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Full text of "Transactions of the historical and literary committee"

TRANSACTIONS 



HISTORICAL AND LITERARY COMMITTEE 



AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, 



HELD AT PHILADELPHIA, 



FOR PROMOTING USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



VOL. II. 







1 







o 



A 

DISSERTATION 

ON THE 

Nature atltl Character. 

OF THE 

CHINESE SYSTEM OF WRITING, 

IN A LETTER TO JOHN VAUGIIAN, ESQ. 

By PETER S. DU PONCEAU, LL.D., 

President of the American Philosophical Society, of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 

and of the Athenaeum of Philadelphia ; Corresponding Member of the Institute 

of France, &c. &c. 

TO WHICH ABE SUBJOINED, 

A VOCABULARY OF THE COCHINCHINESE LANGUAGE, 

By Father JOSEPH MORRONE, 

R. C. Missionary at Saigon, 

WITH REFERENCES TO PLATES, CONTAINING THE CHARACTERS BELONGING TO EACH WORD, 
AND WITH NOTES, SHOWING THE DEGREE OF AFFINITY EXISTING BETWEEN THE 
CHINESE AND COCHINCHINESE LANGUAGES, AND THE USE THEY RESPEC- 
TIVELY MAKE OF THEIR COMMON SYSTEM OF WRITING, 

By M. DE LA PALUN, 

Late Consul of France at Richmond, in Virginia ; 

AND 

A COCHINCHINESE AND LATIN DICTIONARY, 

IN USE AMONG THE R. C. MISSIONS IN COCHINCHINA. 



PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, BY THEIR HISTORICAL 
AND LITERARY COMMITTEE. 



PHILADELPHIA.- 

PUBLISHED FOR THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, 
BY m'carty AND DAVIS, 171 MARKET STREET. 

1838. 



I. ASHMEAD WD CO. PIUHTBBS, 

PHILADELPHIA. 



OFFICERS 

OF THE 

AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, 

FOR THE YEAR 1838. 



PATRON, 

His Excellency the Governor of the State. 

PRESIDENT, 

Peter S. Du Ponceau. 

VICE PRESIDENTS, 

Nathaniel Chapman, R. M. Patterson. 

Joseph Hopkinson, 

SECRETARIES, 

Franklin Bache, Alexander D. Bache, 

John K. Kane, J. Francis Fisher. 

COUNSELLORS, ELECTED FOR THREE YEARS. 

William Short, 
t ifiQft } George Ord, 

< William H. Keating, 
Clement C. Biddle. 
Nicholas Biddle, 
is**? ] James Mease, 
' \ Thomas Biddie, 
' Gouverneur Emerson. 

( Robert Hare, 

t iooo ) William Hembel, iun. 
In 1838, < n , , rk ivt • 

\ Charles D. Meigs, 

(. William Meredith. 

CURATORS, 

Franklin Peale, Isaac Hays. 

Isaac Lea, 

TREASURER, LIBRARIAN, 

John Vaughan. John Vaughan. 



s 



LIST 



OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF THE HISTORICAL AND 
LITERARY COMMITTEE. 



OFFICERS. 

Peter S. Du Ponceau, Chairman. 
Job R. Tyson, Secretary. 

MEMBERS. 

Nicholas Biddle, 

Nathaniel Chapman, 

Benjamin H. Coates, 

Thomas Cooper, Columbia, S. C. 

Robley Dunglison, 

J. Francis Fisher, 

James Gibson, 

Joseph Hopkinson, 

Charles J. Ingersoll, 

John K. Kane, 

William H. Keating, 

Charles D. Meigs, 

William Meredith, 

Benjamin R. Morgan, 

Joseph P. Norris, 

Eugenius Nulty, 

George Ord, 

Robert M. Patterson, 

John Pickering, Boston, 

Condy Raguet, 

Joseph Reed. 

John Sergeant, 

Thomas Sergeant. 



William Short, 
John Vaughan, 
Robert Walsh, 
Samuel B. Wylie. 

DECEASED MEMBERS. 

B. Allison, 

Nicholas Collin, 

Zaccheus Collins, 

Joseph Correa da Serra, Lisbon, 

John E. Hall, 

David Hosack, Neiv York, 

Thomas C. James, 

Thomas Jefferson, Monticello, Fa. 

George Izard, Arkansas, 

George Logan, of Stenton, 

William Rawle, 

Charles Smith, 

Isaiah Thomas, Worcester, Mass. 

William Tilghman, 

Caspar Wistar. 



A LIST 

OF THE 

PRESIDENTS OF THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, 

HELD AT PHILADELPHIA, 
FOR PROMOTING USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



Benjamin Franklin, elected 2d January,. 1769 ; died 17th 
April, 1790. 

David Rittenhouse, elected 7th January, 1791 ; died 26th 
June, 1796. 

Thomas Jefferson, elected 6th January, 1797; resigned in 
January, 1815; died 4th July, 1826. 

Caspar Wistar, elected 6th January, 1815 ; died 22d Janu- 
ary, 1818. 

Robert Patterson, elected 1st January, 1819; died 22d 
July, 1824. 

William Tilghman, elected 7th January, 1825; died 29th 
April, 1827. 

Peter S. Du Ponceau, elected 4th January, 1828. 



INTRODUCTION, 



INTRODUCTION. 



It is a just and true remark of the Rev. M. GutzlafT, that 
"nothing has so much puzzled the learned world in Europe 
as the Chinese language."* We need not go very far to find 
out the cause of this embarrassment. It is produced, like 
many other difficulties that occur in almost every science, 
by the abuse of words, by the use of metaphors instead of 
plain intelligible language, and by looking beyond nature 
for the explanation of her most simple operations. 

The learned writer above cited does not tell us what he 
means by the words " the Chinese language." If he meant 
the spoken idiom, (as it is affected to be called,) there does 
not appear any difficulty or cause of embarrassment. The 
Chinese language (properly so called) is a simple idiom, 
and, peculiarly the Kou-wen, or ancient language, essen- 
tially elliptical ; its words are monosyllabic, and its syntax 
chiefly consists in the juxtaposition of those words, aided 
by a certain number of particles, which stand in the 
place of our grammatical forms and inflexions. A great 
number of those words are homophonous, but they are dis- 
tinguished by accents and tones ; and, upon the whole, the 
people who speak this language find no difficulty in under- 
standing each other. It is perhaps more elliptical than any 
other; more is understood by it than is actually expressed; 
but no difficulty arises from it. Ideas and perceptions are 
awakened by the Chinese monosyllables, as well as by 

* Post, p. 15. 



those grammatical forms which may be called the luxury 
of our idioms. 

Here, then, is nothing that can -puzzle the philologists of 
Europe. But if, by the Chinese language, the learned author 
meant the written characters, (and in that sense only I can 
understand him,) he says what is unfortunately too true; 
and by the use which he makes of the word language, 
he shows that he has not yet discovered the true cause of 
the embarrassment which he very properly notices, and 
which must strike every one who has attended to the sub- 
ject. 

The Chinese characters do not, more than any other 
graphic system, constitute a language in the proper sense 
of the word. Metaphorically, indeed, they may be so called, 
and so may the groups formed by the letters of our alpha- 
bets. We do not read by letters ; we read by groups of 
those little signs, representing words and sentences. No 
one, who is not in his ABC, will spell a word when he 
reads, or even think of the sounds of its component figures. 
This is so true, that there are words, such as the word awe, 
in which not a single one of the sounds attached to the three 
letters that compose it, is heard when it is read. In the 
word ought, none is heard but that of the letter t. Our eye 
catches the group, and our mind the sound and sense of the 
written word, all at the same moment; it does not stop to 
take notice of each letter; the physical and mental pro- 
cesses are performed at the same instant, with the rapidity 
of thought, which is exceeded by nothing that we can form 
an idea of. These groups, therefore, might also receive the 
name of ideographic signs or characters, and their aggre- 
gate and various combinations might be called a written 
language. But every one will understand that this word, 
so applied, would only be metaphorical. 

To apply these principles to the Chinese system of wri- 
ting, is the object of the following dissertation. All those 



XI 

(I believe I may say almost without exception*) who have 
written on the subject, have represented the writing of the 
Chinese as a separate, independent language, unconnected 
with the sounds of the human voice, and consequently with 
speech ; a language acting vi propria, and presenting ideas 
to the mind directly through the eye, without passing through 
the mental ear, in which it is said to differ from our alpha- 
betical system. Hence it has been called ideographic, and 
the language properly so called, the oral language, is repre- 
sented as nothing more than the pronunciation of that which 
has usurped its name and its place. 

In proof of these assertions, it is said that the Chinese 
writing is read and understood by nations who cannot speak 
or understand one word of the spoken idiom, but who make 
use of the same characters. How far this is founded in 
truth, the subjoined vocabularies of the Cochinchinese lan- 
guage, which employs in its writing the Chinese characters, 
will, I think, sufficiently show. However it may be, it will 
not affect the principles on which I intend to demonstrate 
that the Chinese graphic system is founded ; nor will it in 
the least support its pretended extraordinary, and I might 
say almost miraculous properties. 

I endeavour to prove, by the following dissertation, that 
the Chinese characters represent the words of the Chinese 
language, and ideas only through them. The letters of our 
alphabet separately represent sounds to which no meaning 
is attached, and are therefore only the elements of our gra- 
phic system ; but, when combined together in groups, they 
represent the words of our languages, and those words re- 
present or recall ideas to the mind of the reader. I contend 
that the Chinese characters, though formed of different 

* Dr. Morrison is the writer who has said the least upon the subject. 
He has been more cautious than his brother sinologists. He does not, 
however, contradict the opinion that is generally received. 



dements, do no more, and that they represent ideas no 
otherwise than as connected with the words in which lan- 
guage has clothed them, and therefore that they are con- 
nected with sounds, not indeed as the letters of our alphabet 
separately taken, but as the groups formed by them when 
joined together in the form of words. 

There are two species of what are called alphabets, 
among the different nations who inhabit the earth; the one 
is syllabic, and the other I would call elementary. Each 
character of the first represents a syllable, generally uncon- 
nected with sense or meaning. This system has been 
adopted by those nations whose languages consist of a small 
number of syllables ; such as the Cherokee, which has only 
eighty-five, and the Japanese, that has no more than forty- 
seven, with an equal number of characters to represent 
them. These characters are few, and may be easily re- 
tained in the memory ; it has not, therefore, been thought 
necessary to carry analysis farther. Syllabic alphabets, 
besides, have considerable advantages over those that we 
make use of; they do not require spelling, and a great 
deal of time is saved in learning to read. The process of 
writing is also quicker, and the writing itself occupies less 
space. 

But those nations whose languages will not admit of a 
syllabic alphabet, on account of the too great number of 
their consonants, are obliged to proceed further in their 
analysis of sounds ; and, having discovered that the number 
of the primary elements of speech, which we call letters, is 
comparatively very small, they have adopted the system 
which prevails in Europe and Western Asia, and which we 
also call alphabetical, though we have properly no name to 
distinguish it from the syllabic. 

The Chinese, when they invented their system of writing, 
found themselves possessed of a language composed entirely 
of monosyllables, each of which was a word of the idiom, 



Xlll 



so that they could, by the same character, recall a word 
and a syllable at the same time. They also found that each 
of those words represented an object or an idea, so that 
they could present to the mind through the eye, at the same 
moment, a syllable, a word, and an idea. It is no wonder, 
therefore, that they did not look further, and that their first 
endeavour was to affix a sign to each word, by means of 
which they would recall the idea at the same time. But 
the idea was only to them a secondary object ; it was at- 
tached to the word, and could not be separated from it. 

All savage nations, in their first attempts to communicate 
with each other by writing, have begun with rude pictures 
or delineations of visible objects. The original forms of a 
number of their characters show, that the Chinese began in 
the same manner. But that could not carry them very far; 
yet it may have served their purpose while civilization had 
not made much progress among them. Afterwards they 
tried metaphors, which they probably found of very limited 
use. At last, as they advanced in knowledge and civiliza- 
tion, they fell upon a system, which they have preserved 
during a period of four thousand years, and with which they 
appear to be perfectly satisfied. It is to that system that 
philologists have given the name of ideographic writing. 

In forming this system, they invented a certain number 
of what I should call primary signs, which they applied to 
an equal number of words. Some of those signs were 
abridged forms of their original pictures and metaphors, 
but so altered as to be no longer recognised. The number 
of those primary or simple characters is not known ; it is 
to be presumed that it was not greater than could be easily 
retained in the memory. The Chinese grammarians, under 
the name of keys or radicals, have reduced them to the 
number of two hundred and fourteen ; but of these several 
are compounded, so that the number was probably still 
smaller. Be that as it may, two hundred words, more or 



XIV 



less, having signs or characters to represent them, by join- 
ing two, three, or more of them together, and using them as 
catch words to lead to one that had no sign to represent it, 
could produce an immense number of combinations; and 
a still greater one by joining to these, and combining with 
them, the new compounds; and so they might proceed in 
the same manner ad infinitum. By means of that system, 
with some modifications, the Chinese succeeded in represent- 
ing all the v:ords in their language. The ideas were only 
an ingredient in the method which they adopted, but it was 
by no means their object to present them to the mind un- 
accompanied by the word which was their model, and 
which, if I may use a bold metaphor, sat to them for its 
picture ; a picture, indeed, which bore no resemblance to 
the object, but which was sufficient to recall it to the me- 
mory. 

From this general view of the Chinese system of writing, 
it is evident that the object of its inventors was to recall to 
the mind, by visible signs, the words of which their language 
was composed, and not to represent ideas independent of 
the sounds of that language. But the number of those 
words being too great to admit of merely arbitrary signs, 
the forms of which could not easily be retained without 
some classification to help the memory, they thought of 
some mode of recalling at the same time something of the 
meaning of each word, and that was done by combining 
together the signs of several of them, so as to make a kind 
of definition, far, indeed, from being perfect, but sufficient 
for the purpose for which it was intended. And that is 
what the Chinese literati, and the sinologists after them, 
have been pleased to call ideographic ivriting; while, instead 
of ideas, it only represents words, by means of the combi- 
nation of other words, and therefore I have called it lexi- 
graphic. 

To make this still clearer, I shall add here the explana- 



XV 



tion given by the Chinese themselves of their system of 
writing, for which we are indebted to Dr. Morrison, in his 
Dictionary, and M. Abel Remusat, in his Grammar of the 
Chinese language.* I believe it will fully confirm the re- 
presentation that I have made of it. 

The Chinese divide their characters into six classes, 
which division they call Lou-chuu according to Remusat, 
and Luh-shoo according to Morrison's orthography. As 
these two writers do not agree as to the order in which 
these classes are placed, I avail myself of the same privi- 
lege, and place them in such order as I think best calculated 
to give a clear idea of the whole. The three first relate to 
the external forms of the characters, and the three last to 
the manner in which they are employed, in order to pro- 
duce the effect required. We shall now examine them 
separately. 

I. The Siang-hing, (R.) or Hing-seang, (M.) M. Remu- 
sat calls these characters figurative, as representing as much 
as possible the forms of visible objects. Thus the sun is 
represented by a circle, with a dot in the middle ; the moon 
by a crescent; a man, a horse, a dog, the eye, the ear, &c. 
by linear figures, representing or attempting to represent 
the different objects, the names of which they recall to me- 
mory. The Chinese writers, says Dr. Morrison, assert that 
originally those figurative characters composed nine-tenths 
of their alphabet, which is difficult to believe, unless the 
alphabet itself is very limited; but the Doctor adds that 
they give but very few examples of them, which is much 
more credible. 

Be that as it may, those characters, if ever they existed 
to any considerable extent, have long ceased to be in use. 
The Chinese themselves admit it ; and the reason they give 

* Morrison, Introd. p. 1. Remusat, p. 4. 



XVI 



for it, according to Dr. Morrison, is, that "they were ab- 
breviated for the sake of convenience, and added to for the 
sake of appearance, so that the original form was gradually 
lost;" no trace of it now remains. The characters, as they 
are at present formed, present nothing to the eye but linear 
and angular figures, quite as insignificant as the letters oi 
our alphabet, otherwise than by being connected with the 
words of the language as those are with its elementary 
sounds, and when grouped together with the words them- 
selves. Therefore, as they now appear, those signs can in 
no manner be called ideographic. 

II. The Tchi-sse, (R.) or Che-khe-sze, (M.) M. Remusat 
calls them indicative. They are an attempt to recall, by 
ficmres, ideas that have no figure. Thus the numerals one, 
two, three, are represented by horizontal lines, as m the 
Roman arithmetical characters they are by vertical ones; 
the words above and below, are represented by short verti- 
cal lines above or below horizontal ones; and the word or 
the idea of middle, by an oblong square, with a vertical line 
passing through the middle of it. It is evident that there 
can be but few such characters; I have seen none cited, 
except those above mentioned. Whatever may be said of 
them, there are not enough to characterize a system. 

III. The Tchouan-tchu, (R.) or Chuen-choo, (M.) M. Re- 
mus 9 t calls them inverted. They are an attempt to repre- 
sent things by their contraries. Thus a character repre- 
senting a fork, with three prongs and a crooked handle, the 
prongs turned towards the right, stands for the word left, 
and for the word right, if the prongs are turned the other 
way. M. Remusat quotes four others, intended to repre- 
sent the words standing, lying, man, and corpse; but in my 
opinion they represent nothing to the mind through the eye, 
and they must be absolutely guessed at. M. Remusat says 



XV11 



that their number is very small, (tres peu considerable,) and 
it is easy to conceive why it should be so. 

These three first classes of characters arc the only ones, 
the ideographic nature of which is said to be inherent to 
their external form. It has been seen that the first has long 
been entirely out of use, and is now superseded by arbitrary 
signs, which have no connexion with ideas, except by re- 
calling to the mind the words by which the ideas are ex- 
pressed. The two others, ingenious as they are, are too 
few, and too vague and uncertain in their expression, to 
give a name, much less a descriptive character to the Chi- 
nese system of writing. We shall now pass to the three 
other classes, which have nothing to do with the external 
form of the characters. 

IV. The Kia-tsei, (R.) or Kea-tseaij, (M.) which in the 
Chinese language signifies borrowed. M. Remusat defines 
it thus :* " To express abstract ideas, or acts of the under- 
standing, they (the Chinese) have altered the sense of those 
simple or compound characters which represent material 
objects, or they have made of a substantive the sign of a 
verb, which expresses the corresponding action. Thus the 
heart represents the mind; a house is taken for man; a hall 
for woman; a hand for an artificer or mechanic, &c." Un- 
fortunately for this theory, the sense of the characters (as 
corresponding with the words) has not been in the least 
altered ; it is the sense of the words that has been chansred, 
and the characters have followed. In the Chinese spoken 
language, a sailor is called a ship-hand, a monk a reason- 
house, or house of reason, &c, and the writing only applies 
the appropriate character to each of these words. The 
language is full of similar metaphors : east-west signifies a 
thing or something; elder brother with younger brother, 
signify simply brother, without distinction of age, &c.f 

* Gram. Chinoise, p. 3. f Ibid. pp. 108, 109. 

C 



XV11I 



The writing does no more than represent these words by 
the characters appropriated to each ; the metaphor is in 
the language, not in the writing. 

Dr. Marshman* wonders that he has never seen a Chinese 
treatise on the grammar of the spoken idiom. The reason is 
obvious. The Chinese affect to ascribe every thing to their 
system of writing, which they would have us believe to be an 
admirable philosophical invention, independent of, and un- 
connected with the language, which they consider only as the 
oral expression of the characters, while the reverse is the 
exact truth. That a vain, ignorant nation should entertain 
such notions, is not at all to be wondered at; but that grave 
and learned European philologists should adopt them with- 
out reflection, is truly astonishing. The reader will see in 
the following dissertation, what strange opinions have been 
entertained on this subject, by men of the most profound 
knowledge and the most eminent talents. 

There is nothing, therefore, in these borrowed characters, 
as they are called, that entitles them to form a class in the 
Chinese system of writing. They are, like all the others, 
but the representatives of certain words. 

M. Remusat includes in this class the character repre- 
senting the verb to follow, which, he says, is formed by the 
images of three men placed behind one another. I shall 
not inquire how distinctly these images are to be seen in 
the character swy, to follow.f It seems to be one of the 
old obsolete metaphors. This is what M. Remusat calls 
changing substantives into verbs, and it is the only example 
of it that he produces. 

V. The Hoei-i, (R.) or Hwuy-e, (M.) This class and the 
following appear to me to embrace the whole graphic sys- 



* Clavis Sinica, p. 185. 

| Morrison's Anglo-Chin. Diet, verbo follow. 



XIX 



tern of the Chinese. The first class (so called) is interesting 
only to antiquaries, the second and third relate only to the 
form of a few characters, and the fourth has been shown to 
be fallacious. These two last, therefore, claim our princi- 
pal attention. I shall attend, in the first place, to the fifth 
class. 

This class is formed of a combination of two or more 
characters, each of which represents a word, to represent 
another word of the language. M. Remusat calls it com- 
bined. Dr. Morrison, in his Chinese Dictionary, in which 
the words are classed in the order of our alphabet, explains 
Hwuy-e (No. 4560) to mean " association of ideas in com- 
pounding the characters." The learned Doctor here, it 
seems, merely translates a Chinese definition of that word. 
We take the liberty to define it thus : " The association or 
combining of several words in their appropriate characters 
to represent another word." Thus we combine the letters 
of our alphabet to give them a meaning which, separately, 
they have not. The Chinese combine their significant cha- 
racters to give to the groups thus formed a meaning which 
none of them possess separately. The meaning is in the 
words to which the characters are applied, and that mean- 
ing they only hint at by the association of other words 
represented by their appropriate signs. 

M. Remusat gives us six examples of these combinations. 
They are the word light, represented by the words sun 
and moon, placed next to each other ; the word hermit, by 
man and mountain ; song, by bird and mouth ; toife, by wo- 
man, hand and broom ; the verb to hear, or hearing, by ear 
and door ; and the substantive tear, by the words eye and 
water. All these words are, of course, represented by their 
signs, which bear no resemblance to the objects signified, 
whatever they might originally have done. 

The characters are sometimes placed above, below, or by 
the side of each other, in their separate forms. Sometimes 



XX 



they arc joined together with various alterations, so as to 
form but one character, in which last case they are not 
always easy to be recognised. Two hundred and fourteen 
of them, of which a few are compounds, but the rest simple 
characters, have been selected for the sake of method, and 
called roots or keys. They serve in the dictionaries to class 
the words by their analogies : every word is placed under 
some one or other of them. This concerns only the method 
or arrangement of the alphabet, but is no part of the sys- 
tem of writing, except so far, that a certain number of 
simple characters was indispensably required to form the 
basis of a combination system, which otherwise would have 
been impossible. 

It results from the above, that the graphic system of the 
Chinese, generally considered, consists in this : 

1. A certain number of arbitrary signs (say two hundred) 
to represent an equal number of words, which may be called 
the nucleus or foundation of the whole. 

2. An indefinite number of characters to represent all the 
other words of the language, which characters are formed 
by the combination of those primitives with each other, and 
with the new characters formed by that process also com- 
bined together, so as to have a distinct letter, character or 
sign for every word in the language. The separate mean- 
ing of the words thus combined, or the ideas, as the Chinese 
express it, are only an auxiliary means to aid in the recol- 
lection of the word to which is attached the idea which is 
to be conveyed. It very often happens that those combi- 
nations are mere enigmas, and present no definite idea to 
the mind, and sometimes one entirely contrary to its object; 
but they serve the purpose, precisely as our groups of let- 
ters when they represent different sounds from those attached 
to the separate characters. 

I have explained this system more fully in the following 
dissertation, to which I must refer the reader. 



XXI 



VI. The Hing-ching, (R.) or Heae-shing, (M.) Although 
words expressive of moral sentiments, of actions and pas- 
sions, and of numerous visible objects, may be represented 
or recalled to the memory by combining and placing to- 
gether other words, which, by their signification, may serve 
as definitions or descriptions, or rather as catch words, to 
lead by their meaning to the recollection of the one intend- 
ed to be represented, — it is very difficult, when there are a 
great number of objects of the same kind, all of which have 
specific names, but whose differences cannot be explained 
or even guessed at by the aid of a few words. Such are 
trees, plants, herbs, fruits, birds, fishes, and a great number 
of other things. Here the system of catch words could not 
be applied ; and the Chinese invented this class, or rather 
this special combination of characters, to represent those 
kinds of specific names. 

A certain number of characters, all, in their common ac- 
ceptation, representing words of the language, are set apart 
to be used with regard only to their sounds, independent of 
their meaning ; and, joined to the character which repre- 
sents the name of the genus, they indicate the sound of the 
name of the species to be represented. Thus, if the name 
of an apple be ping, though that monosyllable may signify 
twenty other things, each of which has an appropriate cha- 
racter, any one of those characters, simple or compound, 
provided it be within the selected list, joined to the word 
fruit, or the word tree, signifies either an apple or an apple- 
tree, as the case may be. This class of characters the 
Chinese admit to be phonetic, or representative of sound, 
but they deny it as to all the rest, because they ascribe to 
the character the sense which is attached to the significant 
syllable, and which the written sign only reflects. 

The Chinese have other modes of employing their cha- 
racters to represent the sounds of words or proper names 



XX11 



of foreign origin ; but they are not included in the above 
six classes. They are fully explained in the following Dis- 
sertation, in which I have endeavoured to prove that the 
Chinese system of writing is essentially phonetic, because 
the characters represent words, and words are sounds; and 
because, if not connected with those sounds, they would 
present to the mind no idea whatever. 

The Chinese characters have been frequently compared 
to our arithmetical figures, and to the various signs em- 
ployed in algebra, pharmacy, &c, and therefore they have 
been called ideographic, or representative of ideas. The 
comparison is just in some respects; because ideas being 
connected with the words of the language, and those cha- 
racters representing words, they may be said at the same 
time to represent the ideas connected with them. But the 
comparison does not hold any further. The numerical 
figures express ideas which in every language are expressed 
bywords having the same meaning, and though their sounds 
be different, the idea is the same ; the other signs are abbre- 
viations, applied to particular sciences, and understood only 
by those who are learned in them. There is no doubt that 
if all languages were formed on the same model, and if 
every word in all of them expressed with precision the same 
idea, and if they were all formed exactly like the Chinese, 
the Chinese characters might be applied to all in the same 
manner as our numerical figures; but that not being the 
case, those characters are necessarily applied to a particular 
language, and therefore, their object not being to represent 
ideas independently, but at second hand, through the words 
of that particular idiom, they are not entitled to the name 
of ideographic, which has been inadvertently given to 
them. 

If this theory be found consistent with reason and sound 
sense, there will result from it a clear and natural classifi- 
cation of the systems of writing now known to exist on the 



xxm 

face of the earth. The elements of language are words, 
syllables, and the simple sounds represented by the letters 
of our alphabets. Those three elements are all produced 
by the vocal organs ; and, as all writing is made to be read 
by all who understand the language to which it belongs, 
and to be read aloud as well as mentally by all in the same 
words, and in the same order of words, it seems clear that 
the written signs must represent or recall to the mind some 
one or other of those three elements ; and hence we have 
three graphic systems, distinct from each other, but formed 
on the same general principle — the elementary or alpha- 
betic, the characters of which, called letters, represent singly 
the primary elements of speech, which are simple sounds ; 
the syllabic, that represents syllables which, for the most 
part, have no sense or meaning, but only serve as elements 
in the composition of polysyllabic words; and lastly, the 
lexigraphic, which, by means of simple or combined signs, 
represent the words of a language in their entirety; and 
this last, mode seems to be more particularly applicable to 
monosyllabic languages, in which every syllable has a sense 
or meaning connected with it, which supplies a method for 
the formation of the characters, the multiplicity of which 
otherwise might create confusion. Nothing deserves to be 
called writing which does not come within some one or 
another of these three classes. It might be otherwise, if all 
men w r ere born deaf and dumb ; but since the habit of speak- 
ing, acquired in their infancy, has given body and form to 
their ideas, every thing which is not a representation of 
those forms, can, in my opinion, only be considered as an 
abortive attempt to make visible supply the place of audible 
signs, which may have served some limited purposes, but 
never deserved to be called writing. In the following dis- 
sertation I have considered in this point of view the hiero- 
glyphics of ancient Egypt, and the paintings of the Mexi- 
cans. I will not anticipate here what I have said on those 



XXIV 



subjects. The result is, that an ideographic system of wri- 
ting is a creature of the imagination, and that it cannot 
possibly exist concurrently with a language of audible 
sounds. 

Another object of this publication is, to discover what 
ground there is for the popular notion that several nations, 
entirely ignorant of each other's oral language, communi- 
cate with each other in writing by means of the Chinese 
characters. As it regards nations whose languages, like 
the Japanese, are polysyllabic, and have inflections and 
grammatical forms, I think I have sufficiently proved that 
it is impossible that they should understand the Chinese 
writing, unless they have learned the Chinese language, 
though they may not be in the habit of speaking it. But 
it may be otherwise with respect to those nations whose 
languages are monosyllabic, and formed on the same model 
with the Chinese, and who have adopted the same system 
of writing. It cannot be denied, that to a certain extent, 
that is to say, as far as words, having the same meaning in 
both languages, are represented by the same characters, 
they may so far, but no farther, communicate with each 
other in writing. How far that can be the case, can only be 
shown by a comparison of their languages, and of the man- 
ner in which they make use of their written signs. For 
this purpose, I wish we had a more extensive vocabulary 
than the one here presented, which contains only three hun- 
dred and thirty-three Cochinchinese words, with their cor- 
responding signs ; but I hope it will be followed by others 
more copious and complete. It is much to be regretted 
that the English East India Company declined publishing 
the Dictionary offered to them by the Vicar Apostolic of 
Cochinchina, which probably was that composed by the 
venerable Bishop of Adran.* I am not, however, disposed 

* See post, p. 101. 



XXV 

to blame them for this refusal. It is well known that that 
illustrious body is not deficient in liberality, and that they 
have expended very large sums* in the publication of Dr. 
Morrison's excellent Chinese dictionaries, for which science 
will ever owe them a debt of gratitude ; it is not astonish- 
ing, therefore, that they should not be willing, at least for 
the present, to incur farther expense. But we must not 
despair of seeing the book published ; there are Asiatic 
societies at Paris and London, under whose auspices many 
valuable philological works have been brought to light; and 
there is no reason to suppose that they will not still pursue 
that meritorious course. It wuuld be worthy of them to 
republish the Anamitic grammar of Father de Rhodes, f It 
seems now well ascertained, that the language of Tonquin 
and that of Cochinchina are nearly if not entirely the same; 
and with that book, and the two vocabularies here publish- 
ed, a pretty clear idea might be formed of the nature and 
character of the Anamitic dialects.J But to return to our 
question. 

On examining Father Morrone's Vocabulary, here sub- 
joined, (No. II.) it cannot but be observed, that in adopting 
the Chinese alphabet, the Cochinchinese appear frequently 

• M. Remusat understood, in 1822, that the publication of Dr. Morrison's 
Dictionary would cost £10,000 sterling 1 . (Melanges Asiatiques, vol. ii. p. 
25.) The Doctor published several dictionaries, and other valuable works, 
so that the whole must have cost a great deal more. 

f See p. 87. 

i There seems to be very little difference between the Anamitic spoken 
in Tonquin and that of Cochinchina. In Father Morrone's Vocabulary we 
find the word troi for heaven, while M. Kraproth gives us bloi in Tonqui- 
nese for the same word. Thus he gives us Hang for moon, while in the 
Cochinchinese Vocabulary it is trang. But the Dictionary which follows 
gives us troi and bloi, and trang and blang, as synonymous words. So that 
the Tonquinese words appear to be also in use in Cochinchina. Whether 
the reverse also takes place, we do not know. After all, there seems to 
be but a trifling difference of pronunciation between them. 



XXVI 

to have paid more attention to the sound than to the mean- 
ing of the Chinese words to which the characters belong. 
Thus the character san, (Plate No. 14) which in Chinese 
means drizzling rain, is applied in Cochinchinese to the 
word sam, thunder ; the character chouang, white frost, (19) 
to suong, the dew ; ko, a lance, (37) to qua, yesterday ; kin, 
metal, (232) to kirn, a needle ; po, to bring a ship to shore, 
(236) to bac, silver ; tchy, fetters, (227) to choi, a broom, — 
and many others of the same kind. It shows how natural 
it is to consider written characters as representative of 
sound.* This, I am well aware will hardly be credited by 
those sinologists who consider ideas to be inseparably in- 
herent in the Chinese characters. The learned M. Jacquet, 
to whom I communicated some of these examples, appears 
disposed to consider those anomalies as resulting from the 
addition or subtraction of some strokes in the running hand 
of the Cochinchinese, so that the characters might always 
be found to be bad imitations of some which have in Chinese 
the same meaning as in Cochinchinese; he, however, can- 

* We are informed by M. Kemusat, (Melanges Asiat. vol. ii. p. 98,) that 
even among- the Chinese many homophonous characters, though different 
in their meaning, are employed one for the other, and pass for various 
forms of the same character; which, he says, occasions much confusion in 
reading. This is in printed books. Elsewhere, the same writer tells us 
that the merchants and mechanics of China, in their ordinary writing, 
employ but one character to represent all the words of their language 
that have the same sound. (See post, p. 64.) Can there be stronger proof 
that those characters are considered by the Chinese themselves as phone- 
tic, and that in their common writings they often attend more to the sound 
than to the sense ? 

The Chinese literati have multiplied their characters to the immense 
number which they at present exhibit from motives not difficult to be 
guessed at. When science is connected with political power it must 
have its arcana, to keep it beyond the reach of the common people. 
The same thing happened in ancient Egypt: the priests tried to involve 
their graphic system in mysteries, but necessity compelled the people to 
simplify it. 



XXV11 

didly acknowledges " que c'est plutot trancher la difficult*' 
que la resoudre," in which I entirely agree with him. At 
the same time I must say, that the specimens I sent him were 
too few to enable him to form a decided opinion, and that he 
pointed out among them some affinities which have escaped 
our friendly annotator, M. de la Palun ; as, for instance, that 
the character thanh, (Plate No. 86) which in Cochinchinese 
means a city, has the same meaning in Chinese, though it 
also signifies icalls.* He has moreover observed, that the 
character ben, (89) which in Cochinchinese means la partie 
du nord, de l'est, &c, is the same with the Chinese pien or 
pian, latus, ora, terminus, (De Guignes, No. 11,169.) But 
these few observations, however just they appear, do not 
solve the question before us. Independent of those charac- 
ters which I cannot consider otherwise than as expressive 
of the Cochinchinese sounds, without regard to the meaning 
which they have in China, it is evident that there are many 
others, which, though Chinese in their origin, are combined 
together in a manner peculiar to the Cochinchinese lan- 
guage; so that, upon the whole, I cannot resist the convic- 
tion that forces itself upon me, that the inhabitants of Anam 
cannot read Chinese books, or converse in writing with 
others than their countrymen by means of the Chinese cha- 
racters, except to a very limited extent, unless they have 
made a special study of those characters as applied to a 
different language than their own ; or, in other words, un- 
less they have learned Chinese. 

The Cochinchinese themselves make a distinction between 
the Chinese characters and their own. They call the former 
Chu nho, and the latter Chu nam. These the authors of the 
Cochinchinese and Latin Dictionary (No. III.) define thus : 
" Litterse Annamaticse ad exprimendas vulgares voces, seu 

* In Cochinchinese, the word thanh, a city, signifies also walk. See 
the Dictionary, hoc verbo, p. 346. 



XXV111 

ad referenda Annamitica verba."* Tiike the Italians, and 
as was common through all Europe some centuries ago, 
they call their language the vulgar tongue, (lingua vulgaris,)f 
which implies that the Chinese to them, as the Latin to us, 
is the learned or the classical language. They call the cha- 
racters, it is true, " Sinico-annamitici," but I understand 
them to mean the system of writing, which in both coun- 
tries is the same, though the characters frequently differ in 
their application or in their forms. A scholar with them 
must be skilled in the Chinese and in the Anamitic.J It is 
no wonder, therefore, that men who have been taught in 
that manner can understand each other without speaking. 
As the characters in both languages are lexigraphic, each 
being the representative of a word, it is not perhaps so ne- 
cessary that they should remember the Chinese sounds, 
particularly as the two languages appear formed on the 
same grammatical system, though it appears to me that the 
Cochinchinese is more elliptical than the Chinese, as I do 
not find in it the connecting particles of the Kwan-hoa, or 
modern Chinese. But of these details I do not find myself 
competent to speak. I submit them to the investigation of 
the learned. 

1 had adopted, without sufficient reflection, the popular 
opinion that the Cochinchinese (spoken) language was a 
dialect of the Chinese; but, on further examination, it does 
not appear to me to be the case. By far the greatest num- 
ber of the Cochinchinese words appear to differ entirely 
from the Chinese. In the numerals particularly, which in 
the Indo-European, and in the Oceanic languages, show so 
great an affinity between the different idioms, there is none 
to be observed when compared with those of the language 
of China. In the Dictionary (No. III.) a very few words 

* See Diet, post, p. 311, verbo vho, and p. 314, verbo nom. 
f Ibid. t Ibid. 



XXIX 



are said to be " Vox Sinico-annamitica," and, as far as I 
can judge by the means of comparison within my reach, 
it rather appears to me that those two languages are not 
derived from each other. M. Klaproth, in his Asia Poly- 
glotta,* has given us a tabular view of one hundred and 
forty-eight Chinese and Anamitic words. Out of this num- 
ber thirty-nine only show more or less affinity between the 
two languages. To thirty-three out of the remaining one 
hundred and nine he has joined in italics the Chinese to the 
Anamitic word, as if both were in use in the Anamitic coun- 
tries, which may possibly be the case, in consequence of the 
great intercourse that exists between the two nations ; but 
those Sinico-anamitic words, if they are really in use, do 
not belong to the original language, and therefore cannot 
be cited as proofs of affinity between the two idioms. This 
is another subject, in my opinion, well deserving investiga- 
tion. The comparative study of languages has hitherto 
been confined to polysyllabic idioms. The monosyllabic 
languages of Asia offer, perhaps, a no less interesting object 
to the lovers of that science. 

I think proper to mention here, that somewhere in the 
following Dissertationf I have expressed a doubt of the cor- 
rectness of Captain Beechy's opinion that the language of 
the Loo-choo Islands is polysyllabic, and a dialect of the 
Japanese. Further examination has satisfied me that that 
gentleman had good grounds for advancing that opinion, 
and it is with great pleasure I take this opportunity of doing 
him the justice to which he is entitled. At the same time it 
is right that I should observe, that this admission does not 
in the least militate against the principles which I have laid 
down ; and that if the Loo-chooans, as appears probable, 
speak a polysyllabic Japanese dialect, they do not apply 
the Chinese characters to it otherwise than the Japanese 

* Page 368. f Page 96. 



XXX 

themselves. On this subject I must refer the reader to 
what I have said in my Dissertation, and in my letter to 
Captain Basil Hall,* where I think I have sufficiently proved 
that the Japanese do not make use of the Chinese characters 
to represent the words, but only the syllables of their ver- 
nacular language ; and there is no reason to suppose that 
the Loo-chooans have done otherwise. If, therefore, they 
can read and understand the Chinese writing, it appears to 
me that no reason can be given for it than that they have 
learned that language, as is done by so many other nations 
who have adopted the religion, the manners, and the litera- 
ture of the celestial empire. 

Thus much, I have thought proper to say, by way of in- 
troduction to the Dissertation which immediately follows, 
in order to prepare the reader for the further developments 
that it contains. I have taken this opportunity to present 
some views of the general subject, which either were omit- 
ted in my letter to Mr. Vaughan for brevity's sake, or which 
did not occur to me at the time. I have done the same in 
the Preface to Father Morrone's Vocabulary. I hope the 
reader will excuse this defect in point of method, which 
should not have taken place if I had not, as I proceeded, 
found a wider field than I had at first contemplated, and if 
I had not been afraid of extending my Dissertation to too 
great a length, not leaving sufficient room for the important 
documents that are subjoined, and which are the principal 
objects of this publication.! The form of a letter to a friend, 
which I adopted, will show that I did not at first contem- 
plate treating the subject so much at large as I have done ; 

* Post, pp. 60, 85, 114. 

•J- It was at first intended for the sixth volume of the American Philo- 
sophical Transactions, now in the press, which could not have afforded 
room for a long Dissertation to be added to the Vocabularies. When the 
Society ordered it to be published separately, it was too late to write it 
over again. 



XXXI 



and yet I am far from having exhausted it. New views are 
constantly presenting themselves to me, which I must leave 
to others, to whose minds I have no doubt they will also 
suggest themselves. I hope that at some future day this 
subject will be resumed by an abler hand. It appears to 
me to involve some of the most important principles of the 
philological science. 

On the whole, by the publication of this book, I have had 
in view to establish the following propositions : 

1. That the Chinese system of writing is not, as has been 
supposed, ideographic ; that its characters do not represent 
ideas, but words, and therefore I have called it lexigraphic. 

2. That ideographic writing is a creature of the imagi- 
nation, and cannot exist, but for very limited purposes, which 
do not entitle it to the name of writing. 

3. That among men endowed with the gift of speech, all 
writing must be a direct representation of the spoken lan- 
guage, and cannot present ideas to the mind abstracted 
from it. 

4. That all writing, as far as we know, represents lan- 
guage in some of its elements, which are words, syllables, 
and simple sounds. In the first case it is lexigraphic, in the 
second syllabic, and in the third alphabetical or elementary. 

5. That the lexigraphic system of the Chinese cannot be 
applied to a polysyllabic language, having inflections and 
grammatical forms ; and that there is no example of its 
being so applied, unless partially or occasionally,* or as a 
special, elliptical and enigmatical mode of communication, 
limited in its uses ; but not as a general system of writing, 
intended for common use. 

* In our alphabets we have single letters which represent words, as A, 
E, I and O, in Latin; A and I, in English ; E and O, in Italian; U, in Low 
Dutch; Y, in Spanish and French, &c. These are at the same time 
elementary, syllabic, and lexigraphic. In the ancient Egyptian system of 
writing, there are lexigraphic characters; but see what I have said on that 
subject, post, p. 129. 



NWII 



G. That it may be applied to a monosyllabic language, 
formed on the model of the Chinese ; but that it will neces- 
sarily receive modifications and alterations, which will pro- 
duce material differences in the value and significations of 
the characters between different languages, however similar 
in their original structure ; and therefore, 

7. That nations, whose languages like the Japanese, and, 
as is said, the Loo-chooan, are polysyllabic, and have in- 
flections and grammatical forms, although they may employ 
Chinese characters in their alphabet, cannot possibly un- 
derstand Chinese books and manuscripts, unless they have 
learned the Chinese language ; and that if those nations 
whose languages are monosyllabic, and who use the Chi- 
nese characters lexigrap/iically, can understand Chinese 
writings without knowing the language, it can only be to a 
limited extent, which it is one of the objects of this publica- 
tion to ascertain. 

Although strongly impressed with the conviction of the 
truth of these propositions, it is nevertheless with great 
deference that I submit them to the judgment of the 
learned. 

P. S. D. 

Philadelphia, 12th February, 1838. 



No. I. 



LETTER 



PETER S. DU PONCEAU 



JOHN VAUGHAN, Esa-, 



THE NATURE AND CHARACTER 



CHINESE SYSTEM OF WRITING. 



Read before the American Philosophical Society 2d of December, 1836, 
and referred by them for publication to their Historical and Literary 
Committee. 



No. I. 



Letter from Peter S. Du Ponceau to John Vaughan, Esq., 
on the Nature and Character of the Chinese System of 
Writing. 

My dear Sir, 

I beg leave to present through you to the American 
Philosophical Society two manuscript vocabularies of the 
Cochinchinese language, which, if published under their 
auspices, will in some measure contribute to the advance- 
ment of comparative philology. The languages of Tonquin 
and Cochinchina, and in general of the ultra-Gangetic 
idioms, are very little known in Europe,* and even in Bri- 
tish India, and we know still less of them in this country. 
The Tonquinese and Cochinchinese are sister languages to 

* I find in the Journal des Savans for March last, that a grammatical 
sketch of the Burman language has been lately published in French 
at Hesse Darmstadt, by Mr. A. A. E. Schleiermacher, privy coun- 
sellor to the grand duke of that principality. It is introduced as an ap- 
pendix to a dissertation on a philological problem proposed in 1824 and 
1825 by the Volney Commission of the French Institute, and which re- 
ceived a premium, which, by the analysis that M. Silvestre de Sacy bas 
given of it in the journal above mentioned, it appears to have justly de- 
served. The author, who does not profess to be a grammarian or a lin- 
guist, has shown himself entitled to the praise of both— and moreover, to 
that of a clear, logical, and profound reasoner. I do not find that that 
interesting- work has yet made its way into this country. 



the Chinese, which they not only resemble in the derivation 
of their words, but in their monosyllabic character and 
grammatical structure; and their graphic system is evidently 
borrowed from that of China. A comparison of those lan- 
guages, therefore, as spoken and as written, is a subject of 
considerable interest. One of these vocabularies has the 
written characters prefixed to the words; and both, I hope, 
will be favourably received by the learned world. 

A fortunate circumstance brought these manuscripts into 
this country. In the year 1819, two vessels sailed from the 
port of Salem, in Massachusetts, on a commercial voyage 
to the China Seas, and touched at Cochinchina. They 
were, it is said, the first American ships that ascended the 
Don-nai river, and displayed the stars and stripes before the 
city of Saigon. On board one of those vessels was Lieut. 
White, of the United States' navy. During his stay in that 
capital, he became acquainted with Father Joseph Morrone, 
an Italian missionary, who made him a present of the above 
mentioned vocabularies, the one Cochinchinese and French, 
consisting of 333 words, with the appropriate characters 
prefixed to each; the other more voluminous, Cochinchinese 
and Latin, in the alphabetic form of a dictionary, but with- 
out the characters. The first, in two columns, (the second 
column being a comparison of the Cochinchinese with the 
Chinese, by a French sinologist,) is here presented in an 
English dress; the other in the original state. I believe no 
similar work has yet been published in Asia or Europe. 

I have never been able to bring my mind to concur in 
the opinion so generally entertained, that the characters 
which the Chinese employ in their writing, and of which 
the Cochinchinese and other nations also make use, are 
what is called ideographic, that is to say, that they present 
to the mind ideas unconnected with vocal sounds, so as to 
make what is called an ocular language, of which words 
are only the pronunciation ; and consequently, (for the con- 



sequence appears to me necessarily to follow,) that it is a 
system of pasigraphy, to be read alike in all languages, 
which absurd consequence appears now to be abandoned by 
philologists. But the fact of the Chinese characters beina; 
read and understood by the Cochinchinese, Japanese, and 
other nations, speaking different languages and ignorant of 
that of China, is to this moment asserted by missionaries, 
travellers, and even learned philologists in Asia and Europe, 
so that logic is forced to yield to the w r eight of authority. 
The manuscripts accompanying this letter will, I hope, go 
a great way towards deciding this question, which I think 
has not been sufficiently investigated. As introductory to 
them, I wish to submit to the Society the views which I en- 
tertain of the nature, genius, and character of that Chinese 
system of writing to which such wonderful effects are attri- 
buted, and I beg you will follow me in that discussion, which 
I shall endeavour, though not an easy task, to make as brief 
as possible. 

I do not pretend to be a sinologist in the legitimate sense 
of the word. It never was my intention to penetrate into 
the depths of Chinese literature, to read and understand the 
works of Confucius and Meng-Tseu. I never attempted to 
commit to memory, to any considerable extent, either the 
characters or the words of the Chinese language. The 
study I have made of it has been directed to a single object, 
which was, to become acquainted with the grammatical 
structure of that idiom, and the principles of its graphic 
system. It is not, therefore, without the greatest diffidence, 
that I venture to advance my opinion upon it. But the sci- 
ence of general and comparative philology is so extensive, 
as it embraces all human languages, that those who apply 
themselves to it cannot be expected to possess, I do not say 
all, but any considerable number of the idioms of which it 
treats; otherwise, there would be an end of the science. 



This is my apology, and the only one that I have to offer: I 
hope it will be received with indulgence. 

Perhaps it is fortunate for me that I have not learned the 
Chinese language, and have not read in the original tongue 
the encomiums of the Chinese writers upon it. I might 
have imbibed that enthusiasm, " so difficult," says M. Re- 
musat, "to moderate when one begins that study."* I feel 
no such enthusiasm ; nor have I, on the other hand, any 
prejudice against the Chinesef or their idiom: my judgment 
is free to act without bias on either side. Without further 
preface, therefore, I shall enter at once upon my subject, 
dividing it into short sections for the sake of method and 
clearness, and in order to give you intervals to breathe ; for 
although it is my intention to make this letter as short as 
possible, I fear I may be drawn by my subject to a greater 
length than I contemplate. I shall, however, do all in my 
power to be brief, even at the risk of deserving the reproach 
of being obscure, which I shall, nevertheless, also endeavour 
to avoid, steering as well as I can between the two rocks 
which I too clearly perceive standing in my way. But I 
must proceed. 

* Un premier enthousiasme, difficile a moderer quand on commence 
1' etude du Chinois. Essai sur la langue et la Utter. Chinoise, p. 10. 

| Unless my opinion of their national suavity (in which, perhaps, they 
are not singular) should be construed into prejudice. 



SECTION I. 

When in the last century the Chinese language, through 
the writings of the Catholic missionaries, became known to 
the learned of Europe, great astonishment was excited by 
its simple, ungrammatical structure, by its complicated 
graphic system, and by the small number of its monosylla- 
bles, compared with the immense quantity of the characters 
employed in writing.* Every new and extraordinary ob- 
ject must, with the mass of mankind, be a monster or a 
miracle; the latter was preferred.f Admiration succeeded 
surprise, and then imagination did its work. The Chinese 
writing was called hieroglyphic, ideographic, and said to re- 
present ideas entirely independent of speech. It was almost 
exclusively considered as the language, and the spoken 
words were called its pronunciation, as if they were only a 
secondary mode of communicating ideas, and dependent 
upon the ocular method. At last, it was said that the Chi- 
nese characters were read and understood as in China, by 
nations entirely ignorant of the spoken idiom. In short 
those visible signs were held up by enthusiasts as a model 
for an universal language which should reach the mind 
through the eyes, without the aid of articulate sounds. 

These enthusiastic opinions were introduced into Europe 
by the Catholic missionaries, about the middle of the last 
century. Those venerable men imbibed them from the 

* M. Remusat (Gram. Chin. 33) states the number of syllables of the 
Chinese language to be 450, which, by the variation of tones or accents, 
may be increased to 1203. The number of written characters (Ibid. 22) 
he computes to be 33,000. They have been said to amount to 80,000. 
Dr. Marshman gives 31,214 as the number of those that are to be found 
in the Imperial Dictionary, (Gram. p. 31.) He does not much differ from 
M. Remusat. 

f Maluit esse Deutn. Hor. 



Chinese literati, whose national vanity is without bounds. 
They were received as sacred oracles, and spread rapidly 
among the learned, who, like other men, are apt to be smit- 
ten with the wonderful.* Even in this enlightened age these 
opinions are yet supported, to a greater or lesser extent, by 
men whose judgment in other matters is entitled to the re- 
spect of all. 

I might here quote numberless passages from the writings 
of the missionaries, to show the wild ideas which they en- 
tertained of the Chinese writing, but I wish not to exceed 
reasonable bounds. One example, I think, will be sufficient. 
Ab uno disce omnes. 

A French missionary, Father Cibot, thus wrote from Pe- 
kin, under the assumed name of Father Ko, a Chinese Jesuit, 
in an Essay on the Antiquity of the Chinese Nation, which 
is published in the first volume of the Memoires concernant 
les Chinois: " The Chinese characters," says he, " are com- 
posed of symbols and images, unconnected with any sound, 
and which may be read in all languages. They form a 
kind of intellectual, algebraical, metaphysical and ideal 
painting, which expresses thoughts, and represents them by 
analogy, by relation, by convention," 6tc.f 

These opinions were adopted without discussion by the 
learned, not only in France, but in all Europe. M. Freret, 
a distinguished member of the Academy of Inscriptions and 
Belles Lettres, thus expresses himself on the subject: "The 

* II y a un certain eclat dans les idees extraordinaires, qui les rend 
propres a seduire quelquefois les esprits les plus judicieux. Remusat, 
Itecherches sur les langues Tartares, p. 29. 

•j- lis (les caracteres Chinois) sont composes de symboles et d'images, 
et ces symboles et images ne tenant a aucun son, peuvent etre lus dans 
toutes les langues, et forment une sorte de peinture intellectuelle, d'al- 
gebre metaphysique et ideale, qui rend les pensees, et les represente par 
analogie, par relation, par convention, &c. Mem. cone, les Chin. vol. i. 
p. 22. 



Chinese characters arc immediate signs of the ideas which 
they express. One would think that that system of writing 
was invented by mutes, ignorant of the use of speech. We 
may compare the characters of which it is composed to the 
algebraic signs which express relations in our mathematical 
books. Let a geometrical demonstration, expressed in alge- 
braic characters, be presented to ten mathematicians of dif- 
ferent countries, they will all understand it alike, and yet 
they will not understand the words by which those ideas 
are expressed in speech. The same thing takes place in 
China; the writing is not only common to all the inhabitants 
of that great country, who speak dialects different from each 
other, but also to the Japanese, the Tonquinese, and the Co- 
chinchinese, whose languages are entirely distinct from the 
Chinese.* 

These wonderful descriptions of another hieroglyphical 
system of writing, naturally led the minds of the learned to 
that of the ancient Egyptians, which was then and is still 
considered as ideographic, in the same sense with the Chi- 
nese. Father Kircher was no more, and Young and Cham- 
pollion had not yet appeared. Mr. Needham, an English- 

* Les caracteres Chinois sont signes immediats dcs idees qu'ils expri- 
ment. On dirait que cette ecriture aurait ete inventee par des muets qui 
ignorent l'usage des paroles. Nous pouvons comparer les caracteres qui 
la composent avec nos chiffres numeraux, avec les signes algebriques qui 
expriment les rapports dans nos livres de mathematiques, &c. Que l'on 
presente une demonstration de geometrie exprimee en caracteres algebri- 
ques aux yeux de dix mathematiciens de pays diflerents; ils entendront la 
meme chose: neanmoins ces dix hommes sont supposes parler des langues 
difterentes, et ils ne comprendront rien aux termes par lesquels ils expri- 
meront ces idees en parlant. C'est la meme chose a la Chine; Pecriturc 
est non seulement commune a tous les peuples de ce grand pays, qui par- 
lent des dialectes tres differents, mais encore aux Japonais, aux Tonqui- 
nois, et aux Cochinchinois, dont les langues sont totalement distinguees 
du Chinois.— Rejlexloiis sur les principes generaux de Part d'ecrire, &c., 
par M. Freret, in the Memoirs of the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles 
Lettres, vol. vi. p. 609. 
2 



10 

man, being at Turin, saw in the museum of that capital 
some Egyptian characters, which he conceived to have a 
resemblance to those of China. He communicated his dis- 
covery to the Royal Society of London, of which he was a 
member; and they thought it sufficiently important to take 
upon it the opinion of the Catholic missionaries in China. 
The Egyptian and Chinese symbols were sent to them, and, 
after due examination, they sent their answers through Fa- 
ther Amiot, which is also recorded in the first volume of the 
Memoires concernant les Chinois. It was decided that there 
was no affinity between the Chinese and the Egyptian cha- 
racters, and no reason to infer from them that the two na- 
tions were connected together. As far as relates to the 
question submitted, the arguments of Father Amiot are ex- 
tremely judicious, and he appears to have been a man of 
sound sense, when certain superstitious notions did not lead 
him astray.* On the subject of the Chinese writing, how- 
ever, he adopted the opinion of his brother missionaries. 
" I define," says he, " the Chinese characters, such as I con- 
ceive them in their origin, to be images and symbols, uncon- 
nected with any sound, and which may be read in all lan- 
guages.^ 

It is now well understood that there is no connexion between 
the Chinese writing and the Egyptian hieroglyphics, but the 
doctrine advanced by the Catholic missionaries in the eigh- 
teenth century is still maintained in the nineteenth, by some 

* The French missionaries at that time thought they saw in the Chinese 
characters typical signs, connected with the mysteries of the Christian re- 
ligion, and some of them were prophetic, announcing the future coming 
of the Messiah. De Guigncs saw in them Phenician Letters, borrowed from 
the Egyptian hieroglyphs. Remusat, in Memoires de l'Acad. des Inscrip. 
vol. viii. new series, p. 11. 

+ Je definis les caracteres Chinois, tels que je les con^ois dans leur ori- 
gine, des images et des symboles, qui ne sont lies a aucun son, et peuvent 
etre lus dans toutes les lungues. Mem. cone, les Chin. vol. i. p. 282. — 
The words dans leur origine, qualify this opinion in some degree. 



11 

of the most eminent philologists of Europe, and has given 
rise to opinions of such a strange character, as can hardly 
be believed to have been entertained by learned and judi- 
cious men in this enlightened age. Permit me to give you 
some examples in proof of this bold assertion, and to show 
how far the imagination of men, gifted with the most acute 
and discriminating minds, can mislead them, when once 
they have adopted an opinion on the authority of others, 
and without sufficient examination. 

If the Chinese characters are an original languoge, uncon- 
nected with sound, and conveying ideas to the mind through 
the eyes, without the intervention of any other medium, the 
first question that arises is how, by whom, and by what 
process was it invented? "We can hardly imagine," says 
Dr. Marshman, " that while most of the languages, formed 
on the alphabetic plan, bear evident marks of being formed 
rather by accident than design, a number of Chinese sages 
should have sat in deep divan, in order to select certain ob- 
jects as the basis of the imitative system ; yet we shall find 
that these elements include most of the objects of sense, 
which are remarkably obvious, few being omitted which 
from their form or frequent use might be likely to attract 
notice," &c. The Doctor proceeds to point out the difficul- 
ties that must have attended the formation of the 214 radi- 
cals of the Chinese alphabet, but comes to no conclusion on 
the question that he has raised.* 

But M. Remusat, one of the most learned sinologists of 
Europe, — one whose loss is regretted by all who could ap- 
preciate his talents and his virtues, and by none more than 
myself, whom he honoured with his esteem, — that great 
man, while he admits the force of the negative proposition 
of Dr. Marshman, undertakes to decide the question in such 
a manner as must excite astonishment in every reflecting 

* Clavis Sinica, p. 18. 



12 

mind. Unable to account, on rational principles, for the 
origin of a system of writing unconnected with sounds, he 
falls upon the notion that that system was invented before 
an oral language was adapted to it, which is not very far 
from the general proposition that writing preceded language, 
and that men wrote before they spoke. But let us hear him. 
" Some writers," says he, " among whom Fourmont holds 
the first rank, have considered the Chinese language (he 
means the writing) as being the invention of some philoso- 
phers, who afterwards communicated the use of it to their 
nation ; and considering the characters as anterior to the 
words, and consequently writing as existing before speech, 
they have made of the words of the spoken language the 
expression of the characters or their name, if I dare thus to 
speak : in this those authors appear to me to have inverted 
the natural order. Indeed, if things had so happened, it 
would not be astonishing that the whole language should be 
composed of monosyllables, since every part of it would 
have been formed by men of learning according to the prin- 
ciples which they thought the fittest. But who will believe 
that any language was formed in that manner, or that a 
language thus formed should have been adopted by the 
people?"* 

M. Remusat here speaks like a philosopher, and his rea- 
soning is conclusive on all points. But who will believe 
that this eminent and justly celebrated sinologist, after thus 
demolishing the system of M. Fourmont and others, contra- 
dicts in the same breath all he has said, by the conclusion 
which he draws, which is quite as fanciful as that of the wri- 
ters whom he censures? "Is it not," says he, "much more 
likely to suppose that there was among the Chinese, prior 
to the invention of the characters, a popular language com- 
posed of words, if not all monosyllabic, at least very short, 

* Melanges Asiat. torn. ii. p. 52. 



13 

as they are found among many barbarous nations? This 
language will have been adopted by the inventors of the 
writing, to serve as a pronunciation to the characters, and 
that the learned might communicate with the common people. 
One is inclined to believe that things must have so happen- 
ed, when one considers," &c* Here M. Remusat attempts 
to support his conjecture by arguments derived from the 
peculiar structure of the Chinese language, which it is un- 
necessary to repeat.f 

Do not believe, my dear sir, that I mean here to detract 
from the well earned reputation of our much regretted asso- 
ciate, Abel Remusat, whom I justly consider as one of the 
first philologists of his age, and one whose labours have 
greatly contributed to the advancement of science. In this 
case he only partook of a general error, spread all over 

* N'est il pas beaucoup plus vraisemblable de supposer qu'il y avoit 
chez les Chinois, avant l'invention des caracteres, une langue populaire, 
composee de mots, si non tous monosyllabiques, au moins tres courts, 
comme on les trouve chez beaucoup de nations barbares? Cette langue 
aura ete adoptee par les inventeurs de l'ccriture pour servir de prononci- 
ation aux caracteres, et pour que les gens instruits pussent s'entendre 
avec le vulgaire. On est porte a croire que les choses ont du se passer 
ainsi, quand on considere, &c. Melanges Asiatiques, vol. ii. p. 52. 

f A similar opinion was entertained by the once celebrated orientalist 
Golius, who nourished about the middle of the seventeenth century. "Il 
croyait," says Leibnitz, " que la langue des Chinois est artificielle, c'est 
a dire qu'elle a ete inventee toute a le fois par quelque habile homme 
pour etablir un commerce de paroles entre quantite de nations differentes 
qui habitaient ce grant pays: que nous appellens la Chine." Nouveaux 
Essais sur Venfcndement humain, I. iii. c. 1, § 1, in Raspe's edition, p. 232. 

Thus the wildest opinions are reproduced from age to age, and will pro- 
bably continue to be so until the end of the world. The great Leibnitz 
gravely proposed an universal philosophical language, founded on the 
principles of mathematical science, by which all truths could be demon- 
strated, and all errors detected. Almost all the errors of mankind may 
be traced to celebrated philosophers; such is the weakness of our nature, 
and it shows how little respect is due to authority, in matters that depend 
on reason and common sense. 



14 

Europe at the time when he wrote, and supported by such 
respectable authority that it would have appeared presump- 
tuous at that time to controvert it. You can easily see by 
the passage which I have quoted, that his mind was not en- 
tirely free from doubt and hesitation, since he advances pro- 
positions in evident contradiction to each other. I shall 
show, in its place, that at a subsequent period he was among 
the first who successfully combated the opinion that the 
Chinese writing was read and understood by nations who 
were ignorant of the spoken language. As to its ideographic 
character he appears not to have varied; but this notion 
was not peculiar to him or to his country ; it was enter- 
tained, as I have said, by the learned of all Europe. The 
celebrated Adelung thus speaks in the Mithridates of the 
graphic system of the Chinese: " It differs from all others in 
this; that it neither consists of natural or symbolic hierogly- 
phics, nor of an alphabet of syllables or letters, but represents 
whole ideas, each idea being expressed by its own appro- 
priate sign, without being connected with speech. It speaks 
to the eyes as the arithmetical figures of Europe, which 
every one understands, and pronounces after his own man- 
ner. Thus it may be learned, without knowing a word of 
the language."* Mr. Adelung, however, does not go so far as 
to say, that the Chinese characters were invented before a 
language or pronunciation was applied to them ; but we find 
that idea entertained by men of learning not only in France, 
but also in England. 

* Sie (die Sinesische Schrift) unterscheidet sich von den iibrig-en 
Schriftarten dadurch, dass sie weder nattirliche noch synbolische Hiero- 
glyphik, noch Sylben noch Buchstaben Schrift ist, sondern g-anze ausg-ebil- 
dete Begriffe, und zwar jeden Begriff durch sein eig-enes Zeichen aus- 
druckt, ohne mit der Sprache in A'erbindung- zu stehen. Sie spricht zu 
dem Aug-e, wie die Europaischen Zahlzeichen, welche jeder verstehet, 
und auf seine Art ausspricht. Man kann daher Sinesisch lesen lernen, 
ohne ein Wort von der Sprache zu verstehen. Mithrid. vol. i. p. 46. 



15 

An anonymous writer in the London Quarterly Review, 
who, I am told, is believed to have been a celebrated philo- 
logist whose name I do not feel at liberty to mention, goes 
even farther that M. Remusat, who only supposed that after 
the invention of the characters, an existing language was 
sought to be applied to them as a pronunciation ; but the 
writer I speak of presumes that a language was made, and 
words invented, for that purpose. He instances the two words 
sun and moon, which, joined together in a group, signify splen- 
dour or brilliancy. " It was necessary," says he, " to give 
a name to this new compound"* and he proceeds at great 
length to show by what combinations of sounds and ideas 
the Chinese succeeded in finding a word to serve as a pro- 
nunciation for the sign. From these strange theories it 
would seem that words were made to represent signs, and 
not signs to represent words. This shows how difficult it is, 
even for learned and intelligent men, to get over ancient 
and deeply rooted prejudices. 

Such were the ideas generally entertained by learned 
sinologists, respecting the graphic system of the Chinese, so 
late as the beginning of the present century; and although 
the principles of that method of writing are now better un- 
derstood than they were at that time, the science is never- 
theless still overshadowed with much prejudice, and many 
vague, unsettled notions, because those principles have not 
been philosophically investigated and clearly traced to their 
origin. A recent writer on China, the Rev. Mr. GutzlafT, a 
protestant missionary, who has resided in that country, and 
is well acquainted with its language, expresses himself in 
these words: "Nothing," says he, and he speaks the truth, 
" has so much puzzled the learned world in Europe, as the 
Chinese language. To express so many ideas as arise in 
the mind by 1445 intonated monosyllables — to substitute a 

* Quarterly Review, vol. v. (May, 1811) p. 390. 



16 

distinct character for a simple alphabet, was undoubtedly a 
gigantic effort of human genius. But the Chinese have 
effected what we might have deemed impossible."* Here 
this author only shows his admiration of the Chinese system 
of writing, in comparison to which he considers the oral 
language to be imperfect, and tells the old story of the Chi- 
nese having recourse to writing when they cannot express 
themselves by words. But afterwards, in a communication 
to the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 
on the language of Cochinchina, so late as the year 1831, 
he goes much farther, and asserts the pretended pasigraphic 
character of the Chinese writing. " It is generally known," 
says he, " that neither sound nor tone is inherent in the 
Chinese characters, but that they are read in different ways, 
whilst the significance of the character remains the same 
in all the countries where the Chinese way of writing is 
adopted."! 

This appears to me to be going as far as any Catholic 
missionary ever did, and is sufficient to show that the true 
principles on which rests the graphic system of the Chinese 
are yet far from being clearly and correctly understood. 

When such opinions are advanced by men of real learn- 
ing, and who are practically as well as theoretically ac- 
quainted with the Chinese language, it is not astonishing 
that it should be still maintained that Chinese books and 
other writings are understood by nations who speak differ- 
ent idioms, and are unacquainted with that of China. Even 
at this day, this is asserted as a fact by men of respectabi- 
lity, and who speak of their own knowledge, as I shall show 
in its proper place before I conclude this letter. This arises 
from the false notion that the Chinese characters are uncon- 
nected with words. And to bring this matter still nearer to 

* History of China, ch. iii. 

f Trans. R. A. S. of Great Britain and Ireland, vol.. iii. p. 296. 



17 

the present time, and to show how vague and unsettled are 
the opinions now entertained on this subject, I need only re- 
fer to an article, which has at this moment caught my eye, 
in the Edinburgh Review for the month of October last, and 
in which I find the Chinese system of writing thus described: 
" The Chinese have for ages employed a multitude of idea- 
graphic (sic) characters, derived by composition and other- 
wise from a limited number of elementary pictures or repre- 
sentations of external objects called keys, without making 
the least step towards an alphabet." And further: "The 
Egyptians seem likewise to have remained contented with 
their hieroglyphic system, or at least not to have advanced 
a step beyond it." Here the writer speaks of ideographic 
and hieroglyphic characters as opposed to alphabets, by 
which last word he clearly understands those signs which 
represent the primary elements of sounds, and which we 
call consonants and vowels. He seems to forget that other 
sounds may be represented by characters or letters, how- 
ever these may be shaped, whether in the forms of living 
objects or otherwise, and his distinction appears founded on 
the idcagraphic character, (as he calls it,) of the Chinese and 
Egyptian signs and our elementary system, which alone he 
seems to consider as phonetic; yet in another place, when 
commenting on Bishop Warburton's opinion that the hiero- 
glyphs of Egypt constituted a real written language, appli- 
cable to all kinds of civil as well as of religious matters, he 
very justly observes that such a system of writing must have 
been in connexion with the spoken language,* which is what 
I mean to prove to you and to the Society, and to show, as 
far as is in my power, how this connexion is formed, par- 
ticularly in the Chinese, and that the word ideographic is 
improperly applied to that system of writing. The writer 
of this article does not appear to entertain perfectly clear 

* Edinb. Rev. Oct. 1836. Art. iv. 



18 

ideas upon this subject, which, as J have said before, has not 
yet been sufficiently investigated. 

To explain and fully to develop the views which I enter- 
tain upon what is called ideographic writing would require 
a large work, a task which I have neither the time nor the 
inclination to undertake. But, as connected with the main 
object of this letter, which is to bring before the learned 
world the question how far the Chinese written character 
can be understood by nations speaking a different idiom, I 
hope, my dear sir, you will permit me to state as briefly as 
I can the opinions that I have formed of the Chinese lan- 
guage and its graphic system, and to explain the reasons 
which make me differ from those who consider the latter as 
a distinct language, which they call ideographic, and assert 
it to be unconnected with sounds and independent of speech. 
I hope, on the contrary, to be able to show that the Chinese 
characters are the representation of the words of the oral 
language, which, like the groups formed by letters of our 
alphabets, they recall to the mind of the reader, and ideas 
only through them; the only difference lies in the method 
pursued, but the object and the effect are precisely the 
same. 



SECTION II. 



The Chinese language, with a few exceptions that do not 
at all bear upon my argument, is essentially monosyllabic. 
I do not mean that by the junction of its component mono- 
syllables, polysyllabic words cannot be formed; but I think I 
may safely say, that, with few exceptions, every syllable is 
significant, and constitutes what we call a ward. These syl- 
lables may be united in speech, as in welcome, welfare, house- 
hold, or in the French word bienfait; or they may be sepa- 






19 

rated, as in well done, well made, bad work, or in the French 
phrase, Oest Men fait. The difference docs not appear in 
the rapidity of speech, we are only aware of it by the typo- 
graphical arrangement of the syllables. It is therefore of 
no consequence whether the Chinese language, as spoken, 
be called monosyllabic or polysyllabic, but it is important to 
know that every one of its syllables is a word, and as each 
character represents a syllable, which is called its 'pronunci- 
ation, it necessarily follows that each character represents a 
word. 

It is not true, therefore, that the Chinese characters are 
unconnected with sounds, unless it should be contended that 
a syllable is not a sound. But the syllabic alphabets of Ja- 
pan and of Citra-Gangetic India have never been considered 
otherwise than as the representation of sounds, and it has 
never been pretended that they are not phonetic. A syllable, 
indeed, may by analysis be reduced to more simple elements; 
but though composed of those elements, it is still a reverbe- 
ration of the human voice, produced at once and in the same 
breath by the organs of speech. If, then, syllables are 
sounds, monosyllabic words are so likewise; and the charac- 
ters which represent them cannot be said not to be con- 
nected with them as such. 

There is no character in the Chinese alphabet (if I may 
be permitted so to call it) that does not represent a syllable, 
and consequently a word ; nor is there a word in the lan- 
guage without a character to represent it. For this we 
have the authority of M. Remusat, and a better one could 
not be desired. " The written and spoken language," 
says that celebrated author, " are distinct and separate, yet 
every word of the one answers to the sign of the other 
which represents the same idea, and reciprocally."* And 

* La langue parlee et la langue ecrite sont distinctes et separces: tontes 
fois chaque mot de l'une repond au signe de l'autre qui represente la 
meme idee et reciproquement. Gram. Chin. p. 1. 



20 

elsewhere : " Each character answers in the oral lan^uase 
to a word that has the same signification ; the character 
awakens in the mind of him who sees it the same idea as 
the word, if it should be heard."* 

Here let us pause for a moment. Each character repre- 
sents a word, and each word has a character to represent 
it. This cannot be denied ; all the sinologists agree to it. 
How comes it, then, that there should be eighty, forty, or 
thirty thousand written characters, and less than two thou- 
sand words, including all the differences of tones and ac- 
cents? This is a curious question, though not of much 
consequence to my argument. No sinologist has yet said that 
there are characters without meaning, except those, the 
signification of which has been lost by the lapse of time ; 
none has said that there are characters which are not the 
expression, or, to speak more properly, the representation 
of some word in the language. The characters, therefore, 
which exceed in number the words of the idiom must ne- 
cessarily be superabundant, and it is not difficult to account 
for their existence ; we need only look at home. The 
Portuguese orthography was once exclusively used to re- 
present the sounds of the Chinese words by means of the 
letters of our alphabet, and it was adopted and understood 
by all, until national vanity and individual caprice interfered. 
Not only every nation, but every sinologist has his own 
mode of spelling Chinese words. The English, the French, 
and the Germans, have each adopted a mode of spelling 
suited to their own language. But the evil does not stop 
here ; every writer has a spelling of his own ; Morrison 
does not spell like Marshman, nor Remusat like De Guignes. 
Where will this confusion end ? For my part, I adopt in 
this disquisition the spelling of the writer that first comes to 

* Chaque charactere Clrinois repond, dans la langue orale, a un mot 
qui a la meme signification; le caractere eveille dans l'esprit de celui qui 
le voit, la memc idee que le mot, si l'on vient a Pentcndre. Ibid. p. 23. 



21 

hand. I shall certainly not try to reconcile them, or show 
a preference to one over the other. I only wish that the 
old fashioned Portuguese mode of spelling had been pre- 
served ; or that the alphabet of my learned friend Mr. Pick- 
ering was as generally adopted by the learned of Europe 
and America, as it is by our missionaries in the South Sea 
Islands and elsewhere. 

This example is sufficient to show why there are so many 
synonymous characters in the graphic system of the Chi- 
nese. They are only different manners of spelling the same 
words,, every writer having thought his method superior to 
that of the others. I shall explain hereafter in what that me- 
thod consists, and you will easily understand how it came to 
be applied in different ways to the formation of a variety 
of characters intended to represent the same words. 

After all, a great many of those characters are out of use, 
and the number of those which are commonly employed is 
comparatively small. It is only among the learned that a 
variety of characters is employed. 

But the difference, in point of numbers, between the 
written and spoken words of the Chinese language, is not so 
great as is generally imagined. In the first place, there 
are a great number of homophonous words, which being 
pronounced alike are, as I presume, in calculating the num- 
bers of those significant syllables considered as one and the 
same pronunciation of different characters, and not so many 
different words in relation to their sense. It is the same as 
if, in our language, we should consider as one the words 
fain, fane, and feign, because pronounced alike, although 
they differ in meaning widely from each other. There is 
another mode of computation which is directly the reverse 
of this. Because the monosyllables of the Chinese language 
are significant, they alone have been honoured with the 
name of words, and their numerous compounds have been 
left out of view. I have said above, that those monosylla- 



22 

bles might be compounded, precisely as those of our own 
language in welcome, welfare, &c. ; and I may add here, 
that the greatest part of the Chinese idiom is formed of 
those compounds, which are separated only by the manner 
in which they are exhibited to the eye when written. Thus, 
in our dictionaries, shoemaker is found as a polysyllabic 
word, while pear tree is not, but each of its component syl- 
lables must be looked for in its proper place, according to 
the alphabet. And yet it would seem that peartree is as 
much a word in English as shoemaker, shipwright, and so 
many others. There are English words which in Chinese 
are expressed by five significant monosyllables, such for 
instance as the word puberty, which is called fa-shin-teih- 
she-how.* I am not sufficiently versed in the Chinese lan- 
guage to explain the meaning of each of these five mono- 
syllables ; I leave the task to sinologists. But it is evident, 
that nothing is wanting but to give to the Chinese compounds 
the denomination of words, to make that language as rich, 
perhaps, as those whose composition is disguised by the 
foreign origin of the monosyllables, or the more artificial 
manner in which they are joined together. 

Dr. Morrison has rendered a great service to philology 
by his alphabetical dictionaries of the Chinese (spoken) 
language, the one Chinese and English, and the other Eng- 
lish and Chinese. He would have rendered a still greater, 
if he had explained the meaning of each of the characters 
that are grouped together to represent a word compounded 
of several others, as those which are employed to express 
the English word ■puberty, which I have mentioned above. 
But the learned Doctor wrote for merchants and mission- 
aries, and not for philologists ; and his w r orks were intended 
for practical use, and not to aid philological disquisitions, to 
which nevertheless they are of great advantage, and for 

* Morrison's English and Chinese Dictionary, verbo puberty. 



23 

which the author is justly entitled to our thanks. But let us 
return to our subject. 

It is, as I have just shown, a fact not to be denied, that 
each Chinese character has a word to represent it, and vice 
versa. Here is, therefore, a close connexion between the 
writing and the language, and they cannot be said to be 
independent of each other. I must now prove that the wri- 
ting was made for the language, and for no other purpose 
than to recall its words to the memory of the reader. To 
be convinced of this, it is sufficient to observe that the cha- 
racters follow servilely the spoken words, and the ideas 
which these express, in the order in which they are ex- 
plained. Thus a glove, which in our language expresses a 
compound idea in one word, is called in Chinese show-taou, 
hand covering,* and there is a character for each of these 
words. If, as in German, the language had said hand-shoe, 
the writing would have the character which stands for shoe 
instead of that which represents the word covering. In the 
same manner a sailor is called ship-hand; a library, book- 
house; a monk, reason-house (the house of reason); a physi- 
cian, medicine-house. The abstract idea of a thing is quaintly 
expressed by the words east-west; and that of a brother in- 
definitely by two monosyllables, one of which signifies elder 
brother, and the other younger brother. In representing all 
these compounds, and a multitude of others, of which the 
language is full, the writing does not attempt (if I may use 
the expression) to think for itself, and to represent ideas after 
a manner of its own, but follows the spoken language step by 
step, word for word, and echoes it through the eye to the 
mental ear. Perhaps it will be said, that it is not the writing 
that follows the language through its various combinations 
of ideas, but on the contrary that it is the language which 
is the echo of the characters ; but that would lead us to the 

* Morrison's English and Chinese Dictionary, verbo glove. 



24 

absurd conclusion of the pre-existence of the latter, which I 
think I have already sufficiently exposed. 

The learned authors of the historical and descriptive ac- 
count of China, which is a part of the collection called 
" The Edinburgh Cabinet Library," are therefore under a 
mistake, when they say that " the idea of making the written 
subservient to the spoken language, seems never once to 
have occurred to the mind of a Chinese."* On the con- 
trary, it is clear that the primary, and indeed the sole object 
of the inventors of the writing, was to give representative 
signs to the words of the oral idiom, and consequently to 
make their graphic system subservient to it, as in fact it is 
and ever will be. That the literati of China, should enter- 
tain a different opinion, and " consider speech as an altoge- 
ther secondary and subordinate mode of communication,!" 
is not at all to be wondered at ; their excessive vanity led 
them into this prejudice, and maintains them in it. 

So far, at least, no sign appears of an ideographic lan- 
guage, as the Chinese writing has been called. Its object, 
as far as we have seen, is not to recall ideas to the mind 
abstracted from sounds, but the sounds or words in which 
language has clothed those ideas. The written signs do not, 
indeed, represent sounds in the elementary form of letters, 
but in the compound form of syllables and words. They 
have precisely the same effect as our groups of letters, and 
do not advance a step farther into the ideal world. Then 
we may say that it is not an idea that each character repre- 
sents, but a word; and if it represents the idea at all it is 
through the word which it calls to mind ; and such is the 
operation of our alphabetical writing. The five letters 
which, placed next to each other, form the word horse, pre- 
sent to our minds the idea of the animal so called, quite as 

* Edinb. Cab. Libr. China, vol. ii. p. 20. This book was published in 
1836. f Ibid. 






well as the horizontal and perpendicular strokes of the Chi- 
nese character answering to the same word. That group 
of letters might also be called ideographic, when, in fact, it 
is but the sign of a spoken word. 

Man spoke before he wrote, and languages were fixed 
before any system of writing was invented. Before the 
invention of their characters, the Chinese communicated 
by means of knotted cords, like the Quipos of the Peruvians.* 
They might be yet in a savage state when they invented 
their writing, but nevertheless they spoke and understood 
each other. Their ideas, then, had received an external 
shape, the impression of which was made through the sense 
of hearing, and therefore they were not driven, like those 
born deaf and dumb, to give them an original form, derived 
only from their sensations. Where a solitary language ex- 
ists, be it ocular or auricular, ideas present themselves to the 
mind clothed in the forms that that language has given 
them. The deaf and dumb man, before he has learned to 
read, thinks in the visible signs by means of which he com- 
municates with his fellows : when, by the art of De l'Epee 
and his followers, he has learned to understand some writ- 
ten language, he thinks in the groups of letters or charac- 
ters the meaning of which he knows, and which memory 
presents to his recollection through the mental eye. With- 
out these helps his ideas would be vague and confused, 
having nothing on which to fix themselves ; and they would 
be reduced to the feeling of present sensations and the re- 
collections of the past. We, who are possessed of the art 
of writing, do not think in groups of alphabetical characters, 
but in combinations of spoken words, because we have 
learned the words before the figures, and the impression 
that they have made is more deeply fixed in our minds. 
Thus it must have been with the Chinese, when they invent- 

* Morrison, Chinese Diet, in order of* radicals, Introd. p. 1. 
4 



26 

ed their art of writing; they thought in words, and their 
ideas had no shapes but those that the words had given 
them. 

That the Chinese alphabet is ingenious, I am by no means 
prepared to deny ; my object is only to show, that it was 
made to represent the significant syllables which constitute 
the language and recall them to the mind, and through them 
the ideas which they were intended to awaken ; but that it 
is not, as enthusiasts have pretended, a language of ideas, 
abstracted from and unconnected with any sounds or audible 
signs. I shall show presently how the Chinese came to this 
ingenious method to peindre la parole, as the French poet 
elegantly expresses it, and by that means to parler aux 
yeux. I shall compare this invention with analogous ones 
of other nations, and endeavour to point out some advan- 
tages which philology may derive from the comparison. 
But I must at present pursue my argument. 

The Chinese characters, ingenious as they are, paint the 
words, and when read, are read in the words which they 
represent, and in no others. It is true, that etymologically, 
or, if you will permit me to coin the word, etymograpfdcally 
considered, they may recall not only the compound idea 
which each word represents, but some of the accessary 
ideas which enter into its composition ; as, for instance, if 
the characters that form the group which represents the 
word clock or watch, should be formed by the junction of the 
two characters time and piece, and thus might be read time- 
piece. But in reading, the Chinese, any more than we, do 
not think of etymology. Whether we say a time piece or a 
clock, the idea presented to the mind is the same ; and in the 
first case, we do not think separately of time and of piece, 
but of the machine which the words signify. When we say 
a square, we do not always think of a quadrangular figure, 
but the word represents to us, according to the context of 
the sentence where it is placed, either an open space of 



27 

ground, or one of the divisions of our city, or a rectangular 
instrument employed in certain mechanical operations: 
and, vice versa, when that instrument is exhibited to us it is 
the word " square" as applied to it, and not the idea of a 
right angle, that presents itself to our mind. When we say 
hand maid, we think of a female servant, not of the part of 
the body called the hand. When we say Bridewell, we 
neither think of a bride nor of a well, much less of St. 
Bridget or St. Bride, after whom the place was denomi- 
nated; we think only of a house of detention. When wc 
say a hogshead, (meaning a cask to contain liquor,) we do 
not think of the animal called hog, nor of any part of his 
body. When we speak of the hands of a ship, we think of 
the men, not of their hands. It is the same with the Chi- 
nese. The word she or chi, which signifies time, is repre- 
sented in writing by a group of three characters, which 
severally signify the sun, the earth, and a measure ; as who 
should say, "the sun measuring the earth," or in plainer 
language, " the revolutions of the sun round the earth ;" a 
very just and ingenious metaphor. But, though these three 
characters separately represent the several words affixed to 
each, and through them the ideas which those words con- 
tain; when grouped together they only bring to mind the 
word she, and the abstract idea of time.* 

But it will perhaps be said, that those characters are 
paintings, that they present to the eye directly or metapho- 
rically, the figures of visible objects, and that their impres- 
sion is stronger upon the mind, than that of spoken words. 
Segnius irritant, &c. Horace may be quoted here to ad- 
vantage. But the fact is otherwise. It is true, that in the 

* However complicated any character may appear, still the compound, 
though it embrace six or seven characters, like compounds in Greek and 
Sungskrit, expresses only one idea, and still remains an adjective, a sub- 
stantive, a verb, &.c, as capable of union with other characters, as the 
simplest character in the language. M.irshm. Clavis Sinica, p. 4. 



28 

origin of Chinese writing, the painting of natural objects 
was, to a certain extent, adopted as its medium ; thus the 
sun was represented by a circular figure, the moon by that 
of a crescent, &c; but since the adoption of the square 
characters, those images have vanished, and the Chinese 
writing exhibits at present, to the eye only arbitrary signs, 
which method has saved from confusion, as will be hereafter 
explained. A single glance at a Chinese dictionary will 
convince the reader that the characters, as at present 
formed, are no representation to the eye of natural objects; 
as to moral sensations, it is well known that they cannot be 
painted. The whole system, therefore, consists in represent- 
ing award, sometimes by a single character, which also serves 
as an element wherewith to form others, but most frequently 
by a combination of those signs, recalling two, three, or more 
words, which together, as the significant syllables in our 
compounds, bring to mind the word to be represented. The 
knowledge of these combinations is in China a science, an- 
alogous to what in our own language is called etymology. 
The knowledge and the history of these combinations is the 
principal study of the Chinese philologists. They love to 
trace the origin of their characters, principally of those that 
are obsolete and no longer in use ; to follow and describe 
their successive variations and their different forms. They 
have an immense number of what I would call etymological 
dictionaries, in the study of which they spend many years. 
That, and the knowledge of the books of Confucius and other 
moralists, is the sum of the learning of a Chinese savant, and 
what entitles him to admission to the highest offices in the 
empire. 

Of this learning, as it may be supposed, they are exces- 
sively proud ; they consider a system of writing, which has 
cost them so much pains to investigate and trace to its ori- 
ginal sources, as the most admirable invention of man; they 
attribute to it a divine, or what to them is the same, an impe- 



29 

rial origin ; they consider it as the basis of the language, 
or rather as the language itself, to which words are only ac- 
cessary and made for the use of the vulgar ; they consider 
signs which represent only words, as representing ideas, 
and they believe their writing to be what we call ideogra- 
phic. No doubt they believe it to be so ; their long and 
profound studies have left impressions on their minds, which, 
with national pride, are the source of those illusions, which 
nothing can eradicate. To form an idea of them, we need 
only hear them speak. "The Chinese," say they, "lay the 
stress on the characters, not on the sounds. The people of 
Fan (their Tartar neighbours who have syllabic alphabets) 
prefer sounds, and what they obtain enters hy the ear ; the 
Chinese prefer beautiful characters, and what they obtain 
enters by the eye."* 

It is no wonder, therefore, that those Europeans who 
first studied their language, participated in their illusions, 
and communicated them to others. M. Remusat, in the 
first flight of his enthusiasm, thus exclaims: " It is impos- 
sible," says he, " to express in any language, the energy of 
those picturesque characters, which present to the eye, 
instead of barren conventional signs of pronunciation, the 
objects themselves, figured by all that is essential in them, 
so that it would require many sentences, to exhaust the sig- 
nification of a single word."f 

I acknowledge I cannot perceive those picturesque beau- 
ties, and that I am rather inclined to compare them to 
those of Father Castel's ocular harpsichord. But it may 

• Morris. Diet. Introd. p. vii. 

f lime semble, en effet, impossible de rendre dans aucune langue, l'en- 
ergie de ces caracteres pittoresques, qui presentent a 1'oeil, au lieu de 
signes steriles et conventionnels de prononciation, les objets eux memes, 
exprimes et figures par tout ce qu'ils ont d'essentiel, tenement qu'il fau- 
drait plusieurs phrases, pour epuiser la signification d'un seul mot. Essai 
sur la langue et la litter. Chin. p. 11. 



30 

be owing to my ignorance of the Chinese language. I am 
persuaded that those beauties exist in the minds of Chinese 
scholars ; such is the force of imagination and of the as- 
sociations that it brings forth, after the long study and con- 
templation of a favourite object. I shall, therefore, leave 
the sinologists in the enjoyment of it, and content myself 
with endeavouring to prove that the Chinese writing is not, 
as it is called, ideographic, and that it does not represent 
ideas, but syllables and words, all of which come within 
the general denomination of sounds, and therefore, that it 
belongs to that class of graphic systems, to which philolo- 
gists have given the name of phonetic, though the sounds 
which its characters represent are not, with very few ex- 
ceptions, the primary elements of which our alphabets are 
composed.* 

The ancients called the simple sounds of which human 
language is composed, elementa, in Greek roi^u'a, and the 
letters which represent them they called literce and ypwa^- 
Their writers, however, by a kind of metonymy, frequently 
employed one of those expressions for the other, and at last 
used them indifferently. In our modern languages, we 
hardly ever apply the word sound to the elements of speech, 
we almost always designate them by the word letters. Thus 
we say that a Delaware Indian cannot pronounce the letter 
F, meaning the sound which that letter represents. This 
confusion of language produces a confusion of ideas, and 
our word alphabet, formed of the names of two elementary 
sounds, represented to the eye by the signs A and B, adds 
to its effect on the mind. Although we know that there are 
systems of writing in India, the characters of which repre- 
sent syllables,] and though we call the series of those cha- 

• There are a few Chinese words which consist of one single vowel 
sound. 

+ The Japanese have an alphabet of 47 syllables, which they call I-ro- 
fa, from the names of the three first letters, which, as our A, B, C, are 



31 

racters a syllabic alphabet, yet, when we use that word ab- 
stractedly, those characters are hardly ever present to our 
minds, and we only think of alphabets of elementary sounds, 
like our own, much less do we think of any sounds consist- 
ing of more than one syllable. Hence it follows, that when 
in the Chinese characters or Egyptian hieroglyphics, we 
look for the signs that we ca\\ phonetic, we are disappointed 
unless we find such as represent the most simple elements 
of speech. 

I say the most simple, because I do not believe that what 
may be properly called the elements of language, consists only 
of the sounds separately represented by the signs which we 
call letters. The word element is relative, and is susceptible of 
various significations. In one sense, it means all the parts 
of which a thing is composed, which parts may be resolved 
into more minute elements, until analysis can go no farther. 
Then not only what we call letters, but syllables, words and 
even sentences, are to be included among the elements of 
speech; and the most minute are called the Jirst elements, 
prima elementa, which name has been applied to letters 
by ancient writers.* Les premiers elemens is a familiar 
expression in the French language, which may be applied 
to any subject.f In our language, the word elements is also 
a generic term. We say the elements of a science, not re- 
stricting the word to the first elements. 

In this sense, I have no doubt, Clement of Alexandria 
used these words in the celebrated passage of the fifth 

no others than the sounds of the syllables which they represent. Gram. 
Japon. du P. Rodriguez. Paris, 1825. 

* An Philippus, Macedonum rex, Alexandro, filio suo, prima litterarum 
elementa tradi ab Aristotele voluisset. — Quintil. Inst. Orat. 1. 1. c. 1. 
Ut pueris olim dant crustula blandi 
Doctores, elementa velint ut discere prima. 

Hor. I. 1. Sat. 1. 
f Diet, de l'Acad. 



32 

chapter of his Stromata, which has occasioned so much 
discussion among the learned. In his description of the 
hieroglyphic characters of the Egyptians, he says there 
are two among them that he calls kyriological, which 
present objects or ideas to the mind, the one by an imita- 
tion or picture of the object, (*ara lupqow) the other by 
means of the first elements ($«* t^v n^t^v goixtlw) by which, 
as the words are applied to a system of writing, he must 
be understood to have meant the first or simplest elements 
of speech, or in other words, the letters of the alphabet. 
The discoveries of Young and Champollion, have proved be- 
yond the possibility of doubt, that the Egyptian hiero- 
glyphs were employed in that manner, and in that case 
they are called phonetic, that is to say representing sounds. 

The celebrated Hellenist, M. Letronne, consulted by his 
friend Champollion, as to the precise meaning of the words 
ta, tfpwfa s'o^ft'a, interpreted them exactly as I have done.* 
Afterwards, however, he doubted the correctness of this 
interpretation and attempted others, in which, in my opin- 
ion, he was not so successful.t Men of eminent talents are 
too apt to be dissatisfied with themselves, and to find faults 
in their works, which others cannot perceive, and which 
do not exist in reality. 

In making these observations, I have not meant to draw 
your attention to the Egyptian hieroglyphics, of which I 
shall speak more at large in another part of this letter. My 
object has been to show how vague are the ideas generally 
entertained as to what constitutes the elements of speech, 
by which I understand all its constituent parts without ex- 
ception. Sentences are elements in relation to discourse, 
words to sentences, syllables to words, and simple sounds 
or letters are either syllables or the elements of syllables, 

* Champol. Precis, 1st Edit. p. 329. 

f See the second edition of the same work. 



33 

These are the elements of speech; and writing, I believe, 
may be so contrived as to represent all or any of them. 

When, towards the close of the revolutionary war, I held 
the office of under Secretary in the Department of State, 
then called the Department for Foreign Affairs, having 
been successful in deciphering an intercepted letter written 
in cipher by Gov. Haldimand of Quebec, to Sir Guy 
Carleton, at New York, I was desired to devise a new 
cipher for the use of our diplomatic correspondence. I did 
so, and made the cipher on the principles that I have above 
explained. It was extremely simple, and yet it abounded 
in combinations. Every word might be written either 
entire, by a single sign, or each syllable and each letter 
might be represented by a modification of that sign. 
When I say every word, I mean about one thousand, as 
it would have been impossible to insert all the words 
in the Dictionary. There were also signs for whole sen- 
tences, such as the formula "By the United States in Con- 
gress assembled," and others that occurred most frequently 
in our correspondence. The cipher was adopted ; it was 
found easy in practice, and was long in use ; whether it is 
so at present, I cannot tell. 

I hope you will not ascribe to vanity my having men- 
tioned this circumstance of my early life. There is no 
great merit in inventing a diplomatic cipher. Since the 
time I am speaking of, the art has been carried to its high- 
est degree of perfection, and it is the fault of cabinets, 
if their letters are deciphered. But I meant to show 
by this example, that words and even sentences may be 
represented by written signs, as well as syllables and ele- 
mentary sounds, and that they are all elements of that ad- 
mirable gift, whether mediate or immediate, of the divinity 
called language, by which man is distinguished from the 
brute creation. When, therefore, we are considering a 
graphic system, the principles of which are unknown to us, 
5 



34 

we should take into view all those elements and try to find 
out which of them the signs are intended to represent or 
recall to the mind. The pictures of objects, and graphic 
symbols and metaphors, can serve but a very limited pur- 
pose, unless connected with speech ; and if they represent 
ideas, it can only be in the forms in which language, spoken 
language, has clothed them. 

It is for not attending to this comprehensive meaning of 
the word sound, as applied to language, and confining it 
exclusively to its primary elements, or at most to insignifi- 
cant syllables, that sinologists have been led to conclude 
that the Chinese writing is an ocular language, independent 
of speech, representing ideas, and addressed wholly to the 
eye. Dr. Marshman, in his otherwise excellent Grammar 
of the Chinese language, advances this proposition in the 
broadest terms. " The sound of no character," says he, 
" is inherent therein : it may be totally changed without 
affecting the meaning of the character. Thus to the cha- 
racter yin, a man, might be affixed tao or lee, or any other 
name, and the character would still convey the same idea, 
because the written language speaks wholly to the eye." And 
in proof of his assertion, he adds: " Some characters have 
two names widely different from each other."* 

But the Chinese characters representing words, do not 
speak more exclusively to the eye, than our letters or 
groups of letters representing elementary sounds. They 
both are addressed through the eye to the mental ear. And 
if some of them represent more than one word or one 
sound, it is an anomaly from which no general principle is 
to be deduced. There are anomalies in grammar, in pro- 
nunciation, in orthography, in every existing language, 
whatever may be the nature of its graphic system. In our 
own idiom, letters and groups of letters often represent dif- 

* Clavis Sinica, p. 81. 



ferent sounds. The group ough is pronounced differently in 
the words ought, bough, dough, through and enough, the sound 
of the letter a is different in grace, in bad, and in all; and of 
course the same thing may happen with the Chinese cha- 
racters. And if this fact proves any thing, it is rather in 
opposition to Dr. Marshman's principle, than in favour of 
it ; for it proves that the characters thus varying their pro- 
nunciation may represent different words, precisely as our 
letters represent different elementary sounds. 

If the Chinese writing were, as it is called, ideographic, 
or, as it is asserted to be, a complete ocular language, inde- 
pendent of the oral mode of communication and uncon- 
nected with it, it would have its poetry and its prose, and a 
style peculiar to itself. It would be translated, not read. 
But how does the fact stand ? The poetry of the Chinese is 
addressed to the ear. It is measured, and has even recourse 
for its harmony to the jingle of rhyme.* How could a poem 
be read if every character did not represent a single word, 
and if those characters and the words which they are in- 
tended to express were not placed in the same order of suc- 
cession? And as to prose. There are some who believe 
that there are beauties in the selection and in the arrange- 
ment of the characters in the formation of a period. As to 
the selection ; if the character from among which one is 
selected represent or recall the same word, which they must 
necessarily do, I have shown that their etymography can 
have no effect upon the mind of the reader, which seizes 
upon the word, and through it receives the idea. As to a 
different arrangement of signs representing different words, 
as the syntax of the Chinese language depends chiefly on 
their juxtaposition, it would create a cacophony in reading 
that would, to the hearer, make the sense of the characters 



* Morrison, Chinese Grammar, 273. Remusat, Grammaire Chinoise, 
p. 171. 



30 

perfect nonsense. It is impossible, therefore, to accede to 
such a supposition ; the writing must servilely follow the 
words spoken, otherwise there will be two different lan- 
guages, and one must be translated into the other. But this 
is not pretended. Besides, prose as well as poetry is writ- 
ten for the ear and not for the eye. There is a harmony of 
sounds which every writer is bound to attend to, and to 
attempt to combine it with a supposed harmony of signs, 
would be a task, in my opinion, beyond the power of talent 
and of genius, however exalted, to compass. 

From all that I have said, I conclude that the Chinese 
system of writing is improperly called ideographic ; it is a 
syllabic and lexigraphic alphabet. It is syllabic, because 
every character represents a syllable : it is lexigraphic, be- 
cause every syllable is a significant word. I do not know 
of any other denomination that can be properly applied to 
it, and this appears to me to be sufficiently descriptive. I 
submit it, however, to the judgment of those who are better 
acquainted with the subject. 



SECTION III. 



I perceive that this letter is already drawn to a great 
length, and yet I am sensible that my ideas are too much 
condensed, and need greater development, particularly in 
the way of examples and illustrations. It will not mend the 
matter when I tell you that I have not yet done with the 
Chinese language and its graphic system ; I wish to present 
them in a more general and more enlarged point of view, 
and to touch on the relation that they bear to other analogous 
idioms. How far that will lead me, it is impossible to tell. 



37 

Brevity and clearness are difficult to be reconciled. I shall 
do my best, however, to compass that object, and in the 
meanwhile I entreat your further indulgence. 

All the languages that exist upon earth are divisible into 
four component parts : 

1. Sentences or propositions. 

2. Words and their various forms. 

3. Syllables. 

4. Elementary sounds, which we generally designate by 
the name of letters, and which the ancient grammarians 
called, as I have remarked above, elementa or prima ele- 
menta; otoix^ or ta cspcito atoixtia. 

When, at the confusion of tongues,* the primitive lan- 
guage was forgotten and entirely obliterated from the minds 
of men, and they were left to their own resources to invent 
new ones, the descendants of Noah had a difficult task to 
perform, as at the same time they were dispersed through 
the different parts of the world. They could not, therefore, 
agree upon an uniform system, and it is probable that every 
family had its own. They proceeded separately to the for- 
mation of their idioms. 

The task they had to perform was, to express their ideas 
in words and sentences, for which, their materials were 
syllables and elementary sounds. But there were no phi- 
lologists among them, and they had not analysis for their 
guide. Anxious to make themselves understood, some of 

* The poet Dante will have it that the primitive language was entirely 
lost, even before the attempt to erect the Tower of Babel, which pro- 
duced the confusion of tongues. In his vision of Paradise, he relates a 
conversation between him and the father of mankind, in which, to the 
question what language he spoke in Paradise, Adam answers him as fol- 
lows: 

La lingua ch' io parlai fu tutta spenta, 

Innanzi che all' ovra inconsumable 

Fosse la gente di Nembrotte attenta. 

Pabadiso, Canto xxvi. 



38 

them attempted to express the sense of a whole proposition 
by a single word. Some ancestor of the Delaware Indians, 
being invited by his neighbour to partake of some food, said, 
Nschingiwipoma, and made him understand by signs that it 
meant " I do not like to eat with you." To his mistress he 
said, Kdahoatel, and that was to say, I love you; to which 
she doubtingly answered, Mattakdahoalmi, you do not love 
me. Thus, by endeavouring to say a great deal at once, a 
polysynthetic language was formed, which, in the course of 
time, was regularized by method ; for without some method 
in language, it would be impossible for men to understand 
each other. 

In some other country, say in China, or in the country of 
the Othomi Indians, whether from the difficulty of articu- 
lating sounds, or from some other cause, men stuck to sylla- 
bles, and conveyed their ideas successively, affixing to each 
a simple or compound articulation ; that is to say, a simple 
elementary vocal sound, or a syllable. Thus were formed 
monosyllabic languages. 

Between these two opposite systems many others arose, 
participating more or less of the one or of the other. Then, 
for the sake of method, grammatical forms were invented, 
such as the juxtaposition of words to determine their sense; 
particles prefixed, suffixed, or introduced into the middle of 
a word, as in the Mexican and its cognate languages ; in- 
flexions of various kinds, accents, and tones, and all the 
multitude of audible signs of discrimination between words, 
which distinguishes from each other the numerous languages 
existing on the face of the earth. 

Whatever form or system was adopted in the first forma- 
tion of a language, was, by the spirit of imitation natural to 
man, continued, with occasional modifications, until the 
idiom attained its highest degree of perfection. Nations 
frequently adopted words from their neighbours; rarely 
grammatical forms. Hence we see, that the Chinese has 



39 

remained monosyllabic during the space of four thousand 
years; while the polysyllabic Sanscrit, in the various dia- 
lects derived from it, retains its primitive forms to a greater 
or less degree, but does not deviate into the monosyllabic 
system. There is a tendency in languages to preserve their 
original structure, which cannot escape the eye of the phi- 
lological observer. 

But men were not satisfied with communicating with each 
other by word of mouth. As they advanced in civilization, 
they felt the want of an ocular system to interchange their 
sentiments with the absent, to impart to distant friends the 
knowledge of facts, and preserve the memory of them to 
their posterity. Even savage nations felt the want of such 
a mode of intercourse, to inform their friends of their war- 
like and hunting movements, and to warn them against 
those of their enemies. Self-preservation was the first cause 
that produced this feeling. 

The first mode of efTecting their object that presented itself 
to their minds was painting; and the first ocular communi- 
cation between men, next to audible and visible signs be- 
tween persons present, was the representation of natural 
objects by rude figures, to which a particular sense by tra- 
dition was affixed, or the meaning of which was easily 
penetrated by their keen, unsophisticated, and I might say, 
virgin minds. Every one knows the figures which our 
northern Indians carve or paint on the bark of trees, to give 
notice to their friends of facts important for them to know. 
" But this," says Champollion, " and even painting by the best 
artists, does not deserve the name of writing. It is incapable 
of expressing the most simple proposition ; even the crayons 
of Raphael, coloured by Rubens, will always leave us in 
ignorance of the names of the personages, of the time, and 
the duration of the action, and will never give to any indi- 
vidual, except the painter himself, a complete idea of the 
fact ; painting representing only an instantaneous mode of 



40 

being, which always requires in the spectators some preli- 
minary notions."* 

The art of painting is unconnected with oral language. 
It is evident, that without such a connexion it cannot serve 
the purpose of writing to any considerable extent. How 
far the Mexicans, who, being more civilized, have made a 
more extensive use of pictures than our northern Indians, 
have contrived to establish such a connexion, if such should 
exist, it is impossible for us to know, in the present state of 
the information that we possess upon the subject. On in- 
spection, it would seem that the use they made of those 
paintings was very limited; and that however tradition 
might have come in aid of them, they could hardly have 
served the purposes of writing, which is to be read, and not 
to be guessed at. Tradition, indeed, is absolutely necessary 
to make pictures intelligible ; among us they generally re- 
present historical scenes, scenes taken from ancient mytho- 
logy or the sacred records of our religion, with all which 
we are well acquainted ; but how can tradition supply the 
intelligence of facts unknown, and which have never been 
heard of? Certain conventional signs may supply this de- 
fect, but always imperfectly, unless connected with sounds; 
and when that connexion has taken place, the system may 
be called writing, and not before. 

Those signs, at first view, (with very few exceptions,) do 
not appear to exist in the Mexican paintings. Yet if we 
believe the writers who have treated of this subject, there 
was much more in them than meets the unexperienced eye. 
It may not be out of place to put here together the facts 
asserted by those writers, in a connected point of view. 

" The Mexicans," says Baron Humboldt, " had annals 
which went back to the sixth century of the Christian era. 

* Precis du Syst. Hier. 2d Ed. p. 328. When this work is quoted gener- 
ally, it is always with reference to the second edition. 



41 

There were found the epochs of migrations, the names of the 
chiefs issued from the illustrious family of Citin, who con- 
ducted the northern tribes to the plains of Anahuac. The 
foundation of Tenochtitlan falls into the heroic times, and 
it is only since the twelfth century that the Aztecan annals, 
like those of the Chinese and Tibetans, relate almost without 
interruption the secular feasts, the genealogies of kings, the 
tributes imposed on the vanquished, the foundations of towns, 
the celestial phenomena, and even the most minute events 
which had an influence on the condition of the rising socie- 
ties."* 

" We know by our books" said the Emperor Montezuma 
to Cortez, " that I, and all those who inhabit this country, 
are not its original inhabitants, but that we are foreigners, 
who came from a great distance. We also know, that the 
chief who brought our ancestors hither, went back for some 
time to his own country ; and that on his return, he found 
those whom he had left married to native women, and hav- 
ing a numerous posterity. They had built towns, and would 
no longer obey their former master; so that he left them, 
and returned home alone." This fact is related by Baron 
Humboldt, who took it from the letters of Fernando 
Cortez.f 

Besides these relations of historical facts, it is said that 
they had geographical maps; J reports or statements of tri- 
butes paid to their sovereign by the conquered nations ;§ 
descriptions of the manners, usages and customs of their 
country ;|| calendars, genealogies ;1F a code of laws ;** and 
lastly, pleadings or memorials for courts of justice, which 
M. de Humboldt calls pieces de proces, of one of which he 

* Vue des Cordillieres, vol. i. p. 36. Purchas Pibg. vol. iii. 
f Humb. Ibid. p. 113. * Ibid. p. 135. 

§ Purchas, vol. iii. || Ibid. 

? Humb. "Vue des Cord. vol. i. p. 169. 
** Ibid. 171. 
6 



42 

gives a fac simile, handsomely engraved and coloured.* He 
says that those documents were, long after the conquest, ex- 
hibited in the Spanish tribunals; and that it was thought 
indispensable that there should be advocates who could read 
them.t 

We learn from the same authority, that the Mexicans had 
religious books; but whether ritual, liturgical, historical, or 
merely devotional, is not ascertained. The manuscript pre- 
served in the Library of the Vatican, and on that account 
called Codex Vaticanus, and that kept at Velletri, are be- 
lieved by Zoega, Fabrega, and other learned archaeologists, 
to be what they call a ritual almanac, combining the indi- 
cation or descriptions of religious rites, with astronomical 
computations showing when they are to be performed/}; 
Another book is mentioned by the same learned author, 
(which, however is now lost,) called the divine book,§ which 
was written so early as the year 660 of the Christian era. 
It is said to have contained the Mexican cosmogony, their 
mythology and system of morality; the whole in regular 
chronological order.|| It is difficult to conceive how all 
these things could have been transmitted from generation 
to generation by means of mere paintings, or signs expres- 
sive only of ideas. 

It is said, moreover, that the Mexican books were written 
or painted on durable and portable materials. Those were, 
cotton stuffs prepared for that purpose,!! tanned deer skins, 
or paper fabricated with the leaves of the maguey, (Agave 
Americana.)** " They supplied pretty well, (assez bie?i,)" 
says M. de Humboldt, " the want of books, manuscripts, and 

* Humb. Vue des Cord. vol. i. p. 160. 
f Ibid. 171. * Ibid. p. 234. 

§ Teaomoxtli. .Smoxtli, in Mexican, means a book. 
|| Humb. Vue des Cord. vol. i. p. 249. 

U Lienzos de algodon, que tenian prevenidos y emprimados para este 
ministerio. Anton, de Solis, Conquista de Mexico, 1. 2. 
** Humb. Vue des Cord. vol. i. p. 194-5. 



43 

alphabetical characters. In the time of Montezuma, thou- 
sands of persons were employed in composing or copying 
pictures;* in short, those paintings, folded and arranged in 
a certain manner, were preserved in the form of books, the 
tout ensemble of which offered the most perfect resemblance 
(la plus parfaite ressemblance) to our bound volumes."! 

We have but little information as to the system on 
which the Mexicans proceeded in the application of those 
paintings to the purposes of writing. Some light, though 
very faint, is however thrown upon the subject by different 
writers. " Those things," says Acosta, "which had a visible 
form or figure, were directly represented by their images ; 
and those that had none, were represented by characters 
signifying them; and by that means they figured and wrote 
all that they pleased."J 

" We know beyond a doubt," says again the learned 
Humboldt, " that besides their pictures of visible objects, 
the Mexicans had simple hieroglyphics, by means of which 
they recalled the ideas of divers objects that are not sus- 
ceptible of being painted. Such are the air, fire, water, 
day, night, midnight, speech, motion. They had also nu- 
meric signs for the days and months of the solar year. We 
even find among them traces (des vestiges) of those hiero- 
glyphics which are called phonetic, and which show a rela- 
tion (annoncent des rapports) not with the thing, but with 
the spolen language. They expressed by that means the 
names of towns, and those of their sovereigns, which in 
general were significant."^ 

According to Antonio de Solis, they went even beyond 
that; and their pictures, like those of the Egyptians, began 
to assume the form of writing. " They also had," says 

* Humb. Vue des Cord. vol. i. p. 194-5. 
f Ibid. 190, 196. 

* Hist, de Indias, 1. 8. 

§ Humb. Vue des Cord. vol. i. p. 190. 



44 

this historian, " signs of explication ; for the painters 
employed by Teutile, to give to Montezuma a full know- 
ledge of what concerned the Spaniards, added to their pic- 
tures in various places certain characters, which, to appear- 
ance, were designed to explain the meaning of what was 
painted."* 

And lastly; among the fac similes of Mexican paintings, 
given by Baron Humboldt in his Vue des Cordillieres,f there 
is one, copied from a manuscript in the Royal Library of 
Dresden, the figures of which are of a peculiar character, 
which makes the learned author hesitate to say whether 
they are hieroglyphics or a kind of cursory writing, (des 
caracteres cursifs.)% It is much to be regretted that the 
Spanish priests destroyed so many of those precious manu- 
scripts. Why should religion be an enemy to science? 

It is to be added, that, like the Egyptians, the Mexicans 
employed colours in their paintings; but whether for the 
mere purpose of ornament, or as a part of their graphic 
system, is, I believe, yet unknown. 

This is, I think, all that is known with respect to the 
Mexican paintings, unless some late discovery has been 
made that throws more light upon the subject. If we are 
to believe all that is said above ; if neither the conquerors 
nor the conquered have exaggerated facts ; if it be true that 
thousands of persons were employed in composing or in 
multiplying copies of those pictures, and that they served as 
a regular mode of written communication; if, besides the 
figures and symbols, they had explanatory signs to connect 
the discourse, (which, however, I have not been able to dis- 
cover in the pictures that I have seen,) their system was not 
very different from that of the Egyptian hieroglyphics, and 



* Iban poniendo a trechos, alg-anos caracteres, con que, al parecer, ex- 
plicaban y daban significacion a lo pintado. Conq. de Mex. 1. 2. 
t Vol. ii. p. 268. * Ibid. p. 271. 



45 



it must necessarily have been connected, by tradition or 
otherwise, with the spoken language. Its polysynthetic 
forms, however, are a great di.Rculty in the way of this 
hypothesis. I am, nevertheless, inclined to believe in its 
possibility ; and I would recommend to those who may de- 
vote themselves to the study of the Mexican paintings, to 
found their investigation on a full knowledge of the words 
and structure of the Mexican language. 



SECTION IV. 

If we admit the Mexican paintings to have been a system 
of writing, we must also acknowledge, as I have said be- 
fore, that it bears no small resemblance to the hieroglyphs 
of ancient Egypt. It does not appear, however, that the 
Mexicans made use, like the Egyptians, of their painted 
figures to represent elementary sounds. If their proper 
names of persons and places were, as is said, significant, 
they had little use for this manner of writing, which a more 
extended intercourse with other nations would have made 
necessary, nay, indispensable to them. They were, to all 
appearance, in a state of transition between the rude paint- 
ings of the savages, and the more perfect system of the 
Egyptians. Had they been left to themselves, they would 
in time have improved that which they possessed, as the 
Egyptians and Chinese have done. A learned Mexican,* 
well acquainted with that idiom, and who resides in the city 
of Montezuma, is at present employed in investigating this 

* Don Manuel Naxera, author of the Dissertation on the Othomi Lan- 
guage, published in the fifth volume of the new series of our Transac- 
tions. 



46 

subject. He thinks he has already discovered the distinc- 
tive signs between substantives and verbs. Success to his 
labours ! 

The graphic system of the Egyptians, notwithstanding 
the important discoveries of Young, Champollion, Salt, and 
other learned men, is yet involved in much obscurity. Its 
connexion with the spoken language is only partially de- 
veloped. But I have no doubt that it exists, and that the 
hieroglyphic figures do not represent abstract ideas, but the 
words of the oral idiom. This is, I know, reasoning a pri- 
ori; but a priori reasoning is sometimes admissible. It is 
so, when the adverse proposition to that which is maintained 
is not only improbable, but may be said to be impossible. 
Now I cannot conceive the possibility of the existence of 
what is called an ideographic system of writing; and that 
such was not that of the Egyptians, any more than that of 
the Chinese, I hope I shall be able to demonstrate. 

Every system of writing, deserving the name, is made to 
be read ; not mentally alone, but viva voce, and by all in the 
same words, otherwise it cannot serve the purpose for which 
it was intended. I would ask how, in a country civilized 
as Egypt is acknowledged to have been, a herald could 
have proclaimed an edict of the sovereign, if it had been 
written in ideographic characters, which every one might 
have interpreted as he pleased, according to the greater or 
lesser knowledge that he possessed of the strength and value 
of words in the spoken language 1 Heralds or public criers 
are not, in general, excellent grammarians. How could a 
contract between individuals have been drawn up by the 
most experienced scribe, with the precision required to make 
its clauses and stipulations sufficiently clear and void of 
ambiguity? Oral language itself is ambiguous enough; 
there is no idiom that expresses the ideas of men with per- 
fect precision. The greatest number of the questions which 
arise in the law-suits that are brought into our courts of 



47 

justice, have their source in the imperfection of language, 
and the different interpretations that are put upon words. 
Is it to be supposed, that writing would have been so con- 
trived as to increase that ambiguity ? The moment you 
admit any system of writing to be a language, and not the 
representation of a language, you introduce two languages 
into the nation that makes use of it, the most perfect of 
which is the most fugitive, because its errors may be in- 
stantly corrected ; whereas the other is permanent, and if 
two parties are interested in its construction, and happen to 
differ about what it expresses, it can no more be altered 
than a man's will after his death, and remains for ever a 
source of contention. It appears to me impossible to believe 
that a civilized nation ever adopted such a system, to any 
considerable extent. 

Again. M. Champollion tells us, that the priests of Egypt 
wrote in hieroglyphics (mind, he does not say in the demotic, 
or epistolographic character,) the sacred rituals, those re- 
lating to funerals, treatises on religion and the sciences, 
hymns in honour of their gods, or the praises of their kings, 
while all the classes of the nation used the demotic charac- 
ter in matters relating to their private affairs.* M. Cham- 
pollion does not quote any authority for these facts ; but he 
surely would not have asserted them without some sufficient 
warrant. 

Here, then, we have liturgies, religious treatises, nay 
hymns, which we may reasonably believe to have been 
poetical,t written in an ocular language of abstract ideas ! 

* Les pretres ecrivaient en caracteres hieratiques, les rituels sacres, les 
rituels funeraires, des traites sur la religion et sur les sciences, des hymnes, 
a la louange des dieux ou les louanges des rois, et toutes les classes de 
la nation employaient l'ecriture demotique a leur correspondance privee 
et a la redaction des actes publics et prives qui reg-laient les interets des 
families. Precis, p. 423-24. 

f I have read somewhere, that the ancient Egyptians had no poetry, be- 
cause none has been found among- the papyri that have been hitherto dis- 



48 

I have already shown, with respect to the Chinese, what 
cacophony would ensue in attempting to execute such poeti- 
cal melodies. Only represent to yourself our hymn books 
and metrical psalms to be written ideographically, and to be 
sung ad libitum, like musical cadenzas, or variations on a 
given theme. A congregation of poets would be at a loss 
to find a harmonious reading, and the hymns could only 
be sung in a translation, which should be either learned by 
heart, or written in a different character, to connect it with 
the spoken language. It is impossible to conceive that such 
things ever existed. 

Such, however, would have been an ideographic mode of 
writing, in the sense that is generally ascribed to it. For, 
let it be understood, that it is not with the word that I find 
fault, but with its meaning. I care very little about words, 
except when they lead us into false notions ; and such has 
been the effect of the word ideographic. When writers, 
even the most enlightened, speak of the Chinese and Egyp- 
tian systems of writing, they say that they represent ideas; 
when of a particular character, that it represents such or 
such an idea ; whereas they should say such or such a word 
or part of a word. It will be said, that the view of the 
Egyptian graphic system, to which I am opposed, was that 
of the Egyptians themselves ; and Horapollo will be cited 
as an authority, to which there is no reply. But I mistrust 
the vanity of the Egyptians, as much as that of the Chinese. 

covered. This hasty mode of reasoning is too common among the learned. 
The same writer perhaps will tell us, that among all nations poetry has 
always preceded prose writings, because it happens to have been the 
case among the Greeks. But the Mohawks and Algonkins never had any 
poetry, and we know them to be very eloquent in prose. It is never safe 
to generalize from insulated facts. Nature delights in variety, and from 
that variety proceeds the pleasure that we feel in the contemplation of her 
works. But our theorists would regulate every thing by the square 
and compass, and can see perfection only in dull uniformity. 



49 

Both wished to make their system of writing appear as 
something mysterious, and as a great effort of the human 
mind; and they trusted to the credulity and indolence of 
mankind to make them believe in those absurdities. When 
Horapollo* tells us that the figure of a bee meant in their 
language a people obedient to their king, and that a vulture 
represented the abstract idea of maternity, and a bull that of 
strength combined with temperance, I cannot give my unqua- 
lified assent to these propositions, and believe ihat those signs 
might be read by every one as he pleased, provided he did 
not lose sisdit of the o-eneral idea. I believe that each cha- 
racter or sign had not merely its ideal, but its vocal repre- 
sentative, either in elementary sounds, or in syllables, or in 
words, or, perhaps, in a limited number of cases, in whole 
sentences, as we have &c. for et ccetera, and other abbrevi- 
ations of a similar kind. I believe that there was a method 
taught in the schools at Thebes, Memphis and Alexandria, 
by which every one could read the hieroglyphic as well as 
the demotic writing aloud, and in the same words, without 
the variation of a syllable. Without that there would be no 
reading, properly so called ; there would only be trans- 
lating. 

When I speak of hieroglyphics, I do not mean to include 
the anaglyphs or monumental hieroglyphs, mentioned by 
Champollion as a secret sacerdotal writing.f These might 
be more elliptical than the rest, a kind of short-hand or lapi- 
dary, and, to a certain extent, enigmatic style, which tra- 
dition enabled the priests alone to understand. There is 

* I quote this writer at second hand, from Champollion's Precis, 340. 
I have not been able to procure that work from Europe. My Hamburg 
correspondent wrote to me that no such book was to be found in the 
shops. I presume that all the copies of it are in public or private libra- 
ries, and I regret it exceedingly. 

f Precis, p. 427. 

7 



50 

nothing extraordinary in that ; and we know too little about 
it to make it a subject of discussion. It might not have been 
intended to be read aloud, but only to be understood by the 
initiated. On this subject we are left entirely to conjec- 
tures. 

It seems certain, however, that many of those inscrip- 
tions were part of the mysteries of the Egyptian religion, 
and had a recondite sense not accessible to every one. 
Those were probably the enigmas mentioned by Clement 
of Alexandria. Among them I place the celebrated one in 
the temple of Thebes, as given to us by the same writer.* A 
child, the symbol of birth; an old man that of death; a hawk 
for God ; a fish for hatred,! and a crocodile for impudence, 
all put together, signified, " Ye who are born and die," (in 
other words, " Ye mortals,") " God hates impudence."J 
It is well known that this symbolical method of expressing 
religious and moral sentences, was a part of their theologi- 
cal system, known only to the initiated. " All their theo- 
logy," says Plutarch, " contains, under enigmatical words, 
the secrets of knowledge."^ So, it would seem, there were 
enigmatical words as well as signs. Clement of Alexandria 
tells us, that those enigmas were, as to their secret and con- 
cealed meaning, similar to those of the Hebrews.|| It is to 
be observed, that the fifth book of the Stromata is dedicated 
to religious mysteries, and is intended as an apology for the 
Christians, who at that time had also their own ; for it was 
then believed that no religion could exist without mysteries 

* Stromat. V. p. 566. Sylburg's edit. Colon. 1688. 

f The priests of Egypt would not eat fish, for various reasons, mentioned 
by Plutarch, De hide et Osir. Baxter observes, that Plutarch might have 
added to those reasons, that fish is very unwholesome in hot countries. 

\ Q, yivofisvoc xai aKoywo^tvot,, ©toj fuaic 'avdi&tiav. 

§ Be hide et Osir. 

II O^uota toti E Spatotj xara yitr t v ttiapv^w rot ruv AiXvHtiuv 
awtyjuatfa. Clem. Alex. Ibid. 



51 

and secret initiations. The theological science was taught 
among the Egyptians by means of enigmatic symbols, which 
could be understood only by means of sacerdotal traditions. 
Thus Clemens* tells us, that some represented the sun by 
the figure of a crocodile, which meant, in enigmatical lan- 
guage, that the sun, in its course through the air, generated 
time ;f and this, says he, is according to one of their sacred 
histories.;}; These sacerdotal enigmas, therefore, should not 
be confounded with the Egyptian system of writing, although 
there is no doubt that it borrowed many of those symbols 
to represent words, it being most probable that the symbols 
were invented by the priests, as part of their mysteries, be- 
fore the art of writing became general, and was reduced to 
a system. But surely afterwards, books, edicts, laws, his- 
tories, contracts, and familiar correspondences, intended to 
be read and understood, could not be written in symbols 
and enigmas. The Rosetta inscription was an edict of the 
sacerdotal body, and so we must conclude that even the 
hieroglyphic part of it was so written as to be understood by 
all; otherwise, what purpose could the enigmas have an- 
swered 1 Besides, we know from Clement, that this mode 
of writing was taught in the schools. 

I do not mean to deny, that the graphic signs or charac- 
ters of the Egyptians were formed on a kind of ideographic 
system; but that was only a mnemonic contrivance, by 
which they recalled the memory of wards, through the me- 
dium of images ; and that was the only method they could 
adopt, to avoid confusion, when they had not an alphabet 
of syllables or elementary sounds. But the ideas or images 
were only their means to arrive at the vocal sounds, not 

* Clem. Alex. Ibid. 

f The sun was represented by other figures; but it seems that that of 
a crocodile was enigmatic, and to be taken only in the sense which the 
author explains. 

X ^ta f iva lipatittriv ttfT'optav. Ibid. 



52 

their end. In that limited sense, the word ideographic may 
perhaps be used, but not with the more extensive meaning 
that has been given to it. When, for instance, Mr. Salvo- 
lini, in his learned and ingenious letters to the Abbate Gaz- 
zera,* speaks, in almost every page, of Egyptian characters 
representing Videe jour and Videe ?nois, we are led to believe, 
by this mode of expression, that the words day and month 
are out of the question ; whereas it was those words, and 
those words alone, that the signs were intended to call to 
the memory, by means of signs which may perhaps, in some 
respects, be called ideographic, but never in the sense of 
their representing ideas independently of sounds; and by 
sounds, I mean the words of the oral language. 

The illustrious Champollion himself is not free from the 
prejudice I am combating. He always applies the Egyp- 
tian characters to ideas and not to words, except when 
employed as letters of an elementary alphabet. Thus, 
when Horapollo tells us, in terms sufficiently clear, that 
when the Egyptians write (the word) mother, they paint the 
figure of a vulture, which appears to me to be the same 
as saying that the vulture is the orthography of the word 
mother, M. Champollion expresses a different opinion, and 
says that he has found that the vulture is always symbolic, 
and represents the idea signified by the word mother, (Videe 
mere.) But he gives no instance of its being employed 
otherwise than to represent that word, by which alone I am 
convinced that it is to be read, and not by any of its com- 
pounds or derivatives, or by any word, other than the word 
mother, bearing any relation to the abstract idea of maternity, 
which Horapollo is reported to have said to be its meaning, 
but certainly not in the sentence quoted by M. Champollion.f 

§ Des principales expressions qui servent a la notation des dates sur 

les monuments de l'ancienne Egypte. Two pamphlets, Paris, 1832, 1833. 

y Horapollon nous apprend que pour ecrire mere, les Egyptiens peign- 

oient un vautour. Precis, p. 122. Then the vulture was the character 

employed to write the word mother, and not to represent Videe mere. 



53 

But M. Champollion does not stop here. Who will be- 
lieve that this great man saw ideographic characters even 
in the statues of the ancient Egyptians 1 When observing 
upon the imperfection of their forms, as compared with 
those of the Greek artists, he accounts for it by saying that 
those of Egypt had not in view to reproduce and perpetuate 
the beautiful forms of nature ; but that their art was dedi- 
cated to the notation of ideas, rather than to the represen- 
tation of objects. Sculpture and painting never were any 
thing in Egypt but branches of their system of writing.* It 
would be more natural to say that their writing was a branch 
of their imitative arts. Men of genius cannot be too much 
on their guard against the sallies of their imagination ; their 
ideas are greedily swallowed by the small fry of writers, 
and it is difficult always, and sometimes dangerous, to con- 
tradict them. 

The study of the writing of ancient Egypt has hitherto 
been principally directed to the elucidation of the history 
and chronology of that interesting country. To reconcile 
Manetho, Diodorus, Julius Africanus and George Syncellus 
with each ojher, and all with the Table of Abydos, and with 
historical truth, has been the great object of modern Egypt- 
ologists, and they have pursued it with remarkable success. 
But another object, not less important, claims our attention; 
I mean the advancement of general philology. It is greatly 
to be wished that this curious graphic system should be 
studied with a view to that science, and as a branch of the 
history of the human mind. 

With a view to the object that I have mentioned, it was 
natural that Egyptologists should turn their first attention 

* Cet art (la sculpture) semble ne s'etre jamais donne pour but special 
la reproduction durable des belles formes de la nature; il se consacra a 
la notation des idees plutot qu'a la representation des choses. La sculpture 
et la peinture ne furent jamas en Egypte que de veritables branches de 
Pe'criture. Lettres a M. le Due de Blacas, premiere lettre, pp. 9, 10. 



54 

to the hieroglyphic characters in monumental inscriptions, 
where they were most likely to find the names and titles of 
the successive sovereigns of Egypt, and the epochs, with 
perhaps some of the principal events of their reigns. But I 
doubt whether it is the best course to be pursued in the study 
which I have recommended. We are informed by Clement 
of Alexandria, that the Egyptians were instructed first of all 
(rtpwrov Ttdvtov) in the epistolographic character ; that is to say, 
in the popular, or, as we would call it, the running hand, 
which of course was the easiest to be acquired. From 
thence they proceeded to the hieratic, and last of all, the 
hieroglyphic character.* I am inclined to believe that the 
course of study which was the easiest for the Egyptians, 
would be so likewise for us, and therefore I venture to re- 
commend it, though not without the greatest diffidence. As 
far as I am able to learn, it seems that there is no deficiency 
of materials, as besides the enchorial inscription on the Ro- 
setta stone, with its Greek and hieroglyphic counterparts, 
numerous rolls of papyrus have been discovered in the cata- 
combs of Thebes and elsewhere, among which are bilingual 
documents in Coptic and Greek. Enough remains of the 
ancient idiom to aid us in that investigation, and I have no 
doubt that, if zealously pursued, the success that it would 
meet with would amply reward the labour bestowed upon it. 
We are informed by M. Klaproth, that Messrs. Silvestre 
de Sacy and Akerblad, in France, and Dr. Young in Eng- 
land, were once employed in the study of this style of wri- 
ting ; and he adds, that they pursued it with perseverance.^ 
No trace of their labours, however, remains, which is greatly 
to be regretted, and particularly that they suffered themselves 

* Stromat. 5. p. 555. 

f Les ecritures cursives £taient a cette epoque (about 1820) l'objet de 
travaux poursuivis avec perseverance par plusieurs savans, tels que MM. 
Silvestre de Sacy et Akerblad en France, et Dr. Young en Angleterre. 
Klaproth, Examen critique des travaux de feu M. Champollion, p. 3. 



55 

so soon to be discouraged ; for their perseverance does not 
appear to have lasted a great while. 

Dr. Seyffarth informs us, that in the Royal Library of 
Berlin there are no less than fifty-seven rolls of papyrus, 
written of course in the ancient Egyptian language and 
character, some of which are not less than thirty feet in 
length, with few exceptions closely written, so that it is dif- 
ficult to find in any other writing so many ideas and words 
brought together in so small a compass.* Some are in the 
hieroglyphic, others in the hieratic and in the enchorial 
character. However it may be, I think no one will pretend 
that those characters, not sculptured on monuments, but 
written on rolls of paper, represent abstract ideas in the 
shape of metaphors and enigmas, and not in the forms given 
to them by the articulate sounds of the spoken language. 
To work, then, noble Prussians ; sagacious, learned and in- 
defatigable Germans ! Cease to look in those writings for 
ideographic signs, which present nothing definite to the 
mind of the reader, and apply yourselves to finding out the 
connexion between the writing and the language, for such a 
connexion must and does certainly exist. Do not be fright- 
ened by the obstacles which a learned writer, indeed, but 
too intent on depreciating the labours of his great rival, 
Champollion, has placed in dread array before you.f The 
task is difficult, but success is not impossible. To work, 
then, ye Germans, and may God prosper your labours ! 

I have been led, my dear sir, much farther in this disqui- 
sition than I at first intended, and yet I am not willing to 
drop it. I must demolish entirely, if I can, the still prevailing 
notion of an universal system of writing, of ideographic 
characters presenting a complete language to the mind with- 
out the intervention of articulate sounds, nay, without any 

• Bemerkungen Uber die JEgyptischen papyrus in der K. Bibliothek 
zu Berlin, p. 1. 

t Klaproth, ibid. p. 148. 



56 

connexion with them in the shape of words or otherwise. I 
must show, by multiplied examples, that words, articulated 
words, are the foundation of all writing ; and that whatever 
graphic system, figurative or otherwise, may be adopted, 
its only object is to express or represent words, and through 
them ideas, in the forms which spoken language has invent- 
ed. This I meant originally to do only through the com- 
parison of the Chinese and Cochinchinese, by means of the 
documents submitted ; but as, in the course of my discus- 
sion, the Egyptian has intruded upon me, I cannot avoid 
strengthening my argument by comparing its system with 
that of the Chinese, and showing that they have both proceed- 
ed to obtain the same object by the same road, as far as the 
structure and genius of their respective languages permitted 
them so to do. Again, therefore, let me request your fur- 
ther indulgence. 



section v. 



In the first place it must be observed, that the Chinese, 
and the Coptic or ancient Egyptian, differ essentially in 
their structure, the former being monosyllabic, and the lat- 
ter polysyllabic. Some writers, and among them some of 
the most eminent philologists,* have conjectured, I think 
without sufficient foundation, that all languages, and espe- 
cially the Coptic, were originally monosyllabic. I do not 

* The learned Eichhorn, who maintains this doctrine, infers from it 
that the primitive language consisted only of monosyllables. Geschichte 
der neuern Sprachenkunde, p. 17. I can perceive no reason for such a 
supposition. The name of the first man, Mam, is dissyllabic; and the 
word Momah, from which it is said to be derived, has three syllables. 
The most ancient names in profane history are also, for the most part, 
polysyllabic. As in religion, there are superstitions in science. 



57 

coincide with them in that opinion, being a believer in the 
permanency of grammatical forms ; but as this has nothing 
to do with our discussion, I shall not say any thing more 
about it. 

The Coptic language, notwithstanding its polysyllabic 
character, is well adapted to the graphic system com- 
monly called hieroglyphic, which it once adopted. Its 
grammatical forms, by which the ideas of gender, number, 
case, persons, tenses, moods, &c, are conveyed to the mind, 
do not, like those of the Greek and Roman languages, con- 
sist of inflexions, by which the sounds of the radical words 
are varied, and sometimes obliterated; but they are repre- 
sented by particles prefixed or affixed, or (as in our Indian 
languages) infixed in the middle of the principal word, which 
remains unchanged, and therefore can be easily separated 
from them. Father Kircher, in his short Coptic Grammar, 
gives us examples of about one hundred and thirty-five of 
those particles,* and explains their use. Hence it follows, 
that the written characters may, without the least inconve- 
nience, represent each a radical word, a noun or a verb, or 
one of those prepositions or qualifying particles, and that, I 
am inclined to think, is the ground of the system. M. Cham- 
pollion, with great sagacity, has discovered a great number 
of those particles in the Egyptian writing.f This discovery 
has been contested by some learned writers, as not suffi- 
ciently proved?J but it appears to me that he has made it 
out in a clear and satisfactory manner. 

As a matter of curiosity to us Americans, showing the 
similarity of some of the Coptic forms with those of our In- 
dians, permit me to add, from the book above cited,§ the 
declension of a noun, with the possessive pronouns inter- 

* Prodrom. p. 32. f Precis, chap. v. 

i Klaproth, Examen critique des tiavaux de feu M. Champollion, Paris, 
1852. L'abbe Affre, Nouvel Essai sur les hieroglyphes. Paris, 1834. 
§ Kircher, Prodrom. p. 304. 
8 



58 



fixed. It has also double plural forms; but that is found 
likewise in the Hebrew, and other Oriental languages, and 
therefore is not more particularly noticed. 

The word Pas, Lord, or the Lord, is thus declined : 



Paos, 


Singular. 
my Lord 


Pe/cos, 


thy Lord (masc.) 


Peos, 

Yephos, 

Pesos, 


thy Lord (fern.) 
his Lord 
her Lord 


Plural with Singular. 


Venos, 


our Lord 


Yetenos, 


your Lord 


Powos, 


their Lord 






Double Plural. 
Here N is substituted for the P initial. 

Naos, my Lords 

NeA-os, thy Lords 

Nephos, his Lords 

Nesos, her Lords 

Nenos, our Lords 

NeZewos, your Lords 

Nohjos, their Lords 

It would seem that os is the root of this word, and that P 
is a prefix indicating the sex or gender ; for in the feminine, 
my lady or mistress is taos, and T is known to be the sign of 
the feminine, as P of the masculine gender.* 

So far the Chinese and Coptic languages resemble each 
other, and if they differ in any thing, that difference is not 

•Kircher, Prodrom. p. 305. 



59 

material to my argument. The Chinese words are all mo- 
nosyllabic, and the particles which express the different re- 
lations are so likewise, and are in fact words;* they have 
their appropriate signs or characters, as well as the princi- 
pal locutions, because they are or may be entirely separated 
from them. For, as M. Remusat well observes,! it is only 
in writing that they are separated; and who can tell how 
it would be under a different graphic system 1 In speaking, 
the particle and the word which it qualifies may be consi- 
dered as one. The Coptic has existed under two different 
graphic systems. With the alphabetic characters introduced 
by the Greeks, the particles and the words to which they are 
attached appear as one polysyllabic word ; under the figura- 
tive system it might have been otherwise, though the parti- 
cles do not all appear of themselves to be significant, yet 
they might have been separately represented. In this power 
of separation consists the similarity between the two lan- 
guages. 

Supposing that the particles are always considered as 
parts of the words to which they belong, it is enough that 
they be separated by a mental operation, to justify and indeed 
to suggest the application of different characters to them. 
In this last supposition I should not call the Egyptian wri- 
ting, as I have done the Chinese, lexigraphic. I would try 
to find some more appropriate epithet whereby to distin- 
guish it, which, however, cannot be done until we are better 
informed of the nature and character of this graphic system, 
and of the method which it employs to represent the sounds 
of the language, whether in the form of words, of syllables, 
or of other component parts of speech, or by a mixture of 
several of those forms ; a study well worthy the attention 
of the philologist, and which the discoveries of Champollion 
and his fellow labourers give us reason to hope will be suc- 

* Remus. Chin. Gram. p. 144. 
j Melanges Asiat. vol. ii. p. 17. 



60 

ceeded by others, by means of which the great problem will 
at last be completely solved, and the writing of the ancient 
Egyptian fully understood. 

Let us now see how the Chinese and the Egyptians, pos- 
sessed of such languages as I have described, may be pre- 
sumed to have proceeded, in order to recall to the mind, 
by means of written signs, the sounds of those languages as 
they were combined in the form of words. 

Had those nations possessed inflected languages, like the 
Greek and Latin, their task would have been much more 
difficult to perform. I am strongly inclined to believe, that 
it was the difficulty of representing, by ocular signs, the 
various and complicated grammatical forms of certain lan- 
guages, which led to the discovery of the syllabic proper 
and of the elementary alphabets. The multitude of words 
which those forms presented to the ear, made the nations 
who spoke them despair of recalling them to the mind 
through the organs of sight, in any other manner than by 
analysing their sounds, and affixing a character to each 
element. Some stopped at syllables, probably in languages 
where they were not exceedingly numerous, as we have 
seen it to be the case in the Cherokee, and as it is in the 
Japanese, which has only forty-seven syllables;* others, on 
on the contrary, when, by the intermixture of vowels and 
consonants, syllables appeared to exist in too large numbers 
to be easily arranged into an alphabetical system, proceed- 
ed further in their analysis, and no doubt were greatly 
astonished when they discovered the very small number of 
pure elementary sounds of which human language is com- 
posed. This led them naturally to the formation of elemen- 
tary alphabets. It was not the case, however, with all 
nations; for we find that the Mexicans, with a language so 

* Gramm. Japon. de Rodriguez, trad, par Landresse; Introd. par Re- 
musat, p. xv. 



61 

compounded as to be properly called poly synthetic, and con- 
sisting of words of an immense length, have proceeded no 
farther than to a system, analogous, as far as we know, to 
that of ancient Egypt. But to inquire into the causes of 
these various results would lead us too far from the subject 
I am treating of. 

There is no doubt that alphabetical writing is, for certain 
purposes, the most adequate method of representing or re- 
calling to the mind, through the eye, thoughts or ideas 
already fixed by oral sounds. In proof of this assertion, it 
is sufficient to instance proper names of persons and places, 
and those of the numerous species and varieties of natural 
objects, which can only be represented by signs or charac- 
ters indicative of simple sounds. Hence we find, that both 
the Chinese and Egyptians were obliged to have recourse to 
that method ; but they fell upon it at an advanced stage of 
civilization, and too late to make them abandon their former 
system, to which they had long been accustomed, except 
when absolute necessity compelled them to it. They were 
misled at first by the apparent facility of adapting the picto- 
rial system to languages, composed of short words, which 
they thought susceptible of being easily represented by figu- 
rative signs. At the same time, it cannot be denied that 
the lexigraphic system is well adapted to the structure of 
their language, and that it is only deficient with respect to 
proper names or new objects, and the representation of the 
sounds of foreign idioms. 

Such was the case with the Chinese and the Egyptians. 
They both began, like all savage nations, with rude pictures 
of visible objects. But those kyriologic signs, *ar<i ^l^aw^ 
as Clement of Alexandria calls them, which expression I 
would render by mimic signs, could not carry them very 
far ; for visible objects of various kinds have often the same 
form, and it is no easy matter to distinguish them to the 
eye. The sun and the moon are round, but so are nuts, 



02 

apples, and a multitude of other things.* Hence they were 
soon compelled to have recourse to allegories, metaphors, 
and a variety of other figures ; and to invent a system, by 
means of which they might make them subservient to their 
purpose. Although their idioms resembled each other, as I 
have shown, in a most important feature, yet in the details 
they differed, and those differences, though they pursued the 
same general system, led them into different roads. This 
requires some explanation. 

The Chinese language, and particularly the Kou-wen, 
which was first in use, is essentially elliptical It wants 
grammatical forms to express the various shades of ideas, 
and leaves them to be gathered from the relative position of 
the words, and the sense of the context. This ambiguity, 
as to us it appears to be, who are accustomed to more pre- 
cise forms of language, is increased by the great number of 
homophonous words, not even varied by their accents. 
This has led sinologists to believe, that the Chinese writing 
was intended to correct that ambiguity, and it has been 
said that so insufficient are the words to convey ideas, that 
the Chinese are often obliged to explain their meaning by 
tracing characters with their fingers in the air. That this 
may happen, sometimes, as in our languages we spell one 
out of several homophonous words to specify its meaning, 
may perhaps be believed ; but it must be a thing of very 
rare occurrence. Besides, the Chinese have a very easy 
way, which I shall presently mention, of explaining verbally 
the meaning of their ambiguous words, without being obliged 
to trace figures in the air. And here I cannot help observ- 
ing, how easily men of learning are imposed upon by travel - 

* The arms of the Perm family are three nails, the round heads of which 
alone appear on the scutcheon. Hence they are generally taken to be 
balk, like the pallc of the Medicean family. But the motto of the old Ad- 
miral sufficiently explains what they are, Dum elavum teneafn', "While 
a single nail remains, I will not give up the ship." 



03 

Icrs and other dealers in wonders. The Chinese understand 
each other when speaking, quite as easily as other people. 
Their language, like all others, was made to be understood, 
otherwise it would not be a language. I have known Chi- 
nese, and heard them converse with each other with the 
greatest fluency. I asked them whether they found any 
difficulty in conveying by speech any idea they thought 
proper ; they answered me, not the least. I frequently 
asked the same question of our Indians, who uniformly an- 
swered in the same manner. 

The system adopted by the inventors of the Chinese mode 
of writing, as it now exists, was that of recalling the words 
of the language to the memory of the reader by signs, de- 
scriptive, as much as possible, of their signification. By 
this method, they gave an advantage to writing over speech; 
for while the language was filled with homophonous words, 
the signs which represented them were not (if I can use the 
expression) homomorphous, and the eye could distinguish 
them from each other, though the ear could not. This ad- 
vantage, however, has been greatly exaggerated. M. Re- 
musat contends, that it is from it that the Chinese language 
derives all its clearness.* It is precisely as if one were to 
say, that the clearness of the English language is derived 
from our various modes of spelling homophonous words ; 
as, for instance, bow (arcus) and beau; bow (signum rever- 
ential) and bough, &c. This may be pleasing to the eye, 
but has nothing to do with the clearness of the language. 
He who understands it when he hears it spoken, may also 
understand it when he hears it read, and consequently when 
he reads it himself. All our homophonous words are not 
distinguished in writing by a difFerent orthography; the 

* Les monosyllables de la langue parlee des Chinois tirent toute leur 
clarte des intraduisibles caracteres auxquels ils tiennent lieu de pronon- 
ciation. Recherckes sur les langues Tartares, p. 134. 



64 

word sound, for instance, when used as a substantive, means 
the effect produced by noise, or the name of an arm of the 
sea; as an adjective, it means healthy, right, proper; in 
theology, it means orthodox ; and lastly, as a verb, it means 
to produce noise, to try depth, to endeavour to discover the 
sentiments of others ; yet in all these cases the word is spelt 
in the same manner, and no confusion ensues, Nor would 
it in the Chinese, if one character only was employed to 
represent all the words which are pronounced in the same 
manner. M. Remusat himself gives us a fact in support of 
this proposition, too strong to be omitted. He says, that at 
this time the merchants, mechanics, and other unlettered 
men in China, paying very little attention to the symbols, are 
contented with making use of one single character for each 
pronunciation, in whatever sense the syllable may be used, 
while the literati write them with different characters.* 

Now, nothing can be more plain, than that if any thing 
peculiarly requires clearness in the mode of writing, it is the 
contracts of merchants and mechanics, and their correspond- 
ence on matters of business. This fact appears to me suffi- 
cient to settle the whole question. 

Then the Chinese might as well, as far as clearness was 
concerned, have affixed a single sign or character to each 
syllable or word of their language. The same rules of syn- 
tax which enable the hearer to understand words spoken, 
would have helped him to their meaning when written. 
But the number of monosyllabic words was too great to 
admit of their being represented by arbitrary signs, which 
memory could not easily have retained, and which would 
not have been susceptible of classification. For the sake of 

* Actuellement meme, les marchands, les artisans et autres hommes 
illettres, se contentent de savoir un seul caractere pour chaque pronon- 
ciation, et ce caractere leur sert pour toutes les acceptions de la meme 
syllabe, qui, chez les gens instruits, s'^crivent avec autant de caracteres 
difftrents. Ibid. pp. 72, 73. 



65 



method, therefore, they fell upon their present system, which 
is as well adapted to the nature of their language as that of 
the Egyptians to their own. Whenever a word wanted a 
sign to represent it, they had nothing to do but to write two 
or more other words already provided with signs, to recall, 
by a kind of definition, the memory of that for which a cha- 
racter did not yet exist. Thus, if they want to represent 
the word foo or fou, which means a married woman, they 
write in the appropriate characters the words woman, hand, 
broom, as much as to say, a woman who keeps her house 
clean, a matron, a housekeeper ; but that group of charac- 
ters is not read literally; it is read foo, and means a mar- 
ried woman. The words sun and moon, grouped together, 
are read ming, which signifies light; man and mountain, are 
read hermit; mouth and bird, are read song; ear and door, 
to hear; water and eye, a tear or tears.* It must not be 
believed that the Chinese read those definitions even men- 
tally, any more than we advert to the etymology of our 
compound words ; this manner of distinguishing the cha- 
racters has only served the inventors as a method to avoid 
the confusion of mere arbitrary signs, and their grammari- 
ans afterwards have classed them into families of roots or 
radical signs or characters, as they are called, by means of 
which they are able to find them easily, in a kind of regular 
order, in their dictionaries, thus supplying the want of an 
alphabetical method. 

A Chinese writer, in a short essay of two pages, which 
Dr. Morrison has published at the head of his Anglo-Chinese 
Dictionary, under the title of "Brief explanation of an alpha- 
betic language (system of writing) as exemplified by the 
English," has come very near to the opinion which I have 
expressed. Dr. Morrison has not subjoined a translation to 
that paper ; he has published it only in Chinese. But M. 

• Remus. Gramm. p. 2. 



66 

Remusat, in his Melanges Asiatiques, has given us an ex- 
tract from it, sufficient to make us know the sentiments of 
the author. The title of this essay, as translated by him 
literally, is, "A short introduction to the knowledge of the 
letters of the kingdom of England." The author institutes 
a comparison between the alphabetical system, generally 
considered, and that of his own country. " There are," 
he says, " but two systems of writing ; the one which repre- 
sents the sounds of the words, and the other their mean- 
ing.'"* Among the former he includes the syllabic alpha- 
bets of India and the elementary alphabets of Europe, and 
among the latter the Chinese writing and the hieroglyphics 
of ancient Egypt. He admits that it is difficult to decide as 
to the preference to be given to one over the other, as they 
both have their advantages and disadvantages. " The cha- 
racters," says he, " which represent the meaning, do not 
express the sounds, and yet both must be committed to me- 
mory" This truth is incontestable. " Besides," continues he, 
" this faculty of representing the meaning, is not applicable 
to the ideas which the mind conceives, independently of the 
existence of things ; those which designate material objects 
have, on the other hand, a great advantage."! 

It is evident this author well understood that the Chinese 

* Melang-es Asiat. vol. ii. p. 213. 

f lis (les systemes d'ecriture) se reduisent a deux, l'un qui represente 
les sons des mots, et l'autre qui en exprime le sens. Farmi les premiers 
on cite les caracteres^/c/t ou Sanskrits, ceux mandchoux, ceux des ying 
ou Anglais, et ceux des autres Royaumes occidentaux de l'Europe. Quant 
a ceux qui expriment le sens des mots, ce sont les anciens caracteres du 
Royaume de Yi.-tcM-pi-to (Egypte) et les caracteres anciens et modernes 
de la Chine. On serait assez embarrasse de determiner la preference a 
accorder a l'un de ces systemes, qui ont leurs avantages et leurs inconve- 
nients. D'ailleurs cette faculte representative du sens, ne s'applique pas 
aux idees conpues, par l'esprit, independamment des choses. Ceux qui 
designent les objets materiels ont, d'un autre cote, un grand avantage. — 
Remusat, Ibid. 



(57 

characters represent words and not ideas. " Ideas," he says, 
" cannot be represented by written signs, as they appear to 
the mind ;" from whence it follows, that they can only be 
represented in the forms in which words have clothed them. 
" The characters," he says further, " do not present the 
sounds of the words, but their meaning." What he calls their 
meaning, is expressed by characters formed of the words 
which the signs represent, and not by external forms, which 
present nothing to the mind except the words to which 
they apply ; as to simple characters, which are compara- 
tively few, they also present nothing to the memory but the 
sounds of the words they are meant to express, precisely as 
our letters represent the elements of those sounds. To those 
characters alone which designate material objects, that is 
to say, to picture writing, he allows the advantage ; and it 
is clear that he had then in view the hieroglyphs of Egypt, 
or some of the ancient Chinese signs now out of use, as he 
well knew that the forms of the present characters no longer 
represent the figures of visible objects. On the whole, these 
admissions of a Chinese writer, those lights which shine in 
the midst of his native prejudices, I cannot but consider as 
a powerful support to my argument. 

It is remarkable, that while in the last century the learned 
were expatiating on the wonderful properties of the Chinese 
system of writing, an illustrious philosopher, ignorant of the 
language, and who does not appear to have paid any par- 
ticular attention to the subject, by the mere force of his 
genius penetrated into the true character of that system, 
and described it in a few words, to which no attention seems 
to this moment to have been paid. I mean the celebrated 
J. J. Rousseau, of Geneva. That great man, it is true, too 
often suffered his eccentric imagination to carry him beyond 
the bounds of reason and even of common sense ; but, in the 
midst of those aberrations of his powerful mind, he scattered 
here and there some profound thoughts, of the value of which 



68 

lie was not himself sensible, but which, if developed and 
diluted into volumes, would establish the reputation of an 
intelligent and skilful plagiarist. 

Such is the description which he gives of the Chinese 
writing, in his essay on the origin of languages ; a work, it 
is true, like those of Plato, full of wild and fanciful ideas; 
but also, like those of the Greek philosopher, full of admi- 
rable truths. Thus, while speaking of languages, he tells 
us, in one of his romantic flights, that the first words spoken 
in the northern regions were aidez moi, and in southern 
climes aimez moi,* in the same work he throws carelessly, 
as it were, and in a few words, a flood of light on the nature 
and character of the Chinese system of writing. 

He divides the graphic systems in use among mankind 
into three classes. The first is the hieroglyphic, of which 
he speaks like those who preceded him ; and the third is the 
alphabetical, of which he says nothing worthy of remark. 
The second is the Chinese, and on this we must hear him 
speak. 

" The second method," says he, " is that of representing 
words and propositions by conventional signs, which can 
only be done when the language is entirely formed, and 
when a whole people are united by common laws ; for there 
is here a two-fold agreement. Such is the writing of the 
Chinese, and that is truly to paint sounds, and speak to the 
eyes."t Let us dwell upon this for a few moments. 

1. The Chinese characters paint sounds and represent 
words. This is precisely what I have been labouring to 

* Essai sur t'origine des langiies, ch. x. in Jin. 

+ La seconde maniere est de representer les mots et les propositions par 
des caracteres conventionnels, ce qui ne peut se faire que quand la langue 
est tout a fait formee et qu'un peuple entier est uni par des lois com- 
munes; car il y a deja ici double convention; telle est l'ecriture des Chinois, 
c'est la veritablement peindre les sons et parler aux yeux. Ibid. ch. v. 



69 

prove. Rousseau does not speak of ideas; his intuitive ge- 
nius told him that ideas could not be painted. 

2. They also represent propositions. So do the groups 
of characters which distinguish homophonous words from 
each other. I have instanced the character foo, a married 
woman. It is formed of three others, those of woman, hand, 
and broom, therefore the group represents in elliptic form 
the proposition a woman holding a broom. I have explained 
the object of this mode of discrimination ; it is the orthogra- 
phy of the Chinese. 

3. This mode of writing is only suited to a language entirely 
formed. Therefore language preceded the writing, and wri- 
ting was made to represent the sounds or words of which 
language is composed, and not ideas abstracted from them. 

4. And to a people united by common laivs; that is to say, 
to a civilized people. Savages could not have invented this 
system of writing. 

5. There is here a two-fold agreement. This is very clear; 
the language was first agreed upon, and the writing after- 
wards. They could not have both been invented at the 
same time, much less the latter before the former. 

Here, then, all that I have been endeavouring to prove 
in this long letter, appears to have been expressed in a 
few words by an illustrious philosopher, whose intuitive 
mind perceived, at a single glance, the nature of a system 
which others were labouring to involve in mystery, and 
to explain by opinions opposed to every principle of reason 
and common sense. His lucid exposition was not noticed, 
or perhaps was smiled at by the philologists of his day. I 
hope their successors will do him justice. Let us now re- 
turn to the Coptic. 



70 



SECTION VI. 



This language, which M. Quatremere* has clearly 
proved to be the ancient Egyptian, has not come down to 
us entire, but much mixed with Greek words and locutions. 
Even Greek adverbs and particles, such as aw.a, yap, 2«pij, 
have crept into it, which makes me believe that it became at 
last a partially mixed idiom, like the German in the interior 
of Pennsylvania, which is not only spoken, but written in 
newspapers and in translations from the English. Never- 
theless, in the state in which we possess it, the structure of 
the language does not appear to have suffered any material 
alteration, any more than that of the German in our country, 
which is still preserved, nothwithstanding the introduction of 
English words. The same may be said of the French in 
Canada and Louisiana ; and it corroborates my opinion of 
the tendency of languages to preserve their original struc- 
ture. 

I have been asked how it happened (if my theory be cor- 
rect) that the Latin language has lost so many of its forms, 
in the modern Italian, as well as in the French, Spanish, 
Portuguese, and other languages derived from it. I do not 
mean to deny the power of invasion and conquest; it may 
modify the forms as well as the words of a language ; nay, 
it may destroy it altogether. The Coptic language has 
vanished before the Arabic, and is no longer in existence. 
But these are the effects of force, which do not in the least 
militate against my theory ; it remains unimpeached, when- 
ever violence has not interfered, and even in many cases 
when it has. The Basque language, for instance, driven 
from Spain and Aquitain, and perhaps from several other 
parts of Europe, has taken refuge in the Pyrenean moun- 

* Recherches critiques et historiques sur la langue et la litterature de 
l'Egypte, par Etienne Quatremere. Paris, 1808. 



71 

tains, where, after many ages, it still preserves its original 
structure. Many other similar examples might be adduced. 

We may, therefore, have a correct idea of the grammati- 
cal character and forms of the ancient Coptic ; it indeed 
adopted Greek words, but we find in it none of the inflexions 
of the Hellenic idiom, and nothing of its manner of com- 
pounding words by altering the syllables of the component 
parts. The Coptic appears to be formed on the model of 
the Hebrew, Chaldaic, Arabic, and other neighbouring lan- 
guages. If I should be asked why all those nations having 
languages formed on a similar or analogous system, did not 
all adopt the same mode of writing, I can only conjecture 
that the Egyptians invented their own, and the Hebrews, 
Chaldeans and Arabs received theirs from other nations, or, 
perhaps, discovered sooner the defects of the mimic, or, as 
it is called, hieroglyphic writing, and rejected it before long 
habit had endeared it to them, and made it a kind of second 
nature. Although the different forms of their languages led 
the Egyptians and Chinese into different roads, while they 
agreed in the general principle of their graphic system, it 
does not follow that the various structure of languages was 
the only, or even perhaps the principal cause that induced 
nations to adopt a particular system of writing in prefer- 
ence to another. It is very seldom, if ever it happens in 
human affairs, that effects are produced by a single cause, 
and the same cause does not always produce similar effects. 
The road of conjecture is dark and intricate, and when I 
presume to offer mine, it is always with due diffidence, and 
I am far from wishing to have them considered as axioms. 

Although we are sufficiently acquainted with the ancient 
Coptic language to form an idea of its structure and gram- 
matical character, it is not so with its graphic system, be- 
fore it adopted and substituted for it the letters of the Greek 
alphabet. The Rosetta inscription, and the discoveries to 
which it has led, have thrown some light upon it, but still 



72 

it is no more than a glimmering light. It would rather 
seem that it did not adopt the Chinese plan of stringing two 
or three words together, in order, by a kind of lame defini- 
tion, to recall the memory of a third or fourth. The Chi- 
nese words when spoken are simple, when written com- 
pound ; while, on the contrary, the spoken words of the 
Egyptian are compounded in the same manner as the Chi- 
nese characters, and their graphic signs, as far as we know, 
represent words singly, and not by means of a compound 
form. M. Champollion is of opinion that those groups of 
signs which, in the Chinese, represent a word by attempting 
to define it, are not found in the Egyptian writing ;* so that 
it would appear, that a word might be represented by a 
compounded character; as, for instance, when the word 
day is represented by an open oblong square and a closed 
semicircle,f but that the two signs thus grouped together 
should be only metaphorical, and not intended to define the 
word day by the signs of two other words. This opinion of 
M. Champollion is not without plausibility, because theCoptic 
language, not consisting, like the Chinese, of great numbers 
of homophonous monosyllables, there seems to have been no 
necessity to explain their meaning by verbal definitions, as 
the sense of each word was sufficiently understood by the 
analogies of the language, without having recourse to that 
method. Nevertheless, we have not yet sufficient facts be- 
fore us to enable us to form a decided opinion upon this 
question. The system of definitions might have been adopt- 
ed by the Egyptians as well as by the Chinese, for the sake 
of method, and to avoid confusion. Mere arbitrary signs, 
and even pictures, when numerous, are difficult to be classed 
and to be retained in the memory. 

It is curious to observe that the Chinese, in forming their 
system of writing, followed the same plan in representing 

* Precis, p. 346. f Salvolini, Letter I. p. 12. 



73 

by signs the monosyllabic words of their language, which 
has been universally adopted in the formation of the words 
of polysyllabic idioms; that is to say, by so compounding 
them, as by the composition to define their meaning. Thus 
the Latin word concordia, formed of the words with and 
heart, represents the union of hearts, which is nothing else 
than a definition of the compound word. In our modern 
languages, derived from the Latin, Greek, Saxon, &c, these 
definitions can, in most cases, only be perceived by recur- 
ring to the etymology of the compound ; but they neverthe- 
less exist, and it is evident that without them no polysyllabic 
language could have been formed. To illustrate this view 
of the subject, permit me to place here some examples of 
the Egyptian compound words, compared with the Chinese 
written representation of their spoken monosyllables. 

COPTIC WORDS, 
From Champollion's Precis, p. 336. 



Het signifies hear, 



Hetshem 

Harshhet 

vShasihet 

Shabhet 

Hetnasht 

Hetsnaou 

Tamhet 

Womnhet 

Athhet \ 

or Athet ) 

Eihet 

Thothet 

Kahet 

Tibet 

10 



(little heart) : 


signifies 


cowardly 


(slow, heavy heart) 


M 


patient 


(high heart) 


<( 


proud 


(weak heart) 


M 


timid 


(hard heart) 


« 


not clement 


(two hearts) 


a 


undecided 


(close heart) 


a 


obstinate 


(eating his heart) 


it 


repenting 


(without heart) 


C( 


foolish 



(heart come up) 
(heart mix) 
(place one's heart) 
(give one's heart) 



to reflect 

to persuade, concili- 
to trust [ate 

to observe, examine 



74 

Djemhct (find by heart) signifies to know 
Mehhet (fill heart) " to satisfy 

CHINESE WORDS DEFINED BY WRITING. 

From Marshman's Grammar, p. 53 et seq. 



Chinese. 


English. 


Groups of characters 


tshin 


keen, acute 


heart gold 


hhoh 


to collect, unite 


man one mouth 


chhoong 


a species of bamboo 


straight reed 


Lee 


ingenious, intelligent 


profit man 


Lee 


whiskey 


profit wheat 



It would be easy to collect an immense number of these 
forms, as the great mass of the Chinese characters is thus 
compounded, but these will be sufficient for my purpose. It 
is often difficult to find the chain of ideas which has led to 
the formation of these characters. 

These facts have not escaped the observation of the saga- 
cious Champollion ; but the inference that he draws from 
them, and which he applies to all hieroglyphic characters, 
or, as he calls them, caracteres jiguratifs, though I do not 
mean to contest its application to the Chinese method of 
writing, is perhaps too general; because, I must here again 
repeat it, it is sounds or zvords that those characters are 
intended to recall to mind, and ideas only through them. 
" In those systems of writing," says the illustrious author, 
"the order of nature in forming oral languages is necessa- 
rily followed. For instance ; as languages begin with 
onomatopeias or imitations of sounds, ocular systems begin 
with the direct representation of visible objects, whence 
they proceed to allegories, metaphors," &c. # 

I shall not inquire into the correctness of this principle, 

* Precis, p. 333. 



75 

as applied to the Egyptian hieroglyphics ; it does not ap- 
pear to me by any means to be proved. I am rather in- 
clined to believe, by the comparison of the graphic systems 
of China and Egypt, that those nations do not pursue entirely 
the same road, and that the genius and grammatical forms 
of their languages required, or at least produced, different 
methods of presenting the words to the eye. Thus the Chi- 
nese define their monosyllables, and explain their meaning, 
by combining the signs of other monosyllables, which is ex- 
actly the counterpart of the system of the Egyptian spoken 
language, in which the polysyllabic words define themselves, 
exactly as the Chinese characters define their monosylla- 
bles. But it is not yet clear that the Egyptians, in their 
system of writing, have followed the same course, though I 
do not. mean to deny it ; it is not impossible that they may 
have done it partially. 

If the Egyptians had meant to adopt as a general prin- 
ciple that on which is founded the graphic system of the 
Chinese, they would, for instance, in order to represent the 
compound word heavy heart, which we translate by patient, 
have grouped together the sign or character representing 
the word heavy and that of the word heart, or presented 
them successively. Whether they have done so or not does 
not yet appear. It is worth the inquiry of philologists, and 
the solution of this question may be the means of further 
progress in the deciphering of the Egyptian inscriptions and 
manuscripts. In this attempt, the language and its gram- 
matical structure and forms should never be lost sight of; 
nor should it be forgotten, that the object of all graphic sys- 
tems is to represent words and not ideas, and that the figures 
and other imitative signs that are employed for that pur- 
pose are only the means and not the end. Even the rude 
pictures of savage nations differ only from the more perfect 
systems in being more elliptical. They bring to the mind a 
few catch words, out of which a sentence is formed ; but 



76 

they can never serve for any extensive purpose of written 
communication. It appears to me indispensably necessary 
to a system of writing, that it should be in some way or 
other connected with the sounds of the language, whether 
in the form of words, syllables, or primary elements. 

But here a difficulty occurs, even in our own alphabetical 
method. There is no language on the face of the earth that 
possesses all the sounds that can be uttered by the human 
voice. The phonetics of nations differ as much as their 
countenances and external appearance. In vain we may 
invent new signs and new characters, to represent sounds 
to which our ears and our vocal organs are not accustomed; 
in vain we may adopt for that purpose new systems of or- 
thography; we may multiply accents, apostrophes, and other 
designations of such sounds, we only torture the eye, with- 
out conveying any thing to the ear. All such attempts ap- 
pear to me to be idle, and can only gratify the vanity of 
authors. All that we can obtain, by our utmost efforts, is a 
certain approximation, and with that we ought to rest con- 
tented. We have long been accustomed to the name of 
Mahomet, but we have now twenty ways of writing it, 
in order to display the Arabic learning of the inventors of 
the new orthography. We have been long satisfied with 
the Alcoran, but now we have the Koran, the Khoran, the 
Qoran, the Koraun, the Koran, and what not?* When will 
pedantry be banished from the republic of letters ? 

The same difficulty occurs in the Chinese and Coptic 
systems of writing, and to a greater extent, because they 
want the proper signs of elementary sounds. It is curious 
to compare those nations in their efforts to overcome this 
difficulty. 

* The reason which is generally given for saying the Koran, and not the 
Mcoran, is, that it is to avoid an unnecessary duplication of the article. 
But how is it in almanac, algebra, alkali, &c; must we also contract these 
words? vanas huminum mentes/ 



77 

The Egyptians represent each elementary sound by the 
sign of some word beginning with it ; as for instance, the 
sign of the word lion, whether it be the figure of the animal 
or some other allegorical or metaphorical sign, will stand 
for the letter L; the sign of the word onion, or that of 
ostrich, for the letter O, and so forth. M. Champollion tells 
us, that these alphabetical signs or characters constitute 
two-thirds at least of the language,* as he calls it ; by which 
I understand, that in a page of writing, two-thirds at least of 
the figures or characters are used alphabetically, or 'phoneti- 
cally, as Egyptologists express it; which I am very much in- 
clined to believe, as their hieroglyphics, not defining, as we 
suppose, like the Chinese character, the word which they 
represent by the combination of the signs of other words, 
too large a number of them would have created confusion 
and occupied an immense space, and therefore they were 
sooner obliged to have recourse to an alphabet. Whether 
the method they employed was convenient or not, it is not 
for us to inquire, as it has nothing to do with the present 
discussion. 

The Chinese have two modes of alphabetical writing ; the 
one syllabic, the other elementary. The first, called Hing- 
ching, is principally employed to express the specific names 
of animals, plants, minerals, and other objects. The sylla- 
bic character is joined to the generic name, without regard 
to what it is singly meant to express. Thus the word pe 
singly signifies white, and it also signifies the tree called 
cypress. In the latter case, the character will be composed 
of the sign of the word tree, and of that of the adjective 
white; but it will not be read tree-white, but cypress. It is 
the same with the specific names of birds, fishes, &c; the 

* Precis, pp. 102, 125. Elsewhere, p. 447, he says: Les caracteres 
figuratifs et les caracteres symboliques sont employes, dans tous les textes, 
en moindre proportion que les caracteres phonetiques. 



78 

sign of the word bird or fish is joined to that of any mono- 
syllable, whatever may be its meaning, that is homophonous 
with the name of the fish or bird which is to be recalled to 
the memory. M. Remusat says, that the words thus sylla- 
bically expressed form at least one-half of what he calls the 
written language.* 

With regard to foreign names or words which do not oc- 
cur in their own language, they have a different method, 
which is more complicated, but which, however, serves 
their purpose. The Chinese language abhors syllables 
ending with a consonant; all those of which it is composed 
are formed of a consonant and a vowel sound, either simple 
or nasal, such as ho, lee, ching, foong, &c. When they have 
to write a foreign name or word alphabetically, they begin 
by dividing it into syllables to suit their pronunciation. The 
word Christus, for instance, they will divide in this manner, 
ke-le-se-too-se, and write down each syllable as follows : 
They take two Chinese syllables or words, without regard 
to the meaning, one of them beginning with the consonant, 
and the other with the vowel of the syllable to be express- 
ed.t For the first syllable of Christus, divided as above, 
they will write ho-le, which two words will signify, if you 
please, the one cabbage, and the other pumpkin, and add 
a character which means divide.^ The reader is thereby 
informed that he must read alphabetically. He will take 
the k from ho and the e from le, and read he, and so on with 
the other syllables, until he has made out the whole word. 
There is a certain number of characters specially applicable 
to that purpose, some of them intended to represent or indi- 
cate the initial, and others the final sound, of the syllable 
meant to be expressed.^ 

The Chinese have a particular mode of representing 

* Gramm. Chin. p. 4. f Morrison, Chinese Gramm. p. 1. 

\ Ibid. p. 2. § Marshm. Clavis Sjnica, p. 88. 



79 

the sounds of foreign names, the component syllables of 
which exist in their own language. It is by writing suc- 
cessively the syllables of which the name is composed, with- 
out regard to their meaning. Thus they will write in this 
manner the name of Washington. 

wa which means a brick 

shing the name of a measure for grain and liquids 

tun* grass growing 

But in that case they will, like the Egyptians, surround the 
name so written with a frame, which the French call car- 
touche, in order to inform the reader that nothing but sounds 
is meant to be represented. 

The Egyptians, as I have said before, represent elemen- 
tary sounds by figures, the names of which, written alpha- 
betically, begin with the letter or sound to be represented. 
Thus a lion or a lamb will stand for the letter /, a mountain 
or a mouse for ?n, &c. But whether, like the Chinese, they 
have a mark or sign, (other than the cartouche, which they 
also make use of for proper names,) to inform the reader 
that the characters are alphabetical, does not yet appear. 
" Almost nothing of the kind," says Champollion, " is ob- 
served in the hieroglyphic texts of the Egyptians.'*! Until 
this fact is ascertained, we cannot expect to make much 
further progress in the deciphering of the Egyptian hiero- 
glyphics. 

But it is time that I should leave this long digression, and 
proceed as fast as I can to the conclusion of this letter, which 
already exceeds all reasonable bounds. 

* These three syllables or words will be found in Morrison's Chinese 
and English Dictionary, in which the words are classed in the order of 
our alphabet. 

f On n'observe, en general, presque rien de semblable dans les textes 
hieroglyphiques Egyptiens. Precis, p. 346. 



80 



SECTION VII. 



I find, my clear sir, that I have gone through a wide field 
of discussion. I have wandered from the Chinese to the 
Mexican, from that to the Egyptian, and back again to the 
Chinese, and yet I have not touched on the main subject of 
this communication, which is to consider whether and how 
far the Chinese writing is read and understood by nations 
who speak different languages from the Chinese, and who 
cannot either speak that idiom, or understand it when spoken. 
I cannot close this letter without saying something upon this 
interesting question, which I submit, however, to the further 
investigation of the learned ; and, to assist them in it, I pre- 
sent to the Society the two annexed vocabularies. 

That a language may be read and understood, and even 
written by persons who cannot speak it, or if they do speak 
it, who cannot understand each other, because of the differ- 
ence in their mode of pronunciation, is a fact so common, 
that examples of it need hardly be adduced. An English- 
man and a Frenchman, both good classical scholars, cannot, 
without great difficulty, understand each other when speak- 
ing Latin. I believe there is not an orientalist in the uni- 
versities of Europe, who, unless he has resided some time 
in the East, can hold a conversation in Arabic or Persian ; 
and there are excellent translators of modern European 
languages who cannot speak a word of the idiom that they 
translate from. I have been assured that M. Le Tourneur, 
who translated into French Young's Night Thoughts and 
all Shakspeare's plays, was quite a stranger to the English 
spoken language. He had learned to read and to under- 
stand the meaning of the groups of letters, to which he ap- 
plied the sounds of his native tongue. He did not consider 
those groups as images or symbols of ideas, but as the repre- 
sentatives of words, which he understood, but could not 



81 

pronounce so as to be comprehended by a native English- 
man ; nor were his ears so accustomed to the sounds of the 
language, as to enable him to understand it when spoken. 

It may also be observed, that those nations who speak 
sister languages, or languages derived from the same stock, 
understand a great deal of each other's written dialect. As 
the English has borrowed much from the French lan- 
guage, a native of France will understand all the French 
words in an English book, except when used in a different 
sense from that to which he is accustomed. No doubt, all 
these things must operate among the nations bordering upon 
China, particularly those whose languages are monosyllabic 
and dialects of the Chinese; but I am of opinion, that as in 
our languages, these causes can only operate to a certain 
extent, and that the Asiatics are not more assisted by the 
form of the Chinese characters, than Europeans are by the 
appearance of the groups formed by the letters of our 
alphabet. 

But that is not what is meant by the enthusiasts of the 
Chinese system of writing. They ascribe every thing to 
the magical characters, (if I may so express myself,) and 
overlook the plainest and most obvious natural causes. Dr. 
Marshman, observing that there are numerous different 
dialects spoken in the empire of China, and yet that they all 
understand the pure style of writing which is called the 
Kwan-hwa, or Mandarin tongue, accounts for it in this man- 
ner. " One effect," says he, " resulting from the written 
language being thus unconnected with the colloquial, is 
however worthy of notice ; it has conferred on the former 
a character of permanent perspicuity, which renders it 
equally intelligible to the inhabitants of the most distant pro- 
vinces in that vast empire, and even to those of Cochinchina 
and Japan; while the latter has assumed a greater variety 
of forms than the colloquial dialects of ancient Greece and 
of India, with this exception, that these varieties of dialect 
11 



82 

(like those in the various counties of England,) are confined 
to conversation, because incapable of acquiring that perma- 
nent character, which their connexion with the written me- 
dium has conferred on those of Greece and India."* 

Now see, my dear sir, how far enthusiasm has carried 
this learned sinologist. He represents the Chinese dialects, 
light words, as they are called, ("Ertra utipoivta.,) as not 
written, and as used only in colloquial discourse. He very 
justly compares them to the provincial dialects of England, 
which he says are also unwritten; yet, though he cannot 
but see that the two cases are exactly similar, since the pure 
English is read in the provinces as well as in the capital, he 
must find a different cause for that of the Chinese, and that 
is what he calls the permanent perspicuity of its system of 
writing. 

The venerable Doctor is not quite correct in supposing 
that the Chinese dialects, and those of England and other 
countries of Europe, are not written. If he means that they 
are not cultivated, and that they have not what is called a 
literature, I am disposed to agree with him ; but that they 
are, or at least may be written, is a fact too notorious to be 
denied. I have seen a great number of popular books, in 
verse and in prose, written in the different patois of France. 
I have in my possession a collection of Noels (Christmas 
carols) in that of Poitou; and there is one, in another dialect, 
in the Congress library at Washington. I have not seen a 
book in an English dialect, but I have seen provincial words 
written in philological essays, and enough may be seen in 
Fielding's Tom Jones of the patois of Somersetshire. In 
fact, every language may be written with the letters of our 
alphabet. There are sounds, it is true, which they cannot 
represent; in that case new characters must be invented, 
or the old ones somewhat altered, as is done in the Polish 

* Claris Sinica, p. 558. 



83 

and other languages of Europe, and as is also done, by an 
analogous process, in the Indo-Chinese countries. 

Thus the provincial dialects in China are written, by- 
applying to their words and sometimes misapplying the 
characters of the national alphabet, or by altering them or 
inventing new ones when found necessary, of which the 
Doctor himself gives us several examples.* Why, then, 
does he represent those dialects as univritten, as it were to 
increase our astonishment at the fact, that the Chinese cha- 
racters are generally read and understood 1 Does he wish 
to make us believe that those characters speak to the mind 
of the reader vi propria, by means of their permanent per- 
spicuity? No; the learned author does not wish to de- 
ceive, but he deceives himself, and his language bears the 
stamp of the strong impressions which have taken hold of 
his prejudiced mind. 

It is of little consequence whether provincial dialects are 
or not light or flying languages ; but in this the Chinese, 
who give them that contemptuous name, and the sinologist 
who repeats it after them, are alike mistaken. It is a well 
known fact in Europe, that the patois, or peculiar dialects 
of provinces, preserve their words and their forms longer 
than cultivated languages. If we wish to have an idea of 
the language that was spoken in England several centuries 
ago, it is not to London, but to Yorkshire or Lancashire 
that we must go to find it; and the dialect of Provence re- 
mains the same at this day that it was in the time of the 
Troubadours, while the old French idiom is still pre- 
served in the Walloon countries of the Netherlands. A cul- 
tivated language, on the contrary, continually varies accord- 
ing to the caprice of the writers, who think they are fixing 
it; but the works of the authors of a succeeding generation 
show them to have been mistaken. The language of Chaucer, 

* Clavis Sinica, p. 560. 



84 

and a great deal of that of Shakspeare, can now only be 
found in some counties where the words are still retained. 

The Mandarin dialect of China is not more permanent, as 
a spoken or written language, than those of the provinces. 
The only difference is that it is preserved in books, which the 
others are not. This may be called "permanency in a cer- 
tain sense ; that is to say, so far that the memory of the re- 
corded language is preserved even after it has ceased to be 
in popular use, but it cannot be understood in the sense of 
duration ; for the Basque language, spoken by a few thou- 
sand men in a corner of Europe, has lasted longer than any 
of the cultivated idioms of that part of the world. 

As to the Chinese writing, its immense number of super- 
fluous signs, invented and added from time to time by the 
literati, show any thing but permanency, and may well be 
compared to the changes that we perceive from time to 
time in the orthography of our languages. 

But what has the permanency, real or pretended, of the 
Mandarin dialect, or of its writing, to do with the reason 
of its being generally read or understood throughout the 
Chinese empire 1 Why should sinologists seek for the cause 
of that fact in the superiority of one system over another, 
when it may be accounted for in a much more simple and 
natural manner? The reason that this dialect is generally 
read and understood in China, while the others remain local, 
is, that it is the only one which is taught in the schools ; 
precisely as in England the pure English, and not the north- 
ern or southern dialects, and in France the pure French, 
and not the patois of Languedoc or Provence, are taught, 
and consequently read and understood every where in those 
countries. It may be added, that the knowledge of the Man- 
darin dialect and of its graphic system, is the only means 
by which local as well as national offices can be obtained 
in the Chinese empire. Therefore, it is no argument in 
favour of the pretended ideographic character of the Chi- 



85 

nese writing, to say, that it is read and understood by all in 
China who have learned to read and write. I am almost 
ashamed to have to answer such arguments, and yet they 
are urged by men to whose opinions, on other subjects, I 
would submit with respect. Such is the force of prejudice, 
which even in enlightened minds is so difficult to be con- 
quered. 

We know very little of the dialects of the Chinese empire, 
as we are not permitted to penetrate into that country, or 
even to land on their coast, except at the port of Canton. 
Dr. Marshman has given us some interesting particulars 
respecting the dialect of that province,* from which we find 
that it differs very little from the court dialect. It is, like 
that, monosyllabic, and destitute of grammatical forms. 
The difference lies in some words, and in some peculiar 
modes of expression ; but on the whole it is the Chinese, 
read and pronounced as Chinese with a few exceptions, 
which have necessarily occasioned some alterations in the 
character, which are the provincial orthography. The 
Mithridates gives us also a brief account of the dialect of 
the province of Fo-kien, extracted from a grammar and 
dictionary preserved in manuscript in the Royal Library of 
Berlin. The grammar, it appears, has been printed in 
Bayer's Museum Sinicum, which book I have not seen. On 
the whole, it differs from the pure Chinese, pretty much in 
the same manner as the Canton dialect ;f and Dr. Marsh- 
man presumes that it is much the same in the other pro- 
vinces. 

But it is said that not only the inhabitants of the provinces 
of China, who speak different dialects, read, write and un- 
derstand the Chinese written language, but that the same 
thing takes place in Tonquin, Cochinchina, the Loo-choo 
Islands, and other countries, where the languages are 

* Clavis Sinica, p. 560. f Mithrid. vol. i. p. 54. 



86 

monosyllabic dialects of the Chinese, and also in Japan, the 
vernacular idiom of which country is known to be polysyl- 
labic, and to differ entirely in etymology and grammar from 
that of China. If this were stated merely as a fact, without 
attaching to it any particular importance, it might easily be 
credited, as there is certainly nothing in it to excite our won- 
der. Thus, if a Chinese should say that he saw in Europe men 
of different nations conversing with one another in writing, 
in a language called the La-tin, though they could not un- 
derstand each other's native idiom, nor even converse to- 
gether in that language, because of the difference of their 
pronunciation, he would easily be credited, and no more 
would be said about it; all the inference that would be 
drawn from the fact w r ould be, that both had learned the 
Latin language, but could not converse in it, because they 
pronounced it differently. But it is not so that our enthusi- 
asts wish to be understood. They wish it to be believed 
that there is something magical in the Chinese writing, 
something out of the ordinary course of things, by which 
ideas are conveyed from eye to eye, and through the eyes 
from mind to mind, without the intervention of articulate 
sounds; so that each person may read the characters in his 
own language, however it may differ from the Chinese in 
words or in form. To such a broad assertion it is impos- 
sible for a rational man to give his assent. 

If the language of those who thus read the Chinese with- 
out being able to speak it, should be formed precisely on the 
model of that idiom as to its grammatical structure, and 
should use the same characters to represent corresponding 
words, the fact might easily be believed ; but that is a thing 
not to be expected, since even in China the dialects differ 
from each other. If the resemblance should extend only to 
a certain number of words and of characters, to that extent 
the parties might understand each other, but no farther. If, 
however, the difference were total, as between the Japanese 



87 

and llie Chinese, I cannot conceive how two men, thus cir- 
cumstanced, can converse together in writing in the Chinese 
character, unless they botli should have learned it, not as an 
ideographical character, but as the representation of a 
spoken idiom ; in short, as Chinese. That they should not 
both pronounce it alike can make no difference; their vocal 
organs might not be accustomed to utter its sounds, or they 
might not have been in the habit of speaking it, and could 
not find the words when they wanted them. 

This is a natural explanation of a natural fact ; but mira- 
cles, such as the enthusiasts would have us believe, cannot 
be explained. We have disposed of the Chinese provinces; 
let us now see how the fact stands in other countries, and 
to what causes it is to be attributed. 

We know that the monosyllabic family of languages ex- 
tends beyond the limits of the Chinese empire. All those 
languages, as far as we are informed, appear to be derived 
from the same stock; but which of them is the mother 
tongue, it is impossible to tell. The Chinese is the most 
cultivated, but that does not give it the droit oVainesse. Of 
all those languages we have but a few words, scattered 
here and there in the works of philologists. Of one of them 
only, a dictionary and a short grammar exists in Europe. 
It is the Anamitic, or, as some write it, Annamitic, the lan- 
guage of the country of Anam, which is said to include Ton- 
quin and Cochinchina. The book is entitled Alexandre De 
Rhodes DictionariumAnnamiticum, and was printed at Rome, 
in 1051, in quarto.* Such rare books are not to be obtained 
in this country. It does not appear whether the written 
characters are given with the words ; I rather presume that 
they are not. 

It is known also, that those nations make use of the Chinese 
characters in writing their several idioms, but in what man- 

* Mithrid. vol. i. p. 88. 



88 

ner, and with what alterations or modifications, is entirely 
unknown. I am informed that there are several Tonqui- 
nese manuscripts in the Royal Library at Paris, but that the 
characters are so altered or so abbreviated, which in part 
perhaps arises from their peculiar calligraphy, that the 
sinologists have hitherto been unable to decipher them. Of 
the Cochinchinese graphic character, nothing that I know 
of has yet appeared in Europe. Father Morrone's Vocabu- 
lary, now presented to our Society, will be the first printed 
specimen of the Chinese system of writing, applied to an- 
other monosyllabic language. It may help to decipher the 
manuscripts in the Royal Library at Paris. There is rea- 
son to believe that the Tonquincse and Cochinchinese, with 
little variation, are the same language. 

It is therefore from this Vocabulary, and from it alone, 
that we can at present form an idea of the manner in which 
the Chinese system of writing is applied to a monosyllabic 
language other than the Chinese. I can do little more than 
produce the document, as it is not in my power to institute 
a comparison between the Chinese and Cochinchinese lan- 
guages, and to explain the practical use which they respect- 
ively make of the same graphic system. The observations 
of M. de la Palun are not intended to instruct his brother 
sinologists, but to facilitate their labours. To them the 
question before us, as it respects monosyllabic idioms, must 
ultimately be submitted. 

In this Vocabulary any one may observe that there are 
a number of genuine Chinese characters applied to words 
corresponding in sense, though often differing in sound. So 
far, it must be acknowledged that the two nations may 
communicate with each other in writing, though they might 
not orally. But it will be seen also, that this correspondence 
does not exist throughout, and that the same character in 
the two languages often represent what the sinologists would 
call ideas, totally different, and sometimes opposite to each 



89 

other. Neither is the combination of the characters always 
the same in the two idioms. And lastly, it will be perceived, 
that there is a great number of characters, which M. de la 
Palim could not find in the printed Chinese dictionaries. 
They may be abbreviations of Chinese characters peculiar to 
theCochinchinese, or perhaps they are among the multitude 
of obsolete signs known only to the literati, and therefore 
which can be of little service in common use. All these 
things, no doubt, wall be duly weighed by the sinologists of 
Europe, if the subject should be thought worthy of their 
attention. 

But I will not anticipate on the labours of the sinologists, 
who are much more able to investigate this subject than I 
am, and to whom I am happy to have furnished a subject 
on w r hich to exercise their sagacity, aided by knowledge 
which I do not possess. 

On the whole it must be acknowledged, that, to a certain 
extent, the Chinese and Cochinchinese may communicate in 
writing without knowing each other's spoken language. 
How far it is in their power so to do, I leave to those better 
able to decide it than myself. I must now proceed to the 
polysyllabic languages. 

It is unfortunate, that of the polysyllabic languages which 
are said to make use of the Chinese characters in their 
writing, there is but one, the Japanese, with which we are 
sufficiently acquainted to be able to form a judgment on the 
question before us. We have a grammar of this language, 
written in Portuguese by Father Rodriguez, and translated 
into French by M. Landresse.* To this work is added a 

* Elemens de la Grammaire Japonaise, par le P. Rodriguez; traduits 
du Portug-ais sur le manuscrit de la Bibliotheque du Roi, et soigtieusement 
collationne avec la Grammaire publiee par le meme auteur a Nagasaki en 
1604, par M. C. Landresse, membre de la Societe Asiatique. Precedes 
d'une explication des syllabaires Japonais, et de deux planches, contenant 
12 



90 

preface, and an explanation of the two syllabic alphabets of 
the Japanese, by which we are enabled to understand their 
graphic system; and the grammar lets us fully into the 
structure of their vernacular language, which is polysyllabic, 
and in its words as well as in its grammatical forms differs 
entirely from the Chinese. This language is called the 
Yomi; it is the idiom of the country, not a patois, solely in 
use among the vulgar and illiterate. In this language, says 
M. Remusat, are written novels, poems, and other works of 
light literature.* 

The alphabet of this idiom consists of forty-seven charac- 
ters, each of which represents a syllable. Those characters 
are Chinese, but which do not here represent words, or, as 
the sinologists would say, ideas, but only syllabic sounds. 
There are two such alphabets, one called Kata Kana and 
the other Firo Kana, but they are in fact one and the same; 
the only difference between them is, that one of them is 
formed of the running hand, and the other of the square 
characters of the Chinese. Both are written in an abridged 
form, and are joined together in various ways, which it is 
unnecessary here to mention. It is evident that those who 
know only this language, cannot communicate with the Chi- 
nese, either orally or in writing. 

But the Chinese is also used in Japan. It is there a learn- 
ed language, in which are written works of history, philoso- 
phy, and the higher literature.-)- The notes are usually 
written in the Yomi, as notes to Latin books with us are 
sometimes written in English. Sometimes the two languages 
are mixed, which it would seem can only be for those who 
are acquainted with both, that is to say, the literati. It is 
not presumable that the mass of the people possess this 

les signes de ces syllabaires, par M. Abel Remusat. Ouvrag-e public par 
la Societe Asiatique. Paris, Dondey Dupre, 1825. 

* Elemens, &c. p. xiv. f Ibid. p. xiii. 



91 

knowledge. The pure Koye, says Father Rodriguez, is no 
other than the Chinese.* 

The words, or, as sinologists would say, the pronuncia- 
tion, of this language, are the same as the Chinese, with some 
trifling difference, arising principally from that in the vocal 
organs of the two nations, as several of the Chinese sounds 
are wanting in the Japanese. The people of Japan, for in- 
stance, want the letter /, and substitute for it the letter r, 
and f for p, which they also want. They omit the nasal 
sounds, which they cannot articulate. M. Remusat gives 
us some examples of these differences. 

For Thian or Teen (heaven) the Japanese say Ten 

" Goua 

Fou 
Fiao 
Nin 
Koo 
" Bouts 

Fak 
Oo 
Ri 
Seng (religious) " Soo, &c. 

It is probable, therefore, that those Japanese who have 
learned the Koye, that is to say, the Chinese language, 
though they pronounce it differently, as Europeans do the 
Latin and the Greek, may communicate in writing with the 
Chinese, though they may not understand each other when 
speaking; while those who have learned only the Yomi, 
cannot make themselves understood, either by writing or by 
word of mouth. In all this there is nothing wonderful or 

* Gramm. Japon. p. 104, § 109. 



Youei 


(moon) 


Foung 


(wind) 


Ping 


(ice) 


For Jin 


(man) 


Koung 


(prince) 


Fo 


(Buddha) 


Pe 


(white) 


Wang 


(king) 


Li 


(place) 



S)'Z 



miraculous, nor any thing that tends to prove the ideogra- 
phic character, or, as Dr. Marshman calls it, the permanent 
perspicuity of the Chinese system of writing. 



SECTION VIII. 



Conclusion. 



Such were my sentiments upon this subject in the month 
of December, 1827, when I had the pleasure to become ac- 
quainted with Captain Basil Hall, of the Royal British Navy. 
I had read his voyage to the Loo-Choo Islands, in which he 
had stated as matter of fact, that the inhabitants of China, 
Corea, Japan and Loo-Choo, understood each other by 
means of common written characters, though they could not 
understand each other's languages. I took the liberty, in 
the course of a conversation that I had with him, to express 
a different opinion, and to offer some arguments in support of 
my sentiment. Captain Hall candidly acknowledged that 
he had received his information at second hand, and that it 
was possible that he had been misinformed. There the 
matter rested until the latter end of June, in the year follow- 
ing, when Captain Hall being at New York, on the point of 
embarking for his native country, reminded me by letter of 
our conversation, and requested that I should send to him 
in England a statement of the facts and arguments on which 
was founded the opinion that I had advanced. This I pro- 
mised to do, and he departed. 

Shortly after his departure I performed my promise, and 
wrote him the letter which you have seen,* containing a 
summary of the arguments and facts by which I supported 

* Appendix, A. 



93 

my opinion, and which I have explained here more at large. 
The season being fine, and I in want of exercise and relaxa- 
tion from my professional labours, I took a trip to New York, 
and carried the letter with me, in order to put it on board 
one of the packets about to sail for England. While in that 
city I accidentally met with the latest number of Baron 
Ferussac's Bulletin des Sciences Historiques, &c.,* that had 
reached this country, in which, in a pretty long notice of a 
philosophical work, then lately published in Germany, I read 
the following paragraph : 

" The author (M. Windischmann) is in an error, when 
he believes that the Chinese writing might become a pasi- 
graphy, which all the world might make use of, even with- 
out knowing the oral language ; for the characters which 
represent sound, the hing-ching, constitute almost three- 
fourths of the writing ; and it is even this difficulty which 
has induced the Coreans, the Japanese, and the Cochinchi- 
nese, to change that system more or less, in order to adapt 
it to their languages. We find all the details relative to this 
alteration, which, at the same time, shows the passage from 
the ideographic to a system of syllabic and alphabetical 
writing, in the Memoir of M. Abel Remusat, inserted in the 
eighth volume of the Memoirs of the Institute, (Academy of 
Inscriptions and Belles Lettres, pp. 34 — 59.)" 

I was as much surprised as delighted in reading this para- 
graph. I had always considered M. Remusat as the most 
formidable of my adversaries. I could not but remember 
that he had said, that the inhabitants of Japan, Tonquin, 
Cochinchina and the Loo-choo Islands, though they did not 
understand one another when speaking, could hold a con- 

* It is much to be regretted that this excellent periodical has been dis- 
continued, as well as the Revue Encyclopedique, which was conducted by 
M. Jullien, at Paris. Their loss, at least to my knowledge, has not yet 
been repaired. 



94 

versation in writing, and read the same books.* But that 
was in 1811, when he was yet fresh from the reading of the 
Chinese authors, and his mind biassed by their opinions, 
which no one at that time could have contradicted without 
being stigmatised as a rash innovator and a fanciful theo- 
rist. But more extensive studies, and his own excellent 
judgment, had at last brought him to a clearer and a more 
rational view of the subject. 

I was so delighted with this discovery, that I immediately 
informed Captain Hall of it in a postscript to my letter, 
which was not yet sealed up ; it was done in such haste, 
that I called the article on M. Windischmann's book a short 
notice, and told him that it was written by Champollion, 
junior, which I really believed when I wrote, but which I 
have since found to be a mistake. The article is anony- 
mous, and signed S. 

Shortly after my return to this city, our Society received 
the eighth volume of the Memoirs of the Academy of In- 
scriptions, and I received M. Remusat's Memoir from the 
author himself. I cannot express with what pleasure I pe- 
rused it. I found in it all my ideas, but much better ex- 
pressed than I could have done. I recommend to you to 
read it with attention ; you will find in it a full and clear 
refutation of the opinion which has too long prevailed of the 
almost universality of the Chinese characters-! 

I should not have entered into this discussion, considering 
the question to be put at rest by M. Remusat's learned and 

* De sorte que quoiqu'ils ne se comprenerent pas en parlant, ils peu- 
vent cependant converser par ecrit, et lire les memes livres. C'est cette 
propriete de la langue Chinoise, qui a fait desirer a quelques mission- 
naires, qu'elle fut cultivee dans le monde entier, parce qu'alors, le Nou- 
veau Testament etant traduit en Chinois, tous les peuples pourdient le 
lire sans apprendre la langue et sur la seule inspection des curacteres. Essai 
sur la langue, &c. p. 35. 

f See Appendix, B. 



95 

elegant Memoir, if, notwithstanding the strength and clear- 
ness of his arguments, the opinion which he supports, and 
which has been ascribed exclusively to me, had not been 
repeatedly contradicted in such a manner as to require on 
my part to be noticed. An anonymous writer in the Can- 
ton Register rebuked Captain Hall in a severe, and, I might 
say, illiberal manner, for having yielded his opinion to mine, 
and asserted that he had himself interchanged thoughts in 
the Chinese character with the Cochinchinese, Japanese, 
and Loo-chooans, without understanding their respective 
languages ; and that it would be to be regretted, if that fact 
should lose its hold on the mind of any Christian philanthro- 
pist by the confessions of Captain Hall. You will find a 
copy of the whole article here subjoined.* 

I cannot understand how religion comes to be called in aid 
of any man's opinion in a mere question of fact. I should 
think that it may be decided without appealing to Moses or 
the prophets. I never suspected before that the Chinese 
characters involved a religious dogma, which cannot be 
contradicted without danger to the Christian faith. 

Not long afterwards, a more liberal antagonist presented 
himself in the person of Captain F. W. Beechey, of the 
Royal British Navy. That gentleman, in the narrative of 
his voyage to the Pacific and Behring's Straits, relates, that 
he found in the Loo-choo Islands many people who under- 
stood the meaning of the Chinese characters, but who could 
not give the Chinese pronunciation of the word; and he 
adds, that the language of Loo-choo is not monosyllabic 
like the Chinese, but is, like the Japanese, polysyllabic.^ 

I do not mean to contradict the gallant Captain in any 
thing that he asserts from his own knowledge. He has seen 
Loo-chooans who could read the Chinese character, and 
yet could not converse with him in Chinese. Be it so ; I 

* Appendix, C. f Appendix, D. 



96 

hope I have shown above how this may have happened, 
without affecting the principles on which I found my doc- 
trine. I am not so well convinced that the Loo-choo lan- 
guage is polysyllabic ; in this I fear Captain Beechey will 
find himself mistaken. 

The interesting question, therefore, how far the Chinese 
character may serve as a common medium of communica- 
tion between nations who speak different languages, and 
cannot communicate orally with each other, may be con- 
sidered as still sub judice; and documentary evidence tend- 
ing to its solution, cannot be unworthy of the attention of a 
philosophical society. On one side are arguments which, 
to every unprejudiced mind, appear to be conclusive ; on 
the other, are facts attested by witnesses worthy of credit. 
Surely the science of philology never presented a subject 
more deserving of full and complete investigation. 

I can easily comprehend how Chinese books and writings 
mav be read and understood by those who cannot speak the 
language. Such is the case, as I have observed before, 
with the sinologists and orientalists in Europe, who have 
never visited the countries the languages of which they 
have learned, would be greatly embarrassed were they to 
be suddenly transported into the city of Pekin or Cairo, to 
ask even for the common necessaries of life. It is the same 
with other languages, which are read and understood when 
written, by those who can neither speak nor understand 
them when spoken. There are many persons in this coun- 
try and elsewhere, who can read French, Italian or Ger- 
man, without being able to converse in those idioms. The 
fact is, that the groups of alphabetical letters which form 
our written languages are quite as ideographic as the cha- 
racters of the Chinese, and the proof is, that they can be 
read and understood by persons born deaf and dumb, and 
who never had the least idea of sounds. They understand 
the meaning of those groups by means of their analogies, 



97 

precisely as the Chinese characters are read. Those analo- 
gies in polysyllabic languages consist in the frequent occur- 
rence of the same prefixes, affixes, and inflexions of words, 
in the Chinese, in the juxtaposition and combination of the 
signs of words explanatory of each other, but not in the 
mimic forms of the signs themselves, as representing natu- 
ral or allegorical objects. 

So far there is no difficulty. If we consider the Chinese 
as a predominant or a learned language, taught in the 
schools of Cochinchina and other countries as a necessary 
part of education, we may conceive how it can be read and 
understood by educated persons, and to a certain extent be 
written by them, though it cannot be spoken; but if we are 
to understand that each nation only learns to read the Chi- 
nese character as written at home, and as applied to her 
own language, the question becomes much more difficult, 
and it must be acknowledged that it requires further inves- 
tigation. 

I should not, however, have addressed either the Society 
or yourself upon this subject, but should have left it to take 
its chance, if I had not expected to throw some new light 
upon it by the communication of Father Morrone's Cochin- 
chinese Vocabularies. I was informed of their existence 
by reading Lieutenant White's Voyage to the China Sea. 
I found in it a short extract from the Cochinchinese and 
French Vocabulary, containing twenty-five words of that 
language with the Chinese characters prefixed, and the 
corresponding Chinese word added by way of comparison, 
by a learned gentleman of Boston.* The greatest number of 
the Cochinchinese words, though different in sound, agreed 
in signification with the Chinese; but several were of quite 
another meaning. I found, for instance, that the character 
which in Chinese stood for kettle, in Cochinchinese signified 

* The Rev. William Jenks, D. D. 
13 



98 

lead; the Chinese character po, to land, in Cochinchinese 
meant silver, &c. I was so struck with this, that I men- 
tioned it in the preface to my translation of Zeisberger's 
Delaware Grammar,* and expressed a hope that the Aca- 
demy of Arts and Sciences at Boston would publish it in 
their valuable Memoirs. In this, however, I was disap- 
pointed. In the mean time, M. E. Jacquet, a distinguished 
member of the Asiatic Society of Paris, and a pupil of Abel 
Remusat, who had read the account I had given of that 
document in our transactions, expressed the wish to see it 
entire, and recommended that we should either publish it 
here, or transmit it to him to be published under the sanc- 
tion of the Asiatic Society. The manuscript had been de- 
posited by Lieutenant White in the library of the East India 
Marine Society at Salem, in Massachusetts. I made appli- 
cation to that Society for permission to take a copy of it. 
With the greatest liberality that respectable institution, 
through their president, William Fettyplace, Esq., sent me 
the original manuscript, and with it another, of the exist- 
ence of which I had no knowledge, and which is the one in 
Cochinchinese and Latin, which, on account of its larger size 
and alphabetical arrangement, I have called a Dictionary. 
Of this last I immediately caused a copy to be made, which 
you have here enclosed. 

On examining the former, I mean the Cochinchinese and 
French Vocabulary, with the Chinese characters prefixed, 
I found that it had not the addition of the Chinese words, as 
in the extract published by Lieutenant White. I was not 
then sufficiently acquainted with Dr. Jenks to take the liberty 
of asking him to undertake that labour. I was at a loss 
what to do, when I fortunately made the acquaintance of 
M. de la Palun, who was then consul of France at Richmond, 
in Virginia, and is now in the same capacity at Caracas, in 

* Transact. A. P. S., vol. iii. N. S. p. 72. 



99 

the republic of Venezuela. That gentleman, also a pupil of 
Abel Remusat, and well versed in the Chinese language, 
readily undertook to compare each Cochinchinese word 
with the Chinese word represented by the same character, 
and to commit to writing the result of his inquiry. This 
work he completed before his departure, not without much 
haste, as he did not expect so soon to be removed. He 
gave it to me in his passage through this city, on his way to 
New York, where he embarked for the place of his destina- 
tion. I regret that I had not sufficient time to confer with 
him on some points, which perhaps would have required a 
fuller explanation. 

Lieutenant White, in his book, makes no mention of the 
authorship of those two documents, and only says that they 
were given to him by Father Joseph Morrone, at Saigun, 
and that he is the eldest of the Italian missionaries there. 
We are therefore left to conjecture who are the authors of 
those two Vocabularies. 

As to the first, I mean the one which has the Cochinchi- 
nese characters annexed to it, I believe it to have been 
compiled by the good father himself. It is written entirely 
in his own hand, and the translation of the Cochinchinese 
words is in indifferent French. For instance, he writes 
la claive, I presume from the Latin clavis, instead of la clef, 
(the key,) and there are other indications which show him 
not to be very familiar with the language in which he wrote, 
though Lieutenant White says that he speaks it fluently. 
I therefore believe that I may publish this Vocabulary as 
the work of Father Morrone, as I see no reason to suppose 
that it is that of a French missionary. It is true, that the 
Cochinchinese words are written with the Portuguese 
orthography, but that may be in common use among the 
missionaries there. In translating the Cochinchinese word 
which means a goose, he uses the French word canard, but 
not being sure of it, he explains it by the Italian word oca, 



100 

which shows that he wrote in a language in which he was 
not perfect. 

As to the second manuscript, (the Cochinchinese and 
Latin Dictionary,) I am of a different opinion, and believe 
it to be only a copy of the work of some other person. M. 
Jacquet, whom I consulted on the subject, wrote to me as 
follows: "As to the Vocabulary No. 2, I do not believe it 
to have been composed by Father Morrone. For more 
than two centuries, there has been in the missionary estab- 
lishments in Cochinchina, a Cochinchinese and Latin Vo- 
cabulary, without the Chinese characters, which every new 
missionary copies on his arrival at the mission, and adds to 
it his own observations, if he is able to make any. In this 
manner there are several copies, differing in the details, 
though the ground work is the same. The celebrated 
Bishop of Adran, M. Pigneaux,* undertook, about fifty years 

* Lieutenant White calls him Bishop Adran, mistaking the name of his 
episcopal see for his proper name. The account he gives of him is in- 
teresting. " At the period of the rebellion," (1774) says he, "there re- 
sided at court a French missionary of the name of Adran, who called 
himself the apostolic vicar of Cochinchina. The king held him in such 
great consideration, as to place under his tuition his only son and heir to 
the throne. After the rebellion was ended, the bishop became the oracle 
and guide of the king. Under his auspices the country was greatly im- 
proved; and during a short peace, he established a manufactory of salt- 
petre, opened roads, held out rewards for the propagation of the silk- 
worm, caused large tracts of land to be cleared for the cultivation of the 
sugar-cane, established manufactories for the preparation of pitch, tar, 
rosin, &c.; opened mines of iron; constructed smelting furnaces and 
foundries for cannon. Adran translated into the Onam language a system 
of European military tactics, for the use of the army. Naval arsenals 
were established, and a large navy, principally consisting of gun-boats, 
galleys, &c, was built and equipped. Under his direction, reformation 
was effected in the system of jurisprudence; he abolished several species 
of punishments that were disproportionate to the crimes to which they 
were annexed. He established public schools, and compelled parents to 
send their children to them at the age of four years. He drew up com- 
mercial regulations; built bridges; caused buoys and sea marks to be laid 



101 

ago, to compile all those Vocabularies into one, which 
should be the Dictionnaire de VAcademie of Cochinchina. 
He was, during fourteen years, engaged in that work, and 
compiled at the same time a Latin and Cochinchinese Dic- 
tionary, and wrote a grammar of that language. His 
labours, yet unpublished, were lately presented to the Asiatic 
Society of Calcutta, with a request that the British govern- 
ment in India should be invited to publish them, at the ex- 
pense of the East India Company, either at the printing 
office of Penang or at that of Calcutta. After a pretty long 
negotiation, the government made known to the Asiatic 
Society their refusal to undertake that publication, which 
would have cost only twelve hundred rupees. Application 
has since been made to the Translating Committee at Lon- 
don ; the result is not yet known." 

In the Journal of the Asiatic Society of London for Janu- 
ary, 1836, p. 54, I read the following paragraph : " A letter 
from the Vicar Apostolic of Cochinchina was read, request- 
ing the Society to forward the specimen of his Dictionary, 
which he regretted to hear could not be printed in Calcutta, 
to the Oriental translating fund in England, in case that 
body should be inclined to patronise its publication." 

Nothing has been heard about it since that time; and it is 
feared that this application has been as unsuccessful as the 
former. The United States, therefore, will have the honour 
of being the first to publish authentic documents respecting 
the language of Cochinchina, and to introduce that curious 
idiom to the literary world. 

down in all the dangerous parts of the coast, and surveys to be made of 
the principal bays and harbours. The officers of the navy were instructed 
in naval tactics by Frenchmen; his army was divided into regular regi- 
ments; military schools were established, and the officers taught the sci- 
ence of gunnery. Unfortunately for the country, the death of Adran 
occurred shortly after this; and with him expired many of the wholesome 
laws, institutions and regulations established by him." See White's Voy- 
age to the China Seas, pp. 89, 93. Boston edition. 



102 

This publication will not fail to excite interest in the other 
hemisphere. There is none in Europe in any way relating 
to the Cochinchinese idiom, except the Dictionarium Anna- 
miticum of Father De Rhodes, which I have already men- 
tioned, and which is very rare. The Anamitic language of 
which it treats is that of Tonquin, but there is reason to be- 
lieve that it does not differ much from that of Cochinchina. 
Lieutenant White calls the latter the language of Onam, by 
which the Tonquinese is also known ; and he calls the Co- 
chinchinese the Onamese flag. The Anamitic words given 
by Mr. Klaproth, in his Asia Polyglotta, are pure Cochin- 
chinese. 

It is said also, that about two hundred years ago the Ton- 
quinese invaded Cochinchina, and drove away the former 
inhabitants from the country; and that, it is also said, is the 
origin of the present population.* In that case, the lan- 
guage must be very nearly if not entirely the same. 

I have not pretended to enter into the comparison of the 
Cochinchinese languages and their system of writing, be- 
cause I do not feel myself competent to it, and because the 
task will be much better performed by the sinologists of 
Asia and Europe, to whose judgment I shall cheerfully 
submit. 

I am, very sincerely, 

Your friend and humble servant, 

PETER S. DU PONCEAU. 

Philadelphia, 24th November, 1836. 

* White, p. 82. Morrison's View of China, p. 80. 



APPENDIX. 



APPENDIX 

A. 

Letter from Peter S. Du Ponceau to Captain Basil Hall, 
R. B. M 

Philadelphia, 7th July, 1828. 
My dear Sir, 

Our mutual friend, Mr. Vaughan, has handed me your 
polite letter of the 29th ult. I was much surprised, and at 
the same time highly flattered, to find that the few observa- 
tions I took the liberty to make to you on the writing of the 
Chinese, when we last met at Dr. Gibson's, had left an im- 
pression on your mind ; as I had no expectation, amidst the 
many objects with which you were surrounded in your 
peregrinations through this country, of leaving even a trace 
in your remembrance. It is therefore with great pleasure 
that I comply with your request, in giving some further de- 
velopment to the ideas which I then threw out to you, and 
which derive all their value from your having thought them 
worthy to be kept in mind. 

Having for many years devoted my leisure moments to 
the study of the philosophy of language, the Chinese idiom 
and its peculiar system of writing could not escape my at- 
tention. I was at first astonished at the wonders which are 
ascribed to this mode of ocular communication, which ap- 
peared to me to be greatly exaggerated, and I determined 
11 



100 

to pursue the subject as far as my means would permit me. 
The result of my investigations docs by no means agree 
with the opinion that is generally entertained. I do not 
pretend to know the Chinese language ; therefore those who 
have learned, and consequently can read and understand it, 
have a great advantage over mc in a discussion in which I 
attempt to controvert even the opinions of profound sinolo- 
gists. I have, however, studied the elementary and other 
works which treat of that idiom, in order to acquaint my- 
self with the curious structure of that language, and the 
principles of its graphic system; and have possessed myself 
of a sufficient number of facts to enable me to form logical 
conclusions. This is all that can be expected of a general 
philologist ; if it were otherwise, that science must be en- 
tirely abandoned, as it is impossible for any one man to 
know more than very few of the unnumbered and perhaps 
innumerable languages that exist on the surface of the 
earth. 

The general opinion which prevails, even among those 
who are the most proficient in the Chinese idiom, is, that 
the system or mode of writing which is in use in that coun- 
try, and which they call the uritten in opposition to the 
spoken language, is an ocular method of communicating 
ideas, entirely independent of speech, and which, without 
the intervention of words, conveys ideas through the sense 
of vision directly to the mind. Hence it is called ideographic, 
in contradistinction from the phonographic or alphabetical 
system of writing. This is the idea which is entertained of 
it in China, and may justly be ascribed to the vanity of the 
Chinese literati. The Catholic at first, and afterwards the 
Protestant missionaries, have received it from them without 
much examination; and the love of wonder, natural to our 
species, has not a little contributed to propagate that opinion, 
which has at last taken such possession of the public mind, 
that it has become one of those axioms which no one will 



107 

venture to contradict. It requires not a little boldness to 
fly in the face of an opinion so generally received, and which 
has so many respectable authorities in its support, and none 
against it but those of reason and fair logical deductions 
from uncontro verted facts. As you have, however, in a 
manner challenged me to produce the proof of my asser- 
tions, I do not hesitate to do it, in the spirit of humility 
which becomes me, and submitting the whole to your can- 
dour and better judgment. 

This opinion has naturally led to that of the Chinese 
writing being an universal written language conveying 
ideas directly to the mind, and which might be read alike 
in every idiom upon earth, as our numerical figures and 
algebraic signs are. This idea has been carried so far, that 
some missionaries have wished that the Chinese written 
language, as it is called, should be cultivated through the 
whole world ; for then the New Testament, being trans- 
lated into Chinese, all nations might read it, without learn- 
ing the spoken idiom, and on a mere inspection of the cha- 
racters.* And as a proof that this might be done, it has 
been alleged that the Japanese, Coreans, Cochinchinese, 
and other nations, could read Chinese books without know- 
ing or understanding the oral language of China. But these 
are not the only wonderful systems to which this opinion 
has given rise. 

This writing having been formed, as is supposed, without 
any reference to, or connexion with, spoken language, a 
question might naturally arise, which of the two was first 
invented? Nobody, to be sure, has ventured to say that 
writing existed before speech ; yet if that proposition has 
not been directly advanced, I must say that sinologists have 
come very near to it. For instance, they affect to call the 
monosyllabic words of the Chinese language the pronuncia- 

* Remusat, Essai sur la langue et la literature Chinoise, p. 35. 



108 

tion of the characters, which leads to the direct inference 
that the words were made for the signs, and not these for 
the words. A justly celebrated French sinologist, M. Abel 
Remusat, does not indeed believe that a language was in- 
vented to suit the written characters after they were form- 
ed; but he supposes that some then existing popular idiom 
was adopted, to serve as a pronunciation to the graphic 
signs.* One step more, and hardly that, and written cha- 
racters must have been invented before men learned to 
speak. 

The English sinologists, Sir George Staunton, the Rev. 
M. Morrison, and others, represent the Chinese writing 
much in the same point of view, of which you may convince 
yourself by referring to their works. And by way of proof, 
it is every where repeated that the Chinese writings are 
read alike by different nations who do not understand the 
spoken idiom. 

No philosopher that I know of has yet attempted to re- 
duce these vague notions to a rational standard. I have 
stated them candidly, as they appear in the works of the 
missionaries, travellers, and sinologists, and I must own that 
they never satisfied my understanding. I have taken great 
pains to come at the real truth, and I shall now proceed to 
communicate to you the result of my inquiries. 

The Chinese language, I mean as it is spoken, for I do 
not call any writing a language, except metaphorically, is, 
as you well know, monosyllabic; that is to say, every one 
of its syllables (with very few exceptions) is a word, and 
has a specific determinate meaning ; in which it differs from 
our languages, which consist for the most part of unmean- 
ing syllables, or of syHables which, if they have an appro- 
priate meaning, have no connexion with the words of which 
they make a part. Take, for instance, the word con-jir-ma- 

* Melanges Asiatiques, vol. ii. p. 52. 



109 

lion; the first and the two last syllables have no meaning 
whatever; the second, fir, by itself means a kind of tree, 
but it has no relation to the word in which it enters. It is 
otherwise with the Chinese language ; every syllable of it 
is significant, and is never employed but in the sense of its 
meaning. There may be compound words in the Chinese, 
but as in our words welfare, icelcome, each of their compo- 
nent syllables preserve their proper signification. 

Every one of these significant syllables or words has one 
or more characters appropriate to it, and every character 
has a corresponding word.* If two Chinese read the same 
book, they will read it exactly alike; there will not be the 
dhTerence of a single syllable. Were it otherwise, the Chi- 
nese writing would be translated, not read. Notwithstand- 
ing what the sinologists tell us of the beauty of the Chinese 
poetry, and even of their prosaic style, to the eye, it is cer- 
tain that the metre and rhythm of their verses are addressed 
to the ear. Their versification is measured, and their poe- 
try is in rhyme, and they have also a measured prose.t All 
this is written in the pretended ideographic character, word 
for word, exactly as it is spoken ; and no two readings can 
absolutely take place. It seems therefore evident, that the 
characters were invented to represent the Chinese words, 
and not the ideas which these represent, abstractedly from 
the verbal expression. 

It is true, that in the grouping of characters to represent 
single words, the inventors have called to their aid the ideas 
which the words express. Thus the character which an- 
swers to the word hand, is grouped with those which an- 
swer to words expressing manual operations. But this was 
not done with a view to an ideographic language; it was 
merely an auxiliary means to aid in the classification of the 
numerous signs which otherwise the memory could not 

* Remusat, Grammaire Chinoise, p. 1. f Ibid. p. 171, &c. 



110 

have retained. The sinologists see great beauties in these 
associations, of which I am not competent to speak. I sus- 
pect, however, that there is in that more imagination than 
reality. 

Be this as it may, as the Chinese characters represent the 
words of the language, and are intended to awaken the re- 
membrance of them in the mind, they are not therefore in- 
dependent of sounds, for words are sounds. It makes no 
difference whether those sounds are simple and elementary, 
as those which our letters represent, or whether they are 
compounded from two or three of those elements into a syl- 
lable. There are syllabic alphabets, like that of the Sanscrit 
and other languages, and it has never been contended that 
they do not represent sounds. And it makes no difference 
that the Chinese syllables are also words, for that does not 
make them lose their character of sounds. But, on account 
of this difference, I would not call the Chinese characters a 
syllabic, but a logographic system of writing. 

This being the case, it seems necessarily to follow, that 
as the Chinese characters are in direct connexion with the 
Chinese spoken words, they can only be read and under- 
stood by those who are familiar with the oral language. I 
do not mean to say that they cannot be applied to other 
monosyllabic idioms, (and they are, in fact, applied even to 
polysyllabic languages, as I shall presently show,) I only 
contend that their meaning cannot be understood alike in 
the different languages in which they are used. 

You very well know, my dear sir, how various are the 
forms of human languages. You know that, even in the 
same language, there are not two words exactly synony- 
mous; a fortiori, it must be so in two different idioms. 
Take the word grand, for instance, which belongs to the 
French and to the English languages. Though its general 
meaning be the same in both idioms, yet how strong are the 
shades which distinguish the ideas they particularly repre- 



Ill 

sent! Now let us suppose that England is in possession of 
a tomographic system of writing. Will the character repre- 
senting the word grand be clearly understood by a French- 
man who does not know the English oral language? Will 
an Englishman understand the French character j'aimerais, 
without knowing the French mode of conjugating verbs? 
How would a Latin phrase be understood by an Englishman 
or a Frenchman, merely by means of signs appropriate to 
each word ? Our ideas, independent of speech, are vague, 
fleeting, and confused; language alone fixes them, and not 
in the same manner with every nation. Some languages 
take in a group of ideas, and express them in one word; 
others analyse a single idea, and have a separate word for 
each minute part of which it is composed. Some take an 
idea as it were in front, others in profile, and others in the 
rear; and hence the immense variety of forms and modes 
of expression that exist in the different languages of the 
earth. All languages abound in metaphors and elliptical 
modes of speech, which vary according to the genius of 
each particular idiom. In no language are these figures 
more frequent than in the Chinese, which is admitted to be 
elliptical in the highest degree, and is full of far-fetched 
metaphorical expressions. For instance, the grandees of 
the empire are called the four seas, (quatuor maria,) to ex- 
press which the Chinese writing has two characters, one for 
quatuor and the other for maria, which is very distinct from 
the idea of superiority or greatness. I ask how these cha- 
racters can be understood or read in a language that has 
not adopted the same mode of expression? Again: the 
English phrase, " / do not expect it," is rendered in Chinese 
by "how dare!" and the sentence, " What you are alarmed 
about is not of much importance," is thus expressed ; " You 
this one bother not greatly required."* It would be difficult 

* Morrison's Chinese Dialogues, vii. 197. 



112 

to read this intelligibly in any language but the Chinese, or 
one formed exactly on the same model, and in every respect 
analogous to it. Nor could the corresponding literal Eng- 
lish phrases be read intelligibly in Chinese, for want of simi- 
lar turns of expression and grammatical forms. 

A purely ideographical language, therefore, unconnected 
with spoken words, cannot, in my opinion, possibly exist. 
There is no universal standard for the fixation of ideas; we 
cannot abstract our ideas from the channel in which lan- 
guage has taught them to run; hence the Chinese writing 
is and can be nothing else than a servile representation of 
the spoken language, as far as visible signs can be made to 
represent audible sounds. I defy all the philosophers of 
Europe to frame a written language (as they are pleased to 
call it) that will not bear a direct and close analogy to some 
one of the oral languages which they have previously learn- 
ed. Jt will be English, Latin, French, Greek, or whatever 
else they may choose ; but it will not be an original written 
idiom, in which ideas will be combined in a different man- 
ner from those to which they have been accustomed. 

This reasoning, you will say, may be perfectly correct; 
but what if, in spite of your theory, Chinese books are un- 
derstood in Japan, Corea, and Cochinchina, even though the 
people do not understand the spoken idiom of China? This 
is, indeed, a pressing argument; but was the child born 
with a golden tooth'? 

It is a pretty well ascertained fact, that in Tonquin, Laos, 
Cochinchina, Camboje and Siam, and also Corea, Japan, 
and the Loo-choo Islands, the Chinese is a learned and sa- 
cred language, in which religious and scientific books are 
written ; while the more popular language of the country is 
employed for writings of a lighter kind. It is not therefore 
extraordinary, that there should be many persons in those 
countries who read and understand Chinese writing, as 
there are many among us who read and understand Latin : 



113 

and many on the continent of Europe, and also in Great 
Britain and the United States, who read and understand 
French, although it is not the language of the country. 
In many parts of the world there is a dead or living lan- 
guage, which, from various causes, acquires an ascendancy 
among the neighbouring nations, and serves as a means of 
communication between people who speak different idioms 
or dialects. Such is the Arabic through a great part of 
Africa ; the Persian in the East Indies ; the Chinese in the 
peninsula beyond the Ganges; and the Algonkin or Chip- 
peway among our north-western Indians. This alone is 
sufficient to explain why Chinese books and writings should 
be understood by a great number of persons in those coun- 
tries, and why they should smile at an unlettered foreigner 
who cannot do the like. But it must not be believed that 
they read those writings as a series of abstract symbols, 
without connecting them with some spoken language. If 
their language be a dialect of the Chinese, varying only in 
the pronunciation of some words ; and if it be entirely 
formed on the same model, there is no doubt but that the 
two idioms may be read with the same characters, as their 
meaning is the same in both ; but if there is any material 
diversity between the two idioms, it is impossible that the 
Chinese character should be understood, unless the spoken 
language of China be understood at the same time ; and 
this may be proved by well ascertained facts. 

In Cochinchina, the language commonly spoken is a dia- 
lect of the Chinese, monosyllabic like the mother tongue, 
and formed on the same grammatical principles. In writing 
this language, the Chinese logographic character is exclu- 
sively used ; but it does by no means follow, that a Cochin- 
chinese book would be understood in China, or vice versa. 
For although, in both languages, each character represents 
a single word, yet the words so represented are not always 
15 



114 

the same in sound or in sense. Thus the character which 
in Chinese represents the word tan, (a plain,) in Cochinchi- 
nese signifies dat, (the earth.) The character hin, (metal,) 
in Cochinchincse is read him, (a needle); Chinese y, (kettle,) 
Cochinchinese chi, (lead) ; Chinese po, (to land,) Coehinchi- 
nese bac, (silver.)* It is evident that the same book or 
manuscript could not be read or understood alike by a Chi- 
nese and a Cochinchinese. 

I cannot omit here an observation which appears to me 
to be peculiarly striking. If the Chinese writing be really 
ideographic; if it represents ideas and not sounds, how does 
it happen that the same character is used in different lan- 
guages to signify things that have no kind of connexion with 
each other ; as for instance, the verb to land, and the sub- 
stantive silver? It is difficult to think even of a distant 
metaphor that will apply to both these subjects. 

In Japan, there are two languages in general use. The 
Koye, which is no other than the Chinese, with some varia- 
tion in the pronunciation of the words, arising probably 
from the difference of the vocal organs of the two nations ; 
and the Yomi, which is the most popular language, the 
former being devoted to religion and science. The Yomi 
is polysyllabic, and has declensions, conjugations, and other 
complex grammatical forms, which the Chinese has not. 
Therefore, it cannot be written with the Chinese character 
logographicalli/, any more than the Greek or Latin could ; 
yet the Chinese character is used in writing that idiom. 
From a selection of those characters a syllabic alphabet has 
been made, which is in common use.f From a similar se- 
lection, says M. Remusat, the Coreans have made a mono- 
phonic alphabet of nine vowels and fifteen consonants,! 

* White's Voyage to the China Sea. Boston: ed. 1823. 

•J- Grammaire Japonaise de Rodriguez. 

$ Recherches sur les langues Tartares, p. 81. 



115 

with which they write their language. At the same time 
they can read and understand the Chinese, in which their 
sacred and scientific books are written. 

We know very little of the language of the Loo-choo Isl- 
ands. Father Gaubil (the French missionary) says, that 
they have three different idioms; others say that they speak 
a language compounded of the Chinese and Japanese. But 
little reliance is to be placed in these reports. It is probable 
that the Chinese is read and understood there also as a reli- 
gious and scientific language, or perhaps as an auxiliary 
means of communication. 

I have said enough, I think, to show, that if the Chinese 
writing is read and understood in various countries in the 
vicinity of China, it is not in consequence of its supposed 
ideographic character; but either because the Chinese is 
also the language or one of the languages of the country, or 
because it is learned, and the meaning of the characters is 
acquired, through the words which they represent. Without 
a knowledge of these words and of their precise significa- 
tion, according to the genius, syntax, and grammar of the 
language, it would be impossible to understand or remember 
the signification of the characters. If those characters 
could be read into languages which, like the Yomi and the 
Corean, differ in their forms from the Chinese, or in the 
meaning and sound of the words which the signs represent, 
they might be read alike in English, French, Latin, Greek, 
Iroquois, and in short in every existing idiom upon earth, 
which I think I have sufficiently proved to be impossible, 
according to the plainest deductions of simple logic. 

I have been carried further by my subject than I intend- 
ed ; but as I do not believe that it has yet been presented in 
this point of view, I thought that I should not be sparing of 
a few words in order to make myself clearly understood. 
With what success I have made out my argument, I leave 



116 

you entirely to judge. At any rate, I rejoice in the oppor- 
tunity which it gives me of expressing to you the senti- 
ments of sincere respect and esteem with which I am, 
dear Sir, 

Your most obedient, humble servant, 

PETER S. DU PONCEAU. 

Capt. Basil Hall, R. B. N., F. R. S., &c. &c. 

New York, 14th July. 
P. S. — Since my arrival in this town, whither I have 
come on an excursion of pleasure, I have been agreeably 
surprised to find, by an article in the Baron Ferusac's Bul- 
letin des Sciences Historiques, Philosophiques, &c. for the 
month of March last, that the opinion I have expressed on 
the subject of the Chinese writing, begins to prevail among 
the learned of Europe. The article I allude to is a short 
notice (p. 258) by M. Champollion, the elder, of a work on 
the History of Philosophy, published last year at Bonn, by 
M. Windischman, a German writer, who, as usual, repre- 
sents the Chinese character as a sort of pasigraphy, which 
may be read alike in every language. M. Champollion 
very properly combats this opinion, and observes, (as I have 
done,) that the Japanese, Cochinchinese, and other nations, 
have been obliged to modify that system of writing, to adapt 
it to their own languages. He adds, that the details of those 
alterations are to be found in a late memoir of M. Remu- 
sat, inserted in the eighth volume of the Memoirs of the 
Institute of France, (Academy of Inscriptions and Belles 
Lettres,) pp. 34 — 69. Thus I have the good fortune to have 
M. Champollion and M. Remusat on my side, to some ex- 
tent at least, though to what extent I cannot exactly tell, as 
the volume of the Memoirs of the Institute above referred 
to has not yet reached this country, at least that I know 



117 



of. I am very anxious to see it, as I have no doubt that 
the subject will have been treated in a very profound and 
scientific manner, by so able and learned a writer as M. 
Remusat. I beg leave to refer you to it, for further infor- 
mation on this interesting topic. P. S. D. 



B. 



Translated extract from M. Abel Remusat' s Memoir, entitled 
Remarques sur quelques icritures syllabiques, tiries des 
caracteres Chinois, 6rc. See the Memoirs of the Academy 
of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres, vol. viii. New Series, 
p. 34 et seq. 

The first missionaries who spoke of the Chinese language 
have said, — and it has been repeated after them in all rela- 
tions or narratives, and in all treatises of geography, gene- 
ral or particular, — that the Chinese characters, indifferent 
to all pronunciation, were understood by all the nations neigh- 
bouring upon China, notwithstanding the difference of their 
idioms ; so that the Tonquinese, the Cochinchinese, the Co- 
reans, the Japanese, read and pronounced them in their 
own way; and that all those nations who cannot commu- 
nicate orally either with the Chinese or with each other, 
could nevertheless correspond by writing, and read the 
same books, because they attached the same signification to 
the characters. This idea naturally brought us to that of 
pasigraphy, or universal writing, and it was strengthened 
by the example of the Arabic figures, which, as I have 
already said, are to a certain degree analogous. — But, with- 
out losing ourselves in vain speculations, the fact itself, such 



118 

as it has been advanced, would be to us a considerable sub- 
ject of astonishment. Indeed, it would be necessary that the 
idioms of the nations in the vicinity of China should bear a 
great analogy to that of the Chinese, to have made the 
former adopt, without any alteration, the characters of the 
latter, so as to be able to read, in their own language, books 
written in a different idiom ; the structure of both languages, 
the syntax, the order in which the words are placed, the 
inversions, the metaphors, should be exactly the same; the 
particles and signs of relation should always be employed 
on the same occasion, and put in the same place; all these 
analogies would suppose a complete similarity in the genius 
of all those languages, and that would be a phenomenon 
which the difference between the words would render still 
more difficult to explain. It will not therefore excite sur- 
prise, to find, on examination, that things are not exactly as 
has been supposed, which it will be easy to demonstrate. 

The books of Confucius, and the other classical works, 
which are required to be understood by all who occupy 
places in the countries submitted to the institutions of China; 
the imperial calendar, received by all the tributary nations, 
are the only books generally read and understood out of 
China, by all who pretend to the title of a man of letters 
(un lettre) : but it is false that they read those books in their 
own language. The pronunciation which they apply to each 
word is taken from that of the Chinese themselves, and does 
not differ more from it than that of certain provinces of the 
empire differs from that of the Mandarin language. When 
read by the literati of Cochinchina or Japan, the Chinese of 
those books is altered and corrupted, but it is still Chinese. 
The phraseology does not want to be changed: the gram- 
mar remains the same : but then that is a learned language, 
which is specially studied, and is not understood by the 
mass of the inhabitants, except a small number of words, 
which are common to them and the Chinese ; some techni- 



119 

cal terms, some names of natural objects or articles of mer- 
chandise, and some consecrated formulas or proverbs, which 
have passed into universal usage. 

On the other hand, in Tonquin, Japan or Corea, some 
persons may write, in imitation of those books, Chinese 
sentences or characters, which will be read and understood 
in China, if they are regularly composed ; and it is what is 
often done by the learned of those countries, particularly in 
Japan. But, in that case, they make use of characters 
which are foreign to them, and of a language and gram- 
matical system which are not those of their maternal idiom. 

[The learned author expatiates much further upon this 
subject, and illustrates it by a variety of examples, drawn 
from the Anamitic and other languages. We can only re- 
fer our readers to that excellent Memoir, which is well 
worthy of their attention.] 



C. 



Extracted from the Canton Register, No. 6. Wednesday, 17 th 
March, 1830. 

Captain Basil Hall's Travels in North America. — In the 
second volume of this work, at the 369th page, there are 
some remarks concerning the Chinese language, being the 
result of a conversation which the Captain had with Mr. 
Du Ponceau, of Philadelphia, "one of the most learned 
philologists alive." Hall says, that he himself had published 
the opinion " that in China, Japan, Corea and Loo-choo, 
though the spoken languages were different, the written 



120 

character was common to them all; and consequently, 
that when any two natives of the different countries met, 
though neither could speak a word of the other's language, 
they would readily interchange their thoughts by means of 
written symbols." " Before Mr. Du Ponceau had proceeded 
far in his argument," (says the Captain,) " he made it quite 
clear that I had known little or nothing of the matter; and 
when at length he asked why such statements had been put 
forth, there was no answer to be made but that of Dr. John- 
son to the lady who discovered a wrong definition in his 
Dictionary — Sheer ignorance, Madam." " Seriously, how- 
ever," (continues Hall,) " it is to be regretted that an error 
of this magnitude in the history of language should still have 
currency; and I have done, by way of reparation, what 
obviously presented itself at the time;" which was, that 
Mr. Du Ponceau should give the Captain his arguments in 
writing, that he might print them, which Du Ponceau did. 
Unfortunately, however, the Captain has not published his 
friend's reasoning, but only his conclusions. Those who 
desire to see the reasoning, are referred to the Annals of 
Philosophy, for January, 1829. 

In a former number we noticed the boldness of Captain 
Hall's assertions in reference to T^oo-clioo in the presence 
of Bonaparte, which assertions Sir Walter Scott repeated in 
his Life of Napoleon. Our author was not more bold then, 
than he appears timid on the present occasion; for what- 
ever the arguments or theory of his " good humoured" 
friend may be, there is not, we are convinced, any material 
error in Captain Hall's first assertion. That in every one 
of those countries, China, Japan, Corea and Loo-choo — not, 
as Du Ponceau says, in Camboje and Siam — but in the 
above named nations, the Chinese written language is very 
generally understood by all who can be said to read and 
write; and not in the limited manner that a "learned and 
sacred language may be supposed to be understood." And 



121 

it is equally certain, that " when any two natives who can 
write the Chinese character meet, though neither could 
speak a word of the other's language, they can readily in- 
terchange their thoughts by means of the Chinese written 
symbols." The writer of this has interchanged thoughts 
with Cochindiinese, Japanese, and Loo-chooans, by means 
of the Chinese characters, although he could not understand 
one word they uttered, nor could they understand his speech. 
Therefore, for all practical purposes, whether of religion, 
science or commerce, it is difficult to see wherein Captain 
Hall's first assertion is erroneous. 

But Mr. Duponceau, the President of the American Phi- 
losophical Society, says : " It must not be believed that they 
(the several nations alluded to) read those writings as a se- 
ries of abstract symbols, without connecting them with 
some spoken language." Again : " If there is any material 
diversity between the two (or the many) idioms, it is im- 
possible that the Chinese character should be understood at 
the same time." Page 372. 

As Captain Hall's book does not contain the theory nor 
argument of the President Du Ponceau, it is difficult to say 
what he is combating. But that the inhabitants of China, 
Cochinchina, Corea, Japan and Loo-choo, can, when totally 
unintelligible to each other orally, communicate their thoughts 
by means of the Chinese character — that is, the Chinese 
character is understood at the same time — is perfectly true. 
That the Chinese character is thus generally understood by 
five nations, whose spoken languages are unintelligible to 
each other, is an important fact ; and " seriously would it 
be to be regretted" that this fact should lose its hold on the 
mind of any Christian philanthropist, by the confessions of 
Captain Hall before the President of the American Philo- 
sophical Society. 

16 



122 



D. 



Extract from the booh entitled " A Narrative of a Voyage to 
the Pacific Ocean and Behring's Strait, to co-operate with 
the Polar Expeditions performed in his Majesty's ship 
Blossom, under the command of Captain F. W. Beechey, 
Royal Navy, F. R. S., §~c. fyc, in the years 1825, 26, 27, 
28." Published by authority of the Lords Commissioners 
of the Admiralty. London, printed : Philadelphia, reprint- 
ed : 1832. 

While upon this subject I must observe, that the idea of 
Mr. P. S. Du Ponceau, " that the meaning of the Chinese 
characters cannot be understood alike in the different lan- 
guages in which they are used," is not strictly correct, as 
we found many Loo-choo people who understood the mean- 
ing of the character, which was the same with them as the 
Chinese, but who could not give us the Chinese pronuncia- 
tion of the word. And this is an answer to another obser- 
vation which precedes that above mentioned, viz. that " as 
the Chinese characters are in direct connexion with the 
Chinese spoken words, they can only be read and under- 
stood by those who are familiar with the spoken language." 
The Loo-choo words for the same things are different from 
those of the Chinese, the one being often a monosyllable, 
and the other a polysyllable: as in the instance of charcoal, 
the Chinese word for it being tan, and the Loo-chooan cha- 
ehee-jing, and yet the people use precisely the same charac- 
ter as the Chinese to express this word ; and so far from its 
being necessary to be familiar with the language to under- 
stand the characters, many did not know the Chinese words 
for them. Their language throughout is very different 



123 

from that of the Chinese, and much more nearly allied to 
the Japanese. The observation of M. Klaproth, in Archiv 
fur Asiatische Litteratur, p. 152, that the Loo-choo lan- 
guage is a dialect of the Japanese, with a good deal of Chi- 
nese introduced into it, appears to be perfectly correct, 
from the information of some gentlemen who have com- 
pared the two, and are familiar with both languages. The 
Vocabulary of Lieutenant Clifford, which we found very 
correct, will at any time afford the means of making this 
comparison. 



No. II. 



VOCABULARY 



COCHINCHINESE LANGUAGE. 

BY THE REV. JOSEPH MORRONE, 

MISSIONARY AT SAIGON*. 

WITH NOTES, 

SHOWING THE AFFINITY OF THE CHINESE AND COCHINCHINESE 

LANGUAGES, AND THE MANNER IN WHICH THOSE TWO NATIONS 

MAKE USE OF THE SAME SYSTEM OF WRITING. 

BY M. DE LA PALUN, 

Late Consul of France at Richmond, in the State of Virginia- now holding 
the same office at Caraccas, in the Republic of Venezuela. 



PREFACE, 

BY PETER S. DU PONCEAU. 



The pious and learned Warburton was the first who dis- 
covered that the inscriptions on the Egyptian obelisks were 
not a secret and mysterious writing, but that they were in- 
tended to be read and understood by all. He was the first 
who discovered (before Young or Champollion was born) 
that the characters called hieroglyphic were employed by 
the Egyptians as the signs of elementary sounds, or in other 
words, as letters of an alphabet.* He made these discove- 
ries by the force of his intuitive genius, and by a clear and 
correct understanding of the famous passage of Clement of 
Alexandria, which philologists in Europe have since taken 
so much pains to torture and render unintelligible. He 
made all these discoveries, but has not received for them 
the credit to which he is entitled. Young and Champollion 
only proved by facts that his theory was correct. His supe- 
riority over them is that of the mind, which soars above 
the clouded atmosphere of human intelligence, and pene- 
trates into the unknown, over the patient labour, aided by 
sagacity, that investigates details. To Warburton, there- 
fore, is due the honour of having first of all the moderns, 
discovered and understood the true system of the ancient 

* Divine Legation of Moses, book iv. sect. 4. 



128 

Egyptian writing, and manifested it to the world by a clear 
and luminous course of reasoning, founded on the nature of 
things, and to which every reasonable man is forced to give 
his assent. 

These were great and important discoveries for the time 
when they were made ; but unfortunately the learned pre- 
late stopped there, and did not proceed further. The 
Egyptian writing was connected with the subject he was 
treating of; the Chinese was not, and much less the paint- 
ings of the Mexicans. With respect to those, he adopted 
the generally received opinions. Therefore, he considered 
the art of writing as confined to two systems, the one repre- 
senting or recalling to the mind ideas, (as he conceived the 
Chinese characters to be, and the Egyptian symbols to have 
been in their origin,) the other representing sounds. But by 
the word sounds, he understood only the primary and se- 
condary elements of speech, which we call letters and sylla- 
bles; it does not appear to have occurred to him that words 
also were sounds, and might be represented as such by 
graphic signs. 

The President Debrosses, who, in his Traite de la forma- 
tion mecanique des langues, adopted all the Bishop's opinions 
on this subject, and whose chapter on the different systems 
or modes of writing is but a paraphrase of what is said in 
the Divine Legation, entitles that chapter "De 1'ecriture 
symbolique et litterale," (Of symbolic and literal writing,) 
thus taking it for granted that no other system than these 
two did or could exist. This Vocabulary I hope will show, 
that there is also a lexigraphic system, by which words, that 
are also elements of speech, are recalled to the mind by 
means of written signs or characters, and which is there- 
fore a 'phonetic system as much as our alphabets; and that 
the only difference between it and those which represent 
the more minute elements of human language, is in the me- 
thod pursued, arising from the great number of words of 



129 

which languages are composed, which could not be conve- 
niently represented by characters purely arbitrary. 

If this theory be founded on rational principles, there will 
arise out of it a system of classification of the different 
modes of writing, which appears to me to be consistent with 
itself and with the nature of things. Written languages, 
then, (I am willing to use the expression.) will be divided 
into three classes, to wit : 

1. The le.xigraphic, which represents words. 

2. The syllabic, which represents syllables. 

3. The elementary, which represents the primary sounds 
or elements of speech, which we call letters. 

In the first of these classes I would place the writing of 
the ancient Egyptian, as well as that of the Chinese, and its 
affiliated languages. 

I do not mean to say that one of these forms is exclusively 
adopted in any one language. They may be found mixed, 
as has been shown to be the case in the Egyptian and the 
Chinese. There is nothing in this world which is not com- 
posed of various elements, but there is generally one which 
predominates. 

As to ideographic writing, as it is called, I am willing to 
admit that it may exist as abridged forms, and as auxiliary 
to other systems. Thus we have our arithmetical and alge- 
braical figures, and in our almanacs we see the planets, the 
phases of the moon, and the signs of the zodiac, represented 
by peculair characters. But I cannot believe that there 
can be an entire language so composed, as I have endea- 
voured to prove in my letter to Mr. Vaughan. 

As to the Mexican paintings, we know too little about 
them to make them the basis of a system. We must wait 
until more light shall be thrown upon the subject. Until 
then, conjectures'can lead to no result. I believe them to 
have been connected with the spoken language, but I con- 
fess that I cannot administer the proof of it. 
17 



130 

I find by Dr. Young's Rudiments of the Egyptian Lan- 
guage, annexed to Mr. Tatam's Coptic Grammar, which 
has but lately come to my hands, that great progress has 
been made in deciphering the derrlotic manuscripts, a fact 
of which before I had no knowledge. The discoveries 
that have been made go far to confirm my theory. I hope 
this study will be pursued. 

I have not yet seen the work on Egyptian hieroglyphics, 
ascribed to M. Spineto ; but from references made to it I 
observe that the learned in Europe are now looking more 
for words than for ideas in the hieroglyphic characters. 
Thus my theory is at least adopted in practice. I see also 
that this author has found characters representing those 
particles that take the place of our inflected grammatical 
forms, which corroborates M. Champollion's opinion, con- 
tradicted with so much levity by M. Klaproth,* and shows 
the Egyptian writing to have been in part syllabic. I have 
seen also, from those few quotations, that the Egyptians had 
characters to represent words of more than one syllable, as 
soten, king, and noyte, God ; from which it appears, that the 
lexigraphic system is not confined to monosyllabic lan- 
guages, like the Chinese, as might perhaps have been sup- 
posed. Upon the whole, I would conclude that the Egyp- 
tian system was mixed, and partook of the lexigraphic, syl- 
labic, and elementary character, with symbolic abbrevia- 
tions, (the remains of a former imperfect system,) such as 
we ourselves use in our almanacs, &c. These, probably, 
were chiefly employed on religious subjects. 

It is much to be regretted that literary intercourse is not 
more frequent and more regular between this country and 
Europe. Many valuable books do not come to us until long 
after they have appeared abroad. Thus American writers 

* See above, p. 57. 






131 

may be taxed with pretending to have discovered what had 
been discovered before. Our celebrated Rjttenhouse for a 
long time believed that he was the inventor of fluxions. 
He did not know that Newton and Leibnitz had been con- 
tending for the merit of the discovery. That was in early 
colonial times, but we may be said to be yet in a great mea- 
sure colonial in that respect. I hope the learned of both 
hemispheres will unite their efforts to produce a state of 
things more favourable to science. 

These remarks will perhaps be considered as out of place, 
and as foreign to the Vocabulary which this preface is 
meant to introduce. I am willing to confess that they 
are. A twelvemonth has elapsed since my letter to Mr. 
Vaughan was written, and further reflection has convinced 
me that the system which I have presented in it might have 
been much more fully developed, and that it is fruitful of 
consequences that may perhaps extend the bounds of philo- 
logical science. It appears to me that the art of writing, 
in its different forms, deserves to be separately investi- 
gated; it not being less important to consider how men 
have proceeded in inventing different modes of communi- 
cating their ideas by writing, as in forming their oral lan- 
guages. This branch of science might be called graphology, 
or by any other name that should be thought more appro- 
priate. 

It is but lately that the idea occurred to me of dividing 
the different systems of writing into classes, as I have at- 
tempted to do in this preface. This classification is a natu- 
ral consequence of my general theory, and I have thought 
I might, without too much impropriety, introduce it here, 
with a few more observations that occurred to me as I 
wrote. I have however to say, by way of apology, that the 
question which this Vocabulary is intended to aid in solving 
is intimately connected with the system that I have exposed, 



132 

and that its solution appears to me in a great measure to 
depend upon it. 

That question, restricted within its proper bounds, is no 
other than " Whether, and how far, the Chinese characters 
can serve as an ocular medium of communication between 
two nations who do not understand each other's spoken 
language, and who have not learned to read that character 
as Chinese, and as connected with the Chinese oral idiom?" 

Two nations are here presented (the Cochinchinese and 
the Chinese) who appear to have originally made part of the 
same people, wdio both speak monosyllabic languages, 
formed on the same grammatical system, and appearing to 
be dialects of each other, or of some other language form- 
erly common to them both. Those nations have, with some 
modification, the same religious principles, the same form 
of government, the same habits, manners and customs, and 
that common stock of ideas, which constitutes a family of 
nations, and greatly facilitates their communications with 
each other. If it should be found and decided that two na- 
tions, thus circumstanced, cannot communicate together in 
writing by means of a common graphic system, it will be 
clear that no others can do the same ; if otherwise, it will 
prove nothing as to nations whose oral languages differ es- 
sentially in their structure, and to which the same system 
of writing cannot be applied : as, for instance, the Japanese 
and the Chinese, on whom I have sufficiently expatiated. 

This Vocabulary will not only aid in the solution of that 
important philological question, but I think it will throw 
some light on the early history of the Chinese and Cochin- 
chinese people in relation to each other. Languages are 
acknowledged to be a source of history. The same, I be- 
lieve, may be said of the graphic characters of the Chinese 
and Cochinchinese. Let me be permitted to give here an 
example of it. 



133 

In the Chinese language the sun is called ji, and the moon 
youei (I use M. Remusat's orthography) ; each of these 
words has a character to represent it, which was originally- 
meant as a picture of the object. A month, which in that 
language is called a moon, has the same name as the planet, 
and is represented in writing by the same character. Now 
let us see how it is in Cochinchinese. 

In that language the sun is called the face in the heavens, 
or, in their abridged form of speech, face heavens. The 
moon is called while face or moon face; for the word trang, 
which signifies white, used singly, means also moon.* The 
words sun and moon, or rather face heavens, and face white 
or face moon, are each represented by two groups of charac- 
ters, placed one under the other, according to the Chinese 
custom. (See plates Nos. 7 and 8.) So that the Cochin- 
chinese have not, like the Chinese, a single word to express 
the sun or the moon, nor have they a single character or 
group to represent either. Those two great luminaries, 
however, strike the senses at first sight; and almost every 
nation has a separate name, consisting of a single word, for 
each of them, without having recourse to a periphrasis for 
either.f 

From these facts I am inclined to infer, that the Chinese 
and Cochinchinese had been long separated, before the lat- 
ter received the art of writing from the former, and that 
their spoken idioms had at that time considerably diverged; 
so that it may be fairly presumed that the Chinese were a 
civilized nation long before the people of Cochinchina. 

Many more such facts, no doubt, will strike the minds of 
those who are better acquainted than I am with the Chinese 

* Thang is the word for month; the character is the same as for white. 
(See plates, Nos. 8 and 25.) 

■J- Some of our Indians call the moon the sun or the star of the night, 
(l'astre de la nuit,) but such instances are rare. 



134 

language and character, and to them I commit the subject 
with great pleasure. On these various grounds I hope that 
this Vocabulary, and the Dictionary which follows it, will 
not be thought devoid of interest by the learned world. 

The Vocabulary was written by Father Morrone, in the 
French language ; I have only added to it the English sig- 
nification of the words, that it might be more generally un- 
derstood. M. de la Palun's Notes, and his Preliminary 
Observations, were also written in French; I have, with his 
permission, translated them into English, and added a few 
occasional remarks, particularly references to the Cochin- 
chinese and Latin Dictionary,* (which M. de la Palun had 
not before him when he wrote his annotations,) and some 
other references. Those additions are enclosed between 
brackets [] ; all else is a faithful translation of M. de la Pa- 
lun's text. The asterisks, (*) which indicate that the Cochin- 
chinese characters could not be found in his Chinese dic- 
tionaries, are exactly in the places which he assigned to 
them. 

The Dictionary, or Lexicon, as it is entitled, was written 
in Cochinchinese and Latin, as if now appears ; nothing has 
been changed or altered in it. It is published (except the 
title) exactly as it was received. The alphabetical order 
does not appear to have been very carefully preserved; but 
it has been thought best not to make any alteration in it. 
The accents, and the signs indicating the tones, have been 
omitted, both in the Vocabulary and the Dictionary, as use- 
less to the object of this publication, which is not to teach 
the pronunciation of the Cochinchinese language. The 
system of writing is the principal object in view. 

The characters in the plates have been lithographed from 
the copy made of them by M. de la Palun ; they are more 
legible than those in the original manuscript. 

* Post, No. III. 



135 

M. He la Palun's manuscript is preserved in the library of 
the American Philosophical Society. The original Vocabu- 
laries will be returned to the East India Marine Society at 
Salem, by whom they were kindly lent to us for publica- 
tion. 

Philadelphia, 14th Nov. 1837. 



POSTSCRIPT. 

Since this Preface was written, and part of it being 
already in type, I have received from Lieutenant Godon, of 
the United States' navy, lately returned from a three years' 
cruise in the Indian Sea, with the squadron under the 
command of Commodore Kennedy, to be presented to the 
American Philosophical Society for their library, a valuable 
collection of printed Missionary Tracts and translations, and 
several Manuscripts, in the languages of the different coun- 
tries bordering on that sea, of which I think it right to 
mention here the most important, for the information of 
American philologists. I stop the press to insert this short 
notice. 

Amongst other donations of the same kind are the follow- 
ing: 

1. A religious Tract in the Siamese language and cha- 
racter. The Siamese is classed by Adelung* among the 
the monosyllabic languages ; the characters do not show it 
to be so ; they are to all appearance alphabetical, probably 
syllabic. The words are separated as in our languages ; 
some words have more than twenty letters. 

2. A Manuscript in the same language, being several 
leaves taken from a book on Astrology. It is written on 
the leaves of the Tallipot, a species of Palm tree. The wri- 

* Mithrid. vol. i. p. 92. 



130 

ting is elegant; the characters are the same with those in 
the printed tract, but their form is more acute. This was 
obtained by Lieutenant Godon with great difficulty, not 
without the aid of money. 

3. A Manuscript Book in the same language. The subject 
of it is unknown, but it is of a popular character, and is sup- 
posed to be a tale, a kind of reading which the Siamese are 
very fond of. Jt is written on a single sheet of thick paper, 
but not stiff, like pasteboard, so that it may be folded without 
breaking. The sheet is of the length of twenty-two feet 
four inches, and thirteen inches in breadth (English mea- 
sure.) It is black on both sides, and the writing is white ; 
the letters appear as if written with chalk, but Lieutenant 
Godon says it is done with a pencil. The writing is beautiful ; 
it has the appearance of our most elegant script calligraphy, 
much like what the French call ecriture bdtarde, and the 
characters are not acute as in the other manuscript. The 
book, thirteen inches long and four inches broad, is only 
eleven inches in thickness. It is made up by folding the 
sheet like the leaves of a fan. Each fold contains two 
pages, of which this volume has sixty, being folded thirty 
times. It is so that popular books are written and made 
up, and Lieutenant Godon says they are very common. He 
saw several persons engaged in writing them. 

3. Another Manuscript, writen on Tallipot leaves, and 
in the Pali or Bali, the sacred language of ultra Gangetic 
India. Of this language very little is yet known. Messrs. 
Burnouf and Lassen, in a learned and interesting Essay, 
have shown it to have great affinity with the Sanscrit, and 
have expressed the hope " that it will soon become an im- 
portant branch of the studies respecting Asia, which now 
engage the attention of the learned of Europe.*" 

* Essai sur le Pali, langue sacree de la presqu'ile au dela du Gange. 
Par E. Burnouf et Chr. Lassen. Ouvrage publie par la Societe Asiatique. 
Paris, 1826. 



137 

4. A Missionary Tract in the Birman language. Of 
what part or what dialect of the Birman country is not 
known ; but it is presumed to be that of Ava, as the charac- 
ters resemble those of which samples are given in Carpa- 
nus's Alphabetum Barmanum.* It is hoped, that now that 
the English are in possession of a great part of the Birman 
country, they will make us better acquainted than we are 
with their languages. 

5. A religious Tract in the language of the Bugis, a people 
as yet very little known. They are the same people whom 
Adelung calls the Buggese,i (die Buggesen,) and Malte-Brun 
les Bougliieses.% They are said to be a savage people, who 
reside on the Bay of Bony, in the Island of Celebes, in the 
Indian Archipelago. I believe this is the first specimen that 
we have of their language. It was received from an Ameri- 
can missionary at Siam. I have not time to examine the 
character and compare it with others. It is evidently 
alphabetical, and probably syllabic. 

I do not speak of the Tracts, &c, presented by Lieutenant 
Godon, in languages that are better known; such as the 
Hindoostanee, Malay, &c. That officer deserves the thanks 
of the friends of science, for the zeal which he has displayed 
in its cause. In general, the officers of our navy have shown 
the greatest disposition to promote it. 

The missionaries also are entitled to thanks. It is only 
to be regretted that, too exclusively intent on the great ob- 
ject of their mission, they do not give to their books a greater 
circulation, by sending some copies of them to be sold in 

* Alphabetum Barmanum seu Romanum regni Avae finitimarumque re- 
gionum. Romae, 1776. Typis Sacrae Congregationis de Propaganda fide. 
This work is very rare ; the writer is indebted for a valuable collection of 
the publications of the Propaganda, to the kindness of the Prince of Mu- 
signano, which he takes this opportunity to acknowledge. 

f Mithrid. vol. i. p. 598. 

\ Precis de la Geographie Universelle, vol. iv. p. 297. 
18 



138 

the great capitals of America and Europe; or if, as is be- 
lieved, they despise gain, present some at least to the prin- 
cipal libraries. It is wished also that they should devote a 
page or two in the English, or some other known language, 
to let us know the subject of their publications, and the lan- 
guage they are written in. If, as in most cases, they are 
translations, it w r ould be of great advantage to philologists 
to refer them to the originals; the additional expense would 
be but trifling. It is hoped that this suggestion will be taken 
in good part by the venerable men to whom it is addressed. 



PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS, 

BY M. DE LA PALUN. 



The text of Father Morrone occupies the left hand column 
in each page of this Vocabulary. We have thought it our 
duty to make no alteration in it, except correcting some 
faults in the orthography of French words, very excusable 
in a person who writes in a foreign language, in a distant 
country, where he has not the help of books. 

The order of the Vocabulary has been followed, and the 
Cochinchinese words have been successively numbered, in 
order to facilitate a reference to the plates. The letters 
A, B, C, D, serve to designate the characters in the order 
in which they are placed under each other. 

The asterisk (*) in the right hand column shows that the 
character designated by the number opposite to it is not 
found in the Chinese Dictionaries that we have consulted. 

The letter M. designates some one or other of Morrison's 
Chinese Dictionaries. When it is followed by a single 
figure, it indicates the number affixed to each character in 
the Chinese and English Dictionary, in which the Chinese 
words are arranged in alphabetical order ; when followed 
by two or three figures, the reference is to the Dictionary 
in which the characters are placed in the order of radicals; 
the first figure refers to the volume, the second to the page, 
and the third to the column. 



140 

The letter G. indicates a reference to the Chinese Diction- 
ary of Father Basil de Glemona, translated from the Latin 
into French, and published at Paris in 1813, by M. de 
Guignes. The figure which follows indicates the character 
referred to. 

We have referred only to Morrison's and Glemona's Dic- 
tionaries, although we are possessed of several in the Chinese 
language ; such as the Choue zcen Kiai Tseu, the Tchhouen 
tseu wei, the Thseng pou hiouan kin tseu icei, the Telling tseu 
thoung, the Khang Hi tseu tien, &c. Time did not permit 
us to go into this laborious investigation; the sinologists of 
Europe will be able to supply what is wanting in this hasty 
sketch, made when we were on the point of leaving this 
country (the United States) for the Republic of Venezuela, 
to which we have been ordered by our government. 

M. Remusat, in his remarks on some syllabic writings 
drawn from the Chinese characters, (p. 46,) observes, that 
the calligraphy of the Cochinchinese essentially differs from 
that of the Chinese, and that the former inclines its charac- 
ters from right to left as those we call italic. We have not 
been able to discover that difference in the manuscript of 
Father Morrone. The writing of that missionary is very 
bad ; his characters are ill formed, and with a rapidity which 
has not permitted us to decipher them all. We have not 
been able to employ much time in the study of Chinese cal- 
ligraphy; we therefore have to solicit indulgence for our 
inelegant manner of writing the Chinese characters. We 
have no pretention, in this respect, than to represent exactly 
the number of strokes of which they are composed, and in 
a manner sufficiently distinct, that they may be known 
without hesitation by any one who is in the least acquaint- 
ed with the language of Confucius. 

Father Morrone has prefixed the characters to each word 
in his Vocabulary, written horizontally in succession from 
left to right, in the same manner as Dr. Morrison has done 



141 

in his Anglo-Chinese Dictionary; we have thought it best 
to write them separately in columns, marked with succes- 
sive numbers, by which we refer to them in the Vocabulary. 
The columns are arranged so as to be read from left to 
right, in the European manner. 

Father Morrone indicates the pronunciation of the Cochin- 
chinese vowels by three kinds of accents : 

The first (a) shows that the syllable is to be pronounced 
short. 

The second (a) that the vowel is open. 

The third (o) placed on the vowel o, shows that it is to be 
pronounced like the French ae, (perhaps he means eu) ; 
on the letter u, that it is to have the sound of that letter in 
French. 

The o without an accent, as in long, the heart, has the 
sound of ao, probably as ow in the English word noiv ; some- 
times it has the sound of the French diphthong au, as in 
ngon, finger. 

He also says that the Cochinchinese language is sung, 
and that it has different tones like the Chinese. According 
to him, there are six tones in the pronunciation of that lan- 
guage, which he distinguishes by the signs (.) ( N ) (') (2) (-). 
The first of these tones, which serves as the basis of the 
tonic scale, has no sign to distinguish it. We have omitted 
these last signs in copying the Vocabulary. 

We can hardly believe the Cochinchinese have six tones. 
The missionaries of Peking had carried to five the number 
of those of the Chinese language, because they did not ex- 
amine with sufficient care the assertions of the Chinese 
grammarians, who have sought differences in intonations 
which escape the delicate ear of poets, and which conse- 
quently, if they are real, can only exist for purists, and are 
of no kind of use. 

We have not copied two Cochinchinese phrases, of which 
Father Morrone has endeavoured to represent the pronun- 



142 

elation by means of the notes of our musical scale. It has 
been long since demonstrated that those notes cannot repre- 
sent the pronunciation of any language, and that it is in vain 
that missionaries have endeavoured to show an analogy 
between two systems that have nothing common between 
them. 



VOCABULARY. 



VOCABULARY 

OF THE 

COCHINCHINESE LANGUAGE, 

WITH MARGINAL NOTES, 

SHOWING ITS RELATION TO THE CHINESE. 



I. — Of the Heavens. 



Cochinchinese. 

1. Troi. 
Les Cieux. 
The Heavens. 



2. Dui chua troi. 
Dieu. 
God. 



19 



Chinese. 

* This character is formed out of 
two Chinese characters ; the four 
strokes at the top are the Chinese 
character tien, heaven [G. 1798]; 
the three lower ones are the cha- 
racter chang, which means above, 
superior. [G. 7. Thus it might be 
read in Chinese Tien-chang, Hea- 
ven above.] 

M. Klaproth (Asia Polygl. 369) 
writes this word [in the Anamitic 
language] bloei. 

A. Chinese te, virtus, beneficium. 
G. 2719. 

[The first syllable dui, according 
to the Cochinchinese and Latin 
Dictionary which follows, is ge- 



140 

Cochincbinese. Chinese. 

ncric for all the virtues. Thus, 
Did lin, faith ; did cau bang, jus- 
tice, &c. It is also used as an 
adjective for most excellent] 

The second syllable is represented 
by the Chinese character tchu, 
dominus, (G. 35,) and has the 
same signification. 

For the third syllable troi, see above, 
No. 1. 

[Thus God is called " the most ex- 
cellent Lord of heaven."] 

The Court of Rome has decided 
that thian or den tchu (the Sover- 
eign of heaven) is the most suit- 
able way of expressing in Chinese 
the idea of God. 

Theological expressions in this Vo- 
cabulary may be generally con- 
sidered as devised by Europeans. 
3. Thien dang. A. Tien, Heaven. G. 1798. 

Le Paradis. [Mr. Morrison writes it T'he'en. 

Paradise. M. 576.] 

B. Tkang, a hall, a temple. G. 
1G33. 

[Thang, a dignified, honourable 
mansion ; a palace ; a temple ; a 
court or hall of justice; a hall or 
public room. M. 512. 

These words mean, therefore, " The 
palace or the temple of heaven." 
The Chinese say the garden, M. 
verbo Paradise.] 



147 



Cochinchinesc. 
4. Thien Than. 
Les Anges. 
Angels. 



5. Thanh. 

Les Saints. 
The Saints — Christians 



6. Dui chua ba. 
La mere de Dieu. 
The Virgin Mary. 



7. Mat troi. 
Le Soleil. 
The Sun. 



8. Mat trang. 
La Lune. 
The Moon. 



Chinese. 

A. See above, No. 3. 

B. Chin, [or Shin,'] a spirit. G. 
7025. [M. verbo angel] It is 
the expression used by the Jesuits 
in China. 

This appears to be an abbreviation 

of the character Ching, by which 
. the Christians in China express 

the same idea. G. 8360. [M. verbo 

Saints.] 
For A and B, see No. 2. 
C* Pha, a woman's name. M. 1. 

610. 2. 
[In Cochinchinese Ba signifies 

Queen. See the Dictionary. So 

the Virgin Mary is here called 

" The most excellent Lady and 

Queen."] 
In some Chinese books, the Virgin 

is designated by the words Ching 

mou, the Holy Mother. 
[Mat, face ; troi, the heavens ; the 

face in the heavens.] 
A * is composed of the 1 76th Chinese 

radical mian, a face ; and the 75th 

mou, a tree or wood. This last 

appears to be intended to indicate 

the pronunciation. [B. See No. 1. 

A.] 
Klaproth (Asia Polygl. 369) nhot, 

nhit. Balbi (Atlas) mat bloi (the 

sun.) 
[Mat, face ; trang, white ; the white 

face.] 
[A. See above, No. 7. A.] 



14S 



Cocliinclnncsc. 



9. Ngoi Sao. 
Les Etoiles. 
The Stars. 

10. Anh Sang. 

Les rayons du soleil 
The Sun's rays. 



11. 



Sang. 

La Lumiere. 
The light. 



12. Khi. 
L'air. 
The air. 

13. Moi. 

Les nuages. 
The clouds. 



Chinese. 

B.* This character is composed of 
the 74th Chinese radical youei, the 
moon ; and the Chinese character 
ling, high, eminent. G. 1777. 

[The Cochinchinese Dictionary has 
the following, verbo trang: Trang 
vel blang, Luna. 

Trang, albus, a, urn; the latter has 
an acute accent on the n, which 
the first has not. 

The word trang, variously accent- 
ed, has several other significa- 
tions. See the Dictionary.] 

Klaproth, blang; Balbi, mat blang. 

A. Chinese icei, a high hill. M. 2. 
46. 2. 

B. Sing, the stars. C. 3900. 

A. Chinese Han, to dry by the fire. 
G. 5521. 

B. Perhaps tchhouang, to begin. G. 
829, or a sharp sword. G. 743. 

* [Chinese kwang. Same meaning, 
character different. M. 6707. 
Also, in Anglo-Chinese Diction- 
ary, verbo light.] 

Chinese khi, the air. G. 4828. 



* This character seems composed 
of the 173d Chinese radical, tu, 
rain ; and a group which is pro- 
nounced mey. See G. 11973. 

This explanation, however, is only 
conjectural. Klaproth gives mua. 
in Anamitic for the clouds. 



149 



Cochinchincsc. 

14. Sam set. 

Le tonnerre. 
Thunder. 

15. Chop. 

La foudre. 
The thunderbolt. 
1G. Gio. 
Le vent. 
The wind. 

17. Thuyet. 
La neige. 
The snow. 

18. Mua. 
La pluie. 
Rain. 



19. Mil Suong. 
La rosee. 
The dew. 



Chinese. 
A. Tsan or San, drizzling rain. M. 

3. 655. 2. 
B.* Klaproth, Saw, thunder. 

* The 173d radical tu, rain, and the 
group Cho or Tsuh [to lay hold of, 
to catch.] M. 1178. 

* The group is pronounced yu. G. 
250. Klaproth, djo. 



Siouei [the snow.] G. 11948. 
proth, thouyet. 



Kla- 



* The same as No. 13, with part of 
the radical 162. 

[This radical, in Remusat's Chinese 
Grammar, is tchho, to walk (mar- 
cher) ; in Marshman's Clavis Si- 
nica it is Vih, a city.] 

A. Fuh, a rainy appearance. M. 3. 
643. 

B. Chouang, a white frost. G. 1 1984. 



II.— Of Time. 



20. Khi. 
Le temps. 
Time. 

21. Doi. 
Le siecle et la vie. 
The age and the life. 



KM, to despise. G. 4613. 

In Chinese time is called chy. G. 

3376, 3914. [But the character 

is different. M. 435.] 
Tay, generation. G. 112. 



22. Doi Doi. 
L'eternite. 
Eternity. 



* [Ages-Ages. A word probably 
coined by missionaries.] 



150 



Cochinchinese. 
23. Nom. 
Un an. 
A year. 



24. Nom truoc. 
L'an passe. 
The last year. 



25. Nom sou. 
L'an prochain. 
The next year. 

26. Thang. 
Le mois. 
The month. 



27. Ngai. 
Le jour. 
The day. 



28. Tuan le. 
La semaine. 
The week. 



Chinese. 

* This is composed of two Chinese 
characters. That on the left, 
which is pronounced nan, means 
the south; that on the right, hian, 
means a year. 

A. See No. 23. 

B. Appears to be a different form 
of G. 6217. \_Lio, modicum, 
parum ; terminus, as who should 
say, the year now ended or ter- 
minated.] 

I can only find this character as a 
group with the 66th radical, in 
Sou [or Soo'] to reckon, to count, 
to number. G. 3769. M. 9521. 

This group in Chinese is pronounced 
Shang. The 74th radical, youei, 
which signifies moon, or month, 
has been added to it. 

This group is often employed for 
the character Tang, companions. 
G. 13152. 

* This group is pronounced gai. 
M. 2793. [The character on the 
left hand is the Cochinchinese 
form of the Chinese radical 74, 
youei, the moon. On the right is 
the character gai or gae, an im- 
pediment, probably to indicate 
the pronunciation. M. 2795.] 

A. Siun, a period of ten days. G. 
3869. 

B. Ly, a rite, usage, custom. G. 
6992. 



151 

Cochinchinese. Chinese. 

29. Khae. Khe, the eighth part of the Chinese 
Un quart d'heure. hour (fifteen minutes.) 

A quarter of an hour. 

30. Gio. Kwei, light. M. 2. 308. 
Les heures. 

The hours. 

31. Lat. * The first character is probably an 
Un moment. abbreviation of the second, which 
A moment. in Chinese is pronounced la. 

32. Som mai som. A. Khin, [to grasp or hold in the 
De bon matin. hand.] M. 3. 558. 2. 

Early in the morning. B. May, to conceal. G. 1610. 
[C, is A repeated.] 

33. Nua ngai. A. Pwan, a woman during the pe- 
Midi. riod of her monthly courses. M. 
Noon. 1. 621. 2. 

This group is composed on the left 
of the 38th radical, niu, a woman, 
probably to indicate the pronun- 
ciation. On the right is the Chi- 
nese group Pouan, which signifies 
half. G. 1001. 

B. This group is pronounced gai. 
[On the left, 74th radical, youei, 
the moon; on the right, gae, to 
hinder. M. 2824.] 

34. Chieu. Chao, the morning. G. 4046. 
Le soir. 

The evening. 

35. Dem. Tien, a shop. G. 2509. 
La nuit. 

The night. 



152 



Cochinchinese. 
36. Bua horn nai. 
Aujourd'hui. 
To day. 



Chinese. 

A. Po, [waves, to move, to agitate.] 
G. 4924. 

B. Bin, to rejoice. G. 4C24. [But 
see No. 37.] 

C* Probably JVa, [to press hard 
•with the hand.] G. 3413. 

[In the Dictionary we find ngay 
horn; nay, hodie, which would 
seem the better mode of expres- 
sion. Ngay signifies day. See 
above, No. 27. The Dictionary 
gives horn vespere, and nay ap- 
pears to be the pronoun this ; dem 
nay, hac nocte ; mon nay, hoe an- 
no. Bua, in the Dictionary, ac- 
cented as in this Vocabulary, is 
rendered by negotiaJ] 

A.* 

B, 62d radical, ho, a lance, (arma.) 
[Horn, vespere ; qua, transire. See 
the Dictionary, his verbis.] 

38. Horn kia. A.* [See above, No. 37.] 

Avant hier. B. Ky, he, his, this, (pronoun.) G. 

The day before yesterday. 618. 

39. Den mai. A. Tien, law, rule, precept. G. 620. 
Demain. B. Same as No. 32 B. 
To-morrow. 

40. Den mot. A. Same as No. 39 A. 

Apres demain. B. Mie, bamboos divided into small 
The day after to-morrow, sticks. G. 7571. 

It might be the same group with the 
140th radical, thsao, [a plant.] 

41. Ngai le. A. Same as No. 27. 
Le jour de fete. B. Same as No. 28 B. 
A holiday. 



37. Horn qua. 
Hier. 

Yesterday. 



1 53 



Cochinchinese. 

42. Ngay sinh nhot. 
Le jour de noel. 
Christmas day. 

43. Ngay phue sinh. 
Le jour de paques. 
Easter day. 



44. Ngay diu minh. 
Le Dimanche. 
Sunday. 



45. 



Mua dong. 

L'hiver. 

Winter. 



46. Mua he. 
L'ete. 
Summer. 

. 20 



Chinese. 

A. [Same as No. 27 and 41 A.] 

B. 100th radical, seng, to be born. 

C. 72d radical,//, the day. 

A. [Same as 42 A.] 

B. Fo, again, to return. G. 2708. 
The Jesuits in China express Easter 

day by Fou ho, to live again. G. 
4972. 

C. [Same as 42- B.] 

A. [Same as 41, 42, 43, A.] 

B.* The group in Chinese is pro- 
nounced tieou, with the 54th and 
162d radicals. 

C. Ming, pure. G. 3890. 

The Jesuits in China translate the 
word Sunday by tchu yi, the 
Lord's day. 

These two characters appear ill 
written. 

A. Should be written like No. 46 A. 

B. The 15th radical, ping, ice or 
frost, appears to be wanting to 
this character. As it is, it is pro- 
nounced in Chinese toung, and 
signifies the East; as it seems it 
should be written, it is also pro- 
nounced toung, but signifies to 

freeze. G. 701. 
Klaproth gives D y on, Anamitic, for 
winter. 

A. The 110th radical, meou, a hal- 
bert, indicates here the pronunci- 
ation. 

B. Hia, summer. G. 1780. 
Klaproth, he, summer. 



154 



Cochinchinese. 

47. Mua xuan. 
Le printemps. 
The spring. 

48. Mua thu. 
L'automne. 
The autumn. 



Chinese. 

A. [Same as 40 A.] 

B. Tchun, the spring. G. 3903. 
Klaproth, muan. 

A. In this character, the 110th radi- 
cal is probably omitted by error. 
See above, No. 46 A. 

B. # The autumn, thsieou, is written 
differently in Chinese. G. 7125. 
Instead of the 70th radical, [khian, 
expiration, insufficient,] it has the 
86th, [ho, fire.] 

A. [See above, 41 — 44.] 

B.* The group is pronounced nang. 



49. Ngay nang. 
Un jour de chaleur. 
A warm day. 

50. Ngay lanh. 
Un jour de froid. B. Leng, cold. G. 676 
A cold day. 

51. Ngay xau. 
Un jour de mauvais 

temps. 
A day of bad weather 

52. Ngay tot. 
Un beau jour. 
A fine day. 



A. [Same as 41 A.] 



A. [Same as 50 A.] 
B.* 



A. [Same as 51 A.] 

B. Tsou, to finish. G. 1008. 



III. — Of the World, &c. 



53. The gian. Chi Man, the world. 

Le monde. [A. She, the world of human beings, 

The world. the present state of existence. 

M. 475. 2. 
B. Wan, to ask, to inquire, to inves- 
tigate. M. 11613. 



155 



Cochinchinese. 



54. Dat. 
La terre. 
The earth. 
Non nui. 



55 



Une montagne. 



A mountain. 

56. Rong. 

La campagne. 
The country (rus.) 

57. Vuon. 
Le jardin. 
The garden. 



58. Cay. 

Les arbres et les bois. 
The trees and the woods 

59. Re. 

Une racine — radix. 
A root. 

60. Goe. 

Le tronc. 
The trunk (of a tree.) 

61. Nhanh. 

Les branches. 
The branches. 

62. La. 

Les feuilles. 
The leaves. 



Chinese. 
Chi Men or she keae, is the Chinese 

pronunciation (as it is called) for 

the world. See M. verbo world, 

p. 475, 2.] 
Tan, flat, even, [ample, spacious.] 

G. 1578. 

A. The group is pronounced nun. 
B.* The group is pronounced nouy. 
Klaproth, mi. 

* I consider this group as an abbre- 
viation of the 212th radical, hung, 
[a dragon.] 

A.* 

B. Youen, round. G. 1542. Youen, 
a garden, G. 1541, has a different 
character. 

Klaproth, Uoeu. 

He, the stone or seed of a fruit. G. 
4214. [M. 242, verbo kernel] 



Ouo or wo, a house ; [to dwell.] G. 
2246. 

or uh, a wooden screen. M. 2. 
258. 

Seems to be a variation of the Chi- 
nese ting, which has the same 
meaning. G. 4258. 



156 



Cochinchine.se. 

63. Hoa. 

Lcs fleurs. 
Flowers. 

64. Hot giong. 
La semence. 
Tlie seed. 

65. Da. 

Une pierre. 
A stone. 

66. Dang. 

Che min, rue. 
A way, a street. 



67. Rung. 
Foret — silva. 
A forest. 

68. Vuon nho. 
Jardin de vignes. 
A vineyard. 

69. Buong nho. 
Raisin. 
Grapes. 



70. Chuoi. 
Figues. 
Figs. 

71. Suoi. 

Une fontaine. 
A fountain. 

72. Giang. 

Puits — puteus. 
A well. 



Houa. 



Chinese. 
G. 8844, 



A. He, a thick silk thread. G. 7755. 

B. Tchong, a seed. G. 7206. 



Tang, the name of the imperial dy- 
nasty from the year 618 to 907 of 
the vulgar era ; [also, the aisles or 
walks in ancient temples, (vise in 
avorum templis.) G. 1276.] 

Ling, an angle ; a square piece of 
wood. G. 4320. 

A. Youen. See No. 57 B. 

B. Mei; the trunk of a tree. G. 
4138. 

C. # Probably a variation of B. 
A. Wang, a name of wine, M. 3. 

549. 
In the MS. the two dots below the 

group are wanting. 
B.* Same as No. 57 B. and 68 A. 
Tchy, shackles (compedes.) G. 4232 



King. M. 2. 458. But the group 
without the radical is pronounced 
tsing, and signifies a well. G. 70. 



157 



Cochinchinese. 
73. Song. 

Riviere. * 
A river. 



74. Bo song. 

Les bords d'une riviere 
The banks of a river. 

75. Bien. 
La mer. 
The sea. 

76. Song. 

Les vagues. 

The waves. 
11. Bai. 

La rade. 

The road. 
18. Phong ba. 

La tempete. 

The storm. 

79. Chiec tau. 
Le vaisseau. 
The ship. 

80. Ghe. 

Un petit bateau. 
A small boat. 

81. Cheo. 

Les rames. 
The oars. 

82. Cua bien. 
Le port. 
The port. 

83. Cu lao. 
Une ile. 
An island. 



Chinese. 

* Might be Shing, the name of a 
river. M. 9303. See No. 56. 

[The two characters are the same, 
one to signify the country, the 
other a river.] 

Po, a hillock, a mound of earth for 
a sepulchre. G. 1574. 

* See No. 82. 



A. is the 182d radical [foung, wind.] 
B.* 

* The group is pronounced tchi. [It 
has on the left the 137th radical, 
tcheou, ship.] 



A.* The 169th radical [men, door] 

never has a group to the right. 
B. See No. 75. 

A. Kin, a bank to confine water. 
M. 6084. 

B. Lao, to labour. M. 6925. 



158 



Cochinchinese. 

84. Nuoc. 

Un royaume. 
A kingdom. 

85. Xa. 

Une province. 
A province. 

86. Thanh. 
Une ville. 
A town. 

87. Lang. 

Un village. 
A village. 

88. Que. 

La patrie. 
The fatherland {patria.) 

89. Ben bai. 

Le partie du nord. 
The north. 

90. Ben dong. 

La partie de l'est. 
The east. 

91. Ben nam. 

La partie du sud. 
The south. 

92. Ben tang. 

La partie de l'ouest 
The west. 



Chinese. 

Hwuls, the sound or noise of water. 
M. 2. 483. 

This character has some resem- 
blance to tchu, to dwell, to tarry; 
also, a place, a region. G. 9361. 

Tching, walls. G. 1613. 



Hiang, Pagus,territorium. G. 11251. 



Kwei, a kind of sceptre. M. 1. 481. 2. 



A.* 

B. Pe, the north. G. 953. 

A.* 

B. Tong, the east. G. 4108. 

A.* 

B. Nan, the south. G. 1010. 

Si, the west. G. 9852. 



IV. — Of Mankind. 



93. Don ong. 
Un seigneur. 
A lord. 



A.* 

B. Ong, a name of honour given to 

old men. G. 823 1. [Senior, 

Signer, Seigneur, &c] 



159 



Cochlnchine.se. 

94. Don ba. 
Une dame. 
A lady. 

95. Nguoi ta. 
L'homme. 
A man. 
Loai nguoi ta. 



96 



Le genre humain. 
Mankind. 



97. Cha. 
Le Pere. 
Father. 

98. Me. 
La mere. 
Mother. 

99. Con. 
Les enfants. 

100. Con trai. 
Un garcon. 
A male child, a boy. 

101. Con gai. 
Une fille. 
A female child, a girl. 

102. Con it. 
Un enfant. 
A child. 

103. Con nho. 
Un mourrisson. 
A nursling, a child at 

the breast. 



Chinese. 

A.* 

B. The second character only is 
found as a group with the pro- 
nunciation pa. [See above, No. 0.] 

A. Gai, some impediment. M.2793. 

B. Sie, a little, not much. G. 74. 

A. Luy, a class, species, sort, kind. 
M. 7431. 

B. C. See No. 95. 

[The honourable class or species.] 
Tcha, to be angry, to scold. G. 1147. 
[No resemblance to the Chinese foo, 

father.] 
Mai, a woman of an elegant figure 

and pleasing countenance. M. 1. 

665. 
Kouen, the elder child (natu major.) 

G. 3883. 

[A. See 99.] 

B.* The group on the right is pro- 
nounced lai. 

[A. See 99.] 

B. Hoo, good and beautiful. M. 1. 
607. 

[A. See 99.] 

B. This looks like the 5th radical, 
y [or yih] one, unity. 

A. See 99. 

B. lu, milk, woman's breast. G. 50. 



100 



Cochinchinese. 

104. Con tre. 

Un jeune homme. 
A youth. 

105. Gia. 

Un vieillard. 
An old man. 

106. Chong. 
Le mari. 
Husband. 



107. Vo. 

La femme. 
Wife. 

108. Dong trinh. 
Une viergc. 

A virgin. 



Chinese. 



109. Ba hoa. 
Une veuve. 
A widow. 

110. Chau. 
Le neveu. 
Nephew. 

111. Ba con. 
La famille. 
The family. 



The character on the right hand is 
the same as the Chinese Chang- 
foo, husband. [M. verbo husband.] 
That on the left hand is probably 
to indicate the pronunciation. 

* Character unknown. The pro- 
nunciation does not much differ 
from the Chinese foo or fou [or foo] 
above cited. 

A. Tong, childhood. G. 7372. 

B. Tcking, upright and firm (moral- 
ly speaking.) G. 10410. Thoung 
tching, a virgin. 

[Thus a virgin in Chinese is called 
thoung-tching, as who should say 
a virtuous ehild, and the same in 
Cochinchinese. This reminds us 
of the Delaware word pilape, a 
chaste or innocent man, meaning 
a youth under fifteen.] 

A. See No. 94. 

B.* 

Tchao, to call somebody by making 
a sign with the hand. G. 3316. 

[Woman-child, or lady and child. 
See Nos. 94 and 102.] 



161 



Cochinchinese. 

112. Ho hang. 
Les parents. 
The kindred. 

113. Dian. 
Le peuple. 
The people. 

114. Vuo. 
Le roi. 
The king. 

115. Hoang hau. 
La reine. 
The queen. 



116. Quan. 
Les ministres. 
The ministers. 

117. Tenlinh. 
Les soldats. 
The soldiers. 



Chinese. 

A. is the 63d radical, hou, a door. 

B. is the 144th radical, hing, to ad- 
vance (progredi.) 

Min, the people, the subjects. G. 
4822. 



(G. 6491.) Hoang Heou, the empress. 

G. 1143. 
[A. Hwang, a title of high dignity. 

M. 4378. 
B. Heou, prince, king, queen. G. 

1143.] 
Kouan, a common appellation for 

magistrates. G. 2116. 

A. Sien, before. G. 580. 

B. Ling, another. G. 1112. 



V. — Of the Human Mind and Body. 



118. Xac. 
Le corps. 
The body. 

119. Dau. 
Le tete. 
The head. 

120. Toe. 

Les cheveux. 
The hair. 



Teou, [the head.] G. 12221. 



21 



162 



Cochinchinese. 

121. Thi. 

L'intelligence. 
Intelligence, under- 
standing. 

122. Y muon. 
La volonte. 
The will. 

123. Su nho. 
La memoire. 
Memory. 



124. Linh hon. 
L'ame. 

Tlie soul. 

125. Oc. 

Le cerveau. 
The brain. 

126. Tran. 
Le front. 
The forehead. 



127. Chan may. 
Les sourcils. 

The eyebrows. 

128. Con mat. 
Les yeux. 
The eyes. 



Chinese. 
Tchy, wisdom, prudence. G. 3949. 



A. Y, an act of the will. G. 2958. 

B. Men, sad, (tristis.). G. 2887. 

A. Sse, business, affair, thing, occu- 
pation. G. 64. 

B. This character, very ill drawn, 
has some resemblance to that 
which is pronounced ngo or 'o, 
(I, ego.) G. 3177. 



Ouo [or ivo] fat (pingue.) G. 8545. 



Thheou, the front. M. 3. 693. 

[In his Anglo-Chinese Dictionary, 
Dr. Morrison gives gih for fore- 
head, with a character that re- 
sembles only in part the Cochin- 
chinese. Under the word front 
(outside surface) he gives the 
word fan meeu, with two other 
characters.] 

A. Tching, felicity, happiness. G. 
7071. 

B. Mao, inundation. G. 5116. 

A. See No. 99. 

B. Mo, dim-sighted eyes, (oculi ob- 
scuri, caligantes,) G. 6627, is 
composed of the same group and 



163 



Cochinchinese. 



129. Tai. 
Les oreilles. 
The ears. 

130. Mat. 
La face. 
The face. 

131. Ma. 
Les joues. 
The cheeks. 

132. Mm. 
Le nez. 
The nose. 

133. Mei. 
Les levres. 
The lips. 

134. Rang. 
Les dents. 
The teeth. 

135. Luoi. 
La langue. 
The tongue. 

136. Nou. 
Le palais. 
The palate. 

137. Mieng. 
La bouche. 
The mouth. 



Chinese, 
the same radical, but in an invert- 
ed order. See above, No. 7. 



* See Nos. 7, 8, and 128. 



The group is pronounced mei. 



Appears to be a variation of ngo, 
bang ngo, the space in the mouth 
between the upper and the nether 
lip. G. [13280,] 13281. 



Haou, the roar of a wild tiger. M. 1. 
380. 

The Cochinchinese character is 
formed of the 30th radical, which 
signifies mouth, and of the 108th, 
ming, [a porringer,] to indicate 
the pronunciation. 



104 



Cochinchinese. 

138. Hong. 

La gorge (guttur.) 
The throat. 

139. Tieng. 
La voix. 
The voice. 

140. Rou. 
La barbe. 
Tlie heard. 

141. Co. 
Le col. 
The neck. 

142. Vai. 
Les epaules. 
The shoulders. 

143. Lung. 

Les reins et le dos. 
The reins of the back. 

144. Tai. 
Les mains. 
The hands. 

145. Tai mat. 
La main droite. 
The right hand. 

146. Tai trai. 

La main gauche. 
The left hand. 

147. Mach. 
Le pouls. 
The pulse. 

148. Ngon tai. 
Les doigts. 
The fingers. 



Chinese. 

Heung, the breast. M. 3. 99. 



Fa, the hair of the head. G. 12679. 



Kou, ancient. G. 1110. 



Wei, the light of the sun. M. 2. 310. 



* The group is pronounced ling. 



It is an ancient form of y, to re- 
move. M. 2. 208. 

A. See No. 144. 

B. See Nos. 7, 8, 128, 130. 

A. See No. 115. 

B. Tchay, debt, debtors. G. 410. 

Me, [the pulse.] G. 8499. 



A.* 

B. See above, 144. 



105 



Cochinchinese. 

149. Ngon tai cai. 
Le a;ros doigt 
The thumb. 

150. Ngon tai tro. 
[L'index. 

The fore finger.'] 

151. Giua ngon. 

[Le doigt du milieu. 
The middle finger.] 

152. Ngon nhan. 
L'annulaire. 
The ring finger. 

153. Ngon ut. 
Le petit doigt. 
The little finger. 



154. Mong tai. 
Les ongles. 
The nails. 

155. Ngue. 
La poitrine. 
The breast. 

156. Mo ac. 
L'estomac. 
The stomach. 

157. Long. 
Le cceur. 
The heart. 



Chinese. 

[A.*] 

[B. See 144.] 

C. Kay, to beg, (mendicare.) G. 11. 

[A.*] 

[B. See 144.] 

[C.*] 

* [There are here four characters; 
but the last being a repetition of 
the first, it is omitted in the 
plate.] 



A.* 

B. See No. 102, where this charac- 
ter has the pronunciation it. [In 
Father Morrone's Cochinchinese 
Dictionary, it is explained by pa- 
rum, modicum ; and he adds, mot 
it, mot chut, idem est. So that it, 
ut, chut, imply the idea of little- 
ness, and con it is a little child.] 

A. Mang, to gather. M. 2. 251. 

B. See 144. 

Py, the stomach. G. 8523. 



A. may be mei, pregnancy. 
108. 

B* 

# 



M. 3. 






166 



Cochinchinese. 

158. Bong. 
Le ventre. 
The belly. 

159. Run. 

Le nombril. 
The navel. 

160. Trai ve. 
La cuisse. 
The thigh. 

161. Qui. 
Les genoux. 
The knees. 

162. Chon. 
Les pieds. 
The feet. 

163. Trai chon. 
Les jambes. 
The legs. 

164. Bon chon. 

La plante des pieds. 
The sole of the feet. 

165. Than. 
Les membres. 
The limbs. 



Chinese. 



* It may be an abbreviation of Men, 
an empty space below the ribs. 
G. 8571. 

A.* The group is pronounced lai. 

B.* The group is pronounced wa. 

Kouey, to bend the knee. G. 10686. 



Tchin, true, [straight, neat, perfect.] 
G. 6628 [somewhat varied.] 

A. Luy, the skin rising. M. 3. 105. 

B. See above, 1G2. 

A.* See below, 242. 
B. See above, 162. 

The first character is the 158th ra- 
dical, chin, the body. Father 
Morrone has probably forgotten 
to give its pronunciation. The 
second character is pronounced 
pen, [ignorant, coarse.] G. 164. 
It is vulgarly employed for thy, the 
members of the body. G. 12651. 
These two characters together 
are pronounced in Chinese chin- 
pen, and signify, as in Cochinchi- 
nese, the members of the body, or 
the limbs. 



167 



Cochinchinese. 

166. Mau. 
Le sang. 
The blood. 

167. Gan cot. 
Les nerfs. 
The nerves. 

168. Gan. 
Les veines. 
The veins. 

169. Ruot. 

Les entrailles. 
The bowels. 

170. Dia. 
Le peau. 
The skin. 

171. Xuong. 
Les os. 
The bones. 



Chinese. 

Maou, the name of a river. M. 2. 
460. 

A. Kin, the nerves. G. 7447. 

B. is the 188th radical, kou, bone. 

See No. 167 A. 



Pe, flesh. M. 3. 97. But the group 
is pronounced pi, and signifies 
skin. 

* The group is pronounced tchhung. 



VI. — Of Clothing. 



172. Ao. Yaou, the earth producing things 
L'habit. out of season. M. 2. 770. 

The coat. 

173. Ao trong. [Tchong, an infant, (parvulus.) — 
Les habits de dessous. Tchong-tchong, hanging orna- 
The under clothes. ments, (dicitur de ornamentis 

pendulis.)] G. 672. 

174. Ao ngoai. A. See above, 172. 

Les habits exterieurs. B. Ouay, [or waij,~\ without (foras.) 
The outward clothes. G. 1786. 

175. Non. * 
Le chapeau. 

The hat. 



108 



Cochinchinese. 

176. Khon. 

Le mouchoir ; tous les 

linges. 
The handkerchief and 

all other linen. 

177. Quan. 
Les culottes. 
The breeches. 

178. Giay. 
Les souliers. 
The shoes. 

179. Nut. 

Les boutons. 
The buttons. 



Chinese. 
Tchong, within, (intus.) G. 26. 



The group is pronounced kouan, 
[kwan.] 

Khiaij, coarse silk. M. 3. 23. 



Chi, the end or head of an arrow. 
M. 3. 23. 



VII 

180. Nha. 
La maison. 
The house. 

181. Nha tho. 
L'eglise. 
The church. 

182. Nha quan. 
L'hospice et 1'hote. 
The house and its 

master. 

183. Nha bep. 

La cuisine et le cuisi- 

nier. 
The kitchen and the 

cook. 



— Of the House. 
Ju, to eat. G. 8925. 



[A. See 180.] 

B.* The group is pronounced ton. 

[A. See above, 180, 181.] 
B. See No. 116. 



A. See above, No. 182. 
B.* 






169 



Cochinchinese. 

184. Nha ruong. 
Maison de campagne. 

A country house. 

185. Voch. 
Les murailles. 
The walls. 

186. Cua. 

La porte et le port. 
The door and the port. 

187. Cot. 

Une colonne. 
A column. 

188. Thong. 
L'escalier. 
The stairs, 

189. Phong. 
La chambre. 

The room or chamber, 

190. Moi. 
Le toit. 
The roof. 



191. Ngai. 
Les tuiles (canales.) 
Probably the gutters. 

22 



Chinese. 
A. See above, No. 180. 
B.* The group is pronounced kouang. 

[See above, No. 50, where the 

word is written rong.~\ 
The same group in Chinese, with 

the 90th radical, tchouang, [a bed,] 

signifies walls, and is pronounced 

tsiang. G. 5619. 
This is the 169th Chinese radical, 

men, [door.] 

Koue, a stake, a small column. G. 
4503. 

The same character, with only a 
small variation. 

Yang, [oziers or twigs, (vimina.)] 
G. 4369. 

In some compositions it is pro- 
nounced tang. 

Fang, a dyke or embankment, 
(agger.) G. 11756. 

These two characters having but 
one pronunciation, it is probable 
that the Cochinchinese used indif- 
ferently the one or the other. 

A. May, to purchase. G. 10437. 

B. May, to sell. G. 10486. 
[These characters are evidently 

applied to the sound.] 
* To this pronunciation are prefix- 
ed the two characters which ac- 
company that of the following 
number ; there is probably an 
error. 



170 



Cochinchinese. 

192. Truoc y. 
La chaise. 
The chair. 

193. Kitih. 
Un miroir. 
A mirroi*. 



194. Anh. 
L'image. 
The image. 

195. Giu ong. 
Un lit. 

A bed. 

196. Nem. 

Une couverture. 

A bed cover; a blanket. 

197. Mong. 
La courtine. 
The curtain. 

198. Goi. 

Les oreillers. 
The pilloics. 

199. Giay. 
Le papier. 
Paper. 

200. Long ga. 
La plume. 
The pen. 

201. Muc. 
L'encre. 
Ink. 

202. Xe. 

Une voiture. 
A carriage. 



Chinese. 



* This character calls to mind king, 
term, end, confines, limits, G. 7366, 
which is employed to indicate the 
pronunciation in king, a mirror. 
G. 11565. 

Yng, a shadow. G. 2669. 



A.* 

B. Tchouang, a bed. G. 2500. 

Men, a rope or cord of bamboo. 
G. 7885. 

Mong, a dream. G. 1793. 



Hoey, to paint. G. 8036. 



Sie, to tie, (ligare.) G. 7823. 



A. is the 196th radical, niao, [a bird.] 

B. is the 124th radical, iu, [feathers.] 

This is an abbreviation of we, black. 
G. 1709. It also signifies ink. 

Radical 159. Kiu, [a car or car- 
riage.] 



171 



Cochinchinese. 
203. Binh muc. 
L'encrier. 
The inkstand. 



204. Sach. 
Un livre. 
A book. 

205. Sach kinh. 

Un livre d'oraison. 
A book of prayers. 



206. Sach truyen. 
Un livre d'histoire. 
A book of history. 

207. Den. 
La lampe. 
The lamp. 



208. Chon den. 
Le chandelier. 
The candlestick. 

209. Diou. 
L'huile. 
Oil. 

210. Sap. 
La cire. 
Wax. 



Chinese. 

A. This character, says Mr. Mor- 
rison, occurs in an ancient work; 
but neither the sense nor the sound 
is known. M. 3. 563. The group 
is pronounced ping. 

B. See No. 201. 

Tse, a book. G. 636. 



A. See above, No. 204. 

B. This appears to be king, (liber 
classicus,) the name of the five 
classical books, of which an an- 
cient form is given by Morrison. 
M. 3. 15. It has besides much 
resemblance to the Cochinchinese 
character. 

[A. See 204.] 

B. Tchouan, traditions. G. 408. 

* This group is in part composed 
of the 102d radical, [clavis agro- 
rum,] which is pronounced tien, 
but its meaning has no connexion 
with that of the Cochinchinese 
word. 

A. See above, 162. 

[B. See above, 207.] 

Yeou, oil. G. 4899. 



La, wax. G. 9616. 



172 



Cochinchinese. 

211. Horn. 
Une caisse. 
A box. 

212. Khoa. 
La clef. 
The hey. 



213. Diao. 
Un couteau. 
A hnife. 

214. Diao got. 
Un rasoir. 
A razor. 

215. Guom. 
Une epee. 
A sword. 

216. Sung. 
Fusil. 

A musket. 

217. Keo. 
Les eiseaux. 
Scissors. 

218. Hop. 

Une tabatiere. 
A snuff-box. 

219. Thuoc. 
Le tabac. 
Tobacco. 

220. Hit thuoc. 
Tabac a priser, 
Snuff. 



Chinese. 

Se or tse, a wood fit for making the 
wheels of a large carriage. M. 2. 
388. 

* [Father Morrone wrote this word 
la claivc instead of la clef. M. de 
la Palun read it le glaive. It is 
believed that la clef is the better 
reading.] 

18th radical, tao, [a knife.] 



A. See above, No. 213. 

B. This, with a small variation, is 
the character ho, a boiler ; pro- 
nounced at Canton wo. M. 6427. 

Kiun. M. 3. 559. 



Tchong, a cannon, (tormentum belli- 
cum.) G. 11442. 

Composed of three radicals: 167, 
[kin, gold ;] 111, [chin, an arrow;] 
and 68, [hou, a measure of capa- 
city.] 

Han, to contain as any vessel. M. 3. 
569. 

Tung-fung, the name of a plant 
found in Canton province. M. 3. 
172. Chinese radicals 73, 75. 

A.* 

B. See above, 219. 



17: 



Cochinchinese. 

221. Hut thuoc. 

Tabac a fumer. 
Smoking tobacco. 

222. Bi. 
Un sac. 

A sack or bag. 

223. Lua. 
Le feu. 
Fire. 

224. Khoi. 
La fumee. 
Smoke. 



225. Than. 

Les charbons. 
Coal. 

226. Tro. 
Les cendres. 
Ashes. 

227. Choi. 
Balai. 

A broom. 

228. Diu. 

Un parasol. 
An umbrella. 

229. Diay. 
Une corde. 
A rope. 



Chinese. 
A.* 

B. [See above, 219.] 

* The group is pronouced pi. 



Lo, to burn. M. 2. 539. 2. 



One single pronunciation for two 
characters. 

A.* The group of this character, 
with the 86th radical, ho, fire, is 
pronounced hay, and signifies to 
burn. 

B. This group is in part composed 
of the 194th radical, kouei, manes 
or shades of the dead; probably 
to indicate the pronunciation. 

This character appears to be a va- 
riation or abbreviation of tan, 
coal. G. 5408. 

* Perhaps han, to burn. M. 2. 534. 



Tchy, fetters, impediments, (compe- 
des.) G. 4232. 

* The group is pronounced teou. 



* The group is pronounced ti. 



174 



Cochinchinese. 

230. Dinh. 
Un clou. 
A nail. 

231. Bua. 

Un marteau. 
A hammer. 

232. Kim. 
Une aiguille. 
A needle. 

233. Chi. 
Lefil. 
Thread. 

234. Noi. 

Une casserolle. 
A stew pan. 

235. Chuong. 
Une cloche. 
A bell. 

236. Bac. 
L'argent. 
Silver. 

237. Vang. 
L'or. 
Gold. 

238. Dong. 
L'airain. 
Brass. 

239. Sat. 
Le fer. 
Iron. 

240. Thiet. 

Le fer blanc, (stannum 
Pewter or tin. 



Chinese. 

Tm^anail. G. 11381. 



* May pass for a variation of poo, 
a metal plate. M. 3. 560. 

167th radical, kin, metal. 



Su, the beginning of a thread. G. 

7930. The group is pronounced 

tche. 
* The group is pronounced nei. 



* The group is pronounced tchoung. 



Po, to land, to bring a ship to shore. 
G. 4912. 

Hoang, a large bell. G. 11576. [It 
is used also, though improperly, 
for hoang, the sound of bells. G. 
11510.] 

Tong, copper. G. 11444. 



Tchy, [to sew clothes.] G. 11419. 

But this character is also used for 

tie, iron. G. 11593. 
To, the end of a cart axle-tree. M. 
) 3. 577. 



175 



Cochinchinese. 
241. Chi. 
Le plomb. 
Lead. 



Chinese. 
Y, a sort of kettle. G. 11407. The 
65th radical on the right is pro- 
nounced tcki, but is unconnected 
with the sense. It means a 
branch. 



VIII. — Of the Table, &c. 



242. Bon. 
La table. 
Table. 

243. Chia. 

La fourchette. 
Fork. 

244. Dia. 
Les plats. 
The dishes. 

245. Chen. 
Le verre. 

A glass to drink out of. 

246. Bat. 

Une tasse de terre. 
An earthen cup. 

247. Va. 

Une bouteille. 
A bottle. 

248. Va chai. 
Bouteille de cristal. 
A glass bottle. 

249. Va lanh. 
Bouteille de terre. 
An earthen jug. 



* See above, No. 164 A. 



This is the same character as No. 
241, with a different meaning and 
pronunciation. 



* The group is pronounced tchen. 



A. Tchouen, baked bricks. G. 1684. 

B.* The group on the right, which 
is the numeral 8, is pronounced 
pa. 

The group appears to be written in 
a running hand; it is thought use- 
less to hazard conjectures. 



17(5 



Cochinchinese. 

250. Muong. 
Une cuiller. 
A spoon. 

251. Banh. 
Le pain. 
Bread. 

252. Ruou. 
Le vin. 
Wine. 

253. Diam. 
Le vinaigre. 
Vinegar. 

254. Nuoc. 
L'eau. 
Water. 

255. Thit. 
La chair. 
Flesh or meat. 

256. Ca. 

Le poisson. 
Fish. 

257. Trai. 
Les fruits. 
Fruit. 

258. Cam. 
Les oranges. 
Oranges. 

259. Com. 
Le riz. 
Rice. 

260. Ot. 

Le poivre. 
Pepper. 



Chinese. 
* The group is pronounced meng. 



* It is to be remarked that the cha- 
racters G. 12348 and 12377 are 
pronounced ping, and signify 
bread. 

* Perhaps a variation of liou, a 
name of liquor. M. 3. 546. 2. 

* The group is pronounced ting. 



* The group is pronounced no. 



Thian, fat. M. 3. 98. 2. 



Ko, fruit. G. 8991. 



Kan, a kind of sweet orange. G. 
4161. 

* The 69th radical on the right, 
which means sweet, and is pro- 
nounced kan. 

A. JVgan, hard. G. 4125. 

B.* 



177 



Cochinchinese. 

261. Muoi. 
Le sel. 
Salt. 

262. Dano. 
Le sucre. 
Sugar. 

263. Mot. 
Le miel. 
Honey. 

264. Mut. 
Les confitures. 
Sweetmeats, preserves. 

265. Tra. 
Le the. 
Tea. 

266. Dot long. 
Le dejeuner. 
Breakfast. 



Chinese. 
* The group is pronounced mei. 



In Chinese, sugar is called tang, and 
is written with the same group, 
either with the 119th or the 184th 
radical. 

* It is a variation of mi, honey. M. 
7666. 



Tcha, tea. G. 8923. 



267. An bua trua. 
Le diner. 
Dinner. 

268. An bua thoi. 
Le souper. 
Suffer. 



A.* The group is pronounced lo. 

B. Loung, to play, trifle with ; [but 
used to denote performing, acting, 
or doing any business or work.] 
M. 3. 7396. 

A.* The group is pronounced an. 
B.* The group is pronounced pou. 

C. Titian, fat, rich soup. M. 3. 
106. 2. 

A.* B.* [A. B. See 267.] 

C. Tsouy, much, (valde.) G. 4024. 



269. Cam tu. 
Les animaux. 
The animals. 
23 



IX. — Of Animals. 

A. Hoey, all (omnes) ; [to collect, 
assemble, unite.] G. 4025. 

B. Cheou, quadrupeds. G.* 5870. 



178 



Cochinchinese. 

270. Chim. 
Les oiseaux. 
Birds. 

271. Con ngua. 
Un cheval. 

A horse. 

272. Con bo. 
Un boeuf. 
An ox. 

273. Con bo cai. 
Une vache. 

A cow. 
214:. Con ga. 
Une poule. 
A hen. 

275. Con bo. 
Un cochon. 
A hog. 

276. Con chien. 
La brebis. 
An ewe. 

277. Con ong. 
Les abeilles. 
The bees. 

278. Con lua. 
Un ane. 
An ass. 

279. Con voi. 
Un elephant. 
An elephant. 



Chinese. 

* The group is pronounced chin. 



A. [Nomen genericum.] Iiouen, all, 

similar. G. 3883. 
B.* 

A. See 271. 
B.* The group is pronounced pou. 

A. B. See 271. 

C* The group is pronounced kai. 

A. See 271. 

B. Ky, a hen. G. 12990. 

A. See 271. 

B.* The group is pronounced hiao. 
[In the original, the character B is 
duplicated.] 

A. See 271. 

B. Y, name of a sheep. M. 3. 57. 1. 

A. See 271. 

B.* The group is pronounced oung. 

A. See 271. 

B. Probably an abbreviation of hi, 
[an ass.] G. 12591. 

A. See 271. 

B.* The group on the left hand is 
pronounced siang, and means an 
elephant; that on the right is pro- 
nounced pei. 



179 



Cochinchinese. 

280. Con su to". 
Un lion. 
A lion. 

281. Con bo du. 
Un taureau. 
A bull. 

282. Con eho. 
Un chien. 
A dog. 

283. Con soi. 
Un loup. 
A wolf. 

284. Con hum. 
Un tigre. 
A tigre. 

285. Con nai. 
Un cerf. 
A deer. 

286. Con ran. 
Un serpent. 
A snake. 

287. Con sau. 
Les vers. 
TJie worms. 

288. Con vit. 
Canard (oca.) 

A duck or goose, but most 
probably a goose. 

289. Con chuot. 
Les rats (mus.) 
The rats. 

290. Con khien. A. See 271. 

Les fourmis (formica.) B. See tching, a kind of oysters, G. 
The ants - 9462 ; [and tching, a kind of small 



Chinese. 

A. See 271. 
B.* C* 

Sse theu, in Chinese, signifies Hon. 

A. See 271. 

B. See 272 B. 

C. Te, a victim. G. 5665. 
A. See 271. 
B.* The group is pronounced tchu. 

A. See 271. 
B.* 

A. See 271. 
B.* 

A. See 271. 

B.* The group is pronounced ni. 

A. See 271. 

B.* The group is pronounced Un. 

A. See 271. 

B.* It resembles in part 286 B. 

A. See 271. . 
B.* 



A. See 271. 

B.* The group is pronounced tso. 



180 



Cochinchinese. 



291. Con bau cau. 
La colombe. 
The turtledove. 

292. Trung. 
Les oBufs. 
Eggs. 



Chinese. 

oyster, G. 9590 ; from which part 

of this character seems to have 

been borrowed.] 
A. See 271. 

B.* The group is pronounced po. 
C* The group is pronounced heou. 

In Chinese, pau-kieou. 



X. — Of Numbers. 



293. Mot. 
Un. 
One. 

294. Hai. 

Deux. 

Tiro. 

295. Ba. 

Trois. 
Three. 

296. Bon. 
Quatre. 
Four. 

297. Nam. 
Cinq. 
Five. 

298. Sau. 
Six. 
Six. 

299. Bay. 
Sept. 
Seven. 



* See No. 303 B. 



This character is composed of the 
Chinese No. 2, on the right; and 
on the left that of tay, high, emi- 
nent. G. 1121. 

* The Chinese No. 3, with a group 
which is pronounced pa. 

* The Chinese No. 4, with a group 
which is pronounced pen. 

The numeral 5, with a group pro- 
nounced han. 

* The numeral 6, with a group pro- 
nounced tseou. 



181 



Cochinchinese. 

300. Tarn. 
Huit. 
Eight. 

301. Chin. 
Neuf. 
Nine. 

302. Muoi. 
Dix. 
Ten. 

303. Muoi mob. 
Onze. 
Eleven. 

304. Muoi hai. 
Douze. 
Twelve. 

305. Hai muoi. 
Vingt. 
Twenty. 

306. Ba muoi. 
Trente. 
Thirty. 

307. Mot tram. 
Cent. 

A hundred. 

308. Motngan. 
Mille. 

A thousand. 

309. Mot muon. 
Dix mille. 
Ten thousand. 

310. Mot hai muon. 
Vingt mille. 
Twenty thousand. 



Chinese. 

* The numeral 8, with an abbrevi- 
ation pronounced tang. 

* The numeral 9, with a group pro- 
nounced tchin. 



A* 

B. Mei, twigs. M. 7596. [See No. 
293.] 

* [Ten-two (ten and two.) See 302 
and 294.] 

* [Two-ten (twice ten.) See 294 
and 302.] 

* [Three-ten. See 295 and 302.] 



A. [Mot, one, above. See 293.] 
B.* The Chinese numeral 100, with 

a group pronounced lin. 
[A*. See above, 307.] 
B.* The numeral 1000, with a group 

pronounced ngan. 
A.* [See above, 307.] 
B.* The numeral 10,000, with the 

169th radical, men, door. 
* Literally one-two (twice) ten 

thousand. [See above, 293, 294.] 



182 



Cochinchinese. 

311. Muon muon. 
Innumerable. 

312. Muon van. 
Un million. 

A million. 

313. Tien. 

La monnaie. 
Money. 

314. Mot dong. 
Une sap e que. 
One sapek. 

315. Mottien. 
Soixante sapeques. 
Sixty sapeks. 

316. Mot quan. 
Dix tien. 
Ten tien. 

317. Mot chuc. 
Dix quan. 
Ten quan. 

318. Hai quan. 
Vingt quan. 
Twenty quan. 

319. Mot tram chuc. 
Mille quan. 

A thousand quan. 



Chinese. 

* [Thousand-thousand ; as it were 
thousands without number.] 

[A. See No. 308.] 

B. Ouan, ten thousand. G. 9037. 

Abbreviation of tsien, money. G. 
11490. 

[A. See 293.] 

B. Tong, copper. G. 11444. 

* [See Nos. 293, 313.] 



A. See No. 293. 

B. See No. 116. 

A. See No. 293. 

B.* The group is pronounced chou 

[or shoo.] See 318 B. 
A.* See No. 294. 
B.* See No. 317 B. 

* See Nos. 293, 307 B, and 317 B. 



320. Quot. 
L'eventail. 
A fan. 



XI. — Or Various Things. 

* The group is pronounced ko. 



183 



Cochinchinese. 

321. Nhan. 
L'anneau. 
A ring. 

322. Sam truyen. 
La Bible. 

The Bible. 

323. Hat boy. 
La comedie. 
Comedy. 

324. Iu rac. 
La prison. 
TJie jail. 

325. Die ngue. 
L'enfer. 
Hell. 

326. Ma qui. 
Le diable. 
The devil. 

327. Toi loi. 
Le peche. 
Sin. 

J28. Phuoc due. 

La vertu. 

Virtue. 
129. Di diao. 
Aller a la promenade. 
To go to walk. 
!30. Di ngu. 

Aller dormir. 

To go to sleep. 
31. Thuc diay. 

S'eveiller. 

To awake. 



Chinese. 



A. Tsan, to testify. G. 10301. 

B. Tchouen, libri sapientium. G. 
408. 

A. Yae or ho, a shout, an exclama- 
tion. M. 1. 411. 1. 
B.* The group is pronounced po. 
A. Tsieou, a jail or prison. G. 1509. 
B.* 

A. Ti, earth or ground. G. 1557. 

B. Yo, prison. G. 5804. 

A. Mo, demons. G. 12768. 

B. Kouey, a spirit, 194th radical, 
mo-kouey, the devil. 

A. Tsouy, sin. G. 8150. 
B.* 

A. Fou, virtue. G. 7063. 

B. Pou, to publish, to sacrifice. G. 
2407. 

A.* The group is pronounced tchi. 
B. Too, way. G. 11117. 

A.* See above, 329. 
B.* 

A. Tchi, to remember. M. 3. 384. 2. 

B. Y, to draw, to lead. G. 4016. 



184 



Cochinchinese. 

332. Toito. 
Un serviteur. 
A servant. 

333. Rua mat. 

Se laver le visage. 
To wash one's face. 



Chinese. 

A.* [Toi, ego, meus, a, urn. 

Dictionary.] 
B. Tso, to assist. G. 162. 
A.* 
B. See No. 7. 



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No. III. 

LEXICON 

COCHIN-SINENSE LATINUM 

AD USUM MISSIONUM. 

A R. p. 

JOSEPHO MARIA MORRONE, 

Catholicae Romanae Ecclesiae Missionum in Cochin-Sina 
MINISTRO 

ET ILLIC IN URBE SAIGON COMMORANTE 

CIVI AMERICANO JOHANNI WHITE 

PEHBENIGNE DOSATUK. 

AMERICANS PHILOSOPHIC^ SOCIETATIS JUSSU 
TYP1S EXCUSUM. 



24 



LEXICON 

COCHIN-SINENSE LATINUM. 

[Signa tonorum, ad elevandam vel deprimendam vocem in 
pronunciatione syllabarum, he, tanquam inutilia, omit- 
tuntur.] 



A. Instrumentum rusticum triangulare ad secandum paleas 
aptum. 

A. Soror major natu. Co a, Famulse vel concubinae man- 
darinorum. Chi a, Apud sorores religiosas est secunda 
in conventu. 

Ac. Ludere simpliciter. Ac nghiep, vel choi ac, Ludere 
turpiter. Lain nghe choi ac, Exercere res turpes. Chim 
ac, Corvus. Mo ac, Pulsus pectoris. 

Ach. Jugum. Ach nan, vel tai ach, Calamitas. Ach nuoi, 
Calamitas totius regni. Phat ach, Morbus, qui spiritum 
semper sursum agit. 

Ai. Quis? Ai lay, Quis accepit ? Istud relativum, quis, quae, 
quod, si jungatur aliis nominibus, mutatur in vocem 
nao, et semper postponitur nominibus, ut ng nao, quis 
homo? vel quae mulier? Su nao, Quae res, &c. Ai ai, 
vel He ai ai, Quicumque. He ai ai muon de roi chon thi 
tri het ph' biet tao Catholica, Quicumque vult salvus 
esse, ante omnia opus est ut teneat Catholicam fidem. 



188 

Ai nay. Non proprie quidem, sed ex usu concionatorum 
nunc invalescente evadit in secundam personam plu- 
ralem; ut ai nay ph' biet, Vos debetis scire. Ai phue 
vel che phue, Vestis lugubris. Cung ai, Tono lugubri. 
Ai mo, Vehementer amare. 

Ai. Corruptio lignorum, vestium, &c. eadem sua forma sub- 
sistente dicitur ai ; sed quando aliquid corruptum et in 
partes confractum est, dicitur nat: D. J. C. chiu'danh don 
nat het thit ra, Dominus Jesus flagellatus est usque con- 
cisionem totius carnis. 

Ay. Terra sterilis. Ay, Ille, ilia, illud. Ay no, Ecce ille. 
Pronomen ille, ilia, illud, semper debet postponi substan- 
tivo; ut ng ay, Homo ille, illud negotium. 

Am. Locus vel sedicula dicata idolo vel mortuo. Tumulus 
bonziorum. 

Am. Dicitur de fuligine vel fumo quando alicui adhserent 
rei. Qui am, dasmon obsidet. Nguoi qui am, Obsessus 
a daemone. 

Am. Gestare infantem in sinu. 

Am. Ista vox apud annamitas varie significat et apponitur 
litteras duong: unde am duong, est luna et sol ; mulier 
et vir; aer humidus et calidus; par et impar: unde 
xem vel xin am duong, sortilegium scrutare. Biu am, 
iEstus solis sine splendore. 

Am cai am. Lebes vel ahenum ad calefaciendum aquam. 
Dicitur etiam de aere temperato a. frigore. Nhieu ao thi 
am, Multre vestes temperant a frigore. Dam am, suavi- 
tas aeris tempore veris. 

Am. Humidus, a, um. Am am, Sonitus. 

An vel yen. Pax, tranquillitas. Nguoi Anam, Annamita. 
Nguoi Anan, Tunkinum. An ui, Consolari. Yen khau, 
ephippium equinum. 

An. Scriptum ad cautelam. Lap an, Conficere scriptum ad 
cautelam. Dieu an, Deferre ejusmodi scriptum ad judi- 
cem. Nguoi luy an, Homo facinorosus, qui multis ejus- 



189 

modi scriptis est notatus. Huong an, Incensi altare apud 
Ethnicos. 

A'Tig. Genus vasis. 

A-ng na. Pater et mater ; non est in vulgari sermone. 

An. Manducare, cibum capere. An trom, Furari. An cuop, 
Diripere. Ke trom ke cuop, Fures et raptores. An o, 
Conversari, gerere se, rem cum viro aut muliere habere. 
An noi, Loqui. An muoy, Mendicare. Manducare pro 
personis honoratis dicitur xoi. Xin cu di xoi com. Dig- 
neris Pater ire manducatum oryzam. Vox vero regalis est 
com vong, vel com thue. 

Anh, Frater major. An iiem, Fratres. Anh, Imago. 

Ang. Ponitur cum yen ; ut yen ang, Silentium, Silere. 
Anh mat bloi, radii solis. 

An. con an, an tiu, Sigillum. An bau, Sigillum regale. 
Dan han, Sigillum imprimere. Dao an, sigillum fabri- 
care. Sap an, Inchoantur feria?. Khai an, Desinunt fe- 
rine. An xuo, Deprimere. 

An. Abscondere se. An nih tren rung, Abscondere se in 
silvis. Abscondere alias res, dicitur Giau. Giau boi troi 
nih, Occultare pecuniam in pectore. 

Ao. Piscina vel stagnum. 

Ao. Vestis. Ao dai, Vestis talaris. Ao chen toy, vestis 
strictioris manicse. Cao mu dai ao, Dicitur de illis qui 
affectant soeculares dignitates in biretis et vestibus ob- 
longis. 

Aong, vel ao, apes. Tieng ao tieng ve, Balatus apum et 
cantus cicadarum, metaphorice pro molestis querelis. 

Ao ao, Murmur multorum clamantium. 

At. Noi at ng ta di, Contradicere et conari verbis casteros 
prasvalere. 

Ap. Fovere. Au lo, Mestus. Cai au, Vasculum. 

Ap vao, Applicare. Ap, prope. Au, castanea. 

Ap tai, vel ap viu. Praeses operis. 

At la, vel hla au la, Certe, sine dubio. 



190 

Ay la, ill ud est. 

An nan, Poeniterc. An nan toi, contritio. 

At, vol at la. Certe. 



B. 



Ba. Tres. la ba ba, testudo. 

Ba. Venenum quo canes a furibus enecantur. Ao ba, ge- 
nus telee sericse. 

Ba, avia. Diu ba, regina. Ista vox etiam sumitur pro 
omni persona honorata feminini sexus, ut Ba thanh Ine, 
Sancta Agnes. Diu ba, apud Christianos per antanoma- 
siam nominatur Beata Virgo. Anh Diu Ba, Imago Beatae 
Virginis. Ba nay, Ista Domina. 

Ba tri ba, Dignitas quasdam. Ba, vox sinico-annamitica est 
nota vel catalogus ; unde dien ba est nota agrorum. 
Dinh ba, catalogus virorum. 

Ba co ba, Concubina3 magistratuum. Thui ba, lingusl vul- 
gari. Chu bai, patruus minor et major. 

Bai, argentum. Xuy bai, dealgentare. Danh bai, ludere 
aleis. Nguoi co bai, aleator. Bai ra, albescere. Bai 
tinh, cor ingratum. Bai ai, impius, &c. Bai, patruus 
major. 

Bai, elychicum, seu materia alia qua nutritur ignis in oleo. 

Bai, gradus. Bai, vel mo ban tho, gradus candelabrorum 
supra altari positus. Dang bai, ordo vel status. Vide 
vocem Dang. 

Bach. Vox sinico-annamitica, albus, a, um. Raro est in 
uso nisi trang bach ra, albescere. Ngua bach, equus 
albus. 

Bai. Septentrio. Thuoi bai, medicina sinica. Bai cuoi, 
imperium Sinarum. Gio bai, aquilo. Sao bai dau, sep- 
tem Stellas quae ab astronomis Europaeis vocantur urus 
septentrionalis. 



191 

Bai, an noi be bai, diserte loqui. Non est in vulgari. 
Bai. Labefactari. Bai tran, victus bello. Bai chiu quien, 

amittere dignitatem. Bai canh tay, arescit brachium. 
Bai. Inclinatio capitis pro reverentia. Khau dau bai ta, 

supplex gratias agere. Bai nganh, vale dicere in malam 

partem. 
Bai. Variis rebus applicatur. Bai thuoi, certus modus me- 

dicinam conficiendi. Bai hoi, lectio scholasticorum. 

Danh bai danh bai, ludere chartis, aleis. Chay hoa bai, 

vel the bai, mandatum per cursorem ad varia loca mit- 

tere. Bai giang, concio. Ra bai, thema dare. 
Bai, choi bai bai, praefracte negare. Voi vang bo bai, in- 

tempeste properare. Bay, septem. Boy vel bay, deci- 

pula avium. 
Bay gio, nunc. Boy ba, homo numquam serius. Bay gio, 

tunc. Sum bay, tammultum. Cua bay, cancer excori- 

atus. Bay chim, agmen avium. 
Bai. Congestus arenarum ex inundatione, vel arena acclivis 

in ripis fluminum vel. maris. Bai bien, littora maris. 

Quan be bai, nebulones ; idem est ac dan soi cuoi bai. 
Bay, volare. Chim bay, avis volans. Chim dau, chim bat, 

bat chim bay, dicitur de eo, qui re certa relicta. sperat in- 

certam. Bay, vel chung bay, vox non est in usu, nisi 

ad infimos homines et contemptibiles alloquendo. Cai 

bay, instrumentum ad liniendum parietes. 
Bay ra. Collocare vel effingere. Bay mom ra, collocare 

abacos. Thung Anio bay ra nhieu deu doi, Anius effinxit 

multa mendatia. 
Bay bay, septem, septima, thu bay, &c. 
Bam bam, fructus quidam. 
Bam chi, extremis digitis compingere. Bam, carnem aut 

piscem crebro ictu minutim conscindere. 
Ban. Concedere. Vox propria Regi. Vua chua ban cho, 

Rex concedit. D. C. B. ban cho tanh on lanh. Deus con- 
cessit nobis multa beneficia. 



192 

Ban ghat, elargiri. Ban ngay ban dcm, diu noctuque. 

Phat ban, scabies. 
Ban. Societas, socius. Ke ban, intimam inire amicitiam 

vel societatem, vel etiam matrimonium contrahere. Con 

da ket ban chua, Filius vel Filia jam esse conjugates vel 

conjugata. 
Ban. Vendere. Buon ban, mercari. Ban phan, media pars. 

Ban sinh, ban thiu, semicrudus, a, urn. 
Ban, vel ban luah, ban bai, censere, consultari. Ban chiem 

bao, somnium interpretari. Ban tay, vola manus. Co ke 

bon rang phai sai quan pha lang ai, sunt qui exercitum 

ad certandum cum luce excitandum censent. 
Ban, materia ex qua aliquid fit : vel summa capitalis. Vo 

ban bat lap, sine materia nihil fit. Saih ban, exemplum 

originale ex quo aliquid transcribitur. Ban do, mundi 

mappa. 
Ban, ventus typhonius, typho; tempestas valida. 
Ban, explodere globos ex tormentis bellicis, aut sagittas ex 

arcubus. Ban tin di, divulgatur fama. Hon da ban ra, 

exilit lapis. Ban han net, dura indoles. 
Ban, implicare et impedire. Ao dai ban chan, vestis ob- 

longa impedit gressum. 
Ban lung, paupertas extrema. Ban nhan, pauperrimus. 
Ban, sordidus, a, urn. Ban thiu, idem est. Ban than, he- 

bescere. 
Bang, vox Sinico-annamitica, regnum. 
Bang nkao, vel bang bo, irridere conternnere. Bang vao 

dau, digitis caput pulsare. 
Bang, arbor qusedam. 
Bang, inscriptio magnifica, qua declarantur ii, qui in pub- 

licis litterarum certaminibus lauream adipiscuntur. 
Bang, sequus, a, um, vel aequalis, e. 
Ba ngoi lung bang nhau, tres personnse sunt sibi invicem 

cosequales. Bang lao, sequo animo. Lam bang, dicitur 

de omnibus rebus quae fiunt ex aliqua. materia, ut chan 

neu lain bang go, candelabrum ex ligno. 



193 

Ba\g, juxta, sicut. Lam bang, vol sa dan su bang su giai, 

cives hostesque juxta interficere. Lam bang di, vel bang 

tri di, solo aequare. Ke cho Annam quang da bang tri di 

ca, metropolem Tunkini Cochinsinenses solo aequarunt 

totam. Nhuoi bang, quod si. 
Banh, panis. Banh che, os rotundum intra genu super quo 

genuflectimus. 
Bank voi, turricula dorso elephantis superposita. 
Bap chuoi, flos ficus indica3 quando nondum est apertus. 

Bap giua, flos ananae sylvestris qui est valde suavis. Quat 

bap giua, flabellum ad formam illius floris factum. Noi 

lap bap, loqui inepte, sine meditatione. 
Bat, vel lieu bat, dispergi tempestate vel alia calamitate. 
Bat, porsulana, scutella. Bat su, scutella sinica. Bat da, 

bat tai, obstupescunt aures. 
Bat, capere, cogere. Bat lam viei, cogere ad laborem. 

Bat chuoi, imitari, aemulari. Chang nen bat chuoi ke xau 

net, non licet asmulari malos. 
Bat, nin bat bat, altum silentium. 
Bat lam, aliquando dicitur pro bene, nimis. 
Bat maga, virescere. 
Bat, vox sinico-annamitica, non. 
Bat phue, inobediens. Bat nhan, ingratus, a, um. 
Bau, chua bau, pretiosissimus, a, um. 
Bau, unguibus vulnerare. 
Bau, ruoi bau, muscse assident. 
Bau cku, fidejussor. 
Bau cu, intercedere. 
Bau, cucurbita alba. 
Be, cai be vel cai ve, vasculum. Be ruoi, vasculum vini. 

Con be, con me, vitulus. Be tan, latera navis. 
Be, tegumentum arborum quae multiplici cortice teguntur, 

quales sunt coco, areca, ficus indica, &c. 
Be, parvulus. Thauy be, puer parvulus. Con be, puella, 
25 



194 

Be, be boi, rates vel colli^atnra multorum lignorum. 
Sumitur etiam pro discordiis et factionibus. Trao nha 
chung ch nen sinh ra be boi, in communitatibus non debent 
fieri factiones. Ve be ue nhau, adjungunt sese factiosi. 
Buon be, exercere mercaturam lignorum. 

Be, frangere. Be doi ra, frangere in duas partes. Be boi, 
vide supra. 

Be, suffundi pndore ex repulsa. Lam be mat, suffundere 
pudore aliquem per repulsam. 

Be, cai be, ferula. Con be, vide supra. 

Be be, gestare infantem. 

Be ngoai extra ; be trao, intus. Be ngoai la con chien, be 
trao la soi rung; extra es ovis, intus vero lupus. San soi 
su be ngoai xem sao su be trao, procurare multum ex- 
teriora, interiora negligere. 

Be, melius dicitur bien, mare. Ta con o noi bien ca la the 
gian noy, adhuc sumus in hujus mundi pelago. 

Be, follis. Thoi be, sufflare follem. 

Bech nguoi bech mat, homo crassae faciei et largae. 

Ben, et dinh ben, adhserere. Chang nen dinh ben su toi, 
non licet adhserere peccato. 

Ben, sed. Ben chua chung toi chung su du, sed libera nos 
a malo ; non est tarn in usu quam sao le. 

Ben, una pars respectu alterius. Ben trao ben ngoai, pars 
interior et exterior. Ben nay hay la ben kia, nemo po- 
test duobus dominis servire. 

Ben, static navium vel cymbarum. Ben sou, ripa fluminis 
ad quam appellunt naves vel cymbse. 

Ben, durare, durabilis. Su the gianch ben chang do, quae 
sunt hujus mundi fluxa atque fragilia sunt. Ben lao, fir- 
mo et constanti animo. Vide vung. 

Beo, con beo, tigris parvus. 

Beo, carnem digitis convellere. 

Beo, pinguis, crassus. 

Beo, herba in superficie aquae nata, pascendis porcis apta. 



195 

Xem ng ta nhu cai beo bat vay, deprimerc alios ad infi- 

mum gradum. Re nhu beo, quod est valde vile. 
Beo, chim cheo beo, avicula quosdam quce tempore aestivo 

circa aurora m cantillare solet. 
Bep, mu bep, biretum vetustate depressum. Nguoi ay da 

bep mat, ad vilitatem vel paupertatem redactus. 
Bep, focus. Lam bep, agere coquum. Dan ba nam bep, 

mulier est in puerperio, quia post partum solet adhiberi 

focum. Nha bep, culina vel coquus. Vua bep, Deus foci. 
Bep, nam bep, decumbere lassus. 
Bet, nat bet, confractissimus, a, urn. 
Bi, mantica. Bi, cucurbita. Bi tieu tien, calculus. Bi, 

pellis. Binh, miles. Binh, vasculum. Binh huong, thuri- 

bulum. 
Bia, inscriptio in lapide ad perpetuam memoriam. Horn 

bia thien chua de tru yen, area foederis veteris testamenti. 

Bia ban, scopus. 
Bia, tegumentum libri. Nguoi va bia sach, homo Uteris 

imbutus. 
Biei, color coeruleus. 
Bich mu bich, color plusquam coeruleus. 
Biem, degradatio dignitatis. 
Biex, notare litteris. Bien, discernere, excogitare. Phai 

lai tui phon bien ra ma lam, oportet uti ingenio ad exco- 

gitandum quid faciendum sit. 
Bien di, evanescere. Tuy co ung bien, accommodare se 

ad omnes fortunse casus. Bien tra bien coi, variabilis, 

fallax, mobilis animo. 
Bieiv, mare. Vide supra be. 

Bieng, Lam bieng, piger. Bieng tra, bieng rap, idem est. 
Biet, scire. Biet la the nao, quomodo scimus. 
Bim. Cay bim bim, herba qusedam. 
Bim di, silentio supprimere. 
Binh, miles. Binh si, idem. Binh vue, defendere. Binh 

phap, disciplinae militaris severitas. Binh ki, arma. 



li)G 

Bip. Chim hip bip, avis quaidam a suo cantu sic vocata. 

Bit, celare. Guom bit bac, gladius argento celatus. Bit 
tat, tibiale. 

Biu, ventriculus cujuscumque animalis. 

Biu moi biu mo, deducere labia in signum contemptus. 

Bo, giu bo bo, tenaciter custodire. 

Bo, vermis ex foetore natus. Bo cua, lignum quo retinetur 
pessula portas. 

Bo, colligare. Mot bo, fasciculus vel ligatura. Bo, con bo, 
bos, vis. Bo duoi dat, rapere in terra. 

Bo, abjicere, relinquere, repudiare. Ke muon an nan toi 
nen, thi ph bo lao yeu men su toi ra khoi tao minh, qui 
vult esse vere poenitens debet abjicere amorem peceati 
corde suo. Cai Thanh Tou Do de bo moi su ma theo, 
D. J. C. Apostoli relinquerunt omnia et secuti sunt Chris- 
tum. Vo chou ch' de lia bo nhau bao gio sot, nunquam 
licet marito et uxori se invicem repudiare. 

Bo, bo nuoi, nutritus. Cho bo, ad satisfaciendum irae. An 
cho bo lue doi, comedere ad compensandum famem. 

Boi, decorticare fructum aut arborem. Boi ao, spoliare 
aliquem veste. 

Bon, conquirere aliquid cineri aut pulveri commixtum. Hay 
bon rig ta, corrodere pecuniam aut quid aliud ab aliis ava- 
ritias causa. 

Bon, mot bon, una classis. 

Boi, Di boi, sortilegium scrutari. Thay boi, sortilegus coecus. 
Trou boi, tympanulum ex papyro factum ad puerorum 
lusum. 

Bop, digitis comprimere. Bop da lai, contrahere viscera 
sua more avarorum. Bop bep, vide bep. 

Box, saliva, spuma. Nuot nuoi bot, deglutire salivam. Sau 
bot mieng ra, despumare. 

Boi, Quan thai boi, dignitas qusedam. 

Boi lay, aliquid sparsum compressis digitis colligere. Boi 
sang, aliquem supplantare. 



197 

Bom, an noi bom bom, rustice et inepte loqui. 

Boi, ungere, linire. Nguoi boi boi, homo versipellis vel 
simulatus. Dai boi, simulata urbanitas. 

Boi, excessus cujuscumque rei. Boi thue, excessus gula:. 
Mung boi phan, gaudere superabundanter. Toi da chiu 
onng van boi, cumulatus sum a te beneficiis satis super- 
que. D. C. B. da thuong yeu ta boi phan, Deus dilexit 
nos maxime. Boi nghia boi bai, ingratus. Lam boi, pa- 
rentare mense septimo. 

Boi toi, coma capillorum, vel comare aut potius glomerare 
capillos more annamitorum. Boi roi, intricatio cujus- 
cumque rei. Boi roi nhieu viei, intricari multis negotiis. 
Phat boi, ulcus mortiferum. 

Boi canh boi, jusculum ex farina et oleo confectum. Giay 
boi, papyrus crassa et vilis. Boi phu, adaugere ad cu- 
mulurn. Ta boi, protegere ; non est vulgaris vox. 

Boi rai, herba siccata ad tegendum domos. Trau boi, pur- 
gamenta frumentorum. 

Bon, confusio aut concursus multorum ; non est tarn in usu. 

Bon, quatuor. Hut bon, quartus, a, um. 

Bon. Mam bon vel mam bun, abax ad subigendum vestes 
aptus. Bon chon, inquietns. 

Bon, vide ban. 

Bop go bop, lignum molle et leve. 

Bot, farina. It bot quay ch nen ho, deficiente farina non fit 
gluten ; dicitur de iis qui incipiunt aedificare, et non possunt 
consummare. 

Bot gay, ferrum acutum baculo conjunctum. 

Bou, gossipium. Keo bou vai, fila ex gossipio ducere. Bou 
lua, spica. 

Bou ca bou, quoddam pisciculum. 

Bou cai bou, instrumentum musicum duo capita majora me- 
dium constrictum habens. Bou be, vide be. 

Bou, chim bay bou, avis alte volat. 

Bou bang, variabilis et dissimilis. 



198 

Bou phou, repente. 

Bo vo, incertus, vagus, nulli rei nixus. 

Bo, tarn bo, mutuari pecuniam ab aliquo. Co bo, species 

avis. Rau bo, species herbce. 
Bo, bo coi, terminus, confinium. Bo ao, ripa stagni. Bo 

bai, vide bai. 
Boi, cai giam boi, remus minor. Boi thuyen, agere cymbam 

illis remis minoribus. Xem boi, spectare remigantes. Is 

lusus ssepe in honorem idoli fit. 
Boi, exagere terrarn. Boi moira, ex abdito educere. 
Boi boi, viei boi boi, negotia obsident turmatim. 
Boi, unde, ex, propter. Boi dau ma nen su nay, unde fit 

istud? D. C. B. ch' ph' boi dau ma neu, Deus a nullo 

provenit. Su na boi toi ma ra, istud a peccato procedit. 

Luciphe ph' phat boi toi no, Lucifer damnatus est e pec- 
cato suo, vel propter peccatum suum. 
Bom, con bom, scortum. 

Bon, ca bon, quidam piscis, Lusitanice lingoa de bufra. 
Bon rai, herba vel palea vetustale confracta. 
Bop, nomen piscis. 

Bot, ao da bot ra, vestis vetustate diffracta. 
Bot, demere. Khi xung toi ch' nen them hay la bot, in con- 

fessione non licet addere vel demere numerum peccato- 

rum. 
Bu, buga, claustrum gallinarum. Chop bu, caput. 
Bu, con tre bu sua, infans ex lacte materno crassus. 
Bu, sugere lac. Phai cho con inh bu tri, oportet filium suum 

lactare prius. 
Bu, compensare. Lam bu lai, facere in compensationem 

rei omissae. Phai lam bu lai nh' ngay gio da bo qua khou 

vo ich, oportet reparare tempora male collocata. 
Bua, bua viei, negotia. Viei bua quan, negotia rei publicee. 
Bua, securis, malleus. Thit nac dao phay, luong cang riu 

bua, molli carni cultro mensali, ossibus duris securi opus 

est. 



199 

Bua, medicina hominem dcmentans. Bo bun chong ta, ho- 
minem dementare. Bua, vcneficii litteroe. 

Bu bu, vultus tristis et squalidus. Giau ve vang, sang lich 
su, kho bu bu ma tra, divites divertunt se, nobiles politico 
agunt; pauperes sedent tristes et squalidi. 

Bui, tabulatum paulisper e terra sublatum ad conservandum 
aliquid ab humiditate. 

Bui, ao bui, vestis lugubris. 

Bua, arbor quasdam. 

Bui, calor magnus. Bui tranh, pictura. 

But, panniculus. 

Buoi, gradiri. Mot buoi, unus passus. 

Bua. Cai bua, cai bua di, verbis per fas et nefas conten- 
dere. 

Bua, tempus comedendi, vel ipsa comestio. Chua den bua 
an, nondum venit tempus comedendi. Da qua bua, prse- 
terit hora comedendi. Ch' du bua, non completur comes- 
tio. Lan hoi bua doi bua no, dicitur de pauperibus qui 
certum vivendi modum non habent. 

Bui, pulvis. Loai nguoi hai nho may la bui, thi may lai bio 
ra bui ma cho, memento homo quia pulvis es, et in pulve- 
rem reverteris. Bui tre, arundinetum. 

Bui, sapor carnis aut piscis ex pinguedine proveniens. Qua 
bui, quidam fructus sylvestris. 

Bui vel buoi, malum citreum, Lusitanice Jambua. Bun, 
lutum. 

Bun, genus edulii ex farina in modum funiculorum facti. 

Bung, venter. Bung quay, lusus aleae. 

Bung beo, tumescere ex infirm itate. 

Bung, ferre manibus, Bung lai, afferre. Bung di, auferre. 
Bung bit, cessare. Noi bung bit, cessate loqui. 

Buon, contristari, tristitia. Buon ngu, provocari ad som- 
num. Buon mua, provocari ad vomitum. 

Buo, relinquere aliquid e manu. 

Buo chim tha ca, avibus et piscibus permittere suam liber- 
tatem. 



200 

Buo, cellarium. Buo cau, ramus arecarum. 

Bup, pellicula riorum. 

Buom, vela navis aut cymbae. 

Buom buom, papilio. 

Buoi, colligare, obligare. Buoi toi, obligare sub peccato. 

Buot, dolor acerbus. Buot dau, dolor capitis. 

But, idolum. Dao but, idolatria. 

Bo thun ma qui, abjicere cultum idolorum et dasmonum. 

But, calamus, penicillus. 

Bla, dot bla, mendax, fallax. 

Bla vel tra, reddere, restituere. Bla cua chong ta, restitu- 
ere bona ablata. Bla no su vo chou, reddere debitum 
conjugale. 

Blai xem thai/ vel nhai xem thai/, primo aspectu. 

Blai gai, istas duee voces immediate junctae significant rem 
veneream. Ut toi blai glai, peccatum fornicationis. 

Blau vel trau, betel. 

Blam vel nham, errare, decipi. 

Blai vel trai, juvenis, adolescens, vel masculinus sexus. 

Blai vel trai, fructus. Trai mle, contra rationem. Trai 
phep, contra jus. Mai ao trai, inducere vestem inverso 
modo. Trai thoi, trai each, contra mores, contra modum. 

Blai hoa blai, flos quidam. 

Blai vel trai, extendere vel explicare vestem, mattas, paleas, 
&c. Nguoi da trai moi su, homo omnium rerum experi- 
ential doctus. 

Blan vel tran ra, inundare. Toi loi da blan ra, kap mat 
dat, peccatum inundavit totam terram. 

Blan bio, vertere et invertere, ut carnem assando. Lap bio, 
fortunae vicissitudo. 

Blat, insulsus. Cuoi blat vel nhat, insulse ridere. 

Blat lay vel nhat lay, colligere. 

Blat, vel nhat mot blat, uno ictu, vel transacto uno mo- 
menta 

Blang vel irang, pagina. 



201 

Blang vel trang, luna. 

Blao blo vel trao tro, deceptor. 

Ble vel nhe gai, educere spinam carni infixam. 

Blo. Vide Mam. 

Bio vel tro, cinis. Le tro, cinerum. 

Blo vel nho, cinere vel pulvere sordidatus. Blom blem, 

idem. 
Blo vel tro cua, efficere portam. 
Blo blang, situatio aut concavitas in scdificiis. 
Blo vel tro, lua blo, exurgunt spicae. 
Bloi vel troi, bloi da ra, evellitur pellis. 
Blox, integer, ra, rum ; perfectus, a, urn. Blon doi, tota 

vita. Gui dao blon, observare perfecte religionem. Blon 

tat, blon lanh, perfecte Donus.* Hay blon vay, omnipo- 

tens. Quia non potest inveniri verbum in hac lingua ad 

significandum omnipotentiam divinam. 
Blot, fere idem est ac blot.f Qua blot vel qua nhot, quidam 

fructus valde acidus. 
Blo di blo lai, ire et redire : vide Man blo. Blo lai cuD.C.B. 

Converti ad Deum. 
Bloi, ccelum. D. C. B. Dominus Deus cceli. 
Blon vel uhon, magnus, a, um. Blon len, grandescere. 

Noi choi blon tieng, loquere alta voce. 
Bloi, commendare aliquid alicui in ipsa morte. D. J. C. 

da bloi thit mau minh nuoi thon ta, Christus Dominus 

relinquit carnem et sanguinem in cibum animas nostras. 
Bloi vel troi, convulsio cum magno fragore. 
Blot vel cot blot, jocari inepte. Chang nen cot blot cu dan 

ba con tre, non licet inepte jocari. 
Blou, plantare. 
Blou blao, vecors, protervus. 

* Sic in MS. \ Differentia fit ex apice. 

26 



202 



C. 



Ca, genus carminis, vel tonus cantancli. Mieng doi ca tay 

dan loi, verba non correspondent factis. Ca xuong, can- 
tare; non est vulgare. 
Ca, piscis. Lao chim da ca, dicitur de perfidis. 
Ca, herba cujus fructus sale conditus est maxime in usu 

apud annamitas. 
Ca, totus, a, urn ; magnus, a, urn. Ca thay thay, totus, om- 

nino, universi, omnes. Cha ca, Deus. Anh ca, frater 

natu major. 
Ca, pretium taxatum. 
Cai, ad significandum numerum pluralem. D. C. B. phu ho 

cho cai an hem, Deusauxilietur vobis fratres. Ph xung 

cai toi da pham, oportet confiteri omnia peccata com- 

missa. Chun bo cai, qusedam avis. Cui cai, sonus am- 

putantis. 
Cai, regere. Cai quan, praeesse militibus. So cai, milites 

praspositi alicui populo ad colligendum vectigalia. D. C. B. 

cai tri mai su, Deus moderatur omnia. 
Cai, nomen genericum instrumentorum, vel sexus foemineus 

in animalibus. Ut Ion cai, porca. Cho cai, canis fcemina. 

Excepta. ista voce, ga mai, gallina. Ruou cai, oryza fer- 

mentata. Con cai, filii. Cot cai, columna major. Ngon 

tay cai, pollex. 
Cai dap, subjicere pedibus. Cai dai do, religare angulos 

vestis more annamitorum. 
Cai, rau cai, sinapi. Cai each, modum vel mores mutare. 

Cai ten, mutare nomen. Cai ma, mutare sepulcrum. 
Cai, contradicere, disputare. Cai mle, argumentari. Cai 

co nhau, rixari inter se. 
Caih, modus. Caih xa, distare. Caih mui caih non, sao lao 

chang caih, separari locorum distantia, sed non corde. 



203 

Cay, acrimonia qune gustum molcste pulsat, qualis est in 

grano sinapi vel piperis. Cay dang lam, amaritudo ama- 

rissima. Cay dang cay, quondam arbuscula cujus folia 

sunt acria admodum. 
Cay ra, ungue aut clavo aliquid extundere. Lo cay cay, 

sollicitudo magna. 
Cay, species cancri minimi et timidissimi, unde venit dictum 

Nhat nhu cay, timidus ad instar illius cancri. 
Cay, arare. Cay cay, aratrum. Mua cay cay, tempus co- 

lendi agros. Dua di cay, arator. Cay danh cay, lusus 

puerorum. 
Cay, arbor. Cay cay, arbores. Cay hang sou, arbor vitas. 
Cay, sperare. Cay mot hai viei, commendare aliqua nego- 

tia. Cay ng, confidere alicui. Cay sue D. C. B. Deo 

fretus. 
Cay, transplantare fruges. 
Cay, animalia sylvestria minora. 
Cam, malum aureum. Cho cam lao, ut satisfiat desiderio. 

Xin nguoi thua lai cho tai duoc lao, rogo ut des respon- 

sum quod satisfiat animo meo. Mau cam, sanguis e nari- 

bus fluens. 
Cam, muscipula. Phai kham ph. cam, incidere in laqueum. 
Cam, furfur. Cam on D. C. B. Gratias agere Deo. Cam 

canh, miserandum sane. Xem thay thi cam canh, mise- 

rabile spectaculum. 
Cam, phai kinh cam, invadi maligna aura. Giao cam, exer- 

cere actum conjugalem. 
Cam da da lau, dudum exacerbatus in animo. 
Cam, lou cam, mistaces. 

Cam vao, manu figere. Cam xuo dat, infigere humo. 
Cam, mentum. 
Cam, cu cam, genus tuberis. 
Cam, nguoi cam, mutus. Cam mieng di, obmutescere. Cam 

trao luoi, urere aliquid igne non accenso. 
Cam, prohibere. Cam chi, prohibere omnino. Chang nen 



204 

lam nh su thanh Igh. a da cam, non licet ca facere qua? 

Ecclesia prohibet. 
Cam, tcnere. Cam vong, manducarc. Vox propria Regi. 
Cam thu, volatilia ct quadrupedia. 
Cam, com lam cam, oryza subcruda. 
Can, impedire, dehortari. Can gian, idem est. Chang can 

co gi, nihil refert. Giao trang can, pugio longior. Chang 

can gi den nay, nihil ad te. 
Can, nuoi can, aqua exhausta. Kho can, siccitas aquae. 
Can, manubrium cujuscumque instruments Can can, sta- 

tera. 
Can vel can gio, temere, indiscrete. An can o gio, indis- 
crete, sine legibus vivere. Don can, vectis ad portan- 

dum spicas aut paleas colligatas. 
Can, prsevalere viribus, consilio, aut verbis. 
Can ban, radix, fundamentum. MIoi noi chang co can ban 

nao, dictum absque ullo fundamento. 
Can vel cdn, infima pars cujuscumque liquoris, aut excre- 

mentum. Can muou, excretum vini. 
Can, mordere. Cho can, canis mordet, vel ablatrat. Ca can 

cau, piscis capitur hamo. 
Can, Ian can, querulus, a, urn. Gia nua Ian can, senex que- 

rulus. 
Can, pondus vel statera, pondere. 
Can, vox sinico-annamitica, prope, a latere. Quan can 

than, vir a latere regis, conciliarii intimi regis. 
Can, can can, quidam pisciculus. 
Can, necessarius, a, um. Can kip, urgens. Ke liet can 

vel kip, infirmus in extremo positus, ideo est urgens. 

Rau can, quaedam herba. 
Can than, cum magna cura. aliquid facere. Xem cho can 

than, circumspicere vel custodire cum magna, cura. 
Cang, quo magis, eo magis. 

Cang can thi cang lam, quo magis admonetur eo magis facit. 
Canh, jus vel vigilia. 



205 

Canh gio, vigilias agere. Mot trou canh, una vigilia. Canh 
mot, prima vigilia. Canh cot, obliquis verbis mordere. 
Canh, ala. Canh tay, brachium. 

Canh, ramus. 

Canh, arbuscula? delectabiles. Vuon canh, hortus delici- 
arum. 

Canh, di canh, suspenso vestigio incedere. 

Cao, altus, a, um. D. C. B. rat cao, rat trao, Deus altissi- 
mus. Cao tri, acris ingenio. Thay cao cou, vel Dia ly, 
vel Tuong dia, sunt nefarii illius gentis mathematici qui 
ceteris ex superstitiosa terras ad sepulcrum electione, 
bona evenire; mala vero prascaveri posse mentiuntur. 
Cao tinh, animus ferox. 

Cao, radere. Dao cao, novacuia. 

Cao vel cao kien, accusare. Ma qui se cao may tri toa 
D. C. B. Daemon accusabit te ante tribunal Dei. Phat 
cao vel dau cao, dau kien, dau tung, accusator. Bi cao, 
bi kien, bi tung, accusatus. Cao kien nhau, vel cao cu 
nhau, movere lites inter se. Con cao, vulpes. 

Cao, ungue lacerare aliquid, vel terram sulcare. Cai cao, 
instrumenlum dentatum ad terram comminuendam. 

Cao, codex. 

Cao, contortus, a, um. Cai cao, vas fictile ad continendum 
aquam. 

Cao tay, riget manus ex frigore. 

Cao cua vel gao cua, chela? cancrorum. 

Cao, cao lung, dorsum curvum. 

Cao, gestare aliquid super dorsum. 

Cap, mot cap tay, unus manipulus. 

Cap, codex papyri, vel ligatura multorum librorum. Noi 
cap gia, pertinaciter affirmare. Suffurari, non clam sed 
coram et subtiliter. Ke kap, qui subtiliter furantur prae- 
sertim in confusione hominum. Troi cap canh, duo bra- 
chia in unum simul revincire. 

Cap, cua cap, cancer chelis suis apprehendit aliquid. 



200 

Cap, idem est. Ac kip, urgens. 

Cat, arena. Duong cat, saccharum arenosum. 

Cat, secare, tondere aut mittere. Phai cat toi, tonsura ec- 
clesiastica. Phep cat bi, circumcisio Judaica. Cat nghia, 
explanare, explicare, interpretari. 

Cat, tollere, auferre. Cat xai, efferre funera. 

Cat, dorsum, sscpe dicitur de animalibus. Loai vat sap cat 
len bloi, animalia (scilicet ingrata) obvertunt dorsa ccelo. 

Cau, cay cau, areca. Cau mat lai, rugare frontem. Cau, 
periodus. Cau, juridice vocare. Cau ca, hamare pisces. 
Luoi cau, hamus. 

Cau, avunculus major et minor. Chim cau, columba. 

Cau, cau rat, crux. 

Cau, ungue vellere aliquid. 

Cau, ovare vel pons. Cay co, arbor qusedam. 

Cau, cau tho, versus. 

Cau, sordes ex aqua natse. 

Cau, lau cau, tristis et querulus. 

Cau, luoi cau, hamus. Cau cau, ames. 

Co lay, attrahere ad se. Co lai,* contrahere. 

Co, abstergere aliquid asperum. 

Co lua, dicitur de hominibus parcis, qui nolunt sumptum 
facere propere cum desideratur. 

Co, affirmatio esse vel habere. Ad recte utendum istis voci- 
bus co et la, vel phai la, non potest dari certa regula 
nisi per longum usum ; ideo aliquas phrases hie jungo. 
Co nhieu D. C. B. chang? suntne plures Dei? Co mot 
D. C. B. ma thoi, est unus Deus soliimmodo. Sed in se- 
quent! phrasi jam non est utendum voce co, sed la : ut 
D. C. B. la tinh di gi, Deus est qusenam substantia. D. C. B. 
la tinh thieng lieng, Deus est spiritus. D. C. B. co may 
ngoi 1 Deus quot habet personas 1 D. C. B. co ba ngoi, 
Deus habet tres personas. Ou khou tu co phai la D. C. B. 

* Differentia ex apice. 



207 

chang?* Chang phai, non est. Vox verd co, habere, sem- 
per praponitur interrogation^ ut non co muon xung 
toi chang? fili, visne confiteri, vel habesne desiderium 1 
et respondetur co, affirmative, volo, vel habeo deside- 
rium. No co den chang? ille venitne? Co o, esse vel 
manere. Cu co o nha chang? pater estne domi? et tunc 
respondetur affirmative, co; vel negative, khou vel chang co. 

Co, cai co, grus. Co sung, machina ad ignem excutiendum. 

Co, herba ad pascenda animalia ; herbas verd quas usui 
humano esse possunt vocantur vau hoa co, fcenura. 
Su sang trao the gianduong bang hoaco, nobilitas mundi 
comparatur foeno. Mang co, praesepium. 

Co, amita. Co ba, vide ba. 

Co, ou co, proavus. Ba co, proavia. Lam co, plus laborare 
quam ferunt vires. Cam co, dare aliquid in pignus. 

Co, collum. Cung co, durse cervicis. 

Co, edulia. Mam co, abacus eduliis instructus. 

Co mun, inventiones ingeniosse. Chuoc moi, stratagema, 
machinatio. Khi danh giai ph' co co mun chuoc moi, 
in bello debent adhiberi stratagemata et machinationes. 
Co quan, cohors militum. 

Co, cho di lam co, ut sit in testimonium et monumentum. 
Lam chung co, facere testimonium. 

Co, vexillum. Mo co lam giac, erigere vexillum rebelle. 
Tinh co, casus fortuitus. Trao the gian nay chang co su 
gi tinh co dau, in hoc mundo nihil accidit casu forte. 

Coc, mergulus. Coc cho coc duoi, canis brevis caudae. 

Coc, bufo. Nguoi coc, homo brevis statural. 

Coi, inspicere. Coi soi vel xem soi, curam habere. 

Coi, herba ex qua fiunt mattse, vel teguntur domus. Co cai y 
quasdam avis. 

Coi, buccina parva ad convocandos milites. 

Coi. Vide bo coi. (Ante, p. 198.) 

* Deest interpretatio hujus phrasis in MS. 



208 

Coi, mo coi, orphanus, a, um. Coi re, radix, insitium. D. C. B. 
la coi re moi su, &c* Coi dam, mortarium. Coi xay, 
molendina. 

Coi, cay coi da coi, arbores jam veterant. 

Coi, cai coi, theca ad apponendum betel. 

Coitreu, ad contentionem provocare. Coi tac, adinvenire, 
exordiri. Ai coi tac ra viei nay, quis est adinventor vel 
auctor istius operis? 

Coi vel coi ao, exuere vestem. Phai coi dao cu, ma mac 
lay Adao moi, oportet exuere veterem Adamum, et indu- 
ere novum. 

Coi vel cuoi, sedere super dorso bovis, bubali, elephantis. 
Coi vel di ngua, equitare. 

Com, gia nua chou gay lorn com, senex capularis baculo in- 
nixus, testudineo gradu incedens. 

Com, confici macie. 

Co?n dang, obscurus aspectu. An mac com dang, vili et ob- 
scuro indutus habitu. 

Com, oryza viridis, igne tosta et pistillo contusa ; quod cibi 
genus est in delicias apud Tunkinenses. 

Com, oryza cocta, quae est quotidianus cibus. Com nan gao 
day, dicitur de eo qui a multis annis enutritur ab aliquo. 
Ta co com an, co ao mac thi da du, habens victum et 
vestitum, his contentissimus. 

Com, locus impervius solis radiis. 

Co\, in hominibus vocatur Alius, vel filia ; addendo vocem 
blai pro masculino genere, et gai pro foeminino ; ut 
con blai, filius; con gai, filia: sed quando dicitur con- 
nay, semper intelligendum est de ista puella. Interdum 
fit adjectivum diminutivum minimus, a, um ; et tunc bis 
dicitur, con con ; et semper postponitur substantivo, ut con 
be con con, puella minima. Tkang be con con, puer par- 
vulus ; et etiam dicitur, con sack con con, libellus. Con 

* Deest interpretatio. 



209 

dao con, cultellus. Nha con con, domuscula. In animali- 
bus vero, quando prseponitur nomini particulari, fit nomcn 
genericum animalium; ut con cho, canis, con Ion, por- 
cus, con voi, elephas. Quando vero postponitur illorum 
animalium nominibus, fit iterum adjectivum, ut, supra. 
v. g. cho con, canis parvulus; Ion con, porcellus, et etiam 
dicitur bis sed separando, ut con Ion con, porcus parvulus. 
In plurali numero, con cai, semper pro utroque sexu in 
hominibus; ut ta la con cai D. C. B. sumus filii Dei. 
Lam con ng ta chang nen a no the ay, non licet hominis 
dignitati taliter vivere. Con nguoi, pupilla oculorum. 
Con mat, oculus. Con nha quan, nobili genere natus. 

Con, adhuc. Con sou chang, adhucne vivit \ et semper se- 
paratur a particula chang, ut bay gio con con muon pham 
toi nua chang, adhuc vis amplius peccare? quando vero in 
oratione incipit sequens membrum per vocem con, tunc 
est quoad vero ; ut, ay la su dao ; con ve su doi the nao, 
haec suntde religione; quoad vero res politicas, quomodo? 

Cox, colligare aliquid in unum. Con be, colligare ligna, seu 
instruere rates. 

Con, arenarum insula. 

Con, voc lao con, fericum draconum picturis refertum. 

Con, accessus vel commotio iras, tempestatis, pluviae, febris. 

Con co, lascivus, a, um. 

Cop, contraheri, decrescere. Tre no ra, gia co plai, pueri 
crescunt, decrescunt senes. Est etiam aliquod monstrum 
fictitium ad deterrendum parvulos; unde venit modus 
loquendi. Thay ng ta thi so nhu cop, ad conspectum ho- 
minum stupescere, tanquam ad horribile monstrum. 

Cot, lin cot ng ta, corrodere aliquid ab omnibus. 

Cot, la cot, crates ex arundine denso modo contexta? ad con- 
tinenda frumenta : inde fit modus loquendi, nom nay may 
di moy la lua, hoc anno quantum frumentorum collegisti ? 

Cot, columna. Cot tau, malus navis. Ou tanh Phero la cot 
27 



210 

cai thanh Igh. a S. Petrus est columna et iirmamentum 

Ecclesiae. 
Cot, centrum. Gia cot, Pythonisjsa. Cot dui, viri qui fin- 

gunt se esse mulieres ad exercendum oiricium Pythonissa- 

rum apud Tunkinenses. 
Cot, jocose loqui. Noi cot hay la that, jocose vel serid. 
Cot geo, inepte jocari. 
Cou, cou lenh, merces. Cou nghiep, meritum. Chim cou, 

pavo. Cou bang, Justus. 
Cou, link cou led, additionem facere in arithmetica. 
Cou, ductus aqua? subterraneus. Huong cou, gradus penul- 

timus litteratorum. 
Cou, instrumentum ex asre factum, quo utuntur Tunkinenses 

ad coetum cogendum, vel ad venationem. 
Cou, fores exteriores. 
Cu, chim cu, turtur. 
Cu, ou cu, proavus. Ba cu, proavia apud Christianos; ita 

appellantur sacerdotes. 
Cu, cuculus. 
Cu, cu non, leviter aliquem circa latera contrectare ad risum 

provocandum. 
Cu, nomen genericum omnium tuberum aut leguminum. 
Cu, vetus, antiquus, a, um. Truyen cu, historia antiqua. 
Cua, cou cua, cancer. 

Cua, res ; bona corporalia vel spiritualia. Cua cai, idem. 
Cue, tuberculum in corpore vel globus aliquis. Cue gian, 

promptissimus ad iram. 
Cue, globuli ad clausuram in vestibus. Hoa cue, flos qui- 

dam flavi aut albi coloris. 
Cui, inclinare caput. 
Cui, cortex crassior in malis citreis. Cui tay, vola manus 

absque digitis, qualis et in leprosis. Chim dai cui, avis 

qusedam. 
Cui, ligna apta ad ignem. Hai cui, colligere sarmenta. 



211 

Cui tuoi rao lua thi cham chay, Lignum viride injectum 

igni tarde ardebit. 
Cui, cavea. Dao cui, includi cavea, vel construere cavcam. 
Cum, compes. Dao cum, ligare compedibus. 
Cum, congeries herbarum aut plantarum. 
Cun, instrumenta ferrea qualia sunt cultri, gladii, pugiones, 

&c, vetustate consumpta. Cun tri, ingenium obtusum. 

Mle cun, ratio futilis. 
Cung, arcus, vel domus regalis, palatium. Cung hat, tonus 

cantandi, modus musicus. 
Cung, aliquid offerri Deo aut idolis. Cung dang, cung vai, 

idem. 
Cung, finis, terminus. Vo cung, infinitus. D. C. B. cou 

bang vo cung, Deus infinite Justus. Ban cung, paupertas 

extrema. Est etiam particula cum vel simul. Lam ban 

cung ke lanh, societatem inire cum bonis. 
Cung, ita etiam, et etiam. Nguoi lieu the nao toi cung the 

ay, quomodo disponis ita etiam ego. Cung nen, ita etiam 

licet. 
Cup, deprimere. Non cup, galerus depressus. Ao cham 

non cup, vestis viridis et galerus depressus ; est habitus 

lugubris apud Tunkinenses. 
Cut, aliquid abscissum vel nimis abbreviatum. Hui an cut 

chan tay, pedes et manus lepra, exesi et abscissi. Toi cut, 

capilli abbreviati. 
Cut, cai cun cut, species avis valde pinguis. Danh cun cut, 

lusus puerorum. 
Cuo, cuo lao, anxius animo. 
Cuo, ramusculi qui surtinent folia. 

Cuo, cuo lai, temo gubernaculi. Cuo luoi, radix liuguse. 
Cuo, delirare ex morbo. Cuo ngon loan ngu', loquacitas ex 

delirio. 
Cuoc, vox sinico annamitica, regnum. Trao phip cuoc trieu, 

in legibus regni. Cuoc dat, fodere terram. Cuoc giat 



212 

vao lao, naturaliter omnes omnia ad sc trahunt. Cai 

cuoc, instrumentum rusticum. 
Cuoc, bravium. Danh cuoc, contractus inter duos aut plu- 

res initus pro solvendo problemate aut aliqua re incerta 

prassagianda. 
Cuoi, quidam ex fabulosa traditione bubulcus mendationum 

artifex, qui in lunam conscendisse, et nunc inibi residere, 

a paganis creditur. Mo cuoi, cumulus terras ad instar 

tumuli in ejus honorem a gentibus frequenter in viis con- 
structs. 
Cuoi, in exitu alicujus rei. Cuoi nam, in fine anni. Cuoi 

sach, ad calcem libri, apponitur voci dau. 
Cuom, decipere, fallere. Chang khon ngoan chang rung ve; 

chang cho ai cuom chang he cuom ai, nee prudens nee 

imprudens ; neque decipi, neque decipere alios velle. 
Cuon, involvere. Cuon sach, volumen libri. 
Cu, habitare. Gia cu, dien san, domus latifundia. Ngu cu, 

inquilinus. 
Cu, magnus. Dai cu, maximus. Cu, trung, tieu, magnus, 

mediocris, parvus. Cu dich, resistere. 
Cu, juxta, conformare, secundum. Phai cu muoi su ra ma 

xet minh, oportet juxta Decalogum examinare seipsum. 
Cu, lu cu et lu cu, morosus ex infirmitate. 
Cu, aliquod tempus determinatum, decern aut septem dierum. 

O cu, mulier in puerperio. 
Cua, tenera servare. Cua sung lam nghe, servare ex leone 

agnum. 
Cua, movere se instinctu ad vitandam molestiam. Cua ga, 

spina in pedibus gallorum, qua ad pugnam utuntur. 
Cua, serrare aliquid obtuso cultro. 
Cua, porta. Cua bien, portus. Cua thien dangh ep hoi lam, 

porta cceli est valde stricta. 
Cue, extreme, supreme. Cue lam, extrema miseria. Hac 

vox non adjungitur nisi cum adjectivis nobilitatis, bonita- 

tis, voluptatis, calamitatis, &c. ut : Cue cao cue trao, 



213 

summe nobilis. Cue tot cue lanh, summe bonus. Khon 

cue, summa calamitas. Thai cue, principium quoddam, 

quod pro Deo colitur a sinensibus. 
Cui, det cui, texere telas. Khung cuioi, machina ad texen- 

dum telas. Nghe canh cui, ars texendi. 
Cuoc, catenulse ex aere. Benh cuoc khi, morbus quidam. 
Cuoi, dam cuoi, convivium nuptiale. An cuoi, adesse vel 

celebrare nuptias. D. C. J. da cuoi lay thanh Igh. a Chris- 

tus accepit Ecclesiam in sponsam sibi. 
Cuoi. Vide supra coi. 
Cuoi, ridere. Cuoi nhao, irridere. 
Cuom, cay cuom cuom, arbor quaedam. 
Cuong, durus, a, urn. Khi cuong khin hu, quandoque durus, 

quandoque mollis. Day cuong, capestrum. Kim cuo, 

species gemmae. 
Cuong, violentus, a, urn. 
Cuong, resistere. Ta chang cuong duai phep D. C. B. Non 

possumus resistere potestati divinae. 
Cuop, rapere. Ke cuop, raptores. Ke trom cuop, latrones. 
Cut, stercus. 

Cuu, liberare, salvare, morbum ustione curare. Not cuu, 
cicatrix ex ustione. Thuoc cap cuu, remedium quoddam 

ad depellendos morbos efficacissimum. 
Cha, pater. Cha ca, pater magnus ; apud Tunkinenses in- 

telligitur Deus, apud Cocisinenses Episcopus. Cha ca phu 

ho cho an hem, adsit vobis Deus, fratres. 
Cha, pagus vel communitas parva. Chung cha, in corn- 
muni. 
Cha, cha vang vel thep vang, deaurare. 
Cha, ligna aut arbusculas in aquis submersae ad retinendum 

pisces in vivariis. Cha gai, rami spinarum. 
Cha, caro assata. Nuong cha, assare carnem. Etiam inter- 

dum usurpatur pro chang, non ; urbanitatis causa. Toi 

cha dam, non ausim. 
Chac; in provincial Xung-he signineatur/wnzs. 



214 

Chac, mua ckac, emerc. Ban chac, vendere. 

Chach, pisciculus quidam. 

Chach, lack chach, pugillus. Thap be lach chach, pugillus 

statural 
Chac, solidus, a, urn ; securus, a, um. Phai lieu viei linh 

hon cho chac da, oportet prius curare negotium salutis 

quam securissime. Nguoi chac chan, homo fideiis et ca- 

pax ad res agendas. 
Chai, chai hi, an mac chai hi, habitus ad ostentationem va- 

nam ornatus. 
Chai, chainha, appendix domus. 
Chai, rete. Thuy en chai, piscator vel cymba piscatoria. 

Vai chai, quang chai, nem chai, jacere rete. 
Chai, chai dau, chai toi, pectere capillos. Boi chai kiem an, 

excolere terram ad qussrendum victum. 
Chay, jejunium. Au chay, jejunare ; apud Christianos; 

apud vero paganos, cam chay, vel cam he. 
Chay, fugere. Chay tri, profugere. Chay tien, quaerere 

pecuniam. Chay vuoi quan, pecuniam vel munera orFerre 

mandarino ad impetrandum aliquid. Lam chay, oblatio- 

nes et eleemosynas, quas faciunt gentiles pro suorum de- 

functorum redemptione. Do chay, cibaria ad jejunium 

parata. 
Chay, ardere, incendi. Chay nha, incendium domus. Ca 

chay, species piscis. Chay, currere. 
Chay, cai chay, pistillum quo tunditur et pnrgatur oryza. 

Chay ngay, per multos dies. Chay ken, diuturna delibe- 

ratio et electio. 
Chay, fluere, diffluere. Nuoi chay, aqua rapida. Nguoi 

bay chay, homo levis et ineptus. 
Cham, cham phai, offendere, impingere contra aliquid ex ob- 

scuritate vel inadvertentia. Cham hoa, vasa cselata. 

Tho cham, sculptor. Cham, cselare, sculpere. 
Cham, cham lua, apponere ignem. Da nam cham, punc- 
tual ; insculpere flores in tabellis. 



215 

Cham, sach, examinare scripturam. Cham, tardus. Cham 

chap, idem. 
Cham, herba qua:dam, cujus succo expresso tinguntur vestes 

lugubres. 
Cham, cham cam, qui chant cham, ngoi chain cham, genuflec- 

tere, stare, sedere immotus. 
Chan, armarium in quo reponuntur vasa testacea, vel cibaria. 
Chan chan, maxima multitude 

Chan, fastidium. An da chan ngan, comedere usque nau- 
seam. 
Chan, pascere. Chan, operimentum quo utimur tempore 

frigoris. 
Chan, numerus par, cui opponitur le, impar. Danh chan le, 

lusus aleae. . 

Chang, chang thiep, maritus et uxor ; raro sunt in usu. 
Chang, ne interrogatio ; et semper ponitur post omnes voces, 

ut con hieu D. C. B. chang? Sunt ne plures Dii? Con 

muon xung toi chang? visne, fili, confiteri? 
Chang, negatio ad proecedentem vocem, non. Chang co, 

non esse, non habere. 
Chang, constringere aliquid fune. 
Chanh, ramusculi aut surculi arborum. 
Chanh nhau, gian nhau, contendere verbis inter se aut viri- 

bus ; vel invicem prsecipere. Cay chanh, arbor, aut fruc- 

tus quern Lusitani vocant limao. 
Chao, chao xue, capere pisciculos rotando cistam in aqua. 
Chao, lam chao, modus condiendi piscem aut carnem. 
Chao, puis. Ke liet an chao, sumit infirmus pulmentum. 
Chao, salutare aliquem in primo congressu. 
Chao, sartago, vel cacabus. 

Chao, funes quibus alligatur jugum bobus dum arant. 
Chao, Iran chao, ho chao, Ion chao, sunt animalia viva aut 

occisa, et collocata in funeribus ad honorem mortuorum, 

aut vanam ostentationem. 



21G 

Chao, properare, propere. Di cho chao fac, proper^. Chao 
chao, lusus puerorum instar rota) aut trochi. 

Chao, cat chao, lectulus. 

Chap, parentalia mortuorum mensse ultimo: unde uhimus 
mensis ab annamitis dicitur semper thang chap, cham 
chap, morosus. 

Chap, multa ligna aut aliam materiam in unum, glutine aut 
fune, colligare. Mot chap, numerus quinque monetarum 
aerearum. 

Chat, acerbus, a, um. Qua chat, fructus immaturus, acer- 
bus. 

Chat, sal conglobatum. 

Chat, abscindere, amputare. Istud verbum chat usurpatur 
pro abscisione membri alicujus aut rami in particulari; 
cum ver6 fit sermo de amputatione capitis aut totius ar- 
boris, turn utendum est verbo chem: ut chat chan tay, 
chem dau chem co, vi bang tay mat may lam hu minh 
may thi phai chat no, ma bo di cho khoi ; si dextera tua 
scandalizat te, &c. Cai riu da de gan re cay; cay nao 

chang co blai thi chem va dot di ma cho; securis ad radicem 
posita, est, &c. Chem quach, decollatio capitis est male- 
dictio apud annamitas. Cam cho chat, firmiter tenere. 

Chat, pronepos, proneptis. 

Chau, nepos, neptis. 

Chay, pediculi in capite. Dau ai chay nay, quisquis onus 
suum portet. 

Cham, acu perforare, aut aculeum infligere. 

Cham chap. Vide supra. 

Cham, punctum. Cham sach, scripturam examinare, totis 
librum distinguere. 

Chan, pes. day to chan toy, famulus, pedissequus. 

Chan, obicem aut septum opponere ad impediendum ingres- 
sum aquarum, animalium, &c. 

Chan chan, simplicissimus, a, um, aut ineptus. 



217 

Chap vel chap phap, sinistre interpretari, aut pro culpa ha- 
bere. Xin nguoi dung chap, ne reprehendas; parvi fa- 
cere. 

Chat, angustus, a, um, vel angustia ex confluxu hominum. 

Chat, vel chot len, accumulare. Toi loi chat len bang nui 
bang non, peccata congesta superant montes. 

Chau, Toparehia. 

Chau, pelvis, lanx. 

Chau chau chau, locustsc. Ou thanh Juao Baotisita an 
nhung mat ao cung chau chau, cibus Sancti Johannis 
Baptists erat mel sylvestre et locustac. 

Chau, assistere Regi aut sanctissimo sacramento. Quan 
chau, custodian regiae. Chau chuc, idem. 

Chau chang, species ranas. 

Che, tegere aliquid ab aeris injuriis. Cai che, prelum seu 
machina qua exprimitur oleum aut aliquis liquor. 

Che, spernere. 

Che, theum. Che tau, theum sinicum. Do che, edulium 
quod theum comitatur. Banh che lu, capulum gladii. 
Banh che, vide supra. 

Che, findere aliquid cultro aut alio instrumento. 

Che, don che, parvum prassidium. 

Chat che, tenere firmiter. Nguoi chat che, tenax pecuniae. 

Chem. Vide chat. 

Chen, calix, poculum. 

Chen, don chcn, insidiari in angustiis. Ao chen, vestis con- 
strictaj manicae. 

Chen, chen nhau, premere invicem pro angustia. 

Chep, scribere vel transcribere. Ou thanh Mattheu chep 
truyen D. C. J., Sanctus Matthaeus scripsit historiam 
Christi. Ca chep, piscis quidam. 

Cheo, quidam contractus seu solutio qua publice declaratur 
matrimonium esse factum. Nop cheo, solvere ilium con- 
tractum communitati. Thu cheo, approbare et acceptare 
ilium contractum. 
28 



218 

Cheo, forma triangularis. Cheo ao, appendix triangularis 
vestis. Roi leo cheo, loqui acuta voce. 

Cheo, remigare, remus. 

Chet tay, premitur manus. Chet tay moi ha mieng, sera 
paenitentia. 

Chet, aliquid confractum func rcligare. Bo chet, vermi- 
culi in canibus aut gallinis latentes. 

Che, aspernari, irridere, parvi fa cere. Che choi, abdicare. 
Che vo, che chou, repudiare uxorem, maritum. Gia khen 
thi lai gia che, qui multum laudabit, multum et con- 
temnet. 

Che, miscere, temperare. Bao che, temperare medicinam. 

Chech, et check lech, quod non recte collocatur. Lam chech 
lech, ordinem pervertere, mutuam pacem turbare. 

Chem, aliquod instrumentum laxatum, dissolutumve reficere. 

Chep, chef giay, plicare pap\n*um. 

Chet, mori. Su chet, mors. May chet, vox communi- 
cantis. 

Chi, classis, turba, pars, exercitus ; vox militaris. Chi thuy, 
classis navalis. Chi va, exercitus pedestris. Truong chi, 
dux classis, exercitus. Lam chi, ad quid? cujus rei gra- 
tia? Con den day lam chi? ad quid venis, fili? Est 
etiam vox dehortantis. Ta pham toi lam chi nua? ad 
quid amplius peccemus? Mam chi chi, species piscis 
salsi. 

Chi, soror major. Chi em vuoi toi, consanguinea mea. 
Chi em, etiam intelliguntur moniales. 

Chi. Vide bam chi, supra. 

Chi, plumbum. Tieng chi tieng bai, irrisiones, querimonias. 

Chi, notare, determinare, decernere. Chi quy et, chi doan, 
idem. Chi phan, sententia regalis. Chi truyen, regium 
edictum. Chi tro, monstrare disrito. Chi etiam vocatur 
filum quo conficitur vestis. Xe chi, nere. Lam cho chi 
di, perficere. 

Chia, dividerc, partiri. 



210 

Chia ra, ostendere, prominerc. Chia Khoa, clavis. D.C.J. 

ban cho ou th' Phero chia khoa nuoi thien dang, Christus 

Dominus contulit Sancto Pctro c laves regni crrlorum. 
Chich, giac chick mau, elicere sanguinem. Chich chich, 

passerculus, pugillus. 
Chiec, nomen genericum aliquarum rerum. Mot chiec tau, 

chiec thuy en, una navis, cymba. Chiec chieu, matta. 

Chiec dua, bacillus, &c. Doi, par ; chiec, impar. 
Chiem, mua chiem, mensis quintimensis. Ruo chiem, agri 

qui dant fructus mense quinto. Chiem bao, somnium. 
Chiem vi, chiem quien, usurpari personam, auctoritatem. 

Chiem xa, idem est. 
Chien, ovis. Chan chien, pascere oves. 
Chien sao, cancelli. Chien tran, pugna. Thuyen chien, 

navicula bellica. Ao chien, lorica. 
Chieng, instrumentum ex sere sonante. 
Chieng, loqui ad personam honorabilem. 
Chiet, chiet cay, transplantare arbores abscindendo ramos. 

Noi chiet dap, exaggerando exprobare. 
Chieu tap, dispersionem populi congregare. Tay chieu, 

manus sinistra. 
Chieu, storea. Trai chieu, explicare mattas. Chieu khai, 

edictum regium pub! ice per notarium legere. 
Phieu, vespere. Chieu horn, som mai, vespere et mane. 

Chieu lao, acquiescere alterius voluntati. 
Chim, avis. 

Chim, in profundum tendere. 
Chin, novem ; coctus, a, um, vel maturus, a, um. Com da 

chin, oryza jam est cocta. Hoa qua da chin, fructus 

maturescunt. 
Chin that, certo, certius. 

Chinh, praecipuus, principalis. Xa chinh, publicus procu- 
rator in uno pago. Chinh the, uxor legitima. 
Chinh, genus vasis fictilis. 
Chit, chit lay, capere aliquid apprehensa manu. 



220 

Chit, ao chit, vestis constrict! collarii. 

Chiu, pati, sustinere, recipere. Chiu kho, sustinere mise- 
rias, vel habere patientiam. Con phai chiu kho vay, 
fili, habe patientiam. Ta phai chiu kho o doi nay, debe- 
mus multa mala ferre in hac vita. Chiu le, recipere 
communionem sacram. 

Cho, dare, concedere ; hasc vox varia significat ; quando 
est sermo de Deo vel regibus, dicitur: ban cho xinD.C.B. 
ban sui manh cho ta, concedat Deus nobis vires seu suam 
gratiam. Ke chiu sac lenh vua chua ban cho, qui rece- 
perunt dignitates a regibus concessas. Cho duoc, ad vel 
ut possim, possis, &c. ; et sic collocatur. Cho de roi 
linh horn, thi ph' giu dao blon, ad salutem consequendam 
oportet observare religionem perfecte. Cho ta di dep lao 
D. C. B. thi phai co nhan diu charita, ut possimus pla- 
cere Deo oportet habere charitatem. Cho nen, unde, 
ideo, idcirca. Boi con da pham toi, cho nen phai lam 
viei den toi, quia peccasti, fili, ideo debes agere pceniten- 
tiam. Postremo jungitur adjectivis, et facit ilia adjcctiva 
fieri adverbia, maximecum verbis hortantis, urgentis, &c. 
ut, xin nguoi, xoi cho du, digneris satisfacere fami. Di 
cho chao, vade citd. Phai giu dao cho nen ; moi di len 
thien dang, oportet recte fidem servare ut possis ire in 
ccelurn. 

Cho, canis. Cho soi, lupus. Cho ma, canes stupidi. 

Choai, bo choai, bos juvencus. Cho cay nha ga cay vuon, 
in claustro Domini fuit acrior ira catelli. 

Cho, nomen arboris. Nay nhu go cho, aliquid rectum in- 
star illius ligni. 

Cho, not cho, olla ad coquendam oryzam, solo vapore aqua? 
callidee. 

Choc vel xoc vel thoc, acumine aliquid pungere, vel perlo- 
rare. Noi cham choc, bovem aculeis impellere. Chet 
choc, dicitur de multorum morte. 

Choi, chim choi choi, species aviculee. 



221 

Choi, pugna animalium. 

Choi hi, resplendens, vel radium vibrans. 

Choi, a?dicula in alto posita ad speculandum. 

Choi, septum quo nocte recluduntur jumenta. 

Ciiom, congregatio parsa hominum aut aliarum rerum. 

Chom xom, conventicula. 
Chom nui vel dinli, apex montis. 
Chon, eligere. Ke goi thi nhieu, ke chon thi it, multi sunt 

vocati, pauci verb electi. 
Chop, surnmitas cujuscumque rei. Chot vot, summitas 

etiam. 
Chot, do chot, ruberrimus, a, um. 
Chot, levi dolore affici. Phai chot minh, pati parvum dolo- 

rem. 
Choi cua, pessulus porta?. Chot cua lai, pessulo portam fir- 
mare. 
Chou, murices. Danh chou cam chou, armare rnuricibus. 
Chou bla, resistere. Chou len, levare aliquid supposita 

furca. 
Chou, maritus. Chou len, super ponere. Chang de hon da 

nao chou len, non relinquetur lapis super lapidem. 
Chou, subverti retro. Chou chenh vel chou chenh, res est 

in proclivi et lapsui proxima. 
Choc, mot choc, unum momentum vel quadrantem. Mot 

choc nua, post unum momentum. Choc lo, ulcerari. 
Cho, forum vel nundinas. Hop cho, congregatur ccetus 

mercatorum. 
Cho, noli, vox imperantis, hortantis. Thu cho gi et nguoi, 

non occides. Cho, expectare. Cho doi, idem. 
Cho, capere, continere, dicitur de navibus et cymbis : de 

vasis et capsulis vero chua. 
Choi, chat choi. Vide chat. 
Choi, abnegare, abnuere. Choi dao, abnegare fidem. Choi 

ch' nghe, abnuere, non audire, non consentire. Choi, 

scopa. 



222 

Choi chanh, vide chanh. 

Choi vel cho day, surgere e lecto, c somno, ex cathedra ; 
et etiam significat abire. 

Chom, ngoi chom goi len, sedere erecto genu. Chom cham, 
an noi chom cham, rustice loqui. 

Chon, sepelire. Chon cot xuo dat, figere columnam humo. 

Chon, locus. Chon chon, ubique. Chon chon, cai soc, 
m us tela. 

Choi, ludere. Choi boi, idem. Noi choi, jocari. 

Chon cho, cuoi chon cho, immodeste ridere. Da chon cho, 
rupes asperse. 

Chop, fulgur. Chop loe ra, fulgur resplendens. 

Chop ngu, initio et quasi subitaneo somno correptus. 

Chot thay, primo intuitu. 

Chu, antiquissima imperatorum sinarum familia, qua reg- 
nante natus est Confucius. Tho chu, terra rubra. Chu 
chu, cham cham, modeste. 

Chu, patruus minor. 

Chu, chuot chu, mus fcetidus. 

Chu, tabella superstitiosa. De chu, scribere super illam ta- 
bellam. 

Chua, commentari, explicare. 

Chua, acidus, a, um. Chua chat, acerbus, a, um. Nguoi 
chua chat, homo acerbus. Chu bau, pretiosissimus, unde 
fit locutio ambigua. Cua blai chua, id est homo ille tan- 
quam fructus, vel pretiosissimus, vel acerbissimus. Sinici 
chu gia chu. 

Chua, Rex secundarius in regno vel Dominus cujuscumque. 
Sic, chua bloi, Dominus coeli, idest Deus. Chua nha, Do- 
minus domus. Chua tau, navarchus. Chua cua, Domi- 
nus rei. Ba chua, filia regis. 

Chua, fanum idolorum. Thay chua, custos fani. Chua 
chien, etiam fanum. Chua mieu, delubra. 

Chuc, mot chuc, una decas. Cai chuc chuc, species ostrese 
parvse. 



223 

Chuc, orare, bene precari, optare. Van chuc, oratio pre- 
catoria apud Ethnicos. Chui chuc, vivere in angusto 
loco. 

Chui, per angustum foramen transire. 

Chui, nga chui di, corruere in faciem. 

Chui, abstergere aliquid. 

Chui nhuc, summa patientia. 

Chum, vas testaceum magnum, seu hydria magna et vasti 
corporis. 

Chum, ngoi chum lai, sedere conjunctim. 

Chum vel gium, racemus. 

Chun vel chun, contrahere se. Miet chun, tibiale Euro- 
pium. 

Chun, thap lun chun, homo brevis statural. 

Chuoc, redimere. Chuoc toi, redimere a peccatis. 

Chuoi, capulum cultri. 

Chuoi, ficus Indica. 

Chuom, fossa in agris. 

Chuon chuon, genus papilionis. 

Chuot, mus. 

Chuot, bao chuot, bene expolire. Vang due chuot, aurum 
purgatum. 

Chut, abnepos ; abneptis. Mot chut, modicum quid ; pa- 
rum, paulisper. 

Chu, littera. 

Chua, nondum. Con da xet minh chua? fili, examinastine 
conscientiam ? Si respondetur chua, nondum. 

Chua, capere, continere. Chum chua nuoc, vas continet 
aquam. 

Chuo, compare. Chinh chuo, rectus, a, um. 

Chung in, communis, e. Nha chung, communitas. Chung 
cha, idem. 

Chung toi, nos ; inferiores loquendo ad superiorem. Chung 
bay, vos ; superior ad inferiores alloquendo. Ao chung, 
vestis oblonga. Chung vi chung, quia. 

Chung, testis. Lam chung, testimonium facere, aliquando 



224 

significat modum ; ut, No lam chung nao thi lam, quo 

quomodo velit, faciat. 
Chua, emendari in melius. Con phai doi lao chua cac toi, 

fili, debes emendari et abstinere ab omni peccato. 
Chua, praegnans. Vox rustica et magis accommodata ani- 

malibus quam mulieribus; ut, Trau chua, cho chua, bu- 

bula praegnans, canis prasgnans. De mulieribus vero 

dicitur, Dan ba co thai, mulier habens conceptionem, et 

ideo non potest dici, trau bo ca thai, bubula aut vacca 

habentes conceptionem. 
Chua, liberare, salvare, sanare. Chua thuoc, curare infir- 

mos aptis remediis. Chua chung, idem. Lay khi giai 

na chua minh, armis se protegere. 
Chuc, expectare, inhiare. Chau chuc, assistere. Vide chau. 
Chuc, dignitas, ordo. Chuch dich, munus dignitati annexum. 

Chuc tuoc, vel chuc pham, idem est. Chiu chuc lam, vel 

vo, Episcopum consecrari. 
Chuoi, maledicere, convitiari. Chuoi rua, imprecari mala. 

Mloi chuoi, contumeliosa dicta. 
Chuoc lam, vox lusoria, pulchre satis. 
Chuoc moc, mua chuoc, stralagema, machinatio, dolus. Bat 

chuoc, vide bat. 
Chuong, tumor et foetor post mortem. Van chuong, car- 
men, littera. 
Chuong, day chuong, indigestio cibi. 
Chuong, ou chuong, centurio. Chuong phu, preeses palatii 

regalis. 
Chuyen can, constans diligentia. 
Chuyen, mot chuyen, una profectio. 
Chuyen dou, movere, motus. 
Chuo, stabulum. Chuo, amare, magni asstimare. 
Chung quanh, in circuitu. 
Chung, banh chung, genus edulii. 
Chung, circa, species panis ex oryza. 
Chuo, estimare, amare, magni facere. 
Chuo,. receptaculum animalium. 



225 



D. 



Da, pellis, corium. Lot da, excoriare. Cay da, arbor quae- 

dam. Da Ion, tela lanea. 
Da, pars interior hominis. Nguoi lau da, homo malevolus. 

Dau da, dissenteria, et etiam vox respondentis inferioris 

ad superiorem : adsum, domine. Da, surnitur etiam pro 

ingenio. 
Da, vao da, rete quo portantur magnates, aut etiam infirmi. 
Dac, doi rack dach dai, fame et nuditate consumptus. 
Dac, pars pejor in lignis. 
Dach, cho dach, canes minores. 
Dai, cibus aut quid aliud molle quidem sed non facile rum- 

pitur. 
Dai dot, stultus, aniens, imprudens. Cho dai, canis rabio- 

sus. Kinh dai, venerari. 
Dai, longus, a, um. Dai ngay, longi dies. Ao dai, vestis 

oblonga. 
Dai, salarium appensum pro aliquo labore. Dai ao, ansulae 

vestis. Cai dai, tesludines majores et feroces; etiam 

honeste vocantur zonae, quibus sese cinguntur Tunkin- 

enses. 
Dai, exponere aliquid pluviee et soli ut purgetur. Dau suong 

dai nang, omnibus coeli injuriis et incommodis expositus. 

Dai dot vel hot dai, sputum seu saliva. 
Day, docere. Day do, instruere. Khuy en day, cohortari. 

Surnitur etiam pro praecipere, jubere. 
Day, do day, turpis, e. Su do day, res turpes. Truyen do 

day, confabulatio turpis. 
Day, cho day, surgere e lecto, vel somno. Don day, fama 

percrebrescens. 
Day, crassus, a, um. Ao day, vestis crassa. 
Day, day dot vel nhay nhot, saltare. Mung day dot, gestire 

gaudio. 
29 



226 

Dam, audere. Est urbanitas apud Tunkinenses, quando 

invitantur ad aliquid officium, vel praostatur cis obsequium, 

recusare dicendo : Toi cliang dam, non ausim ; vel quo- 

modo ausim ? 
Dam, leuca annamitica, qua) est multo brevior leucis Euro- 

pa?is. 
Dam, statio cymbarum, ubi defenduntur a fluctibus et vento. 
Dan tay nhau, junctis palmis incedere aut stare. 
Dan - , bao dan, audax, magnanimus. 

Dan, conglutinare aliquid, autemplastrum vulneri applicare. 
Dan, arbor quoedam, cujus cortex amarissimus est, et vene- 

ratus. 
Dan, dan bao, commendare aliquid alicui. Dan do, idem. 
Dan, calcare aliquid pondere. 
Dang vel dang, species seu externa apparentia. Lam dang, 

affectare externam apparentiam ad vanitatem. Xau dang, 

mala apparentia; malum praesagium. Nguoi vo dang, 

homo nullius valoris. 
Dang, chim dang, avis quasdam. 
Danh, nomen. Nhan danh cha, va con, va Spirit^ Sancto, 

in nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti. Danh hieu, 

idem. Vo danh hieu, sine voce. Cau danh tieng xam 

am, quasrere. 
Dao, culter. Mua dao, pluvia magna. 
Dao, bao dao vel dao nou cho, liberalis, liberalitas ; privile- 

gium speciale. Hinh dao, vultus. Tho dao, faber ferra- 

rius. Dao day, homo delicatus. 
Dao, linea, ordo. Dao chu, linea litterarum. Dao sou, linea 

aquae currentis seu fluminis. Dao ou Thanh Duminhgo, 

ordo Sancti Dominici. Lap dao, institutor, vel instituere 

religionem. Dao doi, prosapia. 
Dap, viet dap ra, prima elucubratio seu scriptura. 
Dat, timidus, pusillanimus, vecors. 
Dot nhau, prius convenire ad coacum, infantemve. 



227 

Day. Vide choi day. 

Day, funiculus. 

Day, iiuoi day, aqua est in accessu. 

Dam tuc, vel ta dam, fornicatio. 

Dam dia, inungere. Nua dam, pluvia diuturna. Dan, 
comprimere. 

Dan, populus. Dan da, paulatim. 

Dan, ducere aliquem via? ignotum. 

Dat vel dut, serra secare ; vel frangere funiculos. 

Dang, ofterre. 

Dau, con dan, nurus. Cay dau, morus. 

Dau, gio dau, hora circiter sexta serotina. 

Dau, nota, signum. Dau vet, cicatrix. Nam dauthanhD.J.C. 
Quinque vulnera Christi. Lam dau cau rut, se crucis 
signo munire. 

Dau, oleum. Dau vay, patientiam habere. Est in imperativo 
solum modo. Ke kung lao muon dam dia mai trao chon 
toi loi, peccator induratus vult usque et usque se ingurgi- 
tare in volutabro peccatorum. 

De, con de, caper, capra. Ke chang muon lam con chien 
D. C. J. thi ph' lam con de ma qui ma cho, qui renuit esse 
ovis Christi, certo debet esse hire us diaboli. 

De, cai de, grill us. 

De, facilis, faciliter. De lam, facile factu. De o, com mo- 
da habitatio. Nguoi de an o, homo suavis in conversa- 
tione. Nguoi de dang, homo comis, liberalis. Lay lam 
de, parum curare. 

De dat, an no de dat, parce uti esca et potu, in futurum 
prospiciendo. 

Den, cai den, aranea. Vang den, tela aranearum. Den 
quay to, aranea texens telas. 

Det vai, texere telas. Det chieu, texere mattas. Det, ob- 
durare. 

Deo, aliquid molle quidem, sed quod non facile rumpitur. 
Deo dang, infatigabilis. 



228 

Dep, sandalia annamitica. Dep, debellare. 

De, hhinh de duoi, idem significant ; despicere ; parvi facere. 

Di, chim di, passerculus. 

Di, di mui, depress us nasus. 

Di, matertera. 

Di, mot di, modicum quid. 

Dicii, ferre onera publica de loco in locum. Dich ra, rece- 

dere. Dich ra tieng, traducere in aliam linguam. 
Dip, occasio. Phai lanh cai dip toi, dare occasionem aliis 

peccandi. Dip dang danh hat, concentus harmonious. 

Loi dip, dissonantia. 
Dip, cai dip, forceps ad evellendas barbas. Lim dim, oculi 

lippidi. 
Dit, dit thuoc, applicare remedium vulneri. 
Diu dang, suavis, e. 

Diec, chim diec, avis. Diec doc, exprobare. 
Diem, nitrum. Lua sinh lua diem, ignis sulfureus. 
Diem man, appendix cortinae. Du diem, umbella. 
Dien, genus serici rari et rubri. Sang dieng, vicinus. 
Diep, rau diep, lactuca. 
Diet, vincere, extinguere, interficere, percutere, ab stirpe 

evertere. 
Diet di, fugere. 
Dieu, dieu hau, milvus. Choi dieu, ludere ave papyracea. 

Dieu tha qua mo, maledictio annamitica. 
Dieu quanh, circumcidere. 
Dink ben, vide ben. 
Dinh vel dank quan, praetorium. Hang danh, milites ejus- 

detn prsetorii. 
Do xem, explorare. Do lam sao? qua ex causa? 
D6, idem est ac do. Hoi do la, interrogando paulatim ex- 
plorare. Est etiam laqueus, unde dicitur: Cai co rnac do 

ma chet, grus capta laqneo moritur. 
Doc, vide diec. 
Doc dang, in via. Doc, opponitur ngang doc, quod est linea 



229 

recta a capite ad calcem. JVgang, est linea transversa a 

sinistra ad dexteram. 
Dom, dom vao, introspicere. Ou dom, tubulatum conspicil- 

lum. 
Don, parare. Don minh xung toi, disponere se ad confes- 

sionem sacramentalem. Don dep, idem est. 
Dou, con dou, tempestas minor. Dou lam, nimis infauste. 

Di dou dai, stolide discurrere; incertis sedibus vagari. 
Dou, alloqui regem secundarium. Dou be tren man nam, 

vivat vex ad mille annos. 
Do, allicere verbis. Cam do, allicere ad malum ; tentare. 

Day do, vide day. Do danh, idem est. Do tre, demul- 

cere parvulos. Do danh, solicitare. 
Doc, subvertere. Doc lao, decernere, proponere in animo. 

Doc lao chua cac toi, proponere emendationem omnium 

peccatorum ; decernere vitam emendare, et ab omni pec- 

cato abstinere. Cho doc, locus proclivis. 
Doi lai, resilire. 
Doi, fallere. Noi doi, mentiri. Phai bo cac su doi bla, 

oportet relinquere omnia vana et superstitiosa. 
Doi, lam doi, modus condiendi cibum. Doi vao, infarcire. 
Don, tumultus ex concursu hominum. Don da, idem est. 
Don lai, ad brevitatem reducere. 

Dot, indoctus. Dot nat, valde ignarus. Dot, furunculus. 
Dot, stillare, stillicidium. Nha dot, stillat domus. 
Do, sordes. Trai chieu dap do, quasrere artem malitiam 

tegendi. Lam ra do, polluere. 
Do dang, nguoi do dang, homo imprudens, importunus. 

Viec bo do, opus interruptum. Do viec, impeditus ne- 

gotio. 
Do nha, destruere domum. 
Doi, cai doi, vespertilio. Lam doi lam chuot, dicitur de 

homine versipelli qui varium et mutabilem se exhibet. 
Doi di, alio ire. 
Dot vel nhot ca, sordes ad instar sputi quae adhaerent pisci- 

bus. 



230 

Du, ngao du, otium, felicitas. Du, idem. 

Du, umbella. Du ma, quamvis. Semper debet jungi istis 

vocibus Mac lao : et in sequenti membro semper ponitur 

unica vox du cum mac lao. Thi du, verbi gratia, para- 
bola. 
Du lao thuong, exhibere misericordiam, liberalitatem, quan- 

do est sermo de regibus ad populum. Du man xuo, depo- 

nere velum. 
Due, vide dam. Blai muc due, renes. 
Dui, f'urtis, vel ictus verberis; lignum quo pulsantur instru- 

menta. 
Dum da, vel diim da, cay dum da, arbor pulchre frondes- 

cens. 
Dum, nguoi dum chan, qui habet pedes ex morbo tumidos. 
Du yen, pulchritudo in vultu. Du yen do lam sao, vide 

do lam sao. 
Dung, uti. Dung chang nen, abuti. 
Du, superesse. 
Du, may la du nao, cujus ordinis es tu ? vox interrogantis 

per contemptum. Chang vao du nao, nullius ordinis, 

nullius valoris est. 
Du, crudelis, inhumanus. Nguoi du ton, homo crudelis. 

Cho du, canis ferex. 
Dua hau, pepo aqueus. Dua chuot, cucumis. Dua gang, 

etiam. Species peponis. Dua, olus sole* conditum. 
Dua, inniti columnar. Gummi etiam vocatur dua. 
Dua, nuces Indicas, Lusitanice coco. 
Due lac, elata voce loqui moras objurgantis. Sumitur etiam 

pro objurgare, reprehendere. 
Dung vel dong, offerre aliquid Deo aut regi. Dung lai, 

sistere gradum. Nguoi dung, extraneus. Dung dung 

trao lao, nullo modo moveri corde. 
Duoi chan ra, extendere crura. 
Dut. Vide dat. 

* Sic in MS. 



231 

Duoi, infra. Tren bloi duoi dat, in coelo et in terra. Kinh 
ke be tren, yeu ke be duoi, venerari superiores, et amare 
inferiores. 

Duom de, vguoi duom de, homo gravis et mansuetus. 

Duong nao, quomodo? D. C. B. phep tac la duong nao, ta 
suy chang di, (juomodo sit divina potentia, comprehendere 
non possumus. Tren thien dang vui ve la duong nao, in 
coelo quale gaudium est. Am duong, vide am. 

Duong, nutrire, fovere, indulgere. Duong due cha sinh, 
me duong, pater genuit, et mater nutrivit. Chang nen 
duong xac qua, non licet indulgere corpori plus quam 
oportet. Dao duong, favere. 

Da, cay da vel cay da, arbor quocdam. Da lam, multum, 
nimis. Chim da da, perdix. 

Dai khach, bene excipere hospites. Noi dai buoi, magnifi- 
es verbis absque re promittere. Dai gao, purgare ory- 
zam. 

Da, lapis. La da, idem est. Da den vel da phai, tangi vel 
tangere. Chang nen co y trai ma da minh ng ta, hay la 
cho ng ta da den minh, non licet ex mala intentione con- 
trectare alios, aut ab aliis contrectari. Mua la da 
gran da. Da, etiam significat calcitrare, unde ambigua 
locutio est. Voi da, elephas lapideus vel elephas calci- 
trans. 

Da, adminiculum ad aliquid trahendum. » 

Da, jam. Da doan vel da roi, vel etiam do an voi, qua? si 
diriguntur ad interrogantem, nihil aliud significant, quam, 
jam absolutum est, jam peractum est. Sed etiam signifi- 
cant post vel postquam, et in oratione disjunctim sic col- 
locantur. D. C. J. da sou lai doan, roi thi len bloi, 
Christus postquam resurrexit, ascendit in coelum. Est 
etiam adjectivum sanus, a, um ; ut, Con da da chua? fili, 
esne jam sanus? Ai da chua may da? quis jam fecit te 
sanum? 
Dac, mot dac mo, latifundium. 



232 

Dac, aliquid solidum, ut lignum. 

Dac, invenire, posse. Tra cho doi that, inquirere veri- 

tatcm. 
Dai, cingulum latum ex corio, vel ex duro serico. 
Dai, magnus, a, urn ; vel praecellens cacteris in aliqua re. 
Dai thank, magnus sanctus. Dai lam bieng, summe piger. 

Dai hang, ruburba.* 
Dai, mingere. Urbanius dicitur tieu tien. Muoc tieu, urina. 
Dai, pelliculse florum. Cai dai, turricula. Chuc dai, co- 

lumna super quam crematur incensum in honorem cceli. 
Day, species herbas. 
Day, tegere. Che day, idem. 
Day, exilium. Day di, mitti vel mittere in exilium. 
Day vel tui day, mantica magna. 
Day, hie. D. C. B. co day chang? Deus est ne hie? 
Day, illic. No lam di gi day 1 Quid facit illic ? Dau day, 

passim. Dau day deu tho phuong D. C. B., passim coli- 

tur Deus. 
Day, plenus, a, um. Day garassa, gratia plena. Day lao 

chung toi, impleantur corda nostra. Day to, discipulus, 

famulus. Day day, abundanter, abundare. 
Day, pellere. Noi dun day di, conari verbis difficultatem 

aliquam a. se repellere. 
Day, crassus, pinguis. Day da, idem est. 
Dam, contendere pistillo vel pungere. Dam gao, xay lua, 

tundere et molere oryzam. Coi dam, vide coi. 
Dam dap, idem est day da. 
Dam, pugnare sine armis. Mot cai dam, unus pugnus. Cai 

dam dam, avicula quasdam. 
Dam, stagnum magnum. Dam am, vide am. 
Dam, concursus vel celebritas aliqua. Dam ma, exequiae. 

Dam hat, publicas comediae. Dam ben dai, solemnitates 

infidelium. Dam dat, cumulus terrae. Dam may, nubes 

densas. 

* Sic in MS. 



233 

Dam, fel. Nguoi dam lam, homo bene audax, cordatus. 

Dam, dam tau, naufragium. Dam duoi, mergi vel capi. 
Dam duoi nhau, turpi suipsorum amore capi. Lao con 
chang nen duoi nhung su the gian, cor tuum non debet 
immergi rebus mundanis. 

Dam, trau dam, bubalus se aquis aut luto immergens. 

Dan, texere cistas aut alia instrumenta. 

Dan, globi tormentorum. Dan duoc, globi et pulvis tormen- 
tarius. 

Dan, instrumenta musical, aut pulsare ilia instrumenta. Lap 
dan, erigere aras ad sacrificandum diis. Dan ou, vir. 
Dan ba, mulier. Dan trau bo, grex animalium. Dan 
chim, agmen avium. Bach dan, sandalum. 

Dan, bat dan vel bat da, scutella seu porsulana annamitica. 

Dan don, tardus ingenio. 

Dang, dum aliquid actualiter fit ; et semper sequitur nomi- 
nativum ante verbum, ut, D. C. J. dang giang, thi co mot 
ba kia khen nguoi, Christum actualiter praidicantem lauda- 
vit quaedam mulier. Dang khi, cum vel dum ; hase parti- 
cula semper praecedit nominativum ; ut, Dang khi Due 
chua Jesu o trao vuon Getsemani, thi thang Juda dem 
quan du den bat nguoi, cum Christus esset in horto Get- 
semani, Judas duxit cohortem militum ad eum capiendum. 
Cau dang, actor negotiorum. Xem chang dang, horret 
visus. 

Dang, dignus, a, urn. Xung dang, idem. 

Dang, familia imperatorum sinarum, secundum illustrissimi 
Agathopolitani computum, decima tertia ; regnavit annis 
283. Est etiam saccharum. Dang phen, saccharum pe- 
trosum. Dang cat, saccharum arenosum. Di dang ca 
dem, totam noctem iter facere. Con, phai ra sue di dang 
roi linh hon, conare, fili, ingredi viam salutis. Thien 
dang, paradisus. Dang len thien dang thi hep, via ad 
paradisum est angusta. Dicitur etiam duong. Phu dang, 
30 



234 

palatium regis secundaria Dang ngoai, omnis provincia 
a Xu thanh. Dang trao, omnis provincia a. Xu thanh, 
usque rcgnum Cambodia?. 

Dang, ke dang; societas malorum. 

Dang, nassao crassiores ad capiendos pisces. Thuyen dang, 
piscatores qui utuntur illis nassis ad piscandum. 

Dang, amarus, a, um. Cay dang lam, amaritudo amaris- 
sima. 

Dang, mensa, altare. 

Dang bac, ordo status. Nguoi ba dang, cua ba loai, tres 
sunt ordines hominum, et tres ordines rernm. D. C. B. la 
dang dung nen bloi dat muon vat, Deus est creator cceli, 
terras et omnium rerum. Dang lam Thay ca, est ipse 
sacerdos. 

Danh, verberare, capere, pugnare. Danh giac, pugnare 
contra hostes. It quan danh di giac to lam, maximas 
hostium copias parva manu fundere. Danh co bac, 
ludere aleis. Danh ca, danh chim, capere pisces, aves. 
Danh luoi, jacfare rete. Danh toi, castigare corpus pro 
pcenitentia. Danh com, manducare oryzam. Danh vo, 
frangere. Chui danh, abstergere, et sic de casteris. Danh 
chuo, pulsare campanam. Di tanh giac, adversus hostem 
abire. Ke danh to danh giac, malo intentus. 

Danh, viei ay da danh, illud jam certum est. 

Dao, ma dao, gladii lati et longi quibus armantur equites. 

Dao, religio Christiana. Giu dao vel di dao, observare, se- 
qui religionem. Con, muon di dao chang, vis, fili, ingredi 
religionem. Ron dao, Christiani. Vo dao, melius sic dice- 
retur. Ngoai dao, infideles. Hai dao, via maritima. 

Dao, lusus puerorum. 

Dao, cay dao, quccdam arbor, Lusitanice vocata pesco. 
Mui dao, color roseus. Dao dat, fodere terram. 

Dao, metiri frumenta. Chung bay dao cho an hem dau nao, 
thi Tao loi dao cho bay dau ay, qua. mensura. mensi 
fueritis fratribus vestris, eadem remetietur vobis. 



335 

Dao, remoratur fluxus aquarum aut aliquid. Con dao nhicu 

viec, multa negotia remorantur. 
Dao, construere aliquid ex multis tabulis aut lignis, ut, Dao 

tau, dao thuyen, dao horn, construere navim, cymbam, 

capsulam. Figere, vide danh. Dao don, castrametari. 

Dao cua, claudere januam. Dao quan gan ke cho, exer- 

citum vel copias consedere prope urbi. 
Dao, lancea. Luoi dao, mucro lanceae. 
Dap, conculcare, conterere calce. Dap lua, triturare. Ga 

dap mai, gallus copulat se gallince. D. Ba dap dau cai 

ran, Beata Virgo content caput serpentis. 
Dap, ferire. Ou Moysen dap vao hon da ba Ian, Moyses 

percussit ter lapidem. 
Dat, ponere. Dat len, superponere. Dat xuo, deponere. 

D. C. B. dat ke khiem nhuong leu, ma bo ke kieu ngao 

xuo, exaltat Deus humiles, et humiliat superbos. Dat ten, 

imponere nomen. 
Dat, ban dat, mua dat lam, quod a vide, venditur et emitur. 

Noi chang dat deu, non proficiunt verba. 
Dat, terra. Dat thit, terra argillosa. 
Dau, dolere. Om dau, cegrotare. 
Dau, ista unica vox pro ubi, unde, quo, qua. O dau, ubi 

est; ubi manet. dau ma den, unde venire. Di dau, 

quo ire. Qua dau, qua transire. Interdum est vox admi- 

rantis vel dubitantis, ut, Co dau the ay? quomodo est sic? 

Postremo saspissime jungitur negationi ad majorem vim, 

ut, Chang co dau sot ; chang thay dau sot, nullibi ; nul- 

libi apparet. Cay xoan dau, arbor qusedam. 
Dau vel do, faba vel faseolus. Benh nen dau, variolic. Dau 

sinh do, adipisci ultimum gradum litterarum. Chim dau, 

avis residens. Dau nha, hospites. 
Dau, mensura ad metiendum grana. Vide dao. 
Dau, caput. Dau het, triticum; primo. Dau ke cuop, dux 

latronum. Ou thanh Phero la dau cai thanh tou do, Sanctus 

Petrus est princeps apostolorum. Man dau ra truoc, 

exordiri. 



230 

De, minari, intentare malum. 

De, calcare supra aliquid. Noi dc ncn cho nguoi ta, impu- 

tare alicui culpam ex mala suspicionc. 
De, parere. 

De, de cu rut, basis crucis. 
De, inscribere. Dc thu, obsignare epistolam. 
De, servare. De danh, servare aliquid in futurum usum. 

De linh, preefectus vigilum urbis. De, ad. Lam den 

thanh de tho D. C. B., erigere ecclesiam ad colendum 

Deum. 
Dem, ferre. Dem di, auferre. Dem lai, adferre, educere, 

adducere. 
Den, niger, ra, rum. Den si, nigerrimus; sumitur etiam pro 

infausta. fortuna. 
Den, lampas, lucerna. Den nha ai rang nha nay, quisquis 

res suas melius cognoscit. 
Dep, formosus, a, um. Dep de, idem. Dep lao, placere. 
Dem, nox. Dem horn, tempus nocturnum. Ban dem, vide 

ban. 
Dem, stragulum. 
Dem, numerare. Dem xem, numerare ad cognoscendum 

numerum. 
Den, venire usque ad. Ai den day? quis venit illuc? Den 

bao gio con moi bio lai? quando nam tandem reverteris? 

Significat etiam de. Dung noi den su ay, noli loqui de 

ilia re. Chang nen tuong den su do day, non licet cogi- 

tare de rebus impuris. Nho den toi cung, memento mei. 
Den, satisfacere, reparare. Den toi, satisfactio pro pecca- 

tis. Den va, reparare damnum. Den tho, templum. 

Den vua, palatium regis. Bat den, exigere reparationem. 
Deo, gestare aliquid in corpore. 
Dep, dep trau, theca betel. 
Deu, sermo vel sententia. Deu nhau, hat cho deu nhau, 

cantare ffiqualiter. Deu lao nhau, junctis animis et viri- 

bus. Deu ngam, meditatio. Deu, etiam est articulus in 

libris. 



237 

Di, ire. Tray di, proficisci. Di rlao choi, vel Di bach bo, 

deambulare. Est etiam imperativus, ut, An di, comede. 

Con, xung toi di, fili, confitere peccata tua. Di ngua, 

vide cuoi. Di tro di, progredi. 
Dig), quidl Con noi di thay chang hieu, quid loqueris? 

non intelligo. D. C. B. la tinh di gi? quid est Deus? Et 

etiam est, ut quid. Con chang muon chua, ma xung toi 

di gi ? non vis emere, ut quid conferis 1 
Di, scortum. 

Dia, hirundo. Dia, paropsis. 

Dich, certare. Dich lai, repugnare. Dai dich, idem est. 
Diec, surdus, a, um. Dicitur, Nang tai, aures graves. Qua 

diec, fructus qui ex aliquo casu evadit inutilis. 
Diem, domuncula erecta ad excubias agendas. Diem phu 

lieu, senatus supremus. Diem trang, fucare faciem. 
Diep, mandatum imperatoris. Trung trung diep diep, in- 

numerabilis. 
Dieu, ducere reurn ad judicem vel ad supplicium. 
Dieu, cai dieu, pipa. Mot dieu thuoc, buccella tabaci. 
Dink ba, tridens. 
Dink vel dink lieu, disponere, ordinare. Cha ca da dinh 

lieu lam vay, sic Deus ordinavit. Dinh ki, constituere 

tempus. 
Dinh, cacumen. 
Dinh, buleuterium, seu locus negotiis publicis destinatus. 

Ngua dinh pho, veredus. 
Dit, crepitus ventris. Danh dit, pedere. Rustice ram. 
Dit, clunis. 

Diu, ran diu diu, quidam serpens. 
Diu dit, molestia, quam patiuntur qui infantes et pueros se- 

cum ducunt. 
Do, metiri cubito aliquid. 
Do, componere vel comparare aliquas res ad invicem, ad 

sciendum earum longitudinem vel qualitatem. 
Do, genus assa?. Day do, illic, istic. 



238 

Do, lintcr ad trajicienda flumina. Lam do vcl gia do, simu- 

lare se. 
Do, ruber, ra, rum. Thang do, infantulus recens natus. 

Cai do, infautula. 
Do, lusores qui pugnam agunt ad populi recreationem. 

Kinh do, aula. 
Do, gradus geometricus. Do ba bon ngay, circiter tres 

quatuorve dies. Toi bo dac kinh do nam sau Ian, omisi 

recitare preces plus minusve sexties. 
Do, cai do, ligna quibus construitur paries. Deu do, pro- 

blema. Tao do may, etiam provoco te, jubeo, aude. 
Do, omnia instrumenta aut res materiales. Do le, res ad 

sacrificium pertinentes. Do an, res comestibiles, seu ciba- 

ria. Do le, instrumenta. Do xoi, coquere oryzam solo 

vapore aqua3 calidse. Sinh do, ultimus gradus litterato- 

rum. Tou do, apostolus. 
Do, infundere, effundere. Xin D. C. B. do garasa xuo day 

lao chung toi, infundat Deus gratiam cordibus nostris. 

D. C. J. da do het mau minh ra, Christus effudit totum 

sanguinen suum. Do, vide dau. 
Doa thai, foetus effusus ante tempus ex imperitia medici. 

Thuoc sa con, medicina ad procurandum abortum. 
Doc, recitare, legere. Doc kinh, apud Christianos, recitare 

preces. Si gentiles recitant suas preces, dicitur, Doc 

canh, doc hanh, legere libros. Doc thu cho ng ra nghe, 

recitare litteras. 
Doc, ban doc, altare. Lao doc, malevolentia. Doc du, 

crudelis. An doc, qui solus devorat omnia, nihil dando 

aliis. Nguoi doc dinh, qui est unicus absque fratribus. 

Thuoc doc, venenum. Costera omnia quos sanitati nocent 

dicuntur doc, ut nuoc doc, aqua pestifera, khi doc, ae'r 

insalubris, &c. 
Doc ra, degenerare. Doc chung ra, mutari in pejus. 
Dot den, lanx parva quae in lampadibus adhibetur. 
Doi, esurire. Doi khat lam, fames magna. Kho khan doi 



239 

khat, pauperes esurientes. Doi cho an khat cho uo, 
cibare esurientem et potum dare sitienti. Ai doi khat 
sa phup due, ay la phue that, beati qui esuriunt et sitiunt 
justitiam. 

Doi, repetere. Doi no, repetere debitum. D. C. B. se doi 
no nguoi vou va lai thang lam, Deus repetet debita sua 
exactissime. Sumitur etiam aliquando pro vocare. Doi 
no den day, vocare ilium hue. Sed convenit snperiori 
solummodo. 

Doi, contendere verbis. Doi co vel doi choi, idem signifi- 
cant. Doi xet, respondere in judicio. Mot doi, unum 
par. 

Doi, gerere aliquid super capite. Doi mu, gerere biretum. 
Doi on, gratias agere Deo vel superiori. Doi quan, co- 
hors militum. Bay doi, ordinare aciem. 

Doi, correspondere ad alterum. Cau doi, versus qui habent 
sensuum correspondentiam. 

Doi, colles. Blai doi, idem est. 

Doi, commutare. Ta phai doi sou doi nay ma lay sou doi 
sou, debemus commutare hanc vitam prEesentem pro 
altera futura. Doi doi, vicissitudo sceculorum. 

Doi, expectare, opperire. Doi trau vel retro trau doi, ex- 
pectare cum spe. Cai thanh to Tou doi tran chua cuu the 
ra doi, Patriarchs expectabant adventum Messiae. Trou 
mao, expectare ardenter. Doi dang, spatium itineris. 

Do, ban do, vendere cum pactu restituendi. 

Do, juvare, sufferre. 

Doi, sosculum, vita. Ca doi, tota vita. Blon doi, tota vita 
usque mortem. Con D. C. B. ra doi, filius Dei incarnatus. 
Doi doi vo cung, in saecula sa3culorum, sine fine. 

Dom, faces. Dom duoc, idem. Tay cam dom, chan dap 
do, qui tenet lucernam et sibi non illuminat. Cai dom 
dom, lampiris vel noctilux. 

Dom, lam dom, idem est ac lam do. 

Dom, cibum abaco apponere. Dom com, apponere oryzam. 



240 

Dom ou ba, ou vai, cibum offerre suis mortuis. Noi dom 
dat ra, multa mendacia loquendo eflingere. 

Dom vel dom danh, flegma. Thuoc dom, medicina ad dis- 
sipandum flegma. 

Don, obviare. Don ruoc, ire in occursum ad recipiendum 
aliquem. Don dang an cuop, obsidere viam ad rapien- 
dum. Noi don, occludere viam loquendi. 

Don, verbera. Don ngoi, sedile ex ligno integro. Don 
khieng, don ganh, vectes ad onera ferenda. Significat 
etiam ictus verberis. 

Don tri, obtusum ingenium. Thay khoa don, sortilegus. 

Don, divulgare. Tieng don ra, fama, rumor. Tieng may- 
don khap mai noi, fama tua vulgatur per omnia loca, vel 
longe lateque diflunditur. Iste modus loquendi potest 
sumi in utramque partem, id est, bonam vel malam. Don 
thu vel don quan dao, praisidium, arx. Daong don, cas- 
tra ponere. 

Don, morbus quidam. Ao don, vestis simplex. 

Don, vide dau don. Nguoi don mat, homo vilissimus. Don 
chiec, solus, sine adjutore. 

Dot, incendere. Dot nha, incendere domos. Ao dot, mui 
dot, apes et culices pungunt. 

Dou, ben don, oriens. Mua dou, hiems. Gio dou, Eurus. 
Nguoi ta dou lam, hominum concursus magnus. Dou lai, 
congelari. Nuoc dou lai, congelatur aqua. 

Dou vel dou dat, motus. Bien dou, motus maris. Danh 
dou, commovere. Dou dat den tai be tren, fama fert ad 
aures superiorum. Do kinh, morbus comitialis. Lao 
dou, lao lo, motus cordis. 

Dou, cumulus. Danh dou, accumulare. Nguoi sou hon 
dou vang, vita hominis superat cumulum auri. 

Dou, aes vel ager. Dou tien, moneta cerea. Mot dou, una 
moneta. Dou bac, pateca. O ngoai dou, est in agris. 
Dou khou, agri inculti. Dou hoang, idem est. Dou trinh, 
virgo. Dou ho, horoiogium. Thay dou, magus. 



241 

Du, danh du, lusus quo juvenis unus et una puella, funibus 
innixi, sese in altum ejaculantur ; quod valde inhonestum 
est ac periculosum, ac ided graviter prohibitum a mis- 
sionariis est. Cai du du, quoedam arbor, Lusitanice 
papaja vocata. 

Du hon vel du hoi, lascivire. Convenit magis animalibus 
quam homini. 

Du, sufficere; vel cho du, sufficienter, satis. Aliquando us- 
que ad : Con, phai doc mot ngay ba kinh thien chua, cho 
du muoi ngay, debes, fili, recitare una die ter Pater nos- 
ter, et sic usque ad decern dies. 

Dua, a3mulari. Dua nhau tham dat bo loi, semulantur invi- 
cem in amplectendo terrena, et despiciendo ccelestia. 
Cheo dua, contentio in remigando. 

Dua, cai dua di, per fas et nefas contradicere. 

Dua, bacilli quibus ad comedendum utuntur. Be dou tien 
chiec dua, testimonium repudii apud Tunkinenses. 

Due, perforare lignum scalpello. Cai due, scalprum. Nuoc 
due, aqua turbida. 

Due, conflare aliquid ex sere, auro, argento, &c. Tho due, 
furor. 

Dux, coecus, a, urn. Mu toi mat, idem sonant. 

Dui, femur. 

Dui, den dui, nigerrimus, a, um. 

Dui, tela ex serico rudi. 

Dum, hat dum, cantus amatorii gentilium, pariter prohibiti 
Christianis ac lusus du. 

Dux, cumulus palearum vel spicarum. Dun lam, grana- 
rium. 

Dun day, vide day, pellere. 

Dung dung, sonitus tormentorum. 

Duoc dom, vide dom. 

Duoi, chet duoi, mori aqua suffocante. Noi duoi deu, fluc- 
tuant verba. Ca duoi, piscis, Lusitanice Raja. 

Duoi cau da, finis. Opponitur dau, caput, initium. 
31 



242 

Duoi, fugare ct fundere; persequi hostcm fugitivum, pra> 
dam. Duoi di, expellere. 

Dut, intromittere aliquid in foramen. An dut, rnanducare 
oryzam per alium in os intromissam, more infantium vel 
infirmorum. An dut, etiam intelligitur de judicibus qui, 
pecunia corrupti, sententiam perversam contra justitiam 
ferunt. 

Dua, tradere, comitari. 

Dua, hoc nomine appellantur pueri, puella3 aut homines in- 
fimas conditionis, aut per contemptum, sicut nomen 
thang; sed thang pro masculino genere solum, dua verd 
pro utroque. 

Dua, comitari in egressu ; opponitur ruoc, quod est recipere 
in egressu. 

Dua cho, corrigere. 

Due, virtus, probitas. Hoc nomine appellantur omnes vir- 
tutes, sive naturales sive supernatu rales ; ut due tin, fides. 
Due cau bang, justitia. Sed sa)pius invenitur juncta ista 
vox due cum voce nhan, ut con phai di dang cai nhan due, 
fill debes ingredi viam virtutum. Quando vero prascedit 
ista nomina Dominus, Rex, &c. ; tunc non potest aliter 
explicari quam adjectivum excellentissimus, a, um ; ut 
D. C. B.,* Excellentissimus Dominus cceli; Due nua, ex- 
cellentissimus rex; Due vitvo, excellentissimus episcopus; 
Due ba, excellentissima domina, id est regina. Due hanh, 
pietas. 

Due, hac voce nominatur omne genus masculinum in ani- 
malibus, exceptis gallis gallinaceis, qui semper appellan- 
tur ga sou. Vide cai. 

Dung, stare. Dung lai, sistere gradum. 

Dung, continere. Istud verbum convenit vasis minoribus. 
ut, Bat dung di gi, scutella quid continet? 

Dung, noli, nolite. Est in imperativo solummodo. 

* Hae litters sonant Due Chua Bloi. 



243 

Duoc, posse, invenire, assequi. Chang duoc, non posse, non 
invenire. Ad recte utendum istis vocibus chang duoc, 
in lingua annamitica, magna opust est attentione, et non 
nisi per longum tempus ; et in hunc scopulum incidere 
solent hujus lingua? tyrones. Itaque quando quis ex pro- 
pria sua impotentia aliquid facere non potest, istse voces 
non potest semper debent postponi alteri verbo, ut, an 
chang duoc, id est morbo impeditus manducare non po- 
test. Di chang duoc, ire non potest ex infirmitate vel 
alia causa. Quando vero aliqua lege vel mandato impe- 
ditus agere non potest, seu non valet, tunc chang duoc, 
debet praecedere illud verbum ; ut, Ngay le chang duoc 
lam viec xai toi an thit chang duoc ; id est ex infirmitate 
non possum manducare carnem. Toi chang di an thit, id 
est, prohibitus aliqua lege manducare carnem non possum. 

Duom nhuan, tempus suaviter temperatum. Mua duom 
nhuan, pluvia verna. Duom nom, ululatus. 

E. 

E, duom e, vili vendere. 

Ech, cai ech, rana. 

Em, suavis, e ; suaviter. Em ai, idem. Em so, revereri. 

Em, frater minor et soror minor. 

En, chim en, hirundo. 

Ep, cogere, premere. Ep xuo, deprimi. 

E chan vel te chan, tepescit pes. Dau e om, lentus dolor. 

G. 

Ga, gallina et gallus gallinaceus. Nguoi toi ga, homo luscus. 
Biet ga ga vay, scire aliquid subobscure. Ga choi, gal- 
lus pugnax. Ga co, gallus enormis. 

Ga, tradere filiam nuptui. Bon dao chang nen ga con cho 
ke khau dao, non licet Christianis filias suas tradere nup- 
tui gentilium. 



244 

Gac, cornua cervorum. 

Gac, appendere vel superponere aliquid ligno. Dao danh 

gai cu rut, clavis aftixus cruci. Gac viec ay ra, suspen- 

datur illud. Gac, est etiam tabulatum. 
Gac, cay gac, qua^dam arbor cujus fructu tingitur oryza ut 

pulchra appareat. 
Gach, lateres. Nung gach, coquere lateres. Xay gach, 

a^difieare aliquid ex lateribus. Gach cua, pinguedo 

cancri. 
Gai, spina. Gai goc, multse spinse. Dang nhung gai goc, 

via spinis plena. Noi gai ra, loquendo obicem ponere. 
Gai dao, cultrum leviter ad cotem fricare. 
Gai, con gai, filia puella. Sed quando per contemptum no- 

minantur mulieres, tunc per unicam vocem gai. Chang 

nen danh ghen vuoi gai dai lam chi, non decet virum 

rixari cum mulierculis. 
Gai, fricare. 

Gay, occiput. Ga gay, gallus cantat. 
Gay dan, tangere instrumenta musicse. Gay no ra, proscri- 

batur ille. 
Gay, baculus. 
Gay, macer, era, crum. Gay dung ra, exordiri. Gay dung 

cho con cai, necessaria suppeditare filiis ad familiam in- 

stituendam. 
Gay, lignum aut tabula confracta in duas partes. Danh 

gay, frangere. 
Gam, sericum. Ao gam di dem, musica in luctu. 
Gam thet, rugitus leonis aut tigridis. Bien gam, fremitus 

maris. 
Gam, meditari, considerari. 
Gan, jecur. Ca gan, magnanimus. 
Gan, colare aquam, vas in unam partem inclinando. Hoi 

gan, diii sciscitando qucerere. 
Gan bo, enixe commendare ; pice conglutinare. Gan, ne- 

mus. Gan, prope. 



245 

Gang, mensura quae duanti acquivalet. Gang, est etiam 

genus ferri fragilis et crudi. 
Gang, noi gang, verbis repetitis in memoriam refricare. 
Gang, conari. Gang sue ra, exercere vires. 
Ganh, solus per vectem aliquid portare. Si cum aliquo per 

vectem ferre, dicitur khieng. Solus humere sine vecte 

gerere aliquid, dicitur vac, ut D. C. J. vac cu rut, Christus 

bajulans crucem. Portare aliquid humero aut collo ap- 

pensum, dicitur mang; manu gestare, dicitur xech. 
Ganh nhau, dissentire invicem. 
Ganh, ganh nui, dorsum montis. 
Gao, oryza cruda. 
Gap, occurrere. Gap nhau giua dong, occurrere invicem 

in via. 
Gap, aliquid capere per bacillos. Gap lua bo tay, calum- 

niari. 
Gap vel xep, complicare vestem. Gap phai nhieu su, mul- 

tis malis exagitatus. 
Gat ra, manu repellere. Cai gat di, aliorum sententiam 

contendendo repellere. 
Gat, metere. Tho gat, messores. Gat ngay, urget tempus. 
Gat gao, asperrimus, a, um. 
Gat daa, annuere. Ngu gat, dormiturire. 
Gau, con gau, ursus. Co gau, herba quaedam cujus radix 

est medicinalis. Chiendent agrestis. 
Gau, situla seu instrumentum ad hauriendam aquam. 
Gen, rau gen, blitum. 
Gen giao vel cot geu, inepte jocari. 
Gieo, seminare. Ai da gieo giou nao thi gat giou ay, quod 

semina serit homo, et metet. 
Ghem, rau ghem, olera cruda, quae cum jusculo comeduntur. 
Ghe, ghe rang, horrent dentes. 
Ghe, cathedra, sedile. Ge thay, terribile. 
Ge, pannus vetus. Tarn ge, frustum panni veteris. 
Gie, scopa. 



240 

Giau mat, oculus lippitudine obductus. 

Ghe ga, crista galli. Ghe su la, multa admiranda. 

Ghen, invidia. Ghen ghet, invidia et o dium. Ma qui 

hang ghen ghet loai nguoi ta ch co khi dung, daemon im- 

placabili odio prosequitur genus humanum. 
Ghe, ghe con mat lai, convertere oculos. Ghe non, deprimere 

galerum in unam partem. Tau chay ghe buom, obliquo 

velo navigare. 
Ghet, odium. 
Ghe, cai ghe, vasa. 
Ghe, scabies. Me ghe, noverca. 
Gheo gat vel treu gheo, provocare aliquem ad lusum vel ad 

iracundiam. 
Gheo gat dan ba, solicitare mulieres. 
Ghi, inscribere, notare. 
Gi, ret gi, lo gi, rubigine obduci. 
Gia, pretium. Gia cao, pretium charum. Gia thuong, pre- 

tium ordinarium. Gia ha, pretium vile. 
Gia, senex, senescere. Ou gia, titulus honoris. 
Gia, falsus, a, urn. Falsum testimonium. Chung doi gia 

lam, simulare se. Gia hinh, hypocrita. Gia, navicular 

onerarise vel piscatoriae. Hay gia hinh lam, cujuslibet rei 

simulator. 
Giac, bellum, hostes. Lam giac, rebellare contra regem 

suum. Chiec danh giac, sumere bellum. Danh giac, 

pugnare contra hostes. Ta ph danh giac vuoi ma qui, 

the gian, xac thit, mai cho den chet, debemus continuo 

pugnare contra dsemonem, mundum et carnem usque ad 

mortem. 
Giai ran, saspius apud Christianos Deu ran, mandatum. 

Thay giai, monachus idolatriae. Ssepius thay tu. 
Giam, detinere in carcere vel custodia. Kien giam, perpe- 

tuo detineri in carcere. 
Giam, demere, subtrahere. Giam bot, idem. 
Giam, cai giam vel cai gay, festuca. Cai giam trao con mat 



247 

anh em thi may xem thay, ma cai xa trao con mat may, 

thi may chang xem thay, festucam de oculo fratris tui 

vides, et trabem in oculo tuo non vides. Noi dam giam 

vao, seminare zizaniam. 
Gian, spatium inter duas columnas. Nha nam gian, domus 

quae habet quinque ejusmodi spatia. The gian, mundus. 

Nguoi gian, homo furax vel ipse fur. Noi gian, mentiri. 

Gian doi, furax et mendax. Gian nan, tribulatio. 
Gian, cai gian, blatta. 
Gian mat, sustinere conspectum. No chang dam gian mat 

toi sot, non sustinet meum conspectum. 
Gian ra, dissolvitur structura, vel differre opera in aliud 

tempus. 
Giang, extendere brachia vel pedes. D. C. J. chiu dao danh 

giang chan tay ra tren curut vi toi thien ha, Christus cru- 

cifixus est pansis manibus et pedibus pro peccatis totius 

mundi. 
Giang, praedicari, concionari. Thay giang, catechista. 

Pho giang, nauclerus. 
Giang nhau, praeripere inter se ad se attrahendo. Gianh 

nhau, idem. 
Giang vel blang vel trang, luna. 
Gianh vel blank vel tranh, paleae contexts? ad tegendas 

domos. Nha tranh, domus ejusmodi paleis tectae. 
Giao cho, tradere. Giao nhau, contractum inter se facere. 

Giao hua, promittere cum conventione. Giao hieu cung 

nhau, societatem inire cum aliquo, fidem mutuam sibi 

promittere, foedus inire, fidem dare et accipere. 
Giao, pugio. Noi giao cho giac, suppeditare hostibus arena. 
Giao, giao luat, supplicium suffocationis. Giao giao, furax. 
Giap, prope. Giap tran, in ipso conflictu. 
Giap gio, thi thuyen giap giu, homo variabilis, fallax. 
Giat, ejici fluctibus. Giat vao bai bien, ejici ad littora. 
Giat, lavare vestes, telas femorales, et caetera quae fiunt ex 

telis. 



248 

Giat, appendere aliquid alicui. 

Giac, sopor. 

Giay, momentum. Mot giay nua ma bay chang thay tao ; 

mot giay nua ma bay lai thay tao, modicum et non vide- 

bitis me ; et modicum et iterum vidcbitis me. 
Giay, papyrus. Giay sac, papyrus ad scribendum diplo- 

mata. Giay thi, papyrus ad scribendum mandata aliqua. 

Giay canh, papyrus latior. Giay so, papyrus ordinaria. 

To giay, folium papyri. 
Giay co, eradicare herbas. Giay ma, sepulchra renovare; 

quod solet fieri apud Tunkinenses ante annum novum. 
Giam, plantas novellas limo figere. 
Giam, pede humum pulsare more irascentis. Dao giam, 

qusedam secta, cujus assectas, preces suas recitando, pede 

humum pulsant. 
Giam, acetum. Giam thanh, acetum purum. 
Giam boi, vide boi. 
Gian, irasci. Sot gian, accendi ira. Con gian len, vide 

con. No mat ngon, gian mat khon, satietas saporem, ira 

prudentiam tollit. 
Giap, suffringi. 
Giap, herba qusedam. 
Giat, attrahere ad se fortiter. 
Giau, abscondere aliquid. 
Giau, dives. Giau co, idem est. Lam giau, conquerere 

divitias. Tham giau bo nghia, prasferre divitias pietati. 
Giec, ca giec, piscis valde salubris. 
Giem, giau giem, vide giau. 
Gieng, thang gieng, mensis primus apud annamitas sic no- 

minatur ; secundus, thang hai; tertius, thang 3, et sic de 

casteris juxta numerum ordinarium usque ultimum, qui 

vocatur thang chap. 
Gieng moi, basis vel fundamentum aliarum rerum. 
Gieng, puteus. 
Giu, excutere. Giua, limare. 



249 

Giuc, instigarc. Klri ma qui giuc lao con, quando da3mon 

instigat cor tuum. 
Giui, perforare. Cai giui, subula. 
Gium, turmatim. Ngoi gium nhau, turmatim scderc. 
Giup, alicui auxiliari, opem alicui ferre, subvcnire alicui; 

adjuvare, ministrare. D. C. B. giup sui cho nguoi, adsit 

tibi gratia Dei. 
Giu, custodire, observare. Ke giu viec, praises opcris vel 

procurator. Ge giu, caute circumspicere. Giua, medius, 

a, um. 
Giuong ma tra, micare oculis. 
Guong, maritus materterae. 
GiuoiVg, lectus. Giuong luoi, basis sagenae. 
Giuong gianh, giuong nhau, invicem prseripere. 
Giet, occidere. 
Gio, ventus. Gio tlioi, ventus sufflat. Dung gio, quando 

nullus est ventus. 
Gio, pedes gallinae vel porci. Xem gio, genus sortilegii ex 

observatione pedis gallinas. 
Gio, cista piscatoris qua continentur pisces capti. 
Gio, spuere. Gio, terrere verbis aut factis. 
Gio, parentalia quae fiunt ipsomet die mortis. Moi gio, su- 

perstitio qua. suos defunctos ad convivia ilia parentalia 

invitant. Gap gio, contribuere ad parentalia ilia pera- 

genda. 
Gio, porrigere aliquid extra, vel prominere. 
Gio, hora. Phai dung ngay gio cho nen, oportet tempus 

bene collocare. 
Gioc, nectere funes aut capillos. 
Gioi bo, vide bo. Gioi gion, quod est valde fragile. 
Gioi, abluere. 

Giot, percutere ass aut ferrum lento ictu. 
Gion, hum gion nhau, ludunt inter se tigrides. 
Giou, semen, genus, species. D. C. B. da dung nen giou 

nao thi cu giou ay, creavit Deus omnia juxta genus suum 
32 



250 

Pro genere humano semper u tend um est voce loai — Loai 
nguoi ta. Loai, etiam potest dici de animalibus, arboribus, 
et aliis creaturis. Est etiam adjectivum similis, e. Con 
giou cha, filius similis patri. Giou nhau, sibi invicem 
similes. 

Go, go ca, pecten piscis. 

Go, insula; cogere. Go cho no bla no, cogere aliquem ad 
debita reddenda. Troi go lai, strictim ligare. 

Go, go cua, pulsare fores. D. C. P. Santo go cua linh hon ta, 
spiritus sanctus pulsat ad fores anima} nostrse. Luoi go, 
genus retis. Thuyen go, cymba quae piscatur illo reti. 

Go ghe, via inaequalis. 

Go vel cay go, lignum. Lam go, lignari. Deo go, dolare 
ligna. 

Go, septum dimissum ad impediendum porcos aut canes. 

Go, quai go, monstrum ; horribilis, e ; genus monstruosum. 
Giou xuai go, solvere tricas aut eximere, aut eximere ali- 
quid a laqueo. Con, chang muon go minh cho khai tay 
ma qui ru, fili, non vis te eximere a manu dsemonis. Goa, 
viduatus, vidunta. 

Goc, angulus. Goc nha, domus. Ca goc, nomen piscis. 

Goc, truncus. Coi goc vel coi re, vide coi. 

Got, vocare. Goi la, nominari. Ten con goi la lam sao? 
nomen tuum quomodo vocatur ? Toi goi la Phero, vocor 
Petrus. Con, goi Phero den day, voca Petrum ut veniat. 

Goi, involvere; involucrum; fasciculus. Goi thu, fascicu- 
lus litterarum. 

Goi, piscis frustalim concissus ; sed crude sumitur. 

Goi dau, lavare caput. 

Goi dau, supponere aliquid capiti; sed dau goi est genu. Cai 
goi, cervical. Qui goi, flectere genu. 

Goi lua, manipulus frugum. 

Goi, incipere, exordiri. Noi goi ra, primo verba facere ad 
inchoandum aliquid. 

Gom ghkc, abominari, abhorrere. Con, phai lay su toi lam 



251 

gom ghiec lion su chet, debes, fili, abhorrere magis a 
peccato quam a morte. Khi chung bay xem thay su gom 
ghiec tra nha tho thi phai ten nui ma an, cum videritis 
abominationem desolationis in templo, fugite ad montes. 

Gom lai, per compendium aliquid dicere vel facere. 

Gon, succinctus, a, um. Gon ghe, succincte, clare, perfecte. 

Gon, sao gon, unda? crispantes. Gai gon, quod detinctur 
aliquo impedimento. 

Gop, contribuere. Gop Hem viec than phat, contribuere ad 
superstitiosa. Gop gio len doi, contribuere ad parentalia 
superstitiosa. Gop viec ho, vel Gop viec dao, contribuere 
ad negotia Christianorum. 

Got, cultro decorticare fructus aut arbores. Got dau, ten- 
dere caput. 

Got chan, calx pedis. Tu dau den chan, a capite ad calcem. 

Got, maculam in veste abluere. 

Gou, genus tormenti, quod ad collum appenditur reo recens 
deprehensus, et judici sistendo. 

Gou, ganh gou, gestare aliquid per vectem, sed una vectis 
parte alteram propter pondus prsevalente. 

Gu guc, gemitus columbas aut turturis. 

Guc dan, inclinare caput. 

Gung, ca gung, quidam piscis. 

Guoc, lignipedium. 

Gui, mittere, committere. Gui lay, salutem dicere ad su- 
periores. Gui kinh, salutem dicere aequalibus. Gui tham, 
salutem dicere inferioribus. 

Guom, gladius. Guom trang, gladius longior. Vo guom, 
vagina. 

Guong, speculum. Sach guong phuc, libellus de imitatione 
Christi. Ke o nha D. C. B. phai lam guong cho bon dao, 
ministri domus Dei debent proslucere caoteris Christianis 
exemplo, vel debent caeteris specimen virtutis pra)bere 
Guong tot, bonum exemplum. Guong xan, vel Guong 
rnu, scandalum. 

Gung, zinziber. 



252 



H. 



Ha, prima imperatornm sinarum familia, de qua novus 
auctor e seminario Pavisiensi missionariorum ad exteros 
protulit verba hscc : Prima hscc familia ad 458 annos impe- 
rium administravit, numerando ab eo tempore quo Vu in 
imperii consortium ab imperatore Thuan assumptus est; 
eodem tempore vini ex oryza confecti usus incepit. Hujus 
familiar imperator VI. US Kiet, vir ad omne sceleris genus 
profligatus, a potentissimo dynasta Thang dirutus est, qui 
secundas familise initium dedit, ducentis circiter annis 
ante Moysis nativitatem. Ha xuo, deponere. Thuong 
giai, ha giai, coelum et terra. Thien ha, mundus. Mua 
ha, sed magis mua he, sestas. 

Ha, genus conchilii parvi, quod naves perforat. Ha tien, 
avarus. 

Hac, avis quae secundo nobilitatis loco numeratur post 
phuong hoang, qua? est regina avium, juxta eorum existi- 
mationem, plus fabulis quam veritate fundatam. 

Hac, coram et superbe arguere. 

Hai, duo, duas, duo. Ca hai, totidem duo. Thu hai, secun- 
dus, a, um. 

Hai, damnum. Ton hai, thiet hai, idem. Chang nen lam 
hai cho ai bao gio, nunquam licet alicui damnum inferre. 

Hai, falx messoris. 

Hai, genus calcei mulieris. 

Hai, mare. Hai nam, insula sic vocata. Hai duong, una 
provincia parva in Tunkino. 

Hai, revereri, pavere. So hai, kinh hai, idem. Est etiam 
modus hortantis aut urgentis, ut, Con, hai cay trau D. C. B. 
va lam viec lanh, spera in Domino et fac bonitatem. 

Hay, significat hasc vox nimiam cordis ad aliquam rem in- 
clinationem, aut potentiam animi, aut etiam dotem sive a 
natura sive arte acquisitam, et varie accommodatur, ut 



253 

infra videre est. D. C. B. hay blon vay. Deus est natura 
sua perfectissimus. D. C. B. hay thuong vo cung, Deus 
est infinite misericors. Nguoi hay an hay uo, homo edax 
et bibax. Hay chu, litteris instructus. Hay thuoc, peri- 
tus in arte medica. Ngua hay cha, equus acer in cur- 
rendo. Meo hay chuot, feles apta ad capiendos mures ; 
et sic de casteris. Et hasc vox semper prseponitur aliis 
verbis aut adjectivis aut etiam substantivis; aliquando 
sumitur pro nosse. Ai hay chang la, nosciturne? Chang 
hay la, inopinate. Toi ngo la co ba nguoi xung toi ; chang 
hay la co nam nguoi, putabam esse tres poenitentes, sed 
inopinate adsunt quinque. 

Ham, sed tham est frequentius in usu. Nimia cupido. 

Ham rang, mandibula. Rang ham, dentes molares. 

Ham, cohibere. Ham no trao nha, cohibere aliquem in claus- 
tro. Ham tinh me xac thit, cohibere naturam corruptam. 
Ham minh, mortificare membra. 

HaxM, prreruptus. Nui ham, mons prasruptus. Ham ho, an- 
helare. 

Ham, calefacere. Ham ham vay, tepidus, a, um. 

Han, cay han, arbor quoedam, cujus folia sunt valde vene- 
nata ; ad quorum tactum intumescit cutis. 

Han, infortunium. Toi phai cai han nay, hoc patior infor- 
tunium. Nam han, annus infaustus. Dai han, siccitas 
agrorum. 

Han, quinta sinarum imperatorum familia, cujus rege Ai de 
regnante, est natus salvator mundi. Sach han, liber his- 
toricus qui gesta ab hujus familia? imperatoribus bella 
continet. 

Han, ollas aereas aut ferreas pertusas reficere. Tho han, 
fusor qui illas ollas recudit; serarius. 

Han, statuere. 

Han, ban han net, natura iracunda. 

Han, in provincia Xu nghe, dicitur pro ille, ilia, illud. 

Han thu, ulcisci ; odium execrabile. 



254 

Han, omnino certum est. Da han voi, jam omnino certuni 
est. Nguoi han hoi, homo bonac indolis, fidelis. 

Hang, spelunca, antrum. D.C.J, sinh ra trao hang da: 
den khi chct lai tang vao hang da, Christus natus est in 
spelunca ; in morte sua denuo in spelunca sepultus est. 
Hang ho, idem. 

Hang, he dan hang, purus plebeius absque ulla dignitate. 

Hang, inguen. 

Hang, caupona, apotheca, merces. Hang pho, emporium. 
Hang ruu, venditor vini. Tau cho hang di gi? navis ve- 
hit quas merces? Quan hang co hang doi, milites, com- 
militones. Lai hang quan giac, hosti se dedcre vel tra- 
dero, deditionem facere. 

Hang, odor. 

Hang, semper. Cay hang nien, arbores quae omni anni lem- 
peslate dant fructus. Cay hang sou, arbor vitae. 

Hang, co hang, inceptum opus deserere, propositum mutan- 
do; non est frequens in usu. 

Hanh, arbor aquilonis. 

Hanh, due hang, pietas. Hou hanh, fructus quidam. Doc 
hanh, vide doc. 

Hanh, cepa. Quan Judeu o tren rung sao le con nho hanh 
cu thit motra onuoc tchito, Judaei in deserto desiderabant 
cepas et carnes iEgyptiacas. Noi hanh, detrahere, famam 
alicujus laedere. Toi noi hanh, detractio. Luoi ke noi 
hanh la con ran doi, lingua detractoris est serpens vene- 
natus. Hanh ly, facere iter. Tien hanh ly, pecunia pro 
viatico. 

Hao, vel hao ton, paulatim consumi. Lam hao ton, consu- 
mere, magnos sumptus facere. 

Hao, minima pars in moneta. Xe hao, facere canales ad 
munitionem. 

Hao, bonus, a, um. Bene, (vox sinica.) 

Hao, oau hao, fauces. 

Hao, frustrari spe. 



255 

Hap, hap lay, aliquid per os capere. 

Hat vel hot, granum. Trang hat, corona Bcatos Mariae vel 

rosarium. Lan hat, recitare rosarium. Con, phai Ian 

hat tram ruoi, fili, debes recitare rosarium integrum. 

Lan hat nam chuc, recitare quinque decadas rosarii. 
Hau, ostreae magna?. Da hau, jamjam fere; et ponitur pro 

praeterito et futuro, ut, Chung toi phai khon nan da hau 

chet, ita affecti sum us ut jamjam fere mortui. Den khi 

da hau chet moi bio lai, jamjam fere moriturus, tandem 

conversus est. 
Hauh, elementa. 
Hat, cantare. Con hat, cantatrix. Quan hat boi, mirnus. 

Hat vot kiem an, adulari. 
He, menh he, fatum. Moi su boi menh he, omnia ex fato 

pendent. (Opinio Ethnicorum.) 
He, chang he, nunquam ; vel chang he co, idem. Ke o trao 

dia nguc chang he co thay D. C. B., damnati in inferno 

nunquam videbunt Deum. Chang he co bao gio sot, 

idem est. 
He ai ai, vide ai ai. He bao gio, vel He lan nao, quoties- 

cunque. D. C. J. phan rang : he lan nao chung bay lam 

su nay thi nho den tao, Christus dixit: hoc quotiescunque 

feceritis, in mei memoriam facietis. 
Hen, ostrea parva. Hen aun, morbus quidam. 
Hen, infirmus, vilis. Ra hen, probro haberi. 
Hep, chat hep, angustus, a, urn. Phai di dang chat hep o 

doi nay, oportet incedere per viam angustam in hac vita. 

Kep hoi, idem. 
Het, finis, absolute totus, a, urn. Omnino. An cho het, 

absumere totum. Khap het moi nguoi, omnes omnino 

homines. Kinh men D. C. B. tren het moi su, diligere 

Deum super omnia omnino. Tho phuong cha het lao het 

sue, colere Deum toto corde, totis viribus. 
Het cung nhau, concordare omnino ; sibi invicem simillima. 
Het, avis quaedam. Muon an het, thi dao trun, vis rosas, 

fer spinas. 



25G 

Heo, arescere. Cay chang co re tin hco di : lao ng ta 
chang co gratia D. C. B. thi cung vay, arbor sine radice 
arescit : sic et cor hominis sine gratia Dei. 

Hiem, rarus, a, um. Hiem co vcl cua hiem, res non vulgaris. 

Hiem thu, odium capitale. 

Hiem ngheo, periculum. Dang hiem, via periculosa. 

Hien ra, apparere. Se hien xuo, Pentecostes, 

Hien lanli, mansuetus. 

Hiep dan ba, vim inferre mulieri. Ha hiep ng ta, perviin 
extorquere pecuniam aut alias res. 

Hieu, pietas in parentes. Con bat hieu, filius impius in pa- 
rentes. 

Hieu, danh hieu, signum militare. Hieu, signum ad aliquod 
opus. Len hieu, dare signum. 

Hi ?nui, emungere nares. Hi ha, gaudere. An uo hi ha, 
convivari cum leetitia. 

Hinh, species, fig Lira. Hinh tuong, effigies, simulacrum. 
Hinh tuong nay la hinh tuong ai, cujus est haec imago? 
Loai ng ta da dung nen giou hinh tuong D. C. B., homo 
creatus est ad imaginem et similitudinem Dei. Hinh nhu, 
quasi. Hinh nhu the vay, quasi sic esset. 

Hit, indagare naso more canis venatici. Thuoc hit, taba- 
cum pulverisatum. Hon hit, osculari. 

Ho, tussire, tussis. Thuoc ho, remedium contra tussim. 

Ho, familia, consaguinitas, tribus, confraternitas, Christiani- 
tas. Con trao ho cung nhau, adhuc esse in eadem consa- 
guinitate. Con da vao ho due ba chang? jam esne ad- 
scripts confraternitati rosarii ? Con la nguoi ho nao, es 
cujus Christianitatis ? 

Ho, conclamare ad invicem urgendum. 

Ho han, exclamare. 

Ho, phu ho, auxiliari. Cha ca phu ho cho anh em, adsit 
vobis Deus. Ho dang, ho nuoc, impedire inundationem 
aquarum. 

Ho, prsecipitium. Sa ho, cadere in foveam. 






Ml 

Ho, gluten ex farina factum ; locus et vas viui. 

Ho, tigris. Nguoi hung ho, famosus audacia et foriitiuline. 

Ho, applicare aliquid ad ignem. 

Ho, apertus, a, um. Ke co net na chang nen an mac ho 

hang, modestum non decet habitus apertus seu dissolutus. 
Ho, vox rustice respondentia. 
Hoa, flos. Hat hoa tinh, canere cantilenas. Mloi hoa tinh, 

verba turpitudinem sonantia. Nguoi hoa nguyet, mulier 

compta et suspecta. 
Hoa, la hoa, hoa la, rard et non nisi per accidens. Viec ay 

hoa la gap, illud negotium raro et non nisi per accidens 

contigit. 
Hoa ra, transsubstantiari, accidere. Vung tu kheo hoa, qui 

male incepit sed bene finivit. 
Hoa, pax. Hoa thuan, pacificus, a, um. Lam hoa thuan, 

pacificare. Hoa tap nhau, jungere se ad aliquod malum 

peragendum. Hoa, diluere. 
Hoac, vel hoac la, si, quod si forte. 
Hoai di vel lien di, aliquid evidentissimo exponere periculo. 

Chang nen hoai linh hon minh di lam vay, non licet sic 

exponere se periculo aeternae damnationis. Lam hu hoai 

cua cai, dissipare substantiam aut abuti rebus suis. 
Hoan lai, reddere debitum. 
Hoan, castrare. Hoan minh di vi D. C. B., castrare se 

propter regnum ccelorum. Tho hoan, artifex castrandi. 
Hoang dam, fornicatio. Lam hoang huy, devastare. Vuon 

hoang, hortus desertus. Dou hoang, agri inculti. 
Hoang, deliquium mentis. 
Hoang, con hoang, cervus minor. 
Hoang, thoi hoang, faetor intolerabilis. 
Hoc, studere. Hoc tro, scholasticus. Hoc doi tinh net, 

incitari indolem. Ke co dao thi ph hoc doi tinh net D.C. J., 

Christiani debent aemulari charitatem Christi. Hoc truyen 

lai, referre historian). Hoc tieng latinh, litteras latinas 

discere. 
33 



258 

Hoc, suffocari, esse fauci hrerente. 

Hoc, certa mensura. 

Hoc, devorare more helluonis. 

Hoi, odor lactis. 

Hoi dau, tendere caput. 

Hoi, hep hoi, vide hep. 

Hoi, interrogare. Hoi han, idem. 

Hoi vo, primus contractus matrimonii. 

Hoi, foetor agrestis. 

Hoi, keo hoi, publicse processiones gentilium cum suis idolis. 

Hoi, hap hoi, in agonia positus. 

Hoi, redire. Mot hoi trou, semel. Dau hoi nha, duse ex- 
tremitates domus. 

Hoi oi, interjectio miserantis. Su hoi oi, res miserabilis. 

Hoi, spiritus, habitus. Da gan het hoi, jamjam fere expirare. 

Hoi, ultima hora quae est fere circa mediam noctem. Ac 
hoi, lascivire. 

Hom, ossa. Seepius dicitur xuong. 

Hom, area, capsula. 

Hom, vespere. Vide chieu* 

Hon, globus. Hon da, lapis. Hon nui, mons. Com hon, 
oryza conglobata. Hon bang, globus ex morbo congela- 
tus in ventre. 

Hon, osculari. 

Hon, anima. Dicitur in tres ordines, et sic annamitice dici- 
tur; Linh hon, anima spiritualis, seu anima humana; 
2. a Giac hon, anima sensitiva, seu anima brutalis; 3. a Sinh 
hon, anima vegetativa, seu anima arborum. Sic Christiani ; 
Ethnicorum vero opinio est, unicuique homini inesse tres 
animas et novem viea, quas vox juxta eorurn mentem non 
potest aliter explicari quam spiritus quidam aut habitus ; 
unde in unius cujusque morte, saspe sic invocant: Ba hon 
chin via o dau thi vue ; id est, O tres animas et novem spi- 
ritus, ubicumque estis, venite. Et post illam invocationem 
constiingunt sericum album quod vocatur Hon bach, 



259 

id est anima alba; et realiter animam mortui illic inesse 
credunt. 

Ho\, vel hon hao, tumultus. Hon don, idem. 

Ho\, magis, plus, et ponitur semper cum adjectivis positivis 
ad faciendum ilia fieri comparativa; ut, Trao nhung nguoi 
nam chang co ai trao hon Juao Baotisita, inter natos mu- 
lierum non surrexit major Joanne Baptista. Sic cum 
verbis collocatur. Toi an hon anh, comedere plus quam 
tu; ponitur etiam pro adverbiis, sed semper post verbum 
et adverbium, ut, Juao di mau hon Phero, Joannes ibat 
citius Petro. Mot ngay mot hon, in dies magis ac magis. 
Ta phai kinh men cha ca mot hon, debemus amare Deum 
in dies magis ac magis. 

Hon, ex odio negare loquelam, vel vitare consortium. 

Hop, congregari, concilium facere. Hop hanh, 1 idem. Hop 
cung nhau lam mot trai, in unum vicum convenire. 

Hop, primis labris circiter haurire. Chin le doan cung nen 
hop mot chut nuoc cho di nuot di, post communionem 
sacram decet haurire ore modicum aqua? ad deglutien- 
dam hostiam. Mot hop nuoc, haustus aquae. 

Hop mot y, convenire, simul intendere. No chang hop y 
vuoi toi, non consentit mihi. 

Hot lay, grana sparsa manu colligere. Chim kheo hot, avi- 
cula suaviter cantat. Noi nhu khuou hot, vane loqui ad 
instar cantus avium. 

Hou, lumbi. 

Hou, cay hou, quaedam arbor. Hou, color rubeus. 

Hou, ho hou, clamose loqui. 

Hu nhau, per clamorem invicem vocare. Tu hu, avis quae- 
dam sic vocata ex cantu sic edito. 

Hu, vas fictile. Hu ruou, vas vini. 

Hua nhau, vide tao hoa nhau. 

Hue nac, protervus ; durae cervicis. 

Hue, ho hue, ferit per cornu bos. 

Hui, lepra. Thang hui, leprosus. 



Huv, destruere, occidere. Pha huy, idem. 

Huy, tieng huy, vox vitanda. Huyen, ballivatus. 

Hum, tigris. Hum tha, tigris aufert. 

Hun, fumare. Hun cua nha, fumo malum aerem domo ex- 
pellere. 

Hung, furiosus. Hung hang vel hung boo, andax, trucu- 
lentus. 

Hung, rau liung, mentum. 

Huo chi, vel huo lo la, vel chang lo la, idem significant : 
quanto magis? Ke hien lanh nhau due bay gio di roi con 
kho lam ; huo lo la ke co toi, justi et sancti vix salvabun- 
tur; quanto magis peccatores. Sed chang lo la, quando 
invenitur pro etiam si non; ut, Chang lo la anh phai noi, 
toi da biet roi, etiam si non loquaris, jam scio. 

Hup, vide hop ; sed hup, frequentius est. 

Hut, fere ac hup ; sed hup, pro rebus liquidis ut aqua, jus- 
culum ; hut, attrahendo spiritum ut fumando tabacum 
dicitur. Hut thuoc, thuoc hut, tabacum ad fumandum. 

Hu, corruptus, perditus. Lam hu, corrumpere, perdere. 
Mloi hu tu, verbum otiosum. Su hu khou, nihilum. 

Hu, vox negantis, abnuentis. 

Hu, vox rustice respondentis, sicut ho. 

Hua, promittere. Khan hua thanh trai, oris promissum 
evadit in debitum. Khan hua, vovere. Con, da khan hua 
su gi eu D. C. B. thi phai giu mloi da khan ay, quod vovisti 
Deo, debes illud implere. 

Hung, conh hung, rex e prima familia, quo regnante Cocisi- 
nenses Tunkinum invaserunt. 

Hung, excipere aliquid sursum dimissum. Hung nuoc mua, 
excipere aquam pluviae. 

Huong, incensum. Dot huong vel thap huong, cremare in- 
censum. Nhu huong, thus. Binh huong, thuribulum. 
Huong hoa, vigesima pars haereditatis primogenito assig- 
nanda, ad incensum progenitoribus adolendum. Huong 
am, communitates unoquoque pago institutse ad negotia 



261 

publica sustinenda. Vao huong am, inscribi albo com- 
munitatis. 

Huong, situs versus. Nha lam huong nam, domus sita ver- 
sus austrum. 

Huong, frui. Huong phuc vo cung, frui felicitate asterna. 

Huou, con huou, cervus. 

Hua, ban hua, amicus. 

Huyen, pendens ; funis ; niger. 



Y. I. 

Y, intentio, voluntas. Theo thanh y cha ca, conformare se 

divinse voluntati. 
Ya, cacare. Urbane dicitur, di dai tien. 
Ich, utilitas. Vo ich, inutilis, e. 
Yem, thorax quo induuntur omnes mulieres annamitae ut a 

viris distinguantur. 
Yem, tha phu thuy yem bua, magi maleficio suo obsignant 

domos contra daemonum infestationem. 
Yen, pax, tranquillitas. 
Yet, yet than, sacrificare diis. 
Yeu, amare, ad inferiores vel aequales : sed ad Deum vel 

superiores dicendo, semper dicitur kinh men vel cam men. 

D. C. B. yeu ke lanh, justi sunt Deo grati et accepti. 
Yeu, debilis, infirmus. Om yeu, vel yeu duoi, idem. 
Yeu dieu, delicatus, a, um. Chet non, chet yeu, mors im- 

matura. Est maledictio. 
It, parum, modicum. Mot it chut, idem est. 
In, imprimere. Sach in, liber impressus. Ban in, typus. 

In tri rang, aliquid alicui in animo hserere. 



262 



K. VideC. 

Ke, milium. Ke so, conficere catalogum, notare. 

Ke no, relinquatur arbitrio suo. Quando est sermo de infi- 

mo nomine. 
Ke, jungere, succedere. Vo ke hau, sine successione. 
Ke, addere ad cumulum. 
Ke, nominare, numerare, memorare. Ke cho, vox appro- 

bantis vel laudantis. Annumeretur ke le, idem. Tieng 

tu toi dai ke toi, quod supra memoravi. 
Kegh, crassum, magnum. Kech dau ma dai, vesanum ca- 
put. Ken, texere raro modo. 
Ken hen, vultur. 

Ket, conjungere, componere. Ket ngh, ket ban, vide ban. 
Keu, clamari, conqueri, vocare. Keu reu, idem. 
Ke, vel co ke con mat, lippitudo oculorum. 
Ke, cay ke, herba quasdam. Danh ke vao, miscere se alea- 

toribus. Ke nhe, homo ineptus, et importunus. 
Ke, sequi valet voci nguoi, homo, quicumque. Khiem 

nhuong thi dep lao D. C. B., humilis placet Deo. Ke dang 

chi, lineam ducere. Ke, rima. 
Kem, quan kem dau, custodes frumentorum tempore messis. 
Kem, minus, opponitur hon. Et est semper adverbium, et 

potest ad libitum poni ante vel post verbum ; ut, Nguoi 

ay lam kem lam ; vel Nguoi kem lam lam, ille minus la- 

borat. Invenitur etiam cum substantivo solo ; ut, Nguoi 

ay kem sue lam, minus valet. 
Kem, aditus angustus. 
Ken vel chon, seligere. Ken hinh, seligere milites. Ken an, 

delicatus qui debet seligere cibum. Cai ken, nidus bom- 

bycis ex quo serica fiunt. 
Ken, tibia. Thoi ken, canere tibiis. Quan thoi ken, vel 

ba lenh, tibicines. Ken cua, invidia : raro usurpatur. 



263 

Keo, gluten ex corio factum. Keo lua, secare fruges torta 

falce. 
Keo, mel percoctum. 
Keo, trahere, extrahere. Keo nhau di, turmatim ire. Cai 

keo, forfex. 
Keo lay, harpagare. Keo neo, harpago. Keo cu, parous ; 

qui quod jam dedit vult rursus repetere. 
Keo, ne. Con, phai giu minh, keo sa chuoc qui, vigila, fili, 

ne succumbas tentationi. Keo ma, idem est. 
Ket, nghien rang ket ket, stridor dentium. 
Ket, cliim ket, coturnix. 
Ket, conjungere. 

Kep, premere. Treo kep ng ta, suspensio et tortura. 
Kep, duplex. Ao kep, vestis duplex. Kep nha tro, conso- 

cius mimi. Lam kep, socium esse, adjuvare. 
Kha, bene. Cung kha, satis bene, satis multum. Chang 

kha, non bene, non decet. Ke khon ngoan chang kha an 

o lam vay, sapientem non decet taliter vivere. 
Khac, diversus, a, urn ; alius, a, ud. Nguoi khai, alius homo. 

Chang khac gi, quasi. Con ph don mh xung toi, chang 

khai gi ke don minh chet vay, debes parare te ad confes- 

sionem, qui moriturus ad mortem. 
Khac, execrare. Khac, quadrans. 
Khach, hospes. 
Khai, fcetor urinas. 
Khai, appellare regem secundarium. 
Kham, examen mercium in teloniis ; perlustrare. 
Kham, ngua bat kham, equus indomitus. 
Kham, insculpere ; inserere. 
Kham, phai kham, laqueis irretitus. 
Khan, kho khan, siccus, a, um. An no kho khan, victus 

frugalis. Khan co, raucitas. Noi cho den khan co, 

loqui usque raucitatem. 
Khan thu, prases seu custos in uno pago auctoritate publica 

constitutus. 



264 

Khan\ Vide hua. 

Khan, sudarium linteum. Kho khan, pauper. Khan khan, 

firmus in proposito. 
Khang kien, prosperitas. 
Khanh, carnpana lapidea. 

Khao quart, exercitum magno convivio tractare. 
Khao, conferre. Khao sach, conferre librum. Khao hoc 

tro, scholasticorum profectus experimentum capere. 
Khao hen, laudare. 
Khap xuong, junctura ossium. 
Khap, hhap moi ng, omnes omnino homines. Khap moi noi, 

omnia omnino loca. 
Khat, sitire. Khat khao, multum sitire ; ardenter deside- 

rare. 
Khat, hhe hhat, parcissimus, a, urn. Com khe, oryza tosta 

et ided grave olens. 
Khe, van hhe vel van tu, chirographum. Qua khe, fructus 

quidam, carambola. 
Kheu, pus ex ulcere educere. Noi kheu ra, verbis provo- 

care. Kheu den, emungere lampadem vel lucernam. 
Khe, rivulus. 

Khen, laudare. Nguoi khen, laudibus celebrare. 
Kheo, machina ex duobus lignis erectis, quibus tanquam 

pedibus innixi prominentes incedunt ; grallse. 
Kheo, peritus, a, urn. Kheo hat, perite cantare. Kheo 

lam, perite efficere aliquid. Tho kheo, artifex peritus. 
Khep ao, vestem honeste aptare. An mai khep nep, habitus 

modestus. 
Khet, odor gravis ex carne assata, aut lampade extincta. 
Km, quando, cum ; et sic in oratione collocatur cum parti- 

cula thi vel thi moi. Khi D. C. J. xuo phan xet thi moi 

su ba giai ra het thay thay, quando Christus Dominus 

judicaturus veniet, omnia patebunt. Khi con sach toi thi 

moi di nghia cu D. C. B., cum conscientiam mundam ha- 

beris, turn tandem Deo placebis. Khi nao, idem. 



265 

Km, aer, humor ; semen in corpore. Khi lanh, aere frigi- 
dus. Khi dat xou len, humor ex terra erumpens. Khi 
huyet da hu, semen et sanguis labefactati. Noi khi ng 
ta, verbis alios deterrere. 

Khi, con khi, simia, se. 

Khich nhau, vel khich vac nhau, invicem discordes. 

Khien, proponere, jubere. Sai khien, mandare, mittere. 
D. C. B. chang co khien ta lam nhung su qua sue, Deus 
non jubet impossibilia. Toi da khien xung toi ; sao le tro 
nhieu viec lam, proposui confiteri peccata; sed multis 
negotiis impedior. 

Khiem nuong, humilis, e. Due khiem nhuong, humilitas. 
Con, phai o khiem nhuong thi moi trou D. C. B. thuong di, 
debes esse humilis ut misericordiam a Deo consequaris. 
Due khiem nhuo la nen cac nhan due khac, humilitas est 
fundamentum aliarum virtutum. 

Khieng, portare aliquid grave per duos aut plures homines. 

Khieng, di khieng chan, ambulare uno pede contorto. 

Khiep, perterritus, a, um. 

Khienh de, contemnere. Vide de. Ai de duoi bay, thi no 
de duoi tao, qui vos spernit, me spernit. 

Khit, de rebus arete conjunctis. 

Kho, horreum, granarium ; armamentaria. Ke giu kho, 
custos horrei armamentariorum, vel cellarius. Kho ca, 
coquere pisces multo sale. 

Kho, difficilis, e; difficulter. Kho lao, molestus, a, um. 
Lam kho lao, molestiam inferre. Kho chiu, asgre ferre. 
Kho khan, vide khan. Chiu kho, aerumnas perferre. Hay 
chiu kho, corpus patiens inedia?, vigiliee, laborum. 

Kho, vel kho khan, aridus, a, um ; siccus, a, um. Bao gio 
con thay kho khan nguoi lanh trao lao, thi phai cay trou 
keu van than tho cung D. C. B., cum ariditatem in corde 
sentis, debes cum magna fiducia. Dominum invocare. 

Kho, zona qua cinguntur omnes annamitae viri. 
34 



206 

Kho, instrumentum quo texitur tela. Kho the, fastus su- 

perbioe. 
Khoa, Jchoa thi, certamen litterarum quod semel intra quod- 

cumque triennium fit, magno populi concursu. 
Khoa lai, obserare. Cai khoa, sera. Chia khoa, clavis. 
Khoac ao len vai, vestem ad humerum appendere. 
Khoac khoai, ingenuitatis vocibus postulare. 
Khoai, tuber. 
Khoan kfioan, lente, graviter. Khoan thai, idem. Nguoi 

khoan dao, homo gravis, modestus. Noi khoan thai vay, 

loquere graviter et distincte. 
Khoan, decretum publicum in pago ad aliquod malum inhi- 

bendum, vel bonum efficiendum. Khoan uoc, idem est. 

Lap khoan, instituere ejusmodi decretum. 
Khoan, khoan sach, forma aut mensura libri. 
Khoan, ban khoan, inquielus ex multis curis, aut magno 

dolore. 
Khoang, khoe khoang, vane ostentare, jactare. Khoe minh 

deu no, deu kia, ostentare se de hac, de alia re. Cho 

khoang co, canis maculatus collo. 
Khoanh, in coronam flectere. 
Khoat dat, liberalis, magnanimus. 
Khoe, flere. Khoe loe, idem. Chung toi o noi khoe loe, 

sumus in lacrymarum valle. 
Khoe. Vide khoang. 

Khoet lo, perforare. Chuot khoet, mus corrodit. 
Khoi, fumus. Gian toi nhu khoi, divitise meae comparantur 

fumo. 
Khoi, evadere ; liberari ; transigere. Est etiam particula 

a, ex: D.C.J, da chin chet cho ta duoi khoi, Christus 

passus est mortem ut liberaremur a peccato. Khoi chet, 

evadere mortem. Di khoi day, ab hinc recedere. D.C.J. 

sou lai doan, khoi bon muoi ngay thi ng len bloi, Christus 

postquam ressurrexit, transactis quadraginta diebus, as- 

cendit in ccelum. 



267 

Khoi, globus. Khoi bac, sumitur pro talento, quia non est 
apud illos talentum. 

Khoi chung, longum spatium vel ternporis vel loci. Bien 
khoi, mare altum. 

KhoiV, prudens, Khon ngoan, idem. Cho khon, canis sa- 
gax; sumitur etiam pro difficile, ut, Khon noi cho het, 
difficile est recensere omnia. 

Khon nau, miserabilis, e ; misere. Khon kho, idem. Ma 
qui chiu phat khon nan vo cung trao dia nguc, dasmones 
patiuntur poenas et miserias seternas in inferno. Lay lua 
ma thu vang, lay su khon kho ma thu su phuc due, que- 
madmodum ignis probat aurum, ita calamitas hominem 
justum. Su vui suong thi mot giay mot phut: su khon 
kho thi vo cu vo tan, momentaneum est quod delectat ; 
aeternum quod cruciat. 

Khop ngua, fraenum equi. Xac thit nhu con gua bat kham, 
phai tra khop moi tri di no, natura corrupta ad instar equi 
indomiti, opus est fraem ut regatur. 

Khou, non. Khou lac, nequaquam. Khou co chang khou, 
duae negativae faciunt affirmationem, non nihil. Khou, 
est etiam vacuus, a, urn. Tau khou, navis vacua. Sinh 
khou Tu lai hoan, nudus nasci, nudus mori. 

Khou phu tu, vel per syncopen, Khou tu vel Ou Khou, Con- 
fucius, natus Sinarum philosophus qui eo usque apud Au- 
namitas et Sinenses in honore sit, ut ab eis pro Deo cola- 
tur ; maxime a litteratis et litterarum alumnis. Con, co 
gop tien te Ou Khou chang, debes ne, fill, contribuere pe- 
cuniam ad sacrificandum Confucio 1 Con co phai gop 
tien Dou mon lam mot vuoi nhung tro khou dao chang, 
debesne contribuere societati scholasticorum gentilium ? 

Khua lao, strepitum facere. 

Khuat, obtegere, vel obsequi aliqua re interposita. Khuay 
khuat, oblivisci. Lam khuay lam khuat di, per oblivio- 
nem deleri. 



268 

Khuc, gyrus anfractus. Ran nam guon khuc, serpens sese 
in gyrum componit. Khuc sou, contractus fluminis. 
Khuc ca, frustum piscis. 

Khuya, dem khuya, nox alta. Thuc khuya day som, diu 
vigilare et mature surgere. Khuya som, sero et mane. 

Khuyen bao, cohortari. Khuyen chu, apponere notas litteris. 

Khuyet, deesse, deficere. Mat blang ray tron, mai khuyet, 
luna hodie est integra, eras deficiet. Hanh khuyet, occi- 
dere. 

Khung, kinh khung, magno metu concerti. 

Khuynh chan lay, pedes, tnanus, ex morbo contorti. 

Khuon, forma ad faciendum hostias pro sacrificio missae, 
aut ad conflanda alia instrumenta. Khuon phep, forma 
legum. Phai an o cho co khuon phep, oportet vivere se- 
cundum disciplinam. 

Khuo anh, quadratum cui appenduntur imagines. 

Khuoc, parlicipare virtutem potentialern. Est vox et imagi- 
natio Gentilium, qua ducti sic credunt; ita ut carnem 
tigridis manducando aut alias vanas observantias faciendo, 
aliquid boni inde sperent, et dicant: An cho khuoc, vel lam 
cho khuoc, id est, manducamus vel faciemus ut aliquam 
virtutem supernaturalem inde participemus. 

Khuou, avicula, cujus cantus varius est et valde delectabilis. 

Kin hau, aliqua res est contraria alteri. Kieng ki, abstinere. 
Kieng thit, abstinere a carne. Kieng su vo chou, absti- 
nere ab actu conjugali. 

Ki, committere. Da ki tai ai, cui committere. 

Ki, tempus determinatum. Da den ki D. C. B. dinh, venit 
tempus a Deo constitutum. 

Ki, exacte, diligenter. Phai xet minh cho ki, oportet ex- 
aminare conscientiam diligenter. 

Kia, quidam, quaedam, quoddam ; vel alter, altera, alterum. 
D. C. J. ph rang: co mot ngooi kia co mot tram con chien, 
Christus Dominus dixit: quidam homo habebat centum 
oves. Et solet poni cum voce nay vel no, ut nguoi no 



269 

nguoi kia, iste, alter. Noi no, noi kia, hinc, illic ; hunc, 
illuc. Chay can noi no noi kia, vagatur hue illuc. Horn 
kia, nudiustertius. 

Kia, horn kia, nudius quartus, dies prsecedens immediate 
nudiumtertium. Kia no, ecce ille. 

Kick, sao kich, bidens. 

Kiem tri, duarum provinciarum curam habere simul. 

Kiem an, quserere victum. 

Kien cao. Vide cao. 

Kien, formica. Chung kien, testes. 

Kieng. Vide hi. 

Kiep, ista vox, juxta locutionem Gentilium nihil aliud signi- 
ficare videtur quam sseculum. Unde, quando dicunt, 
phai tu cho den chin doi muoi kiep ; id est, oportet vitam 
religiosam ducere usque novem saecula et decern kiep, 
quod est sasculum aut transmigratio. Et sic doi doi kiep 
kiep, in sascula saeculorum. 

Kiet, totus consumi. Kiet luc, totis viribus. 

Kiet, dau kiet, infirmitas qusedam. 

Kieu, gestatorium ; lectica ; gestare, Kien minh thanh, 
processio cum sanctissimo sacramento. 

Kieu, excusare se. Toi xin khieu, excusatum me habere 
digneris. 

Kim, acus. Con, camelu di qua tron kim thi de hon ke giau 
vao cua thien dang, facilius est camelum intrare foramen 
acus, quam divitem intrare in regnum Dei. 

Kim, cai kim, forceps. Nghia sat kim, fides inter maritum 
et uxorem. 

Kin, kin nuoc, advehere aquam. Su kin viec kin nhiem, 
res secreta. Chang co, noi nao, kin nhiem ma che di con 
mat rat sang D. C. B., nullus est locus ita secretus qui 
possit Dei intuiting obtegere. 

Kinh vel so, timere. Doc kinh, recitare preces. Khiep 
kinh, vide khiep. 

Kinh, venerari. 



270 

Kip. Vide can. 

Kip, advenire in tempore. Den ehang kip, non posse advenire 

intempore. Chet tuoc an nan toi chang kip, mori morte 

repentina absque ulla contritione. 



L. 



La, la hi, clamorem edere. 

La, incognitus, a, urn. Toi la chang biet, mihi incognitus 

est. Khach xa la, hospites peregrini et incogniti. Kach 

la khoan cha, incognitos obligatio non est salutare. 
La, folia arborum. La co, vexillum. 
La, esse, vel vocari. Ten anh la di gi, nomen tuum quod- 

nam? vel quomodo vocatur? Vide co. Cai la, instrumen- 

tum ad complanandnm vestem. La ao, complanare ves- 

tem illo instrumento. 
La, longa inedia lassus. Chet la, mori fame. 
La, nuoc la, aqua naturalis et frigida. 
Lac, herba quaedam junco similis. Benh lac lao, impetigo. 
Lac, errare. Lac dang roi thon, errare a via salutis. Lac 

hoa sinh, pistacium. Phu dao lac, carmina cujusdam 

litierati Tunkinensis, qui multa praecepta moralia tradidit; 

quaedam identidem citantur in libro cui titulus est : Sach 

giang dao that. 
Lac, luc lac, agitare aliquid. Lac dau, abnuere. Do lac, 

ruberrimus, a, um. 
Lac ra, aliquid velatum aperire. Lac man, lac ao, aperire 

velum, vestem. 
Lac lao, nguoi lac lao, immodestus, qui hue illuc stolide cir- 

cumspicit. 
Lack, alveus flumnis, vel ipsum flumen. 
Lah, len lah vao, in confertam turbam conari intrare. 
Lai, cay lai, quaedam arbor e cujus fructibus oleum edu- 

citur. 



271 

Lai, iterum ; vel quod repetita vice fit, ut D. C. J. chet ban 
gay lai sou lai, Christus mortuus per tres dies, denuo res- 
surrexit. Den ngay tan the lai xuo phan xet ke lanh ke 
du, in fine sasculi iterum veniet judicaturus bonos et ma- 
los. Noi di noi lai, eadem verba iterum iterumque repe- 
tere. Sed quando monetur quis ut repetat suum verbum, 
quia nondum satis intellectum est, sufficit dicere : Con, 
noi lai. 

Lai, gubernaculum. Cam lai, gubernare. Banh lai, idem. 
Luoi nhu banh lai, lingua biceps. 

Lai, vel lo lai, vel hi lai, lucrum. Duoc lai, lucrari. Ai di 
lo lai ca va the gian, ma thon no lo no lo von phai thiet 
hai, thi nao di ich gi, quid prodest homini, si universum 
mundum lucretur, animse vero suae detrimentumpatiatur? 
Cho no lai, vel Cho no lay lai, dare mutuum cum usura. 

Lay, agitari vento. Noi lay lo, verbis impetere. 

Lay, adorare ; salutare. Lay cu, salve, pater. Guoi lay, 
mittere salutationem ; ad aequales vel superiores. Le lay, 
festa de observatione. Le lay ca, festa de observatione 
prima? classis. Ngay nhat le lay, dies dominicas. Sic 
distinguuntur in calendario. 

Lay lay, decerpere fructus. 

Lay, contrahere morbum. Tat lay, morbus communicati- 
vus; pestis. 

Lay, accipere. Chin lay, recipere. Bat lay, capere. Et 
sic jungitur multis aliis verbis. Lay lam de, lay lam nhe, 
lay khinh, parvi facere. Lay lam trao, magni ducere. 
Lay vo, lay chou, nubere, &c. 

Lay, revolvere aliquid grave. Con tre biet lay, infans sese 
revolvit. Lay no, machina in balistis. Lung lay, cla- 
mosus aliquis vel famosus ex bene vel male factis. 

Lam, banh cha lam, genus edulii. 

Lam, gian lam, injustus minister qui plus exigit quam jus 
postulat. 



212 

Lam, facere vel fieri ; et varie accommodatur verbis, ut 
Lam viec, operari. Lam toi, servire. Lam vua, esse 
rex. Lam vay, hoc modo, sic aliqua exempla. Lam 
nguoi phai o co due, qui vult esse verus homo, debet 
habere virtutes. Ngoi hai xuo the lam nguoi, verbum 
caro factum est. Ta phai lam toi D. C. B. het lao het sue, 
debemus servire Deo toto corde, totis veribus. Con, chang 
nen noi lam vay, vuoi dang be tren, non debes sic loqui 
ad superiorem. Lam sao, quare. Lam an, operari ad 
quserendum victum vel parare comestionem. 

Lam, aliquid diu in animo intendere. 

Lam, lam lam; nhieu lam, multum, nimis, multitudo copiosa. 

Lam dau, prsesagium. Mat lam dau, malum preesagium. 
Tot lam dau, bonum prsesagium. Son lam, mons et syl- 
va. Lam loc, bona quas proveniunt ex montibus. 

Lam, vel lam lap, luto conspurcari. 

Lam, ca lam, quidam pisciculus. 

Lam, dun lam, granarium vel acervi frumentorum. 

Lan, co ma Ian ra, herbae luxuriantes. Lua Ian, ignis ser- 
pens ; metaphorice pro familiariter, ut, chang nen o lua Ian 
cung dan ba con tre qua mle, non licet vivere familiariter 
cum mulieribus, et puellis plusquam oportet. 

Lan, revolvere aliquid rotundum super planitie terras. 

Lan, mergere se in aquam. Mat bloi lan, sol occidit. Lan 
moc khiem an, terra, marique victum quaerere. 

Lan, than lan, lacerta. Danh lan mh len, ictus verberum 
corpori impressi. 

Lan vao mink, secrete abscondere aliquid in corpore. Lan 
can, vide can. 

Lan day, palpando funem percurrere. Lan hat, recitare 
rosarium. 

Lan, lang ng ta, decipere. Thua lan ng ta, decipi aliorum 
fraude. 

Lan lat, paulatim vincere ; vel usurpare bona, vel auctori- 
tatem alterius. 



273 

Lan, vicis, is. Lan hoi, in dies. 

Lan di, clam se subducere. 

Lan, vel lu lan, errare ex deliquio mentis, vel senectute. 
Lan Ion, idem. 

Lang vel annona, stipendium militare. Phat lang cho quan, 
dare stipendium militibus. Minh thanh D. C. J. la luong 
cue sang cue trao moi lhon, corpus Christi est alimentum 
pretiosissimum nobilissimumque animarum. Lang y vel 
ou lang, medic us. Khoai lang, vel sola vox lang, signifi- 
cat etiam tubercula qua3 Lusitanice tael. 

Lang vel tuan lang, telonium quod tributum a navibus aut 
cymbis mercatoriis exigit. 

Lang, pagus. Lang nuoc, idem est. Lang nuoc bat bo, 
pagus capit vel punit propter aliquod delictum. 

Lang ra, paulatim se subducere. Noi lang di dang khai, 
sermonem alio divertere. 

Lang nliang, nguoi lang nhang, homo futilis. Noi lang 
nhang, inepte loqui. O lang nhang, vivere sine lege. 

Lang muong, sepulchra regalia. Ve qui lang, mortuus rex 
defertur ad sepulchrum. Quan thu lang, custos sepulchro- 
rum regalium. 

Lang, tranquillus, a, um ; silentium. Bien lang, mare tran- 
quillum. O lang, silere. Nin lang, idem. 

Lang tai, auscultare. 

Lang lo, immodestus, a, um. 

Lang, cai lang, corbula. 

Lanh chai, agilis, strenuus. 

Lanh, frigidus, a, um. Nuoc lanh lam, aqua algida. 

Lanh nguoi, frigidus, a, um ; frigus. 

Lao nguoi lanh, cor frigidum et tepidum ; a bono opere 
torpere. Bao gio con nguoi lanh trao lao, thi phai o 
khiem nhuo ma xin D. C. B. thuong den con, quando es 
frigido corde, debes humiliter petere a Deo ut tui misere- 
atur. Nguoi di, differt a voce lanh, quia nguoi signiiicat 
illud quod erat calidum sed postea refrigeratum, ut com 
35 



274 

nguai, oryza refrigcrala. Canh nguoi, jusculum frigera- 

tum. Sed lanh significat frigus ipsum, ct quod ex se frigi- 

dum est. 
Laivh, ex odio vei metu declinare. Con, phai lanh ke xou net, 

debes vitare malos. 
Lanh, bonus, a, urn; salubris, e; sanus, a, um. Con, phai 

lam ban cung ke lanh ma lanh ke du, debes associari bo- 
nis et vitare malos. Lanh khi, salubris ae'r. Tay da lanh, 

manus jam sana. Cha ca cho con di moi su lanh, Deus 

det tibi omnia prospera. 
Lanh tieng, vel tieng lanh hi, vox alta et acuta. 
Lao, jaculum. Benh lao, morbus quidam. 
Lao, Ion lao, confusio. Do Ion lao, confundere, commiscere. 
Lao dao, quan lao dao, nebulones. 
Lao, nuoc lao, regnum Laos. Quan lao, Laocenses. Thuoc 

lao, tabacum. Ri lao, cucurbita rubra. 
Lao ou, senex. Ba lao, vetula. Tuoi lao, senectus. De 

animalibus et arboribus semper dicitur gia. 
Lao, draco. Horn da lao, area laxata. Dao lao, culter dis- 

solutus ; et sic de aliis instruments laxatis. 
Lao, cor, voluntas, affectus, animus. Sumitur etiam pro 

actibus virtutum, ut, Lao tin, lao cay, fides, spes. Lao 

doc, malevolentia. Co lao vuoi nhan, invicem bene af- 

fecti. Chia laong va, animus distrahitur. 
Lao, laxus, a, um. Chao lao, pulmentum liquidum. Lao 

leo, idem. 
Lap, noi phet noi lap, loquax absque veritate. 
Lap, noi lap, balbutire vocem repetendo. Lap vao, con- 

struere instrumenta disjuncta in suum locum. 
Lap, instituere collegium, congregationem, &c. 
Lap, humo tegere. Chon lap, sepelire. Lap sou, replere 

flumen terra. Lap cua, lap ngo, aditum intercludere. 

La lap, obliviosus ex hebetudine vel senectute. 
Lat, ligamen. Lat mem buoc chat, ligamen molle ligat 

arctius ; id est, mollia verba proficiunt plus quam dura. 



275 

Lat, lat can, tabulis cooperire. 

Lat vel blat vel nhat, colligere. 

Lat, vertere. 

Lat, gao lat, oryza nonduni pilo purgata. 

Lau, cay lau, arundo. Chui lau, abstergere pulverem panno. 

Lau, diu ; quod fit per longum tempus. Dau lau, vide dau. 
Bao lau, quamdiu. 

Lau, benk lau, morbus qui facit semen distillare. 

Le, familia primaria regalis Vua, quae Tunkinum rexit no- 
mine Chieu Thou plusquam 200 annis; cujus rex ultimus 
anno 1789, persequentibus Cocisinensibus rebellious, ad 
Sinarum Imperatorem confugit. 

Le, consuetudo inveterata. 

Le, funiculi quibus compinguntur libri. Le luat vel luat 
phet, lex. 

Le, sacrificium. Te le, sacrificare. Lam le, celebrare 
missam. Cua le, oblatio. Do le, res ad sacrificium per- 
tinentes vel munera. 

Le, le luoi ra, exerere linguam. 

Le, numerus impar. 

Le, vo le vel vo mou, concubina. 

Lech, quod non recte et asqualiter collocatur. Vide check. 

Lech, choi lech, ulcera. 

Len. Vide lach. 

Len, ascendere. Len chuc, provehi ad dignitates. Con- 
jungitur omnibus verbis quae significant motum de infra 
ad supra, ut, Dat len, praeponere. Treo len, suspendere. 
Xem ten, suspicere, &c. 

Lenh, mandatum regium ; vel rex ipse ; imperator. 

Leo, not mach leo, qui creditum sibi secretum non servat. 

Leo, lanh leo, frigidissimus, a, um ; frigide admodum. 

Lep, lua lep, granum frumenti vacuum. 

Lep, ca lep, pisciculi. 

Li, pars minima monetae. 

Li, dissenteria. 



276 

Ly, dia ly, geometria. Thay dia ly, vide dia. 

Li, say li ra, vino immersus. Ngu li ra, somno sepultus. 

Lia nhau, separari ab invicem. Linh hon nao lia khoi 
D. C. B. thi mat moi su lanh, anima separata a Deo, om- 
nia bona amittit. 

Lich, calendaria. Lich su, urbanus, a, um. An o lich su, 
urbane tractare. 

Liec, liec ngang, liec ngua, hinc inde obtutum vertere, curi- 
ositatis causa. 

Liem, cou liem, Justus, a, um. 

Liem, recondere cadaver loculo. 

Liem, lambere, linguere. 

Liem, falx minor qua frugues et herbae secantur. 

Lien, continue, incessanter, vel lien, idem. Thanh nhan 
lien, felicitas semper. Dau lien lai, cicatrix curata. 

Liep, crates magnse ex arundine contexts ad regendum 
portas. 

Lieng, thieng lieng, spirituals, e. D. C. B. la tinh thieng 
lieng, Deus est spiritus. Ke me tinh xac thit chang hien 
duoc nhuong su thieng lieng, qui deditus est rebus carna- 
libus, non intelligit spiritualia; animalis homo non perci- 
pit ea quae sunt spiritus Dei. 

Liet, infirmari. Ke liet, infirmus. Ruoc cu lam phuc cho 
ke liet, accersare segro confessorem ; quserere sacerdo- 
tem administrandum sacramenta infirmo. Ke liet kip, 
infirmus in periculo mortis. Liet giuong liet chieu, ita 
infirmari ut non possit surgere e lecto. 

Lieu, phu lieu, primus senatus in regno. Quan phu lieu, 
senatores vel membra illius senatus, cujus caput est chua, 
secundus a rege, penes quern summa rerum est. 

Lieu, providere. Dinh lieu, ad nutum divinse Providentiae. 

Lieu, exponere aliquid periculo, vel perdere. Lieu minh, 
exponere se periculo. D. C. J. da lieu minh chiu chet vi 
ta, Christus Dominus, exinaniens semetipsum, mortuus est 



277 

propter nos. Con, cho lieu linh hon di lam vay, noli sic, 
fili, perdere animam tuam. 

Lieu, quasdam arbor. 

Lim, arbor sylvestris cujus lignum durissimum est. 

Linh hon, vide hon. Phep linh nghiem, potentia supernatu- 
ralis. Uy linh, majestas terribilis. 

Linh, miles. Quan linh, idem est. Di linh, adscribi militiae. 
Linh xac, miles egenus. 

Linh di, idem est ac an di, clam se subducere. Linh, pe- 
tere a mandarine 

Liu lo, lingua barbara. 

Lo, sollicitus, a, um. Lo lang, idem est. Lo so, anxius 
cum timore. 

Lo, cai lo, urceolus ; vasculum. Chang lo la, vel per syn- 
copen lo la, etiam si non. Toi da san lao cho chang lo la 
anh ph xin, paratus sum dare etiam si non petiisses. Ke 
pham mot toi trao da du ma sa dia ngue chang lo lanh, 
qui grave peccatum committit, necessario debet damnari 
ad infernum, etiam si plura non commisisset. 

Lo, fornax, clibanus. 

Loc, colare. Loc nuoc lay cai, dicitur de cupidis qui cor- 
rodunt. Khon bay, vi bay gan loc cai muoi ra ; ma nuot 
blot con camelu vao, vae vobis, qui colatis eulieem, et 
camelum deglutitis. 

Loc, ca loc, piscis repens. 

Loc, frondes; beneficia. Phuc loc, felicitates. Vo phuc, 
xau loc, infelix. Ke chiu gian nan khon kho thi co 
phuc loc, beati qui persecutionem patiuntur; et divites 
sunt infelices. Quan ay day mat loc, ille marinus mor- 
tuus est. Loi loc, vide hi. 

Loc, lua loc, frumenta qua? semel seruntur in terra, sicca ad 
maturitatem. 

Lo, revelari. Viec ay do lo ra, negotium illud jam est reve- 
latum. Lam lo ra, revelare. Moi su truoc mat D. C. B. T 
thi bay giai to lo het thay thay, omnia nuda et aperta sunt 
oculis Dei. 



278 

Lo, an cua thu lo, vel an dut, judex pecunia vel munere 

corruptus. 
Lo, foramen ; fossa. Giui lo, due lo, perforare. Dao lo, 

facere fossam in terra. Coi lo, mortarium pertusum. 

Lo von, detrimentum facere. 
Loa, tuba. Thoi loa, caaere tuba. Cai loa goi ke chet sou 

lai, tuba qua) clangens revocabit mortuos ad vitam. 
Loa lo Iran truo, nuditas. Ta thay D. C. J. chiu chet tren 

cay curut loa lo tran truo thi ta run so, dum contempla- 

mus Christum crucifixum in cruce nudum, trepidamus. 
Loa, caligare prae senectute vel nimio solis splendore. An 

mac loa lo et, habitus splendidus qui intuentium oculos 

offuscat. 
Loai, bi loai, ejectus e numero bonorum. 
Loai, genus. Loai vat, animalia. Loai nguoi genus huma- 

num. Chang vao loai nao, nullius valoris. 
Loan, tumultus, rebellio. Thi tuy et loan lac, tempus tumul- 

tuosum. 
Loat, classis. 
Loe ra, resplendere. 
Loi, choi loi, oifuscare oculos. 
Loi ra, quod prag multitudine aut vi illata prominet extra. 

Loi mat ra, eruti sunt oculi maledictionis. 
Loi, funiculi quibus colligantur monetae. 
Loi, trahere super terra. Keo loi di, idem est. 
Loi, natare. Loi qua sou, nando flumen transire. 
Loi, dang loi, via. Loi, idem est ac loi. 
Loi, delictum ; error ; errare. 
Loi, gingiva. Loi loi, lucrum. Loi khau, facundus, elo- 

quens ; satis loquentiae. 
Loi, dicitur etiam pro le do loi, numera. 
Lom, decrescens. Opponitur loi, eminens. 
Lon, cay Ion, animalcula sylvestria. 
Lon, van lon, expostulare veniam, deprecari. 
Lon, porcus. 



279 

Lon vel blon, magnus, a, urn. 

Lop, lua lop, spies siccitate arescunt. An noi lop lap, lo- 

quax sine veritate. 
Lop nha, domum tegulis aut paleis contegere. Noi lop 

nguoi ta, quando inferior contradicit sentential superioris 

aut senioris, &c. 
Lot, quod rotundum per foramen excidit; dicitur etiam pro 

abstergere. Lot nuoc mat di, abstergere lachrymas. 
Lot, lot ao, duplicare intus vestem. 
Lot, extrahere pellem aut vestem. 
Lou, pilus ; pluma ; penna. 
Lou, Men lou, mare agitatum. Lou, cavea. 
Lu, voiu, genus vasis. Lu Ian, vide Ian. 
Lu, ensis. 
Lu, turba hominum. Keo di co lu, turmatim ambulare. 

Nuoc lu, inundatio ex montibus. 
Lua, tela ex serico tenuissimo. 
Lua, segetes, fruges, frumenta. Lua thoi, idem. 
Lua, go lua, lignum vetustate exesum. 
Luc, ki luc, scriba. Luc vel luc lao, versare ad scrutandum 

aliquid. 
Luc, luc ay, illo instante, illo casu. 
Lui, vel lui lai, retrocedere. Ke da vao dang nhan due 

mot Ian ; thi chang nen lui lai bao gio sot, qui semel in- 

gressus est viam virtutis, non debet regredi unquam. 
Lui, cay lui, arbor quaedam arecae similis, sed multo ilia 

minor. 
Lui, dimisso corpore et quasi clanculum incedere. Sumi- 

tur etiam pro fugere. 
Luy, submittere se. Chin luy, obedire. Su chin luy, obe- 

dientia. 
Luy, murus, septum. Thanh luy, mcenia. Luy tho, murus 

ex terra constructus. 
Luyen thuoc, admiscere mel medicinse ad conglobandum. 

Luyen tap, exercere. 



280 

Luif, lun mat bloi, lun trang, ad occasum solis, lunsc. 

Lun, superari. 

Lun, decrescere. Nguoi lun, homo brevis staturae. 

Luoc, lixare aliquid. Thit luoc, caro sola aqua, cocta. 

LuoiV, subductus aliqua. re ambulare; se aliquo insinuare. 

Lut, eluvio. Lut doi Ou Noe, diluvium. 

Lu, con lu, animal leoni simile. 

Lu, ngot lu, dulcissimus, a, urn. Luong lu, anceps, dubius. 

Lu, lu thu, tristis vultus, taciturnus. 

Lu, nhoc lu, valde fatigatus. 

Lua, seligere. Lua vao, aptare. 

Lua, classis. Cung mot lua vuoi toi, ejusdem classis mecum 

vel mihi coaequalis. 
Lua, con lua, asinus. Lua dao, lua coi, co lua, sagaciter 

agere, ac alterius fraudem cavere. Lua vao, intromit- 

tere. 
Lua, ignis. Thoi lua, sufflare ignem. Danh lua, elicere 

ignem e silice. Tat lua, extinguere ignem. Lua giai toi, 

ignis purgatorii. 
Lue si, fortes in bello. Khi lue, spiritus vegetativus. Lung, 

dorsum. 
Luoc, cat luoc, pecten. May luoc, sertura rara. Noi luoc 

di vay, loqui per transennam. Hoi thay giai co luoc, 

aquam e pumice postulas. 
Luoi, lingua. Guom hai luoi, gladius anceps, homo bilinguis. 

Giu luoi, moderari linguam. Le luoi, vide le. Luoi dao, 

acies cultri. Luoi cau, hamus. Luoi cay, vomer. Luoi 

ken, lingula. 
Luoi, sagena. Dang luoi, laxare sagenam. 
Luoi, luoi lam, luoi than, dissolutus, impudens. 
Luom tay, duo brachia in unum constringere. Luom lua, 

colligere ; colligere spicas sparsas in unum. Mot luom 

lua, manipulus. So toe, luom tay, resolutis capillis, con- 

strictis brachiis. Est signum reverentiae. 
Luom mat, iniqui oculi, 






281 

Luon, anguilla. Nguoi luon bun, homo rusticus fallax. 
Luon, sao luon, fluctus lente tumescens. Sao luon lai, fluc- 

tus sese contra volvens. 
Luon, thuyen luon, cymba ex uno ligno fabricata. Luon ga, 

pectus gallinae. 
Luong thuc vel lang time, vide king. 
Luong, cogitare ; intellectu comprehendere. Luong chang 

ra, cogitare, comprehendere non posse. Vo luong vo 

bien, vide Men. 
Luot, Ian luot, vide Ian hot. 
Luot, gio luot cay, ventis conquassatae arbores. 
Luu, phung luu, otiosus, a, um. Nhan due o nhung phung 

luu; ay la nhan due gia, virtus otiosa est virtus falsa. 

Luu lai, quod relinquitur ab antecessore. Do luu lai, res 

ab antecessore datae. 
Luu, thach luu, malum granatum. 
Lung lay, vide lay. 



M. 



Ma, phantasma. Ma nat, phantasma terret. Thay ma, 
cadaver. Dam ma, funus. Cat ma, efferre cadaver ad 
sepulchrum. Ma qui, daemon. 

Ma, oryza germinans quae semper vocatur nomine isto ma; 
usque dum, finito plusquam uno mense, evellatur et denuo 
transplantatur. Ruo ma, ager inq uo ejusmodi oryza 
primo seritur. Giou ma, instrumenta ad id apta. 

Ma, genae. Ma hou, genae roseae. 

Ma, autem, vero. Ista particula varie accommodatur, et 
diversos sensus efficit. Du ma, quamvis, licet, etiamsi. 
Ou thanh Phero noi rang : Du ma toi phai chet cung thay 
thi toi cung chang choi, Sanctus Petrus ait: Etiamsi 
oporteat me mori tecum, non te negabo. Neu ma, quod 
si. Neu ma con chang doi lao chua that; thi chang di 
36 



282 

khoi toi, quod si non habeas verum propositum emenda- 
tionis, non impetrabis remissionem peccatorum. Ai ma, 
qui vera Ma thoi, solummodo. Ke giu dao nen moi di 
roi thon ma thoi, soli legis observatoves solummodo sal- 
vabuntur. Cho lam ma co toi, noli facere, ne committas 
peccatum. Boi dau ma ve, unde venis 1 Con, phai xem 
guong lanh ma bat chuoc, debes videre bona exempla ad 
imitationem. Ma ca, convenire de pretio. 

Ma, tumulus. Mo ma, idem. Cai ma, vide cat 

Ma, ao ma giap, lorica. Ma la, genus instrument musici 
ex sere. Phu ma, gener regis. Dot ma, incendere res 
papyraceas pro mortuis. 

Mac, ve mac lay hinh, pingere juxta formam propositam. 
Mat mac, larvas. Cha mac, majores pagi. 

Mac, dao mac, culter cuspidatus. 

Mac, impediri ; impingi ; adhserere alicui rei. Mac tro 
nhieu viec, impediri multis negotiis. Mac cui, disponere 
telarium ad texendum. Tau mac da, navis in syrtes acta. 

Mac, mac ao, induere vestem. Mac lao, mac y con, ad libi- 
tum, juxta voluntatem filii. Ma doi bay gio, juxta oppor- 
tunitatem temporis. Su loi ay mac anh, delictum illud 
imputabitur tibi. 

Mach, vena. Mach nuoc, fontes aquas scaturientes. Xem 
mach, vel an mach, tentare pulsum. Moc mach, genus 
frumenti. Mach nha, hordeum. 

Mach, secretum aliquod revelare ex odio ; accusare. Mach 
leo, vitium garrulitalis puerorum vel muliercularum. Noi 
mach tuc, vel mach dap, proferre verba turpia. 

Mai, eras. Ngay mai, dies crastina. Mai som, eras mane. 
Som mai, mane. Cai mai, pala ferrea. Mai viet chu, 
regula lineata ad scribendum. Hoa mai, ignis prius funis. 

Mai, ca mai, quidam pisciculus. 

Mai, tectum domus, vel ala tecti. Man mai, velum quo 
cooperiuntur tecta ecclesise. Mai ga, gallina. Mai cheo, 
remus. 



283 

Mai, acuere. Mai thuoc, atterere medicinam fricando. 

Cu mai, genus tuberis. Giui mai kinh sach, acuere inge- 

nium litreris. 
Mai mot, unice intentus alicui operi. 
Mai, semper, continuo ; continuare. 
May ao, sarcire vestem. May ao cho, facere vestem alicui. 

May toi, fortunate mihi accidit. Chang ma, infauste. 

Gio may, aquilo. 
May, genus cancri parvi. 
May, machina artificiose facta. May mieng, os loquax. 

May tay, manus inquieta. 
May, tu, (ad minimos loquendo.) Lou may, supercilium 

Ran may, ran mat, perfrictae frontis homo. 
May, mot may, unum modicum. Chang co mot may, nihil 

est omnino. 
May, nubes ; vimen. Dam may, nubes densa. 
May, quot. May Ian, quoties ? May nguoi, quot homines? 

Con, da bo doc kinh may Ian, fili, omisisti recitare preces 

quot vicibus ? Con, da noi hanh tri mat may nguoi, de- 

traxisti, fili, coram quot personis ? Chang blon may, non 

est adeo magnus. 
May, pinguis. Lua may, granum plenum. Mih may, 

corpus. 
Mam, pisciculi sale conditi. Mam tri, intendere animum. 

Mam muoi, gulas irritamenta. 
Mam, abacus. Mam co, abacus eduliis instructus. Bung 

mam di, auferre abacum. Mam banh xe, abacus rotun- 

dus ad instar rotae. Mam dien tu, abacus quadratus simi- 

lisque litterae dien. Mam co bon, abacus superpositus 

basi. Mam che, abacus ad apponendum theum. Mam 

bun, abacus ad subigendam farinam vel lavandas vestes. 

Mam ban, abacus et mensa. 
Mam, moi mam, granum germinans. 
Mam, ran mam mam, barba recens. 
Mam, tinh da mam chac, aliquid putatur certo consequen- 

dum. 



284 

Man, vel union, decern millia. Man di, barbarus. Man 

muon, fallax. 
Max, kinh man, contemners 
Man, spatium terra?. Mien man, vicuna. 
Man, peristroma; velum. 
Man, plene. Man tiec, absolvitur convivium. Man tai, 

cymba bene onerata. 
Man, salsus, a, um. Man ma nhau lam, multum invieem 

diligere. 
Man, go man con, gallina quas multos pullos et saspissime 

parit. 
Man, arbor quaedam ; primus. 

Man, in provincia Xung he an, dicitur pro lam, facere. 
Man, nguoi tan man, homo parvi animi. Me man, aeger 

delirans. 
Man, can man, mica ex oryza fracta. 
Mang, gestare aliquid collo vel humero appensum. Ke lam 

su nay thi mang toi vao nih, qui hoc fecerit, peccatum in 

se admittit. Ran ho mang, serpens venenatus. Mang ca, 

branchiae piscis. 
Mang, reticulum quo circumdatur theae capsula vel vas. 

Dan mang, texere illud reticulum. 
Mang, lignum excavatum ad recipiendam aquam e tectis 

stillantem, vel ad pascenda animalia. Mang co, preesepe. 
Mang, idem est ac max. Mang tim danh loi, unice quaerunt 

famam et divitias. 
Mang xang, adeps tenuis. Anh em mang xang, consangui- 

nitas jam a longa linea. Mang den, vide den. 
Mang, surculi arundinis. Tre gia, mang moi, arundine senes- 
cente, crescunt surculi, id est, senibus mortuis, nascuntur 
pueri. 
Mang, vel mang mo, increpare acriter. Mang diec, idem 

est. Mang tin vel mang tieng, accipere nuntium. 
Manh ao, vestis. Manh gie, frustum panni veteris. Chieu 
manh, matta fracta. Ao manh, vestis lacera. 



285 

Manh, fortis; fortiter. Sac manh, vires. An cho manh, 

audacter comede. 
Manh, noi manh kieo, dolore loqui. Tim dang manh kheo, 

quasrere viam alios dolo circumveniendi. 
Manh manh, velum rarum ex arundine textum. Thuyen 

manh, onerarius. 
Manh, fragmentum vasorum. Manh bat, fragmentum scu- 

tellae. Mao manh, subtilis, gracilis. 
Mao, mao ngua, jubse equorum. Mu lou mao, galerus mili- 

taris pilis rubri coloris coopertus. 
Mao zung, false confiteri aliquid ; fallere ; mentiri. 
Mao, men mao, motus oris plorantis. 
Mao, operimentum mulierum funus comitantium. Mao ga, 

crista galli. Chim chuc mao, vel Chao mao, avicula 

quaedam cristam habens. 
Mao, trou mao vel mao moi, ardenter expectare. Linh hon 

noi lua giai toi, trou mao ke o the gian cau nguyen cho 

minh, animae in purgatorio ardenter expectant ut homines 

in mundo orent pro se. Mao linh thi, mox moriturus. 

Mao lam viec no viec kia, proposui facere hoc illud. 
Mao ruou, succus oryzas fermentatse ad coquendum vinum. 

Chin mao, fructus valde maturus. 
Mao, unguis ; ungula. Mai mao, instrumentum ad fodien- 

dam terram. 
Mao, choc mao, diu noctuque vehementer expectare. 
Mao manh, vide manh. 

Map, con tre map vu, infans labiis suis versat ubera. 
Map, canis marinus. Map tap, canis marinus rapiat. Male- 

dictio est. 
Mat cua, fragmenta minutissima quae ex ligno excidunt, 
dum serra secatur. Nguoi mat doi, homo infelicissimus. 
Mat, amcenus, a, um; refrigerans. Mat me, idem est. 

Bo mat, vermiculi in gallinis. 
Mat, carus, a, um; care. Con mat, oculus. Mat ca, 
talus. Mat mo, (Deest explicatio in MS.) 



280 

Mat, facies, vultus. Truoc mat, coram. Ph nho co D. C. B. 
o tri mat lien, recordare semper praesentia? Dei. Biet 
mat, noscere ex facie. Ra mat, apparere. Vang mat, 
abesse ; absentia. Chang nen lay cua ng ta khi vang 
mat no, non licet accipere rem alienam in ejus domini 
absentia. Ph* chao mat, affici vertigine capitis. Dou 
mat ng* ta, in multorum prassentia. Sumitur etiam pro 
parte anteriore cujuscumque rei, ut, Mat dat, superficies 
terras. Mat chien, pars superior mattos. Mat ruo, ager. 
Dau mat, nodus arborum. 

Mat, amittere, perdere. Danh mat, vel lam mat, idem. 
Mat ruo, perdere operam. Mat via, stupefieri. Mat lao, 
offendere. Da mat, jam mortuus est. 

Mat, mel. Tot thi vang son, ngon thi mat mo, pulchritudi- 
nem aurum et minium, saporem dant mel et butyrum. 
Fel etiam dicitur mat, vel trai mat. 

Mau, festinanter ; age ; agedum. Di mau, festinare. Luoi 
mau, rete densum. Luoc mau. pecten densus. 

Mau, sanguis. Con hoi mau mu, adhuc consanguineus a 
longa. linea. 

Mau vel mui, color. Lay mau lai, denuo tingitur. Mau 
nhiem, mysterium. Su mau nhiem, res ineffabilis. Trao 
dao co nh* su mau nhiem tri ta tuy chang den, in fide sunt 
multa mysteria intellectum nostrum superantia. 

Mau ni phat, nomen idoli. 

Mau, vox sinico-anamitica pro me, mater. Octo sunt apud 
anamitas ordines matrum quae dicuntur bat mau: l. a Tu 
mau me sinh de, genitrix. 2. a Ke mau, me ghe, noverca. 
3. a Dich mau, em me, da nuoi ngay sau, matertera qua? 
sororis filium nutrit. 4. a Duong mau, me nuoi, mater 
alimenta preebens. 5. a Ga mau, me da lay chou khac ma 
con nuoi con, mater quae secundo viro nupsit, et filium 
adhuc nutrit. 6. a Thu mau vo man cha, concubina patris. 

* Hx sunt abbrevationes qus frequenter occurrunt in MS. 



287 

7. a Xuat mau, me con nuoi con khi chou da bo ra, ma- 
ter qua; parvurn nutrit, a viro dismissa. 8. a Nhu mau, 
me clio bu, nutrix. Due thai mau, mater regis. 

Me, deditus alicui vitio. Me an uo, deditus guke. Me su 
blai gai, deditus vitio carnali. Me muoi, ignarus. Tinh 
me xac thit, concupiscentia carnalis vel natura corrupta. 
Boi tinh me xac thit thi sinh ra cai toi khac, ex natura 
corrupta nascuntur omnia alia peccata. Me an ngu, de- 
ditus ventri atque somno. 

Me, ventriculus. 

Me, vasa aliqua parva parte fracta. Mat me, vide mat. 

Mech lao, leviter aliquem offendere. 

Mem moi, suaviter. An noi mem mai, loqui suaviter. 

Men, diligere Deum vel superiores. Men dang nhan due, 
diligere virtutes. 

Men, ao men, vestis brumalis. 

Men, fermentum. 

Men, incedere per angustum locum. 

Men, genus campanulas. 

Menh, mou menh; nuoc lut mou menh, aqua innundans om- 
nia cooperit. 

Menh he, fatum ; divina ordinatio de unoquoque homine in- 
evitabilis. 

Meo, gio meo, hora circiter octava ante meridiem. 

Meo, contortus ; non ex omni parte rotundus. Khi gio meo 
mieng, maligna aura qua; hominern corripit ex improviso 
et os contorquet. 

Meo, felis. 

Mep, vox jubentis elephanti ut sese incurvet. 

Mep, prima tabella. Mep giay, margo papyri. Moi mep, 
labia ; os. 

Met, mo met, somniare. 

Met, fatigatus valde ; lassus, a, um. Met nhau, amore in- 
vicem lassi. Nhoc met, idem. 

Met, met dao, fricare leviter cultrum. 



288 

Met, vannus. 

Mi, tu, in provincia Xung he ad inferiores. 

Mi, Iou mi mat, palpebral. 

Mi, hoa mi, speciosus, a, urn. Mi vi, sapidissimus, a, um. 

Mia, canna dulcis. 

Mia mai, an noi mia mai, egregie exaggerare. Gia mia, 
bonis verbis demulcere. 

Mien, Cao Mien, Cambodia. Quan cao mien, Cambodienses. 

Mien, consarcire aliquid. 

Mien, vicinia. Mien nay, vicinia hsec. Mien ay, vicinia 
ilia. 

Mieng cai, appellare regem, mandarinos. 

Mieng, os; orificium. Mieng noi, orificium vel os ollse. 
Chiu mieng, fidejussor. Ha mieng, os hians. Ngam 
mieng, claudere os. Kheo mieng, os eloquens. 

Mieng, buccella. Mat mieng, amittere loquelam, vocem ; 
loquelam alicui deficere. 

Miet, genus calceorum. 

Miet, instrumento aliquid obliniendo complanare. 

Mieu, domus spiritui tutelari dicata. 

Mim moi, claudere labia. 

Min, ego. (Vox superbi.) 

Min, quan min, nebulones. 

Min cuoi, subsidere. 

Min, argilla. Dat min, terra argillosa. 

Minh, clarus, a, um. Dai minh, ultima imperatorum sinen- 
tium familia, sic dicta; aqua etiam idem nomen accepit 
totum Sinarum Imperium. Nunc ver6 regnat Tartara 
familia, cujus quartus imperator nomine Can Lao, actuali- 
ter praesidet, mutato vocabulo dai minh magna claritas, 
in dai tanh, magna seremtas. 

Minh, corpus. Mot minh, solus, a, um. Minh est adjecti- 
vum suus, a, um. Con, muon di dang nhan due cho blon, 
thi tri het ph ham nih con cung bat no theo y D. C. B. 
dung theo y xac thit, vis perfectus esse in via virtutum, 



280 

ante omnia debes mortificare corpus tuum, et cogere 
illud sequi divinam voluntatem, non naturam corruptam. 
Chang nen cai y Be tren, ma iheo y rieng minh, bao gio 
sot, nunquam licet spreta voluntate superioris, sequi pro- 
prium suum libitum. Phai yeu ng ta nhu bang minh vay, 
oportet amare proximum sicut se ipsum. 

Minh tinh, domus papyracea inqua inscribitur nomen de- 
functi. 

Mit, mu mil, obscurissimus, a, um. 

Mit, cay rait, arbor quam Lusitani jacam vocant. 

Mia, mia mio, errare. Tinh xac thit yeu daoi hay mla mlo, 
caro fragilis, defectis obnoxia. 

Mle, ratio. Chang co mle nao, nulla est ratio. Ph mle, 
consonum rationi. Vi bang con chang muon chua toi 
thi chang co mle nao cho con duoc roi thon dau, nisi 
emendaveris vitam tuam, nulla ratione salutem conse- 
queris tuam. Ta o khien nhuong thi ph mle moi dang 
vi ta la ke co toi, est conforme rationi omnino ut humili- 
emur, quia peccatores sumus. 

Mloi, verbum ; sermo. Mloi noi ph hop vuoi viec lam, 
verba debent consonare actioni. Vang mloi, obedire. 
Su vang mloi chiu luy th dep lao cha ca hon cua le, 
obedientia plus placet Deo, quam sacrificium. Toi xin 
cuop mloi, nguoi, bona, tua, venia loquar, domine. 

Mo, cortex quo arbores arecarum cooperiuntur; et quo 
leviter extenuato utuntur ad res quaslibet papyri loco in- 
volvendas. Chet bo mo, bo chieu, morere, infelicissime. 
Maledictio. 

Mo, leviter contrectare. Co y trai ma so mo ng ta thi co 
toi, ex mala intentione alios contrectare, peccatum est. 

Mo, contrectando quasrere aliquid in aquis latens. Noi 
mo, loqui per conjecturam. 

Mo, rostrum avium. Tre mo, pueri et puellse. Mat mo, 
vide mang mo. Mo neo, anchora. Mo ac, vide ac. Mo 
rang, mo bac, folia auri et argenti. 
37 



290 

Mo, crepitaculum ex ligno, quo vocantur ad negotia publica. 

Go mo, pulsatur signum. Rao mo, publicarc. Danh mo 

chang bang go thot, citiiis vocantur sonitu mensa3 quam 

crepitaculi. 
Mo, cumulus terra? elevatus ut defendat aliquid a diluvio. 

In Xung he, di mo, quo ire. 
Mo, desiderare. Ai mo, amare cum veneratione. 
Mo ma, sepulchrum. Tin dia li cat mo cat ma, ex vana 

observantia transferre ossa mortuorum in varia sepulchra. 

Thay dia \y lay ngoi ma, nefarii Tunkinenses geographi 

quaerunt terram ad sepulchrum. 
Mo, extentare. Chem mo do di, sermo gentilium, id est, 

mala abeant. Ga mo, gallus suo rostro pulsat. 
Mo, quispiam. Ten la mo, nomen est. Lo mo, sine ordine, 

indiscrete. 
Mo, somniando loqui. Noi mo noi mo, loqui per somnium 

vel quasi somnians. 
Mo, uxor avunculi mei ; respectu mei debeo vocare mo. 
Mo, pugillus; vel numerus decern millia. 
Mo, mo mo, subobscurus, a, urn. 
Mo, aperire, explicare. Mo dao, propagare religionem. 

Mo cua ra, aperire januam. 
Mo, butyrum ; adeps, pinguedo. 
Moc, germinare. Mat bloi moc, sol oritur. 
Moc, extrahere. Moc rach ra, lacerare. Cay moc, arbor 

cujus funiculis ligantur galeri, vel fiunt funes anchorae. 
Moc, mucus; mucidus, a, um. Moc ra, mucescere. Banh 

da moc, thi chang nen dung ma lam le, hostia mucida 

non licet uti in sacrificio. 
Moc, spiritus malignus quern gentiles credunt venire ex lig- 

nis, quia moc, lingua Sinica, significat lignum. Moc ui, 

tabella superstitiosa. Moc, clypeus. 
Moi, pisciculi minutissimi in mari. 
Moi, omnis, e. Moi nguoi moi co, omnibus, singulis diebus 

est. Moi ng moi phai giu minh cho khoi chuoc ma qui, 



291 

quisque debet cavere se ab insidiis diaboli. Ro moi, 
inurbanus. 

Moi, piscis quidam. 

Moi, ex labore fatigatus. Moi met, idem. 

Moi, labium. Cai moi, cochleare culinarium. Con moi, 
explorator ; vel statua venefica ex palea. 

Moi, tinea. Lam moi manh, viam aperire vel auxilium 
praebere alicui ad aliquid faciendum. Chang nen lam 
moi manh cho ke lay vo mon, non licet auxiiium praebere 
concubinariis. Gieng moi, basis aut fundamentum alicu- 
jus rei. D. J. papa cam giuong moi th Ighsa, sanctus 
pontifex tenet gubernaculum totius ecclesias. Bay moi 
toi dau, septem articuli peccatorum capitalium. Moi chi. 
capita filorum. 

Moi, doi moi, testudo magna ex cujus pelle seu cortice, 
pulchre elaborata, multa fiunt instrumenta ; sic ut hoc doi 
moi, pecten ilia testudine factus. Moi cau, esca in hamo, 
illicium. Ao moi, vestis splendidior. Moi lua, palea ad 
accipiendum ignem. Moi nhui, fomes. 

Moi mot, unusquisque, unaquaque, unumquodque. Moi mot 
nguoi co mot linh hon ma thoi, unicuique inest unica 
anima. 

Moi, novus, a, um; recenter; tandem. Sam truyen moi, 
testamentum novum. Con co an nan toi that moi duoc 
khoi toi, per solam contritionem veram remittuntur tibi 
peccata. Moi lam, recenter incipere facere. 

Moi, invitare. D. C. B. moi ng ta vao nuoc thien dang : 
sao le co it nguoi nghe, Deus invitat omnes ad regnum 
ccelorum; sed pauci audiunt ejus verba. Moi ou ba ou 
vai moi gio moi chap, invitare progenitores mortuos ad 
convivia parentalia. Moi thay phu thuy chua chung, 
vocare magos ut per sua veneficia sanent. 

Mom mem, edentulus. 

Mom, os animalium. Mom cho, os canis. 

Mom, cibum prsemansum infanti instillare. Ba nam bu mom 



292 

muoi thang cuu mang, Tribus annis nutrire et lactare; 

et decern mensibus gestare in utero infantem. Sic prasdi- 

catur labor matrum. 
Mon, parvus, a, urn. Hen mon, abjectus, a, urn. Toi mon, 

peccatum leve. Vo mon, concubina. 
Mon, pars separata ab altera. Phai chia ra tung mon, 

oportet segregatim ponere partem separatam ab altera. 
Mon, quod atteritur vetustate. Moi su cang lau thi cang 

mon nat ; sao le net xau thi cang lau thi cang vung cang 

ben, omnia atteruntur vetustate, sed vitia vetustate fir- 

mantur. 
Mon, janua. Dou mon, condiscipuli. Nha mon, ministri 

justitisa. Pha mon, veneficus. Thien mon dou, radix 

quaedam medicinalis. 
Mon, demulcere animalia. 
Mon, mon nucc, vestigium aquae. 
Mot, mot ya, mot dai, urget necessitas corporalis. An may 

an mot, mendicare, vel colligere spicas post messem. 
Mot, vermiculi qui ligna corrodunt. 
Mot, unus, a, um ; solus, a, urn. Co mot D. C. B. ma thoi, 

est unus Deus solummodo. An mot minh mot mam, 

manducare solus in una mensa. Lam mot, una, simul. 

Ke chiu minh thanh D. C. J. cho nen, thi di hop lam mot, 

qui rite communicat, efficitur unus cum Christo. Di lam 

mot, simul ire. 
Mot, unus, a, um ; ut, Hai muoi mot, viginti unus. 
Mou, mou tron, nates. 
Mou, germen. Moc mou, germinare. Mou mat, glaucoma, 

tis. 
Mou, mou tren bloi, signum in coelo. Mou tre, arundo pul- 

lulans. Chet cut mou, mori sine filio. 
Mou, sic vocantur apud Anamitas omnes dies mensis lunarii. 

l.° Usque diem decimum inclusive; qui dies decimus vo- 

catur mou muoi; et tunc incipit nominari dies undecimus, 

ngay mou mot, usque diem decimum quintum ; qui semper 



293 

vocatur ram vel ngay ram. Post ilium dies decimus 
sextus iterum vocatur ordinario numero ngay muoi sau, 
usque diem trigesimum,qui dicitur anamitice ngay ba muoi, 
si mensis habet triginta dies; et rnensis triginta dierum 
vocatur thang no. Si mensis habeat viginti novem dies, 
ultimas erit vigesimus nonus ngay hai chin; et mensis 
vocatur thang ihien, mensis defectuosus. 

Mu, conchilium, tegumen. Mu ba ba, tegumen testudinis. 

Mu, mulier. Dom ba mu, sacrificare deae partus. Ba mu, 
apud sorores religiosas, vocatur superiorissa. 

Mu, cai lu mu, species sinapis. 

Mu, obscurus, a, urn ; obscurari. Mu bloi, ccelum obnubi- 
latum. 

Mu, pileus, biretum. Mu trieu thien, corona. Doi mu, 
gestare biretum. Cat mu, tollere biretum ex capite. 

Mu, pus. 

Mua, emere. Mua lao ng ta, captare benevolentiam homi- 
num. 

Mua, saltare, gesticulare; choreas ducere. 

Mua, quatuor anni tempora. Mua gat, messis. Nua mua, 
medio in tempore quo opus agitur. Giu dao nua mua lai 
bo, media in vita, fidem abjurare. Cho gi bay biet duoc 
ray la mua vieng bay, utinam cognosceretis tempus visi- 
tationis vestras. Ruo mua, ager qui fructificat mense 
decimo ; etiam vocatur gao mua ; com mua. Que mua, 
rusticus. Mua lang, pecunia se eximere vel redimere ab 
operibus pagi superstitiosis. 

Muc, aliquid liquidum cochleari exhaurire. Muc nuoc, 
haurire aquam. 

Muc luc, index. Muc kinh, perspicillum. Muc ban, edic- 
tum scriptum in tabula. Muc dou, bubulcus. Go muc, 
lignum putrefactum. 

Mui, tectum cymbarum aut navicularum. 

Mui vel mun, reliquiae mensae. Co mui, mensa instructa ex 
reliquiis. 



294 

Mm, particular quas in se continent fructus. 

Mui, color; odor; sapor. Mui do, color rubeus. Mui 

thorn, odor suaveolens. Mui thoi, odor graveolens. 

Mui ngon ngot, odor sapidus, dulcis. Rau mui, corian- 

drum. Chang co mui gi, nullius valoris est. 
Mui mun muc, lignum putrefactum. 
Mui, nasus, vel mucus e naribus stillans. Lo mui, nares. 

Di mui, nasus simus. Hi mui, emungere nares. So mui, 

solvitur mucus. Ngat muoi, naris rheumate obdurata. 

Mui dao, aciem acuere cultri. 
Mun, go mun, ebenum. 
Mux, frustulum, mica, modicum quid. Mun mat, verruncula 

in facie. 
Mung, gaudium. 

Muoi noi, fuligo ollse adhserens. Me muoi, ignarus, a, urn. 
Muoi, sal : salire. Ca chang an muoi thi ra thoi, piscis sine 

sale putrescit; sic et homo sine correctione. Muoi, culex. 
Muon, decern millia. 

Muon, tarde, sero. Muon tuyet, tarda tempestas. 
Muon, velle ; cupere. 
Mut, surgere ; exsurgere. 
Mut cai vel vou cai, surculus sinapis. 
Mua, pluvia. D. C. B. lam mua xuo cho ke lanh va ke du 

cung bang nhau, Deus pluit super justos et injustos aequa- 

liter. Mua phun vel mua hi, pluvia tenuissima instar 

pulveris. 
Mua, vomere. Lorn mua, provocatur stomachus ad vom- 

itum. 
Mua he, noli. Rarissime est in usu. 
Muc, atramentum. Mai muc, diluere atramentum. Ca 

muc, piscis marinus, qui aliquid modicum atri in suo 

corpore habet. Muc tau, amussis. Go vay chang ua 

muc tau, prava indoles odit correctionem. 
Muoi, decern. Sed ad viginti usque nonaginta dicitur hai 

muoi, ba muoi, &c. 



295 

Muom, cai muom, cochlear. Moc muom, arbor quredam, 

Lusitanice manga. 
Muon, coinmodato accipere vel mutuari. Cho vay muon, 

commodare vel mutuo dare. Thue muon, conducere 

opera rios. 
Muo.v, conducere operarios. Lam thue, lam muon, operam 

locare. Ke lam thue, operarius. 
Muo, catulus. Muo chim, animalia et volatilia. Cam thu, 

quadrupedes et aves. 
Muo, rau muo, herba quaedam. 
Muong, Quan muong, homines montani quorum lingua ad 

Siamicam linguam accedit. 
Muong sank, testa. 
Muop, species cucurbitae. 
Muot, madefieri sudore. 
Muo, cay muo, papaver. 

N. 

Na, cay na, arbor Lusitanice atta. Net na, indoles. Co 

net na, bonam habere indolem. Kho net kho na, austerus, 

rigidus. 
Na, trau na, bubala catulos habens. Con na, ca nuoc, filius 

matrem, piscis aquam quaerit. 
Na, saepiiis. Na, balista. 
Nac, ca nac, pisciculus quidam. 
Nac, thi nac, caro sine pinguedine. Nac in provincial 

Xung he, dicitur aqua. 
Nach, axilla. 
JVac no, singultire. 
Nai, con nai, cervus major. 
Nai, pannus ex serico rudi. 
Nai, flagitare. Cao nai, acriter accusare. Nhi nai, appel- 

lare ad superiorem judicem. Chang nai, vel chang ne 

kho nhoc, non recusare laborem. 



2 ( Jt> 

JVai chum, pars rami ficus Jndicse. Tre nai, va!de piger. 

Nay, vgay horn nay, hodie. Dem nay, hac nocte. Xua 
nay, ab initio usque nunc. Man nay, hoc anno. 

Nay, ay nay trao lao, sollicitus, a, urn. 

Nay, hie, hasc, hoc ; et semper debet postponi substantivo, 
ut ou nay, isle dominus. Viec nay, negotium hoc. Si 
pra3cedit substantivam, fit particula ecce, en ; ut D. C. J. 
phan rang ; nay tao, quan Judeu lien nga ra het, Jesus 
respondens ait : ecce Ego sum, abierunt Judei retrorsum. 
Nay lay nguoi ay, ecce homo. 

Nay, cadere ; excidere. Nay muc tau, imprimere amussim 
ligno. Nay muc cam can, dicitur de judicibus, qui de- 
bent omnia ad trutinam et amussim examinare. 

Nay, khi nay, modo ante, vel paulo ante. Su chung bay da 
tha khi nay, thi cho noi cu ai cho den khi tao sou lai, 
visionem quam vidistis modo, nemini dixeritis, donee a 
mortuis resurgam. 

JVey Ion, abdomen porci. 

Nay, ai nay, quispiam vel ipse, ipsa, ipsum. Ai giu dao nen ; 
di roi linh hon nay, quis perfecte fidem custodierit, conse- 
quetur ipse salutem suam. Ai co, nay an, qui habet vic- 
tum, ipse edat. 

Nay bun, locus plenus luto. 

Nam, vir. Nam nu, vir et mulier. Anh em bon dao nam 
nu thay thay, O Christiani fratres et sorores omnes. 
Phuong nam, vel ben nam, plaga australis. Gio nam, 
auster. Ki nam, columbarum lignum. An nam, vide an. 

Nam, annus. Nam nay, iste annus. Nam ngoai, anno 
prssterito. Nam kia, annus plusquam perfectus. Nam 
truoc, anni prseteriti. Sang nam, annus futurus. May 
nam, quot anni. Sed annus setatis in homine dicitur tuoi; 
unde si rogetur quis, quot annos setatis seu vita? suss habe- 
ret, dicendum est: co may tuoi. Postremd nam est etiam 
numerus quinque. Sic quinque anni dicitur nam nam; 
sed quindecim dicitur muoi lam; et a viginti usque ad 



297 

nonaginta, quinque dicilur Jam, ut muoi Jam, quindccim ; 

hai muoi lam, viginti quinque, &c. 
Nam tay lai, contrahere digitos in pugnum. Mot nam, 

unus pugillus. Nam lay, capere aliquid pressis digitis. 
Nam, jacere, cubare. Nam nghieng, jacere super latera. 

Nam ngua, jacere supinus. Nam sap, jacere pronus. 

Nam sai tay ra, dccumbere extensis brachiis. 
Nam, fungus, i. 

Nam ruon, vas testaceum ad continendum vinum. 
Nan-, virgula elaborata ad texendum. 
Nan, infortunium, calamitas. Khon nan, miserabilis ; mise- 

ria. Chin nan, pati miserias. Anh chiu nan, imago cru- 

cifixi. Cue nan, extrema miseria. Nan nou nan, procax. 
Nan, meticulosus, a, um. 
Nan, herba cujus radix amarissima est. An nan toi, pceni- 

tere de peccato. An nan chang kip, sera poenitentia. 
Nan, premendo exprimere. Bop nan Idem an nguoi ta, dici- 

tur de iis qui pauperum sanguinem sugunt. 
Nan, digitis contrectando et palpando ad scrutandum quid 

intus lateat. Nang nan, vel Nang no, sedulus, diligens. 
Nang, ha nang, morbus qui virile membrum relaxat. 
Nang, furca. 
Nang, fecmina Nang hau, ancilla vel concubina mandari- 

norum. 
Nang, sa?pe. Sieng nang, sedulus. Ta phai lam toi D. C. B. 

cho tieng nang, debemus esse diligentes in servitio Dei. 
Nang, gravis, e. Toi nang, peccatum grave. Nang ne, 

idem. Lam nang lao ng* ta, esse gravis aliis. Quo mloi 

nang, reprehendere gravibus verbis. Nang tai, graves 

aures ; surdus, a, um. Dao nang tay, metiri ; mensura 

copiosa. 
Nang, splendor solis. Nang boi, sestus solis. 
Nanh, dentes animalium. Ke nanh vuot trao lang, qui est 

robustus in pago. 

* Abbreviatio pro nguoi. 
38 



298 

Nam-i, ti nanh nhau, ex pigritia laborem et difricultatem a 

se rcjicere, et in alios derivarc conari. 
Nanh, dau nanh, species faseoli vel ciceris. 
Nao, ph nao chang, quid impedit. Ne chang ph nao, nihil 

refert, vel nihil impedit. 
Nao, quis, qua?, quod. Vide ai. Muon lam the nao, thi lam 

the ay, quoquo modo velit, sic facit. Nao ai lam di gi cho 

may, quid tibi fecit ? Nao cu o dau, ubi est pater 1 
Nuc nuc, inquietus ex desiderio videndi aliquid. 
Nao dua, ungulis dolare fructus. 
Nao, sau nao, valde afflictus. Nao ruot, exhauriuntur 

viscera. 
Nao, vannus ad siccandum aliquid. 
Nao, calidus, a, um. Nao ret, calor et frigus, id est febris. 

Nao nay, idem. 
Nao, ellychnium in candelis. Nao noc, pisciculus quidam 

cujus jecur est valde venenatum. Khan nao noc, suda- 

rium multis coloribus distinctum. 
Nap, operculum. Nap horn, areas operculum. 
Nap sung, infundere fistulas pulverem tormentarium; (char- 
ger un fusil.) 
Nap, gladius minor. 

Nap, latebra. Nap nom, e latebris videre. 
Nap, den nam nap max, sine cessatione venire. 
Nat, terrere. Tan cho nat, comminuere; in pulverem re- 

dactus vel putrefactus. Dot nat, illiteratus. 
Nat, incutere metum, vel simulare iram. 
Nau, manere in secreto per aliquod tempus propter metum, 

vel ad insidiandum. 
Nau, vel bo nau, quidam fructus sylvestris instar tuberis, 

cujus liquore tinguntur vestes, retia, sagenas. 
Nau, ao nau, vestis ex lana a Rege custodibus suis data. 
Nau, coquere. Nau muong ng ta, valde molcstus et gravis 

aliis esse. 
Nau ra, dicitur de fructibus putrefactis. 



299 

Ne, thuyen ne, elevare cymbam, suppositis lignis. 

JVe vel le, revereri ne sit alteri molestus. 

Ne, ne voi, oblinire calce. Tho ne, cocmentarius. Chang 
ne, non recusare, non dedignari. D. C. J. xuo the gian 
chang ne chiu tram nghan su khon kho vi ta, Christus 
descendit in mundum, non dedignatus ferre tot mala pro 
nobis. Xin nguoi cho ne, ne recuses, rogo. 

Ne, respectum hominis habere, personam respectare vel ae- 
ceptare. Vi ne, vel ne nang, idem. Ch nen vi ne nguoi 
ta ma pham toi mat lao due chua bloi, non licet ex reve- 
rentia hominis peccare contra Deum. Ne lao nguoi ta, 
revereri ne sit alteri molestum. To ne, progenitores. 

JVe ga vao chao, reducere gallinas in gallinarium. 

Ne, ne nhau, metuunt invicem. 

JVe ra, rimas agere. Ne bung, talitrum impingere. 

Nem, nem xem, praegustare cibum ad experimentum. 

Nem, cuneus. Nem, protrimenta. 

Nem, jacere. Nem da, lapidare. 

Nen, licet, expedit. Nen viec, aptus ad negotia gerenda. 
Con nen viec, adhuc est utilis. Nen muoi tuoi, agit an- 
num decimum. Cai nay nen bao nhieu tien, vel gio bao 
nhien tien, istud quanti constat? Nen cai, nen hoa, furun- 
culis, variolis laborari. Dung nen, creare. 

Nen, crebro ictu humum pulsare ad earn complanandam. 

Nen, cay nen, candela. Due nen, conflare candelas. Thap 
nen, accendere candelas. Tat nen, extinguere candelam. 
Chan nen, candelabrum. 

Nen, fundamentum. Xay nen vel dap nen, jacere funda- 
mentum. 

Nen, decern taelia. Nen vang, nen bac, mensura decern 
taelibus auri vel argenti constans. De nen, eomprimere. 

Neo, anchora. Bo neo, jacere anchoram. Gieo neo, jacere 
anchoram, vel esse in periculo. 

Neo, contorquere prelo ; tortura. 

Neo, fere idem est ac nai, flagitare. 



300 

Neo, semita. Dang nco, via. 

Nep, gao nep, oryza viseosa. Ncp ao, plicatura vest is. 

Mu mat ncp, pileus sine plicatura id est homo sine lege 

vivcns. 
Nep, contracto corpore sese occultare. 
Nep giau, asserculi quibus firmatur septum. 
Net, vel net na, vide na. 
Net elm, ductus calami; apex litterce. Chang li mot net, 

apex non prceteribit. Bat net, reprehenderc. 
Net, bo net, vermis venenatus. 
Neu, pertica, hasta. Len neu, attollere aliquid hasta, sig- 

num erigere. 
Neu, neu ma, si, quod si. Neu co lam, thi hay lam, si ita 

res se habet, optime est. 
Nga, sao nga, otiari nihil faciendo. 
Nga, contemptus cibi. An no nen nga, saturatus fastidit 

cibum. 
Nga, ebur. 
Nga ha clang, trivium. Nga tu, quadrivium. Nga ba sou, 

trivium fluminis. Nga xuo, cadere. Nga nuoc, labi in 

morbum ex insalubri aqua. Nga lao, despondere ani- 

mum. 
Nga ra, reclinare vel explicare aliquid in terram. Nga 

trau bo, occidere animalia. 
Ngac, ngo ngac, stolidus, a, um. Ngan ngac, confuse po- 

situs. 
Ngac ngu, agitare caput et collum. 

Ngach, lignum quod parietem sustinet. Ngach tua, limen. 
Nganch sou, aditus fluminis. 
Ngai, sedes regalis. 
NgAi, vereri, vel potius deterreri labore, vel difficultate ali- 

qua. Ai ngai, idem. 
Ngai, arbor quocdam. Dang xa dam ngai, longa distantia. 
Ngai, herba cujus folio siccato utuntur ad adustionem in 

morbo curando. 



301 

JVgai vel nghia, amicitia, gratitude Nhan ngliia, amicus, 

a, urn. 
Ngay, rectus, a, um. Ngay that, sincerus, a, urn; simplex. 

Lao ngay, conscientia recta. Ngay nhau, recte corres- 

pondere ad alter um ; ex ad verso alterius. 
Ngay, stertere. 
Ngay, dies. Sang ngay, diluculo, prima luce radiante. 

Nua ngay, meridies, media dies. Ban ngay, de die. 

Than ngay, tota die. Ngay ray, nunc ; his diebus. Ray 

la ngay lam viec lanh, nunc est dies salutis. Ngay sou, 

postea. Ngay sou se hay, postea vibebitur. Hang ngay, 

quotidie ; vel ngay ngay, idem est. Gian ra ngay nay 

ngay khoi, differre de die in diem. Chang khoi may ngay, 

non transactis tot diebus ; (de practerito.) Khoi mot it 

ngay nua con lai den, post aliquot dies denud venies. 

Da khoi, vel da duoc may ray, jam ab hinc quot diebus? 

Hen ngay, assignare diem. 
Ngay muoi, hebes, ignarus. 
Ngay, fastidium ex cibo nimis pingui. 
Ngam, humectare aliquid in aqua, macerare. 
Ngam, tenere aliquid ore clauso. Ngam mieng lai, reclu- 

dere os. 
Ngam nuoc vao, aliquid siccum aquam imbibit; vel aqua 

sensim penetrat. 
Ngam, aliquid in aqua latet immersum. Cung co ngam, 

protervus, sed non aperta fronte ; latens superbia. 
Ngam nga, identidem laudare. 
Ngam, meditari. Nguyen ngam, oratio mentalis. Mle ngam, 

meditatio. 
Ngam, dang ngam ngam, valde amarus, a, um. 
Ngan, sylvse. D. C. B. la ngan moi su lanh, Deus est con- 

gregatio omnium bonorum. Ngan ngac, vide ngac. 
Ngan, irnpedire. Ngan ra, separare. Ngan horn, separa- 

mentum capsas. Ngan tro, idem. 
Ngan, brevis. Van, idem est. 



302 

Ngan, modulari. 

Ngan, modus, mensura certa. Ngan nao, quantum. Ngan 
ay, tantum. ISicut et bao nhieu, bay nhieu : et sic collo- 
cantur in oratione. Muon ngan nan, tin lay ngan ay, 
quantum volueris, tantum accipe. Ke co toi da duoc vui 
ve doi nay bao nhieu, thi lai phai chiu phat trao dia nguc 
bay nhieu, peccatores quanto fuerunt feliciores in hue 
mundo, tanto graviores dant posnas in inferno. Chang 
co ngan, sine modo, sine fine. Ke lanh o tren thien dang 
kinh men D. C. B. chang co ngan: lam ban cung D. C. B. 
chang hay no, sancti in ccelo amant Deum sine fine ; con- 
versantur cum Deo sine fastidio. 

Ngan ngo, stolidus morosus. 

Ngang, be ngang, latitudo ; linea transversa, vide doc. Lam 
ngang ngua, aliorum consilio contraire vel obicem ponere. 
Cai ngang ra, aliorum sententise contradicere. 

JVgang lai, cohibere obstaculo. 

Ngang nghiu, arbor gibbosa. Dat xau tron cay ngang 
nghiu: he nguoi tho tuc noi deu pham phu, sicut mala 
terra procreat arbores gibbosas, sic rusticus semper rus- 
tica verba profert. 

Ngang, that ngang, sic dicitur omne genus quod habet me- 
diam partem constrictam. Ca nganh ngang, quidam 
piscis spinosus. Nguoi nganh hoa, homo dolosus. 

Nganh vel canh, vide canh. 

Nganh mat di, avertere faciem. Nganh mat lai, faciem 
convertere. 

Ngao du, otiosus ; felix. Cho ngao, canis enormis. 

Ngao, kieu ngao, superbus, a, um. Toi kieu ngao, superbia. 
Ca ngao, quidam piscis. 

Ngao, balbutire. Nguoi noi ngao, homo balbus. 

Ngao co ma xem, arrecto collo de longe intuere. 

Ngao coi, axis mortariis. 

Ngap, oscitare ; fastidire. 

Ngam ngap, di ngam ngap, ire per multam moram tardando. 



303 

Ngap, aqua superans aliquid. Lut doi ou Noe nuot ngap len 

khoi nui muoi lam thuoc, tempore diluvii Noemi aqua su- 

perabat montes quindecim cubitis. Ngap ngung nuoc 

mat, erumpentes lachrymae. 
Ngat, ngat keo, claviculus forficis. Ngat mui, vide mui. 
Ngat, thorn ngat, suavis odor spargitur. Tieng don ngat 

het moi roi, fama suavis spargitur per omnia loca. 
Ngat, intercipere lumen, obscurare. 
Ngat, frangere aliquid. Cao ngat ngheo, insolita? altitudi- 

nis homo. 
Ncau, mam ngau, piscis a longo tempore conditus sale jam 

bene detritus. 
Nghe, animal simile leoni. 
Nghe, crocus, i. Nghe, tingere aliquid croceo colore. 

Kien nghe, formica flavi colons. Xung he, provincia 

Tunkini proxima Cocisinae. 
Nghe, ars, officium. Nghe nghiep, idem. Con lam nghe 

nghiep kiem an, quas exerces, fili, artes ad queerendum 

victum? 
Nghe, quaedam herba. 
Nghe, audire. Nghe mloi, obedire ; consentire. Con dung 

nghe chuoc ma qui, noli consentire tentationi dasmonis. 

Nghe thay, auribus percipere. 
Nghe, con nghe, vitulus. 
Nghe mieu, domus spiritui tutelari dicata. On nghe, vel 

tien si, doctor. Do ou nghe, vel do tien si, doctoratum 

adipisci. 
JVghech dau, caput vesanum, insanum. 
Nghen, suffocari cibo faucem premente. 
Nghen, dan ba co thai nghen, mulier gravida. 
Nghenh ngang, di nghenh ngang, incedere superbo fastu, 

magna pompa. 
JVghco dang, via tortuosa. 
Ngheo, expositus miseriis, paupertati. Benh ngheo, morbus 

periculosus. Su hiem ngheo, periculum. 



304 

Nohet, quod est valdA constrictum. Lam nghct lam, rigide 

agere ; arete constringere. 
Nghi, ho rigid, dubitare. Chang nen ho nghi su gi ve dao, 

non licet dubitare illiquid de fide. Uy nghi, terribilis 

majestas. Nghi hoac, dubius, a, urn. 
Nghi, quan hat rigid, truculenti, latrones. 
Nghi nghoit quiescere. Giac nghi, quies, somnus. Ou quan 

ay da ngoi, ille mandarinus jam mortuus est. Nguoi 

nghi, in lecto quiescit vel dormit. 
Nghi, sumitur etiam pro ille homo, sed dicendum est solum- 

modo de infimo homine. 
Nghi, putare, cogitare. Ta nghi the nao, quomodo cogita- 

mus, quid facto opus est? Quando est sermo de consilio 

capiendo, quid fertis sentential ; quidnam consilii capitis? 
Nghia, amicitia. Lam nghia, vel ket nghia, inire amici- 

tiam. Bat nhan bat nghia, ingratus ; significat etiam 

sensum. Nghia la di gi, sensus quis est? Cat nghia, 

explicare sensum. Hay qui nghia cung D. C. B., dili- 

genter divinam amicitiam colere. 
Nghich, he nghich, inimicus, hostis. Nghich nhau, invicem 

adversari. Lam nghich cung D. C. B., agere contra 

Deurn. 
Nghien, atramentarium annamiticum. 
JVghien rang, stridere dentibus. Gian nghien ngam, irasci 

tacitus ; ira intus latens. 
Nghiem, nhiem nghi, nhiem trang, magna majestas. 
Nghiem quan, nghiem kid giai, exercitum instruere ; arma 

comparare. 
Nghiem, phep link hhiem, medicina divina. Minh thanh 

D. C. J. la thuoc linh nghiem chua cac tat nguy en linh 

hon, corpus Christi est divinum pharmacum contra omnes 

aninrue langueres. Nghiem nhan menh, authentice actum 

homicidii conscribere. 
Nghieng, latus anteponere. Lam nghieng lech, quod erat 

bene situm pervertere. Nam nghieng, decumbere super 

latere. 



305 

Nghiep, ac ng/iiep, vide ac. 

Nghiep, nghe nghiep, vide nghe. Toi nghiep, delictum. 

Cou nghiep, meritum. That nghiep, mendicus. 
Nghin, mille. Dou nghin nghit, numerus hominum con- 

fertus. 
Nghinh, ngung nghinh, leviter aversari. 
Ngo, gio ngo, hora duodecimam et primam pomeridianam 

complectens. Ngo duoc, forte posse. 
Ngo xem, arrigere collum ad videndum. 
Ngo, apertus, a, um ; patens. De ngo cua, relinquere por- 

tam apertam. Ngo mloi, deciarare suum intentum. 
Ngo, fores exteriores. Ngo ngang, homo capax. Hien 

ngo, sapiens, prudens. 
Ngo, regnum sinarum. Thang ngo, sinensis, (per contemp- 

tum.) Urbaniter dicitur chu hack. 
Ngo, furiosus, amens. Cho ngo, canis rabiosus. Giac ngo, 

hostes irrumpunt. 
Ngo, surculus nimphene. 
Ngo ngan, insanus, stolidus. 
Ngo, existimare, putare. Chang nen ngo su trai cho ng 

ta vo co, non licet male suspicari de proximo absque fun- 

damento. Ngo la, idem est ac ngo la, puto quod. Con, 

ngo su nay la toi nhe ru, putas hoc esse leve peccatum? 
Ngoa, hyperbole. Noi ngoa, loqui per hyperbolem. Dan 

ba ngoa nguya, mulier linguosa. 
Ngoac di, vide ngoai. 
Ngoai, extra. Ho ngoai, familia matris. Anh em ben 

ngoai, consanguinei ex parte matris. Ke ngoai dao, 

extra fidem, id est infidelis. Ngoai kinh, ngoai thu, extra 

libros, seu traditio incerta. 
Ngoai, nam ngoai, annus immediate pracedens. Ngac 

ngoai y, ultimos spiritus ducere. 
Ngoay, ngoay vao, ferro acuto fortiter perforare. 
Ngoay, cho ngoay duoi, canis cauda sua adblandiens. 
Ngoai, extra. Be ngoai, extus. Chang nen lay mot su be 
39 



30G 

ngoai khou ma tlio phuong D. C. B. pha co vice be trao 

lam mot, non expedit colore Dcum soils operibus exteri- 

oribus, sed comitari debent opera interna. Ngoai oppo- 

nitur trao, intus. 
Ngoan, ofliciosus; fidelis. Ngoan dao, fidelis Christianus. 

Ngoan net o, urbanus. 
Ngoap, ranuncula. 
JVgoat tri, tro lai, illicd reverti. 
Ngoc, gemma. 

JVgoc dau len, erigere caput, dicitur de piscibus. 
Ngoi, innatare undis, dicitur de serpentibus aut avibus qua; 

fluit.ant super aqua. Ca ngoi, supernatat piscis. 
Ngoi, tegulse. Nha ngoi, domus tecta tegulis. 
Ngoi, con ngoi, rivus. Ngoi but, acumen penicilli. Gi et 

ng ta bang ngoi but, dicitur de iis qui suis scriptis alteri 

nocumentum afferunt. 
Ngoi, sperare aliquid ab aliquo : sed non dicitur nisi per 

contemptum. Tao chang ngoi may dau, quid a. te spero? 
Ngoi, persona. Ngoi thu, ordo aut dignitas in qua aliquis 

constituitur. Ngoi sao, sydus. Cao ngoi, tonsura in 

fronte quam solent facere nebulones. Tho ngoi, tonsor. 
Ngoi, sedere. Ngoi xep bang, sedere decubitis cruribus, 

qui modus apud eos honestus est. Ngoi dung cung nhau, 

dicitur de cohabitatione viri et mulieris. 
Ngoi, vide nghi. Dai ngoi, expectare a rege responsum. 
Ngom, stultus, vecors ; qui non est dignus voeari homo. 
Ngon, sapidus. Mui ngon, sapor. Ngon lanh, sapidus et 

salubris. 
Ngon lua, flam ma. Ngon cay, cacumen arboris. Ngon 

dau, monticulus mensura3 conferta?. 
Ngon cai, pollex. Ngon tro, index. Ngon ut, digitus ulti- 

mus. La ngon, folium quoddam venenatum. 
Ngop, trou ngop len, suspicere tantisper. 
Ngot, dulcis, e; suavis. Ngot ngao, idem. An o ngot, 

suaviter conversari. Ngot ngot voy, parum dulcis. 



307 

JVgot xuo, dctumcre, decrescere. Com an da ngot, oryza 
sumpta jam digesta est. 

JVgot iiang, peruri calore solis. 

JVgot mua, pluvia sese paulisper remittens. 

Ngou, anser. Thang xac ngou, loquaculus nebulo. 

Ngu cu, vide cu. Ngu tarn mot it cau, hospitari per breve 
tempus. 

Ngu, dormire. Ngu gat, vide bnon ngu, gravari somno. 
Nua ngu, nua nuc, semisomnus. 

Ngu, quinquc. Ngu sac, quinque colores, scilicet: Do, ru- 
ber; Den, niger; Vang, flavus; Trang, albus; Xanh, 
viridis. Ngu quan, quinque sensus corporales, scilicet: 
Con mat xem, visus ; Tai nghe, auditus ; Mui ngui, olfac- 
tus ; Mieng noi, locutio ; Chan tay lam, tactus. Ngu 
tang, quinque interiora hominis, scilicet: Tarn, cor; Can, 
jecur; Ti, ventriculus ; Phe, pulmo. Than tern, cai ngu, 
mensura quinque cubitorum. 

Ngu, vox propria regi. Ngu tri, prassidere. Ngu ra, exire. 
Ngu vao, intrare. Ngu di danh giac, proficisci ad bellum 
contra hostes. Ngu kinh li, proficisci ad lustrationem sui 
regni. 

Ngua, equus. 

Ngua, prurire. Ngua mieng, pruriens os, id est, loquax. 

Ngua, supinus, a, urn. Ngua mat len, sursum faciem eri- 
gere. Ngua tay mat ra, dextroe palmam extenderc. 

Nguc, career. Dia nguc, infernus. 

Nguc, pentus. 

JVgui ngui, commotus misericordia, vel desiderio alicujus. 

Ngui, olfacere ; odorari. 

Nguy, rebellis. Lam nguy, conjuratio facta. 

Nguyen, nguyen lam sao? qua ex causa? Nguyen boi, ex. 

Nguyen, orare. Mloi nguyen, oratio. Sach nguyen, bre- 
viarium. 

Nguyen, the nguyen, vovere ; jurare. Nguyen rua, male 
precari. 



308 

Nguyen, i'amilia quondam in Tunk'mo antiquissima. 

Nguyet, luna. MIoi nguyet hoa, vcrbum turpitudinem re- 
dolens. Nguyet thuc, vide time. 

Nguoc, contrarius, a, um. Di nguoc sou, navigarc advcrso 
amne. Nguoc gio, ventus contrarius. Noi nguoc, loqui 
confuso ordine verborum. 

Nguoi, tepescere; defervere. Nguoi gian, defervet ira. 
Nguoi su dao, tepor in fide. 

Nguoi, tu : ad infimos et cum ira loquendo. To se xem 
nguoi, ego te videbo. Con nguoi, pupilla oculi. Ho 
nguoi, erubescere. De nguoi, protervus homo. Treu 
nguoi, insidias struere. 

Nguoi klien, laud are. 

Nguoi, homo. Nguoi ta, alii, cgeteri. Larn nguoi, esse 
homo. Sumitur etiam pro secunda et tertia persona, 
quando est sermo de honorabilibus personis. Chang nen 
lam hai nguoi ta, non licet aliis nocere. D. C. B. sinh ra 
ta lam nguoi o the gian nay cho duoc tho phuong nguoi, 
Deus creavit nos esse in hoc mundo ut ilium colamus. 
Nguoi, noi di gi, Domine, quid loqueris? Nuoc nguoi, 
regnum extraneum seu extera? nationes. 

Nguon, rnons; sylva. 

Nguong, revereri conspectum hominum. 

Nguong cua, limen portfe inferius. 

Nha, domus. Nha xe, asdicula ex lignis pulchre elaborata 
ad eflerendum cadaver ad sepulchrum. Nha tang, domus 
papyracea ad sepulturam destinata. (Tang, proprie est 
sepelire.) Nha que, petria. Nha phu, nha huyen, judices 
in balliviatibus. Vao an may nha D. C. B., domum Dei 
ingredi. 

Nha mon, sedes tribunalis vel ministri justitise, vel etiam 
telonarii. Mach nha, vide mach. Nhuoc nha, magno 
pudore amci. 

Nha, leviter mandere. 

Nlia ra, ejicere cibum ex ore. 



309 

Nfia ra vel lao ra, liquefieri vel dissolvi. 

Nhac, campanula? collo equi aut canis appcnsaj. Lc nhac, 

caeremonia, urbanitas civilis. 
Nhac nhuoi, segnis, vecors. 
Nhac, attollere aliquid. Nhac can, appendere aliquid sta- 

terae. Nhac di nhac lai, aliquid in mcmoriam iterum 

iterumque refricare. 
Nhac, nhoc nhac, movere se ; qui incipit se movere ; resis- 

tere alicui. 
Nhai, mandere. 
NHAr, sibilando contemnere ; contemptim verba aliorum 

rcpctere. 
Nhai, ranula? in arbustis frequentes. 
Nhai, hoa nhai, flos quidam albi coloris valde suavis. Nhai 

quat, claviculus quo compingitur flabellum. 
Nhay, quod celerrime concipit ignem. 
Nhay, connivere. Mot nhay mat, in ictu oculi. Nhay 

nhau, sibi invicem signum facere connivendo. 
Nhay, saltare. Nhay khoi vao, evadere laqueum. 
Nham, goi nham, acetarium ex olere et pisce confusis. 
Nham, nham nhuoi, quod fit cum magna confusione. An da 

nham, fastidium cibi. 
Nham, ca nham, mustela marina. 
Nham, asper, a, um ; quod pellem saeviter pungit. Ao nham 

minh, cilicium. 
Nham ruou, temperare vinum. Do nham ruou, esculen- 

tum quod vini vim temperat. Nham con mat lai, clau- 

dere oculos. 
Nham, collimare. Nham, melius mlam, errare, decipi. 
Nham, praesidere. 
Nhan - , avicula quadam. 
Nhan ha, otium. Thanh nhan, beatitude 
Nhan, arbor quaedam. Nhan hon, ob oculos. 
Nhan, vel nhan nho, rugae. Nhan mat lai, rugare frontem. 

Cho nhan nanh, canis rugens. 



310 

Nhan, denunciare. Nhan tin, mitterc nuntium. 

Nhan nghia, gratitudo, pielas. Nhan due, vide due. Nhan 

the, eadem opera. Nhan sac, quare. Nhan xuo, cal- 

care. Nhan, agnoscere. 
Nhan, annulus. Tu ay nhan nay, ab iilo tempore usque 

modd. 
Nhang, mot nhang, in ictu oculi. 
Nhang, lang nhang, vide lang. 
Nhang, cai nhang, muscos magnae. 
Nhang, quan nhang, homines sylvestres. 
Nhao, irridere ; illudere. 
Nhao, rotare vel volvere se. 
Nhao, com nhao, oryza multa aqua cocta. 
Nhao, ordo, gradus. 

Nhap, intrare. Qui nhap vao no, diabolus intravit in ilium. 
JVhap con mat, leviter oculum claudere. Thuc nhap, vigi- 

lare et interdum leviter dormire. 
Nhat, melius mlat, insulsus, a, um. Ruou nhat, vinum de- 
bile. Cuoi nhat, ridere sine sale. 
Nhat vel dot, timidus, a, um ; formidolosus ; vecors. Mot 

nhat vel mot blai, unum momentum, vel unus ictus in am- 

putando. 
Nhat vel Mat lay, colligere. Nhat ph, rigida disciplina. 

Cam nhat, rigide prohibere. Chay nhat, jejunium rigidum 

seu sub peccato obligans. 
Nhat, unus, a, um ; primus, a, um. Nhat la, maxime, 

prassertim. Con, ph lo buon ghet cai toi nhat la toi trao, 

debes, fili, dolere de omnibus peccatis, maxime mortali- 

bus. Nhat thuc, eclipsis solis. Nhat ban, Japonia. 
Nhau, invicem. Cung nhau, simul cum. Ta phai cau 

nguyen cho nhau, debemus orare pro invicem. 
Nhe, levis, e. 
Nhe vel mle, vide mle. 
Nhech, anguilla cujus caro est valde sapida. 
Nhet lo, obdurarc rimas. 



311 

Niieo, ca nhco, piscis quidam. Nhco nhoc, orphani. 

Nhich, nhuc nhick, lente moverc. 

Nhiem, sau nhiem, idem est ac man nhiem, vide man. 

Nhiet, calor. Lam nhiet lam, angustiare. 

Nhieu, multus, a, um ; niultum. 

JV/iieu cho, eximere aliqnem ab oneribus publicis. Nhieu 

sinh, vitam servare. Ou nhieu no, a publicis oneribus 

liber vel exemptus. 
Nhim, cai nhim, histrix. 
Nhin, tolerare. Nhin nuc, tolerantia. 
Nhin, idem est ac nkan, recognoscere ; contemplari. 
Nhiu, noinhiu, error in loquendo ex inadvertentia. 
Niro, vitis. Chu nho, littera sinica. Hoc tro nho, scholas- 

tici qui litteris sinico-annamiticis operam dant; qui stu- 
dent litteris sinicis. Hoc tro nho thou phai lam, litteris 

sinicis doctissime eruditus. 
Nho, macula ex cinere vel fuiigine aut atramento contracta. 

Da nho mat, sub obscura luce. 
Nho, parvus. Thang nho nho, puer parvulus. Nho xuo, 

distillare. 
Nho, tollere aliquid humo infixum. Nho co, eradicare 

herbas. 
Nho, inniti auctoritate, viribus, divitiis alterius. Nho dip, 

fretus occasione. O nho, vel dau cho, hospitari. Nho 

nho vay, aliquo colore non bene tinctus. 
Nho, recordari ; teneri desiderio. Con, ph nho co D. C. B. 

o tre mat lien, recordari, fili, semper pra>sentiam Dei. 

Nho moi diu nay, hoc in pectus tuum dimitte. 
Nhoc, vel nhoc nan, fatigari. Nhoc met, idem est. Kho 

nhoc, labor. 
Nhoc, elevare. 
Nhoi vel mloi, vide mini. 
JVhom nltam, an not nhom nham, proferre rustica verba; sine 

ordine et sensu effundere verba. 
Nhon, quod in mucronem desinit. 



312 

Nhon, di nhon chan len, incedcre susponso pcde. Nhon tay 

cat lay, capere aliquid extremis digitis. 
Nhot, arbor quoedam cujus fructus valde acidus est. 
Nhot, furunculus. Nhot moc len, furunculi oriuntur. 
Nhot vel dot, vide dot. 

Nhot, pallescere ; pallidum fieri vel lividum. 
Nhop nhua, sordidus, a, um ; impurus. 
Nhu bao, commovere. 
Nhu thuo, thus. Nhua, pix. 
Nhu, sicut. Cung nhu, sicut et similis ; similiter; ita. Nhu 

vay, ita, sic. 
Nhu, quod bene percoctum est. Danh du no nhu ra, verbe- 

ribus contusus, a, um. 
Nhu, extrahere illecebris. Nhu ga, esca allicere galli- 

nam. 
Nhuc, nhin nuc, vide nhin. 
Nhuc nhich, vide nhich. 
Nhuc, mu nhuc, vide mu. 
Nhuc dau, dolor capitis ; dolere capite. Nhuc ca va mh, 

dolor per totum corpus. 
Nhui, mux nhui, fomes, igniarium. 
Nhuy hoc, pulchritudo florum. Nhuy tieng, suavitas vocis. 

Hing ng noi co nhuy nhang, verba suavia. 
Nhuan, nam nhuan, annus lunaris tredecim mensium. 

Thang nhuan, mensis additus vel duplicatus, intercalaris, 
Nhum, mot nhum, unus captus digitorum. 
Nhung cho, eximere ab onere publico, sicut verbum nhieu. 

O nhung, otiosus, a, um. Nhung ma, sed, verum. 
Nhung, omnes. Chang nhung la, non solum. Nhung phai 

su kho lien, semper incidere in calamitates. 
Nhuoc nha, vide nha. 
Nhuoc, da nhuoc, valde debilitatus. Nhuoc bang, quod si 

vero. 
Nhuom, tingere aliquo colore. Tho nhuom, tinctores ves- 

tium. 



313 

JVhuo sao doi so, vana observantia ct superstitio, qua gentiles 

credunt se posse sortem sen fatum commutarc. 
Nhuo, cedere alteri. Nhuo cho, idem est. Khiem nuong, 

humilis, e. O kiem nhuong, humiliare se. Due khiem 

nhuo, humilitas. 
Nhut, dao nhut, culter obtusus, cujus ferrum hebescit. Nhut 

tri, obtusum ingenium ; truncus. 
Nhut, condimentum salsum ex pisce et fructibus, aliisque 

generibus. 
Ni, bonzia, mulier templo idolorum serviens. 
Ni, nan ni, leviter conqueri de se vel de aliis. 
Nia, instrumentum vimineum ad purgandum oryzam ; van- 

nus rotundus ex arundine contextus. 
JVie?n phat, precari idolum; recitare preces in honorem 

idoli. 
Nieitg, vermis in aquis natus. 
JVinh than, aulicus ; adulator. 
Nieu, olla parva. Nieu huo, olla parva in qua. crematur 

odoramentum. 
Nin di vel nin lang, silere, tacere, reticere, premere vo- 

cem. 
Nip, cai nip, corbula ad continendum vestes. 
Nit, con nit, puer ; puella. 
Nit, ao nit, vestis stricta. Nit sang, constringere loculum 

mortui. 
Niu, nang niu, molliter tractare. 
Niu lay, fortiter apprehendere ; stringere. 
No, saturatus, a, um. Fastidium cibi vel alterius rei. 
No, iste, a, ud ; alter, a, um. 
No, ille, a, ud. Ay no, ecce ille est. 
No, balista ; exsiccatus, a, um. Cui no, lignum aridum. 
No, cuneus. 
No nhau, aemulari invicem ; certatim et turmatim aliquo oc- 

currere vel confluere. 

40 



314 

a 

No, irasci. Nat no, vide nat. 

No, crepare, disrumpi cum strepitu. No sung, crepitus tor- 

mentorurn bellicorum. No tai ra, maledictio. 
No, ay no no, ille homo, vel illud negotium. 
No, debitum. Mac no, debitorem esse, debere. Doi noi, 

vide doi, mutuum repetere ab aliquo. Ke lam no lam, 

sere alieno oppressus. 
No, germinare, pullulare. No mat, famam gloriamve ac- 

quirere. 
No, non sustinere. Chang no mang mot deu nang, non 

sustinuit ut aliquod grave verbum excideret ex ore. 
Noc nha, fastigium domus. Ca noc, piscis quidam cujus 

jecur est venenosum. 
Noc, venenum ; aculeus animalium. 
Noi, ho noi, familia patris. Quan noi, eunuchus. 
Noi, jungere. Noi dao, succedere in ordine progeniti. 
Noi, olla. 
Noi, emergere ex aqua. Ganh noi, par ferendo oneri. Lam 

noi viec, optime negotium peragere; cumulari divitiis. 
Noi ay, eo usque. Chang den noi ay, non eo usque. 
Noi, incedere super ponte. Noi giua, sequendo custodire. 

Noi neo, sequi vestigia. Noi, loqui. Chang ai noi den 

may, de te siletur. 
Noi, gallus ex genere pugnaci. 
Noi, locus. O noi, tai noi, pendere. Su sou chet ta o noi 

D. C. B., vita et mors nostra pendent a Deo. 
Noi, relaxare, remittere; recedere paululum. 
Nom, chu nom, Litterse Annamitica?, vel Sinico-Annami- 

ticse, ad exprimendas vulgares voces, seu ad referenda 

Annamitica verba. Tieng nom, lingua vulgaris; ver- 
bum in lingua Annamitica. 
Nom, acetarium. 
Nom, aspicere. 
Nom, instrumentum ex arundine contextum ad piscandum. 



315 

Non - , immaturus, a, urn; recens ; quod ad perfectionem 

nondum pervenit. Sinh non, abortus. Nui non, montes. 

Nuoc non, montes et aqua. Non not, idem. 
Non, galerus. 

Non chuoi, pars Ultima arboris Indicas. 
Non, cu non, contrectando molestiam inferre. Non nao 

trao da, stomachum movere ad vomitum. Timidus, for- 

midolosus. Lam non nao, inquietare ; facere ut hue illiic 

cursitent perturbatim. 
Nop, tradere judici. Nop thue, solvere tributum. Nop rua, 

maledicendo tradere diabolo. 
Not, finire aliquid. An not di y, finire comedendo. 
Not bung lai, contrahere ventrem. 
Nou, pauca aqua. Bien nou, mare modicam aquam habens. 

Canh nou, arare, colere terram. Bo nou, avis, qusedam. 
Nou, ardor calcis. Nou nan, protervus, a, um. 
Nou, sufferre sustentaculum. 
Nu, calix floris. 
Nu, fcemina. 

Nua, gia nua, senex decrepitus. 
Nua, arundo indica. 
Nua, medius, a, um. 
Nua, amplius. Mot it nua, modicum magis. Doi mot it 

nua, expectare paulisper. 
Nuc lai, torquere funem. 
Nuc may, ligare aliquid vimine. Nuc lao, inflammatum cor 

alicujus rei desiderio. 
Nuc, calor magnus. 
Nui, mons. 

Nuoc, aqua, liquor; regnum. 
Nuoc, nodus. Lam den nuoc, rigorose agere. 
Nung, coquere lateres, vel vasa testacea. Tho nung noi, 

figulus. 
Nuoi, nutrire. Duong nuoi, idem est. 



316 

Nuong cat/, sperare in aliquo, vol niti alicujus potentia 

divitiis. 
Nuong, assare. 
Nuot, deglutere ; absorbire. 

Nut, nodus; obduramentum. Nat ao, globuli in veste. 
Nut, disrumpi, hiscere, rimas agerc. 



O. 



O, ca o, nomen piscis. Chim o, avis quaedam milvio major. 

ue, sordidus, a, urn. Su o ue, res turpis. 

O, ao o ra, vestis vetustate maculata. 

O, nidus gallinas. O ho, exclamatio magis adhibita in libris. 

Heu ! proh dolor ! 
O, eructare. O, manere ; esse. 
Oan, quod fit injuste alicui. Oan gia, hostis ; inimicitia ; 

infortunium. 
Oan thu, ulcisci injuriam, vindicare. 
Oan", edulium ex sola oryza factum, quod in prima quaque 

luna et plenilunio cujusque mensis, idolis offerri solet; 

quodque pro saneto cibo a gentilibus habetur. 
Oai link vel oai vao, idem est ac uy link vel uy vao. Vide uy. 
Oc, cerebrum. Dau oc, caput. 
Oc, cochlea. Oc tu va, cochlea marina magna. Oc nhoi, 

cochlea parva. 
Oc, eructare. 
Oi, graviter olens. Do an da oi, cibarium jam graveolens. 

Est etiam interjectio : Heu ! eia ! Hi oi, idem est. 
Oi, genus pyra?, quaedam arbor Lusitanice goava. 
Oi oi, goi oi oi, vocare magna, et repetita voce, ve lclamare. 
Om, amplecti, amplexari. Om nang, veretrum. 
Om dau, om yeu, segrotare. 
Om, nau om, percoquere aliquid ore ollae, abstracto et lento 



317 

igne. Dau om ca va minh, lentus dolor serpet per totum 

corpus. 
On, gratia, beneficium. Ta on, gratias agere Deo. Gia on, 

agere gratias eequalibus vel inferioribus. Ta da chiu 

nhieu on D. C. B. xuo cho, multa recepimus beneficia a 

Deo concessa. 
On dich vel khi dich, pestis. 

Op, granum frumenti vel quid aliud macrum et vacuum. 
Op ep, mollis, e ; putrefactus, a, urn. 
Ot, cay ot, pimentum. 
Ou, avus ; dominus. Ou ba, ou vai, progenitores. Due ou, 

princeps. 
Ou, internodium ; tubus. Ou nhoi, tubiculus pulvere tor- 

mentario repletus, et bene obstructus, ad sonitum eden- 

dum, cum accensus fuerit. Ou to, pensum sericum. 



P. 



Pha vao, vel pha phach vao, commiscere. Noi giem pha, 
zizanias disseminare. 

Pha vel pha phach, destruere, diruere, vastare. Pha thanh, 
vastare urbem. Danh chay pha, expugnare armis. 

Phach, crepitaculum. Ho phach, crystallum. 

Phai, decolorari, amittere colorem. 

Phai, debere, oportare, incidere, tangere. Phai mle, con- 
sonare rationi. Ai muon roi linh hon thi phai chiu kho, 
qui vult suam salutem consequi debet habere patientiam, 
vel multa pati. Phai tay ma qui, incidere in manus dasmo- 
nis. Tau phai da, navis tangit vel incidit in saxa, syrtes. 
Phai lao, amare, capi amore venereo. Phai khi, contigit. 
Chang phai nao, nihil mali accidere. 

Phay, daophay, culter ad secandas carnes aptus. 

Phay, mot cai phay, unus ductus calami. Quat phe phay, 
ventilare leviter. 



318 

Pham, facere contra aliquem. Pham toi, committere pecca- 

tum. Pham deu ran, violare prajceptum. Noi pham 

den D. C. B., blasphemare in Deum. Pham su thanh, 

sacrilegum esse, violare sacra. Phai dau pham, vulnerari 

graviter. 
Pham hen, ignobilis homuncio. 
Pham, chuc pham, dignitas, ordo. 
Phan, Jang phan, annona, oryza. 
Phan, vel phan day, eloqui, prsecipere. (Vox propria regi 

vel Deo.) Phan xet, judicare. 
Phan, tabulatum in modum lecti, Lam phan cung ai, agere 

adversum aliquem. Phai phuc, fallax, maliciosus, dolosus. 
Phan nan, poenitere. 
Phan, fimus, i. Phan chia, dividere. 
Phan, fucus ; cerussa. Gioi phan, fucare faciem. 
Phan, sors. So phan, fortuna. Dia phan, districtus. Chuc 

phan, dignitas. Phan phuc, bona opera exercere: de 

sacerdotibus intelligitur administrare sacramenta. 
Phan, pars. Phan ai nay lay, partem suam quisque acci- 

piat. Chia phan, partiri, distribuere in partes. 
Phan, excrementum. 
Phan, operimentum ollae magnse. 
Phang, culter magnus. 
Phang, cai phang, tela serica. 
Phang, complanatus, a, um. Lam cho phang, compianare. 

Bang phang trao lao, animo quieto. 
Phao, lignum supernatans in sagenis. 
Phao, igniculus pyraeus sonum edens. 
Phao vel phung, tat phao vel benh phao, lepra. Nguoi co 

tat phung, leprosus. 
Phao, phao vo ra, repudiare uxorem. To phao, libellus re- 

pudii. 
Phao, cubiculum ; thorus. Viec cam phao, exercitia spiri- 

tualia recollectionis. Benh pham phao, morbus ex intem- 

perantia rei venereas. 



319 

Phao, opinari, conjectare. Phao len, inflari ex vento. Phao 

minh, providere sibi in futurum. 
Phat, punire, damnare. Chiu phat, luere poenas. Phai 

phat, damnari. 
Phat ra, depromere ; elargiri. Vox mandarinis conveniens. 

Phat lang cho quan, dare stipendium militibus. Quien 

thu phat, officium promuscondi.* Phat sung, explodere 

tormenta bellica. 
Phat, idolum. Phat giao, vel dao phat, idolatria. Ke di 

dao phat, idolatra. 
Phat pho, vento agitari. 

Phau hay, exponere. Trang phau phau, candor niveus. 
Phe, subscribere. Bang phe, subscriptura mandarini. Phe 

chu vao, subscribere. 
Phe, aliqua pars in communitate pagi. Lang phe, idem. 

Phen le, semulari. 
Phen vel hue phe, cratis contexta. 
Phen, alumen. 
Pheo, tre pheo, arundo. 
Phep, quien phep, phep tac, potestas, virtus, auctoritas. Le 

phep, cajremonia, civilitas. Chiu phep, obedire, subjici ; 

recipere sacramenta. Lam phep, benedicere aliquid, aut 

administrare sacramenta. Anh phep, nuoc phep, imago 

benedicta, aqua lustralis. Phep la, miraculum. Ra phep 

tac, exercere auctoritatem ; condere leges. Thoi phep, 

mos. 
Phet ho, glutinare. Danh phet, lusus pueri. 
Phet, percutere. Noi phet, loquax, jactabundus. 
Phi cua, profusus, prodigus. a, um. Phi ton, idem. 
Phi ra, emittere ventum. 
Phi lao, satiare animum. Phi chi, phi da, idem sonant. 

Phi, est interjectio. 
Phien cho, successio nundinarum. Phien thu, juxta succes- 

* Sic in MS. 



320 

sionem. Phien len loa tren, appellare superiorem judicem. 
Phien quan tren, idem. 

Phinh pho, adulari. 

Phien, mcestus. Phien da, phien lao, mcestus animo. Phien 
den ng ta, aliis gravis esse vel laborem afferre. 

Pho sack, volumen, vel auctor librorum. Ngua dinh pho, 
vide dinh. 

Pho cua, ostentare divitias. Pho mac, pho an, ostentare 
luxum in veste et victu. Pho truong, exponeres opes suas 
publico conspectui ad vanam gloriam, quod facere solent 
gentiles in suorum mortuorum exsequiis. 

Pho, taberna; emporium. Hang pho, idem. 

Pho, commendare, committere. Toi pho linh hon toi o tay 
chua toi, in manus tuas, Domine, commendo spirit um 
meum. Con, da pho cho ai, cui, fili, tradidisti? 

Phoi, pulmo. Ca phoi, magnanimus, liberalis. 

Phoi, siccare aliquid in sole. 

Phou, simulacra hominum facta ex papyro aut alia materia. 

Phu lao, a3quo animo esse ex percepto aliquo emolumento. 
Phu dam, bajuli. Phu trao, remiges. Binh phu, militum 
bajuli. Nou phu, agricola. Phep nat phu nhat phu, sa- 
cramentum matrimonii. Cou phu, labores. 

Phu ho, adjuvare, protegere. D. C. B. phu ho cho, con, 
Deus adsit libi, fili. Verbum frequens in ore patrum ad 
Christianos Tunkinenses. Phu vua, militare regi. Thay 
phu thuy, veneficus. Phu phep, veneficia. Ve phu, de- 
pingere schedulas et characteres veneficos. Dan bua, 
deo bua, appendere, gestare res veneficas. Benh phu, 
hydrops. Phu tay vao, admovere manum operi. 

Phu, dives. Phu qui, dives et nobilis. Su phu qui, opes, 
dignitates. 

Phu, operire. Phu ca minh, cobperire totum corpus. Phu, 
significat etiam balliviatum majorem post Xu provinciam. 
Quam nha phu, vel ou phu, judex in illo balliviato majori. 
Dicitur pro copula quoque animalium. Con duoc phu 



321 

con cai, masculum animal copulat se focminino. Am phu, 

Avernus apud gentiles. 
Phu phang, homo crudus, crudelis. Phu on, phu nghia, 

tinh phu, ingratus. Phu nhung on D. C. B. xuo cho, 

qui abutitur donis Dei est ingratus ei. 
Phuc, virtus, meritum, bonum opus; praemium; felicitas. 

Lam phuc, vide phan. Huong phuc, frui felicitate. 

Nguoi vo phuc, infelix ; reprobatus. 
Phuc, obedientiam dare, subjicere se, venerari. Phuc mle, 

consentire rationi. Le phuc sinh, resurrectio Domini seu 

pascha. Phuc mo, latere in insidiis. 
Phuc thorn, suavis odor. 
Phun, aliquid ex ore spirando fortiter emittere. Ran phun, 

serpens sibilat. Phun ra nhung deu dai, effutire verba 

stulta. 
Phung vel phao, vide phao. Phung chuc, vel phao chuc, 

dignitatem conferre. Phao vuo, inaugurare regem. 

Phao thu, claudere litteras. 
Phung truyen, edictum regis. Phung sai, legatus. 
Phung ma, os tumidum. Phung dam ma, aliquid ad cele- 

brandum exsequias offerre. 
Phuo, plaga mundi. Phuo dou, plaga orientalis seu Asia. 

Phuo tay, plaga occidentalis seu Europa. Phuo nam, 

austrum. Phuo bac, aquilo seu septentrio. Phuo chi, 

quanto magis. Phuo the, modus. 
Phuo tho, colere. Phuong duong cha me, nutrire parentes 

cum honore. 
Phuong, societas. Phuong mac, idem. 
Phuon vao, vexillum in quo scribitur nomen defuncti. Cay 

phuon, vide phuon. 
Phung ba, tempestas et fluctus. Phai phung ba, pati tem- 

pestatem. Phung luu, otiosus, a, um. Phao tuc, mos, 

politicaB res. Phao chi, confiscare; sigillum publicum 

apponere rebus alicujus. 
41 



322 



Q. 



Qua, fructus. 

Qua, transire. Horn qua, heri. Thau qua, pertransire, 

penetrare. 
Qua, corvus. Qua mo, corvus dilacerans. 
Qua, excedere ; excessus ; extra. Khach qua giang, vec- 
tores. Qua do, extra modum. Qua phep, extra legem 
prasscriptam. Quay qua, indecens ; exlex. 
Qua, munusculum ; fructus vel aliquod edulium. 
Quach, radix qua3dam sylvestris quam mandunt cum betel 

in defectu arecse. 
Quai, ansulae cujuscumque rei. 
Quai go, quod est insolitum, monstruosum, horrendum. 

Qui quai, sagax, astutus. 
Quai, offerre cibum progenitoribus aut diis falsis. 
Quay, rotare, in gyrum agere. Dau quay quat, vertitur 

caput. 
Quay, gestare aliquid humero. 
Quay hoc vel vay hoc, vide hoc. 

Quan, magistrate, mandarinus. Viec quan, negotia publicse 
rei. Quan chuc, in dignitate constitutus. Quan thay, 
patronus, fautor. Cau lam quan, vel cau chuc quien, 
ambire dignitates. Quan tien, ligatura monetarum. 
Quay, movere. Quay quat, infestare. 
Quan, diversorium, caupona. Do quan, hospitari. 
Quan, inhumare mortuum ad aliquod breve tempus. 
Quan cai, prases. Quan voi, ductor elephantis. Quan but, 

calamus penicilli. 
Quan, crispus, a, urn. Toe quan, capilli crispi. Dau quan, 

caput hirsutum. 
Quan, miles. Dai quan, exercilus. Cat quan di, ducere 
exercitum. Quan va, exercitus pedestris. Quan thuy, 
exercitus navalis. Quan hau, milites servientes. Quan 



323 

sumitur etiam pro nationibus gentium, ut: Quan ngo, 

Sinenses. Quan quang, Cocisinenses. Quan hoa lang, 

Lusitani. 
Quan, omnes nepotes regis chua nomine hoc appellantur. 

Vide chua. Quan cou, primus gradus magistratuum. 
Quan, involvere aliquid panno aut fune. Quat quit, multis 

nexibus involvere. 
Quan, femorale. Quan tu, congregare se in unum. Danh 

quan, quidam lusus. 
Quan, di quan lai, repetitis vicibus moleste ire, redire. Noi 

Ian quan, obliviosus, qui multoties et inepte idem repetit. 
Quang sang, claritas. Hao quang, radius. Noi quang sang, 

locus patens, clarus. Noi quang que, locus spatiosus 

absque ullo impedimento. Quang, significat etiam funes 

connexos ad ferenda onera. 
Quang mat, offuscantur oculi. Quang ga, oculi subobscu- 

rati. 
Quang lay, circumligare in modum crucis. Lam quang di 

cho chao, facere per transennam ut cito absolvatur opus. 

Lam quang quay, agere imprudenter, vel lam can gio, 

idem. 
Quang nam, provincia principalis in Cocisina, quae et toti 

illi terras nomen dedit; unde Tunkinenses per syncopen 

vocant Cocisinam Nuoc quang, vel Dang trao, id est 

pars (terras) interior; quia pertinebat etiam ad Tunkinum, 

et non fuit ab eo separata nisi per ducentos solummodo 

annos. 
Quang, spatium locorum, agrorum, itinerum. 
Quan di, fortiter projicere. 
Quanh, circuitus. Di quanh, per varios viae anfractus ire. 

Chung quanh, in circuit!! Di chung quanh, circumire. 
Quanh, dou quanh, agri solitarii. 
Quanh, go quanh, lignum induratum. Dat quanh, terra in- 

durala. Quat dieu, inquietare, molestare. 
Quao, rapere unguibus. 
Quat, ventilare ; ventilabrum. 



324 

Quat, increpare alta voce. 

Quat, reflectere aliquid. 

Quat ltd, dao quat lai, reflectitur acies cultri. 

Que quat, captus pedibus, manibusve. 

Que, patria. Que mua, inurbanus. Que D. C. J. la thanh 

Nazaret, patria Christi Nazaret. Nha que, idem est. Ve 

que, redire in patriam ; vel mori. 
Que, cinnamomum. Nhuc que, cinnamomum aromatizatum. 

Que quan, cinnamomum secundum in suo genere. Que 

chi, cinnamomum ramosum. 
Que, frustulum sarmentorum. That lung bo que, cingere 

latera. 
Que sau lung, abscondere aliquid a tergo. 
Que boi, sortilegium. 
Quen, oblivisci. Quen on D, C. B., ingratus erga Dei dono. 

Bo quen, relinquere ex oblivione. 
Quien, reducere alliciendo, attrahere. Quien du, idem. 
Quen, assuetus, a, um ; assuescere ; notus, a, um. Con, 

phai tap cho quen, fili, debes exercere te ut assuetus fias. 

Toi da no, no da quen toi, ego notus illi, et ille mihi. 

Quen thuoc, idem est. Ke da, quen da, locorum sciens. 

Chang quen lam nghe xau, insolens malorum artium. 
Quet phai, leviter aspergere. 

Quet, verrere. Quet tuoc, quet nha, domum verrere. 
Qui, nobilis, e ; nobilitas. Qui gia, pretiosus, a, um. 
Qui, genuflectere. Qui goi, idem. 
Qui, dcemon. Qui quai, callidus ingenio ; ingenium versu- 

tum ; subdolus ; varius. 
Qui, hoa nguyet qui, heliotropium. 
Qui ve, redire ; redigere in unum. 

Quien, auctoritas. Quien phep, potestas. Quam quien, 
Quien sack, tomus libri. Thoi quien, sufflare fistulas. 

mandarinus. 
Quiet, decernere, statuere. 
Quit, malum aureum minoris generis. 
Quo, increpare. 



325 



\l. 



Ra, cxire, egredi. Ista vox jungi solct omnibus verbis quae 

motum de interiore parte ad extra vel mutationem in 

aliam formam significant; ut lay ra, depromere 1 tem ra, 

educere. Noi ra, eloqui, &c. Ra khoi thanh, egredi ex 

civitate. Hoa ra xau, factus est malus. Ra xem, visum ; 

procedere. 
Ra, palea. Rom ra, idem est. 
Ra, cista crassa ad lavandam oryzam. 
Ra mat, oculi lippitudine pleni. 
Rac, purgamentum. Nha rac, domns pulvere ct sordibus 

plena. Lam rac nha ra, sordidare domum. Rech rac, 

idem est. 
Rac rai, nuditate et fame tabescens. Tu rac, career. 
Rac, nuoc rac, aqua est in reccs. i. 
Rac, spargere. Rai rac, sparsim. 
Rack, laceratus, a, urn. Danh rac, vel lam rach, dilacerare. 

Ao rach ruoi, vestis vetustate dilacerata. 
Rach, secare per rectam lineam. 
Rai, con rai, lutra. Kiem an nhu rai, qui omnia sibi rapit 

et verrit. 
Ray rut, dissecare ventibus. Noi ray rut, mordere verbis 

exaggerando. 
Ray, nunc. Ray mai, post aliquod tempus. Ray ray, mo- 

lestiam inferre auribus. 
Ray ted, sordes in auribus. Cu ray, colocasia. 
Ray, aspergere. Ray nuoc thanh, aspergere aliquod aqua 

benedicta. 
Ray vo, repudiare uxorem. Lon chou, dicitur virum suum. 
Ray, cribrare farinam. Cai Tay, cribrum. 
Ram, don ram, vectes quibus affertur cadaver ad sepul- 

chrum. 
Ram, herba quasdam valde acris. 



326 

Ram, plenilunium, seu dies decimus quintus jnensis lunaris. 

Ram, crepitus ventvis. 

Ram, cay ram, arbor quafidam. 

Ram, densitas sylvarum, arborum. Rung ram, sylvae con- 
densa:. Ram rau, barba spissa. Ram rap, densse ar- 
bores. 

Ran, sonus resonans per loca. 

Ran, da ran, scopuli in mare. 

Ran mo, coquendo adipem exprimere. Ran ra, frigere 
piscem adipe ferventi. 

Ran, prohibere sub legibus. Deu ran, mandata. 

Ran ra, eniti pariendo. Noi ran ro, loqui cum magna em- 
phasi. 

Ran, cairan, coluber serpens. Et etiam adjectivum durus, 
a, um. Ran gan, induratum cor; intrepidus. Ran may, 
ran mat, homo perfricta? frontis. Ran roi, formosus. 

Ran, can ran vel Ian can, vide can. 

Ran, pediculi in veste. 

Ran sue ra vel gang sue ra, exigere vires. 

Rang, torrere. Gao rang, oryza tosta. 

Rang ngay, dilucescente die ; aurora. 

Rang bloi, offuscatum ccelum aliquid prsesagiens. 

Rang rit, multis nexibus aliquid colligare. 

Rang, aiens, dicens. 

Rang, dens. Rang ham, dens molaris. 

Ranii, opinio gentilium, qui credunt quod quidam daemon 
soleat intrare in infantulos, dum adhiic sunt in utero ma- 
ins; unde tenellos infantes quos immatura mors absumit, 
vocant rank, id est obsessos ab illo deemone ; et pueris 
imprecando dicunt: rank bat may, daemon ille rapiat te. 

Rank viec, cessant negotia. Ranh, canalis. 

Rao, publicare aliquid. 

Rao, siccus, a, um. Kho rao, idem. Ran rao, serpens 
quidam. 

Rao, sopire. Rao giau rao luy, septo cireumdare. 



327 

Rao, rau rao, herba quoedam comestibilis. 

Rao, nuoc rao, reflexus maris. 

Rap, domus ad aliquam solemnitatem pro brevi tempore 

constructa. 
Rap, asper, a, um. Lam rap rua, fortiter aut dure agere. 
Rap, statuere. Rap lao, statuere in animo. Rap ranh, 

idem. 
Rap, genus retis. 

Rap, rap xuo dat, aliquid cadit humo fixum. 
Rap hi di, intercludere iter. 
Rap, ardere. Rap rua, magno ardore torqueri. 
Rat di, projicere aliquid. 

Rat, aliquid integrum in suo genere et non admixtum alteri. 
Rat, particula ad significandum superlativum, ut, ou San 

sao rat manh, Samson fortissimus. Rat cue, summa 

miseria. 
Rau, vel rau co, olus. Rau thorn, mentha. Rau diep, lac- 

tuca. Rau sam, portulaca. Dau rau, lateres trini ex 

quibus fit focus ad coquendum. 
Rau, barba. Rau bac, barba cana. Rau sam, barba densa 

per totum mentum. Rau ria, barbae et mystaces. 
Rau ri, molestissimus, a, um. Lam rau ri, molestiam 

inferre. 
Re lua, purgare frumentum flame vento aut ventilabro. 
Re, cista contexta ad sustinendam ollam. 
Re, gener. Lam re, servire socero ad probandam generi 

indolem ante matrimonium; qui mos a missionariis im- 

probatus est, propter multa mala. Anh em re, maritus 

sororis magnae et parvae. 
Re, radix, truncus; initium, origo, vide coi. Tinh me xat 

thit lai coi re moi toi loi, cupiditas est origo omnium 

peccatorum. 
Re, go re, quoddam lignum. 
Re, gao re vel gao te, oryza ordinaria. 
Re, sonus campanae fractas. 



328 

Re, quod vili pretio venditur vel emitur. Re quat, basis 
flabelli. 

Re, separare, separatim. Phan re, idem. 

Ren, gemere. 

Ren, vectigal. Ista vox a voce Lusitanica, renda. 

Ren, cudere ferrum. Tho ren, ferrarius. Tap ren, exer- 

cere se ad aliquam rem. 
Reo, ho reo, acclamare. Reo ro, idem. 
Reo quanh, circumcidcre. 
Rep, cimex. 
Ret, frigus. Run ret, frigore tremere. Ret, est etiam ru- 

bigo ferri. 
Ret, cai ret, centipes. 
Reu, mucus in aqua, aut in terra humida. Ri cot ri, pytho- 

nissa. 
Ri, ru ri vel ri ram, submissa et lenta. voce loqui. 
Ria, rau ria, vide rau. Ria quanh, in circuitu aut margine 

cujuscumque rei. 
Ria ba ba, margo testudinis. 
Ria, chim ria lou, avis suas pennas vellicans. 
Rinh, insidiari ad furandum vel capiendum aliquid. Rinh 

mo, idem. Di rinh rich, strepitus multorum ambulan- 

tium. Rinh sinh thi, prope mortem. 
Rieng, particularis, e; particulariter. Viec rieng, opus 

particulare. Viec rieng, intelligitur etiam de salute cujus- 

que propria. Con, phai lieu viec rieng con hon moi viec 

khac, debes ,fili, procurare salutem tuam ante omnia. 

Y rieng minh, propria voluntas. 
Rieng, species zinziberis majoris. 
Rim, condire cibum lento igne et per longum tempus. 
Riet, arete constringere. Lam riet lam, rigorose agere. 
Rit, aliquid induratum rubigine. 
Riu, cai riu vel cai rui, cratis contexta ad capiendos pisci- 

culos. 
Riu, cai riu, securis. 



320 

Ro, cista ad capiendum porcos. 

Ro, bi ro, mantica ex sacco. Ro lay, surripere. 

Ro, vel ro rang, clarus, a, urn ; clare. Noi khoan ro rang, 

loqui lente et clare. 
Ro, ca ro, pisciculus quidam. 
Ro, dou ro, dementatus. 
Ro, cista ad lavandum pisces vel olera. 
Ro, mat ro, facies variolis notata. 
Ro moi vel man di, vide man, genus bourn agreste. 
Ro, appetitus inordinatus mulieris prsegnantis. Chua ro, 

praegnans. 
Roc, secare papyrum aut telam aut tabulam in duas tresve 

partes. 
Roc, expolire quod est asperum. 
Roc, cua roc, cancer in agris natus. 
Roc, ruo roc, ager aquosus. 
Roi, virga. Roi vot, verbera. 

Roi, multis nexibus implicare. Chi roi, filum implicatum. 
Roi nhieu viec, implicatus multis negotiis. Ke roi dao, 
hasreticus. 
Roi, vide doan. Sau khi ao da noi roi, postquam loquendi 

finem fecit. 
Roi, quies post laborem ; salus. Roi viec, cessant negotia ; 

functi" negotiis. 
Roi, buon roi, mercatura piscium. 
Roi ra, excidere. Roi xuo, cadere. 
Roi, mat roi, refrigerium. 
Roi, quod non est conjunctum. Roi roc, idem. 
Rom, sau rom, vermis pilosus, foliis arborum inhaerens, valde 
venenatus ; unde dicitur gan sau rom, id est malevolus. 
Rom, vide ra. 
Rom, ngua rom ca va mink, prurigo serpit per totum corpus. 
Ron lai, aliquid jam ad paucitatem redactum. 
Ron vel don, tumultus ex concursu multorum hominum. 
Ron ra, idem. 
42 



330 

Ron, umbilicus. Lam ron, vel lam gang, conari perducere 
opus ad finem. 

Ron moi, tepor et dolor. 

Rop, bao rop, quod est obumbratum. Rop nang, radii solis 
intercepti. 

Rot ra, effundere. Rot vao, infundere quod est liquidum. 
Rot ruoc, miscere vinum. 

Rot, ultimus, a, um. Rot bet, idem. 

Rot, roi rot, vide roi. 

Rou, draco. Cay xuong rou, lactaria. 

Rou, vastus. Rou rai, pecuniae liberalis. 

Ru con, demulcere infantem ut dormiat. Ngoi ru ru, sedere 
tristis. 

Ru, convocando attrahere invicem. Ru, est etiam particula 
ne, non ne ? Con, muon xung toi ru, visne, fili, confiteri 1 

Ru, diet ru, mori senectute vel ariditate. 

Rua, genus testudinis. 

Rua, maledicere imprecari. Chui rua, idem. 

Rua, dao rua, culter magnus. 

Rua, lavare. Dicitur de lotione instrumentorum, et aliarum 
rerum, vel alicujus membri in corpore. Quando lavatur 
totum corpus, dicitur tarn; de pannis vero et vestibus 
dicitur giat. Phep rua toi, sacramentum baptismi. Rua 
toi, baptizare. Chiu phep toi, baptizari ; sacro regenerari 
lavacro. 

Rue ngay, rue thang, pauci supersunt dies, et exiguus men- 
sis. Viec da rue lam, negotium valde urgens. 

Rue rich; don rue rich the vay, sic fert fama. Don rue, 
idem est. 

Rui, rui nha, scandula in tecto domfis. 

Rum, cay rum, planta ex cujus flore exprimitur color pur- 
pureus. Ao rum, vestis purpurea. 

Rum vel ram, species cancri minoris. 

Run, tremere. Run so, tremor et timor. 



331 

Rung, de lapsu florum et foliorum ex arbore. La rung, 

folia decidunt. 
Rung, sylva ; deserta loca. Rung xanh, nemus, sylva, 

saltum. 
Rung cay coi, agitare arbores. Noi rung, verbis terrere. 
Rung mat bloi, ante ortum solis. 
Ruoc, obviare ; recipere ; accercere. 
Ruoi, vermis subterraneus qui prope Novembris calendas ex 

humo prodit, quemque in deliciis habent Annamitae. 
Ruoi, ruoi mat, facies tristis. 
Ruoi, media pars alicujus rei. Gio thu nhat ruoi, sesqui 

prima hora. Mot dou bac ruoi, una pataca cum dimidio. 
Ruoi, arbor quaedam. 

Ruoi, musca. Cut ruoi, nevus. (Sic; q. nervus?) 
Ruoi, xo ruoi, aliquid in sertum ducere. 
Ruo, ager. Lam ruo, colere agros. Mau ruo, sau ruo, 

thuoc ruo, sunt variae mensurae agrorum. Ruong tor, 

ager frugum fertilis. Ruong tor ma muoi bo tray, ager 

bonus pecori. 
Ruot, viscera. Ruot gia, viscera majora. Ruot non, vis- 
cera minora. Anh em ruot, fratres uterini. Ruot don, 

substantia dicae vel actionis in jure. 
Ruou, cicera. Say ruou, inebriatus cicera seu vino ex 

oryza facto. 
Rut, contrahere ; educere. Rut ra, extrahere. Rut quan 

ve, reducere exercitum. 
Rut chan lai, contrahere pedem. 
Rut, cat rut, morsu lacerare. 

S. 

Sa, cadere. Suong sa, res cadens. Sa con, abortus. Nuoc 
sa, inundatio aquarum tempore pluviae, montibus ad mare 
decurrens. Hang ha sa so, multitudo innumerabilis. 

Sa, cai sa sa, genus cancri valde sapidi. 



332 

Sa sao, chang sa sao ba nhleu, non curare de re tantilla. 

Sa vao da vao do, intrat hue illuc sine modestia. 

Sa ra, partiri, dividere in partes. 

Sac, color. Ngu sac, ngu sac thuoc, coquere medicinam. 

Nau sac lai, coquere usque ad siccitatem. Dao sac, cul- 

ter bene acutus. Nhan sac, pulchritudo in vultu. Sac 

due, concupiscentia venerea. Sac vel sac chi, edictum, 

diploma. 
Sac so, tela multiformis colons. Sac so, idem. 
Sach, liber. So sach, catalogus, nota. Sach Ou Khou, 

libri qui Confucii dicuntur. 
Sach vel sach se, mudus, a, urn (sic); castus. Nhan due sach 

se, virtus castitatis. Giu minh sach se, castitatem servare. 
Sai hi, sai mlam, sai lac, ista tria verba significant errare, 

aberrare a scopo; agere contra illud quod jussum est. 

Sai, mittere. D. C. B. sai thien thanh truyen tin cho D. B. 

Maria, Deus misit angelum ad nuntiandum Beata3 Mariae. 

Phuong sai, commissarius regius. Sai vien, minister 

missus. Cay sai qua, arbor onusta fructibus. 
Sai, scabies vel morbus parvulorum. 
Sai, noi sai, error in loquendo. 
Sai, duo brachia extensa, seu ulna. Nuoc sau may sai, 

aqua est profunda quot ulnis ? Bo sai tay ra, extendere 

brachia. 
Say, inebriari. Say me nhau, inebriari impuro suipsorum 

amore. 
Say ra, purgare frumentum ventilando. 
Sai, Bonzii, sacrificuli, vel custodes fanorum. Item, senes 

qui officium habent parvulos mortuos inhumandi ; unde 

pueris maledicendo aut increpando dicunt sai quay, id est, 

senex ille deferat te ad sepuichrum. Thay sai, magister 

et sacrificulus. 
Say chien, excutere mattam. Say vay, desquamare pisces. 

Say moc ca minh, papulae oriuntur toto corpore. 
Say vel sut da ra, laceratur pellis. 



333 

Say, arundines minores et molliores. 

Say, thit say, caro exsiccata igne. 

Say, say thay, aliquid excidit e manu. Say chan chua duoc, 

say mieng chang chua duoc, lapsus pedum est reparabilis, 

sed lapsus verborum est irreparabilis. Sinh say, abortus. 
Sam, rau sam, portulaca. 

Sam, dicitur de avibus quae faciliter capiuntur esca. 
Sam nha, construere ligna jam apta ad structuram domus. 

Vo sam, tudes magna, qua utuntur fabri in construenda 

dome Rau sam, barbae per totum mentum crescentes, 

quales habent Europaei. 
Sam, tonitru. Sam set, tonitrua et fulmina. Sam truyen 

cu, vetus testamentum ; vel kink thank, scriptura sacra. 

Sam truyen moi, novum testamentum. Sam ki, prophetia 

apud gentiles. 
Sam, sam sam vao, irrumpere in aliquem. 
Sam, so sam, palpitare et contrectare manibus. 
Sam san, Lam cho sam san, facere diligenter et celeriter. 
Sam et sam sua, comparare, praeparare. 
San, tabulatum prope terram. 
Sax, sinh san, gignere. San hau, morbus muliebris post 

partum. San vat, bona ex fructibus terrae. 
San se, partiri, dividere. San dinh kinh quien, componere 

multos libros in usum scholasticorum. 
San, da san, lapilli. 
San soc, sedulus, a, um. Day san, funis fortiter contortus. 

Di san, venari. Cho san, canis venaticus. Quan san, 

venatores. 
San, arbor cujus cortice obturantur cymbas. 
San, paratus, a, um; et in promptu. Con, da san cho duoc 

xung toi ru, fili, jam paratus es ad confitendum ? Phai 

sam sua cho san, oportet parare ut sint in promptu. 
San, atrium. 

San vao, vim facere ad intrandum. 
San, san mat ra, facies impudens. 



334 

Sang, transmigrare; transfretare; transire. Do sang, trans- 
fundere. Cat sang, transferre. Sang trao, nobilis ; no- 
bilitas. 

Sang, clarus, a, urn ; lux. Sang lang, lux. Sang ngay, 
diluscente die; mane. Khi moi sang, ubi dies coepit. 
Sang da, bona memoria, ingenium tenax. Sang ngay 
som lam, antelucanum tempus. 

Sang gao, cribrare oryzam. Cai sang, cribrum. 

Sang sol, omittere ex oblivione ; obliviosus. 

Sang, loculus. Co sang, herba quaedam. 

Sanh, comparare unum ad alterum. Sanh lai, conferre 
unum cum altero. 

Sanh, testa. Phai sanh, offendere testam. Cam sanh, ge- 
nus mali aurei. 

Sao, cai sao, ngoi sao, quare ? quomodo 1 Con, ehang muon 
chua toi ma mu roi linh horn lam sao duoc, fili, non vis 
abstinere a peccatis, et quomodo salutem consequeris? 
Sao ma, con, chang bio lai cu D. C. B. cho kip, quare non 
vis converti ad Deum celeriter ? 

Sao, contus. Sao man, pertica qua suspenditur velum. 

Sao, fistula. Thoi sao, canere fistulis. Chim sao, avicula 
quaedam. 

Sao con ra, fcetum offendere ante tempus. 

Sao, vel sao le, sed, verum, tamen. Sao nguoi, ligna trans- 
versa super quibus cubamus in lecto. Sao may, vimen. 
Sao van, quoddam instrumentum musicum. 

Sap, cera. Nen sap, cereus. Sap chay xuo, cera defluit. 

Sap thuyen, tabulatum in cymbis. 

Sap, disponere ; collocare. Quan cuoc lay doi sap hang, 
milites per aciem et ordinem dispositi. Sap san, collo- 
care disposite. 

Sap, pronus, a, urn. Sap cat, vertere tergum alicui. Con, 
sap minh xuo ma doc kinh cao minh ; thay se giai toi 
cho con, fili, prosterne te et die actum contritionis ; et 
dabo tibi absolutionem. 



335 

Sap bay xuo, recluditur laqueus seu decipula. 

Sat se, idem est ac san se, vide san. 

Sat ra vel sat ra, dehiscere, frangi. 

Sat, ferrum. Nung sat, coquere ferrum. Cut sat, scoria. 
Mot ehang an bi cut sat, tinea non potest exedere rubi- 
ginem. Dicitur de homine valde avaro et tenax, a quo 
nihil unquam extorqueri potest. 

Sau, postea ; post. Sau nay, post hac. Ve sau, de futuro ; 
in futurum ; deinceps. Sau nua, deinde. Sau het, post- 
remo. Ngay sau, tempore futuro. Doi sau, futuro sseculo. 
Tu nay ve sau, con, phai ra sue lam viec roi linh hon, 
ab hinc in posterum conaberis satagere saluti tuse. 

Sau, sex. Thu sau, sextus, a, um. 

Sau, sau hot ra, despumare. 

Sau, profundis, a, um. Sau nhiem, vel mau nhiem, mys- 
terium. Thanh y due chua bloi sau nhiem vo cung, 
divina voluntas est inscrutabilis. Sau bo, vermis. Cai 
sau bo cat rut trao tri khon, vermis corrodens conscien- 
tiam. 

Sau, crocodilus. Giuong sau sanh ra, frontem ferream ex- 
plicare. 

Sau nao, mceror magnus ; valde moestus. 

Se, da se lai, aliquid parumper exsiccatum. Se, chim se, 
passerculus. 

Se, particula affirmans aliquid certissime de futuro. Ke co 
toi trao ma chet, thi se mat linh hon, reus peccati rnor- 
talis moritur impoenitens; certe peribit. Mai, con, se den, 
eras venies, fili. Noi se vay, loqui demissa voce. Di se 
se, lente ambulare. 

Se, sou se, vel sou sit, lam sou se, vel sou sit, crudeliter vel 
crude agere. An noi sou se, vel sou sit, cruda verba pro- 
ferre, effutire verba ; sine ulla consideratione verba fun- 
dere. 

Sem, chay sem, semiustus. Com sem, oryza semiusta. 

Sen, nymphea. Hoa sen, flores nymphese. Toa sen, sedes 



330 

ornata nympheac iloribus, quam idolum Thick ca, promi- 
sit suis cultoribus. 

Senh phach, senh lem, varia crepitacula, quibus utuntur his- 
triones. 

Seo, cicatrix. Seo trau bo, nasus bubalorum boumque 
perforatus. 

Set, fulmen. Set danh, fulmen icit. Set clanh sen set, 
sonitus fulminis. 

Seu, quaedam avis. 

Si, arbor quaedam. 

Si, su si, vel su si, asper, a, um. 

Si hot nhau, succedere sibi invicem, unus post alterum. 

Si, tien si, doctor. 

Siec, so siec, timere. 

Sieng nang, diligens, impiger ; diligenter. Nang nan, idem 
est. 

Siet, terere aliquid moliendo. 

Sim, cay sun, myrtus. 

Sink de, nativitas. Phuc sinh, pascha. Sinh ki, tu qui, 
vita est iter peragere vel proficisci, mors autem est redire 
domum. Ke hau sinh, posteri. Sinh doi, infantes ge- 
mini. Sinh thi, mori. Sinh, sulfur. Lua sinh lua diem, 
ignis sulfureus. Sinh do, vide do. 

So sank, comparare, conferre. 

So, cal varia. So, mytilus. So, caput. So con, so trau, 
de bestiis dicitur. 

So phan, fatum. So he, idem. Xem so, sortilegium inqui- 
rere. Doi so, sortem mutare. Do so, numerus graduum 
astronomicorum. 

So sack, vide sack net so, ductus penicelli desursum descen- 
dens. So ten, vel so chu di, obliteratio nominis aut 
scripturae. Cua so, fenestrae. So ra, disrumpere, dissol- 
ves aliquid colligatum. So tren bloi, iris in coelo. 

So mo, so sam, vide sam. Doi so, vel doi xua, antiquiore 
tempore. 



So, palpitare ex coecitate. 

So, cay so, quasdam arbor. So cai, milites taper populii 

propositi ad colligenda vectigalia. 
So, timere, metuere, formidare. Kc so hai lam, metu 

culsus. 
Soan lai, revisere, recensere, aut recognoscere aliquu 
Soat, colligere vectigalia qua? defuerant ex superioribus an- 

nis. Khach soat, tributarii. 
Soc tran, calvus. Soc vao, sacrificiutn quod oflertur initio 

lunae et in plenilunio. Coi soc, vide coi. Cai soc, mustcla. 
Soc ruo, spatium certum agrorum. 
Soi, illuminare. Nen soi, lucerna. Soi guong, inspicere se 

in speculo. Soi bai, arenarium in flumine. Nguoi soi 

sinh, homo perspicax. 
Soi, fervere. Bien soi, mare turbidum. Lam soi Ion, qui 

alios nimium urget et quasi fervere lacit. 
Soi tran, idem est ac soc tran, vide soc. Cho soi, vide cho. 
Soi, lapilli. Dat soi, terra petrosa. 
Soi, vel soi nao, ad exprimendum quod adhuc a fine longe 

distat ; et sic solet dici : Soi nao chua mui gi, adhuc longe 

est finis; nulla ex parte evacuatur opus. 
Soi chi, filum. 

Soi, morbilli. Nen soi, laborare morbillis. 
Som, mature, mane. Som muon, vel kip chay, ocyus serius. 

Chay kip ta se den truoc toa D. C. J. phan xet, sends 

ocyus omnes veniemus ante tribunal Christi judicantis. 

Con som, adhuc nondum venit tempus. Som mai, summo 

mane. Mai som, eras mane. Lua som, frugis pra?cox. 

Khi con som lam chua sung, multd ante lucis adventum. 
Som nguoi hon som cua, multitudo hominum melior est mul- 

titudine divitiarum. Giau som, valde dives. 
Som lai, macie confectus ; macerrimus. 
Som, cho som, canis hirsutus. Rau ria som sam, homo 

maxime barbatus. 
Son, minium. Giam son, acetum forte. Dan ba son, mu- 
43 



338 

lier non maritata vel sterilis. Vo chou con son se, novi 
sponsi filium nondiim habentes. 

S071 son, sink de son son, mulier saepissime filios pariens. 

Son, sandaracha. Son horn, sandaracha capsulas obtegere. 
Lo son, sandarachse vapore infectus. 

Son lao, relaxatur animus. Ao da son ra, vestis vetustate 
sublacera. 

Son so, exhilarescere. Son gay len, horrent capilli. 

Sot, cista rara ad capiendum aliquid. 

Sot, calor ; calidus, a, um. Sot ret, febris. Sot ruot, ar- 
dens animus ; inquietus animo. Sot tinh, ardens in cupi- 
ditatibus. Sot buc, ardor solis. Chang co sot, nihil 
omnind. Dat sot lam, terra exusta solis ardoribus. 

Sot, aliquid superest ex oblivione. Sang sot, vide sang. 

Sou, fluvius. Sou van ha, via lactea. 

Sou, vivere ; vivus, a, um ; vita ; crudus, a, um. Sou doi 
doi, vita seterna. Ga sou, gallus. Thit sou, caro cruda. 
Rau sou, olera cruda. An noi sou sit, vide se. Xuong 
sou, os magnum in dorso quod sustinet omnes costas. 
Nguoi ay la xuong sou trao lang, ille est primarius in 
pago. Lai sou, resurgere ex mortuis. Sou sot, qui vix 
vivus evasit. Su sou ta chao qua chuong hu, vita qua. 
fruimur brevis est. 

Su su, hirsutus, a, um. Dau su su ra, caput hirsutum. 

Su, ca su, coracinus piscis. 

Su, rnagister. Tien su, adinventor cujuslibet artis, qui pro 
deo a gentilibus colitur. Dom tien su, le tien su, sacrifi- 
care illis diis adinventoribus artium. Ton su, venerandi 
magistri. Sic etiam vocantur sacerdotes ecclesiae. Su 
tu, leo. 

Su vel viec, res immateriales vel negotia. Sic etiam pos- 
sunt dici omnia nomina qua? a verbis fiunt; ut su an, 
comestio; su noi, locutio; su o nhung, otium. Chang 
su gi den may, nihil ad te pertinet. Res vero materiales 
vocantur do le, cua cai, san vat Thou su, interpres. 
Dan su, populus. 



339 

Su, legatus. Chinh su, primus legatus. Pho su, secundus 

legatus. Bat su, vide bat. 
Su, historia. Su ki, historicL Sach su, libri historici Sinen- 

sium. Quan ngu su, mandarini ex supremo senatu. 
Sua, latrare. Mieng hum sua, omnis vis virtusque ejus in 

lingua sua est. 
Sua sang, disponere ; moderari. Sua phat, corrigere. Sua 

tri, regere. 
Sua, lac. Banh sua bo, caseus. 
Sue, abluere vasa. Luc sue, sex species animalium, scilicet, 

elephas, equus, bos, ovis, canis, gallina. Sed nunc etiam 

sumitur communitur pro omnibus animalibus ista vox 

luc sue. Sue go, lignum enorme ; lignum rude. 
Sue, vis. Sue khoe, fortitudo, valetudo. Qua sue, supra 

vires. Het sue, totis viribus. Ra sue, summa ope niti. 
Suy, cogitare, meditari. Suy di ng hi lai, cogitare iterum 

atque iterum. Suy den su thuong kho D. C. J., cogitare 

de passione Christi. 
Sui, calefacere se. 
Sum hop, congregare se ; congregatim habitare. Sum nhau 

vao, idem. 
Sun lai, fructus contrahuntur, vel pellis contracta. 
Sun rang, exesi dentes. 

Sung suong, voluptas, voluptuose. Cay sung, arbor qua3dam. 
Sung, catapulta. Sung tru, sclopeta major, tormentum bel- 

licum. Sung trung xa, sung het, sung trang ma, dai pha 

qua son, varia sunt tormentorum bellicorum genera. 
Sung, kham sung, kink xuo, venerari, amare. Sung su dao, 

diligens in fide, fervens Dei cultor. Sung phat, addictus 

idolis. 
Sung vel thung, perforatus, a, urn. Noi thung, olla perfo- 
rata. Thung thung, cista pertusa. Sung sung, strepitus 

in loco aquarum profundo. 
Sung, inflari ; vel phu, idem. Ca va minh sung len, vel 

phu len, totum corpus inflatur, tumescit. 



340 

Sung, cornua bourn. Sung sung, dung sung, sung giua 
dung, stat immotus et enormis in medio viae. 

Suoi, khe suoi, rivulus, fons. 

Suon, vel canh suon, latus. Xuo suon, costae. 

Suong, ros. Hat suong, guttula roris. Suong muoi, ros 
malignus. 

Suong, vide sung. 

Suot lua, evellere grana ex spicis. 

Sut vel sut, dilabi. Dat sut xuo, terra dilapsa in profundum. 

Sut da ra, laceratur pellis. Say sut, idem. Vel sut so, 
etiam. 



T. 



Ta, vel chung ta, nos. Sic superiores ad inferiorem ; sed 

inferiores ad superiorem, semper chung toi. 
Ta, injuriam illatam superiori aut etiam asqualibus reparare. 

Ta on, gratias agere superiori aut Deo. 
Ta vao, ma ta vao no, daemon intravit in ilium. Toi ta, 

servus. Lam toi ta, servire. 
Ta, perversus, inordinatus. Ta ma, ta than, daemones. 

Dao la, religio perversa. Ta dam, fornicatio. Gian ta, 

iniquus. 
Ta huu vel mat trai, sinister, a, urn ; dexter a, urn. Benh 

ta, fluxus ventris. Quan ta dao, latrones. 
Tac tuong tac hinh, insculpere simulacrum. 
Tac lai, nuoc tac lai, detinetur cursus aquarum. Tac hoi 

lai, coercetur spiritus. Tac co, suffocentur fauces : male- 

dictio apud Tunkinenses. Phep tac, potestas ; majestas ; 

modestia. Vo phep vo tac, sine modestia, sine urbani- 

tate. Tac luoi, sonitum per linguam edere in signum ad- 

mirationis, doloris, irae. 
Tac, decima pars in cubito. 
Tai, auricula. Lo tai, aures. Nang tai, graves aures seu 

surdae. Tai va tai ach, infortunium, calamitas. 



341 

Tai, dotes naturae. Tai tri, dexter ingenio. Tien tai, divi- 
tiae. Gia tai, omnia bona domestica. Thu gia tai, con- 
fiscate. 

Tai mat, pallor in facie. 

Tai, a, ex ; propter, circa. Boi tai, idem est. Su nay boi 
tai ta ma ra, istud provenit ex peccatis nostris. Toi ph 
ke cuop tai noi ay, incidi in latrones circa ilium locum, 
vel propter ilium locum. 

Tay, manus. Canh tay, brachia. 

Tay, phuo tay, occidens ; Europa. Gio tay, zephyrus. Con 
tay, unicornis. Rieng tay, injustitia in judicando ex re- 
spectu personarum. Suscipere personam. 

Tay, aequalis ; aequaliter. 

Tay, purgare se. Thuoc tay, purga. 

Tam, vo tarn tinh, homo non attendens ad sua negotia. 

Tam, cho tam tien, mutuo dare pecuniam. Tam bo, lam 
tam vay, aliquid facere pro brevi tempore. Tam te, aedi- 
cula ad tempus constructa, ubi collocantur cibaria mag- 
nified facta ad sacrificandum suis mortuis. 

Tam, octo. Thu tam, octavus, a, um. 

Tam, dentis calpium, vel spumae ex immersione alicujus rei 
in aquam ; unde dicitur ; Chang thay tam dang gi sot, 
nulla umbra, nullum vestigium apparet. Toi tam, obscu- 
ritas magna. Ruou tam, sicera fortissima, spiritus vini. 

Tam, lavare corpus totum. 

Tam, bombyx. Ngo chan tam, ars serica producendi. 

Tam, frustum, particula. 

Tam thuoc, temperare medicinam. Tam tuc, gliscit animus. 

Tan ra vel tan tac, diffrangi ; dissipari. Vo tan ra, aliquid 
fractum in varias partes. D. C. B. phat quan Judeu tan 
tac khap moi noi, Deus punivit Judeos dispersione per 
varia loca. Tan nat, fractio, ruina. 
Tan ra, comminuere aliquid, pulverizare. Tan thuoc, com- 
minuere medicinam. Tan tan, umbella. Tan lua, favilla. 
Tieu tan, dispendia magna. 



342 

Tan, umbella circumdata velo. Xieu tan, dispersio. Tan 

hai, vastatio, desolatio. 
Tan, hhoi len tan bloi, fumus ascendit usque coelum. Deu 

tan nha, venit ad domum. 
Tan, Ian tan, parvus pruritus. 
Tan, finis. Tan the, consummatio saeculi. 
Tan vao, tan den, concursus hominum. 
Tang, luctus, habitus lugubris. Ao tang, vestis lugubris. 

De tang, esse in luctu vel in veste lugubri. 
Tang, sepelire. Nha tang, sedicula ad sepulturam destinata. 

Tang, est sepelire cum honore. Cai tang, aperire sepul- 

chra ad denuo inhumandum. 
Tang, cot tang, columnar domus humo infixae. Da tang, 

lapides fundamentales. Tang len, augere, accrescere. 
Tanh, vel tank tao, foetor piscis crudi. 
Tanh, cessatio pluviae. Tanh mua, cessat pluvia. 
Tao, ego ; superbe loquendo, vel superior ad inferiores. 
Tao, creare. D. C. B. tao thien lap dia, Deus creavit coelum 

et terram. 
Tao, qua tao, ziziphum. Tao bao, audax. Tao tinh, audax 

natura. 
Tao nap sung, replere et infarcire tormenta bellica. 
Tap, go tap, lignum fragile. Ue tap, sordidus, a, urn. Tap 

an, comedere sordes: dicitur de piscibus. Do tap, cibaria 

ex carne facta. 
Tap, con tap, tempestas brevis. Bao tap, tempestas magna. 

An tap, vel an thit tap, comedere carnem semicrudam. 

Tarn tap, lavare corpus. 
Tap, exercere se, vel aliquid in aliqua re assuescere. Tap 

quan, exercere milites. Con, ph tap nhan due khien 

nhuong, fili, debes exercere humilitatem. Toi tap, rapere 

aliquid celeriter. 
Tat nuoc, exhaurire aquam de agro in agrum : haurire 

aquam de vase in aliud vas, dicitur mux; de puteo ver6 



343 

per situlam, dicitur kin. Mang nhu tat nuoc, acriter et 

multum increpare. 
Tat, di tat, per viam compendiosam ire. Noi tat, breviter 

dicere. Tat lua, extinguere ignem. Tat nghi, mori. 

Tat gio, cessat ventus. 
Tat, vel tat nguyen, languor. 
Tat, vel bit tat, tibiale ; ocreae. 
Tau tanh, emere res magni pretii, quales sunt naves, agri, 

vaccae, equi. 
Tau, navis. Tau voi, tau ngua, stabulum elephantorum 

equorumque. Muc tau, vide muc. 
Tau vel tau, alloqui vel appellare regem. Tau due vua 

muon muon nam, vivat rex ad mille annos. 
Te, genus retis. 
Te, movere. 
Te, tasdium. Khi vui, khi te, modo gaudium, modd taedium. 

Com te, oryza ordinaria. 
Te chan, stupent vel tepescunt pedes. Te moi, tepor et 

dolor. 
Te, sacrificare. Te le D. C. B., offerre Deo sacrificium. 
Te, secare aliquid aequaliter. 
Tern blan, parate betel. 
Ten, nomen. Ten thanh, nomen baptismi. Ten con la di 

gi, nomen tuum quod est? Dat ten, dare nomen. Dat 

ten thanh, dare nomen sanctum; dicitur pro baptizare. 

Cai ten, sagitta. Bat ten, sagittari. 
Tex, pudorem pati ex repulsa. 
Tet, solemnitas anni novi. Di tet, offerre numera anno 

novo. Tet lai, connectere. 
Tha, parcere. Tha toi, remittere peccata ; donare veniam. 

Meo tha chuot, felis portat murem. Hum tha, ran can, 

rapiat tigris et mordeat serpens; maledictio. Tha ra, 

liberare aliquem a vinculis. 
Tha, malle. Toi tha chet chang tha bo dao, malo mori 

quam abjurare fidem. 



344 

Tha ra, solvere animal ligatum. Thao tha, otio fruens, 

libertate gaudens ; immunis ab omni labore et dolore. 
Time ra, vel thac co ra, calumniam struere. 
Thach nliau, provocare invicem ad certamen. 
Thai, conceptio. Co thai, fcetu gravida. Khoan thai, pau- 

latim, lente. 
Thai cue, aer aut principium quoddam a quo omnia creata 

esse credunt litterati Sinenses. Thai rau, secare olera. 
Thai ra, res vqteres abdicare. 
Thay doi, commutare ; succedere unum post alterum. Thay 

mat, vel thay vi, gerere vicem alterius. Be tren la dang 

thay mat D. 0. B., superior est qui gerit vicem Dei. 

Thay quien, succedere vel esse in potestate, loco alterius. 

Khoan thay, lam thay, valde clemens ; valde multum, in 

laudando. Thay thay, omnes, omnino, totum. 
Thay, cadaver ; per contemptum. Thay no, relinquatur ad 

nutum ejus. 
Thay, oculis, auribus, naribus percipere. Xem chang thay, 

invisibile aliquid, vel visd percipere non posse. Tim 

chang thay, quserendo non invenire. 
Thay, magister. Thay dao, missionarii et eorum ministri. 

Thay thuoc, medici. Thay phu thuy, magi venefici. 

Thay boi, arioli. Thay ca, sacerdotes. Due thay, vel 

due cu, episcopus. 
Tham, et tham lam, cupidus, a, um ; alieni appetens. 
Tham thiet, res digna commisseratione. Cai tham hoa, 

Tapes. 
Tham hoa, gradus litteratorum supra doctoratum tien si. 
Tham vieng, visitare. Guoi tham, vide guoi. Hoi tham, 

inquirere de aliquo homine ; vel nova nuntia. Bat tham, 

sortem mittere. 
Tham, color niger. Nguoi den, homo niger. Ao le tham, 

casula nigra. 
Tham, mui tham, color rubeus obscurus. Tham phai, max- 
ime conveniens est. Tham cue, maxima miseria. 



345 

Tham, giay tham vel giay da?n, papyrus quae atramentum 

diffundit. 
Tham, vel tham thi, secretd, demissa voce. Quan tien tham, 

exercitus secrete ducitur. 
Than, carbo. Than lua, carbo ignitus. Quan dot than, 
carbonarii. Than tho, suspirare, ingemere, lamentari. 
Mloithan, lamenlatio; suspiria; oratio jaculatoria. Con, 
phai nang than tho cung D. C. B., debes, fili, saspe elevare 
mentem, et suspirare ad Deum. 
Than, thit than, caro macra in dorso. 
Than Ian, lacertula. 

Than, vox ista varie significat. Than ou, alloquor te, Do- 
mine. Than lay cu, salve, pater. Trao than thich, in 
consanguinitate. Dou than, virgo. Mot than mot minh, 
solus ; solitarius, absque fratribus. Than toi khon nan, 
corpus meum vel vita mea misera vel vita ejus. 
Than, spiritus. Thien than, angelus. Thanh than, sanctus 
spiritus. Qui than, daemon. Thay vi, sedes spiritus 
tutelaris. Quan dai thay, magistratus supremus. Noi 
than, eunuchus. Su than, legatus. 
Than tho, vagus ; stolidus. 
Thang, scala. Bac thang, gradus scalas. Vi thang, aco- 

nitum. 
Thang, mensis. Cuoi thang, in fine mensis. 
Thang, homuncio; sic vocantur parvuli vel homines infimas 

sortis. 
Thang ngua, ornare equum ephippiis. Thang tran, vincere, 

victoriam adipisci. 
Thang, rectus ; severus ; extensus. D. C. B. rat cou thang 
vo cung, Deus infinite Justus et rectus. Lam cho thang, 
severe agere. Keo cho thang, extrahere ut sit extensum. 
Thanh guom, ferrum ; ensis. Thanh tre, frustum arundinis. 
Thanh nhan, felicitas, beatitudo. Thanh vang, solitudo. 
Thanh mui, color limpidus, vel sapor. Nha thanh, familia 
imperatorum tartarorum, qui nunc in Sinis regnant. 
44 



346 

Thanh, civitas; moenia. Thanh luy, propugnaculum muri. 

Ke o trao thanh, oppidani. 
Thanh, sanctus, a, um. Ou thanh, pro masculino genere. 

Ba thanh, sancta. Cua thanh, sacra. Nen thanh, sanc- 

tificari. Phao chuc thanh, canonizare. Thanh thot, 

stillicidium. 
Thao, cingulum seu ornamentum vestis mandarinorum. 

Thao tui, ansula bursas. 
Thao, dissolvere ; aperire ; relaxare. 
Thao, liberalitas. Cam thao, glycyrrhiza. 
Thao kinh cha me, venerari parentes. Thao lao, urbanus ; 

liber in conversatione. 
Thao tha, vide tha. Thao manh, captus lumine. 
Thao, vasculum. 
Thap, turris. 

Thap but, theca penicilli. Thap nen, accendere candelam. 
Thap, infimus; demissus, a, um. Thap nuoc, madefacere. 

Thap tri, ingenium vulgare; parum ingenii. 
Thap, decas. Vox militaris. 
That, stringere. That co, strangulare. Noi that nguoi ta, 

alios reprehendere in verbis. 
That, vel ngay that, et that tha, rectus, sincerus et simplex. 
That then, titubare. That tan, profugus. That the, omni 

auxilio egere. 
Thau, ass. Chi thau, filum ex asre productum. 
Thau, animalia juvenca. Viet thau, scribere abreviate, vel 

per compendium; ratio scribendi compendiose per notas. 
Thau dem, tota nocte. Thau ngay, tota die. Thau qua, 

pertransire, penetrare. 
The, sericum rarissimum. 
The, inscriptio ; mandatum. The bai, idem. 
The, modus; opportunitas. Cay quien the, niti auctoritate. 

Tot the, bonus modus. 
The, jurare. The thot, idem. The doi, jurare falsa. 



347 

The, fere eadem est cum voce the, modus. The nao, quo- 
modo. The nao the nao, quoquomodo. Nhu the, simili 
modo, sicut. Nhan the, eadem opera. Phai the, honesto 
modo; et sic collocantur : Con, lieu the nao, quomodo, 
disponis, fili 1 Du the nao the nao thi con cu phai cu nhu 
vay, etiam si res quoquomodo acciderit, sic debes obser- 
vare. Con phai cu nhu thay da day, debes te gerere sicut 
tibi praecepi. Con ph* dem thu nay di nhan the, after ill i 
hanc epistolam eadem opera. Con ph an o cho ph the, 
debes conversari honesto modo- Trao the, solemnis ritus. 
Thou the, liberalis. 

Them, appetitus. 

Them, addere, suppeditare. 

Them nha, additamentum domCis. 

Then cua, pessula. 

Theu, pudore suffundi. 

Theo, sequi. Theo chau, sequi vestigia. 

Thep vang, deaurare aliquid. 

Thep, chalybs. An may, an thep, mendicare. 

Thet, voi thet, elephas barrit. Keu thet, clamare alta voce. 

Thet, vel thet dai, hospites liberaliter tractare. 

Theu, acu pingere. Ao theu, vestis acu picta. 

Thi, certamen litterarum. Trang thi, palestra litterarum. 
Thi nhau ma lam, certatim agere. 

Thi, arbor qusedam. That qua thi, verissime. 

Thi, elargiri ; dare eleemosynam. Thi du, exempli gratia ; 
parabola. 

Thi, aliquid certi affirmans particula ; et solet poni cum 
moi vel se, ut, Con, co sach toi thi moi dep lao D. C. B., 
cum es mundo corde, turn Deo placebis. No ki thi lanh 
khi thi, alternis bonus, alternis malus ; modo bonus, modo 
malus. 

Thich, icere cubito. Thich chu, insculpere litteras. Thich 

* Abbreviatio pro phai, debere, debes, oportet. 



34S 

muon an, appetitus naturalis et proprius cuique. Ben thich, 
idolatria, religio idoli Thica?; paganismus. 

Thich thich, sonitus tundentis. 

Thiec, stannum. 

Thien, caslum. Thien dia chan chua, cceli terraeque Deus. 
Thien dang, paradisus coelestis. Quan tu thien, magis- 
trate mathematicus ; astrologus regius. 

Thien, castrare animalia. Ga thien, gallus castratus. 

Thieng lieng, spiritualis. Phep thieng, virtus supernaturalis. 

Thiep, concubina. Thi thiep, mandatum ; commissio. 
Thiep tinh, veneficus. 

Thiet, detrimentum. Hon thiet, lucrum vel damnum. 

Thieu, incendere. Thieu sinh, vivus aduri. 

Thieu, deesse, deficere. Nha nho thieu, inopia rei famili- 
aris laborat. 

TJiieu chau, fenestella in altari. 

Thim, uxor patrui minoris. 

Thin net, bonse indolis. 

Thin, noi thin, adulari. 

Thinh, thanh lam think, dissimulare. 

Thinh, pax, prosperitas. Thinh su, prosperitas rerum. 
Thinh no, furor ; ira principis vel regis. 

Thinh, farina ex oryza tosta. 

Thinh thoang, raro. Thung thinh, lentus. 

Thit, caro. Lam thit, occidere animalia. Dat thit, terra 
argillosa. Ghe thit, horret caro. Dicitur jocose de eo 
qui fecit quod facere non posse parebatur. 

Thiu, cibaria incipiunt foetere. 

Tho, thorn tho, odoriferus, a, um. 

Tko ra, emittere aliquid ; prominere. 

Tho, lepus. 

Tho tuc, rusticus, a, um. 

Tho ra, evomere. Tho huyet, sanguinem evomere. 

Tho, carmen, versus. Tho, faber, artifex. 



349 

Tho, colere, venerari. Nha tho, ecclesia, oratorium. Ke 

tho biet, idolorum cultor. 
Tho, respirare ; suspirare ; anhelare. 
Thoa lao buon, recreatur animus a tristitia et mcerore. 
Thoat, vel thoat choc, statim ; illico. Thoat, primo intuitu; 

statim atque. Thoat xemthay; thi lien biet, statim atque 

vidi ; illico cognovi. 
Thoc, frumentum. 
Thoi muc, frustum atramenti. 
Thoi, mos. Thoi tuc, idem. 
Thoi, satis esse ; sufficere ; cessare ; quies. 
Thoi, fcetere. Mui thoi, foetor. 
Thoi, sufflare, insufflare ; canere instruments musicis. Thoi 

be, attrahere. 
Thom, odor suavis. Thorn lam, odorem mire fragrantem 

emittere, vel diffundere. 
Thon, pagus parvus. 
Thot ra, eloqui. 
Thot, tabula culinaria. 
Thou thai, doctus, a, urn ; scientiis, litteris instructus, vel 

imbutus. Thou biet moi su vo cung, scientia divina. 

Thou cou, communicatio meritorum. Thou su, interpres. 
Thu gop, colligere, congerere. Thu qui thue, colligere vec- 

tigalia. Mua thu, autumnus. An trung thu, celebrare 

convivium autumnale. 
Thu, locus ; habitatio. Vui thu, delectari habitatione in tali 

loco. Thu vui, locus delectabilis. Cam thu, vide cam. 
Thu, inimicus. Ba thu, tres hostes animae. Ma qui, dae- 
mon ; the gian, mundus ; xac thit, caro. 
Thu lo, vel an dut, vide lo. 
Thu, don thu, praesidium. Tuan thu, custodes. 
Thu, epistola. Thu tu, idem. Kinh thu kinh thi, libri vete- 

rum carminum quae Confucius recognovit et emendavit. 
Thu, ordo. Ista vox ponitur cum omnibus numeris ad dis- 

tinguendum et faciendum, ut sint numeri cardinales ; et 



350 

sic dicendum est, thu nhat, primus, a, urn. Thu hai, se- 
cundus, a, urn, &c. May la do thu nao, tu es cujus ordi- 
nis, seu gradus 1 Thu tu, ordo bene dispositus. Thu may, 
quotus, a, urn. 

Thu, ngoi thu ra, sedere tacitus. 

Thu, experiri, probare. 

Thua, vinci, superari. 

Thua, respondere, responsio. Semper ponitur cum vocibus 
rang, et vuoi, ut no da thua vuoi toi rang, jam respondit 
raihi dicens. Ponitur etiam pro accusare, denuntiare. 
Phai thua den dang be tren cho nguoi lieu, oportet de- 
nuntiare superiori, ut provideat. Vai thua, tela rara. 

Thua, superesse. Du thua, thua lua, magna abundantia. 

Thua, cai thua, lima ad elaborandum ebur vel cornu. Kach 
thua, hospites. 

Thua tho lam, prsemonere artificem ut aliquid melius faciat. 
Thua ay, thua no, in tali loco. 

Thuc, vel thuc tha, instare ardenter, urgere. Thung thuc, 
tela pilosa. 

Thuc, redimere. Thuoc, clarius. 

Thuc, vigilare. Danh thuc, excitare a somno. Thuc day, 
evigilare a somno. Mot thuc, unum genus. 

Thue, conducere. Cho thue, locare. Thue ng* lam, con- 
ducere operarios. Nguoi lam thue, operarii. 

Thue, tributum, vectigal. Nop thue, solvere tributum. 

Thuy nuoc, aqua. Dang thuy, via maritima. Dang va, via 
terreslris. Hou thuy, diluvium. Thuy tinh, vitrum. 
Thu vai, terra marique. Thuy, argentum vivum. Thuy 
thung, hydropisis. 

Thui, semiurere animalia occisa ut mundentur a pilis ; et 
sic raro excoriantur animalia occisa. 

Thuyen, navigium, cymba. Dam thuyen, cymba submer- 
sa. Thung, vallis. 

* Abbreviatio pro nguoi, homo. 



351 

Thung, cophinus ; sporta. 

Thung, dolium. Thung chua, dolium maximum. 

Tilling tinh, vide tinh. 

Thuo, thuo xua, olim. Thuo truoc, prioribus temporibus. 
Thuo ay, illo tempore. 

Thuoc, medicina. Thuoc hay, remedium efficax. Thay 
thuoc, medicus. Thuoc doi, venenum. Thuoc lao, ta- 
bacum. Thuoc sung, pulvis tormentarius. 

Thuoc ve, pertinere, esse sub. Toi nay thuoc ve den ran 
thu nhat, peccatum hoc pertinet ad primum mandatum. 
Thuoc, vel thuoc lao, expertus, a, urn ; memoria tenere. 
Con, thuoc nhung kinh nao, quasnam orationes tenes me- 
moria 1 Bon dai thuoc ve o thay, Christiani qui sub do- 
mino ipso sunt. 

Thuoc ke, regula. Thuoc do, cubitus, mensura. Ke muc 
thuoc, homo ad regendum cseteros capacissimus. 

Thuong, misereri. Lao thuong, hay thuong, misericordia, 
misericors. Thuong hai than toi, heu, me miserum! 
Nha thuong, domus misericordiee. Thuong xot co muoi 
bon moi, misericordiae sunt quatuordecim. Thuong yen, 
amare. 

Thuo, remunerare pro aliquo labore aut aliquo negotio pru- 
denter facto. 

Thuo, saepe; ordinarius, a, um. Le thuo, missa ordinaria 
seu privata. 

Thuon vuoi dan anh, prosequi honore majores. 

Thuong, mercedem consequi aut donare a rege, aut Deo. 
D. C. B. thuong ke lanh len thien dang phat ke du xuo dia 
nguc, Deus remunerabit justos, ascendendo in paradisum; 
et damnabit malos, praecipitando in infernum. 
Thuot qua vel tliau qua, vide thau. 

Thut, ou thut, syringa. Ou thut thou quan, clysterium. 

Ti, tarn ti, tria tribunalia judicum, scilicet, Nha huyen, nha 

phu, nha thua. 
Ti, vel ti nhan nhau, vide nhan. 



352 

Ti, prima hora nocturna, quae est milium diei apud Sinenses 
et Annamitas, qui unicuique diei tribuunt duodecim horas, 
qua? sic nominantur: l.*ti; 2. a suu ; 3. a dan ; 4. a meo ; 
5. a thin; 6. a ti; 7. a ngo; 8. a mui; 9. a than ; 10. a dan; 
11." tuat; 12. a hoi. Quarum explicationem hie brevitatis 
causa omitto. Quasque duodecim horas, 24 horis Euro- 
paeis correspondent: qui modus horas numerandi apud 
Hebraeos quoque extat. 

Ti, medulla. Da hu ti, corruptus usque ad medullam ; om- 
nino corruptus. 

Ti, extremitas viscerum. 

Tia mau, vena sanguinis. 

Tia, mui tia, color violaceus. Tia ca, examen piscium. 

Tia rau, evellere olera condensa. Moi tia, invitare caeteros 
ad convivium particulatim. 

Tick cua, conservare, congerere divitias. Tick su gian, vel 
tick lao thu oan, servare odium in corde did et vindic- 
tam sumere. Dau tich, cicatrix. Vo tang tich, sine 
testimonio vel cautela, nihil inde probetur crimen. 

Tiec, convivium celebre. 

Tiec, dolere de jactura. alicujus rei vel personae. Thuong 
tiec, commisereri et dolere. Tiec lua chang muon ton, 
tenax, qui non vult exponere vitam suam periculo. Chang 
nen tiec minh vi D. C. B., non oportet recusare mortem 
pro Deo. 

Tiem, da tiem xao, jam fere peractum vel compositum nego- 
tium. Tiem, paulatim ; fere. 

Tien, homo pulcherrimus, talis qualis est e ccelo elapsus, ut 
dicunt gentiles. To tien vel tien nhan, progenitores, ante- 
cessors. Tien binh, primum agmen. 

Tien, tornare. Tho tien, tornator. Con tien, opera tornata. 
Tien the, eadem opera. Tieu tien, mingere. 

Tien, offerre aliquid regi. Tien cung, offerre Deo. Cung 
dang, idem est. 

Tien, moneta. Tien bac, pecunia. Dou tien, rnoneta 
cuprea. 



353 

Tien hhach, excipere hospites. 

Tieng, vox; lingua; fama. Blon tieng, alta voce Nho 
tieng, parva voce. Khan tieng, vox rauca. Trao tieng, 
vox canora. Em tieng, vox suavis. Co danh tieng, ha- 
bere celebrem famam. Xau tieng, fama pessima. Noi 
tieng khoe nhau, dissimili lingua loqui. 

Tiep, carina. Tiep vao, adjungere. 

Tiet, sanguis. 

Tieu, digerere cibum. Tieu dung, impendere pecuniam. 
Ho tieu, piper. An chang tieu, ciborum indigestio. 

Tieu, parvus, a, um. Thang tieu, parvuli Bonziorum minis- 
tri. Tieu hau, pedissequus. Cai tieu, sarcophagus. 

Tim, blai tim, cor. Tim la, morbus venereus. 

Tim mau, livor. 

Tim, quaerere. Tim toi, idem est. 

Tin, credere, fidere nuntium. No chang tin, non credit. 
Co tin den, venit nuntium. Dem tin, nuntiare. Mang 
tin, audito nuntio. Tham tin, inquirere nuntia. Ng ta 
chang ke hay noi doi may, parum fides mendacibus est. 

Tinh than, spiritus vitales. Hao ton tinh than, consumun- 
tur spiritus vitales. Lau ting, vide lau. Tinh, etiam 
sumitur pro dasmonibus. Qui tinh, pejor da3mone. Tinh 
mui, vel sou mui, os nasi. 

Tinh, thanh tinh, castus, a, um; castitas. Tinh trai, jeju- 
nium naturale. Tinh khou, parum, nihil. 

Tinh, natura, substantia. Tinh giao, lex naturalis. Tinh 
net, indoles, propensio. Tinh lai, vel tinh loan lai, ad 
calculum revocare. Toi tinh the nay, sic puto. Ng tinh 
me net xau, vir ingenio malo pravoque. 

Tinh, affectus cordis. Vo tinh, sine attentione. Tinh co, 
vide co. 

Tinh, sanus, compos mentis. Tinh lai, redire ad se, ani- 
mum revocare ad se. 

Tit, callum parvum. No co tit trao minh, habet callum in 
corpore ; aut conscius sibi alicujus sceleris. 
45 



354 

Tit, be tit, vel nho tit, minimus, a, urn. 

Tiu, tuc tiu, verba obsccena. 

To, crassus, grassus, a, urn; grandis, e. 

To te, sciolus. 

To, et to tuong, clarus, a, urn ; clare ; clarificare ; prodere ; 

clare scire. Noi lai cho to, repetere clare. Cu, da nghe 

to chua, jam ne clare audiisti, pater. Viec ay toi da to, 

illud negotium jam clare scio. 
To lo, publice, manifesto. Con dou, con to, tempestas levis. 
To, nidus. To tou, progenitores. Cai Thanh to tou, sancti 

Patriarchee. 
To, sericum ex quo fiunt fila. Keo to, producere fita serica. 

Giou to, omnia qua? fiunt ex serico. 
To, to vay, fere similis, e. 
To vel tao, vide tao. May tao, tu, ego. Nguoi to, idem. 

Sunt voces superborum et iratorum. Day to, discipulus, 

famulus. 
To giay, folium papyri, scriptum. Guio to, mittere scrip- 
turn. Len to, scriptum conficere. 
Toa, giao toa, causidicus versipellis et vafer. 
Toa, thronus ; tribunal. 
Toa, la toa, pulvinar ephippii. 
Toa khoi toa ra, fumus spargitur. Hoa moi toa ra, flos sese 

explicans. Thiet toa, vinculum. 
Toai, bat toai, paralyticus. 
Toan, deliberare ; decernere ; aggredi ; parare. Ao toan 

keu, parabat acclamare. 
Toan, arithmetica ; computare. Con toan, calculi. Ha 

con toan, bo con toan, calculos ponere. 
Toe, capillus. De tang, vel de toe cho cha me, pulla veste 

indui causa luctus ; habitum lugubre induere pro honore 

parentum mortuorum. 
Toe, tui toe, statim, casleriter. 
Toi, pestis animalium, lues. 
Toi, vinculum, catena. Loi toi, idem. 
Toi, allium. 



355 

Toi, ego ; meus, a, urn. Cua toi, res mea. Chung toi, nos, 

noster, a, urn. Toi ta, servus ; ancilla. 
Tor, peccatum ; poena; reatus. Pham toi, peccare. Chiu 

toi, posnam luere. Phep giai toi, sacramentum pceniten- 

tias vel absolutio sacramentalis. Xung toi, confiteri pec- 

cata. Den toi, satisfacere pro peccatis. Noi giai toi, 

purgatorium. Toa giai toi, confessionale. Thang rat ke 

co toi, homo omnium quos terra sustinet sceleratissimus. 
Toi, obscurus, a, um ; obscuritas, nox. Dem toi tarn, nox 

obscurissima. Toi da, obscurum ingenium, homo parva; 

memoriae. 
Toi tan, labefactus, a, um ; desolatus ; lapsus in ruinam. 
Toi, ao toi, pluviale. 
Toi, venire. O dau ma toi, unde venis? Buoc toi len, pro- 

gredi. Toi len, progredi, regredi. 
Tom, comprehendere. Tom ve vel torn lai, comprehendere 

ad. Muoi den ran D. C. B. torn ve hai su nay, decern 

mandata Dei ad haec duo comprehenduntur. 
Tom, locusta marina. 
Ton kinh, honorare. Ton su, reverendus magister seu 

sacerdos. 
Ton, expendere. Lam ton cua, prodigus. 
Ton, du ton, crudelis ; crudeliter. 
Ton tac, pavidus, a, um ; trepide hue illuc cursitare. 
Tang, contignatio. Tang bloi, gradus ccelorum. 
Tang len lam quan, provehere ad dignitates. Bong tang, 

aurora. 
Top mo, adeps decocta et expressa. Nguoi ra tung top, 

turmatim sedere. 
Top lay, ore celeriter rapere. 
Tot ra, cito foras elabi vel effugere. Tot truoc, fugere. Bo 

tot, unicornius. 
Tot, bonus, a, um. Tot lanh, formosus, a, um. Tot xinh, 

idem. 
Tou chi vel to tou, progenies ; progenitores. Tou do, dis- 

cipuli. 



356 

Tou, dcducere; comitari ; adjudicare. 

Tou, toparchia. Truong tou, procurator publicus in topar- 

chia. Tou co, signifer. 
Tra vao, promittcre. Tra hoi, inquirere juridice, interro- 

gare. Quanh thanh tra, inquisitores. Tra do an, tempe- 

rare cibaria. 
Tra, man tra, vel doi tra, fallax, mendax. 
Tra lua, ejusdem classis, occasionis. 
Tra vel bla, reddere, restituere. 
Tra, genus ollae fictilis. 
Trac, crepitaculum. 
Trach, vel track moc, conqueri. Trach vi su loi, delicta 

reprehendere. 
Trai, ostrea. Con trai, vel con blai, puer. Trai gai, pec- 

catum luxuries. 
Trai, villa. Trai chan, vel truot chan, lapsus pedum ; fere 

labi, fere lapsus est. 
Trai, perverso modo. Tay trai, manus sinistra. Trai vel 

blai, fructus. 
Trai vel Mai chieu, explicare mattas. Da tra moi su, expe- 

rientia omnium rerum doctus. 
Tray lay vel May lai, legere flores aut fructus. 
Tray vao vel May vao, respergere sordes aut vicem vesti- 

bus, aut aliis rebus. 
Tray, proficisci. Chuyen tray, profectio. 
Tray tro, quod difficile fit. 
Tram, pix, bitumen. 

Tram, mot tram, centum. Tram Ian, centres. 
Tram, piscis, quidam. Tram, in aures. 
Tran, certamen. Duoc tran, vincere. Thua, vel thoi tran, 

vinci. 
Tran chau, gemma?. 

Tran, regere, moderari. Quan tran, gubernator provincial. 
Tran, nudus, a, urn ; sine veste. Tran truo, nudus absque 

ullo velamine. 



357 

Tran trut, fugere laborem. 

Tran, frons. Soi tran, calvus. 

Tran vel Man ra, exundare. Toi ng ta da blan kap dat, 

peccatum hominum jam exundat per totum orbem. 
Trax, coluber. 
Trax, dai tran, parva pocula quibus utuntur gentiles in suis 

sacrifices. 
Trang vel blang, pagina. Nghiem trang, majestuosus. 
Trang nguyen, supremus gradus litteratorum. 
Trang gio, pervius locus vento. Banh trang, genus edulii. 
Trang, palasstra. Trang hoc, collegium. Trang ao, colla- 

rium vestis. Tre trang, piger. Trang hot, rosarium. 

Trang hoa, serta florum. 
Trang vel blang, luna. 
Traxg, albus, a, urn. 
Traxg, go trang, lignum durissimum. Nguoi tro trang, 

homo durus, impudens. Tro trao, idem. 
Tranh ve, tabula picta. Tranh, vel blanh lop nha, paleoe 

contexts quibus teguntur domus. Tranh nhau, semulari 

invicern. 
Traxh, genus testudinis. 
Tranh, decedere via aut paulisper declinare. Tranh trut, 

vel tran trut, vide tran trut. 
Trao cho, tradere, praebere. 
Trao ra, ebullire. 
Trao, inter, intra ; inter vos. Trao chung bay, intra arcam. 

Trao hom, trao lao, in corde. Trao nam, anno recenter 

elapso. Ra nan, anno proxime venturo. Nuoc trao, 

aqua limpida. 
Trao, nobilis, pretiosus, gravis. Sang trao, nobilitas. Minh 

thanh D. C. J. la cua rat trao, corpus Christi est res pre- 

tiosissima. Toi trao, peccatum grave. 
Trao, incunabula. Trao, laqueus. 
Trap vel Map, aqua agitata exilit e vase. 
Trap com, aliquid oryzae calida; superponere, ut calefiat. 



358 

Trap tai, canis depressoe auriculae. 

Trat, oblinere parietem. 

Trat, an trat, manducare grana dente frangendo. Trat, 

occasio, tempus. 
Trau, bubalus. 
Trau, pellicula oryzae. 
Trau vel blau, betel. Tem blau, vide tern. 
Tre, arundo indica. Tre pheo, idem. Bui tre, arundi- 

netum. 
Tre, vel tre mo, pueri, puellee. Tuoi tre, adolescentia, ju- 

ventus. Con tre, teneris adhuc annis, adhuc esse juvenis. 
Tre nai, desidiosus ; vide tre trang. Tre ao xuo, vestis ab 

humero pendens. 
Trech ra, aliquid paulisper excedens e suo loco. 
Trem moi, lambere labia. 

Trem, chay trem mot chut, aliquid modice semiustum. 
Trejv, superior ; supra, super. Be tren, Deus; rex; supe- 
rior. Tren bloi, in coelo. Tren rung, in sylvis. 
Treo, suspendere aliquid fune. 
Treo, gke treo, sedes plicabilis. 
Treo, conscendere arbores. 
Treu gheo, molestare, inquietare. 
Tret vel giet lo, obturare foramen. 
Tri, regere, imperare. 
Tri, mens, ingenium. Tri khon, idem. Thuong tri, excel- 

lentis ingenii. Co tri tra, ingeniosus. 
Trich, ca trick, immotus. 
Trieu, decern milliones. 
Trieu than vel quan trieu, curia, supremi consules. Mu 

trieu thien, corona regis. 
Triet di, delere. 
Tro vel bio, cinis. 
Tro, hoc tro, scholasticus. Nha tro, histriones. Lam tro, 

representare comcedias. Noi truyen tro, narrare his- 

torias. 



359 

Tro, indicare. 

Tro cua vel bio cua, portam facere. 

Tro, vel bio lua da tro, vel da bio, spicac exurgunt. Ngoif 

lua tro len, exurgit flamma. 
Tro trao, homo perfrictee frontis. 
Tro thi, pro circumstantia et instantia. temporis ; ad tempus 

aliquid factum. 
Tro di tro lai, vel bio di bio lai, ire, redire ; vertere, rever- 

tere. Tro nhieu viec, impediri multis negotiis. Nhieu 

su ngan tro, multa obtant impedimenta. Ngan tro viec 

doi bla, negotiis superstitiosis implicatus. Tro viec, in- 

tentus negotio aliquo. 
Troc vel bloc da ra, evellitur pellis. 
Troc dau vel troi dau, obtonsum caput. 
Troc vel bloc di, convellitur arbor tempestate. 
Troi, cai troi, cista rara ad capiendas ollas. Troi, ligare 

reum, vincire. 
Troi di, ferri aquarum impulsu. Ca troi, quidam piscis. 

Qua troi, fructus quidam. Ma troi, igniculi nocte appa- 

rentes. 
Troi len vel bloi, emergere, eminere. 
Trom, clam, occulte. An trom, furari. Ke trom, fur. 

Chua cua ke trom, custodire res furto ablatas. 
Tron, rotundus, a, um. 
Tron vel blon, integer, a, um; perfectns; absolutus, a, um. 

perfecte. 
Tron, vel blan tron, nates. Tron kim, foramen acus. 
Tron, vertere et revertere acetarium. 
Tron, fugere. Tron tranh, idem. 

Tron, lubricus, a, um ; labilis. Dang tron, via luto lubrica. 
Tron trung mat len, micant oculi deductis superciliis. 
Trot vel blot, integer, a, um ; totus, a, um. Lam viec blot 

ngay, laborare tota die. Trot, aliquando est vox excu- 

santis se, ut : Toi da trot lam, xin anh tha cho, jam erravi, 

peto a te veniam. Su da trot, quod ex errore peractum 

est. 



300 

Trou doi, expectare. Trou cay, sperarc, spem in aliquo 
ppnere. Bo lao trou cay, despondere animo. 

Trou, cai trou, tympanum. Danh trou, pulsare tympanum. 
Bung trou, fabricare tympanum. Trou, vol trou trai, 
patens ; palam. Noi trou vay, generaliter diccre sine 
determinatione personam, &c. Xung toi trou vay chang 
du, confessio generalis peccatorum, id est, absque circum- 
stantiis requisitis, non satis est. 

Trou vel blou cay, plantare arbores. 

Tru len, ululare more canis aut lupi. Oho dai can tru len, 
canis rabiosi veneno infectus ululatus. Tru nha, columna 
domus. Nen tru, cera paschalis. 

Tru, o tarn tru, hospitari per aliquot dies. 

Tru tri, morari, morosus. 

Tru, expellere ; amandare. Tru qui, expellere da^monem 
ex energumenis. 

Tru, vel tick tru, conservare, asservare in futurum usum. 
Tru duong, conservare, favere alicui. Tru duong dao 
kiep, protegere latrones. 

Trua, da trua, si dicatur mane, sensus est: jam est tarde; 
ut: Horn nay ta thuc day da trua, hodie surreximus 
tarde. Si vero prope meridiem est sermo ; tunc vero 
fere meridies est. Bua trua, vel an com trua, prandium. 

True trac, vox non apta ad orationis connectionem. Non 
est porpolia oratio. (Sic in MS.) 

True tinh, nalura fervida, zelosa. True doi, expectare, 
assistere, astare ut in promptu sit. 

Trui, idem est ac troc troi, vide troc. 

Trui vat, luctatores qui caput suum obtundent. 

Truy tarn, quoerere, investigare. 

Truyen, historia, confabulatio. 

Truyen, mandare, prsecipere ; tradere posteris. D. C. B. 
phan truyen lam vay, Deus praecipit sic. D. C. J. truyen 
bay phep sacramento, Christus instituit septem sacra- 
menta. Chi truyen, vel phung truyen, edictum regis. 
Toi to tou truyen, originale peccatum. 



361 

Trum, ou trum, vel lam (rum, caput esse in aliqua societatc, 
pago, confraternitate. Trum ca minh, cooperire totum 
corpus. 

Trum, genus cista? ad capiendos pisciculos, et locustas 
aquaticas. 

Trum, non trum, galerus concavus. 

Trun vel blun, lumbricus. 

Trung phao, captus maligna aura aut aliqua alia infirmitate. 

Trung, trung diep diep, numerus innumerabilis. Trung 
danh trung hieu, similitudo nominis. 

Trung, ovum. Trung chay, lens. Trung ung, ovum uri- 
num. Ga ap trung, gallina incubat ovis. Ga de trung, 
gallina parit ova. Vo trung, testa ovi. Lao trang trung, 
albumen ovi. Lao do trung, vitellus. 

Truoc, ante. Truoc mat, coram. Khi truoc, vel truoc khi, 
antequam. Doi truoc, priora tempora. Truoc het, ante 
omnia. Truoc khi D. C. J. chua co ra doi thi chang co 
ai duoc len thien dang sot, ante Christi incarnationem 
nemo ascendit in ccelum omnino. Toi chang dam hua 
truoc, non audeo prius promittere. 

Trung vel sung, vallis, loca demissiora. 

Truo, major. Truong nam, primogenitus. Truong tou, 
major seu procurator in toparchia. Xa truong, vel 
truong toe, pater familias ; familise princeps. 

Truong, pho truong, vide pho. 

Truong don, infligere verbera ; caedere fuste vel verberibus. 
Mot truong, mensura decern cubitorum. 

Truo, vide tran. 

Trut ra, diffugere. Trut ao ra, exuere se veste. 

Tu, congregare se ; concrescere. Vide quan tu. 

Tu hanh, monachus vel eremita. Thay tu, monachi idola- 
triae. Cai thanh tu hanh, sancti monachi. Di tu, mona- 
chum profited. Dao tu hanh, religiones monachorum. 
Nha tu hanh, monasterium. 
46 



302 

Tu, nhieu tu, sic vocantur iilii privilcgiati ex dignitate aut 
merito patris. Ou nhieu on tu, idem. 

Tu vac, vel tu nguc, career. Tu ehan, pedes coercendo 
aut sedendo diu in uno loco fatigantur. 

Tu vel pku, cooperire aliquid paleis. 

Tu, quatuor, quartus, a, urn. Muoi tu, quatuordecim. Thu 
tu, quartus, a, urn, vel feria quarta. Tu thien, scientia 
mathematica. Quan tu thien, magistratus mathematici, 
quorum est conficere calendaria. 

Tu, y tu, intentio ; res intenta. Nguoi co y co tu, homo 
bene attentus ad sua opera. 

Tu, a, ab, ex. Tu nha toi den day, e domo mea hue usque. 
Tu con xung toi Ian truoc den ray, duoc may thang nay, 
fili, ex quo fecisti ultima m confessionem usquemodo, quot 
menses effluxerunt? Tu D. C. J. ra doi, a Christiana 
salute, vel a Christi nativitate, vel a Christo nato. Tu 
bao gio, a quo tempore. Tu nay ve sau, con ph ra sue 
lanh cac dip toi, ex hoc in posterum debes, fili, vitare 
omnes occasiones peccandi. Tu con, abdicare filium. 
Chang nen tu con trai mle, non licet contra rationem ab- 
dicare a se filium. 

Tu, vox Sinico Annamitica duas significationes habens, 
mortis aut filii. Unde cum dicitur sink tu, id est, vita et 
mors. Tu vi dao, mortuus vel mortua pro religione, seu 
martyris. The tu, uxor et liberi. De tu, famuli, disci- 
puli. Quan tu, philosophus vel scientiis celeberrimus; 
sapiens. 

Tu, thu tu, vide thu. Tu nhien, dao tu nhien, lex naturae. 
Tinh tu nhien, natura. Nguoi nhien biet yen men cha me, 
homines a natura sicut parentes esse amandos. Nguoi 
tu nhien hay noi, homo a. natura sua, seu ex seipso 
loquax. 

Tua, radius. Sao tua, stella caudata. 

Tua sach, praefatio libri. 



363 

Tuc, thoi tuc, mos, consuetude Xuat giang tuy tuy khuc, 

nhap gia tuy tuc, cum Romre fueris, Romano vivito more. 

Noi tuc, vorax. 
Tuc, chuot tuc, vox muri propria. 
Tuc thi, statim. Tuc gian, impetus irou. Dau tuc, impetus 

doloris. 
Tui, saccus, crumena. 

Tui than vel tui ho, pudore et confusione plenus. 
Tuy rang, etiam si licet. 
Tuy, sequi, conformare se mori. Tuy tuc, sequi morem. 

Tuy ma cai minh, pro opibus. Tuy sue, pro viribus. 
Tuyen, integer, a, urn ; totus, a, um. Lang nay da co dao 

tuyen, iste pagus jam factus est Christianus totus. Tuyen 

nien, toto anno. Tuyet, nix. 
Tuoc, quet tuoc, verrere. Chut tuoc, dignitates. 
Tuoi, annus astatis. Tuoi tac, senex. Da co tuoi, accedere 

ad senectutem. Xem tuoi, vana observantia annorum 

astatis. 
Tuoi, viridis, recens. Ca tuoi, piscis recens. Chet tuoi, 

mors subitanea. 
Tuoi, rigare. 
Tuon vao, confluere. 
Tuo, pha tuo ra, perfringere, destruere. 
Tuo, forma, Tuo chu, forma litierae seu scriptura?. Nguoi 

vo tuo, sine forma, homo, seu homo nullius formas urbani- 

tatis. Nguoi buo tuo, disolutus. 
Tuong, condimentum ex fabis factum. 
Tuong, statua, simulachrum. 
Tuong, dux. Thuong tuong, supremus seu maximus dux. 

Dai tuong, magnus dux. Ta tuo, pho tuo, dux ad sinis- 

trum cornu. Co tuo hieu, vexillum ducis ad commonen- 

dum. 
Tuo, murus, paries. To luong, vide to. 
Tuong, versare in mente aliquid. Tuong su chang nen, 

cogitare illicita. Tuong nho, vel to tuong, desiderare in 

animo. 



364 



U. 



U, aliquid tegendo humectare. 

U, respondentis et approbantis vox. 

U bo, gilbus vaccarum, vel callum. 

Ua, folia flava ex ariditate. 

Ua, invicem amare, concordare. No chang ua toi la bao 

nhieu, non multum me amat. U me, hebes. 
Ua mau ra, sanguis per os fluit. 
Uc, ca uc, nomen piscis. 
Uc ich tra bung, motus et molestia in ventre. 
Uc mo ac, pectus. 
Uc di, sonus deglutientis. 

Uc, lam uc lao ng ta, injustitiam facere aliis per vim. 
Ui, ca ui, pisces supernantes fcetorem aquce non ferentes. 
Ui, lam ui xuo, supprimere. Lam ui di, per vim facere. 
Ui, yen ui, consolari. Sach yen ui ke liet, liber legendus 

ad consolationem infirmorum. 
Uy nghiem, majestas magna. 
Ung, trung ung, ovum urinum. 
Ung ung, genus solse. 
Ung, consentire. 
Uoi, bank uoi, edulii genus. 
Uom, rugitus tigridis. 
Uong hot, seminare. 
Uoc ao, impense desiderare. 
Uong uong, nondum bene maturus fructus. Homo non est 

perfecte prudens. Inh uong, genus ranae. 
Uom, accommodare vestem, componere ad videndum. 
Uop ca, respergere sal piscibus, ad conservandum per breve 

tempos. 
Uot, madidus, a, um ; madefactus, a, urn. 
Uo, bibere. Ung thu, ulcus. 
Up, cooperire ollas suo operculo. 
Ut, ultimus, a, um. Con ut, filius ultimus. 



365 



Va, vao dau, impingere aliquid contra caput. 

Va, reatus ; poena ex peccato. 

Va, resarcire vestem. Cho va, canis maculatus. 

Va, particula et. Va com vao mieng, intromittere oryzam 

ori per baculos. Ca va hai, simul duo. Ca va, totus, 

a, um. 
Va, alapas dare. Cay va, ficus. Quo at va, genus urn- 

bellas ad instar foliorum ficus. 
Va, di va, iter pedestre. An va, comedere obsonia absque 

oryza. 

Vac, dolabro secare ; dolare. Chim vac, luna splendidis- 

sima. 
Vac, gerere aliquid solidum humero. 
Vach, paries. Cai vach, centurio. 
Vach voi, notare aliquid per calcem. Vach dat. terram per 

lineam cultro secare. Cai vach, instrumentum fartoris 

quo lineam facit. 
Vai, humerus. 

Vai, vasa ad continenda salsamenta. 
Vai, invocare. Vai bloi dat, invocare ccelum et terram. 

Khan vai, idem. 
Vai va, duo tresque vel tria. 

Vai, tela, pannus ex gossipio. Vai gai, tela ex lino texta. 
Vai, bonzia. Vai thoc ra, spargere frumenta. 
Vai, ou ba ou vai, progenitores. Vay muon, mutuari. Cho 

vay muon, mutuo dare; vide muon. 
Vay, contortus, a, um ; perversus, a, um. 
Vay, femorale mulierum. 
Vay ten, ala sagittae. 
Vay, squama. Danh vay, desquamare. 
Vay lay, vocare per manum. 
Vay ca, pinna piscis. Vay boc thanh, obsidere civitatem. 

Circumsedere urbem armis, circumdare urbem. 



36G 

Vay, igitur. Ay vay, vay thi, idem. The vay, sic. Nhu 

vay, idem. 
Van, keu van, expostularc, implorare. Con, phai nang keu 

van than tho cung D. C. B., fili, debes continuo suspirare 

ad Deum. 
Van, vel rnuon van, decern millia. Maori muon van van, 

innumerabilis multitude 
Van, tabula. Dau van, genus phaseoli. 
Van, viec da van, opus jam est in exitu, vei jam paulo sese 

remittunt negotia. Van, est etiam prosa. Van bot ao, 

vestem minuere. 
Van, littera ; oratio. Van te, oratio precatoria in sacrificiis 

gentilium. Van thao, epitaphium. Van tu, chirogra- 

phum. Van tho, carmina. Nguoi van vat, homo litteris 

bene instructus. Quan van, mandarini litterati. 
Van, circumvolvere. 
Van vel ngan, brevis, e. 
Van, hum van, tigris maculatus. 

Van nien, cyclus annorum. Van menh, fortuna, fatum. 
Van van, et caetera, et reliqua. 
Van vit vel quat quid, multis nexibus involvere. 
Van quanh, circumagere, circumvolvere. 
Van vo vel vo van, homo ineptus, imprudens, importunus. 
Vang, aurum. Nhuom vang, tingere colore flavo. 
Vang, obedire. 

Vang, lignum ex quo elicitur rubeus color. 
Vang, abesse. Vang nha, abesse domo sua. Vang ve, 

locus solitarius, secretus. 
Vanh vel vao, circulus ; torquis. 
Vao, vide da. Vao, intrare. 
Vao, trao vao, vide trao. Tieng vao ra, echo. 
Vat, res ; brutum ; animal. Vat gi, quid 1 qua? res ? Muon 

vat, vel moi vat, omnes creatures. May la vat gi, tu quid 

est Danh vat, colluctari. 
Vat, thuyen chay vat, cymba fertur obliquo velo contra 

ventum. 



3G7 

Vat, duaj partes cxtcriores vestis. 

Vat nuoc di, exprimere aquam ab aliqua re ut exsiccetur. 

Vat di vel quang di, projicere aliquid fortiter. Vat man 

len, velum relevare vel attollere. 
Ve sau, cicada 1 . 

Ve van, versus quidam aut prosa. 
Ve, modus. Ve nay, ve no, isto modo, alio modo. Noi 

nhieu ve lam, multifarie loqui. 
Ve, pingere. Tho ve, pictor. 

Ve, de ; in ; redire. Cho ve nha, domum dimittere. Ph 
nang noi truyen ve D. C. J. cung cac thanh, oportet identi- 

dem sermonem facere de Christo et Sanctis. Su vui that 

ve mot D. C. B. ma thoi, vera voluptas est in solo Deo. 

Tu nay ve sau, posthac, in posterum. 
Ve lai vel vien lai, globos facere; rotundum aliquid reddere. 
Ve, vei blai ve, femur. 
Vem, genus ostrea? magnoe. 
Ven tuyen vel blon ven, integer, a, urn. Ven ao, sustollere 

vestem. Ven quan len, elevare femorale. 
Ven, cho ven, canis maculatus. 
Veo, testus, a, um. 
Veo, digitis carnem convellere. 
Vet lay, colligere particulas vel aliquid residuum e mensis, 

vasibus, &c. 
Vet, psittacus. Vet, cicatrix, aerugo. 
Vi bang, si. 
Vi, propter, eo quid, pro, quoniam, quia. Vi su ay, ideo, 

propterea. Vi chung, quia. Vi toi, propter me; pro me. 

Vi lam sao ? quare 1 Thay vi, loco alterius, vice alterius. 

Vi nha, arcus domus. Than vi than chu, sedes anima3 ; 

tabella superstitiosa. 
Via, spiritus animalis; spiratio. Mat via, ex metu fere ex- 

halare animam. Hu via, revocare animam egressam ex 

metu. An via, celebrare natale. 
Viec, negotium, occupatio. Vice vieng, negotium particu- 



368 

lare ; salus propria. Viec bua viec quan, negotia publica. 

Viec doi bla, opera superstitiosa. Viec nen viec chang, 

opera licita aut illicita. Ng nay nen viec, iste homo ap- 

tus est negotiis c;erendis. 
Vien, globus. Vien thuoc, pillula medicinae. Cha vien, 

condimentum ex carne concisa et globata. Quan vien, 

majores in pago. Sai vien, ministri missi. 
Vieng, vigilare. Tham vieng, idem. 
Viet, vel viet sack, scribere. 
Vich, cai vich, testudo marina. 
Vin xuo, deprimere rarnum. 
Vin lay vel vo lay, apprehendere aliquid in adjumentum. 

Chet duoi vo lay bot, naufragus apprehendit spumam, id 

est, vanas spes. 
Vinh Men, felicitas, beatitudo. 
Vit, anas. Vit bloi, coturnices. 
Vo, rete parvum ad piscandum. 
Vo, cai vo, dicta, seu vas mediocre. Vo lua, triturare. 

Vo gao, lavare oryzam. 
Vo, cortex arborum aut fructuum. 
Vo vang, pallidus ; macer. 
Vo, sine. Vo dao, sine religione, seu gentilis. Vo phep, 

inurbanus. Vo y, sine intentione, ex inadvertentia. Vo 

cung, sine fine. Vo thuy vo chung, aeternus. 
Vo, malleus ; tudes. Vo, palma manus. 
Vo, suaviter demulcere. Noi vo ve, adulari. 
Vo, uxor. Vo mon, concubina. 
Vo van, vide van. Vo, vide vin. 
Vo, quoddam insectum macerrimum ; unde fit proverbium. 

Xac nhu vo, id est, macerrimum sicut illud insectum. 
Vo, codex. Sach vo, libri. 
Vo, confractio ; confractus, a, um. Danh vo, vel lam vo, 

frangere. Chum vo, vas fractum. Vo tau, vel dam tau, 

naufragium. 
Voc, tela serica crassa. 



369 

Voc, manipulum. 

Voi, elephas. 

Voi voi, altissimus, a, urn. 

Voi, proboscis. Voi voi au, elephas proterit suis pedibus 

aliquid. 
Voi, calx. Ne voi, calce parietem oblinire. 
Voi, properanter. Viec voi, negotium urgens. Voi vang, 

idem. Voi gian, facilis ad iram. An noi voi vang, in- 
considerate loqui. 
Voi, cay voi, qugedam arbor. 
Voi, ex parte evacuari. Con voi, nondum omnino imple- 

tus, a, urn. 
Voi sang, transfundere. Voi ra, evacuare. 
Voi tay len, extendere in altum manum ad apprehendendum 

aliquid. 
Voi, xa voi, longum spatium. Con xa voi, adhuc longe 

distare. 
Von lax, aliquid conglobatur. 
Von, summa capitalis. Iniro von lai, (Sic in MS.) summa 

capitalis et lucrum. Von no the vay, ex se sic est. 
Von, hum von nhau, tigrides lasciviunt. 
Vang, obedire ; obtemperare. Vang mloi chiu luy, obedi- 

entia. 
Vot, expolire aliquid cultro. 
Vot, pertica, virga. Vide roi. 
Vot, cai vot, reticulum. 

Vot, cai vot, gladius qui habet manubrium longum. 
Vot len, extrahere aliquid ex aqua. 
Vu tarn, commodato dare. 
Vu, ubera, mammilla. 
Vu, quam vu, mandarini bellicosi. 
Vua, rex. 

Vuc lay, haurire aquam vasculo. 
Vuc, stagnum. 

Vui, lsetus, a, urn ; lsetitia. Vui ve, laetitia magna. 
47 



370 

Vui, aliquid humo contegere. 

Vun lai, accumulare. Vun trou, accumulare terram ad 

plantandum aliquid. 
Vung, cai vung, operculum ollas parvse. Vung vang, rotare 

ad projiciendum. 
Vung ve, imperitus, a, um ; imperite. 
Vung nay, hcec vicinia. Vung vang, gestus irati. 
Vung, dao vung, fossam facere. 
Vung vang, firmus, a, um. Stabilis, e. O cho vung, esto 

confirmatus. 
Vuo, quadratus, a, um. Vuo vuc, idem. 
Vuon, hum vuon ra, tigris se erigens. 
Vuon, species simiae. 
Vuon, hortus. 
Vung, sesamum. Vung dat, globus terras. Vung bloi, 

sphaera coelestis. Vung cu mloi be tren day, jussa efficere. 
Vuong mat chut, leviter detineri. 
Vuot, unguis tigris aut leonis. 
Vuot Men, navigare, currere maria. Vuot khoi, evadere ; 

superare. 
Vua phai, mediocriter. Vua, asqualis, conformis. Hai 

nguoi nhau, duo homines Concordes inter se. Vua vua, 

mediocriter. Vua doan, vel vua roi, statim atque. Toi 

vua den, statim atque perveni. 
Vuoi, cum. Habet plures significationes. Thao vuoi cha, 

honorare parentes, &c. 



Xa, longus, a, um ; longe distare. Bao xa, quanta distantia. 
Di xa, longe profiscici. Con xa ngay, adhuc restant 
multi dies. Xau xa, turpis, deformis. Cai xa keo vai, 
rota ad producendum fila. 

Xa huo, moschus. Con xa, animal quod moschum producit. 



371 

Xa nhan, legatus ad inquirendum de bello. Xa qui thue 
cho dan, eximere a tributo populum. Pho xa, taberna. 

Xa nha, tigrum. {Sic in MS. q. tignum?) 

Xa, pagus major. Xa truo, vide truong. Negotiorum pagi 
curator. In uno quoque pago magno sunt tres procura- 
tors qui vocantur Xa truo; nempe Xa chinh, primus, 
Xa su, secundus; et tertius vocatur Xa tu. Lam xa, 
esse procurator in pago. 

Xac, corpus. Xac thit, caro. Tinh xac thit yeu duoi, caro 
infirma, fragilis. Chang nen theo tinh xac thit, non opor- 
tet sequi naturam corruptam. Xac chet, cadaver. Liem 
xac, vide liem. Lam phep xac, benedictio tumuli. Xac 
ran lot, exuvia serpentis. 

Xac, gestare aliquid per manum. 

Xac, thang lao xac, nebulo. 

Xai, 50 mat xai di, ex timore perdere vires. 

Xav, sedificare. Xay di van lai, cursus et recursus. 

Xay, molere. Coi xay, molendina. Cay coi xay, malva. 

Xay thay, ex improviso videre. 

Xam, mui xam, color cineris. 

Xam tau lai, oblinire iterum bitumine navem. 

Xam, rete ad capiendos pisciculos in aqua rapida. 

Xam, humum per acutum ferrum scrutari. Xam choc, 
idem est. Loan xam, bellum externum. 

Xam, ccecus. 

Xan dat, secare terram ligone. 

Xang xit, imprudens. Lam xang xit, temere agere absque 
ulla. prudentia. 

Xanh, cai xanh, cacahus. Mui xanh, color viridis. Xanh 
mat, pallor in vult . 

Xao xac, perturbatio ; perturbatus, a, urn. 

Xao vel xao, condire aliquid celeriter. 

Xao viec, opus perfecte factum ; lis jam absoluta. Chi xao, 
filo expedire se ab aliqua difficultate. Xao chon tay ra, 
extendere brachia et pedes. Xao gi ac roi, bellum par- 
atum est. 



372 

Xap, muon xap lay, dare commodato aliquid ; aut con- 

ducere operarios per breve tempus. 
Xap nuoc aut thap nuoc, madefacere aliquid aqua. 
Xat muoi, fricare sale aliquid. 
Xat rau, xat thit, secare olera, carnem et eaetera. 
Xau lai, papyrus aut tela rugosa. 
Xau lay, colligare aliquid fune. 
Xau ra, deformis, turpis. 
Xau ho, pudor. Xau mat, rubor in facie. Ke xau net lam, 

flagitiosissimus ; pessimus. 
Xe, currus. Xe chi, nere. 

Xe, dilacerare. Danh xe, percutere et dilacerare. 
Xe ra, scindere aliquid serra aut cultro. Cua xe, vide cua. 
Xe vao, accedere. Xe ra, recedere. Xe den gan, accedere 

prope. 
Xem, videre, inspicere. Xern thu, probare. Xem soc, vel 

coi soc, vide coi. Xem tuoi, vide tuoi. Xem xet, exami- 

nare. Ma chang xem sao, nee quidam pensi habere. 

Xem ng nha cha, sibi loco patris aliquem ducere. 
Xen vao, inserere ; insertus, a, um. 
Xen sack, secare librum. Xen toe, tendere. 
Xeo dap, conculcare pedibus. 
Xeo, frustatim secare. Toi xeo, supplicium quo reo caro 

paulatim per frusta secatur ad majorem cruciatum. 
Xep, plicare ; complicare. Xep ao, plicare vestem. Nha 

xep, sedicula, qua tegitur cadaver, dum ad sepulchrum 

defertur; quia peracto exequiarum officio denuo com- 

plicatur et asservatur. Ngoi xep bang, vide supra. 
Xet, inquirere, examinare, judicare. Xet doan, judicare, 

decernere. Quan xet, judex. Xet minh, examinare 

seipsum, conscientiam discutere. Con da xet minh ki ru, 

jam examinasti conscientiam diligenter? 
Xi va, exprobare, contumeliis afficere. Xi bang, idem. 
Xia rang, scalpere dentes. 
Xich cho, revincere canem; vel catena qua revincitur canis. 



373 

Xien, cai xien, veru. Xien qua, transfigere. 

Xiet, recensere numero. Ai ke cho xiet, quis numerare 

potest? Toi toi ke chang xiet, peccata mea sunt innu- 

mera. 
Xiet, cai xiet, reticulum quo pisces aut ranee capiuntur. 
Xieu, inclinari. Nha xieu, domus inclinata. Xieu bat, dis- 

pergi tempestate aut perturbatione. Xieu lao, attractus 

blanditiis. 
Xin, petere, rogare. 
Xinh, pulcher, a, urn ; formosus. 
Xo, angulus. Xo xinh, locus abditus. 
Xo vao, immittere. Xo tien, trajicere filo monetas. Xo chan 

vao dep, immittere pedem sandaliis. Xo gop, vel dao 

gop, contribuere. 
Xo, impellere. 

Xo xo, cay moc xo xo, plantse crescunt confertae. 
Xoc, agitare. Gai xoc vao chan, spina pedi infixa. 
Xoi dang chi, ducere lineam in tabula. 
Xoi, oryza vapore aquas ferventis cocta. 
Xoi nha, imbrex. 
Xoi, sume cibum aut potum : vox solis superioribus et hono- 

ratis personis conveniens. 
Xoi dat, pastinare terram. 
Xom, vicus. 

Xom, ngoixom, sedere super pedibus complicatis. 
Xom, insolidus, a, um; fragile, quod non est solidum. 
Xot, dolor acerbus. Xot ruot, ardor viscerum. Chua xot r 

miserabilis, e. 
Xou vao, irrumpere, aggredi, invadere. Xou vao dinh quan 

giac, contra hostem invadere. Xou huong, incensare. 

Lua xou len, ignis erumpens. Di xou xao moi noi, dis- 

currere per omnia loca. 
Xou, femorale muliebris. Urbanius dicitur, quan dan ha. 
Xu ao cap tay, vestis manicis manum operire. 
Xu, provincia. Tunkinum dividitur in undecim provincias, 



374 

quarum nomina hie recensere juvat: JVghe an; Thanh 
hoa; Thainguyen; Son nam; Son lay; Hunghoa; Tuyen 
cua; Lang son; Kinh bac; Hai duong; Yen quang : et 
duse alias, scilicet, Quang nam et Thuan hoa ; olim Tunkino 
subjects, sed a plusquam ducentis annis Regi Chua nguyen 
datae, ut ex eis et aliis terris Cambodia) adjacentibus, 
suum Cocisinse conflaret regnum; quod a Tunkinensibus 
appellatur JVuoc quang, propter provinciam Quang nam; 
ideoque adhiic undecim superadictas remanent Tunkino 
provinciolee, quas dividunt in balliviatus majores, phu; et 
balliviatus majores phu dividuntur in minores, qui appel- 
lantur huyen ; et huyen dividuntur in toparchias appella- 
tus tou; et tou dividuntur in xa; xa dividuntur in thon; 
thon dividuntur in xom, vicum ; vicus dividitur in nha, 
familia. 

Xua, expellere, abjicere. 

Xua, olim, quondam. Xua nay, ab initio usque nunc. Nhu 
xua, ut olim. 

Xuc lay, capere hauriendo. 

Xuc, ungere. Phep xuc dou thanh cho ke liet, sacramen- 
tum extremae unctionis. 

Xui, instigare, impellere. 

Xuy vang, deaurare. 

Xung hhac, contrarius, a, um. 

Xung xinh, di xung xinh, incedere gestu superbiam redo- 
lente. 

Xung, confiteri, declarare. Xung toi, confiteri peccata. 

Xuoi, xuoi gio, ventus secundus. Xuoi nuoc, secundum 
flumen. Chay xuoi nguo"e, hue illuc discurrere. Ut pe- 
nitus intelligatur iste modus loquendi di xuoi di nguoc, 
opus est hie aliqua compendiosa descriptione. 

Xuo, descendere ; descensus. Nga xuo, cadere. Con 
D. C. B. xuo the lam nguoi, filius Dei incarnatus factus 
est homo. Xuo tau, navim conscendere. tau len dat, 
e navi in terram descendere. 



375 



Xuo, os, ossis. Xuo ca, spina piscis. Cay xuong rou, lac- 

taria. Xuong sou, vide sou. 
Xuo len, nominare, aut recitare nomina uniuscujusque. 

Xuong kinh, incipere orationem. 
Xuo tuy, armamentarium navium, cymbarumque. 



ADDENDA. 



Ghet, detestatio. 

Gio chop, facere convivium. 

Giua, medium. 

Han, statuere. 

Hanh, elementa. 

Hua, vel Ban hua, amicus. 



FINIS. 



ERRATA. 

Page 6, Note f, line 1, for suavity, read vanity. 
" 10, line 8, for answers read answer. 
" 13, Note f, line 6, for grant, read grand ; and for ap- 

pellens, read appellons. 
" 44, Note *, line 1, for alganos, read algunos. 
" 50, line 11, for Thebes, read Minerva at Sais. 
" 56, Note *, line 5, for Adomah, read Adamah. 
" 69, line 12, dele the. 
" 90, line 13, dele which. 
" 94, line 6, dele But. 

" 137, Note *, line 1, for Romanum read Bomanum. 
" 145, lines 3 and 5 from the bottom, for Dui, read Due. 
" 146, line 6, for Dui lin, read Due tin ; and for dui, read 

due. 
" 179, line 8 from the bottom, dele but most probably a 

goose. 
" 187, line 4, for he, read hie. 
" 200, line 22, for fericum, read sericum. 
" 223, line 6 from the bottom, for Chung in, read Chung, in. 
" 267, line 8, for Khon nau, read Khon nan. 






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