^ J h'iNl'iiFiW.TT.fVB'-IC LIBRARY 3 1833 02999 9478 jGc 979.7 W273t 'Washington Pioneer f-^ss-oci at i on. Transactions of the Washinoton Pioneer of Hit :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: BtnU nf Haslftttglon Association Transactions for 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 and 1910 8 Q TRANSACTIONS OF THE Washington Pioneer Association FOR THE YEARS 1905 TO 1910 WITH SKETCH OF THE ORGANIZATION IN 1883, REORGANIZATION IN 1895, AND BYLAWS NOW IN FORCE Also the addresses of — James B. Metcalfe Gust Eckloff Oliver C. McGilvra Thomas H. Cann Edmond S. Meany Edyth T. Weatherbed Elbert F. Blaine Edwin Eells Leandeb Miller Samuel L. Ckawford George H. Hines and Others at the Reunion of June 7 and 8, 1910. Compiled by THOMAS W. PROSCH, Published by THE ASSOCIATION, and Printed by LOWMAN & HANFORD. Allen County Public Library 900 Webster Strest PC Box 2270 Fort Wayne, IN 46801-2270 CONTENTS Pages Organization, Reorganization and By-Laws 3 to 7 Transactions of Association, 1905 to 1910 8 to 15 Dedication of Washington Pioneer Hall 16 to 38 Annual Business Meeting of Association 39 to 46 Annual Dinner and Social Meeting 47 to 59 Historical Address of 1905 60 to 65 ORGANIZATION, REORGANIZATION AND BYLAWS The Association of Washington Pioneers had its inception and origin in the City of Olympia. There, on the 10th of Oc- tober, 1883, was held the first meeting, of which John M. Swan was Chairman and Robert Frost, Secretary. October 23d of the same year was held a second meeting, at which a form of government was adopted, and to which was given the written approval of forty-three men and women who had lived in the Territory prior to 1856. Other meetings followed, at Olympia, Tacoma, Port Townsend, Vanconver and Seattle, at least one each year, all the meetings for the past fifteen years being in Seattle. In 1895 the Pioneer Association of the State of Washing- ton was incorporated by Orange Jacobs, Charles Prosch, John J. McGilvra, W. V. Rinehart, W. Parry Smith, Dillis B. Ward, Edgar Bryan, Granville O. Haller, A. A. Denny, D. T. Denny and L. S. Rowe. The objects were declared to be ''historical, scientific, literary, monumental and social, and to that end, among other things to collect from living witnesses and other- wise such facts relating to the Pioneers, and the history of Washington Territory and the States of Washington, Oregon, Idaho and California as the Association may deem worthy of preservation, and promote social intercourse among its mem- bers, and to record and publish such facts so collected, to- gether with brief biographical sketches of Pioneers, for the in- formation of future generations. Also, when deemed advis- able, to construct or purchase a suitable hall or building for the use of the Association.'' Seattle was made the principal place of business, and there were the usual provisions for mem- bership, officers, bylaws, revenues and meetings. The first President of the new organization was William V. Rinehart: Secretary, W. Parry Smith: Treasurer, Edgar Bryan, and WASHINGTON PIONEER ASSOCIATION Trustees, A. A. Denny, O. Jacobs, Charles Prosch, D. B. Ward and L. S. Rowe. June 2d, 189G, the old Association convened in regular ses- sion. The matter of the new Association was presented, and by formal vote, upon motion of Geo. F. Whitworth, ''the Asso- ciation was declared merged in, and its property, records, etc., transferred to, the newly incorporated Association." The bylaws adopted in 1895, with such amendments as have since been made, are as follows: BYLAWS OF THE PIONEER ASSOCIATION OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. ARTICLE I. The headquarters of this Association, at which the Secre- tary or his deputy shall reside, and at which the books, records, archives or relics deposited by the members shall be kept, shall be at the City of Seattle, County of King, and State of Wash- ington. ARTICLE II. The regular annual meeting of this Association shall be held on the second Tuesday of June of each year, or at such other time as shall be fixed by the vote of the Association. It shall be called to order by the President, or in his absence by the Vice President, or in the absence of both of them by the Secretary, at 10 o'clock a. m. After the meeting shall be called to order in the absence of the President and Vice President, a President pro tem. shall be elected, who shall preside at such meeting of said Association during the absence of the Presi- dent and Vice President. It shall be the duty of the Secretary to give at least thirty days' notice of the annual meeting, by publishing the same in some newspaper of general circulation y>ublished at said city, county and State; provided, however, that the neglect of said Secretary to give such notice shall not invalidate the proceed- ings of said meeting. ARTICLE III. Special meetings may be called by the President, with con- sent of a majority of the Board of Trustees. Notice of such special meeting shall be given or directed by the President, and signed by the Secretary, but no business shall be trans- acted other than that expressed in the call. BYLAWS 5 ARTICLE IV. At the annual meeting provided for in Article II the offi- cers mentioned in the Articles of Agreement, as well as a Board of Trustees, shall be elected; also such other officers as may be provided for in these Bylaws. The voting shall be by ballot, except in cases where there is no contest. Any person receiving a majority of the votes cast shall be declared elected to the office voted for, or the Trustee voted for. The terms of the officers and Trustees mentioned in the Articles of Agreement shall be one year, beginning ten days after their election. Vacancies caused by death, resignation or failure to serve shall be filled by the Board of Trustees. In addition to the officers mentioned in the Articles of Agreement, a Vice President shall be elected at the annual meeting, who, in the absence of the President, shall perform the duties of the Presi- dent, and hold office in accordance with the terms of this By- law. ARTICLE V. Ten members shall constitute a quorum for the transac- tion of business. ARTICLE VI. The admission fee of this Association shall be, for males, one dollar; for females, free. ARTICLE VII. All persons shall be eligible to membershij) in this Asso- ciation who were residents of the Territory of Washington forty years or more prior to their ajjplieations for member- ship ,and no other. The pioneer period shall never be extended beyond November 11th, 1889. ARTICLE VIII. The annual dues shall be one dollar for males, and shall he paid on or before each annual meeting. Females shall be ex- empt from the payment of annual dues. ARTICLE IX. Any male member neglecting the payment of annual dues for five years shall be debarred from ])articii)atiiig in the pro- ceedings of the Association until such dues shall be paid. 6 WASHINGTON PIONEER ASSOCIATION ARTICLE X. The duties of all elective and appointive officers shall be such as usually pertain to such offices or officers, and those added by special direction of the Association from time to time. ARTICLE XL The Secretary, in addition to his other duties, shall give to each member a receipt for all moneys or dues paid by said member. ARTICLE XIL No money shall be paid out by the Treasurer except upon a warrant signed by the President and attested by the Secre- tary. The Treasurer shall before entering upon the discharge of his duties as Treasurer give a bond to the Association in such sum as may be prescribed by a vote of the Association to be entered of record. The bond shall be with one or more sureties to be approved by the President, and said bond shall be conditioned for the faithful discharge of his duties as Treas- urer of the Association. ARTICLE XIII. The Trustees shall, within the week immediately preceding the annual meeting of the Association, examine the accounts of the Secretary and Treasurer, and all bills presented against the Association, and shall report in writing at said annual meeting the state of said accounts, together with any action or recommendation they may deem advisable with reference thereto. The Board of Trustees shall receive all propositions for the donation of any lot or lots or tract or tracts of land for a site for a hall or memorial building or for other pur- poses, and shall through its Chairman report in writing said proposed donation or donations to the Association, together with such recommendations as they, or a majority of them, may deem advisable. The Association shall at its annual meeting, or at any special meeting, take final action on such j>roj)osed donation and the recommendations of said Board of Trustees with reference thereto. The Trustees shall have the absolute power to receive, accept and receipt for, in the name of the Association, all gifts or donations of personal property, to be used or kept in furtherance of the pur])Oses of the Association. The Board of Trustees shall in the first instance have con- trol, subject to the a])proval of the Association, of all the busi- BYLAWS 7 ness of the Association, but no contract shall be finally con- cluded for the purchase of land or the erection of a hall, or memorial building, nor shall any debt be contracted, without the action of the Association, and subject to the Articles of Agreement signed by the members of the Association. ARTICLE XIV. No political or sectarian questions shall be introduced or debated during any meeting of this Association. ARTICLE XV. These Bylaws may be altered or amended at any annual meeting of the Association, or at any special meeting called for that purpose, by a vote of two- thirds of those present. If an amendment or amendments are sought to be made at a special meeting, such intended amendment or alteration must be noted in the call for such meeting, which call shall be pub- lished at least ten days before said meeting. All amendments must be proposed in writing, and a copy thereof given to the Secretary of the Association. ORDER OF BUSINESS. 1. Roll Call. 2. Reading minutes of previous meeting. 3. Report of Trustees. 4. Report of Treasurer. 5. Report of Secretary. 6. Report of Special Committees. 7. Admission of new members. 8. Unfinished business. 9. New business. 10. Election of officers. 11. Orations, etc. 12. Adjournment. TRANSACTIONS OF 1905-1910 1905. The reunion was held June 20th and 21st, in the Associa- tion's own building the first day and the Madison Park Pavil- ion the second day. There were the usual reports by the Sec- retary, Treasurer and Trustees. President Winslow gave the period allotted to him for address to Rev. W. A. Major, who spoke eulogistically of the late Rev. Daniel Bagley. Joseph A. Kuhn was elected President for the ensuing year; Edgar Bryan, Secretary; L. S. Rowe, Treasurer, and Leander Miller, Thomas W. Prosch, C. P. Stone, D. B, Ward and F. H. Winslow, Trustees. Messrs. Allen Weir, Myron Eells and E. C. Cheasty were appointed a committee to consider and report upon closer con- nection with the local societies of old settlers and pioneers throughout the State. The exercises on the second day included the annual din- ner ; prayer by Rev. P. E. Hyland ; singing by Mrs. W. H. Whit- tlesey ; historical address by Thomas W. Prosch upon "The Beginnings of Washington Territory"; address by Fred N. Baxter, a native son of Washington ; recitations by Mrs. Henry L. Chapman, an early day Olympian ; a song by Grandma Prather, and a talk in Chinook by Edwin Eells of Tacoma. The Secretary reported eighteen deaths among the mem- bers, and |280 collected from the members as dues during the year ending May 31st, 1905. 1906. June 19th and 20th were the dates for the reunion this year. The usual reports were presented. That of the Secretary showed a loss of twenty members from death and a gain of forty-seven by accessions to the membership roll. His receipts were $221 during the year. TRANSACTIONS OF 1906-0; The new oflScers were George F. Whitworth, President; Edgar Bryan, Secretary ; L. S. Rowe, Treasurer ; C. B. Bagley, W. M. Calhoun, W. M. Coffman, Leander Miller and Moses R. Maddocks, Trustees. From the committee appointed last year (Allen Wen; E. C. Cheasty and M. Eells) was received a report by the terms of which provision was made for the reception at reunions of fraternal delegates from local organizations throughout the State of allied and kindred character. It was adopted as an addition to Article VII of the by-laws. The dinner on the second day was followed by a program under the direction of President Whitworth, which included prayer by Rev. P. E. Hyland ; address by Ivan L. Hyland, a native son of Washington; songs by Mrs. Whittlesey, and his- torical address by Clarence B. Bagley. Invitation was received from the Pierce County Pioneer Association, through Mr. W. H. Gilstrap, to attend and par- ticipate in the Fourth of July celebration at Segwalitchew Lake, when a monument would be unveiled commemorative of the first such celebration on the Pacific Coast, that of 184 1, which was directed by Capt. Charles Wilkes of the United States Exploring Expedition then operating in the present States of Oregon and Washington. The invitation was ac- cepted. 1907. June 18th the Association met in the hall at Lake Wash ington. The Secretary reported the decease of twenty eight ]iersons during the year previous Avho had been members of the Asso- ciation and the accession to the organization of fifty-eight new members. Membership dues amounted to .fl8r». The Treasurer made no report, but the Trustees instead reported |474.74 in the treasury. President Whitworth read a lengthy and interesting paper reviewing the changes and ])rogress of the half century and more he had been a citizen of the Territory and State of Wash- ington. 10 WASHINGTON PIONEER ASSOCIATION The newly elected officers were : Thos. H. Cann, President ; Edgar Bryan, Secretary; C. B. Bagley, Treasurer; W. M. Cal- houn, W. M. Cofifman, Geo. F. Frye, M. R. Haddocks and L. Miller, Trustees. The time for the annual meeting of 1908 and subsequent years was changed from the third Tuesday and Wednesday in June to the second Tuesday and following Wednesday in June. On behalf of the native sons an address to the Pioneers was made by Hon. John Condon. June 19th the annual dinner was held in the Madison Park Pavilion, after which the Governor of the State, Hon. Albert E. Mead, delivered an historical address. Mrs. Jennie Hough- ton Edmonds treated the Pioneers to a number of beautifully rendered songs. 1908. On Tuesday, June 9th, the business meeting of the Associa- tion was begun at 10 o'clock. The Secretary reported the loss of twenty-seven old mem- bers during the year past, and the gain of fifty-three new ones. He also reported collections from members for admission and yearly dues amounting to |320. The Trustees made six recommendations to the general body, to-wit: That all members of the Association be consid- ered and adjudged in good standing, except those delincjuent in payment of dues; that the date for admission of persons to membership be raised to 1875 ; that sons of pioneers be admit- ted for the same membership fees as their fathers; that the Association instruct the Trustees to buy or not buy the water lot in the rear of the Pioneer Hall ; that the Secretary be au- thorized to drop from the list of members all who were delin- quent in payment of dues the full bylaw period ; that the sec- ond Tuesday and following Wednesday of June be confirmed as the time for the regular meetings of the Association. The Association authorized the purchase of the water lot; fixed the days of meeting as suggested, and agreed to the member- ship suggestions except in the case where 1875 was fixed as the date for new admissions. This was referred to a committee (Thomas W. Prosch, Wm. V. Rinehart and W. M. Calhoun) O MEMORY OF GEO. F. WHITWORTH 11 with instructions to consider and report at the meeting in 1909. Robert C. Hill was elected President for the ensuing year; Edgar Bryan, Secretary; W. M. Calhoun, Treasurer; T. H. Cann, Geo. F. Frye, M. R. Maddocks, L. Miller and W. V. Rine- hart, Trustees. The second day's exercises included the annual dinner un- der the direction and management of Mrs. W. M. Calhoun, ad- dresses by Rev. M. A. Matthews and Hon. John T. Condon, singing by Mrs. Whittlesey, recitation by Mrs. Lyman Wood, tender of an invitation from the Pierce County Pioneers to join with them at Spanaway Lake on the 8th of July, and a vote of thanks to the various people who had extended cour- tesies and rendered assistance at the present reunion. The two following memorials, presented by Thomas W. Prosch, were adopted, ordered placed upon the record of the Association, and copies sent to the families of the deceased : IN MEMORIAM. The Association of Washington Pioneers hereby ] daces upon record this token of respect and regard for its late Presi- dent, George F. Whitworth. Mr. Whitworth was a Pioneer in the fullest and best sense of the word. He was one of the first to come, in 1853, starting upon the long, arduous and perilous journey across the conti- nent with the birth of the Territory of Washington; arriving in time to witness its formal entry upon organized, political life, and remaining to the end an active, intelligent partici- }>ant in its development and progress to Statehood and great- ness. He was a leader in the church, in the schools, in society, in business, in all the better walks of life, and where he went it was safe and well for others to follow. His sympathies \yere warm toward his fellowmen ; his hand was of the helping kind ; his advice sound, good and encouraging. As a citizen he was loyal to his home, his adopted people, his country, his nation. Of vigorous body, of great mental strength, of robust good nature, and of unfailing rectitude of purpose and conduct, he was esteemed by all, and was i-e- garded with sincere admiration and unquestioned veneration by those who were nearest and knew him best. His Presidency honored the Association, and will ever be a bright spot in its history. Gratefully the members testify 12 WASHINGTOJf PIONEER ASSOCIATION to their knowledge of his grand character and of their many obligations to him in the days gone by. May he rest in peace, an example for all time worthy of loving contemplation and of universal following. IN MEMORIAM. In the death of Miss Sarah Loretta Denny, since the last meeting of this Association, the world lost one of its sweetest and best citizens, recognition of which fact is called for from lis. Miss Denny was a woman of the finest character ; most generous in her impulses; charitable in thought and expres- sion ; modest in demeanor ; lovely to and lovable by all ; good in her every act every day of her life — an angel on earth. And not only in life was she the means and the medium of frequent, constant and untold benefits and blessings to others, but she provided for their continuance after her mission here was ended, she leaving a large and valuable estate to aid the philanthropies, benevolences and charities with which she was acquainted, in which she was interested and for which she hoped much. These included the Kenney Home for the Aged, the Children's Home for the Young, the Crittenden Home for Women, the disabled firemen, the students of the State Uni- versity, the Salvation Army, the care and cure of the tubercu- lar, the poor in the hospital, the church, her relatives and the Pioneers of Washington. Her benefactions to these institu- tions were of the most liberal nature and will help them for years to come, if not forever. It was well for the world that she lived; her good works will live long after her, and her ex- ample will be a bright and shining one for ages to couie. To us it is a grateful memory that she was one of the Pioneers, one of the most devoted, one of the earliest, one of the truest, one of the best. In recognition of her beautiful life, her noble acts of benev- olence and charity, her saintly spirit of kindness and help to all, the Washington Pioneers have rejoiced in her being, have grieved at her early de])arture, and they now place u])on their permanent record this heartfelt expression of their sentiment toward her. 1900. The annual meeting was held on Tuesday, June Sth, in the building belonging to the Association. The annual reports were read, as usual. That of the Secre- tary showed the loss by death of twenty-two members during THE S. L. DENNY BEQUEST 13 the year. It also showed collections from members amounting to |243. The Treasurer's report gave evidence of a balance on hand of |193. There have been other sources of income than those reported for the years here reviewed, but they do not show on the Secretary's books. The income for a number of years has been from four to five hundred dollars. The special committee appointed last year to consider the question of a membership date and qualification reported in written form an amendment to the bylaws making eligible to membership all persons who had lived in Washington Terri- tory forty years or more before the making of their applica- tions, and that no other persons should be admitted. It was also provided that the forty-year qualification should end with the date of State admission, no one being eligible at any future time who had not lived in the Territory of Washington. Ton- siderable discussion followed presentation of the rei)ort, which ended with reference to another committee — Messrs, T. H. Cann, J. A. Kuhn and M. E. Maddocks. For the ensuing year Thomas W. Prosch was elected Presi- dent; Edgar Bryan, Secretary; W. M. Calhoun, Treasurer; and T. H. Cann, Geo. F. Frye, M. R. Maddocks, L. Miller and Wm. V, Rinehart, Trustees. On the day following was the annual dinner, but no pro- gram or other feature of entertainment. In October Treasurer Calhoun received the Sarah Loretta Denny bequest to the Pioneers— 120.000, less |1,200 exacted by the State as inheritance tax. The money was temi)orarily placed at interest. The Trustees at once began to prei)are for the construction of the new building contemplated in Miss Denny's will. Phuis, details and estimates were arranged for. Messrs. Miller, Frye and Maddocks were constituted a Building Committee. 1910. January 22d, in response to a formal call, a special meet- ing of the Association was held, at which the necessary au- thority was given the Trustees to spend the money and build the house desired, in conformity with Bylaw 13. 14 WASHOGTOJf PIONEER ASSOCIATION At the same time a contract was signed by the oflScers and Trustees with Gust Eckloff for the construction of the house planned for |16,500, the building to be finished June 1st. For the purpose of advising and suggesting concerning the house a committee of ladies was appointed, consisting of Miss M. L. Denny, Mrs. T. H. Cann, Mrs. M. E. Shorey, Mrs. T. W. Prosch and Mrs. M. S. Drew, with power to add to their numbers. Upon motion of Mrs. Shorey, it was ordered that tablets be placed upon the front of the new building commemorative of the goodness and generosity of Mr. and Mrs. J. J. McGilvra and Miss S. L. Denny. On the 5th of March another special meeting of the Asso- ciation was held. The committee of ladies suggested the build- ing of a fireplace on the assembly room floor of the new house, with cobblestone front and sandstone mantel ; also the installa- tion of gas pipes and gas range. At later informal meetings of the committee the members urged the addition to the house of balconies at the east end, and they recommended changes in the partitions, the putting in of side seats, new furniture, etc., all of which suggestions were heeded and carried out by the contractor and Trustees. May 28th a third special meeting of the Association was held. The question of membership qualification was discussed. There was opposition on the part of all present (twenty-two members) to the numerous and easy ways of getting into the Pioneer Association. It was determined as the result of the conference to present at the regular meeting in June an amend- ment in favor of forty years' residence in the Territory and State prior to membership, the pioneer period to end with the end of the Territory in November, 1889. Messrs. T. H. Cann, W. M. Calhoun, F. H. Whitworth, D. B. Ward and F. H. Winslow were appointed as a committee to present the pro- posed amendment at the coming regular session of the Asso- ciation. The President was authorized to invite the Oregon Pioneers to meet with the Washington Pioneers in the reunion of June 7th and 8th. DEDICATION PROGRAM 15 The program following was read to those in attendance as that of the dedicatory exercises, commemorative of the build- ing, completion and occupancy of the new Pioneer Hall, on June 7th: 1. Invocation, by Kev. Albert Atwood. 2. Tribute to Mr. and Mrs. J. J. McGilvra, by Gen. J. B. Metcalfe. 3. Unveiling McGilvra tablet, by Miss Lillian L. Mc- Gilvra. 4. Response for McGilvra family, by Hon. Thomas Burke. 5. Song, "Auld Lang Syne," by Mrs. W. H. Whittlesey. 6. Tribute to Miss Sarah Loretta Denny, by Profe.ssor E. S. Meany. 7. LTnveiling Denny tablet, by Mr. Orion O. Denny. 8. Response for Denny family, by Mr. E. F. Blaine. 9. Presentation of engrossed acknowledgments of the Pioneer Association to the McGilvra and Denny families, by Secretary Edgar Bryan. 10. Song, "Home, Sweet Home," by Mrs. Whittlesey. 11. Statement concerning the house, by Leander Miller, superintendent of construction. 12. Presentation of the house to the Washington Pioneer Association, by Gust Eckloff, contractor and builder. 13. Acceptance of the house for the Pioneer Association. by T. H. Cann, Chairman of the Board of Trustees. 14. Declaration of dedication, by the President, Thomas W. Prosch. 15. Opening of the house, by Miss Margaret Lenora Denny, and its possession taking and occupancy by its owners, the Pioneers of the State. DEDICATION OF WASHINGTON PIONEER HALL TuESDAY_, June 7th^ 1910, at 10 a. m. The PRESIDENT: Pioneers— This is the hour and the day set for your annual meeting. It is desirable, however, before taking up the usual and ordinary affairs of the session to dedicate this building with exercises and ceremonies appro- priate to the occasion. The order of business generally as- signed to this time, therefore, will be laid aside until this afternoon, when, at 2:30 o'clock, it will be taken up and car- ried through to the end. The first religious service, with sermon, in what is now the State of Washington, was conducted at Vancouver, Sep- tember 28th, 1834, by Rev. Jason Lee, of the Methodist Episco- pal denomination. The first minister of the gospel to make his home in what is now the City of Seattle was the Rev. D. E. Blaine of the same denomination, in 1853. The first house of worship erected in this city was the Methodist Episcopal Church on Second Avenue, near Columbia Street, in 1854. Under such circumstances it is peculiarly fitting and happy that another clergj-man of the same denomination, one of the direct successors of Mr. Blaine, one who thirty-five years ago was in charge of the first church, and one who is a near pio- neer at least, should take the first part in the dedication of this home for the pioneers of the State of Washington. Those of you who are physically able will now rise and remain stand- ing while the Rev. Albert Atwood, to whom I have referred, invokes the blessing of God upon this house, this enterprise and this people. Mr. ATWOOU : Oh, Lord, we come reverently to Thee, for Thou art great, and just, and good ; Thou art our Father, and we are Thy children. Thy goodness to us has crowned our lives with benefits. We pray that our hearts may be filled with gratitude and our lips with praise. Thou art the God of our fathers; we thank Thee for the work they wrought, for their sacrifices and toil, and acts of heroism and patriotism in laying the foundations of American institutions on this Coast. We jjray that their mantle may fall on us, and that we may be worthy of the inlieritance that through their ef- forts has come to us. P>less this Association, this gathering, INVOCATION BY RET. A. ATWOOD and this house. May a spirit of fraternity and good fellow- ship prevail and be encouraged and strengthened among us. Many who formerly met with us have gone out into the great after-life beyond. Help us to so live that when our life work is done we may join them in the great reunion above, to part never more, and to Thee we will ascribe unceasing praise, now and ever. Amen. The PEESIDENT: I first saw this lake and stood upon this spot in 1871. At that time I was clerk, inspector and act- ing surveyor of marine vessels in the customhouse at Port Townsend. Collector Drew sent me here one day to measure three new vessels. One of these was the schooner Loleta, built by William Hammond, and named after his own daughter: another was the stern-wheel steamer Zephyr, built for James K. Bobbins, for service on the Seattle-Tacoma-Olympia route; and the third was a barge built on Lake Washington for John J. McGilvra. Mr. McGilvra furnished me a horse from the livery stable of Pioneer Abrams, and led the way to his home near here. As I remember the ride and the road, the latter was almost as crooked as the letter S, and up and down, rough, and little more than a trail in width. There was dense timber, and no houses to be seen east of Sixth or Seventh Avenues. On the lake, within sight or sound, was nothing to indicate the presence of human beings except the McGilvra family and home. I got an idea then of the character of Mr. McGilvra. He was a pioneer, typical, tried and true. Though a lawyer, and one who might be expected to establish himself in town, he chose rather to go out, to take new land, to make his own home, to lead cif in road and trade enterprises, to build the first wharf and the first vessel large enough to need (Jovern- ment papers, and generally to do those things done by the pioneers since the days of Captain John Smith, Daniel Hoone and others from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Mr. McGilvra never tired and never ceased in these efforts. He always led in matters for the public good, whether it was the improve ment of Madison Street, the building of lines of railway, the introduction of Cedar River water or other great and impor- tant undertakings. So it was with us. Wlien he thought the Pioneers ought to have land and building he tendereil the lot, this lot, without solicitation and without condition other than the customary occupancy and use. He was a Pioneer to be honored, and on this occasion it is gratifying that we have to deal with the memory of one so exalted and worthy as he. General ^Metcalfe will now address you, paying just tribute to Mr. McGilvra and to his estimable life partner. Mrs. Elizabeth M. McGilvra. 18 IVASHOGTON PIONEER ASSOCIATIOJf Gen. J. B. METCALFE: I beg to express my sincere pleasure for the honor of addressing you today. When we look back to the early pilgrimages of the pioneers across the then desolate stretch from the Mississippi Valley to the Rock- ies, it challenges our admiration for those hardy spirits, men, women and children, who braved the dangers, hardships and privations of that too often harrowing trek. At any hour, from the tall grass, sagebrush or thicket, they must anticipate the hurtling of the poisoned arrow, the crack of the rifle, and the scalping knife of the ambuscaded savage. They scaled the rocky barriers, pushed through trackless desert and forest, led on by an inspiration to found this almost incomparable Em- pire of the Northwest. It is of one who rose to distinction among you that I desire to ask your attention, the late Hon. John J. McGilvra, and his helpmeet, Mrs. E. M. McGilvra, in building up the Puget Sound and Northwest Empire. Judge McGilvra was born in Livingston County, New York, on the 11th day of July, 1827. He was educated in the State of New York, and at 17 years of age accompanied his parents to Illinois and resumed his studies at an academy in Elgin in that State. He had studied law and in 1853 was admitted to practice at the City of Chicago. While in Chicago he fortu- nately formed the friendship of Abraham Lincoln, that great American, the record of whose fame is fixed high among world characters whose names grace the Pantheon of the great. Through the friendship of Mr. Lincoln he was appointed United States Attorney in 1861 for Washington Territory, and removed to this State. His home was in Olympia, but he subsequently went east of the mountains and in the fall of 1802 he located at Vancouver. He filled with signal ability the oftice of Ignited States Attorney for five years, and declined a reappointment. Mr. McGilvra was a man of strong convictions, high moral standard and marked intellectual power and discernment. Be- ing of an active and energetic nature, he found it nearly im- possible to steer clear of politics, and in 18(16 he was nomi- nated and elected on the Republican ticket to the Territorial Legislature, and while there passed a bill appropriating |2.500 to build a wagon road through Snoqualmie Pass. He ever had an eye to the growth and aggrandizement of the City of Seattle. He recognized its great commercial advantages, and was alert to add to its wealth and fame. The Northern Pacific Railroad was soon stretching its iron arm toward Puget Sound; his keen insight discovered that the great corporation, under its then management, was determined to suppress Seattle, and he JOHN" J. M(■(;IL^•HA. 1827-1903; PRESIDENT WASHIXCTOX I'K iNKKK ASSOCIATION' lSOS-99 TRIBUTE TO JOH:?f J. McGHiYRA 19 joined with the other old fighters, principally pioneers of this section, in the memorable contest for the very life of Seattle. The result was that the Seattle and Walla Walla Railroad was organized. Mr. McGilvra drew the articles of incorporation, and in connection with Arthur A. Denny, J. M. Coleman and others began raising funds for the road. Many of you present will remember that it is the first and only railroad ever built by picnic parties; men, women and children joining in the work of the graders. He prosecuted the claims of the City of Seattle to 320 acres of land, and while so engaged in Wash- ington City he discovered that the Northern Pacific Railroad Comjiany was attempting to change its branch line from Skagit Pass to the Natchez Pass in the Cascade Mountains and had filed an amended plat of its branch line with the Com- missioner of the General Land Office. Judge McGilvra imme- diately called Hon. Orange Jacobs' attention to the matter, and as delegate to Congress Judge Jacobs, with Mr. McGilvra, entered protest against it unless the withdrawn lands were restored to public entry. They were, after a long and hot con- test, successful, and restored to the public domain o,(lO(),()00 acres of the most valuable lands of the State. An unusual courtesy was extended to him by the House in granting him the floor of the House, and through the influence of the late Senator Mitchell of Oregon the Senate accorded him the same high privilege. His untiring zeal and his able presentation of the question as stated resulted in this magnificent patrimony being pre- served to the citizens of Washington. He was emphatically a self-made man, and possessed a firmness of character which was evinced in all his acts in life, and yet with it all he was as gentle and kind as a woman. He deserved the prosperity which came to hira in after life, for his life was honorable, his energy sleepless, his ability and talent of a high order, which secured for him well-earned hon- ors, and above all and what he most ap])reciated, the attach- ment of his fellow-countrymen. His efforts were ever sjient in behalf of the material benefit and substantial improvement <if the City of Seattle. In 1864 he opened Madison Street its whole length to the Lake at his own expense, at a personal cost of about ^si.rjOO. He subsequently liberally subsidized the ^Madison Street Cable Railroad to the amount of about ,f50.000. On February 8, 1855, Judge McGilvra married Miss Eliza- beth M. Hills, a native of Oneida County, New York, and a daughter of Mr. H. O. Hills of that county, who came from one of the most prominent of the old Connecticut families. 20 WASHINGTON PIONEER ASSOCIATION Five children were given to cheer this union, three of whom are with us yet — Mm. Carrie E., now the wife of an honored fellow-citizen, Judge Thomas Burke, whom at least 14,000 of King County's voters say they want for the high post of the United States Senate; Oliver C, whom all know as a promi- nent member of the bar of King County and of the Supreme Court of the State of Washington, and Miss Lillian L., who resides with her mother in their beloved City of Seattle. He was at one time President of your honorable body, and at its annual reunion in June of 1902 presented to the Association this very lot upon which we stand today and upon which your splendid home is built. May it ever shelter the pioneers and their descendants, and in the further reunions under its roof may tributes of praise be always expressed of its founder. Today he is resting on the other side of the Great Divide, but his memory will ever be cherished by his fellow-citizens. In the fall of 1864 Mr. and Mrs. James Bush were living on Samamish Lake, and Mr. and Mrs. John Casto were living about one mile distant. One evening Mrs. Bush started on foot to visit the Castos. Before reaching the Casto residence she heard rifle shots and the cries of the Indians, and while undecided what course to pursue was approached by a friendly Indian, who informed her that the Indians had surrounded the Casto residence with the determination of killing Mr. and Mrs. Casto and their hired man. She was advised by the friendly Indian to immediately return to her own home and prepare for a defense, as the Indians would immediately proceed to the Bush house after having completed their work at Casto's. T'pon this statement Mrs. Bush lost consciousness, and was picked up by the friendly Indian and carried to her home. It was not long until the Indians surrounded the Bush home and began their attack. The Bushes were uufn'ovided with firearms, but Mr. Bush had some blasting powder and caps, by means of which he was able to create an explosion, which the Indians construed to be the report of a very heavy rifle or small cannon. This subterfuge enabled Mr. Bush to keep the Indians at bay until daylight, after which they retired to sleej) during the day and renew the attack the following night. During the day Mr. Bush and Ids family slipped away and came to Seattle. About one year after this episode, in the spring of 1865, Mrs. P>ush requested Mrs. McGilvra to accompany her back to her home on Samamish Lake. Although Mrs. McGilvra was obliged to take with her her eight-months-old baby, she readily assented to INIrs. Bush's request. The party, including Mr. Bush, ])roceeded by wagon to Leschi Park, then known as Flea- burg, and from there, in an Indian canoe, to the head of Lake TEIBUTE TO ELIZABETH M. McGILYRA 21 Washington, np through Squak Slough to Samamish Lake. It was a rainy, stormy day, with the result that when night over- took the party on their way up Squak Slough they were all thoroughly drenched. They stopped for the night at what was known as the Indian camping ground, and spent the night keeping dry around the fire and watching for Indians. No one slept during the anxious night. The next day they proceeded to the Casto residence. Here they found everything in the condition it had been left by the Indians after the massacre. The party slept there that night, and the next day proceeded to remove blood-stained clothing and other evidences of the massacre. As it happened the Bush residence was at that time required for other purposes, and the party remained in the Casto residence for over a week. After seeing Mrs. Bush established in her own home Mrs. McGilvra returned in an Indian canoe by the same route to Leschi Park and thence to Seattle. One other incident in Mrs. McGilvra's early experience as a pioneer deserves a place in history : Shortly after Mr. McGilvra had built the family home just south of the pioneer building the Indians fell into the habit of walking into the kitchen unannounced, squatting down on their haunches and ordering coffee or anything else their ap]>e- tites suggested. Among these Indians was one who was called Casto Joe, for the reason that it was his custom to wear the wedding coat of Mr. Casto. It was generally supposed that Casto Joe took part in the massacre at the Casto residence and at that time secured the coat. Mrs. McGilvra put up with the imposition for a long time, owing to her fear of antagonizing the Indians, particularly the one wearing the wedding coat. Finally, however, her patience became exhausted, and, turning upon the Indians she delivered to them an oration in Chinook, delate wawa, the like of which they had never before heard coming from a woman. They listened in awe-stricken silence, then majestically arose and proceeded single file toward Seattle. History, it is said, depicts no more formidable antagonist than an irate woman armed with a hot frying-pan. It was as- suredly signal in its results in this case, for when half way to Seattle they met Mr. McGilvra on his way home. They stop- ped him, and through their spokesman informed him that he had better hyak home because his klootchman was hyas potlum (very drunk). After this occurrence Mrs. McGilvra was never further im- posed upon by the Indians, but on the contrary they would call periodically and ofifer her a present in the shape of fish, clams or berries. These she regularly refused, knowing that 22 WASHINGTON PIONEER ASSOCIATION their acceptance would result in future unreasonable demands. Mrs. McGilvra is a high type of a motherly woman, kindly in disposition and lovable but firm character. Like other pioneer women, she cheerfully performed the strenuous duties imposed upon her by pioneer life. The lives and memories of such women, replete with the tenderness of beautiful virtues, are lives which men, brave men, ever delight to reverence and honor. Mrs. McGilvra now lives with her youngest daughter on Boylston Avenue, near Madison Street. At this point in the program Miss Lillian L. McGilvra un- veiled the tablet in honor of her parents on the front of the building, and from the platform recited in loud and clear tones the legend thereon, as follows: ''This tablet is in testimony of the grateful appreciation of the Pioneers of Washington to John J. McGilvra and Elizabeth M. McGilvra for the gift of the land upon which this building stands.'' The PRESIDENT: On behalf of himself and other mem- bers of the family, Mr. Oliver C. McGilvra will now respond to the address of General Metcalfe.* It is but fair to say that to Hon. Thomas Burke was assigned this number, but finding that he would be unable to fill it, owing to other engagements, Mr. McGilvra was substituted at a late moment. Mr. McGILVRA: No one can regret more than I the in- ability of Judge Burke to be with us today. It so happened that it was necessary for him to be in another part of the State, and before going he requested me to come here and express for him his regert and, in his behalf, say a few words in response. Just after I had undertaken this responsibility I had an en- counter with a horse, with the result that I am exhibiting to you a much discolored visage. After the encounter with the horse it occurred to me that I certainly had a good excuse or a plaus- ible reason for not attempting a response, and some of my friends even said to me, "You certainly do not intend to ap- pear before a public audience with an eye like that," but when I stopped to remember that the pioneers would never have ac- complished what they did accomplish if they had allowed any purpose of theirs to be thwarted by any circumstance or con- dition, I said to myself, I will go before those pioneers today, whether I go before them with two eyes or whether I go before them with only one eye. *Some well-chosen remarks of impromptu character concerning Mr. and Mrs. McGilvra were made by Hon. R. S. Greene, of which, however, stenographic report was not taken nor copy furnished, and which in consequence are necessarily and regretfully omitted from this record. ADDEESS OF 0. C. McGILVRA 23 I have often thought that we of the younger generation should be thankful that our lot was cast for us in this the most favored portion of the globe. When to this is added a protecting cloak, made up of the recollections of a father's honorable career, we should be content indeed. It is this heritage that means most to us and stimulates us to try to do as well. In coming to this at that time unexplored portion of the world, the pioneers and their wives proved themselves to be rugged and brave as well as wise. There were no gold fields to lure them on, but, as they knew, only dense forests inhabited by wild beasts and skulking savages. They were not looking for quickly and easily acquired wealth, but only for a chance to work and win — for a fair field and no favor. They worked by principle and knew the principle by which they worked. They knew the rule that commerce follows the shortest route, and knew that somewhere in this great Northwest, near the Japanese current, lay the shortest route to the Orient and that at that point would be built the metropolis of the Pacific Coast. Subsequent events have proved how well their plans were laid. When I look back and think of the difficulties they encoun- tered and of the hardships they endured, and then look around and see our grand mountains, every one pointing to heaven, and our beautiful waters, each a mirror of nature, I think it was from these the pioneers gained ins])iration, day by day. Let us then listen to the voice of these instruments of na- ture and endeavor to carry on the work the pioneers have so well begun. ''Auld Lang Syne" was sung here by that ever-willing, ever- ready, ever-agreeable and ever-welcome pioneer songbird, Mrs. W. H. Whittlesey. The PRESIDENT: The next feature of the program con- cerns this building and the person who gave the money with which it was constructed. This person, this woman. Sarah Lor etta Denny, was one of the most lovely characters in the history of our State. It is said that our good works live after us. This is true of the late Miss Denny in an eminent degree. The children in the home of the Ladies' Relief Society, on Queen Anne Hill, who are fed and clothed and cared for thi-ough her thoughtful generosity, will be living testimony of her well- placed charity, her real and practical Christianity, for all fu- ture time. The young men and women of the State T'niver- sity, struggling for an education, will be made aware of her good works each and every year indefinitely in the future, and thev and the world bettered and improved in consequence. 24 1VASHI\GT0N PIONEER ASSOCIATION The victims of the great white plague in the Pulmonary Hos- pital at Riverton — the unfortunates against whom the hands of uuiny of our people are cruelly and mercilessly raised — will long bless her memory for the mental encouragement, the physical aid, the restored health that they derive as the result of her wise and loving benefaction in their behalf. And the old people in the Kenney Home — the men and women of TO, 80 and 90 years, poor and without means of support, friend- less and helpless — will be made independent of a niggardly public or private charity, kept in peace and comfort, free from care and trouble during their last days on earth, in large meas- ure as a consequence of her considerate and substantial re- membrance of them. Nor were the Pioneers forgotten by her, as this building attests, and will attest during all the years our organization may yet continue, and when we are gone and there are no more pioneers, the property will benefit our suc- cessors, the native sons and daughters of Washington, for an untold, incalculable period of time. Truly, the good works of Sarah Loretta Denny do and will live after her. Of this beau- tiful woman — beautiful physically as well as mentally, morally and spiritually — Professor E. S. Meany, of the Washington State University, who knew her long and well, better than I, will now speak to you. Prof. E. S. MEANY: On consenting to stand here at this hour and address you on the theme assigned, I was oppressed as never before by my weakness, an inability to frame in fault- less phrase the thoughts that occur to each of us when there is spoken in this presence the name of Sarah Loretta Denny. We rarely appreciate the importance of language. George P. Marsh, the philologist, has said: '^So truly as language is what man made it, just so truly man is what language has made him." This great agency of human progress we use in life for praise or for blame, but you pioneers, you snow- crowned remnants of a sturdy race, what fragments of lan- guage shall I choose to portray for you one of your loved com- panions who has "gone on before?" Her deeds will affect your lives, they will affect kindly and efficiently the lives of generations to come. No word of mine can enhance those deeds, I hope not one may offer the slightest blemish. Who can tell whnt thought of kindness or of charity may be born here this hour? Three years ago at your annual meet- ing ^liss Denny left, remarking how sorely you needed a bet- ter meeting place. She went to Alaska in search of health, and in a week after her return ''the silver cord was loosed, the golden bowl was broken and the pitcher was broken at the fountain." She did not have the strenijth to build vou a home SARAH LORETTA DENNY, FROM HER LAST PHOTOGRAPH, TAKEN IN 187S ADDRESS OF EDMOXD S. MEANT with her own hands, but those hands had the power and her heart had the kindness to place in your keeping, Mr. Persident, and in the keeping of your colleagues the means by which this home was reared. The Arabs have as proverb : "That form of speech is best which makes of the ear an eye." I wish that my words may bring before you an image of this quiet, kindly figure. Every community has a heritage of names. Massachusetts has this heritage in Brewster, Standish and Alden ; Connecti- cut has its Davenport; Rhode Island its Williams; Virginia its Jefferson, Henry, Lee and Washington ; Kentucky has its Daniel Boone and the State of Washington has many names, among which in honored scrolls will rest that of Denny. There were sturdy men of that stock. Equally brave and courageous were the women. When the schooner "Exact" landed at Alki Point on November 13, 1851, the little colony that has grown into this City of Seattle, Arthur A. Denny helped rescue the goods from the tide, and then turning toward his family he found his wife rocking her babe in her arms, while she wept there on the edge of a wilderness. The foundations of Seattle were laid in a mother's tears. How can we measure the cour- age of that mother in the years that followed? In the same family was this quiet sister, this patient, loving daughter. The span of life for Sarah Loretta Denny began in Knox County, Illinois, on February 14th, 18.51 ; it ended here in Se- attle on July 25, 1907. She was a babe when the family made the long, laborious journey across the jjlains. She was a child of but eight summers when the family moved from Oregon to join the others in Seattle. On acquiring what of education the village then afforded, she taught school until her father died in 1875. After that she was the comj)anion of her mother. In that home the girl began her career as a philanthro])ist. There was no wealth in Seattle then, save greatness of heart. The old home garden bore a continual harvest of flowei-s, fruit and food. Few were the homes of Seattle at that time into which the sweets of that garden did not enter in the hour of trial or pain. Gladly do T bear witness of such a visit from my own boyhood memory. Freely did "Grandma" Denny and her daughter minister to the needy with their hands and from their garden. Changes came. The people mourned when "Grandma" Denny died. Her daughter went into the home of the brother. The roses and lilies, the cherries and apples of the old garden were thrown aside to make room for the building of a ciiy. All this brought increasing wealth to the girl who spent the rest of her life searching for ways to be helpful, her greatest fear being that of having anv of her charities known. 26 WASHEVGTOJT PIONEEE ASSOCUTION So carefully did she screen her thoughts and acts of char- ity that few, even among her nearest friends, were aware of the great gifts she had prepared for the end. By many her will is esteemed the best yet probated in the history of this State. Besides gifts and keepsakes to friends and relatives she made the following bequests: The Congressional Home Missionary Society of New York $10,000 Ladies' Relief Society of Seattle 10,000 Congregational Home Missionary Society of the State of Wash- ington 5,000 The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions 5,000 The Women's Board of Missions for the Pacific 5,000 Young Women's Christian Association of Seattle 5,000 Seattle Seamen's Friend Society 4,000 Salvation Army, for work in Seattle 2,000 Crittenden Home 2,000 Young Men's Christian Association of Seattle 1,000 Samuel and Jessie Kenney Home for Old People 20,000 Pioneer Association of the State of Washington 20,000 University of Washington, for the establishment of fellowships.. 25,000 Toward founding a Pulmonary Hospital in Seattle 10,000 Toward a fund to aid Seattle firemen injured during the dis- charge of their duty 5,000 Seattle General Hospital 10,000 Plymouth Congregational Church 5,000 111 addition to those specific bequests, the Ladies' Relief Society of Seattle, the Samuel and Jessie Kenney Home for Old People and the Pulmonary Hospital were made residuary lega- tees, and each of those institutions has already received |25,000 from this source, with more to follow. Every one of these gifts was most worthily bestowed, and every one of them was most gratefully received. We are pre- pared today to make acknowledgments of her gift to the Pio- neers. I will ask the graduating class of the University to establish the custom of sending a committee of girls with flowers for her grave on each Commencement Day.* Kind in *The Sarah Loretta Denny scholarships were awarded for the first time yesterday. The scholarships are valued at $416 each and were made possible through the will of the late Miss Denny. They went to the following students: Katherine Judson, excellence in history; John M. McGee, excellence in chemistry; Taraknath Das, excellence in political science. In appreciation of the scholarships. Will Zinn Kerr, president of the senior class, with a committee consisting of Miss Hilda Eisenbeis, Miss Bessie Anderson and Miss Grace King, visited Lake View Cemetery and placed on Miss Denny's grave a mass of roses, tied with purple and gold ribbons and bearing a card inscribed: "On com- mencement day the class of 1910 places this tribute of flowers on the grave of Sarah Loretta Denny, friend of the University of Washington." Prof. Edmond S. Meany, who accompanied the committee, made a few remarks about the noble character of the pioneer woman. — Post-Intelli- gencer, June 16, 1910. ADDRESS OF ELBERT F. BLAINE 27 her life, thoughtful at her death, it is well that we cherish her memorj'. With all her kindliness, her life was peculiarly sweet and clean. She loved children, flowers, trees and birds. She knew the mountain, the ocean and the forest. There seems an echo of her life in these lines written on the slopes of Mount Rainier : THE ALPINE FIR. Rugged spire of emerald, I love thy lofty home. Thy hands with upturned fingers E'er beckon me to come. The scars of winter tempest On trunk and shattered limb Proclaim the brave companion Of mountain's cragged rim. May I, like thee in struggles, Breathe free the higher air; May I be true and steadfast; This to God in prayer. Mr. Orion O. Denny, the first born white male child in Se- attle, unveiled the Denny tablet on the front of the building, the statement upon which is: ''By this tablet the Pioneers of Washington give expression to their gratitude to Sarah Loretta Denny, whose unsolicited and unexpected kindness to them enabled them to build this house. Erected in 1910." The PRESIDENT: From long acquaintance and long as- sociation with the members of the Denny family, and from the warmth of his personal feelings toward them, and his ability as a speaker, no one is more or better qualified to respond to Professor Meany than Mr. E. F. Blaine, who is now presented to you. Mr. BLAINE : To fittingly respond for the Denny family to the tribute that has been paid some of their departed rela- tives by Professor Meany is quite beyond my power. T feel that I am in the same condition as those for whom I am to speak— I command not the language which would express my sentiments. e •^ Today historv is being recorded, and for the Denny tamiiy to know'that a record of' the deeds of their dead is being made fills them with pride, and they all will look back to this oc- casion as one of the proudest periods of their lives. They have listened to words that have set their heartstrings in motion, 28 WASHINGTON PIONEER ASSOCIATION and the ecstacy of saddened joy causes their hearts to overflow with the kindliest of sentiment toward their pioneer friends, who now unstintingly pay tribute to their honored dead. In Japan, from time immemorial, ancestral worship has been a creed, or rather a cult, and its influence upon the na- tional character of the Japanese is marked and beneficial. Nothing in this life is more sublime than pilgrimages to shrines where noted persons lie buried. It is homage of this kind that makes soldiers, heroes, martyrs, statesmen, scholars; in short, makes men. There is no communion so sweet and tender as that with our dead. Where rests the sanctified clay of our kin- dred will ever be hallowed ground. To call up the spirits of the departed, that the deeds they did while living may be reviewed and give strength and hope and purpose to the living, is an attribute of the highest order in human kind. Today we have called back the spirit of Sarah Loretta Denny — meek, modest, retiring Sarah Loretta Denny. It seems but as yesterday that I saw her among the living. I shall never forget the last time I saw her alive. It was the day before her death. I was informed that she wished to change her will. I went to her home and was ushered into the room where she lay sick unto death. She looked so wan that I felt sure she was unable to make a will. She was told that I was at her bedside and she opened her large, calm eyes and spoke, and so clear was she in her statements and so compre- hensive of what she had and to whom she wished it to go as to leave no room to question her mental capacity to make dis- position of her ])roperty. Strange, indeed, partaking of the heroic, that this modest woman, in no sense a public character, lying there in the immediate presence of death, with no child of her body to care for, no brother, sister, father or mother to favor, should change her will that additional public charities might be established. Maybe this supreme effort of hers will be rewarded by the prayer of some struggling youth intent in ''drinking deep at the fountain of knowledge." Maybe some injured fireman, the rescuer of a child or aged person from a burning building in Seattle, will bless Miss Denny for the charity which she, in extremis, ]n'Ovided for him, and think of her as "a sister to the unfortunate." Among the pioneers of the Denny family who have passed to the ''Great Beyond" none is more kindly remembered than David T. Denny. There was much in his life that was pa- thetic. No man in Seattle lived more for the public good than he. That the laboring man, during periods of depression, might have means of sup])ort. he ran his business at a loss. That Seattle might have an adequate street car system he, at TRIBUTE TO ARTHUR A. DENNY an inopportune moment, ventured his whole fortune. He was generous to a fault. He gave to this city a tract of land for a park, and this will ever stand as a monument to his memory and his worth. In Mr. Denny honesty was not an acquired trait, a commercial factor, but an attribute of the man. His conscience was never seared, and without effort he followed its dictates. It was my privilege to know Arthur Armstrong Denny much better than I knew any of the older pioneers. He was a friend particularly of young men. He had faith in them and inspired them with confidence. In all his business dealings he was capable and fair; he never took advantage of a man's necessities. His demeanor toward men with whom he might differ was ever courteous. He had less patience with men who strove to undermine our government and its institutions than with any other class. True pioneer that he was, he loved lib- erty of action — individuality — and consequently he did not feel that he could endorse the principles of some of the later day unions. He never forsook a friend or a principle: his sin- cerity of purpose and breadth of view made him a leader among men, and while he founded Seattle and lived to .see it a city of eighty thousand people, there were none to dispute his title as "leading citizen." I have faith that some day, in a prominent place in one of the public squares of this city, or in one of the beautiful i)arks which we are now creating, making, as it were, "lungs" for our city, a magnificent monument or memorial fountain will be erected, commemorative of the i)ioneers of this locality. Whatever form this memorial may take, I trust that some- where upon it will be shown the form of Arthur Armstrong Denny, and beneath his statue will be carved this inscription : "A nobler man never founded a city." What an inspiration for our descendants! What a pure and great character it would be theirs to analyze! A clear-cut physiognomy; a lithe, yet strong frame, indicative of manliness. History and tradition will hand down to each succeeding generation the story that he was gentle-nmnnered ; that he was just; that in anger he raised his hand against no man ; that he loved his country, his State, and particularly this city; that he was an ideal hus- band, an ideal father," an ideal citizen. The tale will oft be told of how, when he and his associates made a settlement at Alki Point and the redmen in large numbers gathered about them, Mr. Denny went among those untutored people. gaiiHMl their confidence, and retained it until the day of his death. Future generations will learn that few men ever had a keener insight into human nature than he; that the red. white, black and vellow man alike was his friend; that his was the largest 30 WASHINGTOIV PIONEER ASSOCIATION funeral ever held in the City of Seattle; that beside his bier, with bowed heads, passed men of many nations, and their sor- row was great and genuine, for they knew they had lost both a counselor and a friend. I shall not undertake to estimate the full influence which a character like Mr. Denny's, properly perpetuated in marble or bronze, in history and tradition, will have upon future gen- erations, but the faith is deep within me that as ray own char- acter was influenced by the stories of the goodness of the Sav- ior of man, the ideal citizenship and valor of Washington, the philosojthy of Franklin and the martyrdom of Lincoln, so will the tender minds of the children of this city gain many a use- ful lesson from the life and character of Arthur Armstrong Denny. Engrossed acknowledgments were formally presented to the two families on behalf of the Association by Secretary Bryan, each being signed by the three oflScers and five Trustees. They read as follows: "The Pioneers of the State, through the ofiicers and Trus- tees of the Association, acknowledge a debt of real gratitude to the late John J. McGilvra and Elizabeth M. McGilvra for the gift to them of the lot upon which has since been built the Hall of the Washington Pioneers. The memory of this gracious act will long be cherished. It will be recorded in the history of the Association as the first substantial benefaction received, and will be regarded as an example to other good citizens in other walks of life to the betterment of societv and the world." "To the late Sarah Loretta Denny the Pioneers are in- debted for the munificent benefaction which has enabled them to build a house and own a home that they otherwise would not have possessed. They are truly grateful for her thought- fulness on their behalf; her generosity and her goodness to them. Of amiable and beautiful character, she was kind and helpful to all, to others as to the Pioneers, and her memory will ever be a blessed one, going down into the future redolent of love, charity and good works. As long as this Association exists, or a Pioneer remains, there will be affectionate thought and feeling for her, and when they are gone there will be a brightness and a glory from her that will illumine and cheer the world for all time." Mrs. Whittlesey appropriately sang "Home, Sweet Home" at this juncture. CHARACTER OF PIONEER BUILDING 31 The PRESIDENT: We have all seen this house, above and below, inside and ont At a glance we recognize the materials of which it is chiefly composed. It looks like a good house; we believe it is; we want to know. Built under the direction of the Board of Trustees, with one of their number as super- intendent of construction, and with a reliable contractor, there is the information here at first hand that we want. Mr. Lean- der Miller, Trustee and Superintendent, will now report con- cerning the house as he knows it; followed by Mr. Gust Eck- lofl", contractor and builder, who will tell us further, and in addition will tender the house to the Association ; Mr. T. H. Cann, Chairman of the Board, concluding this portion of the program with formal acceptance of the building, if from his knowledge of it and from these reports he feels justified in so doing. Mr. MILLER: From a thorough acquaintance with this building from the ground up, from the first stroke of work to the last, from inspection of all the material that has gone into it, as well as from close observation of the laborers, mechanics and others connected with its construction, I am convinced that the Pioneers have a first-class house for the money. I wouldn't say so if I didn't think so, and I wouldn't want you to believe it if it were not true. This house has a foundation of the best kind; its basement is light, airy and proof against fire ; this floor and the floor above speak in flattering terms for themselves; the roof is of gravel character, well drained and strong; the front is of pressed brick; the inner walls, stair- cases and fixed furnishings are unquestionably good. While some things might have been difl'erent, and ])erhaps better, we did the best we could, and we present to you the result in the finished form you see it. To the other members of the Building Committee — Geo. F. Frye and M. R. Maddocks — a great deal of the credit is due for this truly excellent house. Mr. ECKLOFF: As the builder of this house I want to tell you that it is a good one; that it has first-class material and first-class workmanship in it; that it is well planned and well built, and that you are getting 100 cents' worth of house for every dollar you have given me. I was glad to get the job, for I felt sure I would like you i)eo])le; and now I am sorry it is done, for I know I like you, and I don't like the i):u-fing. My relations with you — officers, trustees, ladies' committee and all — have been thoroughly pleasant. You have treated me handsomely, and I have tried to do the same with you. But all things with us must end. It is so with this build- ing. It is finished, and you have paid me my price. I am satis- fied, and I hope you are. As my task is done, and I have no WASHINGTON PIONEER ASSOCIATION further interest in it, except as a friend to yon, I here now transfer to the Washington Pioneer Association this building, clear of incumbrance, with policies of insurance, the keys and my very best wishes for its long life and for the prosperity and happiness of every member of your organization. I thank you, Mr. President, Mr. Secretary, you gentlemen of the Board of Trustees, you ladies who have smiled on and cheered me, for your many kindnesses to me, which I will gratefully remember to the day of my death. Judge CANN: As Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Pioneer Association of the State of Washington, and in the name of the Association, I receive at the hands of the con- tractor and builder, Mr. Gust Eckloff, this beautiful house, to be the home of the Pioneers and the children of the Pioneers for all time. The Board of Trustees has had some difficulty along the way. Last year a tenant would not pay his rent, and settled himself on the back part of our lot, refusing to move off, say- ing he intended to take the property as a homestead. He would listen to no reason, and at the direction of the Board I began a suit against him and procured a judgment for possession and for the back rent. I immediately secured the services of the Sheriff, and we threw his effects on the street and gained pos- session of our property. Along about the beginning of the year 1910 the Trustees passed a resolution to commence the construction of this house, and I appointed George F. Frye, M. R. Maddocks and Leander Miller as a Building Committee. That committee appointed Leander Miller to take charge of the work with the architect and builder, and you can see before you the result, and allow me to say that he did his work well. I think he saw every brick and every piece of timber that went into the building, and we one and all are under many obligations to him. Also our President, Mr. Thomas W. Prosch, did good service as well, in connection with the plans, contract and construc- tion of this the first brick buildkig on the shore of Lake ^^'ash- ington. Now, Mr. President, after listening to able addresses this day, and the many good things that have been said about Miss Sarah Loretta Denny, the good lady who donated to us the sum of $20,0()() that made it possible for us to erect this beau- tiful house, and what was said about the Hon. John J. Mc- (iilvra and his good wife, who gave us the lot upon which this house stands, I feel that I must add a word by saying that I think I have known Mr. McGilvra longer than any man in this room. I met him in the old Courthouse at Walla Walla in ADDEESS OF THOS. H. CANN 33 1862. He had been appointed United States Attorney for the Territory of Washington, and was performing his duty in Judge Oliphant's court, where I had been appointed by the Marshal to look after some prisoners that had come down from the north. An abiding friendship sprang up between us, and only terminated in his death. I can heartily indorse all that has been said of him today by the learned gentlemen that have preceded me. He was a good lawyer, a conscientious, upright man and a gentleman. Of the Dennys, I can say they are all the best of citizens, and of Hon. Arthur Denny that there never was a more honest man. He was fair in all his dealings, a friend to the man that toiled for his living, and to every other worthy man, woman or child. In fact, Mr. President, the name of Denny is a house- hold word, a name of credit and honor to the IMoneers of our State. The PRESIDENT: This house, standing upon our own land; erected in accordance with approved plans; being paid for and without incumbrance of any kind; being marked with our name and in our possession at this time; being certified to us by the superintendent as well and honestly constructed; being formally transferred in your presence to our Associa- tion by the contractor and builder; and being accepted by the Chairman of the Board of Trustees; is now by me declared to be dedicated to the uses and purposes of the Pioneers of the State of Washington forever. Ladies and C4entlemen : We have with us today, by si)ecial invitation, Mr. Geo. H. Himes, for twenty-five years Secretary of the Oregon Pioneer Association, a Washington jtioneer in his earlier days, and one who has rendered the pioneers and historians services beyond statement or estimate. He will con- gratulate and felicitate us upon our good fortune and ple.isant situation, and will also be reminiscent and historical in his remarks, for it is impossible for him to talk without recalling the people and incidents connected with this country a half century or more ago. Upon the conclusion of Mr. Himes' ad- dress the meeting will be adjourned to 2:30 this afternoon. Mr. HIMES: As this is your first meeting in this build- ing — your permanent home-made ])ossible tln-ough the gilt of a lot by Hon, John J. McGilvra and a building fund by Miss Loretta Denny — I apprehend that this gathering of Pioneers from a widespread section of the Pacific Northwest is to be largely in the nature of an old-fashioned housewarming. At this point y)ermit me to thank Piesident Prosch for his char- acteristically cordial and warm-hearted invitation to be ])res- 34 WASHINGTOJf PIONEER ASSOCIATION eut on this occasion. This is the beginning of a movement which I trust will be continued in many succeeding years — that of an annual exchange of fraternal courtesies between the Pioneer Associations of Washington and Oregon. As a pioneer of early Oregon, having arrived within its original limits in the early part of August, 1853; and as a pioneer of Western Washington, as I was within the limits of King county about the first of October, 1853, I desire to congratulate you upon this auspicious occasion — an occasion deeply significant in assisting to perpetuate the memories of the founders of this great city who, in large measure, were in the front rank among those who laid the foundations of this proud commonwealth. To amply support this statement it is only necessary to mention the names of Arthur A. Denny, William N. Bell, Carson D. Boren, D. T. Denny and C. C. Terry, who began making homes here late in 1851. In 1852 they were followed by Henry L. Yesler and Dr. D. S. Maynard. The names of these men are household words with you. They, indeed, are names to be remembered. The personal acquaintance of Mr. Denny and myself be- gan in 1861, soon after he removed from Seattle to Olympia to discharge the duties of Register of the United States Land Office, to which responsible position he had been appointed by President Lincoln. The acquaintance and friendship of Mr. Denny and my father began in Knox County, Illinois, in 1849, and only ended with the death of each one. There is one little incident in connection with the personal relations of Mr. Denny and myself which I will relate. Fifty years ago and more it was the custom in many of the news- paper offices of the country for the oldest apprentice to issue annually on New Year's Day a "Carrier's Address." The con- gratulations of the season were conveyed in rhyme to all sub- scribers, and they, in turn, frequently gave the carrier or ap- prentice a small coin as a token of their appreciation of his work in delivering the paper. In December, 1862, I was an ai>]»rentice in the printing office of the Wafthlngton ^^fandard, at Olympia. Inquiry revealed the fact that there had never been a "Carrier's Address" issued in that city up to that time ; consequently I determined to inaugurate the custom. The ad dress was prepared and printed during the night of December 31, 1862. The next morning, and a stormy one it was, too, I circulated the "Address." When asked how much was wanted the invariable reply was, "Whatever you are pleased to give me." So silver from twenty-five cents to one dollar was handed me, and an occasional "greenback" or piece of postal currency. When I called upon Mr. Denny and handed him a copy of the ADDRESS OF GEO. H. HIMES 35 "Address" he bade me take a seat. After reading it carefully he said : ''That's good ; it is appropriate at this time." And then he handed me a $2.50 gold piece. I began to fumble in my pockets for the change, but he spoke up quickly, saying: ''Xever mind ; keep the change." Whereat I rejoiced and ex- pressed my thanks, feeling truly grateful for his kindly ex- pression. At the close of that day I had over $30 after the paper for the address was paid for. That was the largest sum of money I ever had together up to that date. The ''Address" was printed on a hand press and the paper was blue foolscap costing |1 per quire. This was the first publication of the kind issued north of the Columbia river. The first two lines were as follows: "Old Sixty-two has passed away — Again we hail the New Year's Day." Then my poetic steed balked, and I could not go any further. After trying in vain for a week, and when about to give up the effort in despair, a tramp journeyman printer named Lucien Everts came to Olympia. He found employment on the Standard, and I soon became acquainted with him. Finding that he was reliable, and something of a rhymester. I outlined my desire to issue an '"Address" on the first of the year, and the result was that he took the two lines as above quoted and added fifty-two lines more. As T have a copy of that "Ad- dress" — the only one in existence, so far as I know — it will be my pleasure to send this Association a photographic copy of it in the near future to be hung upon the walls of this build- ing or otherwise disposed of as the Board of Trustees may direct. It is well nigh impossible to conceive of a stronger tie of fraternity than that which is the outgrowth of personal asso- ciation for many months. In the most fitting words of Oregon's most eminent poet, Samuel L. Simpson, who came across the plains in 184<): .. * * * rpj^g hearts and souls of men Were darkly tried and tested then. That, in the happy after years, "When rainbows gild remembered tears, Should any friend inquire of you If such and such a one you knew — I hear the answer, terse and grim, "'Ah, yes; I crossed the plains with him.'" In these latter days the experiences of '"crossing the plains" can hardlv be understood. The events of the journey, when re- viewed fiftv or more years later, even by those who made the trip, seem like a series of dreams. This is particularly true 36 WASHINGTON PIONEER ASSOCIATION when the contrast between past and present methods of travel are considered. Now the pioneer says to himself: ''Did I really cross the plains? Can it be true that I was six months on the way to Oregon?" But when memory begins to marshal the occurrences of the trip into line, one after the other, even as late as 1859, and for some years afterward, then he recalls what the journey westward meant. It was to leave home, friends, society and all the surroundings and influences which the human mind holds most dear, with the strong probability that the separation would be final ; to strike into the wilder- ness occupied by wild beasts and wilder savages, with one's objective ])oint two thousand miles distant; to provide teams and supplies for a journey of several months ; to be without protection other than that afforded by immigrants traveling together; to cross unfordable rivers in improvised ferryboats made out of wagon boxes ; to scale almost impassable moun- tains ; to depend upon the country traversed for supplies for teams; to endure all the extremes of storm and sun, with scant protection ; to be subject to all kinds of diseases, without any prospect of medical relief; to loss of teams for want of food, by poisonous waters and theft by Indians; to be threatened with starvation, thereby risking the lives of women and chil- dren ; to endure great suffering from thirst while traveling for days in a brazen atmosphere over scorching sands; to endure all these hardships, and others — all combining to tax the powers of human endurance to the limit — then a feeble con- ception may be formed of the trials that the greater portion of those who came in the early days had to undergo. It was by overcoming such conditions, thus faintly outlined, by the pioneei's, men and women, that saved the Pacific Northwest to the T'nion and prepared the way for future greatness. In the last twenty-five years I have interviewed thousands of Pioneers. Among the first questions I ask is this : ''What induced you to come to Oregon?'' The answer is given in many forms, but all of them can be condensed into one sen- tence, viz. : "We came to better our condition !" And in so doing the Pioneer saved the "Oregon Country" to the nation. When we look at the States of the middle west as they now appear the above answer seems incomprehensible. This is the explanation in part: Much of the territory west of the Alleghanies fifty to eighty years ago was very sickly, ague or malarial fever ])revailing in a large degree; hence the desire for a healthy climate was a strongly impelling motive on the part of thousands who came to Oregon during the pioneer days. And that is true today to a great extent. Refore closing my remarks I will relate a personal experi- ence which occurred at the outbreak of the Yakima Indian INDIAN WAR EXPERIENCES war in 1855-56. In the latter part of October, 1855, my sister — now Mrs. William H. Riiddell, of Elma, Chehalis county, this State — and I were attending a "rate bill" school taught by Marcus McMillan in a rude log schoolhouse on the extreme northern edge of Chambers' prairie, known as the "Ruddell Schoolhouse." My father's cabin was about three miles dis- tant, and the road thither lay through heavy timber most of the way. After leaving the schoolhouse there was perhaps a quarter of a mile of prairie. As we were entering the timber about half-past four oclock that afternoon John Chambers overtook us, shouting as he galloped past: "Hurry, children; hurry, and get home; the Indian war has broken out. Mattice has been killed, Bolan has been killed, and I don't know how many more." And on he went to alarm his brother David, two miles away in another direction. Of course my sister and I were frightened. We hastened on home as rapidly as pos- sible, and when I saw mother I said: "The Indian war has broken out!" In reply she said: "Oh, no; I guess not!" "But John Chambers says so!'' I replied. At that her face became pale. My father was several miles away at work and could not be reached otherwise than through a special messenger, and that was impossible, as we had no horse and no one to send. In a few moments mother said in a composed voice: "^A'ell, I guess as soon as the chores are done you had better go to Mr. Wood's house and see if he will not let John come over and stay all night." I then began doing chores. There were four cows to milk, a few pigs and young cattle to feed and some wood to provide. When all was done it was quite dark. Then leaving mother and three children younger than myself I started on the trail toward the cabin of Mr. Wood, nearly a mile distant, through heavy timber. When about half way to my destination, at a point where it was so dark that one's hand could not be seen, suddenly a voice right over my head said: "Hoo, hoo-hoo. liooT I was almost glued to the spot, and was startled beyond my power of ex])ression. Recovering myself quickly, however, and realizing that the sound cnme from an owl in a tree a little ways above me, I went on to the home of Mr. Wood and made known my errand. In lesponse to my mother's request John went home with me carrying a rifle, whereat I rejoiced. Two days later father returned, and then he sought a place of safety for his family in a stocknde nearly four miles away. Between October, 185."). and March, 1857, we lived in four different stockades or blockhouses. Then we returned to our home, and my father began anew the strug- gle to re-establish a home for his family, amid many discour- agements, as the results of the labor of the previous two years had been practically destroyed by the loss of stock and the 38 WASHINGTON PIONEER ASSOCIATION crop of 1855. In this my mother bore an equal part, and never did I hear her utter a word of complaint or find any fault with her conditions. On the contrary, she always had a word of good cheer and smile for all, whatever the conditions. Under all circumstances she would look upon the bright side. No element of misfortune or discouragement ever confronted our family — and there were many occasions when almost insur- mountable obstacles appeared — which caused her for one mo- ment to depart in any degree from the line of conduct which she felt was her duty to follow. In this respect her case was not an isolated one. She was among many pioneer mothers, all of whom had similar experiences. To protect, defend and perpetuate the memory of these true and faithful women should be the duty as well as privilege of every one of their descendants. THE ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING At 2:30 p. m., June 7th, the Association reconvened. The Secretary read the record of the last annual meeting. There being no objection to it, it was approved. The President presented the following address, which was read, received and ordered filed : We are assembled here today, my friends, in a new build- ing provided for us through the thoughtful kindness of a pio- neer woman. You know to whom I refer. Miss Sarah Loretta Denny, our benefactress, made it possible for us to have this home, and in so doing placed the Association in a position superior to that of any other group of Pioneers in the United States. We may well rejoice at our good fortune. We should also be grateful, and we are. While what we say may not concern the late Miss Denny, as she has gone on to the beau- tiful land over the river, yet it is fitting that we should ac- knowledge in appropriate manner the obligation she so un- expectedly and unostentatiously placed us under. By tablet and by written paper we have done this, but there is still an- other place where we can properly and publicly render a small measure of homage to her memory. The room where we now are, and which will undoubtedly be the main apartment of this building, should be given her name. Here year after year her friends, the Pioneers, will meet, and her name connected with this spot will be to them a pleasant reminder of one whose virtues they will never cease to recognize and extol. The past year has been to the Pioneers one of unexampled prosperity. Though there have been losses in our membership — serious and grievous ones, coming home to some of us in the closest possible manner — they have been more than made up to the Association by the gains, until in members we are nu- merically stronger than we were a year ago or ever before. During the past twelve months thirty-two of our members died. The accessions numbered seventy-five. The gain was forty-three. It is impossible to tell how many members the Association has, but the number is fully eight hundred, a con- siderable majority of whom are women. It is reasonable to suppose that under the favorable circumstances at present pre- vailing, and with a little effort on the part of the officers, that the membership rolls will continue to lengthen, and that in due 40 WASHINGTON PIONEER ASSOCIATION time tli€\v will contain the names of fifteen hundred or two thousand persons. It is believed that it will be well at the present session to do away with the several membership quali- fications that we have, and to establish a. new one that will be common to all, based upon residence in the Territory of Wash- ington forty years or more prior to application for member- ship. This is recommended to you for favorable consideration. The time will come in our State when all persons who lived in Washington Territory will be regarded as Pioneers, just as in other States the Pioneer line has been drawn. That time, however, has not yet arrived, owing to the long-delayed admis- sion of W^ashington to Statehood. The forty-year sliding scale proposed will fully accomplish the idea and purpose, and after its adoption the qualification should never be extended or changed. The prosperity before mentioned has included the finances of the Association, the revenues of the year far exceeding those of any other like period. In the latter part of 1909 the |20,000 bequest of Sarah Loretta Denny became available, reduced, however, to |18,800 by the six per cent. State inheritance tax. Pending the use of this money for the purpose for which it was given, to wit, the building of a Pioneer Hall, it was dis- creetly placed at interest by Treasurer Calhoun, and thereby $580.10 added to the funds of the Association. From the wooden building that stood on our lot before was derived |235 of rent money, and from membership dues $299 during the year. The income from all these sources aggregated |19,- 984.10, an amount truly gratifying to report. The chief ex- penditures during the year have been in connection with the construction of the hall, the exact cost of which it is yet im- possible to state. Insurance, taxes, new furniture, the annual dinner, secretary's salary, stamps, etc., have called for several hundred dollars. There has been no extravagance, no waste, no loss. There is reason to believe that after all accounts are honestly settled, and all bills paid, there will remain in the treasury fully fifteen hundred dollars. There were three sjjecial meetings during the year. At one of these authority was given to the Trustees to build this house. A committee of ladies, headed by Miss M. L. Denny, was appointed to make suggestions as to the building, its fur- nishings, and so forth. This committee was active and effi- cient. To it was due the fireplace, the balconies, the station- ary seats, gas pipes, some room changes and other desirable things. The second meeting was in furtherance of the first, and the third meeting had sjiecial reference to a new rule for individual membership. These meetings were well attended, and a happy interest was manifested in their proceedings. HONORS TO PIONEERS 41 The Association has been placed under obligations to a considerable number of people in quite a number of cases during the past year. To Mrs. Calhoun, Mrs. Bass and other ladies is due warm praise for the grand dinner they gave us last year. The same ladies have a similar work in hand for this year. It is not necessary for me to promise that it will be well done. The Seattle Chamber of Commerce has fur- nished us a convenient and pleasant meeting place a number of times, with warm welcome and without cost. In connec- tion with this Washington Pioneer Hall several gifts have been received. To Mrs. M. E. Shorey is due credit for the legend "Auld Lang Syne" above the fireplace; to Edgar Bryan, for the commemorative tablets on the front of the building, and to Gust Eckloff for the speaker's platform. Members and offi- cers have all vied in interest and zeal for the common good, a fact that augurs well for our future. The transactions of the Association, including historical addresses made to its members, should be printed, as they are in other States. In all the past years two such publications have been issued. There should be a third now, and hereafter they should come out annually. We can well be proud of the early history of our State, and should do what we can to give the world the benefit of its publicity. New York, Massachu- setts, Michigan and other States have published small librar- ies concerning the lives and doings of their first people, and there are no historical works more interesting than these, and none other so valuable. This Association should ask the State Legislature to do these things for Washington, and to show that it means what it says it should do these things for itself and its own immediate constituency. It is extremely gratifying to see that the Pioneers of the State are as a class the most respected of its citizens. It is a passport to favor to be known as a Pioneer. It heli»s in trade, in society, in politics. I suppose Seattle is a fair index of the sentiment to which T refer. Here five of the offices connected with which the honors and emoluments are among the greatest in the country are held by Pioneers, namely: C H. Hanford. U. S. District Judge: ^Mitchell Gilliam, State Superior Judge for King County; (Teorge F. Kussell, Postnmster; Scott Cal- houn, Corporation Counsel, and Edward L. Tei-ry. Tieasuier. Other pioneers are to be found elsewhere in jtlaces of ]»ul>lic trust. When the newspa])ers want to sny something ]»]easaiit of an old citizen they call him a pioneer, and that is usually regarded as a synonym for probity, integrity and worth. Tin- municipality takes pleasure in naming streets, jilaces, parks, plavgrounds and schoolhouses after pioneers. Among the large business structures are the Pioneer, the Maynard, the 42 WASHINGTON PIONEER ASSOCIATION Butler, the Hinckley, the Collins, the Colman, the Leary and others. Adjacent towns are Yesler, Van Asselt, Foster and Renton. Some of the pioneers are yet prominent in business and their names are still used in connection with great enter- prises, as the Dexter Horton Bank, the Denny-Renton Clay & Coal Company and the Lowman & Hanford Stationery and Printing Company. It is good to know that many of the Pio- neers are in comfortable circumstances, having fine properties and incomes and able to help where help is needed throughout the community. That they do their share, and do it willingly, is known. It is also pleasant to record the good feeling that exists among the pioneers themselves. The contentions that were so fierce from thirty to sixty years ago are in the ceme- tery of oblivion and new ones no longer take their places. It makes no difference to us now what another pioneer's politics, religion, race or family are or may have been. He's one of us anyhow; he's all right, and we'll stand by him. lender such circumstances — with good feeling among ourselves, with the respect and regard of our neighbors, with warm hearts and helping hands all around us, with an honorable past and the best possible future before us — it is well indeed to be a pio- neer, and particularly a pioneer in Washington, the best State in the American Union. Secretary Bryan reported thirty-two deaths among the members during the past year, named, arrived on the Pacific Coast, died and aged as here stated: Susan Prosch, 1855, Aug. 1, 1909, 85 vears. William Godfrey, 1807, Aug. 4, 1909, 68 years. James M. Hayes, 1852, Oct. 14, 1909, 72 vears. Peter Edward Hyland, 1860, Nov. 29, 1909, 80 years. Thomas Hood, 1865, Nov. 29, 1909, 04 vears. Cordelia J. Hill, 1867, Dec. 26, 1909, 64 vears. Mrs. Eliza J. Meeker, 1852, Oct. 9, 1909, 76 vears. Hans Nelson, 1854, Nov. 11, 1909, 74 vears"! Benjamin F. Ruth, 1853, Jan. 3, 1910,^80 years. Kate Ruth, 1858, Sept. 21, 1909, 65 years. Nathaniel L. Rogers, 1860, Nov. 17, 'l909, 72 years. Leander S. Smith, 1864, Dec. 23, 1909, 64 vears. George N. Smith, 1852, Dec. 24, 1909, 77 vears. Elizabeth Smith, 1858, Nov. 10, 1909, 75 years. Eugene D. Smith, 1858, June 13, 1909, 72 vears. Elizabeth J. Ward, 1850, June 4, 1909, 59 years. Theodore O. Williams. 1849, Sept. 10, 1909i 82 years. Anna L. Woolery, 1874, Sept. 5, 1909, 57 years. Helen M. Prosch, 1849, Feb. 4, 1910, 61 years. Leonard Reinig, 1862, Feb. 9, 1910, 70 years. THE DEPARTED ONES 43 Royal T. Hawley, 1852, March 7, 1910, 82 years. Austin E. Young, 1853, Dec. 8, 1909. Andrew J. Baldwin, 1852, March 16, 1910, 8G years. John P. Judson, 1853, April 12, 1910, 69 years. Martha A. Stringham, April 17, 1910, 87 vears. Eliza A. Whitworth, 1853, April 21, 1910, 57 years Louisa M. Bogart, 1866, May 2, 1910, 75 years. Sylvanus C. Harris, 1861, May 3, 1910, 60 years. N. Jane Gibson, 1862, April 23, 1910, 71 years. John P. Hays, 1852, May 10, 1910, 77 years. Henrietta M. Haller, 1853, May 28, 1910, 85 years. ^Samuel J. Bryant, April 9, 1910, 77 years. Treasurer Calhoun presented a report showing total re- ceipts for the year amounting to |20,087.13. This included a balance on hand at the beginning of the year of |193.03, while the balance on hand at the end of the year was $4,211.12. The report was approved by the Board of Trustees, and was re- ceived and ordered filed by the Association. Mrs. Mary L. Sinclair* presented to the Association the resolution following for consideration, approval and adoption : Whereas, That noble pioneer woman, Sarah Loretta Denny, of affectionate and loving memory, whose forethought and gen- erosity have made possible this beautiful and substantial build- ing, the construction of which was one of her most cherished desires, and whose fondest hopes and untiring efforts were for the uplifting and betterment of humanity, the loss of whom from our midst we yet mourn, and the recollection of whom we wish ever to remain clear, distinct and pleasant among the pioneers, their children and posterity; therefore, in token of our love and regard for her, our gratitude to her, and as a fit- ting additional memorial, be it Resolved by the Washington Pioneer Association, That this assembly room be called the Sarah Loretta Denny Hall, and that it be dedicated to her name accordingly. The preamble and resolution presented by Mrs. Siuchiir were received with favor and adopted as the sentiment of the meeting. *Mrs. Sinclair is the daughter of John N. Low and wife, who were among the original settlers at Alki Point in 1851. Of the twent.v-four adults and children there then eleven yet remain among the living, namely: Mrs. Mary A. (Boren) Denny, Mrs. Louisa (Boren) Denny, Carson D. Boren (these three being the adults), Mrs. Louisa Catherine (Denny) Frye, M. Lenora Denny, Holland H. Denny, Mrs. Olive (Bell) Stearns, Mrs. Virginia (Bell) Hall, Mrs. Mary (Low) Sinclair, Alonzo Low and Gertrude L. Boren (these eight being the children). 44 WASHINGTON PIONEER ASSOCIATION Upon motion of Mr. C. B. Bagley it was further ordered that the Trustees be instructed and directed to suitably mark the room in bronze or other proper material with the name of the late Miss Denny. T. H. Cann, D. B. Ward, F. H. Whitworth, F. H. Winslow and W. M. Calhoun, the committee appointed at the special meeting of May 28th, presented the following, adopted at that meeting, for final action at this the regular session of the Association : All persons shall be eligible to membership in this Asso- ciation who were residents of the Territory of Washington forty years or more prior to their applications for member- ship, and no other. The pioneer period shall never be extended beyond November 11, 1889. The effect of its adoption as the law of the Association would be, declared the committeemen, to wipe out all present qualifications and to substitute for them this one. Its adop- tion, however, would not afl'ect the membership of any person at present in the organization. Hereafter there would be no favored individuals or class. All would come in on like terms. The matter was discussed quite fully, there being some little opposition, but when the vote came the amendment was adopted by a large majority. Judge Cann offered the following as a substitute for Article 4 of the Bylaws : At the annual meeting provided for in Article 3 the offi- cers mentioned in the Articles of Agreement, as well as a Board of Trustees, shall be elected; also such other officers as may be provided by these Bylaws. The voting shall be by ballot, except in cases where there is no contest. Any person receiving a majority of the votes cast shall be declared elected to the office voted for, or the Trustee voted for. The terms of the officers and Trustees mentioned in the Articles of Agree- mnt shall be one year, beginning ten days after their election. Vacancies caused by death, resignation or failure to serve shall be filled by the lioard of Trustees. In addition to the officers mentioned in the Articles of Agreement a Vice President shall be elected at the annual meetings, who, in the absence of the President, shall perform the duties of the President and hold office in accordance with the terms of this bylaw. AN EXCHANGE OF COURTESIES 45 The changes to be made would be the provision for a ma- jority in elections; for a specific term of office; for the filling of vacancies, and for creation of the ofiice of ^'ice President. There was no objection to the new proposed bylaw, and it was adopted by vote of all. The correspondence following between the I'residents of the Washington and Oregon Pioneer Associations was read: From the Washington President, under date of May 30: *'0n behalf of the Washington Pioneer Association I write to invite you and all other Oregon Pioneers to join with us in our annual reunion on the 7th and 8th of June. At 10 a. m. the first day we will dedicate our new hall ; in the afternoon hav- ing our usual business session, and the following day having our social and feasting exercises and entertainment. You are invited for both days, and we will endeavor to make it pleas- ant for all who come. To us the Oregon Association is a model, and we want to sit at your feet and learn, that we may profit thereby. Come over and see us and help us, and come in numbers and strength. It will rejoice us to have you do so, and we all will be the better for your coming. The occasion with us will be a memorable one. and one that will interest Oregonians as well as Washingtonians. Come." From the Oregon President (Frederick V. Holmau), under date of June 1st: ''Mr. Himes has given me your letter of the 30th ultimo, inviting him and me and Oregon Pioneers to attend the annual meeting of the Washington Pioneer Asso- ciation on the Tth and 8th of this month. Mr. Himes informed me that he expects to be present. I fear that I shall not be able to attend, as I have some ini])ortant professional engage- ments and this meeting will be held in the week devoted to the Portland Rose Festival. I expect to make an exhibit of roses on the Tth, so it would be impossible to be present be- fore the 8th, but I fear I shall not be able to go to Seattle on that day. If I am able to attend I shall write yon. 1 regret you could not have found it convenient to have the meeting the following week. On behalf of the Oregon Pioneei- Associa- tion I wish to extend an invitation to yon as President of the Washington Pioneer Association and all its members to at- tend our annual meeting, which will be held at Portland, June 22, 1910. For your kind invitation I thank you." Upon motion of Mrs. Flora Engle the correspondence was received and ordered filed in the office of the Secretary. Upon motion of Col. W. F. Prosser the invitation to attend the session of the Oregon Pioneers was ordered accepted, and 46 WASHINGTON PIONEER ASSOCIATION upon further motion the President was instructed to appoint a delegate to officially represent the Washington Association on the occasion referred to. To the President, whose term of office was now expiring, was left, by motion of Major W. V. Rinehart, the preparation and publication of a report in pamphlet form of the proceed- ings of the Association, including addresses of the speakers and other proper matters. Upon suggestion of Judge Cann this was made to include the revised and amended bylaws. The time for the election of officers having arrived the fol- lowing-named members were nominated and chosen without opposition ; Frank H. Winslow, President ; Edwin Eells, Vice President; Edgar Bryan, Secretary; William M. Calhoun, Treasurer; T. H. Cann, George F. Frye, M. R. Maddocks, Leander Miller and William V. Rinehart, Trustees. The meeting was declared adjourned until tomorrow. THE DINNER AND CONCLUDING SESSION At noon on the 8th the Pioneers assembled in the room on the second floor of the new building for the annual dinner. The arrangements were under the direction of a committee of ladies and were as nearly perfect as could be. They were assisted by young men and women who cheerfully volunteered their services as cofifee pourers, waiters and general helpers. Many people were out the second day who were not out the first, the social features attracting them, though never before was the first day's meeting so largely attended as this year. Some of the older members are so feeble as to require aid in getting about and one day is all they can stand. The Rev. Albert Atwood asked a blessing upon the meal before the company. When about half through the members arose in response to a request, and, lifting high, drank a toast "to the health, happiness and prosperity of the McGilvra and Denny families, through the bounty of whom we are here to- day." Upon conclusion of the dinner Col. Prosser moved and put to vote a resolution of thanks to the officers of the Asso- ciation and the ladies responsible for the admirable program being carried out, and for the dinner served, at the present reunion. Each year some of the older people, by reason of their in- firmities or otherwise, drop out, and thereafter are seen no more at these gatherings. In 1010 the oldest person present was Charles Prosch, 90 years of age in June. The next old- est was Martin Monohon, 90 in October. The third oldest man was Carson D. Boren, 86. The oldest woman in attendance was Mrs. Mary A. Denny, 88 years. She and her sister, Mrs. Louisa Denny, 82, and their brother, C. D. Boren, constituted a remarkable family group, of which there was none other like it in attendance. They are the only survivors of the adult settlers who located in or near Seattle in 1851. Of those who came first to Washington or Oregon Edwin Eells was the 48 WASHINGTON PIONEER ASSOCIATION leader, he datinj;: back (by birth) to 1841. Mrs. Nancy (Hem- bree) Bogart, who crossed the plains in 1843, was next, and following her was Mrs. Amanda (Gaines) Kinehart of the immigration of 1845. Several were present who came in 1847, the oldest in years being Ronald C. Crawford, 83. In the Association are many members from 82 to 90 years of age, but, except those named, they did not attend the meeting un- der review. When the dinner was ended the members got together in the room below and the session was formally reopened, the exercises of the reunion concluding with speaking and sing- ing here reported : The PRESIDENT: A delegation of twelve members of the Pierce County Pioneer Association has come from Tacoma today, and has a communication to present to this body. The character of this communication I am unaware of, but I know the people and I am sure it will be right to receive it. Mr. A. J. Miller, President of the Association there, is invited to take a place upon the platform and to make such presenta- tion of the matter as he wishes. Mr. MILLER: We are here to see you, to greet you, to wish you well. We are your nearest neighbors, and among your best friends. It is good to be here. You have given us pleasant treatment. We hope to have you with us not once but many times hereafter. We will reciprocate your evidences of regard, your kindnesses, if you will but give us the oppor- tunity. Pioneers are good people and you are pioneers. We have with us, to further represent us on this occasion, Mrs. Weatherred, who will now address you on behalf of our Asso- ciation. Mrs. EDYTH TO'ZIER WEATHERRED: Today I come not as a pioneer in its true meaning, but a daughter of Oregon pioneers and a member of the Pierce County Pioneer Society. When the Creator made this grand, glorious and beautiful Northwest He had no idea where the boundary lines were to be j)laced, so He lavishly bestowed the endless virtues which lap and interlap throughout Washington and Oregon. The pioneers of the two States have moved back and forth and married until they have close relationships on both sides of the Columbia. Pioneers have no boundary line jealousies — they are all neighbors in the true sense of the word. As I look over this vast audience of happy, smiling faces it seems that each and everv one must have been a belle or beau in the ADDRESS OF EDYTH T. WEATHERRED 49 "(lavs of auld Lang- Svne,'' for I have never seen such a con- gregation of good-looking elderly people. It, indeed, is whole- some to hear the conversations of the dear old pioneers. They call one another by their first names, and I have even seen some one pointed ont as "an old sweetheart of mine" away back in the "early days." Too much cannot be done by the sons and daughters of pioneers to commemorate the memories of the builders of the great Xorthwest. Miss Denny's appropriation toward a build- ing for the Pioneer State Association is most commendable. She is worthy of much praise and one and all thoroughly aj)- preciate her gift. Every native son and daughter should strive to be more worthy of their pioneer parents. Let their hard- ships and endless trials ever be a guide-board for our own lives and make us strive to be better men and women, and in our characters erect a monument to their memories. Let us so live that the world can point with pride to the sons and daughters of the pioneers of the West. My friends, some of you probably have not heard of a ''little town" on Puget Sound not very far from here called Tacoma. Well, there is such a place, and situated in Pierce county, a city of over one hundred thousand ])eo])le. That county has a good big Pioneer Association, and on the invi- tation of Mr. Thomas W. Prosch we are here today. We have enjoyed your companionship and your sumptuous dinner. Our hearts are with you, and it seems as if we were in a big family reunion. When planning for our visit we thought it would give us a little more pleasure if we could bi-ing some token of remem- brance — something that would belong to the State Association and be a part of this Pioneer building. Last January Mr. George H. Himes, Secretary of the Oregon Pioneer Associa- tion, visited the Pierce County Association and ])resented Mr. W. H. Gilstrap, Secretary of the Washington State Historical Society, a piece of the first cherry tree jilanted in the Oregon country. Mr. Gilstrap had also secured ])ieces of the first Legislative hall in Washington Tei-ritory, and brass mount- ing from the Beaver, the first steamer to visit Puget Sound. With this combination of historical relics Mr. Gilstrap had made a gavel for the Pierce County Pioneer Association to present to you today. The piece of old cherry tree takes me back to my'childhood days, for T have ])layed under its spread- ing branches and gathered from its boughs delicious fruit. A bit of the history of this gavel will ]>robnbIy be of interest.^ The head of this gavel is nmde from a limb of the first cherry tree that was planted in the "Old Oregon Country." 50 WASHINGTON PIONEER ASSOCIATION The handle is made of a piece of fir, a part of the frame of the old Legislative hall in Olympia, where the first Legislature of the Territory of Washington convened on February 27, 1854. The frame of that building was made of sawed fir, and the siding and trimmings were made of cedar, and were riven out and dressed. The building was erected about the year 1852. It was a two-story building, as many of you will remember. The building was torn dow^n a little over one year ago. The State Historical Society had two facsimile models made. One was presented to the Thurston County Pioneer Society and the other is now with the historical collection in Tacoma. These bronzes, which are plated with gold and inscribed, were made from brass taken from the steamer Beaver. Cop- per and brass were usually employed for all fastenings. The steamer Beaver was built in Blackwall, a suburb of London, by Messrs. Green & Nigrams, in 1835. The boiler and machinery were placed by Bolton & Watt, which was the first firm that ever manufactured steam engines. Mr. Watt of this firm was a son of James Watt, who invented steam power. The Beaver's boiler and engines weighed 031/2 tons and cost over $22,000, or nearly ten times the weight and cost of en- gines of like power at the present day. The Beaver's dimen- sions were: Length, 101 1-3 feet; breadth inside of paddle boxes, 20 feet; and depth, lli/o feet. Her register was 109 tons burden. She was armed with five guns, nine-pounders, and carried a crew of 26 men. It was on the 29th day of August, 1835, that the Beaver, amid the encouraging cheers from a throng of well-wishers, the waving of banners and the boom of artillery, glided down the Thames into the English Channel and thence out into the open, trackless sea. Thus from the shores of old England passed forever a steamer which, in after years, should become famous in the annals of the West. According to accounts published in the newspapers of that day it appears that the King, William IV., then on the throne, together with several members of the royal family, attended the launching, while a lady bearing the title of duchess per- formed the christening ceremony, and that 100,000 of the king's loyal subjects graced the occasion. There is a citizen living at Ferndale, in this State, who is about 95 years old and familiarly known as the famous "Blan- ket Bill," who was one of the number who witnessed this his- toric event. The Beaver's first landing was on the island of Juan Fer- nandez, or Robinson Crusoe Island, December 17, 1835 ; on April 4, 1836, she arrived at the old historic port of Astoria, PRESE>TATIO:\ OF GAVEL 51 at the mouth of the Columbia river, and in July. 1830. she steamed up the coast to the north end of Vancouver Island, then south to Fort Nisqually, where she made her home port during the forties and fifties, a part of the time making regu- lar runs from Fort Nisqually to Sitka. She played a very important part in all the early history of the Sound Country and this Northwest coast during the forties and fifties. Most all of the ])ioneers and famous men of early days rode on this famous vessel. She was the first steamer that crossed the Atlantic to America, and was the first to plow the Pacific. She was wrecked in Burrard Inlet, Van- couver, B. C, on July 26, 1888. The boiler was raised in Sep- tember, 1906, and brought to Tacoma by the Washington State Historical Society in 1909. The boiler stands 23 feet high. Time will not permit us to tell of the many historic inci- dents connected with this famous vessel and of the part it and its officials played in the establishing of towns, the discovery of gold and coal, in commerce, in Indian wars, in the San Juan troubles and the many other events of historical importance with which it was connected. It is the wish, dear friends, of the Pierce County Pioneers that the sound of this gavel will be the echo of our hearts, and that the golden cords of early days will strengthen and brighten as time goes on — that King and Pierce counties will join in closer relationships, and that boundary lines, politics or religion will disturb not our peaceful, friendly, happy con- dition, but that together we will join hands and work for rhe greatest good for two of the best counties in America. It is our hope" that when this gavel calls you together one year from now there will not be one face that is hei-e today missing from the roll call. The PRESIDENT: There is nothing to do after an act of this kind and a speech like that, delivered so beautifully and effectively, but to accept right off, without leaving the matter to vote or question. The gavel is ours. It is acceyited, and accepted in the same spirit as it is given— the si)irit of friendship, of brotherly and sisterly love, of good citi^enshi]). of all that makes life in the twentieth century worth living. The Association of Washington Pioneers thanks the Pierce County Association for this unex])ected but exceedingly gra- cious 'demonstration and presentation. From a personal standpoint I have much interest in this handsome implement. I have manv times been in the Legislative hall of 1854, and I have manv "times seen the Beaver during her days of service and prosperitv. :\Iy mother-in-law, Mrs. M. M. McCarver, of Tacoma, one of the best women that ever lived, accompanie<] 52 WASHIXGTOX PIONEER ASSOCIATION this cheii'v tree across the continent in 1847. I not only have an interest in this gavel for the reasons stated, bnt coming the way it does, and from these people, I am proud indeed that its first use by your presiding oflScer has fallen to my lot. Mr. W. H. GILSTRAP, of Tacoma: On behalf of the Pierce County Pioneer Society we extend to you a cordial invitation to meet with the Thurston and Pierce County Pio- neer Societies at a basket picnic on the '^Wilkes Celebration Grounds'' at Lake Sequalitchew, where Commodore Wilkes and his men celebrated the Fourth of July in 1841, the first Fourth of July celebration held west of the Missouri river. A good pioneer program will be given. A grand time is an- ticipated. The PRESIDENT: You have the invitation from the Pierce County Pioneer Association, presented by Mr. Gilstrap. What will you do with it? Mr. D. B. WARD: I move that it be accepted. From several : I second the motion. The PRESIDENT: It is moved and seconded that the in- vitation to our members to participate in the pioneer celebra- tion at Sequalitchew Lake, July 13th, be accepted. All favor- ing this motion will please sav aye. It is carried bv vote of all. A large and fine portrait of Abraham Lincoln, the pioneer of Illinois, the patriot and President, handsomely framed, was presented to the Association, with a well-worded letter of gift, by Hon. Joseph Shippen. Upon motion of Judge Jacobs, it was accepted, the picture ordered hung on the wall and the thanks of the Association tendered to the donor. Miss Cora Thorndike here sang a humorous song entitled ''I Always Do as I'm Told"; later she sang "Down Upon the Suwanee River," both pieces in manner very pleasing to her hearers. The T»REST1)ENT: Three more numbers are on the enter- tainment })i'ogram for the afternoon. Yesterday you created the office of Vice President, and very fittingly" filled it with Mr. Edwin Eells of Tacoma. Mr. Eeils is present today and will formally and appropriately greet you from the platform in both his native tongues— English and Chinook. Mr. Sam- uel L. Oawford, a native son of Washington, and one of its best-known and most public-s])irited citizens, will also address you, followed by Mr. George H. Himes, the delegate from the ADDRESS OF EDWIN EELLS 53 Oregon Pioneer Association, who will tell vou of the organiza- tion he represents. These gentlemen will speak in the order named without further introduction, the exercises of the day and the session of the Association concluding with the re- marks of the last speaker. Mr. EELLS : It gives me intense pleasure to meet you here today under such favorable auspices, and to revivify with you the times of the past and call to mind the scenes of other days. In comparing our circumstances and experiences forty, fifty or sixty years ago with the present it seems very much as though we were living in another world. I was only made aware when coming on the boat this morning by reading the morning paper of the high honor you have conferred upon me by electing me the Vice President of your Association. I can truly say that my surprise was only equaled by my gratitude and appreciation of this distinction. It gives me peculiar pleasure, too, that you should not only have created the office for my benefit, but that you should also have gone across the water to a little town called Tacoma to select a man to fill the position. The rivalry that has existed to some extent during late years between competitive cities was not engendered by the pioneers. In the early days this country was all one. We were brothers, and unitedly pulled together for the development of the whole country ; and as we meet here together from year to year, coming from different parts of the State, we take mutual pleasure in noting the growth and development of its different sections, rather than the cultivation of any spirit of jealousy or ill will. As I look over this impressive audience, and see again the faces — many of them once so familiar — I am impressed with the feeling that it is made up of men and women of sterling character. The fact that this State is forging ahead so rap- idly and making such wonderful strides in develo]»ment and prosperity is due to some extent at least to the foundations laid by the pioneers. They were men and women of courage, enterprise, intelligence and patriotism, and the fact that we meet today for the first time in our own home, made possible l>y the generosity of our own members, is proof that some of them were successful. I heartily congratulate you, Mr. Presi- dent and officers of the Association, on the good use you have made of these munificent gifts, and the members of the Asso- ciation for the inheritance that has come to them. On occasions of this kind, when my feelings press upon me to say so much, I find it difficult to say all I wish to when compelled to use the King's English. Having been for thirty years intimately associated with the Indians, and constantly 54 WASHIXGTOIV PIONEER ASSOCIATIOJf accustomed to use their language, it is a relief to me to use the lingo that is to me so familiar. If you will bear with me, I will use a little of it in closing. *Nika Tillikums: Nika delate closh tumtum nika nanitch mesika okoke sun. Nika delate closh tumtum nika mitlite copa mesika. Mesika lolo nika copa saghlie kah mesika pot- latch delate closh muckamuck, hiu muckamuck. Mesika ma- mook nika delate pahtl copa hiu closh muckamuck. Nika mahsie mesika copa okoke. Pe alki nesika conoway chaco yahkwa. Nesika conoway wawa conamox, closh wawa, pe me- sika mamook skookum tumtum copa closh. , Nesika cumtux conoway icta mesika mamook ankuttie. Okoke lala mesika conoway klahowyum, wake hiu chickamin, wake hiu ictas. Okoke lala nesika conoway mamook pe potlatch conamox. Spose mesika mamook house, klawata copa canim, copa coua- way icta mamook, mesika help tillikum. Cultus spose ko])et clams pe wapatoes nesika muckamuck nesika mamook sitkum copa klay howyum tillikums. Hias closh lala ahnkuttie. Me- sika chaco old alta. Conoway icta wake kahkwa ahnkuttie. Conoway icta delate huloima. Wake lala mesika chaco halo, kahkwa nika delate closh tumtum nika nanitch mesika okoke sun, copa okoke nesika closh house. Mr. McGilvra delate closh man. Miss Denny delate closh clootchman. Klaska mamook closh conoway nesika tumtum okoke sun. Nesika mahsie klaska. Spose wake hias lala nesika memaloos closh nesika conoway klatawa copa saghlie kah conoway closh tillikum mitlite alta. Closh kahkwa. Mr. CRAWFORD: I feel that Mr. Prosch, your worthy chairman, has taken a rather mean advantage of me in calling for a speech, knowing that I am wholly unprepared. Had he notified me yesterday that I was to be called upon I should *My Friends: I am very happy to see you here today. I am glad to be with you. You took me upstairs where there was plenty of very good food— a great deal of it. You filled me full of the good food. T thank you for that. Then we all came down here. We have all had a good talk together and feel very good. We all remember the old times we had together. We were then all poor, with very little money and not many things. We all helped each other then. If any one wanted to build a house or go anywhere in a canoe or do anything else, you always helped those who needed it. If we had only clams and potatoes to eat we divided with the poor ones. We were all kind to each other in those long ago times. We are all older now. Things are not as they used to be. Everything is very dilTerent. It will not be very long when we shall all pass away, so I am very glad to see you here today in our own home. Mr. McGilvra was a good man. Miss Denny was a good woman. They have made us all happy today. We thank them. If before very long we shall die it will be very good if we all go to the land where so many of our friends have gone. Goodbye. ADDRESS OF S. L. CRAWFORD 55 have been here today with a fine, Avell-thought-oiit, impromptu address. No one reveres the pioneers, or has a higher regard for their sacrifices and achievements than I have. I come from a family of pioneers. My great grandfather on my mother's side, Robert Moore, crossed the plains from Peoria, 111., arriv- ing in Willamette Valley in 1840, and my uncle, Captain Me- dorem Crawford, who was for a number of years President of the Oregon Pioneer Association, crossed the plains in 184:2. These men were both members of the little band that organ- ized the provisional government of Oregon in 1843, and Robert INIoore was the chairman of the Committee on Resolutions and drafted the organic act of that government. This beautiful gavel, which has just been presented to our organization by our good friends of Tacoma, is doubly appre- ciated by me, as the representative of the donors stated that the cherry tree from which the gavel was made was brought across the plains in 1847. That is the year my parents came to Oregon ; my father from New York and my mother from Illinois, and I am happy to say that they are both living and well. My father is present and a member of this audience of pioneers. My father was a lad of twenty and my mother a girl of ten when they arrived in Oregon. One of the great principles of the pioneers is that they know no State, county or party lines. This was all once the great Oregon country, which, at that time, embraced Oregon, Washington, Idaho and adjacent territory, and the pioneers have never learned, and I sincerely hope they never will learn, to draw petty, narrow, local lines. Some of the early settlers located in Idaho, some in Oregon and some in Washington. They were all people of noble aspirations and home builders of the best sort. They came not seeking gold, but seeking lands for their families, where they could build homes, towns, churches and schoolhouses. They were essentially a law- loving, law-abiding people, and the great States of Washing- ton, Oregon and Idaho owe much to the solid foundations laid by these early settlers along educational, religious and law-abiding lines. The little band of pioneers who landed on the shores of Puget Sound at Alki Point in 1851 were imbued with the same high ideals, and this new and beautiful hall that we are now in the first time was made possible through the generous bene- factions of two of the early pioneers — Miss Denny and John J. McGilvra. The first merchant at Alki Point was a member of this little band— Charles C. Terry. He opened the first store at 56 WASHINGTOX I>IO>EER ASSOCIATION AIki roiiu. liaviiij,^ previously purchased a small bill of goods in Tort land, which he shipped aronnd by sailing vessel, to siipi»ly the wants of the little community. I have in my pos- session the original account books kept by Mr, Terry at that time. Every member of that little band went to work imme- diatelv with ax and ])eevy preparing piling and timbers for the California market. Soon they discovered that they needed cattle to assist in this work, and Lee Terry went to the Hud- son Bay Comi)any's station at the mouth of the Nisqually river aiid ]»urchased a yoke of oxen, which he drove along the beach to Alki Point. 1 am glad to see this organization growing in numbers as well as in interest. It is a splendid thing to have an organi- zation of this kind which calls together the ''old-timers" once a year to talk over the struggles, successes and pleasures of the past, and it is especially pleasing to me to see so many jtioneers of Pierce County here today. 1 thank you one and all for the patience you have shown in listening to me, and am only sorry that I was not better pre- jiared to interest and entertain you. Mr. HIMES: I have been requested to give you some in- formation about the Oregon Pioneer Association. I will do so briefly. A meeting of pioneers to organize an association or society was held in Salem during the summer of 1868. Offi- cers were elected and jdaus for a reunion arranged, but for some unknown reason the effort failed. The second attempt to organize occurred five years later as a result of a growing desire on the part of a number of early immigrants for an association, the objects of which, as stated in Article IT. of the Constitution, ''should be to collect reminiscences relating to the ]»ioneers and early history of the Territory; to i>roni(»te social intercourse; to cultivate the life- enduring fri(Mi(lshii)s that had been formed while crossing the plains f>r as neighbors in the early settlements." After sev- eral j)reliminary meetings an organization was effected on October IS, 1873, at Rutteville, and the name— "Oregon Pio- neer A.ssociation" — adoy>ted. A constitution was also adopted. The article relating to the qualifications for membership was the following: "Article VIII. All immigrants, male and female, who re- side within the bounds of the original Territory of Oregon, un- der joint occupancy of the country by the T^riited States and <}reat Britain, and those who settled within said Territory prior to the first day of January, 1858, are eligible to become members of this As.sociation." ORGAMZATIOX OF OREGON PIONEERS 57 The first annual reunion was held on November 11, 1873, that date being the sixteenth anniversary of the adoption of the State constitution, and five hundred persons were present, not all of them pioneers, however. The second reunion was held at Aurora, Clarion county, on June 16, 1874:, with an attendance of fifteen hundred persons. At that time June 15th was chosen as the permanent date for the annual reunions, to be henceforth known as "Pioneer Day." The reason for that selection was because that upon June 15, 1840, the treaty was signed which settled the question of title to the "Oregon Country," as between Great Britain and the United States, in favor of the latter. The third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh reunions were held on the State Fair Grounds, Salem. At the last gather- ing, June 16, 1879, the limit of eligibility for membership was extended to January 1, 1855, on the ground that any person who had lived in Oregon for a quarter of a century should be recognized as a pioneer. On June 15, 1880, the reunion was held in Portland for the first time. The next year it was held at McMinnville. Then the limit of membership was advanced to include the year 1855. The reunions for 1882, 1883 and 1884 were held on the State Fair Grounds near Salem. Owing to some friction be- tween the authorities of the State Fair and the Board of Di- rectors in 1884 the latter body received an invitation from Ore- gon City and the reunions were held at that place for the next two years. The latter year (1886) I was elected Secretary when absent from the business meeting, and have served con- tinuously up to the present time. By invitation of many Portland pioneers, among them sev- eral leading business men, the reunion of 1887 was held in that city, and that has been the place of meeting ever since, with one exception, and that was in 1892, whn the reunion was held in Astoria on May 10, 11 and 12, in connection with the cele- bration of the one hundredth anniversary of the discovery of the Columbia river. At all reunions up to the time they began to be regularly held in Portland the program consisted of an annual address, an occasional address, preceded by a parade divided into sub- divisions, according to the years in which the pioneers came to Oregon, each subdivision being marked by a banner about two by three feet, upon which appeared the year of the arrival of the pioneers following it in conspicuous figures — 1836, 1837, 1838, and so on. Following the addresses, music, etc., a picnic dinner was the rule. The afternoon was given over to short WASHINGTON PIONEER ASSOCIATION talks, soiiu'tiiiios nn address, recitation of a poem, or any other feature that would add interest to the occasion. In the even- ing; a huj;e tire was built in the open, if the weather was suit- able, and the elderly persons assembled around it and re- hearsed the "old, old, old, and yet ever new story of crossing the plains," until a late hour, and the young people, largely descendants of pioneers, engaged in "tripping the light fan- tastic toe" until the "we sma' hours ayont the twal." At the reunion on June 15, 1888, a motion was made to ad- vance the limit to 1859, but it was voted down. The motion was renewed from year to year and as often defeated, until June 15, 1894, when an amendment to the constitution ad- vancing the limit to 1859 w^as carried by the decisive vote of 14;^ for to 85 against it. In Article XIV. of the constitution of the Association it is provided that it may be amended by a two-thirds vote at an annual meeting, a year's notice being given, except in the case of advancing the limit of membership, which shall require an unanimous vote. The motive of those who supported the motion to advance the limit of membership up to 1859, inclusive, including all who were born in Oregon and all residents of Oregon who came to any i>art of the Pacific Coast up to that year, was to carry out the wishes of the founders of the Association, it being their opinion, frequently exju-essed, that the year in which Oregon Territory was admitted to the Union as a State should end the pioneer era. As the 3'ears have gone by it has come to pass that the annual banquet has grown into an important function. For many years the chairman of the Woman's Auxiliary has been Mrs. Charlotte ^I. Cartwright, a pioneer of 1845, greatly in- terested in the work of making everything pleasant for the pioneers. P.eing possessed of good executive abilitv and un- usual tact in drawing to her aid faithful assistants,' the prep- aration and serving of the banquet has been performed with- out a hitch. Of late years an average of 1,000 meals have been served. In the armory where the ban<iuet is given twenty tables, each seating seventy persons, are prepared^ Each table is in charge of two pioneer women, or women connected with pioneer families, and each woman has the right to choose her own assistants, i)roviding they are descendants of pioneers. These women and their assistants set, decorate, wait upon and clean up their own tables after the bancpiet is over, leaving the washing of dishes to those who are hired for that i)urpose— all under the supervision of a table committee. In addition to this there are committees on bread and cake, meats, ice cream, milk, etc. A record is made each year of the number of dishes MEMBERSHIP OF THE OREGON ASSOCIATION 59 used and the amount of food of various kinds required, so that with each recurring year it is approximately known just what is necessary to secure. At the reunion of 1891 a "new departure" was inaugurated. Several days prior to the date of meeting, which that year was on June 16th, in conversation with one of our most enthusiastic pioneer ladies — Mrs. Anthony Noltner, a daughter of a pioneer family of 1845 — I suggested that, if it was possible, it would be a good idea to serve a collation, with hot coffee, at the close of the afternoon's exercises. Mrs. Noltner responded quickly by saying : '^It is possible ; I will see some of our pioneers at once, and I know we can make it a success." While Mrs. Xolt- ner and I were talking Mrs. Rose F. Burrell, a pioneer lady of 18.53, always an eflScient worker in every good cause, came near. The object that Mrs. Noltner and I had been discussing was briefly outlined to Mrs. Burrell and it had her hearty approval. Not only that, but having a carriage, she invited Mrs. Noltner to accompany her and at once these ladies began a canvass for food and money, besides enlisting a number of other pioneer women in the proposed function, each of whom called to their aid pioneer daughters to assist in waiting on the tables. Plates were laid for about three hundred, and the occasion became one of much interest. Out of this experience, and with the women who assisted at this collation as charter members, has grown our "Pioneer Woman's Auxiliary," which has provided the an- nual banquet for nineteen years and is now preparing for the twentieth. Perhaps a few figures would be interesting in order to give you an idea of the growth of our Association. The enrollment ^f or 1873 was 45; 1874, 145; 1875, 471; 187'» and 1877, not reported; 1878, 582; from 1879 to 1886, no re- port; 1887, 275; 1888, 171; 1889, 227; 1890, 206; 1891, no re- port; 1892, no report; 1893, 204; 1894, 171; 1895, 271; 1896, 621 ; 1897, 543 ; 1898, 664 ; 1899, 797 ; 1900, 823 ; 1901, 936 ; 1902, 908; 1903, 1,005; 1904, 1,016; 1905, 1,397; 1906, 1,219; 1907, 1,235; 1908, 1,388; 1909, 1,288. The phenomenal increase from 271 members in 1895 to 621 in 1896 was the direct result of an especial effort I made to se- cure as large an attendance as possible on account of that be- ing the fiftieth anniversary (the year 1896) of the signing of the treaty between the United States and Great Britain which settled tiie "Oregon Question." I secured the names of more than 500 then living who had been in the State more than fifty years. The high-water mark of membership was in 1905. the year of the Lewis and Clark Exposition. The average age of those who attended that year was 66 years, and in 1909 the average age of each person attending was 62 jears. THE POLITICAL BEGINNING OF WASHINGTON TERRITORY* The first people to come to what is now the State of Washington, with the intent to make permanent abode, were the fur traders, the men of the Northwest and Hudson Bay Companies. The two compa- nies were consolidated, after a long and fierce struggle in Canada, and for many years the Hudson Bay Company, which succeeded the other, was in exclusive occupancy of the field in the British and Oregon ter- ritories. Its operations on the North Pacific Coast had headquarters at Vancouver, on the Columbia river, with subordinate establishments at Colville, Spokane, Walla Walla, Cowlitz, Nisqually and elsewhere. Dr. John McLoughlin was in charge, assisted by James Douglas, com- monly known now, from honors later acquired, as Governor Douglas and Sir James Douglas; also by Peter Skeen Ogden, William Eraser Tolmie and many others who were prominent in the affairs of the country from forty to eighty years ago. These men were of the ut- most integrity, great ability, devoted to the corporation they repre- sented and the flag under which they were born, that of Great Britain. Others who came officially, as representatives of the United States, were Captains Lewis and Clark, the hundredth anniversary of whose coming is now being so magnificently celebrated in the neighboring city of Portland; Lieutenant Slacum and Captain Wilkes, both of the navy, and Lieutenant Fremont of the army; also Dr. Elijah White, Indian Agent. There were occasional American whalers and trading vessels along the coast, on Puget Sound and in the Columbia river, and Wyeth, Smith and Bonneville made their appearance with parties over- land. These, however, were affairs of short duration, mere visits or commercial efforts of transient character. They sustained and ad- vanced the claim of the United States to the country, however, and in that way nationally served a good purpose. After the fur gatherers in point of permanent residence came the missionaries. Whitman, Eells, Walker, Blanchet and others. While all honor is due them for their coming, their good works, their strug- gles and sufferings in behalf of what they deemed right and best, and their efforts to improve the savages about them, they were of a class to themselves, and somewhat removed from the men who arrived later and made the Territory of Washington. The first of these men were of the overland immigration of 1844, the most conspicuous figure among them being Michael T. Simmons. Simmons was a Kentuckian, tall, commanding, learned in the ways of men, but not of schools. Others with him were James McAllister, Samuel B. Crockett, Jesse Ferguson, David Kindred, Gabriel Jones and George W. Bush, all but Crockett and Ferguson with families. On arriving at Fort Vancouver they did as everybody else did— inquired of McLoughlin and Douglas as to the country, the prospects, opportuni- ties, and for advice. The representatives of the great company freely and frankly told them all they wanted, to-wit: That the Americans generally were locating south of the Columbia river, not one so far "An nddrew delivered to the .Association of Washin:;ton Pioneers June 21st, 1905, '.rr Thomas \\ . Preach. THE FIRST AMERICAN LETTERS 61 being north; that the Willamette was the largest valley north of Mex- ico, and was then in a condition of rapid commercial development; that the soil and climate there were good, the chances for trade excel- lent, the onlj- schools in the country there, and that in every way they believed it to be preferable for those from the States there to settle. As a matter of fact this information was true and this advice good; but also it was just as much a matter of fact that these Britons did not want American settlers north of the Columbia, which their government was then endeavoring to establish as the international boundary line, and which effort would be weakened, if not defeated, by a large number of citizens of the United States making their homes in that part of Oregon; and further, these Hudson Bay Company men knew that the interests and business they represented would be hurt by the presence throughout the country of such strong, free, independ- ent men as they were then addressing. It was better, they thought, and tried to show, to keep the peoples of the two nations apart, with a broad river between. The statements and arguments thus presented had always before been effective, but in this case they worked some- what contrarily. They had the effect of arousing suspicions in the minds of their hearers, who thereupon determined they would see for themselves what it looked like on Puget Sound. They were strength- ened in this resolution by another cause. The Oregon Provisional Gov- ernment had enacted stringent laws against blacks and mulattoes. They were not allowed to remain in the country, and for evading or defying the law were to be punished. George W. Bush was a mulatto, with a white wife. He was possessed of more means than any of his party and had been very generous in helping the other immigrants. In turn they were grateful to him, and they were going to stand by him through thick and thin. As he could not legally remain within the jurisdiction of Oregon, he concluded to stay in that part in doubt, just outside, and that seemed to be under another flag. The others stayed by him, the whole party remaining for nearly a year on the north side of the Columbia, near the Hudson Bay fort. Simmons early in the winter made a canoe trip up the Cowlitz river, and the next summer made another trip with several companions to Puget Sound and down the Sound to Whidby Island. Upon returning, he induced Bush, McAllister, Crockett and the others to pack up and start for new homes on the Sound. The trip was a hard one, as they had to make the road as they went. They found John R. Jackson, an English- man, then locating on the way, and they met Lieutenants Warre and Vavasour, of the Royal Engineers, spying out the land for the govern- ment of Great Britain. They were not deterred by anything, however, and soon had settled themselves at or near the headwaters of Puget Sound. There Simmons began a town called then Newmarket, but now Tumwater. Bush took a claim on a nearby prairie, which has since gone by his name. It will not be out of the way to here say that the provisional legislature of Oregon removed Bush's civil disability, and that Congress by special law gave him 640 acres of land. These men soon made the country known. It was no longer a closed book. Ford, Sylvester, Rabbeson, Wallace, Barnes, Smith, Crosby, Chambers, Ebey, Lansdale, Collins, Maynard and many more were soon on the ground. The Oregon Legislature reached over and took them in. County after county was created north of the river, and the handful of men of 1845 increased to a thousand in number by 1851. With this increase came strength and confidence. The bur- den of sustaining a government in a region where the distances were so great and the costs of travel in time and money so large became daily more apparent. Some jealousy and local feeling were also dis- 62 WASHINGTON PIONEER ASSOCIATION played. The river was a distinct line of demarkation. Northern Oregon was a term that came into use for that portion on one side of the river, on the other side being Oregon. On that side they were in the majority, and though there is no reason for supposing that they made improper use of their power, the fact that they might do so was a little galling, as also the knowledge that in territorial mat- ters the northern section was not likely to get any substantial good that was wanted in the southern. As a consequence agitation began in favor of a separate territorial organization. July 4, 1851, one feature of the celebration of the national holi- day at Olympia was an address by John B. Chapman, who touched a popular chord by a happy reference to "the future State of Columbia." His hearers were so affected that an adjourned meeting was held, at which Clanrick Crosby presided and A. M. Poe served as secretary. From this meeting went out a call for a convention at Cowlitz on the 29th of August, to be composed of representatives from all of the election precincts north of the Columbia, as was stated, "to take into careful consideration the present peculiar position of the northern portion of the territory, its wants, the best method of supplying these wants, and the propriety of an early appeal to Congress for a division of the territory." Attending a convention in those days was a matter of much diffi- culty. There was a general lack of means of communication — steam- boats, mails, roads, newspapers. The settlements extended north to Steilacoom, a few persons, in addition, dwelling on Whidby Island. There were military posts at Vancouver and Steilacoom; Hudson Bay posts at the same places and a farm in Cowlitz valley; Catholic mis- sions at Vancouver, Cowlitz and Olympia, the beginnings of towns at Steilacoom, Olympia, Tumwater and Vancouver, with farms dot- ting the country in the vicinity of these places and along the trav- eled highways. It took a day then to go as far as one can go now in an hour, and it meant travel in canoe, on foot and occasionally by horse. It meant, too, the lack of public accommodations along the line, with the common feeling that the traveler was one of many who necessarily were imposing upon those living by the way. It meant nights on the beach and nights in the woods, hunger, exhaus- tion and possibly sickness. The pecuniary expense was serious, too, as money then was a scarce article and the settlers were poor. Under the circumstances it was astonishing when the day arrived to find so many citizens at Cowlitz. Those participating were: Thomas M. Chambers, Seth Catlin, Jonathan Burbee, Robert Huntress, Edward D. Warbass, John R. Jackson, William L. Fraser, Simon Plomondon, S. S. Saunders, A. B. Dillenbaugh. Marcel Bernier, Sidney S. Ford, James Cochran, Joseph Borst, Michael T. Simmons, Clanrick Crosby, Joseph Broshears, Andrew J. Simmons, A. M. Poe, David S. Maynard, Daniel F. Brownfield, John Bradley, J. B. Chapman, H. C. Wilson, John Edgar and Francis S. Balch. Seth Catlin, known to his admiring friends as "the Sage of Monticello," was president, and A. M. Poe and F. S. Balch, secretaries. Two days the convention lasted. Committees were appointed on Territorial Government, Districts and Counties, Rights and Privileges of Citizens, Internal Improvements and Ways and Means. The committee on Territorial Government reported in favor of the creation and organization of a Territory north of the Columbia river, and the delegate from Oregon was requested to do all that he could to secure action from Congress of the character Indicated. John B. Chapman, Michael T. Simmons and Francis S. Balch were ap- pointed a committee to prepare a memorial upon the subject and push the project to a successful termination. THE CONVENTIONS OF 1851 ANT) 1852 03 The committee on counties recommended the creation of four new counties. For one the name of Simmons was urged, and for another the name of Steilacoom. The legislature granted the request in the case of one county only. It was about to create Simmons county, but M. T. Simmons, who was to be so honored, protested, and the name was changed to Thurston. When Chapman saw that Steilacoom county would not be established, but that instead his town of Steilacoom would be included in Thurston county, he tried to have Steilacoom made the county seat, but Simmons was too strong for him, and it was located at Olympia instead. A year later — December, 1852 — Pierce county was created, and Steilacoom became a county seat, much to Chapman's gratification. Dr. Maynard went further at the Cowlitz convention than was at first contemplated. He proposed a resolution that when the conven- tion adjourned it be to meet again in May, 1852, for the purpose of forming a constitution preparatory to asking admission into the union as one of the States. His resolution was adopted by unanimous vote. This was a remarkable proposition in many respects. At the time the territory affected was part of a region from which it could not alienate itself, and the other part was in population at least eight times the greater. At the rate the inhabitants were increasing there would have been fifteen hundred or two thousand people in the new State at ad- mission if admission were not delayed beyond the evident anticipa- tions of the convention members. When the Territory was finally ad- mitted in 1889 the people numbered 300,000, and Oklahoma is kept in territorial condition today with 600,000 inhabitants. It may be that upon sober second thought the people saw the impossibility, the utter futility, if not absurdity, of the idea, for the May convention suggested was not held, and for a short time the matter even of a Territory seems to have been suspended. It was a short time only, however. On the Fourth of July, 1S52. Daniel R. Bigelow delivered a patriotic address at Olympia, in which he once more presented the subject to an appreciative and sympathetic audience. In September the first newspaper north of "the River of the West" made its appearance at Olympia. It at once began to ad- vocate the Territory of Columbia. So confident were the publishers of the creation of the Territory, and of the bestowal upon it of that name, that they called their paper the Columbian. It was well con- ducted and ably edited, and influential. A term of the district court was held at John R. Jackson's on the 26th and 27th of October, at which time the matter was discussed by those in attendance. As a result a call went out for another convention to be held at Montlcello, Novemoer 25, 1852, when questions similar to those previously dis- cussed at Cowlitz would be considered. The most ardent advocates of a new Territory were the people living further north, particularly Puget Sound. It was recognized that those living on and near the north bank of the Columbia had less rea- son for separation from those on the south bank than others more remote had. It would not be unlikely in fact that in the new Terri- tory they would be further from the capital and the center of popula- tion than thev were under the conditions prevailing. It was doter- mined to placate these people as far as possible, and with this Idea in view the convention called for at the Jackson meeting was located at Monticello. Monticello was a small place that for twenty years had prominence as a transfer point on the route between Puget Sound and Portland. The building of the Northern Pacific Railroad and the town of Kalama killed it in the early 70's. The convention met as called. An inspection of the list or dele- 64 WASHINGTON PIONEER ASSOCIATION gates developed the fact that the area represented in the Cowlitz meet- ing the year before had grown in settlements and population, and that at least one place had since sprung into existence that was inhabited by men of ambition, enterprise and public spirit. Though far to the north, it had sent eight of the forty-four delegates present. This new place was called Seattle. One of the eight was George N. McConaha, who was made president, and another, R. J. White, was made secre- tary. Another new place, still further north, was also represented — Port Townsend. The full membership was composed of the following named men: George N. McConaha, R. J. White, William N. Bell, Luther M. Collins, Arthur A. Denny, Charles C. Terry, David S. May- nard, John N. Low, C. S. Hathaway, A. Cook, N. Stone, Calvin H. Hale, Edward J. Allen, John R. Jackson, Fred A. Clarke, A. Wylie, Andrew J. Simmons, Michael T. Simmons, Loren B. Hastings, B. C. Armstrong, Sidney S. Ford, W. A. L. McCorkle, N. Ostrander, B. L. Ferrick, Henry Miles, Quincy A. Brooks, E. H. Winslow, G. B. Roberts, L. A. Davis, S. D. Ruddell, A. B. Dillenbaugh, William Plumb, Seth Catlin, Simon Plomondon, G. Drew, H. A. Goldsborough, H. C. Wilson, J. Fowler, H. D. Huntington, A. Crawford, C. F. Porter, Simpson P. Moses, A. F. Scott and P. W. Crawford. A memorial was adopted asking of Congress creation of the Ter- ritory of Columbia, the southern and eastern boundary suggested be- ing the Columbia river, the northern and western being the 49th par- allel and the Pacific ocean, about 32,000 square miles from the 340,000 square miles then said to be Oregon. Reasons were given why this should be done, and the memorial, signed by all, was sent to Wash- ington City. The Oregon Legislature, soon after in session, adopted a memorial of similar purport, and Joseph Lane, then Delegate in Congress, did what he could to accomplish the desired end. The bill was amended so as to make the new Territory include a much greater area, and the name was changed from Columbia to Washington. It passed in March and was approved by President Fillmore. Franklin Pierce became President immediately afterward, and he appointed the first officers. They were: Isaac Ingalls Stevens, Gav- ernor and Superintendent of Indian Affairs; Charles H. Mason, Secre- tary; J. Patton Anderson, Marshal; John S. Clendenin, Attorney; Ed- ward Lander, Victor Monroe and Obadiah B. McFadden, Justices of the District and Supreme Courts. Owing to the fact that to him had been assigned the additional task of examining the country between the upper Mississippi river and Puget Sound, for the purpose of as- certaining the practicability of a northern railroad route to the Pa- cific, Governor Stevens was delayed several months in arriving in the new Territory. When he reached the western slope of the Rocky mountains he formally proclaimed the Territory of Washington, and upon arrival at Olympia issued another proclamation, establishing ju- dicial and election precincts, and ordering the first election; also di- recting the legislators elected to meet at Olympia, February 27th fol- lowing. A Delegate to Congress was to be elected at the same time. This important event occurred on the 30th of January, 1854. There were twenty polling places, or precincts, in the eight counties; Bel- lingham then being in Island county, Aberdeen in Thurston county, and Walla Walla in Clark county. At the election the nine men here named were chosen for the legislative council: D. F. Bradford, Wil- liam H. Tappan, Seth Catlin, Henry Miles, D. R. Bigelow, B. F. Yan- tis, Lafayette Balch, George N. McConaha and W. T. Sayward; and the following named eighteen for the House of Representatives: Francis A. Chenoweth, Henry R. Crosbie, Andrew J. Bolon, John D. Biles, A. Lee Lewis, Samuel D. Howe, Daniel F. Brownfield, Arthur TERRITORIAL ORGAMZATION COMPLETED A. Denny, H. D. Huntington, John R. Jackson, Jehu Scudder, John M. Chapman, Henry C. Mosely, Levant F. Thompson, Leonard D. Dur- gin, Calvin H. Hale, David Shelton and Ira Ward. A strange fatality was connected with one legislative district— Pacific county. Its only member, Jehu Scudder, died about the time the session began: HfiwV Fiester was elected to succeed him, but died before taking office; James C. Strong was then elected, and qualified a few days before the session ended. The man who was first nominated for this legisla- tive seat, and who would certainly have been elected, as there was no opposing candidate, died also before the day of election, and Scudder was put on the ticket in his stead. This was practically three deaths in one office in three months, none of the three men getting near enough to it to be sworn in. George N. McConaha was President of the Council and F. A. Chenoweth Speaker of the House. B. F. Ken- dall was Chief Clerk of the House, and Morris H. Frost Chief Clerk of the Council for a few days, ne being succeeded by Elwood Evans. The Legislature elected J. W. Wiley, Public Printer: William Cock, Treasurer; Benjamin F. Kendall, Librarian; Daniel R. Bigelow, Au- ditor, and Francis A. Chenoweth, Frank Clark and Daniel R. Bige- low Prosecuting Attorneys of the three judicial districts. With a full corps of U. S. appointees; with a congressional Delegate, Columbia Lancaster; with a law-making power in session, and with territorial officers as stated, Washington was fairly launched upon the sea of time, fully equipped and thoroughly provided for the long and pros- perous voyage before it. It is not going too far to say that no State of the American union was more favored in its pioneer citizens than our own. The men whose names are recited in this narrative were fair illustrations of the body of the people of Oregon and Washington. The past tense in this statement is used advisedly, for with perhaps half a dozen excep- tions all are now gone to that other land, and that blessed reward which their good works here on earth entitled them to. These men were large of brain, large of heart, strong, courageous, public-spirited. They probably did not realize how well they were building; but it was their nature to do well, their training, their fixed habit. We of the second generation are the gainers thereby, and with us the whole world. These men would have distinguished themselves in any com- munity within our national borders. In honoring their memories we honor ourselves, honor our State, and honor those who come after us for all time. The names of McLoughlin, Whitman, Eells. Simmons. Bush, Evans, Stevens, McFadden, Denny. Warbass, Bigelow, Shaw, Brooks, Lander and the others are inseparably connected with one oi the best chapters of the world's history, a chapter of peace, plenty and progress— the chapter that includes our own Territory and State of Washington.