Hist. Nat., 1902, No. 3.] 

Lampyrides nouveaux de Musee de Bruxelles. 
[Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., Tome XLVII, 1903.] 

Descriptions de Lampyrides Nouveaux. 

[Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., Vol. XLIX, 1905.] The Author. 



( xxxii } 

Olivier (Ernest) — {continued). 

Essai sur la division de genre Plwtinvs, Casteln.: Macrolampis, 

Motsch. 
[Ann. Soc. But. France, 1905.] 

Coleopteres Lampyride.s captures a Dardjilling par M. le Dr. 

Harmand. 
[Bull. Mus. d'Hist. Nat., 1905, No. 7.] 

Lampyrides captures par M. L. Fea dans I'Afrique occidentale. 
[Ann. Mus. Civico di Storia Nat. Geneva, Ser. 3, Vol. II, 1906.] 

Collections Maurice de Rothschild (Afrique orientale anglaise et 

Madagascar). lusectes : Lampyrides. 
[Bull. Mus. d'Hist. Nat., 1906, No. 7.] 

Collections recueillies en Perse par M. de Morgan. Coleopteres : 

Lampyrides. 
[Bull. Mus. d'Hist. Nat., 1907, No. 7.] The Author. 

OsHANiN (B.). Verzeichnis der Palsearktischen Hemipteren. II Band. 
Homoptera. II Lieferung. 
[Ann. Mus. Zool. de I'Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersburg, Band XII, 
1907.] The Author. 

Paeeott (P. J.), HoDGKiss (H. E.), and Schoene (W. J.). Apple and Pear 
Mites. 
[N. York Agric. Exp. Station, Bull. 1906.] The Authors. 

Pierce (W. Dwiglit). Notes on the Biology of Certain Weevils related to 
the Cotton Boll Weevil. 
[U. S. Dept. of Agric., Bull. No. 63, Pt. II.] 

Notes on the Economic importance of Sowbugs. 
[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Bull. No. 64, Pt. II, 1907.J 

U. S. Dept. Agric. 

PouLTON (Edward B.). William John Burchell. (The materials of a lecture 
delivered before the British Association in the Town Hall, Cape 
Town, Aug. 17, 1905.) 
[Reprinted from Report of the British and S. African Assoc, 1905.] 

The Author. 
Phatt (F. C). Notes on the Pepper Weevil. 

[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Bull. No. 63, Pt. Y, 1907.] 

U. S. Dept. Acjric. 
QuAiNTANCE (A. L.). The Trumpet Leaf-miner of the Apple. 
[U. S. Dept. of Agric, BuU. No. C8, Pt. Ill, 1907.] 

More important Aleyi-odidse infesting Economic Plants. 
[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Misc. Papers, No. 12, Pt. V, 1907.] 

Aphides affecting the Apple. 

[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Circular No. 81,1907.] 

The Spring Canker- Worm. 

[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Bull. No. 68, Pt. II, 1907.] 

U. 8. Dept. Ayric, 

and Shear (C.L.). Insect and Fungous enemies of the Grape east 

of the Rocky Mountains. 
[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Farmers' Bull. No. 284, 1907.] 
[See Scott (W. M.).] U. S. Dept. Agric. 

Redtenbachee (Jos.). [See Beunneb von Wattenwyl (K.).] 

Reitter (E.) [See Heyden (L. v.).] 

Rye (Bertram George). Handbook of the British Macro-Lepidoptera. Parts 
1 to 4. London, 1895. (All published.) Purchased. 



( xxxiii ) 

Sanders (J. G.)- The Terrapin Scale. 

[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Circular No. 88, 1907.] 

U. S. Dept. Agric. 

Sanderson (E. Dwight). Hibernatiou and Development of the Cotton Boll 
Weevil. 
[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Bull. No. G3, Ft. I, 1907.] 

U. S. Dept. Agric. 

Saunders (Edward). Wild Bees, Wasps and Ants, and other Stinging 
Insects. London, 1907. The Author. 

ScH.EFrER (C). New Bruchidse, with notes on known species and list of 
species known to occur at Brownsville, Texas, and in the 
Huachuca Mts., Arizona. 
[Mus. of the Brooklyn lust, of Arts and Sciences. Science Bull., 
Vol. I, No. 110, 1907.] The Author. 

Schneider (J. Sparre). Saltdalens Lepidopterfauna. Tromso, 1907. 

H. Boxvhind- Brown. 

ScHOENE (W. J.). Poplar and Willow Borer. 

[N. York Exp. Agric. Station, Bull. 1907.] The Author. 

[See Paerott (P. J.).] 

Scott {W. M.) and Quaintance (A. L.). Spraying for Apple Disea.ses and 
the Codling Moth in the Ozarks. 
[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Farmers' Bull. No. 283, 1907.] 

U. S. Dept. Agric. 

Selys-Longchamps (Baron Edm.). Collections Zoologiques. Trichopteren. 
Fasc. VI, 1907. Cordulines. Fasc. XVII, 1906. 

Purchasted . 

Shear (C. L.). [See Quaintance (A. L. ).] 

SiLVESTRi (F.). Descrizioue di un novo genere di Insetti Apterigoti rappre- 
sentante di un novo ordine. 
[BoUettino scuola Superiore d'Agricoltura di Portici, Vol. I.] 

The Author. 

South (R.). The Moths of the British Isles. First Series: Sphingidae— 
Noctuidaa. London, 1907. Purchased. 

Swedish Zoological Expedition to Egypt and the White Nile, 1901. 
[See Jagerskiold (L. A.).] 

Tower (W. L.). An Investigation of Evolution in Chrysomelid Beetles of 
the genus Leptinotarsa. 8vo, Washington, 1906. 

The Author, 

TuTT (J. W.). British Butterflies, Vol. I. London, 1905-6. 

Purchased. 

Verciee (J.). [See Marchal (Paul).] 

Walker (J. J.). Preliminary List of Coleoptera observed in the neighbour- 
hood of Oxford from 1819 to 1906. 
[Ashmolean Nat. Hist. Soc. Rep., 1906.] The Author. 

Walsingham (Lord). Description of New North-American Tineid Moths, 
with a generic table of the Family Blastobasidse. 
[Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1907.] The Smithsonian Institution. 

Warburton (C). Ticks infesting Domesticated Animals in India. 

[Imp. Dept. Agric, India, Bull. 6, 1907.] The Author. 

Weber (S. E.). Mutation in Mosquitoes. Lancaster, Pa., 1907. 

Polygenesis in Eggs of the Culicidae, 1907. The Author. 



( xxxiv ) 

Webster (F. M.). The Chinch Bug. 

[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Bull. No. 69, 1907.] 

The Corn Leaf -Aphis and Corn Root-Aphis. 
[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Circular No. 81, 1907.] 

The Grasshopper problem and Alfalfa culture. 
[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Circular No. 84, 1907.] 

The Spring Grain- Aphis or so-called Green Bug. 
[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Circular No. 95, 1907.] 

U. S. Dept. A (J vie. 
Weise (J.). [See Heyden (L. V.).] 

White (G. F.). The Cause of American Foul Brood. 
[U. S. Dept. of Agric, Circular No. 94, 1907.] 

U. S. Dept. Ayric. 

Williamson (E. B.). The Dragonflies (Odouata) of Burma and Lower 
Siam. 
[Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1907.] The Smithsonian Institution. 



( XXXV ) 



Periodicals and Publications of Societies. 
AFRICA. 

Cape Town. South African Philosophical Transactions. Vol. XIII, 
pp. 289-546. The Societi/. 



AMERICA (NORTH). 

CANADA. 

London-, Ontario. The Canadian Entomologist. Vol. XXXIX, 1907. 

Bi/ Exchanye. 

NOVA SCOTIA. 

Halifax. Proceedings and Transactions of the Nova Scotia Institute of 
Science. Vol. XI, Part II. The Institute. 

UNITED STATES. 

Albany. New York State Museum. Keport for 1904-190(3. Tlic Museum. 

Boston. Boston Natural Historj' Society. Proceedings. Vol. XXXIII, 
Nos. 3-12. By Exchange. 

Davenport, Iowa. Academy of Natural Sciences. Proceedings. Vols. I-XI, 
and Vol. XII, Parts 1 and 2. 1867-1907. 

The Academy. 

New York. New York Entomological Society. Journal, Vol. XV, 1907. 

Furchased. 

Philadelphia. Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Proceedings. 
1906, Part 3 ; 1907, Parts 1 and 2. By Exchange. 

Entomological News, Vol. XVIII, 1907. By Exchange. 

Washington. Smithsonian Institution. Miscellaneous Collections. Vol. 
II, Parts 2 and 3 ; III, Parts 3 and 4 ; IV, Part 1, 1907. 

The Smithsonian Institution. 

United States National Museum. Proceedings. Vol. XXXII, 1907. 

U. S. Nat. JIus. 

Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Vol. 
VIII, Parts 3 and 4, 1907. By Purchase. 



AMERICA (SOUTH). 

WEST INDIES. 

Barbados. West Indian Bulletin. The Journal of the Imperial Agricul- 
tural Department for the West Indies. Vol. VIII, Parts 1-3. 

Agricultural News. Vol. V, 1906. 

The Agricultural Department. 



( xxxvi ) 



ASIA. 

INDIA. 

BojfB.VY. Natural History Society. Journal. Vol. XVII, Nos. 2-4, 1906-7. 

By Exchange. 

Calcutta. Imperial Department of Agriculture. Annual Report 1904-05. 
1906. The Bejmrtment. 

JAPAN. 

ToKio. Bulletin of the Imperial Central Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Japan. Yol. I, No. 2, 1907. The Agriadtural Station. 



AUSTRALASIA. 

New Zealand. New Zealand Institute. Transactions and Proceedings. 
Vol. XXXIX, 1906. The Institute. 

Perth. Journal Agricultural Department of West Australia. Vol. XV, 
1907. The Society. 

Sydney. Liuuean Society of New South Wales. Proceedings, 1907. 

By Excliange. 
Australian Naturalist. Vol. I, Parts 2 and 3, 1906. 



EUROPE. 

AUSTPJA-HUNGARY. 

Brunn. Verhand. der naturf. Vereines in Briinn. Bd. XLIV. 

By Exchange. 

Vienna. K.-k. zoologische-botanische Verein (Gesellschaft) in Wien. 
Verhandlungen. Band LVII, 1907. By Exchange. 

Wiener entomologische Zeituug. Bd. XXVI, 1907. 

By Purchase. 

BELGIUM. 

Bbussels. Societe Entomologique de Belgique. Annales. 1907. 

By Exchange. 

FRANCE. 

Caen. Societe Frangaisc d'Entomologie. Revue. Tome XXVI, 1907. 
Parts 1-7. By Purchase. 

Chateauroux. Le Frelon. 1907. Nos. 4-11. By Purchase. 

Paris. L'AbeiUe. Vol. XXXI, No. 1 (1907). By Purchase. 

Soc. Eutom. de France. Annales, Vols. LXXIV-LXXVI, Parts 1-3, 
1905-7. Bulletin, 1905 and 1906. By Exchange. 

Toulouse. Bulletin de la Soc. d'Hist. Nat. de Toulouse. Tome XXXIX 

By Exchange. 



GERMANY. 

Berlin. Deutsche entomologische Gesellschaft. Deutsche entomologische 
Zeitschrift. Bd. LI, 1907. By Exchange. 

Dresden. " Iris." Deutsche entomologische Zeitschrift. Band XIX, Heft. 
4, and XX, Heft. 1-3, 1907. By Exchange. 

Frankfort. Senckenbergische naturforschende Gesellschaft. .Jahresbericht 
fiir 1906. By Exchange. 

Halle. Kaiserliche Leopoldino — Carolinische Deutsche Akademie der 
Naturforscher. Nova Acta (Abhandlungen) Band 69, 73, 74, 77, 
81, 87. 1898-1907. 

Stettin. Entomologischer Verein. Entomologische Zeitung. Jahrg. LXVIII, 
1907. By Exchange. 

Wiesbaden. Nassauischer Verein fiir Naturkunde. Jahrbiicher. Jahrg. 
LX, 1907. By Exchange. 

GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 

Bradford. Bradford Natural History and Microscopical Society. Recorder's 
Reports. 1906. 

Cleveland. Proceedings of the Cleveland Naturalist's Field Club. Vol. II, 
Part 2. T. A. lofthurst. 

Liverpool. Institute of Commercial Research in the Tropics. Quarterly 
Journal. Vol. II, Nos. 4-5, 1907. The Institute. 

London. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 1907. 

By Purchase. 

Athenaeum. 1907. The Publishers. 

City of London Entomological and Natural History Society. Trans- 
actions. 1906. The Society. 

Entomologist (The). 1907. R. South. 

Entomologist's Monthly Magazine. 1907. The Editors. 

Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation. Vol. XIX, 1907. 

Purchased. 

London. Linnean Society of London. Zoology, Journal and Proceedings. 
1907. By Excha)ige. 

Nature. 1907. The Publishers. 

Quekett Microscopical Club. Journal. 1907. The Club. 

Royal Agricultural Society. Journal. Vol. LXVII, 1906. 

The Society. 

Royal Microscopical Society. Journal. 1907. By Exchange. 

Royal Society. Proceedings. 1907. By Exchange. 

Royal Society. Philosophical Transactions. 1907. 

South London Entomological and N. H. Society. Proceedings. 
1906-7. The Society. 

Zoological Record. Vol. XLIV. 1905. By Purchase. 

Zoological Society. Proceedings, 1907. By Exchange. 

Zoologist (The). 1907. The Publisher. 

Middlesborough. Cleveland Naturalist's Field Club. Record of Pro- 
ceedings. Vol. II, Part II, 1907. The Club. 



( xxxviii ) 

HOLLAND. 

The Hague. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie. Jahr. 1907. By Exchanye. 

Eutomologische Berichten. Vol. II, Parts 25-36, 1905-7. 

By Exchanye. 

ITALY. 

Florence. Societa Entomologica Italiana. Vol. XXXVIII, Parts 1-2. 

By Exchange. 

PoRTici and Florence. Kedia, Giornale de Entomologia. Vol. IV, Fasc. 1, 
1907. Furchased. 

PORTUGAL. 

Lisbon. Societe Portugaise de Sciences Naturelles. Bulletin. Vol 1, 
Fasc. 1-3, 1907. The Society. 

RUSSIA. 

Moscow. Societe Imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscou. Bulletin. 1906. 

By Exchange. 

St. Petersbceg. Societas Entomologica3 Rossicse. Horse. Tome XXXVIII, 
Nos. 1-2, 1907. By Exchanye. 

Aunuaire du Musee Zoologique. Tomes XI and XII. Parts 1-3, 
1906, 1907. F. D. Godman. 

SWEDEN. 

Stockholm. Arkiv for Zoologi. Vol. Ill, Parts 3-4, 1907. 

By Exchanye. 

SWITZERLAND. 

Geneva. Societe de Physique et d'Histoire Naturelle. Memoires. Vol. 
XXXV, Fasc. 3, 1907. By Exchanye. 



ERRATA. 

TEANSACTIONS. 

Page 40, line 19 from top, for Metmcus read Metcecus. 
Page 63, line 4 from bottom, for latricUei read latreillei. 
Page 90, 

The Larva of Collijris emarginatus, Dej. [A correction.] 

Mr. C. J. Gahan has directed my attention to a mistake that I have 
made in my determination of the segments of the leg in the larva of 
Collyris emarginatus. On p. 87 I state, " Of the legs the following parts 
can be distinguished : — femur, tibia and tarsus." Foi- femur read coxa, for 
tibia read femur, for tarsus read tibia and tarsus. The tarsus is one- 
jointed, not three-jointed. On a re-examination of mounted specimens of 
the larvpQ, I find that there are distinct indications of a trochanteral joint 
in the mid- and hind-legs. The exact homology of the larval leg-segments 
with the adult leg-segments can only be determined accurately by a study 
of theu- development, but Mr. Gahan's identification of the segments brings 
Collyris into line with other Cicindelid larvae, and consequently is 
preferable to my identification. — R. Shelfohd. 

Page 151, lines 7 and 22 from top, /or Casayo read Casoya. 

Page 163, line 2 from bottom, for Coroebus read Coreehas. 

Page 164, line 11 from top, "» „ , 

1, -,00 ^■ 00 r i. \ lox cor uscans read corruscans. 

Page 166, Ime 23 from top, J 

Page 166, line 12 from top, for cinertcs read cinereus. 

Page 166, line 9 from bottom, for Corwhus read Coraebus. 

Page 169, line 5 from bottom, for Chysomela read Chrysomehi. 

Page 239, line 15 from top, for Banguay read Banguey. 

Page 332, line 3 from bottom, for Pmlerits read Pasdcriis. 

Page 344, line 26 from top, for Cep?ianodes read Cephonodes. 

Page 377, line 11 from bottom, for Luceola read Luciola. 

Page 393, line 5 from top, for fureatus read furcatus. 

Page 400, line 10 from top, for albidentalus read albidcntatus. 

Page 406, line 8 from top, for cilus read leihos. 

Page 412, line 13 from top, \ 

Page 413, line 4 from top, - for tuttidactyla read tuttodactyla. 

Page 413, line 13 from bottom, J 

Page 423, footnote, line 2 from bottom, for 0. read C. 

^° ,'„',. ,,„ , ' \ iov xorticefolia read urticsefolia. 

Page 438, line 14 from bottom, J "^ 

Page 452, line 3 from bottom, for Fariiscum read -Panicuvi. 

rROCEEDINGS. 

Page XV, footnote, lines 9 and 10 from bottom, delete Hab. Tumatumari . . . 

sub. sp. maynifica. 
Page XX, line 2 from bottom, insert is. 
Page xli, line 25 from top, for Euplagini read Eiiplceini. 
Page xli, line 11 from bottom, for Euplmas read Euplosas. 



THE 

PROCEEDINGS 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF 

LONDON 

For the Year 1907. 



Wednesday, February 6th, 1907. 

Mr. C. 0. Waterhouse, President, in the Chair. 

Nomination of Vice-Presidents. 

The President announced that he had nominated Mr. 
Frederick Merrifield, Mr, Edward Saunders, F.R.S., F.L.S., 
and Mr. George Henry Verrall to be Vice-Presidents for 
the Session 1907-8. 

Bi-centenary of Linnxus. 
The Secretary announced that the Society had been invited 
by the University of Upsala to be represented at the Bi- 
centenary celebrations there of the birth of Linnajus, on May 
23rd and 24th next. 

Election of Felloios. 

Mr. Charles Kimberlin Brain, of 29, Rosmead Avenue, 
Cape Town ; Mrs. Catherine Maria Moore, of Holmefield, 
Oakholme Road, Sheffield ; and Mr. Alfred Ernest Tonge, 
of Aincroft, Reigate, were elected Fellows of the Society. 

Exhibitions. 
Lepidoptera from Sutherland. — Mr. E. A. Cockayne 
brought for exhibition three cases containing a collection of 

PROC. ENT. SOC. LOND., I. 1907. A 



( ii ) 

Lepidoptera made by him at Tongue, North Siitherlandshire, 
between June 30th and July 13th, 1906, comprising the follow- 
ing species not hitherto reported from the county : — Trichiura 
cratseyi (larvae), Hydrilla arcuosa, Phytometra xnea, Cabera 
pusaria, C. exanthe^naria, Macaria liturata, Hyberiiia 2^1'ogevi- 
maria, and II. defoliaria (larvfe), Efhyra 'pendularia, Acidalia 
fumata, Coremia ferruyata, Venusia camhrica, Cidaria pi'unata, 
C. svffamata, Cheimatohia horeala and C. hrumata (larvje), 
Eiqnthecia castigata, E. suhfulvata, var. cognata, E. assimilata, 
E. fraxinata, and Tanagra chxrophyllata. The Exhibitor 
further remarked that the birch trees in the neighbourhood 
visited were entirely denuded of their leaves by the ravages 
of the larvte of the Hybernidae, on which again the Black- 
headed Gulls preyed in great numbers. It was noticeable 
also that the several species showed little tendency to 
melanism. 

Melanism in Hastula hyerana. — Dr. T. A. Chapman, ex- 
hibiting fifteen specimens of Ilastida hyerana, Blill., made the 
following remarks : — 

"Two months ago (December 5th, 1906) I exhibited to the 
Society a long series of Hastida hyerana, Mill. They were 
shown to illustrate how the species varied in two, not very 
strongly separated, localities. But as it seems possible to find 
many interesting details in this species, I now show a few 
specimens to demonstrate how it may vary under other cir- 
cumstances. The majoi'ity of those I had last year emerged 
in August, September and October, to the number of over 400 
specimens, in the pale {hyerana), and the dark (marginata) 
form. Of these I exhibit for comparison an average pair of 
each form, and the darkest pair of each form that emerged up 
to the end of October. In ISTovember four pale and three dark 
specimens emerged ; of these I exhibit three of the pale and 
two of the dark ones. These are very decidedly darker than 
the darkest selected from the earlier emergences. 

" Then there are four specimens that came out in December, 
all of them hyerana. Three of these are males, and are re- 
markably dark forms, like nothing amongst the preceding 
specimens. The ? is very dark but not extremely so. 
There were still four specimens that came out in January, 



( iii ) 

1907, completing the series; no further larvje or pupfe re- 
maining. These four include three pale {hyerana) forms and one 
dark (marginata). The hyerana are a dark ? , darker than 
anything preceding, which happens also to be the only $ 
specimen at all referable to var. aljyha, Mill., another very 
dark 5 , ^nd a male that met with some unaccountable accident 
in emerging, and whose precise form is therefore indetermin- 
able ; it was further remarkable in the pupal stage possessing 
mandibles of a larval structure, although the imago appears to 
have no peculiarities in this region. The fourth January speci- 
men is a female, the very darkest of the marginata form I have 
seen. Summarising, we have out of a total of fifteen specimens 
that emerged in November, December (1906), and January 
(1907), thirteen thatai-e darker than any that appeared in the 
normal season of August, September and October, although the 
latter were over 400 in number. We should like to know why 
these were so late in emerging, and why they are so dark ; 
and what is the co-relation between these two facts. Why 
they are so late, I do not know. They were kept along with the 
others that emerged at the normal dates. Three months is a 
long period for a normal emergence to last over. One must 
suppose, therefore, that it has an advantage in securing that 
some specimens shall appear when weather or other circum- 
stances are favourable to them, either in early, late, or mid- 
season, and if early specimens are selected one year and late 
another, and so on, the race will acquire a habit of prolonged 
emergence and a variability in date of emergence that will 
include extreme specimens, beginning, as I have shown, in June 
and extending to the following March. 

" This does not involve any explanation of the darkness, and, 
as a matter of fact, late specimens in preceding years did not 
present any special darkening to attract my attention. It 
happens that this season we have had various spells of cold 
weather, and the room in which I kept the larvae and pupje 
was only intermittently warmed and often fell in November 
to as low as 50° and even 47°. This would of course make 
still later those specimens that were late enough to fall under 
its influence. But it had the further effect of delaying 
emergence after the pupal state was assumed, so that whilst 



( iv ) 

the normal emergences were only some three or four weeks 
as pupie, these late ones were seven, eight or even nine weeks. 
It is almost certain that the darkness does not depend on the 
late date, but that it does, either on the prolonged pupal 
period, or on the low temperature the pupte were subjected to 
during the maturation of the imago. A temperature of 47° 
to 60" must certainly be low for an insect that expects the 
temperature of an August on the Riviera, even when all allow- 
ance be made for their being possibly deeply hidden under 
stones, etc., in their natural habitats. Looking to the results 
of Mr. Merrifield's experiment, I entertain little doubt that 
the effective agent for darkening is the low temperature, and 
not the prolonged pupal period, though it may be difficult to 
disentangle the two causes in these or in any other instances. 

" The effect of cold is here to produce darkening as it appears 
to be in a majority of temperature experiments. 

"It is to be specially observed that the dark effect is to make 
the hijerana form darker and the marjinata form darker, with- 
out any indication that it has the slightest tendency to make 
the pale from hyerana into the dark form inarginata. These 
are special varieties, selected no doubt after they ajjpear on 
tl^e same grounds as dark and pale forms might be selected, 
but not arising in the same way as ordinary darkening (in- 
crease of pigment) does. One or two specimens, especially the 
two darkest December males, sti'ongly suggest that whatever 
caused the <larkening, also produced a less robust specimen. 
If this be so then the darkening is due to injury by cold, not 
to a more perfect, becavise prolonged, maturation." 

Mr. F. Merrifield made some further observations on the 
effects of temperatiu-e on seasonal forms, resulting not only in 
difference of colour, but in difference of structure. 

Pal^arctic Anthocharid and Melit^id Butterflies. — 
Miss M. E. Fountaine exhibited a number of Anthochai'id 
and Melitii^id butterHies from various localities in the pala;- 
arctic regions, showing a wide range of variation. They 
included the following : — 

Pieris napi, 3 $ $ : 1 from Algeria, and 2 var. flavescens, 
summer brood, from Modling, near Vienna. Pontia cicoplidice, 
showing an extreme form of var. bellidice, from Aix-en- 



( V ) 

Provence in April ; a typical S from Sicily in June ; and 1 ^ 
var. raphani, Esp., from Algeria in July ; this being a more or 
less constant form of the summer brood in that country, though 
all the specimens, especially amongst the $ $ . were not quite 
so pale as this one. P. chloridice, ^ and $ summer brood from 
Asia Minor. Anthocharis belemia, 2 $ $ from Algeria : to 
show the difference between that species and A.falloui (2 (^ c? ), 
a species occurring only on the tops of the desert mountains : 
A. tagis, var. hellezina, 1 $ $ from Aix-en-Provence. A. tagis, 
var. insularis, 2 $ S and 1 $ from Corsica. A. jyechi, 
2 (? c? from Algeria, a species which occurs on mountains 
clothed with Alfa grass, in close proximity to the desert, but 
never actually in it. A. charlonia, '2 $ $ and 1 $ ; another 
desert species from Algeria, also found in the same localities as 
A. ]^ech}, being much the commonest Antliocharis in southern 
Algeria, during the months of February and March. A. char- 
lonia, gen. vern. ^yeuia, Frr., 2 (^ c? from the Lebanon ; the 
Syrian form always much paler, and, in the exhibitor's experi- 
ence, very scarce. A. cardamines, 1 r^ from Draguignan, and 
1 5 from Le Vernet. A. gruneri, 2 c^ rjand 1 ? from Greece 
in May. A. damone, 1 $ S , one with and one without the 
black streak dividing the ground colour from the orange tip : 
also 1 $ and 1 c^and 1 $ under-side ; all from the Lebanon in 
April. A. eMpheiio, 2 $ $ showing extremes in size, the 
smaller having the black streak entirely absent on fore-wings, 
with the apical orange spot much reduced in size, and crossed 
by grey veins (an aberration) ; the larger having the black 
streak unusually broad and distinct ; 2 § $ , one typical, the 
other having the orange tip almost extended to the discoidal 
spot. Also one $ and one $ under-side ; all from Algeria in 
March and April. A. euphenoides, 1 $ $ and 1 $ from the 
South of France for comparison. Melitxa didijma, 1 typical 
S from Digne, ^ S S from Spain and the Pyrenees, in which 
the black spots were unusually large, and showed an inclination 
to be coalescent ; 4 9 ? from Spain and the Pyrenees, also 
having the black spots unusually large and prominent ; 'i S S 
of Melitasa didyma, var. occidentalis, Stgr., 1 from Spain, 1 from 
Syria, and 1 (with the ground-colour creamy- white) from North 
Italy, Also 2 diminutive ^ 9 fi'om Asia Minor in August, and 



( vi ) 

4: 3 6 and 2 5 $ of M. didyma, var. desert icola, Oberth., from 
Algeria. M. didyma, var. neeera, 3^3 and 4 $ 5 from Syria and 
Asia Minor, and 1 large dark $ from Sicily = var. meridionalis. 
5 OF GENUS DoRYLUS. — The PRESIDENT exhibited a female 
example of the genus Dorylus. It was sent to the Museum 
from Mengo in Uganda by the Rev, Ernest Millar. There 
were with it in the same tube one small and two large workers, 
which may probably be the means of identifying the species at 
some future time. The workers closely resembled specimens 
in the Museum named D. arcens, which are said to be the 
same as nigricans. The specimens just received were, how- 
ever, perfectly smooth and shining, whereas those named 
arcens wore somewhat dull. 





p The female measured 1| inches in length. It was of blackish 
mahogany colour, smooth and shining, with the jaws, flagellum 
of the antennae, sides of the head, the middle of the thorax, the 
legs, and a narrow margin to each abdominal segment, pitchy 
red. 

The female of one species of this genus from Java was 
described by Dr. Gerstaecker in the Stettin " Entomologische 
Zeitung," for 1863, p. 91, and figure on plate 1. Three others 
have been discovered since. 

The present insect agreed in general form with that figured 
by Dr. Gerstaecker, but the prolongations of the apical seg- 



( vii ) 

ment of the abdomen instead of being acuminate, were rather 
broad, obliquely truncate at the apex, slightly concave above, 
dull. 

Mr. Millar in his letter said — "I have only once heard of 
such a thing being seen here ; the boys who brought it me 
told me it was being fed by the others." 

Mr. G. A. K. Marshall gave an account of his experiences 
with this genus in Rhodesia, South Africa, and Colonel C. T. 
Bingham said he had dug three days in India, but failed to 
find the females. 

Aberrant forms of Swiss Butterflies. — The Rev. F, E. 
Lowe showed various aberrant forms of Swiss butterflies, 
including (a) Melanargia galatea, ab. fidvata, Lowe, from 
Martigny, in which the ordinary black markings were re- 
placed by coffee-brown, the antennae being also of the same 
colour, and the ground-colour primrose ; {b) Lyceena avion, ab., 
from Pontresina, with the black spots on the under-side of the 
wings almost entirely absent, save one very large kidney-shaped 
spot, slightly tinged with white at the centre of each wing ; 
(c) Apatura iris, ab. trans, ad ioJe on the upper-side, taken at 
Eclepens, near Lausanne ; the under-side very dark, the broad 
chestnvit bands, which cross the wings diagonally, without 
the least intersection of bluish-white as in the type ; no eyed 
chestnut spots at the lower angle of the primaries. It is 
not usual for iole to display any variation from the type on 
the under-side ; (d) two Ccenonymyha jja??«pA //»;?, one from 
Eclepens, suffused with a purplish-flush, and the whole ground- 
colour more tawny-red than the type ; the other, from Orta 
Novarese, a 9 , rich cream-white with the borders light grey, 
and not sharply defined but somewhat cloudy ; over the whole 
wing surface an opalescent reflection, suggesting a parallel to 
Chrysophanus phleeas, ab, schmidtii, Gerhard. 

Gyn andromorphous Sawfly, — The Rev. F. D, Morice 
exhibited a very remarkable gynandromorphous specimen of 
the common fern-visiting Sawfly, Strongylogaster cingtdatus, 
F. It was taken at Silchester on June 10th, 1906, by Mr. 
Philip Harwood, of Newbury, and commvmicated to the 
exhibitor by his brother, Mr. Bernard Harwood, of Colchester. 

Its general size and habit were those oi & $ , but the left 



( viii ) 

antennre, the I'iglit side of the abdomen, and the left side of 
the genitalia were obviously 9 ; and its other sexual characters 
(as far as they could be recognized) seemed to be distinguished 
in much the same way — the c^ and $ elements being every- 
where separated by the longitudinal axis of the insect, but 
some of each lying to the right, and others to the left of 
that axis. 

Mr. MoRlCB said that Mr. Harwood had kindly authorised 
him to present the specimen to the National Collection at 
South Kensington. 

A discussion followed on the occurrence and forms of 
gynandromorphism in the various orders of insects, in which 
Mr. Merrifield, Mr. A. J. Chitty, Mr. Hugh Main and 
other Fellows joined, Mr. H. St. J. Donisthorpe mentioning 
that in his experience the phenomenon never appeared in 
Coleoptera, while the President gave it as his opinion that 
the form assumed in the exhibit under notice was unique. 

Protection in Tineid Pupa. — Colonel Charles T. Bingham 
exhibited the remarkable pupa of a Tineid, in appearance 
exactly like the head of a snake. This pupa and the moth 
shown with it, and figured in the Society's Transactions for 
the current year, were procured at Maymyo in Upper Burma 
by Col. Waller-Barrow, R.A.M.C. 

Association of Butterflies with Aphides. — Colonel 
Bingham also explained an exhibit made by him in illustra- 
tion of the curious habits of butterflies belonging to the 
genera Gerydas and Allot inns. Col. Waller-Barrow discovered 
that these butterflies join with ants in attending Aphidx for 
the sake of the sweet liquid exuded by the latter when touched 
gently. For this tapping the ants, as is w-ell known, use their 
antennpe. Gerydus, and Allotimts, it seems, use for the same 
purpose their abnormally long fore-legs. In the specimen of 
Gerydus boisduvcdi, Moore, which was exhibited, it was to be 
noted that the tibiae of the legs were flattened. Whether 
function in this case has modified form or not he could not 
presume to say : he only drew attention to the fact of the 
flattening. Col. Waller-Barrow had informed him that the 
butterflies hover over the aphides for a long time before set- 
tling, and that though numerous ants might be attending the 



( ix ) 

same lot of Aphides at the time, the ants did not interfei'e 
with the butterflies. He noticed, however, that an ant 
occasionally reared itself up against the long legs of the butter- 
fly, as if to investigate what strange monster had sat down 
among them, but in no way was there any attempt made to 
drive off or molest the intruder. 

Papers. 

" Notes on the Indo- Australian Papilionidoe," by Percy I. 
Lathy, F.Z.S. 

"On the Hymenopterous Parasites of Coleoptera," by 
Ernest A. Elliott, F.Z.S. , and Claude Morley. 



Wednesday, March 6th, 1907. 

Mr. C. (). Waterhouse, President, in the Chair. 

Election of Fellows. 

Mr. John C. Moulton, of the Hall, Bradford-on-Avon, 
Wilts. ; Mr. W. Schmassman, of 2, Kinnoul Villas, Freezy- 
water, Waltham Cross, and Mr. E. J. Tillyard, B.A., The 
Grammar School, Sydney, New South Wales, were elected 
Fellows of the Society. 

Resolution. 

After a discussion, in which the destructive and fatal results 
to our national Fauna, of indiscriminate collecting by inex- 
perienced persons, was commented upon, the President 
proposed the following resolution which was seconded by 
Professor E. B. Poulton, D.Sc, F.R.S., etc., and carried 
unanimously : — 

"That this Society, being informed that a proposal has been 
made that children in our schools be instructed to collect ob- 
jects of Natural History for the purpose of exchanging them 
for similar objects collected by school-children in our Colonies, 
deprecates the adoption of any such system," 



Exhihitimis. 

Protective Substances in ^ Scent-glands. — Professor 
E. B. Poulton, F.R.S., exhibited male specimens of the 
Danaine butterflies Amauris egialea, Cram., and Lhnnas 
chrysippus, L., collected at Ibadan, near Lagos (December 5-12, 
1906), by Mr. H. S. Gladstone, The interest of the specimens 
lay in the fact that the scent-producing patch near the anal 
angle of the hind-wing had been eaten out on both sides — 
very cleanly and neatly in the case of the Amauris — although 
only a minute portion of any other part of the wing-suvface 
had been attacked. The abdomen was almost entirely want- 
ing, but the basal portion which remained showed that it had 
been almost certainly devoured. The head and thorax also 
appeared to be quite empty. Professor Poulton stated that 
he had occasionally observed the evidence of such attacks upon 
the supposed scent-patches of Danainse, but he believed that 
the Amauris was the best and clearest case he had ever seen. 
This special attack upon Danaine scent-patches becomes of 
even greater interest and significance when we remember that 
dead specimens of this and the allied sub-family, the Ithomiina;, 
are less liable than other specimens to be injured by the pests 
which destroy insect collections.* On the other hand, the fact 
that the whole interior of the body was devoured appears to 
indicate indifference on the part of this particular pest to any 
specially protective substances existing in a desiccated state ; 
and it may well be that special attack was directed upon 
the scent-glands merely on account of their substance as 
compared with the rest of the wing surface. The facts appear 
to tell strongly against the view that specially protective 
(aposematic) substances are, as some have supposed, concen- 
trated in the male scent-glands ; but it would not be safe to 
draw any more far-reaching conclusions. 

Inasmuch as an alternative view has been mentioned, it may 

be advantageous to quote the following passage from a paper 

published in 1882 by Professor Meldola, F.R.S. (Ann, Mag. 

* H. "W. Bates, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., vol. xxiii, 1862, p. 510 ; 
R. Meldola, Proc. Eut. Soc. Lond,, 1877, p. xii. Confirmed also by 
J. Jenner Weir. 



( xi ) 

Nat. Hist., Dec. 1882, p. 425). Writing in answer to Mr. 
W. L. Distant, Professor Meldola states : — 

"There is not the least warrant for the supposition that 
scent-glands or tufts have anything to do with distastefulness. 
The acrid juices of distasteful butterflies are not generally 
emitted from any particular organ, but permeate all the 
tissues of the body. The fact that such organs exist in one sex 
only is strongly suggestive, if not demonstrative, of the view 
that they are secondary sexual characters ; and as such they 
are regarded by Dr. Fritz Miiller, who has systematically 
investigated these structures, and has in many cases actually 
detected the odour emitted, which is often of a pleasant 
character." (Jen. Zeit., vol, xi, p. 99; Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 
1878, p. 211.) 

Remarkable Larva of Spiramiopsis. — Professor E. B. 
PouLTON also exhibited on behalf of Mr. G. F. Leigh, F.E.S., 
of Durban, a blown specimen of the larva of Spiramiopsis 
comma, Hampson, showing the two pairs of remarkable 
processes as well as the two eye-like spots, one situated in 
front of the base of each posterior process. The anterior 
pair are placed on the second thoracic segment, the posterior 
on the third. In the dried specimen the ground-colour of 
the dorsal and dorso-lateral regions of each of these segments 
is of a bi'illiant orange-brown tint, making a most effective 
background for the intensely black, nearly circular eye-like 
spots. The effect of these latter is also greatly enhanced 
by a dark semi-circular line placed outside a margin of orange 
embracing nearly half the circumference of each spot. This 
line, which is concentric with the eye-spot, bounds it upon 
the posterior-inferior section of its circumference. A sketch 
sent by Mr. Leigh in further explanation of his exhibit shows 
that, when touched, the larva curves the anterior segments 
so as to conceal its real head and make the central point 
between the eye-spots anterior in position. From this central 
point the four relatively immense processes radiate like spokes, 
while the bright orange colour and jet-black eye-spots placed 
on each side of the centre must contribute with them to 
produce an extraordinary and terrifying appearance. By Mr. 
Leigh's desire the specimen will be placed beside the imagines 



( xii ) 

of the same species in the collection of the British Museum 
of Natural History. The larva bears the date :— " Durban, 
Nov. 3, 1906.-'' 

New British Leioptilus. — Dr. T. A. Chapman showed 
several specimens sent for exhibition by Mr. W. Purdey, 
including Leio^^tilus carphodactylus taken by him near Folke- 
stone. The species is new to the British list, although there 
is a specimen at South Kensington from the Stainton collec- 
tion, bred by Gregson and labelled carphodactylus, but placed 
amongst microdactylus. It is small for carphodactylus, and 
large for microdactylus, and, being a solitary specimen, not 
very typically marked, it is a question whether its label or 
its position be the more correct. The exhibition also contained 
some good varieties of Acalla cristana and a very dark L. 
tej)hradactylus, looking at first sight very like L. scarodactylus. 

Effect of Artificial Conditions on Seasonally Dijior- 
PHic Species. — Dr. F. A. Dixey exhibited specimens of Tera- 
colus achine. Cram., and Belenois sever ina. Cram., bred and 
captured at Salisbury, Mashonaland, by Mr. U. A. K. Marshall. 

He remarked that the exhibit, which was supplementary to 
that shown by him on December 5th (Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
1906, p. civ), provided a further instalment of the results of 
Mr. Marshall's valuable experiments on the effect of artificial 
conditions on seasonally dimorphic species. In the case of 
Teracolus achine, the exposure to conditions of moist heat in 
both larval and pupal stages had caused both sexes of a brood 
that should normally have emerged as the dry-season form, to 
assume the appearance of a wet-season generation. The same 
conditions operating in the larval stage alone had produced a 
close approximation to the same result ; while in specimens 
which had been similarly treated in the pupal stage only, little 
or no departure could be seen in the direction of the wet" 
season form. Specimens of both seasonal phases caught in 
the open were exhibited for comparison, and it was pointed 
out that these results with Teracohis achine showed complete 
correspondence with those previously announced in the case of 
T. omphale, Godt. 

The behaviour of Belenois severina contrasted strongly with 
th^vt of the two species of Teracolus, for whereas in the ca^e of 



( 2:iii ) 

the latter the larval wa.s proved to be the susceptible period, 
exposure of the former to damp heat in the larval condition 
produced no perceptible effect, the resulting emergences being 
of the ordinary dry-season phase. Exposure, however, to the 
same conditions in both larval and pupal stages resulted in a 
transformation to the full wet-season form. In this species 
the seasonal changes chiefly affect the under-surface. 

A further point of great interest received illustration from 
the same series of bred B. severina. This was the difference 
in effect between moisture accompanied by heat and moisture 
alone. Those individuals exposed as both larvae and pupaj to 
the combined effect of heat and moisture, emerged, as has been 
said, in the full wet-season condition. Those, on the other 
hand, exposed in both these stages to moisture alone without 
heat, emerged with the ground-colour of the hind-wing under- 
side characteristic of the wet season, while the dark veining of 
the dry season was in the same specimens not only present 
but strongly accentuated. It might be said, in fact, that the 
employment of moisture only, without heat, had produced a 
well-marked form, unknown under normal conditions in this 
region, though occurring naturally in some other parts of 
Africa, as Uganda and Natal. 

To sum up : Mr. Marshall by means of these carefully con- 
ducted experiments had shown that in the two species of 
Teracohcs, T. om'phale and T. acliine, a brood which left to itself 
would produce the dry-season phase of the imago, might by 
the application of heat and moisture be made to assume the 
characteristic features of the wet-season form. Further, in 
each of these cases it was shown that exposure to the artificial 
conditions during the larval stage only was capable of produc- 
ing nearly the whole effect, the result of similarly treating the 
pupa only being scarcely perceptible. 

On the other hand, while in Belenois severina an equally 
complete transformation from the dry- to the wet-season form 
had been accomplished, it was clearly shown that in this case 
the larval was not the susceptible stage, the result of exposing 
the larva only to the artificial conditions being practically nil. 
In this species also Mr. Marshall had experimentally disso- 
ciated the two conditions of heat and moisture, showing that 



( xiv ) 

while in combination they could effect a transformation to the 
full wet-season form, the employment of thci latter only with- 
out the former produced an entirely different result, the most 
distinctive mark of the new form being the accentuation of a 
feature usually characteristic of the dry season. 

Odezia atrata aberration. — Mr. Selwyn Image brought 
for exhibition an aberration of Odezia atrata, Lin., taken by 
Dr. G. B. Longstaff at Mortehoe, N. Devon, on June 26, 1906. 
The specimen differed very obviously from the ordinary form. 
The fore-wings were rather sharply angulated at the apex 
instead of rounded. Head dull ochreous. Thorax and abdo- 
men densely irrorated with ochreous. Fore-wings greyish- 
ochreous irrorated with black. Hind-wings black irrorated 
with ochreous terminally. Cilia of fore- wings white. Cilia of 
hind-wings black, shading off into ochreous at the edge. The 
flight, he said, suggested that of a Pyralid rather than of a 
Geometrid. 

Separation of Heliconius Species. — Mr. W. J. Kaye, who 
exhibited a series of the genus Heliconius^ said that they 
were arranged to show (1) how Herr Riffarth in a paper 
published in 1901, entitled "Die Gattung Heliconius," divided 
the genus into two main divisions by a secondary sexual 
character, viz., Group I, in which the inner margin of fore- 
wing of $ on under-side is composed of smooth scales reaching 
the median nervure, and Group II, in which the smooth scales 
do not reach the median nervure by about a millimetre. This 
classification very nearly gives equal propoitions for both I 
and II. In point of fact, 34 species in I and 37 in II, includ- 
ing very many sub-species in both. The remarkable result 
of the application of these characters revealed the fact that 
in several instances what we had hitherto called one species 
was in reality two species, one belonging to Group I, the 
other to Group II. Thus Ileliconius hydara was found to 
embrace a sub-species of H. amarylUs in etiryades, Riff., II. 
xenoclea included H. batesi,* Riff., and II. j^hyllis included 
H. nanna. 

* U. batesi, Riff., falls as a syuonyin of H. xcnodca, Hw., as Riffarth 
mistook Hewitson's figure of H. xenoclea to represent a species in Group II, 
and described the species in Group I as batesi. In Hewitson's collection 
(now in the National Collection) no specimen of Group II exists, so that 



( XV ) 

More than thirty years ago (in 1871) //, pachinus was 
described by Salvin, and four years later an extremely 
similar species Avas described by Staudinger and named //. 
hewitsoni, but it was left to Riffarth in 1901 to detect thai 
these two species were not genetically close, but belonged to 
two different groups. 

A remarkable fact not mentioned by Riffarth, or by 
Riffarth and Stichel in a more recent paper in the " Tierreich," 
published in 1905, is that all these pairs of species are found 
together in their respective localities. Thus If. hydara flies 
with H. amaryllis, sub-sp. euryades, in Trinidad, and I took 
them there myself though quite unawares in July 1901. 
H. xenoclea ( = batesi) and H. microclea have been sent home 
in the same parcel of papered insects from Chanchamayo, 
Peru. //. |;ac/w>Mts and H. hewitso7ii occur together in 
Panama, and H. phyllis and //. nanna have been found in 
identical localities in Southern Brazil. That Riffarth's 
character is a sound one there can be no doubt, as small dis- 
tinctions of shape and colour (not, however, always mentioned 
by Riffarth) are always to be detected, and the group character 
is never absent without the other. Why this great similarity 
should exist we have no direct proof. From analogy it is 
probably a Miillerian association, and one Avould have expected 
that either members of Group I or Group II were the more 
numerous because more distasteful. 

But this is apparently not the case. H. nanna and H. 
amaryllis rosina, both of Group I, are much rarer than their 
respective " pairs," //. phyllis and H. hydara colombina. But 
H. xenoclea also belongs to Group I and is much commoner than 



Hewitson's figure could only be of the Group I species = H. xenoclea. I 
therefore propose re-naming tlie Group II species as microclea, u. sp. 

Hcliconius microclea, n. sp. 

Hob. TuMATUMARi, B. Gulana ; taken with E. phyllis, sub. sp. 
magnifica. 

Very like H. xenoclea. Hew. , except that the smooth shining scales in S 
on the under-side of the inner margin of fore-wing do not reach the median 
nervure. The red apical patch is rounded on its outer edge and sharply 
cut below. The central red blotch shows no marked contraction within 
the discoidal cell as it does in H. xenoclea. In size rather less than H. 
xenoclea. 

Hob. Chanchamayo, Peru. 

Taken with H. xenoclea, but less plentifully. 



( xvi ) 

H. microclea of Group II. Many parallel cases in unrelated 
groups are known to exist, and this negative evidence is no 
proof that these Heliconians are not mimics one of the other. 
It is qviite possible that in some, perhaps in the majority 
of localities, members of one group are always more dominant 
than in the other. It is also possible that perhaps the exact 
times of appearance do not quite coincide, and that when the 
collector is taking one species abundantly the other is not 
fully out and vice versa. In addition to the species already 
mentioned the following were also exhibited : — II. vitlcamts 
cythera with ab. modesta, and II. vulcanus pDrforus * of Group 
I, //. amphitrite and H. favorinus of Group II. 

The series exhibited is also to show (2) how Herr Riffarth, and 
later with the collaboration of Herr Stichel in the " Tierreich " 
for 1905, derives the melpomene-\ikQ forms of several species 
from an amaryllis-\\k.e form with a yellow transverse band on 
the hind-wings, the system being based on the shape of the 
red blotch on the fore-wings in conjunction with the main group 
character. In tlie se}ies of II. amari/Uis were shown two of 
its sub-species, viz. rosina from Colombia and euryades from 
Trinidad, and one of the rare intermediates named earyas by 
Eitt'arth in which the yellow band is almost but not entirely 
obliterated. 

MlCUOMORPIIlSM IN COLEOPTERA. Mr. W. E. SuARP 

showed a small collection of Ooleoptera to illustrate the 
tendency of some species to micromorphism, and gave an 
account of the causes of which these small forms were the 
result. 

The exhibition included specimens of Bracldmis crepitans, 
Necrophorus mortuorum, JVacerdes melanura, Meloe jn'oscara- 
hueus, Pissodes notatus, Phyllohim argentatus, Leiopus nehu- 
losus, and Aleochara ciiniculoruni. And remarking upon 

* Hcliconms vulcanus, sub-sp. 2W'f'^^"''^> "• siib-sp. 

Fore-wing with a strong slaty-blue gloss, more so than in H. vulcamts 
imlcanus but less than in H. vulcanus cythera. The red l)lotcli across the 
centre of the wing very large. Cilia white spotted. Hind-wing without 
marki)igs. Cilia white spotted. Under-side of hind-wing without any 
trace of a yellow transverse band. 

Ilah. TuMATUMARi, B. Guiana. 

The sub-species is very like H. crato ijuarica = maynifica, Riff., except 
for the white spotted fringe. 



( xvii ) 

them Mr. Sharp said that micromorphism was a not unusual 
phenomenon among Coleoptera and other orders ; that it 
appeared to be due, neither to heredity, nor reversion, but to 
defective larval nutrition. Evidence of this was supplied by 
the fact that such micromorphic forms are most common in 
those groups whose larval food is specialised and liable to 
sudden diminution or termination. While the interest of the 
case lies in the apparent capability of these organisms to 
respond to such a deficient supply of nutrition as in other 
animals would result in starvation or atrophy, by a completion 
of the normal ontogeny perfected to the last specific character 
in miniature, and that this appears to be a special adaptation 
to meet the contingency of variable or limited food supply. 

Mr. H. St. John Donisthorpe also exhibited a number 
of similarly stunted specimens in further illustration of this 
characteristic. 

Mimicry in LvCiENiDS. — Mr. Hamilton H. Druce exhibited 
a case of butterfiies illustrating the interesting Lyctenid genus 
Mimacrxa, including two groups, the one mimicking the 
Danaine, the other the Acra3ine butterflies. 



Papers. 

The Rev. G. A. Crawshay, M.A., read a paper, illus- 
trated by lantern slides, on " The Life History of Tetropimn 
gahrieli, Weise." 

Dr. T. A. Chapman, M.D., F.Z.S., read a paper, illustrated 
by several exhibits, on "Some Teratological Specimens." 

The following papers were also communicated : — 

" Entomology in North- West Spain," by T. A. Chapman, 
M.D., F.Z.S., and G. C. Champion, F.Z.S. 

" The Larva of Collyris emarg hiatus, Dej.," by Robert 
SlIELFORD, M.A,, F.L.S. 

" A Preliminary Revision of the Forficulidee and Cheliso- 
chidie," by Malcolm Burr, B.A., F.L.S. 

"Descriptions of some new Butterflies from Ti^opical 
Africa," by Hamilton H. Druce, F.Z.S. 

"A Catalogue of the Australian and Tasmanian ByrrhidsR, 
with descriptions of new Species," by Arthur M. Lea, F.E.S. 

PROc. ent. soc, lond., I. 1907. S 



( xviii ) 

Wednesday, March 20th, 1907. 

Mr. C. O. Waterhouse, President, in the Chair. 

Election of Fellows. 
Dr. Ernest Edward Octavius Croft, of 28 Hyde Terrace 
Leeds ; Mr. Felix M. Dames, of Berlin ; Mr. Thomas Frank 
Partridge Hoar, of Quex Lodge, West End Lane, Hamp- 
stead, N.W. ; Professor Dr, A. Jacobi, Director of Zoology and 
Anthropology in the Ethnographical Museum of Dresden ; and 
Mr. Harold J. White, of 42 Nevern Squai^e, Kensington, 
S.W., were elected Fellows of the Society. 

Bicentenary oj Linnd2us. 

It was announced that the Pev. F. D. Morice, M.A., and 
Professor E. B. Poulton, D.Sc, M.A., F.Pv^.S., would represent 
the Society at the forthcoming celebrations at Upsala and 
Stockholm. 

Exhibition. 

Parallelism between the genera Phrissura and Mylo- 
THRis. — -Dr. F. A. DiXEY exhibited several species of Phrissura 
and Mylothris side by side, in order to illustrate the remarkable 
parallelism that exists between these two Pierine genera. 
The forms shown were as follows : — 

Phrissura lasti, Gvo?>e'^xmt\\, S Mylothris narcissus, Butl., $ 

P. Sylvia, Fabr., S M. spica, Mosch., S 

P. sylvia, Fabr., $ 31. spica, Mbsch., ^ 

P. sylvia, Fabr., c^ (western M. bernice, Hew., S 

form) 

P. perlucens, Butl., $ M. asphodelus, Butl., $ 

P. phcebe, Butl., 5 M. popp>ea, Cram,, ? 

P. ph(&be,V>\xW., $ M. poppea,Q,vQ^va.., $ 

P. phcebe, Butl., ? M. rubricosta, Mab., $ 

The genus Phrissura, he remarked, was closely akin to 
A])2rias, Tachyris, Gatophaga and Glutopkrissa ; Mylothris, on 
the other hand, occupied an isolated position and Avas of 



( xix ) 

doubtful affinity. With the exception of two eastern forms, 
the species of Phrissura, like those of Mylothris, belonged to 
Africa. It was remarkable that there scarcely existed a 
single form of Phrissura that did not find a counterpart in 
the other genus, though there was nothing but a remote 
relationship between them. The forms that so closely 
resembled each other were, speaking generally, inhabitants 
of the same districts, and it was interesting to observe that 
where a species of the one genus underwent a local modifica- 
tion, the corresponding local race of the other genus was 
similai'ly transformed in appearance. Thus the Uganda form 
of P. si/lvia, ^ , closely resembled J/, sjnca, 3, from the same 
region, both being white butterflies with a dark apex to the 
fore-wing, a row of marginal black spots on the hind-wing, 
and a basal patch of bright orange. In the representative 
forms from the Congo region, P. 2yerlucens, Butl., S, and M. 
asphodelus^ Butl., $ , the basal orange was in each case replaced 
by lemon yellow. Again, in the "West African specimen 
shown of P. sylvia, $ , the basal orange took on a darker tinge 
and was somewhat modified in shape, in both of which respects 
it came into close correspondence with M. hernice from the 
same locality. The facts might lend some apparent colour to 
the view that the correspondence was due in each case to 
similarity of surroundings. The speaker, however, thought 
that the difliculties in the way of such an explanation were 
insuperable, and that the relation was in every case mimetic. 
It would not be easy to say whether the mimicry was of the 
Batesian or of the Miillerian kind, the data being scarcely 
sufficient ; he inclined personally to the belief that it would 
prove to be of the latter, i. e. the Miillerian sort, especially as 
there appeared to be indications of a diaposematic exchange 
of characters between the two series of forms. 

He regretted that the Hope Collection possessed no speci- 
mens of P. nyasana, Butl. , $ , for this form together with 
M. ru2)2)eUii, Koch, ^ , would have made a striking addition to 
the exhibit. He should have preferred also to put a specimen 
of the West African P. isokani, Grose Smith, 5 , beside the if. 
poppea, ? , from Ashanti, had one been available. 

Though he had on the present occasion confined himself to 



( XX ) 

the parallelism existing between these two genera, he wished 
also to remark that in many cases the actual forms shown 
formed part only of a much larger mimetic association. 

The following papers were communicated : — 

"Studies in the Tetriginie (Orthoptera) in the Oxford 
j\[useum," by Joseph L. Hancock, M.D., F.E.S. 

" A List of the Coleoptera of the Maltese Islands," by 
Malcolm Cameron, M.B., E.N., and Dr. A. Caruana Gatto. 

" The Life History of iSjnndasis lohita, Horsf.," by John C. 
Kershaw. 

" On the Egg Cases and Early Stages of some South-Chinese 
Caesididse." by John C. Kershaw and Frederick Muir. 

"A Life History of Tesseratoma ])apiUosa,'Y\\nn\).,^' by John 
C. Kershaw, with " Notes on the Stridulating Organ and 
Stink Glands," by Frederick Muir. 

"The Vinegar Fly (DrosopMIa fu7iebris)," by Ernest E. 
Unwin, communicated by Professor L. C. Miall, F.R.S. 

" On the Structure and Life History of the Holly Fly," by 
Professor Louis Compton Miall, F.E.S., and T. H. Taylor. 

The Secretary then read the following : — 

" Note on Xantiioriioe ferrugata, Clerck, and the 
Mendelian Hypothesis," by Leonard Doncaster, M.A., 
F.E.S. 

" In the Trans. Eut. Soc. 1906, Part IV., p. 525, appeared a 
paper by Mr, L. B. Prout on the inheritance of colour in 
Xantliorhoe ferrugata, in which it is concluded that the in- 
heritance of the two coloux'-varieties is not in accord with 
Mendel's Law. I have no experience of this insect, but on 
reading Mr. Front's paper it seemed to me that he had over- 
looked one possibility, and that the evidence, as he gives it, is 
rather in favour of the belief that the inheritance in this case 
is Mendelian, than opposed to it. Mr. Prout assumes that the 
black variety is dominant in the Mendelian sense, because it 

more frequently found in the wild state, but the evidence 
shows clearly that the purple form is dominant and the black 



( 2Jxi ) 

recessive. According to Mendel's hypothesis recessives when 
paired together must always breed true, and accordingly in 
Mr. Prout's experiments in every case when black was mated 
with black, exclusively black offspring were produced, even 
when the black parents had purple ancestry. The dominant 
purple form, on the other hand, may contain the recessive 
charactei-, and if so half the germ-cells which it produces will 
bear purple, the other half black. If such an insect is paired 
with a black, which by hypothesis must be pure, then half the 
offspring will be black (pure) and half will be purple hybrids. 
In matings of this kind Mr. Prout obtained 171 black, 147 
purple and 4 intermediate, where the Mendelian expectation 
is 161 black and 161 purple. The rare intermediates must be 
regarded as cases in which the dominance of the purple is not 
quite complete, and the numbers (roughly 53 per cent, and 47 
per cent.) are not far from the expected equality of the two 
forms. 

" If the purple is dominant, when purple is mated with purple 
either all the offspring will be purple (if one or both of the 
parents are pure dominants), or there will be three purples to 
one black (75 per cent, to 25 per cent.), if both contain the 
recessive character. In all Mr. Prout's matings the latter 
case was observed, for black occurred in each family. Alto- 
gether, including the family described as (1) on p. 529, there 
were obtained 147 purple, 2 intermediate, 60 black where the 
Mendelian expectation is 157 purple, 52 black, i. e. Mr. Prout 
obtained about 71 per cent, and 29 per cent, instead of the 
expected 75 and 25 per cent. 

"It is perhaps remarkable that among ten pairings of this 
nature none should have been pure dominants, but as most of 
the insects used were the progeny of wild purples, and black is 
admittedly the commoner form in nature, this need cause no 
surprise. That the recessive form is the commoner in the 
wild state is not rare, e. g. I have shown that the common 
form of Anger ona prunaria is recessive to the var. sordiata 
(P. Z. S. 1906, vol. I, p. 125), and other cases might be added. 
I think it must be concluded therefore that instead of showing 
that the two colour-forms of X. ferrugata are not inherited 
in accordance with Mendel's Law, Mr. Prout's experiments 



( sxii ) 

indicate that this species affords another clear instance of that 
type of inheritance. 

" Mr. Prout quotes me (p. 529) as saying that the inherit- 
ance of Melanism in Aplecta nebulosa is not Mendelian, and he 
assumes that perhaps Mendelian inheritance is confined to 
certain species. My words were intended to mean that in that 
species the inheritance of Melanism could not be shown by the 
evidence at present available to follow Mendel's Law, because 
neither form is a simple dominant over the other, but this is 
no evidence that the Mendelian segregation of the germ-cells 
does not take place. In a species where one colour-form 
is clearly dominant over the other there can be little doubt as 
to the INlendelian inheritance, but in more complicated cases 
such as A. nebulosa much careful experiment would be 
required, before tlie nature of the inheritance could be worked 
out." 

Commenting also on Mr. Front's paper, Dr. F. A, Dixey 
said that " dominance " in what the author spoke of as the 
ordinary acceptation of the word might or might not coincide 
with Mendelian dominance. It seemed tolerably clear that 
Mr. Doncaster's suggestion was correct, and that in this 
instance the "black" form, which Avas dominant in the 
"ordinary" sense, Avas a Mendelian recessive. It should, 
however, be observed that in one instance black and black 
produced an intermediate (Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1906, 
p. 527). 

The cases recorded on p. 529 of Mi-. Front's very interesting 
paper presented some difficulty. The only possibility seemed 
to be that, as Mr. Doncaster had pointed out, the three wild 
" purple " females thei'e spoken of were hybrids mated with 
recessives. The Mendelian expectation for the offspring on 
this supposition would be 50 per cent, purple and 50 per cent, 
black — a proportion rather widely departed from, especially in 
the case of female (2), whose recessive offspring considerably 
exceeded in number the Mendelian prediction. But the 
numbers of the individual broods were after all far too small 
to give stable conclusions, and if the several results of pre- 
sumably DR X R matings mentioned in the same paragraph 
were added together, the Mendelian proportion would be more 



( xxiii ) 

nearly approached. The paired offspring of female (1) were 
probably both hybrids ; as also must have been the purple 
male offspring of female (3), which was paired with a recessive 
of the same brood. 

Dr. DiXEY further remarked that it would be interesting to 
inquire into the causes of the alleged preponderance of the 
purple form in the Isle of Man. The facts concerning the 
relative abundance of the two forms in different localities 
seemed to suggest that some kind of selection was at work, 
but it was not easy to conjecture what its precise mode of 
operation might be. 



Wednesday, April 10th, 1907. 

Mr. C. 0. Waterhouse, President, in the Chair. 

Election of Felloios. 
Mr. Sydney R. Ashby, of 119, Greenvale Road, Eltham 
Park, Kent; Mr. Arthur Bulleid, F.S.A., of The Old 
Vicarage, Midsomer Norton, Somerset ; Mr. Bernard H. D. 
Harrison, of Olaremont, Ashleigh Road, Barnstaple ; and 
Mr. Charles Fielding Johnson, of Mayfield, Binnington 
Crescent, Stockport, were elected Fellows of the Society. 

Ohitvxiry. 
The decease was announced of Mr. John Emmerson Robson. 

Exhibitions. 

Similarity between Dry-season Forms of allied Pierine 
Species. — Dr. F. A. Dixey exhibited male specimens of the 
wet- and dry-season phases of the following African and Indian 
Pierinse : — 

Teracolus achine, Cram, T. antigone, Boisd. 

T. omphale, Godt. Huphina nadina, Luc. 

T. evenina, Wallgrn. H. nerissa, Fabr. 

He remarked that the exhibit illustrated two points : — 
(1) the fact that in Pierinx which were subject to seasonal 



( xxiv ) 

dimorpliism the dry-season form was often conspicuously smaller 
than its wet-season representative ; and (2) the fact that the 
males of species which were easily discriminated in their wet- 
season phases might be almost indistinguishable from each 
other in the dry-season garb, the same applying, though less 
markedly, to the females. In the case of the four species of 
Teracolus shown, though there was a family likeness between 
all the wet-season forms, they could nevertheless be distin- 
guished at a glance. On the other hand, the dry-season forms 
of the same four species resembled each other so closely in 
aspect, and even in size, that they could not be separated 
without minute examination. He knew from personal ex- 
perience that these dry-season forms were most difficult to 
identify in the iield. The two species of Iluphina, again, bore 
in their dry-season phase a very close resemblance to each 
other, but in the wet-season they were quite dissimilar. 

He did not advance either of these points as being of uni- 
versal application ; thoi;gh the former of them, at least, was 
of very common occurrence. 

Forms of Osphya and Concurrent Species. — Mr. G. C. 
Champion showed on behalf of Mr. J. Edwards specimens of 
the genus Osjyhya and read the following note communicated 
by him : — 

"This exhibit consists of five forms of Osjjhya together 
with certain other species occurring at the same time and 
place, and which, having regard to gait and appearance, re- 
semble them more or less closely. It is not suggested that 
these resemblances are protective. On the whole, the numbers 
of TelephoTus pellucichcs much exceed those of the normal male 
of Osjjhya (a), but on some occasions the two species occur in 
approximately equal numbers ; and the same may be said of the 
normal female (b) and Telephorus lividus. The ' nigripeniie 
form of female (c) occurs in a proportion of approximately 
two per cent, to the normal form, and its proportion of occur- 
rences to those of Telephorus rusticus is, of course, much 
smaller ; still, the resemblance of the two insects in life is 
very striking. About five per cent, of all the females ai^e of 
the small form {d), and the resemblance between these and 
Telephorus hie.morrhoidalis, though noticeable, is not very 



( XXV ) 

marked. The resemblance between the ' simplex ' form of 
the male (e) in which the hind-legs are practically unmodified, 
there being neither angulation near the base of the tibia nor 
production inwards at the apex of that member, to the female 
of Grammoptei'a ruficornis is in life particularly striking, the 
proportion of the Osphya to the Longicorn being approxi- 
mately two per cent. 

" I have kept a number of living specimens of both sexes 
of Osphya in confinement, and had ample direct evidence of 
one important function of the hind-legs of the male, namely, 
to secure him in position at the time of pairing. He mounts 
the back of the female, who struggles to escape, and seizes her 
with his mandibles by the neck, clasping her in the meantime 
round the body with his front pairs of legs whilst the hinder 
pair are so adjusted that the hind tibite of the female are held 
between his femora and tibiie near the knee-joint (that is, 
between the joint and the small tooth on the femora), and the 
remainder of the inner edge of his hind tibiae is closely applied 
to the venter of the female abdomen ; the large curved tooth 
at the apex of the tibia fits the curve of the under-surface of 
the female abdomen and evidently serves to increase the grip. 
The effect of these circumstances is to secure the pairing of 
individuals of suitable size, for the small males were quite 
unable to hold the large females whilst the small females 
escaped with ease from the embrace of the normal males. It 
appears remarkable that the small form is not more common, 
as I observed the males to pair readily enough with females 
of suitable size. I found no evidence in support of the theory 
that the strongly modified hind-legs of the normal males serve 
to give the insects a better grip of their support under ordinary 
circumstances ; on the contraiy, during ordinary progression 
the hind tibia is closely applied to the femur, the tip of the 
inward prolongation at the apex of the fofmer locking into 
a cavity in the trochanter and leaving only the tarsus free." 

Mr. H. St. J. Donisthorpe expressed his opinion that the 
resemblance between the forms was most certainly protective, 
and Mr. A. J. Chitty said that in Monkswood, Hunts., where 
he had taken Osphya in abundance, all the females belonged to 
the light form. 



( xxvi ) 

Antenna- Joints in Track vscelis. — Mr. H. J. Carter 
showed a microscopic slide prepared to demonstrate that the 
antennje of the genus Trachyscelis have eleven joints, and not 
ten as hitherto described, 

Mr. Carter having made some further observations, also 
contributed the following note : — 

On the Australian Species of Trachyscelis. 
"In a late microscopic observation of the antennae of T. nigra, 
mihi, I noticed a marked discrepancy from Pascoe's tabulation 
of the species (Ann. and Mag., v, 1870, p. 95). In that table, 
Trachyscelis is diiferentiated from the other genera of the 
tribe by the main distinction ' ten-jointed antenna:.' More- 
over, in a footnote, Pascoe refers to Du Val as the ' only author 




Antenna of Trachyscelis nigra, Carter. 

who has given the correct number of antennal joints ' (Gen, 
Col. d'Europe, iii, p. 288.) In reference to his figure (PL vii, 
fig. 3526) I have failed to detect the moniliform structure of 
the club, and the basal joint is much larger and curved almost 
at a right angle. It must be recollected however that the 
whole antenna is not larger than the point of a fine needle. 
M. Du Val himself says, ' Nos auteurs recents, et M. Mulsant 
lui-meme, donnent tous onze articles aux antennes des 
Trachyscelis, mais ils ne peuvent avoir controle ce nombre avee 
soin, car les antennes en question n'offrent evidemment que dix 
articles distincts et articules. M, Emile Blanchard (Regne An. 
de Cuvier, Edit. Masson, i, pi. 50, p. 4) a fait mieux. Dans le 
dessein du reste en tout tres mauvais, qu'il a donne de 
I'antenne dw T. aj^hodioides, il a represente la massue comme 
off rant six articles,' On referring to Latreille, the founder of 



( xxvii ) 

the genus (Gen. Crust, et Insect., IV, p. 379), the antennae 
are described as ' Capite vix longiores, articulis sex ultimis 
clavam perfoliatam abruptam, breviter oratam, efficientibus ; 
basilar! elongate, tertio duobusque sequentibus minimis, 
transversis.' Neither Lacordaire, nor Leconte and Horn, 
say anything as to the number of antennal joints. 

" I present a draAving of the antenna of my species which 
shows (1) that there are eleven clearly articulated joints, (2) 
that the club consists oi Jive well-defined and widened joints. 

"Mr. G. C. Champion, who has examined the antenme of 
the following species, sends me the enclosed report on the 
subject. From this it appears that of eight species examined 
two only have ten-jointed antennae, viz. T. ajyhodioides, Latr., 
and T. ciliaris, Champ., the remaining six species having eleven- 
jointed antennaj. The missing joint in the former is one of 
the small joints, between the basal two and the apical five. 
This very extraordinary difference shows the difficulty of 
relying on such important structural character as number of 
antennal joints for generic distinction." 

Mr. Champion's report is as follows : — 

"I now send a slide of T. ajyhodioides and of T. ciliaris 
(hardly dry yet) for your inspection. My report on the 
various species known to me is as follows (all have two stout 
basal joints and a five- jointed club) : — 

T. ajyhodioides, Latr., Europe and N. Afr., 10-jointed. 
T. tenuestriati(jS, Fairm., Obock and Perim, 11-jointed. 
T. chinensis, Ch., Namoa I., 11-jointed, 
T. sabuleti, Lewis, Japan, 11-jointed. 
T. pcdle7is, Ch., Ceylon, 11-jointed. 
T. niger, Cart., Australia, 11-jointed. 
T. Isevis, Ch., Australia, 11-jointed. 
T. ciliaris, Ch., Australia, 10-jointed. 

It is very extraordinary, and shows that no i-eliance can be 
placed on this character for generic differentiation. The 
additional joint is always another very small one (4 instead 
of 3). No variation in basal joint, as you supposed." 



Pajjers, 

Mr. Kenneth J. Morton communicated a paper on 
" Odonata collected by Lt.-Colonel C. G. Nurse, chiefly in 
North-Western India." 

Mr. W. J. Kaye communicated a paper on " The Life 
History of Cydhnon [Urania) leilus,^' by L, Guprv, Junior, 
which was followed by a discussion on the migratory habit, 
and classification of the species. Commander J. J. Walker 
said that he had met with an allied species at Panama where 
it was believed that the insect made daily migrations from 
one side of the isthmus to the other. Mr. J. W. Tutt said 
that Mr. Guppy's description of the egg at once determined 
that the species should be classed no longer as a Geometer. 
The characteristics described suggested that it belonged to the 
butterfly stirps. The President and other Fellows also joined 
in the discussion. 



Wednesday, May 1st, 1907. 

Mr. C. 0. Waterhouse, President, in the Chair. 

Election of Fellows. 

M. Alexandre Bonnet, of 36''" Boulevard Bineau, Neuilly- 
sur-Seine, Seine, France; Mr. Henry Murray Giles, of Perth, 
Western Australia; Mr. Arthur Leslie Eayward, of Cole- 
brooke, Park Lane, Wallington, Surrey; and Mi*. Yeend 
DuER, of Tok^'o, Japan, were elected Fellows of the Society. 

Ohititary. 

The decease was announced of the Bev. William Henry 
Heale, M.A. 

Exhibitions. 

Coleoptera prom Iceland. — Mr. 0. E. Janson exhibited a 
small collection of Coleoptera made by him in Iceland in July 
1906, comprising thirty-nine species, of which some were 
previously unrecorded as inhabiting that island. He also 
drew attention to the afliuity between the beetle-fauna of 



( xxix ) 

Iceland and of Scotland, only one of those taken, Colymhetes 
grcenlandicus, Aube, not occurring in both countries. 

Larv,« op Otiorrhynchus sulcatus. — -Mr. J. A. Clark 
brought for exhibition living larvte of Otiorrhynclius sulcatus 
feeding on the roots of ferns. 

CoLEOPTERA FROM THE SouTH OF FRANCE. — Commander J. J. 
Walker showed living specimens of Oxythyrea stictica, L., 
Epicometis hirtella, L., and Anthaxia farallela. Lap., taken by 
Dr. T. A. Chapman at St. Maxime, Yar, S. France. 

Divergent Mimicry by the Females of Leuceronia 
ARGiA, Fabr. — Dr. F. A. Dixey exhibited specimeny of 
Leuceronia argia, Fabr., ^ and 9 5 together with several 
forms belonging to four other Pierine genera. He remarked 
on them as follows : — 

'■'Mr. Trimen ('South African Butterflies,' vol. Ill, 1889, 
p. 181) has drawn attention to the resemblance borne to 
MylotJiris agathina, Cram., and Belenois ianthe, Doubl., by 
certain forms of the female Leuceronia argia, Fabr. The 
female of this Pierine is extremely variable, and the object of 
the present exhibit is to show that each of its diverse forms is 
associated in aspect with one or more species of Mylothris, 
Belenois, Piiiacopteiyx or Fhrissura — all these being genera 
whose aflinity with Leuceronia is remote. 

"The following are the forms now exhibited, together with 
the types which they respectively resemble : — 

Form of L. argia, Fabr., § Associated with 

1. White, black-bordered form (= f. Belenois tiicnszi, Dewitz 

typica, Auriv.). ^ . 

2. The same, with orange basal Hush Mylothris riippelUi, Koeli, 

on forewings ( = f. pnppea, Donov., ^ . 

teste, Butler). 

3. White, slight dark border, pinkish rhrissura phoihe, Butl., 9 

basal flush just showing through 
upper surface of forewings. 

4. White, border of conspicuous dark 3Iylothrisrnppellii, Koch, 

spots, orange-vermilion basal 9* 

flush. 

5. Yellow, strongly-marked dark Mylothris ruppellii, Koch, 

border, orange basal flush (= f. cJ (yellow form). 

sulphurea, Auriv.). 



( XXX ) 

6. White, sliglitly-marked spotty bor- Pinacopteryx riibrobasalis, 

der, yellowish hindwings, pale Lanz, 9 • 

orange basal flush. 

7. Ordinary Natal form (=f. varia, Mylothris agathina,CvSim., 

Trimen), sbowing under-side. $ (under-side). 

" These examples do not exhaust the list of forms of L. argia, 
9 , which resemble other Pierine species ; for besides the black 
and yellow f. idotea, Auriv., which is the form noticed by 
Trimen for its resemblance to Belenois iavthe, there is a 
modification of f. varia, Trim., with a yellowish hind-wing like 
No. 6 supra but without the basal flush, which falls into 
association with a form of the female Finaco2}teryx piyea, 
Boisd. Besides this, f. semijlava, Auriv,, at once suggests 
membership of a numerous assemblage characterised by brown 
upper and pale under-wings, to which group also belong many 
females of Mylothris sjnca, Mosch., F/trissura sylvia, Fabr., 
Belenois theuszi, Dewitz, and B. theora, Doubl. 

" The question naturally arises, what is the meaning of 
these resemblances? I am not credulous enough to believe 
that they represent a mere series of coincidences ; it appears 
to me that they must have some bionomic significance, and that 
in the present as in similar instances the interpretation least 
attended with difficulty is that which attributes to them a 
mimetic value. It is generally admitted that Mylothris, forms 
of which so often take a central position in these supposed mi- 
metic groups, is a well-protected genus. There is therefore good 
reason for its imitation by L. argia, whether this imitation be of 
the Batesian or of the Miillerian kind. It is true that L. argia 
is seldom a verj^ perfect mimic ; its various forms seem to hover 
on the outskirts of mimetic groups without entirely casting in 
their lot with them. But cases similar to this are known 
elsewhere ; and much the same, mutatis mutandis, might be 
said of many instances (which few would be found to dispute) 
of protective resemblance to inanimate objects. We find, 
indeed, as under the theoiy of adaptation by selection we 
should expect to find, every sort of gradation between protec- 
tion which is only slight, and protection which is all but 
complete ; and this, whatever be the sjiecial kind of protection 
in question. If a species be maintaining its ground, deficiency 
in one particular will be made wp for by excellence in another. 



( xxxi ) 

" Some of the forms of L. argia, ? , are restricted to definite 
regions, and it is natural to ask whether these mimics and 
their models are always to be found in the same locality. To 
a great extent this can be shown to be the case, biit a wider 
knowledge than we at present possess of the distribution of 
both sets of forms would be necessary for a complete answer 
to the question. Meanwhile, the facts now at our command 
do not suggest an answer unfavourable to the theoi-y. 

" I have heard it remarked that whereas the form sulphurea 
of L. argia, $ , has a well-marked dark margin, the Mylothris 
with which it is here associated has no continuous dark mark- 
ing, except at the apex of the fore-wing. Experience, however, 
leads me to think that although a border of black spots on a 
white or pale-coloured wing — the arrangement so commonly 
seen in Mi/lothris but obsolescent in this particular form — is 
a conspicuous feature, a uniform dark border (as in Belenois 
severina, Cram., ? ) is often unnoticeable during flight ; the 
chief effect of such a border being to diminish the apparent size 
of its possessor, and sometimes (if the internal bounding line 
is irregular) to convey in addition the impression of a worn or 
ragged edge to the wings. Thei-e is reason therefore to suppose 
that the resemblance between these two forms is quite close 
enough to be effective. 

" It may, in conclusion, be remarked that the present case is 
in some respects analogous with that of Paiiilio dardanus. In 
both we have a series of females, differing widely from the 
male and from each other, and each bearing a resemblance to 
a protected form belonging to another group. The differences 
in L. argia, though similar in kind, are far less striking in 
degree than those shown by P. dardanus; this corresponds 
with the greater family resemblance between the models of 
the LeMceronia as compared with those of the Fapilio." 

Mimicry among Coleoptera. — The President exhibited 
some Coleoptera collected in Pahang by Mr. H. C. Robinson 
and recently received at the Natural History Museum. The 
series contained some interesting cases of mimicry between 
weevils of the genus Hpisomus and Longicorns of the genus 
Niconia, Also a specimen of a Cicindelid, Collyris apicalis, 
which closely resembles the Heteromerous insect Styrax 
tricondyloides. And lastly a Longicorn of the genus Zelota, 



( xxxii ) 

appai^ently a new species, which resembled a species of 
Amphistermcs of the family Endomychidse. 

Living Luminous Ooleoptera. — Dr. G. B. Longstaff 
exhibited living specimens of the luminous Elaterid Fyro- 
phorus noctiliicus, L., brought from Trinidad by Dr. F. L. 
J. M. de Verteuil, R.N. Dr. Longstaff had observed that 
when chloroformed the gi-een lights became very brilliant, 
but were soon eclipsed. As the lights faded in a normal way 
they appeared to pulsate. 

Hare and New British Coleoptera. — -Mr. H. St. J. 

DoNiSTHORPE exhibited on behalf of Prof. T. Hudson Bears 

and himself specimens of Quedius riparius, Kell., and 

Try pod en dr on quercus, Eich., taken by them at Porlock, 

Somersetshire, on April 16th and 17th. The former insect 

was found somewhat sparingly in flood-refuse caught by 

fallen logs lying in one of the mountain torrents which came 

down from Exmoor ; it was to be found only in flood-refuse 

actually over the surface of the water — apparently when the 

flood-refuse is deposited on the banks the insect very quickly 

leaves it. There are only records of the capture of this 

insect — by Mr. Kidson Taylor, in Derbyshire, one specimen 

— and by Mr. Chitty in flood-rubbish on the river Beauly, 

Inverness-shire, since Mr. Blatch discovered it at Porlock in 

1896. With these the exhibitor showed specimens of Quedius 

kraatzii, new to Britain, taken by him at Chiddingfold in 

1898, but not exhibited before, to compare with Q. riparma, 

both species having the same habits. It was stated that 

unlike the latter, kraatzii had never been taken elsewhere in 

Britain, though he had found it on various occasions since in 

the old locality. The Trypodendron was found in the bark 

and in the solid wood of a small oak bough ; there are few 

records of its capture outside the Sherwood Forest district. 

Also Hydrovatus clypecdis, Shp., taken by them on April 14th 

at Worle near Weston-super-Mare. This very local little 

water-beetle is only recorded from Portsmouth by Canon 

Fowler, but has since been taken at Sandown, I. of Wight, by 

Prof. Beare, and in the New Forest by Dr. Sharp. 

DiPTEUON associated WITH Ants. — Mr. DoNisTHORPE also 
showed the larva aod pupa of a Dipteron of the genus 



( xxxiii ) 

Microdon, taken in a nest of Formica fusca at Porlock last 
month. A number of larvfe were taken, and one of the nests 
in -which they occurred. The ants are stated to nurse the 
larvse as they do their scale insects {Coccidx). 

The President warmly congratulated Mr. Donisthorpe upon 
the nature and extent of his discoveries of species of insects, 
etc., attendant on ants. 

Hemimerus talpoides, Walk. — Mr. R. Shelford exhibited 
a specimen of the curious Orthopterous insect Hemimerv^ 
talpoides, Walk., from Portuguese Guinea; the species is 
parasitic on a large rat, Cricetomys gamhianus, and is 
viviparous. 

Mr. E,. Shelford then read the following note on 

" A Case of Homcegtic Variation in a Cockroach." 

Homceosis has beendefined as "the assumption byone member 
of a Meristic series, of the form or characters proper to other 





Left maxilla. Right maxilla. 



Right mandible. 



members of the series " (Bateson, " Materials for the Study of 
Variation," London, 1894, p. 84). This type of abnormality 
is of rare occurrence ; Mr. Bateson is only able to quote four 
examples of it amongst the Insecta, and two of these are 
doubtfully genuine. The undoubted cases are Cimhex axillaris 
and Bomhus variabilis, both insects having the left antenna 
partially developed as a foot {I.e. pp. 146-148). I daresay 
that other cases of homceosis amongst insects have been 
recorded during the past twelve years, but if so, I have not 
prog. ent. soc. lond., II. 1907. c 



( xxxiv ) 

come across any accounts of them. The abnormality now ta 
be described seems to be of the nature of a homojotic variation. 
When dissecting a cockroach of the genus Panesthia, apparently 
a new species allied to P. sinuata, Sauss., I observed that the 
right maxilla was replaced by a hard chitinous structure 
superficially resembling a mandible ; the left maxilla and 
both mandibles were perfectly normal. On removing and 
closely examining the right " maxilla " it was seen to be a 
^densely chitinised and rugose organ, roughly approximating 
in shape and size to a normal mandible. This "maxilla " at 
the base is large, but it tapers distally and the apex bears a 
small finger-like process. Traces of segmentation are seen in 
two circular grooves and in the different size of the parts 
defined by these grooves ; the organ may be regarded as made 
up of four segments, the terminal small process being one, 
but it is perfectly rigid and the segmentation is only visible 
on close examination. The basal segment is hollowed out on 
its inner face and it is this feature which increases the general 
resemblance of the structure to a mandible. Without going 
so far as to say that the abnormal "maxilla" of the cockroach 
under notice reproduces the ancestral condition of a mandible, 
attention may be drawn to the view that the mandibles are 
derived from a four-segmented organ, advocated by Wood- 
Mason and other entomologists. Wood-Mason moreover has 
observed that the mandibles of the embryo of PanestJiia 
javanica axQ segmented, and in the larvje and adults of the 
same species he distinguished a groove across the back of the 
mandible at the base, representing in his opinion the remains 
of a joint. The cockroach exhibiting the variation described 
above was captured on Mt. Masarang in N. Celebes by Dr. 
Chas. Hose in 1895. 



( XXXV ) 

Wednesday, June 5th, 1907. 

Mr. C. 0. Waterhousb, President, in the Chair. 

Election of Fellows. 

Mr. C. N. Hughes, of Knightstone, Cobham ; Mr. Albert 
Ernest McClure Kelly, Assistant Entomologist to the 
Department of Agriculture, Natal ; and Mr. M. G. Muklib, 
of Hyderabad, Sind, India, and Cambridge University, were 
elected Fellows of the Society. 

OhitzMry. 

The decease was announced of Dr. Frederic Moore, D.Sc, 
A.L.S., F.Z.S., the "father" of Indian entomology, and one 
of the oldest Fellows of the Society, and of Mr. C. J. Watkins. 

Bicentenary of Linnseus. 

The President read the following communication from the 
Rev. F. D. Morice, M. A., the Society's delegate to the celebra- 
tions in honour of the bicentenary of Linnaeus at Upsala, and 
Stockholm : — 

"Stockholm, May 2Btli, 1907. 
"Dear Mr. Waterhouse, 

" If this reaches you before the June meeting of the 
Entomological Society, will you kindly announce that I duly 
delivered their Address of Congratulation to the Rector of 
the Upsala University, and the President of the Stockholm 
Academy of Sciences ; and that I have been received at both 
places with great kindness and hospitality, as have all the 
other delegates bringing similar addresses from other Societies, 
etc., in Europe and Ameiuca . . . 

" Yours sincerely, 

"F. D. Morice." 

A vote of thanks was unanimously given to Mr. Morice for 
his services in presenting, and as author of the Address, and 
it was resolved to publish the same, as follows, in Latin and 
English in the Society's Proceedings : — 



( xxxvi ) 

REGI^ ACADEMIC 
SCIENTARUM SUECIC^ 

S. P. D. 

SOCIETATIS ENTOMOLOGIC^ 

LONDINIENSIS 

Prases, Vice-Presides, Socii. 

Litteras vestras gaudentes accepimus, et quia indicio sunt 
nobis benevolentise vestrje animique fraterni, et quia 

Caroli Linn^i 

potissimum ad memoriam celebrandam invitamur, quern nos 
entomologire studiis dediti tanquam scientise nostrse auctorem 
clarissimum ac pfene parentem veneratione unica et pietate 
semper prosequimur. 

Yestrum quidem f uisse ilium civem confitemur, neque glorise 
huic vestrae invidemus sed de ea potius vobis gratulamur. 
Liceat tamen nobis quoque exteris non alienum vobis putare 
splendorem viri, qui — ut " Phrebi fax " non Delum solam vel 
Lyciam, sed terras omnes illuminat — ita bominibus omnibus, 
qui in qualibet regione terrarum Naturae arcana perscrutantur, 
ductorem se lucisque datorem prjebuit semperque prsebebit. 
Etiam atque etiam valete ! 
Dabamus Londini die X. m. Maii a. 1907. 

Charles 0. Waterhouse, Praeses. 

Frederic Merrifield \ 

Edward Saunders > Vice-Praesides. 

George Henry Verrall ) 

"We were glad to receive your letter, both because it shows 
us your goodwill and fraternal feeling towards us, and because 
it is the memory of Carolus Linnjeus that we are asked to 
celebrate — the man whom we entomologists regard with special 
admiration and affection as a chief authority on our science and 
almost as its father. 

As you say, he was youi' fellow-citizen, and we do not 
grudge you this boast but rather congratulate you on it. 
Still, let us foreigners also be allowed to think ourselves not 
unconcerned in the glory of one, who (as the Sun shines on 



( xxxvii ) 

all lands and not only on Delos and Lycia) so has been, and 
will ever be the guide and giver of light to all men, who 
in any country probe the mysteries of Nature. 
Most heai'tily we wish you well ! 

Charles 0. Waterhouse, President. 

Frederic Merrifield \ 

Edward Saunders V Yice-Presidents. 

George Henry Yerrall / 

UNIYERSITATI REGI.^ UPSALIENSI 

S. p. D. 

SOCIETATIS ENTOMOLOGIO^ 

LONDINIENSIS 
PR.ESES, Yice-Pr^sides, Socii. 
Pergratse nobis erant litterse vestrse, primum quia decorum 
nobis esse honorificumque videbatur cum vestra tarn illustri 
Universitate participes incepti cuiusvis fieri, deinde quia 

Caroli Linn^i 
potissimum in commemorationem invitabamur, quem, ut 
botanici, ita nos quoque entomologipe studiis dediti tanquam 
scientise nostrae auctorem clarissimum ac psene pareutem 
veneratione unica et pietate semper prosequimur. 

Quare coUegse nostro, Yiro Reverendo, F. D. Morice, 
Artium Magistro, Collegii Reginensis apud Oxonienses Socio, 
mandatum dedimus, ut vobis prjesens declaret, quantopere 
gaudeamus licere nobis in nataliciis civis vestri praastantissimi 
celebrandis vobiscum sociari. 

Qua celebratione speramus fore ut accendantur plures ad 
hsec studia nostra exercenda atque propaganda, qu£e non 
solum nobis ipsis delectationem utilitatemque maximam 
afferre solent, sed — quod confidenter dixerimus — humani quo- 
que generis communi commodo inservire possunt. 
Etiam atque etiam valete ! 
Dabamus Londini die X. m. Maii a. 1907. 

Charles 0. Waterhouse, Prseses. 
Frederic Merrifield 
Edward Saunders )> Yice-Prsesides. 

George Henry Yerrall 



( xxxviii ) 

Your letter was very welcome to us, first because it seemed 
to us an honour and compliment to be associated with your 
illustrious University in any undertaking whatever, and next 
because it was Carol us Linnseus in particular that we were 
invited to commemorate, the man whom we students of 
entomology regard, even as the botanists, with a special 
reverence and filial affection as the most distinguished advancer 
of our science, indeed almost as its parent. 

Accordingly we have commissioned our colleague, the Rev. 
F. D. Morice, M.A., Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford, to 
express to you on the spot how glad we feel to be allowed 
to join with you in celebrating the birthday of your illustrious 
fellow-countryman . 

"We hope that by this celebration others will be incited to 
practise and advance these studies of ours, which not only are 
wont to afford to us personally the greatest pleasure and 
advantage, but also — as we can confidently assert — are capable 
of conducing to the general benefit of mankind. 
Most heartily we wish you well ! 

Charles 0. Waterhouse, President. 

Frederic Merrifield \ 

Edward Saunders V Vice-Presidents. 

George Henry Verrall j 

Iniernatio7ial Congress of Entomology. 

The President i^ead the following letter received from Dr. 
Karl Jordan, F.E.S., of the Museum, Tring — 

" Zoological Museum, Tring, Herts., England, 
" June \st, 1907. 

"Sir, 

"The undersigned Entomologists consider it opportune 
to organise an International Congress of Entomology, to meet 
for the first time in 1908. In order to render the Congress a 
success the moral support by the Entomological Societies is an 
absolute necessity for the undertaking, and we therefox'e write 
to solicit the kind co-operation of the Ofiicers and Fellows of 
the Entomological Society of London. Should the Council, as 
we venture to hope, favour our plan, we beg the Hon. Secre- 



( xxxix ) 

taiy to read at the next meeting, and to publish in the Pro- 
ceedings, the note here appended, a similar note being sent to 
the various Entomological Societies abroad. 

" Yours faithfully, 
Chr, Aurivillius, E. L, Bouvier, I. Bolivar, L. Bedel, M. 
Bezzi, P. Bachmetjew, S. Bengtsson, J. C. Bradley, W. 
Beutenmiiller, C. J. S. Bethune, 0. H. Carpenter, T. D. A. 
Cockerell, Ph. P. Calvert, T. A. Chapman, K. Daniel, 
F. A. Dixey, W. L. Distant, E. C. Van Dyke, Ed. Everts, 
A. Forel, J. Fletcher, H. C. Fall, L. Ganglbauer, A. Giard, 
R. Gestro, F. DuCane Godman, W. Horn, A. Handlirsch, 
K. M. Heller, G. von Horvath, H. J. Kolbe, F. Klapalek, 
P. Lesne, Th. Becker, P. Mabille, J. C. U. de Meijere, 
A. L. Montandon, P. Magretti, F. Merrifield, L. W. 
Mengel, Chas. Oberthiir, K. Oberthiir, H. Osborn, P. 
Pavesi, E. B. Poulton, H. Rebel, F. Ris, W. Rothschild, 
H. Schoutenden, A. v. Schulthess-Rechberg, G. Severin, 
F. Silvestri, Y. Sjostedt, H. Skinner, J. B. Smith, M. 
Standfuss, J. W. Tutt, G. H. Verrall, E. Wassmann, 
Chas. 0. Waterhouse, and others." 

" As a result of an extensive cori-espondence with Ento- 
mologists of various countries of Europe and America it has 
been agreed upon to issue in the course of this summer 
invitations for an Intei^national Congress of Entomology to 
meet in 1908. 

** The purpose of the Congress is to promote the interests of 
entomological research, and therefore of Biology in general, by 
furthering cordial co-operation between the Entomologists of 
different countries, and by discussing questions of general 
entomological interest, thereby stimulating research and 
directing it into channels where it may be most fruitful or 
where special research is most needed. Questions of applied 
Entomology will likewise be dealt with in the discussions and 
lectures, the great experience gained by the devotees to pure 
Entomology being applicable with profit in economic and 
hygienic Entomology. 

" Entomologists are cordially invited to advise and assist in 
the organisation of the Congress. All communications, till 



( ^1 ) 

further notice, to be addressed to Dr. K. Jordan, Zoological 
Museum, Tring (Herts.). 

" To the Hon. Secretary of the 

Entomological Society of London." 

On the motion of Professor R. Meldola, F.R.S., seconded 
by Mr. G. C, Champion, F.Z.S., a resolution, cordially approv- 
ing the Congress, and offering the support and co-operation of 
the Society, was carried unanimously. 

Exhibitions. 
Leioptilus carphodactylus in Britain. — Dr. T. A. Chap- 
man exhibited a living example of Leioptilus carpliodcictylus, 
Hb., one of the first bred in Britain, which emerged June 2nd, 
1907, from larvse found by Mr. J. Ovenden in Kent. The 
first British specimen was exhibited to the Society at the 
meeting of March 6th (p. xii, antea). 

MiCRODON MUTABILIS, AND KlEDITOMA MYRMBCOPHILA. Mr. 

H. St. J. Donisthorpe showed a specimen of Micordon muta- 
hilis, with the empty pupa-case, bred from a larva taken in 
the nest of Formica fusca at Porlock, April 1907 ; also S S 
and 9 9 of Kleditoma myrviecophila, n. sp., bred last month 
from a nest of Lasius fidiginosus found at Wellington College 
in March 1907. He said that this species of parasitic Cynipidm, 
which was new to science, had been named by Professor Dr. 
J. J. Kieffer. 

New Phytophaga from Australia. — Mr.M. Jacoby brought 
for exhibition examples of small beetles, new to science, of the 
family Clythridsa {Phytojyhaga) including Leasia australis, n. sp. 
Jac. 

The significance of some Secondary Sexual Characters 
in Butterflies. — Professor E. B. Poulton, F.R.S., said that 
he wished to bring before the Fellows a hypothesis which 
had suggested itself as the outcome of reflections upon the 
Heliconinae, as dealt with by Mr. W. J. Kaye in a recent 
communication. 

It had often been noticed that mimetic resemblance is apt 
to deceive the species concerned, so that the male of one will 
chase the female of the other. "When model and mimic 



( xli ) 

belong to very different groups, e. g. sub-families, it is im- 
probable that such errors of judgment covild lead to any 
important danger. It is very unlikely that a superficial 
resemblance would mislead the individuals of species 
belonging to different sub-families when they approached 
each other at all closely, and the impression made by each 
upon the whole of the sense-organs of the other became 
at all strong. But this would not apply to anything like the 
same extent when there was near relationship between the 
mimetic species — as in so many Ithoyiiiinae, Danainee, and 
Heliconinae. When close resemblance obtains within the 
limits of such a sub-family as one of these, — and mimetic 
likeness of the kind is often extraordinarily exact, — it is not a 
far-fetched hypothesis to suggest that some special adaptation 
has arisen, enabling the females easily to discriminate between 
their own and the males of other closely similar species, and at 
once to repel those advances which are something of a danger 
and nothing of advantage to either species. Other facts, and 
especially the hard, cell-like structure secreted by the male 
upon the body of the female in Parnassius and in Acrseinx, 
also support the conclusion that useless pairing and attempts 
to pair are an injury to the species. Colour and pattern being 
excluded ex hypothesi, some special difference in scent is 
the most obvious means of discrimination. May not this be 
the meaning of the fact that the males of the Euplxini may 
be divided into groups (which have been given generic names) 
distinguished, and sometimes solely distinguished, by remark- 
able differences in the size, number, form and position of the 
areas presumed to be scent-producing 1 These Eiqil^as are 
remarkable for the number of their synaposematic associations 
and for the closeness of the resemblance between the con- 
stituent species. So far as my experience goes, — and further 
inquiry in the same direction will tend to supply confirmation 
or refutation of the hypothesis here put forward — these 
associations are made up of species belonging to groups with 
different forms of sexual brands and not by species with males 
bearing the same type of brand. And now Mr. Kaye has 
shown that the close synaposematic pairs within the Heliconine 
sub-family are made up of species of which one belongs to the 



( ^lii ) 

group with a broad the other to the group with a narrow 
band of glistening scales, in the male, — bands which are pre- 
sumably scent-producing. It is probable that the excessively 
close resemblance between these pairs and between the 
members of the Euploeine associations has been rendered 
possible without injuiy to the species by the existence of this 
means of instant recognition, and I think it is possible to infer 
the past history with a fair degree of probability. In the 
African Danaine genus Amauris we find two very common 
species as closely alike as any of the Euplceine or Heliconine 
Miillerian groups or pairs. I refer to Amcmris eclieria and A. 
alhimaculata. It was at first thought that white spots in 
place of buff in the fore-wing alone distinguished these forms, 
and the general opinion followed that one was a variety of the 
other. But Rothschild and Jordan have shown that they are 
certainly separated by minute but well-defined and constant 
differences. Accompanying these, the scent-patches at the 
anal angle of the hind-wing of the male of alhimaculata are 
about twice as long as those of echeria. It is probable that 
this wide difference has been a powerful aid in rendering 
possible the exti-aordinarily close resemblance. Already both 
species of this pair have undergone subspecific changes in 
different parts of their geographical range, the southern forms 
being replaced respectively by echeria jacksoni and alhimaculata 
hanningtoni in the equatorial parts of the eastern side of 
Africa. In the Oriental Region the even more dominant 
Euploeine group origi Dated far more complex communities, 
probably in consequence of the development of further 
modifications of the male brands of one or both members 
of an ancestral pair, until synaposematic associations contain- 
ing 3, 4 or more species arose, widened their range and spread 
into islands. Thus each of the component species became at 
first different svib-species and finally distinct species in various 
parts of the total area of distribution. The synaposematic 
Heliconine pairs, on the other hand, may in large part have 
reached their present condition by continuing the history 
begun by the two African species of Amauris. I say "in 
large part " because when Mr. Kaye very kindly arranged 
the Oxford Heliconinee a few weeks ago we saw evidence for 



( xliii ) 

the recent abandonment of relatively ancestral patterns by 
certain species and the adoption of others which brought them 
into synaposematic relation with some more abundant 
Heliconine in the same locality. In giving this brief account 
of the hypothesis I am quite aware that the subject requires 
much fuller study. At the same time, I think it better not to 
wait for the more detailed examination which I hope to make, 
but to put the suggestion on record, in the hope that others 
may be led to further observation and reflection on the subject. 
Types of Proctotrupid^. — Mr. A. J. Chitty exhibited all 
the British species of the genus Gonatoinis, except marshalli, 
Kieff., including the types of the three species described by 
Westwood, but entirely overlooked by subsequent authors, 
which had been lent him by Professor Poulton. The genus 
Gonatopus — lately dealt with by Professor Kieffer — though 
parasitic on Homoptera, resembles in appearance various ants. 

CORDYLOBIA ANTHEOPOPHAGA, A PARASITIC AFRICAN FlY. 

Mr. E. E. Austen, F.Z.S., exhibited specimens of and made 
remarks on larvfe, pupae, and imagines of Cordylobia atithro- 
pophaga, Griinberg, an African Muscid Fly (known as 
the " Tumbu " or " Tumba Fly " in Sierra Leone), the larva 
of which is a subcutaneous parasite in man and other 
animals. 

Cases in which the larvse of various species of Muscidse have 
been found parasitic in human beings are numerous in medical 
literature, so much so that the term myiasis (Greek, iivla, a 
fly) is employed to denote the maladies and injuries caused in 
this way. In most instances, however, as in that of Sarcopha- 
ginte, which often deposit living larvse on open sores or wounds, 
the parasitism is merely fortuitous, since the parent fly is 
attracted to the spot by the odours given off. But just as 
the CEstridpe (Bot- and Warble-Flies) are in the larval stage 
normally jjarasitic in mammals (chiefly ungulates and rodents), 
and develop in no other way, so does Cordylobia anthropophaga, 
Griinberg, appear to be a " psedo-parasite " of man, monkeys, 
dogs, and probably other mammals. The species belongs to 
the " Calliphorinse " of Brauer, i.e. the section of the true 
Muscinse, the species of which are allied to the genus Calliphora 
(which includes the common Blow-Fly, C. erythrocephala, Mg.), 



( xliv ; 

and are characterised by the presence of a row of bristles 
upon the hypopleura. 

Cordylohia anthropojyhaga is very widely distributed in 
Africa, its range extending from Senegal to Natal, and 
coinciding with that of Auchmeromyia luteola, Fabr., the 
" Floor-Maggot Fly," to which in the perfect stage it pi'esents 
a remarkable resemblance in coloration and general appearance. 
This similarity has already been productive of confusion, 
although the life-histories of the two species are widely 
different, since the maggot of A. luteola, which by day lies 
buried in the cracks in the earthen floors of native huts, has 
the extraordinary habit of coming out by night to fasten upon 
and suck the blood of the sleeping inmates. 

The earliest published account of the life-history of Cordy- 
lohia anikropophaga is that by two surgeons in the French 
navy, MM. Coquerel and Mondiere, who in 1862 described * 
cases in which soldiers had been attacked by the larvae in 
Senegal. In one instance a man had two larvae in his fore- 
arm, while another individual had eight in the back of his 
shoulder. The French authors gave a description of the 
maggot, but failed to breed out the fly, which they were 
inclined to regard as in all probability belonging to the 
(Estridse, and to a new genus allied to Hypoderma, in which 
are included the well-known " Warble-Flies " of cattle. 

In 1872 another French naval surgeon, M. Berenger- 
Feraud, in a note presented to the French Academie des Sciences 
by Baron Larrey.f made further reference to the larva of this 
fly in Senegal, where, from the name of the district in which 
it was most common, it was said to be known as the " Ver de 
Cayor," or " Cay or "Worm." In this paper it is stated that 
seventy-eight of these larvae had been removed from all parts 
of the body of a spaniel, and the author mentions that he had 
himself counted vi07'e than three huiulred larvae in a puppy of 
the same breed ; it is scarcely surprising to learn that the 

* Coquerel and Mondiere, "Note sur des Larves de Dipteres D^veloppees 
dans des Tumeurs d'Apparence Furonculeuse au Senegal." Ann. Soc. 
Ent. France, 4ieme serie, T. II (1862), pp. 95-103, PL 3, figs, \a-lh. 

t Berenger-Feraud, " Etude sur les larves de mouches qui se develop- 
pent dans la peau de I'homme, au Senegal." Comptes Kendus Hebdoma- 
daires des Seances de rAcademie des Sciences, T. LXXXV (1872), pp. 
1133-1134. 



( xlv ) 

puppy died. M, Berenger-Feraud, who succeeded in breeding 
out specimens of the perfect insect, states that they were 
"very active, and much resembled house-flies." To this com- 
munication a note by M. Emile Blanchard, to whom the paper 
had previously been submitted, is added. From the details 
supplied to him, M. Blanchard thought that the " Cayor 
Worm Fly" belonged to the genus Ochroniyia, Macq., and to 
a new species, for which he suggested the name Ochromyia 
anthro'pojyhaga. Since, however, no description of the fly what- 
ever was given, Ochromyia anthrojyophxiga, Emile Blanchard, 
is a mere novien nudum, and consequently invalid. 

Under the name of the "Tumba" or "Tumbu" Fly, the 
insect, or rather its larva, is well known in Freetown, Sierra 
Leone, where residents often suffer from the painful boil 
produced by the maggot. Dogs and pet monkeys are fre- 
quently afflicted in the same way, and during a visit paid by 
the speaker to Sierra Leone in 1899 he fortunately succeeded 
in obtaining eleven larvis and pupae from a small Mangabey 
monkey [Cercopithecus sp.). From the pup?e that were allowed 
to mature there emerged five flies, which proved of much 
interest to local medical men, since complete ignorance as to 
what the "Tumba Fly" really was had previously prevailed 
in Freetown. Some people were even inclined to consider it 
to be a "Mangrove Fly" (t. e. Horse-Fly, — Family Tabanidse), 
a belief that, as was subsequently found, was also entertained 
at Calabar, in Southern Nigeria. 

On Sept. 30th, 1891, Mr. L. P6ringuey, F.E.S., of the 

South African Museum, Cape Town, exhibited at a meeting 

of the South African Philosophical Society a fly, " bred from 

larvre, nine in number, extracted from the arm of a child 

in Natal." In a note read at the same time, Mr. Peringuey 

said with reference to the species, — which, from the extensive 

series of specimens from Natal and elsewhere in the British 

Museum (Natural History), there can be no doubt was 

identical with the "Tumba Fly" of Sierra Leone and the 

" Cayor Worm Fly " of Senegal — that it was " perhaps allied 

to Bengalia dep'essa (Walk.)." * In some further notes on 

* Cf. Peringuey, ' ' Note on a Fly Which Preys on Human Beings. " 
Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society, Vol. VIII, Part 
I (1893), p. 23. 



( xlvi ) 

the same species, published in the Minutes of Proceedings of 
the South African Philosophical Society at the meeting held 
on Sept. 30th, 1896,* Mr. P6ringuey refers to his former 
hypothesis, which he describes as a suggestion that the fly 
" would, perhaps, prove to belong to the genus Bengalia." He 
adds : — " I was quite right in my surmise, the genus Bengalia 
and Ochromyia being partly synonymous." From this it is 
evident that Pmnguey was thinking of the undescribed species 
for which the name Ochromyia anthropophaga had been 
suggested by Emile Blanchai'd ; and indeed on the following 
page (p. xxiv) Mr. Peringuey states that " the species bred in 
Natal might prove to be identical " with the " Cayor Worm." 
Mr. Peringuey's remarks, although containing nothing in the 
shape of a statement that the parasitic fly of Natal is actually 
Bengalia depressa, Walk., appear to have been quite sufficiently 
definite for certain writers in South Africa as well as in this 
country, with the result that the species with which we ai-e 
concerned is now widely known as " The Natal Maggot Fly 
[Bengalia depressa, Walker)." f TJie true Bengalia depressa, 
Walk, (the type of tvhich is in the British Museum), is, however, 
as shown hy the sp)ecwiens exhibited, albeit an allied, nevertheless 
a very different insect. Its life-history is as yet entirely unknown, 
and there is not a piarticle of evidence to 2)'>'ove that its larva is a 
subcutaneous jxirasite. 

As though to make the prevailing confusion still worse 
confounded, Auchmeromyia luteola, Fabr., the African " Floor- 

* Cf. Peringuey, Transactions of the South African Philosophical 
Society, Vol. IX, Part II (1898), pp. xxii-xxiv (Minutes of Proceedings). 

t Cf. Dr. R. M. Towngend, "Note on a Parasitic Fly — Bcngalico 
depressa — which deposits its eggs or larvae on the skin or covering of man 
and dogs." Proceedings of the Rhodesia Scientiiic Association, VoL IV, 
Part I (July 20th, 1903), pp. 7-9 ; and ibid., Vol. IV (July 1905), pp. 10- 
13. Cf. also F. V. Theobald, "First Report on Economic Zoology" 
(London : British Museum (Natural History), 1903), p. 56 — "The Maggot 
Fly of Natal [Auchmeroyia [sic] (Bengalia) depressa. Walker) ; " F. V. 
Theobald, "Second Report on Economic Zoology" (London: British 
Museum (Natural History), 1904), p. 112— "The Natal Maggot Fly 
{Bengalia depressa) ;" F. V. Theobald, in "Second Report of the Well- 
come Research Laboratories at the Gordon Memorial College, Khartoum " 
(Department of Education, Sudan Government, Khartoum, 1906), p. 83 — 
"The Maggot Fly {Bengalia depressa, Walker) ;" Claude Fuller, F.E.S., 
Government Entomologist, Natal, — "Natal Department of Agriculture. 
Fourth Report of the Government Entomologist, 1903-4 " (Pietermaritz- 
burg : 1905), p. 15 — " The Natal Maggot Fly, Bengalia depressa." 



( xlvii ) 

Maggot Fly," has, as already stated, recently been mistaken 
for the species with the subcutaneous larva.* The two species, 
however, may be distinguished by the more compact and 
thick-set shape of the fly with the subcutaneous larva, and 
by the fact that in the male of this insect the fi"ont is so 
narrow that the eyes almost meet together above, while in 
A. luteola the eyes are wide apart in both sexes. 

For the species with the subcutaneous larva the genus 
Cordylobia (i.e. living in a boil) was founded in 1903 by 
Griinberg,t who also recharacterised and figured the species | 
vinder the name suggested thirty-one years previously by 
Emile Blanchard. The correct designation of this highly- 
important and much-misunderstood African Muscid is therefore 
Coo'dylobia anthropophaga, Griinberg. 

Papers, etc. 

Dr. F. A. DiXEY, M.A., M.D., and Dr. G. B. Longstaff, 
M.D., contributed a report of their joint entomological 
observations made in South Africa during the visit of the 
British Association in 1905, and gave a brief account of some 
of the points dealt with. 

Dr. DiXEY said that his own part in the paper was small, 
though Dr. Longstaff had kindly wished to associate him in 
the authorship. The narrative was the work of Dr. Longstaff, 
aided by a few suggestions from himself, and that gentleman 
had also undertaken most of the labour connected with the 
determination of species, especially in Orders other than 
Lepidoptera. Dr. Longstaff's contribution to the tale of 
specimens brought home was also far larger than his own. 
He had himself devoted more attention to bionomic points 
than to the actual work of collecting, and many of the results 
of the observations of himself and his colleagvie had been 
already communicated to the Society. 

After shortly sketching the route of the expedition, which 
included visits to Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London, 

* Cf. Fuller, op. ciL, p. 16, and Plate III, fig. 3, which represents a 
female of A udimeromyia luteola, Fabr. 

t Sitzungs-Bericht der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 
vom 10. November 1903 (No. 9, 1903), p. 410. 

I Ibid., p. 412, Tafel II, figs. 8-10. 



( xlviii ) 

Durban, Ladysmith, Johannesburg, Pi'etoria, Bloemfontein, 
Kimberley, Mafeking, Bulawayo, the Matoppos, and the 
Victoria Falls, he remarked that among the things that chiefly 
impressed him were the abundance of insect life at East 
London and Durban, and the extremely interesting, though 
in their experience somewhat scanty, fauna of the Zambesi 
and the Great Waterfall. 

A point that seemed to him worthy of notice was the fact 
that although Dr. Longstaff and himself were close travelling 
companions, and on many days were never more than half-a- 
mile from each other, the captures effected by each showed 
remai-kable differences, there being several instances of quite 
conspicuous forms taken by one which were never seen by the 
other. This was no doubt partly due to differences in their 
objects and methods of collecting, but it applied also to species 
that both collectors were desirous of taking. 

Dr. G. B. Longstaff stated that out of eight weeks in 
South Africa, two had been spent in railway trains, never- 
theless they had taken some 2,500 specimens,including upwards 
of 50 species of various Orders not to be found in the National 
Collection; of these at least 15 had ah'eady been recognised as 
new to science. In exhibiting specimens of the new species, 
together with other South African insects remarkable in one 
way or another. Dr. Longstaff gave some account of interesting 
points in their bionomics. For example, at Simon's Bay, a fly, 
Ploas sp., during life by its habits and mode of flight closely 
mimicked the bee Halictus alhifasciatus, Smith, although the 
insect looked very different in the cabinet. The large Acridian, 
Phymateus leprosus, Serv., unlike most locusts, was extremely 
sluggish in its movements, but was defended in part by its 
hard integuments, but probably still better by emitting 
copiously when touched an ill-smelling acrid fluid. A new 
Flata, taken at Johannesburg, though found sitting in rows 
upon the stems of plants, could in no sense be said to resemble 
flowers, as was the case with some of its congeners. 



( xlix ) 



Wednesday, October 2nd, 1907. 

Mr. 0. O. Waterhouse, President, in the Chair. 

Election of Fellows. 

Mr. James Allan Dyson Perrins, of Davenham, Malvern, 
and Mr. Frank Milburn Howlett of the Agricultural 
Department, Pusa, Bengal, India, were elected Fellows of the 
Society. 

Exhibitions. 

SiTARis MURALis AT OxFORD. — Commander J. J. Walker 
showed living specimens of the Heteromerous beetle Sitaris 
7mt,ralis, rediscovered at Oxford in 1903 by Mr. A. H. Hamm 
of the Oxford University Museum, and found rather freely 
during September 1906 and 1907, on old stone walls in the 
vicinity of Oxford inhabited by the Mason Bee, Podalirius 
[Ajithophora) pilipes, on which it is parasitic in its early 
stages. 

Melanism in Yorkshire. — Mr. G. T. Porritt exhibited 
black specimens of both sexes of Fidonia atomaria from the 
Harden Moss Moors, Huddersfield, illustrating the melanic 
tendency of Lepidoptera in the district. 

Rare Coleoptera, etc., from Kent and Scotland. — Mr. H. 
St. J. Donisthorpe exhibited (a) Ajnon seynivittattmi taken on 
Mercurialis annua in plenty at Deal in August and Septem- 
ber 1907 ; (b) Magdalis dujMcata from Nethy Bridge in July 
1907 ; (c) Formica sanguinea from Aviemore and Nethy Bridge 
in July 1907 ; the first record for Scotland, and (d) Piezostethus 
formicetorum, taken with Formica rufa at Rannoch, in July, 
a species which has not been found in Scotland since Dr. 
Buchanan White first captured it at Braemar in 1874. 

Butterflies from Hungary. — Mr. A. H. Jones brought 
for exhibition a case of butterflies taken this year from 

PROC. ENT. SOC. LOND., IV. 1907. D 



( 1 ) 

Herculesbad, South Hungary, including specimens of Erehia 
melas from the Domogled, which bore a remarkable resem- 
blance to Erebia alecto var. nichoJli, Oberth., from Campiglio, 
and Erebia lefebvrei, Oberth., also shown for comparison by 
Mr. H. Rowland-Brown. Mr. Jones also exhibited examples 
of Chrysophanus dispar, var, rutilus, and C. alciphron from 
the neiglibourhood of Buda-Pesth; both species of great size 
and brilliant colouring. 

FoEMs OF Lyc^na bellargus. — Mr. M. Jacoby showed 
several fine forms of the ab. ceronits of Lyasna bellargus, taken 
this autumn at Folkestone, including one example of the 
var. cinnides, Stgr. 

Cryptophagus subdepressus in Scotland. — Mr. Norman 
Joy exhibited a specimen of the rare beetle Cri/2)tophagtis sub- 
depressus, Gyll., taken near Garvn, Ross, on August 4th last. 

Insects and their Prey. — Mr. W. J. Lucas showed on 
behalf of Mr. Nicholson and Mr. Summers two specimens of 
Deilephila euphorbia; bred by them from larvae found in Kew 
Gardens. He also exhibited several examples of predaceoiis 
insects and their prey in situ. 

OviPOSITION OF NONAGRIA CANN^. Mr. H. M. EdELSTEN 

exhibited specimens of Sesia andrenaeformis, bred from pupse 
taken in Bedfordshire and Kent, and ova of Nonagria cannae, 
in situ. The 9 is provided with two pairs of anal hooks, with 
which it raises the cuticle of the Typha leaf. The egg is then 
thrust under the cuticle, the hooks released and the cuticle 
descends over the egg, and all that is visible is a slight 
swelling where the egg remains. The egg keeps its rounded 
shape, and is not flattened by the pressure of the cuticle. 

The egg-laying of N. cannse, as actually seen, and as deduced, 
from the structures, and the result in the position of the eggs, 
takes place by the moth resting across the leaf, taking a 
fulcrum on its surface by the ventral (8th abdominal segment) 
hooks, but not piercing the surface with them, and with the 
sharp knives of the dorsal processes (really ventral apophysis 
of 9th segment) cutting through the cuticle, and forcing the 
knives in, till their points must be almost close beneath the 
ventral hooks. The two knives are then separated and with- 
drawn as an egg is placed in the cavity thus formed. The 



( li ) 



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( Hi ) 



stereoscopic view of another specimen, in which the parts happen to be almost in the 
position that must obtain just as an egg is being laid, the insect having died with an 
egg being extruded from the ovipositor, i. e. from the fleshy tubular opening between 
the knives of the 9th abdominal segment ( x 10). 






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( liii ) 
OVIPOSITION OF NONAGRIA CANN^ (III, lY). 




Portion of leaf of Tiii>hii lufijlilia, in which thife eggs of Nonagria canna; had been 
laid. Two are seen with the egg, undisturbed beneath the cuticle, where it was laid 
by the moth ; the third egg is exposed by tearing the cuticle ( x 10). 




Diagrams (x 6, from Camera sketches) of ovijiositors of N. cannx and N. sparganii. 
a. N. cannie, showing the opposed lionks, lateral view. b. End view, dorsal (S)th 
abdominal segment) knives apart, as they usually are in dead specimens, and when an 
egg is being extruded, c. The dorsal knives in apposition, forming one sharp point, as 
used in piercing the cuticle of the leaf. 

d. Lateral view of N. sparganii. e. End view. It is proposed to describe these 
organs in the Nonagrias generally in a future communication. Sparganii is presented 
here on account of its close resemblance in general development to that of N. carina;. 
The modifications suit the one (canna^) for piercing the cuticle and placing the egg in 
the plant tissue, the other {sparganii) for rolling over a leaf margin and placing the 
egg beneath it. 



( Hv ) 

incision in the plant cuticle is longitudinal to tlie leaf and 
takes place rather by separating the plant cells than by cutting 
any through, with the result that it closes up again, and 
makes it impossible on close examination to be certain that 
one sees any trace of the opening by which the egg was 
inserted. 

The photographs are by Mr. A. E. Tonge. The stereoscopic 
figures enable the structures to be seen in high relief. 

Variation in Pieris napi, var. bryoni.e. — Mr. A, Har- 
rison and Mr. H. Main exhibited four broods from females of 
Pieris napi, var. hryonis, captured on the Kleine Scheidegg 
Pass, Switzerland, in July 1906. 



Brood 


A. 


( 


20 males. 
16 females. 


Brood 


B. 


{ 


15 males. 
24 females. 


Brood 


C. 


{ 


9 males. 
1 1 females. 


Brood 


D. 


1 


48 males. 

CA C 1__ 



\ 59 females. 

The larvae pupated at the end of July and beginning of 
August 1906, and the insects emerged between May 2nd and 
June 14th, 1907. 

There was a considerable amount of variation in the females 
of all the broods, but especially was this noticeable in Brood 
B, where some had the ground colour of a decided yellow and 
the black markings well defined, whilst others were uniformly 
grey with the markings almost absent. This grey form 
occurred also in Brood 0, but not in Broods A or D. The 
males showed only slight variation, and like the females were 
larger than the English Spring emergence. 

Lyg^us equestris, Linn. — Prof. T. Hudson Beare 
exhibited a specimen of this rare bug, which Mrs. Hudson 
Beare found on a flowering umbel on the cliffs at St. Mar- 
garet's Bay on August 29th last. There are only four previous 
records of its capture in this country : Bath, 1837; Devizes, 
1864; Dover, September 7th, 1886; Sheppey, September 
22nd, 1906. Mr. Saunders is of opinion that it is a doubtful 
native, and is most probably only an occasional visitant. 



( Iv ) 

Rare Coleoptera at St. Margaret's Bay. — Professor T. 
Hudson Beare also showed specimens of Hypera tigrina, 
Boh., taken in some numbers on the wild carrot at the foot 
of the cliffs at St. Margaret's Bay, between August 25th and 
September 5 th last ; he was unable to find a single specimen 
on the numerous wild carrot plants growing on the top of the 
cliff. This is a very local insect, and tliere are but few 
records of its occurrence ; it seems to be confined to the 
extreme S.E. corner of England. 

He also showed specimens of Apion semiviltatum, GylL, 
taken dui-ing the same period at St. Margaret's Bay off plants 
of Mercurialis annua. This species was found in abundance 
more than sixty years ago by Mr. Walton near the Tivoli 
Gardens, Margate ; no further specimens were taken in this 
country until 1905, when Messrs. Chitty and Tomlin swept up 
one specimen on the Deal sandhills, and this year, in June, 
Mr. Bryant also swept a specimen in the same locality. 
Mercurialis annua is a garden weed which grows freely in 
many localities in the south-east of England ; it seems to be 
very fond of old potato patches ; the plants in such a habitat 
did not, as a rule, produce the beetle, which was found more 
freely on plants growing in uncultivated spots, hedge-sides, 
etc. Mr. Donisthorpe, who, during the same period, took 
the insect freely off its food plant, at Deal, had the same 
experience. He was able to confirm the statement that the 
larva is an internal feeder, for, on cutting open a stem of a 
vigorous plant showing by knots the presence of the larvae, he 
discovered a pupa which was imbedded in a kind of cell ; this 
pupa eventually hatched out. 

Transition between Mylothris chloris, Fabr., and M. 
agathina. Cram. — Dr. F. A. Dixey exhibited typical speci- 
mens of the African Pierines Mylothris chloris, Fabr., and M. 
agathina, Cram. ; together with a long series of forms, transi- 
tional between the two, from the neighbourhood of the Victoria 
Nyanza. 

He remarked that he had previously called attention to the 
fact that the West- African M. chloris and the East- and South- 
African M. agathina, which had always been looked upon as 
distinct species, intergraded with one another in the region of 



( Ivi ) 

Uganda (Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1904, p. xv). The present 
exhibit showed an uninterruj^ted transition, in tlie case of the 
males, from one form to the other. The females passed by 
almost imperceptible gradations from the brownish-orange M. 
agathina, with its marginal row of well-defined black spots, up 
to a form with whitish fore-wings and very pale ochreous 
hind-wings broadly mai'gined in black, between which latter 
form and the ordinary female of M. cldoris there was only 
a slight interval. It was true that his present material did 
not enable him to bridge over the gap ; but in view of the 
near approach to the typical M. chloris exhibited by these 
intermediate females, and of the complete transition which he 
had shown to exist in the case of the males, he thought it 
could hardly be doubted that further investigation would 
supply the very few steps still lacking. A transitional female 
from Wadelai, of the kind he had described, had been named 
Clarissa by Butler. 

The greater number of the 31 specimens now shown were 
collected by Mr. Wiggins on the north-east and north-west 
shore of the Victoria Nyanza ; two of his males were from 
Toro in Western Uganda, and one interesting female specimen, 
showing an early stage of departure from M. agathina in the 
direction of M. cldoris, was captured at Mombasa. The fact 
that the forms referred to occurred together was established 
by a remarkable series of six specimens all taken on the same 
day by Mrs. Leaky near Mengo, on the north-west shore of 
Victoria Lake. This series consisted of a typical male and 
female M. cJdoris, and a nearly typical male M. agathina; 
together with a transitional male and two transitional females, 
the latter closely resembling the type of Butler's M. clarissa. 

Mr. Neave had shown, from Uganda specimens also 
collected by Mr. Wiggins, that a similar transition occurred 
in that region between the western Amauris niavius, Linn., 
and the eastern and southern A. doinvnicanus, Trim. (Proc. 
Ent. Soc. Lond., 1903, p. xciv ; Trans, Ent. Soc. Lond., 1906, 
p. 211). 

Bi-centenarg of Linnseus. 

After the exhibitions, the President said that Mr. Morice, 
who had gone as a delegate from the Society to the Bicentenary 



( Ivii ) 

Commemorations of Linnseus's birthday at Upsala and Stock- 
holm, was now present, and would give an account of the 
proceedings there. 

The Eev. F. D. Morice replied, that he was very pleased 
to have an opportunity of informing the Society of the very 
kind reception he had met with as its representative. He 
then gave a description of the ceremonies and festivities he 
had attended in that capacity. " These, at Upsala, occupied 
the whole of Thursday and Friday (May 23, 24), visitors being 
entertained as guests of the University from the Wednesday 
to the Friday night inclusive : at Stockholm, the actual cele- 
brations were all comprised within the Saturday (May 25), 
but the Prince-Regent honoured the visitors with an invitation 
to ' Tea and Music ' at the Palace on the afternoon of the 
26th ; and on that day, also, a party went by special train to 
Hammarby, the property on which Linne spent the last 
summers of his life, whex^e he died, and where sundry relics 
of himself and his family are still preserved in memory 
of him. 

" At Upsala the great ceremony of the Thursday was held 
in a sort of theatre in the buildings of the University. Here, 
after the performance by a chorus and oi-chestra of cantatas 
composed for the occasion, the Rector delivered a speech on 
the work of Linne, and congratulatory Addresses were handed 
in by the delegates, who came up in groups (nation by nation), 
one member of each group speaking a few words on behalf of 
the rest. The spokesman of our own countrymen was Sir 
Archibald Geikie. On the conclusion of the ceremony, the 
guests were conducted to a smaller hall, where they had the 
lionour of being presented individually to the Prince-Regent 
and other members of the Royal Family, whom they had 
previously seen at the public ceremony. 

" Two great dinners, to one or other of which all the guests 
of the University were invited, were given on that evening, 
one by the Rector, the other by the Archbishop of Upsala. 

" Next day the company reassembled at the University, and 
went in procession to the cathedral, where Doctors (Honorary 
and Ordinary) were created in the four Faculties of Theology, 
Law, Medicine, and Philosophy. This ceremony, taking place 



( Iviii ) 

as it did in the beautiful cathedral, in the presence of an 
assembly which included all the notables of Sweden, as well 
as guests from almost every Eui'opean country, and even from 
America, and accompanied throughout by brilliant oi'chestral 
music, was not only very interesting, but extremely grand in 
its general effect, though it was lightened by what might 
almost be called a touch of the comic in certain details. Thus, 
as each Doctor was invested with the special hat denoting his 
faculty, or — in the case of a Doctor of Philosophy— with a 
laurel-wreath, he Avas saluted with the distant roar of an 
unseen cannon, some hundred or more of these explosions 
being heard before the ceremony was over. Again the music 
of the Marches, which were being played all the time — a 
different one commencing as the Doctors of each separate 
faculty came up for their ' promotion ' — seemed to have been 
selected with a somewhat humorous allusion to the recipients 
of the honour. Thus the Theologians advanced to the strains 
of Mendelssohn's ' War March of the Priests,' the lawyers to 
those of * See the Conquering Hero comes ! ' A Dead March (!) 
was considered appropriate to the Doctors of Medicine; while 
the Wedding March from ' A INIidsummer Night's Dream ' 
was performed in honour of the Philosophers. 

" On the same evening all the guests and the new Doctors 
met at a great banquet presided over hy the Prince-Regent, 
at which several other members of the Royal Family, the 
chief officials (past and present) of the University, repre- 
sentatives of the Swedish Government, and other eminent 
persons were also present. 

" Besides these great functions, a number of minor festivities 
occurred on both days ; in sevex'al of which a main feature, 
and a very agreeable one, was the beautiful singing of the" 
Upsala students. The hearty yet decorous manner in which 
these lads took their part in the celebrations, and helped to 
make them a success, was quite a surprise to many of the 
visitors from non-Teutonic countries, and must have produced 
a most favourable impression as to the Swedish student 
character upon every one who witnessed it. 

" The ceremony of Saturday at the Stockholm Academy of 
Sciences was conducted almost exactly as had been tlie open- 



( lix ) 

ing ceremony of the Thursday at Upsala : there was music, a 
speech from the President, and a presentation by the delegates 
of congratulatory addresses. The English delegates, however, 
had an agreeable surprise in the middle of the President's 
speech — when, suddenly changing his language from Swedish 
to excellent English, he announced that the special medal 
struck by the Academy for presentation to ' the most worthy 
living successor of Linnaeus' had been awarded to our country- 
man Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, to whom the British Minister 
at Stockholm had undertaken to forward it. As at Upsala, 
the Stockholm Academy celebration was concluded by a 
banquet presided over by the Prince-Eegent. It was held in 
a celebrated restaurant known as ' Hasselback,' near the park 
of ' Skansen ' ; and from it the company adjourned to the 
park itself, where a fete was organized by the students with 
national songs, informal speeches, etc., etc., making a cheerful 
close to a somewhat fatiguing but most interesting round of 
festivities. 

" In connection with these celebrations, several memorial 
editions of works by Linne, a descriptive catalogue (with 
reproductions) of portraits and statues representing the great 
naturalist, and other similar literature, were published by the 
Upsala University and the Stockholm Academy, Copies of 
all these works were kindly given to every delegate ; and 
even, if he so desired, were forwarded free of cost to his 
home address. Everything, in short, was done that could be 
done to make the * Linne-Fest ' agreeable at the time and a 
pleasant memory for the future to all who attended it." 

Pcvpers. 

Col. Charles Swinhoe, M.A., F.L.S., read a paper on 
" The species of Hes2')eriid£e from the Indo-Malayan and 
African Regions, described by Herr Plotz, with some new 
Species." 

Lieut. -Col. Neville Manders, K.A.M.C, read a paper on 
" The Butterflies of Mauritius and Bourbon." 

Dr. T. A. Chapman, M.D., F.Z.S., read a paper on "The 
Hibernation of Marasmarcha," and exhibited specimens to 
illustrate his remarks. 



( Ix ) 



Wednesday, October 16th, 1907. 
Mr. C. 0. Waterhouse, President, in the Chair. 

Election of a Felloiv 

Mr. P. H. JacivSon, of 112, Balham Park Eoad, London, 
S.E., was elected a Fellow of the Society. 

Exhihit ions. 

Bred forms of Pieris Napi var. bryonijE. — Mr. A. H. 
Jones exhibited a series of Pieris napi var. hry anise, bred from 
ova found last year on Biscutella laevigata at Arosa in Switzer- 
land, showing a wide range of variation, and a remarkable 
variety or aberration of P. napi (napseae) bearing a strong re- 
semblance on the under-side to P. rapse, from Peszer, near 
Buda-Pesth. 

Bare Orthoptera in Kent. — Mr. W. J. Lucas sliowed 
for Mr, M. Burr examples of Apterygida albipennis, dis- 
covered by him near Dover this year. About 1840 Mr. J. 0. 
Westwood took the species at Ashford in Kent. Mr. J. 
Edwards captured a pair near Norwich in 1889, but it was 
not found again until 1904 when Mr. A. J. Chitty redis- 
covered it at Ashford in the same locality. He also exhibited 
a (^ specimen of 1). verruclvorus — an inhabitant of Scandinavia 
— taken in the same locality by Mr. Burr. It is about as 
large as Locusta viridissima, but looks quite different, the 
characters of the elytra and head preventing it even being 
placed in the same genus. 

Bare Neuroptera. — -Mr. W. J. Lucas also showed for 
Mr. H. Campion. — Platydeis roeselii, Hagenb. $ , taken 
September 13th, 1907, near Heme Bay. Mr. E. Saunders 
and Mr. H. Guermonpres have taken it at Heme Bay and 
Mr. Wallis Kew at Trusthorpe, Lincolnsliire. There seem to 
be no other well authenticated British specimens. Also for 
Mr. E. W. Campion be exhibited an aberrant specimen of S. 



( Ixi ) 

sanguineum, S , from Epping Forest (September 15th, 1907), 
the form of the left hind-wing suggesting relationship with 
certain Orthoptera, which order is of course closely related to 
the OJonata. He further exhibited two Calopteryx virgo of 
his own from the New Forest showing failure in wing 
pigment. 

Life Cycle of Callicore aurelia. — Mr. W. J. Kaye 
exhibited specimens of Callicore cvurelia, Guen., together with 
a photograph of its larva, showing the remarkable branch-like 
horns rising out of the head. Mr. L. Guppy, who is rearing the 
species in Trinidad, and wi-iting a detailed account of its 
life history, has found that the eggs hatched in four days : 
the larval period was eight days only, and the pupal period 
seven days. The whole life cycle was thus but nineteen 
days. 

Teratological specimen of a Bee. — The Kev. F. D. 
MoRicE exhibited, side by side, a normal S specimen of the 
bee Anthidmnn manicatum, L. (the "Hoop-shaver bee" of 
Gilbert White's " Natural History of Selborne "), and a mon- 
strosity or malformation of the same insect, which was long 
ago given to him as a curiosity by his correspondent, M. 
Vachal of Argentat, Corr^ze, France, but which he had only 
lately found opportunity to examine minutely. He also sent 
round a photograph of the two insects magnified, or rather of 
their abdomens, that being the part in which the malformation 
appears, and described the nature of it. 

Normally in this species the $ abdomen viewed from above 
shows seven dorsal plates united only by a (concealed) " con- 
necting membrane." The first five are nearly simple, but the 
sixth bears on each side at the base a remarkable hook-like 
process, and the seventh is armed at the apex with three large 
sub-triangular teeth, one on each side of the apex ando ne at 
its centre. In the present specimen, if we count the divisions 
between the dorsal plates down either side, we find that there 
are, as usual, on each side 5 simple dorsal half-plates, followed 
by a sixth with a basal lateral hook, and a seventh whose apex 
is armed externally with a tooth and internally with half a 
tooth. But when we look at the dorsum of the abdomen as a 
whole, we find that something has gone very strangely wrong 



( Ixii ) 

with it. Dorsal plate 1 is noi-mal ; but the dorsal plate 2 is 
split on the right side only into 2 half-plates, narrow where 
the division commences, but dilating to their usual width at 
the side of the insect, so that left dorsal half-plate 2 and right 
dorsal half-plates 2 -t- 3 form together the second dorsal plate 
of the whole abdomen. The third and fourth dorsal plates, 
consisting respectively of left doi-sal half-plate 3 + right 4, 
and left -f right 5, show no visible peculiarity. But the fifth 
plate, which (counting down the right side) should be the 
sixth, is armed on that side with the hook which characterizes 
the sixth doi^sal plate, while on the left side it is simple. The 




next plate is most peculiar, having on the left side the basal 
hook of a sixth segment, and on the right the lateral apical 
tooth and half the central apical tooth of a seventh : and then 
follows (on the left side only) half of the ordinary tridentate 
apical plate with nothing at all to match it on the other side, 
the right half of the ordinary apex having appeared already 
in the preceding segment. 

It seems very difficult to form any clear idea of a cause 
which could have produced the phenomenon before us. It 
can hardly have anything to do with gynandromorphism, for 
there is nothing suggestive of $ characters about the insect, 
and its genital armature (which is extracted and pinned on a 



( Ixiii ) 

card along with the specimen) appears to be that of a quite 
normal S- An injury to the creature in its larval state 
might have produced a false appearance of segmentation on 
the right side of the 2nd dorsal plate, so that what has been 
called half-dorsal plate 3 might be really only a part of the 
2nd abdominal segment. But in that case the lateral hook 
which should characterize the 6th segment must be supposed 
to have been transferred to the 5th segment, the apical teeth 
of the 7th segment to have been developed on the 6tli, and 
the 7th segment itself to have disappeared altogether on the 
right side, a state of things which seems quite inconceivable. 
The aspect of the specimen suggests rather that the whole 
right half of its dorsal surface after the 2nd segment has 
been somehow forced backwards towards its head, the right 
half of dorsal plate 3 having been separated from the left half 
and afterwards attached to and incorporated with the left half 
of the preceding segment, the right half of segment 4 similarly 
quitting its own corresponding left half and joining the left 
half of segment 3, and so on. 

The exhibitor then invited expressions of opinion on the 
question whether this malformation had originated in the 
larval stage or in the embryo, and handed over the specimen 
to the President for presentation to the Teratological collection 
in the National Museum at South Kensington. 

Dr. T. A. Chapman said this malformation had clearly no 
causation in any larval injury, but dated from an early period 
of embryonic life. It arose when the flanks of the embryo 
closed dorsally (venter of vertebrates) over the visceral cavity. 
At about the 4th abdominal segment, two segments on the 
right side had met one on the left, and thrown out the correct 
apposition of the remaining ones, the 7th right uniting dorsally 
with the 6th left and so on. Such an accident looked a very 
probable one to occur, yet it is cei'tainly extremely rare, and 
he did not know whether others were on recoi'd. It was 
difficult to conceive any external interference occurring to 
produce it ; and if this were not possible, it must arise by the 
margin of one segment failing at this early period to attain its 
full width. This no doubt explained the rarity of the mon- 
strosity, as the period during which things have gone correctly 



( Ixiv ) 

at this stage was so enormous, that the heredity must have an 
almost impregnable position.* 

Ant in a pseudobulb of an Orchis. — The President 
exhibited a living ant, a species of Camponotus, which had 
been found by Mr. Watson at Kew, in a pseudobulb of an 
orchis (probably a Bidbophyllam) from the Gold Coast. The 
bulb was much excavated, but it had no opening by which 
the ant could have entered. A second bulb was much less 
excavated, but was found to contain the larva of an ant. 

Wasp and its prey. — The President also exhibited a large 
wasp (a Salius allied to dedjax) with a spider, a Mygale rather 
larger than itself, but which it had captured and was carrying 
off. These Avere from German E. Africa. 

Aberrant tropical species. — Lt.-Col. Neville Manders 
exhibited a melanic variety of Hestina nama, captured near 
Darjeeling ; and a monstrosity of Papilio kris/ma, in which 
the wings on the light side were much larger than those on 
the left. The specimen was taken by him at Senchal in 
Sikhim. 

Hymenopterous parasite. — Mr. H. Main exhibited the 
larva of a Hymenopterous parasite of Pygeera bucephala, of 
great size comparatively to its host. 

Conversazione. 

The President announced that the Council had decided in 
favour of holding a Conversazione at some date next year to 
be fixed by a Committee of Fellows elected for the purpose of 
organization. He also invited Fellows to give in their names 
for the Guarantee Fund, and the Secretary gave some account 
of what it was hoped the Society would be able to do in the 
way of exhibits, etc. 

* Dr. Chapman sends the following note after more carefully examining 
the specimen at leisure : "If the explanation hazarded be correct, one 
would exi)ect that, from the point where two right segments coalesce 
dorsally with one of the left side, the following segments would not be 
distinct segments, as is universal in insects, but would present a continuous 
spiral. It strongly supports, therefore, the explanation I advanced, when 
I find that this is so. Such a spiral would be very curious and very 
obvious in a Lepidopterous pupa. I do not know that such an one has 
ever been noticed. The enormous number of pupte annually handled by 
Lepidopterists carelessly as regards such a point notwithstanding, gives 
some idea how rare this malformation must be." 



( Ixv 



Wednesday, November 6th, 1907. 
Mi\ E. Saunders, F.E.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Election of Fellows. 

Mr. G. Arnold, University of Liverpool ; Mr. H. Frederick 
D. Bartlett, of 113 Richmond Park Road, Bournemouth; 
Mr. John Claude Fortescub Fryer, B.A., of The Priory, 
Chatteris ; Mr. C. W. Howard, of the Acting Government, 
Transvaal ; Mr. Charles H. Mortimer, of Wigmore, Holm- 
wood ; Mr. R. F. H. Rosenberg, of 57 Haverstock Hill, 
London, N.AV. ; Mr. Harold Baker Slt, of Brackley 
Knoll Road, Sidcup, Kent ; and Mr. Clement H. Pead, of 
Johannesburg and St, Leonards Road, Bexhill-on-Sea, were 
elected Fellows of the Society. 

Ohituanj. 
The decease of Mr. L. C. H. Young was announced. 

Exhibitions. 

Scottish Beetle in London. — Mr. A. H. Jones brought for 
exhibition a specimen of the Longicorn beetle AcantJiocinus 
sedilis, L., a common Rannoch species, found in Grays Inn 
Road, London. 

New Species of Pinacopteryx. — Di\ F. A. Dixey exhibited 
$ and $ specimens of a Pinacopteryx, at present undescribed, 
which had been discovered by Mr, S. A. Neave in North-East 
Rhodesia, 

He remarked that the interesting genus Pinacopteryx, which 
was purely African in distribution, formed a very natural 
group amongst Pierine genera, somewhat isolated in affinity, 
but on the whole perhaps coming nearest to Belenois. Many 
members of the genus had been affected by mimicry, and one 
species, P. rubrohasalis, Lanz., was an excellent copy in both 
sexes of the familiar Mylothris agatJdna, Cram. This was also 

PROC. ent. soc. LOND., IV. 1907. K 



( Ixvi ) 

the case with the females of the new species, which Mr. Neave 
said he had often mistaken for M. agathina when on the wing. 
On the other hand, the males were quite different, showing no 
trace of resemblance to that species of Mylotltris. When the 
speaker first looked through Mr. Neave's captures, he was 
inclined to conjecture that these females were the local 
representatives of P. ruhrobasalis, $ , which they closely 
resembled, and that their captor had failed to meet with the 
corresponding males. But he found that Mr. Neave had 
assigned them Avithout hesitation to males of an aspect entirely 
different from that of F. ruhrobasalis and 31. agathina, and 
that in one instance at least this opinion had been confirmed 
by the capture of paired specimens. On further examination 
there appeared to be no doubt that the resemblance between 
the females of the two species was due rather to the copying 
of a common model than to mere alfinity, and that Mr. Neave's 
species and P. ruhrobasalis belonged in reality to distinct 
sections of the genus. )Specimens of Mylothris agathina, the- 
common model, were included in the exhibit ; also males and, 
females of P. ruhrobasalis and other members of the genus, 
together with individuals of the new species which were 
actually paired at the time of capture. 

Butterflies from the Aisne. — Mr. W. G. Sheldon showed 
a series of Limenitis poptdi and ab. tremulse with intermediate 
forms taken this year at Laon, and a series of Chrysophanus 
hippotho'e from the same region, the females of the latter 
displaying a wide range of variation for so restricted a locality 
as that in which they were captured. 

Insects from Devon. — ^Mr. G. C. Champion exhibited a 
fully developed example of Mesovelia furcata, M. and K., 
from Slapton, S. Devon, and Thaninotrizon cinereiis from 
Lynmouth, N". Devon. 

Variations in Aplecta nebulosa. — Mr. A. Harrison and 
Mr. Hugh Main exhibited a case of Ajdecta nebulosa, arranged 
to show the great range of variation of this species in 
Delamere Forest ; with series from Epping Forest, North 
Cornwall, and the New Forest for comparison. The Cornish 
and New Forest insects were of the light grey colour which is 
the prevailing form in the West and South of England, with 



( Ixvii ) 

the exception of the neighbourhood of London, where a dark 
grey form is found, as shown in the series from Epping 
Forest. The Delamere Forest insects ranged from a rather 
light colour to a melanic form, with intermediates showing 
a complete gradation from one form to the other. The 
lighter insects were bred very sparingly from collected larvae, 
from 10 to 11 per cent, of melanic forms agreeing more or 
less closely with the form rohsoni, Collins, being obtained, 
the remainder, about 90 per cent., disclosing the dark grey 
form. In answer to a question by Mr. H. Rowland-Brown, 
the exhibitor said that the undergrowth in Delamere Forest 
was chiefly bracken, and the surface of the ground covered 
with the decayed remains of this plant. Beneath this is sand, 
which occurs over a large area of the Forest, and also gravel, 
gravel-pits being somewhat extensively worked. The larvae 
of A. nebulosa seemed fairly well distributed wherever youug 
birches, whitethorn, or bramble occurred, 

A discussion followed relative to the appearance and increase 
of melanic forms in a restricted area like Delamere Forest 
within the last fifteen or twenty years, in which Dr. T. A. 
Chapman, Mr. G. A. K. Marshall, Mr. J. W. Tutt, Mr. 
A. W. Bacot, Mr. W. G. Sheldon, and other Fellows 
joined. 

Eake Coleoptera from the Isle of Wight, etc. — Mr. 
R. S. MiTFOKD exhibited two <^ specimens of Gryptocephalus 
hipunctatus, taken by him at Niton in the Isle of Wight 
in July 1907, while sweeping the grass on the slopes of the 
Undercliff. He observed that the specimens were two forms 
of varieties which be understood were well known on the 
Continent, but that neither had ever been found in Britain 
before. No other specimen was met with, although the spot 
was well worked. The locality seemed to be a strange one 
for this beetle, as there were no hazel or birch trees in the 
neighbourhood. 

Mr. MiTFORD also showed Paracymus xneus, Germ., which he 
had obtained from Mr. Harwood of Colchester, who had believed 
these specimens to be F. nigroasneus. The examples shown 
were captured on the North Essex coast in June 1898, and 
there could be no doubt that P. s&neus must be regarded as a 



( Ixviii ) 

British beetle, although Canon Fowler states in his '* British 
Coleoptera " that we do not possess the true P. xneus. 

He also exhibited a specimen of the very rare Lathrohium 
rufij)enne, taken by him at Mton, I, W., in July 1906, a 
specimen of the rare Ceuthorrhynchus viduatus, taken by him 
at Brading, I. W., in July 1907, and a specimen of Cis dentatus, 
Mell., taken by him at Sandown, I. W., in July 1906, and 
observed that this species, although well known on the 
Continent, had never before been recorded in Britain. 

Papers. 

Mr. J, E. Collin communicated a paper " On a large series 
of Nycteribiidse (parasitic Diptera) from Ceylon." 

Dr. G. B. LoNGSTAFF, M.D., then read a paper " On some 
Butterflies taken in Jamaica," and a paper "On some Butter- 
flies of Tobago," exhibiting a number of examples taken by 
himself in both localities to illustrate his remarks. 



Wednesday, November 20th, 1907. 

Mr. G. H. Verrall, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Nomination of Officers and Council for 1908. 

The Secretary announced that the following Fellows Avere 
nominated to serve as Officers for 1908 : — President, Mr. 
Charles Owen Waterhouse ; Ti^easurer, Mr. Albert Hugh 
Jones; Secretaries, Mr. Henry Eowland-Brown, M.A., and 
Commander James J. Walker, M.A., R.ISr., F.L.S. ; Librarian, 
Mr. George C. Champion ; and as other members of the 
Council, Mr. Arthur John Chitty, M.A., "Dr. Thomas 
Algernon Chapman, M.D., Mr. Albert Harrison, F.L.S. , 
F.C.S., Mr. William James Kaye, Dr. George Blundell 
LoNQSTAFF, M.D. , Mr. Hugh Main, B.Sc, Mr. Guy Anstruther 
Knox Marshall, Professor Raphael Meldola, F.R.S., F.C.S., 
Professor Louis Compton Miall, F.R.S., Professor Edward 
Bagnall Poulton, D.Sc, M.A.,F.R.S., etc., Mr. Robert Shel- 
FORD, M.A., F.L.S., C.M.Z.S., and Mr. G. H Verrall, 



( Ixix ) 

Alteration of a Bye-law. 

The Secretary read the following notice addressed to the 
President and Council of the Society. 

"To the President and Council of the Entomological 
Society of London. — We, the undersigned, desire that the 
Bye-Laws of the Society be altered by substituting in Chapter 
XIII, Section 3, for £15 15s. the figures £21, and give notice 
under Bye-law XXI. accordingly." 

Signed, Gilbert J. Arrow, R. Meldola, R. Shelford, 
T. H. Chapman, A. H. Jones, Guy A. K. Marshall, G. B. 

LONGSTAFF, LoUlS B. PrOUT. 

Election of Fellows. 

Mr. Leonard Woods Newman of Bexley, Kent, and Dr. 
IvAR Tragardh of Upsala University, Sweden, were elected 
Fellows of the Society. 

Exhihitions. 

Eare Beetles from Hants and Kent. — Mr. H. St. J. 

DoNiSTHORPE showed for Mr. W. West of Greenwich examples 
of Tropideres sepicola, F., taken in the New Forest near Matley 
Bog, Jvily 7th, 1904 ; Oxylaemus variolosi(,s, Dufs., from Darenth 
Wood, March 2nd, 1903; and Apion annulipes, Wenck, from 
Darenth Wood, August 27th, 1905. 

Life Histories of Coleophorids. — Mr. H. J. Turner 
exhibited (1) The life history of Goleophora onosmella, in- 
cluding imagines from Box Hill, Reigate, Cuxton, etc., 
larval cases mounted on the leaves of the food plant Echium 
vulyare, showing the blotches formed by the mining larvae, 
numerous cases fixed on stems and basal leaves for pupa- 
tion, and photomicrographs of the ova in situ on the stem 
and leaf, and of the micropyle of the ovum, the former 
( X 20) and the latter ( x 250). (2) The life history of G. 
bicolorella, including imagines from Chatham, Cuxton, etc., 
larval cases mounted to show the depredations of the larvae 
on the leaves of nut, the pre-winter curved cases in which the 
larvas hybernate, larval cases fixed on stems and twigs of nut 
for pupation, leaves showing where pieces had been cut out 
by the larvee for periodic enlargements of the cases, and 



( Ixx ) 

photomicrographs of the ova in situ on the under-side of the 
nut-leaf, and of three varieties of tlie micropyle of the ovum, 
the former ( x 40), the latter ( x 250). These photomicrographs 
were by Mr. F. N. Clark and admirably showed the surface of 
the ova and the structui-e of the micropylar area. 

Mimetic Parallelism in Five Genera op African Pierines. 
— Dr. F. A. DiXEY exhibited series of specimens belonging to 
five different genera of African Pierimv. He remarked that 
the exhibit was arranged so as to show the parallelism exist- 
ing between many species of these genera, a parallelism which 
it could hardly be doubted was in most,^if not in all cases, of 
mimetic significance. The genera included in the exhibit 
were MylotJiris, Phrissura, Pinacopteryx, Belenois and Leucer- 
onia. The members of the same genus were arranged in 
vertical rows, while the species of ditferent genera showing a 
similar appearance were set out side by side, horizontally. 
The various assemblages, each presenting a distinct pattern, 
with their constituent species, were as follows : — 

I. White with dark marginal spots. Mylothris agathina, 
Cram., (?; Pinacopteryx rubrobasalis, Lanz.,(^; Belenois thysa, 
Hopff. S ; Leuceronia argia, Fabr., ^ • 

II. Brownish-yellow with dark marginal spots. M. agathina, 
$ ; Pinacopteryx vidua, Butl., 5 ; P- thysa, 9 (dry season). 

(Some specimens of Pinacopteryx astarte, Butl., $ ; of Belenois 
theora, Doubl., 9 ; and also a form of L. argia, 5 , belong to this 
group, but were not shown. 

III. White with dark apical patch and dark marginal 
spots. Phrissura fhaola, Doubl., $ ; Pinacopteryx dixeyi, 
Neave, S ; Belenois theuszi, Dewitz, S ; L. argia, $ . 

IV. The same, with a slight brownish-yellow basal suffusion. 
M. foppea, Cram., $ ; P. dixeyi, $ ; Belenois ianthe,'Do\\h\., ? 
Leuceronia thalassina, Boisd., $ . 

V. White; marginal dark spots tending to become streaks 
an orange or pinkish basal flush, M. 2>o]ipea, $ ; Phrissura 
isokani, Gr, Smith, $ {= P. phoebe. But!.); B. ianthe, $ 
Belenois sp. (allied to B. thysa), $ ; L. argia, $ . 

VI. Fore-wings brownish-yellow with dark margins ; hind- 
wings white or creamy with dai'k marginal spots. Mylothris 
spica, Mosch., $ ; Phrissura sylvia, Fabr., $ ; L. thalassina, ? . 



( Ixxi ) 

Specimens of B. theuszi, 5 : of B. theora, Doubl., ? ; and of 
L. argia, 2 ( form seniijlava, Auriv.) also come into this group, 
but were not included in the exhibit. 

VII. Bright yellow with dark marginal spots or (on fore- 
wings) an irregular marginal band ; fore- wings with orange 
basal flush. Mylothris o'fipjyeUii, Koch, <$ (yellow form) ; L. 
argia, $ (form sidphurea, Auriv.). 

VIII. White with dark marginal spots ; fore-wings with 
large basal orange-vermilion flush. 21. rappellii, ^ (upper- and 
under-side); L. argia, $ (form varia, Trim.). Phrissura nyasana, 
Butl., S , is also a member of this group. 

IX. White with dark marginal spots ; a small patch of 
orange at base of fore-wings, and the same colour prolonged on 
costa of hind-wings. M. spica, $ ; P. sylvia, S ; P. dixeyi, $ ; 
B. theuszi, S (all under-sides). 

X. White ; fore- wing with dark margin broadened at apex, 
hind-wing with dark marginal spots. M. sjnca, c? ; P. sylvia, 

(?; L. argia, $ (iorra poppasa, Donov.). 

XI. Like IX and X, but orange of IX replaced by lemon- 
yellow. Mylothris asphodelus, Butl., cJ; Plirissura perluceus, 
Butl., (J; B. f/ieits;;j, c^ (under- side). All these specimens are 
from the Congo. 

XII. Fore-wings whitish with a pale orange basal flush ; 
hind -wings orange-yellow ; both wings with a border of 
dark spots. Mylothris clarissa, Butl., ? ; Pinacopteryx sp. 
(allied to P. orhona, Hlibn.), ? ; B. thysa, $ (intermediate 
form) . 

XIII. Like XII, but with the hind-wings a paler yellow, 
and the marginal spots tending to become streaks. P. isohani, 

9 ( = P. /j/ice5e) ; Pinaco^iteryx sp. (allied to P. orhona), $ ; L. 
argia, $ . 

XIV. Fore-wings white with brilliant orange-vermilion 
basal flush ; hind-wings ochre-yellow ; dark marginal spots. 
M. agathina, $ ; P. isokani {phcehe), 9 ; P. rahrobasalis, ? ; B. 
thysa, S ; L. argia, ? (all under-sides). 

XV. Fore-wings white; hind- wings lemon or primrose- 
yellow ; dark marginal spots more or less developed, and on 
fore-wing sometimes fused. Mylothris trimenia, Butl., S ; M. 
narcissus, Butl., ? ; M. jacksoni, E. M. Sharpe, ? ; Phrissura 



( Ixxii ) 

lasti, Gr. Smith, S ', Finacojjteryx s]). (allied to F. vidua, Butl.), 
$ ; Belenois sj). (allied to B. zochalla, Boisd.), 5 . 

XVI. Like XV, but with hind-wings ochreous or brownish- 
yellow. M. trhnenia, $ ; P. lasti, $ ; P.piyea, Boisd., 9 ; Bele- 
nois sp. (allied to B. zochalia), ^ ; B. zochalla, ^ ; L. 
thalassina, $ . 

Dr. DiXEY further remarked that though attention had 
already been drawn to several of these cases of resemblance 
by Mr. Trimen, Prof. Poulton, Mr. N'eave and others, as well 
as by himself, they had not before been shown together in one 
view. In some instances the superficial resemblances between 
insects of very different genera belonging to this series had 
led to much confusion in the nomenclature, for an example of 
which he would refer to the facts given in Mr. Trimen's 
" Sovith African Butterflies," Vol. iii, 1889, p. 35 and note. 
The five genei-a now shown, though all belonging to the 
Fieri)} X, were not closely related ; Pinacoi^teryx and Belenois 
probably stood nearest to one another in point of afiinity, but 
were still abundantly distinct. Mylothris occupied an isolated 
position, while Phrissura was allied to the Eastern genera 
Tachyris, Catophaya and Ap>pias. Leuceronia was widely 
removed from all the rest. Hence there was little or nothing 
to support the suggestion that these likenesses might be 
merely the consequence of afiinity. 

It was worthy of note that some form of the genus Mylothris 
was usually to be found at the centre, so to speak, of each of 
these diii'erent colour-assemblages. But this was not invari- 
ably the case, and it not infrequently happened that the 
species of other genera showed a closer resemblance to each 
other than either of them did to the Mylothris. This was 
perhaps especially the case as between the two genera Belenois 
and Pinacopteryx,, but striking instances also occurred between 
Phrissttra phaola $ and Belenois theuszi S > and between Phris- 
sura isokani ^ and the female of a Belenois allied to B. thysa. 
It was a further point of interest that the streaky character of 
the dark margin of the wings, well seen in M. poppea, 9 , 
appeared to have originated not in that genus, but in the 
genera Phrissura and Belenois. Its adoption by Mylothris, 
which was on all hands admitted to be a distasteful genus, 



( Ixxiii ) 

seemed to favour the supposition of a Miillerian element in 
this series of resemblances, which interpretation was also 
suggested by the cases of " secondary mimicry " already 
referred to. The striking aposeme, peculiar to African 
buttei'flies, constituted by dark marginal spots on a pale 
ground, was a predominant feature of the whole series, and, 
though especially characteristic of Mylothris, appeared in some 
instances to exist independently of that genus. Another 
prevalent aposeme was the orange or scarlet basal flush well 
seen in Mylothris riljj'peUn. It was significant that both these 
warning marks tended to be better developed on the under- 
surface. 

Dr. DiXEY concluded by drawing attention to the fact that 
these colour-assemblages were by no means isolated clusters. 
On the contrary, they passed into one another in many direc- 
tions, though this was not easily observed in an exhibit 
airanged like the present. As a matter of fact, the whole 
array of specimens shown might be regarded as forming a net- 
work, each individual being connected with all the rest by a 
larger or smaller number of gradations. It would be seen on 
tracing out these lines of connection that they ran to a very 
large extent independently of aiiinity. The phenomena were 
indeed in many respects comparable with the facts regarding 
mimicry in the Neotropical region, to which he had drawn 
attention in "Nature" for October 31, 1907, pp. 677-8. 

MiCROMORPHISM IiV A BeeTLB. Mr. WiLLOUGHBY GARDNER 

exhibited a remarkably small specimen of Meloe 2)^'oscaraba;its 
with an example of the normal size. 

Forms of Arasghnia Levana and var. Prorsa. — Mr. W. G. 
Sheldon showed a case containing many examples of Arasch- 
nia levana var. prorsa and intermediates, bred from larvae 
found in the department of the Aisne, France, in June last. 
Out of 176 individuals that emerged from the pupa 109 were 
var. 'prorsa — 65 S $& and 44 5 ¥ ^> 4 approached nearly to 
ab. porima, 2 S $& and 2 ? $ s ; 29 were intermediate 
between prorsa and porima — 23 $ $h and 6 9 ? -"^ • ^^^ 
emerging in a room of average temperature at Croydon, July 
20-27th. The forms 2^orima and intermediates were attribut- 
able to the cold summer. The remainder of the specimens 



( Ixxiv ) 

came from pupte which as soon as formed were removed to a 
refrigerator and kept there for fifteen days, being afterwards 
subjected to the same treatment as the other lot of pupse. 
These emerged August 8-1 5th and showed one var. prorsa, 16 
between porima and frorsa — 6 $ $?> and 10 $ 5^ — 2 ab. 
porima, both S c? s, 16 intermediates between jjo'orsa and the 
type levana — 4 (? c?s and 12 $ $ s, of which several 
approached very nearly to the typical hvood— levana. 

Dr. T. A. Chapman showed specimens of Araschnia levana, 
type, bred 1907, to give a fuller view of this form in assist- 
ance to Mr. Sheldon's report. He said the palest specimens 
were probably the result of leaving the pupa3 at a temperature 
at or below 54° till the butterflies were nearly ready for 
emergence ; but on the whole they are probably not far from 
normal levana, the darker being chiefly S S , the paler $ 5 • 

Mr. Sheldon also showed strings of the ova in situ on 
nettle, these being base to apex, and in position resembling 
those of Pohjgonia c-album. 

Exotic Cockroach from Kew. — Mr. G. J. Arrow exhibited 
a specimen of a handsome exotic Cockroach {Doryhva 
rhombifolia) found alive in the Natural History Museum. 
He remarked that he had seen this species there several years 
ago but had not captured it. The present specimen was 
found in a diiferent part of the building by Mr. T. Sherrin, 
on Nov. 16th. It is an apterous species inhabiting China, 
India, Madagascar, S. Africa, etc. and has also been recorded 
from Tropical America. 

Temperature Experiments on Tropical Butterflies. — 
Lieut. -Col. N. Manders exhibited a collection of some 200 
specimens of tropical butterflies belonging to the genera 
Melanitis, Mycalesis, Atella, Papilio and Catopsilia, which 
had been subjected to abnormal degrees of tempei-ature in 
the pupal stage. The object of the experiments was to 
ascertain the effect of climate on the colours of tropical 
butterflies. He said that with the exception of Mr. Mai"- 
shall's experiments on certain S. African butterflies litei-ally 
nothing had been done as far as he knew in the laboratory 
in relation to this question. He himself held the view 
tentatively, that certain cases believed to be examples of 



( Ixxv ) 

Mlillerian mimicry would be proved eventually to be cases 
of climatic resemblances, produced in insects of different 
genera or even families by climate acting on organisms 
similarly constituted, and so responding in a similar manner 
to the same stimulus. 

While readily admitting that the specimens in the exhibit 
were too few for definite conclusions, they showed in Melanitis 
and Mycalesis there was good evidence for the belief that in 
two species — leda and narcissus — of these genera the seasonal 
phases are induced by cold and heat, and not by dryness and 
moisture. 

In Atella j)halanta there was reason for believing that the 
presence of the violet or purple on the under surface was due 
to deprivation of light during the rearing of the insect from 
the egg to the imago. 

In Cat02)silia Jiorella any abnormal temperature produced 
an increased number of yellow females {rhadia), no typical 
Avhite females, but an abundance of intermediates, which were 
absent so far as his experience went under normal conditions 
in Mauritius, though common enough in India and Africa. 
The males remained unchanged. 

In Papilio demodocus there was an increase of red round 
the costal ocellus on the upper side of the hind-wing and a 
•vevj distinct general ruddiness on the under surface of the 
hind-wing produced by cold. 

Association of Allied Forms of South American Butter- 
flies. — Dr. G. B. LoNGSTAFF exhibited a case containing 35 
Ithomiine butterflies of 11 species, belonging to 6 genera, 
all taken in a little over an hour, on March 20th, 1907, at 
about 4.0 p.m. near Caracas, Venezuela, some 3600 feet above 
sea-level. They were disturbed in a shaded gorge and all 
taken on a piece of moist ground measuring perhaps 60 yards 
by 10 yards. They were all flying together like a cloud of 
gnats and many more might have been secured, but the 
number of distinct species was not recognized at the time. 
This habit of butterflies of this group thus congregating 
together was described by Bates.* It affords a striking 
exception to Darwin's principle that closely allied forms are 
■* Trans. Linn. Soc. 1862, pp. 539, 541. 



( Ixxvi ) 

not usually found together. When on the wins; out of the 
sun the clear-winged species were difficult to see, only the 
white or yellow markings catching the eye, but in the 
sunshine the clear parts of the wings sometimes gave an 
iridescent gleam. 

CONVERGEXT GROUP OF HeLICONINB BUTTERFLIES. Mr. W. J, 

Kaye exhibited a convergent group of Heliconine butterflies, 
from the Potaro Road, Potaro River, British Guiana, composed 
of the following species : Heliconius burneyi catharinx, Heliconius 
xanthocles xanthocles, Heliconius axde astydmnia, Heliconius 
egeria egeria, all of the second section or Opisorhyparine group. 
Heliconius cyhele tumatmnari of the first section or Opiso- 
gymni group, and Eueides tales tales. A short series of each 
was shown, and it was stated that except the first and last 
none of the species could be called common. The numbers of 
each secured in six years were as follows — H. catharinae 31, 
H. xanthocles 6, H. astydamia 14, H. egeria 3, H. tuviatumari 
6, En. tales 50. It was significant that this group of buttei-- 
flies also had a black hind-wing, a characteristic so marked in 
the Guiana region especiall}- that portion known as British 
and Dutch territory. In the more southern area known as 
French Guiana the hind-wing in the representatives of these 
species was streaked with red. Only H. egeria as found on 
the Potaro River now shows anj" indication of being streaked 
in the hind-wing, the other four species of Heliconius and the 
Eueides only exhibiting a small red streak at the base, while 
some of the specimens present a uniform black surface. 
Hitherto there has not been detected any species of Danaine 
or Ithomiine butterfly that might serve as a model or mimic 
of these species, and if at anytime the large Melinsea mneme — 
Heliconius numata group exerted any influence on these red 
and yellow and black species, it is unlikely that it does so 
now, because they have not the same flower-frequenting habit 
and are not found in company with them. The red colouring 
of the fore-wing also render these species far more distinctive 
on the wing than the species coloured like H. numata, and it 
is unlikely that any enemy would mistake the one for the 
other. 



( Ixxvii ) 

Papers. 

In illustration of his paper " Mimicry in North American 
Butterflies of the genus Limeaitis (Basilarchia)," Professor 
E. B. PouLTOisr, F.R.S., showed specimens of Adelpha [lieterc- 
chroa) bredowi, ranging from Guatemala to Arizona, and 
its northern form, named californica by A. G. Butler, from 
California and Oregon. With these he exhibited specimens of 
Limenitis (Basilarchia) lorqulni, Boisd., taken together with the 
Adelphas, by Mr. F. D. Godman, F.R.S., in the two last-named 
States. A specimen of lorquini from Esquimalt, Vancouver's 
Island, was also exhibited for the purpose of comparison with 
the southern individuals. Professor Poulton pointed out that 
lorqtdni resembles the Adelpha and differs from its ancestor 
L. (B.) wiedejueyeri, Edwards, in the cream colour of the 
band which crosses both wings and the presence of a brown 
apical patch on the fore-wing. The specimen from Vancouver's 
Island far north of the range of the Adelpha showed a great 
reduction in the size of the apical patch. The californica form 
of the Adelpha furthermore differed from the southern bredoiai 
form and resembled the L. {B.) lorquini in -the reduction of 
the brown mark at the anal angle of the hind-wing, in the 
more broken and irregular appearance of the cream-coloured 
band, and markedly in the broader, shorter shape of the 
wings. These mutual resemblances appeared to offer a 
striking example of Dr. F. A. Dixey's principle of Reciprocal 
Mimicry (Diaposematic Resemblance). Professor Poulton said 
that he was indebted to the kindness of Mr. F. D. Godman for 
the opportunity of showing the specimens to the Society. 

Mr. H. St. J. DoNiSTHORPE, F.Z.S., read a paper " On the 
Life History of Lomechusa strumosa, F." 



Wednesday, December 4th, 1907. 

Mr. C. 0. Waterhouse, President, in the Chair. 
Nomination of Officers and Council and Auditors for 1908. 

The Secretary again read the names of the Officers and 
Council nominated to serve for 1908. 



( Ixxviii ) 

The following Fellows were nominated as Auditors : — l\Ir. 
W. J. Kaye, Mr. A. J. Chitty, Mr. R. Adkin, Mr. L. B. 
Prout, Dr. T. A. Chapman, Mr. E. Wylie-Lloyd. 

Alteration of a Bye-Law. 

The Secretary again read the notice relative to a change of 
Chapter XIII, Section 3, announced at the previous meeting. 

Election of Felloics. 

Mr. Walter Feather, of 10 Station Grove, Cross Hills, 
Keighley, Yorkshire, and the British Somaliland Fibre and 
Development Company, Berbera, Somaliland, British East 
Africa, and Mr. Eupert Wellstood Jack, Assistant Entomo- 
logist in the Department of Agriculture of the Cape of Good 
Hope, Cape Town, South Africa, were elected Fellows of the 
Society. 

Ohitiiary. 

The decease of Mr. Henry Hague was announced. 

ExJiihitions. 

Variations in Anthrocera trifolii. — Dr. G. C. Hodgson^ 
introduced by Dr. T. A. Chapman, exhibited a case containing 
a number of examples of Anthrocera trifolii, collected on the 
.-^ame ground in Sussex, and showing a wide range of variation, 
including three fine melauic forms, and several showing six 
spots on the upper-wings. He remarked that these latter 
were bred by him from cocoons found on the ground, and not 
as in the case of the others from those taken on ling, etc. 

Enemies op South American Butterflies. — Mr. W. J. 
Kaye showed a specimen of Papilio thoas thoas with the 
central portions of both tails removed apparently by a narrow- 
billed bird. The injury appeared so symmetrical that it was 
thought likely that the specimen was an abnormality. But a 
careful microscopical examination showed that the overlapping 
scales on the sides of the injury were not shaped like the cilia 
scales but were in the position of broken rows of scales, show- 
ing that there had been uniformity. It was mentioned that 
by experiment with a butterfly and a pair of forceps a piece 
of the wing could be removed and the i"esulting injury appear 



( Ixxix ) 

scaled. If however a wedge of the wing be cut out with a 
pair of sharp scissors, the resulting edge of the wing showed 
hardly a trace of any overlapping scales, the scales them- 
selves being actually sheared. 

Several species of butterflies from British Guiana were also 
shown with injuries to the wings in the regioij. of the abdo- 
men. These included Heliconius binmei/i cathartna', Stalachtis 
2)ha'dusa, Bia actorion and MetJiona confusa, the last-named 
being a most conspicuous injury just above where the abdomen 
is held when at rest. Such injuries to Danaine butterflies 
were quite rare. 

Locusts and their Food. — The President exhibited photo- 
graphs of a large locust {Gatacanthacris ruhellci) from the 
Congo Free State, which was captvired holding a small mouse 
{Legyada V) with its front and middle legs, and was apparently 
devouring it. He read the following note from the Eev. M. 
H. Reid, who found it. " I never knew that a grasshopper 
would eat flesh, but seeing was to believe. I went to see 
several of the chiefs . . . during that time great swarms of 
locusts devoured every green thing. While looking at the 
locusts crawling over the native huts I observed the one I 
gave you. It held a mouse firmly, and had actually fastened 
its legs about the mouse so that there was no way of escape. 
. . . Some of the locusts had great spiders and others great 
roaches (cockroaches), and in fact anything which would make 
food." The specimen is now in the Natural History Museum. 

A discussion followed on the carnivorous habit of the 
Acridiidse, it being considered a very unusual phenomenon. 

The Rev. F. D. Morice mentioned an occasion on which he 
had found wearing apparel devoured by grasshoppers in 
Switzerland, and other Fellows followed. 

Eeoipkocal Convergence inLimenitis. — Professor Poulton 
exhibited 7 males and 4 females of Limenitis {Basilarchia) 
lorquini from Vancouver's Island ; 1 1 males and 1 female 
from British Columbia ; 4 males from California ; also 4 
examples of the Calif ornian form of Adelpha bredowi, together 
with 5 specimens of the same species from Mexico and 1 from 
Guatemala. He also exhibited 2 males of the species which 
probably represents the ancestor of lorquini, viz. Limenitis 



( Ixxx ) 

{Basilarchia) tviedemeyeri, from Colorado. This much largei* 
series supported the conclusions suggested by the smaller 
exhibit shown by Professor Poulton at the previous meeting: — 
viz. that the superficial appearance of A. hredowi and of /.. (7?.) 
lorqidni undergoes reciprocal convergence in the areas where 
these two species fly together, but that where each of them 
exists alone, lorqtoini to the W. and bredoioi to the S., the 
resemblance to the other is much reduced. 

Hybrids and Varieties of British Heterocera. — Mr. L. 
W. Newjian exhibited (a) a long and varied series of Ennomos 
■autumnaria (cdniaria), including examples in-bred several 
years of a very pale washed-out colour, the usual in-bred Kent 
form ; specimens bred by Mr. Tugwell 1882-3, a very rich dark 
speckled form ; specimens including two pairs melanic (rich 
dark brown with canary-yellow thorax), the parent $ captured 
in East Kent in 1905 and quite typical, but the brood of 
1906 produced two melanic specimens, while this year several 
melanic specimens were bred and a quantity of the types, 
which latter were very rich in colour and heavily speckled, 
some almost approaching Mr. Tugwell's race : (6) a series of 
Folia xanthoinista (nigrocincta) bred from ova and fed on 
carrot, the specimens unusually large (N. Cornwall), and one 
Isle of Man specimen also bred from ova, and one specimen 
bred from wild collected larvje — a much smaller specimen : (c) 
three pairs of hybrid Notodotita ziczac c? x j\\ dromedarius $ , = 
newmani, Tutt, and one specimen each of ziczac and drome- 
darms : (d) three very fine Xylina conformis bred by Evan John, 
S. Wales : (e) three cocoons (i» situ) of Dicramira hicusi^is 
collected wild in Tilgate Forest : and (/) fine melanic S Ojoor- 
abia dilutata, taken wild in Bexley Woods 1907, this being the 
first melanic specimen of the species reported from Kent. 

New Species of Belenois. — Dr. F. A. Dixey exhibited male 
and female specimens of a new Belenois allied to B. zochalia, 
Boisd., but quite distinct from the zochalia group. These 
were captured by Mr. Wiggins in the Tiriki Hills, north east 
of the Victoria Nyanza. 

Rare Coleoptera, Tiiysanoptera, and Aptera. — Mr. R. S. 
Bagnall read the following notes on the several examples 
exhibited by him. 



( Ixxxi ) 

COLEOPTBRA : 

Triplax bicolor, Gyll. Specimens reared from larvae found 
hibernating in moss at Gibside, Co. Durham, and showing 
change in coloration after emergence from pupae. 

Agathidium badium, Er., from beneath bark of beech trunks 
and logs, Gibside, Co. Durham. 

Cryptamorpha desjardinsi, Latr. A probably cosmopolitan 
species from cellars, Winlaton, Co. Durham. 

Enicmus fungicola, Th., taken by Mr. Gardner in Teesdale, 
Co. Durham. 

Henoticus serratus, Gyll., from refuse lyilig on the banks of 
Loch Long at Arnochar. 

Epurxa angustula, Er., and AcruUa injlata, Gyll., found 
(parasitic) in the runs of a wood-boring beetle, Trypodendron 
domesticum. 

Eiiplectiis minutissimus, Aube., taken at Winlaton Mill, Co. 
Durham, with other rare creatures, amongst sand and shingle 
actually submerged by the river Derwent. 

Scydvieenus exilis, Er., not uncommon in the Derwent Valley 
(Durham) beneath bark of various trees. 

Ptilium miyrmecophilum, All., common with F. rufa in 
Northumberland, Durham and the Kyles of Bute. 

Thysanoptera : — 

Having paid a little attention this year to the British species 
of Thrips I have pleasure this evening in drawing your notice 
to twelve rare species, ten of which (marked " * ") are new to 
the fauna of Great Britain. 

* Megalothrips lativentris, Heeger. Both sexes found by Dr. 
Eandell Jackson in Delamere Forest. One of the largest 
European species. 

Liothrips setinodis, Reuter. Described by Renter from 
Scotland. A fine $ from Elm Gibside, Co. Durham, 

* Trichothrips csespitis, Uzel. A minute species, apterous, 
without ocelli, and having the proboscis abbreviated. De- 
scribed from Bohemia. A single example from Gibside in moss. 

* Heliothrips femoralis, Reuter. A hothouse species taken 
at Acton by Mr. C. O. Waterhouse and in Northumberland by 

PROC. ENT. SOC. LOND., IV. 1907. P 



( Ixxxii ) 

myself. It is recorded from Finland and North America, and 
I have recently found it in numbers in Belgium. 

* Parthenothri2JS dracsenm, Heeger. Another hothouse 
species taken by Mr. Waterhouse at Acton. It is widely 
distributed, and I have taken it in large numbers in Belgium, 
in which country it was previously unknown. 

Aptinothrlps nitidula, Hal. On the sea aster {Aster 
tripolmm) and sea milkwort (Glaux maritima), Arran. De- 
scribed by Haliday more than seventy years ago and only 
rediscovered this year. 

* Uzeliella luhhocki, new genus and species. A single 
female found amongst seaweed, Whitley Bay. 

* Euthrips robusta, Uzel. From the field scabious [Scahiosa 
arvensis), Co. Durham. Rare. Bohemia (Uzel). 

* Oxyothrips parviceps, Uzel. Fi'om heather {Calluna and 
Erica), Scotland, Clyde and Solway districts ; Northumber- 
land, Co. Durham. Bohemia (Uzel). 

* Oxyothrips ajuga', Uzel. From the flowers of bugle (Ajuga 
reptans), Co. Durham. Bohemia (Uzel). 

* Thrips major, Uzel, and 

* Thrips communis, Uzel, from the flowers and leaves of 
the bittersweet {Solammi dulcamara) and the potato plant 
{S. tuberosum), Co. Durham. Bohemia (Uzel). 

Aptera : — 

The following species of Collembola, another neglected 
group, are additions to the fauna of Great Britain, whilst 
many species yet await identification and most probably 
description. Prof. Carpenter has helped me greatly in this 
group. 

* Orchesella rufescens, Lubbock, and * Isotoma hibernica, 
Carpenter, the latter a recently described species. Delamere 
Forest, where they were taken by Dr. Randell Jackson. 

* Isotoma minuta, Tib. Whitley Bay, Northumberland. 

* Isotoma bidenticulala, Tib. An arctic and alpine species. 
Amongst shingle of mountain streams, in numbers, North- 
umberland and Scotland. 

* Isotoma quadrioculata, Tib. A solitary example from the 
Derwent Valley, Durham. 



( Ixxxiii ) 

* Xenylla brevicauda, Tib. Several from beneath bark, 
Derwent Valley, Durham. 

* Anurida tidlbergi, Schott. Taken in large numbers 
amongst sand and shingle submerged by the i-iver Derwent, 
Durham. 

* Sminthnrus cin'ctas, Tib. In numbers, Derwent Valley, 
Durham. 

Thysanura : — 

Prxmachilis hibernica, Carp., this year described by Prof. 
Carpenter, and another species probably P. brevicornis, Ridley, 
the desci-iption of which has been overlooked by modern 
authorities, both from the Derwent Valley. 

Papers, etc. 
Professor E. B. Poulton, F.R.S., communicated the follow- 
ing observations on the 

Insect and other Foods of Blackgame 
contained in a letter received from Dr. F. Menteith Ogilvie. 
His correspondent stated that the larvae of Bombyx rubi had 
been unusually abundant on the Argyllshire moors during 
October (Dr. Ogilvie's visit had been from the 16th to the 28th 
of the month). The following extract from the letter indicates 
both the excessive abundance and the special protection of these 
larvfB : — " Had I set about seriously collecting them, I dare 
say I could have gathered over 1,000 of these caterpillars in a 
day. We shot a number of blackgame, grouse, and ptarmigan, 
and I examined the crops of a good many of these, more 
especially of the blackgame. The latter species we found out 
on the open moor — very few were in the woods and birch 
patches at this season — they therefore had ample opportunities 
of feeding on these hairy caterpillars had they been so minded. 
But in the examination of the contents of the crops of a con- 
siderable number of birds of this species I never found one 
hairy caterpillar, though I often found one or two smooth- 
skinned caterpillars of different kinds. From this I came to 
the conclusion that these hairy caterpillars are noxious to 
birds — at any rate to the game birds I was dealing with — and 
that they are severely left alone." 



( Ixxxiv ) 

A later communication from Dr. Menteith Ogilvie contained 
the following interesting details : — " I enclose a rough note on 
the contents of the crops of five blackgame. I could send 
others, but the general result was the same in all the birds shot." 

Blackgame, Tetrao tetrix, L. Contents of crop (5 specimens). 
Barcaldine, Argyllshire. 

1. ? Shot 17th October, 1907 (3 p.m.) ; crop fairly dis- 

tended. " An immense number " of galls from oak 
trees, vulgarly " spangle galls " {JVeuroterKS lenticu- 
laris), probably not less than 500 of these. 

Also " an immense number " of small dark-brown beetles, 
Lochvisea [Adimonia) suturcdls of Thomson, one of the 
plant-feeding section of the Coleoptera. 

A quantity of plantain leaves, others that appeared to 
belong to some kind of mint, and only one small 
flowering head of heather. 

2. i Shot 19th October, 1907 (4 p.m.) ; crop full. 

Plantain leaves, fully \ of the contents. 

Heather shoots, about another ^. 

A few blaeberry tops (^Vaccinium myrtillus). 

Marsh Trifolium (2 or 3 leaves) ; a fern leaf (? Poly- 
podium dl/pestre). 

Many dark-brown beetles, as in $ of 17th October, 1907, 
but less numerous. 

One large smooth-skinned caterpillar, \\ in. long, 3 
longitudinal yellow stripes on a dark olive-brown 
ground. 

3. $ young. Shot 19th October, 1907 (10 a.m.); crop nearly 

empty. 
Seven berries of the mountain ash (Rowan), and 
A few crinkly leaves, somewhat like parsley. (Sp. ?) 

4. $ adult. Shot 18th October, 1907 (4 p.m.); crop very 

distended. 
Large quantities of heather shoots. 
Willow leaves. (Sp. V) 

[This is a dwarf willow which grows plentifully on 
the moors. I don't know the species — it is locally 
known as the "saugh" willow.] 



( Ixxxv ) 

Flowering heads of a scabious. 

Numerous fronds of a fern (] Polypodium alpestre), 

Tormentilla {T. officinalis), and two or three Trifolium 

leaves. 
" Vast number " of spangle galls. 
300 or more dark-brown beetles {L. sitturalis). 
One earwig, and 

One large (1| in. long) smooth-skinned green caterpillar, 
5. ? Shot 18th October, 1907 {3 p.m.) ; crop half full. 

Mainly heather shoots, with a good sprinkling of 

blaeberry (V. myrtillus). 
Fern fronds {P. a^iestre), a few. 
" Immense number" of the usual small dark-brown beetle, 

and quantity of •' spangle galls." 

"The two outstanding features are the spangle galls and 
the small beetle. Almost all the birds were crowded with 
these, and, judging by my specimens, the blackgame must 
have been destroying enormous numbers of both. I don't 
think, as regards the beetles, it is any exaggeration to allow 
300 beetles per day per bird. Ours is not a very good black- 
game ground now, and perhaps we have 300 head in all ; that 
would equal 90,000 beetles per day ! I was surprised to find, 
too, how little heather was eaten in most cases, despite the 
fact that the birds were in almost every case found on the 
moor and not in the woods. 

" The beetles were kindly identified for me by Commander 
Walker, and the oak spangles by the authorities at Kew." 

Professor Poulton said that Dr. Menteith Ogilvie had 
kindly obtained specimens of the abundant hairy larvae un- 
touched by the birds, and that they were undoubtedly Bomhyx 
rubi. He remarked upon the interesting fact that the beetle 
Lochmeea suturcdis, so plentifully devoured by the blackgame, 
belonged to the Galerucidse, a family generally believed to be 
distasteful, and certainly providing many models for mimicry. 
These particular Galerucids, however (examples of which were 
exhibited), were rather inconspicuous dark brown insects. 

Rest Attitude of Hyria Auroraria. — Mr. J. C. Moulton 
read the following note : — " During the past summer I had the 



( Ixxxvi ) 

opportunity of studying the habits of this species in the field 
near Glastonbury, Somersetshire. I first met with it on July 
2nd, and after a rainy interval saw it again on July 10th, 
11th, and 12th. The moth frequented a small patch of ground 
about 80 yards square, covered with heath and ling, inter- 
mingled with bog-myrtle, alder bushes, and birch trees. The 
insect was on the wing in bright sunlight from 10.30 a.m. to 
1.30 p.m. The rest attitude was first observed on Jvily 10th ; 
when following a moth that was flying about four or five feet 
from the ground, I saw it settle upon the ling a little ahead of 
me when it became invisible. However, on closer inspection T 
found it had alighted on a thin stem of ling, with the under- 
side of its outspread wings vippermost. When disturbed it 
again took a short flight of a few yards, and settled in exactly 
the same manner. This happened daring four successive 
flights of this one insect ; and for the rest of that morning 
and the following days I was interested to notice that all the 
others, which I saw settle, invariably did so in this attitude. 
The interpretation is not far to seek when a comparison is 
made between the colouring of the upper- and under-sides. In 
the former the bright purple and rich golden markings at once 
attract the eye and render this little Geometer a conspicuous 
object. The under-surface, on the other band, possesses a 
perfect cryptic colouring of dark dull purple, combined with 
shades of tawny yellow. It should be noted that on no occasion 
was the flower itself selected as a resting-place, but always the 
leaf or stem, the dull colour of which, combined with the dark 
shadows in the interior of the plant, formed a background 
harmonising in a remarkable manner with the exposed surface 
of the insect. In conclusion, I should like to record my sincere 
gratitude to Professor Poulton for very kindly looking over 
this note." 

Mr. A. H. SwiNTON communicated a paper on "The Family 
Tree of Moths and Butterflies, traced in their Organs of Sense." 

Mr. E. Meyrick, B.A., F.RS., F.Z.S., communicated a 
paper on " Notes and Descriptions of Fterophoridx and 
Orneodidse.r 

Mr. U. Shelford, M.A., C.M.Z.S., F.L.S., read a paper 
entitled " Studies on the Blattidse." 



( Ixxxvii ) 

The Rev. K. St. A. Rogers, introduced by Professor E. B. 
PouLTON, F.R.S., read a paper entitled " Notes on the Bio- 
nomics of British East African Butterflies," and exhibited 
many examples collected by him, and from the Hope Museum, 
Oxford, to illustrate his remarks. 



( 1^ 



ANNUAL MEETING. 
Wednesday, January 15th, 1908. 

Mr. C. 0. Waterhouse, President, in the Chair. 

Mr. R. Wylie Lloyd, one of the Auditors, read the 
Treasurer's Balance Sheet, showing a balance of £6 Is. \\d. 
in the Society's favour. 

Mr. H. Rowland-Brown, one of the Secretaries, then read 
the following 

Report of the Council. 

During the Session 1907-1908 eight Fellows have died, 
seven Fellows have resigned, thirty-six new Fellows have been 
elected, the name of one Fellow has been restored to the list, 
and those of fourteen Fellows removed therefrom. 

It is a pleasure to report that the elections for the year 
constitute a record in the annals of the Society, and that the 
tendency toward a lower annual average, of which mention 
was made two years ago, has not been maintained. The 
interest taken in the work of the Society, apart from the 
gratifying additions to our ranks in the past twelve months, 
is demonstrated by the number of those attending the Ordinary 
Meetings, these, as a rule, being almost double compared with 
the attendances of some previous years. In this connection it 
is also agreeable to note that the number of foreign Fellows is 
increasing steadily, our ranks during the year having received 
accessions from France, Germany, and Sweden, Avhile the 
British Colonies continue to be well represented on the 
nomination papers. 

At present the Society consists of eleven Honorary Fellows, 
and five hundred and nine Life and Subscribing Fellows, this 
being the first year that the roll of Ordinary Fellows has 
exceeded five hundred. 

It is much to be regretted that the finances of the Society 
have not developed proportionately to the increase of Fellows. 
On several occasions during the year the Council has been 

PROC. ENT. see. LOND., V. 1907. G 



( xc ) 

compelled to withhold valuable papers contributed by Fellows, 
simply for want of funds, and were it not for the continued 
generosity of one or two Fellows we should have been unable 
to bring our Transactions even to the modest number of pages 
and plates of the current issue. Much time has been devoted 
by the Treasurer and the Council to the matter : the question of 
i-aising the annual subscription has been considered at length, 
out abandoned as undesirable ; a majority of the Council, 
however, recommend that the Life Composition be somewhat 
increased, and for this purpose have taken steps to consult 
the wishes of the Society upon the necessary alteration of 
the Bye-Law. The increased expenses of printing, and of the 
preparation of the plates ; the advance in the cost of paper, 
and the falling off in the amount of voluntary subscriptions 
to the publication fund, have demanded stricter economy on 
the part of the Council, and a consequent reduction of the 
scientific material published by the Society. 

The Transactions for the year, however, form a volume 
of five hundred and fifteen pages, containing twenty- seven 
Memoirs by the following authors : Mr, Malcolm Burr, B.A., 
F.Z.S., Lieut-.Colonel C. T. Bingham, F.Z.S., Mr. M. Cameron, 
M.B., R.N., and Signor A. Caruana Gatto, LL.D., the Rev. 
G. A. Crawshay, M.A., Dr. T. A. Chapman, M.D. (two). Dr. 
T. A. Chapman and Mr. G. C. Champion, F.Z.S., Mr. Hamilton 
H. Druce, F.Z.S., Dr. F. A. Dixey, M.A., M.D., Mr. H. St. 
J. Donisthorpe and Dr. G. B. Longstaff, M.D., Mr. E. A. 
Elliott, F.Z.S., and Mr. C. Morley, F.E.S., Mr. L. Guppy, 
junior, Mr. J. L. Hancock, M.D., Mr. E. Dukinfield Jones, 
F.Z.S., Mr. J. C. Kershaw, F.Z.S. (three ; two of them with 
Mr. F. Muir, F.E.S.), Mr. P. I. Lathy, F.Z.S, Mr. A. M. Lea, 
F.E.S., Lieut. -Colonel N. Manders and Mr. E. Meyrick, B.A., 
F.R.S., F.Z.S., Professor L. C. Miall, F.R.S., and Mr. T. H. 
Taylor, Mr. K. J. Morton, F.E.S., Mr. R. Shelford, M.A., 
C.M.Z.S. (two), Mr. E. E. Unwin, M.Sc, and Mr. H. Scott. 

Of these papers, nine relate to Lepidoptera, six to Coleo- 
ptera, three to Diptera, one to Rhynchota, three to Orthoptei'a, 
one to Hymenoptera, one to Neuroptera ; one, by Dr. 
Chapman and Mr. G. C. Champion, to Lepidoptera and 
Coleoptera ; one by Dr. Dixey and Dr. Longstaff to South 



( -^ci ) 

African Entomology, and one by Dr. Chapman to the subject 
of Teratology in insects. 

The Memoirs referred to are illustrated by twenty-nine plates, 
of which nine are coloured. Half the cost of Plate I has been 
defrayed by Mr. Lathy. Mr. M. Burr has given the draw- 
ings for Plate IV. Dr. T. A. Chapman has given the whole 
cost of Plate V, the blocks for Plates VI-XII, and the photo- 
graph for Plate XXVII. Mr. Crawshay has given the pho- 
tographs for Plates XIV-XX, and Mr. J. C. Kershaw the 
drawings for Plates XXII-XXIII. The entire cost of 
Plate XXV has been defrayed by Dr. G. B. Longstaff, the 
drawings of Plates XXVI-XXVII have been presented by 
Mr. L. Guppy, junior, and Lieut. -Colonel Manders has given 
£5 towards the expenses of Plate XXIX. The quality and 
length of the Proceedings has also been well maintained, and 
many short papers are now included in this part of our 
publications. 

We regret to announce that the amount offered in grant for 
a Travel Fund, so liberally volunteered by Mr. F. Merrifield, 
was not applied for. Mr. Merrifield has, however, most 
kindly announced his willingness to repeat his offer in the 
forthcoming year. 

The Society was invited to send a delegate to the Bicen- 
tenary Celebrations of the Birth of Linnajus at the University 
of XJpsala, and the Academy of Science, Stockholm, and was 
represented by the Eev. F. D. Morice, M.A., one of our 
Fellows, who has published in our Proceedings an account of 
the very gratifying way in which he was received on both 
occasions. Another of our Fellows, Professor E. B. Poulton, 
F.R.S., represented the University of Oxford, and was decor- 
ated by the late King of Sweden with the Order of the Polar 
Star in recognition of his services to Entomological Science. 

The Treasurer reports that the Balance Sheet of the Society 
shows that the subscriptions for the year 1907 are about £17 
in excess of the previous year. The admission fees are far in 
excess of any previous year, amounting to £50 8s. The sum 
total received is, however, about £20 less than last year, 
owing to the falling off of donations, and in the sale returns 
of the Transactions. 



( xcii ) 

The printing bill — £321 Is. 2d. — is abnormally high, being 
£100 in advance of that of the preceding year. The cost of 
plates shows a reduction — £113 2s. ScZ. — as against £199 4s. "id. 
in 1906 ; the other items of the Balance Sheet being normal. 
But although the balance is small, as a matter of fact we are 
in as good, if not better, a financial position than last year. 
The volume of Transactions and Proceedings for 1906 was 
very bulky, and Parts III and IV were paid for last March, 
the expenses for the same amounting to £106 ; £60 will 
probably cover the whole cost of these two Parts in the current 
issue. 

The Librarian reports that the number of volumes issued to 
Fellows for home-reading amounted during the year to a total 
of 287. The Library has also been very well patronised for 
purposes of reference and study. The additions to the 
Library consist of five volumes, 102 pamphlets, and the usual 
periodicals. 

Entomological Society of London, 

11, Chandos Street, Cavendish Squaee, W. 
January I5th, 1908. 

The Secretaries not having received any notice proposing to 
substitute other names for those contained in the list prepared 
by the Council, the following Fellows constitute the Council 
for 1908-9 :— George C. Champion, F.Z.S.; Dr. Thomas 
Algernon Chapman, M.D. ; Arthur John Chitty, M.A. (since 
deceased); Albert Harrison, F.L.S., F.C.S. ; Albert Hugh 
Jones; William James Kaye, F.L.S. ; Dr. George Blundell 
Longstaff, M.D. ; Hugh Main, B.Sc. ; Guy A. K. Marshall; 
Professor Raphael Meldola, F.R.S., F.C.S. ; Professor Louis 
Compton Miall, F.R.S. ; Professor Edward B. Poulton, 
D.Sc, M.A., F.R.S. ; Henry Rowland-Brown, M.A. ; Robert 
Shelford, M. A., F.L.S. ; George Henry Verrall ; Commander 
James J. Walker, M.A., R.N., F.L.S.; Charles Owen 
Waterhouse. 

The following are also elected as officers : — President, 
Charles Owen Waterhouse ; Treasvirer, Albert Hugh Jones ; 
Secretaries, Henry Rowland-Brown, M.A., and Commander 



( xciii ) 

James J. Walker, M.x\., E.N., F.L.S. ; Librarian, George C. 
Champion, F.Z.S. 

The Bahince Sheet and Report having been adopted, Mr, 
C, 0. Waterhouse, the President, delivered an Address. A 
vote of thanks to the President for his Addi-ess, and for his 
services as President during the past year, was proposed by 
Mr. Frederic Merrifield, and carried unanimously. Professor 
Raphael Meldola, F.R.S., then proposed a vote of thanks to the 
other officers of the Society, which also was carried unanim- 
ously. The President, Mr. A. H. Jones, Mr. H. Rowland- 
Brown, and Commander J. J. Walker replied. 



( xciv ) 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 
Balance Sheet for the Year 1907. 



Receipts. 

£ .s. 
Balance iu hand, 1st Jan., 

1907, and at Bankers' ... 53 18 
Subscriptions for 1907 ...412 2 

Arrears 15 15 

Admission Fees 50 8 

Donations 21 12 

Sales of Transactions ... 76 13 
Interest on Investments : — 

Consols £21 8 5 

Westvvood Bequest 6 16 6 

• 28 4 

14 14 
31 10 



Subscriptions in Advance 
Life Compositions 



Payments. 



Printing Transactions, etc. 321 



5. d. 
1 3 



£704 18 S 



Plates, etc 113 

Pent and OflSce Ex- 
penses 

Books and Binding 

Investment in Consols ... 

Subscriptions in Advance, 
per contra carried to 
1908 

Balance in hand and at 

Bankers' 6 7 11 



180 10 
37 12 
31 10 



14 ljl4 



£704 18 8 



Assets. 



£ s. d. 
50 



No Ascertained Li.abilities. 



Additional Assets. 

Contents of Library and unsold 
Publications. 



Subscriptions in arrear 

considered good 

Cost of £929 16s. 5d. 

Consols. Present price 

1st Jan. 1908, @ 83|- 

£779 17s. 9d 902 8 

Cost of £239 12s. M. 

Birmingham 3 per cent. 

Present price 1st Jan. 

1908, @ 86. £206 Is. 5d. 250 
Balance in hand 6 7 11 

Audited, compared with vouchers and found correct. 
R. W. Lloyd. 
A. Hugh Jones, Hoeace St. J. Donisthoepe 

Treasurer. (for Authur J. Chitty deceased). 

10th January, 1908. Robert Adkin. 



( »*" ) 



THE PEESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 



Ladies and Gentlemen, 

My first words must be to congratulate the Society on 
its continued prosperity. In my young days, when the Mem^ 
bers met in an uncarpeted room and sat on wooden benches, 
the Society produced good results ; and the Turkey carpet 
and leather-covered chairs have not in the least impaired our 
powers, for we still do plenty of hard work, and that of a 
progressive character, in the interest of Entomological Science. 
The papers in our Transactions are varied and most useful, 
and I am glad that some of them are contributed by friends 
living abroad who are able to furnish us with notes on the 
life-histories of species of Avhich we only know the di'ied 
imagines. 

The notes and short papers in the Proceedings are of more 
than ordinary interest, and embrace many various subjects. I 
need not go into details. 

I regret to have to put on record the decease of several 
Fellows : — 

John Emmekson Kobson died on February 28th last at the 
age of 74. He resided at Hartlepool, and was known in the 
North of England as a zealous Lepidopterist. He was per- 
haps best known as the editor from 1879 to 1893 of the 
" Young Naturalist," or as it was afterwards called the 
" British Naturalist." Besides editing this periodical, he was 
a frequent contributor to its pages. His most important 
work was the " Catalogue of the Lepidoptera of Northumber- 
land, Durham and Newcastle-on-Tyne." This is a great deal 
more than a mere list of names, as there are observations 
of interest on most of the species. Unfortunately he only 



( xcvi ) 

completed the work to the end of the Tortrices. The remaining 
families were in hand at the time of his death. He also pub- 
lished in 1886-87, in conjunction with Mr. John Gardner, a 
" List of the British Lepidoptera and their Named Varieties." 
Part I. contained the Macrolepidoptera. The Microlepidoptera 
wei'e never published. 

He was elected a Fellow of this Society in 1890. Those 
who knew him personally describe him as a genial companion, 
and he was a charming correspondent. He took much interest 
in public affairs, especially in educational work, and at the 
time of his death he was a member of the Hartlepool Borough 
Council. 

Dr. Frederic Moore, D.Sc, A.L.S., died on May 10th, 
aged 77. He was elected to this Society in 1853, and had 
therefore been a Fellow for fifty-four years. At the time of 
his death I was asked if I knew how he came to take up 
the study of Entomology. I cannot answer that question 
definitely, but it is not difficult to make a guess. In his boy- 
hood he resided in the Zoological Society's house. My father 
as Curator of that Society's Museum was also resident in the 
same house. Hope, Vigors, Kirby and other entomologists 
were at this time publishing entomological papers in the 
Zoological Society's Proceedings and Transactions. Dr. 
J. E. Gray was frequently at the Society and employed young 
Moore to make drawings for him. This brought him under 
the notice of Dr. Horstield, who was interested in Entomology. 
When these facts are known it is not surprising that Frederic 
Moore took to Entomology. He was attached to the Museum 
of the East India Company and remained a member of that 
Museum's staff until it was given up in 1879. He was a 
regular attendant at our meetings and he contributed many 
papers to our Transactions. His chief works were the 
"Lepidoptera of Ceylon" (1881-7) and the still more im- 
portant work the "Lepidoptera of India." This la.st he had 
not completed, the Lycsenids and Iles-perids still remained to 
be done. He formed a large collection of Indian Lepidoptera, 
the greater part of which is already the property of the 
British Museum. The i-emaining portions will, I have no 
doubt, follow, 



( xcvii ) 

Charles James Watkins died on May 27th. He was born 
at Lightpill, near Nailswoi-th, in July 1846. For many years 
he resided at Painswick, but quite recently he removed to 
Watledge, Nailswortb, and it was here that he underwent an 
operation which culminated in his death. He was a pin 
manufacturer, and his father was one of the earliest to supply 
entomological pins. His business did not leave him a great 
deal of spare time, but what he had he devoted to Natural 
History, and he was always ready to help any one who applied 
to him for information. The Gloucestershire portion of the 
Victoria County Histories owes much to him, as he collected 
and supplied many details for that work. He was a good all- 
round naturalist, including geology and botany in his studies, 
and as regards insects he was noted for his knowledge of 
Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Hemiptera. He 
became a Fellow of this Society in 1900. 

William Christopher Boyd died on September 18th. He 
was well known as a Lepidopterist, and although he was the 
head of the firm of Messrs. J. & C. Boyd, Manchester 
Warehousemen, of Friday Street, E.C., which must have left 
him little leisure, he nevertheless was a frequent contributor 
to the Entomological Monthly Magazine, making a study of 
the Microlepidoptera as well as the larger species. Goleopkora 
jyotentillse, was new to science when he discovered it, and he 
added other species to our British list. He was a Fellow of 
this Society from 1867 to 1893. 

John Harrison died on July 11th, aged 73. He resided 
at Barnsley, and was well known in the North of England as 
a Lepidoptei'ist, and was an enthusiastic collector, but chiefly 
in his native county. He was one of the foundej-s of the 
Barnsley Naturalists' Society in 1867, and lived to see it 
become one of the most flourishing societies in South York- 
shire. He was elected a Fellow of our Society in 1889. 

Martin Jacoby died on December 24th. He was born at 
Altona, near Hamburg, in 1842, and came to Manchester at 
the age of twenty, and had since made England his home. At 
first he was in Halle's band, then in London at the Royal 
Italian Opera, but from his earliest days he took an interest 
in Natural History. He joined this Society in 1886, and was 



( xcviii ) 

a regular attendant at our meetings. For many years past he 
had confined his studies to the Phytophagous Coleoptera, and 
he contributed many papers to our Transactions and to the 
Proceedings of the Zoological Society. His chief works were the 
Phytophaga in the " Biologia Centrali Americana," and quite 
lately the volume on Phytophaga for the " Fauna of India." 
This work he had just completed, and it was all in print, but 
unfortunately he did not live to see it published. He formed 
a large collection of these insects, which passed into the hands 
of Herr van de Poll. Since parting with this he had been 
forming a second collection, but I do not know anything of 
its extent. We shall all miss his presence amongst us. 

Arthur John Chitty, M.A., died on January 6th of this 
year, at the age of 48. He was a barrister-at-law and had 
not much leisure, but much of what he had he devoted to 
Entomology. He joined this Society in 1891, and since 1906 
had been a most useful member of our Council. He was a 
keen collector of British Coleoptera, but did not confine him- 
self to this Order. Lately he had taken up the Proctotrupidx. 
That he was cut off from pursuing the study of these insects is 
greatly to be regretted, as this family has been much neglected. 
His loss will be deeply felt by all who knew him. 

Before proceeding to the subject of my address I must not 
omit to mention an important event that happened during the 
year. I allude to the bicentenary of the birth of Linneeus, 
Avhich was celebrated at Upsala and Stockholm, to which this 
Society was invited to send a representative. The Rev. F. D, 
Morice kindly undertook to present an address on our behalf, 
and he has given us a report on what occurred. I do not 
propose to inquire what views Linnaius held as regards the 
relationship existing between animals. When we say that 
one animal is related to another, we mean that these have a 
common origin, and that implies evolution. But whatever 
views Linnseus held, he certainly saw in a way that none of 
his predecessors had, that plants and animals fell naturally 
into groups, and he arranged them systematically in Classes, 
Orders and Genera in a manner that had never been done 
before. 

Of 'nsects he kiiew at the time the twelfth edition of hjs 



( xcix ) 

Systema Naturec was published only 2,724 species. These he 
divided into seven Orders: Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, 
Neuroptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera and Aptera. His Order 
Hemiptera embraced the Orthoptera as well as the Rhynchota, 
otherwise the Orders remain now as they were then. These 
Orders he divided into 77 genera, the names of all of which 
are in use except, perhaps, Fhaleena. Some of the larger 
genera he broke up into sections or phalanges, "To facilitate re- 
ference," as he says. These sections he indicated by asterisks 
accompanied by a few words of description, such as "Corpore 
ovato " or *' Corpore cylindrico." Each of the descriptions of 
species which follow begins with " ovatus " or " cylindricus " 
as the case may be. When suitable Greek or Latin names of 
insects such as Bombyx, Locusta and others were available, 
he used these as the first word of his sectional diagnosis, 
" Bombyces eliugues Alls reversis," " Noctute elingues," etc., 
then each description which follows begins with " Koctua 
elinguis." 

In the five divisions of Gryllus alone are these words or 
popular names used in the singular, with full stops after them, 
followed by a short diagnosis. They are Acrida, Bulla, Acheta, 
Tettigonia and Locusta. Cicada is divided into five groups : 
Foliacese, Cruciatre, Manniferae, Ranatrse and Deflexpe ; Cimex 
is divided into nine groups : Apteri, Scutellati, Coleoptrati, 
Spinosi, Rotundati, Seticornes, Oblongi, Spinipedes and 
Lineai'es. Fapilio is divided into five groups : Equites, Heli- 
conii, Danai, Nymphales and Plebeji ; Fhaleena is divided into 
eight groups : Attaci, Bombyces, Noctuse, Geometrte, Tortrices, 
Pyralides, Tinese and Alucitis. 

Those which have a generic sound about them, such as 
Bombycfe, Koctute, Heliconii, are given in his list of "Termini 
artis " with antenna, larva, pupa, etc. This list, however, 
includes the names of Orders, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, etc. 

Most of these terms have been taken up, in the singular 
number, by subsequent writers as genera. 

It should be noted that the genus Tettigonia of Fabricius 
has no reference to the term Tettigonia of Linnjeus ; nor has 
the genus Ranatra of Fabricius any connection with Ranatrse, 
one of the Linnsean divisions of Cicada. 



( c ) 

These facts are well known, and much has been written 
about them. I mention them now because they have a slight 
bearing on what I wish to say later on. 



Many years ago the President's Address generally gave a 
summary of the works published on entomological subjects 
during the year. This is no longer possible nor desirable. 
Lately the Address has usually taken the form of a treatise on 
some entomological topic. 

I propose saying a few words on the subject of accurate 
nomenclature. 

The fact that insects are small and have thus escaped 
destruction is probably one reason why we have such com- 
plete series of closely allied species with all the connecting 
links in gradation still before our eyes. 

The number of described species increases at a rapid rate ; 
insects which our fathers would have unhesitatingly I'egarded 
as belonging to one species are now considered quite distinct. 
Slight differences which were formerly thought to be of no 
importance are now known to have specific value. A hair or 
two more or less on the thorax of a beetle or a fiy may be of 
generic importance, or at least specific. 

The descriptions of species written fifty years ago are often 
almost useless in the present day. I remember one Fellow of 
this Society saying that when a species has been properly 
described, the specimen from which the description was made 
might be destroyed. His own descriptions I must say are 
very perfect, but even he cannot say how a species differs 
from one he has never seen, and specific characters are 
frequently found in the most unexpected places. 

How are we then to secure accuracy in the names of our 
insects 1 And unless our specimens are correctly named, how 
are we to understand one another ? Take two or three cases 
of incorrect determination which have been very misleading. 

Meigen briefly characterized a genus of Diptera under the 
name of Corethra, and he quotes Tipida cuUcifurmis of De 
Geer as the type ; it is evident, however, from his subsequent 
work that the insect he had before him at the time was not 



( ci ) 

culiciformis, but jdnmicornis, Fabr., and in his later work 
when he had discovered his error he gives 2)lur)iicornis as his 
type, and states that he had never seen culiciformis. Mocli- 
lonijx was at a much later date proposed for the true culici- 
formis ; but culiciformis was originally named as the type of 
the genus Corethra, and it has therefore been suggested that 
Mochlonyx should sink as a gynonym of Corethra, and one of 
our commonest and best known British insects, Corethra 
plumicornis, should have a new generic name. I believe this 
has never been given and it is certainly not necessary when 
the case is understood. Tliis is one instance of the confusion 
arising from an incorrectly named specimen. 

Take another case. In North America, a Longicorn beetle, 
Cyllene pictus, was said to be injurious to two trees, Robiiiia 
and Hickory. Afterwards Dr. Horn noticed that the speci- 
mens from Rohinia were not identical with those from Hickory, 
although the difference was very slight, and he gave the name 
rohinice to the species found on Rohinia. Unfortunately not 
having seen the type of pictus, he named the wrong one. The 
true pictus of Drury is the species found on Rohinia. The 
species found on Hickory is still without a name, unless my 
colleague Mr. Gahan has by this time named it. 
. I will only mention one other case. Many years ago the 
Cinchona plantations in Java were suffering greatly from 
attacks of a Hemipterous insect, Helopeltis. These were said 
to have been impoi'ted with tea plants from Ceylon. With 
the kind help of friends I obtained specimens from the 
Cinchona and also from the tea plants of both Java and Ceylon, 
and found them to be three distinct species, so that the intro- 
duction of the pest with tea plants was shown to be a 
myth. 

It would be easy to multiply instances of this kind, but 
these three are sufficient for my purpose. Two of those I 
have mentioned are not only of scientific interest but also of 
great practical importance. 

Before proceeding to suggest a plan by which we might 
secure the accurate determination of otir insects, I must say a 
few words about types. 

The word "type" is used in various ways by zoologists. 



( eii ) 

Some take a very wide view of what is a type. One entomo- 
logist, in giving a list of the types in his collection, says that 
he considers as a type any specimen sent to him by the 
describer of a species. Others regard all the specimens which 
they had before them when describing a new species as types, 
and distribute them as such. Some thirty-five years ago I 
saw the danger arising from this loose way of using the word, 
and applied the word " type " to the actual specimen de- 
scribed when that could be determined, and called the other 
examples mentioned by an author " co-types." Some yeai'S 
afterwards my colleague Mr. Oldfield Thomas proposed 
(P.Z.S., 1893, p. 242) the terms para-type, topo-type and 
meta-type ; and all these are useful in their way. But we 
are both agreed that the word type should be restricted to the 
actual specimen upon which the species is founded. 

I think describers should make their descriptions from a 
specimen which is to be the standard specimen for all future 
reference, and should mark it as such. Other specimens 
associated with it may have the same value, but very often 
they have not. A case lately came vinder my notice where a 
series of specimens, all named by the describer as one species, 
were found when examined carefully by a specialist to con- 
sist of five distinct species. In this case there was no special 
difliculty in saying for which species the name should be 
retained, but sometimes it is very difficult. When an author 
has confused two species and his description is applicable to 
both, any one who subsequently discovers the error is at 
liberty to say to which of the two the name should be applied, 
and may describe the second as a new species, the division 
of the species following the same course as the division of a 
genus where no type has been specially indicated. The type 
specimen therefoi-e, according to the view I take, is the 
Standard Specimen for all future reference ; it should be as 
carefully preserved as are our standards of weights and 
measures, for we must fi-equently refer to them if we are to 
have accurately named specimens. 

I know from experience that it is quite possible to compare 
a specimen with a type and to be satisfied that your specimen 
belongs to the same species, and afterwards to find that there 



( ciii ) 

are two very closely allied species which make it desirable to 
re-examine the type. If I am not much mistaken this 
reference to original types will become increasingly necessary. 
It is therefore of the greatest importance that these Standard 
Specimens should be carefully preserved, and that their whei^e- 
abouts should be known. Partly with this view the Trustees 
of the British Museum have recently published the History of 
the Collections in the Natural History Departments. 

This, of course, does not give a list of the types in the 
Museum, which is impossible, but it gives a list of the 
principal collections of insects which contained types when 
acquired by the Museum. This is not very much, but it is a 
step in the right direction. It is impossible to say how many 
type specimens of insects our National Collection possesses, 
but the number must be very large, and we are continually 
adding to them. Collections are broken up and sold ; the 
type specimens pass from one collection to another and are 
lost sight of ; fortunately they occasionally find their way 
into the Museum, as did some of Westwood's (described more 
than fifty years ago) only a short time since. 

Complaints have sometimes been made that type specimens 
are not allowed to go out of our National Museum ; the rule 
has been even stigmatized as selfish. Now although I 
sympathize with any entomologist who wishes to borrow a 
type, I think the rule is a sound one, as the Museum is the 
guardian of these types not for any private individual but in 
the interest of science for all time. 

But although the actual types must not leave the Museum, 
there are duplicate specimens of a large number of them, 
identical with the types, and often part of the series received 
with the types. Duplicates are allowed by the Trustees to 
be sent out (under strict regulations) to specialists who are 
naming specimens for the Museum. I should like to go 
further than that. Whenever there are duplicates identical 
with the type, I should like to put a specimen of each species 
aside for the special purpose of being sent out. I should in 
fact like to do more. I should like to see established what, 
for want of a better name, might be called a Circulating 
Collection, somewhat on the lines of a circulating library. 



( civ ) 

Some years ago, when I first learned that the late Mr. 
Alexander Fry had bequeathed his collection to the Museum, 
it struck me that in it there must be an enormous number of 
specimens which would be duplicates, and that these would 
(so far as Coleoptera are concerned) form an excellent nucleus 
for a collection such as I have indicated. 

I think such a scheme is feasible. At any rate I do not 
see any insurmountable difficulty in the establishment of such 
a collection. 

It might be connected with some public museum ; but on 
the whole I think it would be better if it were quite an 
independent collection, the property of some society or under 
the cai'e of trvistees appointed b}^ our chief entomological 
societies, or by the directors of the great national museums. 
This would facilitate financial and other arrangements, which 
would be difficult if it wei-e a Government museum. 

The space required would not be large, as it would consist 
generally of a single specimen of each species. 

The curator need not be a person requiring a large salary, 
as his chief duties would be to see that the collection was 
kept in a proper state of preservation ; to send out to persons 
(authorized to borrow them) the specimens that they required, 
and to see that they were returned in accordance with 
regulations. The annual expenditure on boxes and other 
necessaries would not be large. 

Most of you are doubtless aware that the Trustees of the 
British Museum give away annually to other museums large 
numbers of duplicates, and I venture to think that if the 
collection I have suggested were well organized as a museum 
(perhaps as an International Museum) with men of standing 
responsible for it, the Trustees would probably place it on 
their list of institutions to which duplicates may be given. 
Other museums and private individuals would I feel sure 
be willing to contribute specimens. 

Perhaps I might make my plan clearer if I give an example. 
In the course of my work on the Coleopterous family Bupres- 
tid?e I have had to go through the genus Stigmodera. Of 
this genvis there are in the Museum types of 181 species. 
Out of this number there are duplicates of 104 species, to 



( cv ) 

which may be added specimens of 36 species which have been 
compared with types, making a total of 140 species in this 
genus which might be passed round to every museum in 
Europe that cared to see them. This would be a good 
foundation for any one interested in the genus to work upon ; 
for even if he had a species which was not in the series, it 
would be a help to know what it was not. Of course there 
are in the Museum a great many more species of this genus, 
wiiich I have no doubt are correctly named, and these might 
be included in the series, provided it was understood that they 
had not the same name- value. This would give each specimen 
the chance of having its name confirmed if it came into 
the hands of the person who possessed the type of that 
species. 

If each author who possessed (say) three specimens of a new 
species which he had described would send one to the central 
depot, and these (when there was a, sufficient number of them 
to make it worth while) were sent round to all the museums 
in turn, the curators would gain a far greater knowledge of the 
fresh discoveries than they would by reading any amount of 
literature. 

I can imagine that if this scheme were successful, it would 
also strike at the root of many of our difficulties as to nomen- 
clature. Every worker at Systematic Entomology feels the 
great inconvenience of the constant changes in the names of 
species, and perhaps the practical economic entomologist feels 
it even more so. 

Some maintain that the only remedy lies in the strict 
observance of the law of priority, and spend much time and 
trouble in hunting up old names, because they feel that there 
can never be a settled nomenclature until these old names are 
unearthed ; but just -when you think you have really the 
oldest name for a species, some book comes to light that was 
never thought of, and the name has to be altered again. For 
the last fifty years names have been constantly changed, and 
there does not seem to be any immediate prospect of a settle- 
ment. One of our commonest British insects, which is found 
all over Europe, is in every catalogue under a certain name, 
and has borne that name for a hundred years or moi^e, but 

PROC. ENT. SOC. LOND., V. 1907. H 



( cvi ) 

has a much older name. What would science gain, what 
would any one gain by altering it now 1 

If indeed we admit the law of priority, there is still much 
left to the individual in the application of it, I have already 
mentioned the groups into which Linnaeus divided his large 
genei'a. Some entomologists treat these as sub-genera, others 
consider that they ought not to be so regarded — so that 
priority does not by itself secure a permanent name. 

The law is a good one generally speaking, but that we 
should be bound hand and foot by it seems to me unreason- 
able. This law has force only by a mutual agreement among 
zoologists, but I see no reason why— (also by mutual agx-eement, 
brought about by an entomological congress, or in some 
other way) — we might not have some modification of it which 
would give us greater fixity. 

I remember one of our Fellows saying in this room that he 
took Staudiijger's Catalogue of Lepidoptera as his standard. 
It is to my mind conceivable that a collection such as I have 
suggested might become a court of final appeal. It would 
not be a question whether brassiae is or is not the oldest 
name for a species, but, — What name does it bear in the 
International Collection 1 

Then we need not go beyond that. 

At first there would be just one little difficulty remaining 
with regard to priority. I might put into the collection a 
specimen of a species of which I had the type. Afterwards 
some one might place in it another specimen of the same 
species under a different name, compared with a type in his 
possession. Which of these names should be adopted should 
be left for the trustees of the collection to decide, but both 
specimens should remain in the collection. If a specimen 
had been passed round the principal museums in Europe, and 
its name had not been challenged, I should not alter it even 
if an older name were afterwards discovered. For consider, 
What is the object of the name 1 Is it not that we may be 
able to speak of the insect and record facts about it 1 For 
this reason it is of the greatest importance that we should 
have an unchanging name. Whether it is the oldest one or 
not is of very minor importance. 



( cvii ) 

In what I have been saying I have had the public museums 
chieily in my mind. I feel, however, that arrangements could 
be made to assist our country museums and local Natural 
History societies, and with regard to British insects T think 
it would be useful to have a single specimen of each species, 
arranged in families, so that they could be borrowed by country 
entomologists, who find it so diificult to name their specimens 
from books, and who have few opportunities of coming to 
London to consult our collections. 

I have taken this opportunity of suggesting my scheme. I 
may not have hit upon the best plan; but I feel sure of this, 
that in the future we shall have recourse to some other means 
of determining our insects besides descriptions. A good figure 
backed up by a good description will as a rule enable you to 
determine a species with a fair degree of certainty, especially 
if it is a Lepidopterous insect. But the number of species 
figured bears a small proportion to the number described, and 
good figures of insects other than Lepidoptera are very scarce 
indeed. 

When you consider the time spent in searching the ever- 
increasing literature, the weariness of reading long descriptions, 
the disappointment (to say the least of it) resulting from short 
ones, and the uncertainty attending the whole process, any 
plan that may help us to obtain a more rapid and more certain 
determination of our species is worth considering, and if what 
I have suggested would at the same time (as I believe it 
might) give us greater fixity in our nomenclature, the sooner 
such a collection is begun the better. 



( cviii ) 



CtEneeal index. 



The Arabic jl(jures refer to the fcujes of the '■Transactions'' ; the Roman 
munerals to the pages of the ' Proceedings.' 

The President's Address is not separately indexed. 



GENERAL SUBJECTS. 

Aberration, in Swiss butterflies, exliibited, vii ; in Oelezia atrata, exhibition 
of, xiv. 

Acanthocinus sediJis, taken iu London, exliibition of, Ixv. 

Adilpha hredowi and Limenitis lorqiiiiii, exhibition of series showing 
reciprocal convergence in, Ixxix. 

Africa, Dorylus from Mcugo iu Uganda, exhibited, vi ; descriptions of some 
new butterflies from tropical, xvii, 77 ; exhibition of Mt/lothris chloris 
and 31. agathina with a long series of forms transitional between the 
two, from the neighbourhood of the Victoria Nyauza, Iv ; Hesperiida;,yi\th. 
some new species, from the ludo-Malayan and African regions, lix ; ex- 
hibition of new species of Pinacopiteryx ivovanovih-eBi&t Rhodesia, Ixv ; 
mimetic parallelism in five genera of Pierines from, exhibited, Ixx ; 
notes on the bionomics of butterflies of British East, Ixxxvii ; iu 1905, 
entomological observations and captures during the visit of the British 
Association to South, 309. 

Amauris egialea and Limnas chrysippits, male, with injured scent-glands, 
exhibited, x. 

America, association of allied forms of butterflies from South, exhibited, Ixxv ; 
mimicry in genus Limenitis from North, exhibition of, Ixxvii. 

Anthocharid and Melita3id Butterflies, palfearctic, exhibited, iv. 

Anthrocera trifolii, variation in, exhibited, Ixxviii. 

Ants, Dipteron associated with, exhibition of, xxxii ; exhibition of ant in a 
pseudobulb of an orchis, Ixiv. 

Aphides with Butterflies, association of, viii. 

Aplecta nchulosa, arranged to show the great variation of this species in 
Delamere Forest, with series from Epping Forest, N. Cornwall, and the 
New Forest for compai-ison, exhibition of, Ixvi. 

Aptera, Coleoptera and Thysanoptera, notes on race, Ixxx. 

Araschnia levana and var. prorsa and intermediates, exhibition of, Ixxiii. 

Auditors for 1908, appointed, Ixxvii. 

Australia, catalogue of the Bi/rrhid/v, with descriptions of new species, from 
Tasmania, and, xvii, 135 ; note on the species of Trachyscelis from, xxvi ; 
new Phytophaga from, exhibited, xl. 



( cix ) 

Bee, exhibition of Teratological specimen of, with normal specimen, Ixi. 

Beetles from Hants and Kent, exhibition of rare, Ixix. 

Belenois, exhibition of new species of, Ixxx. 

Bi-centenary of Linuteus, i, xviii, xxxv-xxsviii, Ivi. 

Bionomics of British East African butterflies, notes on the, Ixxxvii. 

Blatti(Jm, case of honKjeotic variation in cockroach, xxxiii; exhibition of 
exotic cockroach from Kew, Ixxiv ; studies on the, ixxxvi, 455. 

Bomhyx riibi in Scotland, the natural enemies of, Ixxxiii. 

Bourbon and Mauritius, the butterflies of, lix, 429. 

British, new Leioptilus, exhibited, xii ; rare and new Coleoptera, exhibition 
of, xxxii ; Heterocera, exhibition of hybrids and varieties of, Ixxx. 

British Guiana, convergent group of Heliconine butterflies from, Ixxvi ; 
exhibition of several species of butterflies with injuries to the wings, 
Ixxix. 

Burma, protection in Tineid pupa from Upper, exhibited, viii. 

Butterflies, Pah-earctic Anthocharid and Melitajid, exhibited, iv ; aberrant 
forms of Swiss, exhibited, vii ; association of Aphides with, viii ; from 
tropical Africa, descriptions of some new, xvii, 77 ; significance of some 
secondary sexual character in, xl-xliii ; from Hungary, exhibition of, 
xlix; of Mauritius and Bourbon, lix, 429; from Tobago, specimens 
exhibited, Ixviii ; taken in Jamaica, Ixviii ; exhibition of temperature 
experiments on tropical, Ixxiv ; from South America, association of allied 
forms of, exhibited, Ixxv ; group of Heliconine from British Guiana, 
exhibited, Ixxvi ; with injuries to the wings, exhibition of, Ixxix ; and 
moths, family tree of, traced in their organ of sense, Ixxxvi ; of British 
East Africa, notes on the bionomics of, Ixxxvii. 

Bye-law, alteration of a, Ixis, Ixxviii. 

ByrrhiJw, with descriptions of new species, catalogue of the Australian and 
Tasmauian, xvii, 135. 

Callicore mirelia, life cycle of, exhibited, Ixi. 

Cassididge, on the egg-cases and early stages of some South-Chinese, 
XX, 249. 

Catacanthacris ruhella, exhibition of photograph of, holding and apparently 
devouring a small mouse, from the Congo Free State, Ixxix. 

Ceylon, on a large series of NycterUdidge (parasitic Diptera), from, Ixviii. 
ChdisocMdie and Forficulidie, a preliminary revision of the, xvii. 

China, on the egg-cases and early stages of some Cassidida; from South, xx, 

249. 
Chrysophanus hippothoe, the females showing a wide range of variation, from 
Laon, exhibition of, Ixvi. 

Cockroach, case of homceotic variation in, xxxiii ; from Kew, exhibition of 

exotic, Ixxiv. 
Coleophorids, life histories of, exhibited, Ixix. 

Coleoptera, on the hymeuopterous parasites of, ix, 7 ; micromorphism in, 
exhibition of, xvi ; of the Maltese Islands, a list of the, xx, 383 ; from 
Iceland, exhibition of, xxviii ; from the south of France, e.xhibition of, 
xxix ; mimicry among, exhibition of, xxxi ; living luminous, exhibition 
of, xxxii ; rare and new British, exhibition of, xxxii, Ixix ; exhibition of 
rare, from Kent and Scotland, xlix ; from St. Margaret's Bay, exhibition 
of rare, Iv ; from the Isle of Wight, exhibition of rare, Ixvii ; exhibition 



( ex ) 

of rare beetles from Hants and Kent, Ixix ; Thysanoptera, aud Aptera 

notes on rare, Ixxx. 
CoUyris emarghiatus, ou the larva of, xvii, 83. 
Congo Free State, exhibition of photograph of Catacanthacris rvhella holding 

a small mouse, Ixxix. 
Congress of Entomology, International, xxxviii-xl. 
Conversazione, to be held next year, Ixiv. 

Cordylohia nnthropojihaffa, a parasitic African fly, exliibited, xliii-xlvii. 
Council for 1908, nomination of, Ixviii, Ixxvji. 
Cn/ptophiu/ii.t <!H/iilep)-(ssii!! from Scotland, exhibited, 1. 
Cydimon (Urania) leilus, life history of, 405. 
Cynipidte, Kleditoma myrmecophila, n. sp., both sexes, species of parasitic, 

exhibited, xl. 
Danaine butterflies with injuries to the wings, from British Guiana, exhibition 

of, Ixxix. 
Descriptions of some new Butterflies from Tropical Africa, xvii, 77. 
Devon, Mesovdia f areata from South, exhibited, Ixvi ; Thamnotrizon cinereus 

from North, exhibited, Ixvi. 
Diptera (parasitic), on a large species of Xyrterihiidte from Ceylon, Isviii. 
Dipteron associated with Ants, exhibition of, xxxii. 
Discussion on the destructive results to our national Fauna, of indiscriminate 

collecting, ix. 
Dorylwa rhomhifolia taken in London, exhibition of, Ixxiv. 
l)oryluii, female from Blengo in Uganda, exhibited, vi. 
Drofophila funehris, the Vinegar-fly, 28.3. 
Effect of artificial conditions on seasonally dimorphic species, exhibition of, 

xii. 
Entomological Observations and captures during the visit of the British 

Association to South Africa in 190-5, 309. 
Entomology, in north-west Spain, xvii, 147 ; International Congress of, 

xxxviii-xl. 
Exotic cockroach from Kew, exhibition of, 1 xxiv. 

Family Tree of Moths and Butterflies, traced in their Organs of Sense, Ixxxvi. 
Fellows, election of, i, ix, xviii, xxiii, xxviii, xxxv, xlix, Ix, Ixv, Ixix, Ixxviii. 
Fidonia atomaria from Yorkshire, melanism in, xlix. 
Folkestone, exhibition of Lycana hellariius, ab. ceroniis, with var. chinides, 

fi'om, 1. 
Forjiculidtv and CheU.iochtda', a preliminary revision of the, xvii. 
Formica fusca, specimen of Microdon mi(tahiUs bred from larva taken in nest 

of, xl. 
France, Coleoptera from the south of, exhibition of, xxix ; exhibition of 

Limenitis populi and ab. tremulee with intermediate forms from Laon, 
Ixvi ; exhibition of Chrysophaiius hijopothoe from Laon, the females 
showing a wide range of variation, Ixvi. 
Guiana, exhibition of several species of butterflies with injuries to the wings 

from British, Ixxix. 
Hague, Henry, notice of death of, Ixxviii. 
Hants and Kent, exhibition of rare beetles from, Ixix. 
Hastttla hyerana, melanism in, exhibition of, ii. 
Heale, Rev. William Henry, notice of death of, xxviii. 



( cxi ) 

Heliconine butterflies from British Guiana, group of, exhibited, Ixxvi. 

Heliconivs, exhibition of a series of, xiv. 

Hemimerus talpoides, from Portuguese Guinea, parasitic on Cricetomys 

gamhianus, xxxiii. 
Hesperiidm from the Indo-Malayan and African regions, with some new 

species, lix. 
Hestina nama, taken near Darjeeling, exhibition of melanic variety of, Ixiv. 
Heterocera, exhibition of liybrids and varieties of British, Ixxx. 
Hibernation of JIarasmnrcha, specimens exhibited to illustrate the, lix, 411. 
Holly Fly, the structure and life history of the, xx, 259. 
Hungary, exliibition of butterflies from, xlix. 
Hybrids of British Heterocera, Ixxx. 
Hymenopterous parasites, of Coleoptera, on the, ix, 7; of Pyywra bucephala, 

exhibited, Ixiv. 
Hyria auroraria, rest attitudes of, Ixxxv. 
Iceland, exhibition of Coleoptera from, xxviii. 
India, protection in Tineid pupa from Upper Burma, exhibited, viii ; Odonata 

collected chiefly in uortli-western, xxviii, 303; monstrosity of Papilio 

krishna from Sikkim, Ixiv ; exhibition of melanic variety of Hestina 

nama, taken near Darjeeling, Ixiv. 
Indo-Austi"alian Papilionidte, notes on the, ix, 1. 
Indo-Malayan and African regions, Hesperiidw with some new species from, 

lix. 
Insects and their prey, exhibition of, 1. 
luternatioual Congress of Entomology, xxxviii-xl. 
Isle of Wight, exhibition of rare Coleoptera from the, Ixvii. 
Jamaica, on some butterflies taken in, Ixviii. 
Kent, exhibition of rare Coleoptera, etc., from, xlix; exhibition of rare 

Orthoptera from, Ix ; exhibition of rare beetles from, Ixix. 
Kleditoma myrmecophila, n. sp., both sexes, bred from nest of Lasius 

fuliginosus found at Wellington College, species of parasitic Cynipidai, 

exhibited, xl. 
Lasius fuHgiiiosus, both sexes of Kleditoma myrmecophila bred from nest 

of, xl. 
Leioptilns, new British, exhibited, xii. 

,, carphodactylus, living example, bred in Britain, exhibited, xl. 

Lepidoptera, from Sutherland, exhibition of, i ; family tree of moths and 

butterflies, traced in their organ of sense, lxxx\'i. 
Leiicerorda argia, divergent mimicry by the females of, exhibited, xxix. 
Limenitis, exhibition of mimicry in North America, Ixxvii. 

„ lorquini and Adel2)ha bredowi, exhibition of series showing reciprocal 
convergence in, Ixxix. 

„ populi and ab. tremulw with intermediate forms from Laoii, 
exhibition of, Ixvi. 
Limnas chrysippus, male, and Amauris egialea, with injured scent glands, 

exhibited, x. 
Linnfeus, Bi-centenary of, i, xviii, xxxv-xxxviii, Ivi. 
Lomechvsa strumosa, on the life-history of, Ixxvii. 
London, exhibition of Acanthocinus wdilis, taken in, Ixv; exhibition of 

Dorylwa rhombifolia, taken in, Ixxiv. 



( cxii ) 

Lycaena bellanjus, ab. ceronus, with var. cinnides, from Folkestone, exhibition 

of,l. 
Lycseuids, mimicry in, exhibition of, xvii. 
Lyyaius eqitestris from St. Margaret's Bay, exhibited, liv. 
Maltese Islands, a list of the Coleoptera of the, xx, 383. 
Marasmarcha, exhibition of specimens to illustrate the hibernating habit of, 

lix ; the hibernation of, 411. 
Mauritius and Bourbon, the butterflies of, lix, 429. 
Melanism, in Hastida hyerana, exhibition of, ii ; in Fidoaia atomaria from 

Yorkshire, xlix ; exhibition of melanic variety of Hestiaa nama, taken 

near Darjeeling, Ixiv. 
Melitjeid and Anthocharid Butterflies, palsearctic, exhibited, iv. 
Meloe jiroscarahwus, micromorphism in a, exhibited, Ixxiii. 
Mendelian Hypothesis, notes on Xanthorkoe fcrnujata, Clerck, and the, xx. 
Mesovelia fnrcata from South Devon, exhibited, Ixvi. 
Microdon mutabilis, specimen bred from larva taken in nest of Formica fiisca 

at Porlock, exhibited, xl. 
Micromorphism, in Coleoptera, exhibited, xvi ; in a Ifeloe proscarahwus, 

e.xhibited, Ixxiii. 
Mimicry, in Lycwnids, exhibition of, xvii ; divergent, by the females of 

Leuceronia aryia, exhibited, xsix ; among Coleoptera, exhibited, xxxi ; 

mimetic parallelism in five genera of African Pieriues, exhibited, Ixx ; in 

North American butterflies of the genus Limenitis, exhibition of, Ixxvii. 
Molippa, on the remarkable resemblance between two species of, 181. 
Moore, Dr. Frederic, notice of death of, xxxv. 
Moths and Butterflies, family tree of, traced in their organ of sense, 

Ixsxvi. 
Mylothris and Fhrissura, paralleHsm between the genera, exhibition of, xviii. 

„ chloris and M. ayatJiina, with a long series of forms transitional 

between the two, from the neighbourhood of the Victoria 
Nyanza, exhibition of, Iv. 
Neuroptera, exhibition of rare, Ix. 
Nonagria cannw, exhibition of ovipositiou of, 1. 

Nycterihiidw (parasitic Diptera) from Ceylon, on a large series of, Ixviii. 
Obituary. John Emmersou Robson, xxiii ; Rev. William Henry Heale, 

xxviii ; Dr. Frederic Moore ; C. J. Watkins, xxxv ; L. C. H. Young, Ixv ; 

Henry Hague, Ixxviii. 
Odezia at rata, aberration of, exhibition of, xiv. 
Odonata collected chiefly in North- Western India, xxviii, 303. 
Oflicers for 1908, nomination of, Ixviii, Ixxvii. 

Orneodidm and Pterophoridw, notes and descriptions of, Ixxxvi, 471. 
Orthoptera, case of homceotic variation in cockroach, xxxiii ; from Kent, 

exhibition of rare, Ix ; exhibition of exotic cockroach from Kew, Ixxiv ; 

studies of the Tetrigiiuv in the Oxford University Museum, xx, 213. 
Osphi/a and concurrent species, forms of, exhibition of, xxiii. 
Otiorrhynchus sulcatus, larvae of, exhibited, xxix. 
Ovipositiou of Nonagria cannw, exhibition of, 1. 
Oxford, studies of the Tetriginai (Orthoptera) in the University Museum of, 

XX, 213 ; exhibition of Sitaris muralis from, xlix. 
Paloearctic Anthocharid and Melitseid Butterflies, exhibited, iv. 



( cxiii ) 

fapilio krishna from Sikhim, moustrosity of, Ixiv. 

„ thoas thoas injured by birds, exhibited, Isxviii. 
Pafilionidai, notes ou the Indo-Australian, ix, 1. 

Phrissura and Mylothria, paralleHsm between tlie genera, exhibition of, xviii. 
Phytophaga, new, from Australia, exhibited, xl. 
Pierines, similarity between dry-season forms of allied species of, exhibition 

of, xxiii ; exhibition of mimetic parallelism in five genera of African, 

Ixx. 
Pieris napi, var. hryonlte, showing wide range of variation, from Switzerland, 

liv, Ix. 
Pinacopteryx, exhibition of new species from North-East Rhodesia, Ixv. 
Proctotrupidie, types of, exhibited, xliii. 

Protection in Tiueid Pupa from Upper Burma, exhibited, viii. 
Pterophoridai and Orneodidie, notes and descriptions of, Ixxxvi, 471. 
Pygxra hucephala, exhibition of Hymeuopterous parasite of, Ixiv. 
Rhodesia, exhibition of new species of Pinacopteryx, from North-East, Ixv. 
Robson, John Emmerson, notice of death of, xxiii. 
St. Margaret's Bay, exhibition of Lyyaeiis equestris from, liv ; exhibition of 

rare Coleoptera from, Iv. 
Sawfly, gynandromorphus specimen, exhibited, vii. 
Scotland, exhibition of rare Coleoptera, etc., from Kent and, xlix ; Crypto- 

'phaijus suhdejircssits from, exhibited, 1 ; the [natural enemies of Bomhyx 

rulii in, Ixxxiii. 
Sexual character in butterflies, siguificauce of some secondary, xl-xliii. 
Sitaris muralis from Oxford, exhibition of, xlix. 
South Africa, specimens from, exhibited, xlviii. 
Spain, Entomology in North-west, xvii, 147. 
Spindasis lohita, the life-history of, xx, 245. 
Spir(nnio2)i:is, remarkable larva of, exhibited, x. 
Sutherland, Lepidoptera from, exhibition of, 1. 
Switzerland, aberrant forms of butterflies from, exhibited, vii ; Pieris napi 

var. hryonix, showing wide range of variation, from, liv, Ix. 
Tasmanian and Australian Byrrhid:v, a catalogue of the, with descriptions of 

new species, xvii, 135. 
Temperature experiments on tropical butterflies, exhibition of, Ixxiv. 
Teratological specimeus, on some, xvii, 173 ; of a Bee, with normal specimen, 

exhibited, Ixi. 
Tessaratoma papillosa, life-history of, with notes on the stridulating organ 

and stink-glands, xx, 253. 
Tetrao tetrix, note on contents of crop of, Ixxxiv. 
Tetrigiiiw (Orthoptera) in the Oxford University Museum, studies of the, xx, 

213. 
Tetropiuni cratoshayi, the life-history of, 183. 
„ fuscum, the life-history of, 183. 
„ gahrieli, the life-history of, xvii, 183. 
Thamnotrizoii cinereus from North Devon, exhibited, Ixvi. 
Thysanoptera, Coleoptera and Aptera, notes on rare, Ixxx. 
Tineid Pupa from Upper Burma, protection in, viii. 

Tineidw, on a remarkable undescribed form of moth belonging to the family, 
177. 



( cxiv ) 

Trachi/scelis, note on the Australian species of, xxvi. 

,, antenniB-joints iu, exhibition of, xxvi. 

Tobago, on some butterflies of, specimens exhibited, Ixviii. 
Uganda, Borylns from Mengo in, exhibited, vi. 
Urania leilu.'t, life-history of, 405. 
Variations of Aplecta nehulosa, exhibited, Ixvi. 
Vice-Presidents, for 1907-8, nomination of, i. 
Victoria Nyanza, exhibition of Jfi/lothris chloris and J/, (ii/athina, with, a long 

series of forms, transitional between the two, from tlie neighbourhood of 

the, Iv. 
Vinegar-fly {Drosophila fanehris) , the, 285. 
Watkins, C J., notice of death of, xxxv. 
Wasp and its prey, exhibited, Ixiv. 

Xanthorhoe ferruijata, Clerjk, and the Mendelian Hypothesis, notes on, xs. 
Yorkshii-e, melanism in Fidonia atomaria from, xlix. 
Young, L. C. H., notice of death, Ixv. 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



The Arabic figures refer to the pacjea of the ^ Transact ions \- the Roman numerals 
to the j^ctffes of the ' Proceedings^ 



asede astydamia (Helicoiiius), Ixxvi 

Abacetus, 165, 310 

abbreviatum (Eusandulum), 16, 67 

(Sclerou), 398 
abbreviatus (Sphcnophorus), 400 
abcissus (Microdus), 38, 47 
abdomen-nigrum (Blatta), 459, 460 

,, ,, (Epilampra), 460, 461 

abdominalis (Aulacophora), 386, 402 

(Pimpla), 44 
abieticola (Eurytoina), 57 

,, (Pteiomalus), 66, 67 
abietis (Anobiuni), 19, 20, 21 

,, (Aiiogmus), 21 

„ (Aspidogonus), 19, 20, 21 

,, (Bostrichus), 65 

,, (Curculio), 46 

,, (Ernobius), 20 
Acalla, xii, 161 
Acalles, 400 
AcanthaceK, 326 
Acanthalobus, 221, 222 
Aeaiithas[)is, 351, 379 
Acanthia, 376 
Acanthociims, Ixv, 28 
Acantholepis, 310, 333, 336, 365, 

379 
Acantholycus, 321, 373 
Acanthonyx, 334 
acanthiira (Diploxys), 341 
acer (Forficula), 111 
achates (Papilio), 3 
Acheniuui, 392 
aclieron (Papilio), 4 
achine (Teracolus), xii, xiii, xxiii, 319, 

322, 326, 329, 343, 346, 352, 366, 

370, 372 
aciculatus (Corystes), 16 

,, (Sigalphus), 20, 21 



Acidalia, ii 

Acidia, 265 

Acinopus, 389 

Aciptiliines, 411 

Aciptilus, 488, 490 

Acisoma, 305 

Acleros, 323, 329 

Acniffiodera, 166, 397 

Acontia, 162 

Acraja, 317, 318, 320, 321, 327 328, 

335, 342, 344, 349, 351, 352, 353, 

355, 357, 359, 363, 431 
Acrmina?, xii, 372 
aerias (Pterophorus), 500 
Acridiidie, Ixxix, 213 
Acridium, 327, 365, 374 
Acridotheres, 441 
Acritus, 396 
Acrobasis, 161 
Acrocormus, 32, 66 
Acrotylus, 339 
Acrulia, Ixxxi 
actaion (Hesperia), 161 
Actidium, 394 
Ac'tiiiopteryx, 394 
Actocharis, 391 
actovion (Bia), Ixxix 
Aciileata, 313 
aculeata (Mordella), 167 
aculeator (Dolops), 44 
acuminata (Phaleria), 398 
acuminatum (Apion), 168 
Acupalpus, 165,* 335, 386, 389 
acutus (Loxilobus), 223 
Adalia, 170 
adelica (Caprona), 320 
Adelpha, Ixxvii, Ixxix, Ixxx 
Adenocarpus, 152, 164 
Adesinia, 355 



( cxvi ) 



Adiathetus, 126, 132 
Adicella, 163 
Adimonia, Ixxxiv, 36 
adippe (Argynuis), 161 
adiiiixtalis (Bi-adina), 323 
,, (Eiilata), 323 
Adoiiia, 170 

ads[ieraus (Exocentrus), 29 
adstiictor (Throscus), 16 
adusta (Pauchlora), 470 
advcna (Cathartus), 395 
Kdilis (Acauthocinus), Ixv, 28 

,, (Cerambyx), 28 
segeria (Pararge), 161 
segialus (Papilio), 4 
Kgrota (Ischnoptera), 470 

,, (Phyllodromia), 470 
aegyptiaca (Blatta), 456 
jegyptius (Coranns), 170 
(Syi-phus), 324 
iEllopus, 360 
cemulus (Pteromalus), 16, 46, 61, 64, 

65, 66 
renea (Amai-a), 389 
,, (iMeligethes), 13 
,, (Pliytometra), ii 
feneieollis (Coroebus), 166 
feneicornis (Pteromalus), 31 
ffiueocephalus (Ocypus), 392 
ffiueum (Apion), 386, 401 
teiieus (Paracymiis), Ixvii 

,, (Chrysolampus), 52 

,, (Lobonyx), 163, 167 

,, (Loiigi tarsus), 402 

,, (Malachius), 17 

,, (Meligethes), 13 
gequator (Helcon), 26, 33 
rerosus (Dasytes), 397 
feruginosus (Longitarsus), 403 
iEscliuiiiie, 305 
ffiseulapius (Eparchus), 121 
^thiessa, 397 
ffithiops (Apion), 169 
ietolica (Forficula), 112 
affalier (Otiorrhynclius), 399 
afline (Euiiearthron), 24 
affinis (Berosus), 390 

,, (Bruchus), 33 

,, (Carida) 39 

,, (Diopsis), 346 

., (Hallomenns), 40 

,, (Harpalus), 340 

,, (Megarthrus), 393 

,, (Oli'brus), 394 

,, (Ptiaus), 398 
afra (Chalcopelia), 348 
africana (Blatta), 456 

,, (Thysodactyla), 374 



africana (Xanthospilopteryx), 370 

africanus (Helophilus), 360 

Agabus, 165, 390 

aganiemiioii (Papilio), 1, 5 

agauice (Plancma), 328 

Agapantliia, 169, 386, 402 

agarioola (Heledona), 37 

agatha (Neptis), 321, 328, 352, 358,359 

Agatliidiuiu, Ixxxi, 393 

agathina (Mylothris), xxix, xxx, Iv, 

Ivi. Ixv, Ixvi, Ixx, Ixxi, 314, 317, 

319, 322, 325, 329, 366, 372 
agilis (Larra), 369 

,, (Pezomachus), 53 

,, (Philouthus), 392 

,, (Stenocephalus), 170 
aglaia (Argynnis), 161 
aglaodesma (Diacrotricha), 473 
Aglaope, 162 
Aglenus, 395 
Agonoscelis, 324, 346 
Agonum, 389 
agrilonun (Euloplms), 16 
Agrilus, 16, 54, 163, 166, 397 
Agriocnemis, 308 
Agrioniiiiie, 306 
Agriotes, 16 
agrorum (Marasmarcha), 412 

,, tuttodactyla (Marasmarcha), 

412 
Agrotis, 175 
Agyria, 339 

ajugte (Oxyotlirips), Ixxxii 
Akis, 386, 398 
Alrena, 320 
Alamanda, 434, 451 
Alaus, 370 

alba (Pinacopteryx), 322 
albicinctus (Arotes), 26 
albicornis (Mt^teorus), 59 
albidentatus (Brachycerus), 400 
albilatera (Periplaiieta), 469 

,, (Pseudodetopeltis), 370 
alhiiiiaculata (Amauris), xlii, 318, 321, 

328, 367, 372, 376 
albipennis (Apterygida), Ix, 117 
,, (Fortieula), 117 
(Microgaster), 52 
albipes (Eulophus), 59 
albitarsella (Alucita), 492 
albitarsus (Pteroinahis), 42 

(Xorides), 24 
albofasciata (Gomalia), 320, 326, 

363 
albofasciatus (Halictus), xlviii, 380 
albolineata (Bruchus), 401 
alboradiata (Acraea), 349, 351, 352, 

353, 359 



( cxvii ) 



alcesta (Nychitona), 329 
alcindor (Papilio), 4 
alciphron (Chrysophaiius), 1, 161 
alcippoides (Hypolimnas), 422 
alcyoDe (Satyrus), 161 
alecto (Erebia), 1 
Aleoehaia, xvi, 165, 391 
alCacarellus (Crambus), 162 
algiB (Halobrectha), 391 
algerious (Saprinus), 396 
algirious (Helophorus), 390 
(Parims), 391 
(Tachys), 388 
algirus (Brachycerus), 400 

,, (Lixus), 45, 400 
Alianta, 391 
allardi (Omalimn), 393 
allipes (liuloplius), 60 
Allodahlia, 94, 95 
AUotettix, 234 
AUotinus, viii 
alni (Callidium), 25 
,, (Orchestes), 48 
Aloconota, 391 
aljiha (Hastula), iii 
alplieios (Papilio), 4 
Alphitobius, 399 
Alphitopoda, 369 
alternans (Helophorus), 390 

(Pimpla), 31, 49 
alticola (Cnemidophorus), 481 

,, (Koremaguia), 481 
Alucita, 488, 489, 490, 492 
alutaceus (Trogophlceus), 393 
alveus (Syrichthus), 161 
Alysia, 9, 30, 57, 67 
amandus (Lycffina), 161 
amanga (Axiocerces), 353, 356 
Amara, 165, 389 

amaryllis (Heliconiiis), xiv, xv, 
xvi 
,, rosiua (Helicoiiius), xv 
Amauris, x, xlii, Ivi, 316, 318, 321, 

328, 367, 372, 376, 433 
amazoneiisis (Opisthocosmia), 92, 

104 
amazoula (Altena), 320 
ambigena (Oxypoda), 391 
ambigua (Forticula), 112 
ambiguuiu (Bembidion), 388 
ambiguus (Acinopus), 389 
Amblyptilia, 482, 483 
Amblystomus, 389 
americana (Blatta), 456, 457, 458 
,, (Centistes), 12 

(Chrysomela), 169, 386, 
402 
,, (Opisthocosmia), 92 



americana (Periplaneta), 459 

americauus (AUotettix), 234 

amethystinus (Entedon), 50 

amiclus (Antholinus), 167 

aniicula (Atlieta), 391 

Ami.scha, 391 

amisia (Serinetlia), 376 

ammios (Tricliodes), 167 

Ammobius, 398 

Ammcecius, 166 

Amniophila, 338, 354, 361, 371 

aiiioracia; (Plagiodera), 36 

ami)ulophila (Drosophila), 300 

Anipliisternus, xxxii 

amphitrite (Heliconius), xvi 

amjihrysus (Troides), 2 

aiiiplieoUis (Phyllodromia), 470 

Ainpiilex, 370 

Anaciena, 390 

anacardii (Salamis), 317, 318, 321, 325, 

329 
aualis (Amischa), 391 

,, (Cajuoccelius), 61 

,, (Cryptus), 31 
Auaplecta, 465, 468 
Auaspis, 399 
Auatis, 11 
Anaulacus, 377 
Auax, 305, 377 
anceps (Orthetrum), 305 
Aucistrogaster, 92, 105, 106, 107, 108, 

109, 117 
Ancistrogastrinse, 93, 94, 96, 101, 105, 

107 
anconifrons (Stramia), 323 
andalusiaca (Nebria), 388 
audalusiacus (Onthophagus), 396 
andalusicus (Haplocnemus), 167 
andamyna (Papilio), 5 
airdieiirefonids (Sesia), 1 
Auechura, 95, 96, 97 
Anechuriuffi, 93, 94, 95 
anemosa (Acrtea), 349, 352, 355, 359 

363 
Angerona, xxi 

augolanus (Papilio), 346, 353 
augolensis (Apotrogia), 469 
anguiiius (Lixus), 400 
angularis (Goiiopsis), 337 
angulobus (Paratettix), 236 
augusta (Pseudomops), 464 
anguttalis (Cledeobia), 162 
angustata (Ocnera), 398 
(Potosia), 397 
angustatum (Lathrobium), 165 
aiigustatus (Lixus), 45 

,, (Suuius), 392 

angusticolle (Aiiobium), 19, 21 



( cxviii ) 



angusticolle (Ernobius), 19 
angusticollis (Zophosis), 345 
angustipeniiis (Harpalus), 336 
angustulus (Agrilus), 166 
(Athous), 167 
angustiis (Emblethis), 170 
,, (Perilampus), 18 
Anisodactylus, 165, 362, 386, 

389 
Anisonyx, 378, 379 
Anisophlia, 164, 166 
Anistomidffi, 393 
annaj (Teracolus), 319, 343 
annandalei (Kosmetor), 123 

,. (0})isthocosmia), 122 

annua (Mevcurialis), xlix, Iv 
annulatus (Eupelmus), 34 
annulicornis (Helcon), 28 
amiulipes (Apion), Ixix 

,, (Bothrostethus), 170 
Anobia, 18 
anobii (Spathius), 20 
Anobiidie, 398 
Anobium, 18, 19, 20, 21 
Anogmus, 21 
anomalia (Oj>isthocosmia), 102 

(Sarcinatrix), 102, 103 
Anomalipus, 321, 341 
Anomceotes, 330 
Anoplochilus, 375 
Anoxia, 166 

antalus (Virachola), 320, 326, 329 
Antanartia, 437 
antanossa (Cupido), 446 

(Zizera), 429, 446 
Antestia, 321 
Anthaxia, xxix, 15, 166, 387, 

397 
Anthia, 378 
Anthicida;, 399 
Anthicus, 164, 167, 399 
Anthidium, Ixi 
Anthocharis, v 
Antholinus, 167 
Anthouomus, 52, 168, 400 
Aathophora, xlix 
Anthracias, 330 
Anthrax, 345 

Anthiemis, 13, 14, 386, 395 
Anthiibidie, 401 
Anthroeera, Ixxviii 

anthi'opophaga (Cordylobia), xliii, xliv, 
xlvii 
,, (Ochromyia), xlv, xlvi 

antidotus (Scydmrenus), 393 
Antigastra, 330, 370 
antigone (Teracolus), xxiii, 343, 346, 

352, 357, 359, 362, 363 



antillarum (Panchlora), 463 

antiopa (Vanessa), 161 

anti(pia (Orgyia), 162 

antirrhini (Gymuetron), 51 

Auurida, Ixxxiii 

anxia (Bruchus), 401 

anynana (Mycalesis), 358 

Apanteles, 10, 34, 36, 41, 54, 

68 
Apate, 22, 29, 61, 351 
Ajjatura, vii, 161 
apennina (Forficula), 112 
Aphrenogaster. 340 
Aphanisticus, 166 
Aphanus, 170 
Apliidffi, viii, 52 
Aphidius, 37, 64 
Aphnanis, 80, 350 
aphodioides (Trachyscelis), xxvi, xxvii, 

398 
Aphoilius, 14, 166, 336, 386, 396 
A])lithona, 387, 402 
apiarius (Trichodes), 167 
apicalis (Balaninus), 369 
,, (Charopus), 397 
,, (Collyris), xxxi 
(Dyschirius), 388 
Apion, xlix, Iv, Ixix, 34, 42, 164, 168, 

169, 386, 387, 401 
apionnm (Eurytoma), 43 
Apis, 310, 311, 330, 331, 338, 344, 

349, 363, 368, 378, 379 
Ajdecta, xxii, Ixvi, Ixvii 
Apoderus, 41, 369 
Aporia, 160 
Apotettix, 237 
Apotrogia, 469 
appendiculatus (Hipporrliinus), 313 

,, (Xorides), 24 

Appias, xviii, Ixxxii 
apricans (Apion), 42, 401 
apricarius (Saprinus), 396 
aptalis (Alucita), 490 
Aptera, 467 

aptera (Cosmiella), 105, 117, 118 
apterus (Halticus), 171 
Apterygida, Ix, 93, 97, 98, 109, 117, 

120, 122, 123, 124 
Aplinothrips, Ixxxii 
aquaticus (Helophorus), 390 
a({uifolii (Phytomyza), 259 
acpiila (Pterophorus), 503 
arachidis (Apterygida), 117 
Araschnia, 1 xxiii 
arcania (Ccenonympha), 161 
arcens (Dorylus), vi 
archesia (Precis), 315, 335, 352, 367, 

372 



( cxix ) 



arcuatus (Clytus), 26 
,, (Ceranibyx), 26 
,, hausmaiini (Scymnus), 403 
,, (Leiognathus), 428 
,, (Scymnus), 403 

arciiosa (Hydrilla), ii 

Arcyophora, 342, 350 

areator (Hemiteles), 9, 13, 14, IS, 20, 
53 

arenarise (Sibinia), 400 

arenarium (Opatrum), 332, 336, 
379 

arenarius (Rhyssemus), 396 
,, (Scarites), 388 

arenosa (Tephrina), 317, 333 

arethusa (Satyrus), 161 

Arge, 161 

argentatum (Apion), 168 

argentea (Amniopliila), 338 

Argia idotea (Leuceronia), xxx 

,, (Leuceronia), xxix, xxx, xxxi, 

Ixx, Ixxi 
„ poppea (Leuceronia), xxix, Ixxi 
,, semiflava (Leuceronia), xxx, 

Ixxi 
,, sulphiirea (Leuceronia), xxix, 

xxxi, Ixxi 
,, supra (Leuceronia), xxx 
,, typica (Leuceronia), xxix 
,, varia (Leuceronia), xxx, Lxxi 

Argiolaus, 316, 367, 376 

argiolus (Cyaniris), 161 
,, (Cardiophorus), 397 

Argus (Lycfena), 151, 158, 159 
,, bejarensis (Lycajna), 158 
,, casaiacus (Lyca^ua), 151, 158, 

159 
,, corydon (Lycsena), 158 
,, corydonius (Lyca?na), 158 
,, hypochiona (Lyc?ena), 158 

Argynnis, 155, 161, 328 

Argyractis, 350, 353 

Argyramoeba, 362 

aridula (Chffitocnema), 402 

Arina, 366 

arion (Lycasna), vii, 161 

Aristus, 389 

arithmetious (Astichus), 24 

armata (Opisthocosmia), 100 

Aroa, 368, 376 

Aromia, 25 

Arotes, 26 

Arsinoij, 327 

Artemisia, 43 

Arthropoda, 333, 340 

articulatum (Bembidium), 165 

arvensis (Sinapis), 55 

arvicola (Lissonota), 19 



arvicola (Xylotrechus), 169 
Ascarides, 66 
Ascogaster, 31 
asellus (Blabera), 467 

,, (Blatta), 467 

,, (Gymnetron), 51 
Asemum, 188, 194, 195, 205, 209 
asiatica (Neolobophora), 119 
Asida, 167, 327, 386, 387, 398 
asiliformis (Trochiliunis), 163 
asopus (Catochrysops), 320, 360 

,, (Lycrena), 362 
asparagi (Crioceris), 34 
aspersiita (Nauphceta), 469 
asphodeli (Agapanthia), 169, 386 
asphodelus (Mylothris), xviii, xix, 

lxxi 
Aspidogonus, 19 
Aspidomorpha, 249, 250, 251, 252, 

369, 375 
Aspidophorus, 145 

Aspigouus, 18, 20, 21, 25, 26, 32, 38, 

40 
Aspongoi)us, 370 
assamus (Loxilobus), 223 
assimilata (Eupithecia), ii 
assimile (Apion), 169 
assimilis (Ceuthorrhynchus), 55 

,, (Patrobus), 8 
astarte (Pinacopteryx), Ixx 
asterope (Yplitliima), 334, 335, 352, 
358 
,, norma (Yphthima), 344, 352, 
357, 358, 359 
Astichus, 24 
astrarche (Lycfena), 155, 156, 157, 

161 
asturiensis (Zabrus), 165 
atalanta (Pyrameis), 161 
Atechna, 369, 371 
Atella, Ixxiv, Ixxv, 316, 324, 329, 352, 

370, 372, 436 
Atelocera, 316 

ater (Clielisoclies), 129 

,, (Eryx), 415 

,, (Hylastes), 164, 169 

,, (Mesostenus), 17, 40 

,, (Stenopterus), 169 

,, (Xorides), 32 
atergatis (Acraa), 349, 352 
aterrima (Colpodota), 391 

,, (Opisthocosmia), 106 
aterrimum (Actidium), 394 
Ateuchi, 386 
Athalia, 316, 368 
athalia (Melitaja), 159 
Atheta, 391 
Athous, 164, 167, 397 



( cxx ) 



atolmis (Acivxa), 349, 352, 353, 355, 

359 
Atomaria, 394 
atoiiiaiia (Fidonia), xlix 

,, (Gymnoloina), 313 
atomaiius (Hruchus), 33 

,, (Frotinus), 393 
atopaiis (Bradina), 323 

(Physematia), 323 
atra (Hispa), 170 
,, (Cajinia). 173 
,, (Deropel'tis), 469 
atralis (Heliotln-a), 163 
atrameiitaria (Atlieta), 391 
atramentaiius (Cardiophorns), 167 
atraphaxidis (Clytlua), 169 
atrata (Odezia), xiv 
atiator (Mett-orus), 23 
atratulus (Stemis), 166 
atratum (Agonuui), 389 
atricapillus (Dem-trias), 387, 390 
atriceps (Chelonus), 57 
atricilla (Halobreotlia), 391 
atricornis (Brachiste.s), 48, 460 
atritarse (Apion), 42 
atrocseruleus (Eulojibus), 43 
atropos (Blabera), 469 
Attagenus, 166, 380, 386, 395 
attalica (Sibinia), 400 
Attalus, 386, 397 
Attelabus, 41 

attemiatus (Harpalns), 165 
atypicalis (Tetrix), 239 

ceylonus (Tetrix), 239 
Auchenomiis, 124, 125, 131 
Auchmeiomyia, xliv, xlvi, xlvii 
aueta (Hydrotliassa), 169 
Aiidea, 334 
augu-itina (Junonia), 440 

(Salamis), 429, 437, 440, 
441, 450 
aulacochiloides (Episcaplxula), 327 
Aulacoderus, 399 
Aulacophora, 386, 402 
Auletes, 169 
aulicus (Lycodon), 178 
auraiitidautyla (Koremaguia), 481 
aurelia (Callicore), Ixi 
auricularia (Foriicula), 110, 114 
aiirinia (Melitiea), 161 
auronitens (Pterouialus), 51 
auroraria (Hyria), Ixxxv 
aurovillosa (Aleocliara), 391 
austi-alicus (Clielisoches), 129 
australis (Byrrhns), 135 
,, (Leasia), xl 
,, (Limiiiclius), 145 
,, (Microchsetes), 135 



australis (Usagaria), 345 
autographiis (Bo.strichus), 65 
,, (Dryocnetes), 65 

autraiiiana (Deropeltis), 330 
autumiiaiia (Einiomos), Ixxx 

,, aliiiaria (Ennomos), Ixxx 

auxileuca (Diacrotricha), 471 
auxo (Teraeolus), 319 
avellan£E (Rhyiichreuus), 168 
Averrhoa, 471 
axillaris (Cimbex), xxxiii 

., (Myeetochares), 38 
Axiocerces, 320, 342, 344, 353, 356, 

363, 364, 373 
ayresii (Baoris), 336 
azurescens (Pteronialus), 63, 67 
azureus (Clila;nius), 389 
,, (Euiielraus), 46 
,, (Pteroinalus), 63 
Baccha, 375 
Bactra, 163 

badium (Agatliidiura), Ixxxi 
B;eoglossa,' 339, 340 
baitica (Aiiisoplia), 164, 166 
Bagous, 355 
bajiilus (Cerambyx), 25 

,, (Hylotrupes), 25, 169, 402 
Balanimis, 56, 164, 168, 369 
Balanobius, 168 
balanotes (Pterophorus), 503 
balteata (Gametis), 369, 373 

(Tachyusa), 165 
lialteatus (Exenteriis), 17 
,, (Syrplius), 360 
balyi (Eurysthenes), 380 
banksi (Chrysomela), 402 
Baoris, 320, 323, 326, 829, 336, 

360 
baptoilactylus (Pseluophorus), 491, 

492 
barbara capeusis (Aplinenogaster), 340 
,, (Lestes), 308 

(CEdemera), 168, 399 
barbarus (Liiemosthenes), 389 
barbata (Mycetocliares), 38 
]>aridius, 56 
Bans, 55, 56, 400 
Barleria, 440 

barnevillei (Malacliius), 167 
barroisi (Forficula), 113 
barrowi (Binsitta), 177, 178 
barynoti (Bracon), 43 
Barynotus, 43, 44 
Barypeitbes. 168, 399 
basalis (Ischnoptera), 470 

,, (Phyllodroniia), 470 
Basicryptus, 374 
Basilarchia, Ixxvii, Ixxix, Ixxx 



( CXXl ) 



Bfisipta, 249, 252 

Bassus, 12, 36 

batesi (Heliconius), xiv 

baton (Lycffiiia), 161 

Batrachidere, 242 

batychrus (Leptaciims), 392 

Bauhinia, 181 

beccabiingse (Gymnetron), 51 

Bedelius, 389 

beelzebub (Forficula), 111 

belemia (Anthocharis), v 

Belenois, xii, xiii, xxix, xxx, xxxi, Ixv, 

Ixx, Ixxi, Ixxii, 314, 317, 319, 322, 

325, 329, 346, 352, 353, 355, 357, 

358, 359, 366, 370, 372 
bellargus (Lycieua), 1 

,, ab. ceronus (Lyciena), 1 
bellezina (Anthocliaris), v 
bellicosa (Hispa), 361 
bellidice (Poutia), iv 
beloni (Thylacites), 387, 400 
Belonogaster, 316, 335, 337, 342, 344, 

345, 354, 356, 369, 371, 375 
belzebuth (Disscotettix), 213 
Bembex, 350 

Bembidium, 164, 165, 386, 388 
Bengalia, xlv, xlvi 
beniniensis (Ammophila), 354, 361 
Beosus, 170 

bernice (Mylothris), xviii, xix 
berolinensis (Dicerca), 15 
Berosus, 390 

bertouti (Holoparamecus), 394 
betulse (Deporaus), 41 
betuleti (Byctiscus), 41 
Bia, Ixxix 
Bibio, 360, 369 
bibulus (Lachnocnema), 320 
bicaliginosus (Pteromahis), 60, 62 
bicellulaiis (Rracon), 24 
bicolor (Blatta), 467 

,, (Bosti'ichus), 66 

,, (Chrysomela), 386, 402 

,, (Corticeus), 398 

,, (Lasioderma), 398 

,, (Neolobophora), 119 

,, (Pseudopeltis), 467 

,, (Sthenarus), 171 

,, (Taphrorychus), 66 

,, (Triplax), Ixxxi 
bicolorella (Coleophora), Ixix 
bicolorinus (Hemiteles), 19 
bicostata (Asida), 327 
bicuspis (Dicranuia), Ixxx 
,, (Forficula), 96 
,, (Timomenus), 96 
bidens (Bostrichus), 63, 67 
bidentatum (Pseudagrion), 308 

PROC. ENT. SOC. LOND., V. 1907. 



bidentatus (Pityogenes), 67 

,, (PogoiiochiBrus), 30 

bideuticiilata (Isotoma), Ixxxii 
bideutis (Pteromalus), 67 
bieti (Ccenouympba), 152 
bifasciatum (Rhagium), 27 
bifasciatus (Attagenus), 395 
bifrons (Amara), 165 
bigibbosus (Tetticerus), 230 
biguttata (Bnichus), 401 
,, (Buprestis), 16 
,, (Monastria), 469 
biguttatum (Bembidion), 388 
biguttatus (Agrilus), 16, 54, 166 

(Bruehus), 33, 169 
bilateralis (Khoiiia), 376 
bilimbi (Averrhoa), 471 
bilineatus (Trogophltvns), 393 
billbergi (Coryua), 167 
bimacnlata (Bruclius), 401 
(Doru), 124 
,, (Iscbnopteia), 361 

bimaculatus (Cryptocephalus), 163, 169 
,, (Drasterius), 397 

,, caruaiicTe (Hapalus), 399 

morio (Hister), 396 
(Olibms), 394 
(Pteromalus), 22, 58, 59, 

61, 62, 65, 66 
(Suiiius), 392 
biufevius (Pteromalus), 59 
binimbatus (Pteromalus), 62 
biuodulus (Bostrichus), 64 
,, (Cryi)lialus), 64 
binotata (Doru), 124 
binotatus (Anisodactylus), 165 
Binsitta, 177, 178 
bipartita (Apterygida), 123 

(Sphingolabis), 123 
bipunctata (Aleocliara), 391 
bipunctatus (Cryptocephalus), Ixvii, 
34, 169 
,, (Laccobius), 390 

,, (Scymnus), 403 

,, (Stenus), 166 

bipunctidactyla (Stenoptilia), 504 
bipustulata (Blatta), 467 

,, (Parahormetica), 467, 468 

bipustulatum (Sphajridium), 390 
bipustulatus (Chilocorus), 403 
,, (Malachius), 206 

,, (Rhizophagus), 395 

birmanus (Auchenomus), 131 
biroi (Hypurgus), 102 
biscrensis (Anthrenus), 395 
Bisoutella, Jx 
bisigiiatus (Olibrus), 166 
Bisnius, 165 



( cxJiii ) 



bisou (Bubas), 396 
bispinosus (Acaiithalobus), 22 
bispinus (Bostrichus), 65 
,, (Xylocleptes), 65 
bistriatus (Taclivs), 388 

,, gregarius (Tachys), 388 
bistriga (Acupali)us), 389 
bivestigatus (Pteromalus), 02 
bivittatus (Telephoriis), 167 
Bizenia, 146 
Blabera, 467, 469 
Blacus, 29, 53, 61 
Blaps, 398 
Blastopbagus, 22 
Blatta, 310, 313, 327, 331, 332, 337, 

361, 365, 370, 456, 457, 458, 459, 

460, 461, 462, 463, 464, 466, 467, 

468, 469 
Blattidffi, Ixxxvi, 312, 465 
Blechrus, 389 
Bledius, 166, 386, 393 
Blenosia [Blacodes], 312 
Blepharodera, 467 
Blyiuorplianismus, 351 
Boarmia, 323 
boaz (Oiyctes), 334 
bcetica (Dasypoda), 380 

,, (Lampides), 152 

„ (Lyciijiia), 161, 320, 329, 341, 
445 
bcEticus (Ciipido), 445 

,, (Lampides), 445 
bogotenis (Neolobophora), 119 
bohemani (Apion), 42 

(Episus), -339, 340 
boieldieui (Gibbium), 397 
boisduvali (Gerydus), viii 
boisduvalii (Cieuis), 321 

,, (Cydimon), 405 

boleti (Cis), 23 

,, (Diaperis), 37 

,, (Scaidia), 37 
bolina (Diadema), 442 

,, (Hypolimiias), 442 
Bolotettix, 223, 224, 225, 226 
Boiiibax, 178 
Bombus, xxxiii 
Bombylius, 379 
Bombyx, Ixxxiii, Ixxxv 
bonsespei (Lioptilus), 422 

,, (Marasmarcha), 492 
bonchampsi (Apteiygida), 98 
bonducella (Casalpiuia), 447 
boops (Porizoii), 39 
borbonica (Antaiiartia), 437, 439 
(Pamphila), 452 
(Paniara), 452 
borealis (Limobiiis), 400 



boreata (Cbeimatobia), ii 

borellii (Neolobophora), 119 

bostriehoruia (Cceloides), 66 

Bostrichus, 61, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67 

Bostrychidffi, 398 

Bostrychus, 22, 364 

Bothriothorax, 18 

Bothrostethus, 170 

bowkeri (Stugeta), 344, 353, 363 

Brachinus, xvi 

Brachistes, 13, 18, 20, 21, 41, 46, 47, 

48, 54, 57, 60 
Brachonyx, 52 
Brachybasis, 330, 360 
brachyceiitrus (Mesosteuus), 17, 61 
Brachycerus, 336, 339, 400 
Brachycola, 467 
Brachycoleus, 171 
Brachyderes, 164, 168 
biachyiiiorpba (Platyptilia), 483 
Brachypterus, 166, 395 
brachysteglDe (Rhabdiiiocerus), 355 
Bracon, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 

26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 

36, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 47, 48, 50, 51, 

52, 54, 55, 56, 58, 59, 60, 62, 64, 65, 

66, 67, 178 
braconius (Collastes), 49 
Bradina, 323 
Bradycelhis, 389 
brahnia (Kosnietor), 123 
brasiliensis (Epilaiii[)ia), 462 
brassicai (Mamestva), 162 

(Pieris), 161 
bredowi (Adeljiha), Ixxvii, Ixxix, 

Ixxx 
brevicauda (Xenylla), Ixxxiii 
brevicaudis (Eubadizoii), 20 

(Spatbius), 15, 29, 47, 57, 
63, 67 
brevicollis (Cicindeia), 380 
,, (Liciuus), 389 

,, (Nebria), 8 

brevicoruis (PimpLi), 47, 50, 68 

,, (Pteromalus), 20 

brevipenne (Achenium), 392 
,, (Micralymma), 11 

brevipennis (Trichopteryx), 394 
brevipes (Meteorus), 59 
brevipilis (Ptinus), 398 
brevirostre (Apion), 43 
brevis (Epilampra), 460 
brevistigma (Thecagaster), 305 
breviventris (Apaiiteles), 54 

,, (Microgaster), 49, 55 

brigitta (Terias), 314, 338, 343, 345, 

349, 352, 353, 356, 359, 448, 

449 



( cxxiii ) 



brisouti (Apion), 401 

brongusaria (Semiotliisa), 333, 364, 

368 
brookiana (Troides), 1 
Bniohidffi, 397, 401 
Bruchus, 33, 34, 169, 387, 401 
lii'uiiiata (Cheimatobia), ii 
brunei (Papilio), 5 
bruunea (Biatta), 467 

,, (Nyctibora), 467 
brunueriaiia (Derocalynuia), 370 
bruniieum (Ortbetruni), 304 
bnmiieus (Aglenus), 395 

(Bostrychus), 364 
(Euplectiis), 393 
,, (Longitarsiis), 402 
(Lyctus), 23, 398 
,, (jVlycetoporus), 165 
bruiinicans (Pteromalusj, 58, 59 
brunnipes (Acupalpus), 165, 389 
Bryaxis, 393 
bryoniffi (Pieris), liv 
bryophagus (Pedilophorus), 138, 139, 

140 
Bryopliila, 162 
bubalus ( Bubas), 396 

,, (Lasiodernia), 398 
Bubas, 396 

buccata (Pacbylonima), 16 
buccinator (Larinus), 168 
bucephala (Pygsera), Ixiv 
buparius (Scaiites), 388 
Bu[.restidffi, 14, 397 
Buprestis, 15, 16 
buprestoides (Spondylis), 169 
buquetii (Leuceronia), 311 
bunueisteri (Phyllodromia), 462 
burneyi cathaiinae (Heliconius), 

Ixxvi 
burri (Hedotettix), 240 
busckii (Drosophila), 300 
buxtoni (Acrsea), 317, 328 
Byblia, 315, 317, 318, 322, 325, 328, 

335, 352, 366, 367, 372, 376 
Byctiscus, 41 

Byrrhidse, 135, 145, 396, 398 
Byrrhus, 135, 398 
Cabera, ii 

cabira (Acra?a), 317, 321, 328 
cabrerte (Forficula), 112 
cacliarensis (Papilio), 1, 3 
cachecta (Sitoua), 400 

,, V. setulifei- (Sitona), 400 
Cacyreus, 310, 358, 367, 378, 380, 429, 

444 
Cffiuina, 320 
Caenoccelius, 61 
Cfenocryptus, 29 



cteuosus (Bagous), 355 
C;esalpinia, 447 
cpespitis (Tricbothrips), Ixxxi 
ciesus (Pleurophorus), 166, 396 
cafFer (Euleptus), 331 

„ (Zopbosis), 333, 334, 336, 
345 
caffra (Gracillodes), 330, 353 

,, (Plectrocteua), 336 

,, (Sclerocarya), 344, 355 

,, (Thyretes), 334 

,, (Xylocopa), 368 

,, var. niossanibica (Xylocopa), 344, 
354 
caffiaria (Mesoponera), 332, 342 
caffrorum (Gyna), 469 
Cafius, 11, 165, 392 
Calamobius, 402 
Calandra, 400 
Calathus, 389 
c-album (Grapta), 161 

,, (Polygonia), Ixxiv 
Calcar, 399 

calcaratus (Miris), 170 
calculator (Mierodus), 37 
caldarena (Acrrea), 352 
calice (Castalius), 329 
californica (Adelpha), Ixxvii 
caligatus (PiBderus), 165 
,, (Xyloiiomus) 32 
caliginosa (Epilampra), 469 
callias (Cryptocephalus), 361 
Callidia, 25 
Callidium, 25, 26, 61, 196, 197, 387, 

402 
Callidryas, 447 
Calliniome, 13, 42 
Callimorpha,162 
Calliphora, xliii, 381 
callosicoUis (Elliministes), 374 
Calluna, Ixxxii 
calmariensis (Galeruca), 36 

„ (Galerucella), 36 
Calocoi'is, 171 
Calodera, 391 
Calopterygiuai, 305 
Calopteryx, Ixi 
Calosoma, 387, 388 
calydonius (Ditomus), 389 
Calyptomeras, 394 
Calyptus, 19, 41 
canibrica (Venusia), ii 
cambricus (Sitona), 400 
,, (Sitones), 168 
Camelotettix, 233 
cameroni (Bryaxis), 393 
,, (Crypticus), 398 
,, (Malthodes), 397 



( cxxiv ) 



Camilla, 161 

caminites (Oxyptilus), 478 
campanulas (Gymiietron), 51 
(Miarus), 50, 168 
campestris (Ceutlioirhynclms), 168 

(Cicimlela), 165, 388 
campina (Mycalesis), 358 
Camponotus, Ixiv, 310, 320, 327, 

331, 336, 341, 349, 361, 363, 399, 

375 
campoplegoides (Phygadeuon), 8 
Campoplex, 17, 31, 44, 52, 54 
Campolenes, 375 
Camptopus, 170 
canaliciilatiis (Lyctus), 23 
cauariensis (Foilicula), 114 
cancellata (Orneodes), 510 
Candida (Cicindela), 375 
caudidalis (Aciptilus), 490 

(Alucita), 490 
canescens (Homoptera), 334 
canicularis (Homaloinyia), 317 
Caiiidia, 36 

caimse (Noiiagria), 1, li, liii 
caijopus (Netrobalane), 320 
caiitabricum (Apion), 168 
caiitabiicus (Rhizotrogus), 166 
Cantharidse, 397 
canus (Urodon), 401 
capensis (Acantholepi.s), 379 
(Blatta), 467 
(Ceroctis), 380 
,, (Cincindela), 375 
,, (Xylocopa), 379 
capicola (Bembex), 350 

(Harpalus), 332 
capitata (Myzine), 342, 354 
capitatus (Pteromalus), 58, 64, 

65 
capito (Diospilus), 19 
Capnia, 173 
Capnodis, 397 
capreK (Lochmiiea), 170 
Caprona, 320 
Capsus, 171 
capucina (Apate), 22 
capucinus (Bostryclius), 22 
Carabidie, 340, 388 
caraboides (Melandrya), 40 
Carabus, 8, 165, 388 
carboiiaria (Magdalis), 56 
carbonarius (Ephialtes), 15, 24, 26, 29, 

30, 31, 32, 46, 54 
carcharias (Saperda), 30 
Carcinops, 396 
cardamines (Aiithocliaris), v 
Cardiophorus, 164, 166, 167, 323, 

397 



cardui (Agapantliia), 169, 402 

,, (Cfeliodes), 400 

,, (Pyrameis), 160, 315, 318, 331, 
333, 334, 335, 336, 338, 339, 
365, 367, 377, 378, 380, 439 

,, (Spermophagiis), 401 
caiduoi'um (Apion), 169, 401 

,, galactitis (Apion), 401 

Carida, 39 

Carinapleurotlirips, Ixxxii 
carinator (Helcou), 22, 26, 29, 59 
carinatus (Dendams), 398 
,, (Elachestus), 41 
carinula (Sciapliilus), 168 
carinulatus (Odyneriis), 354, 357 
carissimus (Pedilophorus), 138, 139, 

143 
carliuffi (Larinus), 45 
Carlisis, 370 

carnaria (Sarcophaga), 327, 375 
carnuta (Pentila), 78 
(Telipna), 78 
Carphoborus, 63 

carphodactylus (Leioptilus), xii, xl 
carpini (Trypopitys), 20 
Carpophilus, 395 
Cartaletis, 327 
Carterus, 389 

caithami (Syriclitlms), 161 
Cartodere, 394 

Cassida, 37, 250, 251, 403, 456 
cassidarum (Entendon), 35, 37 
cassidea (Blatta), 467 

,, (Phoraspis), 467 
Cassidida;, 249 
eassius (Pseudonymplia), 331, 367, 372, 

366, 380 
casta (Fiimea), 163 
Castalius, 329, 362 
castaneum (Piiobium), 19 

(Tetropium), 32 
castaneus (Athous), 397 
,, (Corticeus), 398 
,, (Oresbius), 8, 44 
castigata (Eupithecia), ii 
castrensis (Malacosoma), 162 
Catabomba, 381 
Catabronta, 368 
Catacanthacris, Ixxix 
Catacroptera, 318 
catalaunaria (Tephrina), 333 
cataleuca (Arge), 161 

,, lachesis (Arge), 161 
Catantops, 316, 321, 331, 338, 369, 371, 

374 
catenator (Lissonota), 15 
catharotes (Pselnopliorus), 491, 492 
cathartica (Alamauda), 434 



( cxxv ) 



Cathartus, 395 

Catocala, 173, 175, 176 

Catochrysops, 320, 360 

Catophaga, xviii, Ixxii 

Catops, 393 " 

Catopsilia, Ixxiv, \xxv, 341, 344, 356, 

429, 447, 453 
caucasica (Forficula"), 112 
caudatus (Bracon), 62 
,, (Eiitedou), 63 
„ (Opius), 25, 30 
,, (Sigalphus), 48, 49 
caiilai'um (Holoparamecu.s), 394 
cava (Xenodiisa), 419 
cebvene (Precis), 315, 318, 334, 335, 

352, 362 
Cebrio, 397 
Cecidomyia, 39 
celebensis (Papilio), 5 
celebicus (Hedotettix), 241 
celer (Forficula), 113 
centetes (Trichoptilus), 473 
Centistes, 12 

centriinaculatus (Cercyon), 390 
ceiitrosa (Mazari'edia), 230 
centurio (Opisthocosmia), 100 
Cephalonomyia, 22, 24 
cephalotes (Amblystomus), 389 

(Opius), 60 
Cephanodeb, 345 
Cerambyx, 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 30, 31, 

32, 199, 295, 402 
Ceraphron, 66, 67 
Ceratina, 338 
Cercomorphus, 401 
Cercus, 395 
Cercyon, 390 
cerdo (Cerambyx), 402 
ceres (Terias), 448 
ceresyi (Deronectes), 390 
Ceriagrion, 308 
cerinus (Longi tarsus), 403 
Cerocephala, 58, 62 
Cerocoma, 164, 167 
Ceroctis, 342, 356, 371, 380 
cervipyga (Opisthocosmia), 100 
cespitalis (Pyrausta), 163 
Cetonise, 386 

Ceuthorrhyuchidius, 168, 400 
Ceuthorrhynchus, Ixviii, 55, 168, 386, 

400 
ceylonica (Opisthocosmia), 100 
chrerophyUata (Tanagra), ii 
Chffitoenema, 347, 402 
Chaitolyga, 369 
chalceus (Pogomis), 165, 389 
Chalciope, 341 
Chalcis, 37 



chalcites (Saprinus), 396 
chalcographus (Bostrichus), 67 
,, (Pityogenes), 67 

Chalcophora, 15 
chalcoptera (Lesna), 361 
Clialicodoma, 343, 369 
chalyba?,us (Entedon), 31 
chalybeatus (Promeeidus), 370 
Chamaipetes, 95 
champioiii (Ancistrogaster), 108 

(Omophliis), 399 
Charagotettix, 226 
Charaxes, 315, 316, 318, 329, 346, 

352, 367 
chariua (Pinacopteryx), 312, 319, 

322, 325, 329, 366, 370, 372, 

376 
charitopa (Platyptilia) 483 
charlonia (Anthocharis), v 
Charopus, 167, 397 
Chasmatojiterus, 164, 166 
Cheimatobia, ii 
Cheiropachns, 59, 62, 63 
Chelidura, 91, 94 
Chelidurella, 94 
Chelidurinai, 93, 94 
Chelisochella, 125, 127, 128, 133 
Chelisoches, 116, 124, 125, 127, 128, 

129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134 
Chelisochidffi, 124, 132 
Chelisochinte, 125 
Chelonus, 30, 31, 57, 65 
Chermes, 207 
Chilocorus, 310, 403 
Chilomenes, 310, 345, 374 
Chilopora, 391 
chinensis (Bruchus), 401 

,, (Laccoptera), 250, 252 
,, (Trachyscelis), xxvii 
chionastes (Pterophorus), 501 
Chironitis, 396 
Chlajnius, 165, 389 
Chlamydopsis, 146 
chloracta (Orneodes), 507 
chloralis (Stemmatophora), 350 
chlorea (Sphingomorpha), 362 
chloiias (Pterophorus), 497 
chloridice (Pontia), v 
chloris (Mylothris), Iv 
chlorizans (Baris), 55 
chlorodippe (Argynnis), 161 
chlorotica (Panchlora), 463 
Cha-ron-hinus, 400 
Chremylus, 33 
chrysaor (Phasis), 373 
chrysippus (Danaida), 433 

(Danais), 433, 442 
,, alcippus (Dauais), 433 



( cxxvi ) 



chrysipfius (Limnas), x, 314, 317, 
318, 321, 324, 327, 328, 331, 334, 
337, 352, 355, 357, 359, 362, 367, 
372 

chrysitis (Pseudocolaspis), 355 

chrysoeephala (Psylliodes), 402 

Chrysolampus, 52 

Chrysomela, 35, 164, 169, 386, 402 

chrysomelitia (Epilai'hna), 403 

Chrysophaiius, vii, ], Ixvi, 161 

chrysostigma (Oi-tlietniin), 304 

,, raoe luzonicum (Orthe- 

triiiii), 304 

Clithonius, 219 

Chtlioiiotettix, 219 

cicadifrons (Strongyloeoris), 171 

cii^atricosa (Pimpla), 53 

Cidaria, ii 

ciliaris (Traehyscelis), xxvi, xxvii 

ciliata (Blatta), 467 

ciliatus (Melyris), 374 

Cilleiius, 164, 165 

Cimbex, xxxiii 

Cincidela, 84, 86, 87, 89, 165, 375, 380, 
386, 388 

cincta (Icaria), 320, 343, 369, 374, 
375 

cinctigutta (Rhanidophora), 327 

cinctus (Agiilns), 166 

,, (Sminthnnis), Ixxxiii 

cinerea (Blatta), 467 

cinereus (Biachypteras), 166 
(Oleonus), 400 
,, (Hespei-ojihanes), 402 
,, (Thamnotrizon), Ixvi 

cingulata (Aptera), 467 

(Tachyusa), 391 

cingulatus (Lopus), 170 

,, (Sti-ongylogaster), vii 

cinnamoniea (Ischnoptcra), 470 
(Phyllodromia), 470 

cinnides (Lyc:una), 1 

cinyras (Libythea), 429, 443 

Ciomis, 53 

circinata (Forficula), 112 

circulatus (Mecinus), 401 

circumcincta (Pseudothyisocera), 469 

circuniclusa (Pseudotliyrsoceia), 469 
(Thyrsocera), 469 

circuindata (Coptocycla), 249, 251, 
252 

circumflexiis (Dytiscus), 390 

circumseptus (Bedelius), 389 
,, (Chlffiiiius), 389 

Cirphis, 347 

Cirrospilus, 42 

Cis, Ixviii, 23, 24 

cis (Bracqn), 23 



cissus (Everes), 344, 360 

Cistelidii!, 396 

Cistus, 151 

citrites (Pterophoi'us), 502 

citropleura (Platyptilia), 482 

Cladonotse, 215, 216, 234 

Cladoramus, 217 

Clambidie, 394 

Clarissa (Mylothris), Ivi, Ixxi 

clavatus (Pteromahis), 47 

(SiJathiu.s), 18, 19, 21, 

49 
clavicomis (Aleochara), 391 
clavigcr (Spathiufs), 2^ 
clavigera (Derocalymma), 469 
clavipes (Harpalus), 365 

,, (Riiopalopus), 387, 402 
claviventris (Helcon), 40 
Cledeobia, 162 
clelia (Orthetrum), 305 

„ (Precis), 317, 318, 324, 328, 352, 
355 
cleodora (Ernnia), 314, 322, 325, 329, 

366, 370, 372 
Cleoniis, 168, 339, 400 
Cleonymus, 21, 59 
Cleopatra, 355 
CleridiU, 397 
Clerus, 17, 62 
Clinocentrus, 16, IS 
Clitobius, 385, 399 
cloantha (Catacroptera), 318 

(Precis), 318 
clypealis (Hydrovatus), xxxii 
clypeata (Pilema), 469 
clypeatus (Coelometopns), 167 

,, (Aristus), 389 
Cly tan thus, 169, 402 
Clythra, 164, 169 
Clythrida', xl 
Clytiis, 26, 169 
Cnemidophorus, 481 
Cneorrhinus, 164, 168 
coarctata (Tachyusa), 165 
Coccidte, xxxiii 
Coccinella, 11, 12, 170, 403 
coccineus (Eiuloinyclius), 12, 13 
cocksi (Salda), 170 
Codiosoma, 400 
Codrus, 10 

coeculus (Hypolycania), 344, 353 
Ccelambus, 390 
Coeliodes, 54, 168, 400 
ccplocera (Chalicodonia), 343, 369 
Cadoides, 27, 58, 59, 62, 67, 

66 
Cfplometopus, 167 
Cctdostoma, 390 



( cxxvii ) 



Coenonympha, vii, 152, 159, 160, 

161 
ccerulea (Dasytes), 17 
cceruleocephalus (Rhyncliites), 169 
ccerulescens (Bans), 400 

,, (Orthetrum), 305 

,, (Pcecilus), 165 

coeruleus (Dasytes), 17 

,, (Foi'micomus), 310 
cognata (Eupithecia), ii 

,, (Macroma), 327, 369 
Colasposoma, 369 
Col ax, 12 
Coleophora, Ixix 
Coleoptera, 67, 163, 320, 355 
Coleus, 444 
Colias, 161, 312, 314, 319, 334, 338, 

367, 372, 376, 377 
collaris (Helcnophorus), 398 

,, (Mecinus), 52 

,, (Myrmedonia), 9 

,, (Rogas), 19 

,, (Xorides), 32 
Collastes, 49 
coUinus (Gymnetron), 51 
Collyris, xxxi, 83-90 
coloratus (Litargus), 395 

,, (Microchajtes), 136 
Colotes, 164, 167, 386, 397 
Colpodota, 391 
colpophorus (Bracon), 34, 42 
Colydiidse, 395 
Colymbetes, xxix 
comes (Agrotis), 175 
Comibiiena, 350, 357 
comma (Hesperia), 161 

„ (Spiramiopsis), xi 
commassife (/Ellopus), 360 
commixtum (Sympetnim), 304 
communis (Thrips), Ixxxii 
complanata (Eiuynebria), 387, 388 
complanatus (Oxytelus), 393 
completus (Hemiteles), 21 
compressiventris (Exoclms), 16 
compsochares (Trichoptilus), 473 
Comythovalgus, 368 
Conchia, 338 
concolor (Glypta), 57 

,, (Gynandrophthalma), 169 
confinis (Aspidomorpha), 250 
(Entedon), 18, 48, 49 
confluens (Ccelambus), 390 
conformis (Xylina), Ixxx 
confusa (Methona), Ixxix 
congener (Haplolycus), 321 
congloblata (Coccinella), 170 
congrualis (Pterophorus), 473 
(Triclioptilus), 473 



conicus (Rhinocyllus), 400 
Conolophia, 358 

consangaineus (Omostropus), 345 
conscitaria (Conolophia), 358 
consimile (Anobiuiu), 20 

(Apion), 43 
consobrina (Phyllotreta), 402 
conspersus (Lissogenius), 371, 375 
consputus (Aphodius), 396 
constant! (Pterophorus), 502 
constrietus (Acantholycus), 321 
continuus (Ephialtes), 30, 31 
contractus (Aspigonus), 26, 32 
,, (Paratettix), 236 
(Tetrix), 239 
Conurus, 392 
convexa (Blatta), 467 

(Cyrtilia), 467 
convexus (Scarabpeus), 375 
cooksoni (Neocajnyra), 77 
Copris, 396 

Coptocycla, 249, 251, 252 
Coptotettix, 237, 241, 242 
Coraibus, 163, 166 
Coranus, 170 
cordatus (Ditomus), 389 
cordiger (Capsus), 171 

,, (Graphipterus), 333, 336, 
340 
Cordylobia, xliii, xliv, xlvii 
core (Euploea), 434 
Coreus, 170 

coriaceum (Meladema), 390 
coriaria (Timarcha), 35 
coriarius (Prionus), 24 
corinneus (Papilio), 346, 353 
Corizus, 170 

corniculans (Metachrostis), 370 
corniculata (Xy.stra), 232 
corniculatus (Hipporhinus), 336 
corniger (Bledius), 393 
cornigera (Cerocephala), 58, 62 
cornuta (Mitroboris), 27, 28 
cornutus (Echoeerus), 398 

,, (Notocerus), 232 

,, (Odontomenis), 25 
(Platystethus), 392 

,, (Xorides), 30 
coromandelianum (Ceriagrion), 308 
coronata (Potua), 216 
corrupter (Pezomachus), 53 
corruscans (Geotrupes), 164, 166 
corruscus (Phalacrus), 39 

(Philonthus), 392 
corticalis (Phlceopora), 391 
Corticeus, 398 

corticinus (Trogophlmus), 393 
corydonius (Lycmna), 158 



( cxxviii ) 



coryli (Apoderus), 41 

(Jorylophidre, 394 

Coryna, 164, 168 

coi-ynthius (Loiigitarsus), 402 

Corystes, 16 

Coscinia, 162 

cosmicus (Camponotus), 331, 375 

Cosmiella, 92, 99, 104, 105, 117, 

118 
Cosmoclostis, 471 
cosmodactyla (Platyptilia), 485 
Cosmoplius, 64 
(_!osmozosteria, 313, 335 
Cossyi)lms, 399 
costatus (Epiechinus), 145 

,, (Microchietus), 145 
(Ptilinus), 21 
costipennis (Xenoscelis), 395 
Crabro, 17 
cracca) (Apion), 42 
Crambiis, 161, 162, 353, 364 
Craspedia, 323, 368 
crassa (Aleochara), 391 
crassicornis (Corizus), 170 
crassiorella (Fumea), 163 
crassipes (Xorides), 24, 30, 47 
crassiuscula (Aleochara), 391 
crassus (Cryptoceplialus), 169 

„ (Piuderus), 332 
cratsegi (Aporia), 160 

,, (Trichiura), ii 
craterellus (Crambus), 161 
crawshayi (Tetropiiim), 183, 184 
Cremastogaster, 336, 371, 380 
cremieri (Pachylomma), 16 
crenata (Ditoraa), 395 
(Pbthora), 398 
crenatus (Hylesinus), 17, 61 
Crenis, 321 

crenulatus (Cladoramus), 217 
Creophilus, 9, 67, 392 
Crepidodera, 402 
crepitans (Brachimis), xvi 
cretalis (Platyptilia), 487 
cribellaticollis (Saprimis), 396 
cribrella (Myelois), 163 
cribricollis (Otiorrliyuclius), 399 
crinita (Hypera), 400 
crinitus (Sitona), 400 
Criocephalus, 188, 194, 195, 197, 208, 

209 
Crioceris, 34, 169, 386, 402 
Criotettix, 220, 221, 223, 224, 226 
cristana (Acalla), xii 
cristatus (Deltonotus), 216 
Croeisa, 323 

crocodilus (Gavialidium), 220 
Crocothemis, 304, 346, 353 



Crocydoscelus, 482 
Crcemia, ii 

cruciatus (Ptoromalus), 48 
cruciferse (Phyllotetra), 402 
cruciferarum (Plutella), 338, 347 
Crndaria, 343 
cruentus (Hister), 365 
crustaria (Aphna'us), 80 
,, (Spindasis), 80 
crux (Physorhynchus), 312, 327, 371, 

375 
Cryphalus, 64, 65 
Cryptamorpha, Ixxxi 
Crypticus, 398 

cryptiformis (Xorides), 18, 21 
cryptoccpbali (Pteromalus), 35 
Cryptocephalus, Ixvii, 34, 163, 164, 

169, 361, 371, 374, 402 
Cryptophagus, 1, 394 
Cryptophilus, 394 
Cryptorrhyuchus, 53 
Cryptotettix, 230 
Cryptus, 18, 25, 31, 56 
Cubocephalus, 32 
Cuciijidfe, 395 
culinaris (Blatta), 459 
culmellus (Crambus), 162 
cuniculorura (Aleochara); xvi 
Cupido, 444, 445, 446 
cuprea (Qidistoma), 380 
cuprirostris (Baris), 50 
Curculio, 7, 16, 34, 40, 45, 46, 47, 
48, 49, 51, 52, 55, 56, 57, 63 
64 
Curculionidpe, 399 
curculionoides (Attelabus), 41 

,, (Pteromalus), 51 

curciilionura (Entedon), 43, 51, 52 

(Sigalphus), 48 
curriei (Dasyleurotettix), 234 
curtisii (Bracou), 58 
curtulum (Apion), 168 
curvicaudis (Spathius), 15 
curvidens (Bostrichus), 66 

(Tomieus), 66 
curvinotus (Camelotettix), 233 
curvipes (Mesites), 400 
cuspidata (Tettigidea), 243 
cuspidatus (Tetrix), 239 
Cutilia, 469 

cyanea (Holocompsa), 464 
cyanescens (Apion), 168 
cyaneus (Ebajus), 397 

(Psilothrix), 167, 397 
,, (Smicronyx), 385, 400 
cyanipennis (Ceuthonhynclius), 55 
Cyaniris, 161 
cyathigerum (Enallagma), 307 



( 



) 



cybele tiimatumari (Helicoiiius), Ixxvi 

Cybocephalus, 394 

cyclogaster (Entedon), 50 

cyclolabia (Forficula), 110 

Cyclopides, 81, 377 

Cyclopodia, 421, 422, 424, 425, 426, 
428 

Cydimon, xxviii, 405, 406, 408, 409 

Cydiuis, 170 

cyliHdrica (Blatta), 467 

,, (Periplaneta), 467 

cylindricum (Sinodendron), 14 

cylindricus (Dyschirius), 388 
,, (Metholcus), 398 

,, (Paclmephorus), 402 

cylindrirostris (Gymuetron), 52 

Cyllo, 435 

Cymatopterus, 390 

Cymindis, 165, 390 

Cymus, 170 

cynaraj (Agapautliia), 402 

,, (Cryptocephalus), 164, 169 

,, (Lariuus), 400 

,, glabrirostris (Larinus), 400 

Cynipidie, xl 

Cynips, 39 

Cyphodema, 171 

Cyphon, 167 

Cyphus, 164 

Cyrtilia, 467 

Cyrtoscydmus, 393 

Cytisus, 151 

dactilis (Trigonodenis), 29 

Dactylostenium, 390 

dsedalus (Hamanumida), 352 

dablbomi (Pteromalus), 29, 47, 67 

daja (Papilio), 4 

dalmatina (Amara), 389 

Dalsiva, 337 

damarensis (Zeritis), 341 

damone (Anthocharis), v. 

Danacffia, 167, 397 

Danaida, 433 

Danainffi, x, xli, 372 

Danais, 433, 442 

Daphne, 164, 166, 169 

daplidice (Pontia), iv 

dardanus (Papilio), xxxi, 317, 320, 
322, 367 
f. cenea (Papilio), 326, 
367 

darsius (Tioides), 2 

Dasyleurotettix, 234 

dasyops (Chtetolyga), 369 

Dasypoda, 380 

Dasytes, 17, 40, 167, 386, 397 

Dasytiscus, 386, 387, 397 

davidi (Forficula), 112 



dawsoni (Ceuthoirliynchidius), 168 
debilis (Bledius), 393 
„ (Exothecus), 48 
,, (Scopaeus), 392 
Decatoma, 373 
decem-guttala (Anthia), 378 
decem-pimctata (Cocciiiella), 403 
deceptor (Harpalus), 336 
deceptus (Halictus), 374 
decipiens (Forriciila), 114 
deckeai (Pseudagiiou), 354, 356, 

362 
declaratus (Stenus), 166 
decolorata (Sympetruin), 303 
decoratus (Papilio), 5 
decorum (Bembidium), 165 

,, (Pseudagrion), 307 
dedjax (Salius), Ixiv 
deflexicollis (Hydrocyphon), 167 
defoliaria (Hybernia), ii 
degeani (Zonabris), 167 
degeeri (Eujiehmia), 53 
Deilepliila, 1 
deione (Melitea), 160 
delicata (Ischnura), 306 
delta (Phyllodroinia), 469 
Deltonotus, 215, 216 
demarchii (Hydnobius), 393 
Demetrias, 387, 390 
demodoeus (Orpheides), 451, 452 

(Papilio), Ixxv, 315, 320, 
322, 329, 336, 356, 358, 
367, 429, 451, 452 
demoleus (Papilio), 320 
Dendarus, 398 

dendricornis (Euloplius), 48, 50 
Dendroctonus, 63 
Dendrosoter, 59, 62, 67 
denigrator (Bracon), 31 
densatus (Parmalus), 394 
densiflora (Dombeya), 337 
deutata (Diiiarda), 420 

(Drypta), 390 
dentatus (Cis), Ixviii 

,, (Pogonochajrus), 30 
denticolle (Aiioblum), 20 
deuticulatus (Trox), 339 
dentipes (Apion), 401 

(Dichelus), 378 

,, (Odontomerus), 57 

(Otiorrhynclius), 164, 168 
Deporaus, 41 
depressa (Auchmeroyia), xlvi 

,, (Bengalia), xlv, xlvi 
depressirostris (Curculio), 16 

,, (Gasterocerciis), 54 

,, (Rbinocyllus), 54 

depressus (Cercyou), 390 



( cxxx ) 



depressus (Cleonymus), 21 
(Pododus), 345 
„ (Tetrix), 234 
derasofasciatus (Agrilus), 166 
Dermanyssidie, 428 
Dermatopteia, 91 
Dermestea, 13, 14, 339, 376, 395 
Dermestidaj, 14, 145, 395 
dermestoides (Hylectetus), 18 

„ (Lymexyloii), 25 

,, (Throseus), 16 

Derocalymna, 333, 370, 469 
Deronectes, 390 
Deropeltis, 310, 312, 330, 332, 377, 

467, 469 
desbrochersi (Apiou), 169 
deserticola (Melitea), vi 
desjardinsi (Cryptamorpha), Ixxxi 
destitutus (Brachistes), 13 
destructor (Eccoptogaster), 60 

,, (Scolytus), 57, 58, 59, 
66 
detritum (Apion), 401 
Deudoryx, 358 
deusta (lUatta), 467 

,, (Oxyhaloa), 467 
Deuterocopns, 473, 474 
devians (Opisthocosmia), 106 
diachymatis (Entedou), 48 

,, (Pteromalus), 50 

Diacrotricha, 471, 472 
Diadema, 442 
Diadromus, 31 
Diaparsiis, 39 
Diaperasticinae, 93, 97 
Diaperasticus, 97, 98 
dlaperinus (Alphitobius), 399 
Diaperis, 37 
Diapria, 54, 61, 66 
Diastictus, 396 
Dibolia, 403 
Dicerca, 15 
Dichastometopia, 337 
Dichelus, 378, 380 
Dicbillus, 398 
Dichirotrichus, 386, 389 
Dicranociiemus, 378 
Dicrauura, Ixxx 
Dictyonota, 170 
Dicycla, 162 

didynia (Mclitasa), v, vi, 161 
didvmata (Ghrysomela), 402 
Dielis, 317, 345 
difficile (Apion), 42 
ditficilis (Calliiiioine), 13 
Diglotta, 165 
Diiacra, 391 
dilatatus (Platymischus), 1} 



dilucidus (Xenitenus), 341 
diluta (Chrysomela), 164, 169 
dilutata (Oporabia), Ixxx 
dilutus (Helochares), 390 
dimidiatipennis (Euiiienes), 335 
dimidiatus (Sapriiius), 396 
Dinarda, 420 

diocletianiis (Acalles), 400 
dioica (Artica), 44 
Diopsis, 346, 347, 360, 369 
Diospiliis, 19, 37, 39, 55 
Diotarus, 216 
Diplacodes, 305 
Diplax (Sympetrum), 304 
Diploxys, 341 
Diplura, 148, 161 
Diptera, 163, 310, 316, 354, 360 
direptalis (Oxyptilus), 485 
(Platyptilia), 485 
discalis (Aroa), 368, 376 
discoidea (Acmreodera), 397 
discoideus (Bracon), 41, 56 

(Philoiitlius), 392 
Discolia, 350 
discolor (Donaeia), 169 

,, (Eutedoii), 53 

(Ephialtes), 17, 29 
Discotettix, 213, 214 
dispar (Cneorrhinus), 164, 168 

,, (Chrysophaniis), 1 

,, (Giiatho), 12 
disparator (Bracon), 46 
disparilis (Papilio), 450 
dissimilis (Malachius), 397 
distanti (Deropeltis), 469 
distigma (Leptiira), 169 
distincta (Drypta), 387, 390 

,, V. marginicollis ( Prasocuris), 
402 
distinctus (Basicryptus), 374 
distinguenda (Melanophthalma), 166, 

395 
distinguendus (Belonogaster), 335 

,, (Pteromalus), 21 

Ditoma, 395 
Ditomus, 389 
diversicornis (Aspigonus), 18, 25, 38, 

40 
diversus (Pompilus), 317 
dives (Chlrenius), 165 

,, (Pedilopborus) 138, 139, 144 
divisa (Xylocopa), 320, 344, 354, 368, 

373, 374 
dixeyi (Notogonia), 327 

,, (Pinacopteryx), Ixx, Ixxi 
djffiL-elfe (Eretis), 329, 373, 376 
dohertyi (Hamaxas), 134 
(Troidfjs), 2 



( cxxxi ) 



Dolops, 44 

Domeiie, 392 

domestiea (Musca), 341, 347, 360 

domesticum (Anobium), 19 

,, (Trypodendroii), Ixxxi 

doniinicanus (Amaiiris), Ivi 
domimila (Callimorplia), 162 
dominulus (Eurydema), 170 
Donacia, 169 

donatella (Platyptilia), 482 
Doratiiia?, 94, 123 
Dorcadion, 30 
Dorcatoma, 22 
dorite (Chelisoches), 128 
dorippus (Daiiais), 433 
dorsalis (Acupalpas), 389 

,, V. discus (Acupalpns), 389 

,, V. emaciatus (Helophorus), 
390 

,, (Macrochilus), 336 
Doru, 123 
dorus (Ccenonympha), 152, 153, 154 

,, bieti (Ccenonympha), 152 

,, matliewi (Cienonynipha), 152 
Doryctes, 15, 19, 25, 26, 29, 60, 

61 
Dorylus, vi, 334, 376 
doubledayi (Acrsa), 342, 344, 363 

,, (Papilio), 1, 2 

douei (Geotrupes), 396 
draba (Lepidium), 55 
dracrenffi (Parthenothrips), Ixxxii 
Drasterius, 397 
dresdensis (Dorcatoma), 22 
Drilus, 397 
dromedarius (Notodonta), Ixxx 

,, newmani (Notodonta), 

Ixxx 
Droniius, 390 

Drosophila, 285, 298, 300, 301 
DryociBtes, 65 
Dryopliilus, 18 
Diyjita, 387, 390 
dubia (Diopsis), 360 

,, (Opisthocosmia), 104, 105 

,, (Scraptia), 167 
dubius (Calyptomerus), 394 

,, (Pteromaliis), 63 
dufouri (Zonabrisj, 163, 167 
dulcamara (Solanum), Ixxxii 
dulcamaras (Pria), 395 

(Psylliodes), 37 
duranetorum (Neptis), 443 

(Rahinda), 443 
duodeoimpunctata (Crioceris), 34 
duplicata (Magdalis), xlix 
Durbania, 353, 356 
duvali (Bruchus), 387, 398 



duvali (Cerconiorphus), 401 

„ (Ptinus), 398 
dux (Eparchus), 121 
Dysallacta, 362 
dyschera (Eumenes), 343 
Dyschirius, 313, 331, 380 
Dytiscus, 390 
Eagris, 452 
Ebfeus, 167, 386, 397 
ebenina (Discolia), 350 
ebeninns (Philonthus), 392 
Eccoptogaster, 22, 29, 57, 59, 60, 

61 
eccoptogastri (Bracon), 60 

,, (Eurytoma), 32, 59, 60 

,, (Pachyceros), 59 

,, (Roptrocerus), 59 

echeria (Amauris), xlii, 318, 328, 367, 
372 

,, jacksoni (Amauris), xlii 
ecbii (Longitarsus), 402 
Ecliocerus, 398 
echtliroides (Cryptus), 56 
Echthrus, 31 
Ecteinanthus, 325 
Ectobius, 459 
Ectropis, 370 
edentnlus (Ocypus), 392 
edusa (Colias), 161 
egeria egeria (Heliconius), Ixxvi 
egialea (Amauris), x 
Egybolia, 327, 330 
Elachestes, 32 

Elachestus, 41, 49, 50, 56, 58, 59 
Elachistus, 60 
elfeopa (Alucita), 490 
Elateridse, 397 
Elaunon, 120, 123 
eleanor (Troides), 1, 2 
electra (Colias), 312, 314, 319, 334, 

338, 367, 372, 376, 377 
elegans (Cartodere), 394 

,, (Diapria), 66 

,, (Ischnura), 306 

,, (Polysphincta), 21 

,, (Proreus), 130, 131 
elevatus (Barynotus), 44 

,, (Pteronialus), 45 
elgiva (Precis), 321, 328 
Elis, 345 

ella (Spindasis), 363 
Ellimenistes, 371, 374 
Elliptoblatta, 469 
elongatissimum (Apion), 168 
elongatum (Bembidium), 165 
,, (Calcar), 399 

,, (Leucohimatium), 394 

elongatus (Pteromalus), 22 



( 



emarginatus (Aphanisticus), 16G 

(CoUyris), 83-89 
Embletlns, 170 
Emboros, 99, 103 
Emenadia, 386, 399 
empedota (Platyptilia), 487 
Empis, 310, 311 
Enallagma, 307 
eucedon (Acnea), 318, 321, 328, 352, 

355 
Encyoplianes. 378 
eucyrtoides (Systasis), 51 
EncyrUis, 12, 40, 41, 52 
Endema, 330 

endomyclii (Pteiomalus), 13 
Endoniychidaj, xxxii, 394 
Endoniychus, 12, 13 
Endrosa, 1(32 
Enicnius, Ixxxi, 394 
Enkrates, 126, 131, 132 
Enneartlnon, 24 
Eiinoinos, Ixxx 
Entedoii, 18, 20, 31, 35, 37, 43, 48, 

49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 63, 67 
Entelia, 350 
Entleniina, 341 
Epachromia, 377 
Epallage, 305 
Epamera, 81 
Eparchime, 94, 120 
Eparcluis, 120, 121, 123 
Ephestia, 163 
Ephialtes, 15, 17, 20, 24, 25, 26, 28, 

29, 30, 31, 32, 46, 53, 54 
ephippigor (Hemianax), 305 
ephippium (Bracon), 22 

(Diospikis), 37 
Epliistenius, 394 
Ephyra, ii 

Epiconieti.s, xxix, 386, 396 
epidectes (Oxyptilus), 477 
epidelta (Platyptilia), 486 
Epiecliiuus, 145 

Epilacluia, 310, 327, 331, 386, 403 
Epilampra, 460, 462, 467, 489 
E}>inepliile, 161 
Epirrhoi^, 323 
Epirus, 45 
Episcaphula, 327 
Episomus, xxxi 

episternalis (Mordellisteua), 40 
Episus, 339, 340 
Epitettix, 216 
Epitiix, 170 
epius (Sjialgis), 178 
Epunta, Ixxxi 
eqiie.stris (Lygiuus), liv 
eiiuiseti (Cardiopliorus), 167 



Eratognathus, 332 

erato guarica (Heliconius) xvl 

,, niagnifica (Helicouius) 

xvi 
Erebia, 1, 151, 159 
Eremnus, 374 
Eremotes, 57 
Eretis, 329, 373, 376 
criciB (Ceuthorrhynclins), 168 
ericetorum (Nabis), 170 
erichsoni (Ptcromalus), 42 
erikssoni (Aphuaeiis), 350 
Erilita, 323 

eriiiaceus (Strophosomus), 168 
eris (Teracolus), 334, 352, 355 
Eristalis, 310, 317, 324, 330, 369, 373, 

381 
erithonius (Papilio), 320 
Ei'iiobins, xx, 164, 167 
Erodium, 157, 158 
Erodius, 164, 167, 398 
Eromene, 366 
Eionia, 314, 319, 322, 325, 329, 357, 

366, 370, 372 
erroris (Opisthocosmia), 100 
ervi (Apion), 169 

erytbnua (Crocotbemis), 304, 346, 353 
Erythriua, 181 
erytbrocepbala (Calliphora), xliii 

(Deropeltis), 312, 332, 

337, 467 
(Foificula), 98 
,, V. molitaiia (Oberea), 

402 
erytbiocephalus (Spathius), 21 
erytbrocnemis (Haipactoij, 373 
erythroderus (Attains), 397 
erytbroleuciis (Cceliodes), 168 
crytbromera (Cbrysomela), 402 
erytbropus (Harpaetor), 170 

(llbynebffinus), 168 
Eryx, 415 

esebria (Plaiiema)^ 321, 324 
Eti(dla, 336, 350 
Eubadizon, 20, 23, 50 
Eucbloc, 320 
Eucbloris, 334 
Eiicbioraia,'320 
Eucoila, 61 
Eudolirnia, 97 
Eudolirniiiiiu, 93, 97 
Eueides, Ixxvi 
Euglenes, 399 
Eulapbygma, 317 
Euleptiis, 331 
Eulissus, 392 
Euloplms, 16, 20, 43, 48, 49, 50, 59, 

60, 61 



( 



cxxxiii ) 



Euraenes, 335, 343, 345, 361, 362, 363, 

369, 373, 375 
Euparatettix, 238 
Eupelmus, 11, 14, 18, 21, 34, 46, 50, 

52, 53, 62, 63 
eupheno (Aiithocharis), v 
euphenoides (Anthochaiis), v 
euphone (Euplcea), 434 
euphorbiiB (Aphthoiia), 402 

,, (Deilephila), 1 

Euphorus, 38 
Eupitheeia, ii 
Euplectus, Ixxxi, 393 
Euplcea, 434, 450, 451 
Euplceini, xli 
Euproctis, 316, 323, 330 
europasa (Siagoua), 388 
euryades (Heliconius), xiv, xv, 

xvi 
euiyas (Heliconius), xvi 
Eurydema, 170 
Eurygaster, 170 
Eurynebria, 387, 388 
eurynota (Amara), 389 
Eurynotus, 376, 377 
Eurysthenes, 380 
Eurytela, 315, 317, 318, 321, 325, 367, 

376 
Eurytoma, 32, 40, 43. 46, 47, 57, 59, 

60, 62, 63, 65 
Eusandulum, 16, 20, 23, 29, 56, 57 
Eusomus, 164, 168 
Euthrips, Ixxxii 
Euthynhapha, 467, 469 
Eutrapela, 380 
eveuiiia (Teracolus), xxiii 
Everes, 344, 357, 360 
examiuator (Pimpla), 52 
exannulatus (Spathius), 58, 62, 65 
exanthemaria (Cabera), ii 
exaratoi' (Spathius), 19, 20 
exaratus (Ochthebius), 390 

,, (Onthophilus), 396 
excavata (Laccoptera), 252 
exclamationis (Metabletus), 389 
excoriatus (Cleonus), 400 
excrescentium (Pteronialus), 37 
Exenterus, 17 
exiguus (Harpalus), 312 
exilis (Scydmsenus), Ixxxi 

,, (Doru), 124 
exocentri (Blacus), 29 
Exocentrus, 29 

Exochomus, 170, 337, 363, 403 
Exochus, 16 

exoleta (Panchlora), 463, 464 
exoletus (Longitarsus), 402 
,, (Pliytocoris), 170 



Exoprosopa, 343 
Exosoma, 164, 169 
Exothecus, 15, 26, 48, 57 
expedita (Ophiusa), 317 
exsecta (Formica), 417 
exsertor (Clinocentrus), 18 
exultans (Bassus), 12 
Exypnus, 125, 128 
eytelweinii (Eupelmus), 11 
facialis (Sigalplius), 22 
fagi (Brachistes), 48 
,, (Ci-yphalus), 65 
,, (Curculio), 48 
,, (Orchestes), 48, 49 
fahniii (Stramia), 365 
Falagria, 391 
falcatus (Pygostolus), 34 
falciger (Perilitus), 35 
falleni (Psendophloeus), 170 
falloui (Anthocharis), v 
famulus (Deuterocopus), 474 
fasciata (Macroplax), 170 

(Scaria), 244 
fasciatella (Dielis), 317, 345 

_,, (Elis), 345 
fasciatocoUis (Tetradia), 351 
fasciatus (Authrenus), 395 

,, (Pezomachus), 12, 50 

,, (Pteronialus), 42 
fascicularis (Cerambyx), 29 

,, (Microchpetes), 137 

,, (Pogonochaerus), 29 

fasciculatus (Comythovalgus), 368 

,, (Pogonochffirus), 29 

fasciola (Diacrotiiclia), 471 
fasciolatum (Orthetrum). 321, 324 

330 
fastidiosus (Polistes), 331, 374 
fastuosa (Camptolenes), 375 
fatima (Epallage), 305 
fatuellus (Baoris), 320, 323, 326, 329 

■360 
fauna (Marasmarcha), 413 
favipes (Pimpla), 41 
favoriaus (Heliconius), xvi 
fese (Hamaxas), 134 
fehri (Papilio), 3 
felicitanus (Rliizotrogus). 166 
femoralis (Heliothrips), Ixxxi 
femorata (Tiphia), 14 
fenestrarum (Drosophila), 300, 301 
fenestratus (Anthicus), 167, 399 
feunica (Hoplosia), 28 
fennicum (Callidium), 61 
fennicus (Cerambyx), 28, 29 
ferreti (Oxyhaloa), 469 
ferrugalis (Phlyetienia), 312, 327 
(Pyrausta), 162 



( 



) 



ferrugata (Coremia), ii 

,, (Xantliorhoe), xx, xxi 
fernigatus (Spathius), '26 
feiTugiiiea (Blatta), 4(57 

,, (Tri petal ocera), 213 
feiTUgineipes (Ammopliila), 354, 371 
fermgineum (Crocydoseelus), 482 

(Tribolium), 398 
fernigineus (La'mophlreus), 13, 395 
ferus (Criocephalus), 194 

,, (Nabis), 170 
festiva (Trithemis), 304 
festivus (Chlaeiiius), 389 
„ (Hedotettix), 240 
„ (Lyg;eus), 310 
fibulata (Id«a), 376 
fieiis (Hypoboi'us), 401 
Fidonia, xlix 
figuhis (Trypoxylou), 206 
figuratus (Clytanthus), 169 
filaginis (Cassida), 37 
filator (Hiospilus), 39 
,, (Meteorus), 23 
filieis (Monalocoris), 170 
tiliforniis (Coeliodes), 62 

„ (Xorides), 27, 28 

,, (Xylonoinus), 31 
filum (Calamobius), 402 
fimetarius (Aphodius), 396 
(Phalacnis), 394 

,, V. minor (Phalacnis), 394 

,, (Philoiithus), 392 
finniis (Bracliistes), 47 
flabellata (Emenadia), 399 
flamiuius (Encyrtus), 12, 40 
Flata, xlviii, 337 
flavago (Cryptocephalus), 371 
flavator (Bracon), 24 
flaveolaria (Eurytonia), 62 
fiavescens (Diilus), 397 

,, (Larinus), 400 

,, (Pieris), iv 

,, V. cinnainomens (Sitona),400 
flaviceps (Aphthoua), 402 
flavicollis (Hypebaeus), 397 
flavicoruis (Olibius), 166 

,, (Steiiopterus), 169 
flavifrons (Ichneumon), 14 

(Scolia), 14 
flaviges (CEdemera), 168 
flavimanus (Bruchus), 33 
flavipalpis (Sigalphus), 57 
flavipennis (Acnpalpiis), 389 
(Enkrates), 132 

„ (Forficula), 132 

(Sphingolabis), 132 

,, (Stieiigophoius), 368 

flavipes (Cercyou), 390 



flavipes (Colasposoma), 369 
,, (Exochomus), 170 
,, (Tachypus), 165 
flavofemoratum (A]iion), 164, 168 
flavomaculata (Nitidula), 395 
flavomaculatus (Encyrtus), 41, 52 
,, (Entedon), 48, 50 

,, (Globicei)s), 171 

flavopictus (Criotettix), 220 
flavo-rufa (Xylocopa), 368, 374, 375 
flavoseapularis (Eurytoma), 62 
flavo-signatus (Thyreopterus), 330 
flavovaria (Eurytoma), 62 
fiavulator (Bracon), 29 
flesus (Pterygospidea), 330, 373 

,, ,, (Tagiades), 323 

floralis (^thiessa), 397 
florella (Callidryas), 447 

„ (Catopsilia), Ixxv, 341, 344, 
356, 429, 447, 453 
fiorestan (Ismene), 452 
floricola (Sigalphus), 42, 55, 67 

(Terias), 448 
fcedosa (Entlemma), 341 
fretens (Aphodius), 166 
foliorum (Rhynchaenus), 165, 168 
fonscolombii (Sympetrum), 303 
fontenayi (Leptura), 169 
forcipata (Ischnura), 306 
forcii)atus (Heterochelus), 378 
forcipifer (Malthodes), 167 
forda (Arina), 366 
forestan (Rhopalocampta), 320, 323, 

452 
Forficula, 96-132 
Formica, xxxiii, xl, xlix, 415, 416, 

417, 419, 420 
formicaria (Merophysia), 394 
foruiicarius (Anthicus), 399 
,, (Clerus), 17, 62 

,, (Thanasimus), 17 

formicetorum (Piczostethus), xlix 
formicicola (Bizentia), 145 
formiciformis (Cephalonomyia), 22, 24 
Formicomus, 310 
formosa (Euchromia), 320 

,, (Opisthocosmia), 100 
forsteri (Scantius), 377 
foveicollis (Blaps), 398 
foveolata (Nauphceta), 467 
foveolatus (Ochtbebius), 390 
fraterna (Xjdocopa), 368 
fraxinata (Eupithecia), ii 
fraxiui (Hylesinus), 59, 62, 401 
,, (Pteromalus), 62 
,, (Sterconychus), 53 
frey-gessneri (Paratettix), 237 
frigidus (Aninicecius), 106 



( 



) 



frischi (Dermestes), 395 
frobenia (Neutis), 443 

,, (Raliinda), 443 
frontalis (Lininichus), 145 

,, (Tetrastichus), 49 
frumeiitariimi (Apion), 401 
fucicola (Actiuopteryx), 394 
fucilbrmis (Sesia), 162 
fulgens (Cydinion), 409 
fulgidus (Eulissus), 392 
fuligiuosa (Dictyoiiota), 170 
,, (Pentapleiira), 56 
fuligiuosus (Lasius), xl, 417 
fulva (Leptura), 169 
fulvescens (Cyllo), 435 
fulvieoUis (Tachys), 388 
fulvipennis (Bruchus), 169 
fulvipes (Carterus), 389 

„ (Melanophthalma), 166, 395 

,, (Orthocentrus), 28, 31 
(Sigalphus), 48 
fulvopilosus (Campouotus), 349, 363 
fulvus (Cryptocephalus), 34 

,, (Oniticellus), 166, 396 
fumata (Acidalia), ii 

(Typh!€a), 13, 395 
furaatus (Eulophus), 49, 50 
Fumea, 163 

fumipennis (Bothriothorax), 18 
fimebris (Cicindela), 165 

,, (Drosophila), 285, 298, 300 
funerala (Antliaxia), 166 
funesta (Leucocelis), 386, 396 
fungi V. orbata (Colpodota), 391 
fungicola (Enicmus), Ixxxi 
fur (Ptinus), 18 
furcata (Mesovelia), Ixvi 
furcatus (Bledius), 393 
fiircifera (Spliiugolabis), 97, 117 
fusca (Aptera), 467 
fusca (Blatta), 467 

,, (Formica), xxxiii, xl, 417 

,, (Sympycua), 308 
fuscatus (Olistliopus), 389 
fuscipennis (Bracon), 36 
,, (Harpalus), 379 

,, (Proreus), 130 

fuscipes (Blacus), 61 

(TaphiKUs), 19 
fusco-aeneus (Harpalus), 365 
fuscum (Tetropium), 183, 185, 205 
fuscus (Acauthalobus), 222 

,, (Anthrenus), 395 

,, (Cymatopterus), 390 

,, (Meligethes), 166 
gabrieli (Tetropium), 32, 183, 184, 

185, 186, 187, 188, 199, 205, 

206 



gagates (Polyrachis), 375 
gaika (Cupido), 445, 446 

,, (Zizera), 429, 445, 446 
galatea (Melanargia), vii 

,, ab. fulvata (Melanargia), vil 
Galeruca, 36 

galeruca; (Pteromalus), 36 
Galerucclla, 36 
gallarum (Pteromalus), 35 
gallicus (Doryctes), 25, 26 

„ (Trichius), 166 
Gametis, 369, 373 
Gauycborus, 43 
Gasteroeercus, 54 
Gastroidea, 36 
Gastrophysa, 36 
Gavialidium, 220 
gavialis (Scelimena), 218 
Gecinus, 208 

Gedaueusis (Alysia), 30, 31 
geeri (Eupelmus), 52, 62 
Gegenes, 316, 317, 322, 326, 329, 353, 

360, 368, 373, 377 
geliuia (Liptena), 79 

,, (Mimacraja), 79 
geniinatus (Notiophilus), 388 
geniculatus (Entedon), 67 
geographicus (Ceutborrhynchus), 168 
geometrina (Zerenopsis), 327 
Geostiba, 391 
Geotrupes, 164, 166, 396 
germanica (Blatta), 456 
Gerris, 170 
Gerydus, viii 
geryon (Ino), 162 
gibba (Blatta), 467 

,, (Notolampra), 467 
gibberosus (Symbiotes), 394 
gibbifer (Gerris), 170 
Gibbium, 397 
gidica (Belenois), 314, 319, 322, 325, 

329, 352, 353, 355, 357, 358, 359 
gigantea (Blatta), 456 
giganteus (Pteropus), 421, 428 
gigas (Blaps), 398 

„ (Cebrio), 397 

,, (Sirex), 192 
gilvipes (Diaparsus), 39 
glaber (Brachypterus), 395 
glabratus ( Blechrus), 389 
(Cis), 24 
,, (Ephialtes), 20 
glabricoUis (Ebieus), 167 
glandicolor (Cymus), 170 
glaphyrotes (Ptejopliorus), 497 
glaucopterus (Chelisoches), 127, 129 
glaumrigi (Halter), 350 
Glaux, Ixxxii 



( cjt.^xvi ) 



Globiceps, 171 

globicoUis (Cryptocephalus), 164, 169 

globosus (Asjiidophorus), 145 

,, (Bracliycerus), 339 
(Triiiodes), 145 
globulariii> (Iiio), 162 
globulicollis (Biyaxis), 393 
globulus (Ephisteinu.s), 394 
glochinias (Pteiopliovus), 501 
Glutophrissa, xviii, 325, 329, 359 
Glyphodes, 362 
Glypta, 31, 57 
Gnatho, 12 
Giiypeta, 391 
godarti (Athous), 164, 167 
goetzius (Byblia), 315, 317, 318, 322, 

325, 328, 352, 366, 367, 372, 376 
Gomalia, 320, 326, 363 
Gonatopus, xliii 
Gonepteryx, 161 
gouiodes (Holcostethus), 321 
Gouocephalum, 386, 398 
Gonodera, 167, 399 
Gonopsis, 337 

gordius (Chrysophanus), 161 
goudoti (Eupkea), 434, 450, 451 
gracilis (Campoplex), 54 

,, (Ephialtes), 17 

,, (Hedotettix), 240 

,, (Lestes), 308 

,, (Polyliirma), 365 

,, (Scopajus), 392 
Gracillodes, 330, 353 
gi-fellsi (Bledius), 166, 393 
grauiinellit! (Pimpla), 45 
Grammoptera, xxv, 28 
granaria ^Calandra), 400 
granarius (Aphodius), 396 

,, (Bruchus), 33 

graudicollis (Thorictus), 396 
graiidis (Megalodacne), 330 

,, (Pteropliorus), 594 
grauosa (Mouaehoda), 467 
Graphipterus, 333, 336, 340 
Giapta, 161 

gravenhorstii (Pteronialus), 65 
greeni (Forficula), 111, 115, 116 

,, (Systoledenis), 227 
gregaria (Aloconota), 391 
gregorii (Neoaenyra), 77 
gieiiieii (Tycbius), 400 
griffitbi (Pedilopborus), 138, 139, 141 
grisea (Blatta), 459, 462 

,, (Epilampra), 46'J, 467 
gi'iseus (Belonogaster), 337, 342, 344 

(Ophoiius), 389 
grcenlandicus (Coljaiibetes). xxix 
Gronops, 168, 400 



grossa (Blatta), 466, 467 

,, (Chrysomela), 386, 402 

,, (Moiiachoda), 467 
gruaeri (Authocliaris), v 
Gryllotalpa, 84 
Grypidius, 171 
giypus (Oryctes), 166, 396 
guerini (Belonogaster), 345, 354, 356 

375 
guibelondoi (Hedotettix), 240 
guttata (Blatta), 467 
guttatis (Agabus), 165 
guttatus (Pteronialus), 15, 47, 64, 67 
guttula (Bembidion), 388 

(Stenus), 166 
Gyaria, 337 
gyllenhali (Nebria), 8 
gymuetri (13racon), 51, 52 

(Pimpla), 51 
Gymnetron, 51, 52, 168, 401 
Gymnoloma, 313 
Gyna, 469 

Gynandrophthahna, 169, 371 
Gypsocliares, 491 
gyrini (Heniiteles), 8, 9 

,, argentatus (Hemiteles), 9 
Gyrinus, 8, 9 

gjTosicollis (Ereninus), 374 
Hadrocerus, 47, 52 
Htematopota, 354, 357, 380 
baiinorrhoa (Oxypoda), 391 
hffimorrhoidale (Lasioderma), 398 
hremorrhoidalis (Apliodius), 166 
(Liris), 317 

(Oxythyrea), 371, 374 
,, socius (Tachys), 388 

(Tachys), 388 
,, (Telephorus), xxiv 

Halictus, xlviii, 311, 313, 374, 380 
Haliplus, 390 
Hallomenus, 39, 40 
Halobrectha, 391 
Halter, 350 
Haltica, 347, 361 
halticffi (Apliidius), 37 
Halticella, 21 
Halticus, 171 
Halyzia, 170 
Hamanumida, 352 
Hamaxas, 126, 133 
Haplocnemus, 167, 380, 397 
Haplolycns, 321, 369, 373 
Haplotracbelns, 371 
liarpactes (Pteropliorus), 495 
Harpactor, 170, 373, 376 
harpaloides (Ocys), 165, 388 
Harpalus, 164, 165, 312. 332, 336, 340 

365, 379, 380, 389, 399 



( cxxxvii ) 



harpax (Axiocerces), 320, 342, 344, 

353, 363, 364, 373 
hartigii (Bracon), 67 
hassiciis (Ichneumon), 54 
hastatus (Oxynotus), 220 
Hastula, ii, 173, 174 
hebe (Atechna), 371 
hecabe (Terias), 356 
Hecabolus, 18, 21, 22 
heckmanni (Neocrenyra), 77 
hedemanni (Pselnojihoms), 491 
hederse (Anobium), 21 

,, (Blastophawus), 22 

,, (Ochina), 21 
Hedobia, 18 
Hedotettix, 240, 241 
Hedybius, 378, 380 
Helcon, 18, 22, 26, 28, 29, 32, 40, 59 
Heledona, 37 
Helenophorus, 398 
Heliconinse, xl, xli, xlii 
Heliconius, xiv, xv, xvi, Ixxvi, Ixxix 
Heliopathes, 167 
Heliothea, 163 
Heliothis, 162 
Heliothrips, Ixxxi 
hellica (Synchloe), 311, 331, 334, 335, 

338, 339, 372, 377 
Helochares, 390 
Helophilus, 360 
Helophorus, 390 
Helops, 164, 167, 399 
helvolus (Dorylus), 334, 376 
hemerobina (Phyllodroinia), 470 
Hemianax, 305 

hemiargus (Pselnophorus), 491 
Hemimachus, 53 
Hemimerus, xxxiii 
hemimetra (Platyptilia), 483 
Hemipepsis, 354 
Hemiptera-Heteroptera, 170 
hemipterus (Carpophilus), 395 
hemisphserica (Cassida), 403 
hemisphsericus (Nanophyes), 401 
Hemiteles, 8, 9, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 

21, 39, 46, 53, 56, 58, 64, 67 
Hemithyrsocera, 468 
Henicopus, 164, 167, 397 
Henotesia, 435 
Henoticus, Ixxxi 
hera (Calliniorpha), 162 
heraclei (Acidia), 265 
hercules (Chelisoches), 133 
hercynise (Curculio), 47 

,, (Pissodes), 47 
hercynianus (Xorides), 47 
hermes (Anechura), 96 
heros (Cerambyx), 24 

PROC. ENT. SOC. LOND., V. 1907. 



Hesperia, 161, 363, 364, 453 
Hesjieriidse, 452 
Hesperophanes, 402 
hesperus (Xautholiuus), 392 
Hestina, Ixiv 
Heterocera, 161 
Heteroceridae, 391 
Heteroceras, 391 
Heterochelus, 373, 378, 380 
Heterochroa, Ixxvii 
Heterogynis, 161, 162 
Heteromera, 339, 355, 364 
heteromerus (Moiychus), 146 
heteropus (Ephialtes), 25 
hevvitsoni (Heliconius), xv 

(Papilio), 4 
Hexachrysis, 374 
heydeni (Henicopus), 167 
heydeniana (Phoraspis), 467 
hiarbas (Eurytela), 315, 317, 318, 321, 

325, 367, 376 
hibernica (Isotoma), Ixxxii 

,, (Prffimachilus), Ixxxii 
hieracii (Zonabris), 168 
hierosolymitana (Calodera), 391 
himantopus (Athalia), 316, 368 
Himatismus, 351 
hintza (Castalius), 362 

,, (Lycffina), 362 
hippomene (Antanartia), 437 
,, (Hypanartia), 368 

,, (Pyrameis), 437 

hippophaes (Pachybrachys), 169 
Hipporrhinus, 313, 336 
hippothoe (Chrysophanus), Ixvi, 161 
hirta (Blatta), 467 
,, (Blepharodera), 467 
„ (Epilachna), 310 
hirtella (Epicometis), xxix 
hirticornis (Coreus), 170 
hirtulus (Chasmatopterus), 164, 166 
hirtus (Byrrhus), 398 
Hispa, 170, 347, 361 
his2)anica (Gonodeia), 167 
hispanicum (Bembidium), 165 
hispanus (Copris), 396 
liispidus (Anthicus), 399 

,, (Pogouochrerus), 29, 30 

(Trox), 396 
,, asiaticiis (Trox), 396 
hispuUa (Epinephile), 161 
Hister, 11, 166, 327, 365, 386, 396 
Histeridse, 145, 146, 396 
Histeromerus, 14, 27 
histricus (Paratettix), 236, 237 
histrionica (Eurytoma), 40 
hodias (Marasmarclia), 492 
hohenheimensis (Pteromalus), 20 
K 



( cxxxviii ) 



Holocompsa, 464 

Holcostethus, 321 

Hololampra, 468 

hololeucus (Niptns), 18 

Holoparamecus, 394 

liolosericea (Nyctibora), 467 

liolosericeus (Tropistethus), 170 

Homalodemas, 333, 469 

Homalomyia, 317 

Honioeosoma, 163 

Homoptera, 334, 342, 350 

hoiiestus (Harpalus), 165 

hopei (Cyclopodia), 422, 428 

Hoplia, 166 

Hopliin.T, 373 

hoiilites (Apanteles), 36, 41 

Hoplocryptus, 45 

Hoplosia, 28 

hoplotaisus (Henicopus), 167 

horsfieldi (Cyclopodia), 421, 423, 426 

Hostilia, 469 

hotteutota (Gegenes), 316, 360 

,, (Xylocopa), 335 

hottentotus (Xantliolinus), 369 
hova (Hypiirgus), 102 
huebneri (Orneodes), 509 
humeralis (Aspidophorus), 145 

,, (Hallomenus), 39 
(Hybotettix). 232 
(Hypurgus), 102 

,, (Opistbocosmia), 102 

(Sitona), 400 

,, discoideus (Sitona), 400 
humilis (Anthicus), 399 

,, lameyi (Antbicus), 399 
hiimuli (Monaiitbia), 170 
buugaricus (Cbirouitis), 896 
Hupbiiia, xxiii, xxiv 
hyalina (Pancblora), 463 
hyalinum (Ortbetnim), 305 
Hybernia, ii 
Hybotettix, 232, 233 
liybrida (Coleus), 444 
liybridus (Harpalus), 340 
hydara colombina (Heliconius), xv 

,, (Heliconius), xiv 
Hydnobius, 393 
Hydranm, 390 
Hydrilla, ii 

livdroohffiris (Aphodins), 396 
Hydrocypbon, 167 
Hydroporus, 390 
Hydrotbassa, 169 
Hydiovatus, xxxii 

hyerana (Hastula), ii, iii, iv, 173, 174 
bylas (Cephonodes), 344 
Hylastes, 61, 164, 169 
Hylecoetus, 18 



bylesini (Bracon), 63, 64, 65, 67 
hylesinorum (Entedon), 63 
(Eulopbus), 61 
Hylcsinus, 17, 46, 47, 59, 61, 62, 66 

401 
hylobii (Bracon), 46 
Hylobius, 46 
Hylomela, 342, 356, 371 
Hylotrupes, 25, 164, 169, 402 
Hylurgus, 63, 64 
Hymenoplia, 164, 166 
Hymenoptera, 163, 320, 356, 368, 479 
Hyparnartia, 368 
Hypebreus, 397 
Hypena, 323 

Hypera, Iv, 36, 44, 45, 386, 400 
Hyperaspis, 170 
by2)erici (Agrilus), 166 

,, (Cbrysomela), 169 
hypermelas (Pseudagrion), 307 
bypuorum (Tachyporus), 392 

,, meridionalis (Tacbyporus), 

392 
bypobori (Lannophla-'us), 395 
Hypoborus, 401 
Hypocoprus, 395 
bypocrita (Geotrupes), 166 
Hypocyptus, 392 
Hypoderma, xliv 
Hypolimnas, 318, 433, 442, 443 
Hypolycana, 320, 322, 344, 353 
Hypospbaria, 370, 467, 469 
Hypurgus, 99, 101 
Hyria, Ixxxv 

iantbe (Belenois), xxix, xxx, Ixx 
ibericura (Bembidium), 165 
icauus (Bracbvderes), 168 
Icaria, 320, 343, 369, 374, 375 
icarus (Lycana), 161 
Iclmeumon, 14, 15, 31, 54, 58, 178 
icbneumouea (Diopsis), 360 
ida (Epinepbile), 161 
idas (Lycajna), 151, 155, 157 
Idia, 316, 368, 369 
Ida-a, 323, 376 
idotea (Leuceronia), xxx 
igneus (Bracon), 29 
ignifera (Platyptilia), 481 
ilicis (Coeliodes), 168 

,, (Orcbestes), 49, 50 

,, (Rbyncbfenus), 168 

,, (Tbecla), 171 
ilitbyia (Byblia), 315, 335 
inibricoruis (Brucbus), 401 
imitans (Sympetrum), 304 
immaculatus (Carpojibilus), 395 
imnuindus (Acupalpns), 389 
,, (Saprinus), 166 



( cxxxix ) 



immune (Apion), 168 
immutator (Bracoii), 54 
impennis (Ancistrogaster), 108 
imperator (Doryctes), 16 

(Ephialtes), 15, 31 
imperialis (Hedobia), 18 
imperialus (Ptiuus), 18 
impostor (Bracon), 30 
impressa (Crepidndera), 402 
impressieollis (Ochthebius), 390 

,, V. imperfectus (Ochthe- 

bius), 390 
impressus (Pachnepliorus), 402 

,, (Prototettix), 361, 371, 374 
impurus (Microgaster), 52 
inaria (Hypolimnas), 442 
inelusa (Pseudomops), 458 

,, amcena (Pseudomops), 458 
incoloralis (Pyrausta), 368 
inconipletus (Bracon), 46 
inconclusai'ia (Obocola), 368, 376 
inconspicua (Parnara), 353 
inconspicuella (Micothrix), 334 
inconspicuus (Luperus), 371 
inconstans (Notoxus), 380 
incultus (Xenorrhinus), 355 
indagator (Rhagium), 27 

,, (Rhyssahis), 67 
india (Scelimena), 219 
indicus (Euparatettix), 238 
indigacea (Haltica), 361 
indigena (Brachonyx), 52 
inenaerabilis (Atechna), 369 
inerme (Eiisandulum), 20, 23, 29 
inermis (Eupelmus), 14, 18, 21, 63 
infausta (Aglaope), 162 
infirma (Epilachna), 327 
inflata (Psylliodes), 402 
inflatus (Coptotettix), 242 
inflexa (Neottiglossa), 170 
initiatelhis (Bracon), 58 
initiator (Bracon), 27, 28, 32, 47 

(Coeloides), 27 
Ino, 162 

inornatus (Kalictus), 313 
inquinatus (Pterophorus), 501 
inquisitor (Rhagium), 27 
insectator (Hoplocryptus), 45 
insidiosus (Criotettix), 223 

„ (Loxilobus), 223 
insignis (Eparehus), 121 
(Forficula), 120 
instabile (Cyphodema), 171 
instabilis (Anthicus), 399 

,, (Hemimachus), 53 

instigator (Pimpla), 14, 25 
insulare (Dactyhjsternum), 390 
insularis (Anthocharis), v 



insularis (Cossyphus), 399 
,, (Mazarredia), 230 
,, (Papilio), 5 

(Phffistiis), 214 
insulsella (Microthrix), 334, 338, 350 
integer (Cryptophilus), 394 
intercepta (Blatta), 458 
intermedia (Darocalymna), 333, 469 
intermedins (Sitona), 400 
internata (Craspedia), 368 
internum (Orthetrum), 305 
interrogans (Forficula), 114 
interruptus v. testaceus (Laccophilus), 
390 
,, (Scymnus), 403 

,, V. basalis (Scymnus), 403 

interstitialis (Bracliistes), 18 
intricata (Adesmia), 355 
iutricatus (Eccoptogaster), 22, 29, 61 
(Elachestus), 58 
(Scolytus), 59 
Inula, 385, 387 
inustus (Oxytelus), 393 - 
invida (Marasm.ircha), 493 
io (Vanessa), 161 
iole (Apatura), vii 
ione (Teracolus), 319, 326 
Iphiaulax, 331, 343, 344, 356, 369, 370 
iphioides (Coenonympha), 159 
Ipomrea, 249, 251, 348, 353, 355, 356 
iracundns (Harpactor), 170 
iridis (Lixus), 45 
iris (Apatura), vii, 161 

,, (Promeces), 369 
irrigator (Xorides), 27, 28 
irritans (Pheidole), 331, 323, 333, 371 
irrorata (Blatta), 467 
irrorella (Endrbsa), 162 
ischioxanthus (Eurytoma), 32, 47, 62 
Ischius, 49 

ischnites (Tetraschalis), 474 
Ischnoceros, 25, 27 
Ischnoptera, 361, 459, 461, 467, 468, 

470 
Ischnura, 306, 307 
Isidus, 397 
Isniene, 452 
ismeue (Melanitis), 435 
Isoglossa, 325 

isokani (Phrissura), xix, Ixx, Ixxi, Ixxii 
Isotoma, Ixxxii 
Ithomiinffi, x, xli 
itonia (Yphthinia), 352, 359 
jacksoni (Mylothris), Ixxi 
janira (Epinephile), 161 
japygia (Arge), 161 
javana (Ancistrogaster), 92, 118 
javanica (Panesthia), xxxiv 



( cxl ) 



jobina (Teracolus), 326 
Jouaneiisis (Pteromalus), 48, 49, 50 
jucunda (Hypera), 400 
jucundus (Halictus), 311 
juglandis (Synchita), 13 
juucea (Deropeltis), 310 

,, (Isclmoptera), 467 
junci (Lixus), 400 
jungerinannipe (Smicroiiyx), 400 
Junonia, 439, 440 
kakkerJac (Blatta), 459 
Kedestes, 31, 326 
keitliloa (Rhopalocampta), 323 
kervillei (Ancistrogaster), 107 
Khoina, 376 

kiesenwetteri (Scymnus), 403 
Kinesis, 125, 126 
Kleditoma, xl 
Kleter, 99, 104 
klugii (Cosmophus), 64 
koinarowi (Opisthocosmia), 96, 97 
Koreniaguia, 481 
Kosinetor, 120, 122, 123 
koyi (Cryptocephalus), 164, 169 
kraatzi (Myllrena), 391 

,, ((^luedius), xxxii 
krishna (Papilio), Ixiv 
kuhlweini (Syntomis), 368, 373, 375 
Labia, 93 

labiata (Therates), 85 
Labidostoniis, 169, 402 
Labidostomus, 386 
Labidura, 93 
Labiduridae, 91 
labilis (Gnypeta), 391 
labi'ator (Bostrichus), 67 

,, (Bracon), 46 
Labus, 345 
Laccobius, 390 
Laccophilus, 390 
Laccojitera, 250, 251, 252 
lacliesis (Arge), 161 
Laclinfea, 163, 169 
Lachnocnema, 320 
lacteipenuis (Aciptilus), 488 

,, (Ahiuita), 488 

lacteus (Microgastev), 52 
ladeabergi (Raphitelus), 62 
,, (Styloceras), 62 

Lfelia, 368 

Lasmophkeus, 13, 395 
Loemosthenes, 387, 389 
Ifesa (Myrraecopoia), 391 
Iseta (Sereiithia), 170 
Isetatorius (Bassus), 36 
laitini- (Proreus), 130 
Isevicolle (Apioii), 169 
laevigata (Biscutella), Ix 



Isevigata v. leachi (Teiityria), 387, 398 

(Timarcha), 35 
Isevigator (Ascogaster), 31 

,, (Chelonus), 30 
IjEvigatum (Agathidium), 393 
laevigatus (Exothecus), 26 

,, (Geotrupes), 396 

,, (Microgaster), 41 

,, (Scopaeus), 166, 392 
Ipeviiiodis (Myrmica), 9 
Isevipennis (Ootlieca), 371, 374 
Isevis (Trachyseelis), xxvi 
Iseviuscula (Clythra), 164, 169 
Ifevinsculas (Othius), 392 
Lagria, 167, 361, 374 
laiiiinatus (Cis), 24 
Lami>ides, 152, 445 
Lampyris, 167, 310, 397 
lanceoiana (Bactra), 163 
lanceolator (Exothecus), 57 
laneeolatus (Pteromalus), 58, 64 
languidus (Stenus), 392 
lanuginosus (Ochthebius), 390 
lapathi (Campoplex), 54 

,, (Cryptoirhynchus), 53 
lapponica (Blatta), 456, 457 
lappouicus (Ectobius). 459 
lar ^Exoprosoi)a), 343 
lara (Leptomyiina), 312 
lareyniei (Lampyris), 397 
laricis (Bostrichus), 66 
,, (Chermes, 207 
,, (Toniicus), 66 
Larinus, 45, 168, 386, 400 
Larra, 369 
Lasioderma, 398 
Lasius, xl, 417 
lasti (Phrissura), xviii, Ixxii 
lateralis (Anaplecta), 468 
,, (Bombylius), 379 
,, (Camplopus), 170 

(Gilleuus), 164, 165 
,, (Sericoderusj, 394 
lateripunctatus (Longitarsus), 402 
lathouia (Argynnis), 161 
Lathridiidse, 394 
Lathrobium, Ixviii, 165, 392 
laticeps (Pimpla), 47 
laticollis (Baris), 55 

,, (Bruchus), 401 
(Helops), 167 
(Philonthus), 392 

,, (Trachyphloeus), 400 
(Xyletinus), 167 
lati folia (Typha), liii 
latihumerus (Ocytettix), 227 
latipes race dealbata (Platycnemis), 306 
latirostris (Rhinocyllus), 45 



( cxli ) 



latistriata (Pol5'spliincta), 49 
lativentris (Megalothrips), Ixxxi 
lativittata (Phyllotreta), 402 
latreillei (Pteromalns), 63 
latus (Canipoplex), 52 
Leasia, xl 

lectularia (Acanthia), 376 
leda (Cyllo), 435 

,, (Ei-onia), 319, 329, 357 

,, (Melanitis), Ixxv, 322, 435 
lefebvrei (Erebia), 1 
Leggada, Ixxix 

leguminiim (Pteromalns), 34, 42 
]eiliis(Cydimon), xxviii, 405, 406,408, 
409 

,, (Urania), xxviii, 405, 410 
Leiognathus, 428 
Leioptilus, xii, xl 
Leiopus, xvi, 28 
Lema, 402 

lemurodes (Tetraschalis), 476 
lenticularis (Neuroterus), Ixxxii 
leutis (Bruchus), 33 
leoiiensis (Asida), 167 
leonidas (Papilio), 353, 359 
leopardina (Zerenopsis), 368 
lepeletieri (Eumenes), 362, 363 
Lepidoptera, 370 

(Hetero<-era), 310 
lepidus (Euloplius), 48 
Lepitrix, 379 
leprosus (Phymateus), xlviii, 335, 374, 

376 
Leptacinus, 392 
Leptidia, 161 
Leptornyrina, 312 
Leptura, 27, 164, 169 
leroma (Crudavia), 343 
Lesna, 361 

lesuei (Forficula), 114 
Lestes, 308 

leucadactylus (Aciptilus), 490 
Leucania, 334 
leucaspis (Orchestes), 48 

,, scutellaris (Orchestes), 48 

,, semirufus (Orchestes), 48 

Leuceronia, xxix, xxx, xxxi, Ixx, Ixxii, 

311, 358, 359 
leucobatus (Elachestus), 41 
Leucocelis, 166, 386, 396 
leucogaster (Bracon), 25, 27 
leucogramma (Elachestus), 32, 56, 58, 

59, 60 
Leucohiinatium, 394 
leucomelsena (Trochilium), 163 
Leucoparyphus, 392 
leucopezus (Pteromalns), 33 
leucopsideus (Trichodes), 167 



leucospidiformis (Trochilium), 168 
leucospilata (Comibfena), 350, 357 
leucothoides (Papilio), 4 
levana (Araschuia), Ixxiii, Ixxiv 
levantinus (Amblystomus), 389 
levis (Anomceotes), 330 
Liagrica, 402 
Libellula, 304 
Libellulinffi, 303 
libyssa (Cartaletis), 327 
Libythea, 429, 443 
Licinus, 389 
lieuardi (Ophiusa), 326 
lienigianus (Pteropliorus), 497 
lignarius (Clinoceiitrus), 16 
,, (Eusandulum), 16 
,, (Exothecus), 15 
lignens (Otiorhynchus), 43, 44 
lignicola (Pimpla), 17 

,, (Polysphiucta), 24 
lilii (Crioceris), 169 
limbata (Blatta), 467 

,, (Myrmedonia), 420 

,, (Nyctibora), 467 

,, (Rogas), 54 
liinbatus (Chelisoches), 132 

,, (Omophron), 165 

limbirena (Plusia), 334 
Limenitis, Ixvi, Ixxvii, Ixxix, Ixxx 
Limnas, x, 314-337, 352-372 
ijimnichus, 145, 166 
Liinobius, 400 
Liua, 36 
Linaria, 51 

linearis (Apterygida), 117 
(Doru), 124 

,, (Dromius), 390 

,, (Forficula), 124 

,, (Mycetochara), 25 

., (Mycetochares), 38 

',, (Pimpla), 16, 46, 56 
(Promeces), 311, 378 
lineata (Lepitrix), 379 

(Sterrhauthia), 332 
lineatocollis (Haliplus), 390 
lineatus (Entedon), 48 

,, (Onychogomphus), 305 

,, (Paratettix), 236, 237 

,, (Sitona), 400 
lineellus (Pachyxyphusi), 171 
lineolatus (Aphodius), 396 
lingeus (Cacyreus), 358, 429, 444 

(Cupido), 444 
Liodes, 166 
Liothrips, Ixxxi 
Liparura, 118, 119 
Lipodes, 99, 100 
Liptena, 79, 353, 356 



( cxlii ) 



liqiiidus (Olibrus), 394 

Liris, 317 

Lissogeuius, 371, 375 

Lissonota, 15, 19, 21, 32 

Litargus, 395 

lithodactylus ( Marasmarcha), 411 

,, (Pterophorus), 502 

littoralis (Cicindela), 388 

,, V. iiic'liteDsis (Thy lax), 398 
litura (Ceuthon-hynchus), 168 
,, (Rhizobius), 403 
,, V. discomacula (Rhizobius), 403 
liturata (Macaria), ii 
lituratus (Piezodorus), 170 
,, (Riiytirrhiuus), 365 

livida (Blatta), 459, 461 
lividus (A))li()dins), 396 
,, (Asjioiigopus), 370 
,, (Lixus), 45, 168, 400 
,, (Lu[)cnis), 170 
,, (Teleplioru.s), xxiv 
Lobouyx, 163, 164, 167 
Loboidiora, 128 
lohophoroides (Forficula), 122 
Lochma.'a, Ixxxiv, Ixxxv, 170 
Locusta, Ix 

IceOiiigiima (Tortrix), 163 
logaiii (Sceliineiia), 218 
lohita (Spindasis), 245 
Lomeelmsa, 415-420 
loiigicaiulis (Bracou), 62 

,, (Brachistes), 57, 60 

,, (Meteorus), 38 

,, (Perilitus), 38 

longiconie (Aiiobiuin), 20 
longiconiis (Pliilonthus), 392 
longinotus (Acantlialobiis), 221, 222 
loiigipal[)a (Blatta), 468 
longipes (Opistliocosmia), 106 
loiigispiiia (Aphodius), 396 
longitarsis (Cliilopora), 391 
Longitarsus, 386, 387, 402 
loiigiveutris (Entedon), 18, 20, 43 

(Pimpla), 41 
longstaffi (Myorrhinus), 374 

,, (Odynerus), 374 
longula (Atheta), 391 
loiigulus (Bledius), 166 
lophopteia (Tetradia), 339, 351 
lophyrorum (Eulophus), 60 
Lopliyrus, 1 1 
Lopus, 170 

Iciiipes (Mecorliyiius), 371 
loiqiiiiii (Liineijitis), Ixxvii, Ixxix, 

Ixxx 
loti (Apion), 42, 169 

,, (Dipliini), 148, 161 
Loxilobus, 223 



hibbocki (Caiinapleurothrips), Ixxxii 
lucasi (Acupalpus), 389 

,, (Foiticula), 113 
lucasia (Euiiienes), 345 
hicida (Acontia), 162 

,, (Zizera), 317, 320 
Lucilia, 9, 377 
Luciula, 377, 379 
luctuosa (Acontia), 162 
,, (Blabera), 469 
,, (Phoraspis), 467 
luctnosus (Ancistrogaster), 109 
ludekingi (Proreus), 130, 131 
liiditicator (Ciieon-hiims), 164, 168 
hidovica (Aniinophila), 354 
lugciiH (Ei)archus), 121 

,, (Otiorihynclius), 399 
lugubris (Forficula), 121 

(Meligethes), 395 
lun;fdactylus (Marasmarclia), 411 
lunata (Cliilomenes), 310, 374 

,, (Decatoma), 373 
lunatus (Entedon), 50 

,, (Gronops), 168, 400 
lunula (Pteromalus), 47, 58, 60, 63 
Luperus, 164, 170, 371 
lurida ((Edeniera), 168 
luiidum (Tetropium), 31, 32, 183, 185, 

186, 187, 199, 205 
luridus (Cerambyx), 31, 199, 205 

,, (Longitarsus), 402 
lusitanica (Labidostomis), 169 
lusitanicum (Exosoma), 164, 169 

(Lathrobinm), 392 
lusitanicus (Brachyderes), 164, 168 

,, (Cryptocepliahis), 169 

lusitanus (Exocentrus), 29 
luteicollis (Halticus), 171 
luteicornis (Tomoglossa), 391 
luteipennis (Doru), 124 
luteipes (Dilacra), 391 
,, (Doru), 124 

,, (Entedon), 48, 49 
luteola (Aiichnieromyia), xliv, xlvi, 

xlvii 
luteorubra (Platynaspis), 170 
luteus (Oj^hion), 45 
Lycieua, vii, 1, 151, 155, 157, 158, 

159, 161, 320, 329, 341, 362, 

445 
Lyctenidte, 322, 353 
Lycanthropa, 312 
lycaon (Epinepliile), 161 
Lycodoii, 178 
lycopi (Longitarsus), 402 
Lyctus, 17, 23, 364, 398 
Lycus, 376 
Lygieosoma, 170 



( cxliii ) 



Lygreus, liv, 170, 310, 337 
Lygus, 171 

lylliis (Cceiionyinpha), 160 
Lymexylon, 25 
lynx (Aiiisonyx), 378, 379 
lysimon (Cupido), 445, 416 
,, (Lycneiia), 445, 446 

(Zizeia), 312, 317, 320, 322, 

329, 334, 335, 345, 353, 356, 357, 

359, 367, 377, 445, 446 
lythri (Nanophyes), 53, 168 
lythrodes (Acauthaspis), 379 
Macaria, 11 
niacaristus (Papilio), 6 
machaon (Papilio), 160 
mackenii (Acleros), 323, 329 
mackeriiidi (Apterygida), 98 
maeomo (Cyclopides), 81 

(Kedestes), 81, 326 
macrocentiis (Torymiis), 31 
Macrochilus, 336 
maci'oderiis (Dyschirius), 388 
Macroglossa, 360, 368 
macrolabia (Forlicula), 110 
Macroma, 327, 369 
Macromia, 356 
Macroplax, 170 
maculaiis (Polysticta), 374 
maculata (Leptura), 169 

(Megilla), 12 
maculatus (Camponotus), 310, 320, 327, 
336, 341, 363, 369 
(Colotes), 397 
,, (Ochthebius), 390 
,, (Raphitelus), 60, 64 
niaculicollis (Blatta), 462 

(Cleoniis), 400 
maculicrus (Cardiophorus), 397 

,, beloni (Cardiophorus), 397 
tnaculiger (Bracon), 55 
maculosa (Alphitopoda), 369 
maderae (Calosoma), 387, 388 

,, (Rhyparobia), 467 
madidus (Cleoiuis), 400 
msera (Pararge), 161 
mserkeli (Pithanus), 170 
niagadis (Orueodes), 510 
Magdalinus, 56 
Magdalis, xlix, 56, 57, 60. 
magdalis (Pteromalus), 56 
maha (Zizera), 446 
mahopaaui (Parnara), 353 
Mairus, 50 
major (Hister), 396 

,, (Thrips), Ixxxii 
malabarica (Bombax), 175 
Malachius, 17, 165, 167, 206, 397 
Malacosoma, 162, 374, 375 



malathana (Catoehrysops), 320, 360 
maleolmi (Malthodes), 397 
malgachus (Chelisoches), 129 
Malthimis, 164, 167, 397 
Malthodes, 167, 377 
malvaj ^Apion), 386, 401 
malvernensis (Gyuaudropthahiia), 371 
Mamestra, 162 

maudersi (Nacaduba), 429, 446 
mandibuLaris (Pteromalus), 36 
manducator (Alysia), 9, 67 
maiiicatum (Anthidiuni), Ixi 
manifestator (Ephialtes), 15, 25, 80 

,, (Ichneumon), 15 

maulius (Papilio), 449 
mannei'heimi (Bembidium), 165 
Mantidse, 251 
Mantis, 331, 361 
Mantispa, 376 
Marasmarcha, 411, 412, 413, 414, 

492 
marchalli (Pamiihila), 453 

,, (Parnara), 453 
marci (Biliio), 360 
marginalis (Oxythyrea), 338, 368, 371 

(Polistes), 369, 375 
marginata (Hastula), iii, iv 
margiuator (Rogas), 54 
marginatus (Camponotus), 336 
(Pelocoris), 171 

,, (Stenoloplms), 389 

,, (Syromastes), 170 

(Trigonopus), 369, 371 
marginellus (Stenodontus), 206 
marginicollis (Attagenus), 395 
maria (Stugeta), 80 
mariana (Bupiestis), 15 

,, (Chalcophora), 15 
marina (Actocharis), 391 
rnaritima (Glaux), Ixxxii 
maritimus (Beosus), 170 

,, (Saprinus), 166 

marmarias (Xyroptila), 480 
marpessa (Neptis), 358 
marshalli (Gonatopus), xliii 

,, (MiniacriBa), 78 
massiliensis (Clytanthus), 169 
Mastigus, 166 
masurialis (Ophiuche), 323 
mathewi (Crenonympha), 154, 155 
mathias (Parnara), 353, 360 
maura (Eurygastcr), 170 
mauricanus (Anax), 377 
mauritanicus (Tenebrioides), 395 
mauritiana (Antauartia), 437 
maurus (Otiorhynchus), 44 
maxillosus (Creophilus), 9, 392 
Mazzarredia, 230, 231 



( cxliv ) 



Mecinus, 52, 401 
Mecorhynus, 371 
media (Apterygida), 93 
mediaiius (Eiitedou), 49, 50 
medius (Pteropus), 421 
Medon, 392 

niegacephala (Plieidole), 332, 336 
Megaclule, 379 
niegiBra (Parargc), 161 
Megalodacne, 330 
Megalothrips, Ixxxi 
Megarthi'us, 393 
Megilla, 12 

niejancsi (Ojiliiusa), 317 
Meladema, 390 
nielaiiipa (Lenia), 402 
Melanargia, vii 

melanaria (Breoglossa), 339, 340 
melauarius (Hemiteles), 17, 46, 56, 
64 
,, (Omaseus), 8 

melaucholica (Cicindela), 388 
melaucholicus (Carabus, 165 

(Plocederus), 351 
Melandrya, 17, 40 
Melanitis, Ixxiv, Ixxvi, 322, 435 
nielauocephalus (Cymus), 170 
,, (Proreiis), 130 

melanocorypha (Diapria), 54 
Melano[)hthal]na, 164, 166, 394 
nielanopoda (Alucita), 489 
melanops (Lycfena), 161 
melanopus (Stemis), 392 
Melaiiosilpha, 469 

melauostictus (Cataiitops), 316, 321, 
331, 338, 369, 371. 
374 
,, (Ceuthorrhynclius), 400 

melanostoma (Psilothiix), 397 
Melanotus, 164, 166 
iiielaiiotus (Coeloides), 62, 67 
melauura (Leptura), 169 

,, (Nacerdes), xvi, 399 
melanurus (Sunius), 392 
melas (Erebia), 1 
Melasoma, 35, 36, 41 
Melianoides (Borolia), 334 

,, (Leucania), 334 

Meligethes, 13, 166, 445, 395 
nieliloti (Tychius), 400 
Melitfea, v, vi, 159, 160, 161 
melitana (Akis), 39S 

,, (Asida), 387, 398 

,, (Stenosis), 398 
melitense (Opatrum), 398 

,, (Stenostoma), 399 

melitensis (Attains), 397 

,, testaceipes (Attalus), 397 



melitensis (Aulacoderus), 399 

,, (Ceuthorrhynchus), 400 

(Dasytiscus), 387, 397 
,, (Haplocuemus), 397 
,, (Heterocerus), 391 
,, (Omophlus), 399 

(Phylax), 387 
,, (Tiniarcha), 402 
mellerboigi (Phtestus), 215 
mellifica (Apis), 311, 330, 338, 363 
,, race adansonii (Apis), 310, 
331. 338, 344, 349, 368, 
378, 379 
Meloe, xvi, Ixxiii, 399 
Melyris, 357, 374 
niembranaceus (Lougi tarsus), 403 
nieninou (Papilio), 3 
mennionius (Magdalimis), 56 

(Trogophloeus), 393 
mendax (Papilio), 5 
mendicus (Cleonus), 400 
menelas (Spindasis), 80 
Mercurialis, xlix, Iv 
meridianum (Apion), 386 
meridionalis (Adicella), 163 
(Atheta), 391 
(Blatta), 469 
,, (Melitsea), vi 

,, (Ophonus), 389 

,, (Synipetrum), 303 

mermis (Epainera), 81 
Merophysia, 394 

mesentina (Belenois), 346, 353, 358 
Mesites, 57, 400 
Mesochelidura, 94 
Mesochorus, 35, 44 
Mesoccelopus, 22 
Me.soleptus, 24, 32 
mesolychna (Orneodes), 508 
Mesoponera, 332, 342 
Mesostenus, 17, 61, 40 
Mesovelia, Ixvi 
Mesozona (Eiiproctis), 316 
Metabletus, 389 
Metachrostis, 350, 370 
metallica (Anchura), 97 
,, (Forficula), 97 
,, cuprea (Potosia), 396 
Meteorus, 13, 23, 28, 31, 38, 39, 59 
Metholcus. 398 
Methona, Ixxix 
metis (Cyelopides), 377 
Metcecus, 40, 193 
metrica (Forticula), 121 
Metrodorffi, 228 
Miarus, 168 

niicans (Aspidomorpha), 250 
,, (Mordellistena), 399 



( cxlv ) 



micans (Orchesia), 38, 39, 55 
„ (Perilampus), 11, 17, 23 
,, (Pteromalus), 11 
micheli (Hypurgus), 102 
micra (Eulaphygma), 317 
Mieralymma, 11 
Micraspis, 170 
microcephalus (Porizon), 34 
Microchffites, 135, 136, 137, 145 
microclea (Heliconius), xv, xvi 
Microcryptus, 9 
Microctonus, 12 

microdactyla (Marasraarcha), 411, 493 
iiiicrodactylus (Leioptilus), xii 
Microdon, xxxiii, xl, 163 
Microdus, 37, 38, 47, 65 
Microgaster, 20, 42, 49, 52, 55 
Microlestia, 310, 313, 378 
Micropeplus, 393 
Micrositus, 167 
Microthrix, 334, 338, 350 
Microus, 377 

middendorffii (Bracon), 58, 64, 67 
mikado (Forficula), 112 
miles (Cerambyx), 402 
miliarius (Acanthalobus), 222 

,, cuueatus (Acautlialobus), 222 
miliefolii (Anthaxia), 166 

(Olibrus), 166 
miloa (Papilio), 5 
Mimacraia, xvii, 78, 79 
mimus (Euparatettix), 238 
minator (Cryptus), 25 
minima (Carcinops), 396 
minimus (Bostrichus), 63 

,, (Carphobonis), 63 

,, (Dendroctonus), 63 
minor (Hylurgus), 63 
,, (Microchcctes), 137 

„ (Orchesia), 38 
minuscula (Eparchus), 121 
minuta (Eucoila), 61 

,, (Isotoma), Ixxxii 
minutissima (Blatta), 459, 464 
,, (Holocompsa), 464 

minutissimus (Bracon), 58, 60 
,, (Euplectus), Ixxxi 

,, (Plinthisus), 170 

,, (Stylosomus), 169 

minutus (Abacetus), 310 

„ (Anthicus), 399 

,, (Brachistes), 48 

,, (Cryptoceplialus), 34 

,, (Enicmus), 394 
(Teleas), 50 
mirabilis (Epamera), 81 
miranda (Troides), 2 

,, (Forficula), 112 



Miridius, 171 
Miris, 170 

niisella (Blatta), 468 
misippus (Hypolimnas), 318, 433, 442, 
443 

,, inaria (Hypolimnas), 433 
mistralella (Ephestia), 163 
Mitraria, 229 
Mitritettix, 229 
Mitroboris, 27, 28 
mixtana (Acalla), 161 
mixtus (Pedilophorus), 138, 139, 140 
mneme (Melimea), Ixxvi 
moderator (Porizon), 38, 40, 55 
,, (Thersilochus), 39, 55 
modesta (Dalsira), 337 
modestus (Hemiteles), 17, 19, 46, 58, 

64 
moerens (Alans), 370 

,, (Barynotus), 43 
moesta (Aleochara), 391 
mogul (Forficula), 111 
moldavica (Cledeobia), 162 
Molippa, 181, 182 
molitor (Tenebrio), 399 
mollicomus (Barypithes), 399 
mollis (Calathus), 389 

,, (Ernobius), 20, 164, 167 
molochinus (Quedius), 392 
niolomo (Zeritis), 363 
Molorchus, 26 
monacha (Apate), 351 
Monachoda, 466, 467 
Monalocoris, 170 
Monauthia, 170 
Monastria, 467, 469 
monoceros (Notoxus), 167 
Monochammus, 30 
monodactylus (Marasmarcha), 411 
monographus (Bostrichus), 67 
(Xyleborus), 67 
Monolepta, 358 
Monouychus, 54 
Monotoma, 395 
monstrosa (Blabera), 469 
montanus (Lydus), 171 
montivagns (Heliopathes), 167 
morsei (Cryptocephalus), 169 
inorania (Papilio), 322 
morantii (Parosmodes), 360 
morbillosus (Carabus), 388 
mordax (Rhagium), 27 
Mordella, 167 
Mordellisteiia, 40, 399 
moreli (Isidus), 397 
morio (Chelisoches), 129, 130, 133 

„ (Forficula), 129 

,, (Potosia), 166 



( cxlvi ) 



morion (Aleocliara), 391 
morioiiellus (Thersilochus), 13 
morio (Catops), 393 
mcrtuorum (Necrophorus), xvi 
Morychus, 138, 146 
morysalis (Antigastra), 330, 370 
moschata (Aroiuia), 25 
motozi (Sarangesa), 329, 371 
motozioides (Sarangesa), 320 
niozambica (Spindasis), 338 
mucidus (Cleonns), 339 
mucronata (Blaps), 398 
multiarticulatus (Bracon), 30 
multicolor (Acrocornin.s), 66 

„ (Podilophorus), 138, 139, 

142 
„ (Pteromalus), 46, 63, 64, 
65, 66 
multipunctum (LatluoLium), 165 
multistriatus (Eccoptogaster), 61 
,, (Elachestus), 58 

,, (Scolytus), 59 

muralis (Sitaris), xlix 
murieatus (Enrynotiis), 376, 377 
murina (Bruelins), 401 

,, (Hypcra), 4U0 
murinus (Xyletinus), 22 
Musca, 15, 341, 347, 360 
mnscarum (Pteromalus), 43 
mutabilis (Microdon), xl 
mutilatus (Oarpophilus), 395 
mutilloides (Ampules), 370 
Mycalesis, Ixxiv, Ixxv, 317, 318, 319, 

322, 325, 329, 345, 358, 359, 367, 

372, 435 
Mycetocliara, 25 
Mycetochares, 38 
Mycetoporus, 165, 392 
Myelois, 163 
Mygale, Ixiv 

Mylabris, 342, 356, 371, 386 
mylica (Lycjiiua), 446 
Mylla-na, 391 
Mylothris, xviii, xix, xxix, xxx, xxxi, 

Iv, Ixv, Ixvi, Ixx, Ixxi, Ixii, Ixxiii, 

314, 317, 319, 322, 325, 329, 366, 

370, 372, 376 
Myorrhinus, 374 
myrmecophila (Kleditoma), xl 
myrmecophilum (Ptilium), Ixxxi 
Myrmecopora, 391 
Myrmecoxenus, 394 
Myrmedonia, 9, 345, 418, 420 
Myrmeleon, 354, 362 
Myrnietes, 415 
Myrmica, 9 
Myrmcecia, 391 
mystacatus (Cryptoccphalns), 169 



mystacinus (Histcromerus), 14, 27 
Myzine, 342, 343, 347, 354 
Nabis, 170 
Nacaduba, 429, 446 
Nacerdes, xvi, 389 
nadina (Huphina), xxiii 
najas (Gerris), 170 
nama (Hestina), Ixiv 
nanna (Heliconius), xiv, xv 
Nanopbyes, 53, 168, 401 
nanus (Icbneumon), 58 
,, (Mycetoporus), 392 
,, (Ochetostethus), 170 
,, (Parmulus), 394 
,, (Pteromalus), 52 
,, (Rbyucbites), 169 
naiii (Pieris), iv, liv, Ix, 161 
,, bryoniiu (Pieris), Ix 
,, (Psylliodes), 402 
narcissus (Henotcsia), 435 
,, (Mycalesis), 435 
,, (Mylotbris), xviii, Ixxi 
nasicornis (Oryctes), 14 

,, (Scarab.Teus), 14 
Nassunia, 331 

natalensis (Eratognathus), 332 
,, (Harpalus), 365 
,, (PlilcBonotus), 242 
(Scaptobius), 332 
natalica (Aertea), 318, 328 

,, (Precis), 318, 321, 328, 352, 
357, 359 
natalicus (Acnpalpus), 335 
natator (Gyrinus), 8, 9 
Nauphceta, 467, 468, 469 
navis (Pteromalus), 64, 65 
nesera (Melitsea), vi 
neapolitanus (Erodius), 398 
Nebria, 8, 388 
nebulosa (Aplecta), xxii, Ixvi, Ixvii 

(Dipl;eodes), 305 
nebulosus (Agabus), 390 
,, (Leiopus), xvi, 28 

(Necrobia), 339, 397 
Necrophorus, xvi 
neesii (Ghelonus), 65 
negatalis (Glyphodes), 362 
neglectum (Orthetrum), 305 
neglectus (Harpalns), 165 

(Xylopbilus), 164, 167 
neobule (Acrani), 335 
Neocfenyra, 77 
neokoton (Miniacrrea), 79 
Neolobophora, 118, 119, 120, 131 
Neolobophorin;e, 94, 118 
Neottiglossa, 170 
ncplielotoxa (Orneodes), 505 
nepticula (Papilio), 4 



( cxlvii ) 



Neptis, 315, 321, 328, 352, 357, 358, 

359, 443 
neieus (Papilio), 450 
nerio (Cinospilus), 42 
nerissa (Hupliina), xxiii 
Nesogaster, 91 
Netrobalaue, 320 
Neurateles, 46 
Neuroptera, Ix, 163 
Neuroterus, Ixxxiv 
nevilli (Eparchus), 121 
nexuosus (Acantlialobiis), 221, 222 
niasicus (Troides), 2 
iiiaviiis (Amauris), Ivi 
iiicholli (Erebia), 1 
Niconia, xxxi 
iiigellus (Criotettix), 226 
iiiger (Dasytes), 17 

,, (Heiaiteles), 39 

,, (Holoparamecus), 394 

,, (Liiperus), 170 

,, (Mesoccelopus), 22 

„ Trachyscelis), xxvii 
nigemma (Aleochara), 391 
,, (Colpodota), 391 
nigra (Diapria), 61 

,, (Hemitliyrsocera), 468 

„ (Leptura), 169 

„ (Phyllotreta), 37 

,, (Trachyscelis), xxvi 
nigrata (Ocyusa), 391 
nigricans (Dorylus), vi 
nigriceps (Aplithona), 402 
nigricomis (Atheta), 391 
„ (Athous), 164 

,, (Diospilus), 55 

nigrinus (Chelonus), 31 
ni^ripennis (Apoderns), 369 
nigripes (Mesocliorus), 44 
nigrirostris (Hypera), 400 
nigrita (Hydraena), 390 

,, (Liodes), 166 
nigritarse (Apion), 169 
nigritulus (Medon), 392 

„ (Philonthus), 392 

,, V. lepidus (Stenus), 392 
nigriventris (Cubocephalus), 32 
nigroseneus (Paracymus), Ixvii 
nigrocinctus (Microcryptus), 9 
nigrofasciatus (Lnperus), 170 
nigromaculatus (Exoclionius), 337, 363 
nigrovarius (Microchajtes), 138 
Niphona, 402 

niphostrota (Orneodes), 507 
Niptus, 18 

(Microptinus), 397 
nireus f. lyaius (Papilio), 315, 322, 326, 
329, 367 



Nisouiades, 452 

nitens (Anisodactylns), 362 

,, (Cyphus), 164, 169 

,, (Entedon), 43 

,, (Pktystethus), 393 
nitida (Aleochara), 391 

,, (Platyzosteria), 469 
Nitidula, 395 

nitidula (Aptinothrips), Ixxxii 
,, (Conchia), 338 
(Gonodera), 399 
nitidiilus (Aphodius), 396 
,, (Nanophyes), 401 

(Oxytelus), 393 
,, (Saprinus), 396 

(Tachyporus), 392 
nitidus (Byrrhus), 398 

,, (Dyschirius), 38S 
nivalis (Pterophorus), 499 
nivea (Alucita), 490 

,, (l^.latta), 456, 457, 458, 463 

,, (Pauchlora), 463, 464, 467 
niveodactyla (Alucita), 490 
niviferana (Binsitta), 178 
nobilis (Endema), 330 
(Melyris), 357 

,, (CEdemera), 168 
nocivns (Agrilus), 16 
noctiluca (Lampyris), 167 
uoctilucus (Pyrophorus), xxxii 
noctis (Gymnetron), 51 
noctuella (Nomophila), 312, 336, 333 
nodulosa (Eurytonia), 62 
nodulosus (Pteromalus), 32 
Nomophila, 312, 336, 338 
Nonagria, 1, li, liii 
normaunum (Bembidion), 388 
notata (Polyhirma), 333 
notatns (Curculio), 7, 46, 47, 63, 64 

,, (Pissodea), xvi, 46, 47, 48 
Notiophilus, 388 
Notiophygns, 370 
Notocerus, 232, 233 
Notodonta, Ixxx, 327 
Notolampra, 467 
Notoxus, 167, 380 
noualhieri (Grypidius), 171 
niiba (Agria), 339 
nnbeculatus (Echthrus), 31 
nucum (Balaniniis), 56 

,, (Curculio), 56 

,, (Pimpla), 56 
nugax (Acanthaspis), 351 
numata (Heliconius), Ixxvi 
nupta (Catocala), 173, 175, 176 
nursei (Ischnura), 306 
nutritor (Porizon), 56 
nyasana (Phrissura), xix, Ixxi 



( cxlviii ) 



Nychitona, 329 

Nyctemera, 359 

Nyctibora, 467 

oannes (Opistliocosinia), 96, 27 

Obeluia, 118, 119 

Oberea, 32, 402 

obfuscatus (Meteoius), 13, 38, 39 

(Ferilitus), 38 
oblita (Atlieta), 391 
obliterata (Adalia), 170 
obliteiatus (Bracon), 32, 66 
,, (Doryctes), 19 
(Quediu.s), 392 
oblongata (Blatta), 456, 457, 458, 464 
,, (Pseudomops), 464 

,, (Thyrsocera), 458 
oblongiusculus (Scybalicus), 389 
oblongus (Lyetus), 17, 23 
Obocola, 368, 376 
obscura (Falagiia), 391 
obscuiella (Polystonia), 165 
obscurellus (Sigalphus), 51, 55 
obscurepurpuria (Pachycnema), 380 
obscuricollis (Agrilus), 397 
obscuripes (Elachestus), 50 
obscurus (Elachestus), 50 

,, (Strongylocoris), 171 
obsoleta (Phyllodroiiiia), 470 
obsoletus (Aphidius), 64 

,, (Dichirotrichus), 389 
obtusata (Cassida), 251 
obtiisum (Bembidion), 388 
occideutalis (Blatta), 468 

,, (Melitsia), v 
occulta (Gegenes), 353 
occultans (Dibolia), 403 
oeellata (Aiiatis), 11 

,, (Cocciuella), 11 
ocellatus (Sitona), 400 
„ (Steiius), 166 
ocellea (Eromene), 366 
Ochetostethus, 170 
Ochina, 21, 22 
ochraceus (Medon), 392 
ochreatiis (Balanobius), 168 
ochrias (Tetrasclialis), 475 
ocl:rodactylus (Triclioptilus), 473 
ochroleucus (Crvptocej^halus), 402 

,. (Longi tarsus), 403 
Ochromyia, xlv. xlvi 
Ochrosis, 402 
Ochthebius, 390 
Ochtbenonius, 399 
Ocueia, 398 
octavia (Precis), 328 
octopuiictatns (Tricbodes), 167 
ocularia (Sphteroderiua), 403 
ocularis (Sthenarus), 171 



oculata (Oberea), 32 
„ (Saperda), 32 

oculatus magnus (Criotettix), 221 

Ocypus, 9, 392 

Oevs, 165, 388 

Ocytettix, 226, 227 

Ocyusa, 391 

Odezia, xlv 

Odonata, 303, 330 

Odoiitomerus, 25, 30, 57 

Odoutomyia, 360 

Odynerus, 354, 357, 374 

CEdemera, 168, 399 

Oidistoma, 380 

cellophanes (Xyroptila), 480 

Qistropis, 351 

Ogyris, 245 

olesB (Pbloiotribus), 63 

oleiperda (Hylesinus). 62 

olens (Ocypus), 9, 392 
,, (Zuphium), 387, 390 

oleraceum (Euiydenia), 170 

oleraceus (Dios])ilus), 55 

Olibras, 166, 394 

Oligomerus, 398 

Oligota, 391 

Olisthopus, 389 

olivacea (Xylocopa), 344, 354 

olivieri (Silpha), 393 

Omalium, 393 

Oniaseus, 8 

Omphlus, 164, 167, 399 

Oinophron, 165 

Omostropus, 332, 345 

ompbale (Teracolus), xii, xiii, xxiii, 
312, 314, 319, 322, 326, 329, 352, 
355, 366, 372, 376 

Oncotus, 379 

o'neili (Sciobius), 374 
Oniticellus, 166 
onosniella (Coleophora), Ixix 
Ontbophagus, 166, 396 
Outhophilus, 396 
Onycbogompbus, 305 
00 "(Dicycla), 162 

,, renago (Dicycla), 162 
Oosoinus, 378 
Ootbeca, 371, 374, 378 
opaculus (Anthicus), 399 
Opatrum, 321, 332, 336, 355, 379, 386, 

398 
opella (Xanthoptera), 350 
Opliion, 45 
opbion (Pterygospidea), 323 

(Tagi'ades), 323 
Oi)hioneurus, 41 
Ophiuche, 323 
O^jbiusa, 317, 326 



( cxlix ) 



Ophonus, 389 

Opisthocosmia, 91, 92, 93, 96, 99, 100, 
101, 102, 104, 105, 106, 118, 120, 
121, 122 
opisthotonus (Pteromalus), 22 
Opius, 25, 30, 57, 60 
Oporabia, Ixxx 
opuntife (Bryaxis), 393 
oraria (Atheta), 391 
orba (Periplaiieta), 467 
orbicu-lare (Cnelostoma), 390 
orbiculatus (Stilicus), 392 
oi'bona (Pinacopteryx), Ixxi 
orchatias (Pteropliorus), 511 
Orchesella, Ixxxii 
Orchesia, 38, 39, 55 
orchesioe (Euphonis), 38 

,, (Meteorus), 38 
Orchestes, 38, 48, 49, 50, 55 
orchestis (Entedon), 48, 49, 50 

,, (Eubadizon), 50 

,, (Pleiirotropis), 49 

,, (Pteromalus), 48, 50 
(Tetrastichus),48, 49 
Oresbius, 8, 41 
Orgyia, 162 

orientalis (Blatta), 310, 365, 456, 457, 
459, 467 
(Forficula), 115 
origanoides (Ecteinanthus), 325 
ornata (Forficula), 111, 116 
ornatus (Anthonomus), 400 
Onieodes, 505-510 
Orneodidiia, Ixxxvi 
Ortalia, 321, 335 

Orthetnim, 304, 305, 321, 324 330 
Orthocentrus, 28, 31, 37 
Orthocephalus, 171 
Orthochffites, 400 
Ortholitha, 333 
Orthoptera, 213, 310, 330, 355, 361, 

363, 374 
Oryctes, 14, 166, 334, 396 
oryzpe (Calandra), 400 
osiris (Lycsena), 362 
Osorins, 361 
Osphya, xxv 
ossiuin (Stenus), 166 
Osteodes, 331, 334, 370, 373 
Osteulcus, 106 
Othiiis, 392 

otiorhynchi (Bracon), 43 
Otiorrhynchus, xxix, 43, 44, 164, 168, 

399 
Otumba, 235 
ovalis (Bruchus), 401 
ovata (Anacsena), 390 
ovatus (Clitobius), 399 



ovulum (Strophosomus), 168 

oxydactylus (Pterophorus), 473 

Oxyhaloa, 467, 469 

Oxyhemus, Ixix 

Oxynotus, 220 

oxyntes (Pterophorus), 498 

Oxyothrips, Ixxxii 

Oxypoda, 391 

Oxyptilus, 476, 477, 478, 479, 480, 485 

Oxytelus, 393 

Oxythyrea, xxix, 338, 363, 371, 374 

Ozarba, 350 

pachinus (Helicouiiis), xv 

Pachnephonis, 402 

Pachnoda, 342, 345 

Pachybrachys, 169 

Pachyceras, 59, 61, 66 

Pachychirus, 57 

Pachycnenia, 380 

Pachylomma, 16 

Pachytychius, 164, 168, 400 

Pachyxyphiis, 171 

pacitica (Euthyrrhapha), 467, 469 

pacta (Tachina), 8 

Pffiderus, 164, 165, 332 

palarica (Erebia), 151, 159 

palerabanganus (Papilio), 3 

palemon (Cacyreus), 310, 367, 378 

pallens (Ortalia), 335 

,, (Trachyscclis), xxvii 
palliata (Blatta), 468 

„ (Pimpla), 52 
palliatus (Hylastes), 61 

,, (Hylesinus), 61, 66 
pallida (Durbauia), 353, 356 

,, (Liptena), 353, 356 
pallidicornis (Bruchus), 34, 401 
pallidinervis (Trithemis), 304 
pallidipennis (Helophorus), 390 

,, reitteri (Helophorus), 390 

,, (Mesites), 400 

,, (Psylliodes), 402 

pallidipes (Eubadizon), 23 
,, (Euphorns), 38 

(Sigalphus), 33, 49, 51 
pallidivestis (Scymnus), 403 
pallipes (Cirphis), 347 

,, (Codrus), 10 

,, (Danacsea); 397 

,, (Paraplecta), 347 
(Tachypus), 165 
palmatus (Pterophorus), 495 
Palomena, 170 
palpalis (Llssonota), 33 

,, (Mastigus), 166 
palpator (Hemiteles), 18 
palpatus (Chthonius), 219 
,, (Chthonotettix), 219 



( cl ) 



palpebrator (Bostricluis), 67 
,, (Brachistes), 47 

(Bracon), 17, 29, 46, 47, 
48, 63, 66 

Paltothyreus, 354, 357 

Pamphila, 452, 453 

pamphilus (Ccfinoiiymplia), vii, 160 

Paiichlora, 463, 470 

pandora (Avgynuis), 161 

paiidurus (Lyg;eus), 170 

Panesthia, xxxiv 

panicexim (Anobium), 20 

paniceus (Byrrhus), 398 

Paiiicum, 452 

panorpoides (Acisoma), 305 

Pantelia, 217 

paphia (Argyimis), 155 

Papilio, xxxi, Ixiv, Ixxiv, Ixxv, Ixxvii, 
1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 160, 161, 315-367, 
429, 449, 450, 451 

papillosa (Blatta), 467 
,, (Moiiastria), 467 

(Tessai-atoma), 253, 255, 256 

papuensis (Troides), 2 

papyraceus (Neurateles), 46 

imracenthesis (Crioceris), 386, 402 

Paracymus, Ixvii 

paradoxa (Heterogynis), 161, 162 

paradoxus (Metcecus), 40, 193 

paraglyptis (Platyptilia), 484 

Paralioniietica, 467, 468 

paralltda (Antliaxia), xxix 

parallelinus (Callimoue), 42 

Paraplecta, 347 

Pararge, 161 

parasitella (Tinea), 37 

Paratettix, 236, 237, 239, 241 

pardalinum (Acridium), 365 

Parinena, 402 

Parinulus, 394 

Parnara, 353, 360, 452, 453 

Parnassius, xli 

Parims, 164, 391 

Paromalus, 11 

Parosmodes, 360 

Partheiiodes, 350 

parthenope (Auax), 305 

Parthenothrips, Ixxxii 

Ijarumpuiictatiis (Leptacinus), 392 

parviceps (Oxyothrips), Ixxxii 

parvula (Chalcis), 37 

jiarvulus (Proctotrvpes), 39 
,, (Tachys),'l65, 388 
,, quadrincevus (Tachys), 388 

parviim (Kiiallagma), 307 

parvus ((Joptotcttix), 242 
,, (Systoloderus), 227 

pascuellus (Crambus), 162 



pastinaca3 (Hypera), 400 
pato (Saraugesa), 371 
patricia (Phyllodromia), 470 

,, (Theganopteryx), 470 
Patrobus, 8 

pavidus (Pteropborus), 493 
pechi (Anthocharis), v 
pcctiuicoruis (Eulopbus), 50 

(Ptiliuus), 21 
pedcstre (Dorcadion), 30 
pedestris (Pezomacbus), 35 
,, (Stygnocoris), 170 
pedicularius (Conurus), 392 
Pedilophorus, 138-144 
pelecyntes (Oxyptihis), 477 
pelias (Trichoptihis), 472 
pellucens (Blatta), 467 
(Gyrtilia), 467 
,, (Pteromahis), 46, 63 
pellucidus (Longitarsus), 403 
,, (Telephorus), xxiv 
Pelochares, 166 
Pelocoris, 171 

peltastes (Oxyptilus), 479, 480 
peltigera (Heliotliis), 162 • 
pendularia (Ephyra), ii 
penella (Heterogynis), 162 
penetrans (Apiou), 401 
penia (Anthocbaris), v 
pensylvanica (Blatta), 459 

,, (Iscbuo])tera), 459 

Pentaphyllus, 398 
Pentapleura, 56 
Pentbieus, 898 
Pentila, 78 
Pentodon, 386, 396 
]ierdita (Aneistrogaster), 107 
peregrina (Schistocerca), 343, 345, 346, 

355 
peregrinus (Ceuthorrbynchus), 400 
Peribalus, 170 
Perilampus, 11, 17, 18, 23 
Perilitus, 11, 12, 35, 38 
Periplaneta, 459, 467, 469 
perisii (Deudrosoter), 67 
PerispbiXiria, 467 

perluceus (Phrissura), xviii, xix, Ixxi 
perminutus (Bolotettix), 226 
perrisi (Apiou), 43, 168 
persector (Hemiteles), 9 
personatus (Euparatettix), 238 
perspicua (Myealesis), 319 
pertiuax (Anobium), 20 
pertusus (Dicbillus), 398 
pertyi (Atbeta), 391 
Petasodes, 467 
petavia (Nassunia), 331 
petiveraua (Tirumala), 359 



( cli ) 



petiveriana (Cassida), 456 
petrsea (Acraja), 318, 328 

,, (Stenoptilia), 504 
Pezomachus, 9, 12, 34, 35, 45, 50, 53 
phfedon (Amauris), 433 

(Danais), 433 
plijsdusa (Stalaclitis), Ixxix 
phajodactyla (Marasmarcha), 411, 412, 

413 
Phffistus, 214, 215 
Phalacrus, 39, 394 
phalanta (Atella), Ixxv, 316, 324, 329, 

352, 370, 372, 436 
phaleiata (Temnopteryx), 379 
Phaleria, 386, 398 
phaola (Phrissura), Ixx, Ixxii 
Phaos, 106 
Phasis, 373, 380 
Phasius, 312 

Pheidole, 331, 332, 333, 336, 371 
phellaudrii (Phitonomus), 36 

,, (Prasocuris), 36, 44 

philanthus (Hoplia), 166 
,, (Hypera), 400 

philippus (Hypolycseiia), 320, 322 
Philouthus, 164, 165, 392 
Phitonoinus, 36 

phlajas (Clirysophanus), vii, 161 
phlegmatica (Magdalis), 56 
phlegmaticus (Cureulio), 56 

,, (Thainuophilus), 56 

phlegyas (Teracolus), 319, 352 
Phlceoiiotus, 242 
Phkeophtliorus, 64 
Phlwopora, 9, 391 
Phlceotribus, 63, 401 
Phlyctffiiiia, 312, 327 
phcebe (Melitaia), 159 

,, (Phrissura), xviii, xxix, Ixx, 
Ixxi 
Phoraspis, 467 

phorbanta (Papilio), 449, 450, 451 
pliorsa (Araschnia), Ixxiii, Ixxiv 
Phrissura, xviii, xix, xxix, xxx, Ixx, 

Ixxi, Ixxii 
Phthora, 398 
Phygadeuon, 8, 44 
Phylax, 386, 387, 398 
phyllis (Helicoiiius), xiv, xv 
Phyllobius, 44, 168 
phylloeera (Mitiitettix), 229 
Phyllodromia, 462, 468, 469, 470 
Ph5'l]ognathus, 396 
Phylloinacromia, 360 
Phyllotreta, 37, 387, 402 
Phylloxera, 149, 150 
Phymateus, xlviii, 335, 374, 376 
Physematia, 323 



Physorhynchus, 312, 327, 371, 375 

Phythonnius, 36 

Phytobius, 168 

Phytocoris, 170 

Phytometra, ii 

Phytomyza, 25« 

Phytonomus, 44 

Phytophaga, xl, 371 

piceai (Bostrichus), 65 

„ (Cryphalus), 65 
piceus (Attagenus), 395 

,, dalmatinus (Attagenus), 395 

,, (Medon), 392 

,, (Myrmetes), 415 

,, (Sphenopliorus), 400 
picicornis (LiBuiosthenes), 387, 389 
picinus (Myrmecoxenus), 394 
picipes (Hister), 11 

,, (Meligethes), 395 

,, (Monotoma), 395 

,, (Paromalus), 11 

,, (Teretrius), 11 
picta (Baccha), 375 

,, (a-ocisa), 323 

,, (Forficula), 111 
picticornis (Niphoua), 402 
picturata (Baris), 400 
piedrahitfE (Heterogynis), 162 
Pierime, xxiii, Ixx, Ixxii 
Pieris, iv, liv, Ix, 161 
Piezodoms, 170 
Piezostethus, xlix 
pigea (Phrissura), Ixxii 

,, (Pinacopteryx), xxx, 319, 322, 
329 
Pilea, 438 
Pilema, 469 
pilicornis (Entedon), 48 

(Eulophus), 20, 50 
pilipes (Anthopliora), xlix 

,, (Panchlora), 467 

,, (Podalirius), xlix 
pilosus (Cerambyx), 30 
Pimelia, 386, 398 
Pimpla, 14-68 
Pinacopteryx, xxix, xxx, Ixv, Ixvi, 

Ixx, Ixxi, Ixxii, 312, 319, 322, 325, 

329, 366, 370, 372, 376 
pinalea (Orneodes), 506 
pinetellus (Crambus), 162 
pineti (Aphauus), 170 

,, (Brachonyx), 52 
pinetorum (Entedon), 63 

,, (Eurytoma), 63 
piui (Cureulio), 46 
,, (Hylobius), 46 
,, (Pissodes), 47 
,, (Pteromalus), 47 



( clii ) 



■piniperda (Hylesimis), 46, 47 
(Hyliu'gus), 63, 64 
piniphilus (Pissodes), 48 
pisi (Apion), 401 
pisistratus (Rhopalocampta), 320 
pisorum (Bruclnis), 401 
Pissodes, xvi, 46, 47, 48 
Pitlianus, 170 

pitiogra[ilius (Bostrichus), 65 
Pityogenes, 67 
Pityoplithonis, 65 
plagiatus ( Bleohus), 389 

(Chelisoches), 129 
Plagiodera, 36, 169 
Planema, 321, 324, 328 
planeta (Deuterocopus), 473 
planicollis (Foificiila), 115 
planitarsus (Mazarredia), 281 
plantaginis (Curculio), 45 
,, (Hypeia), 45 

planus (Bolotettix), 225 

,, (Bracon), 64 

,, (Larinus), 168 

,, (Scarites), 388 

,, (Tettigidea), 243 
Platycleis, Ix 
Platycnemis, 306 
Platymischus, 11 
Platynaspis, 170 
Platymis, 311 
Platyptilia, 481, 482, 483, 484, 485, 

486, 487, 488 
Platystethiis, 392 
Platytes, 350 
Platyzosteria, 469 
Plecia, 360, 369 
plectaria (Sterranthia), 312 
Plectrofitena, 336 
Pleurophorns, 166, 396 
pleurostigina (CVuilinrrhynchus), 55 
Pleurotropis, 49 
plicatella (Geostiba), 391 
plicatus (Rhytidoderes), 400 
Pliiithisus, 170 
Ploas, xlviii 
Plocedenis, 351 
plumbea (Alianta), 391 
plumbeomicans (Charopus), 167 
Plusia, 334, 366 
Plutella, 338, 347 
pluvialis (Orneodes), 505 
podagrariaj (ffidemera), 168 
Podagrica, 386, 402 
Podalirius, xlix, 356 
pndalirius (Papilio), 161 
Pododus, 334, 345 
poecilaria (C'penina), 320 
pceciloides (Anisodactylus), 389 



Pceciloseytus, 171 
Pcecilus, 165 
Pogonobasis, 346, 355 
Pogonochffirus, 29, 30 
pogonochferi (Pteroinahis), 29 
Pogonus, 165, 386, 389 
Polia, Ixxx 

policenes (Papilio), 326 
poligraphus (Bostrichus), 65 
,, (Hylesinus), 64 

Polistes, 331, 369, 374, 375 
polita (Malacosoma), 374, 375 
[)olitus (Brachistes), 41 

,, (Cybocephalus), 394 
(Philonthus), 392 
pollinalis (Titanio), 163 
Pollusca, 469 

polychloros (Vanessa), 161 
polychorda (Eutelia), 350 
Polydrnsus, 168 
polygoni (Hypera), 44 
Polygon ia, Ixxiv 
Polyhiima, 333, 365 
polyhistor (Cryptoceplialus), 374 
Polyphaga, 456 
Polyrachis, 344, 355, 375 
Polvsphincta, 21, 24, 49 
Polysticta, 365, 374 
Polystoma, 165 

pomarius (Doiyctes), 29, 60, 61 
pomerantzevi (Forficula), 113 
pomon.'e (Adiinouia), 36 
pomorum (Anthonomus), 52 
,, (Curculio), 52 
(Pinipla), 52 
Pompilus, 317, 369 
Pontia, iv, v 
poppea (Mylothris), xviii, xix, Ixx, 

Ixxii 
populi (Byctiscus), 41 

,, (Chrysomela), 35 

,, (Limenitis), Ixvi 

,, ab. treniul?e (Limenitis), Ixvi 

,, (Melasoma), 35 
populnea (Saperda), 30 
populneus (Ceranibyx), 31 
(Echthrus), 31 
(Ephialtes), 24, 30 
,, (Euglenes), 399 

porcatus (Anonialipus), 321 
,, (Micropeplus), 393 
porcellio (Honialodemas), 333 
porcellus (Stropliomorplius), 399 
porcicollis (Psammodius), 396 
porculus (Helophorus), 390 
porima (Araschnia), Ixxiii, Ixxiv 
Porizon, 34, 38, 39, 40, 55, 56 
porphyrella (Acrobasis), 161 



( cliii ) 



potentillre (Sibinia), 168 
Potosia, 166, 396 
Potus, 216 
poiiltoni (Kosmetor), 122 

,, (Mimaci-c-ea), 79 
poutieri (Hesperia), 453 
praecatorius (Xorides), 25, 26, 31 
prtecisus (Bracoii), 28 
prsecox (Bracon), 33 
Pmemachilus, Ixxxiii 
praetorise (Acanthonyx), 334 
praeusta (Cerambyx), 32 

,, (Saperda), 32, 60 

,, (Tetrops), 32, 56 
praeustum (Bembidion), 388 
prseustus (Rhynchites), 401 
Praos, 107 

Prasocuris, 36, 44, 402 
pratellus (Crambus), 162 
pratensis (Longitaisus), 402, 493 

,, minima (Longi tarsus), 403 
prauiisi (Belonogaster), 316, 369, 371 
Precis, 315-357, 372, 439, 453 
Pria, 395 

primita (Sibinia), 400 
Priobium, 19 
Prionus, 24 

procax (Myrmedonia), 345 
procera (Phyllotreta), 402 
procerulus (Bisnins), 165 
processus (Mitritettix), 229 
procontias (Pteropliorus), 496 
Proctotrupes, 8, 17, 39 
Proctotrupidse, xliii 
producta (Scelimena), 218, 219 
profligator (Meteorus), 23 
progemmaria (Hybeniia), ii 
Promachus, 360 
Promeces, 311, 369, 378 
Promecidus, 370 
Pronom;ea, 391 
Prorachthas, 380 
Prorens, 126, 129, 130, 131 
proscarabiBUs (Meloe), xvi, Ixxiii 
Prosopis, 313, 368, 375 
protensa (Doru), 124 
Prothymnia, 161 
Protinus, 393 
Prototettix, 361, 371, 374 
protuberans (Bracon), 58, 59 

,, (Dendrosoter), 59, 62 

proximus (Apotettix), 237 
pruinosum (Orthetrum), 305 

, , race neglectnm (Orthetrum), 
305 
prunaria (Angerona), xxi 
prunata (Cidaria), ii 
pruni (Eccoptogaster), 60 

PROC. BNT. SOC. LOND., V. 1907. 



pruni (Scolytus), 29, 60 
Psammodes, 339, 340, 371 
Psammodius, 396 
Psaryphis, 336, 345 
Pselaphidaj, 393 
Pselnophorus, 491, 492 
pseudacori (Mononychus), 54 
Pseudagrion, 307, 308, 354, 356, 362 
Pseudochelidura, 94, 95 
Pseudocolaspis, 345, 355 
Pseudoderopeltis, 370, 467 
Pseudomacronia, 354, 356, 360 
Pseudomo])S, 458, 464 
Pseudonaclia, 320, 330 
Pseudonympha, 312, 331, 367, 372, 

376, 378, 379, 380 
Pseudophlctus, 170 
Pseudosterrha, 331, 381 
Pseudothyrsocera, 469 
Psilothrix, 167, 386, 397 
Psylliodes, 37, 402 
Ptenidium, 394 
Pteromalus, 11-67 
Pterophoridae, Ixxxvi 
Pterophorus, 473, 493, 494, 495, 496, 
497, 498, 499, 500, 501, 502, 503, 
504 
Pteropus, 421, 428 
Pterostichus, 8 
Pterygospidea, 323, 330, 373 
Ptilini, 19 
Ptilinus, 21 
Ptilium, Ixxxi 
Ptinidffi, 18, 397 
ptinoides (Acalles), 400 

(Ochina), 22 
Ptinus, 18, 398 
Ptomophagus, 393 
puberula (Agonoscelis), 346 

,, (Aleochara), 391 
pubescens (Apion), 401 
(Auletes), 169 
(Conurus), 392 
(Epitrix), 170 
(Forficula), 114 
,, (Lachn^a), 169 
(Ophonus), 389 
(Pityophthorus), 65 
,, (Polygraph us), 64 
pudicata (Ortholitha), 333 
puella (Pseudonaclia), 320, 330 
pulchella (Deiopeia), 335, 364 
(Phyllodromia), 470 
(Terias), 448, 449 
,, (Theganopteryx), 470 
(Utetheisa), 335, 364 
pulchellus (Cheiropachus), 63 
,, (Chelisoches), 116 



( cliv ) 



I)ulchellus (Cleonymus), 59 

,, (Scymnus), 403 
pnlcherrimus (Sapriuus), 396 
piilchripennis (Chelisoches), 127, 128 
pulicarius (Rliamphus), 168, 385, 401 
pullus (Sciobius), 327, 374 
pulverosa (Zamarada), 331 
I^ulverosaria (Ciaspedia), 323 
pumila (Blatta), 468 
punctalis (Stenia), 163 
punctata (Lselia), 368 

(Saperda), 387, 402 
(Teleas), 61 
punctatus (Bracliistes), 20, 21 
,, (Colotes), 164, 167, 397 

(Eiitedon), 49 
,, (Epitettix), 216 
,, (Pentodou), 396 

(Tridymiis), 33, 42 
puncticosta (Aspidomorplia), 249, 250, 

251, 252 
punctifera (Euproctis), 323, 330 
punctifrous (Ischiioptera), 470 

,, (Phyllodromia), 470 

punctiger (Ceuthorrhynclius), 55 
punctillum (Scymnus), 403 
punctipennis (Exocentrus), 29 
,, (Mycetoporus), 392 

,, (Trogophloeus), 393 

punctulatus (Chelisoches), 127 
,, (Penthicus), 398 

(Xantholinus), 392 
purpuralis (Pyrausta), 162 
piu'purascens (Meloe), 399 
pusaria (Cabera), ii 
pusillidactyla (Platyptilia), 483 
pusillima (Oligota), 391 
pusillum (Auobium), 18 

(Ptenedium), 394 
pusilhis (Aphanisticus), 166 
,, (Campoplex), 17 
,, (Ceraphron), 66 
,, (Dryophilus), 18 
(Ephialtes), 26 
(Stenus), 166 
,, (Trogophlceus), 393 
pustulata (Xylopertha), 398 
pustulosa (Phyllodromia), 470 
Pycnoglypta, 393 
Pycnoscelus, 459 
Pygaera, Ixiv 

pygmaea (Agiiocnemis), 308 
,, (Aiihthona), 402 
(Bruchus), 401 
pygmteus (Cryptocephalus), 169 
,, (ilccoptogaster), 59 

(Helops), 399 
,, (Limuichus), 166 



pygmfeus (Olibrus), 394 

,, (Trichoptilus), 472 
Pygostolus, 34 

Pyrameis, 160, 161, 315, 318, 331, 
333, 334, 335, 336, 338, 339, 365, 
367, 377, 378, 380, 437, 439 
pyraster (Meciuus), 401 
Pyrausta, 162, 368 
Pyrgus, 363 
pyritosa (Haltica), 347 
Pyrophorus, xxxii 
pyrrhoceras (Balaninus), 56 

,, (Balanobius), 168 

Pyrrhosoma, 307 
quadrata (Otumba), 235 
quadiicollis (Hypocoprus), 395 
(Ochthebius), 390 
quadridens (Ceutliorrhyuchus), 400 
quadrifasciata (Straiigalia), 28 
quadrigemina (Chrysomela), 386, 402 
quadriguttata (Arsinoe), 327 
quadriguttatum (Bembidium), 165 
quadriguttatus (Aphodius), 396 
quadrimaculata (Libellula), 304 
quadrimaculatum (Bembidium), 165 
quadrimaeulatus (Dromius), 390 
quadrioculata (Isotoma), Ixxxii 
quadripmicta (Callimorpha), 162 
quadripuuctata (Anthaxia), 15 
,, (Buprestis), 15 

,, (Zonabris), 167 

quadrivirgatus (Miridius), 171 
quadrum (Cheiropachus), 59, 62, 63 

,, (Pachychirus), 57 
quatuordecim-pustulata (Coccinella), 

170 
quatuordecem-striata (Carcinops), 396 
quatuor-guttatus (Anthicus), 399 
quatuor-pustulatus (Exochomus), 403 
Quedius, xxxii, 392 
quercus (Caliodes), 54 

,, (Curculio), 49, 55 

(Orchestes), 49, 50, 55 

,, (Rhyuehajnus), 168 

,, (Trypodendron), xxxii 

,, (Zephyrus), 161 
quiuqueangularis ((janidia), 36 
quinque-guttata (Bruchus), 401 

,, V. meleagrina (Bru- 

chus), 401 
quinque-lineata (Prosopis), 368, 375 
quinquepunctata (Coccinella), 11, 12 
quinquepunctatus (Cryptocephalus), 34 
quisquilius (Cercyon), 390 
radiatus (Ceraphron), 67 
radiolus (Aijion), 401 
radzayanus (Spathius), 16, 26, 27, 54 
ragusas (Malthodes), 397 



( civ ) 



rahel (Terias), 448 
Rahinda, 443 
rahira (Acrsea), 352 
raluniensis (Triclioptilus), 473 
lamburii (Orthetrum), 305 
ramulorum (Pteromalus), 63 
rapte (Pieris), 161 

,, (Ceuthorrhynchiis), 55 
raphani (Gastropliysa), 36 

,, (Pontia), V 
Kaphidia, 17 
Kai^hitelus, 60, 62, 64 
rapidus (Podalinus), 356 
raptor (Oxyptilus), 478 
ratzeburgi (Scolytus), 60 
raucus (Pedilophorus), 138, 139 
ravula (Bryophila), 162 

,, ereptricula (Bryophila), 162 
vavus (Labus), 345 
rebus (Cosmiella), 118 

,, (Opisthocosmia), 104, 105 
recoudita (Oxypoda), 391 
redempta (Forficula), 115 
reflexa (Blatta), 467 

,, (Petasodes), 467 
regius (Pteromalus), 42 
regularis (Terias), 317, 319, 322, 326, 

329 
rehni (Sarcinatrix), 103 
reichei (Bruchus), 398 

,, (Mycetoporus), 392 
(Ptinus), 398 
reissigii (Pimpla), 54 
reitteri (Microptinus), 397 

(Niptus), 397 
relueens (Ischnoptera), 470 

,, (Phyllodromia), 470 
Remigia, 326 
repanda (Remigia), 326 
reppensis (Hyperaspis), 170 
reptans (Phkeopora), 9 
reticulata (Blatta), 468 
reticulatum (Lygseosoma), 170 
retusus (Strophosomus), 168 
reyi (Oligomerus), 398 
Rhabdinocerus, 355 
Rhabdotis (Pachnoda), 342, 345 
rhadania (Junonia), 439 

(Precis), 439, 453 
Rhadamanthus, 120, 121 
rhadia (Callidryas), 447 

,, (Catopsilia), 429 
Rhagium, 27, 188, 195 
rhamni (Clytus), 169 

,, (Gonepteryx), 161 
Rhamphus, 168, 385, 401 
Rhanidophora,»327 
Rhinocyllus, 45, 54, 400 



rhipheus (Urania), 410 

RhipiphoridEe, 399 

Rhizobius, 403 

Rhizophagus, 395 

Rhizotrogus, 164, 166 

rhoda (Arcyophora), 342 

rhododactylus (Phkeophthorus), 64 

rhomhoidalis (Brachy basis), 330, 360 

Rhopalocainpta, 320, 323, 452 

Rhopalomesites, 57 

Rhopalopus, 387, 402 

Rhynchsenus, 165, 168 

Rhynchites, 41, 164, 169, 401 

Rhycliium, 354 

Rhynchoniyia, 343 

Rhynchophora, 40 

Rhynchotettix, 228 

rhyncoli (Exothecus), 57 

rhyparias (Alucita), 489 

Rhyparobia, 467, 468 

Rhyssalus, 67 

Rhyssemus, 396 

Rhyticoris, 371 

Rhytidoderes, 400 

Rhytirrhinus, 365 

rigida (Myrmojcia), '691 

riparius (Quedius), xxxii 

,, (Trogophlojus), 393 
ritsemse (Deuterocopus), 474 

,, (Proreus), 130 
rivularis (Lygfeus), 337 
rivulata (Chalciope), 341 
robsoni (Aplecta), Ixvii 
robusta (Euthrips), Ixxxii 
robusticorne (Apion), 401 
robustus (Acanthalobus), 222 

,, (Brachistes), 47 
rodriguesi (Anthicus), 167, 399 
rodziankoi (Forficula), 113 
rceselii (Platycleis), Ix 
Rogas, 19, 54, 67 
rogersi (Kedestes), 81 
„ (Telipua), 78 
Roptroeerus, 59, 64, 65, 66, 67 
rosarum (Tetrastichus), 43 
roscidus (Agrilus), 166 
rosenhaueri (Pezomachus), 34 
roseomaculatus (Calocoris), 171 
rosina (Heliconius), xvi 
rostrata (Pronomaea), 391 
rostratus (Rhynchotettix), 228 
rotundatus (Coptotettix), 241, 242 
rubella (Catacanthacris), Ixxix 
ruber (Capsus), 171 
rubi (Anthonomus), 168 

,, (Bombyx), Ixxxiii, Ixxxv 
rubicunda (Formica), 419 
rubida (Lagi'ia), 167 



( clvi ) 



rubidus (Spatliius), 63 
rubiginosus (Chremylu.s), 33 
rubriceps (Alysia), 57 

(Opius), 30, 57 
rubricosta (Mylothris), xviii 
I'ubripes (Sapriuus), 396 
rubrobasalis (Phiissura), Ixxi 

,, (Pinacopteryx), xxx, Ixv, 

Ixvi, Ixx 
nibrodactylus (Deuterocopus), 473, 474 
rudis (Sparticerus), 339, 340 
rufa (Blatta), 459, 461 
,, (Formica), xlix, Ixxxi, 415, 417 
,, (Ischuoptera), 461 
rufator (Bracon), 33, 43 
rufesceus (Apioii), 401 

,, (Orchesella), Ixxxii 
ruficeps (Neolobophora), 11!) 

(Pompilus), 369 
ruticollis (Blatta), 468 

(Forficula), 111 
,, (Necrobia), 397 

(Omophliis), 164, 167 
ruficorue (Aciidium), 327, 374 
ruficoniis (Blacus), 53 

,, (Giammoptera), xxv, 28 
rufilabris (Cerciis), 395 

,, (Microgaster), 20 
rufimana (Bruchus, 33, 401 

,, V. velutina (Bruclius), 401 
rufimainis (Philouthus), 164, 165 
rufipenne (Lathrobium), Ixviii 
rufipennis (Aleochara), 165 
lufipes (Anobium), 20 
,, (Bruchus), 34, 401 

(Cerambyx), 30 
,, (Cryptocephalus), 169 
(Halticella), 21 
(Necrobia), 339, 397 
„ (Platynus), 311 
,, (Rhyparobia), 468 
(Trechus), 336 
rufirostre (Apion), 42, 401 
rufiventris (Pseudothyrsocera), 469 
rufosenea (Chrysoniela), 169 
rufo-cinctus (Harpalus), 365 
rufo-marginatus (Harpalus), 365 
rufo-nigra (Myzine), 343 
rufostigma (Ischnura), 307 
rufula (Pycnoglypta), 393 
rufulus (Phygadeuon), 44 
rufus (Ammobius), 398 
rugator (Eogas), 67 
rugiceps (Osorius), 361 
rugifrons (Phyllotreta), 402 
rugosa (Zetobora), 467 
rugoso-punctata (Microlestia), 313 
rugosus (Acantbalobus), 221, 222 



rugosus (Brachistes), 57 
,, (Helophorus), 390 
(Meloe), 399 
(Nabis), 170 
„ (Simthius), 59 
rugulosus (Ceuthorrhynchus), 400 
,, (Eccoptygaster), 61 
,, (Microdus), 65 

(Scolytus), 29, 60, 61 
rumanzovius (Papilio), 4 
rumicis (Hypera), 44 
rupens (Rhyuchiuni), 354 
rtippellii (Mylothris), xix, xxix, Ixxi, 
Ixxiii, 366, 370, 376 
,, (Promachus), 360 
ruspator (Helcon), 28 
russica (Triplax), 13 
rustica (Adinionia), 36 
rusticum (Gonocephalum), 398 
nisticus (Ischnoceros), 25, 27 

,, (Telephorus), xxiv 
rutilus (Chrysophanus), 1 
saba (Glutophrissa), 325, 329, 359 
sabacus (Pseudonympha), 312 
sabadius (Eagris), 452 

,, (Nisoniades), 452 
sabina (Molippa), 181, 182 

„ (Orthetrum), 304 
sabuleti (Trachyscelis), xxvii 
sabulicola (Bothrostethus), 170 
sabulosa (Asida), 167 
saeraria (Sterrha), 312, 332, 336, 364 
safitza (Mycalesis), 317, 318, 319, 322, 

325, 329, 359, 367, 372 
saginatus (Acantbalobus), 221 
Salamis, 317, 318, 321, 325, 329, 429, 

437, 440, 441, 450 
Salda, 170 

salebrosus (Apanteles), 10, 68 
salicis (Orchestes), 49 
Salius, Ixiv, 354 
saltator (Ortliocephalus), 171 
salzmanui (Abacetiis), 165 
sanctiflorentis (Prothyniiiia), 161 
saudaracata (Prosopis), 313, 368 
sauguiuea (Formica), xlix, 415, 416 

417, 419, 420 
sanguineirostris (Veterna), 371 
sanguineum (Callidiura), 25 

,, (Sympetrum), 377 

sanguineus (Cerambyx), 25 

,, (Harpactor), 170 

sanguinicollis (Pajderus), 165 
sanguiuolenta (Chrysomela), 169 

,, (Scelimena), 218 

sansibarica (Sphingolabis), 98, 117. 
sao (Syrienthus), 161 
Saperda, 30, 31, 32, 60, 387, 402 



( clvii ) 



Saprinus, 166, 396 

Sarakas, 106, 107 

Sarangesa. 320, 329, 371 

Sarcinatrix, 99, 102 

Sarcophaga, 313, 324, 327, 336, 354, 

375 
sardoa (Pimelia), 398 

,, subscabra (Pimelia), 398 
(Tentyria), 398 
sarpedon (Papilio), 5 
sataspes (Pyrgus), 363 

,, (Syrichthus), 363 
saturnus (Charaxes), 346 

(Papilio), 3 
Satyrus, 161 
saussurei (Pilema), 469 
saxesenii (Pteromalus), 52 
scaber (Paratettix), 241 
scabiosfe (Zygfena), 162 
scabra (Blatta), 467 

,, (Hyposphreria), 467 
scabricoUis (Pachytychius), 168 

(Psanimodes), 339, 340 
scabriculus (Trachyphlreus), 44 
scabridus (Discotettix), 214 
scalaris (Saperda), 31 
scaudatula (Homoptera), 350 
scanicus (Cryptophagus), 394 
Scan tins, 377 
Scaptobius, 332 
scapularis (Cymindis), 165 
,, (Holcostethus), 321 
,, (Malthimis;, 397 
„ (Otumba), 235 
scarabffioides (Phlceotribus), 401 
Scarabajus, 375, 396 
Scardia, 37 
Scaria, 244 
Scarites, 386, 388 
scarodactylus (Leioptilus), xii 
Scaurus, 386, 398 
Scelimena, 218, 219 
Sceliphron, 354 
schfefferi (Sisyphus), 166 
schistaca (Polyrachis), 344, 355 
Schistocerca, 343, 345, 346, 355 
schlagintweiti (Forficula), 110 
schreberi (Cerocoma), 167 

,, (Onthophagus), 166 
Sciaphilus, 168, 399 
Sciatheras, 62 
Sciobius, 327, 374 
Sclerocarya, 344, 355 
Scleron, 398 
Scolia, 14 

scolyticida (Coeloides), 58, 59 
Scolytus, 29, 32, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 66 
401 



scolytus (Eccoptogaster), 57, 60, 61 
(Elachestus), 58 
(Scolytus), 401 
Scopwus, 166, 392 
scoparium (Spartium), 33 
scoparius (Microchsetes), 135, 136, 137, 

138 
scotalis (Parthenodes), 350 
Scraptia, 167 

scriptus (Brachycoleus), 171 
scrophulariae (Cionus), 53 
scnlpta (Mazarredia), 231 
sculpturatus (Oxytelus), 393 
sculptus (Oxytelus), 393 
scutellaris (Atomaria), 394 
(Bracon), 20, 40 
,, (Capsus), 171 
,, (Henicopus), 397 
,, rufotestaceus (Henicopus), 
397 
(Orchestes), 49 
(Tachys), 388 
scutellata (Leptura), 27 

(Lochmffia), 170 
Scybalicus, 389 
Scydnifenus, Ixxxi, 393 
Scymnus, 170, 355, 364, 403 
sedecimguttata (Halyzia), 170 
sedecim-punctata (Micraspis), 170 
sedi (Apion), 169 
seeboldi (Amblyptilia), 483 
segmentarius (Harpactor), 376 
seladonia (Cassida), 37 
sellatus (Chlffinius), 336 
sematias (Pterophoius), 496 
seroele (Satyrus), 161 
semialata (Monastria), 467 
semicincta (Pseudothyrsocera), 469 
semiflava (Leuceronia), xxx 
semifulva (Sphingolabis), 97 
semiluteus (Hamaxas), 134 
seminarius (Bruchus), 33, 401 

,, picipes (Bruclius), 401 
seminulum (Acritus), 396 

,, (Hypocyptus), 392 

Semiotliisa, 333, 364, 368 
semipunctatus (Saprinus), 396 

(Scarabfflus), 396 
semirufa (Podagrica), 402 
semirufus (Orchestes), 48 
semivittatum (Apion), xlix, Iv, 401 
semperinus (Papilio), 4 
senegalensis (Forficula), 113 

(Terias), 319, 326, 353, 
356, 359 
Sepedon, 347, 360 
sepicola (Tropideres), Ixix 
septemguttata (Cassida), 456 



( clviii ) 



septempunctata (Coccinella), 12, 403 
Serenthia, 170 
sericans (Trichopteryx), 394 
sericatus (Ptomophagus), 393 
sericea (Melanophthalma), 394 
,, (Nvctibora), 467 
(Oxypoda), 391 
sericeus (Cafius), 165, 392 
,, (Cainponotus), 361 
„ (Rliynchites), 164, 169 
Sericoderus, 394 
seriesetosus (Sitona), 400 
serindibanus (Pterophorus), 497 
Serinetlia, 376 
serratus (Henoticus), Ixxxi 
sertata (Bruchns), 401 
servilia (Crocothemis), 304 
sesarmis (Precis), 315, 317, 318, 328, 

333, 334, 335, 352, 355 
Sesia, 1, 162 

sesquit'asciatus (Elachestns), 50 
setit'roiis (Polydrusiis), 168 
setiger (Orthochietes), 400 
setinodis (Liothrips), Ixxxi 
setosella (Dorcaton.a), 22 
setulosum (Gonocephalum), 398 
severina (Belenois), xii, xiii, xxxi, 314, 
317, 319, 322, 325, 329, 352, 357, 
358, 359, 366, 370 
severus (Brachycerus), 336 
sexdentatum (Sinoxylon), 22 
sexguttatus (Calocoris), 171 
sexmaculatus (Cryptocephalus), 169 
sexnotata (liSIatta), 467 
sexpvinctata (Hylomela), 342, 356, 371 

,, (Lachiirea), 169 

sexstriatus (Tachys), 165 
shelfordi (Clielisoches), 133 
(Discotettix), 214 
(Epaichus), 121 
Siagona, 388 
Sibinia, 168, 400 
Sibylla (Limenitis), 443 

(Neptis), 358 
siccatorum (Pteronialus), 63, 67 
siculus (Sciapliilus), 399 
sieboldi (Pteroraalus), 35 
Sigalphus, 20, 21, 22. 33, 34, 42, 48. 

49, 51, 54, 55, 57, 67 
signaticollis (Cryptocephalus), 402 
signaticornis (Bruchiis), 34 
signatus (Cardiophorus), 164, 166 

,, (Ophioneurus), 41 
silacea (Aspidoinorpha), 369 
silana (ForJicula), 114 
Silas (Argiolaus), 316, 367, 376 
silenus (Phyllogiiathus), 396 
silesiacus (I3racon), 64 



Silpha, 386, 393 

silphoides (Leucoparypluis), 392 

Silvanus, 395 

similator (Perilitus), 38 

similis (Epilaclina), 331 

,, (Euparatettix), 238 
simillima (Molippa), 182 
simillimus (Hexachrysis), 374 
sinionsii (Mycalesis), 345 
simplex (Hypurgus), 102 

(CEdemera), 399 
,, (Ophioneurus), 41 

(Prosopis), 368 

(Svntomis), 320 

(Zeritis), 363 
simplicicorms(Pedilophonis), 133, 139, 

141 
siinulans (Forficula), 130 

(Proreus), 130, 131 
simum (Gymiietron), 401 
sinapis (Leptidia), 161 
singularis (Holoparamecus), 394 
Sinodendroii, 14 
Sinoxylon, 22 
siniiata (Apate), 22, 29, 61 
,, (Panesthia), xxxiv 

(Xylopertha), 22, 59 
siiiuatieoUis (Diglotta), 165 
sinuatus (Bostrychus), 22 

(Hister), 166 

(Phkeonotns), 242 
siniiella (Homceosoma), 163 
Sirex, 188, 192, 208 
Sisyphus, 164, 166 
Sitaris, xlix 
Sitona, 400 
Sitoiies 168, 386 
sjostedti (ForHcula), 112, 116 
Skalistes, 120, 121 
Skendyle, 104, 105, 118 
Skendyliuffi, 94, 117 
skoptoles (MiraacriTea), 78 
skrimshiramus (Stenolophus), 389 
sloanus (Cydimon), 409 
smaragdulus (Eusomus), 168 
Smicronyx, 168, 385, 400 
Sminthurus, Ixxxiii 
smyrnensis (Forficula), 115 
snelleui (Metachrostis), 350 

„ (Ozarba), 350 
sobrina (Pachnoda), 342, 345 

(Rhabdotis), 342, 345 
sobrius (Proreus), 130 
Sochohora, 482 
Solenosoiua, 126, 131 
solidum (Tetramorium), 333 
solidus (Microchfetes), 138 
solieri (Parmena), 402 



( clix ) 



sordida (Colpodota), 391 

sordidator (Bracon), 46 

sordidula (Cremastogaster), 336, 371 

sordidus (Philonthus), 392 

soi'or (Polysphincta), 21 

spadix (Codiosoma), 400 

Spalgis, 178 

Sparatta, 91, 125 

sparganii (Nonagria), liii 

sparsus (Rhynchfenus), 168 

sparsutus (Pachytychius), 164, 168 

Sparticerus, 339, 340, 341 

sparlii (Bruchus), 33 

,, (Curculio), 34 

,, (Hylesinus), 64 

,, (Lixiis), 168 

,, (Phloeophthorns), 64 
spathiiformis (Bracon), 19 
Spathius, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 

26, 27, 29, 47, 49, 54, 57, 58, 59, 

62, 63, 65, 67 
speciosus (Teracolus), 322, 326, 329 
speculifrons (Oxytelus), 393 
sperans (Pseudosterrha), 331 
spermatias (Pterophorus), 499 
Spermophagus, 401 
sphacelatus (Peribalus), 170 
sphffiricus (Microchtetes), 135, 136 
Sphajridium, 390 
Sphffiroderma, 387, 403 
Sphecophaga, 40 
sphegiformis (Globiceps), 171 
Spheuophoriis, 400 
Sphex, 17, 40 

Sphingolabis, 92, 97, 98, 117, 123, 132 
Spliingomorpha, 362 
Sphinx, 366 
spica (Mylothris), xviii, xix, xxx, Ixx, 

Ixxi 
spiciilifera (Doru), 124 
spilodesma (Oineodes), 508 
Spindasis, 80, 245, 247, 248, 338, 363 
spini (Thecla), 161 
spinicoUis (Monotoma), 395 
spinilobiis (Cryptotettix), 230 
spinipes (Odontomerus), 30 
spinolfe (Pteromalus), 61, 66 
spinosns (Platystethus), 392 
spinulosa (Hispa), 347 
spio (Hesperia), 363, 364, 373 

,, (Syrichthus), 364 
Spiramiopsis, xi 
spirifex (Sceliphron), 354 
spitzyi (Bruchus), 398 

(Ptinus), 398 
spoliata (Baris), 400 
„ (Idcea), 323 
spoiiataria (Ectropis), 370 



Spondylis, 164, 169 
Spongiphora, 91, 93 
spretulus (Saprinus), 396 
spurius (Syrichthus), 371, 374 
squalida (Epicometis), 386, 396 
squalidus (Chcerorrhinus), 400 
squamifer (Ellimenistes), 371 
squamosus (Dicranocnemus), 378 

,, (Pachytychius), 400 

s-signata (Spalgis), 178 
stabilis (Bracon), 63 
stadelmanni (Cremastogaster), 380 
stadias (Pterophorus), 498 
Stalachtis, Ixxix 
stall (Tryxalis), 330, 376 
Staphylinidfe, 10, 386, 391 
statilinus (Satyrus), 161 
stellata (Euproctis), 323 
Steminatophora, 350 
Stenia, 163 
Stenocephalus, 170 
Stenodontus, 206 
Stenolophus, 165, 389 
Stenopterus, 169 
Stenoptilia, 504 
Stenosis, 386, 398 
Steiiostoma, 399 
Stenozygum, 374 
Stenus, 164, 166, 392 
Sterconychus, 53 , 
Sterranthia, 313, 332 
Sterrha, 312, 332, 336, 364 
Sthenarus, 171 
stictica (Leucocelis), 166 
,, (Oxythyrea), xxix 
stictita (Atelocera), 316 
Stictostix, 145 
Stilbus, 394 
stilicina (Domeue), 392 
Stilicus, 392 

stolida (Basipta), 249, 252 
Storthygocerus, 61, 64 
stragulatus (Longi tarsus), 402 
Stramia, 323, 365 
Strangalia, 28 

strangulata (Leptura), 164, 169 
strangulatus (Eremotes), 57 

,, (Longitarsus), 386 

stratioticus (Chelisches), 129 
stratocles (Papilio), 1, 6 
stratoclides (Paj^ilio), 6 
Strengophorus, 368 
striata (Coscinia), 162 
striatulus (Sigalphus), 33, 34 
striatum (Acheniura), 392 

,, (Anobium), 19 
(Apion), 169 

,, (Asemum), 205 



( clx ) 



striatum agreste (Asemuin), 205 
striatus (Scauvus), 391 
strichnocera (Dictyonota), 170 
strigiilifera (Craspedia), 368 
striolata (Eurytoma), 59 
striolatum (Synipetnim), 303, 304 
striolatus (Ischius), 49 
strobilana (Tortrix), 20 
strobilorum (Pimpla), 20 
Strongylocoris, 171 
Strongylogaster, vii 
Strophoniorphus, 399 
Strophosomus, 168, 374 
strumosa (Lomechusa), 415, 419 
Stugeta, 80, 344, 353, 363 
stygne (Erelsia), 159 
Stygnocoris, 170 
stylata (Xistra), 231 
stylifera (Hyposphajria), 370 
Styloceras, 62 
Stylosomus, 164, 169 
Styrax, xxxi 
subseneus (Dasytes), 167 

,, (Harpalus), 365 
subaptera (Doru), 124 
subcinctus (Campoplex), 44 
Subcoccinella, 170 
subdepressus (Cryptophagus), 1 
subfulvata (Eujiithecia), ii 
subinteger (Ochthebius), 390 
subnotati;s (Trechus), 389 
subopacum race aiistrale (Monomo- 

rium), 339 
subrafus (Corizus), 170 
subspissata (Epirrhoe), 323 
substriatus (Phalacras), 394 
subsiilcatiis (Hister), 327 
subtilicoruis (Diadromus), 31 
subulifer (Storthygocerus), 61, 64 
subvillosus (Scymnus), 403 

,, pubescens (Scymmis), 403 

subzonatus (Hemiteles), 13 
siiffumata (Cidaria), ii 
sulcata (Falagria), 391 

,, (Myrmecopora), 391 
sulcatus (Bracon), 21, 22 

,, (Hecabolus), 18, 21, 22 
,, (Lopus), 170 
,, (Otiorrhyncbus), xxix 
sulcicoUis (Ceutborrbyncbus), 55 

,, (Psammodius), 396 
sulcicornis (Verlusia), 170 
sulcifrons (Apion), 43 

,, (Barypithcs), 108 
sumatranus (Troides), 2 
Sunius, 166, 392 

supellectilium (Phyllodroiuia), 469 • 
su})eiba (Lobophora), 128 



superbus (Lygseus), 170 
supra (Leuceronia), xxx 
surinamensis (Blatta), 456, 457, 458, 
462 
,, (Pycnoscelus), 459, 462 

(Sylvanus), 395 
suspensus (Pteromalus), 47, 64, 66, 67 
suspicax (Icbneumon), 31 
sutor (Cerambyx), 30 

,, (Monochammus), 30 
suturalis (Cymindis), 390 

,, (Lochma'a), Ixxxiv, Ixxxv 
sybaris (Tarucus), 334 
sycoplianta (Calosoma), 7 
sykesi (Cyclopodia), 421, 422, 424, 

425, 426, 428 
sylvia (Phrissura), xviii, xix, xxx, Ixx, 

Ixxi 
Symbiotes, 394 
Sympetrum, 303, 304, 377 
Sympycna, 308 
Syncalypta, 396 
Synchita, 13 
Synchloe, 311. 331, 334, 335, 338, 

339, 372, 377 
syncECoides (Lycanthropa), 312 
Syntomis, 320, 368, 373, 375 
Syrichthus, 161, 363, 364, 371, 374, 

400 
Syromastes, 170 
Syrphus, 324, 360, 369 
Syssita, 368 
Systasis, 51 

Systcechus, 340, 344, 374 
Systolederus, 227 
sythoffi (Platyptilia), 482 
Tabanus, 357, 360 
Tabauidai, xlv 

tabida (Microlestia), 310, 378 
tabidus (Loiigitarsus), 403 
,, (Meteorus), 28, 31 
Tachina, 8 
Tachyporus, 392 
Tachypus, 165 
Tachyris, xviii, Ixxii 
Tachys, 164, 165, 388 
Tachyiisa, 165, 391 
taeniata (Acmteodera), 166 
tseniolatum (Orthetrum), 305 
treniops (Eristalis), 317, 324, 330, 369, 

373 
tagalica (Epilampra), 469 
Tagiades, 323 
tagis (Anthocharis), v 
taikosama (Aloeides), 343, 345 
tales tales (Eueides), Ixxvi 
talpoides (Hemimerus), xxxiii 
taniul (Xeolobophora), 119, 120 



( clxi ) 



Tanagra, ii 
Taplifeus, 19 
Taphroryclius, 66 
taprobanes (Amblyptilia), 482 

(Platyptilia), 482, 483 
tardator (Helicon), 26, 29 
tardii (Mesites), 57 
tardus (Oncotus), 379 
tardyi (Rhopalomesites), 57 
tarsalis (Steiius), 166 
tarsatus (Paltothyreus), 354, 357 

,, (Scydmffiuus), 393 
tartarea (Cutilia), 469 
Tarucus, 316, 329, 334, 343, 358, 360, 

367, 372, 445 
taurus (Anthracias), 330 

♦,, (Onthophagus), 166, 396 
taxicornis (Labidostomis), 402 
tecta (Aspidomorpha), 375 
tectiformus (Deltonotus), 215 
Teleas, 50, 61 

Telephorus, xxiv, 167, 374, 378, 380 
telesicles (Papilio), 4 
telicanus (Cupido), 445 

,, (Lampides), 152 

(Lycrena), 161, 445 
(Tarucus), 316, 329, 343, 358, 
360, 367, 372, 445 
Telipna, 78 
tellonus (Papilio), 3 
Telmatettix, 241 
Temnopterix, 379 
temora (Kosmetor), 123 
tenax (Eristalis), 310, 381 
tenebrator (Chelisoches), 129 
tenebricosa (Timarcha), 35 
Tenebrio, 399 
Tenebrioides, 395 
Tenebrionidfe, 146, 398 
tenebrionis (Gapnodis), 397 
tenebrosus (Harpalus), 389 

,, (Melanotus), 166 

tenella (Blatta), 469 

,, (Mantispa), 376 
tenellum (Achenium), 392 

,, (Pyrrhosoma), 307 
tener (C?enocryptus), 29 
tengstrcemi (Deuteroeopus), 474 
tenuestriatus (Trachyscelis), xxvii 
tenuicollis (Ochthenomus), 399 
tenuistriga (Crambus), 364 
Tentyria, 167, 386, 387, 398 
tephradactylus (Leioptilus), xii 
Tephrina, 317, 333 
Tephrosia, 449 
Teracolus, xii, xiii, xxiii, xxiv, 312-376, 

431 
terebella (Bracon), 50 



terebrans (Pimpla), 29, 30, 47 
teredo (Mesoleptus), 24, 32 
teres (Glypta), 31 
Teretrius, 11 
Terias, 314-359, 448 
terminalis (Halictus), 380 

,, (Microctonus), 12 
(PJiyticoris), 371 
terminatus (Perilitus), 11 
terpsichore (Acrsea), 317, 318, 328 
tersus (Aphodius), 396 
Tessaratoma, 253, 255, 256 
tessellata (Dichfetometopia), 337 
tessellatus v. humilis (Hydroporus), 
390 

,, (Pteromalus), 56 
testacea (Hispa), 170 
testaceipes (Orthocentrus), 37 
testaceum (Lasioderma), 398 

,, (Sphiuroderma), 403 
testaceus (Pentaphyllus), 398 

(Stilbus), 394 
teter (Curculio), 51 

,, (Gymnetron), 51 
Tetradia, 339, 351 
Tetramoriura, 333 
Tetraschalis, 474, 475, 476 
Tetrastichus, 36, 43, 48, 49 
Tetriginse, 213, 226, 228, 236 
Tetrix, 234, 236, 239 
Tetropium, 31, 32, 183-208 
Tetrops, 32, 56 
tetrum (Gymnetron), 168 
Tetticerus, 230 
Tettigidea, 243 

teutonus (Stenoloplius), 165, 389 
thalassina (Epachromia), 377 

,, (Leuceronia), Ixx, Ixxii, 358, 
359 
Thammophilus, 32 
Thamnotrizon, Ixvi 
Thanasimus, 17 
thaumas (Hesperia), 161 
Thecagaster, 305 
Thecla, 161 
Theganopteryx, 470 
tlieora (Belenois), xxx, Ixx, Ixxi 
Therates, 85, 86 
thermarum v. maritimus (Philontlius), 

392 
thermesialis (Hypena), 323 
thero (Phasis), 380 
Thersiloclius, 13, 39, 55 
Thespis (Cacyreus), 380 
theuszi (Belenois), xxix, xxx, Ixx, Ixxi, 

Ixxii 
tlioas thoas (Papilio), Ixxviii 
thomsoni (Cryptopliagus), 394 



( clxii 



tlioracicus (Hemitelcs), 67 
,, (Mesochorus), 35 
,, (Pezoinachus), 53 
,, (Sigalplms), 33 
Thorictus, 39« 
Thiips, Ixxxii 
Throscus, 16 
Thylacites, 387 
Thyreopterus, 320 
Thyretes, 334 
Thyr.socera, 458, 469 
thysa (Belenois), Ixx, Ixxi, Ixxii, 325, 

329 
Thysanura, Ixxxiii, 340 
thysbe (Phasius), 312 
Thysodactyla, 374 
tibialis (Calyptus), 19, 41 

,, (Cha?tocnema), 402 

,, (Erodius), 167 

,, (Sitoiia), 400 
tigrina (Hypeia), Iv 
tigriiuis (Cleomis), 168 
tiline (Cryphalns), 65 

,, (Phytocoiis), 170 
Tillus, 17, 386, 397 
Timarcha, 35, 402 
timida (Bans), 400 

,, (Liagrica), 402 
timidus (Pterophoriis), 494 
Timomenus, 95, 96 
Tina'geria, 330, 347 
tinctor (Eumeues), 361, 369, 373, 375 
Tinea, 37 
Tineffi, 14 
Tiphia, 14 
Tirumala, 359 
Titanio, 163 

tithonus (Epincplule), 161 
tolteca (Aucistrogaster), 108 
toraeiitosus (TychiuH), 400 
Tomicus, 66 
tomis (Forficula), 113 
Tomoglossa, 391 
topha (Teracolus), 319, 343 
Tormentilla, Ixxxv 
torrensensis (Morychus), 138 
torrida (Pseudoraacromia), 354, 356, 

360 
Tortiix, 20, 31, 163 
Torymus, 31 

Trachyscelis, xxvi, 386, 398 
Trachyphlceus, 44, 400 
Tragia, 443 

transalpina (Zygieiia), 162 
transi'uga (Campoplex), 31 
transversalis (Tillus), 386, 397 
transversus (Enicmus), 394. 
Treclins, 336, 389 



tremuhi? (Lina), 36 

,, (Melasoma), 36, 41 
triadias (Pteroplionis), 494 
Tribolium, 398 
tricarinatus (Criotettix), 220 
tricausta (Orueodes), 506 
Tricliiura, ii 
Trichius, 164, 166 
Trichodes, 167 
Trichopteryx, 394 
Trichoptilus, 472, 473 
Trichothrips, Ixxxi 
trichotiis (Sciatiieras), 62 
tricolor (Bembidium), 165 

,, (Ootheca), 378 
tricoiidyloides (Styrax), xxxi 
tricoruis(Bledius), 393 
tricuspidatus (Uitonuis), 389 
tridens (Eusaiidulou), 56, 67 
Tridymus, 33, 41, 62 
trifesciata (Pliyllomacromia), 360 
trifasciatus (Attagenus), 166 
(Clytantluis), 169 
(Notoxus), 167 
trifolii (Anthrocera), Ixxviii 

,, (Apion), 42 

,, (Zygffiiia), 162 
Trigouoderus, 20 

Trigonopus, 312, 336, 365, 369, 371 
Trilophidia, 331 
trimenia (Mylothris), Ixxi, Ixxii, 314, 

366 
Triuodes, 145 
Tripetalocera, 213 
tripilis seeunda (Miisca), 15 
Triplax, Ixxxi, 13 
tristigma (Laclin;ea), 169 
tristis (Acridotheres), 441 

,, (Aleochara), 391 

,, (Antliicus), 167 

,, (Bruchus), 401 
Trithemis, 304 
Tritomidre, 395 
Ti-ochalus, 351, 374 
Trochiliuni, 163 

trocliilus (Macroglossa), 360, 368 
troglodytes (Centhorrhynchidius), 400 

,, (Trogophloeus), 393 

Trogositidre, 395 
Troides, 2 
Tropideres, Ixix 
Tropistethus, 170 
Trox, 339, 396 
truncatus (Loxilobus), 223 
truiicorum (Bracon), 26 
Tryphon, 35 

Trvpodendron, xxxii, Ixxi 
Trypopitys, 20 



( clxiii ) 



Trypoxylon, 206 
Tryxalis, 330, 345, 376 
tuberculata (Blatta), 467 

,, (Braehycola), 467 

tuberculatus (Coptotettix), 241, 242 

(Ephialtcs), 24, 28, 31, 
46, 53 
,, (fianyochorus), 43 

tuberculifer (Phyllobius), 168 
tuberculosis (Clonus), 53 
tuccius (Meloe), 399 
tuUbergi (Anurida), Ixxxiii 
turbatus (Balaninus), 168 

,, (Lixus), 45 
turbwlenta (Osteodes), 331, 334, 370, 

373 
turida (Forficula), 115 
tuttodactyla (Marasmarcha), 412, 413 
Tychius, 400 
Tvpha, i 
Typhjea, 13, 395 
typogi-aplius (Bostrichus), 66 
ucedinis (Heterogynis), 162 
ulicis (Bruclius), 401 
umbellataium (Anthaxia), 387, 397 

(Molorchus), 26 
umbrata (Oxypoda), 391 
undatus (Bracliycerus), 400 

,, (Tridymus), 33 
undecem-punctata (Coccinolla), 403 
undulatus (Bracon), 29, 30 
,, (Dermestes), 395 
unicolor (Aphodius), 396 

,, (CEdemera), 399 

,, (Perisphperia), 467 
unicornis (Bledius), 393 
unicostatus (Eutedon), 49 
unifasciata (Atomaria), 394 
unifasciatus (Pcceiloscytus), 171 

(Tillus), 17 
uniformis (Elliptoblatta), 469 

(Sunius), 166. 392 
unispinosa (Hadroeerus), 47 
Urania, xxviii, 405, 410 
urinator (Bracon), 45 
uroceriformis (Trocbilium), 163 
Urodon, 401 
ursina (Polyphaga), 456 
r;rsus (Anisonyx), 379 
urticfe (Phyllobius), 44 

,, (Vanessa), 161 
urticarium (Apiou), 43 
Usagaria, 345 
ustulatus (Cercyon), 390 
Utetheisa, 335, 364 
uvida (Myrmecopora), 391 
vagimilfe (Entedon), 52 

,, (Pteromalus), 52, 53 



vaillantina (Egybolia), 327, 330 

validispinus (Bolotettix), 224, 226 

vallecula (Pteromalus), 58 

vaiidepolli (Troides), 3 

Vanessa, 161, 436 

varanes (Charaxes), 318, 329, 352, 

367 
varia (Leuceronia), xxx 
variabile (Callidium), 26, 197 
variabilis (Bombus), xxxiii 
(Cyphon), 167 
,, (Hypera), 400 
,, (Paratettix), 236 
varians (Anaspis), 399 
,, (Chrysoniela), 35 
,, (Philouthus), 392 
variator (Bracon), 50, 51 
variegata (Adonia), 170 
,, (Autestia), 321 
(Audea), 334 
(Forficula), 132 
(Sphingolabis), 132 
variegatus (Bruclius), 398 
(Chlaenius), 389 
(Ptinus), 398 
variicornis (Haraaxas), 134 
variolosa (Chrysoniela), 402 
variolosus (Oxylaemus), Ixix 
,, (Scarabnsus), 396 
variopietus (Proreus), 130 
varipes (Apion), 169 
varius (Clytanthus), 402 
,, (Hydroporus), 390 
velox (Anthicus), 399 
velutinus (Chlaenius), 389 
ventralis (Hister), 396 
(Ochrosis), 402 
(Philonthus), 392 
Venusia, ii 

verbasci (Anthrenus), 395 
,, (Bradycellus), 389 
(Cionus), 53 
Verlusia, 170 
vernale (Apion), 43 
vernaria (Euchloris), 334 
versicolor (Agonoscelis), 324 
,, (Deroealymnia), 469 
,, (Pelochares), 166 
versicolora (Plagiodera), 36, 169 
versicolorea (Donseia), 169 
Vespa, 40 

vesparum (Spliecophaga), 40 
vestigialis (Syssita), 368 
vestita (Acantholepis), 333, 336, 365 
Veterna, 371 

vialis (Psammodes), 339, 340 
viator (Proctotrypes), 8 
vicaria (Forficula), 114 



( clxiv ) 



vicarius (Pteromalus), 63 

vicise (Bruchus), 33 

vicina (Eparclms), 121 

victoria (Neocffiiiyra), 77 

vidua (Pinacopteryx), Ixx, Ixxii 

vidaatus (Ceuthoirhynchus), Ixviii 

viduus (Eupelmus), 50 

„ (Pezoniaclius), 9 
vigilans (Pseudonympha), 378, 379 
vigiutiquatuor-punctata (Subcocci- 

nella), 170 
vigiuti-quatuor-signata (Polysticta), 

365 
vilis (Pselnophorus), 492 
villosa (Anoxia), 166 
villosiilus (Gymnetron), 51 
villosus (Balaninus), 56 

,, (Bostrichus), 61, 65 

,, (Bnichiis), 33 

,, (Dryoca'tes), 65 
viminalis (Orchestes), 50 
vincta (Monolepta), 358 
vindex (Hemipepsis), 354 

,, (Hesperia), 364, 373 

,, (Salius), 354 

,, (Syriclithus), 364 
villi (Cryptophagus), 394 
violacea (Curculio), 57 

,, (Magdalis), 57 
violaceonigra (Timarcha), 35 
violaceum (Apion), 43, 401 

(Callidium), 26, 197, 387, 
402 
violacens (Carabus), 8 

,, (Cryptocephalus), 169 
,, (Curculio), 57 
(Meloy), 399 
,, (Pteromalus), 56, 57 
Virachola, 320, 326, 329 
virescens (Blatta), 467 

(Panchlora), 463, 464 
(Pteromalus), 56, 57, 66, 67 
virgatus (Sitona), 400 
virgaurese (Chrysoplianus), 161 
virgo (Calopteryx), Ixi 
viridana (Tortrix), 163 
viridescens (Meligethes), 13 
viridis (Agrilus), 16 

,, (Gecinus), 208 

,, (Malaehius), 167 

,, (Panchlora), 463 
viridissima (Locusta), Ix 

,, (Palomena), 170 

viridissimus (Pachybrachys), 169 
virMula (Gastroidea), 36 
vishnu (Kosmetor), 123 
vistara (Troides), 2 
vitellina (Panchlora), 470 



vitripennis (Hadroceras), 52 
vittata (Cassida), 403 
,, (Ceratina), 338 
vittatus (Chelisoches), 132 

,, (Cryptocephalus), 164, 169 
,, (Larinus), 400 
vivax (0})isthocosmia), 101 
Vlax, 106, 108 
vomitoria (Calliphora), 381 
vorax (Apion), 401 
vulcanus cythera (Heliconius), xvi 
,, ,, ab. modesta (Heli- 

conius), xvi 
,, pyrforus (Heliconius), xvi 
vulgaris (Linaria), 51 
,, (Pterostichus), 8 
(Vespa), 40 
vulgatum (Sympetrum), 303 
vulneratus (Diastictus), 396 
vulpinus (Dermestes), 339, 376 
wahlbergi (Carlisis), 370 
,, (Periplaneta), 469 
,, (Pseudoderopeltis), 370 
walkeri (Gyaria), 337 
„ (Sunius), 392 
wallengi-enii (Teracolus), 319 
waltoni (Phytobius), 168 
weitzecheri (Cremastogaster), 371 
wenekeri (Apion), 168 
whitei (Iphiaulax), 331, 343, 344, 356, 

369, 370 
wiedeuieyeri (Limenitis), Ixxvii, Ixxx 
xanthocles xanthocles (Heliconius), 

Ixxvi 
xanthographus (Harpalus), 365, 380 
Xantholinus, 369, 392 
xantholoma (Cafius), 12, 165, 392 
xanthomelfena? (Tetrastichus), 36 
xanthomista (Polia), Ixxx 

,, nigrocincta (Polia), Ixxx 

xanthops (Entedon), 48 
,, (Eulojdius), 48 
Xanthoptera, 350 
xanthopus (Atheta), 391 
Xanthorhoe, xx, xxi 
xanthosoiiia (Papilio), 6 
Xanthospilopteryx, 370 
xanthostonia (Entedon), 48 
Xenitenus, 341 

xenoclea (Heliconius), xiv, xv 
Xenodusa, 419 
Xenorrhinus, 355 
Xenoscelis, 395 
Xenylla, Ixxxiii 
Xistra, 231 
Xorides, 18, 21, 24, 25, 27, 28, 30, 32, 

47 
Xyleborus, 67 



( clxv ) 



Xyletinus, 22, 167 

Xyliua, Ixxx 

xylobius (Entedon), 67 

Xylocleptes, 65 

Xylocopa, 320, 335, 344, 354, 368, 369, 

373, 374, 375, 379 
Xylonomus, 26, 31, 32 
Xylopertha, 22, 59, 351, 398 
xylophagorum (Pachyceras), 61, 66 

,, (Roptrocerus), 64, 65, 

66, 67 
,, (Tridymus), 62 

Xylophilus, 164, 167 
xylopsamma (Platyptilia), 488 
Xylotrechus, 169 
Xyroptila, 479, 480 
Xystra, 232 
Yphthima, 334, 335, 344, 352, 353, 

357, 358, 359 
Zabrus, 165 
Zamarada, 331 
zebrinus (Spindasis), 245 
Zeleta, xxxi 



Zephyrus, 161 

Zerenopsis, 327, 368 

Zeritis, 341, 363 

Zetobora, 467 

zetterstedti (Gegenes), 316, 317, 322, 

326, 329, 360, 368, 373, 377 
ziczac (Notodonta), Ixxx 
zinckenella (Etiella), 336, 350 
Zizera, 312, 317, 320, 322, 329, 334, 

335, 345, 353, 356, 357, 359, 367, 

377, 429, 445, 446, 447 
zochalia (Belenois), Ixxii, Ixxx, 314, 

366, 372 
zoe (Terias), 448 
Zombrus, 369 
Zonabris, 163, 167, 168 
zophodactyla (Stenoptilia), 504 
Zophosis, 333, 334, 336, 345, 349, 364, 

375 
zosterte (Atheta), 391 
Zuphium, 387, 390 
ZygiEiia, 162 

April 14, 1908. 



TRANSACTIONS 

OF TIIK 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF 

LONDON 

For the Year 1907. 



I. Notes on the hielo- Australian Pa^nlionidm. By Percy 
I. Lathy, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

[Read February 6tli, 1907.] 

Plate I. 

I have recently been obliged to re-arrange the collection 
of Inclo-Australian Papilionicla} belonging to Mr. Herbert 
J, Adams, F.E.S., owing to the acquisition of a very large 
amount of material from the Van de Poll collections. 
In the course of this work I came across many interesting 
facts hitherto not known, in spite of the attention that 
has been paid to this group ; the results are these notes. 

Only two forms are described as new, viz. the Andaman 
race of P. agamiemnon, Linn., and a form of P. stratocles, 
Feld., from Mindoro. 

I am enabled to establish the claim of T. hrookiana, 
Wall, from Sumatra to be considered as a distinct geo- 
graphical form, while P. caeharcnsis, Butl., must sink as a 
synonym of P. douhlcdayi, Wall. I also describe nine 
hitherto unknown females and one male. 

Troidcs eleanor, Walk. 

The three females of this form of Troides from Sumatra 
are all devoid of subapical white markings and correspond 
TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1907. — PART I. (jUNE) 1 



2 Mr. Percy I. Lathy's Notes on 

to the form recorded by Rotbsclnld (Nov. Zool. vol, ii, 
p. 199) as ab. eleanor, Walk. ; the locality of this aberra- 
tion is unknown, but I think there is little doubt that 
this is the usual Sumatran form, therefore Walker's name 
must be applied to the sub-species. It is curious that 
Malacca specimens = aZSest'cw-s, Rothsch., should be much 
whiter than the Bornean examples and that the Sumatran 
females which one would have expected to be inter- 
mediate are so different. 

Troides darsius, Gray. 

An aberration of the male which has a black spot in 
each of discal yellow markings of hind-wing exccptiug post- 
cellular one. 

Troides jjcipuensis, Wall. 

A remarkable aberration of the male which has a dirty 
white marginal border to fore-wing below. 

One example from Stephansort, German New Guinea. 

Troides doliertyi, Ripp. 

A specimen of the male from Talaut which has distinct 
Sfolden scalincf on disc of hind-wing above ; the discal 
yellow markings below rather more extended than usual. 

Troides neomiranda, Fruhs. 

9 . Ground-colour darker than in the female of T. miranda, 
Butl. ; the vipper adnervular wbitisli markings extending to cell 
and yellow markings of hind-wing larger ; these diti'erences apply to 
both upper and under surfaces of wings and on the under-side tlie 
marginal cream-coloured lunuk-s are larger than in Butler's species. 

2 $^ from Sumatra. 

Troides vistara, Fruhs. 

^. Differs from the other forms of T. amphrysus in 
having the adnervular markings of fore-wing greyish-white 
instead of yellow ; the marginal black border of hind-wing 
is as in T. niasicus, Fruhs. 

2 ^ ^ from Tanah Massa and Poelo Tello, Batu Isles. 

Troides svmatranv,s, Hagcn. 

$. The single female differs from the other forms of 



the Indo- Australian Papilionidx. 3 

amphrysus females in having tbe ray-like markings of the 
fore-wing yellow instead of dirty- white ; the base of hind- 
wing is black, somewhat as in T. vandcpolli, Snell. 

Pajnlio palemhanganus, Rothsch, 

Mr. Adams has one male and three females ; the male 
has one spot at apex of cell of hind-wing and has the 
upper submarginal spot ; of the females one has one spot 
at apex of cell of hind-wing, the other two have no spot ; 
they vary considerably in extent of white markings, in 
one of which tliey are greatly reduced ; the submarginal 
spots are rather smaller and not so white as in Javan 
examples. 

Paijilio douUedayi, Wall. 

A good series of specimens from Cachar, Malacca and 
Siam. I think cacliarensis, ButL, must be treated merely 
as a synonym of this species. Two examples from Cachar 
sent in the same parcel as typical specimens are not to 
be distinguished from Malaccan forms; they have an 
even greater extent of white and none of the character- 
istics given by Rothschild to separate the two forms. 

Papilio fcliri, Hour. 

An aberration of the male from Orahili, Nias, in which 
the red spots of hind-wing have almost entirely dis- 
appeared, being represented by a few reddish scales. 

Papilio saturnus, Guer. 

A curious aberration from Sumatra resembles P. 
tcllonvs, Fruhs., from the Batu Isles, in having an 
additional patch on hind-wing, in other respects however 
it agrees with the usual Sumatran form. 

Pa^nlio memnon, Linn. 

A remarkable aberration of the male from Mt. Marapok, 
British North Borneo, in which the basal red spot of 
hind-wings below is much enlarged and suti'used ; the 
discal row of black spots strongly suffused with reddish 
scales ; the submarginal row of black spots reduced. 

Papilio memnon, Linn. 

Among some of the more noticeable forms of females are 
ab. achates, Cram., with basal patch of fore-wing white, and 



4 Mr. Percy I. Lathy's Notes on 

another with basal patch orange ; specimens from Banka 
with anal angle of fore-wing white and outer-margin also to 
near apex ; an example from Nias with basal white patch 
of fore-wing suffused with reddish scales. 

Papilio rumanzovius, Esch. 

I am able to record a single female of the form 
scmpcrinus, Haase, from Talaut. The band parallel to 
abdominal margin of hind-wing is pinkish-white, not scarlet. 

Papilio achcron, Gr. Sm. (Plate I, fig. 2.) 

A female from Mt. Kinabalu?, British North Borneo, 
which appears to differ from the female described by 
Rothschild, Nov. Zool, vol. iii, p 65, 1896, in having a 
subapical white band on fore-wing above and below. 

Papilio alphcios, Fruhs. 

Fruhstorfer, in Iris, 1901, p. 343, gives this name to a 
female of the polytes group from Menado ; Mr. Adams also 
has a female from the same locality. I tlnnk these $ ^ 
belong to the tailless $ $ and are the Celebes form of 
polytes, Linn., and that alcindor, Oberthur, should be kept 
as a distinct species. 

Papilio heioitsoni, Westw. 

^. Does not differ in any respect from the male. Four 
examples from Mt, Kinabalu, British North Borneo. 

Papilio tclcsicles, Feld. 

Among a long series of females of this variable species 
I find two interesting forms, one which agrees with ab. 
Icucothoidcs, Honr., but has a strong purple gloss on anterior 
of fore-wings, this specimen unfortunately is without 
locality ; the other is brown as in ab. ncpticula, Rothsch., but 
fore-wings entirely without white markings and having a 
submarginal row of yellowish-brown spots ; this form was 
obtained on Mt. Marapok, British North Borneo. From 
Sumatra Mr. Adams has two forms of female, one belong- 
ing to ab. daja, Rothsch , and the other to ab. ncpticula, 
Rothsch. 

Papilio mgialus, Dist. (Plate I, fig. 1.) 

$ . Upper-side. Fore-wing olive-brown darker on outer-margin ; 
the following white markings, a large patch at apex of cell extending 



the Indo- Australian Papilionidx. 5 

beyond cell nearly to costa, three small discal patches, fascia on inner- 
margin, and a row of nine submarginal spots. Hind-wing dark brown, 
a large white patch almost filling cell and seven patches around cell 
of which the middle ones are short, a series of seven submarginal 
lunules, white spots, and a similar number of marginal white spots 
between nervules. 

Under-side similar but paler and white markings more extended. 

A single example from the Batu Islands ; it may easily 
be distinguished from the same sex of P. mcndax, Rothsch., 
by greater extent of white markings and absence of purple 
gloss. 

Papilio hrunei, Fruhs. 

$. Differs from the male in the same way as cvan, 
Doubld,, differs. The black markings of hind-wing are less 
than in the mainland form and the silvery markings of the 
hind-wing below are most distinct. 

Six examples from Mt. Marapok, British North Borneo. 

Pajnlio insidaris, Stgr. 

$, Similar to male but slightly larger. A single speci- 
men from Sumatra. 

Papilio cclcbcnsis, Fick. 

A single female from Talaut which apparently belongs 
to this form. 

Papilio sarpcdon, Linn. 

A single specimen of the remarkable melanistic form 
figured by de Niceville, Journ. Bombay N. H. Soc, p. 54 ; 
n. 14, t. 4, p. 11. This was also obtained in Sumatra. 

An aberration of the male from Java has a green spot at 
apex of cell of fore-wing. 

Papilio milon, Feld. 

An aberration of the male from Tondano, Celebes, with 
a submarginal row of indistinct green lunules on fore- wing 
above. 

Papilio andamana, sub-sp. no v. 

Differs from P. agamemnon, Linn., in the markings being bluish- 
green instead of yellowish-green ; from the allied P. dec.uratns, 
Rothsch., from Nicobars, it may be separated by less amount of red 
markings on hind-wings below. 

Seven males from the Andaman Isles. 



6 Mr. Percy I. Lathy on Tndo-Audrxlian Pnpilionidm. 

Papilio macaristus, Gr. Sin. 

$. Similar to the male, but larger and the outer margin 
of fore-wing more rounded. 

A single example from Mt. Kin;ibalu, British North 
Borneo. 

Fajnlio xanthosoona, Stgr. 

^. Similar to the male but larger and the outer margin 
of fore-wing more rounded. 

Two specimens from Sumatra. 

Pcqnlio stratodides, sub-sp. nov. (Plate I, fig. 3.) 
Similar to P. stratocles, Feld., but wliitish markings of both wings 

above and below very much more extended, this being especially so 

in the discal markings of the hind-wings. 

Hab. Mindoro. 

I find that the firm of Staudins^er and Bang-Haas have 
been sending out this sub-species as typical stratocles, Feld., 
and the true stratocles, Feld., as stratodides, therefore the 
two forms are probably confused in many collections; the 
description of stratodides was never published, this being 
the case in many of the names in Staudinger's list. 



Explanation of Plate I. 

\_8ee Explanation famuj the Plate.] 



( 7 ) 



II. On the Hymciiopterous FarnsUes of Coleoptera} By 
Ernest A. Elliott, F.Z.S., and Claude Morley, 
F.E.S. 

[Read February 6tli, 1907.] 

The subject of parasitism on Coleoptera does not appear 
to have been especially taken up by any Entomologist. 
Prof. Ratzeburg and a few of his contemporaries collected 
a large amount of information on the parasites of Forest 
insects in general, and the former studied a few Coleoptera 
— Curculio notatus and some of the bark borers — more 
particularly. The results are found in the " Ichneumonen 
der Forstinsekten," to which work (so little known in 
England) we are indebted for a great number of the 
records in the following paper. Marshall's records are all 
taken from other authors, but are useful in so far as they 
refer to the original records. Another valuable work is 
Giraud's posthumous " Liste des eclosions d'lnse'ctes, in 
which, however, there occur manuscript names. Other- 
wise the records are mostly scattered through numerous 
British and Continental magazines, and are only to be 
discovered by laborious research. While not claiming to 
include every published record on the subject, or any great 
amount of original work, we trust that the following list 
will be found of sufficient interest to encourage others to 
carry on the work, both by means of personal observation 
and by bringing to our notice records we may have 
overlooked. 

1. Calosoma sycophanta, Linn, 

" Once I caught a large, fat larva of Calosoma, and put it 
in spirits of wine. Soon afterwards it burst, and little 
larvae of Microgaster thronged out; over a hundred lay 
closely piled up together, with the anal extremity turned 
towards the abdominal end of the larva." (Ratz., Ichn. d. 
Forst. i, 23, footnote; host specified at lih. cit. ii, 212.) 

1 The Coleoptera bearing an asterisk are extra-British. The 
numbers in small type after the parasites' names refer to those 
prefixed to the "Classified List of Parasites," posf. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1907- — PART I. (jUNE) 



8 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley on the 

2. Carahus violaccus, Linn. 

Dr. Ratzeburg says of bis Pluigadcuon campo2)lc(joidcs^ 
{I.e. ii, 124) : Tbis remarkable little pair came from Herr 
Drewsen, wbo writes as follows : " Out of Tacliina 2^(^cta, 
wbicb, as is well known, lives in Carahus violaccus." Tbe 
synonymy of tbis Cryptid is still doubtful (cf. Morley, 
Ichn. Brit, ii, 88). 

3. Axhria hrevicolHs, Fab. 

Van Vollenboven (Pinac. fol. xxxi) says : " Curtis bred 
Pt'octotrjipcs (?) viator from the larves of Nchria hrevicollis." 
This refers to tbe latter's statement (Farm Insects, 198) 
" that on opening the cells of tbe specimens of this beetle 
sent to me by Mr. Grabam, I found one partly consumed, 
and the otber bad produced six specimens of Proctotnipcs 
viator (?) : tbus showing that tbis parasite keeps in cbeck 
. . . tbe larvai of ground beetles." 

4. Nehria gi/llcnliali, Scb, 

5. Patrolus assi^nilis, Cbaud. 

In describing Oreshius castaneus from tbe top of Garb- 
bavel, near Locb Rannoch, tbe Rev. T. A. Marshall 
(E. M. M. iii. [1867], p. 194) writes : " Tbis species may be 
suspected of being a parasite of Nchria, Patrohus" etc. 
N. gylknliali would be the only British species of tbe 
genus at that altitude — 3,500 feet. 

6. PfcrosticMis vtdgaris, Linn. 

Curtis says the larvae of Omascus mekmarius, III., are 
" frequently infested by a parasite called Proctotrupcs 
viator" (Farm Insects, 181). 

7. Gyrinus natator, Scop. 

Mr. F. Bouskell tells us that, in 1894, be bred two or 
three different sorts of parasites from pupae of this beetle 
found by him on reeds at the Cropstone reservoir in 
Leicestershire. " Mr. Parfitt first bred $ $ oi bis Hemiteles 
ggrini"^*^ says Morley (Ichn. Brit, ii, 163), "from spring 
pupa-cases, and Bignell also raised it, from pupai of Ggrinns 
natator found by the Rev. J. Hellins upon rushes on the 
banks of the Exeter Canal, of which the latter has allowed 
me to examine both sexes ; it is later recorded as bred 



Hymcnoptcrous Parasites of Coleoptera. 9 

from the same host, together with Pczomachus (?) viduus,-^ 
Forst. One is led to wonder whether the latter could 
hav.e been a dimorphic $ of the same species." Of IT. 
pcrsector, he says (lib. cit. 160), " bred from some pupse of 
Gyrinus natator, collected by the Rev. J. Hellins, from 
rushes on the banks of the Exeter canal. It did not, how- 
ever, emerge till later than H. gyrini {argentatus, Grav.), 
with which it appears to be associated." 

8. Phlceopora reptans, Grav, 

Morley (Ichn. Brit, ii, 134) took Hemitclcs arcator in 
February 1899, associating, though perhaps accidentally, 
with this beetle beneath pine bark, near Ipswich. 

9. Myrmedonia eollaris, Payk. 

A ^ of Microcryptus nigrodncUis was taken in Wicken 
Fen in Cambs., by Donisthorpe, associating with this beetle, 
which it much resembles, in a nest of Myrmica Ixvinodis 
{cf. Morley, Ichn. Brit, ii, 42). 

10. Creopliilus maxillosus, Linn. 

Marshall writing of the common Braconid, Alysia 
manducator (Bracon. d'Europ. ii, 377) says: "Onaverifie 
leur parasitisme dans les larves de Lucilia . . . et ce, qui 
semble plus remarquable, dans les larves formidables du 
coleoptere Creopliilus maxillosus, L., qui habitent con- 
stamment les cadavres." We have repeatedly captured 
this parasite on carrion. 

11. Ocypus olens, Mlill. 

A beetle-larva, twenty-two millimetres in length, was 
dug up from beneath the surface of the ground in Mr. 
Morley's garden (Monks Soham House, Suffolk) on 9th 
Sept. 1905. This, there can be no doubt, is that of 
Ocypus olens — as figured by West wood (Mod. Class, i, 166, 
fig. xvi, 1), since Creopliilus feeds in carrion, etc. This 
larva was placed in a chip box and, the following day, had 
become moribund with seventeen hymenopterous larvas 
protruding from its ventral surface. The latter lived till 
October and all assumed the pupal state, the first three on 
28th Sept., of which two (in the fifth segment) alone 
assumed the blackness of maturity. Unfortunately they 



10 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley ooi the 

all died — probably through lack of moisture — in the 
position and situation indicated below.^ 

Third segment (between the intermediate and hind-legs) three 
protruded ; two from the centre and one a little to the right side ; 
two with head and half thorax discovered, and one — the hinder 
central- — with only half its head showing. 

Fourth segment (well behii^d the hind-legs) three ; two from the 
centre and one a little to the left side ; all with head and thorax, and 
the hindmost slightly more, protruded. 

Fifth segment, four ; two from the centre, a third slightly before 
and to the right of the first central one, and the fourth level with 
and to the left of the second central ; the foremost central is the 
furthest protruded and most fully developed of all, being held in situ 
only by its fifth abdominal segment and anus, the right-hand one is 
next fully developed with its fourth segment and anus still encased, 
the hinder central has little more than its basal segment protruded 
and the left-hand one has exserted only its head and fore part of 
thorax. 

Six to tenth segments all bear one equally developed parasite, 
exposed to about the base of the mesothorax. 

Eleventh segment, two ; the basal considerably to the right and 
the apical exactly in the centre and so close to the anus as to have 
nearly severed the host's conical anal proleg, which is thrust obliquely 
aside. 

Even the most advanced specimen is much too immature 
to guess specifically. The only reliable feature discernible 
is a distinct central longitudinal carina throughout the 
metatliorax ; this at once precludes the parasites from the 
Ichneumonidffi and, combined with their general facies, 
lends strong probability to their appertaining to the 
Braconid genus Apantelcs, many of whose species {A. 
salehros'us, Marsh., etc.) possess such a central carina. But 
they did not evacuate their host, nor spin the least trace of 
cocoons — simply protruded in their larval, subsequently 
pujDal, skins.^ 

1 The body of the host from the fifth segment to the anus is so 
distorted by the parasites that it is only the manner in which they 
themselves are grouped which enables the distinction of the segments 
to be surmised. 

- " Many years ago, I found \inder a stone a shrunken beetle 
larva, which undoubtedly belonged to the Stajjhylinx, dead. In it 
were several parasites in naked pupal state : these proved to be 
Codrns ixdlipes,^'^'' Jur." (Kawall, Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1855, p. 260). 



HymenoptcTous Parasites of CoUojieTa. 11 

12. Cafius xa7itJwloma, Grav. 

12a. Micrahjmma hrevipenne, Gyll. 

Mr. E. A, Newbery has found Flatymischus dilatatus, 
Westw., to be parasitic upon this Cafius at Plymouth, in 
May 1895. And at BerJ. Ent. Zeit. 1859, p. 98, we find 
that " Mr. George Wailer undoubtedly observed, at New- 
castle, that Platymischus was parasitic on Micralymma 
brevipenne, Gyll." ; attention is also there drawn to the 
occurrence of such a parasite on an at times submarine 
host. 

13. Teretrius ijicipes, Fab. 

Westwood (Mod. Class, i, 182) writes : " Paromalus 
2neipes, according to Dalman, is parasitically attacked by 
Pteromalus micans "-^^ and refers to the Swed. Trans. 1822. 
At lib. cit. ii, 159, he adds: " Perilampus micans was 
always observed upon posts perforated by . . . Hister 
picipes by Dalman." 

14. Anatis ocellata, Linn. 

On 10th August, Ratzeburg (Ichn. d. Forst. i, 211) 
boxed a larva of Coccinclla ocellata, which he thought un- 
usually large and sluggish, and probably parasited. It 
devoured a larva of Lophyrus, but would subsequently eat 
nothing. Soon it affixed its anus to a leaf and became 
motionless, but without pupating. In the following spring 
he found his Eupclmus PJytclwcinii"^^ dead in the box and 
a small hole in the side of the larva's back ; it may have 
emerged the preceding autumn. The larva had retained 
its natural form, and had only lost its red and white spots. 
Five years later [lib. cit. ii, 145) he discovered two more 
specimens of the same parasite in the box, in which the 
larva had been left ; a second hole was then found in the 
larva's skin. He thought these later specimens could have 
but recently emerged, since he had often examined the 
box in which they had been kept. 

15. Coccinclla quinquepunctata, Linn. 

Marshall (Bracon. d'Europ. ii, 45), writing of Perilifiis 
tenninatus, says : " Audouin, dans son memoire ' Sur le 
Parasitisme des Insectes,' nous a laiss^ une indication des 
habitudes de cette espece. II s'est assur(^ qu'un individu 



12 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley on the 

etait sorti d'uu coleoptere dii genre Coccindla, soit scjJtem- 
pundata suit quinqucpundata, L. Des experiences ulteri- 
eures faites par Ratzeburg ont demonstre I'exactitude de 
I'observation d'Audouin." Bignell (Trans. Devon. Assoc. 
1901, p. 662) adds that when full-fed the larva of the 
Perilitus issues from the sutures of the perfect ladybird's 
ventral segments and that the latter afterwards coalesce, 
leaving no visible aperture. On emerging the parasitic 
larva spins a pyriform cocoon, interlacing the dead beetle's 
legs and so holding its body as an additional rampart 
against possible enemies. 

16. Coccindla scptempundata, Linn. 

" M. V. Audouin . . . has informed me that he had observed 
that C. 7-2nindata is subject to the parasitic attacks of 
Microdonus terminalis^^^'^ Wesm., and Encyrtus Jiaminius, 
Dalm." (Westw. i, 397 et ii, 159). " Audouin has obtained 
M. tcrminalis from the perfect CoccineUa 7 -jynndata, the 
larva of the former bursting forth and spinning its cocoon 
beneath the body of the latter" (lib. cit. ii, 142). Also 
referred to by Kirby and Spence [misprinted C. ll-pinnctata 
in 7th Ed. 1859, p. 155] ; Marshall (Bracon. d'Europ. ii, 45) 
and Ratzeburg (Ichn. d. Forst. iii, 61), who tells us that 
Bouche {lih. cit. i, 122) several times bred Bassiis cxultans^^ 
Grav., from this host. Morley (Ichn. Brit. ii. 235) also bred 
a couple of $ $ Fezomachas fasciatus from a single pupa of 
this beetle at Ipswich in 1894. 

17. Mcgilla maculcita, DeG.* 

" II est maintenant bien constate que la M. maculata des 
Etats-Unis ... est infeste par des parasites du genre 
Perilitus" (Marsh., Bracon. d'Europ. ii, 45). Cf. also 
Centistes ctmcricanci, Riley, Insect Life, 1888, p. 101. 

18. Endomychiis coccineus, Linn. 

Referring to Curtis' discovery of this species' larvae, 
Westwood (Mod. Class, i, 394) says, "some were attacked 
by a Chalcidideous parasite." Cf also lih. cit. ii, 159, d 
Ratz., Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 187. Of these larvffi, Curtis (B. E 
pi. 570) simply says, " some of the largest seemed as if they 
were either dead or in a torpid state, but these proved to 
have been punctured by a little parasite allied to Gnatlio 
dispar {Golax, pi. 166), a great number of which afterwards 



nymcnoptcrous Parasites of Coleoptcra. 18 

hatched." From Curtis' MS., Walker described this para- 
site (Eiit. Mag. 1836, p. 496) as Fteromahcs Endomychiy 
"reared by Mr. Curtis, from the larva of Endomyclius 
coccineus." 

19. Tri2'>lax russica, Linu. 

Under Ildcorus ohfuscatus, Marshall (Bracon. d'Europ, ii, 
92) tells us, on the authority of Dr. Reinhard, that in the 
Sichel collectioD, in Paris, ten of these parasites are 
preserved, which were bred by Lespes from this beetle ; he 
expressly says that they emerged from the larvas and not 
from the imacfo, " An den Nadeln sind noch die Kaferlarven 
mit dem Cocon der Parasiten befestigt." 

20. Meligethcs mnciis, Fab. 

C. G. A. Brischke gives (Schr. Nat. Ges. Danz. 1880, p. 
193) Thcrsilochus moriondlus, Holmgr., a small Ophionid, 
as parasitic upon Meligctlics mnea. 

21. Meligcthes viridesccns, Fab. 

Dr. Alexandre Laboulbene, in his " Liste des eclosions 
d'Insectes," observed by Giraud (Ann. Soc. France, 1877, p. 
424), instances the emergence of Callimomc dijicilis,^^^ 
Nees, which is usually parasitic upon the Bedeguar gall- 
flies, from this beetle. 

22. Synchita jtbglandis, Fab. 

A single ^ of Brachistes destitutus ^^'^ was bred by Herr 
Nordlinger from S. Juglandis in hornbeam in Germany 
(Ichn. d. Forst. ii. 28). 

23. Lfemoplilmus fcrrugineus, Steph. 

24. Typhxa fumata, Linn. 

Morley (Ichn. Brit, ii, 141) says he has found Hemiteles 
suhzonahis, Grav., beneath the bark of a felled log full of 
these two species of beetles in May. at Wherstead, in 
Suffolk. 

25, Dcrmestes. 

26. Anthrenus. 

Westwood (Mod. Class, ii, 143) writes, " other species " of 
Ichneumonidgs and Braconidse "{Hemiteles areator, etc.) also 



14 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley on the 

frequent our dwellings, to deposit their eggs in the larva? 
of DeTmcstidiB, Anthrcni, Tinex, and other domestic insects." 
These vague and general statements are dangerous, since 
the above is undoubtedly the foundation of Taschenberg's 
apparently established fact (Zeits. Ges. Nat. 1865, p. 130) 
under H. arcator, Panz. : " Wurde erzogen . , . aus Dcrm- 
cstes — Antlircnus — und Tinccn — Larven " ; and Ratzeburg 
(Ichn, d. Forst. i, 151) takes the same view. C£, however, 
Morley, Ichn. Brit, ii, 133. 

27. Sinodendron cylindrimim, Linn. 

Keys first took localised British specimens of Histcr- 
omems mystacinns, Wesm., on 14th August, 1901, from 
the burrows of this beetle ; and ten days later Bignell and 
he discovered three of these coleopterous larvae each sur- 
rounded by about a dozen apparently full-fed larvse of this 
parasite, which had evidently just emerged from the bodies 
of the former (cf. Trans. Devon. Assoc. 1901, p. 666). 
Nordlinger bred Eupdmus inermis ^^^ from an ailing 
beech in the Swabian Alps, in Wlirtemburg, in which this 
beetle, among others, was boring (Ichn. d. Forst.' ii, 152). 

28. Onjdcs nasicornis, Liun.* 

In his Wirths-system, Ratzeburg simply gives (Ichn. d. 
Forst. ii, 215) Pimpla instigator, Fab., as parasitic upon 
Scarahcvus nasicornis ; no mention of it seems to appear in 
the text.^ 

29. Bu^irestidm. 

Most of the unspecified Bnprcstcs given by Ratzeburg 
{lib. cit. i, 23; ii, 212; iii, 249) are either subsequently 

1 This record must, I think, be based upon Passerini's " Osser- 
vazioni sulle Larve, Ninfe, etc." (Pise, 1840 ; cf. also Guerin-Meneville 
in Eevue Zoolog. 1841, p 240). He found that Scolia flavifrons 
places its eggs on the larva of Orydes nasicornis, and the larva; when 
hatched feed by introducing tlie three capital segments into tlie belly 
of the beetle-caterpillar, always between tlie sixth and seventh 
segments {cf. Kirby and Spence, Introd. 7th Ed. 1859, p. 195). This 
parasitic Fosser is not British; "the genus Tiphia is the only 
representative of the family Scoliada;, being closely allied to the genus 

Scolia TipJiict femorata, I have ev'erj'^ reason to believe, to be 

tlie parasite of a s2>ecies of Aphodins ; I have several times found it 
beneath the droppings of cows and horses" (Smith, Ent. Ann. 1862, 
p. 77). Gravenhorst, of course, mentions no Aculeata, but gives 
Ichneumon flavifrons, Schr., with a note that Schiitfer's figure of it 
resembles Pimpla instigator, Fab. Ratzeburg, it is highly probable, 
draws his erroneous inference from this association. — C. M. 



nymcnoi)tcrous Parasites of Golcoiitera. 15 

named or their parasites again bred from recognised hosts 
of the same genus (sensu lato). Lissonota catcnator^'^ 
however, one $ of which was bred by Bachmann, "from 
an unknown beetle larva, in rotten lime wood" (iii. 107) ; 
Spathius curvicaudis, of which Nordlinger bred a single $, 
from a beetle larva, boring in the manner of Buprcstis 
(i. 50), and Ptcronialus gidtatus, were not so assigned. 



80. Ghalcophora mariana, Linn. 



* 



Dr. Leop. Kirchner, in his 1867 Cat. Hym. Europse, 
p. 107, under Epiiialtcs manifcstator, Linn., writes, 
" Schmarotzer von Bupirestis Mariana" probably basing his 
statement upon Ratzeburg's record (Ichn. d. Forst. i. 119) 
that a fine and large pupa of this Pimplid cut its way out 
of an old fir stump, in which, judging solely by the borings, 
larvae of B. Mariana, had lived. This record must, how- 
ever, be regarded with doubt since no one nowadays quite 
knows what the Linnean parasite was ! -^ 

81. Diccrca lerolinensis, Herbst.* 

We are also indebted to Kirchner (Cat. 115) for the 
record of Doryctes inipcrator as parasitic upon this beetle ; 
it is copied by Marshall (Brae. d'Europ. i. 229). 

32. Anthaxia quadripunctata, Linn. 

From fir wood, in which larvae of Buprcstis ^-punctata 
were living, Ratzeburg (Ichn. d. Forst. iii, 44) bred a single 
^ of his Exothccus lignarius ^^^, which is extremely like 
^SjJathius hrcvicaudis, but with the petiole broader and 
parallel nervure different ; the latter parasite was bred 
plentifully from the same beetle and locality. Pimpla 

^ That Ephialtes rex, Kriech., rather than E. imperator, Kriech. 
(as indicated by Schmiedeknecht, Opusc. Ichn. xiv, 1120), was 
described under the name E. manifestutor by Gravenliorst (Ichn. 
Europ. iii, 232) was recognised by Marshall (Brit. Cat. 1872, p. 85), 
and I certainly think the description of the abdominal segments as 
bearing "tuberculo lateral! obsolete" is sufficient to establish the 
fact, especially it excl. indiv. stifpnate nigro be added ; cf. also 
Thorns. Opusc. Ent. xii, 1249. The Ichneumon manifestator, whose 
economy is so interestingly recounted by Thomas Marsh am (Trans. 
Linn. Soc. iii [1794], pp. 23-29 et pi. iv.) must doubtless be referred 
to the common Ephialtes carhonarhis, Christ. — the Musca tripiUs 
secnnda of old Mouflet, 1634, p. 64 — on account of the lack of 
abdominal tubercles and its length not exceedino; eigiit lines. — C. M. 



16 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott aud Mr. Claude Morley on the 

linearis (iii, 99) and the rare Eusandulum ahhrcviatum (iii, 
200) probably preyed upon the same host, emerging late in 
the season, the latter from fir billets. ^. lignarius '^^^ is 
indicated as a parasite of this species, with no query, by 
Kirchner (Cat. 112); but Marshall (i, 265) simply gives 
Clinocentrus lignarius as a " parasite suppose " and in- 
sufficiently described. 

83. Agrilus hignUatus, Fab. 

Ratzeburg says that his Mwchns comprcmventris (Ichn. 
d. Forst. ii, 121, queried as a true parasite at ii, 212) was 
probably bred from Bnprestis higuttata. : " The present $ 
was in the thick bark of a strong oak, in which I was 
seeking for Buprestidse." It is associated with no query 
by Kirchner (Cat. 82). Spathius rad'Myamis is another 
doubtful parasite upon this beetle : Herr Radzay (Ichn. d. 
Forst, ii, 43) bred it from an oak in which Gnrculio de- 
pressiivstris, Buprestis higuttata and several species of 
Glytus were all burrowing and to wliich they were doing 
considerable injury. 

84. Agrilus viridis, Linn. 

From this beetle, Kirchner (Cat. 114), says that Corgstes 
acicidatiis,'^^^ Reinh., has been bred. Ten $ ^ and one $ 
of U^dojyhus agrilorum ^^^ were bred by Ratzeburg (Ichn. 
d. Forst. i, 169) in June from a beech knot, in which was 
Agrilus noeivus, Ratz. ; and Reissig (/. c. iii, 242) also bred 
Fteromalus xnudus from the same variety of A. viridis. 

35. Throscus dcrmestoidcs, Linn. 

The anomalous Facliglomnia huccata is given by Ratze- 
burg {lih. cit. ii, 53) as having been taken by Hartig flying 
round Throscus adstridor, with the supposed intention of 
ovipositing therein. Mai'shall, however, who treats this 
parasite as an aberrant member of the Braconidse, quotes 
(Bracon. d'Europ. ii, 625) his own and Giraud's observations 
upon the association of Pachy/omma with ants ; and adds : 
"apres les observations faites sur P. cremieri, constatant 
les rapports qui existent entre les Pachylomma et les 
fourmis, on est autorise a rejecter tout opinion contraire." 

86. Agriotes. 

There appears to have been no record of parasitism in 
the Elateridoe since Kirby said (Introd. Ent. 7th Ed. 1859, 



Hymcno'ptcroiis Parasites of Colcoptcra. 17 

p. 154) : " Mr. Paul has shown me the destroyer of the wire- 
worm, which belongs to Latreille's genus Prociotnqjes." 

87. Malachius mneits, Linn. 

We have a very uncertain record concerning this beetle: 
Herr Reissig (Ichn. d. Forst. iii,- 109) bred Ephialtes gla- 
hratus from spruce cones, together with Tortrix strohilana, 
Anohium and Malachius mneus. Which it had preyed upon 
remained uncertain. 

38. Dasytes. 

Under Mesostenus ater, Kirchner writes (Cat. 57) : 
" Nordlinger erzog ihn aus einem alten Buchenstocke, 
worin 3Ielandri/a, S'phex und Dasytes gehauset." A single 
^ of this parasite was bred by Nordlinger from an old 
beech stump, in which Melandrya, [? Sphex and Dasytes'\ 
were boring (Ichn. d. Forst. iii, 143). EpMaltes gracilis '^^ 
has also been several times bred from oak (/. c. iii, 109) ; 
sometimes a Dasytes appeared with it, at others a MapJiidicc 
or Crabro. 

39. Dasytes niger, Linn. 

Campoplex imsillus ^°* and Ephialtes gracilis ^^ are 
indicated by Ratzeburg {lib. cit. iii, 249) as preying upon 
this species. 

40. Dasytes cceruleus, Fab. 

At Schr. Nat. Ges. Danz. 1880, p. 110, Brischke describes 
his Ephialtes discolor, and adds : "Aus Lindenstocken 
mit Dasytes coirvlca und Exenterus halteatus erzogen." 
This may be Ratzeburg's Pw/yj/a lignicola^'^ (Ichn. d. Forst. 
iii, 98), which he found in worm-eaten oaks tenanted by 
Dasytes cterulieus. 

41. Thanasimus formicarius, Linn.^ 

Ratzeburg (lih. cit. iii, 249) records Hemiteles melanarius 
and, with doubt, H. modestus ^^ and Bracon palpchrator as 
parasitic upon Glcrus formicarius. [Cf. also Mesostenns 
hrachycentrus, under Hylesinus crenatus, post.'] Marshall 
(Bracon. d'Europ. i, 167) does not note this doubtful 

^ Stephens (Illust. Suppl. 8) says of Perilampus micans, Dalm., 
" found in company with Lyctns oblongns and Tillus unifasciatns" 
on new oak palings at Camberwell. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1907. — PART I. (JUNE) 2 



18 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley <m the 

association of the Braconid, but expresses his opinion that 
it is closely allied to, if not actually identical with, 
Clinoccntrus cxsertor, Nees. 

42. Hyleccet'us dermestoides, Linn. 

From this species, Wissmann bred in Germany (Ichn. d. 
Forst. ii, 69) several specimens of Asjugooius diveTsicomis -^^ 
and perhaps also a species of Hclcon. 

43. Ftinidx: 

Another of Westvvood's general statements (Mod. Class, 
ii, 143) is : "A small, pretty, spotted-winged Cryptns enters 
our houses to prey upon the larvfe of the Ptinidie ; as do 
also Spatliiu!^ clavatm^'^'^ and Hccabolus sulcatus" ; the first- 
named is certainly Hemiteles areator, Panz. (cf, Morley, 
Ichn. Brit, ii, 133). Ptinusfur and JViptus hololeucus are, 
however, the only common domestic Ftinid/v, and there is 
no record of hymenopterous attacks upon these species. 

44. Hcdobia impcrialis, Linn. 

Westwood may, however, be correct in the above state- 
ment, since the parasitism of Hemiteles areator upon 
Ptinus imp)erialis — by no means a domestic species, at least 
in Britain — is recorded by Katzeburg, who says (Ichn. d. 
Forst. iii, 153) that Nordlinger bred this parasite at 
Hohenheim from old acacia posts together with P. 
impcrialis. The latter also bred (/. c. ii, 152) Eiipelmus 
incrmis'^^^ from an ailing beech in which this beetle, 
among others, was dwelling. 

45. Dryoyliilus pnsillns, Gyll. 

Brachistes interstitialis^'^^ (/. e. i, 54) and BothriotJiorax 
fumipennis (iii, 194) were bred by Nordlinger at Stuttgart 
from, respectively, dry spruce twigs and a larch branch, 
in which Anobium piusillmn was boring. 

46. Anohium. 

Westwood says (Mod. Class, ii, 159), "I have observed 
Perilam2)us angustiis^^'^ on palings perforated hy Anobia." 
Ratzeburg quotes this, and adds Bntedon conjinis from 
France (Ichn. d. Forst. i, 66), a $ E. longivcntris in a German 
fir twig, Xorides cryptiformis (iii, 115) and Hemiteles 
palpator'^'' of which Wissmann cut several out of oak bark 



Hymcnoptcrous Parasites of Colcoptcra. 19 

in which Anolii had probably lived (ii, 130) ; Lissonota 
arvicola '^^ was bred by the same observer (ii, 98 et iii, 98) 
from beech logs inhabited by Anohii and Ptilini ; and 
numerous Taphxus fuscirpcs -''- were found on old worm- 
eaten wooden bathing-houses (/. c iii, 60) whence they 
were conjectured to have emerged from Anohii by Brischke, 
who once took Diospilns capita in abundance on old wood, 
probably from the same host (Schr. Nat. Ges. Danz. 1880, 
p. 123). Marshall gives Calyptus tibialis (Bracon. d'Europ. 
ii, 149) as another " parasite suppose " of this genus. 

47. A^iohkim domesticum, Fourc. 

Bracon spathiiformis'^'^^ was certainly bred from Ano- 
hium stj'iatnm in hazel, by Nordlinger in France (Ichn. d. 
Forst. ii, 37). It is possible that this parasite — which is 
Haliday's Doryctes ohUteratus, Ent. Mag. iv, p. 44 (ncc 
Nees et Wesm.) — was really SiKithius clavatus^^'^ Panz., 
mentioned by Brischke (Schr. Nat. Ges. Danz. 1880, p. 
187), " aus Larven von Anohium striatum erzogen." 
Bouche certainly bred the latter from this host, and Mr, 
A. J. Chitty has recently bred several Doryctes spathii- 
formis at Huntingfield in Kent from dead whitethorn 
sticks containing A. clomesticnm and Priohium castaneum. 
Kev. W. F. Johnson has recorded (E. M. M. 1901, p. 15) 
Spatliius exarator, Linn., on Morley's authority, as com- 
monly parasitic on A. domesticmn in the central pillar of 
a large rosewood table, in Ireland ; and Marshall also 
indicates the same host. Wissmann bred Hemitcles mo- 
destus'^^ from A. striatum in old woodwork (Ichn. d. Forst. 
ii, 129 et iii, 154), as well as Rogas collaris'^^^ (I.e. ii, 66); 
and the association of Hemitcles licolorinus, Grav., is sug- 
gested by Morley (Ichn. Brit, ii, 181). Donisthorpe bred 
a Chalcid at Rye in August 1902, from the burrows of 
this beetle. Mr. A. Sich took a ^ of Spathius exarator, 
Linn., investigating the burrows of A, domesticum at 
Chiswick on 14th August, 1906. 

48. Anohium (JErnohiits) angustieolle, Ratz.* 

Marshall simply says of Aspiidogonus ahietis, Ratz. (Bracon. 
d'Europ. ii, 253), " II habite les pommes de pin, en societe 
avec les Anohium cdnetis, Fab., et angusticoUe, Ratz.," 
which, however, certainly points to parasitism ; especially 
since Wissmann (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 69), who actually bred 
it, expresses no doubt upon the subject. 



20 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley on the 

49. Anolnum. panicxum, Linn. 
At Hohenlieim Nordlinger bred a $ Eidophvs pilicornis, 
probably from this host, upon which are also said to prey 
(Ichii. d. Forst. ii, 154 et 211) Entedon longiventris and 
perhaps Fteromalus hrevicornis. 

50. AnohiuM denticollc, Panz. 
Morley states (Ichn. Brit, ii, 133) that Mr. Donisthorpc 
has found Hciiiitclcs arccdor, Panz., in the burrows of A. 
denticoUe in England, in March; it may, however, have 
been no more than hibernating therein. 

51. Anohimn consimilc, Muls. (? Ernolius mollis, Linn.) 

52. Anohium {Ernohius) longicorne, Sturm.* 

In Dr. Giraud's paper on Eclosions d'Insectes (Ann. See. 
Fr. 1877, p. 419), Laboulbene tells us that M. Perris bred 
Eusandulum inerrne, Ratz., from both Anohiiun consimilis 
and A. longicorne, and earlier (p. 415) that S^mtMus 
anohii,^^^ Gir., was also raised from the latter host, to- 
gether with (p. 411) Euhadizon brevicandis, Gir. 

53. Anohium rufipes, Fab.* 

Sigalphus acicidatus'^^^ is said by Ratzeburg (Ichn. d. 
Forst. iii, 249) to prey upon this species. 

54. Anohiuin 2}erHnax, Linn.* 

Marshall (Bracon. d'Europ. i, 194) gives this species as 
an alternative host of Spathius cxarcdor, Linn. 

55. TrypopiUjs carpini, Herbst.* 
From this host, Ratzeburg (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 211) says 
that he raised his Microgaster rnfilabris. 

56. Ernobius ahietis, Fab. 

The following species are indicated as having been bred 
from Anohium ahietis (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 211 et iii, 249) : 
Pinipila strohilorum,^^ Aspigonus ahietis,^^'^ Brachistes punc- 
tatus^^^ Bracon scutellaris, Fteromalus Hohenheiniensis, P. 
strohUohius and, doubtfully, Ephialtes glahratus. Of these 
Nordlinger bred in Wiirtemburg both sexes of ^.sp. ahietis 
from fir cones infested especially by this beetle and, in a 
lesser degree, by Tortrix strohilana ; Saxesen bred it in the 



Hymcnoptcrons Parasites of Golcoptcra. 21 

Hartz ; and Wissmann expressly states that he " bred it 
from A. ahietis and angusticollc " ; Reissig, however, who 
has bred it most frequently, asserts it to prey upon the 
above Tortrir- ; Ratzeburg believed it was parasitic upon 
both the Lcpidopteron and Coleoptera {lib. cit. i, 56 et ii, 
69). Nordlinger also bred the B. jjundatus twice singly 
at Hohenheim (ii, 28 et iii, 244) from spruce cones along 
with Anohium abidis. Giraud, too (Ann. Soc. Fr. 1877, 
p. 412), bred Aspigomts ahietis, Ratz., from " Anohimii 
ahietis, dans cones du sapin," as well as (p. 427) Anogmtts 
ahietis, Gir. 

57. Ptilinus ])cctinicornis, Linn. 

Curtis first (B. E. pi. dvii) bred his Hecaholus sulcatus 
from this beetle. Ratzeburg found (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 215) 
it was preyed upon by his Hemiteles comijlctus which 
Reissig (/, e. 130) bred from this beetle in poplar in the 
middle of May, Eupelmus inennis '^^^ and, perhaps, Zis- 
sonota arvicula^'^ Polysphincta elegans, P. soror, with Xorides 
cryptiformis. None of these were raised from it by Giraud 
(Ann. Soc. Fr. 1877, pp. 415 et 419), who says Spathivs 
clavatus,^'^'^ Panz., and Haltieelki rufipes, Oliv., attack it. 
The original parasite, H. sulcatus, Cuit., was again bred 
from it by Brischke (Schr. Nat. Ges. Danz. 1880, p. 136) ; 
and Wissmann (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 35) bred a great number 
of ^ 1^ only, which were even more like Curtis's illustration 
than those from Ptilinus costatus. Haliday (Ent. Mag. iv, 
p. 49) bred it from the same host. 

58. Ptilimts costatus, Gyll.* 

A male and two females of Braeon {Hecaholus) sulcatus 
were taken by Hartig on willows in the act of investigating 
the borings of this beetle (/. c. ii, 34) ; and Reissig bred a 
single specimen of Pteromalus distinguendus, Forst., from 
the same host (iii, 233) in poplar wood. 

59. Ochina liederm, Miill. 

Writing of this species (Mod. Class, i, 272), Westwood 
tells us : " A. Cooper, Esq., R.A., has informed me . . . 
that it is preyed upon in the larva state by Cleonymus 
deprcssus." Wissmann repeatedly bred Spathius erythro- 
cephalus from Anohium Hcdciw (Ichn, d. Forst. ii, 43) ; 
Nordlinger bred both sexes oi. Sigalplius aciculatus'^'^^ from 



22 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley on the 

this beetle at Grand Jouan, in France (ii, 27) ; together 
with Sigalpluis facialis, from old ivy stems (iii, 27), and 
quantities of Bracon svJcatus'^^'^ (iii, 82) ; Pteromalns elon- 
(jatus was also bred by him at Ludwigsberg from ivy stems 
along with the same host (iii, 244). SjKdhius claviger is 
recorded (Ann. Soc. F. 1877, p. 415) upon Perris' authority 
from Blastophagus licdcrx, byGiraud ; and Ovliina 'piinoides 
is given by Marshall (Bracon. d'Europ. i, 207) as a host of 
Hccahulus sulcalus, Curt. 

60. Mesocceloims nigcr, Miill. 
The host of Ptcromalvs Opisthotonos ^^^ has not been 
bred anywhere else, says Ratzeburg (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 
194); according to Reissig it is Xglctinns murinus', and 
the parasite emerged on 11th June, from an old woody 
fungus on oak. 

CI. Dorcatoma drcsdensis, Herbst.* 

Nees says of Bracon cphipipiuni^^^ : " E larvis Dorcatomse 
Dresdensis, Boleto igniario nutritis, Sichcrshusi, mense 
Maio ??iarcs etfcmin.v exclusi sunt " (Hym. Ichn. aff. Mon. 
i, 65). This is quoted by Kirchner (Cat, 132) and Marshall 
(Bracon. d'Europ.). 

62. Dorcatoma setoscUa, Muls. 
From Dorcatoma sctosclla, Laboulbene records (Ann. Soc. 
Fr. 1877, p. 435) the curious Ccplialonomjiia formiciformis, 
Westw. 

63. Sinoxiilon scxdcntatum, Oliv.* 

Upon the authority of Perris, Giraud {lib. cit. p. 435) 
gives CcphalonomTjia formiciformis, Wcstw., as parasitic 
upon this beetle. 

64. Bostryclms capucinus, Linn. 
Perris tells us vaguely (Ann. Soc. Fr. 1850, t. viii, p. 
565) that Apatc capucina is attacked by some Braconid, 
which he was unable to determine. 

65. Xylopertha sinuata, Fab.* 
Apatc sinuata and Eccoptogaster intriccdus were both 
thought by Ratzeburg (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 187) to be 
parasitised hy Pteromalns himciculatns; a large specimen 
of which emerged from an oak stick containing laivjB of 
the above beetles. He also queries (ii, 211) Hclcooi 
carinator as preying upon Bostrychus sinuatus. 



Ilymenopicrous Parasites of CoUoptcra. 23 

Q>Q. Lyctus canalictdafus, Fab. 

Dalman, according to Westwood (Mod. Class, ii, 159), 
always observed Perilampus micans upon posts which had 
been perforated by this species ; but no direct association 
appears to be established, although Ratzeburg (Ichn. d. 
Forst. i, 23 et ii, 215) and Stephens (Illust. Suppl. 8, on 
L. ohloiKjus) refer to the same subject. Giraud, however 
(Ann. Soc. Fr. 1877, p. 419), says he has bred Eusandulum 
incrmc, Ratz., from this beetle. Mr. E. A. Newbery sent 
me in July (18, vii, '01) two $ $ Euhadkon pallidipcs, Nees, 
"taken in Middlesex, while intruding their long spiculse 
into the burrows of L. canalictdatvs in an oak fence " [0. M.]. 
Bignell also records this parasite (Trans. Devon. Assoc. 
1901, p. 682) "busy depositing eggs in a wood-boring 
beetle, infesting oak fencing," in London ; this probably 
also applies to the present Coleopteron, since Mr. Newbery 
informs us he sent the latter some of these parasites. We 
have received from Mr. E. C. Bedwell two $ $ Euhadizon 
jMllidijxs, Nees, which " with others were running about 
on an old park paling fence at Ashstead in Surrey, which 
was riddled with borings of Lyctus ccmcdiculatus ; they 
vseemed to run from hole to hole, some of which they partly 
entered. The Lyctus was abundant at the time " ; 24th 
June, 1905. 

67. Lyctus Irunneus, Steph. 

Euhadizon 'pallidipcs, Nees, has also been captured by 
Mr. Donisthorpe, in the act of ovipositing in the burrows 
of this beetle, at Southfields, in 1904. 

68. Cis hokti, Scop. 

P. F. Bouche describes, in his Naturgeschichte der 
Insecten (1834, p. 149), a parasite of this species under 
the name Bracon cis — referred to by Westwood (Mod. 
Class, ii, 143). This Nees synonymised with Metcoo'us 
atrcdor, Curt. ; but Marshall (Bracon. d'Europ. ii, pp. 96 
et 119) thinks it certainly referable to M. profligator, Hal., 
of which Bignell (Trans. Devon. Assoc, 1901, p. 682) bred 
nine examples from the larvaa of this Coleopteron, in Poly- 
poms versicolor, early in August 1885. M.filcdor, Hal., 
is also sometimes found abundantly in the same kind of 
fungus, though no association with G. holeti has yet been 
suggested. 



24 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley on the 

69. Cis laminatus, Mel.* 

The only parasite upon this species is Cc^^hnlonomyia 
formiciformis, recorded by Dr. Giraud (Ann. Soc. Fr. 1877, 
p. 435). 

70. Cis glahmtus, Mel* 

71, Ennearthron affinc, Gyll. 

From both these small species, Dr. Laboulbene records 
{I.e. p. 431) the Chalcid fly, AsticJms arithmctieus, Forst., 
upon the authority of M. Ferris, in France. 

72. Prio7ius eoriarins, Linn. 

MM. Dr. Jacobs and Dr. Tosquinet, in their Catalogue 
des Ichneumonides de la Belgique appartenant au Groupe 
des Pimplides, indicate (p. 320) Xoridcs (dhitarsns as having 
been observed to be parasitic upon this fine Coleopteron 
by Dr. Fromont. 

73. Ccramhyx. 

From unspecied individuals of this genus, sens^b lato, 
'RatzehxiYg records UjjJtialtcs jwjyiihicits, of which Herr Zebe 
bred a $ from poplar and probably from the Ccramhyx 
larvae therein (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 100); Nordlinger bred 
EipMaltes tulcnmlatus from a Longicorn in oak at Nozay 
{I. c.) ; Polysphincta lignicola is also thought to be bred 
from some Ccramhyx (iii, 110) and Xorides apj^endiculafus^'^ 
from the larger Ccramhycid/v. (ii, 108). Bracon bicellularis 
was bred by Nordlinger from elm-wood in which small 
Longicorns were living (iii, 33), and B. flavator "also lives 
on Geramhyccs in dry wood" (i, 46). Mcsolcptus teredo} 
whose cocoon was found in a beetle's boring together with 
the remains of a dead Cerccmhyx larva (ii, 119), and Jiorides 
erassifcs, also prey on these beetles; the other kinds, in- 
dicated by Ratzeburg at Ichn. d. Forst. i, 23, are specified 
at ii, 212. 

74. Ccramhyx heros, Fab. 
B2Jhia!tes carhonarivs, Christ., is said by Eatzeburg (Ichn. 
d. Forst. iii, 109 et 249) to prey upon this large species. 

^ An entirely neglected species ; described by Harti^, Berichtd. natnnv. 
Verein dor Harz. 1846-7, p. 16. 



Hymenopteroiis Parasites of Coleoptera. 25 

75. Aromia moschnta, Linn. 
The larvae of the Musk Beetle are said by Brischke 
(Schr. Nat. Ges. Danz. 1880, p. 129) to be destroyed by 
Isclmoceros rusticus, Grav., which he considers synonymous 
with Odontomerus cornutus, Ratz. Thomson says that his 
UjMaltcs Jidcropus (Opusc. Ent. 1249) was bred from this 
longicorn at Lund. 

76. Hylotrypes hajulus, Linn. 
From fir-wood in which Cerambyx hajulus had bored, 
Ratzeburg (Ichn. d. Forst. iii, 140) bred Cryptus minator. 
Bouche also found Ephialtes manifestator in this beetle (i, 
119 et ii, 119); but Bracon Icucogaster'^'^'^ is said to be 
by far its commonest parasite, and has been found — in 
Germany — in and upon dry wood, especially in beams of 
houses, about its borings (/. c. iii, 35 et Marsh., Bracon. 
d'Europ. i, 284). 

77. Callidium. 

Herr Wissmann bred several Aspigonvs diversicornis'^'^^ 
in Germany from very different insects, but all in dead 
wood — Lymcxylon dermestoides, Mycctockara linearis and un- 
specified Callidia (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 69). Marshall says 
that this Braconid (Bracon. d'Europ. ii, 252) has been bred 
"d'un longicorne non determine." 

78. Callidium alni, Linn, 

There is a $ specimen of Fimpla instigatoo' in Morley's 
collection taken by Mr. E. C. Bedwell at " Westerham, 4. 
6. 1900, sitting on a post, which was full of Callidium 
alni." No parasitism is, however, suggested, for which 
indeed the Ichneumonid appears much too large. 

79. Callidium sanguineum, Linn. 

Ratzeburg tells us (Ichn. d. Forst. i, 123) that he found 
Ceramhyx sanguineus upon several occasions preyed upon 
by Xorides priecatorius '^'^ in hornbeam logs ; and this is con- 
firmed by Prof Thompson (Opusc. Ent. viii, 775), who says 
of the latter, " Utklackt nr Callidium i Lund." Giraud 
(Ann. Soc. Fr. 1877, p. 411) gives Opius ? caiidatus, Wesm., 
as parasitic on this Longicorn, upon Ferris' authority. 
Marshall (Bracon. d'Europ. i, 228) has no doubt that it is 
further attacked by Duryctcs gallicus, Reinh., and adds, " II 



26 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley on the 

est tres probable aussi que le Bracon truncorum, Goureau, 
^leve du meme GaUidium, est identique avec le D. gallicus." 

80. GaUidium variahiJc, Linn. 

Of Xylonomus pr/ucaforius, Fab., Brischke writes (ScLr. 
Nat. Ges. Danz. 1880, p. 128): " Aus GaUidium varialnle 
erzogen." Goureau gives his insufficiently described 
Spathius ferrur/atus as preying upon the same beetle ; and 
Marshall says of Hclcon carinator : " Eleve par Ratzeburg 
d'une larve du longicorue GaUidium variahilc, L., trouvde 
dans une ramuscule de chcne." 

81. GaUidium violaceum, Linn. 

From the larvee of various Geramhyccs, but especially of 
this common species, Ratzeburg says (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 68) 
that Wissmann bred both sexes of Ilelcon carinator, Noes, 
and also, probably, H. tardator, Nees; and adds (/. c. ii, 70) 
that he has bred Aspigomis contract us ^''^ with Hdcon 
xquator, out of spruce-wood infested by this Longicorn. 
Mr. Horace Donisthorpe possesses a % EpliicUtes carhon- 
arius, which he took in the act of ovipositing in the 
burrows of G. violaceum at Lyndhurst, in 1902. 

82. Glytus. 

Herr Reissig bred Exothecus Lxvigcttus ^^^ from an un- 
specified larva of this genus (Ichn. Forst. iii, 43) ; eight 
of this parasite's larvas were found to be externally sucking 
that of the Longicorn and they subsequently spun light 
cocoons. Radzay also bred Spathius Badzayamis (I.e. ii, 
44) from oaks in which several species of Glytus, together 
with other beetles, had been boring. 

83. Glytus arcuatus, Linn. 

M. Ferris has raised the very rare Pimplid, Arotcs alhi- 
cinctus, Grav., from this species (cf. Laboulbene, Ann. Soc. 
Fr. 1877, p. 406); and Ratzeburg gives (Ichn. d. Forst. iii, 
249) Exothecus l/evigatus^^^ as parasitic upon Gcramhyx 
arcuatus. [Cf. also Agrilus Mguttatus, ante.] 

84. Ilolorchus umhellatarum, Linn. 

The only parasite which has been indicated in connec- 
tion with this species is Ephialtcs pusiUus, Ratz. (Ichn. d. 
Forst. iii, 110), of which one specimen was bred by 
Nordlinger out of M. umheUatarum in apple-wood. 



Hymcnoiitcrous Parasites oj ColeopUra. 27 

85. Bhagium hifasciatum, Fab. 

There are, curiously enough, no records of hymeno- 
pterous parasites of this common species. In April 1900 
Mr. F. H. Day sent from the Carlisle district (Orton and 
Durdar) to Mr. Morley both sexes of Mitroboris corimta^^ 
Ratz., with the following note : " They were bred from fir 
logs, in which Rliagium lifasciatum was feeding ; I have 
just bred another pair from cocoons — the cocoons from 
which Mitroboris emerged were their own and not those 
of Bhagium; taken 18th March, 1900. I fancy it is 
not uncommon here, having during the last few years 
repeatedly noticed similar cocoons in the Bhagium 
burrows." 

86. Bhagium indagator. Fab. 

Ratzeburg (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 212) says this northern 
species is preyed upon in the Hartz Mountains by Xoridcs 
irrigator '^^ (ii, 105) — copied by Taschenberg (Zeits. Ges. 
Nat. 1863, p. 300) and Tosquinet (Ann. Soc. Belg. 1897, 
p. 322) — Spathius Badzayanus whose cocoons were found 
in its burrows (ii, 43) and Bracon leucogaster ^""^ which was 
bred from it by Bouche (i, 45) ; this last is probably 
synonymous with Cceloides initiator, Fab., which Marshall 
records (Bracon. d'Europ. i, 222) from the same host, 
whence Bouche also bred Bracon initiator. 

87. Bhagium inquisitor, Fab. 

This common species is preyed upon by another kind of 
Xoridcs, jlliformis]'-^ according to Wissmann (Ichn. d. Forst. 
ii, 105 — copied like the last species), who notes that the 
parasite constructs a disproportionately elongate cocoon 
and is not confined to the present host. 

88. Bhagium mordax, Fab.* 

Brischke writes (Schr. Nat. Ges. Danz. 1880, p. 129), 
under Ischnoccros rusticns, Grav., " Aus Larven von Bhagium 
7nordax .... erzogen." 

89. Beptitra scutellata. Fab, 

Both sexes of Histeromcrus mystacimcs have been bred 
by Mr. Horace Donisthorpe, from a mass of their own 
cocoons, which emerged from a cocoon of L. scutellata, 
found in Epping Forest in May 1906. 



28 Ml-. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley on the 

00. Sirnnr/rdia quadrifasciata, Linn. 

Marshall's record (Bracon. d'Europ. ii, 219) of Helcon 
o'uspator, Linn., " Parasite du longicorne Straiigalia 
quadrifasciata, L.," is the only one known. 

91. Grmnmo'ptera ruficornis, Fab. 

Morley, confirming Helcon anmdicornis, Nees, as British 
(E. M. M. 1900, p. 175), writes: "I should suspect it, from 
the state of its environment when found in the present 
instance," to prey upon " Grammoptera ruficornis, F., . . . 
If, however, it be parasitic upon so ubiquitous a host, it 
appears curious that it should for so long liave been over- 
looked." And, moreover, the relative size of host and 
parasite render such an association highly improbable. 

92. Acanthocinus aidilis, Linn. 

Xoridcs filiformis'^^ under fir bark (Ichn. d. Forst. i, 123), 
X. irrigator '^'^ of which the almost black and boat-shaped 
cocoon was found side by side with that of its host in dry 
wood (iii, 105), and Bracon initiator ^^^ (i, 46 et ii, 39) are 
instanced as parasites of this interesting Longicorn by 
Ratzeburg (ii, 212), to which is somewhat doubtfully 
added (iii, 86) Bracon i^rfecisus^^^ upon the authority of 
Brischke, who saw on 23rd May six of these parasites 
emerge from a hole of Ccranibyx ledilis in a fence post. 

93. Leiopus. 

Giraud indicates an unspecified individual of this genus 
to have been the host of Orthoccntrusfnlvipcs, Grav. (Ann. 
Soc. Fr. 1877, p. 408) ; it was bred in France by M. Edouard 
Ferris. 

94. Leiopus nchulosus, Linn. 

From this species has been bred by Dr. Fromont, accord- 
ing to Tosquinet (Ann. Soc. Belg. 1897, p. 322), Mitrohoris 
cornuta^'^ Ratz. ; and Laboulbene also says (Ann. Soc. Fr. 
1877, p. 411) that Mctcorus tahidus, Wesm., was raised 
from it by Ferris. 

95. Hoplosia fcnnica, Payk.* 

From Ccramhyx fcnnicus, Ratzeburg records (Ichn. d. 
Forst. ii, 212) BjMaltes tidjcrcidcdus, Xorides filiformis"'^ 
bred by Reissig from its own brown, papyraceous cocoons 



Hymcnoinberons Parasites of Coleoptcra. 29 

of nearly an inch in length from this beetle in dead wood 
(ii, 105), Hclcon carinaior and, doubtfully, Ilelcon tardator. 
Of R. carmator he says (ii, 68) : " I bred Q^ $ and 2 ? $ 
from an oak bough in Avhich the otherwise rare Apate 
sinuata, with JEccoptogaster intricatus and C. fcnniciis had 
bored extensively ; of C. fcnnicus only one beetle emerged ; 
either the Hdcon attacked this species only, or at the 
same time the somewhat large Apate." Marshall, however, 
has not noticed this parasitism under either species of 
Hclcon. 

96. Exocentrus htsitanns, Linn.* 

Brischke appears to have paid considerable attention to 
the parasites of this species, for, in his " Die Ichneu- 
moniden der Provinzen West- und Ost-Preussen," he 
records Csenocrxjptus tcner, Ephialtcs discolor, SpatJiius 
hrevicaudis and Trigonoderus dactilis, as preying upon it. 

97. Exocentriis punctipennis, Muls.* 

A Braconid, under the name Blacus exocentri, Gir., is 
recorded by Laboulbene (Ann, Soc, Fr. 1877, p. 411) as 
having been bred from this species by Pei-ris in France. 

98. Exocentrus adspersus, Muls.* 
Laboulbene {lib. cit. p. 419) instances the Chalcid, 
Euscmdulurn inerme, Ratz., as parasitic on this Longicorn. 

99. Pogonochi&rus fascicnlatus, DeG. 

Bracon fiavulator, one ^ from fir billets (Ichn. d. Forst. 
i. 40), Eplbialtes carhonaritts, Pimpla terebrans, Ptcromalus 
Dahlhomii, two $ ^ taken out of this host upon different 
occasions (i, 202) and a single pair of P. Pogonochoeri, from 
fir billets in which this beetle had lived (i, 200), are 
recorded from Ccramlyx fascicular is, Panz., by Ratzeburg 
(ii, 212) ; and to these are added (iii, 249) Bracon igneus^'^^ 
several bred from fir boughs in which were these beetles, 
B. undulatus'^'^^ and B. palpehrator, from the same host; 
the last-named parasite was several times bred in great 
numbers by Reissig from P. hispidus, Linn, (iii, 38). 
Reinliard obtained four ^ $ and twelve ? $ of his Doryctcs 
p)omarius from the borings of Pogonochierus faseicularis, 
Panz., Scolytus rugulosus and ;S^. pruni in fruit trees, as 
recorded by Marshall and Kirchner. 



30 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley 07i the 

100. Pogonoch/erus Mdcntatus, Thorns. 

From P. Idspidiis, Laich., Perris bred in France (cf. 
Ann. Soc. Fr. 1877, pp. 410-11) Odontomcrus sjnnipes, 
Grav.,Opms ruhricqjs,^^^ Ratz., and, doubtfully, 0. caudatus, 
Wesm. Nordlinger also bred, in Germany, one $ of Bracon 
undidatus}^'^ from apparently this species, out of Euonymus 
(John. d. Forst. iii, 35). 

101. Po(jonoch[er%s denUdus, Fourc. 

Ratzeburg says {I. c. ii, 212) that Ceramibyx pilosus, Fab., 
is attacked by Epliicdtes carlonarius (i. 119), and perhaps 
also by Piiwpln terebrans, which he bred from fir billets 
probably containing this beetle (i, 114), and from some 
six-to-eight-year old dead firs containing a quantity of 
Pogonocherus larvae (ii, 89). 

102. Monochammus sutor, Linn. 

Bracon impostor is given by Ratzeburg (/. c. iii, 249) as 
parasitic upon Ccrambyx sutor. 

103. Dorcadion pedestrc, Poda.* 

The same author instances Geramlyx nLfip)cs as the host 
of Xoridcs (Bchthrus) amssi'pes, which Jacobi bred at 
Nordhausen, in April, from this species, feeding in dry 
plum-tree branches (/. c. iii, 115 et 249). 

104. Saperda carcharias, Linn. 

Xoridcs (iMitrohoris) cornutus^^ Ratz., is the only known 
parasite of this species as instanced by its author, 
Taschenberg and Tosquinet. Kielmann took at Haasen- 
felde (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 108) three $ $ as they crept in 
and out of the holes bored by Ccrambyx carcharias in 
aspen stems. 

105. Saperda p)op^dnca, Linn. 

This Longicorn is much subject to Hymenopterous 
parasites : Epliicdtes continuus, twice bred by Brischke 
from swellings on aspen twigs caused by the larvag of this 
beetle (Ichn. d. Forst. iii, 25 et 109), E. manifest>dor and 
E. populneus, one ^ of which was bred by Lebe from 
poplar but uncertain host(ii, 100) ; Bracon muUiarticulatns, 
Chelo7ms lievigator ^^^ from the same swellings as E. 
continims (iii, 25), Alysia Gcdancnsis, ^'^ bred by both 



Hymcno2Jtcrous Parasites of Golmptcra. 31 

Reissig and Brischke from swollen aspen twigs containing 
these larvas in May, June and July (iii, 70); Ptcroinakts 
fencicorni:^, several raised by Brischke out of aspen 
swellings whence the A. Gedancnsis had already emerged 
(iii, 228); with, doubtfully, a single Entcdon chalyhmis 
from a similar larval swelling in poplar by Reissig, and 
Torymus macrocentrus by Nordlinger at Stuttgart out of 
similar knots in a weak aspen (iii, 224) ; — were all noted 
from Gcrambyx ijoindncus by Ratzeburg {lib. cit. ii, 212 et 
iii, 249); as also was said by Brischke to have been 
Ichneumon suspicax'^ (iii, 166), but Morley regards this 
(Ichn. Brit, i, 248) as "almost certainly in error," and ailds 
(/. c. 292), " a great deal more proof is needed before any 
reliance can be placed upon the records of any Ichneu- 
moninse preying upon Coleoptera." Tischbein once saw 
Glypta tcTcs^^ Ratz. \piec Grav. : cf. Thorns., Opusc. Ent. xiii, 
1340] swarming round an aspen and several times bred 
tlie same species from the present Longicorn. Brischke, 
in his Prussian Ichneumons, also gives Ei^ldaltcs contioums, 
Ascogaster laiviyator ^'-'^ and Entcdon chalyhains, adding 
Diadromus sitUilicornis with a query. Giraud records 
(Ann. Soc. Fr. 1877, p. 397 ct scqq.) Grypttts analis?^ 
Ei)hialtes tuhcrculatus, Pimpla altcrnans, Echthrus nu- 
Icculatus, E. populncus, Gir., and Bnuwi dcnigrator,^^"^ Fab., 
as preymg upon it. Kirchner (Cat. 119) adds Ghclonus 
nigrinus and Tosquinet (Ann. Soc. Belg. 1897, p. 280) 
Epliialtcs carhooiarivs, upon Taschenberg's authority. 
Bridgman says (Trans. Norf. Soc. 1893, p. 629) that Mr. H. 
J. Thouless has bred both Epliialtcs impcrator and E. 
tuhcrc^Uatus from this Longicorn in Norfolk. 

106. Saperda scalar is, Linn. 

According to Dr. Laboulbene (Ann. Soc. Fr. 1877, p. 
405), Ferris bred GampoplcM transfuya,^^'^ Gir., Orthocentrus 
fulvipcs, Grav., and Mctcorus tahidus, Wesm., from tliis 
species ; from which has also been raised (Ann. Soc. Belg. 
1897, p. 322) by Dr. Fremont Xylonoiinis filiformis, Grav., 
in Belgium. Ncirdlincjer also bred both sexes of X. 
priBcatoo'i^is (Ichn. d. Forst, iii, 115) from a Geramhyx ^ in 
maple. 

^ Ratzeburg (loc. cit.) calls this beetle Geramhyx luridus ; I fancy, 
however, it is really Saperda scalaris, as Tetropiimyi lurkUun lives in 
GoniferiB.—E. A. E. 



32 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley o?i the 

107. Tdrops i^Tieusta, Linn. 

From this small species, Ratzeburg (Ichu. d. Forst. ii, 
212) records Elacliestes leucogramma, Pteromalus noduloms, 
of which Brischke bred a single $ (ii, 197) and, doubtfully, 
Eurytuma Ece(yptoga$iri. Nordlinger also bred several 
specimens of Eurytoma ischioxanthi/s from ash and some 
others from a dry ash point, ringed by hornets, in which 
were Ceramhyx pr/imsta. Under the genus Acrocormus, 
Forst., Kirchner (Cat. 166) writes: "Dr. Forster entdeckte 
2 Arten aus dlirren Appelzweigen, worin die Larven von 
Sapcrda 'pTc'eusta von einer ThamnoijMlus — und Scolytus — 
Art lebten." 

108. Oherea oculata, Linn, 

Taschenberg and Tosquinet both give Epliialtes carho- 
narius, Christ., as preying upon this handsome species. 
They copy Ratzeburg, who says (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 99) : 
"Among others, I bred a oi lines long ^ with stramineous 
under-side of scape, rust-red clypeus, beautifully silky face 
and remarkably short legs out of Salix ccqjrca, in which 
Saperda oculata had been boring." The parasitism, how- 
ever, is not established, and the short legs render the 
identification doubtful. 

109. Tetro^mim hiridum, Linn, 

This species is said to be much infested with Xorides 
ater ^° in Silesiau spruce-fir trees, X collaris, a ^ of which 
were bred byWissmann in the 'Rartz, Asjnyonus contractus,-''^ 
Bracon initicdor^^'^ B. ollitcrcdus^''^ a few untypical $ $ of 
Hclcon xquator and both sexes in fir in the Hartz, and, 
doubtfully, Mcsolc'ptus teredo, by Ratzeburg {lib. cit. ii, 39, 
67 et 212). Xylonomus caligatiis^^ is also instanced as 
parasitic upon it by Kirchner (Cat. 109) in Prussia. 

110. Tetroinum castancam, Linn. 

Morley writes (Ichn. Brit, ii, 21) of Cuhoceplialus nigri- 
ventris, Thorns.: "In July 1904, Donisthorpe gave me a 
female of this species, which he had 'dug at Market 
Bosworth, Leicestershire, from a burrow of Tctropium 
castaneu7ii, in a spruce tree ' ; there was, however, no direct 
evidence of this species' parasitism upon the Longicorn 
coleopteron (c£ E. M. M. 1906, p. 41)." Mr. Pool has bred 
from Tctrojnum gahricli, at Enfield in 1906, a $ Lissonota, 



Hynunopterous Parasites of Coleoptera. 33 

which appears to be the undescribed sex of L. paljpalis, 
Thorns., and, if so, is new to the British Fauna. 

111. Bruchus affinis, Froh. 

Curtis tells us (Farm Insects, 365) that Sigalphus 
thoracicus is parasitic upon Bnichus fiavimanus. 

112. Bruchus atomarius, Linn. 

The same author (lib. cit. 364) instances Sifjalphus 
pallidipes as preying upon Bruchus granarius. Kirchner 
(Cat. 115) and Marshall (Bracon. d'Europ. i, 254) say 
Chremyhis ruhiginosus, Nees, is a parasite of B. granarius, 
Schh. ; from the larvae of which in the pods of vetch 
M. Perris has also bred Sigalphus striatulus. 

113. Bruchus lentis, Boh. 

Marshall (lib. cit. i, 312) indicates Sigaljjhits thoracicus, 
Curt., as preying upon Bruchus lentis, Schk. 

114. Bruchus rufimanus, Boh. 

This species is also given by Marshall (/. c. i, 254) as an 
alternative host of Ghremylus rubiginosus, Nees. 

115. Bruchus biguttatus, Oliv.* 

Bracon rufator, Giraud, was raised by its author (Ann. 
Soc. Fr. 1877, p. 414) from B. biguttatus, in France. 

116. Bruchus seminarius, Linn.* 

Both Ghremylus rubiginosus, Nees, and Sigalphus thora- 
cicus, Curtis, are given as parasitic upon this species by 
Marshall (Bracon d'Europ. i, 254 et 312). 

117. Bruclmis viciie, Oliv.* 

Edouard Perris, according to Laboulbene (Ann. Soc. Fr. 
1877, pp. 414 et 429), bred Bracon prxcox, Wesm,, and 
Pteromalus leucojjezus, Ratz., from this species in France. 

118. Bruchus villosus, Fab. 

Three Chalcids are instanced by Ratzeburg as preying 
upon B. spiartii, Er. These are Tridymus undatus '^^^^ and 
T.punctatus'^^^ (Ichn. d. Forst. iii, 227), the latter of which 
Reissig bred from the seeds of Spartiuni sco2^ariuin, together 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1907, — PART I. (jUNE) 3 



34 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley on the 

with CuTCulio Sjjartii, and two $ $ of Entcdon seminarius ^^ 
(iii, 213). The latter was also bred by Brischke from the 
same host; from which Kirchner further says (Cat. Ill) 
that Bracon colpojyhooms and Pteromalus Icgtiminum have 
been bred. Reissig, however, was uncertain (Ichn. d. Forst. 
iii, 234) whether the host of P. legitminum were a Bruchus 
or an Apion. 

119. Bruchus rufipes, Herbst.* 

120. Bruchus signaticm^nis, Schh. 

121. Bruchus pallidicoomis, Schh. 

M. Perris has indicated Sigaljjhiis sto^iatuhts as -parasitic 
upon the above three species of Bruchus in pods of 
vetch. 

122. Crioceris asparagi, Linn. 

Our evidence of this species' parasitism is of the 
slenderest : a single cocoon of some kind of Apanteles 
(which unfortunately failed to emerge) was found in June 
1906, upon an asparagus leaf in the garden of Monks' 
Soham House, Suffolk, amongst numerous larvae of this 
beetle [C. M.]. 

123. Crioceris duodccimpunctata, Linn. 

Kirchner states (Cat. 98), concerning the Ophionid, 
Porizon microcephcdus, Grav., " Von Dr. Amerling aus 
Crioceris duodccimpunctata erzogen." 

124. Cryptocephalus hijncnctatus, Linn. 

M. Tappes has figured the male of Pygostolus falcatus, 
Nees, which he says (Ann. Soc. Fr., 1809) emerged from 
this beetle. 

125. Cryptocephalus fulvus, Goez. 
The Braconid, " Pezomachus " Bosenhaueri,^^^ Ratz. 
(Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 247), has been bred in Germany by Herr 
Rosenhauer from larvse of Cryptocephalus minutus, Fab. 

126. Cryptocephalus q^iinqucpunctatus, Har.* 
Nees von Esenbeck reared two individuals of Eupclmus 
annulatus from the pupa of this beetle (Hym. Mon. ii, 



Hymcnoiitcrons Parasites of Coleoptera. 35 

76 — quoted by Westwood, Mod. Class, ii, 159). This is 
copied by Ratzeburg (Iclin. d. Forst. iii, 249), who adds 
that Pczomachus pcdcstris}^ a species of Tryphon, Entedon 
cassidarum and Pteromalus cryptocephali, which was bred 
by Rosenhauer, also prey upon this species ; though all 
his details appear somewhat inconclusive. 

127. Timarcha tenehricosa, Fab. 

DeGeer first noticed this species to be attacked by 
hymenopterous parasites. Bignell bred (Trans. Devon. 
Assoc, 1901, p. G80) a specimen of Perilitus falciger, 
Ruthe, from a perfect beetle of this species in South 
Devon, on 7th May, 1891, and remarks upon the rarity of 
the emergence of parasites from imagines. For a similar 
record cf. Bull. Soc. Fr. 1854, p. 57.^ 

128. Timarcha violacconigra, DeG. 

Writing of Perilitus falciger, Ruthe, Marshall (Bracon. 
d'Europ. ii, 42) tells us that " Un examplaire conserve au 
Musee Britannique est etiquete corame provenu d'un 
coleoptere adulte et vivant, Timarcha coriaria, Fab." 

129. Chrysomcla. 

Boyer de Fonscolombe bred (Ann. Scien. Nat., 1832, 
pp. 273 et scqq.) his Pteromalus gallarum^^^ from the 
pupa of some species of this genus, as is quoted by 
Westwood and Ratzebuig. 

130. Chrysomela varians, Schal. 

Kawell is said by Kirchner (Cat. 97) to have bred from 
this beetle Mesochoi-us tJioracicus, Grav., in Kurland. 

131. Melasoma populi, Linn. 

Chrysomela popidi is said by Ratzeburg (Ichn. d. Forst. 
iii, 230 et 249) to be attacked by Pteromalus Sieboldi, 
which Reissig and von Siebold both bred from this beetle, 

^ " Several instances of the emergence of the larvse from the bodies 
of perfect Coleopterous insects are recorded, and I possess a specimen 
of Timarcha Ixrigata, from which the larvae of a small species of 
Bracon escaped from the posterior extremity of the abdomen in such 
nimibers, as to cover the whole bottom of a pill-box an inch in dia- 
meter with their little cocoons. There could hardly have been fewer 
than a hundred of them, and the beetle did not long survive such an 
unpleasant operation " (Dallas' Elements of Entomology, p. 242). 



36 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley on the 

probably from the pupa or full-grown larva. Cf. also J. 
Giraud, Bull. Soc. Fr. 1869, p. 147. 

132. Melasoma tremulm, Fab. 

Referring to the earlier records of AjMnteles lioplitcs, 
Ratz., Marshall (Bracon. d'Europ i, 443) writes : " Reissig 
a suppose, par erreur, qu'il etait parasite des coloopteres 
. . . Lina trcmidie, Fab., obtenus des feuilles roulees du 
tremble." Marsliall's scepticism is based upon the belief 
that no member of the genus preyed upon Coleoptera ; 
but cf. Morley, Entom. 1906, p. 100. 

133. Gastroidca viridula, DeG. 

134. Plagiodera versicolora, Laich. 

Kirchner says of Ptcromcdus mandihularis, Forst. (Cat. 
172) : "Von mir erzogen SiUsFlagiodera armoraciie, Fabr., 
und GastrojjJiysa raphani." Brischke records Bracon 
fuscipennis, Wesm., $ " Aus Larven von GastrojyJii/sa 
raphani erzogen " (Schr. Nat. Ges. Danz., 1880, p. 135). 

135. Prasocuris phellandrii, Linn. 

In his splendid "Wirths-Tabelle," Brischke {lil. cit.,^. 176) 
gives " Phitonomus phellandrii " as the coleopterous host of 
Ganidia quinqueangidaris, Ratz. No such species appears 
to occur in the genus Phytono77ius {Hypera), nor is such a 
one called to mind in any but Prasocuris ; but cf. Thorns 
Opusc. Ent. xi, 112. 

136. Gakrucella calmariensis, Linn. 

Westwood says (Mod. Class, ii, 159) that Fonscolombe 
reared Pkromalus galerucm from the eggs of Galcruca 
calmariensis ; but we have not seen the latter 's account of 
the circumstance.^ 

137. Adimonicf pomoncV, Scop.* 

The ubiquitous Passus lietatorius has been bred by 
Tischbein from the larva of A. rustica (cf. Voll. Pinac. iii, 
pi. 1, et Morley, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1905, p. 432). 

1 Cf. also P. Marchal's Observations biologiques sur un Parasite de 
la Gateruque de I'Orme, le Tetradichus xanthomeleenx, Rond. [Bui. 
Soc. Fr. 1905, pp. 64-68.] 



ffymenoptcrous Parasites of Coleoptera. 37 

138. Phyllotreta nigra, ? MS * 

Under Aphidius Halticm, Rond., Marshall (Bracon. 
d'Europ. ii, 616) writes : " Provenu, selon Fauteur, de la 
larve d'un coleoptere, qu'il nomme Phyllotreta nigra, Ent. 
Heft. Outre qu'il n'y a pas de Phyllotreta nigra parmi 
les Halticidse, un rapport de parasitisme entre AjyhicVms et 
un coleoptere est peu vraisemblable. — Italie." 

139. Psylliodes dulcamarse, Koch. 

Dr. Giraud, in a footnote (Ann. Soc. Fr. 1877, p. 248), 

says : " M. Edouard Ferris a trouve le Pteroiaahis cx- 

cresccntium de Ratzeburg, parasite de la Psylliodes 
dulcamarm." 

140. Cassida. 

Under Entedon cassidarum, E.atz., Kirchner (Cat. 184) 
gives : " Gezogen aus Cassida- Axien." It was bred by both 
von Siebold and Rosenhauer from members of this genus 
(Ichn. d. Forst. iii, 248). 

141. Cassida scladonia, Gyll. 

Laboulbene gives (Ann. Soc. Fr. 1877, p. 418) Chalcis 
parmila, Laporte, as having been bred by Ferris from 
C. Jilaginis, Perr. 

142. Heledona agaricola, Latr. 

Of his ^ Orthoeentrus testaceipes, Brischke says (Schr. 
Nat. Ges. Danz. 1878, n. 6, p. 110) : " Aus Larven der 
Heledona agao-icola in einem Boletus erzogen. Neustadt," 
A dozen specimens, including both sexes, of a green 
Pteromalus, together with their hosts, were bred from this 
beetle by Donisthorpe in a fungus found at Virginia 
Water, 21st September, 1901. 

143. Diaperis holeti, Linn. 
Giraud found Diospilus ephippium associating with this 
beetle and other fungivorous Coleoptera in Boletus ignarius 
about Vienna (Bracon. d'Europ. ii, 263 et Kirch. Cat. 132). 
Laboulbene records Microdus calculator, Nees (Ann. Soc, 
Fr. 1877, p. 412) : " Bolet, avec Piaperis holeti et Tinea 
2')arasitella" ; Marshall, however, thinks the Microdus 
more probably parasitic on the Lepidoptera, Scardia holeti. 
Fab., etc. 



38 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley on the 

14-i. Mycdocharcs axillaris, Payk.* 

This species was thought by Ratzeburg (Ichn. d. 
Forst. ii, 69 et 215) to be preyed upon by Asjngonus 
diveo'sicoi-nis,^^^ since the latter was bred in Germany 
by Herr Wissmann from dead wood containing 3f. linearis 
and other Coleoptera. Marshall (Bracon. d'Europ. ii, 252) 
quotes this, but synonymises the host with Mycetocharcs 
harbata, Latr. 

145. Orchcsia minor, Walk. 

From the pupa of this species, which is probably 
synonymous with the next, Marshall says Ewphor^ts 
pallidipcs, Curt,, has once been bred in England. 

146. Orchesia micans, Panz. 

The pink larvae of this beetle, so abundant in dry Bolcti, 
are very extensively parasitised, though it is difficult to 
understand how their foes come at them when so embedded 
in their pabulum. Westwood (Mod. Class, i, 309 et ii, 
143) says M. V. Adouin has ascertained that it was attacked 
by Ferilitus similator,-^^ which he himself had also reared 
from it. Curtis instances Evphorus orclicsiie'^^^ and Mdcorus 
orchesiieP^ Ratzeburg (Ichn, d. Forst. ii, 215) gives 
Microdtis ahciss^is^^"^ (p. 46), Porizon moderator,^^ of which 
Tischbein bred both sexes (p. 86), Ferilitus ohfuscatns,'^^'^ 
bred by Reissig, Tischbein and Wissmann, and P. longi- 
caudis, also bred by Wissmann along with the last species, 
as its parasites; and Meteorus longicavdis is also referred 
to in this connection by Brischke. Giraud bred Meteorus 
obfuscatus, Ratz., from " Orchestes micans, dans Boletus 
igniarius" (Ann. Soc. Fr. 1877, p. 411). Marshall records 
(Ent. Ann. 1874, p. 126) Perilitus obfuscatus, Nees, bred 
from this beetle and (Bracon. d'Europ. ii, 91) says of M. 
obfuscatus : " Ce Meteorus est bien connu comme parasite 
solitaire et commun des coleopteres fungicoles, Orchesia 
micans, Panz., etc. On ignore si la femelle confie son oeuf 
a la larve de I'Orchesia ou a I'insecte adulte ; quoi qu'il en 
soit, j'ai vu plusieurs fois des Orclicsia a I'etat parfaits, 
trouves mort, et ayant leurs membres enchevetres dans le 
lainage de la coque blanchatre du parasite, qui setait 
attach^ a leur ventre." Biguell (Trans. Devon. Assoc. 
1901, p. 681) also notices the attachment of the parasites' 
thin and Avhitish cocoon to their host in Bolt Head speci- 



Hymenopterous Parasites of Coleoptera. 39 

mens of the same species ; he bred it at the end of June 
1898. Sometimes only ^ $ will emerge from a whole 
fungus-full of Orchesia, as was the experience of Mr. E. G. 
Bayford, about Barnsley in 1898, who bred it from the 
pupse of the beetle. It has been suggested that this 
species may have been the host of Hevniteles niger, which 
has been bred from a ligneous fungus (cf. Morley, Ichn. 
Brit. ii. 146). 

Morley has invariably bred Meteorus ohfuscatus, wherever 
0. micans occurs (from Boletus on old elm-trees about 
Ipswich); a fungus taken on Oct, 17th, 1897, produced 5 $ 
and 2 $ Thersilochus moderator on April 1st, 1898 ; and 
1 $ with 3 $ $ of the same species, 8 $ and 13 $ 3Ieteorus 
ohfuscatus, and 19 0. micans, had also emerged from it by 
Jan. 12th, 1901. A second fungus, taken Dec. 30th, 1899, 
yielded only 2 $ M. ohfuscatus and 2 0. micans by June 
22nd, 1900. From a third fungus obtained in 1902 were 
bred by June 17th, 1903, 26 0. micans, 50 (17 ? $) 31. 
ohfuscatus, 10 (5 ^ $) T. moderator, 5(1$) Proctotrypes par- 
vulus, Hal., 2 red-bodied Cecidomyia and 1 Phalacrus 
corruscus ; there can be but little doubt, in lack of direct 
evidence, that the Thersilochus is hyperparasitic, through 
the Mcteoo'us, upon the Orchesia; the appearance of the 
Proctotrypes is more difficult to explain, though several 
times before bred from fungi ; the Dipteron doubtless sub- 
sisted upon the fungus itself, in which the Phalacrid 
Coleopteron was probably no more than hibernating. 

147. Hallomenus. 

Prof. C. G. Thomson (Opusc. Ent. xiii, 1360) says of 
Porizon : " Hvad angar lefnadssattet kanner man foga 
derom ; ett par arter hafva klackts ur Coleoptera — Orchesia 
och Hallomenus — ; ntigra andra lefva parasitiskt hos 
Cynips." And adds of Biaparsus gilvipes, Grav. {lib. cit. 
1378), " utlackt ur Hallomenus.^' 

148. Hallomenus humcrcdis, Panz. 

A Braconid, Piospilus Jilator, Nees, is said by Giraud 
(Ann. Soc. Fr. 1877, p. 411) to have been bred by Perris 
from this beetle. 

149. Carida ajffinis, Payk. 

Gravenhorst (Ichn. Europ. iii. 777) writes of Porizon 
hoops : " . . . alter Neeseo ab Esenbeck prorepit e larva 



40 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley 07i the 

Hallomeni ajjinis, in Bolcto fomcntario babitante, mense 
Junii." Tbis is quoted by Kircbuer; and Ratzeburg 
(Icbn. d. Forst. ii, 86) says under Forizo7i moderator tbat 
Herr Wissmann bas bred it from Hallomenus affi^nis in a 
fungus on beech at Miinden, in Hanover. 

150. MelaTidrya carahoides, Linn. 

Laboulbene gives (Ann, Soc. Fr. 1877, p. 412) Aspiffonvs 
diversicornis,^^^ Gir., as having been bred by Ferris from 
this species ; and Ratzeburg (Ichn. d. Forst. iii, 69) says 
Nordlinger found Helcon elaviventris in the trunk of an 
ancient beech tree in company with it, adding Mesostenus 
ater as an alternative parasite ; the latter, however, emerged 
from wood containing unspecified 3Ielandrya, Sphex and 
Dasytes {q. v. ante). 

151. Mo7xlellistena episternalis, Muls.* 

From this beetle, Giraud tells us (Ann. Soc. Fr. 1877, 
p. 426) that M. Ferris bred the Chalcid, Eurytoma 
histrionica, Forst. 

152. Metxeus paradoxus, Linn. 

It may be well to indicate tliat the Tryphonid, Spheco- 
phaga vesparvm. Curt., though often found in the same 
nests of Vcsp)a vulgaris as this anomalous beetle (cf. 
Morley, E. M. M. 1900, p. 123), is now considered to prey 
exclusively upon the larvse of their common host, in spite 
of Hope's assumption that S. vcsparum was parasitic upon 
M. paradoxus (Froc. Ent. Soc. 1838, iii, p. 177). It is not 
yet, however, known upon what the nondescript Chalcid 
and Braconid, which are also sometimes found in the same 
nests (cf. Kirby, Bridgwater Treatise, 1835, ii. 335), are 
parasitic. 

153. BhyncJiophcyra. 

Westwood (Mod. Class, ii, 142) refers to an unspecified 
Curenlio, which was discovered to be attacked by hymeno- 
pterous parasites by Rev. William Kirby, F.R.S. ; and 
Ratzeburg (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 213) says that JEncyrtus 
Jlaminius has also been bred from some species of the same 
broad genus ; further, Reissig {lih. cit. iii, 39) raised a ^ of 
Bracon scutellaris from weevils in the leaves of sallow. 



Hymenoptcrous Parasites of Coleoptera, 41 

154, Apodcms. 

At lih. cit. ii, 213, Ratzeburg tells us that an unspecified 
Apoderus has been found to be attacked by EncyrPm flavo- 
mamlatus and also {I. c. iii, 249) by Ophiooicurus simplex}'^^ 

155. Apoderus coryli, Linn. 

Ratzeburg says (/. c. ii, 94) that his single ^ of Pimpla 
lo7igiventris was found in an immature condition in a hazel 
leaf rolled by this beetle and thought consequently that 
it had undoubtedly been bred there. Reissig also bred 
(/. c. iii, 97) Pimpila favipcs^^ and (iii, 217) Elachestus 
Icucohatus from the same host. 

156. Attekibus curculionoides, Linn. 

Two specimens of Ophioneums siniplcx^^^ were bred by 
Herr Reissig (Ichn. d. Forst. iii, 197) out of the little 
larvse of Apoderus c^trculionoides in rolled oak leaves at 
Darmstadt. 

157. Byctiscus hetuleti, Fab. 

Rev. T. A. Marshall (Bracon. d'Europ. ii, 149) records 
Calyptiis tibialis, Hal, which he thinks synonymous with 
Brachistes politus, Ratz., from this species, upon the latter's 
authority — Nordlinger found B. politus in a pear leaf rolled 
by this weevil early in June at Winnenden (Ichn. d. Forst. 
iii, 27) ; — he is however sceptical of the record from it of 
Apanteles hoplites (c£ Melasoma tremul^, ante). Ratze- 
burg also mentions (/. c. ii, 214) Bracon discoideus, frequently 
bred from aspen leaves rolled by this beetle (p. 38) ; Micro- 
gaster liBvigaUis, one $ bred by Reissig (p. 50) ; Pimpla 
flavipes,^^ obtained in masses from Curculio hetuleti in rolled 
aspen leaves in the middle of July (p. 91); and Elachestus 
carinatus, of which four specimens were bred from rolled 
aspen leaves — probably tenanted by this weevil — by 
Reissig (p. 173); as well as (iii, 249) Ophioneurits 
simplex.^'^^ 

158. Byctiscus popidiy Linn. 

Herr Reissig bred Bracon discoidetis from BJiynchites 
populi in rolled poplar leaves (Ichn. d. Forst. iii, 37). 

159. Beporaus hetulie, Linn. 
Ophioneums signatus ^'^'^ is instanced by ^ei&sig (lib. cit. 

iii, 249) as bred from leaves rolled by Bhynchites bctuliB. 



42 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley on the 

160. Ajnon. 

Kirby and Spence (Introd. 7th Ed. 1859, 154) say 
tliey have received hymenopterous parasites from " The 
clover-weevil " — probably Apion cq^ncans. Ratzeburg 
(Ichn. d. Forst iii, 249) instances Pteromalus hfjuminum 
and Tridi/nms inmctatus^^^^ bred from unspecified Ajnones, 
Kirchner records (Cat. 179) Cirrosijilus nerio " Aus Apion 
in Spartuim-Hixlsen erzogen." And Giraud tells us (Ann. 
Soc. Fr. 1877, pp. 428-80) that Pteromalus fasciatus, Forst., 
and F. regius, Forst., have been bred from uninstanced 
members of this rich genus. 

161. Apion ap'icans, Herbst. 

Perhaps Kirby and Spence's above record refers to 
Callimonc jiarallelinns, Boh., which Reinhard once bred 
from this species. 

162. Apio7i hohemani, Thoms. 

Ferris, according to Laboulbene (Ann. Soc. Fr. 1877, p. 
428), bred Pteromalus crichsooii, Ratz., and perhaps also 
P. albitarsus, Walk., from Apion ononidis, in France. 

163. Apion craccx., Linn. 

164. Apion difficile, Herbst.* 

According to Marshall (Bracon. d'Europ. i, 144), Bach 
has raised Bracon colpophorus, Wesm., from the siliquse of 
Ervum hirsutiwi, which were occupied by both these 
Apiones ; the parasitism, however, appears open to doubt. 
Bach is also instanced (Ichn. d. Forst. iii, 234) as having 
bred Pteromalus legwimvum in quantities from both A. 
cracc/B and A. 



165. Apion loti, Kirby. 

166. Apion rufirostre, Fab. 

Giraud tells us (Ann. Soc. Fr. 1877, p. 412) that SigalpMs 
floricola, Wesm., has been bred from both Apion atritarse 
and A. loti by Edouard Ferris. 

167. Apion trifolii, Linn. 
This species is said by Laboulbene (loc. cit. p. 429) to 
have been parasitically attacked, according to Ferris, by 
Pteromalus leguminum, Ratz. 



Hi/mcHopterovs Parasites of Colcoptera. 43 

168, Apion urticarium^ Herbst. 

Perris has also raised Ptcromalusmuscarwn, Htg., accord- 
ing to Laboulbene (J. c), from Apion vernale. 

169. Apion violaceum, Kirby. 

Entedon curculionum, Giraud, is said by its author (Ann. 
Soc. Fr. 1877, p. 432), upon the authority of Perris, to 
prey, among other weevils, upon this species. 

170. Apion hrevirostre, Herbst.* 

M. Edouard Perris, who has done such good work in 
this genus, is also said (loc. cit.) to have bred Eidophus 
atrocmndeus, Nees, and Tctrastichus rosarum, Forst,, from 
this Apion in France. 

171. Apion sidcifrons, Herbst.* 

Giraud records (Ann. Soc. Fr. 1877, pp. 425 et 432) his 
Eurytoma apionum a.nd Entcdo7i nitcns ixom. Apion sidcifrons, 
in the latter case upon Artemisia campestris, Linn. 

172. Apion Perrisi, Wenck.* 

From a species thus named, Laboulbene {loc. cit. p. 414) 
says M. Perris bred Bracon rnfator, Gir., in France. 

173. Apion consimile, ? MS.* 

Laboulbene also records (/. c. p. 432) Entedon longi- 
ventris, Ratz., bred from Apion consimile by Dr. Giraud. 

174. Otiorhynchtis ligneus, Oliv. 

Bracon Otiorhynchi $ and B. Barynoti $, described by 
Boudier, are the sexes of Ganychorus htheoxidatiis,"'^^ Wesm. 
(Nouv. Mem. Ac. Brux. 1885). A single larva of the $ was 
bred from Otiorhynchus ligneus and a single larva of the $ 
from Barynotus iiiocrens, after the perfect beetles had been 
pierced with pins for preservation. These larvse, which 
emerged from the abdomens of their respective hosts, spun 
their cocoons on to the pins, beneath the beetles' bodies ; 
they were bred at Montmorency (cf Boudier, Ann. Soc. 
Fr. 1834, pp. 327-336, et Westwood, Mod. Class, ii, 143). 
What do we not lose by too thoroughly killing our cabinet 
specimens novv-a-days ! 



44 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley on the 

175. OtioQ'hynchus maurus, Gyll. 

Orcshius castaneus was conjectured by Marshall (E. M.M. 
iii, p. 194) to possibly be parasitic upon this weevil (cf. 
Morley, Ichn. Brit. ii. 109). 

176. Trachyphlceus scdbriculus, Linn. 
An instance — our only one — of oviposition in a perfect 
beetle was witnessed by M. Boudier, who says (Ann. 
Soc. Fr. 1884, p. 332) that he saw a small, unspecified 
Ichneumon-fly "cramponnd sur le dos de Tracliyphlmis 
scahnculus. II avait introduit sa tarriere entre les elytres 
et I'abdomen par I'anus" (Westwood, Mod. Class, ii, 144). 

177. Phylluhius urtica?, DeG. 

Under his Dolops aculcator, Marshall (Bracon. d'Europ. ii, 
269) says that, in default of direct proof, he suspects it to 
be parasitic upon this common weevil. The only herbage 
where he took the Braconid, near Teignmouth, was a single 
clump of Urtica dioica, whereon was PhyUohius alneti in 
profusion. 

178. Barynotus clcvatus, Marsh. 
[Cf. Otiorhynchus ligneus, above.] 

179. Hypcra. 

In 1902, Rev. T. A. Marshall was so good as to send 
me, from Corsica, a specimen of some Pimplinse (possibly 
Piiiipla abdommalis, Grav.), which he had bred from an 
unspecified Phytonomics [C. M.]. Cf also Prasocuris 
phellandrii, ante. 

180, Hypera o'umicis, Linn. 

From a larva of Phytonomus rnmicis, Kawall bred 
(Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1855, p. 230) at end of July, both sexes 
of Pliygadcnon rufulus, Gmel. 

181. Hypera polygoni, Linn. 

Herr Dahlbom bred Campoplcx s^ihcindns^^^ Grav., from 
larvse of Phytonomus p)^'^ygoni, which were feeding upon 
Silcne in the Botanical Gardens at Lund, 8th August, 1837 
(Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 82.) Jacobi bred Mcsochorus niyripes, 
Ratz., out of the same beetle in Prussia ; ho found the 



Hymenopterous Parasites of CoUopte,ra. 45 

yellow, translucent cocoons adhering to leaves ; towards 
the end of July the ichneumon emerged and left in the 
coleopterous cocoon a brown, thick-walled cocoon of its 
own ; the beetle itself emerged from its adjacent cocoons 
{lib. cit. iii, 118 — referred to by Kirchner, Cat. 97). 

182. Ilypcra 'plantaginis, DeG. 

Curtis mentions (B. E. pi. dxxxvi) that a species of the 
Cryptid genus PezomacMis has been bred from Gurculio 
pla7itaginis. 

183. Rhinocyllus latirostris, Latr. 

Goureau gives an interesting account of Brawn ^irinator, 
Fab., which is parasitic upon this species in Garduus 
nutans. He says it is full-fed and has demolished its host- 
larva by about the middle of August, when it spins a 
cocoon which occupies that of the beetle. Therein it 
passes the winter and does not assume the pupal condition 
till the end of the following March ; the imago emerges at 
the beginning of April, but is commonest during June 
(cf. Bracon. d'Europ. i, 156-7). 

184. Lixus algirus, Linn. 

In the ancient and badly neglected collection of British 
Ichneumonidje in the British Museum is an unnamed 
$ Pimpla {Epiriis), a stout insect, as large as P. gramiincllm, 
Schr., black with totally flavous legs and terebra half 
length of body — labelled " Ichneumon of Zwjms angustatus, 
Fairlight, Aug. 81st ; F. Smith." In August 1902 Mr. 
Donisthorpe took at Rye, in the same neighbourhood of 
Sussex, a $ of the ubiquitous Ophion luteiis, Linn., which 
he says " settled on a larva of Ziviis algirus." 

185. Lixus iridis, Oliv.* 

Prof. Dr. Otto Schmiedeknecht gives (Opusc. Ichn. 544) 
Hop)locryptus inscctator, Tschek, as parasitic upon L. 
turhatus, Schh. 

186. Larinus carlinie, Oliv. 
Pteromalus devatus, Walk., is said by Dr. Giraud (Ann. 
Soc. Fr. 1877, p. 428) to have been bred from this species 
by Ferris in France. 



46 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley on the 

187. Cuculio ahidis, Linn. 

Ratzebiirg gives (Ichn. d. Forst, ii. 213) Eiiliialtcs 
tuhcrculatus, Bracon hylobii and, doubtfully, Ptcromahis 
multicolor ^'^^ as parasitic upon Hylohius jnni. OiB. hijlohii 
Nordlinger bred in May 40 $ $ and 4 ^^ from this species, 
each of whose larvae supports about ten parasites; the 
cocoons of the latter are firm, oat-shaped and papyraceous, 
woven among their hosts' frass and dead bodies, and often 
constructed at the end of the beetles' borings, beneath fir 
bark (/. c. ii, 38). A single E. tuhcrculatus was bred at 
the end of July at Hohenheim from a Weymouth pine in 
which this weevil lived ; it had apparently emerged from 
an elongate cocoon, presumably of its own construction 
(/. c. ii, 100). Taschenberg says (Zeits. Ges. Nat. 1803, 
p. 267) that it is also preyed upon by Pimpla terebrans, 
which is recorded from Curculio ^^wii (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 38). 

188. Pissodcs notatus, Fab. 

Much attention was paid to the parasitism of this species 
by Ratzeburg, who records (Ichn. d. Forst. i, 23, ii, 214 et iii, 
249) the attacks of twenty-nine different Hymenoptera 
upon it, including Eupclmus azurcus,^"^^ Eurytoma sp., 
Ptcromalus pellucens and P. ? mmulus. Heviitclcs mclanarius 
and H. modestns^^ (iii, 153-4) Avere both bred by Reissig 
from young fir trees containing, principally, Cnrcnlio notatus 
and Hylcsinus ^>t?i?^>frf?« ; Ncuratclcs papyraceus (ii, 86) 
were bred, probably from this weevil, from firs near 
Saarbriicken ; Epliialtes carlonarius (ii, 99) emerged at 
Neunkirchen in Rhenish Prussia, probably from this beetle ; 
Pimjila linearis (ii, 98) was certainly bred from Curculio 
notatus, by both Keissig and Ratzeburg from both young 
firs and fir-cones, together with P. laticcps (ii, 94 et iii, 100), 
in the same locality. Quantities of both sexes of Bracon 
disparator ^^'^ (i, 46) were bred from fir billets infested by 
this weevil ; two '^% B. inconiplctus^^^^ (i, 44) were bred from 
fir, probably from this beetle, in Germany; B. labrator 
(i, 47 et ii, 40) was bred at Borutin in Upper Silesia from 
fir logs infested with C. notatus ; both sexes of i?. 2^"lp)ehrator 
(i, 47 et ii, 39) were bred in quantities from fir wood full 
of these larvae at Trier ; ^ ^ of J5. sordidator (i. 48) were 
bred, with the last-named species, in Upper Silesia from 
fir logs, probably also from this beetle. Brachistes 
atricornis '^^ (ii, 28) is one of its commonest parasites, in 



Hynienojjterous Parasites of Colcopfera. 47 

firs in the Neunkirchen district ; from fir cones containing 
larvae of C. notatus, B. firmus ^^^ and B. robustiis ^^^ (i, 54 et 
ii, 27) were bred ; at Borutin one specimen of Microdus 
ahcissus^'^'^ (i, 57) was bred from fir wood, filled with a 
brood of these larvae ; a few specimens of Spathius hrcvi- 
caudis (ii, 43) were bred from fir containing this weevil at 
Neunkirchen and from the Mark. Eurytoma iscMoxanthus 
is referred to (iii, 221), though the identification appears 
not quite established, as bred by Nordlinger with Pimpla 
laticcps out of C. notatus in fir cones ; a single specimen of 
Hadrocerus tmisjnnosa^^^ (iii, 183) was bred, with a mass 
of B. palpehrator, Pteromalus gtottatus and a few Diptera, 
from a great number of young dead fir trees from the 
Ostree coast, which had been killed by this weevil, though 
the parasitism is doubtful. Pteromalus guttatus is said 
(i, 188 et ii, 193) to be one of the commonest parasites of 
this beetle ; P. clavatns (ii, 202) emerged from Trier firs, 
infested by G. notatus, from which also P. Dahlhomi 
(i, 202 et ii, 201) was raised in fir billets from several 
places in the Mark; several $ $ P. lunula (ii, 193) were 
bred from fir plants full of these larvae at Neunkirchen ; 
P. suspcnsus {I. c.) was bred from this weevil at Trier and 
by Nordlinger from Pinus jnnaster in which C. notatus and 
Hylcsinus 2nnipe7'da had bored ; P. mrcscens ^"^^ (ii, 204) 
was also raised from the same host at Trier. Brischke ofives 
(Schr. Nat. Ges. Danz. 1880, p. 113) Pimpla hrcvicornis, 
Grav, var. 3, Holmgr.,as well as Pteromalus guttatus, " Aus 
Pissodes notcctus erzogen " ; and Giraud adds (Ann. Soc. 
Fr. 1877, p. 414) Bracon initial or, ^'^'^ Fab. and B.pxdpcbrator, 
Ratz,, as having been bred from it in France. 

189. Pissodes piini, Linn. 

I have had in my collection for some years (says Ratz., 
Ichn. d. Forst. i. 193) a genuine Pteromalus pini which, 
from the attached number, appears to have been bred from 

Pissodes p)ini. 

190. Pissodes Tiercynix, Herbst.* 

Curiously distinct parasites from those of P. notcdus were 
recorded from Cureulio hercyniai by Ratzeburg (/. e. ii, 214) 
who instances Pimpla tcrehrans, bred from it by Wissmann 
(ii, 89) ; Xoridcs crassipcs and X. licreynianus, which two 
doubtfully distinct species were bred by Hartig from spruce 



48 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley on the 

bark in which larvae of this weevil were boring (ii, 106) ; 
Brachistes atricornis,^^^ bred in spruce bark under which 
were these larvse (ii, 28) ; and Sigalphus curculionum,^^^ 
which is said by Hartig to be its chief parasite (ii, 74). 

191. Fissodes pinipJdliis, Herbst.* 

From this weevil, which is very closely allied to P. notatus, 
Ratzeburg (/. c. iii, 249) bred only Bracon palpcbrator. 

192. Orchestes. 

Nordlinger bred Entedon confinis at Grand Jouan, in 
France (/. c. ii, 166), and Ratzeburg records in Germany 
Eulophus xanthops^^^ (i, 23), which both preyed upon 
unspecified individuals of this genus. 

193. Orchestes alni, Linn. 
Tetrastichus orchcstis, Forst., is indicated by Laboulbene 
(Ann. Soc. Fr. 1877, p. 434) as having been bred by Dr. 
Giraud from this species. 

194. Orchestes leucaspis = ? scutellaris, Germ. 

Nordlinger bred from 0. leucasp)is, Mus. Ber. ( = semirufus, 
Koll.), in birch leaves Sigalp)hus fidvipcs'^^^ (Ichn. d. Forst. 
ii, 26), Eulop)hus dendricornis (ii, 155) and one $ of Ptcro- 
malus Jouanensis (ii, 199) ; and Ratzeburg says he obtained 
only one Ptero^nalns orchestis among many thousands of 
other parasites bred in this genus (ii, 205), adding that the 
same species emerged from Orehestcs leucaspis at Grand 
Jouan in birch leaves. 

195. Orchestes fttfji, Linn. 

Two specimens, and later (/. c. iii, 28) a $, of Brachistes 
mimdus ^^^ were bred from Cicrculio fagi, together with 
one $ of Pteromalus crueiatus (ii, 205), on 10th June by 
Herr Reissig (ii, 28) ; both sexes of Brachistes fagi,^^^ bred 
by Brischke from this host early in June (iii, 28), as well 
as (iii, 249) Exotheeus dehilis, bred by Nordlinger and 
Reissig (iii, 42) ; Sigalphus caudcctus, Entedon luteipes ; E. 
flavomaeulatus, iDred by Reissig (iii, 208) ; E. lineatus^^^ 
one specimen bred by Nordlinger at Hohenheim (iii, 209) ; 
E. orchcstis, bred at tlie same place by Nordlinger (iii, 206), 
and E. xanthostoma ; Eidophtts Icpidus,^^'^ bred with Entedon 
xanthop)s by Nordlinger at Hohenheim (i, 170 et iii, 
242) ; E. diachyniatis ^'^'^ and E. pilicornis — are all recorded 



Hymenopterous Parasites of Cokoptera. 49 

by Ratzeburg from this beetle. Marshall adds (Bracon • 
d'Europ. i, 187) Collastes hraconms to the list of it^ 
enemies; and Brischke gives Sigalphus 'pallidip>es, Nees, 
" aus Larven von Orchestes fagi erzogen." 

196. Orchestes ilicis, Fab. 

There are no exact records of hymenopterous parasitism 
upon this beetle, though Nordlinger has thrice bred 
Chalcids from 0. ilicis in company with 0. querctis : thus 
we find both sexes of Uulojjhus fumatus (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 
156) bred from oak leaves in which these two species of 
weevils were feeding; Entedon mcdianus (I.e. 169) bred 
from both or either; and Pleromcdus Joiianensis (l. c. 199) 
bred in the same way at Grand Jouan. 

197. Orchestes salicis, Linn. 

Upon this species prey Entedon orchestis and E.punctatus, 
which were both bred, together with a Fteromalus, by 
Reissig on 1st October (lib. cit. ii, 160 et 165) ; E. unico- 
statics, of which one specimen was bred from this host 
by Bouche (ii, 163) ; and Ratzeburg further records E. 
mcdianus as preying upon it in France. 

198. Orchestes scutellaris, Gyll- 

Giraud thrice bred Chalcids from this species (Ann. Soc. 
Fr. 1877, pp. 432-4), which were Pleurotropis orchestis, Gir., 
Tetrastichus frontalis, Nees, and T. orchestis, Forst. 

199. Orchestes qnercits, Linn. 

The parasites bred in Germany from this common weevil 
(Ichn. d. Forst. i, 23, revised and extended ii, 213) are very 
numerous, comprising Ischius striolatus, Entedon confinis 
and E. ? hiteipes; Ratzeburg bred one $ of Piriipla alter- 
nans (ii, 92), nearly certainly from this host, among other 
parasites; Polysphincta latistriata (i, 120) bred from this 
weevil in the epidermal bladders on the white-spotted oak 
leaves. Microgastcr h^eviventris,^^'^ (ii, 51) bred on 20th 
July from Curcidio qnercus, after most of its other parasites 
had emerged; both sexes oi Sigcdphvs caudcdi's (ii, 25) 
from oak leaves in which this weevil lived and from the 
same host by Nordlinger on 12th June ; both sexes also of 
Spathins clavatvs'^'^'' (ii, 42) were obtained on 26th June from 
oak leaves infested by this beetle. Both sexes of Elachestus 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1907. — PARTI. (JUNE) 4 



50 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley on the 

dbscuriiJes (i, 1G5 et iii, 178) bred sparingly, with E. sesqid- 
fasciatus^^'^ (i, 164), from oak leaves mined by 0. quercvs ; 
Entedon cyclogastcr (i, 167), lying free beside this beetle's 
larval skin; one $ of E. fiavomaculatvs (i, 164), bred on 
10th July from oak leaves mined by this host; E. lunattis 
(ii, 166), bred in quantities from 0. qacrciis, with E. orchestis 
(i, 165 et ii, 160), at Neustadt ; E. mcdianns (ii, 169) bred 
in France by Nordlinger from mixed 0. qucrcns and 0. ilicis ; 
a single '^ of E. amethystinus (ii, 170) was also bred, among 
a large number of other species, from 0. qucrcns. Nord- 
linger bred one E}do'phn>^ dcndricornis (i, 161) early in 
June from mining larvae of 0. qucrcvs in alder leaves, and 
both sexes of E. finnattis (ii, 156) from oak leaves con- 
taining both this species and 0. ilicis; E.-pilicornis (i, 160) 
was several times bred from tlie subcutaneous larvae of 0. 
qnercus, sometimes alone, at others with Ptcromalus orchestis 
and a $ EviKhnns vidnus) Eulophus pectinicomis (i, 161) 
preys on the same host. Ptcromalus Jouancnsis (ii, 199) 
was bred by Nordlinger from mixed Orchcstcs qucrcns and 
0. ilicis at Grand Jouan, in France ; and Ratzeburg bred 
Elachcstns obscurus^^^ (ii, 173) infrequently from the former; 
lastly a single specimen of the Proctotrypid, Tclcas miwidus 
(ii, 143), was found dead among hundreds of this beetle's 
parasites. According to Marshall (Bracon. d'Europ. ii, 
141), C. Rondani also bred his Endjiuliwn orchestis from 
this weevil in Italv. 



200. Orchcstcs vimincdis, Ratz.*' 

It appears that Ratzeburg considered this species syno- 
nymous with, or a variety of, the last, under which (Ichn. 
d. Forst. i, 203 et 205) he says of Ptcromcdus diachymatis : 
" I have the five ^ $ out of larvae of Orchcstcs viminalis in 
oak leaves, together with my P. orchestis and Enlojjhvs 
inlicornis, on 13th July." Kirchner, however, perpetuates 
the name (Cat. 169): " Pteromcdus diachymcdis, Ratz., 
Preuss. Aus. Orchcstcs viminalis." Cf. also Forstinsecten, 
i, 155. 

201. Miarus campanvlo', Linn. 

Brischke (Schr. Nat. Ges. Danz.) gives Bracon variator, 
B. tcrehclla, PczomacJnis fasciatns and Pini^^ a hrcviconiis as 
parasitic upon this weevil. The last-named parasite was 



Hymcnopterous Parasites of Coleoptera. 51 

also bred from it by Giraud (Laboulbene, Ann, Soc. Fr. 
1877, p. 408), where Bracon variator, Nees, Systasis en- 
cyrtoides, Walk., and Pteromalus auronitens, Forst., are 
also indicated as attacking Gyimietron campamdo}. 

202. Gymnetron antirrhini, Payk. 

Sigalphus imllidipes, Nees, is said by Marshall (Bracon. 
d'Europ. i, 315) to be a common parasite of this species ; 
he adds (lib.cit. 320) that ^S*. obscurellus also preys upon 
Gymndron noctis, Herbst. : " des galles produites sur le 
lin sauvage." 

203. Gymnetron heccahung/&, Linn. 

From this weevil, Brischke (Sclir, Nat. Ges. Danz.) has 
bred an undetermined species of Bracon, together with 

Pteromalus curculionoidcs. 

204. Gymnetron collinus, Gyll. 

Bignell writes of Siyalphus ohscurclhis, Nees (Trans. 
Devon. Assoc. 1901, p. 667) : " Bred from Gymnetron 
collinus, a beetle feeding on the unripe seeds of the toad- 
flax, Li7iaria vulgaris, September 19th, 1880." 

205. Gymnetron villosuhis, Gyll. 

In his Naturgeschichte der Insecten (1834), Bouche 
tells us that his Pteromahts curculionoidcs feeds upon the 
larva3 of Gymnxtron villosulus (cf. Westwood, Mod. Class. 
ii, 159). 

206. Gymnetron teter. Fab.* 

Kirchner (Cat. 105) gives " Pimpla gymnetri, Ratz., 
Preussen, Gez. aus Curculio teter " ; as recorded by the 
latter (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 96 et iii, 103), bred from the 
knot-like swellings caused by the larvse of this beetle on 
the previous year's, already woody, stems of Verhascum 
nigrum., 

207. Gymnetron asellus, Grav.* 

At Ann. Soc. Fr. 1877, p. 413 ct seqq., Laboulbene 
records Bracon gymnetri, Gir., B. ? dichromus, Wesm., and 
Entedon curcidionum, Gir., from this beetle. 



52 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley on the 

208. Gymnetron cylindrirostris, Schli.* 

From this species (probabl}^ synonymous with the last) 
also are recorded {loc. cit.) Bracon (//pnuctri and Entedon 
curculionum. 

209. Mecinus collaris, Germ. 

Pimpla imlliata, Gir., and Pteromalus revelatus, Forst., 
are recorded by Laboulbene (/. c.) from this weevil. 

210. Anthonomus 'pomoTum, Linn. 

Herr Reissig bred Pimpla pomorum from Curculio poiiio- 
rum in a pear blossom (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 96) and later (iii, 
102) both sexes from the same pabulum on apple ; Nord- 
linger also bred it from this host, as well as one ^ of 
Campoplex latus (ii, 84), at Hohenheim in June. Micro- 
gaster imjrurus ^^^ (ii, 52) was frequently bred by Reissig 
from apple blossom infested by this weevil ; and Rat- 
zeburg refers (ii, 213) to 31. alhipennis -^^ as doubt- 
fully preying upon the same host. Of Chrysolamjms 
^neus he says (ii, 185) : " I bred one out of Curculio 
pomorum, yet it is possible that accidentally impri- 
soned Aphidie may have yielded this guest." He further 
bred a single ^ Enryrtus flavoniaculatus (ii, 146) from 
apple blossom containing this beetle — possibly, however, 
some A'phidie may have been present here also and 
yielded this parasite. A somewhat doubtful ^ of Ptero- 
mahcs Saxescnii (iii, 242) was also raised from apple 
blossom, though no:coleopterous host is indicated. Brischke 
bred from the same host (Schr. Nat. Ges. Danz. 1880, 
pp. Ill, 113) Pvnvpla cxaviinator, Fab., P. sagax, Htg., as 
well as Microgaster ladetis}'^^ Nees. 

211. Braclionyx pindi, Payk. 
Four or five kinds of Chalcids are recorded from Brn- 
conyx indigena by Ratzeburg (Ichn. d. Forst. iii, 249), a 
single, damaged specimen of Hadroccras vitripcnnis '*^^ (iii, 
183) was bred from this weevil — or, just possibly, from 
the midges which were bred with it ; Entedon vaginulie 
(iii, 213) was freely bred from it by Herr Reissig, and is 
said to be its commonest parasite ; a single Eupelmus 
Geeri (iii, 198) was also bred from this beetle, called the 
" Fir-leaf Cutter " in Germany; and several $ $ Pteromalus 
vaginuliB were raised upon two occasions, in both cases 
with — ? its $ — P. nanus, by Reissig at the end of July. 



Hymcnoptcroits Parasites of Colcoptera. 53 

212. Nanophycs lythri, Fab. 

Laboulbene records (Ann. kSoc. Fr. 1877, p. 420) that 
Perris has bred Eupehmis Degceri, Dalra., and (p. 430) that 
Dr. Giraud also raised Ptcromalus vaginulm, Ratz., from 
this beetle. 

213. Cionus scrophulariie, Linn. 

Bignell says (Entom. 1885, p. 152) that he bred Hcmi- 
vinchus instahilis,'''^ Forst., from a pupa of this beetle, 
August 28rd, 1882. Thomson records (Opusc. Ent. x, 980) 
Hcmitelcs arcator, " Klackt ur Cionus scrophularicV." And 
Bridgman tells us (Trans. Norf. Soc. 1895, p. 114): "Mr. 
Thouless gave me a female Pczomachus corricptor, Forst., 
which he had bred from the larva of Cionus scropliulainie, 
a beetle which he took at Horsford, August 1894. This 
is interesting, as it is seldom that ichneumons are bred 
from beetles ; it may be due, in a measure, that beetles 
are not bred to the same extent that butterflies and 
moths are." This example of P. corruptor, which I have 
examined and found correct, is now in the Norwich Castle 
Museum [CM.]. 

214. Cioius tuberculosis, Scop. 

Brischke records his $ Pezomachus thoracicus (Sclir. Nat. 
Ges. Danz. 1881, p. 351) : " Aus Ciomis verhasci erzogen " ; 
and indicates Entcdon discolor as preying upon the same 
species. 

215. Sterconychus fraxini, DeG .* 

This weevil is said to be attacked by the Braconid, 
Blaeus ruficor7iis, on the strength of a single example 
which was bred by Dahlbom, who writes in lit. (Ichn. 
d. Forst. ii, 61) : " Exclusus e Pupa Rhychaeni (Cioni) 
fraxini, Gyll., 7th Septb., Lund." Professor Kawall 
also bred (Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1855, p. 231) two species of 
Pteromalus, and a specimen of Pezomachus ayilis, Fab., 
var. 4 b, Grav., from dooms fraxini. 

216. Cryptorrhynehus Icipatlii, Linn. 

Kirch ner records (Cat. 108) Epliialtes tuhereulatusy 
Fourfc., as parasitic upon this species; and Ratzeburg in- 
stances (Ichn. d. Forst, ii, tX^) Pimpla ciecdrieosa^^ and 



54 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley on the 

P. Reissifjii^^ (ii, 89) as both bred by Herr Reissig from 
alder in which this beetle lived, the cocoon he says is 
seven lines in length, clothed with scraps of wood without 
but perfectly smooth within ; both sexes of Campoplcx 
gracilis'^^^ (ii, 81) were also bred from this host by the 
same observer on April 13th and 14th. Further Reissig 
bred several specimens of both sexes of Bracon immutator 
(ii, 41) from the pupal nests of this weevil, adding that 
the thick brown cocoons were disposed without order but 
all in close proximity ; he also bred several Rogas mar- 
ginatoT"^^^ (ii, 65) from G. lapatM in alder shoots on 
May 4th, as well as a single Braconid resembling R. lim- 
hata, but with the neuration of Brachistcs, which escaped ; 
his last parasite of this species was the Proctotrypid, 
Diapria mclanocorypha (ii, 144). A single % of Ichneumon 
hassicus'^ is recorded {lib. cit. ii, 136) from the same beetle 
on April 7th ; cf. Morley, Ichn. Brit, i, 292. We captured 
three $ $ Ephialtcs carhonarius, Christ., flying in the 
vicinity of this beetle's borings in sallow trees at Tudden- 
ham Fen, in Suffolk, on June 12th, 1900. 

217. Gaste racer cus depressirostris, Fab.* 
This beetle — not Rhinocyllus depressirostris, Schh., as 
erroneously given by Marshall (Bracon. d'Europ. i, 197) — 
was discovered by Radzay in a small live portion of an 
otherwise dead eighty-year-old oak, the bark of which 
was considerably impaired by its borings. With it was 
Spathius Radzayanus (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 44, footnote) which 
was parasitic, very probably ektoparasitic, upon it, two or 
three apparently attacking each of the somewhat gre- 
garious larvae. The parasitic cocoons are elongate, pale 
rose-red, two and a half lines in length, and two to six 
of them lie close together in the excreta beneath bark. 
[C£ also Agrilus biguttatus, ante,] 

218. Mononychus pseudncori, Fab. 
Fred Smith tells us (Ent. Ann. 1864, p. 114) that Mr. 
Butler has bred a parasite, " apparently belonging to the 
genus Sigrdphiis," from this Aveevil in the capsules of Iris 
fcetidissima at Ventnor. 

219. Goeliodes quercus, Fab. 
Marshall says (Bracon. d'Europ. i, 492) that Ratzeburg 
bred his Apantclcs brcvivejitris from Gceloides quercus in 



Hymenopterous Parasites of Colcoptcra. 55 

Germany. This may be correct, since in every other case 
the latter writes " Orchestes" quercus (q. v., ante), but in 
that of Microgaster hreviventris (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 52) it 
becomes " Curculio" quercus. 

220. Geuthorrh7jnchus assiniilis, Payk. 

Reinhard bred Diospilus oleraceus, Hal., from the galls of 
this weevil on Sinapis arvcnsis (as recorded by Kirchner, 
p. 132, and Marshall ii, 259). 

221. Ceuthorrhynehus cyanipcnnis, Germ. 

Thcrsilochus moderator, Grav., is said by Brischke (Schr. 
Nat. Ges. Danz. 1880, p. 193) to have " Aus Larven von 
Ceuthorrhynehus cyanij)ennis erzogen." Possibly hyper- 
parasitic — cf. Orchesia mieans, ante — through the usual 
enemies of this genus, the species of Diospilus. 

222. Ceuthorrhynehus pleurostigma, Marsh. 

In Ent. Ann. 1874, p. 126, Marshall records Diospilus 
nigricornis, Wesm., as bred from Ceuthorrhynehus suleieollis, 
Gyll. ; this is not referred to in his Bracon. cl'Europ. (ii, 265), 
but, at lib. cit. i, 320, Sigalphus ohseureUus, Nees, is given 
as a parasite of the same beetle " sur le chou." Diosjnlus 
oleraeeus was bred by Dr. Giraud (Zool.-bot. Ver. V. Sitzb. 
128) from the galls of this weevil. Mr. Horace Donis- 
thorpe bought a turnip in a London shop because it con- 
tained the characteristic cysts of this beetle, from which 
in February 1900 emerged a ^ Sigalphus fiorieola, Wesm. 

223. Ceuthorrhynehus punetiger, Gyll. 

From this species Giraud tells us (Ann. Soc. Fr. 1877, 
p. 403) that both Braeon maeuliger, Wesm., and Porizon 
moderator, ^^^ Grav., have been bred. As in the case of C. 
cyanipiennis, the latter was very probably hyperparasitic. 

224. Ceuthorrhynehus rapie, Gyll. 

Diospilus oleraeeus, Hal., was bred by Laboulbene from 
the galls produced by this weevil on the roots of Lcpidium 
draba (Ann. Soc. Fr. 1877, p. 411). ^ 

225. Paris laticollis, Marsh. 

226. Paris chlorizans, Germ. 



56 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley on the 

227. Baris ai.prirostris, Fab.* 

Rev. T. A. Marshall was somewhat sceptical (in MS.) of 
the accuracy of M. Edouard Perris' observations regarding 
the parasitism of Pcntai^Icura fnlifjinosa, Hal., upon the 
above three species of Baridius. 

228. Balaninus nucum, Linn. 

The parasitism of Pimjila nucum, upon the Nut Weevil 
appears in need of considerable confirmation. Towards 
the end of May the former swarmed, says Nordlinger 
(Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 90), at Hohenheim, on the window of a 
room in which beech-nuts were stored, and these latter he 
found to be bored by Ciirculio %mmm. Herr Zeller obtained 
the same Pimplid on April ISth from acorns, "therefore 
probably from Balaninvs." 

229. Balanimis pyrrhoceras, Marsh. 

Laboulbene tells us (Ann. Soc. Fr. 1877, p. 413) that 
Giraud has bred Bracon discoideus, Wesm., from this 
species. 

230. Balaninus villosus, Fab. 

Porizon nutritor, Grav., is said to have been bred from 
this weevil in France {loc. cit. p. 403). 

281. Magdalis. 

Unspecified individuals of this genus have yielded, 
according to Ratzeburg (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 213) Elachcstus 
Icucogramma, Pteromalus magdalis and P, virescens^'^^ 
which last is the P. violnccus of i, 23 ; and later (/. c. iii, 
249) he adds Cryptus cchthroidcs and Ptcromalus tessdlatus^ 
witli doubtfully Pimpla linearis and Busandiilon Iridens. 
Of. also Tetrops p)rmnsta, ante [Thamnophilus, Schonh. = 
Magdalis, Germ.]. 

232. Magdalis carhonaria, Linn. 
From Magdalinus mcmnonius, Giraud says (Ann. Soc. 
Fr. 1877, p. 420) that Plcromahcs ?/ia^rfa/te-, Ratz., has been 
bred by Perris. 

233. Magdalis phlegniatica, Herbst. 
Reissig bred a single $ Hcmitdes mclanarins from 
Curculio {Thamnopliilus) ^Mcgmaticus on April 17th (Ichn. 



Hymcnoiitd'ous Parasites of Coleoptera. 57 

d. Forst. ii, 128) ; and Ratzeburg obtained a couple of 
Alysia ruhriceps^^^^ $ ^ (/. <: i, 56) from fir logs infested by 
the same beetle. 

234, Mafjdalis violacea, Linn. 

Several specimens of Chelonus atriceps were bred by 
Ratzeburg (Ichn. d. Forst. i. 43) from spruce infested with 
Ifagdalis violacea in the Frankenwald ; Glyptct eoncolor 
(i, 121) was also bred with this beetle, out of fir billets, 
as were several Eurytoma ahicticola (i, 174) from fir logs; 
several $ ^ Pteromalus violaceus (i, 208) emerged from fir 
billets from the Hartz, in which this beetle had bored ; 
and several SimtJivus hrcvicaudis (i, 49) from fir wood in- 
fested with Curculio violaceus. BracMstes rugosus ^^ (ii, 
28 et iii, 29) was bred by both Nordlinger from young dry 
fir, and Ratzeburg from blocks of wood, in which C. violacea 
was living ; many $$ of Pteromalus virescens '^''^ (ii, 204) 
were also bred by the former, and Opiits ruhriceps '^^^ (iii 
66) by the latter, from this weevil. 

285. Bhopalomesites tardyi, Curt. 

Under Odontomervs dentipics, Gmel., in his private copy 
of the 1872 Catalogue of British Hymenoptera, Marshall 
has entered a MS. note : " $ taken by Bignell, Aug. G, 
entering burrows of Mesites tardii." 

236. Ercmotes strangulates, Perr.* 
Exothecvs rhyncoli, Gir., is said by Dr. Laboulbene (Ann. 
Soc, Fr. 1877, p. 414) to have been bred from this species 
by Ferris. 

237. Scolytus. 

Brischke records Pachychirus quadrum '^"^^ from Eccopto- 
gaster sp., and Giraud, Exothecus lanceolator}^^ Nees, from 
Scolytus sp. ; BrncMstes longicaudis ^^*' was bred from an 
unspecified individual by Ratzeburg (Ichn. d. Forst. i, 23), 
and Kirchner (Cat. 118, probably quoting lib. cit. iii, 27) 
gives Sigalph'us Jlavipalp)is,^^^ Wesm., " Hohenheim. Gez. 
aus EccojJtogastcr-Arten." 

238. Scolytus destimctor, Oliv. 

From Eccoptogastcr scolytus some interesting parasites 
have been recorded by Ratzeburg, who received several $ <J 



58 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley on the 

of Ichneumon nanns^ (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 133) out of elms 
infested by this borer, from Radzay, who also bred a single 
$ Hemitcles modestus'^^ (ii, 129) from the same host, 
together with a quantity of both sexes of Bracon initia- 
tellus (ii, 39). B. Middcndorffii^'^'^ B. minutissinms'^^^ axidi 
B. protuhcrans^"''^ are also given (ii, 214) as preying upon 
this species. Both Radzay and Nordlinger bred B. 
curtisiip^ $ ^ (ii, 32) sparingly from this weevil in elm ; 
and the former further raised . from it a single $ Spathiv.s 
cxannvlatiis'^^'^ (ii, 42). JElachestvs hvcogramma (ii, 174) 
was bred by Nordlinger at Grand Jouan in June from a 
mixed lot of E. i^coli/ti's, E. intriccdvs and E. mnlHstriatus, 
as well as by Radzay in Germany from E. scoli/tus only 
together with a single Pteromalus caintatus (ii, 196) ; 
Nordlinger also bred at the same time and place Ptcro- 
inalus hihiacidaius and P. hrunnicans (ii, 188) from this 
beetle. An unusually large and untypical ^ of P. lunula 
(ii, 193) was raised from it by Wissmann ; and Radzay 
added P. vallecula (ii, 206) and P, lanccolatus (ii, 207) to 
its list of parasites from Falkenberg in Silesia. Scolytus 
destructor is further attacked (cf. Ann. Soc. Fr. 1877, p. 
414) by Cceloides scolyticida, Wesm., and — "Scolytus de 
rOrme " — by Ccrocephala cornigera, Westw. " And Mr. 
Spence has also observed the larvae and pupai to be 
infested to a great extent with minute worm-like 
OxYURlDES " (Westwood, Mod. Class, i, 255).^ 

1 " It may be here mentioned, though somewhat out of place, for 
the purpose of drawing the attention of Entomologists to a new 
tribe of insect-parasites of whicli no account appears to have been 
given in books, that in examining closely the pupoe of Scohjtus 
destructor at Brussels, I found them lined in different parts of their 
external surface, but especially on the thorax and about the cases of 
the elytra, with numerous transparent eel-shaped vermicles. . . . 
The vermicles, under M. Wesmael's powerful compound microscope, 
witli which he was so good as to assist me in examining them, exhibit 
not the slightest trace either of mouth or other external organ, nor of 
intestines, nor of internal vessels of any kind, which, if any such 
existed, might be easily seen through their transparent skin and body. 
This absence of all external and internal organs (the inside of the body 
seeming filled with grannlar molecules), added to their shape, which is 
filiform and very slender, sharply attenuated at each extremity, and 
their hyaline colour, with very indistinct traces under a high mag- 
nifying power of about twenty segments, each as long as broad, are 
all the characters tliey afford. . . . From their connection with an 
animal, they might be regarded as referable to the Oxyuri, were it 
not that neither my own nor M. Wesmael's close examination could 
ever discover any trace of their existence in the interior of either 



Hymcnoytcrous Parasites of GoUoptcra. 59 

On an old elm log full of >S'. destructor, at Wherstead in 
Suffolk, several $ $ of Cheiropachus quadrum were found 
on May 3rd, 1904 [C. M.]. 

239. Scolytus intricatus, Ratz, 

Its author indicates as preying upon this borer (Ichn. d. 
Forst. i, 23) Elaclicstus Icucogramma (ii, 174), bred by 
Nordlinger at Grand Jouan in June with Eulophus 
albipes^^^ ; Eurytoma cccoptogastri, Pacliyceros eccopto- 
gastri ^^^* (i, 280) of which a single $ was bred in July, 
Pteromalus hincwius ^'^'^ and Clconymus pndchelkis ; adding 
(ii, 214) Bracon protuhcrans,'^'^^ bred from this host (iii, 32) 
in oaks at Hohenheim and by M. V. Audouin from larvae 
of Eccoptogaster pygvimus ; Spathius rugosus (ii, 44), a unique 
specimen bred by Nordlinger in spring; Eurytoma striolata 
(ii, 177), a % bred by the same observer at Grand Jouan ; 
Pteromalus hwiaculatus (cf. Xylop)ertha sinuata, ante), 
Roptrocerus eccoptogastri and, doubtfully,. iZe/coJi carinatoi\ 

240. Scolytus multistriatus, Marsh. 

Laboulbene records from this species Mcteorus hrcvipes, 
Wesm., Coiloides scolyticida, Wesm,, Ec7idrosotcr protuhcrans, 
Nees, and Clieirop)achus' quadrum, Walk. Ratzeburg only 
gives Elachestus Icucogramma (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 174), 
Pteromalus Inmaculatus and P. hrunnicans (ii, 188), all bred 
by Nordlioger in France. Marshall is somewhat sceptical 
of its being the host of Metcorus alhicornis, Ruthe (Bracon. 
d'Europ. ii, 101), on account of their relative size. Mr. 
C. T. Gimingham has bred several Cheiropachus quadrum 

the larva, pupa, or imago of Scolytus. . . . Leaving it to future 
examination to decide the true genus and relations of these vermicles, 
I shall here merely observe, in addition to what has been above said, 
that I have found them upon a large proportion of the pupa3 of Scolytus 
destriictor, and occasionally on some of the larvjB in an advanced 
stage of growth, and also on the pupse of Hylesiniis fraxini ; and in 
such distant localities, and at such different periods of the year, that 
I am jiersuaded that their occurrence was not accidental, but that 
they are true external parasites, of the family of Scolytidee in the 
pupa (and partly in the larva) state, in which, however, they do 
not seem materially to injure them, nor prevent them from becoming 
perfect insects." (Introd. 7th Ed., 1859, pp. 122-3 ; cf. also Spence, 
Trans. Ent. Soc. ii, Proc. xv.) The presence of granular molecules 
certainly points to a hymenopterous origin of these vermicles, in 
which case, however, they would have a very decidedly prejudicial 
effect upon the beetles' final ecdysis. 



60 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley on the 

from this species at Harpenden in Herts. July 22nd, 
1904; and he noticed that four or five individuals assisted 
each imago to emerge. The same parasite has also been 
commonly found, tapping with its antennse and running 
about upon a newly-felled willow pole at Sotherton, in 
Suffolk, July 6th, 1900. 

241. Scolyhis pruni, Ratz. 

Reinhard has, according to Giraud (Ann. Soc. Fr. 1877, 
23. 427), bred Bicphitdns nwciiUdus, Walk., from this borer. 
Kirchner (Cat. 115 et 181) also records from it Boryctcs 
pomari'us, Reinh., and Eulophus loijliyrofttvi, Htg. ; though 
the association appears doubtful in both cases. Of the 
latter, however, Ratzeburg says (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 157) 
that one $ emerged with him from Eccoptogaster pruni and 
he received another of the sanje sex from Bouche, who is 
also thought to have bred it from E. p)rv/)ii ; and he adds, 
concerning ElacJiishcs Icucogramma (I. c. ii, 174), that, with 
the described ^, were numerous $ $ from E. scolytus and 
E. pruni. Mr. Donisthorpe bred a specimen of Ptcromalus 
sp. from this borer in 1906 in London. 

242. Scolytus ratzdmrfji, Jan. 

From Eccoptogaster destructor, Ratzeburg (/. c. ii, 214) 
says Wissmann bred what he thought was Ptcromalus 
lunula, in Germany. 

243. Scolytus rugulosus, Ratz. 

The list of parasites upon this species given by Ratze- 
burg (Ichn. d. Forst, ii, 214) comprises both Bracon cccopto- 
gastri^-'^ and its variety B. viinuiissivius (ii, 31) bred from 
it by Reissig in the dying boughs of plum trees; Nordlinger 
raised Brachistes longiccvudis^'-^^ (i, 54 et iii, 28) from this 
borer in ailing apple twigs at Stuttgart; and Bouche Opius 
cephcdotes^^'' (ii, 63) from the same host and pabulum. 
Elachestus leucogortmma (i, 170) is said to also live on this 
beetle, from which Nordlinger bred one $ of Eurytoma 
eccoptogastri (i, 174), with several Eulo^jhus (dlipcs^^^ etc., 
in dying apple boughs which were also tenanted by Sapcrda 
p)rxusta and several species of Magdalis. A few $^ of 
Btcrovicdus Ucaliginosus^"'^ (i, 190) were also bred from 



Hymcnopterous Parasites of CoUoftcra. 61 

Eccoptogaster I'ugiolosus, and its ^ was raised by Bouche 
(i, 191) from the same host, as has been P. himaculahis ^ 
and Storthygoccrus suholifer^^^ (ii, 214). Dr. Giraiid 
instances from C. rugulosus, Eucoila minuta, Gir., Teleas 
pundnta, Gir., and Diapria nigra, Nees. Keinhard bred 
his Dorydes pmnaritts from a tree containing these, among 
other beetles. Bouche bred C/enocodius analis, Nees, from 
S. rugulosus boring in an apple tree, and Goureau says 
that his Blacus fitscipes attacks these beetles in their holes 
in apple trunks and " fait perir un grand nombre de 
victimes, ciiaque femelle de Blacus en detruisant autant 
qu'elle a d'ceufs c\ poudre." 

244. Hylastes palliaius, Gyll, 

Herr Saxesen found larvae of Pteromalus sjnnoL's (Ichn. 
d. Forst. i, 189 et ii, 193) on the external surface of spruce 
borers, especially B. typographus and Hylesinus p)cilliatit,s, 
and thought them the commonest and most effective of 
their foes ; though he also found the larvae of Fadiyceras 
xylophagorum,'^'^^^ (i, 218) to be a numerous external para- 
site of the same beetles, in the Hartz. Pteromalus lerimdus 
is also indicated (ii, 215) as a doubtful parasite of this 
species. 

245. Hylesinus, 

Eulophus hylcsino^-u7n*^^ is recorded by Ratzeburg (lib. 
cit. i, 23) from an unspecified individual of this genus. 

246. Hylesinus crenatus, Fab. 

Nordlinger at Stuttgart discovered that Mesostenus 
hradiycentrus ^ (Ichn. d. Forst. iii, 142) was parasitic in 
the borings of H. crenatus and pupated towards the end of 
May : " it is true," says Ratzeburg, " that there were there 

1 As illustrative of the diversity of this species' hosts, lib. cit. ii, 
pp. 187-8 may be quoted : " This insect emerged from an oak stick 
in which, besides Callidiu'm fennicurn, Apate sinuata and Eccopto- 
gaster intricatus had lived. ... In July 1846 fresh wood from a 
two-inch apricot tree was caged in which Ecc. rngulosus had numer- 
ously bored ; already in March 1847 several Pteromali had appeared 
with the sparsely emerging beetles, but fresh ones were bred in the 
middle of May and even until well into July. . . Lastly a new and 
very interesting breeding is to be mentioned : Nordlinger at Grand 
Jouan raised it out of Bostrich'ns villosus in oak, and again out of 
Eccoptocjaster scolykts and multistriatns in June 1843." 



62 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley on the 

also larvae of Clerus furmicariiis, but they could not have 
been the host" — one wonders why not, since their size 
would appear more appropriate than that of this Cryptid. 
The same observer also found Bracon stahilis (iii, 88) and 
Oivloides filiformis (iii, 72) associating with this borer in 
ash bark. ^ 

247. Hyhsinus fraxini, Panz. 

Feldjager Angern, in his observations on timber and its 
injurious insects, bred Simthius cxanmdatus'^'^'^ (Ichn. d. 
Forst. ii, 43) out of this species, as also did Nordlinger at 
Hohenheim on July 8rd a single ^ of Cceloidcs melanotus 
(iii, 40). All its other parasites were, however, Chalci- 
didous : Oberforster Radzay raised fourteen specimens of 
Eurytoma Jiavoraria (i, 173) from Hyhsinus fraxini in ash, 
where they pupated in such a manner as to easily emerge 
through the beetles' orifice ; with it he bred several ^ ^ of 
E. ischioxanthos (i, 174), some spotted-winged Ftcromali 
and Styloceras ladenhergi ^'^^ (i, 208). From borings of the 
same species, Saxesen once bred a single Eurytoiiia Jiavo- 
scapularis (i, 173) ; and from its larvae, Radzay raised 
Pteromalus fraxini, P. hivestigatus, P. hiniinhatus ^-^ and a 
$ P. hicaliginosus'^'^'^ (i, 190-191). Angern also found one $ 
TridyvuLS xylophagmnim (ii, 184) among a mass of Ptero- 
mahis himaculatus which had emerged from this borer, as 
well as Sciathcras trichohis^^*^ (ii, 209) and a single E^ijiclmus 
gceri (ii, 151); Eurytoma nodulosa is also indicated (ii, 
215) as preying upon this beetle. Giraud adds Dendro- 
soteQ' protuherans, Gerocephala cornigera and also bred in 
France Cceliodes filiformis, G. melanosis, Eurytoma fiaveo- 
laria, Raphitelus ladenhergi ^^^ and Pteromalus himaculatus, 
Spin., from this host. In May 1906 Mr. Donisthorpe bred 
a $ Chciro2Kic]nis quadrum at Enfield from a pupa of 
H. fraxini, together with both sexes of Bracon caudatus, 
Ratz., and of B. longicaudis, Ratz., of which the latter is 
new to the British fauna. The same observer also bred, 
at the same time and from the same beetle, a species of 
Pteromalus at Leighton. 

248. Hyhsinus ohiperda, Fab. 

Fonscolombe, quoted by Westwood (Mod. Class, ii, 159), 
tells us that Chciroimchus quadrum also feeds upon the 
larvaj of this beetle ; and Dr. Ratzeburg (Ichn. d. Forst. 



Hymenopteivus Parasites of Goleoptcra. 63 

ii, 152) that he bred from BostricJms suturalis a single $ of 
Eupehms inermis^^^ at Neustadt. 

249. Carphohorus {Dendrodonus) minimus, Fab.* 
From fir wood bored by this species, Ratzeburg bred 
several Entcdon hylcsinorum (Ichn. d. Forst. i. 167) of 
both sexes ; Eu/ri/toma 2nnctorum (iii, 220) from Bostrichus 
mittimus, together with Ptcromalns azureus (/. c. et iii, 235) 
from bored fir twigs in May, and Eutedon pi7ictorum ; from 
fir wood, with B. minimus and B. bidens, emerged Ptcro- 
malus azurescens (iii, 235), and, from B. minimus alone, he 
bred P. vicarius (iii, 241), together with P. azureus, Entcdon 
pinctorum, Eurytoma pinctorum and Spathius hrevicaudis. 
Nordlinger at Hohenheim raised three different Chalcids 
from this host : a single $ of Pteromalus orimulorum 
(ii, 201) in August ; P. dubius^^*^ (ii, 192 et iii, 234) also 
in August; and Entcdon cnudatios (ii, 170). Pteromalus 
siccatorum (iii, 240) and Bracon hyksini'^^^ are also indicated 
(iii, 249) as probably preying on this beetle. 

250. PJdceotribus oIob, Fab.* 

Fitch reminds us (Entom. 1880, p. 258) that Bargagli 
has bred Spathius rubidics from this host. 

251. HylurgiLs. 

Clieiropachus quadrum is referred to by Westwood (Mod. 
Class, ii, 159) as bred from members of this genus by 
Fonscolombe. 

252. Hylurgus minor, Htg. 

From Hylesinus minor, Ratzeburg (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 
191) records both sexes of Pteromalus azureus, as 
numerously bred by Nordlinger at Hohenheim in August. 

253. Hyhirgus pinipcrda, Linn. 

Cooper (Ent. Mag. ii, p. 116) recounts the parasitism of 
Clieiropachus pulchcllus upon this species. Ratzeburg 
(Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 215) gives Bracon palpebrator (ii, 89), 
bred from Pinus pinaster, in which H. 2'>'inipcrda and 
Cureulio noted as lived ; Pteromalus latriellei'^^'^ (ii, 192), 
one bred from this borer by Reissig ; P. lunula (ii, 193), 
one bred at Neustadt out of this host ; P. pelluecns, P. 
multicolor^^'^ (ii, 194), raised from it by Nordlinger in 



64 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott aud Mr. Claude Morley on the 

May; and P. suspensus (ii, 193), bred by the same observer 
from Finns •pinaster, in which both this species and C. 
notatus had bored — as preying upon it ; and adds {lib. cit. 
iii, 249), Hcmiteles modedus}^ H. melanarius and Fteromahcs 
guttatus (iii, 236), which was always bred from fir, in one 
case containing only H. innipcrda. Of Braco)i Middcn- 
dorffii '^"''^ he says (ii, 33) that it was bred by Reissig on 
Jime 18th from fir bark, while the imagines of H. piniperda 
therein were still quite pale and only preparing for flight. 
. . . Herr Reissig sent him several two-lines long, dirty 
white, delicate, elongate cocoons from which the Braconid 
had emerged just below the apex. The dust from the 
boring adhered to them and also a distinct empty skin of 
a Hylcsinits piniperda : the Braconid had certainly sucked 
it from outside. The same observer later sent it again to 
him, after the time of the hosts' emergence. 

254. Phloeoplithorus rhododactylus, Marsh. 

PhlceopJitJiorus spartii is said by Giraud (Ann. Soc. Fr. 
1877, p. 427), upon Aube's authority, to be the host of 
Raphitelus maculatus, Walk. Nordlinger bred (Ichn. d. 
Forst. ii, 215) Storthijejoecrus sulndifer^^^ (ii, 208 et iii, 246) 
at Bordeaux, Grand Jouan and the Schwarzwalk ; and 
several $ $ of Bracon planus^"'^ (ii, 33) at Bordeaux, from 
Hylesinus spartii; adding (ii, 81) that a great number of 
Bracon hylesini^^^ emerged from it at Hohenheim, 

255. PolygrapJius pulesccns, Bach. 
From Hylesinus poligraphus, Nordlinger bred at Hohen- 
heim at least one Bracon liyhsini ^^^ (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 31), 
and both he and Radzay also bred B. Middendorjjii,^'^'^ from 
this host (ii, 33 et iii, 32). Several specimens of Cosmo- 
p)hus Uugii^^^ (ii, 72) were raised by the latter, as well as 
of both sexes of Ptero7nalus lanccolatus (ii, 204) from the 
same borer, which Ratzeburg found was further parasited 
by Boptrocerus xylophagorum (ii, 209), P. multicolor ^^^ (ii, 
193), P. capitatus, P. navis, and, doubtfully, P. mmulus 
(ii, 215). 

256. Gryphalus hinodulus, Ratz. 
Out of Bostrichus hinodulus, its author says (lib. cit. ii, 30) 
that Radzay hved Bracon silesiacus'^''''^ (ii, 30) from beneath 
jDoplar bark ; and probably also Aphiclius obsoletus (ii, 59), 



Hymcnoptcrous Farasitcs of Golco'ptQra. 65 

which emerged in this beetles' breeding cage, though 
possibly other Coleoptera were also in the enclosed large 
section of wood. 

257. Gryphahts fagi, Fab. 

Brncon hijksini^^^ is recorded (lib. cit. iii, 249) from 
BostricJms fagi. 

258. Cryphahcs 2ncec'&, Ratz. 

Only Roptrocerus xylopliagoribin was bred by Nord linger 
(Iclm. d. Forst. ii, 209) from Bostriclius jnccm. 

259. Cryphahts tilife, Panz. 

A single ^ Spathius cxannulatus'^^'^ and a species of 
Uurytoma are alone recorded (lib. cit. ii, 43) from Bostriclius 
tilicV, ihow^i Ratzeburg bred "countless myriads" from 
lime trees. 

260. Pityoplitlioriis pubescens, Marsh. 

Dr. Ratzeburg (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 212) bred Rop)troccrus 
xyloplwgorum, Ptcromalus capitatus, P. navis and perljaps 
P. iBinuhis (ii, 203) from Bostriclius pitiogrcqjkns ; he adds 
that Nordlinger also raised P. iimlticolor'^^'^ (ii, 193) from 
the nests of this borer at the end of June — at the time of, 
or rather later than, their hosts' emergence; as well as 
P. navis (ii, 205) at Hohenheim in spring from the same 
beetle, with B. p)oligraphvs and B. abietis, in spruce, 

261. Xyloclcptcs hispimts, Duft. 

Ptcromalus gramnliorstii^^^ was bred by Nordlinger {lib. 
cit, iii, 245) from Bostriclius bispinus in clematis. 

262. DryocMcs antograplvns, Ratz. 

From Bostriclius autograplius, Ratzeburg (/. c. ii, 211) 
records only Ptcromalus multicolor ^^'^'^ 



263. Bryocpctcs villosus, Fab. 

Marshall (Bracon. d'Europ.) says Microdus rugulosus, 
Nees, and perhaps Cliclonus necsii, Reinh., have been bred 
from this borer. Nordlinger (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 188 et 
209) raised Pteromahis limactdatus, P. multicolor'^^^ and 
Roptroccrus xylopliagorum from Bostriclmis villosus in oaks 
at Grand Jouan, in France. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1907.— PART I. (JUNE) 5 



66 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley on the 

264. TaphrorycJius hicolor, Herbst. 

Ratzeburg records from Bostrichus hicolor (lib. cit. ii, 211), 
Boptroceriis xylophagornm (ii, 209), bred by Wissmann, 
and Ptcromalus multicolor. ^^^ 

265. Tomicus. 

From unspecified individuals of Bostrichus, the above 
author {I.e. i, 23 et ii, 211) instances Pteroma.lvs S2nnolm, 
P.snspc7isus, P. himacu I at 1 1 s,ixnd Pachi/ccrasxi/lojjhagorum.^^^^ 

266. Tomicus la rids, Fab. 
Giraud bred Biajyria clegans,^^^ Jur. et Nees (Ann. Soc. 
Fr. 1877, p. 435), from Bostrichus laricis', from which 
Ratzeburg further records Bracon palpebrator (Ichn. d. 
Forst. ii, 39), Boptrocerus xylophagornm, Ptcromalus 
suspcnsus (i, 189 et ii, 193), bred by ISordliuger from the 
larvse at Hohenheim and Neustadt, P. viresccns^'^^ and 
perhaps P. a^mulus. 

267. Tomicus typographus, Linn. 

" M. L. Dufour detected great numbers of minute 
Ascaridcs," says Westwood (Mod. Class, i. 354), "in the 
entrails of T. typographus, as well as numbers of small 
mites on its external surface " ; for latter, cf. footnote to 
Seolytus destructor, ante. Possibly these latter may have 
been the larvse of Ptcromalus sjnnoh'B or Pachyceras 
xylojjhagorum^^^^'^ both of which Herr Saxesen discovered 
(Ichn, d. Forst. i, 189 et 218) to be ektoparasitic upon the 
larvse of Bostrichus typographus and Hylesinus pedliatiis in 
spruce ; the former, he says, are probably the commonest 
and most effective foes of these two beetles • the latter were 
also numerous in the Hartz. Ratzeburg raised from this 
borer Ptcrumaltis multicolor '^^^ and perhaps i?;rfco?2, ohliterct- 
tus}^'' [l. c. ii, 212). And Giraud adds (Ann Soc. Fr. 1877) 
Godoides hostrichorum., Gir., Boptrocerus xylop)hagorum, 
Acrocormus multicolor, Ratz., and Ptcromcdus abieticola, 
Ratz., to its parasites. 

268. Tomicus curvidens, Germ.* 

From Bostrichus curvidens in blocks of white fir, Radzay 
bred (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 141) Ceraphron 2Ji(sillm*'^" and 
Nordlinger found (ii, 209) Boptrocerus xtjlophagorvm to be 
parasitic upon the same species. 



Hyinenopterous Parasites of Coleoptera. 67 

269. Pltijogcncs Mdcntatus, Herbst. 

Ratzeburg records from BostricJms hidens, Bracon Midden- 
dorffii ^'^^ (Ichn, d. Forst. ii, 33), bred by Hartig with one 
small $ of Spatlmis hrcvicaudis (ii, 43) ; Ptei^omalus hidcntis 
(ii, 205), a unique and broken specimen by Nordlinger, 
who had labelled one EnUdon geniculatus (ii, 160): "Out 
of Post, hidens from the Black Forest." He adds later 
(iii, 249) Bracon Hartvjii ^'^^ (iii, 82), of which Ratzeburg 
says that he bred this beautiful and rare insect from 
Weymouth pine, filled with B. hidens, together with 
Boptroccrus xylophagorum ; B. lahrator, B. jmlpehrator 
(iii, 38), by Nordlinger ; Pteromalus giittatus (iii, 236), bred 
from fir wood by Herr von Bernuth with P. sitspensUjS, 
P. virescens^''^ (iii, 243) bred from firs infested by this borer; 
and P. azuresccns (iii, 235), also bred by von Bernuth from 
B. hidens in Pinus strohus ; as well as, doubtfully, P. sicca- 
tomm (iii, 240), Eusandalon ahhrevicdum, E. tridens (iii, 
200) and Bracon hyUsini}^^ Giraud has also bred Pteromalus 
guttatus, Pboptroccms xylophagorum and Dcndrosotcr Perisii, 
Gir., from this species in France. 

270. Pityogcnes ehaleographus, Linn, 

Pteromalus ahieticola was raised by Radzay (lib. cit. ii, 191) 
from Bostrielms clialeogrcvphus in the spruce woods of the 
Hartz. 

271. Xylehorus monographus, Fab.* 

The only parasite, instanced by Ratzeburg, of Bostrichus 
monograjjhits is Geraphron radiatus,'^^^ of which Herr Wiss- 
mann (Ichn. d. Forst. ii, 141) bred a single specimen. 

272. Undetermined Coleoptera. 

Several of both sexes of Coeloides melanotus, Wesm., 
" from some wood-boring beetle " (Marshall, Ent. Ann, 1874, 
p. 144). Nordlinger found Hemitelcs thoracicus, Ratz,, in 
a breeding cage containing xylophagous Coleoptera (Ichn. 
d. Forst. iii, 156); Bogas rugator^-^'^ is said (/. c. ii, 66) to 
have occurred in the same situation, Brischke (Allge- 
meine Wirths-Tabelle) has bred SigalpJius fioricola, Ptero- 
malus Dahlhomi and Entcdon xylohius " from coleoptera." 
Alysiamanducator, Panz., "bred from larva found feeding 
on carrion " (Bignell, Trans. Devon, Assoc. 1901, p. 685 — 
cf, Creophilus, ante). Bhyssalus indagator, Hal., " parasite 



68 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley 07i the 

sans doute de quelques petits Coldopteres xylopliages " 
(Marshall, Bracon. d'Europ. i. 183). Pimpla hrevicornis, 
Grav., bred "from pupa of beetle " (Entom. 1885, p. 152). 
Apantdcs salchrosus, Marsh., *' one and one cocoon, bred 
from a coleopteron " (Morley, lib. cit. 1906, p. 100). 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF PARASITES.^ 





ICHNEUMONID^. 


19 


Hemiteles 


completus, Ratz., 

57 
thoracicus, Ratz., 


1 


Barichneumon ridibiindu.s, 


20 


)j 




Grav., 217 






272 


2 


Phseogenes suspicax, Wesm., 
105 


21 


11 


subzonatus, Grav., 
23, 24 


3 


„ nanus, Wesm., 
238 


22 


Pezomach 


us instabilis, Forst., 
214 


4 


Diadronius subtilicornis, 
Grav., 105 


23 


)) 


corruptor, Forst., 
214 


5 


Helcoztisus brachycentrus. 


24 


11 


comes, Forst., 7 




Grav., 41, 246 


25 


11 


thoracicus, Brisch., 


6 


Cubocephalus nigriventris, 






215 




Thorns., 110 


26 


)) 


fasciatus. Fab., 16, 


7 


Microcryptus nigrocinctus. 






201 




Grav., 9 


27 


11 


palpator, Grav., 


8 


Physadeuon rufulus, Gmel., 






49 




180 


28 


11 


sp., 182, 216 


9 


„ variabilis,Grav.,2 


29 


Mesostenus ater, Ratz., 38, 


10 


Oresbius castaneus, Marsh., 4, 




150 






5, 175 


30 


Hoplocryptus insectator, 


11 


Hemiteles bicolorinus, Grav., 




Tschek. 


, 185 




47 


31 


Idiolispa analis, Grav., 105 


12 


„ areator, Panz., 8, 


32 


Cryptus minator, Grav., 76 




25, 26, 43, 44, 


33 


,, echthroides, Ratz., 231 




50, 214 


34 


Csenocryptus tener, Thorns., 


13 


„ pedestris, Fab., 




96 






126 


35 


Coleocenti 


us caligatus, Grav., 


14 


„ niger, Tasch., 146 




109 




15 


„ nielanarius, Grav., 


36 


Arotes albicinctiis, Grav., 83 




41, 188, 233, 253 


37 


Ephialtes 


imperator, Krieeh., 


16 


„ argentatiis, Grav., 






105 




1 


38 


„ manifestator, Linn., 


17 


„ persector, Parf., 7 






30, 76, 105 


18 


„ testivalis, Grav., 


39 


„ tuberculatu.s, Fourc, 




41, 47, 188, 238, 






73, 95, 105, 187, 




253 






217 



1 The numbers prefixed to the parasites' names here given refer to those 
printed in small type after the now obsolete names in the text, and are 
intended to facilitate synonymy. 

The numbers suffixed to the parasites' names here given refer to the 
corresponding ones attached to the Coleoptera in the text, and will serve 
as an index. 



Hymenopteroiis Parasites of Colcoftcra. 



69 



40 Ephialtes carbonari las, Christ., 

38, 39, 74, 81, 99, 
101, 105, 108, 188, 
217 

41 „ heteropus, Tlioms,, 

75 

42 „ strobilorum, Ratz., 

56 

43 „ discolor, Brisch., 40, 

96 

44 „ glabratus, Eatz., 37, 

56 

45 „ pusillus, Ratz,, 84 

46 „ populneus, Ratz., 

73, 105 

47 „ continuus, Ratz., 

105 

48 Pimpla instigator, Fab., 28, 78 

49 „ examinator. Fab., 211 

50 „ roborator. Fab., 217 

51 „ stercorator. Fab. 155, 

157 

52 „ brevicornis, Grav., 

188, 201, 272 

53 „ nucum, Ratz., 228 

54 „ abdominalis,Grav.,179 

55 „ sagax, Ratz., 211 

56 „ pomorum, Ratz., 211 

57 ,, linearis, Ratz., 32, 

188, 231 

58 „ terebrans, Ratz., 99, 

101, 187, 190 

59 ,, alternans, Grav., 105, 

199 

60 ,, longiventris, Ratz., 

155 

61 ,, laticeps, Ratz., 188 

62 ,, palliata, Gir., 210 

63 ,, gymnetri, Ratz., 207 

64 ,, sp., 184 

65 Polysphincta elegans, Ratz., 57 

66 ,, latistriata, Ratz. , 

199 

67 ,, lignicola, Ratz., 

40, 73 

68 ,, soror, Ratz., 57 

69 Glypta concolor, Ratz., 234 

70 Lycorina triangulifera, 

Holmgr., 105 

71 Lissonota bellator, Grav., 46, 

57 

72 „ palpalis, Thorns., 

110 

73 Meniscus catenator, Panz., 29 



74 Echthrns nubeculatus, Grav., 

105 

75 „ populneus, Gir., 105 

76 Ischnoceros rusticus, Fourc, 

75, 85, 88, 94, 104 

77 Xylonomus pra3catorius,Fab., 

79, 80, 106 

78 „ irrigator, Fab., 86, 

92 

79 „ filiforniis, Grav., 

87, 92, 95, 106 

80 „ ater, Grav., 109 

81 Xorides albitarsus, Grav., 72 

82 „ cryptitbrmis, Ratz., 

46, 57 

83 „ crassipes, Htg., 73, 

103, 190 

84 „ collaris, Grav., 109 

85 „ hercynianus, Htg., 190 

86 Odontomerusappendiculatus, 

Grav., 73 

87 „ dentipes., Gmel., 

235 

88 „ spinipes, Grav., 

100 

89 Exochus compressiventris, 

Ratz., 33 

90 Orthocentrus fulvipes, Grav. 

93, 106 

91 „ testaceipes, 

Brisch., 142 

92 Neuratelespapyraceus, Ratz., 

188 

93 Bassus laita tortus. Fab., 137 

94 Homoporus tarsatorius, 

Panz., 16 

95 Sphecophaga v e s p a r u m, 

Curt., 152 

96 Tryphon sp., 126 

97 Mesoleptus teredo, Htg., 73, 

109 

98 Ophion luteus, Linn., 184 

99 Campoplex latus, Ratz., 211 

100 Canidia pusilla, Ratz., 39 

101 „ quinqueangularis, 

Ratz,, 135 

102 ,, subcincta, Grav., 181 

103 Nemeritis transfuga, Grav., 

106 

104 ,, gracilis, Grav., 217 

105 Diaparsusgilvipes, Grav., 147 

106 Thersilochus tnoderator, 

Linn., 146, 149, 
221,223 



70 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley on the 



107 Ther.silocliii.s uiorionellns, 

Holmgr., 20 

108 Porizon nutritor, Fab., 230 

109 ,, microcephaluSjGrav., 

123 

110 „ boops, Grav., 149 

111 Mesochorus thoracicus, Grav., 

130 

112 „ nigripes, Ratz., 

181 

BEACONIDiE. 

113 Bracou impostor. Scop., 102 

114 „ pectoralis, Wesm., 

115 „ .scutellaris,Wesm., 56, 

153 

116 „ stabilis, Wesm., 246 

117 „ immutator, Nees, 

217 

118 „ fuscipenuis, Wesm., 

133 

119 „ lajvigatiis, Ratz., 82, 

83 

120 „ hylobii, Ratz., 187 

121 „ fiavator. Fab., 73, 99 

122 „ caudatus, Ratz., 247 

123 „ longicaudis, Ratz., 

247 

124 „ colpophorus, Wesm., 

118, 163, 164 

125 „ di.scoideus, Wesm., 

157, 158, 229 

126 „ terebella, Wesm., 201 

127 „ dicbromus, Wesm., 

208 

128 „ maculiger, Wesm., 

223 

129 „ variator, Nees, 201 

130 „ prsecox, Wesm., 117 

131 „ minator. Fab., 183 

132 „ palpebrator, Ratz., 

41, 99, 188, 191, 
253, 266, 268 

133 „ labrator, Ratz., 188, 

268 

134 „ .sordidator, Ratz., 188 

135 „ bicellularis, Ratz., 73 

136 „ m ultiarticulatus, 

Ratz., 105 

137 „ gyinnetri, Gir., 208, 

209 

138 „ initiatellus, Ratz., 238 

139 „ rafator, Gir., 115, 

172 



140 Bracon sji., 204 

141 Exothecus debilis, Wesm. 

195 

142 ,, rhyncoli, Gir., 

236 

143 Rhy.ssalus indagator, Hal., 

272 

144 Colastes braconius, Hal., 195 

145 Oncophanes lanceolator, Nees, 

237 

146 Spatliius erytlirocephalus, 

Wesm., 59 

147 ,, exai'ator, Linn., 43, 

47, 54, 57, 199, 
238, 247, 259 

148 „ rubidus, Rossi, 52, 

250 

149 ,, brevicaudis, Ratz., 

96, 188, 234, 249, 
268 

150 ,, radzayanus, Ratz., 

33, 82, 86, 218 

151 „ rugosus, Ratz., 239 

152 „ ferrugatus, Gour.,80 

153 „ curvicaudis, Ratz., 

29 

154 „ claviger, Gir., 59 

155 Synodus incompletus, Ratz., 

188 
1.56 Eucorystes aciculatus. Rein., 
34 

157 Hecabolus sulcatus,Curt., 43, 

57, 58, 59 

158 Ecphyluseccoptogastri,Ratz., 

238, 243 

159 ,, bylesini, Ratz., 249, 

254,255,257,268 

160 „ selesiaciis, Ratz., 

256 

161 Pamboliis rosenhaueri, Ratz., 

125 

162 Cceloides initiator, Fab., 86, 

92, 109, 188 

163 „ scolyticida, Wesm., 

238, 240 

164 ,, melanotus, Wesm., 

247, 272 

165 „ filiformis, Ratz., 

246, 247 

166 „ bostricliorum, Gir., 

267 

167 Atanycoliis denigrator, Nees, 

105 
! 168 Doryctes gallicus, Reinh., 79 



Hymenojpterous Parasites of Coleoptera. 



71 



169 Doryctes imperator, Hal., 31, 

92 

170 „ igneus, Ratz., 99 

171 ,, pomariiis, Reinh., 

99, 241, 243 

172 „ levicogaster, Nees, 

76,86 

173 ,, spatliiif or m is, 

Ratz., 47 

174 ,, undulatus, Ratz., 

99, 100 

175 ,, obliteratus, Nees, 

109, 188, 267 

176 Dendrosoter protuberans, 

Nees, 238, 239, 240, 
247 

177 „ middendorfi, 

Ratz., 238,253, 
255, 268 

178 „ planus, Ratz., 254 

179 „ Perrisi, Gir., 268 

180 Csenopachys hartigi, Ratz., 

268 

181 Histeromerus mystacinus, 

Wesm., 27, 89 

182 Chremylus rubiginosus, Nees, 

112, 114, 116 

183 Clinocentrus lignariu^, Ratz., 

32 

184 ,, exsertor, Nees, 41 

185 Sigalphus thoracicus. Cart., 

111, 113, 116 

186 ,, pallidipes, Nees, 

112, 194, 195, 
203, 237 

187 ,, facialis, Ratz., 59 

188 ,, luteipes. Thorns., 

53, 59 

189 ,, striatulus, Nees, 

112,119,120,121 

190 ,, caudatus, Nees, 

195, 199 

191 ,, floricola, Wesm., 

165,166,222,272 

192 ,, obscurellus, Nees, 

203, 205, 222 

193 Chelonus neesi, Reinh., 263 

194 ,, rufidens, Wesm., 

105 

195 ,, nigrinus, Erichs., 

105 

196 ,, atriceps, Ratz., 234 

197 Apanteles salebrosus. Marsh., 

272 



1 98 Apanteles hoplites, Ratz. , 1 32, 

157 

199 ,, lacteus, Nees, 211 

200 ,, albipennis, Nees, 

211 

201 ,, impurus, Nees, 211 

202 ,, breviventris,Ratz., 

199, 219 

203 ,, sp., 11, 112 

204 Microgaster la^vigatus, Ratz., 

157 

205 ,, rufilabris, Ratz., 

55 

206 „ sp., 1 

207 Microdus calculator. Fab., 

143, 146, 188 

208 ,, rugulosus, Nees, 

263 

209 Ischius striolatus, Ratz., 199 

210 Euphorus pallidipes. Curt., 

145, 146 

211 Cosmophorus klugi, Ratz., 

255 

212 Perilitus falciger, Ruthe, 

127, 128 

213 ,, terminatus, Nees, 

15, 16 

214 Centistes americana, Riley, 

17 

215 Meteorus tabidus, Wesm., 

94, 106 

216 ,, longicaudis, Ratz., 

146 

217 ,, obfuscatus, Nees, 

19, 146 

218 ,, atrator. Curt., 68, 

146 

219 ,, albicornis, Ruthe, 

240 

220 ,, protligator, Hal., 68 

221 ,, filator, Hal., 68 

222 ,, brevipes, Wesm., 

240 

223 Eubadizon flavipes, Hal. 

224 ,, orchestis,Rond,199 

225 ,, pallidipes, Nees, 

66, 67 

226 ,, brevicaudis,Gir.,52 

227 Calyptus tibialis, Hal., 46, 

157 

228 ,, minutus, Ratz., 195 

229 ,, fasciatus, Nees, 190 

230 ,, longicaudis, Ratz,, 

237, 243 



72 ^rr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley on the 



231 
232 
233 

234 
235 

23(5 
237 

238 
239 

240 
241 
242 
243 
244 

245 

246 

247 

248 
249 
250 

251 
252 
253 

254 



255 

256 

257 
258 

259 

260 
261 

262 
263 

264 
265 

266 



Calyptns robustus, Ratz., 188 
,, rngosiis, Ratz., 234 
,, atricornis, Ratz., 

188, 190 
,, firmus, Ratz., 188 
,, inters titialis, Ratz., 

45 
„ destitutus, Ratz., 22 
,, pimctatus, Ratz., 56 
Pygostolus falcatus, Nees, 124 
Blacus tuberculatus, Wesni., 
174, 178 
,, ruficornis, Nees, 216 
,, fuscijies, Gour., 243 
,, exocentri, Gix\, 97 
Helcon aim ulicornis, Nees, 91 
,, fequator, Nees, 81, 

109 
,, rnspator, Linn., 90 
,, carinator, Nees, 65, 

80, 81, 95, 239 
,, claviventris, Wesm., 

150 
,, tardator, Nees, 81, 95 
sp., 42 
Macrocentnis niarginator, 
Nees, 217 
,, collaris. Spin., 47 
,, rugator, Ratz., 272 
Aspidogonus contractus, 

Ratz., 81, 109 
,, diversicornis, 
Wesm., 42, 77, 
144, 150 
,, abietis, Ratz., 48, 
56 
Diospilus oleraceus, Hal., 
220 222 224 

-J^JVJ, XJwJ, _j_l'* 

,, capito, Nees, 46 

,, ephii)2num, Nees, 

61, 143 
,, mel an oscelus, 

Nees, 
,, filator, Nees, 148 

,, nigricornis, Wesm., 

46, 222 
Dolops aciileator. Marsh., 177 
Csenoccclius agi icol? tor, Linn . , 
100, 233, 234 
,, analis, Nees, 243 
Opius caudatus, Wesm., 79, 

100 
DiachasmacepLalotes,Wesm., 
243 



267 Alvsia manducator, Panz., 

10, 272 

268 Pentapleura fuliginosa, Hal., 

225, 226, 227 

269 Dacnusa gedanensis, Ratz., 

105 

270 Aphidius obsoletus, Wesm., 

256 

271 ,, halticaj, Rond., 138 

272 Pachylomraa buccata, De 

Breb., 35 

CHALCIDID.E. 

274 Chalcis parvula. Lap., 141 

275 Halticella rufipes, Oliv., 57 

276 Eupelmus annulatus, Nees, 

126 

277 „ geeri, Dalm., 212, 

213, 247 

278 „ nrozonius, Dalm., 

188 

279 Eusandalum abbreviatum, 

Ratz., 32, 268 

280 ,, inerme, Ratz., 27, 

44, 52, 57, 66, 
98, 248 

281 „ tridens, Ratz., 

231 , 268 

282 Botliriothorax fumipennis, 

Ratz., 45 

283 Encyrtus apicalis, Dalm., 14 

284 ,, flaininius,Dalm.,16, 

153 

285 „ flavomaciilatus, 

Ratz., 154, 211 

286 Cerncepha]acornigera,Westw., 

238, 247 

287 Perilampus angustatus, Nees, 

46 

288 „ micans,Dalm., 13, 

41, 66 

289 Torymiis difficilis, Nees, 21 

290 ,, macrocentnis, Ratz., 

105 

291 Callimone paralellinus. Boh., 

161 

292 Eurytoma apionum, Gir., 171 

293 ,, abieticola, Ratz., 

234 

294 „ eccoptogastri, Ratz., 

107, 239, 243 

295 „ flavoscajnilar is , 

Ratz., 247 



Hymcnopterous Parasites of Coleoptcra. 



73 



296 Eurytoma flavovaria, Ratz., 


322 


Pteroma 


iisalbitarsus. Walk., 


247 






162 


297 „ histrionica, Furst., 


323 


11 


auronitens, Forst., 


151 






201 


298 „ ischioxantlm, Ratz., 


324 


11 


aziirescens, Ratz., 


107, 188, 247 






249, 268 


289 „ nodulosa, Katz., 247 


325 


11 


azureus, Ratz. 


300 ,, ^^i'l^to^"™? Ratz., 






249, 252 


249 


326 


11 


bidentis, Ratz., 


301 „ striolata, Ratz., 239 






268 


302 ,, sp., 188, 259 


327 


11 


bimaculatiis, Nees, 


303 Trigonoderus ductilis. Walk., 






65, 238, 239, 


96 






240, 243, 247, 


304 Cleonymusdepressns,Fab., 59 






263, 265 


305 ,, piilcliellus, Ratz., 


328 


11 


bivestigatus, Ratz., 


239 






247 


306 Chrysolampus aineus, Ratz., 


329 


11 


brevicornis. Walk., 


211 






49 


307 Anogiiius abieti;^, Gir., 56 


330 


11 


brnnnicans, Ratz., 


308 Raphitelus maculatup, Walk., 






238, 240 


241, 243, 247, 


331 


11 


capitatus, Ratz., 


254 






238, 255, 260 


309 Tridymus undulatus, Ratz., 


332 


11 


clavatns, Ratz. ,188 


118 


333 


)5 


criiciatus,Ratz.,195 


310 „ xyloj)liagorum, 


334 


11 


cryptocepliali, 


Ratz., 247 






Ratz., 126 


311 Systasis encyrtoides, Walk., 


335 


)) 


curculionoides, 


118, 160, 201 






Ratz., 204, 206 


311oRoptrocerus eccoptogastri, 


336 


)) 


dahlbomi, Ratz., 


Ratz., 239 






99, 188, 272 


311/3 „ xylophagorum, 


337 


)) 


diachyraatis, Ratz., 


Ratz., 244, 255, 






195, 200 


258, 260, 263, 


338 


11 


di stinguendus. 


264, 265, 266, 






Fcirst., 58 


267, 268, 269 


339 


11 


elongatus,Ratz.,59. 


312 Acrocormns sp., 107 


340 


)) 


endomychi. Walk., 


313 Cheiropachusquadrnni, Fab., 






18 


237, 238, 240, 


341 


11 


ericlisoni, Ratz. ,162 


247, 248, 251 


342 


11 


e xcrescentium, 


314 „ pulchellus, Westw., 






Ratz., 139 


253 


343 


11 


fa.seiatus, Forst., 


315 Schizonotus sieboldi, Ratz., 






160 


131 


344 


11 


fraxini, Ratz., 247 


316 Pterotomus dubius,Nees,249 


345 


11 


galerucse, Fonsc, 


317 ,, Latriellei, Ratz., 253 






136 


318 Pterolycus gravenhorsti. 


346 


11 


guttatus, Ratz., 29, 


Ratz., 261 






188, 234, 253, 


319 Pteromalus abieticola, Ratz., 






268 


267, 270 


347 


11 


liohenlieimensis. 


320 „ ffimuliis, Ratz., 34, 






Ratz., 56 


188, 244, 255, 


348 


11 


jonanensis, Ratz., 


260, 266 






194, 196, 199 


321 „ asneicornis, Ratz., 


349 


11 


lanceolatus, Ratz., 


105 i 






238, 255 



74 Mr. Ernest A. Elliott and Mr. Claude Morley 07i the 



350 Pteromalus leguminuni,Ratz., 


377 


Eutelus 


elevatus, AValk., 186 






118, 160, 103, 


378 


Elacliestus carinatus, Ratz., 






164, 167 






157 


351 


>j 


lepidus, Forst., 195 


379 


M 


leucobatus, Ratz., 


352 


5) 


leucopezus, Eatz., 






155 






117 


380 


J3 


leucogram ma, Ratz., 


353 


» 


lunulus, Katz., 188, 
238, 242, 253 






107, 231, 238, 
239, 240, 241, 


354 


» 


magdalis,Ratz.,231, 






243 






232 


381 


31 


obscuripes, Nees, 


355 


)) 


mandibularis, 






199 






Forst., 133, 134 


382 


13 


pellucens, Forst., 


356 


» 


muscaruni, Walk., 






188, 253 






168 


383 


Cirrospihis nerio, Walk., 118, 


357 


» 


iiavis, Ratz., 255, 




160 








260 


384 


Euloithus atrocferuleus, Nees, 


358 


)) 


nodulosus, Ratz., 






170 






107 


385 


53 


chrysomela% Nees, 


359 


?) 


opistotomus, Ratz., 






129 






60 


386 


33 


dendricornis, Ratz., 


360 


)5 


orchestis, Ratz., 






194, 199 






194, 199, 200 


387 


33 


discolor, Nees, 215 


361 


il 


pini, Htg., 189 


388 


33 


fumatus, Ratz., 196, 


362 


>> 


l^ogonocliceri, Ratz., 






199 






^99 


389 


33 


lineatus, Forst., 195 


363 


J> 


ramulorum, Ratz., 
249 


390 


33 


lophyrorum, Htg., 
241 


364 


)> 


regius, Forst., IGO 


391 


31 


obscurus, Ratz., 199 


365 


» 


revelatus, Forst., 
210 


392 


11 


pectinicornis, Nees, 
199 


366 


)) 


saxeseni, Ratz., 211 


393 


13 


pilicornis,Ratz., 49, 


367 


>5 


siccatorum, Ratz., 






195, 199, 200 






249, 268 


394 


53 


viduus, Ratz., 199 


368 


)) 


spinolse, Forst., 187, 
244, 253, 255, 


395 


Asticlius 
70, 71 


arithnieticus, Forst., 






260, 262, 263, 


396 


Pleurotropis orchestis, Gir., 






264, 265, 267 




198 




369 


3) 


strobilobius, Ratz., 


397 


Entedon 


agrilorum, Ratz., 34 






56 


398 


53 


amethvstinus, Ratz., 


370 


>» 


suspensus, Ratz., 






199 






188, 253, 265, 


399 


3 3 


arcuatus, Ratz. 






266, 268 


400 




cassidarum, Ratz., 


371 


» 


tessellatus, Ratz., 






126, 140 






231 


401 


„ 


caudatus, Ratz., 249 


372 


5? 


vaginuloe, Ratz., 
212, 213 


402 


51 


chalybseus, Ratz., 
105 


373 


» 


valleculus, Ratz., 

238 


403 


" 


confinis, Ratz., 46, 
192, 199 


374 


>5 


vicaiius, Ratz., 249 


404 


35 


curculionuia, Gir., 


375 


3) 


violaceus, Ratz., 






169, 208, 209 






188, 231, 234, 


405 


11 


cyclogaster, Ratz., 






266, 268 






199 


376 


)> 


sp., 142, 197, 216, 
241, 247 


406 


33 


flavo niaculatus, 
Ratz., 195, 199 



IIymeno2)teroiis Parasites of Colcoptcra, 



75 



407 Entedon (feniculatus, Ht^f., 




208 


408 


, hylesinorum, Eatz., 




245, 249 


409 


, longiventris, Ratz., 




4G, 49, 173 


410 


, lunatus, Ratz., 199 


411 


, luteipes, Ratz., 195, 




199 


412 


, medianus, Ratz., 




196, 197, 199 


413 


, niteiis, Gir., 171 


414 


, orchestis, Ratz., 




195, 197, 199 


415 


, pinetorum, Ratz., 




249 


416 


, punctatus, Ratz., 




197 


417 


, sesq uifasciattis, 




Ratz., 199 


418 


, unicostatus, Ratz., 




197 


419 


, vaginulee, Ratz., 212 


420 


, xanthops, Ratz., 192, 




195 


421 


, xanthostoma, Ratz., 




195 


422 


, xylobius, Brisch., 




272 


423 Tetrs 


isticlius frontalis, Nees, 




198 


424 


„ orchestis, Forst., 




193, 198 



425 Tetrastichus rosarum, Forst., 

170 

426 Poropcea stollwerki, Forst., 

154, 156, 157 

427 Choetosticha signata, Ratz., 

159 

PROCTOTRYPIDiE. 

428 Proctotrypes viator, Hal., 3, 6 
428a „ pallidipes, Jur., 11 

429 „ sp., 36, 146 

430 Ceraphron luiispinosus, Ratz., 

188 

431 „ vitripennis, Ratz., 

212 

432 Megaspiluspusillus,Ratz., 269 

433 „ radiatus,Ratz., 271 

434 Cephalanomoea formiciformis, 

Westw., 62, 63, 69 

435 Platymischus dilatatus, 

Westw., 12 

436 Diapria melanocoryi3ha,Ratz., 

217 

437 „ nigra, Nees, 243 

438 „ verticellata, Latr., 266 

439 Teleas minutus, Ratz., 199 

440 „ punctatus, Gir., 243 

441 "Ascarides" 267 

442 "Oxyurides" 238 

CYNIPIDiE. 

443 EuccEla minuta, Gir., 243 



( 77 ) 



III. Descriptions of some neio Bittterjlies from Tropical 
Africa. By Hamilton H. Druce, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

[Read March 6th, 1907.] 

Plate II. 

Family SATYRID^. 

Neocmnyra coohsoni, sp. nov. (Plate II, fig. 1.) 

(^ . U^jper-side olivaceous-brown ; the basal two-thirds rather 
darker and with a sinuous edging on the fore-wing. A clearlv- 
defined submarginal dark line followed by a much more slender 
marginal line ; cilia'brown. Fore- wing with a large black subapical 
ocellus containing two clear white pupils placed one above the other 
and surrounded by a broad pale yellow iris. Hind-wing with two 
smaller black ocelli, each containing one white puj)il and surrounded 
by a clear pale yellow iris placed between the lower median nervules 
close to the submarginal line. In a line with these and between the 
lower median nervule and the submedian nervure is a minute 
yellowish spot containing a central black dot. 

The under-side differs only from the upper by the hind-wing 
having a sinuous dark median line from the costa to the abdominal 
margin, by the addition of a yellowish-ringed ocellus near the costa 
and also two small confluent yellow-ringed ocelli near the anal angle. 
Head, thorax, abdomen, legs and palpi, dark brown. 

Expanse 1y"o inch. 

Hah. Katanga District, S. E. Congo Free State, 
3,000 ft. {H. Coohson), captured in April. 
Type, Mus. Druce. 

This species is distinguished from its allies by the 
position of the dark bands and by the pale yellow rings 
to the ocelli, those previously described having tawny or 
red rings. It is allied to N. fpryorii, Butler,* JV. victoria, 
Auriv.,f and N. hccJcmanui, Thurau.J 

* Ncocsenyra qregorii, But!., P. Z. S. 1894, p. 560, PL XXXVI, 

■ fig. 2. 
t ,, victoria, Auriv., Rhop. ^thiopica, p. 72, PI. I, fig. 4 

(1898). 
I „ hechnanni, Thurau, Berlin, Ent. Zeit. xlviii, p. 126, 

PI. II, fig. 5 (1903). 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1907. — PART I. (JUNE) 



78 Mr. Hamilton H. Druce's Descriptions 

Family LYCiENID^. 

Tclipna rogersi, sp. nov. (Plate II, fig. 2.) 

(5 . Upper-side : dull red, with the costa, cell, apex and outer margin 
of fore-wing and outer margin of hind-wing somewhat unevenly 
brownish-black. A dull red spot beyond the end of the cell on fore- 
wing, joining the red discal area. Two black spots on the disc, 
placed between the nervules close to the lower wall of the cell. Under- 
side brownish-black, thickly dusted with orange, especially towards 
the apex of the fore-wing and the outer-margin of the hind-wing. 
The inner margin and the lower portion of the disc of the fore-wing is 
reddish, and the two black discal spots of the fore-wing show faintly 
through. There are no spots as in T. carnnta, Hew. Antennaj 
black above, spotted with white below ; thorax, abdomen, palpi and 
legs reddish. , 

Expanse H inch. 

Hah. British E. Africa. Type, Mas. Oxford. 

Captured fourteen miles N.W. of Mombasa, Rabai, on 
Dec. 26th, by the Rev. K. St. Aubyn Rogers and pre- 
sented by him to the Oxford Museum. Also in Mus. 
Druce : one specimen from the same source, kindly 
presented by Professor Poulton. 

This insect is allied to T. carmita, Hew.,* but has 
several points of distinction. 

Mimacriea skoptoles, sp. nov. (Plate II, fig. 3.) 

$ . Upper-side uniform reddish-orange, darkest along the upper 
wall of the cell of fore-wing, with broad blackish-brown apical and 
outer margins unevenly edged inwardly. Fore-wing : the costal 
margin narrowly blackish, a distinct black spot at the end of the 
cell and a narrow black streak along the upper wall of the cell 
reaching from the base for about two-thirds its length. A creamy 
white band, commencing near the costa in a small spot about half- 
way between the end of the cell and the apex and reaching to the 
upper median nervule, but broadest between the discoidal nervules. 
The nervules which cross this white band are of a faint orange hue, 
not black as in M. marshalli, Trimen. Hind-wing : the costal 
margin is unmarked, and the nervules show no indication of becoming 
black where they run into the dark border. The markings of the 
under-side show through, but very indistinctly. 

* Pentila carnuta, Hew,, Ent. Mon. Mag. x, p. 125 (1873). 



of some new Butto^fiics from Tropical Africa. 79 

Under-side : ground-colour jaale yellowish, merging to rich orange- 
buff all over the cell of the fore-wing ; an apical and outer-marginal 
border common to both wings, composed of large /\-shaped black 
markings placed between the nervules. Fore-wing : a black spot at 
the end of, and two smaller ones in, the cell. The white band of 
the upper-side is reproduced and is inwardly bordered by a distinct 
black irregular patch. Hind-wing : the basal area, which is dusted 
with blackish scales, contains about ten distinct black spots which 
are irregularly distributed and which are individually ringed with 
pale yellow. 

Head, thorax ;ind abdomen blackish-brown above, yellowish 
below. Legs black with white spots. Antennre black above, white- 
spotted below. Cilia of fore-wing black, white between the nervules 
on hind-wing on both surfaces. 

Expanse 2 inch. 

Hab. Nigeria. Type, Mus. Druce. 

This insect is perhaps most nearly allied to Mimacrssct 
yclinia, Oberthur,* described from Usambara, but has many 
23oints of distinction. It is also allied to M. poultoni, Neave,f 
to which it bears considerable resemblance on the under- 
side, but it has the subapical band on the fore-wing white 
and differently placed. 



MimacTfea ncohoton, sp. nov. (Plate II, fig. 4.) 

9 . Allied to the preceding species but the orange area on the 
upper-side is slightly more extensive and paler ; the band crossing 
the fore-wing is pale orange (excepting the first spot on the costa, 
which is white) and differently placed and the black streak in the 
cell is absent. On the under-side the /^-shaped marginal markings 
are smaller and less prominent, those at the apex of the fore-wing 
being al^sent, whilst the nervules between which they are wanting 
are faintly blackish as also are those on the discal area of the hind- 
wing. There is an extra black spot at the junction of the lower 
median nervule, and the abdomen is distinctly black-spotted along 
its whole length. Cilia black at the extremities of the nervules, 
white between, on both surfaces. 

Expanse If inch. 

* Mimacreea (Liptenn) gelinin, Oberth., Etudes d'Ent. 17, p. 31, 
PI. II, fig. 24 (1893). 

t Mimacrsea jjonUoni, Neave, Novitates Zoologicge, v. xi, p. 337, 
PI. I, fig. 18, ^ (1904). 



80 Mr. Hamilton H. Druce's Dcscri}jtions 

TyjDe, Mus. Hope, Oxford. 

Hob. S.E. Rhodesia : Melsetter, Gazaland. 

Captured on Mount Chirinda, about 4,000 ft., in the 
forest, October l7tb, by Mr. Guy Marshall, and presented 
by him to the museum. 

Spmdasis nicnelas, sp. nov. (Plate II, fig. 5.) 

9 . Upper-side orange-yellow, with the base, costa, and outer 
margin of fore-wing, the base, costal, outer and anal margins of hind- 
wing dark brown. Fore-wing : the whole of the cell is dark brown 
excepting a small orange spot near the end. On the disc of the wing 
are two patches consisting apparently of two confluent brown spots 
placed one towards the apex, one about the middle. Hind-wing : 
two brown bars running from the costal border evenly and regularly 
into the orange area. 

Under-side : ground-colour very pale j^ellow with rather broad 
and short silver bands and spots edged with black ; a fine anteciliary 
bhick line common to both wings followed by a narrow submarginal 
line and beyond that a broader black line which is silvery towards 
the apex of the fore-wing and wholly silvery in the liind-wing. 

The tails, which are long, are dark orange along their basal halves 
on both surfaces, the outer portions being black and the tips white. 

The cilia on both surfaces are shining fuscous, those on the fore- 
wing being darkest. Head and thorax dark brown with two white 
streaks between the eyes. Abdomen brown above, pale-yellowish at 
each segment ; yellow below. 

Palpi pale yellow. 

Expanse If inch. 

Type, Mus. Druce. 

Hab. N, Nigeria : Afikpo (licddicl-). 

This species appears to be allied to S. iza, Hew.,* and 
S. crudaria, Holland.f 

Hewitson described and figured a ^, not a $, as stated. 
The upper surface of the $ is shot with opalescent blue. 

titvgtta maria. (Plate II, fig. G.) 

tStvgcta 7narir(,, Suffcrt, Deutch. Ent. Zeit. " Iris," xvii, 
p. 60, 1904. 

I have figured a ^ from the Bihe district, Angola. 

* Aphnsevs iza, Hew., 111. Diur. Lep. Lye. p. 62, PI. XXV, fig. 5 
(1865). 

f Aphnseus crustaria, Holland, Psyche 5, p. 430 (1890). 



of some neiv Butterfiics from Tropical Afriea. 81 

Epamcra mcrmis. (Plate II, fig. 7.) 
Ujximera mermis. H. H. Druce, Anns. Mag. Nat. Hist. 
(6) xvii, p. 285 (1896). P. Z. S. 1902, p. 117, PI. XII, 

%• 2, $. 

? . Upper-side. Fore-wing : discal area pure white, base and inner 
margin pale greyish-blue ; costa, apex and outer margin blackish- 
brown. Hind-wing pale greyish-blue, greyer towards abdominal 
margin ; costal margin blackish-brown outwardly edged with white, 
a submarginal row of irregular deep black patches from apex to 
anal angle. A black anteciliary line inwardly bordered by a white 
line. A black spot in the lobe, crowned by a bright orange patch. 
Tails black ; cilia white. Bright orange between the eyes. Under- 
side as ^ but black spots towards anal angle more extensive. 

Hah. British E. Africa, Mombasa, Rabai. 

Captured July 28th by the Rev. St. A. Rogers and 
presented by him to the Oxford Museum. 

Epamera mirahilis. (Plate II, fig. 8.) 

Epamcra mirahilis, H. H. Druce, Anns. Mag. Nat. Hist. 
(ser. 7), vol. xi, p. 71 (1903). 

Hah. Sierra Leone, W. Africa. 

I have figured the type specimen of this interesting 
species which is an aberrant form of the genus, being 
without the row of hairs on the inner-margin of the hind- 
wing and also without the patch of differently placed 
scales on the large shining area of the hind-wing above. 

Family HESPERIDiE. 

Kedestes rogcrsi, sp. nov. (Plate II, fig. 9 <^, 10 ^.) 
cj . Allied to K. macovio, Trimen.* Upper-side dark brown with 
yellow spots and markings as in that species but with an additional 
outer-marginal row of yellow dashes placed on the nervules and 
common to both wings. An anteciliary dark line. Under- side 
uniform yellow ; fore-wing with a minute black spot at the end of 
the cell, otherwise spotless, and with the basal half only of the inner- 
margin black. Hind-wing with the central discal minute black 
spots only present. An anteciliary dark line. Cilia of fore-wing 
brown, of hind-wing yellow, on both surfaces. 

? . Upper-side as ,$ but browner especially over basal areas. 

* Cydopides macomo, Trim., Trans. Ent. Soc. 1862, p. 405. 
TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1907. — PARTI. (JUNE) 6 



82 So7ne new Butterflies from. Tropieal Africa. 

Under-side : ground-colour rich yellow. Fore-wing : a black spot at 
end of cell, three minute black dots beyond and an outer-marginal row 
of linear black streaks placed on the nervules. Inner-margin broadly 
black with the large yellow spots of the upper-side reproduced. 
Hind-wing with two discal rows of black spots and an outer-marginal 
row of linear black markings. A black anteciliary line to both 
wings. 

Expanse ^ \\ inch, 5 1| inch. 

Types, Mus. Oxford. 

Hah. British E. Africa, Taveta, about 2,500 ft. 

The ^ was captured on April 27th and tlie ^ on October 
20th by the Rev. K. St. A. Rogers and presented by him 
to the Museum. Although the $ described differs con- 
siderably from the ^ on the under-side and was taken six 
months later I think there can be no doubt that they are 
sexes of one species. 

The fore-wing of ^ is narrower than that of K. macomo. 



Explanation of Plate II, 

[(See Explanation facing the Plate.] 



( 83 ) 



IV. The Larva of Collyris emarginatus, Dej. By R. 
Shelford, M.A., F.L.S. 

[Read March 6th, 1907.] 

Plate III. 

In Dec. 1905 I exhibited before this Society some speci- 
mens of the wood-boring larva of the Tiger-beetle Collyris 
emarginatus, Dej., and made some remarks thereon, which 
are published in the Proceedings of date Dec. 6th, 1905. 
It is to Dr. J. C. Koningsberger of the Zoological Museum at 
Buitenzorg, Java, that we owe the discovery of this very 
interesting larva. From a brief description of its habits 
published in "Mededeelingen uit'Slands Plantentuin," 
vol. xliv, p. 113, 1901, we learn that the larva excavates a 
burrow in the twigs of coffee-shrubs and that it feeds on 
the ants and aphides which crawl over the entry to the 
burrow ; pupation takes place in the burrow. No adequate 
figure of the larva and no account of its external features 
have yet been published, but I am now enabled to supply 
some information on these points, thanks to Dr. Konings- 
berger, who has most kindly sent me two consignments of 
larvae. I gladly seize this opportiznity of recording my 
gratitude to my generous correspondent. 

The burrows occupied by the larvse of Collyris emarginatus 
are situated in the central pith of twigs of not more than 
5 mm. in diameter ; the woody part of the twig does not 
appear to be attacked at all. The burrow is generally half 
as long again as the larva occupying it, so that there is 
room for to-and-fro movements of the occupant. Close to 
the anterior end of the burrow is a small circular orifice 
passing through the woody tissue of the twig and placing 
the burrow in communication with the outer world ; the 
outer margin of this orifice is raised, so that the entry to 
the burrow appears to be countersunk. This raised margin 
is brought about by the swelling of the bark of the twig 
at this point, — a pathological result of its puncture. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1907. — PART I. (JUNE) 



84 Mr. R. Shelford on 

Though the oviposition of this Cicindelid has not been 
actually observed, there can be little doubt but that the 
adult female perforates the woody tissue of the twig and 
deposits her egg in the central core of spongy pith. The 
larva has no organs adapted for boring through wood ; 
the mouth-parts are not very different from those of the 
larvsB of Gicindela spp., the legs are modified merely for 
burrowing in relatively soft and non-resisting substances, 
and may well be compared with the legs of Coprid and 
Passalid beetles, of GrijUoUdpa and of Panesthiid cock- 
roaches. As already stated, the burrows are made in the 
centre of twigs and the woody tissue of the twigs is not 
attacked; the larva on hatching out from the egg has 
merely to dig out the soft pith of the twig in order to form 
for itself a cylindrical burrow, and we may iM'esume that 
the debris is expelled from the mouth of the burrow. 

As is well known, the adult females of all species of 
Collyris are furnished with a complex genital armature, 
which, however, has never been really adequately figured 
or described. If a dried specimen of G. cmargioiatus be 
examined with a simple lens the gonapophyses appear to 
consist of a pair of strongly chitinised crotchets pro- 
jecting beyond the last visible tergite and of a pair of 
short down-curved spines projecting beyond the last visible 
sternite. Each crotchet is made up of three stout 
hooks directed upwards and of a much smaller hook ; in 
some specimens these hooks project considerably, in others 
they are withdrawn almost entirely into the abdominal 
cavity. When the dorsal integument is removed, it will be 
seen that the crotchets and spines are attached to a chitinous 
tube occupying the greater part of the abdominal cavity of 
the last three segments. The whole apparatus can be 
removed bodily from the insect and after boiling in caustic 
potash mounted and examined under the microscope, when 
it will be seen that the chitinous tube is a segmented 
structure (Plate III, fig. 8), the number of the segments 
being apparently four. I have not been able to make out 
in the first (^. e. the most proximal) segment the number 
of sclerites composing it, but the second segment is made 
up of two lateral sclerites which meet each other in the 
mid-dorsal and mid-ventral line, also of a large spoon- 
shaped sclerite which embraces the ventral half of this 
and the succeeding segments, runs backwards to the tip of 
the abdomen and bears on its posterior margin the two 



the Larva of CoUyris cmarginatus. 85 

short decurved spines that have already been mentioned.* 
The third segment is composed of the lateral sclerites, 
and a median dorsal sclerite, which runs backward aiid 
ends between the base of the crotchets (Plate III, fig. 9. d) ; 
the lateral sclerites meet each other in the mid-ventral 
line. The fourth segment is open ventrally, the lateral 
sclerites are now pillars bearing the crotchets and each has 
a small hook on the outer aspect, the dorsal sclerites 
are represented perhaps by a pair of oval setigerous plates 
(Plate III, fig. 9. s.2i) covering the base of the crotchets. 
Each crotchet consists of three strong curved hooks, the 
second of which has on the ventral aspect an inwardly 
projecting flange (Plate III, fig. 10./.) ; they are articu- 
lated to the lateral sclerites by a transverse joint but, 
so far as I know, are not movable independently of the 
chitinous tube. This is all that can be made out from an 
examination of dried specimens and I am vmable to afford 
any information as to the exact relations of these parts to 
the other internal organs of the beetle. But there can be 
no reasonable doubt that the segmented chitinous tube is 
composed of retracted terminal segments, the last one of 
which bears appendages in the form of crotchets, and it is 
these appendages only which can be regarded as the 
morphological equivalents of the female gonapophyses of 
the Terebrant Hymenoptern. The modus ojierandi of the 
genital armature of GoUyris is obscure, but I have little 
doubt of its efficiency as an instrument for boring through 
wood of no greater hardness than young coffee twigs. 
Strictly homologous organs occur in other Cicindelidse and 
doubtless in every case they function as boring tools. So 
far as is known — though observations on the subject are 
woefully inadequate — the Cicindelidfe deposit their eggs in 
substances, and not on surfaces, and it does not require a 
great stretch of imagination to suppose that the arboreal 
CoUyris only departs from the habits of its allies so far as 
to deposit her eggs inside the twigs of trees and shrubs. 
It is of interest to note that the pair of decurved ventral 
spines are only well-developed in the arboreal species,*!- 

* These spines have been described elsewhere as attached to the 
last visible sternite, but this is manifestly incorrect. 

I Wallace states that Therates lahiata in Amboina is arboreal and 
in this species the ventral spines are well developed ; in other species 
tliat I have examined these spines are minute or absent, and Canon 
Fowler informs me that occasionally they are modified to form comb- 



86 Mr. R. Shelford on 

and I would suggest that in the case of Co/lj/ris at any rate 
they function as guides for the passage of the egg through 
the aperture bored in the woody tissue of the twig. 
Species of Cicindela, to take an example, would have 
presumably no difficulty in depositing their eggs in the 
burrows excavated for their reception ; the burrow is of 
sufficient diameter to admit the tip of the abdomen and 
the egg can be simply dropped before the tip of the 
abdomen is withdrawn after the operation of excavation. 
The entrance to the burrow occupied by the larva of 
Cullyris cviarginatus is not large enough to admit the tip 
of the abdomen of the adult female, as can be shown by 
measurements, but the two ventral spines fit into it with 
ease. Without these spines it is difficult to see how the 
female CoUi/ris could be certain of passing her egg through 
the aperture in the wood which she has made ; she would 
be liable to deposit it rather on the outer surface of the 
twig, whence it would drop to the ground, but with the 
ventral spines inserted in the aperture the egg can readily 
pass from the oviduct to the place prepared for it. 

Descri2}tio7i of the Larva. (Plate III, figs. 1-10.) 

The largest specimen in my possession is 12 mm. in length. The 
head is typically Cicindelidan ; that is to say, it is strongly chitinised, 
swollen and concave beneath, flattened above ; the mouth-parts 
are prominent and point in an upward direction. The antennte are 
short and four-jointed. There are two ocelli borne on each side of 
the head near the origin of the antennae ; the area surrounding tliese 
ocelli is much darker than the rest of the head and is somewhat 
inflated. The labrum is Ijroad and transverse with a quadrangular 
projection from the middle of the front margin, flanked on each side 
by a tooth ; this quadrangular projection is ridged and has a blunt 
tooth on each side. The mandibles are strong and curved, each bears 
a tooth on its inner margin at the centre ; distad of this tooth the 
inner border of the mandible is grooved, proximad of it the inner 
border is sharp and trenchant. The maxilla; consist of a small 
cardo, a stout triangular stijics, bearing a two-jointed palp and a 
narrow galea almost equal to the palp in length and furnished with 

like structures. The species of Therates that I took in Borneo were 
not, so far as I can remember, arboreal, and in these the ventral 
spines are very small indeed. The Australian genus Didypsidera is 
said to be arboreal and in this genus also the ventral spines are 
present. 



tlie Larva of CoUyris cmavf/inatus. 87 

a few strong spines (Plate III, fig. 3). The labium is cordiform, 
densely hirsute above and with a pair of short two-jointed palps ; 
the anterior angles of the basal joints of these palps are spiniform 
beneath and the tip of the apical joints is beset with numerous 
sensory pits (Plate III, fig. 4). 

The body consists of 13 segments and is seen at once to differ from 
that of a typical Cicindelid larva by the absence of a marked sigmoid 
flexure and by the absence of large dorsal tubercles armed with 
strong hooks on the eighth segment. The CoUyris larva in fact 
" fits" its burrow much better than does the C'icindela larva, it is thus 
able to brace itself at the top of the burrow without pronounced 
curvature of the body ; the walls of its burrow being of a denser 
and harder texture than sand or earth accounts for the absence of 
long hooks on the eighth segment. The prothorax is as broad as the 
head ; the pronotum is trapezoidal witli rounded posterior angles and 
is strongly chitinised. From the mesonotum backwards to the eighth 
segment, the segments increase in breadth. The eighth segment is 
swollen dorsally forming a humj) and the hump carries two curved 
series of small hooks, each series being composed of three hooks ; the 
hooks are of a rather peculiar shape, which can best be understood 
by a reference to the Plate (fig. 5). In addition to the hooks are 
numerous stout setse ; both hooks and setae are directed forwards. 
The three segments immediately behind the eighth are slightly 
narrower than it ; the twelfth segment is much narrower and shorter 
and the thirteenth segment is small and sucker-like with six short 
spines and numerous fine setse on its jiosterior margin. Segments 4 
to 12 bear on each side in a dorso-lateral position a mamilliform 
tubercle furnished with three sette, and a minute mamilliform 
tubercle with two setas occurs on the ventral surface of these 
segments. These tubercles and setaj together with the dorsal 
armature of the eighth segment doubtless serve to brace the larva in 
its burrow. 

Of the legs the following parts can be distinguished : — femur, 
tibia and tarsus. In the second and third pairs the femur is flattened 
and plate-like, with rounded angles ; the tibia is rather slender, 
about two-thirds the length of the femur and with some setjB along 
its lower border and at its distal end ; the tarsus consists of three 
joints, the terminal hook or claw being included as one joint ; the 
first or basal point is ringed with setae, the second has some setie and 
in addition, on its outer aspect a blunt tooth (Plate III, fio-. 7). The 
first pair of legs is very diff'erent in shape ; the femur is flattened 
and triangular with a row of seta3 along its outer aspect ; the tibia 
is short and very stout, broader distally than proximally, its lower 
anterior angle is produced to form a strong and acute tooth with 



88 Mr. R. Shelford on 

secondary teeth on the upper border, a small Ijlunt tooth also occurs 
at the upper anterior angle on the outer aspect ; the tarsus is 
triangular, the basal joint is almost as broad as long with a blunt 
tooth on its outer aspect, the second joint also is furnished with a 
tooth on its outer aspect and ))oth joints are beset with setee (Plate 
III, fig. 6). The second and third pairs of legs are carried with the 
femora straight out from the body, the tibia? bent upwards ; no 
doubt they brace against the sides of the burrow and serve to steady 
the larva when it catches some large or active insect. The front legs 
are plainly adapted for excavating the soft core of the twig in which 
the larva lives. 

In conclusion I would beg to express my thanks to Dr. 
Sharp, F.R.S., Canon W. W. Fowler, and Mr. V. E. 
Shelford of Chicago University, for the kind help and 
useful criticism that they have offered me in the prepara- 
tion of this account of a most interesting insect. 



Explanation of Plate III. 

[See Explanation faciwj the Plate.] 



ADDENDUM. 

After the foregoing account went to press, I received 
from Dr. D. Sharp a letter sent to him from Hongkong by 
Mr. F. Muir, in which Mr. Muir anuounces the discovery 
by himself and Mr. J. C. Kershaw of a wood-boiiiig 
Cicindelid larva. Mr. Muir writes that the burrow " runs 
up the stem, the entrance being at the lower end. It [the 
larva] Avaits with its head at the entrance of the burrow 
and whenever an ant or a fly craAvls up the stem within 
reach it quickly darts out its head and catches its prey." 
Apparently only one specimen was secured, and this, with 
the piece of wood coritaining the burrow. Dr. Sharp has 
kindly handed to me for examination. The larva is larger 
than that of CoUyris anarginatvs, measuring 12 mm. in 
length, but it can, I think, be referred to the genus CoUyris 
without much doubt. There are only two pairs of ocelli ; the 
legs are very similar in appearance to those of G. cinargi- 



the Larva of Colly vis cmarf/matMS, 89 

natus; the eighth tergite Dears on each side three small 
forward ly-directed hooks and its posterior margin is 
fringed with setse ; the terminal segment is armed on its 
posterior margin above with eight short spines arranged 
in two groups of four on either side of the middle line. 
In fact, such differences as exist between the two larvae 
may be regarded as siDecific rather than generic. In one 
feature the Hongkong larva differs markedly from 0. 
cmarginatus ; the metathorax is bent down almost at a 
right angle to the mesothorax and the first abdominal and 
succeeding segments are again bent up at an acute angle 
to the metathorax, thus producing a very sharp flexure of 
the body in this region. I cannot be sure, however, that 
this is not due to the undue contraction of the specimen 
after being placed in alcohol. The burrow is 24 mm. 
long and about 3'5 mm. in diameter, it has been formed 
by the excavation of the central medulla of pith ; the 
affected part of the stem is dilated, being 7 mm. in 
diameter, whereas above and below the burrow it is only 
4 mm. in diameter. This, I expect, is a pathological 
result of the injury caused by the larva. I have observed 
something very similar in the stems of a herbaceous plant 
tenanted by ants, that I found at the foot of Mt. Penrisen hi 
Sarawak.* The consequence of this dilation of the stem 
is, that the burrow itself is relatively of much greater 
diameter than that made by the cmarginatus larva ; the 
dilation appears to be caused, not by a thickening of the 
wood, but by the expansion outwards with concomitant 
thinning of the walls, just as a bulb may be blown in the 
middle of a glass tube. It would be interesting to learn 
if this dilation of the stem and expansion of the burrow 
occurs synchronously with the growth in size of the larva. 
Mr. Muir's observation that the larva, when seizing its prey, 
rushes a short distance out of its burrow, is of considerable 
interest in connection with the fact that the entrance to 
the burrow cannot be enlarged by the larva as it increases 
in size. The entrance to the burrow of a Cicindela larva 
is a miniature pitfall, the head of the larva being the 
bottom of the trap; when an insect stumbles into the 
pitfall it is seized and the captor falls down to the bottom 

* If this interjirettition is correct it lends considerable support 
to the view that the enormous swellings on the stems of myrme- 
cophilous plants of the genera Myrmecodia and Hydnophytum 
originated as jjathological responses to irritant stimuli. 



90 The Larva of CoUyiis cinavyinatus. 

of its burrow with its prey. It is necessary that the head 
of the larva should always fit more or less accurately the 
entrance to its burrow, but the same necessity does not 
arise in the case of the CuUyris larva, for here the burrow 
is a hiding-place or lair from whence the animal emerges 
to capture its prey ; so long as the entrance to its lair is 
not too small it cannot particularly matter what size it is. 



( 91 ) 



V. A preliminarii revision of the Forficulidas (sensu stricto) 
and of the Chelisochidae, families of the Dermatoptera. 
By Malcolm Burr, B.A., F.E.S, F.Z.S., F.L.S., F.G.S. 

[Read March 6tli, 1907.] 

Plate IV. 

A CAREFUL study of the genus Ojnsthocosmia, Dolirn., as 
understood by de Bormans, has revealed a mass of incon- 
gruities and a number of new characters. A cursory 
examination has shown that very dissimilar species were 
ranged together, and that it was necessary to define the 
genus with greater precision and to reject many diverse 
forms which had been hitherto included. The develop- 
ment of this process soon showed that many allied genera 
were involved, until it became necessary to recast entirely 
that group of genera in which the second tarsal segment 
is cordiform. I regard this as a highly significant char- 
acter (differing in this point diametrically from Dr. 
Verhoeff), which neatly defines the Forficulidm, a name 
which I restrict to those earwigs possessing this character, 
regarding the group as a family of the order Dermatoptera. 

The task of revising the Auga:'an stable will take so 
long a time, and so many years must elapse before the 
appearance of the final monograph, that I have resolved 
to publish this preliminary report as the result of a study 
of these genera. Dr. Verhoeff included them in his first 
" Aufsatz," but lack of material rendered his work in this 
respect incomplete. 

Thus it will be seen that my use of the name Forfi- 
culidRi does not coincide exactly with that of Verhoeff, 
for that author rejected the shape of the second tarsal 
segment as a valuable character ; he included Spongiphora 
and Ncsogaster and Sparatta, with their allies, which 
appears to me to be an eminently unnatural and artificial 
arrangement. The German author distinguishes the Forfi- 
c^didcV from the Lcdjiduridx by the single developnjent 
of the genitalia, which we do not employ, for reasons 
stated elsewhere, and by the presence of the stink-glands 
on the sides of the abdomen ; he excludes Chelidnra and 
its allies on account of their entire winglessness, but the 
lobed second tarsal segment appears to be such a strong 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1907. — PART L (JUNE) 



92 Mr, Malcolm Burr's Preliminary Revision of the 

character, that I prefer to employ it to define this family ; 
it does not seem likely that the shape of this segment has 
any direct influence upon the insects' life or habits; it is 
probably a relic of some ancient specialisation, and there- 
fore unlikely to be so subject to fluctuation as an organ in 
activity, the lateral stink-glands for instance, which vary 
with the age of the individual. It is also by the rudi- 
mentary remains of once active organs that we may best 
hope to trace the natural affinities of the different species, 
which is the ultimate aim of all classifications. 

Dr. Verhoeff's work is very valuable, and it is a pity 
that he marred it by such faults as tlie incorrect use of 
the name Spliingolalis, and the separation oi CosmicUa based 
on the absence of wings, a character upon which Ortho- 
pterists and Dermapterists are agreed it is useless to found 
even a species. 

The synoptical tables for the determination of species 
must not be regarded with too critical an eye ; they are 
offered with no attempts at dogmatism, but only as help- 
notes for entomologists who wish to determine earwigs. 

It will be observed that several new characteis are 
used. Greater stress than previously is here laid upon 
the form and relative sizes of the first four or five segments 
of the antennae, and also on the form of the pronotum 
and legs. Verhoetf used the carina of the elytra in a 
few instances; in certain genera the slight fold, which 
roughly divides the elytra into a large dorsal and a small 
and narrow costal or lateral portion, is emphasised and 
strengthened into a sharp ridge or keel, which in some 
cases extends the whole length of the elytron, and in 
others dies out half-way down. More attention is also 
paid to the shape of the abdomen. 

The chief point which leads me to hope that this 
attempt at a new classification will be found to approach 
more nearly to the true natural arrangement is the fact 
that the groups are now divided more or less according to 
their geographical distribution. Formerly, Oinsthoeosmia 
was regarded as a characteristically Asiatic genus, until 
amcricana and 0. amazoncnsis were described from South 
America; conversely, the discovery of Ancistrof/asterjavana 
robbed that genus, in its old sense, of its peculiarity to 
America. But a glance at the tables proposed in the 
following pages will show that true OjrisfJtocosiuia, as now 
defined, is confined to the tropical regions of the Old World, 



Forficulidie and ChelisocMdcV, families of BermatojJtera. 93 

and all the Ancistrot/astrin/v, sensu strido, occur only in 
tropical America. 

But it takes more than a few years to mature an 
attempt at originality, and doubtless in the course of time, 
as our knowledge progresses, this proposed arrangement 
will be profoundly modified. Still, I do think it is worth 
while offering this system, as an improvement upon the 
old arrangement, when all kinds of earwigs from various 
regions were thrown together in a heterogeneous mass 
under the hitherto very elastic names of Oijisthocosmia and 
AiJterijgida. De Bormans included no less than twenty- 
seven species in the latter genus, and various recently 
described forms have been included since. I now confine 
it to the single typical A. media. The other names in- 
cluded by de Bormans under the heading Apteri/gida, will 
be found scattered in numerous other genera, sub-families, 
and even families. Some will be found eventually placed 
near Lahidwrc, others near Lahia ; others again near 
SjwngipJtora, and for others entirely new genera and 
sub-families must be formed. 

I hope that this attempt at revision approaches more 
nearly to the natural classification ; it claims at least the 
merit of originality. 



I. FORFICULIDiE. 

TABLE OF THE SUB-FAMILIES OF THE FOUFICULIBM. 

1. Corpus apterum 1. Chelidurin^e. 

1.1. Elytra libera, perfects explicata, vel 
rudinientaria ; ala^ perfects expli- 
cata3 vel abortivse. 
2. Antennae segmentis 4 et 5 subconicis 2. AnechurinjE. 
2.2. Antennae segmentis 4 et 5 cylin- 
di'icis. 
3. Antennre segmentis gradatim elon- 
gatis, 4 quam 3 longius, 5 quara 4 
etc. 
4. Antennas segmento primo valido, 

tricarinato 3. EudohrniiNjE. 

4.4. Antennas segmento primo cylin- 
drico. 
5. Pedes breves ; pygidium breve, 

latum, transversum .... 4. Diaperasticina:. 



94 Mr. Malcolm Burr's Preliminary Revision of the 

5.5. Pedes loiigi; pygidium brevis- 

simum, angustuin, obtu- 

sum, vel nullum. 

G. Abdomen apice atteniiatum ; 

segmentuni ultimum dorsale 

valde declive, attenuatum . 5. OpisthocosmiiN/E. 
6.6. Abdomen apice vix atten- 
uatum, segmentum ulti- 
mum dorsale depressum, 
breve, latum, rectangu- 

lare, transversum ... 6. ANCiSTROGASTRiNiE. 
3.3. Antennre segmentis 3, 4 and 5 
inajqualibus. 
4. Antenna} segmento 4 quam 3 
multo brevius, quam 5 dimidio 
brevius ; (elytra baud carinata) 7. FoRFicULlNiE. 
4.4. Antennae segmentis 4 and 3 
subsequantibus. 
5. Elytra carinata. 

G. Elytra per dimidium longi- 

tudinis carinata .... 8. Skendylin^i:. 
6.G. Elytra per totam longitu- 

dinem carinata .... 9. NEOLOBOPHORlNiE. 
5.5. Elytra baud carinata. 

6. Abdomen convexum, cylin- 

dricum 10. EPARCHiNiE. 

6.6. Abdomen plus minus de- 
pressum 11. DORATIN.«. 

Su1)-family \.— GHELII)VBINjE. 

This sub-family has been rearrauged by Verhoeff (Zool- 
Anzeiger, 1902, p. 187). He removed those species with 
free but rudimentary elytra to the Anecliurinai, under the 
name of Psendochelidura, and the remainder he subdivided 
into three genera based on the shape of the abdomen, 
namely, Chclidura,Mesoclielidura and ChclidureUa. Nothiug 
has been added to our knowledge of these genera since 
that date. 

Sub-family 2.—ANEGHUEINJE. 

This group was first separated from the other genera of 
the Foj'Jicii/id/i3,sens2i strido, by Verhoeff, but he discrimni- 
ated Alludahlia, for which, quite unnecessarily, he erected 



FwficulidiB and Chelisochidm, families of Dermatoptera. 95 

a distinct sub-family; the characters, however, are marked 
enough to separate a genus. 

The Anechurin/e are distinguished by the sub-conical 
4th and 5th segments of the antennae, by the often short 
and broad pronotum, by the broad and flattened elytra, 
often with sharp humeral carinse, by often short, and broad, 
pygidium, and by long and slender legs ; also by the 
branches of the forceps in the male, which are remote 
at the base, not depressed nor thickened ; they are 
often bent and bowed upwards and downwards, in and 
out, in a very characteristic manner. The last dorsal 
segment of the abdomen is shorter and narrower than the 
preceding segments, which are usually somewhat dilated ; 
the last segment is also short, and often armed with 

^ . . . . . 

tubercles pointing in different directions. 

The members of this sub-family usually occur in 
mountainous countries; with the exception of A. dowjcda, 
a little known species recorded from Cuba, they appear to 
be confined to the Old World. 

TABLE OF GENERA. 
1. Abdomen depressum, fortius dilata- 
tum. 
2. Pedes longi, graciles ; abdomen 
apice latissimum, segmento 
ultimo brevissimo,transversum. 
3. Elytra carinata, rugosa ... 1. Allodahlia, VerlioefF. 
3.3. Elytra baud carinata, laevia. 
4. Elytra et alte perfecte ex- 

plicata3 2. Anechura, Scudd. 

4.4. Elytra brevia ; ala) nnlbe. 3. Pseudochelidura, 

VerlioefF. 
2.2. Pedes breves, crassi ; abdomen 
medio dilatatum, apice for- 
titer attenuatum ; segmento 

ultimo angusto .... 4. Chamaipetes, n. 
1.1. Abdomen convexum, subcylin- 

dricum ; (femora robusta) . . 5. Timomenus, n. 

Genus Chamaipetes,* nov. gen. 

Corpus robustum, depressum ; abdomen medio dilatatum, apice 
fortiter attenuatum ; aiiteniipe segmentis validis, tertio quartoque 
suboequantibus, subcylindricis, ceteris longioribus, conicis ; pronotum 

* Gr. x"i"«'''''S''"')s = creeping. 



96 Mr. Malcolm Burr's Freliminary Revision of the 

margine antico recto, postico rotundato, prnzona elevata, metazona 
depressa ; elytra aljeque perfecte explicatai ; pedes breves, sat validi, 
femoribus sat incrassatis ; segmentuin auale breve, transversum ; 
pygidium baud perspicuum. 

Type. — Anechura hermes, Burr, Ann. Mag. N. H. ser. 7, 
vol. vi, p. 99, PI. IV, fig. 1, la. (1900.) (Sarawak.) 

The female is unknown. 

I have erected this genus for the reception of the 
single species referred to which is allied to T. hiaispis, 
Stal, and its neighbours, but differs in the strongly 
depressed and dilated abdomen. 

Genus Timomenus,* nov. gen. 

Statura minus gracili ; antennse 12-segmentata3, segmentis crassi- 
oribus, minus elongatis ; caput lajve, margine postico recto ; pro- 
notum quam caput seque latum, sublatius quam longius, margine 
antico recto, postico rotundato, lateribus, subconvexis ; prozona 
tumida, distincta, a metazona plana sejuncta : elytra ampla, Isevia, 
carinula humerali brevissima, apice truncata vel emarginata ; alse 
longa? ; pedes minus graciles, femoribus anticis incrassatis ; 
abdomen medio dilatatum, plicis distinctis ; lateribus acute recurvis, 
in modum generis Aticistrogadris, sed baud mucronibus deplanatis 
armatis ; segmentum ultimum dorsale ^ angustatnm, lasve, medio 
bituberculatum ; forcipis bracchia sat valida, margine interno dentibus 
obsoletis. 

This genus will include a few medium-sized, stout, 
Asiatic earwigs, with thickened femora, strong forceps, 
and slightly dilated subcylindrical abdomen. 

Type. — Ojnsthocosmia- oannes, Burr, Ann. Mag. N. H. 
ser. 7, vol. vi, p. 85. (1900.) (India.) 

This genus will also include the following : — 

Opisthocosmia koiiiaroivi, Semenov., Rev. russe d'Ent. 
vol. i, pp. 98 and 259. (1901.)^ (Corea.) 

Forficida hicvspis, Still, in Eugenics Resa, Ins. p. 301, 
{$). (1860.) (Java.) 

TABLE OF SPECIES. 

1. Segmentum ultimum abdominale 
supra medium spinis 2 fortibus 
verticalibus armatum 1. bicnspix, Stal. 

* Gr. Ti/ici|U6j/os = respected. 



FoTJiculidcX and ClidisocMdm, families of DcrmatoiJtera. 97 

1.1. Segmentum ultimum abdominale 
inerme. 
2. Forceps prope medium dentatns . 2. oannes, Biirr. 
2.2. Forceps prope apicem armatus . 3. komnrowi, Semenov. 



Sub-family 3.—EUD0HBNIIN^. 

Genus Eudohrnia, nov. gen. 

Corpus cylindrici;m, elongatum ; antennse sat robust;ic ; segmentum 
primum validum, robustum, quadratum, carinatum, inter carinulas 
sulculatum ; segmento 2 minimo, globoso ; 3 elongate, apice clavato ; 
4 elongate, valido ; 5 longiori ; ceteris gradatim elongatis et conicis ; 
caput globosum, la^.ve, suturis obsoletis : pronotum quadratum, mar- 
gine antico recto, postico rotundato : elytra sat rugulosa, carinula 
humerali sat acuta, brevissima : alse longae ; pedes longi ; abdomen 
cylindricum, punctulatum ; segmentum ultimum dorsale (^ lajvius, 
minus dense punctulatum, breve, latum, medio impressum, vix 
tuberculatum ; pygidium $ declive, angustum : pygidium ^ breve, 
latum, bi-acuminatum : $ parvum, angustum, globosum : forcipis 
bracchia ^ valde elongata, horizontalia, subrecta, gracilia, basi 
triquetra, dente uno parvo medio armata ; $ recta, subcontigua, 
simjilicia, inermia. 

The body is so differently shaped in the insect known 
as Anechura mdallica, the forceps and the general colour 
so different, that I consider it generically quite distinct 
from true Anechura : this opinion is confirmed by the 
peculiar carinated first segment of the antennae, which is 
quite distinctive. 

Type. — Forficula metallica, Dohrn, Stett. ent Zeit., 
vol. xxvi, p. 9. (18G5.) (Himalayas, Burmah.) 

Sub-family ^.—DIA FEB A STIGINjE. 

The species which I range in this family are rightly 
separated from Apteriigida by Verhoeff, but that author 
wrongly revived the name of Sphingolahis, Borm., which 
must be reserved for those species which are related to the 
type of Silking olahis, namely, Spli. fircifcra, Borm., which 
is the male of Si^li. semifulvfc, Borm., which latter must 
stand, as I have shown elsewhere (1905, Ann. Mag. N. H., 
ser. 7, vol. xvi, p. 495). 

At present it only includes certain African earwigs 
which fall into the genus Dirvperasticus. 
TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1907. — PART I. (JUNE) 7 



98 Mr. Malcolm Burr's Preliminary Revision of the 

Genus Diaperasticus,* nov. gen. 

Corpus sat depressum ; antenna} segmentis 4 et 5 cylindricis, 
gratlatim elongatis ; elytra et akt perfecte explicatse ; pedes breves, 
femoribus plus minus incrassatis ; pygidium breve, latum, trans- 
versum, depressum, baud spinosum ; forcipisbraccbia ^ gracilia, sat 
elongata. 

Type. — Si'MnqolaMs sansiharica, Karsch, in Berl. ent. 
Zeitschr., vol. xxx, p. 90, PI. Ill, fig. 8, $. (1886.) 
(Zanzibar.) 

This genus will also include : — 

Ai^tcrygida 'machinelcri. Burr, Ann. Mag. N. H., ser. 7, 
vol. vi, p. 83, PI. IV, fig. 3r/, 3. (1900.) (British East 
Africa).f 

Ai)tery[iidal)onchamj)siy Burr, Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond., p. 317. 
(1904.) (Abyssinia.) 

Forficula erytlirocefliala, Olivier (nee Fabr.), Euc. Meth. 
vol. vi, p. 4G8. (1791.) (Africa and Madagascar.) 



TABLE OF SPECIES. 

1. Elytra flava, rufo-vittata. 
2. Forcipis bracchia $ margine interno 

liaud dentato, crenulato . . . . 1. erythrocej^hala, Oliv. 
2.2. Forcipis braccbia apicem versus 

margine interno dentata ... 2. honclmmpsi, Burr. 
1.1. Elytra unicoloria, fusca. 
2. Corpus sat robustum ; forceps in- 

crassatus, medio fortiter dentatus 3. mackindcri, Burr. 
2.2. Corpus gracile ; forceps gracilis, 

dente medio parvo, fere obsolete . 4. sansiharica, Karsch. 

Siib-family b.—OPISTHOGOSMIIN^. 

This sub-family is used in a very restricted sense, as 
very many new genera must be formed for the reception 
of species which Avere formerly included in the cumbrous 
and very heterogenous Opisthocosmia, and many of the 
former members of that genus, in its widest sense, must 
be removed to other sub-families. 

* Gr. StaTrepao-Ti/co's = penetrating. 

t Probably this species is a large light-coloured ^'ariety of I). 
sansiharica, Karsch. 



Forficvlidfe and Chclisochidm, families of Dcrmatoiitcra. 99 

In its restricted sense, this sub-family includes the true 
Ojnsthocosmia and its immediate allies, genera, that is to 
say, in which the feet are long and slender, the pygidium 
very short, barely distinguishable nor even not visible, and 
the anal segment very strongly narrowed and sloping in 
both sexes ; the forceps are usually long, slender, and often 
armed with numerous teeth pointing in various directions. 

TABLE OF GENERA. 

1. Elytra hand carinata. 

2. Pronotum capite angustius ; (pedes 

gracillimi) 1. Opisthocosmia, Dohrn. 

2.2 Pronotum capite haud angustius. 
3. Segmentnm ultimum ventrale 
inerme. 
4. Pygidium bifidum .... 2. LiPODES, n. 
4.4. Pygidium parvum, oljtusum 3. Hypurgus, n. 
3.3. Segmeutum ultimum ventrale 

processu utrinque armatum . 4. Sarcinatrix, Rehii. 
1.1. Elytra costa carinata. 

2. Pronotum capite angustius ... 5. Emboros, n. 
2.2. Pronotum capite haud vel vix 
angustius. 
3. Alae perfecte explicatse ; genus 

americanum 6. Kleter, n. 

3.3. Alae abortivse ; genus javanum 7. Cosmiella, VerlioelT. 

Genus 1. — Opisthocosmia, Dohrn. 

Statura gracili ; autennai 10-I2-segmentat3e ; segmentis omnibus 
tenuibus, cylindricis, gracilibus ; segmento 3 quam primum dimidio 
breviori ; 4 quam 3 longiori ; 5 quam 4 longiori : caput tumidum, 
suturis distincte impressis, pone oculos tumido-elevatum ; pronotum 
capite distincte angustius, longius quam latius, margine antico recto, 
postico ovato, postice subangustatum ; prozon atumida, metazona 
ampla, deplanata, lateribus reflexis ; elytra ad humeros lata, apicem 
versus subangustata, lajvia, margine exteriori distincta plicata, 
carinula humerali autem supra liumeros ipsos liaud producta ; mar- 
gine postico emarginata vel truncata ; alae longa? ; pedes longi, 
gracillimi ; femora vix incrassata ; tibiaj superne teretes, compressaj ; 
tarsi graciles, segmento primo cetera unita seqiiauti vel superanti; 
abdomen basi gracile, medio subdilatatum, baud deplanatum, valde 
convexum, plicis lateralibus distinctis ; lateribus ipsis inermibus, 



100 Mr. Malcolm Bun's Frelivvioicm/ Revision of the 

tuberculis nullis instructis: segmentiini ultimum tlorsale ^ angus- 
tatum, declive ; 5 etiam angustius ; pygidium $ baud prominens ; 
forci^^is braccliia gracilia eloiigata : (J ba^i reiuota vel subcoiitigua, 
recta, vel sinuata ; a latere visa recta vel valde siniiata, dentata ; $ 
recta, siniplicia, subcdiitigua, inermia, gracillinin. 

Type of the genus.— Opisthoco.'^'iiiid ecntnrio, Dolirn. Stett. 
ent.Zcit., vol/xxvi, p. 79. (1SG5.) (Borneo.) 

This genus formerly included a large number of very 
different species, so that it is necessary to subdivide it to 
a considerable extent, and to confine it to those species 
which resemble the type, 0. ccnturio, in the extremely 
slender form and slender antennae, with regularly length- 
ening segments, and in the narrow elongate pronotum. 

In its restricted sense, this genus now includes the 
following species : — 

TABLE OF SPECIES. 

1 . Elytra et ala) rufo-maciilata). 
2. Forceps valde flexuosus et dentatus ; 

statura majore ; species borneensis . 1. ccnturio, Dorhn. 
2.2. Forceps subrectus, inermis ; statura 

gracili ; species africana ... 2. furmosa, Burr. 
1.1. Elytra unicoloria vel vittata. 
2. Elytra unicoloria nigra. 

3. Forceps ^ valde flexuosus ac dentatns 3. cervvpyga, Kirby. 
3.3. Forceps (^ contiguus, rectus, apice 

ipso arcuatus 4. erroris, Burr. 

2.2. Elytra testacea vel rufescentia,vittata. 
3. Elytra testacea, fuscovittata ; statura 

parva (12.5 mm.) 5. ceylonica, Dohrn. 

3.3. Elytra rufa, anguste nigro vittata ; 

statura majore (15 mm.) . . . G. armata, Haan. 

Genus 2. — Lipodes,* nov, gen. 

Statura robusta ; abdomen sat depressum, medio valde dilatatum, 
apicem versus attenuatum ; caput per suturas profundas in tres 
partes divisum ; pygidium persicuum, profunde fissum ; forcipis 
bracchia sensim arcuata, inermia. 

The erection of this new genus is necessaiy for the 

^ Gr. XittcoStjs = f at. 



Forficulid[G and GhelisocJiidx, families of Dermaioptem. 101 

insect which I have described as O^nsthocosmia vivax ; in 
its general appearance it appears to be distinctly related 
to the genus Opisthocosmia but it differs in the depressed 
abdomen, in this respect affording a transition towards the 
Ancistrogastrin.T, but in other respects it appears to be 
referable to this group ; the sutures of the head are 
very deep and well marked, dividing the head into 
three distinct divisions ; the divided bifid pygidium is 
characteristic. 

The unique specimen, which is in the Calcutta Museum, 
is unfortunately broken, so that it is not possible to 
determine the sex with satisfaction ; the well-marked 
characters point to a male, but perhaps the simple form of 
the forceps implies the opposite. In my original descrip- 
tion, I regarded it as a female, but upon further consideration 
I am inclined to consider it a male. 

It is unfortunate that further material has not come to 
hand since, in order to locate its position with accuracy. 

Type of the genus, — Opisthocosiiiia, vivax, Burr, Journ. 
Proc. Asiat, Soc, Bengal, N, S. vol, i. No. 2, p, 30. (1905.) 
(India.) 

Genus 3. — Hypurgus,* nov. gen. 

Antenna} 12-13-segnientatte, graciles, segmentis graclatim elongatis 
cj^lindricis, 4 quam 3 sublongiori, 5 qnam 4, etc. ; caput lieve, suturis 
oljsoletis ; pronotum capite hand angustius, subqnadratum, margine 
postico rotundatum, vel semilunare ; margine antico truncate ; pro- 
zona tumida, metazona plana, lateribus reflexis ; elytra ampla, lata, 
liumeris latis, carina exteriori nulla ; ab humeris attenuata, margine 
postico truncata vel suberaarginata ; ala3 perfecte explicatse, longa3 
vel abbreviata3 ; pedes graciles, longi, femoribus baud incrasso- 
tis ; tibiis integris ; abdomen basi constrictum et angustum, con- 
vexum, medio plus minus dilatatum, tuberculis pliciformibus dis- 
tinctis, segmentis 5-6-7-8-inermibus, apice attenuatum ; segmentum 
ultinium dorsale angustatum, declive, margine postico incrassato, 
obtuse tuberculato ; $ angustatum, minus fortiter tuberculatum ; 
pygidium nullum vel vix perspicuura, minimum, brevissimum, 
obtusuiii ; forcipis braccliia (^ elongata, paullo curvata, vix arcuata, 
sat fortia, basi subcontigua, dentibus nonnullis interdum margine 
interno arniata, apicem versus stcpe sat arcuata ; 9 typica^, graciles, 
recta, inerraia. 

In this genus are included those former species of 
* Gr. ii7roup7os = minister. 



102 Mr. Malcolm Burr's Preliminary Revision of the 

Ojnsthocosmia in which the pronotum is more or less square 
and not distinctly narrower than the head ; the antenna? 
are the same as in true Ojnsthocosmia, but perhaps a little 
less slender, and the segments proportionately shorter ; 
the forceps are simpler than in true Oinstliocosmia and the 
feet are somewhat less slender and shorter. 

The type of the genus. — Ojnsthocosmia huincralis, Kirby, 
Journ. Lirm. Soc, vol. xxiii, p. 523, ?. (1891.) (Ceylon). 



TABLE OF SPECIES. 

1. Pronotum subquadratum. 

2. Elytra et alse flavo-macnlata . . 1. /otmerai/s, Kirby. 
2.2. Elj'tra vittata, baud maculata. 
3. Alee perfecte exjjlicaUe ; species 

madecassa 2. hova, Bornums. 

3.3. Al£B deficientes ; si^ecies etbi- 

opica 3. vviclicU, Burr. 

1.1. Pronotum semilunare. 
2. Rufo-testacea, rubro-variegata ; forceps 

rufescens 4. simplex, Bormans. 

2.2. Atra, nitida ; forcipe pedibiisijue 

kete rubris 5. hiroi, Burr. 



Genus 4. — Saucinatrix, Rehn. 

Ab Ojndhucosmia diiTert lamina subgenitali (segmento ultimo 
ventrali) ^ angulis postico-exterioribus in processus tuberculiformes 
productis. 

t^arcinatrix sub-genus, Rehn, Proc. Ac. Nat. Phil., p. 308. 
(1903.) 

Rehn suggested this name for a sub-genus which he 
characterised by the processes of the subgenital lamina ol 
the male, which is produced into a "recurved spiniform 
process, which flank the lateral base of the forceps " ; in 
the typical species described by him, the forceps of the 
male are parallel throughout their entire length ; but this 
is not a generic character, for in my collection I have a 
second species in which the forceps are distinctly bowed. 

Type of the genus, — Ojnsthocosmia (>S<(rcinatrir) ano- 
mnlia, Rehn, Proc. Ac. Nat. Phil., p. 308. (1903.) (Costa 
Rica.) 



Forjiculidie and Ghdisocloidw, families of Dcrmaioptcra. 103 

TABLE OF SPECIES. 
1. Forcipis braccliia recta, parallela, hand clen- 

tata, raargine interne crenulato-dentata . 1. anunialia, Relm. 
1.1. Forceps basi leviter divergentia, turn con- 
vergentia ; margine iuterno basi ipso 
dente armata : deliinc teretia .... 2. rehni, sp. n. 

Sarcinatriaj rehni, sp. n. 

Colore fusco-testaceo ; antennie 12-segmentata3, typicaj; caput la;ve, 
depressum, suturis obsoletis, margine postico medio incrassato ; 
l^ronotum quam caput a;que latum, subquadratum, sublatius quam 
longius ; margine antico recto, postico rotund ato, lateribus rectis ; 
prozona tumida, sutura diistincta ; metazona lata, plana ; prozona a 
metazona distincte sejuncta ; lateribus late refiexis ; medio castaneum, 
lateribus pellicidis : elytra Isevia, unicoloria, testacea : ala3 longse, 
fusco-testacea), basi indistincte pallido flavo-maculata3 ; pedes tes- 
tacei : abdomen castaneum, sat latum, plicis lateralibus distinctis ; 
segmentis 5 et 6 lateribus subreflexis, subtuberculatis i^ : seg- 
mentum ultimum dorsale ^ transversum, magnum, postice quam 
antice angustius, margine postico recto, medio impresso, 5 valde 
angustatum, simplex : pygidinm ^ baud perspicuum ; $ minutum, 
conicum : segmentum penultimum ventrale ^ rotundatum ; seg- 
mentum ultimum ventrale ^ apice profunda tissum, angulis postico- 
externis in processum tuberculiforme acutum reflexum product!?, 
^ : 5 inerme ; forcipis bracchia (J basi Laud contigua, sat incrassata, 
prope basin margine interno dente acuto armata ; primum leviter 
divergentia per tertiam partem longitudinis, deinde subangulatira 
incurva, subrecta, sensim convergentia, inermia, apice ipso mucrouata, 
decussata ; $ subcontigua, recta, gracilia, inermia. 

s ? 

Long, corporis .... 9 mm 8'5 mm. 

„ forcipis .... 4"25 3 

Patria: San Esteban (Simon, iii, 83. $ $, types in 
coll. mea, ex coll. de Bormans). 

Differs from S. anoinalia in the non-parallel forceps. 

Genus 5. — Emboros,* nov, gen. 

Staturaminore; antcnme 10-segnientata'; segmento4=3; 5 quam 
4 et quam 3 longiori : caput globosum, tuniidum, nitidum ; pronotum 
capite subangustius, longius quam latius, rectangulare, margine antico 

* Gr. fjU7ro|00(; = merchant. 



104 Mr. Malcolm Burr's Preliminary Revision of the 

recto, postico subconvexo, lateribus rectis ; prozona tvunida, suluia 
distincta, lateribus reflexis : scutellum iiullnm ; elytra brevia, 
carinula huiuerali ad aj)icein elytri attingeuti, luargine postico 
truncato ; al;e nullse ; pedes longi, graciles, tarsorum segemeuto 
primo cetera iinita superanti ; abdomen subcylindricum, convexum, 
plicis lateralibus distinctis, integrum ; tegmentum ultimum dorsale 
(^ angustatum, declive, margine postico medio imjiresso, utrinque 
tuberculato ; 9 angustius, inerme ; forcipis bracchia sat valida, 
subrecta, basi remota, sensim convergeutia, rotundata ; $ gracilia, 
attenuata, contigua. 

Type of the genus. — OpidJiocos/nia dnhin, Bonn., Ann. 
Mus. Civ. Gen. xxxiv, p. 81)9, ?. (1894.) (Burniah.) 

This genus removes from Opistlioeosniia the wingless 
species described by de Bormans under the name duhiei ; 
it resembles true Opistlwcosmiri in every respect except 
the form of the elytra, in which it approaches the large 
and stotit Shewhjlc, from which it differs in the narrow 
and somewhat elongated pronotum ; the elytra are broad, 
coriaceous, with a sharp keel on the outer edge running 
the whole length of the elytra ; the general form of the 
forceps also recalls Sketuhjle. 

Verhoeff included this species with the other wingless 
forms j^reviously included in Opisthocosmia , in his gentis 
Cosiniellc, characterised by the keeled elytra anil absence 
of wings ; but Kirby fixed 0. rehus, Burr, as the type of 
Cosmiclla, from which this species must be removed by 
its long and narrow pronotum, which ap[)roaches true 
O'pisthoeosmia. 

Genus 6. — Kleter,* nov. gen. 

Statura mediocri, gracili ; pronotum capite vis angnstius ; elytra 
tantum ad liumeros carinata ; ala; perfecte explicatte ; pedes graciles, 
longi; abdomen vix dilatatum, subcylindricum; segmentis lateribus 
4-7 plicis recurvis depressis instructis ; segmentura anale baud 
angustatum, transversum ; f(jrcipis bracchia elougata, gracilia, 
spinata. 

Type of the genus. — Opisthocosmirf ama':oncnsis, Borm. 
and Burr, Ann. Mag. N. H. ser. 7, vol. iii, p. 1G4. (1899.) 
(Upper Amazons.) 

This genus is a transition between the 0])ist1iocosmiin£& 

* Gr. K\/jr//|o = policeman. 



Forfimlidm and ChcUsochidiB, families of Dcrmato'ptci'a. 105 

and the Ancistmjnsirinm ; in the elongate forceps, slightly 
dilated body and scarcely keeled elytra it recalls the 
former, but in the incipient lateral folds of the abdomen 
and the form of the last dorsal segment, and also the 
form of the apex of the male forceps, it approaches the 
latter. 

Genus 7. — Cosmiella, Verhoeff. 

Antennre lO-segmeiitatse, segmentis 3, 4 et 5 sub^qiiantibus, 
longis, cylindricis ; pronotum caput latitudine suba^quans, liaud 
loiigiiis quam latins, subquadratiim ; elytra lata, cannula hunierali 
sat distincta, per dimidiuni elytri percurrenti ; ala^ nullpe ; abdomen 
convexum, medio dihitatum ; plicis lateralibus distinctis ; segmentia 
lateribus inermibus ; segmentum ultimum dorsale ^ angustatum, 
tuberculis duobus vix elevatis instructum ; forcipis bracchia (^ basi 
contigua, valde elongata, a basi divergentia, turn arcuatim incurva, 
margine superior! dente armata ; $ simplicia. 

This genus was erected by Verhoeff for the wingless 
species of Ojnsihocosonia which have a keel more or less 
pronounced on the elytra ; Kirby fixed 0. relms, Burr, as 
the type of the genus ; 0. duhia was included by Verhoeff 
upon the strength of de Bormans' description, but on 
account of its narrow pronotum, it must be removed ; in 
tlie shape of the pronotum and elytra this genus ap- 
proaches Anristrogastcr, but in the form of the body and 
forceps it resembles Oimthocosmia ; it is a passage between 
these two chief genera. 

It contains the single species 0. rebus, Burr, fixed by 
Kirby as the type. C. aptcra, Verhoeff, is removed to 
Skcndyle, q.v. 



^\x}>{s,mx]Y%.—ANGISTBOQASTEINjE. 

The essential character which distinguishes this sub- 
family from the preceding is the form of the anal segment, 
Avhich is transverse, much broader than long. 

The sides of the abdomen are often recurved in the 
form of depressed sickle-shaped hooks, and the forceps of 
the male are frequently bowed into a characteristic lozenge- 
shaped area. In most genera ■ the elytra are strongly 
keeled. 

The genera are all American. 



106 Mr. Malcolm Burr's Prcliminarij Jlcvision of the 

TABLE OF GENERA. 

1. Elytra liaud carinata 1. Sarakas, n. 

1.1. Elytra carinata. 

2. Elytra tantum per dimidium 

longitiidinis carinata ... 2. Osteulcus, n. 
2.2. Elytra per totam longitudiuem 
carinata. 
3. Elytra trapezoidea; rudiment- 
aria ; alee nuUoe .... 3. Praos, n. 
3.3. Elytra perfecte explicatse. 
4. Abdomen lateribus iner- 

mibus 4. Vlax, n. 

4.4. Abdomen lateribus in 
spinas et mucrones pro- 
ductis 5. Ancistrogaster, Dohrn. 

Genus 1, — Sarakas,* nov. gon. 

Ancidrogastri vicinum genus, sed : — elytra baud carinata ; lateri- 
bus abdominis minus fortiter armatis, vix tuberculatis, vix 
mucronatis. 

Type of the genus. — 02JistJwrosmia devians, Doliru., 
1865, Stett. ent. Zeit. vol. xxvi, p. 79. (Brazil.) 

The genus is characterised by the absence of keels at 
the shoulder of the elytra; the sides of the abdomen 
are not strongly hooked but armed with tubercles. 

It includes also Ojnsihocosmia aterrima, Borm., Ann, 
Soc. Ent. Belg. xxvii, p. 83 (1883), and perhaps 0. longiiKS, 
Haan. 

Genus 2. — OsTEULCUS,t nov. gen. 

Antenna; gradatim elongata3 ; pronotum sublatius quam longius, 
planum : elytra punctulata, subquadrata, brevia, margins postico 
oblique truncata ; costa liumerali ad liumeros carinata, carina in 
medio elytri evanescenti ; ake nullie ; pedes graciles, sat longi ; 
abdomen basi angustum, medio fortiter dilatatum, sat depressum ; 
apicem versus attenuatum ; segmentum ultimum dor.sale subangus- 
tatuiu, transversum, latum ; tuberculis lateralibus distinctis ; seg- 
mentis 5, 6 et 7 etiam tuberculata ; pygidiuni baud perspicuum ; 
forcipisbraccbia ^ sat robusta, depressa, basi remota et divergentia, 

* aapciKas = wood-eater. 
t o<T-toi;Xic6s = forcei>s. 



ForficulidcV and Ckdisochidx, families of Dcrmatoi^tcra . 107 

turn angulatim incurva, convergentia, in tertia parte apicali recta, 
apice mucronata ; $ recta, siraplicia. 

Type of the genus. — Ancistrogaster Jcervillei, Burr, Ann. 
Mag. N. H. ser. 7, vol. xvi, p. 490. (1905.) (Venezuela.) 

In appearance resembles Praos, but the elytra are com- 
plete, the keel dies out half-way down the elytra, the 
abdomen is depressed and laterally hooked, and the 
forceps bowed strongly outwards and inwards in a lozenge 
form. 

In general appearance this genus has even all the aspect 
of a typical Ancistrogaster, but in the feeble carina of the 
elytra, in the attenuate abdomen and somewhat narrowed 
last dorsal segment, it approaches the OpistJiocosmiinie, but 
the depressed and dilated abdomen, and the form of the 
forceps are characteristic of Ancistrogastrinie ; the last 
dorsal segment, although somewhat attenuated, is still 
much broader than long, distinctly transverse, and rect- 
angular. 

The single species, recorded from Venezuela, is very 
distinct. 

It differs from Praos in the complete elytra, with a 
shorter costal carina, in the less sharj^ly flattened abdomen, 
and the strongly bowed forceps, which include a lozenge- 
shaped area ; from Ancistrogaster, Vlax and SaralMS it 
differs in the absence of wings and form of the carina of 
the elytra. 

Genus 3. — Praos,* nuv. gen. 

Corpus depressum ; antennse graciles ; caput leeve, margine postico 
emarginato ; pronotum quadratum, marginibus omnibus rectis, sub- 
latius quam longius, deplanatum ; elytra rudimentaria, trapezoidea, 
margine externo usque ad apicem carinata, margine postico oblique 
truncata, margine interno quam externo multo brevius, scutellum 
sat magnum triangulare efficientia ; alaj nuUte ; pedes longi, graciles, 
baud incrassati ; abdomen valde deplanatum et dilatatum, plicis 
lateralibus distinctis ; lateribus segmentorum 3-G tuberculis distinctis 
instructum ; segmentis 7 et 8 lateribus acute recurvis ; segmentum 
ultimum dorsale $ breve, latum, valde transversum, medio impresso, 
bituberculato, angulis externis carinatis ; forcipis braccbia basi valde 
remota, depressa, arcuatim incurva, intus dentata, apice mucronata. 

Type of the genus. — Ancistrogaster ijcrdita, Borelli, Boll. 
* Gr. TTpa.os — meek . 



108 Mr. Malcolm Burr's Preliminary Revision of the 

Mus. Zool. Torino, vol. xxi, no. 531, p. 16. (1906.) (Costa 
Rica.) 

The only known species of this genus very closely 
resembles A. impcnnis, Borm., and under that name 1 
received a specimen from de Bormans' collection ; on com- 
paring, hoAvever, with the type of impcnnis, in the Biologia 
Ceutrali-Americana collection, it is obviously different ; it 
is remarkable for the flattened and dilated abdomen, and 
trapezoid elytra, which are cut away at the basal posterior 
angle, to show a small scutcllum. It has since been 
described and discussed by Borelli (/. r). 

Genus 4. — Vlax,* nov. gen. 

Statura nuuoie ; corpus minus depressum et minus dilatatum ; 
abdomen ^ lateribus in nutcrones acutos recurves hand productis sed 
integris, inermibus, vel paullo angulatis vel tuberculis in.structis ; 
ceteris cum Ancistrogastre congruet. 

Type of the genus. — Ancistrogasfxr championi, Bormans, 
1893, Biol. Centr.-Amer. Orth., p. 10, PI. II, fig. 13, t 
(Panama.) 

This removes from Ancistrogastcr those small, pale 
species, with the abdomen but little dilated, and the sides 
of the abdominal segments not curved backwards into 
flattened and sharp hooks, but furnished with blunt 
tubercles. 

A. tolkca, Dohrn., and A'iidcrmcdius, Burr, will also fall 
into this genus. 

Genus 5. — Ancisthogaster, Stal. 

Antenna! 10-12 segmentate ; segmentis 3 et 4 suboec^uantibus ; 
ceteris elongatis, cylindricis ; caput subtumidum, raargine postico 
emarginato ; pronotum caput latitudine aequans, antice truncatum, 
postice rotundatuni ; elytra ad humeros rotundata, lata, margine 
postico truncato vel emarginato : carinula humerali acuta, usque ad 
marginem posticum elytri percurrenti: alaj long;« ; pedes graciles; 
femora vix incrassata ; tarsorum segmentum primum cetera duo 
unita longitudine sequans : abdomen depressum, basi angustum, 
medio valde dilatatum, ante apicem iterum angustatum ; plicis later- 
alibus distinctis : ^ segmentorum latera producta, in mucrones valde 
deplanatos, acutos et recurvos producta ; 5 abdomen inerme, minus 
dilatatum, minus depressum : segmentum ultimum dorsale ^ breve, 

* Gr. ^Aa| = simpleton. 



Forfic.nlidm and Chelisochidfo, families of Dermatoptera. 109 

transversum, rectangulare ; 9 valde angustatum : forcipis bracchia 
(J basi subcontigua, primum clivergentia, in dimidio longitudinis 
repente incurva : margine interncj prope basin saepius dente forti 
armata, apice incrassata et liimucronata : 5 recta, simplicia, 
gracilia, iiiermia. 

Type of the genus. — Ancistrogader h(cti(osi/s, Stal, 1855, 
Ofv. Vet. Akad. Forh., vol. xii, p. 349, $. (Brazil.) 

I have retained this genus only for the typical species 
with the sides of the abdominal segments recurved into 
depressed sickle-like hooks. 

Sub-family l.—FOBFIGULIN^. 

I use this sub-family in a very restricted sense, as includ- 
ing the typical genus Forfcula, Linn., and the closely allied 
Apterygida, Westw., sensit stricto. It is characterised by 
the form of the antennse, in which the fourth segment is 
much shorter than the third, and only half as long as the 
fifth. 

TABLE OF GENEEA. 

1. Forcipis bracchia ^ basi dilatata et de- 

planata 1. Forficula, Linn. 

2. Forcipis bracchia ^ basi remota, gracilia, 

nee deplanata, nee dilatata 2. Apterygida, Wcstw. 

Genus 6. — Forficula, Linn. 

Corpus convexum ; caput cordiforme, globosum suturis ssepe in- 
distinctis ; antennas 10-15-segmentatse ; 1 magnum, inerassatum ; 2 
minimum, globosum ; 3 longum, primum subajquans, apice paullo 
inerassatum ; 4 quam 3 dimidio brevius ; 5 sensim longius ; cetera 
gradatim longiora, subclavata ; pronotum ssepius capite angustius, 
margine antico truncate ; marginibus lateralibus aut parallelis, aut 
convexis ; margine postico rotundato ; ssepius subquadratum, necnon 
latins quam longius, aut dimidio postico toto late rotundato, arcuato ; 
prozona plus minus tumida, metazona deplanata ; marginibus later- 
alibus paullo reflexis : elytra perfecte explicata, sat longa, vel brevia, 
truncata ; carinula humerali inconspicua, carina ipsa nulla, sed elytra 
a humeris ad apicem sensim plicata ; alae aut abbreviata?, aut longse, 
saepius prominentes : pedes typici, femoribus hand valde incrassatis ; 
tarsorum segmentum 3 quam primum longius ; segmentum 2 latum, 
dilatatum, bilobum, cordiforme ; abdomen circa medium subdila- 
tatum, plicis lateralibus segmentorum 2 et 3 distinctis : segmentum 
ultimum dorsale ^ magnum, quadratum, margine postico sajpe 



110 Mr. Malcolm Burr's Prclwiinary Puvisinn of the 

tuberculatum ; 9 > angustius, simplicius : iiygidium parvum, glo- 
bosom, vel valde productum, acuminatum, vel nullum ; forcipis 
bracchia $ in parte basali valde deplanata et dilatata, liac parte 
dilatata margine interno saepe crenulata et dente terminata, vel 
inermi ; dehinc attenuata, subrecta, ant arcuatim curvata et inermia ; 
5 subrecta, subcontigua, inermia. 

This large and homogeneous genus is well characterised 
by the forceps of the male, in which the branches are 
flattened and broadened in the basal portion, as in the 
familiar typical species, F. auricularia, Linn. It contains 
a large number of species occurring in various parts of the 
Old World. 

It is the typical genus of the Order, and in the typical 
species, F. auricularia., Linn., the characters are very well 
marked. The genus is represented in nearly every part of 
the globe, but the species are most numerous in the Old 
World. The discrimination of the species is often rather 
subtle, and the shape of the forceps must be employed with 
care and discretion ; these vary considerably in length, 
showing the two forms macrolahia and cydolahia ; the 
latter appears to be the normal form, and the former a 
more virile robust race ; in the common species, the macro- 
lahia form appears to occur chiefly in islands and in moun- 
tains, and the ordinary form is more semi-domesticated in 
its habits. The elongation of the forceps is generally 
accompanied by the more robust build of body, and it also 
modifies the armature of the forceps, owing to the drawing 
out of this organ. The degree of curvature also varies, 
more especially in F. lurida, which gives the different 
varieties a very different appearance, which is often mis- 
leading. 

The type of the o;enus is ForficvJa auricnlarvc, Linn., 
Syst. Nat. (ed. x) i, p. 423 (1758). 

TABLE OF SPECIES. 

1. Pronotum latins quam longius, trapezoi- 
dale. 
2. Forcipis bracchia tantum in parte 
basali dilatata et deplanata. 
3. Forcipis bracchia fortiter extus ac 
intus flexuosa, inermia; (colore 
toto atro ; glabra ; species Indins 
borealis) . J. fichlaginkveiti, Biirr, 



Forficulidx and Chelisochidm, families of Bermato^tera. Ill 

3. Forcipis bracchia subrecta. 

4. Forceps margine interno prope 
basin denticulatus ; elytra uni- 
coloria ; alse longaa ; species 

indica 2. mogul, BuiT. 

4.4. Forceps margine interno crenu- 
latus ; elytra maculata ; ala3 
breves; species hispanica et 

algerica 3. rujicollis, Fabr. 

2.2. Forceps bracchia saltern per qiiartam 
partem longitudinis dilatata ac 
deplanata ; species indicfe. 
3. Pronotum semilunare, lateribus 
baud reflexis ; pars dilatata for- 
cipis dente obtuse terminata . . 4. beelzehrih, Burr. 
3.3, Pronotum ovatum, tranversum, 
lateribus reflexis ; pars dilatata 
forcipis dente acute terminata . 5. acer, Burr. 
1.1. Pronotum semilunare, subquadratum, 
margine postico rotundato, ajque 
latum ac longum. 
2. Pronotum semicirculare, margine 
antico recto, postice semilunare, 
lateribus baud parallelis. (Statura 
minore ; elytra maculata.) 
3. Corpus valde pubescens ; forcipis 
bracchia paullo dilatata, parte 
basali in partem apicalem attenu- 
atam sensim transeunti . . . . G. ornata, Borm. 
3.3. Corpus subglabrum ; forcipis brac- 
chia medio subito attenuata. 
4. Elytra fusca, macula humerali 

pallida ornata ; species ceylonica 7. greeni, sp. n. 
4.4. Elytra pallida, apicem versus 
infuscata ; species Africte 

meridionalis 8. ^>*cta, Kirby, 

2.2. Pronotum subquadratum, lateribus 
subparallelis, margine postico 
rotundato. 
3. Pygidium valde prominens. 

4. Pygidium triangulare, apice acu- 
turn (alas abortivoe). 
5, Pygidium lateribus baud in- 
crassatis (colore nigrotestaceo, 



112 Mr. Malcolm Burr's PrcHminary Revision of the 

forcipe rubro ; species lombo- 

kiana) 9. mlranda, Borra. 

5,5. Pygidium utrinque incras- 
satum (colore testaceo ; spe- 
cies Europaj ovientalis et 
Asipe occidentalis). 
(5, Al:»ilomen puiictulatiim ; para 
basalis forcipis longa, dento 
nullo terminata .... 10. setolica, Br. 
G.6. Abdomen vixpuuctulatum ; 
pars basalis forcipis bre- 
vis, angulo acuto denti- 
formi terminata . . .11. cancasica, Seni. 
4.4. Pygidium apice truncatum vel 
obtiisum. 
5. Pygidium valde elongatum, 
linguajf orme, apice hand trun- 
catum ; pars dilatata forcipis 
longa ; alfe abortiva3 ; species 

Africa orientalis 12. sjiistedti, sp. n. 

5.5, Pygidium brevius ; pars di- 
latata forcipis brevis ; ala3 
perfecte explicatse ; species 
sinenses et japonicaj. 
6. Pars dilatata forcipis apice 
obtuso-dentata ; species 

japonica 13. mikndo, Burr. 

6.C. Pars dilatata forcipis apice 
baud dentata ; species 

sinensis 14. davidi, Burr. 

3.3, Pygidium baud valde prominens. 

4. Forceps tantum basi ipso dila- 

tatu?. 

5. Forceps valde arcuatus, brevis ; 

also breves. 

6. Elytra longiora ; pedes uni- 

colores 15. circinata, Fin. 

6.6. Elytra brevia, truncata ; 
pedes indistincte fusco- 

annulati 16. cahrera', Bol. 

5.5. Forceps parum ciirvatus, 
longior. 
6. ALx' breves ; species italica . 17. rqjennina, Costa. 
6 6. ALt longcTe ; species indica 18. amhigua, Burr. 



Forjiculidx and Chdisochidx, families of Dcrmato23tera. 113 

4.4. Forceps saltern per terfciam 

partem longitudinis dilatatus. 

5. Forcipis pars dilatata longa, 

per dimidiam loiigitudinem 

forcipis producta, parallela ; 

bracchiis dehinc minus 

arcuatis. 

6. Pronotum quadratnm, lateri- 

bus rectis, parallelis, an- 

giilis posticis rotundatis ; 

alte abortivie (species Asiaj 

boreab's) 19. ^ojh/.s, Kol. 

6.6. Pronotum postice totum 

rotundatum, lateribus 

subrotundatis. 

7. Elytra baud flavo-macu- 

lata. 

8. Alse abortiva? (species 

Africae orientalis) . 20. rodziankoi, Seni. 
8.8. AljE perfecte explicatjE. 
9. Pygidium obtusura ; 
pronotum parvum ; 

species africana . . 21. ■■ienegalensis, Serv. 
9.9. Pygidium triangii- 
lare ; pronotum 
magnum ; species 

novorossica . .22. pom,erantx,eiH , Sem. 
7.7. Elytra flavo-maculata. 

S. Elytra et ala3 longa) . . 23. lucasi, Dohrn. 
8.8. Elytra et alse breves . 24. barroisi, Bol. 
5.5. Forcipis pars dilatata brevior, 
bracchiis dehinc fortius 
arcuatis. 
6. Pronotum magnum, looge 
super elytra productum 
(Elytra et alaj long.ie, testa- 

cefB ; species indica) . . 25. celer, Burr. 
6.6. Pronotum minus longum, 
vix super elytra pro- 
ductum. 
7. Elytra unicoloria. 

8. Pars dilatata forcipis 
dente terminata. 
9. Pars dilatata forcipis 
TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1907.— PART I. (JUNE) 8 



114- Mr. Malcolm Burr's Preliminary Revision of the 

usque ;kI sccuudam 
tertiam partem lon;^d- 
tutliuis pvoducta ; (ala; 
abortiva; ; statura 

minore) 20. puhcscens, Gene. 

9.9. Pars dilalata iorcij^is 
vix ad dimidiam lon- 
gitudinem producta. 
10. Pars dilatata for- 
cipis paullo ante 
dentem termiiialem 
jam paullo attenuata 27. vicar in, ^^in. 
10.1®. Pars dilatata for- 
cipis dente i^jso 
terminata. 
11. Ala3 i^erfecte ex- 
plicata3 ; pro- 
notum posticc 

rotundatum . 28. aiuicnlaria, L. 
11.11. Alaj nullio;pr()- 
notum postice 

truncatum . 29. silan((, Costa. 
8.8. Pars dilatata furcipis 
inermis, deute iiullo 
teriuiiiata. 
9. Akc nulla^ 

10. Forcii>is Ijracchia 
apice iiicurva, atcjue 

attiiigentia . . . 30. dci:ij:)kns, Gc'ue. 

10,10 Forcipis braccliia 

apiceiiicurva, sed 

liaud attingentia. 

11. Elytra quadrata . 31. lesnei^Y'uwi. 

11.11. Elytra trape- 

zoidalia . . 32. canavicnsis, Burr. 
9.9. Ala3 longaj. 

10. Forcipis braccliia 
apicc fere recta, 
vix incurva, liaud 
attingentia; (species 

indica) .... 33. inlerroijioiH^Vywvv 
10.10. Forcipis liraccliia 
apice incurva, 
attingentia. 



Forfic'ulidM and ChclisocJdd^e, families of Dcrnuito'ptcra. 115 

1 1 . Caput et prouotum 
atra ; (statui-a 
minore ; species 

indica) ... 34. planicolllti,\i.vc\)y 
11.11. Caput rui'uui ; 
pronotum tes- 
taceum. 
12. Forceps extus 

arcr;atus ... 35. urientalls, Buit. 
12.12. Forceps luar- 
gine externo 
recto, tuiu 

incurva . . 36. lurida, Fisch. 
7. Elytra maculata. 

8. Pars dilatata forcipis dente 

liorizontali terminata . 37. smyrnensis, Serv. 
8.8. Pars dilatata forcipis 
dentibus parvis 2 erectis 
terminata 38. redempla. Burr. 



Forficida grceni, sp. nov. 

Statura minore ; fusco-castaneo, pallido-maculato ; antennte cas- 
tunete, 12-segmentata3; 3 sat longoj 5 = 3 ; 4 dimidio breviori, conico ; 
ceteris subcylindricis, sat validis : caput Iseve, globosum, suturis ob- 
soletis, fusco-ferrugineum : pronotum semilunare, caput latitudine 
iui|uans, margine antico truncato, postice late rotundato, lateribus ru- 
tundatis ; latins quam longius ; fusco-castaneum, lateribus pallidis ; 
prozona vix tumida, sutura mediana brevi, fere obsoleta, punctis 
impressis lateralibusnullis; elytra lajvia, longa, fusco-castanea, medio 
macula magna pallida flava ornata ; alaj longa3, lajves, flavte, pallida3> 
sutura et ajiice infuscataj ; pedes breves, testacei; abdomen parallelum, 
plicis lateralibus distinctis, fusco-rufum vel rufo-fuscum, lajve, 
nitidum ; segmentum ultimum dorsale ^ subquadratum, Iscve, 
medio impressum, margine postico utrinque tuberculo obtuso 
instructum ; $ minute punctulatum, minum lajve, angustius tuber- 
culis minoribus : pygidium ^ vix perspiciium, subglobosum ; $liaud 
perspicuum : forcipis bracchia ^ basi dilatata et deplanata, liac parte 
margine interne crenulato ; per tertiam partem lougitudinis de- 
planata ; dehinc attenuata, inermia, teretia, subrecta, apice sensim 
incurva ; $ valida, depressa, subcontigua, subrecta, inermia, ajjice 
tantum paullo incurva. 

Long, corporis ^ 9 mm., $ 8 mm. ; forcipis ^ 2 mm., 9 1"'' "i"i' 



116 Mr. Malcolm Burr's Preliminary Rcvidon of the 

CJulisockcs ijulclicllus, Burr (nee Gerst.) Journ. Bombay 
N. H. Soc. xiv, p. 327 (1902). 

Patria. Ceylon : Punduloya and Ambegararaoa, fairly 
common (Coll. mea). 

This species was confused by mc with Ohelisoches pul- 
clicllus, Gerst,, and recorded as such in a paper on the 
earwigs of Ceylon (/. c.) : I sent some specimens to 
de Borraans, who also identified them as Ch. indcheUus : 
but that is a West African species, and on comparing the 
Ceylon specimens with Gei"staecker's description, my doubt 
as to its identity is confirmed : the head of the African 
insect aj)pears to be tumid behind the eyes, with distinct 
sutures, a feature very characteristic of CJielisochcs, 
whereas the Ceylon specimens have the head perfectly 
smooth as in true Forjlcula ; Ch. ])7ilchellus has the pro- 
notum " quadratisch," and not crescent-shaped : the 
organs of flight are yellowish with a dark brown band, 
Avhereas in the Ceylon specimens they are dark cas- 
taneous, with a large pale spot on the elytra, and the 
wings are pale yellow, with a brownish suture and apical 
speck ; the form of the forceps seems to agree how- 
ever ; Gerstaecker's insect is only known to me from the 
description of that author. 

F. (jrccni, which I am pleased to dedicate to my friend 
Mr. Ernest Green, who has procured me such interesting 
material from Ceylon, more closely resembles in size and 
colour F. ornate, wliich also has the same shaped pronotum. 



Forjlcula sjosiedti, sp. n. 

Statura mediocri, minus fortiori ; antenna; 12-segmentat«, seg- 
mentis subconicis, fusco-testaceis ; caput lasve ; pronotum sublatius 
<|uani longius", postice rotundatum ; elytra brevia, unicoloria ; alaj 
abortivfe ; pedes testacei ; abdomen typicum, castaneum, niinutissime 
punctulatum ; seLiiuentuni ultimum rectangulare, ])unctulatum ; 
pygidium J elongato-productum, linguscforme, angustum, apice 
attenuatum et obtusuni ; 9 breve, angustatum, apice truncatum ; 
forcipis bracchia ^ gracilia, per tertiam partem basalem margine 
interno deplanato ac dilatato, margine ipso crenulato, hac parte 
dente parvo obtuso terminata, dehinc attenuata, inermia, arcuata ; 

^ , recta, simplicia. ^ $ . 
Long, corporis ^ 8'5-9'75 mm., $ 8'5-9 mm.; furcipisc^ 3"5-6 mm., 

5 1-75-2 mm. 



FovficididcV and Chdi^ocliidpR, families of Dermatoptxra. 117 

Hab. East Africa: Kilimandjaro, Kiboscho, at the 
highest limits of vegetation. 

This species was discovered in great numbers by Dr. 
Yngve Sjiistedt, who has kindly given me permission to 
include its diagnosis in this paper. It will be more fully 
described and discussed in a work upon the results of Dr. 
Sjostedt's travels in East Africa. 

Genus 2. — Apterygida, Westwood. 

The older authors included a large number of diversified 
and highly heterogeneous forms in this genus, which I 
have reduced to its narrowest limits, including only 
alhipennis Meg* the typical species for which Westwood 
erected the genus. 

The genus Sjjliingolahis, Borm., I formerly pointed out 
coincided with Apterygida unless the two species >S'. fiir- 
cifcra and A. alMpennis could be shown to be not 
generically related to each other (Ann. Mag. N. H. ser. 7, 
vol. iv, 1899, p. 255). Sphingolabis was wrongly revived 
by Verhoeff for S. sansibarica, which is very different in 
structure from S. fnrcifera. 

A. arachidis, Yers., has always been regarded as closely 
allied to A. alhipennis, but the second tarsal segment has 
not that large and prominent lobe which is characteristic 
of this group of sub-famiUes, from which it must con- 
sequently be removed. A. linearis and the other forms with 
a spiny pygidium I have placed together in a new genus. 

The type is Forjicula alhipennis, Megerle apud Charp. 
Hor. Ent. p. 68 (1825), from Central Europe. 

Sub-family S.—SKENDYLIN^. 

It is necessary to separate the species ap)tera, Verhoeff, 
from the genus Cosmiella, and as it does not fall naturally 
into any other group it is necessary to make a separate 
sub-family for its reception. The only known species re- 
calls certain Aneistrogastcr in appearance, and its affinities 
are undoubtedly with that genus, but the fourth antennal 
segment is somewhat shorter than the third, a fact which 
precludes it from that sub-family. 

The form of the antennoe separates it from the Opistho- 
cosmiinai. 

* The name Forjicula media is i^reoccnpied by Marsham, Col. 
Brit. p. 530 (1802) = Labia minor (L.). 



118 Mr. Malcolm Burr's Preliminary Revision of the 

Genus 1. — Skendyle,* no v. gen. 

Autennfe segmentu quarto quam tertio subbreviori vel subpoqiianti, 
nequaquam longiori ; elytra in parte bumerali per dimidium costai 
carinata; ala'abortiviie; abdomen medio sat dilatatum, lateribns acute 
reflexis ; segmentum anale breve, sat angustatum, transversum ; 
forcipis braccliia subcontigna, valida. 

This genus contains the single species described as 
Cosmiella altera, Verhoeff, who, as we have seen, made a 
distinct genus for species of Opidliocosmia sensu latiori, 
without visible wings : but this insect differs in structure 
from 6'. rclms^ the type of Cosmiella. There seems to be no 
doubt that the insect described as Ancistrogaster javana, 
Borm., 1903, Ann. Mag. N. H. ser. 7, vol. xi, p. 266, is 
identical, and therefore falls in favour of Verhoeff 's prior 
name. It is a native of Java. 

The type is Cosmiella aptcra, Verhoeff, Zool. Anz. xxv, 
p. 195 (1902). 

Sub-family 9.-NE0L0B0PH0RIN^. 
The species formerly included in Nelohophora, though 
evidently allied to Opisthocosviia, are nevertheless suffi- 
ciently distinct to merit a separate group. The Asiatic 
forms are undoubtedly generically distinct from the 
American species. 

TABLE OF GENERA. 

1. Pygidium bifidum ; genus america- 

num ; segmentum anale (|uad- 1. Neolobophora, Scuild 
latum. 
1.1. Pygidium integrum; segmentum 
anale attenuatum, declive ; 
genera asiatica. 
2. Costa elytrorum incrassata ... 2. Liparura, n. 
2.2. Costa elytroriim carinata, scd 

hand incrassata 3. Obelura, n. 

Genus 1. — Neolobophora, Scuddcr. 

This genus is now restricted to the American forms. It 
has been recently dealt with by me in the Ent. Mo. Mag. 
1900, p. 112. 

* cri>u'5i'iX»/ = pincers. 



ForfindidiV nnd Chc/isorhidcV, families of Dcvmato'ptera. 119 

The type of the genus is N. hogotenis, Scudd. ; the other 
tliroe described species are N. hicolor, Borelli, K rvfircps, 
Burin., and N. horellii, Burr. 

Genus 2. — Lipaeura,* nov. gen. 

Pronotum latum, quadratum, lateribus subretlexis ; scutello 
patente ; elytra costa cariiiata, carina sat incrassata ; abdomen 
Xnuictatum ; pedes longi, graciles ; segmentum anale valde attenua- 
tum, declive ; fovcipis braccliia $ subcontigua, gracillima, elongata, 
sinuata ; $ recta, simplicia. 

I form this genus for a pair in the Paris collection 
which I take to be Neololwjjhora asiatica of de Bormans, 
although the pair in question are from Northern India, 
and N. asiatica was described from Madras ; it differs 
from the following genus in its stouter build, longer legs, 
punctated abdomen, reflexed borders of the pronotum, 
and by the strong costal carinoe of the elytra. I have 
not seen the type of de Bormans' species, but the pair in 
question agree perfectly with his description ; the male is 
from Dardjihng, and the female from Bhoutan. There is 
nothing in de Bormans' description and illustration to 
show any generic distinction from K tamul (q. v.), but the 
pair which I take to be his species are undoubtedly 
generically distinct. 

The type is Neolohopliora asiatica, Borm., Ann. Soc. Ent. 
Fr., 1807, p. 285, PL X, fig. 2, from Southern India. 

Genus 3. — Obelura,! nov. gen. 
Statiu^a minore, gracili ; antennse 12-segmentat;e, typictc, graciles : 
caput keve, tumidum, margine postico recto ; pronotum quam caput 
Lcque latum, marginibus omnibus rectis, quadratum, lateribus rcflexis, 
vix tumidum ; elytra rudimentaria, trapezoidea, margine externo 
usque ad apicem carinata, margine interno quam externo distincte 
breviori, scutellum parvura efficienti ; margine ]^)ostico oblique trun- 
cato ; aire nulla; ; pedes graciles ; abdomen subdilatatum, plicis 
lateralibus distinctis, lateribus integris ; segmentum ultimum dorsale 
valde angustatum, h-Eve, inerme ; forcipis bracchia ^ valde gracilia 
et elongata, basi subcontigua et margine superiori per quartam 
partem longitudinis carinata, debinc valde attenuata, leviter arcuata, 
denticulata. 

* Xi7rap()s = fat ; or'pa = tail. 
t o/?f\os = spike ; o?3pn = tail. 



120 ]\[r. Malcolm Burr's Preliminary Bevision of the 

This is for the reception of Ncolohoj'^lwra tannil, Burr, 
Journ. Bombay See. N. H. xiv, p. 67 (1902), from Ceylon, 
which is therefore the type. 

Sub-family \0.-EPARGHINjE. 

This sub-family consists of five new genera foi'med for 
the reception of several forms hitherto included in Opis- 
thocosmia and in Apterygida, with the types of which they 
have little close relationship. 

TABLE OF GENERA. 

]. Abdomen segmento ullimo dorsali at- 
tonuato, declivi. 

2. Pedes longi, graciles 1. Epakchus, n. 

2.2. Pedes breves ; femora antica in- 

erassata 2. Skalirtes, n. 

1.1. Abdomen segmento ultimo liaiid de- 
clivi, transverso. 

2. Tibitc superne sulcatre 3. Rhadamanthus, n. 

2.2. Tibicc integrte. 

3. Abdomen baud depressum ; forceps 

prope basin dentatus, gracilis . . 4. Kosmetor, n. 
3.3. Abdomen depressnm ; forceps 
propo basin snbdilatatus ac basi 
ipso dentatus 5. Eladnon, n. 

Genus 1. — Eparchus,* no v. gen. 

AntenniG segmentis 3 et 4 subseqnantibus ; pronotum quam caput 
suba3que latum ; elytra et ala? perfecte explicatse ; elytra costa 
humerali baud carinata ; abdomen convexum, subcylindricum paullo 
dilatatum ; pygidium varium, sed baud spinosum ; forcipis braccbia 
(^ elongate, gracilia. Segmentum anale declive, vel attenuatum ; 
pedes longi graciles ; abdomen lateribus tuberculis instructum. 

This genus is made for the reception of a number of 
species formerly included in OjnstJwcosmia, with which it 
has undoubted affinities, but the pronotum is not notably 
narrow and the antenna are different. 

The type of the genus is ForfiruJa insif/n is, 'Ha.n.n, Verb. 
Nat. Gesch. Orth., p. 243, PI. XXIII, fig.' 14 (1S42), from 
Java. 

* Gr. f7rap;^os = sub-prefect. 



Forficulidm and Chdisochidm, families of jDcrmatoptera. 121 

TABLE OF SPECIES OF EPARGHUS. 

1. Forcipis braccliia supra processu verticali 

clavato-obtuso armata 1. insignia, Haan. 

1.1. Forcipis braccliia (J supra dentibus 
acutis armata,'^- vel inermia. 
2 Abdomen la^te nitens. 

3. Corpus valde elongatuni ; feneo-ui- 
tens ; forceps valde elongatus, vix 

arcuatus 2. nevilli, Burr. 

3.3. Atra, baud asneo-nitens ; forceps 

valde arcuatus 3. lucjens, Bonn. 

2.2. Corpus innitidum. 

3. Statura minore (G mm.) 4. minuscula, Dohrn. 

3.3. Statura majore (10-13 mm.). 
4. Colore castaneo. 

5. Forceps inermis, valde curvatus 5. dnx^ Bonn. 
5.6. Forceps valde deutatus ... 6. easculapms. Burr. 
4.4. Colore atro. 

5. Pronotum albo-limbatum ; elytra 

innitida 7. shelfordi, Burr. 

5.5. Pronotum totum atrum ; elytra 

nitida 8. vieina, Burr. 

OjnstJiocosmia hogotcnsis, Rehn, will probably fall into 
this genus. 

Genus 2. — Skalistes * nov. gen. 

Pedes breves, femoribus incrassatis ; segmentum anale declive 
attenuatnm ; abdomen lateribus hand tuberculatis. 

The type is Forficula luguhris, Dohrn., Stett. ent. Zeit. 
xxiv, p. 280, (1862), from Mexico. 

This is formed for i^. luguhris, Dohrn., which was formerly 
placed in Forficula in spite of its striking resemblance to 
certain species of Opifitliocosmia ; in the attenuate anal 
segment, it approaches that genus. 

F. metrica, Rehn, appears to be a macrolahia variety of 
F. htgidrris. 

Genus 3. — Rhadamanthus, nov. gen. 
Abdomen subcylindricum, hand depressum ; segmento ultimo 
transverse, baud declivi ; forceps elongatus, ^ superne cristatus ; 

* Gr. <7KaXt(rrjyy = weederf 



122 Mr. Malcolm Burr's I* rdrniinary Revision of the 

pedes longi, I'emoribus incras.sati.s, tibiis superne sulcatis in (liiuidio 
apicali. 

The type is Forficula lolopliorovJes, Dohrn., 8tett. Ent. 
Zeit. xxvi, p. 96 (18G5). 

The only species falling in this genus is the rare aud 
little known Forficula lohrphoroidcs of Stfil, from the 
Philippines. In appearance somewhat resembling certain 
black GliclisocliidiB, its affinities are undoubtedly with 
Forficula, while the long slender legs and forceps recall 
O^nsthocosniia. I place it in this sub-family with some 
hesitation. It is curious that in the right antenna of a 
male in my collection, the fourth segment is noticeably 
shorter than the third, while in the left antenna3, the 
fourth is about the same length as the third, which is 
the case in both antennae of a female which I possess ; 
in a male in the British Museum the segments are almost 
of the same length, if anything the fourth is slightly 
longer than the third, and the fifth than the fourth ; 
perhaps when we can examine more material, we shall be 
obliged to place it nearer to Oindhocosmia, 

Genus 4. — Kosmetor,* nov. gen. 

Abdomen cylindricum, vix dilatatum ; segmentum anale trans- 
versuni, vix declive ; pedes graciles ; forceps gracilis, attenuatus j 
tibitc integrfc, baud snlcatte. 

The species for which I have erected this genus were 
formerly placed in Opisiltocosmia and {nAptcrugida, and they 
have certain superficial resemblances to the former, but in 
the form of the abdomen they more nearly approach to 
the typical form of Forficula, from which they differ in 
the long slender forceps and different antennae. 

The type of the genus O^jistliocosmia anncmdalci, Burr, 
Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1904, p. 311, from Siam. 

All the species are from tropical Asia, and all have 
long slender forceps with one tooth. 

TABLE OF SPECIES. 

1. Alidomen Ireve, nitidum (caput, pedes, 

pronotimi, al;c llav;c ; elytra castauea) . 1. ^)o?f/fr>H/, Burr. 
1.1. Abdomen punctulatum (caput et prono- 
tum castanoa). 

* Gr. K:oT^();r(i)p = overseer. 



Forficididie and ChelisocMdm, families of Deo'mataptera. 123 

2. Pedes flavi, atro-geniculati ; ala3 flav* ; 

antennae pallido-annulatco .... 2. annandalei, Burr. 

2.2. Pedes imicolores sordide testacei ; 

alec fuscEo ; antenna) liaiul annulata). 

3. Forceps (^ intus nnidentatus. 

4. Elytra nigra; ala) nigra3, apice 

flavo-punctata3 ; forceps (^ sub- 

rectus, subtiinuatus 3. hmltma, Burr. 

4.4. Elytra fusca ; alas fuscas, flavo- 
binotattB ; forceps elongato- 
ovatus, hand sinuatus ... 4. iHshnu, Burr. 
3.3. Forceps ^^ bidentatus .... 5. temora, Burr. 



Genus 5. — Elaunon.* 

Cum genere precedent! congruet, sed, abdomen distincte depres- 
sum, parallelum, baud cylindricum ; forcipis bracchia ^ basi ipso 
subdilatata atque intus dentata. 

This genus is for Apterygida hipavtita, Kiiby, which 
approaches true Forficida and Apterygida, but the fourth 
segment of the antennas is not sufficiently short to justify 
its being placed in the latter genus, and the dilatation of 
the forceps at the base is only incipient, being emphasised 
by the flattened triangular tooth there, so that the resem- 
blance to the typical Forficula forceps is more apparent 
than real ; but in the form of the abdomen and body 
generally, it is nearer to that group than to Eparclms. 

The type is S'phingolaUs Mpartita, Kirby, Linn. Soc. 
Journ. Zool., xxiii, p. 526 (1891), from India and Ceylon. 

Sub-family 1 1.— DORA TIN^. 

Genus. — DoRU,t nov. gen. 

Antenna? segmentis 4 et 3 subiequantibus ; elytra baud carinata ; 
abdomen subparallelum, .sat depressum ; segmentum analo trans- 
versum, depres.sum, baud declive ; pygidium spinosum vel acutum ; 
forcipis bracchia $ gracilia, basi remota, baud dilatata. 

I have separated into this group those species of Ap)tc- 
rygida with a sharp, pointed or spiny pygidium ; they all 

* Gr. eA.oi;;/a)i/ = driving. 
f Gr. 5opu = spear (cp. Latin genu and corwi). 



124 Mr. Malcolm Burr's Preliminary Revision of the 

have a strong family likeness, and are undoubtedly related 
to A2')tcrygida. 

The type of the genus is Forfcula linearis, Escli., 
Entomogr. p. 81 (1822), from Tropical America. 

TABLE OF SPECIES. 

1. Pygidium apice truncatum. 
2. Forceps inermis ; alncs longip ; species 

americana 1. hinotata, Kirbj-. 

2.2, Forceps ^ dentatus; alti? abbreviata; ; 

species australica 2. suhaptera, Kirby. 

1.1. Pygidium apice acutum, conicum, vel 
spinosum. 
2. Pygidium triangulare, acutum, sed baud 
spinosum. 
3. Pygidium (^ carinatum ; species afric- 

ana 3. protensa, Gerst. 

3.3. Pygidium $ baud carinatum ; 

species americana 4. exilis, Scudder. 

2.2. Pygidium ($ spinosum. 

3. Forceps ^ basi dentatus 5. spiculifera, Kirb. 

3.3. Forceps $ basi ipso baud dentatus. 
4. Forceps ^, a latere visus, valde 

sinuatus (alai abbreviata^) . . . G. luteipennis, Serv. 
4.4. Forceps ^, a latere visus, paullo 
sinuatus, vel fere liorizontalis. 

5. Elytra unicoloria 7. Inteipes, Scudd. 

5.5. Elytra maculata vel viltata. 

G. Elytra maculata ..... 8. hhnaculata^ Fabr. 
6.6. Elytra vittata 9. linearis, Esch. 

II. CHELISOCHIUiE. 

This family includes all those earwigs in which the second 
tarsal segment is produced into a narrow lobe beneath the 
third, that is, the two species of Avclicnomiis, Karsch, and 
some twenty odd species included in Chelisoches, Scudd. 

The former genus requires no treatment at present ; its 
species are few and individuals are rare in collections. 

The twenty odd species of the Chelisoches are here divided 
for the first time into no less than nine genera, of which 
seven are new. I hope that all will stand the tost of time. 

The Chelisoehid^ fall into two sub- families as follows : — 



ForficvIidcV and Ghdisochidm, families of Deniiatoptem. 125 

1. Corpus valde depressum ; pronotum antice 

valde angustatum (forceps valde tenuis, 

elongatus) 1. Auchenomin^. 

1.1. Corpus subdepressuin ; pronotum sub- 

quadratum vel ovatum, hand valde 

angustatum 2. Chelisochin^. 

The first siib-1'amily includes only the genus Auchcnomus, 
Karsch, which superficially strongly resembles SjMratta 
and its allies. It is with the Ghelisocliinai only that this 
paper deals. 



TABLE OF GENERA. 

1. Carina externa elytrorum longa, 

usque ad apicem elytri percurrens ; 

(pedes longi, graciles). 

2. Elytra quadrata, truncata; (statura 

mediocri ; hand metallica ; alte 

abortivBe) 1. Kinesis, n. g. 

2.2. Elytra ampla, lata ; (statura max- 
ima ; metallica ; aire longa3) . 2. Chelisochella, Verb. 
1.1. Carina humeralis externa elytro- 
rum brevissima, tantum ad 
humeros ipsos situata. 
2. Tibial superne in dimidio apicali 
deplanatee et sulcata?. 
3. Tarsi longi, graciles ; tibi* 
longte ; (elytra et alaj me- 
tallica) 3. ExYPNUS, n. g. 

3.3. Tarsi tibia'i|ue breves. 

4. Pronotum longius ijuam 

latins, vel saltern postice 

quam antice latins, tra- 

pezoidale. (Caput sa^pius 

tumid um et impressuni.) 

5. Antennarum segmentum 4 

conicum vel clavatnm ; 

(species majores ; colore 

nigro vel fusco) .... 4. Chelisoches, Scudd. 
5.5. Antennarum segmentum 
4 cylindricum vel ova- 
tum, liaiid clavatum ; 
(statura mediocri vel 



126 Mr. Malcolm Burr's Prdii)iinary Revision of the 

parva ; colore brunneo, 
vel nigro, rvifo varie- 
gato, vel testaceo). 
G. Alat« ; elytra angulo 
basali rectaiigulari, scii- 
tello nullo ; corpus 
haud cylindricum, sat 
latum et depressuni ; 
forceps validus, vel de- 
planatiis, plus minus 
dentatus, et arcuatus . 5. Pkoreus, u. g-. 
G.6. Abe nulhe ; elytra 
angulo basali rotun- 
dato, scutellum par- 
vum liberantia ; cor- 
pus valde cylindri- 
cum et elongatum ; 
forceps gracillimus, 
elongatus, subrectus, 
haud dentatus . . 
4.4. Pronotum subquadratuni, 
latius quam longius ; 
caput globosum, Iceve 
2.2. Tibiaj superne integres, teretes, 
in apice ipso tantum depla- 
natju. 
3. Statura valida ; forceps robustus ; 
colore metallico ; (pronotum 
postice dilatatum, trapezoi- 

dale) 8. Adiatiiktus, n. 

3.3. Statura debilis ; colore haud 
metallico ; forceps tenuis ; 
pronotum subovatum, pos- 
tice haud dilatatum ... 9. ITamaxas, n. g. 



6. SOLENOSOMA, n. g. 



ENKIlATKrt, n. 



Genus 1, — KiNESiS,* nov. gen. 

Statura mediocri ; antennae segmento 3 sat brevi, quintum sub- 
requanti ; quarto paullo breviori, cylindrico ; caput sublasve, 
suturis indistinctis vix impressum ; pronotum trapezoidale, longius 
quam latius, parallelum, margine antico recto, angulis humeralibus 
distinctis, rectangularibus ; lateribus rectis, rellexis, margine postico 



* Gr. kiVt/o-is ^ movement. 



Fvrjiculidx, and ChclisochidiB, families of Dermatoptera. 127 

iilirotiindato ; prozona sat tumida, sutiira iiiediana distincta, 
utrinque impressa ; elytra brevia, truucata, quadrata, carina 
lateral! acuta, per totain longitudiuem elytri percurrenti ; alaj 
abortiv;t! ; abdomen punctulatum ; segmentum ultimuni dorsale 

^ magnum, tumidum, transversum : § declive, angustatum ; 
pygidium baud perspicuum ; forcipis bracchia ^ basi remota, 
lirevia, valida, incrassata, incurva, intus dentata ; $ recta, gracilia, 
inermia. 

This genus is well characterised by the form of the 
elytra which are almost square, with a sharp and very 
distiuct carina along the e(\^o, running throughout the 
length of the elytra ; the wings are wanting in the only 
known si^ecies, which in general characters otherwise 
resembles Chclisochcs. 

Tlie type, and only known species, is Ghelisoches punctu- 
latus, Burr, Ann. Mag. N. H. (6), xx, p. 315 (1897), 
from the Southern Celebes. 

Genus 2. — Chelisochella, Verhoeff. 

Statura maxima, valida ; antennarum segmentis4 et 5 Jieque longis, 
unitis 3 superantibus : caput valde impressum at tumidum; pronotum 
caput latitudine tequan.s, pustice baud dilatatum ; elytra lata, ampla, 
dilatata, nitentia, bevia, carina liumerali per totam longitudinem 
percurrenti ; ahe longtu, nitida; ; abdomen validum ; pedes longi, 
graciles ; tibia3 compressa), integres, nee deplanat;x3 nee sulcata; ; 
tarsi longi ; segmentum ultiraum dorsale magnum, l;«ve, tubercula- 
tum ; pygidium parvura breve ; forcipis bracchia valida, elongata, 
depressa, margine interno valde dentata, margine interne depresso, 
acuto. 

ChcHsorhcIia, Verhoeff, 1902, Zool. Anzeig., No. 665, 
p. 196. 

This genus, very inaptly named by Verhoeff, for it con- 
tains the giant of the group, is characterised by the form 
of the elytra, which are broadened in the middle, and 
furnished with a lateral keel throughout their length. 
Verhoeff includes in it the species C%di%x]ies pulcliripennis 
and glancoptcrns, Borm., but he was evidently not familiar 
with the species, for they do not possess the essential 
character mentioned by him, that is, the long keel of the 
elytra ; in other respects, C. p)ulchripennis approaches to 
this genus, that is, in colour and in the form of the feet ; 



128 Mr. Malcolm Burr's Preliminary Ucrision of the 

I propose for it a new genus intermediate between this 
and Chelisoche.'=! properly so called. 

The tyj)e is Loboj^hora snpcrlja, Dohrn., Stett. Ent. Zeit. 
xxvi, p. 71 (1865), of which Ch. dorim, Borm., is probably 
the male. 

Genus 3. — Exypnus,* nov. gen. 

Colore fusco, ;i3neo-nitido ; antennae 20-segmentatiTe, segmento 3 
segmenta 4 et 5 unita eeqiianti ; 4 = 5; 6 sublongiori ; 4 crasso, 
globoso ; caput tumidum, per suturas impressas divisum, margins 
postico excavate ; pronotum caput latitudine lequans, margine antico 
recto, medio in collem perductum ; lateribus parallelis, postice hand 
dilatatum, margine postico rotundato- truncate ; elytra lata, apice 
truncata, carinula humerali brevissima ; ake longte ; pedes longi, 
graciles ; tibite antice et intermedi;e superne in dimidia apicali 
deplanatte et sulcatte ; pygidium breve ; forcipis bracchia depressa, 
margine interno acute ; ^ arcuatim incurva, intus dentata ; $ recta, 
gracilia, inermia. 

Ch. iwlchTipennis, Borm., is included by Verhoeff in the 
preceding genus, but as it does not possess the character- 
istic sharp edge to the elytra, it cannot be placed there ; 
it has, however, the broad elytra, tumid and impressed 
head, and long and slender feet of that genus, but the 
tibise are depressed and sulcate as in ChcHsoches; the 
forceps of the female are simple as in Chdisochcs, and 
not strongly toothed as in CJielisochella. It forms an 
intermediate genus between these two. 

The type and only known species is Ohelisochcs 'pidchri- 
pennis, Borm., Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xxvii, p. 78, PI. Ill, 
tiff. 15, 1883, from the East Indies. 

Genus 4. — Chelisoches, Scuddcr. 

Statura mediocri ; antenna3 15-20-segmentata3 ; segmento 3 sat 
longo, 4 et 5 unita subbreviori ; segmento 4 conico, subclavato ; 4 
et 5 subiequantibus, ceteris longioribus ; caput tumidum et im- 
pressum ; postice plus minus excavatum ; pronotum longius quam 
latius, postice paullo dilatatum, margine ]iostico rotundato vel rotun- 
dato-emarginato ; elytra angusta, carinula humerali brevi ; baud 
metallica ; alee perfecte explicatte ; abdomen sat depressum, plicis 
lateralibus distinctis ; segmentum ultimum dorsale $ magnum, 
margine postico tuberculatum ; ? angustatum ; pedes breves, tarsia 

•* Gr. f'^t;7ri'or = brisk. 



Forficulidse and ChelisochidcV, fcmAlies of' Dermatoptcra. 129 

brevibns ; tibiae anticse et intermedias, necnon posticse, superne in 
dimidio apicali deplanatse et sulcatse ; pygidium parvum ; forcipis 
bracchia ^ elongata et gracilia, vel brevia, robusta, subrecta, vel 
arcuatim incurva ; margine interno dentato depressa vel subtriquetra 
margine interno acuto ; $ subrecta, inermia, elongata, vix incurva. 

This genus contains the typical species allied to Gh. 
morio ; the species are mostly dark in colour, if not quite 
black, though Ch. plagiatns, while agreeing in structural 
characters, differs in its bright and variegated uniform. 

The type is Forficula morio, Fabr., Syst. Ent., p. 270, 
No. 6, 1775. From the East Indies and Pacific Islands. 

TABLE OF SPECIES. 

1. Pronotum capite baud multo latius. 
2. Pronotum elytra alee Isete metallica. 1. (jlaucopterus, Bonn. 
2.2. Color baud Isete metallicus. 
3. Forceps tenuis ; pygidium bilobum . 2. ater, Borm. 
3.3. Forceps validus ; pygidium inte- 
grum. 
4. Elytra et alte nigrae ; corpus ni- 
grum, tarsis exceptis pallidis ; 
antennae pallido-annulatse . . 3. morio, Fabr. 
4.4. Elytra colorata. 
5. Corpus nigrum ; elytra alaeque 

auriantiacae ; species australica 4. australicus, Gou. 
5.5. Colore rufo, testaceo, flavo et 
fusco laete variegato ; species 

africana 5. ploxjiatus, Fairm. 

1.1. Pronotum capite multo latius ... 6. malgachus, Borm. 

Chelisoches stratioticus of Rehn is probably only a finely 
developed variety of Ch. morio, with which I have always 
placed it in my collection. 

Chelisoches tenehrator, Kirby, may perhaps require another 
genus, as the feet seem to have a somewhat distinct 
structure. 

Genus 5. — Proreus,* nov. gen. 

Statura medioeri; cum Ghelisoche congruet; differtautem antennis 
gracilioribus, segmento 4 ovato, vel cylindrico, nee incrassato, nee 
clavato nee conico. 

* Gr. 7rpwp£ifs = pilot. 
TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1907. — PART I. (JUNE) 9 



130 Mr. Malcolm Burr's Preliminary Revision of the 

I have erected this new genus, of which P. simulans, 
Stal, may be regarded as the type, for those somewhat 
smaller species, generally brown or reddish in colour, 
though sometimes black and variegated, which are closely 
allied structurally to Ch. morio, and long regarded as 
congeneric with that species; they have, however, a 
different appearance, but I was long unable to find a 
satisfactory character common to all the species ; in P. 
siimdans, the antennae are noticeably thin and slender, but 
P. o'itscmcV approaches nearer to C%. morio. The shape of 
the pronotum is that of typical Chelisoches, as also that of 
the feet. 

The type is Forficula simulans, Stal, Eug. Resa. Ins., 
p. 302. (1858.) 

TABLE OF SPECIES. 

1. Forceps vaUdus, deplanatus. 
2. Forcei)s inermis (colore nigro, rufo- 

variegato, pedibus annulatis) . 1. variopictus, Borm. 
2.2. Forceps dentatus. 
3. Pronotum sublatiusquamlongius 2. sohrius, 'Borm. 
3.3. Pronotum sublongius quam 
latins, postice quam antice 
paullo latius. 
4. Unicolor fusco-testaceus ... 3. ritsema;, Borm. 
4.4. Versicolores, 
5. Elytra unicoloria testacea 
(statura parva ; caput ni- 
grum) 4. melaiiocejihalus, Dohrn. 

5.5. Elytra vittata. 

6. Pronotum bicolor. 

7. Colore nigro ; antennas 

pedesque rufescentes . 5. leetior, Dolirn. 
7.7. Colore rufo ; antennae 

annulatae .... 6. eleaans, Borm. 

6.6. Pronotum unicolor flavum . 7. ludekingi, Dohrn. 
1.1. Forceps tenuis, baud vol vix depla- 
natus. 

2. Elytra unicoloria fusca ; forceps 

rectus, tantum apice ipso cur- 

vatus 8. fnsdpennis, Haan. 

2.2. Elytra vittata. 
3. Forcej)s arcuatus. 



Forficididie and Chelisochidse, families of Dcrmatoptera. 131 

4. Pronotum rufum, nigrovarie- 

gatum 6. clegans, Borm. var, 

4.4. Pronotum iinicolor flavum . 7. ludekingi, Dohrn. var. 
3.3. Forcej^s rectus, tantum apice 

ipso curvatus 9. simulans, Stal. 

Genus 6. — Solenosoma, nov. gen. 

Corpus gracile, cylindricum ; antennte segmento 3 quani primum 
tertia parte breviori, elongate, tenui ; 4 ovato, cylindrico, quam 
tertium dimidio breviori ; ceteris elongatis, cylindricis ; caput sat 
planum, postice timidum, margine, postico recto : pronotum capite 
subangustius, dimidio longius quam latius, postice dilitatum, mar- 
gine antico recto, postico truncato, angulis rotundatis ; lateribus 
rectis, reflexis : elytra brevia, apice truncata, carinula humerali 
brevissima ; angulo humerali baud rotundato ; angulo basali rotun- 
data, scutellum parvum liberantia ; alaj null«e : pedes sat graciles ; 
femora subincrassata, baud elongata ; tibiae breves, in dimidio 
apicali superne deplanataj et subsulcatje ; tarsorum segmento secundo 
sub tertium in lobum angustum producto : abdomen cylindricum, 
elongatum, parallelum, gracile, minute punctulatum, plicis later- 
alibus distinctis : segmentum ultimum dorsale magnum, quadratum, 
margine postico rugoso ; pygidium parvum; forcipis bracchia basi 
remota, gracillima, valde elongata, subrecta, margine interno basi 
crenulata. 

The unique species for which I have raised this genus 
was first ranged by de Bormans in Auchenomus, from 
which it differs in the form of the pronotum, and then in 
Chelisoclies, from which it differs in the elongate and almost 
perfectly cylindrical body and the forceps, which recall in 
type those of Ncolohophora. The pronotum has the form 
typical of Ghdisoches and Proreus. 

The type is Auchenoimis hirmanus, Borm., Ann. Mus. 
Civ. Gen. (2), vi, p. 436, fig. $. (1888.) (Burmah.) 

Genus 7. — Enkrates,* nov. gen, 

Statura mediocri ; antennae fortiores ; segmento 3 sat longo, quam 
4 + 5 subbreviori ; 4 et 5 subsequantibus, incrassatis, subclavatis ; 
ceteris longioribus ; caput leeve, tumidum, baud impressum, suturis 
obsoletis ; pronotum caput latitudine sequans, jjaullo dilatatum, 
latius quam longius, transversa m, margine postico rotundato ; elytra 

* Gr. e7KpaTTJs = temperate. 



132 Mr. Malcolm Burr's Freliminary Revision of the 

augusta, apice truncata, cannula humerali brevissima ; alaj longaj ; 
pedes breves ; tibise vix depressae, baud vel vix sulcatoe ; abdomen 
subdilatatum ; segmentum ultimuin dorsale magnum, trausversum, 
margine postico medio impresso, utrinque tuberculato ; pygidium 
parvum ; forceps $ basi incrassatus, subtriquetris ; margine in- 
terne dente acuto niagno armatus, arcuatus ; 9 subrectus, iuermis. 

In its variegated colour and the armature and shape of 
the forceps, as well as in the broad and transverse pro- 
notum, this genus approaches more nearly to Forfimda ; 
it has the head of typical Forfictda, while the tarsi are 
clearly referable to the group of the GhelisochidcX. 

The only known species is Enhmtcs jiavipennis, Fabr., 
from West Africa, of which the synonymy is rather 
confused. 

Forficula Jiavipennis, Fabr., Ent. Syst., ii, p. 5. (1793.) 

Forficula jiavipennis, Scudd., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 
xviii, p. 314. (1876.) 

Spliingolabis Jiavipennis, Kirby, W. F., Cat. Orth. i, p. 46. 
(1904.) 

SpliingolaMs varieqata, Kirby, W. F., Linn. Soc. Journ. 
Zool., xxiii, p. 826. (1891.) id. op. cit. xxv, p. 529, PI. XX, 
fig. 9. (1896.) 

Forjiculavaricgaia, Borm., Tierreich, Forf., p. 127. (1900.) 

ChclisocJics vittatus, Burr, Ann. Mag. N. H. (7), xi, 
p. 274. (1903.) 

Chelisochcs limhatus, Borg. Arkiv. for Zool. Bd., i, p. 575, 
PI. XXVI, %. 7. (1904.) 

Genus 8. — Adiathetus,* nov. gen. 

Statura mediocri vel magna ; antennae 20-segmentata3, seg- 
mento 3 longo, sed quam 4 + 5 unita breviori ; 4 quam 3 dimidio 
breviori, clavato ; 5 clavato, 3 subasqiianti : ceteris elongatis, sub- 
conicis : caput tumiduui, suturis sat distinctis, margine postico 
recto ; pronotum subquadratum, postice baud vel vix dilatatum, 
margine antico recto, postico subrotundato, lateribus rectis, angulis 
posticis rotundatis ; prozona tumida, sutura mediana distincta, 
utrinque puncto impresso instructa ; metazona plana, lata ; elytra 
carinula humerali brevi, bevia vel granulosa, Itete metallico-niten- 
tia ; ala; long*, eodem colore : pedes sat graciles, tibiis superne 
integris ; abdomen validum, convexum, parallelum ; plicis lateral- 
ibus distinctis; segmentum ultimum dorsale ^ magnum, quadratum 

* Gr. d5ia0eTos = indisposed. 



Forjiculidse, and ClidisochidiB, families of Derinatoptera. 133 

liBve, tuberculatum ; 9 magnum, subqi;adratum, integrum : pygi- 
dium ^ parvum ; 5 parvum, vel longe productum ; forcipis brac- 
chia ^ brevia, incurva, robusta, valida, depressa, denticulata ; J 
elongata, gracilia. 

The species which I include in this genus was included 
by Verhoeff in his genus Chelisochclla, but as that is char- 
acterised by the long keel of the elytra, a feature which is 
wanting in this species, they cannot be ranged in that 
genus. The German author appears to have been un- 
familiar with the insects themselves, and assumed from the 
metallic colour and somewhat broad elytra that they fell 
in his genus. 

The type and only known species is Chelisoches shelfordi, 
Burr, Ann. Mag. Ent. (7), vi, p. 96, PI. IV, fig. 4. 
(1900.) (Sarawak.) {Ch.hercules, Burr, I.e. is the male.) 

Genus 9. — Hamaxas,* nov. gen. 

Statura minora ; colore nigro, rufo- variegate ; antennas 16- 
segmentatfe ; segmento 3 sat brevi, subconico ; 4 + 5 tertium super- 
antibus, ovatis, 5 quam 4 longiori ; ceteris subconicis, elongatis ; 
caput Iseve, depressum, suturis vix perspicuis, margine postico 
truncate : pronotum quam caput geque latum, paullo longius quam 
latius, subovatum, margine antico lateribusque convexis, postico 
rotundato, postice baud dilatatum ; prozona vix tumida, sutura dis- 
tincta ; elytra minute punctulata, apice truncata, lata, carinula liume- 
rali brevissima, valde pubescentia ; ala3 similes : pedes breves, valde 
pubescentes ; tibia; superne teretes, integres ; abdomen valde pubes- 
cens, sat depressum, parallelum, plicis lateralibus distinctis ; seg- 
mentum ultimum dorsale ^ magnum, quadratum ; $ angustatum : 
pygidium $ brevissimum, quadratum, transversum ; $ vix per- 
spicuum, subglobosum : forcipis braccbia $ depressa, sat valida, 
vix incurva, brevia, valde pubescentia, intus dentata ; \ $ subcontigua, 
recta, brevia, inermia. 

The species of the genus have always appeared quite 
unnaturally associated generically with Chelisoches morio ; 
the brown and black uniform, the small size, very hairy 
body, all point to a different group ; but the general char- 
acters of Chelisoches are present, except that the pronotum 
is shorter and broader, and more ovate, not dilated pos- 
teriorly, and also the tibiae are smooth above, and not 
depressed nor sulcate. 

* Gr. ttjualax = coachman. 



134 Mr. Malcolm Burr's Preliminary Revision. 

The type is CJielisochcs fccV, Bonn., Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., 
xxxiv, p. 388. (1894.) 

TABLE OF SPECIES. 
1. Pronotum nigrum. 

2. Antennce segmentis 1-2 nigris, 3-7 
flavis, 8-9 brunneis, 10-11 flavis, 

12-15 fuscis, elytra fusco-bruiinea . 1. variicornis, Bonn. 
2.2. Antennas nigroe, ante apicem pallido- 

annulata3 ; elytra nigra .... 2. fca% Bonn. 
1.1. Pronotum flavidum. 

2. Antennas segmentis 1-13 nigris, 14-15 

albis, apice fuscae ; elytra nigra . . 3. doherfiji, Burr. 
2.2. Antennas segmentis 1-4 flavidis ; 

5-10 fuscis ; elytra fusco-brunnea 4. semiluteiis, Borm. 



Explanation of Plate IV. 

[See Explanation facing the Plate.] 



( 135 ) 



VI. Catalogue of the Australian and Tasmanian Byrrhidse ; 
with Descriptions of Neio Species. By Arthur M. 
Lea, F.E.S., Government Entomologist, Tasmania. 

[Read March 6th, 1907.] 

The Byrrhidm are fairly numerous in Australia and 
Tasmania, although few species have been recorded thence. 
This is no doubt due to the small size and retiring habits 
of most of the species ; and probably when moss and 
fallen leaves have been systematically examined in many 
parts of Australia, the number herein recorded will be 
more than trebled. 

MICROCHiETES. 

The Rev, T. Blackburn has recently described several 
species belonging to this genus and made remarks on 
others. The late Rev. R. L. King had previously remarked 
on the variation of species of the genus, and in all the 
species I have seen there is considerable variation in the 
size and clothing. In M. scoparius and sphxricus (and 
probably in others) the prothoracic fascicles have a decided 
tendency to degenerate into scattered setae, so that the 
prothorax is occasionally non-fasciculate ; the elytral setaa 
and fascicles are also variable.* 

MlCROCH^TES AUSTRALis, Boisd. {Byrrhus, Boisd.), Voy. 

Ast. Col., p. 149 ; Blackb., Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust., 

1903, p. 174. 

Referred by Boisd uval to Byrrhus, but evidently a 

Microchxtes. His description t is quite useless, as it would 

apply to every species of the genus, and without some 

definite information as to the type I think the name 

should be ignored. I wrote to Mons. Albert Bovie of 

Brussels about the type, but he informed me that it was 

* This to a certain extent may be accidental, as the scales and 
setae are liable to abrasion. Specimens are also frequently heavily 
encrusted with mud, which is difficult to remove without at the 
same time injuring the clothing. 

f " Niger, thorace elytrisque verrucosis." 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1907. — PART I. (JUNE) 



136 Mr. Arthur M. Lea's Catalof/uc of 

not in the Brussels Museum,* nor could he find it in the 
Paris Museum on a visit to that institution. 
Hah. Australia. 

MlCROCH^TES SPH^Ricus, Hope, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
1833, p. 13, PI. I, fig. 2 ; King, Trans. Ent. Soc. N. S. 
Wales, ii, p. 72 ; Blackburn, Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust., 
1903, p. 174. 31. colorat'us, Blackb. I. c, p. 176. 

The Rev. T. Blackburn says this species " could cer- 
tainly not be identified with confidence exicept by 
specimens from the original locality." This locality was 
the Swan River, where I have taken numerous specimens f 
which agree with both the description and figure. In all 
these the under-surface is reddish whilst the upper-sur- 
face is dark, except that sometimes the outer parts of the 
elytra are also reddish. The elj'tra have large punctures in 
the striae, but they cannot be seen in fresh specimens, and 
the jjunctures of the metasternum are much as in seoparius. 
On some of them there is a patch of greyish or obscure 
ochreous scales on each elytron towards the base, the patch 
usually commencing on the shoulders (where it is narrowest) 
and obliquely directed towards the suture, which, however, 
it does not reach. In one specimen it is again directed 
towards the base so that each appears to be supplied with a 
semicircle of pale scales. The clothing is liable to abrasion, 
but several of the specimens before me agree well with 
the description of coloratus, and I believe that name to 
be synonymous. 

Hah. W. and S, AUSTRALIA — coastal, districts. 

MlCROCH^TES SCOPARius, Er., Wiegm. Arch., 1842, p. 
153; King, Trans. Ent. Soc. N. S. Wales, ii, p. 72; 
Blackburn, Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust., 1903, p. 174. 

This species is very abundant in Tasmania, and is the 
common species in New South Wales and Victoria. On 
fence tops and stumps at dusk it may sometimes be taken 
in hundreds ; it also occurs under logs (usually in dry 
situations) and occasionally in moss. As a rule Tasmanian 
specimens have more uniformly dark clothing than those 

* Boisduvul's types of Curculionida3 of the Astrolabe are in that 
institution. 

t I have taken specimens also on Rottnest, Garden, and Pelsart 
Islands and at All^any. 



Australian and Tasmanian Byrrhidx. 137 

from the mainland, and the under-surface is nearly always 
black. 

The punctures in the elytral stri« are normally concealed 
by the clothing, but when this has been abraded they are 
seen to be rather coarse at the sides and practically absent 
from the disc. When the clothing of the metasternum 
has been abraded the punctures .there are seen to be 
considerably larger at tlie base than at the apex. 

Hal. Tasmania, Victoria, N. S. Wales. 

MiCROCH^TES MINOR, King, Trans. Ent. Soc. N. S. Wales, 
ii, p. 73; Blackb., Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust, 1903, 
p. 174. 

The Rev. T. Blackburn regarded this species * as pro- 
bably not being a true MicrochiBtcs. It has every appear- 
ance of being one however, despite the want of fascicles. 
My specimen (a co-type from the late Rev. R. L. King's 
collection) is in rather bad preservation and 1 have been 
unable to examine its antennae and tarsi ; but this (owing 
to their small size and the frequency with which they 
are covered with dirt) is not often easy even in the 
larger species ; so King may quite easily have been 
misled in describing the tarsi as tetramerous. 

Hah. N. S. Wales. 

M1CROCH.ETES FASCICULARIS, Macl., Trans. Ent. Soc. N. S. 

Wales, ii, p. 171 ; Blackb., Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust., 

1903, p. 174. 
The Rev. T. Blackburn mentions having received speci- 
mens from me under the above name and queries the 
correctness of same. I received the name originally from 
Mr. George Masters and subsequently compared my speci- 
mens with the type. On examining them again, however, 
in April 1905, I found that I had two species mixed 
together, one being scoparius and the other fa scicular is; this 
latter was again and more carefully compared with the type 
and found to agree with it. Macleay's remark, " Thorax 
.... with a transverse series of five fascicles " is erroneous, 
as on the type there are only four. On abrasion the 
metasternum of my specimen is seen to be covered with 
very coarse punctures, becoming smaller (but still rather 
coarse) to apex ; there are also a few minute punctures 

* Unknown to liim except l^y description. 



138 Mr. Arthur M. Lea's Catalogue of 

scattered about. The punctures are after the same style 
as in scopao'ivs, only much larger. 
Hah. Queensland, N. S. Wales. 

MiCROCH^TES SOLIDUS, Blackb., Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust., 
1903, p. 175. 
Hah. Queensland.. 

MiCROCH^TES NiGROVARius, Blackb., I. c, p. 175. 
Hah. S. Australia. 



MORYCHUS. 

To this genus have been referred many species, which 
structurally would appear to belong to several genera. 
The wingless species, however, have been regarded as 
belonging to the genus, or sub-genus Fedilojjhoo'us. 

MoRYCHUS TORRENSENSIS, Blackb. (ByvrJivs, Blackb.), 
Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust., 1889, p. 138; 1903, p. 173. 
Hah. S. Australia. 



PEDILOPHORUS. 

One species only has been referred to this genus from 
Australia, but I have now to add seven more. Superficially 
these would appear to belong to several genera, but they 
are all evidently closely allied despite the fact that some 
are smooth, others are tuberculate and others hairy. I 
have not ventured therefore to propose new genera for 
their reception as the boundaries of Pcdiloijliorus are rather 
vague. 

The natural groups appear to be : — 

1. raucus and mixtus. 

2. hryo2)hagus and griffithi. 

3. simplicicornis. 

4. multicolor. 

5. carissimus and dives. 

In all the species the head is widely rounded in front 
with practically no clypeus, the antenna; are widely separ- 
ated and close to the eyes and in repose would just pass 
the middle coxa3. Their basal joint is large and about 



Australian and Tasmanian Byrrhidie. 18^ 

twice as long as the second, the third is variable between 
the species, the seventh is transverse, and the eighth to 
eleventh form a rather wide club. In simplicicoroiis, 
however, the antennae are otherwise. 

The third joint of the tarsi is lamellate beneath in all the 
species, but the lamellse are sometimes so thin that when 
closely pressed to the tarsi they cannot always be seen ; in 
Tauciis on one specimen I can see them clearly, in mivtus 
they are very thin, and except from the side and in a good 
light they appear to be absent, in midticolor they are in- 
distinct ; but in all the others they can be seen clearly and 
from the sides are very conspicuous. 

In rancus and mixtus the epipleur^E of the elytra are 
comparatively narrow and suddenly terminate at the hind 
00X86 ; in the others they are very much wider, and 
especially in simpUcicornis ; in hryo-phagus they are strongly 
depressed at the hind coxse. 

In carissimus and dives the intercoxal process of the 
prosternum is wider than in the others, in multicolor it is 
considerably narrower. 

The species may be tabulated as follows : — 

Elytra tuberculate — 

Prothorax with punctures .... carissimus. 
Prothorax with ridges . . . dives. 

Elytra without tubercles — 
Upper-surface hairy. 

Upper-surface not uniformly coloured . 'multicolor. 

Upper-surface uniformly coloured. 

Clothing uniform ...._. rancus. 

Clothing not uniform viixtus. 

Upper-surface glabrous. 

Under-surface black hryophagus. 

Under-surface reddish. 
Antennal joints gradually increasing in 

width ...... siviplicicornis. 

Antennae with terminal joints forming a 

distinct club ..... griffithi. 

Pedilophorus raucus, Blackb. {Byrrhus, Blackb.), Trans. 
R. Soc. S. Aust., 1891, p. 133; 1903, p. 173. 

Two specimens from New South Wales (obtained in 
flood debris on the Hawkesbury River) were named by 



140 Mr. Arthur M. Lea's Catalogue of 

Mr. Blackburn as this species, but tliey differ from the 
description in having the clothing of a reddish-brown ; in 
all other respects, however, they agree with the description. 
Hah. Victoria, N. S. Wales. 

Pedilophorus mixtus, n. sp. 

Bronze-black and shining ; under surface dull red, appendages 
paler. Upper surface with long blackish hair mingled with shorter 
whitish hair ; under-surface with greyish pubescence. 

Head rounded in front, with fairly numerous but partially con- 
cealed punctures. Anteniix with third joint almost as stoiit as 
second, and not much longer. Prothorax widely transverse, strongly 
but evenly convex, with numerous distinct but not quite evenly 
distributed punctures. Scutellum very distinct. Elytra strongly 
and evenly convex, punctures as on prothorax ; epipleuras rather 
narrow and suddenly terminated at hind coxee. Under-surface with 
moderately dense but rather small and partially concealed punctures. 
Length 3 mm. 

Hah. Tasmania : Hobart, Mount Wellington. 

The outline is a perfect oval. The whitish hair gives 
the upper-surface a faintly speckled appearance and from 
some directions appears to be in about five feeble bands 
across the elytra. Several specimens were taken dead at 
Sandy Bay whdst searching for blind sand-beetles, others 
were taken from moss on trees. 

In general appearance rather close to raucus but smaller 
and narrower than that species, the under-surface paler 
and with much smaller and sparser punctures, the legs 
paler, the clothing different, and the punctures of the 
elytra smaller, sparser and less uniform. 

Pedilophorus bryophagus, n. sp. 

Of a bright metallic green with a slight coppery gloss ; under- 
surface black, legs dull red, antennte and tarsi somewhat paler. 
Under-surface and appendages sparsely pubescent, elsewhere gla- 
brous. 

Head widely rounded in front, with fairly large and numerous 
clearly-defined punctures. Antennse with third joint distinctly 
thinner than and almost twice the length of third. Prothorax 
strongly convex, the sides almost vertical, with numerous compara- 
tively small but clearly defined punctures. Scutellum minute. 
Elytra very strongly convex, punctures ratlier snuiller tlian on 



Australian and Tasmanian Byrrhidx. 141 

protliorax, but almost as clearly defined ; eplpleutaj wide and some- 
what sinuous internally, strongly diminished towards but not 
suddenly terminated at hind cox£e. Under-surface almost impunctate. 
Length 3-3j mm. 

Hah. Tasmania : base of Mount Wellington. 

With the head as normally concealed the outline is a 
perfect oval. The elytral epipleurse, although not suddenly 
terminated at the hind coxse, are strongly depressed there 
for the reception of the apex of the femora. Mr. H. H. D. 
Griffith and myself have taken numerous specimens in 
moss, but always near the base of Mount Wellington ; the 
following species was always obtained at a considerably 
greater elevation. 

Pedilophorus griffithi, n. sp. 

Of a metallic green with a slight coppery gloss ; under-surface and 
apjjendages of a dull red. Under-surface and appendages very sparsely 
pubescent, elsewhere glabrous. 

Head widely rounded in front, with fairly numerous punctures of 
moderate size and clearly defined in front, becoming smaller and less 
clearly-defined posteriorly. Antennae with third joint much thinner 
than and twice the length of second. Prothorax and elytra of the 
same shape as in the preceding species but with much less distinct 
punctures, especially on the elytra ; the epipleurae of these wide, 
rather strongly narrowed behind the hind coxse, and not depressed 
there. Under-surface with sparse and minute punctures. Length 
4-4^ mm. 

JIab. Tasmania : Mount Wellington. 

In general appearance close to the pi'eceding species but 
larger, the under-surface not black, elytra with different 
punctures, and their epipleurse different. The colour is 
sometimes almost as bright a green as the preceding 
species, but is usually not so metallic; the prothorax in 
some specimens is ahnost black. 

Dedicated to Mr. H. H. D. Griffith, in memory of many 
very pleasant excursions on Mount Wellington, where we 
have frequently taken this sj)ecies in moss from old logs. 

Pedilophorus simplicicornis, n. sp. 

Black or brown, and usually with a metallic greenish gloss, under- 
surface and appendages more or less reddish. Under-surface and 
appendages very sparsely pubescent, elsewhere glabrous. 



142 Mr. Arthur M. Lea's Gcdaloguc of 

Head widely rounded in front ; with numerous clearly defined 
punctures of moderate size in front and on the sides sparser and 
smaller elsewhere. Antennae in repose extending to hind coxae, their 
first joint stout and more than thrice the length of second, second 
subglobular, third thinner than and twice the length of second, 
fourth the width of third and the length of second, the others 
regularly increasing in width, eleventh the length of ninth and tenth 
combined. Prothorax very strongly convex, sides almost vertical, in 
front with small indistinct punctures, elsewhere smaller and still less 
distinct. Sevtellum extremely minute or absent. Elytra very little 
longer than head and prothorax combined, almost as wide as long, 
outline not regularly continuous with that of prothorax, punctures 
very minute and indistinct ; epipleurac very wide, strongly narrowed 
behind but not depressed at hind coxa?. Abdomen with fairly 
numerous but small punctures, rest of under-surface almost im- 
punctate. Length 3J-4 mm. 

Hob. Tasmania : Mount Wellington (in very wet moss). 

There are seven specimens before me, and not two are 
exactly alike in colour. The colour of the upper-surface 
is more commonly black glossed with metallic green, but 
in three specimens whilst the greenish gloss is present 
the ground-colour is more of a reddish-brown especially 
towards the tip of the elytra ; the tip, however, is always 
more or less reddish ; the under-surface is of a more or 
less dark reddish-brown, sometimes paler at the sides 
and the appendages are usually paler, the legs and basal 
joints of the antennae being sometimes almost flavous. 
In some lights the elytra at the base appears to have very 
faint traces of striation. 

Although in many respects close to the preceding 
species the antennae differ from those of that species and 
from all the others here noted in not forming a distinct 
club, the four terminal joints are certainly larger and 
wider than the others, but the increase in width is quite 
regular from the fourth joint. It is also more convex 
than grijfithi and the elytral epipleuraj are very much 
wider and are otherwise different. 

Pedilophoeus multicolor, n. sp. 

Upper-surface (except sides of prothorax and elytra) dark, with 
various metallic glosses, lower-surface reddish-flavous, appendages 
paler. Upper-surface with fairly long golden semi-decumbent hair ; 
elsewhere with fine pubescence. 



A'lLsiralian and Tasmanian Byrrhidx. 143 

Head widely rounded in front, with dense and rather coarse clearly- 
defined punctures. AnUnnee stout, third joint thinner but no 
longer than second. Prothorax strongly convex, sides in places 
quite vertical, disc towards base almost flattened ; densely and 
coarsely punctate. Scutelhim minute. Elytra strongly convex, sub- 
cordate, punctures almost as on prothorax, epipleuras very narrow, 
strongly narrowed behind hind coxte and with sparse but rather 
large punctures. Undcr-surface with fairly numerous and distinct 
punctures. Length 2 mm. 

Rah. Tasmania : Mount Wellington. 

The head is usually of a dark metallic green,the prothorax 
is usually also metallic green, but much brighter than the 
head, its sides are widely diluted with red, but the colours 
are not sharply limited ; the elytra are black with a bronzy 
or greenish gloss, their apex and sides are widely diluted 
with red, the red being sometimes advanced along the 
sviture; the meso- and metasternum are usually somewhat 
darker than the rest of the under-surface. One specimen 
has the dark parts of the head and elytra slightly bronzed, 
but the prothorax of a beautiful purple. 

A lovely little insect, all my specimens of which were 
obtained in moss on stones continually wet with spray, 
just above the Silver Falls. 

Pedilophorus carissimus, n. sp. 

Of a bright metallic coppery green ; tubercles coppery bronze ; 
under-surface and appendages black ; second joint of antennae, palpi, 
claws and trochanters of a more or less dull red. Under-surface and 
appendages with very fine pubescence, elsewhere glabrous. 

Head almost semicircularly rounded in front, with dense clearly 
defined punctures, rather smaller along middle than elsewhere. 
Antennse with third joint much thinner than and almost twice the 
length of second, seventh almost the width of eighth. Prothorax 
very strongly and almost regularly convex, densely but not very 
coarsely punctate. Scntellum small. Elytra very strongly convex, 
with rows of slightly elevated burnished tubercles, the whole surface 
with small evenly distributed punctures, the spaces between the 
tubercles finely shagreened ; epipleune rather narrow, and very 
narrow behind the hind coxfe. Under-surface with fairly dense and 
very di.stinct punctures, becoming coarse on intercoxal process of 
presternum. Length 6 mm. 

Rah. Tasmania : summit of Mount Wellington. 



144 Mr. Artliur M. Lea's Catalogue of 

The tubercles, of which there are about 36 on each 
elytron, may be regarded as being in five irregular rows 
on each, the rows being in places irregularly doubled and 
they appear to be always slightly different in disposition ; 
although very conspicuous they are not much elevated 
above the general surface ; they have punctures as the rest 
of the elytra but are not shagreened. 

A lovely insect which has been obtained on the summits 
of several mountains in Tasmania. Mr. Aug. Simpson has 
one specimen jjrobably from Ben Lomond. My own was 
obtained on the summit of Mount Wellington in January 
1904, under adeeply buried stone; fragments are numerous 
there, but although both Mr. Griffith and myself repeatedly 
searched for it there we never succeeded in taking more 
than one living specimen. For years we have been in the 
habit of referring to this species as " Simpson's beauty." 



Pedilophorus dives, n. sp. 

Of a metallic coppery green, tubercles coppery j^urple, nnder- 
surface black, appendages dull red, tar.si paler. Under-surface and 
appendages with very fine pubescence, elsewhere glabrous. 

Head very widely rounded in front, immediately behind which is 
an irregular transverse impression ; surface with short ridges and 
granules. Antennse. short, third joint thinner than and more than 
twice the length of second. Prothorax very strongly convex, densely 
covered with short ridges. Scutellum minute. Elytra strongly 
convex, with numerous small granules, and each with four somewhat 
irregular rows of strongly elevated tubercles, epipleurse narrow and 
strongly narrowed at hind coxae. Sterna with dense and coarse 
punctures ; abdomen with sparser, smaller, and more irregular 
punctures. Length 4 mm. 

Hah. Tasmania: Frankford (in moss). 

The prothoracic ridges on the sides are more or less 
parallel with the sides, but elsewhere they are very irregular 
in direction, except that from two points they appear to 
radiate like the spokes of a wheel. The elytral tubercles 
are usually somewhat elongated, those of the two sutural 
rows are largest, the sutural row extends almost to the 
apex where it joins in with the third row; the second row 
terminates at about one-third from the apex, the outer 
row consists of little more than tubercular swellins^s of the 



Australian and Tasmanian Byrrhida}. 145 

apparent margin*; between the second and third rows 
there are on the specimens before me from one to three 
tubercles. 



LIMNICHUS. 

LiMNiCHUS AUSTRALis, Er., Wiegm. Arch. 1842, p. 153. 
Hal. Tasmania. 



ASPIDOPHORUS. 

ASPIDOPHORUS HUMERALis, Blackb., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. 
Wales, 1894, p. 92. 

Hob. Tasmania. 

ASPIDOPHORUS GLOBOSUS, Macl. (Trinodcs, Macl.), Trans. 
Ent. Soc. N. S. Wales, 1871, ii, p. 171. 

I recently examined the type of Trinodcs glohosus referred 
by Macleay to the DermcstidcX ; it is certainly an Aspido- 
pliorus. The original description is quite worthless and 
the specimen, when I examined it, was very greasy. There 
are two species before me, either of which may be glohosus, 
but until they have been compared with the type, after 
this has been cleaned, it would be unsafe to describe one 
of them as new. 



SPECIES REFERRED IN ERROR TO THE 
BYEBHID^. 

MlCROCH^TES COSTATUS, Macl. 

Macleay states of this species that it " ought probably 
to constitute a new genus." I recently examined the type 
and found that it belongs to the Histeridx and is Bpiechinus 
tasmani, Lewis.f The species therefore must now be 
known as Eiyiecliinus costatus, Macl. 

LiMNICHUS FRONTALIS, Macl. 

This has already been referred to the genus Stidostix of 
the Histerid^ by Lewis. 

* From above they appear to be on the extreme sides of the elytra, 
but these are incurved below them. 

f Of this species I have specimens named by Mr. Lewis. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1907. — PART I. (JUNE) 10 



146 Mr. A. M. Lea's Catalogue of Byrrhidai 

BiZENIA FORMICICOLA, King. 

This also belongs to the Histcridx, and is stated to be a 
synonym of Cldamydopsis striatella, Westw. 

MORYCHUS HETEROMERUS, King. 

This belongs to the Tcuehrionidc'B, and I have recently 
commented upon it in the Proceedings of the Linuean 
Society of New South Wales.* 

* 1906, p. 226. 



( 147 ) 



VII. Entomology in N.W. Spain {Galicia and Leon). By 
T. A. Chapman, M.D., F.Z.S. (Lepidoptera), and 
G. C. Champion, F.Z.S. (Coleoptera and Hemi- 
ptera). 

[Read March 6th, 1907.] 

Plates V-XI. 

District visited, Itinerary. 

For our sixth (fifth together) entomological excursion in 
Spain Mr. Champion and I agreed to visit Galicia, the 
north-west corner of the Peninsula. The choice was 
determined probably by a wish for an area new to us and 
a fear that our date was not early enough for a south- 
eastern district, where more interesting collecting could no 
doubt be done. Our visits to the Western Cantabrian 
Mountains, two years ago, left me with a distinct wish to 
see some of the more western ranges. One of the draw- 
backs of a visit to Spain is the long railway journey, the 
railways in Spain being often neither very quick nor very 
comfortable. To Galicia, however, one can go by R.M.S.P. 
Co.'s steamer to Vigo, and this also was not a small item in 
our selection. We left Southampton on the 15th of June 
by the steamer " Amazon " on her first trip, a ship of 10,000 
tons and described in a newspaper notice as a " floating 
electrical palace." The Bay of Biscay was like a millpond, 
so that the comfort as compared with a railway journey 
was immense. We were also fortunate on our return 
journey to come by the " Danube," and to have a fairly 
calm sea. 

Vigo is a small town with considerable commercial 
activity and a large business in fish and especially in 
sardines. It is not always easy to escape the flavour of 
fish even by going some miles into the country. Our 
favourite excursion from Vigo was by small steamer across 
the fiord to Cangas. The weather was warm enough to 
make an excursion to a sufficient distance, on the much- 
populated Vigo side, rather trying, whilst the half-hour on 
the water was always inviting. Cangas is a large fishing 
village, but close to it is open wild ground. Vigo is 

trans, ent. soc. lond. 1907. — part i. (june) 



148 Dr. T. A. Chapman and Mr, G. C. Champion on 

situated on a bay or iulet of the sea some mile and a half 
or two miles across, and some twenty miles long, the 
country is mountainous, but the elevations are low, 
cultivation reaching well to the tops. There are woods, 
including some of pine, but the rarity of pine species 
confirms their appearance of being planted and not 
indigenous. To get more than scraps of waste ground one 
must go inland seven or eierht miles, on towards Porrino, 
where we found open heath and woodland. The roads, 
however, are very dusty and not inviting either for walk- 
ing or driving, whilst cross-country footpaths, though more 
pleasant, go up and down hill in a most fatiguing way, and 
yet involve much longer routes, and many occasions for 
getting lost or having to turn back. A prominent feature 
of these excursions was the bullock-carts, with wooden 
axles and solid wooden wheels, which always made loud 
screeching noises, pleasing if at a suflScient distance and 
one were in a good humour, but otherwise at close quarters. 
Some ten miles up the bay we explored the very similar 
neighbourhood of Redondela (by train), and found some 
items of interest close to Vigo itself, as for instance the 
handsome larvse of Diplura loti on the slopes of the forts. 

Our efforts to ascertain how we should best reach any 
of the higher ground of Galicia were unsuccessful and we 
ended by going to El Barco (de Valdeorras) by train, as 
being more amongst the mountains, and from here we 
went on mule-back some five or six hours' journey to 
Casayo, about 3,500 feet up; the highest and furthest 
village in the valley of the Casoya, a stream running from 
the south into the main stream of the Sil. From here we 
could get up another 2,000 feet or so, but were still about 
a day's journey from where we wished to be, amongst the 
ridges of over 7,000 feet. Nor was there any other village 
near them on the north side where we were. Possibly a 
nearer resting-place may be found on the south, starting 
from La P.uebla de Sanabria, but we did not definitely 
ascertain this. I think for really good work in this region 
camping out will be a necessity. Unfortunately, both Mr. 
Champion and myself have a prejudice in favour of a roof 
over our heads, although our quarters at Casayo would 
prove to any one that we are far from being too particular 
beyond this. 

Thence we returned to El Barco, and went on to 
Branuelas, at the highest point attainable by railway. 



Entomology in N. W. Spain. 149 

Here, at 3,300 feet, we found we were in the middle of a 
wide plateau of which the highest accessible point some 
four or five miles off only gave us another 1,000 feet. 
Braiiuelas is some way beyond the boundary of Galicia in 
the province of Leon. 

At El Barco (de Valdeorras) we had an experience that 
was quite new to us in Spain, and though not altogether 
pleasant, was of considerable interest entomologically, 
anthropologically and probably in several other directions. 
We made a short excursion on the afternoon of our arrival, 
and on the next day tried a rather longer one to the ridge 
at the top of a side valley, with very similar country to 
that we afterwards more fully examined some twenty miles 
off (as the crow flies) at Casayo. We thought several of 
the people we met were less civil and- friendly than had 
been our univei"sal experience previously, and at our 
evening meal one of the other guests asked us pointedly as 
to how we found the people disposed towards us. This 
seemed a very curious and unusual question, but that 
evening and the following day we had no difficulty in 
ascertaining from our landlord and from visitors at the 
inn what was alluded to, a remarkable delusion of a great 
majority of the inhabitants, a delusion of whose existence 
we had abundant evidence in the virulent abuse one lady 
bestowed on Mr. Champion on our excursion the next 
morning, which we purposely made a short one, and which 
was elucidated and explained to us in detail by Mr. 
Edward Jones, an English gentleman long settled in El 
Barco, of whose kindness to us we have most genial 
recollections, as well as by his brother, Mr. H. Jones, whom 
we remember with pleasure. It appeared that (twenty- 
five to thirty ?, I forget the exact date) years ago, the 
Phylloxera reached El Barco and caused widespread 
disaster amongst the vine-growers, more or less the whole 
population. Incidentally, it may be noted that Mr. E. 
Jono^ was one of the largest of these, and that he made 
further sacrifices as a pioneer in ascertaining what remedies 
were available, and introducing American vine-stocks and 
otherwise restoring the vine culture of the district to 
prosperity. The natives, it appears, were convinced that 
the Phylloxera had been wilfully introduced by some 
Frenchmen with a view to their ruin, and to destroy 
Spanish competition in the wine trade. No doubt we did 
not hear all the history of this delusion, and what we did 



150 Dr. T. A. Chapman and Mr._G. C. Champion on 

hear was too long to repeat here. The delusion was, how- 
ever, very firmly established, and persists strongly to the 
present time. About ten years ago, some Italian workmen 
in search of employment passed through the district, and 
were taken by the natives to be Frenchmen (all foreigners 
are supposed to be Frenchmen) with a similar sinister 
exploit in view, and several of them were beaten and one 
or two seriously injured. Our position was that we also 
were Frenchmen come to El Barco with an identical 
purpose, an idea possibly suggested, certainly confirmed, 
by our manipulation of nets, satchels, pill-boxes, etc. As 
vineyards were everywhere, except on the higher ground, 
it seemed self-evident that we took out of our satchels 
Phylloxera spawn and by means of our nets scattered it 
broadcast over the countr3^ 

It must be remembered that our real objects are wholly 
incomprehensible to the country people, and even when, 
as we had always before found them, most friendly and 
polite, it was always clear that they regarded our account 
of our proceedings as being obviously insincere. Their 
usual belief was that we were gathering materials for 
some potent and valuable medicine, at other times they 
seemed to think we were mining engineers unwilling to 
avow our explorations. 

Unfortunately, at El Barco, another explanation fell in 
at once with their prejudices, and there was no doubt much 
sincerity in the threats of what would happen to us, that 
we heard of a man going so far as to say he would 
certainly use a gun if he found us near his vines. Our 
informants, being more educated, regarded these popular 
views as nonsense, but had no doubt they were strongly 
held, and would be acted on by the small cultivators. 
Others of the peasant class with whom we talked clearly 
held the popular view, and found their innate politeness 
under an extreme strain when desiring to show their 
belief in our honesty. A very curious point was, that 
within thirty-six hours of our arrival not only were these 
opinions of us adopted, but everybody apparently for miles 
around was aware of our presence, and knew, and I fear 
usually accejated, this extraordinary view of the object of 
our visit. 

We could no doubt have claimed official protection and 
got some persons to go with us as guards, but as the 
immediate locality was not attractive, and the friendly 



Entomology in N.W. Spain. 151 

bearing towards us of the inhabitants was always an 
indisputable item in the enjoyment of our excursions in 
Spain, we decided to move on at once, proceeding to 
Casayo. 

El Barco is on the river Sil, and some five miles above 
the town (or village), some way beyond Sobradelo, the 
Casayo Valley opens to the south. Casayo is the highest 
village in the valley at an elevation approaching 4,000 feet. 
Its position is approximately 42' 16' N., Q" 44' W. We 
hoped to obtain fair quarters here, but on arrival were 
disappointed to find that the elevation was less than we 
had hoped, and that the promised accommodation was 
absolutely impossible. After for some time seriously con- 
sidering an immediate retreat, we finally discovered that 
the schoolroom of the village was for the time unused and 
at our service. It was infinitely rough and dirty, and 
none too large, but we could have it to ourselves, the 
neighbouring farmer's wife could find us clean bedding 
and cater for us, and it possessed a practicable balcony. 
So here we stayed for a week, and have been less 
comfortable under more conventional conditions. 

The different branches of the Casayo valley presented 
considerable variety of conditions, generally steep and 
rocky slopes, clad with heath, Cistus, Cytisus, and often 
patches of scrub oak, and in one or two places moister 
wooded slopes. The roughness and steepness of the 
country rendered excursions to any distance impossible, 
except where there were regular tracks. One of these 
leading across a high plateau towards La Bana passed the 
habitat of Lycaina idas. Lyciena argus, var. casaiacics, 
occurred everywhere, but commonly only along another 
road leading up the main valley, a little further up which 
at about 4,000 feet Ercbia i'>cdarica was not infrequent, 
but quite i^c^^^^- There were other spots in view, but 
practically inaccessible, that we should like to have visited ; 
the varied character of some of these makes it probable 
that not a few species as unexpected as L. idas may be 
found in this region by more enterprising explorers than 
we were. 

On our way back we stayed a day or two at Tuy and 
made an excursion to Valenga, on the Portuguese side of 
the Mifio. Then we went northwards to Pontevedra, 
and visited Santiago de Compostela. From Valenq-a to 
Pontevedra the country is very similar to that about Vigo, 



152 Dr. T. A. Chapman and Mr. G. C. Champion on 

the Bay at Pontevedra very like that at Vigo or Carril ; 
low, often, however, steep hills, more or less wooded, 
chiefly with oak and fir, cultivated valleys and slopes. 
The butterflies most abundant along all this region are 
Lampides hcctica and telicanus, imagines, eggs and larvae 
always common, wherever the showy Adenocarpus inter- 
medius grew, and that is by almost every wayside, on 
every slope and the margins of the woods. Coeoionympha 
dorus matheivi was frequent on all open grassy or heathy 
slopes, but rare before the middle of July. 

The following notes on some of the Lepidoptera ob- 
served may be of use : — 



COENONYMPHA DORUS MATHEWI, Tutt. 
(? prsec. = var. hicti, Stdg.) 

(Plate V, figs. 1-12.) 

Cmnonymplia doo^ns, var. mathcwi, Tutt. 

We found this species at all localities visited, it was 
very rare at Vigo in the third week in June ; in the third 
week in July it was much more frequent, but beginning 
to go over in condition. Here and at Pontevedra (July 
19th) as well as at Tuy (July 18th) it occurred down to 
nearly sea-level, and up to about 1,000 ft. (at Redondela). 
At Casayo it was frequent along our walk on the hill-side 
(first week in July) at about 3,500 ft. and at Brafiuelas 
a week later at 3,000 to 4,000 ft. At all these stations 
the form of the insect is much the same, perhaps the 
Brahuelas specimens have more individuals with paler 
under-sides. Ccenonymjjha mathewi of Tutt is, in view of 
these specimens, only a local race of dorus, and there is 
probably no great difference between it and Staudinger's 
hicti from North Portugal, though Staudinger does not 
mention as a character of hicti, the most striking difference 
between onrdhcwi and dorus, viz. the dark hind-margin of 
the hind-wing beneath, narrowing the pale area to a band 
or line, barely reaching the ocelli, the outer dark margin 
of this however has a small pale patch, just beyond the 
middle ocellus. Mcdhcwi is, like dorvs, very variable on 
the upper-side. In the male the whole surface may be of 
a uniform deep or blackish-brown without trace of ocelli 



Entomology in N. W. Spain. 153 

or other marking. The absence of the apical ocellus is 
however very rare, occurring in only three specimens, 
though several others have it so faint, that one feels sure it 
is only shining through from beneath. More or less shad- 
ing of reddish or ochreous occurs on the upper wings of 
about half the specimens. As regards the hind-wing it is 
remarkable that the nearest approach to dorus (type) 
occurs in the Casayo specimens, those from Brafiuelas, 
though so much nearer central Spain, being very like 
those from Vigo. A majority of the Casayo specimens 
have red ochreous colouring in the hind-wing, but of the 
others only about half, in most of these the colour does not 
extend outside the ocelli, and in not more than three or four 
does it extend so far as to leave only a dark line between 
it and the marginal pale line. In dorus the pale hind- 
wing may be said to have a dark subterminal line, in 
mathewi this line is so wide, and so much part of the 
general dark colour of the wing, that one notes rather the 
pale subterminal line beyond it. This is often absent, 
but there is usually some trace of it, especially in the 
Casayo series. 

The ocelli vary much, on the fore-wing the apical eye 
is almost invariably present, occasionally double (beneath 
as well as on uppei'-side). In several specimens there is 
an ocellus between veins 2 and 3^ those in the inter- 
mediate spaces are perhaps not so rare, but are usually 
when present faintly indicated points only. The hind-wing 
is never quite spotless, the spot between veins 2 and 3 
being however the only one present in several specimens. 
There may be 2, 3, or 4 spots, and these vary much in 
intensity and may be black spots faintly ringed or may 
have a bright yellow circle ; these are very striking 
in the darkest specimens, when these yellow circles 
are all that remain of the pale area of the hind-wing 
(in dorus). 

The under-side is not very variable, many specimens 
have the leaden metallic line, but in none is it so broad 
and bright as in dorus, and in only one or two does it 
appear on the fore-wing, where its place is often taken by 
a dark line, or dark shade broadened into a patch at the 
anal angle. On the hind-wing the area outside the eye- 
spots is of the same tint as the basal area. The spots are 
always much smaller than in my Spanish dorus, but vary 
a good deal in size, and may be reduced to three in 



154 Dr. T. A. Chapman and Mr. G. C. Champion on 

number. The costal spot is nearly always in the white 
band, in dorus it is usually largely or quite in the basal 
dark area. 

In dorns the fore-wing rarely has any rufous, but in 
matheivi it is not only frequent, but is usually more or less 
present on the fore-wing, when it appears on the hind 
one. 

The $ is much darker than that of dorus, the hind-wings 
may be entirely dark except the eye-spots, and when 
rufous is present it is usually restricted much as in 
the ^^that have it. The fore-wings also have the rufous 
much restricted as compared with dorus, the dark hind 
margin is broader in all, often much broader, and tlie light 
colour may be restricted to a few patches. Additional 
ocelli are more frequent in the '^ than the $ , and indi- 
cations of 8 and 4 (upper-side of upper-wing) occur on 
several specimens. The under-side is perhaps paler than 
in the $,\>\xt the under-surfaces are practically identical in 
the two sexes. The expanse is ^ 27-35 mm., average 31 ; 
$ 30-36, average 32 mm. There is one dwarf $ only 
28 m. Mathcioi is thus smaller than any other (Spanish) 
dorus. The cilia are very pale, hardly perhaps white, and 
darker apically ; in dorus they are more nearly of the tint 
of the wing surface. 

Egg of Gteiwm/mpha mathewi, 0*84 mm. high ; 0'7 wide. Has a 
hemispherical base and a flat top. The hemisphere is 0"7 mm. in 
diameter, from the margin of the hemisphere the sides rise for 0"4 mm., 
gradually narrowing (from 0"7) to 0'5 mm., here there is an almost 
angular margin, the nearly flat top further rising however to its 
centre about 0'09 mm. 

The central micropylar area has extremely fine cellular tracery of 
raised lines. Outside this the top nearly to its margin has large 
hexagonal cells, somewhat deeply impressed. These pass at the 
margin into longitudinal ribs running down the sides of the egg ; the 
ribs are high and broad, the valleys between them flat and smooth. 
The secondary ribs are quite absent in the valleys but are indicated 
by beading or offsets of the primary ribs, which here and there project 
as fine ribs, just into the valleys, but never cross them. The ribs 
are not quite straight, occasionally branch, but more often end, 
between two others which approach beyond it. 

The colour is an ocbreous-yellow, with a small proportion of pink 
and darker to nearly black, in fine clouds and wisps, sometimes in 
little rings and streaks. 



Entomology in N.W. Spain. 155 

Matheivi larva newly hatched. 

Almost exactly 2 mm. long, rather pale ochreou?, head very pale, 
eye-spots and spiracles dark. Abdominal segments with six sub- 
segments. The tubercular hairs are colourless, very short curved and 
clubbed and lie down nearly flat to the larval surface, there are 
similar hairs on head, those on head and prothorax are directed 
forwards, the others backwards, and there are two tails extending 
beyond the pro-legs, carrying each a rather longer and straighter 
hair beneath it and another at its tip. The hairs on segments 
8 and 9 are rather longer than the others, but are equally curved, 
clubbed, and parallel with the surface. 

As to coloration the thorax is pale like the head, there is a darker 
dorsal line and a paler lateral, on the abdomen the interval between 
shows three reddish or flesh-coloured longitudinal bauds, divided in 
separate blotches on each segment. 

September 19. — The little larva (only one remains, three 
others having disappeared whilst behaving like this one) 
has rested motionless on a grass-blade for the last seven 
weeks and has not only eaten nothing but has shown no 
wish to eat. It looks much the same as it did at first. 

This larva remained thus till found dead in the winter. 
It seems tolerably certain that the larva hibernates without 
eating anything as that of Argijnnis paphia does. 

Lyc^.na IDAS, Ramb. (Plate V, figs. 13, 14, 15.) 

Lycsena idas, Ramb., already referred to Eat, Proc. 1906, 
p. Ixxxix. 

Some 92 specimens were taken, unfortunately too large 
a proportion of them not in fine condition. As the species 
has hitherto had only a very limited known habitat in the 
S.E. of Spain, and this new station is not only over 400 
miles distant, but in the apparently very different climate 
of N.W. Spain, it may be well to note the facies of the 
Galician specimens, compared as well as one may with 
Rambur's figures and description ; the only specimens I 
have seen are those in the B. M. collection, they are rather 
small compared with mine and rather faded and differ from 
my specimens and equally from Rambur's description in 
having much less of the white addendum to the discal spot. 
The Galician specimens are 26-30 mm. in expanse. They 
are not perhaps quite as black as astrarche, and when 



156 Dr. T. A. Chapman and Mr. G. C. Champion on 

fresh they have a very distinct metallic or iridescent 
sheen. The discal spot has, I fancy, the white addition 
more frequently than the Andalusian specimens. No 
figures I have seen present it, so that it seems to be 
regarded an an aberration. Rambur says it is present 
" inlcrdum " and " souvent ; " of my 92 specimens only 6 are 
without it, and of these only one is in sufficiently fine 
condition to be trustworthy, the others may have had a 
few scales that have been lost, a good many of the 86 
that show it having it reduced to only a few scales. So 
that in my specimens to be without the white scales is the 
aberration and not at all a common one. (Perhaps the 
greatest difference from astrarche is in the form of the wing, 
which is almost the same in both sexes, rounded, especially 
towards the apex, without any trace of the produced sharp 
tip to the wing that often is seen in $ astrarche and is 
indeed a sexual character of the species as in many 
coppers.) 

The discal spot varies much in size and shape and in 
the amount of white addition. It is not often lunulate 
simply, usually it is angulated having a point directed to 
the hind margin and sometimes another directed basally 
giving the black spot a square form. The white addition is 
on the inner and outer margin of the spot, usually both, 
and it is common for the outer portion to be divided in two 
by the outer point of the black spot above referred to ; in a 
very few specimens the black spot is very large and the 
white abundant, in these both white and black are produced 
in a radiating manner both basally and towards the hind 
margins. The separation of the median row of ocelli on 
the under-side from the margin orange ones, which 
Rambur points out is very marked especially on the fore- 
wings, the ocelli between veins 4 and 5 are widely apart, 
iu astrarche their white bodies are almost always in 
contact. 

Rambur describes the orange spots of the under-side as 
pale and sometimes wanting on the fore-wing and the 
apical one as being white instead of orange. In the 
Galician specimens the orange is just appreciably less 
bright than in astrarche but tending to fuscous rather 
than to being pale, the orange only a little reduced in the 
apical spot. The double spot at anal angle rarely shows a 
trace of orange, its place being taken by a fuscous extension 
of its dark inner margin, and the white outer margin being 



Entomology in N.W. Siiain. 157 

rather wider. The alignment of the ocelli of the middle row 
is as described by Rambiir; on the fore- wing, the three 
between veins 3 and 6 are nearly in line instead of in 
a curve as in astrarclie and the 1 (or 2) above seem unduly 
moved basally. I have one or two ^ specimens in which 
traces of orange spots are seen on upper-side of fore- wings, 
and several with considerable variations in size and form 
of ocelli beneath, but no decided radiated varieties. 

In two or three specimens there is a distinct discal spot 
on the hind-wing, with black and white scales. A close 
examination shows it to be present on a few others, but it 
is vague and indistinct when unaccompanied by any white 
scaling. 

The habitat was high up on open hill-slopes, but in 
little hollows of these, where a species of Erodmm with 
extremely large and dark marked flowers grew, and it was 
not found away from these. Several species of Hdian- 
themum were abundant all about, but it was quite absent 
amongst these. Females were seen to lay eggs on the 
Erodium, selecting^ the smaller leaves and as near the 
ground as possible. The eggs gathered were unfortunately 
destroyed by the rotting of the succulent leaves, before 
they were properly examined, and no young larvge were 
obtained. Several were however placed in formalin. 

L. idas is of much the same size as astrarclie, but the 
latter runs to a somewhat greater expanse in some of its 
varieties. This small difference is much exceeded by that 
which exists in the ancillary appendages, those of astrarclie 
beinfj more than half as laro^e aafain as those of idas. The 
clasps are in astrarclie 2*2 mm. long, in idas I'S mm., and 
the other parts in much the same proportion. The general 
scheme of construction is nearly identical (as it is in a 
number of allied Lycmias). In my preparations the clasp 
seems broader in idas, especially basally, but I think this 
is probably not the case. The difference is rather in some 
of the curvatures, that result in the clasp being spread 
open in idas and somewhat folded in astrarchc when 
pressed down on a slide. The greatest difference is in 
idas having the clasp quite free of the curious processes 
on its disc found in astrarclie, and that do not occur in 
any other European Lycmnas I have examined except in 
eumedon. The dorsal processes and their attendant hooks, 
besides being smaller, are shorter and thicker to a marked 
degree in idas (see Plates VI and VII). 



158 Dr. T. A. Chapman and Mr. G. C. Champion 



on 



Egg of Lycxna idas from a specimen preserved in formalin and 
so stained by colouring matter from the bit of leaf of Erodium on 
which it is. Hence a dirty brownish, instead of the nearly white as 
when laid. The size is 0'56 mm. in diameter and about 0'3 mm. 
high. Edges rounded, top nearly flat. It has the usual network of 
white material rising into points at the intersections. At the margin 
of the top where the structure is most developed the pillars at the 
intersections are very thick, looking in some views like cones with 
rounded tops, in others like pillars as thick as the widtli of the spaces 
between them. In this situation they are arranged in triangles with 
five forming a pentagon (owing to curvature of egg), not six to a 
hexagon ; the connecting ridges are very narrow and sharp, and sag 
apparently nearly down to the true egg-surface. Taking a wider 
view, they are arranged in the usual "engine-turned" pattern. 
This sculpturing continues up to the micropylar area, a circle about 
0-07 mm. in diameter, with less than the usual dwindling, at least 
of the ribs, the columns nearly disappear, the ribs become more radial, 
and the cells between them more radially elongated. They change 
into the small cells of the micropylar area by the intermediation of 
a circle of rather square cells. The largest cells (marginal) are about 
0"05 mm. in their longest (radial) diagonal. Those of the micropylar 
circle are only about O'Ol. 

Lycxna argvs casaiacus, n. var. 

(Plate V, figs. lG-19.) 

Lyc^7ia argns was found at all the stations visited. At 
Vigo the specimens were about 2G mm. in expanse of very- 
ordinary facies, but presenting traces of the peculiar 
character more marked in the Casayo specimens yet to 
be referred to. Such svnall specimens only occurred at 
Branuelas and Casayo as occasional aberrations. At these 
localities the form is a large one, up to 35 mm. in expanse, 
of a very brilliant blue above, reminding one of corydon, 
var. corydonivs, and a uniform pale silvery tint below, 
fairly close to vars. hypochiona and hcjarensis. It differs 
from these further by a very fair proportion of specimens 
having on the hind margin of the hind-wing two or three 
of the red arches that are present in the $ ; they are how- 
ever not orange or red-brown as in the female, but modified 
by the blue so as to be a rosy pink. I believe such ^ 
coloration is recorded in an Asiatic form that otherwise 
differs, and the faintest traces of it may be seen even in 



Entomology in N. W. S-pain. 159 

English specimens, if closely and sympathetically examined. 

1 propose casaiacus as a varietal name for this race. 

At Brailuelas Ccenonynvpha iphioidcs was very abundant 
in all the swampy hollows that occurred on the frequent 
little streams ; they were rather over at the time of our 
visit. 

At Casayo, at one point on a slope a little further on 
than the best locality for L. argus, var. casaiacus, a good 
many specimens of Erchia palarica were seen, and they 
occurred less freely as far along that valley as we extended 
our excursions. They also were unfortunately in some- 
what bad condition (first week in July). They were 
therefore about a fortnight earlier than we found them at 
Pajares, and more close to the dates recorded by Mrs. 
Nicholl on the Picos de Europa. 

We saw no trace of Erehia, stygne. Casayo is about 130 
miles from the Picos de Europa, and about 100 miles from 
Pajares. It is moreover in Galicia, so that its discovery 
here gives a large extension to its known habitat, which 
is no doubt all suitable places in the Cantabrian mountains 
for something like 150 miles. These Galician palarica 
are a slightly larger, finer race than those taken at Pajares. 
Measured as set, which is 2 to 3 mm. less than the true 
expanse, in order to compare them fairly with measure- 
ments given in Trans. Ent. Soc. 1905, p. 33, 4 out of 
12 $ examples are respectively 61, 62, 63 and 65 
(accurately 67 "4) mm. in expanse, to compare with the 

2 (out of 115) largest from Pajares of 61 mm. The others 
range down to 53 mm., identical with the smallest from 
Pajares, the mean being 58'8 mm. as against 57*2 for the 
Leon specimens. Three $$ are 57, 57, 58 mm., practically 
identical with Pajares specimens which average 57'25. 
So far as these rather poor specimens can be compared, 
there seems to be no difference in markings or coloration. 

We saw no other Erehias except two very worn evias at 
Casayo, of 47 and 48 mm. expanse, probably very late 
specimens of the low-level form. 

Melit/va athalia was largely in very poor condition, so 
that only about a score were brought home. They vary 
in size from 37 mm. to 52 mm. Some are very dark 
and suffused, several vary in the tints of the bands of 
light brown, and look both in this respect and in wing 
outline so like pluehc, that they were so considered at 
first glance by entomologists who examined them, the 



IGO Dr. T. A. Chapman and Mr. G. C. Champion on 

under-sides however disproved such a suspicion ; others 
Mr. Tutt pronounces to be deione. I can only say that I 
cannot think the whole series are other than all of one 
species. 

Altogether we met with some 69 or 70 species of 
butterflies, of which only one or two others call for any 
remark. Of the Ccenonympha pampliilus taken, one or two 
might be ordinary British examples, most are well marked 
both as to border and ocelli, and especially as to the pale 
band of under-side hiud-wing being well marked and 
sharply cut off by a dark line from the dark basal portion. 
These are no doubt the form that passes as li/llus, none of 
them have the pale, nearly uniform, ochreous tone beneath 
that characterises the specimens from the Cuenca district, 

Pyramcis cardui was common everywhere, in all stages. 
Several larvae were found on Ecldum, an extraordinary food 
plant, already recorded, however, by Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher, 
On July 9th, in descending the Casayo valley, we saw many 
specimens about the chestnut trees that were in flower, 
A few trees had none, most a dozen or so flying around 
them, but one tree, and one only, that to our senses did 
not differ from the others, had literally thousands flying 
about and settled on it. The sight was remarkable in 
itself, as a mass of butterflies, apart altogether from the 
curious selection of one special tree for the congregation. 

AjJOi'ia craLv-gi was uncommon, but several were seen at 
Branuelas, and one $ was observed laying its eggs. She 
investigated several leaves (of hawthorn) before finding 
one that pleased her. So far as I understood her selection, 
it was necessary that she should secure a firm and satis- 
factory grip of the leaf, generally by the margin, so as to 
maintain her station without moving throughout the 
laying of the whole of the batch. The eggs are laid in as 
regular order as those of a Noctua, who keeps her ovi- 
positor in constant touch with the groups, and so appears 
to have quite an easy task in keeping the alignment. 

A. crata^gi does not do so. After laying an egg she 
raises her abdomen right away from the leaf as if the 
whole process was finished and remains so for several 
seconds, and then brings it down again on exactly the spot 
for laying the next egg. To secure such accuracy it is 
obvious that her footing must be absolutely firm and 
fixed. 

Other butterflies met with were Fcqnlio machaon, not 



Eiitotnologij in N.W. Spain, 161 

very common ; P. podcdirins, rare ; Colias edusa, abund- 
ant ; Go7ic2')tcryx rhamni at Redondela, Leptidia sinapis, 
Fieris dap)lidicc common everywhere, often abundant, much 
more so than all the other whites taken together, Fieris 
raps', F. napi, F. hrassioB. Apatura iris, two large but- 
terflies, little more than glimpsed at Casayo flying about 
honeysuckle on a large sallow tree, were probably this, but 
possibly Camilla, neither were seen on any other occasion. 
Graptta c.-alhtim (and larva), Vanessa polycliloros, V. tcrtic/&, 
V. io, V. antiopa, Fyrameis atalanta, Arf/i/nnis p)andora, 
one only, A. latlionia, A. aglaia, common, A. adippe, rather 
chlorodippc than type form, but not so marked as in Cen- 
tral Spain, rare, Mclitwa didijma, M. anrinia, Satyrus 
arethusa (Pontevedra), scmcle, Jidda, statilinus, alcyonc, 
Epinepihilc janira, marked hisptdla forms, FJ. lycaon, E. 
titlionus, E. ida, Coinonympha arcania, Fararge mmra, F. 
viegmra, F. cvgeria, Arge lachesis, especially common, 
no cataleuca form seen. A.japygia, TViec/a I'fe's, abundant. 
Thecla spini, Vigo. Zcphirus querents, Chrysophaniis 
mrganreie, common, Gh. alciphron (gordius), common, 
Ch. p)hlc'uas, common, Ch. hijjpotJioe, rare, Casayo, Cyaniris 
argiolus, freqnent, Lycxna tclicanus, L. hcvtica, both 
abundant in all stages (except pupa that seems to be 
hidden), fyyc/rna baton, L. astrarchc, L. amandus (Casayo), 
L. icarus, L. melanops, L. arion (Casayo), Hcsperia tluaimas, 
H. aetmon, H. comma, Syrichthus sao, S. alvcus, S. carthami 
(? a worn example ?). 

The Hctcrocern observed present few species worth 
mentioning, except that a list of Galician insects has still 
to be written. Perhaps the most interesting is Frotliymnin, 
sanctifiorcntis, a species characteristic of the drier eastern 
and southern portions of Spain, and that would hardly be 
looked for in an Atlantic area. It occurred at Vigo and at 
Casayo, The handsome larvte of Fiplura. loti on Helian- 
theniihm at Vigo and elsewhere, were always pleasant to see. 

The abundance everywhere of Craiiibus cratcrcllus, and 
&X ^vKiwxeis^'S, oi Acrohasis porphyrella on the wing, and of 
Acalla mixtana in the larva state at Brailuelas, where in 
many places their nests were extremely abundant on the 
heath, may be mentioned. One hardly expected to meet 
with the latter so abundantly so far south. 

Hcterogj/nis p)arado,>rt occurred at Casayo, on a steep 
slope facing west at an elevation of about 4,000 ft., an odd 
specimen lower in the valley at about 3,000 ft. amongst 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1907. — PART I. (JUNE) 11 



102 Dr. T. A. Chapmau and Mr. G. C. Champion 07l 

broom of several species. It was however apparently rare, 
as I only obtained 5 males and 5 cocoons of females and one 
larva. The moths, so far as one may generalise from so few, 
are large, four being 26 mm. and one 28 mm. in expanse, 
averaging therefore 1 mm. more than var. inedrahiLv, the 
largest of the forms taken at Bejar. They are also dark, 
quite as dark as var. incdrahitiv. The cocoons are ratlier 
paler than the Bejar examples, a pale I'ose-pink, rather 
than the red of the Bejar forms. The ^ moth showed a 
broad series of dark dorsal markings, the subdorsal and 
spiracular lines united into one band, with pale included 
])atches and dark subspiracnlar and ventral lines broad. 
To describe the larva almost the same terms would be 
used, but the dark lines were a little less pronounced. 
This habitat is by a long way the most extreme north 
spot yet recorded, indeed until 1 took it at Bejar, Andalusia 
and the neighbourhood of Madrid (La Granja, etc.) were 
its known habitats. 

At Branuelas, I met with another species of Hctcrogynis, 
which I must provisionally itidicate Vi% 2)<:ncUa,\^x. ucedinis 
{Ucedo, a village near Branuelas), though it may prove to 
be a distinct species; of this I found four $ cocoons on July 
15th. They were on heath-stems two or three feet from 
the ground, I searched closely and could find no more, nor 
could I detect any leguminous plants within some hundred 
yards or so. From these cocoons emerged numerous 
parasites and some young larvae; the larvae agreed with 
those of 2^cndla and not with paradoxa, the cocoons, how- 
ever, were large for pendla and too pale (nearly white) for 
parado.ra, they agreed with the latter however in an 
important point of structure, viz. the outer cocoon was 
woven into a network of large openings like the work of 
paradoxa, and not like pcnclla, which has each thread 
independent in an equally distributed tangle. 

CallimorpJia licra {cpi.adrvpunrta), C. doiidnida, Endrosa 
ii'i'ordla, Co-scinia striat/t (abundant). Orijyia an.tiqiui,Mala- 
cosoma cadrensis, Hrliothis pclty/era, Dici/rla oo (var. rcnagd), 
Aeontia luduosa and lucida, Mamcstra hrassicm, BryrqiJii/a 
ramda, var. eoxjjtriciclay Scsia fuciformis, Zygmna trifolii, 
Z. transalpiiia, Z. scabiosm, Aglaope infausla, as usual when 
it occurs, swarming near Branuelas (at La Granja), Ino 
glohnlariiV and gcryon, Cramhus pasc^idhtx, cu/meUus, 
piinetdlus, pratdlva and var. alfacardhts, Clcdcohia angus- 
talis and moldavica, Fyrausta ferrugalis, P. pio'pttralis. 



Entomology in N.W. S^Min. 163 

cespitalis, Hcliothea atralis, Titanio pollinalis, Stenia 
punctalis, Myclois crihrella, Homceosovia sinuella, UjjJiestia 
mistralclla. For the naming of this and of the following 
Trochilmms I am indebted to Sir G. Hampson : T. uroceri- 
formis, Tr., T. asilifm^mis, Rett., T. Icucospidiformis, Esp., T. 
leucomeliena, Zell. Cases of Fnmca casta were found at 
Vio^o, and an imaofo of F. crassiordla taken on the wing at 
Braiiuelas. Bactra lanceolana was common in marshes and 
Tortrix vioHdana and loijiingiana amongst oak trees. The 
few Tinese sent to Lord Walsingham contained nothing 
of note. 

The Ncuro'picra are reported on in the Entomologist, 1906, 
pp. 275, 276, by Mr. K. J. Morton and Mr.W. J. Lucas ; they 
include a new Trichopteron, Adicdla mcridio7iaHs, Morton. 
The Geometro3 are in the hands of Mr. L. B. Prout. 

The Diiiteirt have been presented to the British Museum 
at South Kensington. A few Asilida^ with their prey are 
exceptions, and are noted in Ent. Trans. 1906, pp. 335, 
340, 357, 358. The larva of Microdon sp. was also found 
in a.n ants' nest at Vigo. 

The Hymenoptcra have been handed to Mr, E. Saunders. 

The Coleoptera. observed during the present excursion 
were not, as a whole, of particular interest, at any rate in 
the neighbourhood of Vic^o and Pontevedra, most of 
the species taken being well-known or widely-distributed 
forms. The heaths, pine-woods, and oak-thickets, covering 
the mountain slopes, where not planted with vines, maize, 
etc., looked rather suggestive of Scotland, and the heath- 
covered, well-watered moorland at Braiiuelas and Ucedo, 
also, was anything but productive. At Casayo, however, 
we got well amongst the mountains, and the slopes and 
valleys here afforded a varied beetle-fauna, though the 
highest summits reached (about 6,000 feet) scarcely repaid 
the climb, perhaps owing to the close grazing everywhere 
by goats and cattle. As might be expected, most of the 
insects observed in this last-mentioned district were 
similar or closely allied to those observed in previous 
years at Canales, Bejar, or Pajares, the most striking addi- 
tion, perhaps, being Lolonyx xncus, for the first time seen 
alive by us. Various species of Zonahris were of course 
much in evidence here, Z. dufouri being the best. On 
the young oaks were to be found numerous Buprestids 
(Conelus, Agrilus), Clythrids, Cryptocephalus himaculatus 
(wonderfully like a common Lachnma, both on the wing and 



164 Dr. T. A. Chapman and Mr. G. C. Champion 07i 

wlien at rest), Rhynrhitcs sericeus, Athous godarti, Muls., and 
A. nigricomis, Bris., and on flowers in open places various 
Clytids, Lepturids, Malachiids, Mordellids, CEdemerids, 
Crijj)toceplialu8 gloHcoUis, Omophlus rujicollis, Cerocoma, 
Cori/na, Lohonyx, TricMiis, Anisoplia h/vtica, etc. In grassy 
places on the higher slopes one or two Bliizotrogi flew 
about freely in the hot sun (all males), and a Hymcnojjlia 
and a Jlenicopus were locally abundant. On the summits, 
Otiorrhynchus dentipes was almost the only species to 
be met with. Fresh horse-droppings attracted many 
Gcotrupes coruscans, a brilliant insect in the sunshine, 
Sisyphus, etc., and on the banks of the mountain 
streams various BemMdia, Tacliys, Stcnus, Fhilonthus rufi- 
viamts, Parnus, Pc'ederus, etc., occurred. About Vigo and 
Pontevedra, a small hairy Lamellicorn, Chasmatopterus 
hirtulus, swarmed in flowers, on which also were to be 
seen Exocosoma hmtanicwm, Omophlus rujicollis, etc. A 
large Genista with woolly-pods, and an Adcnocarpv,s, were 
the most attractive plants in the district, producing 
Cneorrhimcs IndAficator and 0. dispar ?, Pachytycliius spar- 
sutus (in abundance), Apion Jiavofemoratum (commonly), a 
beautiful PJusoonus, Cryptocephalus mttatus and C. hoyi, a 
Helops, Cardiopliorus signatus, etc. ; and on the heath-clad 
hillsides a white-flowered Daphne (coiiditim or near it) 
seemed to attract most of the beetles in the immediate 
vicinity * (^Mclanotns, Cardio'phorus, Ap)ion, various small 
Malachiids, etc.). On young oaks a Malthinus, Chjthra 
lieviuscula, and Cyph%is nitens were found in numbers, and 
on young sallows a Stylosonius and a Luperus, both in 
abundance. Older oaks on the dry hillsides hai'boured 
various Balanini, Braclvydercs lusitanicus, Xylophilns ncg- 
IccMs, a minute Malachiid, etc. At Cangas, in the bay of 
Viffo, an Erodius abounded on the sand-dunes, and at the 
roots of grass, etc. Chrysomela diluta (in profusion), a very 
minute Malachiid {Colotcs p)unctatus ?), and divers species of 
Harpalus, Anthims, and Mclanop)hthalma were captured. 
On the muddy tidal flats at Pontevedra Gillcnus lateralis 
was not uncommon. In the pine-woods about Vigo and 
Redondela (all apparently planted) but little was obtained 
beyond Spondylis, Hylotrupes) Leptura stragulata, Hylastcs 
ater and ErnoJmis mollis. On the heath-covered moorland 
about Braiiuelas and Ucedo the fine Grytocephalus cynarx 

* On Moncayo, in 1893, a white-floweiud Erica was noticed as hvxwg 
very attractive in the same way. 



Untomology in N.W. Spain. 165 

was occasionally brushed up with the sweeping-net, and in 
the boggy valleys here many small beetles were beaten 
from sallow, etc., as BhynchiBnus folioruni (in profusion), a 
Malachivs, etc., most of which were familiar British forms. 
The numerous small streams hereabouts teemed with 
small fish, and in consequence but few aquatic Coleoptera 
were obtainable. 

The following is a list of the species so far as at present 
determined : — 

[Gang. = Cangas ; Caa. = Casayo ; Bran. = Brafiuelas ; Barco ~ El Barco 
de Valdeorras ; Pont. = Poiitevedra.] 

Gicindela campcstris, L., vox. funebris, St., one specimen, 
on the mountains, Gas. Carahus melancholicus, F., Vigo, 
Omo'phron limhatus, F., Barco, on the banks of the Sil. 
Tachyims ^jaZ/i^Jcs, Duft., and T. jicviyifcs, L., Barco. 
Gillcnus lateralis, Sam., common on the tidal mud, Pont. 
Bemhidium liis'panicnm, Dej., B. tricolor, F., B. quadrigut- 
tatmn, F., Barco ; B. ibericum, Pioch., B. manncrlicimi, 
Sahib., Bran. ; B, decorum, Panz., Cas. ; B. elongatum, Dej., 
Gas., Barco ; B. articulatuvi, Gyll, B. quadrimaculatiLm, 
L., Barco, Bran. Tachys parvulus, Dej., Bran., Barco, Gas.; 
T. sexstriatus, Duft., Gas. Ocys harpaloides, Serv., Vigo. 
Pogonus chalceus, Marsh., Pont. Fcecilus ccerulesccns, L., Brail, 
Alacetus salzmanni, Germ., Bran., Gas. Amara hi/rons, 
Gyll., Gas. Zahrus asturicnsis, Heyd., one specimen, on 
the mountains, Gas, Harpahis neglectus, Dej., H. attenu- 
atus, Steph., Gang. ; I£. honcstus, Duft., Vigo, Gang., Gas. 
Anisodactylus hinotatus, F., Vigo. Stenolophus tcutmi^is, 
Schr., Vigo, Pont. AciqMlpus h'unnipcs, St., Vigo, 
Pont., common in damp places. Chlmnius dives, Dej., 
rarely, on the mountains, Gas. Cymindis scapidaris, 
Schm., Gas. 

Agabus guttatis, Payk., in the streams, Gas. 

Alcochara rufipcnnis, Er., Vigo. Poly stoma obscurella, 
Grav., Pont. Tachyusa baltcata, Er., Barco ; T. coarctata, 
Er., Barco, Vigo. Diglotta sinuaticollis, M. & R., El Marin. 
Mycctoporusbntnncus, Marsh., Gas. Philonthns rufimambs, 
Er., on the banks of streams, Gas. Cajius xantholoma, 
Grav., swarming, and G. sericens, Holme, Gang. Bisniiis 
proccrulus, Grav., Gas. Lathrobium a7igustatum, Lac, 
Pont. ; L. multipuncttim, Grav., Barco, Bran., Vigo. 
Piederus caligatus, Er., and P. sanguinicollis, Steph., Vigo, 



166 Dr. T. A. Chapman and Mr. G. C. Champion on 

Bran., Barco, etc. Scopieus Lvvigatus, Gyll., Vigo. Sunms 
iiniformis, Duv., Vigo. Stenus occUatics, Fauv., Brail., Cas. ; 
S. hipunctatus, Er., Barco ; S. guttula, Mlill., Cas. ; S. 
atratulus, Er., Pont., Braii. ; S. tarsalis, Ljungh, Bran. ; *S^. 
ossium, Steph., Pont. ; >S^. dcclaratus, Er., ^S*. ])usillus, Er., 
Barco. Bkdius [pwllsi, Fauv., Pont. ; B. longulus, Er., 
Barco. 

Mastigus pal2)alis, Latr., Cas. Lioclcs nigrita, Schmidt, 
Bran. Olihrus millcfolii, Payk., Bran. ; 0. hisignatus, Men., 
Cas. ; 0. flavicornis, St., Cas. MclanoiMhalma distin- 
guenda, Com., and M. fulvipes, Com., Cang. Bracliypterus 
cinerus, Heer, Bran. Meligcthes fuscus, Oliv., Brail., Vigo. 
Attagenus to'ifasciatus, F., Vigo. Felochares versicolor, 
Walt], Barco. Limnichus pygmxus, St., Barco. Histcr 
sinuatvs, F., Vigo. Saprinus immundus, Gyll., S. mari- 
timus, Steph., on the sandy beach, Cang. 

Sisyphus schieffcri, L., Vigo, Cas., Pont., not rare. Ontho- 
phagus tanrus, Schr., Vigo ; 0. schrebcri, L., Vigo. Oniti- 
cellus fulvus, Goeze, Braii. Apliodius hcwnorrhoidalis, L,, 
Cas.; A.fmtens, F., dark var., Vigo. Ammcecitts frigidus, 
Bris., Cas., rarely on the mountains. Flcurophorus cxsus, 
Panz., Vigo. Geotrupes hypocrita, Serv., rarely, and G. 
coruscans, Chevr., in abundance, on fresh horse-dung, Cas. 
Oryctes gryinis, 111., Cas. Bhizotrogus cantahricus, Heyd. 
(felicitanus, Reitt,), flying in the hot sun, on the mountain 
slopes, the $ in numbers, the ^ singly, Cas., Bran. Anoxia 
villosa, F., Vigo. Hymcnoplia, sp., in profusion, locally, on 
grass-stems, Vigo, Cas., etc. Chasmatopcrus hirtuhcs, 111., in 
abundance on flowers, Vigo, Cas. Anisaplia hxtica, Er., in 
all its varieties, swarming in places, on plants by the road- 
side, Cas., Bran. Hopilia philaoifJms, Flissl., Bran., Vigo. 
Potosia morio, F., in thistle-heads, Cas. Zcucocelis stidica, 
L., Vigo, Cas. Trichius gcdlicns, Heer, rarely, Cas. 

Anthaxia funcrala, 111., and A. millefolii, F., in flowers, 
Cas., Braii. Acmmodcra tieniata, F., and A. sp., Cas. 
Gorcebus {encicollis, Villers, in abundance on young oaks, 
Cas. Agrilus Inguttatus, F., Cas.; A. eindus, Oliv., Cas.; 
A. roscidus, Kies., Bran. ; A. derasofasciatus, Lac, Cas. ; 
A. angustulus. 111., Cas. ; A. hyperici, Cr., Vigo. Aphanis- 
ticus emarginahis, Villa, and A. pusillus, Oliv,, Bran., 
Vigo. 

Melanotus tenehrosus, Er., swarming on a white-flowered 
Daphne, on the hillsides at Vigo, also at Casayo. Gardio- 
pliorus signatus, Oliv., with the preceding, also at Branuelas; 



Entomology in N.W. Spain. 107 

C. atramentarius, Er., Vigo ; C. equiscti, Herbst, Vigo. 
Atho'us godarti, Muls., A. angudahi^, Cand., and others of 
the genus, Cas., etc, 

Hijdrocijplion dcjlexicollis, Miill., on sallows, Brail. Cyplwn 
variabilis, Thunb., with the preceding. Lampyris noctiluca, 
L., males attracted to light, Cas., Bran., Barco. Tclcp)hoTus 
hivitiatics, Mars., Cas,, T. rufus, L., Bran, Malthodes forci- 
pifer, Kies. ?, Vigo, Cas., in plenty, Ebmus glahricollis. 
Key, Vigo, Barco, Bran. Maltliinus sp., common on oaks, 
Vigo. Colotes punctatus, Er. ?, in plenty at the roots of 
plants on the sand-dunes, Cangas. Antholinus amiclics, 
Er., Cas., Vigo, Bran. Charo^ms plumJ)comirans, Goeze, 
Vigo, Brail. Malachius harnevilhi, Puton, and others 
of the genus, Cas. ; M. viridis, F,, Bran, Henicopus 
heydeni, Kies., Barco, Braii., Cas., swarming in places, on 
grass-stems, the two forms of the $ occurring together 
with the $■ $ ; H. ho2)lotarsus, Duv,, Vigo, Dasytes 
suhmneuSy Schonh,, Cas, Psilothrix cyaneus, Oliv., Bran, 
Haplocnemus andalusicus, Ros., Cas. Danacma sp. n. ?, Cas, 
Ldbonyx mneus, F,, sparingly on Jlelia^ithe'imcm-^owers, on 
the mountain-slopes, Cas. Trichodes octopundatus, F., 
Cas.; T. Icucojjsidetis, Oliv., Cas. ; T. apiarius, L., Brail., 
Cas. ; T. ammios, F., Bran. Ernohius mollis, L., on pines, 
Vigo. Xylctinus laticollis, Duft. ?, Cas. 

Erodiiis tibialis, L., commonly, on the sand-dunes, 
Cangas. Tentyria sp., Cangas. Asida leoncnsis, Esc, 
Barco, a single specimen found in the road ; A. sabulom, 
Goeze, Vigo. Heliop)athes sp. n. ?, a very distinct form, Vigo, 
two specimens, on the hillsides. H. montivagns, Muls., 
etc., Cas. Micrositus sp., under stones, Barco, Cas. Coilo- 
metopus clypeatus. Germ., .Cas. Helops laticollis, Kiist., 
Cas., Barco. Gonodera liispanica, Kies., Cas. Omophlus 
ruficollis, F., on flowers, etc., one of the commonest beetles 
in Spain., Cas., Vigo, etc. Lagvia rvMda, Graells, Cas. 
Scraptia diibia, Oliv., Cas. Xylofhilus neglcctus, Duv., on 
oaks, Vigo, Pont. Notoxus trifasciatus, Rossi, and 7," 
monoceros, L., Vigo, Bran. Anthicus rodrigucsi, Latr., 
A. fenestratus, Schm., and A. tristis, Schin., Vigo. Mor- 
della aculcata, L., common on flowers, Cas., etc. Ccrocoma 
schreheri, F., Cas. Zonabris dufouri, Graells, common on 
flowers, Cas., a very active species, readily taking to 
wing, and hiding away at the roots of plants immediately 
it drops from the flowers, of a pale straw colour when 
alive ; Z. dejeani, Gyll, Z. 4i-punctata, L., Cas., etc., 



1G8 Dr. T. A. Chapman and Mr. G. C. Champion on 

Z. Jiicracii, Graells, Vigo. Coryna hillhcrgi, GylL, Cas. 
(Edemera 'podcujrar'uv, L., common and very variable, Cas. ; 
CE. fiaviges, F., Vigo, Pont., Barco ; (E. harhara, F., Vigo ; 
CE. nobilis. Scop., and CE. lurida. Marsh., Vigo. 

Otiorrhynclius deoitipes, Graells, on the mountains, Cas. 
PJiyllohius tuhcrculifer, Chevr., common, Vigo, Cas., etc. 
Polydrnsnssetifrons, Duv., Vigo. SGiaphilus carinula, Oliv., 
Vigo, Pont., Cas., on Genista. BarypWics sulcifrons, Bob., 
Cas. Strophosoimts ovuhim, Seidl, Vigo, Barco, Bran, (the 
type was from this locality) ; S. erinaceus, Chevr., Cas. ; 
S. o^etustts, Marsh., Vigo, Cas., etc. Bracliyderes hsitanicus, 
¥., a common species on oaks, pines, etc., Vigo, Pont., 
Cas., Barco ; L\ incanns, L., Cas. Eusom'tis smaragdidus, 
Fairm., an interesting form witb metallic green scales, on 
Genista, Vigo. Sitoncsca'iiilirievs,^iQTp\\.,N\go. Cneorrhinus 
hidificator, Gyll., Vigo, etc., on Genista, not rare and easily 
abraded, Vigo, Cas., Pont. ; G. dispar, Graells, Vigo, Cas. 
Cleonus tigrimos, Panz., Barco. Lixus spartii, Oliv., Cas., 
Pont. Larinus luecinator, Oliv., Vigo ; Z. 2)lanus, F., Cas. 
Gronops lunatics, F., Vigo. Pachytychius spjarsutus, Oliv., 
in profusion on a large Genista, also bred from tbe 
woolly seed-pods of the same plant, Vigo, Pont. ; P. sca- 
hricollis, Ros., Cas. Smicronyx sp. ?, Cceliodes ilicis, Bedel, 
Cas. ; G. erythroleucits, Gmel., Pont. CcnthorrhyncJms 
campestris, Gyll., Vigo ; G. litiira-, F., erica\ Gyll., Cas., 
Bran. ; G. geographicus, Goeze, Vigo. Geutliorrhynchidins 
dmvsoni, Bris., Cangas. Phytdbius waltoni, Boh., Bran. 
Balaninus turhatus, Gyll., common on oaks, Vigo, Pont. 
Balanolnus ochreatiis, Fahr., Vigo; B. 2^yTrhoccras,M.avsh., 
Vigo, Cas. Antlwnomus rnhi, Herbst, Vigo, Bran. Sihinia 
potcntilhe. Germ., Bran. Rhynqjuvmis eov/throjnos, Germ., B. 
qitercus, L., B. ilicis, F., and B. avcllaniB, Donov., on oaks, 
Cas.; B.folioo'urii,M.Vi\\., swarming on sallows. Bran.; B. 
spars'us, Fahr., in mai'shy ground, Bran. Bhamj^hus puli- 
carius, Herbst, Vigo. Gipnnetron tctrum, F., Vigo. Miao'us 
canip)anuliv, L., Bran., Cas. Nanophycs lythri, F., Vigo. 
Apion fiavqfemoratum, Herbst,* in abundance, and A. 
argentatum, Gerst., sparingly, on Genista, Vigo, Pont.; A. 
elongatissimv m , Desbr., on Genista, Vigo; A. ivencJceri, Bris., 
Vigo ; A. perrisi, Wenck., Vigo, Bran. ; A. acuminatum, 
Schilsky, Vigo ; A. cantahricum, Desbr., Vigo, Cas. ; A. 
cyanesccns, Gyll., Vigo, Bran. ; A. curtulmn, Desbr., on a 

* 1 am indebted to Herr J. Schilsky for the uames of various species of 
tliis genus. 



Entomology in N.W. Spain. 169 

white-flowered Daphne, Vigo ; A. lievicolle, Kirb., A. 
immune, Kirb., A. loti, Kirb., A. ervi, Kirb., Vigo ; A. 
desbroehersi, Kirsch, Bran. ; A. nigritarsc, Kirb., Bran. ; 
A. sedi, Germ., Pont. ; A. Mliiops, Herbst, A. varipes, 
Germ., Bran. ; A. carduorum, Kirb., Vigo, Cas., A. 
striatum. Marsh., Cas., Barco ; A. assimilc, Kirb., Cas. 
Auletes ptobescens, Kies., Bran., Vigo. Ehynchites sericeus, 
Herbst, on young oaks, Cas. ; B. cceondeoccphalus, SchalL, 
Vigo; i2. 7ia7iws, Payk., Vigo. Cyj;Aws7wYc9i.s, Scop., common 
on oaks, Cas., Vigo. Hylastes atcr, Payk., Vigo. Bruchus 
bigutiatus, Oliv., \i\x. fulvipennis. Germ., Cas. 

Spondylis huprcstoides, L., in the pine-woods, Vigo. 
Lcptura fontenayi, Muls., Bran. ; L.fulva, De G., commonly, 
and L. distigma, Charp., rarely, on UmbeUiferiB, Cas. ; L. 
stragulata, Germ., not rare in the pine-woods, Vigo ; L. 
maculata, Pod a, L. nigra, L., and L. melamira, L., Cas. 
Stenopiejms ater, L., commonly, on flowers by the roadside, 
Barco ; S. Jlavicornis, Kiist., Cas. Hylotmpes bajulns, L., 
Vigo. Xylotrechus arvicola., Oliv., Cas., Barco. Clytantlms 
trifasciatus, F., Vigo, Barco, Bran. ; C. figuratus, Scop., 
Cas. ; G. massiliensis, L., Cas. Glytus rhamni, Germ., Cas. 
Agapanthia asp)hodeli, Latr., and A. cardui, L., Cas. 

Donacia versicolorea, Brahm, very small, and I), discolor, 
Panz., Bran. Crioceris lilii, Scop., Cas. Lachufea sex- 
2ynnctata, Scop., L. tristigma, Lac, and L. puhescens, Duf., 
on oak, etc., Vigo, Cas., Bran. Labidostomis lusitanica, 
Germ., Vigo, Cas. Clythra livviuscula, Retz;., common on 
oak, Vigo, Bran. ; C. atraphaxidis, Pall., Cas, Gynan- 
dropTitkalma concolor, F., Vigo, Cas. Gryptoceplmlus cynarm, 
Sutfr., Cas., Bran., sparingly, on heath, etc. ; G. sexmacu- 
latus, Oliv., G. bimacidatvs, F., Cas. ; G. bipunctatus, L., 
common, Cas., Bran., Vigo ; C. lusitanicus, Su£fr., on 
Genista, Cas. ; G. crassus, OJiv., Cas. ; G. hoyi, Suffr., Vigo, 
Cas. ; C. vittatus, F., G. mystacatus, Sufifr., Vigo ; G. globi- 
collis, Sufifr., G. violaceus, Laich., Cas. ; G. morxi, L., and 
vars., Cas., Bran. ; G. rufipes, Goeze, and vars., Braii. ; G. 
pygmmiis, F., Cas., Bran. Pachybrachys hippiopihaes, Suflr., 
Cas., Barco, Bran. ; P. viridissimus, Suflr., Cas., Bran. 
Stylosomus minutissimus. Germ., in profusion on sallows, 
Vigo. Chysomela diluta, Germ., in abundance at roots of 
grass, on the sand-dunes, Cangas; C. amcricana, L., Cas.; 
G. rufocvnca, Suff'r., Bran.; G. sanguinolenta, L., Cangas; 
G. hyperici, Forst., Cas. Hydrothassa auda, F., Bran. 
Plagiodera versicolora, Laioh., Vigo. Exosoma lusitanicum, 



170 Dr. T. A. Chapman and Mr, G. C. Champion mi 

L., abundant on flowers, Vigo, etc. Luperns nigo^ofascioMs, 
Goeze, Vigo, Bran. ; L. livid^is, Joann., Bran. ; L. sp. ?, 
near niger, Goeze, in abundance on sallows, Vigo. Loch- 
masa capreiB, L., var. scutellata, Chevr., on sallows, Bran. 
Epitrix pnhcsccns, Koch, Vigo. Hisim atra, L., Vigo; H. 
tcstacea, L., Vigo, Cas. 

Sithcoccinella ^^-lyundata, L., Vigo. Adonia variegata, 
Goeze, Brail. Halyzia 16-guUata, L., Pont. Adalia ohlite- 
rata, L., Vigo. Goccinclla \4i-2yndulata, L., common. Bran.; 
G. congloUata, L., Cas. Exockomus fiavi^ws, Thunb., Vigo, 
Pont. Hyperasim reppensis, Herbst, Vigo. Micraspis 16- 
'punctata, L., Brail. Platynaspis hdeorahra, Goeze, Pont., 
Vigo, Cas. Scgynnus, spp., Vigo, etc. 
The Hemiptei^a-Heteroptera observed were as follows : — 
E'urygaster maura, L., Cas., Brail. Gydnus sp., at roots 
of grass, Cang. Ochetostethus nanus, H.-S., Vigo. Neotti- 
glossa inficxa, Wolff, Brail. Palomena viridissima, Poda, 
Vigo. Peribahcs sphacdatus, F., Pont. Fiezodorus litura- 
tios, F., Pont. Eurydema oleraceum, L., Cas ; E. dominu- 
lus, Scop., Barco. Syromastcs marginatus, F., Vigo. 
Verlusia sulcicornis, F., Vigo. Pseudop>hlceu§ fallcni, 
Schill., on the sand-hills, Cangas. Gamptopus lateralis, 
Ger., Barco. Stenocephalus agilis, Scop., Vigo. Bothrostdhus 
annulipes, Costa, var. sabiilicola, Horv. ?, Vigo, three 
specimens. Gorcus hirticornis, F., Cas. Gorizus crassicornis, 
L., Brail., Barco, Cas. ; G. suhrufus, Gmel., Cas. Lygieus 
panduQ'us, Scop., Vigo ; L. siqyerhus, Poll., Brail. Lygmo- 
soma rdiculahim, H.-S., Vigo. Gyimts melanocephahcs, Fieb., 
Vigo, Brail. ; G. glandicolor, Hahn, Brail. Macrop)lax fasci- 
ata, H.-S., Brail., Vigo, Cas. Trop)istd]ms holosericeus, Schtz., 
Pont. Plinthisus mmutissimus, Fieb., Pont. Stygnocoris 
p)cdcstris, ¥aW.,N\go. Aj^hamcs pindi, U.S., C&s. Beosus 
mao'itimus, Scop., Brail. Emhldhis angustus, Mont., Cas. 
Serenthia iMa, Fall., Brail. Didyonota fuliginosa, Costa, 
Vigo ; D. strichnocera, Fieb., Vigo. Monanthia humidi, 
F., Brail. Gerris najas, De G., Brail. ; G. gihlifcr, Schm., 
Brail. Harpador iracundus, Poda, Brail., Cas., Vigo ; 
H. erytliTopiis, L., Vigo; H. sanguineus^ F., Bran., Vigo. 
Goramis mgyptms, F., Vigo. Nahis ferus, L., Vigo; 
N. riigosus, L., Vigo; N. ericetorum, Schtz., Brail., Vigo. 
Salda cocksi, Curt., Brail. Pithanus mmrhdi, H.-S., Brail. 
Miris calcaratus, Fall., Brail. Lopus sulcatus, Fieb., Cas. ; 
L. cingulatns, F., Vigo. Monalocoris Jilkis, L., Vigo. 
Phytocoris tiliie, F., Pont.; P. exoletus, Costa, Braii. 



Entomology in N.W. Spain. 171 

MioHdius quado'ivirgahis, Costa, Vigo. Calocoris sex- 
guttatus, F., Cas. ; C. roseomaculatus, De G., Cas., Pont,, 
Brail. Grypidius noualhieri, Reut., Vigo. Brachycoleus 
scrijjtus, F., Cas. Lygiis montanu&, Scbill., Cas. Cyplio- 
dema instahile, Luc, Vigo. Fceciloscytus icnifasciatus, F., 
Bran. Capsns cordiger, Hahn, Bran., Cas., Vigo ; C. rulcry 
L., Cas., Vigo ; C. scutellaris, F., Bran. Orthoccphalus 
saltator, Hahn, Vigo. Strongylocoris ohscurus, Ramb., Cas., 
Vigo, Pont., Bran. ; S. cicadifrons, Costa, Cas., Brail. 
Glohiceps sjjJiegiforrjiis, Rossi, Brafi., Cas. ; C. Jlavomacu- 
latus, F., Cas., Barco. Halticus aptcru.s, L., Vigo; If. 
luteicollis, Panz., Cas. Pachyxyphus linecllus, Mills., Vigo. 
Sthcnarus ocularis, M. & R., Cas., Pont. ; S. hicolor, Muls., 
Cas. Pelocoris margioiakts, Latr., Barco. 



Explanation of Plates V — XT. 

[See Explanation facing the Plates ] 



( 173 ) 



VIII. On Some Teratological Specimens. By T. A. Chap- 
man, M.D., F.Z.S. 

[Read March 6tli, 1907.] 

Plate XII. 

Mr. Kenneth J. Morton recently sent me a specimen 
of Ga.'pnia atra with a three-fold tarsus on one hind-leg, 
and Mr. A. Bacot placed in my hands a specimen of Cato- 
ccda nvpta with a duplicate tarsus on the fore-leg. It so 
happens that a more unusual aberration of structure has 
occurred in a specimen of Hastula hycrana amongst those 
I have recently been rearing. Though the latter has 
probably nothing in common with the other two, still as 
all are aberrations of structure they may be noted to- 
gether. I have illustrated them all in Plate XII ; though 
somewhat diagrammatic, the outlines are fairly accurate in 
all important points, being from camera sketches. 

The specimen of Hastula hycrana is a pupa tiiat pos- 
sesses jaws of the larval pattern. I have never before met 
Avith such a specimen, nor read of such an one, but this is 
possibly due to my defective literary explorations. 

It is perhaps necessary to make it clear that these 
mandibles are pupal structures. We see, and more often 
hear of, pupae, and even imagines with larval heads. Of 
these this description is accurate, the head is a larval 
head, i.e. the head of the larva, not cast at the moult but 
remaining in situ and having within it the pupal and 
imaginal heads proper. 

These mandibles are not a persistence of larval man- 
dibles, but the pupal mandibles, failing to recede to the 
simple pupal form, but taking on one almost identical 
with that characteristic of the larva. 

On the plate Fig. 1 represents the head parts from the 
front of a normal pupa. The maxillaj and labial palpi 
below, the labrum with two hairs basally and the small 
triangular mandibles (in this and many other species, 
quadrangular, the apex being truncate), in the angle 
between the labrum above and the maxillag below, the 
apex just touching the labium. Figs, 2 and 3 represent 
the specimen we are considering. Fig. 2 nearly in profile, 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. l'J07. — PART I. (JUNE) 



174 Dr. T. A. Chapman on 

Fig. 3 nearly front view. The mandibles do not lie flat 
as in Fig. 1, but project nearly at light angles to the 
surface. Whatever other causes there may be for this 
position, one is imperative, they are too large in every 
dimension to occupy the space provided for the normal 
pupal jaws. 

It is the empty pupa case we are examining, so that the 
hiatus in Fig. 3 between the face and the maxilla is pos- 
sibly due to opening on dehiscence, but even so, it was 
rendered easy by the size of the mandible preventing 
correct apposition. The space seen between this man- 
dible and the labium is however a hollow, into which the 
mandible ought to have folded down. This hollow existed 
before dehiscence. 

The jaws are conspicuous not only by their projection 
but also by possessing the black colour, quite dense along 
the margin, so common in larval jaws. It is indeed more 
intense than in the larva of H. hyernna, in which the 
darkness is only intense along the teeth and is there only 
deep brown. They appear to possess precisely the same 
teeth as those of the larva, viz. five, of which the lower is 
broad and flat. I say appear, because though the teeth 
are evident enough, they are somewhat less crisp and 
sharp than in the larva, and one might count them per- 
haps as four or six. This is due to the circumstance, that 
the mandibles are not smooth and polished like those of 
the larva, but have a finely wrinkled and sculptured sur- 
face, similar to the pupal surface generally. They are in 
no way articulated, but are continuous with the rest of 
the pupal surface, though they are in a sense well marked 
off from it. But on closer scrutiny, a definite suture line 
as in the normal pupa is not easily determined, for ex- 
ample in the figure 2, the near mandible shows a quasi- 
suture at the base of the blackest piece, this however is 
followed by a wrinkled base, marked off by a slighter 
possibly sutural line so that one cannot say certainly which 
is the one that divides jaw from face. 

I awaited the emergence of the moth from this pupa 
with some interest. It had some difficulty in emerging, 
it left a portion of one antennae in the pupa case, and more 
or less damaged all its wings, I imagine, in struggles to 
free itself. It succeeded, however, and expanded its wings. 
These difficulties had no immediate relation to the ab- 
normal pupal jaws, but probably resulted from some 



$07716 Teratological Specimens. 175 

defect arising from the same causes, whatever they were, 
that led to the mandibular aberration. The mouth parts 
of the imago presented no trace of difference from the 
ordinary typical specimen. 

I have given in Figs. 4 and 5 outlines of the larval jaws, 
Fig. 4 of the full-grown feeding larva, and Fig. 5 of the 
gestivating larva, jaws that it uses for no other purpose 
than to eat the cast skin. The differences between the 
two jaws of each pair are not altogether due to bad draw- 
ing, and not of course to any differences between the jaws 
of either side, but simply to a difference of angle of the 
specimens under the camera. It will be noticed that the 
a?stivating jaws are smaller than the feeding ones, and 
the pupal ones smaller still (all are to same scale, a 
magnification of 22 diameters). 

In the Ent. Mo. Mag., 1 896, pp. 54-80, 1 related some cases 
of larvas of Agrotis comes that became larvae with some 
pupal characters on taking the moult that would normally 
have been that to pupa. The present is the only case of 
a similar sort I have since met with. In that case the 
active cause was some delay of development owing to 
irregular starvation. In this one I do not know the larval 
history, but the specimen was the very last to pupate out 
of some 430 examples. So that, if not starvation, some 
causes delaying the progress of development must have 
been active, but produced no visible effects except that on 
the mandibles and the difficulty of emergence from the 
pupa, whatever that may have been. 

The specimen of Catocala nupta was exhibited at the 
Entomological Society on December 5th by Mr. Bacot. 
The left fore-leg has a widened and thickened tibia, with 
one tarsus almost normal and a second of smaller size 
beside it. When it came into my possession, the super- 
numerary tarsus had lost the last two joints by some 
accident, the third joint showing plainly that they had 
existed and were not absent congenitally. I have restored 
them conjecturally on the plate. The supernumerary 
tarsus is more slender than the normal one and of about 
two-thirds its length. 

The specimen of Capnin atra is somewhat similar. In 
this case the tarsus affected is of the posterior leg. The 
tibia is normal or nearly so, but the first tarsal joint 
is much widened and carries at its broad extremity three 
second tarsal joints, each with normal third joints, claws 



176 Dr. T. A. Chapman on some Teratologiccd Specimens. 

and appendages. I have here placed a normal limb, aa 
with the C. nupUi, for comparison. The affected joints are 
apparently fractionally shorter than normal, but perliaps a 
little wider than the healthy one. The basal joint of 
course is much broader, and may be regarded as three 
joints fused side by side. 

My experiments in regenerations of limbs, of which I 
have not yet published a large number, performed some 
years ago, lead me to believe that these supernumerary 
limbs ai-e all instances of regeneration, or if not all, at 
least a large proportion of them ; just as lizards occasion- 
ally regenerate two or even three tails. 

I picture the group of embryonic cells, which form the 
regenerative centre, broken up, by the injury by which 
the limb is lost, into two or more jjortious ; and each of 
these portions performs its functions of developing into a 
new limb without reference to the others. This result, is 
sufficiently rare to make it probable that injury rarely 
divides up this no doubt very minute portion of tissue, aad 
that when it does, the divided portions succeed in most 
cases in reuniting, or all but one of the separated portions 
are mortally injured. 

All three specimens have been placed in the Natural 
History Museum, South Kensington. 



Explanation of Plate XII. 

[^Y'e Explanation facing tJie Plate.] 



( 177 ) 



IX. 07i a remarhable undescrihed form of Moth belonging 
to the family Tineidai. By LiEUT.-CoLONEL 
Charles T. Bingham, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

[Read February 6th, 1907.] 

Plate XIII. 

Binsitta barroivi, form. nov. 

^ . Upper-side white with a shining silky gloss. Fore-wing with 
the following black markings : — a large square spot near the base of 
the costa, a larger rectangular patch just beyond, that extends trans- 
versely from the costa to the median vein, a border along the apical 
half of the costal margin, continued broadly from the apex of the 
wing along the anterior three-fourths of the termen and only slightly 
narrowed posteriorly ; at about two-thirds of the length of the wing 
from the base this black border is produced downwards in the form 
of an upper rounded discal patch. Looked at perpendicularly from 
above, the markings just described appear entirely black, but in a 
side light the scales, which are remarkably broad, densely packed and 
partially erect, take on beautiful metallic tints of blue and green of 
different shades and delicate lilac ; scattered over the medial area 
of the wing and along the edge of the apical half of the costa are 
curious erect little tufts of bright ferruginous scales. Hind-wing : 
apical third shaded with shining bronzy-brown that darkens out- 
wards and changes to metallic purple on the costal margin and apex 
of wing. Under-side white. Fore-wing : the black markings near 
base of wing somewhat as on the upper-side but more diffuse, no erect 
or semi-erect scaling ; apical half of wing shaded with bronzy dark 
brown with a purple sheen in certain lights ; the dark shading con- 
tinued diffusely along the median vein towards the base. Hind- 
wing : apical third heavily shaded with metallic purplish-black scales. 
Cilia of the anterior two-thirds of the fore and of the anterior half 
of the hind-wing black with a metallic sheen, the rest white. An- 
tennse and the outer sides of the palpi near the base black, the front 
and inner side of the basal half of the palpi white, the apical half 
with tufts of bright ferruginous scales ; head, thorax and abdomen 
silky shining white, the apical segment of the latter black with a 
tuft of long white hairs ; beneath : the thorax and abdomen silky 
shining white, the latter with two rows of black spots on each side ; 
legs black with a few transverse white bars. 

Exp. $ 78 mm. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1907. — PART L (JUNE) 12 



178 Lient.-Col. Charles T. Bingham on 

Hah. Upper Burma : Maymyo, 3000 ft ; ? Andamans, 

The only other form of the genus Binsitta described 
is nimferana, Walker, a much smaller insect (exp. ^ $ 
30-38 mm.) with the hind-wings of a buff-yellow colour, 
palpi white, and wing-markings which, though similar in 
character, are different in many ways. 

A single unnamed <^ of a larger form from the Anda- 
mans is in the collection of the British Museum, This 
may possibly be conspecific with harrowi, but seems to 
differ in the colour of the palpi, which are white. The 
specimen, however, is very much rubbed, though otherwise 
in good condition. 

This very beautiful moth was discovered by Colonel 
Waller-Barrow, R.A.M.C. The specimen described had 
just emerged and was seated on the empty shell of the 
pupa, which was fixed, as shown in the plate, on the twig 
of a small silk-cotton tree {Bomhax vicdaharica, D. C). 
Colonel Barrow found two other similar pupas on other 
branches of the same tree ; one of these had unfortunately 
been parasitised, but the parasite {Ichneumon or Bracon) 
had already matured and escaped. In colour the pupa is 
yellowish-brown, the head is blunt, and with the thorax 
and wing-cases broad and flattened. On the ventral side 
the 4th segment has two closely-approximate tubercles 
placed transversely, between which is a longitudinal short 
white streak; 5th to the 12th segments with transverse 
rows of small conical projections ; constrictions between 
the segments strongly marked ; 7th segment with a large 
conspicuous rounded black tubercle on each side, behind 
each of which is a larger pale yellow, or in one of the 
pupse white, tubercle ; on the broad flattened truncated 
head, dividing the ventral from the dorsal side, is an im- 
pressed dark line. The pupa is fixed by its tail end in a 
semi-erect position to the twig on which it was found, and 
bears, as can be seen by the illustration, a striking re- 
semblance to the head of a snake and, strange to say, of a 
bird-eating tree-snake {Lycodon milieus, Linn.) which is far 
from uncommon in Burma. 

At first I was inclined to think that this likeness miofht 
be protective, but the fact that the pupa3 of Lepidoptera 
are often curiously, almost fantastically, like other natural 
objects is well known. I would instance the pupee of two 
forms of the little Lycaenid butterflies, Spcdgis cpius, West- 
wood, from India, and Spalfjis s-sy/nata, Holland, from 



a rcmarkaUc undescribcd form of Moth, Tincidm. 179 

West Africa, figured in the Journal of the Bombay 
Natural History Society, vol. viii, 1893, p. 485. Carefully 
examined, these pupse are seen to be absurdly like monkeys' 
faces, and in these two cases there can be no suggestion 
that the resemblance is protective, or that birds and lizards 
would see a likeness and be deterred from attacking them. 
The real fact is that we are entirely ignorant of the in- 
fluences in the environment (using the word in its widest 
sense) that mould the shapes of most natural objects 
around us, and to call strange resemblances such as those 
noted above " merely accidental " is only a confession of 
that ignorance. With regard to what are called "pro- 
tective resemblances," the only sure test as to whether 
they are really protective or not seems to me to lie not in 
experimenting with captured lizards and caged birds, but 
in patient watching and observations, repeated again and 
again in the field and in the forest, of the behaviour of 
bird and lizard — pre-eminent enemies of insects — when 
confronted in the course of their natural wanderings with 
cases of what we call protective mimicry. 

In conclusion, I have to thank Colonel Waller-Barrow 
for entrusting me with the specimens of the moth and its 
pupa described above. These he has now presented to 
the British Museum. I have also to express my great 
obligation to Mr. Hugh Main, B.Sc, F.E.S., for the very 
beautiful photograph of the moth and pupa, from which 
the plate accompanying this paper has been reproduced. 



Explanation of Plate XIII. 

[See Explanation facing the Plate.] 



( 181 ) 



X. On the rcmarlcablc rescmhlancc betivcen tivo species of 
Molippa. By E. Dukinfield Jones, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

[Read 6tli March, 1907.] 

Plate XIV. 

During the many years I have lived in Brazil I have 
taken from time to time Molijopa sahina, Walker, which is 
a fairly common insect both in Sao Paulo and Parana. I 
found the larva in Sao Paulo feeding on Banldnia, and in 
Parana on Banhinia, Erythrina and Mimosa. 

In 1896 at Castro, Parana, I took some Saturniid cater- 
pillars on Mimosa that were new to me, and to my astonish- 
ment they produced moths that were apparently identical 
with M. sabina. On sending specimens of the moth to 
Mr. W. Schaus, he gave me the species as M. sahina, and I 
came to the conclusion that this moth had a dimorphic 
larva. This conclusion was strengthened by my finding, 
on January 27th, 1899, a group of larva? on Mimosa, some 
of which, just about to change skin (probably 8rd change), 
were of the normal form and colour, while others that had 
already changed were of the new form and colour. 

Since my return to England in 1902 I have shown the 
imagines of the two species, of which I have a good series, 
to several entomologists, and the opinion has invariably 
been that the two forms were the .same species, so close is 
the resemblance between them. 

Last autumn it occurred to me that a comparison of the 
male genitalia might settle the question. The examina- 
tion proved satisfactorily that the two species are distinct, 
the form of the imi'its being quite sufficient to establish 
this, all the males bred from what I have called the normal 
form of larva having the uncus as shown in Fig. 2ri', and in 
those from the other larvae as in Fig. l<i. The finding of 
the larvag of the two species associated in changing skin 
was fortuitous and misleading. 

The two species with dissections of the genitalia and 
photographs of the larvae were exhibited at the meeting of 
the Society on Nov. 7th, 1906. 

On examining Walker's type of sahina in the British 

TRANS. ENT. SOC LOND. 1907. — PART I. (JUNE) 



182 Mr. E. D. Jones on tioo species of Molii^pa. 

Museum I found the uncus easily visible and agreeing 
with Fig. 2«, The other species I propose to name M. 
simillima. The description of the new species may be left 
as that of M. sabina, Walker, Cat. Lep. Het. B. M. vi, p. 
IS^S (1855), for though the specimens vary considerably 
from the type of M. saMna, they do not do so more than 
the individuals of sabina do among themselves. The 
genitalia must be consulted for identifying the species. 

It is interesting to find both species of larva feeding on 
the same food plant at the same season of the year. Both 
species are gregarious. 

The coloration of the larvse in relation to their habits is 
worthy of note. 31. sabina is in the last stage of a dull grey 
or slightly drab colour with black markings, the spines 
being grey (Fig. 2b), and this larva rests during the day- 
time near the ground on the trunk of the tree on which it 
feeds, a cluster of them having a wonderful resemblance to 
a patch of a mossy lichen that is very common in the 
woods about Castro. M. simillima, on the other hand, rests 
during the day on the twigs amongst the leaves and 
flowers of the Mimosa, and the colour is yellow with black 
marbliugs, the spines being yellow (Fig. \b). This colora- 
tion combines so well with the surroundings that the 
caterpillar, though a brilliant object, is well concealed 
from its enemies. 



Explanation of Plate XIV. 

[See Explanation facing the Plate.] 



June 20th, 1907 



( 183 ) 



XI. Tlie Life Ristory of Tetropium gabrieli, Ws. = T. 
fiiscum, Sliarj-) — T. crawshayi, Sharp, etc. By 
the Rev. G. A. Crawshay, M.A., F.E.S. 

[Read March 6th, 1907.] 

Plates XV— XX. 

I HAVE already stated (Ent. Mo. Mag., Sec. Ser., Vol. xvi, 
p. 223) how on comparing any original series of 180 speci- 
mens of a Tetropium, reared by myself May-June 1905, 
at Leighton Buzzard with the series of T. luridum, L., in 
the British Museum, I was a little doubtful as to their 
identity with the latter species. 

Accordingly I submitted a specimen to M. Bedel for his 
opinion, who kindly di'ew my attention to a new species, 
T. gabrieli, lately described by Herr Weise, as follows : — 

Elongatum, nigrum, pedibus fulvis aut ferrugineis, fronte con- 
vexiuscula, hand canaliculata, prothorace disco nitido, erebre 
subtilius pimctato, latera versus opaco, creberrime ruguloso-punctato 
et subtilissime granulate, elytris opacis, elevato-lineatis. 

Long. 9'5-14 mm. 

Var. a. Elytris obscure ferrugineis, femoribus nigris, tibiis tarsisque 
rufo-piceis. 

(Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr., 1905, p. 136.) 

With this information I handed over my material to 
Dr. D. Sharp for determination as he was working at the 
genus at the time, with the result that he pronounced 
the Leighton Buzzard insect a new species, naming it 
T. craivshayi and describing it thus : — 

Fere angustum, subdepressum, nigrum ; antennis, tibiis, tarsisque 
piceis ; vertice in medio haiid, vel vix, depresso ; prothorace vix 
transverse, ubique erebre, fere a3qualiter punctato (i.e. areis laevigatis 
fere nuUis), margine basali obsolete elevata. 

Long 12-16 mm. 

(Ent. Mo. Mag., Ser. II, Vol. xvi, p. 271.) 

Dr. Sharp suggested the possibility of this insect 
ultimately proving identical with T. gahrieli, but, in con- 
sideration of the entirely red legs of the single specimen 
of T. gahrieli communicated by Herr Weise, as compared 
with the black femora constant throughout my long series, 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1907.— PART II. (SEPT.) 13 



184 Rev. G. A. Crawshay on the 

together with other slightly different characters, he decided 
to make the Leighton Buzzard insect distinct. 

Two years prior to this Mr, F. Bouskell had discovered 
a red-legged Tetrcrpivm in some numbers near Leicester, 
June 15, 1903 (Ent. Eecord, 1903, p. 288). 

These specimens were erroneously reported to be taken 
from Spruce Fir (Ficea excelsa). I had taken crawsliayi 
exclusively from Larix europmi which is deciduous and 
bears a very different bark. 

Reasonable doubt existing as to whether these two 
British forms were one and the same species, I made it 
my object to clear up this point by a series of breeding 
expei'iments. 

In Nov. 1905 I reared my first few specimens of the 
red-legged form from a log of Larix europxa which con- 
tained also the form with black femora (crawshayi). 

This afforded a probability that they were one species, 
though as yet there was no proof that two different species 
had oviposited on this log. 

By August 1906 I had succeeded in rearing the form with 
black femora {crawshayi) from two red-legged parents. All 
intergradations of colour in the femora from ferruginous 
to black occurred in this series. 

Accordingly I was able to pronounce these two, in their 
extreme forms, different-looking insects to be one species. 
Would this prove to be T. yabrieli ? 
To clear up this point I forwarded Herr Weise a long 
series of T. craivshayi, asking him for his opinion on the 
subject. I have at length heard from him to the effect 
that he considers T. craivshayi a form of gahricli and has 
kindly communicated his single example of gdbrieli for my 
inspection. 

I concur with Herr Weise in this opinion. 
T. craivshayi then becomes a synonym for T. fjah'icli and 
may be allowed to stand for that form which so largely 
predominates in this country, viz. with black elytra and 
black femora. 

This I propose to name T. gahrieli, var, h. 
I append a description in English of the type form and 
vars. : — 

Type form. Elongate, rather depressed, black ; legs and antennae 
ferruginous, tawny, pitchy-red ; palpi tawny to pitchy-red ; ajiex 
of abdomen tawny, pitchy-red, black ; frons convex, not canaliculate ; 



Life Histm'y of Tetropium, gahrieli. 185 

thorax, disc shining, closely and rather finely punctured, duller at 
sides which are punctate-granulate, basal margin obsoletely raised ; 
elytra black, dull, with three more or less raised longitudinal lines, 
golden or grey pubescence on basal third more or less pronounced : 
^ with joints of front tarsi and femora broader, and antennae longer 
than 9 • T. gahrieli, Ws. 

Long. 10-16 mm. 

Var. a. Elytra obscurely ferruginous, femora black, tibias and 
tarsi pitchy-red. 

Var. b {= T. crawshayij Sharp). Elytra black, femora black, tibise 
and tarsi pitchy-red. 

In England, T. gahrieli, type form, known by its red 
legs, is in my experience local. Var. a, described by Herr 
Weise as bearing obscurely ferruginous elytra and black 
femora, has not occurred; and var. &, distinguished by its 
black elytra and black femora, I have found wherever I 
have searched for it where there has been a reasonable 
amount of Larix europxa. 

It seems likely that the species has been widely estab- 
lished in this country since Larch began to be generally 
planted for its economic value, about a century ago. 
At the same time, it may have established itself at an 
earlier date still, for Larch has been grown for ornamental 
purposes in England for over two centuries. 

T. gabricli may be distinguished from T. luridum both 
by the canaliculate frons of the latter and, as Dr. Sharp 
has pointed out, the more strongly-raised basal margin of 
its thorax. 

I observe, also, the head and thorax are considerably 
more shining in luridum owing to a more sparing punctu- 
ation, especially on the disc of the latter, a good character 
which has hitherto escaped notice. 

In this brightness of the thorax gahrieli is intermediate 
between fusctcm and luridum, fuscum being the dullest of 
the three. 

"Exom. fuscum, gahrieli may be known by the dull head 
and thorax of the former, due to a coarser punctuation, 
and also to granulation on the disc, which latter character 
is absent in gahrieli and htriditm. 

Also the thorax in fuscum is always more coarsely 
pubescent than in gahrieli and htridum, and its band of 
pubescence on the basal third of the elytra nearly always 
more clearly defined. 



186 Rev. G. A. Crawshay on the 

Capture and Distribution. — In England T. gahrieli 
has occurred as follows : — 

Near Bletchworth, Surrey, H. Saunders 1901 

Esher, Surrey, G. E. Bryant 1902 

Near Leicester, F. Bouskell 1903* 

King's Lynn, E. A. Atmore 1908 

Brockenhurst, M. A. Sharp 1903 

Leighton Buzzard, Bev. G. A. Crawshay 1905f 

Elsfield, Oxon., J. J. Walker 1905 

Sandy, Beds, Rev. G. A. Crawshay 1905 

Brockenhurst, Rev. G. A. Crawshay 1905 

Fenny Stratford, Bucks, Rev. G. A. Crawshay 1905f 

Kings Langley, Herts, Rev. G. A. Crawshay 1906 

Enfield, Surrey, C. T. C. Pool 1906 

Near Romsey, Hants, Rev. G. A. Crawshay 1906 

Reading District, Dr. Norman Joy 1906 

Mr. G. C. Champion has communicated specimens taken 
by himself in 1899, " Simplon, Switzerland " ; and another 
labelled : " Mendel Pass, Austr. Tyrol, R.W.L., 1896." 

The insect will doubtless occur in older collections 
confused with T. luridum. 

I first saw T. gabrieU, var. b, at Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire, 
on May 25th, 1905, a single example crawling outside a timber-yard. 

On searching the yard on the following day I observed a second 
example on the wing. It settled on a log of ash and I secured it. I 
then traced these specimens to a log of Larix europeea which had 
been felled in a neighbouring plantation the year before and now 
lay in the timber-yard. 

In the bark lay a considerable number of imagines and a few 
pupa3. No larvne occurred, and subsequent search only revealed two 
backward ones in the whole log. I had all the bark strii^ped oft" 
and portions of it laid in boxes covered with perforated zinc and 
partly also with glass, that I might observe the insects. 

A good number soon emerged, about 180 in all, including those I 
had taken in the timber-yard. They paired readily. On the chance 
of getting them to oviposit, and, in order to secure the breed, I had 

* The earliest occurrence, in England, of the species, type form, 
in the tree. 

t The earliest occurrence, in England, of var. h in the tree. 

X An abnormally large tree, from which I estimate some 6000 or 
7000 individuals must have been reared. 



Life. History of Tetropium gdbrieli. 187 

a larch tree felled, by the kindness of a friend, and delivered to me 
in the early morning before Tetro-pinm was on the move. The tree 
was a perfectly healthy one, and therefore was not likely to have 
been infected by the beetle before it was felled, and certainly not 
in transit. 

On an 8-ft. length of this I sleeved about 12 ? $ and a few 
(J ^ early in June. I watched oviposition take place, and from this 
log eventually I took, in all, about 300 larvae and imagines of the 
form with black femora exclusively, the only form known to me at 
the time. The larvse mostly established themselves in their pupa- 
cells by the following October, and emerged the following May and 
June. 

Habitat. — Larix europci^a exclusively in my experience 
in the wild state. Mulsant gives, as the habitat of the 
kindred species T. luridum, L. : " Pins, sapins, chene " 
(Hist. Nat. Col. de France, Longicornes, p. 115). It 
would be interesting to know if this species affects Larix. 
Mulsant's silence as to Larix does not necessarily exclude 
this conifer from the food-plants of T. luridum which he 
is enumerating. According to some modern classification of 
the Coniferaj (Veitch, Man. Conif.), the tribe ABIETINjE 
is divided into the sub-tribes : — 

(1) PineiB or Pines, including our familiar Scots Pine, etc. 

(2) Laricem, including the common European Larch, etc. 

(3) Sapinem or Firs, including the well-known Spruce 
Fir, etc. 

Probably Mulsant adopted the old classification which 
would include the Larches in Sapincm or " Sapins.^' 

Desirous to ascertain whether the larva of T. gabrieli would feed 
in any other species of conifer than Larix europsea, and if so 
whether this would affect its coloration, in May 1906 I tested my 
beetles with a log of Pinus laricio, var. nigricans, Par.,* enclosing 
many ^ ? on it with muslin. Contrary to expectation, the log 
subsequently produced a small number of larvse. 

As Tetropimn was at this time reported, though in error, to have 
occurred in Picea (Spruce Fir), I tested my beetles with a log of 
Picea excelsa, Link, fully expecting that they would not lay on it, 
or if they did, that the larvfe would not live in it. The log 
subsequently produced a considerable number of larvae. 

I was greatly surprised at this, for I have repeatedly found 
standing Larix inhabited by T. gabrieli mingled with sickly, dying 

* So returned to me from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, by 
the courtesy of the Director. 



188 Rev. G. A. Crawshay on the 

and dead Picea and other firs, and these latter trees have always 
been untouched by the beetle. 

In timber-yards also I have observed piles of Larir, many of 
which contained the beetle, with Picea close by infested by Sirex 
and other insects, but free from any trace of Tetropium^ and both 
trees coming from the same plantation. 

In the same way I have always found the species avoid Pinus 
sylvestris, Linn. I have examined hundreds of this conifer dying 
and dead in Tetropium localities and found them unaffected by 
Tetropium, though the work of Criocephalus, Asenium and Bhagium 
was visible. 

The 9 ? which I enclosed on Picea and Pinna were restless and 
tried to eat their way through the muslin, while those enclosed on 
Larix settled down at once and oviposited freely, the larvaj hatching 
out and spreading over the entire surface of the log. 

In confinement then, and under compulsion, T. gahridi is capable 
of living in Pinus and Picea, but prefers Larix eurupaea, multiplying 
in this tree so fast that the second brood will completely kill a dying 
tree of average dimensions, using up all the inner bark. 

Life Cycle. — Tlie egg is laid in the outer bark. The larva 
consumes the soft bast, the cambium layer itself, and sometimes grazes 
superficially the youngest sapwood. Thus destroying the vital juices 
it soon kills completely a sickly tree. 

When full fed it either excavates a pupa-cell under the surface of 
the outer bark, or burrows in the wood and pupates there. 

The life cycle occupies a year. Appended are data concerning 
this (p. 189). 

The Imago. — In a hot temj)erature the beetles are very active 
in their movements, running rapidly over the surface of the bark, 
chasing each other, or lying cjuite flat to it, basking in the sunshine. 

They have also a peculiar habit of standing motionless, 
almost on tiptoe, with the body well away from the bark. 
The hind-legs being longer than the fore-legs, that part of 
the body is slightly tilted up in the air. 

More generally they creep under the plates of the bark and hide 
themselves entirely. Pairs secrete themselves under the laminae of 
the bark in cop. The species is, on the whole, fond of seclusion, and 
doubtless this is why it has escaped notice so long. There may be 
many iraagos on a tree but very few visible at a time. I have placed 
as many as a dozen on a foot of 9-in. larch-pole and it has been 
difficult to find one at times. 

They appear to be exclusively diurnal in their habits. I have 
kept numbers in large boxes and flower-pots out of doors, covered 



Life History of Tetropiim gahrieli. 



189 



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190 Eev. G. A. Crawshay 07i the 

with muslin, perforated zinc and glass, and, about sunset, in a warm 
temperature they have all crept down and hidden themselves under 
the broken pieces of bark. On uncovered logs I have observed the 
same. They creep under the scales and remain in hiding till the 
morning. 

It is not a question of the lower temperature but tlie darkness that 
keeps them quiescent at night, for beetles which I have forced in 
the winter, placed in a warm temperature over a fire-place in 
a bright gas-light, have exhibited the same activity at midnight 
as in any June sunshine, darting about over the surface of the bark 
or even flying, as far as space allowed, in the large glass jam jars 
in which I kept them. 

In these jars these winter-bred imagines have lived the 
full span of their perfect existence when supplied with 
a little moisture — namely, about three weeks. I 
have Avatched them guawing the bark, apparently eating 
part and rejectiug the rest, where there Ijas been no 
need of removing the bark to free themselves from too 
close quarters. 

They begin to emerge early in June under normal conditions, and, 
in my experience, are mostly dead by the end of the first week in 
July. The latest date I have seen one alive in the wild state was 
July 5th, 1906. They emerge earlier from felled timber which has 
lain from the time of oviposition in a spot exposed to an unusual 
degree of sunshine, as may occur in timber-yards, fences, etc. 

Thus, as early as May 4th, 1906, I was surprised to see 
a few holes of the first imagos of the season's brood in the 
bark of logs Avhich had stood in my garden in an unusually 
warm aspect for the greater part of the time since 
oviposition the previous June. 

With this stock I made some remarkable experiments.* 
On May 13th I enclosed some of these imagos Avith ihuslin 
on logs of Zarir curojhva. The logs Avere placed in a still 
hotter situation than that of the previous summer. The 
imagines paired at once and duly oviposited. I expected 
that the larvee Avould feed up, as those of the previous 
year, and establish themselves in their pupa-cells for the 

* In the case of all logs used for breeding experiments due 
precaution was taken to keep them isolated from the time of felling, 
and thus beyond the reach of oviposition from unexpected quarters. 
At the time of felling, this timber was perfectly healthy and such as 
Tetropmm never, in my experience, affects. 



Life History of Tctrojmcm gabrieli. 191 

winter, without trausforming to pupa?. To my surprise, on 
August 10th I observed holes in the bark where the first of 
this second brood of the season had emerged, probably a 
few days previously, i. e. within three months of the parent 
stock being put down on these logs. The $$ of this 
second brood coupled and oviposited from August 10th 
onwards, and of the next generation of larvae found in 
this log in October following some had already moulted 
four times. 

I had doubts whether these very small larvoe would get 
through the winter, some being so near the surface of the 
bark, but I found them, in March following, after a severe 
winter, at different depths in the bark, in all stages of 
development from the first to fourth moults. 

The above-mentioned rate of development is probably 
the most rapid possible without running the risk of death 
from too high a temperature, for in some of these logs 
where the bark was not of considerable thickness some of 
the larvae had from time to time been scorched to death 
by the fierce July heat to which they had been exposed, 
the bark being very hot to the touch. 

The temperature may, of course, be so high as to impede 
development, for I observe that, subject to a very high 
temperature, the larvse which are not killed lie limp, faint 
and prostrate during the warm hours of the day and 
cannot continue feeding. The breathing and fluctuations 
which are normally visible through the delicate transparent 
skin are suspended, and it takes some hours to revive the 
larva and restore its organs to their proper functions. On 
the other hand, after a night's hard frost in the depth of 
winter, by applying warmth I have caused them to resume 
feeding in a couple of hours. 

The imagos also I have found killed by the heat 
in their cells in the bark. The days when this 
happened were remarkable for their high temperature, 
which ranged between 90°-96° Fahr. in the shade. The 
logs were exposed to the fierce heat of the midday sun. 

I found that to cover the logs with a sheet and water 
occasionally moderated the heat sufficiently to admit of a 
safe though rapid development of the insect in all its stages. 

OviPOSiTioN. — I have observed pairs remain coupled for about 
a day and a half and the $ $ oviposit about a day and a half later, 
both ^ and ? living on for about three weeks. 



192 Rev. G. A. Crawshay on the 

The beetle deposits her eggs in the bark, in numbers varying from 
a single one to batches of five or six in the same spot. She then 
moves on to another spot. I have not found more than six ova 
together. 

These are put away under the plates, the beetle backing in as far 
as she can and tlien extending her ovipositor a considerable distance 
further to the junction of tlie plates with the surface of the bark 
from which they are peeling. Or they are inserted in any convenient 
fissure in the tender bark. 

Where this is superficial and the whole of the ovipositor 
is not buried, the operation may be closely watched without 
the beetle being disturbed. 

I have observed the ova, under the lens, passing, one by 
one, down the ovipositor, forced, a small distance at a time, 
with a fluctuating motion. 

By dissection I have found a healthy $ to contain as many as 
130 well-formed ova. 

A 9 confined in a glass jar scattered about 30 ova in the wood- 
dust at the bottom of the jar, and on being supplied with a piece of 
bark, laid about 70 more in it before she died. 

I have watched oviposition in the wild state once only, 
when I came on a solitary ^ on a newly-sawn strip of larch 
ovipositing on the narrow edge of bark in close company 
with Sirac gigas, who was occupied in the same way. 

In confinement, Tetropium has laid on a very small 
piece of bark held in my fingers and watched under the 
lens. They will also, in confinement, oviposit on dead and 
exhausted bark which could not support life in the larvce. 

The earliest date I have known oviposition take place 
under almost natural conditions was on May 17th, in the 
case of imagos which had emerged prematurely from a log 
that had stood out of doors in a warm aspect. 

Under ordinary conditions they lay early in June and onwards for 
a month. Under abnormal conditions I have obtained ova as late as 
the first week in September 1906, from a second brood reared out of 
doors. 

These autumn-emerged beetles, reared under such abnormal 
conditions as above mentioned, did not lay so freely as the June 
broods, as a rule, and many of the ova did not contain a healthy 
embryo, but shrivelled up in a few days. 



Li^e, History of Tetropium gahrieli. 198 

Of the autumn broods, ova continued to hatch out till the third 
week in September.* 

I also obtained ova in November 1905 by artificial heat, from 
imagines of another second brood forced in their latter stages over a 
fire-place in a high temperature. 

In the latter case the beetles laid with great effort, dragging the 
extended ovipositor over the bark for days, but only laying a few 
eggs, though they lived their whole span of life. These ova did not 
hatch out. 

In breeding Tdropium a good way to obtain eggs is to 
enclose several laying $^ on not more than a foot of small 
larch wood enclosed loosely in muslin. On removing the 
laminae of bark with a penknife the ova will be found to 
occur frequently over this small area, and thus much time 
be saved in searching for them. 

To date ova, enclose $^ on a log for a day, removmg 
them each day to another log, dating each log and enclosing 
it again in muslin to prevent any further oviposition from 
other quarters. 

Great care should be taken each day to remove all the 
$$ that were put on the log. 

Though one may mark the spot where a $ is laying on a 
tree, on searching for the ova it is not easy to find them, 
so securely are they hidden away as a rule. 

They are not sealed over, as I have observed is the case, 
for instance, with Iletcacus paradoxus. 

The egg is li-l| mm. long, elongate, subcylindrical, 
sometimes slightly broader at one end, milky white. 

Another good way of obtaining ova is to place the fertile 
S^ in a large glass jar with wide neck, covered with muslin 
or the metal top perforated, with a good-sized piece of 
bark in it and small chips at the bottom to ensure a 
foothold, placing the jar in the open air, though taking 
care not to allow the direct rays of the sun to fall on it 
during the hot hours of the day, nor the rain. 

Hatching. — In a warm June or July temperature the ova hatch 
out in 14-16 days from the time of oviposition. From the eighth day, 
approximately, the larva may be seen slowly forming within the shell. 
Cloudy rings of the different segments appear ; a yellowish tinge at 
the larger end where the head is forming ; then ferruginous, passing 
to brown, specks for the mandibles, which, for a few days prior to 

* The perfect insects emerged the following July. 



104 Rev. G. A. Crawshay on the 

liatcliing, may be seen opening and closing within the shell, and the 
larva projecting its segments up and down within the little space at 
its disposal. 

A good way to hatch out the eggs is to remove them, in 
their batches on very small portions of the bark to which 
they are attached, with a penknife. Place them on a plate 
and cover them over with a flower-pot, moistened occasion- 
ally if the weather is very hot and dry. The pot should not 
be exposed to any fierce heat. With the aid of the lens 
the young larvae may easily be seen when they hatch out, 
and each day's hatch gathered up with a fine brush and 
placed on their food. 

Should ova become detached from the bark they may 
be reattached by very slightly moistening the bark with a 
weak solution of gum arable and laying the ova on it, I 
have found these hatch out as well as others if they are 
very lightly touched. 

Left loose at the bottom of the jar they hatch out equally 
well. On one day in September 1906 I took upwards of 
40 healthy young larvse from the bottom of a jam jar, 
where the ^ had laid them in some wood-dust which 
adhered to the glass, the ova, with hardly an exception, 
hatching out successfully, a very unusual thing for late 
autumn eggs of a second brood. 

The Larva (Plate XX, fig. 1).— Fleshy, susceptible ; scantily 
clothed throughout with short hairs : with legs small and slightly 
corneous : scansorial prominences present on ventral surface of 
abdominal segments. 

Widest in front, a little wider than J of whole length. Pro- 
thoracic segment bearing scutum widest of all, capable of receiving 
the rather large head, which for the most part is retracted into it. 
Tapering from the prothoracic segment to the 6th abdominal : 7th 
and 8th explanate below the spiracles. Prothoracic segment slightly 
corneous above, equal in length to meso- and metathoracic segments 
together. First four abdominal segments subequal : 5th to 8th 
the longest. Spiracles present on mesothoracic and first eight 
abdominal segments as in Asemum and Criocqilmlus ferns. Mandibles 
longer, in proportion to their size, and narrower on the biting surface 
than in Asenmm. Two blunt corneous tubercles on the dorsal 
surface of the 9th abdominal segment, Bet closer together than the 
corresponding spines in Griocephalus and Asemum, and inclined 
slightly inwards (Plate XX, fig. 4). In a single instance only I have 
known these absent in a full-fed larva. In this case the larva had 



Life, History of Tctropitmi gahrieli. 195 

been buried in a stump in the earth soon after hatching, and had 
remained so for six months. 

Colour white, jiinkish white, or dirty white, according to food- 
supply. White before moulting, when it has evacuated all back 
food and ceased temporarily to feed, or when excavating wood. 
Yellowish prior to transforming to a pupa. 

Long. 10-24 mm. 

The newly-hatched larva is 1-1^ mm. long, subparallel, 
the prothoracic segment being slightly the widest. 

The most striking character at this early stage is that 
of the legs which are produced into long setae, bent 
inwards and slightly hooked at the tip, very soft and 
flexible (Plate XX, fig. 3). These would possibly give 
the larva a better hold on the surface of the bark, always 
slightly sticky from the presence of exuded resin, until it 
enters it by its burrow. These setse are exchanged, at 
the first moult, for the usual short terminal claw. The 
body is sparingly clothed with long setse, which are 
shortened at the first moult. 

The larva moves with almost the same facility as the more active 
newly-hatched Lepidopterous larvae, as I have observed in Bhagium, 
and as is possibly the case with all Longicorn larva? of similar habits 
of life. I have seen it climb up and down bark or the surface of glass 
perpendicularly without falling. 

At this stage there is no sign of the corneous tubercles which are 
present in the mature larva on the dorsal surface of the last segment, 
but, from the egg, slight fleshy prominences take their place. 

On the first moult the larva assumes its final shape, 
becoming considerably wider in front. Directly after the 
moult the head stands out prominently (Plate IV, fig. d), 
but, in a few hours, it is for the most part withdrawn into 
the prothoracic segment and under the scutum, giving the 
larva, especially when full fed, the appearance of having 
a very small head for so destructive a work. 

It does not call for further notice till after the 3rd moult, when 
signs of the corneous tubercles appear. This is a useful character, 
distinguishing it from its near ally Asemum and from Griocephalus, 
in both which the abdomen terminates in two spines, as has been 
pointed out by Dr. D. Sharp (" The Genus OHocephalm," Trans. 
Ent. Soc. Lond., May 20th, 1905). 

The newly-hatched larva at once makes its way into the tender 



196 Rev. G. A. Crawsliay on the 

surface flakes of young bark, which, it excavates superficially, rot 
burrowing down at once into the inner and wettest bast, where it 
would be suffocated, except in the case of a dying tree containing 
little sap. It first moults two or three times and attains some size. 
In the case of trees recently felled, and healthy at the time of felling, 
I have not known the young larva penetrate entirely the inner bark 
and reach the surface of the wood-cylinder (Plate XV, fig. a.a.a.) 
under three weeks. It will then be found, for the rest of its life, 
feeding on this wettest part of the tree, consuming the soft bast, the 
cambium layer, and sometimes grazing superficially the youngest 
sapwood (Plate XV), though never excavating this as deeply or 
as clean as Cnllidium, L. 

As it excavates it keej^s its burrow clear, for a short distance in 
front, throwing back the rejected bitten wood-fibre and ramming it, 
together with the excrementa mingled, into a solid cake with which 
it fills up the entire burrow behind it as it advances. It allows 
very little bitten fibre to accumulate at a time in front, but is 
continually cleaning up. 

For some time prior to, and especially during the excavation 
of the pupa-cavities in the bark a curious ticking sound 
proceeds from the tree, caused doubtless by the action of the 
mandibles, faint at first, but later becoming clearly audible at a 
distance of 15-20 paces on a calm day, when the larva is excavating 
dead bark immediately under the surface of the outer plates. 

I have detected the presence of larvse in a standing tree by this 
sound alone early in August 1906. In a small tree where the 
brood is very numerous the ticking proceeds from the whole surface 
of the infected bark continuously. It is a double and sometimes a 
treble tick. As to the cause of this, it may be that the mandibles, 
having passed through the particle of dead bark which the larva is 
biting away, the resistance suddenly removed, meet with a snap, 
overlap, and, in overlai)ping, the margin of the innermost mandibla 
passes across one or more of the ridges on the inner surface of the 
overlapping one, thus causing another " tick " or two to be heard. 

When the larva is feeding in the soft bast I observe no ticking 
sound but rather a squashy sound, from which I infer that it is only 
the greater force needed to bite through the more dead and dry bark 
of the outer plates which gives rise to the sound in question. 

Some pupate in the bark, while others prefer the wood. In the 
latter case, the larva, having bitten the surface of the wood heavily 
for a short distance, enters it suddenly by an elliptical hole, the 
ellipse lying perpendicularly to the circumference of the tree (Plate 
XV, B.B.). I have observed but few exceptions to this rule of the 
vertical ellipse in some thousands of holes examined. In these the 



\ 



Life History of Tetr opium galrieli. 197 

ellipse was situated only slightly out of the perpendicular. In the 
case of Callidium (violaceum^ L., and variabile, L.) and other 
Longicornia I have observed the elliptical entrances to the burrows 
lie at all angles. In 6 ft. of a 7-in. wood-cylinder, in 240 holes 
of Tetrojmcm. examined, the ellipse, in three instances only, lay very 
slightly out of the perpendicular without any bend in the grain to 
influence the larva. 

I can assign no certain cavise for this habit, unless it be a matter of 
convenience, which the arrangement of the wood-cells may account 
for. 

In Larix the latter are " elongate, fusiform, with ends 
dovetailed between one another" (Veitch, Man. Conif., 
p. 82), and lie vertically to the circumference of the tree. 
From their formation the small bundles of these cells 
should be more easily picked up by the mandibles end- 
wise than across. If this is so the larva must needs work 
them in such an attitude as to cause the elliptical hole 
of entrance to lie vertically to the circumference of the tree. 

But this is not the case in the second and downward 
part of the burrow (Plate XVI, I, c, d), in excavating which 
the larva clearly lays hold of the wood-cells across. 

It may be that, having penetrated sufficiently far into 
the wood horizontally for its purpose, by the easiest 
method of biting the wood, at this point the strong instinct 
which impels the larva to pupate standing erect on the 
apex of the abdomen, necessitating the completion of the 
burrow and pupa-cell vertically to the circumference, or 
simply the greater convenience of a downward course, 
prevails, and the larva is content to lay hold of the wood- 
cells any way. 

It is interesting to note that in the only piece of wood 
(Scots Pine) by me at the time of writing infected by 
Crioccphalus I observe that the elliptical holes of exit of 
the larva in the surface lie vertically to the circumference 
as the holes of entrance of Tctropiuin. 

The normal burrow of Tdr&pium runs into the wood 
horizontally, or almost so, for about 1-2| in. (Plate XVI, V), 
with generally a curve to the right or left or occasion- 
ally sinuating. It then takes a sharp turn dovniwards 
(Plate XVI, &), never upwards, for a distance of 1-2^ in. 

At the bottom of this burrow is the pupa-cell. In the 
case of a tree which has been felled and is lying in a hori- 
zontal position at the time of the larva burrowing in the 



198 Rev. G, A. Crawshay on the 

wood, the second part of the burrow may run to the right 
or left (Plate XVI, a), or the entire burrow may run into 
the wood with a curve. 

The excavated wood-fibre the larva brings to the surface 
and with it fills in the remainder of the burrow in the bark, 
where it fed, up to the hole of entrance in the wood-cylinder. 

The work of excavation is carried on in the following 
way as I have observed under glass : — 

Biting away the wood-fibre before it, the larva sweeps it to one 
side with its mouth parts till a certain amount has accumulated, 
when, forming the first few segments into a curve J -shape, in which 
with the help of the side of the burrow it holds the wood-fibre 
(Plate XVIII, h — larva on extreme left), it backs along the burrow, 
drawing the wood-fibre with it. 

Having thus hooked the wood-refuse up the perpendicular and 
along the horizontal parts of the burrow, the larva backs out of the 
hole into the burrow in the .bark, still drawing the wood-fibre with 
it, and, by successive loads, fills up the burrow to the point of the 
hole of entrance in the wood, reversing its position and ramming the 
wood-refuse with its head. In other cases, when the larva has 
excavated a sufficient quantity to remove, it reverses its position in 
the bottom of the burrow at once and pushes all before it, advancing 
up the burrow head first. 

The burrow completed, the larva then excavates the bark opposite 
the hole in the wood-cylinder almost to the surface, leaving the 
imago very little to eat through to make its escape, and descends the 
burrow for the last time to pupate. 

"While in process of excavating the wood, the larva 
swallows a certain portion of the wood-fibre, but it derives 
little if any nourishment from it, as is evidenced by the fact 
that if a larva which is not full fed be taken from its bark 
food and inserted in wood, it continues excavating rest- 
lessly and dissatisfied, till it wastes away and dies or 
makes a much-dwarfed imago. 

The burrow at this stage is clear from the entrance hole to the 
bottom. The larva then widens the bottom into a pupa-cavity about 
twice its own width and a little more than its length, using the 
excavated fibre to fill in the burrow beliind with a good wad for 
about £ in. Having bitten very smooth the walls of the cell it 
settles down, standing erect on the apex of the abdomen, and, with 
head pointing towards the future way of exit, now filled in, it awaits 
pupation (Plate XVI, b). 



Life History of Tetr opium gahridi. 199 

Normally, the imago takes about 10 days to mature in the ])upa- 
cell after transforming. It then bites away the stopping of wood- 
fibre before it, scrapes it behind it with its fore and intermediate tarsi 
and treads it firmly into the bottom of the pupa-cavity with its hind 
tarsi. This obstacle removed, the beetle advances along the burrow 
to the opening, eats througli the thin layer of outer bark and makes 
its escape. 

In the event of it choosing the bark to pupate in, it makes its way 
from the wet bast to the dead and drier outer bark, excavates a 
X>upa-cell upwards and slightly outwards, reverses its position, fills in 
the hole beneath, reverses its position again, and, standing on its tail, 
transforms thus. 

As to the selection of wood or bark in which to pupate, Ratzeburg 
(Die Forst Insekt., vol. i, p. 237) says of the kindred species Ceram- 
hyx luridus, Fabr. (= T. luridum, h.),that it pupates either in the 
bark in summer, or burrows {if com,j}elled to hibernate) in the v)ood 
(" Und verpuppen sich entweder (in Sommer) auch in derselben, 
oder graben sich (wenn sie uberwintern miissen in das Holz "). It is 
probable that he was mistaken here, for in T. gabrieli the pupating 
larva is not influenced in its choice of wood or bark by the season. 

In the case of a brood reared from eggs laid in May, pupating in 
July and emerging in August, some of the larvse chose the wood and 
others the bark in which to pupate. Here the question of hiberna- 
tion was not involved, the weather being hot throughout from the 
time of oviposition to the time of emergence of the perfect insect. 
Moreover a large proportion of the larvae may always be found 
established in their pupa-cells close to the surface of the outer bark 
during the winter, and others, not full fed, resting in the position in 
which the winter overtook them while feeding in the bast. 

Whether in wood or bark the larva excavates the pupa-cell in such 
a way as to admit of its always pupating standing erect on the ex- 
ti-emity of the abdomen, or, in a few cases, nearly so. In this position, 
after it has stiffened for pupation and also after it has transformed 
to a pupa, it is given to spinning round and round in the cell. 

Neither pupa nor imago has room to reverse its position in the 
pupa-cell, nor has the imago sufficient endurance to excavate more 
than a very little hard wood, so the beetle depends on the instinct of 
the larva to provide for its safe exit by facing in the right direction 
before transforming. I have not known this instinct fail in the 
standing tiee in hundreds of burrows I have examined. 

The larvse mutilate each other when they are very 
numerous in the bark. I have frequently found dead ones 
where the burrows cross each other much. On one occasion 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1907. — PART II. (SEPT.) 14 



200 Rev. G. A. Crawsliay on the 

I took two dead larvpe from under bark with apparently 
their mandibles locked together. 

This would account for a given surface of bark not pro- 
ducing more than a limited number of imagos, however 
many laying $$ were deposited on it. It is not that they 
run short of food, but they run foul of each other in 
their wanderings and inflict mortal wounds on the tender 
integument. 

On the other hand, when burrowing in wood to pupate 
they will alter their course to avoid contact with each 
other, and their galleries run alongside each other with 
only tlie thinnest possible partition of wood-fibre between 
through which I have seen daylight. 

Under glass they show that they are fully conscious of 
their close proximity to each other, and neither will broach 
the partition. I have known three larvae enter the wood 
within a \ in. of each other and shape their respective 
courses so as to keep clear of each other, completing their 
burrows and all three emerging perfect insects. 

I have counted as many as 59 holes of burrows in the 
surface of 1 ft. of a 7-in. larchwood-cylinder, and probably 
15 more pupated in the bark. This was a portion of a log 
oviposited on in confinement by about a dozen fertile $^, 
6 ft. of this wood yielding about 300 full-fed larva?, pupas 
and imagos. 

In thick bark I have found as many as three pupa-cells 
occupied, with a very thin layer of bark separating them. 

When the tree is large and the bark thick the majority 
prefer pupating in the bark to excavating the wood. 

The Moults. — The larva moults seven or eight times before 
transforming to a pupa, the moults occurring at intervals of 8-14 
days. It ceases to feed about two days before the change, and the 
soonest I have known it resume feeding after a moult was 12 hours, 
by which time a very warm temperature had sufficiently restored it 
to activity. But the usual time is a day. Before each moult the 
larva carefully smoothes the walls of the burrow. 

Appended are data of moults uf larvte reared from the egg (p. 201). 

Extreme care and the closest attention were necessary to obtain 
these results. 

Unfortunately I failed to bring any of them through to the pupa 
state. I attribute this to the unwholesome fumes arising from the 
gas over which they were placed for forcing, for want of better 
accommodation, from the beginning of October when the necessary 



Life History of TctropiiLm gdbrieli. 



201 





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202 Rev. G. A. Crawshay on the 

temperature failed out of doors, to the middle of November when 
the last one died. Up to the point of bringing them indoors they 
were very healthy. 

No. 5, the only one that moulted eight times, had attained an 
unusual size, and had established itself in the outer bark for pupation 
before it died, from which it would seem that eight moults is the 
limit in this species. At the same time I cannot be sure that in 
some instances they exceed seven. I brovight ionr only through the 
7th moult. The long intervals between the 6th, 7th and 8th moults 
were due to a lowered temperature and asphyxiating atmosphere. 

Light has no injurious effect on larva or pupa, which 
thrive equally whether exposed to the full light of day or 
buried in the darkness in the tree. I have reared numbers 
exposed to light under glass. 

The Pupa (Plate XX, j&g. 2). — The whole dorsal surface, the 
ventral surface of abdomen and apex of femora sparingly furnished 
with short spines which, on the dorsal surface of the abdominal 
segments, are arranged chiefly in small groups, one on either side 
of the median line. Apical segment of abdomen terminating in two 
strong spines curved inwards (Plate XX, figs. 5, 6). These provide 
the pupa with a firm hold on the wood and admit of an active rotatory 
movement as it lies vertically in its cell. 

The sexes may be distinguished by the length of the antenna?, 
which, in the (^ , extend beyond the intermediate tibias further than 
in the 9 by about a joint and a half : also by the formation of the 
under-side of the last segment of the abdomen which, in the 9 > bears, 
close to one another, a pair of compound fleshy tubercles of con- 
siderable size (Plate XX, fig. 6). These, as I have ascertained, are 
rudiments of the appendices in the imago (Plate XX, fig. 7), which 
extend laterally from two small apical prolongations of the ovipositor. 
They are, I believe, sensory organs, for with them I have observed 
the imago, under the lens, feeling the bark when searching for a 
suitable spot in which to deposit her eggs. They are furnished with 
long setfe, and are soft and ajiparently sensitive. 

In the pupa these and other parts of the genitalia attain 
their perfect development outside what will become, in the 
imago, the apical margin of the last segment of the 
abdomen, the partially-developed tergite and sternite of 
this segment in the pupa gaping wide (Plate XX, 
A.A.A.A.), and the organs in question protruding in a 
compact body (Plate XX, b.b.b.b.). As these organs 



Life History of Tetropium gcibrieli. 203 

develop in the pupa they gradually recede, and, by the 
time the pupa throws off its skin, have been entirely drawn 
up into the abdomen and the tergite and stemite of the 
last segment closed over them. 

I found it very difficult to verify what was, for some 
time, conjecture, the parts in question being so delicate 
and liable, at the touch of a needle, to become dissipated ; 
but ultimately I succeeded in removing the loose skin from 
the pupa and exposing to view the underlying organs 
while yet they protruded a little. 

The $ pupa also bears vestiges of these tubercles (Plate 
XX, fig. 5), but they are so small as to be almost imper- 
ceptible, and are differently situated, nor have I had time 
or material at the last moment to ascertain exactly what 
part, if any, of the genitalia they become. 

A most interesting feature in the transformation to the 
pupal state is the manner in which the antennse assume 
their final position in the pupa. 

Immediately on the head and thorax being freed from 
the larval skin the antennae curl forward somewhat after 
the fashion of a ram's horns, though not so much curled. 
When they are full grown the pupa revolves on the 
extremity of its abdomen first in one direction, and, with 
the help of the sides of the cell, rubs one antenna into its 
place behind the projecting femora ; then, revolving in the 
other direction, similarly arranges the other and rests 
(Plate XVIII, ej). 

Variation : (1) in Size. — This is marked. In accounting for 
it some have suggested that large and small races of this Tetropium 
exist locally. This is not the case. The condition of the tree governs 
the size of the generation subsisting in it. 

If it be of luxuriant growth at the time of felling, with a thick 
covering of juicy inner bark, and if ova should be deposited on it at 
the most favourable time, i. e. within a few months of being felled, 
and not too thickly, abnormally large larvae and pupa) will occur 
(Plate XVIII). 

If, on the other hand, the tree is small and the bark thin, and if 
the eggs should be laid thickly ; or if the bark has been previously 
partially exhausted by another generation ; or the tree felled so long 
that much of the sap has dried, the occupants will be small. 

A very healthy tree, lately felled and oviposited on soon 
afterwards, affords more favourable conditions of nutriment 



204 Rev. G. A. Crawshay on the 

for the larva than the natural sickly tree standing in a 
plantation, in which the sap must have been gradually 
failing before the insect will attack it. 

The reason for this is that, in a tree of luxuriant growth, 
recently felled, the bark is full of sap, which, because it 
has ceased to flow, admits of the larva advancing in it 
without being smothered and so thriving. 

I have never found abnormally large individuals in a 
standing tree, but in a few instances in felled timber I 
have known the larva attain the size of 24 mm. and the 
brood average only a little less, while, under less favourable 
conditions, they frequently occur as small as 10 mm. 

Variation : (2) in Colour. — This is marked in the femora 
especially, some series in my possession embracing all intergradations 
of colour from red to black. What governs the variation I have 
failed to discover. 

At first I was inclined to seek the causes in the condition of the 
food-supply. It seemed possible that abundant and sappy bast 
might account for the black colour, and the scanty and drier food 
the red. This sujiposition was based on the fact of a very long series 
exclusively of the black form having been bred in sappy food. How- 
ever, experiment disproved this so far as any visible change taking 
place in the imago in one generation, for I subsequently reared series 
of the black form from logs in which the sap had been exhausted by 
a previous brood. 

Nor does temperature account for the variation, for, in the same 
glass tube and subject to the same temjierature, I have reared both 
forms at the same time. 

Where the red-legged form comes from ; whether it is gradually 
asserting itself over the black, which, at present, largely predominates 
in Britain, or the black over the red, are interesting problems which 
will repay investigation. The following data bear on this subject. 

(1) Two $$ and two $^, type form, taken from their 
pupa cells in Larix europma containing imagines with 
femora of all intergradations of colour from red to black, 
mingled, were isolated on a 4-ft. log of the same conifer 
on May 13th and 24th, 1906, and produced between 
August 13th, 1906, and May 1907, 65 of the type form 
and 31 var. l. 

(2) Two ^$, type form, and two $^, var. ?>, selected and 
treated the same way. May 18th and 25th, 1900, pro- 
duced between August 13th, 1900, and May 1907, 69 type 
form and 71 var. l>. 



Life History of Tetropiwrn gabridi. 205 

(3) Several $$ and ^$, var. h, selected and treated the 
same way, May 13th, 1906, produced between August 10th 
and September 6th, 1906, 123 imagines, all of var. h, except 
two individuals in which the reddish tinge in the femora 
was so obscure as to be hardly perceptible. 

(4) A similar experiment in another log produced 60 
individuals of var. h. 

(5) I have besides reared three successive generations 
from var. h stock, each numbering about 200 individuals, 
without a single instance of the type form occurring, and 
only one or two at most in each generation in which the 
reddish tinge in femora was so obscure as to be hardly 
perceptible. 

(6) I have reared hundreds of other images from 
var. 1) stock taken from different localities with the same 
result. I conjecture from this that the type form (with 
red femora), is not likely to be produced from var. h stock 
(with black femora) in Larix curojJc'ea. And yet, as I 
have shown above, the most intense black form was in two 
different experiments produced from the brightest red 
parents. No instance of the fulvous- ferruginous elytra, 
visible in varieties of T. fuscu7n and T. luridum, have 
occurred in T. gahrieli in my experience, as might have 
been expected. 

(7) From my single log of Picea excelsa, on which ova 
were deposited by var. h stock June 1906, I reared about 
15 images of the var. b. 

(8) From my single log of Finns laricio, var. nigricans, 
oviposited on by var. h stock March 1906, 1 reared only one 
imago, and that of the var. h form. Unfortunately the rest 
of the larv£e perished in forcing over gas. From these latter 
food-plants I had rather anticipated obtaining, in some 
degree at least, the fulvous-ferruginous elytra of T. 
fuscitm and T. luridum, or the pitchy red of Ascmum 
striatum, var. agreste. 

(3) Structural and Sculptural Variation. — Marked. Mul- 
sant's description of Cerambijx luridus, L. (= T. luridum, L.), in 
respect of this applies in every detail to T. gabrieli : — 

" Le prothorax offre des differences aensibles sous le rapport de 
son developpement en longeur et en largeur : de sa forme ; de son 
retrecissement phis ou moins sensible dans sa seconds raoitie ; de 
la profondeur de son sillon ; de sa ponctuation. L'^cusson est 
ordinairement canalicule ; d'autres fois il le pairait a peine. Les 
nervures des clytres sont plus ou moins prononcees." 



206 Rev, G. A. Crawshay on the 

Ratzeburg has excellently illustrated the life habits of 
this latter kindred species in his " Die Forst Insekten." 
They appear similar to those of T. gahrieli, with the 
one exception above mentioned (ante, p. 199). The pupa 
figured there differs in no respect from that of T. gahrieli, 
unless it be in the more pronounced spines on the femora 
and ventral surface of the abdomen. 

Parasitism. — Though I have examined hundreds of 
larvfc and pupa3 taken from trees infected in plantations 
and hundreds of burrows and pupa-cells besides, I have 
never observed any insect parasitic on this species. 

I have, however, once come on a full-fed larva of 
Malacliius hipastnlatiis, L., in a pupa-cell of T. gahrieli 
with a half-eaten pupa beside it. This individual pupated 
and duly emerged under observation. At about the same 
time I took an imago of this beetle on the bark of the 
same log. 

The Hymenopteron, Trypoxylon figulits, Linn., with its 
parasite, Stenodontns margincllns, Grav., kindly named for 
me by Col. Bingham, very commonly frequents the vacated 
burrows of T. gahrieli both in bark and wood in the 
Leighton Buzzard district, as also do many other species 
of Hymenoptera. Found in the pupal chambers of gahrieli 
at the bottom of the burrows, these might at first be 
mistaken for parasites on the beetle larva by some. 

Disease. — Small black specks and patches occur irregularly in 
the cuticle of the larva and pupa, indicating disease in these regions. 
Larvae so affected do not always die. I marked one to ascertain this 
point. In this instance I effected a rapid transformation by increased 
temperature, with the result that the larva threw off the black 
patches in the exuvia? and became a clear white pupa, which duly 
emerged a perfect insect. In most cases, however, they die. 

In affected areas an asphalte-coloured chitinous substance forms. 
Sometimes a wound opens, or the affected area throws out a fleshy 
seta-like excrescence. In some cases the affection apjaears in the 
skin and spreads internally. In others a discoloured area is visible 
underneath an apparently healthy skin. I have been unable to trace 
the cause of this. The fact that it has occurred in larva) reared by 
myself from the egg under glass excludes the possibility of injury 
by any but the most minute insect parasites. 

Mr. A. Gepp of the British Museum, in conjunction with Miss 
Lorraine Smith, has very kindly examined microscopic jtreparations 
made from an affected larva communicated by me, and informs me 



Life History oj Tetovpiiom gdbrieli. 207 

that, in the single instance before them, there does not appear to be 
any fungal parasite. They incline to the opinion that the affection is 
due to malnutrition and subsequent ulceration, or to bacterial action. 

The affection has been most prevalent under the abnormal and 
unhealthy conditions of forcing over gas in a warm damp atmosphere. 
I have also observed it in larvie taken from under bark of trees 
where the burrows were mildewed and several larva3 had died. I 
have observed what is apparently the same disease in larvae of 
Siricidae affecting larch and willow. 

Propagation. — In timber-yards the species is propagated to a large 
extent, the beetles emerging and laying on adjacent timber felled in 
the current year. Much of this is cut up before the following 
summer, and a great many of the larvae and pupre perish in passing 
through the saw-mills. But a large number remain in the slabs and 
posts, etc., after the logs are cut up. 

In cutting up timber of any considerable size, slabs are removed 
first from the logs, either one or more according to what the timber 
is required for. These slabs consist of bark and sapwood, and are 
sufficiently thick to take in many of the burrows containing pupating 
larva3 (November-April). 

In these slabs and in smaller timber sawn in two or quartered for 
posts, the insect is transported in all directions to emerge in new 
districts and establish itself in the nearest plantation containing this 
conifer. 

This doubtless has been a potent factor in the spread of the beetle 
throughout the country ; but it is probable that it has been spread 
in a still greater degree in incoming timber, infected in the plantations 
and brought from long distances to the saw-mills. 

I have seen such logs brought in containing hundreds 
of larvoe, and, where there is sickly Lariv in the neigh- 
bourhood of these saw-mills, little of it escapes oviposition 
and the species becomes abundant there. 

A large percentage of larvae remain in the timber-yard 
in uncut logs till the summei', when the perfect insects 
emerge and lay their eggs on incoming timber freely. To 
raise the bark of logs in timber-yards between September 
and the following summer is to find a large proportion of 
it affected. 

The LARCH CANKER, the LARCH APHIS {Cherims laricis, 
Hartig.), and unsuitable environment multiplying the 
number of sickly and dying trees * lend themselves to the 

* I am indebted to Mr. G. Massee of the Eoyal Gardens, Kew, for 
this information. 



208 Rev. G. A. Crawshay on the 

propagation of the insect. Another very important factor 
is the remarkably short life cycle. 

While one brood of the slower-developing Longicorns 
such as Criocephahis is being perfected, many generations 
of I'etropiiwi will have emerged and spread among sickly 
trees, which they will quickly kill and desert. 

The GREEN WOODPECKER, Gcciiius viridis, renders 
affected trees very unsightly by hammering innumerable 
large holes in the bark with its bill to extract the larvae 
and pupae. 

Damage to Timber. — It is quite certain that the species cannot 
injure healthy trees. Whether it lays upon these through lack of 
discrimination or not I cannot say. In the event of its doing so the 
newly-hatched larva must inevitably be smothered in its minute 
burrow by the flow of sap on eating into the surface of the tender 
bark. I have only found the larva in failing trees. 

From a commercial point of view the species injures the wood to 
a certain extent, but consideral)ly less than G riocephalus and Sirex, 
which feed in the wood itself, excavating it more deeply and to a 
much greater extent. 

Methods of Rearing the Larva. — The methods I 
adopted were as follow : — 

As the habit of the larva is to feed over the smooth, 
sappy surface of the wood cylinder and upon the inner- 
most lining of bast adjacent to it, it occurred to me to 
substitute glass for the wood surface, and, placing the 
inner surface of the tender and pliable bark against it, 
insert the newly-hatched larva between them. It might 
thus be induced to feed next the wlass and admit of beinsj 
observed continually. 

No. 1. — Accordingly I fitted a ring of fresh, tender bast, 
separated from the outer dead bark and therefore pliable, 
firmly and closely to the inner surface of a f-in. corked 
glass tube of equal dimensions from the rim throughout 
(such as appear in Plate XIX, a, h, c, d), and inserted the 
larva in a fine groove, little more than a pin-scratch, made 
by drawing the head of a small pin down the bark, and 
extending an inch or more downwards from the rim of 
the tube. A V-shaped opening to this tiny groove was 
made at the rim, to start the larva in, for it cannot be 
inserted in the very small groove itself without injury, but 
must make its way in. The cylinder of bark had previously 
been pressed tightly to the glass by filling in the empty 



Life, History of Tetropiitm gabrieli. 209 

space in the middle of the tube with wads of tissue paper. 
If the groove was not made too deep for the larva it 
would follow it in its excavations readily, feeding along it, 
and thus be kept in sight. If made too deep the larva 
buried itself in the bark. 

The tube must not be with a neck and metal cap such 
as those used by Mr. G. Smith in rearing Griocephalus and 
. Asenium in their advanced stages (Plate XIX, e,f), for the 
neck being narrower than the body does not admit of the 
cylinder of bark being inserted close enough to the glass 
to keep the minute larva in the groove, and is in other 
respects impracticable. 

This corked glass tube method was fairly successful, 
and by it I brought larvaD through their first moult with 
considerable trouble. But the chief objection to it was 
the difficulty of removing the ring of bark from the tube, 
when changing the larva, without rubbing the latter 
against the glass and crushing it. 

No. 2. — Having thus lost several larvse, I devised the 
better plan of 2-in. squares of flat glass laid on to the 
inner surface of bark taken entire from the log and bound 
tightly to it with string, the larva, as before, being inserted 
between (Plate XVII). This answered admirably. 

Care, of course, must be taken (1) that too much 
moisture does not condense on the glass and drown the 
minute larva, and (2) that the bark is changed, at least, 
every third day to avoid mildew. 

Under the lens I have observed newly-hatched larvse 
consume the threadlets of freshly-formed mildew when 
excavating against the glass, but if they |^do so to any 
extent they become unhealthy and die. 

It is well to place the pieces of bark containing the 
larvae in a tin out of doors, covered over with a damp cloth 
to ensure their not drying up entirely. They must be 
kept from the direct rays of the sun and from the rain, 
but be given all the ventilation possible. 

In the late autumn, if it is desired to force them indoors, 
it is a good and simple plan to place them on a mantelpiece 
over the warmest fire-place accessible in a tin with a few 
holes in the lid to admit of a little ventilation and at the 
same time to retain sufficient moisture in the pieces of bark. 
They do best in a temperature of 80°- 90° Fahr. A hothouse 
would probably answer the purpose as well. Prior to 
adopting these two methods of rearing the young larva 



210 Rev, G. A. Crawshay on the 

I had tried various others without success, and had little 
hope of ascertaining the number of moults the larva 
undergoes. I had, moreover, exhausted all my ova with 
the exception of one late batch, for I did not then contem- 
plate a second brood of beetles emerging and ovipositing 
as late as September. 

Early in July 1906 with eighteen newly-hatched larvse 
I made my last experiment, by the flat glass method, and 
of these I only succeeded in bringing six over the Srd 
moult, four over the 7th, one over the 8th, and none to 
perfection (ante, p. 201). 

Hitherto I have dealt with the feeding up of the larva 
in bark. When full fed it is advisable to transfer them to 
wood. In November 1905 following the June of that 
year when I first discovered this beetle I was confronted 
with a number of larvae apparently full fed in a tree on 
which my females had laid in June. Some of these 
appeared to me, in this incredibly short time for a 
Longicorn larva, to have actually established themselves 
in their pupa-cells and seemingly would hibernate thus. 

No. 8. — Accordingly I devised a method of bringing 
these through to perfection quickly in wood. In this way 
I obtained imagines almost at once, and was able to watch, 
for the first time, the transformation to the pupal and 
perfect states under glass. 

I used the |-in. corked glass tube for the first time. 
Let into these were solid cylinders of fresh larchwood 
turned on a lathe exactly to fit the tube, leaving no space 
for mildew (Plate XIX, a, h, c, d). In the top of each piece 
of wood with a :|-in. gouge I made grooves in the outer 
surface 1^ in. long, extending downwards, large enough 
comfortably to take the larva and leave it space for packing 
away its rejected wood-fibre in forming the pupa-cell here. 

Placed in these grooves the larvas smooths down the 
interior walls, shaping them to its liking, and forming a 
pupa-cavity, as in the normal tree, except that the glass is 
used for one side. Sometimes it continues the burrow 
downwards, thus affording an excellent opportunity of 
observing the mode of excavation and the ramming 
process that takes place in the natural tree. 

In each tube four to five larvae were fitted up in adjacent 
grooves, and every movement could be observed through 
the glass. 



lAfe, History of Tetr opium gahrieli. 211 

I had, at times, as many as four dozen tubes occupied, and 
have reared as many as five images in one tube at the 
same time. 

The tubes were placed over a fire-place in a temperature 
of 76°-90° Fahr. In this temperature development was 
rapid, the pupal state only lasting seven or eight days in 
some instances. 

The cork should fit close down on the top of the wood 
to prevent the larvae wandering and invading each other's 
cells. A very small groove may be cut down the side of 
the cork with a penknife, communicating with each larva 
to admit of ventilation and the escape of excessive 
moisture. 

Should too great moisture condense on the glass in the 
cells the cork must be removed for a while. The reason 
for using wood instead of bark for the final stages of the 
insect is that it is less liable to become mildewed. 

Mildew renders it almost impossible to bring a full-fed 
larva through to a healthy imago in tubes or bottles of 
bark, unless the larva be allowed to bury itself entirely in 
a thick piece and wad itself in, in which case, of course, it 
cannot be observed. 

After rearing one feeble beetle in bark in a metal-capped 
tube, inserted when pupating (Plate XIX, c, /), I renounced 
the plan and used cylinders of wood with great success. 

Nor is it possible to bring them through healthily in 
bark by the flat glass method (No. 2) used for feeding up 
the larvse. Wood is, in all cases, the safest after the larva 
is full fed. 

No. 4. — Where turned wood-cylinders for the tubes are 
not procurable another method has suggested itself to me 
which answers well. It consists in substituting wood for 
bark in method No. 2. Small blocks of wood, about 2 in. 
square, by 1 in., must be cut with even surface, and pieces 
of glass to fit them (Plate XVIII, a, h, c, d). Insert the 
larva or pupa in grooves cut on the surface of the wood 
with ^-in. gouge (Plate XVIII, a), then apply the piece of 
glass and bind tight with string. Stand the pieces up on 
end so that the grooves lie perpendicularly with the 
openings above and do as in No. 2. In this case, as there 
is no cork to contain the larva in the groove when first 
inserted, put in a small stopper of cotton wool. 

I know of no other method by which the excavations of 
the larva in the wood, the establishment in the pupa-cell, 



212 Rev. G. A. Crawshay on Tctropium gabrieli. 

the transformations to the pupal and perfect state and the 
manner of emergence of the imago from the cell may be 
observed continuously and accurate knowledge arrived at. 

No. 5. — Where it is not desired to watch the insect in 
its latter stages very closely under glass the following 
method will be found useful. Split a piece of wood and 
with a j-in. gouge make small hollows on the surface of 
one piece resembling pupa cells. Place the full-fed larvae 
or pupse in these, replace the counterpart and bind tightly 
with string. The string can be untied and the progress of 
the insects watched as often as is desired. The wood 
must be moistened if it gets very dry. Wood with sap 
in should be used, and the pieces of wood placed in tins 
to preserve the moisture so far as possible. 

In conclusion I would express my thanks to Mr. C. J. 
Gahan for his always ready assistance in connection with 
the subject of this paper ; to my brother Mr. L. R. Craw- 
shay for his well-executed drawings on Plate XX, and also 
to Messrs. T. E. and W. R. Roland of Fenny Stratford for 
kindly affording me every facility for the observation of 
the species in their extensive saw-mills. 



Explanation of Plates XV — XX. 

[See Explanation facing the Plates.] 



( 213 ) 



XII. Studies of the Tetrigiuse (Ortboptera) in the Oxford 
University Museum. By J. L. HANCOCK, M.D., 
F.E.S. (Chicago). 

[Read 28tli March, 1907.] 

Plate XXI. 

The following notes and descriptions relating to Orthoptera 
are based on the collection of Tctviginm contained in the 
Hope Department of Zoology, University Museum, Oxford, 
England. The writer is indebted to Mr. R. Shelford, who 
generously supplied for determination the present collec- 
tion. Besides this material, the writer has drawn upon 
some examples of these insects in his own collection, which 
have not hitherto been recorded. 

This article forms a sequel to various published contri- 
butions by the writer bearing on the Tctriginm, the last 
of which appeared in " Genera Insectorum."* 

Section TRIPETALOCER.E, Bolivar. 

Genus Tripetalocera, Westwood. 

1. T. ferrugiiica, Westwood, Zool. Journ., vol. v, p 444, 
PI. xxii, f. 3. 

One male example from Kuching, N.W. Borneo, Dyak 
coll., R. Shelford; Oxford Museum. 

Section DISCOTETTIGI^, Hancock. 

Genus Discotettix, Costa. 

1. D. hekehuth, Serville, Hist. Nat. Ins. Orthopter;j, p. 759, 
1839. 

Five examples from Kuching, IST.W. Borneo, Dyak. coll., 
R. Shelford. One of these, an immature specimen, pre- 
sented by the Sarawak Museum ; Oxford Museum. 

* Genera Insectorum, 48me Fascicule, Orthoptera, Fam. 
Acridiidse, Subfam. Tetrujinse, 4 Plates (P. Wytsman), pp. 79, 1906. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC, LOND. 1907. — PART II. (SEPT.) 



214 Mr. J. L. Hancock's Studies of the 

2, B. sJielfordi, sp. nov. 

Cinereous or fuscous, body rugose, conspersed with coarse granula- 
tions ; superior ocelli placed between the middle of the eyes. 
Antennte inserted little below and anterior to the ventro-anterior 
margin of the eyes, not at all serrulate, from the sixth to the eighth 
articles moderately compresso-dilated, the sixth only a little so 
modified, the ninth oval, the two apical articles very small, the apex 
of last joint acute. Frontal costa distinctly protuberant between the 
antennje, and advanced much further than the eyes. Pronotum 
truncate anteriorly, the two prozonal carinte behind the anterior 
margin parallel, dorsum rugose-subnodulose, strongly flattened, 
presenting sulcations anteriorly : humeral angles little produced 
laterally, behind the shoulders subfossulate, and subgibbose, with a 
pair of gibbose tubercles posteriorly about midway between the 
humeral angles and base of process ; the course of median carina 
serrulate, indistinctly and irregularly sul)tuberculose ; lateral mar- 
ginal carinte often bearing a number of small shining, somewhat 
obtuse tubercles, each humeral angle presenting one at the apices ; 
pronotal process rather stout, little depressed, lengthily extended 
beyond the apex of posterior femora ; lateral lobes little laminate 
outwards, the posterior angle excavato-truncate and angulate sub- 
acute, not at all serrulate or spinose. Elytra moderately large, 
distinctly acuminate towards the apices ; wings fully explicate, as 
long as the process. Femora elongate, margins minutely serrulate ; 
anterior femora above somewhat subbilobate ; middle femora above 
subtrilobate, the posterior tibia3 serrulate, but not at all spinose. 
Length of male and female, entire, 17"5-19 mm. ; pronotum 16-18-5 
mm. ; posterior femora 6-8'5 mm. 

Three examples from Kuching, N.W. Borneo, Dyak 
coll., E,. Shelford ; Oxford Museum. 

A very distinct species resembling, perhaiDs, D. scabridus, 
Stal, more than any other member of the genus.* 

Genus Ph^estus, Bolivar, 

1. P. insular is, sp. nov. 

Stature small, cinereo-fuscus. Body somewhat smoothly granulate. 
Head not at all exserted ; vertex narrowed forward, nearly equal 
in front to one of the eyes, anteriorly subtruncate, transversely lightly 
carinate, advanced about as far as the anterior fourth of the eyes, 

* Named in honour of Mr. E. Shelford, whose interest in the 
Oxford Museum is shown by the large series of Orthopteran speci- 
mens bearing his name as the donor. 



Tetriginx in the Oxford University Museum 215 

fossulate on each side of the feeble, abbreviated, median carina ; 
frontal costa strongly protuberant between the antennae and rather 
narrowly sulcate ; superior ocelli placed between the submedian part 
of the eyes, visible in profile ; antennae inserted little anterior to and 
scarcely below the ventro anterior margin of the eyes, filiform, but 
the fifth and sixth articles little compresso-expanded, the seventh to 
ninth distinctly compresso-dilated, the two apical articles minute, 
the apices acute. Pronotum anteriorly little rounded produced, pos- 
teriorly acuminate, extended little beyond the apices of the posterior 
femora ; anterior prozonal carinse behind the anterior margin want- 
ing, median carina little acute, percurrent, in profile substraight ; 
anterior sulci subobsolete, humeral angles wanting, the humero- 
apical caringe percurrent backward, and forward extended as far as 
the point opposite and above the inferior sinus ; lateral lobes turned 
down, the posterior angles obtuse. Elytra small elongate, sub- 
lanceolate ; wings fully explicate, extended to or little beyond the 
apex of pronotal process. Anterior and middle femora elongate, the 
margins straight, entire ; the posterior femora little incrassate, the 
superior margin arcuate, minutely serrulate, posterior tibiae pluri- 
spinose and minutely serrulate, the inner fourth part toward the 
apices unarmed, the three pulvilli of the first article of posterior 
tarsi equal in length, subacute. Length of body, female entire, 
9"5-10 mm. ; posterior femora 5-55 mm. 

Three examples from Kuching, N.W. Borneo ; two of 
these from the Sarawak Museum, No. 337 and 357, and 
the other Dyak coll., R. Shelford ; Oxford Museum. 

The antennas in this species are more compressed than 
in P. mellerhorgi, Stal, and the facial frontal costa is more 
narrowly sulcate. 

Section CLADONOTiE, Bolivar. 

Genus Deltonotus, Hancock. 

1. D. tectiformus, Hancock, Spolia Zeylanica, vol. ii, p. 
111-112, PL I, figs. 2-2a, 1904. 

Two examples from Pundaluoya, Ceylon; Oxford 
Museum. 

These specimens have the pronotum less produced 
anteriorly than the type examples in the author's collec- 
tion, from the same locality, and are provisionally con- 
sidered immature. It is however possible that they are 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1907. — PART II. (SEPT.) 15 



216 Mr. J. L. Hancock's Studies of the 

distinct from tcdiformus, and two in my collection from 
Hantane, Ceylon, bear the label "i>. cristatus, sp. nov.," 
awaiting study of a larger series to settle the matter. 

Genus PoTUA, Bolivar. 

1. P. coronatcty Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. xxxi, 
p. 208, PI. I, fig. 9, 1887. 

Four examples from Kuching, N.W. Borneo, R. Shelford; 
Oxford Museum. 

Genus Epitettix, nov. 

Stature small, body somewhat smooth but densely punctate. 
Vertex broad, little narrowed forward, much wider than one of the 
eyes, anteriorly not at all transversely carinate but on each side 
with a very small, though distinct elongate longitudinal carina, front 
margin convex, with an abbreviated somewhat thickened and pro- 
duced median carina ; face oblique ; superior ocelli placed between 
the lower third of the eyes ; the face together with the crown 
of head forming an obtuse angulate profile, frontal scutellum not 
divided above the posterior ocelli, triangular, and the margins but 
little elevated, not produced in profile ; antenna) inserted little 
forward and below the ventro-anterior mai'gins of the eyes, the dis- 
tance lietween them much wider than that to the eyes. Pronotum 
anteriorly truncate, posteriorly cuneate, with subacute apex, not 
extended backward to the apices of the posterior femora ; median 
carina percurrent, distinct, and substraight, dorsum subtectiform, 
punctate, prozonal carinse behind the anterior border somewhat 
indistinct ; humeral angles almost wanting ; lateral lobes little 
reflexed outwards, the posterior angles obliquely truncate behind. 
Elytra and wings wanting ; margins of anterior and middle femora 
entire, posterior femora little incrassate and of ordinary form, the 
margins of posterior tibiae plurispinose, and minutely serrulate, the 
first articles of the posterior tarsi strongly larger than the third, the 
three pulvilli about equal in length. Resembling Diotarns, Stal.* 
Type, Epitettix punctatus. 

1. E. inindatus, sp. nov. (Plate XXI, fig. 1.) 

Fuscous, with the posterior half of dorsum and upper distal half 
of hind femora flavo-ferruginous, the anterior and middle tibise 

* This genus may be assigned to my Subsection II, under. 
CUidonotx, and next to Diotarus, Stal, as given in my key in Genera 
Insectorum. Vide p. 9, 10, 48me Fasc. Orthoj). Subfam. Tetriginae, 
1906. 



Tetriginm in the Oxford University Museum 217 

light, annulate with fuscous. Apical articles of maxillary palpi little 
dilated, oval. Length of body entire, male, 10 mm. ; pronotum 
7 mm. ; posterior femora 5 mm. 

One example from Kuching, N. Borneo, R. Shelford ; 
Oxford Museum. 



Genus Cladoramus, nov. 

This genus differs from Pantelia, which it most resembles, in the 
anterior margin of pronotum being profoundly produced forward over 
the head, forming a process, in the sulcation of the forward dorsal 
margin of crest, the presence of strongly carinate-crenulate humeral 
angles which are little produced outwards, and in the lateral lobes of 
pronotum bearing a superior or elytral sinus for the reception of the 
elytra, the latter being of ordinary form. 

1. C. crenulatus, sp. nov. (Plate XXI, fig. 2.) 

Greyish, body strongly rugose, somewhat sparingly provided with 
small subspiniform tubercles. sFace nearly vertical, viewed in 
profile wholly denticulate ; vertex very broad, on each side forward 
adjoining the eyes armed with an obliquely produced spine, the 
middle backward denticulate, and forward strongly armed with 
produced denticles between the eyes ; frontal scutellum with convex 
sides, the margins denticulate produced, the facial median carina 
below as well as face on each side denticulate ; eyes small and 
subsessile ; the three apical articles of the maxillary palpi compresso- 
dilated ; antennse inserted far below the eyes, the distance between 
them and that to the eyes nearly equal. Pronotum rugose, strongly 
tectiform and cristate, anteriorly profoundly produced beyond the 
head, in the form of a sublongitudinal process, posteriorly extended 
only little beyond the apices of the posterior femora ; the anterior 
process viewed from above presenting a strongly spinose margin 
below on each side, the apex bifid and the upper dorsal margin dis- 
tinctly sulcate ; viewed in profile the whole dorsal crest little elevated 
somewhat horizontally, but the anterior half undulato-crenulate, the 
process anteriorly little arcuate above, at the middle behind the 
shoulders somewhat angulate ; from here backwards strongly sinu- 
ato-dentate, the apex very little turned downward behind ; humeral 
angles strongly carinate, little produced outwards, and strongly 
crenulate ; lateral lobes of pronotum posteriorly bisinuate, below 
widely laminate outwards subhorizontally, arcuate anteriorly, pos- 
teriorly often armed with three obtuse denticles or crenulate. Elytra 



218 Mr. J. L. Hancock's Studus of the 

of moderate size, elongate sublanceolate, where they rest at the sides, 
the inferior lateral margin of pronotum little arcuato-excavate for 
their reception ; wings wanting. Anterior femora strongly compresso- 
foliate, scarcely longer than wide, the superior margin sinuate, below 
coarsely crenulate ; anterior tibiae strongly compresso-ampliate behind 
the middle, above canaliculate, with a spur midway on the margins, 
behind the inner margin toward the distal extremity armed with 
acute spines (about five), middle femora externally tuberculose, 
margin above strongly acute-sinuate and denticulate, below lobato- 
crenulate, middle tibiae ampliate at the middle, the superior inner 
margin fiirnished with denticulate lobes ; hind femora externally 
strongly rugose and armed with spinous tubercles, the outer carina 
below, as viewed from above bearing strongly denticulate lobes at 
the middle, and at the apical fourth similarly armed, though not so 
pronounced, knees denticulate on the sides and above, the lower 
margin of hind femora strongly lobato-denticulate, the posterior 
tibise rather stout, the canthi crenulate and plurispinose, the inner 
canthus regularly spined, the third pulvilli of the posterior tarsi 
little longer than the first or second articles, straight below. Length 
of the body entire, female, 11 mm. ; pronotum 12'8 mm. ; anterior 
process of pronotum 2*5 mm.; posterior femora 5*5 mm. 

One female example from Rhodesia, East Loangwa, 
Africa, S. A. Neave; Oxford Museum. 

Section SCELIMENiE, Bolivar. 
Genus Scelimena, Serville. 

1. S. iJrodiicta, Serville, Hist. Nat. Ins. Orthopt., p. 762, 

1837. 
One example from East, and three from West Java, 
H. Fruhstorfer ; Oxford Museum. 

2. >S^. sanguinolcnta (Krauss), Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Beig. 

xxxi, p. 216-217, 1887. 
One example from East, and three from West Java ; 
Oxford Museum. 

3. S. locjani, Hancock, Spolia Zeylanica, vol. ii, p. 120-122, 

figs. 5-5c, PI. I, 1904. 
Two examples from Kelawaewa, N.C. Province, Ceylon ; 
Oxford Museum. 

4. *S^. gavialis, Saussure, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, p. 485, 

1860. 



Tetriginss in the Oxford University Museum 219 

Three examples. One from Pundoluoya, and two from 
Kandy, Ceylon ; Oxford Museum. 

5, S. india, sp. nov. 

Eesembling S. producta but slightly stouter in stature. Body- 
fuscous, pale variegated, the carinas of dorsum flavo-maculate, the 
tibi« with pale annuli. Vertex subequal in width to one of the 
eyes, the frontal carinas on each side little compressed and subacute. 
Pronotum anteriorly somewhat subangulate, posteriorly extended 
beyond the knees of the hind femora about as far as the tibial apices, 
but not so lengthily attenuate as in producta ; dorsum conspersed 
with granules ; depressed and uneven, between the sulci forwards 
subfossulate on each side, between the shoulders bearing subelevated 
longitudinal costate protuberances, humeral angles unarmed, behind 
the shoulders bifossulate, and presenting a pair of rounded subele- 
vated nodules, again another pair somewhat fused together appear 
posteriorly opposite the middle of the hind femora which are indis- 
tinct ; posterior process stout at the base and acuminate toward the 
apex ; median carina rather incrassate, unevenly undulate, anteriorly 
at the margin little protuberant and subtuberculate : lateral lobes at 
the anterior margin armed with small tubercles, the posterior 
margin little laminate outwards, and armed with a distinct, acute 
spine on each side, directed transversely but little curved forward. 
The posterior femoral margins entire, the posterior tibise armed with 
minute denticles, the margins dilated towards the apices ; the first 
article of the posterior tarsi dilated but not so widely as in producta. 
Length of body entire, male, 19'5 mm. ; pronotum 18 mm,; posterior 
femora 7 mm. 

Two examples from Cherrapunji, Assam; Oxford 
Museum. 

Genus Chthonotettix, Hancock.* 

1. C. palpatus, Stal, Ofv. Vet. Akad. Forh., p. 57, 1877. 
= Chthonius palpatus, Bolivar. (Plate XXI, fig. 3.) 

Body sparingly granulose, fuscous, obscurely variegated with 
flavous. Vertex distinctly narrower than one of the eyes, the anterior 
carinas rounded oblique ; eyes globose ; frontal costa roundly 
protuberant between the antennas, narrowly sulcate and divided 
little above the posterior ocelli, the latter situated between the lower 
third of the eyes, conspicuous in profile ; antennae inserted scarcely 

* The name Chthonotettix was proposed by the present author 
(vide Genera Insectorum, 48me Fasc. Orthoptera, Subfam. Tetriginse, 
p. 26, 1906) to replace Bolivar's preoccupied genus Chthanius, 



220 Mr. J. L. Hancock's Studies of the 

below and anterior to the ventro-anterior border of the eyes. 
Pronotum truncate anteriorly, posteriorly lengthily extended beyond 
the knees of the hind femora ; median carina often interrupted, 
disappearing anteriorly behind the frontal margin and posteriorly 
on the apical process, in profile little gibbulous between the 
shoulders, posteriorly sinuate ; dorsum depressed, with abbreviate 
costa between the humeral angles, strongly fossulate behind the 
humeral angles, subnodulose in single order posteriorly, and the 
process toward the extremity smooth and cylindrical ; lateral lobes 
little laminate, the posterior angles armed with distinct transverse 
spine on each side, acute. Elytra moderately large, elongate sublan- 
ceolate ; wings fully explicate but not quite reaching to the pronotal 
apex. Femoral margins entire, anterior and middle femora very 
slender, nearly equal in length ; margins of posterior tibiae moderately 
dilated, sparingly armed with small denticles, the inner canthus 
unarmed at the distal fourth ; the first articles of the posterior tarsi 
not at all dilated, the three pulvilli equal in length and straight 
below. Length of body entire, female, 22 mm. ; pronotum 20 5 mm. ; 
posterior femora 8-5 mm. 

One example, No. 2772, from Luzon, Manilla, Philip- 
pines, E. L. Meyer ; Oxford Museum. 

Genus Gavialidium, Saussure. 

1. G. crocodilus, Saussure, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, p. 481, 
1860. 

Four examples from Pundaluoya, Ceylon. Oxford 
Museum. 

Genus Oxynotus, Hancock. 

1. 0. hastatus, Hancock, Occas. Mem. Chicago Ent. Soc, 

vol. i. No. 1, p. 12, 13, PI. I, figs. 3-3a, 1900. 

One example from N.E. Madagascar, Bay of Antongil, 
Mocquerys ; Oxford Museum. 

Genus Criotettix, Bolivar. 

0. tricarinatus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 
p. 224, 1887. 

Eleven examples from Pundaluoya, and other points in 
Ceylon ; Oxford Museum. 

2. C. Jlavopictus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. Ixx, 

p. 582, 1902. 
Two examples from Cherrapunji, Assam; Oxford Museum. 



Tetriginm in the Oxford University Musetim 221 

3. C. oculatus magnets, var. nov. 

This form nearly resembles the Sumatran species ocwZa^ns, Bolivar, 
but differs in being larger in stature. 

Length of body entire, male and female, 15-18 mm. ; pronotum 
14-17'5 mm. ; posterior femora 5'5-7 mm. 

Five examples from West and Mid Java; Oxford 
Museum ; numerous examples in the author's collection. 

Genus Acanthalobus, Hancock. 

1. A. rugosus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, p. 228, 

1887. 

Five examples are referable to this species, they are 
from Kuching, N.W. Borneo, R. Shelford ; Oxford Museum. 

2. A. saginatus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, p. 225, 

1887. 

Seven examples, including specimens from Java and 
China; Oxford Museum. 

3. A. longinotus, sp. nov. 

This species is closely allied to A, rucjosus, Bolivar, and might 
possibly be the long-winged form of the latter. It differs principally 
in the pronotum being strongly extended backward beyond the 
femoral apices, and in the body being somewhat stouter. It bears 
moreover a near resemblance to nexuosus also, but it is smaller in 
stature. Ferruginous or tending to fuscous. Vertex wider than 
one of the eyes, very little narrowed forward, very slightly marginate 
on each side anterior to the lateral supraocular lobes, median carina 
abbreviated ; frontal costa very sparingly compresso-elevated between 
the antennfe, in profile scarcely sinuate below the median ocellus, 
above declivous. Pronotum anteriorly truncate, posteriorly lengthily 
extended beyond the femoral knees ; dorsum convex between the 
shoulders, subbifossulate behind them, the surface rugose, irregularly 
furnished with abbreviated rugas and tubercles, posterior angle of 
the lateral lobes triangular, somewhat acute, but not spinose. Wings 
little longer than pronotum in the female. Anterior and middle 
femora margins subentire, the posterior femoral margins minutely 
serrulate. Length of body entire, male and female, 16*5-19 mm. : 
pronotom 16-17'5 mm. ; posterior femora 6*5-7*6 mm. 

Seven examples from N.W. Borneo, R. Shelford ; Oxford 
Museum. 



222 Mr. J. L. Hancock's Studies of the 

4. A. fuscus, sp. nov, (or var. ?). 

Similar in stature to longinotus, but entirely fuscous (as in nexu- 
osus), the vertex wide, and the frontal costa more roundly produced 
between the antennae, and sinuate below the median ocellus, the 
lateral margin of vertex with distinct lobes and marginate on each 
side forward. Dorsum of pronotum very strongly rugose, plentifully 
furnished with abbreviated rugie, and tubercles irregularly disposed ; 
in profile the median carina of pronotum strongly sinuate, little 
subnodulose forward, and distinctly depressed behind the shoulders ; 
lateral lobes little more reflexed outwards, the triangular posterior 
angle little more acute and somewhat spinose. Length of body entire, 
female, 18 mm. ; pronotum 16*8 mm. ; posterior femora 8 mm. 

One example from N.W. Borneo, R. Shelford ; Oxford 
Museum. 

5. A. miliarivs, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, p. 226, 

1887. 

Two examples from Pundaluoya, Ceylon ; Oxford 
Museum. 

6. A. miliarius cuneatus, Hancock, Spolia Zeylanica ii, 

part vii, p. 133, 1904. 

Three examples from Ceylon ; Oxford Museum. 

7. A. rohiistns, sp. nov. 

A stouter form than either longinotus or mgosus, and like the 
latter having abbreviated wings and pronotal process not at all or 
very little extended beyond the knees of the hind femora ; dorsum 
between the shoulders rather broader ; colour ferrugineous or 
fuscous ; the vertex distinctly wider than one of the eyes ; lateral 
lobes of pronotum decidedly reflexed outwards, tlie posterior angles 
triangular but not at all spinose ; dorsum of pronotum strongly 
rugose and tuberculose ; the third articles of the posterior tarsi (in 
the female) little longer than the first or the second. Length of 
body entire, male and female, 13'8-15"4 mm. ; pronotum 13-14 mm. ; 
posterior femora 7-9 mm. 

Two examples from Kuching, N.W. Borneo, One of 
these from the Sarawak Museum, the other from R. 
Shelford; Oxford Museum. 

8. A. hispinosus, Dalman, Vet. Akad. Hand., p. 77, 1818. 

One example from Penang, Malacca, E. L. Meyer; 
Oxford Museum, No. 3452. 



Tetriginm in the Oxford University Museum 223 

Genus Loxilobus, Hancock. 

1. L. assamus, sp. no v. 

A small form, with abbreviated wings and pronotal process. 
Cinereous or ferruginous, often infuscate on the sides and legs ; 
vertex subequal in width to one of the eyes, advanced as far as the 
eyes, narrowed forward, distinctly longitudinally sulcate on each 
side ; frontal costa in profile convex. Pronotum anteriorly truncate, 
posteriorly cuneate, extended backward as far as the hind femoral 
knees ; dorsum tuberculose, subcostate between the shoulders, and 
here somewhat convex, deplanate posteriorly ; median carina of pro- 
notum sinuate in profile, sometimes little elevated forward, before 
the shoulders ; lateral lobes little laminate outwards and sub- 
triangular, obliquely truncate ; margins of anterior and middle 
femora entire, the third articles of the posterior tarsi, with the 
third pulvilli longest, the apices of the first and second acute. 
Elytra elongate, with rounded apices ; wings abbreviated, little 
shorter than the pronotal process. 

Three examples from Cherrapunji, Assam; Oxford 
Museum. 

2. L. truncatus, sp. nov. 

Eesembling acutus, but having the lateral lobes of pronotum little 
dilated, and obliquely truncate behind, the posterior angles distinct, 
but not acute, the dorsum of pronotum lightly rugose, but without 
distinct lineate rugaj or tubercles ; wings fully explicate and extended 
backward as far as the pronotal process. Length of body entire, 
female, 14 mm. ; pronotum 13 mm. ; posterior femora 6*2 mm. 

One example from Kuching, N.W, Borneo, Dyak coll., 
R. Shelford ; Oxford Museum. 

3. L. insidiosus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, p. 228, 

1887. {Criotettix insidiosus of Bolivar.) 

One example from Kuching, N.W. Borneo, R. Shelford ; 
Oxford Museum. 

Genus Bolotettix, nov. 

Body conspersed with granules or somewhat punctate. Vertex 
strongly narrower than one of the eyes, subacuminate forward and 
little ascendant, subsulcate on each side of the feeble median carina, 
the lateral margins anteriorly provided with suboblique carinse open 
in front, and bear small indistinct supraocular lobes ; frontal costa in 
profile little compresso-elevated between the antennae, viewed in 



224 Mr, J. L. Hancock's Studies of the 

front narrowly compressed and sulcate little above the posterior 
ocelli, the rami below moderately divergent toward the median 
ocellus ; eyes large and strongly globose, somewhat prominently 
elevated ; posterior ocelli placed near the lower third of the eyes ; 
palpi with the apical articles little compresso-dilated ; antennae 
filiform and very slender, inserted scarcely below the antero-ventral 
border of the eyes. Pronotum anteriorly truncate, posteriorly 
subulate, often extended little beyond the hind femoral apices ; 
dorsum anteriorly cylindrical, the prozonal and lateral carina? 
before the shoulders wanting ; between the shoulders backward de- 
planate, and behind the shoulders often subbifossulate ; median carina 
forward behind the anterior margin wanting, in front of the shoulders 
somewhat compresso-arcuate ; lateral lobes of pronotum posteriorly 
bisinuate, the posterior angles moderately laminate, and on each 
side strongly armed with a transversely produced spine, or rarely 
little produced. Elytra very small and lanceolate ; wings fully 
explicate, not extended so far as the apex of pronotal process or 
about as far. Anterior and middle femora narrow, elongate, carinse 
entire, posterior femoral margins serrulate, the genicular denticles 
moderately distinct, posterior tibia? scarcely at all ampliate toward 
the apices, with the canthi compressed, spinose, and minutely 
serrulate, the first and third articles of the posterior tarsi subequal 
or the first little longest. Type Bolotettix validispinus. 

This genus is readily distinguished from Criotettix, which 
it most resembles, in the very narrow subacuminate vertex, 
the absence of the anterior prozonal and lateral carinse 
on the dorsum of pronotum, the cylindrical character of 
the forward part of the pronotum, the strongly-produced 
spines arming the posterior angles of the lateral lobes, the 
very small elytra, and the insertion of the antennae barely 
below the eyes. 

1. B. validispmus, sp. nov. (Plate XXI, fig. 5.) 

Dark ferruginous, the face and legs lighter, the lateral thoracic 
spines and borders of pronotum rufescent, posterior femora externally 
below longitudinally striated with fuscous, posterior tibia3 and under 
parts of body fuscous. Face oblique ; vertex ascendant forward, in 
front reduced to nearly one-half the width of one of the prominent 
and globose eyes, anteriorly subobliquely marginate on each side, 
in profile not at all produced, middle feebly carinate, very little 
longitudinally sulcate on each side, supraocular lobes indistinct ; 
frontal costa little compresso-elevated between the antennas. Pro- 
notum anteriorly cylindrical, subulate posteriorly, little concave 
backwards, and extended beyond the knees of the hind femora and 



Tetriginm in the Oxford University Mttseum 225 

slightly beyond the wings, the apical process little upturned at the 
tip, dorsum of pronotum nearly smooth, conspersed with granules, 
little bifossulate behind the shoulders ; median carina in profile un- 
dulate, before the shoulders compresso-arcuate, and forward behind 
the anterior margin obliterated, but distinct posteriorly ; lateral 
carina? of pronotum wanting : the lateral margins of pronotum just 
above the elytra at sides longitudinally sulcate ; lateral lobes with 
the posterior angles strongly produced outward on each side in a 
transverse acute spine, stout, and triangular. Elytra small and 
lanceolate ; wings largely concealed by the pronotum posteriorly. 
Anterior and middle femora rather slender, the margins entire ; the 
apical denticles of posterior knees subacute, the ante-genicular den- 
ticles moderately distinct ; the first articles of the posterior tarsi 
having the first pulvilli smallest and acute, the third barely longer 
than the second, subflattened below. Length of body entire, female, 
15 mm. ; pronotum 14"5 mm. ; posterior femora 7 mm. 

One example from (Kuching ?) N.W. Borneo ; Sarawak 
Museum, No. 344 ; Oxford Museum. 

2. £. plamis, sp. nov. 

Greyish fuscous, the face similarly coloured, but the legs lighter, 
the posterior femora externally light above, striated with fuscous 
below, posterior tibiae fuscous. Vertex very narrow, in front barely 
more than half the width of one of the globose eyes, ascendant forward ; 
frontal costa barely compresso-elevated between the antennae, face 
oblique, scarcely sinuate. Pronotum anteriorly cylindrical, the pro- 
zonal carinse very indistinctly indicated, posteriorly subulate and 
extended little beyond the knees of the hind femora ; the dorsum 
interspersed with coarse granulations, subpunctate posteriorly, 
between the shoulders bearing indistinct, abbreviated, secondary 
costa ; median carina subincrassate, but low, obliterated behind the 
anterior border, posteriorly straight, but little compresso-arcuate 
forward before the shoulders ; lateral lobes with the posterior angles 
on each side bearing a transverse spine, strongly narrowed acute. 
Elytra small, lanceolate, and black ; wings fully explicate but ex- 
tended only as far backward as apex of pronotal process, coloured 
black or fuscous. Anterior and middle femora elongate, narrow, 
margins entire ; posterior femora externally bearing strongly ex- 
pressed oblique costa3 ; the first and second pulvilli of posterior 
tarsi equal in length, acute, the third longer and flattened below. 
Length of body entire, female, 12 mm. ; pronotum 11 mm. ; posterior 
femora 5-7 mm. 

One example from Mt. Matang, 8000 feet, near Kuching, 
N.W. Borneo ; Sarawak Museum,No. 342 ; Oxford Museum. 



226 Mr. J. L. Hancock's Studies of the 

This species is readily distinguished from validispinus, 
by the smaller stature, being narrower between the 
shoulders, in the more coarsely granulate pronotum, the 
more slender thoracic spines, the less extended and 
straighter pronotum, and the black elytra and wings. 

3. JB.permimitus, Bolivar, Ann., Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, p. 227, 
228, 1887. 

This species occurs in the Philippines, and was described 
by Bolivar under the caption Criotettisc. It was in- 
advertently omitted from my list of the species of Criotettix 
in my article in Genera Insectorum (48me Fasc. Orthoptera, 
Subfam. Tetriginie, p. 28, 1906), but it is referred to 
there in a foot-note. Attention was called to the species 
as belonging to a new subgenus. I find it falls naturally 
under the new genus Bolotettix above described. 

4. It is quite likely that Criotettix nigelhts (Bolivar, Ann. 
Soc. Ent. Belg., p. 225, xxxi, 1887) belongs here also. It 
is from Gaboon (Bolivar). 

Genus Ocytettix, nov. 

Recalling Charagotettix, to which it bears a near resemblance. 
Body strongly rugose ; vertex wide, transverse, imperfectly carinate 
forward, on each side bearing a small compresso -acute carina, in- 
wardly interrupted, fossulate on each side of the small median 
carina ; eyes small ; face moderately oblique, strongly sinuate ; 
frontal co.sta roundly compresso-produced between the antennae, 
viewed in front sulcate little above the posterior ocelli, below the 
rami moderately subparallel to the median ocellus ; posterior ocelli 
placed between the lower third of the eyes ; antennae inserted dis- 
tinctly before the eyes ; maxillary palpi little compresso-ampliate 
apically. Pronotum anteriorly truncate, middle of the anterior 
margin often excavate, posteriorly acuminate, the apex spinose, often 
upturned and not extended backward beyond the knees of the hind 
femora ; dorsum strongly depressed, often unigibbose forward and 
transversely fossulate between the shoulders, backwards often 
quadrinodulose ; the humeral angles produced outwards laterally 
and strongly carinate, the lateral margins just before and behind 
the shoulders strongly elevated ; the lateral cariuse profoundly com- 
presso-sinuate ; median carina strongly compresso-gibbose in front 
of the shoulders, depressed and indistinct behind the anterior 
margin, anterior prozonal carinae strongly expressed, fossulate be- 
tween them, lateral scapular area at the sides wide ; lateral lobes at 



TetriginsG in the Oo'^ord University Museum 111 

the interior border often bearing a tubercle on each side, the pos- 
teror angles widely laminate, produced outwards and triangular 
acute, obliquely truncate behind. Elytra and wings wanting. 
Anterior femora elongate, lobate ; posterior femora above externally 
bearing a series of large subrounded tubercles, and at the middle 
bituberculate, margins serrulate, the genicular and antegenicular 
denticles stout, subtriangular, posterior tibfe little ampliate towards 
the apices, the canthi plurispinose and minutely serrulate. 

1. 0. latihumerus, sp. nov. (Plate XXI, fig. 4.) 

Body obscure ferruginous, infuscated, legs fuscous and pale 
annulate. Pronotum dilated between the humeral angles, the dorsum 
having the anterior gibbosity distinctly elevated, convex forward and 
declivous backward, posteriorly provided with two pairs of low 
subacute nodules ; the posterior angles of the lateral lobes having the 
margin behind the thoracic spines somewhat serrulate. Anterior 
femoral margins above subbilobate, with a median denticle below ; 
the posterior femora having the first denticle situated at the middle 
of the external pagina little produced, the second smaller. Length 
of body entire, female, 12'5 ; pronotum 10 mm. ; posterior femora 
7 mm. 

One example from N.E. Madagascar, Bay of Antongil, 
Mocquerys ; Oxford Museum. 

Section METRODOR^, Bolivar. 
Genus Systoledeeus, Bolivar. 

1. S. greeni, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. Ixx, 

p. 584, 1901. 

Six examples from Pundaluoya, Ceylon ; Oxford Museum. 

2. S. parvus, sp. nov. 

A small species, smoothly granulate ; cinero-ferruginous, with 
black wings. Head little exserted ; eyes globose and strongly 
approximate : vertex narrowly accuminate; frontal costa between 
the eyes vertically declivous, not at all sinuate; antennje inserted 
distinctly before the eyes; posterior ocelli placed on a plane with 
the antero-ventral border of the eyes. Pronotum smoothly granu- 
late, anteriorly truncate, cylindrical forward, and behind the anterior 
margin slightly ascendant, posteriorly subulate ; median carina of 
pronotum very thin, low, and indistinct ; the posterior angles of the 
lateral lobes turned down, subobtuse. Elytra light, elongate, 
margins above substraight, below curvate, acuminate forward and 



228 Mr. J. L. Haucock's Studies of the 

apically, the external surface very lightly punctate; wings fully 
explicate. Legs light ferruginous, margins of anterior and middle 
femora little compressed, entire. Length of the body entire, female, 
1 1 mm. ; pronotum 10-2 mm. 

One example from Kuching, N.W. Borneo ; Sarawak 
Museum, No. 358 ; Oxford Museum. 

Genus Rhynchotettix, nov. 

Body smoothly punctate ; face profoundly retreating ; vertex 
strongly rostrate, viewed from above the rostrum very much longer 
than the length of one of the narrow eyes, the apex distinctly 
rounded, the middle longitudinally carinate; frontal costa very 
narrowly sulcate, the carina above compressed, percurrent forward 
underneath the process to the apex ; eyes viewed from above nar- 
rowly subelliptical, in profile compresso-conoidal ; superior ocelli 
placed on a plane with the lower third of the eyes; the media^ 
ocellus placed far below the eyes ; antennae inserted little before 
(below) the antero-ventral border of the eyes. Pronotum truncate 
anteriorly, the margin little convex produced, posteriorly acuminate, 
but not spinose, toward the apex little concave and extended back- 
ward little beyond the posterior femoral knees; dorsum narrow 
between the shoulders, cylindrical forward, the prozonal carina? 
here obliterated ; median carina low deplanate forward, but little 
elevated and distinct posteriorly; lateral carinas low; lateral lobes 
with the anterior margin below obliquely excised, the posterior 
angles of the lateral lobes little laminate outwards, distinctly pro- 
duced in an acute spine on each side. Elytra and wings wanting. 
Middle femora elongate, margins little compressed entire ; genicular 
and antegenicular denticles moderately stout ; the posterior tibiae 
little ampliate toward the apices, the canthi spinose, the first article 
of the posterior tarsi distinctly longer than the third. Type Rhyn- 
chotettix rostratiis* 

1. B. rostratus, sp. nov. (Plate XXI, fig. 7.) 

Fusco-ferrugineous, with lighter longitudinal striation on each 
side of dorsum, posterior femora with the external faces below stri- 
ated with fuscous. Rostrum triquetrous, strongly produced and 
when viewed from above about one and a half times longer than the 
length of one of the narrow eyes, the base of process subequal in 
width to one of the eyes ; frontal costa viewed in profile roundly 
excavate opposite the eyes, and below very slightly sinuate, between 

* This genus belongs to the second subsection under Metrodorae, 
as given in my article Tetriginx, Genera Insectorum, p. 32, 1906. 



Tetrigins} in the Oxford University Muscuiii 229 

the antennae very slightly compresso-elevated. Pronotum with the 
dorsum finely punctate, frontal margin rounded-truncate, posteriorly 
acuminate, the apical process extended little beyond the knees of the 
hind femora, and little longitudinally concave ; posterior angles of 
the lateral lobes armed on each side with an acutely-produced spine, 
obliquely truncate behind ; the pulvilli of the posterior tarsi dis- 
tinctly flattened below, the first smallest, the second and third equal 
in length, and longer than the first. Length of body entire, female, 
14*8 mm. ; pronotum 11 "8 mm. ; posterior femora 6 mm. 

One example from N.E. Madagascar, Bay of Antongil, 
Mocquerys ; Oxford Museum. 



Genus Mitritettix, Hancock.* 
1. M. processus, sp. uov. (Plate XXI, fig. 8.) 

Stature little larger than phyllocera, which it nearest resembles. 
Body finely punctate, granulate ; grayish ferruginous. Vertex 
rostrate, flattened above, subnarrowed forward, horizontally pro- 
duced, about twice the length of one of the eyes, and at the base 
nearly twice the width of one of the eyes ; viewed from above the 
first half of the process with the sides subparallel, at the middle of 
the rostral margins angularly excavate on each side ; the apical half 
of process being little narrower than the first half, and little dilated 
at about the middle, forward the sides converge forming an obtuse 
angle in front, middle carinate, slightly longitudinally sulcate on 
each side ; head viewed in profile little convex above, the rostrum 
often little bent downward, face oblique ; frontal costa somewhat 
widely sulcate, dividing above the posterior ocelli, the carina above 
passing forward on the underside of the rostrum strongly compresso- 
elevated ; posterior ocelli placed l)etween the submiddle part of the 
eyes, a little in advance of them; median ocellus situated far below 
the eyes ; maxillary palpi witli the apical articles dilated ; antennaj 
short, inserted scarcely below the antero- ventral border of the eyes ; 
maxillary palpi with the apical articles dilated. Pronotum anteriorly 
truncate, little angulate produced at the middle of the front margin, 
posteriorly strongly acuminately produced beyond the knees of the 
hind femora, the process stout ; dorsum deplanate, smoothly punc- 
tate, sometimes slightly rugulose, narrow between the shoulders ; 
prozonal carinse parallel, humeral angles widely obtuse ; median 
carina compressed, elevated before the shoulders subtectiform, 

* The name Mitritettix was proposed by the writer for Bolivar's 
Mitraria, the latter name being preoccupied. Vide article in Genera 
Insectorum, 48me Fasc, p. 61, 1906. 



230 Mr. J. L. Hancock's Studies of the 

depressed between the shoulders and distinct behind the shoulders 
backward ; lateral carinae indistinct, granulate ; lateral margins just 
above the elytra sulcate ; lateral lobes of pronotum little reflexed 
outwards, slightly laminato-rectangulate. Elytra small, elongate, 
rather narrow, subacuminate towards the apices ; wings fully expli- 
cate, not quite reaching to the apex of the pronotal process. 
Femoral margins minutely serrulate, anterior femora compressed, 
the superior carina distinctly compresso-arcuate ; middle femoral 
margins little comjiressed, in the male distinctly ampliate toward the 
base ; hind femora narrow elongate, the genicular and antegenicular 
denticles rather stout, acute ; posterior tibiaj with the canthi 
minutely serrulate, plurispinose, and scarcely at all ampliate toward 
the apices ; the first and third articles of the posterior tarsi equal in 
length, the three pulvilli equal in length, somewhat flattened below. 
Length of body entire, male and female, 19-2 1*5 mm. ; pronotum 
16-19 mm. ; posterior femora 6"8-7'5 mm. 

Four examples from Kuching, N.W. Borneo. One from 
the Sarawak Museum, No. 340, the others from R. Shel- 
ford ; Oxford Museum, 

Genus Tetticerus, Hancock. 

1. T. bigibhosus, Hancock, Occasional Mem. Chicago Ent. 
Soc, vol. i, No. 1, p. 5, PI. I, figs. 1-lb, 1900. 

Four examples from N.E. Madagascar, Bay of Antongil, 
Mocquerys ; Oxford Museum. 

Genus Cryptotettix, Hancock. 

1. C. spinilobus, Hancock, Occasional Mem. Chicago Ent. 
Soc, vol. i, No. 1, p. 14, 15, PI. I, figs. Q-6b, 1900. 

Two examples from N.E. Madagascar, Bay of Antongil, 
Mocquerys; Oxford Museum. 

Genus Mazarredia, Bolivar. 

1. M. vmdaris, BoliY&r, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, p. 240, 

1887. 
Four examples from Pundaluoya, Ceylon ; Oxford 
Museum. 

2. 31. centrosa, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, p. 242, 

1887. 
Two examples from Kuching, N.W. Borneo, Sarawak 
Museum, Nos. 852 and 355 ; Oxford Museum. 



TctriginiG in the Oxford University Museum 231 

3. M. planitarsus, sp. nov. 

Resembling sculpta ; stature rather slender ; grayish fuscous ; 
head not at all exserted ; vertex flattened, slightly wider than one of 
the eyes, little narrowed forward, on either side with oblique carina, 
the middle carina obscure, indistinctly sloping forward ; frontal 
costa viewed in profile compresso-protuberant between the antennae, 
the face strongly sinuate below ; eyes globose, sessile, not higher 
than the dorsum. Pronotum gibbose forward, rather narrow be- 
tween the shoulders, very strongly produced backwards equal to 
the length of the hind femora beyond the femoral apices ; median 
carina elevated gibbose between the shoulders, abruptly declivous 
posteriorly and behind the shoulders depressed, posteriorly straight ; 
dorsum behind the prozonal carinaj forward at the sulci constricted, 
humeral angles widely obtuse, bicarinate ; lateral carinse on process 
posteriorly serrulate ; anterior prozonal carince distinctly expressed, 
rather short and little divergent backward ; dorsum on eacli side 
bearing an abbreviated costa scarcely in front of the shoulders, and a 
pair of lineate tubercles or protuberances above the middle of the 
posterior femora ; lateral lobes little reflexed outwards, produced 
angulate. Elytra moderately large, oval, little narrowed toward the 
apices, externally strongly punctate ; wings fully explicate, extended 
backward as far as the pronotal apex. Anterior and middle femora 
elongate, the margins little compressed undulate, the superior carina 
of the anterior femora noticeably compressed ; the canthi of posterior 
tibiae minutely spinose and serrulate ; the first articles of the 
posterior tarsi very slender, longer than the third, the pulvilli 
strongly deplanate below and almost obliterated, the apical pulvillus 
very small acute. Length of body entire, male and female, 
14"8-16'5 mm.; pronotum 14-15"5 mm.; posterior femora 5-5-8 mm. 

Four examples from Kuching, N.W. Borneo. One of 
these specimens from Sarawak Museum, No. 347, the 
others from K Shelford ; Oxford Museum. 

Genus Xistra, Bolivar. 

1. X. stylata, sp. nov. 

Ferruginous. Head compresso-elevated, in profile sinuate. 
Vertex cornute, strongly concavely depressed forward, on each side 
the oblique carinula strongly elevated and formed into an acute, 
vertically-produced, cylindrical spine, which curves a little forward, 
extended above the eyes, equal to about four-fifths the height of one 
of the eyes ; eyes elevated and conico-rotundate, substylate ; posterior 
ocelli placed barely below the eyes ; antennae inserted far below the 
TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1907. — PART II. (SEPT.) 16 



232 Mr. J. L. Hancock's Studies of the 

eyes ; the frontal costa rather widely sulcate, evenly divergent 
forward to the median ocellus, little compresso-elevated between the 
antennae. Pronotum granulate, posteriorly lengthily subulate 
extended beyond the hind femoral apices ; dorsum little ascendant 
near the anterior margin, between the shoulders elevated, compresso- 
cristate, the top of crest subdentate, before and behind the crest the 
median carina often little compresso-dentate ; median carina low 
forward just behind the anterior margin and posteriorly on the 
process ; humeral angles widely obtuse, the lateral carina continuous 
forward on the shoulders ; the anterior prozonal carinse parallel ; 
posterior angles of the lateral lobes subangulate, slightly reflexed, 
subrounded-truncate. Elytra elongate, apices narrowly rounded, 
externally punctate, fuscous with light apices ; wings fully explicate, 
barely extended beyond the pronotal apex ; anterior and middle 
femora elongate, the carinfe distinctly compressed, undulate, the 
superior carinse of the middle femora produced in an apical spine ; 
posterior femora elongate, genicular spine acute, little produced ; the 
three pulvilli of the first tarsal articles equal in length. Length of 
the body entire, female, 16'2 mm.; pronotum 15 mm.; posterior 
femora 5 '9 mm. 

One example from Putlam, Ceylon, in the Oxford 
Museum. 

This species is nearly allied to Xystra corniculata, Stal. 

Genus Notocerus, Hancock. 

1. N. cmmutus, Hancock, Occasional Mem. Chicago Ent. 
Soc, vol. i, No. 1, p. 5, 6, figs. 2, 2a, 1900. 

Tliree examples from N.E. Madagascar, Mocqueiys ; 
Oxford Museum. 

la. Var. 

Similar to cornutus, but of smaller stature, the male and female 
measuring as follows : entire length 16-16-5 mm. ; pronotum 
14-15*4 mm.; posterior femora 6-7 mm. In the male the wings 
extend beyond the pronotal apex, and in this sex the pronotum 
between the elevated humeral angles is transversely convex and 
little tumose ; the median carina here being low, but in the female 
little compressed, otherwise similar to coi'mihis. 

Two examples from the same locality as the preceding. 
Genus Hybotettix, Hancock. 

1. H. humeralis, Hancock, Occasional Mem. Chicago Ent. 
Soc, vol i. No. 1, p. 9, 10, fig. 4, PI. I, 1900. 



Tetriginm in the Oxford University Museum 233 

One female example which measures as follows: entire length 
18 mm. ; pronotum 17 mm.; posterior femora 8 mm. From N.E 
Madagascar, Bay of Antongil, Mocquerys ; Oxford Museum. 



Genus Camelotettix, nov 

Resembling Notocerus and Hybotettix, but diflcring in the vertex 
bearing more perceptibly compresso-marginate carinae laterally before 
the supraocular lobes, and distinctly fossulate on each side of the 
feeble median carina ; the frontal costa but very little compresso- 
elevated between the antennae, the rami evenly divergent forward tc 
the median ocellus ; the eyes in profile globose instead of ovoid ; the 
pronotum at the shoulders slightly dilated, in profile the lateral 
carinated margins widely arcuato-elevated above the articulation of 
the hind femora, the dorsum smoothly deplanate, but transversely 
plurifossulate ; the lateral lobes of pronotum with the elytral sinus 
nearly as pronounced as the inferior one below. Type Camelotettix 
curvinot^is. 

1. C. curvinotus, sp, nov. (Plate XXI, fig. 6.) 

Grayish-ferruginous; body smoothly granulate, quadrate in section 
or in front view ; vertex transverse, but not transversely carinate, 
flattened, anteriorly convex, nearly twice the width of one of the 
eyes, laterally compresso-marginate forward of the supraocular lobes, 
strongly fossulate on each side of the feeble median carina ; eyes 
sessile, not higher than the dorsum ; posterior ocelli placed between 
the submiddle plane of the eyes ; antenna3 inserted barely before the 
ventro-anterior border of the eyes ; apical articles of maxillary palpi 
little dilated. Pronotum anteriorly truncate, the dorsal front margin 
somewhat roundly excavate, posteriorly acuminate, extended back- 
ward beyond the knees of the hind femora, the shoulders widely 
rounded, carinate, and viewed in profile strongly arcuately elevated ; 
dorsum transversely trifossulate, sloping backward ; the median 
carina strongly sinuate ; before the shoulders bearing an abbreviated 
parallel costa on each side ; prozonal carina3 granulate, little converg- 
ent backward; lateral lobes with the posterior angles little laminate, 
subacute produced, obliqiiely truncate behind : the lateral carinse on 
each side of the pronotum between the shoulders and elytra formed 
in a wide arc far above the elytra (in Hybotettix it is sulcate). Elytra 
of moderate size ; wings fully explicate, extended backward nearly 
to the pronotal apex. Femora elongate, margins entire, the ante- 
genicular spines small, acute, the genicular spine little acute pro- 
duced ; posterior tibiae somewhat curvate, little ampliate toward the 



234 Mr. J. L, Hancock's Studies of the 

apices, the cantlii armed with stout spines ; the first and third tarsal 
articles equal in length, the three pulvilli of the first tarsal articles 
equal in length, but the first more rounded below than the rest. 
Length of body entire, female, 16*5 mm.; pronotum 15-5 mm.; width 
between the shoulders 3'5 mm.; posterior femora 7 mm. 

One example from Bali, Doherty ; Oxford Museum. 

Genus Dasyleurotettix, Rehn, 

1. D. curriei, Rehn, Proc. Acad, Nat. Science, Philadelphia, 
p. 658, 1904. 

One example, a male, differs from the type in being less 
rugose on the pronotum, and in the frontal costa being 
narrower. From Natal, Africa ; Oxford Museum. 

Note. — This genus was former]}^ placed in the section 
Cladonotm, but an examination of type specimens, recently 
acquired, convinces me that it belongs in the section 
Tetrigifc, taking a place near Tctrix. Indeed this species 
recalls Tetrix depressus, Bris., as its nearest relative. 

Genus Allotettix, Hancock. 

1. A. americanus, sp. nov. 

Ferruginous. Vertex little ascendant forward and distinctly- 
narrowed, strongly narrower than one of the eyes, tricarinate ; frontal 
costa sulcate above the posterior ocelli, the rami moderately diverg- 
ent forward to the median ocellus, in profile roundly compresso- 
elevated, produced, between the antennaj ; eyes roundly conoidal in 
profile, little elevated above the dorsum of pronotum ; posterior 
ocelli rather conspicuously showing in advance of the eyes on a 
plane little below the middle ; antennse inserted distinctly before 
(below) the eyes, the articles strongly elongate, the first articles 
grossly compressed. Pronotum depressed, rugose, convex between 
the shoulders and somewhat narrow, the shoulders bicarinate, widely 
obtuse, posteriorly lengthily subulate, extended backward beyond 
the knees of the hind femora ; median carina little compressed, 
lightly sinuate, little excavate behind the anterior margin ; anterior 
prozonal carinae distinctly expressed, slightly convex ; lateral lobes 
with the posterior angles titrned downward, obtuse. Elytra narrow 
and somewhat acuminate posteriorly ; wings fully explicate, extended 
backward beyond the pronotal apex. Anterior and middle femoral 
margins entire ; hind femora of ordinary form, the hind tibiae rather 
stout, distinctly ampliate toward the apices, the margins armed with 
stout spines ; the first articles of the posterior tarsi stout and scarcely 



Tetriqinm in the Oxford University Museum 235 

shorter than the third, the first two pulvilli of the first tarsal articles 
short and acute, the third jjulvilli longer and somewhat flattened 
below but acute. 

One example from Cachabi, Ecuador, S. America; 
Rosenberg ; Oxford Museum. 

Readily distinguished from the other members of this 
genus by the narrowed vertex, which is strongly narrower 
than one of the eyes and tricarinate, and also by the 
extended wings which pass beyond the pronotal apex. 



Genus Otumba, Morse. 

1. 0. quadrata, sp. no v. 

Somewhat resembling scapularis. Pale ferruginous ; head little 
exserted, face oblique ; vertex ascendant forward but very little 
narrowed, convex, advanced nearly as far as the eyes, the carinas 
laterally little roundly compressed, at the front almost as wide as 
one of the eyes, middle carinate, sulcate on each side ; frontal costa 
declivous above, between the antennae little compresso-elevated, and 
sinuate below, between the posterior ocelli narrowly sulcate, evenly 
divergent forward to the median ocellus ; eyes roundly conoidal, 
higher than the dorsum of pronotum ; posterior ocelli placed between 
the lower third of the eyes ; antennae inserted distinctly before the 
ventro-anterior border of the eyes. Pronotum rugose or often rugu- 
lose, depressed, deplanate between the shoulders ; median carina very 
low and indistinctly sinuate, almost straight posteriorly and lengthily 
acuminate, extended beyond the knees of the hind femora ; prozonal 
carinas distinct and parallel ; humeral angles obtuse, bicarinate ; 
lateral lobes with the posterior angles strongly reflexed outwards, 
rectangulate, but convexo-truncate behind. Elytra small, acuminate 
toward the apices ; wings fully explicate reaching just beyond the 
pronotal process. Margins of anterior and middle femora little 
compresso-undulate ; the posterior femora bearing a series of large 
tumose tubercles above on the outer faces, the antegenicular spine 
acute, but the genicular spine nearly wanting, posterior tibiae very 
little^'ampliate toward the apices, the canthi sparingly spinose ; the 
first and second pulvilli of the first tarsal articles equal ini^length ; 
subacute, the third pulvilli little longer and more flattened below, 
Length of body entire, male and female, 12-13 mm.; pronotum 
11-12 mm.; posterior femora 5-6 mm. 

Five examples from Cachabi, Ecuador, S. America. 
Rosenberg; Oxford Museum. 



236 Mr. J. L. Hancock's Studies of the 

Section TETRIGIiE, Bolivar. 

Genus Paratettix, Bolivar. 

I recognize four Bornean species of Paratettix, which 
may be distinguished by the following key* — 

1. Pronotum somewhat broad between the 

shoulders ; the lateral lobes conspicuously 
reflected outwards, triangular and acute ; 
first two basal pulvilli of the first tarsal 
articles spiculate variabilis, Bol. 

2. Pronotum narrower between the shoulders ; 

the lateral lobes little produced outwards, 
and angulate-subacute ; the first two basal 
pulvilli of first tarsal articles not spiculate angidobus, sp. nov. 

3. Posterior angles of the lateral lobes of pro- 

notum narrowly rounded ; vertex of head 
strongly narrower than one of the eyes ; 
length of pronotum from 9 to 12 mm. . histricus 1 Stal. 

4. Posterior angles of lateral lobes subtriangular, 

indistinctly turned outward ; vertex of 
head narrowed forward, subequal or little 
narrower than one of the eyes ; pronotal 
process often extended as far as the wings ; 
length of pronotum from 12 to 15 mm. . lineatus, sp. nov. 

1. F. variahilis, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, p. 276, 

1887. 

Three examples from Kuching.N.W. Borneo, R. Shelford; 
Oxford Museum. 

2. F. angulolus, sp. nov. 

A very slender-bodied species, with prominent globose eyes, fusco- 
or grayish-ferruginous ; vertex ascendant forward, strongly narrowed, 
tricarinate, at the front much narrower than one of the eyes, occiput 
behind the eyes exposed ; eyes higher than the dorsum of pronotum ; 
frontal costa rather roundly compresso-elevated between the antennje, 
not at all sinuate ; apical articles of maxillary paljsi oval ; the 
antennae inserted almost between the inferior border of the eyes. 
Pronotum often lightly rugulose, depressed, little ascendant behind 
the anterior margin, subdeplanate between the shoulders and bearing 

* One of the common species of Tetriginse in Borneo is Paratettix 
contractus of Bolivar. This species is considered a Tetrix here, and 
will be so treated further on under that heading. 



Tetriginm in the Oxford University Museum 237 

an abbreviated costa on each side ; the shoulders indistinctly bicari- 
nate ; median carina forward little sinuate, horizontally straight 
posteriorly, process lengthily acuminate, strongly extended beyond 
the knees of the hind femora ; posterior angles of lateral lobes reflexed 
outwards and angulate-acute. Elytra oval ; wings fully explicate, 
extended beyond the pronotal apex, caudate. The first and third 
articles of the posterior tarsi equal in length, the three pulvilli of the 
first tarsal articles nearly equal in length. Length of body entire, 
male and female, 13-14 mm.; pronotum 11-12 mm.; posterior femora 
4"6-5 mm. 

Five examples from Kucbing, N.W. Borneo ; Oxford 
Museum. Two of these specimens from the Sarawak 
Museum, Nos. 853 and 351, the others from R. Shelford. 

3. P. histricus'i. Stal, Freg. Eiig. resa. Ins. Orthopt., p. 347, 

1860. 

One example from Kuching, N.W. Borneo; R. Shelford, 
Oxford Museum, 

4. P. lineatus, sp. nov. 

Ferruginous, legs lighter. Head not at all exserted ; vertex 
narrowed forward, subequal in width to one of the eyes ; the frontal 
costa arcuate ; eyes moderately small, globose ; posterior ocelli 
unusually large and conspicuously showing just in advance of the 
middle of the eyes. Pronotum lengthily subulate, rather smooth, 
bicarinate at the shoulders, the dorsum convex between the shoulders 
and bearing abbreviated costa on each side forward ; lateral lobes 
not at all reflexed outwards, truncate ; elytra oblong ; wings fully 
explicate, extended backward just beyond the pronotal apex. Femoral 
carinas entire ; the first tarsal articles having the second pulvilli very 
little smaller than the first and third, all the pulvilli flattened below, 
not spiculate. Length of body entire, male and female, 13"5-16 mm. ; 
pronotum 12-15 mm.; posterior femora 5-6 mm. 

Six examples from Kuching, N.W. Borneo. One of 
these specimens from Sarawak Museum, No. 345, the rest 
from R, Shelford ; Oxford Museum. 

This species may possibly be a Coptotettix. 

Genus Apotettix, Hancock. 
1. A. proxivmis, sp. nov. 

A South American form of rather small stature, with subquadrate 
vertex, resembling Paratettix frey-gessneri, and dimorphic in wing- 
length. Greyish, the tibiae and tarsi fusco-annulate. Vertex little 



238 Mr. J. L. Hancock's Stndies of the 

wider than one of the eyes, longitudinally fossulate on each side of 
the distinct median carina, the front margin subtruncate ; frontal 
costa rather widely sulcate, in profile little arcuate produced between 
the antennaj, subsinuate above and below ; eyes of moderate size. 
Pronotum little rugose granulate, somewhat deplanate between the 
shoulders, acuminate posteriorly and extended to or beyond the 
knees of the hind femora ; median carina percurrent, compresso- 
arcuate forward before the shoulders, little lowered and often sub- 
sinuate l)ackward, but straight on the process ; lateral lobes little 
reflexed outwards, the posterior angles distinctly rounded or obtuse. 
Elytra oblong ; wings fully explicate, abbreviated and not extended 
to the apices of the posterior femoral knees, or passing beyond the 
apex of pronotal process or even caudate. The first tarsal articles 
with the first and second pulvilli small and spiculate, the third 
much longer and flattened below. Length of body entire, male and 
female (short-winged form), 7'5-9 mm. ; pronotum 7-7*8 mm. ; pos- 
terior femora 4'5-5 mm. Long-winged form, male, 10 mm. ; pronotum 
8 mm. ; posterior femora 4 "5 mm. 

Five examples, from Cachabi and Paramba, Ecuador, 
S. America; Rosenberg. 

Genus Euparatettix, Hancock. 

1. E. pcrso7iatus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 

p. 278, 1887. 

One example from West Java ; H. Fruhstorfer. Two 
examples from N.C. Province, Ceylon ; Oxford Museum. 

2. U. viimus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, p. 278, 

1887. 

One example from Penang Island, E. L. Meyer, coll.; 
Oxford Museum, No. 3451. 

3. E. mdims, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, r. 281, 

1887. 

Four examples from (Assam ? ) India ; Oxford Museum. 

4. E. similis, sp. nov. 

A rather small form, with the head little exserted. Vertex hardly 
narrowed forward, nearly equal or subnarrower than one of the 
globose eyes, little ascendant forward ; median carina distinct, 
Bulcate on each side; the frontal costa slightly compresso-arcuate 
between the antennae, declivous above ; eyes barely higher than 
the dorsum. Pronotum lengthily acuminate posteriorly, little 



Tetriginie in the Oxford University Mitseum 239 

rugose, without supernumerary costa, convex between the shoulders, 
the humeral angles distinct and carinate ; the anterior prozonal 
carinse very small, subobsolete ; median carina percurrent, slightly 
incrassate, little compresso-elevated forward and there often 
subundulate, but straight posteriorly ; pronotal process strongly 
extended backward beyond the hind femoral knees ; lateral lobes 
distinctly turned down, the posterior angles narrowly rounded. 
Elytra oval ; wings caudate. Anterior and middle femoral margins 
entire ; posterior femoral carinse above arcuate ; the first and third 
articles of the posterior tarsi equal in length, the first tarsal articles 
having the first and second pulvilli spiculate, the third nearly as 
long as the first and second united and flat below. Length of body 
entire, male and female, 11-12 mm. ; pronotum 9-10 mm. ; posterior 
femora 4-4*7 mm. 

Six examples from Banguay, and one from Kina Balu- 
Borneo, in the author's collection. Examples are in the 
Oxford Museum from the Philippines, Nos. 2769 and 2770, 
and from Kuching, N.W. Borneo, R. Shelford. 

Genus Tetrix, Latreille. 

1. T. contractus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 

p. 281, 1887. 

Numerous examples in the collection of the Oxford 
Museum, from Kuching, N.W. Borneo, R. Shelford. 

This species seems nearer to Tct7'ix than Paratcttix. 
The vertex is subwider than one of the eyes and rounded, 
not truncate ; the frontal costa being distinctly sinuate, 
excavate between the eyes. It is apparently one of the 
commonest species in Borneo. This species was placed 
in the genus Paratettix by Bolivar. 

2. T. atypicalis, Hancock, Spolia Zeylanica ii, p. 143, 

144, 1904. 

Two examples from Pundaluoya, Ceylon ; Oxford 
Museum. 

3. T. a. ceylonus, Hancock, Spolia Zeylanica ii, p. 143, 

144, 1904. 
Two examples from Pundaluoya, Ceylon; Oxford 
Museum. 

4. T. cuspidatus, sp. nov. 

■ Resembling Tetrix contractus. Greyish, with the dorsum behind 
the shoulders often fusco-maculate. Vertex little depressed, not at 



240 Mr. J. L. Hancock's Studies of the 

all narrowed forward, anteriorly convex, tricuspidate, subequal 
in width to one of the eyes, the fronto -marginal carina) laterally 
little compresso-elevated and acute, viewed in profile the cusps often 
little elevated above the eyes, lateral margins of vertex not at all 
sinuate, median carina produced, in profile protuberant ; frontal 
costa in profile strongly sinuate, excavate between the eyes, little 
compresso-elevated between the antennae and excavate below, the 
rami moderately and evenly divergent to the median ocellus. 
Pronotum depressed, between the shoulders convexo-deplanate, the 
humeral angles distinct, carinate, and slightly produced laterally ; 
median carina percurrent but sinuate, little compresso-elevated before 
shoulders and little excavate just behind the anterior border, 
pronotal process strongly extended backward beyond the apices of 
the posterior femora ; posterior angles of the lateral lobes rounded, 
the inferior margins little reflexed outwards. Elytra oblong or 
somewhat oval with the apices subacuminately rounded ; wings 
caudate. Anterior and middle femoral margins distinctly compressed, 
the superior margins of the anterior femora distinctly compresso- 
elevated, the carinse undulato-arcuate ; middle femoral carina) above 
and below undulate ; the external pagina) of the posterior femora 
rugose, the oblique costa strongly expressed and rugose-granulate; 
the first and third articles of the posterior tarsi about equal in 
length, the first and second pulvilli subacute, the third nearly as 
long as the first and second united and flat below. Length of body 
entire, male and female, 12-5-13 mm.; pronotum 10-5-11 mm.; 
posterior femora 4-4-5 mm. 

Four examples from West Java, Pengalengan, 4000 ft. ; 
Oxford Museum. 

Genus Hedotettix, Bolivar. 

1. H. gracilis, Haan, Bijdr. Orthopt., p. 169 { = fcstivns). 

Six examples from Java, H. Fruhstorfer; Oxford Museum. 
Four examples from Ceylon and one from Chenapungi, also 
in Oxford Museum. 

2. H. guihelondoi, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 

p. 285, 1887. 

One example referable to this species, from the Philip- 
pines, in the Oxford Museum, No. 2771. 

3. JI. hwri, Hancock, Occas. Memoirs Chicago Ent. Soc, 

vol. i, No. l,p. 10, 11, 1900. 



Tetriginx in the Oxford University Museum 241 

Originally described from a male example from Mada- 
gascar under the genus Telmatettix. A second specimen 
in the Oxford Museum from the same locality, being a 
female, allows me opportunity of revising my opinion of 
this species. This species resembles Paratettix scabcr ixova. 
Africa, and it may be quite possible that it is this species. 
The antennae are inserted between the inferior part of 
the eyes, as in Hedotettix. 

4. H. celebicus, sp. nov. 

A very slender-bodied species ; greyish-cinereous or flavous, 
variegated with fuscous. Head little exserted ; vertex scarcely 
narrowed forward, narrower than one of the eyes, sulcate on each 
side of the median carina, not at all ampliate toward the front ; 
frontal costa slightly arcuate, the face in profile not at all sinuate, 
rami divided distinctly above the posterior ocelli, moderately 
sulcate. Pronotum truncate anteriorly, subtectiform between the 
shoulders, posteriorly lengthily acuminate, the process extending 
beyond the femoral apices ; median carina percurrent, somewhat 
acute, little elevated between the shoulders ; dorsum granulate ; 
the prozonal carinse parallel ; posterior angles of the lateral lobes 
turned down and narrowly rounded. Elytra with the apices some- 
what widely rounded ; wings strongly caudate. Anterior femoral 
carinje straight ; intermediate femora, in the male, little ampliate 
toward the bases, in the female, subnarrowed ; the first tarsal articles 
with the first and second pulvilli acute-spiculate, the third much 
longer than the second, and straight below, the apices acute. Length 
of body entire, male and female, 11-14 mm. ; pronotum 9-10 mm. ; 
posterior femora 4-5 mm. 

Three examples from Macassar, Celebes, Doherty ; Oxford 
Museum. 

Genus Coptotettix, Bolivar. 

1. C. tiibcrculatus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 

p. 117, 1887. 

Three examples from Kuching, N.W. Borneo, R. 
Shelford ; Oxford Museum. 

2. G. rotundatus, sp. nov. 

Fuscous, the legs sometimes flavous or fusco-variegated ; vertex not 
produced beyond the eyes, strongly narrowed forward, about equal 
in width to one of the eyes, fossulate on each side, in profile little 
roundly elevated above the eyes ; the frontal costa strongly roundly 
produced in advance of the eyes, the rami dividing above the 



242 Mr. J. L. Hancock's Studies of the 

posterior ocelli, moderately divergent forward to the median ocellus ; 
the posterior ocelli placed in advance of the upper third of the eyes. 
Pronotum lengthily subulate, the dorsum rugose, often conspersed 
with very slightly elevated and elongated rugae and coarsely granu- 
late ; median carina undulate, here and there slightly incrassate, 
but the other carinje low and thin, the anterior prozonal carinse 
very indistinct, granulate, and convergent backward ; posterior 
angles of the lateral lobes narrowed and rounded. Elytra oval, the 
apices rounded ; wings fully explicate and passing the pronotal apex. 
Anterior and intermediate femora elongate, the carinaj entire ; the 
first articles of the posterior tarsi distinctly longer than the third, 
the first and second pulvilli of the first tarsal articles more acute 
than the third, the third being flat and longer than the second. 
Length of the body entire, male and female, 13-14*5 mm. ; pronotum 
ir5-13 mm. ; posterior femora 5'5-6-5 mm. 

Four examples from Kina Balu in the author's collection, 
and one from Kuching, N.W. Borneo, R. Shelford ; Oxford 
Museum. 

In this species the antennoe are inserted between the 
lower third or fourth of the eyes. The specific name 
rotundatus refers to the facial costa. 

3. G. parvus, sp. nov. 

This may be the short-winged form of Coptotettix tuberculattis. 
It is a small form with abbreviated wings and pronotum; the posterior 
angles of the lateral lobes turned down, and slightly more obtuse ; 
the dorsum of pronotum rugose and bearing tubercles, some of 
which are abbreviated linear in form. The vertex resembles that of 
tiiberculatus. Length of body entire, male, 8 mm.; pronotum 7 mm, ; 
posterior femora 5'5 mm. 

One example from Kuching, N.W. Borneo, R. Shelford ; 
Oxford Museum. 

4. C. injlatus, Krauss, Denkschr. Naturw. Ges. Jena Bd. 8, 

1903, vol. iv, p. 745. PL LXVII, fig. 10, 1902. 

Six examples from Java ; Oxford Museum. 

Section BATRACHIDEiE, Bolivar. 

Genus Phlceonotus, Bolivar. 

1. P. sinuoius, sp. nov. 

Similar to nataleyisis ; greyish, fusco-variegated. Vertex wide, 
completely covered, strongly produced ; face in profile arcuate ; 



Tctriginm in the Oxford University Museum 243 

frontal costa strongly advanced beyond the eyes, the rami somewhat 
widely sulcate, divided above the posterior ocelli near the vertex, 
and slightly divergent forward. Pronotum anteriorly produced 
scarcely beyond the head, the front margin on each side straight, 
convergent forward, angulate, but with obtuse apex; dorsum strongly 
compresso-cristate ; the median carina forward between the shoulders 
strongly sinuate, posteriorly acuminate, extended little beyond the 
hind femoral apices. Elytra rather wide, oval, bearing a large black 
macula transversely intersected by a light fascia near the apices ; 
wings fully explicate and extended beyond the pronotal apex. 
Posterior femora somewhat incrassate ; the first and third articles of 
the posterior tarsi subequal in length, the three pulvilli of the first 
tarsal articles nearly equal in length. Length of body entire, male, 
14 mm.; pronotum 12'5 mm.; posterior femora 7 mm. 

One example from Natal or Orange River Colony, F. N. 
Brown ; Oxford Museum. No. 3356. 



Genus Tettigidea, Scudder. 

1, T. planus, sp, no v. 

This species has no spine at the termination of the superior carina 
of the middle femora, and the elytra are plainly coloured without 
macula ; it resembles Scudder's species Tettigidea cuspidata. 

Body granulate ; ferruginous, often fusco- variegated. Vertex 
distinctly wider than one of the eyes, somewhat depressed and 
smooth, narrowed forward, the supraocular lobes small, the front 
margin advanced about as far as the eyes, the median carina absent, 
the frontal carinulse on each side very little compressed, little 
rounded-concave ; frontal costa narrowly sulcate, little comjjresso- 
elevated between the antenna? ; maxillary palpi yellow, widely 
compresso-dilated at the apices, the apical articles oval. Pronotum 
anteriorly acute spiniform produced nearly as far as the front of 
vertex, the spine nearly straight, the front margin on each side of the 
spine strongly concave ; posteriorly cuneate, extended backward 
nearly to the apices of the hind femoral knees ; dorsum granulate, 
between the shoulders somewhat tectiform ; median carina little 
incrassate, subundulate, nearly horizontal, little compressed and 
percurrent. Elytra elongate, acuminate toward the bases and apices, 
the external faces plain coloured and granulate ; wings abbreviated. 
Hind femora elongate; the tibi« fuscous with pale annulation near the 
bases, the first and third articles of the posterior tarsi subequal, the 
first, second and third pulvilli respectively gradually increasing in 



244 Mr, J. L. Hancock's Stiidies of Tetrigins^ 

length and subflattened below, not acute. Length of body entire, 
female, 12"8 mm.; pronotum 115 mm.; posterior femora 7*6 mm. 

One example from Paramba, Ecuador ; Rosenberg. 

Genus Scaria, Bolivar. 

1. S. fasciata, sp. no v. 

This is a remarkably graceful species, narrow between the 
shoulders, and having the pronotum anteriorly only little ascendant. 
Body granulate, flavo-ferrugineous, on either side bearing a broad, 
black, longitudinal fascia, the face, lower part of lateral lobes of 
pronotum and sides flavous, legs iiavous, often tinged with fuscous. 
Eyes strongly globose ; face oblique ; vertex subtruncate, nearly 
equal in width to one of the eyes, scarcely advanced so far as the 
eyes, little narrowed forward and smooth, the median carina wanting; 
the frontal costa starting at the vertex little lower than the eyes, 
divides between the posterior ocelli and is arcuately protuberant 
forward between the eyes ; superior ocelli large, conspicuously 
showing in profile just in advance of the middle of the eyes. 
Pronotum anteriorly acute spiniform produced, the antero-dorsal 
margin on either side of the spine roundly excavate, posteriorly 
lengthily extended beyond the apices of the hind femoral knees ; 
dorsum between the shoulders convex, narrow ; humeral angles 
bicarinate ; anterior prozonal carinte only little expressed, slightly 
divergent backward ; median carina somewhat undulate, often little 
compresso-elevated forward between the shoulders, nearly horizontal, 
and forward at the front margin with the spine little ascendant and 
uncinate. Elytra oblong, with a pale spot near the apices varying 
in intensity and size ; wings fully explicate, extended beyond the 
pronotal apex. Posterior femora elongate, knees black, the superior 
carinse forward black, with pale spots ; tibife black but pale annulate 
toward the base and the apices, the canthi serrulate and rather feebly 
plurispinose ; the three pulvilli of the first tarsal articles equal in 
length. Length of the body entire, male and female, 13-15 mm.; 
pronotum 11-14 mm.; posterior femora 5'5-6"3 mm. 

A number of examples from Cachabi, Ecuador, Rosen- 
berg ; Oxford Museum, and in the author's collection. 



Explanation of Plate XXI. 

[/See Explanation facing tlie Plate.] 



( 245 ) 



XIII. The life-history of Spindasis lohita, Horsf. By 
John C. W. Kershaw, F.Z.S. 

[Read March 20th, 1907.] 

Plate XXII. 

This pretty Lycaenid, also known as S. zehrinus, Moore, is 
common in many localities near Macao and Hongkong, 
and no doubt occurs all over South China, within the 
range of the food-plants of the larva. It is on the wing 
from about March to November inclusive, sometimes 
appearing in dozens at the flowers of certain trees and 
shrubs, though it does not seem to care about other flowers. 
It has an exceedingly swift, erratic flight, and when settled, 
frequently head downwards, is continually working the 
large anal lobes of the hind-wings, hollowing and smoothing 
them, by rubbing the hind-wings together with a see-saw 
motion as it sits with closed wings. It frequents the out- 
skirts of woods and open, bushy ground, where the food- 
plants of the larva grow, and where the trees are in flower 
which attract the butterfly. 

The larval state is the most interesting and singular 
part of the life-history of this Lycsenid, and judging from 
that it would seem to be very nearly allied to the Australian 
genus Ogyris, a very interesting paper on which genus, 
entitled *' A Monograph of the genus Ogyris," appeared in 
the Trans. Ent. Soc. for 1905, Much of the information 
therein regarding the larval habits of species of Ogyris 
would apply without alteration to the larva of Spi7idasis 
lohita. 

The egg is hemispherical or domed, flattened on the 
under-side, strongly reticulated or honeycombed on the 
upper surface. It is Jaid singly, during the day, into the 
joints of bracts, stems or leaves of the food-plants of the 
larva, or even on adjacent parts of the host-plants. The 
usual food-plant is Henslmoia frutescens, Champ. (Nat. Ord. 
Santalace^) a very common trailing or half-climbing shrub 
in this part of Kwangtung, a parasite on the roots of other 
vegetation. The larva also feeds on Loranthus chinensis, 
D.C., and Viscum orientale, Willd., both Nat. Ord. Loran- 
thacem; the former a common bushy parasite on many trees, 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1907. — PART II. (SEPT.) 



246 Mr. John C. W. Kersliaw on 

the latter not unlike the familiar British mistletoe, and of 
the same parasitic habits on various trees and shrubs, but 
it is not very common here. 

The general colour of the upper-side of the full-grown 
larva in the wet season is yellowish, with a double, in- 
terrupted dorsal line of dark brown. Most of the third 
segment is dark brown. An indistinct transverse dorsal 
reddish bar on each segment, each side, surrounded with 
dark brown. Below these markings uniform greenish- 
yellow, the whole body irrorated with light and dark specks, 
the whitish ones chiefly due to extremely short hairs or 
stubble. The second segment is covered with a dark brown 
shiny, chitinous shield, as is the last segment. On the 
twelfth segment are two dark brown chitinous tubulures, 
one each side, with a few hairs on the edges of the openings. 
From these tubulures the larva when irritated extrudes a 
white gland or stout filament which it vibrates rapidly 
and quickly withdraws again. The body is fringed laterally 
just above the legs with stiff white hairs.* Legs, prolegs, 
and under-side glaucous-green. Head nearly black. 
During the dry season the larvae are very dark in general 
colouring, chiefly various shades of brown, with the wet 
season markings very obscure. 

When feeding, the larvae often secure two leaves slightly 
together with silk, forming a shelter but not entirely 
hiding the larvae. The first lot of larvae I reared, bred 
from eggs or captured between their leaf-shelters on the 
food-plants (where they occasionally seem to remain all 
day) arrived safely at full growth, ready to pupate, when 
though much distended they seemed soft and flabby, and 
burst at the lightest touch ; perhaps from the lack of ants 
to suck away superfluous juices; they all died, as I had 
kept no ants with them. But later I discovered larvae 
actually inside the nests of the ants, as well as pupae, and 
thereafter kept ants with the larvae, which were successfully 
reared. They are, however, liable to a fungoid growth 
which kills many, especially in the dry season, where the 
larval stage lasts a long time and the larvae feed very 
slowly. 

Apparently only one species of ant attends on the larvae, 
at least in this district ; small, and very dark red in colour, 
almost brown ; but all three plants mentioned before swarm 

* All bristles on the larva are roughened, or minutely spined up 
the stems. 



the lAfe-liidory of Spindasis loliita. 24*7 

with several kinds of ants, and are attractive to many 
other creatures, notably spiders. During the day the 
larvae either remain in their leaf-shelters, as observed 
before, or more frequently in the ant-nests ; especially in 
the latter, it would appear, in the dry season, when in 
January and February there is often much really cold 
weather. Some of these ant-nests are a fair size, but most 
of them very small ; often made of one leaf with the edges 
turned up and roofed over with felted material ; or two or 
three leaves are employed. Very often a succession of 
small nests encircle a slender branch, especially at the 
junctions of twigs; or they envelop a stalk and leaf or 
berry of the mistletoe — each little nest containing some 
aphides and ants, and occasionally a larva or two larvae of 
Spindasis. The ant-nests are built of masticated vegetable 
matter, rather like the "paper" of a wasps' nest, but the 
material is much thicker and coarser. The ants seem to 
make use of anything handy, however, as my attention was 
once drawn to the peculiar blue tint of some nests ; but an 
old blue rag torn from some coolie's raiment was hanging 
close by in the shrub, which had been chewed up and used 
in the construction of the nests. 

The larvae issue forth from their shelters at night to 
feed, and are constantly attended by some of the ants, who 
often stand on the back of a larva, apparently caressing it 
with their antennae, and seeming to extract some juice 
from between the joints of the chitinous shields and the 
soft parts of the body ; but chiefly they excite or irritate 
the larva by touching the tubulures with antennae and 
fore-legs, till the larva puts forth the filaments from the 
tubes, and the ants then seem to lick up some moisture 
left by the filaments on the edges of the openings.* The 
larva can extrude the filaments either together or in- 
dependently. Just before pupation the ants seem to taj) 
the larva almost continuously, and the latter puts forth the 
filaments frequently and withdraws them more slowly than 
usual. The ants often crowd on the larva when the latter 
is feeding, and it is rarely left unattended for more than a 
few moments, even proceeding to its feeding-ground and 
returning home with ants on its back. 

And thus the larvae spend their time till they pupate, 

* If tlie larva at first refuses to oblige the ant, the latter redoubles 
its attentions with its antennae, and strikes on the back of the larva 
with one of its feet. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1907. — PART II. (SEPT.) 17 



248 Mr. John C. W. Kershaw on Spindasis lohita. 

which they generally do in a deserted leaf-nest of the ants ; 
or perhaps the latter kindly vacate their premises on 
purpose.* The nests used for pupation always seem quite 
new, though I have not found any ants actually inside the 
nests containing the pupae ; they may make occasional 
visits, however, though my butterflies emerge in good 
condition when the pupae are isolated from ants. No 
doubt the safety of the pupa is well assured from the fact 
of its being concealed in what to all appearance is an in- 
habited ants' nest; few creatures would willingly disturb 
it, except woodpeckers and some few habitual feeders on 
ants. There is but one fairly common species of wood- 
pecker here, and considering the abundance of large ants' 
nests everywhere, it is not probable that these birds 
trouble about the small leaf and twig nests occupied by 
Spindasis. The only other animals here, so far as I know, 
which feed largely on ants are the Pangolin or Scaly Ant- 
eater, and the Hoopoe, the former scarce and probably 
feeding only on the ground, and the bird being of rare 
occurrence here. 

The pupa is dark shiny brown and yellow-brown, the 
tip of the abdomen blunt and rounded, and on the x nder- 
side is a roughened sub-circular patch, furnished with 
microscopic bristles, which aid the adhesion of the s Ik by 
which the pu]3a is afltixed to one of the walls of the leaf- 
nest. There is no girdle round the middle. The tubu- 
lures of the larva are represented by two slight scars in 
the pupa. 

The tubulures are really more distinct or conspicuous in 
the young than in the full-grown larvaB, The young larvae 
generally eat away the under-side of the leaves in patches, 
leaving the thin upper skin. 

* Sometimes, if the larva can find a suitable leaf shrivelled into 
a small tube (us the thick, lleshy leaves of the food-pLT,nts often are), 
it lint'S the tube with a loose-textured web and makes its own shelter. 



Explanation of Plate XXII. 

\_Sec Explanation facing the Plate.] 



( 249 ) 



XIV. On the egg-cases and early stages of some South China 
Cassididse. By J. C. Kershaw and Frederick Muir. 

[Read March 20th, 1907.] 

The four beetles mentioned in the following paper are all 
common in Macao. As their egg-cases or larvae have not 
been previously figured or described, the following short 
description of the plate may be of interest to Coleopterists. 
Dr. David Sharp has kindly identified them for us. 

1. — Coptocycla circumdata, Herbst. 

The eggs of this species are laid singly, generally on the 
under-side of the leaf of its food-plant, a species of I'pomcea. 
The egg, attached to a membrane similar in shape and 
texture to the egg-membrane oi Aspidomorpha 2')uncticosta, 
is fixed to the leaf, and the lower part of the membrane is 
turned back over the egg and pressed down. The edges of 
the membrane adhere to the surface of the leaf, and the 
shape and green colour of the egg can be distinctly seen 
through it. A double keel runs down the centre of the 
membrane, giving the egg-case the appearance of a double- 
keeled boat turned over. 

An examination of the lower oothecal plate shows 
that the thickening of the membrane forming the double 
keel corresponds to two indentations on the posterior 
edge of the plate. In Basipta stolida the V-shaped 
membrane with a central keel, and in A. puncticosta the 
thickening of the lateral edges, corresponds to the shape 
of the oothecal plates ; the thickening of the lateral edges 
of the latter being due to the oothecal plates not quite 
meeting at this point. 

For these reasons we consider that the shape of the 
membranes of a Cassidid egg-case is determined by the 
shape of the oothecal plate. 

Sometimes in captivity a second egg is laid overlapping 
the side of the first. The egg-case is never covered with 
excremental matter. 

This species carries its cast skins during its larval and 
pupal life on a pair of long posterior spikes, in a similar 
manner to A. jmncticosta, and does not attach any excre- 
mental matter to them, thus falling into the same series 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1907. — PART II. (SEPT.) 



250 Mr. J. C. Kershaw and Mr. Frederick Muir on the 

as the African species A. pundicosta and coujinis. Tlie bare 
egg-case also places it with these species, but its simple 
nature and the absence of any eggless membrane to act 
as attachment to the leaf indicate an affinity to the genera 
Cassida and Laccoptcra. 

The larva and imago generally feed on the under-side of 
the leaves. If the pupse be kept in a light-proof box the 
bright or metallic colours do not appear in the imago. 

2. — Aspidomorpha micans, Fab. 

This species generally lays its eggs in batches of two, but 
sometimes three and even four eggs are placed together. 
Each egg is attached to the usual shaped Cassidid egg- 
membrane which has a slight thickening longitudinally, 
a midrib, and is doubled back over the egg. In captivity 
the first egg is sometimes attached direct to the leaf, but 
more often an eggless membrane is first attached to the 
leaf and the eggs laid in it. The second egg is placed to 
one side — i. e. the right — of the first, the third is placed 
upon and between the first and second, and the fourth, if 
present, to the leaf of the first. In captivity the egg-case 
is sometimes partly covered with excrement, but we have 
never found one so covered in the field. 

During the larval and pupal life the skins are carried on 
the long posterior spikes, but no excremental matter is 
attached to them ; occasionally during the first instar 
small pieces of excrement are carried at the end of these 
posterior spikes. 

A pair in cop. at 10 a.m on the 5th September produced 
two egg-cases by 4 p.m. These remained in the egg state 
seven days, in the larval state nineteen days, and in the 
pupal state six days. 

Both by the egg-case and larval appendage this species 
falls into the African Aspidomorpha group. 

3. — Laccoptera chioiensis, Fab. 

The egg-cases of this species contain two, three and 
sometimes four eggs, and are generally, but not invariably, 
covered with excremental matter. This covering is variable 
in size, sometimes covering the entire case, at other times 
being only a small patch in the middle of the membrane. 
The first egg is attached direct to the leaf and the 
membrane turned back in the usual way. 

Soon after the larva hatches it attaches a small piece of 



Egg-casc8 and early stages of some S. China Cassididm. 251 

excrement to the tip of each of the long posterior spikes, 
a telescopic movement of the last two segments of the 
body enabling it to perform this operation. As its size 
increases these pieces of excrement coalesce and form a 
roughly triangular lump. The cast skins are worked into 
the mass and held to form the " shield." Up to the last 
instar the larva is yellow, then it changes to black, the 
white sporacles showing up distinctly. The size of the 
shield varies : sometimes it entirely covers the larva, at 
other times it leaves it half exposed. 

Both by egg-case and larval " shield " this species falls 
into the same division as the African genera Oassida and 
Laccoptera. 

4. — Cassida ohtusata, Boh. 

The egg-cases of this species contain two eggs attached 
to the ordinary-shaped Cassidid egg-membranes. The 
case is bare, no excremental matter being placed upon it. 
The imago feeds upon Citncs trees and injures them 
considerably. 

Unfortunately we were not able to observe the larva, so 
cannot state the shape and nature of its appendages, but 
we anticipate that it is similar to CoiJtocycla circumdata. 

The study of these interesting egg-cases and larval 
appendages naturally suggests the questions as to their 
origin and use. That they are a protection to egg and 
larva brought about by natural selection is the first 
solution that suggests itself. Were A. imndicosta the 
only species under consideration this might appear an 
adequate explanation, but after studying several African* 
and these China forms the authors are not satisfied with it. 

In A. 2^nncticosta, where the egg-case is carried to its 
highest perfection, the eggs are as heavily parasitised as 
any that we have observed, and in Mozambique, ants eat 
into the case and destroy the eggs. In a similar manner 
ants destroy the eggs of Mantid^e. It is not an absolute 
protection that we look for, but only a relative one. To 
argue that this species would be exterminated were its 
egg-case less perfect appears illogical, for other species are 
just as abundant although their egg-cases are much less 
perfect. The wide range of this species we consider 
due to the, practically, uninterrupted growth of its food- 
plant, Ipomma "pes-caprem, along the African coast. It is 

* Trans, Ent. Soc„ 1904, pp. 1-19, 



252 Egg-cases and early stages of some S. China Cassididie. 

possible that this ootheca may serve as a protection to 
dampness or drought, to spray or sand, in its exposed 
habitat, but in China Coptocycla circumdata live upon the 
same food -plant and is exposed to the same conditions. 
It appears to be immaterial to the hatching of the larva 
of Laecoptera chinensis whether the egg-case be partly or 
wholly covered with excrement or left entirely uncovered. 

The larva and pupa of A. ])uncticosta, B. stolida and 
Zaccoptera excavata have each a distinct style of larval 
appendages, and each is as heavily attacked by parasites 
as many beetles' larvae not protected in such manner. 

As eggs and larvae are scarce during October and 
November in Macao we were unable to collect enough 
material in the field to discover what parasites attack the 
species mentioned above and in what proportion. Several 
adults and larvae were found killed by a fungus growth. 

Until the structure of the egg-cases and larval append- 
ages of more species have been described, and the death 
factors that keep these beetles in check are better known, 
it were better not to insist that protection against enemies 
or drought is the "raison d'etre" of the development. 



( 253 ) 



XV. Life -history of Tessaratoma papillosa, Thunherg. 
By J. C. Kershaw, F.Z.S. With Notes on the 
stridtdating organ and stink-glands bv Frederick 
Mum, F.E.S. 

[Read Marcli 20th, 1907.] 

Plate XXIII. 

As the early stages of the life-history of this Pentatomid 
have not been described, so Mr. G. W. Kirkaldy kindly 
informs me, it may be of interest to give a fairly complete 
account of the metamorphoses. The mature nymph, how- 
ever, says Mr. Kirkaldy, was figured by Gray in Griffiths' 
" Cuvier's Animal Kingdom," xv, Plate XCIII, fig. 1 (1832). 
This bug is distributed from India to China, and is exceed- 
ingly common in South China, where it might well be called 
the " longan bug," for it particularly infects the longan and 
lichee trees, and seems to do them much damage, for the 
leaves of these fruit trees are to a great extent shrivelled, 
blackened and otherwise injured, as shown in the plate. 
No doubt part of this is due to other causes, but fungus 
probably attacks sooner or later the minute punctures 
made by the setse of the bug, and I believe the greater 
part of the injuries are caused by this insect ; it swarms on 
the trees all through the summer or wet season, tainting 
the air in the neighbourhood with its nauseous smell; and 
many may be found in a semi-torpid condition clinging on 
the foliage in the winter or dry season. 

On June 15th a $ and $ were taken in the morning 
and put into a breeding-cage on a spray of longan. In 
the evening about G p.m. they were in cop. They separ- 
ated before 7 a.m. on the 16th. By 9 a.m. on the 21st 
the $ had laid six green eggs on the under-side of a leaf 
(the usual locality for eggs of this bug) close together or 
actually touching one another. As each &gg was deposited 
the bug took a step forward and felt with the tip of the 
abdomen where to place the next egg. By 10.15 a.m. it 
had laid fourteen eggs, and it then shifted slightly to one 
side of the batch and remained motionless for several days. 
The eggs hatched on the 30th, so that, roughly speaking, 
they hatch in about ten days. Some little time after the 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1907. — PART II. (SEPT.) 



254 Mr. J. C. Kershaw on 

eggs are laid they turn ochreous, and just before hatching 
become pink or purplish. Just emerged, the nymphs have 
the middle of the upper-side light green, the rest (including 
legs and antennae) light pink. In the next stage the 
general colour of the upper-side is pink, with blackish 
margins and a broad blackish marking in form of a cross ; 
the antennae and legs are also nearly black. Like the 
adults, the nymphs in their youngest stages vibrate the 
antennae if disturbed, but apparently have not the power 
of using the stink-glands, even if they are developed in 
these stages. However, bugs in the third stage, shown at 
Fig. 4, have these dorsal glands quite distinct. This 
figure shows a specimen just after the first moult from the 
condition of Fig. 8. This stage continues the same in 
shape and colouring, though increasing in size and moult- 
ing several times, till the stage shown at Fig. 5 is reached. 
This figure shows a specimen just before the moult to the 
condition of Fig. 6, so that it will be seen that there is a 
great increase in size from the first to the final moult of 
the stage shown at Fig. 4, but no change in shape or 
colouring till the stage shown at Fig. 5 is reached ; in this 
stage also there are several moults and much increase in 
size to that of the specimen figured, but no change of 
shape or colouring till the stage shown at Fig. 6 is attained. 
In all the stages thus far, the head and thorax are practi- 
cally in the same plane with the abdomen, whilst the whole 
insect is very fiat and thin in section. 

In the next stage. Fig. 6, the abdomen becomes more 
convex, and after the last moult the head and thorax 
deflect or bend downwards, the elytra come unsoldered 
and the wings appear, emerging in a folded and soft con- 
dition from beneath the elytra. For an hour or more 
after this final moult the insect is chiefly of a pale green 
and pink, and it remains in a soft state for about two 
days (apparently incapable of using the stink-glands), 
though gradually becoming harder. Finally, its colour is 
a beautiful purple-brown, but one or two days' exposure 
brings the customary ochreous coloration seen in Fig. 8, 
the sexes scarcely differing. The bugs remain stationary 
for several days before each moult. The final moult to 
the adult condition is accomplished in about an hour, the 
whole insect being light green as it works its wa}' gradually 
out of the old skin, but it almost immediately becomes 
variegated with pinkish-ochreous. 



the Life-history of Tessaratoma papillosa. 255 

On opening the wings of the adult as soon as the moult 
is accomplished and exposing the dorsal surface of the 
abdomen, the stink-glands appear to have atrophied. If 
the cast skin is examined these glands will be found as 
two yellow, soft masses enveloped by a thin membrane, 
and full of a clear yellowish fluid which has the character- 
istic smell if the little bags are ruptured. In the moulted 
skin these glands are on the under-side of the dorsal 
integument of the abdomen. The bug in the stage shown 
at Fig. 5, whether large or small, has the power of ejecting 
the spray of strong, evil-smelling fluid from the dorsal 
glands of the abdomen to a distance of several inches ; if 
received in the eye by mischance the smarting is almost 
intolerable. This liquid stains the skin yellow, much like 
a cigarette. In the adult bug the fluid is ejected from 
two glands near the third pair of coxse ; but a jet of liquid 
is also often shot from the anus ; this liquid is of a darkish 
yellow-brown colour and appears to be scentless. The 
fluid ejected from the coxal glands is clear yellowish ; it 
immediately permeates (probably by capillary attraction) 
the abdominal articulations and spreads under the elytra 
on the dorsal surface. 

The adult bugs, both ^ and $, are capable of stridulating 
if annoyed, but it seems probable they may use it as a 
means of signalling to each other. The under-side and 
legs of the adults become covered by degrees with a white, 
flocculent substance which becomes thicker with age. 
Those bugs which hatch late in the summer appear to 
winter in the stage shown at Fig. 5. 

The eggs of Tessaratoma papillosa are much parasitised 
by a Chalcid, and many batches of eggs may be found, 
each with the small round hole made by the exit of this 
parasite, which seems to be the main check on the increase 
of this already too numerous bug. 



( 256 ) 



Notes on the stridulating organ and stink-glands of Tessa- 
ratoma papillosa, Thunb. By Frederick Muir, F.E.S. 

The sound-producing organs of this insect are situated 
on the anterior dorsal part of the abdomen and upon the 
under-side of the wings, and consist of a movable striated 
surface, the file, which passes across strong chitinous teeth, 
the comb. A sclerite, spatulate at each end, runs across 
the abdomen between the metathorax and the first abdo- 
minal segment. Situated at each end of this sclerite, 
upon the spatulate part, is a round, convex and highly- 
chitinous spot finely striated transversely, the file. A 
strong muscular system is attached to the edge of this 
sclerite by means of which it is enabled to move backward 
and forward over an arc of about 85 degrees, having an 
imaginary axis passing from side to side of the abdomen ; 
the whole sclerite moves at once, so that the files act in 
unison and cannot move independently. This rotatory 
movement of the files makes it necessary that they should 
have a convex surface to keep them in contact with the 
comb situated upon the wing. The folding under of the 
wing along the claval suture brings the membrane between 
the file and the comb, and this membrane is often abraded 
at that spot, especially in old specimens. This membrane 
does not affect the sound at all, for it is of equal volume 
whether the membrane be cut off or not. If the wings be 
cut off and the insect irritated the files move rapidly, but 
of course no sound is produced ; the same thing happens 
if a female be placed near a male and watched for a little 
time. Figs. 1 and 2 show the position of these organs. 

In the later nymphal stages of this bug there are four 
stink-glands opening at the posterior margin of the second, 
third, fourth and fifth segments ; the first and fourth of 
these glands are functionless. I cannot state if all four 
glands exist in the earliest stages as I have not been able 
to procure specimens, but it is interesting to note that 
they are not able to secrete obnoxious fluid during these 
stages. This is not what I should have expected, as the 
presumably protective value of this fluid would be most 
valuable to the young. 



Mr. F. Muir's Notes on the Tessaratoma papillosa, 257 

In the adult the dorsal glands atrophise and a ventral 
gland arises with two openings near the anterior edge of 
the metathorax lateral of the coxal cavity. The ducts 



.vr 




X Fiq.Z 



Oulcriide of 
tils 0,1 part of iVLTif 



Dorsal s 



-"iZhet 



9^' 



tnetoLllxorax 



-r-^l/ftlve 



Optatn^ of 



Stetioti ou CL — b 



Stink-*^j^'Lnc[ 



leading from this gland, after passing between chitinous 
processes for the attachment of muscles, open into chambers, 
or reservoirs, with strong muscular walls. A valve is 



258 Mr. F. Muir's Notes on the Tessaratoma papillosa. 

situated at the juncture of the duct and reservoirs. It is 
by the sudden contraction of the walls of these chambers, 
when full of fluid, that the insect is enabled to eject its 
obnoxious fluid six to ten inches. Fig. 3 shows the position 
of gland and the section gives a diagram of reservoir. 



Explanation of Plate XXIII. 

[See Explanation facing the Plate.] 



( 259 ) 



XVI. The stmdure and life-history of the Holly-fly. 
By Pkofessor L. C. Miall, F.R.S., and t. H. 
Taylor. 

[Read March 20th, 1907.] 

I. Introduction. 

Occurrence. — Holly-leaves are often infested by a small 
Dipterous larva, which forms discoloured blisters upon 
them. "When opened with a needle the blisters are found 
to contain yellowish-white larvae with black heads and 
tails. In particular localities a large proportion of the 
leaves may be disfigured in this way, and it was the 
abundance of the insect near Leeds which caused us to 
undertake its investigation. 

Goureau * has published a slight notice of the holly-fly, 
to which he gave the name of Phytomyza aquifolii. We 
have not attended to the classification of Phytomyza, and 
express no opinion upon the validity of the species.f 

Summary of Life-history. — The life of the holly-fly 
occupies about a year, and extends from one June to the 
next. In June the young leaves of the tree are expanding, 
and the eggs are laid in the midrib while it is still tender. 
The larva soon hatches out, and remains in the midrib for 
about two months, boring its way along the central vessel 
(fig. 1). Then it turns aside, and enters the blade of the 
leaf, feeding on the green cells beneath the upper epidermis, 
and producmg a blister of in-egular shape, which at first 
takes a pale colour in consequence of the contained air. 
More than one larva may attack the same leaf, and their 
blisters sometimes run together. The cuticle is too opaque 
for the larva to show through it, but it can be felt by 
gentle pressure with the finger-tip. When feeding it lies 
on either its right or left side, and mows down the cells 
with its mouth-hooks, leaving a track which, while fresh, 
is visible from without, and reminds one of the path made 

* Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. ii, p. 143 (1851). 
t There is a brief notice of the holly-fly in Reaumur's " Histoire 
des Insectes," vol. iii, mem. 1 (1737). 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1907. — PART II. (SEPT.) 



260 Prof. L. C. Miall and Mr. T. H. Taylor 07i the 

by the radula of a pond-snail among the microscopic algse 
of an aquarium. About the end of March the larva is 
full fed, and turns to a pupa, which, unlike that of many 
other leaf-miners, remains within the leaf. The flies 
appear about the end of May, and may be seen throughout 




Fig. 1. 
Transverse section of midrib of holly-leaf showing larval mine in central vein, (x 50.) 

June on infected holly-trees, usually alighting on the 
young green shoots. We have not met with them except 
on the holly, nor have we seen them fly except from one 
leaf to another. 



II. The Structure of the Larva. 

We shall begin by describing the larva in its first stage, 
and then notice the points of difference which mark the 
full-grown larva. 

The Exoskeleton. The body (fig. 2) consists of a head 
succeeded by three thoracic and nine abdominal segments, 
the two last of which are distinguished with difficulty.* 
Transverse bands of minute hooks make the junctions of 
the segments obvious, except where the 11th aud 12th 
segments meet. The first band is restricted to the dorsal 
surface ; the second is interrupted laterally ; all the bands 
are interrupted along the mid-dorsal and mid-ventral 
lines. 

* Twelve is the usual number of post-cephalic segments in Muscid 
and Nemoceran larvae. In one species of Chironomus we have found 
faint indications of a subdivision of the 12th larval segment, the 
part behind the bunches of setge being constricted off. 



Structure and Life-history of the Holly -fly. 261 
The head is sunk into the thorax so deeply that only 




S2 



"2 o 



ei 



Sc" ■* 



a a " 

•r c3 <u 

IS rf 

o C-t^ 



■30,^5 
« S 



> CJ ^ 



the extreme fore-end is exposed. It is long and narrow, 
and reaches as far back as the metathorax. The ventral 



262 Prof. L. C. Miall and Mr. T. H. Taylor on the 

surface of the exposed part is strongly chitiuised, and 
serves for the prehension of food. In the young larva it 
is armed with three hook-hke teeth, one median and of 
larger size, the other two smaller and further back. This 
chitinised ventral plate, which, although it is deeply cleft 
behind, is apparently single, is replaced in older larva? by 
two unequal oral plates, enclosing the mouth-openiug 
between them, and each carrying two hook-like projections. 
Muscles pass from the body-wall to the oral plate or plates, 
and effect the movements necessary to mastication. In 
young larvaB, but not in older ones, a pair of curved 
chitinous struts, standing off on either side at right angles, 
probably serve to hold the plate in position (they are 
omitted from fig. 3). The upper-surface of the head is 
almost entirely concealed ; on the minute exposed part 
are several small oblique sunk rods of chitin, of unknown 
function. The head-capsule, which answers to the wall of 
the head in more normal insects, consists of a delicate 
cuticle, lined by an epidermis. It is continuous with the 
oral plates, but otherwise completely immersed ; nothing 
can be seen of an invagi nation-cavity. Muscles pass from 
the body-wall to the head-capsule. There is also an 
endocranium, which we suppose to have originated in 
chitinous apodemes ; it consists of an anterior median 
piece, deeply grooved on its upper-surface, and a posterior 
forked piece, divided into right and left halves, each of 
which gives off dorsal and ventral arms. The groove on 
the median piece lodges the pharynx. 

The Nervous System. — The central nervous system 
(fig. 3) is lodged in the thorax and the fore-part of the 
abdomen; it consists of cerebral ganglia and a ventral 
complex. From the latter paired nerves are given off to 
the head (three pairs), to all the thoracic segments, and to 
the first eight abdominal segments. A pair of large 
ganglia in front of the cerebral ganglia may represent the 
optic lobes of the blow-fly larva. The prothoracic and 
mesothoracic nerves have ganglia at their roots. No 
sense-organs have been clearly made out in the young 
larva, though in older larva;; minute structures, which are 
probably sensory, appear on the exposed surface of the 
head (fig. 5). 

The Aliviejitary Canal. — The mouth-opening leads into 
a small buccal cavity, which lies within the oral plate. 
The fore-part of the pharynx is strongly chitinised, and 



Structure arid Life-history of the Holly-fly. 263 
connects the oral plate with the endocranium ; the hinder- 







is 



a > 



S> >< 









c3 a 

03 O 



hod 



part lies in the concave median piece of the endocranium 

and behind this in the space between the diverging 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1907.— PART II. (SEPT ) 18 ° 



264 Prof. L. C. Miall and Mr. T. H. Taylor on the 

ventral arms. A series of muscles, which are inserted 
into the dorsal wall of the pharynx, probably serve to 
dilate the cavity ; when a live larva is placed in water 
charged with finely-powdered carmine the particles can 
be seen to enter the mouth at each contraction of the 
muscles. The oesophagus (fig. 3) passes between the 
cerebral ganglia. There is a cardiac chamber, with four 
caeca and an oesophageal valve. The stomach is long and 
convoluted. Two Malpighian tubules, each bifurcate, 
enter the beginning of the intestine. The whole alimen- 
tary canal is about five or six times as long as the body. 
The salivary-glands reach to the hinder-end of the body ; 
they are slightly dilated in front. Their ducts unite into 
a single tube, which opens into the floor of the pharynx, 
perforating the median piece of the endocranium in order 
to do so ; they show the usual cross-marking. It is hard 
to explain the large size of the salivary-glands, but as no 
pupal cocoon has to be made, their function is probably 
strictly alimentary. 

The Tracheal System. — A pair of longitudinal tracheal 
trunks run nearly the whole length of the larva (fig. 2). 
These trunks are connected with each other by transverse 
dorsal commissures, and give off segmental branches. 
Adjacent segmental branches are united by longitudinal 
connectives, from each of which arises a ventral trachea. 
There are ten pairs of closed spiracles, two thoracic and 
eight abdominal. The first and the last pairs occur re- 
spectively in the 1st thoracic and the 8th (spiracular) 
abdominal segment, and are placed near the mid-dorsal 
line ; the remaining spiracles are lateral in position, each 
being placed close behind one of the bands of segmental 
hooks. The anterior and posterior spiracles are often un- 
usually large in Dipterous larvce ; in the holly-fly they are 
closed like the rest in the young larva, but become 
functional in the later larval stages. The tracheal 
junctions which divide the longitudinal trunks into 
segmental systems are evident in the last larval stage. 

The Dorsal Vessel. — The dorsal vessel or heart (fig. 3) is 
three-chambered, each chamber being provided with a 
pair of ostia. The fore-end of the dorsal vessel reaches 
the head-capsule and is attached to it, but actually opens 
into the thorax. 

The Fat-lody. — Between the coiled strings of the fat- 
body are found bright refractive bodies of large size (fig. 4), 



Structure and Life-history of the Holly-fly. 265 

which are calcareous concretions, each enclosed within 
a nucleated cell. They present a rough surface, and an 
internal concentric lamination resembling that of a starch- 
grain. Similar concretions are found in the proglottides of 
a tape-worm. 

The fate of the concretions of the holly-fly larva is 
interesting. They persist throughout the larval stage, 
gradually increasing in size, but disappear soon after 
pupation. In an old puparium the internal tissues are 
devoid of lime-salts, but the cuticle effervesces strongly as 
soon as its inner surface is touched with acid. It seems 
likely that the substance of the concretions is absorbed 
and re-deposited in the cuticle.* Occasionally a few 
concretions persist and are carried over into the fly. 




Fig. 4. 

Cells of the fat-body. Two calcareous corpuscles are shown, 
one in surface-view, the other in optical section ; the fat- 
globules have been omitted from one cell, (x 625.) 



The Gonads. — Two spherical bodies (fig. 3) lying between 
the coils of the intestine are the gonads ; they remain 
practically unchanged throughout the larval period. 

Larval Stages. — The larva of the holly-fly moults twice 
before pupation ; there are thus three larval stages. The 
first lasts from July to December ; the second from 
December to February, and the third from February to 
the middle or end of March. At times of moult the skin 
splits along the ventral side, which is unusual in insects. 
At pupation the larva is 3"5-4 mm. long. 

The 'peetdiar featiires of later LarvcV. — A larva of the 
second or third stage differs from the larva which has just 

* A similar transference probably occurs in other Dipterous 
leaf-miners, e.g. in Acidia heradei. 



266 Prof. L. C. Miall and Mr. T. H. Taylor on the 

been described in several particulars. There are now two 
oral plates, one on either side of the mouth-opening, the 
right plate being larger than the left. Each bears two 
hooks, which are probably used in dividing the food. The 
anterior hook of the right plate is the largest of the four, 
and the distortion which regularly occurs brings it exactly 
in front of the mouth-opening (fig. 5). The asymmetry 
of the oral plates may be connected with the circumstance 




Fig. 5. 

Head aud prothorax of larva of 3rd stage, ventral 
view. Ip, rp, left and right oral plates ; r, oblique 
sunk rods ; x, chitlnous rings, (x 360.) 

that the larva lies on its side while feeding on the cells of 
the leaf. The endocranium is stronger and of darker 
colour, almost black. The anterior median piece has 
become distinct from the forked part (fig. 6). A new 
structure, the tentacle, now appears on the exposed surface 
of the head ; what seems to be the labram is produced 
into two pairs of lobes ; there are also for the first time 
chitinous rings on the head and prothorax which resemble 
the bases of setse and are perhaps sensory (no true setae 
have been seen on any part of the cuticle) ; the oblique 
sunk rods are more conspicuous. The segmental bands of 



Stmdure and Life-history of the Holly-fiy. 267 




Fig. 6. 

Head and thorax of larva of 3rd stage, lateral view. /, forked 
plate of eiidocranium ; m, median ditto ; sp, anterior spiracle ; 
t, tentacle. ( x 200.) 



Fig. 7. 

Portion of segmental band of hooks from larva of 3rd stage, 
showing tlie muscular insertions (dotted) ; the hooks point 
backwards, (x 430.) 



268 Prof. L. C. Miall and Mr. T. H. Taylor 07i the 

hooks become broader and the hooks more numerous. 
Areolae, devoid of hooks, and answering to the attachments 
of segmental muscles, are found in the bands (fig. 7). In 
the third stage the 3rd-6th bands are continuous dorsally. 
The tracheal network is richer, and the anterior and 
posterior spiracles are functional, their initial threads 
having been replaced by open extensions of the main 
trunks (tracheal extensions).. 

The spiracles have already been described as they appear 
in the first larval stage. We go on to describe the 
spiracles of the last larval stage, and then notice those of 




Fig. 8. 

Anterior spiracles of larva of Srd stage, op, earring-like appendage with filament ; 
ex, tracheal extension ; fch, "felted cliamber" ; 2>, I'it ; st, closed spiracle with cord 
("Narbenstrang"). (x 280.) 

the second larval stage, which are intermediate in structure 
between the earlier and later ones. 

In the third stage the anterior and posterior spiracles 
project from the surface of the body. The anterior 
spiracle (fig. 8) is a compound structure (" compound 
spiracle" of De Meijere*) consisting of a functional 
and a closed spiracle, both carried on a cuticular process of 
the skin. The internal part of the functional spiracle 
* Zool. Jahrb., vol. xv, pt. iv, p. 623 (1902). 



Structure and Life-history of the Holly- fly. 269 

consists of an air-containing cylinder ("felted chamber") 
which, arising from the end of the tracheal extension, runs 
lip the stalk and terminates in an expanded " end-plate." 
The closed spiracle is attached to the side-wall of the 
stalk and connected by a solid cord (" Narbenstrang ") with 
the end of the tracheal extension. The cavity of the air- 
containing cylinder is subdivided by chitinous trabecule 
into minute spaces, and presents a dotted appearance when 
the air has been removed by alcohol. The end of the 
tracheal extension has the same structure. The end-plate 
of the spiracle is flattened from side to side, and carries 
on its inner and posterior faces six or more radiating pits 
(the number is not constant). Each pit has a thickened 



Fig. 9. 

Posterior spiracle of larva of 3rd stage. 
Lettering as in fig. 8. (x 330.) 

margin from which an oval appendage hangs down like an 
earring in the space outside the air-containing cylinder. 
From each appendage a delicate filament is given otf, 
which, passing down the stalk, branches and ends in 
intricate beaded coils, resembling the termination of a 
nerve on a muscle-fibre. The structure of the posterior 
spiracles (tig. 9) is similar to that of the anterior ones, the 
felted chamber, pits, appendages and filaments, and the 
closed spiracle being all present. The pits are more 
elaborate, and resemble miniature spiracles ; they are 
carried on prominences which are situated on the outer 
side of the end-plate, and vary in number from five to nine, 
the number being usually different in the two spiracles. 
Each pit apparently opens to the exterior by a slit. 



270 Prof, L. C. Miall and Mr. T. H. Taylor on the 

In the second larval stage the tracheal extensions are 
not dilated, but each is connected with an air-containing 
cylinder terminating in an end-plate, which forms a knob- 
like projection on the surface of the body. The pits with 
their appendages and filaments, if they are actually 
present, are difficult to demonstrate. 



III. Pupation. 

About the middle of March the larva is full grown and 
ready for pupation. It is still imprisoned within the leaf, 
but can move freely about in the blister, which is now a 
large open space lying between the leaf-veins and the 
epidermis. The palisade-cells are always the first to be 
attacked ; sometimes the spongy cells are excavated as 
well, but this comes later ; in any case the epidermis with 
the cuticle is left intact. 

Before pupation the larva prepares an opening, through 
which it may afterwards emerge as a fly. To this end 
it pares down the epidermis in one place until only the 
external cuticle remains. This area, which may be called 
the " pupal blister," is parabolic in plan, and although very 
small is easily distinguished from the rest of the larval 
blister by its different colour. The apex of the pupal 
blister is sharply defined, but the base gradually shades 
off. It now becomes possible to observe the movements 
of the larva through the transparent cuticle. The edge of 
the pupal blister is pierced ; the larva turns over and lies 
on its back with the ventral surface pressing against the 
cuticle ; the movements of the oral plates become slower 
and at length cease. Two short black rods now become 
visible in a strong light; these are the anterior spiracles 
projecting from the top of the prothorax. At first they 
lay behind the exposed part of the head, and pointed 
upwards and backwards. The head is now completely 
retracted into the thorax, and the spiracles occupy the 
front extremity of the body, having swung round so as to 
point forwards. After a few preliminary trials they are 
passed through the slit in the cuticle, and become fully 
exposed to the outer air. They form a black speck on the 
apex of the pupal blister, and can easily be felt by the 
finger-tip. 



Structure and Life-history of the Holly -fly. 271 



IV. The Pupa and the Emergence of the Fly. 
The pupa, shrouded in a delicate transparent membrane 




o X 



<u a 



(the true pupal skin), remains enclosed in the larval cuticle, 
which has become much thickened by calcareous deposit 



272 Prof. L. C. Miall and Mr. T. H. Taylor on the 

on its inner surface. By appropriate methods the thin 
larval cuticle can be separated from the later calcareous 
addition. The body of the pupariura (fig. 10) is rusty in 
colour, with a smooth shining surface, and flattened dorso- 
ventrally. The larval head has been completely retracted, 
and the fore-part of the prothorax, sharing in the move- 
ment of retraction, forms a funnel-shaped depression on 
the front part of the ventral surface of the puparium. 
This depression is partly filled up with a waxy secretion, 
which appears at the mouth just before the movements of 
the larva cease. The spiracles, anterior and posterior, are 
now black and strongly chitinised. The fly escapes from 
the puparium by a hinged plate (fig. 11) which very 
nearly coincides in position and extent with that special 
part of the general blister which we have called the 




Hinged plate of puparium. The oral and endocranial 
plates of the larva remain attached to the inner 
surface, (x 45.) 

" pupal blister." When the fly is ready to emerge the 
plate is raised in front and pushed back (fig. 12), bringing 
with it the cuticle of the blister. The rupture is effected 
by the alternate swelling and contraction of the frontal 
sac of the fly, which is very distensible and roughened 
on the outer surface with numerous fine denticles. The 
ventral surface of the fly appears first with the legs. The 
wings are crumpled when they are withdrawn from their 
sheaths, but soon expand. 

Empty pupal cases in blistered holly-leaves can easily 
be identified by the raised hinged plate. Sometimes, 
instead of the raised plate, one finds in the pupal blister 
a small circular aperture ; this marks the place through 
which a parasitic ichneumon has escaped, and it is interest- 
ing to notice that the ichneumon quits the pupariura and 



Structure and Life-history of the Holly -fly. 273 

leaf at the place of weakness which has been made ready 
for the escape of the fly. We have not attended to the 
ichneumon parasites of the holly-fly further than to note 
that there are two distinct species at least, one appearing 
early in June and the other later in the summer. We 
have found parasitic larvse in holly-fly larvae of all ages, 
but are unable to say when or how the eggs are deposited. 
Cydorrhaphous and Orthorrhaphous Diptera. — The larval 
skin, which forms the wall of the puparium, is marked by 
prepared lines, which facilitate the escape of the fly. In 
the holly-fly one line begins on the prothorax, just below 
the spiracle, passes horizontally back to the fore-part of 




1.(1 !((' 

^|l< Ml- 


l( 'ill .•rn'i-'i II 


.'I'l! 1'' Ml'''- 
.riii'hh(r'M),i 



Fig. 12. 
Fly emerging from puparium. (x 20.) 

the 1st abdominal segment, and there forks into a descend- 
ing and a slighter ascending branch. It will be convenient 
to speak of these lines as " lines of dehiscence." * In the 
holly-fly the horizontal line of dehiscence, together with 
the descending one, marks out a triangular ventral plate, 
which can be turned back as on a hinge to allow the fly 
to escape. In Drosophila a similar horizontal line of 
dehiscence runs along the thorax, and then forks as in the 
holly-fly. Here, however, the ascending branch is the 

* Such lines have been called " sutures," a term which is open to 
objection, because it suggests the line of union of distinct morpho- 
logical elements, as in the phrase "sutures of the skull." They 
differ, on the other hand, from lines of fracture in being prepared in 
advance ; they can be traced in a puparium from which no fly has 
emerged. 



274 Prof. L. C. Miall and Mr. T. H. Taylor on the 

stronger and meets its fellow in the mid-dorsal line ; the 
hinged plate is dorsal in position, and the descending 
branch does not aid in emergence. In the blow-fly the 
ascending and descending lines of dehiscence practically 
disappear, being represented by two minute diverging 
branches at the posterior end of the horizontal line. When 
the fly emerges the dorsal and ventral halves of the 
puparial thorax are pushed asunder, and a transverse 
rupture occurs on the dorsal or on the ventral half, some- 
times on both. Thus in the blow-fly the whole thorax 
often becomes completely detached from the puparium. 
In Oscinis frit the horizontal line of dehiscence forks into 
two branches, of which the ascending one, passing about 
half-way to the mid-dorsal region, is the stronger. At 
emergence the puparium splits open along the horizontal 
line, generally along the ascending branch and sometimes 
also along the descending one. 

In all these cases the horizontal line of dehiscence is 
constant and functional, while the transverse line may be 
slightly developed and functionally unimportant. It is 
not at all certain whether Brauer used the term " cyclo- 
rrhaphous" of the vertical or of the horizontal line of 
dehiscence, or of both. In some text-books the writers, 
evidently basing their statements on what they suppose 
Brauer to have meant, explain the term " cyclorrhaphous " 
with reference to what we have called the ascending and 
descending lines of dehiscence, making no mention of the 
horizontal one. 

The term " orthorrhaphous " is also at present ambiguous. 
It was originally used by Brauer * to describe a particular 
mode of dehiscence of the last larval skin at pupation. In 
his later account f he modified his views, and it is not 
clear to us how his later definition is to be understood, 
and whether the orthorrhaphous dehiscence is a dehiscence 
of the larval integument, or of the pupal integument, or 
of both, or sometimes of one and sometimes of the other. 
It seems to us that further investigation is called for. 
Dipterologists may fairly be expected to say with some 
precision what they mean by the terms " orthorrhaphous " 
and "cyclorrhaphous," and to indicate the types which 
they have actually examined. 

* Monogr. der Oestriden, p. 33 (1863). 

t Zweifliigler des kais, Museums, i, p. 7 (1880). 



Structure and Life-ldstory of the Holly-Jly. 275 




276 Prof. L. C. Miall and Mr. T. H. Taylor on the 

V. The Fly. 

External Features and Segments. — The mature insect is 
about 2| mm. long, the females being rather larger than 
the males. The body is black in colour. When the 
abdomen is distended the successive tergal and sternal 
plates are separated by pale-coloured intervals, and there 
is also a similar lateral band on each side. The halteres 
are white.* The abdomen of the female fly consists of 
nine segments. The 1st is seen with difficulty on the 
dorsal side, and is represented ventrally by a small plate. 




Fig. 14. 

Transverse section through 7th sejjnicnt. ex, conical extension, con- 
taining rotractor muscles of ovipositor, and giving attachment to the 
oblique muscles of the segment ; rs, ducts of sperm-receptacles, dorsal to 
which are the rectum and tlie ducts of the gluten-glands, (x 115.) 

The next five segments are distinctly visible both on the 
upper and uuder-surface. The 7th segment differs from 
the rest in having the sternum and tergum united to 
form a short tube, into which the ovipositor can be 
retracted. The upper-front border of this tube is drawn 
out into a chitinous sheet, which extends throughout the 
segment next in front ; its sides are bent downwards and 

* The rest oi" the description relates to the female fly only. 



Stnicture and Lifc-Mstory of the Holly-fly. 277 
backwards, so that it forms an inner conical chamber 




Fig. 15. 

Transverse section throngh 7th segment ; the plane of this section is posterior 
to that of fig. 14. d, ventral diverticulum of uterus ; ex, conical extension of 
7th segment, containing 8th and 9th segments (retracted), giving attachment 
laterally to the oblique muscles, and ventrally to the muscular tissue sur- 
rounding the uterus; ggl, ducts of gluten-glands; rs, fused ducts of sperjn- 
receptacles ; s, yth segment enclosed in 8th ; u, uterus ; u', thin-walled 
region of uterus, (x 140.) 

enclosed by the 6th segment (fig. 13). From the wall 
of this chamber and from its inner surface spring the 




^gS^(, 



a-^ 



iiiP 



Fig. 16. 



Ovipositor of fly, lateral view. The 9th segment is partly retracted into the 
dentigerous 8th segment ; the posterior end of the 7th segment is shown. ( x 120.) 

retractor-muscles of the ovipositor, while to the outer 
lateral surface is attached a set of oblique muscles (figs. 



278 Prof. L. C. Miall and Mr. T. H. Taylor on the 



14, 15) which pass to the inner face of the tube (7th 
segment). They enclose between them a median portion 
of the haemoccele, in which lies the 
_:;.;:;;-.v/..;;::.v.;- ;•.; special muscular portion of the uterus. 

^^^^■■;::;::y:::": : _ It is difficult to say whether these 
oblique muscles effect a change in the 
shape of the external wall of the 7th 
segment or in that of the conical ex- 
tension. It is possible that they serve 
to protrude the ovipositor by setting 
up an increased blood-pressure in the 
last segments of the body. The 8th 
and 9th segments are specially modified 
to form the ovipositor. The dorsal and 
ventral surfaces of the 8th segment 
bear an elaborate arrangement of 
denticles (figs. 16, 17) which facilitate 
the operation of boring into the tissues 
of the holly-leaf during feeding and 
oviposition. The 9th and last segment 
bears at its posterior extremity a pair 
of short valves. The thin intersegmental 
Ovipositor of fly, dorsal cuticle between the 8th and 9th seg- 
view The oth segment is mcnts is much enlarged, and permits 

coinpletely letracted and ■, n. ^ i i i 

the 9th segment to be completely 
telescoped into the 8th (figs. 18, 19). 




Fig. 17. 



not shown, (x 120.) 




Fig. 18. 

Posterior abdominal segments of female fly, diagrammatic. The ovipositor is 
extended. The left ovary alone is shown ; one tubule is complete ; r, rectum ; the 
rest of the lettering as in fig. 13. 

The hinder-part of the 8th can be folded back into the 
fore-part. When fully retracted, the ovipositor is enclosed 



Structure and Life-history of the Holly-fiy. 279 

within the tube-like 7th segment. The muscles effecting 
this retraction arise from the inner surface of the chitinous 
extension of the 7th segment, and are inserted into the 
9th segment, some at its beginning and some further back. 
Alimentary Canal. — The general arrangement is similar 
to that of the larva. The salivary glands (fig. 13) persist, 
but are much reduced in size. The posterior part of the 
cesophagus gives off a median ventral diverticulum. This 
passes back through the thorax as a narrow tube lying 
below the stomach, and dilates in the abdomen into a 
very distensible thin-walled sac, which corresponds to 
the sucking-stomach of other insects. As the pharyngeal 




Fig. 19. 

Posterior abdominal segments of female fly, diagrammatic. The ovipositor is 
retracted into tlie 7tli segment. 

pump no doubt serves to draw fluids into the mouth, it is 
rather uncertain what is the special function of the sucking- 
stomach. The rectum dilates near its beginning into a 
pyriform chamber, the wall of which is provided with 
four papilla3. 

The Heart. — The heart (fig. 13) lies in the dorsal part 
of the abdomen. It is widest in front, where it abuts upon 
the posterior surface of the mesothoracic wall. From