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Full text of "Transactions of the Scottish Arboricultural Society"

LIBRARY NEW YCr.:: I _ ,. __:^ 3ARDEN 



^LIBRARY ?N^EW YCrJI BOTANICAL GARDEN 



T R A N S A T IONS 



OF TIIK 



SCOTTISH ARBOKIOULTUIUL SOCIETY. 



SECRETARY AND TREASURER, 

JOHN M'LAREN, JuN., 

FKLT-OW OF THE BOTAXICAL SOCIETY, EDINBURGH. 



V O L. X I. 




E D I X 15 U r. G H : 

PRINTED FOlt THE SOCIETY. 

SOLD BY DOUOLAS Sc FOULIS, CASTLE STREET 

1887. 



LIBRARY r;E\V YOrJI BOTANICAL GARDEN 



CONTENTS OF VOL. XL 



The Society, as a body, is not to be considered responsible for any statements or 
opinions advanced in t/ie several papers, which must rest entirely on the authority 
of the respective authors. 



1. Address delivered at the Thirty-First Annual Jlecting. By Hugh 

CLEGHOUXofStravithie, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S.E., . . 1 

n. The Woods of New Brunswick : Being a description of the Trees 
of the Province available for economic purposes, prepared by 
order of the Hon. James Mitchell, Surveyor-General of New 
Brunswick, for use at the International Forestry Exhibition 
at Edinburgh in 1SS4. By L. W. Bailey, Ph.D., Professor of 
Natural History in the University of New Brunswick ; and 
Edwaed Jack, C.E., Surveyor of Crown Lands, . . . 9 

IIL On the Plantations on the Estate of Sorn, in the County of Ayr, N.B. 

By Datid Barclay, Forester, ..... 29 

IV. Natural Reproduction of Forests. By John M'Lean, Forester, 

Edinburgh, ....... 36 

V. Pruning : Its Ornament and Utility. By Alex. T. Gillanders, 

Forester, Skibo Castle, Dornoch, . . . . .49 

YI. On the New and Rare Coniferae at Penrhyn Castle, North Wales. 
With Illustrations. By Angus D. Webster, Forester, Penrhyn 
Castle, Bangor, North Wales, . . . 5.^3 

International Forestry Exhibition, Edinburgh, 1S84, 68 

Scottish Arboricultural Society, 1854-1884, . .114 

VII. Address delivered at the Thirty-Second Annual Meeting. By Hugh 

Cleghorn of Stravithie, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S.E., . . 115 

Report of the Select Committee of the House of Commons, 
1885, on Forestry, ...... 119 

VIII. The Indian Forest School. By Major F. Bailey, R.E., F.R.G.S., 

Director of the Forest School, Dehra Dun, N.W.P., India, . 155 

IX. The Douglas Fir {Abies Douglasii, Lindley). By Angus D. 

Webster, Forester, Penrhyn Castle, Bangor, Wales, . 165 

X. The Formation of Plantations, and their Management for the First 
Twelve Years. By David A. Glen, Assistant Forester, Gartshore, 
Kirkintilloch, . . . . . . .173 



CONTKNTS. 

PAOB 

XI. The Cor.sican Pine {Pinns laricio). By An'ji-.s D. Wku.stkk, 

Forester, Peiirliyn Castle, Bangor, Wales, . . . 181 

XII. The Present State and Future Prospects of Arborimilturc in North 
Lancashire. By GeouoI'; Dodds, Overseer, Wyreside Cotta^re, 
Lancaster, . . . . . . .188 

XII I. Report on a Visit in September 1881 to the Scottish and English 

Forests by Professors and Students from the Forest School, 
Nancy, France. By M. Boppe, Inspector of French Forests, . 19G 

XIV. The Formation and Management of Game Coverts. By AxGU.S 

D. Wkbster, Forester, Pcnrhyn Castle, Bangor, Wales, . 213 

Forestry in France. By Major F. Bailey, R.E., . . 221 

XV. Address delivered at the Thirty-Third Annual Meeting. By 

Hugh Cleghorn of Stravithie, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S.E., . 287 

A Forest Tour among the Dunes of Gascony. By Major F. 

Bailey, R.E.,. ...... 291 

Report of the Select Committee of the House of Commons, 

1886, on Forestry, . . . . . .315 

XVI. Specifications of Works to be Executed in the Erection of a 

Forester's Cottage ; with Plans and Sections. By AVm. Mac- 
intosh, 5 Thistle Street, Edinburgh, .... 361 

XVII. On the Rearing and Management of Hardwood Plantations. 
By A. M'D. Grant, Assistant Forester, Hopetoun, South 
Queensferry, ....... 373 

XVIII. Economic Forestry. By Professor G. S. Boulger, London, . 382 

XIX. The Native Trees and Shrubs of Carnarvonshire. By Angus 

D. Webster, Forester, Penrhyn Castle, Bangor, Wales, . 481 

XX. On the Plantations and Trees on the Estate of Brahnn, in the 

County of Ross. By Alexander Pitcaithley, Forester, 
Glentruim, Kingu.ssie, ...... 501 

XXI. Specifications of Works to he Executed in the Erection of a 

Forester's Cottage ; with Plans and Sections. By Alexander 
Pitcaithley, Forester, Glentruim, Kingussie, . 506 

XXII. On the Present State and Future Prospects of Arboriculture in 

Hampshire. By John Smith, Surveyor, Romsey, Hampshire, 511 

XXIII. Hedgerow and Field Timber. By Angus D. Webster, Forester, 

Penrhyn Castle, Bangor, Wales, .... 550 

L'ExPOSITION FORESTlfeRE INTERNATIONAL DE ISSl. Report 

by Professor Reuss, of the Nancy Forest School, on the 
Forestry E.xhibition at Edinburgh in 1884, . . . 562 



CONTENTS. 



APPENDIX (A) 

1. Former Presidents, .... 

2. List of Members, corrected to July 1885, 

3. Subjects olTered for Competition during 1884-85, 

4. Office-Bearers for 1884-85, 

5. Abstract of the Accounts of the Scottish Arboriciilt 

year 1883-84, .... 









PACK 








1 








2 








20 








24 


ura 


I Society 


for 


26 



APPENDIX (B.) 

1. Former Presidents, ....... 27 

2. List of Members, corrected to July 1886, . . . .28 

3. Abstract of the Accounts of the Scottish Arboricultural Society for 

year 1884-85, ....... 46 



APPENDIX (C.) 

1 Former Presidents, ....... 

2. Li.st of Members, corrected to June 1887, . . . . 

3. Abstract of the Accounts of the Scottisli Arboricultural Society for 

year 1885-86, ....... 



47 
4 8 



06 




TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 




SCOTTISH AUBORICULTURAL SOCIETY 



VOL. XI— PART I. 



SECRETARY AND TREASURER. 

JOHN M'LAEEN, Jun., 

FELLOW OF THE BOTANICAL SOCIETY, EDINBURGH. 





E I) I N P. U Pv G H : 
PRINTED FOPt THE SOCIETY. 
SOLD BY DOUGLAS ik FOULIS, CASTLE STREET. 
MDCCCLXXXV. 



IBRARY 
W YORK 



i G m^ 




WORKS ON FORESTRY AND GARDENING. 



Nciv and Greatly Enlarged Edition. 

THE FORESTER : A Pkactical Tkkatisk on thk pLAxriNf;, Hkakixo, 
AM) (iKNKUAij Manaokmknt OF P'ORKHT TiiKKS. By Jamkh IJuowN, LL.U , Iiisjiector of, aiirl 
Uoporttr oil, Woods and Forests, I'enniore House, Port Kljfiii, Ontario; Assisted by liin 
Son, CJkorok E. Brown, Forester, Cuniloden, Newton-Stewart. Fifth Edition, Enlarjjed 
and Improved. Royal 8vo, witli nearly 200 Engravinijs on Wood, 30s. 
" It is an authoritative guide, and a reference book which no forester should be without."— 
LdJid and Water. 

" He has condensed a perfect encyclopaidia of everything relating to woodcraft as now under- 
stood and [iractiscd in every part of the civilised world. . . . He does all that printed in- 
structions can do to supply the place of a regular school training in forestry." — PallihillGuzctti . 

Neio ami Eiilanjcd Edition. 
THE LARCH : A Practical Treatisp: on its Culture and Geneisal 
Maxaok.mkxt. I'.y Christopher Yovso Michie, Forester, Cullen House. Second Exlition, 
with an additional Chai)ter on " The Larch Disease." With Illustrations of remarkable 
Trees. Crown Svo, 7s. Cd. 
"The work is a most valuable addition to our standard literature on arboriculture. The 
lover of trees will find the book full of curious and interesting material ; while to the owners 
and managers of woodlands the ^■olume must prove of the highest practical utility." — Banff 
Journal. 

" Within its jiages the planter will find more information ujion the best modes of treatment 
and culture of the larch-tree, whether in the nursery or i>lantation, than in any other book 
extant in the Engli-sh language." — Journal of Forestri/. 

HANDY BOOK OF THE FLOWER GARDEN; Being Practical 

Directions for the Propagation, Culture, and Arrangement of Plants in Flower Gardens 

all the year round. With Engraved and Coloured Plans. By David Tiio.mso.v, Gardener 

to His Grace the Duke of Buccleuch, K.G., at Drumlanrig. A New and Enlarged Edition, 

crown Svo, 7s. 6d. 

" Its author is entitled to great praise for the simple and clear manner in which he has 

explained the cultinal directions, which, if carefully complied with, will enable the non- 

prot'cs.'sional Horiciilturist to j^row plants as well as any gardener. ' — Garde/ic'ri<' Clironicle. 

HANDY BOOK OF FRUIT CULTURE UNDER GLASS. By David 

Tiio.MSON, Gardener to His Grace the Duke of Buccleuch, KG., at Drumlanrig. Second 

Edition, Re\ised and Enlarged. Illustrated with numerous Engravings. Crown Svo, 7s. Gd. 

" No work of the kind of which we have any knowledge is at all to be compared with this. 

It is the result of ripe experience, close thought, and ample acquaintance with the subject in 

all its ])arts." — Scotstiian. 

A BOOK ABOUT ROSES. By S. Keynolds Hole. Eiglith and Cheaper 

Edition, Revised, as. Gd. 

" His work may now be considered the most complete guide to this interesting branch of 
floricultural art." — Saturdatj Jleview. 

" At once charming and instructive. . . . The practical questions of position, soil, 
manure, and selection are carefully and exhaustively treated." — Standard. 

CULTIVATED PLANTS: Their Propagation and Improvement. By 

F. W. Bi uiiiwiK, Author of " Domestic Floriculture," etc., etc. With 191 Engravings, and 

Index. Crown Svo, pp. 630, 12s. 6d. 

"This is a book not for the ordinary villa gardener, but for the professional gardener, and for 

those amateurs who, by their interest in the pursuit, and the skill and patience they l)ring to 

bear upon it, rank in success and authority with the professionals. . . . It is for scientific 

professionals and amateurs that Mr Burbidge has jiroduced this extremely complete and 

valuable manual upon the propagation and improvement of plants." — Standard. 

DOMESTIC FLORICULTURE, WINDOW GARDENING, AND 

FloUal DKeoR.\Tioxs. By F. AV. Birbidge. Crown Svo, with upwards of 200 Illustrations 
on Wood. New Edition, Revised and Enlarged, 7s. tid. 
" This book will meet the case of thousands who love flowers, and know not how to begin — 
or, having begun, know not how to go on in collecting and cultivating them. . . . It is a 
model of painstaking accuracy and good taste." — Gardenera' Mayazine. 



THE HANDY BOOK OF BEES, AND THEIR PROFITABLE 

Maxaokmext. ISy A. Pbttigrkw. Fourth Edition, Enlarged. Crown S\o, 3s. Gd. 
" The author of this volume is evidently a practical man, and knows a great deal more about 
bees and their habits than most of the bee-keepers in England ; indeed, he may be said to be a 
very master in the art of bee mysteries."— JJcZ^*- Life in London. 



SHEEP DIPPING: A Digest of the Latest Improvement.s and Prac- 
tice coxxKcrED WITH THE PROCESS. By David Wood. Crown Svo, Is. 



WILLIAM BLACKWOOD ct SONS, Edinburgh and London. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



"SILVER MEDAL," Highest Award for Hot Houses, at the 
International Forestry Exhibition, Edinburgh, 1884. 



MACKENZIE & MONCUR, 

HORTICULTURAL BUILDERS 

AND 

HEATING ENGINEERS, 

UPPER GROVE PLACE, EDINBURGH, 

AND 

ST ANDREW'S CROSS, GLASGOW. 



Conservatories, Greenhouses, Vineries, Forcing 
Houses, and all kinds of Horticultural Buildings 
erected in the niost approved manner in any 
part of Great Britain or Ireland, at strictly 
Moderate Rates. 



Illustrated Sheets on Application. 
Splendid Illustrated Catalogues, Price 316. 



PLANS AND SPECIAL DESIGNS. 



Heating Apparatus on the High and Low Pressure 

fitted up in Churches, Halls, Mansions, 

and other Buildings. 

Satisfactory Results in all Cases Guaranteed. 



ADVEUTISEMENTS. 




ESTABLISHED /S^^'^K'A^A OF A 

UPWARDS te\\sl^^-^//i CENTURY. 



FOREST TREES. 

nUR STOCK is Very Hardy and Well Rooted; Grown on an 
Exposed Situation at our Fellside Nurseries. We have this 
Season planted a considerable acreage of Forest and Ornamental 
Trees in several districts with satisfactory results. 

Estimates given and Samples forwarded, toith Special Prices /or 
Large Quantities. 

ORNAMENTAL TREES.— For Park, street, or Avenue Planting. 
CONIFER^. — Choice Specimens of all the Best Varieties having been recently 

transi)lanted, are fit for removal with perfect safety. 
FRUIT TREES.— Standard Pyramid and Trained. Our Stock comprises all 

Leading Varieties. 

ROSES ! ROSES ! ! ROSES ! ! ! We have Many Thousands, and Grow Only 

Best ]^ariftics. 

FLOWERING SHRUBS.-In Great Variety. 

LANDSCAPE GARDENING.— AVe are rapidly making this Branch a Feature 
in our Business, and having in our employment an Efficient Landscape Artist, 
■we are in a position to furnish Plans and Estimates on Shortest Notice. 



Genuine Seeds for the Farm and Garden. 
Dutch Bulbs from the Most Noted Growers. 



Descriptive Catalogues Post Free on Application. 



WILLIAM FELL & CO., 

Seed Merchants, Nurserymen, and Landscape Gardeners, 
HEXHAM. 



CONTENTS. 



T/ic Society, as a body, is not to be considered responsible for any statements or 
opinions advanced in the several iMpers, which must rest entirely on the authority 
of the respective authors. 



I. Address delivered at the Thirty-First Anniial Meeting. By HuGU 

CLEGHOENofStravithie, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S.E., . . 1 

II. The Woods of New Brunswick : Being a Description of the Trees 
of the Province available for economic purposes, prepared by 
order of the Hon. James Mitchell, Surveyor-General of New 
Brunswick, for use at the International Forestry Exhibition 
at Edinburgh in 1884. By L. W. Bailey, Ph.D., Professor of 
Natural History in the University of New Brunswick ; and 
Edward Jack, C.E., Survej'or of Crown Lands, ... 9 

III. On the Plantations on the Estate of Sorn, in the County of Ayr, N. B. 

By David Baeclay, Forester, ..... 29 

lY. Natural Reproduction of Forests. By John M'Lean, Forester, 

Edinburgh, ....... 36 

V. Pruning : Its Ornament and Utility. By Alex. T. Gillanders, 

Forester, Skibo Castle, Dornoch, . . . . .49 

VI. On the New and Rare Coniferfe at Penrhyn Castle, North Wales. 
With Illustrations. By Angus D. Webster, Forester, Penrhyn 
Castle, Bangor, North Wales, ..... 55 

Inteenational Fore.stry Exhibition, Edinburgh, 1884, . 68 

Scottish Arboricultueal Society, 1854-1884, . . . 114 



APPENDIX (A.) 

1 . Former Presidents, ..... 

2. List of Members, corrected to July 1885, 

3. Subjects offered for Competition during 1884-85, 

4. Office-Bearers for 1884-85, .... 

5. Abstract of the Accounts of the Scottish Arboricultural Society fo: 

year 1883-84, ..... 



1 

2 
20 
24 

26 



TRANSACTIONS 



SCOTTISH ARBOEICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



I. Address delivered at the Thirtij-Jirst Annual Meeting. By 
Hugh Cleghorn of Stravithie, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S.E. 

Gentlemen, — I find myself called upon, at a time of unusual 
pressure, to say a few words to my old friends at tlieir annual 
meeting. I rejoice to see many known faces, and to find so many 
fresh recruits joining our ranks, and distinguished strangers 
a[)pearing amongst us this day. Being aware that a large pro- 
portion of the country members are anxious to adjourn to the 
Forestry Exhibition, I shall compress my remarks to the shortest 
possible length. 

It is becoming that I should first notice the absence of our dear 
lamented friend and ex-President, Emeritus Professor Balfour, 
who so often welcomed us to this class-room, and whose venerable 
countenance was never absent from our annual gatherings. He 
spent a long, laborious, and useful life in this city, and has been 
called to rest with his fathers. 

When we met last year, we were looking forward to the proba- 
bility of the Forestry Exhibition taking place, and I have to con- 
gratulate you on the fulfilment of the project. The Marquis of 
Lothian, our late President, in his address at the opening of the 
Exhibition, gracefully alluded to our Society when he gave it the 
credit of having first proposed the Exhibition. We are, of course, 
deeply interested in the results that may flow from this great under- 
taking ; these are still in the future, but we know that the pro- 
gress of our work is being keenly watched by all who have the 
least acquaintance with Forestry in this as well as in other lands. 

Such an Exhibition as this has of necessity engrossed the 

VOL. XL, PART I. A 



2 AUDIIEHS I!Y Tlir: IMIESIDRNT, AUGUST 5, 188 t. 

energies of many, and not a few of our members liave Vjcen fully 
occupied in preparing and maturing jdans for it ; and I myself 
must crave your indulgence on this head. 

The ground on which the ExhiVjition Galleries are erected is 
about 5 acres in extent. The main buihling is 650 feet long by 55 
feet broad, with three transepts, each 150 feet long by 55 feet broad, 
witli a high central dome in each transept. The design of the build- 
ings is similar to the main galleries in the Health Exhibition, Ken- 
sington. Additional annexes, 500 feet long and 25 feet broad, 
similar in design to the main buildings, were erected at a later 
stage in consequence of the large demands for space by the 
Japanese Government and otliers ; the exhibiting ai'ea thus be- 
came one-third larger than originally planned. The building is 
entirely of wood, and is of a handsome light design, which produces 
a very agreeable effect on entrance, and is generally admired.* 

The electric i-ailway runs along one side of the building, and is 
about 650 yards in length. On the west side of Donaldson's 
Hospital grounds a field about 7 acres in extent was inclosed for the 
purpose of exhibiting wood-working machinery in motion, nursery- 
men's exhibits, greenhouses, iron houses, wire fencing, gates, and 
articles of a like nature. Here will also be found varioiis chalets, 
including one constructed entirely of vScots fir from Balmoral, and 
another of the Californian redwood ; also the Manitoba Settler's 
Farm, and many varieties of models of gates and fences, with 
fencing materials and implements, exhibited by the Commissioners 
of Her Majesty's Woods and Forests, all having a connection 
with the wide subject of forestry. 

It is to be regretted that some countries, particularly France, 
Germany, and the United States, which yield a large amount of 
timber and forest produce, did not respond to the circular invita- 
tion of the Executive Committee. France at the time was much 
occupied with troubles in China and Madagascar ; and other 
Governments, such as Persia, Chili, Venezuela, and Honduras, were 
prevented by various causes from sending contributions. Where 
direct participation, in so far as exhibits are concerned, has been 
impossible, official maps and publications bearing on the forest 
service or literature of the country have been forwarded, or a 
representative has been commissioned officially to attend, or the 

* Sec Plan of tlie Buildings and Grounds ; and also Plates I. to IV. Plate 
I. —Front View of the Exhibition Building: Plates II., III., and IV.— 
Views illustrating the sections of the Scottisli Arboricultural Society's Court. 



ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDEXT, AUGUST 5, 1884. 3 

efforts of private individuals have been exerted to supply the 
omission. The Exhibition has thus been inaugurated by the 
co-operation of many of the foreign and colonial Governments, 
and by the good wishes of all. 

In the arrangement of the articles exhibited, the geographical 
principle has been adopted, the goods of each country being placed 
together. It was determined to arrange the space in courts, with 
the hard objects in the centre, and the soft goods and illustrations 
requiring vertical space on the walls and sides. 

A scientific arrangement was very desirable, and the " Classifi- 
cation " issued by the Executive Committee was carefully pre- 
pared with that intention, but it was found impossible, owing 
to vai'ious causes, to arrange the Catalogue in accordance with it — 
(1.) from the imperfect details given in many of the schedules of 
exhibitors; (2.) the tardy ai'rival of the consignments; (3.) the 
time allowed was too short ; and (4.) the objections of Commis- 
sioners of countries occupying small space to allow their contri- 
butions to be divided. Great latitude has been allowed in the 
admission of goods, which have been largely received dui'ing the 
month since the opening ; and the very large and interesting col- 
lection from Japan has been scarcely three weeks in its place. 

The Catalogue (1st edit., 1st July) contains miich valuable in- 
formation, especially the portion relating to India and the Scottish 
Arboricultural Society. A second edition was published on 21st 
July, with running numbere and an index, to assist the Jurors in 
their labours, but it is not yet complete with i-espect to several 
colonies and foreign Governments ; * the list from Japan, it is 
hoped, may yet be printed, being very valuable. 

The Scottish Arboi-icultural Society has in its court about 150 
exhibits, and about 20 outside, making a total of about 170, the 
arrangement of which reflects great credit on our Secretary, 
INIr ]\['Laren, who spent his annual holiday in our service, and 
has been constant in his attendance. Other members have also 
rendered valuable help. Our Scottish foresters have come for- 
ward fi'om almost every district of Scotland, with the enthusiasm 
we expected, and when the Jurors' awards are made public, the 
value of their contributions will be fully recognised. The result 
is most gratifying, and shows their efforts to raise the position of 
Forestry to the highest standard in this country. 

* Catalogues of the Exhibits of India, British Guiana, the Cape of Good 
Hope, and Ceylon, were printed by the Commissioners of these coimtries. 



4 ADDKIiSS l!Y Till; I'ltKSIDKXT, AL'OU.ST ~>, 188 1. 

India. — The Indian collection occupies the soutli central tran- 
sept, and several bays on each side ; it is very large and interesting, 
occupying an area of 5000 square feet; the Catalogue has a histori- 
cal preface by Bir George Bird wood, describing the first beginning 
of Forestry in India. The arrangement of the collection is admir- 
able, — tlie Comuiissioner, Colonel Michael, and his assistant, Mr 
Cole, having had previous experience in the Paris, Vienna, and 
Amsterdam Exhibitions. A special Report will be published. 

The Index Collection of Timbers sent by the Government of India 
comprises 800 specimens, with their habitats and commercial uses, 
and illustrates arboreal vegetation from Tibet to Cape Comorin ; 
each specimen is carefully labelled and branded with a correspond- 
ing number referring to Gamble's " Manual of Indian TimVjers." 

In the Indian Court may be specially noticed the very valuable 
series of maps and diagrams executed by the Forest Survey De- 
partment under Major Bailey, R.E., who himself arranged them 
in an instructive manner. The excellence of these topographical 
surveys can scarcely be overrated in connection with the demarca- 
tion and management of the reserved forests divided into blocks 
or compartments, and in the case of boundary disputes their value 
is undeniable. For students of foi'estry this is a most important 
feature of the Exhibition, and shows the silent progress of the 
great work which has been carried on by Dr Brandis and others 
during the past twenty-five years. 

Another country which exhibits maps showing in detail the 
general distribution of forests, is Denmark. There are thi-ee 
sheets displaying the occurrence of the forests of conifers and of 
broad-leaved trees, also the extent of newly-planted areas and the 
geological formations on which they grow. There are also maps 
of the forest district of Kronborg, which resemble those made in 
Germany, and are very neatly executed. 

Othar Holnboe, custom-house surveyor, Christiania, furnishes a 
map representing the princiiml woods of Norway, and the export 
of forest produce from the different parts of the country to Biitain 
and other countries. Robert Bell, LL.D., Assistant-Director 
Geological Survey of Canada, exhibits a large map showing the 
distribution of the forest trees of Canada. 

The Government of Japan displays a chart illustrating the 
natiu'al distribution of forest trees in Japan, and marking certain 
zones, each indicated by a particular tree, which forms a prominent 



ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDEXT, AUGUST 5, 1884. 5 

feature in the landscape. The extent of these zones is marked in 
colours on the map. There are also excellent coloured drawings, 
representing the liabit of these fine trees, and their foliage, flower, 
and fruit in life-size. 

It would have been very desirable that similar illustrative 
maps had been furnished, as far as possible by various Govern- 
ments, to assist in determining the rates of gi'owth of valuable trees 
in diff'erent countries. For instance, in the Danish collection 
some of the diagrams give the mean height from 20 to 120 years, 
and show that in Germany the height of beech and spruce is 
greater than in Denmark ; but the average diameter of the latter 
exceeds that of the former. 

Japan. — The Japanese Court occupies the eastern transept, and 
fomis one of the largest and most important sections. The ai-range- 
ments by the Commissioners (whom we have the honour of seeing 
amongst us to-day) have been carried out in a most thorough and 
business-like manner. They knew beforehand the exact amount 
of space their goods would occupy, and worked with a rapidity 
and skill which might put to shame the most advanced nations. 
The Japanese collection was catalogued before it was despatched, 
and the arrangement cori'esponds with the running numbers, and 
is most creditable. Mr Takei, the head Commissioner, has shown 
himself possessed of great business capacity, as well as being an 
expert in the science of Forestry. 

The importance of Forestry to the welfare of Great Britain and 
its Colonies has only been recently recognised by us, but in Japan 
it has long formed an important feature of national education. 

The sections of woods, numbering about 270, are placed on the 
central table, with botanical specimens and illustrations above, 
and manuscript notes below, containing the Japanese and botani- 
cal names, with the habitats and economical uses, the compai'ative 
rarity or abundance of the tree, the average height at 50 years 
and at maturity. Each section, drawing, and desci'iption is 
marked with a corresponding number. 

Numerous models and drawings illustrate the expedients adopted 
for felling trees, slipping and floating the logs down narrow gorges 
or deep chasm rivers, and the booms for catching and collecting 
timber when the rivers deVjouche on the plains, and where timber 
depots are formed. Illustrations are also given of the method of 
preventing soil from slipping away from the sides of mountains, 
and the method of introducing sand-binding plants. The draw- 



(J ADDKESS BY TIFK PKKSIDF.NT, AUGUST 5, 1884. 

iiigs are luouutud in wooden fraiueH, and tastefully decorated with 
fragments of veneer of difi'erent colours. The models and illustra- 
tions must prove exceedingly instructive to students of forestry. 

The numerous Collections of Woods exhibited by different 
countries natui-ally come under the head of Forestry, but when 
dealt with by the juries of the different classes, liave to be con- 
sidered in reference to particular qualification for special purposes. 

Woods of Construction are of three kinds, for Civil, Naval, 
and Ordnance purposes, and their value is affected by such material 
qualities as Strenrjtlt, Toughness, Weujht, DurahllUy, and Elaaticity. 

Of woods adapted for purposes of construction, the principal 
collections in tlie Exhibition are from New Brunswick, Norway, 
Denmark, India, Ceylon, Andamans, Johor, British Guiana, and 
Japan. Many of the timbers, as in New Brunswick, Norway, 
Denmark, India, and Ceylon, are well known and commonly 
used, but in looking over the catalogues received from South 
Africa, Sierra Leone, Johor, and Japan, we often find only the 
native names and short descriptions of woods used and valued in 
the countries to which they belong, but in many cases quite un- 
known in Britain, and of the comparative merits of which the 
natives themselves are frequently ignorant. 

It is true that much has been done by the numerous national 
exhibitions to extend technical knowledge ; and especially the 
botanical identification of those plants yielding forest produce has 
been greatly advanced at Kew ; while important experiments on 
the strength and resistance of various woods have been carried 
out by Dr Brandis * in Calcutta (18G4), and by the late Captain 
Fowke t in London. But it is evident that in some parts of the 
world much still remains to be done, and the vast collections now 
brought together will afford opportunities of placing specimens in 
comparison with each other and with the ordinary woods used in 
trade and construction. 

There is a great deal of value to the coimtry in this Exhibition, 
not only to landed proprietors, foresters, architects, and engineers, 
but also to joiners, iipholsterers, and cabinetmakers. It appears 
to me that it woiild be of great importance in an industrial point 
of view to educate the eye and mind of the artisans in our large 
towns by showing and explaining the principal objects here ex- 
hibited. Organisations might be formed in — say Glasgow, Dundee, 

* GaniLle's Manual of Indian Tiinl)ers, ISSl. 
f lieport on Paris Exliibition, ISoG. 



ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT, AUGUST 5, 1884. 7 

Aberdeen, and other places, to arrange for large parties coming 
for one or two days. I am often surprised by the questions put 
to me by intelligent workmen visiting the building, who are evi- 
dently seeking information, and it is my belief that much useful 
knowledge may be communicated to all classes of the peo})le. 

There is little doubt that the present Exhibition will give an 
impetus to a more systematic forest education both in Scotland 
and elsewhere. Improved tools, instruments, working plans, 
valuation surveys, and the like, will be introduced. In these 
days our foresters must take care that our Continental neighbours 
do not outstrip them in the march of improvement and in general 
details relating to production of timber, economy of management, 
and despatch of business. In some Euro])ean countries the edu- 
cation and training of foresters is of a highly scientific character, 
and the whole wooded area has been managed for centuries with 
systematic care and skill. 

The authorities of the India Office have decided, after much con- 
sideration, to discontinue the system of training on the Continent 
our young men for Forest service, and henceforth the resources 
within our own borders will be utilised for the education of Forest 
candidates. The Royal Engineering College, Cooper's Hill, Staines, 
is the place selected in the first instance, where a thoroughly good 
teaching staff" already exists ; and the proximity of the Royal 
Gardens at Kew will be of great advantage to the students. 

As the Marquis of Lotliian well remarked at the opening, we 
have in Edinburgh many concurrent advantages — the University, 
the Botanical Gardens, the Arboretum, and the Highland Society. 
One thing only is needed in addition — a tract of forest reserved 
for systematic management and professional instruction. 

There will be a gi'eat mass of valuable material at the close of 
the Exhibition which shoidd be utilised in Edinburgh for purposes 
of instruction • and our long desired hope for a Forest School 
may be one result of this movement. In this Avay the recom- 
mendation of the French Pi'ofessors of Forestry, who visited 
Britain two years ago, woxdd be carried out ; and as a result of 
tlie International Exhibition, we should have the establishment 
of a Forest School in Edinburgh. 

Before leaving this subject, I desire to allude to the presence 
among us this day of several Indian Forest officers,* three of whom 
have been students at the Ecole Foresti^re, Nancy. And I am sure 
* Messrs Shultleworlh, Fry, Fuclis, and Wroughton. 



8 ADDRESS BY THE PIIESIDKXT, AUGUST 5, 1884. 

that in this case, as in so many others, further acquaintance lias 
only heightened esteem. They have ungrudgingly given their aid 
as jurors at the Exhibition; and I have been delighted to observe 
the continuous and fraternal co-opei'ation of Scotland and India. 

The work of the juries is nearly completed, and the awards 
will be known in a few days. Such names as Sir J. D. Hooker, 
Dr Lyons, M.P., Colonel MoncriefF, E..A., Professors Wilson, 
Fraser, Cossar Ewart, and Dickson of Edinburgh, Bayley Balfour 
of Oxford, Professor Archer, Industrial Museum, Professor M'Nab 
of Dublin, Trail of Aberdeen, M'Intosh of St Andrews, and a 
corresponding number of our best and most honoured members, — 
this selection and combination, eflfected with great care, will give 
a judgment based upon technical knowledge, commanding the 
confidence of the public. 

The Executive Committee have arranged for a course of lectures 
during August and September ; and several distinguished pro- 
fessors and experts have kindly consented to enlighten us on 
various interesting topics. Dr Lyons, M.P., has already addressed 
us " On Forestry in Europe and America," and Professor M'^ab 
" On a Piece of Wood and its Teaching ; " while further instruc- 
tion awaits us from Mr Jack, on " The Forest Resources of New 
Brunswick ; " Professor M'Intosh, on " Timber-boring Mollusca ; " 
Major Bailey, R.E., on "Forest Surveys in India;" Dr IIo^vitz 
of Copenhagen, on " Eucalypts at Home and Abroad ; " Mr Mel- 
drum, on " The Forests of Johor ; " Dr Croumbie Brown, on 
'' The Aridity of Spain ; " and Mr Baty, on " The Management of 
Plantations in Cumberland." 

In conclusion, it may not be out of place to allude to the import- 
ance of many of the books and pamphlets on Arboriculture received 
in connection with the Exhibition. Britain has sent 38 vols., 
including 12 works on Forest Science from the fertile bi-ain of 
Dr J. Croumbie Brown ; India, 2 ; Singapore, 1 ; British Guiana, 
1 ; South Australia, 6; United States, 13; Denmark, 24; Norway 
and Sweden, 2; Germany, 20; France, 13; Italy, 8— Total, 129 
books and pamphlets. 

When the Exhibition is over, by request of the authors, the moi-e 
valuable of these works will be transferred to our library, and they 
will form a most acceptable addition to our store of Forest literature. 
Amongst many notices of the Exhibition a series of articles in 
the Gardeners Chronicle, detailing the general contents of the 
several courts, is in course of publication. 



THE WOODS OF NEW BRUNSWICK. 



ir. The Woods of New Brunswick : Being a Description of the Trees 
of the Province available for economic purposes, prepared by 
order of the Hon. James Mitchell, Surveyor-General of New 
Bnivsivick, for use at the International Forestry Exhibition at 
Edinburgh in 1884. By L. W. Bailey, Ph.D., Professor 
of Natural Histoiy iu the University of New Brunswick ; 
and Edward Jack, C.E., Surveyor of Crown Lands. 

Newfoiindkmd and the Maritime Provinces of Canada are, of 
all new colonies, the nearest to Great Britain. The extensive 
tracts of barren land which the first contains, and the habits of 
its inhabitants which are those of fishermen, forbid the expectation 
of a large timber yield from it. New Brunswick, however, which 
has in its interior a vast extent of fertile land covered by vii-gin 
forests, consisting largely of birch, maple, beech, and other hard 
woods of large size and excellent quality, stands ready to furnish 
these in any desired quantity or form (as well as soft woods of 
diiferent kinds) so soon as the necessities of British commerce 
and manufactures demand it. 

The Pine and Fir Tribe {Ahietince). 

The representatives of this tribe in New Brunswick are— (1.) 
The White Pine; (2.) The Bed or Norway Pine; (3.) The Grey 
or Northern Scrub Pine; (4.) The Hemlock Spruce; (o.) The 
White or Single Spruce ; (6.) The Black or Double Spruce ; 
(7.) The Balsam Fir; and (8.) The American Larch, Tamarack, 
or Hackmatac. 

L the white pine {Pinus strohus, L.). 

The white pine is one of the largest, tallest, and most stately 
trees in the New Brunswick forest, often rising in a single straight 
but tapering column to a height of 80 feet or more, in rare in- 
stances to over 120 feet. 

The several varieties, distinguished locally as " Pumpkin Pine," 
" Sapling Pine," and " Bull Sapling," owe their origin to a slight 
difference in the colour, texture, and specific gravity of the wood, 
dependent upon corresponding differences in the condition of their 
growth. The first named is found most thickly near the shores 
of streams, or on hill sides fronting lakes or streams, seldom 



10 THE WOODS OF NEW lillUN.SWICK. 

tjxteiuliiig in iiiiy (jiuuiLity I'lirther than half or three- quarters of 
a mile from water. 

When found in the forest distant from streams or lakes, the 
])umpkin ])ine as well as the bull sapling oceur in snia,ll groups, 
or in pairs or solitary, a considerable distance often intervening 
between gi'oups or individuals. Sometimes a single tree may be 
seen towering to the extreme height of its species on some rocky 
and elevated bill, in places so difficult of access that the lumber- 
men, after felling them, either float them from their place of 
growth to where they can be more conveniently managed, or 
remove them with the aid of ropes and blocks, with or without 
the assistance of horses and sleds. The soundest and best 
2)umpkin and bull sapling pines are found scattered on high land, 
and frequently surrounded by hardwoods. Such as grow in low 
and swampy land are very subject to shakes and concave knots. 
These varieties of large size have become so scarce in the Province 
of New Brunswick, that the lumbermen often cut roads half a 
mile or more in length to reach a choice tree. Nearly all are 
found on the dry and sandy soil of the coal measures, covering 
the low ridges, and surrounding the heaths and bogs which 
abound on the surface of this formation. 

The great fire of Miramichi, in the year 1825, and the Saxby 
gale a few years ago, have done millions of dollars damage to the 
pine lands of New Brunswick, and the day is not very distant 
when pine trees of good size will be obtained with difficulty in tlie 
Province. 

This valuable wood is used for so many purposes, that an 
enumeration of them would be almost impossible. Among its 
more uncommon uses may be named that by the moulder for 
patternmaking ; it is very applicable for any purpose which x-e- 
quires a wood easily worked and diu-able. 

2. THE RED PINE {Pinns resinosa, Ait.). 

" The Red (or Norway) * pine has an erect trunk, taller and 
more slender than that of the pitch pine, which it most nearly le- 
sembles. The bark, which is much less rough, is in rather broad 
scales of a reddish colour. The long leaves are in twos, and the 
cones are free from the bristling, rigid, sharp points which dis- 
tinguish those of the pitch pine. It may also be distinguished at 
* " Wrongly called Norway Piue" {Asa Gray). 



THE WOODS OF NEW BRUNSWICK. 11 

a distance by the greater size and length of the terminal brushes 
uf leaves." — Emerson. 

Lumbermen are acquainted with two varieties, which they 
denominate by the names of the Sapling and Old Red Pine. The 
former is an inferior wood, genei'ally having those niches of sap 
which rot quickly on exposure to the weather. It has been 
largely used in the State of Maine for hogshead heading, for 
which jDurpose it answers well. The old red pine, now nearly 
extinct here, sometimes attains the height of 90 feet and a 
diameter of 3 feet, the trunk being nearly uniform and without 
branches for a height of 40 or 50 feet. The wood is strong and 
durable, resembling that of pitch pine, but with less I'esin, and 
was formerly largely employed, like the latter, for the decking of 
vessels and for beams, having a fine compact gi-ain with few knots. 
It grows as a scattered tree on dry and sandy soil ; some of the 
best trees ever obtained in the Province were cut on the granite 
boulder district which crosses the New Brunswick railway about 
fifty miles north of St Andrews. The Tobique river traversed a 
tract which was once a great habitat of the old red pine, especially 
that branch called the Wapskyhegan, on whose banks it grew 
abundantly, and the trees stood so close on the ground that there 
was hai-dly room to turn a sled between the stumps. The axe 
and fire have now, however, completely removed them from this 
locality. 

3. GREY OR NORTHERN SCRUB PINE {Pitius Banks'mna, Lamb). 

This tree is readily distinguished from the other species of pine 
by its scrubby growth, and by the colour and appearance of the 
peculiar scales by which the trunk is covered, and by its 
singularly spreading boughs, as well as by the cones which hang 
under them. Timber made from it in former times, when it was 
tolerably abundant, was considered to be of good size if it averaged 
tliree-cjuarters of a ton to the tree. The wood is hard, full of 
pitch, and free from saji, but it is ai)t to be full of streaks. It is 
much used by the Intercolonial railway for ties and railway 
sleepers, being one of the best woods for this purpose. 

Certain sections of country on the South-West Miramichi, the 
forests on which were destroyed by the great fire of 1825, have 
since become so thickly covered by forests of Banks' pine that it 
is almost impossible to press one's way thi-ough the trees. It 
grows also extensively on the Little South-West Miramichi. 



12 TIIK WOOnS OF NKW IJRUNSWIfK. 

4. TIIK HEMLOCK SPRUCE (A/j'ifs Canadensis, Mich.). 

The h(!iiilock spruce, or Iienilock a.s it is often more siinjOy 
termed, is one of the most abundant of our evergreen trees, Ijeing 
found on almost every soil. It is -when in perfection a very 
beautiful tree, but is apt, as age advances, owing to the death or 
lireaking off' of the lower limbs, to assume the appearance of pre- 
mature decay. Under favourable circumstances it reaches a 
height of 70 or 80 feet and a circumference of G to 9 feet, the 
latter, as in others of the family, being nearly uniform until the 
bi-anches are reached. There are two varieties known to woods- 
men, the Sapling or White Hemlock, and the rough bark or 
Black Hemlock. The latter, owing pi'obably to its large and 
heavy top, is very subject to shakes, rendering the boards sawn 
from the lower log nearly worthless. The wood of the sapling or 
white hemlock, with the exception of a small piece near the butt, 
is sound and firm, and lasts well. It is of more frequent 
occurrence in the southern or middle districts of New Brunswick 
than in the north, being a rare tree north of the Grand Falls of 
the St John. It occurs in belts and masses in certain localities, 
the laws regulating its place of growth not being understood. It 
is very subject to the action of fire, and disappears rapidly from 
the neighbourhood of settlements. It was formerly abundant on 
the lower portion of the Nashwaak, while it is i-arely found above 
the Narrows, forty miles from the mouth. It is abundant on the 
Intercolonial railroad north of Moncton. 

A wide belt of hemlock crosses the St John river on the granite 
formation forty miles above Fredericton, and the wood is especially 
good, owing, perhaps, to the presence of potash from the decom- 
position of the felspar contained in the granite, by the action of 
time, frost, and moisture. It is found in large quantities and of 
good quality on the lands of the New Brunswick Land and 
Lumber Company south of the Becaguinne river, growing on the 
red soil of the Lower Carboniferous formation. This wood has 
been used hitherto for framing and boarding in buildings, and for 
fencing ; it is now employed to a limited extent for interior finish- 
ing of houses, and is better than black spruce for many purposes : 
it does not warp or shrink more, or indeed probably so much, as 
good white pine ; it requires a longer time for seasoning than 
either pine or spruce ; it holds nails well ; and much of it has a 
fine gi-ain, and takes an excellent i)olish. It is very durable 



THE WOODS OF NEW CKUXSWICK. 13 

when not exposed to altei'nations of drought and moisture, and is 
said to be impervious to the attacks of rats, and therefore used in 
the construction of granai'ies. Were its good qualities better 
known, its use would be more general. 

5. THE WHITE OR SINGLE SPRUCE {Ahics alba, Michaux). 

This tree is larger and more slender than the black spruce, 
being distinguished by the lighter colour of its bark and leaves. 
On the Restigouche, Upper 8t John, and many other places, it 
grows to a great height with little taper. Mr J. A. M'Callum, 
Deputy Surveyor, in 1873, had a tree cut down on the former 
stream above the Quatamkedguick, which made a log measuring 
14 inches at the butt, 10 inches at the top, and was 64 feet long. 
They have been cut 80 feet long, measuring 25 inches in diameter 
at the butt, and 18 inches at the top. 

White spruce is found in valleys, growing to a very lai'ge size, 
skirting streams, and in small clumps on the sides and tops of 
hills. The yield of white spruce land will not compare with that 
of black, as the former tree is much more scattered in its growth. 
The wood is white and soft, and generally free from knots. Its 
specific gravity is less than that of the black spruce, to which it 
is inferior in strength, and exhibits less elasticity. The spruce 
deals shipped from the Nepisiguit and Restigouche rivers are 
nearly all manufactured from this tree. 

6. THE BLACK OR DOUBLE SPRUCE (AMcs nigra, Michaiix). 

As an article of export, this is the most valuable tree of New 
Brunswick. The vast forests of black spruce which once covered 
the Province have been reduced by tire and cutting to less than 
one-third of their original extent. This tree was found in greatest 
abundance in the southern part of New Brunswick. A line 
drawn from the first Eel River Lake, extending north-east to the 
dividing ridge between the Little South- West MLramichi and 
the Nepisiguit, is about the boundary of the great black spruce 
lands of the Province. South of this line vast forests of it ex- 
tended from the Schoodic, crossing the Nashwaak and South- West 
Miramichi, thence to the north-west branch of the last-named 
river, where it ended. North of this line the tree growth is 
generally hardwood, largely mingled with firs. Such spruce as 
occurs along the shores of streams or scattered on the hill sides 
is j)rinci];)ally of the white variety. 



14 THE WOr)I)S or NKW I'.rJJN'.SWTCK. 

Black spruce is coinniouly found iu tliick masses around lakes, 
or about the base and sides of ridges whose summits are covered 
by hardwoods, the spruce thinning as the elevation increases. 
Like the wliite pine, it attains its greatest size and altitude when 
growing among surrounding hardwoods. During the past seven 
years vast quantities of this tree have died, either from the effects 
of disease, or from tlie attack of an insect, which eats its 
way Ijetween the sap and the bark ; the u^wut forests have 
suffered most. The distinguishing properties of the wood are 
strength, lightness, and elasticity. That found on the shores of 
the Bay of Fundy is remarkable for its toughness and durability, 
and is thought to be nearly equal to Hackmatac for shipbuilding. 
It furnishes as fine yards and topmasts as any in the world, and 
has been long and extensively used for this purpose. 

Heretofore the smaller trees have been largely exported from 
the head of the Bay of Fundy in round logs, to be used as piles 
for wharf-building. The principal root and the lower part of the 
trunk are extensively used for shipbuilding, constituting knees 
and foot-hooks ; and by means of the small fibrous roots the 
Indians of Maine and New Brunswick sew together pieces of 
birch bark to form the exterior covering of their canoes. 

Very superior clap-boards ai'e made from the clean butts of 
these trees, because the wood has straight seams from the butt 
almost to the branches. In many localities black spruces are 
very seamy. This occurs sometimes on the low lands, but oftener 
on the ridges, and is probably caused by the joint effect of wind 
and frost. A cheap variety of shingles is obtained from small 
trees. Their value, however, to New Brunswick arises fx-om their 
furnishing the major part of the deals and battens which are ex- 
ported to Great Britain and other countries. The manufacture of 
s])ruce deals commenced in 1819, and has been steadily increasing. 

7. THE BALSAM FIR (Abies halsamect, Marshall). 

This tree, also known as the Fir Balsam or Silver Fir, is 
common in New Brunswick, being found in nearly all localities, 
but in the greatest abundance and in the most compact bodies on 
the head waters of the St John, Restigouche, and Miramichi 
rivers. There is an extensive forest between the heads of the 
Miramichi and Tobique rivers. It grows here very thickly, and 
some acres have 10,000 or 12,000 feet to the acre upon them 
(superficial measure). The wood is apt to be defective, but in 



THE WOODS OF NEW DRUXSWICK. 15 

this locality it is better. IMr liniitliwailo, a well-known New 
Brunswick woodsman, says that the tirst 10 to 20 feet of the firs 
growing here are generally free from knots ; his attention was 
drawn to their soundness when cutting into them for hunting or 
camping purposes. 

The wood is rich in resin, or rather in turpentine, which is 
contained in small vesicles or tumoui-s covering the trunk and 
limbs. This is usually known by the name of Canada balsam, 
and is employed in medicine for pulmonary complaints, and in 
art for the manufacture of varnish. 

This fir is a lasting wood, and seasons I'eadily. It is easily 
worked, and is used in the manufacture of butter firkins 
and other wooden vessels for holding food, as it imparts no 
flavour. It can be used for flooring, interior doors, slats for 
"Venetian blinds, etc., etc. ; the Indians prefer it to cedar for lining 
their canoes, as it does not absorb water. 

8. THE AMERICAN LARCH, TAMARACK, OR HACKMATAC. 

(Larix Americana, Michaux.) 

The American or black larch, called by the French Canadians 
Epinette Rouge, by the descendants of the Dutch, the Tamarack, 
and among the English, commonly by its Indian name of Hack- 
matac, is one of the most valuable trees of the New Biimswick 
forest. Its favourite place of growth and where it usually attains 
its greatest size, is on or near the banks of some sluggish brook, 
growing specially well among that variety of wild grass known as 
"blue joint." It generally surrounds the barren boggy heaths 
which abound in the middle section of New Brunswick ; those 
trees growing on the bogs being stunted and small, while those on 
the edges of the heath attain a lai-ge size, and frequently afl!brd 
good roots for shipbuilding purposes. The roots of those found 
on intervale land are, however, generally sounder and larger, 
though the trees are not so abundant. Many of the finest and 
largest Tamaracks have been found growing out of old beaver 
dams, and these industrious animals may claim the honour of 
having prepared the soil for their growth. 

Where this tree has not a moist soil, its growth is very scantv 
and small. It is capable of ready propagation. By the artificial 
planting of the tree, a period of seventy years would yield timber 
fit for all the ordinary purposes of shipbuilding. 

The wood of the larch, which is very resinous and compact, is 



IG THE WOODS OF NKW BIUJNHWICK. 

remarkiihly dunihlo. It lias liccn said to bo more lasting in shij)s' 
timbers than oak. There are two varieties known among woods- 
men, the white and the yellow, the former being much inferior 
to the latter in strength and durability. 

Tamarack is largely used in shipbuilding for timVjers, knees, 
beams, etc., but large roots and timber have become scarce, and 
cannot be obtained unless at considerable expense. 

In the County of Aroostook, in the State of Maine, trees of 
Hackmatac have been obtained from which have been made four 
tons of timber. 

Lumbermen remark, that in almost every place where you find 
a very large Tamarack, apparently growing alone, by searching a 
few rods on either side you will find a companion of nearly similar 
proportions. Hackmatac planks are well adapted for floor boards 
and door steps, from their extreme hardness, and an infusion of 
the boughs and bark furnishes a good alterative for horses. 

The Cypress Tribe {Ciqyressince). 

The only representatives in New Brunswick of this section, 
marked by having a globular or ovoid Strohihis, instead of a true 
cone for fruit, are the American Arbor Vitse, the Red Cedar, 
and the Juniper. 

The American Arbor Vit^e {Thuya occidentalism L.). 

This tree, often but improperly called the White Cedar, is 
abundant in New Brunswick. It is met with everywhere in low 
grounds and swales, but especially where the soil is clayey and 
the drainage imperfect. The largest and best trees occur inter- 
mingled with hardwood. They grow thickest in what are called 
cedar swamps, forming for short distances dense forests well nigh 
impenetrable. When growing thickly together the wood is 
generally very defective and the diameter comparatively small, 
rarely exceeding 1 to 2 feet. 

On the dry limestone hills near St John, this species forms 
dense thickets of beautifully pyramidal trees. It is found in 
greatest abundance, as well as of the best qviality, on the Resti- 
gouche river and on the upper St John. Mr J. A. M'Callum, 
when surveying the dividing line between the counties of Victoria 
and Madawaska, on the lands of the New Brunswick Land and 
Lumber Company, observed thousands of white cedars which were 



THE WOODS OF XEW BRCXSWICK. 17 

3 feet and upwards in diameter, and extended for many miles. 
When on the head of the Restigouche he also noticed great 
quantities of excellent cedar. 

On the north of Tobique and on Salmon river, on the aboA^e- 
named company's grants, are vast tracts of hardwood, intermingled 
with the finest of cedar. The Crown lands on the Xictaux branch 
of Tobique, for many miles, are also lined with clean and straight 
trees of this species well adapted to the manufacture of cedar 
shingles or railway ties. As this stream is remarkably smooth, 
the trees can be conveyed by water, very cheaply, to railway 
communication. The Honourable Senator Ferguson, of Bathurst, 
says that the white cedar is much used in the eastern part of the 
county of Gloucester for building boats, that boards can be got 
from 6 to 9 inches wide for planking, and that the roots make 
excellent knee timbers, as they are both light and durable. 

The wood of the white cedar is very soft, light and fine grained, 
of a reddish tint, and, like its twigs, possessed of an agreeable 
aromatic odour. It is readily wrought, and is also very durable, 
being especially adapted for fencing, and for such other purposes 
as necessitate frequent alternations of dryness and moistiu'e. There 
is a lai'ge export of cedar shingles and railway ties fi'om the City 
of Fredericton. Chests made from this wood are said to have the 
pi'operty of preserving furs and woollen goods from the attacks of 
moths, which is, probably, owing to its aromatic odour. The bark 
of this tree is now used in the United States for the manufacture 
of coarse paper for carpet lining, sheathing, etc. 

LiXDEX Family (Tiliacece). 

BASS-WOOD, OR LIME TREE {Tilitt Americana, L.). 

Though rare, there ai'e few more striking trees in the New 
Brunswick w^oods than the Bass-wood, or American Linden. 
With a tall straight and somewhat columnar trunk, sometimes as 
much as 80 feet in height, branching freely, and densely clothed 
with rich green foliage, diversified in the season by its abundant 
yellowish-green flowers, or nut-like fruit, it can hardly fail to 
attract attention ; and as an ornamental tree, it is well worthy 
of cultivation. Its wood is also of considerable value, being 
soft, white, and of a fine close grain. It is very tough and 
pliable, and being less liable than other woods to split from 
extremes of temperature, is used, in preference to all others, for 

VOL. XI., PART I. B 



18 TIIIO WOODS OF NEW nRUNSWICK. 

making curved fronts of sleighs, panels of carriages, etc. For 
similar reasons it is used by stair-builders for curved ends of 
stairs, and for interior finishing. It is readily carved and turned, 
and has sometimes been employed for the figure-heads of vessels. 
Its inner bark, or liber, is tough and fibrous, and is well adapted 
for the manufacture of rough ropes and cordage. It occurs 
sparingly on the fertile lands of the Upper St John river. 

The Soap-Berry Family {Sapindacece). 

The representatives of this family in New Brunswick belong to 
two sub-orders, of which the first {^Sapindacece proper) is rejiresented 
by the introduced Horse-chestnut, much priced as an ornamental 
tree ; and the second {Acerinece) by the different species of Maple. 
The latter only require notice here. 

WHITE OR SILVER MAPLE [Acer dasycarpum, Ehr.). 

This is a somewhat smaller tree than the Ptock Maple, and less 
generally distiibuted, being a2:)parently wanting in the northern 
counties, and elsewhere confined to the borders of streams. It is 
not uncommon among the creeks and islands of the St John river, 
and is often of considerable size and beauty. It yields a soft 
white wood, fine grained and easily worked, but with little 
strength or durability. It is rarely used, except in the manufac- 
ture of agricultural implements. 

RED OR SWAMP MAPLE {Acer ruhrum, L.). 

This tree is, among the maples, second only to the rock maple 
in size and in the value of its wood. Though not strictly confined 
to swamps, it flourishes best in low wooded swales, and where 
there is abundant moisture ; attaining, sometimes, under these 
circumstances, a height of 60 or 70 feet. It has been observed in 
all parts of the Province, being readily recognised in spring, from 
the reddish or crimson colour of its recent shoots, and in autumn 
from the intense brilliancy of its variegated foliage. 

" The wood of the red maple is whitish, with a tint of rose- 
colour, of a fine and close grain, compact, firm and smooth, the 
silver grain lying in layers very narrow and close, and the pcres 
being very small. It is well suited for turning, and takes a fine 
polish ; is easily wrought ; and serves for a great variety of pur- 



THE WOODS OP NEW BRUNSWICK. 19 

poses. It is mucli used for common bedsteads, tables, cliairs, 
bureaus, and otber cheap furniture. In building it is an excellent 
material for flooring, and may be used for any part not exposed 
to dampness. It lasts well in the flat of a ship's floor, and has 
sufiicient elasticity to serve as oars, which are almost equal to 
those of white ash " (Emerson's Report, p. 486), 

There is a considerable quantity of this wood growing on the 
lands of the New Brunswick Land and Lumber Company on the 
St John river. It occurs on the edge of low land, but does not 
grow thickly in any place. 

ROCK OR SUGAR MAPLE {Acer saccharinum, L.). 

This is the largest and finest of the maples, and is the most 
valuable in its economic applications. Though varying greatly 
in aspect according to the special conditions under which it has 
grown, it is in all cases a remarkable and sometimes even a 
majestic tree, beautiful alike for form and foliage, the contour of 
the leaf being remarkably graceful. It is jiartial to rich, deep, 
and gi'avelly loams, and, except directly along the seaboard, is a 
very common upland tree throughout the Province. Its ordinary 
height is 50 or GO feet, though rising sometimes to 70 or 80 
feet. 

It is of rapid growth and capable of ready cultivation, but 
when in open ground and unprotected is rather easily overthrown 
and subject to somewhat premature decay. " For purposes of 
art," says Emei'son, " no native wood possesses more beauty, or a 
greater variety of appearance than that of the rock maple. It is 
hard, close-grauied, smooth, and compact, and capable of taking 
and i-etaining an exquisite polish. The straight-grained or common 
variety has a resemblance to satin wood, but is of a deeper colour. 
The variety called cui-led hard maple, caused by the sinuous course 
of the fibres, gives a changeable surface of alternate light and 
shade, exhibiting an agreeable and striking play of coloui's. But 
the most remarkable variety is the Bird's-eye Maple. This is so 
called from a contortion of the fibres at irregular intervals, 
throwing out a vai'iable point of light, and giving an appearance 
of a roundish projection rising from within a slight cavity, and 
bearing a distant resemblance to the eye of a bix'd. All the 
vaiieties, particularly the last, are used in the manufacture of 
articles of fui'niture — wardrobes, chairs, bedsteads, bureaus, port- 
able desks, frames of pictures, etc. The straight-grained variety 



20 TUIC WOODS OF XRW lillUNSWICK. 

is much used in the manufacture of buckets and tubs, and is 
preferable to every other wood for the making of lasts. In naval 
architecture the rock maple furnishes the best material, next to 
white oak, for the keel." 

Rock maple grows in abundance on the St John river and its 
tributaries ; it is found in greatest quantities from between 
Fredericton and Woodstock to the northern boundary-line of the 
Province. In the district north of the Tobique, for more than 
forty miles in a straight line, the explorer can travel through 
extremely fertile lands, the growth on which is largely composed 
of this tree, without meeting the habitation of man. A large 
quantity of sugar and some molasses or treacle are yearly made in 
the months of March and April, from the maple sap, which is 
received in troughs, holes having been bored or cut in the trunks of 
the trees to which a small spout is attached. The liquid is boiled 
down in large iron pots to the required thickness, and then 
sugared off. An agreeable candy is made by suddenly pouring 
the sap, when boiled to the proper consistency, on snow. This 
candy can be made in summer from the sugar by boiling it down 
with a little water, and using ice instead of snow as a means of 
sudden cooling. 

The French of the county of Madawaska are the largest manu- 
facturers of this sugar, and there is little other used in that 
county. In the bright warm April days the careful observer may 
frequently notice the common squirrel hanging tenaciously to 
some maple twig, occasionally lifting his head to bark angrily at 
the intruder. Closer observation will reveal the fact that the 
noisy climber is regaling himself on the delicious sap which the 
approach of spring is sending from the root to the branches of the 
tree. Many of the Provincial railroads pass through or near 
extensive forests of this wood, but although small water-powers 
abound, no manufacturing establishments for the various purposes 
of commerce have as yet been erected. 

An important application of maple wood, especially of Bird's-eye 
maple, in veneers, has recently been made in the internal decora- 
tion of railway carriages, for which it is admirably adapted. 
Although, like other maples, it is deficient in durability under 
exposure, it is very strong and remarkably cohesive. As fuel its 
value is unequalled by any other tree in New Brunswick, and 
very large quantities are annually consumed for this purpose. 



THE WOODS OF NEW BRUNSWICK. 21 

Olive Family {Oleacece). 

The representatives of this family in New Brunswick belong to 
the genus Fraxinus or ash, of which there are four species. 

WHITE ASH [Fraxinus Americana, L.). 

This, from its large size, the most important of the ashes, is 
sparsely found in all parts of the Province, upon almost every 
variety of soU, though attaining its perfection only in rich loamy 
ground and in the vicinity of streams, where it obtains abundant 
moisture. Under favourable cii-cum stances it rises to a height of 
50 or 60 feet, with a straight undivided trunk for 30 feet, and a 
diameter of nearly 2 feet. It is usually scattered among other 
trees, rarely, if ever, forming groves. 

The qualities from which ash wood derives its value are its 
strength, toughness, and elasticity. In consequence of these pro- 
perties it is extensively employed by carriage and sleigh makers, 
especially for shafts and springs ; in the manufacture of chair and 
sofa frames ; for agricultural implements, as pitchforks and rakes ; 
and for a variety of smaller articles. For the manufacture of oars 
it is preferred to all other woods. 

THE RED ASH (Fi'axinus jjubescens, Walter). 

This tree resembles the white ash, and grows in similar situa- 
tions ; it is probable that they are sometimes confounded. Besides 
being a smaller tree, the red ash is easily distinguished by the downy 
character of its leaves and newer branches, from which its specific 
name is derived. Its wood, though used for similar purposes, is 
less valuable. This tree is found to a limited extent east of the 
Grand Falls, in low fertile parts. 

BLACK OR WATER ASH (Fraxinus sambiicifolia, Lam.). 

This tree is mostly confined to swamps and the muddy banks 
of rivers. It is common along the shores of the St John 
and Kennebeccasis rivers, but is in greatest abundance on the 
branches of the St John above the Grand Falls, especially on 
those of the Grand and Green I'ivers, the shores of the former 
being fringed by it for many miles. It is also abundant on the 
Miramichi river on the lands of the New Brunswick Land and 
Lumber Company — the di-ier the land usually the better the wood. 

The wood of the black ash is used for house and church finish- 



22 THE WOODS OF NEW I5RUNSWICK. 

ing, as well as in the manufacture of furniture. In order to 
polish it, the pores are filled with some substance, such as bees' 
wax, to close the pores ; after this it takes a high polish. It 
varies in quality with the ground on which it grows. The best ash 
used in Fredericton is brought from the coiinty of Carleton ; there 
it attains a height of 40 feet or more, and a diameter of 2 feet. 
It comes into leaf very late in the season, and loses its foliage early. 
The wood of the black ash, though inferior to the white in 
strength and durability, is nevertheless remarkably tough, and, 
owing to the facility with which after pounding it may be separ- 
ated into strips and ribands, is especially prefen-ed to other 
woods by the Indians for the manufacture of baskets, of which 
handsomely ornamented ones are made by the Tobique ti-ibe. 

Nettle Family (Urticacece). 

Sub-order I. — The Elm Tribe [Ubnacew). 
THE ELM (Ulmics Americana, L.). 

Though comparatively restricted in its distribution, there are, 
nevertheless, few trees in New Brunswick which, when the proper 
conditions are accorded, exceed the elm in the length or vigour of 
its growth, certainly none which can compare with it for grace 
and beauty. On the u.plands it is comparatively rax'e, and even 
when occurring seldom attains to great size, but in river valleys, 
and especially along the rich and level intervales * bordering the 
St John river and its tributaries, it is much more abundant and 
often large, its beautiful feathered trunks and plume-like branches 
serving greatly to enhance the beauty of the sceneiy. The stem 
occasionally girths 20 feet. 

The wood of the elm is both strong and tough, and therefore 
well adapted for the making of ships' blocks, hubs of carriage- 
wheels, and kindred uses, though said to be inferior for these 
purposes to the English elm. It is also used in making the flooring 
of ships' decks, though difficult to work, the peculiarity of the 
grain requii'ing it to be planed crosswise rather than lengthwise. 
Its value in New Brunswick, however, is almost solely as an 
ornamental tree, quite equalling if not excelling in this respect its 
European relative. It is readily transj^lanted, hardy when in 
favovu-able situations, and of rapid growth. 

* Hohn in England ; Haugh in Scotland. 



THE WOODS OF NEW BRUNSWICK. 23 

Walnut Family [Juglandacece). 
THE BUTTERNUT {Jiiglans cbierea, L.). 

The Butternut is not an abundant tree in New Brmiswick, 
being mostly confined to the southern counties and the valley of 
the St John river, especially above Woodstock, while it is absent 
from the coast, and also, according to Mr Fowler, from the 
northei'n counties of the Pro\T.nce. It is usually met with in 
rich moist lands, especially in calcareous districts, and some of 
these, such as Butternut Ridge, in King's Co., have received their 
names from its former abundance in their vicinity. It is rarely 
found away from roads or settlements. Although never a tall 
tree, it thrives well under cultivation, and sometimes attains a 
height of 60 feet or more. 

The wood of the butternut is adapted for numerous and various 
uses. Its rich reddish-yellow colour, dai-kening with age, and 
then nearly resembling the English oak, as well as its lightness, 
render it suitable for cabinet work, for which it is also well 
adapted by the facility with which it receives paint or varnish, 
and the fact that it is not readily split by nails. For a like reason 
it may be advantageously employed for carriage-making and similar 
uses, being both light and durable. It is well fitted for purposes 
of interior decoration, and has been employed with excellent 
efiect, both in the Cathedral at Fredericton and in other chiu-ches 
through the Province. 

Of minor uses, the employment of the bark and nut-shells in 
dyeing may be mentioned, as well as that of the young half-grown 
nuts for the making of pickles. The bark is also said to yield an 
extract possessed of laxative properties. 

Oak Family {CupuUfene). 

The representatives of this family in the New Brunswick Sylva 
are (1.) The Red Oak [Quercus rubra, L.), the American Beech 
{Fagus ferruginea, Ait.), the Beaked Hazel-nut (Corylus rostrata, 
Ait.), the American Hornbeam (Carpinus Americana, Mich.), and 
the American Hop Hornbeam {Ostrya Virginica, Willd.), to which 
may be added, as introduced at a few points, the Spanish Chestnut 
{Castaiiea vesca, L.). 



24 THE WOODS OF NEW IJUUN.SWICK. 

1. THE RED OAK {Qiiercus nij/ra, L.). 

This, the only S})ecie.s of oak occurring in New lirunswick, is 
both common and widely distributed, being found in all parts of 
the Province, esi^ecially along the banks of streams, and, as in 
Charlotte Co., along ridges of slaty rocks. It i.s, however, a tree 
of inferior value, being difficult to season, imperfectly combustiVjle, 
and, unlike other species of the same genus, worthless for the pur- 
})Oses of the tanner. It is, howevei', of rapid gi-owth ; flourishes 
well in almost all situations; and, owing to the beauty of its 
trunk and foliage, is well adapted for ornamental purposes. 

To the above may be added the occasional occurrence of the 
white and grey oak in special localities. They are, however, so 
rare as to require no special mention. 

2. AMERICAN BEECH {Fogus ferrugiiiea, Ait.). 

Three different kinds of Beech, viz., the Common Beech, the 
White Beech, and the Red Beech, ai'e distinguished by lumberers 
and others. They are, however, probably all vai-ieties of a single 
species — the White or American Beech, the differences depending, 
according to Emerson, simply upon the greater or less rapidity of 
maturation, and the consequent different proportion of the (white) 
sap wood or (red) heart wood. In one or other of its forms it 
is an abundant tree throughout the Province (except upon the 
Southern coast), abounding especially upon ridges of felspar rocks, 
and in rich moderately moist soils. It is a tree of rapid gi-owth, 
increasing its diameter under favourable circumstances as much 
as two-thirds of an inch in a single year, and attaining some- 
times a height of not less than 70 feet. 

The beech is extensively employed for fuel, being indeed, for 
that purpose, second only to the rock maple. The wood is "hard, 
of a fine smooth close grain, and very dense, having a specific 
gravity of "724 " (Emerson). It is dui-able when kept dry, and 
also when permanently wet, as in the bottom of ships, but decays 
rapidly when subjected to alternations of these conditions. It is 
well adapted for the manufacture of saw-handles, shoe-lasts, plane- 
stocks, and for chairs and farm utensils. From its ashes large 
quantities of alkali are obtained for the manufacture of soap. 
Its nuts are oily and nutritious, and afford a large portion of the 
food of various wild animals, including the bear, partridge, and 
squirrel. Young beeches projierly arranged, and by grafting made 



THE WOODS OF NEW BRUNSWICK. 25 

to grow together, form solid and elegant hedges, but have the dis- 
advantage of checking the growth of other plants near or under 
them. 

3. THE SPANISH CHESTNUT {Ccistanea vesca, L.). 

This tree, so highly prized in somewhat more southern latitudes 
alike as an ornament and for its abundant and agreeable fruit, can 
hardly be said in fairness to have a place among the indigenous 
trees of New Brimswick. None are found in a wild state ; and 
though a few have been introduced from time to time, they do 
not appear to thrive, and are rarely seen. 

4. THE HORNBEAM [Carpiuus Americana, Michaux). 

This ti'ee, though by no means an abundant one, is occasionally 
seen in the New Brunswick woods, especially in the central and 
southern counties, along the banks of streams, and on the sides of 
ridges. It is found in considerable quantity in the vicinity of 
Salmon river in the county of Victoria, and in other places on the 
lands of the New Brunswick Land and Lumber Company. 
When conveniently attainable, it is used by lumbermen in the 
manufacture of axe-handles ; and for other purposes requiring 
great sti-ength, it is considered to be the strongest of the northern 
woods. When well seasoned it makes excellent fishing rods, being 
veiy strong, light, and elastic. 

5. THE AMERICAN HOP HORNBEAM {Ostvya Virginica, Willd.). 

This tree, readily distinguished from the preceding by the hop- 
like fruit from which its name is derived, is, like the latter, com- 
paratively rare in New Brunswick, though ajjparently distributed 
over its entire area. It is generally found in rich woods, attain- 
ing a height of 20 to 30 feet. Like the preceding species, with 
which it shares the name of " Ironwood," it is remarkable for tough- 
ness and compactness, adajjting it for the manufacture of levers 
and similar uses, whence it is also often called " Lever Wood." It 
is also employed for the cogs of mill-wheels and for agricultural 
implements. 

The Birch Family {Betulacece). 

This family embraces in New Brunswick five species of true 
Birch, and two of Alder. 



26 THE WOODS OF NEW BRUNSWICK. 

1. AMERICAN WHITE BIRCH {Betula alba, var. populifolia, Spach.). 

The White Birch, or Little Grey Birch as it is sometimes called, 
is a very common tree in New Brunswick, especially near the 
coast and on the poorer class of soils, such as occur over ex- 
tensive tracts occupied by the rocks of the coal-measures. It 
is usually found in large groves associated with spruce, pine, or 
other soft-wood trees, and under favourable circumstances attains 
a height of 30 to 40 feet. The wood of the white birch is easily 
worked, and when well seasoned, light and strong; and is not 
liable to crack, s])lit, or warp. 

2. THE PAPER BIRCH {Betula papyracea, Ait.). 

The Paper Birch, like the White Birch, which it nearly resembles, 
is found in all parts of New Brunswick, but usually in soils some- 
what more fertile than those covered by its relative. It is said 
especially to favour gravelly soils and the slopes and bottoms of 
valleys covered with large and moss-gi-own rocks. 

There are many thousands of acres on the head waters of the 
Miramichi, and on the heads of streams emptying into the Tobique 
in the same vicinity, which are covei-ed with forests of this wood, 
where it grows to a large size, sometimes attaining a diameter of 
2 feet and a height of 40. It is usually sound and free from rot. 
There is abundance of small trees growing here also, which are 
white hearted and suitable for the manufacture of spools or thi-ead 
reels. One Maine factory turns out 100,000 gross of spools per 
day, and consumes 2500 cords of birch annually. 

3. THE YELLOW BIRCH {Betula excelsa, Ait.). 

This is one of the larger, and therefore, more valuable of the 
birches ; its straight and nearly uniform trunk attaining at times 
a height of 70, and a diameter of 2 or more, feet. It is a very 
common ti-ee in New Brunswick, growing usually on rich, soft, and 
moist lands in company with spruce and ash, and besides being 
extensively employed for many domestic uses, and for shipbuild- 
ing, forms with the black birch an important article of export. 
This tree is found abundantly on the lands of the New Brunswick 
Land and Lumber Company, both on the Mii-amichi and St John 
rivers. 

It attains its greatest size on the fertile lands of the Upper 



THE WOODS OF NEW BRUNSWICK. 27 

St Jolm ; it is a strong and durable wood. Besides its employ- 
ment in shipbuilding, it has also been used in cabinet work, 
and in Fredericton for the frames of fanning mills and seed 
separators. When straight grained it is not liable to warp or 
split; it is susceptible of a high polish, and derives additional 
beauty from the pecidiarly irregular and variegated disposition of 
the grain. The young saplings make excellent hoops. 

4. CHERRY BIRCH, SWEET OR BLACK BIRCH {Betuld lenta, L.). 

This, the handsomest and the most valuable of the birches, is 
found in all parts of New Brunswick, flourishing in neai-ly the 
same situations as its relative, the yellow birch, and attaining 
about the same proportions. It is esiJecially common on the deep 
and shady banks of rivers, and on gravelly ridges along the shores 
of the Bay of Fundy, as well as on the fertile lands on the Upper 
St John, east of the Grand Falls, and north of the Tobique liver, 
where there are himdreds of thousands of acres covered by it, the 
land there being of excellent quality. This great body of birch 
extends over a large part of the Crown Lands in the county of 
Restigouche ; the wood there is of large size and exceptional 
quality. It is also largely found on the Miramichi river and its 
branches ; the soil there being inferior, the quality of the wood 
is not good. It also occurs in many other places on the Crown 
Lands of ISTew Brunswick. The principal use of the black birch 
is for the manufacture of square timber for export and in shijj- 
building, especially for the keel, lower timbers and planks of 
vessels ; its most important characteristic being its dui-ability 
when kept permanently w^et. Being of a fine and close grain, 
readily capable of being polished, as well as possessing a rich 
colour, somewhat resembling mahogany, it is largely used for chair 
and cabinet work. It is employed by the carriage makers for panels. 
It takes any kind of stain well, and can be easily made to represent 
rare woods. The bii-ch used in the Boston Navy Yard is kept 
under water, which not only prevents it from decaying, but 
much improves its quality. 

The Willow Family (Salicacece). 

The Poplars are the only trees in this family which requii-e 
notice here. 

The Balsam poplar (P. balsamifera), in its variety the Balm of 



S8 rilK WOODS OF NKW HIIUNSWK.K. 

Gilead (var. Candicans), grows to a fair size along the shoies of 
streams in the northern })ai't of New Brunswick, especially on the 
banks of the Tobique, Grand, and Green rivers. Its wood may be 
used for door panels or other interior house finishing, as it is soft 
and easily worked ; it takes a stain and finishes well. It is only 
locally abundant, and therefore of small importance commercially. 

American Aspen (P. tremuloides, Michaux). 

This tree is found in great abundance on the lands of the 
New Brunswick Land and Lumber Company, especially on the 
heads of the Clear Water, Wapskehegun and Gulquac, covering 
large tracts of land growing on ridges mixed with white birch 
and fir. It is of large size, attaining frequently a diameter 
of 2 feet. The larger trees are more frequently sound than the 
smaller, as the latter, when afiected by disease or rot, soon die. It 
also occurs abundantly on the Crown Lands of New Brunswick 
at the head of the Miramichi, and along the Intercolonial rail- 
way, where, however, it is of smaller size. The wood of the Aspen, 
when seasoned, is tough, light, and hai-d. It does not warp, ci'ack, 
or shrink, and is very close gi-ained and white, and takes a high, 
polish. It is used in the construction of sleighs and carriages, 
and makes excellent floor boards in house building, and might be 
used mucb more than it is for furniture and interior finishing. 
It also makes superior handles for hoes, rakes, or other similar 
implements. 



THE PLANTATIONS ON THE ESTATE OF SORN. 29 



III. 0/i the Platdations on the Estate of Sorn, in the County of 
Ayr, N.B. By David Barclay, Forester. 

The estate of Sorn, the property of James Somervell, Esq. of Sorn, 
is situated in the uplands of Ayrshire, about midway between the 
source and the mouth of the river Ayr, and about 15 miles from the 
sea as the crow flies. The area of the estate is computed at 6245 
acres, and though its plantations may compare favourably with 
those of other properties in the district, they are not of very 
great extent, and may be set down at about 600 acres. Before 
entering on the present condition of the plantations, it may be 
as well to relate, as far as known by the writer, the history of 
the estate. 

At an early period it was possessed by a Countess of Loudon. It 
is supposed that she planted the oldest and most remarkable trees. 
These comprise the English elms near the castle, some beeches 
that are planted in the form of a crescent in front of the castle, 
with the beech walk on the west, and the wood in the Cleuch on 
the east. It is said of her, when she read or heard of Dr Johnson's 
remarks on the treeless state of the Hebrides, or rather of Scot- 
land, that she exclaimed, "Deil tak' the man ! whar was his een 
when he didna see my Elms ? " About the beginning of the 
present century, it came into the possession of the Somervells, 
merchants in Glasgow. At that time the greater part of the 
estate must have presented a very bleak and sterile appearance, 
but by the judicious and enterprising spirit of the late Miss 
Agnes Somervell, the area of the plantations was increased from 
about 100 to the present extent of about 600 acres. The original 
100 acres are of the most permanent character, and are growing on 
the banks of the river Ayr, in the romantic Cleuch Glen, and 
extend along Sorn Bank to a little to the east of Dalgain. These 
are composed of the following species : alder, ash, beech, chestnut, 
elm, Italian poplar, lime, oak, plane, Scots and spruce firs. The 
larch that was formerly on the estate was all cut about twelve 
years ago, when the demand was good and the price high. The 
underwood consists chiefly of hazel, mountain ash, and briars, 
with numerous clumps of rhododendrons, which flourish here 
luxuriantly, and spring up freely from self-sown seed. 

I will now detail the method adopted by Miss Somervell in 
forming the greater part of the plantations. The estate, for the 



.30 THE PLANTATIONS ON THE ESTATE OF SORN. 

most part, was an extensive moor when she became owner of it — 
unchained, and without a tree for shelter ; so that there was un- 
limited scope for improvements. She appears to have known, or 
been well advised, that the first step in estate improvement was, 
according to the old adage, " for agriculture to succeed, arboricul- 
ture must proceed." "With wisely-directed skill she managed to 
overcome the difficulties which meet those who have to fonn 
plantations on poor peaty soils and bleak moorlands. Limestone 
existing on the property, she set about opening limeworks, and 
liberally dressed the land with the fi'esh lime ; digging, trenching, 
and ploughing it in, and then cropped the land for two seasons 
before commencing to plant it. Open drains also were cut 
at certain distances apart to carry ofi" all stagnant water, and 
the ground was thoroughly protected against the inroads of 
stock from the adjoining moor by a substantial stone dyke 
running along the boundary. The interior fences are composed 
mostly of beech, which have thriven well and form good hedges. 
After the liberal treatment of the soil above indicated, it was a 
matter of certainty that the plantations would succeed, in such a 
manner as to satisfy even the most sanguine expectations. 
The soil, for the most part, is peaty, in some places pure peat, 
resting on a clayey subsoil, well suited to grow a crop of Scots 
and spruce fir timber suitable for the local markets of a mining 
district. 

The plan followed in laying out the plantations was most 
simple, the straight line being used, except around exposed farm 
homesteads, where the shelter-belts were laid out in curves, and 
around the top of Tinkholm Hill, where the line was carried 
about 30 feet below the summit, or about 900 feet above the level 
of the sea, and the highest point of the plantations. 

It may be said that there is a sameness about the plantations, 
as the crop consists principally of Scots and spruce firs. This, 
however, shows the wisdom of the planter, because the soil is 
only adapted to grow such hardy kinds of trees, for which a ready 
market is now found in the neighbouring coalfields of upper Ayr- 
shire; the extensive Airds Moss collieries being within a few miles 
of the estate. It is seldom that the planter reaps the benefit of 
his labours ; but, if he takes a pleasure in the work of planting, 
it is a source of great satisfaction to see the trees thriving and 
the work proceeding in the manner desii-ed. The lady who 
planted these woods does not appear to have had any desii'e to 



THE PLANTATIONS ON THE ESTATE OF SORN. 31 

reap a profit from them, and would not even allow them to be 
thinned, except in the slightest degree. Hence it was that an 
extra thick crop remained on the ground until it reached maturity ; 
the very thickness of the crop bringing the trees the earlier to 
maturity, to the great advantage of the succeeding proprietor, to 
whom it afforded a rich harvest. 

The success which followed the laying out of these plantations 
must be attributed to the advantages they had to start with ; the 
soil was fresh and in first-rate condition, and the fences proof 
against the inroads of stock. 

The hedges are a feature of the estate, and, along with the 
plantations, have added largely to the amenity and value of the 
property. They are formed chiefly of mixed beech and thorn, but 
are occasionally composed wholly of beech or of thorn, and there 
is one good hedge of hornbeam. They were laid out and 
planted by the same lady who formed the plantations, and al- 
though now past their best, they must have been splendid fences 
for many years, and great care was bestowed in keeping them 
properly dressed and in good order. In forming the hedges, the 
most of them have been planted too high on a raised bank, with a 
ditch alongside, and the consequence is, they suffer much from 
droughts. A raised bank, such as this, composed lai-gely of light 
peaty soil, soon becomes void of nutriment for the hedge, with the 
result that the plants become stunted and perish, unless much 
money and labour is annually expended in manuring and 
digging the hedge-bottoms, to keep the plants alive and vigorous. 
It is always advisable not to plant hedges too high above the level 
of the gi'ound, and to take care at all times to keep the soil well 
up to the neck of the plants when the hedge-bottoms are being 
cleaned and dug. In renovating beech hedges, it is best to pro- 
ceed by cutting in one side of the hedge at a time, taking the 
stronger side first. Then in the course of a few years, when the 
first cut side has been fau-ly renewed, the other side should be 
treated in a similar manner, by cutting it close in, and filling up 
all gaps with healthy plants. The work of renovating and planting 
should be done early in the season, so that the roots may be in 
action to sustain the plants against the heat and droughts. The 
hedges while in a young state, and during the process of renova- 
tion, should be securely fenced and protected from stock and 
the ravages of hares and rabbits. 

The late Graham Somervell, Esq. of Sorn, succeeded to the 



32 i'lIK Pr.ANTATIONH ON THE KSTATK OF SOIlN. 

estates iu 185G, by which time all the operations already descriVjed 
had been completed, and some of the plantations were approaching 
maturity. These, in the course of the following years, were cut 
down, and realised a good profit, particularly the fine larch already 
referred to. Mr Somervell took great pains to replant the cleared 
woods, and during a period of about twenty years thus renewed 
upwards of 400 acres, which are now thriving well, although 
much difficulty was at times experienced in protecting them 
from the ravages of vermin while the plants were young. Be- 
tween the years 1876 and 1881, an extent of over 140 acres 
was planted with 688,000 trees ; which shows the keen 
interest the late proprietor took in his woods. Since 1881 
the woods have been left very much to themselves, and are 
growing up again with much vigour, with the prospect of a 
good second crop, if they receive proper attention and judicious 
management. 

A few years ago the trees in the Sorn Bank wood became un- 
healthy, and were cut down. Portions of it, being too wet for 
the growth of Scots fir, were planted with poplars, and the dry 
parts were filled up with Scots fir. All are doing well, and 
in the course of time, under good management, will give a full 
crop of timber. In some favourable spots in this wood are a 
few grand specimens of Scots fir; the finest on the estate is 
growing at Dalgain, above Sorn village, and measures 9 feet 8 
inches in circumference of bole at 1 foot from the ground, and 
8 feet 10 inches at 5 feet up. A part of the wood above Sorn 
Manse was cut down and replanted with Scots and spruce firs and 
larch. The firs are doing well, and the larch look healthy to the 
casual passer-by, but ai-e badly aflfected with disease, to which 
pi'obably many of them may yet succumb. Some of the i)lanta- 
tions to the west of the castle and along the Mauchline road have 
been planted with hardwoods for a second crop, with spruce firs 
as nurses, which have been allowed to remain too long. The 
hardwoods have got drawn in consequence, with the residt that 
the storms of last winter levelled the most of them. 

The same storms played sad havoc among the remainder of 
the original plantations, extending to about 100 acres, gi'owing 
along the sides of Tinkholm Hill at an altitude of between 800 
and 900 feet. Upwai-ds of 50,000 trees were blown over here by 
the gales, and their i*emoval necessitates the cutting down of at 
least as many more, as the crop will average nearly 1000 ti-ees 



THE PLANTATIONS ON THE ESTATE OF SORN. 33 

per acre. To realise a moderate price, these trees should all be 
cleared off within the next three or four years, before the timber 
begins to deteriorate. 

The wood growing at the highest altitudes — say about 800 feet 
above sea-level — has during recent years brought £50 an acre 
thirty-five years after being planted, while the adjoining farm-land 
only brings 10s. per aci-e per annum; showing a yearly balance 
of 1 Ss. 6d. per acre in favour of wood cultivation. At a lower 
altitude, woods forty-five years old were sold at £75 an acre, and 
the rent of the adjacent arable land was 15s. per acre, of which 
at least 2s. 6d. ought to be credited to the plantations for the 
shelter they afford. After all allowances are made for interest 
on the original outlay, these facts clearly prove that well-managed 
plantations pay the owner a handsome return within the i-eason- 
able period of a moderate lifetime, especially when they are laid 
out with skill on land of the nature of these uplands. 

The woods which were replanted from fifteen to twenty years 
ago suffered considerably from the storms of last winter, but 
the blanks then made might be quickly and satisfactorily filled 
by planting poplars. In these woods the larch has completely 
failed, and has caused a thinness of the crop, but the Scots fir 
and spruce are thriving. The woods from ten to fifteen years 
old are now in a healthy condition, although they suff'ered much 
from rabbits when planted; there being as many as 100,000 
young trees eaten in a year by these voracious vermin. The 
plantations have not been so much overrun with rabbits since 
the pi-actice of letting them at so much per head was discon- 
tinued, which was simply putting a premium upon keeping up a 
large stock of the vermin. The remainder of the renewed planta- 
tions, from three to ten years of age, are very healthy, and 
promise in time to make a fine second crop. 

The present proprietor does not intend to plant until he 
can do so with plants of his own raising; and with that object 
in view, he has recently laid out and partly stocked a home 
nursery. The site of the nursery in the Saugli Park was 
])loughed in the autumn of 1882, one foot deep, with four horses, 
turning up some of the subsoil. A crop of potatoes was planted 
in this in the spring of 1883, but the land was so infested with 
wire-worm that the crop pi-oduced little more than the seed. 
This year the beds for the forest tree-seeds were prepared without 
any manure, so that the soil is in rather a poor condition for the 

VOL. XI., PART I. c 



34 THE PLANTATIONS ON Tilt: ESTATE OF SOUN. 

}>lants to grow well. Rabbits abound in the vicinity, and as 
little is done to protect tlie plants from tbeni, it is feared the 
labour will prove very much in vain. At present the manage- 
ment is in a state of transition. Formerly the wood was cut by 
the forcister's staff, from 10 to 20 acres being cleared each year. 
Now the wood is sold standing to the wood merchant, who employs 
men to cut it at 3d. per tree, and ^d. per ti-ee to bum the brush- 
wood. The forester goes over the plantation with the merchant, 
and values each tree according to the class of wood it produces. 
The different classes are " propwood," from G inches at the thick 
end to 3 inches at the small end ; " 6-inch cuts " measure not less 
than 6 inches in diameter, and " 7-inch cuts " not less than 7 
inches, and so on. For these the following prices are obtained : 
propwood, 5s. 3d. ; 6-inch cuts, 7s. 3d. ; 7-inch cuts, 10s. per 100 
feet lineal, and 3d. per cubic foot for larger Scots and spruce fir. 
The trees now being cut will measure on an average 30 cubic 
feet. 

This is not likely to prove a satisfactory mode of operation, as 
the drains are filled up to allow the carts to pass through the 
woods. The upturned roots of the blown trees falling down on a 
part which is not burned along with the brushwood, will become 
a breeding ground for insects that will destroy the young plants 
whenever the ground is replanted, else there must be a long delay 
till the roots and brush are completely rotted. Young trees when 
planted near the old stumps, root all to one side, and consequently 
are easily blown over ; and from the fact that they do not readily 
make roots among the old ones, they do not succeed so well as 
they should otherwise have done. In renewing plantations, 
it is of importance to use only the best variety of Scots fir, 
taking care to avoid the inferior sort, which is of a straggling 
coarse habit of growth, and does not stand the pinching of the 
side shoots so well as the native Scots fir. No doubt the poor 
quality of the soil is conducive to a straggling growth, yet a 
little pinching-in of the points of the lateral shoots, if done in 
time, does much towards a compact growth. When the lower 
branches of Scots fir are dead 6 or 7 feet up, they should be care- 
fully cut ofi" close to the stem. This affords ventilation, and gives 
room for more plants on the ground to select from at futui-e 
thinnings. It also allows freedom for carrying on opei'ations in 
the woods, and for beating out the ground game. Whenever 
woods get crowded and impenetrable by ovei-growth or otherwise, 



THE PLANTATIONS ON THE ESTATE OF SORN. 35 

the rabbits increase with great rapidity, and quickly become a 
nuisance to all concerned ; the farmer suffers heavily ; the forester 
gets his work spoiled ; the proprietor endures great loss and dis- 
appointment ; and the gamekeeper is grumbled at by everybody. 

I will conclude by briefly remarking that the woods on the 
estate were much damaged by the last winter's storms, and will 
take many years to recover, even under the care of a skilled 
forester. Many of the trees in the vicinity of the Castle are old, 
and past their best, and no storm comes and goes without laying 
prostrate some of the old faA^ourites, or causing havoc among the 
heavier branches. Several gaps have been made in the beech 
walk, and the fine wood in the Cleucb is broken up in many 
places ; so that the future of these fine woods and plantations is 
a subject for much careful thought and study by an experienced 
man. 

I may add that Sorn Castle is of great antiquity, and is known 
to have been of considerable extent in 1409. It was added to in 
1793, and was remodelled by the late proprietor in 1866. Till 
last winter, it was well sheltered from the prevalent westerly 
gales by woods on Sorn hill, which were much damaged by the 
storm that worked such ruin in the other plantations on tbe 
estate. Near the Castle stood the ancient village of Sorn ; 
the modern village is half a mile higher up, on the banks of 
the river Ayr. The site of the old village mill is now occupied 
by the pretty modern flower-garden of the Castle. These changes 
and improvements have been the work of many years. The late 
!Mr Graham Somervell took a great pei'sonal interest in the im- 
provement of the estate and in the welfare of every one living 
upon it, ably filling the part of a wise, far-seeing, and kind 
country gentleman. 



36 NATUUAL Rlil'KOUUCTlOX OF FORESTS. 



IV. Natural Reproduction of Forests. By JoFix M'Lean, 
Forester, Edinburgli. 

Natural Regeneration may be best defined as a branch of the 
science of Arboriculture, or rather let nie term it Sylviculture, 
having for its object the reproduction of timber forests from seed, 
a subject which, I believe, has not received any great or special 
attention in the past history of British Forestry, at least so far as 
I am able to judge from my observations of woods in different 
parts of Scotland. From this, however, no one must jump to the 
conclusion that it is an operation quite unknown amongst us in the 
routine of practical forestry. In Scotland, at least, there are not 
a few extensive estates spread over portions of different counties, 
whei'e natural reproduction is known and systematically practised 
with perfect success, especially among Scots fir woods in the 
northern counties, where local circumstances are found most 
favourable to cai'rying out such a system. When necessary, it is 
assisted, of course, by artificial means, with the most successful 
results. The future programme of forest economy must at all 
times be based on science and art, with a view to establish and 
facilitate a systematic code of rules by which the forester may be 
enabled to perform certain duties and operations with dexterity 
and skill. This will tend to produce the best results of practical 
forestry in its phases of pi'ofit, pleasure, and ornament, always 
leading on to having the right tree planted and growing in the 
right place. In order to carry this out to a profitable end, I will 
state the few points which must first be attended to. 

All areas under woodlands should be clearly mapped out, so as 
to show distinctly the boundaries and divisions of the vai'ious 
blocks ; connected with this map there should be a forest book con- 
taining details of the names of the woods and the numbers of the 
blocks ; their age ; length of period of rotation ; description of 
soils and subsoils, and their suitability to grow and mature 
certain species of trees under local conditions ; also noting the 
annual rate of growth of certain species, and all experiments 
carried out each season. This would form a basis upon which all 
operations might be grounded, and it could be deviated from 
when circumstances rendered it necessary to do so. The loss to 
the owners of private woods is much greater than is generally 
imagined, owing to the common want of a systematic basis in 



NATURAL REPRODUCTION OF FORESTS. 37 

conducting the routine forest work, and especially is this the case 
where those in charge of the woods are often changed. The most 
essential work for the time being of the skilled forester is perhaps 
utterly neglected, which entails a heavy loss to the proprietor at 
a future period, although it cannot easily be detected at the time 
by the uninitiated. Or, it may be the persistent and careful 
experiments of the enthusiast that is thus neglected and thrown 
aside as worthless, before the fallacy or the practical soundness of 
the problem aimed at can be solved, and thus cause a serious loss 
of valuable knowledge to the profession. It is by the practical 
experiments carried out by enthusiasts that the medical profession 
has attained to such a high standard in the preservation of health 
and prevention of disease. And so it is with the forester, who, 
without the practical aid of experiments in many cases, may be 
compared to a captain without a chart sailing in strange seas. 
His being right or wrong is a mere chance, and he may be 
treating his subject the revei'se of what Nature ordains, with 
results the most unsatisfactory. Let me quote the words of 
Professor Huxley. He says that " ignorance is visited as keen 
as wilful disobedience ; incapacity meets with the same punish- 
ment as crime. Nature's discipline is not even a word and a 
blow, but the blow comes first without the word. It is left for 
us to find out why." 

The woods and forests of this country may be designated as 
of two kinds : first, underwood or copjjice, i.e., wood which is 
grown and cut at short periods of from 20 to 30 years, composed 
of deciduous trees, and which are reproduced by suckers from 
stools. The second may be called timber forests, i.e., wood which 
is only intended to be cut at intervals of long periods, which may 
be reproduced naturally or artificially, and may be composed of 
evergreen or deciduous trees — conifers or hardwoods — which are 
grown for the purpose of yielding the heavy timber used in the 
various branches of manufactures and art. 

I shall confine my remarks at present to the second or timber 
forests. Various species of timber trees have difierent constitu- 
tional habits, and it will be necessary to set forth a few examples 
by way of illustration. AVe will first assume that a Scots fir 
wood is about ready to undergo a process of restoration, and that 
the process is intended to be brought about, if possible, by natural 
reproduction from seed. By this it may be taken for granted 
that the said forest or wood is ripe, or approaching maturity, from 



38 NATURAL REPRODUCTION OF P'ORKSTS. 

an economic point of view. This may occur at any age ranging 
from 80 to 120 years. But it will depend much upon local 
circumstances, as the ratio of growth and the vigour of the 
trees will be in proportion to the conditions of the climate, soil, 
elevation, aspect, and exposure. 

It is presumed that the forest is fairly drained and securely 
fenced. The first operation, then, is to begin a series of thinnings 
at intervals over the entire forest, adopting at the outset a 
systematic method of selection of reserves at each felling of 
timber. These thinnings should extend over a considerable 
period of years. I would urge that in all cases the first cutting 
be carried out with great caution; and this should be speci- 
ally attended to when the crop upon the gi'ound is dense, as 
all the roots will be weak and superficial in proportion to the 
density. The trees, therefore, cannot have such a hold in the 
soil, and will be liable to suffer injury from boisterous winds. To 
guard against this, a thick sheltering belt ought to be left all 
round the outside of the forest. By so doing it will serve a two- 
fold pui'pose of some impoi'tance. First, to act as a barrier 
against the wind ; and second, to give shelter to the young seed- 
lings. Should the forest be so extensive that it is impossible to 
spread the periodical thinnings over the entire area, it will be 
necessary to adopt another method, viz., to have it done in 
sections or sub-sections as may be found most suitable. In com- 
mencing to fell the timber within the belt that is left for shelter, 
begin at the side which is most exposed to the breeze. By so 
doing the older seedlings will help to shelter the younger from 
the blast. At each thinning it is essential to select the worst 
trees for cutting first, such as those that are stunted in growth 
and deformed ; all that show any signs of decay, as resin bursts, 
foliage changing to a yellowish green, annual growths arrested or 
diminishing, and those which bear great numbers of cones of a 
diminutive size ; these being all indications of approaching decay. 
At each felling, all the loppings of branches and brushwood 
should be gathered into heaps and carted outside the wood, with- 
out delay, to any open spot where they can be burned, so as 
not to injure the foliage of the reserve trees, or any seed that 
may be germinating near the surface of the ground. Should the 
surface of the soil be covered with a tough herbage of grass or 
heath, it will be necessary to go over it, after the brushwood and 
rubbish is removed, and take oflf large sods, say 18 to 24 inches in 



NATURAL UEPRODUCTIOX OF FORESTS. 39 

diameter, at regulai- distances apart, and then loosen the soil with 
a tramp or shoulder pick, so that the seed may alight on the pre- 
pared portions of the soil as they drop from the trees or are blown 
down by the wind. This operation should be performed after all 
the cuttings. When the last cutting but one is to be made, which 
may vary as to time according to local circumstances and in pro- 
portion to the progress of regeneration, there ought to be a good 
sprinkling of seedlings interspersed here and there in gi-oups all 
over the gi'ound. At this thinning, standards must be selected at 
regular intervals as reserve trees, so as to ensure a more complete 
dispersion of seeds from the cones. The trees left as reserves 
should be in good health, with clean tall boles, and flat expanded 
headsj equally balanced all I'ound, so as to distribute the seed as 
evenly as possible, and allow air and headroom for the young 
trees. In carrying out this opei^tion much must be left to the 
discretion of the forester as to the difierent methods which may 
have to be applied according to circumstances. It would be 
tedious to enumerate all the details of the different plans in- 
volved in carrying out natural reproduction, indeed, I do not 
shrink to maintain that it is impossible to do so, as the method 
of application which may prove quite a success in one place 
may be a complete failure in another, even within a radius of 
a few miles. This may occur fi'ora various causes, such as the 
nature of the soil, subsoil, altitude, exposure, and such like. All 
such operations must invariably be conducted and guided accord- 
ing to natural and local conditions. There is a proverb which 
says, " the errors of a day may take years to rectify," — a truism 
reminding us that we should cherish prudence and circumspection 
in all our undertakings. 

When the final cutting of standards has to be performed, it will 
be jiidicious to begin the felling of the reserve trees from the 
reverse point of the previous fellings ; performing all the other 
ojierations, such as loosening the soil, etc., as already described. 
If the prevailing wind is from the west, the final operation of 
felling will proceed from the east side. By this the action of the 
wind will go far in assisting the dissemination of the seed into 
the prepared soil. Great care must be taken in felling the 
timber among the younger crop of trees, as their heads at this 
stage will be furnished with a heavy canopy of foliage in propor- 
tion to the size of their stems. Consequently it will be necessary 
in most instances to lop all branches off the reserve trees before 



40 NATURAL KKl'KODUCTION' OJ" FORESTS. 

they are felled, and at the same time a rope should be attached 
to the top of the trees, in order to guide them in their descent to 
where they may fall with least injury to the young plants. The 
foregoing details may be deemed sufficient for carrying out the 
practical operations of natural reproduction from seed, and may 
also be considered as applicable to both hard aufl soft wooded 
trees. 

Before we pass from this subject let us turn our thoughts to a 
few remarks upon the seed of Scots fir, and briefly to the demerits 
of inferior seed; a matter which must always possess a considerable 
amount of importance in connection with the process of natural 
regeneration of forests if success is to be attained. The seed of the 
Scots fir is of a light nature, consequently it is wafted by the 
wind to great distances ; its winged appendages forming an 
important factor in the process. The constitution of this tree 
is extremely hardy, and it may therefore be considered invaluable 
from many points, viz., it is able to endure great extremes of cold 
and heat, factoi's which are of no little importance in their bear- 
ing upon the germination of the seed, and also the healthy develop- 
ment of the young trees. But while these remarks can be justly 
applied in advocating the merits of Scots fir seed, the line of 
demarcation must be drawn here, as they do not apply to the 
seeds of conifers in general. And with this I venture to oSer my 
ideas, however imperfect they may be, that to carry out the 
natural reproduction of woods from seed by natui-al sowing, the 
vital point is to obtain strong healthy seed, with an equal distri- 
bution of it over the ground, from vigorous reserve trees during 
the whole period of regeneration. It may be asked how can such 
an operation be conducted u2)on the lines described, where only 
half a crop exists, and that often in a weakly condition in some 
portions of matured woods 1 But I am well aware of this 
unfoi-tunate fact which undoubtedly jii'e vails, to a great extent, 
in the woods of this country, sometimes arising from a ha}> 
hazard system of management, and at other times from natural 
causes which might have easily been foreseen. Light and air 
being essential to the growth of the young plants, it is necessary, 
in order to guard against the sunlight being confined to patches, 
that the standards should be equally distributed over the entire 
area, so that the sun's rays may not be too strong in one spot and 
too weak in another. Let us try to illustrate this point by an 
example. For instance, should the soil be of a sandy or calcareous 



NATURAL REPRODUCTION OF FORESTS. 41 

nature, the result will be as follows : — in a dry season young seed- 
lings will be apt to get scorched under the influence of too much 
sunlight, while, on the other hand, in wet seasons in strong 
tenacious soils, and under the influence of too much shade, cones 
and seeds of all trees are liable to rot, and plants germinating 
under such unfavourable conditions sicken and die from want of 
the necessary amount of sun-heat ; from which it is obvious that 
extremes in all cases are decidedly injurious. 

A word in regard to the selection and choice of seed. It is 
remarkable how little care at times is bestowed upon the selection 
of seed. It seems in reality to be only stating a truism that the 
labour of cultivation is utterly lost if bad seed is used. A 
diseased or weak parent tree cannot produce strong progeny ; 
neither can an inferior seed produce a jjerfect tree. There is 
therefore the greater need to take every precaution, to insure that 
the produce of healthy trees only is allowed to ripen and disperse 
over the forest to raise a crop of trees ; and hence the necessity 
for removing all sickly or deformed trees at the earliest possible 
date, to prevent them bearing cones, the seed from which is 
always inferior. Cones borne on vigorous and shapely trees, are 
certain to contain seed which will produce a healthy and vigorous 
progeny. 

Let us turn now to the natural reproduction of the Larch ; 
and allow me to impi-ess upon all the necessity of displaying even 
greater caution in conducting the operations in connection with 
larch, than has been shown to be necessary in regai-d to Scots firs. 
During the process of renovation, all the thinnings should be 
conducted upon a limited scale, never omitting to leave an equal 
distribution of reserve canopy in every part of the wood. I am 
inclined to believe that larch, between the ages of one and eight 
years, is rather a delicate plant, and although it requires a certain 
amount of sunlight, which is essential to its health, yet, between 
the ages indicated, too much sunlight is as injurious to it as too 
little. In youth it comes early into leaf, and the growth is apt 
to be further advanced in the leading shoots than in the laterals ; 
hence the former is more subject to injury from spring frost. 
Any one can satisfy himself of this fact by examining the seed- 
beds and young plants in a nursery after a frosty night in early 
spring, when the leading shoots will be found checked in their 
growth, and unable to keep pace with the laterals, which, owing 
to their backward state of growth, have escaped injury. Some 



42 NATURAL REPRODUCTION OF FORRSTS. 

authors maintain that tho larch is stimulated into action by a 
mild temperature early in the season, and that its annual growth 
commences at once. From my observations of the nature and 
growth of the larch, I am inclined to differ from this opinion. 
The process of growth in larch is slow and is generally retarded 
until after midsummer, about the end of June or beginning of 
July, when the active powers of growth become vigorous. In con- 
trast to this, take as an example the Scots fir, or any other pine. 
Their growth is almost completed before larch begins to grow, 
and the latter continues to grow in mild seasons until late in the 
autumn, which is in no way favourable to its constitution, as it is 
liable to be injured by frost before the young wood is properly 
ripened. 

In regard to the Spruce, its hardihood, rapidity of growth, and 
suitability to almost any kind of soil, have never been seriously 
questioned, but it can only be seen in its pristine grandeur when 
growing in a free, moist soil. Spruce fir is specially adapted for 
growing in low, moist situations. It has no tap roots, as a rule, 
like the Scots fir and other pines. Its roots do not penetrate 
deep into the soil, bvit spread near the surface. Its foliage is 
rather dense, which irenders it top heavy, and in exposed situa- 
tions it cannot resist the force of strong gales so well as most 
other forest trees. Soils of a moist natui'e encourage the growth 
of a tough coating of hei'bage, which is not only unfavourable to 
the germination of spruce fir seed, but to that of all pines. Then 
at intervals most species of trees are liable to be unproductive, or 
their seeds unfertile in some seasons, and in the case of spruce 
woods it has not yet been found a profitable matter to renovate 
them by natural reproduction in this country. Still, it can be 
carried out by the same means as larch and Scots fir. 

We shall now pass from the pine family with this remark, 
that with all the numerous introductions of conifers and other 
trees into Britain, we must not overlook those which havg'proved 
themselves so hardy in the past, as to resist the effects of the 
winter blasts of our climate in exposed situations. We must 
therefore look carefully after them, so as to ensure them from 
becoming extinct, as they are natui-ally the trees best adapted for 
planting upon the hills and bare wastes which cover so much of 
the surface of this countiy, and which are vastly improved by a 
clothing of our hardy forest trees. 

I shall next endeavour to apply the natural mode of repi'oduc- 



NATURAL REPRODUCTIOX OF FORESTS. 43 

tion to deciduous forests, containing a mixed crop of hardwood 
trees. In order to do so, it will be necessary to mention briefly a 
few of the deciduous trees which compose the woods of our 
country, viz., the Oak, Ash, Beech, Elm, Maple or Sycamore, 
Spanish Chestnut, Cherry, Birch, Alder, Horse-Chestnut, Horn- 
beam and Hazel. With this number of species of a good age, 
which a mixed wood is assiimed to contain, we may begin the 
work of repi'oduction without delay, by frequent thinnings at 
stated periods, as already detailed. The fii'st point which engrosses 
our attention in connection with the operation is. How can we 
best accomplish our object in order to obtain the best results 1 
Here also it will be necessary to consider which kind of tree is 
the most likely to attain the greatest value in a given time, and 
such trees must necessarily have precedence as the future crop. 
At the same time note must be made of the kind from which the 
supply of timber has to be furnished for estate and local demands. 
Due attention must also be given to the following, viz., the probable 
tinancial results to be obtained from the produce of the crop by 
judicious management; the means whereby the timber may be 
most expeditiously brought to the market, which latter includes a 
sufficiency of good roads throughout the woods. These and many 
other points which it is unnecessary to relate, cannot, or ought not, 
to be lost sight of by the practical forester when conducting 
operations with a view to either natural or artificial reproduction 
of forests. 

We next proceed to examine the ground, in order to ascertain 
^yhether or not drainage is required, cai'e being taken not to 
overdrain the ground, as the trees will thrive better in a mode- 
i-ately moist than in a very dry soil. All the drainage that is 
requisite is to remove the water likely to accumulate in mii-y or 
quaggy parts of the wood. The surface vegetation will indicate 
to the practical eye if the soil is in want of further drainage. It 
now remains for us to carry out the o})eration of thinning by a 
selective mode of treatment, as already described for Scots fir ; 
removing the birch and Spanish chestnut, and, if jiossible, felling 
all the inferior trees first ; reserving those of a sound and vigor- 
ous growth until it becomes necessary to remove them in I'otation 
out of the way of the young trees. It will be judicious to con- 
duct all the thinnings by successive selections of the most suitable 
trees, until a sufficient distribution of seedling plants are spread 
over the entire area to ensure a crop. As many seeds of forest 



1 i NATURAL KKI'liODL'CTION OK KORKSTS. 

trees do not germinate until tlie .second year after being com- 
mitted to the soil, the various thinnings ought to be regulated 
accor-ding to the growth and progress of the young seedlings, 
until all the timber is felled, except the reserved standards or 
seed-bearing trees. These should be left for some time in order 
to complete the final sowing of seed, and also to assist in pre- 
venting the surface of the soil from drying up, as well as retaining 
a canopy for shelter against cold winds and unseasonable frosts. 

In connection with this, I shall point out some of the advan- 
tages to be derived in carrying out natural reproduction with a 
selection of sjiecies over the same operation in a wood consisting 
only of one species of tree. "We will take a wood of any two 
species of mature hardwood trees ; as, for example, the oak and 
the beech, which are in many respects allied to one another. In 
considering regeneration in their case, at the outset we are beset 
with natural obstacles ; for no reliance can be placed in obtaining 
an annual crop of seed from those trees. One season there may 
be a good crop of acorns, while there is a deai"th of beech mast. 
The following season there may be abundance of the latter, and 
none of the former ; in fact, it is a rare chance to obtain a crop 
of seeds of both oak and beech in the same season. This draw- 
back, coupled with an uncertain climate and an inferior soil or 
subsoil, will greatly retard the process of regeneration. Conse- 
quently, with such obstacles, it will take longer time to comjilete 
the operation, and in certain cases it may end in failure. On the 
other hand, where a wood is composed of a varied selection of 
trees, reproduction can be produced in much less time ; for we 
can almost rely upon obtaining seed from some of the varieties 
annually if the seasons are in any degree moderate ; therefore, 
under such conditions the work can be safer and sooner performed 
than by the former example. 

I shall next draw attention to another method for the repro- 
duction of hardwoods by means of sowing the seed artificially. 
In oi'der to render the process clear, there are several things 
which must be defined to some extent. I shall therefore class 
the seeds of hardwoods into three divisions — first, those seeds 
that require to be sown immediately after arriving at maturity, 
such as alder, birch, and elm ; second, those which do not gene- 
rally germinate until the second spring after ripening, such as 
the ash, cheiTy, hornbeam, and service ; third, those whicli fall 
into the category of heavy seeds, which cannot be dispersed to 



NATURAL REPRODUCTION OF FORESTS. 45 

any great distance by the action of the wind, such as oak, beech, 
chestnuts, and hazel, and to these we may add the maples. The 
latter class all germinate the following spring after they are ripe ; 
the second class must be gathered and pitted for some time ; the 
first class may be sown immediately after the seeds are ripe. 
Heavy seeds may be gathered as soon as they are ripe, and 
planted in vacant portions of the woods by dibbling them 
into the soil to the depth of two inches. The seeds of maples 
and suchlike do not require to be placed so deep ; about an 
inch is sufficiently deep for them, and they may be sown as soon 
as they are I'ipe. 

A great deal more time ought to be devoted to this work 
of renovating woods than is usually given to it. If a few 
women or boys were employed during the autumn to gather the 
seeds of hardwood trees as they ripen and fall, a great advan- 
tage would be derived, and wonderful progress might be made in 
reproduction at comparatively little cost. The women and boys 
should be under the supervision of a skilled man, who would take 
care to select the seed from healthy ti'ees, and to see that it was 
properly planted in the vacant spaces in the woods. All healthy 
seed-bearing trees ought to be specially numbered previous to 
the seeds being gathered. It would be judicious to have this 
done in the summer when the trees are clothed with their 
foliage, and any signs of decay are more easily detected than 
when the trees are in a leafless state. 

Seeds of pines and other trees might also be sown with great 
advantage on rocky ledges and elevated spots difficult of access, 
where it is almost impossible to find enough of soil to plant 
the roots of a tree in with any prospect of success. Seedlings in 
such exposed places have a better chance to grow up, inured to 
the blast and firmly rooted in the crevices of the rock, so as to 
be able to brave the fiercest storm. 

Then as to fencing in connection with the natural reproduction 
of forests, permit me to say it is an absolute necessity to have all 
woods undergoing the process of regeneration fenced in a sub- 
stantial and secure manner, so as to perfectly exclude hares and 
rabbits and all such destructive vermin. If young seedlings are 
eaten over before they have developed buds or leaves, they perish 
immediately. The leaves and buds ai-e essential to the life and 
growth of a plant, and if these be nibbled off" the seedlings, it is in 
vain to expect a healthy and vigorous crop of trees from any 



40 NATURAL RKI'RODUCTIOX OF FORESTS. 

]>roccs8 of regeneration. It is therefore utterly impossible to 
carry out the reproduction of woods with creditable success where 
vermin are allowed to accumulate in large numbers, without taking 
the necessary pz-ecaution to enclose the area with adequate fencing. 
The destruction of young forest trees by ground game and vermin 
entails a serious loss to the proprietor, and is a soui-ce of great 
trouble and disappointment to all concerned ; therefore every 
means should be taken to exclude them from young woods from 
the very beginning. 

Let me now draw attention to sevei'al errors in the management 
of woods which at times are apt to be overlooked, although of 
great importance. If woods are allowed to become too open from 
any cause — say overthinning — they become defective from want 
of shade, and the moisture accumulated during the winter is dried 
up in the early summer before the growing season is over. We 
must not forget that water is a very important element to vege- 
tation. Trees will live in almost any soil, — though they may not 
attain to any great value, — so long as it is moist enough and of 
sufficient depth to retain moisture. In order, therefore, to econo- 
mise the moisture of winter, so that it may last through the 
period of active growth in summer, it is necessary to have the 
ground in the plantations sufficiently shaded from the action of the 
sun's rays, more especially in dry situations. It is quite common 
to see trees in woods of a branchy, straggling habit of growth, 
while the ground between them is covered with a thick coating 
of gi-ass and weeds, usually indicating that the woods have 
been overthinned, or have been mismanaged or neglected in some 
way. Nothing betrays this more plainly than to see trees de- 
veloping vigorous laterals, which are a sure sign of the presence 
of too much sunlight, and shows that the canopy of foliage is not 
dense enough. This applies more especially to evergreen trees of 
the pine family, the larch excepted, which delights in sunshine. 

Again, we often meet with hardwoods growing in places where 
pines only should be planted ; and on sites suitable for hardwoods 
we too often find a crop of miserable pines, showing that the 
planter was ignorant of the nature and habits of the trees he was 
dealing with. Hardwoods are in no way suitable for planting 
upon exposed sites, nor at high altitudes, and can only be gi-own 
to advantage in moderately low-sheltered situations. Conifers, 
however, are peculiarly well adapted for growing at high eleva- 
tions and in exposed situations. 



NATURAL REPRODUCTION OF FORESTS. 47 

I have already described a variety of soil where certain hard- 
woods can be grown collectively. I shall now state briefly where 
those can be best grown individually. The ash may be seen 
growing best on a loamy soil, with a porous subsoil, in moist situa- 
tions near to streams. It is in no way suitable for being grown 
upon tenacious clayey soils, and should not be planted in them. 
Young seedlings of ash are very liable to be nijiped by spring frost. 

The beech is a tree which is not fastidious as to the soil 
in which it grows. It is seen growing in all soils, from heavy 
clayey loam to light sandy soil, in the latter of which it is seen at 
its best, if it be not too bai-ren or too dry. Its habit is umbrage- 
ous, and, like the spruce fir, its roots run near the surface, which 
makes it a valuable companion to the oak, whose roots dip deep 
into the soil. The beech is also able to stand a great amount of 
shade, and, along with the silver fir, we have no trees to equal 
them as underwood for gi-owing in the drip of other trees. The 
seedlings of the beech are also very sensitive to frost, especially 
until they have developed their true leaves. 

The Scots elm also must be regarded as a hardy and accommo- 
dating tree. Although it delights to grow in rich moist soils, 
still it is often found growing upon the most barren soils and in 
the most exposed situations. From observations of its growth 
and quality, I venture to say that it ought not to be planted in 
dry, sandy, or calcareous soils, as in such it is very liable to 
dry rot. Trees may be affected with rot, and, so far as outward 
appearance goes, they may show no sign of disease, beyond the 
stems being slighty enlarged from the base upwards for a few feet. 

The oak may be seen growing to the highest perfection in a 
strong loamy soil, with a deep subsoil of an open clayey nature, 
but it should always be grown in the best soils, so as to produce 
the finest quality of its valuable timber. 

The hornbeam luxuriates in a similar soil to the oak. This is 
the tree which Evelyn adored as the foremost of all deciduous 
trees. From what I have seen of its merits, I am of the opinion 
that more of it should be grown in Scotland, as its timber is of 
first-rate quality, and is in much demand for the manufacture of 
articles of turnery. 

The sycamore is another tree of great value in the repi'oduction 
of forests, as it produces good seed at a comparatively early age. 
The soil best suited to its growth is a moist loam. It is valuable 
for planting in exposed situations, either maritime or inland, as 



48 NATURAL nEPIlODUOTION OF FORESTS. 

it is able to witliHtaiid tlie sea breezes better than any otlier 
deciduous tree, and its hardihood enables it to grow to maturity 
upon hot barren soils where other hardwood trees woidd languish 
and die. Its seeds will germinate in the poorest soils, and I have 
frequently observed them springing up freely in woods which 
were under the influence of the sea breeze, even in exposed places 
where other vegetation seemed nearly extinct. 

Both the Spanish chestnut and the horse-chestnut are good 
trees for reproducing forests, as they seed freely at an early age. 
They prefer to grow in a deep sandy loam. The horse-chestnut 
is better adapted for ornament than for purposes of profit. Its bril- 
liant spikes of flowers, of various hues, present an attractive feature 
in the park or forest in early summer. 

The alder is a tree which grows ra[)idly in cold and wet soils 
unsiiited to most other trees, while it produces useful timber and 
seeds freely at an early age. 

I have simply attempted to describe a few of the primary 
details and features connected with the opei'ation of the reproduc- 
tion of woods. But were it necessary to conduct by artificial 
means the afforesting of extensive tracts of moorland or rough 
waste lands, the operations here described would be both tedious 
and expensive. In that case recourse must be had to other means 
to diminish expense and economise time, by introducing other 
implements than the spade, such as ploughs and grubbers, with 
horses, oxen, or steam as the motive power. 

In concluding this paper the writer may state that he has 
endeavoured to select and lay before his readers suitable illustra- 
tions in connection with this important subject as far as his 
limited expei'ience and ability permitted. But the incidents and 
features are so numerous and different, tliat volumes instead of 
pages might be filled without exhausting the subject. Let it be 
understood that the writer has by no means given his siiggestions 
and observations with the intention of teaching others, but simply 
in order that thereby an interchange of thoughts and observations 
may be promoted. There is no department of natural science 
which afibrds such an abundance of pleasing investigation as 
that contained in the vegetable kingdom. It invites the attention 
of every intelligent mind, with a feast of gi-atified i-eward for 
diligent research. 



PRUNING : ITS ORNAMENT AND UTILITY. 49 



V. Pmining : Its Ornament and Utility. By Alex. T. 
GiLLANDERS, Forester, Skibo Castle, Dornoch. 

Mankind have always been lovers of trees. Whether we read 
ancient or modern history, we find the same fondness of trees. 
Indeed, they have often been planted to perpetuate the memory 
of heroic actions. Poets, painters, and philoso})hers have all 
admired trees and drawn inspiration from them in their respective 
studies. A tree has always been considered a fit object to arouse 
the {esthetic sentiments of a musing or thinking intellect. If 
trees, then, have such lofty ideas in connection with them, the 
wonder is that arboriculture has not yet found a place among the 
sciences, or that the forester has been hitherto looked upon as 
little better than a mere hewer of wood. 

Having said there is so much beauty in trees, the question 
arises, what does such beauty consist of? Various reasons have 
been adduced as to the metaphysical origin of beauty. According 
to some, beauty consists of order with design, unity with variety, 
or in their relations. The aesthetic sentiment is aroused when we 
see well-arranged forms and proportions ; and likewise in the 
recurrence of rectilinear figures, such as the square or paral- 
lelogram. Beauty, too, is seen in the symmetiy of likeness, side 
by side, and in the repetition of similar parts. In trees beauty 
may be seen by the most cursory observer in a series of regular lines, 
in the approximation of definite angles, and likewise in the union 
of the firm with the flexible. How beautiful to see the stem and 
branches gradually tapering into slender points, and to behold 
the slender parts yielding to the gentle breeze while the stout 
stem stands firm. 

But while we thus trace the geometrical forms which give rise 
to the sense of beauty, we must never forget that no feeling of 
beauty is aroused unless the regularity is seen to be something 
apart from mere mechanical arrangement — a regularity which is 
in accordance with nature. Hence, in giving a definition of 
l)runing, both for the purposes of ornament and utility, we may 
say that it is the art of aiding, not of improving nature — the art 
of cutting oflT useless additions and impex-fections — additions which 
are considered ugly and worse than useless. Therefore the pruner, 
instead of trying to show his art and handiwork to the eye of the 
passer-by, ought to try and make Nature hide Art. 

VOL. XI., PART I, D 



50 



PRUNING : ITS OUNAMKNT AND UTILITY. 



It has always been a principle of mankind to work first, how- 
ever rude and imperfect, and then discover the principles upon 
which the work is based ; and so it is in pruning trees. Many 
foresters may be able to prune trees, both for the purposes of use 
and ornament, and yet be unable to define any principles upon 
which the art of pruning is based. Presuming, therefore, that 
while the majority of foresters are pi'actically able to prune trees, 
I may be allowed to lay down what 1 consider a few guiding 
princii)les. In other words : how are we to prune trees in 
harmony with their habits so as to increase their beauty and 
value"? 

To many persons the idea of a tree is nothing else than a large 
plant, with an ascending axis or stem from which spring an 
indefinite number of branches ramifying in all directions ; the 
former being suitable for timber, the latter fit only for fuel. To 
persons of no higher ideas or tastes the pruning of a tree ought 
not to be intrusted. 

The direct object of pruning is either for use or ornament, or 
it may be to prevent trees from being blown down by the wind. 

If pruning for ornament is the object in view, it may be 
sometimes allowable to sacrifice intrinsic value to a certain ex- 
tent, especially within policies or along roadsides. On the other 
hand, when jiruning for utility is the object, ornament should not 

be altogether sacrificed, and need not 
be except within plantations. In 
order to carry out ornamental pruning 
projiei'ly, remember that it is neces- 
sary to study the natural habit of 
trees. 

Many debates haA'e arisen as to 
whether pruning increases the size of 
a tree or not. One thing, however, 
is certain, that early and judicious 
pruning increases the commercial 
value of timber trees. Fig. 1 will 
illustrate this. Had pruning been 
resorted to when the tree was in a 
young state, we should have had the 
trunk A prolonged instead of forking 
at X. Now, suppose the trunk A is 
10 feet long, and that we cross-cut b and c at 10 feet in length 




PRUNING : ITS ORNAMENT AND UTILITY. 51 

respectively, and sell the three pieces. The part a yields more 
cubic measurement, and consequently brings a larger sum than, 
the other two pieces. If the trunk a had been prolonged in thick- 
ness with the natural taper to the length of 20 ft., the tree would 
have been of miich gi'eater value, which is easily demonsti-ated as 
follows: — Suppose the two parts B and c were welded together they 
would not be so thick as A. Fig. 2 will illustrate this geometri- 
cally. Circle 1 repi'esents a section made through D, e (Fig. 1). 
Circle 3 represents sections 

made through b and c ^^''^^^ -^^^^^\. 

(Fig. 1), and according to / y^^ ^\ \^ 

a well-known geometrical / / /"^ ^N^ \ \ 

problem, cii'cle 2 is equal / / / \ \ \ 

in area to twice the circle III III 

3, representing B and c? I i 1 1 jj 

which are of the same size. \ \ \ / I I 

Hence may be seen at a \ \ ^^ ^/ / / 

glance the great loss in- \ \^^ ^ / 

curred by allowing the ^^^^ — ^^^y"^ 

tree stem to fork. Many 

writers maintain that ^^S- 2- 

pruning has the immediate effect of increasing the size of a tree, 

and that periodical pi-uning ought to be adopted to increase the 

value of a tree. Early pruning or training increases the size 

and value of a tree ; but it is equally true severe and repeated 

prunings decrease the size and consequent value. 

The simplest method of pruning is the process of disbudding. 
Coniferous ti-ees very often requii'e to be treated by this method. 
"When a coniferous tree loses its leader the top whorl of branches 
turns upwards, and by disbudding all but one of these shoots we 
can form a leader. At other times when a tree shows two con- 
tending leaders, the pinching of the terminal buds of one of the 
rival shoots will cause the ti'ee to grow with a clean stem instead 
of a neglected and forked bole like Fig. 1 . 

Following the dictates of experience we find that pruning is 
most beneficial when young trees are opei'ated on. Forest trees 
in a neglected condition and of a comparatively young age, often 
come under the forester's treatment, and such trees if judiciously 
pruned will be enhanced in beauty and inci'eased in value. 

When the ordinary pruning knife is found too weak for the 
work, the pruner ought to be funiished with proper tools, such 



52 PRUNING : ITS ORNAMENT ANlJ UTILITY. 

as a hand-saw, pruning chisel, and averuncator. When pnining 
has to be performed to any extent by a number of workmen, it 
■will be found indispenKal)]e to have a skilled person to superintend 
the operations, and if the superintendent has his heart in the work, 
he will find his time fully occupied. Assuming, therefore, that 
we are in the position of such a person, how should we proceed 
with the work ] 

In the first place, we should survey the outline of the tree 
under treatment, and mentally calculate the aiuount of pruning 
required. A very little observation will show that the outline 
of all trees is either an isosceles triangle, a circle, or an ellipse. 
Having formed in our mind's eye the shape of the finished tree, 
we at once commence operations. Comparatively young trees, 
especially oak, growing in a freely exposed place, produce on 
their stems and leading branches a great number of small spray, 
fit for nothing but to suck the sap from the main body of the 
tree. All these ought to be cut off. In addition to these twigs, 
we find a number of branches radiating from the stem, without 
getting their extremities to the outside owing to the crowding 
of the stronger branches. These ought to be cut off from the 
stem or at other parts which will not spoil the shape of the 
tree. Having done this, nothing further remains but to prune 
the tree, according to its natural form, by foreshortening the 
branches more or less as may be found necessary. Attention 
must be paid to the outline so that the tree may be properly 
balanced. Strong branches ought to be cut close in at the most 
appropriate fork, so that the pai-t left may grow in the direction 
of the part cut off. Branches rubbing against each other ought 
to be separated. A strong branch bending upwards among 
horizontal branches ought to be cut at the commencement of 
the curve. In addition to strong side branches, all upright 
shoots ascending from horizontal branches towards the top of the 
tree ought to be cut clean off. Some writers maintain that the 
operation of pruning ought to commence at the top of a tree. 
As a general rule, the operation will be found more easy to work 
from the base to the apex. Pruning from base to apex has 
many advantages, and ought to be generally insisted on. Branches 
cut off at the bottom fall easily to the ground, whereas branches 
cut at the top fall on the long lower ones, and, collecting, have 
a tendency to break them. All dead or decaying branches ought 
to be cut clean out from base to apex. 



PRUNING : ITS ORNAMENT AND UTILITY. 53 

111 the ])rocess of foreshortening, care must be taken to do the 
work in accordance with the hxws of nature. Thus, due notice 
ought to be taken of the angle which the branch makes with the 
stem, and likewise the curve which the branch takes. Some 
pruners believe in cutting out the terminal shoot of young 
branches. But nature will have her own way, the lateral branch 
growing in the same plane, and uniting with the stronger part, 
forms the same original curve. Others lay it down as a maxim 
that all branches ought to be trained by a pruning process to a 
horizontal sha}>e. To do this universally is trying to change 
Nature. Suppose, for example, we are pruning a Lombardy poplar, 
would it not be absurd to attempt forming horizontal branches ] 

In order to prune or lighten trees as a prevention to their 
being blown over by gales, we ought not to mar their beauty. 
Due regard ought to be taken to balancing them by taking oif 
strong side and top branches, or those within the centre which 
may produce the effect aimed at, without marring the beauty of 
the tree. Unless guided by the principle of " better losing part 
than the whole," we ought not to spoil Nature. 

Some maintain that pruning is always injurious to trees, and 
that while it is essential to the increase of marketable timber, 
it ought to be done cautiously and by degrees, believing that 
to cut " close in " to the stem injures the tree. Such practitioners 
either make their cuts about a foot from the stem, or they peel 
a ring of bark where the branch is finally intended to be cut. 
Each of these methods is equally bad. Instead of saving the 
tree, a little observation will show that they are injurious ; 
whereas close cutting is beneficial. When a branch is cut off 
at a part where no other branch remains, either young twigs 
spring up or the stump dies back to the bole of the tree. And 
if the dead stump is cut ofi" at the expiration of a year, or at 
the earliest period procrastination will permit, the cut never heals. 
Thus, the decayed part absorbs moisture, and imparts disease to 
the tree. On the other hand, if a branch is cut " close in " at 
the proper season, healing commences soon after, and quickly and 
effectually completes itself. 

In order to facilitate healing, all wounds ought to be made 
perfectly smooth and even. If this be not attended to, protuber- 
ances will be formed on the stem. As a general rule branches 
swell a little at their union with the trunk, but it is prefer- 
able at times to cut a portion of the bulge so that the trunk 



54 PRUNING : ITS ORNAMKNT AXIJ UTILITY. 

may have an even surface, without twigs springing fiom the 
wound. 

All wounds which will not heal in a single season ought to 
be covered with coal-tar containing a small quantity of paraffin. 
This mixture is preferable to paint. Wounds which have not 
been covered absorb moisture, and impart decay to the tree ; and 
although the mark of the cut may be no longer seen from the 
outside, a decayed piece of wood presents itself when the tree is 
sawn up. On the other hand, if the wound is covered with coal-tar 
only a small streak is seen when the timber is cut up after the 
wound is healed over. 

Great diversity of opinion has existed in regard to the proper 
season for pruning. The season in which pruning is performed 
has a deal to do with the healing. Wounds made during the 
winter do not heal so much during the ensuing summer as cuts 
made in the eai'lier part of summer. Winter pruning gives rise 
to a greater abundance of young shoots than summer pruning. 
In fact, pruning may be performed at any season except during 
late spring. At that season the ascent of the sap is in full play, 
and wounds made then bleed so much that they never heal satis- 
factorily. 



NEW AXD RAKE CONIFER.E AT PENRHYN CASTLE. 55 



VI. On the New and Rare Coniferce at Penrhyn Castle, North 
Wales. With Illustrations. By AxGUS D. Webster, 
Forester, Penrhyn Castle, Bangox-, North Wales. 

Bounded on one side by the Menai Sti-aits, and on the other by 
the great Snowdonian range of mountains, this estate afibrds 
peculiar advantages for the successful cultivation of the less 
hardy conifer's of recent introduction. 

The mild, genial climate of this part is clearly shown by the 
growth of such plants as Hydrangea hortensis, Fuchsia Riccartoni, 
and Cunninyhamia sinensis — all of which stand our winters with 
impunity. Being at a considerable elevation above sea-level, 
those parts of the park around the castle are often exposed to 
cold, cutting winds, blowing in from the Irish Sea, or to still 
more severe storms from the south-west, which latter often 
occasion much damage to trees and shrubs. From a list preserved 
here it would appear that at one time (upwards of thirty years 
ago) most of the Conifers then introduced were planted out 
expei-imentally over the park. Of these many have died out 
altogether, others have progressed very slowly, and many 
additions have been made of the kinds which seemed to thrive 
best in the locality. 

The trees enumerated in the following report are, with few 
exceptions, gi-owing within the park, scattered over an extent of 
nearly a thousand acres. The soil varies a good deal in different 
])arts, but is principally composed of sandy loam resting on shaley 
rock or slate. A more detailed description of the soil and situa- 
tion will, however, be given where necessary as we pi-oceed : — 

Abies canadensis. 





Feet. 


Inches, 


Height of tree, .... 


46 





Girth of stem at 1 foot up, . 


4 


4 


Girth of stem at 5 feet up, . 


3 


2 


Diameter of spread of branches, . 


21 






The drooping, ])lume-like habit of this tree renders it particu- 
larly suitable for planting as a single specimen on the lawn or 
pleasure ground. It prefers a moist, shady situation, and cool, 
light soil. The best tree of this kind (the dimensions of which 



50 



NKVV AND HARK CONIFKK/K AT I'KNKIIYN CASTLK. 



are given above) is growing in ricli, peaty loam, witli a northern 
aspect, on the outskirts of a plantation at some distance from the 
park. The wood is hard, of a pale yellow colour, and takes a 
good polish. Introduced in 173G from North America. 



Abies Douglash. 



No. 1.— Height of tree, . 

Girth of stem at 1 foot up, . 
Girth of stem at 5 feet up, . 
Diameter of spread of branches, 

No. 2.— Height of tree, . 

Girth of stem at 1 foot up, . 
Girth of stem at 5 feet up, . 
Diameter of spread of branches, 

No. 3. — Height of tree, . 

Girth of stem at 1 foot up, . 
Girth of stem at 5 feet up, . 
Diameter of spread of branches. 



Feet. 


Inche 


79 





13 


6 


11 


6 


66 





70 





13 





11 





51 





65 





9 


2 


8 


7 


48 






These trees are growing within a short distance of each other, 
and quite close to the carriage drive leading from the castle to 
the grand entrance. The position they occupy is rather exposed, 
and the leaders of all three have been repeatedly broken over 
by the wind. It is a striking fact that nearly all the Douglas 
firs here, on overtopping the surrounding trees, become table- 
headed from the repeated loss of leaders. Being of rapid growth, 
the young wood is not sufficiently hardy or matured to withstand 
a severe storm, and most of our trees of this kind being nursed 
up amongst others are naturally tender, so the leader on rising 
above the surrounding trees is apt to get broken over. I believe 
a plantation formed of this tree alone, or mixed up with others of 
an almost equal rate of growth, such as the silver fir, would suc- 
ceed better, and be less liable to injury during a storm than when 
planted out as single specimens or mixed up amongst general 
forest trees. The timber grown here is hard and durable, suscep- 
tible to a fine polish, and is frequently used as spars in ship- 
building on the Menai Straits. It is heavy, firm, not liable to 
warp, and of as deep a colour as the yew. Introduced in 1826 
from North-West America. 



xew and rare conifer.e at penruyn castle. ot 

Abies Menziesii. 

Feet. Inches. 

Height of tree, ..... 56 

Girth of stem at 1 foot up, ... 5 2 

Girth of stem at 5 feet up, ... 3 10 

Diameter of spread of branches, . . 28 6 

Standing on the lawn to the south-west of the castle, in a 
partially shaded position, this tree is in a very healthy and 
flourishing condition, its beautiful silvery appearance being a 
marked characteristic of this fir when grown in a suitable soil, 
such as a cool and rather heavy loam. On warm, sandy soils this 
tree is genei-ally infested with red spider. From specimens of the 
wood preserved here, it appears similar in all respects to our 
common spruce. Introdiiced in 1831 from North- West America. 



Abies morixda.* 








Feet, 


Inches. 


Height of tree, .... 


43 





Girth of stem at 1 foot up, . 


5 


5 


Girth of stem at 5 feet up, . 


3 


8 


Diameter of spread of branches, . 


•24 






Several handsome specimens of this tree are scattered through- 
out the gi'ounds, the two largest occupying sheltered positions 
near the castle. On cold, late soils, or at high elevations, this 
tree succeeds best, as on low-lying or damp ground the yoimg 
shoots are often killed by spring frosts. This species of spruce 
attains great perfection here, and as an ornamental tree its droop- 
ing foliage contrasts finely with those trees of a more stiff and 
rigid appearance. The timber is hard and the concentric rings 
firmly packed. Introduced in 1818 from Northern India. 

Araucaria imbricata. 





Feet. 


Inches. 


Height of tree 


42 





Girth of stem at 1 foot up, . 


4 


9 


Girth of stem at 5 feet up, . 


4 





Diameter of sj)read of branches, . 


20 






The symmetrical and picturesque form of this tree, combined 
with its noble propoi'tions, justly entitle it to rank amongst the 
finest of the conifers. Planted on the lawn or pleasure ground it 



* See Plate V. 



58 NKW A^S\) KAItE CONIFKI'wK AT I'KNKIIVN CASTLE. 

forms a conspicuous object from the [jcculiarity of its construction, 
and is admirably adapted for standing alone, where it forms a 
beautiful pyramidal cone, densely covered with gracefully droop- 
ing, up-curved branches. A prevailing evil with this tree in 
many places is the loss of the lower branches, which is due in a 
great measure to planting it in low-lying, damp situations, or 
tinder the shade and drip of other trees. No tree more dislikes 
being overhung and shaded by others than the Araucaria, and 
nothing is more adverse to its healthy development. 

Constitutionally there are great differences in trees of the 
Araucaria, some being naturally hardy, and others the reverse, 
due in a great measure, no doubt, to the altitude at which the 
seeds have been grown in their native country. The finest 
Araucarias are always found in well-drained ground on rather an 
exposed and airy situation ; unreclaimed, wet land produces but 
poor specimens, and these very susceptible to the influence of frost. 

Many fine sjiecimens of this tree have been planted in the 
park and surrounding grounds, the healthy appearance and thriv- 
ing condition of which proclaim it to be eminently adapted for our 
maritime situation. The wood is yellowish-white, fibrous, beauti- 
fully veined, and capable of being polished and worked with 
facility. Introduced in 1796 from Chili. 

Cedrus deodara. 





Feet. 


Inches. 


Height of tree, .... 


55 





Girth of stem at 1 foot up, . 


5 


3 


Girth of stem at 5 feet up, . 


4 


8 


Diameter of spread of branches, . 


26 


6 



This tree is growing in stiff loamy soil, close to the sea at Port 
Penrhyn, and alongside a magnificent specimen of A^rtucaria 
mibricata. These trees contrast admirably, and are splendid 
examples of opposite styles of beauty. The Deodar seems to 
thrive in almost any soil, examples of which may be seen in the 
woodlands here, where it has been extensively planted. Intro- 
duced in 1831 from Northern India. 

Cedrus Libani. 







Feet. 


Inches. 


No. 1. 


— Height of tree, .... 


52 







Girth of stem at 1 foot up, . 


16 


6 




Girth of stem at 5 feet up, . 


15 







Diameter of spread of branches, . 


54 






NEW AND UAKE CONIFER.E AT PENRHYN CASTLE. 59 





Feet. 


Inches. 


>. 2. — Height of tree, .... 


52 





Girth of stem at 1 foot up, . 


15 





Girth of stem at 5 feet up, . 


14 


6 


Diameter of spread of branches, . 


75 






These are noble trees of a singularly massive appearance, and 
well fitted for adorning the positions they occupy. The branches, 
which spread horizontally to a width equal to the height of the 
tree, have a pecvdiar flat, shelf-like form, and having been at 
difierent times broken during severe storms, give to the trees 
an old and hoaiy appearance. Both trees are growing in rich 
loam — one at each end of the flower garden — and though partially 
sheltered, are at times subject to sudden gusts of wind, especially 
from the south-west. The wood, bark, cones, and even leaves of 
this tree are satiu'ated with resin. Introduced before 1676 from 
Asia Minor. 

The wood of both Cedrus deodara and C. Libani is durable, 
close grained, hai'd, and so resinous that the splinters burn like 
candles. I have compared wood of the cedars grown here with 
slabs of cedar sent fi-om India, and can detect but little difier- 
ence. The Indian slabs are certainly the harder, but this may 
be due to the wood being older, and consequently better matured. 
The colour and texture of the woods are much alike, and I 
find that the home-grown wood takes as fine a polish as the 
Indian. 



CUNNINGHAMIA SINENSIS. 





Feet. 


Incbes. 


Height of tree, .... 


42 





Girth of stem at 1 foot up, . 


4 


7 


Girth of stem at 5 feet u{>, . 


3 


8 


Diameter of spread of branches, . 


26 






Although not generally hai-dy in Britain, especially in the 
north, fair specimens of this tree may occasionally be met with 
in the south and south-west of England. The above specimen is 
growing in cool, loamy soil, with a south-eastern aspect, in the 
flower garden. It is in a fairly healthy state, well clothed with 
bright green foliage, and is considered one of the finest trees of 
the kind in England. Sections of the wood grown on this estate 
resemble both in texture and colour those of Araucaria imhricata. 
Introduced in ISU-i from Southern China. 



OU NKW AND RAKE CONIFEU/E AT PKNIUIYN CASTLE, 

CupRESsus Lamueutiana. 

Feet. Inches. 

Height of tree 28 

Girth of stem at 1 foot up, ... 6 6 

Girth of stem at 5 feet up, ... 6 1 

Diameter of spread of branches, . . 26 

This is undoubtedly one of the most beautiful of the cypresses. 

The best tree on this estate is growing on the lawn at Brynmeirig, 

close to the Penrhyn Slate Quarries, on sandy loam, with a 

north-western aspect. It is a beautiful specimen, with light green 

pendulous branches, so closely packed that no part of the stem is 

visible, and, judging from its large size, must have been planted 

here shortly after its introduction in 1838. This tree bears stem 

and branch pruning with impunity. The wood is hard, close 

grained, and beautifully veined, 

CUPRESSUS SEMPERVIRENS. 

Feet. Inches. 

Height of tree, , ... 32 

Girth of stem at 1 foot up, ... 4 6 

Girth of stem at 5 feet up, ... 3 10 

Diameter of spread of branches, . . 12 

This beautiful upright cypress is among evergreens what the 
Lombardy poplar is among deciduous trees — a fine contrast to the 
more spreading and round-headed forms. Its deep evergreen 
branches and leaves render it a desirable tree for planting in 
graveyards or cemeteries ; and owing to its fastigiate habit, it 
forms a suitable tree for planting near buildings where the pre- 
vailing architectural lines are horizontal. When judiciously placed 
along the margins of plantations, or among other conifers of a 
more spreading habit, its effect is strikingly beautiful. It succeeds 
best in a rather dry sheltered situation. The above tree is one 
of a group of eight growing on the lawn-tennis ground near the 
castle, and are all remarkable for the profusion of small cones 
with which the dai-k evergreen branches are almost constantly 
covered. Introduced prior to 1548, 

PiCEA grandis. 

Feet. Inches. 

Height of tree, 66 

Girth of stem at 1 foot up, ... 5 5 

Girth of stem at 5 feet up, . . , 5 4 

Diameter of spread of branches, , . 30 6 

Few of the Picea tribe on this estate are in a more healthy and 



NEW AND RARE COXIFER/E AT PEXRHYN* CASTLE. Gl 

thriving condition, or seem better adapted for their seaside 
situation than this. When viewed fx-om a distance, it closely 
resembles the Douglas fir, but has a moi'e dense habit and 
majestic appearance. In well-sheltei'ed situations, and on good 
loamy soil, it is one of the finest of Conifers for landscape efiect. 
Being of rapid growth, the leader is very apt to get broken over 
during severe weather, which may be easily rectified by substi- 
tuting a side branch in place of the lost leader. The stem is tall 
and very straight, and densely covered with bright green branches. 
This tree should be allowed ample room, for, if grown in close 
proximity to others, the foliage becomes sparse, and the whole 
tree assumes a sickly and naked appearance. Introduced in 1831 
from North- West America. 



riCEA NOBILIS. 








Feet. 


Inches. 


Height of tree, .... 


54 





Girth of stem at 1 foot up, . 


5 


9 


Girth of stem at 5 feet up, . 


5 


4 


Diameter of spread of branches, . 


24 


6 



This is a magnificent tree, especially dui-ing summer when the 
light gi-een of the young, and deeper green of the older foliage, is 
strikingly efiective. It grows very rapidly here after becoming 
thoroughly established, soon shooting up to a gi'eat height, 
especially when planted in cool, deep soil. The wood is white 
and nearly worthless. Introduced in 1831 from North- West 
America. 

PiCEA NORDMANNIAXA. 

No. 1. — Heiglit of tree, 

, Girth of stem at 1 foot up, . 
Girth of stem at 5 feet up, . 
Diameter of spread of brauches, 

No. 2. — Height of tree, 

Girth of stem at 1 foot up, . 
Girth of stem at 5 feet up, . 
Diameter of spread of brauches, . . 17 

As an ornamental tree for landscape effect, few, if any, of the 
Conifers lately introduced into this country, can compare with 
this noble tree, either for beauty of outline, or the rich contrast 
produced in summer by the dark glossy green of the old, and the 



eet. 


Inches 


54 





6 





5 


2 


24 





46 





5 





3 


8 



G2 NKW AND RARK CONIFKRyFC AT I'KXKIIYN CASTLK. 

light fresh lively tints of the younger, foliage. Whether planted 
on the lawn, or mixed with other trees for the sake of contrast 
and variety along the margins of ])lantations, it never fails to 
attract attention and produce the most pleasing effects. This tree 
is also capable of accommodating itself to a great variety of soils 
and situations ; although like other species of Picea, it prefers a 
strong deep loam, rich in organic matter, and not apt to dry up 
in summer or retain too much moisture in winter. On the other 
hand, cold stiff clay and poor inorganic surface accumulations are 
inimical to its growth, more especially where the subsoil consists 
of hard pan. From the appearance of the timber of trees which 
I have cut up, there can be no doubt that it will possess the 
qualities, and sustain the reputation of the timber grown upon its 
native hills ; it is hard, resinous, and the concentric rings firmly 
packed. No. 2 was planted in 1857 by Sir James M'Garel 
Hogg. Introduced in 1848 from the Crimea. 



PicEA Webbiana. 





Feet. 


Inches. 


Height of tree, .... 


56 





Girth of stem at 1 foot up, . 


5 


2 


Girth of stem at 5 feet up, . 


4 


2 


Diameter of spread of branches, . 


22 






When in perfect health, the beautiful dark green leaves dis- 
tinctly marked underneath with white or silvery stripes, and 
large prominent cones of a deep pui-ple colour, contribute to make 
this tree perhaps the most ornamental of the genus. Unless 
planted in a rather cold, late soil, and sheltered position, it is 
subject to injury from unseasonable spring frosts, by which the 
young growths are fi-equently killed ; more than a foot in length 
of many branches being almost destitute of leaves, and giving to 
the tree an unhealthy and miserable appearance. Our largest 
specimen, though not the finest, stands on the edge of a walk 
that winds along the Ogwen river. It is well sheltered from all 
pai'ts, and is growing on rich, damp, vegetable mould. 

Another specimen growing at Brynmeirig, near the Penrhyn 
Slate Quarry, though inferior in point of size to the above, has a 
more healthy and thriving appearance. It is growing on peaty 
loam, incumbent on slate rock, with a northern aspect. Intro- 
duced in 1822 fi^om Northern India. 



NEW AND RARE COXIFER.E AT PENRHYX CASTLE. 63 
PiNUS AUSTRIACA. 





Feet. 


Inches. 


Height of tree, .... 


42 





Girth of stem at 1 foot up, . 


5 


2 


Girth of stem at 5 feet up, . 


4 


4 


Diameter of spread of brauches, . 


22 






Pei'haps few of the Pine tribe possess the many good qualities 
which can be attributed to this species. Whether for shelter, 
effect, adaptation to diiferent soils and situations, or planting in 
maritime districts, it is invaluable. The timber is also toiigh, 
resinous, and well fitted for resisting the evil eflects attending the 
change fi'om a moist to a dry state. Around the margins of 
most of the seaside plantations here, this pine is extensively 
planted, as it not only withstands the rough sea breeze better 
than any other, and by its thick, strong foliage, renders a great 
amount of shelter to other less hardy kinds, but also, by its dark, 
glossy appearance, it presents a striking effect when viewed from 
a distance. Introduced in 1835 from Austi-ia. 



PiNUS Cembra. 

Feet. Inches. 

Height of tree, 37 

Girth of stem at 1 foot up, ... 3 2 

Girth of stem at 5 feet up, ... 2 8 

Diameter of spread of branches, . . 12 

Being of but slow growth and recent introduction, none of this 
species has attained great dimensions here ; but, from the healthy 
appearance of several planted out as single specimens in the park, 
as well as others interspersed through some of the general planta- 
tions, we anticipate much success with them. This pine also 
luxuriates in maritime districts ; the two best specimens ai-e 
standing within a few yards of the sea, though partially sheltered 
by a narrow strip of wood. It attains greatest perfection in a 
rich, deep, loamy soil, although many examples of fine growth 
may be seen here on thin, poor soils, and very exposed situations. 
The wood of this tree is soft, clo.se grained, and easily worked : 
the heart-wood is of an agreeable light brown colour, resinous, 
diirable, and fragrant. The well-known Swiss carved ornaments 
ai-e made from this wood. Introduced about 1746. 



64 NEW AND RARE CONIFEUyE AT I'K.NMlIfYN CASTLE. 

PiNUS EXCELSA. 

Feet. Inch PS. 
Height of tree, ..... 45 

Girth of stem at 1 foot up, ... 4 2 

Girth of stem at 5 feet up, ... 3 6 

Diameter of spread of branches, . . 24 

The light silvery foliage of this pine renders it very desirable 
for contrast, especially along the outlines of plantations which 
can be seen from drives or roads. Mixed with the Austrian and 
other pines of a darker foliage along one of the carriage drives 
here, it has a very pleasing effect. In general appearance it 
bears a resemblance to the Weymouth pine (P. Strobus), from 
which, however, it is easily distinguished ; the leaves ai-e about 
double the length, the tree is of a more robust habit of gi'owth, 
and the bark is much i-ougher than on that species. It requires to 
be planted in a rather sheltered position, as on exposed ground the 
foliage becomes scanty, and the tree stunted in appearance. The 
wood of specimens grown here is white and soft, though rather 
compact, and contains a great quantity of resin. Introduced 
about 1827 from the Himalaya. 



PiNUS LARICIO. 








Feet. 


Inches. 


Height of tree, . . , , 


72 





Girth of stem at 1 foot up, . 


9 


5 


Girth of stem at 5 feet up, . 


9 


4 


Diameter of spread of branches, . 


45 






By neglect in early growth this tree was allowed to retain a 
plurality of leading shoots, two of which bi-auch off at 7, and two 
at 11, feet from the ground, the largest of each gii-thing at 3 feet 
from point of junction 5 feet 11 inches and 5 feet 3 inches 
respectively. Each limb is perfectly straight, and would make 
a good-sized tree of itself. This pine thrives admirably here 
on almost any soil ; and several, but little inferior to the one 
described, may be found scattered throughout the park and sur- 
rounding plantations. It is one of our best pines for breezy 
maritime situations, and deserves to be extensively cultivated, as, 
apart from its free growth and majestic appearance, the timber is 
quite equal to the red deal of commerce. Introduced in 1759 
from Southern Eui-ope. 



NEW AXD RARE CONIFER.E AT PENRIIYN CASTLE. 



65 



PlNUS PINASTER 



Height of tree, 
Girth of stem at 1 foot up, . 
Girth of stem at 5 feet U]i, . 
Diameter of spread of branches. 



Feet. Inches. 
62 

1-2 

12 

42 



This tree prefers an open and airy situation, and in the vicinity 
of the sea, where the tempei-atiire is to some extent equalised, it 
attains large dimensions. Planted among other trees, it has a 
tendency to grow crooked, produce large side-limbs, and if at all 
crowded, loses the foliage to near the top. The wood of the tree 
is soft, and of little value. Our largest tree, which stands in 
the flower garden, produces annually a large quantity of cones, 
from the seeds of which we have raised sevex'al lots of tine healthy 
])lants, much more hardy, I have no doubt, than those raised from 
imported seeds. In raising this pine one thing should be par- 
ticularly attended to — viz., that the young plants, if allowed to 
remain long in the nursery lines, must be frequently transplanted, 
as neglect of this generally proves fatal to the tree when planted 
out permanently. Introduced in 1596 from Southern Europe. 



Feet. 


Inches 


56 





12 


2 


9 


2 


30 





64 





8 


2 


6 


7 


24 






Sequoia sempervirens. 

No. 1. — Height of tree, 

Girth of stem at 1 foot up, . 
Girth of stem at 5 feet up, . 
Diameter of spread of branches, 

No. 2. — Height of tree. 

Girth of stem at 1 foot up, . 
Girth of stem at 5 feet up, . 
Diameter of spread of branches, 

No. 1 occupies a sheltered position within a few yards of the 
carriage drive leading from Penrhyn Castle to the model village 
of Llandegai. It is a beautiful si)ecimen, richly clothed with 
glaucous green foliage from the gi-ound upwards, but unfortun- 
ately during a severe storm, some five years ago, the leader was 
broken over, which is, however, being gi*adually replaced by a 
side branch. 

No. 2 stands at a short distance from the above, on the sloping 

VOL. XI., PART I. E 



GC) NEW AND RAIIE CONIFEIMC AT I'ENIUIYN CASTL?:. 

ground near the Ogwen river. Being well sheltered on all sides, 
and growing in rich loamy soil, though attaining a great height, 
the girth of this specimen is not in proportion to those of a less 
rapid rate of growth. 

This tree cannot be recommended for bleak or exposed situa- 
tions, as, in consequence of its continTiing to grow so late in the 
autumn, the young shoots are not sufficiently matured to stand 
our severe winters with impunity. From specimens of the wood 
contained in a collection of the different kinds grown on this 
estate, it appears close-grained and of a beautiful mahogany colour, 
thovigh extremely light and brittle. 

The Sequoia, or Redwood of California, has probably been over- 
rated as a suitable tree for our climate generally, and apart from 
actual results it is not likely that a tree inhabiting one of the 
most genial climates in the world, and with ample opportunities 
of spreading into cooler regions near, would be suited for a cool 
northern climate. 



Thuia Lobbii. 

Feet. Inches. 

Height of tree, 43 

Girth of stem at 1 foot up, ... 4 2 

Girth of stem at 5 feet up, ... 3 7 

Diameter of sjiread of branches, . . 20 6 

This is a handsome, fast-growing Conifer, with a smooth 
upright stem and long graceful branches, of a deep, shining, gi-een 
colour. It is perfectly hardy, and grows rapidly when thoroughly 
established, and though shooting up to a great height in propor- 
tion to the thickness of the stem, it is not liable to be broken 
over, the young wood being naturally tough and able to resist the 
fiercest storm. It thi-ives best in a peaty loam, though many 
fine examples of rapid growth in pi;re loam may frequently be 
seen throughout the park. 

In cutting the wood of the trunk of young trees I have found 
it to be of a firm texture, with the concentric rings firmly packed. 
A good deal has been said and written lately by practical men 
upon a substitute for tlie larch ; and in my opinion Thuia Lobbii 
will be found one of the best, if not the very best Conifer for 
that purpose. Introduced in 1853 from North-West America. 



Feet. 


Indies 


53 





10 


1 


7 


8 


22 





38 





7 


5 


6 


1 


18 


6 



XEW AND RARE CONIFERS AT PENRHYN CASTLE. 67 

Wellingtonia GIGANTEA. 

No. 1. — Height of tree, 

Girth of stem at 1 foot up, . 
Girth of stem at 5 feet up, . 
Diameter of spread of branches, 

No. 2. — Height of tree. 

Girth of stem at 1 foot up, . 
Girtii of stem at 5 feet up, . 
Diameter of spread of branches, 

All the trees of tliis kind are in a very healthy and thriving 
condition, and seem well adapted for their maritime situation. The 
growth though rapid is strong and well matured, which is 
proved by this tree seldom loosing its leader or becoming damaged 
during a storm. The largest (No. 1), which grows close to 
the carriage drive, but nearer Llandegai than the trees already 
described, is a model of symmetry, with foliage of the I'ichest 
description. It is growing in a rich sandy loam, well drained, 
and in a partially shaded position. 

No. 2* was planted on the 17th October 1859, by Her Majesty 
The Queen, and has made an average yearly growth of 19| 
inches. It gi'ows on the lawn-tennis ground, between the castle 
and flower garden, where there is a collection of trees planted 
by Members of Royalty and other distingiaished pei-sonages. 
The soil is shallow and incumbent on shaley rock. Here also is 
another Wellingtonia, planted in 1857 by Lady Hogg, which 
has attained a height of 55 feet, being an average yeai'ly gi'owth 
of nearly 26 inches. The wood of Wellingtonias grown on this 
estate is light, soft, and fragile, though easily worked, and in 
appearance resembles the " Cedar-wood " used for pencils. In- 
troduced in 1853 fi'om California, by Messrs Veitch & Sons, of 
Exeter and Chelsea, through their collector, William Lobb. 

* See Plate VI. 



68 INTERNATIONAL FORESTRY EXIIiniTION. 

INTERNATIONAL FORESTRY EXHIBITION, 
EDINBURGH, 1884. 

The International Forestry Exhibition held in Edinburgh in 
1884 — the first of the kind in the British Empire — originated in 
a proposal made by some members of the Scottish Arboriciiltural 
Society in the spring of 1882; and the project was announced at 
the annual meeting of the Society that autumn, as recorded in 
the ProcepAings. The proposal was at once taken up with en- 
thusiasm by foresters at home and abroad, and especially by 
members of this Society. It received the generous patronage and 
support of Her Majesty The Queen, and the Royal Family; many 
foreign Princes and States ; the Home, Indian, and Colonial 
Governments ; the leading nobility and landowners of the United 
Kingdom ; the Lord Provost and Town Council of Edinburgh ; the 
Highland and Agricultural Society; and n^^merous learned, scien- 
tific, and industrial bodies throughout the country. 

After the preliminary meetings were held under the auspices of 
this Society, and the matter fairly placed before the public, a large 
General Committee, including many influential members of the 
Society, was elected, with the Marquis of Lothian, K.T., Presi- 
dent, to carry out the proposed Exhibition. Eventually, the 
direction and management devolved on an Executive Committee 
of thirteen members, presided over by the Marquis of Lothian. 
This Society was represented on the Executive by the President 
of the Society, Dr Cleghorn of Stravithie ; two ex-Presidents, the 
Marquis of Lothian, and Robert Hutchison of Carlowrie ; Colin 
J. Mackenzie of Portmore ; and Malcolm Dunn and John Methven. 
The other members of the Executive were Sir James H. Gibson 
Craig, Bart., of Riccarton, Vice-Preside7it ; Sir George Harrison, 
Lord Provost of Edinburgh ; Fletcher N. Menzies, Secretary, 
Highland and Agricultural Society ; John Murray, of the " Chal- 
lenger " Expedition ; William Skinner of Corra, W.S., Town Clerk 
of Edinburgh ; James D. Park, Engineer ; and James A. Wenley, 
Bank of Scotland, Treasurer ; with Mr George Cadell, Secretary. 
Through the energy and excellent arrangement of the Executive, 
assisted by an efiicient staff of oflicials, the exhibits, collected from 
almost every quarter of the world, were arranged for inspection by 
the day originally fixed on — the fii'st of July — when the Exhibition 
was formally opened by the Marquis of Lothian, in the presence of 
a large and repi'esentative assemblage. During the three and a half 



INTERNATIONAL FORESTRY EXHIBITION. 69 

months it remained open, it was visited by upwards of half a 
million of people from all parts of the world, among the dis- 
tinguished company being their Royal Highnesses the Prince and 
Pi'incess of Wales, Prince Albert, Prince George, and the Prin- 
cesses Louise, Victoria, and Maud of Wales; several foreign poten- 
tates ; the Premier, Mr Gladstone ; Sir Stafford Northcote, Bart., 
and many other eminent and distinguished men. The result was 
a great success, which must be particulai'ly gratifying to the 
members of this Society, to whom is due the credit of the inception 
of the Exhibition. Its educational effects can hardly yet be fully 
estimated, but they have undoubtedly taken a deep hold of the 
public mind, and will in future pi-ove a permanent benefit to the 
British Empii-e, as well as to all the foreign countries which 
participated in carrying into effect such an unique and compre- 
hensive Exhibition of the Forest Products of the World. 

The grounds of Donaldson's Hospital and an adjoining field at 
the west end of Edinburgh, extending to about 15 acres, were 
secured as a site for the Exhibition, and being easy of access by 
road, rail, and tramway, they proved admirable for the purpose. 
The space was laid out with a special view to facilitate the 
working of machinery and the prosier display of the exhibits. 
On the spacious lawn in front of the Hospital, a handsome and 
commodious wooden building was erected, consisting of a grand 
gallery, with central, eastei-n, and western transepts, in which the 
most interesting collections were displayed. Three annexes, at 
the north end of the transepts, were chiefly occupied by a rich 
and varied display of trade exhibits. In the open field there 
were erected a neat wooden suite of offices for the accommodation 
of the Executive and official staff, and numerous buildings and 
enclosures for refreshments, storage, machinery in motion and 
stationary, and for the many other purposes demanded by such an 
Exhibition. There were also erected in the field numerous other 
buildings of an artistic and useful nature, such as Swiss chiilets, 
rustic arbours, foresters' huts, and the like ; among which The 
Queen's Scots Fir Chalet, or Summer-house, from Balmoral occu- 
pied a prominent position, and deservedly attracted a lai'ge share of 
public attention. The general arrangement of the Exhibition and 
grounds is seen from the plan appended hereto, for which the 
Society is indebted to Messrs T. &, A. Constable, Edinburgh, the 
printers of the Official Catalogue, who have gratuitously supplied 
copies to illustrate this Report. 



70 INTERNATIONAL FORESTRY EXHIBITION. 

In the arrangement of the Exhibition, the Society was allotted 
about 2000 feet of space for its exhibits, in an excellent posi- 
tion in the main gallery and north-west transept, near to the 
principal entrance. Here it was enabled to display to great 
advantage a vast array of rare, valuable, and interesting articles 
contributed by the members, and from the Society's own collec- 
tions acquired at various times during the thirty years it has 
been instituted. These are fully detailed at the end of this report. 
The arrangement was carried out with taste and skill by the 
Secretary, Mr John M'Laren, Jun., assisted by a special com- 
mittee. To members of the Society and to the public generally, 
the Scottish Arboricultural Society's section was a centre of 
attraction from the opening to the close of the Exhibition — the 
numerous articles on the stands being examined with lively 
interest by the crowds that visited the Exhibition. The out-door 
display of the Society's exhibits was arranged on a convenient 
site near the machinery in motion, and contained many things 
of much interest, especially to foresters. Scattered through the 
Exhibition, inside and out, were also to be seen many valuable 
collections and articles exhibited by members of the Society, 
especially from landowners and their foresters ; from the nursery 
and seed trade ; and from the tool, implement, machinery, and 
fencing manufacturers. 

Articles of every description connected with Forestry were 
exhibited in the buildings and grounds. These were contributed 
by almost every civilised country in the world, and included 
exhibits by The Queen, the Prince of Wales, the Duke of Edin- 
burgh, several Government Departments, the Commissioners of 
H.M. Woods and Forests, the Government of India, the British 
Colonies, the Empire of Japan, and many other Foreign States, 
and a numerous and influential body of representatives of all 
classes at home and abroad. 

It is much beyond the scope of such a limited report as this 
must necessarily be to give full details of any of the splendid 
collections of exhibits made by either States, Societies, or indivi- 
duals ; but it may be noted that the collections exhibited by The 
Queen, the British Government, the Scottish Arboricultural So- 
ciety, India, Japan, Guiana, Ceylon, Johore, Denmark, Sweden 
and Norway, Cape of Good Hope, and New Brunswick, contained 
the cream of the Exhibition. 



INTERNATIONAL FORESTRY EXHIBITION. 71 



Britain. 

In proceeding to give the following slight sketch of the 
principal exhibits, those claim the first notice which were sent 
by Her Majesty The Queen, who not only graciously allowed her 
name to appear among the list of Patrons, but took a lively interest 
otherwise in the Exhibition. From the Royal Forests on Deeside, 
in the conserving of which Her Majesty has set so excellent an 
example, came admirable specimens of the wood of Finns sylvestris 
— the indigenous Scots Fir — which still flourishes in the Ballochbuie 
forest in all its pristine grandeur. Part of the wood had been 
worked up into an artistically designed rustic Chalet, the interior 
of which was beautifully finished in dressed Scots fir, the fur- 
niture being also of the same wood, all varnished with clear 
transparent cojjal, which showed to excellent effect the fine grain 
and beautiful swirl of this timber. The Chalet, which was wholly 
constructed of and furnished with Native Scots Fir, even to the 
" thatch " of the roof (which %vas formed of Scots fir bark), looked 
both pictui'esque and appropriate ; and the whole formed in itself 
one of the most attractive features of the Exhibition. Several fine 
sections of Scots fir timber in its rough state, ranging from 212 
to 270 years old — excellent alike as to size and quality — were 
also displayed ai-ound the Chalet. The trunk of one of these 
" monarchs of the forest " had lain on the ground for upwards of 
40 years, and in that time its sapwood had become wasted into a 
mould in which were gi'owing heather, cranberry, and blaeberry 
bushes, and mosses ; while the heartwood, measuring 3|^ feet across, 
was pei'fectly sound. An eminently practical part of the Royal 
exhibit were specimens of the soil in which Scots firs not only 
grow, but thrive in upper Deeside. One of these consisted of 
different strata of dry ferruginous gi'avel, with about 4 inches of 
peaty turf atop ; the other, a mass of crumbled gi-anite, having 
a small proportion of decomposed vegetable matter mixed with 
it. The first of these soils is, in most respects, similar to that of 
the great area of waste lands in Scotland ; and one of the objects 
Her Majesty is understood to have had in view in sending these 
Balmoral exhibits, was to encourage the planting of waste lands 
with Scots firs. 

To their Royal Highnesses the Prince of Wales and the Duke 
of Edinburgh, the Exhibition was indebted for a splendid collec- 



72 INTERNATIONAL FOKESTRY EXIIIUITION. 

tion of hunting trophies from India and otlicr countries ; and 
several noblemen and gentlemen, including Colonel Michael, the 
Indian Commissioner, also lent similar specimens, which appro- 
priately decorated the interior of the grand gallery. 

The Commissioners of Woods and Forests — the public depart- 
ment for the management of the State forests and woodlands in 
this country — sent exhibits of much every-day interest to foresters. 
It may be noted in passing that the Woods and Forests under 
the charge of Her Majesty's Commissioners amount in the aggre- 
gate to about 100,000 aci'es. Oak is largely grown in these 
woods, and there were sent for exhibition from the New Forest, 
in Hamjishire, sections of this characteristic English tree, from 10 
to 200 years old, showing the growth of the timber under varying 
circumstances of soil, and illustrating also the ravages of disease 
and the results of checking the same at an early stage ; while 
from the Dean Forest — of which Sir James Campbell, Bart., has 
had the direction for many years — were sent a splendid collection 
of sections, and illustrative specimens of woods, accompanied by 
an elaborate chart, recording the comparative growth of oaks 
transplanted and not transplanted. These experiments had been 
carried on from the year 1809, and the transplanted oaks showed 
consider-ably the best results. The exhibits from Windsor Forest 
were also of a valuable and representative character, combined 
with much historical interest. 

Oak bai'k illustrative of various methods of curing, sections of 
wood showing the devastation worked by insects and the bad 
eftects of encumbering a tree with dead branches, specimens 
exhibiting the results of good and bad pruning, various kinds 
of gates and fences in use in the Royal Forests, timber waggons 
and other modes of transport, and a collection of forestry tools, 
mostly of somewhat primitive make, were also among the exhibits 
sent by Her Majesty's Commissioners. 

The Seci'etary for War sent a valuable and instructive collec- 
tion of exliibits from H.M. War Department, consisting of fine 
si^ecimens of the various woods used in the manufacture of Gun- 
powder and samples of the charcoal made from them ; sections of 
the different timbers used in the construction of Gun-Carriages, and 
for other Ordnance purposes; specimens of Rifle Stocks and Lance 
Shafts in several stages of manufacture; and a variety of other 
articles used for purposes of war. 



INTERNATIONAL FORESTRY EXHIBITION. 73 



India. 

The magnificent exhibits from our great Indian Empire, both 
in respect to scientific and pi-actical value, received from visitors 
that amount of attention they so well deserved. They formed a 
})leasing illustration to arboriculturists in this countiy of the 
progress of the science in India, where its application was so 
much needed, and in which it has so wide a field to work. The 
Department of Forestry, which was organised less than thirty 
years ago by the East India Company, in which the President of 
this Society, Dr Cleghorn, took a leading part, has now grown 
into a great State Department, whose work is exerting an amelio- 
rative influence on the climatic and physical conditions of the 
country. Not only are the splendid forests of India — the present 
reserved area being no less than 46,000 square miles in extent — 
systematically managed and made to yield a handsome revenue, 
but there are also extensive nurseries and plantations in which 
trees are raised for the afforesting of treeless districts. Tree 
planting is being pushed northwards and westwards towards the 
Afghanistan and Beloochistan frontiers, and it is most instructive 
to hear that, as a direct i*esult of such operations, the rainfall in 
these arid lands is gradually increasing. Occupying the whole of 
the south-central transept and several bays on each side, the 
Indian Collection, which was under the care of Colonel Michael, 
was by far the largest and most valuable in the building. In- 
cluded in it was the Calcutta " Index Collection " of Museum 
Specimens, alphabetically arranged, and including about 800 
examples of the trees of India, which grow in the vast territory be- 
tween Cape Comorin and the snow-capped Himalaya. The Bom- 
bay exhibits, consisting for the most part of sections of useful and 
ornamental woods, were chiefly remarkable for the skilful manner 
in which they had been cut so as to show the difierent grainings 
and qualities, and the appearance which the wood presented in a 
rough state and when dressed and varnished. The contribution 
from British Burmah included a number of grand bamboos 85 feet 
in length, and some splendid logs of teak [Tectona grandis), which 
there attains to a great size. Of unexcelled durability, the wood 
is largely exported to this country for ship and railway carriage 
building purposes ; and the uses to which it is put by the cabinet- 
maker and wood-carver were exenq^liOed iu beautiful carved panels 



74 INTKRNATIONAL FOUfCSTKV KXillJilTIOX. 

and ill articles of furniture and interior decoration. The " Black- 
wood " (^Dalbergia latifolia), another valuable tree, had also V^een 
worked up in the same admirable manner. The " Sissoo " {DaJ^ 
heryia Sissoo) is a tree little known to outside commerce, but it 
has tough enduring qualities which fit it for Ordnance purposes. 
Gun carriages, with wheels made of " Sissoo," stood the wear and 
tear of the last Afghanistan campaign, and came back without, it 
is said, a single break-down having been recorded. The Andaman 
and Nicobar Islands were well represented by splendid logs of 
" Padouk " (^Fterocarjyus indiciis), the colour of the timber vary- 
ing in different trees from that of cedar to dark mahogany; and by 
examples of the tree known by the natives as "Poon" {Ccdophyllum 
inoj)hylkim), one slab of which, beautifully polished, surpassed in 
size everything cut in the same manner in the Exhibition. Travan- 
core sent some remarkably fine ebony, and the capabilities of our 
Indian Empire for the production of gums, resins, oils, medicinal 
barks, dye stuffs, and other useful products, were abundantly 
illustrated, and suggested the possibility of further trade in these 
and many other articles with our great Eastern Dependency. To 
the ordinary visitor a very pleasing part of the Indian collection 
was the beautiful display of carved work in i\ory and wood, and 
the cases of native curiosities from the Punjab and other districts. 



Japan, 

The most notable, perhaps, of all the contributions from 
beyond the seas, was the exti^emely interesting, varied, and com- 
plete collection of foi'estry subjects sent from far-ofi" Japan, 
which filled the whole of the eastern transept of the Exhibi- 
tion. This wonderful Collection of Foi'est Exhibits excited the 
interest and commanded the admiration of all, and clearly de- 
monstrated what rapid progress the Japanese are making in 
the science and art of forestry. It says much for the enlighten- 
ment and enterprise of the Japanese, that the government of a 
country which twenty yeai'S ago was jealously shut against all 
foreign intercourse, should have been one of the largest exhibitors 
in an International Forestry Exhibition held in the capital of 
Scotland. They also recognised their sense of the importance of 
the Exhibition by sending over as Commissioner one of their chief 
forestry officers, M. Tokai, whose methods of arranging and 



INTERNATIONAL FORESTRY EXHIBITION. 75 

cataloguing the collection were admirable. Extending, as it does, 
over 15 degrees of latitude, the "Island Empire" of Japan possesses 
a Flora common to both tropical and teuiperate zones. The rural 
arts have long had their home there, and none have attained to 
more perfection in the grafting and dwarfing of trees and shrubs 
than the Japanese. Scientific forestry has now been regarded 
as of sufficient importance to be taken in hand by the State, and 
four years ago a School of Forestry was established, in which in- 
struction is given to pupils by Japanese officials who have studied 
in the forestry schools of Gei-many. The curriculum in the 
forestry school includes botany, chemistry of the soil, natural 
philosophy, land surveying, and the practical work of planting 
and rearing trees. Attending the forestry school are about 150 
pupils fitting themselves for work in the Government forests, 
while other pupils are the sons of landowners and farmers acquir- 
ing a scientific knowledge of arboriculture, in order to qualify 
them for managing their own lands. Japan, it will thus be 
seen, is ahead of Britain in this matter ; and when the British 
Forest School is established, it will be well for it, and for the 
country, if it can draw its pupils from the same classes as attend 
for instruction in Japan. The Government forests of the " Island 
Empire " are now under strict regulations, and are worked on a 
systematic principle ; plantations have been formed both for the 
rearing of native and foreign trees ; and the charts which were 
so pi'ofusely hung around the walls of the court showed how 
carefully the forest surveys were being made. One of the charts 
by a native arboriculturist, showed the empire map])ed out into 
five diflferent tree regions — the first consisting of the zone of 
high temperature, with tropical evergreen trees, of which Ficns 
Wiglitiana was given as the typical example. In the temperate 
parts were the oaks and beeches and cedars, and the whole tribe 
of Thuias and Retinosporas, for which Japan is so famous ; while 
in the upper regions, as at home, is the habitat of the pines and 
firs — the handsome Abies Veitchii being the representative of the 
mountain trees. The walls were also covered with photographs 
and pictui'es of forest scenes, illustrative of the manner in which 
trees are cut and transported fx'om the higher to the lower 
regions, while on the tables were numerous and most ingenious 
models of contrivances for causing artificial floods on small rivers 
for the ti-ansport of timber, and of shoots — " Sadies" — for sending 
the timber down steep and rugged mountain sides. In the 



76 INTICUNATIONAL FORRSTIIY KXHinrTIOV. 

Japanese collection were included no fewer than 302 specimens 
of useful and ornamental woods, many of rare beauty and value. 
Since the days of Siebold, Fortune, and Veitch, the beautiful 
Retinosporas and Cryptomerias of Japan, with their graceful 
habits and feathery foliage, have formed an effective feature in 
our lawn decorations, and also in ornamental plantations ; but few 
were prepared to see that the members of the Arbor-vitae family in 
their own home attained to such gigantic dimensions. Here, for 
example, was a splendid slab of wood from a Retinospora ohtusa, 
which had stood 120 feet high, with a girth of 20 feet; and there 
were sections of the timber of Cryptomeria Japonica, which had 
been taken from trees of stately dimensions. Most lovely slabs 
of "camphor wood" {Cinnamomtim camphora) with swirled grain 
were shown, as also pretty examples of maple and bird-cherry, 
junij)ers and yews. There are six or seven varieties of oak grown 
in Japan, the timber of which, though not equal to that of the 
English oak, is, nevertheless, of excellent quality. A characteristic 
of the timber of the great Japanese tribe of Conifers is its fine even 
quality, close grain, and absence of faults — features which make 
it valuable for all kinds of wood-work. The collection made it 
clear that the Japanese are excellent wood woi'kers and carvers. 
There was an excellent display of their inimitable lacquei'-work, 
also numerous examples of cooperage, wickerwork, and other manu- 
factured wooden goods, all displaying much taste in design and 
great excellence in workmanship. Of much practical interest were 
the clever models of charcoal kilns, with numerous specimens t)f 
charcoal made in such kilns from various kinds of wood. The 
collection of scientific instruments, as well as of the tools and 
implements used in the Japanese forests, was of the greatest 
interest to British forestei's, who culled many useful ideas from 
an inspection of them, although in many cases the shape and size 
of the articles were of a rather primitive nature, and not at all 
equal to our own tools and implements of the same kind. 



Guiana. 

Next in order may be mentioned the grand disiplay of Forest 
Products exhibited by the Colony of British Guiana, which 
had the whole of the northern part of the central transept 
and part of the main gallery devoted to its accommodation, and 



INTERNATIOXAL FORESTRY EXHIBITION. t t 

was even then mucli too crowded to pi'operly display many of 
tlie rare and valuable articles of which it consisted. However, it 
was admirably arranged, considering the confined space, under the 
direction of Dr Russell, the Commissioner for the Colony, assisted 
most efficiently by Dr Imlach ; and alike from a scientific and 
jjopular point of view, there was no more attractive court in the 
Exhibition. The primeval forests of the valleys of the Essequibo, 
the Demerara, the Berbice, and the Corentyn abound in splendid 
marketable timber. The monarch of these South American 
solitudes is the " Mora " (Mora eaxelsa, of Bentham), which is 
said often to attain to a height of 300 feet, and a girth of 18 
feet. The wood of this tree is hard and teak-like in texture, and 
has been found especially suitable for railway sleepers in warm 
countries. " Green-heart " (Nectandra Rodtoei), various " Cedars," 
and other furniture woods are in abundance — one new timber 
specially brought under notice being a resinous wood called 
" Wallaba " [Eperua falcata), which has been found very service- 
able for all kinds of cooper-work. Several very fine specimens 
were exhibited of the rare and costly " Letter-wood" (Brosiinum 
Auhletii), so much sought after for inlaying and such purposes. 
One peculiar tree shown, named " Yarooro" [Aspidosperma excelsa), 
grows in shape like a deeply fluted column, and is said to be 
gi-eatly in request by the Indians for making paddles. Cutting 
off" one of the flutings, they have almost a paddle i-eady made, and 
having no cross grain, the wood is very durable. Specimens of 
the timber of over 100 trees were included in the collection, the 
sections shown being all of a substantial, many of them of a 
great size. Of the parasites and fungi of woods there was a 
large and varied representation, presenting a wide field for the 
study of the botanist — the fungi of British Guiana being 
as yet undescribed. The country was also shown to be 
exceedingly rich in fibre-bearing plants, among these being 
a very serviceable cotton, which is used by the Indians 
for various purposes. The collection was rich in specimens 
of what may be called the curiosities of a tropical forest, not 
the least instructive of which were the illustrations of the 
life and habits of the Indians of these parts. The collection of 
medicinal barks was a numerous and interesting one, and con- 
tained several kinds likely to prove valuable in pharmacy. A 
large and varied collection of the tree and other seeds of the 
colony were exhibited, but as only the vernacular names were 



7fi INTERNATIONAL KORKSTUY KXIIiniTlON. 

attiicliod to most of them, tlioy were more curious than useful. 
Tlie collection of gums and resins was also of a valuaVjle and 
interesting nature, and contained some remarkably fine specimens. 
Vegetable oils, dyes, bitters, etc., were well represented. Vaiious 
kinds of palm woods and articles manufactured therefrom at- 
tracted much attention, especially the articles manufactured by 
the Indians, including houses, furniture, caiioe.s, basket-work, etc., 
in most of which palm predominated in one shape or another. 
An Indian punt, designed for transporting the heavy greenheart 
timber down the rivers of the colony to the seaports, was parti- 
cularly noteworthy for the excellency of its construction and 
general adaptability. On the whole the display was in the 
highest degr-ee creditable to the colony, and to the skill and 
enterprise of those who collected, arranged, and managed it. 



St Vincent and Tobago. 

Alongside of the British Guiana exhibits there were aiTanged 
two very interesting collections fi-om the West India islands of 
St Vincent and Tobago. These collections were also managed 
and arranged by Dr Russell and Dr Imlach, and in the case of 
the island of St Vincent the display was most comprehensive 
and instructive. Bamboos in great variety and articles made 
from them ; cross and length sections of timbers, mostly of 
excellent quality and suitable for all sorts of purposes up to the 
finest cabinet work ; capital models of foresters' huts, boats, rafts; 
neat basket work ; fibres of great variety and fineness ; gums, 
seeds, dried fruits, preserves, pickles, and a multitude of other 
articles of a useful or ornamental nature, made up a wonderful 
collection from such a small island. The collection from Tobago 
included many curious articles used as household utensils and for 
fancy purposes by the natives ; and a good display of wood 
sections showing the fine grain and durable qualities of many of 
the forest trees of the island. 



Ceylon. 

Adjoining the Indian Court was an excellent representative 
Collection of the Forest Products of Ceylon, which had been got 



INTERNATIONAL FORESTRY EXHIBITION. 79 

togetliei' tlirougb the enterprise of one of its planters and a 
member of the Scottish Arboricultural Society — Mr J. Alexander, 
of Kirklees, Uda2)ussallawa, Ceylon, It included, among a great 
variety of useful and artistic articles, upwards of 230 specimens of 
the wood of forest trees, conspicuous among which were some 
beautiful samples of the valuable satinwood, and also some very 
fine specimens of cocoa-nut wood. The various methods by which 
the valuable bark of the cinchona tree (the quinine of commerce) 
is harvested and prepared for market, was clearly illustrated in 
the most complete detail. Of this valuable medicinal bark as 
much as 7,000,000 lbs. were exported in 1883 — the industry 
being one of the most remunerative that Ceylon possesses. Of 
the products and uses of the Cocoa-nut Palm, about 80 examples 
were shown; of the Palmyra Palm, about 160; and of the 
Talipot Palm, a numerous collection. Bamboos, Basket-work, 
Barks, Oils, Resins, Seeds, Fibres, and other forest products were 
exhibited in great abundance ; and the Collection was also rich in 
Ceylon forest and plantation literature, and illustrations of life 
and scenery in Ceylon, 

Johore. 

Hai'd by the Ceylon exhibits was an admii'able collection in 
charge of Mr James Meldrum, Commissioner for that enlightened 
Eastern Prince, the Maharajah of Johore, which is a richly 
wooded State in the Malay Peninsula. It included about 350 
specimens of indigenous timber trees, and a great variety of 
instructive samples of the forest produce of that most productive 
country. Among these were fine examples of camphor, gum, 
gambiei', and gutta-percha, Johore having been the first place 
from which the latter commodity was exported to this country. 
The IVIaharajah is a great woodman, and beautiful models of 
timber rafts, photographs of his sawmills, and sets of Malayan 
forestry implements were displayed. 

Perak, Singapore, and Siam. 

From the State of Pei*ak, and from the island of Singapore 
lying to the south of the peninsula, came specimens of indigenous 
trees, chief among which were the " Seriah " {Hojjea), the Johore 



80 INTICRNATIOXAF. KORIOSTIIV KXHI IWTIO.V. 

toak, und tlie " Taiupinnis," the last mentioned being especially 
valuable to the builder in the tropics, as it is proof against the 
attack of white ants. Siam — the land of the white elephant — 
s(!nt over 500 sections of trees under their native names, among 
th(! more important being teak, sandalwood, rosewood, and ebony. 



Borneo. 

From the large and interesting island of Borneo there wei-e 
exhibited about fifty kinds of timber grown in the forests of the 
island, accompanied by their leaves and flowers, by means of 
which botanists could identify most of them. Samples of the 
axes used by the natives in felling the trees were also shown. 
These axes, or " billy ongs " as they are termed, in various shapes 
and sizes, are in general vise in Eastern countries, and are excellent 
tools in the hand of a native, whose physical powei's ai^e totally 
luiable to swing the heavy felling axes of Western nations. 



Mauritius, 

The pictui'esque and richly clothed island of Mauiitius, situated 
in the midst of the Indian Ocean, and more famous for its sugar 
plantations than its forests in recent times, exhibited fine speci- 
mens of about seventy of the woods grown in the island, a few of 
which have been introduced, but the great majority are indigenous. 
Many of them exhibited a fine close grain and superior quality, 
and would be found useful in high class wood work. Some 
excellent samples of indiarubber, from trees grown in the Colony, 
were also exhibited ; and the most extensive and complete Collec- 
tion of Fibres shown in the Exhibition came from the Mauritius. 
Among the fibres were several of a smooth silky nature and fine 
staple, which would be highly valued by manufacturers of soft 
goods if the raw material can be gi-own in quantity at a moderate 
cost. 

Australia. 

The large colonies of Australia contributed comparatively little 
to the Exhibition. This was the more to be regretted considei ing 
the number of valuable timber trees indigenous to them, and the 



INTERNATIONAL FORESTHY EXHIBITION. 81 

importance which forest conservancy is rapidly assuming in these 
colonies. The gums {Eucalyptus) and their products alone 
would have made an interesting exhibition, especially the typical 
Australian tree — the blue gum {Eucalyptus globulus) — which 
has been so largely planted, with exceedingly satisfactory re- 
sults, in so many malarious districts in the warmer parts of 
the world. The South Australian Government, however, ex- 
hibited a number of interesting books and plates illustrative 
of its forest flora, and reports and plans of the management 
of its forest areas, which are now under a regular system of 
forest conservancy. 

From the Eoyal Gardens at Kew, London, there was sent by 
Sir Joseph Hooker an excellent Collection of Australian Woods, 
including many large and beautiful specimens, and embracing all 
the best known and most popular kinds indigenous to these and 
the adjacent colonies of Tasmania and New Zealand, which to a 
certain extent made up for the paucity of exhibits sent direct 
fi'om Australia. 



Cape Colony. 

Other portions of the British Empire which came well to the 
front were our African Colonies — Ca]je of Good Hope, Natal, 
Gambia, and Sierra Leone. The Cape Colony has been sadly 
denuded of its primeval forests, and the best timbered parts now 
existing are situated in the mountainoixs region of Knysna, 
in the south-eastern district of the Colony. The forests have a 
coast-line of about 100 miles, with an average breadth of 25 miles. 
Recently the Cape Government have adopted very stringent 
measures of conservation to prevent the wasteful destruction 
going on, which threatened to lead at an early day to the 
total deforesting of the country. The foi'ests are in process of 
being surveyed, so that they may be worked on a principle of 
rotation, and pi'otective measiires have also been taken against 
fires. Premiums of a substantial amount have been offered to pri- 
vate parties who will plant a certain number of trees ; Govern- 
ment plantations have been formed on the Cape flats and other 
waste lands ; and nurseries have been established in which sap- 
lings are reared for the filling of gaps in the Crown forests, or 
for selling to private planters at a cheap rate. 

VOL. XI., PART I. F 



82 INTEllNATIONAL FOKESTltY KXHIIilTION". 

Aiuoug the indigenous trees of the Ckpe — of which specimens 
were shown — were the Cape " Yellow-wood " {Podocarpus Thun- 
bercjii), very suitable for waggon building; the " Btinkwood " 
{Oreodaphne bullata), largely used in the manufacture of furniture, 
its colour and graining being good ; and the " Sneezewood " 
{Pteroxylon ulile), which is of great specific gravity, and, like the 
greenheart of Guiana, capable of withstanding the attacks of 
marine boring worms. Specimens of Cape box-tree (Celastnis 
buxi/olius) were recommended to notice as likely to answer well 
in connection with the art of wood engraving. In all, there were 
exhibited specimens of the wood of forty-five kinds of trees grown 
in the Colony. 

No wood is at present exported from Cape Colony, as more is 
required than the home-growth can su})i)ly. What is imported 
is chiefly in the shape of Norway deals, which it seems can be 
sold at Cape Town cheaper than the indigenous timber of the 
country, so great is the cost of transport, etc., from the Knysna 
forests. 

There were also shown in the Cape collection a capital model 
of a Timber Waggon, simply and efiiciently constructed to 
render it safe for transporting heavy loads over rough ground 
and through African " kloofs " or ravines, — impassable by any 
less strongly-built vehicle, — and found particularly serviceable 
for " Transport riding " over the hot, dry Karroo country of 
South Africa. The Commissioners who represented the Cape 
Colony at the Exhibition were The Hon. Robert Southey, 
C.M.G., of the Cape of Good Hope, and Charles D. Steuart of 
Dalguise, Perthshire, by whose efibrts the collection was made 
one of the most interesting to visitors of any of its class in the 
Exhibition. 



Natal. 

The collection of exhibits from Natal was interesting, although 
not very large. It was chiefly coiitributed by a member of this 
Society, David M. Smythe, yr. of Methven, Perthshire, and con- 
sisted of Specimens of the Woods of the Colony, sevei-al of 
which seemed to be of considerable value for cabinet-making 
and higher-class woodwork ; and of botanical specimens of the 
Forest Flora of Natal. 



INTERNATIONAL FORESTRY EXHIBITION. 83 



Gambia. 

The Governinent of the Colony of Gambia had an exti-emely 
creditable display, consisting of a large number of specimens 
of native woods and samples of fibres, some of which are likely 
to prove valuable in commerce. These, with models of boats 
and native canoes ; models of native huts ; and a great variety 
of native furniture, household utensils, personal ornaments, and 
curiosities, made up a very attractive exhibition. This collection 
was also rich in tropical foi'est pi'oducts, containing many fine 
samples of gums, resins, vegetable oils, seeds, indiarubber, and 
indigo, as well as honey, Indian coi'n, rice, and other articles of 
food. 

Sierra Leone. 

From Sierra Leone there were sent by the Government of the 
Colony a tine collection of the Forest products of that rich but 
unhealthy climate, consisting of, among other things, a good 
display of specimens of the woods of the country, with many fine 
samples of cotton and other fibrous substances, tanning barks, 
indiaruljber, indigo, and wickerwork. Like the Gambia collec- 
tion, tliis was also distinguished by the numerous articles it 
contained illustrative of the life, habits, and customs of tlie 
savage races who are still beyond the pale of modern civilisation. 
These tropical African collections showed what a mine of wealth 
still lies undeveloped in the grand forests and rich lands of the 
" Dark Continent," from which we may expect to reap an 
abundant commercial harvest in the not distant future. 

Canada and New Brunswick. 

Among our North American colonies, New Brunswick was 
the only one represented to any extent at the Exhibition ; the 
Commissioner in charge of its exhibits, Mr Edward Jack, also 
displayed in the Court a few good exhibits of forest produce 
and other articles from various parts of the Dominion of Canada. 
New Brunswick is one of the oldest colonies on the Atlantic 
seaboard, and its virgin forests — though giving way before the 
advance of the agriculturist — are still of great extent and 



84 INTERNATIONAL FORESTIIV KX HIHITION. 

value; but, according to the testimony of the Commissioner, they 
are sadly in want of conservation. There were exhibited many 
excellent si)ecimens of the native hardwoods, chiefly shown in 
the form of polished panels ; all possessing the characteristic 
of i-emarkably light colour. The examples of ash, Vjird's-eye 
maple, and birch were particularly fine. On the wall of this 
Court was dis])layed a large and most interesting map — the 
only contribution of the Dominion Government — on which was 
marked the limits of the Forest trees of Canada, by Dr Robert 
Bell, Assistant Director of the Canadian Geological Survey. It 
appeared that the trees of the higher zones were the spruce, 
larch, and balsam poplar, their limit being marked at about 
65° N.L. 

A nicely got up collection of forest tree seeds, indigenous to 
the Province of Quebec, along with beautifully executed coloured 
illustrations of the flowers and foliage of each tree, by Miss 
E. M. Jack, of Quebec, were also exhibited in the New Bruns- 
wick Court. 



Manitoba. 

No more instructive and interesting exhibit, from a practical point 
of view, was displayed than that sent from Manitoba. It showed 
the complete buildings of a Far West farm, all constructed of wood 
grown in the forests of the Colony. Wooden implements and 
utensils for farm, dairy, and domestic use were exhibited in great 
variety, and showed strength combined with lightness in a high 
degree. "Snake" and other fences in vogue on the prairies, 
were also a feature in this collection, from which the practical 
forester, as well as the intending emigrant, might have derived 
many a useful lesson. There were also exhibited sjiecimens of 
about forty varieties of the timber indigenous to the North West 
and the Rocky Mountains, many of the sections displaying great 
size and fine quality. 



California. 

From another famous timber tree region in the New World 
came a most intei-esting representation of the gigantic " Redwood " 
tree (Sequoia sempervirens) of the country to the north of the 



IXTERNATIOXAL FORESTRY EXHIBITION'. 85 

" Golden Gate " of California along the Pacific coast towards 
Oregon. 

We are told that in the district of Eureka, i-edwood trees of 
10, 12, or 20 feet in diameter are common, with straight boles 
rising to the height of 150 or 200 feet before a single bi-anch 
is thrown out. A section of a giant redwood tree, 13 feet in 
diameter, was conspicuously displayed imder the western dome 
of the Exhibition, where it attracted the attention of every one. 
Of the many uses to which its valuable timber may be put, there 
was a beautiful illustration in a cabinet trophy in the adjoining 
transept, as well as the splendid i-edwood chalet erected in the 
grounds. 



Florida. 

Nor must it be forgotten to mention the beautiful exhibits of 
curled pitch pine and pencil "cedar" wood sent from Florida, — 
that paradise of our American cousins, — the grand primeval forests 
of which are still to a large extent intact from the tree-destroying 
lumberman of the Northern States ; although the Flowery Land 
is now threatened with timber " booms," which will quickly clear 
it of its trees, if precautions to prevent such a calamity are not 
taken in time. 

The contributions from other States and countries of the 
Western Hemisphere wei'e confined to the exhibits of private 
individuals ; and although many of them were of a useful and 
instructive nature, and comprised numerous rare and curious 
articles, none were so specially prominent as to call for further 
remark. 



Cjrprus. 

The only British possession in Europe, outside of the United 
Kingdom, which contributed a Collection of Forest products was 
the recently acquired island of Cyprus. These were sent by iSIr 
Edward Dobbs, Chief Forest Officer, and comprised a numerous 
display of the woods produced in the island, including fine speci- 
mens of the Aleppo and Coi'sican pines, the principal timber- 
producing trees of the country ; several species of pine cones and 
seeds ; specimens of resins extracted from the pines ; tanning 



86 INTERNATIONAL FORESTRY EXIIIIUTIOX. 

substances; branches of juiiijKii- and myrtle used in the island 
as materials for making baskets ; and ropes for certain useful 
purposes requiring strength more than neatness. The collection, 
as a whole, augured well for the future of the forests of the 
colony, which are now managed under a proper system of foi-est 
conservaiacy. 



Among European countries, Denmark and Scandinavia dis- 
played the most important collections, contributing a great variety 
of excellent timber, cut and 2:)]aned to show its fine quality, and 
the many useful purposes for which it is adapted. 



Denmark. 

In the Danish Court there were exhibited a numerous assortment 
of turned-wood goods, household utensils, wheelwrights' materials, 
and other wood articles of a useful nature, all showing excellent 
material, good workmanship, and skilful design. Scientific instru- 
ments, forest tools and implements were also a notable feature of 
the Danish exhibits ; the collection being equal, if not superior, 
to anything of the kind in the Exhibition. Maps, plans, and 
diagrams illustrative of forests and foi'est economy, as well as a 
choice selection of forest literature, lent an additional interest to 
the Danish court. The kingdom of Denmark does not export 
timber, owing to its forests having become greatly exhausted, but 
it is satisfactory to learn that a more systematic management has 
now been introduced, which is working with good efiect in the 
i"estoration of the forests, and in several jjarts of the country 
extensive planting operations are being cai-ried on. 



Scandinavia. 

A conspicuous object among the Swedish and Norwegian ex- 
hibits was the s^jlendid collection of dressed boards, which formed 
a colonnade of gigantic fluted i:)illars along the north side of the 
grand gallery. Planed goods of a varied description, cooperage, 



IXTERXATIONAL FORESTRY EXHIBITION. 87 

liouse fittings, and other manufactured wooden goods, showed what 
these northern regions can do in supplying other countries with 
these useful articles. Nor must mention be omitted of a capital 
model of a raft, with a series of illustrations of the method of 
transporting timber, by both land and water, from the forests in 
Norway to the seaports ; and also of fine samples of forest tree 
seeds and vigoi'ous hardy-looking plants of forest trees. 



Wood-Paper Exhibits. 

Chiefly to Continental, but also to a few British exhibitors, 
the Exhibition was indebted for the finest display of wood 
paper-making material, and its various processes of manufacture, 
that has ever been seen. The wood-paper exhibits occu])ied 
a considerable space in the central portion of the grand gallery, 
and formed an object of much interest and attraction to visitors, 
the process being as yet a novelty in this country. The results of 
several methods of manufacturing the pulp were shown in detail, 
and also the various descriptions of paper made thei'efrom. The 
wood of the Norway spruce is that chiefly used, although paper 
can be made easily from any soft wood. 



Loan Collections. 

There was much of an interesting and instructive nature to the 
practical forester in the numerous Loan Collections which occupied 
such a large extent of space in the Exhibition, but mention can 
only be made here of a very few of the most notable. Professor 
C. V. Ptiely, of the United States Agricultural Department, ex- 
hibited a number of large cases of insects injurious to forest trees, 
which, though they had been somewhat roughly used in the 
transit, were perfectly illustrative of the subject, and showed 
remarkable skill and neatness in preserving and mounting the 
specimens. He also sent copies of his valuable works on the 
Entomology of the United States, and of his Entomological 
Reports to the Agricultural Department, all of which give a 
singulai-ly clear exposition of the life-history of the insect pests of 
the States, and the best methods of dealing with them. 

The botanical specimens, cones, woods, and other objects illus- 



88 INTERNATIONAL FORESTRY EXllIIilTION. 

trative of the forest trees iind forest flora of British Columbia, 
California, Mexico, India, China, Japan, and other parts of the 
world, exhibited Ijy Messrs Veitch & Sons, of Chelsea, were of 
much scientific value and of the greatest interest to arborists and 
foresters, as many of them were the original specimens collected 
by the travellers who discovered the trees in their native habitats ; 
or were unique of their kind, from their rarity and historical 
associations. 

The remarkably complete and exceedingly interesting collection 
of woodpeckers, exhibited by R. G. Wardlaw Ramsay of White- 
hill, Midlothian, also deserves special mention. The display of 
those " friends of the forester " was of a peculiarly instructive 
nature, and showed what a great variety of these birds inhabit 
the forests of the world, and aid man in keeping in check the 
inroads of destructive insects on our forest trees. 

The splendid display of Sporting Trophies, Heads of Forest 
Animals, etc., collected for the Exhibition by Colonel IMichael, 
C.S.I., the veteran " Shikari," were a featui'e of the greatest 
attraction in the Indian Court, where they were arranged on the 
walls with great effect, and showed the results of British pluck 
and endurance in many hazardous enterprises. 



Exhibits in the Open Air. 

In the open-air department of the Exhibition, British Nursery- 
men vied with each other as to who should exhibit the rarest and 
finest specimens of trees and shrubs, and more especially of Conifers. 
Prominent among these was the rare and choice collection of 
ornamental trees and shrubs exhibited by Messrs James Veitch 
and Sons, of Chelsea, London, which contained the finest plant in 
Britain of the " Umbrella Pine " [Sciadopitys verticillata) of 
Japan, and many other specimens of great merit. The grand 
displays made of beautiful trees and shrubs by the Lawson 
Nursery Company, and Messrs Thomas Methven & Sons, of 
Edinburgh, were the admiration of eveiy one, and showed 
gi'eat taste and skill in the choice and arrangement of the 
various plants so as to give the best effect. Especially was 
this to be observed in the tastefully laid-out ground in front of 
Her Majesty's Chalet, which was occupied by the Messrs Methven 
and Sons' collection ; the arrangement of the shapes and sizes of 



INTERXATIOyAL FORESTRY EXHIBITIO>r. 89 

the plants, and the blending of colours, being most charmingly 
executed. The collections exhibited by Messrs Little & Ballan- 
tyne, of Carlisle, and Messrs James Dickson & Sons, of Chester, 
were both numerous and highly meritorious, being specially rich 
in large examples of Conifers. The numerous other collections 
of trees and shrubs exhibited by our nurserymen added immensely 
to the attractions of the Exhibition grounds, each possessing some 
special merits, which were not overlooked by the crowds of 
visitors who so carefully inspected them. 

Besides the outside exhibits, most of the leading nurserymen 
had large and splendidly equipped stands in the Exhibition build- 
ing. Here Messrs Yilmoriu, Andrieux, & Co., of Paris, exhibited 
one of the finest and most complete collections of seeds of trees 
and shrubs (comprising some 625 varieties) that has ever been 
shown at any exhibition, as well as about 350 varieties of cones, 
and a large and vai-ied assortment of barks for tanning, woods, 
and other articles of a similar nature of great interest to foresters. 
The Lawson Nursery Company had something of a like display 
on a smaller scale ; specially noteworthy being the set of 
beautiful plates of Lawson's Pinetum Britannicum which adorned 
the walls. Messrs Methven & Sons made a capital exhibition of 
forest tools and seeds ; Messrs Little »fe Ballantyne, Carlisle, 
exhibited an interesting collection of woods, cones, seeds, and 
tools ; and Messrs James Dickson & Sons, Chester, contributed 
an equally interesting stand of these articles. 

Near the nurserymen's stands in the north-west annexe were 
the principal exhibits of the forest tool and implement manufac- 
turers. Messrs Alex. Mathieson & Son, of Glasgow, displayed 
an extensive assortment of tools and wood-working machines, all 
of the best make and the newest design ; every machine perfect 
in itself, and fitted to a nicety. The Sheffield firm of tool manu- 
facturers, Messrs Kobert Sorby & Sons, fully maintained their 
wide reputation for the excellency of their goods, by the complete 
collection they exhibited of all the tools used in forestry, each 
perfect in quality and finish. The collection of sti-ong, plain and 
serviceable tools and implements exhibited by Messrs Fleming 
and Co., of Glasgow, as well as their models of bridges, sheds, 
cottages, and especially their most complete set of tools adapted 
for forming every description of drain, were much admired by 
practical men. 

The remarkable display of India-rubber goods, with the raw 



90 INTKIlNATrONAL I'OHICSTRY KXHIBITION. 

inatcriiil iis abstracted from tlio trees in the tropical forests ; and 
the exhibits of forest lodges, huts, and other erections of a cheap 
and temporary nature for forest operations, mostly constructed of 
wood, paper, or corrugated and galvanised iron, formed exceedingly 
instructive features in the Exhibition. 

The extensive assortment of fencing and fencing materials in 
the grounds was a special centre of attraction to practical foresters, 
who anxiously scanned every improvement in this important 
branch of their ])rofession. 

Perhaps no other portion of the grounds was so much fre- 
quented by the general public as the machinery department, 
which was located at the farthest side of the field. Here was to 
be seen the newest wood-working and preparing machinery, a lai-ge 
portion of which was in motion, and generally surrounded by 
ci'owds of visitors admiring its various specialities and capabilities. 

An important part of the programme, which merits special 
notice, were the conferences and lectures held during the Exhibi- 
tion. Various matters of much importance to foresters and 
forestry were discussed by eminent men well skilled in the subject. 
]\Iuch interest was displayed in these gatherings, which it may be 
fairly hoped wei'e the means of spreading useful information on 
this particular bi-anch of knowledge. 

To all arboriculturists, and to the Government of this country, 
the Exhibition taught many lessons. It aflbrded an o})portunity, 
not often obtained, of comparing our progress with that of other 
countries, and showed vis that from some of them we have still 
much to learn in connection with this important branch of national 
economy. That a fully equipped School of Forestry, for example, 
exists in Japan, and none in this country, is not much to the 
credit of Great Britain. It may be hoped, however, that this 
reproach will not long continue, and that in the science of 
Arboriculture we as a nation may, as we do in most other matters, 
lead, not follow ! 

The Scottish Arboricultural Society's Court. 

In response to the intimation made to members by the Council 
of the Society, that an arrangement had been come to whereby any 
articles for exhibition which might be consigned to the Secretary 
would be taken care of and properly displayed in the Society's 
Court, about eighty members took advantage of the ofler and 



INTERNATIONAL FORESTRY EXHIBITION. 91 

placed their exliibits in charge of the Council. These comprised 
a large and mnch varied assortment of valuable and useful articles, 
and specimens of the wood of every kind of forest tree gi'own in 
Britain, besides a host of miscellaneous exhibits of a rare or 
curious nature, which, together with the Society's own collections 
of books, plans, illustrations, instruments, tools, cones, seeds, 
wood specimens, and other articles, completely filled the Court, 
and made an effective and most interesting display. 

At the entrance to the Court the Council had an ofiice fitted 
up, in which the Secretari/ and his assistant attended to the 
Society's business during the whole time the Exhibition was 
open. This arrangement was found a great convenience to the 
members of the Society when visiting the Exhibition, as they 
could always get whatever information they required from Mr 
M'Laren, the Secretary, or his assistant, Mr Robert Forbes. To 
them wjis due the neatness, cleanness, and good order which pre- 
vailed in the Court, and their civility and readiness to give 
information about the exhibits in their charge was justly appre- 
ciated by exhibitors and visitors. 

The following detailed list of the Collections exhibited in the 
Scottish Arboricultural Society's Court has been compiled by 
the Secretary from the oflScial lists and other materials col- 
lected by him during the course of the Exhibition. The list is 
arranged in alphabetical order so as to make it iiseful as a 
reference : — 

Scottish Arboricultural Society. 

Set of Meteorological Instruments used at Carnwath. See 
Reports on Observations made at Carnwath, Lanarkshire, 
on the Influence of Forests on Climate, particularly Rain- 
fall. Trans., Vol. TIL, pt. iii., p. 285; and Vol. VIIL, 
pt. ii., p. 1G8. 

Collection of over 200 specimens of Woods, from Stevenstone 
Estate, North Devon. 

Collection of 60 Woods, in a design suitable for a table, fi'om 
Mui'thly Castle, Perthshire. 

Sections of 42 Canadian Woods, i)resented by W^illiam Little, 
Montreal. 

Collection of G5 longitudinal sections of Wood. 

Album of 40 varieties of Wood, each cut in three different 
ways, from M. Wilmersdorffer, London. 



92 INTKRNATIONAL FOItE.STKV KXIIUUTION. 

Sections of 27 kinds of Woods in a stand. 

Collection of 70 kinds of Seeds, in Boxes, from Stevenstone 

Estate, North Devon. 
Collection of 34 varieties of Cones. 
View of an Artistic Arbour at Hopotoun, Linlithgowshire. 

List of Books Exhibited by the Society. 

Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum. By J. C. Loudon, 

F.L.S. 8 vols., 1884. 
Arboriculture. By John Grigor. 1 vol., 18G8. 
British Forest Trees. By P. J. Selby. 1 vol., 1842. 
British School of Forestry, By J. C. Brown, LL.D. 1 vol., 

1881. 
Catalogue of the Forest Trees of North America. By C. S. 

Sargent. 1 vol., 1880. 
Eichen Europa's und des Orient's. By Dr Theodore Kotschy. 

1 vol., 1862. 
Exotic Botany. By John Hill, M.D. 1 vol., 1772. 
Forest Administration in the Madras Presidency. By D. 

Brandis, F.R.S., CLE. 1 vol., 1883. 
Forest Administration in the North-West Provinces and 

Oudh. By D. Brandis, F.R.S., CLE. 1 vol, 1882. 
Forest Administration in the Several Provinces under the 

Government of India. By D. Brandis, F.R.S., CLE. 

1879 to 1882. 
Forestry Bulletins of the United States. By C S. Sargent. 

1 voh, 1881. 
Histoire des Chenes de I'Amerique Septentrionale. By 

Andre Michaux. 1 vol., 1801. 
Indian Forest Departrnent Code. 1 vol., 1881. 
Management of the Leased Forests of BusAhir, Punjab. By 

D. Brandis, F.RS., CLE. 1 vol. 
Manual of Coniferse. By James Veitch & Sons, Royal 

Exotic Nursery, Chelsea. 1 vol., 1881. 
Manual of Indian Timbers. By J. S. Gamble, M.A., F.L.S 

1 vol., 1881. 
Manual of Injurious Insects. By Miss E. A. Ormerod, 

F.M.S. 1 vol., 1881. 
Manual of Jurisprudence for Forest Officers. By B. H. 

Baden-Powell. 1 vol., 1882. 



IXTERXATIOXAL FORESTRY EXHIBITIOX. 93 

Manual of Sylviculture. By G. Bagneris. 1 vol., 1876. 
Manual of the Land Revenue System and Land Tenure of 

British India. By B. H. Baden-Powell. 1 vol., 1882. 
Observations on Injurious Insects. By Miss E. A. Ormerod. 

1880 to 1884. 
Organisation and Valuation of Forests. By L. Macgregor. 

1 vol., 1884. 
Pinacefe. By " Senilis." 1 vol., 1866. 
Relatorio da Administra^ao Geral das Matas. (Reports 

for 1879-80 of the Administi'ation of the Forests of 

Portugal, with Maps.) 
Report of the Central Board of Agriculture, Halifax, Nova 

Scotia. 1 vol., 1877. 
Report of the Forest Board of South Australia. 1 vol., 

1879-80. 
Report of the Government Central Museum, Madras. 1 vol., 

1880-81. 
Report of a Visit to the English and Scottish Forests by the 

Professors and Students from the Forest School at Nancy, 

France. 1 vol., 1882. 
Report of a Visit to the Torrent Regions of the Hautes and 

Basses Alps, and also to Mount Faron, Toulon. By E. 

M'A. Moir. 1 vol., 1880. 
Report of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, U.S.A. 

1876 to 1883. 
The Capercailzie in Scotland. By J. A. Harvie-Brown, 

F.Z.S. 10 vols., 1879. 
The Cobham Journals. By Miss E. A. Ormerod, F.M.S. 

1 vol., 1880. 
The Forester. By James Brown. 1 vol., 1851. 
The Larch Disease and Larch Plantations. By Charles 

M'Intosh. 1 vol., 1860. 
The Pinetum Britannicum, Complete, of Messrs Lawson and 

Sons. 1884. 
Transactions of Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 1880 

to 1884. 
Transactions of the Edinburgh Botanical Society. 1879 to 

1883. 
Transactions of the Scottish Arboricultural Society, Complete. 

1855 to 1883. 
Tree Culture in South Australia. By John E. Brown, F.L.S. 



94 INTICKNATIONAL FOKESTIIY KXIHIJITIOX. 

Woods and Forests of Perthshire. By Thomas Hunter. 

1 vol., 1884. 
Collection of Maps, Plans, Diagrams, and Illustrations of 

Forestal Subjects. 

Gold Medal awarded to Ute Society. 



Abercorn, His Grace the Duke of, per A. Dickson, Steward, Baron's 
Coiirt, Co. Tyrone. 

A set of fine cross-sections showing the rapid growth of forest 
trees in the North of Ireland, consisting of Larch, cubical 
contents of tree 134 ft., diameter of section 2 ft, 6 in., 
probable age 95 years ; Silver Fir, diameter of section 
3 ft. 4 in.; and Spruce, cubical contents of ti'ee 161 ft., 
diameter of section 2 ft. 6 in., probable age 80 years. 

Longitudinal section of a fine large specimen of Bog Oak 
found 10 ft. below the surface at Baron's Court. 
Diqjloma awarded for the Collection. 

Argyll, His Grace the Duke of, Inveraray Castle, Argyllshire. 

A set of very fine cross-sections of the timber of the follow- 
ing trees : — 

Beech, section 3 ft. 4 in. in diameter; tree contains 240 
cubic ft. ; height, 90 ; altitude, 40 ; aspect, east. 

Silver Fir, section 4 ft. 2 in. in diameter ; tree contains 500 
cubic ft. ; height, 120; altitude, 100; aspect, south. 

Scots Fir, section 2 ft. 9 in. in diameter; tree contains 216 
cubic ft. ; height, 90 ; altitude, 40 ; aspect, south-east. 

Yew, section 3 ft. 3 in. in diameter ; tree contains 75 cubic 
ft. ; height, 45 ; altitude, 60 ; aspect, east. An extra- 
ordinary fine specimen. 

Silver Medal awarded for the Collection. 

Ahlbottn, Nathaniel, 50 Shore, Leith. 

A New Transplanting Machine. Bronze Medal awarded for 
the Invention. 

A collection of young Trees, growing in tubs, showing appli- 
cation of the Exhibitor's Composition for protecting trees 
from the ravages of hares, rabbits, and stock. 

Barclay, David, Forester, Sorn Castle, Ayrshire. 
A Folding Rustic Table. 



INTERNATIONAL FORESTRY EXHIBITION. 95 

Baxter, Robert, Forester to His Grace the Duke of Buccleuch, 

Dalkeith Park, Midlothian. 
Collection of over 1 00 Wood Sections grown on the Dalkeith 

Estate. 
Four large specimens of Oak Veneers from the Old Cale- 
donian Forest in Dalkeith Park, showing extra fine 

quality and beautiful curl. 
Rustic Picture Frame, the pro})erty of Mrs W. Stewart, 

Dalkeith. 
A fine collection of Forest Tree Leaves, neatly arranged in 

frames, mounted on revolving stand, and preserved so as 

to show the natural rich autumn tints. 

Silver Medal awarded for the Collection. 

Brotherston, A., Kelso, Roxburghshire. 

An extensive Collection of Dried Specimens of Home and 
Foreign Willows. 

Silver Medal awarded/or the Collection. 

Brown, John A. Harvie, of Quarter, Dunipace, Stirlingshire. 

Photographic Album of Notable Trees on his Estates in 
Stirlingshire. 

Commended. 

Brown, Mrs Harvie, Dunipace House, Larbert, Stirlingshire. 

A Richly Inlaid Work-box of Sandal-wood, and another of Kya- 
boka-wood, both tine specimens of Indian Workmanship. 

Commended. 

Brow, William, The Gardens, Kilmaron Castle, Fifeshire. 

Cones of Picea nohilis, from a tree grafted on a Silver Fir 
in 1861, and 45 feet high in 1884, has thrice lost its leader. 

Cones of Picea nobiiis, from a tree raised from seed at Kil- 
maron in 1866, and now 25 feet high. 

Branch of a Welliwjtonia, showing a heavy crop of ripe and 
unripe cones on the same branch. 

Bruce, Thomas Rae, of Slogarie, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

Stevenson's Anemometer, accompanied by a scale showing 

force of wind in recent storms. 
Photographs of two ti'ees of Wellingtonia Gigantea, called 

" The Two Sentinels ; " and the " Half Dome," 1500 feet 

high, in the Yosemite Valley, California ; and an avenue 

of Cryptomeria Japonica, in Japan. 



90 



INTKKNATIONAL FOKESTJtY KXIIIIJITIO.V. 



Buccleuch, His Grace the Duke of, K.T., jter Wm. Doughty, 
Forester, Canonbie, Dumfriesshire. 

PiioTOGKAriis OF Repkesentative Tkee.s gkowing on the Eskdale Estate. 



Name or Tree. 



No. 1. Oak, "The \ 
Duke," . . . f 

No. 2. Oak, " Tlie 
Duchess," 

No. 3. Four Oaks^ 
growing on one root, I 
having quarter girt [ 
at the ground of 
57iin., . .J 

No. 4. Oak near Ir- 
vine House, . 



No. 1. Ash at Forge, 



No. 2. Ash at Forge, J 



No. 1. Sycamore at 
Hagg-on-Esk (a fav- 
ourite tree of the late 
Dukeof Buccleuch), 

No. 2. Sycamoke at 
Skipper's Bridge. 
This tree was much 
hroken by the storm } 
of 14th Oct. 1881, I 
but is now rapidly | 
recovering its form, J 

No. 3. Sycamore at 
Gilnockie Cottage, 

No. 1. Larch in^ 
Hollow-well Boggs | 
Plantation (made If )■ 
cub. ft. of timber | 
per year), . . I 

No. 2. Larch (made ) 
2 cub. ft. of timber > 
per year), . . ) 

No. 3. Larch, Audi-") 
inrivock Bank | 

(made rather more ]■ 
than IJ cub. ft. ot | 
timber per year), . J 



Site and Age. 



Sloping liank, j 
sheltered. j 

Same as above. 



Open wood- 
land, sheltered 



Low and shel- 
tered. 

Low and shel-^ 
tered, growing | 
by the side of )- 
an old mill- | 
race. J 

Low and shel- ) 
tered. ) 



At the bottom ) 
of a sloping > 
bank. ) 

Growing on the") 
banks of the | 
Esk, by the I 
edge of the f 
Trap Dyke I 
formation. J 

Open woodland. 



At the bottom 
of a bank and 
sheltered. 
Age 140 years. 



Same as above 
Age 140 years 



;} 



Same as above. 
Age 140 years. 



Soil. 



Tliin lo.'iiii, ) 
on gravelly / 
subsoil. ) 

Same as above. 



Same as above. 



Loam, on gra- 
velly subsoil. 



Loam, on ) 
New Red ', 
Sandstone. ] 

Loam,ongra- \ 
vel,andNew I 
Red Sand- I 
stone. ; 



Loam, 
gravel. 



Thin loam, 
on gravel. 



Sandy loam. 



Gravelly \ 
loam, on ' 
New Red ( 
Sandstone. ; 



Altitude. 



Gravelly loam. 



320 ft. 
320 ft. 

200 ft. 

180 ft. 

110 ft. 

110 ft. 



Height of 
Tree. 



140 ft. 



Same as above. 140 ft. 



200 ft. 



60 ft. 
60 ft. 

56 ft. 

60 ft. 

60 ft. 
60 ft. 



Contents. 



232 cub. ft. 



188 cub. ft. 

fNo. 1, 69; 
„ 2, 81 ; 
I „ 3, 62; 
I ,, 4,105: 
1 Total, 317 
L cub. ft. 

318 cub. ft. 



235 cub. ft. 



302 cub. ft. 



200 ft. 90 ft. 803 cub. ft 



230 ft. 70 ft. 233 cub. ft 



170 ft. 60 ft 



100 ft. 



100 ft. 



449 cub. ft. 



222 cub. ft. 



280 cub. ft. 



100 ft. i 196 cub. ft. 



INTERNATIONAL FORESTRY EXHIBITION. 



97 



Name of Trek. 



No. 1. Scots Fir 
(made f cub. ft. of 
timber per year), . 

No. 2. Scots Fir 
(made 1 cub. ft. of 
timber per year), . 

No. 1. Silver Fir I 
(made 4f cub. ft. of ■ 
timber per year), . i 

No. 2. Silver Fir 
(made 4 cub. ft. of 
timber per year), . 

No. 3. Silver Fir 
(rather more than 
2 cub. ft. of timber 
per year). 

No. 1. Spruce in 
Deanbanks (made 2 
cub. ft. of timber 
per year), 

No. 2. Spruce (made 
IJcub. ft. of timber 
per year), 

Abies Douglasii 
(made 1 cub. ft. of 
timber per year), . 



Site and Age. 



Growing on a \ 
sloping bank. J 

Same as above. 



On the banks 

of the Esk. 

Age about 140 

years. 
Same as above. 

Age about 140 

years. 

Same as above. 
Age about 140 
years. 

At the bottom 
of a steep I 
bank. Age | 
140 years. 

Same as above. 
Age 140 years. 

Low and shel- 
tered. Age 30 
years. 



Soil. 



Altitude. 



Thin loam,) j. 

on gravel. \ 

Same as above, i 200 ft. 



Black loam, \ 
moist bot- > 
tom. ) 

Same as above. 



180 ft. 



180 ft. 



Same as above. : 180 ft. 



Thin loam, 
on "ravel. 



180 ft. 



Same as above. 180 ft. 



Loam, on 
gravel. 



180 ft. 



Height of 
Tree. 



Contents. 



80 ft. 
80 ft. 

112 ft. 
112 ft. 
112 ft. 

124 ft. 
124 ft. 

45 ft. 



112 cub. ft. 
140 cub. ft. 

672 cub. ft. 
563 cub. ft. 
314 cub. ft. 

280 cub. ft. 
180 cub. ft. 

30 cub. ft. 



A Set of Large and Fine Sections of Trees grown on the 
Buccleuch Estate in Eskdale. 



Six Sections of flowered or mottled 0.\k, showing a very fine curl for veneers. 

One Section of Oriental Plane, showing fine curled grain. 

Two Sections (length and cross) of Larch Timber. Circumference, 9J ft. ; 

diameter, 3 ft. 0^ in. ; length, 4^ ft. ; breadth, 2\ ft. ; thickness, 2 in. 
Two Sections (length and cross) of Scots Fir Timber. Circumference, 9 ft. ; 

diameter, 3 ft. ; length, 4^ ft. ; breadth, 2 ft. 9 in. ; thickness, 2 in. 
Two Sections (length and cross) of Spruce Fir Timber. Circumference, 8 ft. 

Diameter, 2 ft. 7| in. ; length, 4i ft. ; breadth, 2^ ft. ; thickness, 2 in. 

These sections of Spruce Fir show in a remarkable degree the effects of 

severe thinning about 60 years ago. 
Two Sections (length and cross) of Silver Fir Timber. Circumference, 12i 

ft. ; diameter, 4 ft. ; length, 3i ft. ; breadth, 17 in. 
One Field or Plantation Gate, made on the estate, of Larch timber. 
VOL. XI., part I. G 



98 INTEHNATIOXAL FOKKSTRY EXIIIHITIOX. 

The following Exhibits were from the Duke of Buccleuch's 
Estate of Eildon Hall, Roxburghshire : 
One Field or Plantation Gate. 
One Scots Fir Railway Sleeper. 
One Silver Fir Railway Sleeper. 
One Spruce Fir Railway Sleeper. 
Two Sections (length and cross) of Scots Fir. 
Two Sections (length and cross) of Silver Fir. 
Two Sections (length and cross) of Spruce Fir. 
Silver Medal aioarded for the Collection. 

Christie, Alex. D., The Gardens, Warwick Castle, Warwickshire. 
A section of Cedar of Lebanon from a tree grown at Warwick 
Castle, showing the ravages of the Giant Sirex [Sirex gigas). 
with the insects at work. 

Aivarded a Certificate. 

Clark, John, Forester, Kelly, Wemyss Bay, Renfrewshire. 
Dendi'ometer ; invented by the Exhibitor. 

Colquhoun, Andrew, Forester, Rossdhu, Luss, Dumbartonshire. 
A very fine set of cross sections of timber of the following 
trees: — Larch, 3 ft. 2 in. in diameter; Oak, 2 ft. 10 in. 
in diameter ; Scots Fir, 2 ft. 4 in. in diameter ; Silver Fir, 
4 ft. 6 in. in diameter ; Sjiruce Fir, 1 ft. 9 in. in diameter ; 
Sycamore, 1 ft. 1 in. in diameter ; and Yew, 2 ft. 4 in. 
in diameter. 

Bronze Medal aioarded for the Collection. 

Coupar, Robert, Forester, Ashford, County Gal way, Ireland. 

Four sheets of Diagrams, and numerous interesting speci- 
mens, illusti'ating the Larch Disease, known as " Blister," 
and Natural Engrafting. 

Commended. 

Cowan, Charles W., Valleyfield, Penicuik. 

Curiously contorted root which grew in shingle on the banks 
of the river Lyon, Perthshire. 
Gumming, Sir William G. Gordon, Bart., of Altyre, Morayshire. 

Length Sections of Scots Fir and Larch. 

Six Cones of Picea nohilis. 

One Plank of Bog Oak. 

Two Larch Trees, naturally gi'afted or inarched on each other. 

Natural Engrafted Larch. 



IXTERN'ATIOXAL FORESTHY EXHIBITION'. 99 

Curious Scots Fir Top. 
Rustic cut of a Gean Tree. 

Diploma awarded for the Collection. 

De Eresby, The Eight Honourable The Baroness "Willoughby, 
Drummond Castle, Perthshii-e. 

A grand cross-section of Silver Fir from a tree about 200 
years old, girthing 1 8 ft. 7 in. one foot up, and 15 ft. 6 in. 
at five feet up. Cross and length sections of Cedrus 
Atlantica. Sections of Boxwood. All grown at Drum- 
mond Castle. 

Set of Tools, including — Dendrometer, Felling Axe, Snedding 
Axe, Two-handed Hedge-bill, Single-handed reversible 
Hedge-bill. All new and neatly finished ; made at Drum- 
mond Castle. 

Certificate awarded for the Collection. 

Dickson, Professor Alex., M.D., of Hartree, Regius Keeper of the 

Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 
Specimen of the Transverse Section of the Stem of a Fossil 

Tree from Craigleith Quarries, near Edinburgh. 
Stems of Ivy curiously interwoven on an iron railing. 
Paddlewood Tree (Aspidosperma excelsa) from Guiana. 
Stem of Tree Fern [Bicksonia antartica). 
Interesting collections of Forest and Botanical specimens and 

curiosities. 

Special Diploma atcarded for the Collection. 

Dicksons & Co., Nurserymen, 1 Waterloo Place, Edinburgh. 
Palms and Himalayan Rhododendrons, growing in tubs. 

Dickson, James, <fe Sons, Nurserymen, Hanover Street, Edinburgh. 
A fine general collection of Coniferse and other Ornamental 
Ti'ees and Shrubs. 

Duff, James, Steward, Freeland, Bridge of Earn, Perthshire. 

A splendid Plank of Cedar of Lebanon, 10 ft. long by 2 ft. 
5 in. wide, grown at Freeland. 

Highly Commended. 

Dunn, Malcolm, The Palace Gardens, Dalkeith, jNIidlothian. 

A case containing specimens of the Capercailzie, cock and 
hen; Muircock and Muirhen, or " Black Game ;" and other 
" Enemies of the Forest ; " and Curiosities from the forests 
of South Africa. 



100 INTEHNATIONAL FOHEHTKY EXHIBITION. 

Ft'cliuey Industrial Hchool, The, Pei'tli. 

A Miscellaneous Collection of Useful Articles, chiefly turned 
wood goods, comprising — Sjjinning-wheel, Two Tables, 
Set of Kitchen Articles, Spiral Columns, Table and Chair 
Legs, Stair Balusters, Hammer Handles, and Thread 
Spools, in all the different stages of manufacture, made 
from Birch gi'own on Bonskeid Estate, Perthshire. 
Certificate avjarded for tlie CollecAion. 

Fergusson, Miss Gillon, 31 Chester Street, Edinburgh. 

A "Water-bottle from Patras ; and a Model of a Norwegian 

Travelling Box. 
A Palm-Leaf Broom from Gibraltar. Sugar-Cane gx-own at 

Motril, Spain. 
Fir-Tree " Flannel " from Thiiringen Forests, Germany. 
Specimen of Cloth made from the Bread- Fruit Tree by the 

Natives of the Marquesas Islands. 
Maori Chiefs Mat made from New Zealand flax {Phormium 

tenax), with Kaw-Kaw Feathers. 
Commended. 

Finlayson, Matthew, 23 Castle Street, Edinburgh. 
A Tub made from the stem of a Palm Tr*ee. 
An Elm Burr cut on Amisfield Estate, Haddingtonshii-e, 

Forbes, William, Forester, Stoneleigh Abbey, Warwickshire. 
Dendrometer ; invented by the Exhibitor. 

Forgan, James, Overseer, Bonskeid, Perthshire. 

Large Specimens of Fungi found growing on decaying Birch 
at Bonskeid. 

Forsythe, John M., "Wood Manager, Gowran Castle, Kilkenny. 
Fifty dressed Sections of Woods grown on the Gowran Estate. 
Diploma awarded for the Collection. 

Green, A. A., Edinburgh. 

A Bamboo Alpine-Stock, and a Nepaulese Chookrie. 

Haddington, the Earl of, per Thomas Wilkie, Wood IManager, 
Tyninghame, East Lothian. 
Foi-ty-five kinds of Wood suitable for turning, including 
vai'ious kinds of Cedar, Cypress, Maple, Prunus, Pyrus, 
and Thorns ; Alder, Arbutus, Ash, Barberry, Beech, Birch, 
Box, Broom, Elder, Elm, Hazel, Holly, Hornbeam, Labur- 



INTERNATIOXAL FOUESTRY EXHIBITION. 101 

iiixm, Lime, Locust, Oak, E-Lododendi-on, Sloe, Sweet Bay, 
Tulip, Walnut, Wliin, Yew, and other woods. 

Collection of 174 sections of Wood. 

Coniferous Tree Fossil, rough and polished. 

Dried Tree Leaves. 

Elm Burr. 

An interesting set of Wood Sections, showing benefits of 
pruning trees and evils of neglecting to prune. 

A large collection of Abnormal Tree Growths and Ex- 
crescences. 

Silver Medal awarded for the Collection. 

Hamilton, Robert, 29 St James Square, Edinburgh. 

Thomson's Fluid Enamel for Preserving Woodwork, Stone- 

woi'k, Pictures, etc. Awarded a Diploma. 
Several Fine Samples of Resins. 
Models of Nobel's Explosives, such as are used for blasting 

tree stumps. Awarded a Biploma. 

Horsburgh, James, Forester, Yester, Haddingtonshire. 

Specimens of Knots or Burrs of Alder, with Carvings of 
heads and faces. 

Hunter, Dr, 18 Belgrave Crescent, Edinburgh. 

A curious Scottish Thorn Walking-stick, with a Bronze 

Miniature Head of a S taghound. 
An Irish Black Thorn Walking-stick or " Shillelagh." 

Hunter, William, Forester, Drummond Castle, Perthshire. 
Oil Painting, View of Torlum Hill. 
Oil Painting, Silver Fir in Drummond Park. 
Oil Painting, an Oak. 

Rustic Table for Arbour ; all the work of the Exhibitor. 
Commended. 

Hutchison, Robert, of Carlowrie, Kirkliston, Linlithgowshii-e. 

An extensive Collection of excellent Photographs of rare and 
remarkable British trees. 

Jackson, Magnus, Photographer to the Scottish Arboricultural 
Society, Perth. 
A remarkably large and tine collection of Photographs of 



102 INTEUNATIONAL rORESTRV KXIIIBITION. 

Remarkable Trees and other Forest subjects in Scotland, 

mounted in frames, in albums, and on cards. 
A fine section of one of the Original Lai'ches planted at 

Monzie in 1738. 
Oak Root found near Perth beneath a seam of clay 14 ft. 

thick. 
Portion of an ancient Canoe found beneath a bed of clay 

12 ft. thick and 30 ft. above the present level of the river 

Tay at Perth. 

Silver Medal awarded for the Collection. 

Jeffrey, John, of Balsusney, Kirkcaldy, Fifeshire. 

" The Trees and Shrubs of Fife and Kinross," in a beautifully 
illustrated volume. 

Awarded a Diploma. 

Johnston, William, Forester, Munches, Dalbeattie, Kirkcudbright- 
shire. 
Dendrometer ; invented by the Exhibitor. 
Wire Strainer ; invented by the Exhibitor. 

Kay, James, Wood Manager, Bute Estate, Rothesay. 
Dendrometer. 
Wire Straining Pillar. 
Model of Transplanting Machine. 
All invented by the Exhibitor. 

Lothian, The Marquess of, K.T., Newbattle Abbey, Midlothian. 

Two beautiful Carved Oak Panels, from wood grown in 
Newbattle Park ; the carving being done in the Estate 
Carpenter's Workshop. 

Three Inlaid Tables, showing neat and tasteful workmanship 
— two of them made in the Estate Carpenter's Workshop, 
from wood grown in the Park at Newbattle Abbey. The 
inlaid curves of the other are made of the natural growth 
of a Pear Tree, which grew at Newbattle Abbey. 

A Collection of Fossils from Newbattle Abbey, found on the 
Estate. 

Low, Joseph, Forester, Rothes Estate, Leslie, Fife. 

Model of River Embankment, showing two different methods 

of preventing erosion ; designed by the Exhibitor. 
A Rustic Flower Stand, Table, and Four Stools. 



INTERNATIONAL FORESTRY EXHIBITION. 103 

Model of Rustic Bridge. 

Pair of Rustic Picture Frames. 

Two Curiosities of growth in trees. 

Bronze Jledal aivardedfor the Collection, 



M'Corquodale, William, Forester and Wood Surveyoi*, Jeanie 
Bank, Scone, Perth. 

Model of a useful wooden Bridge erected over the river 
Almond, at Lynedoch, Perthshire, 34 years ago, which is 
still serviceable. Designed by the Exhibitor. 

A Post of Douglas Fii- (Abies Douglasii) which was used in 
a wire fence for seven years and four months, and is still 
sound. 

Larch Wire Fence Post which had been preserved with con- 
crete at the surface of the ground. 

Collection of 24 Specimens of Timber grown on the Scone 
Estates, and cut into boarding as used for Estate purposes ; 
including Abies Douglasii, Picea nobilis, Pinus cembra, P. 
excelsa, P. strobus, and P. laricio ; Ash, Black Italian 
Poplar, Cherry, Elm, Larch, Laburnum, Norway Spruce, 
Scots Fir, and Sycamore. 

A Silver Fir (Picea pectinata) Railway Sleeper, which vvas in 
use on the Caledonian Railway at Luncarty, near Scone, 
over 7 years, and is still sound ; while Baltic Timber 
Sleepers, laid at the same time, wei'e worn out at the end 
of 6 years. 

Four Sections of Larch and Spruce, illustrating sound and 
unsound timber, with Samples of the Soil which produces 
the sound and unsound Larch and Spruce respectively. 

Rustic Picture Frame. 

A Larch Stool or Stump, showing how it was nourished 
underground by a naturally engrafted root, for sixteen 
years after the tree was cut. 

Two Field Gates ; one made from Abies Douglasii and the 
other from Picea nobilis, showing how suitable the wood 
of these trees is for such purposes. 

Model of Revolving " Smoking " Arbour, made of wood and 
heather, erected at Logiealmond Shooting Lodge, Perth- 
shire ; designed by the Exhibitor. 

Silver Medal aivarded for the Collection. 



104 INTERNATIONAL FOllESTUY EXllIJilTION. 

M'Grogor, Duncan, Forester. Cainpci'down, Forfarshire. 

A 3-inch Plank of Picea nohilis, 5 ft, long by 18 in. wide, 
grown at Cainperdown. 

Commended. 

Mackenzie, Sir Alexander Muir, Bart., of Delvine, Dunkeld. 

Sections of the Woods of Arhor-vitce, Eucalyptus, Cedar, and 

Ivy, from Algeria. 
Cork and Acacia Barks from Algeria. 
Alfa Grass from Algeria. 
Eucalyjytus leaves from Algeria. 

Silver Medal awarded for the Collection. 

Mackenzie, D. F., Estate Office, Morton Hall, Edinburgh. 
One Range- Finder ; invented by the Exhibitor. 
Three Dendrometers ; invented by the Exhibitor. 
Silver Medal awarded for the New Dendrometer. 

Collection of 117 "Woods grown in Scotland, in a design 
forming the top of a Library Table, composed of nearly 
10,000 pieces, all solid, and finished in their natural colour. 
Bronze Medal awarded for Table and Woods. 

Capercailzie Cock and Hen. 

M'Lai'en, John, Forester to the Earl of Hopetoun, Hopetoun, 
Linlithgowshire. 

Set of Tools used in Forestry : — Cross-cut Saw. Long- 
handled Pruning Saw. Wood Cleaver. Felling Axe. 
Three Hedge-bills. Two Hand-bills and Pruning Saw, 
showing method of carrying tools while pruning, by the 
use of belt and satchel. These tools have all done good 
service, and are fair samples of those in ordinary use in 
the Hopetoun Woods. 

One hundred and fifteen sections of diflerent Woods. 

Section showing the union of Abies morinda grafted on the 
Norway Spruce, 

Eighteen Longitudinal Wood sections. 

Cross-sections of Wellingtonia gigantea, 1 ft, 6 in, in dia- 
meter ; Silver Fir, 4 ft, 4 in, in diameter ; and Spanish 
Chestnut, 3 ft, 10 in, in diameter — all grown at Hopetoun. 

Section of a Fossil Tree 28 feet long, found in a freestone 
quarx'y at Hopetoun, 



INTERNATIONAL FORESTRY EXHIBITION, 105 

A Collection of Conifers, including — Cnpressus Lawsoniana 
and Thuiopsis dolabrata, grown from cuttings; Scots Fir, 
showing the diflerence between plants raised from foreign 
and home-gi'own seed ; two plants of Cedrus Libani raised 
from seed collected in the Lebanon by the Countess of 
Hopetoun in 1865; Pinus pi/re7iaica grafted upon Fiiins 
sylvestris ; and the true type of Cedrus deodara. 

A specimen of Norway Spruce [Abies excelsa), blown over 
about forty years ago, thereafter rooting in two places 
along the prostrate bole of the tree, from which two trees 
have grown up, one to the height of 63 feet 5 inches, the 
other 61 feet 4 inches. 

A curious excrescence of an Elm (Uhnus montana). 
Silver Medal aioarded for the Collection. 

Maxtone, Robert, Forester, Strathallan Castle, Perthshire. 

Harmonium made by Exhibitor from wood grown on Strath- 
allan Estate. Awarded a Diploma. 

A Staple Drawer ; invented by the Exhibitor. 

Self-Shutting Iron Wicket gate ; invented by the Exhibitor. 

Cross and length sections of the following woods : — Cedrus 
Libani, about ninety yeai'S old. Blown down on 27th 
January 1884. Height, 631 ft. ; girth at 3 ft. up, 12| ft. 

Abies Douglasii. Planted in 1866. Blown down on 28th 
December 1879 (Tay Bridge gale). 

Abies Douglasii. Planted in 1866 ; a fine specimen, showing 
very rapid growth. 

Picea jnnsapo, about thirty years old. 

Cross and length sections of Bog Oak, 23 ft. long and 4J ft. 
broad at the root end ; found in a moss at the Muir of 
Tullibardine. 

Cross section of Norway Spruce. 

Length section of a fine and very old Holly Tree, blown down 
28th December 1879 ; formerly used as a target. The sec- 
tion shows an arrow-head and arrow points sticking in it. 

Six live plants of Abies Douglasii raised from seed sown in 
1880; gathered from trees grown at Strathallan Castle, 
the seed of which was grown at Murthly Castle, the young 
trees exhibited being the Third Generation of the Douglas 
Fir grown in Perthshire. 

Bronze Medal awarded/or the Collection. 



106 ]NTKIlNATIONAL I'OllKSTllY K.XIIlJilTION. 

Metliven, John, Nurseryman, 15 Princes Street, Edinburgh. 

Tonquin Beans, from Virtue & Co., Chemists, Georgetown, 
Demerara. 

Michie, John, Forester, Balmoral, Ballater, AVjerdeenshire. 

Cross and length sections of Scots Fir from Ballochbuie 

Forest. The length section shows heartwood 2 ft. 11 in. 

wide. 
Live specimens of tlie Pine Weevil [Hylohius abietis). 
Collection of Dried Native Mosses, mounted in an album. 

Mitchell, James, Aldie Castle, Kinross. 

A curious section of Oriental Plane over 300 years old. 

Olivei', Geo., Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 

A fine Collection of British Insects injurious to forest trees 
and other plants. 

Bronze Medal awarded for the Collection. 

Paterson, Smith, & Innes, 77 South Bridge, Edinburgh. 
An elegant suite of Bedroom Furniture. 

Cominended. 

Rae, J. S., Forester, Dunipace House, Larbert, Stirlingshire. 

Four Cases of Dried Leaves collected in Scotland by the 

Exhibitor. 
Stem of Cupressus Lawsoniana, with a curious bulbous 

growth near the root. 
Model of Bridge, 20 ft. long by 4| ft. wide, which can be 
ei'ected by two men in a day at a cost of less than £1. 
Bronze Medal awarded for the Collection. 

Ravenscroft, Edward, 14 London Road, St John's Wood, Loudon. 
Thirty-eight of the original Coloured Illustrations for Law- 
son's " Pinetum Britannicum." 

Richardson, A. D., Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 

A Highly Intei'esting Collection of 72 Microscopic Sections, 
illustrating the structure of the Stems, Roots, Leaves, etc., 
of Trees and Shrubs. 

Silver Medal awarded for the Collection. 

Rider, William H., "Forestry" Office, 14 Bartholomew Close, 
London, E.C. 
The " Journal of Forestry," complete. 
Collection of Works on Forestry. 



IXTERXATIOXAL FORESTRY EXHIBITION. 107 

Thomas J. Syer's Standard Instantaneous Grip- Vice, and 
Bench Knife. 

Diploma mvarded for the Collection. 

Robertson, James, Forester, Panmure, Carnoustie, Forfarshire. 
Collection of Timber Specimens in frame. 
A Longitudinal Section of a veiy fine old Larch Tree, show- 
ing heart wood 22 inches wide. 
Six Small Model Baskets, made of Willows. 
Inlaid Portable Writing Desk, composed of upwards of 2700 

pieces of 22 varieties of wood. 
Rustic Elm Chair for Garden or Forest. 

Bronze Medal awarded for the Collection. 

Robei'tson, John, Forester, Minto, Hawick, Roxburghshii-e. 

A curious piece of wood naturally grown and shaped like a 
hand. 

Romanes, Mrs, Meadowbank, Eskbank, Midlothian. 

Work-box made from " Queen Mary's Tree," a Plane {Acer 
pseud o-platamcs) said to be planted by her at Little 
Fx'ance, near Craigmillar Castle, Midlothian, about the 
year 1561 ; with Shield designed by Mrs D. 0. Hill. 
Commended. 

Sandeman, Mrs, 12 Royal Crescent, Edinburgh. 
American Boxwood Fretwork. 

Smith, James, Overseer, Moredun, Edinburgh. 

Lai'ge old Vine Stem, supposed to be over 130 years old. 
Commended. 

Smith, Thomas, Nurseryman, Stranraer, Wigtownshii-e. 
Collection of Conifers. 
Collection of Hybrid and other Roses. 

Smith, WOliam, Chemist, Deanhaugh Street, Edinburgh. 

A Case of Insecticide for the destruction of vermin on trees, 
shrubs, etc. 

Awarded a Diploma. 

Stuart, Dr Moody, Edinburgh. 

Nine sections of Wood grown by the late William Gorrie at 
Annat, Errol, Perthshire, with particulars of age, several 
showing very free growth. 

Diploma awarded for the Collection. 



108 INTERNATIONAL FORESTRY EXHIBITION. 

Strathallan, The Right Honourable tlie Viscount, Strathallan 

Casthj, Perthshire. 
A case containing the head of a Roe Deer, mounted on black Bog 

Oak, both of which were found in the Moss of TulliVjardine. 
A fine specimen of a Walking-Stick made of Whin (Gorse). 

Sutherland, Evan C, of Skibo, Sutherlandshire. 

A very interesting Collection of useful Forest products, in- 
cluding Specimens of twenty-six varieties of Wood grown 
at Skibo. 

Three Larch and five Scots Fir Railway Sleepei'S. 

Six Beech Cubes of Wood Paving. 

Six Scots Fir Staves. 

Five Scots Fir and two Spruce Boards for making Boxes. 

Specimens of " Crown " and " Common " Props. 

Specimens of natui'al-grown Silver Fir, Larch, and Si)ruce. 

Specimens of Bog Oak and Bog Fir. 

Collection of Fir Cones. 

Bronze Medal awarded for the Collection. 

Sutherland, His Grace the Duke of, per William Baxter, Forestei', 
Dunrobin Castle, Sutherland. 

Sections of Oak, Ash, Elm, Plane, Beech, and Birch, showing 
what the Exhibitor (W. B.), after long experience, has al- 
most invariably found, that the close cutting off of a con- 
tending leader, which, as a rule, proceeds from the tree at 
an angle of 45 degrees, seldom fails to cause ruinous efiects. 

Specimens of Hardwood, showing injury done by Red and 
Roe Deer ; also specimens showing method of protecting 
young trees from the ravages of Deer. 

Small Lai'ch Stem which was cut over fourteen yeai's ago, 
and has continued alive without foliage, producing the 
coalescence shown. 

Specimens of Calcareous Incrustation on Mosses from drip- 
ping rock, Golspie Burn. 

Cxirious structui'e from Dunrobin Museum, simulating a 
shell, found in the interior of a Scots Fir 2 ft. in diameter. 

A plant of a white-leaved variety of Horse-Chestnut, growing 
in a tub. 

Diploma awarded for the Collection. 

Sutherland, His Grace the Duke of, per D. M'Corquodale, 
Forester, Dunrobin, Sutherlandshire. 



INTERNATIONAL FORESTRY EXHIBITION. 109 

Two length sections of Scots Fir, 151 years old. The tree 
had a straight clean bole of 30 ft., and contained 80 cubic 
ft. of saleable timber. 

Piece of Small Rope made by liand from Bog Fir Root Fibre, 
such as was made and used by the natives of Sutherland 
many years ago. 

Piece of Baltic Redwood Flooring that was laid on the top 
of garden mould, and became decayed in four years. 

A piece of a Standard in a Partition which became decayed 
in six years owing to its having rested on damp soil. 

The end of a Rafter of Strathspey Fir Wood which stood on 
a diy and airy wall for 100 years, and is still sound, showing 
that to preserve timber in buildings the best method is to 
protect it from damp, and give plenty air around it. 

The lower end of a pile which stood at the outer end of 
Dunrobin Sea Low-water Jetty, showing the destruction 
done by Lemonoria terehrand, or perforata, in eight years. 

Fossil Plants of Coal Measures. Cycadaceous Plant, 2 sec- 
tions with polished faces, from Upper Oolite formation. 
A section of the same not polished, with a cross section of 
17 X 8 inches. Zamites fi'om Middle Oolite, Brora, 
Sutherland. A Fossil Fern from Upper Oolite, Helms- 
dale. A Coniferous Ti'ee Fossil from Upper Oolite, 
Helmsdale. Aracaritus from Middle Oolite, Brora. 

Section base of stem of Bog Fir, showing 380 concentric rings, 
found at Shiness, situated about 400 ft. above sea-level. 

Root Cut of Bog Fii-, showing 350 concentric rings, found at 
Tongue, Sutherland, 100 ft. above the sea-level. 

Photograph of vertical section of Peat Bog, containing several 
horizontal layei'S of Scots Fir Roots, the one above the other. 

A set of Photographs of Hardwood Trees, illustrating those 
requiring pruning, and the same trees after being pruned. 

A collection of sections of Wood, with Photograj)hs illus- 
trating the effects of good and bad pruning, and sections 
showing the bad effect of contending leaders when growing 
close together. 

A collection of Natural Grafts and curious Excrescences of 
trees. 

Specimens of dwarfed and contorted Scots Fir from a high 
altitude. 

Bronze Medal awarded for the Collection. 



110 INTERNATIONAL FOIIE.STRV KXIIII5ITI0N. 

Sutherland, Ilis Grace the Duke of, per J. 13. Kidd, Forester, 

Dornoch, Sutherlandshire. 
Pliotograpli of a very fine Gean Tree growing at Sidera, 

Dornoch. 
Cross section of a fine old Holly Tree, the trunk of which 

contained 43 cubic feet of timber. 
An eight feet length of the same tree, showing a defective 

side, the result of close pruning. 
Length section of the top of the same, showing where a limb 

had been pruned. 
An instructive sample of the Tops of Scots Fir Trees, from 

about 6 inches to 1 inch in diameter, showing the great 

damage done by squirrels biting the bark off them. 
Diploma aioarded for the Collection. 

Thomson, B. Lumsden, of Thomson k Company, Derby, and 85 
Gracechurch Street, London. 
A Special Model of Forester's House built of Thomson and 
Company's Vitrified Iron, which was awarded the Medal 
at the recent Calcutta Exhibition, not only for its dura- 
bility, but also for keeping the interior of buildings cool. 

Tindall, James, The Gardens, Sprotborough Hall, Yorkshire. 

Two Photographs of a grand Wych Elm growing in the 
grounds at Sprotborough Hall. Cii'cumference of branches 
438 ft. ; girth of bole, 4 ft. up, 18 ft. ; at 6 ft. up, 19 
ft. 6 in. : height of stem to spring of bi'anches, 15 f t. ; 
height of tree, 85 ft. ; about 180 years old. Site mode- 
rately sheltered ; altitude, about 250 ft. ; aspect, south ; 
soil, sti^ong marly loam, resting on magnesian limestone. 
Tree in vigorous health, making annual growths 12 to 18 
in. long. Frames made of Evergreen Oak [Qnercus ilex), 
showing a richly marbled grain. 

Trottei-, Colonel, of Morton Hall, Midlothian. 

A splendid specimen of Elm Burr, and a cross section of same. 
Highly commended. 

Tweeddale, the Marquis of. Tester, Haddingtonshire. 

A Beautiful Model of a Temple and several Figures, all 
made by the natives of India, of the white ivory-like Pith 
of an Indian wood. 

Bronze Medal aioarded for the Collection. 



INTERNATIONAL FORESTRY EXHIBITION. Ill 

Watson, Jolm, The Gardens, Stravithie, St Andrews, Fifeshire. 

An Ornamental Rustic Wicket Gate. 
Webster, A. D., Forester, Penrhyn Castle, North Wales. 
Two Slate Tree Labels. 
Specimen of Slate Fencing. 
Thirty-six sections of new and rare Coniferce grown at 

Pem-hyn Castle, many showing great freedom of growth. 
Collection of Cones of the rarer Conifers grown at Penrhyn 

Castle. 
Forty mounted specimens of the Ferns of Carnarvonshire, as 
illustrative of " Forest Flora." 

Bronze Medal awarded for the Collection. 
Webster John, Gardener and Forester, Gordon Castle, Morayshire. 
An interesting Collection of Forest Specimens, comprising : 
Natural Root-engrafting of the Larch. 
Taxodium nempervirens, with curious bulbous growth at 

the root. 
Mistletoe, showing root-growth. 
Ivy Stems, showing 36 natural grafts. 
Burr Knot on Fir Branch. 

Commended. 
Wyton, William, The Gardens, Heysham Hall, Lancaster. 

A Drawing-room Photograph Stand or Album, composed of 
580 pieces of Wood, carved with a pocket-knife, and put 
together without nails, in the form of a Gothic pyramid. 
Awarded a Diploma. 

Exhibits by Members of the Scottish Arboricultukal 
Society outside of the Society's Court. 
Her Majesty The Queen, Balmoral Castle, Abei-deenshii-e. 

A Rustic Chalet or Summer House wholly constructed of 
Scots Fir ; several grand specimens and sections of Scots 
Fir Wood ; and sections of the ground on Deeside, show- 
ing the nature of the soil in which the Scots Fir thrives. 
Gold Medal awarded for the Collection. 
Athole, His Grace the Duke of, K.T., Blair Castle, Blair Athole, 
per J. M'Gregor, Forester, Ladywell, Dunkeld, Perthshire. 
A highly instructive series of Larch sections, etc., illustrating 
the various stages of the "larch disease," dry-rot, and blister. 
A Field Gate made of Larch Wood. 

Silver Medal awarded for the Collection. 



112 INTERNATIONAL FOUR.STI{V KXIIIIMTION. 

Austin & M 'Asian, Nur.serymen, Glasgow. 

Collection of Hardy Conifers and other Trees and Shrnbs. 
Bronze Medal awarded for the Collection. 
liain, William, & Co., Lochrin Ironworks, Edinburgh. 

Collection of various designs of I'lain and Oi"namcntal Gates, 
and Iron and Wire Fencing. 

Diploma awarded for the Collection. 
Barbour, George F., of Bonskeid, Pitlochrie, Perthshire. 
Large Section of Ash from Glen of Fincastle. 
Avjarded a Diploma. 

Barrie, James, Forester, Stevenstone, Devonshire. 

Numerous and excellent collections of Woods, Seeds, Cones, 
etc., from the Stevenstone Estate. 

Silver Medal awarded for the Collection. 
Brandis, Dietrich, Ph.D., Bonn, Germany. 

Forest Flora of India, Forest Reports, etc. 

Silver Medal awarded for the Collection. 
Brown, John E., Conservator of Forests, Adelaide, South Australia. 
Treatises and Reports on the Forests and Forest Flora of 

South Australia. Silver Medal. 
Australian Trees and Forest Illustrations. Diploma. 
Cleghorn, Hugh, M.D., of Stravithie, St Andrews, Fife. 

A series of interesting and cui'ious Forest Articles ; speci- 
mens of damage done to wood by Insects ; Illustrations of 
Forest Scenery, etc. 
Dickson k Sons, James, Newton Nurseries, Chester. 

An extensive and varied collection of Ornamental Conifers 

and other Trees and Shrubs. Gold Medal. 
Collections of Tools, Seeds, Cones, etc. Bronze Medal. 
Elliot, Sir Walter, K.C.S.I., Wolfelee, Roxburghshire. 
Fine collection of Carved Woodwork from India. 
Diploma awarded for the Collection. 

Hartland, Richard, The Lough Nurseries, Cork. 

Two cases of Cones, sections of Irish Woods, etc. 
Diploma awarded for the Collection. 

Ireland <k Thomson, Nurserymen, Edinburgh. 

A choice collection of Ornamental Conifers and other Trees 
and Shrubs. 

Silver Medal aioardedfor the Collection. 



INTERNATIONAL FORESTRY EXHIBITION. 113 

Laird it Sous, R. B., Nurserymen, Ediubiu-gb. 

A collection of Ornamental Plants and Shrubs. 
Diploma avxirded for the Collection. 
Lamont <fe Son, John, The Glen Nurseries, Musselburgh. 

A collection of choice hardy Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. 
Bronze Jledal awarded for t/te Collection. 
Lovat, The Right Hon. Lord, Beaufort Castle, Inverness-shire. 
A grand section of Larch timber from a ti'ee grown at 
Beaufort Castle, 64 years of age, and containing 108 cubic 
feet of sound timber. 

Aioarded a Dijiloma. 
Mackenzie, Alex., Superintendent, Epping Forest, Essex. 
Collection of Tree Curiosities. 

Plans of Lodges for Workmen. Highly Commended. 
Forest Illustrations. Commended. 
Mackenzie, John Ord, of Dolphinton, Peeblesshire. 

Painting of a Wellingtonia, illustrative of its gigantic pro- 
portions. 
Maxwell, Wellwood H., M.P., of Munches, Ku'kcudbrightshire. 
A fine collection of specimens of woods grown on the Mmiches 
Estate ; and illustrations of the diseases of Trees. 
Methven & Sons, Thomas, Nurserymen, Edinbui'gh. 

A numerous and varied collection of Ornamental Conifers 
and other choice Trees and Shrubs, Gohl Medal; and 
Special Diploma for " Excellence in Arrangement." 
Collection of Tools, Seeds, Cones, etc. Bronze Medal. 
Palmer & Son, John, Nurserymen, Annan, Dumfriesshire. 

Collection of Conifers and other Evergreens, Forest Trees, 
Seeds, etc. 
Smythe, David M., yr. of Methven, Methven Castle, Perthshii-e. 
Specimens of Larch, Silver Fii-, and Ivy Stems, fi-om Methven. 
A Fine collection of Natal "Woods and Ferns. 
Diploma aioarded for the Collection. 
Stuart A: Mein, Nurserymen, Kelso, Roxburghshire. 

A collection of Conifers and other hardy Ornamental Trees 
and Shrubs. 

Diploma awarded for the Collection. 

Whitton, James, The Gardens, Coltncss, Lanarkshire. 
Models of Transplanting Machines and Apparatus. 
Diploma aioarded for Small Transplantiiuj Machine. 

VOL. XI., PART I. H 



114 THE SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

THE SCOTTISPT ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

At a Meeting held in Edinburgh on tlio IGth of Eehruary 1851, 
at which Mr William M'Corquodale, Forester, Scone Palace, 
Perth, presided, for the purpose of presenting a testimonial to 
Mr James Brown on the occasion of his appointment to the office 
of Deputy-Surveyor of Dean Forest, Gloucestershire, a suggestion 
was made by Mr William Thomson, Deputy-Surveyor, Chopwell 
Wood, Co. Durham, that, as Agriculture and Horticulture had 
derived much benefit from Associations designed to promote their 
respective interests, " something of a similar kind should be done 
for Forestry." The suggestion was at once adopted by the Meeting, 
and the Scottish Arboricultural Society there and then originated. 

A Committee was immediately formed to caiTy out the pro- 
posal, the members of which were : — James Brown, Deputy- 
Surveyor, Dean Forest, President; William M'Corquodale, 
Forester and Wood-Surveyor, Scone, Vice-President; James 
Alexander, Nurseryman, Edinburgh, Secreto.ry ; John Anderson, 
Nurseryman, Perth, Treasurer ; James Balden, Forester, Lennox- 
love ; John Balden, Forester, Bywell Castle ; Mr Campbell, 
Alloa ; Robert Cowan, Forester, Arniston ; James Dickson, 
Forester, Charlton ; Thomas Forbes, Forester, Whittinghame ; 
Robert Gardiner, Forester and Land Steward, Eglinton Castle ; 
John M'Donald, Forester, Bargany : John M'Laren, Forester, 
Hopetoun; Hugh M'Laren, Forester, Shaw Park; Alexander 
M'Leish, Forester, Alnwick Castle ; James Rutherford, Forester, 
Buckden ; John Thomson, Forester, Culhorn ; William Thomson, 
Deputy-Surveyor, Chopwell ; and Thomas Taylor, Forester, 
Camperdown, Members of Committee. 

Several Meetings of the Committee were held during the year 
1854, at which the Constitution and Laws were drawn up, and 
various matters of importance discussed and ai-ranged for the 
formal institution of the Society. The results of the labours of 
the Committee were submitted to the first " Annual General 
Meeting " of the Society, held at 6 York Place, Edinburgh, on 
31st January 1855, Mr James Brown, President, in the chair, and 
after full consideration were unanimously approved. 

The following Table shows, in a concise form, the rise and pro- 
gress of the Society during the first thirty years of its existence, 
and indicates the great influence it has brought to bear, from a 
very modest beginning, on the Science and Art of Forestry in 
this country. 



No. of 
Meetings. 


Dates of 
Meeting. 


Year. 


President. 


Secretary. 


Ti 


Society ) 
Instituted, f 


16tb Feb. 


1854 


( James Brown, Deputy- ) 
\ Surveyor, Dean Forest. J 


James Alexander. 


John 


1 


31st Jan. 


1855 


Do. do. 


Do. 




2 


14tli Nov. 


1855 


Do. do. 


Do. 




3 


12th Nov. 


1856 


Do. do. 


Do. 




4 


8th Oct. 


1857 


Do. do. 


Do. 




5 


6th Oct. 


1858 


Earl of Ducie. 


Do. 




6 


5th Oct. 


1859 


Earl of Stair. 


Do. 




7 


7th Nov. 


1860 


Sir John Hall, Bart. 


Robert M. Stark. 




8 


6th Nov. 


1861 


Duke of Athole. 


Do. 




9 
10 


5th Nov. 
4th Nov. 


1S62 
1863 


( John J. Chalmers of ) 
\ Aldbar. ) 
Earl of Airlie. 


John Sadler. 
Do. 




11 


2d Nov. 


1864 


Rt. Hon. T. F. Kennedy. 


Do. 




1-2 


1st Nov. 


1S65 


( Robert Hutchison of 1 
( Carlowrie. ]' 


Do. 




13 


7tli Nov. 


1866 


Do. do. 


Do. 




U 


6th Nov. 


1867 


Do. do. 


Do. 




15 


4th Nov. 


1868 


Do. do. 


Do. 




16 


3d Nov. 


1869 


Do. do. 


Do. 


Thorn 


17 


2a Nov. 


1870 


Do. do. 


Do. 




18 


1st Nov. 


1871 


Do. do. 


Do. 




19 


6th Nov. 


1872 


Do. do. 


Do. 




20 


5th Nov. 


1873 


( HughCleghorn.M.D., ) 
( of Stravithie. ) 


Do. 




21 


4th Nov. 


1874 


Do. do. 


Do. 




22 


3d Nov. 


1875 


fJ. H. Balfour, M.D., ) 
t Prof.ofBot.,Edin.Un. f 


Do. 


Geoffj 


23 


1st Nov. 


1876 


Do. do. 


Do. 




24 


6th Nov. 


1877 


Rt. Hon. W. P. Adam. 


Do. 




25 


5th Nov. 


1878 


Do. do. 


Do. 




26 


7th Oct. 


1879 


Do. do. 


Do. 




27 


5th Oct. 


ISSO 


Marquis of Lothian, K.T. 


JohnM'Laren,jun. 


John ; 


28 


4th Oct. 


1881 


Do. do. 


Do. 




29 


3d Oct. 


1882 


Do. do. 


Do. 




30 
31 


2d Oct. 
5th Aug. 


1883 
1884 


(Alex. Dickson, M.D.,) 
< Prof, of Bot., Edin. I 
( University. j 
( HughCleghorn,M.D., ) 
\ of Stravithie. f 


Do. 

Do. 





SCOTTISH AEBOEICULTUEAL SOCIETY, 1854 to 1884. 



ilettiagt. 


Meeting, 


Ve.. 


P,..,d.... 


^. 


,. 


,J= 


/::st.. 


.?:z.. 


>,jr^,.. 


->— 


Society 1 
Instituted, f 

1 


31st Jan. 


1855 


1 .lamesBrown.Dcpnty. 1 

[Surveyor.DcaoForest f 

Do. do. 


Do 


xander. John An 


Four. 




16 


19 
35 


The Society Instituted. 


■b,.cript,ons to be-Forc.,ers an,l others. 10s.; 


2 


Ulli Nov. 


1855 


1)0. do. 


Do. 


Do 


Four. 


Three. 


25 


59 


|- i- ; ' ■ '■; M . I ,1 i|.i.rox.M lo ,,.li 


il"MM„lMr\on iM>,M,:' ■■'.■■:- ■ ,.| :i..m.' 


3 


12th Nov. 


1856 


Do. do. 


Do 


Do 


Six. 


Six. 


35 


92 


! ' " i ' ■ ■ ' ' ' '■ ,' ' ' '■': .^' '.''-'■' ■^■!. V,Vlain''.i.'-^-l,i 


ll."l''.V\|''!>i,','''i\''\l. '■■,! . , ' '.!.'- ..';i.'. '"^"'' 


1 


eth Oct. 


1867 


Do. Jo. 


Do 


Do 


Seven. 


Six. 


55 


142 


1 ''''"'lUnt.T'.rv Annii-il'Mi-i'ilr'-'ii^^'i'^^ 


Silver .M,.,lal.lir-I .\',-. ,i.l,..|' V: |.... ,K t.:> ImUi 


5 


eth Oct. 


1858 


Earl of Dutie. 


Do 


Do 


Six. 


Tivo. 


25 


167 


1 First Honorary Men.l>Ws ei.-,"i.,l, ^l,^ li, .1, 11. lialfoiir. Sir Wm. J. Hooker, Dr Lindley, Prof. George La wson, 1 


7 


7tli Nov. 


1859 
1860 


EarlofSlair. 
8irJohiill«ll, Burt. 


Do 
Robert M 


Do 
Stark. Do 


Four. 


None. 


3 
16 


17« 


Six Vice-Presidcn'u elvcU'A. .^., .■.7,-.., iv^^'neJ office. 
( Robert M. Stark appoint^-.l .-^ . r.-t..r„. Siii..scriptiona fixed at- 
l etc.. 5b. ; Foresters, Jn. ; Under I'V^.slers, 2s. 


-Proprietors Nurserymen, etc., 10s. 6d. ; Factors, 


8 


6th Nov. 


1861 


Duko or Atholc 


Do 




Seven. 


None. 


5 


159 


1 Five prijies, of £5 each, offered, to stimulate Foresters to cont 
( Subscriptions to be Ss. Forestry periodical proposed. ■- 


ii.;i(. l>-n- .11 .>i..-cial subjects. Nurserymen's 





5lh Nov. 


1S02 


1 John J. Chalmers ol J 
I Atdbar. ( 


John S 


dlor. Do 


Five. 


None. 


5 


163 


John Sadler appointed Secrdary. General Meeting resolvr.-.l ; 


■.-i.ms shall he liual. 


10 

12 
13 


«h Nov. 
2d Nov. 
1st Nov. 
7th Nov. 


1805 


RL Hon. T. F. Kennedy. 

I Robert Hutchison of ) 

1 Carlowrie. f 

Do. ilo. 


Do 
Do 
Do 


Do 
Do 


Four. 
Five. 
Seven. 


Three. 

Six. 

Four. 


14 
29 
62 


151 
162 
168 


M'Glashan's Transplanting Machine exhibited, and Commilti;. 
(Society's "Motto'' invented by the Srcre^flr;/. Judges not to 
1 reported favourably on Mr M'Glaslian's Transjilnnter, 
( Award of £5, made at previous Meeting, to J. E. Nelson, K 
I Motto " Senilis," was unanimously rescinded, owing to u 
1 Committee appointed to establish, in Edinbnrgh, a Forester's 
I a handsome silver plate Testimonial. The Annnal Ditm. i 
j Education and Training of Foresters discussed ; Prof. J. II ): 
\ better tanght and learned in Britain than elsewhere. 1 ! 


.-'liVute for pnzi-s while holding office. Committee 
nelield, Hants, for Essay on "Newer Conifene," 

ResiMry Otiice." Tlic TmJinrer presented with 


U 


6th Nov. 


1887 


Do. do. 


Do 


Do 


Eleven. 


Four. 


66 


284 


■ 1.. the Society. 


15 

17 


4th Nov. 
3d Nov. 
2d Nov. 


1888 
1869 
1870 


Do. do. 
Do. do. 
Do. do. 


Do 
Do 


Thomas 


Thirteen. 

lethven. Seventeen. 

Seventeen, 


Eleven. 
Thirteen. 


87 
100 
85 


367 
549 


j Deputation named to wait on British Association regard]!;- 

( Her Majesty The Queen became Patron of thc^^^n-^N-- "i ' 
< Mr D. Mitchell gave a Ten Guinea Cup for :i i 
( fron. England, Scotland, and Ireland, 
( Conanitteo named to investigate the inliuencc .1 I 
) of £2*1. Prnpofial tp pnwl Diplom.is f"r ■ •■'. 


■ ■ -.1 .. ..: !■, ;.. .!..! Sci.ttish Forestry. 
rii.uUure. t'ollt-ctions of Cones' exhibited 
.'. British Association giving a grant in aid 


18 


1st Nov. 


1871 


Do. do. 


Do 


Do 


Nineteen. 


Thirteen. 


72 


612 


. 11. Pkrtors, etc., lOs. 6d. ; Foresters, 5s. ; 
■ 1 ■■-. \V..,„is, Photos, etc. 


19 


»th Nov. 


1872 


Do. do. 


Do 


Do 


Eighteen. 


Seventeen. 


82 


668 


j-| , ■ ^.; . . ..■■;. ■■ .. ■^ .:,. ...,;. ..'■ 


' ' ' ..jrd Meeting ;tohavedi3CUSsions 
'.■• .11 Forest,'! and Forest Schools. 


20 


6th Nov. 


1873 


lHughCleshoro,M.D.,l 
I of Stravithie. | 


Do 




Nineteen. 


Ten. 


67 


665 


{ ^' '. .,^:.^i;: ..' i^i.:-,' W. ' ''■■" •.■" . ,■"■ . '■..,' 




22 
23 

26 


4th Nov. 
3d Nov. 
1st Nov. 
6th Nov. 
6th Nov. 


1874 
1876 
1876 
1877 
1878 


Do. do. 
(J. H. Balfour, M.D.,1 
\ PioI.ofBot.,Edin.Uo. ( 

Rt. Hon. W. P. Adam. 
Do. do. 


Do 
Do 

Do 


George C 
Dc 

D 


Twenty, 
richton. Eight«CD. 
Twenty. 
Twenty-fonr. 
Twenty-four. 


Firtoen. 
Twelve. 
Eleven. 
Six. 


65 
74 


681 
698 

760 
730 


1 Dr lf:>lfour in lniiu);ural A4lilr'.^--f.r. . i.lv,int;iKe of planting waste land in Britain. Memorial 

I sent to Government iu favour lit !i ■ < ■ "i'.;e Crichtou, Jreiwurw, vt'cc T. Methven, resigned. 

I The /Vc*t((CTi( showed the great n. . -I i ■ . i s.hool ; and sketched out a ciirriculnm. Committee 

( appointed to draw up a New r..,!. .1 1 i ilitions. 

J New Code of Laws and Regulation- - -l DiwuFsion on "A Journal of Arboriculture" led 

t MessrsRidertSon, London, top ■ .'...■, .' ■! F-r-frv " in May 1877. 

( Local Secretaries {14) first appoint. ■! i ; :.■,.! i \ the Society with an Illustrated Album of 

\ "The Trees of Perthshire." 

(FirstExcursion of the Society ; tf.s. ■ [ ■ ■ ■ ■ .md report on getting a Royal Charter for 

1 the Society. Fine collection* ..i ' ■ - . i . .xhihited. 


20 


7th Oct. 


1879 


Do. do. 


D 




Twenty-five. 


Nine. 


41 


732 


(ExcureionstoDunkeldandAthok-K..-. ■ ■ ■■ 


■i. -Mil.ev, E.hi.Mtionroi„niittt.eaM.ointed. 

■ : / ■ ..... ' , ■.■.., ..i...'.:.i,.ed. 


27 


5th Oct. 


1880 


Marquis of Lothian, K.T. 


JohnM'L 


areu.jun. John M'L 


arenjun, Twenly-eight 


Twelve. 


74 


740 


JExcursions to Dolphinl"!. "1 ■,'.,. !. . . ■ li 
1 and remitted. H-ri. . ■ 


.I.n.ved 


28 


4th Oct. 


1881 


Do. do. 


D 


D 


Twenty-nine. 


Sixteen. 


.53 


745 


fExcursioiis to Moraysliii' ■ i 1. ■ ' ; . , \ ■ ■ ' 

\ Foresters. Edur,it]...r, r. i., -•■ , '■■ ■! 


!.,:■ ,'; .;. ..' I . M ■ T ■■■ 1 ■ TL-.-lry. 


20 


3d Oct. 


1882 


Do. do. 


D 




Thirty-fonr. 


Twelve. 


70 


603 


) llritish School of Forestry. I'ropo.sal to li<<M 


iiiurvt fitnmgly refLiriimeml Ihe iri'iitiou of a 
:i> EAhibUion aunouiiiicd. 


30 


2,1 Oct. 


1883 


f Alex. Dickson, M-D..! 
( University. j 


B 


D 


Twenly-nine, 


Thirteen. 


70 


766 


( Excursions to Upper Stratheartt and Ettrick F<<i> i 1 :. : < 
I topicof discussionatMeotingandofthe w.jr;. 
J Excursions to Riccarton and Stratlitay Fon^sts, Ji.Lvii.,.L 
I attention during the season. The Society and ML-iiit,ers <.■- 


1 ■ liiteruationalForeslry Exhibition the cliief 


31 


5lh Aug. 


1881 


{'■"ofsSte"^"-! 


" 


D 


Tliirty-one. 


Five. 


60 


772 


■^uA 1 urwtry Exhibition received the principal 
\n\.iU.\ numerous and valuable collections. 



The International Forestry Exhibition 1884 / ufeunces. 



PLAN OF BUILDINGS 




Scc-tApbonSoc.7hcms. MM PL V 




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A SHORT LIST OF BOOKS ON FORESTRY, 
Selected from the undernoted Catalogue, which includes the 
Standard Works on Forestry, British and Foreign 

Lawson's Pinetuin Britannicum,/i//?y illustrated, 52 Parts, Imp. folio, 
Ablett's Arboriculture for Amateurs, Crown 8vo, .... 
Ablett's English Trees ami Tree-Planting, Crown Svo, 
Bagneris' Elements of Sylviculture, Post Svo, ..... 
Brown's Forester, a Practical Treatise, nearly 200 Woodcuts, Eoyal Svo, 
Burrows' Science for Foresters, Illustrated, 16mo, .... 
Des Car's Practical Treatise on Tree Pruning, Illustrated, 16mo, 
Forestry and Forest Products : Prize Essays — Forest)-!/ Exhibition, 1884, 
Gordon's Pinetum, Synopsis of Coniferous Plants, Last Edition, Svo, ISs 
Grigor's Arboriculture, New Edition, Illustrated, Crown Svo, . 
Hemsley's Handbook of Hardy Trees, Shrubs, and Herbaceous Plants, 8vo- 
Hunter's Woods and Estates of Perthshire, Crown Svo, ... 
Journal of Forestry, . Monthly Parts, Is., . . Yearly Volumes, 
Laslett's Timber and Timber Trees, Native and Foreign, Post Svo, . 
Manual of the Conifera^, numerous Illustrations, Royal Svo, 
Michie's Practical Treatise on the Culture of the Larch, Crown Svo, 
Macgregor's Organisation and Valuation of Forests, Svo, . 
Selby's History of British Forest Trees, Large Paper, Royal Svo, 
Strutt's Sylva Britannica and Scotica, ."^O Etchings, Imp. folio, £9, 9i 
Wood's Tree Planter, Propagator and Pruner, Illustrated, 12mo, 



6 

2 

12 

5 

1 16 
1 
1 

Svo, 8 

for 9 

10 

12 

12 

Svo, 15 
8 
7 
7 
16 

2 16 
for 2 2 

5 



A REFERENCE CATALOGUE OP PUBLICATIONS 

FORESTRY, GARDENING^ AND FARMING 

3G Pages Svo, containing about 1000 Titles 

Will be sent Gratis and Post Free to any Address, on Application. 
DOUGLAS d- FOULIS', 9 CASTLE STREET, EDINBURGH. 



ADVKI'tTISKMEXTS. 



WILLIAM HUME & CO., 

Iron and Wire Fence Manufacturers, 

ESTATE FURNISHERS, Etc., 

21 HOPE STREET, GLASGOW. 

IMPROVED "CORRIMONY" FENCING 

FOR SHEEP, LIGHT CATTLE, AND DEER. 
CHEAP AND EFFECTIVE. 



Note.— TAe Droiypcrs in W. H. d; Co.'s Corrimony 
Fencing arc — 

1. Light, yet of sufficient body of material to stand 

the wearing effects of exposure. 
•2. They present little or no surface of imjiortance to give 
any hold for the wind to bear against the fence, 
or for snow to gather on, and weigh it down. 
3. They are attached (to the already strained wires of the 
fence) by a simple and effective arrangement, which 
m not the slightest degree impairs their strength. 
In all these respects W. H. & Co.'s Droppers have a great 
advantage over others, which either (1) present too much 
surface ; or (2) not only present surface, but, from their 
form, almost invite the force of the wind, as well as largely 
alibrd lodgment to snow ; or (.3) have ill-considered and 
weakening incisions made in them as part of the method of 
fixing. 

The following is special testimony received to the merits 
of W. H. & Co.'s Droppers, the test of their stability having 
been an exceptionally severe one. 

Fro7n C. Brown, Esq., Agent for LoED Osborne Elphinstone. 
" I have to state that your Droppers, with the plan of fixing 
them on the Corrimony Iron Fencing, have given great satis- 
faction. I am not aware of a single one of them having been 
displaced up to this time. They have stood the test of both 
Deer and very severe weather." 

Illustrations, Specifications, and Estimates 
on application. 

Hare and Rabbit Proof Wire Netting at extremely 

Low Prices. Special quotations for large quantities. Very 
Low Prices for 1-inch Mesh Netting for small Rabbits, 

Wire Netting Plant Guards, Ornamental Rabbit 

Proof Bordering iu Lengths for Clumps and Shrubberies. 
Wrought Iron Tree Guards, Strained Iron and 
Wire Fencing, Fencing Wire and Staples, Barbed 
Wire, strand and solid, Continuous Bar Fencing, 
Hurdles, Gates, Stable Fittings, Pumps for general 
use, Galvanised Iron Roofing, Roofing Felt, Iron- 
mongery for Estates, Patent Black Varnish in 15 to 
40 Gallon Casks, Is. 6d. per Gallon ; 40 Gallon Casks 
delivered free. 

CATALOGUES ON APPLICATION. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



THE ENGLIS H ARBORICULTU RAL SOCIETY. 

Tui.s Society uow numbers over 100 Members, and tlie Local Secretaries are: — 

Mr W. B. HAVELOCK, Helmsley, Yorkshire. 

,, WM. BATY, Nethekby, Loxgtown. 

„ JOHN WILSON, Greystoke, Pknrith. 

,, JOHN BALDEN, Jun., Boothy, Brampton. 

,, A. ROSS, Skipton Castle, Skipton. 

,, H. CLARK, Blenkinsopp, Haltwhistle. 

,, F. W. BE ADO N, Windleston, Ferryhill, Durham. 

„ JOHN WAEDLE, Newton, Stocksfikld-on-Tyne. 

,, WM. FORBES, Stoneleigh Abbey, Kenilworth, Warwickshire. 
Who will have pleasure in furnishing any information, and taking the names of 
those who wish to be enrolled as Members. 

JOHN DAVIDSON, 

Secretary and Treasurer, 
G. H. Estates Ollice, Haydon Bridge-on-Tync. 

TREE PROTECIIYE COMPQSITIOI^. 

NATHANL AHLBOTTN, 

Sole Manufadnrcr, and now the onJi/ snri-iviny discoverer of 

R. Davidson & Co.'s Celebrated Composition 

for protecting young Forest and other Trees against the ravages of Hares and 
Rabbits. It is free from any poisonous substance, encourages the growth, is 
i;asily api)lied by the hand or a small brush, and is strongly recommended by all 
parties who have used it. 

To be had in 561b. Casks at 18s. One cwt. and upwards at 36s. per cwt. — 
Casks free. 

From the Forester, Wcstonhirt House, Gloucestershire. 
" It has now been used here for three seasons, and has given every satisfaction, and is a prc- 
\ entativc against tlie ravages of Hares and Rabbits. I thinlc it should bo more extensively 
used, as it does not in the least injure the trees or shrubs to which it is applied." 

The above is from jiumcrous Testimonials, which may he had on ap2)lication to 

NATHANL, AHLBOTTN, 50 SHORE, LEITH. 

THOMAS METHVEN I SONS 

Beg to request the attention of those about to plant to their Stock of 

SEEDLINGS AND TRANSPLANTED FOREST TREES, 

WHICH IS VERY EXTENSIVE, AND IN A HEALTHY, 
VIGOROUS CONDITION. 



Samples and Prices on Application. 
LEITH WALK & WARRISTON NURSERIES, 

EDINBURGH. 



ADVKliTISEMKNTS. 



BAIN, YOUNG, & CO., 

MANUFACTURERS, 

27 & 29 CROSSCAUSEWAY, EDINBURGH. 




GALVANISED WIRE TRELLI8ING, 

No. 1. 
Made in panels to suit walks. All made and 
erected by our own Workmen. Prices on 
ajiplication. 



GALVANISED WIRE TRELUSING, 

No. 2. 

Finished at top with Gothic Border, which 
gives it a finished-like a])]iearance, and made 
in panels to suit walls. Prices on aiiplieation. 



EARGE SELECTION OF REALLY GOOD GARDEN CHAIRS, 
VERY MODERATE IN PRICE. 
Bain, Young, &Co. most respectfully draw the attention of their Customers and others to their 
mode of Galvanised Diamond Wire Trellising, for training Creejjing or any other kind of Plants on 
front and side walls of Residences and Garden Walls, for Fruit Trees, etc., or on any site where the 
same may be required. The above Trellising has been extensively su]>])lied and erected bj' them for 
many years, and has given entire satisfaction to Professors and other authorities on Horticulture, 
who recommend it as being the best in use for training Plants, Fruit Trees, etc. Tlie material being 
light, yet strong enough for the purpose for which it is required, and the Trellising being kept out 
from the wall, and the heat of the sun being equally dispensed on the Trellising and Plants, pro- 
duces a \yondcrful effect, greatly helping the growth and health of the Plants, which speedily cover 
the wall in a most jileasaiit manner. From their great experience in this class of work, B., Y. , & Co. 
will be glad to take measurements, or, if measurements be sent, Prices will be given, thus enabling 
their Customers to know the entire cost previous to the work being done. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



BAIN, YOUNG, & CO., 

GOVERNMENT CONTRACTORS, 
27 and 29 CROSSCAUSEWAY, EDINBURGH. 

Iron and Wire Work Contractors, Wire Net- 
ting Manufacturers, Garden Cliair, Iron Fire- 
Proof Store, Galvanised Iron House, Church, 
Roof, Shed, and Greenhouse Builders, De- 
sij^ncrs and Makers of all kinds of Iron and 
Wire Work for Garden and Horticultunil i>ur- 
1 loses. The long experience which B, Y. , & Co. 
ha\e had in this and the general class of Work 
required, as ahove, enables them to supply 
their Customers with Goods suitable for the 
various purposes for which they are required, 
as chea]3ness in price commands the best atten- 
tion of B. , Y., & Co., and any favour accorded 
to them will liave their best consideration. 





Royal Garden Chair, 

3 to S ft. long, 30s. to 50s. 




Sofa Garden Cliair, 

3Ss. Od. 



1 

No 3. V 

strong Hurdles for Cattle and Sheep. 

Prices vary according to Strength, Number of Bars, and the Current 
Price of Iron. Drawings and jniccs given on application. 



Wrought-Iron Flat-Bar Continuous Fences, suitable for Horses, Cattle, or Sheep. 

Wrought-Iron Round-Bar Continuous Fencing, suitable for Horses, Cattle, or Shcej). 

Strong Wire Fencing, with Wood Posts, for Sheep, Cattle, or Horses. 

Strong Wire Fencing, with Pronged Iron Standards, for Cattle or Horses. 

Patent Corrimony Wire Fencing, with Patent Standards and Patent Droppers. 

Improved Unclinibablc Hurdles, for Temporary Fences or Enclosures. 

Wrought-Iron Hare and Rabbit Proof Hurdles. Wrought-Iron Tree Guards. 

Improved Wrought-Iron Hurdles, for Sheep or Light Cattle. 

Ornamental Wire Hare and Rabbit Proof Hurdles. Plant Guards. 

Ornamental Wire Garden Borders. Iron and Wire Flakes for Gardens. 

Wrought-Iron Kennel Rails, all kinds. Galvanised Wire Netting, machine and hand nuulc 




LETTERS PATENT, No 13.341, 
Drawing shows Bain, Young, & Co.'s Patent Corrimony Iron and Wire Fencing (the best and 
cheapest of this class of Fencing in the market), with Patent Lockfast Steel Drojipers and Patent 
Lockfast Iron Standards, all of which form a most suitable, eflicient, and durable Fence for Cattle, 
Sheep, etc., etc. Ex|ierts say this is the cheapest and Best Dropper Fence in the market. The 
Patent Steel Dropjicrs and Patent Standards, Wire, etc., can be suiijihcd to parties erecting their 
own Fences ; also the Patent Droppers are supi)lied to parties who may use wood jwsts or otherwise, 
and are easilv fixed on to the Wires after the Fence is strained up. For Colomal use, where long 
stretches of Fencing are erected for Shecj), etc., this Patent Corrimony Fencing, on account of its 
cheapness, duiabilitv, and being so easily fitted up, is highly recommended. 

Detailed Price Lists and Drawings Free on application. 



AIJVEIITISICMKNT. 



A NEW DROPPER 

FOR CORRIMONY FENCING, 

AWARDED DIPLOMA OF HONOUR, INTERNATIONAL FORESTRY EXHIBITION, 1884. 

Tlic, clicapesl as locU as most efficv:nt Drop par extant. 

Adopted by all the leading Proprietors in the Country. 



W^ 



h\-at ures — 

M^litiK'S'i, Strcn.ntli, 

ILuidiiu.'H.s, :uid 

Durability. 



Fio. 4. 



A Dro|)por fixed, 
complete. 



""E have to bring under the notice of landed proprietors in 
the IIir,'hlands and elsewhere a very important and novel 
series of Patented Inventions and Improvements in Corrimony 
Wire-Fencin?. The general features of the Corrimony system, 
and the many advantages it possesses over other systems for 
traversing undulating ground, arc well known ; but since the 
days of the primitive wooilen dropper, the invariable method 
adopted has been to fix strips of iron to the wires, by means 
of wedges, or small pins of one sort or another. But, besides 
being a tedious operation, the fixing of these wedges soon 
proved to be entirely ineffective, as, from the force of the wind, 
attacks of cattle, and other causes, it was only a matter of 
time for the wedge to work loose, and the cost of keeping the 
fences in repair to become an expensive item. 

"The 'Lockfast' Patent Dropper, which is manufactured by 
Messrs William Smith & Son, Ness Iron Works, Inverness, 
N.B., is a distinct departure from, and a vast improvement on, 
any other system in use that we know oL"— Journal of 
Forestry, December, 1883. 

The Lockfast patent consists of only tivo parts, while all | 
others have at least three. All other droppers are secured by 
means of pins or wedges, which are liable to become loose, but 
the patent of the Lockfast is in the application of the eccentric 
(one of the most powerful forces in applied mechanics), and 
while its grip is unrelenting when locked, it can be unlocked 
with its key, and relocked, with the greatest of ease. 

Mr Ogilvy of Corrimony writes:— "I can express a very 
favourable opinion of your Patent Lockfast Dropper. I con- 
sider it to be the best suited for the Corrimony fence of any 
dropper I have seen. Its principle is equally simple and efficient." 

Dr Mackenzie of Eileauacli says :— " To those who need 
fences, I can recommend Smith's admirable Lockfast Dropper." 

Prior Vaughan, The Abbey, Fort-Augustus, says :— " In 
rigidness, neatness, and strength, it surpasses any I have yet 

met with." ,, -r. ,<■ -kt -r, 

Mr James A. Smith, Commissioner for Mr Balfour, M.F., 
writes :— "Your ' Lockfast Dropper' gives great satisfaction 
here— it is very suitable, being handy, easy to work, and having 
great gripping power." . , -nr ^ 

The Manager on an extensive island estate in the West 
writes :— "I have pleasure in giving my testimony in favour of 
your ' Lockfast Dropper,' and that after a trial of all the patent 
droppers in the market." _ 

Mr D. Johnston, Wire-fencer, Foyers, writes. May 60, IbSd : 
— " We place from 400 to 500 Droppers in a day of 10 hours 
for each man ; sometimes one man will place as high as 600." 

Mr C. Stewart, Forester, Invermoristou, writes :—" They 
are superior to any I have seen yet." . , ,, „ 

Journal of Forestry, December 1883 :— "It is evidently the 
outcome of a long experience and patient study, for simple as 
it appears, it is a very ingenious contrivance." 

" Martineau & Smith's Trade Journal " says :— " The makers 
of the 'Lockfast Dropper' not only economise in the process of 
I manufacture, but secure for the consumer a direct saving of 
labour during the process of erection." 

Hundreds of Testimonials have been received. 

WILLIAM"SMITH & SON, 

INVERNESS, N.B., 

ARE THE PATENTEES AND SOLE MAKERS OF 
"YE CELYDDON FENCING." 




Fig. 1— .shows 
Drojjpci- Unfixed. 




Fig. 2— shows 
Dropper Fixed. 




Fig. 3— Side View. 

A Comprehensive Catalogue, with Price List of our Wire-Fencing Patents and 
Improvements, will be posted free on application. 

Special Quotations given for quantities delivered or erected in any part. Distance no object. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



R. B. LAIRD & SONS, 

(LATE DOWNIE & LAIRD,) 

SEED WAREHOUSE-n SOUTH FREDERICK STREET, 



ESTABLISHED 1801 . 

SEEDLING AND TRANSPLANTED 
FOREST TREES. 

ORNAMENTAL TREES AND SHRUBS. 

Roses, Fruit Trees, Climbers, Hardy Herbaceous Plants. 

STOVE AND GREENHOUSE PLANTS. 

Stove, Greenhouse, and Hardy Ferns. 

GARDEX SEEDS OF FIXE ST QUALITY. 

JAMES DICKSON & SONS, 

32 HANOVER STREET, and INVERLEITH, 

E DINBURG H. 

CATALOGUES FREE ON APPLICATION. 

Gr. &. M. CRICHTON, 

18 PRINCES STREET, EDINBURGH, 
Goldsmiths, Siluersmiths, and Watchmakers. 

Medallists to tLe Scottish Arboricultural and the West Lothian Agricultural 

Associations. 



M FA RL ANE & ERSKINE, 

Engrauers, Lithographers, and Printers, 

19 ST JAMES SQUARE, 

EIDHSTBTJi^a-IT. 



Printers to the Scottish Arboricultural Societi/, Rojfal Physical Society, etc. 



Al>Vi:i!TISKMr,NTS. 



FOREST AND ORNAMENTAL TREES AND SHRUBS. 

Fruit Trees, Roses, Herbaceous Plants, Etc. 

FOREST AND GARDEN IMPLEMENTS OF ALL SORTS. 



Priced Catalogues Free on application. 



IRELAND & THOMSON, 

Craigleith Nursery, Comely Bank, Edinburgh. 

New Golden Acre and Windlestrawlee Nurseries, 

Gran ton Road. 

Seed Warehouse, 20 V/aterloo Place. 

JOHN PALMER & SON, 

NURSERYMEN, 

ANNAN, 

DUMFRIESSHIRE. 

*^.* The favour of a visit is respectfully solicited. 

KAY^S DENDROMETER. 

Awarded a First Class Silver Medal by (he Scottish Arhoricultural Society. 



With this instrument the height of trees, etc., can be instantaneously and 
accurately ascertained at any convenient distance from the object, without 
calculation. A marvel of simplicity ! Should be in the hands of every one 
interested in Arboriculture. 



Price, with Full Instructions for Use, 17s. 6d. 
Allowance to the Trade. 



AGENTS— 

DICKSONS & CO., 

Nurserymen and Seed Merchants, 1 Waterloo Place, Edinburgh. 




TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 




SCOTTISH ARBORICULTUEAL SOCIETT. 



VOL. XL— PART II. 



SECRETARY AND TREASURER, 

JOHN M'LAEEN, Jun, 

FELLOW OF THE BOTAXICAL SOCIETY, EDIXBURGII. 





EDINBURGH : 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY. 

80LD BY DOUGLAS A- FOULIS, CASTLE STREET. 

MDCCCLXXXVT. 



^ov 




"^ 




KNOWEFIELD 
NURSERIES, 

CARLISLE. 
150 ACRES. 




NURSERYMEN AND SEEDSMEN BY ROYAL WARRANT TO ™^^^'^'^'- 

LITTLE & BALLANTYNE respect/ully invite 
inspection of their immense Stock, ^' verliaps one of 
the largest in Britain^ of Forest Trees, comprising 
MA NY MILLIONS of Seedling and Transplanted 
hardy ivell-rooted Forest Trees of every description, 
age, height, etc., in splendid co7idition for removal to 
any part of the United Kingdom, and which may he 
depended upon to give the utmost satisfaction. 

CrA ME COVERT PLANTS — all the leading sorts in 

quantity, hushy, %v ell furnished. 
RHOD ODENDRONS — Seedling and nained Hybrids, Ponfi- 

Gums, etc., etc., of various sizes. 
OR NAMENTAL TREES AND SHRUBS in great-health. 
A VENVETREES— straight, well grown, good heads, etc. 
FRUIT TREEsT'rOSES, AL PINE c^ HERBACEOUS 

PLANTS, etc. 



Catalogues Free. Special low prices to large buyers. Samples sent on application, 
and all communications promptly attended to. 

Nurserymen and Wood Foresters to 
Her Majesty's Government, 

KNOWEFIELD NURSERIES, CARLISLE. 



CONTENTS. 



The Society, as a body, is not to be considered responsible for any statements or 
opinioiis advanced in the several papers, which must rest entirely on the authority 
of the respective avihors. 



PAciR 



VII. Address delivered at the Thirty-Second Annual Meeting. By Hugh 

Cleghorx of Stravithie, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S.E., . . 115 

Report of the Select Committee of the House of Commons, 

1885, ON Forestry, . . . . . .119 

YIII. The Indian Forest School. By Major F. Bailey, R.E., F.R.G.S., 

Director of the Forest School, Dehra Dun, N.W.P., India, . 155 

IX. The Dougla.s Fir {Abies Doucjlasii, Lindley). By Angus D. 

"Webster, Forester, Penrhyn Castle, Bangor, Wales, . . 165 

X. The Formation of Plantations, and their Management for the First 
Twelve Years. By David A. Glen, Assistant Forester, Gartshore, 
Kirkintilloch, . . . . . .173 

XI. The Corsican Pine {Pinus laricio). By Angus D. Webster, 

Forester, Penrhyn Castle, Bangor, Wales, . . .181 

X 1 1. The Present State and Future Prospects of Arboriculture in North 
Lancashire. By George Dodds, Overseer, Wyreside Cottage, 
Lancaster, . . . . . . . " 188 

XIII. Report on a Visit in September 1881 to the Scottish and English 

Forests by Professors and Students from the Forest School, 
Nancy, France. By M. Boppe, Inspector of French Forests, . 196 

XIV. The Formation and Management of Game Coverts. By Angus D. 

Webster, Forester, Penrhyn Castle, Bangor, Wah-a, . . 21:J 

Forestry IN France. By Major F. Bailey, R.E., . 221 



A P P E X D I X (B.) 

1. Former Presidents, ....... 27 

2. List of Members corrected to July 1886, . . . .28 

3. Abstract of the Accounts of the Scottish Arboricultural Society for 

year 1884-85, ....... 46 



TRANSACTIONS 



SCOTTISH ARBOKICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



VII. President's Address — Delivered at the Thirty-second Annual 
Meeting. By Hugh Cleghorn of Stravithie, M.D., LL.D., 
F.RS.E. 

Gentlemen, — In thanking the members of the Society for my 
re-election as President, I must apologise for coming before you 
without a formal address. My visit to London, to give evidence 
before the Parliamentary Committee on Forestiy, and other 
important engagements, have fully taken up my spare time. 

The Society has now existed for thirty-two years, and I venture 
to say that its efforts have been successful in stimulating concerted 
action in regard to the very wide range of subjects which it is 
specially designed to promote. The Society has now attained an 
impoi'tant position. The number of members is nearly 800, 
showing a good increase on the previous year. Upwards of a 
hundred volumes of valuable works, chiefly in Forest literature, 
presented at the close of the Forestzy Exhibition, have been 
added to the library. The annual statement of accounts, now 
before us, shows a balance of £205 at the credit of the Society. 

The great event of the past year in our department of 
wox'k was, of course, the International Forestry Exhibition. 
There can be no doubt that the late exhibition gave a great 
impetus to the Science of Arboriculture, and benefits du-ect and 
indirect have resulted. Many excellent accounts of it have 
appeared in various publications ; but as a connected description 
tout ensemble of the whole Exhibition, I may refer you to an 
article by Messrs Dunn and M'Laren in the last part of our 

VOL. XI., PART II. I 



116 ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT, AUGUST 4, 18^5. 

Transactions, and to another in tlie Introduction to the volume 
of '* Prize Essays," in connection with the Exhibition, just 
published,* from which I make extracts. 

" The Scottish Arbori cultural Society, not content with starting 
and pressing forward the scheme for the Exhibition, contributed 
largely, the exhibits occupying the gi'eater part of the northern 
division of the western transept and a large adjoining space in the 
nave. Meteorological instruments, dendrometers, tools used in 
forestry, models of bridges and river embankments, and specimens 
of woods were shown, and illustrations given of the durability of 
posts and sleepers in exposed situations. Cones of the rarer 
coniferaj, fungi, and insects injurious to trees, specimens of graft- 
ing, pruning, and other operations, paintings and photographs of 
trees, dried leaves, models of foresters' houses, rustic and elaborately 
artistic wood-work, illustrated the wide range of subjects and 
sciences touched upon by forest work." 

" The extensive ' Loan Collection,' contributed by about 150 ex- 
hibitors, which was placed at the disposal of the Executive 
Committee, occupied the central tables in the nave. It formed a 
miscellaneous museum of Natural History objects — birds, insects, 
plants — specimens of ornamental panels, picture frames, beautiful 
carvings, models of ships, bridges, salmon-ladders, railways and 
buildings, and of curiosities of every kind." 

" In the three annexes many articles of great practical signifi- 
cance and economic value were displayed — machinery used in 
forest work and in the manufacture of wood products ; manufac- 
tured goods, such as furniture of all descriptions, from the plainest 
to the most ornate ; exquisite inlaid work ; walking-sticks, fishing- 
rods, and indiarubber, native and manufactured. Many things of 
more strictly scientific interest were also present, such as micro- 
photographs, microscopic objects, cones, barks, and other speci- 
mens." 

With the view of extending the knowledge of the pubUc on 
Forest questions, arrangements were made by which popular 
lectures should be delivered at intervals during the time the 
Exhibition lasted. The programme included the following sub- 
jects : — (1.) "Outlines of Forestry in Europe," by Dr Lyons; 
(2.) "Wood," by Professor M'Nab; (3.) "Timber-destroying 

* Forestry and Forest Products. Edited by John Rattray and Hugh 
Robert Mill. Edinburgh, David Douglas, 1885. 



ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT, AUGUST 4, 1885. 117 

Molluscs," by Professor M'Intosh; (4.) "The Forests of New 
Brunswick," by Mr E. Jack ; (5.) " Eucalyptus," by Dr Howitz ; 
(6.) "The System of Forest Surveys in India," by Major Bailey; 
(7.) "Sporting Trophies," by Colonel Michael; (8.) "The Forests 
of Johor," by Mr Meldrum ; and (9.) "The Management of 
Cumbei'land Plantations," by Mr W. Baty. 

" Upwards of half a million people passed the turnstiles in the 
three months during which the Exhibition was open, and although, 
at first, the admission fee was so high as to make the attendance 
sometimes rather meagre, at a later date, when the exhibits had 
been got into proper order, a daily average of from 4000 to 5000 
was attained. Every facility was offered for the convenience of 
visitors by season tickets, chai-ged at different rates, according to 
the date of issue, and by special arrangements for the admission 
of large parties." 

In August 1883, Sir John Lubbock, on the vote being taken 
in Parliament for the Crown Woods and Forests, lamented the 
absence of a British Forestry School ; and recently the Highland 
and Agricultural Society of Scotland and the Scottish. Arbori- 
cultural Society, amongst others, warmly supported the scheme 
for the establishment of such an institution. It has been said, it 
is true, that Great Britain does not possess such a school, because 
no extensive Government Forests exist, and because her abundant 
supply of coal renders the people independent of wood for fuel ; 
but when it is remembered that the system of Forest Conservancy, 
as carried out in India, has proved an important source of revenue 
to the country, while at the same time insuring permanence of 
the timber supply ; and when it is also borne in mind that, ac- 
cording to authoritative report, upwards of ten million acres, which 
are at present of but nominal value, in Great Britain and Ireland, 
might, if put for a few years under trained conservators, become 
important sources of wealth, no doubts should exist in the public 
mind as to the advisability of establishing a Forest School. 

" The forests of Norway and Sweden, which not many years 
ago had so little monetary value as to justify their owners in 
burning them in order to procure a cereal crop from the soil 
enriched by their ashes, have now been placed under strict conserv- 
ancy, and with good results ; while the immense, though dimin- 
ishing, wood-producing tracts of Amei-ica, are also being gradually 
subjected to similar supervision, since the necessity for so doing 
has become too imperative to be neglected. As Great Britain 



118 ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT, AUGUST 4, 1885. 

possesses in her dependencies a larger acreage of woodland than 
any other nation, it is obviously important to provide a staff of 
thoroughly trained practical foresters." 

" To Edinburgh is due the credit of first taking up the idea of 
a Forest School, and, with a view to its establishment, the Town 
Council, some years ago, purchased the Arboretum adjoining the 
Royal Botanic Garden for£20,000. Handsome donations have been 
received from various Governments and private exhibitors at the 
International Forestry Exhibition for the foundation of a Forestry 
Museum ; and although, unfortunately, the surplus of the Exhi- 
bition is not sufficient to secure the immediate establishment of 
a chair of Forestiy, the people of Scotland, and of Great Britain 
and Ireland generally, only require to realise the importance and 
necessity of such a scheme, in order to unite and carry it into 
efi'ect ; thereby removing the slight that at present attaches to 
our country in this respect." 

Many years ago Sir Robert Christison first urged the need of 
a school ; Professor Balfour called attention to it in 1876 ; 
Mr Hutchison spoke of it in 1877 ; and before going out to 
Madras, the Right Hon. W. P. Adam bore testimony to the 
great importance of the subject. Mr Adam left his manuscript 
with me, and I read it the other day to the Forestry Committee of 
the House of Commons. The Marquis of Lothian has also spoken 
very effectively in favour of the proposal, and now presides over the 
Committee appointed to carry out the scheme of a Forest School. 
For the establishment and endowment of a School of Forestry, 
a sum of £10,000 would be required. A sum of about £800 
has already been promised to the Committee. That is certainly a 
small sum, but we trust that, with this commencement, matters 
will proceed rapidly towards the complete attainment of the 
important object we have in view. 

On the 15th of May 1885, on the motion of Sir John Lubbock, 
Bart., it was ordered — " That a Select Committee be appointed to 
consider lohether, by the establishment of a Forest School, or other- 
wise, our Woodlands could be rendered more remunerative." The 
Committee met for deliberation on the 14th July, and it is under- 
stood that sufficient proof has been adduced to report progress, 
and to recommend a continuation of the Committee next session. 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FOEESTEY. 119 

REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OF THE 
HOUSE OF COMMONS, 1885, ON FORESTRY. 

On the loth of May 1885, on the motion of Sir John Lubbock, 
Bart., it was ordered — " That a Select Committee he appointed to 
consider whether, hy the establishment of a Forest School, or other- 
wise, our Woodlands could be rendered more remunerative.^^ 

The Committee was nominated on the 8th of July, and ulti- 
mately comprised the following nineteen members of the House of 
Commons : — Mr William Corbet, Dr Farquharson, Mr Fremantle, 
Mr William Henry Gladstone, Sir G. Macpherson Grant, Sir John 
Kennaway, Sir Edmund Lechmere, Sir John Lubbock, Dr Lyons, 
Sir Herbert Maxwell, Colonel Nolan, Mr Parnell, Mr Plunket, Mr 
Portman, Mr Round, Mr Seely, jun., Mr ]\Ioore Stevens, Mr 
ViUiers Stuart, and Colonel King Harman. 

It was ordered that Five Members form a Quorum, and that the 
Committee have power to send for Persons, Papers, and Records. 

The Committee met for deliberation on the 14th July, when Sir 
John Lubbock was elected Chairman, and adjourned till the 21st 
July. On that date the Committee met and examined two wit- 
nesses — Mr William G. Pedder and Colonel James Michael, C.S.I. , 
and then adjourned to the 24th July, when it heard the evidence 
of Dr Hugh Cleghorn, Colonel George Pearson, Mr W. T. Thisel- 
ton Dyer, and Mr Julian Rogers ; after which the following report 
was proposed by the Chairman, Sir John Lubbock, Bart., duly 
read, and agreed to : — 

" Your Committee are of opinion that at this late period of the 
Session it will not he in tlieir power to conclude their investigation ; 
they have therefore agreed to Report the Evidence already taken to 
the House, and to recommend that a Committee on the same subject 
should he appointed in the next Session of Parliament. — 24th July 
1885." 

The evidence tendered by the witnesses during their several 
examinations is of a very comprehensive nature, and although the 
details are more or less interesting, they are too voluminous 
to be given in full in the Society's Transactions. However, 
those who desire to peruse the Parliamentary Report may pro- 
cure it for 7id. through any bookseller. In the following copious 
extracts the gist of the inquiry and its bearings on British forestry 
is given. 



120 REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 

Tlic first witness called was Mr William G. Pedder, bead of the 
llevenue Department of the India Office, who, in his evidence, gave 
an interesting account of the inception and development of the 
Forest Department of India to its present satisfactory and flourish- 
ing state. He quoted largely from official returns and statistics, 
showing the methods of working, and the prosperous condition of 
the Forest Department in India. He also gave many interesting 
details as to the training of forest officers, and pointed out the 
numerous benefits accruing to India since the establishment of the 
Forest Service. 

Colonel James Michael, C.S.I., late of the India Forest Ser- 
vice, was the next witness examined, and to questions put by the 
Committee, replied as follows : — 

" You were, I believe, at the inception of the Forest Service in 
India?" " I was." — "Will you kindly tell the Committee what 
were the first steps taken in the Madras Presidency in regard to 
the promotion of forests 1" "I must premise that I can merely 
give information regarding the early stages of forestry in India, 
and simply of the Madras Presidency, because I had, after seven 
years' pioneering, to leave the Forest Department, my health having 
suffered so much from jungle fever. But I have ever since taken 
the greatest interest in the subject, and have studied the progress 
of it, and have always kept myself well au fait as to what was 
going on. As Mr Pedder has already told the Committee, in the 
first instance the Bombay Government began to feel the pinch (as 
Sir George Birdwood expressed it in one of his papers upon the 
matter) of not getting sufficient timber for the Bombay dockyard. 
Ships used to be built there for the Royal Navy ; and they estab- 
lished a Conservancy Department in Bombay, in 1846, mainly for 
the purchase of timber ; and in a year or two after that the first 
actual steps towards the Government taking forests into their own 
hands and working them and conserving them, and, in short, 
starting a Forest Conservancy Department, originated in Madras 
through General Frederick Cotton, of the Engineers, who suggested 
to the Madras Government that they should thus take the southern 
forests in hand. Upon his recommendation the Government 
appointed me to commence the first experimental scheme in 1848. 
I hardly like to talk much about myself, but I might hand in a 
letter which appeared in the " Journal of the Society of Arts " in 
1882, written by Sir George Birdwood; I think the honourable 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 121 

Chairman ■will recollect the circumstance, as he presided on the 
occasion of a paper being read by Colonel Pearson, who, in alluding 
to the commencement of the Forest Department of India, com- 
menced with the year 1857. Upon that Dr Bird wood (now Sir 
George) wrote a letter, published in the " Journal of the Society 
of Arts," in which he mentioned that just ten years before that date 
the foundation upon which the Forest Department was constructed 
had been deeply laid in the Madras Presidency when Major- 
General Frederick Cotton, who was then a captain in the Madras 
Engineers, first drew the attention of the Government of Madras 
to the subject. And then he goes on to say that I was appointed 
to carry out the experiment, and that in consequence of the success 
of that undertaking between 1848 and 1856, the Court of Directors 
sanctioned the application of these plans to other forests in the 
Madras Presidency, and directed the formation of a regular Forest 
Department, which was commenced then, and spread throughout 
the whole of India." — "Have you any idea how that came to be 
originated with General Frederick Cotton V "I know perfectly, 
because I saw a great deal of him at that time, as I was placed 
under his orders. Riding across the southern forests of the Madras 
Presidency, then unexplored, he was struck with the bad order in 
which they were kept, being destroyed as they were by Government 
leasing them out to contractors instead of keeping them in their 
own hands. It struck him that if the Government would put a 
stop to that system, this terrible waste would be stopped, and he urged 
the matter upon the Madras Government. Upon his recommenda- 
tion those steps were taken. He was asked if he would undertake to 
put a stop to waste in, at all events, a small portion of the forests. 
He consented, and he asked for nie as an assistant, as we had beeit 
much together ; my regiment had been stationed at the same place, 
and we had hunted together. Having known me in this way he 
asked for my services, as he also knew I had had some little experi- 
ence of forestry in Europe before I entered the army." . 

" Do you think it desirable that a forest school should be estab- 
lished in this country?" "Certainly, it could not fail to be of 
value to the country." — " Irrespective of giving training for India 1" 
" Yes, I think for the country generally it would be immensely 
valuable for landowners and men who own large woods in this 
country if they could have men with better training than those 
they have now." — " Is it not a fact that great proprietors fre- 
quently are in want of good scientific information as to the forest 



122 ItEI'OUT Oh' THE SKLKCT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 

l»roducts, and do not know where to look for it ?" " I have cer- 
tainly heard so. When I was in Scotland at Dunkeld and Blair 
Atliole, I remarked the forests there ; I daresay you remember Mr 
John M'Gregor, the forester who was on the jury at the Edinburgh 
Forestry Exhibition ; I went round with him, and know that he 
has a difficulty in finding men suitable for his work." 

" Do you know that there is considerable difficulty in disposing 
of English bark at present 1" "I do not know that." — " Have 
you heard any complaints from the proprietors of large woodlands 
that they find it very difficult to dispose of their bark, and that 
they do not know what is the matter with it 1" "I am not 
aware of that." — " A proprietor who owns a large property in this 
country, and also in Ireland, complained to me that he could not 
sell his bark now to the same advantage as formerly, and he did 
not know very well where to get advice about it, or what was 
wrong about it ; you would not doubt that a scientific and prac- 
tical forester would be well able to settle a question like that, and 
that it would be very important to the proprietors of woods that 
there should be some authority in the country to whom one should 
be able to refer questions of that sort 1" "I should think that 
there must be people in this country who would know the reason 
why the bark did not fetch a fair price." — " Would you not think 
it desirable that there should be a supply of persons skilled in 
forestry who should be able to decide upon a question of that 
sort 1 " " Certainly." — " You believe that it would have a con- 
siderable effect upon the commercial operations in regard to forest 
products in this country if there should be a knowledge of these 
things easily available, and the skill to deal with them V "I 
have no doubt of it." 

" Have you any experience of the great forest products in India, 
turpentine, resin, bark, and so on." " Yes, a great deal. I took 
up that subject when I first had charge of the southern forests ; in 
fact I began collecting these things myself on behalf of the Govern- 
ment, not as a source of revenue so much as for the benefit of the 
people of the jungle. I wished to conciliate them, and at the 
same time to get them to help me in the matter of conservancy, 
and therefore I took to buying from them all the vaiious indi- 
genous hill or jungle produce, such as barks, gums, resins, wax, 
cardamons, ginger, &c." — " If a system of collecting and disposing 
of forest products were instituted in this country, would it not neces- 
sarily lead to very considerable industries, which would be of 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 123 

great use amongst the populations where those industries would 
be established 1 " " In this country, I should think there must be 
many already, but of course my experience in that subject is 
limited to India, where the products are so much more numer- 
ous." — " They are utilised in India now to a larger extent, are 
they not 1" " They are all utilised, and now form a very large 
source of revenue ; but there must be also a large number of forest 
products in Europe — resins, gums, and so on." 

" Are you aware that the forest products imported into this 
country amount to 31| millions sterling per annum 1" "I can 
quite believe that, judging from the value of forest products which 
are to be got out of the forests in India, as evidenced by the col- 
lection sent to the Edinburgh Forestry Exhibition — drugs, gums, 
resins, oils, and fibres. There is an enormous industry, which I 
think will come forward, in these raw materials, especially in 
papermaking substances." — " You have no returns which would 
show the value of the timber imported into this coimtry, which 
is about from 16 millions to 20 millions sterling, the rest 
being represented by the importation of resins, gums, and so 
on 1 " " The report which I have perused of Mr P. L. Simmonds' 
Paper, read in February last, treats only of the teak supply, but it 
shows that in 1883 there were £647,000 worth of teak imported 
into England." 

" Have you any suggestions you would wish to make as to the 
present training of Indian forest officials, or are you satisfied with 
it ? " "I am very glad to find that they are going to train them in 
their own country instead of entirely abroad, for my experience is 
that some of the younger men who were trained abroad were 
under great disadvantages from not knowing the language suffi- 
ciently. It is very much better that a man should be trained in 
his own language than in a foreign one, which he understands only 
partially. It takes him a long time to learn the language, and to 
understand what he is learning in fact. 

" Have you paid any attention to the state of the woodlands in 
Great Britain and Ireland ] " " Merely as an amateur, going 
through the New Forest or Windsor Forest ; in fact, I live at 
Ascot, close to Windsor and Swinley, and it interests me very 
much to see what goes on in those forests ; but I cannot say that 
I have any personal knowledge of English woodlands." — "From 
what you have seen, would you consider that the management of 
our woodlands in this country is altogether satisfactory, or would 



124 REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 

you think it susceptible of improvement 1" "I often see things, 
wlien I go through woods, which I think I could improve. I do 
not think sufficient attention is paid to judicious thinning and 
pruning." — " May I take it that the result of your experience in 
India, and your observations in this country, has been to impress 
upon you that the management of our woodlands might be im- 
proved, and that a forest school in this country would have very 
beneficial effects ? " " Certainly." 

Dr Hugh Cleghorn, M.D., F.R.S.E., President of the Scottish 
Arhoricultural Society, and late of the India Forest Department, 
was the next witness examined, and gave the following replies to 
the questions put to him by the Committee : — 

" You took an active part in the formation of the Indian Forest 
Department, did you not'?" "I was appointed in 185G, at the 
same time as Dr Brandis ; I was in Madras when Dr Brandis 
began in Burmah." — " You were for twelve years Conservator of 
the Madras forests, were you not "? " "Yes, in Southern India." — 
" After that you introduced the forest system in the Punjaub 1 " 
" I was in the Punjaub under the Earl of Elgin and Lord Lawrence 
introducing the system there." . . . "I need hardly ask 
whether you are of opinion that the formation of the Indian Forest 
Department has been of great advantage to the country ? " "I 
think there can be no possible doubt that it has been an immense 
benefit." — " In fact, you consider that a trained staff" is essential to 
the management of forests and woodlands?" " Undoubtedly it is 
very essential." — " And that would apply to every country, would 
it not?" " It would, including Britain." 

"You returned from India in 1868, did you not?" "I did, and 
retired from the service in 1869." — " For the last sixteen years you 
have paid considerable attention to the subject of our English wood- 
lands ? " " After I retired, under direction of successive Secretaries 
of State, I have had to do with the examinations of candidates for 
Indian Forestry in London, and also for the Highland and Agricul- 
tural Society in Edinburgh for subordinate grades." — "And you 
have paid attention to the state of our woodlands ? " " Yes ; par- 
ticularly Scotland and England, but I have seldom visited Ireland." 
— " You accompanied M. Boppe ? " " Yes, I accompanied the 
three French Professors through Scotland." — " Is it your im- 
pression from what you have seen that if we had more trained 
officials our woodlands would be rendered more remunerative 1 " 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COAIMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 125 

" I think there can be no doubt about it ; it is marvellous that we 
should not at an earlier date have begun to adopt some means to 
preserve them." — " You vrould apply that not only to the superior 
officials, but also to the subordinate officers 1 " " Yes, to the 
managers, and to the subordinate officers or woodreeves." — " Your 
opinion is, that we are in England very good arboriculturists, but 
not very good sylviculturists ? " "No country in the world has 
such fine specimens of trees in point of arboriculture, but as regards 
sylviculture we are deficient ; the one is what is called jardinage., 
and the other is professional forestry." — " In the production of fine 
specimens of trees we stand high 1 " " We stand higher than any 
other country." . . . "I suppose the selection of species, the 
choice of soils, the situation, the mode of planting, the mode and 
degree in which the thinning should be carried on, and determining 
the time of felling the timber, so as to obtain the best results, are 
questions with regard to which skilled training is of great impor- 
tance ] " " All those matters require skilled training, and much 
observation and care." 

" Is it the general opinion of those who are conversant with our 
woodlands that the establishment of a forest school would be of 
great advantage to this country 1" "I think it is universal. The 
Highland and Agricultural Society expressed their very great gratifi- 
cation when they heard that Parliament was taking the matter up, 
and the Scottish Arboricultural Society acted in the same way. On 
all hands there is a general feeling of satisfaction in favour of the 
movement." — " The late Mr Adam (who was so much respected 
in this House), the late Governor of Madras, expressed a very 
strong opinion on the subject before he left this country ? " "He 
was President of the Scottish Arboricultural Society, and expressed 
his views a few weeks before he sailed. I have the volume with 
me, if the Committee would like to hear it." — " Would you kindly 
read the paragraph 1" " The Right Honourable W. P. Adam, in 
an address delivered in Edinburgh on 7th October 1879, said: 'I 
regret much that in face of this improvement, which still requires 
extension, we have yet to lament the want of a School of Forestry. 
This portion of our educational system, tending so much to the 
benefit of the State, is undertaken by every nation of any conse- 
quence except our own. I trust this neglect of an important branch 
of our national well-being will not be continued ; and considering 
the importance of the forests of our Indian empire and colonies, we 
shall not always have to send young foresters to be taught their 



12G KKPORT (JF TIIK SELECT COMMITTKE ON FORESTRY. 

business abroad. It may be said that we have no large forests in 
this country under the care of Government in which this course of 
instruction can be given satisfactorily and systematically ; but I do 
not think this argument holds good. There are many extensive 
woodlands which may be visited and examined, but the practical 
part of the training does not necessarily require a great extent of 
forest. I believe, looking to the addition lately made to the area 
possessed by Government in these [Botanic] gardens, that a School 
of Forestry might be established in this very place, where all the 
operations of forestry naight be practised and taught, and where 
young men could learn as much as in Germany or France. The 
forests in those countries are not planted, pruned, and tended as 
our woodlands are, but in many cases are self-sown ; and experience 
in them does not necessarily fit a man to superintend all the opera- 
tions of home forestry. Occasional visits to large woodlands, and 
a survey of the operations carried out on a large scale, which have 
been taught here in detail, would of course be required ; but I 
maintain that for all practical purposes of home work, perfect train- 
ing might be given here.' This address was given a few weeks 
before Mr Adam sailed ; he left the manuscript with me, and I had 
it printed." — " You would consider that Mr Adam, from the atten- 
tion he had paid to the subject, was very well qualified to express 
an opinion?" "He had a large extent of woodland himself, and he 
was President of the Arboricultural Society for some years." — " Mr 
Adam in that passage refers to some steps which had been taken in 
Edinburgh with regard to the management of woodlands?" "Soon 
after the above meeting the Arboretum was sanctioned by the Town 
Council, and 9000 young trees were planted adjoining the Botanic 
Garden. Since then we have had the Forestry Exhibition, and 
derived therefrom the rudiments of a museum and library ; what 
we want now to make a good beginning is a lectureship, or chair of 
teaching ; without that we cannot go much further." — "You have 
been summoned before this Committee at a very short notice, and, 
I am afraid, at some personal inconvenience. I would not, there- 
fore, ask you for any exact expression of opinion as to any precise 
steps to be taken, if you would prefer to defer that to any future 
opportunity ] " "I only came yesterday from St Andrews, at a 
day's notice." — "The general sense of your evidence is that the 
establishment of a forest school would, in your opinion, be extremely 
beneficial to our English woodlands ? " " Yes, to all grades of 
foresters, and to the forests." 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 127 

" You are aware, are you not, that these countries. Great Britain 
and Ireland, stand in relation to most of the countries of Europe 
in a very backward condition as to forestry ? " " As regards sys- 
tematic planting, with a view to the production of wood, they do ; 
as regards true sylviculture, we are in a very backward state." — 
" But also as to the extent of acreage under forest, are we not in a 
very backward condition 1 " " Certainly we are." — " Do you not 
think that, commercially, the state of forestry in these countries is 
a matter of serious consideration for the empire 1" "I think 
immense benefit would result, both economically and otherwise, 
from a more systematic management of our woods, and the skilled 
training of wood managers and subordinates." — ^" With a view, as 
one of its main objects, to the extension of the forestry system in 
this kingdom ; is not that so?" "Certainly." — "You are aware 
that the acreage under forest in the United Kingdom is excessively 
small as compared to that in France, in Germany, and most of the 
other countries of Europe 1 " " That is the case." — " So that, as 
compared to the great forests that you know so well, the forests of 
India, it might almost be said that we are in a very bare state in 
this country 1" "Very much so." 

" Do you think that the institution of a forestry school in this 
country would be of very material consequence to the empire at 
large 1" " Without a Forest School I do not see how we are to 
make any further progress ; it is of immense consequence." 
— " There has been considerable movement towards the establish- 
ment of a School of Forestry in Scotland, has there noti " " Vari- 
ous steps have been taken, which I have already alluded to. We 
have the Arboretum attached to the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, 
and we have the beginning of a museum and a library, and we 
want now a curriculum or chair of forestry for teaching." — " You 
want a systematic plan of teaching forestry in Scotland 1 " 
" We are endeavouring to apply the small surplus of the late 
Forestry Exhibition in that direction. The Marquis of Lothian 
has sent out a circular, and some £800 or £900 have come 
in towards that purpose; but we want £10,000 to found a 
Chair." — " But besides establishing a forestry school in Edinburgh, 
would you not also think it very desirable that there should be a 
forestry school in this country 1" " I think there should be one in 
Scotland, one in England, and one in Ireland." — " But in Eng- 
land?" "Certainly." — "You think it very desirable that there 
should be a forestry school in England embracing a class of 



128 REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 

foresters for the service of this country, independently of those who 
are educated at Cooper's Hill for the Indian service]" "Cer- 
tainly." — " Are you aware that forestry schf)ols have existed on 
the Continent of Europe for a very considerable time. There are, 
at present, nine such establishments in the German Empire — viz., 
two in Prussia, one each in Bavaria, Saxony, Wurtemburg, Baden, 
Hesse-Darmstadt, Brunswick, and Saxe-Weimar. Therefore you 
would not think it at all excessive that there should be a forest 
school established in Edinburgh, and one established in London, 
irrespective of the Cooper's Hill school 1 " " Most certainly not 
excessive." — " Are you also aware that schools of forestry have 
been established in the United States of America 1 " " Yes, and 
I have seen schools in France, Germany, and Italy." — "You have 
seen the schools I have named just now, perhaps ? " "I have seen 
the school near Dresden, in Germany ; the school at Nancy, in 
France ; and the school at Vallombrosa, in Italy." — " Are you 
aware that a very careful and elaborate system of education is 
carried out in those schools 1" "Yes." — "I would just like to 
read for you briefly some of the principal points of education in 
the great school of Lystadt, Eberswald ; do you know it ] " "I 
know of it." — " It includes the cultivation of forests, forest improve- 
ments, and all similar matters which are necessary for the practical 
instruction of the pupils, and a very elaborate system of scientific 
education is conducted in preparatory courses for the training of the 
pupils in the highest possible way 1 " " Yes, I am aware that it is so." 
" You are aware that in this coi;ntry there is a very large con- 
sumption of timber, are you not 1 " " Very large indeed ; there 
is no country relatively where it is more so." — " Did you happen 
to see the statistics furnished on this subject by Mr Simmonds?" 
"I did; I have seen the paper read before the Society of 
Arts." — " With your knowledge of England and Scotland, and 
what you know of Ireland, do not you think that with the assist- 
ance of a forestry school to propagate correct ideas throughout the 
country, a very material proportion of the supply of timber re- 
quisite for industries in this country could, after no very long 
time, be supplied from the home-grown plantations 1 " "I think 
it would be very important. It is difficult to forecast what propor- 
tion we might be able to supply, but we might do a great deal 
more than we do at present to supply the needs of the countr}'." — 
"What we do at present is comparatively little V "Yes, it is compara- 
tively little." — " And you do think, I believe, that in a comparatively 



EEPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OX FORESTRY. 129 

short time a very considerable addition in the way of home-grown 
timber and forest products could be made to the general supply on 
which the country is dependent at present?" "Yes; forest pro- 
duce might be utilised, and a better scantling of timber might be 
grown by careful management, and many things turned to account 
which are already so much used in Germany." 

" Do you think that this country, by which I mean the throe 
kingdoms, England, Ireland, and Scotland, can hope to depend 
much or at all in the future commercially upon the Indian supply, 
having regard to the great distances, the cost of carriage, and so 
forth ; would you suppose that, from the vast areas of forests in 
India, any practical commercial supply could be obtained for this 
country 1 " " No, I think not ; there are very few woods now ex- 
ported ; teak wood is the great commercial wood of India, and 
those which are sold by weight, such as sandal-wood, box-wood, 
&c." — " Teak-wood is of exceptional value in the timber trade, is 
it not." "It stands quite alone for shipbuilding." — " But the pur- 
poses for which it is used are comparatively limited?" "They 
are comparatively limited at present." — " And you do not think 
any considerable commercial supply could ever be hoped for from 
any such distance as India ? " " Only teak-wood, box, and fancy 
woods." — " Those which are used for a very limited purpose 1 " 
"Which are of great value for a special purpose." . 

" With regard to Canada, are you aware that the great supplies 
that we draw from in Canada are being very seriously diminished ?" 
" I have not myself seen it, but there can be no doubt of the fact 
from what we read." — " Perhaps you saw the report recently pro- 
cured through the kindness of the Marquis of Lansdowne, wherein 
it is shown that the province of Prince Edward's Island, which was 
once very richly wooded, is now totally denuded of timber ; the 
Lieutenant-Governor reports that there is no longer any timber to 
export there, that it has all gone down under the clearances by 
lumbermen, and the general traffic in timber?" " I believe that is 
so." — " Do you think this country can depend in the future, as 
she has done in the past, upon her supplies from abroad with the 
same certainty as was formerly the case ? " " There is no doubt 
that the supplies are rapidly diminishing in many countries ; there 
can be no doubt whatever of that." — " Does not it then become a 
very serious question for this country, that we should take thought 
to supply by some production, as far as we can, timber to supple- 
ment the shortcomings of those countries upon which we have been 



1*30 IIKI'OIIT OK THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 

hitherto dependent for supply < " " 1 think it is of great conse- 
quence that we sliould increase the production in our own country, 
and do as much as we can to meet its wants." 

" Have you directed your attenti(ni to considering what area of 
land for the growth of timber could be fairly supplied in England 
itself, in Scotland, in Wales, and in Ireland ] " "I could scarcely 
venture to state the figures of the available area from memory. 
There is a very great extent of land available for planting, no 
doubt, in Scotland and in Ireland." — " Is there not also a very 
considerable part of England itself now lying comparatively unpro- 
ductive, which would grow timber better than anything else that 
could be suggested ? " " Yes, on the banks of navigable rivers, and 
in favourable positions, it is very desirable. In other places it 
might be difficult to make it financially successful ; but where 
there are navigable rivers, and special advantages of carriage, it is 
very desirable to turn them to account." — " Are there not great 
tracts in Cumberland, in Westmoreland, and Northumberland 
which would naturally invite plantation as a suitable thing whereby 
to occupy them 1" "I believe there are. I am not specially 
cognisant of those counties." — " I do not suppose you have speci- 
ally turned your attention to that ; I merely want to know whether 
you do not think, as the result of your observations elsewhere, 
that those great stretches of land in Wales, as well as in the 
north of England, would afford very suitable places for re-afforest- 
ing V' "I believe there are very extensive tracts which might 
be utilised." 

" You know Scotland very well 1 " " Yes, I know Scotland very 
well." — " May I ask you with regard to Scotland, do you consider 
that a greater area than the three-quarter million acres, wMch is 
about the extent of the forests in Scotland at present, could be 
fairly devoted to the growth of timber, as on mountain slopes or 
other situations which are not very profitably occupied at present 1 " 
" I think there are sub-alpine districts in the Highlands very suit- 
able for planting, and a very great extent of area which might be 
planted. I am familiar with Perthshire and Inverness-shire, 
and with places in the west of Scotland where trees grow very well. 
Upon the east coast they do not grow so well, being exposed to 
the east wind. But there are very great extents in those Highland 
counties which might be turned to good account ; especially towards 
the seaboard of the west coast they would grow very well, and in 
the midlands of Scotland also." — "You know some parts of the 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 131 

north of England pretty well, do you not 1 " " Yes." — " Are there 
not great slopes of land, that are now comparatively idle, which 
would afford suitable situations for growing timber upon a large 
scale 1" "I believe so." 

" May I ask if you know or are familiar with the rules laid down 
by scientific foresters of very great experience in all countries as to 
the extent of land which ought to be in any country under timber, 
in order to afford the requisite protection of all kinds — shelter, 
water supply, and so forth — to the rest of the country 1 " " That 
would vary in different situations, and under different circum- 
stances. The need for shelter, for example. In India we are in 
the habit of reserving the forest on the upper third of the moun- 
tains ; that is to say upon the crest, for rainfall and other pur- 
I)oses. Narrow belts would not succeed financially where there is 
a great extent of fencing. Square blocks and plantations upon 
the banks of navigable rivers would financially answer very much 
better." — " Is there not a general consensus amongst the chief 
forest authorities in Europe and America, where the subject has 
been very closely studied within the last fifty years, that from a fifth 
to a fourth of the country ought to be under forest, for the realisation 
of the best conditions for the rest of the country 1" " Yes, it is so 
stated as necessary to keep up the natural equilibrium." — " You 
would, then, say that that might be taken now as a pretty well 
established law, in which the great forest authorities are well 
agreed, that from a fifth to a fourth of any country should be 
covered in timber in order to protect the rest 1" "I understand 
that that is the opinion of many persons of sound judgment and 
reliability." — " May I ask you now, after a lifetime devoted with 
great success to the cultivation of forests, whether you do not con- 
cur in that view 1" "I think it is reasonable, and I concur in it 
as a general rule. There are certain districts and places to which 
you could not make the same rule apply always, but I think it 
might be admitted as a reasonable proportion." 

" Is it not also generally understood that, under the process of 
denudation of the land, the waste of the nutrient soil is constantly 
going on where the country is not protected by forests 1 " " The 
effects of denudation, both in Eastern and European countries, are 
very serious." — " Is it consistent with your own observation that 
denudation has been going on in England, as well as in Scotland, 
Wales, and Ireland, to a very large extent, since this country was 
disafforested two or three centuries since 1" "I have been very 

VOL. XT., P.VRT IL K 



132 RKPORT OF THK SKLECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 

much struck with it in other countries, such as Spain and Italy. 
In Eastern countries also the effects of denudation are most serious ; 
but in this country there is so much ornamental and other wood 
that I could not use the same language with respect to it as I do 
with respect to other countries." — " But including even the orna- 
mental wood, and giving credit to it to the largest extent, is it not 
the fact that the total area under wood of any kind, ornamental or 
otherwise, is comparatively small in England 1 " " It is compara- 
tively small." — " I suppose you have sometimes consulted the 
Agricultural Statistics of England, a very valuable work published 
annually 1" "I have." — " Is it not stated there (special attention 
having been devoted to the matter since this question has come to 
the front so much in recent years) that the quantity of timber 
standing in England is comparatively small ? The total amount, 
as returned in the Agricultural Statistics for England, is only 
1,466,038 acres. Now, just for the purpose of furnishing a com- 
parison, I may state that in France the amount under timber is 
22,000,000 acres ; the amount in Austria proper is 23,000,000 acres ; 
the amount in Hungary is 22,000,000 acres, and so on. In the 
grazing lands of England 761,892 acres of timber are returned, and 
in the corn counties 704,146, which makes the total I have just 
cited for England at 1,466,000 ; which, taken in comparison with 
the 22,000,000 in France, 23,000,000 in Austria, and 22,000,000 
acres in Hungary, leaves a very beggarly result for this country 1 " 
" Relatively it seems certainly a very small proportion." — " Scotland 
is returned for 750,000 acres, which is at or about the amount, is 
it not 1 " " It is ; it is not much more at all events." — " Ireland 
is returned for 350,000 acres, which is 45,000 acres less than that 
country had in the year 1841 ?" "If so, that is a very grave 
matter." — " Is it not also consistent with your knowledge that a 
very considerable amount of cutting of timber is going on in 
England, Wales, and Ireland, without any attempt at reproduction 
of timber ? " "I believe it is so in certain districts." — " Therefore 
we may say that, with a steadily increasing annual demand for 
timber, which is constantly rising all over the country, the amount 
of timber in England, Wales, and Ireland is steadily, and I might 
even say rapidly, diminishing 1 " " It certainly is rapidly diminish- 
ing." 

" You in Scotland have paid in the last century very great atten- 
tion to the cultivation of woods, and you stand for the last 25, or 
perhaps 40 or 50, years at about 700,000 acres ; something has 



REPORT OF TIIE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 133 

been added recently, but I take the official statistics as representing 
about three-quarters of a million acres. Now, in the face of that 
state of things, do not you think it a matter of State importance 
that the question of supplying by reafforesting certain appropriate 
parts of the country should be seriously taken up ] " " I think that 
the replanting of naked districts would be highly beneficial. In 
Scotland the Arboricultural Society has existed for 31 years, and 
we are paying great attention to that point ; that the atforesting 
of naked tracts would be highly advantageous in a climatic and 
economic point of view, there can be no doubt." — " Then, besides 
the timber, which is so directly important and necessary in archi- 
tecture and domestic dwellings, furniture, handicrafts, and manufac- 
ture of almost every conceivable kind, is there not a very 
considerable number of industries mainly dependent upon forest 
products, such as bark, tar, resin, turpentine, and so on 1 " " Yes.". 
" As to bark, and the undergrowth in woods near large towns, 
would not the production of all those materials give rise to very 
important industries in those countries ]" " Yes, I think a great 
deal more could be done than there is done. One of the several 
premiums offered by the Highland and Agricultural Society, is how 
to utilise those waste products ; there is a deal of material burnt 
which might be turned to account. In Germany nothing is lost." 

" Is not there a very high value, even yet, given to iron which 
is prepared by timber smelting 1" "Yes." — " Are you aware that in 
the Cumberland district the smelting of iron by timber is still 
carried on very extensively, resulting in the production of a very 
superior class of iron and steel for instruments in use in surgery and 
in the arts V "I have no personal knowledge of the Cumberland 
iron works ; but I have seen a great deal in the coniferous forests 
in the Himalayas of iron smelting by timber ; it requires very good 
management, otherwise it consumes a great deal of wood." — " Are 
you aware that charcoal-smelted iron stands very high for the pro- 
duction of the best quality of steel 1 " " Certainly." 

" Then you think there is a considerable field for the operations of 
realToresting in this country with every prospect of success 1" "I 
think there are many places exceedingly suitable for planting." — 
" I understand you to say that you would like to see a separate 
school of forestry in each of the three kingdoms V "I hope 
eventually that may be so." — " What I want to ask you is, whether 
you do not think it would be much the better course to attempt 
to get one school in the largest of the three kingdoms at first, and 



134 repout ok tiik srlect committee on forestry. 

not to attemi)t at fii'st to get tliree schools 1 " " Yes, but I recom- 
mend tliat being done eventually." — " You think that it would be 
better to try and get one good school, with as much opportunity of 
practical experience as you can, and when you got that school full 
to perhaps try some other ; but you would not think of trying to 
start three schools at once ? " " No ; the only institution at this 
moment which gives certificates in forestry is the Highland and 
Agricultural Society. We have students from Cirencester, from 
Downton, and from Glasnevin examined there. There are not 
many candidates, but a beginning has been made, and I should like 
to see progress, and to have other places ultimately." 

"In your visits to those large forests in Scotland, would you 
describe what opinion you formed regarding the management of 
the works V "I think there are some very good men, shrewd, 
practical, intelligent men. They have not had the training such as 
our men receive on the Continent. They have not been taught 
inorganic chemistry or vegetable physiology ; but for practical work, 
that is to say, converting timber and forming plantations, they are 
very good men. We have had three or four of them in India for 
doing certain work, such as planting, and they did it very well. 
For example, Mr Maclvor, of the Cinchona plantations, and Mr 
Ferguson, of the Teak plantations, did their work very well, though 
they had not had a school to go to." — " They had practical and not 
theoretical knowledge 1 " " Yes." — " Would you consider that the 
result of their planting operations was successful as a whole 1 " 
" Some of them were very successful." (Mr MacCorquodale of 
Scone is a very good planter.) — " Do you think those woods would 
have been better if they had been planted by a highly trained man 
skilled in inorganic chemistry V "I think that more produce might 
have been turned out in many places. There are many things which 
have not been utilised as they might have been, but there are some 
exceedingly shrewd and valuable men concerned in the work." — 
" Then you think that, on the whole, those forests might have been 
better if they had been planted by men having more theoretical 
knowledge 1 " " Yes ; but they are exceedingly good planters." — 
" If they had had a little more theoretical knowledge, they could 
have turned their practical sagacity to better account ? " "I think 
so, for many of them do wish they had had that. They have read 
what books they have been able to get in their cottages, but having 
had no Forest School to go to, lacked opportunity of improvement." 

" Do you think that the school of forestry might be made self-sup- 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 135 

porting 1" " I think tliat would be a difficult question to determine ; 
it is difficult to predicate what the number of students would be 
who would attend the school. The class of agriculture in Edin- 
burgh varies from 20 to 40, and we should have reason to hope for 
at least an equal number." — "What class of people would attend 
the arboricultural classes in Edinburgh 1 " " Those who are looking 
forward to being estate agents, factors, nurserymen, and such like." 
— " Is not there a great difficulty in Scotland that many of them 
could not afford to pay the price for the forestry course ]" " That 
is a question which I could not answer without more consideration." 
— ■'' Supposing I pay my forester £50 or £60 a year, he is not in a 
position to go through a very expensive course of education I" 
"No; but he might have had 18 months or two years' training 
with great advantage : he need not have been there all the year ; 
he might have been there half a year for two years. To obtain 
those certificates of forestry which are granted by the Highland 
and Agricultural Society, we find that two seasons are generally 
sufficient. That is the beginning of what I would like to see." — 
" I think you were already asked about the advisability of planting 
more extensively in Scotland on the mountain slopes and places of 
that kind ; but is not there the difficulty that many of those places 
are very inaccessible to railway communication V " Wherever they 
are inaccessible I would hardly advise their being planted ; I would 
say, generally, that near navigable rivers, and wherever you could 
get the timber out, it would re-pay its expenses." — " Do you think 
that the planting would pay as well as grouse moors or deer 
forests 1 " " That is rather a difficult question to answer at pre- 
sent." — "If you planted great tracts of forest land you would 
exclude sheep, and you take away from the food supply of the 
country 1 " " You do not require to exclude sheep everywhere 
after a certain time, and the grazing would improve." 

" How many years do you think you would have to exclude 
sheep 1" " Perhaps thirty years." 

"Thirty years out of how many?" "After thirty years you 
might let the sheep in — that is, till the trees approached maturity. 
I am not sjieaking exactly, but somewhat in approximation." 

" Is it not the case that after a fir wood has grown up to a certain 
height there is very little undergrowth 1 " " The undergrowth dies 
away after a certain time ; it depends upon the light and shade. 
The German forests are usually darker than the British ones ; a 
German forester always looks up to see what quantity of light 



136 RKPORT OF TIIK SELKPT COMMITTKK ON FORKSTRY. 

comes in." — " If we grew a much greater area of wood in Scotland, 
and a great quantity of wood were cut down every year, would not 
that lower the price of wood very much 1 " " That would somewhat 
depend upon the foreign supplies coming in ; the price is low at 
present." — " Does not it happen that when we have great gales in 
Scotland, and a number of trees are blown down, they become 
unsaleable 1" " They should be properly thinned, and then they 
would be less liable to be blown down." 

" With regard to sheep, M. Boppe expressed the opinion that the 
forests would rather increase the quantity of sheep-feed than keep it 
down. He said it was quite true that you would have to exclude 
the sheep and cattle for thirty years out of, say, a hundred ; but he 
said that afterwards the keep of the sheep under the trees would be 
much better than on the moorlands where it at present exists. So 
that, though you would exclude the sheep for a certain number of 
years, there would subsequently be more grazing for the sheep than 
there is at present on the land that is not now afforested 1" "Yes ; 
I presume he was speaking of deciduous trees, oak and such like, 
and not of fir trees." 

Colonel George Pearson, late of the India Forest Department, 
and for eleven years in charge of the students attending the Forest 
School at Nancy, France, in training for the India Forest Service, 
was the next witness, and in the course of his examination replied 
as follows : — 

" Do you generally concur with the evidence which has just been 
given by Dr Cleghorn 1 " " Generally, I do ; there are some little 
explanations I might give if I were asked as to details." — " But, 
generally, you take the same view as Dr Cleghorn does 1 " "I do." 
- — " You are strongly of opinion, I presume, that the more scientific 
training of the Indian forest officers has had a good effect in raising 
the Indian forest revenue 1" " Without doubt it has had a good 
effect upon the management of Indian forests since I was first con- 
nected with them, twenty-five years ago." — "Do you think that if 
our forest officials in this country were more systematically trained 
we might hope for a somewhat similar improvement in this country 
also ? " " Undoubtedly it would be of the greatest possible advan- 
tage, both for the land agents who have the management of the 
property, and also for the subordinate officers who have the actual 
management of the woods. I think both of them want instruction." 
— "Have you formed that opinion from your own observation of the 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 137 

general conditioii of the woodlands ? " '' Undoubtedly ; I had the 
advantage of going through our forests with the French professors. 
I had orders from the India Office to conduct them round, and I 
had letters to the j^rincipal landowners in Scotland ; so that I had 
ample opportunity of learning the state of the forests there, and also 
of the Crown forests in England." 

" I believe in France they are strongly of opinion that it is 
undesirable to plant oak by itself, and that it does better with 
beech ? " " There are not above two or three forests in France in 
which the soil is capable of growing oak, pure ; and this is the case, 
not only in France, but in Germany, and in the Vosges forests, which 
I am acquainted with." — " I believe it is the case in this country, 
that we sometimes see oak by itself, and sometimes with larch, and 
sometimes with chestnut 1" "Yes; they thought in this country 
that it was impossible to have too much of a good thing, and there- 
fore they planted the oak alone."- — " I suppose you would say it 
makes a great difference in the ultimate outcome of forests what 
species of trees are in association 1 " " There can be no doubt about 
it." — " I believe you agree with M. Boppfe in thinking that in the 
New Forest a large area is going to wreck and ruin, and will ulti- 
mately go to waste 1 " ''Undoubtedly it is degrading, as we call it 
in France ; you can see that from the invasion of the heather, which 
is creeping on in every direction in the New Forest." 

" I believe you have been several times appUed to on behalf of 
the English Colonies to recommend officials to them to take the 
management of forests 1 " " Yes," — " Have you been able to supply 
them with competent officials 1 " "Yes ; I could have recom- 
mended very clever officers, but they could not be spared at the 
time. I was able, however, to find some French officers to do what 
was required." — " You were unable to find any qualified English- 
men ; therefore you were obliged to recommend French officials for 
the purpose ? " " Quite so." 

"With regard to the French scliool, I believe you are of opinion 
that the French School is a very admirable one, but that there are 
several reasons why it is not altogether adapted for English 
students. For instance, the loss of time involved in the use of a 
foreign language, the difference of the technical terms in England 
and France ; and then, again, the political difficulties which some- 
times arise, which have in one case, at any rate, produced very 
serious inconvenience ; and also that it is undesirable to create an 
exclusive service for India with our own forest officials ; and lastly. 



]'^S RicrouT 01' TrtK sklkct committkk on forkstry. 

tliat it is undesirable to send the Indian pupils aVjroad, because 
that renders it more difficult to establish a forest school in this 
country : I think you liave indicated elsewhere that those, to your 
mind, were objections to sending pupils to Nancy 1" "I think 
those are the principal reasons. I think, at the same time, that the 
school is an admirable one, and has done great service." — "Of 
course, it would be practically impossible to send those who are to 
take the management of English woods, and particularly those of 
the lower grade, to a foreign school 1 " " It is much too expensive. 
The remuneration which an English forester gets is so low that he 
could not possibly afford that education in France. It is rather an 
expensive school and rather an exclusive school, and that is one 
reason why it has been so much attacked in France ; it was not 
intended for the class of men who chiefly want that education in 
Great Britain." 

" With regard to the proposed arrangement at Cooper's Hill, do 
you consider that would meet the requirements of English landed 
proprietors in the way of supplying them with trained forest 
ofHcialsl" " No, I do not think it would be suited to the require- 
ments of the country ; it would answer very well for the Indian 
Government, but the education at Cooper's Hill is much too expen- 
sive even for the requirements of a land agent's education." — " You 
think the arrangement may be very well suited for the requirements 
of the Indian Forest Service, but would not assist much in the 
preparation of English forest officials 1 " '" Quite so. I do not 
think it would affect the question of English, foresters at all." — 
" You would consider that a certain amount of technical training 
would be very valuable, not only for the head officials, but also for 
the persons of a lower grade, such as woodreeves, and bailiffs, and 
managers of small woodlands 1" "I think that, if possible, any 
education that was given in England ought to be made sufficiently 
economical to enable the class of wood managers and wood bailiffs 
to, at all events, participate in a portion of the lectures, which they 
might do. It would not be necessary for them to follow the higher 
course of study which one would wish a land agent to follow, but I 
should try to make the education such that there might be a portion 
of the course that would be suitable to every one without any undue 
expense; that, I think, we ought very carefully to keep in view." — 
" Supposing the case of a man who has the management of 500 or 
1000 acres of land : it would hardly pay to give him a large salary, 
but still he would benefit by eighteen months' or two years' training 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OX FORESTRY. 139 

in the forest school 1 " " Even if he got three or four months in 
two years mixed up with the rest of his education, it would be very 
valuable to him." — "He would be worth £.30 or £40 a year more 
than he would otherwise ? " " Yes, obviously."' 

" I know you have had a great opportunity of considering the 
subject, and if you would like to make any suggestions as to the 
management of our woodlands, the Committee would be very glad 
to hear you 1 " " Two years ago I gave a great deal of attention 
to the subject, when I was occupied under the India Office with Dr 
Brandis, and we then submitted two schemes for their consideration. 
My opinion is clear that we ought to utilise in some sort of way the 
existing means in the country of giving a general education, and to 
supplement that by giving a special forest education in some con- 
venient jjlace, where there should be a museum supplied with an 
instructor in forestry, who might give lectures on the subject, and 
conduct the pupils from time to time into different forests which he 
might select, with the view of explaining on the ground the teach- 
ing which he had given them in the lecture-room. Further, I think 
there ought to be some lectures on what I think is called physical 
botany, and especially that class of botany which refers to the 
growth of trees and the different natures of the different trees. I 
would put the school in the most central place I could find. I have 
been to Edinburgh, and I have also visited the South Kensington 
establishment in London. King's College and University College 
seem both to me to grant facilities for general education. You 
might have your examinations, say, in different standards for diffe- 
rent certificates. In the higher class, we will say, the land agents 
who would be in charge of large properties might attend a larger 
scheme of lectures, and the woodreeves and wood bailiffs might 
attend only the elementary lectures, say, upon physical botany and 
wood management. What is wanted in England is to teach the 
management of forests in an economical way. Then I would have 
a series of examinations granting certificates to those passing them." 
" Would your idea be to have a course of either two years or 
three years, say two years, in the lower grades, and in the third 
year a course of instruction up to a higher standard ? " " Quite 
so ; but I think the lower grades need not be occupied entirely 
with the two years' course. You might arrange the course 
of the lectures so that if you gave lectures on physiology, 
biology, and so on, at South Kensington, they would not be re- 
quired for the lower class of men. These might only attend for the 



140 REPORT OF THK SELKCT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 

course of forestry, forest management, elementary botany, perhaps, 
and so on, so that they need not spend their whole time in forest 
education, but might be carrying on their other education at the 
same time." — " Then it might be arranged that the instruction 
should be given at a particular period of the year, so that people 
engaged in the management of woodlands might come up at a par- 
ticular period of the year, as they do in Scotland 1" "I think you 
might supplement the system as much as possible ; I think, from 
inquiries I made as to the means of education at the disposal of the 
people, both in Edinburgh and London, that they are sufficient to 
afford the means of giving a forest education, if this special instruc- 
tion be added." — " I suppose it would be necessary in the case of 
any forest school, that you should have the opportunity of sending 
the students into woodlands to see the practical management on the 
spot, would it not 1 " " It would be absolutely necessary. Even 
as regards the growth of trees, if you tell a man that the oak will 
not grow alone, it is no use telling him so in the lecture-room, 
unless you take him out in the forest and show him where it is not 
succeeding by itself, and where it is succeeding with other trees." 
— " It would not be possible to leave it altogether to private enter- 
prise ; because it would be necessary to have access to woodlands 
of some extent?" "It would be absolutely necessary to have 
access to large woodlands." — " Do you think that even if no assist- 
ance were asked for from Government, it would be desirable that 
Government lands should be rendered available for the teaching of 
students in forest schools 1 " " Certainly, and I believe many of 
our private owners would open their lands willingly to the pupils. 
From my personal inquiries, I might say that there would be no 
difficulty in getting access for the pupils to the different forests." — 
" You think, as I gather from you, that a person who would be 
receiving £50 or £60 a year without any training might, after a 
year or two's training, be worth a good deal more V " He might 
be worth double his present salary." 

" You want men for the forest service of a superior class of 
general education, do you not, for the superior officers t " '• No ; 
speaking of the English forests, I do not think they are any of 
them of sufficient extent to allow for the salaries of highly paid 
men, and therefore you could not have them alone. But my view 
is that means should be put at the disposal of people who will 
become land agents to obtain a knowledge of forestry ; then they 
would be able to control their wood bailiffs ; and I would at the 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COAIMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 141 

same time give tlie wood bailiffs and managers a better education, so 
as to enable them to carry on their operations in a more intelligent 
manner than they do. But I do not think you could have a class 
of foresters in the same way as they do in Germany, where there 
are very large tracts to be managed, and where men make a pro- 
fession of it entirely ; I do not think you would get a very highly 
trained man to make a profession of forestry in England." 

" Suppose you took the class of young men who would spend 
two or three or four years in a university, and who had acquired 
the principal portion of their scientific education, and you opened 
a forestry school, and put any examination that is thought desir- 
able to mark the stage of education they had arrived at on entrance. 
Supposing them to be in a position to pass that examination in 
mathematics, and so on, what time do you think it would then 
take to put them through a course of forest education, specially ; 
would you say one year or two years 1" " If they had had a 
thoroughly good education before, one year would be enough ; if 
they were carrying on their other scientific education, which I 
think would be the best way, concurrently, then two years. In 
France a young man attending the Forest School at Nancy has to 
take his degree before he can compete ; either he must be bachelier 
es sciences, or else he must have passed through the Polytechnic 
School ; that at once involves a considerable amount of scientific 
education. Then he has two years in the forestry school. But a 
man in the school at Nancy continues his applied mathematics ; he 
continues his instruction in surveying, road making, machinery, 
certain elements of chemistry, minerals, and geology. If he is 
carrying on that concurrently, it would take two years, and I think 
that is the best way of teaching, because you could hardly spend 
the whole of your time in teaching a man forestry, else the whole 
of the forestry education could be done in one year. The more 
extended period also gives a better opportunity of taking the pupils 
into the forests at different times of the year ; that is to say, 
by spreading it over two years ; so that I think it should go on 
concurrently with his other education." — " You would say, taking 
a somewhat superior classman from the university or a public 
school, and submitting him to such examinations" as might be 
thought necessary to test the amount of education he had already 
got, that in two years subsequently to that you could fit him with 
a sufficient knowledge of forestry to make him a useful servant of 
the State for carrying out any forestry operations that would be 



142 niCPOUT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 

Jittempted ill tliis country ? " "Certainly; there are a good many 
of the German forest schools affiliated with the universities where 
the course is four years. Take Carlsruhe and Tubingen, in those 
cases there are three forest professors only who give lectures on 
forestry and forest management and botany, and then all the rest 
of the course is going on concurrently with the regular course in 
the university. It is only a portion of the time which is devoted 
to forestry instruction, and the rest of it is going on in the ordinary 
way. I think that is the best way of teaching them." — " In the 
first instance, you would probably have to deal with a class of 
young men who would be going to superior schools or universities 
lip to, say, their second year, taking them and submitting them to 
such an examination as you think necessary. Do you think that 
with such a special education in forestry of two years you would at 
the end of that time be able to turn tliem out fitted for the service 
of the State in this country for forest operations 1 " " Quite so ; 
they are very well taught in two years in Nancy. At Nancy they 
take sylviculture the first year ; that is to say, the growth of trees 
and the physical conditions of their growth. The second year they 
take amenagement, which is the management of forests and their 
economical treatment, felling, and management with regard to the 
production of a proper amount of revenue ; the two things are 
distinct ; they teach one thing the first year, and the other the 
second year." — " In addition to the system of forest school educa- 
tion, would it not be very desirable that something in the nature of 
forestry education should be added on to the curriculum of some of 
our universities, following the example which is set in some of the 
universities on the Continent 1" "I thought I said a little while 
ago that I did not think Oxford or Cambridge were suited to it, 
but I said that I should utilise the University College and King's 
College for the purpose, a forestry course being added on to the 
education given there." — " But for an expenditure, which you put 
at about £600 a year, there should be no insuperable difficulty in 
setting up at least one forest school in this country to begin with ? " 
" Certainly not ; I think the first thing would be to get a building, 
for we could then appoint the officers, and let them make a forest 
museum and the things that are necessary. Then I would set 
them to give lectures, and to that I would, if possible, superadd 
some lectures in what is called physical botany ; that is a necessary 
part of the forest education." 

Have you sufficient knowledge of the existing woods in England 



REPOET OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OX FORESTRY. 1 13 

or Scotland to say whether it would not be possible to carry out a 
course of practical instruction in some of these forests without having 
recourse to the French schools, against which exists the difficulty 
you have already mentioned, of the want of knowledge of the 
language 1 " " The only difficulty is that the English and Scottish 
forests are so young. I do not know myself one mature forest at 
the present time in England or Scotland. There is no doubt that 
a great part of the instruction might be carried out in the English 
and Scottish forests ; but besides the growth of trees, there is one 
very important part of the instruction — namely, the removal of the 
crop — which you cannot do at home, because the forests are not 
matured ; you cannot get that without going abroad for a certain 
time. You would not have to take much of a tour, but if you 
want to teach young men what concerns the removal of the timber, 
that cannot be done in this country, because it is not ripe." — " You 
mean a proper system of laying out a forest, so as to cut it in 
certain proportions ? " " Yes ; removal with a view to reproduc- 
tion, which should be natural, no doubt ; because after you have 
once established a forest, ycm should never require to plant it 
again." — " I suppose there is no forest in this country where they 
have adopted the block system of felling and management, or the 
French system known as tire et aire ? " " I saw a very good 
natural reproduction of larch in the Earl of Seafield's forests, which 
showed me that it could be done, and also of Scots fir at Lord 
Lovat's, whose wood manager, Atr Dewar, is a very intelligent 
man." — " Still, on the whole, it is substantially true that there is 
no scientific laying out of forests in England as on the Continent, 
with the view of cutting them down in successive crops ? " " Cer- 
tainly not. I think Mr Dewar mentioned that Lord Lovat had 
instituted the system which we have on the Continent, which, how- 
ever, was very much interfered with by the deer forests ; but still 
the thing is more or less done on correct principles. He told me 
that the late Lord Lovat had instituted that system himself, and I 
have no doubt he had seen it on the Continent." — " But a deer 
forest has not necessarily a stick of timber in it ? " " No. I said 
it was very much interfered with by the deer forest, because Mr 
Dewar told us that he could only go into the forest five months in 
the year, and those were the months when it was least desirable 
he should be there ; but that at the time when he wanted most 
to be there, he was prevented by the lease of the shooting from 
going in, the forest being leased to an American gentleman." — 



144 KKI'OKT OF THE SKI.KCT COMMFTTKE OX KOKKSTKV. 

" Are we to understand tliat you would think it absolutely neces- 
sary, in order to train men to this system of cutting and removing 
the timber, that they should visit at stated periods of the year some 
of the great French or German forests 1 " " To get complete 
instruction, yes ; but they might learn a lot of useful knowledge 
without going there." 

" Do you attach very great importance to the establishment of a 
forest school in this country, having regard to the state of our 
forests 1 " " Certainly. If possible it ought to supply a kind of 
education which would reach as low as possible ; that is to say, as 
low a class of officials as possible, so that the wood managers and 
the smallest paid men should be able to attend. I think that is 
very important. Perhaps I might be allowed to add that there are 
a number of bodies who ,are interested in the instruction and 
education of land agents, and I think it would be a great thing to 
interest them in the question also. At present the Surveyor's 
Institution, I believe, does something in the way of instructing its 
pupils in forestry, and if they were interested in the question of 
education, they would probably bring their pupils to the school and 
send them through it." — " Are there not in a great many of the 
Scottish forests young foresters very well practically instructed in 
the management of timber for commercial purposes 1" "If you 
were to say practically very well instructed, I should say not ; but 
there are many of them exceedingly intelligent men, who, by rule 
of thumb and by the experience which has been handed down to 
them, have learned the system of planting and growing trees 
exceedingly well. And that I think was also the impression of the 
French foresters who came over with me, that in those respects they 
had nothing very much to teach them, and certainly it was of 
myself. But there are points on which knowledge is required. In 
one forest, in which a great number of trees were blown down (we 
saw a great number on the ground), we were certainly of opinion 
that the damage might have been saved by a fringe of birch, which 
would have grown perfectly well above the Scots fir. They 
ought to have been planted to keep the wind out of the ravines, 
but instead of that they planted Scots fir right up the top of the 
ravines, the wind got amongst them, and knocked them down like 
a field of corn." — " Like spillikins, as a Scottish proprietor de- 
scribed it to me 1 " " Yes, we certainly thought that a fringe of birch 
would have grown perfectly well at the top of the hill, and if it 
had been planted above the Scots fir, it would have kept the wind 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 145 

out of the fir, so that a little scientific training would have saved 
a great deal of loss." — " Does not the system of planting wind- 
breaks, as they are called in America, where they run sometimes 
100 miles or more, require a considerable knowledge of something 
more than the mere growing of trees 1" "I can speak of a forest 
of larch, which is very near the place where I live, in Radnorshire ; 
a magnificent forest, which has succeeded in every way. Seeing 
that was so successful, the late owner planted the opposite side of 
the hill with larch too, and that has been an entire failure. I took 
one of the French professors over with me last year, and we at once 
came to the conclusion that the first forest was planted in a proper 
' exposition,' as we call it, that is, suitable to the growth of the 
larch, whereas the other was not, because one was dying away, 
though it was not attacked by disease, while the other was doing 
perfectly well." . 

" Do you think a practical course of two or three months might 
be advantageous to those who are not rich [such as the sons of 
foresters, farmers, ground-olEcers, and others], and could afford only 
a short space of time ] " "I think a chair of forestry at the 
Edinburgh University, where many of those young men go, with a 
course of lectures of three months (because I do not think any man 
could give a course of lectures that would be any practical use at 
all under three months), would greatly meet the want. Part of this 
might be in the school and part education in the forest ; I know 
that a good many of these young men, who are farmers' sons and the 
like, do go to Edinburgh and get an excellent education for a small 
sum ; they might give a certain number of months of their time up 
to learning forestry, and the more the better, as the more knowledge 
they would be able to get the more capable men they would be. I 
think that would have the best possible effect in Scotland." — 
" Have you any great faith in teaching 1 " " Lectures in the school 
I have actually no faith in unless illustrated by practical instruction. 
If you tell a man in the lecture-room that such and such conse- 
quences will take place, and do not show him the consequences on 
the spot, he does not believe anything about it ; it goes in at one 
ear and out at the other ; he will think it all nonsense ; but if you 
want to impress your teaching upon him you must take him out 
into the forest and show him the operations of nature." — " He 
would have to plant trees, I suppose 1 " " He would have to learn 
that under a wood manager ; he would have to find time to dovetail 
that in, but it would not form part of the school instruction. In 



14G IfEPORT OF TIIR SRLKOT ('OMMITTRrC ON FORRSTRY. 

the forest schools I would teach all the itriuciples upon which trees 
grow and are produced, and the ])rinciples of germination of the 
seed." — " Would you think that the course of education indicated 
by my honourable friend the member for Dublin County [Dr Lyons], 
was a little too ambitious in its scope 1 What the honourable 
member suggests is very excellent ; it is perfectly right in theory, 
but in practice would you get the men to come to you V "I think 
you would got more ])upils under your system than you would under 
his, but I do not know why you should offer a low system of 
education. I would raise my standard of education as high as 
possible ; that is to say, I would have the lectures so arranged that 
the pupils who commence, we will say, and proceed up to a certain 
point should profit according to their wants equally as those who 
carried on their studies further." — " But you will not get university 
men to come to the school and go through this course of training, 
unless there is some inducement held out : what occupation would 
these men get afterwards?" " They might go to the Indian forests 
if the Indian forests were open to them ; or they might go to the 
colonial forests, where, undoubtedly, there will be a demand now in 
due course." — " But with regard to the English woods 1 " " The 
higher educated men would not easily find remunerative employ- 
ment in English woods." — " What we want would be practical 
foresters, whom you would pay at the rate of £100 a year or so V 
" The practical education you would want for that man would be 
the same as for the higher man ; but you would carry on their 
education to the point only to which it suited them to go, and to 
which they could afford to go." 

" The class of men who would be educated in such a school of 
forestry as you speak of would be able to earn a fair living, would 
they not, as travelling foresters, going about and giving directions, 
and laying out, as a sort of advanced landscape gardener 1" "As 
advisers I think the superior class of men might. My idea would 
be to make the education accessible to all ; I would have a course 
of lectures which would commence from the beginning, from simple 
subjects and with simple experiments, going on to higher subjects 
such as Dr Lyons keeps in view. If you pay a man, you may just 
as well keep him at work. I would first give an elementary course, 
then a more advanced course, and then a little more advanced 
course still ; the wood manager would attend the first, the land 
agent the second, and the man who wanted a thorough education 
would attend the three terms, or something of that kind. In that 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 147 

way I think you miglit try to suit it to all ; but I think it must be 
made cheap enough, and the means made accessible to the lower 
class of wood manager, as well as to the higher, if you want a 
practical result." — " But we were talking of the possibility of such 
a school paying, and the class of students that would go there ; you 
were only asked with regard to agents who would want such a study 
as a part of their agency business, and also with regard to the lower 
class of foresters who would not be able to afford to pay the higher 
fees ; but do not you think there would be a class of men who 
would take up forestry as a profession altogether, as advisers to go 
about and examine woods 1 There would be many a man who has 
a good deal of wood, but who still does not keep a forester of his 
own, to whom such professional assistance would be valuable 1 " 
" I would make the education complete : but for that purpose you 
mention I think the men ought to go throvigli the complete course ; 
they ought to go to the Continent. I would not give them a first- 
class certificate without." 

"In answer to an honourable Member, you said that the school 
might be applied to two or three classes of pupils, some of them 
gentlemen's sons and farmers' sons, with a view to their combining 
a knowledge of forestry with land agency, and then there would be 
labourers %vho would do the felling and the planting and the labour- 
ing work of the school ] " "I would hardly include the labourers ; 
I do not think those would want instruction — they generally do 
their work very well in most places. The three classes would be, 
first, wood managers or bailiffs, who would get from £60 to £70 a 
year ; then there would be the land agent who directs them, and 
who it is most desirable should have a little knowledge, as he would 
be able to direct and advise what planting should be done, and 
what timber should be felled, and all that branch of work, which is 
often very much mismanaged. Then, finally, I would carry on the 
instruction so that you could have a higher class of men who could 
either act as agents in the Colonies or as advisers at home." — "We 
have had evidence to show that woodlands are very much mis- 
managed generally, and that they are intrusted to the class of wood- 
men?" "Yes, I have heard of that." — "Could not you make the 
schools available for the instruction of our woodmen, because there 
is no doubt that the management upon large estates must depend 
upon the managers, the wood-men, more or less 1" "I would make 
the elementary instruction such that anybody who had a decent 
education could benefit by it ; but, of course, such a man cannot be 

VOL. XL, PART IL L 



148 REPORT OV THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 

a perfect forester, because he does not know a lot of things tliat 
scientific education alone can impart, and which it would be iinp<^s- 
sible for him to understand unless he had a scientific knowledge of 
a number of things which a man of that class would not know." — 
" I do not know whether you are aware that at the Agricultural 
College at Cirencester the higher class of pupils have labourers who 
attend them from time to time, and who go out afterwards as 
bailiffs, but who acquire a certain knowledge of farm management 
by being attached to the College, which enables them to get better 
places than that of mere bailiffs 1 " " Without saying anything 
about the school at Cirencester, which I have seen, that is quite the 
right principle to go on." — " So that a School of Forestry might be 
educating a certain number of men who are in the position of 
labourers, who, having obtained a sujjerior knowledge of the best 
mode of managing woods, might ultimately go out as woodmen?" 
" No doubt. I would be in favour of making the education as com- 
prehensive and bringing it down as low as possible." 

*'You think that if the Government would give facilities, the 
New Forest or the Forest of Dean would be good localities for 
affording instruction on the spot ] " " There is one spot in the 
Forest of Dean which is especially suitable for instruction, and that 
is the High Meadow Woods. The only thing is that in the Forest 
of Dean you can show little or nothing as regards the management 
of conifers ; both that and the New Forest are mainly leaf forests, 
and you would want to take a man into some forest where the larch 
is planted by itself, because that involves totally different require- 
ments from the trees which you see in the Forest of Dean. jNIr 
Symonds thought he could teach a good deal in Windsor about 
conifers, but when I was there I had not sufficient time to go into 
the question as to whether the plantations about the Windsor 
Forest are sufficiently varied, because it is a very important thing 
that the forest in which you give the instruction should be consider- 
ably varied. You require every variation of soil, climate, and 
exposure." — " But practically for the experimental w^orks those two 
localities would afford a commencement 1- " " They w'ould afford a 
certain field. It would be for the professor who had the instruction 
to give, to say what facilities he wanted ; but I do not think, from 
what I saw myself in going round the English and Scottish forests, 
that there is the least indisposition on the part of many of the great 
owners of forest lands to allow pupils to be conducted through their 
woods. After all, the teaching is merely a question of example. 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 149 

You want to show that the things which are taught in the lecture- 
room actually take place in the forest. It is no use to tell a man 
tliat beech makes a suitable nursery for oak, unless you show him 
under what conditions it is so, and what precautions must be taken 
when you mix beech with oak to keep the beech from getting above 
the oak, and so on." 

Mr W. T. Thiseltox Dyer, C.M.G., F.E.S., Assistant Director 
(now Director) of the Royal Gardens, Kew, was next called in, and, 
in the course of his examination, stated as follows : — 

" You have paid great attention to the management of forests 
and woodlands ? " "My attention has been drawn to the general 
subject of forestry from the fact that Kew performs to a large 
extent the part of a botanical authority to the Government, and a 
number of questions affecting botanical work of different kinds are 
referred to Kew, which it is my special business to attend to. 
Amongst these, of course, from time to time, are questions relating 
to forestry, and although I have not myself, like the last witness. 
Colonel Pearson, any practical knowledge of the management of 
forests, I have been compelled, of course, to look into the subject, 
but more especially with regard to the colonies rather than with 
regard to this country." 

" Would you be prepared to state now to the Committee what 
you would yourself suggest in order to improve the present state of 
affairs, or if the Committee were to ask leave to sit during the next 
session would you prefer to wait till then to give us your views in 
any further detail as to what plan it would be advisable to adopt 
in this country 1 " " For my part I do not profess to have sufficient 
practical acquaintance with the details of the subject to be willing to 
undertake to elaborate a scheme ; but the Committee has been so 
well supplied with technical advice from the evidence tliey have heard 
from Dr Cleghorn and Colonel Pearson, that I should only be too 
glad in any way I could to support their suggestions. But what 
strikes me is that the reasonable way to proceed, if it could be 
done, is to make the demand for India a kind of nucleus of a 
school, because that is a constant quantity ; it must go on. We 
are practically going to undertake in this country the education of 
a number of foresters for India, and it appears to me to be a pity 
that where you have an inevitable centre of forest education you 
should not utilise it in the second place for the education of such 
gentlemen as wish to undertake colonial service ; and thirdly, for 



1/50 REPORT OF TIIK SELECT COMMITTEE OS FORESTRY. 

the instruction of land agents and persons competent to give advice 
as to our own woods." — "You think it would be regrettable if arrange- 
ments were made for the training of Indian officials which did not 
admit of other students obtaining access to the same school?" 
" It appears to me that it would be little short of monstrous. I 
can quite understand that upon administrative grounds what the 
Indian Government does is like the operations of a foreign country ; 
the Government of India will educate those people at its own cost, 
and in a manner perfectly distinct from anything which the Im- 
perial Government does ; but that appears to be the only difficulty 
of a substantial character. I cannot conceive that any difficulty 
of administration could not be overcome, and that the appliances 
required for one thing would not be extended to the other." — " It 
would probably be of advantage to the Indian Government that the 
schools should be open to other students ; it would diminish the 
expense for instance ? " " Certainly, one would hope that they 
would have professors really competent to teach the most accurate 
kind of knowledge, and it would increase the interest of the pro- 
fessors to have a large class, rather than to be entrusted with the care 
of only a few men." — "The fees imposed in the Cooper's Hill School 
appear to be £180 a year ; that might be quite reasonable under 
the conditions of the Indian forest service, but would you not con- 
sider it to be upon too high a scale for a general forest school 1 " 
" It strikes me as rather a high rate of expenditure ; it amounts 
practically to the cost of a university education. There are many 
men who go to Oxford and Cambridge who do not spend more 
than that sum ; that of course fixes it as an education of a costly 
kind." — " Speaking generally, your view is that the Indian school 
might be utilised as a nucleus of a forest school, and that its being 
thrown open to others upon the same conditions which would 
make it accessible to forest students, would be of advantage to the 
owners of woodlands generally; is that your impression?" "I 
think that can be hardly doubted ; there might be a difficulty in 
mixing the two classes of students, but that might be met by 
taking the lower classes of men in short courses during the 
vacation." 

" Your idea would be to make the school of forestry applicable 
to India and the colonies as well as to our own country ?" " I 
should like to get all the fish possible into the net ; and, if we had 
such a school, to make it as useful as possible. I think it is sur- 
prising, considering how large is the interest of the English race in 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OX FORESTRY. 151 

forestry, that, except in India, we have taken no kind of active 
interest in the subject ; although we own more forests iu the world 
than any other race, we are at present, except in the most piece- 
meal fashion, absolutely washing our hands of the whole business." 
— " Do you consider that if we had had a school of forestry in 
England, we should have been able to send foresters to Cyprus, 
and that by this time the replanting of Cyprus, which has been 
begun by the Government, would have been further advanced than 
it has been ] " " It is difficult to say, because the gentlemen who 
have taken the work in hand have done their best." — " You think 
there would be no practical difficulty in making the school available 
both for British and colonial sylviculture V "1 think not, because 
there is no great mystery in sylviculture, but what you want is 
some one who has a sufficient amount of practical and scientific 
knowledge behind him to be able to say to a colony, ' You must not 
cut down the forest along that ridge, because if you do, you wUl 
dry up the water there and let in the hot wind.' The scientific 
forester sees things which other kinds of men do not see. And 
these matters are not scientific theories ; they are based upon 
common sense, and consequently can be pointed out and explained 
in such a way to the colonial residents that they will agree when the 
thing is once explained to them. The colonists do not do these 
things out of innate wickedness, but because the thing has not been 
pointed out to them ; they have often not been long resident in the 
country, and they do not know its local conditions ; and when they 
find, as they have done in Natal, that the destruction of the forest 
alters the physical conditions of the colony, they want to know why 
they have not some one to teach them ; they want persons who will 
advise them. The Government of South Australia got their forest 
officer from Canada (that is an instance of the condition to which 
the colonists have been reduced) to show them what to do." — 
" Suppose a school of forestry were established in England, what 
would you say would be the best locality to establish a school for 
sylviculture?" " It is rather difficult to say." — "Should you say 
Kew ] " " There are some advantages at Kew ; there is a great 
store of information there ; but there is not a scrap of English 
woodland there." — " It is near Windsor ] " " It is ; but I am not 
sufficiently a practical forester myself to say how far the woods at 
Windsor would give the instruction needed. I should be rather 
disposed to place the school somewhere near the metropolis, because 
I am strongly inclined to think that the education of forest students 



152 UKPOIIT OF THK SICLIX'T COMMITTEE 0\ KOKESTHY. 

cannot be completely con(lucte<l in tliis country ; it seems to me 
tliat the forests, especially in France, are so extremely instructive, 
that wo sliall be obliged to send the students over there for a 
country excursion for a few weeks ; even with my own amateur 
knowledge I could see in the Vosges that a week spent there was 
worth a month of reading about it." . 

Do not you think it very desirable that there should be a class of 
highly instructed foresters, be they many or few, trained in a college 
in this country ; is not there an ample field, both at home and in 
the colonies, for employment for some men, at all events, of very 
superior education, as foresters?" "I should think so. With 
regard, for example, to a matter in which I think you [Dr Lyons] 
yourself are very much interested, namely, the development of 
forestry in Ireland ; that would certainly require for its inception 
forest officials of a superior grade." — " I mean with regard to the 
general question of forestry in those countries. Supposing it should 
be hereafter the intention of the Government to adopt a system of 
extending the forests in this country ; is not the laying out of a 
forest, as to the site on which it should be placed, the best mode of 
planting, and all that, a matter which requires a very superior class 
of education]" "It seems to me that the whole thing depends 
upon your having a competent man to direct it ; if it is not done 
properly at the start, of course it never can possibly be successful." 
— " It is not a thing which could be safely entrusted to persons who 
are merely educated as solicitors in this country 1 " " That is 
exactly the fallacy that Mons. Broillard attacks. Every one thinks 
that forestry matters can be managed by the light of nature, 
whereas to get any successful results they require a very consider- 
able amount of technical skill." — " There is no doubt that anybody 
desirous of attaining a high class of technical education should also 
have an opportunity of instruction in practical forestry 1" " Yes, 
because you require continiious practical attention in forestry, and 
the minor persons are required to conduct and superintend the 
detailed operations upon which the continued success of the forest 
depends." 

Mr Julian C. Rogers, Secretary to the Surveyors' Institution, 
was the last witness examined, and stated as follows : — 

"You have given a very considerable amount of attention to the 
question of colonial timber, have you not ?" " The question has come 
under my notice from time to time, and at one period I devoted a 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OX FORESTRY. loo 

considerable amount of time to it ; the result. I think, is before the 
Committee." — " This report, which is entitled ' Colonial Timber : 
An Analysis of Returns in reply to queries relating to Colonial 
Timber,' was prepared by you, was it not ?" " Yes." — " It was 
presented to Parliament, and published as a Parliamentary Paper in 
the year 1878?" "It was." — "It goes over a long range of subjects, 
and includes returns relating to the principal colonies ; the West 
Indian Islands amongst others 1 " " It deals with the whole of 
the British dependencies, with the exception of India." — " So it 
may be taken that we have elsewhere with regard to India the 
supplements with regard to the other dependencies of the Crown 1 " 
" That is so ; it was, in fact, the first general view of the timber 
question as aflfecting the colonies that was presented. At another 
time I shall be happy to state how that publication arose." 

" Did you hear the evidence given before the Committee to-day 
in reference to the institution of a forest school ? " "I did, 
some of it." — " Do you concur in that evidence ] " "I con- 
cur entirely in the general advisability of instituting a forest 
school." — " And you have formed some opinions, I believe, as to the 
sources whence pupils would be dra%vn to such a school ; do you 
think it is likely there would be a considerable accession of pupils 
to such a school if opened on suitable terms, and in some central 
place in England 1 " " I think, perhaps, the best answer to that 
question is the number of land agency candidates whom we get in 
connection with our corporation examinations. Our examinations 
are held every year under three heads, chiefly land agency, chiefly 
valuation, and chiefly building ; the number of land agency can- 
didates we get is on the average from fifteen to eighteen a year, 
and the number is growing considerably. Examinations have only 
been instituted under the charter during the last five years ; the 
number of candidates is increasing almost every year, and I appre- 
hend that in time they will amount to a very considerable number. 
One of the subjects to which we attach great importance is the 
subject of forestry, upon which we have not only a written 
examination, but also a practical examination in the field ; it is a 
subject which we mark very high among our subjects of examina- 
tion, and it is one to which we desire to attach more and more im- 
portance as our system develops. I think in all probability a very 
large accession of numbers might be calculated upon from the land 
agency class, who are, after all, the class in this country the most 
interested in the question of forestry." — " Could you give the Com- 



151 HKI'ORT ()!• TIIK SEM'.CT CO.MMITTKK ON KORKSTRY. 

mittee a rough idea of the number you would expect ? " " It would 
depend very much upon the nature of the system of instruction. 
If it were such a system of instruction as would involve a pro- 
longed residence, say, a year or two, it would have a tendency 
to seriously diminish the number of candidates ; but if it were such 
a system as involved a residence of not more than two or three 
months, terminating with an examination, I think a large number 
of land agency candidates would avail themselves of it." 

" You think much public advantage would be likely to accrue from 
the dissemination of a more accurate and trained knowledge of forestry 
amongst this class of persons you refer to, operating each in his 
own district of country 1" "I think a large amount of good would 
result. I am not of the opinion that there is much ignorance 
amongst land agents with regard to forestry ; but I am of opinion 
that what knowledge there is requires gathering up and systeraat- 
ising, and I think that would be done very well by a school of 
forestry." — " Is it consistent with your knowledge that the desire 
to see forestry more widely extended throughout the country is 
growing very considerably amongst this class of persons, and 
amongst proprietors and others interested V "I think the pro- 
prietors are coming to see the very great importance of forestry, 
and I certainly think that land agents are turning their attention 
more and more to the acquiring of a scientific knowledge of the 
subject of forestry. We have the best possible test of the state of 
feeling upon the subject in our examinations, and in the papers 
which are read before the Institution upon subjects connected with 
forestry." 

"I understand that the opinions you have expressed as to 
the desirability of instituting a school of forestry have reference 
to the requirements of this country as well as to the requirements 
of India 1" " I am speaking mainly with regard to this country, 
but I believe it would be a very valuable source from which foresters 
might be drawn to fill appointments in the colonies ; and what 
the state of things is in the colonies, from the want of scientific 
forestry, is revealed in the report which is before you." 

This closed the evidence taken by the Committee during the 
only two days it was able to devote to the work of examination of 
witnesses. 



THE INDIAN FOREST SCHOOL. 155 

YIII. The Indian Forest School. By Major F. Bailey, R.E., 
F.R.G.S., Director of the Forest School, Dehra Dun, N.W.P., 
India,* 

It is only within the last twenty-five years or so that a special 
State Department has been in existence for the management of 
the Indian forests. Mr Brandis, who has lately retired from the 
office of Inspector-General of Forests, was mainly instrumental in 
organising the new institution, and he remained at the head of it 
until 1883. The superior staff was at first composed of selected 
civil or military officers who were thought to possess a natural 
aptitude for the work, but they had not received a professional 
education such as is given on the continent of Europe to officers 
charged with the management of State forests. At first, when 
the duties of the new department consisted mainly in acquiring 
control over the principal wooded areas in the country, and 
in preventing the unauthorised felling of trees upon them, a 
stafi" thus organised was all that was required, and Mr Brandis 
has repeatedly testified to the great value of the work accomplished 
by his subordinates in those early days. But the natural result 
of this work was, that the State became responsible for the efficient 
management of very extensive areas of forest land, which pos- 
sessed gi-eat prospective value, and from which it was necessary 
to secvire a permanent sujiply of timber and other prodvice to 
meet local demands both public and private. This could only be 
accomplished by introducing a regular system of management, 
which would prevent the removal from the forests of more timber 
than their growth could re))lace, and which would secure their 
regeneration either naturally or by artificial means, such as plant- 
ing and sowing. It was further necessary that the forests should 
be made to yield the maximum amount of produce and the largest 
surplus revenue that they were capable of with due regard to 
their maintenance and improvement, and that all work in them 
should be done in the manner most likely to gain the desired 
ends, so that money should not be squandered on failures. 

Questions of this kind had been studied for generations on the 
European continent, but very little was at that time known 
about them either in India or in England ; and to enable him 
to make a beginning in. the great work which lay before him, 
Mr Bi-andis obtained, in 1866, the services of two trained Gei'man 

* Read at the Britisli Association Meeting at Aberdeen, 1885. 



156 THE INDIAN FOUEST SCHOOL. 

forest oilicers, wlio liad already gained practical experience by 
service in their own country. At the same time, acting under 
the orders of the Secretary of State for India, he made arrange- 
ments for the instruction, at the French and Gei-man forest 
schools, of a number of candidates for the Indian Forest Depart- 
ment. The first students were sent to these schools in 1^67 ; 
but after 1871 no more of them were sent to Germany, as it 
■was found more convenient to concentrate all the instruction 
in France, and although arrangements are now being made to 
carry on the theoretical instruction in England, the candidates 
continue to pass through the French school to the present day. 
Ninety-one officers trained in this manner have been sent out 
to India. The advantages which have accrued from the system 
adopted in 1866 have been incalculable, and the enormous strides 
that have been made in forest management in India are mainly 
due to the large number of professionally-trained men with whom 
the department has been recruited. 

But up to 1869 nothing whatever had been done towards the 
professional education of the subordinate ranks. As the nature 
of the work in the forests gradually emerged from that of simple 
protection, and as operations requiring professional skill and ex- 
perience began to be undertaken in localities at long distances 
from one another, it became impossible for the European oflicers 
to exercise the increased supervision over the large areas with 
the management of which they had hitherto been charged ; 
neither could their number be largely increased, for this would 
have thrown too heavy a burden on the finances of the depart- 
ment; and thus it became necessary to subdivide the "divisions," 
as they are called, into a number of smaller charges under the 
executive control of natives of the country, and it was obviously 
necessary that these latter should receive a sufficient amount of 
professional education to enable them to carry out the orders 
they might receive from their immediate superior, the "divisional 
officer." No facilities, however, existed in India for the giving 
of this instruction, and Mr Brandis submitted to the .Government 
proposals which embraced — 

1. The organisation of the subordinate staff in the different 

provinces on a definite footing. 

2. The selection of a certain number of apprentices, who, 

having received some practical training under selected 



THE INDIAN FOREST SCHOOL. 157 

officers in their own provinces, should be sent to Roorkee 
or some other civil engineering college, in order to go 
through a course of mathematics, surveying and civil 
engineering. 

The first of these proposals was declined by Government, but the 
second was accepted with some modifications, and twelve appren- 
tices were ordered to be selected. The scheme, which was only 
intended as a temporary arrangement, did not, however, turn out 
a success ; in some cases the men were not judiciously selected, in 
others want of organisation in the subordinate grades of the de- 
partment led to a difficulty and delay in appointing them to 
suitable posts ; while it became too much the custom to use the 
apprentices, during their period of practical training, before en- 
trance to the college, in assisting current work rather than in 
learning their profession, and the system consequently fell into 
disuse. In the Korth- Western Provinces an attempt was then 
made to train candidates at the Civil Engineering College at 
Roorkee under a somewhat different arrangement, and in the 
Central Provinces a system of training apprentices was also 
commenced, while the Government suggested that the chief forest 
officers of the vai'ious provinces should seek for suitable men 
among the ordinary students at the Civil Engineering Colleges, 
and this was also tried. In 1876, Sir Richard Temple, then 
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of Bengal, contemplated the 
establishment of a local school of forestry, but the project was not 
carried out, neither did any of the proposed arrangements give 
results that were considered completely satisfactory. 

Things went on in this way until 1878, when Mr Brandis laid 
before the Government detailed proposals for the establishment of 
a Central Forest School, remarking that the necessary outlay 
would be covered within a few years by incTeased revenue 
produced under a stronger staff with more systematic manage- 
ment; and he added, that "a new ei-a of forestry would commence, 
and a new impulse would be given to progress, by the professional 
education of Forest Rangers and Foresters." The Government, 
by a Resolution of the 1st July 1878, accepted these recommen- 
dations and ordered that a school should be established. It was 
said that the chief objects were to prepai'e natives of the different 
Provinces of India for the executive charge of forest ranges, and 
to enable forest rangers to qualify themselves for promotion to 



1.58 TIIK INDIAN FOREST .SCHOOL, 

the superior stall'. It was pointed out that the existing system, 
under which tlie officers of the superior staflf were trained 
abroad, presented great disadvantages; that India was dependent 
on Europe for the education of its officers, while it possessed 
ample means of teaching thein in its own forests if a properly 
organised system were set on foot; that the natives of India, 
whom it was extremely desirable to employ in all gi-ades of the 
Forest Department, could not, without a prolonged visit to 
Europe, obtain that systematic training which was necessary to 
render them competent to fill even the executive offices, and that 
on their account, as well as on that of others, the establishment of 
a school in India for the scientific teaching of the principles and 
practice of forestry had long been looked upon by the Govern- 
ment as an object to be efl^ected. The Resolution of Government 
stated that the school would at first be utilised for the education 
of officers for the executive branch of the service, but that it 
was hoped ultimately to admit candidates for the controlling 
branch. The chief forest officers (conservators) of the various 
provinces were to select the candidates, who, after passing some 
time in learning practical work, were to be sent up to the school 
to follow the courses, returning after the completion of their 
studies for employment in their respective provinces. It was felt 
that this was the only way in which the selection of candidates 
could be eflected ; for if the men had been chosen by the Director 
of the school, they would probably, generally speaking, have been 
inhabitants of the North- Western Provinces, who would con- 
sequently have been unsuited for employment in many of the other 
provinces. The use of the school by Conservators of Forests, to 
train the men selected by them, was to be entirely permissive, 
and it was not at first made available for men from the Madras 
and Bombay Presidencies, while none but natives of India 
were to be admitted. At that time there were 15,000 square 
miles of demarcated forests in the Bengal Presidency, and it 
was said that if 25 square miles were taken as the average size of 
a range, 600 trained rangers would eventually be required. The 
then-existing staflf of rangers and foresters consisted of 327 men, 
a portion of which number it was necessary to recruit from the 
lower ranks (forest guards), and hence it was thought that the 
number of trained rangers might be put at 200, and that 10 men 
sent out annually from the school would suffice to recruit a staff of 
that strength. It was determined to group together a number of 



THE IXDIAX FOREST SCHOOL. 159 

forests situated in one locality, so as to form a training ground 
for the students, and to place them under the charge of a separate 
Conservator of Forests, who should also be Director of the school. 
Several places suggested themselves as being suitable for this pur- 
pose : there were the Dehra Dun, Jaunsar, and Bhugiratti divi- 
sions of the North- Western Provinces, the Daijeeling and Jal- 
paigori divisions of Bengal, as well as certain forests in the 
Central Provinces and the Punjab ; but the choice fell, ultimately, 
on the North- Western Provinces divisions, which were con- 
sidered specially suitable on the following gi-ounds — 

1. They comprised a sufficient area of demarcated forest pre- 

senting a great variety of vegetation ; they had been 
])rotected for a long time, and in some portion of them 
the demand was equal to the supply. 

2. The forests were of great financial importance, and in them 

were to be found instructive arrangements for the trans- 
port of timber. 

3. Some of the forests contained conifers and oaks similar to 

the European species, and the experience gained in Eui'ope 
could thus be directly utilised in their management. 

4. A portion of the forests was free of rights, and where rights 

existed they wei'e clearly defined ; fire protection and 
plantation work were also in progress. 

5. Hindustani is the language of the North- Western Provinces, 

and it is also spoken in the Punjab, Ajmere, Oudh, 
and pai't of Bengal, as well as in the Central Provinces 
and in Berdr, Further than this, the head-quarters 
of the Forest Survey Department were at Dehra Dun, 
and it was proposed to unite the two offices of Superin- 
tendent of Forest Sui'veys and Director of the Forest 
School. 

The locality once fixed upon, it became necessary to provide an 
efficient staflf of officers to work under the Director, in order both 
to bring the school forests as rapidly as possible into a condition 
in which they could advantageously be used as a training ground, 
and to impai't theoretical instruction in the lecture room, as well 
as to give practical instruction in the forests. It was necessary 
to draw up working-plans or schemes of management, to establish 
experiiuental plots which could be systematically subjected 
to different kinds of treatment, to form a library, a chemical 



IGO TIIK INDIAN FOREST SCHOOL. 

laboratory, a meteorological observatory, a forest garden and other 
things. A -Board of Inspection was appointed to examine the plans 
of operations and generally to advise the Director of the school. 
The age of admission was fixed, a medical examination was pre- 
scribed, and the minimum standard of educational acquirements 
on entrance was laid down, the programme of studies at the 
school being indicated. Fees for instruction at the school were 
not to be chaiged, but eight scholarships of fifteen rupees a 
month each were placed at the disposal of the Inspector-General 
of Forests. Passed students were to be entitled to receive an 
appointment, paid at the rate of twenty rupees a month, within 
three months of their leaving the school. 

The Director was appointed and the school was officially con- 
stituted from the 1st September 1878 ; but the needful staff of 
officers could not be provided at once, and as they were by de- 
grees made available, they were employed in organising the forests ; 
so that, althougli a few men were received and given such practical 
instruction as was possible, it was not until the summer of 
1881 that the first theoretical course was held in the school. 
This, as well as the subsequent courses, was attended by a small 
number of officers of the superior staff, who had not had the 
advantage of a professional training in Europe. It was not 
found possible at that time to impart instruction in the vernacular 
of the country, but care was taken that all the students were 
familiar with the English language. 

The ex])ei4ence gained during the first year led to certain 
modifications being made in the system as originally proposed, 
and these were adopted in 1882. A course has been held every 
year since then, and the system has been gradually improved 
and developed, until it now stands as follows : — Candidates 
are selected either by the Director of the school or by the 
Conservators of Forests of the various provinces. They must on 
admission be between eighteen and twenty-five years of age and 
must furnish a certificate of sound health, including good vision and 
hearing. The officer who selects them must satisfy himself that they 
ai-e of good moral character and have active habits, fair powers of 
observation and sense of locality. They must have proved their 
fitness for forest work by previous service in the subordinate stafl' 
of the department for not less than twelve months. There are two 
courses at the school ; one in English for the Rangers' Certificate, 
and the other in Hindustani for the Foresters' Certificate. Candi- 



THE IXDIAX FOREST SCHOOL. 161 

dates for tlie formei- must have passed the entrance examination 
of an Indian university on the English side, while candidates 
for the latter must have passed a lower examination and have a 
competent knowledge of Urdu or Hindi. The students are re- 
quired to assemble on the 25th June of each year. The course of 
training for the Rangers' Certificate extends over eighteen 
months and that for the Foresters' Certificate over twelve months. 
The Director has power to dismiss any student for misconduct 
and to remand any man who is not sufficiently promising. 
Successful students who have obtamed the higher certificate may, 
on their return to their provinces, be appointed rangers ; but 
those who have obtained the lower certificate only must serve 
satisfactorily as foresters for at least two years, after they return 
from the school, before they can be made i-angers. No person who 
has not qualified as prescribed above can be appointed a ranger 
without the sanction of the Provincial Government. Candidates 
from Native States are dealt with as far as possible under the 
same conditions. 

The course at the school for the Rangers' or English class is 
as follows — viz., for the first four months, from July to October, 
the students are taught vegetable morphology and physiology, 
the elements of physics and chemistry, mathematics, mapping, 
and the elements of i-oad-making and building, the instruc- 
tion being given in the classroom. During the months of 
November and December they learn practical surveying, includ- 
ing the use of the plane-table and spirit level, while during 
the remainder of the year they are taught sylviculture in all 
its branches, theoretical and practical, the instruction being 
given in the forest. The first four months of the second year 
are devoted to working-plans or schemes of management, forest 
utilisation, systematic forest botany, the elements of mineralogy 
and geology, the study of injuries to trees (by insects, by other 
plants, by wounds, bad soil or atmospheric influences), forest law, 
and mathematics. The last two months of their stay at the 
school are spent in the forest, and are devoted to practical 
exercises relating to the preparation of working-plans, includ- 
ing the following operations — viz., the division of a forest into 
blocks and compartments ; the description of each compartment 
with reference to its situation and soil, the nature and condition 
of the ci'op, the lines of export and the cultural or other works 
required; the marking on the map of the distribution of certain 



162 TIIK INDIAN FOREST SCHOOL. 

given types of foiest giowtli ; the enumeration of the crop ; 
the collection of information relative to the previous history 
of the forest, the demand for produce and any special forest in- 
dustries in the neighbourhood; lastly, the preparation of the work- 
ing-plan based on the above. The total time occu[)ied is eighteen 
months. 

The course for Foresters in Hindustani is much simpler, and it 
extends over twelve months only. The first four months are 
devoted to the following subjects, which are taught in the class- 
room, viz. : — An elementary study of the growth and reproduction 
of plants, with the influences of soil and climate thereon, sowing 
and planting, mathematics, surveying and depai'tmental pro- 
cedure. During the next two months jjractical surveying is 
taught ; and for the last six months of their course of instruction 
the students are taken into the forest and shown how to execute 
the most important of the works which they will be called upon 
to perform after leaving the school, such as felling, pruning, 
thinning, natural regeneration, protection against fire, and making 
lime and charcoal, as well as the measurement of timber and 
the construction of forest roads and simple buildings, and many 
other things. 

While at the school the men are encouraged to play cricket 
and to engage in athletics, prizes being given for proficiency in 
such exercises as well as in professional subjects. 

One of the great difiiculties felt at the time the school was 
opened was the absence of suitable manuals of instruction, there 
being an almost entire absence of works on scientific forestry in 
the English language ; books are, however, now being gi-adually 
prepared, and the needed works will doxibtless be available 
shortly. Considerable progress has been made in forming a 
library ; a museum, a small laboratory, and a meteorological 
observatory have been established ; and a forest garden, in which 
various cultural operations ai-e taught, is close to the school building. 

A notable feature of the system of training adopted is that 
every student is required to go through a period of not less than 
twelve months probation in the forests before he enters the 
school. This rule has a twofold object. Firstly, it ensures that 
the students are all familiar with forests and with the nature of the 
woi'k that is usually in progress in them, before they attend the 
classes in the lecture room, and they are thus in a position to 
understand what is there said to thorn. Secondly, it avoids. 



THE INDIAX FOREST SCHOOL. 103 

waste of time and money on the training of men who, from 
their tastes or otherwise, are iinsuited for a forest life. As 
a i-ule, then, the students are ah'eady employes of the Forest 
Department, or are hokling schohirshi])S, at the time that 
they enter the school, and they continue to receive their allowances 
while they are under instruction ; they are not charged school 
fees, but they maintain themselves while there. It would 
not be possible at present to obtain candidates whose main- 
tenance and education ai-e paid for by their relatives, but the 
existing arrangement will probably be modified as soon as the 
institution and the prospects of the men who ])ass through it 
become better understood. This will be the case when the 
subordinate grades of the department are more fully organised, 
and when the number of passed students of the school occupying 
good positions is increased. At the beginning of the present year 
nine men who have passed out since 1881 were holding a])point- 
ments the salary attached to which varies from £125 to .£200 a 
year, and this fact will no doubt have an influence in drawing 
eligible candidates to the school. 

In his remarks regarding the last coiirse of instruction, the 
officiating Inspector-General of Forests says that the present 
arrangement is thoroughly practical and woi"ks well, and that 
there can be no doubt that a very efficient professional education 
is secui'ed to men who obtain the Rangers' Certificate. Those 
Conservators of Forests who have given an extensive trial to the 
education affiarded at the school, have expressed their decided 
opinion that the passed students are markedly superior to their 
untrained comrades. 

When making his proposals in 1878 for the establishment of 
the school, Mr Brandis stated that on 1st April 1876 the area of 
demarcated or reserved forests under the Government of India, 
I.e., excluding those in Madras and Bombay, was about 15,000 
square miles ; but on the 1st April 1883, the date of the last 
available statement, the area in square miles of the forests of all 
classes in British India was as follows : 





Rr.sCi'LXd 

Forests. 


Proicckd 
Forests. 


Villaqc. 
Forests. 


Total. 


Bengal, 


35,667 


3,397 


18,428 


57,492 


Jladias, 


2,782 






2,782 


LJouibay, 


9,823 


5,173 




14,996 


Total, . 


4S,272 


8,570 


18,428 


75,270 


VOL. XI,, PART 11. 






M 



164 



THE INDIAN FOREST SCHOOL. 



The area of reserved forests has therefore enormously increased 
during the last few years ; and as it will continue to do so 
for some time to come, it seems likely that the numVjer of 
ai»i»ointments which will idtiniately become available for passed 
students of the school will be much in excess of that mentioned in 
the original proj^osals. During 1884 there were forty-six students 
of all classes at the school, of whom eight were from the Madras 
Presidency and seven were sent by the native chiefs of the States 
of Baroda in Bombay, Jaipur in Raj pu tana, and Patiala in the 
PunjfiV*. One highly satisfactory result of the establishment 
of the school is that it has been the means of inducing the 
chiefs of several of the most important native States to under- 
take measures for the protection of their forests. A few of 
those junior otlicers of the superior stall' who have not been 
trained in Europe are sent up each yeai- to attend the theoretical 
course, and it is hoped that the whole of them will ultimately 
be passed through the school in this manner. 

At first the school at Dehra Dun was a provincial institution, 
under the Government of the North- Western Provinces and 
Oudh ; bxit this was found inconvenient, and it has now been 
placed directly under the Government of India. This is a very 
great improvement on the previous arrangement. The expenses 
of the school during 1884 are said to have been 22,934 rui)ees. 
or about £1720. 



THE DOUGLAS FIR. 165 

IX. T]ie Dowjlas Fir (Abies Douglasii, Lindh'\j). By xIngus D. 
Webster, Forester, Penrhyn Castle, Bangor, Wales. 

There can be no doubt that in the Doughis fir we have one of 
the most valuable additions to our forest trees, whether in an 
ornamental or a commercial sense, that has ever been made. The 
rapidity of growth, and early age at which this tree forms a con- 
siderable bulk of valuable timber, renders all information bearing 
on its extended cultivation as a forest tree of much importance to 
the Arboriculturist. 

Although named in honour of David Douglas, the celebrated 
Plant Collector, this tree was first discovered by Archibald Menzies, 
who accompanied Vancouver, as naturalist and surgeon, in his 
celebrated voyage round the world (1790-1705). It was re- 
discovered, and seeds sent home in 1827 by Douglas, while collect- 
ing for the Royal Horticultural Society of London, and who 
introduced such numbers of valuable trees and shrubs from North 
America. It is a native of the North-Western coast of America, 
extending from Mexico to Vancouver's Island, and from the Pacific 
to the Hocky Mountains. In Oregon and Washington Territory it 
is found in dense forests, growing to the height, it is said, of nearly 
300 feet, and with stems of from 7 to 10 feet in diameter. 

The habit of the tree and the quality of its timber, however, 
vary considerably according to locality ; thus, in British Columbia 
where it attains an average height of about three times what it 
does ill the Rocky Mountains, the timber is highly esteemed, being 
clean and elastic ; while in the mountain districts where it seldom 
exceeds 100 feet in height, the wood has the reputation of being 
hard, resinous, and very liable to warp. 

In Britain the Douglas fir has proved perfectly hardy, of very 
rapid growth, a most graceful tree for ornamental purposes, and 
a valuable timber producer. I am, however, rather dubious as to 
its value for planting in exposed situations, for several experiments 
in this way have proved anything but satisfactory. Here, where 
the tree hcis been planted pretty extensively, a prevailing evil is the 
repeated loss of leaders, which, on over-topping the surrounding 
trees, are liable to be broken over, thereby giving to many of our 
finest specimens a flat or table-headed appearance. 

Along the outskirts of several mixed plantations, wherever in the 
least exposed to either the southern or south-western blast, this 



166 THE DOUGLAS Fill. 

tree cannot be coii.sidercd as at home, for the twisted, wcatlier- 
beateti appearance of tlie foliage in such positions ljct(jkcns any- 
thing but that the tree is properly situated. Even when planted 
along the outskirts of the woods surrounding the park, where the 
elevation hardly exceeds 100 feet above sea-level, the results 
obtained from this tree are by no means encouraging, certainly not 
sufficiently so to warrant its being extensively used in such 
situations. In passing, it should, however, be noted that, owing 
to the peculiar situation of this estate, and being both mountainous 
and maritime, the storms are at times particularly severe, more 
especially when the wind is ])lowing from the south or south-west. 
Where planted as a general forest tree, the Douglas fir does exceed- 
ingly well for the first twenty or thirty years, but, on out-growing 
its neighbours, the leader and upper branches being, from their 
rapid growth, somewhat fragile, generally get destroyed, and present 
from their naked, leafless appearance, anything but a desirable 
feature in well-managed woodlands. Still, this might, to a great 
extent be averted, and should certainly not be a deterrent to 
the extensive planting of the tree in suitable situations, as I believe 
that a plantation formed of this tree alone, or along with the silver 
fir — whose rate of growth most nearly approaches that of the Douglas 
fir — would succeed better, and be less liable to injury during a storm, 
than when mixed up with the general run of forest trees. This 
has indeed, to some extent, been already proved here, as in a few 
of our woods where belts of this fir alone were planted, they have 
succeeded better, and are not nearly so liable to injury during 
stormy weather as those placed singly throughout the same planta- 
tions. With this end in view, we, some time ago, formed a small 
plantation of the Douglas fir in a low-lying, well-sheltered piece of 
ground within a short distance of the sea. The plants used were 
strong, bushy, well-rooted specimens from 3 to 4 feet in height, and 
planted at 8 ft. apart, the intervening spaces being filled up with 
larch for removal at an early date. The Douglas fir as standards 
can thus be left at IG or 24 feet apart, as afterwards found practicable. 
The soil is good strong loam, from which, as well as the sheltered 
position, I have every reason to expect more satisfactory results 
than have hitherto been obtained here from this fir. 

The timber of this tree is clean-grained, elastic, and durable, of a 
colour almost as deep as yew, and susceptible of a fine polish. 
Several spars grown here have been used by boat-builders on the 
Menai Straits, and which, from information elicited a few days 



THE POT'OLAS FIH. 



lo; 



ago, have stood the test well, and given, so far, the utmost satisfac- 
tion. We have also sawn up several large trees for boarding, etc., 
the wood of which appears strong, firm, and beautifully grained, and 
has been applied experimentally to various purposes on the estate. 
It would, however, as yet be premature to sjjeak with any amount 
of assurance regarding the value of the wood as grown in Britain, 
no trees having attained an age at which the timber could be con- 
sidered mature. 

The following interesting experiments, conducted by ]\Ir Wilson 
Saunders of " Lloyd's," show the great superiority of the wood of the 
Douglas fir over the others experimented upon. Lengths of each of 
the woods enumerated in the following table, carefully squared to 
1 1 in., were submitted to pressure of weights pendent from the centre, 
the lengths being supported between standards exactly 6 ft. apart. 

The weight at which each broke, and the amount of deflection 
from the horizontal line at the time of breaking, are given : — 





Lbs. 


Inches. 




Douglas Fir, 


280 


4 


Fracture ron^h and lone;. 


Pitch Pine, 


280 


4 


Fracture .short and even. 


Canatlian Spruce, 


196 


4-7 


Fracture short and rough. 


Red Pine, . 


168 


6 


Fracture rough. 


Britisli Larcli, . 


16S 


5-2 


Fracture short and evoi. 


Deodar from the Hima- 








laya, 


154 


3-S 


Fracture short. 



The specimens experimented on were carefully selected from the 
best description of woods and free from all defects. Each variety 
of wood had two trials, and the figures give a mean result. 

It will be seen from the above figures that none of the firs 
approached in strength either the Douglas fir or the pitch pine, and 
while these two were equal in strength there was this difference, 
that while the latter snapped .short under a strain of 280 lbs., the 
Douglas broke slowly and toughly with a rough and lung fracture. 

As an ornamental tree the Douglas fir can hardly be surpassed. 
The dark evergreen, yew-like appearance of this tree, combined with 
its rapid rate of growth and massive proportions, renders it 
admirably adapted for planting along the outskirts of plantations 
that can be seen from drives or walks, where it forms a .striking 
contrast to other trees of a more light and airy appearance. 

Perhaps at no season of the year has the Douglas fir finer or 
more ornamental appearance than during tlie months of June and 



IGS THE DOUGLAS FII!. 

July, when tlie rich brown buds, witli which all the branchlets are 
tipped, burst and reveal the young leaves. At first these are of a 
bright pale colour, and at a distance make the tree appear as if 
studded over with countless yellow blossoms, the contrast between 
this and the older foliage being strikingly beautiful. 

The appearance of the tree is usually very symmetrical, with an 
erect, taper trunk, smooth when young, but when old, covered with 
nnigh, rugged bark, thickly studded with receptacles full of clear 
yellow resin, as in the Balm of Gilead fir. The branches are 
long, horizontal or slightly pendulous, and clothed with innumer- 
able slender, drooping sprays, handsomely feathered with an 
abundance of short, dark vivid green leaves. The cones, which 
vary from 2 to 3 ins. in length, are, when fully matured, of a 
bright brown, at first nearly erect, but afterwards pendent. 

Scales of the cones are concave and persistent. The leaves are 
about 1 inch in length, flat, obtuse at the point, furrowed on upper 
side, and slightly twisted at base. The male catkins are usually 
numerous, of a reddish-fawn colour, and produced from the lateral 
and under sides of the branchlets. The cones should be collected, 
according to the season, in September or October, as, if left after 
that time, the seeds fall out and are lost. 

As regards the quality of soil, the Douglas fir seems to adapt 
itself to almost any kind — wet or dry, smooth or rocky — 
provided that the subsoil is of an open, porous nature. In 
dry, sandy soils, where the larch and spruce are affected 
with dry rot, the Douglas fir is quite at home, and luxuriates 
admirably. 

On this estate the largest and finest specimens are growing on 
sandy loam, in a somewhat sheltered position along the banks of 
the Ogwen river, although many of almost equal dimensions may 
be found growing on soils of a more retentive nature. Even in well- 
drained clay and peaty soils this tree luxuriates and grows at a rapid 
rate, as many notable instances throughout the country amply 
testify. 

Excepting Pimis laric'to, the Douglas fir has perhaps been more 
extensively planted on this estate than any other tree of recent 
introduction, but at an early date more as an ornamental tree than 
for ordinary plantation purposes. 

Within the park are some very fine specimens, which, judging 
from their large size, must have been planted within a few years 
after the introduction of the tree in 1827. 



Feet. 


Innhei 


8U 


6 


13 





n 


2 


01 





70 





13 


7 


1-2 


•> 


00 


II 


74 





10 


2 


10 





ri7 






THE DOUGLAS FIR. 169 

Close to the carriage-drive leading from the Castle to the village 
of Llandegai are three of unusual dimensions, as shown by the 
followino: figures : — 



No. 1.— Height, 

Girth of stem at 1 foot up, . 
Girth of stein at 5 feet up, . 
Diameter of spread of branches. . 

Xo. 2.— Height 

Girth of stem at 1 foot up, . 
Girth of stem at 5 feet up, . 
Diameter of spread of brandies, . 

Xo. 3.— Height, 

Girth of stem at 1 foot up, . 
Girth of stem at 5 feet up, . 
Diameter of spread of branches, . 

These trees are well clothed to the ground with bright, glossy 
foliage, seem in perfect health, and would have been, perhaps, the 
finest specimens of their kind in Britain had their leaders not been 
broken over. As it is, the stem girth of these trees is not exceeded 
by any others of the same kind in this country. 

That the stems of these specimens are not what is called " carrot- 
shaped " will readily be seen when I state that the girth of each 
respectively, at 1 7 feet from the ground level, is : No. 1 , 9 feet ; 
No. 2, 9 feet ; Xo. 3, 6 feet 6 inches. The contents of the largest 
tree, irrespective of branches, is 192 cubic feet. 

On the sloping and somewhat sheltered ground near the mouth 
of the river Ogwen, many trees of greater height are to be seen, but 
none approach the three whose dimensions are given above in size 
of stem. Many solitary specimens of the Douglas fir, planted for 
lawn embellishment, have attained large dimensions in various part.s 
of the kingdom. At North Stoneham Park, Southampton, there is 
a fine tree, probably one of the first introduced, which has attained 
a height of about 80 feet. The soil is " bog mould," on a gravelly 
subsoil of the Brackle.sham beds. In an arboretum formed by the 
late Mr Taunton of Ashley-in-Corabebottom, Hampshire, the largest 
specimen in 1881 was over 90 feet in height, and contained GO feet 
of timber, the result of forty-one years' growth. The soil is clay 
mixed Nvith the debris of the chalk formation. At Blackmoore, 
Selborne, the seat of the Earl of Selborne, there are some magnifi- 
cent specimens growing on peaty sand on the Folkestone beds. 



170 TlIK DOrCI.AS I'll!. 

Ill ScotliUid, Oil viiriuus classes of soils and exposed situations, 
the Douglas fir does well, and forms a considerable quantity of 
timber in a short space of time. On the Pentlands, at Belstane, 
this tree is doing remarkably well, many having now attained a 
height of fully 50 feet, although the soil is poor and cold, and the 
situation very exposed. 

At Churchhill, Co. Armagh, Ireland, this tree also does remark- 
ably well on deep peat-bog, mixed with a little clay at time of 
planting. The largest specimen, planted in 1SG2, is now about 80 
feet in height, with a stem of 5}j feet girth at •") feet up. Other speci- 
mens, planted at the same time on prepared bog, are all doing well, 
several being models of beauty. 

The Manager of Woodlands in the Isle of 'Man writes as follows 
regarding the Douglas fir : " This is indeed a splendid fir, and in 
sheltered positions will j^robably surpass every other conifer, native 
or foreign, as it not only quickly attains a large size, but its timber 
is of admirable quality. When exposed, however, to the sea breeze, 
its leading shoot is almost invariably destroyed ; and, although the 
tree quickly replaces it, the process of destruction is fatal to the 
production of long, straight timber. For tliis reason my trees have 
not attained a greater height than 40 feet, but they spread laterally, 
and increase quickly in girth." 

From the above records it will be readily seen that the Douglas 
fir thrives on a great variety of soils ; but to produce the largest 
and finest specimens, a partially-sheltered situation — sheltered, at 
least from the prevailing winds of the district — is necessary. 

This tree is readily propagated from seed, which is borne in great 
quantity even by young trees ; but it is well to remember that 
cones collected from medium-sized, healthy trees growing in a some- 
what exposed situation are always preferable. It has, however, 
been said that plants raised from British seed are inferior to those 
grown from seed produced in its native country. This is not at all 
in accordance with my experience of the tree, as the following facts 
will show : Here, where the tree has been planted by the thousand, 
all the stock has been raised in our own nursery, from the same 
parent trees- — those Avhose dimensions are recorded above. The 
plants, instead of degenerating, have turned out most satisfactory, 
which the dark, glossy green foliage and rapidity of growth clearly 
testify. ]\Iany of these have already attained a greater height than 
the parent trees, more especially such as were planted in low-lying, 
sheltered situations ; indeed, I find it impossible to detect the least 



THE DOT^GLAS FIR. 171 

differeuce between these and such as have been raised from seeds 
sent from their native country. I have not the least doubt, how- 
ever — in fact, it has been proved beyond dispute — that seeds col- 
lected from immature trees, or such as are grown in a situation 
unfavourable to their healthy development, produce a sickly and 
degenerate offspring ; but this is hardly to be wondered at when 
the laws of nature are carefully studied. 

The nursery management of the Douglas fir is by no means diffi- 
cult, for with biit a small amount of trouble or attention, strong, 
well-rooted plants may be produced. When the seeds are collected 
in autumn, they should be thoroughly dried in a sunny and airy 
situation, after which they may be stored away in a cool, airy loft 
until wanted for sowing in spring. The system usually adopted of 
storing seeds in bags or close boxes is, in most cases at least, not to 
be commended. 

The best way is to spread the seeds out evenly, and rather 
thinly, in shallow, open boxes, when, unless the room in which 
they are stored is damp, the germinative properties are retained un- 
injured. Early in !March, according to the season and district, the 
seeds should be sown on w^ell pulverised soil, of a light open 
texture, previously well dug and broken up, and all the better if the 
soil has been fully exposed to the ameliorating influence of a winter's 
frosts. The beds should be formed about 4 feet in width, leaving 
an alley between each about 15 inches wide for weeding and keeping 
them in proper order. The seeds should be sown thinly, but evenly 
over the surface ; and after receiving a slight rolling or beat with 
the back of a spade, are covered to the depth of about half-an-inch 
with finely riddled leaf mould and sand. One pound weight of 
sound Douglas fir seed will produce from 7000 to 10,000 plants. 
The seed-beds require to be protected from birds and vermin, as the 
former often eat the seed, and the latter destroy the yomig plants. 
The injury tf) seed-beds by rats, mice, and birds, is often very con- 
siderable, and has led us to adopt the following simple method of 
protection, which we have found of great benefit, and which we 
can with every confidence recommend to others troubled with tliese 
nursery pests : — The ground intended for seed-beds is surrounded 
with a close slate fence (wood will answer the same purpose) 3 feet 
in height. Upright stakes are also driven in 8 or 10 feet apart, and 
projecting 3 feet above the slate fence, and the whole covered over 
with fine wire netting. Slate has the advantage over wood for this 
purpose, as neither rats nor mice can climb up their smooth sur- 



172 THE DOUGLAS FIR. 

face. Where a wooden fuiice is made, it will be found necessary to 
run a piece of zinc or tin along the top of the fence, and at right 
angles to it, which will prevent the ini'oads of all such climbing 
vermin. 

After remaining for two seasons in the seed-bed, the young plants 
should be carefully raised and replanted in lines in another part of 
the nursery. The lines may be 12 inches apart, and the seedlings 
planted at a distance of 3 inches from each other in the rows. 
Here they may remain until they begin to crowd upon each other, 
when they should be lifted and replanted, the size and growth 
being a good guide as to their distance apart in the nursery lines. 
As the Douglas fir can be removed with the greatest safety when of 
a large size, we have found it better to allow the plants to remain 
in the nursery borders until they have attained a height of from 2 
to .■) feet, when, if the above instructions are carefully carried out, 
strong, bushy, well-rooted specimens will be the result. 



FORMATION" OF PLAXTATIOXS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT. 173 

X. The Formation of Plantations, and their Maiiagement for the 
First Twelve Years. By David A. Glen, Assistant Forester, 
Gartshore, Kirkintilloch. 

In forming a plantation, the greater the amount of area enclosed 
tlie better for the future welfare of the crop, as it is an unquestion- 
able fact that trees as a rule thrive better and attain greater dimen- 
sions when grown in an extensive plantation than when grown in 
isolated clumps. The reason of this is obvious. In the former 
case each tree is sheltered by and affords shelter to its neighbours, 
Avhile in the latter they are exposed on all sides to every variation 
of temperature, and, as a result, they generally assume a stunted, 
weather-beaten appearance. On elevated lands such results are 
more noticeable than on low-lying situations, as the more elevated 
they are the exposure to the blast is generally greater. This, then, 
should be the first rule to be observed in forming a plantation on a 
situation not naturally sheltered, to plant as much and as com- 
pactly as possible. Land that has been newly cleared of a timber 
crop should not be planted for several years, as the supply of nutri- 
ment in the soil is much exhausted. By allowing it to remain fin- 
a few years it stores up a fresh supply of nutriment for the main- 
tenance of the next crop. Another reason why such lands should 
not be planted immediately after clearing off the old crop is, that the 
old roots, stumps, and refuse are allowed to decompose, and the 
insects with which they are infested gradually disappear. In the 
meantime the land may be profitably and advantageously utilised 
for grazing purposes, as the cattle, besides keeping down rank 
vegetation, contribute to the firming of the soil. Before planting 
operations commence, it is necessary to ascertain such information 
as the following : 1st, The extent of proposed plantation ; 2d, a 
knowledge of the nature of the soil and situation ; 3d, what 
particular kinds of plants are most likely to succeed on such soil 
and in such a situation ; 4th, what particular kinds of timber are 
]»rincipally in demand in the immediate neighbourhood, and to 
what extent it will be advisable to plant such trees in the proposed 
plantation. Such information will enable the proprietor to select 
his plants with discrimination, and submit them to proper treatment. 

Selection of Plants. — As in animal life the continuation of species 
is accompanied by a transmission of the good or bad qualities pos- 
sessed by the parent stock, so in the vegetable kingdom we find the 
same law in operation. Consequently, if we gather seeds from 



174 FOIiMATFOX OF PI.AXTATIOXS AND TIIKII! MAN'A(;i:MENT. 

immature or iinlicaltliy trees, we cannot expect from tbem to gain a 
healthy and iinafiected progeny. The reasoning on the question 
amounts to this : If we sow seeds obtained from a healthy tree of 
proper age and condition for giving ofi" a good offspring, we procure 
good healthy plants ; while, on the other hand, if we sow seeds 
collected from trees of opi)Osite conditions, we are rewarded with a 
progeny of vastly inferior quality ; hence arises the question, Which 
of these two classes of plants will we select for the formation of a 
plantation? Picason and common sense teach us that if we wish to 
raise a healthy and profitable crop we must, in the first place, select 
plants that are well-rooted, healthy, and free from hereditary 
blemish. It undoubtedly affords the proprietor, and also his forester, 
a great amount of satisfaction, when he is able to collect, on his own 
estate, all the seeds he requires from trees in such a condition as he 
considers best for giving off a good and healthy reproduction. Such 
cases, however, are the exception, not the rule. From various 
causes it is not easy, within the compass of one estate, to find all 
our common forest trees in such condition as to make it desirable 
to reproduce them. With nurserymen, however, the case is diffe- 
rent. Their operations being extensive, they do not confine them- 
selves to one estate or locality ; hence they are able to procure the 
various seeds from trees growing under the most advantageous 
conditions. As a consequence, good plants can be obtained at the 
public nurseries at such reasonable prices that it would be question- 
able economy to expend time and money in the collection, prepara- 
tion, and sowing of home-grown seeds from which to raise the 
future plantations on the estate. The system of raising plants 
from home-grown seeds is, when judiciously practised, very com- 
mendable ; and, experimentally, it is practised on the majority of 
estates throughout the country ; but, except in the case where the 
estates are very large and the operations extensive, it is not advis- 
able to practise the system beyond the limited bounds of experiment. 
The system now most generally practised is to procure one-year or 
two-year seedling plants from the public nurseries, and to have 
them conveyed to a home nursery on the estate on which they are 
intended to be grown. By remaining there one, two, or three 
years, as may be considered necessary, they become acclimatised to 
the neighbourhood, and are rendered less liable to receive injurj' 
from climatic infiuences when placed out in the plantation than 
plants that have been reared at a distance. The home nursery 
should be drj^ and airy, sheltered but not confined, and consisting 



FOR.MATIOX or PLANTATIOXS AND TllElU MANAGEMENT. 175 

of a free, light soil. Possessed of a home nursery well stocked 
with the necessary plants in their various stages of development, 
the forester has an opportunity of subjecting them to such a coxuse 
of treatment as he considers essential to secure their success when 
planted out. Towards this end it will be found to be greatly to 
the advantage of hardwoods to have them transplanted ;ind carefully 
root-pruned about eighteen months previous to planting out. To 
secure good, healthy, well-rooted plants, specially adapted to the 
various situations they are designed to occupy, is one of the mijst 
important conditions for the successful formation of a young planta- 
tion. In selecting, soil, elevation, exposure, and local demand must 
be the main considerations. Some plants thrive in situations tliat 
would prove certain death to others ; hence the necessity for careful 
discrimination as to the nature of the various plants, and their 
adaptation to given situations and conditions. If we put very 
small plants on low-lying situations where vegetation is rank and 
strong, the herbage soon gains the mastery, overgrowing them, and 
cutting off their essential supply of air and light, thus preventing 
them from discharging their proper functions. Again, if we place 
plants of a large size on a situation that is elevated and exposed, 
the transition to such a situation from one of more temperate and 
genial conditions, if it does not kill them outright, at least gives 
them a very severe check. Further, when we come to consider the 
matter of suitability of soil in making a selection, we find that some 
plants luxuriate in places where others would either not grow at all or 
thrive but indifferently. Many of our forest trees are very accom- 
modating as to soil, though, as a rule, they each require a particular 
.soil and conditions to attain to their most perfect development. On 
a low-lying situation, sheltered, and soil consisting of a rich dry 
loam, most hardwoods will succeed. Oak, however, is partial to a 
heavy soil ; so also is ash, if the soil is of a moist nature. On the 
other hand larch, beech, Scots fir, and birch are more partial to soils 
of a light nature. For deep mossy ground Scots fir and birch are 
best adapted ; and for moist or \vet soils, spruce, poplar, lime-tree, 
alder, and birch are the most suitable. 

Draining. — The thorough drainage of a young plantation is an 
indispensable condition for the successful raising of a timber crop. 
On the question of the depth to which woodland drains should be 
cut, different opinions are held. Some maintain that from 3 feet to 
4 feet, according to the nature of the soil, is the proper depth, 
while others hold that drains cut to the depth of 18 to 24 



170 FORMATION OF PLANTATIONS AND TIIEIU MANAGEMENT. 

iiiclics to ciirry tlie water oil' the .subsoil, are quite .sufficient. 80 
far as luy brief experience enables nie to judge, I am inclined to 
think that the drains ouglit always to be cut to a greater depth 
than the principal roots of the trees are likely to attain, in order to 
prevent the h)dgnicnt of stagnant water about these. On wet 
marshy lands, where water lies sour and fetid, the drains should be 
made about two years before planting, in order to allow them time 
to carry off the deleterious effects of long stagnation. On .stiff clay 
lands, which are of a retentive nature, the drains should be cut at 
10 yards apart. Woodland drains being permanently open, they 
must necessarily be cut to a much greater width at the top than at 
the bottom, otherwise by the action of the weather on them the 
sides would crumble in and the drain be rendered useless. The 
width at the top, therefore, must vary according to the depth of 
the drain, and the width at the bottom to allow the sides to be well 
.sloped. On open gravelly lands drains may be cut at 20 yards 
apart ; such land being unretentive, it is undesirable to put the 
drains too close. All woodland drains .should be not less than S 
inches wide at the bottom, to allow of their being easily cleaned 
with an ordinary spade. On moss the drains must be deeper and 
wider than on other lands, to make allowance for the subsidence of 
the soil. All drains should be made not less than six months 
previous to planting, as this gives them some time to act upon the 
soil, and to dispel sourness. The soil cast out of the drains 
should be well broken and scattered lightly over the ground. 

Road-making. — For the planning and formation of roads the 
best time is previous to the commencement of planting operations. 
At that time the inequalities of the ground are seen to better ad- 
vantage, and are more easily avoided or contended with as may be 
deemed necessary. Further, it will often be found much more con- 
venient to convey material for the bottoming of such roads when 
the ground is bare than it would be if it were under crop. ^lain 
roads should always be planned to take such a course as is best 
.adapted to future convenience. When it is remembered that the 
removal of the crop is the object of their construction, the necessity 
for convenience and efficiency at once suggests itself. From 15 
to 18 feet is the width that such roads are generally made, and 
they should have a bottoming of not less than 10 feet in width. To 
secure and to maintain efficiency these roads must be kept dry, and 
for this purpose a drain must be cut on either side of the road 
from 18 to 24 inches in depth. For the reception of the bottoming 



FOUMATION OF PLANTATIONS AND THEIU MANAGEMENT. 177 

a track sliuuld be cut to the depth of a good spading, thuugh it will 
sometimes be found necessary to make up deficiencies of the groinid 
instead of taking anything off. Land stones carefully laid to the 
depth of 10 inches, and covered with rough gravel, make a very 
effective road if it is kept dry and free of ruts. When forming a 
road through moss the most effectual plan to keep the bottoming 
from sinking is to put a good heavy coating of spruce branches 
beneath it, keeping them 2 or 3 feet extended beyond the edge of 
the bottoming at each side. Old stone dykes forming fences 
within the enclosure should be taken down, and if not used for the 
building of new fences, should be utilised for the purposes of road- 
making. Besides main roads in a plantation of any extent, bye- 
roads are also necessary for the removal of thinnings and for easy 
access through the plantation. They are likewise generally adapted 
for the convenience of sportsmen. The breadth of such bye-ways is 
commonly about 1) feet, and as they are not designed for the 
removal of timber by cartage, they need not necessarily be laid 
with bottoming. 

Fenciiuj. — In order to protect the young plantation from the 
ravages of live stock, it is absolutely necessary, before commencing 
jjlanting operations, to have it properly fenced. The modes of 
fencing such enclosures are various, and in a great measure depend 
on local facilities, the nature of the surroundings, the class of 
animals to be kept out, and other considerations. Live fences, 
such as thorn, hornbeam, and beech, when sufficiently strong and 
close-growing, are very effectual ; but these, in order to be raised, 
must be themselves protected by a temporary wire or wooden 
fence until they attain sufficient strength to enable them to resist 
attack. For this reason it is undesirable in forming a plantation to 
enclose it with young live fences, though existing fences of this 
class, if healthy, close-growing, and strong enough to resist attack, 
and forming the boundary line, should be carefully gone over and 
made as perfect as possible. Where gaps occur they should be 
filled up with strong, vigorous plants, similar to those of which the 
fence is composed ; and dead plants should be removed and others 
substituted. Wire fencing has the recommendation of being com- 
paratively cheap, and it is, when properly erected, thoroughly 
effectual for years. Where heavy cattle are to be kept out a stronger 
fence is necessary than would be required for sheep, while to keep 
out the latter, the fence must be a great deal closer in order to pre- 
vent them from jjoing through. In wire fences erected for the 



178 FORMATION OF Pl.ANTATlONS AND TIIEIK MANAGEMKNT. 

purpose of keeping out lieavy stock, the posts sliould be all of lardi, 
not less than 4 inches in diameter. They should ha pitted and 
made firm in the ground witli a beater, and they shtnxld have not 
less than five wires ; the top and the third or fourtli wires being 
heavier than the others, as persons in crossing a wire fence generally 
put their weight on the^e, besides, the top wire is the most open to 
the attacks of cattle. Fences of a light description are protected by 
having a barbed wire on the top, which proves a very effective 
means of saving them. In wire fencing for sheep, the posts should 
likewise be of larch, but need not be so strong as those used in 
fencing against heavier stock. In this fence the posts may all be 
driven into the ground, with the exception of the straining posts 
which require pitting. It will be necessary to put wires closer 
on this fence to prevent the possibility of shee}) or lambs getting 
through it. The most effectual permanent fence for such enclosures, 
however, is a well-built dry-stone dyke, which is rendered even 
more so if the cope be built on with lime. Where material is con- 
venient, this will be found in the long run to be the most economical 
method of enclosing plantations. 

Ground Game. — Ground game is undoubtedly one of the greatest 
enemies that has to be contended with in forming a young planta- 
tion, and the only effectual antidote against their ravages is wire- 
netting. To be effectual, wire-netting should be of 1 i-inch mesh, and 
not less than 3G inches across the web. It should be erected 4 feet 
within the boundary fence of the enclosure, to be out of reach of the 
cattle from the outside. The netting should be sunk 3 or 4 inches 
in the ground, attached to posts about 5 feet apart, and attached 
at the top to a wire, or wooden rail, stretched along the posts about 
32 or 33 inches from the ground. After the ground has been 
enclosed with this netting, all the game within the enclosure should 
be shot, trapped, or destroyed by any other means that can be 
devised. 

Gleaylmj. — Previous to planting, the ground should be cleared of 
all refuse. Solitary trees should not be allowed to remain, and all 
manner of scrub rooted out and removed or burned. If the ground 
has formerly borne a timber crop, it should be carefully raked, and 
every chip and twig that remains of the previous crop collected and 
burned, as they afford harbourage to destructive insects. 

Planting. — In conveying plants from the nursery to the ground 
enclosed for the future plantation, great care should be taken to 
prevent the roots from being exposed to the air ; and as soon as 



FORMATION OF PLAXTATIOXS AND THEIR MAXAGEMEXT. 179 

they reach the ground they should be hiid in rows in a shallow 
trench, and the roots well covered with earth or turf. Tlie planting 
of hardwoods should begin about the end of October or the begin- 
ning of November, They should be planted in pits about 15 inches 
square, or even larger, if a pit of that dimension does not allow the 
roots to be spread properly. These pits should be dug about two or 
three months previous to planting, as the action of the air improves 
the soil, and renders it better adapted for the formation and main- 
tenance of rootlets. In planting, care should be taken to spread the 
roots well out, to put the finest soil next them, and not to bury the 
plants too deep. When planted, the pruning-knife should be judi- 
ciously applied to contending leaders and disproportionate branches. 
Conifers of a large size should be pitted in the same way, and the 
smaller ones planted by the system of notching. Notching is 
accomplished by making two cuts with the spade in the form of the 
letter "J. By retaining the spade in the last cut (which runs at 
right angles from the operator), and pressing the handle downwards, 
the notch is opened. When the plant is inserted, the notch is 
clo.sed, and the plant firmed with the foot. When carefully done 
this proves a very successful mode of planting ; while, on the other 
hand, many failures often can be attributed to no other cause than 
the careless execution of this simple operation. Some planters, by 
holding their spades in such a manner that the blade is not perpen- 
dicular when making the first cut {i.e., the one running in a direct 
line with themselves), make it in a slanting fashion, so that, when 
the plant is inserted, it hangs to the one side. In kicking the turf 
to set the plant back to the perpendicular, the heel of the boot 
sometimes conies in contact with the stem, causing an ugly wound. 
Others, again, close the notch without properly inserting all the 
roots, or close it in such an imperfect manner that drying winds 
find easy access. These are points that should be well .attended to, 
as much of the success of the future plantation depends on whether 
it has been well or indifterently planted. (Observing the rules laid 
down for our guidance as to the adaptation of plants to soil and 
situation, we may, on low-lying, stift' clay lands sufl^iciently drained, 
plant oak, Scots (or Wych) elm, plane-tree, Scots fir, and Pinus 
Inricio. A similar soil, moderately moist, will grow ash, pophir, 
spruce, alder, and birch. In such a situation the vegetation is apt 
to be rank and strong ; therefore, the plants used should be, if 
moderately sheltered, of a large size, and may be planted at 5 feet 
apart ; hardwoods from 4 feet upwards, and conifers from 14 to 18 

VOL. XL, PART II. N 



ISO luUMATION or I'LANTATIONS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT. 

inches high, would l)e a suitable size. In a sheltered situation, and 
soil consisting of a sandy loain, most ot our forest trees would suc- 
ceed ; and as, under such conditions, many of the hardwoods would 
be in their element, it would not be advisable to plant them nearer 
than 12 or 15 feet, mixing them with larch, Scots fir, spruce, laricio, 
and silver fir. On moderate elevations, if the soil is light, open, and 
porous, larcii may be very freely planted, mixing with Scots fir and 
hardwoods — birch, plane-tree, and even oak. Here the hardwoods 
may be 2 feet and upwards in height, and planted at 10 feet apart. 
Scots fir two-year seedlings, two-year transplants, and larch two-year 
seedlings and one-year transplants, may be planted at 4 feet apart. 
On high elevaticjns, which are consequently much exposed, very 
small plants should be used. The hardwoods should not exceed a 
foot in height, and may be planted at 9 feet apart. Here, as shelter 
is the first object to be gained, the conifers may be planted 3 feet 
apart — using one-year seedlings and one-year transplants of larch, and 
two-year seedlings and one-year transplants of Scots fir. To ensure 
success, all the plants used should be well-rooted, free from aphis and 
other insects, and disease of every kind. They should have one dis- 
tinct leader, i)roportionate branches, and (in season) a fair amount of 
foliage. Plants that are long and slender, of a yellowish green colour, 
and having a sickly, forced-like appearance, should be rejected. 

Management of a youny Plantation for the fir at iioelve years. — 
The management of a young plantation for the first twelve years is 
a duty requiring considerable care and watchfulness. The fences, 
and especially the wire-netting, must be regularly and carefully 
examined, weak parts and breaches repaired. During each planting 
season, for the first few years, the plantation must be gone over and 
blanks filled up ; while each summer it must also be visited, and 
rank grass, that has a tendency to overgrow and choke the plants, 
cut to allow the free admission of air and light. The hardwoods 
must be well looked after, contending leaders and disproportionate 
branches unsparingly kept under by the pruning-knife. Where 
contending leaders occur in conifers, they should be checked 
by nipping off one of the rival buds. Thinning should be com- 
menced as soon as the trees show signs of being hampered. The 
first thinnings being generally too small to be of any account, they 
should be carried to an open space and burned ; for, if allowed to 
lie on the ground, they harbour insects. Young plantations should 
be thinned frequently, but never severely. Drains should always be 
kept in working order. 



THE COKSICAN PINE. 181 

XI. The Corslcan Pine (Piuus laricio). By Angus D. Webster, 
Forester, Penrhyn Castle, Bangor, Wales. 

This noble tree was first discovered in dense masses in Corsica, 
whence it was introduced into this country in 175!) under the name 
of P'mus sylvestris maritiina. Since that time, however, it has 
been found somewhat plentiful in Calabria on the Apennines in Italy, 
and on Mount Etna in Sicily, at elevations ranging from -iUOO to GOOO 
feet. In these, its native habitats, it attains an average height of 
fully 100 feet, although from a trustworthy source we have learnt 
that in Corsica specimens 180 feet in height have been found ; but 
these are certainly few in number, and may be considered as the 
giants of their tribe. 

The Corsican pine is a tree of bold, erect habit, and more inclined 
to throw the vigour of its growth into the stem than in the formation 
of many or weighty side branches. The branches are rather short 
iti proportion to the height of the tree, and grow almost horizontal, 
or are, more correctly speaking, slightly drooping, witli up-turned 
points ; but this is most noticeable in old specimens of the true 
type, and less so in those of younger growth. The Calabrian form 
is far more pyramidal in contour than the Corsican variety. The 
leaves are in pairs, slightly twisted or undulate, and from 4 to 6 
inches in length ; cones usually solitary, but sometimes in twos and 
threes, sessile, and varying in size from 2 to 3 inches in length, and 
a little more than an inch in diameter. This tree is not unfre- 
quently confounded with the Austrian piiie, but this is not to be 
wondered at, when we consider how nearly, in some cases, these 
trees approach each other ; indeed, on this estate, intermediate 
forms linking the two trees together are by no means uncommon. 

The typical forms of each are, however, perfectly distinct, being 
(|uite dissimilar in habit, foliage, rate of growth, quality of timber, 
and general appearance. 

The folio-wing difierences taken from geimine specimens of these 
two trees, standing side by side, and nearly 60 feet in height, are 
always observable, and may be relied upon as correct : — The Cor- 
sican pine presents a far more light and airy appearance than the 
Austrian, which is due in a great measure to the foliage being of a 
much lighter green, and the branches fewer and less thickly covered 
with leaves. The leaves are shorter and less stiff than those of 
Austriaca, and usually, though not always, undulate or twisted — this 
latter being an unerring point of difference between the two trees. 



182 THE CORSICAN PINE. 

Tlie foliage is aho of Ji more silvery hue, with less inclination to 
be tnfty or massed, and the tiers of branches much further apart, 
this being clue to the quicker rate of growth. The cones of Laricio 
are much smaller, less spiny, and also less persistent than tliose of 
the Austriaca, and seldom stand so erect. 

To the French great credit is due for having first drawn attention 
to the value of Pimm laricio as a timber tree, for as early as tlie 
time of Louis XVI. it was used for various purposes in shij)- 
buikling, such as for beams, flooring, and planking. In 1788 an 
investigation into the tree and the quality of its timber was set on 
foot, and two engineers were sent out by the Administration of the 
Marines to examine the principal forests in Corsica. Later on, in 
1814, the French Government, who appear to have always highly 
appreciated the pine, appointed M. Thouin to draw up a report on 
the cultivation and general management as well as value of the 
tree for ect)nomic purposes. 

Although introduced to this country as early as 1759, few trees 
of the Laricio have attained a greater age than sixty years. This is 
attributable to the great scarcity of seeds, which, even so late as 
1822, could not be procured in sufficient quantity for planting the 
roy.al forests of France, and which at that time led to many 
thousands of the Laricio being grafted on the Scots fir. The largest 
specimen of the Laricio in this country is believed to be one at 
Kew, which probably is one of those introduced in 1759, and would 
therefore be about 125 years old. In 1838 Loudon figured this tree, 
it being at that time well branched to the ground, and about 85 
feet high. Selby, in his "Forest Trees," published in 1842, men- 
tions the same tree as being then 90 feet in height. It is now 88 
feet in heiglit, with a girth of stem at 3 and 5 feet, of 8 feet 1 1 
inches and 8 feet 9 inches, respectively. At widest part the spread 
of branches is from 55 to 60 feet. The above measui'ements, taken 
October 29, 1884, were kindly furnished me by Mr Nicholson, of 
Kew, so that they may be relied upon as correct. 

It may seem strange that the tree has decreased in height by 
2 feet since 8elby wrote in 1842 ; but this maybe accounted for by 
one of the following suppositions — either that the tree lost its 
leader after being measured by Selby, or that the height he recorded 
was simply a guess. The latter is hardly probable, as Loudon, who 
figured the tree four years previous to Selby, gives it as being then 
85 feet in height,''^ or 5 feet less than when recorded in 1842 by 

* Loudon says, " between 80 iuul 90 feet higli." See vol. iv., page ^'iOS, 
of Arbor. cL FrutL 



THE CORSICAN PINE. 183 

Selby. That the tree may have lost its leader is by no means 
unlikely, as I am informed by Mr Nicholson that the extreme top 
is not so straight as Loudon's figure. 

On this estate, where the Laricio has been planted pretty exten- 
sively, many fine specimens are to be seen, ranging in height from 
50 to 70 feet, and with trunks girthing from 5 to 6 feet at 3 feet 
up. The largest specimen, which occupies a prominent position on 
the lawn near the castle, is 12h feet in height, and girths, at 1 foot 
and .3 feet, 9 feet 4 inches and 9 feet 3 inches respectively, and has 
a spread of branches of 45 feet in diameter. Another tine tree, 
which was blown over during the early part of last year, measured 
as follows : The butt end was 32 inches in diameter, and at 9 feet 
it measured C feet 2 inches in circumference; 18 feet in length t>f 
the butt end was free of branches, and as straight as an arrow, and 
contained exactly 40 cubic feet of timber. 

As a substitute for the larch in this countr}^, this majestic tree 
has perhaps received a greater amount of attention from planters 
than any other ; for while some have spoken in admiration of its 
noble appearance and adaptability for planting in exposed or mari- 
time situations, others have enlarged on the qualities of its wood, 
and spoken of the excellent returns from this tree that might be 
realised by proprietors were they but wise enough to plant plenty 
of it. How far any or all of these views may be correct is a point 
which — at least, from practical experience of the tree in this country 
— cannot be very satisfactorily settled, and of which it would as yet 
be premature to speak with any great amount of confidence. Cer- 
tainly, as a fast-growing ornamental tree, or for planting in exposed 
or maritime situations, this pine is invaluable, and at present bids 
fair to outrival all others, not even excepting the Austrian and 
Pinaster pines, to which it is in every way superior, but more especi- 
ally as regards the quality of its wood. The dense growth, beauti- 
ful dark green foliage, and hardy nature of the Austrian i»ine we by 
no means wish to overlook ; but in carefully weighing its merits in 
point of general utility with those of P. laricio, we feel in duty 
bound to throw our weight of evidence in favour of the latter tree. 

Of late years this pine has become a favourite with most planters, 
and with none perhaps more so than the noble owner of this estate, 
who, seeing its value, not only as an ornamental tree, but for planting 
in exposed or maritime situations, caused it to be extensively used 
in the formation of young plantations throughout the estate. A 
plantation containing over 30 acres, and situated at 500 to 700 



1S4 TIIK CORSTCAN PINP:. 

feet above sea-level, wjis some years ago formed with Pinus laricio, 
planted at IG feet apart all tlirougb, tlie intervening spaces being 
filled up with larch, Scots fir, and various other forest trees for 
removal at an early date. 

For the past half century this pine has been planted here, not 
only as a park or lawn tree, but generally over the estate, which 
has given us ample opportunities of not only testing the quality of 
its wood, but also of forming a pretty correct idea of its utility 
and value for general forest planting. 

Regarding the quality of home-grown wood of Fhms laricio, it 
would, as I have before stated, be premature to speak with any 
amount of certainty, as few trees have attained a size at which the 
wood could be considered mature. We have, however, cut up 
several of the largest trees here, and used the timber for various 
purposes on the estate with very satisfactory results. When sawn 
into boards, the wood resembles somewhat the red deal of commerce ; 
it is, however, more brittle, extremely resinous, tough, weighty, and 
the concentric rings firmly packed. It works smoothly and easilj^ 
and is, likewise, susceptible of a fine polish. A series of experiments 
with the timber are at present being carried out on this estate, 
such as for fencing posts, gates, boxes, etc. ; biit sufficient time has 
not yet elapsed since the commencement of these experiments for 
us to form a correct idea of the real value of the wood as grown in 
this country ; so far, however, the results are in every way satisfixctorj". 

For planting in exposed situations, or within the influence of the 
sea, this pine is excelled by none with which I am acquainted. 
Along the outskirts of several plantations that are fully exposed to 
the south-west, from which point our worst winds blow, the Laricio 
is far superior to the Scots fir, and about equal in value with the 
Austrian pine as a screen or shelter tree. Where the Scots fir be- 
comes weather beaten, and, as it were, shrinking or bending from 
the blast, the Laricio stands boldly out, seeming as if to defy both 
wind and storm, and rearing its head far above any of the surround- 
ing trees. This is very noticeable in several clumps and strips of 
trees planted nearly half-a- century ago in the park here for shelter 
and effect. Again, near the sea-coast this pine grows with a vigour 
excelled by few, and seems quite at home even within the direct 
influence of the salt spray ; and for this reason, as well as its 
ornamental appearance, has been extensively used in the formation 
of our sea-side plantations. On the mountain side between 
Llandegai and Aber, at altitudes ranging from 300 to 500 feet above 



TTIR CORSICAX PIXK. 185 

sea-level, where, upwards of thirty years ago, several extensive 
plantations were formed, the Pinus laricio, although used in very 
limited numbers, may be seen above any of the other trees planted 
at the same time, and boldly facing the south-western blasts, which 
at times sweep along the hiU sides with terrific fury. 

This pine is by no means fastidious about soil ; indeed, it may be 
seen growing luxuriantly here on all classes, from poor thin grave 
to deep strong loam. I have, however, always noticed its prefer- 
ence for deep gravelly soils, or such as are of a loose, porous nature ; 
indeed the largest and finest specimens on this estate are growing 
under such circumstances. 

This fact was brought forcibly under my notice at the time the 
large specimen mentioned above was blown down, for on examin- 
ing the up-turned root it was found to be almost entirely composed 
of rough gravel, with a small coating of decomposed vegetable 
matter atop, further investigation revealing the fact that the posi- 
tion on which it grew was formerly a gravel pit. Sevei'al other 
specimens of nearly equal dimensions are growing on the same site. 
That the Laricio will succeed best on such soils is, however, not to 
be wondered at, when we take into consideration the long, deep- 
running nature of the tap root. On soft, spongy, or undrained 
marshy ground this pine will not succeed, these classes of soils 
being anything but favourable for the healthy development of the 
tree. Although of rapid growth the leader of Finns laricio is by 
no means brittle, which is clearly proved by the fact of the tree 
seldom losing its leading shoot or becoming damaged during a 
storm. On this estate it is also less seldom blown down than the 
Austrian, but the characteristic tendency of the latter tree to form 
a dense, heavy branched head, which the slower formation of roots 
cannot support, will readily account for its being more frequently 
uprooted than the former. When allowed plenty of room for full 
development this but rarely occurs ; indeed, when standing singly 
as a lawn or park tree, although the position be very exposed, 1 
cannot remember having seen either of the above trees blown 
over — a fact clearly showing that the early and timely thinning of 
woodlands, in which these trees occur, is all-important. 

One valuable qualification possessed by Pinus laricio is its 
immunity from the attacks of game, these pests having such an 
aversi(m to it, that even during the most severe weather, when the 
Austrian and other species of pine fall an easy prey, the Laricio is 
left untouched. Even in a young state, and when newly trans- 



18G TIIF, (JORSICAX PINE. 

ferred from the nursery borders, at wliich stage most brees being 
Iresli and tender are usually devoured, this pine is quite free from 
their attacks, a fact which numerous experiments made here fully 
corroborate. This tree is also remarkably free from the ravages of 
the various insects which have, more especially of late years, com- 
mitted such havoc in pine woods throughout various parts of the 
country. I have, however, on one occasion found a diseased tree of 
the Corsican pine attacked by the pine beetle {Ilylurrjns piniperda). 

The nursery management of Finus laricio requires a great 
amount of care, more especially in the way of frequent transplant- 
ing, so that strong, well-rooted plants may be produced, neglect of 
this generally proving injurious if not fatal to the tree when 
planted out permanently. Usually young jjlants of this pine are, 
like F. 2^i'fi(ister, found to have but a long taproot and two or 
three shorter ones, and to be almost destitute of the numerous 
small rootlets so necessary for the successful transplanting of the 
tree. In the formation of a new plantation in which this pine is 
to be used, small bushy plants should always be chosen in prefer- 
ence to those of larger growth, as these will ultimately succeed 
better than such as have their taproot destroyed, which is usually 
the case when transplanted of a large size. 

The Corsican pine is usually propagated from seed, which should 
be sown, according to the season, in March or April, on well pul- 
verised soil of a sandy texture formed into beds about 4 feet wide. 
The seeds should be sown thinly but evenly over the surface, so as 
to allow plenty of room for the young plants developing their side 
branches. When the plants in the seed-bed begin to touch each 
other, they should at once be planted out in lines and in good soil 
of rather a light nature, previously dug and well broken up. The 
lines should be about 14 inches apart, and the young plants at a 
distance of 8 or 9 inches from each other, which will not only 
insure plenty of room for full development, but also sufficient 
accommodation for weeding and keeping the young plants in a 
clean, healthy condition. In planting the seedlings great care should 
be taken to spread out the rootlets to their full extent, and in a 
circle round the stem of the plants — a matter of much importance 
for their future welfare. This is, however, so frequently neglected 
in the nursery management of not only this but most other trees, 
that the above warning, combined with the following instructions 
for the transplanting of this pine, may be useful to those who adopt 
the ordinary haphazard method of planting young nursery stock: — 



THE CORSICAX PIXE. 187 

Where the plants are to be inserted in the nursery a line should be 
stretched along the surface, and a sloping notch taken out with a 
spade along both sides of the line, thus leaving the ground in the 
shape of a small sharp-pointed ridge. The line shoidd then be lifted 
and the plants set along the ridge, spreading the roots carefully out 
into the notch on both sides, and covering them with loose, fine soil. 

It will readily be seen that by this method the roots are in a 
measure trained from infancy in the position which they should 
occupy when they become trees ; and, as they wiU furm a complete 
whorl round the base of the stem, they are not only enabled to 
collect food from all quarters, but are much less apt to be uprooted 
by the wind during a storm. 

If a greater amount of attention was bestowed on the nursery 
management of Finns laricio, and frec^uent transplanting resorted to, 
we should not so often hear of the few roots formed by it, or of the 
difficulty usually experienced in successfully transplanting the tree. 

In various other places as well as amongst our Welsh hills, the 
Pinus laricio seems to do well, for Lord Powerscourt, in his letter 
to the Times of 21st July 1883, on the '' Reafib resting of Ireland," 
thus speaks of it : — " There is also a considerable sprinkling of 
Pinus laricio, which latter I consider to be perhaps the most 
valuable of the recently imported foreign conifers." Another 
correspondent to the same paper Avrote as follows regarding Pinns 
laricio : — " This is one of the best conifers for planting on poor 
land in exposed situations, with a view to a permanent crop of 
timber. We have a quantity of it here planted out on a bleak 
plain, i}i a thin, poor, brashy soil, growing at a rapid rate, quite 
overtopping the larch and Scots fir ; and it appears to shape itself 
.so well for a timber-producing tree, that I believe it will prove to 
be the best of all the pine family yet introduced. It has other 
good qualities too, for hares, rabbits, and boring beetles rarely in- 
jure it. It has, however, one drawback — it transplants badly, but 
this may be overcome by growing it on in a nursery, and carefully 
shifting it every autumn until it is ready to plant out." 

At Blair Athole the Corsican pine is doing well at 700 feet above 
sea-level, and makes as much girth and growth in that position as 
the Scots fir. 

In conclusion, from my experience of this tree, I have every 
reason to believe that, in point of general utility, as well as 
suitability for our climate and soil, it is not excelled by any as yet 
introduced into Britain. 



188 «TATK OF AUnOUICULTI'llE I\ XOHTII LANCASHIRE. 



XIT. 77tc Present Slate and Future Proftpects of Arboriculture in 
North Lancashire. By CtEORoe Dodds, Overseer, Wyreside 
Cottage, Lancaster. 

In describing the arboricultural features of the Palatine County 
of Lancaster, a glance at tlie map of England will at once convince 
the eye of the experienced that trees will be grown with difficulty 
when the maritime exposure is taken into account. Lying, as it 
does, along the coast of the Irish Sea, it is fully exposed to the 
strong westerly winds that blow therefrom. Also the extensive 
I'ay of Morecambe adds largely to the extent of the seaboard. 
(Still in some of the valleys and inland parts of the county trees 
thrive admirably. 

In reporting upon a county such as Lancashire it would be im- 
possible to give the whole county its due merit in a paper such 
as this, consequently I confine my remarks to the Upper or Northern 
Division. 

The Northern Division is generally known as that portion lying 
north of the river Kibble, and extends from the important town of 
Preston to the boundaries of Cumberland, Westmoreland, and York- 
shire, and the area of this division comprehends about G50 square 
miles. Although the climate of Lancashire is humid, the air in the 
Northern Division is generally pure and salubrious. In the hilly 
and elevated districts on the north and eastern boundaries it is cold 
and piercing, but in the lower districts, shelving to the south and 
west, it is in general mild and genial. Severe frost is seldom 
experienced in the low lands, and a fall of snow is generally soon 
dissolved by the mildness of an atmosphere loaded with saline 
particles, wafted by the western winds from the Irish Sea. 

The soil in the elevated parts is in general moory, heathy, and 
rocky. The lower portions of the sides of the hills and the valleys 
formed by them are commonly somewhat of the nature of holme. 
The flat tracts that spread at a considerable distance below them 
are chiefly of the loamy, clayey, or alluvial description, gravelly and 
mossy or peaty portions being found in all. 

That Lancashire at one period had been extensively covered with 
trees is evident, as traces of them are found in most of the peat 
mosses, the remains being cliiefly oak. During the reign of Henry 
VIII., I find the Royal Forests in Lancashire were Bowland, Wyres- 
dale, Rleaadale, and Fulwood, out of Avhich the Chancellor, Attorney- 



STATE OF ARBORICULTURE IX NORTH LAXC'ASIIIRE. 189 

General, Eeceiver-General, and two Auditors were entitled to deer 
summer and winter. These forests belonged to the Duchy of Lan- 
caster, at that time vested in the rights of the king. No trace of 
these forests now remain. 

Woods and Plantations. — Having given a brief outline of the 
county in relation to soil, climate, and situation, I will now turn to 
the more immediate subject of this report, and shall endeavour to 
give a description of some of the leading features of Arboriculture in 
North Lancashire. In this county, as unfortunately we find the 
same in many other districts, a great many proprietors only look 
upon their woods as mere game preserves. In many cases a man is 
not allowed to enter them except at certain seasons of the year, and 
often delaying the operations of thinning and pruning until the trees 
are damaged past recovery, and never can attain the object aimed at, 
namely, the supply of profitable timber for the benefit of the estate. 

In laying out plantations in this county proprietors have of course 
been influenced by different motives — shelter, ornament, and sport — 
and in many instances the result is, that the plantations have not 
always been laid out to the best advantage. Nor have the trees 
been planted in the most suitable soils and situations, as we often 
see larch planted where other trees would have succeeded better. 

In some districts of the county coppice woods are chiefly grown. 
These consist, as a rule, of oak, alder, birch, ash, and hazel, and are 
generally cut over from eighteen to twenty-five years of age. The 
principal coppice woods are in the Furness district, and are generally 
well grown, while in other districts little attention is paid to the 
coppice frona the time of cutting untU the crop is ready to cut 
again. A case came under my personal observation the other day 
in a wood extending to about Go acres, mostly about foui'teen years 
growth. Thinning of no description has been done since last cut- 
ting ; the result is, that the shoots from the stools are all weakly and 
overdrawn, and the crop deteriorated in every way. 

Fences. — The thorn hedge is very common as a fence in Noi-th 
Lancashire, more especially in the low-lying districts, where some 
very good specimens are to be seen. The management is the same 
as that which, 1 believe, is common in other counties in England, 
viz., when the hedge gets overgrown, which in some cases it is 
allowed to do for the sake of shelter, it is laid over, and at the 
same time still forms a fence, by cutting the stems about half way 
through 6 inches or so from the ground. Stakes and pegs are 
then driven into the line of fence to keep the layers in tlieir \)\nce. 



190 STATE OF AnHORICULTURE IN NOKTII LANCASHIUE. 

The cut is sloped upwards to prevent water Iodising, and good 
sloping cuts generally produce the best and strongest shoots. When 
an old hedge is thin this makes a good fence, as the layers fill up 
the thin places, but much depends upon how the work is done to 
prove a success. A very pernicious system termed " pricking" has 
been adopted on some estates, and unfortunately has been carried 
out to a considerable extent to the great injury of many good thorn 
fences. This is done by taking some of the stronger portions of 
mulerwood and driving it into the root of the hedge to fill up gaps 
or weak spots. This I consider most injurious to the health of 
thorn hedges, as they require light and air near the ground to keep 
them strong and healthy when a stable fence is required. Hedges 
are generally planted upon dykes, or what is termed here " copes ;" 
the dyke or cope is usually raised about 2 feet in height, with a 
breadtli at base of ih feet, and 3 feet wide at toj), thus giving it a 
batter of iJ inches on each side. Generally, a ditch is made at one 
or both sides of the bank, very few hedges are planted upon the 
level ground. In the high-lying districts of tlie county the ordinary 
stone-dyke is cummon. 

Draininy. — This is another important adjunct in arboriculture, 
but as a large portion of the woods in this division of Lancashire 
have been planted in glens and ravines between the hills, a great 
part of the ground has had little in the way of artificial drainage, 
tlie land having in most cases a free natural drainage. In 
flat and low-lying districts the ordinary system of open drains has 
been adopted. 

Planting. — In most of the older woods, and more especially about 
gentlemen's residences, it is common to find the mixed system of 
plantation composed of oak, ash, beech, elm, Scots fir, etc. A good 
deal of oak is grown in some districts, but much of it is of a stunted 
nature, as in most cases the plantations have been laid out in narrow 
strips and belts. I have no doubt but at the time the plantations 
were formed an inducement was held out to plant oak in conse- 
quence of the demand for that class of wood, and the price it com- 
manded. The high price obtained for bark would also recommend 
the planting of oak. Some of the land is well adapted for growing 
oak ; other portions are not ; but had the woods been planted in larger 
masses, better timber would have been grown, and the result been 
more satisfactory to the proprietors. On the slate formation in the 
neighbourhood of Coniston the larch thrives luxuriantly, and, when 
cut down from forty to fifty years of age, proves a very valuable 



STATE OF ARBORICULTURE IN XORTII LANX'ASHIRE. 191 

crop. Ill a high-lying district at the head of the Wyre Valley some 
jjlantiiig has been done within the last few years. The soil is prin- 
cipally blue clay. The trees planted are larch and Scots tir, at 
3 feet ai)art. Some of these woods are far from being satisfactory. 
The larch is affected with blister, aphis, etc. A great many of them 
are dying off, and only from eight to ten years planted, thus proving 
the unsuitableness of the larch upon cold, stiff, retentive clay soils. 
All this ground has been well drained with oi)en drains 25 feet apart, 
and 30 inches deep ; while in the same district, on the side of the 
hills, just on the boundary of the county, on a light moory soil 
resting upon the millstone grit, the larch attains to a good-sized 
tree. Another drawback to the welfare of young plantations is the 
rabbit pest, many proprietors having encouraged them to an enor- 
mous extent upon their estates, necessitating — in almost every case 
of planting — the enclosing of the whole plantation with wire-netting. 
This adds greatly to the outlay when it is carried out to any 
extent. The operation of planting is generally done by digging 
pits 3 to 3^ feet apart, which, on the low-lying lands, is the only 
suitable method ; while on the moors and hills notching or slitting 
is generally adopted. 

Thinnimj. — This, to my mind, is one of the most important 
departments in all matters connected with arboriculture, and I regret 
to say in how few instances I tind it is properly attended to. I am 
aware that there are many estates in different parts of the 
country where woods and plantations are properly attended to ; yet 
they are the exception to the general rule, and more especially so in 
North Lancashire. Thinning, except in very few instances, has 
received little or no attention in this part of the county, and where 
it has been done it has too often been carried out by men who had 
little or no knowledge of the management of woods, many pro- 
prietors thinking, I believe, that it would not pay the trouble, — to 
the great loss and ultimate deterioration of their woods. On many 
estates, even of considerable size, no (pialitied forester is kept, to 
whom the duty of thinning can be entrusted. It then commonly falls 
upon the land steward or agent of the estate, who in many instances 
gets the timber merchant to come and assist in the marking of trees 
when a thinning or fall of wood is contemplated. This system 
cannot be too much condemned. Naturally the merchant will have 
his eye upon the trees most likely to suit his purpose, little or no 
attention being paid to the ultimate benefit of the plantations. In 
all cases of thinning, and more especially when this operation has 



192 STATE OF AUBOmCULTUUE IN NORTH LAXCASIIIliE. 

been neglected, the utmost care and caution ought to be exercised. 
The great art of thinning is to d(; it in a gradual way, so that, as 
the trees increase in height, they may, just in proi)ortion to their 
growth, get plenty of space for their healthy development. An 
important part of thinning here is clearing out the underwood, 
which can always be profitably disposed of, especially if it consists 
of ash or hazel. It can be cut with most advantage from eight to 
twelve years' growth. The thinnings of alder, for which there is a 
good demand, can always be profitably disposed of for bobbins and 
clog-making purposes. 

Pruning. — This is a branch of forestry that one does not often 
see practised in this county, and in many instances, when the opera- 
tion is performed, it would to my mind have been better let alone. 
A case of pruning a young mixed hardwood ])lantation (about 
twenty years planted) came under my observation last spring. In 
giving the plantation a jtartial thinning, all strong branches growing 
on the stems of the trees left standing were ruthlessly knocked 
oti" with the axe by the workmen in the course of cutting the 
trees marked. The pruning was done from (S up to 10 feet high. 
This system was practised by a man who has had charge of woods 
u[)on a large estate upwards of forty years. One also observes here 
and there attempts to prune hedge-row trees, and often the trees are 
more disfigured than benefited by the operation. 

Iledge-roio Trees. — Generally speaking, the hedge-row trees of 
this county are not well grown, although they form a very promi- 
nent feature in the landscape of the country. In many instances I 
find the trees unsuited to the position in which they are planted. 
Many of them are miserable abortions, unprofitable to the proprietor, 
and a nuisance to the farmer, more especially in tillage districts, 
where the farmers have to continually wage war against them. The 
trees best suited for hedge-rows ought to be of an upright habit of 
grovi^th, such as the English elm, sycamore, oak, lime, sweet chest- 
nut, etc., and, when managed with skill and taste, in the way of 
planting and pruning, they have a most important influence on both 
stock and crops, and add immensely to the beauty of the landscape. 
In no case should the ash be planted as a hedge-roAv tree, but 
here we find it in quite common use. 

Cutting Doion and Disposing of Timber. — When a quantity of 
timber is sold standing, as practised on some estates, the felling is 
generally done by the purchaser's men. This is a system that I do 
not approve of, as contract men are never so careful in saving the 



STATE OF AKUOIUCLLTLKE IX NOUTH LANCASHIRE. 



19: 



trees left standing as the proprietor's men. Cutting down timber 
previous to sale is a common practice. Classing and arranging the 
timber in lots and selling by auction is also practised upon some 
estates, and, in most cases, this I consider the most satisfactory way 
for disposing of a mixed lot of timber. In selling by measurement 
a tree is generally measured up to where it will girth six inches on 
the side, no allowance for bark being made on any class of timber. 
Small pitwood is often sold by lineal measure, and by this system 
much time is saved in measuring. 

Demand for Tiinher in the Countij. — When one looks at the 
quantity of timber annually imported into the mining districts of 
Lancashire, one would naturally imagine that the growing of timber 
trees would have formed a more important item in the management 
of the estates in this county than it has done, and that landed 
proprietors would ere this have largely increased the acreage of their 
woodlands. I will now give a list of the principal kinds of wood 
most in demand, and the prices that I have received for wood this 
season. The prices quoted are for timber lying in the planta- 
tions, two miles from a railway station (alder excepted, as the 
doggers prepare all their soles in the wood), the principal markets 
for the wood ranging from twenty to forty miles on the railway. 
The disastrous gales of last year have had a serious eliect in lowering 
the price of timber in this county as well as others. Oak that used 
to sell at 2s. 6d, per foot only draws Is, to Is. 3d. per foot. Scots 
tir and spruce are unsaleable at any price, and in many woods that 
are in any way difficult of access, I believe a great deal of that class 
of timber will be allowed to lie and rot. 



Description 
of Timber. 


Aire. 


Price per Foot. 


Observations. 


Ash, 


40 years. 


Is. 3d. to l.s. 6d. 


I Fair demand if clean for 
\ handle wood. 


Alder, 


35 „ 


lOd. to Is. 


( Always in demand for ('lo_;^- 
\ ging and bobbin wood. 


Beech, 


65 „ 


8d. 


Not iiuicli in demand. 


Elm, 


70 ,, 


9d, to Is. 


Used for wheel naves. 


Oak, 


70 „ 


Is. to Is. 3J. 




Larch, 


40 „ 


8d. 




Scots Fir, 


... 




No demand at present. 


Spruce, 






No demand at present. 


Pitwood, 




15s. per ton. 





Bark. — Oak bark has sold this season from j£l, 15s. to £,o per 



194 STATE OF ARBORICULTURE I\ NOUTII LAXCASIIIRE. 

ton ; stripping and drying costing from 4.J.S. to 50s. per ton, 
according to the size of trees felled. 

Ornamental Arboriculture. — That there has been and .still is a 
considerable taste for planting ornamental trees and shrubs, is 
proved by the varied collections to be seen at difierent places, 
chiefly Holker Hall, Parkhill, Quermore Park, Forton, Scorton, 
Wyreside, Ashton Hall, and many others, where the Araucaria 
iiibbricata, Cupressus Laiosoniana, Jlmjopis horealls, I'icea Nord- 
manniana, Pinus cemhra, Thuja Lohbi, and many others, all grow 
luxuriantly, and seem to suit the soil and climate of this county. It 
would prove very interesting to have a correct detail of all the trees 
grown upon different estates, both evergreen and deciduous, their 
variety, height, age, nature of soil, etc., but that would quite 
exceed the limits of a paper such as this. 

Future Pros2)ects. — I have now noticed a few of the most pro- 
minent features of arboriculture in North Lancashire, and to the 
observant arboriculturist it will at once be seen that much requires 
to be done to put it upon an equal footing with some of the 
other counties in England. I shall now offer a few remarks upon 
the future prospects of arboriculture in the district, which must 
necessarily be speculative to a large extent. I may add that 
there is plenty of room for extending the acreage and improving 
the ftianagement of woodland property. 

There is much of the land, more especially in the hilly portions, 
yielding a very small rent to the proprietor, and were plantations 
judiciously formed upon it, not only would it yield a better rental, 
but the woods affording shelter to the adjacent land, both stock and 
crop, would be greatly benefited. Planting on any of the high 
altitudes of the county has not been much practised, but patches of 
trees here and there show that if they had been planted in larger 
masses, much better results would have been obtained. The fact that 
such plantations do exist is evident proof that on a larger and broader 
scale they would succeed in a greater degree, as it is a well-known 
fact that the greater the extent of land under a crop of trees the 
better will they succeed in it. Narrow belts and thin clumps 
planted on exposed situations are, comparatively speaking, worthless 
as shelter. 

In some of the agricultural districts there is always a tendency to 
speak of land occupied by plantations as so much ground lying 
waste. This no doubt is from a want of due consideration of the 
matter, agriculturists losing sight of the benefits conferred upon 



STATE OF ARBORICrLTURK IX NORTH LAN'CASHIHE. 195 

them by existing plantations in the amelioration of the climate. 
Previous to planting his land a proprietor will always consider what 
return he is to get from the land so occupied. Arguments in favour 
of reclaiming waste land by planting have been pressed upon pro- 
prietors for many years in the public press and otherwise, and 
although much has been done much more yet remains to be done. 
It is calculated that there are 80,000 acres of shore land in Lanca- 
shire, of ^\»hich it is estimated that 40,000 acres are reclaimable. 
Where could we find a wider field for experiment, and at the same 
time get a better test for all timber trees that would stand the sea 
breeze ? This of course would be a consideration for Government. 
The length of time that must necessarily elapse before any return is 
received for money laid out in planting forms the chief objection to 
its being more generally carried out, and I am much afraid the 
prices we are receiving at the present time for timber are far from 
encouraging landed proprietors to invest largely in planting ; but 
as w^e ai'e constantly hearing of the timber resources of America 
failing, I hope to see landed proprietors aroused to the subject of 
planting. And with a special Parliamentary Committee to inquire 
into the state and condition of forestry in this country, I expect to 
see the planting and management of our woodlands receiving more 
attention in the future than they have received in the past, both by 
landed proprietors and the nation at large. 



VOr.. XI.. PART 11. 



19G UEl'OKT ON A \ ISIT TO SCOTTISH AND ENGLISH FOHESTS. 



XIII. Refort on a Visit in SepteAuhar 1881 to the Scottish and 
English Forests hy Professors and Students from the 
Forest School, Nancy, France. By M. Boppe, Inspector of 
French Forests.^ 

The total area of Scotland is about 20,000,000 acres, hardly one 
quarter of which may be reckoned as arable, forest, or pasture land, 
the remainder being occupied by lakes, rivers, peat-mosses, moor- 
lands, bare rocks, and mountains. It is surprising, then, to find 
that against such a vast area of uncultivated ground only 734,490 
acres, according to the official returns of 1872, are classed as 
woodlands. 

There is every reason to suppose that, at a remote period, both 
the Highlands and Lowlands of .Scotland were covered by dense 
forests, which were successfully destroyed by the fire and steel of 
conquerors and during the anarchy existing under the old feudal 
system, as well as by the fearful storms which at almost regular 
intervals sweep over certain districts. So complete, indeed, was 
this devastation, that, in 1707, all that remained of the grand old 
Caledonian forests were a few shreds, and those in a most deplorable 
condition. 

From the union of the two kingdoms dates a period of political 
calm, during which, time and the marvellous timber-producing pro- 
I)erties of the soil and climate would have done much to repair the 
ruin, had not the sheep, arch-enemy of all forest vegetation, been 
allowed to retain his footing in the forests. 

The noblemen and great landed proprietors of Scotland at last 
felt the necessity of doing something to restore the parks and 
woodlands in the immediate vicinity of their mansions, and by the 
introduction of plantations to vary the sombre monotony of the 
boundless heather. It was also necessary on these bare moors, 
where grazing and shooting form the main sources of revenue, to 
furnish shelter for the cattle, sheep, and deer. Their example was 
soon followed by the smaller proprietors, and, under the wise 
patronage of the "Select Society" of Edinburgh, founded in 1754, 
the area of forest land augmented rapidly, so that in 1812 Scotland 

' Tliis Report has been, by inadvertence, omitted from the Trctiimctions 
till this date ; but being of special importance at the present time the 
Council have agreed to insert it. 



REPORT OX A VISIT TO SCOTTISH AXD ENGLISH FORESTS. 197 

possessed, besides 500,000 acres of nutural forest, about 400,000 
acres of plantations. 

The year 1815 marks a pause in the work of replanting which 
had been so vigorously begun. We do not pretend to enter here 
into the various causes which led to this economical phenomenon, 
but it is certain that the laws of 1636, on the constitution of landed 
properties in Scotland, exercised a baneful influence on the rational 
cultivation of the soil. The Scottish Parliament in vain sought to 
counteract the Draconian regulations of these laws, the principal 
effect of which was to cause the proprietors to look on themselves 
as only life tenants of the entailed estates, and consequently to take 
but a very slight interest in the improvement of the soil and the 
augmentation of its pecuniary value. 

From the moment the planting ceased the area of woodland 
diminished, and necessarily so, for in any forest where sheep have 
free entrance the removal of a tree, whether by the axe of the wood- 
cutter or by the violence of the wind, causes an empty space which 
can only be refilled by resorting to artificial means. It is thus that 
the returns of 1872, as compared with those of 1812, show a 
diminution of some 200,000 acres in the area of forest land in 
Scotland. Whether it was a portion of the old natural forests or 
the newly planted ones that had disappeared during this period of 
60 years, the documents extant do not show. There is, however, 
good reason to suppose that both suffered equally in this respect. 
For, on the one hand, the construction of the Highland llailway 
necessitated the employment of a large number of sleepers, which 
could be procured from the woods of from 50 to 80 years of age, 
along the line of route ; and, on the other hand, the increased 
facilities of transport, and the scarcity of wood in England, gave an 
unexpected value to certain tracts covered with birch, and so 
tempted many of the proprietors to cut down the old forests com- 
po.sed of this species. 

In 1870 the work of replanting seems to have recommenced with 
increased ardoui*, and on all sides may be seen young plantations 
vigorously striving to fill up the gap which separates them from 
those of half a century's standing. 

Such, in a few words, is a brief outline of the history of 
the forests which we have had the good fortune to visit, under 
the guidance of our excellent friend, Colonel Pearson. Thanks 
to the kind forethought of the authorities at the India Office, 
and to the hearty welcome which we everywhere received from 



1!)8 KFPOUT ON A VISIT TO SCOTTISH ANT) F.NrM.ISII FOI'.ESTP. 

the great landowners and their agents, our flying visit was 
accuniplished in a most agreeable and instructive manner. We 
eagerly seize this oi)j)ortunity of offering to all concerned with it 
our sincere and hearty thanks. We would fain also express to the 
eniinent personages who did us the honour of receiving us so 
graciously, that we accepted their kind marks of attention as being 
addressed, not only to ourselves, but also to the French Government 
and the Forest School .at Nancy, which year by year, since 18G8, 
has ofiercd to the English Students, without any distinction of 
nationality, the advantages of a forest education. 

Before proceeding to a descrijjtion of our tour, it will perhaps 
render the narrative more intelligible if we give a brief sketch of 
the country we visited, its general aspect, and natural resources. 

From a forest point of view, Scotland may be divided into two 
distinct regions, by an imaginary line drawn from Perth, on the 
Firth of Tay, to Greenock, on the estuary of the Clyde. To the 
south of this line we find the Lowlands, a country which agriculture 
and manufactures have combined to render one of the richest in the 
world. The economic situation of this wealthy district is as 
prosperous as possible, and the thoroughly developed system of high 
farming which is there employed leaves but little room for forest 
cultivation. The Lowlands are bounded on the south by the 
Cheviot Hills, which afford excellent sheep-walks. To the north of 
this line lie the Highlands, intersected in all directions by the far- 
stretching chain of the Grampians, whose rugged nature gives to the 
country an aspect not unlike that of the western coast of the 
Scandinavian peninsula. One would imagine that at some earlier 
geological period immense polar glaciers, flowing over the solidified 
North Sea, traversed the whole of the north of Scotland, polishing 
on their way the mountain sides, excavating the lake beds, and 
breaking off abruptly the cliffs surrounding the coast. The culture 
of cereals is here coniined to a few favoured localities, situated near 
the mouths of the rivers or on the low-lying ground bordering the 
sea, where the glacial deposits constitute an excellent soil. The 
rest of the country is wholly occupied by water and heather, and 
thus out of the 13,000,000 acres which this region comprises, only 
1,G00,000 (or less than one-eighth) are classed as arable, forest, and 
pasture lands. If out of the remaining 11,000,000 acres of 
unproductive land we allow a half for the lakes, bare ridges, and 
sterile mountain tops, there will still remain 5,000,000 acres 
capable of furnishing valuable timber forests. Here then is a 



REPORT OS A VISIT TO SCOTTISH AND EXGLISII FORESTS. 199 

problem for British economists, and a vast field for enterprise and 
capital. 

Highlami Forests. — In the Highlands, to which we principally 
directed our attention, the districts around Perth, Elgin, and 
Inverness are those in which the most extensive forests are to be 
found. These three counties together contain about 247,700 acres 
of forest, and being well served by the Highland Kailway system, 
these are easier to visit than any of the other Scotch forests. 
Starting from Perth, we made our way across the Highlands, 
visiting en route the towns of Dunkeld, Blair Athole, Aviemore, 
Grantown, Forres, Inverness, and Beauly. We were thus enabled 
not only to make an inspection of some of the finest forests in 
Scotland, but at the same time to obtain a fair idea of the general 
aspect of the country. The punctuality and precision, so thoroughly 
characteristic of Englishmen, with which all the details of our 
journey were arranged by Colonel Pearson, added to the hearty 
reception we met with at every turn, enabled us, in the short time 
at our disposal, to thoroughly inspect more than 100,000 acres of 
every description of forest, under ever- varying physical and geological 
conditions. Everywhere, both at a few feet above the sea-level and 
on the sides of mountains at a height of 2500 feet, in the sands of 
Forres, and in the schists, red sandstones, granites, and gneiss of 
the interior, we were struck by the wonderful aptitude of the soil to 
forest vegetation, favoured as it is by a regular climate and the 
constant humidity of the atmosphere. 

In the low-lying districts, at an altitude of from 250 to 300 feet, 
we found growing, both singly along the roadside and collectively 
in the forests, magnificent specimens of oak, maple, elm, ash, beech, 
and lime, which, by the vigour of their growth and the rich 
colouring of their foliage, bore testimony to the favourable con- 
ditions of soil and climate under which they grew. We were 
struck with admiration in beholding the colossal trees of every 
description forming the avenues at Scone, Dunkeld, Blair Athole, 
and Darnaway. It was near the first of these places that the 
venerable father of Scottish forestry, Mr M'Conjuodale, showed us, 
with legitimate pride, a small oak forest of about 400 acres, which, 
CO years before, he had himself assisted to plant.^ In this forest 

^ ilr SI'Corquodale corrected this statement in the Journal of Forestry, 
Vol. VI., p. 60, 1883; and said that the error had crept in because the 
interpreter had not translated his remarks correctly. The plantation was 
tormed in 180S, and was therefore 73 years old. 



2(J0 KEl'UllT ON A VISIT TO SCOTTISH AND liNGLISH P'OKKSTS. 

the trees were stiuidiug about 24 to 30 feet apart, and their 
diameters measured from 12 to 18 inches, whilst their magnificent 
tops formed a perfect canopy of leaves above the briglit rhododen- 
drons, in which colonies of young pheasants found a hc-me. In the 
spring time this ought indeed to be a fairy-like spot. But, 
independently of tliis undergrowth, whicli is, after all, only suitable 
for the wealthy few, we cannot heli) thinking that a more careful 
study of this superb forest would go far towards clearing up some 
of the doubts wliich have always surrounded the difficult question 
of the cultivation of forests composed solely of oak. 

The moujitain vegetation commences at about 400 feet above the 
level of the sea ; beyond this we find ourselves in the domains of 
the Scots tir, the larch, and the birch. 

In selecting the Scots fir as the tree to be cultivated before all 
others in these regions, the promoters of forest plantation during 
the latter half of the past century shuwed no mean proof of their 
thorough appreciation of the natural requirements of the soil and 
climate of the Highlands, for not only have they ensured the 
success of their operations, but they have traced out the best line 
of action for their successors. 

Equally fortunate were they in their endeavour to i)itroduce the 
larch into Scotland ; transported from the ice-bound summits of the 
Alps to a country where the climate is tempered by the softening 
influence of the Gulf Stream, this tree does not appear to have 
suffered to any material extent by so sudden a change of latitude. 

When, in 1737, the Duke of Athole brought home amongst his 
baggage, as a kind of remembrance of his travels in the Tyrol, the 
seeds which were sown in his park, and from whicli sprung the first 
larches in Scotland, he rendered a most valuable service to his country. 

From a forest point of view, the results obtained by the cultiva- 
tion of these two species (Scots fir and larch) are truly marvellous. 
Any one who has seen the beautiful larch forests planted in 1815 on 
the banks of Loch Ordie, and the vast stretches of Scots fir covering 
the flanks of the Bruarvvood mountain, cannot fail to admit that the 
question of the replanting of the Scottish Highlands is practically 
answered. 

The absence of the beech from all the forests of any standing is 
easily accounted for by the fact that it is only quite recently that 
the timber of this tree has become of any value for industrial pur- 
poses. For many cultural reasons, however, the beech is a tree of 
the highest importance, and we should strongly recommend its 



REPORT ON A VISIT TO SCOTTISH AND EXGLISH FORESTS. 201 

iutioductioa into all future plantations ; and it is, moreover, as 
much indigenous as the Scots fir and birch. In many cases even it 
might with great advantage be substituted for this latter, or, better 
still, mixed with it. 

Considering, too, the wonderful success that has attended the intro- 
duction of the larch, we think that a similar attempt might be made 
to acclimatise the Pinus montana in the peat mosses. The.se 
immense sponges, so to speak, which cover sometimes entire dis- 
tricts, discharge their dark-coloured waters into all the streams, and 
give to the lakes and rivers of Scotland that sombre tint which is 
so peculiar to them. The fuel which they afford is of very second- 
rate quality; and supposing that half the surface was converted 
into plantations, there would still be enough peat left to keep going 
all the whisky-stills on the country-side. 

As foresters of the Continental school, accustomed to live among 
forests regularly managed, and having for their sole object the produc- 
tion of timber, we had no little difficulty in understanding the widely 
different motives which actuate forest cultivation in this country. 
Everywhere we found the forests fenced in on all sides with walls 
and hedges ; and, as a matter of fact, the forester or agent generally 
carries the keys of the gates in his pocket. We learnt that these 
costly enclosures were erected, not for the purpose of keeping out the 
cattle and deer, as in the Jura, but for the purpose of keeping them 
in : it appeared to us like shutting up the wolf in the sheepfold. 

We were also struck by the monotonous regularity in the height 
and age of the trees — unmistakable sign of their artificial origin 
and want of methodical management. The forest, here left to its 
own devices, continues growing just as the hand of man has planted 
it ; the undergrowth is constantly grazed down by the sheep and 
cattle, and nature, in spite of the immense resources at her disposal, 
is quite powerless to modify the work of the planter, or repair the 
errors committed by woodcutters. 

When, under .such circumstances, the time arrives for the trees to 
be cut down, or should they be uprooted by a hurricane, the forest 
disappears in its entirety, owing to the total want of young growth, 
which is necessary as a link between the old forest and the new one 
which ought to be created. Such, at least, appears to us to be the 
case in all the forests that we visited in the valley of the Tay and 
its tributaries, and further north, near the foot of Cairngorm. 

Not far from a mansion to which are attached some of the 
pleasantest recollections of our tour, we saw the remains of a noble 



202 KKI'OIIT ON A VISIT TO SCOTTISH AND KNGLISII FORESTS. 

luiest, which some twenty years ago bad been cut down and con- 
verted into railway sleepers. The sight of the huge stumps, 
blackened by time, with their gnarled roots twisting themselves 
over the ground, gave us tlie idea of some vast charnel-house. This 
scene of utter ruin was indeed a sad spectacle, though the present 
proprietor is doing his best to again cover his estate with timber ; 
with a better system he might have been spared both time and 
expense. It is easy in Scotland to perpetuate a forest by natural 
means, and of this a practical proof was given us in two forests 
which we visited ; the one near Grantowu, in Strathspey, the other 
at Beauly. In these the results obtained under the skilful and in- 
telligent direction of the gentlemen who manage these forests for 
their emi)loyers form a striking example of what may be done in 
the way of reproducing forests by natural means. In fact, nothing 
had been neglected which even the most critical forester could desire; 
the gradation of age was here complete, and the reservation of 
specially vigorous trees, of known pedigree, duly carried out. 

The modus operandi here pursued consists simply in the ex- 
clusion of the sheep and deer, in the judicious thinning out of the 
growing crop, and in the removal of the mature seed-bearing trees, 
by successive fellings, as the young forest grows up and acquires 
more vigour. 

Nevertheless, we would not have it be supposed that the sheep 
need be absolutely debarred from all grazing in the forest ; it is 
only in those portions where the undergrowth is very young that 
the damage caused is irreparable. We feel convinced that if, every 
year, certain portions of the forest best capable of supporting it 
were marked out for grazing, the quality of the pasturage would be 
greatly improved, and the heather would quickly disappear under 
the cover. 

It is an established fact, beyond all contradiction, that on any 
soil, whatever its geological origin, a complete covering of forest 
vegetation will kill the heather as soon as the trees reach the age of 
between 30 and 40 years. Suppose then that 120 years be the 
term fixed for the existence of the trees in any portion of the 
forest, and that the trees of 100 years of age and over are reserved, 
there would still be one-half of the forest always open to the sheep, 
and the other closed. But, at the same time, it is certain that this 
open half, owing to its superior quality, will furnish pasturage for 
at least twice as many head of cattle or sheep as the same quantity 
of moorland. 



REPORT OX A VISIT TO SCOTTISH AND ENGLISH FORESTS. 203 

Although, under ordinary conditions, the regeneration of a forest 
will be sufficiently assured by the exercise of a discreet control over 
the grazing, something more than this must be done if it is desired 
to turn the land to the best possible account. It is therefore a 
matter of regret that nothing has yet been done to place forest 
management in Scotland on a sound economic basis. 

The productive powers of the soil and of the climate have been 
made use of by able and intelligent planters, who have thereby 
enabled nature herself to accumulate a considerable store of timber ; 
but all tliis wealth is exposed to the carelessness of some and to 
the ignorance of others, until the hand of a forester manages it 
l^roperly and places it on the only sound economic principle of all 
agricultural and forest property, « constant annual revenue and a 
constant improvement in production. 

It would certainly not be fair to hold the Scottish foresters re- 
sponsible for the present regrettable state of affairs, for, though they 
have for the most part admitted the inefficiency of the present 
system, they are powerless to efi'ect any improvement so long as the 
landowners and general pubhc have not learnt to appreciate the 
manifold advantages to be derived from a regular and methodical 
management. They have to struggle against many adverse interests 
and hindrances, such as grazing and shooting interests, questions of 
routine, pecuniary exigencies, and the fancies of sportsmen from all 
parts of the world. ^ 

In Avishing Scotland, then, a hearty farewell, we venture to pre- 
dict for her forests a great and prosperous future. It does not 
need that one should be a very great prophet to predict this for a 
country where the oak and beech, the Scots fir and larch, flourish 
with equal vigour, and where the Abies Dourjlasii, Abies nobilis, 
and Abies Menziesii, the Sequoia, and the cedar, form mighty 
trees, in company with the Araucaria and various exotic shrubs, 
which only langviish miserably under the climate of Paris. 

Before leaving this country, however, we would fain add a 
word of advice, for the moment appears to us a propitious one for 
deciding on the future welfare of the forests, which, owing to the 
rapidly increasing value of timber, runs great risk of being com- 
promised. Ordinary' fir timber now fetches 8d. per cubic foot, 
larch is worth nearly double that amount. We ourselves visited a 
forest of Scots fir which, at this rate, would be worth £120 an acre, 

' A deer inn, over unproductive land, has just been let to an American for 
nine years, at the fabulous rent of £10,000 per annum. 



204 UICPORT ox A VISIT TO SCOTTISH AND ENGLISH FOUESTS. 

and another of larch wortli considerably more ; whilst a third forest 
of 1 GOO acres, composed of Scots fir, was purchased a few years 
ago for £52,000, or only about £30 an acre. The plantations on 
the Culbin Sands, near Forres, would readily find buyers at £oO 
an acre at the age of forty-five to fifty years. The very day we 
were at Grantown, the agent for the Strathspey forests concluded a 
bargain to furnish birchwood to the amount of £2000. 

All these figures are fraught with extreme significance for the 
future, and the large forest owners of Scotland will do well to 
pause before allowing their forests to be " over-worked." We 
would recall to their recollection the old fable of the goose that 
laid the golden eggs. 

No doubt, people are often frightened by the long names and big 
words they find in treatises on scientific forest management, but 
they may very well neglect the text if only they will adopt some of 
the principles which they contain. Let the owner of a forest, after 
having made a careful and detailed inspection of it, divide it off 
into blocks or compartments so arranged that they should be 
uniform as regards conditions of soil and of planting, and then pro- 
ceed to count and measure all the trees of 3 feet girth and upwards, 
classing them in categories according to their diameter. He should 
then open a debit and credit account for each compartment, placing 
on the debit side the actual volume of the standing crop, and on 
the credit side the volume of timber removed at each successive 
felling. This register should always be consulted before under- 
taking any forest operation, and when the annual fellings fall due, 
it will show which compartments can best sui^port the withdrawal of 
timber, and which require to be left untouched. Moreover, the 
balance sheet will render an exact account, favourable or otherwise, 
of the condition of the forest. 

Ten years of such systematic treatment would form in itself the 
basis of a regular forest-working plan, and the doctor's prescription 
would no longer frighten the patient with its long words. 

Our programme, however, was not yet complete, and fresh ex- 
cursions awaited us in England. It took us only four days to reach 
Windsor Forest from Inverness, passing by the Caledonian Canal, 
and halting at Oban (from whence we visited StafFa and lona) and 
Edinburgh, whence we took the train to London. 

Windsor Forest. — Even with a four-in-hand and the best of 
drivers, it would be impossible to see Windsor Forest in such a 
.short time as we had at our disposal. 



'REPORT OX A VISIT TO SCOTTISH AND ENGLISH FORESTS. 205 

The history of that noble park has been published in a splendid 
volume by the late Surveyor ; but the history of Windsor is, so to 
say, a repetition of the history of England herself. If we follow all 
the phases in the development of this park, where, since the time 
of William the Conqueror, each sovereign in turn has given his 
name to some remarkable tree, Windsor Park may with justice be 
called the Westminster Abbey of British monumental trees ; its 
history is one which belongs as much to archaeology as it does to 
sylviculture, while in it the beautiful deer are almost as numerous 
as the trees themselves. 

Nevertheless, the practical forester may rest assured that, although 
the first place is here given to art and beauty, he will still be able 
to find much to interest and instruct him. Windsor Park is indeed 
one of the most magnificent fields for the study of forest botany 
that even the wildest imagination could conjure up. Here may be 
seen, growing singly or collectively in clumjis, si^ecimens of all the 
finest trees, native or exotic, which exist in Great Britain ; and, 
since care has been taken to keep an exact record of the age and 
origin of each plantation, the forester would be enabled to follow 
out in detail studies of the highest interest and importance regard- 
ing the growth of the principal forest species. It would be more 
difficult to do the same with regard to their longevity ; for one is 
led to think, in looking at some of them, that in this hallowed 
ground trees never die of old age. One sees in these relics of the 
past that religious respect for things so characteristic of Englishmen, 
when even the most violent revolutions could pass over the country, 
and yet leave these monuments and these trees intact. 

The Surveyor of Windsor Park, who is by turn a forest officer, 
an organiser of shooting parties, a director of the royal workshops, 
and conservator of a museum of antiquities, can, in consequence, 
have but little time to devote himself to sylviculture, unless it be to 
prepare the iron armour intended to preserve the veterans of the 
forest in their struggle against the elements, or to prop up with 
crutches some invalid deprived of a limb by a recent gale. 

Having come all the way from Scotland to Windsor, we were not 
to be alarmed by the journey from there to the New Forest, for a 
few hours sufficed to carry us to Southampton. 

Neio Forest. — As old as Windsor Park itself, the New Forest has 
not had the good fortune to be the dependence of a royal residence. 
The barrenness and poverty of the soil has sufficed to preserve it 
from being plundered even at an epoch when land was valued more 



200 KEPORT ON A VISIT TO SCOTTISH AND ENGLISH FORESTS. 

for its extent tliuii its fertility. But, on the other hand, this very 
iact attracted a [loor and necessitous popuhition to settle in and 
around the forest, who during long ages have been accustomed to 
derive a precarious existence from it, and by careless abu.ses have 
threatened it with certain ruin. For many centuries the New 
l^^trcst has thus been a prey to commoners, who use up its resources 
without either method or control. One may see there the steady 
onward progress which is made by the heather ; and although it is 
not perhaps so quick under the feet of the almost wild ponies and 
cattle as under those of the sheep, yet it is none the less sure. 

The sole remedy for this state of things was to restrict the com- 
moners to certain defined localities, and that could only be done by 
sacrificing a portion of the forest to save the rest. This is, in fact, 
what was done about twenty years ago ; but the sacrifice has indeed 
been a heavy one, for the reservation of some 14,000 acres has cost 
the abandonment of 49,000 more. The part which has been freed, 
however, is sufficiently extensive to constitute some day a respect- 
able forest, whilst the part given up is hurrying to its destruction 
in a manner deplorable to behold, and before very long there will 
be nothing left but a worthless barren heath. 

It is not, however, in twenty years that a forest so badly used as 
the New Forest can be restored. The first thing to be done was to 
put the soil in good order, and then to plant some of the vast 
stretches of heather with firs. Of late years the forest officers have 
sought, by excluding the cattle, to bring about the natural reproduc- 
tion of some portions hitherto abandoned to pasturage. But with 
whatever care these operations may be carried out, at least fifty 
years must elapse before they can resort to systematic fellings, 
with a view to furnishing a regular revenue. 

At present, contiguous portions of the forest often present the 
most curious contrasts. On one hand we see young firs and oaks 
growing side by side ; in another place a forest of pure oak, lan- 
guishing among chestnuts ; and in a third, plantations of fir and 
beech, indicating by the vigour of their vegetation, and their healthy 
a})pearance, that it is on them that the future of the forest ought to 
depend. Further on, there is a valley filled with aged beeches, 
whose weird forms gave an almost supernatural aspect to the spot ; 
we almost expected to see the ghost of William Rufus pursuing that 
of Walter Tyrrell through the haunted forest. 

Without contesting the marvellous beauty of some parts of the 
New Forest, so dear to artists and lovers of nature, we are bound 



REPORT OX A VISIT TO SCOTTISH AND EXCLISII FORESTS. 207 

to say that before long it will not he here that a professor of sylvi- 
culture, desirous of teaching his science, will choose to pitch his 
tent. 

Forest of Dean. — On our return to Lyndhurst, after the excur- 
sion in the New Forest, there remained but three days at our dis- 
posal before our duties necessitated our return to France. These 
were employed in visiting the Forest of Dean. 

The present Forest of Dean occupies the site of the old forest of 
the same name, which formerly covered the whole of the plateau 
between the estuary of the Severn and the valley of the Wye. 
("Dean," '• drm," signifies "forest" in the old Celtic language.) 
The old forest has disappeared within the last few centuries, owing, 
perhaps, to the demand for charcoal and mine-props for tbe local 
industries ; if, however, we were not afraid of being accused of being 
prejudiced, we might say that unrestricted pasturage may have had 
something to do with the disappearance. It is on these ruins that 
the new Forest of Dean has been created ; in less than a century 
more than 1G,000 acres of the original 22,000 have been replanted. 
The older plantations are generally of pure oak ; the beeches, chest- 
nuts, and birches form but a small percentage of the trees. Scots 
fir, spruce fir, and larch are generally only found in the plantations 
made during the last thirty years, or in bad peaty portions. The 
state of vegetation is generally good, varying, however, with the 
quality of the soil, but indicating in every point the artificial nature 
of the forest. 

We may take this opportunity of remarking that a plantation of 
" broad-leaved" trees (oak, beech, etc.) takes a much longer time to 
establish itself than one of "needle-leaved" trees (conifers, Scots fir, 
larch, etc.). In Scotland we saw the most magnificent plantations 
of larch and fir, whilst in the Forest of Dean the plantations of oak 
were always more or less dwarfed in appearance. The cause of this 
is, that oaks furnish the soil with much less vegetable manure than 
the coniferous trees ; and again, in an oak plantation there is a 
marked absence of undershrubs and spontaneous ground vegetation, 
which, by their organic remains, tend to increase and improve the 
surface soil. It is rare, also, that a plantation of oaks, on a soil 
which has been long unoccupied by forest vegetation, and is but 
moderate in quality, succeeds well during the fir.st generation ; it is 
only at the second generation that the trees acquire their normal 
development. 

At present, while the trees are yet in their youth, the only cul- 



i'OS KEI'OliT OX A VISIT TO SCOTTISH AND ENGLISH FORESTS. 

tural operations that can be undertaken are the periodical " thin- 
nings," and these are here conducted with great skill. There is no 
doubt, however, a great future in store for the Forest of Dean, 
thanks to the workmanlike manner in which it is managed, and to 
the laws regulating the pasturage, which date back to the time of 
Charles I. 

We were not able to suppress a certain vague feeling of sadness 
in wandering through these endless plantations, rendered so drearj* 
and monotonous by the total absence of that undergrowth which 
seems to inspire the woods with freshness and life ; and it was with 
a sense of great relief that we emerged from them, and entered into 
a well-managed forest composed of standard oaks surmounting 
coppice-wood. 

This forest, comprising about 3400 acres, was formerly the pro- 
perty of Lord Gage, and was purchased by the Crown with a view 
to presenting it to the Duke of Wellington. It is composed of pure 
oak, and for more than a hundred years the coppice has been cut 
every eighteen years. We might add that the reserved trees form 
the staple element in this forest, for the coppice forms but a small 
proportion of the standing crop. These reserves, varying in age 
from twenty to a hundred 'years, are in an excellent state of vegeta- 
tion, and number about eighty trees to the acre. The largest trees 
are about 4 or 5 feet in girth, and from 25 to 3o feet in height of 
stem. It would be a great pity to cut them until they have 
attained at least double their present age. This forest would form 
an excellent field for the study of the treatment of standard oaks. 

In such a forest, where the soil is so exceptionally fertile, it 
might be possible to find a solution to the oft-discussed problem of 
obtaining the maximum production in quality and quantity from a 
forest of oak. This was, at least, the impression Ave carried away 
with us as we turned our fiices homewards. 

Forest Scliool i7i Great Britain. — We had barely sufficient time, 
on our arrival in London, to pay our respects to the authorities at 
the India Office, when we were asked by Sir Louis Mallet to place 
on record the observations which we have now the honour to sub- 
mit, and to state whether, in our opinion, the immediate foundation 
of a Forest School in Great Britain is possible. In order to reply 
to this question, it was necessary for us, even at the risk of our 
narrative being found tedious, to enter into a somewhat detailed 
account of the Scottish and English forests. 

Were it only for the purpose of replanting the five or six millions 



REPORT OX A VISIT TO SCOTTISH AND EX(iLISlI FORESTS. 1*00 

of moor and waste land which cover one-third of the Highlands, we 
should consider there was a sufficient reason for the formation of 
such a school. The question, however, must be studied on broader 
grounds. 

Considering the present depressed state of agriculture all over 
Europe, it becomes more and more necessary to endeavour to draw 
the greatest possible advantage from the laud, and, by properly 
adapting a different vegetation to different soils, to seek to obtain, 
through the medium of the enormous capital which the present 
generation can command, the maximum production from a minimum 
area. It is thus that the forests are called upon to play an impor- 
tant part in the immediate future, and the farmer will henceforth 
find a powerful auxiliary in the forester. 

After making every allowance for the great fertility of the soil in 
Great Britain, Ave feel certain that in many districts more than one 
of the forests which were cleared some time back would now be 
jealously preserved by the same proprietors who formerly cut them 
down to satisfy their pressing Avants. 

It must also be borne in mind that the British Empire is not 
confined to Great Britain and Ireland, and that, by reason of her 
immense possessions, England is perhaps, of all nations in the 
world, the one most richly endowed with valuable timber forests. 
It is by hundreds of millions of acres that we may reckon the forests 
of Canada, India, Australia, New Zealand, and Cape Colony, not to 
speak of those in the West Indies and Borneo.^ All these natural 
sources of Avealth are worked by British enterprise and British 
capital ; and, consequent on the present Avonderful development of 
commerce throughout the globe, it is a matter of importance to 
every civilised nation that this vast accumulation of forest riches 
should not fall into the hands of ignorant persons, or be squandered 
away regardless of the future. 

For these reasons the establishment of a Forest School in England 
becomes a matter of primary importance. 

Necessity for a Reserved Forest. — The science of forestry i.>;, how- 
ever, a science of observation, based upon facts which must be 
studied both from a practical and theoretical point of view. It is 
therefore absolutely necessary that a Forest School should have 
attached to it a forest which has for some time past been under 
scientific management, serving, so to speak, as a natural laboratory 

^ The total extent of the forests in the I'l-itisli possessions is estimated at 
340,000,000 acres. 



210 llEPOKT ON A VISIT TO SCOTTISH AND KNCLISH FORESTS. 

for experiments, and without wliicb the best theoretical teaching in 
the world would be of no avail. This is especially the case in 
England, where the young men, by reason of their national charac- 
ter and their mode of education, are accustomed to pay more atten- 
tion to facts than to theories : here the teacher of a technical 
profession, resting solely on theories, would command very few 
disciples. 

It is, therefore, a matter of regret tliat, among all the forests 
visited by us in our travels, there is not a single one suitable for the 
teaching of sylviculture on that broad basis so essential when the 
pupils are called upon to apply it in all quarters of the globe. In 
England, as in Scotland, all the woodlands may be arranged in two 
categories — the one containing plantations too young, recently 
created by the hand of man, the other containing plantations too 
old, or too much overworked, to be useful for the purpose ; nowhere 
did we see a high timber forest formed of really mature trees. 

Natural Forest required. — Moreover, a plantation must always 
be incomplete as a field of study, and especially for persons who 
will generally have to deal with natural forests. Nature, ever 
prodigal of her bounties, if left to herself, scatters them broadcast 
without any regard for the particular wants and requirements of 
man. It is then the work of the forester to control this generous 
prodigality, and, by careful selection, to concentrate her fertilising 
powers on such trees as are best adapted to meet the general 
demand. In the case of a plantation there is no need for this inter- 
ference ; here, natural selection, the struggle for supremacy amongst 
the different species, and even art herself, can play but a very insig- 
nificant part in the various phases of its existence. 

In a forest, then, of this nature it would only be possible to apply 
a very limited number of the principles of sylviculture. 

A practical Englishman will have no difficulty in understanding 
our meaning. 

It is not to be supposed, however, that the foundation of a Forest 
School is at present an impossibility ; for, while leaving the ques- 
tion of time and place to be settled hereafter, it would be advisable 
to at once decide, in principle, on its creation. Such a decision is 
the only mode of arriving at its foundation. It is necessary, also, 
to take measures for preparing the public mind to regard the science 
of sylviculture as an additional moans of developing the national 
resources, and to take steps for the gradual creation of accessory 
forests. 



REPORT ON A VISIT TO SCOTTISH AND EXCxLISH FORESTS. "ill 

Under Control of Forest Officers. — This accessory forest imist 
necessarily be incomplete at first, but would be perfected in time ; 
but the essential point is that it should be placed under the absolute 
control of the officers of the school. This can only be done by 
choosing a State forest. If it should be considered desirable, 
also, in order to render the teaching more complete, the State 
ought to purchase or lease in Scotland a forest suitable for the 
purpose. 

Professors of Forest Economy. — We would also suggest the 
founding of professorships of " Forest Economy" at two of the 
great public seats of technical instruction. One of these might be 
instituted at Cooper's Hill for England, the other at Edinburgh for 
Scotland. 

The professors should be selected from among the young men 
who have received a thorough forest education on the Continent, 
and have had eight or ten years' practical experience in Indi;i. 
They should publish from time to time a series of articles in tbe 
leading agricultural and forest journals, in order to influence the 
landowners in favour of a systematic management of their wood- 
lands, and to prove to them that uncontrolled pasturage is the 
certain destruction of forests, and that, in the long run, the timber 
furnished by forest land is of greater value than pasturage or 
game. 

The establishment of a course of sylviculture at Cooper's Hill 
would have the great advantage of giving to the young engineers a 
rudimentary knowledge of a science which cannot fail to be useful 
to them in their after career. It would, perhaps, also be possible by 
this means to modify the present method of recruiting the Indian 
Forest Service, by offering to the students at this excellent institu- 
tion a certain number of appointments in that service. 

The course of instruction afforded at Cooper's Hill would then com- 
prise all the essential parts of the education of a forester, and it would 
only be necessary to supplement it by sending the selected students 
for one year to a Continental school, where they would have the 
opportunity of perfecting themselves in the practical details of forest 
culture. After this, it would be advisable for them, accompanied 
by their English professor, to complete their training by making a 
tour of inspection in some of the mountain forests of France, 
Germany, and Austria. So prepared, the young men would be 
perfectly capable of undertaking forest work in any portion of the 
Indian Empire. 

VOL. XL, PART II. \^ 



212 IM'.I'ORT ON A VISIT TO SCOTTISH AND KNOLISH FORESTS. 

Itecommendatiunti. — In conclusion, we beg to submit the follow- 
ing recommendations : 

\st. That a National Forest School be founded in Great Britain. 

2ru/. That Professorships of Sylviculture be instituted at Cooper's 
Hill and at Edinburgh. 

Such are the conclusions at which we, in conjunction with our 
travelling companions, Messrs Eeuss and Bartet, have arrived, and 
we feel that an apology is due for their length. This is really due 
to the excessive courtesy of our hosts, who, jealous of the success of 
Jules Verne's hero, who made the tour of the world in eighty days, 
were determined to make us traverse, in less than three weeks, more 
than 300,000 acres of forest land situated in the most opposite parts 
of Great Britain. 



THE FOKMATION AND MANAGEMENT OF GAME COVERTS. 213 



XIV. The Formation aiul Management of Game Coverts. By 
Angus D. Webster, Forester, Penrhyn Castle, Bangor, 
Wales, 

When we consider that on not a few estates in this country the 
value of the plantations as game coverts, is well nigh of as much 
importance as that of the timber produced, it will be readily seen 
that the successful formation and management of these is a matter 
of no small moment to those intrusted with the work. As to 
whether game-rearing and forestry can be advantageously carried on 
in the same woods is, however, a question we by no means feel 
inclined to uphold, and from which, being apart from the subject- 
matter of our paper, we will for the present stand aloof. 

Game coverts may be divided into two kinds, natural and 
artificial — natural, when the woods are kept suflSciently thin to 
admit of the free growth of bramble, bracken, or other rough 
vegetation ; and artificial when the planting of such shrubs as are 
suitable for underwood is resorted to. 

Natural game coverts, which, by most sportsmen, are considered 
superior to those artificially formed, can only exist where the 
plantations are kept well and regularly thinned, so as to admit 
abundance of both light and air — the two principal requisites for 
the successful growth of natural underwood. Generally speaking, 
the formation of natural coverts has seldom to be helped, although 
occasionally in such coverts we have found it necessary to assist 
nature by the sowing of such seeds as those of gorse, broom, etc., 
in the thinner and more open portions of the woodlands. This 
may, however, be considered as an exception to the rule, as where 
the woods are kept sufficiently thin, spontaneous undergrowth 
is usually pretty abundant, and requires neither care nor manage- 
ment, beyond preventing its too free incursions along the margins 
of roads and shooting drives. \Vhere, however, bare patches do 
occur, the sowing of seed may be relied upon as not only a speedy 
but most effectual method of increasing the cover. Where seeds 
are intended to be sown, the soil should be thoroughly prepared 
by a slight picking, after which it may be dug over, and all hard 
clods or lumps broken down, and the whole made smooth and fine 
with a rake. The seeds may be sown in spring, and afterwards 
covered over with hardwood branches as a preservative against the 
depredations of small birds and game. 



211 THE FUllMATIOX AND MANAOKMKNT or OAMIC C0VKKT8. 

Tlie best naturcal game coverts are those composed of bramble, 
gorse, heath, hazel, blackthorn, elder, blaeberry, bracken, or the 
.stronger growing grasses, these being arranged according to merit, 
and each possessing some peculiar feature, specially recommending 
it for planting in certain soils, altitudes, or situations. 

In the formation of artificial game-coverts, when not only shelter 
and i)rotection for game are required, but ornamental eflfect as vreW, 
the judicious grouping of the different shrubs should never be lost 
sight of, more especially when the coverts are within the park or 
policy grounds, and visible from drives and roads. Formality and 
stiffness are so often the characteristics of the present style of shrub 
planting, that in many cases our Avoodlands seem utterly destitute 
of that variety of outline and contrast of light and shade so essential 
to picturesque beauty. In planting evergreen shrubs for the two- 
fold purpose of covert and ornament, the best method is to plant 
each variety in separate groups or clumps. No hard and fast lines 
can be laid down as to the distribution or number of plants to be 
used in the clumps, which, to a great extent, must depend on the 
size and shape of the ground as well as taste of the operator. They 
should, however, be placed at irregular distances apart, be irregular 
in size and outline, and with from a dozen to forty or fifty plants 
in each — bearing in mind that game of all kinds delight in small 
patches of shrubs with abundance of open space around each, but 
detest, in a most marked manner, continuous masses or jungles of 
underwood. 

In selecting sites for the various groups, be careful to choose 
the most open positions, avoiding as much as possible planting 
immediately under the spread of trees ; and, if practicable, so 
arranged that in viewing the wood from any point the eye may 
not pass along a straight bare unplanted space, but become arrested 
by the various clumps in passing to the farther side. 

Having arranged the positions of the various clumps, the pits 
should be opened of a size, and at a distance apart suitable for the 
plants intended to be used, taking care that they are sufficiently large 
to avoid cramping or bending of the roots, which in all cases should 
be spread out to their full extent. In making the pits, it is well to 
thoroughly loosen the soil in the bottom and sides with a pick, so 
as to give the tender rootlets a free course when starting into growth 
in spring. Should the soil be found of inferior quality, a few loads 
of leaf mould, road-scrapings, or loam from an adjoining field will 
be found to work wonders in the way of giving the plants a start. 



THE FORMATION AND MANAGEMENT OF GAME COVKETS. 215 

and also by producing a strong healthy growth. Drainage should 
also have been attended to previous to opening the pits, and all 
stagnant water or superfluous moisture removed by the formation 
of open drains. 

In giving a list of the best evergreen shrubs for covert purposes, 
I would call attention particularly to the merits of laurel, box, privet, 
laurustinus, holly, and yew, as these have been very extensively 
used on this estate for underwood, and with the best possible results. 
As to which of the above shrubs should receive pre-eminence as an 
ornamental covert plant I cannot decide, each having some peculiar 
merit rendering it valuable in its own particular place. We will, for 
the present, however, consider all alike in this respect, and briefly 
describe the value of each separately, beginning with the laurel. 

The common and Colchic laurels are amongst our best shrubs for 
underwood, and should be planted extensively ; they are of free 
growth, bear cutting and pruning well, and thrive under the shade 
and drip of other trees. For covert planting the Colchic is perhaps 
preferable to the normal form, as it is of a more dense and pro- 
cumbent habit, perfectly hardy, and less liable to injury from hares 
and rabbits. The common laurel requires frequent and heavy 
pruning to keep it in bounds, as, if allowed to ramble at will, it soon 
becomes bare near the ground, and useless either as game covert or 
ornament. Last spring we layered a great number of this plant 
that had through neglect become useless for the purpose intended, 
many being from 12 feet to over 20 feet in height, and with simply 
a tuft of foliage near the top. In layering, we sawed the stems 
half through near the ground, to assist in bending, and laid the 
plants flat on their sides, a couple of stout pegs being driven 
alongside, the crooked heads of which served to keep the plants 
in their procumbent position. A spadeful of soil was then placed 
on the top of each peg to assist the layer in rooting. The result 
at the present time is everything that could be desired, each stem 
having thrown up quantities of young shoots, and thus formed a 
jungle of underwood, which year by year will increase in value. 

In planting the laurel for covert avoid overcrowding, as, being of 
quick growth, the plants, even although placed at a considerable 
distance apart, soon unite and form a continuous undergrowth. No 
rule can be laid down as to the distance which should be allowed 
between individual plants, this depending entirely on their size as 
well as quality of the soil in which they are to be planted. Here 
we not uufrequeutly plant double thick, either for immediate 



21G Till-; KOUMATION AND MANA(;KMKNT Ol' GAMK (JOVKUT.S. 

eflcct, or to produce covert at once, and wlieri tlie })laiit.s begin to 
encroach on each other every alternate one is removed, thus giving 
the remaining phmts ample room for developing side branches and 
thereby inducing a dwarf-spreading habit. Having a tendency, 
especially v^^hen confined, to increase more in height than width, the 
laurel, after a few year's growth, should have all the leading and 
straggling ui)per branches cut over, which will not only increase 
the under shoots but prevent the plants running up into tall, 
branchless poles. 

The green tree-box {Buxus semjnrvirens) forms a very pretty as 
well as desirable covert plant, and thrives well beneath the densest 
shade of deciduous trees. It is also of slow dense growth, and well 
adapted for planting in various soils and situations, although prefer- 
ing a light loam and shady position. Another recommendation is 
its immunity from the attacks of game, hares and rabbits having 
such an aversion to this plant, that even during the most severe 
weather, I cannot remember having seen it injured. Few plants 
suffer more from overcrowding than the box, and for this reason it 
should be planted at wide distances apart, the plants soon getting 
top-heavy and falling over of their own accord. Where the i)lants 
are not of large size, and immediate effect or covert is required, 
they may be planted pretty close, and in a few years, when en- 
croaching on each other, every alternate one may be removed. It 
is well adapted for transplanting, the almost solid mass of matted 
roots holding the ball of earth firmly together, thus rendering the 
plant one of our easiest as well as safest to remove. 

The box would seem at one time to have been more abundant in 
our own land than it now is ; thus, Boxley in Kent, Boxwell in 
Gloucestershire, and Boxhill in Surrey, were named from the quan- 
tity of this plant which was formerly found in their neighbourhoods. 
Privet, as a covert plant, has its advantages and disadvantages. 
On the one hand it is cheap, easily grown, and not at all fastidious 
about soil, "When planted amongst trees it, however, generally 
assumes a loose, straggling habit, and as the shade increases it 
usually dies out altogether. Where the plantations are well-thinned 
and kept regularly so, privet, if a little care and trouble be expended 
on its cultivation, will succeed and form capital underwood. In 
planting privet the greatest care is necessary to prevent its being 
overdone. Close planting is always productive of the most 
unsatisfactory results, not only as regards the health of the plants, 
but management of the woods as well. Instead of filling up the 



THE FORMATION AND MANAGEMENT OF GAME COVERTS. 217 

whole ground, as is not unfrequently done, plant in small clumps, 
and these at wide distances apart, which will not only allow the 
privet to grow more healthy and compact, but also admit of space for 
pruning and layering — two necessaries for the successful cultivation 
of privet as underwood. 

The layering of privet, which is a simple though effectual and 
inexpensive method of increase, is performed as follows : — cut off 
all the branches, except those intended for layering, these being laid 
flat on the ground equidistant around the main stem or root and 
kept fast by hooked pegs driven firmly down. A spadeful or two 
of soil should then be placed on the top of each peg, which will 
partly exclude air and hasten the formation of roots. The pegs 
may be made of any refuse branches — -hard wood, such as ash 
or oak, being preferable — about 10 inches in length, one end 
being hooked for holding the branch in position, and the other 
sharply pointed for ease in driving. As several forms of privet have 
crept into circulation of late, it is well to be sure that none unless 
the true evergreen be used in the formation of game coverts. The 
oval-leaved privet, though a most desirable evergreen plant and 
well-suited for ornamental hedges, is from the too luxuriant growth 
and upright form hardly to be commended for underwood, at least 
its merits in this respect are inferior to those of the connnon form. 
Aucuba Japonica and the laurustinus are two of our handsomest 
evergreen shrubs, but, unlike those already described, they will not 
succeed in the densest shade. In open places or alongside woodland 
drives they thrive well, and are excellent for variety and contrast. 
The laurustinus cannot, however, be considered as perfectly hardy 
in this country, for even in our maritime situation here, where the 
air is to some extent ameliorated, it suffers severely from frost, and 
is even, during severe winters, killed completely to the ground. It, 
however, springs very freely from the root, and in a few years quite 
regains its original size and luxuriance. A beautiful hedge of 
laurustinus in our home nursery was killed during the severe 
winter of 1881-82. It was cut over in the following spring, and 
is now a dense compact fence of nearly four feet in height. 
From their bushy, well furnished habit of growth both the 
above plants are excellent as game covert, more especially around 
the outskirts of woods and plantations. They should be allowed 
plenty of room for development of both root and branch, 
though they may, when necessary, be pruned with the greatest 
advantage. 



218 



TIIK FORMATION AND MANAGEMENT OF GAME COVERTS. 



MaJionia aquifolia and Berberis Darwinii are frequently 
recommended as covert plants and for using in similar situations 
with the laurel and box. Along the margins of plantations or in 
very open places they may and do succeed, but from practical 
experience of these plants we find them next to useless as underwood 
in shady positions. Here, where many tliousands of covert plants 
are used annually, we have entirely discarded them from use unless 
in the most open situations. These plants are highly ornamental, 
both in foliage and flower, produce berries which are much sought 
after by game, are quite hardy, and not at all fastidious about soil — 
qualities which specially recommend them for extensive use in 
positions at all suited for their growth. 

The barberry, more especially when planted out in rich soil, and 
when at all confined, is apt to lose the compact, branchy nature 
so recognisable a feature of the [ilant when allowed ample room in 
the nursery border, and to assume a more upright habit of growth, 
which is anything but desirable in underwood generally. To check 
this and keep the plant in bounds, frequent slight prunings will 
have to be resorted to, and this had best be effected during dull, 
damp weather, as the barberry is not a good subject for the pruning 
shears. Neither the barberry nor mahonia are adapted for planting 
in very high or exposed situations — at least, where such has been 
tried on this estate, the results have been anything but satisfactory, 
the plants soon presenting a miserable, half -starved appearance. 

Both plants are readily propagated — the mahonia, when planted 
in loose soil and an open situation, soon covering a considerable 
space of ground, the running roots being especially active under 
such circumstances. 

lihododendroH ponticum, although useful in an ornamental 
point of view, cannot be considered as a first-class plant for game 
shelter. It has, however, several good qualities which recommend 
it for underwood, such as ease of culture, dwarf -spreading habit, 
and immunity from the attacks of game — indeed, in this latter 
respect, it is not equalled by any other plant, if we except one 
or two species of daphne. It is seldom resorted to by pheasants, 
the bottom being not only damp, but such a tangled mass of 
branches, that it is anything but pleasant quarters for game. For 
ornamental efi'ect along the outskirts of plantations, the rhododen- 
dron is invaluable, and is by no means so fastidious about soil 
as is generally supposed, peat being not at all an essential to its 
growth and successful cultivation. Few plants can be made to 



THE FORMATION AND MANAGEMENT OF GAME COVERTS. 219 

increase in like proportion with the rhododendron, and for this 
reason it should be planted in small patches ; and when it is 
desirable to increase the cover, the outer branches may be pegged 
down or layered. This plant also bears pruning with impunity, 
so that old plants that have, through neglect, become lank and 
straggling may without fear or risk be layered or pruned in with 
advantage. 

The common Yew and Holly cannot be too extensively used in 
the formation of game coverts, both being unrivalled for beauty and 
hardiness. They thrive in a great variety of soils, and beneath the 
densest shade of our woodland trees. In planting the yew it is 
"weU, however, to bear in mind that it is highly deleterious to stock 
that may browse upon its branches, and for this reason should never 
be planted along the outskirts of a wood, or in any position to which 
they have access. 

The St John's Wort, as a low-spreading shrub, is unsurpassed, 
and thrives best in a light sandy or peaty soil. It is readily pro- 
pagated by division of the roots ; and when planted out in small 
patches a foot or two apart, the creeping stems soon cover a con- 
siderable surface of ground, and form a dense evergreen mass, 
covered in summer with bright golden flowers. 

Gaxdtheria Shallon, another plant of creeping habit, is, notwith- 
standing its many good qualities, seldom planted to any extent in 
our woodlands ; but this may, to some extent at least, be accounted 
for by the high price of the plants, as well as the small size of those 
purchaseable from our nurserymen. Like most other North American 
plants, the Gaultheria prefers a rather damp, peaty soil, and is one 
of the few shrubs found to thrive in pine plantations. The berries, 
■which are borne in great abundance, are greedily devoured by pheas- 
ants, and in their native country are not unfrequently used as food. 

The Butcher's Broom is a fine glaucous green shrub, densely 
covered with sharp, prickly leaves, and invaluable for planting in 
shady places — indeed, in such positions it seems to be quite at 
home. Here it flowers and fruits freely beneath half-standard 
rhododendrons where few other plants could exist, far less succeed. 
The twigs of this shrub were formerly iised by butchers for sweep- 
ing their blocks ; hence the English name. 

Some of the above plants, notably the St John's Wort and Gaul- 
theria, may be considered as carpet plants, which, in contradistinc- 
tion to general underwood, may be classed as evergreens, which, 
from their low, procumbent mode of growth, are scarcely in the true 

VOL. XI., PART II. Q 



220 THE FORMATION ANT) MANAGEMENT OF GAME COVERTS. 

sense of the word suited for game coverts. To clearly define the 
difference would, however, be no easy matter, and, even were it 
possible to do so, would in the end be productive of but little 
good, as the habits of different ])l;uits vary so much, that what is 
used in one place for carpeting purposes might in another and more 
favourable situation be equally valuable for game covert. A good 
example of this will be found in the St John's Wort, which, when 
])lanted out and allowed to ramble at will amongst bramble, 
privet, etc., forms a capital covert; whereas, when used in open, 
airy situations — such as alongside shrubbery walks — soon forms a 
dense evergreen carpet, of so compact a growth as to be almost 
impenetrable even to ground game. 

In addition to the above-named plants, the following are well 
adapted for giving shelter to game :— Dogwood, Hazel, Elder, 
Arbutus, Cotoneaster of sorts, Juniper of sorts, Pernettya mucronata, 
liuhus nutkaniis, Taxus adpressa, Photinia serrulata, Kalmia 
latifolia, Garrya elliptica, etc. These should be planted out in 
small groups — the more valuable kinds in the most conspicuous 
position, such as alongside or within view of woodland drives and 
shooting roads. 

Protection from Rahhits, etc. — It may seem somewhat absurd to 
speak of planting game coverts, and then to protect them from their 
depredations ; but that this is highly necessary for the first two 
years, at least, is well known to all planters. Few of the shrubs 
treated of in this paper are exempt from the attacks of hares and 
rabbits, more especially when in a young state, and newly transferred 
from the nursery ; and for this reason it is always found necessary 
to protect them in some way or other until fairly started into growth 
and beyond the reach of game. For this purpose wire netting is 
the cheapest and most effectual preservative with which I am 
acquainted. The netting should be about 4 feet in height, not 
more than l|-inch mesh, and inserted in the ground 4 inches, to 
prevent rabbits from working underneath. It may be fixed to posts 
driven firmly into the ground at a distance of 5 feet apart along the 
line of fence. This precaution against the depredations of game 
may not be necessary for all the clumps, but it is especially so for 
those of laurustinus, barberry, and laurel. 

For the first two or three years after planting, the shrubs should 
be kept free of grass and weeds, which will encourage the plants to 
start into growth quicker and thrive much better than they can do 
if the ground is impoverished and light and air excluded by weeds. 



FORESTRY IX FRANCE. 

By Major F. Bailey, R.E. 
CHAPTER I. 

THE ^YOODS AND FORESTS OF FRAXCE. 

Ix 1876, tte last year for which anything like complete details are 
available, the total wooded area of France, exclusive of isolated 
trees, such as those growing in parks and on roadsides, which were 
not planted for the sake of the timber they produce, amounted to 
35,464 square miles, or a little more than 17 per cent, of the entire 
area of tlie country. The proportion in other European countries 
is as follows, viz. : — 



Eussia, .... 


40 


per cent 


Sweden, .... 


34 




Norway, .... 


29i 




Germany, .... 


26 




Tiu-key, .... 


22 




Switzerland, .... 


18 




Greece, .... 


U 




Spain, Belgium, and Holland, each 


7 




Portugal, .... 


5 




The British Isles, 


4 




Denmark, .... 


H 





The average of all the European States, taken together, is 29| 
per cent. The population of France being 181 per square mile, it 
follows that the area of woodland per head is about three-fifths of 
an acre. 

Some changes, which will be noted in a subsequent chapter, 
have taken place in the area of the State forests since 1876, but in 



222 FORESTRY IN FRANX'E. 

tliiit year the woods and forests were owned in the following pro- 
portions by the different classes of proprietors, viz. : — 

.Square miles. 
The State, .... 3,734 = 107 per cent. 
Communes and sections of communes, 7,949 = 22'4 ,, 
Public institutions, . . 124 = 0-3 

Private proprietors, . . 23,657 = 66 '6 ,, 



35,464 = 100 

and these figures may be taken as fairly representing the actual 
position at the present time. 

Forests are not so exhausting to the soil as agricultural crops. 
In the case of the latter, the entire plant, except the roots, which 
are sometimes also taken, is removed, whereas with a crop of trees, 
the leaves, flowers, and fruit, which are far richer in nutritive 
elements than the wood, are annually returned to the soil, and thus 
serve to maintain its productive power, as well as, by their pro- 
tective action, to keep it in a good physical condition. Hence 
forests can flourish on comparatively poor soil ; some kinds of 
trees, notably most of the conifers, being able to grow on ground 
that would be quite incapable of producing a series of remunerative 
agricultural crops ; and it is therefore, generally speaking, out of 
place to keep rich fertile valleys under forests, w^hich ought rather 
to be maintained on ground which cannot be profitably cultivated. 
In well-populated districts, matters naturally tend to settle them- 
selves in this manner ; the better classes of ground being brought 
under the plough, while every acre of the rest of the country is 
kept wooded, in order to meet the domestic and agricultural wants 
of a dense population. But it is otherwise in less favoured locali- 
ties. Here vast areas might be devoted to the production of wood ; 
but while, from the nature of the case, the local consumption is 
in such places very small, the absence of communications fre- 
quently renders export very difficult. Hence wood has but a very 
small value, and the forests tend to disappear gradually before the 
excessive grazing to which they are subjected ; for the population 
of such regions, being unable to make its living by agriculture, is, 
generally speaking, driven to adopt a pastoral life. 

Forests grow in France at all altitudes up to about 9000 or 9500 
feet above the sea, a much larger proportion of them being found 
at low than at high levels. Thus it has been calculated that if the 
country were divided into altitude-zones of 200 metres each (656 
feet), the lowest zone would contain 36 per cent, of the forests, while 



FORESTRY IN FRANCE. 



223 



the highest would not contain more than "04 per cent, of them ; 
the fifth zone (2600 to 3300 ft.) would, however, on account 
of the extensive plateaux existing at this level, contain more 
than the fourth. Forests situated at high altitudes do not produce 
so much wood, and are therefore not so profitable, as those grown 
lower down ; consequently the private owners, who have done their 
best to preserve their woods in the plains and low hills, have, in 
the majority of cases, allowed the mountain forests they once pos- 
sessed to be destroyed by over-grazing. Hence it arises that while 
at altitudes below 4000 feet, the proportion of State and communal 
forests is comparatively small, hardly any private woods are found 
above the level of 6000 feet, such forests as exist there being, 
generally speaking, maintained by the State or the communes in 
the public interest, as a protection against avalanches and the 
formation of torrents. The private forests are then, taken as a whole, 
more favourably situated than those which belong to the State and 
the communes, both as regards soil, climate, means of export, and 
proximity to the markets. It has been calculated that the distribu- 
tion of the forest area by zones of altitude is thus proportioned : 





Forests under the 
Forest Department. 


Private and 
Communal 
Forests not 
under the 
Forest Depart- 
ment. 


Total. 


State. 


Communal 


M. M. Ft. Ft. 
Plains, to 200 = to 656 
Low hills, 200 to 500 = 656 to 1640 
Mountains above 500 = above 1640 


41% 
32 „ 

27 „ 


5% 
48 „ 
47 „ 


45% 
25 „ 
30 „ 


36 7„ 
31 ,, 
33 ,, 


100 


100 


100 


100 



It is said that if the trees could be grouped together, so as to 
form a series of pure forests, the proportion of the total area which 
would be occupied by each species would be as follows : — 
Oak {Q. sessiliflora and Q. pcdunculata), 29 per cent. 



Beech, 
Hornbeam, 
Silver fir, 
Scotch pine, 
Evergreen oak {Q 
Maritime pine, 
Spruce, 
Larch, 
Other kinds, 



Ilex), 



19 
12 

7 

4i 

4 

3 

3 

2 
16i 



100 



224 FOKKSTRY IN KliANC'K. 

The small number of species which enter to any important extent 
into the composition of the French forests is very remarkable. Thus 
it appears that oak, beech, and hornbeam occupy GO per cent, of the 
tree-covered area, more than one-half of the remainder being taken 
up with six other species ; but many other kinds are disseminated 
throughout the forests in various proportions according to circum- 
stances. As a matter of course, however, the trees are not grouped 
together in the above manner, and, neglecting blanks, the crop on 
the ground is actually constituted somewhat as follows : — 

„ ,, , r Broad-U'aved (oak or beech), . . . .15 per cent. 
Pure lorests, ] ^, ... / •, « • i i s 10 

I Com lerous (silver nr, puie, spruce, or larch), . 13 ,, 

—28 ,, 



Mixed forests, 



Broad-leaved (oak, beech, and hornbeam), . 52 
Broad-leaved and coniferous (beech and silver 

fir, or oak and pine), . . . .18 

Coniferous (silver fir and spruce), ... 2 



100 

Or, separating the broad-leaved and the coniferous forests from 
those which consist of a mixture of the two, we have 

Broad-leaved forests, pure and mixed, . . 67 per cent. 

Coniferous forests, do., . . 15 ,, 

Broad-leaved and coniferous forests, . . 18 ,, 

The State forests show a smaller proportion of pure crops than 
are found in those of the communes, but they also comprise a very 
much larger proportion of forests in which the crop consists of a 
mixture of broad-leaved and coniferous species. The first of these 
differences is due to the circumstance that a mixture, w-hich is 
always desirable from cultural considerations, has been systematically 
maintained in the State forests from a remote period, whereas this 
has not always been the case in the communes. The second 
difference is chiefly accounted for by the fact that those parts of 
the State broad-leaved forests, where, from various causes, the soil 
has become much deteriorated, have frequently been planted up 
with conifers, which are the only kinds likely, on account of their 
capacity to grow on poor soil, to succeed under such conditions ; 
but these are, in such cases, only intended to act as nurses to 
broad-leaved species, which are subsequently to be raised under 
their shelter. But little work of this kind has yet been accom- 
plished in the communal forests from want of the needful funds. 



FORESTRY IN FRANCE. 225 

The private forests resemble those of the communes rather than 
those which are State property, but a further comparison in this 
respect between them and tlie other classes of forest need not be 
made at present. 

Many circumstances combine together to influence the nature of 
the vegetable growth, which characterises any particular locality. 
Thus, a " limestone soil," which is one containing more than four or 
five per cent, of carbonate of lime, is usually marked by a rich 
and varied vegetation; while on a silicious soil the flora is much more 
simple and uniform, the undergrowth being often formed of Bilberry 
(Vacciymcm myrdlhis), broom, and heather. Forty-four per cent, of 
the French forests are on limestone. But the principal forest trees are 
not much affected by the chemical composition of the soil — the two 
deciduous oaks, the beech, hornbeam, silver fir, spruce fir, and larch, 
being classed as " indifferent " to it. The evergreen oak, however, 
shows a preference for limestone ; and the Scotch pine flourishes 
best on a silicious soil ; but the maritime pine will not grow on 
limestone. The climate, which varies with the latitude, altitude, 
amount and distribution of the rainfall, proximity, or otherwise of 
the sea, and other conditions, is the principal factor in determining 
the distribution of trees, each of which finds its home in the locality 
which best suits its temperament. The hot region of the south, 
the temperate regions of the north and centre, and the mountains, 
are each characterised by the spontaneous vegetation to which 
they are adapted. Thus, in the south, are found the evergreen 
oak and the maritime pine ; while the spruce, the silver fir, 
and the larch inhabit the mountains ; and the five other species 
mentioned, grow chiefly in the temperate region. The physical 
condition of the soil also exercises an important influence on the 
groAvth and local distribution of trees ; for example, Quercus 
pedunculata, and the hornbeam, will grow on moist soil, which does 
not suit either Quercus sessilijlora, the beech, or the evergreen oak. 

During the entire course of their development, trees of all kinds 
require light ; but during the early stages of their existence, some of 
them must be completely in the open, without any cover at all ; 
while for others, various degrees of shade are necessary. This 
quality of the young plants is, generally speaking, in direct relation 
to the abundance of the foliage of the adult tree frona which they 
spring. Those which, when young, require much light, such as 
the larch, the pines, and the oaks, are called " robust," or trees of 
light cover, while others, which will not stand exposure, such as the 



226 FORESTRY IN I'RANX'E. 

bcecli and silver fir, are called " delicate," or trees of heavy cover. 
The spruce and the hornbeam are classed intermediately between 
kinds of light and heavy cover. This is a very important question 
for the forester, not only with reference to the method to be 
adopted for raising of a crop of any particular kind of trees, but 
also with regard to their coppicing power, their effect on the soil, 
and other matters. Trees of light cover, generally speaking, coppice 
better than those of heavy cover, but the latter have a much 
greater effect than the former in improving the soil. 

It is estimated that the 35,464 square miles of woods and forests 
yielded the following produce in 1876, viz., 17,896,227 loads (50 
cubic feet) of wood of all qualities, 321,741 tons-weight of tanning 
bark, 2556 tons-weight of cork, and 31,539 tons-weight of resin ; 
the whole being valued at .£9,471,017. The average production 
of wood was therefore 39 cubic feet per acre ; and the gross 
revenue, omitting that on minor produce, which was very small, 
was equal to 8s. 4d. per acre. But, in addition to this, it is cal- 
culated that the isolated trees, not grown for the sake of their 
timber, and vines yield together 3i- million loads per annum, valued 
at £1,000,000 ; so that the total production of wood in France is 
raised to about 21 J- million loads, and the value of the wood, bark, 
and resin to about £10,500,000. This gives the amount of wood 
and the money value of the forest produce per head of the population 
as 29 i- cubic feet, and 5s. 9d. respectively. 

Of the 21| million loads of wood produced, about 4 million loads 
were timber, and the rest were firewood. The latter sufficed for 
the national requirements, but the former was far from doing so ; 
for the imports of wood of this class exceeded the exports by 
2,062,432 loads, valued at £6,408,000 — that is to say, that it was 
less than two-thirds of the amount required. The question of foreign 
timber supply is, therefore, a very important one, even for France, 
which has 17 per cent, of its area under forest. 



CHAPTER II. 

FORESTS MANAGED BY THE STATE FOREST 
DEPARTMENT. 

The forest law of 1827, which is still in force, confirmed the 
previous legislation, under which all woods and forests which 



FORESTRY IX FRANCE. 22/ 

form part of the domain of the State, all those which, being the 
property of Communes or Sections, or of Public Institutions, are 
susceptible of being worked under a regular system, and finally all 
those in which the State, the Communes, or Public Institutions 
possess a proprietary right jointly with private persons, are 
administered directly by the State Forest Department in accord- 
ance with the provisions of the forest law. 

The areas thus administered at the commencement of 1885 were 
as follows, viz. : — 

Hectares. Sq. Miles. 
State Forests, ..... 1,012,688 = 3,910 
Communes, Sections, and Public Institutions, 1,967,846 = 7,598 

Total, . . 2,980,534 = 11,508 



These figures, which include the dunes, represent about 5| per 
cent, of the entire area of France, and nearly one-third of the 
total wooded area. An additional 144 square miles of barren 
land had, up to the end of 1884, been purchased by the State 
in connection with the project for the consolidation of bare and 
unstable slopes on the great mountain ranges ; and this area is 
also administered by the Department under the forest law. About 
40 per cent, of the State forests are situated in the plains, while 
the rest of them, together with nearly the whole of the communal 
forests, are found in about equal proportions on low hills, up to an 
altitude of 1700 feet, and on the higher mountain ranges. About 
one-half of them stand on limestone rock, 92 per cent, of their 
entire area being actually under wood. 

The principal object of the following pages is to sketch in a 
brief and summary manner the system of management adopted for 
these forests, so that some general idea may be forried of what the 
business of the French Forest Department consists in, and what 
the results of their labours have been, up io the latest date to 
which information is available under each head. The organisation 
of the professional staff of the department, and the manner in 
which it is recruited, will then be explained. 

State Forests. 

The forests now belonging to the State owe their origin to one or 
other of the following sources. They either formed part of the 
ancient royal domain, as it was constituted at the time of the 
ordinance of 1669, or of the sovereign domains united to France 



228 FORESTRY IN FItANCE. 

since tliat year ; or else they were ecclesiastical property confi.'-catecl 
at the time of the Revolution in 1790, or they have been more 
recently acquired by purchase, legacy, or gift. About one-half of 
them are ancient royal domains. 

The State forests were formerly of much greater extent than they 
are at present. In 1791 they covered an area of 18,166 square 
miles, which was reduced to 3792 square miles in 1876, the reduct- 
tion being almost solely due to sales efTected for the benefit of the 
exchequer; but the loss of territory after the war of 1870 was the 
cause of a diminution of 374 square miles. The records show that, 
between 1814 and 1870, 1362 square miles of State forests were 
sold for nearly 12| million pounds sterling, or about £14 per acre ; 
but since 1870 no such sales have taken place, and since 1876 the 
area has been somewhat increased by purchases and otherwise. It 
now includes 33 square miles of forest owned jointly with private 
persons, and 450 acres are temporarily held by the families of some 
of Napoleon I.'s generals, whose right will in the course of 
time either lapse or be commuted. The remainder of the area is 
owned absolutely by the State, but the enjoyment of the produce 
does not belong exclusively to the treasury, for, as will be explained 
hereafter, certain groups of rightholders participate in it. 

In the next section, the principal points of the laws relating to 
the communal forests, and of their management by the State Forest 
Department, will be brought to notice ; while in the subsequent 
sections of this chapter the work of the department in connection 
with the State and the communal forests will be briefly treated of, in 
such a manner as to bring out and compare the results obtained in 
the two classes of forests. 

Forests Belonging to Communes, Sections, and 
Public Institutions. 

The territory of France is divided into 39,989 communes or 
village communities, of which about one-third are forest proprietors. 
Certain groups or sections of the inhabitants have, however, rights, 
and own property, apart from the commune in which they reside, 
and these are also owners of considerable areas of woodland. Those 
forests belonging to comnuines or sections, which are susceptible of 
being worked on a regular system, are managed directly by the 
State Forest Department, for the benefit of their owners, the prin- 
cipal features of this management being as follows, viz., — the laws 



FORESTKY IN FKANXE. 229 

relating to State forests are, generally speaking, but with certain 
exceptions, applicable to them ; they cannot be alienated or cleared 
without the express and special sanction of Government in each 
case ; they cannot be divided up among the members of the com- 
munity ; the annual sales of produce are effected by the State 
forest officers, and the money realised is paid directly by the pur- 
chasers into the communal treasury ; before the sales take place, 
the quantity of timber and firewood required by the inhabitants for 
their own use, is made over to them, usually standing in the forest, 
and it is subsequently worked out by a responsible contractor ; 
three-quarters only of the total annual yield is available for dis- 
tribution or sale, the remaining quarter being left to accumulate, and 
thus to form a reserve fund or stock of timber from Avhich excep- 
tional necessities either in the way of wood or money can be met ; 
the distribution of firewood is made according to the number of 
heads of families having a real and fixed domicile in the commune ; 
the entry of goats into the forest is absolutely prohibited, while the 
grazing of sheep is only permitted temporarily, and under excep- 
tional circumstances, with the special sanction of Government in 
each case ; no grazing of any kind can be carried on in the forests, 
except in places declared out of danger by the forest officers, who 
have the power to limit the extent to which it can be practised with 
reference to the quantity of grass available ; the forest guards are 
chosen by the communal authorities, subject to the approval of the 
forest officer, who delivers to them their warrants; the State 
defrays all expenses of management, including the officers' salaries, 
the marking of trees, notifying of sales, office charges, and the pro- 
secution of offences ; the State is reimbursed by the payment from 
the communal treasury of a sum equal to 5 per cent, on the sales of 
principal produce, including the value of the wood made over to the 
inhabitants ; but this payment, which forms a first charge on the 
forest revenue, can never exceed the rate of one franc per hectare 
(about 4d. an acre) of the total area thus managed ; the communes 
pay the guards' salaries, the taxes, and all charges for the mainten- 
ance and improvement of the forest, including planting, sowing, 
and road-makiiig, as well as those for extraordinary works, such as 
demarcation, survey, and the preparation of working plans. In all 
this the forest officers are bound, by law, to act on the principle 
that they are managing the property for the benefit of its owners, 
who must be consulted through their representatives, the Mayor 
and the municipal council, in all matters affecting their interests. 



230 KORKSTIIY IN FKANCE. 

and whose wishes must he acceded to when tliey are not opposed by 
the legislation, or contrary to the recognised principles of scientific 
forest management. 

Tlie principal public institutions are hospitals, charitable associar 
tions, churches, cathedral chajjtcrs, colleges, and schools ; and the 
forests belonging to them are subject to administration by the State 
Forest Department on precisely the same terms as are those of the 
commune and sections. 

Of the area of 7598 square miles shown as being thus managed 
on behalf of these bodies at the commencement of 1885, about 100 
square miles belong to public institutions, and about 7500 square 
miles to communes, including sections. Of the remainder of their 
forests, about 410 square miles owned by the latter, and about 27 
square miles by the former, are managed respectively by the com- 
munes themselves under the municipal laws, and by the administra- 
tive councils of the institutions. 

Changes in this respect frequently take place ; for every year a 
certain number of applications to free forests from the restrictions 
which State control involves are granted, while in other cases the 
owners demand or consent to their imposition. The records show 
that sanction has, since the year 1855, been accorded to the clearing 
of 35 square miles, and to the alienation of 40 square miles of the 
forests belonging to these bodies ; but it is probable that the per- 
mission has not, in all cases, been acted on. 

For the sake of convenience, the forests belonging to communes, 
sections, and public institutions, will in future be spoken of 
collectively as " communal" forests. 

Demarcation and Survey, 

Up to the end of 1876, the work of demarcation had made good 
progress in the State forests, only 13 per cent, of which then 
remained to be completed, while 30 per cent, of the communal 
forests had still to be dealt with. The demarcation is indicated by 
dressed-stone pillars, with intermediate ditches or dry-stone waUs, 
according to the custom and resources of each locality. The ground 
is usually re-surveyed after the demarcation has been completed, and 
at the end of 1876 about three-fourths of the State forests and one-half 
of the communal forests had been thus re-surveyed and mapped, the 
prevailing scale being ^qVo {12|"= 1 mile) and ywoct (H" = 1 
mile). Pending the completion of this work, the old maps are used 



FORESTRY IN FRANCE. 231 

for such of the forests as have not yet been re-surveyed. In tlie 
communal forests the work of demarcation and survey is less 
advanced than it is in the State forests, because the charges for 
such work have to be defrayed from the communal treasury, and 
the needful funds are not always forthcoming. 

Systems of Culture. 

The climate of France is singularly favourable to the natural 
regeneration of forests, which is, generally speaking, relied on — 
planting and sowing being only resorted to in the comparatively 
rare instances in which success cannot otherwise be achieved, such 
cases including, of course, the stocking of extensive blanks. 

There are two main systems of culture — one known as " high- 
forest," and the other as " coppice." 

A High-forest, which is usually destined to produce timber of 
large size, is one composed of trees that have been raised from seed, 
its regeneration being effected by means of seed, generally speaking 
self-sown. There are two methods of treating the forest in order to 
produce this result. In one of these the trees of each age-class are 
grouped together, and are subjected to periodical thinnings, until the 
time arrives for regeneration, which is effected by a series of fellings, 
the first being a more or less light thinning, intended to promote 
the formation of seed and the springing up of the young seedling 
plants. The seed-felling, as this is called, is followed at intervals 
by a series of secondary fellings, usually three or four in number, 
which are made in order to meet the gradually increasing require- 
ments of the young growth in the way of light ; and ultimately the 
remainder of the old stock is removed by a " final felling." In this 
manner the marketable stems are gradually cut down and disposed 
of, the young crop being left to go through the same stages as its 
predecessor, and so on throughout successive generations of trees. In 
the selection method (known as jardinaye), on the contrary, the 
trees of all ages are mixed over the whole area of the forest ; there 
are no regular thinnings of the kind made under the first method ; 
and the annual cuttings are effected by taking marketable trees here 
and there within a certain area of the forest, the blocks composing 
which are successively treated in the same manner, so that the 
entire forest is worked over within a fixed period of time. When 
treated by the first method, the forest is grown under very artificial 
conditions; for the age-classes are never in nature found thus grouped 



232 FORESTRY IN FR\NCR. 

together ; but by the selection metliod, on the contrary, a more or 
less near approach to a natural forest is obtained. 

In the Coppice system tlie regeneration is prinf'.i[)ally effected by 
means of coppice shoots. There are two methods of treatment — 
simple coppice, in which there are no reserved trees, and the crop is 
clean-felled over successive porti(ms of the forest ; and coppnce 
luidcr standards, in which standard trees are selected and reserved, 
with a view to their remaining throughout several generations of 
coppice shoots — generally at least three, but often four or five. 
Many forests are now undergoing conversion from the system of 
coppice to that of high-forest. 

The following statement shows the extent to which the two 
systems were applied, in the State and communal forests, in 187G, 
since which year no important changes have taken place. The areas 
are given in square miles. 





High- 
forest. 


Under 

Conversion. 


State Forests, 


. 1648 


1121 


Coinmunal Forests, 


. 2229 


54 



Coppice. 


Pastures. 


Total. 


740 


225 


3,734 


4808 


92 
317 


7,183 


5548 


10,917 



Totals, . , . 3877 1175 

It will be seen that there is a marked difference between the State 
and the communal forests in this respect. In the former, nearly 
three-quarters of the total area are either now under high-forest or 
under conversion to that system ; while in the latter, two-thirds of 
the total area are under coppice, and less than one-third is either 
under hitfh-forest or under conversion. 

High-forest being usually destined to produce large timber, tlie 
trees must be left standing until they have attained a considerable 
age ; and the capital, both in timber and money, which is locked 
up in it, is therefore much larger than that in a forest under coppice. 
Other conditions being equal, the quantity of wood produced annu- 
ally is, however, much the same under both systems ; but owing to 
the greater value of the produce obtained from the high-forest, its 
money revenue is greater than that of the coppice, while on the 
other hand it is found that coppice yields a higher rate of interest 
t)n its smaller capital value than high-forest, and on this account it 
is a more suitable system for adoption by communes. Coppice 
possesses, also, a further advantage for them, in that it yields for 
the use of the inhabitants timber and other produce more varied in 
kind and dimensions than are obtainable from high-forest, and it 



FORESTKY IX FRANCE. 233 

thus satisfies their requirements, •which are chiefly in fuel and small- 
sized timber, much better than forest managed under the latter 
system. But even in cases where the conversion of communal 
coppice to high- forest is deemed advisable, it is always found ditfi- 
cult to reduce the annual fellings to the quantity necessary in order 
to allow the growing stock to accumulate to the required extent ; 
while the small size of the greater part of these forests renders them 
unsuited to the treatment which they would have to undergo in 
order to effect their conversion. The coppice system, including 
coppice under standards, is therefore in vogue in almost all com- 
munal broad-leaved forests, such high-forest as the communes pos- 
sess being found chiefly in mountainous regions, and being composed 
of coniferous trees, which will not coppice. The area of communal 
forest shown as under conversion consists principally of tracts in 
which the coniferous trees are spontaneously taking possession of 
the ground, and driving out the broad-leaved species. It follows 
from what has been said above that the State alone can, generally 
speaking, raise broad-leaved high-forest on a large scale, or under- 
take the conversion of coppice to high-forest. 

A further dift'erence between the systems of culture generally 
adopted for the State and the communal forests may be noted, viz., 
that whereas in the former less than one-fifth of the high-forest is 
treated by the selection method, three-fourths of the communal 
forests are so treated. In mountainous regions, where, as has just 
been said, the greater part of the communal high-forest is found, the 
selection method possesses incontestable advantages, in consequence 
of the continuous cover which it aflbrds to the soil ; but although 
the respective merits of the two methods, as applied to coniferous 
forests situated in such regions, are much disputed at present, there 
has of late years been an undoubted tendency to return to selection, 
which has for some time past fallen into discredit, and, taking the 
State and communal forests together, somewhat more than one-half 
of the total area of their high-forest is now treated in this manner. 

Two variations of simple coppice are sometimes practised : (First) 
That known in the Ardennes as sartage, in which, after the wood 
has been cut and removed, the twigs and chips are burnt on the 
ground, in order that their ashes may give to the soil sufficient 
manure to permit of the growth of a crop of cereals during the year 
immediately following the cutting. This system, which, as carried 
out in France, seems to be practised rather for the sake of obtain- 
ing the crop of corn than as a method of forest culture, is gradually 



234 FOIIESTKY IN FUAN'CE. 

dying out. It is not adopted in the areas under tlie State Forest 
Department. {Second) Tliat known im furelaye, in which, instead 
of clean-cutting the coppice, those shoots only are taken which liave 
attained to certain fixed dimensions, the operation being repeated 
annually, or after intervals varying from two to five years. Furetage 
prevails chiefly in the valley of the Seine, in the forests from which 
the fuel supply of Paris is drawn ; but it is also employed in the 
mountainous districts of the south, in the case of forests maintained 
for the protection of steep slopes, which it is undesirable to denude 
entirely. 

It is impossible here to enter into anything like full details 
regarding these sylvicultural questions. To study them completely, 
as they are taught and practised in France, reference must be made 
to the books on the subject, among which may be mentioned " The 
Manual of Sylviculture," by G. Bagneris (translated into English by 
Messrs Fernandez and Smythies), llider tSi Son, London • and "Ze 
traitement des hois en France^' by C. Broillard, Berger-Levrault, 
Paris. 

Working Plans. 

Working plans or schemes will, in course of time, be prepared for 
all forests administered by the Forest Department. The law pro- 
vides that all these forests shall be subjected to the provisions of 
such plans, and that no fellings which are not provided for therein, 
and no extraordinary cuttings, either from the communal "reserve," 
or in the blocks destined to grow from coppice to high-forest, shall 
be made without the express sanction, in each case, of the Govern- 
ment, by whom all plans must be approved before they can be 
adopted. 

Subject to due provision being made for tlie exercise of rights of 
user, the working plan provides for the management of the forest in 
the way that will best serve the interests of the proprietor. Unlike 
an agricultural crop, which ripens and is gathered annually, trees 
take many years to grow to a marketable size, the actual period that 
they require being dependent not only on their species, and the 
natural conditions under which they are grown — as climate, soil, 
and so forth — but also on the use to which they are to be put. Thus, 
a coppice being required to yield wood of small size only, may be 
cut every twenty-five to forty years \ whereas a high-forest, which is 
destined to produce large timber, must stand for a much longer time. 
It would be excessively inconvenient if the entire crop of such a 



FORESTRY IN FRAKCE. 235 

forest were felled only once in every 100 or 150 years; and it is 
chiefly to avoid this that a working plan is required, which pre- 
scribes the arrangement necessary in order to allow of the produce 
being taken out annually, without intermission and in equal quan- 
tities, so that a regular and sustained income may be drawn from 
the forest. For example, a simple coppice thirty acres in extent, of 
which the crop is to be felled at the age of thirty years, might 
either be entirely cut down at one time, and then allowed to grow 
up again for thirty years ; or, which would be found much more 
convenient, it might be divided into thirty one-acre compartments, 
each of which is to be felled in succession, so that by taking one 
plot each year, the whole area would be worked over in thirty 
years. The working plan must then, in the first place, prescribe the 
age at which the trees are to be felled, with reference to the average 
number of years that they take to arrive at maturity, or to attain 
the required size ; and it must then fix the yield, or the amount of 
wood to be annually removed, this quantity being expressed either 
in the form of an area to be cut over, or a number of cubic feet of 
wood to be taken out. But in the case of a high-forest managed 
under the selection method, it is sufficient to fix the number of trees 
of a minimum size to be cut out annually. 

The provisions of a working plan vary according to the nature of 
the forest to which it relates. In the case of the simple coppice 
instanced above, the first thing to do would be to obtain a map (see 
PI. Vll.) showing the principal features of the ground, such as the 
edge of the plateau, the stream, and the road. The area would then 
be broken up, for purposes of examination and description, into 
temporary plots, such as those lettered from (A) to (H), each plot 
comprising a portion of forest more or less homogeneous in its com- 
position. This study of the crop would enable the area to be 
divided into the thirty permanent compartments above alluded to, 
and it would also determine the order in which they should be 
numbered, so that the older portions might be cut first. It is 
evident that if one of these be cut every year, the series of compart- 
ments will, after the lapse of thirty years, contain forest of all ages 
from one to thirty years ; and if the annual felling be invariably 
made in the oldest compartment, it is evident that the age of the 
crop cut will always be thirty years. 

To make a working plan for a regular high-forest, to be treated by 
successive thinnings, is not quite such a simple matter. If the forest 
is of great extent, it is, first of all, divided into two or more series or 

VOL. XI., PART II. R 



'2^(i FORESTRY IN FRANCE. 

sections, each of which is dealt with separately. After the examina 
tion and description of the temporary plots, the section (see PI. Vfll.) 
is divided into a number of equal compartments called affectations, 
and when the ground has once been completely worked over, the crop 
on each of these will always be within certain limits, in the same 
stage of development, and subjected to the same kind of treatment. 
Thus, if the trees are to be felled at the age of 120 years, and 
there are six compartments, the sixth may contain the young growth, 
aged from 1 to 20 years, the fifth young poles from 21 to 40 years 
old, and so on, the first containing the old trees which are to be 
felled. The compartments having been formed, each of them is then 
subdivided into compartments usually corresponding in number 
with the years over which the fellings within it are spread (tw^enty 
in this case), and, while the trees are being cut in the first compart- 
ment, clearings and thinnings of various recognised degrees are 
going on in the compartments of the others, until each in its turn 
arrives at the age at which the trees are to be removed ; and it is 
clear that in this case also the forest will ultimately contain a due 
proportion of trees of all ages from 1 to 120 years, which is an 
essential condition. The working plan prescribes the order in 
which all this is to be done, and it lays down the number of cubic 
feet of timber of the oldest class which are to be taken out annually 
from the first or oldest compartment, so that the entire stock on it 
may be removed within the first period of twenty years, wind-f:ills 
and dead or dying trees being always taken first ; each of the re- 
maining compartments is similarly dealt with when its turn to be 
felled arrives. The quantity of wood to be removed by thinnings 
cannot be prescribed by the working-plan, as they must be made 
to the extent which is judged necessary in order to develop the 
trees which are left. The forester's art is to do this skilfully, and 
ultimately to remove the old trees in such a manner that they may 
leave behind them a young self-sown crop to take their place, and 
so on throughout successive generations. 

For a high-forest to be managed under the selection method, the 
arrangement is different. Here it is, of course, equally necessary 
that all the age-classes should be represented in due proportion, 
but instead of the trees or poles of each class being grouped to- 
gether in separate compartments, all classes are mixed indiscriminately 
over the entire area of the forest, and there is thus no necessity for 
the formation of affectations, or compartments, of the kind just 
described. Take for instance the mountain forest sketched in 



FORESTRY IX FRANCE. 237 

PI. IX. After tlie main features, such as the streams, ridges, and 
roads, have been laid down on the map, the temporary plots, and 
the descriptions of them, are made as before. The forest might, in 
the present case, be divided into three sections, the upper of which 
being on the crest of the hill, is required to be kept as dense as 
possible, and will not be dealt with in the working plan, as dead or 
dying trees alone will be removed from it. Suppose that the annual 
yield of the central section, which is 150 acres in extent, has been 
fixed, with reference to the estimated rate of growth and degree of 
completeness of the stock, at 50 cubic feet per acre, and that trees 
of marketable girth within it contain on an average 100 cubic feet 
of timber, it follows that the number of such trees which may be 
removed annually from the section is ^^"^^ ^° = 75. Theoretically 
this number should be taken one here and one there over the whole 
area ; but this would be very inconvenient, so the forest is divided 
into twelve or any other convenient number of equal or nearly 
equal blocks, from each of which, in succession, the entire number 
of trees is to be cut ; after taking windfalls, the choice falls on the 
ripest trees, those which are dead or dying being selected first. The 
section below the road is in another zone of vegetation; it is 100 
acres in extent, and its annual yield is calculated at the rate of 60 
cubic feet per acre. Suppose, then, that the trees of mai'ketable 
girth contain on an average 110 cubic feet of timber, the number 
of such trees to be cut annually is — ^ — ~ 54. The section will 
then be divided into blocks, — in the instance illustrated by the map 
the number is ten, — from each of which in succession the entire 
number of trees is taken. In this manner each zone of altitude 
may be dealt with on its own merits, while, at the same time, the 
annual fellings, being localised, are easy to supervise, and the wood 
can be disposed of more readily and more profitably than if the 
trees had been felled here and there over the entire area. The 
working plan for a forest under conversion would, of course, differ 
from any of the above ; but this somewhat complicated question 
will not be dealt with here. It is only by an arrangement similar 
to one of those above briefly sketched, that a permanent annual 
yield of a particular class of produce can be assured, and that the 
forest can be secured against the risk of gradual extinction. 

A special branch of the Forest Department is charged with the 
preparation of working plans, which are not made by the local 
officers, except in the case of small forests, the plans for which they 



238 FORESTRY IS FRANCE. 

can frame without interference with their ordinary duties ; but 
they undertake the revisions, which are made every ten or fifteen 
years in order to guard against errors, and to allow for changes 
in the rate of growth, or otlier causes of disturbance. Pending the 
preparation of such regular plans, the Forest Department draws up 
provisional rules, which must accord with local usages, where these 
are not opposed to the recognised principles of .sylviculture. Up 
to the beginning of 1877 regular working plans had been com- 
pleted for more than two-thirds of the total area of the State 
forests, and for somewhat less than one-half of the communal 
forests. The work progresses more slowly in the latter than in the 
former, because in their case the funds have to be provided by the 
communes, and the money is not always available ; but as a matter 
of course the most important forests were taken in hand first, and 
these have for the most part been completed. 

The question of working plans has only been dealt with above in 
an extremely superficial manner. In order to gain anything like a 
complete idea of the systems pursued in France, the following works 
should, among others, be studied, viz. : ^' Amenagement desforets," 
by C. Broillard, Berger-Levrault, Paris, 1878, and " Amenage77ient 
des forets,''' by A. Puton. A translation of the latter work has 
appeared in vols. viii. and ix. of the "Indian Forester." 

Products Obtained from the Forests. 

The yield in wood of various classes having once been fixed by 
the working plan, it is the business of the department to realise it 
as nearly as circumstances will permit. As to tanning bark, all that 
the felled trees or poles will yield is utilised. Cork bark is taken 
from the living trees, which will not bear the removal of a too 
large proportion of their protective covering, and hence care has 
to be taken not to overwork them. Eesin is collected on a large 
scale in forests of the maritime pine (Pmns maritima), which only 
yield it freely on the hot and damp coasts of the south-west. 

The yield of minor produce, such as grass, moss, litter, and other 
things, being small, and details regarding it not being available, 
this class of products cannot receive more than a passing mention. 
Neither can account now be taken of the numerous advantages 
which the forests undoubtedly render to the population, but which 
cannot be expressed in the bulk or weight of the products drawn 
from them. 

The latest available statement of yield relates to 1876, in which 



FORESTRY IX FRANCE. 239 

year the State and communal forests taken together gave 5,620,663 
loads (50 cubic feet) of wood, or an average of about 40 cubic feet 
per acre; also 50,742 tons of tanning bark, 292 tons of cork bark, 
and 1967 tons of resin. 

The yield of wood ))er acre of the State forests somewhat exceeded 
that of the communal forests ; but while, in explanation of this, it 
must be said that the greater extent to which grazing is practised 
in the latter affects their wood production unfavourably, it must 
also be admitted that a large proportion of their produce is made 
over to the inhabitants for their own use, and that this is estimated 
at a low figure, so as to reduce as far as possible the charges against 
them on account of management by the Forest Department ; and 
the apparent difference is largely due to the latter cause. Of 
the total yield in wood, 1,364,846 loads were timber, and 4,255,817 
loads were firewood ; and, as might be expected from what has been 
said before regarding the different systems of culture adopted, the 
State forests gave the larger proportion of timber, one-third of the 
wood from them being of that class ; while in the case of the com- 
munal forests the proportion of timber was only one-fifth. A still 
more striking result would follow a comparison of the nature of 
the produce obtained from the State and from private forests ; and 
since timber is a more useful and valuable product than firewood, 
the advantage to the country, from this point of view, of consider- 
able areas of forest land being owned by the State is apparent, and 
the more so when it is remembered that France does not grow 
more than two-thirds of the amount of biulding-tiniber that she 
consumes. 

The communal high-forest is for the most part situated in the 
mountains, and is composed of coniferous trees, which explains 
the fact that the greater part of the timber derived from the com- 
munal forests is fir and pine, whereas only about one-third of that 
coming from the State forests is of those kinds. 

Sales and Export. 
Fi'incijml Produce ( Wood, Bark, and Resin). — With the ex- 
ception of the produce made over to right-holders, and of that 
delivered to the inhabitants of the communes from their forests for 
their own consumption, as well as of comparatively small quantities 
of timber cut in the State forests for the War Department and 
Admiralty, the whole of the annual produce is sold by public 
auction, and no other mode of sale is permitted. There are three 



240 FOUESTKY IN FUANCIi. 

principal systems oi disposal, viz.— (1st), sale of standing trees; 
(2d), sale at a rate per cubic metre, or other unit of the produce, 
cut, converted, and taken out by the purchaser ; and (3d), sale of 
produce cut and converted by departmental agency. The first of 
these systems necessitates a previous marking, either of the trees 
which are to be removed, or of those which are to be reserved ; 
there is no guarantee given either as to the number of trees, or as 
to their species, size, age, or condition ; but they are bought 
and sold on the best estimate that either party can make of their 
value as they stand. The purchaser, as a matter of course, cuts up 
and exports the wood at his own cost, and in the form which best 
suits him, being bound under severe penalties to carry out this 
work in the manner prescribed by the conditions of sale. It has 
been urged that this system needlessly introduces a middle man 
between the producer and the consumer, and that thus the profits 
of the former are reduced, while the regeneration of the forest may 
be compromised by felling and exporting the trees in a careless or 
ignorant manner ; but in reply to this, it may be said that the 
wood-merchant must always exist, as it is but rarely that the actual 
consumer can himself go to the forest to get what he wants ; and 
that, by strictly enforcing the conditions of sale, which are framed 
with special regard to this object, interference with the regeneration 
of the forest is practically avoided. 

The second method differs from the first, only in that the auction- 
sale determines merely the rate at which each of the various classes 
of produce is to be paid for ; but it is open to the objection that 
the classification of tlie produce is difficult, and it thus leads to fre- 
quent disputes, in the settlement of which the interests of the 
proprietor (State or commune) may be allowed to sufter. This 
method is rarely adopted, except in the case of thinnings, when the 
quantity of wood cannot well be accurately estimated beforehand. 

The sale of timber, cut and fashioned by departmental agency, is 
rarely resorted to ; it has certainly the advantage that the work is 
better done, and that more complete precautions can be taken to 
secure the regeneration of the forest ; but on the other hand, the 
State, or the commune, as the case may be, must advance all the 
money for the work, and the forest officers become charged with a 
large amount of supervision and accounts, while a number of pur- 
chasers are admitted to the forest, and offences of various kinds are 
from time to time committed by them. But the chief objection to 
the system is, that the wood is not always cut up in the manner 



FORESTRY IX FRANCE. 241 

which best suits the requirements of the market at the moment, a 
matter with which the forest officer can never be so ^s•ell acquainted 
as the professional timber-merchant, and thus, not only do the general 
interests of the country suffer by failure to supply wood in the form 
in which it is most required by the consumers, but the prices 
realised are not always so good as those which the produce might 
have been made to fetch had it been cut up in some other manner. 

Timber sold standing usually commands a higher rate than it 
does when disposed of in any other manner ; and for this and the 
other reasons that have been given, the first of the three systems is 
the one generally adopted in both the State and the communal 
forests. This method of sale is not generally followed in other 
European countries ; but the French system has stood the test of 
experience ; and it is greatly facilitated by the honesty which, as a 
general rule, prevails in the trade to which it has given rise. 

In consequence of the absence or insufficiency of export roads in 
Corsica, and of the difficulty experienced in getting purchasers who 
were willing to take the produce for a single year only, a law was 
passed in 1840, which enacted that the timber to be cut in any part 
of that island during a series of years, not exceeding twenty, might 
be sold at one time to a single purchaser, the State, at the expiry 
of the term, becoming possessed of all works erected by him, with- 
out liability ti) the payment of compensation for them. A few of 
such contracts exist to the present day ; but both the system of 
roads and the timber trade having largely developed during the last 
forty-five years, the practice of entering upon such engagements is 
gradually dying out. 

J/hioi- Produce. — Receipts on account of minor produce form 
an insignificant portion of the gross revenue derived from the 
French forests, the most important item being that which is due to 
the sale of hunting and shooting permits. Produce of this class is 
not sold so much as a source of revenue, as to enable the agricultural 
population to make use of it, without giving rise to the idea that 
they are entitled to it by right. It is sold by private contract, the 
price being fixed by the conservator, or by the Prefect, or the Mayor, 
in the case of the State and communal forests respectively. The 
conditions under which such sales are effected in the State forests, 
are determined by each conservator, with reference to local circum- 
stances ; and he retains the power to forbid the sale from the 
communal forests of any classes of produce, the removal of which 
would, in his opinion, be detrimental from a cultural point of view. 



242 FORESTHY IN FRANCE. 

Payment for minor [truduce is often accepted, especially by tlie 
communes, in tlie form of (lays' work clone in the forest. 

Wood siipplied to the A'hiiircUty. — Every year a notice is sent 
by the Forest Department to the Admiralty, showing the localities 
in which trees suitable for naval purposes are to be felled ; and the 
latter department then notifies the number and description of those 
which it desires to have reserved in each forest. The purchaser of 
the timber sold from these blocks fells, barks, and conveys the trees 
marked for the above purpose to an appointed place in the forest, 
where they are inspected and taken over by the Admiralty officials, 
who cut from them what they want, the rest of the wood being sold 
by the Forest Department in the ordinary manner. The forest 
officer and the marine engineer then agree upon the sum to be paid as 
the price of the wood removed, and as compensation, to cover losses 
caused by the depreciation in value of that rejected, and the account 
is subsequently adjusted in the financial department. Up to the 
year 1837, the Admiralty had the right to select trees everywhere, 
including the private forests ; but the system was not found to 
answer, and it was abandoned in that year. Even under existing 
regulations, a very small proportion of the wood used by the 
Admiralty is obtained directly from the forests, the greater part of 
it being bought in the open market. 

Wood supplied to the War Department. — The requirements of 
the War Department are met as far as possible from the State 
forests, the trees being marked and felled by the Forest Department, 
and removed either directly by the military authorities, or by the 
Forest Department at their cost. The account is adjusted in the 
financial department. But the amount of wood so supplied is very 
small, as, except in cases where the State forests lie near the 
fortifications or garrison towns, it is found more convenient and 
cheaper to purchase what is I'equired in the market. 

Roads and Buildings. 
Without roads, which are required in order to render the forests 
accessible, and to facilitate the export of produce, this form of the 
natural riches of a country cannot be utilised ; the construction of 
good export roads being one of the most important means that can 
be adopted for raising the forest revenue. Thus, in Corsica, where 
before 1850 the State forests did not produce more than .£200 a 
year, the annual revenue derived from them was raised in 1868 to 
X8000, the improvement being due almost entirely to the develop- 



FORESTRY IX FRANCE. 243 

ment of the communications. At the end of 1867 there were 2440 
miles of metalled and 5380 miles of unmetaUed roads in the State 
forests, and since that year their length has been at least doubled. 

The great importance of accommodating the forest guards in 
suitable houses within the forests, is fully recognised ; and out of 
3200 guards, 1400 are lodged in 1213 houses, the remainder of 
them being granted allowances to lodge themselves in neighbouring 
villages. The proportion of roads and buildings in the communal 
forests is much less than in the State forests, partly because the 
communes have to pay for their construction, and funds are not 
always available, but partly also because the average size of these 
forests being smaller, roads and guards' houses within them are not 
needed to the same extent. 

At the end of 18G7 there were 126 saw-mills in the State forests, 
all worked by water-power. 

Timber- slides, sledge-roads, wire-rope tramways, and such-like 
means of exporting the wood are very little used in France. A 
great deal of timber is required for their construction and main- 
tenance, and considering the price that wood of all kinds can 
command, it is found better and cheaper, even in mountainous 
regions, to make permanent roads suitable for timber-carriages and 
carts. They are to be found only in a few localities where the con- 
ditions are exceptional. 

Portable iron tramways have not yet come into general use as a 
means of exporting timber from the forests, and it is believed that 
there is only one in use in France at the present time, viz., that at 
Baccarat at the base of the Vosges ; but the advantages which the 
employment of this means of transport affords will doubtless shortly 
be better understood than at present, and a development of the 
system is to be anticipated — at any rate, in the forests of the plains. 
The floating of large timber is almost unknown ; but firewood for 
the supply of Paris is still floated fr(jm the hills of the Morvau 
down to the railways. 

Financial Results of Working. 

The profit derivable from a forest is dependent on a number of 
causes, among which may be mentioned the species of which the 
crop is composed, the depth and nature of the soil, the climate, the 
system of culture, the proximity of great centres of consumption of 
produce, and the existence of good lines of export. 

Taking the average of the last three years for which the accounts 



244 FOKliSTin IN KUAMCE. 

have been audited, it is found that the receipts, expenditure, and 
surphi.s of the State forests were as follows, viz. : — 

Kuvciiuc, . i:l,2!)7,74S — lOs. fid. per acre. 

Ex[ieiiditure, . 571,347^ 4m. 7d. ,, 

Surplus, . . £7-2(3, 401--^ 5s. lid. 

But if the money spent on the afforestation of mountain slopes and 
dunes, and on the purchase of additional areas, he excluded, the 
expenditure on the existing forests is reduced to about .£480,000, 
and the surplus is raised to 6s. 8d. per acre. The actual profit is 
indeed slightly more than this ; for the figures include both expen- 
diture by the Stale on the management of the communal forests, 
and the contributions paid by the communes on this account. The 
receipts are supposed to cover the payments, but they rarely do so, 
and some allowance may be made for this fact when calculating the 
net profit derived from the State forests, which, during the years 
referred to, probably fell little short of 7s. an acre. Recent infor- 
mation relating to the receipts, expenditure, and surplus resulting 
from the working of the communal forests is not available. 

The latest year for which full details regarding the gross revenue 
per acre of the State and communal forests are obtainable is 1876, 
when the figures were as follows, viz. : — 



Principal produce (wood, bark, resin), 
Minor produce, .... 

Total, .... 

The revenue from the State forests was then, in 1876, consider- 
ably higher than that above given as the average of the last three 
years ; and this was due to two causes, of which the first is the 
exceptionally large number of windfalls which occurred in that 
year, and the second the comparatively high rates which timber 
then realised. All but a small fraction of the revenue on 
principal produce was obtained by the sale of wood and tanning 
bark, cork being produced only in the forests near the Mediter- 
ranean and in Corsica, and resin almost exclusively on the shores of 
the south-west. The figures relating to the State forests show the 
results of actual sales ; but this is not so in the case of communal 
forests, as a large proportion of the produce from them is made 



state, 
s, d. 


Communal. 

S. (1. 


Mean. 
s. d. 


12 6 


7 5 


10 


7 


3 

7 8 


5 


13 1 


10 5 



FORESTRY IX FRANCE. 245 

over to the inhabitants for their own use, and its value is estimated 
at a low rate,'in order to keep down the amount of their contribution 
for the services of the State Forest Department, which is levied in 
proportion to the sum of their gross revenue and the value of the 
wood delivered to them. In addition to this, it should be said that 
the revenue on minor produce shows cash receipts only, no credit 
being taken for payments made chiefly in the communes by means 
of days' work done in the forests. These circumstances account to 
some extent for the smaller revenue obtained from the communal 
forests ; but the true explanation of this result is to be found in 
the important influence exercised by the system of culture adopted. 
In 1876 it was observed that the highest rate of gross revenue was 
obtained from high-forest, and the lowest from simple coppice, while 
coppice under standards occupied an intermediate place. It was 
also found that in the case of high-forest, the areas under coniferous 
trees yielded a much higher revenue than those under broad-leaved 
species, chiefly on account of the form of their stems, which 
enables a very large proportion of sawn timber to be obtained from 
them, but partly also from the greater value of the thinnings taken 
from them during the early stages of their growth — in the form, for 
example, of telegraijh and hop-poles, etc. The revenue from forests 
composed of coniferous and broad-leaved trees mixed together lay 
between these two. But, of course, this is not an universal rule ; 
for a high-forest of beech might yield a better return than a coppice 
with oak standards, and a similar comparison might be made 
between forests stocked with other trees of different relative values, 
and managed under various systems. The following figures, show- 
ing the results of sales in the Nancy conservatorship, will serve to 
illustrate what has been said : — 

Simple coppice, . . . . ' . . yielded 4s. 4d. per acre. 

Coppice under standards, ..... ,, lis. 8d. ,, 

High-forest of broad-leaved species, . . . ' ,, 13s. Id. ,, 
High-forest of coniferous and broad-leaved species, ,, 238. lOd. ,, 
High-forest of coniferous species, . . . ,, 51s. 6d. ,, 

Looking, then, at the larger proportion of the communal forests 
which is under coppice, and at the relatively greater proportion of 
firewood and timber of small size that they consequently produce, 
the smaller gross revenue per acre that they were able to yield is no 
longer surprising. Taking the State and the communal forests 
together, it was found that their gross revenue was 22 per cent. 



246 FORESTRY IN FRANCE. 

per acre higher than that of the private forests notwithstanding 
that these latter are, as a rule, on better soil, ;ind are frequently 
grown under other more favourable natural conditions. 

The average all-round rate actually realised in the State forests 
per load of wood of all sorts, including tanning bark, was 14s. 5d. ; 
while that obtained in the communal forests was only 9s. 8d. The 
corresponding rate for the whole of the French forests, including 
those belonging to private proprietors, was 10s. 7d. ; so that the 
rate in the State forests exceeded the general average by 37 per 
cent., while that in the communal forests feU to 9 per cent, below 
it. The revenue obtained by the sale of minor produce was 
derived principally from shooting leases and permits. 

It is not an easy matter to determine the capital value of a 
forest, but in 1873 an estimate was made, which put that of the 
State forests at nearly 50| million pounds sterling, which is equi- 
valent to a little over £50 per acre. The gross revenue derived 
from them in that year represented a return of 3'15 per cent., but 
the net profit did not much exceed 2 per cent, on the estimated 
value. The capital value of the communal forests is certainly less 
per acre than that of the State forests, on account of the younger age 
at which the trees are, generally speaking, cut ; and, notwithstanding 
that their revenue is smaller, it is probable that they pay a higher 
rate of interest than the State forests. 

It has been estimated that the relative rates of interest on their 
capital value paid by forests in' which the main crop is removed at 
various ages, is something like the following, viz. : — 

Age, 



25 years, 


4 


per cent 


30 ,, 


u 




40 ,, 


3 




60 ,, 


2 




. 100 ,, 


1 




. 200 ,, 


. i 





These figures are intended to give a general idea of the manner 
in which, notwithstanding the increased value of the produce, the 
relative rate of interest declines as the age to which the trees are 
left standing is prolonged. They have no claim to absolute accuracy, 
even as representing the average of French forests, and stiU less 
can they be assumed to apply to the forests of other counwies. 
They serve, however, to explain what has been previously said, 
viz., that on account of the higher rate of interest which coppice, 



FORESTRY I\ FRANCE. 247 

generally speaking, yields, as well as for other reasons, it is a 
more suitable system for communes than high-forest ; and this 
remark applies with equal or even greater force to private forests. 

Rights of User. 

The principal rights of user are those relating to timber, fire- 
wood, and grazing; but there is also a small number of others, such 
as those which permit the cutting of turf, the collection of dead 
leaves, and the like injurious practices. In the State forests, the 
right-holders are, almost without exception, village communities ; 
the instances in which private persons possess rights in them being 
extremely rare. The communal forests are, comparatively speaking, 
free from such burdens. 

The law of 1827 provided for the investigation and disposal of 
all claims to exercise rights in the State forests, and barred the 
acquisition in them of any fresh ones. Hence those only have now 
to be dealt with, which have been formally admitted and recorded 
in favour of the communities or persons who possess them. 

The aim of the Department has always been to free the forests 
from such claims as far as possible, and the law provides for this 
being done in the following manner, viz., all rights of ivood may 
be commuted by surrendering possession of a portion of the forest 
itself in lieu of them, the terms being arranged by mutual consent, 
or, in case of disagreement, by the Courts ; but the State alone can 
demand such a commutation, the right-holder cannot do so. Other 
rights, including those of pasture, cannot be got rid of in the above 
manner, but the State can buy them out by the payment of a sum 
of money, the amount of which is either settled by mutual agree- 
ment or by|the Courts. The sale of pasture rights cannot, however, 
be enforced in places where their exercise is absolutely necessary 
for the inhabitants, the question of such necessity being, in case of 
dispute, referred to the Conseil de Prefecture^ subject to an appeal to 
the Conseil d'Etat^- The law also provides that the exercise of all 
rights, which have not been got rid of in cither of the above ways, 
may be reduced by the Forest Department with reference to the 
condition of the forests, and the mean annual production of the 
material in respect of which they exist ; and none can be exercised 

^ An administrative tribunal, established in each Department of France. 
- The central administrative tribunal, established at Paris for hearing 
appeals from the decisions of the Conseils dc Prefecture. 



248 FOTIESTRY IN FRANOK. 

otherwise tlian in accordance with the provisions of the law and 
the rules based on it. 

The principal features of the legislation regarding the exercise of 
wood-rights are the following, viz. : — No wood can be taken which 
has not been formally made over by the Forest Department ; per- 
sons who possess a right to dead-fallen wood cannot employ hooks 
or iron instruments of any sort in its collection ; when firewood is 
made over standing in the forest, it is felled, cut up, and taken out 
by a contractor, selected and paid by the right-holders, but pre- 
viously approved by the Forest Department ; the partition of the 
wood among the inhabitants cannot be made until the work i.s 
entirely completed ; the contractor is responsible in all respects 
as if he had been the purchaser of the })roduce, but he acts 
under the pecuniary guarantee of the body of right-holders, who 
cannot barter nor sell the wood made over to them, nor put it to 
any use other than that for which it is given to them ; timber made 
over in satisfaction of a right, but not used within a period of two 
years, may be reclaimed by the Forest Department. 

No right can exist to take goats into either the State or the 
communal forests, as the grazing of these animals is considered 
incompatible with the maintenance of the ground under wood. 
The old laws suppressed, without compensation to the right-holders, 
the practice of grazing sheep in the forests of the ancient royal 
domain of France, and the law of 1827 suppressed it also, on pay- 
ment of compensation, in those State forests which are of more 
recent origin ; but the Government has the power to permit sheep- 
grazing in certain localities as an exceptional and temporary 
measure. No right to pasture any kind of animals can be exercised 
in any part of a forest not declared out of danger by the Forest 
Department, which has also the power to limit the number of 
animals to be admitted, and the period during which they may 
graze, with reference to the condition of the forest and the quantity 
of grass in it. Right-holders can only pasture animals which they 
keep for their own use, not those which they keep for sale. 

On the 1st January 1877, about one-half of the total area of the 
State forests was burdened with rights of the estimated annual 
value of £38,400, while only -3 per cent, of the communal forests 
were so burdened, the annual value in their case being estimated at 
£6700. The commutation and purchase of rights, which was com- 
menced in a systematic manner in 1857, is effected by the officers 
of the ordinary service, as well as by those who are charged with 



FORESTRY IX FRANCE. 249 

the framing of the working plans. As a general rule, the arrange- 
ment with the right-holders is made by mutual consent, appeals to 
the Courts being of rare occurrence. The State is in no hurry to 
spend large sums iu the purchase of grazing-rights, which will pro- 
bably disappear with the progress of agriculture ; a result which 
has already been realised in the north of France, where the greater 
portion of these rights has lapsed through failure to exercise them. 

Grazing. 

Goats, sheep, and cattle have always been the enemies of forests, 
and they are indeed the principal agents of their destruction, 
especially in hot and dry climates, where the vegetation is not 
sufficiently vigorous to resist the effects of over-grazing. 

Animals are admitted to the forests under three different con- 
ditions, viz. : — 

(a.) In virtue of a right of user. 

(b.) As a means of raising revenue, and of utilising the grass. 

(e.) By tolerance, as a temporary arrangement. 

Grazing by Rifiltf. — This has been treated of in the preceding 
section. 

Grazing as a means of Revenue and of utilising the Grass. — 
Neither goats nor sheep are admitted into the State or communal 
forests with this object. In the State forests it is sometimes the 
custom to allow cottagers living near the forest to graze their cattle 
in exchange for a number of days' work, but this is not done to any 
important extent. In these forests, in fact, very little grazing is 
sold, for tlie practice can only be permitted in the unwooded 
portions, which are rarely available for the purpose, because, although 
they are of considerable extent (about 4.50 square miles), they are 
either required as grazing grounds for the cattle of right-holders, or 
they are being planted up, and hence the revenue from this source 
is insignificant. It was only £360 during the last year for which 
the record is available. But it is otherwise in the case of the 
communal forests, where local custom often necessitates the main- 
tenance as pasture land of blanks, which could otherwise be most 
advantageously filled up ; and some communes derive almost 
their entire revenue from this source. The receipts by them 
amounted in the same year to nearly £15,000. 

Grazing by tolerance. — It has been said that no right can exist 
to graze either goats or sheep in the State or communal forests ; 



250 FORESTRY IN FRANX'E. 

and the inhabitants of the communes are specially prohibited by 
law from admitting their own goats and sheep into their forests ; 
but the Government has the power to sanction the grazing of Kheep 
(not goats) in certain localities under exceptional circumstances. 
Permission to drive sheep into the State forests is, however, very 
rarely accorded, except in seasons of extraordinary draught, when 
the flocks of the neighbouring communes are sometimes admitted 
for a single season. But in the case of the communal forests, such 
temporary sanction is, of necessity, more freely accorded ; for the 
forests belong to the inhabitants ; and even though their true 
interests might be better served by keeping out their sheep entirely, 
it is not found possible to change their pastoral habits all at once : 
and, on this account, permission has frequently to be granted them 
to graze their sheep in their forests, either for a single year, or 
for periods up to five years. They can, however, graze their own 
horned cattle, horses, ponies, donkeys, and pigs there without 
special permission ; and they usually do so on payment of a fee 
into the communal treasury. According to the latest available 
record, the number of animals of all kinds thus admitted in a single 
year was as follows, viz. : — 

Horned cattle, horses, ponies, and donkeys, . 359,164 

Pigs, 48,388 

Sheep (by special sanction), .... 936,960 

The animals can, however, only be grazed in places which have been 
declared out of danger by the forest officers, and their numbers can 
be limited with reference to the quantity of grass available ; but it 
is not always possible to enforce these restrictions rigidly; and the 
forests, in certain regions, have mi;ch to contend with, from the 
extent to which grazing is practised. The receipts by the com- 
munal treasui'ies on this account, have been estimated at 4s. 6d. per 
head of large cattle, 3s. lid, per pig, and Is. per sheep ; but this 
only represents an average revenue of lOd. per acre of the area 
grazed over, whereas wood yields, on an average, about 8s. 4d. per 
acre ; and it seems probable that this consideration may gradually 
lead, in the agricultural districts at any rate, to the abandonment of 
the practise of pasturing cattle on forest lands. There is no doubt 
that when the grazing, even of large cattle, is permitted, it is carried 
on at the expense of the crop of wood ; and that where it is 
practised to any considerable extent, the forest, properly so called, 



FORESTRY ly FRANCE. 251 

tends to disappear ; and this is notably the case where, for the time 
being, local circumstances, such as the absence of export roads, 
render wood a less profitable crop than grass. Here the forests 
gradually become almost unproductive, and finally succumb from 
excessive grazing. 

About four-fifths of the total area of the communal forests are 
still used as grazing grounds, nearly one-half of the latter being 
open each year ; and the average area provided for each class of 
animals is about 3 acres per head of large cattle, 2 acres per pig, 
and 4 of an acre per sheep. Separate grazing grounds are allotted 
for each class, and these figures represent the average of all 
qualities of pasture land; they could not therefore, even supposing 
that the grazing were not excessive, be taken as a guide to the area 
which should be provided per head in any particular locality, even 
in France, and still less so in other countries. 

Offences. 

Until the year 1859, persons who were charged with offences 
against the Forest Law had always to be tried by the Courts ; but in 
that year a law was passed which enabled the Forest Department to 
take compensation from oflfenders instead of bringing them before 
the tribunals, and this method of dealing with them is now largely 
practised. The department has always the power to charge the 
delinquents before the Courts ; while they, on the other hand, 
have always the right to refuse payment of the compensation 
demanded, and thus to bring about their formal trial. Oflicers of 
lower rank than that of conservator are not, however, authorised to 
deal with cases in this manner, and the power of the conservator is 
limited to the acceptance by way of compensation of sums not 
exceeding £40 ; if it is desired to exact a larger amount, the sanc- 
tion of Government must be obtained. 

This system has many advantages. For while it is necessary in 
the public interest that infractions of the forest rules should be 
checked, a large proportion of them are usually of a petty nature, 
and in many cases the persons who commit them hardly deserve the 
severer penalties that must be inflicted on their being found guilty by 
the Courts. The system of taking compensation, on the other hand, 
liermits the adoption of a scale of punishment more suited to this 
class of offenders, while it at the same time enables the means of 
the delinquents, and the attendant circumstances of each case, to be 

VOL. XI.. PART II. s 



252 FORKSTUY IN KRANCK. 

taken into account. The punislunout can also he made t« follow 
promptly tlie committal of the offence, without the necessity for 
dragging the accused and the witnesses from their occupations to 
attend before a tribunal, the time of wliich is thus not occupied in 
the trial of these petty cases. The present system is easy and 
simple for the Forest Department ; and that it acts very leniently 
on the population living near the forests will be seen, when it is 
stated that the amount of compensation exacted during the last year 
for which the record has been prepared, amounted to only one-fifth 
of the sum which the Courts must have awarded had the offenders 
been proved guilty before them. Occasionally the compensation is 
allowed to be paid in the form of a number of days' work done in 
the forest. 

With the advancing prosperity of the country, forest offences 
become less frequent, and the number committed annually is very 
much smaller now than it used to be a few years ago. It is worthy 
of remark that they are more than twice as numerous in the com- 
munal as in the State forests, probably because individual inhabi- 
tants of the communes think that there is not much harm in 
committing minor depredations on property which they doubtless 
regard as their own. During the year 1876, the number of offences 
was 26,377, there being 3 per 1000 acres in the State forests, 
and 7 per 1000 acres in those belonging to the communes. More 
than half of the offences were connected with the theft of wood or 
injury to trees, and nearly a quarter related to pasture and cattle 
trespass, 31,231 persons being involved in the charges. As might 
be expected, wood-stealing is more prevalent in winter than in 
summer, while the reverse is the case with regard to breaches of the 
grazing laws. Of the total number of charges made in 1876, 7 per 
cent, were abandoned, either owing to the trivial nature of the 
offences, or owing to want of sufficient evidence ; 70 per cent, were 
dealt with under the compensation law; and the remaining 23 per 
cent, were taken into court, convictions being obtained in 99 per 
cent, of these cases. 

In addition to clauses dealing directly with wood thefts, illicit 
grazing, and other fraudulent practices, the Forest Law provides 
that no person having cutting instruments in his hand can leave the 
ordinary roads which pass through the forest, and that no fire can 
be either lit or carried within, or at a less distance than 200 yards 
from, any forest boundary. A regular tariff exists which fixes 
the penalties for damaging trees of various ages and species. The 



FORESTRY IX FRANCE. 253 

law also prohibits the erection, \Yithout permission, of brick-works 
or lime kilns, carpenters' shops, timber-yards, or sawmills, within 
certain distances of the forest. At the time that the law was 
passed, it was much more necessary than it is at present to check 
the erection of such buildings, and applications for permission to 
construct them are now usually accorded on suitable conditions. 

Injuries Caused ry Wild Animals and Insects, Storms 
AND Fires. 

Wild Animals and Insects. — The principal wild animals which 
cause injury to the forests, either by devouring the seed or the 
young seedlings, or by peeling the bark off the young plants, are deer, 
pigs, hares, and rabbits. The insects which attack the leaves, the 
bark, and even the wood of the trees, belong chiefly to the families 
Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenojytera. But the damage done 
is not excessive, and it is, in fact, far less than that produced by the 
same causes in many other countries. It is of course exceedingly 
difficult to put a money value u[)on injuries of this sort, which in- 
clude not only the actual death of a certain number of old and 
young trees, but also a reduction in the rate of growth of others. 
An estimate was, however, made regarding the damage done in 
1876, and it is said to have amounted to about 4s. per 100 acres, 
taken on the entire area of the State and communal forests. The 
coniferous trees generally suffer more than the broad-leaved species, 
as they are more exposed to the attacks of insects, which not in- 
frequently kill them outright, wliereas the latter species more often 
suffer merely a diminution in their rate of increase. 

Storms. — The damage done by storms of wind is a much more 
serious matter. Injuries are caused to the forest by them, which it is 
not always possible, either to prevent, or even to modify. In the 
first place, the windfalls interfere with the arrangements laid down 
in the working plan, and the considerations which guide the 
execution of the fellings are thus thrown out ; they remove too 
large a proportion of the seed-bearing trees, and consequently it is 
sometimes necessary to substitute a difficult and costly artificial 
process for the natural regeneration, which would otherwise have 
been effected ; while, in addition to this, they break, or otherwise 
damage, neighbouring trees by their fall. In the second place, 
the value of the windfalls themselves is, speaking generally, 
small, as they are frequently broken or otherwise injured, while 



254 FORESTRY IN FRANCE. 

most of them have probably nut attained the age or dimensions at 
which it was intended that they should be felled. They are also 
specially liable to attacks by insects, which often appear in large 
numbers in forests where many trees have been blown down, 
particularly in the case of the coniferous species. Even uninjured 
windfalls fetch a lower price than trees felled in the regular 
manner, because they are usually found scattered here and there, 
instead of being concentrated in one part of the forest. 

The year 1876, which is the last for which figures can be 
obtained, was a disastrous one, the amount of windfalls being ex- 
ceptionally large, probably double of that which occurs during an 
average year. The number was put at 1,145,708 trees, and the 
damage caused was estimated at £10,300, or about £3, 4s. per 100 
acres in the State forests, and 12s. per 100 acres in those belonging 
to village communities. The latter being, for the most part, 
coppice under standards, suffered less than the former, while the 
proportion of windfalls in the coniferous forests was greater than 
that in those composed of broad-leaved species. The windfalls were 
sold fornearly £021,000. 

The forest officers, when arranging the annual fellings, are careful 
to provide, as far as possible, against the effect of storms, by leaving 
a protecting belt of trees standing on the side of the forest from 
which the dangerous winds blow, and in other ways ; but much 
depends on natural conditions which are beyond their control, such 
as the configuration of the ground, the shelter afforded by neighbour- 
ing hills, the nature of the soil and its physical condition, the 
kinds of trees and their root development, as well as their size, age, 
and the system of treatment to which they have been subjected. 

It may be added that hailstorms often do great damage by stripping 
the trees of their foliage, and by breaking or otherwise injuring the 
young plants. 

Fires. — The Penal code provides for the punishment of persons 
who cause forest fires either intentionally or through carelessness ; 
and the forest law prohibits the lighting or carrying of fire either 
inside the forests or within 200 yards of their boundaries ; but the 
ordinary laws do not prevent proprietors from lighting fires in their 
own forests to the danger of their neighbour's property. This is an 
important question in the Maures and Esterel,^ where the bad 
practice is followed of systematically lighting fires in the forests, in 
order to burn up the heather and other shrubs which interfere with 
1 Low mountain rautfes in the south of France. 



FORESTRY IN FRANCE. '255 

the regeneration of the crop of trees ; and in 1870, a special law 
was passed, prohibiting the proprietors of those districts from light- 
ing fires in their forests, except at seasons fixed by the Prefect ; and 
also compelling them to clear fire-lines round all woods and forests 
which have not been completely freed from all inflammable shrubs. 
In 1876 there were 290 fires in the area managed by the Forest 
Department, nearly all of them being the result of accident. The 
surface burnt over measured 2350 acres, or about 3^07 part of the 
entire area, and the damaged was estimated at £3280, or 28s. 
per acre of forest burnt. The proportion of fires was greater in the 
broad-leaved than in the coniferous forests ; but, on the other hand, 
the amount of damage done per acre in the latter, was three times 
as great as that in the former, the resin in the trees themselves, and 
in the dead needles on the ground, rendering the fir and pine forests 
excessively inflammable. It is also worthy of remark that, although, 
as a general rule, fires were of more frequent occurrence in the 
spring than at any other season of the year, the autumn fires were, 
on account of the recently fallen leaves, by far the most destructive. 
But this is by no means true of all regions, and the general result 
may be mainly ascribed to the great damage done by fires occurring 
during the autumn in the south of France. In the north, forest 
fires are of small importance, and occasion little damage. 

Hunting and Shooting. 

The right to hunt and shoot in the State forests is, generally speak- 
ing, let out on nine years' leases, which are sold by public auction 
under the rules for the sale of timber and other forest produce ; 
but when this is not possible, it is sold by means of annual permits 
issued under the direct authority of the Minister of Agriculture, the 
sport being always carried on under the surveillance of the officers 
of the Forest Department. No forest oliicer can become a lessee of 
the shooting within the limits of his own charge, and forest guards 
are never permitted to shoot in the forests under any circumstances. 

The municipal councils are, subject to the approval of the Prefect, 
free to dispose of the right to hunt or shoot in their forests in any 
manner that they wish. 

Destruction of Wolves. 

The destruction of wolves, boars, and other animals which are 
considered dangerous or harmful, is entrusted to a corps of 410 



256 PORESTUY IN FUANCE. 

Lieutenants de Louveterlc (Wolf-liunter.s). These o)Ucer.s, who 
are unpaid, but have the right to wear a handsome uniform, are 
under the control of the Conservator of Forests, and are appointed 
by the Prefect, on his recommendation. They are, as a rule, landed 
proprietors, who accept their api)ointinent for the sake of the sport 
it affords them. They are obliged to keep bloodhounds and packs 
of dogs, and are charged to organise and direct, in communication 
with the local forest officers, the battties which are, from time to 
time, ordered to take place in the forests. But as this system has 
not been found a very efticient one, a law has recently been passed 
under which a reward, varying from £1, 12s. to £7, is payable to 
any one who kills a wolf ; and the mayors are authorised, when the 
snow is on the ground, to organise battues for the destruction of 
wolves, boars, and other animals, anywhere within the limits of their 
respective communes, on condition only that they give due notice to 
the proprietors of the land on which the beat is to take place. The 
rewards paid for killing wolves amount to about £4000 a year. 



CHAPTER III. 

AFFORESTATION WORKS. 

Works Undertaken for the Consolidation and Protection of 
Unstable Mountain Slopes. 

Excessive grazing, both by local herds and flocks principally 
of sheep and goats, as well as by vast numbers of these 
animals which are annually driven up from the plains to the hill 
pastures, have produced complete denudation over very large areas ; 
and have thus caused incalculable damage in the great mountain 
regions of France, principally in the southern Alps, and in the 
level country below them. They eat down the grass to the level 
of the ground, and then tear out the very roots, breaking uj^ the 
surface of the soil, and rendering it liable to be washed down by 
the rain. These hills are of a loose formation, the strata being 
contorted and dislocated to a remarkable degree, and as soon as 
the soil is deprived of its protective covering of trees, shrubs, 
and herbs, whose roots held it together, the slipping and falling 



FORESTRY IN FRANCE. 257 

of the mountain-sides is produced with a constantly increasing 
intensity. The rain-water, no longer interrupted in its fall, retained 
by the spongy vegetable mould, nor hindered in its downward flow 
by the thousands of obstacles which a living covering would oppose 
to its progress, flows off" the surface of the ground with extra- 
ordinary rapidity, and, carrying with it large quantities of loose 
soil, suddenly tills up the torrent beds. These latter, scoured out 
by the rush of water, charged with mud, stones, and rocks, cut their 
way deeper and deeper into the mountains; and their banks, deprived 
of support at the base, fall inwards, the debris being borne onwards 
to the level ground below. The cracks and slips occasioned in this 
manner extend to a great distance on either side of the torrent, 
especially on the side on which the strata slope towards it, and the 
eff"ect is much increased when the upper layer of rock is loose, and 
lies upon an impermeable bed ; the water then saturates the loose 
rock, and, penetrating through it, and through the cracks and fis- 
sures, flows over the hard surface, the superincumbent mass being 
precipitated, either suddenly or by slow degrees, into the valley 
below. The same effect is produced in the whole net-work of 
watercourses, both principal and tributary, which traverse the 
mountain-sides ; the upper strata, over enormous areas, with fields, 
houses, and even entire villages, being carried down into the 
valleys, and the whole region, which presents little to the eye but 
a series of unstable slopes of black marl, has an indescribably deso- 
late appearance. It may be added that when the hill-sides are 
covered with trees, the snow, which has accumulated during the 
winter months, disappears gradually under the influence of the milder 
temperature which accompanies the advancing spring ; but when 
the trees have been removed, and the masses of snow are conse- 
quently exposed to the full force of the sun's rays, they melt rapidly, 
and produce results on the mountain-sides similar to those which 
follow the occurrence of heavy storms of rain. 

But the damage does not stop here, for on reaching the compara- 
tively level valleys which form the main lines of drainage of the 
mountain range, the stones, gravel, and sand, transported by the 
numerous torrents are deposited. These valleys being usually 
very fertile, are occupied by fields, villages, and towns, which are 
connected by roads and sometimes by railways, constructed with 
many bridges, retaining walls, and other masonry-works ; and as, 
by degrees, enormous areas become covered with debris — some- 
times this result is produced suddejily and without warning — the 



258 KOHESTRY IN FRANCE. 

buildings are cither thrown d(jwn or overwhehncd, the railways and 
roads are blocked, and the bridges are overthrown, while the fields 
are completely and irretrievably destroyed. The damage thus 
caused is most serious, both in its nature and extent ; and to it 
must be added the great inconvenience and loss occasioned by 
the interruption of traffic on the roads and railways. But this is 
not all. If the debris transported by the torrent is carried into 
the river before it can be deposited, it is either borne on at once 
and tlirown on to the level country lower down, or it remains, and 
turns the course of the stream over the fields and buildings on its 
opposite bank. Occasionally the deposit temporarily blocks up the 
valley, and causes the inundation of villages and fields on the 
upper side of the barrier ; and when this latter ultimately gives 
way, the most disastrous results ensue, both in the lower part of 
the valley, and in the open country at the foot of the mountain 
range. It is to mitigate these terrible evils that the vast enterprise 
of afforesting the mountains has been undertaken as the only means 
of dealing with them. But, owing to the enormous cost of the 
works, it cannot be hoped that the forests thus raised will ever 
prove directly remunerative, and their creation, with a view to their 
ever becoming so, could not for a moment be justified. 

The works are of two classes, viz. : (^Firstly), The treatment of 
'the torrent beds by a series of weirs and other structures, destined 
to bring them gradually, and by successive stages, to a normal 
slope, and thus, not only to prevent " scour," but, by the filling up 
and widening of the beds behind the weirs, to afford support to the 
unstable sloping sides, and thus gradually to consolidate them, 
with a view to their being ultimately planted up. (Stcondlt/), The 
immediate planting up of all areas, the surface of which does not 
seem likely to be washed down within the period occupied by the 
construction in that locality of the first class of works. A com- 
mencement was made in 1860 ; but the law passed in that year 
not having been found sufficient, a new law came into force in 
1882, which provides both for the works to be undertaken directly 
by the State, and for those to be executed by the proprietors of the 
ground, with or without State aid, as well as for simple measures 
of prevention. 

Works undertaken by the State. — The proposal to take up ground 
for this purpose emanates from the Forest Department, and is 
followed by a formal enquiry, under the direction of the Prefect, 
into the circumstances of the case, regarding which a special com- 



FORESTRY IX FRANCE. 259 

mission, with a forest officer as one of its members, makes a report. 
If the proposal is approved, a law is passed declaring the work to 
be one of public utility, and under it the ground with all existing 
rights, either of the proprietor or of other persons in it, is bought 
by the State, either by mutual agreement or by expropriation. The 
area is then under the forest law, and the works are undertaken at 
the public cost. 

Works undertaken by the j^ropridors. — If, however, the pro- 
prietors, who are for the most part village communities, do not 
desire to part with the laud, they must, before the expropriation has 
been ordered, agree to execute the specified works themselves, within 
a fixed time, and to maintain them, under the control of the Forest 
Department. In some cases, but not always, pecuniary aid is then 
afforded to them. If the proprietors of land outside the areas which 
are taken up for treatment as works of public utility, desire to 
undertake measures for the consolidation of the soil, or for the 
improvement of their pastures, they can obtain assistance from the 
State in the way of money, seeds, plants, or of work done for them ; 
but when any such aid is afforded, the operations are under the 
surveillance of the Forest Department, and in certain cases the 
money so advanced has to be refunded. 

Preventive measures. — When the condition of the ground is not 
such as to warrant its being dealt with in the above manner, it may, 
after the same preliminary formalities as before, be closed against 
grazing for any period not exceeding ten years, in which case com- 
pensation is paid annually to the proprietors for their loss of the 
use of it. During this interval the State has the power to execute 
works, in order to promote the more rapid consolidation of the soil, 
but the nature of the property cannot be changed thereby, and the 
proprietor cannot be called upon to pay anything for the improve- 
ments thus effected ; while if, after the lapse of ten years, it is 
found necessary to continue the exclu.sion of cattle, the State must 
buy the land, either by mutual agreement, or by expropriation. 

But none of the measures above described would deal effectually 
with the situation, unless the source of the evil were at the same 
time attacked, by bringing the pastoral arrangements on the neigh- 
bouring hills under control, so as to avoid overgrazing; and the 
law therefore provides that in 313 village communities, all those 
in which works are undertaken being included, as well as many 
others, the grazing must be carried out in the manner approved by 
the Forest Department. The communes are therefore obliged to 



260 FORESTRY IN FRANCE. 

submit to the Prefect, annual proposals on this subject, showing the 
nature and extent of their pasture lands, the porticjns that they 
propose to use during the year, the number of animals of each kind 
that are to graze, the roads by which they are to reach and return 
from the pastures, and other matters. These proposals are con- 
sidered by the Forest Department, and modified if necessary. In 
addition to this, with a view to encourage the pastoral population 
of the mountains to take care of their grazing grounds, and to put 
a stop to abuses resulting from ignorance and from the continuance 
of injurious customs, the Forest Department is empowered to grant 
money rewards to fruitieres (associations of cattle-owners for the 
manufacture of cheeses) for improvement made by them to their 
pastures. It is also desired to encourage, as far as possible, the 
substitution of cows for sheep ; but the population of the mountains 
does not like the afforestation of their grazing grounds, and the 
principal reason for the offer of rewards by the State is that it is 
considered politic to do something to aid them in their industry, as 
some set off against the inconvenience to which individual com- 
munities are sometimes put by these operations. 

Scope and j^'ogress of the entire ivork. — The total surface to be 
treated as a work of public utility in the Alps, Pyrenees, and 
Cevennes, is estimated to amount to 1035 square miles, in addition 
to about 1900 linear miles of torrent beds. Up to the end of 1885, 
152 square miles of this surface, and 373 miles of torrent beds, had 
been completed ; the expenditure having amounted to £819,320, 
and the rates having varied from ,£3, 2s. to £6, 3s. 6d. per acre, 
and from 2s. to 7s. 6d. per linear yard, of torrent bed. There 
remain to be treated, therefore, about 883 square miles of surface, 
and 1500 miles of torrent beds. In addition to the above, the State 
has paid £138,000, or half the cost of treating 212 square miles, 
as " permissive works," under the old law ; and £12,000 towards 
pastoral improvements. 

Draining and Planting of Swamps and Waste Lands. 

Measures of the nature above described for the consolidation and 
protection of mountain slopes are undertaken in the interest of the 
population generally. In the case of sterile unproductive wastes or 
swamps, not requiring to be dealt with on these grounds, the 
Government has thought it better, as a general rule, to leave each 
proprietor free to do what he considers most to his own advantage, 



FORESTRY IN FRANCE. 261 

confining itself to the exeiuption from taxes for thirty years of all 
lands planted up. But the State has the right to force the com- 
munes to drain their swamps and wastes, with a view to rendering 
them suitable either for cultivation or for the growth of trees ; 
and when this is done, advances of funds may be made under 
certain conditions, one of which is that the commune has the right 
to surrender to the State, in satisfaction of all claims, a portion of 
the area not exceeding one-half. 

The Dunes of the West Coast. 

The winds that blow continually from the ocean on to the west 
coast, carry with them enormous quantities of sand, which, advan- 
cing steadily over the country at the average rate of some 1 4 feet per 
annum, hi the form of moving hills called dunes, bury under them 
the fields and villages they reach. It has been calculated that 
nearly 90 cubic yards of sand per yard of coast line are thus 
annually transported inland. Works to arrest the destructive effects 
of this invasion of sand have been in progress since 1789 ; they 
were originally carried out under the department of Public Works, 
but since 1862 they have been placed under the Forest Department. 
The total area of the dunes is said to be 224,154 acres, a part of 
which belongs to the State, and a part to private owners, while a 
much smaller portion is communal property. 

In exposed situations, the protective works consist of a wooden 
palisade, erected at a short distance above high-water mark, and 
destined to promote the formation of an artificial dune, with a 
view to prevent fresh arrivals of sand from being blown over the 
country. Under its shelter, seeds of various kinds, principally 
those of the maritime pine {Pimts maritima), broom, gorse, and 
gourbet {Arnndo arenaria), are sown; the seeds being covered 
with brushwood to prevent the sand in which they are sown from 
moving ; and the sowing is thus continued inland, in successive 
belts, until a crop of trees is raised on the entire area. In less exposed 
situations, a wattled fence is substituted for the wooden palisades. 
In the departments of Gironde and Landes, forests of the maritime 
pine have been most successfully raised in this manner, the trees 
being tapped for resin, and the wood of those which have been 
exhausted being sold for railway sleepers and other purposes. But 
north of the Loire the maritime pine is not sown, as in that region 
it does not yield a sullicient quantity of resin to repay the cost of 



262 FORESTRY IN FRANCE. 

its introduction, and here it is sought merely to establish a crop oi 
grass on the ground. 

The law of 1810, relative to the treatment of the dunes, which is 
still in force, provides that the Government can order the planting 
up of any area which in the public interest requires to be so dealt 
with. When the land, or any part of it, belongs to communes or 
private proprietors, who cannot or do not wish to undertake the 
work, the State can execute it, reimbursing itself, with interest, 
from the subsequent yield of the forests. As soon as the money so 
advanced has been recovered, the land is restored to the proprietors, 
who are bound to maintain the works in good condition, and not to 
fell any trees without sanction of the Forest Department. This 
system of raising forests on private lands would not be likely 
to succeed elsewhere ; but here the extremely profitable cultivation 
of the maritime pine, due to the large quantity of valuable resin 
that it yields in the hot and moist climate of the south-west littoral 
coast, renders it a safe transaction for the State to engage in. 

Before the Forest Department took over the work in 1862, 
111,787 acres had been dealt with; and the entire area has now 
been completed. The works have to be most scrupulously main- 
tained, in order to prevent a recurrence of the evil. 



CHAPTER IV. 

ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANISATION AND DEPART- 
MENTAL STAFF. 

Administrative Organisation. 

In order to carry out the work which has been briefly described 
in the preceding chapters, a corps of professional foresters, composed 
as follows, is maintained, viz. : — 

1 Director of the Forest Department. ^ 
9 Inspectors-general. 
39 Conservators. I 

245 Inspectors. i Superior Staff. 

234 Assistant-inspectors. 
308 Sub-Assistant Inspectors {Gardes 

geniraiix). I 

3532 Brigadiers (Head Guards) and Guards, Subordinate Staff. 



FORESTRY IX FRANCE. 



263 



This body of officials is employed, partly in the ordinary duties of 
the department, as being in administrative, executive, or protective 
charge of the units into which the forests (including those of 
Algeria) are grouped, for their more efficient and convenient control ; 
partly in special branches, such as those which are charged with the 
preparation of working plans, with the treatment of unstable moun- 
tains, and with the communal grazing arrangements ; and partly 
also in the Central Offices at Paris. The following statement shows 
the number of officers of the superior staff employed on each kind 
of duty : — 





u^ 

u 


P 
Jo 


1 

1 


O 




if 


^ 
^ 


Central Offices, .... 


1 


8 




10 


12 


2 


33 


Ordinary duties, 






35 


180 


177 


209 


601 


Working-plans branch, 








15 


14 


6 


35 


Consolidation of mountain slopes, 








15 


12 


49 


76 


Communal grazing, 








2 


• 2 


1 


5 


Schools, 




1 


1 


3 


6 




11^ 


Algeria, 






3 


17 


10 


37 


67 


Detached duty, .... 
Total on active list. 








3 


1 


4 


8 


1 


9 


39 


•245 


234 


308 


836 



The Centred Offices at Paris. — Since 1877, the Forest Depart- 
ment has been under the Minister of Agriculture, instead of, as 
formerly, under the Minister of Finance. And the change has 
pro\ed a most beneficial one ; for the forests are now regarded 
more from the point of view of their utility in augmenting the 
general prosperity of the country, than from that of the money 
revenue they can be made to yield ; and they are no longer looked 
upon as available for sale whenever the low state of the exchequer 
may seem to suggest this course, which was not seldom in olden 
days. The Minister of Agriculture is the President, and the 
Director of the Forest Department is the Vice-President, of a 
Council of Administration formed by the eight inspectors-general, 
which considers all questions submitted for the orders of Govern- 
ment. The Central Office is divided into seven sections, each of 
which deals with certain branches of the work, and is presided over 

' Exclusive of two forest officers who have been removed from the active 
list as professors, and three professors who are not forest officers. 



264 FORESTRY IN FRANCR. 

by an inspector-in-cbarge, who is assisted by two or three other 
forest officers and a number of clerks. 

Ordinary JhUies in the Forests. — The unit of administrative 
charge is the division (inspection) whicli is held by an inspector : 
but for purposes of executive management this charge is split up 
into sub-divisions [cantonments), under assistant or sub-assistant 
inspectors, who are also at the disposal of the inspector for any 
special work that he may require of them. Occasionally, when the 
division is a small one, the inspector himself holds charge of a sub- 
division. The divisions are grouped into conservatorships, and 
these again into six circles {regions), each of the latter being 
assigned to an inspector-general. The forests, State and communal, 
managed by the Forest Department are 11,508 square miles in 
extent, and they are divided into 414 sub-divisions, 192 divisions, 
and 35 conservatorships ; consequently, the average area of each of 
these charges is as follows, viz. : — Sub-division, 28 square miles ; 
division, CO square miles ; conservatorship, 329 square miles. The 
average area of an inspector-general's circle extends over 1918 
square miles. 

The sub-divisional officer is essentially an out-of-doors man, who 
personally directs all work going on within the limits of his 
charge, in accordance with the instructions given to him by the 
inspector, whose assistant he is, and who can at his discretion 
employ him on special duties outside his sub-division. The 
divisional officer is the manager of the forest estates. He prepares 
projects for the various works that are to be undertaken, and 
directs the subordinate officers in their execution ; he is also the 
prosecutor in all cases taken into Court for the suppression of forest 
offences. The conservator exercises a general control over the 
divisional officers employed under him ; and it is his duty to see 
that all work is directed in accordance with the views of the 
Government, as they are from time to time communicated to him 
from the Central Office. He alone has control of the expenditure, 
and has power to issue orders on the public treasury. As regards 
his circle, the inspector-general is not an administrative officer ; but 
he makes an annual tour, and is required to become personally 
acquainted with all the work going on, and with the qualifications 
of all ranks of officers employed within it, seeing that each fulfils 
his duties properly. During the remainder of the year he is at 
headquarters, where he is able to make use at the council board of 
the information collected during his tour, by advising the Govern- 



FORESTRY IN FRANCE. 265 

ment both in the issue of orders for works, and in the selection of 
officers and subordinates for promotion to till the vacancies that may 
occur. 

It may here be mentioned that in addition to the charge of the 
State and communal forests, the officers of the Department are called 
upon to exercise certain functions in the private forests, which will 
be explained hereafter. 

Working Flans. — A separate branch of the Department is charged 
with the framing of working plans for the most important forests, 
those for the smaller ones being prepared by the local officers. 
The thirty-five inspectors, assistant and sub-assistant inspectors, 
who are thus employed, are divided into nineteen sections, which 
are at present working in twenty-four conservatorships. As the 
operations are concluded in one locality, the sections are moved to 
another. The officers are under the orders of the local conservator, 
who transmits their proposals to headquarters with his own opinions 
and recommendations. 

Consolidation of Mountain Slopes. — The branch of the Depart- 
ment to which this vast undertaking is entrusted is presided over 
by an inspector-general, and is composed of seventy-six officers of 
the superior stafi", working in eighteen centres. These officers are 
under the orders of the conservator within whose charge they are 
employed ; and he transmits their projects and proposals to the 
inspector-general, who is thus enabled, by the exercise of his super- 
vision, to utilise the experiences gained in the various localities for 
the benefit of the entire work. The inspector-general reports to the 
Director of the Department all matters relating to this undertaking 
which are to be laid before the Council of Administration. 

Communal Grazing Arrangements. — The five officers who are 
employed in the three great mountain regions to prepare projects 
for the control of the communal grazing arrangements, and the issue 
of rewards for improvements to the pastures eft'ected by the 
fruitieres (associations for cheese-making), are placed in the same 
relation to the conservators as are the officers employed on the con- 
solidation of mountain slopes. 

Accounts. — It is a fundamental principle of the French system 
of forest administration, that the forest officers have nothing 
to do with either the receipt or the payment of money. They 
sell the produce by auction, or by the granting of permits, as 
the case may be ; but the sums realised on account of such sales 
are paid by the purchasers directly into the public or communal 



266 FOUKSTIiV IN FRANCK. 

treiisuiy. Tlic inspector prei):irc's u budget estimate for his pro- 
posed expenditure on works ; and when this has been sanctioned, 
the various undertakings are commenced. Towards the end 
of each month he submits to the conservator an estimate of his 
proposed expenditure for the following month, during the last days 
of which that sum is paid to him, and he disburses it at once, 
transmitting the vouchers together with the unexpended balance, 
should there be any, to the Treasurer-General ; he keeps no money 
in his hands. In exceptional cases, however, the conservator can 
grant orders for advances to the officers employed under him ; but 
in this case they must, at the end of each month, adjust the 
advance by vouchers handed in to the Treasurer-General along with 
any balance of cash that may remain unexpended in their hands. 
The Treasurer-General thus keeps all the accounts, both of receipts 
and expenditure, of the Department. 



Departmental Staff. 

Members of the Forest Department are ineligible for any other 
office, either administrative or judicial ; they are prohibited 
from engaging in trade, or in any industry connected with wood, 
and they must be regularly sworn in before they can enter upon the 
exercise of their functions. They have, as regards forest ofiences, the 
powers of police, including the right to make domiciliary visits for 
purposes of investigation, and to arrest suspected persons ; but 
these powers are exercised chiefly by the members of the subordinate 
staff. Officers of the superior staff act as public prosecutors in 
forest cases. 

Stiperior Staff. — Candidates for the superior staff are, as a rule, 
trained at the National Forest School at Nancy ; but one-third of 
the appointments to the lowest grade (Garde gnv-ral) are reserved 
for the promotion of deserving subordinates. A young forest 
officer, on leaving the school, is employed for a time, usually about 
a year, in learning his duties under an inspector ; and his advance- 
ment from this probationary stage, as well as his further promotion 
through the higher grades, depends on his own qualifications and 
exertions, as reported by his immediate superiors. 

A promotion list is drawn out every year by the Council of 
Administration, and published for general information. On it are 
inscribed the names of those officers of each grade who are con- 



FORESTRY IX FRANCE. 2G7 

sidered to be the most deserving of immediate promotion, the number 
of names on the list being limited to three times the number of the 
anticipated vacancies. The Minister of Agriculture makes all promo- 
tions up to and including the grade of inspector, but the conservators, 
the inspectors-generals, and the Director of the Department are 
nominated by the President of the Republic. No officer can, how- 
ever, be selected for promotion whose name is not found on the list, 
and who has not served at least two years in the lower grade. 
The yearly pay of the various grades is as folluws : — 



Director of tlie Forest Department, . 
Inspectors-General, 3 Classes, . 
Conservators, 4 Classes, . 
Inspectors, 4 Classes, 
Assistant-Inspectors, 3 Classes, 
Sub-Assistant- Inspectors, 3 Classes, . 
Sub- Assistant- Inspectors on Probation, 



£800 

£480 to £600 
£320 to £480 
£160 to £240 
£120 to £152 

£80 to £104 

£60 



In addition to their salaries, the officers receive travelling allow- 
ances, usually a fixed sum per annum, at various rates according to 
local circumstances. 

A pension, at a rate which varies according to the grade of the 
retiring officer, is obtainable after the age of 60 years ; but no 
inspector can become a conservator after he has passed the age of 
55 years. Conservators are usually pensioned at the age of 02, 
and inspectors-general at Go. 

Subordinate Staff". — All members of the subordinate staff must 
have served in the army, and, as a general rule, they must have 
attained the rank of non-commissioned officer ; they cannot be less 
than 25, or more than 35, years of age at the time of their 
appointment. They receive their first nomination from the Minister 
of Agriculture, who promotes them from a list similar to that 
which is annually prejiared for tlie superior staff. The scale of 
annual salaries is as follows, viz. : — 

Head Guard, 3 Classes, . . £36 to £44 
Guard, 2 Classes, . . . £28 and £30, with 

an additional £2 after 15 years' service. 

They must live in or near the forests, where they are provided, 
as far as possible, with accommodation for themselves and their 
families in houses specially built for them ; but if such houses are 
not available, they receive a lodging allowance. In addition to their 

VOL. XI., PAKT II. X 



268 FORESTRY IX FRAXCE. 

pay, tliey are given a fixed quantity of firewood per annum, and 
tliey are allowed to cultivate a plot of ground not exceeding 2i 
acres, and to graze two cows in the forest. 

Each guard lias a beat which he is bound to visit daily, the 
average size of such charges being about 1200 to 1300 acres, or say 
two square miles. The head guard has four or five guards under his 
orders ; he superintends their work, and communicates to them the 
instructions received by him from the sub-divisional officer. The 
duties of the subordinate staff are chiefly those of protection ; they 
act as forest police, and have the power to serve summonses, as 
well as to arrest delinquents. They are bound to report all offences 
committed within their beat ; and should they fail to do so, they 
become responsible for the payment of any fines or compensation 
money which might be levied from the offenders. Acting under 
the orders of the sub-divisional officer, they superintend all work 
going on within the limits of their charge ; and in addition to this, 
they, under his direction, tend the young plants, prune the stems of 
the reserved trees, fill up small blanks in the forest, and perform 
such-like minor operations with their own hands. Rewards are 
given annually to men who have specially exerted themselves in 
this manner ; but they are forbidden to accept, without special 
sanction, any gratuity from " communes " or private proprietors for 
services rendered by them in the execution of their duties. They 
are entitled to a pension when they have attained the age of fifty- 
five years, and have completed twenty-five years' service, including 
the time spent in the army. 

As above stated, one-third of the appointments to the grade of 
sub-assistant inspector are reserved for the promotion of deserving 
members of the subordinate staff. Ordinarily, men so promoted 
must have at least fifteen years' service, and be less than fifty years 
of age ; but they can be promoted after four years' service, if they 
have passed successfully through the secondary school at Barres. 

Military Organisation. — Under the law which provides that all 
men belonging, in time of peace, to regularly organised public 
.services, can, in time of war, be formed into special corps, destined 
to serve with the active or with the territorial army, the members 
of the Forest Department form a part of the military forces of the 
country ; and the officers of the superior and the subordinate staff 
are organised by conservatorships into companies or sections, 
according to their numerical strength. In case of the mobilisation 
of the army, the Forest Corps is at the disposal of the War 



FORESTRY IX FRANCE. 209 

^finister, and its varioiis units assemble at previouslj'- determined 
points. The students of the Forest School at Nancy receive mili- 
tary instruction and are drilled, the time passed at the school 
counting as service with the colours. The officers of the superior 
staff hold rank as officers of the reserve, or of the territorial army, 
and in time of war may be employed either in command of the 
companies and sections of the Forest Corps, or otherwise as 
may be ordered. From the day that they are called out, the com- 
panies form an integral part of the army, and enjoy the same rights, 
honours, and rewards as the other troops which compose it. They 
are inspected by their own officers annually in time of peace, and 
the head-guards and guards, who form the non-commissioned 
officers and rank and file of the companies, enjoy at all times certain 
])rivileges as soldiers. 

In virtue of this service, a military uniform is prescribed 
for all grades, including the students at the schools. The sub- 
ordinates wear it always ; and the officers do so on all cere- 
monial occasions, including official inspections of the forests by 
their superiors. 



CHAPTER Y. 

FOREST SCHOOLS. 

The Higher School at Nancy. 

The Forest School at Nancy is the only one existing in France for 
the training of officers of the superior staff. It was founded in 1824, 
before which year the Department was recruited either by means of 
young men, often of good family, who worked gratuitously in the 
inspectors' offices in the hope of ultimately obtaining an appoint- 
ment, or by means of retired officers of the army. Very few forest 
officers received, under the old system, a professional training 
sufficient to enable them to discharge their duties satisfactorily ; 
and it was to remedy this state of things that the school was 
established. The arrangen)ents were modest at first ; but a great 
development has taken place during the sixty-two years that have 
elapsed since 1824. The present organisation of the school will 
now be briefly described. 



270 FOllKSTKY IN FIIANCE. 

The controlling and teaching staff is composed as follows, viz. : — 

1 Director, with the rank ol' Inspi-ctor-General (Professor of Political 

Economy and Forest Statistics). 
1 De])uty-Director (Professor of Forestry). 
1 Assistant-Professor of Forestry. 
1 Inspector of Studies (Professor of Law). 
1 Assistant-Professor of Law. 
1 Professor of Natural History. 
1 Assistant-Professor of Natural History. 
1 Professor of Applied Matlieniatics. 
1 Assistant-Professor of Applied JVIatheniatics. 
1 Professor of Agriculture. 
1 Professor of German. 
1 Profes.sor of Military Science. 
1 Assistant-Inspector for Experiments. 

All these are forest officers except the professors of agi-iculture, 
German, and military science ; and none of them, except the 
professor of agriculture, who is Dean of the Faculty of Science at 
Nancy, have any other duties. The salary of the Director rises 
from £360 to .£480, with £80 a year as sumptuary allowance. 
The professors of forestry, natural history, law, and applied 
mathematics receive, on first appointment, £80 a year in addition 
to the pay of their grade, whatever it may be ; but if, after some 
years, they desire to be permanently attached to the school, they 
may be removed from the active list, on a salary rising from £280 
to £360 a year, when they are entitled to a higher rate of pen- 
sion than they would otherwise receive. The assistants take 
part in the instruction under the control and guidance of the 
professors, whom they are in training to succeed ; they receive 
£40 a year in addition to the pay of their grade. The salaries 
of the professors of agriculture, German, and military science 
are fixed from time to time, the maximum rate being £240. 
The appointments of Deputy-director and Inspector of studies 
do not entitle their holders to any extra pay ; but these officers, 
as well as the Director, have free quarters at the school. The 
staff is completed with an accountant, two adjutants (corre- 
sponding to sergeant-majors), a librarian, a gate-keeper, and 
other subordinates. 

The Director of the school is the President, and the professors 
and assistants are the members, of a Council of Instruction, which 
assembles at the school from time to time to consider any matter 
which may be brought before it by the Director. 



FORESTRY IX FRANCE. 271 

A Council sits at Paris at least once a year for the con- 
sideration of such general questions as may be brought before 
it, relative both to the instruction given at the Forest Schools 
of Nancy and Barres, and the conditions of admission to, and 
the regulations in force at, those institutions. President, the 
Minister of Agriculture. Members: A senator, a member of 
the Conseil dEtat} the Director of the Forest Department, 
the Director of Agriculture, the Director of Agricultural 
Hydraulics, an Insj^ector-general of forests, the Directors of the 
Forest Schools at Nancy and Barres, a Conservator of forests, a 
retired forest officer, the Director of the Agronomic Institute, 
a member of the National Agricultui-al Society, an Inspector- 
general of mines, a Chief engineer of naval construction, the Pro- 
fessor of Surveying from the Military School, and an officer of 
the army. 

Admission to the school is obtained by public competition. 
Candidates must be between the ages of eighteen and twenty-two 
years; they must be in sound health, and hold a certificate showing 
that they have completed their course of general studies at the Lycee 
(High School). The subjects in which they are required to pass at 
the entrance examination are as follows, viz. : — Arithmetic, ele- 
mentary geometry, algebra, trigonometry, analytical geometry, 
descriptive geometry, natural philosophy, oi'ganic and inorganic 
chemistry, cosmogi-aphy, mechanics, the German language, history, 
physical and political geography, and plan-drawing. Two passed 
students from the Agronomic Institiite, and two from the Poly- 
technic School, can, if otherwise qualified, be admitted every year 
without further examination. The number of candidates admitted 
annually is, as a general rule, from fifteen to eighteen, and the course 
of study extends over two years, so that there are from about thirty 
to thirty-six regular students at the school at one time. The young 
men, while at Nancy, are housed in the school building, but take 
their meals in the town. Their parents deposit £60 a year for theii- 
maintenance, including the purchase of books and instniments; but 
they do not pay anything for their instruction, or towards the annual 
expenses of the school, which may be estimated as follows, viz. : — 

Salaries, scholarships, tours, ami examinations, . . £4170 
Maintenance of the buildings, library, museum, etc., . 742 

Total annual payments by Government, . . £4912 
^ See foot-note, p. 247. 



'2 1 2 FORESTllY IN FIUNCE. 

If the iiiiniljor of students [)asscd aniiuully through the school he 
taken as sixteen and a-half, the actual expenditure per head, for 
the entire period of two years' residence, is j£298 ; but if interest 
at 4 per cent, on the estimated capital value of the Vjuildings 
and collections (£22,000) be added, the annual expenditure 
becomes .£5702, and the amount spent by the State on each 
student, during the period of his training, is raised to about £350. 

Each year of study at the school comprises six and a-half 
months of theoretical, and two and a-half months of practical, 
instruction ; one month being devoted to examinations, and there 
being two months of vacation. During the period devoted to 
theoretical instruction, the following subjects are taught, viz. : — 
First year : Sylviculture in all its branches ; botany, including 
vegetable anatomy and physiology, as well as the classification 
of plants and their geographical distribution, special attention 
being paid to forest trees and shrubs ; political economy, with 
special reference to forests ; forest statistics ; law, including forest 
laws and rules, together with such general knowledge of the 
common law of the country as is judged necessary ; surveying 
and the construction of roads ; the German language ; military 
science ; riding. Second year : Working plans or schemes of 
forest management ; mineralogy and geology, with special reference 
to the chemical and physical properties of forest soils ; zoology, 
especially the branch relating to the insects which attack 
trees ; agriculture ; buildings, including houses, saw-mills, and 
bridges ; the treatment of torrent beds, including the construction 
of masonry and other weirs. The teaching of surveying, law, the 
German language, military science, and riding is continued. During 
the last month of each, theoretical course, weekly excursions are 
made into the forest ; but with the exception of this and the riding- 
drill the whole of the instruction is given in the class-rooms. 

The practical course, which occupies two and a-half months of 
each year, or five months in all, consists of tours made into the 
forests in the neighbourhood of Nancy, as well as into those of 
the Vosges and Jura, and occasionally to other localities, for the 
purpose of studying forestry, natural history, and surveying, a 
])art of the time being devoted to military exercises. An area of 
7500 acres of forest, situated near Nancy, and placed under the 
Director of the school, is used as a field of practical instruction, 
as well as for vai'ious experiments and researches, to carry out 
which an assistant-inspector is attached to the stafil The subjects 



FORESTRY I\ FRANCE. 273 

dealt with by liim are principally meteorology, the growing of 
})lants in nurseries, various methods of pruning, the effects of 
different systems of thinning, the rate of growth of various kinds 
of trees living under different conditions, and many other things. 

The school is w^ell equipped in every way. Besides commodious 
buildings to accommodate the Director, the Deputy-director, the 
inspector of studies, the students, the adjutants, and other sub- 
ordinates, there is a spacious amphitheatre, with halls of study ; a 
recreation-room and an infirmary are also provided. The museum 
contains very complete collections, illustrating the courses of 
mineralogy, geology, palaeontology and botany, with woods, fruits, 
seeds, and carefully-arranged dried specimens of the foliage and 
flowers of trees and other plants, as well as raw forest products. 
There are also stuffed mammals, bii-ds, reptiles, and hsh, and a 
collection of insects, with sections of wood showing the damage 
done by them to the trees. The school possesses an excellent 
jjrofessional library, comprising about 3350 volumes, and a number 
of maps. It has also a chemical laboratory, in which many 
interesting researches are made, either at the instance of the pro- 
fessors, or of forest oflicers of the ordinary service who may desire 
the investigation of questions which have ai'isen in the course 
of their work. There is a collection of models of saw-mills, of 
torrent beds ti'eated with weirs, and of sand dunes, etc., as well 
as a fencing-hall and a botanical garden. It is estimated that the 
buildings are worth about £12,000, and that the library and other 
collections are worth £10,000; total, £22,000. 

The students having passed out of the school at the end of their 
course of instruction, are appointed to the Forest Department as 
Gardes yeneraux (sub-assistant inspectors), and are employed on 
special duty for a time, before being entrusted with the charge of 
a sub-division. 

Both Frenchmen and foreigners can obtain permission to follow 
the courses of the school as " free students," without the payment of 
any fees. Since the foundation of the school in 1824, 133-4 
regular students, candidates for the French Forest Service, have 
been received ; and complete or partial training has been afforded 
to 239 free students, of whom 30 were Frenchmen, 73 English- 
men, and the remainder were foi-eigners of other countries. 

The Englishmen are sent by the Secretary of State for India, 
to be trained for the Indi;in Service, under a special arrangement 
made with the French Government. Ordinarily the free students 



274 FORESTRY IN FKANOK. 

inunsly jiLtcnd tlic lectures, and, as a matter of course, are not 
examined ; but the English students have to pass all the school 
examinations. 

The Secondary and Trimary Schools at Barres. 

The Secondary School was established in 1883, in order to 
train a class of men who should occupy an intermediate ])osition 
between the officers of the superior and those of the subordinate 
stafil Of the students who entered in that year, seventeen passed 
out as head-guards, and one of these has been promoted to the 
superior staff as a sub-assistant inspector. But the school was re- 
organised in 1884, and it is now maintained in order to facilitate 
the entrance of subordinates into the superior staff, by completing 
the education of such of them as may be deemed otherwise fitted for 
advancement. Candidates for admission to the school are selected 
by the conservators from among those of their head-guards and 
guards who are thought to possess the needful qualifications, and 
to be capable of passing the required educational tests ; ordinarily, 
they must have completed four years' service in the- forests, and 
be under 35 years of age, but passed students of the Primary 
School can be admitted after two years' service in the forests. 
They are subjected to an entrance examination in the following 
subjects, viz., — dictation, elementary geometry, French history, 
French geography, timber measurement, the selection and mark- 
ing of trees to be felled or reserved, and the duties of forest 
subordinates generally. 

The Director of the school is a Conservator of Forests, who 
receives the pay of his grade and free quarters ; he is aided, in the 
administration and teaching, by two assistant inspectors, each of 
whom receives an allowance of .£40 a year in addition to his pay. 
Teachers who are not forest officers can be employed when their 
services are requii'ed. As is the case at Nancy, the Director and 
the professors form a council of instruction and discijiline. The 
students all hold the rank and wear the uniform of a head-guard. 
They are lodged at the school, and receive an allowance of £2 a 
month to provide themselves with food and clothing. 

The instruction, which extends over two years, is both general 
and special or technical; the object being to improve the general 
education of the students, and also to give them such a profes- 
sional training, theoretical and practical, as may fit them for the 



FORESTRY IN FRANCE. 2(0 

position they are to occupy. The course is arranged as follows, 
viz. : — 

First Year. — Sylviculture, the cutting up and export of wood, 
estimates of quantity and value of timber, sales of forest produce, 
arithmetic and geometry, the elements of algebra and trigonometry, 
surveying and map-di'awing, levelling, forest law, the elements of 
forest botany (including vegetable anatomy and physiology, and 
the classification of the principal forest trees), planting and sow- 
ing, and geography. 

Second Year. — Working plans, buildings and roads, the elements 
of mineralogy, geology, and zoology, the treatment of torrents and 
dunes, forest law and administration, the elements of inorganic 
chemistry, agriculture and agricultural chemistry, literature and 
the geography of France. Most of the above subjects are taught, 
not only in the class-i-oom, but also practically in the forest. 
The school is established on a property, purchased befoi'e 1873 
for the Primary School from M. Vilmorin, who had raised on it 
a large number of exotic trees of many kinds. There is also on 
the estate a small forest treated as coppice under standards, 
which, with the State forest of Montargis, situated at a short 
distance from the school, is used for the practical instruction 
of the students. The buildings comprise the residence of the 
Director, the class-rooms and students' quarters, as well as a 
museum, containing collections to illustrate the various courses 
of study. 

The examinations are conducted before the Director of the 
Forest Department, or an Inspector General deputed by him for 
this duty, and the students who pass will, under the new organisa- 
tion, be appointed to the superior staff as sub-assistant inspectors. 
Like the officers trained at Kancy, they will be employed for 
about a year in learning their duties under an inspector, after 
which they will become eligible for further promotion on their 
merits, as are the other officers of the Department. Subordinates 
from the communal forests are permitted to pass into the superior 
grades of the Government service through this school. Nine 
students entered it during 1884 and 1885, and are still under 
instruction ; eight of them having previously passed through the 
Primary School. One free student followed the courses for a short 
time in 1883. 

The Primary School is a branch of the establishment at Barres, 
the instruction being given by the Dii-ector and Professors of the 



276 FORESTRY IS KUANCi:. 

Secondary School. It was established in 1878, for the training of 
young men who desired to enter the service of Government as 
forest guards, or that of private proprietors as guards or wood 
managers, there heing no restriction as regards their parentage. 
Up to the year 1883, 148 students had passed through it into the 
Government service, and eight of these have since entered the 
Secondary School. But in 1884 the Primary School was re- 
organised, and it is now reserved solely for the education of the 
sons of forest officers and subordinates, who may desire to enter 
the Government service as forest guards, with a view, in most 
cases, of their ultimately gaining the ranks of the superior staff 
through the Secondary School. 

Candidates must be between twenty-four and twenty-seven 
years of age ; they must have completed their military service, 
and be of good character, with a sound constitution. They are 
obliged to pass an entrance examination in dictation, French com- 
position, arithmetic, elementary geometry, and French history and 
geography. While at the school they are styled " Student 
Guards ; " quarters are provided for them, and they receive from 
Government a part of their uniform, and an allowance of XI, 16s. 
a month to provide themselves with food and clothes. 

The course occupies eleven months, and embraces the following 
subjects, viz., arithmetic, plane geometry, algebraical signs, sur- 
veying and levelling, the French language, French history and 
geography, the elements of sylviculture, the elements of forest 
botany (including vegetable anatomy, physioiogy, and the classifi- 
cation of the principal forest ti'ees), and the elements of forest law 
and administration. The instruction is given, partly in the class- 
rooms, and partly in the form of practical work done in the forests. 

Passed students are, as vacancies occur, admitted to the Govern- 
ment service as forest guards of the second class ; and after two 
years passed in the forests in that capacity, they are eligible 
for entrance into the Secondary School. During 1884 and 1885, 
however, only three students entered the Primary School, two of 
whom are still there, and one has received his appointment. 

Free students can be admitted, with the sanction in each case 
of the Director of the Forest Department, but as yet none have 
entered the school. 



FOKESTKY IX rUAXCE. 277 

CHAPTER VI. 

The Private Woods and Forests of Fran-ce. 

Those woods and forests which are neither State nor com- 
munal property, belong principally to private proprietors, of whom 
the number is very great, but also partly to civil, religious, 
commercial, and other societies. Their extent varies of course 
from year to year, according as clearances are made for cul- 
tivation, or planting woi'k is undertaken. No very exact record 
of the area is available, but the latest figures show it to be 
23,657 square miles, or about two-thirds of the total wooded 
surface of France. It is probable that, at the present time, the 
private woodlands are being somewhat added to, rather than 
reduced, for it is believed that the areas annually planted up or 
sown, exceed in extent those which are cleared. The private 
forests are not entirely free from State control ; while, at the same 
time, they are protected by the legislation almost in the same 
manner, and to the same extent, as are the State and communal 
forests. For instance, private owners, in common with the 
Government and the communes, enjoy the power to free their 
forests from wood rights, by making over a portion of the ground 
to the right-holders in lieu thereof ; grazing rights can only be 
exercised in those parts of them which are declared by the Forest 
Department to be out of danger from the entrance of cattle, and the 
number of animals can be limited with reference to the supply of 
grass, while no right can exist to graze sheep or goats in them. 
Owners have also the power to free their forests of all rights, 
except those of wood, by the payment of compensation ; and, 
speaking generally, it may be said that they have the same pro- 
tection against injury to their property by right-holders, as is 
enjoyed by the State and the communes. The law also places them 
in the same position as regards the punishment of forest offences 
including trespass by persons carrying cutting tools, cattle trespass, 
and the lighting or carrying of fire in or near the forests, with 
a claim to damages for injury caused. Proprietors can obtain for 
their forest guards, if they have them regularly sworn in the 
same powers for the protection of their projjerty, as are exercised 
by the State and the communal guards. 

On the other hand, piivate owners cannot cut down and clear 
their forests, without notifying their intention to do so at least four 
months beforehand, and the Fores Department can, with certain 



278 FORESTRY IN FRANCE. 

exceptions, successfully oppose the clearance, if the maintenance of 
the woods is desirable on any of the following grounds, viz. : — 

1st. To protect mountain slopes. 

2d. To protect the soil from erosion, and to prevent en- 
croachments by rivers, streams, or torrents. 

3d. To preserve springs and water courses. 

4ith. To protect coasts against erosion by the sea, and the 
encroachments of moving sand. 

5th. For the defence of the national frontier. 

Qth. For sanitary reasons. 
The Minister of Agriculture decides whether the clearance may 
be made or not. Between the years of 1828 and 1884, sanction 
has been accorded to the clearing of 1795 square miles of private 
woodlands, but there is no record showing what proportion of 
this area has actually been cleared ; and it is known that sanction 
is sometimes obtained, merely to give an enhanced value to 
the property, by the removal of restrictions on it. It is worthy 
of remark, however, that while the average area of which the 
clearance was annually authorised, during the whole period above 
mentioned, amounted to 20,160 acres, the average during the last 
ten years was 5404 acres, and during the last five years it was 
only 3731 acres. These figures seem to show that woods are 
acquiring an increased value in France, and that they are cleai'ed 
for cultivation to a less extent than formerly. 

It has already been said that there is a special law relating to 
the forests of the Maui"es and Esterel, where fires ai-e systematically 
lighted in order to get rid of the injurious undergrowth ; and that, 
under it, private proprietors in those regions are only permitted to 
light forest fires at certain seasons, while they are compelled to cut 
fire-lines round all woods which are not completely cleared of in- 
flammable shrubs. The manner in which the laws relating to the 
consolidation of mountain slopes, and the planting of the dunes, 
afi'ect private owners, has also been briefly explained in a previous 
chapter. 

What has already been said I'egarding the systems of cultiu-e 
generally adopted for the State and communal forests respectively, 
will lead to the correct conclusion, that those belonging to private 
owners, are, as a rule, treated as simple coppice, or coppice under 
standards, private high-forest being usually composed of coniferous 
trees, and situated in mountainous regions. But many of the forests 
that have been planted in the 2)lains of the Landes, Salogne, and 



FORESTRY IN FRANCE. 279 

Champagne, are stocked with coniferous species, which are fre- 
quently more suited to the local conditions, under which they 
yield a better revenue than could be derived from other kinds of 
trees. Notwithstanding that the private forests are, as a rule, 
more favoui'ably situated than those owned by the State, or by 
communes, the gross revenue per acre derived from them is con- 
siderably less ; because the trees, being cut down at a young age, 
yield a large proportion of timber of a small size and firewood. 
On the other hand, their capital value is less, and, when they 
are properly managed, they should give a higher rate of interest. 

But unfortunately, although there are exceptions to the general 
rule, and some of the private forests are maintained in an excellent 
condition, it cannot be said that, generally speaking, they are so ; 
for while coppice, and particularly simple coppice, is epchausting 
to the soil, from the young age at which the crop is cut and 
removed, and, in consequence of the comparative frequency with 
which the ground is denuded, tends to its jjhysical deterioration, 
working plans are rarely prepared, and there is consequently no 
guarantee that the cuttings are confined within proper limits. 
The fellings are, in fact, too frequently, regulated according to the 
financial requirements of the owner, rather than by the considera- 
tions which ought to govern suchopei'ations; and hence it follows, 
that the condition of the private forests is not always such as 
could be desired. This is found to be the case in all countries ; but 
it is probably especially so in France, where the laws relating to 
the division of the land on the death of its owner, and the custom 
of the country, tend constantly to diminish the number of large 
jiroperties, and to leave in the hands of each proprietor an area 
of woodland too small to admit of its management on a regular 
system. 

The produce derived from the private foi'ests is, howevei', lai-ge 
in amount, and of very great value. Exact figures are not obtain- 
able ; but it is probable that the 26,657 square miles yield 
annually over 12 million loads (of 50 cubic feet) of wood, with 
about 270 thousand tons of tanning bark, 2250 tons of cork 
bark, and 30 thousand tons of resin — worth, altogether, more 
than £6,000,000 J while the isolated trees and vines yield another 
3.^ million loads of wood, valued at £1,000,000. The number of 
foresters and guards employed in these forests is, howevei", com- 
paratively speaking, very limited ; this being due, in a great 
measure, to the small size of the individual properties, which are 



2S0 FOURSTUY IN rUANX'E. 

cuuHequoiitly, in a veiy largo number of cases, managed directly 
by their owners. There are no private institutions for the train- 
ing of foresters and woodmen ; and although the State Forest 
Schools are open to receive " free students," very little advantage 
is taken of this privilege. The Nancy School has only trained 
thirty such students since it was established in 1824, and the 
secondary and primary schools have only received one student 
between them. Neither the owners, nor their managers or guards, 
have then, as a rule, had any professional education, notwithstand- 
ing that the means of obtaining it is open to them ; and it is not 
to be wondered at, if grave mistakes in the management of 
their forests are of frequent occurrence. In some places they 
have the means of getting a certain amount of advice from the 
State forest officials, who are occasionally permitted to render 
assistance in this manner ; but they frequently attempt to imitate 
what is being done in the State forests, without knowing the 
reasons for what they see ; and they are thus led to commit serious 
mistakes, as, for example, when, in treating a forest which is to 
be permanently maintained as coppice under standards, they follow 
the procedure adopted in a neighbouring State forest, which is 
undergoing conversion into high-forest. In many cases, of course, 
the private woods are too distant from the State or com- 
munal forests, to permit of their owners obtaining any advice or 
assistance from the officials of the Forest Department, and they 
are then thrown entirely on their own resources. 



CHAPTER VII. 

The Algerian Forests. 

The colony of Algeria, which was conquered in 1828, is 162,000 
square miles in extent, that is to say, it is about four-fifths of the 
size of France. It is bounded on the north by the Mediterranean 
Sea, on the east by Tunis, on the west by Morocco, and it extends 
southward into the Sahara down to the 30th degree of latitude. 
It is divided into three departments, viz., Oran on the West, 
Algiers in the centre, and Constantine on the east. The popula- 
tion averages only about 21 per square mile, as compared with 181 
in France. 

The two chains of the Atlas Mountains, which attain to a 
maximum height of about 7500 feet, run, roughly speaking, 



FORESTRY IX FRANCE. 281 

parallel to the coast, but join towards the eastern limit of the 
territory, enclosing between them the region, about 54,000 square 
miles in extent, known as the "high plateau," the mean elevation 
of which ranges from about 2300 to 3300 feet. This tableland is 
rendered remarkable by the jjresence of numei'ous lakes, called 
Chottes, most of them salt, formed by the torrents which descend 
from the ridges on both sides, and are in flood during the rainy 
season. The range of hills which bounds the plateau to the north, 
falls away in broken spurs, which are separated by numerous 
valleys, to the sea, forming the fertile and hilly cultivated Tell, 
about 70,000 square miles in extent, which is the only part of 
Algeria where colonies have been established. Here the vine is 
largely cultivated, and excellent crops of cereals are raised. The 
southern slopes of the inner range descend into the Sahara, form- 
ing a region about 38,000 square miles in extent, under the sands 
of which, the water courses formed in the hills disappear. The 
desert is mai-ked by dunes similar to those of Gascony, but is 
interspersed with oases which follow the course of the underground 
streams. 

The climate near the coast is much the same as that of Provence, 
but somewhat hotter. As, however, the ground rises towards the 
crest of the j&rst range, the temperature becomes cooler, and near 
the summit the air is moist, while at some seasons clouds lie on 
the hills and snow falls. The north and north-west winds bring 
rain, chiefly in the autumn and winter, the annual rainfall in the 
Tell being about 16 inches. The plateau receives less rain, and 
the distiibution of it is very unfavourable, while in the desert 
beyond, the fall does not amount to more than 4 inches a year. 
The plateau is subject to very sudden changes of temperatui'e, the 
south winds being burning hot, while those from the north are 
fresh and even cold ; there are sometimes night frosts, even in 
summer, the daily range of temperature being occasionally as 
much as 70° Fahrenheit. 

The forests were formei'ly much more extensive than they are 
at present. Abuse of all kinds, following on the first advance of 
civilisation, has led to the destruction of the greater part of them, 
those which remain being found on the upper slopes of the moun- 
tain chains, chiefly on the inner ranges, where the absence of 
roads and other means of export has hitherto rendered them 
almost inaccessible to wood merchants ; while their distance from 
the cultivated part of the country has protected them from some, 



2^2 FORESTRY IN FRANCE. 

at any rate, of the evils that have overtaken the forests in other 
localities. Some of the principal causes, that have brought about 
the disappearance of a large ]»ortion of the Algerian forests, are 
the following, viz., repeated fires, tlie ground being deprived of its 
natural covering of vegetable mould, and the ashes resulting from 
the burning Jjeing washed off the soil by the rain ; the grazing of 
goats, sheep, and camels ; the native practice of felling young 
poles, instead of using the saw to cut up the larger trees, the wood 
being not only used to supply local i-equirements, but being con- 
verted into charcoal, which, together with the bark, is exported 
in very large quantities ; the liglit cover of the Aleppo pine, 
which occupies a great portion of the ground, and does not do 
much towards the improvement of the soil ; the digging-up of the 
roots of shrubs to obtain bark and tirewood ; and finally the 
clearing of the trees from land which is totally unsuited to culti- 
vation. This last-named cau'se of the disappearance of the forests 
has led also to the result that in many places the grass has 
followed the trees, and the loss of pasture land has in consequence 
been most serious. It is said that since the year 1870 the depart- 
ment of Oran has suffered a loss of one-half of its pastoral 
resources, while the want of a sufficient supply of wood is also 
much felt. Forest fires work terrible destruction in this hot and 
dry climate, burning up the vegetable debris, which would otliei'- 
wise protect the ground, injuring the larger trees, and destroying 
the young growth ; but, lately, measures have been undertaken 
to lessen this evil. It is said that dui'ing the twelve years 
from 1861 to 1873, nearly 1000 square miles of forest in the Tell 
were burnt, the damage done having been enormous. Fires are 
not of such frequent occurrence in the forests overlooking the 
plateau, where the chief causes of injury consist in overcutting 
the young trees, and in overgrazing, both of which practices date 
from time immemorial. 

Generally speaking, it may be said that the existing forests 
clothe the higher portions of the two chains of hills, the ground 
below and between them being occupied by cultivation in the Tell, 
by pastures on the plateau, and by sand towards the desert. On 
the high portion of the Tell, the forests contain most of the trees 
which ai-e indigenous in Provence, including the cork oak, which 
is the principal tree over a very large area, chiefly in Constantine, 
and is of great value ; and the evergreen oak (Quercus Ilex), which 
yields excellent tanning bark, and is veiy common at altitudes 



FORESTRY IX FRANCE. 28.'» 

above 3000 feet, chiefly in Oran ; while the Aleppo pine covers 
vast areas in all three departments. Among other trees which 
are also found in Provence may be ' mentioned the maritime pine, 
the ash, the elm, the poplar, and the wild olive. The Zeen oak 
(Q. lusitanica), which is not found in France, occupies a large 
extent of country, the most important forest of this species being 
that of Beni Sala, in Constantine. The Thuya (Callitris guadri- 
valvis), a coniferous tree, of which the wood is extremely valuable 
for cabinet-making, is also found. In localities where the forests 
have been destroyed, a more or less dense growth of evergreen 
shrubs of various families, nearly all of them characterised by 
thick, coriaceous leaves, has sprung up, and a palm (Chamoirops 
humilis) covers a large extent of waste land. 

On the hills sloping down to the plateau from the north and south, 
the most important trees are the Zeen oak and the cedar, the largest 
forests of the latter being those on the Aures, and at Belesma in 
Constantine, with that of Teniel-el-Had, in Algiers. The cedar 
(Cedrus atlantica) forests are usually found at altitudes above 
5000 feet, but they cannot at present be worked for want of roads. 
The Aleppo pine, the edible oak [Quemis Ballota), the elm, ash, 
and other trees, ai"e also found in this region. The growth of 
trees upon the plateau itself is extremely poor, being confined 
almost entirely to a species of Zizy2}hus and a Pistacia ; but im- 
mense areas are covered with alpha grass [Stipa tenacissima), 
which is largely used for the manufacture of textiles and paper. 

The following is a statement of the forest areas which now 
remain in Algei-ia : — 

Square miles. 
Managed by the Forest Department — 

State forests, ....... 7604 

Communal forests, ...... 300 

7904 

Not managed by the Forest Departme,nt — 

Communal and private forests, . . . 1211 

911.^ 

This amounts to a little more than 5| per cent, only of the total 
area of the country. The State forests, as well as those belonging 
to communes and private proprietors, are much cut up by patches 
of cultivated land ; while about one-half of the area managed by 
the Department is covered with scrub, and is not worthy of the 
name of forest. The demarcation of the State forests is making 

VOL. XI., PART II. U 



284 FORESTKV IN KRANCE. 

good progress, and in Lbo dei)arttiieiit of Algiers it will probably 
be completed within the next three or four years. The cork oak 
is the most important tree over an area of about 2300 square 
miles, of which one-half is included in the State forests. Above 
6000 tons-weight of cork, valued at £287,700, were exported 
from Algeria in 1878 ; and 5940 tons, valued at nearly £290,000, 
were exported in 1880, chiefly from private forests. The quantity 
will increase every year in proportion as the trees in the State 
forests are gradually prepared for yielding marketable cork, by 
the removal of their rough, natural coating, which is almost value- 
less. The timber cut from the forests does not suffice for local 
requirements, about £120,000 worth of logs and scantlings being 
annually imported from Sweden and other northern countries. 
The ])reparation of the cork trees in the State forests has not long 
been commenced, and several years must elapse before they can 
yield any considerable revenue ; hence the gross returns from 
these forests are at present very small, and are far exceeded by 
the expenditure on them. Thus, in 1884 the expenditure was 
over £96,000, while the revenue did not much exceed £25,000 ; 
the heavy charges being due principally to the treatment of the 
cork trees, and to demarcation and survey. After a time, how- 
ever, these forests will pay well ; but the value they have in 
regulating the water-supply, and in ameliorating the climate, 
would, even if they had not this prospect Vjefore them in the near 
future, amply justify the expenditure which is now being incurred 
on them. 

It is, of course, most desirable that such denuded areas as are 
unsuited for cultivation should be reafforested, and some attempts 
in this direction have been made ; but the difficulties encountered 
are great, and the expense of such work is very heavy, while at 
the same time the closing of any portion of the scanty pastures is 
strongly opposed by the inhabitants. On the other hand, although 
the greater part of the water-courses, which are dry during the 
summer months, become flooded torrents during the rainy season, 
the results are not nearly so disastrous as those which occur in 
the Southern Alps ; and taking all these circumstances into con- 
sideration, it has now been determined not to undertake the 
formation on a large scale of additional forests, but rather to 
devote all available funds to the improvement of those which 
exist. What has to be done in this direction is to protect them 
from fires and from over-grazing, especially b}'^ goats, sheep, and 



FORESTRY IX FRANCE. 285 

camels ; to develop a system of roads and paths, and to build houses 
for the forest officers and guards ; to stop the practice of felling 
poles and young trees, and, by the introduction of the use of the 
saw, to promote the utilisation of large trees ; to plant up blanks 
within the forest, and to expropriate and stock portions, at any 
rate, of the cultivated areas within forest limits ; to purchase such 
of the pi'ivate forests as in the public interest ought to be under 
State management ; to regulate the grazing arrangements, improve 
the pastures, and develop the growth of alpha grass on the plateau ; 
to introduce a larger proportion of species affording heavy shade, 
so as to improve the soil ; and to encourage enterprise in the way 
of forest improvement among private proprietors. These measures 
will tend to improve the climate, and to regulate the water supply; 
and when, some years hence, they have advanced towards comple- 
tion, it will be possible to commence the formation of new forests. 
In the meantime, the cultivators of the Tell have already done 
something to counteract the evil effects of the irregularity of the 
water-courses by erecting dams, constructing tanks, small canals, 
and other such works ; and they have also planted up considerable 
areas of marsh land with gum trees (chiefly Evxahjptus globulus), 
which have succeeded well so far. 

The law of 1881 provides that all laws and rules which obtain 
in France apply in Algeria, in so far as they are not contrary to 
local legislation ; but the Governor-General has been invested with 
special powers, in order to avoid constant reference to the central 
Government at Paris. Among other local laws there is one, 
enacted in 1874, relative to forest fires, the principal provisions of 
which are as follows, viz. : — \st, No one, not even private proprietors 
in their own forests, can, between the 1st of July and the 1st of 
November, light or carry fire outside the houses, even for chax'coal- 
burning or the manufacture of tar or resin, either in the interior 
of the forests or within two hundred yards of them. 2d, Neither 
can any one, within the same period, light shrubs, grass, or other 
vegetation within two and a-half miles of a forest, without special 
sanction. 3c7, The native population is com})elled to aid in the 
protection of the forests ; and any persons, European or native, 
who, when called upon to put out a fire, refuse to assist, are liable 
to penalties, -iith. Independently of the individual penalties incurred 
by the actual offenders or their accomplices, the tribes can be fined 
collectively, when forest fires are caused by them. 5th, When 
such fires appear to have been lighted intentionally, they can be 



28G FORESTRY IN FRAXCK. 

considered as resulting from acts of insurrection, and the lands of 
the oilending tribe can be confiscated, ^'tth, After a forest, or part 
of one, has been burnt, right-holders cannot graze their cattle in it 
for at least six years. 

A new law was passed in December 1885, the principal provi- 
sions of which are the following, viz. : — \st, All classes of ]iroprie- 
tors can free their forests from rights of all kinds by payment of 
compensation, either in the form of land or money ; and when 
estimating the value of such rights, the resources of the right- 
holders, on their own property, can be taken into account. 
'Id, Patches of cultivation, or other private lands, enclosed within 
the State or communal forests can be expropriated. Zd, The pro- 
prietors of cork forests, which have not been entirely cleared of 
.shrubs, can be forced to maintain fire-lines round them. Ath, With 
certain exceptions, no private proprietor can cut down or bark his 
trees without sanction, bth, With some exceptions, all practices 
which are injurious to the forests are treated under the laws 
relating to clearances — that is to say, they can. be forbidden on, 
certain specified grounds. Qth, The two last-named provisions of 
the law apply not only to areas covered with trees, l)ut also in 
some cases to those which grow only scrub. Tth, Any land which 
in the public interest ought to be afforested can be expropriated. 
8//i, During the period (1st November to 1st July) in which the 
lifhtino' of fires within or near forests is not expressly forbidden 
by the law of 1874, standing shrubs and grass cannot be burnt 
anywhere, without pi-evious sanction being obtained. 

The number of forest officers of the superior grades employed 
in Algeria is 67. The forests of each department form a 
conservatorship ; but these and the subordinate charges are very 
much larger than similar charges in France. Their average size is 
as follows, viz. : — Conservatorship, 2635 square miles ; division, 
527 square miles ; sub-division, 176 square miles; guard's beat, 
38 square miles — that is to say, a guard's beat is two-thirds of the 
size of a French division, the other charges being in proportion. 

These areas are too large, but the forests cannot afford a stronger 
staff at present. Until very lately the Algerian Forest Department 
was entirely local ; but it was found that this arrangement tended 
to interfere with its efficiency, by impairing the status of the 
officers, and it is now incorporated with the General Forest Service 
of France. 




CV3 



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The only Award for Tree Protective Composition at the Forestry Exhibition, 
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Sole Manufacturer, and now the only surviving discoverer of the above 
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The Best and Cheapest Instrument for ascertaining the Height of Trees. 

Price, with Full Instructions for Use, 12s. 6d. 
Allo"wance to the Trade. 



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THE ENGLISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



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TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



'^ SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 




VOL. XI.— PAKT III. 



SECRETARY AND TREASURER, 

J^ H N M ' L A R EN, J u n. 

FELLOW OF rilE BOTANICAL .SOCIETY, EDINBURGH. 



\ 





EDINBURGH: 

rR][NTED FOR THE SOCIETY. 

^OLD r,A^ DOUC^.LAS & FOULIS, CASTLE STREET. 

.MDCCCLXXXVII. 



r^>- 




NOV 1 6 1972 ^T^T^^ 



CONTENTS. 



The Society, as a body, is not to he considered responsible for any statements or 
opinions advayuxd in the several papers, vjhich must rest entirely on tlie authority 
of the respective authors. 



XV. Address delivered at the Tliirty-Tliird Amiual Meeting. By 

Hugh Cleghokx of Stravitlue, M.D., LL.D., F.E.S.E., . 287 

A FoiiEST Tour amoxg the Dukes of Gasco-vy. By Major F. 
Bailey, R.E.,. ...... 201 

Eeport of the Select Committee of the House of Common.-, 
1886, ox Forestry, ...... 315 

XVI. Specifications of AVork.s to be Executed in the Erection of a 
Forester's Cottage ; with Phms and Sections. By Wm. Mac- 
intosh, 5 Thistle Street, Edinburgh, .... o64 

XX'II. On the Rearing and Management of Hardwood Plantations. 
By A. WD. Grant, Assistant Forester, Hopetouu, South 
Queensferry, ....... 373 

XVIII. Economic Forestry. By Professor G. S. Boulger, London, . 382 

XIX. The Native Trees and Shrubs of Carnarvonshire. By Angu.s 

D. Webster, Forester, Penrhyn Castle, Bangor, "Wales, . 481 

XX. On the Plantations and Trees on the Estate of Brahan, in the 
County of Ross. By Alexander PircArruLEY, Forester, 
Glentruim, Kingussie, . . . . .501 

XXI. Specifications of "Works to be Executed in the Erection of a 
Forester's Cottage ; with Plans and Sections. By Alex^vndek 
PiTCAiTULEY, Forcstcr, Glentruim, Kingussie, . . 506 

XXII. On tlie Present State and Future Prospects of Arboriculture in 

Hampshire. By John Smith, Surve3-or, Romsey, Hamjishire, 511 

XXIII. Hedgerow and Field Timber. By Angus D. Wedstkr, Forester, 

Penrhyn Castle, Bangor, Wales, .... 550 

L'Exro.siTioN FoREsTiiiRE International he 1881. Report 
by Professor Reu.ss, of tlie Nancy Forest School, on the 
Forestry Exhibition at Edinburgh in 1884, , . , 562 

APPENDIX (C.) 

1. Former Presidents, ....... 47 

2. List of Members, corrected to June 1887, . . . .48 

3. Abstract of the Accounts of the Scottish Arboricultural Society for 

year 1885-86, ....... 66 



TRANSACTIONS 



SCOTTISH ARBORICULTUEAL SOCIETY. 



will doubtless render valuable assistance when Parliament meets 
again. We hoped that he would have favoured us with the 
annual address, but, as you have been informed by the Secretary, 
the new President is unavoidably absent on military duty. 

The Society continues to fully maintain its position and 
numbei-s. There are at present — Honorary Members, 18 ; Life 
Membei-s, 120; Ordinary Members, GOO, — making a total of 738, 

Duiing the year several important additions to the Library 
have been received, and the collection of forest literature is now 
extensive and valuable, including many foreign works. The diffi- 
culty of locating the Library still remains ; but the transfer of 
forest specimens to the Museum of Science and Art has been 

VOL. XL, PART III. X 



The Secretary will forward the Society's Publications to Members in 
arrear, on receipt of a remittance for the amount due. 

The ANNUAL MEETING will be held on July 26th, and the ANNUAL 
EXCURSION will be to BALMORAL on July 28th and 29th. 



By Order. 



JOHN M'LAREN, JuN., 

Secretary and Treasurer. 



5 St Andrew Square, 
Edinburgh, 28</(. June 1887. 



TRANSACTIONS 



SCOTTISH AEBOEICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



XV. President's Address — Delivered at the Thirty-third Annual 
Meeting, August 3, 1886. By Hugh Cleghorn of Stravithie, 
M.D., LL.D., F.R.S.E. 

Gentlemen, — In appearing before you without any formal 
address, I must explain that I have just returned from Germany, 
where urgent business detained me longer than was expected. 
!My term of Presidency having now expired, I cannot quit the 
chair without expressing my sense of the honour conferred in 
your election of me as President at four Annual Meetings. Tlie 
Society has made an excellent choice in appointing Sir Herbert 
Eustace Maxwell, Bart., M.P., President for the ensuing year. 
He is an extensive landed proprietor, and well known for his love 
of Arboriculture. He has been an active member of the Parlia- 
mentary Committee on Forestry during two sessions, and he 
will doubtless render valuable assistance when Parliament meets 
again. We hoped that he would have favoured us with the 
annual address, but, as you have been informed by the Secretary, 
the new President is unavoidably absent on military diity. 

The Society continues to fully maintain its position and 
numbers. There are at present — Honorary Members, 18; Life 
Members, 120; Ordinary Members, GOO, — making a total of 738. 

During the year several important additions to the Library 
have been received, and the collection of forest literature is now 
extensive and valuable, including many foreign works. The diffi- 
culty of locating the Library still remains; but the transfer of 
forest specimens to the Museum of Science and Art has been 

VOL. XL, PART IIL X 



288 ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT, AUGUST 3, 1886. 

completed. The second part of Vol. XI. of the Transactions has 
been issued, and the contents ai'e of special interest, including 
extracts from the Keport of the Select Committee of the House of 
Commons on Forestry, 1885 ; Major Bailey's excellent account of 
the Indian Forest School at Dehra Dim ; M. Boppe's Report on the 
visit to the Scottish and English Forests in 1881 of Professors of 
the Forest School, Nancy, France 3 and practical papers by Messrs 
Webster, Glen, and Dodds. 

During the past year several notable members have been 
removed from us by death. A few days ago the demise was 
announced of a distinguished Scottish forester, an original member 
and the first President of this Society, 1854-57 — Mr James Brown, 
LL.D., late of Craigmill, Stirling, who died at Ontario, Canada. 
He was well known and highly esteemed by many of the older 
members, and his work, " Brown's Forester," has passed through 
several editions, and still is a standard work of reference. One 
of his sons, Mr J. E. Brown, is doing excellent work as Con- 
servator of Forests, Adelaide, and has brought out an illustrated 
Forest Flora of South Australia. Among other deceased members 
are Mr John Ferguson, late Deputy-Conservator of Forests, 
Madras, Lord Waveney, and Mr Colquhoun of Luss. 

The premature dissolution of Parliament having bi'ought to a 
sudden close the deliberations of the Select Committee aj)pointed 
to consider " whether, by the establishment of a Forest School, or 
otherwise, our woodlands could be rendered more remunerative " — 
their report, which was issued on 10th July, contained the 
evidence of only five witnesses — Colonel Pearson (re-examined), 
Dr Croumbie Brown, Dr Schlich, Inspectox'-General of Forests 
to the Government of India, Mr Julian Rogers, Secretary, 
Institution of Civil Engineers, and Mr Alexander Mackenzie, 
Superintendent, Epping Forest. The subject was pretty well 
thi'eshed out, and the witnesses were all agi'eed on the main 
question, although they differed as to minor details. Thei'e 
was but one opinion that foresters should be instructed as 
to the theory of their craft. How this might be best accom- 
plished, and where the conveniences could be best found in 
Great Britain for establishing a Forest School capable of impart- 
ing the special knowledge acquired in Continental schools, is still 
open to discussion. Dr Croumbie Brown and I spoke strongly in 
favour of Edinburgh. Other witnesses advocated the Agricultural 
Colleges at Cirencester and Downton, and Cooper's Hill Indian 



ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT, AUGUST 3, 1886. 289 

Engineering College, near London. "When the forest school or 
schools might be established was left uncertain ; but that a Forest 
School must come, there is no doubt. In a time of extraordinary- 
commercial depi-ession there have been unusual obstacles to over- 
come, but they are being surmounted, and the day is not far 
distant when our foresters will have, at least, the same facilities 
for their proper education and training as those so long enjoyed by 
theii' Continental brethren. 

Now I should like to make a few remarks on the Colonial 
and Indian Exhibition in London. During the last month I have 
been many times through that magniticent Exhibition, and have 
examined, more or less in detail, the wonderful display of 
material wealth there to be seen, including the vegetable and 
forest products of eveiy colony in the British Empire. No one 
can visit the collection without feeling its great educative power ; 
and one could not go away from it without having enlarged \'iews 
of the magnitude of Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, and of 
their great economic resources and commercial wealth. The 
Empii'e of India, too, was worthily and admirably represented. 
Its exhibits were grouped into State Collections, and the whole 
Court gave one some idea of the productive power and resources 
of India, though the visitor might have some difficulty even after 
his survey in grasping the fact that the Court represented a popu- 
lation of 252 millions, and an area of cultivated land of 189 
millions of acres. The handsome archway which formed the 
entrance to the Imperial Court was entirely composed of Indian 
timber. It had a breadth of 46 ft., and contained about 3000 
specimens of useful timbers, including the index collection which 
we had in Edinburgh at the Forestry Exhibition. There were 
some splendid specimens of Padowk timber, and of bamboo pro- 
bably the finest collection that had ever been brought together. 
Although not specially bearing upon arboriculture, a most inte- 
resting sight was the reproduction of some of the curious features 
of an Indian bazaar, and having spent many years in India and 
speaking some of its dialects, I fancied myself, when in the Court 
and talking to its occupants, as once again among my old Indian 
friends. 

Turning again to the Colonies, one of the striking features of 
the Exhibition was undoubtedly the illustration afforded of 
colonial vegetation, both as exemplified in the collections of plants 
and flowers, and in the admii'able photographs and drawings 



290 ADDRESS IJY TEE PRESIDENT, AUGUST 3, 1886. 

which adorned the walls. Of these I was particularly impressed 
with the representations of the Australian Eucalypts and the 
Canadian Conifers, which were brought out in a very life-like 
manner. There was another point in connection with the Exhi- 
bition I desire to notice. That is the Conferences which were 
held frequently in the Conference Hall — occasionally two in a 
day and sometimes on three days a week. Many subjects of 
great interest were taken up. One day cinchona ; another, tea ; 
another, coffee ; another, dyes ; and so on. These discussions 
were taken part in by men of great experience, whose opinions on 
the subjects dealt with were of the gi-eatest weight. I was also 
present at a discussion on the forests of India, when Dr Brandis, 
who began his work in 1855, on the Eastern side of the Bay of 
Bengal, gave a summary of the results of conservancy, and 
graphically described the progress of Eorest Administration over 
millions of acres stretching away to the base of the Himalaya. On 
this occasion there were probably not more than eighty persons 
present, but they were nearly all experts, and in the course of a 
two hours' conference a large amount of useful information was 
elicited. Dr Brandis, who is a German, bore testimony to the 
wonderful progress of cultivation in the British Provinces and 
also in the native States, and showed that there had been great 
advances made in public works, such as schemes of irrigation, 
canals, etc. The last Conference dui'ing my visit was one on 
tropical fruits, in which valuable information concerning the 
capabilities of Jamaica was given by Mr Moriis, lately of 
Jamaica, and now assistant director of the Royal Gardens, Kew. 

In concluding, I may refer to the Handbooks and Pamphlets 
published by the Exhibition authorities, and which contain an 
immense amount of information on both Indian and Colonial 
subjects, and constitute in themselves a most useful library of 
reference. I would advise as many of our friends as can possibly 
do so to go to London and see it for themselves. 



A FOREST TOUR AMONG THE DUNES 
OF GASCONY. 

By Major F. Bailey, R.E. 
CHAPTER I. 

THE LANDES AND DUNES OF GASCONY. 

iJFith 31(12).) 

Introduction. 

Our party, consisting of M. Boppe, five English students, Mr 
Beckington, an American gentleman interested in forest questions, 
M. Borel, a Swiss student, M. Takasima, and the writer, left 
Bordeaux early on the 26th April 1886 for Arcachon. We were 
accompanied by MM. de Monteil and Moyse, Inspectors, and M. 
Foulon, Assistant Inspector, who were so kind as to conduct us to 
the various points of interest we had come to study. Leaving the 
train at La Teste, we spent soaae time in going over a resin factory 
close to the railway station ; and we then walked two miles across 
the dunes to Arcachon. After breakfast, we made an excursion to 
the Mouleau block of the forest of La Teste, and passing through 
it, we gained the beach, which we followed, in a southerly direc- 
tion, for a considerable distance, until we reached a portion of the 
dunes, where a forest — which had- previously been established — was 
sold in 1863 to a private proprietor. He has neglected to maintain 
the works, and the result is, that the forests are being gradually 
ingulfed. Our long walk home over the deep sandy track, in a 
heavy shower of rain, the last few miles being in almost total 
darkness, was the least enjoyable part of the day. 

Next morning we travelled some miles by train, and then walked 
into a portion of the forest containing a number of old cluster pines 
[Pinus jnnaster), which have been worked for resin for the last 
150 or 200 years. We then walked to the village of La Teste, 
and caught the evening omnibus to Arcachon. 

Ou the 2Sch we travelled by train to Labouheyre, where we 
were met by M. Morch, Assistant Inspector, and M. Lamarque, 



292 A FOREST TOUR AMONG THE DUNES OF GASCONV. 

Garde-Gcncral. Tlic latter gentleman has been employed here 
since 1850, and Las supervised the fixing and planting of 
85 square miles of dunes. Accompanied by them, we drove to 
St Eulalie, a distance of 12^ miles, stopping on the way to look 
over a factory, established in the forest for the manufacture of oil 
from substances contained in the pine wood ; and we then mounted 
ponies, and rode to the sea-shore for the purpose of inspecting the 
works that have been there erected to check the formation of the 
dunes. We reached Mimizan, where we were to sleep, late in the 
evening. 

Next day we rode to another part of the sea coast to look at 
some works more recent than those we had previously seen, and also 
to study a locality in which the defences, which have been neglected, 
must now be partially destroyed and afterwards reconstructed. 
We then returned to Mimizan, and drove back to Labouheyre, 
where we visited a factory belonging to the railway company, in 
which pine sleepers and telegraph poles are impregnated with 
sulphate of copper. In the evening we took the train for Dax, on 
the banks of the Adour. 

What we saw and learnt while among the dunes will now be 
briefly treated under the following heads, viz. : — 

1. General Description. 

2. Construction of the Works. 

3. Treatment of the Cluster Pine. 

4. Tapping for Resin. 

5. Manufacture of Products. 

6. Utilisation of the Wood. 



General Description. 
From the mouth of the Gironde down to Bayonne, a distance of 
some 125 miles, the western portion of the departments of Gironde 
and Landes forms a vast plain, about 18 or 20 miles wide, the 
soil of which is sandy and extremely poor. This tract of moor- 
land (landes), which gives its name to the southern of the two 
departments, is inhabited by a population, formerly almost entirely 
pastoral, whose villages are scattered over it, and who cultivate scanty 
crops upon the fields surrounding their dwellings. But from time 
immemorial, and until comparatively recent years, the landes have 
been subjected to a never-ceasing invasion by sand, which, driven 



A FOREST TOUR AMONG TUE DUNES OF GASCONY. 293 

over the plain from tlie sea-sliore, iu the form of moving hills, 
called dunes, has completely covered a strip of 8 or 9 miles in 
width, and would, if unchecked, have ultimately laid waste the 
entire district. The aspect of the country, before steps were taken 
to improve its condition, must have been uninviting in the extreme ; 
the lande rase, or barren moorland, stretching towards the sea, was 
bounded by the dunes blanches, or white sandhills, which, rising 
near the coast to a height of some 230 feet, had already buried 
below them many a village spire, and their irresistible advance 
seemed to render certain the destruction of everything lying in 
their path. The church of Miraizan has been thus partially 
covered ; and, at a short distance from the village, a mound was 
pointed out to us, under which lies a buried hamlet. The village 
church of Soulac was completely overwhelmed, but was disinterred 
a few years ago ; and M, Lamarque told us that he often ties his 
horse's bridle to the top of a certain church steeple ! 

But this state of desolation no longer exists. The barren moor 
is now stocked with a nearly continuous forest of the cluster pine 
(Pinus pinaster), which, covering also the rolling dunes, has com- 
pletely arrested their advance ; and from various elevated points 
which we ascended near the coast, as well as from La True, in the 
forest of La Teste, the dark green undulating upper surface of the 
pine forest meets the deep blue of the western sky, and, looking 
landwards, there is nothing else to be seen. Indeed, throughout 
the many miles which we travelled by rail, by carriage, or on 
horseback, through this part of the country, we became weary 
of the monotonous appearance of these trees. They are, never- 
theless, undoubtedly the saviours of the land. They not only 
avert the destruction of existing fields and villages, but also profit- 
ably occupy vast areas of sand-hills, and of the low-lying, marshy 
and unhealthy ground between them, thus providing employment 
for the population, who are nearly all engaged, during the summer 
months, in the collection of resin, and, at other times, in felling, 
cutting up, and exporting timber, or on other work which the forests 
offer to them. The people, however, still keep large flocks and 
herds, the guardians of which are to be seen mounted on stilts 
about three feet high, driving or following their animals through 
the dense undergrowth of prickly gorse and other shrubs. 

The climate may be described as a mean between that of the 
Parisian and ProvenQal regions ; the annual rainfall, of from 
28 to 32 inches, being well distributed, so that the air seldom 



294 A FOREST TOUR AMONG THE DUNES OF OASCONY. 

becomes excessively dry, as it does during the sununer on the 
shores of the Mediterranean ; and thus, where the quality of the 
soil admits of it, a fairly varied vegetation is produced. But this 
condition is rarely satisfied, for the deep soil of the dunes is exces- 
sively ijoor, and the number of species found growing on it is 
extremely limited. Very few shells are found on this coast, the 
soil containing but little lime, and not more than from 3 to 6 per 
cent, of substances other than fragments of quartz. It is surprising 
to note what a luxuriant vegetation is produced under such circum- 
stances. The cluster pine, which is mixed in places with a few 
oaks [Q. 2^eduncidata), and a small proportion of other species, 
attains considerable dimensions ; while there is a dense undergrowth, 
consisting of broom, gorse, heather, ferns, and other plants, which 
flourish on siliceous soil. On the old plain of the landes the sand 
is mixed with a considerable quantity of vegetable debris, and con- 
tains much iron, an impermeable stratum of ferruginous sandstone 
(alios), mixed with more or less organic matter, lying at a short 
distance below the surface. 

The first works were undertaken hex-e, in the year 1 789, by M. 
Bremontier, an engineer, whose memory is honoured at Labouheyre 
by a bust, mounted on the same pedestal upon which, until the 
days of the Second Empire closed with the disasters of 1871, stood 
the statue of Napoleon III. Tempora mutayitur ! The Forest 
Department took charge of the operations in 1862. But it is 
certain that the cluster pine either grew spontaneously in this 
region, or had been introduced, long before M. Bremontier's time ; 
for in the old part of the forest of La Teste, near Arcachon, we 
saw trees which must have been 200 years old, and the process 
of extracting resin from which had apparently been carried on for 
at least 150 years. This pine, which now constitutes the principal 
wealth of the district, is eminently adapted for the use to which it 
has been put ; it grows splendidly on the soil and in the climate of 
the south-west coast, while it possesses a Avell-developed tap-root 
and strong lateral roots, which send down numerous secondary 
vertical roots to force their way deeply into the soil, thus holding 
it together, and enabling the tree to draw its supply of moisture 
from a considerable depth ; at the same time the resin which it 
yields is a most valuable j^roduct. Although the cluster pine is 
found north of the Gironde, it is there much less vigorous and 
yields less resin ; while in the valley of the Loire it no longer grows 
spontaneously, and it there loses nearly all its valuable qualities. 



A FOREST TOUR AMONG THE DUNES OF GASCONY. 295 

A special law relating to the dunes was enacted in 1810, its 
principal features being that the State can order the planting up of 
any area which, in the public interest, requires to be so dealt with ; 
and that when the land belongs to communes or private proprietors 
who cannot, or do not wish to undertake the work, the State can 
execute it, reimbursing itself, with interest, from the subsequent 
yield of the forest. As soon as the money has been recovered in 
this manner, the land is restored to the proprietors, who are bound 
to maintain the works in good order, and not to fell any trees 
without the sanction of the Forest Department. 

Construction of the Works. 

The dunes are formed by the combined action of the wind and 
sea. Each ebb tide leaves a quantity of sand, a portion of which 
dries before it is covered by the next flow, and it is then liable to 
be blown away by the wind. The individual sand-grains, which 
are not, generally speaking, either sufficiently large to resist the 
force of the strong westerly breezes that blow from the sea towards 
the low plain which bounds it, nor sufficiently small to be carried 
away in the air in the form of dust, are driven along the surface of 
the ground, rarely rising to a height of more than 1| or 2 feet 
above it, until they meet with some obstacle which arrests their 
course, and thus promotes the formation of a little mound. Up 
this succeeding sand-grains are propelled, and on reaching its 
summit they fall down the sheltered reverse slope at a steep angle. 
In this manner sand-hills or dicnes, rising sometimes to a height of 
200 to 250 feet, are formed, the line of their crests being, generally 
speaking, perpendicular to the direction of the prevailing winds, 
that is, in the case of the tract between the Gironde and Bayonne, 
parallel to the general line of the sea-shore. This action is not 
completely regular. The formation of some of the dunes is com- 
menced close to the sea, while others have their origin at some 
distance from it ; and fresh importations of sand either add to the 
bulk of those already existing, or, being blown through breaks in 
the chain, pass on till they encounter some other obstacle. But 
the sand-hills themselves are kept moving slowlj'- landwards by the 
wind, which drives the upper layer of sand from the gently-sloping 
outer face up to the summit, whence it fiiUs down the steep slope 
on the landward side, and this process being continued whenever 
there is enough wind to produce it, the dunes are moved, or rather 



29G A FOREST TOUR AMONG THE DUNES OF GASCON?. 

rolled, inland by slow degrees ; and as fresh ones are formed near 
the sea, which are in their turn moved onwards, it follows that, in 
■the course of time, the whole surface of the plain has become 
covered with sand-hills for a distance of several miles fi'om the 
coast. The rate at which the sand thus advances is very variable. 
Sometimes, during many months, there is no perceptible encroach- 
ment, while at others the movement is very rapid, amounting to 60 
or 70 ft. in the year ; the average annual rate is said to be about 
14 ft. But the sand-hills do not move at an uniform rate of speed. 
Some, overtaking those in their front, become merged in them ; 
while they all undergo changes of height and form, so that the 
whole surface of the country is continually in motion, being turned 
over and over to a great depth, and under these conditions it is 
impossible to grow anything on it. The source of the evil lies at 
the sea beach ; and the first thing to do evidently is to stop fresh 
importations of sand ; while as regards the dunes already formed, it 
will be seen from what has been said, that the movement, at any 
particular time, is confined to the sand then at the surface, and if 
this can be fixed during the time necessary to enable a crop of 
herbs, shrubs, and young trees to be raised upon it, the movement 
of the entire mass will have been arrested. 

We rode from St Eulalie, through the forests, to the coast near 
Mimizan-les-Bains, where M. Lamarque explained to us that the 
system by which this is accomplished consists in promoting the 
formation, by the wind, of an artificial dune, close to the sea, and, 
generally speaking, parallel to it at high tide. This mound absorbs 
the fresh importations of sand ; while, under its shelter, sowings are 
made, which, extending gradually inland in parallel bands, fix and 
consolidate the surface of the naturally formed sand-hills ; ultimately 
the artificial dune is itself planted with trees, and the evil is then 
cured for so long a time as care is taken to maintain the works, 
which are commenced as follows : — 

At a distance of about 1G5 yards from high-water mark, a 
wattled fence 40 in. high is erected, the pickets being driven 20 in. 
into the sand. This serves to arrest the sand, which is heaped up 
on the seaward side, a portion of it filtering through the wattles. 
After a time the fence is overtopped, and the sand, blown up the 
outer face, forms a steep slope on the other side. A second 
wattled fence is then erected, about 6h ft. behind the first, and the 
space between the two becoming filled up, and a mound rising over 
it, the sand which falls over stands at a high angle against the 



A FOREST TOUR AMOX .; THE DUXES OF GASCONY. 297 

reverse side of the second wattle. In the centre of the mound, a 
palisade of planks, also 40 in. above and 20 in. below ground, is 
erected — the planks, which are of pine sapwood, 7 in. or 8 in. wide, 
and l-i in. thick, being placed |ths of an inch apart. When the 
sand drifts up against them, a portion of it falls through the inter- 
vals, thus affording support on the other side ; and when they have 
become nearly covered, they are raised about 2 ft. out of the ground 
by means of a hand-lever and chains. This operation, which we 
saw done, is repeated from time to time, until the barrier has 
attained a height of about 25 feet, when a third wattle fence is con- 
structed, at a distance of from 5 to 6h ft. behind the inner slope ; 
and the top of the barrier is strengthened by means of a line of 
small fagots formed of pine branches, gorse, and other shrubs, which 
are half-buried vertically in the sand. The fagots, each of which 
weighs about 45 lbs., are placed at distances of 4| feet from centre 
to centre. During the time that elapses before the last fence is 
overtopped, the palisade is not raised, so that the width of the base 
is increased, and the top becomes broader and rounded. When the 
palisade, which is now moved back a short distance, is overtopped, 
it is raised as before, an additional wattle being placed in rear of 
the work ; and the building up of the mound by the action of the 
wind is continued in this manner, until it has attained its maximum 
height of from 40 to 45 ft., when its breadth is allowed to increase, 
until it stands on a base about 330 ft. broad. The foot of the 
outer slope is then about 100 ft. distant from high-water mark, the 
top being at least 165 ft. broad, and the slopes standing at 35 or 
40 degrees. This result is usually attained in from 15 to 18 
years, but the rate of the barrier's growth is by no means regular. 
Strong and steady west winds are the most favourable ; but when 
the sand is raised by squalls, it is sometimes carried inland in con- 
siderable quantities. The artificial dune must be broad at the top, 
and its profile must be such that the most violent storms do not 
easily " take hold " of it ; but if these conditions are fulfilled, its 
maintenance is easy and cheap ; and if the base of the outer slope 
be kept at the prescribed distance from high-water mark, the sea, 
even if it reaches it during exceptionally bad weather, does the 
structure but little damage. 

The surface of the mound is consolidated by fagots, 12 to 14 
in. in circumference and 14 to 16 in. apart, buried vertically to a 
depth of 16 in. in the sand, and projecting 8 to 16 in. above 
ground. It is also sown with (jourbet {Arundo arenaria), about 



298 A FOUEST TOUR AMOKG THE DUNES OF GASCONY. 

13 lbs. of seed being used i)er acre. This plant, whicli is a kind of 
grass/ with an underground stem and strong interlacing side-roots, 
has a remarkable power of keeping its head growing above the 
surface of the rising mound, the particles composing which are held 
firmly together by it. The sand subsequently left by the tide, either 
travels along the shore, or is taken up again by the sea and 
deposited elsewhere. An artificial dune, constructed in the manner 
above described, now extends along the coast for a distance of 125 
miles, from the Gironde to the Adour. 

As soon as the further importation of sand over the country has 
been arrested by the palisade, and the covering of the future planta- 
tions has thus been guarded against, the sowing of the ground in 
rear of it is at once undertaken. This is effected in successive 
parallel belts of about 20 yds. wide, commenced at a distance of 
5 yds. from the line to which the inner slope of the dune will 
attain when it is completed. By beginning at this point, and 
working gradually away from the sea, the plantations are secured 
against injury by sand which has already passed the line of the 
barrier. If the sowings were begun elsewhere, they would soon be 
covered by the advance of the naturally- formed dunes over them. 

The land to be operated upon is roughly levelled, and a mixture 
consisting of 1 1 lbs. of pine seed, 7 lbs. of broom seed, and 5 lbs. 
of gourhet per acre, is then sown on it broadcast, a palisade being 
erected at its inner limit, so as to prevent the seed from becoming 
buried under sand, carried over it by land breezes ; this structure is 
moved back as the work progresses, so as to serve for the protection 
of other belts, as the sowing of each is in its turn undertaken. The 
sowings are carried on from October to May. The seeds are covered 
with branches and brushwood, laid like tiles or thatch, with their 
butt-ends towards the sea, and kept down by means of sand thrown 
upon them. The surface is thus temporarily protected, until the 
plants have had time to grow up and take hold of the soil. If the 
covering of branches is at any time disturbed by the wind, they 
must be at once readjusted ; and should it be found that any 
damage has been done to the seeds or seedlings, the ground must 
be re-sown and re-covered with branches. The cost of the entire 
work is said to amount to about £8 per acre. We unfortunately 
did not see it in progress, but we saw some ground that had 
recently been treated in the manner described. 

We visited the artificial dune of St. Eulalie— Mimizan, which is 
^ Syn. Psainmi aroiaria, Hooker. 



A FOREST TOUR AMONG THE DUNES OF GASCONY. 299 

now nearly completed, and M. Lamarque explained the system to 
us. This barrier, commenced eighteen years ago, is now about 40 
feet high, and, all the ground inland having been sown, there is 
nothing but young pine forests to be seen as far as the eye can 
reach. What is now required is simply to maintain the artificial 
dune, which is done most scrupulously ; and whenever any move- 
ment of the surface commences, fagots are at once planted, and 
the siirface is re-sown and covered. This operation was being 
carried out in places during our visit, and we were assured that, 
if such precautions were neglected, the entire work would soon be 
destroyed. We saw, indeed, two instances where want of proper 
supervision had already produced this result. The first of these 
was a few miles south of Arcachon, where the land was sold, in 
1863, to a private proprietor, who neglected to maintain the arti- 
ficial barrier ; and, consequently, a " white dune " is now in pro- 
cess of formation, and is gradually ingulfing the pine forest 
established behind it. Some endeavours have been made to arrest 
the movement of the sand by the erection of wattled fences inland ; 
but these are of no avail, and the trees are being slowly but surely 
overwhelmed. As we mounted the new dune from the side of the 
sea, we found the trees more and more deeply biiried ; and at its 
summit we actually walked over the crowns of some which were 
completely covered. On the land side, the sand falls down in a 
steep natural slope, at the foot of which are seen masses of young 
seedlings, carpeting the ground between the older trees from 
which they have sprung. It is said that nothing can be done to 
remedy this state of affairs, on account of the conditions under 
which the land was sold, but special legislation seems urgently 
needed. 

The second instance was seen a little south of the Mimizan 
dune, where, the subordinate in chai'ge having neglected his work, 
the wind got under the covering of branches, for a distance of 
several hundred yards inland, and thus caused the formation of a 
number of large holes or pits with steep sides. If these were not 
dealt with, the whole forest would soon be desti'oyed. Matters 
have already gone too far to admit of mere local treatment ; and 
the only thing to be done is to dig up the gourhet and other vege- 
table gi'owth, and allow the artificial dune to be breached, so that 
the holes may be filled up by the agency of the wind that caused 
them. But when doing this it will be necessary to erect a wattled 
fence on the inner side of the damaged surface, so as to prevent 



300 A FOREST TOUn AMONG THE DUNES OF OASCONY. 

the sand from being carried too far inland. A fresh layer of sand 
will then deposit itself over the plantation ; and when this has 
occurred, and the surface has thus been restored, the artificial 
dune must be re-formed, and the sowings re-made. We were 
assured that no other course is possible. This is an excellent 
instance, showing what incessant care and watchfulness are 
required to carry out an undex'taking of this kind successfully. 

Treatment of the Cluster Pine. 

On our way from Bordeaux to Arcachon, we left the train at 
La Teste, and walked across the dunes to our hotel. The forest 
consists of pure pine, felled in some blocks at sixty years, and in 
others at seventy -two years, of age ; but oaks (^Q. jjedunczdata and 
Q. Tozza) are now being planted among the pines. 

After breakfast, we visited the Mouleau block, situated at a 
distance of three or four miles in a southerly direction from 
Arcachon. Here we found that, as elsewhere, the forest had been 
naturally regenerated with great success, there being a dense crop 
of young trees, ten years old, and from 15 to 20 feet high, upon 
the ground. M. Boppe explained the system of treatment 
adopted for the cluster pine forests of this region. The tree has 
special requirements in the way of soil and climate ; it will not 
grow upon limestone, and it cannot stand cold down to one or two 
degrees above zero (Fahrenheit), if prolonged for more than a 
week ; neither can it be grown profitably for resin at any great 
distance from the sea. It is most important, in the case of this, 
as of other species, that before the tree is introduced into any 
locality a careful study should be made, in order to decide whether 
the conditions are such as will ensure success ; and a forcible 
argument against the introduction of new species during extensive 
afforestation works is, that these conditions may not be fully 
known at the time. For instance, the cluster pine was exten- 
sively planted in the Sologne and in Normandy between the years 
1830 and 1880 ; but during the unusually cold winter of 1879-80, 
nearly the whole of these forests, covering in the Sologne alone an 
area of over 300 square miles, were completely killed off. 

This pine gives seed abundantly nearly every year, and its 
regeneration by natural means is very easy to effect. As we had 
previously noticed in the Maures, we found that, whenever the 
seed-felling had been made, there was almost invariably a plenti- 



A FOREST TOUR AMONG THE DUNES OF GASCONY. 301 

ful crop of seedlings on the ground ; so that, if these could be 
protected against fires and grazing, the remainder of the trees 
might be removed, without fear of failure to obtain a fully 
stocked forest. The pine has long thin needles, giving very light 
shade, and the trees will not stand growing close together ; those 
only which are sufficiently far apart, vigorous, and with a well- 
developed crown yielding resin in large quantities. Thinnings 
are commenced when the young ti-ees are from six to eight years 
old, and are repeated every five or six years. At twenty years of 
age there should be from 250 to 280 stems per acre ; and at thirty 
years, not more than from 100 to 120 ; this number being finally 
reduced to from GO to 80, when, at the age of seventy or eighty 
years, the regeneration fellings are commenced. With this num- 
ber on the ground, the upper or cone-bearing branches are free, 
but not the lower ones ; these latter should be allowed to touch, 
so that the natural pruning of the lowest of them may be eflfected. 
In order that the extraction of resin may be successfully carried 
on, it is necessary that the trees should have clean stems, free of 
dead branches, up to a height of some 16 ft. ; and in order to 
ensure this, it is usual, as an additional precaution, to prune away 
their lower branches, at the time that the first thinnings are made, 
that is when the young trees are not more than from six to eight 
years old ; but this should be done carefully, avoiding the removal 
of too many leaves at a time, as this would check their growth. 

The light cover of the pine does not aflx)rd sufficient shade to 
keep down the undergrowth of grass, gorse, heather, broom, ferns, 
and other plants, which spring up in dense masses, in proportion as 
the thinnings progress. These shrubs and hei'bs are much valued 
for litter and manure ; and it is customary to export them, with 
the dead pine leaves, for these uses. This of coiirse prevents the 
accumulation of vegetable mould ; but on the other hand, it is 
said that the practice is useful to some extent, in that, when they 
have been removed, the resin collectors can move about the forest 
freely, and the risk from fires is diminished. It would, however, 
be much more advantageous if an undergrowth of oak (Q. pedun- 
culata) could be established instead of these shrubs, M. Boppe 
suggested that the oaks should be planted when the pines are ten 
or twelve years old, at which age they have usually suppressed 
the shrubs that grow up with them ; but M. de Monteil would 
prefer to put them in at the time of the seed-felling, and keep 
them from being choked by clearing round them. However this 



302 A FOREST TOUR AMONG THE DUNES OF GASCONY. 

may be, the introduction of the oak beneath the pine could not 
fail to be invaluable as a protection to the soil. 

The enemies of the forests are our old acqaintances the graziers 
and the fii'es ; the former, mounted on their tall stilts, driving 
their flocks wherever grass is to be found, — that is to say, where 
the young seedlings are growing. It is said that article 67 of the 
Forest Code (which provides that grazing rights can only be 
exercised in those blocks which are declared oi;t of danger by the 
Forest Department) cannot be brought into force here, which 
seems a great pity. Fires cause very great damage ; for, not 
only is the undergrowth of shrubs, and the mass of dead leaves 
and needles on the ground, extremely inflammable, but the 
pine trees themselves are so also. Conflagrations are sometimes 
caused intentionally by the shepherds, who desire to extend the 
area of their grazing grounds ; but they are also frequently due to 
accidents, and it is said that they are sometimes caused by sparks 
from the railway engines. When they occur, they are most destruc- 
tive in their efiects. In passing along the railway, at a distance of 
a few miles from Arcachon, we saw a lai-ge tract which was com- 
pletely bare, the entire forest having been burnt off it. Unfortu- 
nately there is no special legislation here, such as exists in the 
Maures and Esterel ; and nothing can be done but to cut fire-lines 
from 30 to 70 ft. wide, round, and at regular intervals through, 
the forests, so as to divide it into blocks of 250 acres each. These 
lines serve as roads, and as starting points for the counter-fires, 
which are lighted when occasion I'equires it, in order to pre- 
vent the spreading of the flames. On each side of the fire-lines, 
as well as along the main roads and railways, the undergrowth is 
cai'efully burnt off, so as to diminish the chance of accidents ; and 
every third year the lines themselves are dug up and all roots are 
extracted. This work, which is usually performed by women, 
whom we saw using a tool something like a large Indian hoe, 
costs about 5s. per acre of fire-line. The trees are sometimes 
attacked by a species of fungus ; and it is customary to dig 
trenches round those which show signs of this malady, in order to 
prevent its spreading further. 

While we were inspecting the old portion of the forest of La 
Teste, near Arcachon, to which allusion has previouslj'^ been made, 
the professor explained to us that the I'esin is extracted from the 
trees, cither in large quantities, so as to kill them in four or five 
years (Gemmage a mort = Tapping to death), or in comparatively 



A FOREST TOUR A.MuXG THE DUNES OF GASCONY. 303 

small quantities, so as not to cause their death (Gemmage a vie ■= 
Tapping to live). The first of these methods is adopted in all thin- 
nings of trees aged twenty-five years and upwards, and also in the 
seed-felling (of which there is only one), as well as in the final 
felling. The operation is commenced five years before the trees are 
to be cut down, and is continued for four years, the trees being 
removed during the fifth. The principle is to take all the resin that 
the tree can give, leaving it exhausted at the end of the fourth 
year : and to eflect this, many cuts or wounds are made at the 
same time, their number depending on the size of the tree. Some- 
times there are three or four ; but, in the case of large trees, 
there are as many as ten or a dozen, and sometimes even more. 
One result of this treatment, is to cause an abundant growth of 
seed ; and this fact has great importance when the last repre- 
sentatives of the crop are about to be removed, for it ensui'es the 
springing up of a full crop of seedlings. The effect is similar 
to that produced on fruit trees, by injuries inflicted on the branches, 
roots, or bark, with a view to obtain an increased ci'op of fruit. 
Trees which show signs of failing from any cause, commence to 
produce their successors. 

The second method, under which the life of the tree is to be 
preserved, is employed only for those trees which have been 
selected to form part of the final crop (arbres de pla^e). They 
are not ta})ped until they have a girth of from 44 to 48 inches, 
which is usually attained when they are from thirty to forty years 
old ; it is considered risky to take resin from them at a younger 
age. At first only one cut is opened, and it continues to run for 
five years, when another, on the opposite side of the tree, is com- 
menced. Then, half way between these two, a third and a fourth 
cut are opened in succession, and so on ; if two cuts are opened at 
the same time they should be at different levels, but the number 
should never exceed two. 

The above is the improved system now in vogue. But in 
former years it was not the custom to taji the trees to death, and 
the forest we visited was particularly interesting, as enabling us 
to see what the effects of the old practice were. Here we saw 
some trees of great age, showing as many as thirty-six wounds, 
and doubtless there were many more the traces of which we could 
not detect. Such trees are probably at least from a hundred and 
fifty to two hundred years old. They present a most remarkable 
appearance, the lower 15 ft. of the stem being swelled out into a 

VOL. XI., PART III. V 



304 A FOREST TOUR AMONG THE DUNES OF OASCOKY. 

sort of bottle sliape, and consisting in some instances, of longi- 
tudinally detached fragments, through the interstices of whicli, 
light, entering on the opposite side of the tree, can be perceived. 
This bundle of sticks looks as if it would give way under the 
burden of the mighty crown which it contrives to supfwrt. M. 
Boppe had, however, something more important than this to which 
to call our attention, viz., the eff'ect on the forest of this method 
of treatment, which, of course, since the tapping of every tree is 
continued until it dies, at a more or less advanced age, is almost 
exactly analagous to the selection method (jardinaffe). Here 
then was an excellent opportunity to observe the effects of this 
method of treating a species, which, like the cluster pine, has light 
cover. We certainly see a number of trees of all ages and sizes, 
some of them from 90 to 100 ft. high, and 12 to 13 ft. in girth ; 
but the ground is extremely badly stocked, much of it being com- 
pletely bare. When a forest is stocked with species of heavy 
cover, it is easy to keep trees of all ages growing together, for 
the taller ones do not interfei'e, by their shade, with the healthy 
growth of those which stand below them. But in the case of 
trees of light cover, it is impossible to obtain, by this system, any- 
thing but an extremely thin forest, for the young trees cannot 
maintain themselves alive under the shade of the older ones. For 
such species the regular system, with the age-classes grouped 
together, is the only one that can be successfully employed. 

On our way from Arcachon to Laboiiheyre we passed through 
some private forests, in which we saw a large number of kilns 
for burning pine wood into charcoal ; and we also inspected some 
ground which had, four years ago, been sown with a mixture of 
pine and broom, in lines 5 ft. apai't. The young crop appeared 
to be in a flourishing condition. Near the forest house we saw 
some plantations of the cork oak (Q. occidentalis) and also of 
Quercus pedunculata. Some tea had also be^ sown as an experi- 
ment, but there does not appear to be much chance of its 
succeeding. 

Tapping for Resin. 

The cluster pine has large and abundant resin canals, the con- 
tents of which circulate much more freely in the sap wood than 
in the heart wood. In order to tap the tree, a cut, commenced 
near its base, is carried gradually upwards to a height of about 
12| ft., but more I'arely to 15 or 16 ft., and the resin, flowing 



A FOREST Torn AMONG THE DUXES OF GASCOXY. 



305 



therefroiii, is collected in pots and removed to the factory. This 
operation will now be described more in detail. Towards the 
latter end of February, the dry outer bark is i-emoved by means 
of a special tool [harrasquite) from the place where the cut is to 




be made, up to a point some 4 in. higher than it will extend 
during the coming season. The bark is also cut off from a surface 
wider by about 1 in. than the cut is to be, the object being, not 
only to prevent fragments of falling bark from becoming mixed 
with the resin, but also to save the sharp edge of the tool with 
which the cut is subsequently to be made and renewed. Early in 
March the tree is again visited, and a wound of concave shape, 
about 4 in. wide, 2 or 3 in. high, and less than -^ in. deep, 
is made into the sap wood near the ground, with a peculiarly- 
shaped axe (abcJiotte). Below this a small curved zinc plate is 
driven into the bark, and this acts as a lip, to guide the flowing 
resin into the earthen pot which is ]>laced below it. The wound 



306 A FOREST TOUR AMONG TIIF. Dt:NF,S OF GASCOXV. 

runs freely for from five to eiglit days, when the upper portion of 
it is renewed by taking off a thin cliip with the ahchotlc, and it is 
thus slightly heightened. This operation is repeated some forty 
times during the season, which extends to the IStli October, and 
by this time the cut has attained a height of 22 in. The semi- 
solid resin (galipot), of which the quantity is very small under 
this system, is scraped off by the hand of the workman from time 
to time ; and, at the close of the season, the more hardened resin 
{barras) is removed with the barrasquite, and carried to the reser- 
voir. At the beginning of the second season, the bark having 
been removed as befoi^e, the zinc plate is driven in at the top of 
the old wound, and the pot, supported below by a nail driven into 
the tree, is placed immediately under it. The collection is then 
continued as before ; but when there are irregularities in the stem, 
or when it does not stand perpendicularly, chips of wood driven 
into the bark, and ingeniously arranged, guide the resin in the 
desired direction. The cut is increased in height by 30 in. during 
the second year's work, and by a similar amount during each of 
the third and fourth years ; but during the fifth and last year the 
height is increased by 40 in. ; and the cut having attained a total 
height of 12 ft. 8 in., it is abandoned, and a new one is com- 
menced. When the tree is to be " tapped to death," the cut is 
made to attain its total height in four instead of in five years. 
The pot, which is sometimes closed with a little wooden cover, so 
as to reduce evaporation, is, when full, emptied into a wooden 
bucket, in which the i-esin is carried to a reservoir in the forest, 
whence it is subsequently conveyed to the factory in barrels, each 
holding 520 lbs. When the cut has risen in height, so that the 
workman, standing on the gi-ound, cannot reach it with the 
abchotte, he provides himself with a sort of ladder, consisting of a 
notched pine pole 1 5 ft. long, which he places against the tree, and 
on which he mounts to the required height. WTien the pot is too 
high to be reached from the ground, it is removed by means of a 
sliding staff, which can be extended to a length of 11 ft., and is 
furnished with a pair of metal arms to grasp the pot ; but some- 
times a sharp, broad-bladed hook-like tool, something like the 
barrasquite, is fixed to the sliding staff, in addition to the metal 
arms, and with the aid of this instrument the cuts are renewed by 
the workman standing on the ground, without his being obliged 
to carry and mount a ladder. The method above described, which 
bears the name of its originator, M. Hughes, was explained to us 



A FOREST TOUR AMONG THE DUXES OF GASCONY. 307 

in detail, the whole operation being carried out in our presence. 
It has this great advantage, that the resin is not mixed with any 
large amount of foreign substances, and that, as it runs down the 
length of a single year's cut only, the loss by evapox'ation is less 
than formerly, when it was collected in a hole at the foot of 
the tree. The collection, which is usually done by contract, can 
also be much better carried out and supervised under the new 
method. It is said that a man and his wife can manage from 
2500 to 3000 trees a year. 

It is very difficult to give figures accurately representing the 
annual yield of these foi-ests in crude resin, but it is put down 
at from 200 to 400 lbs. per aci-e, the price obtained at the factory 
being from l-is. 6d. to 16s. Gd. per 100 lbs. It is also stated that 
a tree, tapped so as not to cause its death, yields annually from 
G.i- to 10 lbs. of resin, a very large one having been known to give 
about 16 lbs. Some figures relating to last season's sales in the 
Gartey and Pilat blocks of the forest of La Teste may prove of 
interest. The right to tap and fell, within live years, 7528 trees, 
aged from sixty to eighty years, and constituting the final felling 
on an area of 118 acres, was sold for £1592. This gives nearly 
£13, 10s. per acre, and a little more than 4s. 2d. per tree. The 
yield was estimated to be 245,055 cubic feet of timber, 125,158 
cubic feet (stacked) of firewood, and 2082 cwts. of crude turpen- 
tine. It must not be forgotten that the above is the revenue for 
the last five yeai's only j previously to this, thinnings have been 
disposed of, and the trees now sold have been tapped since they 
were about thirty years old. 

Manufacture of Resin. 

When ti-avelling from Bordeaux to Arcachon, we left the rail- 
way at La Teste to visit a resin factory close to the station. 

The crude i-esin, brought to the factory in casks, is, notwith- 
standing the precautions taken, found to be mixed with a cer- 
tain rpiantity of foreign substances, such as earth, chips, bark> 
leaves, insects, etc. After adding about 20 per cent, of the 
solidified resin (barras), scraped from the cuts, it is heated mode- 
rately in an open caldron, so as to biing it into a liquid state, 
when the heavier impurities sink to the bottom, the lighter ones 
rising to the surface. The liquified resin thus obtained consists of 
two distinct substances, viz., colophany, which is solid at the 



308 A FORKST TOUa AMONG THK DUXES OF GASCOXV. 

ordinary temperature of the air; and s[)irit of turpentine, which 
is liquid and volatile, and some of which is lost if the caldron is 
over-heated. These two substances are separated by distillation 
in the following manner: — The liquid resin is allowed to run 
through a strainer into a retort, a small quantity of water being 
inti'oduced at the same time. The rising steam carries the spirit 
of turpentine with it, and both are, after passing through a 
refrigerator, caught, in a liquid form, in a trough placed to 
receive them ; the spirit, being lighter than the water, lies over it, 
and is easily drawn off. The colophany is then allowed to 
run out of the retort, and passing through a sieve, is caught 
in a vat below. Thence it is poured into flat metal dishes, and 
allowed to harden in the sun, under which process the finer 
qualities attain a delicate amber colour. But there are several 
classes of this substance, distinguished chiefly by their colour, 
which is a guide to their degree of purity, and these are known 
by various names, and have different commercial values. The 
impure residue left in the caldron is distilled separately, and 
yields rosin and pitch. The i"aw resin collected from the trees in 
the autumn is harder and less valuable than that obtained during 
the spring and summer. 

We were told that, at the factory, 25 barrels (of 520 lbs.) of 
raw resin are distilled per diem in summer, and 16 in winter. 
The spirit of turpentine sells for 24:S. per 100 lbs., and the 
colophany for 9s. per 100 lbs. ; but the piirer kinds, for the 
manufacture of which only the most liquid ])ortions of the raw 
resin are put into the caldron, fetch from 13s. 6d. to 14s. 6d., 
the price of the finest quality, known as Venice turpentine, 
rising to £4, 10s. per 100 lbs. Comparatively small quantities 
only of the finer substances are extracted. 

Utilisation of the Wood and Substances Extracted 
FROM THE Pine Trees. 

The effect of tapping the pine is to cause a flow of resin towards 
the lower portion of the stem, which thus becomes charged with 
that substance, and is rendered harder and more durable than the 
upper part of the tree. The resinous wood is used for various 
purposes : very largely for railway sleepers, when it is injected 
with creosote or sulphate of copper. We visited a factory at 
Labouheyre, in which the latter substance is used for injecting 



A FOREST TOUR AMONG THE DUNES OF GASCONY. 309 

sleepers and telegraph posts ; and the superintendent assured us 
tliat, for pine wood, it is much superior to creosote. We saw 
many thousands of injected pine sleepers at this and other railway 
stations, and were informed that they are largely employed on the 
lines. Planks and scantlings, of which a large stock was lying at 
Labouheyre, are sent for sale to Paris ; while poles, extracted 
during thinnings, are used as telegraph posts and mine-props. 
Last year, when we were in the Cevennes, we found that mine- 
props from the Landes were employed there. Charcoal is also 
made in some forests. 

On our way from Labouheyre to St Eulalie, we visited an 
establishment for the manufacture of pinoleum, or pine-oil, which 
is used as a preservative for wood, and also, when prepared in a 
special manner, for burning in lamps, as a substitute for kerosine. 
The machinery was not working, and we were unable to study 
the details of the system ; but the light given by the oil, which is 
made use of to a considerable extent in that part of the country, 
is very good, and it possesses the great advantage of not being 
explosive. 

CHAPTER II. 
FORESTS ON THE ADOUR, NEAR DAX. 

The morning after our arrival at Dax, M. Delassasseyne, the 
Inspector, and M. Tellier, Garde-General, took us to see some 
cork-oaks, which are grown, at a short distance from the town, 
like apple trees in an English orchard. Quercus occidentaJis is 
almost identical in appearance with the cork trees we saw in 
Provence ; but its fruit ripens in two years, instead of one, as is 
the case with Q. suher. The trees, which stand isolated from one 
another, and are much branched at about 7 ft. from the ground, 
are visited once in every eight to fourteen years, when the cork is 
removed from the entire stem ; an average sized tree then yields 
about 22 square feet of cork sheets, which represent a net revenue 
of about tenpence a year. It is said that whei-e Q. occidentalis 
occurs mixed with Pinus pinaster, it has here a tendency to drive 
the latter out of the field. 

We spent the afternoon in inspecting the communal oak {Q. 
pedunculata) forests of Tilhieu, situated on the right bank of the 
Adour, a few miles above Dax ; they are inundated, two or three 
times a year, to a depth of 12 or 1-4 ft., or even more. The part 



310 A FOKKST TOUK AMONG THE ULXKS OF OAbCOXV. 

of the forest that we entered fiixt is of pure oak, forty years old, 
aud about 50 ft. high ; it is to ho felled at the age of one hundred 
and twenty years. We remarked at once that the trees had au 
unhealthy a})pearance. They were; much branched, and had 
crooked stems, covered with twigs {brancltes gourmandes) and 
lichen up to " high-water mark." Many of the larger branches 
were dead, while the stems were, in numerous instances, split by 
the action of frost ; and it was evident that they required the 
protection of a lower stage of forest growth, which would remedy 
many of the existing defects. There were no seedlings on the 
ground, which was covered, in places, with ferns, brambles, a 
little gorse, and " butchers' broom " (liuscus acnleatus). The 
forest is heavily grazed over by cows and bullocks, which, how- 
ever, do comparatively little harm, because the inundations, which 
leave a deposit of fresh soil behind them, prevent the ground from 
becoming hardened by the animals' feet. M. Bo})pe remarked 
that natural regeneration is here very easy to obtain, for the oak 
gives seed every year, a plentiful crop occurring every second 
year; and the soil being extremely fertile, growth is rapid. But 
the old difficulty of treating a species of light cover as a pure 
forest has to be encountered ; if the trees stand too thickly 
together, they grow u}) tall and thin, and many branches die ; 
while, if heavy thinnings are made after considerable intervals of 
time, there is a large development of twigs on the stems. The 
treatment of such a forest is a very delicate o})eration, requiring 
much skill ; and the only way to achieve success, is to make light 
thinnings frequently. If this be not done the forest will, in all 
probability, be ruined. If it wei-e possible to introduce a mixture 
of hornbeam, which, unfortunately, does not succeed here, this 
tree would serve to protect both the ground and the stems of the 
oaks, without interfering with their crowns ; and heavier thin- 
nings, which would have a very favourable effect, could then be 
made among them. There ai'e no kinds of harmful insects in this 
forest, probably owing to the periodical .inundation of the ground. 
Passing on, we traversed a younger portion of forest, where the 
oak is mixed with a few elms and maples [Acer camj^estrls) ; and, 
leaving this, we entered a block, in which the tinal fellings had 
been made, from two to live years previously. Here the rapid 
growth of the young trees was \evy remarkable ; those five years 
old having a height of 6 or 7 ft. The ground was densely covered, 
not only by young oaks, but also by a mass of tangled shrubs and 



A FOREST TOUR AMONG THE DUXES OF GASCON Y. 311 

biaiubles, which spring up iimnediately after the final felling has 
been made ; through these, the young oaks manage to force their 
way in two years, and they ultimately suppress them entirely. In 
this climate the oaks are not injured and checked by spring frosts, 
which occur so frequently, and do so much damage further north. 

We now entered the oldest part of the forest, aged from one 
hundred and twenty to one hundred and fifty years, which has 
been subjected to uncontrolled selection fellings, and has, at the 
same time, been grazed over, chiefly by pigs and geese, which eat 
enormous quantities of acorns, as well as by other animals. Conse- 
quently, instead of finding trees of all ages on the ground, we saw 
a somewhat thin croj) of old trees of great girth, which are 
branched and heavy topped without being tall, and are covered, in 
many instances, with climbing ferns, of, apparently, one of the 
species commonly found on the lower slopes of the north-western 
Himalaya. Under these large trees are seen dense thickets of 
bushes, between which the animals graze, and there are a few 
young oaks, of stunted and imhealthy appearance, which are not 
completely killed out by the cover, as they probably would be, 
under similar circumstances, in a more northerly latitude. For 
here the light is more intense, and they are, on this account, 
enabled to maintain themselves under cover of the larger trees ; 
but they cannot grow up, so that they do little or nothing towards 
the establishment of a regular gradation of age- classes. In fact 
the selection method cannot be successfully applied in the case of 
a pure foi-est composed of species of light cover, even when there 
is no grazing; but when, as in this instance, animals ai'e freely ad- 
mitted, the system fails completely. If this portion of the forest 
were to be simply closed at the pi-esent time, a large increase in 
the number of stuuted young oaks would undoubtedly follow, and 
some of these would push their way upwards in the more open 
jtlaces, but there would never be a projjerly constituted crop of 
sound and well-shaped trees of all ages on the ground. 

But, fortunately, an effective remedy for this state of things can 
easily be applied. In order to get a complete crop of young 
seedlings, grazing must be entirely stopped, and the dense under- 
growth of shrubs must be cleared. This latter process is found to 
act like a seed-felling, as it results in a marvellously dense 
growth of seedlings, which, a year or two after the bushes have 
been cut down, are sufficiently established to permit of the old 
crop being removed, and the forest is then completely regenerated. 



312 A KORKST TOUR AMONG TIIK DUNES OF OASCONY. 

Wo .sulis(H|ii(!iitly j)ass('(l tlu'ou<i;li ])in-ts of Iho forest where no 
jfrraziiig liad been per-initted for the last eight or ten years ; Vjut 
the bushes had not been cut away, neither had the ohl trees been 
removed. Here we saw a sph^ndid crop of young seedlings in the 
more o[)eu places, and a quantity of suppressed growth among the 
bushes ; all that was wanted was to complete the operation in the 
manner described. When this has been done, the seedlings and 
bush-coppice will grow up together ; but, as has been previously 
mentioned, the oaks will soon push their way through the latter, 
and ultimately kill it out. There are here about 7500 acres of 
this sort of forest, all of which will, in due course, be suljjected to 
the kind of treatment above indicated. 

We returned home through a block which is heavily grazed 
over, but contains some magnificent old trees of the most pic- 
turesque appeai'ance, the effect being equal to the most beautiful 
])arts of Fontainebleau. 



CHAPTER III. 
TORRENTS NEAR BARREGES IN THE PYRENEES. 

From Dax we travelled by rail to Pau, where we spent a few 
hours, and visited the splendid public gardens, which contain 
beech trees almost as tall as those at Villars-Cotterets. Thence 
we went by Tarbes and Lourdes, and on a branch line running up 
one of the valleys of the Pyi-enees to the terminus, which is on 
one of the roads passing through the mountains into Spain. Some 
picturesque but dirty Spanish peasants, homeward bound, were 
among those who left the station with us at Pierrefitte, whence 
we drove to Barreges. 

The drive was lovely ; the snow-capped granite peaks overlook- 
ing the stream which has cut its way into the Schist, and follows 
its narrow bed between almost perpendicular sides, often of great 
depth. Barreges is at an altitude of 4200 ft., and is used as a 
sanatorium for soldiers, its baths having the reputation of being 
l^eculiarly efficacious in the healing of wounds. 

After bi-eakfast we started to inspect the torrent of Rioulet, on 
the left side of the valley. The hills are here, generally speaking, 
composed of firm strata, which are not liable to be washed down, 
and thus to cause disasters so serious as those which occur in 
the Southern Alps. But large avalanches are of fi-equent occur- 



A FOREST TOUR AMONG THE DUNES OF GASCONY. 313 

rence, and cause much loss of life and pi'operty. At a short 
distance above Barreges our attention was called to a large mass 
of snow, Avhich, during the month of April last, fell into the 
valley, and completely blocked it up. On the opposite side 
works are in progress with a view to clothe the hill-sides above 
the cultivation and villages, and thus to reduce the danger from 
avalanches. 

We were now in a communal beech forest, which has a thin 
crop of old trees, with very good naturally-sown young growth on 
the ground ; but there were many windfalls. We entered a 
nursery where young beech trees are raised for filling up places 
where the young crop is incomplete ; and we then descended to 
inspect the large weir (barrage), which forms part of a system of 
works constructed in order to reduce the slope of the torrent bed. 

On one side of the main valley the strata are exceptionally 
loose, and the water, cutting its way into them, causes the sides 
to fall in ; thus, not only is an ever-increasing area of the hill-sides 
themselves ruined, but much damage is done lower down by the 
rush of water, and the deposit of silt carried down by it. This is 
an example on a small scale of what occurs, with such disastrous 
results, in the Southern Alps. The system adopted for the treat- 
ment of this evil may be briefly described as consisting of a series 
of obstacles erected in the bottom of the ravine, and behind 
which the rocks, gravel, and mud brought down by the water are 
retained. The slope of the bed being thus reduced, while, at the 
same time, it is i-aised, and consequently widened, by these de- 
posits, the unstable sides receive support ; and when they have 
been sufficiently consolidated, they are planted up. In this 
manner the forces of nature ai-e directed and employed by man, 
to restore the damage they caused, when uncontrolled ; much in 
the same way as they are in the treatment of the dunes, described 
a few pages back. The weir we inspected is constructed of 
masonry, and has a total height of 65 ft., including 20 ft. of 
foundations. It is one of those made when works of this nature 
wei'e undertaken for the first time in 1862; audit was in the 
nature of an experiment. It is now seen that its design is 
faulty in many ways, and it cannot be taken as a model of what 
such constructions should be.^ 

^ On a future occasion the writer hopes to give a more complete account of 
the works undertaken in the Southern Alps, wln'ch are much more extensive 
and interesting than those which were visited near Barreges. 



3H A FORKST TOUR AMONC TIIK DUNES OF GASCONY. 

On ascending to a higher level, we looked across the main 
valley, and noticed that a good many torrents were in process of 
formation on the opposite side, a mile or so below Barreges. The 
general ajipearance of the country led us to suppose that the 
bottom of the main valley was once filled by a glacial bed, 
through which the i)resent stream has forced its way ; and the 
secondaiy torrents, now cutting through the unstable sides, must 
be dealt with at once before they go too far. It is the intention 
of the Government to buy the land with this object. We next 
entered a plantation of Fin a crochet {Finns montana, Miller) 
and Fin noir {Finus laricio, Poir), planted in clumps. Many 
of these are dying off, and M. Luze, the Insjjector, who accom- 
panied us, feels considerable anxiety regarding their future. It 
seems probable that the trees, having got into an unhealthy 
condition, are attacked by a fungus, and, subsequently, by the 
insects, which we found in many of those we examined. With 
regard to the system of planting in clumps, it is said that the 
plants impede one another's growth, and that it is much better to 
put them in singly. These plantations extend up to an altitude 
of 7250 ft., larch being used above 6500. The plants are grown 
in temporary nurseries, which alone are suitable for mountainous 
regions, not only on account of the difficulty of carrying the 
plants over long distances, but also because the young seedlings 
should always be grown at the same level, and as nearly as 
possible under the same conditions as those in which they are to 
find themselves, when they have been put out. Before turning 
homewards, we had an excellent view of the snow-capped peaks, 
including the Pic du Midi de Bigorre (9440 ft.), which was close 
to us. 

We returned home by the valley of the Pontif torrent, which is 
in a bad state, but has not yet been taken in hand. This gave us 
an excellent opportunity of studying the condition in which these 
torrents are found, before the works to regulate them have been 
undertaken. 

Returning to Toulouse, next day we noticed that the lower 
spurs of the Pyrenees, which are well wooded, are, generally 
speaking, covered with a simple coppice of beech, cut in vertical 
strips. This tends to the formation of torrent beds, which 
indeed appeared to be commencing in many places. Thence we 
travelled direct to Nancy, where we arrived on the 6th of May. 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OX FORESTRY. 315 



EEPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OF THE 
HOUSE OF COMMONS, 1886, ON FORESTRY. 

In continuation of the investigations made on the subject in 
1885, of which a Report appeared in last year's Transactions, a 
Select Committee of the House of Commons was again appointed 
on the 23d of ^larch 1886, " ^o consider whether, by the establish- 
ment of a Forest School, or othe^'ivise, our Woodlands coidd be 
rendered more revmnerative^ 

The Committee, which consisted of twenty-two members, met 
on the 19th of May for deliberation, and elected Sir John Kenna- 
way. Chairman. The Committee met again on the 1st of June, 
when Colonel G. Pearson, and Dr J. Croumbie Brown, were 
examined at considerable length. At the next meeting, held on 
the 4th of June, Dr W. Schlich, Mr Julian Rogers, and Mr Alex. 
M'Kenzie were examined. The last meeting was held on the 18th 
of June, only five members attending. Sir John Lubbock in the 
Cliair, when the following Report Avas agreed to : — 

" Your Committee have taken some evidence iqion the mcdters 
referred to them, but have not had sufficient time to conclude their 
investigation on account of the Dissolution of the present Parlia- 
ment ; they have, therefore, agreed to report the Evidence already 
taken to the House, and to recommend that a Committee on the 
same subject should be appointed in the next Parliament." 

It is much to be regretted that such an important investigation 
has been again interrupted, and that another season must pass over 
before any definite Report can be issued. The evidence tendered 
at the two meetings held by the Committee in June 1886, is of an 
interesting nature, and helps considei'abiy in making the subject 
better understood. 

The gist of the evidence, bearing on the establishment of a 
British School of Forestry and the advantages that may be derived 
therefrom, is contained in the following extracts from the Report 
of the Select Committee, which was ordered by the House of 
Commons to be printed, on the 18th of June 1886. 

On Tuesday, 1st June 1886, the first witness called was Colonel 
George Pearson, who had given evidence in 1885, and in the course 
of further examination spoke as follows : — 

" Have you seen any reason to modify the opinions you expressed 
before the Committee last year?" " None whatever. lam very 



31G KICl'ORT OK THE SKLFX'T COMM ITTKf: OX rORKSTIiV. 

strongly imiiressed with tlie desirability of doing something to 
promote forest education in this c(nnitry ; or rather, to put it in 
the way of young men who may be desirous of obtaining it." — " You 
are just as strongly of opinion as ever that a forest school in this 
country would be desirable]" " 8ome forest education." — "And 
that not only from the point of view of our Culonial and National 
forests, but also with regard to woodlands in the hands of private 
owners 1 " " Yes ; more especially with regard to the woodlands in 
the hands of private owners ; the others are more or less satisfac- 
torily provided for." 

" When you were before the Committee last year your evidence 
was mainly of a general character ; but you were good enough 
to say that if the Committee were re-appointed you would make 
some more or less definite suggestions as to the course which 
should be pursued ; have you thought of any deiinite suggestions 
as to the course which should be pursued ; have you thought 
of any definite suggestions to ofTer to the Committee V "I 
have thought over the subject since, and I am prepared to suggest, 
not in detail but in a general way, what I think would be best 
adapted for the education of young men who would be likely to 
have charge of our forests ; more especially private forests." 

" Would you have the goodness to lay before the Committee the 
information you have prepared ? " " The persons for whom a forest 
education in England is required may be divided into two classes : 
first, those intended for India and the Colonies ; second, those who 
will seek employment at home. The education of the former is now, as 
far as I am aware, provided for in a satisfactory manner at Cooper's 
Hill, save in one essential particular, viz., the want of a tract of 
forest for practical training. For the second no education has as 
yet been provided. They are of two classes, viz. : firstly, land 
agents, being young men of good position and education managing 
one or more estates, including the woodlands on them, with salaries 
varying from £200 to <£oOO or £G00 a year ; secondly, wood- 
reeves, wood-bailifis, woodmen, and foresters, with salaries varying 
from £80 to £120 a year. There is no field, however, in Great 
Britain (at present, at least) in which an educated forest officer, 
such as we find on the Continent, might gain a livelihood. The main 
object, then, seems to be to provide a certain amount of practical 
education in forestry to supplement the present generally very useful 
education given to the land agent class, and at the same time to 
teach the wood-bailifFs and foresters who are employed under their 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 317 

orders in our own private woodlands, not only the elements of 
sylviculture, but also the best known methods of conducting 
ordinary forest work, such as planting, thinning, i)runing, the 
management of coppice, and the best way of disposing of the crop ; 
also, if possible, at the same time to provide a practical training 
station for the Cooper's Hill forest pupils. It seems to me that 
the essential point, to which all others are subordinate, turns on 
the possibility of obtaining a sufficiently large block of forest, say 
from 3000 to 4000 acres, half in leaf forest and half in conifers, 
in a convenient locality, as a practical training ground. This tract 
must be placed under a trained forest ofhcer ; and for reasons of 
economy it seems to me that he should be the Professor of 
Forestry at Cooper's Hill for the time being. Under him there 
must be a practical executive officer, with an ordinary woodman to 
do the work. If such a tract of forest could be obtained, say, in 
the Crown forests outside Windsor Park, the other details seem to 
me very easy. I should think that an arrangement might be made 
with the Professors of Forestry and Physiological Botany at 
Cooper's Hill to give, at certain convenient periods, lectures in 
those subjects of a simple, practical, and useful character. The 
executive officer in charge of the forest should teach the jjujjils all 
kinds of practical work on the ground, including the estimation of 
standing crops of timber, and the measurement of fallen trees ; 
while occasional tours to see forest work in other places could be 
arranged for those who chose to follow them. In order that all 
societies and public bodies, interested in the good treatment of the 
land, should have an interest in the system of education, I think 
that the general direction and control should rest with a council or 
board, of which the Director of Kew Gardens might be ex-officio 
President, and the Forest Professors at Cooper's Hill members, 
and to which the Royal Agricultural Society, the Highland Society, 
the Surveyors' Institution, and similar bodies should send dele- 
gates, while two or three of the great owners of private woodlands 
should be requested to sit on the board. This board would be 
necessary to keep the teaching in touch with the requirements of 
the country ; and it should control the course of study, arrange for 
the examinations, and granting of diplomas, and regulate the scale 
of fees. It must have a paid secretary for correspondence. I do 
not think that any great expense for buildings would be necessary. 
There would be wanted a lecture hall, with desks, etc., handy to 
the forest, and a few huts, perhaps, for the students, who might 



318 REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OX FORESTRY. 

wiali to stop there ; also, perhaps, two or three cottages for 
labourers and subordinates. But I do not anticiiiate any large 
outlay, as the bulk of the pu[)ils would live elsewhere. I should 
assume the jjrobable expeiiditure as f(jllows :— Salary to lecturers, 
£500 ; resident lecturer and executive officer, including house 
rent, £350; wood bailiff, £100; paid secretary, £200; journeys 
and miscellaneous, £200. Total annually, £1350. I have not 
included anything for expenditure on the forest, as that should be 
paid for from the thinnings ; as for museums and collections, those 
at Kew and Cooper's Hill should suffice for all. To meet this ex- 
penditure there would be the fees, not only of regular students, 
but it may be presumed of many wood-reeves and wood-bailiffs, 
whom their masters Avould be likely to send there for instruction. 
The deficit, if any, in early years may very well be supported by 
Government. But it must be clearly understood, that to be success- 
ful, such a tract of forest nmst be under the absolute control of the 
forest professor charged with it, who must be in fact its surveyor, 
and subject only to the financial control of the Treasury. As for 
the pupils, it is to be hoped that most of the young men who seek 
a land agent's career would gladly avail themselves of such a sup- 
plementary education with a view of augmenting their salaries in 
the future ; that young men of a subordinate class, who seek 
employment as wood-bailifts or wood-reeves, would do the same ; 
and that many gentlemen who are possessors of more or less acreage 
of woodlands would gladly send for purposes of instruction the 
men who now manage their forests. It is certain that all these 
classes would derive enormous benefits from the establishment of 
such a forest school." 

" At present the Professor of Forestry at Cooper's Hill has 
no control over any forests in this country, I believe 1 " " Abso- 
lutely none." — " And the Indian students go abroad for their 
practical instruction in forestry V " It is intended 'that they 
should do so. I do not know that up to this time they have been 
anywhere ; but I have nothing to do whatever with Cooper's Hill, 
or the training there, and I know nothing except from hearsay 
about it." — " But your impression of the intention is, that they 
should go abroad for their practical instruction 1" " Yes." — "But 
you would rather that the Committee should get that information 
definitely from the authorities at Cooper's Hill ? " " Yes." — " The 
training of a person who was to occupy the position of a forester would, 
of course, be carried further than that of a person who was to be 



REPORT OP THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 319 

a wood-reeve or wood- bailiff; bi;t in many respects it would also 
be the same V " Up to a certain point it would be very much the 
same; but a person in the position of a land agent, who is to have 
the control and management of woodlands, ouglit to know much 
more, because he ought to know the effects of climate on species, 
so as to know what is suitable to plant in certain cases." — " There- 
fore there would be no difficulty in making the instruction which 
was intended for the higher grades very useful for the lower 
grades V " They might be made to fit into each other. I ex- 
pressed myself strongly about that, I remember, last year." 

" How long do the studies last in the French Forest School 1 " 
" The training in the French Forest School extends over two years ; 
only it must be remembered that it extends over other subjects 
than forestry ; there are about 45 lectures in forestry, the same 
number in botany, half that number in geology, and half that 
number in mineralogy each year." — " How long do the Indian stu- 
dents remain at Nancy for that portion of their training 1" " They 
have hitherto remained there three years, that is to say, two years 
and eight months exactly, viz., eight months as a preparatory course 
before they went into the school, and during the remaining two 
years they followed the same course as the French pupils. In the 
preparatory course the pupils went through, in a preliminary 
manner, with one of the professors, the general subjects of educa- 
tion, so as to put our students generally upon a level with the 
French pupils, and au coura^it with the subjects." — "In the case of 
wood-reeves and wood-bailiffs, how long would you propose to 
devote to their forest instruction 1" "I should think from six weeks 
as the minimum to three months as the maximum, according to the 
amount of training that you might wish to give them, or that they 
might wish to have. A man of that sort could get all that it would 
be necessary for him to know in three months." — " You think that 
an owner of woodlands having an intelligent wood-reeve, if he sent 
him for three months to the school, would then find him fairly 
qualified to manage his woodlands ? " " Yes, certainly, three months 
would be ample for a man who * knew himself ' in a forest to 
manage afterwards, because he would at once pick up things when 
shown the reason of them." 

" Although our forests in England may not be quite so well 
adapted as those in France and Germany for the purpose of this 
instruction, you consider that there are woodlands which would 
serve the purpose 1 " " It would be distinctly necessary to bring 

VOL. XI., PART III. z > 



320 REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OX FORESTRY, 

in a tract of forest into what we should call order, and it would 
take years to bring it into what we should call a proper state ; 
but the very fact of doing that would be instructive of itself." — 
" No doubt, after that process had been gone through, the forests 
would be more suitable for instruction than they are at present ; 
but I understand you say that even at present there are wood- 
lands which would serve fairly w^ell for purposes of instruction'?" 
" I think any intelligent and educated forester would adapt his 
teaching to the place." 

"Out of the £1350 which you have estimated as the pro- 
bable cost of your forest scliool, a considerable amount, no 
doubt, would come back in tlie shape of fees ; do you think it 
would be possible to form any estimate at present of what the net 
expense might heV "It is very difficult to do so. I have talked 
the subject over Avith Mr Rogers, of the Surveyors' Institution, 
and he thought that we might soon calculate upon 50 pupils." — 
"That would be 50 pupils of the higher class?" "Yes."— "Therefore 
the expense probably would not be any considerable proportion of 
the £1350, and possibly after a time it would be self-supporting] " 
" We thought we might charge them £20 for the coui'se ; if so, that 
would provide for £1000, and then you would pick up whatever 
you charged the wood-reeves. If their masters paid for them, no 
doubt you might charge them an appreciable sum ; but upon the 
young men themselves, who hoped to get employment afterwards, 
you would have to put a low fee. I am not very well acquainted 
with the sums paid for education by those classes, but I think 
generally you could very soon either cover or nearly cover the sum." 
— " Then there would probably be some young men who would go 
to the school with the view to obtaining employment in the Colonies 
afterwards V " Yes ; but I suppose men who would hope to get 
appointments in the Colonies would hardly get a sufficient amount 
of training here. The Colonies would look for young men who had 
spent more upon their education, who had been sent to Cooper's 
Hill, and gone through a perfect course there." — " The young men 
who would be qualified for the Indian forest service would clearly be 
qualified for the Colonial forest service 1" " Certainly ; for one or 
two who have failed to get appointments for India I have obtained 
appointments in the Colonies, and the Colonies have gladly accepted 
them." — " Is there any point which you would like to add to your 
evidence 1" " I think that embraces pretty well all thatlhave to say." 

"Is Cooper's Hill purely a place for theoretical instruction ?" "Up 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OX FOnESTRV. 321 

to the present time it ]ias been entirely so ; but I have only been to 
Cooper's Hill one day since a forest school has been established 
there, and, except that I know personally the people connected with 
it, I have no information about what they do at Cooper's Hill." — 
" It is not like the Royal Agricultural College at Cirencester, where 
they have practical and theoretical instruction combined ; there is 
no forest in connection with Cooper's Hill to which the students can 
be taken 1" " No ; that is precisely what I wished to convey by my 
evidence. To my mind the instruction now given at Cooper's Hill 
will be thrown away unless a tract of forest is provided handy to 
which pupils can go. I do not see how it can be carried on without 
it." — "As matters stand, by the time the pupil gets into actual 
practical contact with forestry, he has probably forgotten all about the 
theoretical instruction'?" " Yes. The only way to convey instruc- 
tion is, after having been in the lecture-room, to take the pupils on 
to the ground and point out the facts. Unless you do that they do 
not believe it ; that is done most carefully in the Nancy College." — 
" Then our pupils are compelled to go to Nancy for, what we call 
in medicine, clinical instruction; but the conditions of forestry in 
France are very different from what they are here in respect to 
climate and trees ]" " No ; I do not think there is much difference 
in France from what there is here. I sent Broillard's book on 
forestry to one of my brothers, who possesses some woodlands, who 
wrote to me : ' I am very much surprised to find that I have the 
same condition of things here as M. Broillard's book indicates ; one 
would not have thought it possible that the conditions were so 
much the same upon both sides of the Channel.' If you went to the 
Alps the conditions would be different, of course, but not upon the 
level in the centre of France." — " Have you calculated what would 
be the expense to a forester if you sent him up to study 1 " " It 
would cost him from 10s. to 12s. a week to lodge and board in 
some country inn, and if j'ou added whatever the fee was, say from 
£5 to £10, and the journeys, that would be about the expense." 

" From the evidence you gave last year, you did not recommend 
that a Scottish forester should be sent up to Cooper's Hill 1 " " No ; 
I should hope that the Scots would establish a similar school in Edin- 
burgh, which would be in the same relation to their own people. It 
is better not to think of too many things at once ; if you could 
establish one as a model, the others would be able to work upon it, 
I should never think the Scots would send their pupils to Cooper's 
Hill ; but if you could once start the thing here, I have no doubt a 



322 REPORT OF Tin: select committee on FOnESTRY. 

similar scliool would be arranged in Edinburgh." — "You think that 
"would be suited for practical work?" "Certainly, I think the in- 
struction "would be practical ; and if you had your lecture-room con- 
tiguous to the forest you could give both descriptions of instruc- 
tion; but you must have the forest handy." — " But suppose you 
had your lectures in Edinburgh, where could you take your young 
men to 1 " " That would be the difficulty, unless any of the large 
landowners near Edinburgh would give up a forest to be managed 
in that way, as has been done by the great landowners in Bohemia, 
where the conditions are very much analogous." 

" You think it is essential to a school of forestry to have attached 
to it a reserve forest as a school of study ] " " It is absolutely neces- 
sary. I think a mere teaching school is entirely useless. I do not 
think that the young men who would go there would believe in it ; 
the theoretical instruction goes in at one ear and out at the other 
when unaccompanied by any practical illustration," — " In France is 
there any difficulty in obtaining such reserve forests'?" " No ; be- 
cause the bulk of the forests belong to the Government. The 
Nancy school has a great part of the forest above Nancy, two 
divisions of it, absolutely at its disposal, with some oak forests 
ten or twelve miles off." — " In France is there any obligation upon 
the owners of woods and forests to place their woods at the dis- 
posal of the schools of forestry for the purpose of instruction 1 " 
" No, excejjt by courtesy. We have frequently been into private 
forests, but always by the courtesy of the owner." 

" I think you have said that any establishment at Cooper's Hill 
would not meet the wants of Scotland?" "It is too far off," — 
" And you hinted at the establishment of a similar forestry school 
somewhere in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh? " " Yes." — "An 
essential necessity for that would be a reserve forest of some 3000 
or 4000 acres. You have made yourself acquainted with the 
management of some of the large forests in Scotland — Lord Sea- 
field's you have mentioned, and Lord Lo vat's — am I to understand 
that they are too far distant from your headquarters, supposing they 
were at Edinburgh, or are Lord Mansfield's, or the Duke of Athole's, 
sufficiently accessible to answer your purpose ? " " They are any of 
them sufficiently accessible ; they are quite sufficiently near to be 
utilised. The only convenience of having a forest belonging to the 
school is, I think, that no forest is really capable of being properly 
used for instruction unless it is under the command of the forest 
officer ; he must be able to transform it in any way he likes. The 
difficulty in respect to a Scottish forest school seems to be, that 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 323 

it would require a larger expenditure to get possession of a tract 
of forest in which forestry might be taught." — " Assuming that 
were arranged within a distance of 150 miles, that distance is not, 
in your judgment, too far for the purpose of imparting instruction 1 " 
" No. In France we went to the forests everywhere. We put up 
in the village inns ; it was no great expenditure, and I do not 
know why you should not do it elsewhere. Except in the forest of 
Nancy, where the pupils were taken in every day for ordinary 
operations, the other teaching was given round about ; sometimes 
we went to St Gobain, Yillars Coteret, and into the Jura. We 
travelled third-class, and stopped at the village inns, and there was 
very little expenditure over our excursions. But it is necessary 
also to have a tract of contiguous forest for daily teaching." 

" With reference to the reproduction of larches in Scotland, you 
stated in your evidence last year that the best reproduction you had 
ever seen was in the neighbourhood of Milton Castle ; can you tell 
us where that is ] " " If you are looking from the Spey up to 
Milton Castle, it would be in the woods to your right front." — 
" Is Milton Castle the correct name 1 " " No, they are the 
Milton Woods ; it was not very far from Grantown, near Lord 
Seafield's residence." — " That was a north slope V " Yes." 

" Have you given your attention since last year to what you 
would consider the best school for sylviculture in England ; last 
year you had not made up your mind V "I think the best plan 
would be to get a forest as near as possible to Cooper's Hill, where 
there is now an educated forest officer, and put the forest under 
his charge with an executive officer under him." — " Is there a 
sufficient amount of woodland close to Cooper's Hill 1 " " Yes, 
there are about 15,000 acres outside Windsor Park, from which I 
think a selection might be made." — " Would you afford facilities 
for the visits of pupils to our larger forests for special instruction ] " 
" I think they would get there what was required for daily instruc- 
tion, in fact, for the exemplification of the lectures." — "And 
what would you estimate to be the amount of forest or woodland 
which it would be desirable to attach to a forest school?" "I 
think 3000 or 4000 acres would be sufficient, half in leaf forest 
and half in conifers. At Nancy they have 1600 hectares attached 
to the school ; that would be nearly 4000 acres. There are two 
divisions of the forest, about 800 hectares in each. A hectare is 
two and a half acres. Tliat is what they have considered necessary 
for the exemplification of the lectures." — " But in the immediate 
contiguity of the college, from 3000 to 4000 acres would be 



32i KKl'OllT 01'' THE SKLKCT COMMITTEK ON FOKESTKV. 

siitliciciifc for tlic oxeiiiplificution of the lectures'?" "Yes." — 
" That could be procured at Cooper's Hill, could it not '{ " " Yes, 
subject to tlie approval of the Crown, because they are Crown 
forests. I only make the suggestion. I have no idea whatever 
whether the Crown would be willing to place that forest at the 
disposal of the forest school : but I suggest that if it were pos- 
sible to obtain 3000 or 4000 acres of tlie forest which lie outside 
Windsor Park, the practical teaching of the lectui'es would be suffi- 
ciently provided for." — " F'or that reason you would prefer Cooper's 
Hill to the Royal Agricultural College at Cirencester, as suggested 
by Mr Biddulph 1 " " Simply for this reason, that you have the 
Cooper's Hill professor, whose business it is to be there ; and I 
should think that for a reasonable remuneration you might obtain 
his services ; and he, on the other hand, would be glad to have a 
forest to which he could take his pupils." 

" You think that the science of the question bearing upon the larch 
disease would be well brought out in a school of forestry V "I think 
it would be one of the most useful things." — " And then you think 
that our foresters, Avho are not generally highly-educated men, would 
learn sufficient scientific knowledge to enable them to put it prac- 
tically to a good eflect in smaller woodlands, distinguishing wood- 
lands from the larger area of a forest] " " I should only give the 
foresters a very moderate amount of what I should call scientific 
training. I should only teach them the A B C of the conditions 
under which trees grow, and then I should take them to the forest 
and show them the way the trees grow ; that would be an enormous 
advantage. If you take our forest men, you will see that in 
numberless cases they ciit off the arms of trees, leaving long snags, 
which everybody ought to knew is about the worst thing that can 
be done, because a hollow forms where water lodges, which works 
to the trunk, and tends to the decay of the tree. But if you talk 
to nine woodmen out of ten in this country, they wall argue that 
they have always done that, and that it is the right thing ; whereas 
the experience they have had ought to have shown them to the 
contrary." — "The arms ought to be cut off flat?" "They ought 
to be cut off flush. We have at the school at Nancy a complete 
set of specimens, showing the ett'ect of the different ways of amputa- 
ting the arms of trees ; five minutes' glance at that would show 
you the truth of what I have stated. These were sections cut out 
of trees, showing where the snags had been left in, where they had 
been cut shorter, and where they had been cut straight, and the 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 325 

growth of the wood over the wound. There are fifty or sixty 
diflfereiit specimeus showing this, and a quarter of an hour's 
instruction to the pupils would convince every one of them at 
once, if they were at the same time shown the specimens." — " Were 
those drawings, or the actual woods themselves?" "They were 
pieces cut out of the trees, and were shown at the Paris Exhibi- 
tion. Nuthing could be better than that, because five minutes' 
inspection and exphiiiation to an intelligent man Avould show the 
difierent efiects of having left the branch with a long snag, and of 
paring it quite close to the trunk." — " In regard to Cooper's 
Hill being the centre of the School of Forestry, have you any pro- 
position to make with regard to the establishing of an affiliated 
branch — let us say, of such a school in Scotland 1" "I would 
rather not say anything about that, because I have not been in 
Edinburgh lately, and I could not speak from personal knowledge. 
But I think that the Scots must take it up, because it is naturally 
too far to bring Scotsmen of the forester class to Cooper's Hill. 
But, as I have said all along, you cannot have proper forest teach- 
ing unless you have a forest under your control to which you can 
send your people ; and it would not be sufficient to have permission 
from the Duke of Buccleuch, or any other large wood-owner, to go 
into his woods, because his manager would say, ' No, I have my 
own ways of managing, and I cannot have you interfering.' " 

" You have expressed, on the whole, a favourable opinion of the 
state of forestry in Scotland as contrasted with that in England. 
In M. Boppe's Appendix to the Report on the English and Scottish 
Forests, on page 47, he says ; 'We were also struck by the mono- 
tonous regularity in the height and age of the trees, unmistakable 
sign of their artificial origin and want of methodical management. 
The forest, here left to its own devices, continues growing just as 
the hand of man has planted it ; the undergrow^th is constantly 
grazed down by the sheep and cattle ; and Nature, in spite of the 
immense resources at her disposal, is quite powerless to modify the 
work of the planter, or repair the errors committed by woodcutters.'" — 
" In that passage he seems to imply tliat,altliougli the Scottish forests 
may be superior to the English, there is great room for improve- 
ment] " " What he desired was to see the system of natural repro- 
duction introduced much more largely into the Scottish forests, 
considering that that would be the means of avoiding disease 
in the larch, and that, as Scots fir reproduces itself so very 
readily, it would be a great saving in the expense as compared with 



32() REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 

planting." — " M. Boppe appears to imply that, in his judgment, the 
beech might advantageously be cultivated more in Scotland than 
has been the case — -that it has been soinev/hat neglected 'i " " In all 
my conversation with Scottish and other foresters in this country, 
their objection to the beech is that they have no market for it. In 
Buckinghamshire I have been to see the indigenous foi'ests there ; 
but there is a large manufacture of chairs carried on there. In 
foreign countries there are a number of little things which are made 
out of beech, which nobody thinks of employing in this country. 
It is very difficult to get rid of beech. We do not use wood for fir- 
ing, which is one large use of it in France." — " When you say beech 
is difficult to get rid off, you mean difficult to sell ]" " Yes. In 
France it is one of the most valuable trees j in Germany, since the 
introduction of coal and railways, it is one of the great problems 
bow to sell the beech, which has been always used for firewood." — 
" What M. Boppe means, if I understand his report rightly, is, that 
if- you are growing oak or other trees, they would do very much 
better if you mixed them with a certain quantity of beech?" " By 
' cultural reasons ' he means that it is so valuable for mixing with 
other trees, in order to get satisfactory results. He thought, and I 
think, certainly, that larch, if it were mixed with beech, would not 
be attacked with disease. We all know that the beech is the best 
tree you can use to mix with the oak, for example." — "Does not 
M. Boppe wish to imply in this sentence that it would be of ad- 
vantage to the Scottish forests if beech were more largely used 1 " 
"Undoubtedly." 

" M. Boppe suggests that sheep might be advantageously kept 
out for the first forty years and the last twenty years, but that they 
might be admitted during the intermediate period of sixty years, and 
that the pasturage in that case would be very good : did he not intend 
to imply that, in his judgment, the Scottish foresters scarcely adopted 
what he considered to be the best rule with regard to the admission of 
sheep into forest lands 1" " Certainly; it is a very important thing. 
If you allow that the life of a forest is a hundred and twenty years, 
you would have better grazing during sixty years of it if you kept 
them out during the first forty years and the last twenty years ; it 
would rest the land." — " Then M. Boppe says : ' It would certainly 
not be fair to hold the Scottish foresters responsible for the present 
regrettable state of affairs ; for, though they have for the most part 
admitted the inefficiency of the present system, they are powerless to 
effect any improvement so long as the landowners and general public 



REPORT OF TIIR SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 327 

have not learnt to appreciate the manifold advantages to be derived 
from a regular and methodical management.' " — " That passage, 
again, appears to imply that, in his judgment, the Scottish manage- 
ment of woodlands might be very considerably improved]" "I think 
in that case he was thinking of the shooting, because I remember 
Mr Dewar saying, in Lord Lovat's forests, that he was prevented 
from going into the forest for seven months in the year, and that in 
the months he most wanted to be there ; that he could only go into 
the forest for five months in the year, because it was the condition of 
the lease of the forests that he should not go into the forests while 
the red deer does were there. It was a question not of the forests, 
but because the contiguous mountains were leased for deer forests." 
— "Then in that particular case you think he was merely regretting 
that the forests were sacrificed to the shooting ?" "I am quite sure 
of that." — "Further on he says: ' It is, therefore, a matter of regret 
that among all the forests visited by us in our travels, there is not a 
single one suitable for the teaching of sylviculture.' " — " There, again, 
he implies that, in his judgment, the Scottish woodlands might be 
much better managed than they are?" "Undoubtedly; but he 
rather alludes to the teaching in that paragraph." — "But if a forest 
had been well managed it would be adapted for sylviculture?" 
" Yes." — " He also was of opinion that there are very large tracts 
in Scotland which, properly dealt with, might be planted with ad- 
vantage ?" "Yes, that is his opinion." — "So that, while finding 
much to admire in the Scottish management, he also thought there 
was much room for improvement?" "I think he was of opinion 
that they knew how to get profit out of their forests very well ; but 
that they did not cultivate them so that they might produce the 
greatest profit ; that they rather sacrificed future profit to the pre- 
sent ; but that will perhaps always be the case with private forests, 
more or less." — "At any rate his opinion was that, however well they 
might be managed, there were many points in which the manage- 
ment might be improved under a better system?" "Yes, he 
thought that instruction was much wanted by the bulk of the 
wood managers." 

" Supposing that the Professor of Forestry at Cirencester was in 
charge of a certain amount of forest land, would that, in your judg- 
ment, be as good an arrangement as having a Government school 1" 
" I went to Cirencester by the desire of the India Oflice to see 
what I thought about it as regards forest teaching. The principal 
reason why I thought it would not do was that, although there are 



328 UKPORT OF THE .SKLECT COMMITTEK ON FOJtE.STKY. 

beech woods or forests, there is no fir forest very handy to it, and the 
education at Cirencester is a rather expensive education ; it would 
be difficult to dovetail the forest instruction with it. Still, 1 think 
that at Cirencester it would be a very good thing to have a pro- 
fessor of forestry for the teaching of their own pupils." — "Then 
your preference is not for the teaching of a Government school 
])er se ; but you do not see that in the case of Cirencester it would 
be easy to adajit their arrangements to the needs of a forestry 
school?" " That is so." — "Your reason for thinking that it would 
be necessary to have a separate school for Scotland is on account 
of the distance *?" " Yes, quite so." 

" With reference to the expense of Cirencester, I think one of 
your objections to Cooper's Hill last year was the great expense of 
attending there, and that you thought that on account of the ex- 
pense Cooper's Hill would hardly provide a school, which was very 
essential, namely, one for wood-reeves and wood-bailiffs ? " "The 
arrangement I contemplated in my memorandum was only to have 
the instruction near Cooper's Hill for them, but in no way con- 
nected with it, except so far as that the professor would have the 
charge of the forest and also of the education, and that practical 
education should be given by the officer in charge of the forest, but 
subordinate to the professor. I would not advocate the sending of 
the forest pupils to Cooper's Hill for any other instruction." — " But 
that education would be quite distinct fnmi the education given at 
Cooper's Hill, which is given to engineers 1" " Certainly. The only 
thing is, that there being a professor of forestry already there, by giv- 
ii)g him a few hundreds a year extra, you ought to be able to secure 
his services for giving instruction to other people." — "Suppos- 
ing that the woods could be got and placed under the control of the 
professor of a forest school, would not a forest school at Cirencester 
be more appropriate, that being an agricultural college, than to 
attach it to a college which is intended primarily for engineering ? " 
"But you have not got a forestry professor at Cirencester." — "But 
you suggested just now that you might have a forestry professor at 
Cirencester 1 " "Bat it is a long way from London, and therefore 
I look upon it that the bulk of these land agents, though there are 
some of them at Cirencester, yet the bulk of them get their educa- 
tion in London ; and I think there is a great advantage in having 
your school as near the metropolis as you can." 

"You stated just now, with regard to the School of Forestry in 
Scotland, that you did not consider a distance of 120 miles too far 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OX FORESTRY. 329 

off for the purpose of teachiug forestry, in conuection with the 
school at Edinburgh 1 " "But I also contemplated that they would 
get into the Duke of Buccleuch's, or some of these woods round 
about Edinburgh, for the purpose of daily education." — " You 
would be aware that the Forest of Dean is very accessible from the 
Cirencester College]" "It is so, I believe." — " It is only a few 
miles by rail ? " " But I prefer Cooper's Hill. I think you would 
get more pupils at Cooper's Hill than you would at Cirencester." 

" You came here more especially to give the Committee informa- 
tion as regards the establishment of a School of Forestry ; and I 
do not think w'e have had information exactly before us as to how 
long the School of Forestry has gone on at Cooper's Hill?" "I 
think the Professor went there last September ; it is only just com- 
menced ; the pupils are doing their last year at Nancy now." — 
'• Then we must go further back, and ask you what steps the 
Indian Government took to have men educated for forest purposes 1 " 
"I suppose it was in 1864 when pupils were first sent to Nancy. 
Dr Brandis organised a system of instruction upon the Continent, 
sending half the pupils to Germany, to Minden I think, one of the 
German forest schools, and the other half to Nancy." — "Was that 
under the orders of the Indian Government 1" " Yes." — " They en- 
trusted him with the carrying out of the plans 1 " " Y^es, they 
entrusted him with the duty of organising a system of education. 
When I came home at the end of 1872 the pupils had got idle, 
and there was not much work being done. They were getting out 
of hand ; and very soon after I came home at the end of 1872, the 
Indian Government sent me to Nancy, to look after the pupils and 
superintend their education, and they transferred all the pupils 
very shortly afterwards from Germany to Nancy ; so they were all 
immediately under my control, and there I remained eleven years." 
— " How many pupils had you under your charge ? " " At first I had 
not more than three a year ; but they increased very shortly after- 
wards, when six, seven, and eight were sent to me each year ; and of 
late years I had as many as twenty going through the three years' 
course." — " Did they go free?" "At first the Government used 
to give them £50 a year to pay for their education j lately they had 
to pay 3500 francs, which they paid entirely themselves," — "Are you 
speaking of the English or the French 1 " " Of both ; the French 
had to pay for instruction there." — "They were admitted by com- 
petition?" "Yes, and the English people were admitted by competi- 
tion, and after their examination (they generally had an examination 



330 KFrOUT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 

in January) they were sent to me at Nancy ahiout the 1st of March, 
and from the 1st of March to November they were going tlirough 
a sort of probationary course under one of the professors, who took 
them into the forest ; tlicy learnt French, and they got into the 
way of following the lectures. At the end of two years they passed 
out by a final examination, for which a certain standard was 
exacted." — "They paid how much each ?" "The English pupils 
paid £144 a year and the French paid £120 a year, which went 
entirely for their maintenance in the school, because they paid 
nothing for their education. The professors were paid by the 
Government." — " The men going in for this education have to pay 
at Nancy about .£130 a year for two years 1 " " For two and a half 
years ; we used to calculate the whole expense incurred as some- 
where about £500, including journeys and the expense of the 
previous education." — " The French were also admitted by compe- 
tition 1 " " Yes, the French were also admitted by competition." — 
" Would they also have to pay a sum of £500 1 " " It was rather less 
for the French, because they were lodged in the school, and the 
school buildings were the property of the Government ; they got 
in minus their lodging, but it was pretty expensive for them, be- 
cause they were charged for their uniforms and for the furniture of 
their rooms, and there were great complaints about it." — " Is the 
Nancy school self-supporting 1 " " There are two establishments in 
France, one at Les Barres for subordinates, while the Nancy 
school is for the superior grade. The Government grant was about 
150,000 francs, or from £5000 to £6000 annually for forest 
education, but it did not appear from the accounts how much of 
the grant went to each school ; sometimes the Government favoured 
one and sometimes another ; the professors were paid, and the 
school buildings kept out of the grant." 

" Have the Indian Government ever made a suggestion to meet 
this difficulty of the want of a practical training station for their 
pupils ? " " Since I left the Government service two years ago, I 
have not been consulted by the India Office at all ; I know nothing 
except what I have heard from my friends." — " Do you believe that 
they have considered it 1 " " It is absolutely necessary they should 
do it ; but the present plan is that they should go abroad into the 
French or German forests for the practical study." — " Do you think 
that the Indian Government might be expected to contribute towards 
the establishment of a practical training station ] " " If they benefit 
by it, I do not see why they should not contribute." — "You suggested 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OX FORESTRY. 331 

Windsor Forest as the most practicable station for learning forestry; 
would there be in the area that might be allotted for that purpose 
varying conditions of climate, aspect, and altitude, sufficient to 
make it a good practical training forest ? " " You would have to sup- 
plement it, undoubtedly ; but what is absolutely necessary for the 
purpose of practical explanation would probably be found there. 
I do not see how you can get on without something of the sort." — 
"And you think it might be found for practical purposes in the 
Windsor Forest ? " "I believe in the forests round about there it 
might be found." — "And, although 130 miles is possible to be reached 
from the school, it would be far better to have something you 
could see in the course of an afternoon's walk 1 " " It would be abso- 
lutely necessary that the pupils should be able to go into some 
woods within an easy walk." — " With regard to this very interesting 
tour of M. Boppe in Scotland, have you any idea how the expenses 
of that were met ] " " The Indian Government paid for everything ; 
we were met everywhere by carriages, and we were sent about very 
well indeed." — " There was nothing to show in the Paper that was 
handed in that it was entirely organised by the Indian Govern- 
ment ? " " It was certainly organised by the Indian Government 
entirely. I was desired to go with M. Boppe." 

The next witness called was the Eev^ JoHx Croitmbie Browx, 
LL.D., of Haddington, N.B., the Avell-known author of several 
treatises on the education of Foresters, and of works on various 
important branches of Forestry. In giving his evidence, which 
throughout bore directly on the subject, he stated as follows : — 

" You have kindly come here to give the Committee your idea 
of how or under what conditions a School of Forestry miicht be 
established ? " " Yes. The particular point upon which I can supply 
information to the Committee is this : I know a good deal of the 
waste that is going on in our colonies. I have made myself 
acquainted with the most advanced forest economy of the day ; 
and I am also acquainted with most of the schools of forestry 
upon the Continent ; I liave visited several, and I am prepared to 
state how I consider Scotsmen can be most efficiently, and at the 
least expense, trained up so as to manage our colonial forests 
advantageously. That is the particular point to which I have 
given attention." — " But the Committee are principally interested in 
our home forests ? " "I am aware of that ; but the point upon which 
I can give information principally is with reference to colonial 



332 REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OX FORESTRY, 

forests, wliich are a large part of the British possessions, as much 
as India is, ui)oii which much evidence has been already given.'" — - 
" The Committee looked forward with great interest to hear your 
evidence upon this subject ; but we ought to try and confine 
ourselves as much as possible first, perhaps, to the necessity of 
such a school in view of the waste that is being committed daily ; 
and, secondly, as to what practical steps should be, and are possible 
to be taken to make up for that waste, and to raise up a class of 
men who will enable us to deal with our forests better than they 
have been dealt with hitherto?" " I will endeavour to give my 
evidence upon that aspect of the case." 

" You have had a great deal of experience in South Africa with 
regard to the forests there, have you not 1 " " Yes ; I know the 
waste which has been going on, and the consequences which have 
followed that waste." — " When the Cape authorities were in want 
of a forest officer they had to obtain the services of a French 
gentleman 1" " They got a French gentleman to look after their 
forests, who, when he went to the colony, could not, it is said, 
speak a word of English." — " Naturally they would have preferred 
to have appointed an Englishman if they could have found one 
competent ? " " Decidedly ; but there was not such an Englishman 
tobefound." — "And that would be the case at the present moment ? " 
" It would be the case at the present moment, excepting that there 
are officials from India who have returned to this country, who 
might be disposed to go to the Cape as being a healthy settlement ; 
but there is not, so far as I know, an English forester capable of 
taking the management of the Colonial forests." — " And there are 
only a very few Indian officials who are at any time available 1 " 
"Apparently." — "And these the Government would be sorry to lose ?" 
" I have no doubt of it." — " So that there is great need for trained 
foresters in this country?" "Very great need." — "Y'ou are of opinion 
that the management of our forests and woodlands would be muchmore 
successfully carried on if there were properly trained foresters to 
do the work V "I am satisfied that they would be, but simply upon 
this ground : according to the advanced forestry science of the 
day, there is no hard and fast rule laid down for the management 
of any forest; but the students in the various schools upon the 
Continent are thoroughly instructed in all that pertains to the 
healthful growth of trees, and then they make their own appli- 
cation of the science to the circumstances in which they may be 
Q^Wed to act." — " In fact, the establishment of a forest school would, 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OX FORESTRY. 333 

in your judgment, be a great advantage, not only to the colonies of 
which you were speaking just now, but also to the mother country I '' 
" "Very great." — " You think that a scientific education and a regular 
course of training on the part of those who have the management 
of them would very much improve the condition of our wood- 
lands ? " " Very much." 

" Do you consider it would be necessary to have a tract of 
woodland closely contiguous to such a school?" " Not at all." — 
" But you would be of opinion that it would be necessary to have 
control of a tract of woodland, although it need not necessarily be 
immediately on the spot or contiguous ] " "I may state my opinion, 
and that is the opinion of the majority of the forest officials, forest 
administrators, and professors of forest science on the Continent." 
— " That the management of this iiarticular tract of forest should 
be under the control of those who were charged with the instruction 
in the forest school ; is that so ? " " Xo, not at all. The question has 
come up on the Continent in this form : a conference of German 
foresters, forest administrators, and professors of forest science was 
held, when the question was discussed : Is it desirable to have 
schools of forestry as separate and special institutions, or to have 
them connected with the higher schools and universities of the 
Continent. It was only incidentally that the question of forests 
came up in that connection. There were only three or four in 
favour of maintaining the old special schools in connection with the 
forests ; the rest, to a man, were opposed to it." — " Then you do not 
think it necessary that the management of the woodlands in which 
the instruction is given should be under the control of those who 
give that instruction 1 " " Although it is not necessary that it should 
be under the control of those communicating the instruction, it is 
desirable that there should be forests to which the students alone 

o 

with the professor may have access. They may be in the neigh- 
bourhood of the school ; if in the neighbourhood so much the 
better; but they maybe 100 miles oflF, or they may be 200 miles 
off. It is desirable that they should have forests to which they 
have access, but it is not necessary that those should be under the 
control or direction of those communicating the instruction." — 
" Supposing, for instance, the Cirencester College were to take up 
forest instruction if it had access to the Forest of Dean, that you 
think would be sutficient for the purpose ? " " The principle would 
lead me to say so. I do not know the details of the Cirencester 
College, and therefore I cannot commit myself beyond that ; but 
the principle involved would lead me to say so." 



.'534 REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 

" What do you think would be the most suitaVde situation fur 
a forest schooH " "Edinburgh." — " ]Jo you think it would be 
desirable to liave one forest school for England and Scotland, or 
do you think that the conditions of Scotland are so different that 
it would be desirable to have two 1 " " My belief is that such 
tuition might be followed in Edinburgh as to fit English foresters 
for the management of English forests ; but if, from national 
feeling or from disposition, it is considered better to have such a 
school as Cooper's Hill, which is founded upon a very different 
model from that of our Scottish educational institutions, by 
all means let us have it ; but my opinion is, that we could 
do all that is required perfectly well in Scotland." — "You 
think that one forest school would be sufficient 1 " " One 
would be quite sufficient, and there is an advantage in having one 
thoroughly equipped and thoroughly efficiently conducted institu- 
tion." — " How far do you think a forest school for the use of Great 
Britain should be formed upon the model of the modern Continental 
schools 1" "I am acquainted with every school upon the Continent, 
and have visited severaL There are many upon the type of which 
a British school might be formed ; there is no one to which, as a 
type, the British school should be conformed, much less any one 
which would serve as a model." — "Which of their forest schools, 
upon the whole, do you think would be the one most nearly 
adapted to our requirements'? " "If in Edinburgh, I should think 
the school in Spain." — "If the school were established in Edinburgh 
what arrangements do you suggest should be made with regard to 
iti" " It depends very much upon the form that it may take. If 
it were a private enterprise, managed by the Scottish Arboricultural 
Society or the Highland and Agricultural Society, one form ; if it 
were connected with the Watt Institute, another ; if connected with 
the University, a third ; if connected with the Museum of Science 
and Art under the Committee of Council on Education, a fourth." 
— " Which, upon the whole, do you think would be the best V " I 
have a very strong conviction that, upon the whole, it is best that it 
should be connected with the Science and Art Department of the 
Committee of Council on Education, if it were founded upon some 
such model as the School of Mines in London, or the School of 
Science in Dublin." — " Yoii think, then, it would be better that it 
should be a Government school rather than be left in any way to 
private enterprise V " It would be very much better that it should 
be a Government school" 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 335 

'* Would you be prepared to give the Committee a rather more 
definite sketch as to how you would propose to arrange the sys- 
tem?" "One great advantage of its being in connection with the 
Committee of Council on Education is this : it is desirable to have 
young Scottish foresters thoroughly educated. They are fitted by 
heredity and by early training for giving themselves entirely to 
forest work ; it is, therefore, desirable that they should be specially 
trained. In connection with the School of Mines in London and 
the School of Science in Dublin there is ample provision made for 
the support of any of the students who require support, and yet it is 
not given as a dole, or as an alms, but as the result of competitive ex- 
amination and merit." — "Did you hear the evidence given by Colonel 
Pearson as to the staff he would think desirable for a forest school 1" 
" I did."—" Do you concur with that evidence 1" " No. He speaks 
of Cooper's Hill College ; I speak of a school in very different circum- 
stances. The idea of having it in connection with the Committee 
of Council on Education rather than with the University is, that 
there is a possibility of a gradual development in the former case, 
whereas if it were in connection with the University you would be 
tied to one professor. Now it seems to the student of forest science 
as ridiculous to speak of one professor of forestry as to speak of one 
professor of medicine or of one professor of theology. If it were in 
connection with the School of Science there might be one individual, 
such as Colonel Pearson referred to, at first taking the Avhole 
management ; and there might be, at comparatively little expense, 
specialists obtained from the Continent to take particular branches 
of study for three weeks, or six weeks, or three months at a time, 
until it was seen from the results produced that it would be 
desirable to incur increased expenditure in getting a larger staff of 
officers and instructors." 

"Have you prepared a detailed curriculum which you would 
suggest; a three years' course of study?" "I have. My sugges- 
tions are as follows : — 

" First Year. — Winter Session. — Instruction to be given in the 
structure and physiology of trees and shrubs, and in the geographical 
distribution of forests ; in the treatment of forests by Sartage, by 
Jardinage, by d, tire et aire, by les compartments, or the Fachiverke 
Methode of Germany ; in the application of this to coppice wood, 
with a view to securing, along with other advantages, a sustained 
production of wood ; and in the application of it to timber forests, 
according as the object may be to secure from these a maximum 

VOL. XI., PART III. 2 A 



336 UEPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTKK ON FORESTRY. 

size of timber, or a Miaximum produce of wood, or a maximum 
pecuniary return, along with natural reproduction, sustained pro- 
duction, and progressive improvement of the woods ; and in 
measures to be employed in the conversion of coppice wood into 
timber forest, of timber forest into coppice wood, of mixed woods 
into either, and of either into mixed woods. With attendance on 
the classes in the University for the study of natural history, of 
mathematics, and of engineering ; or, with attendance on the classes 
in the Watt Institution and School of Arts for the study of 
mechanical philosophy and of mathematics. 

'' Summer Session. — Attendance on the classes in the University 
for the study of botany and vegetable histology, and of practical 
natural history, and of practical engineering ; or attendance on 
classes, if open, in the Watt Institution for the study of botany, 
and of mechanical and geometrical drawing. 

^^ Autumn Months. — Tours of observation, with or without the 
teacher, in woods and forests in Britain, in France, in Germany, or 
in the north of Europe, 

"Second Year. — Winter Session. — Instruction in regard to 
forest economy, forest legislation, and forest literature in Britain ; in 
France and in Germany, countries in advance of all others in forest 
science, and in the practical application of it to the management of 
forests ; in Russia, where arrangements are being made to introduce 
and to carry out extensively the improved forest management prac- 
tised in Germany and in France ; in Finland, where arrangements 
have been made to manage the forests in accordance with the 
requirements of forest science ; in Sweden, where the latest 
arrangements suggested by forest science are being carried out with 
vigour ; in British colonies ; in America, and in India, where have 
been introduced many of the suggestions of modern forest science, 
and the forest economy practised on the Continent of Europe. 
With the attendance of the classes in the University for the study 
of theoretic chemistry and practical chemistry, natural philosophy, 
and the practical ai^plication of the same ; or with attendance at the 
classes in the Watt Institution and School of Arts for the study of 
chemistry and practical chemistry, of engineering, and of geology. 

" Summer Session and Autumn Months. — Practical experience in 

the management of woods, or in the management of nurseries, to be 

acquired under the direction of approved foresters or approved 

nurserymen. 

"Third Year. — Winter Session only. — Instruction in the chem- 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OX FORESTRY. 337 

istry of vegetation and of soils ; in the meteorological effects of forests 
on moisture, on temperature, and on constituents of the atmosphere ; 
in sylviculture, as applied in Belgium, etc., to utilise waste lands ; 
in the lands of France, to arrest and utilise drift sands ; in the 
Alps, the Cevennes, and the Pyrenees, to prevent the disastrous 
effects and consequences of torrents ; on the Karst, in lUyria, to 
restore fertility to land rendered sterile by the destruction of trees ; 
in the United States of America, to prevent anticipated evils ; in 
India, to secure desiderated good ; in Britain, to increase amenity, 
covert, and shelter ; and instruction in the injurious effects of 
cattle, insects, and various diseases on trees. With attendance on 
the classes in the University for the study of geology, of agricul- 
ture, and, if it be desired, any of the following : for the study of 
political economy, of conveyancing, or of bandaging and surgical 
appliances ; or with attendance on the classes in the Watt Institu- 
tion for the study of animal physiology, of German, or of French. 
I may add that in connection with the above studies I would advise 
that a course of instruction should be given in forest botany, in 
forest mycology, or the study of fungi, in forest entomology, in 
forest ornithology, and in forest masology." 

" Would you suggest that in such a school, if established, there 
should be any opportunity for research as to the different circum- 
stances affecting forest products?" "I consider that it would be 
exceedingly desirable. There are now established at the seats of 
several of the schools of forestry upon the Continent stations for 
research; they are not connected with the school, they are sup- 
ported by the Government, but placed at the seat of the school in 
order that the students may have the benefit of the professor there ; 
and in some of the schools I have referred to, as in that in Spain, 
where they have failed to secure such an experimental station, very 
great advantage has resulted from the students being encouraged 
by the professor to engage in research upon a smaller scale." — 
*' Would you propose that such a school should likewise make any 
experiments with regard to the suitability of particular soils, 
exposure, the combination or association of different trees one with 
another, and other similar problems?" "There are no objections 
to their doing so. These stations for research to which I have 
referred have an international connection ; when one is formed they 
communicate with the others, and state the particular department 
to which they intend to give their attention, and they leave the rest 
to the others, so that no two of them shall be occupying the same 



338 REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FOUESTRV. 

field of research." — " So that, although that might not be the 
primary object of the school, you think it would be a very con- 
siderable advantage 1 " " Certainly." 

" This elaborate course of study that you suggest is, presumably, 
only for those foresters who are to be employed abroad in public 
work?" "My view is that the students should be trained as stu- 
dents, and, if necessary, fitted for any appointment in India and the 
colonies, or at home, for their being thoroughly qualified scientific 
students of forestry, with the full knowledge of the practical appli- 
cation to be made of the science." — " What interests proprietors in 
Scotland more is the kind of smaller education to be given to the 
foresters to whom we pay, say from £80 to £100 a year ; have you 
any plan to suggest which would lay down the principles for the 
systematic training of such men 1" "I consider that if such an idea 
as I have thrown out were followed, such students could attend the 
Watt Institute at comparatively small expense. They might attend 
one year or more, and arrangements might be made for giving them 
instruction in the evening, so that they might support themselves 
by working in the nurseries in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh. 
If it were considered unadvisable that they should go through a 
two and a half years' course, there could be no difficulty in the pro- 
fessor giving a short summary of forest science in its application to 
practical forestry in fifty lectures or in a hundred lectures ; and the 
attendance upon such lectures, of course, would clearly meet the 
case of such persons as you have referred to. I have been long 
desirous that forestry should be introduced into our primary schools. 
The arrangements made at Kensington are such as would facilitate 
this being done at very little expense, and thus there would be 
raised up a body of well-instructed woodmen, forest labourers, and 
others." — " Colonel Pearson told us that he thought a sufficiently 
practical course might be given to foresters of this stamp in three 
months ; do you agree with, that V "I do not believe it. Eeferring 
to the views that are entertained by foresters, forest administrators 
who are Government officials, and professors of forest science, their 
general impression appears to me to be that it is desirable that 
when students are at college they should be at college, and that 
when they are in the forest they should be in the forest ; that 
they should be at the school the whole time, except on Saturday 
afternoon excursions to the forest, and then spend some time — say 
three months, six months, or whatever time may be allowed them — 
in practical work in the forests." 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OX FORESTRY. 339 

" Where would you propose that tliey should go for their 
practical work from the Watt Instituted" "For practical work 
there is a number of forests which are conducted in an excellent 
way, and the foresters there, I have no doubt, would be willing, 
with the consent of the proprietors, to make arrangements for 
receiving such students for three months if there be a winter 
and a summer session, or six months if they have only a 
winter session. But, apart from that, an idea thrown out by INIr 
Mackenzie, who has charge of Epping Forest, was that a school 
should be established in connection with Epping Forest. And he 
suggested that the students should be engaged in practical work in 
Epping Forest, and that, after a year there, the students should go 
on to Windsor Forest for twelve months, or to some other of the 
Crown forests. I asked him if he would be willing to engage 
students from Edinburgh, paying them wages and engaging them 
in the same way as students from the home college, and he said, 
'Certainly.'" — "Would the training in England be sufficient to 
enable a forester to carry on a Scottish forest with the different 
kind of trees and the different climate there 1 " " It is alleged that it 
would not. A meeting of the English Arboricultural Society was 
held in Newcastle a month ago, and one of the members spoke very 
decidedly upon the importance of having a school of forestry in the 
North of England, and some extensive forest at command. There 
is obviously an advantage in enlarging as much as possible the 
experience of foresters. Speaking of the Scottish foresters, I would 
say that I think it would be a very great advantage for them to be 
able to see a little of English forests, along with what they see in 
the management of private forests of Scotland." — "Then you think 
the general principles acquired, wherever the school might be, 
could be made applicable to the forests in which they were 
working ] " " Yes." 

" Have you any experience of the present working in Scottish 
forests'?" "No." — "You cannot give an opinion as to whether 
they are scientifically managed enough to render them available 
for instruction 1" " The management in this country is so different 
from that which is followed in India, and upon the Continent, that, 
with the exception of gaining general information, and skill and 
handicraft, it would not suffice." — " It would not suffice for a man 
who had to go to India ; but would it not suffice for a man in a 
Scottish forest 1 " " It would not enable him to manage a forest 
in the Colonies." — " But would it enable a man to manage a 



340 REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 

Scottish forest]" "It would be a very great advantage to a 
Scottish forester to have some months' instruction in a college — 
there can be no question about that ; but it would be also desirable 
to have training in Scottish forests to learn the application of the 
principles he had acquired to the woods he had to deal with." 

" In regard to the waste that is going on abroad, is it your opinion 
that the value of wood will increase in this country 1 " " Much will 
depend on the value of iron, and the extent to which it can be used 
instead of wood. One reason why so little attention has been given 
to scientific forestry in Britain, as compared with the Continent, is 
that we have fuel apart from wood at command, which they have 
not. "We have timber brought from all countries, and valuable 
woods from all nations freely introduced ; and therefore there has 
been no necessity for the same amount of attention being given to 
the subject here. With regard to the relative price of home-grown 
timber and foreign timber, that is largely dependent upon the 
expense of transport. In illustration of the expense of transport to 
the Cape of Good Hope, I may mention that we could get timber 
from the Baltic at less expense than we could bring it from Table 
Mountain at the back of the city." — " May we take it as a fact that 
good wood, whether from our Colonies or elsewhere, is decreasing 
very rapidly 1 " " It is decreasing very rapidly, and the effect is not 
only loss of wood, but also an injurious effect upon the humidity of 
the atmosphere." — " Is it your opinion that in a few years, if iron is 
produced very much at the same rate it is now, and other things 
2Jan jif^ssu, wood will become very much more valuable in this 
country than it is now ?" "I have no doubt it will, from the dimi- 
nished supply ; and there are many purposes to which wood can be 
put to which iron is not now applied." — " You spoke about various 
places where a school of forestry might be started. For example, 
you mentioned the Arboricultural Society of Scotland : would you 
think that that was the best institution to which to affiliate a branch 
of the School of Forestry; would it be better than the University of 
Edinburgh ]" "My idea is, that the School of Forestry in Edinburgh 
does not require for the benefit of the students to have any other 
affiliated with it ; there would be no difficulty in getting all the 
experience and observation that is required in those forests without 
there being a separate school of forestry established elsewhere." — 
" Then you do not consider that it would be of advantage to ally a 
school of forestry with the Highland and Agricultural Society 1 " 
''I do not think it would. I do not think that a school of forestry 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OX FORESTRY. 341 

can be established in Scotland at present by pi-ivate individuals ; 
it is necessary that some corporate body should take it up. On 
many accounts I think it would be advisable that the Government 
should take it up rather tlian the Highland and Agricultural 
Society or the Arboricidtural Society, or any existing organisation." 
— " Have you formed any idea as to the probable expense of such 
an undertaking ; how much the Government would be called upon 
to contribute V "I consider that the cheapest aiTangement 
would be one connected with the "SVatt Institute, towards which 
the Government would not be called upon to contribute anything ; 
but then there is the want of prestige, and I refer to the effect of 
prestige in preventing distinguished teachers getting pupils, and 
getting employment for the pupils when once they have passed 
through the course. The cheapest arrangement, combined with 
prestige, would be the establishment of a professorship in the 
University, because tlien we would have a definite sum, and we 
could not go beyond it. It would be more expensive, I believe, 
having a school of forestry organised in connection with the 
Committee of Council on Education; but it need not be much 
more expensive at first. The great expense would be, when once 
it has been seen, as I have no doubt it will be seen in a year or 
two years, that it is desirable to go on increasing the training staff. '' 
— " But you have no doubt that a professor in the University of 
Edinburgh would answer the present purposes ]" "A great deal 
would depend upon the professor. You have no security that 
you would have a professor with the necessary encyclopaedic infor- 
mation to succeed the first or the second professor, and there is 
very great danger of the professorship degenerating into a mere 
respectable sinecure. There is less risk of that, I consider, in 
connection with the Council of Education," — " You would hardly 
expect, from a practical point of view, a forester who had not had 
any great training in this way, except practically, to attend classes 
in Edinburgh over a space of three years V " Hence the advantage 
of having what I may call an experimental or tentative course of 
lectures for one year and seeing what could be done, and then 
entering upon a larger coui-se subsequently if this be foimd 
successful." — " It is your opinion that they could get sufficient 
information in the course of one year's lectures independently of 
the practical experience in the forest V " They would get the 
scientific infoi-mation, with illustrations of its practical application." 
— " Then you propose that they should go into the practical work 



342 REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 

of forestry at a subsequent period of their education? " " Yes, and 
if they would attend the summer course they might keep the 
autumn free for this. The autumn should certainly be spent in 
practical work ; and if there is not a summer course they should 
spend the whole summer in practical work. But, as has been 
mentioned by Colonel Pearson, on the Continent the students go 
great distances with the professors ; they frequently go into other 
countries, and if they had a professor qualified to take them to any 
of the countries upon the Continent of Europe, and acquainted 
with the languages, I have no doubt that this might be satis- 
factorily arranged. In the last number of ' Forestry ' it is 
suggested that they should go even to Canada." — " Your view 
would be that these young men should attend classes at the college 
as they attend other classes for the purpose of general education 1 " 
" Yes ; I consider that if in connection with the Museum of Science 
and Art it is only necessary to have classes in foi'estry, all the 
accessory studies can be pursued either at the University or at 
the Watt Institute accoi-ding to the means of students. If a 
student be able to go to the University and attend the University 
classes he can do so ; if he have not the means or the disposition 
to attend the University he can go to the Watt Institute and get 
a thorough instruction upon tbe accessory subjects, leaving no 
necessity for anything more being done but to provide for what 
are strictly forest professional studies." — " Biit you assume that 
the student would have to give up both time and attention to that 
particular study while at the University"?" "That would be 
exceedingly desirable ; but there are many young men who sup- 
port themselves by teaching while at the University ; and if the 
arrangements of the hours were such, and a forester wished to 
support himself by engaging in work in the nursery, he might 
then attend the evening classes of the Watt Institute for all the 
accessoi-y subjects, mathematics, geology, road-making, and every- 
thing of that kind." — " Then he could pursue his course of instruc- 
tion during the ordinary curriculum of his University education ] " 
" Yes." 

" In this book of yours, entitled, ' Schools of Forestry in Eiirope,' 
do you agree with this remark of Dv Hooker's, where he says, 
* Forestry, a subject so utterly neglected in this country that we 
are forced to send all candidates for forest appointments in India 
to France or Germany for instruction, both in theory and practice, 
holds on the Continent an honoui'able, and even a distinguished, place 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OX FORESTRY. 343 

among the branches of a liberal education ' ? " "I agi-ee with that 
fully." — " Do you agi-ee also with this: — ' Wherever the English 
rule extends, with the single exception of India, the same apathy 
or, at least, inaction prevails ' ? " " Yes. Now, however, there is 
an interest taken in the subject in South Africa : there is also 
interest taken in it in South Australia, and a movement has been 
made in New Zealand since that was stated by Sir Joseph 
Hooker ; so that I cannot say that everywhere there is the same 
apathy now prevailing. There has been also a movement more 
or less impoi'tant in Canada, and a very widespread movement in 
the United States of America, but at the time that statement was 
made by Sir Joseph Hooker it was the case." — " Is it the fact that in 
Poland, Russia, Austria, Finland, Sweden, France, and everywhere 
in Germany, there have been established by the Government schools 
of forest science or classes in connection with existing universities 1 " 
" That is generally the case, and many of them I have visited." — 
" Has not this arisen, to some extent, from the fact that from the 
situation of those countries the supply of timber for the purposes 
of fuel, and also for other jmrposes, has not been so accessible as 
it has been to us in Great Britain ] " " It is very largely so ; but it 
is also the case in the United States of America, in Canada, and 
in many of our colonies, that the country is being ruined by the 
destruction of forests, owing to the effect pi'oduced upon the 
humidity of the climate. It is an open question — I have my 
opinion upon it — whether or no forests increase the quantity of 
rainfall : but whether they increase it or no, they certainly do 
affect the distribution of rainfall, both in time and space. The 
distribution of the forests may have arisen from the distribution 
of the rainfall ; but the forests once established, there is a very 
much mox'e equcvble distribution of the rain in time, and of the 
rain in space. Besides this, great destruction has been wrought, 
and is still being wrought, by inundations ; and it has now been 
proved, beyond all question, by expensive experiments, and not 
only by experiments, but by extensive operations with results 
which have fully justified the undertaking, that there is no more 
efficient way of preventing inundations than planting the basin of 
reception with trees; and it is the most thorough way of doing so. 
— " In regard to the school, supposing that the students were able to 
spend three years at it, would you suggest that some such curriculum 
as is given in your book would be a suitable one for the purpose ? " 
" It would." — " You do not attach the same importance that Colonel 



344 REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 

Pearson did to having a practical training station upon the spot 1 " 
*' No." — " You think that facilities for lectures and study should he 
given, either in connection with the School of Art, or in connection 
with the University, if it were to be in Edinburgh V "I do, but in 
Edinburgh the Watt Institute is also known as the School of Art, 
and thei'efore I would say, or in the Museum of Science and Art 
under the direction of the Committee of Council on Education." 
• — " And that those who profited by these lectures should have the 
opportunity of taking excursions into the woodlands of the dis- 
trict to see what practical illustrations they could draw?" "Yes, 
both weekly excursions into the immediate neighbourhood, and 
more lengthened excursions between the sessions." — " You recom- 
mend Edinburgh as the best place for such a school from your 
knowledge of Scotland ; do you recommend Edinburgh in pre- 
ference to Cooper's Hill, or in preference to any other part of 
England 1 " " In preference to any part either of England, Scot- 
land, or Ireland. I may mention, with regard to Edinburgh, that 
the inhabitants have, at the expense of £20,000, purchased the 
arboretum with the view of its being made auxiliary to a school 
of forestry. In Edinburgh the first International Forestry 
Exhibition was held also with this in view, and some thousands 
of the articles sent to the International Forestry Exhibition have 
been transfei-red to the Museum of Science and Art. There we 
have an Arboricultural Society ; all interest in Scotland in arbori- 
culture seems to gravitate towards Edinburgh. We have exten- 
sive nurseries in the neighbourhood ; we have woods at no very 
great distance ; and an ofier has been made of a cheap feu of 
extensive grounds, extending from the suburbs of Edinbui-gh to 
the top of the Pentlands, varying 1200 feet in altitude, and 
including difierent descriptions of timber, all tending to point to 
Edinburgh as a place with peculiar advantages in this point of 
view. Then the circumstance of having an University, where 
students able to pay for an University education may go for the 
accessory studies, and at the same time the Watt Institute, whei'e 
tradesmen, and those whose means are limited, can go through a 
similar course of study, adds to the importance of it." — " But there 
are some similar advantages to be had in connection with Kew, 
are there not 1 " " If the arboretum in Edinburgh were made what 
it should be (it is now in the hands of the Government), I believe 
more might be done than is done at Kew with a view to the pro- 
motion of the study of forestry. The arboretum at Kew consists 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 345 

largely of young trees ; bufe the arboretum at Edinburgh consists 
largely of old trees, with every facility for making forestry a 
practical study." 

At the meeting held on the 4tli June 1886, Dr W. Schlich, 
Inspector-General of Forests, and at present organising the Indian 
Forest School, at Cooper's Hill Engineering College, near Eidiam, 
Surrey, was the first witness examined, and, among other inte- 
resting details, he gave the following valuable evidence : — 

" Will you state to the Committee your exact position in 
connection with the Cooper's Hill School V "I am Inspector- 
General of Forests to the Government of India, and, as such, 
I have been deputed by the Government of India, at the 
request of the Secretary of State, to make the necessary arrange- 
ments at Cooper's Hill for the starting of a forest school, 
as a branch of the college, at which officers for the forest 
service shall be henceforth educated," — " How long have you been 
in the Indian forest service]" "Close upon twenty years." — 
" You succeeded Dr Brandis at the head of the Forest Depart- 
ment T' "Yes." 

" You have expressed the opinion that, although you do not 
anticipate any panic as regards the timber supply from abroad, 
still there is every prospect that in the future the prices will tend 
to rise, and that woods now planted in Great Britain and Ireland 
may be fairly expected to be remunerative 1 " " Tliat is my personal 
opinion." — " And that, in fact, having i-egard to the probable falling 
off in our present supplies, it is very desirable that steps should 
be taken to secure a better supply in the future '? " "I feel some 
difficulty in replying in a direct way to this question. The opinion 
I hold, personally, is that there is a fair field for investing a 
certain amount of capital in the production of timber. But 
whether I would exactly go as far as to say that it is desirable to 
do anything of that class would be another question. Still I 
think there is a fair field for investing in woodlands, provided the 
woods are planted upon surplus lands, that is to say, lands not 
required for agriculture. I do not believe that lands which are 
required, or could usefully be employed, for agriculture will under 
forest yield the same return on the invested capital as they would 
under agriculture." — " The question as it stands is rather of a more 
general character. Take, for instance, the case of Canada ; you 
have expressed the opinion, in your very interesting memoir, that 
' it is high time to take energetic steps towards the introduction 



346 REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTHV. 

of proper forest conservancy measures ' into the country ; are you 
strongly of tliat opinion'? " " I am very strongly of opinion that 
it would, as regards the question here under discussion, be one of 
the most important measures which the British Government 
could take to introduce a proper forest conservancy into Canada." 
— " Then, as regards planting in Great Britain, are you of opinion 
that the surplus area is so great that extensive tracts could be set 
aside for forests without trenching upon the land required for 
agriculture 1 " " There is a considerable area of waste land, the 
details of which are given in my report." — " And though you do 
not wish to put the matter too strongly, the impression upon your 
mind is that a fair field for judicious enterprise exists in the 
extension of the woodlands of Great Britain and Ireland 1 " 
" Yes, provided it is done in an economic manner." — " As regards 
Ireland you have expressed the opinion that there are probably 
2,000,000 acres which might be advantageously planted in that 
country 1 " " That is a rough estimate ; about 2,000,000, I should 
say." — " Those 2,000,000 acres, as they stand at present, make a 
very small return ; and you say that the ' afforestation could, I 
have no doubt, be made to pay fairly, apart from the benefit 
which the people in the poorer coast districts would derive from 
the increase of work afforded near their homes, and the protection 
which the forests would give to the adjoining fields, and to 
cattle ; ' that is still your opinion, is it not 1 " " It is my opinion." 
— " You attach great importance to the planting of parts of 
Ireland, not only on account of the value of the products that 
would be derived from them, but also from the protection that 
would be given to the cattle 1 " " Yes." — " As regards England, 
you say, ' The total area of all waste lands amounts to 41,890 
sqiuire miles. I am not in a position to state, at present, what 
proportion of this area is fit and available for forests, but on the 
whole it may, pex'haps, be estimated at one-half, or 20,000 square 
miles in round figures. At any rate it is evident that there is 
sufficient I'oom for a considerable extension of the woodlands in 
Great Britain and Ireland.' Is that still your opinion"? " " As 
far as the information at my disposal goes, that is still my 
opinion." — " You said, very truly, that in expressing that opinion 
you think it quite necessary that the planting and management of 
the woodlands should be economically and judiciously carried out. 
The establishment of a forest school would be a very important 
thing in that point of view, would it not 1 " " There can be no 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 3-17 

doubt that the establishment of a forest school would be of im- 
portance, because it would be likely to disseminate better views 
with regard to the management of woods." — " Are you prepared 
to state to the Committee what the present arrangements are at 
Cooper's Hill with regaixl to instructions in forestry 1 " " The 
Secretary of State in Council selects every year a certain number 
of young men from among those who have qualified in an exami- 
nation held by the Civil Service Commissioners. For instance, 
last year he selected five, and this year he has advertised for 
eight. There is a competitive examination held, and from those 
who stand at the top of the list he selects those whom he considers 
best suited for the appointment. Generally he begins at the top 
and takes those standing at the top, provided there is nothing 
against them ; if there is anything against one of them he can 
strike that one out and take one lower down." — " Until now those 
young men have been sent abroad for their actual forest instruc- 
tion. At first a certain number were sent to France, and a 
certain number to Germany, but latterly they have been all sent 
to the forest school at Nancy 1 " " Yes." — " Is it proposed that 
they should still go abroad during any part of their instruction 1 " 
"Yes; they enter the ordinary course at Cooper's Hill in Seji- 
tember of each year. They go through the ordinary course, 
generally speaking, until Easter ; and then at Easter they drop 
certain subjects, such as mathematics and geometrical drawing, 
and we substitute for those subjects botany and instruction in the 
different branches of forestiy. Then, at the end of the first 
twelve months, they drop most of the curriculum subjects, 
retaining only a few, as, for instance, surveying and physics ; and 
their time is principally employed in the second year in the study 
of botany and the different branches of forestry, entomology, and, 
we hope, in acquiring also some elementary knowledge of law ; 
but the arrangements for that have not yet been made, bccaiise 
we have not yet arrived at the second yeai-. At the end of the 
first year the present arrangement is that the students are taken 
for a short trip to the Continent for about three weeks, to a par- 
ticular forest managed in such a way as will be most useful or 
most instructive to our Indian forest officers. They have to study 
the system of management in that particular district as closely as 
it is possible to do in the time. That is the autumn of the first 
year ; and then, in the second year, having completed their 
theoretical subjects, they would be taken for three or four months 



348 IIF.PORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FOKESTKY. 

again to forests upon the Continent to study forest districts in 
various places and their management, to see the way in which the 
principles which they had been taught in the classroom are 
practically applied. We also use the forest near Windsor ; and 
I also expect that they will be taken on occasional visits to the 
New Forest, Forest of Dean, or to some forests in Scotland." — 
" Are there any fiicilities given to students who are not intended 
for the Indian Forest Service to take the course at Cooper's Hill ] " 
" No actual orders have been passed by the Secretary of State upon 
the subject, but I may confidently state that every facility will be 
given to outsiders who want to join the course, and I have just 
heard that one young gentleman proposes to join in September to 
study on his own account." 

" Would outside students join the whole course, including 
engineering, or would they join the forestry course only 1 " " There 
are many who join the course on their own account ; in fact, all 
who take the chance of obtaining an engineer's appointment at 
the end of three years. We propose that this school should be 
made use of by those who are not directly interested in Indian 
forestry. But the difficulty of not following the same course as 
the Indian engineers is, that those who fail to obtain employment 
in the forest service of India have a difficulty in finding employ- 
ment elsewhere ; whereas an engineer can always find woi'k if he 
has failed to get into the Indian service. Having gone through 
the whole engineering course, he can almost certainly get employ- 
ment elsewhere, whereas if the arrangement for the forest service 
of the Indian Government were an open one, and a certain num- 
ber of appointments were offered for employment in India, those 
who failed to obtain them would probably be perfectly unable to 
obtain employment." 

"The Committee have been informed that, at the present moment, 
there is a large demand for gentlemen skilled in forestry, and that 
there is no means of getting them; that in the case of a colony 
requiring such persons to take charge of their forests they have 
been obliged to appoint foi'eigners, through not finding any 
properly qualified Englishmen to discharge the duty ] " " That is so 
to a certain extent ; but as far as the Indian Department goes, 
which has been mentioned in connection with that point, I should 
be anxious to correct a slight misapprehension by stating that the 
Indian Government has been most anxious throughout to assist 
the various colonies in that direction ; and we have sent Indian 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OX FORESTRY. 349 

officers to various parts of tlie woi'ld, to tlie Cape, the Mauritius, 
Ceylon, and Cyprus, for example ; but those men are always 
I'etiuTied to us again, for this simple reason, that the Colonies will 
not offer proper conditions. They want to have the men, and be 
able to dischai'ge them again at their will and pleasure. At the 
same time, the Government of India, although ready to help the 
Colonies, says, ' We cannot let you have experienced men for the 
best portion of their working time, and then take them back 
again when they are becoming due for pension ; that is not fair. 
We will help you, but you must offer those men proper conditions, 
and if you want them for any length of time you must take them 
on permanently.' The result up to the present day, with one 
single exception, has been that the men always return to us ; but 
we have been always ready to let the Colonies have the men if 
they will take them on permanently." — " Has the Indian Forest 
Service at the present day a larger number of officials than it 
requires ? " " It has not ; but it has always been considered good 
policy to help the Colonies in this way. We have a staff of about 
160 supei'ior officers, and if we let one of the officers go away, we 
can do with 159 until we replace him. The young men sent out 
from England are supernumeraries until they ai-e absorbed into 
the regular scale, so that we can fill up a vacancy in the course of 
a short time." 

"Do you think it would be better, if a forest school were 
organised for this country, that it should be a Government 
institution, rather than that the endeavour should be made to 
induce a private institution to develop a course of forestry 
instruction 1" "I should think, generally speaking, it would hardly 
make any difference whether it were a Government or a private 
institution, provided instruction were given upon the right lines.'' 
— " Colonel Pearson expressed strongly the opinion that, whether 
it were a private or a Government institution, it was necessary for 
it to have access to a certain amount of woodland of a character 
suitable for the purpose ; do you concur in that view V "To train 
a real forester it is ab.solutely necessary." — " Dr Brown was rather 
of opinion that the instruction might be given mainly from 
lectures and books ; but you agree with Colonel Pearson that it 
would be necessary to have access to, and control over, a suitable 
extent of woodland ? " " Will you let me explain what I mean a 
little in detail 1 If it is a case of officers of the class we educate 
for India, or if it is a case of educating practical wood managers 



350 REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 

for this country, then it is al>solutely necessary to have access to 
some forests in the vicinity which are managed in such a manner 
tliat tliey are fit to serve as training grounds. If, on the other 
hand, it is a question of giving some general ideas of forestry to 
hind agents, as I have heard mentioned, that is to say, to gentle- 
men who manage large estates, but are not supposed themselves 
to carry out the real forest work, then a course of lectures might 
be arranged with occasional visits to some more distant forests. 
I should like to make a distinction in that respect." — *' As a 
matter of fact, the Continental forest schools have in most, if not 
in all, cases tracts of woodland open to them for the purpose of 
instruction 1 " " Yes, that is true ; in most cases they are im- 
mediately attached to a school." — " Is it the invariable rule, or 
ai'e there exceptions 1" " It is not the invariable rule. I went 
last year to look specially at three of the principal forest schools 
in Germany. In the case of two of them, namely, those at 
Giessen in Hesse Darmstadt, and at Tharand in Saxony, the 
schools are in immediate connection with forests. A third, which 
is probably the principal forest school in Germany, is that at 
Munich. There the forests are not immediately attached to the 
school ; but there is a reason for that. The forest school there is 
part of the University, and the students who study there are 
expected to have already spent two years at another forest school 
of a class where there is a forest attached to the school, that is to 
say, the aspirants to forest appointments in Bavaria go to 
AschafFenburg, where they study for two years, and there are 
forests immediately connected with that school. Having done 
that, they proceed for two more years to Munich to study forestry 
fx'om a more general point of view, with the view of obtaining 
tiltimately the highest appointments in the forest service of the 
country. I wished to explain that there was a special reason 
why there are no forests attached to this great forest school at 
Munich, where there are six professors of forestry, apart from the 
ordinary university professors." — " And even in that case the 
students are expected to have passed a part of their course in 
schools which have a forest attached to them 1 " " Yes, to do the 
thing properly, it is absolutely necessary to have control over a 
certain area of forests in the vicinity of the school." — " Now, with 
regard to the lower class of those who are employed in the 
management of woodlands, say, the bailiifs and wood-reeves, 
would you consider that in their case also a certain amount of 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OX FORESTRY. 351 

forest instruction would render them much more valuable as 
forest officers 1" "I have no doubt it would." — " You think 
that even if they went for a three months' course, that woxild give 
them, though not complete instruction, still an amount of instruc- 
tion which would be extremely valuable 1" " Whether a course 
of three months would do that, I am not prepared to say. The 
curriculum for men of that class would have to be to a very lai-ge 
extent of a practical nature ; we woxdd do best for that class of 
men by letting them work, as it were, in a sort of sample or 
pattern forest, and augmenting that by a series of simple lectures 
upon the most' important subjects ; as, for instance, a certain 
amount of botany, and a certain number of lectures on the 
principal sylvicultural subjects and the system of management 
generally. What I mean to say is, that it would be essential that 
a great portion of their training should be of a practical turn, and 
that therefore to do it without a forest immediately accessible 
would be simply impossible." — " Are you aware that there are a 
great number of landowners in this country who have a certain 
amount of woodlands, but not a very extensive amount, and that 
therefore it would not be woi'th their while to employ any person 
at a high salary, but who yet have to employ wood-reeves and 
wood-bailiffs ; and from the answer you have jiist given it seems 
that the practical instruction to which you have referred would 
be of considerable value 1" " Yes. If I were an owner of woods 
in England myself, and wanted a man of that class, I should, in 
the present state of affairs, probably send him as an apprentice 
for some time to one of those shrewd Scottish wood-managers ; 
or if there were a suitable school to which a forest was attached, 
which was managed in a satisfactory way, I should send him 
there for a time, so as to let him get a certain amount of theo- 
retical instruction." — " Would you kindly supply the Committee 
with a rather more detailed statement as to the mode in which 
you would suggest that a forest school should be organised, having 
regard in the first place to the higher grade, and secondly, to the 
requirements of wood-reeves and wood-bailiffs 1" "I shall be 
most happy to supply that." 

" You have spoken of an area of 2,000,000 acres in Ireland as 
suitable for planting ; what is the general nature of that ground ; 
does it include bog ] " " Yes, to a considerable extent." — " There 
is a great deal of bog which is unsuitable for planting, is there 
not 1 " " Yes, there is, but there is also a great deal that is suit- 

VOL. XI., PART III. 2 B 



352 REPORT OV THE .SELECT COMMITTEE OS FORESTRY. 

able ; anything that can bo drained is Huitabk;." — " Of course you 
are aware that a great deal of the Irish bog could not be drained 
from want of falH" "That is so. I was only a short time in 
Ireland, and this report, from which the figure is taken, was 
written at the request of the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. I 
could only make a guess to the effect that probably half of the 
available area is fit ; I could not go further than that." — " Have 
you formed any estimate of the amount of waste land available 
for planting in Scotland 1" "I believe the area is very much 
larger than it is in Ireland ; practically 70 per cent, of Scotland 
is waste land." — " But it is not all suitable for planting?" "Not 
all, but I should say a very good pro))ortion was." — " Have you 
estimated the efiect of climate and of violent gales, especially in 
the north part of these islands, upon the value or the profitable 
nature of planting 1 " "' The violent gales will, no doubt, affect 
the returns where the woods are directly exposed to them, but I 
do not think that the loss would be so great as is generally 
assumed." — "The late Duke of Buccleuch spent a great many 
years in planting a large extent of the south of Scotland ; and a 
year or two ago, in 1883, two successive gales came, and it was 
estimated that 1,250,000 trees went down; have you any know- 
ledge of a similar occurrence on the Continent 1" "I was, last 
September, in a large forest district called the Bavarian For-est, 
which does not mean the forest of Bavaria, but is a particular 
very extensive district running near the boundary between 
Bavaria and Bohemia. I was not prepared for this question, and 
I could not give the exact area, but it is a very extensive forest 
district. In the year 1870, if I remember rightly, they had a 
gale in this large extent of forest which threw down so much 
timber that, in spite of the efforts of the officers in chai-ge (and 
the management is a very good one), all the available labour had 
not removed all the timber in 1885 when I was there ; that was 
fifteen years afterwards ; some of it was entirely rotten." — " That 
of course would entail a very great loss ] " "A veiy considerable 
loss." — "You alluded to Scottish foresters, and you were kind 
enough to call them ' shi-ewd ; ' do you think there is a more 
j.ractical knowledge of forestry in the north than in the south 1 " 
" I do not know that ; but I think there are more extensive forest 
lands in Scotland in the hands of one owner, and therefore, pro- 
bably, there ai-e better forests there. There is more aj)pearance 
of development in Scotland." — " Your observations lead you to 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OX FORESTRY. 353 

the conclusion that all over the country there is a great deal of 
waste by ignorant planting and subsequent ill-management 1 " 
" I should be afraid to give a precise answer in a few words to 
that. In my opinion, the best forest management of any area is 
that which is most in accordance with the wish and desire of the 
owner of that forest. Now the intentions and the wishes of 
owners of woodlands in England are often peculiar. One man 
may simply desire to produce beautiful trees ; another may desii-e 
to produce timber of a certain class ; a thLrd may desire to pro- 
duce the greatest possible quantity of timber that can be obtained 
from a certain area. Another may desire the highest annual 
return in money ; another may wish to have the highest possible 
interest upon the invested capital ; and another may make it 
subservient to shooting purposes. Those are all different aims 
and objects ; and I maintain that the man who manages the 
forest most in accordance with the intentions of the owner is the 
best forester." 

" The ultimate profit of woodlands depends very much, does it 
not, upon the way they are originally planted ; whether the trees 
are suitable to the soil and the situation?" "Very much 
indeed." — " Do you think that there is a considerable want of 
men in England who are capable of advising owners of land as to 
that matter]" •' I think there are a good many wood-managers 
in England and Scotland who are very well able to manage their 
business properly if permitted to do so." — " The usual men who 
advise owners in England ai-e land agents, and, as a mle, those 
gentlemen have but small opportunities of acquiring a knowledge 
of forestry ; do you think it would be a great advantage generally 
that they should have an opportunity of obtaining a certain 
amount of knowledge of forestry, and the management of wood- 
lands 1 " " I should think that would certainly act very bene- 
ficially." — " And there would be no difliculty in making arrange- 
ments for that knowledge being given to land agents and others 
of that class if there were a forest school attached to Cooper's 
Hill '] " " It would require special arrangements for gentlemen of 
that class." — " Do you think those arrangements could be made ] " 
** Yes, they could be made." 

** You stated that it might be well to send students to the 
Highland forests to study planting there; that would indicate 
your belief that the woodlands are sufficiently well managed to 
make them available for instruction V "I would take the 



354 KRl'ORT OK THE SELECT COMMITTEE OX FORESTRY. 

students there, because there are a great many things for them to 
see, but they could not see everything. I am now speaking of 
the pupils I am directly interested in training for the Indian 
service ; they could not see everything in Scotland." — " M. Boppe 
expressed an unfavourable opinion of the management of the 
woodlands in Scotland, and said that they were not managed 
upon scientific principles ; have you any knowledge of their 
management in those parts'?" "I spent a fortnight there last 
year ; I went into some of the Highland forests, and came away 
with a very high respect for some of the wood-managers I saw 
there. If the forests are not in every respect managed upon so 
perfect a system as gentlemen accustomed to look at it from a 
different point of view and under different considerations might 
think desirable, the reason, generally was that the forester had to 
give way to other considerations than those of merely scientific 
cultivation. I came across certain men who knew very well how 
to manage forests, and whenever I criticised and said I would not 
have managed a wood in the way it was actually done, I always 
found that they knew how and where the mistake was ; but they 
were also invariably able to give the explanation that it was the 
result of different considerations upon the mind of the owner. 
At present the foresters have to acquii-e their knowledge by a 
very laboi'ious, and to the owners of the land a very costly, pro- 
cess ; that is to say, by experience spread over a large period of 
years ; whereas if we had a suitable forest school we could, by 
gathering the experience gained in various parts of the country 
together, teach them in a coviple of years what, perhaps, it takes 
men of their class twenty years to acquire by personal observa- 
tion. That is the principal advantage of a forest school ; that it 
enables us to teach a young man in a limited space of time what 
he may otherwise spend half his lifetime in finding out." — 
" During which time he may make a number of expensive 
mistakes'?" "Precisely so." — "In your opinion are Scottish 
forests sufficiently well managed to make them available for the 
instruction of those gentlemen? " " As they stand now they are 
not." — " Then why do you recommend they should go there 1 " 
" I can show my men many points there ; I can show them how 
in the most admirable manner to plant forests ; and they probably 
would see that better in Scotland than elsewhere ; they might go 
a long way on the Continent before they would see planting so 
excellent as they would see in Scotland." — " Then what is the 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OX FORESTRY. 355 

defect 1 " " That the management becomes irregular after- 
wards." 

" In addition to the forest ground that you would set apart for 
the use of the school, you would acquire ground for experiments 
in planting as well as in the treatment of trees'?" "That we 
should do in that area." — " There are many parts of the country 
in which certain trees are better adapted to the soil than others 1 " 
" We could not grow everything ; we could only in an area of that 
class show the treatment of a few species. But the object would 
be to teach the pupils the general principles on a few species ; 
and then, understanding the treatment of a few species thoroughly, 
they would be easily able, by taking them to some other localities 
where other species of trees are grown, to understand in a short 
time how to treat others." — " So that you would have to take the 
students not merely to Scotland to show them the treatment of 
trees, but to take them to other parts of England?" " We could 
not transform the present area which might be made over to us 
into a suitable area in a hurry ; it would be a slow process." 

" Are you acquainted with Ireland at all 2 " " I spent three 
weeks in Ireland last year. I went to Cork and Bantry, and 
across to Killarney and Tralee, and thence to Limerick, thence to 
Galway and Clifden, and thence I went vid Westport to County 
Mayo, Bangor, and Belmullet, to County Sligo, through Donegal, 
along the north to Coleraine and Londonderry, I went round 
Lough Neagh, Belfast, and County Down, and then to Dublin." 
— "You did not see many trees, comparatively speaking, upon 
the coast]" " No." — " You are aware that in Queen Elizabeth's 
time the country was densely afforested 1 " "So I understand." 
— " You, perhaps, know that it was densely afforested ; you 
could see the axe-mai-ks upon the stumps?" "I did not see 
that ; but I have seen stumps of trees in many of the peat mosses ; 
there is no doubt that there were forests there." — " Then there is 
no doubt that it would be capable of growing trees if it were 
properly planted ] " " There are proofs to that effect in the 
woods now standing there ; I have seen even beech growing upon 
the west coast of Ireland within half a stone's throw of the coast," 
— " We may take it that the forests in Ireland have almost 
entirely disappeared '? " "There is a A-ery small proportion now 
under forest." — " That is from sheer neglect and waste ? " " It 
has been cut down for various purposes and never been replanted." 
" You suggested that it would be well for English landowners 



35 G REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 

who own woodlands to send their wood-reeves to a Scottish forest 
to learn something of forestry 'i " " Perhai)S I shoidd be careful 
not to put it quite so general as that ; to a good Scottish forester, 
I would say." — " "Would it not be the case that the instruction 
there would be somewhat imperfect, in view of the difference in 
the climate and the flora of Scotland from that of the south of 
England ; for instance, the Spanish chestnut would not be found 
in the north of Scotland 1 " " The statement I made was to this 
efiect, that I should send him to a Scottish forester in the 
absence of a forest school ; but, if there were a proper place for 
training, I should send him to the forest school." — " Do you think 
it would be better to have a school for England and a separate 
school for Scotland ? " "I do not think the climatic diflference 
between Scotland and England is so great as to make it necessary 
to have two schools for the two countries." — " Would there not 
be a great difference geologically?" "That opens a very large 
question. It is generally fovind that, with few exceptions, most 
of our timber trees do not mind what is the geological origin of 
the soil so long as it has certain physical qualities ; so that the 
geological question would hardly come into consideration." 

" In the paper handed in last year, containing the report by M. 
Boppe with regard to English and Scottish forests, it is stated that 
' in the low-lying districts at an altitude of from 250 to 300 feet 
we found growing, both singly along the roadside and collectively 
in forests, magnificent specimens of oak, maple, elm, ash, beech, 
and lime.' And again, ' The mountain vegetation commences 
at about 400 feet above the level of the sea;' now, in the county 
of Surrey, would it not be the case that the deciduous vegetation, 
if you may call it so, the beech, the oak, and other trees, would 
grow at a higher altitude than they would in Scotland ]" " If I 
correctly understand the drift of the question, I do not think 
that M. Boppe meant to say that that was exactly the limit; I 
believe that the distribution is to a very large extent quite 
artificial, according to what has been planted. I believe that in 
Scotland they plant the beech in the lower parts near the parks 
and places of that sort, and that in the mountains they plant 
more fir. At the same time it is quite correct that the oak in 
Scotland will not grow at so high an elevation as it will in 
England, nor in England will it grow so high as it will in France." 

" You were good enough to give the Committee a rough esti- 
mate of the amount of acreage of waste land in Ireland and in 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 357 

England. In Scotland you said that 70 per cent, of the land was 
waste ; you have not stated how much of that w^as suitable for 
planting]" "That would require a very detailed inquiry. I 
gave a rough estimate for the three countries together, and then 
I dealt specially, at the request of the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, 
with Ireland. The one estimate of 20,000 square miles refers to 
England, Scotland, and Ireland." — " Of the 70 per cent, in Scot- 
land which is waste, according to yoi;r statement, have you made 
any estimate of what is really suitable for planting ; have you 
considered in any way how much of the 70 per cent, of waste 
land is at such an altitude that it is not likely to pay for planting 
at ain " "There is a portion above a certain altitude which 
cannot be planted, but I cannot say at present how much that is." 
— " Would you give the Committee any idea of the limit where 
you have seen the larch in Scotch forests 1 " "I think the larch 
in Scotland does fairly well up to 2000 ft. ; above that it doe« 
not pay. I have seen it planted up to about 2500 or 2600 ft., 
and I thought that it did fairly well lap to about 2000 feet. 
Probably it would have been better if they had stopped at about 
1800 ft. ; in some parts they might go up to 2000 ft. It 
depends a great deal upon the locality, but I do not think it 
would pay generally to plant it above 1800 to 2000 ft." — "In 
the event of a forest school being established in connection with 
Cooper's Hill, Avould you recommend that all young men from Scot- 
land should be obliged to come so far as to the south of England 
in order to obtain the information and knowledge which is 
desirable upon that subject ; because the distance from the north 
of England or Scotland, where we want a number of young men 
trained in forestry, would be a considerable element V "I should 
say it is a matter of expense. If you have money to establish 
the two forest schools, it would be better to start the two ; if you 
have not the money, and, what is also a very important thing, if 
you have not yet a sufficient number of people to select your 
teachers and professors from, it is probably better to begin with 
one school." — " Upon the whole, if the conditions were favourable, 
you think it would be more satisfactory to have, in addition to 
the school at Cooper's Hill, a forestry school in Scotland V "I 
am not prepared to subscribe to that statement. There would 
probably be a great deal of difficulty in making satisfactory 
arrangements in one place, and if you start with two or three 
places the difficulties would be doubled and trebled. It is, how- 



358 iiiii'ouT or the sklf-xt coMMiTTKr-: on FOUESTitv, 

ever, principally a matter of expense ; if you can have two schools 
so much the better," — " We have been told in this room that it 
would be desirable, in addition to there being a forestry school in 
England, that there should be a similar establishment, or possibly 
two similar establishments, in Scotland. Do you consider a 
similar establishment, if itcouhlbe arranged, would be as desiraVjle 
in Scotland as it would be at Cooper's Hill 1" " To begin with, 
I do not think there would be a sufficient number of men to fill 
two schools." — " But the amount of the woodlands in Scotland 
being so large, are we not likely to require the advantages of 
education in forestry quite as much as those who are further 
south 1 " " No doubt ; it is simply a matter of expense ; of 
course it would be desirable for the Scottish foresters to have the 
school nearer home." — " We have heard that if it is desirable 
that there should be one school of forestry in Great Britain, it is 
highly desirable that it should be upon the other side of the 
Tweed and not upon this? " " There may be a practical reason 
for its being at Cooper's Hill. Seeing that we have already got 
an establishment at Cooper's Hill, and that the Government of 
India will probably always select the best men they can find to 
conduct that business, you have already offered you there condi- 
tions which you might not be able to find elsewhere, therefore it 
would be probably easier at starting to make a beginning here 
than in Scotland. But I will go so far as to say this, that if 
Cooper's Hill was at Perth, and the Govei'nment of India had 
made ari-angements for ti-aining their officers at Perth, it would 
be certainly better there than that it should be at Cooper's Hill. 
The forests round there could be much more easily brought into 
condition for teaching than round about Windsor." — " If the 
thing were first starting, you think that Perth or somewhere in 
the neighbourhood of the large Scottish forests, would be better 
than the establishment of a forest school in the south of England ] " 
" If I started with everything blank before me I would have the 
school in Scotland." — " With regard to the low price of home- 
grown timber, you mentioned the intermittent chai'acter of the 
supplies from our woods, and Sir Herbert Maxwell asked you a 
question with regard to the destruction of the Duke of Buccleuch's 
woods in 1883. Could you suggest any way in which we could 
avoid these intermittent sales of timbei', which, as you say, 
diminish our profits ; or could you tell the Committee of any way 
than by casual operations we can increase our sales?" "I 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 359 

believe the large Scottish forest owners would very considerably 
increase their returns from the forests if they decided to work 
their forests systematically. Supposing those lands were in the 
hands of the State, and the State were to say, we will make a 
working plan of operations ; we will cut down so much every 
year for the next thirty years. Suppose the Government made 
an announcement of that sort, the result would be that enter- 
prising people would take to trading in timber, because they 
could rely for a series of years upon a stated quantity being 
thrown into the market. Under present circumstances a Scottish 
owner one year cuts down perhaps a 1000 acres, and the next 
year perhaps some other consideration arises ; perhaps he does not 
want money, or somebody gives him =£1000 for the right of 
shooting the deer upon the forest ; then the merchant will be left 
high and dry." 

" You made a distinction, as regards the management of woods, 
between woods managed upon commercial principles and woods 
managed according to the express A'iews and tastes of the owner? " 
" I made that distinction." — " Looking upon this question purely 
in a commercial light, do you think that the establishment of a 
school of forestry would tend to increase the value of our wood- 
lands by drawing attention to the defects in the management of 
our woodlands as a question of commerce, quite apart from the 
treatment of timber according to the views or tastes of the owner 1 " 
" I think it would ; it would be a saving of time if nothing else." 

" Do you think the remark has had any foundation, that more 
success would be attained if greater care were paid to planting 
protection belts round the conifers'?" "There are some plants 
which are flat-rooted and some deep-rooted. Upon the Continent 
they pay great attention where there is danger anticipated from 
storms to having deep-rooted species upon the windy side. There 
is no doubt more attention is paid to that on the Continent than 
there is in Scotland ; I have seen in the Thuringian Forest mixed 
forests of spruce and silver fir ; the trees were standing in rows ; 
and upon the windy side, where they had for the leading tree a 
silver fir, they stood well, and where the leading tree had been a 
spruce they were all blown down," — " Do you think much of the 
damage which now occurs might be prevented by the adoption of 
some such principle? " " Yes, very much ; but damage by storms 
will always occur." — " As to whether there should be one or two 
schools of forestry, that would depend upon the number of 



SGO JIKI'OIIT OF TJIK SKLKCT CO.MMITTKK ON FOIiKSTltY. 

sUulouts that would be likely to go there. In your opinion it 
would be better to have one well-equipped school than to have 
two not so well provided 1 " " Yes, cei-tainly ; I believe that for 
some years to come there will not be more students than could be 
jjroperly taught at one school." — "You do not think that the 
distance the students would have to come would be so important 
a considei-ation as that of having a forest school thoroughly well 
equipped'? " " I think not." — " Do you consider that one advan- 
tage of a forest school would be, that there might l^e a certain 
amount of research into different questions as to the habits of 
insects and other matters of that sort bearing ujxjn the manage- 
ment of woodlands ? " " That is a matter I attach special im- 
portance to ; it will form a centre of research upon questions 
connected with all departments of foi'estry ; the facts as they are 
observed in different parts of the country will be brought together." 
— " You think we have a great deal to learn which even the most 
experienced foresters ai'e not acquainted with 1" "A very great 
deal indeed." — " And you would attach great importance to the 
mere fact of teaching young men what we ourselves have ob- 
served]" "I would attach very great importance to that." — 
" At Cooper's Hill you are proposing to utilise, for the purpose 
of instruction, certain portions of Windsor Forest ]" "If they 
can be made available."—" That is the idea 1 " " Yes."—" Have 
you visited the Forest of Deanl" "I have spent a couple of 
days there." — "The Windsor Forest has been chosen mainly as 
being nearer Cooper's Hill 1 " " It has."—" Would the Forest of 
Dean be as suitable 1 " " The Forest of Dean in its present state 
is very uniform ; there is not much variety ; it is principally oak." 
— "Then it wovild be good as far as the oak is concerned, but not 
good in other respects 1" "I do not think the Forest of Dean is 
of a specially suitable character for our purposes ; it is too 
uniform." — " Are there any other woodlands in this countiy that 
you think would be suitable 1" "I should say that even the 
New Forest would be a better field of instruction than the Forest 
of Dean, because there is more variety." — " You think that there 
are in the New Forest woodlands which might be suitable for the 
purpose?" "To a certain extent." — " Eeverting for a moment 
to the qviestion with reference to belts of hardwood trees as a pro- 
tection to the growing firs, would trees, such as the birch, for 
instance, grow up quickly enough to give protection, because that 
protection is required mostly when the firs have grown to a con- 



RErOIlT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OX FORESTRY. 3G1 

siderable height ; would the bircli be suitable for that purpose 1 " 
" It would be suitable to a ^-ery fair extent ; but it is not one of 
the best. The birch is not a very deep-rooted tree, but it has a 
thin crown, and consequently it is not often thrown. There are 
other trees which would stand more firmly, but in many places 
the birch in this respect is a very useful tree, where perhaps it 
would not be possible to grow another tree that would stand 
more firmly." — "The beech would be suitable, would it nof?" 
" Where the birch would come in the beech would probably be 
out of the question ; the birch is a much harder tree, and it has 
an enormous power of accommodation ; it will accommodate itself 
to almost any circumstances." — " What sort of height would you 
consider that a tree would require to grow to be a protection to 
the firs ; because the time of great danger to our Scottish wood- 
lands would be when they were from thirty to forty years old 1 " 
" Old trees are much more liable to be thrown than young trees ; 
the fringe would grow up with the rest of the forest." — " In one 
case you would have a slow growing hardwood tree and a very 
fast growing softwood tree l " " No doubt." — " But the birch 
answers very fairly as a belt, and breaks the wind to a very consider- 
able extent 1 " " It does break the wind to a considerable extent." 
" From what you say it appears that there would not be a very 
great demand for men who have acquii-ed technical knowledge in 
regard to this question after two or three years' study]" "I 
understand you to mean men who have gone through an extended 
course of two or three years 1 " " Yes ] " "I do not think that 
outside the Indian Forest Department the demand would be very 
large." — " If there were such a class of men as independent men 
in private practice, it seems to me that they would fulfil the want 
referred to, by going out and advising landowners in regard to 
private properties?" "I have a difiiculty in replying to that 
question, for this reason, that even men who have been trained in 
a course of two years or so would not be the proper persons to be 
employed as advisers upon such a matter as forest management ; 
genei'ally speaking, they would be good managers of a forest 
estate ; but for giving advice after an examination of a limited 
duration nobody should be employed who had not had some years 
of practical experience himself in a forest ; owners would probably 
save a good deal of money by attending to this." — " In view of 
the forests of this country being in the hands of private owners, 
is not there a great need that those who manoge those forests for 



362 lUOI'OKT OF TlIK SKLKCT COMMITTEE ON FOKESTKY. 

the private owners should have an opportunity of acquiring 
technical instruction in forestry with a view to their conducting 
the business of their employers ] " "I have no doubt that there 
is a certain demand for that talent." — "Do you think that that 
instruction could be given by the School of Forestry 1 " " All 
those things are matters of expense ; that could certainly be 
arranged." 

"With regard to what you have said as to there not being a 
large demand for forest oflicials, we have in our colonies an 
enormous tract of woodland, have we not?" "Yes." — "And 
none of them have any forest school at all at present 1" "No, I 
do not think so." — " Would it not be likely that if there were a 
class of English speaking officials, the colonies would be very 
glad to avail themselves, and they would be very wise to avail 
themselves, of their services 1 " " They would be very wise 
indeed. I think I have heard of almost every case of that 
class which has turned up, where a man was wanted for the 
colonies ; and I think it is a melancholy fact that I could count 
them almost on the fingers of one hand. At the same time I have 
no doubt that many of the colonies are waking up to the im- 
portance of the matter now, and that some years hence the 
demand for men of that class will very much increase." — " The 
attention which has been called to the question will probably lead 
the colonies to pay more attention to their woodlands in the 
future than they have done in the past 1" "I have no doubt it 
must come to that." — " Do you not think that large landowners 
would be willing to get the services of men who have been 
thoroughly trained rather than to take the advice of men who had 
gained their experience through a series of twenty years of expen- 
sive mistakes 'i " " If they consulted their purse no doubt they 
would." — "You think there would be a considerable desire to 
gain that training 1" "I think it would be a very good step to 
do so ; but whether we should secure at first a large number of 
pupils I doubt. It was in regard to whether there should be two 
schools that I said there would be at first but a small demand, 
but after the school had been established and successfully carried 
on I have no doubt there would be a large demand for the 
education." 

Mr Julian C. Rogers, Secretary to the Surveyors' Institution, 
who had been examined in 1885, was next called and re-examined. 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OX FORESTRY. 363 

The evidence now given by him was chiefly in support of the 
Institution he represented, and the advantages of a theoretical 
knowledge of forestry to land agents. In his advocacy of the 
importance of a knowledge of forestry to land agents, he stated 
*' that a great point would be gained if the present race of land 
agents, loho are the only possible foresters, were provided with 
some means of acquiring scientific information with regard to the 
management of woods." Much evidence in the same strain was 
given by this witness, but as it had nothing in it of a pi-acticable 
nature, there is no necessity for an extended report. 

The last witness examined was Mr Alexander Mackenzie, 
Superintendent of Epping Forest, who furnished the Committee 
with much important information, the result of a long experience, 
concerning the neglected condition of the woodlands in Hertford- 
shii'e, and other parts of the country, and also bore strong testi- 
mony to the great advantages that might be derived from their 
proper management by a trained and educated race of foresters. 

This finished the evidence taken in 1886. It is to be hojjed 
that circumstances may be more favovirable during the Parlia- 
mentary Session of 1887, for the completion of the duties of the 
Committee. Landowners and foresters are looking forward with 
anxious interest to the finding of the Committee, in the hope that 
a practicable solution may be obtained of the important question 
set before it. 



3G4 sPKCincATiONS for tiik krfx'tiox of a fokester's cottage. 

XVI. Sppxificatlons of Worhs to he Executed in the Erection of a 
Forester's Cottage ; with Plans and Sections. By Wm. 
Macintosh, 5 Thistle Street, Edinburgh. 
{See Plate XL for Plans and Sections. ) 

Mason Work. 

Excavations. — The site shall be pi'operly prepared for the recep- 
tion of the building, and cleared of all the surface soil, which shall 
be deposited in a place to be pointed out by the Inspector. The 
track for the foundation shall be dug out to the solid subsoil ; and 
all making up must be of solid building ; but in no case shall the 
upper bed of the scarcement be nearer the finished surface than 
12 inches, as shown by sections. 

Contractors must examine the ground as to the nature and level 
of same, as no extra price will be allowed for excavating or building 
extra foundations. 

Materials. — The stones shall be taken from Whitehouse Quarry, 
and shall be of the best quality of rock from that quarry. All 
stones used for dressed work must be thoroughly sound and free 
from clay pits, iron stain, or any other blemish. 

The bricks used shall be well burnt, of good sound quality from 
Hillhead Brickworks, 9 inches by 4| inches by 2| inches. The lime 
used shall be from Woodend Limeworks ; and the sand used to be 
clean, sharp, or river washed, free from salt or vegetable matter ; 
and the cement shall be Portland, weighing not less than 110 lbs. 
per " striked " bushel. 

The mortar to be composed of one part lime to two parts sand 
thoroughly soured and sifted together, and to remain not less than 
eight days in the souring heap, and to be well mixed and beaten 
before being used in the works. 

Building. — The foundations to be formed of large flat-bedded 
stones laid on their natural beds, header and stretcher alternately, 
having all their joints well packed and flushed with stone shivers 
and mortar, to form scarcements 4 inches wide on each side of walls, 
as shown by sections, and Avhere there are wood floors the scarce- 
ments shall be 7 inches wide to receive the wall plates for the joists. 
The whole walls over the foundations (with the after-mentioned 
exception) shall be of the best quality of lime-built rubble masonry, 
and no stone used in the face of the building to be higher than 
10 inches. Bond stones shall be placed in each course at distances 



SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE ERECTION OF A FORESTER'S COTTAGE. 365 

not more than 5 feet apart going two-tbirds through the wall, and 
built from outside and inside alternately. Dwarf walls must be 
built under all wood and brick partitions and sleeper joists on 
ground floor. The walls to be hand-packed and hearted with stone 
and lime, sneck-harled inside, and clean pointed and cut off at 
every levelling outside. Inbonds, rybats, and scuutions to cross 
the wall, and to be 8 inches thick, and outbonds to be 21 inches 
long. The partition between the back wing and parts of sitting- 
room and parlour to be of bricks, built with a good firm bond. 
Bond-wood, which shall be provided by the carpenter, and shall 
be built by the mason into all walls, except coal place, in a hori- 
zontal position at distances 20 inches from centre to centre. 
Chimney vents to be lined with, fire-clay vent linings — those for 
rooms and bedrooms to be circular 9 inches diameter, the kitchen 
vent to be oval 11 inches by 13 inches, and all to have fireclay 
oncomes. The vent linings to be taken 6 inches through the 
chimney cope, and finished witli a roll. Chimney cope to be in 
pieces to breadth the top, and batted together with iron bats run 
with lead. Four openings, 4 inches square, to be formed in the 
walls to admit air to the sleeper joists. These openings to be 
furnished outside with cast-iron gratings, and securely batted into 
the stones with lead. 

The floors of kitchen, pantry, coal place, and passage leading 
from back entrance door to same, shall be brought up to within 
3 inches of door soles, with broken stones well packed, at least 
6 inches in depth ; above this 2 inches of concrete will be laid in 
the proportion of one part cement to five parts sharp sand and 
shingle, well mixed together, and to be finished to the level of door 
soles with 1 inch concrete in the proportion of one part cement to 
one part sand, properly smoothed over and hand floated. 

Dressed Work. — The rybats, corners, spurstones, skew-tabling, 
chimney heads, corners and coping mullions, soles, lintels, jambs and 
lintels of fireplaces, arch stones and finial of porch, shall be chisel 
droved, and scuntions inside to be well squared ; upstarts of roof 
windows, door soles and steps, and hearthstones shall be scabbled, 

Heartlis. — The hearths on ground floor to be scabbled freestone, 
3 inches thick, laid on a foundation of solid masonry, and hearths 
of upper floor to be of the same material and thickness, but to be 
bedded in concrete formed of one part cement to three parts sand, 
resting on strong deals laid by the carpenter — these hearthstonea to 
have 4 inches hold of wall. 



oGG SPECIFK.'ATIONS FOI'.THl'; KKFOTION OF A FOKKSTEIi's COTTAGE. 

Grates. — Grates shall be provided and laid down at the building 
free of charge by the employer, but shall be securely built into their 
proper places by the mason. 

The contractor to leave all holes in walls for beams, etc., and do 
any boring necessary, and to build or cut all raggles, beamfill the 
wall heads after the roofs are set, and execute all jobbing required 
to finish this department of the work in a tradesman-like manner, 
and leave the same complete in accordance with the foregoing 
specification, general conditions, and plans to which they refer. 

{See General Conditions.) 

Carpenter Work. 

Materials. — The window sashes and cases, outside doors and their 
posts, shall be of Baltic redwood. The inside finishings of rooms 
and bedrooms, the doors of same, and staircase, shall be of Nor- 
wegian whitewood ; and the roofing, sarking, joisting, safe-lintels, 
and all other wood-work in connection with this department, not 
otherwise specified, shall be of matured grown, well-seasoned Scots 
fir. 

Safe-lintels. — Safe-lintels shall be placed over all voids not less 
than \\ inches deep for every foot in span, and to have 9 inches of 
wall hold. 

Joists. — The sleeper joists of ground floor to be 6 inches by 2| 
inches, placed at 18 inches from centre to centre ; and the joisting 
of upper floor to be 9 inches by 2>}, inches, and to have 9 inches 
of wall hold. The joisting and roofing to be carefully bridled for 
stairs, hearths, windows, and skylights, and all joists and rafters 
shall rest on wall plates 7 inches by \\ inches. 

Roofs. — The roofs to be constructed as shown by sections, and 
will consist of rafters and ties 6 inches by 2| inches, checked at 
the joints, and securely nailed with patent-cressed spikes, two to 
each joint, and of sufiicient length for J-inch rivet after going 
through. The roofs and framing of windows and roof of porch to 
be of timber 4 inches by 2 inches. At joining of roofs the diagonal 
rafters to be 7 inches by 3 inches, and ridge 8 inches by H inches. 
The sarking to be |-inch thick, closely jointed and securely 
nailed. 

The skylights to be of cast-iron, having proper flange frames, 
hinged, and having sprent bars ; that over staircase to be 36 inches 
by 24 inches, and all others 18 inches by 24 inches, all glazed 



SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE ERECTION OF A FORESTEIl's COTTAGE. 3G7 

with sheet glass ~ inch thick, each strip in one piece, and the 
openings inside to be properly finished. 

BimJ-wood. — Bond-wood 4 inches by 1 inch shall be provided 
by the contractor, and placed into its position 'l<d inclies from centre 
to centre by the mason. The whole walls, except coal place, to be 
strapped with 1^ inches by 1 inch straps, nailed to the bond-wood. 

Partitions. — The partition posts shall be 4: inches by 2 inches, 
placed at 18 inches from centres. Door-posts and lintels in par- 
titions to be 6 inches by 3 inches, checked for lath and plaster, 
and in stone walls the door-posts to be 5 inches by 2i inches, fixed 
with split bats. 

Stair. — The stair to be properly bracketed up with strong strings 
and intermediate bearer 6 inches by 2^ inches, with rough brackets, 
the risers to be 1 inch thick, and treads 1^ inches thick, with 
nosing. The balusters to be of cast-iron, a specimen standard to 
be submitted for approval, two to be fixed on each tread, and 
those on landing to be the same distance a[)art. The coping to be 
of best pitch pine 2 J inches by 3 inches, and to have a proper 
twist and scroll. 

Floors and skirtings. — All wood floors to be laid with l^-inch 
dressed and ploughed flooring, securely nailed and cleared ofl'. 
The whole of the upper floors to be prepared for deafening with 
fillets nailed to the joists 1 inch square, and resting on these fillets 
|-inch ragdeals properly split, and the floors to be trimmed with 
trimmers 8 inches by 1 J inches. All walls to be finished with 
skirting 1-| inches thick and 7 inches deep. 

Wi7iJoirs. — The windows shall be sash windows, having pulley- 
pieces of 1-inch deals, outer and inner facings l|-iuch deals, sashes 
to be 2g inches thick, with hooked counter checks, double hung 
with patent cord or zinc chain over brass-faced pulleys 2 inches in 
diameter, and metal weights. Windows to have brass spring sash 
fasteners, lifters, and pull-down eyes. The sides, dados, and 
soffits of windows on ground floor to be plain lined, and finished 
with facings set on blocks. The angles of the sides of windows 
on ground floor to have 4 inches moulded facings |-inch thick. 
All windows and fanlights to be primed and glazed with 26 oz. 
sheet glass, and lobby door to have ui»per panels of obscure sheet 
glass 32 oz., all securely fixed with oil putty. Angles for which 
no finishing is specified to have l|-inch staff beads. 

Boors. — Front entrance door to be framed and panelled 2J 
inches thick, with inch panels moulded on both sides, and hung 

VOL. XI., PART III. 2 C 



3G8 SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE ERECTION OF A FORESTER's COTTAGE. 

with three G-incli doublo-jointod edge hinges, and to have an 8-inch 
cased lock and solid brass furniture, with proper stops and facings. 
The transom bar to be moulded, and the fanlight properly framed. 
The back entrance door to have side styles and top rail 2 inches 
thick, bottom and intermediate rails 1 1 inches thick, lined with |-inch 
dressed and ploughed lining, and to have 8-inch case lock and brass 
furniture hung with three C-inch double-jointed hinges, and to have 
proper stops and facings, transom bar to be moulded, and fanlight 
framed. Doors of sitting-room, parlour, and lobby to be framed 
If inches thick, plain panels | inch thick and moulded, and to be 
finished with facings same as windows. Bedroom, and other inside 
doors, to be \h inches thick, framed and panelled with Much 
thick panels, and moulded on both sides 4 inches broad and | 
inch thick, and to have facings corresponding to the windows. 
Press doors to match the room doors, and to have Is. Gd. press 
locks and sham furniture. The sitting-room, parlour, and bed- 
room doors to have 6-inch mortise locks and satin-wood furniture, 
and case locks for all others with brass furnishings, all to be hung 
with 6-inch double-jointed edge hinges, and to have |-inch stops. 

Mantelpieces and Shelving. — Parlour, sitting-room, and bed- 
rooms to have neat wooden mantelpieces as shall be directed by 
the inspector, and the kitchen fireplace to have a shelf li inches 
thick batted into the lintel; 36 superficial feet of shelving for 
kitchen, and 40 superficial feet of shelving for pantry of 1-inch 
boards, dressed and ploughed, shall be fitted up where shown, 
supported on cast-iron brackets. Presses to be lined with ^-inch 
dressed and ploughed deal, those in bedrooms to have one shelf 
and four wardrobe hooks, and all other presses to have four 
shelves each of 1-inch deals. 

Smk and Water-Closet. — The sink in kitchen to be supported 
on proper framing, lined around and in front with ^-inch dressed, 
ploughed, and beaded lining, part being made portable, hinged 
with small hinges and fixed with button snecks; and the top of 
sink table to be 1 inch thick. The front ends of water-closet to 
be covered with frames IJ inches thick, and panelled, the front 
being portable. The seat and lid to be of same thickness, 
panelled, beaded, and flushed, and hinged with two brass hinges. 
Partitions in coal place to be lined with |-inch boards. 

Painting. — All outside wood and iron work to receive four 
coats of good oil paint, to be finished to a colour selected by the 
employer. 



SPECIFICATIOXS FOR THE ERECTIOX OF A FORESTER'S COTTAGE. 369 

All carpenter work required by plumbers or bellhangers to be 
provided. The window glass and all the interior of the house to be 
left clean at completion, and all work in connection with this 
department to be finished in a tradesman-like manner, and left 
complete, in accordance with the foregoing specification, general 
conditions, and plans to which they refer. 

{See General Coiulitions.) 

Slater Work. 

The roof lights shall be provided by the carpenter, but securely 
fixed into the proper places by the slater. 

The roofs, including roof of porch and roofs and sides of win- 
dows, shall be covered with best dark blue Port Dinorwick slates, 
16 inches by 10 inches, and not less than | inch thick. The 
slating to be put on with an average cover of 2^ inches, each slate 
double-nailed with 12-lb. nails (dipped in oil when red-hot), and 
the slating to be fair and securely laid, and well shouldered with haired 
plaster. The ridges to be covered with fireclay ridge tiles, with 7-inch 
wings, bedded on cement, and carefully jointed and pointed with 
the same. The skews, raggles, and chimney-heads to be carefully 
pointed with cement, and the whole made weather-proof, and 
finished in a tradesman-like manner, according to the foregoing 
specification, general conditions, and plans to which they refer. 
{See General Conditions.) 

Plumber "Work. 

The roof lead shall weigh 6 lbs. per square foot ; sill-pieces of 
skylights to be l-l inches broad, turned up inside. Angle-pieces of 
roof windows, chimney necks, etc., 10 inches broad, grooved into 
the stone. The rhones to be of cast-iron, half round, 5 inches 
in diameter, supported on malleable-iron straps \\ inches by \ inch, 
securely screwed to sarking. The down pipes shall be round, of 
cast-iron, 3 inches in diameter, and secured to the walls with iron 
crampets ; to have rain-water heads at top, with proper covers, and 
shoes at bottom, and to discharge on fireclay basins with iron 
gratings, having sufficient sand-traps connected with the drains. 

Waste-pipes. — The soil-pipe to be of 6-lb. lead, 5 inches in 
diameter, carried 2 feet through the walls, and joined to a "Buchan's 
trap " with air-grating over it. The upper end of soil-pipe to be 
carried through the roof, and finished with an air-pump ventilator 



370 SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE ERECTION OF A FORESTEh's COTTAGE. 

(Boyle's). The waste-i)ipe from sink to be trapped, Ijaving a proper 
overflow pipe connected with drain outside })y a " J'uclian's trap." 

Sink. — The sink to be of galvanised cast-iron, 18 inches by 24 
inches by 10 inches; to have all necessary fittings, including plug, 
socket, and chain, yfiih. overflow pii)e, properly trapped. 

Water-Closet. — The water-closet to be Shank's patent closet No.l, 
with 3-gallon patent reliable cistern, complete with brass fittings. 

Water Supply. — The main water supply-pipe to be of lead, f-inch 
bore, 7 lbs. per yard, sunk 18 inches in the ground and properly 
covered, and carried up to cistern and securely connected. The 
branches to sink and water-closet to be f-inch diameter, and sink 
branch to be finished with |-inch brass nose cock. 

Bellhanging. — The bells to be hung on a board in the kitchen, 
and to weigh from 10 to 12 oz. each, and to have proper springs 
and carriages. The wire to be of copper No. 16, B.W. gauge, 
conveyed in zinc tubes behind lath and plaster or under floors at 
angles ; to have small brass pulleys and chains, the wires to be con- 
veyed to sitting-room, parlour, and three bedrooms on upper floor, 
and front entrance door. 

The front entrance to have a 4-inch octagon bronze puU-sneck in 
the door rybat. The sitting-room and parlour to have each a pair 
of levers, value 7s. Gd., and bedroom levers to be of the value of 
3s. ; all pulls to match the door furniture. 

All work to be completed in a tradesman-like manner, according 
to the foregoing specification, general conditions, and plans to which 
they refer. 

{See General Conditions.) 

Plaster Work. 

The whole ceilings, partitions on both sides, stone walls where 
strapped, window sides, dados, and soffits, where not lined with wood, 
stair backs, etc., to be lathed with sawn and split fir lath, f inch, 
put on with cast lath nails. The whole thereafter to receive three 
coats of plaster, the first two coats prepared with one part lime to 
two and one-fourth parts clean sharp sand, and one-sixth part hair, 
and to be finished with a coat of fine stufl', all properly straighted, 
hand-floated, hand-finished, and smoothed. 

The whole of the upper floors to be deafened from wall to wall ; 
to have first a coat of hair-plaster, filled in above with smithy ashes, 
and finished with a coat of plaster, the whole being at least 2i 



SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE ERECTION OF A FORESTEU's COTTAGE. 371 

inches thick. All -window cases to be bedded in lime, and 
pointed with cement outside. 

The spaces behind all skirting to be lathed and plastered close 
down to the floor. The sitting-room, parlour, and front entrance 
passage shall be finished with IS-inch cornices, according to draw- 
ings to be supplied by the inspector ; and the whole to be finished 
in a neat, tradesman-like manner, according to the foregoing speci- 
fication, general conditions, and plans to which they refer. 
{See General Conditions.) 

General Conditions. 

1. Contractors shall provide all materials (except such materials 
as are otherwise expressly specified in the foregoing specifications), 
and provide scaff"olding, tools, etc., and bear every other expense 
necessary to complete the works, in terms of the foregoing specifi- 
cations, these presents, and the plans to which they refer ; and oflfers 
for each department of the work to include all such expense. 

2. Whatever is shown on the plans shall be considered as both 
shown and specified ; and whatever is specified shall be considered 
as both specified and shown. 

3. The employer reserves full power to alter or vary the fore- 
going specifications and plans as he may think fit during the pro- 
gress of the works. The increase or deduction on the contract 
price in consequence of such alterations or variations shall either 
be settled by contract before being proceeded with, or be made at 
a valuation fixed by the inspector of works. ISTo extras shall be 
allowed unless sanctioned by the inspector of works in writing, at 
prices agreed upon. 

•1. The inspector shall have full power to reject all work or 
materials not in strict conformity with the plans and specifications, 
or in his opinion not fit to be used in the works ; and should the 
contractor, after due notice has been given him, fail to remove any 
such work or materials, or fail to carry on the work satisfactorily 
and expeditiously, so as to ensure its completion by the stipulated 
time, the inspector, on behalf of the employer, shall have full power, 
under reservations of all claims of damages against the contractor 
for breach of contract, to remove such work or materials, and carry 
on and finish the work at the contractor's expense, and the con- 
tractor shall not be entitled to interfere with or molest those 
employed by the inspector to complete the works. 



372 SPECIFICATIONS FOR Till:: lOllKCTION OF A FOHKSTKr'.S COTTAGE. 

5. Ill the event of any difference of opinion arising as to the true 
meaning or intent of any part of the plans or specifications, or as to 
the value of any work or material, the same shall be determined by 
two arbiters, of vi'hom one shall be chosen by the employer, and the 
other by the contractor, with power to the arbiters to name an 
oversman in the event of their differing in opinion. 

G. Payments shall be made as the work progresses to the extent 
of 75 per cent, of the value of the work executed, as shall be deter- 
mined by the inspector, and the balance shall be paid when the 
work is completed and taken off the contractor's hands by the 
inspector. 

7. The contractor for mason work shall be bound to commence 
work on the day of , and carry on the same so as to 

have the walls ready for the roof before the day of , 

and the whole contract finished by the day of thereafter. 

The contractor for carpenter work shall commence roofing as soon 
as the walls are ready for the roof, and shall have the whole roofing 
finished within twelve days thereafter, and carry on his dei^artment 
of the work so as to have the whole completed by the day 

of . The contractors for plumber and slater works shall 

commence the roofing operations immediately the sarkingis finished, 
and shall have the whole roofs finished within ten days thereafter, 
and both shall have their contracts finished by the day of 

The contractor for plaster work shall commence his department 
whenever the walls are strapped, and have his contract completed by 
the day of 

8. The whole and every department of the afore-described works 
shall be finished in a neat, substantial, and workman-like manner, 
and the plans completed to the satisfaction of the inspector of 
works, notwithstanding that any necessary parts of the same may 
not have been particularly specified or noticed in the foregoing. 



REARIXG AXD MANAGEMENT OF HARDWOOD PLANTATIONS. 373 

XVII, On the Rearing and Management of Hardwood Plantations. 
By A. M'D. Grant, Assistant Forester, Hopetoun, South 
Queensfeny. 

The rearing and management of hardwood plantations is one of 
the most important branches of Forestry. It has been ably and 
extensively treated by some of the most eminent arboricultui'ists 
of the day. The subject is, however, by no means exhausted. 
To be properly understood, it requires not only diversified experi- 
ence, but careful study as well. On the treatment which planta- 
tions receive from time to time, depends, to a very gi-eat extent, 
the success of the undertaking both from a utilitarian and a3sthetic 
point of view. The forester may, in fact, be said to hold the 
future welfare of a plantation in his hands. If, for instance, a 
mistake be made in the methods of planting adopted ; if the 
distribution of the trees be not properly carried out ; if the 
draining of the ground be injudiciously executed ; or if indis- 
criminate pruning or thinning be indulged in, the desired ends 
will never be attained, the result being that the planter must 
sufler not only disappointment, but discouragement and loss to 
boot. In laying out a plantation, the first considerations to be 
attended to are, the nature of the soil, altitude, exposure, the 
manner in which the produce to be raised is to be got out of the 
plantation, and the particular object the plantation itself is to 
serve. If these points be kept in view, and if the after manage- 
ment be properly carried forward, there is no reason why the 
labours of those concerned should not be crowned with success. 

Hardwood plantations may be said to include those grown for 
scenic efiect, and those for profit alone. In my opinion, however, 
some attention can always be paid to the landscape eflfect without 
interfering with the value of the plantation, or incurring much 
expense on its cultivation. The circumstances and views of the 
proprietor have, of course, a good deal to do with this. In most 
cases, however, there is generally some pains taken to enhance 
the beauty of the landscape, but everybody is, I should say, alive 
to the fact that profit is the paramount object to be attained. 

In treating the subject under consideration, I shall, in the 
meantime, endeavour to point out a course of treatment which 
may reasonably be expected to produce satisfactory results, both 
from a ]jecuniary and an aesthetic point of view, bearing in mind, 
howevex-, that profit comes first. 



374 RKAKING AND MANAGEMENT OK HAKUWOOlJ I'LANTATIONS. 

Fanciny. — Tlioro are so many excellent systems of fencing that 
it would be invidious to recommend one kind more than another. 
At all events, the site of a plantation should always be securely 
fenced, and, where ground game is plentiful, every possible means 
shoukl be resorted to for keeping them from making inroads ou 
the plants, as nothing could possibly retard their growth more 
than the attacks of hares and rabbits. It will be found cheaper, 
in the long run, to erect a proper fence at first, for the simple 
reason that the patching up of an inferior one is, in nine cases 
out of ten, simply throwing away money for no good result. 

Draining. — Drains should always be scored off previous to 
commencing planting operations. It is not, however, necessary 
to have them opened until afterwards. Though a good system of 
drainage is absolutely necessary to the welfare of a plantation — 
nay, contributes considerably to its financial success, — it must often 
be limited to what is really necessary, for the simple reason that 
the making and keeping of ditches increase considerably the ex- 
pense of a plantation. It must also be observed that over-draining 
would be disastrous in its results. In some instances little or 
no drainage is required, in others it cannot be dispensed with. 
The "herring-bone" system, which is very commonly adopted, is 
by no means to be commended, because it impedes cart-trafiic, 
dragging wood, etc., etc. This system may, however, be adopted 
with propriety when the ground is marshy. The state of the soil 
has a good deal to do with the size of the drains. From 3 to 3|- 
feet wide and 2 to 2| feet deep are the general dimensions. By 
looking over the drains occasionally, it can easily be seen when 
they require to be " scoured " out — a very necessary proceeding 
which must not be overlooked. 

Planting. — There are two distinct methods of planting, viz., 
pitting and notching. Pitting is admitted on all hands to be the 
most preferable for, at least, all hardwood plants. Notching can, 
however, be adopted with propriety in planting moorland with 
conifers. At the age at which foresters generally approve of 
planting out hardwoods, considerable benefit is derived from the 
making of large roomy pits, so that the roots of the plant be 
allowed to be set in their natural position, and covered up and 
firmed with soft earth. It will thus the more readily strike out 
young fibrous roots, and be enabled to develop itself the more 
quickly. 

The size of the holes should never be less than 14 inches square, 



REARING AND MAXAGEMENT OF HARDWOOD PLANTATIONS. 375 

SO that the planter may have every opportunity of tirniing the 
plant thoroughly, so as to keep it safely in its position. If this 
be not carefully attended to, the plants are easily shaken about by 
the winds, which process often causes them considerable damage. 
The pits should be filled in on the same day as they are dug. 
Some foresters prefer digging nil the jiits fii'st, and filling them in 
afterwards. I do not approve of this system, for the reason that 
the holes, by being left open, often get filled with water, especially 
if the season be a wet one. It also impedes the planting opera- 
tions in several ways, which I need not define, and this incurs 
unnecessary expense. 

Every means should be adopted to keep down I'ank grass and 
weeds. The first and most obvious indication as to treatment in 
this respect is to put the turf cut oS in the bottom of the pit 
instead of on the top, as is generally done. Another method is to 
cut the turf in two, and place it upside down. Sometimes, how- 
ever, grass, notwithstanding the efforts that are made to keep it 
down, grows very quickly, and every possible precaution to prevent 
it from obstructing the plants should be resorted to ; for unless 
the plants are allowed a sufficiency of light and air, the process of 
assimilation of sap cannot go on. In oi"der to make my meaning 
clear, I shall endeavour to give a brief explanation as to what 
this really means. The elements which enter the leaf are oxygen 
and hydrogen in the form of water, with some earthy matters 
dissolved in it. These constitute what is called crude sap. Then 
the process of assimilation begins. The agents in this are the 
green colouring matter of the leaf and the sun's rays. The crude 
sap is blended with the carbonic acid gas of the atmosphere, and 
the overplus of oxygen is separated and sent back again into the 
air. Thus a mixture is formed called elaborated sap, which is 
then transformed into cellulose, and passing down the plant, is 
gradually used up in the formation of new cells. 

Distribution. — If the number of men employed in the planting 
operations be not very large, the distribution should be left to one 
or two reliable men. Whether the different kinds of plants be 
laid out singly or in groups, is, to a great extent, a matter of 
taste. I am, however, inclined to think that the grouping system 
has, if anything, the advantage over the other, inasmuch that it 
leaves us a double chance of distributing the plants on the soil 
best adapted to their growth ; and further, by planting in groups 
the arrangement of colour can be better preserved when thin- 



37G UKAHING AND MANAGEMENT OF HARDWOOD PLANTATIONS. 

niiig tlio plantiiiion. If, for instance, a tree of one kind be 
cut, more room is probably made for one of the same kind, the 
result being that if ultimately only one tree of the group be left, 
that tree will probably cover as much ground as the whole group 
originally did, thus leaving the colour arrangement as good as 
ever. To discuss these points to their full extent is, however, 
slightly beyond the province of this paper. 

Nursing. — Various systems of nursing are in practice. The 
one most commonly adopted, and undoubtedly the best for exposed 
situations, is to fill up the spaces between the hardwoods with 
conifers, planted 4 feet apart. As the nurses in question grow 
mvich quicker than the hardwoods, they require to be a good deal 
smaller, otherwise they soon begin to intrude on their neighbours 
(thus depriving them of light and air), and have to be cut down. 
In less exposed situations, and where coppice wood is in demand, 
the remaining spaces are filled up with plane, ash, birch, some 
species of dogwood, and the like. This sometimes proves itself to 
be an excellent plan, especially in localities where there is a good 
demand for props, bobbin-wood, crate-wood, and such like. When 
in its earlier stages, birch will be found very useful for many pur- 
poses. All the kinds, in fact, which we have mentioned may be 
utilised at whatever time it is considered necessary to cut them. 
Coppice may, indeed, be grown during the whole period of the 
standard crop's growth without materially aflfecting it. Both 
these methods I have just described can be adopted with propriety 
according to attendant circumstances, such as soil, locality, etc. 
Special care should be taken to shield a plantation on the side 
most exposed to the prevailing winds. This is best accomplished 
by protecting the part or parts in question with a "belt" of good- 
sized conifers. 

In the vicinity of pleasui'e-grounds a different method — that of 
nursing with yews — is resorted to. This system cannot be re- 
commended from a utilitarian point of view, but where it is 
desirable to retain intact the beauties of the pleasure-ground, there 
is nothing to equal it. This system is specially adapted for woods 
in the immediate vicinity of the mansion. If skilfully and taste- 
fully laid out, and intersected with rides and walks, it may be 
made to appear a continuation of the pleasure-grounds. We thus 
avoid the too abrupt termination — which is so hurtful to the eye 
— of ornamental spaces, and at the same time derive at least 
some recompense for our labour. Cypress, arbor- vitse, holly, and 



KEAEIXG AND MAXAGEMEXT OF HAEDWOOD PLAXTATIOXS. 377 

rhododendron are also brought into requisition under the head 
we have just been considering. Picked plants — large, shapely, 
and well-developed plants — should be kept for this purpose, and 
the best of them put next the walks, or the parts where they are 
most likely to be in view. It is a common thing to grow good 
poplars, planted at from 5 to 6 feet apart, in ]3artially sheltered 
situations without nurses. 

Pruning. — This is a most important branch of forestry, but one 
which is, unfortunately, very often neglected. The main point 
in this case is to begin in time. If a plantation be allowed to 
attain a certain age before pruning is commenced, it certainly 
does more harm than good. Wholesale pruning of a tree twenty 
or twenty-five years of age, for instance, is very apt to badly 
injure it ; hence the reason why so many expei'ienced men are 
averse to pruning. If it be intended to do justice to a plantation 
in this respect, we must begin wdth the pocket-kuife and hand- 
saw two or three years after planting, and continue using them 
at regular intervals up to, say, the twenty-fifth year. 

In commencing pruning operations, the main object to be kept 
in view is to regulate the growth of the tree by keeping the 
number of superfluous branches in check, and the undue develop- 
ment of others, so that the greatest quantity of timber may be 
secured without being intruded upon by the production of strong 
bi'anches. Pruning, when resorted to in time and continued at 
necessary intervals, is an operation which does not cost so very 
much, and which is, at the same time, beneficial in a high degree 
to the trees. If, on the other hand, this highly-important operation 
be neglected, a great number of the trees will have grown into 
bushes, which in turn will become distorted into every shape 
imaginable. If pruning be resorted to at all in such cases, it 
must be executed in a very judicious manner. To, as it were, 
force such trees into a symmetrical appeai-ance, by stripjiing the 
trunk of branches to a certain height, and by shortening those left 
indiscriminately, the result would be that the tree would die in li 
short time, or never, at least, recover from the sudden shock. 
When such an operation is performed in winter, if the tree should 
survive, the consequence will be that the sudden check on the 
flow of sap will cause numerous small-spray, known under the 
name of " breast-wood," to spiing out all over the stem and 
branches. The woody deposit, which would otherwise have gone 
to enlarge the stem, would thus be reduced to a minimum. In 



378 Ur-AIIING AND MANAGKMKNT OT IIAKUWOOH I'LANTATIO.VS. 

any case, the repetition of a similar process would ruin, the trees 
entirely. The fact of the matter is, that if the trees survive such 
treatment at all, they merely drag out a miserable existence at 
best, and are entirely ruined for the jturpose they wei-e intended 
to serve. The exi)erienced pinmer will, however, act very differ- 
ently. He will commence in time, and reduce the branches 
gradually, so that the result aimed at may be brought about by 
degrees — the operations, in fact, extending over a number of years. 

The lower branches should be left untouched on the trees lining 
the outside of a plantation, and this helps, through time, to hide 
the stems entirely from view. Any branches which seem, how- 
ever, to develop themselves too quickly must be shortened at 
points where smaller ones spring from them, so as to force them 
into uniformity with their neighboui-s. Trees having more than 
one leader must have the central and most vigorous one left for 
its future top. The others must be removed close to the stem, or 
further up, if considered necessary, but in any case close to a 
lateral shoot. 

The hardwoods inside the plantation will require to be treated 
somewhat differently. All the lower branches will have to be 
gradually cut away, so that about one-third of the entire stem be 
left clean. Great care should be taken to cut the branches off 
neatly, and as close to the stem as possible. The wound should 
also be made smooth with a sharp knife or hand-bill. The top, if 
double, should be regulated in favour of the best contending 
leader ; and side branches, when developing themselves too quickly, 
should be shortened at an offshoot springing from them at any 
convenient i)oint. A good few trees will, in all probability, not 
require to be touched at all, while others may only require a 
branch to be shortened here and there. 

In order that all exudation of sap will have ceased, and that 
the wounds be partly healed up before the end of autumn, all the 
pruning possible should be done in July and August. The sap 
does, moreover, not flow so readily from a recently wounded tree 
in those months. 

Pruning should not be resorted to immediately before or after 
thinning, but should precede that operation by at least one year. 
The trees will thus be enabled to recover from any slight change 
which may have been caused by the operation. They will also 
be better able to withstand any difference of temperature which 
may be occasioned when thinning takes place. 



REARIXG AXD MAXAGEMEXT OF HARDWOOD PLAXTATIOXS. 379 

In removing broken, dead, or decaying limbs, great care should 
be taken not to damage the trees in any way by splitting or 
tearing the bark. In order to obviate this, heavy limbs should 
be cut off i:»iece by piece. 

Thinmng. — On the manner in which this part of wood manage- 
ment is carried out, depends, to a very great extent, the ultimate 
success of the undertaking both from a utilitarian and lesthetic 
point of view. Attendant circumstances must entirely guide the 
operation in this case. The time for thinning will depend very 
much on the progress the plantation has made ; in consequence of 
which no definite rule can be laid down for the carrying forward 
of this part of the work. The fact, however, that all the planta- 
tion will not be ready for thinning at the same time, may be 
taken for granted. The lower and less exposed parts will be 
ready for thinning some four or five years before the higher and 
more exposed. At all events, whenever it is found that the 
nurses are commencing to encroach on the hardwoods, thinning 
should at once commence by removing them. This does not, of 
course, imply that all the nurses are to be i*emoved at once. It 
cannot, indeed, by any means be recommended to give the stan- 
dards too much play all on a sudden. Suflicient relief can be 
given in some cases by removing the branches of the nurses, but 
after a time it will be necessary to take out one here and there, 
in order that the desired end may be attained. In cases whei'e 
the trees have become one-sided, it will be found necessary to 
give greater space on the side opposite to that on which they have 
spread. By following this plan the branches will generally shoot 
out in that direction, and thus equalise their toj^s. In order that 
the side branches may have an opportunity of fully developing 
themselves, the lines of trees skirting the outside of a plantation 
should be thinned the more freely. This line of action will also 
have a tendency to strengthen their roots, and thus enable them 
better to resist gales of wind. A sufficiency of light and air 
should always be admitted, so that the trees may grow propor- 
tionately. Sycamore and ash may be grown more closely than 
other varieties, the reason being that they are less subject to 
throw out sti'ong side branches. 

Less freedom must be allowed when thinning the higher parts 
of a plantation. The reason is obvious. Light and air may be 
admitted longer on slo})es, and especially on the lower side of the 
plants, than on flatter grounds ; and further, if the trees be 



380 REARING AND MANAGEMENT OF HARDWOOD PLANTATIONS. 

allowed too niucli room, tliey will, owing to tbeir elevated position 
and the influence of other external agencies, form flat to^js and 
probably dwai'fed stems. 

In after years thinning may be resorted to whenever it is found 
that the nurses are encroaching on the standards. It will some- 
times be found necessary to give trees which have attained to a 
proper and compact form more room than they received on pre- 
vious thinnings, so that they may be enabled to form shapely and 
widespread tops. It would, for instance, interfere considerably 
with the scenic efiect of a plantation if bare limbs or i)arts of the 
trunks of some trees appeared above the tops of the others. After 
all the nurses have been removed, the plantation should stretch 
out before the eye in every direction, presenting an undulating- 
like surface of many colours — natural in all its aspects, and with 
nothing to mar the beauty of the picture. 

At what period of the plantation's growth all the nurses will 
be removed, depends entirely on the progress the plantation has 
made ; but it may be taken for granted, at least in most cases, 
that the standards will derive little or no benefit from the nurses 
after the twentieth or twenty-fifth year. 

In felling the nurse trees, great care should be taken not to 
damage the standards. In order to successfully accomplish this, 
it will, in most cases, be found necessary to divest them of their 
branches before they are felled. This process is known to prac- 
tical men under the name of " lopping." As many of the trees 
in question as possible should be carried out by men, because it is 
often highly injurious to the roots of the standards to employ 
horses for the purpose of dragging them out. 

It is absolutely impossible to lay down a definite scale as to the 
distances which should separate the permanent standards. From 
20 to 30 feet is the general thing counted upon ; but altitude, 
exposure, and other matters have, of course, a vast deal to do with 
this. With the exception of taking out really bad trees, regu- 
larity should certainly receive special attention. 

In cases whex-e some consideration is given to the rearing of 
game, all indigenous undergrowth should be encouraged. By 
repeatedly cutting back such species as briei-s, hazel, and black- 
thorn, a thick and vigorous growth will be the result. The sides 
of rides and other conspicuous points throughout the plantation, 
should be filled in with laurels, rhododendrons, cotoneasters, 
barberry, yew, box, privet, and mahonia. By fixing down the 



REARING AND MANAGEMENT OF HARDWOOD PLANTATIONS. 381 

privet with wooden pegs, a thick undergvow'th may soon be 
acquired. 

The only pecuniary returns hitherto realised have been from 
thinnings ; but though some sacrifices may have been made, it 
will be found that the wood remaining on the ground is now 
worth a considerable amount of money ; and, indeed, the presence 
of such a plantation on an estate will tend to enhance its value 
in more ways than one. 

Felling. — Felling should in general be done with the saw, 
because this instrument makes neater work and wastes less wood 
than the axe. The best time for felling is from September to 
March, inclusive. Small ti'ees may be felled with the axe, and 
also large ones when it is desirable to have them cut very low. 
By sinking the stock towards the centre, the rain will have a 
tendency to lodge in the cavity thus formed, and thus hasten 
the decomposition of the root. When it is intended to encourage 
the growth of coppice, the stock should be elevated towards the 
centre, so that it may be better able to resist the influence of rain, 
and thus preserve it from rot. 

In cases where the bark is preserved, the trees should be felled 
in sunny weather, about the beginning of summer, and kept as 
much as possible in the shade, so as to protect them from the sun, 
which, by the way, encourages splitting to an alarming degree. 

Lotting. — In the event of the wood cut being lotted for sale, 
the trees should be carefully sized, and the lots neatly put 
together. Where a number of lots come together, they should be 
kept as nearly as possible in line. This process does not present 
any great difficulty to practical men who have been accustomed to 
such work, and it makes the wood have a better appearance. 
Wood is often drawn and huddled together in a manner which 
does not reflect much credit on those concerned in the operation. 
This probably arises from the prevalent notion that this part of 
forestry does not require much attention. This is, however, a 
mistaken idea altogether. If the wood for sale be properly 
" sized," and put up in neat and compact lots, not only the dis- 
poser, but the purchaser as well, will be better able to form a 
more accurate idea as to the approximate value of the wood 
before him. 



382 ECONOMIC rOKESTItV. 

XVnr. Ernnnmic Forestry. By Professor G. >S. Boulgrr, 

London. 

Introduction. 

The most scientific department of the art of forestry is un- 
doubtedly the maintenance and reproduction of woodland for pur- 
poses of profit. In spite of the enormously extended use of iron 
for purposes of construction, and of purely chemical substances for 
tanning, dyeing, etc., the products of the forest meet us at every 
turn, no matter in what quarter of the globe, or amid what race of 
men, we may find ourselves. In our northern temperate latitudes 
timber, bark, charcoal, and coniferous resins are the main staple of 
the forester ; but within the tropics a multiplicity of other sub- 
stances — dyes, gums, and food-stufFs — become of an importance, 
economically speaking, hardly second to that of the timber, and 
the forest-conservator may often be as much interested in the pre- 
servation of a mere shrub, as in that of the largest tree. Con- 
siderations of space, however, enforce the limitation of the present 
essay to the subject of timber-trees, though their subsidiary pro- 
ducts have been noted en passant. 

The importance of a " stock-taking " of the timber-resources of 
the world will be generally conceded. An acquaintance with the 
valuable trees of any country will be an important step, both 
towards their preservation from wanton extermination, and towards 
their introduction into other countries, which may happen to be 
under similar climatic conditions. Such an acquaintance it is, 
however, unfortunately, by no means easy to obtain. Timber is 
too often obtained from the less known or accessible parts of 
countries, but partially explored by skilled botanists ; whilst it is 
brought to the port of shipment without flowers, fruit, leaves, or 
even bark and sapwood, and under native names which often serve 
oidy to mislead. When we note the extreme ignorance often 
manifested as to trees, their names and natures, even by dwellers 
in the country, among the civilised communities of Europe, we 
cannot be surprised if Burmese convicts in the Andaman Islands, 
Australian natives, or the half-savage Indians of Guiana make 
mistakes as to the identity of species. It is much to be desired 
that the governments of every country should take steps for the 
botanical identification of their various vegetable productions. 
With regard to trees the system required is that logs of each 



ECONOMIC FORESTRY. 383 

species should be prepai-ed with the bark on — at least partly, — cut 
in various directions — say radially, tangentially, transversely, and 
obliquely ; — and that these be carefully numbered and named with 
incised letters, and be accompanied by specimens of leaves, flowers, 
fruit, and seeds. It has long been a common custom to preserve 
such specimens in book-like cases made from the woods themselves ; 
and the method, exhibited in the Japanese section of the Edin- 
burgh Forestry Exhibition, followed by New Brunswick in the 
Colonial and Indian Exhibition, of painting a detailed representa- 
tion of each species on a panel of its own wood, framed in its own 
bark and branches, is also well worthy of imitation. Such speci- 
mens can be readily determined botanically, and should be multi- 
plied both for educational use in forest, and other schools, at home, 
and to acquaint foreign nations with the products of the country. 

For the purposes of the present essay the collections of timber, 
etc., at the Edinburgh Exhibition of 1884, at the Koyal Gardens, 
Kew, at the British Museum, and at the Colonial and Indian Ex- 
hibition, London, 1886, have been systematically examined ; but 
in not a few cases the neglect of the means above mentioned has 
entirely prevented the botanical identification of valuable species. 

The plan here followed is mainly geographical, this having been 
found most convenient as being adopted in all the above-named 
collections, and in Dr Cleghorn's article on "Forests and Forest 
Administration " in the Encydopc^dia Britannica (9tli edition, 
vol. ix., pp. 397-108), to which the present writer is deeply in- 
debted on this, as on former occasions, both for much substantive 
information, and for many useful bibliogra}>hical references. The 
numerous other books consulted are mostly mentioned under 
each country ; but special acknowledgment must be made here to 
Loudon's " Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum," 8 vols., London, 
1838; Mr Thomas Laslett's "Timber and Timber-trees," London, 
1875 ; Mr Julian Rogers' Analysis of Keturns . . . relating to 
Colonial Timber, presented to Parliament, 1878 [C. — 2197]; Re- 
ports respecting . . . Timber in Foreign Countries, presented in 
1875 [C. — llGl]; Reports by H.M.'s representatives abroad on 
. . . Woods and Forests, presented in 1884 [C. — 4048] ; the 
Official Guides to the Royal Botanic Gardens and the ^Fuseums of 
Economic Botany at Kew, London, 1885 and 188G; Herr Nord- 
linger's '* Holzquerschnitte," Stuttgart, 1862-82; the Jouiiial of 
Forestry (afterwards "Forestry"), vols, i.-xi., 1877-1885; and to 
"Forestry and Forest Products," Edinburgh, 1885. In none of 

VOL. XI., PART III. 2 D 



384 



ECONO.MK; FOItKSTI'.V. 



thoso b(iok.s, liowever, is there so full a list of timber trees, and their 
vernacular names, as that in the present essay. 

EUROPE. 

Most of the forest trees of Europe are familiar to us either in a 
wild or cultivated condition, the British Isles having no species 
which do not occur on the Continent. The following table gives 
the acreage of woods and forests in the various countries of Europe 
from about 1875 to 1877 : — 



Great Britain, 

Ireland, 

United Kingdou 

Russia, 

Sweden, 

Norway, 

Denmark, 

North Germany, 

Baden, 



Acres. 

•2,187,078 

328,413 

2, .^15, 491 

527,426,510 

40,636,883 

17,290,000 

364,474 

20,047,014 

1,337,767 



Wiirtemberg, 

Holland, 

Belgium, 

France, 

Italy, . 

Austria, 

Hungary, 

Switzerland, 



Acres. 

1,494,147 

486,229 

1,073,452 

20,641,953 

9,031,310 

23,284,174 

19,425,600 

1,905,407 



United Kingdom. 



The forest area is thus distributed : — 



England, 
Scotland, 
Ireland, 



Acres. 
1,325,765 
734,490 
325,173 



Wales, .... 
Isle of Man and the CLian- ) 
nel Islands, . . / 



Acres. 
126,823 

3,240 



In the north of Scotland the prevalent indigenous species are 
Pinus sylvestris, L., the Scots fir, and Betula alba, L., the birch; but 
much of the pine is planted, and there are extensive plantations of 
larch (Larix europcea, DC), e.g., the Duke of Atholl's 10,000 acres 
at Dunkeld. At Rothieaiurchus, Inverness, where the Scots fir is 
indigenous, the trees have an average height of 70 feet and a girth 
of 4| feet. With reference to this species it is worthy of note that, 
on the Continent at least, it is very variable, no less than fourteen 
forms having been described from Savoy alone, and as these forms 
are of slightly different value as timber, it is important to discrimi- 
nate them with a view to cultivate the best. M. Vilmorin divides 
them into two groups — (1.) ruhro, with ascending, and (2.) vulgaris, 
with horizontal, bi'anches. To the latter belong the Geneva and 
Brian9on pines ; and to the former the Hagenau or German, the 
Scots, the Louvain, and the Riga varieties. To the last named, 
the most valuable type, belongs the timber from Smolensk, Vitebsk, 



ECONOMIC FORESTRY. 385 

Tchernigov, and Volhynia. In the south of Scotland the beech 
(Fagus sylvaiica, L.) and ash {Fraxinus excelsior, L.) are the most 
common trees ; whilst the sycamore maple, locally known as "Plane " 
{Acer Pseiido-jylatanus, L.), is also abundant. The ash reaches 
30 or 50 feet in height, with a diameter of from 20 to 24 inches, 
and is useful for tool handles, coopers' work, crates, and many other 
purposes (nat. order, Ohacect). Tlie sycamore (nat. order, Aceracece) 
reaches from 30 to 80 feet, and is used for cider- presses, rollers 
for calico printing, musical instruments, especially violins, toys, 
butter-moulds, etc. 

In England, whilst there are extensive coniferous plantations, 
mainly larch and Scots pine, the most prevalent trees are oaks and 
beech. The oak [Querctis Rohur, L. ; nat. order, Ciipulifer(f') forms 
a trunk from 60 to 100 feet high, and is one of the strongest and 
most durable of woods for furniture and building purposes. It was 
formerly much more used in ship-building, and its bark is still in 
considerable demand for tanning. Two forms are well marked — 
Quercus pediaiculata, Ehrh., and Q. sessiliflora, Salisb. The beech 
(Fagus sylvatica, L.), belonging to the same order, reaches 60 or 70 
feet in height, and 40 to 50 inches in diameter. Its wood affords 
excellent fuel, and the best charcoal for most purposes ; and is also 
used for wedges, the best planes, tool-handles, and other turnery ; 
for piles ; on the Continent for shoes ; and more especially for chair 
making, for which purpose it is grown on the chalk hills of 
Buckinghamshire, near High Wycombe, from 12,000 to 15,000 loads 
being used yearly. 

Other British trees are the following : — The linden or lime 
{Tilia europcea, L. ; nat. order, Tiliacece), the inner bark of which 
is " Russia matting," whilst the close-grained but soft wood is 
pre-eminently adapted for carving, and for the sounding boards of 
pianos ; the spindle-tree {Euonymus europceus, L. ; nat. order, 
Celastracece), formerly used for skewers, and to some extent for 
gunpowder charcoal ; the hnckthorn (Iihamjuts cathariic2ts,Ij. ; nat. 
order, Rhamnacece), whose berries yield the pigment " sapgreen ; " 
and the alder buckthorn, or berry-bearing alder {R. Fratigida, L.), 
which under the name "dogwood" furnishes the best charcoal for 
making gunpowder, and is imported for this purpose from Holland 
and Belgium ; the horse-chestnut {J^sculus Hippocastamim, L. ; nat. 
order, Sapindacece), an ornamental tree, truly a native of Xorthern 
Greece J the maple (Acer campestre, L.), of the same order, a small 
tree 10 to 20 feet high, with fine and even-grained wood, afibrding 



386 ECONOMIC FOUESTRY. 

good charcoal, and formerly used for bowls known as " mazer- 
bowls," spoons, etc. ; the sloe or blackthorn [Prunus communix, 
Huds. ; nat. order, Jiosacece), used for walking-sticks ; the apple 
(P'l/rus llalus, L.) and pear (F. communis, L.), valuable fruit-trees 
when cultivated, both having close and even-grained wood, that of 
the latter being used for f squares, etc. ; the rowan, or moun- 
tain ash (P. Aucuparia, Gaert.), a valuable nurse tree ; the wild 
service (P. torminalis, Ehr.), and the hawthorn (Cratcegus Oxya- 
cautha, L.), the wood of which is one of the best substitutes for 
boxwood for engraving, all belonging to the same order ; the box 
(Buxus sempervirens, L. ; nat. order, Buxinece), as yet unequalled for 
engraving, growing only in a few localities on limestone hills, and 
mainly imported from Russia and Persia; the elms (Ulmus campes- 
tris, With. ; nat. order, Ulmacece), in the south of England, and the 
Wych elms (U. inontana, Sm.), north of the Trent, much used for 
coffins, and formerly for water-pipes, reaching 100 or 120 feet in 
height, and more than 3 feet in diameter ; the alder (Alnus glu- 
tinosa, L. ; nat. order, Betulacem), from 20 to even 70 feet high, 
and 8 to 16 inches in diameter, the wood of which is used for gun- 
powder charcoal, clogs, and packing-cases, and the bark in tanning ; 
the hornbeam {Carjnnus Betu/us, L. ; nat. order, Corylacece), ex- 
tremely hard, used for cog-wheels, bench-screws, mallets, boot-lasts, 
etc., sometimes reaching 70 feet in height and from 10 to 15 inches 
in diameter; the hazel {Corylus Avellana, L.); the holly {Ilex 
Aquifolium, L. ; nat. order, Ilicinece), 20 to 30 feet high, used 
for calico-printers' blocks, " stringing " in inlaying, Tunbridge 
ware, mathematical instruments, etc., " bird-lime " being prepared 
from the bark; willows, especially Salix alba, L., S.fragilis, L., 
and S. Russelliana, Sm. (nat. order, Salicacece), light and tough 
woods, used for gunpowder charcoal and for various other purposes ; 
poplars, especially the aspen (Populus iremula, L.), which affords a 
valuable paper-pulp ; and the yew {Taxiis baccata, L. ; nat. order, 
Taxinecu), formerly used for bows. 

Among commonly cultivated exotic trees may be named Robinia 
Pseudacacia, L., a North American leguminous tree, used for shafts, 
known as " locust," or " acacia ;" the laburnum [Gytisus Laburmim, 
L.), in the same order, a beautiful tree with a handsome wood ; the 
planes {Platamis orientalis, L., and P. aceri/olia ; nat. order, Pla- 
tanacece), chiefly valued for their shade; the walnut (Jugla/is reyia, 
L. ; nat. order, Juylandacece), also from the south of Europe, a 
valuable cabinet-work, used for gun stocks ; the holm and Turkey 



ECONOMIC FORESTRY. 387 

oaks (Quercus Ilex, L., and Q. Cerris) : tbe Spanish chestnut 
(Castayiea vulgaris, Lam. ; nat. order, Cupulifera'), considerably 
grown for hop-poles ; the Cedar of Lebanon {Cedrus Lihani, Loud.) 
and the Deodar (C. deodar a, Loud.) ; the silver fir (Abies pectinata, 
DC), the spruce (Picea excelsa, Link.), and the Douglas fir 
{Psendotsuga Douglasii, Carriere). The last named, though grow- 
ing more rapidly and forming softer wood in Scotland than in its 
native Oregon, bids fair to become the most important timber tree 
of North Britain. 

Home-grown timber is but a fraction of that used in the United 
Kingdom, large quantities being imported from Canada, the Baltic, 
and the United States, especially deals ; besides teak from India, 
greenheart from Guiana, mahogany from Honduras, etc. 

In 1885 the value of timber imported was £14,000,000, of which 
£4,500,000 came from Canada and the East and West Indies. 

Norway and Sweden. 

The chief forests of Norway are in the east, and consist of Scots 
fir, spruce, and birch. Of 80,000,000 cubic feet annually exported, 
more than half is sent to the United Kingdom. The Norway 
spruce (Picea excelsa, Link.) is common to all the mountain ranges 
of Europe, to the Arctic Circle, reaching 150 or even 180 feet in 
height, and more than 15 inches in diameter. Its wood, known as 
" white deal," or " whitewood," is used for ladders, scaffolds, 
sounding-boards, sabots, and gunpowder charcoal. In the forest 
nurseries of Stavanger, the chief trees cultivated are Scots fir, spruce, 
and willow (Salix lanceolata, Sni.), the latter species, introduced 
from the Netherlands, being used for hoops. The average export 
of timber from Norway between 18G1 and 1882 was between 
800,000 and 900,000 tons. 

Scots fir and spruce form also the staple of the forests in Sweden, 
the greater portion of which are in the northern and central pro- 
vinces. The river Dal forms the northern limit of the oak and 
beech in a wild state ; but they are cultivated in much higher 
latitudes. The white birch (Betula alba, L.) is found in profusion 
throughout the kingdom, being chiefly used for firewood, but 
locally for furniture, agricultural implements, etc. The aspen 
(Popidus treimda, L.), which is also common, is used in the manufac- 
ture of matches and of paper pulp. The former manufacture 
yielded £225,000 in 1872, of which £168,000 worth were exported. 
Paper pulp is made also from pine-wood. It was first exported in 



388 ECONOMIC FORESTHV. 

1872, when nearly all (to the value of .£55,000) came to Great 
Britain. Alder, elm, and lime are also common, and attain a large 
size in the more favoured districts. The pine-wood is used in 
house and ship-building ; and both as [)it props and in a manufac- 
tured form, as window and door frames, etc., constitutes a chief 
article of export, an increasing quantity annually reaching Great 
JJritain. 

Denmakk. 

There are extensive forests of beech, the chief indigenous trees 
besides being spruce, Scots fir, birch, aspen, and oak. The wood 
of the Scots fir is known as redwood, or red deal, as distinguished 
from the whitewood of the spruce, but some varieties yield " yellow 
deal." The chief oak forests are on the islands of Falster and 
Lolland. Plantations of the Swiss Pinus montana, Duroi ; the 
American Ficea alba ; the Norway spruce (P. excelsa, Lara.) ; and 
the silver fir (Abies pectinata, DC), have been extensively carried 
out in West Ju.tland. 

HOLLAXD. 

There are no indigenous forests in Holland ; but beech, poplar, 
willow, ash, and elm are much planted. Ulnias major, L., the 
Dutch or sand elm, was introduced into England from Holland, and 
the exportation of alder-buckthorn has been already noted. The 
sand dunes are extensively planted with conifers. 

Belgium. 

There are extensive forests in Brabant, Flanders, and the Ar- 
dennes, the latter largely consisting of beech. 

Germany. 

North Germany possesses extensive forests on the Harz and Thu- 
ringian mountains, in East Prussia, the Odenwald in Hesse, the 
Westerwald and Taunus range in Nassau, and the Vosges. The chief 
trees are Pinus sylvestris, L., the " kiefer," " weissfohre," " gemeine 
fohre," and Picea excelsa, "fichte," "rothtanne." The silver fir 
{Abies pectiiuita, DC. ; " edeltanne," " weistanne") is abundant in 
the Vosges and in the Black Forest of Baden and Wiirtemburg, 
where we also have birch, " birke ; " beech, " rothbuche ; " and oak, 
" eiche ; " whilst in Bavaria the larch, " gemeine larche," is exten- 
sively grown. In the Spessartwald, near Aschafienburg, there are 
large masses of oak and extensive coniferous plantations, more than 



ECOXOMIC FORESTEY. 



389 



a quarter of the area of Bavaria being under wood, much of it 
being mountainous, and there being a large demand for fuel. No 
less than twenty-three per cent, of the area of the kingdom of 
Prussia is forest land. The chief trees in the province of Prussia 
are the " kiefer " (Fimis sylvestris, L.) and " fichte" {Picea esccelsa), 
which comprise three-fourths of the whole. "Liirche" (Larix 
europcea, DC.) is rare, " buchen " [Fagus sijlcatica, L.), "hain- 
buchen" or " weissbuchen " (Carpiniis Betidns, L.), "eiche" 
{Querctis), "spitzahorn" [Acer platanoides, L.), " bergahorn " (A. 
Pseudo-platanns, L.), ^^ vxxaiQV^^ {Ulmus campestris,'^^&.ch..), " erle " 
{Alnus glittinosa,G!iie\ti\.), " birke " (Betulaalbajh.), " sahlweide " 
(Salix Caprea,'L.), " werftweide " {S. acuminata, 8m.), "linde" 
{Tilia europona, L.), " eberesche " {Pyvus Aucvparia, L.), and 
" aspe " {Popula tremula, L.) also occvir. 

Similar trees occur in Posen and Pomerania, " Hasel " {Corylus 
Avellana) heiwg also grown in the latter province. "Edeltanne" 
(Abies pectinata, DC.) is recorded for Silesia, and the "weymuths- 
kiefer'^ (Piiius Strohus, L.) and "esche" [Fraxinus excelsior, L.) 
also for Brandenburg. The " faulbaum " (Phamnus Frangula) and 
"eibe" (Taxus baccata, L.) are among the chief trees of the pro- 
vince of Saxony, and the " pappel " (Populus), "weissfichte" 
(Abies pectinata), and " zwergkiefer " (Pitius Pumilio) among those 
of Schleswig-Holstein ; otherwise the lists from the various provinces 
are similar to the above. Oak is largely used for artillery purposes, 
and aspen and birch in ship-building. By the budget for 1880, 
50,000 marks were assigned for the introduction of foreign trees, 
including Pinus Laricio, " swartzkiefer," from S. Europe ; Abies 
Nordmanniana, from the Caucasus ; Picea sitchensis, from Japan, 
together with some other conifers ; and the following species from 
North America : — 



Pinus rigida, poiidcrosa, and Jeffrcyi. 
Abies {Pseudotsv/ja) Douylusii. 
Thuja gigaritea. 
Cuprcssus Lawsoniana. 
Juniperus virginiana. 
Carya alba, amara, aquatica, por- 
cina, and tcmientosa. 



Jiujlans nigra. 
Quercus rubra. 
Betula Icnta. 
Populus monilifcra. 
Acer Negundo, sacclwriuum, and 
dasycarpum. 



The Duchy of Gotha contains 44,140 hectares of forest, 85 per 
cent, of which is pine, the chief other trees being beech, spruce, 
larch, oak, maple, ash, birch, and elm. Coburg contains 15,718 
hectares of similar forests. 



390 KCONOMIC FORKSTRY. 

The Kingdom of Saxony incliules about 405,000 hectares of 
timber land, the chief species being Quercun sessilijlora, Sra., "tran- 
beneiche, steineiche," Fagtis sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, Betula 
alha, Alnus ylutinosa, Picea excelsa, Pinus sylvestris, Abies pec- 
tin aia, and Larix europcea. 

Hesse-Darmstadt includes about 168,000 acres, and Baden nearly 
1,270,000 acres of forest ; Pinus sylvestris and Strobus, Picea excelsa 
and Abies 2iectmata,^\\(\. Larix eu7'opcea, being the prevailing conifers. 
Hessian fir-trees are in great demand in Holland for ship-building. 

The Kingdom of Wurtemburg includes 596,000 hectares, or 
over 30 per cent, of its area, of forest, comprising the pine-wood 
districts of the Black Forest, Upper Swabia, and the Jaxt Circle ; 
and the hardwood forests of the Swabian Alps and of the "Unter- 
land." The spruce, silver fir, and Scots fir are the chief conifers, 
and are mostly used as timber, much being floated down the Ehine. 
Spruce bark is mixed with that of the oak in tanning, and the 
chopped branches are used as litter. Oak, of which both Quercus 
peduyicnlata, Ehrh., " stieleiche, sommereiche," and Q. sessilijlora, 
Sm., occur, is largely in demand for ship-building in Holland, and 
for general purposes at home. Beech is the chief fuel, but is also 
used for ships' keels, by carriage-builders, and by chair-makers. 
Ash, hornbeam, elm, linden, birch, alder, and maples {Acer cani- 
pestre, L., "feldahorn;" A. platanoides, L. ; and A. Pseudo-plat- 
anus, L.), are also used in carriage-building, turnery, etc., and as 
fuel ; whilst aspen is in demand for paper and match manufacture. 

Austrian Empire. 
The forests of the Austrian Empire occupy 66,600 English square 
miles, those of Austria being more than 30 per cent, of its whole 
area, and those of Hungary 26*6 per cent. They are situated 
mainly in the mountain regions of the Carpathians, Transylvania, 
Galicia, Bohemia, the Alps, Croatia, and Slavonia. Spruce, silver 
fir, larch ; Pinus montana, Duroi ; P. sylvestris, and P. nigricans, 
Host. { = P- austriaca, Hoss.), are the prevailing sj)ecies ; but 
beech, several species of oak, including Q. Pobur, L. ; Q. lanuginosa, 
Th. ; and Q. Cerris, L., with elm {Ulmus campestris and U. effusa) • 
poplar ; chestnut, " edelkastanie ; " and walnut, " wallnussbaum," 
occur at lower altitudes, especially in the south. Dalmatia and 
Croatia come within the Mediterranean area, and have also Quercus 
Pseudo-suber, Sant. ; Q. Ilex, L. ; and Q. cocci/era, L., together with 
the olive, mulberry, and fig (Ficus Carica, L.). These are mostly 



ECONOMIC FORESTRY. 391 

cultivated, as is also the Corsican pine,^ Pinus Laricio, Poir., which 
is nearly allied to the black Austrian pine (P. nigricans). The 
timber is used mainly for fuel and building purposes ; but in addi- 
tion to 67,000,000 cubic feet of timber, the forests are estimated 
to yield 4,000,000 cwts. of bark (larch and oak) for tanning, 
500,000 cwts. of gall-nuts, 250,000 cwts. of turpentine and resin, 
and 100,000 cwts. of potash annually. The turpentine of the larch 
is known, from its port of shipment, as " Venice turpentine ; " 
that from the silver fir as " Strasburg turpentine." 

Russia. 

With by far the largest forest area of any European country 
(4G9J million acres), both absolutely and relatively to its entire 
extent, Russia is very unequally wooded. Two-thirds of her forests 
are in the north-east ; in the north-west they form from 30 to 50 
per cent, of the whole area ; in the central and western districts 
27 per cent. ; in the south-west 2-5 per cent. ; and in Little Russia 
only "7 per cent. The spruce is the prevalent tree in the north, the 
Siberian larch (Larix sihirica, Led.) in the north-east, whilst Pinus 
sylvestris, L., has a very wide range in latitude, flourishing in the 
Caucasus (41 1 deg. N. lat.) and Crimea, as well as on the shores of 
the Baltic. A variety, P. Frieseana, Wich., extends further north 
in Lapland, Finland, and Sweden. Birch is abundant, and in the 
central and southern districts oak, beech, ash, lime, walnut, and 
box. Besides an enormous home consumption for fuel and build- 
ing, Russia exports coniferous wood largely from Archangel and the 
Baltic ports, about 7000 tons of tar per annum, paper pulp from the 
aspen, large quantities of "Russia matting," the "bast," or inner bark 
of the linden (Russian " Lipa "), Tilia europcea, L., and boxwood 
from the Caucasus. The latter is brought to England in billets from 
3 to 8 ft. long, and from 3 to 18 in. in diameter, fetching from £4 to 
£,\5 per ton. The Corsican pine {P. Laricio) is extensively planted 
in the Crimea ; and while beech and Scots fir occur on the 
northern slopes of the Caucasus, on the south side w-e have Abies 
orientalis, Led., Abies Nordmanniana, Pierocarya caucasia (nat. 
order, Corylacece), introduced into England about 1830, and 
Zelkova crenata, Spach, a heavy, hard, reddish wood at heart, with 
a lighter and elastic sapwood, similar to its ally the elm (nat. order, 
Ulmacece). It takes a good polish, and is used for furniture. 

' From it pine wool and pine oil are prepared. 



392 ECONOMIC F(Jl{i:sTI;V. 

Other important species are the "cedar" (Pinus Ceiubra,L.), funn- 
ing large forests in Perm and Volgoda, the aspen, the hornbeam 
(Cdrpinus Beiulus), distinguished as " white Vjeech " from Far/us 
sijloalica, the " red beech," and forming whole forests near Kieflf 
and Poltava, the alder [Ahius incana), and the European larch 
(Larix europcea) in Poland. Of the total timber output for 1880 
from Government forests, of over 2,900,000 cubic fathoms, spruce 
constituted 37'5 per cent., pine 27*8, soft woods (birch, lime, aspen, 
etc.) 19'5, and hard woods (oak, beech, etc.) 8*8 per cent. Walnut 
and boxwood form articles of export. Plantations have been made 
along several railways to protect them from snowdrifts, and Pinus 
Pinaster has been used, with smaller plants, on the sand-plains at 
Aleschki, on the Dnieper. 

ROUMANIA. 

Stated by Dr Cleghorn to contain two million acres of forest 
land, Rouuiania produces oak, walnut, beech, yew, silver fir, and 
spruce, Que7'cus Cerris, L., the Turkey oak, is very characteristic 
of the Balkan peninsula, as is also the horse-chestnut and the 
Macedonian Pinus Pence. 

France. 

Though having forests in almost every Department, covering in 
all about one-seventh of her area, France imports large quantities 
of common woods, as well as the more valuable exotic kinds. 

The principal timber trees of France are oaks, " chenes," of 
which Quercus Rohur, L. ; Q. apeniiina, Lam. ; Q. lanuginosa, Th. ; 
Q. Toza, Bosc. ; Q. Cerris, L. ; Q. Psezido-subei', Sant. ; Q. Ilex, L. ; 
Q. Siiber, L. ; Q. occidenfalis, Gay ; Q. cocci/era, L. ; and Q. 
pseudo-coccifera, Dsf., are indigenous. Q. Suher and Q. occidentalis 
are considerably cultivated in the south and in Corsica. The latter 
does not ripen its acorns until the second year. Cork is stripped from 
Q. Suber after twelve or fifteen years' growth, and then at intervals of 
from seven to ten years; but the two first gatherings are useless for 
"corks." Beecli (" hetre "), ash (" frene "), elm (" orme "), sycamore 
(" fauxplatane "), and other maples (" erables "), birch (" bouleau "), 
walnut (" noyer "), and the Lombardy poplar {Popuhis fastigiata), 
are important deciduous trees ; the silver fir and spruce (" sapin 
rouge ") are abundant in the Vosges and Jura mountains ; and Pinus 
halepensis, Mill., the Aleppo pine, and P. Pinaster, Soland. ap. 



ECOXOMIC FOKESTKY. 393 

Aitoii, the maritime or cluster pine {!'. mariiima, Poiret apud 
Lam.), are indigenous, and much cultivated in the south. The 
spruce yields " Burgundy pitch " and " frankincense • " whilst 
" Bordeaux turpentine " is obtained by cutting long slijjs off the 
stem of the cluster pine, with which the dunes of the south-west 
coast have since 1789 been so successfully planted. Among other 
woods, taken mostly from those exhibited by the French Govern- 
ment at the Exhibition of 18G7, are the following : — 

Ahnis glutinosa, Giirtn. (nat. order, Bdulacem), "Anne." lu hydraulic 
works. 

Amygdaltis communiSjL. (nat. order, Rosaccce), "Amandier." Same luirposes. 

Arbutus Unedo, L. (nat. order, Ericaceoc), "Arbousier." Charcoal. 

Berheris vulgaris, L. (nat. order, Berbendacece), " Epine vinette," Cabinet 
work and dyeing. 

C'arpinus Betulus, L. (nat. order, Cupuliferce), " Cliarnie." Carts, cogs, etc. 

Castaiiea vulgaris, Lam. (nat. order, Ciqmliferoi), " Chataiguier. " Making 
of gallic acid. 

Celtis austr alls. It. {u?it. order, Ulmacece), "Micocoulier." Whip handles. 

Ceratonia siliqua, L. (nat. order, LegiLininosce). Cabinet work and fii'ewood. 

Citrus medica (nat. order, Aurantiacea:). Cabinet ■work. 

Cornus mas, L. (nat. order, Cornacece). Machinerj', tools, etc. 

Corylus Afcllana, L. (nat. order, Cupuliferce), " Noisetier. " Hoops, poles, etc. 

Crataegus azarolus (nat. order, Rosaccce). Fhewood. 

Cytisus Laburnum, L. (nat. order, Legurainosce), " Faux ebenier." Inlay- 
ing, turning, etc. 

Erica arborea, L. (nat. order, Encacea:), "Bruj-ere." " Briar " pipes. 

Euanymus curopceits, L. (nat. order, Celastracca^). 

Hex Aquifoliuni, L. (nat. order, Ilicineoi), "Houx." Cabinetwork. 

Juniperus Oxycedrus, L. (nat. order, Coni/erce), " Goudrou huile decade." 

J. Sabina, L., "Sabine." Cabinet work, pencils, etc. 

Olea europcea, L. (nat. order, Oleacecc), "Olivier." Cabinet work. 

Pinus Cembra, L., " Pin cembro." Cabinet work. 

P. undnata. Various purposes. 

P. Larido, Poir., "Pin noir." Building, etc. 

Prumis Avium, L. (nat. order, Rosacea-), " Cerisier merisier, " or " Cerisier 
sauvage." Cabinet work and firewood. 

P. JIahaleb. Same purposes. 

P. armcniaca, L., " Abricotier." Same purposes. 

Pyms communis, L, (nat. order, Rosacuc), " Poirier. " Various uses. 

P. Malus, L. , var. acerba, "Pommier." Musical instruments. 

RhamnVrS alatemus (nat. order, Rhamnacece). Cabinet work and charcoal. 

Rhus pentaphylla (nat. order, Anacardiacea). Dyeing and tanning. 

Salix alba, L. (nat. order, Salicincce), "Saule." Various purposes. 

S. Caprea, L., " Saule Marceau." Hop poles. 

Sorbus torminalis, Crautz (nat. order. Rosacea:), "Alisier torminal." 
Cabinet work. 

;S^, Aria, Crantz, " Alisier blanc." Good for turning and firewood. 



394 ECONOMIC FORESTRY. 

S. domcstica. Engraving, tools and innsical instruments. 
Styrax offLcinalc (nat. order, Styracacca). Firewood. 
Tilia grandifolia (nat. order, Tiliacece), "Tilleul." Carving, etc. 
Ulex europceus, L. (nat. order, Leguminosce), "Ajone. " Firewood.' 

Switzerland. 

With one-sixth of its whole area under forest, Switzerland pre- 
sents a characteristically mountain flora. Its chief timber trees are 
Picea excelsa