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1859. . m^^ 






I. On words derived from the Latin *capra* as the name of a 

Catapult or battering engine. By Henslbioh Wedowood, Esq. 1 
11. On the word dgtd/uo^. By Prof, db Morgan 8 

III. Some Latin and Greek etymologies. By Th. Acfrecht , Esq. 14 

IV. On the Soandinayian element in the English language. By 


V. Traces of the Italic imperfect in the Keltic languages. By 

Dr. C. Lottnbr 31 

YI. On the forms and origin of the pronouns of the first and second 

persons. By Dr. C. Lottkbr 34 

YII. Hints towards the explanation of some hard words and passages 
in English writers. By Contributors to the Socibtt^s pro- 
posed Dictionary. (Reported by Herbert Colbridqb, Esq., 

Secretary to the Dictionary Committee.) 67 

YIII. On the phrase "trus and begone". By Hbnslbigh Wedgwood, 

Esq 74 

IX. On the deriTation and meaning of *the word carpet. By 

Hbnslbigh Wedgwood, Esq 77 

X. On coincidences between the Galla and different European 

languages. By Hbnslbigh Wedgwood , Esq 78 

XI. Specimens of the dialects of some of the South Sea Islands. 

(Communicated by Herbert Coleridge, Esq.) 82 

XII. The yemacular names of insects. II. By Ernest Adams, 

Ph. D 84 

XIII. On the verbal and nominal affixes in the Hungarian language. I. 

By Francis Pulsbkt, Esq 97 

XIY. On the affixes of the Hungarian language.— 11. Nominal af- 
fixes.— By Fr. Pdlszkt, Esq 116 

XY. On an unregistered sense of the word thing and its base the. 

By F. J. Fubnivall, Esq 125 


XYI. On the words wig and periwig. By Hbrslbioh Wbdo- 

WOOD, Esq 127 

XYII. On words deriyed from the cries used in setting on of dogs. 

By Henslbigh Wbdowood, Esq 128 

Xyill. On Shakespeare*s "That Runaway* s eyes may wink". By 

Hbsslbiqh Wedowood, Esq 135 

XIX. On the deriyations of duntaxat, troHquillus and si ($i dit 

placet)* By Professor Kbt 136 

XX. On the deriyation of the Gothic Aim/# (one-handed): By 

Professor Kbt . 140 

XXI. On the deriyation of the word Srjfxoi. By Profbssob Key 143 
XXII. On the conyertibility of n and d. By Professor Key . 145 

XXIII. On the word than. By Dakby P. Fry, Esq 151 

XXIY. On the Hindu god Parjanya. By Dr. G. Bohler . . .154 
XXy. Irish Glosses, edited by a Member of the Council from a 

Manuscript in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin . 168 
XXYI. On the names of Spiders. By Ernest Adams, Esq., Ph. D. 216 
XXYII. On Dr. Russell s life of Cardinal Mezzofanti. By Thomas 

Watts, Esq 227 

XXYIII. On some English Dictionaries, especially one proposed by 

the late Alfred Augustus Fry. By Dasby P. Fry, Esq. 257 
XXIX. A Supplemental Paper on the Keltic su£6z agh &c., as 
occurring in Latin, Greek, and other related languages. 
By T. Hewitt Key, Esq., M. A. ......... 273 

Corrections and Additions to the Paper on the Pronouns of the 
First and Second Person (p. 34-66), by Dr. C. Lotther . . . 285 

Index • • 287 

Notices of Meetings, Treasurer's Cash Account, &c 291 

[This yolume is issued in Dec. 1860. The yol. for 1857 is just com- 
pleted. The second Part for 1858, a collection of Early English Poems, 
is more than half printed. The first Part for 1860 is in the Press.] 






ENGINE. By Hensleigh Wedgwood, Esq. 

The origin of engineering science is doubtless to be found 
in the siege operations of antiquity. The need of powerful 
engines would first be felt by persons possessed of sufficient 
means for constructing them in the attack of walled towns. 
The simplest of such engines would be the battering ram, 
in German Bocky the buck or hegoat, a heavy beam slung 
from a lofty support so as to be driven end foremost against 
the building to be battered down. It was natural that an 
engine operating in such a manner, should be named after 
the ram or the goat, whose mode of attack is to rush vio- 
lently with their head against their opponent, and it seems 
that the name was transferred from this first rude product 
of military engineering to the machines for casting heavy 
stones which played an important part in the sieges of the 
middle ages. The Sp. cabruy a goat, and its derivatives 
cabreia^ cabrita were used to signify a machine for casting 
stones. And similar machines were designated by the names 
of other animals , Wolf, Sow , Ass , Swallow , as a new mo- 



dification was introduced, or as any fancied analogy might 
occur to the engineer who was desirous of distinguishing 
his work by a new name. 

The names of these projectile engines of war seem gradu- 
ally to have acqirir«d new significatione in two ways. In 
the first place , as the military engine would afford the most 
striking example of the application of mechanical power on 
a large scale, the name was transferred to mechanical ar- 
rangements Qf a similar kind by which force was applied to 
the purposes of civil life, however inferior the power exerted 
might be. Thus the name of the Manganum of ancient warfare 
has desceflded to the humble mangle of our laundries. The 
Italian Trabocco (an engine of wiar called the ram. Florio), 
French Trebuchet (an old fashioned engine of wood from 
whence great and battering stones were most violently thrown, 
Cotgr.) have passed on to designate the petty mousetrap. 

The primary portion of the mechanism in the military 
engine would doubtless consist of a heavy axis with proper 
appliances fbr winding r0und it a chain or strong rope and 
so drawing back tiie spring by wbfeh the projectile was to 
be hurled forwards. Now the whoje of this portion of the 
machine would be applicable in building, or wherever it was 
required to raise heavy weights or to exert a heavy strain. 
We accordingly find the name ol the goat applied very 
generally to any simple mechanism for exerting such a 
strain upon an object The G. bock is explained, a bat- 
tering ram^ a windlas, crab^ or instrument to wind or draw 
up weights, a kind of torture. Kuttner. It. capra^ a skid 
or such engine to raise or mount great orAiance withal, also 
a kind of rack or torture. Florio. Fr. cMvre^ the engine 
called by architects a fearnej Cotgr. ; i. e. a windlas for rais* 
ing heavy weights. Fr. cah-e, a crane. In Sp. and Ptg, 
the simple cabre is no longer in use in the sense of a wind- 
las, having passed on to a further signification as will pre- 
sentty be explained, but it has plainly that meaning in the 
compound cabrestante (corrupted to cabestrante^ cabestante, 
whence Fr. cabestan, E. capstan)^ a standing crab, or wind- 
las with the axis vertical instead of horizontal, an arrange- 


Doent found more eonv^ent as admitting of the direct ap- 
plicatioB of the power of a large number of men in raising 
the heavy anchor of a ship. The common crab or windlas 
is expressed by the derivative forms Sp. cabria, Ptg. cabrea. 

In the South of France the name of the goat has suffered 
transposition of tiie r, giving crabo, crahity for a shegoat 
and a kid respectively, and both of these are used also in 
the sense of the E. crab (Diet- Castraise), a piece of me- 
chanism for raising heavy weights, the etymology of which 
is thus made evident. The same transposition of the r en- 
ables us to identify the O.Sp. cabreia in the sense of an 
engine for casting stones, and tlie modem cabriay a crab 
or windlas, with the Mid. Lai carabaga. Cabreia, crabeia, 
carabeia, carabaga. 

'TecSt eiigi pluses corahagas projicientes magnos lapides ita at pro^ 
sternerent muros cum turribus'. Sanutus in Ducange. 

Further corruptions may probably be explained from the 
extreme mobility of the liquids I and v, which are constantly 
transposed or even thrust in or omitted from mere loose* 
ness of pronunciation, while each of them frequentiy inter- 
changes with a d. Now among the forms assumed by the 
name of the engine for hurling stones are the Prov. and 
O.Fr. calabrBy and Mid.Lat. cadabohmiy chadabula, pointing 
to a vernacular cadable, subsequently corrupted by the very 
eomsnon elision of the e{ (as in O.Fr. edoffe, eagey aage^ 
M(kL Fr. dgey from aetaay into the 0. Fr. caable; Mod. Fr. 
edble; Mid< Lat. cabulua, cerium, 

* Pero lo sens ealabres a tant ibisa e Tigor, 
Que tot lo portal trenca e briaa e gieta por. 
However his calabre has such force and vigour that it pierces all the 
portal and breaks and casts it down. 

De Pautra part ealabres e perriers. 
On the other side ealabres and perriers. Raynouard. 
Tribus lapidibus magna petraria quae ehadabula vocabatur emissit. 

Guil. Armorieus in Dae. A. D. 1202. 

A similar engine w spoken of by an old translator of Wil- 
liam of Tyre as 'une grande peri^re que Ton claime chaable\ 
'Sed mox ingentia saxa 
Emitlit tahuhis\ William the Breton in Due. 



Here we see calabre, cadabU (in the latinised form of 
cadabula)^ caabky and the latinised cabulua in the sense of 
a perrier or stone engine. 

Now there can hardly be a case in which corruption is 
more apt to occur than in the names of objects somewhat 
removed from the ordinary course of life, or newly intro- 
duced, and without any obvious meaning in the name to 
keep the pronunciation correct. To cite ^an example from 
the very class of things which we are here considering, the 
G. bergfridy a watchtower or wooden erection used in of- 
fensive and defensive warfare, is rendered in Mid. Lat. ber- 
frtduSy bertefridud^ belfridtiSy baltefridtia ^ battifredum ^ butt- 
fredum^ belfragiuniy whence the Fr. beffroi and E. bdfry. 
Again we find as variations of the same appellation the It. 
bertesca and baUrescay Fr. bretesche and 0. E. betrcucy a battle- 
ment, propugnaculum. Neckam. 

Starting then from cabre as the primary form, the change 
through crabe (carabe) to calabre will be closely analogous 
to that in the foregoing example from bertesca to baltresca^ 
or from the Lat. urtica to Venet. oltrigay Sp. baratiste to 
balaustrey a balluster, from It. cortina to Venet coltrina. 

Again, the relation between cadable and calabre is similar 
to that between the Icel. vadmal and Sw. vallmar. 

The identity of the former two is admitted by Diez, although 
he regards the change as having taken place in the opposite 
direction to that which we here suppose. They both appear 
in the foregoing extracts as the common appellation of a 
perrier or stone engine, and both calabre and caabU (the 
undoubted contraction of cadable) as well as the original 
cabre are subsequently found in the sense of a cable or 
strong rope, by a further extension apparently of the prin- 
ciple which led to the transfer of the name ft'om the pro- 
jectile engine to a simple windlas. When the name had 
come to signify simply a mechanical contrivance for exert- 
ing a heavy strain, it was naturally confined, by a further 
concentration of the attention, to what seemed the soul of 
the mechanism, viz. the rope or chain which is the ultimate 
vehicle of the strain, and by which it is conveyed from the 


point where the force is exerted to that where the eflFect is 
produced. Hence it was extended to any thick rope, and 
especially to the strong cordage employed in nautical man- 

Thus cabre in Sp. and both cabre and calabre in Ptg. are 
used in the sense of a cable, and though it is true we are 
not furnished with examples of the fuller form of cadabulum, 
cadabUy in the same sense, yet it is probable we may have 
evidence of it in the Icel. kadaly a rope or cable, while 
the form caable (undoubtedly conti-acted from cadable 4n the 
sense of a projectile engine) has also the signification of a 
cable in early Fr. and Mid. Lat. 

'Goncesserint — deskarcagium sexaginta doliorum suis instramentls, sci- 
licet caablis et windasio tantum'. Ghron. St. Yaudragesili*ia Due. Didot. 

Possibly under caablea are here understood not simply the 
ropes, but the pulleys and tackle used in raising the barrels. 
So at least the Yoxt calabre seems sometimes to be under- 

^Cajiabre para guindar hum peso — the line or rope that runneth in a 
pulley'. Vieyra. 

It is clear, however, that in French the word cable was 
attained through the medium of a form cadable. But in 
Spanish, where we have both cabre and cable in this signi- 
fication, there is no reason why the latter should not have 
sprung direct from cabre by the usual interchange of I and 
ry and the fact that the same form cable is attained in the 
one case from cadable and in the other from cabre is a 
strong confirmation of our position that cadable itself is de- 
rived from the latter form. 

It is probable that the Mod. Gr. xdfidog, a cable, which 
is commonly cited as an equivalent term, may have a similar 
but independent origin, aMough it doubtless may be a simple 
adoption of the \yestem term. 

Among other names of animals applied to engineering 
machines was that of the camel. 

'Nee potuit Ticinellus ipsas (certain extraordinarily large barges) trans- 
dncere quantumcumque ingurgitatas, sed cum camellis et aliis instru- 
mentis oportuit ipsas conduci usque ad Lacum Majorem \ GaWano Fiamma. 
A. D. 1340 in Muratori. Diss. 24. 


From tbe same origia may be explainied another sense 
of the Fr* cadabUy caabUy chaabUy which at first seems 
widely different. In the chapters of the Norman law which 
treat of the fines for different acts of violence, the term cada^- 
bdum is used in the sense of violent throwing down. 

*De prostratioQO ad terrain, ^uod cadahalum dicitnr, XIIX solidos*. 

Dae. Dk). 

The equivalent term in Fr. is caaUey applied to serious 
violence without blood. 

'Item d'un sang feit 15 sols torn. Item d*nn chaahle 60 s. L*on dit 
que e'e^t ehaahU quand il appert trois coups otbes*. Due. 

[Co«p orhey a blind blow, one that neither makes an aperture nor 
fetches blood. Cotgr.] 

The same "term was applied to trees thrown down by the 
wind or other means, giving rise to the E. cablUk^ wind- 
falls, wood broken by the wind. In a like sense the Langue- 
doe has chabla^ Fr. accablery primarily to hurl to the ground, 
then to overwhelm. 

Now the same connection between the name of the engine 
for hurling stones and the verb signifying to throw down, 
injure by violence, crush, is found in other cases. From 
the It. mangano was formed the verb magcugnarey to break 
down or injure with a manganum. 

' Si fanno mura che Tuoma non pote magagnare per Difici ne per Man- 
gani'. Walls are made which cannot be broken down by engines of 
any kind. 

Magagnay the wound caused by the missiles of such an 
engine, then any serious wound. 

*E i lore cavalli erano — magagnati dalle saette degli Inglesi'. 

Villani in Mnratori. 

From this source we have two words in E. !•* mangledy 
mangonelltiSy severely injured as by tiie shot from a mangoneUus 
or mangle; and 2** mayhem or maim from the It magagfui 
through the Fi^. mihcdgne^ O.E. mayne. 

The same relation holds good between the It. iraboeco^ 
an engine for hurling stones, and traboccare^ to tumble, to 
hurl down, although in this case the substantive may be 
derived from the verb instead of vice versa. 


Again in 0. Fr. the verb crabacer, to hurl down , beat 
down , seems directly derived from crojbe^ in the sense of a 
baiista, and would thus, if our theory of the origin of ca- 
dabley caable is correct, be the exact representative of the 
Fn accabkr. 

MftiM)ll8 ardent, Villes trabaetnt^ 
Tant en oecieni et tr^ae^m.— 

Qxdl GaiaH A*D. 1191 ia Duo, Didot. 

When the projectiles of ancient warfare were rendered 
obsolete by the discovery of gunpowder, the names of the 
most eifective engines of the old system were naturally trans* 
ferred to the more formidable vehicles of the newly invented 
power. Thus the Sp. trabuco^ originally a battering engine, 
was transferred to the blunderbuss, or short thick firearm. 
The apringald of the middle ages, a machine for casting 
large darts, gave its name to the Sp. and Ptg. espingarda, 
a musquet, while the name of this latter implement was 
taken from the muschettay a missile discharged from a cross- 
bow. The p^traria or piern^fe bequeathed its name to the 
perrier^ a kind of short mortar. Hal. The name of the 
ffun is probably derived from mangonely affording an early 
example of the tendency to cutting down names which we 
have witnessed in the formation of the names cab and bus 
in our own times. 

In like manner it can hardly be doubted, from &e evi<> 
denee of the O.E. caltver, a blunderbuss or small cannon, 
and the It. caUbrOy colibro, which, although now signifying only 
the bore of a firearm, must originally have been applied to 
the implement itself, that the name of calabre originally, 
as we have seen, signifying an engine for casting stones, 
was transferred to some kind of firearms. The use of the 
word in this latter sense is supported by the name of the 
Calabrma or CarabinSy a kind of horse soldiers employed 
as skirmishers or scouts, who are supposed to have given 
their name to the carbine with which they were armed* 

But this is merely putting the cart before the horse. As 
ealabre and cah^e were certainly synonymous in the sense 
of a catapult, and are so at the present day in that ol a 


8 ON THE WORD a{H9fl6g, 

rope, while we have every reason to believe that the former 
of these names was transferred to a firearm, it is no violent 
assumption to suppose that the meaning of cabre suffered 
the same change. 

The Calabrins or Carabine then would be soldiers carry- 
ing a calabre or cabre, or, in the Languedocian dialect, 
crabe (carabe). Or probably the name of the implement 
may already have attained a diminutive form as calabrine 
or carabine at the time it gave a designation to the troops 
in question. The Du. karabijn is explained in the Biglotton 
(1650), 'equestris catapulta', as well as 'equester cata- 

II.— ON THE WORD UPI&MOI. By Prof. De Morgan. 

I had long been surprised at a use made by logical writers 
of the word numerical; as when they say that Socrates is 
numerically different from Plato, the hunger of to-day m/- 
me7ncally different from the hunger of yesterday ; and so on. 
To a modern English ear this use is unintelligible: number, 
in modem thought, is inseparably associated with the notion 
of multitude, and numerical difference can only be under- 
stood of difference between numbers. Thus one body of 
men may differ numerically from another; but there cannot 
be numerical difference between one and another individual. 

I made a remark upon this usage in a recently published 
paper on logic, from which it arose that my attention was 
called to what is a valid defence so far as custom and pre- 
cedent are concerned. From Porphyry downwards, if not 
from Aristotle himself, logicians have distinguished different 
individuals of the same species, which must occupy different 
places in enimieration, as differing aQi'f^fKji and numero. 
Thus a horse and a cow differ eYdei as well as ctQL&fup: 
but one horse and another only aQt^^uT), The distinction 
might much more reasonably, in English, have been called 


monadic than numerical. For fiovdg, as £ucl]d remarks, is 
that according to which every thing is called one; and, I 
may add, every other thing another one. 

I find, further, that this usage v^as received into English 
dictionaries more than two centuries ago. Edward Phillips, 
in his New World of Words ^ of which the first edition is 
of 1657, gives as one meaning of numerical— 'a term in 
Logic, as, Numerical difference is that difference which to- 
gether with the lowermost species constitutes the Indioiduum\ 

The most common terms of Logic have very frequently 
found their way into the ordinary use of educated persons : 
but not in the present instance; the vernacular meaning of 
the word number has resisted this use of its adjective. The 
question I wish to ask in this paper is, what was the mean-* 
ing of the word dffi&fiog? 

I do not attempt any purely etymological discussion. Mr. 
Key informs me that he is likely to present to the Society 
his views on this word, which connect it with the old idea 
of a pebble, or else with that of a mark. If this derivation 
be the true one, my own notions of the sense which the 
word presented to Greeks are corroborated. 

The lexicographers associate the word with the idea of 
number, quantitatively conceived. Liddell and Scott have 
'number, a number, quantity', though they favour the de- 
rivation from aQ^ttog. But they add, 'often added where 
hardly wanted as in noklol d()it>^u7)\ If however the 
word, both in origin and in vernacular use, refer to the 
notion of counting and not to that of multitude, the implied 
pleonasm does not exist: 'many to count' is no tautology. 

The first scholar to whom I put the question pronounced 
at once for the enumerative sense, and referred me to He- 
rodotus vii. 59, where Xerxes made a reckoning, aQt^fiov 
sTtoieazo, though the historian could not tell V(h9,t multitude 
each nation furnished to the reckoning, oaov Sxaisroi naQei" 
%ov nkfj^og ig aQi^^wv. This seems clear enough: but on 
the other hand, a logician has informed me that the con- 
struction is disputed in a manner which, though intended 
by my informant to push me off the hypothesis on one 

10 ON THE WORD aifli^fWS, 

side, really pushes me oflF on the other. The whole phrase 
is — oaov exaatoi naQdxov nXij&og ig ctQiikftov ovx €xm 
eiTtai TO ccTQexeg: and it is said that the last sevon words 
go together; the rate that ovx must be^n its clause being 
disputed or forgotten. This will make Herodotus say that 
he cannot tell to a number — that is j to a unit — what mul- 
titude each nation furnished. 

That the word had both a quantitatiye and an enumerative 
sense seems to be granted; but there are three senses, per- 
fectly distinct, on which a question may be asked: — 

I. The ordinal sense, in which the aQid^^wi are not one, 
twoy three, dw., but first j second, third, &c. This is tiie 
sense in which children are apt to take numbers when they 
learn to count on the fingers: when asked the meaning of 
four, they show the fourth finger of the enumeration. 

U. The cardinal ^eaa&e^ quantitative in result, but express- 
ing the length of the enumeration, and thus oidy the quan- 
titative force of the total This is the idea in reckoning, 
counting, &c. 

III. The purely quantitative sense, the nl^&og, tiie notion 
of many prior to enumeration. 

Now the question is, which is the original sense of Aqu 
x^^iog, and what is the idea which it presented to the Greek 
Blind throughout the best period of philosophical writing? 
Is it I, and from it II, almost to the exclusion of III? or 
II, and from it III, almost to the exclusion of I? I cannot 
pretend to oflFer a decided opinion ; my own resources will not 
allow me to go beyond a very positive and peremptory de- 
cision that the loyuv dQi^f,i6g of Sophocles is quite distinct 
from the loyiav agid^^iog of Napier. 

In favour of the first, or ordinal sense, I know nothing 
except the very usage of logical writers on which this pa- 
per is written. If aQid^inog meant any thing except place 
in numerical progression, Porphyry and his followers cer- 
tainly chose the wrong word. Now the Greeks were very 
littie given to alter vernacular sense in their choice of sci- 
entific terms; I doubt if a single instance can be produced 
of any writer having wilfully done such a thing. It is very 


often forgotten, I suspect, that we are to judge of the 
Greeks as highly cultivated upon one language only: that is, 
upon one language as the medium of thought, literature, 
and imaginatiott. Is it not to the more than conventional 
relation between sounds and things observable in all who 
have never studied thought in any language but their mother- 
tongue that we are to attribute Euclid's want of power to 
gi^p the idea of a line making an angle with its own con- 
tinuation? A line having revolved through half a revolution, 
the disappearance of the ynw deprived Euclid of the power 
of treating this amount of revolution as yiovla. Accordingly, 
the great father of geometry presents us with a magnitude, 
a subject of more and less, which is annihilated by augmen- 
tation. The three angles of a triangle are together equal 
to the sum of tuH> ri^t angles, but Euclid never enables 
us to say what one angle this makes. These two expressible 
halves of an inexpressible whole remind v^ of the line 
Man neyer is, but always to be, blfst. 
They are never addita, always addenda. 

This point, and several others, arise out of that close 
adherence to vernacular meaning, without power of wilful 
extension S which characterises the Greek writers, and which 
I attribute to their never having studied any language but 
their own, in their course of education. And it seems to 
me a strong assumption to allow that Porphyry and his fol- 
lowers would distinguish individuals as differing aQix^fi({)y 
if the sense of this wox-d were cumulative of individuals. 
Unless other instances of the same kind of license can be 
produced, I must remain incredulous as to this one. 

Whatever deference I may pay to modern philology, I 
confess that in such matters as the present I stand in no 
awe either of the old lexicographers or the old logicians. 
The former missed the distinctive meaning of nrjktxoiijCf 
quantuplidty y how-many-times-ness , and made it a word of 

* I speak of extension only; contraction is practised in a few in- 
stances. Thus tU/ti 1 tatty in Euclid is to cut into two equal parts; 
and fii^^y whicli in the first book is any part, becomes an aUq%toi part, 
or ««bmiiltii4e in th« fifth book. 

12 ON THE WORD aQi^fiog, 

unenumerated quantify; thereby tttrning Euclid's definition 
of ratio into a verbal tautology. The logicians, seeing in 
Aristotle the phrase otQi&fiog xal loyog, the very common 
way of designating integer and fraction, translated it, by 
help of an interpolated explanation, through a score of cen- 
turies, as number and speech y which have therefore always 
been presented as Aristotle s examples of discontinuous quan- 
tity. Whether the loyia(.ihg xal aift^fiog of Plato is travestied 
in the same way I do not know. 

Euclid gives the second, or cardinal, definition of number, 
multitude composed of units, to sx ^lovaSwv avyxsiftsvov 
nlri&og. But he immediately proceeds to show what per- 
haps is a vestige of creation. A part of a number is called 
a number of a number, aQixk^iog aQi&^ov, when the part 
is contained an exact number of times in the whole, so that 
the larger can be counted in smaller ones, and the smaller 
is therefore a sort of unit to the larger. Here fiovdg aQi- 
^ 1,10V would have given no surprise. 

In old English the word number always implies counting: 
as in the phrase Hhings without number', too many to 
count. The technical word for number, in the sense of 
multitude countable but not yet counted, was always sum^ 
a word which now involves the idea of a result of additions. 
Thus Phillips, above cited, describes numeration as the art 
of expressing any sum proposed; and this is the definition 
which had been handed down by old Robert Recorde, in 
1540— "Numeration is the arte to expresse and reade all 
summes proposed". The word sum gains its now common 
meaning as an abbreviation of sum total, or summa totalis. 
For sum referred equally to the result of a subtraction, and 
Recorde says: "The Remainer is a summe lefte after due 
working, which declareth the excesse or dyfFerence of the 
two other numbres". And the same thing is to be seen in 
the earlier Latin writers; thus though Tunstall, in 1522, 
marks the result of an addition as summa, he also styles 
the number to be subtracted summa deducenda. 

The very word summa seems to have arisen from the 
principle which I suspect to have been the original one, that 


of naming number from the highest item of numeration. In 
no other agreement with etymology is 10 a sum, except as 
the unitaa mmma is unUas decima. Is aQid^fiog originally 
an iteniy or is it a collection f Among the lexicon examples 
are ol aqi^ioi zov GWfAOLxog, the separate limbs of the 
body, and navt^g aQit^inoi tov xad-j^xovrog , 'the aggregate 
of duty', as it is translated; but the aggregation seems to 
be in navTeg, and the unit of the aggregation in ccQi&^og. 

If the maxim of the middle ages that unity is not a num- 
ber had been found in Euclid or Aristotle, it might have 
been produced against my suspicion, fiut in truth it is 
only a derivation of later times from the distinction between 
ftovag and ix ixovddwp nl^^og. No light can be thrown 
upon the matter, I suspect, from the chapters of Aristotle's 
Metaphysics (book xi. or xii.) which treat of monad and 
number. The few sentences which are intelligible make the 
darkness of the rest more visible. The attempts at trans- 
lation, whether into Latin or English, seem to me to fur- 
nish good illustration of the difference between seeing mean- 
ing in words and making meaning to words. In the last 
chapter, however, there is an argument from which my 
suspicion may be rather corroborated. 

Aristotle begins by stating that it is above aU things good 
to find the diflference between fiovdg and aQiD^/^dg^ which, 
if any, must be either xaza to noaov or xava to noiov. 
Strange that it should be a question whether there be a 
diflference of quantum between a monad and a plurality of 
monads: stranger still that in the next clause it is averred 
that no diflference , whether of quantum or of quale ^ appears 
to be possible: strangest of all that in the second next clause 
the one immediately preceding should be flatly contradicted. 
For the received text adds to the words tovto)v cJ' oldhe- 
Qov (faivezai ivdix^ai}ai vnaQXov these other words aXV ji 
ixQii^fiog xatd to noaov. That is to say, though number 
have no difference of quantum from monad, yet, in so far as 
it is number, it has such difference. Aristotle proceeds, as 
if the sense had not been broken by aAA' [] &c. to say that 
the monads do not differ in quantum^ for then one number 


might differ from another, though tiiie mnltitade' of m<ynads 
were the same in both. My conjecture is that the words 
all^ f} Ac. are one of these interpolations in which ttre text 
of Aristotle has been affirmed to abonnd: that aQi^/iiog 
hovers between the senses I. and II., the ordinal and the 
cardinal: that Aristotle means only to affirm that the Aql^ 
^fioQy the item of enumeration, no where in the sequence 
exhibits a different quality or quantity from the monad, the 
initium numeriy which is presented as the unit That the 
word has two senses in this chs^ter is certain: deny it, 
and we have a writer who is always seen to be exact when- 
ever he is perspicuous, affii*min^ in express terms that there 
is no difference of quantum between one unit and more than 
one, and giving as his reason that tiiere is no difference 
between the first unit and any succeeding unit of the col- 

My impression is that unity is only ^lovag when it stands 
alone; that the things which were monads when they stood 
alone, are severally olqi^iioI when they are collected; that 
the force of oQix^fiog soon began to partake of our modem 
sense of number y by tadt reference to the highest a{ud'fi4g, 
or mm; but that it never lost its full competency to convey 
the original notion, that of the item or unit of numeration. 

By Theodore Aufrecht, Esq. 


The affinity, and even the identity of dulcis (for dulcu-i-s) 
and ylvxig are indubitable, but whether the d of dulcis or the ff 
of yitficrg must be considered the older consonant, and whether 
the root of these adjectives was glue or dulc, is the subject 
of the following investigation. We must not be imsled by 
a gloss of Festus in Paulus DiacoRHs £xc. : ^^tmdatum suave 


Qt jttcaadaia. Graeei etenim ylvxuv duloem dieebaitt% or 
^QOther mentioned by the sanie grammarian: ^clueidatum 
dttlce et suave dicebaiit\ For tiiis glucidatum^ of which 
eluaidatum is a miHTO ancient speUimg, is evidently derived 
from the Gr^ek ylvxi^^tv. The Aeolic form deoxog for 
yXevxog, and the Homeric ddevx/jg (bitter) speak in favour 
of the priority of the d. It is true that this is denied by 
some comparative philologers who refer to the Sanskrit 
ffulyay sweetness, gula, raw sugar, in order to prove that 
the ff is more original. But it is to be regretted that these 
scholars did not even know how to use rightly the dictionary 
of Prof. Wilson, from whom they might have learned that 
gula is a modem corruption of ffuda and gulya a derivative 
of it; and a better acquaintance with the language would 
have taught them, that guda in that meaning is originally 
not Sanskrit. The root of both ylvxvg and dulcia is ruck 
for ruL This verb which, in its meaning of Ho sMne', 
appears in lucere^ Xavxog and light (lumen), signifies also 
'to please', videri alicui, q>aiv€oi^ai TtvL\ and several de- 
rivatives agree in their meanings; with dulcia^ ylvxvg. These 
are rucM, flavour, relish, taste, ruchitaj sweet,. rucMra, 
pleasing^ sweet, ruchiahyay pleasing. Compare the Msduratti 
rtkchne, to be delicious or agreeable to the palate &c. I 
believe that ruch stands for drucli, and find this conjeetm-e 
confirmed by the complete accordance of ylvxeQog with the 
Sanskrit ruchird. Dnlda has, therefore, kept the original 
d, but transposed Uie I from the beginniij^ to the end, — 
that is, dulcia stands for dlucis; while ylvxvg has kept the 
ancient order of consonants, but, the Greek bring unable to 
bear dX at the beginning of words, has changed dl into yX. 
We have sufficient traces to prove that the verb ruk or 
luk 'to shine, to give light' also originated from dluk. Woiild 
it not be all moonshine, if we believed that ylavaog had 
received its name from the Indian moon (glau)? rkavxog 
agrees in every particle with the Sanskrit rokd^ light (Rv. 
iii. 6, 7), and is closely connected with rtikmd, adj. bright, 
m. sun, ornament. But we can dispense with the assistance 
of Sanskrit, for yXavxog has its root much clearer in Greek. 


Compare Hesychius: yXavaaei^ Xafinei, q)alvH, g)avax€i. 
Etymol. M. ylavxcSnig — and tov detvov ylavaaeiv zoTg 
6q>&aXf,ioig, Ibid. yXavaaei, Xa^nat, tpaivei, q)avai(€f xal 
yXav^ov, eniXa^ixpov. Callim. h. in Dian. 54: OaBa detvov 
vnoyXavaoavra. Apollonius Rhodius A, 1281: 

rjinos ^* ovQayod-iv ;|f(xponi) vnokafinsiai r^^i 
ix TifQttiijq dyiovottj diaylavaaovat cT aittqivo(y 

Moschus 2, 86: oaae 3^ vTioyXavaaeoxe xal ifisQov aarQa- 

Just as before we had davxog for yXevxog, so we find 
the older form of yXavxog or Xavxog in the name of JIoXv- 
devxrjg, who is not 'the very sweet', but 'the very brilliant 
star', in the same way as his brother KdoTWQ is the bright 


The particle fia is, just like vai, construed with an ac- 
cnsative in order to affirm a sentence, by taking a god or 
some object of worship as witness. It is never negative by 
itself, but the negation is expressed by the addition of ov, 
or the purport of the whole sentence. An affinity with fi#; 
is therefore improbable. Nor do I believe that the accusa- 
tive is, as in the Latin per deos, really dependent on the 
particle, but am of opinion that i^id means only 'truly, cer- 
tainly', and that the accusative depends on an omitted ojuvv^n^ 
Compare II. S, 271: ayQsi vvv /hol o/iioaaov daaxov Ixvyog 
vdcoQ, or 'f^, 584 : yaii^oxov sivoaiyaiov ofivvd^c &c. 

The older form of /m was ofid, as we learn from the 
Sanskrit where sma is an enclytic particle with the mean- 
ing of 'truly, verily, certainly'. It occurs so frequently, 
that two or three examples will suffice to show its appli- 
cation. Rv. i. 12, 8: 

Yas tvain Agne havishpatir dutam (leva saparyati, 
Tasya sma prayita bhaya. 


* divine Agni, whateyer sacrificer worships thee as a messenger (to the 
gods), to him verily be a protector'. Rv. iv. 31, 9: 

Nahi shmd (for sma) te ^atam chana radho varanta amuras. 
*(0 Indra,) verily not even a hundred destroyers check thy power'. 
Rv. vi. 2, 2 : 

Tvam hi shmA charshanayo yajnebhir g^bhir Date. 
*Thee truly, o Agni, worship men with sacrifices and prayers'. 


The usual derivation oi pollex from, polkre rests on a pas- 
sage in Macrobius vii. 3, 14: 'pollex nomen ab eo, quod 
pollet, accepit'. I should not object to this etymology, if 
polleo were ever applied to physical strength, but it never 
signifies anything else than Ho be powerful, to have in- 
fluence' in a figurative meaning. The analogy of indea as 
the name of the forefinger leads to the true derivation. Pol- 
lea is a compound of the preposition por, pol and dicere, 
dEixvvvai, and means either 'the shower', or 'the stretched 
out', because, when the fist is closed, the thumb alone re- 
mains distinctly visible. This conjecture is confirmed by the 
Sanskrit prade^int^ the forefinger, literally 'the showfinger'. 
With regard to the assimilation of Id to II compare Pollux 
from IIokvdevxTjg, mollis for molduis (^afnalduvoj^, poZ/m^o 
for poldmgo, &c. 

It would be absurd to derive pollea from polliceriy from 
the custom of pressing down the thumb against the fist in 
order to show assent or approbation (pollicem premere). 
If we consider how coarse the Latin is in many of its ex- 
pressions, it would not be impossible to assume the reverse, 
and to derive polliceri from pollex (compare indicare from 
index) ^ in accordance with the above mentioned custom. 
But we cannot separate polliceri from liceriy though the con- 
nection in meaning of both verbs is not over clear. 


LISH LANGUAGE. By Herbert Coleridge, Esq. 

Mr. Wright, in a Lecture on the English language de- 
livered by him before the Historic Society of Lancashire 
and Cheshire on the 23^ of April 1857, has the following 
passage (p. 9) : 

"If I object to the notion of a Keltic element in our language, I 
object no less to that of a mixture with any other Teutonic dialect. Our 
older philologists believed in a modification of the Anglo-Saxon during 
a certain period which they termed Dano-Saxon, supposing that they 
traced in it the marks of Danish influence, but this theory has been 
entirely abandoned by the best of our modern scholars, and there are 
certainly no proofs that such an influence ever existed. The language 
which our forefathers spoke in the middle of the 11*^ century, was the 
same Low German dialect which they had brought with them into the 
island with the mere changes which any language would undergo in it- 
self during the transmission under the same circumstances, through several 

And in a note he adds: 

" Of course I do not deny that our local dialects , in the parts oc- 
cupied by them, may have derived some words from the Danes, but 
the pure Anglo-Saxon language was certainly not influenced by them. 
It has been the fashion of late years to ascribe much more to the Danes 
than I believe them to have any claim to." 

Mr. Wright's theory of the constitution of our language 
is in fact simply this: He believes that English, or rather 
the Gothic or non-classical portion of it, is Anglo-Saxon and 
nothing but Anglo-Saxon; he repudiates the notion of any 
intermixture of Keltic or Scandinavian elements and he denies 
that any Danish influence can be traced in the Anglo-Saxon 
itself, and, by implication, in its modem descendant. As, 
however, it is obvious at the merest glance that the Anglo- 
Saxon Dictionary will by no means suffice to explain the 
whole of the obviously Teutonic part of our language, he 
bids us bear in mind that "our knowledge of the Anglo- 
Saxon is after all imperfect, for our nomenclature is made 
up from written documents of a partial description, and 
there no doubt existed a great number of words in the 


Anglo-Saxon language which are now entirely lost. No doubt 
many words now found in the English language, and especi- 
ally in the provincial dialects, of which the origin is now 
unknown, had their equivalents in pure Anglo-Saxon." Upon 
these statements I propose to offer two independent obser- 
vations, both, however, having important bearing upon the 
subject of the present essay, and the method of investiga- 
tion which will be followed therein. 

In the first place, it is important to ascertain what Mr. 
Wright really means by his denial of a Danish influence in 
or upon the Anglo-Saxon language. If he merely intends 
to put another nail into the coffin of the old defunct Dano- 
Saxon theory ofHickes, which supposed that Danisms were 
traceable in such pure Anglo-Saxon works as Gaedmon and 
Beowulf, in the same sense as they are most distinctly 
traceable in the Northumbrian Gospels, there cannot of 
course be two opinions as to the correctness of his state- 
ment. But if he means more than this , and his words may 
easily bear a wider signification; if he means to deny the 
presence of Danish, or, as I prefer to call them, Scandi- 
navian elements in the Anglo-Saxon, as constituent parts of 
the language itself y then I join issue with him at once. In 
fact the matter can be brought to the test readily enough. 
Take the Anglo-Saxon word ^orrest' a battle, O.Norse or- 
rosttty and let us ask which language gave the word to the 
other, or to which it essentially belongs. The question is 
settled at once in favour of the Norse by the fact, that the word 
is decomponible in that language into simpler elements , viz. 
the intensive prefix or, and rosta = clamor bellicus, a tumult, 
of which numerous derivatives are given, for example rostu- 
legvy rostusamvy &c. I have called attention to this distinction, 
because it is one of importance, and is often lost sight of 
in discussions upon these languages. 

The second remark I have to make concerns Mr. Wright's 
ingenious mode of getting over the difficulty in the way of 
his theory caused by the obvious deficiencies of the Anglo- 
Saxon Dictionary. It is clear that if his observation wei*e 
to bo followed out to its strict consequences, no argument 



of a negative character would ever be possible in the case 
of any of the dead languages. Large as a library of Greek 
authors may seem, we certainly do not possess a tenth part 
of what once existed; and on Mr. Wright's principle, a sturdy 
etymologist of the old school might assert without the pos- 
sibility of being disproved or contradicted, that the entirety 
of the Latin language was derived from flie Greek, because 
a certain class of words, such as sylva^ chalybsy ovis^ vinum 
&c., have their counterparts in the latter. Yet it is highly 
improbable, even if we had every scrap of Greek that ever 
was committed to writing, that a hundred pages would be 
thereby added to Liddell's and Scott's Lexicon. The fact 
is that in such a case as this, the half, if not nkiov navxog, 
is at any rate almost equal to it, and the chance of error 
from this source is reduced almost to a minimum. Mr. 
Wright's observation must always abstractedly hold good — 
but its practical force varies inversely with the amount of 
the extant remains. In Greek and Sanskrit it would be al- 
most zero — in languages of which we have merely specimens, 
such as the Moeso-Gothic and Old Saxon, it would be well 
nigh insuperable — Anglo-Saxon holds a middle place; al- 
though I cannot but believe that, could we recover all the 
works of our forefathers, we should not find that we had 
gained a very great deal in the way of new words. But 
here another consideration intervenes which serves still further 
to reduce the element of uncertainty — I mean , the evidence 
furnished by the nature of each particular word. Where a 
word in a derived language is a member of a class, all or 
most of the other members of which have correspondents 
in the primitive, a very strong suspicion is raised that the 
absence of the particular word in question from the primi- 
tive is due merely to the fragmentary condition in which it 
has come down to us, while in other cases, the nature and 
appearance of a word may raise as strong a presumption 
the other way. For example we know that almost every 
English substantive ending in Z, or fe, such as thrall, nail, 
bramble &c., is found in Anglo-Saxon unchanged, except in 
respect of orthography. — Dingle and Ringle however are not 


found in Anglo-Saxon, though Dinghy a cave, and Hring, 
are. I have notwithstanding no hesitation in assuming that 
Dingel and Hringel did once exist in Anglo-Saxon, but that no 
instance of their use has happened to occur in the books 
which have descended to us. On the other hand such words 
as III or Bady which, had they existed at all in the lan- 
guage, must have been in the commonest use, but yet are 
not found, I at once assign to a different stock. In the 
comparisons which follow, I shall consequently, to render 
argument possible, consider the Anglo-Saxon Dictionary as 
substantially complete, while I admit at the same time the 
existence of an element of uncertainty inseparable from the 
nature of the subject. 

It is now time to proceed to the consideration of the 
main question. Is there any Scandinavian element at all 
existing in modern English, which may be attributed to the 
influence of the Danish invaders of this country upon the 
language, they then found in use here? Mr. Wright, as we 
have seen, answers this question in the negative. Lappen- 
berg, in his History of the Anglo-Saxons, and his editor 
Thorpe, do the same, while Dr. Latham, in his History of 
the English language, merely gives a short list of words, 
all of them local and provincial, which, he says, are more 
probably Norse than Saxon, and adds that -6y, as a termi- 
nation of the names of towns, is usually considered to de- 
note a Danish settlement. He might have added the termi- 
nation -son to the names of persons, which is just as purely 
Norse as the -by. His rule for determining Scandinavianisms 
is expressed thus: 

'It is not sufficient to prove that a word is Scandinavian. 
It must also be shewn not to be German". 

A moment's thought will shew that this rule, as he states 
it, cannot be accurate. German includes High German as 
well as Low German, but surely the veriest tyro in philo- 
logy would hardly venture to say that the High German 

^ Ding is omitted by Bosworth, but occurs in the Legend of St. 
Andrew y. 1271. Ed. Grimm. 

^ English Language Vol. 1. p. 346. 4fi^ ed. 



dialects were nearer to English than the Scandinavian. We 
will, however, according to the legal maxim, construe his 
dictum, ut i*e8 magia valeat quam per eat , and suppose him 
to have intended Low German only by German, and even 
with this modification I am prepared to contest the truth 
of the rule as a maxim of universal application, although I 
admit, it has at first sight a certain appearance of proba- 

Let us look at the question first from a historical point 
of view. The main facts are as follow. The Anglo-Saxon 
invasions extended over a period of about two centuries and 
a half from A, D. 369 to A. D. 600; at least these are the 
limiting dates, after which immigration from the continent 
appears to have ceased: — the Danes first arrived here in 
A.D. 787, and continued to pour into the country at various 
intervals till the famous invasion of Harold Harfager in A. D. 
1043. Three Danish kings, Sweyne, Canute and Hardieanute, 
sat on the English throne for a space of 29 years ( 1013 — 
1042), but large tracts of country had been held by Danes 
since a much earlier period. Now those who deny the 
existence of a Scandinavian element in English, must be 
prepared to maintain, that a nation that precipitated itself 
upon these shores not in mere handfuls but in vast hordes 
at a time for a space of three centuries at least, that at 
one time held all England north of the Thames more or less 
in subjection, established itself in numerous settlements as 
denoted by the existing nomenclature of towns, and per- 
manently changed the names of many, that introduced the 
commonest of English patronymics now in use, that pene-^ 
tr&ted into, even if it did not establish itself in, every part 
of the kingdom except perhaps Cornwall, that set three kings 
on the throne and laid all England under an oppressive tax, 
that moreover was in possession of a language bearing the 
closest affinity to that which they found in use here on their 
arrival, — not like the Normans whose language belonged to 
a different branch of the family, — that a nation, I say, 
which could do all this, was yet totally unable to affect in 
any way the native language of the oountry they overran, 


or to add a single word to its yocabnlary from the copious 
stores of their own tongue. Verily if this be so, the Anglo- 
Saxon language must have been one of the most stubborn 
ever spoken by man, more especially when we recollect 
that in Normandy the northern invaders seem to have found 
little difficulty in stamping the impress of their Scandina- 
vianism upon the Romance, widely as the two differ in 
character, — a fact familiar to every student of old or modem 
French. Yet strangely enough many of the philologists who 
seem to feel a sort of nervous apprehension at allowing the 
Danes the slightest share in the honour of having contributed 
to the formation of the noblest of living languages, who 
strain laboriously at the Scandinavian gnat, will yet swallow 
the Keltic camel with avidity, and allow the Anglo-Saxon 
an unlimited power of absorption in respect to a language 
from which it is as widely removed in every essential charac* 
teristic, as two languages really belonging to the same family 
can well be. I do not by any means wish to be understood 
as denying the existence of a Keltic ingredient in the com- 
position of English — on the contrary, I feel convinced that 
such does in fact exist, but I protest against a theory which 
would attribute to the barbarous, alien, and conquered Kelt, 
an influence which it will not allow to the closely related 
and dominant Dane. But we are not left to the unsupported 
probabilities of the case — the analogy of all history is in 
favour of the view for which I am contending. It may be 
safely stated that no instance of any importance can be 
produced of any permanent invasion of one nation by an* 
other, where the language of the invaded people has not 
thenceforth borne steady witness to its early struggles and 
oppression. The Turks in Greece, the Moors in Spain, the 
Gothic invaders of Italy, the Normans in England and 
Russia S the Northmen in France, have left traces of them- 
selves in the languages of those countries which will last 
as long as the languages themselves endure. Why then are 
the Danes in England alone to form an exception to the 

1 Dr. Tritben allows them 50 woxtjs. Ph. Soc. Proc. toI. v, p. 29. 



analogy? I verily believe that the truth of the matter is^ 
that the Dano-Saxon theory has been the ruin of the cause 
of the Danes — that theory fell to pieces directly the light 
of a more refined philology than Junius and Hickes possessed, 
was brought to bear upon it, and since that time the question 
whether these Danes, though they did not affect the lan- 
guage of Alfred and jElfric, might not nevertheless have 
contributed something to that of Chaucer and Shakspere, 
has been by universal consent tabooed and ignored. 

It may be objected to me here that my arguments prove 
somewhat too much, and that according to my own shew- 
ing the Dano-Saxon theory ought to be the true one, and 
that we ought to find marks of Danish influence not merely 
in English but in its parent tongue also. A little consider- 
ation of the circumstances of the case will however remove 
this misconception. 

In the first place it must be remembered that the only 
means we have of estimating the amount of this influence 
are the literary remains, — few enough, alas! — which have 
come down to our time. These works are almost all of 
them written in the polished West-Saxon dialect, the literary 
language of the period, which would of course be the last 
thing to yield to external impulse. There can be no doubt 
of the influence of Latin upon Greek, as a fact, but this 
influence did not begin to make itself openly felt till long 
after the days of Flamininus and iEmilius Paulus. Purism 
succeeded purity, and for a time was able to keep the of- 
fensive element out of the higher class of literature, but in 
most of the Greek subsequent to the Augustan era it can 
be traced with little difficulty. But as matter of fact, a 
^Scandinavian influence upon the Anglo-Saxon in the strictest 
sense of the words can be shewn satisfactorily enough, if 
we only direct our attention to the proper quarter. AH the 
monuments of the Northumbro-Saxon dialect — now fortunately 
accessible to students by the labours of Bouterwek and 
Stevenson, — with the exception of the earliest, namely the 
Psalter published by the Surtees Society, exhibit deviations 
from the ordinary West-Saxon type which can only be ac- 


counted for by considering them as the results of the Danish 
settlement in these regions. It is not my intention, nor 
would space permit me here to go into the dialectic pecu- 
liarities of these ancient montmients of language — the papers 
of Messrs. Gamett and Kemble contained in the 2^ Vol. of 
the Society's Proceedings, more especially those of the 
latter, fully bear out the assertions I have made, and it 
will be sufficient in answering an objection to refer to them. 
I am aware that some persons are inclined to regard these 
peculiarities, e.g. the infinitive in -a, as due rather to the 
Jutes or Frisians than the Northmen, but to my mind there 
is an argument derived from the works themselves which 
is decisive against their claim. If these anomalies were due 
to the Frisians, clearly we should expect to find them most 
strongly marked in the earliest work, because the farther 
we went back, the purer would the separate element be to 
which they are supposed to owe their origin. If Frisian 
was ever spoken in England, we should obviously expect 
to find its characteristics better preserved in a document of 
the ninth century than in one of the tenth or eleventh, simply 
because it would have suflFered in the ninth century less at- 
trition and degradation by contact with other dialects than 
in the later epochs. The reverse however is the fact — the 
Psalter which belongs to the ninth century exhibits no trace 
of Frisian or Norse in its language, while the Durham 
Gospels and Ritual which belong to the tenth century, and 
the still later Rushworth Gospels, do so conspicuously. All 
this is capable of the most natural interpretation on the 
hypothesis which ascribes these changes to the Danes, who con- 
stituted an affecting cause of continually increasing strength; 
the admixture of Northmen which in the early part of the 
ninth century was not powerful enough to leave an impress 
on the literary Anglo-Saxon of Northurabria, had acquired 
by accumulation strength sufficient at the end of the tenth 
to make itself unmistakeably visible. In other words Frisian 
influence must have varied inversely, Danish directly, as 
the lapse of time, and it is only by the aid of the latter 


that, as it seems to me, it is possible to accoant for the 
facts I have mentioned. 

Enough has been said to shew that the antecedent proba- 
bilities of the case all point in one direction. It is now 
time to support these probabilities by proof of a more posi- 
tive character. I shall not attempt any investigation of dia- 
lectic peculiarities, although much confirmation might no 
doubt be derived from this source, because I believe that 
more cogent demonstration can be furnished by an investi- 
gation of words, than of the mere modifications of words. 
Moreover, when I find Dr. Guest asserting that no traces 
of Danish are to be found in our MSS. or m our dialects \ 
it appears to me better to attempt to put the argument on 
a broader basis and one less liable to be controverted. This 
basis is furnished by the following list of words. All of 
them occur in the Scandinavian languages, and are absent 
from the Anglo-Saxon and other Low German dialects; or 
are found in these dialects in different senses and under 
other forms than those which they bear in English and 
Scandinavian. From this I draw the inference, that they 
are an importation which we owe to the Danes. Moreover 
for all of them book-authority can be produced, which con- 
fers on them a greater degree of importance than is due to 
mere provincialisms. — I do not give the references, because 
those for the obsolete words will be found in my forthcom- 
ing Glossary which will be in the hands of members ere 
long, while for the more ordinary words references of any 
kind are unnecessary. I have only to add that I have much 
enriched my list from the valuable papers of Mr. Wedgwood 
scattered through the volumes of the Society's Proceedings. 

Ancome, s., =a sore; O.N. dkoma^ vulnusculum. 

Awe J s. — Dan. ave; A.S. Sge. 

Awn, s. — Sw. agnar. 

Bag, s. — O.N. baggi. 

Bait, v.a., = irritate — O.N. beita, (The A.S. b^tan means 

^ Hist, of English Rhythms, Vol. ii. p. 201. 


to amend, or remedy, and when joined with^, to 

Beryngj s., = bosom; O.N. bringa. 

Btkey s., = cassia, lit. 'pitch'; O.N. bik; A. S. pic. 

Bloated y adj. — O.N. blauta. 

Blunt, adj. — O.N. blunda — dormire. 

Boily V. — O.N. bulla; Fr. bouiUer; A.S. seodan. 

Bouuy adj. — O.N. buinn. 

Box, s., == a blow — ^Dan. bask. 

Bracken, (fern), s* — Swed. brah&n. 

Braid y v., = resemble ; 0. N. bregda. 

Bray^ v., ^ roar; Swed. braka. 

Bunker (for coals); O.K bunki. 

Burdcy v., = it behoved; O.N. byrjar; Dan. bor. 

Busk, V. — O.N. buasc — reflexive form. 

Bustle, v.— O.N. bustla. 

J5y, v., = defame; O.N. bia, macidare. 

Carouse, s. — Dan. kroes — a cup — Dutch kruyse, 

Caat^ V. — O.N. kasta. (A.S. weorpan; O.N. verpa.) 

Chime (of bells), s. — Swed. kimma; Dan. kinie. 

Dash, V. — O.N. daska. 

Dock, s., =tail; O.N. docki\ 

Doze, V. — O.N. dos: Dan. dose. 

Drub, V. — Swed. drubba. 

Dwell, V. — 0. N. dvelja. (A. S. dwelan = deceive or err.) 

Erre, s., = a wound; O.N. or; Dan. ar. This word occurs 
in the Early English Psalter published by the ^urteca 
Society, but it would seem even now not to be ob- 
solete, as it is given (under the form arr) in Webster's 
Dictionary on the authority of one 'Relph'. 

Fell, s., mountain; 0.^. fjallr. (A.S. beorh^Jirgen,) 

Fenge, s., = a girl; 0. N. fenna, fenja. (A.S. me(mle, masdeny 

Flosch s ! = ^ P^* ^^ chasm; O.N. Jlaska, diffindere. 
Flatter, v.— O.N. /adm. 

Flimsy, adj. — O.N. jf?ime— calumnia, nugae infames. 
Fling, v., = rush at foil »peed; &vied:jlanga—fldng. 


Flogy V. — 0. N. flaga, fiengja. 

Flounder^ v. — ^Vf. flundra'^ DntGh flodderen. 

Fraistey v., = to try; O.N. freista. 

Friey v., = blame ; 0. N. fryja. 

FuhomBj adj. — O.N. /wZfoa, abominationem simulare. 

GatCy 8., = way; O.N. gata; A.S. weg. 

Ghyll, s., a glen; O.N. giL 

Gimp, s. — O.N. gimpur, 

Gnaiate^ v., = dash ; 0. N. gnesta. 

Gothele^ v., = make a guggling noise, as red hot iron does 

in water; O.N. gutla. 
Goule, v., = howl; O.N. gola; A.S. galatiy to sing. 
Grunsel or groundM, s., a threshold; O.N. grind. 
Gusty s. — O.N. giistr. 
Hap^ s. — O.N. happi W. hap. 
Hanky s. — O.N. haunk. 

Hethe^ v., = threaten; O.N. hoetta; Swed. hota. 
Hethingy s., = scorn; O.N. hddung. 
Hevening, s., = revenge; O.N. hefna; A.S. e/nan^ to perform, 

or suffer. 
Hint, V. — O.N. ymta. 
Hoke, v., = move tortuously; O.N. hoka. 
Illy adj. — O.N. illr. Dutch quaed. 
Inkling y s. — O.N. ymta. 
Kagy s., = cask; O.N. kaggi. 
Kannske, adv., = may be; O.N. kannaki. 
KadcBy adj., =bold; O.N. karskr. 
Kelyngy s., = a small cod; O.N. keila. 

^. '. * I — O.N. kid, kidlingr; A.S. hind-cealf. 

Kindle, v., = set on fire; O.N. hfnda; A.S. b^n. 

Krawkanj s., refuse of melted tallow ; O.N. krekja, abjicere. 

Ling, s., heath; O.N. ling. 

Lithy v., listen; O.N. hlyda. 

Ldtaiery s., a dyer ) ^ xt lo x- 

r >^ 1 X . J J— O.N. lita, tmgere. 

Ltted^ p.p., stamed \ ? o 

Lowe^ s., flame; O.N. log. 

Lubber^ s., 0,N. fw6W — servus ignavus. 


Lurky v., Swed. lura^ O.N. lura^ ignavus harere. 

Minnej adj., less; O.N. minni; A. S. Ices; Dutch minder, 

Moriy v., = shall; O.N. mun. 

Muggy y adj. — O.N. mugga — aer nubilus. Welsh mwg. 

Neify s., fist; O.N. hnefi; A.S. fyst 

Okir, s., usury; O.N. okr; Dutch woeker. 

Pomple, v., = stumble; O.N. pompa. 

Prenche in atprenchef v., = deceive; O.N, pretta^ fallere. 

Pudding, s. — Dan. budding; Fr, boudin. 

Puty v., throw; O.N. potta. 

Quatted ySidj.^ full of food ) r. xt / .. ^ 

7. \j ± —0. N. kvetty meat. 

Overquatie, v., to gorge ( 

S« j^-. = drive; O.N. r.*a. 

Ransack^ v. — O.N. rannaaka, 

Rapy s., = a blow; Sw. rapp. 

RippSy s., = a basket; O.N. hrip. 

Rodcy s., = complexion ; 0. N. rodi. 

Rouse y s., = a drinking vessel; O.N. rues; Dan. ruua — in- 
toxication. This word may also be the origin of 'Russin' 
the evening meal, which is used in the 'Land of Co- 
kaygne\ and appears to exist at the present day in 

Rucky s., = wrinkle; O.N. hruckr. 

Scoghe or ahawy s., a wood; O.N. akogr. 

Scoppey s., a leap; Swed. skutt 

Scratch in the phrase 'Old Scratch' = the Devil; O.N. acrattiy 
mains daemon. 

Scrip y s. — O.N. skreppa. 

Shoaty s., a young pig; O.N. skod. 

Skety adv., = quickly; O.N. akjott 

Skenhngy s., = amusement ) 

^, I v., — 0. N. ab^cka — anus rugosa. 

Skfjfy 8. — O.N. sky — nubes. 'Sky' was used in English in the 
sense of 'cloud', see the Prompt. Parv. s. v. Hovyn. 
The A.S. 8cua only means, a shade. 


Slants adj. — Swed. sVlaU. 
Slmh^ s. — Swed. almk, 

steche j^dj.,-O.N. slwgr. 

Snepe^ adj., = foolish; O.N. mapr. 

Snytey v., = blow the nose; O.N. myta. 

So J s., = a pail; O.N. adr; Dan. saa; Fr. seau. 

Sowelf s., anything eaten with bread ; Dan. muL Dutch auyvel 

= lactarinm. 
Simthey v., = burn; 0. N. svida. A. S. &widdn means to 

Teyte, adj., = lively; O.N. teiir. 
Tine, v., = lose; O.N. tyna. A.S. tynan = irritate; tynan 

= enclose. 
Truelove in 'truelove knot' ; 0. N. trulo/a, spondere; trulo/un, 

sponsalia. This shews that onr ' true-love ' is really a 

compound, and has nothing to do with 4ove', the O.N. 

^lofa' meaning to 'promise'. 
Tyfm, v., = adorn; O.N. typpa. 
Wall in wall-eyed — O.N. vagi i augum. Vagi is explained 

by Haldorson as 'festuca, pterygion' — en Hinde, som 

traekker sig over diet. 
Whiniy s. — O.N. hvim; Dan. hvimse. 
Wondreth, s., misfortune; O.N. vandrcedu 

The list might be easily enlarged, but enough at any 
rate has been adduced to shew that the a priori argu- 
ment with which I began, is not devoid of foundation in 
fact. It remains for the Anti-Danists to say whence these 
words have come to us, if they will not consent to credit 
Scandinavia with them. 

That analogies more or less remote to some of them can 
be produced from the Low German languages, is probable 
enough; e. g. for ^flounder', which I have derived from the 
Swedish ^jflundra' — the Dutch have ^flodderen^ ; for ^soweV 
M. de Haan Hettema quotes the Frisie ^8uyvel% lactarium 
(tiie connection of which is not very obvious), while I have 
derived it from the Danish ^mfd'\ and as in botii instances 


the Scandinavian word agrees more closely both in sense 
and form with the English than the other, I submit that 
the balance of probability is in favour of the former as the 
proximate originant. 

Upon a future occasion I hope to be able to extend the 
investigation to words which appear for the first time in 
Semi -Saxon, and were probably adopted into the Saxon 
from the Danish, and also to those which appear both in 
Low German and Scandinavian, but are absent from our 
Anglo-Saxon Dictionaries. For this however, as for many 
other subjects, otium Divos rogo. 

TIC LANGUAGES. By Dr. C. Lottner. 

Latin does not know of any augment, but forms its im- 
perfect by the addition of a to the root, as is clearly seen 
in er-d'Sy er amies , erdtU^ while in the other persons the a 
has become shortened. Again, the more common termina- 
tion of the imperfect 6am, &c. is nothing but an imperfect 
of the root/w, formed on the same principle as ei^am, but 
no longer used as an isolated form. The original form must 
have been fuam, fudsy fuat^ fudmm, &c., which became 
banfiy bdsy &c. in Latin, while in Oscan the / was retained, 
as may be seen in the only imperfect as yet discovered 
ftt/ansy 'erant' = an hypothetical Latin fu-bant The m of 
the first person singular in Latin and the ns of the third 
person plural in Oscan, being the identical terminations of 
the subjunctive in both these languages, show that the said 
Italic forms have the secondary set of terminations, called 
in Greek grammar the termination of the historical tenses. 

A similar preterite is found in Lithuanian with the charac- 
teristic vowel 0, this being the common representative of 
the original d in that language. Thus from the root suk 
x= to turn, bu = to be (inf. suk-ti^ bu-ti)^ we get the fol- 
lowing preterites: 































The terminations are here the same as those of the present 
tense, because the Lithuanian no longer observes the dif- 
ference between the two sets. 

To turn to the Keltic. I shall remark by way of intro- 
duction , that in the Keltic languages the original a is some- 
times retained, and sometimes changed to o, which latter 
vowel is again liable to shortening, and to alteration into 
u. The last we observe, for instance, in the datives in -w 
of bases ending originally in a , turned into o in old Gaulish. 
The dative singular of this class of bases ends in di in 
Zend, 01 in Oscan, ui in Lithuanian, 6 in Latin, u in 
Gaulish , Prussian , Slavonian. 

The clearest traces of a -preterites we have in the Keltic 
verb substantive, namely: 


S. 1. 




'6)6a, eram 
'bSbd ^ 
b)ba, buy bo 

3. (bjba-tar 






bu-a-nt ' 











b^a-nt -fa-'ns 





^ Not yet found in old Irish, modern Irish hd-t (O'Donovan), the t 
being the suffixed prononn tu. There is however in old Irish another 
second person sing, dorroega 'degisti' (Fiac. 26), which warrants the as- 
sumed form So perhaps also rachuala *audivisti' (Zeuss 49). 

* Modern Welsh ; hum, buost, bu, buant also old Welsh. For the first 
person in old Welsh the form buum occurs, but Zeuss 539 is no doubt 
right in considering this a mistake for buam, 

• Modem Br. In the old language we find voa (Z. 450) *erat', evi- 
dently for bua. 


These forms speak for themselves; and I shall only add 
that the initial b of the old Irish is never aspirated, bnt on 
the contrary often written bb, nay even p^ when the verbal 
particle of the preterite (7*0) is prefixed, which is usually 
the case. This bb stands for bv, bu, retained in Welsh. In 
the latter language the second person singular has been se- 
duced by the example of the common preterites, the charac- 
teristic of which is «, to assume the same, while in the 
third pers. sing, the a is dropt, though still retained in the 
old Breton vo^a for bua. The plural of the old Irish has 
deponential forms. 

There are other a -preterites in old Irish, recognizable 
by the u of the third person, namely arachuilm anman 
duini 'who has depraved the soul of man^; asmn-dedur (Z. 
580) 'was expressed', (in which dedur seems a medial form 
presupposing an active preterite dedu)^ and above all the 
preterite of t-offu 'eligo', which is this: 

sing. 2. do-rroega 3. do-^rroigu 

pi. 2. do-rroigaid 3. do-rrcigatar. 

But the most ancient form of this kind is the ieuru, ioruy 
repeatedly occurring on the Gaulish inscriptions in the sense 
of 'fecit', — compare the old Irish uar (0, t* is frequently 
resolved into ua in old Irish) in/odr-uar 'eflfclcit', dordrta 
'facta sunt' (Z. 28)^ 

The absence of the personal termination in the third pers. 
sing, as early as the Gaulish inscriptions, proves beyond 
doubt that this termination was merely ty and consequently 
that the Keltic, like the Italic, gave to its d- preterite the 
secondary terminations. This is confirmed by the want of 
any termination in the second pers. sing, in old Irish, a 
want equally remarked in the subjunctive, while the present 
indicative ends in i or has an t- infection, intimating a lost 
final i (which was developed out of ihiy for m). 

I have only to add in conclusion that all the facts ad- 
duced in this short Paper, as far as they are not already 

* This comparison we owe to Df. Siegfried. 


contained in Zeuss's grammar, have been furnished to me 
by Mr. Whitley Stokes, to whose learning therefore any 
thing of real value is due which the present essay may 



Though linguistic science is unable to give any thing like 
satisfactory testimony on the question of the historical unity 
of mankind, yet in another, and in a far higher sense, it 
can establish the oneness of our race. It can prove the 
ideal unity of human nature, of which the sought-for his- 
torical unity is indeed but the shadow and the symbol. This 
it does by showing that, throughout the strange tumult of 
discordant voices, ever and anon we perceive the same 
psychological laws at work, leading nations widely different 
in origin along the same path in the formation of their lan- 
guages. It was in this sense that Buschmann pointed out 
the similarity of the words meaning father and mother in 
nearly all the languages of the globe. It was in this sense 
that Pott in his 'Zahlmethoden' proved the fact that, with 
few exceptions, all nations choose for the base of their 
numeral systems the number of the fingers of either one 
hand or both, or else of the fingers and toes taken together 
(5, 10, 20). It is still in this sense that I would call at- 
tention to the remarkable coincidences to be observed in 
the pronouns of the first and second person, which are — 
it will be seen — of such a nature as to afford ample proof 
of the identity of the human mind throughout the globe, 
while on the other hand they fail utterly to establish iden- 
tity of origin. 

Part I. 
I shall first notice the phonetic similarity prevailing in 

0. LOTTNER. 35 

this class of words, and then I shall try to enter somewhat 
more deeply into the psychological process by which they 
are developed. 

To begin with the phonetic part, — I only remark by way 
of introduction that generally I shall give to one family of 
languages (such as the Indogerman) the right of producing 
only one witness , because the pronouns under consideration 
were mostly created before the separation of the families. 
From this rule I shall deviate only, when a language dis- 
agrees with its kindred tongues as to the main principle in 
the formation of these words. Thus, all the Indogerman 
forms of speech — widely diflfused and much diversified though 
they are now-a-days, — go but for one single witness at the 
present inquest. By such a method the number of testi- 
monies must become greatly lessened; and if we take further 
into consideration, that we have of but a few languages, 
comparatively speaking, anything like a reliable grammar and 
dictionary, while the greater number is only known by 
scanty vocabularies hastily drawn up — and even , if furnish- 
ing terms for T and 'thou' little to be relied upon in so 
delicate a matter, — you will not wonder at the moderate 
number of witnesses brought before you. 

In Koelle's Polyghita Africana we have specimens of nearly 
two hundred languages of Central, and partly of Southern, 
Africa. To judge by the diversity or coincidence of their 
vocabulary, especially of their numerals, they seem to con- 
stitute about 60 different families of speech, a number which 
will appear less enormous if I add that a good many of 
these families comprise but one isolated language, resembling 
the Basque in that respect. I will not however deny the 
possibility that some of these apparently different families 
may some day turn out to be relations, but even allowing that 
possibility , we still retain a sufficient number of families, 
radically disconnected, to start from in this inquiry. It is 
to be regretted that Kolle does not give one single second 
person of any verb, but only the first; yet even under these 
circumstances the information is extremely valuable. I give 
here the pronoun ' I ' of these languages — only abridging the 




list a little and leaving out the Berber, the Arabic, and the 
Kaffer, which will occupy our attention afterwards; — the 
Roman figures indicating the different families. 

1. Fiilttp . . 

. . ni 

XII. Legba . . 7nan,ma 

Filham . 

. . m 

Klamba . me^ma 

II. B61a . . 

• • ffi, yi 

XUL Kdama . me 

Sirar . . 

.. 9i 

Bagbalan me 

P6pel . . 

. . nd^r 

Kasm,YuIa d 

Ktoyop . 

. . man 

XIV. i^iele . . «a 

HI. Bijrfada . 

. . -mttCper- 

Sobo. . . mi^mt 


l tenniQatioo). 

Ih6we . . mi 


. . -nde 

XV. 6kulOma (not giTen) 

IV. Biga . . 

. . in 

XVI. Ntipe . . n^ 

Timne . 

. . f 


V. Bulom . 

. . a 

tdkO . . 971^ 

M&mpa . 

. . yd 

XVn. B<Jmu . . wu 

VI. Kisi . . . 

. . f 

XVIII. Plka . . . na 

VII. Handing 

. mbara 

Ng6d§(in . nd 


. . na 

XIX. Ekamtolufu me 

Vei . . . 

. . na 

tSdom . . m^ 

S680 . 

. . . mbada 

XX. Basa . . . ma 


. . Tnbdra 

Kamuku . ma 

T^ne . 

. . . me 

XXI. Dsuku . . mi 



XXII. Wolof . . -ma pw- 

Mano . 

. . . ma Ac/ 

Bonal termination. 

Vm. D^woi . 

. . . na 

XXIII. Bidsdgo . i 

Kr4 . . 

. . . nd 

another dialect nte 

Kr4bo . 

. . . n/ 

XXIV. GadsAga . n per- 

IX. AdAmpe 

. . me 

sonal prefix. 

Anffte . 

. . . me 

XXV. Banyun . ma 


. . . n (per- 

XXVI. NlUu . . . mi' 

sonal prefix). 

XXVIL Bulanda . m 

X. Aku . . 

, . . md 

XXVm. Limba . . y,yd 

Igala. . 

. . . nd 

personal prefix. 

XL Mdse. . 

. . . me 

XXrX. LandCtoa in, i 


... mi 

personal j^efix. 


. . . md 

XXX. Asante . me 


TCXXT. Barba . 

. nd 

XLVI. Nki me 

XXXII. B6ko . . 

. . ma 

XLVII. KambiU ... mi 

XXXm. Tumbuktu . di 

XLVm L.Alege,Pe. 

XXXIV, Mandara 

not given 

nin, fiiite . , me 

by Kolle (compare 


LI. Miimndo . . . nd 

muksa-nga 'ma femme' nitb 

LII. Undaza . . . ma 

mukta-ruia (sic?) 'ta femme' in 
Klaproih snr la langue Bornou). 

Lffl. Ndijb mi 

LIV. Nkele .... ma 

XXXV. Bagrmi 

. md 

XXXVI. H6usa . 

. nd 

LV. K6ngfiaii ... Ad^ 

XXXVII. Pulo . . 

, . mi 

LVL Mbarlke . . . me 

XXXVin. YAla . . 

. . me 

LVII. Tiwi me 

XXXIX. AnaA . 

. . me 

LVin. B6rltsu. ... mi 

XL. Dsdrawa 

. m£ 

LIX. Afddu m 

XLI. Koro . . 

, . me 

personal pyofix. 

XLII. Ham . . 

. mi 

LX. Mfut m 

XLIII. Akurdkur 

a m 

personal prefix. 


aal prefix. 

LXL N9Q n 

XLIV. Okam . . 

. kin 

personal prefix. 

XLV. YAsgaa , 

. md 

LXn. Mbe ma 

Glancing over this list, we remark at once, that the nasal 
sonnd (mostly the labial or dental, sometimes the guttural) 
strongly predominates, so that MA, MI or NA^ NI are 
almost everywhere the roots of the pronoun meaning 'I'. 
Sometimes a language seems to present no nasal, but then 
generally the kindred tongues, if there are any, show that 
a phonetic alteration has taken place. Thus in V, the Timne 
has ly but the cognate Baga fn, showing that the f has been 
curtailed of its final consonant. Again, sometimes a com- 
pound is used which has obscured a little the personal charac- 
teristic. Thus in VII, the Mandingo has mbara^ the S6so 
mbaduy but not only do the cognate languages show simply 
a nasal sound, as Mano ma, Vei nd, but from Kolle's gram- 
mar of the latter language we learti moreover, that ber^ 
means 'self', and that m-ber^ is a compound term = my- 
self. Many other apparent exceptions from the general rule 
would no doubt vanish, if we knew only cognate dialects 
or even the whole grammar of the special langui^e. Thiw 



vni in Bornu seems to want the usual typical letter , yet we 
shall see further on that there are strong reasons for sup- 
posing that w is s. euphonic alteration of m. Dismissing 
however such mere possibilities, and looking only at the 
actual state of things, another characteristic than the nasal 
sound is really met with only in V, VI, XXVIII, XXXIII; 
for, with regard to II, XLIV, LIV, LV, the case is not 
quite clear. 

We may therefore fairly assert, that in the Negro lan- 
guages there is a strong tendency to use nasals fox the first 
person. Nor is this tendency restricted to them; for we 
find the same thing also in the Basque m, in Quasi-Qumuq 
(Caucasus) wa, in the Georgian me (compare the cognate 
Lazian ?n«), in Japanese wi, Korean nat^ in Zamuca nu, 
Aymara na, Chiquita ni, the Mandan m, and perhaps also 
in the Quichua noca. — The most elementary form of the pro- 
noun would be the Bushmen's mm T (compare innff 'my'), 
as given by Lichtenstein, but it is rather strange, that the 
cognate Hottentot, which is now very well known, presents 
forms diiFering toto coelo from the one just cited. 

So far the similarity of human speech throughout the globe 
in the pronoun 'I' is undeniable; for, though there are ex- 
ceptions , they do not annihilate the rule. It would not be 
the least wonderful, if the similarity vanished totally in the 
second person. The opposite is however the case; for even 
with our present scanty information we succeed in finding 
some salient traces of relationship in the principles on which 
the pronoun thou is formed. Namely: 

Some languages use a nasal sound both in the first 
and second person, indicating the diiference of the two 
either by a diiFerent vowel, or by employing nasals of dif- 
ferent organs, or by both these means together. Such are: 

In Africa: I. Tumali ngi T ngo 'thou' 

II. Wohf na ngo 

III. Boimu wu ni. 

If we compare with this the possessive suffixes of the 
same language ni 'my', nem 'thy', it seems that a nasal 


belongs by right to the first person, and that vm conse- 
quently stands for mu. 

In Asia: IV. The Botiya family, especially in the Lohitic 
branch, as: 

Burmese nga T meng Hhou' (towards equals) 
men 'thou' (towards inferiors) 
Dophlaa ngo no 

Ahor-Miri ngo no 

Mikir ne nang 

and also occasionally in the Tramhimalayan branch, as in 
Horpa gna ni. 


Mundala Kol 
Sontal Kol 
Sinbhum Kol 


Tamul nan 
Canarese nanu, nd 
Telugu nenu 
cas. obi. na 

VII. Kassta, generally, but wrongly, considered to be a 
member of the Thai family 

nga me. 

VIII. Chinese ngo ni. 
IX. Susian of Behistun 

-mi 'my' -ni 'thy' (possessive suffixes ac- 

cording to Norris) 
comp. niku 'we' ni 'thou' (accord, to Norris). 









ninu, nt 



X. Australian 

ngai T 

a America: 

ninna 'thou' (ace. to Schiirmann) 

ngintoa (New-South- Wales, 


XI. Araucanese 
XII. Chiquita 
XIII. Tarahumara 


mi (pronominal adj.) 



XIV. Othonii 





XV. Dakota miye niye 

XVI. Kizh no ma oma 

Netela no ma 

XVII. Tsihaili-Selish 

n an ^ 

o/manwap n an / . , « 

Sdish in ^^j pronominal pref. 

XVIII. Sahaptin in im 

XIX. Tahinuk naika 4' maika Hhou' 

comp. also wdaika ' we two ' mdaika ' you two ' 

nt(jaika *we' m(?aika 'you'. 

To these a few instances may be added of languages 
framing their two first personal pronouns in the manner 
just described, while the family to which they respectively 
belong follows in general other principles. Such are: 
Languages of the Finnish stock 

Ugro-ostiac ma T nen 'thou' 

m n (possessive affixes) 

Vogul am nan 

Finnish proper only in the suffixed possessive pronouns 

plural, as 
kala-mme 'our fish' kala-n«e 'your fish' 

but olemme 'we are' ole^e 'you are'. 

Also the Turkish suffixed pronouns seem to follow the 
same principle, — compare baba-m, my father, with baba-;*, 
thy father. Further, in the Tonga language we have a simi- 
lar opposition between 

ma-ua^ ma 'we two' and mo-ua^ mo 'you two', 
and the same is remarked in some other Polynesian dia- 
lects , though in general the Malay languages seem to follow 
a different principle. — 

Widely spread though this mode of marking the difference 
between the first and second persons is, it is far from be- 
ing general. For a good many languages reserve the nasal 
for the first person only, while in the second they have one 
of the three tenues, p^k^ t^ or sometimes, though not often, 
a medial or aspirate. They may be conveniently subdivided 
into three minor classes according to their presenting in the 


2^ person one or other of the three tenues. Thus we have, 

Lang'uagea with a nasal in the first y and p in the second 

In America: I. Moaa 

nn-ti, nu 4' pi-ti, pi 'thou' 

(compare also the cognate Maipura language: 

nuja T 
11. The Cora family. 

piya Hhou'). 

Cora neapue ' 

r apue 'thou' 


pe (as signs of person 
before the verb) 

Tepeguana ane ape 
Pima ani apt 

(comp. also Pima nmua 'as', npua *you'). 
In Africa: III. The Fante-family, as 


mi bo 




mi wo 


mi 3,0 


mo 0. 

These different forms are very interesting, because they 
show the gradual softening down of the hard labial sound 
of the second person into a mere vowel. 

In Asia: IV. Kama nga pha. 

Secondly we have languages in which the character of the 
first person is a nasal, and that of the second the guttural 
tenuis, sometimes softened down a little. Thus we have 

In America: 
I. The Delaware-family. 

Delaw. proper 

ni T 

ki Hhou' 














II. Maya en T ech 'thou'. 
In Africa: 

III. Housaa ni T ka msc, 

, . ^ , thou' 
ki fern.' 

mu 'we' ku 'you'. 

IV. The Kafir-languages, In these the original character 
seems to be a little obscured. For we find for instance in 
the Kafir properly so called 

mi-naj I we-na, thou, 

and similar forms are met with also in the cognate languages. 
Hence Appleyard in his Grammar (p. 89) is perfectly right 
in saying, that w and u are the characteristics of the second 
person. The same author however immediately adds, that 
ku is used as a verbal prefix of the second person. The 
view, that k must be the characteristic letter of this person, 
is borne out by the possessive forms of the Suaheli, where 
we have 'niumba ya-n^o, my house', but 'niumba ya-io, 
thy house' (the ya being merely the sign of relation). We 
find also in the same language expressions like ame-m-penda 
'he has loved me\ but nme-ku'^GnAk-we 'he has loved thee', 
the latter phrase presenting both k and w as characteristics 
of the second person. Thus it is sufficiently clear, that 
while a nasal always appears in the first person, we must 
acknowledge k to have been the sign of the second. Whether 
the w^ being the other sign of that person, is radically dif- 
ferent from the k^ or merely developed out of it by gradual 
euphonic softening, I shall not venture to decide. 

In Asia we find a guttural sound in the second person 
in the 

V. Old Chinese ngo T ghou 'thou'. 

VI. BoTrsTA in the Tram- and Sub-himalayan branches, as 
Tibeta?i gnyo khye 

Gurung gna ken 

Limbu inga khene 

VII. The Malay languages. The case of these is some- 
what doubtful. The foUowing forms however are in favour 
of their being arranged under this head: 


we thou you 

Tonga mau-tolu, mau koe 

Newzealandic ma-tou koe kou-tou. 

Here the tolu of the Tonga = New-Zealandic tou is the 
numeral three, and the difference of the two pronominal 
bases consists chiefly in the m and L There are however 
reasons for considering the k of the second person merely 
a euphonic change of t Namely, the plural of the first 
person cited just now has the meaning of ' we ' in the strict 
sense, that is, the person or persons addressed are not in- 
cluded. There is however another plural, meaning 'we, 
you included' which is in Tonga tau-tolu, tau^ in New-Zeal. 
ta-tou. Now it has been remarked that in other languages 
which have such a double plural of the first person, the 
inclusive plural is often derived from the second person, as 
for instance in Delaware, ni-luna^ we exclusive, is formed 
from m, I, but ki-luna^ we inclusive, is formed from ki, 
thou. Assuming the same principle for the Polynesian forms, 
we should get a base ta for the pronoun of the second person. 
It must however be confessed, that nowhere in this family 
of languages do we really find a singular pronoun Hhou' 
presenting a f-base; for the Kavi ki-ta^ thou, which ap- 
parently furnishes a form of that sort (the ki being a mere 
prefix), is scarcely any thing but a plural used civilly for a 
singular, at least the Malayan kt-ta^ and Tagalian qui-ta^ mean 
only we (incl.) , that is , thou and I. Whether therefore the 
k of the second person as usually found in the Malay and 
Polynesian languages be a euphonic change of ^, or the 
latter be a different root, I shall not venture to decide. At 
all events the Malay languages have also some claim to be 
reckoned amongst those 

Languages which have a nasal in the first , and a dental 
tenuis in the second. Such are 

In America: 

I. Huasteca nana 4' tata Hhou'. 

11. Meadcan nehuatl tehuatl 

ni ti (before the verb). 

III. Poconchi in at 


In Asia: 
lY, Jukagir matak T tat > thou'. 
V. The KoRJAK-FAMiLY, compare 

I thou we you 

Kofjak gomma gyttsche muyo tuyo 

Kamshadalian kymma kyse buse (?) suse 

Tshuktshian giin gyr muri turi. 

(It is clear that in the singular a particle ky, goy is pre- 
fixed. By stripping this off, we get the bases m and t^ 
which are confirmed by the plural forms. The latter is 
softened down in some of the forms to feA, and ultimately 
to «, r.) 

The evidence now brought before the reader will — I think 
— be sufficient to establish the following conclusions: 

1. There is a remarkable family likeness between most 
languages in the formation of the two first pronouns. 

2. This likeness is however of such a nature that it does 
not necessitate, but rather excludes, the assumption of the 
historical unity of all these languages; whilst 

3. It affords a strong proof of the psychological unity of 

It ought not to be concealed that there are languages 
which present pronouns of the first and second persons not 
in accordance with any of the above classes. But we must 
not overrate the difficulty which their dissenting voice creates, 
because it is not at all unlikely, that many of the most 
glaring contradictions to the common systems would vanish, 
if we had but the power of discriminating between what 
are really old personal pronouns and those which are mere 
substitutes of civility, — such as Monsieur in French, which 
often enough approaches to the real pronoun vom. Besides, 
a good many euphonic changes may have impaired the origi- 
nal forms which would come under our knowledge if we 
had older documents or kindred languages ready for com- 
parison. Thus for instance the Dhimal, a dialect of the 
Lohitic branch of the Botiya class, offers Aa for I, and na 
for thou, which seems contrary to all the rules laid down, 


but if we compare only a few of the languages nearest of 
kin, as Mikir na^ Burmese nga^ we see at once, that the 
original nasal has passed by degrees through n, 7?^, into k. 
Similar euphonic changes may have occurred where from 
want of information they escape our knowledge. I consider 
therefore the main result of the previous survey of human 
speech safely established. 

Before we proceed further, we have yet to see how far 
those languages which interest us most of all, namely the 
Finno-Tartaric, Semitic, and Indogerman, are in accordance 
with the laws just discovered. 

What is usually called the Finno-Tartarian family of lan- 
guages, are rather five families, the right of which to be 
considered of kindred origin is not yet fully established, — 
at least, so great an authority as Boethlingk stoutly con- 
troverts the current opinion on that subject. I deem it 
therefore safest to treat separately each of the five families. 
They are: 

I. The TungvMan including the Mandshu. In this latter 
we have bi, I, gen. mini, plur. be, gen. meni, in which we 
clearly perceive the usual m changed into 6 in the nomina- 
tive (as in Greek pQorog, when compared with Sansk, mrta). 
Besides there is an inclusive plural mu-^se. — In the second 
person we have m, gen. sini, plur. me, gen. aueni. The s 
is probably a euphonic change of t (compare the termina- 
tion of the second person present in Tungusian proper, which 
is ndi), an assumption which would be certain if the re- 
lationship of the Tungusian with Finnish and Mongolian was 
more firmly established. 

n. The Mongolian. Bi, I, min-u, of me, na-da (u and 
da are case-particles), to me. 'Thou' is tsi, plural ta. It 
is clear, that the sibilant in the singular is only developed 
by the influence of the i out of the pure dental tenuis re- 
tained unimpaired in the plural. — Bi is of course for mi, 
and the n in the dative is equally put for m. 

in. The Turkish. Ben, I, biz, we, in the Ottoman, are 
for m£n, miz, at least the possessive affixes are m, my, 
mmz, our, and some Tartarian dialects actually give us men 


for 'P. With regard to the second person sen^ thou, siz^ 
we, it is probable that their ^ is a softened ^, and for 
'probable' we should say 'certain', if the affinity of the 
Turkish with the other so called Finno-Tartarian languages 
was established beyond doubt. 

IV. The Samoyedtc presents most clearly m in the first 
person; t in the second. Compare 

I thou 

Ostjak man tan 

Tawgyan mannang tannang 

Kamaasian man than 

Jeniasei motfi totfi. 

V. The Finnish. Here also m and f, the two charac- 
teristics, stand out in full relief. Compare 

I thou we you 

Finnish proper mina sina me te 

Lappic mon ton miye, mi tiye, ti 

Syrjdnic me te mi ti 

Hungarian en te mi ti. 

The sind of the Suomi itself is of course a softened form 
caused by the following i (compare Suomi wa, father, with 
Hungarian atya) , but the t is retained in the plural and the 
verbal termination, as ole-t^ thou art, rakasta-t, thou lovest. 
In Hungarian we have the m of the first person in the plural, 
and also in the possessive suffixes and verbal terminations 
of the singular, as hala-m^ my fish, Idto-m^ I see (it). Ac- 
cording to analogy we should expect in the isolated form a 
singular mi; the 4n which we find instead is very puzzling, 
not on account of its w, which might easily have been sub- 
stituted for m, but on account of the long vowel at the be- 
ginning, as no cognate language knows of any similar form, 
—except perhaps the Vogul, in, which, according to Klap- 
roth, they say am for 1. — 

To sum up, it has been shown, that the five families 
generally called by one name, the Finno-Tartarian, all 
present m as the characteristic of the first person, while 
for the second we find t distinctly in three of them, and 


even the remaining two have 5, apparently a euphonic al- 
teration of the same letter. 

In turning to the Semitic family, I must remark that this 
family stands in a decided relationship with the Coptic, the 
Berber, the Saho — Galla (these two latter languages being 
members of the same family) , and perhaps even with some 
other African families of speech. The form of these three 
sister-families, as I would call them, of the Semitic proper, 
do not fail to throw considerable light on the Semitic itself, 
in this as well as in other matters. In all these languages 
there is at first sight a considerable difference between the 
isolated pronouns and the possessive affixes , the latter being 
the more simple of the two. The suffixed pronouns of the 
second person are: 

Semitic f^mJic 
proper yHebrew 

From this, there would result a k as the characteristic of 
the second person, but the Egyptian forms seem to authorize 
a belief, that either there was another base t^ or else that one 
of the two is a euphonic change of the other. The latter 
seems to be the more likely. At all events both the verbal 
terminations or prefixes and the isolated pronouns of all 
these languages show decidedly a f- sound as the character 
of this person. 

Compare the terminations of the so called Semitic Perfect 

sing. msc. 

fem. plur. 

msc. fem. 





- (ti, i) 




kun kunt 



kum kunna 



kem ken 

Mn^r. 2. msc. 



2. msc. 


Arabic ta 




Hebrew ta 




with the isolated pronouns 

Arabic an-ta 




Hebrew at-ta 




Compare however the accusative suffix Aftam, thee (f). 


Here we find t most decidedly as the character of the 
second person, the difference between the terminations and 
the isolated pronouns consisting merely in the latter having 
the syllable an prefixed, the n of which is assimilated in 
Hebrew. In Egyptian and Coptic we have 

2* 8ing. masc. fern. pL comm. 

Egyptian ento-k ento ento-ten 

Coptic entho-k entho entho-ten 

The k in sing. msc. and the ten in the pi. are clearly the 
pronominal suffixes, and en is the prefix corresponding to 
the Arabian an. Thus there remains TO as tiie really sig- 
nificant part of the word. The prefix en^ or rather an^ 
which is not sufficiently clear in the Semitic proper, finds 
its explanation in the Coptic. For there an is the pronoun 
indefinite, which is however used as a sort of article before 
some words, to give them a more substantial, or rather 
substantive, character; as an C (X is the Greek numeral) 'a 
seven, a week'. Sometimes it seems to impart a collective 
character, as tou^ a mountain, an-tou^ oqsivtJ. Again, it 
takes the form en in shaahi^ bitter, en-shasM^ something 
bitter, bitterness. — 

While we recognize easily in the Semitic and its cognate 
languages a T (or k) as the character of the second person, 
the question, what may be the proper characteristic of the 
first, is fraught with considerable difficulty. The isolated 
pronouns are: 

Semitic proper 











anokhi, ani 



. nakni 
affixes are 



na;f-nu anajnii 

Semitic proper 

Coptic Berber Galla Arabic Hebrew 

(my) i yu ko i i 

(our) n nagh keia na nu 

It is clear, that we have in the isolated forms the prefix 
an just mentioned, and the final i in the singular, the final 


m, nu in the plural are probably nothing but the possessive 
suffixes superadded, as in the case of the Egyptian second 
person mentioned above. Thus we would retain the syllable 
AK^ OK as the true characteristic of the first person, and 
must assume that in those forms where the K is apparently 
wanting, it has been lost. In the suffixed pronouns how- 
ever only the Galla shows a A, while all the others have 
1, y in the singular, n in the plural. It is impossible to 
explain the latter as an alteration of A, and it would be 
equally impossible to maintain that the m, nu were shortened 
forms of the isolated pronouns, because, as we have seen, 
the latter themselves suppose the preexistence of such a 
suffix-form. Thus we are evidently driven to the conclusion, 
that N was, at least legitimately and originally, the charac- 
teristic, or one of the characteristics, of the first person 
plural. Now there is in addition one instance at least of 
the same in the singular: — namely, both in Hebrew and 
Arabic the accusative suffix meaning 'me' is (notz, but) ni. 
Therefore finally, though not without some hesitation, I 
set down the Semitic and its cognate tongues amongst those 
languages 'which present the nasal in the first, and T in 
the second, person'. 

Comes lastly our own Indogerman family. Here we must 
look, not to the nominative but to the accusative, in order 
to find the common type again. And on doing so it ap- 
pears clearly enough in: 

Samkr, Greek Latin Gothic Slavonic Lithtuinian 
(me) ma-m fic me mi-k m§ ^^^1/-^ f s 

(thee) tva-m tb, ae te thu-k t§ tav ^^ ' 

However, on more minute enquiry, some difficulties present 
themselves. First, we have in the nom. of the first person 
clearly a different series in Sanskr. aham^ Greek iyoi, Goth. 
ik^ &c. which necessitate the supposition of an original 
agham; secondly, from the Sanskrit it is clear, that the base 
of the second person is not properly speaking ta^ but tva^ 
and this is also borne out by the nominative form of all 


the other dialects: Gr. tov, zv, gv, Lat., Lith. tu^ Slav. 
ty^ Goth, thu; the u of which is evidently a contraction of 
VA^ as shown by the Sanskr. nom. tvam. A still greater 
difficulty arises from the circumstance, that both the Jlf and 
T are only found in the singular. There are indeed in the 
first person plural and dual, forms beginning with « (Skr. 
fui9^ us, wdw, us two, Gr. vwi, Lai no5, SI. «y, us, &c.), 
and sometimes even vi (Lith. mes^ we, = Slav, my) , but they 
are rather exceptions than the rule, and not totally free 
from the suspicion of having originated from erroneous ana- 
logy. In the second person moreover, there is scarcely a 
trace of a e in the dual and plural, unless it be in the 
Greek a^wi, and Welsh chtvi^ which both imply an original 
initial SV^ that might possibly stand for TV. 

I know that several attempts have been made to show 
that not only the bases employed by the Indogermans in 
the plural and dual, but even the nominative singular of 
the first person, descend from the same roots MA and TVA^ 
but I confess that I lack the desperate courage needed for 
such identifications, and, whatever truth or untruth may be 
in these jeux d'esprit, one thing is obtain, that even be- 
fore the separation of the tribes, the nominative singular 
of the first, and the plural and dual of both the first and 
second, presented the same want of harmony with the rest 
of the forms , as for instance they do in the actual Sanskrit 
historically known. What this disharmony arose from, and 
whether it actually was developed out of original unison, it 
is impossible to say, but nevertheless we can affirm, that 
iti a still older period M was the only characteristic of the 
first, and T (not TV) the only sign of the second. This 
I derive from the personal terminations of the verb, which 
are in the present 

1. sing. 

2. s. 












(oi), g 
















In the first persoii the M is apparent, and so is the T 
of the second in the dual and plural. The si of the singu- 
lar is no doubt a euphonic alteration, while the Skr. d/u^ 
6r. ^i in the imperative, presents another form of the dental 
in that person. The second sing, of the reduplicated pre- 
terite has rained the original sound, Skr. -tha^ GotL -t, 
Lat. (is-)fo', for the th of the Sanskrit is here, as nearly al- 
ways, very modem. 

Thus we discern two different periods in the prehistorical 
Indogermaa times; first, a period when M and T were the 
chaiacteristics of the two persons , secondly, a period when 
Qie former became restricted to the oblique cases of the 
singular, while the latter in its new shape TVA was also 
confined to the singular, extending however its dominion 
to the nominative. This second period had been gone through 
before our ancestors separated. In the historical times the 
difference of sit^ular and plural, and of the nominative ^P 
as opposed to the oblique case me, is, upon the whole, 
preserved, but here and there we observe a tendency to 
come back to the pre-|Miinitive — if I may say so — ^simplicity. 
This tendency to increase tie domain of the M and T 
has three different modes of appearance, namely first: the 
M enters the nominative case. This we have in some of the 
English dialects which replace 1 hy me, in the m&i of the 
French, in the men of the New-Persian, which is tibe only 
form in that language, and even from the oldest times his- 
torieatty known in the me of the Old Irish and the other 
Keltic languages. As it is very likely that the Etruscan 
is one of the Indog^rman family, the mi of that language 
is probably the oldest instance of the M usurping the no- 
minative in an Indogerman language. Secondly we ^nd the 
m of ^ Jint person extended to the plural. This we have 
in some German and Norse dialects (^mer, max for wir is 
common about Thuringia, mer is also sometimes used in 
Old Norse), ia the New-Iranian languages almost throughout 
(^we is in New-Persian md, Armenian m£q, Ossetian max), 
and in modern Greek (julg. I am awaie, that in most of 
these languages there are euphoaic laws at wori^, which 




may partly explain the origin of those forms, but I think 
that the above-proven tendency towards uniformity goes for 
something. It is very true, for instance, that the Romaic 
liieig is rifielg shortened in the same way as vd for SVor, 
d€v for oidav, but I think the apheresis was favoured at 
least by the circumstance that they got by it the wished 
for oneness of sound. — The third phase of this retrograde 
movement towards simplicity we have, when the dental of 
the second is introduced into the plural. This is the case 
partly already in the Old Norse, where p-id, both of you, 
j&-e7', you, are almost the only forms ever used, though the 
cognate Swedish and Danish retain the form without a dental 
even to this very day. On the Faero-islands they introduce 
the dental even into the oblique cases, and say tiur^ you 
(nom.), tiara ^ of you, tiun^ to you. — Da for 4hr' is used 
in some of the middle parts of Germany, aeig is in Romaic 
the legitimate plural of av, and in Armenian we have du-q, 
you, corresponding to du^ thou. Furthest however in this 
tendency of simplifying the complicate variety of the old 
Indogerman languages go the modem dialects of Hindustan. 
For instance, in Bengali we have: 

I we thou you 

Pronouns of equality ami amra tumi tdmara 

Pronouns of inferiority or 
— ^in the second person — 
of superiority mui m6ra tui t6ra. 

Thus the Bengali has completed the circular movement, 
and ultimately come back to the simple state which we 
have reason to suppose that our common Indogerman an- 
cestors once started from. — 

To sum up shortly, we have up to this point seen, that 
similar phonetical principles are observable in the formation 
of the two first pronouns, as well in the Indogerman, the 
Semitic, and the Finno-Tartaric languages, as in other families 
of speech, thus confirming the inward unity of all mankind, 
though not at all attesting community of origin. 

There remains now the more difficult enquiry, by what 
psychological process these words are developed. 


Part II. 

In a mere metaphysical point of view there seems to exist 
a vast gulph between the Me, the individual consciousness, 
on the one hand, and the A, the outward world of objects, 
on the other. If language reflected this bipartition cherished 
by a good many philosophers, we should expect to meet 
at the best with a pronoun of the first, and a pronoun of 
the third, person. However language, — following therein 
the example of nature, or rather a law of existence accord- 
ing to which the individual mind enters into possession of 
its own self only through the contact of, and in conamunity 
with, other individual minds, — language introduces between 
the Me and the far oif situated It or That an intermediate 
link, a pronoun which is both me and not me^ in short, 
the word Thou. It is not my intention to dive at present 
into all the depths which are contained in this little word, 
(a subject which W. v. Humboldt has fully developed in his 
essay on the dual number) , on the contrary , I content my- 
self with the indisputable assertion, that whatever the actual 
nature of the Thou may be, it cannot be overlooked, that 
in a mere abstract metaphysical point of view, it is but one 
of the many cases of non-ego, and that therefore it is not 
altogether unreasonable to expect, that language should treat 
it as such, in other words that the pronoun of the second 
person should somehow be a variety — strongly marked in- 
deed by individual characteristics — of the pronoun of the 
third person. If we now turn to the real languages to see 
how far they justify such an expectation, it is first worthy 
of being remarked , that in only one single language have 
I found a form for thou which may be clearly analysed to 
mean, and even in the present historical state of society 
must be felt by the speakers to mean, Hhy it', tuum illud. 
This is the Jurako-Samojedic pudar, which is a compound 
o{ puda, he, she, it, and r/ the suffixed pronoun of the 
second person singular. But not only does the said Ian- 


guage in this respect diifer fi-om its nearest of kin, the 
other Samojedic dialects, but even this very pudar Hhy it' 
would be impossible without the previous existence of the 
suffix of the second person r. Even here then the sub- 
sumption of the second person under the third ts, to say 
the least, incomplete, if not altogetiier delusive. 

Nevertheless on earnest search we remark in several of 
those families of languages the records of which are before 
us nearly complete, an indisputable similarity of form in 
the pronoun of the second person and certain pronouns of 
the thirds or (as for the future I shall call them) demon- 
stratives. That I am justified in substituting the latter de- 
nomination for the former, will — I hope — scarcely be denied 
by any one who is acquainted with any of the more ancient 
forms of Indo-European speech, the mere knowledge of the 
way in which the Latin uses isj illey iste, bedng amply suf- 
ficient to establish the identity of the demonstrative and the 
so called pronoun of the third person. The similarity of 
form between the second person and the demonstrative is 
evident in the following families of languages : 

1) Indogerman. It has been shown, that the tva, — 
which is in all the Indogerman languages historically known 
the base of the second person, and was so already b^ore 
the scission of languages, — that this tva must nevertheless 
have been in a still more early period ta. Ta again is the 
well known base of the Skr. torn, eum, Gr. xovy Slav. «w, 
lith. t2ij Goth. tJiana^ O.H.G. den^ &c. Thus the identity 
of form is complete. 

2) Semitic family, together with its sister-families. In 
these we have seen before the base of the second person is 
either tha (tho) or to, to which the syllable an, Egyptian 
on, en, is prefixed (above, p. 48). The same tha^ ta, with 
the same prefix en is apparent in Egyptian en-to-f, he, en- 
to-Sy she, Koptic entho-f, entho-s, plur. entho-u, they, where 
the /, 8y u are the possessive affixes of the same persons. 
Compare also the Koptic ti, taiy hie, illic. The Berber has 
natta, he, natta-fy she, nufnij ii, nufantiy eae, in which the 
same prefix willi the vowel inverted (na, nu) is easily recog- 


nized, leaving as the base ia^ €aK In the suffixed pronouns 
the Berber has preserved the ^- sound in the accusative form 
(-f, him, -#, her, -^n^ them), while it is changed into « 
in the dative forms -«, him, her, -«aw, aviolg, -sant^ avvalg. 
The same change into s has evidently taken place in the 
Egyptian suffixes -«, her, hers, -«^», their (the latter re- 
placed by u in Koptic, that is, by the mere termination of 
the plural occupying the place of the lost suffix). — The f, th 
as the elementary sound of the pronoun of the third person 
seems at first entirely wanting in the Semitic proper, but 
if we remember the essential identity of the pronoun ^'he' 
with the demonstrative bases, we shall not hesitate to re- 
cognize it in the common pronoun demonstrative, Arabic 
dd^ or fa, hie, dt or fe, haec, Chaldean den^ hie, dd^ haec, 
Hebrew zek^ fem. zot^ compare also the Arabic fawwa, hie, 
hoc loco = Chald. tdm^ Hebr. sham. — The conmion forms 
of the pronoun of the third person in Semitic proper begin 
always with A, and so do the suffixes, only in Assyrian we 
find a sh (according to Oppert, according to others it is s) 
at the beginning of the suffixes -«Aw, his, -«Arf, hers, shun^ 
eorum, sAm, earum. Whether this sibilant may be con- 
sidered as an intermediate stage between the ^, th^ of the 
Egyptian and Berber, and the common Semitic A, I will 
not venture to decide, because this euphonic change of s 
into A is very rare, if at all known, in this family, but 
the existence of a demonstrative base tfa, fa, nearly iden- 
tical in form with the base of the second person even in 
Semitic proper, is established. 

3) In the Finnish languages we again found t as the charac- 
teristic of the second person, and the ^ as a demonstrative 
base is sufficiently indicated by the Finnish #mo, ille = Estonian 
to, Mordvinian te^ hie, tona^ ille, Lapponian tat^ ille, pi. 
toA, Tsheremissian to, hie. In this family there is also a 
demonstrative base S, which most frequently furnishes the 
pronoun of the third person properly so called, Tsheremissian 

^ The t* at the end of tlie fem. sing., tlie ti at the end of the fem. 
plur. are the characteristios of that gender. 
' cT represents nearly the English th in the. 


w, he = Mordv., Lappon. «an, which becomes hdn in Saomi, 
the 8 being very often liable to (Ms change in that language. 
Whether this S be originally only a modification of the jT, 
others may decide. For our present purpose, the fact that 
t is here also the characteristic of both the second person 
and the demonstrative, is sufficiently established. 

4) The Samojedic. As to the ^ in the second person, 
see above. The demonstrative t we have in Jurakian tuky^ 
hie, tiky^ iste, taJcy^ ille, in which Gastrin considers ky a 
particle. Add the Ostiakian tarriy tau^ tap^ hie, to^ iste, 
Kamassian di, is, du, hie. In Ostiakian also 'he' is fg?, 
top, in Kamassian du^ di, 

6) Mongolian. The t of the second person finds an 
echo in, or rather is the echo of, the demonstrative of the 
Buriatian dialect tere^ ille, where re must be a suffix, as 
it is cast off in the plural te-de^ the de being the plural 

6) How far we were right in ascribing a ^ as the original 
character of the second person to the Mandshu language, 
depends in a manner on the general view we take regard- 
ing the relationship of this family to the other Finno- 
Tartarian languages; a question not to be decided in this 
place. Assuming however that we have done right in claim- 
ing the said character of the second person for it, we may 
further remark, that in this language tshe (for tye, tef) 
means 'they', and that the Tungusian proper shows the t- 
sound most clearly in its suffix of the third person plural 
-fon. — 

7) The certainty of the t as the characteristic of the second 
personal pronoun in the Tdrkish languages depends on the 
previous settlement of the same question which we raised 
concerning the Mandshu. The demonstrative t seems to make 
its appearance in the demonstrative tdgiK 

To sum up, — the base of the pronoun of the second person 
is identical with a demonstrative base, or nearly so, in 
Indogerman, Semitic and its sister-dialects , Finnish, Samo- 

^ Haying no Tarkish grammar at hand, I repeat here Gastren's state- 
ment in his Samoyedic grammar. 


yedic, Mongolian and perhaps Mandshu and Turkish. I for- 
bear to extend the enquiry over other families of languages, 
for the simple reason that the difficulty attending it forbids 
a single man to enter into labours affording ample scope 
for, and necessitating the aid of, a great many scholars, 
but which would never come to an end were I to do it 
all alone. Thus then the question arises, whether the 
identity of form between thou and that^ du and daa^ can 
possibly be the result of mere chance, and as this can 
scarcely be admitted, the similarity becoming only more 
striking the farther we go back to antiquity, the more care- 
fully we analyze the facts, what must we think of this ap- 
parently undeniable identity? 

It is now time to introduce the interesting and truly phi- 
losophical remarks put forth by W. v. Humboldt in his essay 
'Ueber den Zusanmienhang der Ortsadverbia mit den Per- 
sonalpronominibus '. The main substance of this essay is 
the proposition: ^^Some lanffuagea have constituted a relation 
between the notion of space and the pronominal notions''^ 

Such are, first, the Tonga. In this language mei signifies 
the motion towards the speaker, atu the motion from the 
speaker to the person spoken to, lastly angi from the speaker 
to a person at present not spoken to. Now these three ad- 
verbs are very often put, while the pronouns or verbs are 
left out Especially the verb Ho give' is almost invariably 
suppressed, nay seems to have been lost altogether. Thus 
they say: 

mei ia giate au = hither this to me = give me this, 

teu atu ia giate coy = shall I thither this to thee = I shall 
give you this. 

In these examples the pronouns (aw, I, coy^ thou) are 
preserved, but tiiey may be dispensed with in such sen- 
tences, as: 

bea behe mei he tunga fafine = when spoke hither the 
several women = when several women spoke to me or us; 
tola Ho tell', tola mei Ho tell hither' th. i. me or tcs^ tola 
ew *to tell thither' th. i, tJiee or you. 

Secondly, Old Chinese. In this language wai means 'thou', 


but according to Neumann it indicates originally a relation 
in space. The same scholar adduces places, in which nai 
really means 411e% as nat yan 'illud verbum', ned tong 
Mike him'. 

Thirdly. In Japanese the words kono^ sono^ ano = kore^ 
sore, are, mean hie, iste, ille, and konata^ sonata, aimta 
are the corresponding answers to the question where? that 
is, they mean: here, there (istic), yonder, respectively. But 
the two first are raised to the signification *from my, thy, side, 
as to me, thee'. Sonata originally Mstic' has become 
quite a pronoun of the second 'thou', and at present is 
strictly diflFerent from its etymon sono 'iste'; konata 'here' 
seems to be employed as a pronoun of the first person only 
in the limited sense 'as to me', and is used besides as a 
pronoun of the second person addressed to superiors. 

Fourthly. In Armenian there is a suffix *, which origi- 
nally means 'this' or 'here', but takes the meaning of / 
and my. Thus^^am-^, I am here, or I am now, and AaiV-«, 
this father, the father here, I a fether, my father. 

Thus far the resume of Humboldt's paper, which amply 
shows, that demonstrative adverbs like there ^ here, may be- 
come the substitutes of the pronouns tkme and /. — One thiog 
is remarkable in this excellent essay, namely, that Hum- 
boldt while bringing forward out of the storehouse of his 
immense learning examples taken from the most remote lan- 
guages, should have overlooked an instance of the same 
mode of speaking which might have been had almost at 
home; I mean the Italian ci and m substituted for 'us' and 
'you' in the accusative case, though or because they origi- 
nally mean 'here' and 'there'. 

"But" — I hear already some sagacious reader ask — "what 
have we to do with aU these Humboldtian remarks h«re? 
Let it be true, that words meaning there may be used for 
'thou', but will that justify the supposition, that the mere 
pronoun 'iste, ille' can be also used for 'thou'? There is 
a vast difference between a pronoun demonstrative and a 
demonstrative adverb.''' Here I must remark that I by no 
means meant to say, that the pronoun 'this' or 'that' might 


give rise to ^ttioa% but only, that tbe demonstrative base 
became at once tbe base of tbe pronoun of tbe second person, 
wbieh is vastly different too. For the stage of speech here 
brought under consideration lies so far backward in the 
development of the mind that we are carried by it into a 
time when there were only roots. Any step further de- 
pends therefore on the preliminary condition that we should 
view the nature of a root in the right light First of all, 
in a more highly developed state of language such as is 
presented by Sanskrit, Greek or Latin, the root is nothing 
but the complex of sounds, from which according to gram- 
matical laws a number of words originate, but it is no 
word itself. Hence it is neither noun nor verb, though 
both are developed out of it. K I take the words yQafta, 
yQajii^a, yQoqievg , yQanzog, y{faq>ix(ag^ — being verbs, sub- 
stantives, adjectives, adverbs, — they may be compared to 
the different parts of a plant rising as branches into the 
air, stretching as roots into the ground, quivering as leaves 
in the wind, shining as blossoms in the sun, while the 
radix yQa(p is only — if I may so — ^the point of indiiference 
between them, that which is neither branch nor root nor 
flower, nor fruit nor leaf, but the spring of life in all of 
them^ This power of life spread in the fully developed 
ta'ee all over its diflFerent parts is contained beifore the de- 
velopment begins in the small compass of the germ , and 
to this phase of vegetable existence the so called radix may 
be compared in those languages which like the Chinese are 
devoid of grammatical forms, and wherever else the gram- 
matical forms are ifet to come. This applies especially to 
the way in which children use language when they begin 
to speak. Then, every word of theirs is a root, or rather 
a germ, which in time may become a family of words branch- 
ing off into nouns and verbs &c. ; but as yet it is nothing 
of all thai If a child says *pa, ma' it is only our adult 
reason — misled by our own way of speaking — which starts 
the question, whether that be a noun or verb. It is neither. 

1 It may be seen from this that the grammatical expression 'root' is 
unfortunately gronncled 09 an Inadequate simile. 


Pa is every thing which the father does, is, and has, a 
teeming conception brimful still of the original riches of 
overwhelming sensations. Moreover, if the power of desire 
is uppermost in the infant soul, then 'pa' is not only every 
thing which the father does and is , but also every thing he 
is wanted to do or to become. It requires some degree of 
intellectual labour to realize in a manner this psychological 
state and a good deal of skill to describe it, and I doubt 
myself whether I have succeeded in the attempt at doing 
so. However, unless we get some faint idea of it, the 
problem of what a root or the germ of a family of words 
is, must remain a mystery for ever. 

If we now come to demonstrative roots, it is clear, that 
they also must be considered in that undeveloped state as 
the gei^m of all sorts of pronominal forms, adjective, sub- 
stantive, adverbial, not as the reality of one peculiar class of 
them. The correctness of this view is borne out by the fact, that 
in languages that are totally foreign to our highly organized 
grammatical system, the pronouns have changing powers, 
which, though they excite astonishment, and even a sort of 
dismay, in the souls of Indogerman grammarians, are per- 
fectly natural in their stage of development. Thus the more 
attentive of my readers have no doubt already remarked, 
that the Chinese nai (as given above in the passage re- 
ferring to Humboldt's essay) means 'ille, illius, illic' that 
is, is at once a possessive, a substantive, and an adverbial 
pronoun. Another interesting feature of the demonstratives 
in their germlike state is examplified by Threlkeld's gram- 
mar of the languages of Australia. There we hear of an 
'absolute pronoun ta, it is. Not merely declarative, but 
'absolute. It is derived (?) from the verb substantive, verb as- 
'sertive'. [Rather: it is also the verb substantive.] Again, 
when mentioning its plural form ia-ra, he says: 'ta-ra, they 
'are, the things, the plural of 'it is', these, those'. These 
are startling and shocking facts for our Indogerman ears. 
But still more startling is it, that in the Negro-English the 
actual Indogerman forms are employed in a manner ap- 
proachitig nearly to the queer description which Threlkeld 


gives of the corresponding Australian demonstrative. Namely, 
the English there becomes in Negro-English de, which be- 
sides the sense o£ the English word has also the meaning of 
the substantive verb as: m rf^ 'I am', literally 4 there', 
na hoBo, at home, de na hoso 'he is at home'. Again, that 
becomes da, but with a slightly altered pronunciation we 
get da^ which takes the place of the verb substantive, as 
mi da joe brara = me there you[r] brother = I am your 
brother *. 

From all this we may learn that the original demonstrative 
is neither a substantive nor an adverb, but all of this, and 
even a verb; or rather, that it is a whole embryonic sen- 
tence, which according to circumstances may be diflFerently 
translated into our fully developed language. The child 
sees an object and says ta!—\ do not insist of course on 
this very sound being invariably produced — ; we may 
translate this by 'there (it is)' or 'that it is', or 'carry me 
thither'' or 'give me it\ and by a variety of expressions 
besides, but the truth is, that every one of these inter- 
pretations is wrong, because it replaces the teeming full- 
ness of the infantine word by a clearer but less rich ex- 
pression of our more abstract language. Yet if a choice 
between the different translations must be made, I trust 
that few of my readers wiU refuse me their consent when 
saying: Hhere^ the adverb is by far the most adequate. 

So much then for the nature of the original demonstrative, 
which we see is such, that the difficulty of its being turned 
into a pronoun of the second person without the previous 
formation of an adverb of place, — that this difficulty vanishes, 
because the original demonstrative partakes itself of the 
nature of a local adverb. 

Consequently, as the historical facts forcibly pointed to 
the formal identity of the pronoun of the second person 

* Traces of a use of the demonstrative similar to the one described 
in the text, we have even in Indogerman languages. For instance, the 
German dat when accompanying the act of giving, and the Greek t^ 
(Sophron used even the plural i^r*) resemble somewhat the Negro mode 
of speaking. 


with a demonstratiYe, we may venture to eonsid^ fids idei- 
titj as established, and therefore say, that the Thou is really 
developed out of the ^It or There\ 

Bat Humboldt's remarks as given above carry ns still 
farther. For from tiiem it resulted, that ^V also was in 
several languages expressed by a demonstrative adverb, <»igi- 
nally meaning ^here\ and consequently we may expeet, 
that the pronoun ^I, me' may have a similar origin to that 
of ^thee, thou', a view which is supported by the phonetical 
similarity of the two first pronouns observable in so many 
languages, as shown before. At present however I am able 
to give something like a proof of this supposition only for 
the Indo-European languages. Leaving the two bases of 
the nom. sing, and plural out ^ the account, the pronominal 
fonois of the first person in our family are reducible to three 
main bases: 1) MA^ the base of all the cases of Ihe sin- 
gular, except the nominative, — and which in a pre-primitive 
time even extended over the plural, as the verbal termina- 
tions show (s. p. 50). 2) NA in several of the dual and 
plural forms (Skr. na», nauy Lai nos etc.). 3) ^ in all 
the oblique cases of the plural, where it is however always 
compound with SMAf thus givuig rise to A8MA (Sander. 
amndfij Gn iiftfie, a^ifnv). AU of these three are also de- 
monstrative bases: MA is found as such in the Sanskr. com- 
pound iansL-^ ^hic', not used in the nominaixve , and isolated 
in tiie (jbreek (iiv. NA is found in the Greek viv and in 
a good many compounds ^eh as Sanskr. cma-^ whence 
catena ^by him' ^ LitL aii(a>, Slav, cnii^ and Sanskr. ena 
= Old Lat omoi i. e. unuis, Goth, ame &e. Lastly, ^4 is a 
well known and nearly fully deeliued demonstrative ba^ 
in Sanskrit, of which several forms almost coincide with 
tiie pronoun 'we'; thus a-smd-t 'ab eo' and a-^sma-t 'a 
nobis' are only different in the quantity of the last vowel 
sound ^ 

^ It ifi curious, that MA^ NA, A are at the same time also the bases 
of the negations (comp. Skr. md = Or./£.f, Skr. na *not' = Greek rn—- 
Lftt. n— Goth. n%, aad the ]»rivative « of both Greek and Sanskrit). This 
is again nothing but another development of their original demoBs^fttiTe 


Thus W6 come to the result, that, out of the original de- 
monstratiyes, a base poiuting more to the distance has been 
taken to signify the pronoun of the second, while another base 
referring to a spot near at hand has acquired tho power of I. 
(This distinction of nearness and distance entirely rests I 
must confess on Humboldt's essay. It would be impossible 
to show with our present means, that in Indogerman for 
instance tiie demonstrative base to, which has given rise to 
the pronoun Hhou', points more to distance than the other 
bases MA^ NA, A.) 

I could conclude with this, but before doing so, I shall 
make myself my own critic, an office which I have exer- 
cised here and there even in the body of the Paper. 

I refer the two first pronouns to demonstrative bases, but 
it might be Justly said, that although I have spoken a good 
deal about tiie characteristic nature of the demonstratives, 
I have not explained their origin. To this I might answer, 
tha4; such at present was not the subject of my enquiry, but 
I prefer to declare that in the main I agree with Schwartze, 
who says on p. 339 of his Coptic grammar with regard to 
the original demonstrative: "Every object is to the child 
-a living palpjdble thing. When it canned reach anywhere 
with its hand) then instinctively it utters a cry, in order to 
cause to approach that which has awakened its interest 
I add, — when the soul becoming aware of this cry issuing 
forth from its own interior, takes it up as a sign for the 
indefinite outward reality which is the object of its desire, 
and shapes it into an articulate sound, then we have a 
pronoun demonstrative in the sense explained above. 

Secondly it may be said , that the view taken here of the 
two first pronouns is materialistic, in as much a^ they are 
supposed to be nothing but demonstratives, by which the 
spiritual nature of Me and Thou could not be expressed. 
To this I answer, that I do not mean to say that / and 
Thou are not materially different from the outward world 
of That and There y but simply, that when the mental de- 
force of peinting to some object distant in space and conseqiiently re- 
moved from the thoughts of the Me, 


velopment has reached the point where the conscioasness 
of a person (a Thou), and of the individual mind's own 
personality (the Me) is aroused, then the matter for shap- 
ing the requisite words is taken from the great storehouse 
of the Here and There y of the demonstratives. Why the 
mind ever should come to the feeling of personality, either 
another person's or its own, this, the deepest of all psycho- 
logical and metaphysical mysteries, remains of course un- 
solved by the above observations. — 

Lastly, it will have been remarked that I always put the 
primitive historical state of language in parallelism with the 
state in which we meet with language in the mouth of in- 
fants. I wish it to be understood that I do so, not from 
any confusion of ideas, but on principle, because I hold 
that the last difficulties attending the question of the cre- 
ation of language can <m/y, and only^ be elucidated by 
psychological enquiries to be made at present, since the 
present repeated creation of language by children differs 
only in so far from the primitive one, that the first manu- 
facturers of language had to do both, to go through the 
psychological development, and to invent, or rather to 
shape, the articulate sounds, while our children find the 
latter ready coined, the moment their mind has entered 
such or such a state of development in which a certain 
word or class of words is requisite. But this does not con- 
stitute any material difference. 

In order therefore to throw further light on the matter 
of the development of the two first pronouns out of demon- 
stratives, new psychological observations are very much 
needed; especially it would be of paramount importance to 
learn, whether children begin first to use the word ifvou 
(you) or /, or whether the two make their appearance at 
the same time. The second supposition seems very im- 
probable , the third — I presume — will be found in accordance 
with the facts. At least Humboldt's essay tended to show 
that there is always a reciprocity between the Me and Thm^ 
the one emerging from the Here^ the other from the Th^e. 

P.S. Since I finished this Paper, I have found another 
language fully in accordance with the views developed in it, 
which at the same time furnishes a striking instance how 
much the real character of the personal pronouns may be 
obscured by peculiarities of granmiatical structure, so that 
it requires nothing less than a thorough acquaintance with 
the anatomy of the language concerned, in order to ex- 
tricate the true characteristic out of its veils and encum- 
brances. He who hears for the first time that in Greenlandish 
uvanga means T, and ivdlit 'thou ', will probably think this 
language a glaring exception to all the rules laid down in this 
Paper. And such was my impression too. However, from 
Kleinschmidt's Greenlandish grammar, it appears that the 
Greenlandish chimes in with these very rules most beauti- 


Namely -^a, my, -t, thy, are in Greenlandish the pos- 
sessive suffixes of nouns, as igdlu-ga, my house, igdlur-ty 
thy house. Here we have t in the second person ; and that 
ga in the first is developed out of a nasal appears from the 
fact that in the verb the objective suffix of the first person 
is invariably tiga (= me). It will further be seen by any 
one who takes the trouble of examining carefully all the 
various forms of the Greenlandish suffixes in the singular, 
dual, plural, subjective, objective, possessive, — that, through- 
out the whole, G, NG, is the unmistakeable characteristic 
of the first, and T (sometimes it seems changed into S) 
of the second. 

But what then of the queer forms of the isolated pro- 
nouns? This mystery has been solved with much skill by 
Kleinschmidt himself. The forms are as follows: 

wa-nga, I ivdli-t, thou 

uta-guk, both of us ili-vUky both of you (ft denotes the dual) 

uva^gui, we ili^vsej you (I denotes the plural) 

Now t, vtikf vse are the conmion possessive affixes of the 
second person singular, dual, plural, and nga^ gvky gut 
the common accusative affixes of the first person added to 
verbs. I agree with Kleinschmidt that the latter three are 
probably here somewhat irregularly used as possessives. It 


is dear then that the real personal character is only in these 
suffixes, and that the remaining bases UVA and ILE are 
merely employed for the purpose of giYing them a snpport, 
since tiie Greenlandish is ayerse to the separate nse of pro* 
nominal bases and always wants to affix them to something. 
Kleinschmidt's further assumption, that the said two bases 
UVAy ILE J are identical with the two demonstratiye roots 
UYy here, IK (IV) ^ yonder, is highly probable as to the 
latter, and as to the former I consider it certain. Conse- 
quently the learned missionary is right in saying that uwrnga^ 
wdlit mean originally ^^meine hierheit, deine dortheit", 
'*my here-ness, thy there*ness*'. 

It is already remarkable that in these Greenlandish ab- 
solute personal pronouns we should again trace a connection 
between me and here^ thee and there ^ but still more rem^k- 
able is it, that the NG^ T, the characteristics of the first 
and second person find an echo in, or are the echo of, 
two pronominal bases simply demonstratiye. Namely on 
p. 21 of Kleinschmidt's grammar we find a demonstratiye 
root MA J here, and another TASSy there. Besides there 
is an enclitic demonstratiye base ta^ which may be prefixed^ 
to all the other demonstratiye bases, except Tdss^ and which 
I— because of this yery exception— consider withKleinschmidt 
as the original root of that same tdsa. Hence it would ap- 
pear that exactly as the root MA 'here' is to TA 'there', 
so is NG^ the root of the first person, to T, the root of 
the second; or, according to my yiew, the two latter are 
the two former transformed into personal pronouns by the 
process described in my Paper. 


TERS. By Contributors to the Society's proposed 
Dictionary. (Reported by Herbert Coleridge, Esq., 
Secretary to the Dictionary Committee.) 

In April 1859 a paper containing queries respecting ety- 
mologies and several difficult passages from Early English 
books was circulated among members of the Society and 
the contributors to the Dictionary, and conjectures in answer 
were invited. The present paper contains so much of the 
results of this appeal as the Dictionary Committee consider 
sufficiently valuable and sufficiently certain to be worth 

1. Therne. 

Sholde ic ^eve a fol a therne ^ 

Engelond! thou sho it yerne. Hayelok, 298. 

The meaning of therne^ which Sir F. Madden has left un- 
explained in his Glossary, was asked. — The Earl is deliber- 
ating whether he shall restore the kingdom to its rightful 

Most correspondents considered it a metathesis of 'throne'. 
The Rev. R. F. Littledale, however, Mr. Wedgwood, and 
M. Metivier, agree in thinking that it means 'a girl' (0. 
Sax. ihema) , and this appears to me clearly to be the true 
view. The word occurs again under the form *thome* in 
the Avowyng of Arthur, st. 23: 

"Thus they turnut to the Tome, 
W^ith the thrivand thorne'\ 

i. e. the lady whom Sir Menealf was leading with him, and 
whom Sir Kay vainly attempts to rescue. The editor of 
the Romance in his glossary absurdly explains 'thome' as 
a 'thombush'. 

Under the form tai^e (or tha7'ne in Bodl. MS.) we find the 
word in Robert of Brunne's translation of the Manuel des 
Pecches (Harl.MS.1701,fol.4:9,col.2) with the gloss 'wenche': 

On seuene manets shal y shewe 

Bxm kdierye fma ys a s3u:ow«« 



Pe fyrst ys 'fomycacyoun, 

Whan two onweddyde hane mysdoun, 

As sengle knaue and sengle tame. 

The construction of our passage will then be: ^ Shall I 
give a girl, a fool, England, though she desire it'. 

2. Spale. 

Ho (the Owl) qnath, Thu hattest ni^tingale, 

Thu mi^test bet hoten galegale, 

VoT thu havest to monie tale. 

Lat thine tunge habb^ spale! 

Thu wenest that thes dai both ino)e; 

Lat me nu habbe mine throve. 

Owl & Nightingale, 255-260. 

The Nightingale, it should be stated, has abeady talked 
more than two pages of small print, and the Owl is en- 
deavouring to put a stop to her apparentiy interminable 
harangue. The difficulty in the passage is occasioned by 
the word 'spale'. Two interpretations seem probable, viz. 

1. Relaxation — Germ, spiel, or 

2. 'A spell' or 'turn' of rest. 

My own impression is in favour of the second of these 
suggestions, which is derived from the Anglo-Saxon speUan^ 
spelufiff. The first however is almost equally probable; 
weavers are said to be 'at play', where there is no work 
going on. 

3. Misrempe. 

And )ef the thincth that ich misrempe^ 
Thu stond a^ein, and dome crempe. 

Owl <fe Nightingale, 1785-6. 
Misrempe is probably derived from the O.N. remba, to 
strive. The meaning seems to be: "If you think I strive in 
argument or plead falsely, oppose me, and cramp (i. e. 
check or arrest) the judgment". 

4. Stare. 

Whi nolden hii be war? 
Ther nis non a^eyn stare; 
Whi nolden hy hem bythenche? 

Wright's Political Songs (Camden Society), p. 217. 
For stare Mr. Ludlow's suggestion appears to me the best, 


viz. that it is a substantive == ^to^^, so that the line 
would simply mean: 'There is no again-stayer or opponent'. 
Mr. Davies thinks it may be derived from Germ, atarren^ 
to bar, and translates the passage: 'There is none to bar 
against, i. e. to oppose or shut out'. 

5. Graueth or grauith. 

Al that gren me graueth grene, 
Nou hit faleweth al by-dene. 

Wright's Lyric Poetry (Percy Society), p. 61. 
pat werip grouer and groy, and schrud so schene. 
Whan erp makip is liverei, he grautp us in grene. 

Rel. Ant. ii. p. 217. 

Most contributors have agreed that graueth signifies 'garbs, 
clothes'. There was possibly an Anglo-Saxon verb gereafan 
from r^4/'= clothing, although it does not appear in the 
Dictionary, and this may have become contracted into 'graveth' 
or 'graueth'. Only one contributor however has grappled 
with the difficulty of the first passage. M. Metivier most 
ingeniously suggests that 'me' may stand for, or be an error 
for, 'May', so that the sense would be: 

AU that green May arrays in green 

Now presently withers <fec. 

This is exactly the sense required by the context, and 
I have little doubt of its correctness. Compare ma in No. 7 

He Yowed to God omnipotent 

All the hale lands of Ross to have, 

Or ells be graithed in his grate. Battle of Harlow. 


Fi a debles kailesy that kemith the woUe, 

Al y« schindes of y« tronn (sic MS.) a heij upon $ur senile. 

Rel. Ant. ii. p. 176. 
Kaites =: women who card wool. 

The tronn is the weighing machine. The passage is spoken 
as an imprecation. 

M. Metivier and the Rev. E. Gillett think, as I do, that 
'the schindes of the tronn' are the tiles of the Tronn-house, 
where the public weighing-machine or 'tronn' was kept. 
Mr. Gillett writes: 


**Sehindes, 1 suspect, are the slabs of oolitic slate (so caUed) used 
for roofing — such as the Stonesfield and Colley Weston slates. Thef are 
called ^ Shindies^ at Bampton. The Trons were public weighing plaoes 
probably like the projecting weighing beams from high buildings seen in 
old towns now." 

Another explanation is however proposed by the Rev^" 
J. Eastwood and J. Davies, who think that the ^sckindes'' 
are the loose flakes or hairs of wool that fly off from the 
tops or tofts during the process of combing, or which stick 
to the scales or 'tronns' during the process of weighing. 
The objection to this is, that it renders the force of the 
imprecation simply nil. 

The Rev. J. T. Toye has favoured me with an extract 
from Anderson's Hist, of Commerce relative to these Trones, 
which is of sufficient interest to be inserted entire. He 
thinks that ^schindes' are shins. 

"Dr. Brady, in his treatise on Burghs, gives a charter of KingEdw. 3., 
in the year 1332 — for adjusting disputes — between Great Yarmouth and 
Little Yarmouth — concerning the right of lading and unlading of goods 
dto. He thereby directs "that ships, laden with wool, leather, and skins, 
upon which the great custom is due, shall clear out from that port where 
our Beam and the seal called Cocket remain, and no where else". — [Ubi 
thronus noster et sigillum nostrum, quod dicitur Coket, existunt, et non 
alibi carcentur.] 

This same king's Beam for weighing of merchandise , called Thronus 
or Tronus — stood usually in the most public place of the town or poift: 
in some places especially northward, it is to this day in English named 
the Trone. Yet this was not established by Act of Pari* till the year 
1429 when it was enacted that every City and -Town should establish 
a common balance and sealed weights, according to the standard of the 
Exchequer, to be in the keeping of the Chief Magistrate: and at this 
balance all the inhabitants were to weigh without any expense, but 
strangers not without paying for it. They have also, or not long since 
had, in some parts of Scotland, a difference of weight between troy- 
weight and trone-weight or certain goods, the latter being the largest 
weight.'- Anderson's History of Commerce. 4*. 1787. V. i. ]>. 299. 

The Tron Church in Edinburgh is so called from its proilmity to the 
weighing machine." 

7. MoRfiK, Ma, Schrggen, Suet. 

Knyth and scoyer bathe sal deye. 
That other moren hiyond ma. 


Thottche they b6 nerer bo sleaohe, 
Wyt tchrogen suet fra lives ga. 

Ritfloii*d Ancient Songs , vol. i. p. 46. 

I think with Ritson and Ptofessor Maiden that *tnoi*en' 
ift simply a lengthened form of 'motn% and that *ma' is 
the month of May. 'Horin' for ^hom' occurs lat^r in the 
piece. The meaning is: 'Knight and Squire both shall did 
on, That other morning after May' when the battle was to 
come ojQP. In a former stanza, the speaker says: 

And i?atn em irel, wytonten nay^ 

A tyme bifdr the Ji-inite, 
Thare sal deye, on ay day, 

A folke on feld ful fa sal flee. 

These data would fix the anticipated time of the batQe to 
the early part of June. 

Sohragen met. I give some of the various conjectures 
upon these words: 

'Schiogend suet' = with frightened suit, Germ, erschroohen. 

J. M. Ludlow. 
* Seared fat' i. e. shrivelled leanness, from the Saxon *schroien*, in 
the dialect of Osnaburg schroggen — to sear, scorch or wither. 

Rey. J. l)aties. 

My own opinion is that ^schrogen' is a stibst. meaning 
'shrieks' or perhaps as Sir F. Madden suggested to me 
'blows'; and I take 'suet' (which is obviously a mono- 
syllable and must be read as if spelt 'swet') to be another 
form of 'squet' or 'sket' = quickly, an adverb which occurs 
in Havelok and Kyng Alysaunder, and is derived from the 
O.N. skfoU. 'Sleeche' is 'sly', O.N. ^te^r— and the mean- 
ing of the two lines will be: 

Though they be nerer so sly 

(They shall) go from life quickly with shrieks. 

1 cannot believe that 'suet' is our 'suet'— the old form 
of that word as appears by two Vocabularies of tiie 15**^ 
century printed by Mr. Wright, was 'sewe'. 

8. Kaylewey. 
If I neede hadde, Matrimoyne I may nyme 
A moiste fruyt withalle, 'ThanAe contineiiee is t€et the ttop 


As kayUwey bastard, Thanne bereth the crop kynde frayt, 
And clennest of alle, Maidenhode aungeles peeris, &c. 

Piers Ploughman's VisioD, p. 334, 1.10937-10942. 

There can be very little doubt but that this is the French 
'caiMouel\ a sweet but very gritty pear. The Rev. J. T. 
Toye quotes the following passage from Chaucer's Romaunt 
of the Rose, v. 7043-9: 

With tartes or with cheffis fat, 

With deinte flaunes, brode and flat, 

With caleweis or with pullaile, 

With conynges or with fine Titaile, 

That we under our clothis wide 

Tmaken through our golet glide. 


Thanne Pacience perceyved Of pointes of this cote, 

That were colomy thorugh coveitise And unkynde desiryng. 

Piers Ploughman's Vision, vv. 8737-8740. 

I take this word to be the same as 'colmie' in Kyng 
Horn, i. e. black, foul, dirty. Compare Ir. 'calmar'' for 
the cuttle fish. 'Colly' is the later form, and 'culm' is 
still in use as a term for a peculiar kind of coal. 'Becol- 
mede' vb. == blackened, also occurs in Kyng Horn. 

10. PiSSERIS. 

Proude preestes coome with hym Mo than a thousand 
In paltokes and pyked shoes, And pisteris longe knyves. 

Piers Ploughman's Vision, vv. 143G0- 14363. 

The Rev. J. Davies writes: 'Is not this frompwfor, baker? 
In one of the Vocabularies published by Mr. Mayer, pistour 
is used for baker, and bakers, we know, use long knives 
both for cutting dough and bread.' The Old French jnacher^ 
a fisherman, was also suggested. 

Custard. From the Welsh cawa^ cheese, and t<yrth^ a 
loaf; — Gaelic and Irish tort^ a cake, a small loaf. Hence a 
custard would mean 'a cake of curds'. Our English 'cheese- 
cake' may possibly be derived from this primary sense of 
the word caws or cheese. The Welsh have the word cawstart^ 
but whether it is derived from the English word or not, I 
am unable to say. Rev. J^ Davies. 


Dowlas. Dutch dweU^ towel, and las^ a piece, accord- 
ing to the Rev. J. Davies. The Rev. E. Gillett cites Phillips's 
World of Worlds, to shew that Dowlas is so called, because 
it is made at 'Dourleus', a town of Picardy in France. He 
compares 'Drugget' from 'Drogheda'. The Rev. J. T. Toye 
has shewn that the word was in use long before Shakspere's 
time. The title of the Statute 21, Hen. Vffl, c. 14 (1529) is: 

"Of i?hat length and breadth every whole piece and half piece of 
dowlas and lockeram, brought into this realm, shall be." 

Corbel. Most of my correspondents , as the Rev^" J. T. 
Toye, J. Davies, A. Taylor &c., consider that this word is 
derived from the Fr. cof^beille, Lat. corbis, and has nothing 
to do with a raven at all. A corbel^ according to Webster, 
means in architecture : 

1. The representation of a basket somewhere set on 

the caryatides. 

2. The vase or tambour of the Corinthian column, so 

called from its resemblance to a basket. 
But the same authority gives another sense to the word, 
viz. * A short piece of timber in a wall jutting 6 or 8 inches 
out, like a shoulder-piece' — and with this Weale and filoxam 
in their architectural works substantiaDy agree. Weale says 
the under side is generally carved into an ogee curve. Hence 
the Rev. S. Cheetham argues strenuously in favour of the 
Raven-theory, and gives the following precis of the various 
meanings of xoQa^, xaQtivrj, xoQcovig, and corvus^ which 
may be worth transcribing: 

xoQa^ — an instrument of naval warfare, much like a 'bill', 
a curved door-handle or knocker, 
a cock's bill, Hesych. 
xoQtoytf — the curved tip of a bow, 
the curved stem of a ship, 
the curved tip of a ploughbeam. 
xogtayfg — a curved line or flourish with the pen , 

a cornice. 
corcua — a bill hook or grapnel, 
a battering ram, 
a surgeon's scalpel. 

The demand for an explanation of the word tritese in Piers 


Ploughman, and for the derivation of the word Carp0iy gave 
rise to the two foDowing Papers by Mr. Wedgwood. 

No satisfactory explanation was given of the phrase *t6 
take a thing in dudge(m\ of the origins of the words di- 
mure and /un, or of trobUa and treimsea in the following 

Hail be ^e, suUers, wip )oiir mud Idstes 

Wip ^our blote hides, of selcup bestis, 

And tvUes and Imstisec, bocherampe and alles. 

Rel. Ant. ii. p. 1 76. 

By Hekslbigh Wedgwood, Esq. 

Trttsae^ trudge. 

Lyere-^^afl noivher irelcome, For his tttanye tales^ 
Oyer al y-honted, And y-hote trus$e. 

Piers Ploughman's Vision, w. 1316-1319. 

The natural expression of rejection and cont^odipt is tike 
act of spitting out something offensive from the mouth, 
whence tiie Lat. reapuere^ to spit back, then to reject, re* 
fuse, contemn. ^CaBsaris interdicta respuuntur^ are spumed^ 
— Andrews. And the same metaphor is found in the most 
uncultiyated languages. Galla. ^/a, to spit, also to despise 
or scorn— Tutschek. An imitation of the sound of spitting 
is then used as an expression of disgust or dislike, and 
when adapted into grammatical language becomes an inter- 
jection of disgust, contempt, repudiation, defiance. 

'The men commenced talking to them, but occasionally interrupted 
their speeches by spitting and uttering a noise like pooh I pooh! ap- 
parently expressive of their disgust'. Leichardt's Australia p. 189. 

Such doubtiess is tiie origin of the interjections Pooh! 
Pshaw! Pish! and their analogues in other languages. Puh! 
Puh! interjection of one who perceives something disgusting 
(sente cosa stomachevole) — Patriarchi. 

Even without actual spitting, a forcible ejection of air 
tiirough the lips is used as a sign of contempt. ^To blurt 

ftnr BHRNftttoOH WEDGWOOD, ISSQ. 75 

at iii scorn or mockery'— Florio. 'Blurt, pish, fai, oibo' 
— Torriano. Then as a sneeze exhibits in an exaggerated 
degree the whiff of air which is the expression of dislike, 
to sneeze at a thing is to treat it with contempt. Now the 
sound of sneezings is imitated in Hnngarian by the syllables 
piru88Zy priUsz^ tr&eaz, tussz^ from whence verbs signifying 
to sneeze are formed by the addition of the nsual verbal 
terminations, and it is remarkable that we have forms of 
the interjection of scorn corresponding to each of the fore- 
going imitations 9 ptroti pmti Germ, trotz! Fr. truti E. 
tot! tosh! 

1. JF^ro^— skomefol word— Pr. Pm. Tproty an exclamation 
of contempt— Halliwell. 

Tprot! Scot, for thy strife 

Hang tip thine hatchet and thy knik. Political Songs. 

2. Prut — Icel. prutta, poppismmn edere, to click to a 
horse. 0. E. prut! an exclamation of contempt. 

And setteth hym ry)t at the lefte 

And seyth, prut! for thy cnrsyng, preste. 

R. Brunne's Manuel des Pecches in Hal. 

Hence O.E. pnite, proud, pride, ^jidprutteny to hold up 
the head with pride and disdain — Hal.; equivalents to the 
Germ, protzen, prutzen, to shew one's ill will by a surly 
silence ; ^ote«^, insolent, snappish — Kiittner. 

3. Parallel with Hung, triissz may be ranged Fr. true, the 
popping or sound of the lips whereby we encourage a horse ; 
trucheter, to sneeze — Cotgr.; Lap. trusset, to sneeze (of 
beasts); Esthon. troskama, to snort, to sneeze (of horses); 
It. truscare, to blurt or pop with one's mouth, truscio di 
labbra , a blurting or popping with one's lips or tongue to 
encourage a horse— Florio. Fr. trut! an interjection im- 
porting indignation, tush, tut, fy manl — Cotgr. G. trotz, 
ttatz, ti'utz, an interjection of contempt or defiance — Grimm. 
'Si sprach tratz' in the same sense with * said prut!' in the 
foregoing quotation. 'Jatrutzl wer tar kiissen mich', Tut! 
who dares kiss me. Hence trotz, defiance, scorn, arrogance, 
as 0. E. fruU, pride, from pfi^! 


4. Parallel with Hung, tussz are the Lai tumre, to cough; 
W. tiaio^ to sneeze; and the interjections tush! tut! 

Now the utterance of expressions of disgust and scorn, 
when the object of those feelings is in a dependant position, 
is naturally interpreted as an injunction to begone from the 
presence of his incensed superior , and thus the interjections 
by which such feelings are expressed, become the roots of 
verbs signifying to send away, to begone. 

From the form prut! seems to have arisen the Icel. brutt^ 
brott^ away, whence Swed. bdrt^ away, hence; bdrt! away 
for shame I bdrt med er! get you gone! kdra bdrt en^ to send 
one packing. — Widegren. 

The same kind of action of the lips is represented in 
French by the syDables trut, truc^ of which the former is 
used interjectionally in the sense of begone! Trut avant! 
a fig's end, on afore for shame — Cotgr. From true is formed 
the It. truccare^ to scud, to trudge or pack away nimbly 
— Florio. Ti^cca ma! be off with you. The Venetian trozare, 
to send one away, has probably a similar origin. 

The E. trudge is exactly the shape in which we should 
dress the G. trotz or Dan. trods when imported into our 
language, while in sense it is the precise equivalent of the 
It. truccare. 

This tale once told none other speech prevayled 
But, pitch and trudge! all leysure was to long. 

Qascoigne in Richardson. 

And let them trudge hence apace till they come to their mayster of 
myschief. Bale in D^. 

The primary force of the word is an injunction to begone, 
and it is then used for going steadily along as if under 
external compulsion. 

The same line of developement is seen in the Gael. trus. 
Truis! a word by which dogs are silenced or driven away 
— Macleod. Tru^ a mach, or true ort (mach = out; ort 
= upon thee), begone! get away! TVus, reprimand, go to, 
repair to. — Shaw. 

The expression in our text, to hete* true, may thus be re- 
garded as the logical equivalent of the G. trotz bieten^ dif-^ 


fering only in the circumstances in which it is applied, be- 
ing addressed in E. to an inferior whom it has the effect 
of driving from our presence, while in G. it is addressed 
to persons on a par with ourselves, and thus takes the 
sense of defiance. 

The term may be illustrated by the foDowing quotations 
from Chaucer: 

Thin help quoth Beryn, lewd fole thou art more than masid, 
Dress thee to the shippisward with thy crown yrasid, 
For I might never spare thee bet, irus! and be agoo. Beryn 2269. 
The gentil pardoner for all tyme of the nyght 
He was aredy in his aray and had nothing to doon 
Saffe shake alite his eris and trus! and begone. 

Pardoner and Tapster. 

Doubtless in passages like the foregoing a perfectly satis- 
factory sense would be obtained from Gael, trus, E.^truss, 
a bundle, as we tell a person to pack off, to bundle out 
when we mean to get rid of him in the most unceremonious 
manner; but the weight of analogy is greatly in favour of 
the word being used as an interjection expressive in the 
first instance simply of the displeasure of the speaker, the 
discharge of which upon the head of the intruder is inti- 
mated in the Gaelic exclamation by the union with art, 
upon thee. Out upon thee! Fie upon thee! 

My own belief is that the derivation lies in the opposite 
direction. When once the interjection of dislike and defiance 
was understood as an injunction to begone, the sense might 
easily be transferred to the inmaediate preparations for a 
hasty departure, tucking up one's clothes, snatching up one's 
goods, which are the primary import of the Fr. trousser 
and our tncss, turse. 

WORD CARPET. By Hensleigh Wedgwood, Esq. 

The answers of the Rev. R. F. Littledale and M. Metiviev 
to our Dictionary Committee's query respecting the deriva- 


tion of Carpet famish a clue to a completely satisfactory 
explanation of that word. 

From Lat caipere^ to pluck (^carpere^ wolle zeysen— 
Dief. Sup.), were formed Mid, Lat carpia^ carpitaj linteum 
carptum quod vulneribus inditur, Fr. charpie^ lint. The term 
seems also to have been applied with equal propriety to 
flocks of wool used for stuffing mattrasses, or loose ^ a 
couch without the confinement of sacking, 'CarpUam habeat 
in lecto qui sacco, culcitra toI coopertorio carebit'. — Reg. 
Templariorum in Due. 

We next find the word in the sense of any fabric stuffed 
with flocks, a patchwork table cover with a lining of coarse 
cloth — La Crusca; or the cloak of the Carmelites made of 
like materials; a woman's petticoat, properly doubtless a 
quilted petticoat. 'Carpeta^ gonna, gonneUa' — Patriarchi. 
Venet Diet. ' Quilibet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit, 
carpetam (a quilt?), linteamen' — Stat. Eq. Teuton in Due. 
In other parts of Europe the signification is transferred from 
the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking 
which contained them. Carpete^ coarse loose fabric of wool 
and hemp, packing cloth. 'Une tapisserie d'carpete^ des 
rideaux d' carp^te' — H6cart. Diet. Rouchi. 

LEiGH Wedgwood, Esq. 

The tendency of linguistic inquiry has of late been to 
shew that closely resembling forms of speech may arise 
among the most distant branches of the human family from 
the principles of our common nature. A list of between 
two and three hundred dialects is given in a late volume 
of the Proceedings of the Society ^ in which the appellations 

^ Translation of Prof. BacK^lunana's Paper , yoL yi. p. 197-204. 


of father and mother are formed from a repetition of the 
syllables ba^ ma^ or of traceable modifications of those sounds ; 
and still later Dr. Lottner has shewn nearly as wide spread 
a tendency to express the pronoun of the first person by 
the syllable mi or m. But in all these cases it must be 
borne in mind that when once a word of the foregoing 
description has been produced in consequence of its natural 
adaptation to express the thing signified, the inherent fitn^s 
of the word may keep it in use in a recognisable condition 
for any length of time, and thus, if we suppose the separa^ 
tion of the families of man to have taken place at a period 
subsequent to the developement of language, it will be an 
open question whether these cosmopolitan forms of speech 
may not be genuine relics of the earliest attempts at language. 
In a late paper I gave some instances of agreement be- 
tween the Zulu Caffre and different European languages 
which seemed interesting on either supposition, and I now 
add a short list of instances of a similar kind which occurred 
in looking over Tutschek's valuable vocabulary of the Galla 
language. Some of them may of course be merely accidental 

Galla afu/uy to blow, to blow on a musical instrument. 

Hung, fuvni^ to blow, fuvola, a flute. Sc. fuf^ to 

blow. E. puf, fife. 
Galla imay little. E. tiny, 
Galla tuja^ to spit, vomit; to despise, scorn. E. tuff^ to 

spit or hiss as a cat.— HaUiwell. 
Galla damfa^ to boil. Germ, dampf^ steam. 
Galla cufd^ to cough, clear the throat, belch. E. cough. 

Germ, koppen, to belch. 

Many of the direct representations of sound are marked 
in Galla by mkon with the verbs goda, to make, or ^feda^ 
to say. Thus from dj^m, m imitation of tibe sound of 
smacking the lips, are formed djcm^jeda^ or djam-djam-goday 
to say c^'am, to make djam-djam^ corresponding to the Hung. 
cM,mc8ogniy Icel. kiamsa^ and £. champ ^ to move the jaws 
with a smacking sound. 


Galla ftVr- or trrr-goda^ to chirp. E. chirt — ^HalliwelL 
Galla bUbilaj bell, clock; bUM-goda^ to make bilhU^ to 
sound, ring a bell, glitter, beam, glister. Icel. biaUa^ 
a belL £. bell; peal, a ringing sound. Fin. pilli, a 
A similar transference of signification from phenomena of 
hearing to those of sight is shewn in Fin. kSid, ringing, 
glittering, kUistdd, tinnitum clarum moveo, splendorem cla- 
rum reflecto. — RenvaL 

Galla hora, to be gray, thick, troubled, to dawn; bora, 
grvLj, turbid, dirty; boru, morning, tomorrow. Borun 
demadi, it dawns, literally, tiie gray becomes red,- 
And now, like lobster boiled, the mom 
From gray to red began to turn. 

Muratori informs us that tiie ItaL buio, dark, was once 
buro, as it is still pronounced by the Bolognese and others. 
Fr. bureau, the colour of a brown sheep. ' Yestimenta unius 
colons esse jubemus, y. g. alba, nigra vel etiam bureUa\ 
Laws of the Templars in Mur. 

Russ. buruii, brown, burja, storm, tempest, and perhaps 
the Lat. Boreas, the dark north wind, may be referred to 
the same root. It. bora, mud. 

In the sense of the morning we have W. boi*e, boreu, the 
dawn, the morning, boreuo, to dawn, the fundamental mean- 
ing of which is probably truly explained by the Galla word. 
We speak in English of the grey of the morning for early 
morning. In like manner we may connect the Germ, mor- 
gen, E. morrow with murk, darkness, Bohem. mrak, dark- 
ness, twilight, dawning, usually applied to evening instead 
of morning twilight; mracno, a storm, dark cloud; mracny, 
cloudy, dark, thick. 

Galla kashakashtu, talker, babbler, calumniator. 
Malay kata-kata, discourse, talk; kata, to speak, a word. 
Pol. gadur-gadu, tittle-tattle; gadac, to talk. 
E. to chat, chatter; It. gazzolare, to chirp, to chatter. 
Galla cab'djeda (to say cab), to clap, crash; caba, to seize, 
apprehend, understand, to'told, keep, have, possess. 
Lat. capere, to take; Turk, kapnak, to seize, to snatch; 


kabiz^ who seizes; kabza^ the handle of a sword &c. 
Galla kabado, that which a person holds, the handle 
of instruments. Galla caba, so much as a man can 
take in the hand, a handful. Turk, kab^ kap^ any con- 
taining vessel. 

Galla dyel-caba^ literaUy to seize beneath (rfy^/ = under), to 
undertake, to begin. 
The fundamental idea is clapping the hand down upon a 

thing, the sound of a clap being represented in GaUa, as 

above indicated, by the syllable cah, 

Galla catchiza^ to crack with a whip, to smack in eating; 
catchamza^ to snap, to snatch (said of dogs); catchi^ a 
whip. Dutch kaetsBy a smack, slap, blow; kaetsen^ to 
strike a ball. £. to catch. 

It. cacciare^ to throw with violence. Norman, cache^ Rouchi 
cachmre^ the lash or cracking part of a whip. Dutch 
kletse^ a crack with a whip; kletsoore, ketsoore^ a whip. 

Fr. chaasoire^ a carter's whip. 

Galla korriza^ to snore, grumble, growl, be morose. 

Fin. kurista (G. knurren), voce strepo stridente, inde mur- 
muro, aegre fero, rhoncho ut pectus; Icel. io/va, to 
rattle in the throat; kurra^ to murmur, grumble. 

GaUa koka^ to boil, to cook, to quack as a frog. Doubt- 
less from an imitation of the sound of water boiling. 
Fin. kuohua^ kuohata^ to bubble, boil, swell; kuohina^ 
the boiling as of a cataract or of the waves. 

Esthon. kohJiisenia, rauschen, brausen. 

Galla kakiza^ to cackle. 

Galla kuta^ to cut oflF, carve, cut in pieces. Turk, kattet^ 
to cut. 

Galla krokoda (from an unused root kroka or krokoa — Tut- 
schek), to be or become crooked. 

Galla koba, to scarify, to cup, a cupping glass, but by the 
Gallas it is made of horn. 
We are apt to suppose that the designation of this opera- 
tion arises from the use of a cup in drawing the blood, 

but it may be explained from a diflferent source. 
The Fin. kuppa is a bubble of water, a boil, pustule, 



sweUing; kuppatay to cap or scarify, from the inflated 

portion of the skin in which the incision is made. It is 

remarkable too that the Fins as the Gallas nse a horn for 

drawing the blood, which they term kuppi-^arm, literally 

a cupping horn. 

Galla lakdy to count Fin. luku, number; lukea^ to count. 

Galla lata^ to sprout, to germinate; latu, shoot, sprout 
Gael, slat^ a rod, twig, switch. W. Uath, a rod. Fr. 
latte^ a rod, a lath. 

Galla lablaba^ to make a speech; lafc^a^ to backbite (pro- 
perly to tattle). W. llafoTu^ to speak. 

Galla randa^ edge, border, brink. G. rand^ edge. 

Galla rogoma^ to tremble, be afraid. Icel. ragr^ timid. 

Galla zukzuga^ to trot Lat succussare^ to trot, to give a 
succession of shocks. 

Galla hura^ to rush, rustle, roar; huf^, noise, rustling, 
bustle; hurza, to make noise, to snore, to haste. 

Icel. hun^a^ to crunch as snow under the sledge. Sw. hurra^ 
to whirr, and thence to make a thing whirr, to whiri 
it round. £. hurry ^ to do a thing with noise, to haste. 

SOUTH SEA ISLANDS. (Communicated by Herbert 
Coleridge, Esq.) 

The following linguistic specimens of some of the dialects 
of the South Sea Islands are extracted from a larger number 
which have been transmitted to this coantry by the Rev. 
John Coleridge Patteson, who is at present engaged in mis- 
sionary labours in those regions. They consist of four 
versions of the Lords Prayer in Nengone, Mai, Gera and 
Bauro, and a short specimen of a Maori letter addressed 
to Mr. Patteson by a native, with a literal interlinear trans- 


1. Nbkoobtb (without the Doxology). 
Chechewaie* nije, ile ri awe; Mi- 
joje ko re Achekini Baa; Lengelu 
ko re Boku ni Bua; Roiona ilonelo 
ko re alaieni Bua ome ri tene thu 
cho ekhowe ne iPo re awe; Nu- 
nua X* enije ome ri rane ko re ko- 
dani me kueile; CheDgebote o re 
Dia enije, se ine ke eD^e chi chenge 
buije-bote ha na nia x' enije ; Dai 
hage lengete x' enije jew o ne tu- 
bnnide ; kore x' enije-bote wene ri 
nia. Amene. 

3. Gbba. 
Mama me eru, oni i raro, ha- 
sienia ratamu. Ramai araha Jo, 
tola ari siene Jo i mato, urihana 
toia ari siene io i raro. Dorimai 
hame eru pueni hanahana puino. 
Rokasia ni taa me eru, urihana 
eru rokasia ni mane ka hana taa 
hame em. Mano taraiia eru hana- 
hanua taa, ukumi eru mania ni 
taa, Ajraha Jo, tanora Jo^ haini 
makata Jo, raroa, raroa. Amen. 

2. Max. 
Ra matou Matua, nofo i re rangi, 
fakatapua ran ingoa; ke numai rau 
arikiwusa ; feia rau sumaria i raro, 
mata ke re na feia rau sumaria i 
re rangi ; lau mai ki a ti ki matou 
rani ma tu keina rani; yetea re 
sati i a ti ki matou, mata matou 
ma tu re yetea re tangata fefe sati 
ki a ti ki matou; se tosina matou 
ki re nea sakesake; marufutia ma- 
tou takina re sati; ran foki re ari- 
kiwusa, rau re passa, ma rau re 
marama, tau katoa, tau katoa. 

4. Bacro. 
Ja Amma men, ewa nei eni aro; 
doromaia ni atamu ; e boi ni mwai- 
raha iamua; haua ni hagoropia 
iamua nei eni ano, onaiia nihaua 
ni hagoropia i amua nei eni aro; 
Hamai diini tana meu ni mareho 
ni ngau; oi haidangi ni inoni na 
taa tana meu; oi bnniwaiia iameu 
nei eni dora taa ; tahungenia iameu 
maata bania dora taa; Mwairaha 
iamua, wetewete iamua, mana ma- 
rewa iamua, orea, orea, Amene. 

5. Maobi. 


Mahe 18, 1857. 
O friend, o the Paiteion, Aoir are you ? ihii also my word io you 
E hoa 6 te Patihana tena koe tenei ano taku kupu kia koe 
gwe $ome medicine for my companion {ttife) ihe Ulnete an 

homai tete hi rongoa motaku hoa ko te mate he 

issue greai (is) the evil of this illness, for thee the thought of 
pakarutoto kamu te kino o tenei mate mau te waka aro o 
the medicine for this illness, let be quick hither your medicine, 
te rongoa mo tenei mate kia hohoro mai to rongoa. 

By Isaac, 
=^================== Na Ihaka. 



By Ernest Adams, Ph.D. 

In a previous paper on the vernacular names of Insects 
(Trans. 1858, p. 93-107) I had briefly examined the general 
terms by which coleoptera, or Beetles, are commonly dis- 
tinguished, and had proposed to select for special consider- 
ation a few of the more conspicuous species which, either 
from their numbers, or from some striking peculiarities in 
their organization, have arrested the attention of the casual 
observer, and have been accordingly designated by numerous 

As a type of these I had selected "the shard-born beetle" 
(Geotrupes stercorarius). As a second illustration I propose 
to take that popular little favorite the "lady-bird". 

I will commence by indicating a principle that will be 
found widely pervading the popular names of those members 
of the animal creation that, either from their natural beauty, 
or from some peculiarity of habit or structure, have attracted 
in an unusual degree the favourable attention of their rustic 
admirers. Superstition, or rather religious feeling, has as- 
sociated them with the name of some guardian saint or 
protecting power in the religious systems of the day — and 
traces of this special consecration may be detected, as we 
shall have frequent occasion to observe, still lingering in 
the surviving relics of the nomenclature of those times. 

It is remarkable that the Indo-European tribes have un- 
animously dedicated the coccineUae^ or lady-birda^ either to 
the Virgin or to the supreme Being, — and have further con- 
sidered them figuratively in the light of quadrupeds or birds. 
They are frequently mentioned under the name of cowsy 
calves y lambs ^ sheep ^ hens^ chickens^ (fcc, or by the general 
term beast. I can discover no special reason or tradition 
to explain this singular unanimity of opinion, but will pro- 
ceed to iUustrate it from some of the modern European 


a) The following tenns associate the insect with the name 
of the Supreme Being. In English it is known as God- 
almighMfs-cmo; in French as Vache a Dieu^ Bete a bon Dieuy 
La petite vache du bon Dieu; in Spanish as VaquiUa de 
Dim; in German as Gottes-kuhleiny Gottes-schdjlein, Gottes- 
Idmmcheny Gottes-lamm j Unser-heiTn-huhn ^ Herr-got^s-kalb^ 
Herr-gotfa-kuhlein, He^ir-gotfa-vogel^ Herr-gotia-miicklein; in 
Dutch as onzen-lieven-Heer^s-Bes^e, 

b) In connection with the Virgin we find the following 
names. In English: Lady-birdy Lady-bug^ Lady-cow, Lady-fly. 

This Lady-fly I take from off the grass 

Whose spotted back might scarlet red surpass. (Gay.) 

Lady-clock (Yorks.) and Clock-leddie (L.Scotch). In Old 
English I find it a Cow-lady and a Cushy-cow-lady. 

A paire of buskins they did bring 

Of the cow-ladyes corall wing. (Musar. Delic. 1656.) 

In French it is Bete de la Viet^ge; in German: Marien-kdfery 
Marien-huhuy Jungfer-kaferleiriy Frauen-lmhleiny Unser-liebeii- 
frauen-kuhlein y Frauen-kdferleiny and Marien-kdlbchen ; in 
Dutch: Maria-kever; in Swedish: Jung-fru-Marias-Gull-hdna. 
In Sweden it is also known as a Nyckel-pigay and a Ldtt- 

It is singular that even in the Norse mythology this little 
creature is found associated with the goddess Freyja, the 
ancient representative of the Virgin. 

"To that love and adoration and awe, throughout the Middle Ages, 
one woman, transfigured into a divine shape, succeeded by a sort of 
natural right, and round the Virgin Mary's blessed head a halo of lovely 
tales of divine help beams with soft radiance as a crown bequeathed to 
her by the ancient Goddesses. She appears as divine mother, spinner 
and helpful virgin (eter^e tecourabh). Flowers and plants bear her name. 
In England one of our commonest and prettiest insects is still called 
after her, but which belonged to Freyja, the heathen *Lady', long be- 
fore the Western nations had learned to adore the name of the mother 
of Jesus." (Dasent's Popular Tales from the Norse, p. 50.) 

c) It is found dedicated to St. John. In German: Jo- 
hannie-Vogelein. The glow-worm is placed under the pro- 
tection of the same saint, Johannia-vmrm; and among Eng- 
lish plants we me^t with 8t. John's wort. 


d) Among the Hungarians the patron saint is St Catha- 
rine, The insect is called Fms-katay or "Catharine in the 
Grass", ixomfuss "grassy" and Kata, Catharine, or Kate. 

e) I have heard the children in Norfolk repeat a nursery 
rhyme addressed to this insect commencing with the line: 

"Bishy, Bishy, Barnie Bee." 

The last word was intelligible, but the first three were 
somewhat perplexing. I venture to suggest the following 
explanation. Various versions of the rhyme in question are 
in existence, some oral or traditional, others imprinted. 
In the Suffolk version the first word appears as Bushy \ and 
in several others as Bishop ^ a term sometimes employed 
alone to designate a lady-bird. We also find the last two 
words united in the forms Bamabee, Burnahee, Benebee, and 
Benetre, the latter manifest corruptions of the former. Bar- 
nabee is also commonly used alone to represent this insect. 
We thus obtain indications of a certain "Bishop Bamabee" 
or "Bamaby". Who is he? The feast of St. Barnabas 
falls on the 11**» of June, a period of the year when warmth 
and light and insect life are in their prime. It is possible 
that the East-Anglians may have substituted the protection 
of St Barnabas for that of the Virgin. We find his name 
as a household word in our nursery literature, and that in 
the very form required: 

Bamaby bright, Bamaby bright, 

The longest day and the shortest night. 

It appears then that this little creature is affectionately as- 
sociated in the religious feelings of the people with the 
Supreme Being, the Virgin, St. John, St. Catharine, and 
St. Barnabas, and in heathen times with Freyja. 

It is however characterized by other distinctive names. 
Some are borrowed from the season of the year at which 
it first appears or is found in the greatest profusion. Thus 
in German it is known as "little Easter calf", Oster-kdlb- 
chen^ and "little summer calf", Sommer-kdlbchen ^ "summer 

^ A ivriter in * Notes and Queries' has recently suggested that 'Bishy' 
in these lines is a corruption of the old English Bmk ye. 


child", Sommer-kind, and Sommer-kafer. — Again it is as- 
sociated in the peasant's mind with the bright sunlight in 
which it luxuriates. The Germans call them ^^ children of 
the sun", Sonnen-kinder ; "sun-beetles", Sonnen-kqfer; "sun- 
calves", Sonnen-kdlber; and "solstitial -beetles", Sannen- 
wend'kdfer. We have the name in England, "sun-beetles" 
and "sun-shiners", but it is here applied to a bright and Uvely 
little member of another family (Amara). 

Sometimes it derives its name from its form, from the 
markings of its wings, or from its colour. Hence in Ger- 
man it is the Halb^kugelr'kdferchen, or "little hemispherical 
beetle"; the Runde-blatt-kafer, and the Rundeschild-kdfer. 
In £ngland we apply the term "shield-beetles" to another 
genus (Gassida). The seven-spotted species is commonly 
known in Germany as the Sieben-^nkt. In Sussex it is 
called a Fly-golding; in Hertfordshire a Goldie^bird; in Suf- 
folk it has been pointed out to me as a golden-bug; and in 
the eastern counties it is sometimes known as a goMenrknop. 
This knop is an older form of knob, A.-Sax. cncep^ Germ. 
hu)pf. In vernacular botany the Ball -weed is known as 
cnop-wmi;^ knap-weed^ and Horse-knop. With knop compare 
bob in oak'bob &c. 

Sometimes it is known by the simple term "little cow", 
Vachette(¥x.)^ or "little calf", iK/AcAen (Germ.). In York- 
shire it is occasionally termed a Dowdy-cow. The only ex- 
planation I can suggest of Dowdy is its identity with the 
eastern-counties adjective doddy^ "small". 

The larvae are great consumers of the Aphis that infests 
the hop-plants, and in 0. English, on the authority of 
Mouffet (L. ii. c. 20), they were called J3bp-w?or/yw, and this 
is probably the explanation of another German name, the 
Blatt4au8-kdferj "the leaf-louse-beetle". In calling it the 
Rebhuhny or * partridge', the Germans detected, I presume, 
some fancied resemblance to the colour or markings of 
that bird. 

A third illustration of a beetle with many synonymes 
may be found in the common cock-chafer (Melolontha vul- 


The first element in this compound word is rather per- 
plexing. Mr. Wright in his Provincial Dictionary gives cock 
as a Lancashire word meaning "to buzz". This explanation 
may be supported by the French provincial terms Hurlon^ 
Hurlety and Hurlat (Picardy), and by the following English 
names. In Cornwall it is known as a Hum-buz^ and a 
Sptfining-drone; in Shropshire by the augmentative Blind- 
buzzart^; and in the South of England as a Dumble-dore. 

But this interpretation of the word is rendered doubtful 
by the following considerations. We find the same prefix 
in the name of the insect commonly, but erroneously, term- 
ed the 'Black-beetle', viz. the Cock-roacL The second 
element in this word is probably the Anglo-Saxon hrooc^ 
'a cricket', and, if the first is identical with the cock in 
cock-chafer, we are met by the perplexing fact that the 
cock-roach never hums or buzzes or chirps, but is a sDent 
companion of the house-cricket. 

It is therefore more probable that the word cock means 
simply a fowl. I am informed by an able French linguist 
that the origin of the French Hanneton must be sought in 
the Teutonic Hahn, a cock, and we have already seen, in 
the case of the Lady -bird, that insects are sometimes 
viewed in the light of 'chickens'. The chafer itself is 
known in Provincial German as the Schmalz-vogel or 'but- 
ter-bird', and the Grasshopper in Dutch is called 3.8prink- 
haan, or " leaping-cock ". 

From the period of its appearance it is known in Eng- 
land as a May "bug, a May-chafer, a May-beetle^ a May- 
dor, and a Midsummer-dor; in German, as a Mai-kd/er or 
Mai-wurm; and in Dutch, as a Mei-kever, 

In Somersetshire I find it represented by a word of sin- 
gular form Ocub. The explanation of this term is, I be- 
lieve, to be found in another West-country name Oak-web. 
The web is the Anglo-Saxon wibba^ 'a worm'. This name 

^ Hence it appears that the phrase "as blind as a buzzard'' refers to 
the cock-chafer and not to the bird so named. Compare the French 
^'estonrdi comme an hanneton". 


is aptly illustrated in the Hungarian language. The insect 
is there called csei-e-bogdr ^ literally the Oak-bug. 
Mouffet speaks of the chafer as a 2?(w or Tree-beeile. 

''Fowlers when they hunt for ducks bait their hook with two or three 
Dorrs or Tree-beelUi''. (L. 1. c. 21 ) 

and again, 

"We call them Dorrs in English". (Id.) 

Hence in German it is sometimes known as the ^4eaf- 
beetle" (Laub-kafer). The names Raub-kafer and Sdgen- 
blatt'kdfer may possibly refer to the ravages it commits on 
the foliage of trees. Thus in the North of England they 
are called LocusU. The German names Hecken-kdfer and 
WMen-'kafer undoubtedly refer to its haunts and food. 

In the eastern counties it is known as an Old-witch^ and 
in Norfolk I have heard it designated a Kitty-witch. I had 
suggested in a former paper that the witch represented the 
Anglo-Saxon wigga; but a comparison with the German 
Hexen-kafer and Hexen-ww^m renders this suggestion very 
doubtful. The prefix Kitty is rather perplexing; but I be- 
lieve that I detected the clue to the mystery on hearing a 
vivacious littie girl described by a Lancashire domestic as 
"a littie 8kiity-witch'\ It refers probably to the insect's 
rapid and uncertain movements. 

In the eastern counties a Kitty-witch is also "a kind of 
small crab; a species of sea-fowl; a female spectre". (Hall.) 
We find the same prefix in Kitty-wake (Larus rissa), and 
in Kitty-wren. In all of these we can trace the leading idea 
of rapid and uncertain motion. 

In the North it is called a Brown-clock with reference to 
its colour, and in German from its markings or form Kreuz- 
kdfer and Kolben-kdfei*. 

The Saxon name for the insect is Eorth-ccefer ^ probably 
with special reference to its larva, a well-known agricultural 
pest; and this is probably the explanation of one of its 
numerous German synonymes, Maulwurfs-kdfer^ the 'mouldy- 
warp' or 'mole-beetie'. 

In Sussex it is apparentiy confounded with the "shard* 


bom beetle'' and is termed a sham-hug. A similar con* 
fasion appears to exist in the provincial dialect of Lorraine, 
in which it retains the name Ecuergnot. The final ot of this 
word may be a diminutive suffix, and ecuergn is probably 
a French form of the Teutonic scet^, 'dung'. 

With regard to the Greek name ^triXoXov^t] Mr. Wcstwood 
(Mod. Classif. vol. i. p. 217) remarks: 

"The term firilat'&ri, firilolay^ri or furiXoloySri appears to haye been 
applied by the ancients to Scarabaei which flew about apple-trees, and 
Kustathius describes them as larger than a wasp/' 

If this derivation is correct it is extremely doubtful whether 
the firikolovd^rj is identical with our cock-chafer. And yet 
from a certain passage in the Clouds of Aristophanes it 
would appear that the questionable amusement of spinning 
cock-chafers was not unknown to Young Athens — 

TIfi} vvv ntQi anvtoy ilke jt^y yytufiriy aei , 
all* a;io/«Aa trjy ffgoytt^ €c lov «fpa, 
hvodiiov^ (uanfQ jtujloXoydriy ^ lov nodoi, (v. 760.) 
"Tied like a spinning-chafer by the leg." 

Perhaps the second element in the word may be from 
ollvfn, amd ^irjlolov&rj may thus mean the "apple- waster". 
In connection with this insect I will transcribe a. popular 
German rhyme for the purpose of pointing out its close 
resemblance to some lines familiar to most English children— 

Mai-kafer, fliegM 
Dein Vater ist im Krieg; 
Dein' Matter ist im (?) Hollerland ; 
Dein Haus ist abgebrannt. 

Mai-kafer, fliegM 

In this country a somewhat similar liiyme is addressed 
to the lady-bird. Of the numerous versions I have heard 
or read I will select that current in Hertfordshire — 

Goldie-bird, goldie-bird, fly away home! 

Your house is on fire, your children are gone. 

They are all burnt but one, 

Poor Molly, that sits on the marble stone. 

Another species of chafer (solstitialis) frequents the fern. 
Hence it is called the Fern-chafer, Fern-fly, Fern-web, and 


Dr. Aikin (Nat. Hist, of the Year) speaks of it as *'the 
favorite food of the Fern-owl"; and this is probably the 
insect mentioned by Halliwell as the Furze-owl^ which he 
defines ^^a cock-chafer"; compare the German Kauz-kafer, 
the "scritch-owl-beetle". 

Mouifet (Theat. of Ins. L. 1. c. 2) speaks of 
*' another notable kind of melolontka ... the middle of its back is 
beautified irith a half-moon of the same colour with its sheath-wings, for 
which reason it is elegantly called by the Latinos Equvs Lun», the 
Moon's horse. . . . Thilesins while he speaks of this among the dung- 
beetles describeth it thus in Terse — 

Some black like the scorcht Moor are seen; 

The nobler sort are decked with green, 

Whose back hath (to compare great things with small) 

A mark you may the half-moon call. 

The English calFt the Moon'i Horte.'' 

This is evidently the beautiful beetle commonly called the 
Rose-chafer^ which is also known by the names Golden- 
chafer. Green-chafer, and June-bug^ 

Another insect of this order which from the peculiarity 
of its structure has arrested the attention of casual observers 
is the common Stag-beetle (Lucanus Cervus). This name 
certainly dates back to the period of Elizabethan literature 
since it is recognized by Mouffet, who also calls the insects 
simply Stags. ''\i horned beetles they call Stags be boyled 
in wine and the arteries of the armes be anoynted , it cures 
ague." (L. i. c. 21.) The name is also recognized in the 
Hungarian language, szarvas-bogdry the 'stag-bug', a word 
evidently connected with cervus and the root ker in xegag 
and comu. In German too it is commonly Hirsch-kdfer^ 
and Hirsch-bock. 

Other synonymes occur in Mouffet, such as Hart-beetle^ 
Stag-fly^ Flging-Jly, Flying-hart^ and Flying-stag. "Guille- 
rinus", he writes, "was quite out when he placed the Fly- 
ing-stag among the Grashoppers. " (Theater of Insects L. i. 
c. 21.) 

This last synonyme is recognized by the Dutch , Vliegend 
Hart; French, Cerf -volant; and Germans, Fliegender Hirsch. 
The latter nation go still further and call it a Fliegender 


Stievy or Flyinff'bulL The comparison with the Bull appears 
again in the name Eich-ocha, or Oak-bulL 

Monffet aUudes to it again as a Harts-Itarn-beetle, a name 
illustrated by the German terms Homschrdter y Hom-kafery 
Homtlery and Gehomter Ross-kdfer (Homed-horse-beetle). 

The Germans frequently call the creature Schroter, 'nibbler' 
or 'nipper'. Hence the compounds Kneipschroter ^ Kneip- 
wurm^ Schmied-kdfer ; and this view of its character is sup- 
ported by the people of Suffolk, who call it a Nippy-dor^ 
and by those of Surrey, who describe it as a Pincher-bob. 
Compare the Dutch Schale-bi/ter. 

There is a singular tradition which associates the stag- 
beetle with lightning and thunder-storms. Hence the follow- 
ing names : Feuer-achroter^ Feuer-wurm^ Haus-brenner^ Scheu- 
nen-brennei* ^ Donner-zug^ and Donner-puppe (Thunder-bob). 

In Lancashire black beetles are commonly called Thunder- 
clocks, and an entomological friend, on asking a small na- 
tive to explain the term, was informed that "if you tread 
on them, thunder always follows". Beetles are frequently 
found crossing footpaths in warm showery weather, and, as 
many travellers do not "tread aside and let the reptile 
live", thunder may in that state of the atmosphere occa- 
sionally follow the act of crushing the insect 

In reference to its food and favorite haunts it is named 
Baum-schroter^ Uolz-achroter^ Wald-kdfer^ Wein-schroter^ 
and Reben-schmtter ^ and it is also known as a Kamm-kafer 
or 'comb-beetle', probably with reference to the serrated 
appearance of its enlarged mandibles. 

Another insect, not generally recognized as a beetle, but 
universally known and admired, is the Glotv-worm. The 
apterous females, which alone are luminous, have been 
commonly considered as worms. In Anglo-Saxon it is called 
Fon-fyr. The first syllable /on appears to be the modem 
English /o/ed, O.E. fonne^ and to bear the meaning 'foolish' 
or 'vain'. Compare ^lar^v and fiaiaing. The name is 
applied not from its befooling the spectator and leading him 
an idle chase, but from the false or ineffectual nature of 
the fire. Hence Shakspere: "pales his uneffecisual fire". 


It is the French Feufollet^ and the Dutch Dwaes-licht^ from 
dwaes , staltus. Compare the Latin IgnU fatum. The name 
glow-worm appears to date far back in the history of the 
language. It is familiar to the readers of Shakspere, who 
mentions it in two well-known passages — 

Light them at the fiery glow-womCs eyes. (Mid. Nights D. iii. 1.) 
The glow-worm shows the matin to be near 
And gins to pale his uneffectual fire. (Hamlet, 1. 5.) 

Floiio, a contemporary of Shakspere, defines the Italian 
word Lucciole as "glow-worms or glaze'Worme8'^\ It is also 
called in Old English a glow-bug^ and a gloiv-bird or gloio- 

A singular name for the insect occurs in Halliwell and 
Wright, viz. glow-bason. This same term, if it be the same, 
is employed in the western counties to indicate "a bold, 
impudent person^'. In this case glmv may possibly be the 
O.E. word meaning 'to stare', connected with ghwe^^ and 

Another O.E. name mentioned in TopselFs Four-footed 
Beasts (p. 542), and still current in the Isle of Wight, is 
glare-worm, and this again appears in O.E. as glaze-worm 
(Florio, Lilly). Another form of the word is mentioned in 
tiie "Theater of Insects" — glass-worm — which is explained 
by Mouffet as "a glistening or shining worm" (L. 1. c. 15). 
In the same writer it is called a Light-worm, and this is 
supported by the Swedish name of similar meaning, Lys- 
maik; and again a Hhine-worm, corresponding with the French 
Ver luisant and Mouch daire, — All these words, glow, glo, 
glare, glaze, glass, are related to a root which enters largely 
into the Gothic languages with the fundamental meaning 
smooth, polished, and hence shining. In German the crea- 
ture is called Glimm-vmrm, Gluh-wurm, Gleiz-wurm, and in 
Dutch glim-worm. 

In Greek it has received the descriptive names nvQolafx- 
Ttig, XafXTiYidwv and anivd^riQ, and from its luminous tail 
lafiTTovQtg, nvyoXa/iinigy and xvaolaf-inig. In Latin it is 
known as Noctiluca, Nitidula, Lucio, Luciola, and Cicin- 
dela. This last appears to be a reduplicated form of can- 


dela. It is somewhat doubtful whether some of these terms 
do not apply rather to the fire-fly than to the glow-worm. 

It has been already observed that this insect in Germany 
is dedicated to St. John under the name Johannia^vmrm^ 
and that this name is at least as old as the 16^^ century 
appears from the following passage in the ^^ Theater of 

"About Francofdrt on the main, from the time in which they do 
most frequently appear, they are called St. JohannU-Kdfer and St. Jo- 
hannit-Fliegen'\ (L. i. c. 15.) 

From the same cause they have received a similar name 
in Hungarian, Szent Jdnos' Bogara, i. e. St, John's Bug, 

Before dismissing the subject of Beetles I will mention a 
few isolated names which appear worthy of record. 

We have seen instances of beetles dedicated to saints, 
but the religious sentiment is not always developed in so 
amiable a form. In Somersetshire a certain elongated black 
member of the family of an unquestionably fotrbidding ap- 
pearance is called the DeviPs-caw, and in various counties 
the Demts'horee and DemPa-coach-horBe. In the native Irish 
it is named the Red-devil (Derrighan Dioul)^ and a highly 
interesting religious legend current among the Irish peasantry, 
which I have never seen in print, explains the mysterious 
change from red to black. The legend, as narrated by 
an Irish field-labourer to an eminent entomologist who was 
pursuing his researches in the South of Ireland, is as fol- 

After the massacre of the Innocents the infent Jesus and his parents 
were fleeing into Egypt. At the close of the day, hungry and trayel- 
wom, they begged shelter and refreshment of certain God-fearing men, 
"who were engaged in sowing corn in a way-side field. They were re- 
ceived with hoopitable kindness; and, on parting with their benefactors, 
they blessed the seeds that were being committed to the earth. During 
the night the grain started from the soil, and by morning an abundant 
crop was ripe and ready for the sickle. As the men were engaged in 
reaping, the emissaries of Herod arrived in pursuit of the fugitiyes. They 
enquired of the reapers if a party answering to the description of the 
Holy Family had passed that way. Now the godly men disdained to 
utter an untruth, and at the same time were reluctant to discover the 
track of the persecuted saints. They accordingly assured the pursuers 


that no one had passed that way since the com that they were then 
reaping was sown. The soldiers satisfied with the reply were departing, 
when the malignant insect, who, concealed beneath a stone, had over- 
heard all that had passed, came forth from his lurking-place, raised his 
head, and gaye the pursuers all the information they required. But the 
hand of Heayen was upon him. His brilliant yest of crimson changed 
to a Satanic black, he was greeted with nniyersal execration, and it was 
ordained that whoever crashed him with the thumb of the right hand 
should be deemed a benefactor of mankind and be pardoned the seven 
deadly Sins. 

My friend's informant was particularly anxious that the 

individual whose appearance in a ditch had elicited the 

above narrative should be summarily disposed of in the ap- 
proved fashion. 

Among the Scandinavians tradition has again associated 
this insect with Jotun, a giant or demon in the Norse my- 
thology. It is called «7oh«n-(m 9 ^JOtun's ox% a name which 
is also applied to the whale. 

"It is bred", says Mouffet, "everywhere in the fields 
and goes holding up the tail", and this peculiar habit ex- 
plains and justifies the names Tum-up-tatly Cock-tail. It 
evidently bears an universally bad character, undoubtedly 
due to its malevolent disposition and carnivorous propensi- 
ties. Its usual name is Rove-beetle^ from its wandering habits; 
in Anglo-Saxon HrcBthrbitay or * quick-biter'. MouflFet writes: 

''The country people in Kent hold this to be a venomous creature, 
and that oxen are swollen by this poison, as they are with eating Long- 
legs.'* (Theat. Ins. L. ii. c. 7.) 

A similar prejudice with regard to the injury inflicted by 
certain insects when swallowed by cattle is illustrated by 
the name Bum-cow. Halliwell gives the word with the simple 
explanation, "a species of beetle"; but the follovnng extract 
from the "Theater of Insects" will explain its first intro- 
duction into the English language. 

"First of all by their accrimony they enflame the belly of cattle, 
upon which follows a tumor and a feaver and a kind of a hot tympany, 
by which in the end the bowels are burst. ... In English it (the insect) 
is called a Blain-worm or Troings, which being eaten by cattle doth 
produce the like symptomes. The Latines retain the Greek name of 
Buprestis . . but I for my part somewhat boldly, though not improperly. 



do adyentore to call it by a new name in English, Bum- cow oi Bursi- 
cow." (L.i. c. 19.) 

It will be seen that Moulfet simply translates the Greek 
name povnQr^azig. The term Troings^ which he mentions 
as a vemacnlar English word, I am unable to explain. 

I find the following miscellaneous names applied to black 
beetles. The Introduction to Halliwell's Dictionary contains 
(p. xxi.) a curious specimen of the Isle of Wight dialect, 
and the subject matter of the extract is a discussion, arising 
out of the appearance of "a blastnashun straddle-bob craalun 
about in the nammut bag". The controversy is respecting 
the propriety of this word; Jan maintaining that the creature 
is a straddle-bob^ and Will that it should be called a Duinble- 
dore. The result is that he has been called a straddle-bob 
" ever zunce the island was vust meyad ". They are named 
Black-clocks (Yorks.), Black-besses (Salop), Black-bobs (Berk- 
shire), Black-woi'ms (Comw.), Black-dors (Suflf.), Parsons 
(Leicest), and Betes (Devon.). Of this last I can offer no ex- 
planation K They are also called Thunder^clocks^ Colliers and 

Certain red and blue beetles are known familiarly in Hants 
as Soldiers and Sailors. The Demiestes lardarius is in Lin- 
colnshire termed the Bacon-bee. Florio, according to Halli- 
well, explains the Cantharides by a singular name, Beetle- 
ston. The last syllable is obscure. 

There is a remarkable word in MoufFet the derivation of 
which appears clear, but the word itself seems to have dis- 
appeared. He says (L. i. c. 21): "the northern English call 
it klock^ but the soutiiem starkenbeken.''^ The word apparently 
means strong-beak, and might well apply to the elongated 
proboscis of some of the CurcuUos. 

* It was claimed at our Meeting by a Diminutivist as the base of the 
word beetle, F. 

[To be continued.] 


Pdlszky, Esq. 

§ 1- 
The theory of derivation has until now never been fairly 
developed in the Hungarian language. The Hungarian Aca- 
demicians have tried to grapple with this question in their 
"System of the Hungarian Language", but instead of elu- 
cidating the nature and power of the affixes, they have in- 
creased the difficulties which beset this question. Their 
failure was inevitable, since, unacquainted with the native 
system of the Sanskrit Grammar as developed by the .three 
great sages Panini, Eatyayana and PatanjaU, whom the 
gratitude of their country-men has justly elevated to the 
rank of Saints, and proceeding from the theory, true in 
the abstract, that every root must be monosyllabic, my late 
colleagues called everything which remained beyond the first 
syllable of any Hungarian noun or verb, an affix,— jumbling 
together Krits and Taddhitas, paying no attention to deno- 
minatives, and getting in this way a multitude of unwieldy 
affixes, the nature and power of which could not be ex- 
plained. In order to bring some order into this confusion 
I have tried to arrange the affixes , and to treat the subject 
of Htrngarian derivation, according to the principles established 
by the Hindoo patron saints of philology, which form the 
only safe foundation of that science, whilst the disregard 
of them degrades philology from a science to a mere ^jeu 


Before entering into the subject I must however, at the 
risk of becoming tedious and of repeating what every Philo- 
logist knows, give some definitions and recapitulate some 
axioms, in order to indicate the point of view from which 
I surveyed the Hungarian Affixes: 

In speaking of roots, I understand always by this term 


'that portion of any word which defies farther analysis', 
that is to say: those elements which cannot be explained 
by cotnpositioA, flexion or derivation. 

Omitting at this time the roots of the particles, we may 
fmiher say that a root is neither a verb, nor a noun, but 
that it contains the elements both of verbs and of nouns. 

The root becomes a *base' or 'crude form' either of a 
verb or of a lioun, by the addition of an affix. These af* 
fixes which are added to roots are the Krita, 

No root can accept more than one nominal Krit affix, 
but the base may, by assuming a new verbal affix, become 
a denominative^ and as such a new root 

The base of the noun always stands in the relation of 
some case — with the exception of the genitive — ^to the root 

The base becomes a word fit to take its place in the 
sentence by the addition of a further— Taddhita— affix. All 
tbe flexional and conjugational endings belong to this class; 
and, besides them, all those affixes which characterize the 
different relations in which nouns stand to nouns ^ for in- 
stance as regards descent and origin, possession, gender, 
shape, abstraction, &c. 

The flexional endings are, however, sometimes attached 
immediately to the radicals. The Sanskrit grammarians in 
order to maintain the threefold articulation of every word, 
suppose that in this case a krit affix (technically Quip and 
Quin) was originally added to the root, but afterwards fell 
out, or was absorbed by the taddhita. 

As regards the formation of v^bs, any root in San&krit 
may, if the meaning permits it, become a secondary radical^ 
by the assumption of certain affixes; that is to say, it mscj 
add to the original meaning of the root the ideas of sufFerence 
(passive), causation, desire, and intensity. These secondary 
radicals being just as prolific as the original roots, they 
may not only originate nouns, but they may even assume new 
verbal affixes, the causative or intensitive may form a new 
passive I and so on. Accordin^y a root may accept more 
than one verbal affix. 

w^ —zir*^^^ 

i Caiv»r»ii3roi 

Applying these principles to Hungarian , we shall find that 
though many roots have been lost or obscured in the course 
of the centuries during which the Hungarian had no litera- 
ture, still a sufficient number have remained unimpaired to 
show that originally they were neither nouns nor verbs, but 
the source of both; for instance: 






Base or word. 


J11II09, he whvspers 


jtiUoffi, secret 


sieret^ he loTes 


swrelm^ loye 


>»yii9«»(tA)9 he rests 


n^H^alm^ rest 


vii»(en), he bears 


vitel^ carriage 


tfTMy he steals 


m^, the thief 


sidrit^ he dries 


sidrai, dry 


emlel^ he suckles 


m/<$, the teat 


ember, man 


siikkad^ he becomes dry 


siikdr, thin (mager) 


poshad^ it rots 


pondnyy the swamp 


iapad^ it sticks 


tapoMi^ cement 


mered, he becomes rigid, rigeseit 


hmto, rigid 


ront, he destroys 


rongy, the rag 


siwritt he presses 


shwos, nanow 


harHy he covers 


from, darkness 


hurtit, he shortens 


kuriay short 


cselehst{%h)f he works 


eseled, the servant 


alfft(tft), he sleeps 


dhm, sleep 



Root. Affix. Base or word. 

e- Si M»(tft), he eats 

tel itely food. 

The following instances may suffice for the Quip formation: 
fogy, it freezes, and the frost 
iavar, he stirs up, and the confusion 
gydmol, he supports, and the support 
fog, he catches, and the tooth 
sieg, he cuts, and the nail 
Ur, he has room, and a plain, an extension 
tdr^ he shuts, and the lock 
oft(tA), he learns, and the cause 
lak{ik)y he inhabits, and the dwelling 
nyom, he presses, and the footprint. 


The Hungarian language is by far richer in verbal affixes 
than any of the Arian languages. The Sanskrit for instance 
forms its active verbs from the root in three ways, which 
branch off altogether into ten conjugations, and it knows 
only of four secondary radicals, all the other modifications 
of the meaning of the root being obtained by prepositional 
prefixes. — In the Hungarian we find likewise four secondary 
roots : a Factitive formed by the affix t or its expansion tat, 
tet, and a Passive, by conjugating the factitive in the re- 
flective form. The idea of possibility may be added to any 
verb, by the affix hat, and the idea of futurity by the affix 
nd; for, unlike to the Arian languages, the future is in 
Hungarian not simply a tense, but a complete secondary 
radical which may be conjugated through all the tenses. 

Besides the ideas contained in these four secondary radi- 
cals the Hungarian adds some more to the original meaning 
of the root, and expresses these modifications by affixes; 
still these new formations are not to be taken for secondary 
radicals, since they cannot be formed from every root, even 
where the meaning might allow it. Such modifications are: 
the passive-reflective J the causative, the inchoative, the fre- 
quentative , the diminutive, the frequentative-diminutive; the 
ideas of continuity, and of suddenness of action, may 
likewise be imparted to the root. The denominatives more- 


over are formed in the most varied ways, by manifold af- 
fixes. AU these formations have until now been utterly 
neglected by the Hungarian Philologists. 

The first and the most important of the Hungarian verbal 
affixes is the letter t^ the natural contraction of the root te 
which means ^to do' (tesz^ he does, tehet, he can do, tetet^ 
he has it done by somebody). This affix imparts the idea 
of action to many roots, and the corresponding letter l^ the 
abbreviation of the root fe, I become, fio, ich werde, (leazy 
Uhet) gives the idea of sufferance, and is the oldest and 
most original form of the passwe-re/lective , for instance: 



poMsite re/leethe. 


fuif he warms 

ftU, he becomes warm 


hut, he cools 

huly he becomes cool 


nyit, he opens 

nyil(ih)y it opens 


bont, he destroys 

bomoly it goes to pieces 


ont, he divides 

eis/(U), it divides itself 


rejt, he hides 

r^7(iili), it is hidden 


hajt, he bends 

h^jl(ik)y it bends 


hdnt, he pares 

hdml(ik), it is pared 


onty he poors 

oml(ik), it pours 


ronty he destroys 

roml(ik), it goes to destruction 


duty he throws down 

d{a, it falls down 

The active affix t is often increased by the vowel t, and 
the passive reflective T by an w or m, thus we get such 
formations as: 



passive reflective. 


fuit = fojty he strangles 

ftdy he chokes 

»»«- • 

gyujty he lights 

gyuly it catches fire 


gyvjty he assembles 

gytUy it assembles 


sirty he hurts 

teHUy it is hurt 


merit y he draws 

moHUy it sinks 


tiorit, he presses 

sAonU, he is in straights 


kerity he gets 

herm, it is got 


dmity he deludes 

dmuly he is damfounded 


ciodity he gathers 

csddtUy it gathers 


tanity he teaches 

tanuly he learns 


terity he expands 

tertily it expands 

The active power of the affix t is well illustrated by the 


forms nVf he weeps, sh*aty he bewails, aod szoU, he speaks, 
and szdUit, he addresses somebody, the intransitive mean- 
ing having become transitive by it 

§ 6. 
The affix of the passive reflective / interchanges often 
with the dental d, a formation which usually gives the mean* 
ing of the passive impersonal, for instance: 

Ro0i. iiciive, poMtUe itnpersonaL 

s%ak- ttakit, he tears nakad, it breaks 

has- hoiit, he splits hasad, it splits 

sidr- sidrii, he dries $%drad^ it dries 

fof^- fdrptf , he dwarili tdrped^ it becomes dwarfish 

Sometimes however it is only reflective, mos, he washes 
in the transitive sense, mo8d(ik)^ he washes himself. Terfed 
is an anomalous by-formation (Nebenform) of tertU; in Idtj he 
sees, ldt8z(ik)^ he seems, the affix d has gone over into 
the kindred sibilant. 

The termination d is not at all rare among the Hungarian 
verbs and has often a passive or reflective meaning, as: 
azenved, he suffers, patift^r, tapad, it sticks, hamvad^ it 
turns into cinders, Mggad, it becomes liquid, still there are 
verbs formed by this affix, which have no passive meaning, 
f. i. fogad, he receives, azalad^ be runs, hcdad, he progresses, 
tagad, he denies. 

The most common form of the passive reflective , the only 
one noticed in Hungarian Grammars, has arisen by this affix 
d conjugated in the reflective form: 

acUtie, passive rjefiective. 

uyomar-it, he beggars uyomor^diih)^ he becomes a beggar 

siomor-it, he contristates stomorotUk, he becomes sorrowful 

hdbor-Uj he disturbs hdborodik, he becomes disturbed 

siapor-it^ he augments sioporofUky he becomes augmented 

Sometimes the connecting vowel before this affix d is 
produced, and forms passive reflectives whenever the active 
form coincides completely with the root, for instance: 

acHve, passive reflective, 

csap, he strikes csapddik^ it is struck by itself 

hamff he throws hdnyddik, he is agitated 

Ml, ha 'diags hwddik, it icags <(f. L a lawsuit imChamcfry) 


emesttj he consnmes 

rdff, h^ masticates 

agg, he hangs (jptraqsitiye) 

gyotor^ he gWes t^oul^l^ 
ioly he pushes 

em4§Uodik, he cpnsuipe^ himself (bj |sar«8) 

rdgddihy it is masticated 

agg64ik, he has car90 (l^e hang^ o|i the 

future with hopes and fpass) 
$yQiT9diky he troubles himil9l( 
tnUiihi it is pushed, trudituir 


Gausatives are fonn^d by adding the affix t to the verbal 
base; when addeci to q, i^nal d whether passive or i^ot, this 
d goes ov^r into tbQ de^t94 sibilant, and sincQ ^e verb^ in 
(?, with ^ wpst incpu^idi^mWe Qxc^ption, eri^ capa-bj^ pf as- 
suming the causative affix, its most common fpnn i^ s^t^ 
for instance: 

star ad, it dries 

ragad, it sticks 

marad, he remftin^ 

rtiKif, h0 be0Qme9 iiighteaed 

er«rf, he gOi9S 

akad, it stops 

tdmady he rises 

fUrddh), h9 bftihes 

0^a^, it »^ 

rohad, }| fots 

/^W, ho fav^^m•^ U]r(94 
apm/, it decreases 
sialad, he runs 
steltdy it is dispersed 
dagad, he swells 

s»<ir€i«sf, he makei dry 
ragMtty he m^JJMf jt »tick 
mara$Ui he d«i»iil0 
rtcM^, he ^ghtens 
erutt, he dismUses 
aka$ity he stops 

furesii, he Bukfae ooe j^the 
o/va<sl^ he mi^MS it vnfM 
rohasiiy he makes it rot 
farm»h ha HfW (»iit 
apt^^f^ he m^kes j); ^^rmi^ 
sialasii, h^ pi^ts ^0 Sight 
sieUsit, he di^sperse^ 
daga§ii^ he mak/es it §weU. 

We find a farther developement of this affix in the rare 
causative forms sztal^ sziel^ which have settled down in a 
certain signification: 

iapad, it sticks, tapasf^t, he makes it stick, tapasUoil, he experiences. 
maradf he remains, mqrasi^i, he makes one remain, marantal, he 

keeps one a^ a party. 
ingad, he is merry, vigtuUal^ he comforts. 

enged, he yields, eti^Mf lei, he coneiliates. 

hirA4d(^), he beeemes famous, hires*i€i, he praises. 

The frequency of t]i§ y^rbs with a final d, wkifik b$^m^ 
causatives, ma^ aecMut for the fact that l^ a fake makgy 


some few verbs form a causative in szty though they have 
no final rf. Their number is limited: 

bigyeg, he hangs (intransitive) bigyes%t, he hangs (transitive) 

fulesU, he makes warm 

hullasit, he makes fall 

mulasii, he fails to do 

novesii, he produces 

aggas^l which becomes likewise akasiif 

he hangs (transitive) 
iermesiif he produces 
fejlesilj he developes 
ugrasit, he makes one jump 
forrasUy he makes it boil. 

The great plurality of verbs however forms the causative 
by the affix t, thus: 

/u/, it warms (intransitive) 
hull, it falls 
muHik), it pattes 
no^ he grows 
agg, it hangs 

terem^ it grows 
/(e;7(tft), it is developed 
ugr{%k)y he jumps 
forty it boils 

hdn^ he cares 

M, he rises 

terem, it grows 

tHrogy he is busy 

eg^ he bums (intransitive) 

forogy he turns (intransitive) 

ally he stands 

retten, he is frightened 

durran, it explodes 

tnuKjJi), it passes 

bdniy he hurts 
keli^ he raises 
ieremif he creates 
turget^ he stirs up 
e^el, he burns (transitive) 
forgot y he turns (transitive) 
dlliiy he puts up 
reitenif he frightens 
cftirranf, he makes an explosion 
mulai , he amuses himself, he makes 
that time should pass 
osil{ik) y it divides (impersonal) osilat, he causes a division, he dissolves. 

Sometimes the causative t expands into tat, tet: 
6t»(tA), he trusts bUtaiy he encourages 

foly{\h)y he flows folyiai, he continues 

di(ik)y it becomes wet duai^ he makes wet 

siun{ik)y it ceases siuniei^ he discontinues 

al«»(ift), he sleeps altat, he puts to sleep. 

There are, besides the affix ty some other causative affixes, 
but their use is restricted. We find the I in the following verbs : 

/brr, it boils forraly he makes boil 

i»l(ik)y it tastes iilely he tastes 

asi(ik), it becomes dry asialy he dries. 

In the following instances this I expands into lat, lei: 
hii(}k)y he fattens (intransitive) hiilal, he fattens (transitive) 

kop{ik)y it wears koplaly he starves 

fagyy it freezes fagylal, he causes to freeze 

kiiifk^y he is late lUtlely he delay? 


ir(ik), it ripens Mel, he causes to ripen 

fdi(ik)^ he is cold ftMtd, he causes cold. 

The affixes sit and z occur only in two causative forma- 
tions: erty he understands, irtmty he gives notice, and/5, 
it boils, yS^, he cooks. Two abnormal formations are akin 
to the Vriddhi increase, e8(ik)j he falls, forms a causative 
^ty he causes to fall, and 6Uy he extinguishes, is the causa- 
tive of al8z(ik)^ he sleeps, and, applied to fire, it goes out. 
Two others show the "Ablaut", viz. kely he rises, koUy 
he hatches, and tel(ik)^ it fills, toUy he pours. 


If we arrange the Hungarian verbs according to their 
finals, in the Sanskrit way, we cannot but be struck by 
the large number of those ending in g. With all of them 
the idea of continuity is attached to the meaning of the 
root We may divide them into two classes, the first com- 
prising those verbs among them, which are mono- or dis- 
syllabic, the second consisting of the trisyllabic ones. 

All those belonging to the first class express either a 
sound or a motion, originally they were all monosyllabic, 
the second syllable owing its origin to the connecting vowel 
as might be seen by the following instances, where both 
forms are still preserved: 





















Some of these dissyllabic verbs expand into three syl- 
lables by the insertion of r which imparts the idea of in- 
tensity to the original meaning , either in a frequentative or 
in a diminutive sense: 





























Many of the dissyllabic and monosyllabie verbs in g get 
a corresponding form by the affix dul which imparts an in- 
choatiye meaning, and many of these inchoatives have again 
a corresponding caasative in dU, f. i.: 

Vtb$ expreating iound 


i>r molMn. 

c^QTfiy it flowf 



dorogj it thanders 



Mjog, he is noi«y 



iajogy lie wails 



peiseg, it fermeots 



morogy he grumbles 



forog, he turns 



iuog^ be yacill^tes 



gorog, it roUs 



leng, he floats 



I6gy it swings 



motog, he moves 



c$e»g, it sounds 



hong, (die bell) tolls 



Sometimes the inchoative nffix dul answers to Vdfb3 wUicli 
by the increase of the root end in nff, iim new eomplex 
affix implies continnity a»d intensity, frequentative or di* 
miBstive, ti*; 

fdj, it aches fdjong fdi4^^ 

iol, he pushes tolong, he pushes often tdldfil or iodul 

ally he stands dllong^ he stands about dlldul. 

The inchoative affix dul is evidently a complex affix, 
formed by tb^ elements d and Z, joined by the CQxiwcting 
vowel; both tiiese simpler affixes form inchoatives by them- 
selves in the following few verbs, the d being added to 
verbs of a passive meaning, the / to ««tive ones: 

gyul, it is set ou fir^ 
ful, he chokes 
pir-ul, he blushes 
fii, he blows 
IS, he shoots 
sidly he speaks 
sidfi(ik), he runs 

ff^¥hd, it begins tp ll>arn 
fulad, he be^i^ to fhpke 
pirhad, it begins to dawn 
fuval, it begins to blow 
lovely (the rajs) begin to shoot 
iiolaly he begins to speak 
szdkeU(ik)y he bejgins to run. 

The mono- and dis*;s;yllabic verbs in g have still anotiber 
corresponding form, whieh implies suddenaass, and tbe idea 


that the action is performed only once. These forms arise 
throagh the affix an; however since the final of the root is 
mostly doubled before it, we may safely state that its origi- 
nal form is van^ that is to say, the substantive verb ^to 
be\ Some of these new formalSons have a causative by 
the addition of the affix t For instance: 

tnoiog, he moyes mosuw, he makes one sadden moye 

kohog, he coughs kohen, he coughs once 

hociog, he knocks AocscMm, it knocks once 

lohog^ it floats lohhan^ it flares up 

prusidg^ he sneezes prUauien, he sneezes once 

siepegy he trembles aeppen, he is suddenly frightened. 

We find exoeptkmally an increase of this affix van, by 
the a£fix e, wiUioot any alteration of the sense, it is in fact 
a by-fona of the former. Thns we meet with: 
ilian and iliunt^ he e«capes siiddenly 
f€c$ei0n and f^acMietU, he spills suddenly 
AonMn and Ufppant, he stamps idth the foot 
tiuMien and Htsi$»m4, he sneoses 
hukktm and httkkant, he stirs. 

In a few cases the affix van is added to roots which form 
no corresponding verb of continuity in g, but even these 
are mostly verbs of movement or of sound: 

ctap, he strikes csappan 

rehedf he is hoarse rekken 

repul, he flies reppen 

rih&ii^ he -whines rikkan 

MtMtift, lie glides cmsuian 

fcgadf he reoeiyes fogan, she conceiyes: 

As regards the trisyllabic verbs in g it is peculiar that 
their second syllable, preceding the affix ^, ends invari- 
ably in the semivowels, r, I, Zy, ory. They express con- 
tinuity, and since continuity implies a certain amount of 
intensity, we <^imot be astonished at fiiMling that, with most 
of them, the affix g may be interchanged witb the frequenta- 
tive affix Jced. For instance: 

incseteg, he banters often = %nc$e!kedik 

fondorog, he intrigues = fondorkodik 

hiieleg , he flatters = kiMtkedik 

sumorog, he -wails s SMWUfrk^ik 

ikUd9g4 b« Jdantes = lua^hMk 



Imtoljfog, he is sonowful = buteUkodik 

nyavalyo$i he is often unwell ^nyavModik. 

With some of these verbs the affix g interchanges with 
the passive reflective affix d, but in this case the idea of 
continuity is lost. For instance: 

kesereg, he wails keteredik, he becomes desperate 

hdhorog^ he is agitated hdhorodik, he becomes agitated 

Adte/tf^, he approaches continaally h6%eUd%k, he comes nearer 
Idntorog, he totters 
iiendereg, he sleeps 

Idniorodiky he becomes shaky 
sienderedih, he falls to sleep. 

Frequentatives and Diminutives are formed by many af- 
fixes in Hungarian; we have mentioned already the complex 
affix ng which implies continuity as well as intensity, and 
adduce therefore here only a few more instances: 

busong, he has cares continually 
swrong, he is always in straights 
borongy he broods, and the sky be- 
comes strongly clouded 
orjong, he rayes 
duhong, he rages. 

busul, he cares 

jsoru/y he is in straights 

borul, it begins to darken 

orul, he becomes mad 
duhodiky he becomes furious 

Otherwise the insertion of the nasal forms diminutives: 


emelitf.he tries to raise 

csavariif he screws 

ha$U, he splits 

meUgit, he warms 

barogat, he coTers assiduously 

ugrik, he jumps 

jdinik, he plays 

The affix z forms frequentatives: 

ont, he pours ontdif he waters (plants) 

emelint, he tries a little to raise 
csavarinif he screws a little 
hasini^ he splits a little 
melengei, he warms a little 
borongai, he covers a little 
ugrandoiik, he hops 
jdtsiondihy he plays a little. 

von, he drags 
farad, he takes pains 
AdI, he binds 
vigadj he enjoys 
dagad, it swells 
did, he blesses 
dlmodih, he dreams 

vom, he attracts 
fdradot, he takes pains constantly 
kotoi, he binds strongly 
vigadoi, he likes to enjoy 
dagadot, it swells much 
dldoiik, he sacrifices 
dlmodoiik, he is dreamy. 

This affix expands often into doz^ dez\ 

fejlik, it expands fi^lede*, it expands continually 


»e»g, he sounds iengede%^ be is sounding 

t»^, he wavers ingadowk^ he wayers much 

romlih , it deteriorates r<nnlado%%k, it deteriorates continually 

for, he breaks toredetih^ it breaks into many pieces. 

The affix gat fonns frequentative diminutives , and is added 
both to roots and to verbs formed by other affixes: 

Added to roots, 

ver, he beats, verberat vereget, he pats 

hal-asit, he delays halogal, he often delays 

tdm-asit, he supports tamogat, he often supports 

vdl-aiU, he chooses vdlogaty he is particular 

esiihf he eats eveget, he often eats a little 

mond, he says mondogat, he often says. 

Added to verbs formed by some other affix, 

sitdmidl^ he connts sidmldlgat, he often counts 

enyve%y he glues enyveiget, he often glues a little 

foglaly he occupies foglalgat, he occupies little by little 

fordit, he translates forditgat, he is translating by and by 

verde^y he often beats verdezget, he often beats a little 

csipdei, he often pinches csipdezget, he often pinches a little 

siakasit, he plucks siakasigaly he often plucks 

legyini^ he fans legyingeif he often fans a little. 

In the last two instances the frequentative affix absorbs 
the active affix t. 
Dos is likewise a frequentative diminutive affix, f. i.: 

loh, he pushes lokdos^ he pushes often 

mar, he bites mardos^ he bites often 

s%igf he whispers sugdos, he whispers often 

csip, he pinches csipdes, he pinches often 

repul, he flies repdes, he flies about. 

The verbs formed by this affix usually assume, besides it, 
the affix gat 

§ 10. 
The following are frequentative affixes of rare occun-ence 
restricted to one or two verbs: 

^ d/: vgrik, he jumps, ugrdl, he jumps about. 
bdl: nyir^ he cuts, nyirbdl, he curtails. 
csol: rontf he destroys, roncsol, he destroys utterly. 
hoi: romltoly he destroys at random. 
cwl'. bont, he dissents, bonaol, he analyzes. 
von, he drags, vonnol, he drags about. 


oSf e$f koM^ kdre*: /Wl, he rans, fuios, fuikos, fuikmroaty ke mas about; 

repiU^ he flies, rgpef, he flies a little. 
dJil: rdgf he masticates, rd§d4l, he nibbles. 
iUf dsz^ risi: ft^tor, k^UMrdt; kapar, kapardn\ vakar, pokards*; 

kadavy kadardn; fuiyul, fut^orisii csip, aiperett; sutp suikoresi, 

Diminative are likewise tiie following affixes: 

kdl, tcsdl, iczely dcsolf dicsdly ddcaol^ and cskdl 
which contain the elements of the words Jdcd and cseMy, 
small, in varions combinations and modifications. 

The affix gdl is likewise diminutiye, so is daly they are 
sometimes combined in the complex form dogdl, dog4l wMch 
becomes an apparently new affix dokol^ dekel, d^kel, t i.: 

rofil, rongdl, he damages. 

haaii^ kasgdlf he splits often a little. 

keres, keresg^l, he seeks about. 

ddy adogdlf he often giyes. 

kir, kirtgtl, he often requests. 

fi«ve>, neveigel, he often names. 

jdr^ jdrdal, he goes about. 

/ep, Updel^ he steps along. 

M%ely iteldelf he often cuts a slice. 

siuvj siurdaly he often pricks. 

tdVf tSrdelf he breaks into many pieces. 

vdg, vdgdalf he cuts often. 

jOf jSdogily he often comes. 

no, nodogHy he grows constantly. 

Msift, €dd€gely he often eats. 

isUkf iddogdl, he often drinks. 

el, Megel, he yegetates. 

bir, he hss, birdogdl, he often has, birtokol^ he possesses. 

(fr, he touches, erdegtl and erdekel^ he often touches, it interests. 

a/, he kills, dldokoly he kills all around. 

/»/, he chokes, fuldokol, he is drowning. 

kal, he dies, haldokol, he is dying. 

nyel, he swallows, nyeldekel, he is swallowing. 


Passive reflectives, impersonals, and reflectives, implying 
continuity are formed by the affixes 6d(ik), 6dz(ik), 6z({k)^ 
by the first however only when added to verbs which have 
already assmned some other verbal affix; (we have treated 
of this affix when added to roots in the &^ §). 


hdkUd'k I ^® *^^'o^* Wmaelf about 
fmkelodik, he is restless 
gunyolodik^ lie is continually railing 
furkdlodik, he endeavours to throng in 
nyargalddM, be is riding about 
vakar6d^ikt he is scratching himself 
akardditk, he has the intention 
fogodiikf he clings 
harapddM, (the fire) spreads 
nyujtdiik, he stretches himself 
hinidloiikf he is swinging 
mentegetoMk, he excuses himself. 

The expanded form of these affixes is I6d(ik)^ I6dz(ik): 

kinoif he torments kitdddik, he is excruciated 

forog, he turns about fargolddik, he tarns round continually 

iug, he hum« Mugolddik, he is murmuring 

fep, he tears iSpeloduk, he is in mental anxiety. 

These affixes are often added to nonns and form denomi- 
natives, f. i.: 

baj, mischief bajlddik, he struggles 

meregy prison, wrath mirgelSdik, he is yery angry 

por, dust parlddik, it turns into dust 

The most common affixes of the frequentatives are kodj 
kedy koz, kezy kesz. We find them nsnally, thongh not ex- 
dttftiyely, adheriog to verbs formed by other affixes, they 
often form denominatives with the idea of continuity, but 
sometimes the frequentative or intensitive meaning is al- 
together lost. A few instances will illustrate these obser- 

hnp, he gets kapkody he tries to snatch 

c$apy he strikes csapkod, he beats often 

emel, he raises emelkediky he rises 

< ^ j^ . ' >he quarrels with everybody 

mar^ he bites 

nOf he grows novekedik, he grows up 

dUotik, he dresses oUdihodih, he is dressing 

horoivdl, he shares borolvdil(odik , he shaves himself 

ert, he understands ^rtehetiky he negociates 

vdr, he waits vdrahoiik, be is waiting 

ut, he strikes Uihoiik, he battles 

foglai, ht occupies fogialkcmky be occupies himself 

er, he reaches irk$%iky be arrives. 


These affixes are often increased by a nasal, a sibilant, the 
letter ty and the letter ly for instance: 

sir, he weeps 

ft, he cries 

no, he weaves 

At, he calls 

nyil(ik), he opens 

kap, he gets and he seizes 

rug, he kicks 

vi, he fights 

kerdet, he asks 

bird^ a judge 

hohd, a clown 

hem, a spy 

bus, sorry 

gyenge, weak 

er6, strength 

sirankoiik, he wails 
rimdnhodik, he implores 
sMvetkeiik, he allies himself 
hivatkoiik, he qnotes 
nyilaikoiik, he declares 
kapiUikodik^ he gets hold 
rugasikodik, he often kicks 
viaskodik, he fights strongly 
kerdeioskodik , he inquires 
birdskodik, he jadges 
bohdskodik^ he makes jokes 
kimeskedik, he spies 
&iM/afto</iA, he is ftiU of cares 
gyeugilkedik, he is poorly 
erSlkodik, he endeavours. 

The affix kod sometimes absorbs the affix ty whether cau- 
sative or active, for instance: 

botis%oni, he teases bosisionkodik, he is angry 

eresU^ he lets eresikedik, he lets himself down 

ragasit, he cements ragasikodik, he clings 

tdmasil, he supports tdmasikodik, he leans. 

§ 12. 
The Hungarian language is peculiarly rich in denominatives 
formed by nearly all the affixes we have mentioned until 
now. We meet among them 

1) With the Quip formation, which is so common in the 
English; in the Hungarian it is restricted to nouns in dsz 
derived from animals, and implying in the verb the idea 
of sport: 

agardsi, he courses, and the hunter with 

madardti, the birdcatcher, and he catches 

bogardsi, the beetlecatcher, and he catcihes 

vctddsi, the hunter, and he is hunting 
angolndsi, the eelcatcher, and he catches eels. 

2) The active affixes ty it, and the passives «IZ, od(jk\ and 
8z(^k) added to nouns, form active and passive reflective verbs: 

agdr, the grey-hound 

maddr, the bird 

bogdr, the beetle 

vad, the game 
angolna, an eel 


j»^p, beautiful ss^f, he embellishes s»<fpt2/, he becomes handsome 

fekeU, black feketii, he blackens fehettU, \ t v^ h\ k 

fekeiedik, J 

nagyobb, bigger 110^2^06 6tl, he increases nagyobbul, \ . , 

, . ..I f !• increases 
nagyobbod%h, } 

telep^ a plantation telepii^ he colonizes telepul, 1 he takes his place 

telepedik, J in a colony 

iga^, right igaiit, he directs igaM, 1 he is directed and 

igModik, J he gets right. 

The affix t expands occasionally into sity and the affix 

od(ik) into 6dz(ik)y I6d(jk)y lddz(ik): 

semtni, nothing semmtsti, he annihilates 

kSf a stone kovesit, he petrifies 

let, existence /e/estf, he calls into existence 

disindj a pig dis*n6$iif he defiles 

por, dnst porlddik, it tarns into dust 

himid^ the pox himlSdiik, he gets the small pox. 

3) The most usual denominative affix is the Z, but it has 
lost its original passive signification; at the time when 
these denominatives were formed, the consciousness of the 
language was already obscured. The verbs formed by this 
affix have all an active signification, some of them have 
settled down into a peculiar meaning, f. L: 

kis, the knife kesel, he stabs 

s*em, the eye siemel, he selects 

orr, the nose orrol^ he resents 

a/, the lap d/e/,*he embraces 

okdl, the fist oklel^ he boxes 

mese, the fable mesely he tells a tale 

kegedu, the fiddle hegediil, he fiddles. 

4) Different from this affix I is the affix «, which implies 
the meaning "he deems", f. i.: 

fiagy, large nagyoll, he deems it too large 

kef>i$, little kevetell, he deems it too little 

nehdif heavy Hehfell, he deems it too heavy 

sok, much sokall^ he deems it too much 

j6, good j avail, he recommends 

rosiy bad rostall, he upbraides. 

If however a verb formed by the affix II is fleeted in the 
reflective form, it becomes a passive reflective and inter- 
changes with the affix ed(ik)^ od(ik); in this formation the 
original passive meaning of I reappears once more: 


* ... ,.* > it becomes night 

este, eveninff eslellih. \ ,^ . 

* I I A k I ^^comes evening 

fekete, bltck fekeUllih, \ .^ , ,, , 

... } it becomes black 

n>iVy> « rag 

rongyo t , i j^^ becomes ragged. 
rongyosoatky J °° 

5) Many nouns form denominatives by the affix z, which 
however has nothing in common with the frequentative af- 
fix Zy 

fal, a wall falaz, he builcls 

puska^ a musket puskdi, he shoots with a musket 

siihrm, a spark 8zikrdz(ik), it sparkles 

6or, wine boroi, he drinks wine] 

. ./the wave /10605, he wavers 

\the foam hab^ik), it foams 

dry the guard ora, he guards 

tu, the needle, a pin tuz, he fastens with a pin 

idcj here idH, he summons 

gaiembery a rascal gmembereiy he calls one a rascal 

angytU, the angel ttngyaloi, he calls her an angel. 

6) The passive affixes ?iod(ik)y hed(ik), and hoz(ik)y hez{ik)^ 
form likewise denominatives: 

re'w, old venhedik, 1 

sefr, a wound . sebhedik, he gets wounded 
Air, renown hirhedik, he gets renowned 

hamuy ashes hamuhodih, it turns into ashes 

Aar, damage kdrhoiik, he gets damned. 

7) I have already mentioned that the frequentative affixes 
kod(ik)^ ked(ik), ke8z(ik), koz(ik)y and kez(ik)^ often form 
denominatives; the following are instances of such formations: 

ipary industry iparkodiky he endeavours 

fner4s», daring meresikedik, he is daring 

tolv0jy a thief tolvajkodik, he is a thief 

nehHy heavy fuh4ihedik, it presses 

bolondot , foolish bQl(mdo8kodik , he does foolish things. 

§ 13. 
I have endeavoured to explain the meaning of some of 
the Hungarian affixes from the Hungarian language, and 

... he becomes old 
venhesitK . 


derived the active, factitive and causative affix t from the 
root te^ to do, the passive and reflective affix I from the 
root le^ to become; the affix of possibility hat^ from the root 
hat, to work (wirken); the affix of sudden action van from 
the substantive verb van, to be; and the diminutive affixes 
from the elements of the words csekMy and kicai: but 
was unable to explain any more of them from Hungarian 
roots. The kindred Turkish language however comes here 
to our aid, and affords some additional light We find here 
the auxiliary active verb «^(mek), to do, and the corre- 
sponding auxiliary passive verb oZ(mak) , which are identical 
in their elements and meaning with the Hungarian i«(szek) 
and fe(szek), and in the same way the affix t forms de- 
nominatives with a transitive meaning, whilst the affix I 
forms passives, for instance: 

ary, pure aryt{mdk), to purify 

peky hard pekiti^mek) ^ to harden 

hoorovy dry koorovt{mak) , to dry 

sev(rnek)y to love sevil(mek), to be loved 

at(mak), to throw aUl(mak), to be thrown 

guenge^ young guenffel(fneh)y to become young 

serty hard tertel{mek)y to become hard. 

These facts confirm my derivation of the affixes t and I, 
we find however in Turkish a still more important explanar 
tion for the affix of continuity ^, which remains unexplained 
in Hungarian. According to the analogy of the Sanskrit 
this affix ought to mean motion, the idea to go being the 
most tit for expressing intensity. Now we find in Turkish 
the passive auxiliary verb ^t^i(mek), to come, and the 
forms ^m^mek) and guz(mQ\i)^ to go, which supply the 
root g with the meaning of motion, lost in Hungarian, but 
preserved in the kindred Turkish. — 

Combining all the verbal affixes of the Hungarian lan- 
guage, we find that their number amounts to about sixty, 
but they may be reduced to a much smaller number, by 
arranging them into groups according to the principal ele- 
ments of which all the others are but modifications, or ex- 

Thus the Hungarian language modifies tiie original mean- 



ing of the roots by synthesis, whilst the Arian languages 
arrive at the same result by the clumsy agglutination of a 
prepositional prefix to verbs; and yet it is the Hungarian, 
which is called agglutinative, and Austrian politicians have 
stated in earnest that Austria^s dominion over Hungary is 
philosophically justified by the inferiority of the Hungarian 
race unable to rise to the Synthesis of the Vienna Dialect, 
but for ever glued to the ground by the inferior structure 
of its Turanian tongue. 


In my first Paper I tried to elucidate the nature of the 
verbal affixes , registering them as completely as I was able, 
and determining their power. The present essay on the 
nominal affixes is by far less complete; it does not pretend 
to deal thoroughly with derivation, but only to clear the 
way for a more extensive investigation. 

Reviewing the affixes by which nouns are formed from 
roots, we must of course turn our attention first to the 
participles. Here however we find that the idea of tense 
is very faintly expressed, and therefore oftener lost in the 
Hungarian participles, than in the Arian languages. 

The present active participle is regularly formed by the 
affix 6, 0, which puts the noun thus formed in the relation 
of an agent to the radical, representing the nominative case; 
for instance: ddj he gives, add, the giver; vesz, he takes, 
and he buys, vevo^ the taker and buyer, and in the con- 
tracted form, v6y the son-in-law who takes away the daughter 
from the house, or who buys her; szaby he cuts, and he 
measures, szabo, the tailor; szdnt, he ploughs, szdnto^ the 
husbandman; ir, he writes, iro^ the writer, the author; mk^ 
it falls, €80^ the rain;/o?yifc, it flows, /oZycJ, the river; eredy 


it is originated, erdoy the forest, which grows up by itself, 
not being sown or planted. 

The same affix implies however sometimes the accasative 
case, and the idea of the object. Thus add means not only 
the giver, but likewise the tcucy what is given; eldd, he 
sells, eladoy not only the seller, but what is exposed to sale, 
marketable, hence eladd Idnt/y a marriageable girl; vakar^ 
he scrapes, vakardj not only he who scrapes, but likewise 
a kind of cake scraped out of the trough. This accusative 
relation is always expressed by the present participle de- 
rived from the active potential, with the complete exclusion 
of the idea of the agent Thus mondhaty he can say, 
mondhatOy what can be said, but never he who can say; 
turkety he can bear, turhetOy not he who can bear, but what 
is bearable; hallhat, he can hear, haUhatdy audible; ihoMky 
he can drink, thatOy drinkable. 

The instances where this same affix denotes the instru- 
mental case are more restricted; still, many names of tools 
are formed in this way: koppanty he snuffs, koppantdy snuf- 
fers; dsy he delves, daOy a spade; takar, he covers, takaro, 
a cover; i^eszely he files, reazeto^ a file. 

Of still rarer occurrence is this affix in the locative mean- 
ing , and even then it may be often interpreted by the instru- 
mental: furdik, he bathes, furdoy the bath; kaszdly he mows, 
kaazdldy the meadow; fogady he receives, fogadd^ the inn; 
olvasy he counts, olvasoy the rosary. 

The same affix, applied to the fature, implies not only 
the agent in the future tense, but likewise the idea of ne- 
cessity, just as the analogous Latin fature participle in ndo, 
f. i. : az irandd konyvy the book that will be vmtten, a konyv 
irandd, the book is to be written; halandd^ the mortal, that 
is to say, not he who will die, but who has to die. 

The modifications of the affix tJ, o are numerous; it be- 
comes sometimes w, f. i.: nyel^ he swallows, nyelvy for nyeViy 
the tongue, the swallower; oly he kills, olyvy the kite; sirty 
he injures, airvy the injury; <yroz^ he steals, orvy the thief; 
mery he measures, m^^ the rule. 

Sometimes the ($, o changes into u, &, and softens the 


preceding dental into the cerebral; pattant^ he detonates, 
pattantyu, artillery; cmppant, it clashes or claps, csappantyu^ 
the cock of the gun; alkot, he moulds, alkoti/Uy the engine; 
csarffct, he rattles, csorgettyu, a rattle. This affix is expanded 
by false analogy into ti/Uy tyii; szi, he draws in, szivatyu, 
a pump; emel, he raises, emeltyu, the lever. In the words 
kallantyuy foffantyu, ftiggentyu^ we find, besides, the in- 
sertion of the nasal. 

Another modification of the participial 6, lo is the affix 
a, e, sometimes implying the idea of an agent, sometimes 
that of an object; szuly he procreates, szule^ the parent; 
peng^ he sounds, penge, the blade of a sword; mond, he 
tells, monda, a tale. 

Habitual agency and kindred ideas are expressed by the 
affix 05, 6>, d«, 08^ f. i. : nyom , he presses , nyonios^ weighty 
lakik^ he dwells, lakos^ the inhabitant; harap^ he bites, 
harapos^ a habitual biter; tehet^ he can do, tehetos^ a wealthy 
man (who can do what he pleases); ragad^ it sticks, ra- 
gadosj contagious; ad, he gives, ados^ the debtor, he who 
is accustomed to give, of course, interest, brokerage and 
lawyer's fees. 

The same power belongs to the affixes 

aV, er 

drd^ ^d 

dnk^ ink 

dkony^ ikony 

dko8^ ikos; 
f. i.: vezet^ he leads, vezer^ the leader; tanit^ he teaches, 
tandr^ the professor ; csapol^ he taps, csapldr^ the publican; 
fut^ he runs, futdr^ the runner. But hat^ he progresses, 
makes hatdr^ the boundary; csal^ he cheats, csaldrd^ he who 
cheats. Fal^ he eats, faldnk^ the glutton ; fil^ he fears, filenk^ 
the coward; mulik^ it passes away, muUkony^ perishable; 
vdltozik^ he changes, vdltozSkony^ he who is accustomed to 
change; iszik^ he drinks, iszdkos^ a drunkard; tud^ he knows, 
tuddkos^ a polyhystor, used satirically. 

The affix tag^ teg implies the same meaning, but it is 
joined mostly to verbs formed by the passive verbal affix 


d^ which however is absorbed by the nominal affix, f. i.: 
csugged^ he is despondent, csiiggeteg^ fainthearted; aorvcui^ 
he decreases, sorvatag^ consumption; halgat^ he is silent, 
kcdgaJtag^ taciturn. Still we find likewise forog^ he turns, 
Joi^gatag^ he who often turns, andforgeteg^ a cyclone, a tempest; 
csorog^ it rattles, csorgeteg^ the brook, and several others. 
Hazudik^ he lies, makes hazug^ the liar. 

The affixes or, ^r, and dsz^ ^sz^ are likewise used to form 
noims denoting an agent: tud^ he knows, tudor^ a doctor, 
but ngom , he presses, makes nyomor^ misery, therefore con- 
dition; fest^ he paints, fesUaz^ the painter; kolt^ he makes 
poetry, koltesz^ the poet This last affix is rare in old words, 
but often met with in modern formations, and is in this 
respect analogous to the affix nok^ f. i.: Idt^ he sees, Idtnok, 
the seer; vh^ he engraves, vemok^ the engraver; iV, he 
writes, irmk^ the clerk. The cacophony of this affix in 
the dative plural ought to exclude these formations from 
elegant writing: who for instance could bear such words as 
Idtnokoknak J v^snokoknek ^ imokoknak. 

Besides these principal affixes, by which nouns denoting 
an agent are formed from verbs, we find a number of af- 
fixes of the same power, but of rare occurrence, f. i.: 

2, 81, m, ndi; szegodik^ he makes an indenture, szegodiy 
one who easily attaches himself to anybody; ugink, he jumps, 
ugriy a jumper; kap, he gets, kapst, covetous; oktaty he 
teaches, oktondz^ a stupid man (playfully); kivdn^ he de- 
sires, klvdncsi^ one who desires to know. 

Such are likewise: cz, acs^ dcs^ dg^ antj em, dm, az, va, 
d^fa^ vesz^ tek^ any, eny^ na; f. L: mofvg, he grumbles, he 
murmurs, morcz^ wild, mord, wild, mogorva, wild; szi, he 
absorbs, and he draws in, szicace^ a sponge; szdrad, it 
dries, ezdraz, dry; virity it blooms, virdg^ the flower; ^, 
it has a value, h'cz^ the metal^ erUk^ value, &remy a medal; 
folyik, it flows, folyam^ the stream ; tanit^ he teaches, iandc9^ 
the advice; villog, it flashes, villdmy the lightning; c^aZ, he 
cheats, csalfa^ a cheat, caalogat, he entices, cealogdny^ the 
nightingale; gyul^ he assembles, gyulev^az nip^ a mob, literally, 
collected people; fintorog^ he snubs, jSn^or/ia, snubbing. 


The accusative case, or the idea of an object, is prin- 
cipally expressed by the passive past participle. Its affix 
in the Hungarian is ty sometimes tt with the connect- 
ing vowel, f. i.: siily it is roasting, sulty a roast; szeret^ 
he loves, szeretetty beloved; yjirad, he toils, ^Vad^, weary; 
hervady it withers, hervadty withered. Exceptionally the 
past passive participle implies the meaning of an agent, for 
instance: eakusziky he takes an oath, eakudt^ a juror; olvasott 
embef'y a man who has read much, jdrt kelt ember ^ a man 
who has travelled much. Similar applications of the past 
passive participle occur likewise in the Arian languages. 

Next to the passive past participle we find the following 
affixes as forming most frequently nouns which stand in the 
relation of the accusative to the root: 

1) Mdnyy menyy and vdnyy vinyy since the m and v inter- 
change in Hungarian as frequently as in Sanskrit; kezd^ he 
begins, kezdeminy^ the initiative; aUcoty he moulds, he forms, 
cdkotmdnyy the constitution; ktlldy he sends, killdem^ny^ the 
missive; cw, he digs, dsvdnyy the mineral; mar ad ^ he re- 
mains, maradvdnyy the remainder. Still we find a few for- 
mations where this affix denotes an agent, f. i.: azokiky he 
flees, szokevenyy a fugitive; jo^ he comes, jovevMy^ the comer. 

2) Lek; this affix applies to all the vowels, and has no 
double form; ^'2^, he cookH , fozeUk ^ vegetables, because in 
Hungary they are cooked, not eaten raw as in England; 
oszty he divides, osztaUk, the portion; fugg^i it hangs, fug- 
geUk^ an appendix. 

3) Onyy ony; sodor^ he turns, sodrony^ the vrire; Jugg^ 
it h^ings , Jiiggony , the curtain. 

4) Aty et^ and in their development lat^ lety and taly tel; 
rajzol^ he draws, rajzolaty the drawing; iV, he writes, irat, 
the writing; javasol^ he recommends, javaslat^ the propo- 
sition; uz^ he drives, he carries on, uzlei^ commercial busi- 
ness; lehely he breathes, lehellet, breath; fuval, he blows 
gently, fuvallaty a breeze; hiszy he believes, hitely credit; 
eaziky he eats, 4tely food; iszik^ he drinks, italy drink. 
However since the idea of condition (the result of action) 
is nearly akin to the idea of the object, this same affix often 


forms nouns implying condition, that is to say, the result 
of action, f. i.: akar^ he wills, akarat^ the will; kSpvisel, 
he represents, kSpviseletf representation; nSz, he looks, 
nSzety the view; birdly he criticizes, birdlat, criticism; szerety 
he loves, azeretety love; joy he comes, jovetel, the arrival; 
m^y he goes, menetel, the going. 

5) The affix Sk forms nouns of object, sometimes like- 
wise of agent; mar ad y it remains, maradik^ the remainder, 
and the offspring; kever^ he mixes, kever^k, a mixture; 
borit^ he covers, boritik^ a cover; akad^ he stops, akadik^ 
a hindrance. 

6) Dik and dok express the object, exceptionally con- 
dition, sometimes the agent, f. i.: ondiky it falls, omladik^ 
a ruin; hully it falls, hulladik^ what falls off; seper^ he sweeps, 
sepredeky sweepings; nyow, he presses, nyomdok^ the foot- 
print; 8zdn^ he intends, szdndok and azdndiky the intention; 
ment^ he rescues, menedik^ an asylum. 

7) The following affixes are of rare occurrence: 
<^9'i ^ffy urit, he empties, ureff, a cave. 

taky tek; bir^ he possesses, birtoky possession; keky food. 
daly del; ely he lives, eledely food, but t?/v, he struggles, 

viadaly the struggle. 
dly d; fouy he spins, fondiy the thread; kot^ he binds, 

A£>M, the rope. 
al; von^ he draws, vonalj the line, 
ma, m^; kelly it is necessary, kelme^ merchandize. 
da; romliky it goes to destruction, ronda, ragged, nasty. 
gy; rongyy rag. 

C8; tekeTy he twists, tekercSy a roll. 
ofyy foffj he catches, fogoly, the prisoner. 
The principal affixes which form nouns of acting and of 
condition are the foUowings: 

As^ isy f. L: ohaa^ he reads, olvasds, the action of read- 
ing; biztosit, he insures, biztoeitds, the action of insuring, 
and security; morog^he mutters, morgds^ muttering; eaziky 
he eats, evis^ eating. 

This affix however forms sometimes nouns of object, for 
instance: vall^ he confesses, vaUds, religion and confession; 


refy he sows, vefesy the crops; fojik\ she lays eg^s, tojds, 
the egg; ?V, he writes, inisy the writing, what has been 
written, rak, he puts together, rakdsy a heap. 

We tind some instances where this affix has likewise a 
locative meaning, thus «Z, he sits, uUsy the sitting (the 
action of sitting), and the seat; szdll^ he alights, szdllds, 
lodgings; a//, he stands, dllds, not only social standing, and 
the action of standing, but likewise the caravansary. Some- 
times it expands into mds^ f. i.: dllomds, vallonids, adomds. 

The krit affix sdc/, seg forms nouns of action, (the same 
affix as taddhita implies abstraction). Kivdn, he desires, 
kiodnsdg, desire; lehety it can be, lehetseg^ possibility; siet, 
he hastens, sieUeg^ haste; nyevy he wins, nyeresig^ the gain; 
veszt^ he loses, vesztesig^ loss. 

The affix a;*, ejy expresses likewise the result of action. 
Nouns are formed by this affix from onomatopseic verbs in 
gy dropping the verbal affix: dobog^ he makes a trampling 
noise, dobajy the noise; niorogy he murmurs, morajy distant 
thunder; zorog^ he knocks, zbrejy the knock. 

The kindred affixes dlyy ely, aloniy elerriy and dalom^ de- 
leniy express the result of action, f. i.: veszy he perishes, 
veszely and veszedeleniy danger; dagady he swells, dagdly^ 
the swell; szenved, he suffers, szenvedelem and szenvedSlyy 
passion; szerety he loves, szereleniy love; ^rf, he understands, 
ertelem^ the meaning; iV, he writes, irodahm^ literature; 
fdj^ it gives ]pMn^ fdjdalom^ pain. 

We have seen that the above mentioned affixes express 
principally two cases, the nominative as agent, acting, or 
the result of action (condition), and the accusative as ob- 
ject. The oblique cases are represented in Hungarian by 
fewer affixes of rare occurrence. Besides the instances of the 
locative and instrumental meaning already adduced we may 
mention the locative affix c?a, as tanit^ he teaches, tanoda^ 
the school; jdr^ he goes, jar da ^ the trottoir; zdr^ he shuts, 
zdrda^ the monastery. 

Cso and cso are likewise locative affixes; hdg ^ he treads 
upon, hdgcso^ the ladder; lep^ he paces, Upcso^ the stair- 


The instrumental is represented by the affix la and lya; 
thus: 82ab, he cuts, szablya, the sabre; Jurul^ he whistles, 
Jurulya^ the shepherd's whistle; /w, he blows, fuvola^ the 

Dative affixes are rare; we tind this relation expressed 
by the affixes les and tea: hisz^ he believes, hiteles^ trust- 
worthy, one in whom we believe ; orvend^ he is glad (gaudet), 
orvendetesj glad, what gives gladness. The ablative relation 
may be traced in the affixes esy 05, as rettent^ he frightens, 
rettenetes^ frightful; tilt^ he forbids, tilos^ what we are for- 

It is one of the peculiarities of the Hungarian language 
to express the modifications of the original idea of the radi- 
cal rather by affixes than by prepositions ; thus the negation 
of an idea, which in the Arian languages commonly requires 
a prefix , is expressed in Hungarian by the affixes ilariy tlen, 
talauy telen^ which of course are applied both to roots and 
to nouns. Resolving the words thus formed, we find that 
those formed from roots correspond either to the present 
or to the past participle; drt^ he injures, drtatlan^ innocent; 
ehet^ he can eat, ehetetlen^ what cannot be eaten; nyugszik^ 
he rests, nyugtalan^ restless; tanuly he learns, tanulatlan, 
unlettered; yo, he boils, yS'f few, not boiled; sM, he injures, 
^ertetlen^ uninjured. — The following words may serve as 
examples of nouns with the affixes tlan^ tlen, and talan, 
telen: mlia^ clothes, ruhdtlan^ without clothes; gond^ care, 
gondtalan, without cares , gondatlauy careless ; szarriy number, 
szdmtalany numberless; f^k^ the bridle, fSktelen^ unbridled, 
feketlen^ without a bridle; isten^ God, tstentelen, godless. 

Among the Hungarian taddhitas, that is to say, those 
affixes which are added to nouns, I mention only a few. 
The most peculiar among them is certainly the derivative 
affix z, which may be added not only to nouns, but even 
to their flexions, though not promiscuously, since it cannot 
be added to the nominative plural, to the genitive, dative, 
and accusative, but it applies to the nominative singular, and 
to the instrumental, to the ablative, and to the locatives, 
both singular and plural. 


The possessive afiix as^ es^ os, is very common, bat in 
a few instances it has settled down into a peculiar significa- 
tion, f. i.: 

7n, sinews, inas^ footman; nyaky the neck, nyakasy 
headstrong; hdzj the house, hdzaa^ married; kiz^ the hand, 
kezea^ surety; azem^ the eye, szemes^ cautious; azarv^ the 
horn, szarvaSy the stag; fark^ the tail, farkaSy the wolf; 
Jul^ the ear^fules^ the donkey; ludj the goose, ludas^ the 

The affixes of abstraction sdffy and dahniy answer to the 
English -hood and -dom^ and to the German -schaji^ -fieity 
'keity and -thum. 

Well aware that an inquiry into the affixes of the Hungarian 
language cannot excite the special interest of English philo- 
logists , the preceding observations may have sufficed to show 
the nature and philosophy of a language, whose relation to 
the Arian family is not yet sufficiency determined, some 
of the forms and affixes being identical with Arian forms 
and affixes, whilst others, for instance the peculiar form 
of the oblique cases, the possessive affixes which commonly 
supersede the use of the genitive, the postposition of the 
prepositions &c. are altogether different from the Arian. 
At any rate, no conscientious philologist can dispose of it 
by jumbling it together with the Chinese, and Mongol, or 
even with the Dravidian languages, into one unwieldy heap 
of languages, in order to designate them as Turanian,— 
a teim, which in the present state of the science means 
only languages not yet sufficiently investigated by philo- 


THING AND ITS BASE THE. By F. J. Furnivall, Esq. 

One of the queries proposed for our Dictionary list was 
*^Thai. — Hwanne he havede his wiUe thai, 
The stede, Ihat he onne sat, 
Smot Ubbe with spares faste. Hateioh 1674. 
Does thai mean *in that', i. e. in that respect, or 'as to that'? or is 
it connected with Germ, gethan, done?'' 

I had no doubt that the meaning was ^done% and a few 
days afterwards, as I was copying 'The Moral Ode', as 
Hickes calls it, from the Egerton MS. 613 in the British 
Museum, I came on the following lines (st. 44): 

He is bnnen ys i bi nepen, bi foren i bi hinde, 
Pe pe godes wille de, eider he mai him finde. 

and in the later copy in the same volume I found "dedP' as 
the equivalent of this de. The verb occurred again in one 
of the Saints Lives in the Harl. MS. 2277, but I have lost 
the reference. Next came the MS. of Roberde of Brunne^s 
'Handlyng Synne' or 'Manuel de Pecches', and this gave 
me the noun thing = doing, working. 

He ches hym pre executours, 

Of al hys godys ordeynours — 

Twey lewede men and a clerk — 

To do gode yn scale werk. 

Pys clerk was a lordyng, 

pe toper was an husbnnde 

pat lyuede by hys pyn^, 

pe pryde was a marchaunde 

pat boghte and soldo wyp cnnnannte. (1- 6309-6316.) 

And again in the tale of the Witch and her Cow-sucking 
Bag, where she tells the Bishop why repeating the words 
only of her charm will not do : 

"Wide ^e beleue my wrdys as y, 

Hyt shulde a go and sokun ky." 

He seyde "pan faylep noghte but beleayng/' 

She seyde "pat helpep al my fyng'' (1. 545-8.)— all my 

working, all the effect I produce. 
From this sense of do, work, (with body, with mind, with 


•^ i3l T5Rl2..,'.-Tv?.KD -i^-^IJ IF !!^ WOBS- *IBCIi&* && 

'fn'Si*-, t.'.» "lie -n:i.-r,-r n ii'- r-^-ut 'r :ie •i»:Gi:£, the 

w,.*r;, M n ii' ••••• M;ai't t-o i T-'d-eiM^FT. jlw vt" kiiLzmage. 

A (♦^""•'ir.i.ii V -in I Tit^'r-^trn '-■Mr -*// 7) }e- = L ^¥, te. 

liirt i^^ri i»-.n. ..-^H ir HIT '*»t»*i>^'^- )»ir :aH- ;5Tr>p«:'<?^r has 

n^-ii. I -i.:i.i:. zi n c Ll:r:u^ii"iiz: .'ir ^' mcil nie *ryi is at 

r*. r. vi ijuniuix >> '^u-ar-r ia»L Lir* I im x!a*i to find 
•."Lie :;ie irrr/'ir.'.a if :.'</. ~.i// zi r^'} -MfO:?*? at least) 

i^i.'itiiiry ^-^*> iLir* :»r^Ti i*:*!:! fJiirr ^^t^^L d u*y^ at^'^pted. 

Ed 4ij.c, 4.k J. "air seilii. Kur^ia *a:iz, ic aii xLirTC- 
7«a« fia.i tiBiif 1 •iJ.a.. ^rxLa^ji ^iritf ikna. 

fWs fiti'i^ u< ,<is aBMr L»^tn. IxK -^^ r?^ ril>:e ▼•^^:&. i!^>diae Mar- 
rliiid ietJTTt a e4«a fit!j*r*. Xim. s. X:i:t3i crcLsidere*. omne ens 
jrta *xaRi*!is, in i^i £h!t«i2. «c. « ri imrme «aae rarsns conatur 
alkj^i hcitnr^ Tel le *«k:. Tei ci:a;:ia«!rTrin. ^uai iii«^. at in synooymis 
tme k e et rmekt osteatiL Cclki hoc aurLZun:^ «c{iv5&£iii •>«€€• ft, i/rir, 

Ttm^ L^ri^aszLai «rr*'iii Wioireni* a t/tmrn Sicere. cai opinioni pa- 

trxinatar, .:jn>i On^iTtiia .-r^^r; u,^ r*!n et *;m.u.L a^ruonem denotet. Sed 
oh<tat tameo h:ii< ieriTatiisi. *itiA rii-h:-. omU'?* diaieeios ftii^ per f 
Tel /* Sfrrih«re, i^«a Tep>. li:el hi-iie ai^oinsionem acUoiTeiit, apud 
aoti^aoa tamea non nL?i f simplei Libaiii*. Moaendo* Tero es. Lector, 
hasce litteras raro a Teteribo* inter *e coofusas fuisse. 


Hensleigh Wedgwood, Esq. 

At oar last meeting (Nov. 10) a discussion arose whether 
vrig were a corruption of perivng from Fr. perruque as bus 
from omnibus, or whether the conversion of perruque into 
periwiff may not have been produced by the attraction of 
a form ivig already in the language in the same sense. 

To take the argument for the radical independence of the 
homely lotg in the first place, we find a root unck or toock 
signifying a bunch or knot of fibrous materials, affording 
a most natural image whence the designation of a tuig might 
be taken, as conversely we call an enlarged mass of fibrous 
roots a tvig. We may cite O.H.G. uuichel, pensum, mani- 
pulus; P1.D. wocke, Bav. wickely the handful of flax on a 
distaff. The latter is also applied in joke to a wig or the 
person who wears it — Schmeller. In parts of Bavaria die 
vyicke is used for the hair; einen bei der wicke nee^ to take 
one by the hair; vmckely harvmcklj a lock of hair. In the 
same way Gael, gmag is used for a lock of hair, the hair 
of the head, a wig. 

The root appears again in E. vncky Swab, mcken, the 
wick of a candle, originally a knot of fibrous materials 
daubed with combustible matter or immersed in grease. 
Sax. wocky funiculus. — Kil., doubtless the loosely twisted 
yam used as a match or lintstock. G. mecke, as well a 
wick as the roll of fibre inserted as a tent in a wound. 

The supporters of the claims of perivyig hardly put forth 
their strongest case in deriving the word direct from Fr. 
perruque, between which and periwig there is a considerable 
gap. At the time the word seems to have been introduced 
there was much intercourse with the Low Countries, and it 
may well have been taken from the^mA, which is nearly 
identical with Minsheu's pei^ck, while the latter might 
easily have changed into perwig, perivyig^ if there had been 
no antecedent mig in tlie language. 

It must be remembered however that when perrukes were 
introduced, they would be a rare article and there would 


be none of that hourly mention of them by busy and un- 
educated people which has operated so powerfidly in re- 
ducing omnibus to bus^ or cabriolet to cab. If perivyig was 
really cut down to wig^ the change must have been well 
known at the time, yet we have not a tittle of positive 
evidence for the descent of the one from the other, and 
the only presumption that can be set against the indepen- 
dent existence of vrig^ which we have supported by such 
strong analogies, is the fact that the earliest instance of the 
word in our dictionaries is about a hundred years subse- 
quent to that of periwig. But no one can suppose that the 
dictionaries or even the whole written literature of the lan- 
guage can be relied on for the earliest use of a word with- 
in anything like that limit. 

IN SETTING ON OF DOGS. Br Hensleigh Wedg- 
wood, Esq. 

One of the most fertile sources of Etymological discovery 
is, when we find a series of somewhat distantly related 
meanings expressed by modifications of a common root, to 
seek for analogous cases in other lar^uages or with other 
roots, and to yield ourselves with an unprejudiced mind 
to the guidance of the clue they afford. While pursuing 
such a course I have been frequently struck with the ap- 
pearance of extreme incongruity in meaning between the 
remote derivations and the original image, and it may be 
well to direct our attention to this phenomenon as pre- 
paring us for a line of derivation contrary to what we 
might expect to find in the development of language. If 
language be the natural growth of our faculties, and every 
word be originally meant as the representation of a sound 
adapted by analogy at least to recall the idea of the thing 
signified, there must, in the case of abstract or highly 


generalised notions, be a very wide range of choice among 
the types from whence the original designation may be 
taken, and the most obvious principle of selection will be 
to employ for that purpose the image which is characterised 
in the most striking manner by an audible accompaniment. 

In a late paper an unbroken line of derivation was traced 
from the cry go bet! formerly used to encourage hunting 
dogs, abouto! a cry accompanied by clapping the hands 
used in the South of France in setting on dogs to fight 
(Diet. Castraise), through Icel. beitay G. baitzeuy E. bait, 
Lang, aboutuy to set on dogs, to incite or encourage them 
to attack, to use them in driving cattle or in the chase of 
wild animals; E. baity the food used to incite or allure an 
animal to take the hook or enter a trap, and with a modi- 
fied spelling, bate, strife stirred up between parties, Sw. 
reta-betta^ E. malce-bate^ a stirrer up of strife; Lang, abouta, 
to stir to anger; A.S. gebetan^ to incite or inflame; E. abet^ 
to incite to action; E. bete^ Du. boeten^ to kindle or stir 
the fire; Fr. boute-feuy an incendiary; E* bete, Du. boeten, 
to supply with fuel, supply a want, mend, make better, 
and in a still more general sense Fr. bouter^ to thrust for- 
wards; Sw. beta, to put horses to a carriage, Icel. beita^ 
to wield a sword, to push forwards on a journey &c. 

I am unable to throw light on the origin of the cry go 
bet! unless the latter syllable be intended to represent the 
clapping of the hands by which the cry is accompanied as 
indicated in the Diet. Castraise. More frequently the cry 
used in setting on of dogs is taken from the hissing or 
snarling sounds of the angry animal, represented by various 
combinations of r, ^, and ti ss! at! ts! rr! tr! 

It will be found in numerous cases that roots originating 
in such representations pass through a series of significations 
corresponding in a remarkable manner with those indicated 
in my former paper, expressing the setting on of dogs, 
initating, inciting to action, kindling, inflaming either mo- 
rally or physically, and hence anger, contest, hostility or 
physical heat; and finally the simple origination or guidance 




of physical action. In the Finnish class of languages we 
have Lap. has! as! as Servian osh! cry used in (hiving out 
dogs, Lap. hasetetj Serv. oshkatiy so to drive them away; 
Lap. hasketetj hoskotet^ hotsalet^ to set dogs on; fuzstet, to 
provoke, to incite, to challenge to fight, in which very 
likely may be preserved the origin of the Latin Tioetis. 

Fin. has! has! cry in setting on dogs, hasHtaa^ Esthon. 
assatamay to set them on. W. hys^ the snarling of a dog, 
hysioy to cause to snarl, to urge, to set on — Lewis. Manx 
hyss^ to set a dog on anything; P1.D. hiss! exclamation used 
in setting on dogs, de schaop hissen^ to drive sheep — Danneil. 
Du. hissen, hisscheriy to hiss, hisschen^ hitschen, hussen, hitsen^ 
hetseUf to set on, instigate, inflame; hisschen de honden op 
den wolf, to set dogs on the wolf— Kil. G. hetzen, to course 
or chase with dogs, to bait; etnen Ochsen hetzen, to bait a 
bull; to incite, instigate, set on; Leute an einandei' hetzen^ 
to provoke people to anger, to set them by the ears; Hitze^ 
heat, passion, anger; Dan. Mdse^ to incite, set on, pro- 
voke, to quarrel, to heat, make angry; hidse en hare, U) 
course a hare; hidsig^ ardent, eager, passionate; Sw. hessa, 
hetsuy to set on a dog, to heat; vinet hetsar mig, the wine 
heats me; hetsigj passionate, easily moved to anger, wpp- 
hetsa^ to provoke, stir up, incite; forhetsa sig^ to put one- 
self in a passion. 

In Italian the cry for setting on dogs is uzz! at Modena, 
and izz! at Florence, whence uzzarcy izzare, aizzare, adizzare^ 
to set on dogs to attack; izza^ as G. Hitze^ contest, anger; 
aissare, to hiss or set dogs on to fight, to egg or provoke 
to anger or revenge, aizzosoy revengeful — Florio. 

From the combination ts! we have prov. E. tissy PI. D. 
tisseuy G. zischen, to hiss; Sw. tmsa^ to set on dogs, tmsa 
ihop folky to set folks at variance, perhaps explaining the 
familiar E. tiissUy a struggle. It. Uzzare, atHzzare^ to egg 
on, irritate, provoke, to stir up the fire; tizzo^ tizzone, a 
firebrand; stizzare, stizzire^ to stir the fire, to make or be- 
come angry; stizza, rage, anger; stizzoy a firebrand; stizzoso, 
testy, subject to sudden wrath; Walach. atzitzare, to set on, 


incite, fall into a passion, kindle fire; Esthon. zutsitama^ 
to set on a dog. 

Here I would pause to make two observations. In the 
first place as It. tizzo^ tizzone is undoubtedly the same with 
Lat. titioy a firebrand, we remark an instance where the 
root of a Latin word, apparently lost in the original lan- 
guage*, is preserved in its Romance descendants. And 
secondly as G. hitze^ Dan. hidae^ £. heaty can hardly be 
separated from G. heisa^ Dan. hed^ Sw. het^ E. hot^ we find 
the course of metaphor to have led from the notion of moral 
to that of physical heat, as from moral to that of physical 
kindling, directly opposite to what we should have expected. 

Returning to our theme we have Bret atiza^ to instigate, 
incite, abet; Fr. attiser^ formerly entUeVy entichery to kindle, 
stir up, provoke; attise-quereUey a make-bate; E. tise^ en- 
tice y now to incite or allure, although the original meaning 
is sometimes preserved, as when a Pembrokeshire peasant 
speaks of iising a pig out of the garden , by which he means 
setting on a dog to drive it out. A slight difference of 
spelling and pronunciation growing out of a somewhat dif- 
ferent application gives to tease, to irritate, to stir up in a 
disagreeable manner. 

The Esthon. zutsitama^ Walach. atzitzare^ lead on to Lat 
citare^ to stir up, to urge or call forwards (in which latter 
sense it may be compared with Lap. hmtety to call one out, 
to challenge), incitare, concitare, excitarey to impel one to 
act, to instigate. Perhaps Lat ciere^^ to stir up, put in 
motion, call to, may be explained in a similar manner from 
W. noy to hiss. "He shall hiss for the fly that is in the 
uttermost parts of Egypt" Ciere in pugnam ; ciere ad arma. 

The exclamation takes a form analogous to our cry of 
shook ! to frighten animals , in Pol. szczuc or szczwacy Bohem. 
sstwatiy to set on dogs, to hunt A farther development 
of the cry gives Gael, stuig^ to halloo, to incite or spur 
on to fight, as dogs; Icel. styggiay to irritate, provoke; 

^ If the root of titio be a sound tity or t%t$ with the sense of stirring 
up, it would explain the diminutiye titillo, to tickle or stir up lightly 
and gently. 


styggTy harsh, severe, hateful. Hence we may explain the 
Gr. root qvy implying hostility and hate, and also Lat. in- 
atigoy to set on. Romanes in Annibalem, canem in aliquem 
instigare; instigare in arma &c. 

The use of r instead of a in representing the noises of 
an angry dog gives Lat. kirrire^ irrire, to snarl, from whence 
in accordance with so many analogies in the present paper 
I would derive ira, anger. A. S. yrre, anger, angry ; Lap. fiarrety 
harritet, Fin. drrdtd, to snarl like a dog, thence to be angry 
and ill-tempered; drtstd, to chafe with anger; drid^ ynd^ 
snarling, angry; drind^ anger; drryitdd, drkyttdd^ to set on a 
dog, to provoke, make angry; Bret, argad! cry to frighten 
wolves; argadiy to halloo, to hoot, to incite, provoke, to make 
a hostile incursion upon (explaining Fr. hargoter, ergoter, to 
wrangle); Bret argarziy to hate, argarzuz^ horrible, ab- 

W. herr, hyrr^ the snarling or gnarring of a dog, cry used in 
setting on a dog, a pushing or egging on; herriant, a provoca- 
tion; hyrddio^ to irritate, impel, push, drive, to make an as- 
sault or onset. Norse Atrra, Icel. erra^ erta^ O.E. ert (Prompto- 
rium), Dan. irre^ to irritate, provoke ; arrigy snappish, angry, 
ill-tempered; cergre, to provoke, to vex. Prov. E. Aarr, to 
snarl ; Sc. harry ^ obstinate, stubborn ; E. tVA, to worry or an- 
noy, to be compared with Fin. drkyttdd above mentioned. Fr. 
hare! hare-leorier! hare-hu! cries of encouragement to dogs; 
harer^ to hound a dog at a beast; hai^rier, hardier (parallel 
with W. hyrddio\ to provoke, spur on, incite, attack. Hence 
It. ardito^ Fr. hardi, bold, daring; Lap. herdo, courage, 
herdoty to dare. Another application of the root gives mean- 
ings analogous to E. tease. Fr. harier, to harry, hurry, 
molest; haraler, to provoke, incense, to vex, harry, hurry; 
harassery to weary or wear out, to vex, hurry, torment- 
Col^. Hargncy quarrel or incitement to quarrel, ill-temper; 
hargneuxy wrangUng, quarrelsome. A. S. herian^ hergian^ 
to harry or make a hostile inroad upon, to vex, plunder, 
lay waste. Hence Icel. her, G. heer^ an army. In like 
manner Hung. %t9z, tiszu, uczu, cries used in setting on a 
dog, vszitaniy huszitani^ to set on, to incite, and thence 


kuszar^ a light horseman, skirmisher, soldier adapted for 
harassing the enemy. 

Then as the root took a form tiss as well as hiss in the 
former series, so with the a replaced by an r we have a 
radical tar or tir as well as har or kir. PLD. tarren, tar- 
gen (compared in the Brem. W5rt with E. dare)^ to tease, 
irritate, entice, quarrel, make angry; tiren^ term, to tease, 
to pull; Dan. tirre, tcerge^ to provoke, to tease, to worry. 
E. to tar on a dog, to set him on to fight; to tar or ter, 
to vex, disquiet, provoke. They have tarred thee to anger 
— Wicliff in Wilbraham. Ter, anger, passion— Hal. A. S. 
ttrian^ to irritate, exasperate, provoke, vex, oppress; Bo- 
hem, teyrati^ tirati^ to vex, incommode, fatigue; Gr. tuqm, 
to molest, oppress, vex, wear out or consume; E. tire^ to 
weary and formerly to consume. 

From the same form must be explained It tir are ^ Fr. 
tirer^ to draw, the original meaning of which is seen in It. 
tira-came^ an incentive to lust, tiray an altercation, to be 
compared with E. ter^ anger. Prov. tirar, affliger, peiner, 
contrarier — Haynouard. G. zerren, to worry, to tug, to 
pull one about; sich mit einem zerren, to tease, vex, trouble, 
enrage one. 

Next, with an a prefixed as in It. iizza^ stizza^ Manx 
styr, hiss, used to set a dog on— Cregeen; Bohem. siirati^ 
to vex; Icel. %rr, war; E. stir, to provoke to anger, to 
incite to flames, to move to action or to passion, and finally 
simply to move in a mechanical sense. 

The transposition* of the elements t and r in the radical 
syllable gives Gr. SQedo)^ Lat. ritare (in irritare, proritare'), 
Icel. mto, Sw. reta^ G, reizen, Du. ritamy riitaen, to stir 
to anger, provoke, incite, whence by the familiar inter- 
change of ts and ks, Lat. iHxay strife, as observed by Ihre. 
It is singular that he did not mention Gr. eQig, eQidog 
which is still nearer the root with which he was dealing. 
The Fin. riita^ Lap. rita, controversy, discord, would lead 
us to regard Lat. Zw, litis as an offshoot from the same 
stock, with the original r softened down to an Z, while the 
fuller form stlis would stand in the same relation to O.H.G, 


strit, G. 8treity Sw. strid, contest, strife. Icel. strida^ gora 
til stridsj angere, molestare; atrida, hostility. 

At the onset of the present paper I endeavoured to pre- 
pare my hearers for results that might shock some of Iheir 
established notions, and in winding up I must entreat them 
not on that account sunmiarily to reject my conclusions 
without a patient consideration of the wide range of analo- 
gies from which they are deduced. No doubt if G. hetzen^ 
to incite, Sw. hetsa, Dan. hidse^ to incite, set on, to heat, 
and G. hitze^ Sw. hetta^ heat, passion, anger, stood by 
themselves, we should have little hesitation in deriving the 
notion of setting on from that of heating or inflaming the 
passions of the animal, but if such were really the order of 
derivation we must either separate forms like G. hetzm, 
Dan. hidae^ Du. hitsen, from It. izzare^ uzzare^ aizzare^ amare, 
Du. hisaen, huaseny or we must suppose that the cries ac- 
tually used in setting on dogs — izz! uzz! Jma! uaz! and even 
the inarticulate sounds 88 ! ta! st! used for the same purpose, 
are remnants of words like hitze^ fmas, hecxt. If we had only 
the Romance forms, we should not hesitate to consider titioy a 
firebrand, as the origin of It. tizzare, Fr. attw^, and E. tease, 
entice; but then we must give a Romance derivation to Sw. tussa, 
and ignore the connection with tissen, to hiss, as well as with 
the It. synonyme izzare. And so with the objections which 
meet us on other isolated points. Every one would at first 
be inclined to derive Icel. herUiy to make a hostile incursion, 
from her, an army, rather than vice versa. But can we sup- 
pose that the cries herr! hyrr! hare! rr! used to irritate or in- 
cite a dog, are derived from the Teutonic or Scandinavian word 
for an army? On the other hand, if the foregoing cries be 
merely representations of the snarling of a quarrelsome dog, 
we can attribute no other origin to the Fr. harevy harrier^ to 
hound on a dog, provoke, molest, harass, or E. hare^ to attack, 
to scare; harry y to oppress, make a hostile incursion on. 

"that ruka way's eyes may wink." 135 

By Henslbigh Wedgwood, Esq. 

Gallop apace you fiery-footed steeds 
Towards Phcebns' mansion; sach a waggoner 
As Phaeton would whip you to the West 
And bring in cloudy Night immediately. 
Spread thy close curtain, loye-performing Night, 
That Bunaway*s eyes may wink, and Romeo 
Leap to these arms untalked of and unseen. 

Romeo and Juliet , A. III. Sc. 2. 

Few passages of Shakespeare or any other author have 
been so much tortured by the commentators as the fore- 
going in order to make sense out of the words as they 
stand. One explains Runaway to mean the Day, another 
the Night, a third Cupid, and another Juliet herself, making 
her modestly pray that the darkness may conceal her re- 
ception of Romeo from her own eyes; whether it is her own 
tattling also that she would fain escape, it does not occur 
to the commentator to inquire, although the effect of darken- 
ing Runaway's eyes is expected to be that the reception 
of Romeo will be untalked of as well as unseen. 

Steeyens' explanation may be worth giving: ^'Juliet first 
wishes for the absence of the sun and then invokes the 
night to spread its curtain close aromid the world. Next 
recollecting that the night would seem short to her, she 
speaks of it as a runaway whose flight she would wish to 
retard and whose eyes she would blind lest they should 
make discoveries." 

With such unsatisfactory attempts at explanation it is not 
surprising that another class of editors should have been 
convinced that the nonsensical "Runaway's" was a cor- 
ruption of the text, and accordingly they have variously 
substituted "unawares", "enemies", "rude day's", or 
"soon day's", "Renomy's", a word coined for the occasion 
from Fr. Renomm^ey meaning rumour or talebearing, a sense 
which the French word mil certainly not bear. Finally in 
the eighth vol. of Notes and Queries Mr. Singer with well- 
grounded confidence suggested rumorersy a word elsewhere 
used by Shakespeare in the sense required: 


Go see this rumorer whipt, it cannot be 
The VoUces dare break witb us. — Goriolanas. 

Mr. Singer's emendation is strongly confirmed by a pas- 
sage in a ballad extant in Shakespeare's time which the poet 
may very likely have had in his thoughts, if indeed it was 
not a common place in the ballad poetry of the time. 

Makyne the nicht ia soft and dry 

The wether warm and fair, 

And the grene wod richt neir hand by, 

To walk attowre all where. 

There may nae Janglers ns espy 
That is to Lofe contrair, 
Therein Makyne baith yon and I 
Unseen may make repair. 

Henryson. Robin and Makyne. 

Now the enemies of Love, from whose notice Juliet is de- 
sirous of being shrouded by the curtain of Night, are the 
Janglers of the ballad, tattlers, as the word is rendered by 
Jamieson, and as it would be difficult to find a synonym 
for tale*bearers agreeing so well in outward appearance with 
Runaway's I have little doubt that Rumoreri was really the 
word disguised under the Runawaj/s of our copies. 

fessor Key. 

The word duntaxat at once by its form suggests a deri- 
vation from dum taaat, so that the logical explanation seems 
alone to present a difficulty. Our own word taa is probably 
derived from the Latin verb, but gives but a poor clue to 
the real meaning of the original word. Such a failure in- 
deed is little to be wondered at, considering the nature of 
the case, for when we derive a word from a Latin origin, 
we take it with its latest meaning, whereas it is in the 
earliest use of a Latin word that we must expect to find 


that first meaning which results from its formation. For- 
tunately Gellius (II. 6. 5) gives as both the origin and true 
meaning of omr verb when he says: taaare premus crebrius- 
que est quam tangere unde procul duhio id incKnatum est If 
from tangere tactus we might rather have expected tactarsy 
we most remember that while the older dialect of Latin 
preferred pultarsy mertare, these at a later date became pwif- 
sare, mereare. So from affigere we find two participles af- 
fictus and affixus. So explained , duntaxat or dum tcLxat 
ought to signify 'until it closely touches', or if used with 
less accuracy, * until it touches'. These words will be found 
satisfactorily to account for the different uses of the con- 
junction, even though these uses differ so widely as to in- 
clude the very opposite ideas of "at most" and "at least". 
The difference will be found to turn upon the question, 
whether it be a command that we are dealing with, or a 
permission. In a command, the qualification dum taaat^ 
until it touches, must mean 'not less than, at least'; but 
with a permission, 'not more than, at most'. Examples 
will place this in a clearer view. Thus in the Digests L. 16. 
202 we find: quum in testamento scriptum esset ut heres in 
funere duntaxat aureos centum consumeret, non licet minus 
coneumercy si amplius vellet^ licet. In Orelli's inscriptions 
(707) occurs another testamentary condition, where the 
translation "at least" is required. Let us next take a case, 
where the condition has a permissive character. In the Di- 
gests XXV. 4. 1. 10 a praetor issues an order, ut mittant si 
velint quae ventrem inspiciant, mittantur autem mulieres liber ae 
duntaxat quinque. In a commission of so delicate a nature 
the law might well require that the jury of matrons should 
be limited. Take again a permissive case from Gate's 'de 
re rustica' (49): Vineam veterem si in alium locum transferre 
voles y duntaxat brachium crassam licebity the plants to be so 
removed to fresh ground must not be thicker than one's arm. 
But duntaxaty besides its use practically as an adverb, 
seems to have the power of a conjunction in a permissive 
sentence of Lucretius (IL 123) with the meaning of 'at 
least, so far as'. Lachmann indeed, generally so trustworthy 



a guide, has damaged the passage by inserting a full stop 
before duntaxaty so as to destroy the connection. From 
the endless warfare between the motes in a sunbeam says 
the poet, we may form a conjecture how ih^primardia rerum . . 
in magno icictari semper tnani, so far at least as a little 
matter can give an exemplar rerum magnarum. 


I need not stop to discuss a theory which would divide 
this adjective by a hyphen between the n and q, tran-quittus, 
and refer the second portion to the root qutesco. The fol- 
lowing is put forward as at least a more probable solution 
of the problem. When a word begins with cr, pr, or tr^ it 
may generally be assumed, first, that an intermediate short 
vowel has been lost; secondly, that the liquid is as likely 
to have been originally an Z as an r; thirdly, that the initial 
consonant itself may have been changed. Thus celebe^* and 
crebei' are words all but identical, scruta-ri is but a fre- 
quentative of a simpler verb seen in the Greek axaXeveiv, 
cruor and xQvaxaXXog are in the first syllable identical with 
gelu^ and the Latin preposition tran^a corresponds to the 
Greek negav. I believe then that tranquiUua is but a cor- 
ruption of planquiUuSy — the substitution of an r in the first 
syllable being aided by the neighbourhood of the repeated 
I in the afterpart of the word. If this view be right, we 
start here from the ro^ pad or pal oipando^ palam, palma 
Ac. whence palantis or plants. From this is formed ptanctcs, 
so familiar as a cognomen; but also used in other connections. 
Thus under the proper name Plancm we find in Freund or 
Andrews (the English compiler happens to have missed the 
passage) a quotation from Festus: plancae tabulae planae^ 
ob quam causam et pland appellantur qui supra modum pe^ 
dibus plani sunt Thus in the diminutival planca we have 
the origin of the French planche and our plank. But from 
an adjective plancus are regularly deduced first planculus, 
and then plancillus or planquillus^ in the latter of which we 
seem to see the more genuine form of tranquiUus, 



That the conjunction si and the adverb sic are intimately 
related, was shown by the present writer in a paper on 
the pronouns of the third person several years ago. Among 
other arguments then used, notice was drawn to the fact 
that we ourselves still use so in the sense of if^ and that 
the German in its older form had the same habit. Further, 
it is demonstrable that sic contains in its final consonant 
that suffix ce which enters into the formation of so many 
demonstratives. The form sicine (like hicine) is alone enough 
to prove this. It is now proposed to confirm the doctrine 
as regards the Latin, by showing that the form si is itself 
at times employed as an adverb with the meaning 'so'; 
and it is in the familiar phrase si dis placet that this mean- 
ing is found. The translation 'if it pleases the gods' will 
effectually destroy the meaning of any passage where the 
phrase occurs. On the other hand "so it pleases the gods" 
will be found to fit well. The chief, if not the only, use 
of the phrase is where a sneer is intended, and the words 
may be rendered: "so indeed heaven has ordained, no doubt 
to punish us for our sins". As Donatus observes: proprium 
est exclamantis propter indignitatem alicuius rei. Examples 
are abundant. Take Cicero in Pis. 16. 38: Appellatus est 
hie vuUuriiis iUms provinciae (si dis placet) imperator. Again 
Liv. VI. 40: L. ilium Sextium et C. Ldcinium, perpetuos (si 
dis placet') tribunes; XXXIV. 32. 17: Cum Philippo haste 
nostroy 7wn societatem solum y sed (si dis placet) q^nitatem 
pepiffisti; IV. 3 : Quin etiam (si dis placSt) nefas aiunt esse 
consulem plebeium fieri. 

But it is not only in this phrase that si means 'so', the 
conjunction si-cut , 'so as', should be divided so as to give 
the guttural to the relative adverb, just as hu-cusque is com- 
pounded of the older adverb Ao, hither, seen also in horsum 
(i.e. fw-vorsum), just as the Romans also formed ho-die 
rather than hocdie. The cusque of hwcusque stands in proper 
connection with quisque; the cut of si-cut with quod. 



I have said nothing of the appearance of si^ ^so% in 
several of the modem languages formed out of the Latin, 
because this may very possibly have grown out of aic. 

(ONE-HANDED). By Professor Key. 

So long as philologists permit themselves the liberty of 
substituting for legitimate reasoning an unrestrained use of 
the fallacies too often concealed under the learned names 
epenthesis^ proBthem^ metatheais, paragoge &c., the progress 
of their science must be doubtfiil. It is matter tiierefore 
for deep regret that the word Umstellung is still allowed to 
play so important a part in the new edition (1858) of Bopp's 
Yergleichende Grammatik, when the announced ^^glinzlich 
umgearbeitete", and an interval of twenty three years, might 
have suggested better hopes. We have for example again 
reprinted, what, with all respect for the writer, I cannot 
but call, the unhappy discussion appended to § 308 on the 
four Gothic words hofihsy 'one-eyed', hanfs^ 'one-handed', 
haUsy 'lame', and halbs^ 'half'. In dealing with the second 
of these words Bopp's mode of procedure, it may be re- 
collected, is this: hanfa being the crude form of hanfa, he 
finds in the letters Aa a representative of the idea 'one', 
corresponding in form to ka (the termination) of the ordinary 
Sanskrit numeral eka. This leaves the letters nfa for the 
idea 'hand', and he next assumes the loss of an i between 
the two consonants, following herein, so far as regards the 
insertion of some vowel, the analogy of the Sanskrit gagmima 
'we went' for ga-gam-ina, and the Greek mnzco for ni-neT^of. 
This gives him ni/a^ which, he says, by the principle of 
metathesis may stand for /am', and so legitimately correspond 
to the Sanskrit pani, 'hand'—so wiirde nifa als UmsteUung 
des sanskritischen j?am 'hand' gelten kdnnen; mt f tixr p 
nach § 87—. 


Seldom have I seen such a combination of bold assnmptions 
in any philological enquiry. Already the disregard of the 
more essential vowel of the numeral eka is startling; the 
assumption too of the particular vowel i as lost in nfa in 
preference to a, ^, o, or w, is rather convenient than con- 
vincing. Again, it would be more satisfactory to have shown 
that the Gothic or some of its immediate kindred actually 
possesses the word/im for ^hand', than to prove by the 
analogy of Sanskrit that it ought to possess it But the 
asserted metathesis of fani for nifa out-tops all these as- 
sumptions, and would scarcely obtain the assent of any 
one, whose intellect had not been dazzled by the reputation 
of the writer. 

But the best mode of controverting any disputed etymo- 
logy is to propose what is more satisfactory. I request 
then attention to the following. That the four words hcdhs^ 
hanfs^ halts i and hcdbay have something common in the first 
part, seems highly probable, yet rather than admit that the 
syllable ha represents ka of the Sanskrit eka^ I should more 
readily acquiesce in that other explanation which Bopp him- 
self puts forward, though only to reject, viz.: that it is the 
equivalent of ha in the Zend ha-k^rit 'once', Sanskrit 
sa-hrt^ and of ha of the Greek a-nlovq 'simple'; and this 
in spite of the dogma that a Gothic h never ^ corresponds to 
a Sanskrit s (9). But I give a decided preference to an- 
other view, inasmuch as I deem it generally safer to ex- 
plain a word out of its own language, or, if this be im- 
possible, out of those which are in the closest affinity to 
that language. The word half is found in all tJie German 
languages, including (as we have just seen) the Gothic it- 
self; and with ourselves it is virtually reduced to the form 

1 This positive assertion of the German scholar appears to be some- 
what rash, as himma-daga in Gothic represents the Latin hodie, Sanskrit 
<|f^ sa~dya , to say nothing of other examples of the demonstrative pro- 
noun in question. I may add too that the Gothic hleiduma, superlative 
QiMeUkst is in its first syllable the analogue of the Yedic adjective WKT^ 
ialavi, whence in later Sanskrit suvi-a with the loss of the liquid, whereas 
the Latin laevo^ has been truncated in the initial syllable. 


Aa in the words half -penny (he! -penny) ^ hdlfpennyworih 
(haYorth). This conlaraction is the less surprising, if, as I 
believe to be the fact, the final / be but a diminutiTal suffix 
(of. turf and Scotch toor of the same meaning; wharf and 
Fr. ffare^ landing place); and the suppression of a final Z, 
especially when preceded by the vowel a, is of the com- 
monest occurrence ; nay , we omit it in the word half itself. 
But be this as it may, we have the fact that in two exist- 
ing words half is reduced to ha. Thus we are brought, 
like Bopp, to a remainder w/a, in which, if we were to 
proceed by an a pnori argument, I should be disposed to 
assume the loss of an a or ^, rather than t, for these let- 
ters accord better with the preceding and following vowel 
in hanfa. But it is safer to deal with the actual. In the 
Gothic itself we find little help, and this is no matter for 
surprise, considering the fragmentary condition in which 
that language has come down to us. We therefore turn to 
those members of the German family which stand in close 
relation to it, as the Swedish (often called the Suio-gothic), 
the Danish, Norse, and Lowland Scotch. Here we find in 
abundance what we want, Old-Norse hn^ 'fist', mel-hne/i 
'handftd of meal', hnefa Ho claw hold of; Swed. ndfve 
*fist', en ndfve full 'handful'; Dan. nceve 'fist'; and in 
Scotch neivey nieve or neave^ pi. n^^ or nevys &c. 'fist', 
hund to nieve 'hand and glove' (as the colloquial phrase is), 
nieve fu' 'handful', nefle 'to grasp', navell or neveU 'to 
strike with the fist'. (See Jamieson.) 

Thus hanfa may well signify 'one-handed' or 'half-handed' ; 
and we cannot but give a preference to the latter, when 
we find that the Hungarian language forms in the same way 
by means of a word/^Z 'half, fd-kezH 'half-handed', fil- 
szemil 'half-eyed', fd-ldbu 'hatf-footed', where however 
the practical meaning is that one hand, eye, foot, alone is 
serviceable. So also the same language in fil-eszH 'half- 
witted' has a form in exact agreement with our own term*. 

^ I am indebted for this valuable iilustration to my friend Mr. Pulszky. 


By Professor Key. 
The error, not a very rare one, of looking afar for that 
which is lying at our feet, is exemplified, if I am not mis- 
taken, in what has been written on the origin of the Greek 
noun dri^iog. This word, I find "is by some derived from 
dectf, as if it signified an enclosure marked of from the woMe^ 
just as our word town comes according to Home Tooke 
from the Saxon verb tynan Ho enclose' (Arnold, ad Thuc. 
vol.1. Appendix iii)". The writer from whom I borrow 
this quotation himself adds: 'It seems however more simple 
to connect it with the Doric da for y5.' I beg to suggest 
a totally different origin, and one which not only agrees 
with the precise meaning of the term, but also explains 
the origin of the word in every letter, for it will be ob- 
served that the etymologies just given take no notice of the 
letter /w. The habit of translating technical terms by merely 
anglicizing the termination led me first to talk to myself of 
'a deme', and the sound of this happened to remind me 
of the French 'dime', just as I had before me a statement 
that a deme was the tenth part of an Athenian tribe. Now 
this very word tribe will serve as a most useful illustration 
of my argument. It appears to have been first applied 
when Rome had but three such divisions, the Ramnes, Titles 
and Luceres; and the word when analysed is the exact re- 
presentative of our own term thHding , whence we have the 
Nor^-Thriding, East-Thriding, and West-Thriding of York- 
shire, or as by a natural error we now call them the "Three 
Ridings". I have said that tribu- is exactly represented in 
English by the word thriding. The truth of this is seen as 
to the first part, when we observe the tendency of the Latin 
language to have a b after an r, where we have a d, as 
in barbtty beard; ve^^bum^ word; cuctirbita) gourd &c. Again 
ing is a diminutival suffix in English, as u is of Latin. 
These suffixes are considered in my paper on Latin Diminu- 

^ Compare Nor-folk, Nor- West, Nor-East, Nor- way (Norweg), Nor-man. 
The term trithing as applied to the three divisions of Yorkshire still 
maintains its place in legal language. 


tives, so that I may here deem it enough to point to /art^ 
ing *a little fourth', and tithAng 'a little tenth'. And this 
brings me back to dfifiog^ which, if I am right, is an exact 
equivalent in origin and sense of our tithing , a word only 
used among us to denote a subdivision of land. Nay the 
tribes of Rome were also local denominations; and in fact 
Livy speaks of a tribm Sappinia far away from the ager 
Ramanusy as designating a district. And to complete the 
matter we learn from Palgrave (Eng. Com. I. 1 15) that Ice- 
land, settled by the Northmen before the introduction of Chris- 
tianity was divided into quarters called Fwrdyng^ and in Tom- 
lin's Law Dictionary we find 'Far ding deal or Famndel of Land: 
quadrantala terrae is the 4*** part of an acre.' Thus thriding, 
farthing, and tithing, all diminutives, as fractions should be, 
are all used as local designations. These then with ti^bu- 
justify my derivation of drjfiog as to meaning. 

But a difficulty presents itself in connecting drj/xog with 
the French dime, which of course is deduced from the Latin 
decimm or decumus, whereas the Greek ordinal is dexazog. 
I am afraid to assume as proved Bopp's theory that the 
suffix Tog of such Greek words (nQiatog, TQitog, TeraQiog) 
as well as of the Latin quintusj sea^tus, is but a compression 
of tama-B as seen in many of the Sanskrit ordinals. But 
whether this be true or not, it is a fact that in most of 
the Indo-European languages the ordinals exhibit with much 
caprice a suffix with a ^^ a suffix with an m, and a suffix 
with both t and m. Thus the Greek itself has kfiSofiog; 
and in oydoog or rather oydoFog (comp. octavus) we see a 
corruption of oydo/nog. In the Vergleicbende Grammatik 
§§ 321-323 the forms are collected; and the Greek antiquity 
as well as great extent of domain belonging to the suffix 
with fi is well shown. Thus for the first ordinal we have 
Sanskrit jpm^Aawza-, Z&id frathema-^ Latin ^nmo-, Lith. 
pirma-^ and Gothic ^wma-, but the Greek nQuno-. Pass- 
ing over the words which represent second, third, fourth, 
we come upon Sansk. panchama-y which stands alone; and 
for * sixth' we have perhaps the Zend catva-y when ^amay 
well be a corruption of tamay and this solution of the form 
I at any rate regard as preferable to the theory of an *Um- 


steUung' from cvaata-, as propounded by Bopp. For ^seventh' 
we have a marked evidence of the capriciousness of lan- 
guage. The Greek for the first time gives the fi suffix in 
kfidofiogy while the Zend perversely has haptortha, here pre- 
fering the dental, though the ni reappears in the following 
ast^rnay nauma^ dasimay corresponding as Close as may be 
to the Sanskrit ashtama, navamuj dctaama. The Lithuanian 
again has confirmatory evidence for us in the fact, that, 
although septun-tor and aaztun-tor are the ordinary terms 
for seventh and eighth, the language also possesses sekma- 
and aazma- in the same sense. It is clear then that such 
a form as dsxofxog within the Greek domain would not have 
been any anomaly; and the loss of the guttural before an 
m is not only the universal law in Latin , as in Jlama or 
flamma, eaamen, contaminarey atramen &c.; but obtained also 
to some extent in Greek. Thus nifay^a has a circumflex, be- 
cause the y was silent. In ai^ia from aiaato the guttund is 
not even written. ^H^eis and rjfiSTSQog are derivable from a 
base ey/xev-y represented in Latin by egomet^ and in Sanskrit 
by amuxt'* Much in the same way an Englishman writes 
phlegm and pronounces pUem. Perhaps the guttural in such 
cases may have first passed into an «, as in the Latin de- 
cumusj decimttSy difme^ dime. Indeed the verb de(o from 
which we started, must once have had a guttural,— as its 
Latin analogue ligare (whence indeed limen for ligmen^^ 
and its English analogue fo>, whence tight ^ clearly show. — 
Thus the a in deafiog probably represents a guttural. I 
may as well add that the evidence for regarding a dijiiog 
as a tenth of a tribe is not altogether satisfactory in itself, 
but receives strong support from the here-proposed etymology. 

By Professor Key. 

In a paper which I read before the society on the equi- 
valents of the Greek preposition aya in cognate languages, 
I gave my reasons for beUeving that ad in Latin verbs is 



at times the representative of that preposition; and some 
arguments, partly founded on first principles, partly on the 
historical evidence of related words, were adduced in sup- 
port of the assertion that the letters n and d are inter- 
changeable. These arguments as well as the truth of the 
assertion have since been disputed by two German scholars 
whose authority deserves much respect; by one in Kuhn's 
Zeitschrift, by the other in our own pages. 

As the results of my paper on ava appear to me im- 
portant if true, and as I also firmly believe them to be 
true, I am desirous to consider the question at somewhat 
greater length than was consistent with the multifarious 
character of that paper, which rendered any great detail on 
minor topics inconvenient; and indeed I did not then sup- 
pose that the principle would be anywhere disputed. 

The consonants n and d belong of course to the dental 
family; and it may perhaps be affirmed that n stands to d 
in the precise ratio so to say of m to b. Now the ready 
convertibility of m and b is not only past dispute, but I 
believe universally admitted. Thus the insertion of a foreign 
b in such words as f.i€arjf,iiiQia and the French nombre &c. 
is exactly parallel to the insertion of a foreign d in apdQog 
and the French cendre &c. 

I had thought too that some reliance might be placed on 
the physiological argument that as under the influence of a 
cold the letter m becomes a 6, so under the same circum- 
stances the letter n becomes a rf, for after all those changes 
which are established between letters on the direct evidence 
of language must admit of explanation on physical prin- 
ciples. Why for example is the negro apt to substitute b 
for j9, but because his lips are of thicker formation? We 
may not always be able to trace the facts of linguistic 
science to their causes; still we do know practically from 
repeated experience that a common effect of a catetrrh is 
to change every n to d. In my paper I referred to a case 
I had myself recently heard of the name Minnie under these 
circumstances being replaced by Biddie; but I might with 
greater advantage have pointed to the more familiar example 


of Barney in Oliver Twist whose never-ending cold supplies 
a never-ending series of such substitutions. 

But leaving principles, let us next consider facts, and 
first those which present themselves within the limits of the 
Greek language itself. 1. Of the verb Qaivu 'I sprinkle' 
Qav' is the essential part, but this appears as qclS- in the 
perf. pass. eQ-Qad-axai, and past perf. eQ-Qad-avo. 2. Xaivai, 
I yawn, and x^^^^ccvo), I am capacious, are commonly re- 
garded as verbs intimately related, yet their ultimate syl- 
lables are respectively %av- and %a(J-. 3. The verb (pQa^w 
has for its crude form q>Qad-y as seen in the epic aorist 
eneq>()a8ov, and the derived nouns g)Qadr], q^Qadf-inv- &c.; 
and the original meaning of these words, as give to knowy 
devise y come to knawy unde^^standing &c., all point to the 
substantive qjQBv- as closely related. 4. Kaiwiaac may well 
be regarded as representing an older xav-w-fnat , if we fol- 
low the analogy of ralaiva, TSQeiva for zaXav-va, regev-va; 
but instead of xay- we find xad in the Pindaric perf. part. 
xe-xad-^tsvo-. The occasional appearance of a a in the 
root-syllable as xexaavai, sxexaato^ xexaofisvo- , need not 
alarm us, for we also find the sibilant in some of the pre- 
ceding verbs, as e-cpQao-d^rjv, Qaaaate and (yaofia. 5. From 
elavpo) we have an Homeric elrikadaTo or elTjledero. 6. From 
the verb bvScj 'I sleep' it seems harsh to tear away evvtj 
*a bed'. 7. The Latin noun roh-ur^ if we are to follow the 
analogy of other neuter nouns in es, er &c., such as genusy 
tuber y fngusy points to a verb as constituting the first syl- 
lable. On the other hand we are led to suspect a close con- 
nection between this syllable rob and our own hard^, seeing 
that the meanings are fundamentally the same, and a b after 
an r in Latin is generally represented by a d in English 
(cf. wordy beard y gourd y redy with verbumy barbuy cucurbitay 
ruber). On the other hand if we follow the analogy between 
redy rub-ero-y and the Greek e-Qvd'-Qo- , and of loeb-ero- or 
lib-ero- 'free', with e^levd^-sQo- , we may expect in Greek 

*■ For the appearance of an h and the altered position of the liquid, 
compare hor$e and Germ, rou, also red^ rush, mii, rich, with the West 
of England hird, hinh, him, hirch, 


a form qo& or ^w& to represent rob of rob~ur. But instead 
of a ^ to represent the d of hard we find a y in ^lovwfit, 
which again becomes a a in eQQwa&ai. 8. So again a d 
in the English word mad corresponds to a v in ^laivo^ai 
and ^avta. 9. But the best example for the purpose of 
shewing that av of the Greek ava may correspond to cu^ in 
Latin is the verb fiaivco, C. F. fiav- which in Latin is vddo, 
C. F. vdd-i and indeed in Greek itself we find padog, a 
walk, together with its derivation fiadL^w. In the examples 
quoted thus far it may be observed that a is the prevailing 
vowel before the v or d. In one case indeed — gjpcy- and 

q>Qad an c preceded the nasal; and again in one in<- 

stance we had a still greater variety in the vowels, viz. 
hard, rob^ur, and Qtavwfit, to say nothing of the suspicion 
that the first nasal of the Greek represents the aspirate ^. 
As regards the vowel of tpQsv , the same preference of an 
e before y, and of a before a dental mute is seen in /Ja^og 
and fiev^og, na&og and nevd^og. It is not without some 
bearing on the question before us that ^ and v are of ready 
interchange. Thus beside Qaivta, C. F. qav, the grammarians 
give us the equivalent forms Qad-acvw, Qa&aaaco. So xevog 
and xax)^a(fog, fjiavd^avtj and fxe^vrj^iat (fiev-) are closely 
connected. May I then hint a suspicion that yav of yaw^ai, 
be happy, is the root whence is derived the adj. a^ya&-o^; 
and whether this be admitted or not, I venture once more 
to place together as related words several quartettes of 
which I have spoken elsewhere: 10. a-ya&^o, L. bono- or 
beno- (of the 5 presently), E. good, G. gtU; 11. ^ua^- of 
(iavd-CLvo) with iiev^ of ^efivrj^iat, L. men- of memini and 
mens, E. mood, G. muth and vmih; 12. na&vrj or qxtwij, 
L. penusy E. food, fodder, G.fuUer; — groups of words, the 
consanguinity of which in several respects receives confor- 
mation from 13. y€vt€Q Hesych (= yaoveQ-) and yevra 
(^ eviega) Callim., L. venter, E. womi (or Scotch wemb 
'belly'), G. mutter 'womb'; 14. o-dovr^, L. dent-, E. tooth, 
Moeso-Gothic tunih; 15. yew- 'jaw', L. m^nto-^, E. mouth, 

^ In saying this I do not deny the connection of L. ^enm, £. chin, 
Q, kintif ^ith the same yevv^. 

BY PROFE880R KEY. 149 

prov. moolk^ G. mund. In all these words the Latin form 
exhibits the combination en, while the English invariably 
has the sound oo followed in most instances by a d; and 
again the German in every case but one has a simple u 
followed conmionly by the sound of a t Elsewhere I have 
given some reasons for connecting our good with bonm or 
benus; hut I believe myself now able to throw more light 
on the subject. The sound oo I would afdrm generally is 
apt to take the form we^ and above all when the next syl- 
lable contains a weak vowel, that is i or e; and especially 
is this common when the oo is preceded by a hard g. In 
the Breton this is well exhibited in the conjugation of the 
verb gouzontj savoir, whence we have a pres. gouzonn, je 
sais, gwienn^ je savais, gw&siz^ je sus^ gwdzinn, je saurai, 
gw4zity sachez, ra whin^ que je sache, gwizety su. Again 
as the Scotch prefer wemb to the broad vowel of our vxymb^ 
so in Aberdeen there occurs, says Jamieson, the variety 
gweed for good. Thus from our positive good there might 
well be deduced a comparative gwetter which by no violent 
change might pass into wetter or better. On the other hand 
we know historically that an earlier form of hotms was 
duonus^ and the same digamma is still heard in the Italian 
buono and Spanish biieno. Yet even now I have arrived, it 
may be objected only at an initial d. My reply is that the 
Latin exhibited a soft dialect of the old language of Italy; 
and that if there had been transmitted to us the more gut- 
tural dialect of Etruria of which Martial speaks, we should 
in all probability have had the form guono-. I found this 
believe on the parallel case of the noun bello-, war, which 
in old Latin was dueUo and is represented in modem Tuscan 
by guen^tty whence the French guerre, and our war. Initial 
medials when followed by a Wy r, Z, or n, are apt readily 
to interchange. Thus ylvxvg through dlvxvg is connected 
with the Latin dulcis; fiagvg through fiQoFvg with gravis. 
So we have dialectic rarieties yvofpog and dvo(pog, fiX€(paQov 
and ylecpaQov, filrjX(ov and yli]X^^> ^^^ hatieen-blaae ^ i. e. 
the bladder of the sturgeon, has been corrupted by us into 
Uinglaee. Thus I feel assured that bonm and good^ mem 


and mood^ penus and food^ are satisfactory examples of the 
rulerchange between n and d. 

No doubt there are cases where the passage of a d to n 
has been facilitated by the proximity of an adjoining »; 
and I readily assent to Dr. Aufrechf s explanation of the 
Welsh changes in aaith nant for aaiihen dant^ fy dysgu for 
fyn dysgu. On the other hand I find in this veiy language 
unmistakeable evidence of the principle for which I contend 
in the fact that the prefix which represents the Latin con 
or cwn, Gr. aw, takes the several forms oym, cyn^ cyd^ 
and cy, among which cyd seems to occupy a leading po- 
sition and not to derive its d from any principle of assimi- 
lation. Thus we meet with it prefixed to almost every va- 
riety of initial letters, cyd-addoli, cyd-hechu^ cyd-chwanty 
cydrdynuy cyd-enw^ cyd-fwriad, cyd-ganu, cyd-hanfod^ cyd- 
ieuadj cyd-lechuy cyd-nevnd^ cyd-oed^ cyd-rathmdy cydsain^ 
cyd'-unOy cyd-wynehiady cydryfed. 

To these examples of the interchange of d and n may be 
added those which I adduced in my original paper on <tvGL 
in the Society's Transactions for 1854, pp. 29-72. 

I wiQ conclude with what bears upon another part of my 
paper on ava. I have recently observed that in Livy ad- 
mrg-ere means 'to rise again', where the idea contained in 
the last word, can only be due to the prefixed ad, so that 
we have another argument in favour of the doctrine that 
ad often represents ava. The examples which I have 
noted, are: 

XXII. 2. Galli neque sustinere se prolapsi, neque adsurgere ex vora- 
ginibus poterant ; XXI. 36. Tetra ibi luctatio erat .... in prono citius pede 
se fallente, ut, seu manibus in adsurgendo seu genu se adjuyissent, 
ipsis adminiculis prolapsis iterum cormerent ; XXII. jam pervenerant ad 
loca nata insidiis, ubi maxume monies Cortonenses Transumennus subit: 
via tandem interest perangusta velut ad id ipsum de industria relicto 
loco: deinde paulo latior patescit campus, inde coUes adsurgunt 
(or rather ad-dnmrgunt which makes equally for my view). 


XXm.— ON THE WORD THAN. By Danby P. Fry, Esq. 

In the month of December, 1848, I had occasion, for a 
purpose qnite unconnected with philological inquiries, to 
examine a series of pamphlets relating to the Great Rebellion 
and subsequent events; and the following is a copy of a 
Memorandum, which I made at the time, with the pamphlets 
before me: — 

" 11*^ December, 1848.— On looking over a bundle of inter- 
esting tracts and pamphlets, published during the half cen- 
tury from 1640 to 1690, I notice the fact that the change 
of the word ''then'"* into ^'tJian'^ apparently took place at 
some time between 1660 and 1680. Up to 1660, I find it, 
in these pamphlets, uniformly spelt "<A^"; after 1680, 
''^ihan^'; but I have not at present the means of fixing 
more precisely the date of the change. I select a few in- 
stances: — 

1. "The official narrative of the last day's proceedings 
of the High Court of Justice sitting in Westminster Hall, 
on Saturday, Jan. 27, concerning the Tryal of the King", 
published by authority Jan. 29, l6iS.—''Then'' throughout. 
The King says: "This many a day all things have been 
"taken away from me, but that which I call dearer to me 
'Hhen my life, which is my Conscience and my Honor." 

2. "His Majesties Gracious Letter and Declaration, sent 
to the House of Peers, by Sir John Greenvill, Knight, 
from Breda; and read in the House the first of May 1660." 
Ordered by the House to be printed; and printed by the 
authorized Printers, 1660. — "We cannot have a better reason 
"to promise Ourself an end of Our common Sufferings and 
"Calamities, and that Our own just Power and Authority 
"will with Gods Blessing be restored to Us, then that We 
"hear You are again acknowledged to have that Authority 
"and Jurisdiction, which hath alwaies belonged to You, by 
"Your Birth, and the fundamental Laws of the Land." 

3. "The Decrees of the Parlement of Paris, upon a 
Copy of the Pope's Brief, of the first of January, 1681, &c. 
Passed on the 18**" and 20*^ of June, 1681. In reference to 



the present Contest between the Pope and the King of 
France about the Regale." Printed 1681. " TAaw" through- 
out — "Those persons, who are the Authors of the Brief 
"of the first of January, and of many others, which have 
"appeared upon this matter, engage the Pope in Contests 
"more likely to retrench his Authority, timn to augment it, 
"and seem to have no other design, f Aon that of disturbing 
"the Peace of the Church." 

From this time forward, "^n" appears to have been 
the established form; as it has remained up to the present 

With regard to the above extracts, two things are to be 
observed, a) They are taken from official documents, re- 
lating to matters of great public interest at the time; and 
therefore likely to have been correctly printed, b) The 
spelling throughout is, evidently, not capricious or irregular 
in any degree; and with a very few trifling exceptions (such 
as "alwaies"), is strictly in accordance with the orthography 
of the present day. We may therefore conclude that the 
change from "fAen" to "^Aa«" was a deliberate one, and 
not the result of accident or whim. It probably arose from 
the desire to distinguish between "then" as a mark of time, 
and "then" as a mark of comparison; and very likely in- 
dicated a corresponding change in the pronunciation. Further 
research might perhaps discover the exact year of the al- 
teration; but at all events, we may safely affirm that it 
took place during the reign of Charles the Second." 

To the foregoing, it may be added that in the fourth 
edition of Phillips's "New World of Words", published in 
1678, the form is "^Aan" throughout; but in Bishop Wil- 
kins's "Essay towards a Real Character, and a Philosophical 
Language", printed by the Royal Society in 1668, "zAen" 
(as far as I have observed) is the only form employed, 
except in one remarkable instance. In tiie "Epistle Dedi- 
catory", for example, the author thus expatiates upon one 
of the advantages which, in his enthusiasm, he expected 
to result from the adoption of his "Philosophical Language": 
—"Next to the Gift of Mirades, and partie^nlarly that of 


^^Tongaes, powred out upon the Apostles in the first plant- 
^4ng of Christianity, there is nothing that can more effec- 
"tually conduce to the farther accomplishment of those 
"Promises, which concern the diffusion of it, throi^h all 
"Nations, then the design which is here proposed." — The 
remarkable exception aUuded to occurs (strangely enough)* 
in the Chapter on Adverbs (Philosophical Tables, Part III, 
Chap. IV, page 313), where the spelling is ''than'\ And 
yet in the "Alphabetical Dictionary", or Index, referring 
to this very place, the word is spelt ^^then"; viz.:— 

"TA^.— Comparative. Adv. III. i. 0."— 
But at page 313, the entry is as follows:— 

!f Rather Potius 
^•{ Than Quam 
&c. &c. 

And the same spelling recurs at page 390 ("Rather, Than") 
with reference to the proposed new Marks for Adverbs. 

It seems very diflBcult to account for the fact of the word 
being thus spelt ("eAa»") where it is treated of grammati- 
cally; and yet being always spelt "^Aen", wherever it is 
used by the Author himself in the body of the work, as 
well as in the "Alphabetical Dictionary". I am not able to 
suggest any satisfactory explanation of this difficulty; but 
in the absence of explanation , the fact itself seems to show 
that the movement in the direction of the modem ortho- 
graphy ("^Aa«") had commenced, or was commencing, in 

On the whole, therefore, we may conclude that the change 
from "^A^n" to "^A««" took place, either gradually in the 
course of the 10 years, or at some particular time dming 
the 10 years, intervening between 1668 and 1678. 

It is worthy of notice that this date closely coincides with 
that which is fixed as the termination of the second of the 
periods, into which our language is divided, for philological 
purposes, by the Society's Dictionary Committee, viz. 1674, 
the date of Milton's death. 

It must certainly be added that the quotations in Richard- 
son, under the two words "Than" and "Then", show that 


in the earlier stages of the language there was some con- 
fusion in the spelling of these words; but I believe that at 
least for a long period prior to 1668, the word (the mark 
of comparison) which we now spell ^^than''\ was uniformly 
spelt 'Hhen'\ 

If the view taken in this paper be correct; if it be true 
that, after spelling (and perhaps pronouncing) a certain word 
(then) in a particular way, possibly for some centuries, and 
certainly for several generations, the whole nation suddenly, 
and by common consent, modified the spelling (and per- 
haps also the pronunciation) of that word (from then to 
than)\ and if it may be further inferred that this change, 
not being of partial, but of universal adoption, was not 
accidental or capricious, but deliberated and designed, and 
made for a definite purpose (that of distinguishing between 
the two former senses of then, as a mark of the order of 
succession, in time, and in comparison); if this be so, the 
proceeding appears to constitute a remarkable fact in the 
general history of language, as well as a noticeable point 
in the history of the English language. It would certainly 
be interesting and instructive, if it were practicable, to 
ascertain in what way so striking a result was actually 
brought about. 

By Dr. G. Buhler. 

Comparative philology, which proved that all the different 
nations belonging to the Aryan race once spoke the same 
language, gave rise to another science, comparative My- 
thology. As it is evident that the forefathers of all these 
nations once Uved together as one people, we are led to be- 
lieve that their religion was the same. It has been proved 
long ago that many of the Greek, Roman, German, and 
Slavonic gods were the same as the deities worshipped 

BT DR. 6. BChLER. 155 

by those who composed the Veda; and that in many in- 
stances the Veda gives ns as much insight into the character 
and true nature of the gods, and the origin of the legends 
told about them, as the Sanskrit language affords us in re- 
gard to the forms of the Aryan languages. The most valu- 
able discoveries concerning Greek, Roman and Slavonic dei- 
ties have already been made , and their number will increase 
every day. 

But while on the one side the languages of the Western 
tribes belonging to the Aryan race are explained by the 
aid of Sanskrit, on the other side many peculiarities of 
this language, and principally of its oldest dialect, the 
" Vedic " , can only be set in the right light by European 
languages; for instance, Greek, Latin and Gothic alone 
can show that the Sanskrit a is in most cases a k changed 
into the sibilant; or how would it be possible to find out 
that the Sanskrit ch is in words like chandra the repre- 
sentative of hhj and that the Vedic schandra is an older 
form than that which is used in the classical Sanskrit. 

If this cannot be denied, we are entitled to look for the 
same reciprocal relation in comparative Mythology. In fact 
it seems to me that the Mythology of the Veda will receive 
as much light by comparison with that of other nations 
as Sanskrit grammar receives from the Greek or Latin. 
For it is not probable that all the religious ideas and all 
the legends told about the gods in the times previous to 
the separation of the Aryan race have been retained in the 
Veda alone. On the contrary, it is to be expected that the 
Hindus have cultivated only a certain number of ideas, 
which were in harmony with their inclinations. 

Besides, the Rig- Veda is not the product of one and the 
same century, but the hymns contained in it belong to 
different periods of the development of religious and politi- 
cal life in India. Religion had undergone considerable 
changes, or at least one, when the separation of the Hindus 
from the Mazdayasna's was effected, after which the formerly- 
worshipped Asuras were represented as demoniacal beings. 
It is certain that in a part of tha Rig- Veda the word Asura 


is used as an epithet of yarioos deities, and that in some 
hymns evil spirits are called by this name. 

When therefore hymns belonging to different periods were 
collected afterwards into one body, a certain confusion was 
necessarily caused by placing side by side ideas which arose 
successively. This reasoning, I hope, will be corroborated 
by the results of the foUowing investigation on Parjanya. 

Parjanya belongs to the number of gods, to whom few 
hymns in the Rig-Veda are addressed, and who gradually 
die away ifrom the memory of the Hindu people after hav- 
ing carried on a very poor existence during the period of 
sacred literature. 

He has been usually regarded by European scholars as a 
god of the rain, and has been compared to Jupiter Pluvius. 
Others have suggested the opinion that the word Parjanya 
is only an epithet of Indra, and have altogether identified 
him with this deity. Whether these opinions are right or 
wrong, we shall see in the course of our inquiry. But in 
order that we may provide a good foundation for it, it is 
necessary to examine the passages referring to Parjanya. 
I shall therefore try to give first an accurate translation of 
the three hymns addressed to him. 

V. 83. 

1) Sing unto the strong with these songs, laud Paijanya, 
with praise worship him. Loud bellows the bull , who gives 
specitily, he lays down his seed and fruit in the herbs. 

2) He cleaves the trees asunder, he slays the Rakshas's; 
all living creatures fear the wearer of the mighty thun- 

Even the sinless trembles before him, the giver of the 
rain; for thundering slays Parjanya the evildoers. 

3) As a driver, who urges his horses with the whip, he 
makes the rainy messengers appear. 

From far arises the roar of the Lion, when Parjanya 
makes the cloud foil of rain. 

4) The winds rage, the lightnings shoot through the air, 
the herbs sprout forth from the earth, the heavens over- 

BT DR. G« BfiHLBR. 157 

flow, refreshment is borne to all creatures, when Parjanya 
blesses the earth with rain. 

5) Thou, Parjanya, shield us well, by whose works the 
earth is shaken, by whose works the hoofed herd is sup- 
ported, by whose works herbs of all kinds sprout forth. 

6) Oh ye Maruts, give us the heavenly rain, let flow the 
drops of the rainy horse. Oh come to us with the thunderer, 
pouring down the waters; thou art our father Asura. 

7) Roar, thunder, give fruit, fly round us with thy cha- 
riot, that is filled with water. 

Pull strongly the downwards -bent well -fastened water- 
skin; may the heights and the valleys become even. 

8) Lift up the great barrel, pour down; loosened may 
the streams flow forward. 

Drench heaven and earth with water, give good drink to 
the kine. 

9) When, Parjanya, loud roaring, thundering, thou 
slayest the doers-of-evil, all rejoices that lives on earth. 

10) Well hast thou poured down the rain, now cease, 
thou makest that we can pass over the dry land, thou 
hast procreated herbs that we may eat, and thou hast re- 
ceived praise from the creatures. 

VII. 101. 

1) Speak out the three words with radiant beginning*, 
which milk this milk-giving udder. This newly bom bull 
beUows loudly, procreating the son* and fruit of herbs. 

2) He who increases the herbs and waters, who reigns, 
a god, over all creatures, may he afford us refuge and pro- 
tection in the three worlds', and a blessing light shining 
in the fliree (seasons). 

^ These three words are the three Yedas, the commencement of which 
is the mystic word dm; cf. Sam. Y. II. 5. 1.4.2. 

* By the expression "the son'', the lightning (VdidyulAgnih) is here 
signified, which is natnraUy, a child of the god of thunder. 

* Iridkdiu iartmam iarma. The commentary explains tridhAtu by Irt- 
bhumikmrn. The same explanation is giyen in some other passages, 
where it is used as an epithet Iarma or iaranam. The R. V. (. 85. 12. 


3) Now he is like a barren cow, now he brings forth. 
He disposes of his body according to his pleasure. The 
mother receives the water from the father, thereby the 
father is supported, thereby the son. 

4) In him are grounded all living creatures, in him the 
three heavens, from him flow the waters three fold, three 
dripping barrels stand round the great, pouring down honey. 

5) May this word come to the heart of Parjanya, the 
autocrat May the rain gladden us, may the herbs, which 
the god protects, bring us good fruit 

6) He the bull gives seed to all herbs, he is the essence 
of the moveable and immoveable. May this law protect me 
to live a hundred years! Oh ye gods protect us always! 

VIL 102. 

1) Sing unto Parjanya, the son of heaven, the giver 
of rain. May he give us com. 

2) Parjanya is he who procreates the offspring of herbs, 
kine, horses, and women. 

3) For him alone put the offering in the mouth of the 
gods (agni). May he procure us food. 

According to these hymns Parjanya is the god of the 
thunderstorm; and therefore lightning thunder and rain are 
alike at his command. He is the bearer of the thunderbolt, 
the lightning is his son, he slays the rakshas' and the evil- 
doers , he cleaves the trees , he is a bellowing bull, he roars 
and he thunders. 

In another hymn R. V. V. 63. 6. we find a still more poetical 
expression of this thought The poet tells us, that "Par- 
janya speaks a wonderful gleam-accompanied word, which 
brings refreshment" However, this is not the most impor- 
tant of his works. The blessing bestowed upon all creatures 

tridhatikni (sarma) = priihivyddishu trishu sihaneshvavasthitdni] YI. 46. 9. 
tridhatu (saranatn) = iribhumikam. The signification of dkdtu must be 
in these instances sihana, place, which appears also in sudhStfu VIL 61. 11.*, 
the sense of the whole phrase seems to be: afford us protection in the 
three worlds, and I accordingly translate iaranam (house) by refuge. 

BT DR. O. BtJHLBR. 159 

by rain is the act which is most celebrated in the hjrmns. 
To give rain is the principal part of the work which he 
is bound by eternal law to perpetrate (t?ratom), cfr. R.V. 
VI. 53. 3. 6. 7. or by his spell (mdyd) rain is made to 
descend from heaven. He drives the clouds before him 
as a charioteer his horses, he possesses a water-filled cha- 
riot, he pulls the clouds which hang down from heaven like 
great waterskins or he lifts up the barrels which surround 
him, and the words of his worshipper make him milk the 
nnlk-giving udder. The god sends no scanty stock of water, 
but, when he passes over the dry land, he drowns heaven 
and earth, and valleys and heights become even. 

But the connection of Paqanya with rain is yet more 
strongly expressed by saying tiiat "now he is a barren cow, 
now he brings forth". His body of which he disposes ac- 
cording to his pleasure is undoubtedly the cloud. .(This 
most remarkable idea prevailed also with the Roman artist 
who represented the Jupiter Pluvius in the column of M. 
Aurelius. There the head and the neck of the god are 
visible, the arms seem to be outstretched, and the clouds, 
from which the rain pours down, are spread over them like 
drapery. Cfr. Bartoli et Bellori columna Antonini tab. 14. 
15.) Besides, a number of epithets given to Parjanya re- 
fer to his power over the rain. He is called mtdvdn (TH. 
102. 1.), vrishUmdn (VIH. 6. 1.), giver of rain; udanimdn^ 
abdimdn (VI. 4. 2. 3.), giver of water. 

Mankind and beasts quench their thirst with water, and 
80 far it contributes to support their lives, (cfr. also R.V. 
Vn. 35. 10.) But, when Parjanya is said to feed the crea- 
tures, it is because rain makes the earth bring forth 
grass and com. He is the god who sends nourishment to 
all living beings, he is asked to give food which comes 
from com {yava8a)y and the plants are called devagopdk^ 
protected by the god. Even the arrow is termed parjan- 
yaretdh (VI. 75. 50.) sown by Parjanya; for, says the com- 
mentator, the shaft of the arrow is produced by Parjanya. 
Another quality of the god is closely connected with this. 
He is the cause why all creatures bring forth offspring. 


The impregoating power of the rain suggested this idea. 
The rain is the sperm of heaven, by which the earth con- 
ceives, and it is natural that the god who is the fructifier 
of the common mother of all creatures, should take care of 
all fecundation. If Parjanya is regarded as such, it is clear 
why he is called the dtma of the moveable and immoveable, 
and why all living beings are grounded in him. To this 
his epithets vrishabhah^ pita (V. 83.) seem to refer, as well 
as Asura (V. 83. 5. 63. 3. 7.). The latter two passages are 
misinterpreted by Prol Roth, who translates Asura by the 
"highest spirit", (cf. Boethlingk and Roth's dictionary s.h.v.). 
In the first, the words before dsurah piti nah are evidently 
addressed to Parjanya, and there is no apparent reason 
why we should separate them. In the same way a closer 
consideration of the content of the hymn y.63. seems to con- 
firm the interpretation of the commentator. 

The hymn V. 63. which is addressed to Mitra and Varuna, 
contains a prayer for rain. They grant, so the poet tells 
us, the request to him whom they love (v. 1), but to give 
it they need the mdyd of Asura (v. 3). With these we 
must closely combine the following verses: 

4) Your wisdom is visible in the sky, the sun, a glitter- 
ing weapon, shines. You wrap him up in the heaven with 
clouds and rain; oh Parjanya, the honied drops fall down. 

5) The Maruts, Mitra and Varuna, harness the chariot, 
as a hero in the battle they go, far stretched through the 
glittering worlds. Ye kings of heaven wet us with water. 

6) Parjanya speaks a wonderful gleam-accompanied word 
which brings refreshment. Well clothe the Maruts them- 
selves in clouds with wisdom, make ye (Mitra and Varuna) 
(that) the spotless ruddy sky (send) rain. 

These verses show clearly that when Mitra and Varuna 
^ve the rain, Parjanya and the Maruts, under whose 
special case this phenomenon is placed, act as their minis- 
ters, and that, when (v. 3) the wisdom of Asura is said 
to help Mitra and Varuna, the commentator explaining the 
word Asura by Parjanya is perfectly right. 

But I am rather doubtfal whether tl^e word Asvra is to 

BY DR. O. B^HtBR. 161 

be referred to the procreating power of Parjanya and to be 
translated life-giving (am+rd); perhaps he is only called 
so, because he is a god; for they all possess the asurdtvamy^ 
(in. 55. 1). 

After having discussed his attributes, we must turn our 
attention to where he is associated with other gods. 

Firstly he is invoked in hymns addressed to the Maruts 
and vice versa (I. 38. 9; V. 53. 6; V. 63. 6; V. 83. 6). As 
they are gods of the raging winds, they necessarily accom- 
pany every thunderstorm, and are represented as tiie minis- 
ters of the gods who cause this phenomenon, Indra, Rudra, 
and Parjanya. 

For the same reason he is invoked together with Vfita 
(VI. 49. 6; VI. 51. 12; X. 65. 9). Thirdly he is associated 
with Agni (VI. 52. 6.), because the vdtdyutdgni (YH. 101. 1.) 
is his son. 

Finally, as Parjanya is the procreator of the plants, he 
is called the father of S6ma (IX. 82. 3; S.V. H. 5. 2. 13.), 
and it is said that he increases him. {Pafjanyavriddham 
&c. IX. 113. 3.) 

Taking a review of the whole, we find that Parjanya is 
a god who presides over the lightning, the thunder, the 
rain, and the procreation of plants and living creatures. 
But it is by no means clear, whether he is originaDy a god 
of the rain, or a god of the thunder. For, as botii pheno- 
mena are always associated in India, either of the two 
opinions is admissible, if no deciding evidence comes from 
another quarter. 

The solution of this question principally depends upon 
the etymology of the word Parjanya, and some modem 
philologists have adopted the former of the two opinions, 
because they believed that parjanya had the signification 
of "rain". According to them this word is derived from 
a xooiprijj a modified form of jpmA (to sprinkle). But 
I cannot agree witli them, because the appellative par- 
janya seems to signify "the cloud". A passage of the R.V* 
I. 38. 9. clearly shows this: "even during the day the Ma- 
ruts shed darkness by the water-bringing polony a, when 



they inundate the earth '% (cfr. R.V. V. 53. 6.) This par- 
janya can neither be the god,— as he is a tool of the Ma- 
mts, — ^nor the rain, because the rain does not cause the 
darkness, but the cloud: also the epithet ^^water-bringing'' 
would be objectionable. On the other hand I know no pas- 
sage of the Rig- Veda, where it is absolutely necessary to 
translate parjani/a by "rain". The compound parjanya- 
jifmtd(ydcK) VIL 103. 1. which Prof. M. Muller^ translates 
by "roused by the rain", may mean a^; well "roused by 
Parjanya" (the god). In the same way it is perfectly fitting 
to explain R.V. I. 164. 51 : 

hhimim parjanya jinvanti 
with the commentator "the clouds give joy to the earth, 
because they send down the rain", and I should prefer this 
explanation on account of the following words: divam jinvanti 
agndyah , the agnis (dhavantyddayaK) give joy to the heaven. 
For it is not fire itself which makes the god Dyduh rejoice, 
but the sacrifice which it carries to him. 

A second passage of nearly as great importance as that 
above quoted is found Vaj. Sanh. Xfl. 6. (= R.V. X. 45. 4): 

Akrandadagnih atandyannwa dyduh 
"Agnis roared like the thundering heaven." 

Mahidhara explains dyduh by meghah and Parjanyahy zxlA. 
his opinion is confirmed by the Sat. Brahm. YI. 7. 3. 2. where 
we read: 

Ahrandadagni standyanniva dy&uriti 
krdndaMva hi parjdnya standyan &c. 
He recites the verse akrandad &c., for Parjanya's thunder is 
like a roar. 

SSyana also always explains ^^parjanyalC'' by ''ineghah''\ 
and when he interprets vriaktih (R.y. V. 63. 1.) hj patyanyah, 
it is because the former word cannot be employed with 
its usual meaning in this passage— at least according to his 
opinion. The vrishtihy that pours down from heaven the 
water mixed with honey, must be either a god or the cloud 
(tasmdd yajamdndya vrisktih paryanyo madhu madhudakam divo 

^ History of Yedic literature p. 494, i?here he explains the real meaning 
of this i?hole hymn usually counted amongst the songs addressed to Parjanya. 

BY DR. G. B<}HLm. 163 

dytdokdtpmvate \ Hikchati \ vardhagaU\\. In the same way it 
is explained by the commentators of the Sat. and T&ndya 
Brahmana, and even Amara illustrates it by "Indra or thun- 
dercloud and also any cloud." 

This signification of the appellative parjanya explains very 
well the attributes of the god. But nevertheless the main 
question is not answered, and we must try to make out 
from what quality the cloud has been called parjanya. Al- 
though it has received one of its many names on account 
of the giving of rain {megha from w«A), and though it 
is not impossible to consider the root fri^h as its etymon, 
I am inclined to adopt the etymology proposed by Prof. 
Benfey (Sdmaveda gha. s. v. parjanya). He translates it by 
^*the thunderer", supposing that it is derived by the suffix 
ana 4-J« from the root sphurj = aq^aQayio}^ tiie original 
form of which is sparj. The corresponding Greek word 
proves that the vowel of the root was originally an a; and 
in regard to the ph replacing a j? , it is sufficient to say, 
that a preceding a often effects the aspiration of a following 
mute consonant (cf. stM^^aza^ afpadat^io, atpevd-ovrj^spand). 
The omission of a beginning « is of such frequent occurrence 
that it hardly requires any illustration by examples. 

A confirmation of this etymology we may find in another 
name of the cloud, '^ atanayitnuh^'* (R.V. V. 83. 6), and it 
is interesting to observe that Dvidgvaganga in his commen- 
tary on Sat. Br. XTV. 5. 5. 10 explains it hj parjanyah. But 
our opinion will be better confirmed if we avail ourselves 
of the aid proffered |by kindred languages. A word exists 
in the Lithuanian language which bears a strong resemblance 
to "^a^'onja"— the name of the god of thunder, Perkunas. 
The differences intervening between the two are not so 
considerable as they may seem to be at first sight. The 
word Perkunas is derived from a root park by npieans of 
the affix una. The former part park is perfectly identi- 
cal with the Sanskr. prij. For, dthough the Lithuanian z 
or ff (pzys = ajasy gyvaa =jtva8) usually represent the Sansk. 
y, some more instances are found, where the idiom which 
is next akin to the Teutonic languages, follows the phonetiQ 


laws of these. The Satiskrit duhitd^ Greek ^v)/aTi;(» , cor- 
responds with the Lithuanian dukte^ dukra; the Latin angnr 
9tu8 with anksztas; the Slayonic magu with moku; the Latin 
ruga with rauka. The affix una is a modified form of the 
Sanskrit ana. For ia great nnmber of ^nomina actons' are 
formed by una^ and it is known that the change of an a 
into a u is often effected by liquids following. The word 
Perkuna is therefore exactly equivalent to a Sanskrit Par- 
jana, to which the affix jra was added without change of 
signification just as it was to da (dsyam). The Slavonic 
languages e:diibit the word Perkunas in a form-— modified 
by the elision of the k — Perun^, and in the Polish language 
this word signifies also ^^the lightning''. This fact cannot 
be properly explained, if pavjanya signifies "the rain". 
But if it means "thunder", the change of the original signi- 
fication of the Polish word is the same as that of the Greek 
fiQovcj] (V. bhram), which is sometimes used instead of 
aaxQamr (cfr. iXaai^Qovxog , aiolo^Qovtog). 

A further confirmation of our opinion wUl be gained from 
the comparison of the attributes and deeds of Perkunas with 
those of Parjanya. Perkunas is one of the most revered 
Lithuanian gods, worshipped also formerly together with 
Potrimpas and Pykullas under the holy oak at Romowe. 
He is the god of thunder. We learn this from proverbs 
and songs which are repeated by the people even in our 
own day. To this day, when the thunder rolls, they say 
Perkuns grumena^ or szatga^ or mu8z4; to this day 'dainos' 
are sung like those which we read in Schleicher's collection 
s. no. 1. 4. 5. In the first, we are told that the moon once 
wedded the sun, afterwards she left him and flirted with 
the morning-star. At this Perkuns grew very wroth, and 
cut the moon in two pieces. The story of the punishment 
of the moon, which is alluded to also in no. 3, is evidentiy 

^ This elision may perha-ps be attributed to the position of the r. Ab 
a group of consonants formed by rk or rg would be Id disliannonj with 
the phonetic rules established in the Slavonic languages, aad ^ 
transposition of the liquid was not elTected, an unusual^ 
could hinder the violation of tho lai^s ,of the language. 


BT DB. G. BfifflJBE. 

inveiited in order to explain the phases of this 

In no. 5 a brother asks his sister who laments ^^er tike Ims 

of her flowers: ^Did the northwind blow, or did Pi il i 

thunder or send lightnings?' 

A yery good account of the nature and deeds of Poiant 
is contained in a popular tale (pasaia)^ wUdi is piiatei 
in the collection of Schleicher p. 241 -46. I dull abstnct ito 
principal contents, and translate only the paasiges wMdi 
are important for our purpose. 

A journeyman-carpenter travelling, meets with two nen. 
one of whom presents himself as Perknus, the oxiter m 
the devil. Having walked together some lime tber resohf: 
upon taking up their abode in a great forest, ad la^ 
agree that the devil shaQ procure food, tbe 
pare it, and Perkunas frighten away the wild 
shall'% he says, ^^begin to send sach Icmbk 
that all is one fire, and frightful claps of ^mmisr 
all the wild beasts will be scared away fivm vl 
wards they build a house and plant eairols. Tfe 
nightly damaged by a very daring tUet Pestamai 
devil are successively set to wateh, Ymtibit'tasi: 
the field in spite of them, and, mhiem Urn 
frighten him away, they receive teniUe vimm w:3i^ ml. - 
whip. During the third night tke tza&r 
and succeeds in detecting the ^mL—wm 
old mischievous Laum6, — in Tffffgfifim' m 
ing from her the iron whip, fai Ust wammz m^ ■■» /* 

much of his deed, and the ottmr -vm mm - ^ ^^^'' 

of him. The depredatioM «■ imr se «m- ^^^ 

live together for some time in ^caBrrmm^^ ^^^^ * 

piness. But at last they bvoom ^mm- deeds iure 

they agree that two dtdl «r wmr ^ ^'^^ ^^1* ^^^ 

session of the house wk j ii*^ - ii^gs. Therefore 

awayftomit. TheAm^^^^T- -, who is invoked 

and trie^ to terr . j^ ' i^ossessing the charac- 

menf^Aufl stoniL T*- ^ '^^^ addressed there to 

^ Ueai^f tr— «: ^ *' to many others in which 


in, singing hymns the whole night long. The next night, 
thus the story continaes, Perkmias went out in order to 
Mghten the two others, and the carpenter remained with the 
devil in the room. When the night was already far advanced, 
clouds dark as a sack arose in the sky , and lightnings shot 
down from the clouds. And the nearer the thunderstorm 
drew towards the house, the more terrible grew the roll- 
ing and grumbling of the thunder, as if the whole forest 
and the house were to be buried in the depths of the 
earth. And such was the shooting and hissing of the light- 
nings, that all were in danger of being burnt on the spot 
The devil, seeing this, leapt out quick as wind through the 
window, and ran away; for he had no great confidence in 
Perkunas, and feared to be slain by these flashes of light- 
ning. He knew also very well that Perkunas slays the devils 
who ramble about in the world. The carpenter follows the 
same stratagem as on the preceding night. Finally, the 
devil and Perkunas are both put to flight by the cunning 
carpenter imitating the old Laum6, by whom they had been 
whipped. On this occasion Perkunas flees spitting fire. 

We learn from this tale, — the hidden sense of which I 
do not pretend to enucleate,— firstly, that Perkunas is a 
god who causes thunderstorms quite as much as Par- 
janya; and secondly, that he slays devils just as Par- 
janya annihilates the Bakshas' and evildoers. The latter 
is an ethical attribute which the Slavonic Perun possesses 
in a still higher degree. He seems to be the avenger of 
broken oaths. For Procopius tells us that on the occasion 
of concluding a treaty of peace, the Russian princes ascended 
a hill near Kiew, called Perun's hill, and there swore their 
oaths in order to give them greater solemnity. In fact, 
the idea that the god who handles the most terrible weapon 
uses it in order to uphold the laws of morality, seems to 
be as old as it is natural. In the Lithuanian songs Perkunas, 
so far as I know, is never praised as the giver of rain; but, as 
the thunderstorm called perkunije is his work, the rain also 
which accompanies it, must come from him. However, the 
want of direct evidence can be supplied from the Livonian 

BT DR. G. BUHLBR. 167 

mythology* The LivoniaDS (Eurszei) are the nearest rela- 
tions of the Lithuanians, and possess nearly the same lan- 
guage, religion and customs. A very valuable and interest- 
ing document is preserved to us by Lasicius ^de dels Samo-- 
gitarum' s. v. Pergubios, which refers to Perkunas, or Per- 
kons, as he is called by the Livonians. It is a prayer 
spoken by the priest at the feast celebrated in the beginning 
of the spring. The text runs as follows: "Perkonl father 1 
thy children lead this faultless victim to thy altar. Bestow, 
father, tiiy blessing on the plough and on the com. May 
gQlden straw witii great well-filled ears rise abundantiy as 
rushes. Drive away all black haUy clouds to the great 
moors, forests, and large deserts, where they will not 
frighten mankind; and give sunshine and rain, gentie-falling 
rain, in order that the crops may thrive 1" 

In the presence of these facts, even the most iuCTedulous 
will be obliged to confess that Parjanya and Perkunas are 
originally the same in regard to their names as well as to 
the manner in which they manifest themselves. But as Per- 
kunas has been worshipped as the god of thunder by the 
Litliuanians, the Livonians, the Prussians, and all the Sla- 
vonian tribes, and seems to have been known as such also 
to the Teutonic race (cfr. J. Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie 
p. 164), it does not seem very likely that he is originally 
the god of rain. 

Finally I must add a few remarks on the hypotliesis, that 
Paijanya is only one of the names of Indra. According to 
all the passages of the Rig-Yeda discussed in our investi- 
gation, the relations between Indra and Paijanya are not 
closer than between Indra and Rudra, viz.: they bear a 
certain resemblance to each other, because their deed&-are 
the same. Even the Brahmans of a later period felt very 
distinctiy that the two gods are different beings. Therefore 
the Anukramani tells us, that the Indra, who is invoked 
R.V. III. 55. 17, is parjanydtmd^ i. e. possessing the charac- 
ter of Parjanya. In fact, the verses addressed there to 
Indra bear a strong resemblance to many others in which 
Paijanya is celebrated. 

168 IRISH GL088S8, 

Considering all this, it is very probable that our ancestors 
adored, preyioosly to the separation of the Aryan race, a 
god, called Parjana or Pargana, the personification of the 
thundering cloud, whom they believed to rouse the thunder- 
storm, to be armed with the lightning, to send the rain, 
to be the procreator of plants, and the upholder of justice. 
Afterwards the Graeco-Italian nation, bent on the adoration 
of Dyaus, forgot him entirely; the Aryans of India and the 
Teutonic tribes continued to worship him as a subordinate 
member of the femily of the gods, but the Letto-Slavonians 
raised him to the dignity of a supreme leader of all other 

XXY.— IRISH GLOSSES, edited by a Member of the Council 
from a Manuscript in the Library of Trinity College, 

[H.3. 18, p. 61, col. IJ 

A breiha neime deidhinach so, 

Aidhbriugh .i. indilsiugudh . ut est ar ni haidbriugb for fot 
forlengar for dilsi .i. ni hinann do 7 nolinged do indil- 
siugudh infirdilis rofothuida oco acanntest. 

Fuidrecht .1. frith . ut est dina fomocht fir .i. dona aimechta 
fimochta innte. ^ 

Coicle .i. folach . ut est nisnimraite na coicle crich each aen- 
duine derbhaight[h]er. 

Tomhnadh .i. baramail . ut est dian tomhnadh each indiaidh 
araile is d6 doronadh . ecus misdeine 7 mistomnathar 

Teinn A. radh no canamuin . ut est fd inti notteinn . no inti 
nostennann ndscanann anfer athcantana. 

Ar is hi cama .i. ben cuicir . ar is ann is cam diarobhait 
.V. clocha ann. 

Guhha .i. gabhdil . ut est tdle gubha .i. imat ngabala a trefocal. 

Feith .i. a , ut est ni tabair fiach feith fo aibHbh hnuis .i. 


nocho tabafar atargad fiach sin for i[n]t] agati inaebil a 
himat a ardsofes. 

[p. 61, col. 2.] 

Tubktar .i. cinnter . ut est atait teora ailche Msbenar each 

aer 7 each moladh .i. a tri ata urderca no ata tairismech 

fnstobenar .1. is friu tabhair. 
Nutn A. olc . at est ni euala coic noin .i. ni cnala ar ma 

nm olc damh. 
Ni A. olc . ut est arsaidh ni dicenn A. astar ole do neoch 

anglam dicend. 
Cubhair .i. prechain no ilair • ut est sephtatar cubhair .i. 

gurrosuighet na prechain onindaibh tu . no currosuidhet 

na cubhair co croba derga acu .i. na hilair. 
Cru A. bodb . fechta .L cath • ut est cairbidhib crufechta. 
Glaidomuin A. sindaig no maic tire. 
Gudomuin A. fenndga no bansigaidhe . ut est glaidhomuin g6a 

.i. na demuin goacha na morrigna . no go conach domain 

iat na bansigaide go connach domain iffrinn iat acht domain 

aeoir na fendoga . no eamnait anglaedha na sinnaigh 7 

eamnait angotha na fendoga. 
Gubht A. beille [leg. belli?] .i. in catha. ut est r^hae aeg 

eicb gubhi .i. condechuis d^g amhail t^id ech anguba tresai. 
Baire A. br6n no bds . ut est maile baire gaire. 
Caisibet A. saltra 7 cosliiaidhit marsin . ut est dit coisilset 

fort fiadhmuine .i. rocosluaidhed fort, 
[p. 62, col. 1.] 
Sli/e A. lethnughudh . ut est imat slife laithirt leisge .i. cura 

letti imat leisce illaithi toirgne. 
Im/aebhar A. indlige . ut est tri himfaebair na glaime dicinde 

adenum im ni is lugha na secht cumala 7 imfoiclili s6t 7 

im secht cumala cmelad apad na troisci. 
Sini A. snim . ut est cii nech nith sine .1. in nith 7 snimh. 
Tarla A. dealgan . AithgUn A. cutruma . ut est ni contarla 

amboinn nam na iaram anaithgin .i. nochorteilgestar in 

boinn roime na na ^^gaid a cutruma ima m6t 
Ingnadh A. ar dgin . ut est et is ingnadh ronucsat daine 7 

cethra ananmanna as. 
Riam X romainn . ut est inntai rinn. 

170 IRISH GL088E8, 

Brigh .i. nallach . at est Maudorn mor nisceda brig for- 

Comaicc .i. ceimnii^dh no dol . ut est la sodhain atcomaicc 

in abhann ina toind. 
Faiihirbe A. imaire no gort no achad . ut est ni conroibhe 

sechtmad foithirbe otha sin condice muir doneoch ro- 

baidhedh ar na farcbadh frais do n^mannaib inde. 
ToUddhi .i. caithemh . ut est no ni do iasc no murtorad ba 

maith do toiscidi .i. dotoisceda .i. docaitem. 

[p. 62, col. 2.] 

Tochmastar .i. tobhach . ut est acht cia tochmastar fri ferba 

Toigrenn .i. tobhach . ut est Imtogrenn fir eneeh firfile .i. 

is eim toibhghes an firfili an ni doberar tareenn einigh 

iar fir. 
Neea A. tainsiuin . ut est for nesa ceard neicse donessa cerd 

Lai A. feimed . ut est rokei fiadnaise £Eiir fuirmedh. 
Fuamadh A. sg&iledh . ut est fnasnad luighe no anmcardesa. 
Foimded A. faemadh . ut est cofoimded fodergtha biathaigh. 
Sffeo A. d6 . ut est roighen roscadhach roindscoth (.i. dixit) 

sceo gachduine dire. 
TaUiigud A. gabail . ut est molbhthach a ainm inaltaigh- 

t[h]er .i. is molbhthach a hainm intan bitber aca taltngudh 

Darb A. imat . ut est beridh darb .i. bend imat inti acambi 

si itir eneclann ecus logh aisti. 
Aithech A. ditheoch .i. oech laech .i. laech aith annsin . bretha 

nime tds. 

Dull drama ceta inso. 
[p. 63, col. 1.] 
Art A. uasal .i. deus. 

Adam A. homo yel terrigena .i. o talmuigecht 
Adhamnan A. homunculus .i. disbecadb anma Aduim. 
Adrad A. ab adoratione .1. on etarguide. 
Adaltrach A, ab adulterio .i. on adaltrus. 
AUrum A. ab eo quod est alo .i on breithir is alo ailim. ^ 


Acker i. ab eo quod est acer lainn. 

Asdul .i. ab hastola .i. slisen. 

AdJuimra A. ab admiratione .i. o mirbhuilibh. 

Almsan .i. quasi eilimson .i. ab eleemosyna .i. deirc. 

Art .i. cloch . ut dixit Guaire 

docealat mor namra na harteni 
bite for lighe Marcain miec Aodha maic Marcine. 
Arg .i. banna 7 arg .i. laoch 7 arg .i. urdaU ro [leg. urdairc] . 

bretha nime dixit. 
AU .i. ab altitudine .i uasal. 
Anairt .i. inirt . irt .i. bds ut dixit Morann maemain . dath 

donic irt. 
Audackt .i. uathfecht .i. intan t6t in duine fri fecht nuath 

.i. bais. 
Anair A, ainm aircetail . ise dogni cli .i. anaor ni haor acht 

is molad 7 cidh amlaidsin docachmolad is dilsi don alt air- 

cetailse . ar is foirmedh poetarum romidhair haec nomina 

dona aircetlaib 7 ni haicnedh romidair leo. 
[p. 63, col. 2.] 
Anfin .i. ingnadh . ut dixit fer fail moir. 
Anmain A. anacol. 
Arcofmn dom dia A. arco .i. rogha . fiiin .i. finem . dilgud 

om dia . arco .i. cuingim . fain .i. finem. 
AUmmr A. fri muir anall. 
AUa A. ab alligatione .L cuimriuch. 
Aithrinne .i laogh bo .i. aithfhrinne .i. sine . ut dixit . Gen- 

gert ferba foranasa aithrinne . 7 rl. 
Abra^ abhra A. inailte 7 fes lamtorad . abras din .i. l&m- 

torad . inailti insin. 
Athair quasi patrem on ni is pater 7 is mater. 
Ardd A. riadh fri a . ar as a each nard 7 i each nisei. 
Aislinge A. linge as . no absque lingua .i. cin labra inti. 
Ace grec [pvx\ neg[ati]o laitin [.i.] diultad. 
Ach adhon graece acho. doled [a%0Q, dolor] latin .i. galar. 
Aiccde A. ^cdo^ greic . aedificium .i. cumtach. 
Alchcdng quasi archuing .i. [p. 63, col. 3.] congbail armu. 
AUno [leg« allud] (i. nos) .i. quasi al[a]ud .i. a laude .i. on 


172 IRISH 6L0SSB8, 

Alad J. il a dhath .i. imda dath ann. alad lim vSL [leg. alad 
.i. fail] a dath i. daih fola fair sech in slan. 

Aim A. mater deorom •hibemensium . robo maith din no- 
biathadsi deos de cujas nomine ana dicitar imbed 7 de 
cujus nomine da cigh anainne iar luachair nominan- 
tur at fabulaverant . Yel ana quod aninos graece quod 
interpretator dapes isin greig [leg. Udtin] 7 biad isin 
ladin [leg. giiidilg]. 

Aed .i. tene tri impend in anma as dea .i. bandea quod ipsa 
est Yesta .i. bandea tened 7 quod Yestam illam deam 
esse ignis fabolayerant Yesta ipsa ignis dicitar .i. aed. 

Atheoch .i. aith 7 eoch nama . aitheoch din ni haimn acht 
do daghlaoch. 

Ailges .i. ges goide . is ar ail din doberar in gaide sin .i. 
ni ar molad. 

[p. 64, col. 1.] 

Ardndach .i. arcos [cLQxog] isin greig excelsos isin ladin. 
aircindach a. nasalcenn. 

Aigrire .i. aige rere .i. brithem. 

Ander .i. ben .i. ni der .i. ni ingen . der enim filia et virgo 

Anidhan a. an fo dinltad . ida[n] imorro .i. idon, ab eo quod 
est idonens .i. tairis[e]. 

Adart quasi ad-irt .i. adhae mbais . ar is bas atrimter cot- 
lad . is ainm irt do bas is ainm done dotsuan. Is adsB 
din telcad fri hadart 7 is airdhe cotolta undo dicitdr 
descad cotultadh AresUgL 

Adastar .i. comsuidiugh[ud] ilrannaib fil ann .i. adh 7 
est 7 or .i. adh do ni issadus est .i. ech 7 or .i. mogg 
.i. comad. si in moing in ech seachus im a cend. 

Aire .i. cora eiscc, ut dicitar aire eisc. 

[p. 64, C0L2.] 
\E\oi8geU .i. geltan. 
BeUid A. loc. 
BeiUitus .i. loc catha. 

Bill A. lobar 9 ut dicitar hallan .i. ian bilk [.i. lobairj. 
Birbill A. brat. 


BU A. soinmech . nt dicitar biltene .i. teni soinmeeh .i. di 
teni dognitis druith 7 doleicdis na cetra inter se ar 
tedhmannuib cacha bliadna. 

BU .L obial .i. dia idhal . unde bilteni .i. tene bil. 

Bearr a. gairit . ut dicitur bearr each belaid bean. 

Birr A. tibra. 

Biror A. mong tiprai. 

Bri A. tolach. 

Brian A. tulach&n. 

Birra A. inceall for imat tipra indi .i. tipratach. 

Bladre A. buadre. 

Bus .L bhel . at dicitar tribas .i. tribeiL 

Billoc A. tiag lobar. 

Btrnn A. bonas . at dicitar geinid boan ambnan. 

BracdUe A. brae lam 7 eail coimet .i. eoim6t l&ma .i. lamann. 

Branorguin .i. brangoin dogni fiaeh. 

Bertrach A, aire no fidhehell. 

Bot A. tene . at dicitar botaine ingeini laighdeeh loisc^. 
[p. 64, col. 3.] 

Baislec . a basilica .i. grec .i. ecelesia .1. tech. 

Bcdresc A. forcenn mbratha. 

Briar A, delg co t<icbiil for a cinn .i. bri tolacL 

Boiffe (.i. ballan) .i. oaire sainte. 

Bath A. 8ail6. 

Buitell A: eiU mbe . no bikithell boitill beta 7 rl. 

Borb A. boda o aicned. 

Boctach .i. moin no seiscenn. 

Blusar A. naall ard ^colr • at dixit flana: 
Uisce slebe nimsasad 
eoibce eongeire ngnnsa 
deogh doim dainn tecbtas blusar 
bes Insar ginnis lasa. \ 

Brasach A. brasoacb .i. oa: (.t cluasa) mora fethnale. 

Brmiu A. diabairsi . at dixit omait a cained laidgnein: — 
Dethbir dam ceiantais [leg. ce ni antais] 
inmabrat dibreisi 
niatfailte laidbgn6n clam 
cid 6 mara tarm6isi. 


Brem A. dibmindedh. 

Bua8 .i. sofis naircetail .i. arinni fhic imbas iarmbuais . inde 

dicitur barr buaise. 
Beniit .i. Neit nomen viri . Nemhon a ben ba neimneeh in 

BhUt .i. b6 ben .i. in badhbh 7 n6t cath 7 olca diblinuib . 

inde dicitur [p. 65, col. 1.] beneit fort. 
Buaaamain A. toltnaighthe. 
Bar A. maoir. 
Bar A. sui. 
Breut A. fdigheall. 
Boarucht A. bannsB e^dgnine. ^ 
Baffff A. cnu . inde dicitur crobagg. 
Bu88 A. ai. 
Bergnae A. b6ind. 

Bachar A. mucderc .i. bruches ime tiagait muca. 
Bamach A. sindach. 
Baccat .i. otrach. 
Bacat A. braighe. 
Bol A. ^ices . buil a reime. 
Boighliu A, buachail. 
Bam A. rechtaire. 

Borr A. aborra [ab ebore?] .i. eilefaint. 
Bare A. ab area .i. arcc. 
Breth .i. br^t .i. aras Mghel neich aile in breth .L a rucad 

Braih A. combrec dendi as braut .i. judex . Is la brithemain 

din aaonar in la sin in bratha .i. la htsu. 
Bddud A. ni is bath .i. muir. 
Baten .i. muirtcenn .i. atbail a&onur ar bath intan is cumair 

is bas dofome. 
Bahhmn . nomen mulieris quasi bab[ilon .i.] cumasc ind aon- 

berli ocon tur inilberluib imaigh senair. 

[p. 65, col. 2] 

Bablair A. ainm do patraic. 

Babb A. interiecht adblighte de nomine bainb breis mic 

elathan ar ni roibhi ind eirinn muc ba gratu. Babgitir 

din a hainmside. 


Boll quasi bull de nomine bulla .i. bolg. 

Brocoit A, combrecc . bracat din ised la bretnu brae iarum 

ainm do braich . at imorro sainlinn .i. linn soinmecb . 

brocoit .i. sainlinn dognither do braich. 
Brarackt .i. breth .i. partus. 
BiaU A, bith-ail . bith .i. sir . ail .i. faebhur. 
Buarach A, bo 7 arach . vel buarach dicitur boerghe .i. madan 

moch . inde dicitur fescor imbuarach. 
Base A. cech nderg . base dana intan is do cumrach bragat 

is ainm is dona mellaib dracconduib is diles. 
Bo A, nomen de sono factum. 
Blinn A. saile mairb . unde dicitur bas blindach. 

[p. G5, col. 3.] 

BUnn-auga [cajech in lingua galeorum dicitur. 
Bruinnech .i. mathair .i. ar indi biathew noidhena for a bruin- 
nib id est suis mammillis. 
Bee quasi ecec ebride. 
Bidbu grec bitheumatur .i. bis mortuus .i. adroilli a bas 

Bdire graece barontes fortes unde dicitur . no baire .i. buire. 
Binn A. a pinnro .i. on emit. 
Brinna A. a verbo frendo .i. ar ni labra reil vel a bruto 

Bratan A. birfaten .i. 6n bis ar fut in uisce . quia fit bir 

uisci biror marsin. 
Ballan a greicc . ballanus .i. glandis {^alnvog A. glans] .i. 

dercu ar a cosmailius. 
Bel A, bieol .i. eolus in bidh 7 dichned derid iil and fodo . 

no eolus isimb6o e. 
Ben .i. bi aen imrigne vel quia per quasi bona. 
Bert quasi port . a verbo porto .i. imarcuirim. 
Brat a bratia [brathy?] .i. on duilinn liubair ar a cosmailius 

diblinuib. No breo (.i. teni) ar a fatt 6. 

[p. 66, col. 1.] 

Bran A. iiach .i. brancus [PQoyxog] a greic . guttur laitin 7 

is de berar din eon ar met a slaugaide. 
Bditim quasi babtis .i. baptismum latine. 
Bruinne .i. binifainde .i. fainde in bru oldas. 


B(yrr .i. aborra .i. elefaith [leg. ab ebore .1. elefaint?]. 

Bairenn a. borr onn .i. cloch mdr. 

Baiskc a basilica graece regail .i, ecclesia .i. tech rig nimi. 

Cathlac A. catholicus [xa&olixog] graece .i. universalis a latin 

.i. aen airbert bith .L infinite. 
Curson .L soi. 
Cadb A. c4m. 
Cddh J. a graeco cadus A. sanctus . nnde dicitur cadh each 

raot CO canoin comdaim. 
Cos A. caingen .i. a causa. 
Carthdit A. craibhdech. 
Cast .i. genmnuigh. 
Carnal A, rinde. 
CaptM A. lestar nuisce. 
Cancell .i. cancella .i. cliath . inde dicitur crann caingel .i. 

crann cliath .i. cliatha isincrunnsin .i. iter na cleircib 7 

na hiiga fo cosmuilius rombui fial tempaill . ar is cliath a 

ainm conifochrae claraigh ut dicitur crocaingel .i. cro- 

cliath . ar is cliath munabe cleithiu fair. 
Cleiihiu .i. a .i. mullach cliath. 

[p. 66, col. 2.] 
Celt A, vestis . ut dicitur deceit .i. brat 7 lene. 
Celtair .i, etach nuair .i. ni maith contui cotuctar al6 as. 
Cim A. airget. 
dm [leg. cimb] .i. cuing. 
Cil A, cutruma. 
Cuife .i. tulcumae. 

Cumcumla A. baile s6ntae lasna gente a comruicced dias. 
Cuifre A, connaircle no comsuilge . ut dicitur muna (s. m.) 

do a cuifre. 
Cufemoe A. each cosmail is maith dia imrad. 
Caimper A. coimlonti .i. fer is gnath ac imguin icain. 
Camprim .i. magh quasi campus. 
CcB .i. tech . ut dicitur cerdc3B .i. tech cerda. 
CresccB .i. crescae ,i. tech mbec ndereoil. 
Cail A, com6t . ut dicitur caile .i. ben com^ta. 
Cul A, carpat. 


Culmaire .i. sar denma carpait. 
Cicht A. geibire a. rindaire. 
CacM .i. cumal .i. bantraiU. 
Cuihal .i. tlaith . ut dixit in file 
Diam cuthal craide tlaith 
rombathad (no rombuthad) for mortuinn muaid 
matain mir docoid ba [p. 66, ooL3.] moch 
graid mic lir arloch fatuaitb. 
Clo .i. gaeth . ut dicitur . Curchaib tarsdl septas cloa .i. 

suites gaeth. 
CoiceU .1. imradhugud . ut dicitur imbr^ithir icoiceill ingnim. 
Coic .i. comairle . ut alius . domruicim cuan 7 dombruc fo- 

bithin is inann coicne coic dotnuc 7 donuice. 
Caumae .i. craes. 
Cro .i. bas . ut dixit corbmac 

Peccad buan ollbrath cachbi 
nirob'flaith imcri comcro 
imdoenacht a mmc de bi 
cidtu bud rig ni bo ro. 
Cuindfech .i. fas .i. imechtar seicheluig ar is fas on . ut di- 
citur cuindfech ni co cet curu. 
CutaU ,i. fas. 
Cuitoll A. cnu caech. 
Cro8 A. ni is crux. 
Cochmean .i. ballan. 
Cochmeine A. ballain beca. 
Great .i. cai-pat. 

Cinaithe cinadh aithe .i. luagh a cinad in duine 7 rL 
Coindiulg A. cumaid da brathar for aonorba . coindiulg din 

.i. commaith ar ni fetar cia de fofaigebed alaile. 
Cuinmsem A. coindfe arisma .i. dun co trebaibh. 
Core .1. clann . ut dixit corco luighdech luide .i. dann 

Cdmh. .1. . cainte. 

Car A. cachmbrisc [cfr. Lat. cartes ^ Skr, pr]. 
Ci^esen A. cleirech .i. creando, 
Cera A, ainm don dagda. 


178 miSH GLOSSES, 

[p. 67, col. 1.] 

Coibche .1. cennach ut dixit tulach na coibche. 
Cndth .i. glic no crodha . ut dixit 

a Mailduin [a Miilduin] 
anatberainn frit arun 
imatrubhairt cailg cocruith 
rodamar dolo forbuith. 
Coach .i. ruathar . coach diarmada de breg baraind. 
Carr A. gae. 

CeUair .i. gae . ut dieitur diceltair .i. crann cin gae. 
Cearb .i. airget 
dm A, airget 
Ctuichnaidm A. tuadnaidm. 
Cuachdunad A. tuadbdhunad. 
Comhgne A. fis cachrig robui icomamsir fria ceile .i. com- 

Coth A. biad. 
Cotach A. caomna. 
Creither A. airdech a creatara .i. Ian . ut dieitur dodailed 

fim icreithir .i. fin inardhigh. 
Cob A. buaid. 
Cobkta A. caemna . ut est daig a gena rocamon cobhtba .i. 

buAidchu .i. co6mu. 
Caimse A. leine . a camisia. 

Coindse A. drech . ut dieitur cid cnedhach a coinnse. 
Caiche crich A, ansruth [?] bis oc dighail greisi a coiccrich. 
Coinmid A. lestar coimsighthe. 
Cuimliucht .i. cachsuilig. 
Cuicliunn .i. .v. leth uinge. 
Clvmat A. dochtad ut dixit [p. 67, col. 2.] baethcor clumtar 

Crothal A, croth adhnuall dognither anaimsir in crochta. 
Conel .i. ben tet i cuanricht. 

Cianach A. ingen fergusa iorcxaid brig ambui a mathair. 
Caut A. cenn. 
Crumall .i. faobhar. 
Cicce .i. fe6il. 
Cumla A. laithe fledhe. 


Cingis A. quinquagesimus 7 subaudivit dies . in coicatmad 

la c4isc. 
Crithgahlach (.i. aigech) .i. arinni concerta gabhla nangrad. 
Conar .i. cinfer no cin ar. 
Coscadh A. guscath. 
Cuadh A. iidcuadh. 

Cuirrech A. a cunibus .i. chairpthib. 
Cdinte A. coin ar is inann dan Msgniat .i. aursaire. 
Ceboce A. cuebache pieu Bacche?] .i. dia fina .i. ba he sollamuin 

bache [Bacchi?] leosum samon . coebachi din .i. mor uar 

abachi [0 Bacche?] no dirsan sain abachi [0 Bacche?] 
Crabed A. imfer cro imbe riaglad ar dia. 
Clen A. tol. 

Cercenn A. cuaird amsire .i. a circinnio ,i. gobolrinn. 
Creatra A. a creatura. 
Ceirbsire A. scoaire .i. a cervisia. 
Cuma A. ab eo quod est communis . unde dicitur as cuma 

lium .i. is comdes cip6 dib. 

[p. 67, col. 3.] 

Cich A. cichis [xixc] grec . luibh asa taet as. 

Ceu graece ceus [xevdog?] A. nubs . unde bithce quia incerta 

7 immobilis est. 
Cimtts A. 2i cima .i. imechtar lignorum .i. 16ne» 
Cin meamruim .i. a verbo cingto [quinque?] ar it cuic 

tuagha ata t^chta dobeith inti. 
Coi 7 cainedh .i. cinogh graece .i. lamentatio .i. lamcomairi 
Crann A. ere a f6nd. 
Centecul A. combrec rotruaillned ann .i. cainecul is do is ainm 

iarom la bretnaibh do ollainn chillches .i. dia ndeni pell. 
Crocinn .i. crocfinn .i. finna gerr .i. finna in samgemen insin . 

cui contrarie dicitur gaimin .i. gaimfinn .i. isia a finna 

side quod hieme occiditur . ainm coitcenn doib siche 

.i. sicce quod fit in pariete. 
Cathasfach] .i. cathfesach .i. feis foite ind oig ina cathgreim 

comatain . cathfesach iarum cech fer is gnath ann.^ 
Culpait A. cailfuit. call coimet. fuit .i. uacht .i. coim6t ar uacht. 

' Here the text is corrupt: cathfes^d iarum cat is gnat. 


Cubuchul quasi cnbicula a* a cubiculo .i. inatt camang. 

Case quasi pasc .i. a pascha. 

Cride don crith forsambi. 

Ceimesdin A. bangaleine. 

Crochtt A. crochcuit .i. croch gachnard 7 gachniun .i* cult 

aesa airighdae insin. 
[p. 68, col. 1.] 
Comos A. oomposti [leg. compos] .1. potens no comes leis 

forcach no comasgud coda d5ib. 
Cutrrech imorro dorada fri gach seiscenn .1. <$orra segait ind. 
Cuing A. on congbail dobeir for na damhtdb. 
Corr A. a cursu ar ni erge do lar sine cursu prius. 
Cadhan A. caB a dun .i. a inad no a adhba quia non apud 

nos semper manet a. caid a bhfaind .1. a cluimh. 
CarraccA, gorsecc 7 gor gel isin combricc . No camsecc hi 7 sechc. 
Cendais .i. fosaid on cind he. 
Cortar A. cuirter fri h^tach hi . No coraigther no coor .i. 

cohimell is dir a breth 7 cordir annsein intaithmech. 
Carr A. cam donither fair 7 [dichnedh] deiridh fil inde. 
Cuithe a. cua 7 te, undo dicitur cua coifid .i. fid cua co 

cae fas ann. 
Caill A. a calle . id est semita feramm. 
Cruach (.i. arbar) a. coir (corr?) a naC .i. a nachtar 7 issed 

cid a ichtar • No coir uiigter hi no carrach ara tabar 

cuici do carruib arba. 
Colcmg .i cuilcaid [p. 68, col. s.] .i. comet cadi^A hi a. is la 

huaisli bis. 
Cual a. na cuaillib bit innti isberar . vel quasi gual .i. on 

gualuind ar is foirri bis a truma . vel quasi cael .i. a calon 

[jccSAoy, HolXov^^ latine. 
Cai imtrochti A. contraodio [contractio?] no codrach a. malum 

.i. contraoht din. .i. comolc. 
Coccad .i. comcath. 

CuUach A. collach ar m6t a cuil la mathair 7 la siair. 
Cmtwwrga A, seachr&n. 

Bagh .i. maith. 
Droch A. olc. 


Droch .i. maith . ut est droch do drochuib . dag do daghaib . 
Droch dono .i. roth carpait ut dixit m6r muman: 
Is annam iarnimrim 
iter caisil ocas loch 
inid aithenn findabrach 
feras arin frim da droch. 
Deeach .i. de fuach .1. comrac da sillseb .i. tralg . 7 cip lin 

sillaBb conrisat ann iarsin is deeaoh a ainm beos. 
Dibe&il A, cin nrlabra. 

Dein A. tipra .i. didomuin .i. adhbul a doimne. 
Die A. ctii . ut dixit colman i marbhnaidh cuimin: 
Ni maidh craide c6 [leg. cen?] chie 
marb teimhe coch b6 adie 
inarfeilndetar iar cliu 
ua b^oa iar cuiminiu. 
DuibeU A. dub dianeipil .i. saighn^n. 

[p. 68 , col. 3.] 

Doilces A. dlomuit ces naneolais connach bi fair. 

Darb A. cumul .i. bantraill. 

Daithen A. soillsi no taithnem . ut dicitur . rogab daithne 

guth alia .1. soillsiugud. 
Dorte A. doltach. 
Dal A. pars. 
Dicdtair A. crann gae. 
Doglua A. drochsoillsi A. glus soillsi iarsinni dombeir neach 

icumhe 7 imbrdn for a suile. 
Dobur .i. duabuais. 

Dibar A, rann . ut dixit . Gia duar donesa nath. 
Dorbchaa A. deabaidh no dormainecht. 
Dormuine A. doarduine . Dor .i. duine muime. 
Dicachlac^n A. ar diultad bis in c6in aik is aidbliugud. 
Dibath A. adhbul bds .i. iarsinni na facuib nech dia ds. 
Dinff A. decmaic. 
Dimdin A. idhan .i. main diadha. 
Diuderc .i. adhbul d6icsiu ut dixit . Fil duine ris bu buidhe, 

lium diudercc 7 rl. alitor. Dia mor d6 mur . t. diuderc nd6r. 
Deideil A. laegh bo . ut find dixit deinech ailig asitcuitigh 

imnid intathoc aruibhe airle atbath denenn meilte dedil. 


[p. 69, col. 1.] 

Dath .i. uaire , ut dicitur . Dath no molfar ar met mo nert 

.i. ualr n6mnolfam. 
Daithmedh .i. uaire aisneid. 

Dobrach .i. fliuchaide . at dixit fer mmnan indain in meirlig 
Ulcha dobrach indomnach 
i luann i miirt mac feimech 
fobratach senrach soimlech 
sruamach maignech mil meirlech. 
Doimliag .i. teghais clach. 
Dobriih .i. dobur 7 ith .i. usee 7 arbur. 
Difcnche X. cin foichidh nagra. 
Diuclidther A. crenaidthear. 
Bonn X. ri. 
Deimm X, meabal no aisc . ut dicitur ni bo deimm .i. nir- 

bo meabhal. 
Disert X. desertum .i. derechtae. 
Dee X. screbal. 
Deiihe .i. deidhe. 
Daigh X. ignis. 

Deiscell X. deabuidh .i. ciall dis. 
Diuh^duth .i. bru eitiud broc detfa . Diubruduth din diebru 

eitiud .i. ni araghara inmbroc nadetfa. 
D^istiu .i. doruart^t . ut dixit . Diam deistinuib athair aendan 

.i. mas ingen nama doruarteit de cloind in athar. 
Deimdil X, trebar. 
Duillenn X. gae . ut dixit fer muman 

Is dana drech daimine 
iter 6caib eirechtae 
isa sithmbrugh suidithe 
leicith duillen ndeilithe. 

[p. 69, col. 2.] 

Daldbach X. airbere tre chuibhdius 7 ni fes cia da ndentar 

.i. dallfuach. 
Doeduine X. dechduine. 

Debrath X. brath indsce . Debrath din .i. deil a bratpi]. 
Diggass X. dicoiss, ni indula do cois. 
Dinm .i. reim tire no diairim. 


Diaiac .i. ni husa aisc de. 

Daif A. deog. 

Der A. ingean. 

Der A. adhbul . ut dicitur dermair .i. adhbul mor. 

Druimden A. in finn^imint 

Dirndl A, demon. 

Deimre A. din amra. 

Domanchea A, dam mainces .i. mainces bo ar is coitcend di 

ceiniol ani as bos qnidam. 
Dorblus A. quasi dobur lux .i. solas dorcha .i. eiterscarad 

Ise 7 aidche . D6dhol similiter . de .i. laithe . dol .i. 

solus . solus dolus .i. dubia lux. 
Dercnat .i. derc a net no derc iat. 
Dercu X, daircnu .i. cnu na darach hi. 
DerUoma A. de urbad doniter hi no diserb .i. ni serph 

imbi inti. 
Diseicir (no diadr) A. dis a coir .i. bee. 
Did A. cainte .i. dofuluchta ara doilge. 
Duairc A. doaircsina 6 .i. ni iil la nech cid a d^icsin no di- 

sere h6. 
Duos A. file quasi dos .i. tindscra. 
Dald [leg. Dall?] a talpa . no diseill .i. cin siiik' ar id est 

seiU .i. suil. 
Data dalinebar sithula .i. sithal arisithlad in lenda donit[h]er 

aca dail. 

[p. 69, coL 3.] 

Dama in bo (no a verbo) domo [leg. dono] tabraim no ar 

damaid Ma gabail. 
Docho .i.*preputo unde doig dicitur. 
Deabaidh quasi debaeth .i. d^e is baBth aicce. 
Ddasackt A. di fodiultad na bi socht itir 6. 
Des quasi dex a dextera. 
Dorrsaig [leg. Doraaid] .i. icon dorus saidess. 
Der a graeco dero [deQioY] A. cado quia cadunt lacrimae. 
Deacaid .i. caid iat 7 suabuis quia fit dels each suabuis . 

no descad daBScairigid na daine ebaite. 
Dule dulio [dovlaiu)] id est servio . dull din fogantaigi. 
Dalb A. br6g a dole .i. on ceilg. 


Descad imorro cind .i. des don cud .i. don cind iatsein quia 

fit cut .i. cenn . ut dicitur falcud. 
Dmih imorro .i. oinmit quasi diraith .i. cen fiach fair ina 

cintaib acht aithgin. 
Druth .i. merdaech (no mertreach) dir »th isein .1. a los- 

cadh bu dir di quia fit aet[h] tene. 
Droighin .i. trog aen an is trogmaire do crannaib. 
Delgh .i. del secc no deleget quod legit [leg. ligat] duas 

partes do g». 
Dris .i. der uis .i. dereoil 7 uis . et inde dicitur drean .i. 

der 7 en . no dereoil . no druidheen .i. en doni fastine. 
Dernu A. eodem modo . no dir ni .i. ni direch no reidh . 

ut dicitur niredhe dernu. 
DUmuin dele muin .i. deiligud gach ni for a muin . no dilanmain 

.i. cen mnai aici. 
Dorimart .i. tinol. 
Dobuil .i. cinbuil. 
Dercained (.i. um fagail fochraice) .i dicreitem no amarus. 

[p. 70, col. 1.] 
Emdhe .i. fomnae no bith do menma ut dictum est: 

A maic ni maith in dogni 

indredh tire muscraide 

eimdhe na tairsit occa 

dub tire daglas fota. 
Ellam .i. a laim esti. 

Ele X, ab alio .i. imeghem .i. ab ega .i. capra b6ced doni \ 
Ecna .i. eo [ev'] A. bonum . gno .i. gnosia [yv&atg'] .i. 

scientia . ecna din .i. bona scientia. 
Etan A. dind ancind. 

Ecen .i. cin eca . no eca cana .i. 6cc riagla hi. 
Esirt . ni coir firt do . no esard .i. is [leg. ni] ard he; 
Etsruth .i. 6tsod .i. sodhu medonach in laei. 
Ethach .i. quasi aithech .i. doniter a aithe for neach. 
Eilid aid eile togais di. 
Esclonn .i. uisce luath eistib .i. sisiubluath. 

^ This seems corrupt. 


Eachair .i. eo [6v] A. rectum 7 cur .i. curum [curvum?] 

quod sic est. 
Erb A. quia herbis pascitur. 
Eirmed A. tomus. 

FtacuU A. onni as figo .i. sdpthim 7 cuil onni is x^tAia] 
labia 1 .i. is in beol bit sdti iat . No fecond hole iat 

Figell a vigilia .i. frithaire. 

Fagen A. a vagina .i. ontruaill. 

Faiihche .i. fethcai .i. conair iar na fethugud .i. reidhugud. 

Fuine A. fo (.i. maig, leg. maith) in ni he. 

Fual quasi fuil ar a dath . no quasi bual usci. 

Fachell .i. focell in gille dia tabair bis a med se . No fon- 
gellad bis a comhallad. 
[p. 70, col. 2.] 

Fedan a foedere .i. on acomol. 

Fuad .i. arad. 

Farlaegh A. tilgan. 

Fidir A. fath. 

FeidhU A. umuighthi. 

Fochnad A. lasamnacht. 

Fola A. bann. 

Fidan .i. inar. 

Fe A, ferg. 

Ferg .i. kech. 

Fortorga .i. examail no diadha. 

Forgla .i. toga. 

Fuachtair A. cnedh. 

Folfaighe .i. imslan. 

Faebguth A. mire. 

Ferend .L cris. 

Fuarloch A. uisce etrom. 

Feib A. marsin. 

Foeair A. f6irithin. 

Gruich a cruciatu .i. pianadh no cumgach. 
Guth a gutture. 

^ MS. figo i. salabia. 


Gilla A. cillas grec unius manus . ar is lam do each a aen 

Gekin eel a celo. 
Gnba suspiria osnad. 
Gaeth quasi eaeth eathero [xa{>aiQio] graeee purge latino .i. 

Gruiden .i. goirt sen .i. scan 7 goirt hi. 
Galgat A. taghail. 
Gaitis A, genus .i. marbus. 
GMelg A. guth elgae .i. guth erennach ar ata intainmsin 


[p. 70, coL 3] 
Imscing .i. tech bee itallad imdhai. 
Irchaire A. iarcairdes .i. cara ecnairce . ut dicitur irchaire 

gach finechalre. 
Indbe (.i. inde caelad) .i. biadh nindib .i. isna caelanuib. 
Indtech A. s6t conaire. 
IndtUuckt A. latine .i. intellectus. 
Inithil .1. inmedhonach .1. intrebh tighe imedfaon. 
Innlat A. lat on ni as lave .i. dogmm [leg. dogrinim?] . Innlat 

din .i. diunnach nind .i. pedum et manuum. 
Inntile tire .i. inat itallad in comorba . Inntile done .i. lestar 

mbec italla digh. 
lath nAnann A. eiriu .i. anu mater deorum ut gentiles 

Imbas .i. dicetul foceird in file ina bosa 7 contuil iaram 7 

a di bois ime di leicniu co tadbanar d6 ina codlad ni 

d6ntar nachdaigh daig focuirdis demna occo. 
Ingraighe .i. eirghe inde satir. 
Innrecht A. comdiubairt no neimrecht. ut est indrecht fir .f. 

lartcs A. iartar . ut dicitur iar fis 7 rl. 
Inbleogan A, intoxal .i. athgabail gabus in tr6n do fir fine 

dogabar i cinuid in cintaigh curotoxla side arincintach. 

[p. 71, col. 1.] 

Ic A. slan . ecessia \axea^a\ graeee salus latine. 
Indile (.i. tormach) intolis graeee aiigmentum inter io. 


likama .i. caindell .i. ith feoma .i. imm . inde ith na heorna 

no fer lasus amail ith isincaindill. 
Ml .i. thisfil 7 uasal .i. thuasfil. 
Inchind .i. inde incinn bis. 
Innech .i. intextum .i. fige. 
h^ .i. ere as .i. asaneire bis sisi. 
latla A, ettila .i. bee a heite. 
laru .i. iarfoi .i. fohiart[h]ar bis .i. fo hirbulL 
Ichtar .i. ictir .i. actalmuin. 
Irdairc .i. ardeirc .i. ar suil bis. 
Imhm^ach .i. imba iubar solis turcbail grene. 
Irm airisiu ar is foirri tairisess in teg uile . No ersonium 

graece ostium latine. 
Innurcdd .i. innuu robaith . no in anno rofaith .i. isin bliadain 

taimic ann. 
Indlea \. in fodiultad ni les he acht lanech. 
lose A. 6 uisce .i. inuisce h6. 
Inaihar A, intoiter ind gach mbiad . no indethar ind tet each 

ni ethar .i. each biad. 

[p. 71, col. 2.] 

Loea .i. soillsi idem et les. 

Laarg .i. gabal . nt est ath dalaarg .i. dagabnl. 

Luar .i. borb. 

Luis .i. lam. 

Lang A. br^g no mebul . ut est senchan torpuidh 

B^s dolangaib linib ciall 

grian dotaithne tar adaigh uar 

direch nd6t fri saiged s6t 

ocus br^g nambriathar mbuan. 
Locfiach .i. comsuig 6 laitin 7 6 gaideilg .i. loquax 7 fiach 

.i. fiach-labhar. 
Lu .i. each mbec unde dicitur lulaigh .i. laigh mbec. 
Lu A. olc . ut dicitur ni len lu lesugud .i. ni len olc cia 

tecmad olc ag in lesugud. 
Lem A. cachmaeth ut dicitur lemlacht .i. lacht maeth. 
Leo8 A. imdergad. 


Lann .i. urgabail .i. tolg no bninne dognither i leatar umha 

no airgit . at dicitur Guach condib lannnib. 
Ltichtar .i. coite bis for uisqne. 
Lau .i. b6. 
Lai8 .i. laidh. 
Lecht .i. lige. 
Lian .i. ailgen. 

Lianchar A. caruit ailgen 7 condarcle. 
Lugnasa (.i. nasad no acobair no gnas) .i. nasad loga ar is 

lug dorosg^lad aenach [p. 71, col. 3.] imbarach taite fogbmair. 
Loem .i. aimser . Ldem dono .i. in diath bis fon arbar ica 

Liamuin .i. each sochmcht no each suidheoh. 
Liugaime A. nomen yiri .i. mac loigech lagha mic mogha 

nuadhat* . ut dicitur: eladhar firt fuirmigther lia liu- 

gaime laigen. 
Lingar .i. tiagh imbi aidhme legha .i. doillenna mina bis ised 

do deilingad nalosa biti indib na rocomaseit 
Lerg .i. each n^islinn. 
lAtor .i. lobur no each nimleabair. 
lAber .i. sa6r. 

Laeighan [leg. laigen?] .i. gai. 
Ldife A. bandae. 
Luirc A, suil. 
Lucorb A. oirb locha. 
Laime A. biail. 
Lo A. failid. 
Laeb A. b6. 
Laes .i. fiach. 
Laime A, deogh. 
Leithet A. leth. 
Linmuine A. ainm tiprait as romuigh loch nethach . Liathmuine 

.i. in magh tarsa tucad . at dixit anoinmit a. camaa: 
Doragha linmuine tar liathmuine 
foleich bado 

euinghid b61a trascraid omna 
denuid ethra. 
^ MS. naaghat. 


[on a slip between p. 70 and p. 71.] 
Conomadh .i. collad . ut est intan conosnedh patraic darlais 

ba ininis na ngaeideal robid. 
m [muinterj .i. eland. 
Sgoih .i. mac. 
Cuinche .i. sliab. 
[Digna] . bai fergus for loingius iarna digna (.i. sarugadh) 

i macaib usnech. 
\_Bradluai8c] , forfkccmh bradluaisc (.i. folt) in leith macha 


[p. 72, col. 1.] 

Lachu .i. liuchiu .i. fliuch[u] hi quam aliae aves. 

Lendan .i. lend arnoenar no aen dia lenand menma hi. 

Losait .1. a los uait .1. a cend. 

Leacc arleiccter sis 7 suas . no lee bit seicc. 

Ledb quasi ledb .i. leth in faidb hi 7 inde dicitur lethar .i. 

leth iar fir .i. feoil 7 lethar. 
Lisan .i. les each bolo imbi linn . sic eisim. 

Marc .i. each. 

MarcmuUinn .i. muil[inn] imsui each. 

Mol nomen viri .i. dorsaidh temrach . ut dicitur molach .i. 

is cosmuil fid mol ar ni anadside di labra eai[d]che anas- 

beirside taet ind taet as. 
Milgedan .i. molcuitan .i. cuit moil . ar is6 aighe dobertha d6. 
Monach .i. clesamhnaeh. 

Manach .i. oni is monachus .i. a grec [fiova%6g\. 
Mancadh .i. oibriud man .i. lam. 

Manach .i. feoil bruithe .i. manducando [p. 72, col. 2.] .i. tomuilt. 
Midh .i. leth .i. midhbae .i. graine . Midbae din .i. lethben 

no lethuagh fobith intoraind bis iter indalaben de. 
Mand .i. uinge . ut dicitur . Secht manna 6ir for .1. 
Mo .i. moch . ut dicitur Indiasar dam do a 7 rl. 
Meichem .i. gallbrecht . ut dicitur dimeichem .i. nemmorad. 
Meistech .i. cuntabartach. 

Mirinne A. gae . ut est finndergaiter muirne mblith. 
is meise A. is tualaing. 


Mem A. p6cc. 
Mde .i. capalL 

Milliud A. misilludh .i. feghad olc. 
Metheal A. buanuighi .i. oni is meto .i. boingim. 
Muldach A. seiscenn . at dixit ua siagail ag tothlugud cairr 
Slicht a da gae tre gach mullach 
cullach flescach ferach 
amail cairr a mberar lamach 
tre condold fand ferach. 
Melff .i. as . 7 melg .i. sugh fobith isberar cid fri cuirm 
mealg netha. 

[p. 72, col. 3.] 
Manadh A. sugh. 
Mdlach .i. medonlax .i. leth lax. 
Muadh .i. nasal no airmidin. 
MairUld A. maris bellum .i. cath no imecla. 
Mitan A. miaimsir. 
Men .i. bel . at dictam est 

Coigne g^r gonas daine 
ni frithe mara 
mairg troich tar roi rena 
adci mena maic snaina. 
Mme .i. aardraige no aarcon . at dicitur Sliab mis .i. sliab 


meise .i. dina aardraigib rodolbhai . banba do macaib 


miled .p. .i. ben mic cermada. 
Maidhind A, imairec . ut est coach (.i. raathar) ndiarmada 

di bregh baraind brath ndorar diam memdatar maidhinn. 
Mesroidhai .i. nomen mic dat6. 
MorU .i. s6ghaind. 
Moadh A, ecosc. 
Mucha A. sirecht 
Murunn A. dobarcha. 
Mui .i. gach ngerr. 
Moth .i. gath. 
Mengul .i. anart . ut dicitur . biadh noud mengach mengul. 

[p. 73, col. 1.] 
Nocht A, adhaigh .i. quasi nox. 


NeacM .i. glan. 

Necht .i. ingen. 

Nimb A. braon oni is nimbus at est Oengus fo aibhlib iumhais. 

Nairne A. temair .i. di anmuim in foraid Vob6i inte. 

Naime .i. aislingthe . [Nar\ A. uasal . unde dicitar nar mac guaire. 

Neit A. dia catha . Nemon a ben . ut est b6 n^it 

Neit (.1. guin duine) .i. gaisced. 

Nald .i. mor no adhbul. 

Nail amae .i. ismor inni. 

Neute .i. cailte .i. drochtaige . ut dicitur corbmac conbuith 

neoite .i. robris for cailte. 
Nangihae .i. ansae no diardain. 
Nonomain A. ainm imerta ciuil dogniat sair. 
Naemdruim [leg. Naendruim] .i. ainm cille .i, no6i tulcha 

isinninsi inafil. 
Nac A. diultad quasi nee . nac done .i. tairisim in fomgaire 

sruithe . ut dicitur cen nac gen dichmairc. 
Ninfos A. fos tuinne. 

Noidin ulad quasi novem dies . ar isi ri laithe bitis isin ces. 
Nat .i. tiin . ut dixit fer muman 

asbeir fiach goblom gr^ 
acr^im nat ndmat anocht 
Nemain degha A. uible tened . ut dixit fer mumau 
neamain deaga deirge 
airethait berbtha biad ndedil. 

[p. 73, col. 2.] 

Ness A, aumisi criadh . lege sanais cormaic 7 rl. 

Nes A. crecht 

Nes A. animal. 

N6s .i. fis nonbuir .i. tri rig tre hespuic tri filid. 

Oi A. ovis . [6isc] .i. ciera seise. 

Oamennadh A. scrutadh menmain 7 a meabhrugadh dogni . 
ut dixit int^icsine i farrad sencdin: 

Ni mogenar fil andiu 

ocraith colgan inafiu 

arameince asberar fris 

osment osment adroch-^icis. 


Oidh A. oboidens [? obediens] J. aurlaite . ut dicitar ion 
amra coluim cille ba hold ba Masai. 

Orait .i. oratio a. aurnaigthe. 

Oraet A. brat trebraigh. 

Oehsadh A. camsanadh . nt dicitar cen uarad cin ochsad. 

Ocsadh A. an&l . ut dicitar ni fil acht oxsadh. 

Onff .L br6n no imnedh . ut dicitur 

ni rongad (.i. ni tainic) foichedh cose 

itemel each ongthae (.i. faitech each foichedhach). 

Oscrad A. 68cuiriudh .i. tocbuiriud o gin. 

Aistreoir [leg. Otstreoir] A. dorrsaid. 

Oar .i. guth. 

Ord A. adbar no dliged no airem no guide. 

[p. 73, coL 3.] 

^atradc A. ainm gr&id la r6ma[n]chu* 

Poncemd A. medh fairbech. 

Puincne A. screpall. 

Pan A. pondus .i. di uinge d6c. 

Pont A. borb. 

Pardus A. paradisus .i. locc 7 airif. 

Plet .i. nomen rinda dogniat cerda. 

PrM A. indile creiche. 

Po A. bos. 

Pattu A. poi-to .i. is t6 a bois ar idtruime a reatha. 

Perecul A. cubhus. 

Ponair quasi fdnair . ar is ac imorcor bairgen bis. 

Pur A. glan . oni is purus . undo est 

Inti caras crabadh ng6r 

is dighnad lais uisce pur 

ibhid cailech betha bu&in 

i flaith iam61 uisque u4ir. 
ut est P^ran .i. uaire nad brechtar do illdathaib acht 

Ru8 A. gruaid . ut dicitar conach romna rus richt . Rus dono 

imdergad 7 gach nderg. 
Roptene A. gairge . ut dixit cano: 


Ni nrgeona in moige 

ni iiHpu mo gairge roptene 

niadh do mac iosci 

cocead geisi ceirne. 
Robdach .i. fobairt tria feirg. 
Ropathach A, ainm ropu. 
Basua .1. sens .i. ondi is rado latine. 
Rue A. s^n. 
Roirge .i, rorfge. 
Roerfc] A. ro6ric no roferg. 
Ruiredh A. rith mor hi cian. 
Rti8 A. rofis .i. senchns . ut dicitur a mic ain iugain cia 

roich do rds erenn. 
Rerachus A. cas caingen . Ree .i. temporis. 
Rudrad .i. rodoradh A. anadh fota for tir nacb aile. 
Rard .i. roard. 
Ridl .i. roisil. 
Ras .1. sirecht 
Raili4mn A. brothrach. 
Rang .i. tradhnai. 
Radb A. rop. 
Rucon .i. reconn. 

Sanct .i. n&om. 

Sin .i. muince. 

Sinann .i. slabhradh. 

Seghais .i. ainm intsige ifil intibra^ asa taot in B6ind. 

Sartan A. sart .i. cnde . an .i. anda .i. Uiadain .i. olann 

bliadna bis for cairib. 
Smir .i. tone . at dicitar sm^rfaaii tone. 
Sin Morainn A. ar a crainni. 

[p. 74, col. 1.] 
Sul A. grian . inde dicitar dari (leg. dar rig?] solat. 
Sruamach A. brothrach. 

Sogen A. find . inde dieitar sogen mac conaill cemaigh. 
Sumdealbh A. borb [ ] Sidhin .i. dam allaidh. 
Sidhin A. ossfeoil. 



Sorb A. locht 

Serpan .i. cenel narbha .i. ba doich bidh 6 in corco . [ser- 

Seichdll A. foxal . at est sechill focoisle a muinntir f^in. 
Sithboth A. teach sighe teach righ. 
Seachandai A. cdinte; 
Seithir A. nomen mulieris .i. ingen fergusa mic leite ri 

xdad . roboui ifarrad anluan mic maghach di feinib 7 

mac d6 .i. nie mac anluan . et de ilia dicitur inloiligh 

seichir [leg. seithir] sealb 7 rl. 

Triath A. ri 7 mair [leg. muir] 7 tore . ut est imsilentio. 
Tigh A. each forcenn nderid . ut dicitur tigail icroich 
deighinach tairic inbo feich. 
[p. 74, col. 2.] 
Tigradtts (.i. rathus) .i. cin deighinach in se6it t^d imuga 

TiugUmrad .i. inldmrad deighinach iarmbds in c6ile. 
Tamon .i. fogr&d filed fo cosmuilius tamoin .i. crann diam- 
benar a barr . sic ille cin manchuine ni dlig dire acht 
Turtad .i. com^icniugud. 
Turmu .i. mor mo . ut dicitur dobertha dot gille turmu 

deit fad6in. 
Timairle A. airle tim . ut dicitur: 

Domic timairle andiu 
iter fedaib fidmuiniu 
berthium dubrdn bes ogus 
incunnrad dorigenus. 
Tellur A. talom oni is tellus . tellrach ar6im. 
Teac .i. mias. 

Torlach A. luagh toire dobeir fine dia tuisech ar a toir. 
Trocit .i. corp . unde dicitur fethrucad. troicit fo .i. fon 

uisce . no fo .i. maith don corp. 
Toth A. sugh . ut dicitur toth eithlinne .i. sugh ^ithlinne. 

[p. 74, col. 3.] 
Annon A. 6bra, ecclesia agr^ic convocatio alaitin comto- 


gairm agaidheilg . ut dicitar ombi mac combi .xx. tech 
friannoine iadhadh. 
Andait .i. eclais do^t inaile as cenn 7 is tuiside (i. tus). 
Anamain .i. emon an .i. na ceithri r^e emnaiter innti. 
AiU A. tech . nnde dicitar ailttire .i. saor denm[a] tighe. 
Ain A. tr6ide d6nadh ainm .i. taulach 7 fen 7 mnllach 1. 
Affgen A. aurlach . ut dicitar 

Braccan cloen sadil forsld 
fordmim eich is mac loigne 
nochonuil ceni tucas aggen (.i. cenn) 
nich is fodb ech s6tai fomil. 
Ar/eith A. airitiu no lesngud . at dicitar arfeid cend a 

Aursearbach A. gat no mngad. 
Alamdm .i. m^in alaa. 
Abacc .i. bee adbae fobith Senbic Mth isin bdind . no bee 

a a. .i. a airde . at est dam congair itir da a. 
Axal A, nasal . at est rainaic axal la hairbre arcaingel. 
Alccne A. ail bee .i. digabtach indi is ail. 
Aigeth .i. aigithide. 
Alackt A. ailith lacht .i. ass [p. 75, col. 1.] an ben torrach ina 

Aurdin A. aarcomndeth. 
And A. andas [annas] .i. bliadain. 
Anherbracht [leg. anforbracht] .i. an 7 fer 7 bracht .i. beal 

.i. fer cen beal ann. 
Aisseckt A. imrisain. 

Andomuin A. domain and .i. ainm intire moin 7 lothrach. 
Ambrackt .i. neprecht i. fogail. 
Ainmeac A, ni imfalaing meisce. 
Aisti .i. ab hastis .i. tslisnib. 
Adben .i. etercian . bid dana aidben .i. nasal .i. toisech na 

tnaithe gach aas araile coraigi in rig. 
A%88 .i. aabhann . at dixit in fUie 

Mac conaigidh cosnnm fris 
ni aiss tenid na midnais 
c6ne snides snechta find 
fidba for lind latha lais. 


Anart A. neporte .i. ni formolad cosse. 

Adarci .i. fiadrasc . ar bid derc .i. soil . at dicitur glaisderc. 

AfOrend .i. anmin tire .L oi tr^n fri clandagad oarbha. 

Audoim a. roi gait . ut dicitur iudhaim cortbe. 

An/en .i. ingnad . at dicitar fri foil in mil m6ir . gl fodmat 

bronda anfeo. 
Anmain A. ajiacal« 
Asa adbaa A. athfis .i. aisaeis. 
Aine digin .i. di fodialtad ann nach coir biadh do caithem 

inn . no ditin .i. dol 

[p. 75, coL 2.] 
Pereccul A. cabas . at est 

Feimmi collin airecol 

asaaillem airecor 

foscirtsa dom perecal 

for mend macha mainecal. 
Polan A. nomen viri . polan mac ming mic mic dedai ut 
dicitar maelbridi 

Tathais snechta siachta do 

is dirand dotacht atciu 

Polan mac Ming triain 

ni ciain imacrand indiu. 

Q). 75, col. 3.] 

In principio (4« toeach) fecit (.L doroine) Dens coeliun et 

Gurrqfur A. gar rodaingnid dia carcair ifim arachind. 
Ar sin tra doreUsat a. doroailset clanna adbidm for aaill 7 

Aslia tairem 7 aisneis an rocisastar dale .i. rofoilngo^tar 

clann eon&in mic lafeth mic noe in cinel do clainn nae 

nach roi})e agdenum intuir Nemraaid. 
Maith na taisich badia tancatur isin sciathia (.i. maith iat fein). 
Doronsat mic milid imarbaid imrama ac tiacbtain corQcastar 

ir mac milid murcet dQ gach luing . rmr imath 7 ceth A. 

Gindas aradha dosom ^badalta arnirbeth etir . Isaire aderar 

arbahinann andan. 


Feinitis Firrsaid . Faraseus .i. divisus .i. inndnd. 
Focnchaib ocua cmdfortaib . fo crichaib .i. fo ceithri airdi 

indomuiu . focendfortaib .i. fotirthaib. 
Gid fodera in berla ebrai domarthain ag ^iber sech each? 

ar mnire 7 ar crist u&d 7 ar bendachtain d6. 
Dochumscaigedh^ intaenberla gach cdil A. gath .L coimed 

.i. co&l. 
Fcdllec .i. for roindti na litri re divisus. 

[p. 76, col. 1.] 
Lomhan A. loamain bis Mrre . no lu[man] .i. bee in mann. 
Leim .i. Ideim .i. Iauds6im 6. 
Lesc^ A. leis a aise . no quasi lose* .i. baeaeh. 
Lenn A. 16e find .i. 166 find 7 ainm do brut find. 
Loscuim A. la hos i ar is os in buaball arambi no la 

huais i. 
Lorg .i. lui airg .i. liich hi no larric. 
Lurga A. leurgbail in cuirp [.i.] a togbail. 
Lobar quasi lebo[r] a lepra latino. 
Lepaid A. faidh neeh 16. 
Lite A. lotte .i. lotan artige i 7 tess indti. 
Leco A. le eo h6 .i. eo eluais. 
Leine A. lenis latine no lin f . 
Loscad A. soad euige eonid losg 6 de .i. baeaeh vel quasi 

lesgugud neeh 6. 
Long A. saxanberla sin .i. lang .i. gaeh fada uile et inde 

long dieitur. 
Lnachair A. [f]liueh in uir imbi. 
Letrad quasi latratio [laeeratio?] . no letbar soad .i. soud in 

lethair 6. 
Letir .i. tirim a leath 7 flinch a leat[h] aile. 
Lotar [lothar?] ambi braiehlis .i. tinol ar tinol na lennann 

cuiei . ut dieitur lotar (.i. eomtinol) na fuair iaradibri- 

gaib rath.* 
Lon A. tore .i. eraide. 
Lon A. baoth. 

^ Ms. documscaidliedh. * Ms. lesg. ' Ms. losg. 

* lothar ai nadh faaii iarnaibh rigaibh rath • Cormac . (O'O.) 


Lcrg lorcon enim grece avidas devorator . Laghin lore din 
angbaidh no laind for diuglantaid . no lagbin a laginis 
jlanceis?] lagon [^oVx'7?] graece hasta . Laighin dogairdis 
dono trib anmannuib .i. domnaind galeoin lagin . 
galeoin roaltsat labrad for a longas . It galeoin imorro 
batar iamaimsir icoboir ailella mic rosa ambrathar for 
tain bo cuailnge undo dicitor .xxx. cet nangaleon . Ocus 
nidat gailenga ar is clan mar re cormac galeng rofe^ 
rad tain bo cuailngne. 

(p. 76, col. 2.] 

MuUach X. muldach .L cluasach. 

Mala .i. moo alloig oldas int6dan. 

MaUann .h na malach no fainde oldas in mala fein. 

Muad nvuUcAg .i. medon in mullaig. 

MeU .i. milliud e no millti. 

Muine A, a munio .i. daingnigim. 

Meaan .i. aon as mesa do conaib e. 

Molt .i. m6 a folt no a ailt no a suit .i. a f^th. 

M4th J. mo a f6th. 

Maoth J. mocismeth . [leg. mo is meth.] 

Maot\K\al .i. maot[h] 7 fiiil. 

Mas .i. m6 a fas no mo tig as. 

Mennat .1. mianait .i. ait is mianach la each. 

Midach .1. m6 do eachaib 6 no maith ech. 

Muindter .i. mointoir .i. maine toirit do nech. 

Mias .i. m6 is fois i. 

Mecon .i. mo cinis as. 

Meng .i. mi engna i .i. drochenigh. 

Mong .i. mo a hong .i. a fochaide .i. maile no 16ithi no cu- 

dum [leg. cutom] forati. 
Mang .i. mo is[s]eng . et inde dicitor loaiti mang ina a msx-^ 

thair .i. derb. 
Muit quasi mutus .i. amlabar. 
Maide .i. mo a faide oldas a letfad [leg. lethet] . no mo 

uait 6. 
Moit .i. mi ait 
Miscais .i. ino is cais i .1. casus tuitim . no mo sgis neich 

oca deicsin. 


[p. 76, col. 3.] 

Mun quasi mo is aon . vel quasi min a verbo mingo latine. 

Mtr quasi mur a nomine mursum [murrha?] latine. 

Mart quasi mortuus .i. marb. 

Mant .i. m6 a saint bidh. 

Maff A. mo is dghasda 6 ol in fid . no mo a aighe .L a 

graifne each. 
Muinel A. mo in feoil bis fair oldas for in cenn . no mo in 

eolach ata 6 fon eind. 
Mind quasi mund a munditia .i.. on glaine. 
Minarba quasi minuitur. 

Medg quasi mo idg .i. mo deog de quam de cunctis. 
Muc A. mucna a aigned .i. ni geib a munad o neoch sicut 

Meta A. mo a faiti .i. a faitchius uime fein. 
Mer quasi mur .i. imad ar fit mur .i. imat .i. it imda [na] 

mera no mo a uir caich dib oldas araile^. 
MaU quasi mollis .i. maoth .i. amail na both cnaim ann. 
Mer A. mo air .i. a ferg. 
Meinic A. mo tic .i. meticc bud cert ann 7 cennfochrus uil 

imedon and. 
Mor A. mo a iur .i. a feoil. 
Murduine .i. m6 a ur .i. a talum. 
M quasi me .i. a indsce. 
MunchiUi .i. mancaille .i. man .L lamh id est manus 7 coil 

.i. coim6d. 
Mvir a nomine mare. 
MUtiuch A. teach mollis. 
Mescan A. do mescad in loma asas. 
Meiace A. mo deaisg i oldas a ciall aige. 
Mes quasi mo in usu lignorum fructus'. 

[p. 77, col. 1.] 
Nert quasi virt a virtute. 
Ned^ quasi nid a nido latine. 

^ MS. idimdameia no da mo iuir caich dib araile. 

' quasi mos quia sit in tIsu lignorum fructus (Cormac. F?* 

' MS, Net quasi nit a ninda latine. 

200 IRISH GL088B8, 

Nia .1. trenfer . unde dicitar nasc niadh. 

Not .i. nota .i. signnin .i. foillsiugad neic[h] et unde dicitar 

notul .i. noduaiU .i. comarta oaille d. 
Nasc quasi nex oni as nexo .i. imnaiscim. 
Nama .i. non am i. non amator. 
Nathan A. erdairc .i. nath .i. ainm coitcenn dona hnilib aistib 

eicsib unde dicitur natan quasi nath in aon .i. in oUoman. 
Nare A. nareibis [leg. ina r6ib bis] .i. in ruidiud tic isin 

gruaid 7 is do 86in as nomen nare • Feile imorro ainm 

doneinech bunaid. 
Naithir quasi noithir .i. erdarcai[g]th6r ar a olc . vel quasi 

aithir .i. aith air no naderach ertonadma heire.^ 
Nat a nave dicitar. 

Naiaciu .i. deilidind fil .i. inne is en nescu din .i. en uiscide i. 
Nenaid quasi non fid i acht lus no is cennfocrus nil and 

•i. teinfaid .i. fitid in teinead bis aicce. 
Nea .i. anmanna .i. ni fos acht udmall. 
Nel quasi vel a nomine velum . ar as fial 6 edruind 7 grian. 
Neim .i. [n]e lim .i. ni deogh i quia fim dicitar deogh. 
Nem A. nemo visit oculis. 
Noin A. anna. 

Nonbu/r A. a nomine novem. 
Nu8 quasi novus. 
Nua quasi nova. 

Nin ,i. litir . ut dicitur dar mu mnu neide. 
Nen .i. tonn . ut est reim nena .1. damatonda. 

[p. 77, col. 2.] 

Occ quasi ac id est juvenis isinaicciue [sic]. 

Odor quasi fodar .i. dath foalda. 

Oe A, fae bid. 

Oge A. comlainius cin truaill[n]ed i curp. 

.i. cluas. 

Ola ab oleo. 

Olann A. uile findfad. 

Omthund A. teind e frisinnom. 

^ The text here seems corrnpt. 


Onma .L faanma .i, morfnaim gaithe fiia. 

Onna .i. baoth. 

Onmit .i. moit onda .i. amlabur 7 baotii. 

Orda X. ard .i. calma et inde ordlach dicitur. 

Oscu/r .i. cur dar ess. 

Osour .i. leim. 

Osar A. fer is [&]<). 

Otrach A. a tractu. 

Oian .i oaid rucad a f ot 

Othrua quasi fotoir nais .i. a toir fo uaisle. 

Omad A. on sniiad .i. snim. 

(Hn .i. inde tic do neoch. 

Oifrenn A. ondi as offero [teg. offerenda] .i. edbert cuirp Crist 

Ongad i. e. ab onguento. 

[p. 77, col. 3.] 
Pit a puteo i. on cuite dicitnr put 
"Putrall A. faittrall id est faitbed do traillib hi • no pedurmU 

.L ar [a] silledh for pedar apstaL 
Pait quasi fuait .i. ait fuail 7 dichned derid oil ann. 
Pur quasi porus ar deiride in tige hisin. 
Purgatoir quia purgat peceatum. 
Pundann quasi buu'^ind^ .i. bun aice 7 indi budein . no ber 

de ind .i. a barr benar de. 
PelUcc J. belecc .i. eccda ina bell • no pellset .i. seta pellis^ 

impi .i. a croicenn. 
Peist quasi pestis .i. teidm. 
Pistol .L bistoll .i. toll bis indte. 
PaHcuvne A, partem cania no a part[e] gontair i no a partu 

PtMo quasi bullo .i. a verbo bullio .i. bolgaigim. 
Pone A. a puncto latine. 

Plde A. ainin inaid r6idh a platea .i. on Mt[li]che. 
Plutad A. brisiud .i. a plutone .i. pluton .i. gaba ifrind. 
Poll quasi toll 7 cennfochrus tosaig nil ann. 

1 Ms. bnnfind. > Ms. set 7 a peUis. 


Pinginn quasi panimg .i. pars in oncia . no benning .i. a 

ningnais a benn ata .i. cruinn. 
Pol .1. a paulo latine. 

[p. 78, col. 1.] 

Rer .i. Ion .i. baoth . nt est uindsi cugat in- gillgugan mac 
rergttgain (.i. mac loin) bid gach ma]t[h] agut ar a cind- 
gttcan a cenngncain .i. a cindgegain. 

Raibced cet\K\ra A. robeicedh din hticedh A. bogut[h] .i. gut[h] bo. 

Rind A. crand . ar as do rind sceine do[g]nither. 

Renna .i. re nua id est gach re i tecuid ar ni dogres ad- 
cither acht anaill illo 7 anaill inaidche. 

Rota (.i. uisce) 7 rotan A. on dergi asberar ar as rot gach 

Ruia A. agaid. 

Ro»ir quasi risir a risu .i. on gaire. 

Ruice A. naire . no mice .i. ruadceo no ruitige. 

Rait on rota ambi a hinas. 

Roga quasi toga . ut dicitnr toga de rannuib 7 cumal se- 
norba laisin saor no lasindfer. 

Remhor .i. romor . no reim aire ar is aire a imarcraid. 

Ron .i. on rosnam do[g]ni asberar de. 

Ronna quasi sronunna .i. tunna srona quod est unda .i. tonn. 

Riasc A, rouisce no re uisce no eisc nam. 

Rath A, baile on rathes asberar. 

Rindsceine .i. roind .i. ind gach barr. 

Rod A. rofada teit tar techta 7 inde dicitur echrod. 

Rastall .1. ris talmuin benas . vel quasi trastall .i. tristoll 
bis a COS. 

R08C 7 Ru8c A. on roaisced bis orra asberar. 

Rehad quasi ribad .i. rib doberar tairis. 

[p. 78, col. 2.] 

Rannaire^ .i. rannad dogni don bind 7 aire ainm coitcenn 
gach graid flatha ituaith. 

Saeghhnn A. brethem 7 senoir 7 coloman . ut dicitur 

' MS. Bondaire i. ranna don biud. 


Saeghlonn brethem gin brath 
saeghlonn senoir sirsaegblach 
saegblonn gach ri foradu 
ocus saegblonn colomn. 
Sab .1. sosaobta e id est assa soudh. 
Sop A. a sopinis [sapinis?] ar is fuidel [leg. fuigell?] tuiged 6. 
Srian quasi Man a non^pe frenum. 
Sron .i. sruaim .i. imat ena .i. uisce. 
Srathar A, ar sreith nanesnad bis. 
Srann A. sronann .!. ann isin sroin bis. 
Sruth A. smaim etha .i. imat eisc indte. 
Stat a verbo sta [statao?] tairisim. 
Stab a stando ar a comnairte. 
Stiall A. is di iall bidi .i. di leinid . vel qnasi sdiad .i. is di 

iadtar in mninciUe. 
Scian A. is gae a baon .i. a haonar bi . vel a verbo scinde 

.i. dloige neich. 
Scuit A. genaige .i. as coifaitciusa forainbi . no coi fait biuda 

do each 6. 
Scailp A. a verbo scalpo .i. lomroinL 
Ses ethair quasi sos in fir imruma e. 
Srub A. rub a verbo ruo [p. 78, col. 3.] .i. srainim 
Siur .i. a nomine soror latine. 
Sail A. sofillti i ar a maithe. 

Sindach .i. sen-nech .i. neach as sine do conaib e .i. ar fat a r^e. 
Sice quasi secc a nomine siccus .i. tirim. 
Saltair a nomine psalterium latine. 
Scatan A. scuit (.i. genaige) in ena 6 .i. in uisce. 
Smne A. sommata . ut alius dixit 

Testa dimmudh ar saine (no suine) 
a ri duile ni deine 
nimda febach fiiaim naine 
rogab legad ma leine. 
Sodaing .i. suabais . ainm doilidh do mathair mac Milid. 

Traig .i. a tractu . vel quasi ter-rig ^ .i. rig terrum [leg. 
terrae] ar asi beras fri lar. 
' MS. .t. rig. 

204 IRISH OL08SB8, 

Truit .i. on treot imbi asberar . no on traite A. on luas 

Tru quasi doru .i. doig a tidtim a verbo roo . no tiru .i. ar 

ti a tutma ata . no a troja dieitnr .i. aramence ahairsen. 
Truag .i. tru-ag .i. agasta do a beith gorab tru. 
Torsi .i. tor gach trom .L tromsi hi. 
TruaiU .i. dimaille hi. ^ 

Tell[ur] a tellure. 
Tarathar .i. dair uathair .1. uath na darach fair ar a ^u^ei 

Tonn a verbo tundo . vel a tondeo .i. ar berraid^ in fer 

din marbach. 
Tuiresc .i. t&iresc .i. tains tescas gaeli ni . no direch tescus. 

[p. 79, col. 1.] 

Tulach A. tuluach .i. uacht indti 7 hi na tal .i nocht ar as 

nocht gach tul. 
Tairseach A. tairis asdeach tiaghar. 
Tenga A. to ingabann si .i. an bel tall. 
Trend A. obunn i no luath et inde dicitor ticfa i traide .i. 

^ Goliiath . yel quasi tru ait .L ait i la tr<Hch. 
Traill a nomine trulla .i. losud .i. ar doire a fognama. 
Tocad A. ticaid a. ar ticddhus bis no ar ticuadh ata. 
Tir a terra. 

Tuinte* lin .i. a verbo tundo. 
Traigle A. traig a letfad no dandgled doberar fair oca beim 

fein dia taobuib . no trogiaU 6 .i. a iaUa fein ase a trog 

.i. a clann. 
Tost A. tae astas L 
Tiag A. on toga ar aB toga s^t bis indte . vel a tego . 

[recti a theca]. 
Ton A. a tonitru A. on toraind bis indfe .no a tono fo- 

Tarrach A. uamnach quia fit tor .i. ecla. 
Tinvpan A. tim .L bocc .i. sail 7 ban .L mna bis indti . vel 

quasi simpan a symphonia .i. on bind[i]us. 
Tagra quasi dagrad .i. dana grad bis ann. 

^ MS. berraig in fer. * MS. Toindti. ^ MS. fognddim. 



TustaU A. artustoltar riasinleim. 

Termonn J. tirma a maine cin a fliuehadh amiiieh. 

Tin .i. meith no bocc no maot{li] . ut dieitur Msbert tinu a 
taoib 7 ni hi fii coilcedh tinea. 

Tin tosach no bnnad tindrem undo dicitar tindscetal. 

Tathut .i. ata ocut 

Tathum .L ata ociim\ 

Taigdi .i. biadh laithe. 

Toi9g .i. tosga .L eausa. 

Tafonn a verbo tafon foon id est eorruptio vel effusio san- 

[p. 79, col. 2.] 

Uasal .i. uasa fil. 

Ua .i. 6o he oldas in mac [7 intathair] ar as tdiseche^ mac 

7 athair inda na. 
Uath .i. sceach ar imad a dealg. 
Uaitne .i. oaid suidig tar indeilb. 
Uall .i. aiUe asberar. 
Uair ab bora latine. 

ViUenn i. uille na fil ann .i. da cnaim no da fid. 
Uth .i. on tsuth (.1. on loim) asberar. 
Ulchae A. cai (.i. tech) na hoile 1. 
Ulu A. uUle no intadnacnl eile. 
Vsca quasi susce .i, geir suis .i. na muiee. 
Urffal .i. togbail. 

Unach quasi anech .i. nighe in & A. in cinn ar as & gach ard. 
Umaigti A. ab ore niges neach ,i. gin inti canas. 
Uaran A. uar a en .i. a uisge. 
Urla A. ciab . ax as for ur lues hi .i. tosach quia fit ur gach 

toisech 7 iar gach ndeidinach. 
Unga A. ab uncia latine. 
Uffdar ab augmento ar do[g]ni fein ni nua. 
Uataing A. [uas tpinges] na huaisle ca [leg. co} toinge im 

Ugga .i. aige aaonar ata s& 

^ MS. ogum. * MS. taUce. 


Udbairt A. uad berar 7 ni haige bis. 

Umal quasi hnmilis latine . hnmUis vero quasi humo elinis 

Dmae id est ab humo ar is de uir do[g]nither. 

[p. 79 , col. 3.] 
Umdaim A. ab umbilico .i. imlecan. 
Ucing A. cablach . ut est ucing la sesur for muir« 

Irean quasi [ ] no greic ersonum .i. ostium . unde 


Sirsan saoroslac[ad] 
dirsan daoroslucad. 
IrchanU irchonte .i. ithe chortha .i. a coirt .i. a aiihbiur. 
Intech .i. ui tech acht via. 
Ingor .i. ni gor. 

Imdai idem hebraice plenitude latine. 
Inber quasi infer .i. in fretum no ind inbera. 
Ingen A. ab unge [inguine?]. 
Man ab idoneus. 
Idad 7 idu 7 idtu ab idor \ydo}Q] hoc est a liquore .i. fuin- 

idside dond idain foil dond idain lind don du. 

Gart grade enim graece .i. gaisged. 

Gelo enim graece [yelaco'] .i. rideo ar qui ridet candorem 
dentium ostendit. 

Gell 7 geiU a cillo unius manus interpretatur .i. lam 6en .i. 
angell gebes inlam as ic fris in fiachlam hoc quasi lab 
laba [Aor/?i^] enim graece capacitas latine . Lam din ac- 
ceptio .i. gabail gach raoda. 

Gelit id est cilit cile [xbLXbo] enim grec labia latine . gelit 
din .i. belithidh. 

Gleo gle [ ] grec desentio latine. 

Glenn A. gles . a glisco .i. forbrim . unde dicitur duine 

Geeiar genitus est gene [yv^ij] graece mulier latine unde di- 
citur ingen .i. ni ben sed filia. 

Genmnaid geno graece . gene [ywif] grec 7 money [fiovov] id 
est unius . genmnaide din ben aonfir unde dicitur genas. 


Genit glinde .i. gen .i. mulier glynoon ben bid hingQnn. 
Gartar [?] id est a cratera .i. o tanlcoma. 

[p. 80, col. 1.] 

Achon a nomine graeco achos \(xxog\ .i. tristis. 

Aco .i. nego unde ac. 

Araapoihoearihes .i. a virtuti unde aries dicitur .i. virtus. 

Aran a nomine aran ebra [hebraice?] .i. sublenis. 

Airge grec [^>(^y^] indoles interpretatur .i. indile. 

Algen a grec alexin ^AlB^lvoq\ .i. amabilis. 

Arg .i. laoch ab argis [apy^yc;? aqyog^ otQxoqY] graece. 

Dlug .i. acobuir ut colum cille 

Noebri greine glan 
as caoime each dlug 
atach namra dam 
ar sluag ndemna ndub. 
Daumaisce A. aurlattu no greschae no escas . ut dicitur daur- 

naisce dar lemain. 
Deistiu A. fuigell each raota no iartaige clainde . ut dicitur 
Madestenaib athur aondan .i. maded ndichlaind ann .i. 
Delb A. a tela o figi. 

Drobelech dedaid innsin . unde druim ndrobeil. 
Dimelta .i. ni fiu a fomailt. 
Domanchea A. de chenel dam hie .i. manches bo. 

[p. 80, col. 2.] 
Both dicitur a graeco nomine bothus .i. angustia et inde 

Bret[h] 7 Brethem a nomine hebraico. * 

Biad .d. a nomine graeco bia [/^tocj] .i. vita. 
Bale ab hebraico bala .i. inveterata no balac devorans. 
Buaile a nomine bolin [^ovl.r[\ A. consilium. 
Balamuil ab hebraico balam .i. vanus. 
Bonn quasi fonn .i. a nomine fundamentum. 
Bot quasi put a puteo . vel fot a verbo futuo . vel quasi pot 

graece a verbo nouio .i. facio. 


Bot quasi bet a nomine hebraico beth. 
Bel a nomine hebraico bel .i. Kngna. 
Bete a nomine hebraico beth .i. domus. 
Bcdrgen a nomine bargos .i. satoritas. 
Breadaide a nomine bresitor .L loqnacitas. 
BUtenfftack a nomine . Broim ab rubru ab ruma .i. edacitas. 
Bodra biniti .i. binoitha .i. othis [ohg, lovog] auris . no ba- 
naitte no banaidde. 

[p. 80, col. 3.] 

Col dicitor a nomine [latino] .i. caligo. 

Crinda dicitur a nomine graeco crinimenon [xQivofisvov] A. 

Cltidrad a nomine graeco clio [Hlhg} .i. fama. 
Clerech a nomine clericus a. electus. 
Ceu graece ceus .i. nubs . undo bitc6 quia incerta et im- 

mobilis est. 
Cadaa ab hebraico cades .i. sanctus. 
Cuad a nomine cavus .i. vacuus. 
GUc a nomine ciUin .i. movere. 
Calpda quasi kalpoda [xalonadiov?] .u bonus pes. 
Connad quasi candud* a verbo candeo .i. caleo. 
Clasa graece clasin \^Xaaig\ .i. divisio. 
Comadk A. a Te?bo comedo. 
Cara a cura dicitur. 
Clar a nomine clama .i. mensa* 
Caint A, cantabatoi [dxavdofiaToi,, xwoapazoi?] graece sentes 

latine undo dicitur foruirmed chaint meblai fair .i. conguin. 
Clumad .i« dochad . ut dicitur boath each clumatur cethar- 

Crama graece [xQovfia] immunditia latine . undo cruim. 
Cala graece [xaAeV] .i. voce latine . undo cailech. 
Clam .i. occidtus . undo dicitur ar do feim claime cqrp. 
Craoibechan A. caro bechan .i. feoil min no bee . no caro 

dona bechanuib .i. donaleninaib quod est bechan bee 

no lenum. 

^ MS. cannud. 


Clei^eco latine [clericus?] a clero cleros [xAiJpog] graece sors 

Citt hebraice ovis latine . nnde dicitur citen A. agnns. 

[p. 81, col. 1.] 

Dan dicitur judicium. 

Deng a verbo docha \doxi(jS\ .i. puto. 

Didu a graeco dodis fortis. 

Dil a verbo deleo 7 deleo mortilico. 

Druinech a nomine dorea \doQX(i^'\ .1, videns. 

Daol a graeco dilos \5til6gy dsiXia] A. formido . inde delofon 

.i. formido. 
Dorca [deQHuii] A, video . unde dicitur derc A, rose. 
Dobal A. cin bal. 
2)^, dero [deQco] graece cado [caedo?] latine quia cadunt 

Dtias do grec tindscra interpretatur. 

Etk din ettech 7 iat anmann fethal la gentiu . unde dicitur 

dotong darsnahiataso . et nt dicitur fo ainm do maith is 

do miad 7 rl. 
EUg A. nemditiu (no nemdite) .1^ ni crutb. 
Etargaire A. etarirgair. 
Etaim .i. eit tuitim ondi tarmiteit .i. gell dotuit aret do- 

buith itir. 
Eeath .i. ath amnus [amnis?] 
Er sir no verum ut dilla eramiris. 

Eclais A, eclosin [exxlriaia] graece congregatio . unde ecloge. 
Emttn hebraice ema graece id e»t jugum .1. mam no dias. 
Ero8 [^pwg] .i. trenfer quasi erascleon [sQog xXiogY] .i. fema 

virorum fortium. 

[in marg. Elestra fina.] 

FriceU A. dutracht bidberar do chill. 

Frecomua A. imcomarc . ut dicitur atat da freccomus icairde. 

Fithrech A. arag [leg. arad?] feda . ut dicitur donnainech 

dibodbae bairc. 
Fetal each cumtach . fetal A. comdas indail. 



Fi A. neim. 

Fidbae A. nemnech rogab credbad. 

Fuinched A. dimicin . at dicitor file nisfuincesa. 

[p. 81 , col. 2.] 

Esirt A. ni tualaing .i. feirt. 

Eli a nomine grec eBs [eleog] miseria. 

Esbad dicitur a nomine hebraico easbaith .i. moeror. 

Eolus a nomine eo [ev] A. bonum. 

Eaorr a nomine essebon .i. gin goland. 

Eochair .i. eo [ev] direch cur a curvo . Eochair din .i. 

Elud a graeco eluo .i. desero. 
Ele elon [ekaiov] graece oleum latine. 
Ellam A. illaim .i. ni for dail. 
Ela quasi alba ar alba dotasit. 
Etan hebraice frons latine . no etend no etinn. 
Etach a toga : toga quae tegit. 
Eraind A. fir erann .i. da rind .i. fine daire domtig mic 

lugdach mic itha mic breguin . na tuat[h]a arannsin ba 

dib batar rig rianeoganacht. 
Erb ab herba quia pascitur. 
Es ab aestu . unde dicitur esccra. 
Erasmus A. erso. 
Eomoin A, eo osmoin crann mor bae andsin prius. 

Fid ondi is ficus .i. fid . vel vitium corporis . vel a vicio. 

Fet quasi vit quia vitat .i. tocuirid. 

Fessa A. a festis idolorum . tri buada laochdachta fesa 7 

tana 7 togla. 
Fer id est a viro. 
Femen A. foeman graece campus latine . no is ann robatar da 

rig na damraidhe .i. fe 7 men ar feib angelta. 
Femm a fimbria .i. luibniu maris . unde dicitur femuir A. f emfer. 
Fiadnus A. fiada ronas in cor. 
Fees .i. fe hebraice os latine. 

[p. 81, col. 3.] 
Fail dicitur a nomine graeco falos [qxxlog] omamentum. 


Fool dicitur a nomine graeco faolos \(p(xvlog\ .i. mains. 

Faga dicitur a nomine graeco fage [fpayaiv] .i. comedere. 

Fat a nomine hebraico fat .i. judicium. 

Fal a nomine falech .\. divisio. 

Fane ab hebraico fane .i. asparcio [aspargo? asperatio?] 

Fir ab hebraico fires .i. os mutum. 

Fuia ab hebraico fison .i. prudentia. 

Fas a nomine faisin apparatio. 

Fo a nomine faton .i. abundantia. 

Farad 7 Farua a graeco faro \oQaio\ .i. video. 

Faobar a fabro (.i. on gobaind). 

Fia a nomine fison .i. scientia. 

Fkchud quasi flegud a nomine flegmon [fp^iytiot] .i. frigidum 

[leg. -pituita?] 
Folam .i. folaim. 
Folacht A. fecht folaig. 
Folach fulus graece \rpvXaxT^'\ custodia .1. 
Fodb A, ondi as food graece .i. utis [leg. y^/§, qxt^iog .i. uter?] 

7 fosba .i. ba aid ifos inti is marb. 
Fodla A. foduile. 
Fochrua A, fo-cris. 
FUe graece afilo \(pikoGO(fia\ .i. amore scientiae. Velfiilii 

.i. fi for a aoir 7 li for a molad . no fial 11 .i. li uasal 

na secht ngrad filed, oUam, anruth, cli, cana, dos, mac 

fuirmid, foclach. 

Gabat A, gabata graece vas latine . vel quae cavata est id est 
cuae gabut .i. gabut nes .i. gigantes graece . no gaboth .i. 
bot[h] ingaib gabar .i. a capra. 

Gabran a quo belut ngabrain .i. gabran mac ailb mic augein 
aurgnaid mic setnai sithbaic ut dixit find file mac rosa ruaid 
pronepos ejus .i. a hiarmua . Maicne ailb airme achirbuire 
bruidne deirg din duabair do elga bruan grinne for fin- 

[p. 82, col. 1.] 

Gel dicitur a nomine graeco gelon .i. album. 
GUc a nomine graeco glicin \yXvxv\ ,i« dulce. 
Grad a nomine graeco gradin dilectio. 


Gabul a nomine sirio [syriaco] gabion .i. divisio. 

Glaod quasi klaod a verbo kalo [xaXiui]. 

Gari [a] graeco cere [za^ff] .i. gaudium. 

Gul quasi kal . a verbo kal [xaliw] A. voco. 

Gaba a verbo gobio -i. omo. 

Gai a nomine hebraico gad temptatio . vel a gabio. 

Geimel a nomine hebraico gemila .i. infirma. 

Gae enim graece . hasta latine .i. gal no galar. 

Galann hebraice .i. transmigratio interpretatur quae motat 

Gris quasi cris .i. crisis [xQiais] graece judicium latine. 
Glonn no gloed a clamore magno. 
Gob a capite ar as cenn each raoda a gob. 

Lia a nomine hebraico lia laboriosa. 

Lon a nomine Ionia .i. lingua. 

Lamh a labore. 

lAmadh a nomine Uma. 

Lacha .i. lichiu .i. fliuchiu^ i quam aliae aves. 

Loaait^ .i. a los uait .i. a cenn. 

Lecc .i. arlectar sis 7 suas . no lecc .i. 16 bith secc. 

Letradh quasi latradh a latratione . no letradh i. lethar soadh 

soad in lethair. 
Ldm quasi lueim .i. luudh seim i. 
Laigin quasi laegir ar as loegaire lore gensetar . no laigin 

quasi laiicin a lanceis .i. ona gaiib gabsatar la labruid 


[p. 82, col. 2.] 

laik dicitur a nomine hebraico idida .i. dileetus. 

Ibar ab ebore .i. cnaim elifante ar a suthaine 7 cos- 

mail[i]us a dat[h]a . no ibar ab ibemis locis locaib 

imectraib in domuin. 
Id ercomail quod eque inecit [leg. aeque nectit] .i. ime teit. 
Ite oni is edo. 
lie 7 liar quia innumerabilis. 

1 MS. fliche. ^ |{g. i^^g^^^ 


Ilach .i. ilactis graece [tUajr?;] latratas ar it cosmaile coin 7 
cuana 7 uana 7 ualla 7 ilach .i. aquaticus . unde dicitor 

Imb .i. ab imbre quia praestat imber tit mel vol butyrum^ 
super flores. 

Maiadiu .i. mesdu .i. dumesradh . no mesa . unde dicitur ba 

iidbad aimsir robui. 
Maiche .i. bodb . no isi in tros morrigan J. maiche 7 bodb 

7 morrigan . unde mesrad maiche .i. cenna daoine iar- 

nanairlech . ut dixit dubmis 

Garbae adbae innon til 
illomrad fir maiche mes 
inagat laichliu iUes 
iUuaiget mna trogain tres. 
Mes quasi mos quia in usu lignorum. 
Mead .i. mo do aisc quam in ciall. 

Mac quasi mea ic .i. mea imago . vel quasi max .i. macrall. 
Moch a graeco mocon .i. cito. 
MuUach i. mnl6ach .i. cluasach. 
Muine a verbo munio. 
Mell a. millid 6. 
Moit .i. ni hait i. 

Meaan A. en is mesa do conaib e. 
Milcu i. cu mail .i. righ. 
Maot[h] .i. mo a feth. 

Midack a. moa do echuib [p. 82, coL 5.] no mait[h] ech e. 
Mir quasi mir [leg. mur] onni is murus. 
Mind quasi munn .i. a munditia. 
Mer A. mo a fir .i. a ferg. 
Mur A. mo a uir .i. talum. 

Maorda dicitur a nomine morio [jtuu^iot;] .i. onmit. 
Mcis dicitur a nomine hebraico moises. 

Naac quasi nex a verbo nexo. 
Nama A. non amar .i. non amatur. 

1 MS. pstat melorum uel butrium. 


Net quasi nit a nido [leg. ned, nid]. 

Nert quasi vert a virtute. 

Not a nomine nota .i. signum. 

Ne[l] quasi vel a nomine velum. 

Nem .i. nemo videt oculis. 

Ntfs quasi novus . no nus .i. tiug . naus graece piger latine 

ar as maille in[a] loim tana. 
Ntm quasi nova. 
Nda [.i.] eel . ar as ann fognitis laigin a celmuine . unde di- 

citur naas on augorans. 
Nea .i. inis . nessin \yriaog\ graece insula latine. 

Magnae .i. mag naa .i. mag nard no mag nuasal no fermar. 
Mass .i. saidbir id est masa .i. corns vel multitude vel 

Maigistir .i. magister .i. major statior . magister oc grec 

statio \0TQaTriy6gT\ dicitur. 
Mer .i. mendus .i. Ion no baot[h] . uude dicitur meroc a 

merula .i. glasluin. 
Merdrech .i. meretrix . meretrix quia pretium libidinis mere- 

tur . unde dicitur et meritoriae tabernae virginis. 
Mom id est a moenia murorum aedilScia. 
Medb .i. serb . unde dicitur 
Tolcda di coilctib simenn 
gair peinn di dromaib duillenn 
lind serb a beluib depenn (no debenn) 
mid medb di bratuib cuilenn . mor muman cecinit. 

[p. 83, col. 1.] 

Omtend quasi omhtinn .i. tenn frisin om 6. 

Ordu A. ardi .i. calmai. 

Oifrenn a verbo oflFero .i. idhbraim. 

Omotmon [ofiouoiov] .i. unius substantias 

Omoetmon [ofioiovaiov] A, similis substantiae. 

OmonevMon [avo(,ioLovoiov^ A. dissimilis substantiae. 

Rota A. uisce 7 rotan on dergi asberar ar is roth each derg. 
Ret a nomine res. 



Remor A. romor e. 

Ret A. rofada teit dar techta 7 inde dicitur echrot. 

Rastal A. risan talmain benas. 

R08C 7 rtisc A. on rofased bis farro. 

[p. 83, col. 2.] 

Sab A. saebta .i. asa a sodh. 

Srian quasi Man a nomine frenum. 

Sron .i. sruaim .i. imad ena .i. oisci . no seruain. 

I^and A. sronann .i. isin sroin bis. 

[p. 87.] 

Btian ,i. indlicced . ut est ar is buan berla nadi .ii. a. 

The foregoing glosses are taken from a collection of manu- 
scripts which formeriy belonged to the celebrated Edward 
Lhuyd, These MSS. are of various dates and sizes, and 
are now divided into two parts— part; I containing pp. 1-457, 
part II containing pp. 458-875. The paging-numbers are 
in Lhuyd's handwriting, and the following note by him oc- 
curs at p. 565: Gan Eoin Agniv yn agos i Lam yn Swydh 
Antrim a prynwyd hwn. A° 1700. "This was bought from 
John Agnew near Lame in the County of Antrim in the 
year 1700." 

As to the part of the collection from which our glosses 
have been taken, pp. 61-75 are on vellum, and seem to 
have been written about the end of the 14'*» century: pp. 
76-83 are on paper, and were probably written in the first 
half of the 15**» century. An imperfect copy of the DuU 
Dromma Ceta (supra p. 171) occurs in the same collection 
at p. 633 , and several of the words contained in this glos- 
sary may be found in a fragment preserved in the British 
Museum, Egerton, 1782, fol. 13, b. 

W. S. 


By Ernest Adams, Esq., Ph. D. 

In classing such discordant elements as Spiders, Slugs, 
Snails, Worms &c. under the general name of Insects , I feel 
that some apology is due to those who are in the habit of 
viewing these creatures as representatives of very distinct 
Orders in the distribution of animal life. I will at once 
then acknowledge that for the more convenient treatment 
of my subject I have consciously adopted the popular, 
though erroneous, classification of our old English writers 
and of the uninitiated public of the present day. 

Coleridge, in his Table Talk, has rather quaintly defined 
an insect as "life in sections." Our older writers appear 
to have regarded it rather as 'sections of life' — and sections 
too of a very miscellaneous character. What, for example, 
is Bacon's idea of an insect? Fully sensible that the ety- 
mology of the word was at variance with his notion of the 
thing described he guards himself in his Natural History 
by a special definition: "Note, he remarks, that the word 
insecta agreeth not with the matter, but we ever use it for 
brevity's sake, intending by it creatures bred of pitr^action!''' 
(Cent. vii. 695). H^ afterwards mentions incidentally isome 
typical insects: "The imecta are found to breed out of 
several matters: some breed of mud or dung, as the eaarth* 
worms, eels, simkes &c." (Cent. vii. 696). What the &c. 
might have included is uncertain, but 'earthworms, eels 
and snakes' would I fear be alike excluded from a modem 
cabinet of Insects. 

Again the learned and laborious Topsell in his special 
treatise on Serpents includes under that heading Spiders, 
Wasps and Bees, and it must be notorious to the reader of 
old English literature that every conceivable wriggling 
monster, from the Arch-fiend down to a tadpole, is deno- 
minated a worm. 

I avail myself of this general latitude of expression to 
include Spiders, Woodlice &c. under the name of Insects. 

The names by which Spiders are usually designated appear 


to spring from two leading ideas, (1) poison and (2) weaving. 
I propose to consider them separately. 

The conmion Anglo-Saxon name is attor-coppa. Attor un- 
questionably means ^poison' but some diflFerence of opinion 
appears to exist with respect to the precise signification of 
coppa. Mr. Coleridge, in his Glossarial Index (v. atter-cop), 
interprets the word as 'cup' ; but the primitive meaning may 
possibly have been that of a round bladder or bag; a 
meaning that is well illustrated in the article cup in Mr. 
Wedgwood's Dictionary and again under cobweb, "The 
form attercop seems to give the fall meaning of the word, 
poison -bag or poison -pock. The Frisian kop is bubble, 
pustule, pock, that is a pellicle inflated with air or liquid. 
According to Ihre, the bee was known by the name of 
kopp in 0. Sw., probably for the same reason as the spider, 
viz. from bearing a bag, only of honey instead of poison. 
The contrast between the bee and the spider as collectors, the 
one of sweets and the other of poisons, is one of long stand- 
ing." Thus Burton (Pref. to Anatomic of Mel.) ; "some as bees 
for honey, some as spydera to gather poy%on'*\ Cf. the Finn. 
hoppa^ excavatum vel cavum quid. (Wedgwood, v. chafer.) 

The belief in the venomous nature of the Spider was so 
generally entertained by our ancestors that it is almost 
superfluous to illustrate it from their writings. Thus Tre- 
visa (Polichron. f. 32) : "Yet ben there Attercoppes venemous 
that ben called spalangia in that londe." Topsell, in his 
Serpents, remarks, "all spiders are venemous, yet some 
more and some lesse" (p. 769); and again, "If they bite any 
one their poyson is by experience found to be so perilous, 
as that there will a notable great swelling immediately follow 
thereupon" (id.); and in his Four-footed Beasts (p. 566): 
"The young whelps of weasels being imbowelled with salt 
is very profitable for the healing of the deadly stinging or 
biting of the Spider called Phalangium." And so Shakspere 
in his Winter's Tale (ii. 1): 

There may be in the cup 
A spider steeped, and one may drink, depart. 
And yet partake no vtnom. 


and again in Richard II. (iii. 2): 

Let thy spiders that suck up thy venom. 
And heayy-gaited toads lie in their way. 

With respect to attor, we find the same root in the O.E. 
words atter-lyy atter-y^ oi^-yy atter^ing^ and attr-id^ all with 
the signification, poisonous, venomous. In Palsgrave Spi- 
ders are called Hatters and in A.S. hoMer is found as^well 
,as attor. Another form of the word is seen in the O.E. 
Addir-cop. With this compare the Dutch word cedder, a 
spider: and the common English name for the viper. It 
appears again under the form edder in the Craven word 
edder-copy just as we find the O.E. edder, a serpent, and 
edder-wort^ the plant 'Dragon-wort'. Another form of the 
word is seen in the O.E. Nedir-cop, a form illustrated by 
the words nedder and nadder, for the viper, A.S. naddre. 
A curious variation, unnoticed in the provincial glossaries, 
occurs in the Lancashire dialect, viz. Eddicrop^ in which 
the r has shifted its place and taken refuge in the heart 
of the word cop. According to Stanihurst (Descrip. of 
Ireland p. II) the name attercop was not unusual in Ireland; 
of course among the Saxon population. Halliwell states 
that in the North of England it means "any peevish, ill- 
natured person." 

The second element, coppa, is still retained in its origi- 
nal form in various dialects in the word Cop-web^ and again 
in the O.E. Spin-coppe, a spider, which may be compared 
with the Dutch apinne-kopy Flem. koppen-gespin. The Dutch 
also employ the single term kop for a spider. It appears 
in the Welsh pryf-coppyn, 'cop-worm.' 

In modern English its usual form is cob as in cob - web; 
but in the North we meet with the curious dialectic variety 
cock'web; cock being, I presume, another form of cob, or 
rather of cop. But the O.E. Lop-webbe must not be treated 
as as a corruption of cop. It exhibits a distinct root. There 
exists in A. S. the word Lobbe, a spider, and, on comparing 
it with the A. S. Loppe, a flea, from the root 'leap', I ima- 
gine that it was originally employed to designate those 
spiders that moved rapidly over the ground with long legs. 


This view appears to be in some measure supported by the 
following passage in MouflFet's Theatre of Insects (L. ii. c. ii.). 
"Others lived in the open air and from their greediness are 
called Hunters or Wolves. These are of two kindes; for 
some are lesse, some greater. The less are various, vio- 
lent, sharp, salacious and going as it were rebounding J; 
which, as we read, are called ^vXlai or Fleas or Apes,"*"* 
I may add that Fleas in the Eastern Counties and in 
Yorkshire are still called Lops, 

The idea of poison does not appear prominently in the 
classical languages. The nearest approach to it is one of 
the Sanscrit names for a spider Icdd-srava^ the * saliva- 
distiller'. The Sanscrit word Lutd^ means a spider, as well 
as an inflammatory poison from the urine of spiders. 

To proceed with the idea of weaving or spinning. I pre- 
sume that the d of spider represents the n of spinner. It 
is certainly an unusual form and, as far as 1 am aware, 
stands alone among the Gothic languages. It is of compa- 
ratively recent origin. I cannot refrain firom quoting the 
derivation suggested by Johnson, not for its accuracy, but 
simply as a curiosity of philology. "Perhaps", he writes, 
'4t comes from spieden, Dutch; speyden^ Danish, to spy, 
to lye upon the catch. Dor, dora, Saxon, is a beetle, or 
properly an humble bee, or stingless bee. May not spider 
be qjjz-rfor, the insect that watches the dorV\ 

An earlier and simpler form of the word is spinner (Mouff.) 
and with this we may compare the Dutch Spin^ the German 
Spinney and the Swedish spinneL Sometimes it is found in 
composition with weby as in Web -spinner^ and in the O.E. 
spinnand-web^ quoted in Mr. Coleridge's Glossary, from the 
old version of the Psalms : and this is in harmony with some 
of its Sanskrit names, Jdlika and Jdldka-raca, the 'net- 
maker'; TantU'vaya^ the 'thread -weaver'. In Sanscrit the 
creature is sometimes called Urna-ndbhay 'wool-navel', and 
one of the Saxon names for the web is treog-ioidy 'drawn 

* Mouffet evidently had Pliny in view: Phalangia ex his appellantur, 
quorum noxii morsus, corpus exiguum, variumy acuminatum y assuUim 
ingredientium. (Lib. XI. c. 24.) 


oat- wool'. Another Sanskrit name is Urndyu-vaindnka, 

In a paper read before the Society (Vol. III. p. 91) it has 
been snggested by Mr. Davies that the Greek a(faxvr^ is 
connected with a root which appears in Hebrew as arag 
'to spin'. The nearest approach to this root in Greek 
seems to be bql fwool', in eQi-ax^^rjg,, €Qiov, €iqiov, eiQog &c. 
and it is singular that Philostratus calls cob -webs, eigea 
TTjg aQaxvTjg. The connection of arag with agaxvi] is 
mentioned by Dr. Furst in his Hebrew Concordance: 
''oQaxvi] a. V. aroff, vq>aiv€iv: spinne a. v. spinnen." The 
Hebrew word for a spider, Acabiah is thus explained by 
Furst: "textor, telas exercens, a. t. Acab^ telas texere, 
stamen ducere^ fila dedncere." 

In the Latin araneua^ the missing gnttmral is represented 
by the a. Of this word we find several representatives in 
old and Provincial English, e. g. aranye (Promp. P.), aranee^ 
arainCy arcyney train (Gloss. Index), irannys. In an old 
Yorkshire dialogue (1&97) spiders are called arrans and in 
the I^orthumbrian dialect the web is called an aran-web. 
In the Northampton dialect a large spider is described as 
an armriy and we also meet with the singular variety nerane, 
which may be compared with the word nedder already 
mentioned (p. 218). 

In A.S. a spider is denominated jra^^f-wc^r^, gange^wyfre, 
and gangeUwcefre y meaning possibly the "web -traveller", 
and the web itself is termed a wcefer^gang^ or 'weaver's 
path'. The Icelandic equivalents however seem to point to 
another root for the words gangel &c. Icel. kongul-vofa^ 
konung^vofa^ kongul-lo, gaungu-Uj kongr^vefr; and one of the 
meanings of koggul is the joints of the fingers, phalanges, 
thttsr expressing probably the idea of long-legs contained in 
the Classical Phalangium. 

In speaking of the spider I have had occasion to notice 
the following names for the weh^ Cop-weby Cob-weby Cock-web^ 
Lop-weby and Aran-web, In German it is apinn-webey spinn- 
gewebe and gespinnst; in Dutch apin^ apinneweb and apinrag. 
This last element rag is peculiar, as I cannot find that the 


root appears in that language with any other signification, 
or in any other word. Is it possible that it is a foreign 
term compressed from agaxv)]? The Italians call a spider 
raffno and the web, ragna. The word appears to have no 
connection with a name mentioned byAelian, (iCf§, ^ayiov^ 
which Mouflfet, translating Pliny, explains as given "from 
the likeness of it to the stone of a black grape." 

In Swedish the web is called spinnel-wdf and Dwergo-ncib, 
and the spider itself Dwerg or Dwarf. The Welsh word 
corr^ a dwarf, also means a spider, the name being pro- 
bably given from the mythical skill of the dwarfs in handi- 
craft^ compare Icel. dverga-smidi, fabrica affabre et arti- 
ficiose elaborata. (Haldorsen.) 

In Somersetshire the web is called wevet^ bimbom and 
draughty meaning, I presume, Hhreads drawn out'; and in 
the synonym caul given by Halliwell is preserved the ancient 
meaning of that word. ^^Rete any net or caul-work; rete 
ragno^ a cobweb, also any net or caul-work" — Florio. In the 
north it is called a Muz-web, a term I am unable to explain. 

In A. S. a spider is sometimes called rynga (to be classed per- 
haps with It. rcLgna and O.E. erayn) and the web rynge and grytte. 

The term gossamer has been well explained by Mr.Wedgwood 
in the Society's Transactions (1854 p. 78) and I will re- 
produce his explanation for the purpose of supplementing 
it with a few corroborative illustrations. "The only diffi- 
culty here is the first syllable as the German names Som- 
TMT^fdden^ fliegende^sommer ^ Mdtthen-Sommer (from its ap- 
pearing about St. Matthew's day) or simply aommer show 
that the latter part of the word has reference to the season 
at which the phaenomenon appears. Another German name 
is Marien-faden^ unseT-Ueben-frauen-faden^ Our Lady's 
Threads or Lady Threads, as it would have been popularly 
rendered in English, from the legend that they are the 
remnants of the Virgin's winding-sheet, which fell away in 
fragments when she was carried up into heaven. This le- 
gendary connection with the Virgin, or Mother of God, 
leaves no doubt with me that the name must be explained 


To the iUustrations cited by Mr. Wedgwood may be added 
the following: Gennaii, Scymmer-flockenj Sommer-webey Der- 
cdten-weiber^soinmery Marien-gam, Crras^webe; Dutch, Herfst- 
draden, or Harvest-Threads; French, Fil-de-la-bonne-Viergey 
FiletS'de'St. Martin. In connection with this last name we 
find the Gossamer in England called St. Martin's summer. 
In Yorkshire it is known as Sunbeam^ and in the North 
there exists the singular synonyme Summer-Goose, apparently 
a mere transposition of Gossamer. The assimilation of the 
d may be seen in the word gossip for god-sib y and in the 
O.E. Gossone for God-son. I presume that it was by ac- 
cident and from no play upon words that Shakspere as- 
sociates summer and gossamer in Bomeo and Juliet (ii. 6): 

A loTer may bestride the gossamonr 

That idles in the wanton summer air, 

And yet not fall. 

In the Pictorial Vocab. (15. cent) published by Mr. Wright, 
we find "hec filandra, a gossummer'^^ ; in a Nominale (15. 
cent.), "hoc filandrum, a gossomyre^^; and in Walter de 
Biblesworth, "filaundre, gosesomer''\ 

I will now mention, without attempting to discriminate 
species , some of the popular names by which certain marked 
varieties of Spiders have been distinguished. I find, for 
example, a small individual with very long legs commonly 
recognized in Devonshire as a staggering-bob , and the fol- 
lowing passage from Topsell's Serpents throws some light 
upon the name. In describing a certain spider he writes: 
"It is a small creature to see to, keeping on the pace 
fearfully, reeling and. as it were staggeri7igy being great and 
heavy in the belly, somewhat long of body and of a greenish 
color. It carryeth a sting in the top of her neck and 
striketh at any." 

There are physiological difficulties connected with the 
"sting in the top of her neck", but the change in the gen- 
der of the pronoun is noteworthy: "it carryeth a sting in 
the top of her neck". 

Mr. Watts in the Society's Transactions (vol. vi. p. 10) 
has pointed out and illustrated the indiflferent use of the 


gen. her and his in writings anterior to the introduction of 
the modem its. 

In Cheshire the word staggering-hob is applied to "a 
very young calf". 

It is probably to this same animal that the following terms 
are applied: Harvest-men (Norf.), Harvest-hobs (Hants and 
Sussex), Haymakers and Shepherds. An extract from Top- 
sell (Serp. p. 786) will serve to illustrate these names. 
"There are also found in all places of this country long- 
legged spiders who make a very homely and disorderly 
web. This kinde of Spider liveth altogether in the fields; 
her body is almost of a round figure and somewhat brownish 
in color, living in the grasse and delighting in the com- 
pany of Sheep. And for this cause I take it that we Eng- 
lishmen do call her a Shepheard; either for that she keepeth 
and loveth to be among their flocks , or because that Shep- 
heards have thought those grounds and feedings to be very 
wholesome wherein they are most found and that no venom- 
ous or hurtful creature abideth in those fields where they 
be." MoufFet also speaks of "the field spider with a body 
almost round that lives about grasse and sheep ; the English 
call it Shepheard.^^ (L. ii. 14.) The animal is called by the 
Germans Meier or 'farmer' and Weber-knecht; and in modern 
science it has been designated by Linnaeus Phalangium opilio. 
Shakspere carefully separates this species from the ordinary 
weavers in the Mids. Night's Dream (ii. 3): 

Weaving spiders come not here I 
Hence, you long-legged spinners , hence 1 

The 'weaving spiders' are the fat, 'bottled' ones that form 
geometric webs; the 'long-legged spinners' are the Shep- 
herds. He observes the same distinction in Romeo and 
Juliet (i. 4) in describing Queen Mab's chariot: 

Her waggon spokes made of long spinner's legs^ 
The cover of the wings of grasshoppers, 
Her traces of the smaUest spider's uteh. 

And hence one of the Sanskrit names Marka-taka, a word 
which also means a 'monkey' and a 'crane', just as we apply 
the term Crane-fly to a certain long-legged species of Diptera. 


I find &2ii a ^mall red spider in 0.^. is recogolzed by 
the following names: Twinge ^ Tinge y Tainct and Tent-bob, 
Tent is apparently a contraction of Tainct; which seems 
connected with tinctus; but whether Tinge is intended for 
a translation of Tinctus, and Twinge is a corrupt form of 
Tinge; or whether the two latter are distinct words I am 
^t> * loss to determine. The word Tmnge is recognized by 
Topsell (Serp. p. 770) who writes: "There is to be found 
in Harvest time among pease, beans, and other sorts of 
pjolse (when they are gathered and reapt by the hand) cer- 
taiji sm^ spiders called Kantharidem eikela, in their like 
ftnto Cantharides or Spanish Flies, of a very red w4 fi^ry 
colour; such as we Englishmen call Tmnges, by eating or 
lickiijg up of which both oxen and other beasts dx) n^any 
lapxes jdie." Sir J. Browne also mentions it in his Yulg. 
JlrrQrs (B. iii. c. 27): "There is foupd in the summer a 
Jdnd of spider called a tainct, of a red colour, and so little 
of bedy that ten of the largest will har(Uy outweigh a grai^^: 
this by country people is accounted a deadly poison unto 
cows ^nd horses; who, if they suddenly die and swell there- 
pn, ascribe their death hereto and will commonly say, they 
have licked a tainct'' In Norfolk and in some other counties a 
snaall red spider is termed a Money-apin/wr, which, I presume, 
is the German GlUch-spinne, "Small spiders, termed Money- 
spinners, are held by maiiy to prognosticate good luck, if 
they are not destroyed or injure45 or removed fron^ the 
person on whom they are first observed." (Park, quoted in 
Brand's Antiquities, vol. iii. p. 223.) 

The Saxon name for a certain spider is Eunta, the 
'Hunter'. This and the name Wolf appear to clain^ a high 
antiquity. "Others again," writes Topsell , "be meer wilde, 
living without the house abroad in the open air, which by 
reason of their ravenous gut and greedy devouring maw 
have purchased to themselves the names of Wolfs and Hunt- 
ing Spiders.'' AndMouffet, evidently copying Topsell, says: 
" Others live in the open air and frona their greediness are 
called EuntBrs or Wolves." The Wolves appear ^3 Ivhoi in 
Greek writers, and Pliny mentions them i^ his Physical 


ffistory. ^^Phalangiam Graedvocant inter genera araneonim, 
sed djistinguunt lupi nomine.'^ (L. xxix. c. 27.) And again, 
in prescribing a spider as a cure for diseased kidneys, be 
recommends "maxime qui kvxog vocatur" (L. xxx. c. 17). 
In another passage he alludes to the Hunters: ^'Feminam 
pntantesse, qoaetexant; marem, qui t^^^^r^' (L. xi. c. 24). 
Topsell also had faith in their medicinal properties, for he 
says (Serp. p. 788): "The spider that is called a Wolf be- 
ing put into a quill and so hanged about the neck per- 
formeth the same effect", i. e. cures the Tertian Feaver; 
and Elias Ashmole, in his Diary, ll*** of April, 1681, writes: 
"I took early in the morning a good dose of elixer, and 
hung three spiders about my neck, and they drove my ague 
away. Deo gratias." 

Bosworth gives the Saxon word woeter-buca^ with the 
meaning a ^water-spider'. I mention it because it is the 
earliest ii»tance I can iind of the word bug in the sense 
of an insect 

One Sanskrit synonyme for the Spider is remarkable for 
its scientific accuracy in indicating a marked peculiarity that 
s^arates Spiders from Insects proper. It is ashta-pad^ octo- 
pede or 'eight-leg', whereas all Insects proper have six legs. 

A singular epithet for the spider occurs twice in Shak- 
spere, in Richard HI: 

Why strewst thou sugar on that bottled spider 
Whose deadly web ensnareth thee about? (A. i. S. 3.) 

and again: 

thou didst prophesy the time would come 

That I should wish for thee to help me curse 

That hotthd spider, that foul hunch-backed toad. (A. iy. S.4.) 

I believe that the word refers simply to the botfle- or 
bladder-shaped form of the creature's body; and this is in 
harmony with the meaning we have assigned to cop. The 
word ^bloated' nearly represents the meaning, and this 
again is supported by the Hungarian word for spider, Pdk^ 
a word composed of the root PoA, 'belly', and 6k j an in- 
tensive suffix, = 'big-bellied', 'bloated'. Compare the Bo- 
hem, pawauky pauk; Pol. pcyak; and Russ. pavk. The 'bottie' 



in the word 'blue-bottte% a fly, appears to be of different 
origin. It is a diminutive of hot Certain larvae infesting 
sheep are called in 0.£. wor-botsy but I also find them dis- 
tinguished as wor-boUles. 

In Irish a spider is called Duhhan-alla; in Scotch Gaelic, 
Dubhan-alltudh; and in Manx Dooo-alee. Two interpretations 
of these words have been suggested; one explains Dubh as 
'black', an J a diminutive suffix, and allay 'wild' — 'a little 
black wild animal'. The other connects dubhan with 'ox'; 
and this explanation is supported by the fact that dow in 
Manx is an ox; and that a synonyme for a spider is given 
by Armstrong, damhan-alUudh y 'wild-ox'. I am informed, 
moreover, that a certain spider at the Cape of Good Hope 
is called in Cape Dutch kleine-swart-horn-ossie y "little-black- 
homed-ox". With regard to 'ox' we may compare the 
Icelandic name for the Devil's-coach-horse, jotena-tuciy 'Jo- 
tun's ox' (see Trans. 1859, p. 95). Other Gaelic names 
for the spider are, Breabadair sioday 'silk-weaver'; Brea- 
badairton^ 'anal-weaver'; ^n& Pocan salann y 'little-salt-bag'. 

In conclusion I may observe that the long-legged 'Shep- 
heard' is frequently confounded in popular phraseology with 
the Crane-fly^ a creature belonging to a totally different 
order. That this confusion is of ancient date and not con- 
fined to the uneducated is shown in the following statement 
by Mouffet: "There is also besides this a water-fly which 
men call from the length of the feet or shanks of it, 2\'- 
pularriy Macropediuniy Pedoneniy Grruinaniy called therefore 
in English a Crane-fly. Of these flies are found four sorts. 
The first hath long shanks like a wood-spider, the body 
almost ovall of a whitish ash colour, silver wings, black 
eyes, sticking out with two very short horns, the tail pointed 
or piked. It flies (much like the Ostrich) hopping with the 
feet; sometimes it flies in the air, but not far nor long, so 
greedy after the light that it often times is burnt in the 
Candel. In autumn it is frequently seen in pastures and 
meadows. This of the male kind. The female is almost 
alike, but somewhat more black, the end of the tail as it 
were bitten off; these are called in English Shepheards, in 


Latine Opiliones^ because they are most often seen where 
sheep nse to feed" (L. i. c. 9). From this passage it is 
evident that he considered the Shepherds as the females of 
the Crane-fly. As this confusion prevails widely in modem 
times , it is frequently difficult to determine to which of the 
two animals certain names are applied. It may therefore 
be prudent to append the synonymy of the Crane-fly to this 
paper on Spiders. I find that in various dialects it bears 
the following distinguishing names: Fly Cr anion (Drayton, 
Nymphid.), Long^legga (Mouff.), Tom-taylory Long-legged-tailoTj 
Jenny-spinnei'^ Father-long-lega^ Daddy-long-legs^ Gramfer-long- 
legs J Harry-long-lega ^ Jacky-long-legs , and in Somersetshire 
Friara-flies. All these, except the last, explain themselves; 
but I can make nothing of the Fi^rs. 

MEZZOFANTL By Thomas Watts, Esq. 

The fame of Cardinal Mezzofanti as the greatest linguist 
of all time belongs to the world in general, and it is per- 
haps an appropriate tribute to his memory that it should 
receive more celebration in other languages than in his 
native Italian. The most elaborate record of his career that 
had appeared till lately was a volume from the pen of a 
Frenchman; it has now been succeeded by a bulkier volume 
from the pen of an Irishman. The "Esquisse historique" 
of M. Manavit is surpassed as much in value as in extent 
by the "Life of Cardinal Mezzofanti", for which we are 
indebted to the Rev. Dr. Russell, the president of Maynooth. 

It may probably be within the recollection of some of 
the members of the Philological Society that on a former 
occasion in 1852 I laid before it a paper on the unparalleled 
linguistic powers of the gifted Cardinal , and that I followed 
up the subject, in 1854 by some remarks on the sketch of 
his biography then recently published by M. Manavit. A 


perasal of the work of Dr. Russell has suggested a few 
observations which will fOrm a natural sequel to my pre- 
ceding papers. 

There can be no question that Dr. Russell's interesting volume 
comprises a large quantity of information hitherto scattered 
or unpublished, and that, though the biography may be aug- 
mented and improved, it is not likely to be ever super- 
seded. Its materials have been collected by the unwearying 
diligence of years in a search that seems to have swept all 
Christendom, and these materials have been not only care^ 
fully collected but in general critically sifted. Dr. Russell's 
admiration for the celebrated subject of his labours, high 
as it is, is not a blind and unreasoning admiration, like 
that of too many who have written of the Cardinal in France 
and Italy. He aims at transmitting to posterity not a flat- 
tering but an accurate resemblance of an intellectual prodigy 
to whom all posterity will probably never produce an equal. 
If in some lineaments the portrait may still be suspected 
of being drawn with too courtly a pencil, it still presents 
a marked contrast to what has hitherto passed current with 
too many as a likeness — ^the delineation of the Cardinal's 
qualities and character formerly anonymous but now aBcribed 
to Father Bresciani. Still, as has been already said, there 
are many particulars in which even Dr. Russell's elaborate 
memoir appears to be susceptible of correction and im- 

The first passage in which a correction seems required, 
occurs in the first page of the volume. Dr. Russell's earliest 
appearance in print on the subject of Cardinal Mezzofetnti 
was in an article in the Edinburgh Review of 1855; the 
success of which was such that he has been finally led to 
expand it into a book. This article was in the form of a 
review of the biography by M. Manavit and of the paper 
on Cardinal Mezzofanti which, as I have already mentioned, 
I laid before the Philological Society in 1852. Dr. Russell 
on that occasion was perhaps a little severe on M. Manavit 
and was certainly very generous in his commendations of 
tiio other subject of his criticism. "Neverfceless", he 

6t TflOMAd WATtS, ESQ. 229 

says in the preface to his present volume, "the nottce^ 
of the Cardinal on which that article was founded, and 
which at that tinie comprised all the existing materiak tot 
a Wography, appeared to me with all their interest to want 
the precision and the completeness which are essential to 
a just esliinato of his attainihents. I felt that to judge saliis- 
factorily of his acquaintamce with a range of langeiages so 
vast as that which fame ascribed to MM, neither sweeping' 
statements founded on popular reports however confident 
nor general assertions from individuals, however distingmshed 
and trustworthfy, could safely be regarded ai* sufficient. The 
proof of his familiarity with any particular language in oriet 
to be satisfactory, ought to be specific, and ought to r^t 
on tiie testimony either of a- native or at least of olie wbo^e^ 
skin in the langoage was beyond suspicion." The prinfei^ 
flms laid down by Dr. Russell is one with which I entirely 
agree, but I am unable to understand bow it i^ that 1^ 
now overlooka^ that it was the very principle on which my 
ptpet of 1852 was drawn up. That paper, ad I mentioned 
m my subsequent observations of 1^854, contained "'a strinjg 
of extracts from different books of travels^ in which th^ 
writers described tiieir interviews With the CardinaJ, awd! 
gave each his testimony as to the freedom* andf fluency Witb 
which he spoke this or that particular language." Englishmen 
were quoted as guarantees far his English, Germans fo^ hii9 
German, a Dane for bis Danish, a Russidm for his Ra^sian, 
and Hungarians for Ms Hungarian. As all the extracts^ and! 
translations that I gave were without exception copied by 
Dr. Russell into his article in the Edinburgh Review and 
have since been transferred by Mm to the volume , in which 
tJie passage I have quoted occurs, tiie mistake or miscon-^ 
ception which I have thought it best for all parties to' 
point out distinctly, mnftt of course be attributed to tm 
oversight. I am confident that whenever Dr. Russell's work 
arrives at a second edition the passage will be corrected. 

The principal object aimed at in the volume is to solvef 
the question: of how many languages was Cardinal Mez^ 
zofanti master? One list of the kmguages supposed to be 

230 ON DR. Russell's life of cardinal mezzofanti, 

known to him had already been laid before the world with 
some claim to authority by his acquaintance Signor Gaetano 
Stolz; two others are now added, one by his nephew Dr. 
Minarelli, first printed in Dr. Kussell's volume, and tiie 
other Dr. Kussell's own. According to Signor Stolz the Car- 
dinal was master of fifty-eight languages, according to Dr. 
Kussell of seventy-two, and according to Dr. Minarelli of 
a hundred and fourteen. The difference, it will be seen, is 
by no means trifling. 

The list of languages by Dr. Minarelli, being drawn up 
by a near and intimate relation, might be supposed before 
examination certain to- have a high value. After inspecting it, 
however, it is impossible not to yield to the conviction that 
such an estimate would be a great mistake. Dr. Minarelli 
ought to have added to several of the languages in his cata- 
logue a statement of what they are, where they are spoken 
and how he knows them to exist. Dr. Kussell finds him- 
self constrained to observe of the "Baure", the fifteenth 
language on the list, "I do not know what language is here 
meant— perhaps it is a mistake for Bavaruy the Bavarian 
dialect of German, or possibly it may mean the Dutch of 
the Boors at the Cape of Good Hope." The Braubica, 
the Cahuapana, the £mabellada and the Kocorana are equally 
mysterious. As usual, Danish and Norwegian, Dutch and 
Flemish, are cousidered as distinct languages. The catalogue 
was drawn up, we are told by Dr. Minarelli, "partly from 
his own knowledge of his uncle's attainments, partly from 
the inspection of his books and papers." It is plain there- 
fore that much of it rests on no authority but that of his 
own conjectures. Since the death of the Cardinal a claim 
has been made by some injudicious friends of a deceased 
English clergyman, the Rev. Mr. Oxlee, to a knowledge on 
his part of about a hundred and fifty languages on the 
ground that he occasionally quoted them or referred to them 
in his writings, or had books in them in his library. It 
would of course be absurd to suppose that a claim of the 
kind could be supported on such evidence only, and in the 
case of the Kev. Mr. Oxlee a reference to his writings shows 


that his acquaintance with some of the langaages quoted 
was only sufficienf to lead him into error. The cases of 
the clergyman and the Cardinal are widely different; but 
even in the instance of a Mezzofanti the presence of a book 
in some strange language in iiis library cannot be held to 
be conclusive eyidence that he knew the language to perfec- 
tion, and Dr. Minarelli would have as a preliminary step to 
point out those which were written in the ^^Baure^% the 
"Braubica", the "Rocorana", and the other singular dialects 
of which he speaks. Before taking leaye of Dr. Minarelli's 
list it must be remarked that with all its redundancies it still 
has omissions. The Tagalo or Tagala, a language of the 
Philippine islands, was one in which Mezzofanti's early pre- 
ceptor was remarkably skilled, and which is mentioned dis- 
tinctly by Father Bresciani as one that Mezzofanti knew, 
yet its name does not occur among the hundred and fourteen. 

Dr. Russell's list of the languages known to Mezzofanti 
differs most essentially from that of Dr. Minarelli. In the first 
place the Cardinal's nephew appears to suppose, like Father 
Bresciani, that the Cardinal spoke every language with which 
he was acquainted in equal perfection. In the paper read 
before the Philological Society in 1852 attention was called 
to the circumstance that '4n the statement which Sir William 
Jones left behind him of the number of languages he had 
studied, they were divided into three classes, those which 
he had studied critically, those which he had studied less 
perfectly, and those which he had studied least perfectly," 
and the remark was made that, if the Cardinal had fol- 
lowed Sir William's example, he too would probably have 
felt the expediency of distributing the languages he knew in- 
to different classes on a similar principle. Dr. Russell has 
adopted the same view, and has arranged his list of the 
languages and dialects known to Mezzofanti into six distinct 
classes accordingly. 

The first five of his classes consist of languages, the 
sixth of dialects , a distinction which it is essential to keep 
in view. There can be no doubt that from not adverting 
to it, some hasty readers of Dr. Russell's volume have been 


left with the impression that he had proved, on the priii'- 
ciples laid down in bis preface, that the number of lan- 
guages spoken by Mezzofanti was upwards of a hundred. 
The number that he actually ascribes to the great linguist 
is, as has already been menrtioned, seventy-two. "R ap- 
pears", to quote his own words (page 470), "ifcat in ad- 
dition to a large number of (more than tidrty) mi&or diar 
lects Mezzofanti was acquainted in various degrees with 
seventy-two languages, popularly if not scientifically re- 
garded as distinct." Of course if dialects were admitted' 
to stand on the. same footing as luigu^ges, an Englishman 
thoroughly acquainted with a few of the dialect* of oinr 
counties, might be ranked as a linguist above an English- 
man who had made himself master of Sanskrit and Chinese. 
It would surely, as has been remarked, be a mere* so*irce^ 
of confosion to affirm of a man who spoke English and 
Persian and the Exmoor dialect, that he spoken l^ee lan- 

An examination- of Dr. Russell's list of dialects shoW9 
that, as with Dr. Mina:relli''s M«t of languages, tbere ar& 
some for which evidence would be required liiat they actuaUy 
exist* No less than four of Magyar are enumerated, &e 
dialects of Debreczin (which by some oversight is called^ 
Debreczeny), of the environs of Eperies,' of Pesth, and 
of Transylvania. The Magyar language with its diafects- 
thus counts for five in the grand total of a hundred aiidi 
eight languages and dialects of Dr. Russell's fedl catelogue.. 
But among the members of the Philological Society we 
have now the advantage of numbering a distinguished Hun- 
gaa^ian scholar and author, well acquainted with Eperies,^ 
with Pesth, and with Debreczin. To this gerifleman, who 
himself conversed in Hungarian with Mezzofanti, the exis- 
tence of some of these dialects is unknown. In fact, bM 
Eperies the population in general speaks a Slavonic dialect 
instead of Magyar in any shape. It would be a remarkable 
fact if a* Pesth, the capital of Hungary,, a dialect were 
spoken distinct from the prevailing language of the country. 

tr THOMAS WATl^S, fiSQ. 233 

The HnngaTians are in general proud of the unity of their 
noble idiom and of its freedom from petty variations. 

On the other hand it will also be necessary to point out 
that by some oversight Dr. Russell has enumerated among 
the dialeets various systems of speech which are in fact dis- 
tinct languages. The Berber is certainly not a dialect of 
Arabic, nor the RhsBtian of German, nor the Bas-Breton of 
French, and Catalan which is mentioned as a dialect of 
Spanisb, is often associate^ with Provencal which Dr. Rus- 
sell classes a^ a dialect of French. If we take Catalan 
and Proven<fal as constituting one language , there wiD be 
four languages to be removed from Dr. Russell's list of dia- 
lects , and when added to the seventy-two already mentioned 
they win make a total of sevenly-six. 

From this number of seventy-six thus^ormed it will how- 
ever again be Necessary to strike out a few. By a singular 
oversight Dr. Russell has enumerated Japanese twice over, 
once as the third language of his fourth class, and again 
a9 the sixth language of his fifth class. Dutch and Flemish 
he enumerates a» two distinct languages, though it is often 
far from easy to detect the difference, and that which exists 
is certainly less than that between common English and the 
Dorsetshire dialect One of his authorities, Mr. Malou, 
bishop of Bruges, unconsciously points out the identity by 
mentioning Cats and Vondel as "two distinguished Flemish 
poets, whom Mezzofanii had read," Cats and Vondel being, as 
is weH known, just as thoroughly Dutch as Shakespeare and 
Milton are English. Some qaestion may also be raised, if it 
be correct to consider Hebrew and Rabbinical Hebrew as two 
distinct languages, and Ancient and Modem Armenian. By 
leaving out one enumeration of Japanese, Flfemish, Rabbi- 
nical Hebrew, and Modem Armenian, the number of lan- 
guages again becomes seventy-two. 

The question then arises — on what ground is it to be sup- 
posed that Cardinal Mezzofanti was conversant with Japanese? 
By a most excellent and praiseworthy arrangement Dr. Rus- 
sell undertakes to refer after every language in his list to 
the page ef Ms volume on which the proof is to be found' 

234 OK DR. russbll's life of cardinal mezzofakti, 

that the Cardinal knew that language. For Japanese he refers 
in both instances where he gives it to page 463, but at page 463 
we find merely that Japanese is inserted in Dr. Minarelli's 
list The statement rests therefore on the authority of 
Dr. Minarelli alone. But to quote again Dr. Russell's em- 
phatic words in the preface: "The proof of his familiarity 
with any particular language in order to be satisfactory 
ought to be specific, and ought to rest on the testimony 
either of a native or at least of one whose skill in the lan- 
guage was beyond suspicion.'' No statement of the kind 
can stand in stronger need of proof than that the Cardinal 
who was generally accustomed to study a language from 
the lips of a native, should be acquainted with Japanese, 
which probably at the time of his death was not known 
to three persons in Europe, while in the course of the Car- 
dinal's whole life and for more than a century before a na- 
tive of the country had not been seen in Italy. Not only 
Japanese however, but, on Dr. Eussell's principle, Malay, 
Tonquinese, Cochin-Chinese, Tibetan, and even Icelandic, 
for all of which he refers to no other authority than Dr. 
Minarelli, must be dismissed from his catalogue. 

With regard to the Cardinal's knowledge of the Celtic 
languages , five of which are inserted in Dr. Russell's list, 
there has been some controversy. A Welsh gentleman now 
deceased, Mr. Thomas EUis of the British Museum, who 
saw him in his later years, felt himself qualified to af- 
firm that Mezzo&nti was unable to hold a conversation 
or even to read with facility an ordinary book in Welsh. 
This testimony is merely negative, and is met by Dr. Rus- 
seU with testimonies of a positive character , among which 
the strongest is that of Dr. Forster, an Englishman, who 
saw Mezzofanti at the Vatican in 1834. Dr. Forster tells 
us that when in answer to a question from the Cardinal he 
nientioned that he spoke "a little Welsh", the Cardinal be- 
gan at once to talk to him, to use his own words, ^^like a 
Welsh peasant". He then proceeds to add that "the Cardinal 
knew also the other varieties of Celtic, Irish, Gaelic, and 
Bas-Breton." But in 1834 this was certainly not the case. In 


my second paper, read before the Philological Society in 
1854, I referred on the subject of Irish to a manuscript com- 
munication with which I had been favoured by an Irish 
Catholic priest of high standing, who did not wish his name 
to be mentioned, but who |was entitled to speak with au- 
thority. In 1842, to quote his words, the Cardinal "knew 
enough of the language to initiate a conversation, but al- 
though it is put down in the commonly received accounts 
of the languages which he spoke, it was not one of those 
to which he himself laid claim, —nevertheless he was in the 
habit of amusing himself with Irish visitors by addressing 
fliem in their native language, and if, as very frequently 
happened, he found them unable to reply, he would play- 
fully rally them upon their ignorance of the dialect of their 
own country." He may possibly have amused himself in 
a similar way in Welsh as weE as Irish. Dr. Russell in 
his list of languages spoken by Mezzofanti, only inserts the 
Irish among those which were "spoken imperfectly— a few 
sentences and conversational forms," though this is one of 
the less-known languages of Europe, in which, from the 
number of Irish priests at Rome, Mezzofanti would have 
had the most frequent opportunities of practice. Dr. Forster 
may also have been too hasty in assuming that at the time 
of his interview the Cardinal knew Gaelic. The Rev. John 
Strain, a Gaelic scholar, who was at Rome in 1832, informed 
Dr. Russell that at that time the Cardinal had no knowledge 
whatever of the Gaelic language, and the last good evidence 
we have on the subject is from the Rev. John Gray of Glas- 
gow who testifies that in 1841 flie Cardinal "knew the lan- 
guage, but spoke it very imperfectly." When the Abb^ Gaume 
visited Rome in 1842, eight years after Dr. Forster's inter- 
view, he tells us that he found Mezzofanti "studying Bas- 
Breton", and that he had no doubt (to quote from Dr. Russell's 
translation) that the Cardinal "would be able in a short time to 
exhibit it to the inhabitants of Vannes themselves." Respecting 
the remaining dialect of Celtic, the Cornish, the only evi* 
dence Dr. Russell offers respecting it is that Professor Tho- 
luck states that, when he was permitted by Mezzofanti to 


e^anupae his library in 1829 , he found in ii a Cotnkh gram- 
rmr and ^^some sheets containing a little voeabiilary and gram- 
matical paradigms'' of Cornish, and that Mezzofanti told him 
that "his way of learning languages was no other but that 
of our schoolboys by writing out paradigms a^id words and 
x^nmiitting to memory/' On this evidence, and on this 
only, Dr. Russell has inserted the Cornish in his list as 
one of the "languages studied from books, but not known to 
have been spoken." Indeed it is hard to imagine to whom the 
Cardinal could have spoken it According to popular belief^ 
the last person who had a colloquial knowledge of the lan- 
guage, was Dolly Pentraeth, who died at Mousehole in Mounts 
Bay in 1778, four years after Mezzofanti was bom at Bo- 
logna. A monument is now about to be erected in the 
churchyard of her parish by Prince Louis Lucian Bonaparte, 
to commemorate at once the death of Dorothy Pentraetii 
and the death of the Cornish language. 

It is refreshing after all these uncertainties and perplexi- 
ties to turn to that part of Dr. Russell's list which is bright 
with the broad sunshine of evidence. He begins by enu- 
merating the principal languages of Europe And Asia, for 
each of which he is able to refer to a witness who proves 
that the Cardinal spoke tiiat particular language with an 
ease and excellence rarely attained by a foreigner. The 
list as given by Dr. Russell amounts to thirty langaages, 
and if we deduct the Rabbinical Hebrew, the modern Ar- 
menian, and the Flemish, the number will still be as high 
as twenty-seven. No other person in the whole course of 
time is recorded on any reliable evidence to have spoken 
with equal excellence an equal number. These, however, 
only constitute Dr. Russell's first class of ^^ languages fre- 
quently tested and spoken with rare excellence", and are fol- 
lowed by another class of nine ^^ stated to have been spoken 
fluently, but hardly sufficiently tested", by a third class of 
eleven "spoken rarely and less perfectiy", and by a fourth 
x)f eight "spoken imperfectly — a few sentences and conversa- 
tional forms." These four classes make up fifty-ei^t in Dr. 
Rus&^U's enumeration, and of these fifty-eight several have air 


ready been pointed ont 9» in yario«s degrees qnestion^l^le, the 
Japanese, for instance, and three of the Celtic dialects. The 
number o^ sev^ty-two is made up by fourteen of a fifth dass 
'^studied from books, but not known to haye been spoken.'' 
Evidence for a large number of these languages would, 
from some statements, appear to have been supplied in a 
mfiss upon some particular occasions. On Mezzofanti's ele- 
vation to the CardinalaAe f<H* instance in 1838 we are told, 
(at page 379 of Dr. Russell's work, on the authority of 
Pr. Gaetano Stolz), thU ^fty-three of the pupils at the Pro- 
paganda, comprising aU the languages and nationalities re- 
presented at that time in the institution, waited on the 
new dignitary in a body to offer their greetings in their 
various tongues, and that he ^'answered each in his own lan- 
guage with great spirit and precision." The same statement 
is repeated (at page 394) on the authority of Guide GOrres, 
but here the number of pupils is given not as fifty-three 
but as fortyrthree, a discrepancy which Dr. Russell omits 
to notice. It was remarked in my paj>er of 1854 that the 
examinations at the Propaganda, did not, for reasons there 
stated, afford the evidence in support of Mezzofanti's extra- 
ordinary powers which they had been supposed to present, 
and this remark receives fresh confirmation from various 
passages in Pr. RusseU's volume. Dr. Russell gives a most 
interesting description of one of these examinations at which 
he was himself present in lj8439 ^^^ inserts a list of the 
languages in which recitations were given, one of which is 
Tamul. His account of the interest which Mezzofanti testi- 
fted during the whole of the proceedings, and the polyglot 
conversation which he afterwards held with the youths 
who gatiiered around him, leaves the impression tiiat 
every one of the languiages used on the occasion was 
known to the Cardinal. Yet in another part of the volume 
we find tihat the Rey. Charles Fernando, a pupil of the 
Propaganda, who testified to Mezzofanti's acquaiAtance with 
numerous oti^er languages, doubted his knowledge of Tamul, 
and that #naUy the Rev. Dr. Mac Auliffe, a missionary 
4 Madrapf, tQ whom Dr. Russell applied as the best authority, 


distinctly stated that Tamtd was unknown to the great linguist 
So strong in fact is the negative testimony that Dr. Russell 
leaves the language out of his list, though it occurs in both 
those of Stolz and Minarelli. 

What then is the final result of the comparison of Dr. 
Russell's list with the evidence on which it is founded? It 
is, I think, that with all his ingenuity and research Dr. 
Russell has failed to establish the point which he seeks to 
prove by extraneous testimony, — namely that Cardinal Mez- 
zofanti was master of seventy-two languages, — and has, On 
the contrary, ended by showing that the only satisfactory 
basis on which a belief on the subject can be grounded 
must be the testimony of the Cardinal himself. Only Mez- 
zofanti could tell with accuracy how much Mezzofanti knew. 
It is therefore of much interest to know if he ever made 
such a statement. It appears that he did. 

From information much of which has only been recently 
brought to light, it appears that he expressed himself on the 
subject on several occasions without reserve. I have been fa- 
voured by Mr. Francis Pulszky, who saw the Cardinal in 1833, 
with an account of his interview, which with his kind permission 
I intend to affix to the end of this paper, to which it will im- 
part a peculiar value. He told Mr. Pulszky that at that time 
he spoke forty-three languages. Dr. Cox, the vice-rector 
of the English college at Rome, informs Dr. Russell in a 
letter printed in the biography, that he introduced Count 
Mazzinghi to the Cardinal soon after Mezzofanti's appoint- 
ment to his post at the Vatican. As this appointment took 
place in 1833 the interview with Mazzinghi was probably 
not long after that with Pulszky. The Count begged as an 
especial favour that the Cardinal would tell him, how many 
languages he could speak. ''I have heard many different 
accounts", he said, "but will you tell me yourself." After 
some hesitation Mezzofanti answered: "Well, if you must 
know, I speak forty-five languages." Mrs. Paget, a Tran- 
sylvanian lady, whose visit to the Vatican took place in 
1835, states that in reply to a direct question from her, 
how many languages he knew, the Cardinal replied, "not 


many, for I only speak forty or fifty." As years went on 
the number increased, and Cardinal Wiseman told Dr. Ens- 
sell that before he left Rome in 1839 it had become almost 
proverbial that Mezzofanti's reply was "Fifty and Bolognese". 
The same number is mentioned in some lines of Dutch verse 
addressed by Mezzofanti to Professor Wap of Utrecht in 
1837. The line which contains it, a facsimile of which is 
given by Dr. Russell, runs thus: 

"Dat mijiie tong rerbleef med yijitig taalen stom.^' 
("My toDgae with fiity languages was dumb.'*) 

The most interesting statement however in connection with 
this subject is that of the Russian traveller Muraviev in 
his "Letters from Rome", a translation of which was given 
in my paper of 1852, and copied by Dr. Russell both in 
the Edinburgh Review and in his separate volume. "I 
asked him", says Muraviev, "to give me a list of all the 
languages and dialects in which he was able to express 
himself, and he sent me the name of God written witib his 
own hand in fifty-six languages, of which thirty were Eu- 
ropean, not counting their subdivisions or dialects, seven- 
teen Asiatic also without reckoning dialects, five African, 
and four American." I remarked in my paper that "in 
his note to the Russian traveller, Mezzofanti rather seems 
to have evaded the question than to have distinctly asserted 
that he understood fifty-six languages", and Dr. Russell ap- 
pears to have adopted my opinion, from the small importance 
which he evidently attaches to the document. I am now in- 
clined to think that my opinion was too hastily formed. From 
Muraviev's narrative it might indeed be supposed that the 
document contained only a list of names of the Deity,— but 
this, it appears on further consideration, could hardly have 
been the case. The name of the Deity is alike in several lan- 
guages — the same in English and Dutch, the same in Danish 
and Swedish, the same in Russian and Servian, the same in 
Latin and Portuguese, — to use it therefore without explanation, 
for the purpose for which Cardinal Mezzofanti thought proper 
to use It, would have been in a peculiar sense to "take the 
name of God in vain." Some indication of what the languages 


iv«re, muBt have ftcconrpani^ the Mst, or how would Maraim? 
haye known that what he had before him was the name 
of God in ^^five African and four American lafig%iag6s^\ If 
thifi snpposition be correct, and if the document be still 
in existence — and no donbt from the interest attached to it 
some care would be given to its presOTvation, — it must 
present in Mezzofanti's autograph a list of the fifty-siz lan- 
guages which he had studied meet. With the li^ whidi 
has now been thrown vpon his wonderful and unparalleled 
powers, no doubt would be entertained that of these fifty- 
«ix languages he was more fully the master than Sir William 
Jones of the twenty-eight — exactly one half the number— 
the possession of whidi marked him out in the latter half 
of.lhe eighteenth c^ury as the greatest linguist of Im 

There is still another statement respecting the nnmb^ 
«f languages with which Mezzofanti .declared himself ac- 
-quainted. ]n the appendix to a novel entitled ^'The Jew 
•of Vearona", a fictitious character of the name of Don Co- 
smio is represented as stating that Mezzo&nti told him in 
1846 that he knew seventy-eigiit languages with their .dif- 
ferent dialects. ''Is this assertion^', I asked in my papi^ 
of 1854, ^^to be received with confidence? We have against 
it tibe certainty proved as strongly as a negative well can 

be, that the Cardinal told no one else so'' '^We ba/ve 

in favour of it the unsupported assertion of an individual 
^ present anonymous, put forward in such a questionable 
diape, in the form of an appendix to an acknowledged 
fiction, that it is hard to say if it is even intended to be 
taken ih earnest.'' Dr. Kussell, noticing in the Edijaburgfa 
Beview my criticism on this and another authority relied 
on by M. Manavit, observed that I had ^^ demonstrated by 
many examples their vague and unscientific charact^" and 
^ shown that in determining the actual extent of the Car- 
dinal's attainments their unsupported representation not only 
cannot safely be accepted as decisive, but is at variance with 
the ascertained and unquestioned facts of the case." The 
authorship of the 'Jew <^f Verona' has siace been :acknow- 


]b6<|ged by Father Bresciani, a well-known Roman ecclesiastic, 
and the statement is therefore no longer anonymous , and 
it seems to be taken by Dr. Russell and others as put for- 
ward in Father Bresciani's own person. It still appears to 
me inadmissible; and, as we have seen, Dr. Russell who 
fixes the number of languages at seventy-two, practically 
discards it. Unfortunately in his ^Letters from Rome' 
Muraviev does not give the date of his interview with Mez- 
zo^anti, bqt the date of the publication of his volume was 
1846, and the journey it commemorates probably, took 
plj^ce in 1844 or 1845. The man who in 1844 stated that 
he could express himself in fifty-six languages, could hardly 
in 1846 have acquired an additional twenty-two. There 
must surely, therefore, have been some misconception or hal- 
lucination on the part of Father Bresciani. 

A learned German author who has recently written with 
special advantages a short biographical sketch of Mezzo- 
fanti, }s a valuable witness to confirm the view that Father 
Bresciani's statement is not to be relied on. Dr. Augustin 
Tbei^er, formerly a Protestant clergyman in Silesia, now 
a Catholic priest in Rome and one of the librarians of the 
Yaiics^i , tells us that from the time of his arrival at Rome 
till tbetime of Mezzofanti's death, a space of sixteen years, 
he lived on the most intimate terms with the Cardinal, and 
during five years of the time resided in the college of the 
Propaganda to which Mezzofanti was in the habit of paying 
dfttly visits. "He spoke", says Dr. Theiner, "about sixty- 
two languages and wrote them also"^ As Dr. Theiner 
proceeds to enumerate some of these languages and com- 
mits some of tibe usual mistakes in supposing identical idioms 
to be distinct, his number may be reduced to sixty or sixty- 
one, but in either case his statement would be in remarkable 

* Dr. Theiner's words are: "Er redete anbei 62 Sprachen". The or- 
dinary meaning of "anbei'* is "herewith", and the ordinary German 
word for "about" is "ungefdhr'\ but the meaning of ^^anheV in this 
passage can obviously be no other than that here given. Two German 
friends whom I have consulted, natives of Silesia, have no doubt on 
the point. 



harmony with that of Muraviev a few years before. It is 
to be observed also that in the list of languages supposed 
to be known to Mezzofanti drawn up by Signer Gaetano 
Stolz and published in the "Giornale di Roma" of 1850, 
the number amounts to fifty-eight, according to Signer Stolz's 
computation, though, as he too has made Danish and Nor- 
wegian distinct and has committed some other oversights, 
the real number will be somewhat less. 

To sum up therefore what has been attempted to be proved 
— if we take the well-authenticated statements of Cardinal 
Mezzofanti himself as the basis of our estimate of the extent 
of the wonderful faculty of which sufficient and superfluous 
evidence shows him to have been possessed, we shall be per- 
suaded that he was acquainted with sixty or sixty-one lan- 
guages of nearly thirty of which he appears to have been 
a consummate master. 

A faculty so extraordinary may well strike us with amaze- 
ment. Dr. Russell who has prefixed to his volume an 
elaborate paper of 'Memoirs of eminent linguists' inclu(Hng 
even the names of some who are living, justly obseiTes 
that Cardinal Mezzofanti "immeasurably transcends them 
all". Dr. Russell proceeds to add that "the list of those 
reputed to have possessed more than ten languages is a very 
short one", and that "only four, Mithridates, Pico of Miran- 
dola, Jonadab Alhanar, and Sir William Jones, are said in the 
loosest sense to have passed the limits of twenty." This how- 
ever is far from accurate. Rask, the great Scandinavian philo- 
logist, who died in 1832 at the age of 45, was said, when at 
the age of 35, to know twenty-five languages. Petersen, bis 
friend and biographer, tells us, that at the time of his death 
he had "worked in fifty-five languages", writing in some, 
criticising, analysing, and comparing others. Dr. Russell 
tells us himself (at page 79 of his volume) that "Dr. Paul 
deLagarde", the same person, it may be remarked, who (at 
page 76) is called Paul Boetticher, "has the reputation of know- 
ing above twenty languages", and several of the living names 
which he mentions, have claims to a higher rank than that 
which he assigns them. "Sir John Bo wring", he observes, 


"is usually set down as knowing twenty languages, and for 
Elihu Burritt his admirers claim eighteen.'' To Sir John 
Bowring is due the more substantial praise of having first 
introduced his countrymen to an acquaintance with the litera- 
ture of many foreign lands, but even in a mere linguistic point 
of view his reputed attainments are here much understated. 
In the 'Lives of Reformers' published in 1840, when Sir 
John was twenty years younger than he now is, nearly 
thirty languages are enumerated from which he had published 
translations. In 1838 Governor Everett of Massachusetts 
announced to a meeting of mechanics at Boston that there 
was a blacksmith in New England, then of the age of 
twenty-seven, who was acquainted with upwards of fifty 
languages, and this belief was prevalent in America among 
the admirers of Burritt for some years afterwards. In our 
own times a knowledge of languages is far more diffused 
than it has ever been before. An officer of the British 
Museum who died in 1858, Mr. Louis Augustin Prevost, 
whose favourite pursuit for a series of years had been the 
acquisition of languages, was known to be acquainted in some 
degree with upwards of forty, but like Mezzofanti he felt 
no impulse to embody his knowledge in writing, and left no 
memorial behind him save in the recollection of his friends. 
Many men have been conspicuous for the number of lan- 
guages they knew, who were by no means equally re- 
markable for the number of languages they spoke. The 
faculty which stamps on the memory the words of a lan- 
guage, may exist in considerable force unaccompanied with 
the quickness of ear which seizes on the varieties and shades 
of pronunciation, and the quickness of tongue which enables 
the hearer to reproduce what he hears. As there is many 
an excellent mimic who shows no talents as a linguist, so 
there is many an excellent linguist who shows no talents 
as a mimic, and a man may comprehend in aU their deli- 
cacy the minutest shades in the meaning of a foreign author 
who is utterly unable even to read that author's words aloud 
with the accent of a native. Mezzofanti appears to have 
possessed in a marvellous degree the mimetic faculty. The 


languages that he learned, he generally learned by the odtf. 
Most European students of the Chinese language have giyeii 
all their attention to mastering the strikingly peculiar written 
character, the knowledge of which is absolutely necessary as 
a key to unlock the ancient and moderti literature of China. 
WhenMezzofanti wished to study the language, his first thought 
was to put himself in communication with the young Chinese 
who were to be found in the missionary college at Na|)les. 
i)isinclined as he was throughout his life to locomotion he 
travelled to Naples for that purpose, and when his progress 
in the language was interrupted by a serious iBness, he seems 
to have laid the study of it aside altogether till invited to re- 
sume it by the circumstance that some of the young Chines^ 
were transferred fi-om Naples to Rome. We afterwards fre- 
quently hear of his conversing in Chinese, and even conversing 
in the various dialects, which may be said not to have the 
slightest interest in a literary point of view^ but there is no 
mention of his having ever read a Chinese book. It is qtiite 
possible for a person to possess a godd kiov^ledge of col- 
loquial Chinese and to be utterly unable to read a page of one. 
The talents of Mezzofanti* appear to have b^n altogether 
most succeissfally developed in conversation. That they were 
of a much higher order than has beeii sometimes imagined 
is shown iii the veiy interesting and instructive letter of 
Professor Libri, addressed to myself, which I had the 
pleasure of forwarding, with his permission, to i)r. Russell 
of whose volume it forms one of the brightest ornaments. 
Signer Libri speaks with the warmest admiration of the 
"erudition as profound as it was various" of him whom 
he justly calls the "universal linguist", and it may safely 
be asserted that a more competent judge than he who pro- 
nounces the panegyric, could not be found in Europe. It 
is worthy of remark that the animated conversation which 
left this impression on the mind of the great mathematician 
and bibliographer, muSt have passed in Italian, and that 
the complaints of inanity and repetition in Mezzofanti's con- 
versation have chiefly, though not exclusively, been made by 
foreigners. May it not be suspected that, even in the case 


of tbe gifted linguist, the effort of speaking in a foreign 
kngnage engaged too mneh of his attention to leave his 
intelleet a fair opportanity of displaying itself. 

Tbe mental powers of Mezzofanti seem certainly to have 
been somewhat benumbed when he took up a pen. Many men 
who bare been averse to writing a book, have been fer- 
tile and fluent in familiar letters, but his eorresponden^e 
appears to have been scanty in quantity, and in quality little 
better than commonplace. Of more ambitious compositions 
he wrote very few, and even some of those few have been 
destroyed, or are not known to esist I>r. Russell mentions 
that in 1816 Mezzofanti read before the Academy of Bologna 
an essay ^^on the language of the Sette Comuni at Yicenza" 
which was spoken of with much praise. ^^This singular 
eommunity'% says Dr. Russell, " — descended from those 
stragglers of the invading army of Cimbri and Teutones 
which crossed the Alps in the year of Rome 640, who 
escaped amid the almost complete extermination of their 
compatriots under Marius, and took refuge in the neighbour^ 
ing mountains — presents (like the smaller Roman colony on 
the Transylvanian border) the strange phenomenon of a 
foreign race and language preserved, unmixed in the midst 
of another people and another tongue for a space of nearly 
two thousand years. They occupy seven parishes in the 
vicinity of Vicenza, whence their name is derived, and they 
still retain not only the tradition of their origin, but the 
substance and even the leading forms of the Teutonic lan- 
guage; insomuch that Frederick lY of Denmark, who visited 
tiiem in the beginning of the last century (1708), discoursed 
with them in Danish, and found their idiom perfectly in- 
telligible.'' This somewhat startling statement is chiefly 
drawn by Dr. Russell from Maffei, the celebrated author of 
the ^Verona illustrata' and of ^Merope\ It is singular that 
it should not have struck either of these learned men that the 
language spoken by the Cimbri two thousand years ago, could 
hardly tally with modem Danish, a language which like modem 
English was not in existence for more than thirteen hundred 
years afterwards, but has been formed in comparatively recent 


limes from the language which is called by some Old Norse, 
but more generally Icelandic. That a king of Denmark con- 
versed with them was of course no proof that the conver- 
sation was in Danish, as kings of Denmark are sure to be 
familiar at least with German, the vernacular language of 
a large portion of their subjects. Agostino dal Pozzo, a 
native of the district of Vicenza, whose posthumous work 
on the "Seven Communes" was published in Italian in 1820, 
tells us that he "sucked in their language with his mother's 
milk " , and that he made the discovery in after life that it 
was a dialect of German, and meeting one day with a few 
Austrian soldiers he was surprised to hear one of them 
speak nearly the same language as himself, and found that 
he was a young recruit from Leipsic. The vocabulary that 
he gives of the language, bears out the statement, and the 
most astonishing circumstance connected with the whole 
aflfair, is that learned Italians, who certainly have had suf- 
ficient opportunities of studying the dialects of German sol- 
diers, should ever have imagined that the dialect of the Sette 
Comuni was a specimen of the language of the Cimbri before 
the Christian era. The treatise of Mezzofanti on the subject, 
should it ever be discovered, will probably be found to 
develope the same view of the question that has been taken 
by more than one German writer, namely, that the inhabitants 
of the Sette Comuni are the descendants of a few Germans 
of the middle-ages, who happened in some of the frequent 
German expeditions to Italy to take root and settle among 
the mountains where they were enclosed by an Italian popu- 
lation. It would be singular indeed if Mezzofanti with his 
knowledge of German had been led to acquiesce in Maflfefs 
theories about the Cimbri, 

The solitary publication of Mezzofanti was his ' Discourse 
in praise of Father Emmanuel Aponte', his old preceptor, 
the Spanish Jesuit settled at Bologna, who had taught him 
Greek. It was first given to light in 1820 in a literary 
miscellany, the 'Opuscoli letterarj', of Bologna, and after- 
wards republished in a separate form. Several passages in 
this brief biography are of much interest when looked at 


in connection with the career and the acquirements of its 
writer. Aponte went in early life as a missionary to the 
Philippine islands. "Even then", says Mezzofanti, "he 
showed how skilful he was in overcoming the arduous dif- 
ficulties that retard the acquisition of languages, for in a 
short time he made such progress in the language called 
Tagalo, and became so well versed in it, that the natives 
tkemselves as they listened to his sermons , admired an un- 
accustomed force and sweetness in their own language. In 
that involved and singular idiom, which is a sort of in- 
extricable labyrinth, he succeeded in finding a clue which 
enabled himself and others to learn it with ease." From 
the opinion which is here expressed on the construction of 
the language, and from the statement that Aponte had ren- 
dered the study of it easy to others as well as himself, it 
might be inferred that Mezzofanti had studied it, but the 
only testimony of his haying mastered Tagalo, or as it is 
more usually called Tagala, is that of Father Bresciani, 
and its name, as has been already mentioned, does not 
occur even among the hundred and fourteen languages that 
Dr. Minarelli claims for his uncle. In early life Mezzofanti 
does not appear to have given attention to all languages 
with which he came in contact One of his first preceptors 
at Bologna, Father Thiulen, was a Swede, but he did not 
take the opportunity of learning Swedish from him, for 
though in one part of his volume (page 272) Dr. Russell 
hazards a conjecture that such was the case, he gives in 
another (page 144) a narrative which is altogether irrecon- 
cileable with such a supposition. 

The chief point which Mezzofanti dwells upon in con- 
nection with the literary labours of Aponte, is the supe- 
riority of his method of teaching languages — a point on 
which the opinions of the great linguist have the strongest 
possible claim to attention. "Infinite", says Mezzofanti, 
"is the trouble and small the profit of studying a language 
in such a manner that the reasoning faculties remain idle, 
and the memory is merely loaded with strange words and 
their combinations. The study becomes less wearisome, 


md more ugefal and dignified^ when tbe teacher judielMsty 
calls attention to the structure of the idiom ^ pointing out 
^^ principles that regulate its innumerable Tsoria-tions, bat 
especially dwelling on that which governs them in Ihe 
largest point of Tiew^ and may be said to bear rule in ft^ 
language and constitute its leading property.'' * This praise 
he bestows in high measure on the method of Aponte^ who 
in a Greek grammar which he compiled for the use of Ms 
pupils, introduced a table of the variations of the t(m- 
sonants^ of which he was not the inventor , but so mueh 
the improter that his grateful pupils in allusion to his name 
baptized it, from the Greek word for a bridge 5 "the Ge- 
phyrian table''. The analysis of tMs grammar wonld enable 
it to be ascertained what in the opinion of the greatest Knguist 
that ever lived was the best method of teaching a language, 
but the limits of this paper forbid any attempt at such an 
analysis, and the question would still remain, if the method 
that was best for Mezzofanti, would be best for all- It 
will scarcely be doubted that his brain mnst have been of 
a very peculiar constmction. 

Dr. Russell in bis account of the eulogy of Aponte does 
not quote either of the passages we have cited, but gives 
a translation of an extract of some length, the concluding 
paragraphs of the oration, consisting of an exhortation to 
the study of Greek Hterature. One sentence of his version 
with an omission which will presently be noticed^ runs tttts: 
"These studies furnish youth with profitable and delightful 
knowledge, they amuse maturer years, they adorn pros- 
perity, and in adversity affoi*d an asylum from care, they 

1 The words of Mezzofanti, which would form, an excellent motto for a 
philosophical grammar, are as follows: ''Beca molestia infinita e tenae 
fhltto lo studiare in ana lingua per modo che il ragionamento quasi si 
rimanga ozioso, e solametite si a^grati la memoria di suoni sttani e 
delle vaghe loro combinazioni. Meno increscevole e pii^ utile e degno 
diviene tale studio quando chi insegna accortamente mostra la tessitura 
delFidioma, additandone i principii che ne regolano le innumerevoli va- 
riazioni, ma spezialmente afdggendosi in quello che le governa in piu 
ampia estensione e puo dlrsi dominare sullMdioma steisiso e costituirne 
primaria p)*opriet^.'^ 

ift TMtoMAS WATTS, tbif. 24$ 

diHi^ht ui^ in' lAte qmet of hom^, atid ar^ no hiiidtaiiee M 
affaii^ of tie gravest moment, they discover for us many 
a useful thing, for the trayellet they procure the regard of 
strangers, and in the solitude of the country they solace 
the mind with the purest of' pleasures." the passage at 
once reminds every reader of the celebrated panegyric on 
literature in Cicero's oration for Archias , perhaps the tnost 
familiar of all the famous passages in that immortal oration. 
"Haec studia adolescentiam alunt, senectutem oblectant, se- 
cundas res ornant, adversis perfugium ac solatium praabent, 
delectant doini, non impediunt foris^ pemoctant nobiscum, 
|)eregrinantur, rusticantur." The resemblance has not escaped 
Dr. Russell, and in his translation he puts the whole pas- 
sage between inverted commas as a quotation, and takes 
the liberty of commencing the sentence thus: ^^' These 
studies', says one who o#ed much of his eloquence to the 
industry witii which he ctiltivated them"; thus making Mez^ 
zofanti acknowledge! that he is indebted for the passage to 
Cicero. There is no acknowledgement of the Mnd in either of 
the two editions of the ^Discorso' in Italian, and the omission 
of any such rdei'ence is a circttinstsiiice not without interest 
to the observer of the literary character of the great linguist 
The want of originality and force cannot but be felt through- 
out the whole of the 'Discorso' ; many of the passages have 
an air of being diluted and at second hand, and from this 
eitainple the reader tnay be justified in concluding that some, 
of which he cannot precisely remember the originals, may 
nevertheless be the unrecognised fruits of the memory in- 
stead of mind of the Cardinal. 

Dr. Russell has been more successful tlian M. Manavit in 
procuring specimens of the polyglot literary compositions^ 
of the Cardinal. In a plate of facsimiles of hl6 handwriting 
he gives eiainpled in fifteen different languages — counting 
Dutch and Flemish as one— and in an Appendix to the volume 
he addfii some other specimens, including one language not 
comprised in those which the facsimiles exhibit. Many of 
these ootnpositiond are very brief, consisting of two lines 
dnly, and tiie (5harikcter of them is such that^ although Dr. 


Russell supposes them to be impromptus, there is nothing 
to show that they may not haye been prepared at leisure. 
Such lines as these in English 

"Great dangers threaten youth from eyery side, 
Let thy fear be, Almighty God, their guide." 
have nothing to appropriate them to any particular time or 
any particular person. Two other specimens of English verse 
are interesting as showing from trifling imperfections of 
idiom that, as might be expected, the Cardinal's know- 
ledge of our language, however minute, was different from 
that of a native. One of these is a piece of four lines: 
"English verses given* to an Irish student on his leaving 
the Propaganda": 

"May Christ be on your lips and heart. 
Show forth by facts what words impart, 
That by sound words and good behayiour 
You may lead others to the Saviour." 

The word "facts" in the second line is evidently used to 
express what an Englishman would have expressed by 
"deeds". "Facts" are the opposite not of "words" but 
of "fictions". 

Again in a couplet "written for a student" Mezzofanti 
says : 

"0 man what is thy science? Vanity, 
And thou art nothing without charity." 

Here the word "science" is too technical and confined for 
the meaning he wishes to convey. The proper expression 
is "knowledge" which would equally have fitted into the 
line, and could not therefore have been rejected on account 
of the trammels of versification. 

One of his poetical effusions is of a more remarkable 
character. Dr. Wap, a professor of Utrecht, who saw Mez- 
zofanti at Rome in April 1837, wrote in the Cardinal's al- 
bum a pair of Dutch quatrains, expressive of his admira- 
tion. Mezzofanti instantly replied in six lines of Dutch 
verse, and asked if there were any mistakes in them. Dr. 
Wap pointed out three , but all very trifling. These lines 
of Mezzofanti's were undoubtedly produced extempore, as 
they are an answer to the lines of Wap,— and they have a 


more easy and flowing air than most of his compositions. 
They are perhaps of all that Dr. Russell has produced the most 
extraordinary proof of his wonderful and unparalleled powers. 

A Latin hexameter poem recited in the Arcadian Academy 
at Rome on the occasion of his admission is chiefly no- 
ticeable for the appearance that it presents, of being in 
its phraseology, a mere cento from the Latin poets. In the 
course of a very few lines the reader comes to several such 
terminations as *'Mox aestuat ira", "vox faucibus haeret", 
and "Rex talia fatus". 

As an author therefore it would be vain to contend that 
a high rank should be assigned to Mezzofanti. Regret must 
always be felt that with so much knowledge in his possession 
which it would have been useful to impart, he "died and 
made no sign'\ Had he merely dictated to an amanuensis 
the remarks in confirmation and correction that must have 
occurred to him on a perusal of the general surveys of languages 
published by Hervas, by Adelung, or by Prichard, he would 
doubtless have done more in a few days to render his vast 
acquirements of advantage to after ages, than he effected 
in the course of a long life. But in the very peculiar 
sphere which he selected, he accomplished marvels which 
must always secure to his name a place in the intellectual 
annals of mankind. 

Two papers follow as an appendix to this article. The 
first is the interesting account of a visit to Mezzofanti with 
which I have been favoured by Mr. Francis Pulszky, and 
which has been already referred to in this paper. The mo- 
desty of the writer has, I observe, led him to suppress 
some compliments paid him by the Cardinal on his powers 
as a linguist, which have since been amply justified by his 
repeated successes as a writer in three languages, — Hun- 
garian, German, and English. The second is a translation 
of part of the article on Mezzofanti by Dr. Augustin Theiner, 
which appeared in 1856 in the supplement to Wetzer and 
Welte's Kirchenlexikon. It will be found to contain some 
interesting particulars not to be met with elsewhere. 



It was ia September 1833 that I made the acquaintance 
of the Cardinal Mezzofanti. My ioncle, the late Gabriel 
Fej^arj, known for his celebrated collection of antiquities, 
took me to the Library of the Vatican, where we were 
flhown to a Jarge hall, and fopnd Mezzofanti eng^j^ in a 
conversajtioii with a Danish gentleman. We remp,ined s^t 
some distance until the visitor took his leave., when Mezzo- 
fanti came to us, and, addressing my uncle, said: '^Sir, I 
had ah'o^.dy the pleasure of seeing you several years ago, 
you must excuse me for having forgotten your name." Mr. 
Fej^rvary replied that such was really the case in 1829 at 
3ologna, but onjiy for a few moments. Having introduced 
ipae to the celebrated Librarian, Mezzofanti spoike # me in 
Hungarian. Struck by his strongly accentuated » ri(^ pro- 
nunciation, which is peculiar to Debreczin and the Hsyduc 
towns, I asked him, where he h9.d learned Hungari^. ^4^t 
Bologna", he said, ''from a j^nngarian IJnssar". This 
answer must evidently have related to the pecfiliiaiity of his 
pronunciation, since I later recollected th9^ l|IUiz;?<^anti h^ 
already in 1817, several years before the first ^^^strian oc- 
ciipati<;^ of <the Legations, addressed the Archduke Joseph 
in Hungarian, and that he was not little suqi^rised to fi^fl 
that neither the Viceroy (Palatine) of Hungary, nor his 
Chamberlain, the Count PAlffy, was able to xeplj in the 
saipe Itirnguage. He asked npe whether I spojke the Ro^n^ine 
language, which at ithat tkote was j^ot y^ distpigu^bed by 
such a highsounding n^opie and was more prosaically called 
the WaUachian, and as I told him that I was a s^ve of 
the County of SAros in Upp^ Hungary, he inquired which 
of the Slavonic idioms was familiar to me. I replied that 
the dialect spoken about Eperies was a link between the 
Bohemjian and Polish, tlmt accordingly I cpuld make out 
l^e sc^nse of either, though this dialect differed firopi both 
languages. To try my assertion he spoke ,to me first in 
BoJtiem^n, tjhien inPoUsh, ^a^d peemed much pleased to jiiid 
that he tolei^ably ji^dcrstpod the dialect I tspoj^e. jPerhPips 


M» cir^nnurtaiiee may have made some impr66sk»i on him, 
and be may bave mentioned it in later times, since we 
read in Us biography on the evidence of Mr. Glficky, who 
by a mistake is styled a Hongarian nobleman, that the €ar^ 
dinal apoke the Hongariaft (sic) dialect of Eperiea. This 
ought to read: understood the Slavonic dialect of Eperies, 
since there is no such dialect in the Hungarian language; 
the bulk of the population being Slavonic, whilst the edu- 
cated classes speak the Hungarian in the way as it is spoken 
an Bociety all over the country.— 

The Gardinal^s German and French were remarkably free 
Irom the peculiar Italian intonation and accentuation, but I 
found tiiat he avoided entering into any literary subject, 
and was rather fond of displaying his aoquaintance with the 
most ^heterogeneous languages. He, of course, at once knew 
that my object ia visiting ttie Vatican was ^to inquire about 
liie BuUa Awrea of king Andrew 11, of winch one copy 
had been aent to the Pope, and he informed me, as he had 
informed several Bungarians before me, that this precious 
document mnat have been lost durmg the transfer of the 
pafial «ee from fiome to Avignon and thence back 4o Rome. 
itecoQunwding tike study of languages to me he mentioned 
that he spoke forty'^ree languages, and that it is only the 
ficst twenty which prescoit difticuliies , for in giappling with 
ttiem the mhid becomes so ^aecustomed to this kind of study, 
that all tiie o;Uiers are easily learned. A few days later I 
mentioned my visit and my d^ibts about the depth of the 
Gairdinal's studies to the £)hevalier fiunsen, who said: ^^Mez- 
zo&nti ha^ ttie keys to all human knowledge, but he makes 
no use of them." 

Francis Pulszkt. 

A remarkable circmnstance had a share in developing ithe 
wonderful linguistic gift of Mezzofanti. Bologna was ithe 
aeene of gneat military events during the French invasion. 


The troops of different powei*s of Northern and Southern 
Europe held possession of it by turns, and in the hospitals 
of the city were to be found sick or wounded soldiers of 
almost every nation. There was in Mezzofanti's mind an 
intense longing to administer the consolations of religion to 
the suffering. Chance led him to the bed of a Swiss who 
spoke only the Rhaetian or Romansh dialect, which, it is 
known, bears some resemblance to corrupt Italian. Up to 
that time French was the only one of the living languages 
with which Mezzofanti was acquainted, but in a few days 
he managed to make himself able to heai* the confession 
of the dying man in his mother tongue, and to soothe his 
departing spirit. His way of achieving his object was this: 
he made the sufferer understand by signs that he was to 
repeat aloud the ordinary prayers of the Church, the Lord's 
Prayer, the Ave Maria, Credo &c., and when this was done 
several times he was able to elicit for himself the words 
and the construction of the language. This method was fol- 
lowed by Mezzofanti, as he often told us, especially with 
regard to those languages of which no grammar existed, and 
in it he was so wonderfully aided by his powers of hear- 
ing and articulating that, as he himself acknowledged, his 
head must have had quite a peculiar organization. He told 
us that in the course of fourteen days he could thus make 
himself acquainted with any language, however previously un- 
known to him, if he only heard* a native speak it for some 
hours each day. It is therefore easily comprehensible how 
this extraordinary man attained to such a vast and incre- 
dible knowledge of languages. But the most remarkable 
thing of all is that vyrithout ever having a teacher and with- 
out ever travelling out of Italy, he spoke the languages 
with the dialect (idiom or accent?) peculiar to each nation, 
and even the principal subordinate dialects of each. 

Rome afforded Mezzofanti the opportunity of developing 
and perfecting still more and more his astonishing talent for 
languages, but on his first arrival there he already knew 
nearly all of the European and Oriental idioms, living 


and dead. The place he most loved to frequent was the 
College of the Propaganda. Here he employed himself in 
instmcting in the elements of Italian the youths who were 
constantly arriving from Turkey, Mesopotamia, Persia, Chal- 
daea, India, China, Mongolia, and Australia, unacquainted 
with any language but their mother-tongue. He thus pre- 
pared them for the study of Latin and the theological sciences, 
and he used also generally to hear their confessions till 
they had learned Italian. I was so fortunate as to spend 
five years in this institution, part as a guest and part as 
a Professor, and had daily occasion to admire him, as he 
stood surrounded by twenty or more of these youths of the 
most different races and languages, and talked with each 
in his turn in his mother-tongue. He had such a memory 
that when a conversation with one of these youths was in- 
terrupted, he could afterwards resume it with the utmost 
facility and accuracy, without ever needing to enquire at what 
point it was broken off. Mezzofanti spoke about 62 languages 
(redete anbei 62 Sprachen) and wrote them also, and would, on 
the grounds already stated, have spoken still more, if he had 
had opportunity or need to learn them. He was well acquainted 
with the literature of these nations and had read their most 
distinguished authors. The Greek and Latin classics he had 
ahnost by heart. The principal languages that he knew, 
were Albanian, Arabic, Armenian, Bulgarian, Chaldee, Chi- 
nese, Damsh, Dutch, English, Ethiopic, French, Georgian, 
Goim^, Greek fanftient and modem), Hebrew (Talmudic 
as well as modern Hebrew), Hindustani, Hungarian, II- 
lyrian, Irish, Latin ^ Malay, Mongolian, Norwegian, Persian, 
Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Samaritan, Sanskrit, Scot^sJi, 
Singhalese, Spani sh, Swedish, Syrian, Turkish, and Wal- 
lachian. Few men of learning or distinction from Europe 
or other quarters of the world made any stay in the 
Eternal City, who did not have to show in their album some 
significant sentence of verse or prose in their native lan- 
guage written by Mezzofanti's hand. Only envy and calumny 
could maintain that Mezzofanti's knowledge was that of a smat- 
terer. Lord Byron has sufficiently refuted so audacious an 


assertion. (Here Lord Byroads well-known testimony to 
MeEZofanti is quoted.) Mezzofanti possessed no less ex- 
tensive knowledge in the theological and other sciences, 
especially in history and ethnology, and even in botany. His 
behaviour was remarkable for humility and condescension, 
especially towards the poor, whom he often consoled under 
their misfortunes and supported with liberal alms. He 
shrunk vrith sincere aversion from every species of panegyric. 
I lived in the most intimate connection with this extra- 
ordinary man from my arrival in Rome in the year 1833 
up to the time of his decease, which took place on the 1,5^^ 
of March 1849, and I am convinced that his linguistic powers 
were a peculiar gift of God, who was pleased to renew in 
him in a certain measure the miracle of the day of Pente- 
cost In this respect Mezzofanti stands alone by the side 
of the Apostles. I did not fail to call his attention fre- 
quently to this circumstance, and I besought him in the 
most pressing terms to leave some literary memorial of his 
amazing knowledge, a Universal Grammar for example, in 
which the principles, on which he had made himself master 
of the various languages, should be set forth, if it were only 
to secure that after his death this wonderful faculty, or to 
speak more suitably, this wonderful gift of God should not 
be called in question by unwortiiy men. I often told him 
in jest that if he did not do this, he would incur a respon- 
sibility before God, who might leave him some time in 
purgatory by way of expiation. But this humble and truly 
saintiy priest, a model of the sincerest piety, of the loftiest 
and purest virtues, to whom the purple was but an op- 
pressive load, could not be moved to this by any persuasion, 
and departed to the other world without leaving a trace. 


one proposed by the late Alfred Augustus Frt. By 
Danbt p. Fry, Esq. 

On becoming acquainted with the intention of the Society 
to publish a new Dictionary of the English Language, I 
felt anxious to bring under their consideration the expediency 
of adopting, in the construction of that work, a method of 
arrangement which had not only been contemplated, but to 
a great extent carried into execution, by my late father, 
Mr. A. A. Fry. I addressed a communication on the sub- 
ject to the Society's Dictionary Committee, and they sug- 
gested that I should lay it before the present Meeting, al- 
though they did not deem it adyisablo to adopt the plan, 
nor indeed to deviate in any way from the alphabetical ar- 
rangement, which they had from the first decided to follow. 

The plan, then, of my late father's proposed Dictionary was, 
to classify the words of the language etymologically, in groups 
or families, according to their natural aiffinities; taking 
Johnson's Dictionary (in other respects unaltered) as the 
basis.— This work was commenced in the year 1831, though 
the design had been formed many years before. It was so 
far proceeded with, that the entire Dictionary was thus 
classified, subject to further and final revision; and the 
MSS. were not only to some extent prepared for the 
press, but a Proof-Sheet was obtained as a specimen. 
Beyond this point, no progress was made; for although 
much time, upon the whole, was devoted to it, the work 
was frequently and largely interrupted by other claims, and 
was at length stopped altogether by the author's death in 
January 1852. — 

The following extract from the Proof-Sheet exhibits the 
method of proceeding: — 
A. ari. 1. An article set before nonns of the singular number; a man, 

a tree. Before a word beginning with a vowel it is written an; as, 

an ox. 2. A has a signification denoting proportion. "The landlord 

hath a hundred a year." 
AioNB. a, 1. Without another, single. 2. Without company, solitary. 
Am. art, 1. One, but with less emphasis ; as, an ox. 2. Any, or some. 



Ant. a, 1. Every, whoe?er, whatever. 2. It is used in opposition to none, 

Atorb. 1. To agree, accord. 2. To stand as an equivalent for 

Atone, v.a. To expiate. 

Atonement, s. 1. Agreement, concord. 2. Expiation, expiatory equivalent. 

Lone. a. 1. Solitary. 2. Single, without company. 

Loneliness, t. Solitude, want of company. 

LoNELT. <f. Solitary, addicted to solitude. 

Loneness. a. Solitude, dislike of company. 

Lonesome a. Solitary, dismal. 

None. a. 1. Not one. 2. Not any. 3. Not other. 4. None of some- 
times signifies only emphatically not. 

Once, ad, l. One time. 2. A single time. 3. The same time. 4. At 
a point of time indivisible. 5. One time, though no more. 6. At the 
time immediate; in the phrase, Ai once. 7. Formerly, at a former time. 

One. a. 1. Less than two, single, denoted by an unit. 2. Indefinitely, 
any. 3. Different, diverse, opposed to another, 4. One of two, op- 
posed to the oiher. 5. Particularly one. "He was musing one evening." 
6. Some future. 

One. 8, I. A single person. 2. A single mass or aggregate. 3. The 
first hour. 4. The same thing. 5.. A person. 6. A person by way of 
eminence. 7. A distinct or particular person. 8. Persons united. 
9. Concord, agreement, one mind. 10. Any person, any man, indefi- 
nitely. 11. A person of particular character. 12. One has sometimes 
a plural, when it stands for persons indefinitely; as, "the great ones 
of the world," 

Oneness. $. Unity, the quality of being one. 

Only. a. 1. Single, one and no more. 2. This and no other. 3. This 
above all other; as, "he is the only man for music." 

Only, ad, 1. Simply, singly, merely, barely. 2. So and no otherwise. 
3. Singly, without more; as, only-begotten. 

Adunation. 8, The state of being united, union. 

CoADDNiTioN. 8, The coujunctiou of different substances into one mass. 

Disunion, s, 1. Separation, disjunction. 2. Breach of concord. 

Disunite, c.rt. 1. To separate, divide. 2. To part friends. 

Disunite, v.n. To fall asunder, become separate. 

Disunity, s. A state of actual separation. 

Reunion. 8, Return to a state of juncture, cohesion, or Concord. 

Reunite, v.a, 1. To join again, make one whole a second time, join 
what is divided. 2. Reconcile, make those at variance one. 

Reunite, v.n. To cohere again. 

Triune, a. At once three and one. 

Union. ». 1. The act of joining two or more. 2. Concord, conjunction 
of mind or interest. 3. (In law.) Union is a combining or consoli- 
dation of two churches in one, which is done by the consent of the 


bishop, the patron, and incnmbent. Union in this signification is per- 
sonal, and that is for the life of the incumbent; or real, that is, per- 
petual, ivhosoeyer is incumbent. 

Unit. s. One, the least number, or the root of numbers. 

Unite. v,a, 1. To join two or more into one. 2. Make to agree. 3. 
Hak9 to adhere. 4. Join. 5. Join in interest. 

Units, v.n. 1. To join in an act, concur, act in concert. 2. Coalesce, 
be cemented, be consolidated. 3 Grow into one. 

Unitedly, ad. With union, so as to join. 

Uniter. s. The person or thing that unites. 

Unition. s. The act or power of uniting, conjunction. 

Unitiyb. a. Haling the power of uniting. 

Unity, s. 1. The state of being one. 2. Concord, conjunction. 3. Agree- 
ment, uniformity. 4. Principle of dramatic writing, by which the tenour 
of story and propriety of represidntation is presenred. 

Onion, s. A plant. 

Sea- ONION, s. An herb. 

Union, s, A pearl. 

Hyphen, s. A note of conjunction; as, «tr-fti«, eter^iiving. 

It will be observed that the family thus grouped together 
embraced the words of Greek and Latin, as well as those 
of Saxon origin; but they were distributed in subordinate 
subdivisions, which were easily distinguishable from one 
another, as the words in each subdivision were arranged al- 
phabetically. Wor.ds, whose connection with the family, 
though deemed highly probable, was not considered to be 
absolutely established, were placed at the end of the par- 
ticular subdivision, to which they were conceived to belong. 
Thus Onion and Union (a pearl) were subjoined to the La- 
tin subdivision, instead of being included within it, in their 
places in the alphabetical series. It may perhaps be asked, 
why alone and atone were not dealt with in a similar 
manner in reference to the Anglo-Saxon subdivision: the ex- 
planation is, that although there might be some degree of 
uncertainty about these words, the Editor expressed his 
own conviction of their connection with "One", by insert- 
ing them in the same subdivision. 

No doubt, some question may be raised as to the pro- 
priety of the alphabetical arrangement in these subdivisions; 
but after much deliberation, it was thought that it would 

260 ON sous ENGUSH DI0TI0NABIE8 , 

prove, apon the whole, more advantageous, that is, more 
convenient and practically serviceable, than any attempt 
(which must necessarily have been a failare) to present a 
systematic concatenation of primitives and derivatives; 
which, though certainly desirable in tibieory, is altogether 
impracticable in fact, with respect to such a curious piece 
of patchwork as the English language. 

An Alphabetical Index would have enabled the reader, 
to find any word in the body of the work; and instead of 
encumbering the text with etymological notes, it was pro- 
posed to throw these into an Appendix. This point, how- 
ever, was not quite decided; and on further deliberation, 
it might perhaps have been found more expedient to insert 
them, in the most condensed form possible, in the text. — 

The particular edition of Johnson's Dictionary which was 
used for the work, was the 7*^ edition of his own Abridge- 
ment, bearing date 1783; — the last published in his lifetime. 
It contains no examples or quotations (or at least, very 
few) to support or illustrate the definitions; but it was 
thought to be more convenient in size than the laj^er 
edition, and the definitions were believed to have been 
generally accepted, as being in the main correct — 

Having helped my father in the preparation of his Dic- 
tionary I drew up in the year 1843 a Memorandum on some 
earlier English Dictionaries, the substance of which is as 
follows: — 

^^Although the plan of an Etymological Classification was 
adopted in reference to the Greek language as long ago as 
the sixteenth Century (in the "Thesaurus" of Stephanus, 
1572, and the "Lexicon", which Scapula epitomized from 
it, 1577'); and was also applied to the Latin tongue in 

^ For this date, see the edition of the ^'Thesaurus", published by Didot, 
Paris, 1831, 'avis poar la troisieme liyraisoii', page ziii. And as to the 
extent of Scapula's offence, see the obserr^tions in the Qaart. Rev. vol. 22, 
p. 316— In the same article in the Q. R., p. 320, it is remarked.— "We 
mast not, however, attribute to Stephens the merit of haying been the 
first to deyise an arrangement of the Greek language ^th reference to 

BT DANBT P. FRY, B8Q. 261 

Salmon's ^^Stemmata Latimtatis", published in 1796; it is 
believed that the present is the first attempt to construct a 
Dictionary of the English language upon this principle*. 

The first edition of Minsheu'% Dictionary (^^Ductor in Lin- 
guas, or Guide into the tongues") was published in 1617; 
the second, in 1625,— reissued, with a new title-page, in 1627. 
Although it was to a certain extent a polyg^ott lexiGOii) 
(comprising, in the first edition, eleven languages,— in the 
second, nine, the Portuguese and the Welsh being omitted), 
it may also be regarded as an English Dictionary. It con- 
tains a tolerably extensive list of English words, in alpliar 
betical order, with etymological notes, and explanations; 
and also the corresponding terms in certain other languages. 

A small volume, entitled ^^The English Dictionarie, or an 
Interpreter of hard English words '\ by H. G. [i. e. Henry 
Cockeram] was published, »"', in 1632, and 12»o, in 1643. 
It is a slight production, and makes no attempt at Ety- 

Of the same general character, but more elaborate^ 
was the ^^Glossographia" of Thomas Blount^ published in 
1656, and several times reprinted. The fifth edition (^'with 
many additions", 1681) bears the following titie: — ^^Gloeso- 
graphia; or a Dictionary interpreting the hard words of 
whatsoever language, now used in our refined Englieh 
tongue; with Etymologies, Definitions, and Historical Ob- 
servations on the same. Also the terms of Divinity, Law, 
&c. &c. explicated. Very usefoll for all such as desire to 
understand what they read." — 

"The New World of Words, or a General English Dic- 
tionary", written by Edward Phillips y Milton's nephew, was 

its primitiyes ; the same tiling had been conceived, and perhaps in part 
executed by Constantine" [i.e. Robert Constantine, who published a 
Greek Lexicon, alphabetically anranged, in 1562, and promised a con- 
spectus of Greek primitiyes, which he neyer published]; ^and it was 
from his father, Robert, that Henry Stephens took the idea." 

' The plan has been lately applied to the Russian language. — See 
"Dictionnaire Russe-Fran^ais, dans lequel les mots Russes sont classes 
par families— Par Ch. Ph. Reiff— St. Pitersbourg."— Vol. 1, published in 
1885; ToL9, in 1836. 


published in 1657. A second edition appeared in 1662; a 
third, in 1671; and a fourth, in 1678.— It is a dictionary 
of the ordinary kind; but limited to "hard English words"; 
and its Etymology is confined to the indication of the pa- 
renlrlanguage of the word; thus, "Abstinence (Lat) Tem- 
perance". — This work was attacked by Thomas Blount, the 
author of the "Glossographia", just alluded to, in a volume 
published in 1673, and entitled "A World of Errors dis- 
covered in the New World of Words". — 

These Dictionaries largely include Proper Names, — local, 
personal, and others.— 

"Etymologicon Linguae Anglicanae", by Stephen Skinner^ 
M.D. Skinner died in 1667 ; and his work was posthumously 
published in 1671. It is divided into five sections, — 1. The 
General Language.— 2. Botanical Terms. — 3. Law Terms.— 
4. Antiquated Words.— 5. Proper Names. The words in 
each section are arranged alphabetically. 

"An Essay towards a Real Character, and a Philosophi- 
cal Language, by John Wtlkins, D. D. Dean of Ripon, and 
F. R. S.", includes (amongst other things) a kind of Dic- 
tionary. Its main purpose, however, was permanently to 
regulate Speech and Writing according to certain philosophi- 
cal principles. It appeared in 1668, printed by the Royal 

An English Dictionary by Eliaha Coles miist also be men- 
tioned; published, first edition, in 1677; second, in 1696.— 

All these Dictionaries, whatever may be their defects, 
possess, for us, a special interest, which could not belong 
to them in their own day. They show us, in a very au- 
thentic manner, the actual condition of the language at the 
time when they were published. Taken together, they form, 
as it were, a separate stratum, in which the language of 
the 17'^ Century is preserved, and exhibited to us, in a sort 
of fossil state. 

The 18*^ Century was rendered remarkable in the annals 
of English Lexicography, by the publication of Johnson's 
Dictionary; which was preceded by a considerable agitation 
on the subject. Indeed, the great success and national re- 


putation of this masterly performance were partly owing to 
the fact, that it supplied a want which had been long and 
keenly felt 

Dean Swiff 8 letter to Lord Oxford, concerning the English 
Language, is dated 22. Feb. 1711 — 12. He complains of 
the daily-increasing corruptions of the language, which he 
considers commenced with the Great Rebellion in 1642; 
and he proposes that a body of qualified persons should be 
chosen for the purpose of ^^ascertaining and fixing our 
^%nguage for ever, after such alterations are made in it 
^^as shall be thou^t requisite.'' Such an undertaking would 
of course be hopeless; but the proposal shows that the 
inconveniences of our mixt tongue had become very dis- 
tinctly manifest Even John Oldmixon^ in his ^^Reflections'' 
on Swift's letter, amidst a superabundance of personal and 
political spite against the Dean, is constrained to yield a 
reluctant approval of his suggestion; and he observes:— 
'^The want of a Grammar and Dictionary has been long 
complained of." 

One would have thought that the way had now been 
sufficiently prepared for some general effort. — The Dic- 
tionaries hitherto published had failed to answer their pur- 
pose; Wilkins's suggestions, founded upon ^^philosophical 
principles", had proved altogether nugatory; Swift, one of 
the most popular writers of the time, had submitted the 
matter to the head of the government; the expediency of 
doing something was admitted even by the Doctor's most 
virulent opponent; the Academicians of the Continent, more- 
over, had set us some good examples; and, in short, 
nothing seemed to be required, but that the learned should 
unite their exertions, and boldly grapple with tlie evil. 
The gigantic task, however, was reserved for the efforts of 
a single individual, unaided and alone. In 1747, Dr. John- 
eon addressed to Lord Chesterfield the scheme of his English 
Dictionary; and in 1755, he completed and published the 
work, which, owing perhaps as much to the fame of its 
author as its own intrinsic merits, not only eclipsed all 
others, but assumed at once a position of preeminence, as 


a standard authority, which it long ocenpied aknost without 
a rival, and still to a great extent retains. 

Meanwhile, tiiere were others labouring in the same field, 
though less effectively. Naikan Bailey^ OiXoloyng, as he 
styles himself (from which it would seem that the appella- 
tions ^^philologer'^ and ^^philologist'' were not then current) 
produced an elaborate folio volume, entitled ^^Dictionarium 
Britannicum; or A more compleat Universal Etymological 
English Dictionary than any extant". It partook of the 
character of an Encyclopedia as well as a Lexicon; and 
contained nearly 500 Wood Guts in aid of the definitions. — 
Watt (Bibl. Brit), speaking of Bailey, says:— ^^His English 
"Dictionary (printed in 1728, — fourth edition) was long the 
^^only one in use, and still [i. e. in 1807] continues a favor- 
^4te wifli many readers. It was afterwards enlarged into 
"two volumes, octavo, and some years after, printed in folio, 
"with additions in the Mathematical part by G. Gordon, in 
"the Botanical, by PhiL Miller, and in the Etymological, by 
"T. Lidiard; the whole revised by Dr. Joseph Nicol Scott, 
"a* physician. The octavo, about 25 years ago, was revised 
"by Dr. Harwood. London 1782, octavo." 

Bef^amin Martin y a man of some repute in the scientific 
worid, published in 1748 and 1749 a work entitled "Lingua 
Britannica Reformata; or a New English Dictionary &c."— 
The opening paragraph of his Preface is remarkable. After 
regretting the state of Philological Literature, which he 
describes as more ^^inauspicious" than that of any other 
branch of learning, he proceeds thus:— "The article of 
"English Dictionaries especially has been so far from any- 
"thing of a progressive inprovement, that it is manifestly 
"retrograde, and sinks from its low apex, from bad, to 
"very bad indeed. So far have our Dictionaries been from 
"answering the end or purposes of such a book, that little 
"more use can be made of them than barely to know how 
"to spell, and what is the meaning of a word in the gross; 
"nor are they sufficient for this small purpose neither."— 
He then sete forth his Plan of a Dictionary; and a very 

BT DANBT P. FBT, B8Q. 285 

good plan it is; bat the execation of the work itself falls 
very far short of the design. 

These prodnctions, indeed, were not at all calculated to 
forestall the utility of such a work as Johnson's. It is 
especially observable that Johnson's declared object was 
very siniihir to Swift's; that of ^^certaining" and ^^xing" 
the language,-- of representing its actual state, and settling 
it permanently in that condition; and this object he cer- 
tainly appears to have achieved, so far as it is ever likely 
to be accomplished by the authority and influence of any 
single Dictionary. It is, of course, neither desirable nor 
possible to resist the action of those forces, which are per- 
petually operating on language, as on all other human 
things, and producing gradual, but incessant changes, slowly 
and surely; but the beneficial effect of Johnson's Dictionary, 
within the limits of its possible operation, is manifest from 
the fact, that such a complaint as that, which was made by 
Swift, not many years before its publication, has never been 
repeated since; except, indeed, as regards the peculiarities 
of our v«ry curious orthography. 

It was in the definition of the Meanings of the words, as 
he found them actually used (althou^ he is sometimes open 
to objection, even here) that Johnson's great strength lay. 
He made no attempt at orttiogpical instruction, beyond a 
bare accentuation; and -he took the orthography very much 
as he found it In reference to his etymology, it must 
be admitted that this department of his work is of little 
value. The real service, then, which Johnson rendered, 
consisted in his ^^ascertaining" and ^^ fixing" the meanings 
of the words (that is to say, of tiiose words which he chose 
to include in his vocabulary); his definitions throughout 
being iUustrated and supported by apposite quotations from 
standard authors. This practice, which (so far as I am aware) 
he was the first to introduce into English Lexicography, 
not only makes his Dictionary a most readable book, as a 
delight^ collection of ^^ elegant extracts", but presents, in 
truth, the only mode in which the main purpojie of a Die- 


tionary can be attained, so as to render it a really valuable 
and trustworthy authority. — 

Soon after the appearance of Johnson's Dictionary, a 
pamphlet animadverting upon it, and giving specimens of 
another Dictionary, which the author promised should be 
far superior, was published by John Maawdl^ M. A., Dublin, 
1755. I do not know whether Mr. Maxwell ever redeemed 
his pledge; nor are the specimens in his letter such as to 
afford an inducement to further inquiry. 

When Johnson's work had been for some years before the 
public, several attempts were made to supply his defects, 
in departments in which he had failed, or was thought to 
have done so. These were as follows: — 

In 1775:— "The new and complete Dictionary of the 
English Language, in which all the words are introduced, 
the different spellings preserved, the sounds of the letters 
occasionally distinguished, the obsolete and unconmion words 
supported by authorities, and the different construction and 
uses illustrated by examples. — By John Ash, L. L. D." — 

Although the highsounding promises of the title-page are 
very far from being realized in the body of the work (not 
to mention the singular and wellknown blunder, which de- 
rives Curmudgeon "jfrom the French coeur, unknown and 
mechant, a correspondent'"'')^ this is still a useful and inter- 
esting book. — It reverts, however, to the old practice of in- 
cluding Proper Names; which Johnson had judiciously 

In 1783: — "English Etymology; or a Derivative Dictionary 
of the English Language; in Two Alphabets. — Tracing the 
Etymology of those English Words that are derived : — 1. From 
the Greek and Latin Languages. — 2. From the Saxon and 
other Northern Tongues. By the Rev. George William Lemon''* 

This book displays much learning within a certain sphere; 
but it is full of the most curious delusions in the guise of 
etymology, arising from a peculiar theory adopted by the 
author. He maintains that "the language which the Greeks 
"spoke, we purselves now speak, even to this day, curtailed, 
"transformed, transfigured, and transposed, in so wonder- 



fol a maimer, by tibie harsh, discordant and unpolished 
"dialects of Celts, Gauls, Welsh, Picts, Scots, Saxons, 
"Danes, Normans, Germans, and Dutch, as have almost 
"entirely effaced the primitive purity of the Greek tongue, 
"which v^as undoubtedly spoken very early in this Island.'' 
—Again: — "Let the channels through which the words of 
"our modem English have been derived to us, be whatever 
"they may, -—Roman, Gothic, Celtic, Saxon, Teutonic, or 
"Icelandic, — still it is the Greek alone that is the true basis 
"of the English tongue." Accordingly, nearly the whole 
of the work (a tolerably thick, and closely-printed quarto- 
volume) is filled vnth words which the author refers directly 
to the Greek; while the Saxon derivatives occupy a very 
few pages indeed. The fact is, he confounds Greek affini- 
ties with Greek derivations. 

In 1780:— "A General Dictionary of the English Language; 
one main object of which is to establish a plain and per- 
manent standard of Pronunciation. By Thomas Shei^an, 
A. M."— 

In 1791; [2"^ edition, 1797]:— "A Pronouncing Dictionary 
and Expositor of the English Language. By John Walker.'^' — 

These two works addressed themselves mainly to the 
Spoken Form of the language. Sheridan claimed the honour 
of being "the first who ever laid open the principles upon 
"which our pronunciation is founded, and the rules by 
"^hich it is regulated." And this was in 1780, when the 
English language, even as English, had existed for at least 
500 years.— Walker's book appeared eleven years after She- 
ridan's; and certainly his observations are greatly superior, 
both in range and depth, to those of his precursor. 

Sheridan's remarks as to the state of English Philology 
in his day are worthy of notice. He says: — "Whilst the 
"ingenious natives of other countries in Europe, particularly 
"the Italians, French and Spaniards , in proportion to their 
"progress in civilization and politeness, have for more than 
"a century been employed, with the utmost industry, in 
"cultivating and regulating their speech; we still remain in 
"the state of all barbarous countries in that respect, having 


"left ours whoDy to chance.'' And again:— "Notiiing worfhy 
^'the name of a Grammar has hitherto appeared; and it is 
"not many years since a Dictionar]^ of any valne was pro- 
"dneed; which, though it most be aUowed to have been an 
"Hercnlean labor, when considered as the work of one man, 
"yet still is capable of great improvement/' 

Walker, on the contrary, eleven years afterwards, opens 
his Preface thus: — "Few subjects have of late years more 
"employed the pens of every class of critics, than the im- 
"provement of the English Language." — If Sheridan and 
Walker were both right, a great deal (apparently) must 
have been done in those eleven years; but Walker's remark 
in fact extends beyond that period, as he refers, in illus- 
tration, to Johnson's Dictionary (1765), Lowth's Grammar 
(1762), Elphinston's "Principles of the English Language" 
(1766), Henrick's Rhetorical Dictionary, Sheridan's Pro- 
nouncing Dictionary, and Nares's Elements of Orthoepy. 

In 1801 appeared a "Supplement to Johnson's English 
Dictionary, of which the palpable errors are attempted to 
be rectified, and its material omissions supplied. By George 
Mason''* — Its titie indicates its object. Its emendations are 
confined to the Vocabulary, the Definitions, and the- Ex- 
amples of Johnson's work. 

The 19*^ Century has not fallen short of its predecessors, 
in the value or importance of its lexicographical labours; 
and in some respects indeed it has surpassed tbein. 

In 1818, the Rev. Henry John Todd published an enlarged 
and amended edition of Johnson's Dictionary. The Rev. 
Editor follows Johnson's method; making, however, con- 
siderable additions to the Vocabulary, the Examples, and 
the Etymological remarks. — These improvements arise cMefly 
from a more attentive study of the earlier stages of the 
language than Johnson bestowed upon them. 

In 1822, Damd Booth commenced the publication of an 
"Analytical Dictionary of the English Language"; and in 
1836 (14 years afterwards) completed the first volume; hav- 
ing issued a Prospectus in 1805, and an Introduction in 
1806, which was reprinted in 1814— such are the lifelong 

BT D4KBT P. FRY, B8Q. 269 

lAbours of Lexicography! The distinctiye fbatare of this 
work consists in the ingenious classification of the words 
according to their meanings. Instead of the alphabetical 
arrangement and isolated explanations previonsly adopted, 
Booth's method is, to gather together the yarious terms of 
kindred signification, and to give a connected view of their 
import, as deduced from usage and etymology. 

In 1830, Noah Webster (of New York) published an Anglo- 
American "Dictionary of the English Language''. Its Vo- 
cabulary is more extensive than Johnson's; embracing modem 
words, scientific terms, and not a few "yankeeisms"; and 
the Definitions (unsupported by quotations) are the author's 
own. Its main peculiarity, however, lies in its Etymology; 
which is directed rather towards an exposition of the affi- 
nities (sometimes real, but often imaginary) of the English 
with other languages, especially those of Europe and Western 
Asia, than towards the immediate elucidation of the English 
language itself. It is, in fact. Comparative Philology, rather 
than Particular Etymology. Webster takes some note of 

In 1835, "A New Dictionary of the English Language" 
was issued by Charles Richardson. It differs materially from 
Johnson's. Richardson, like Todd, pays much attention to 
the older forms of the language; and the result appears not 
only in the nature and extent of his Vocabulary and the 
character of his Etymology, but, most especially, in the 
range and value of his Quotations. His Etymology is con- 
trasted with Webster's, by addressing itself to the imme- 
diate sources, rather than the remote affinities, of the lan- 
guage; but it is greatly marred, and v^dely led astray, by 
an injudicious partiality for the fanciful speculations of Home 
Tooke.— In defining the words, he does not affect the minute 
analysis and subtle distinctions in which Johnson luxuriated; 
but limits his explanation to the fundamental meaning, — 
taking note, however, of such deflected senses as are not 
readily intelligible. An important feature of his work con- 
sists in the arrangement of the words. This is, in the main, 
alphabetical; but it varies fr^m the ordinary method, by 


interrapting the alphabetical series so far as is necessary 
for grouping the immediate derivatives in direct connection 
with their primitive. Richardson takes no heed of orthogpy, 
except in the matter of accentuation. — 

The foregoing survey makes no pretension to complete- 
ness; but as far as it goes, it is sufficient to show that for 
a period of at least two hundred years (from Minsheu to 
Richardson) English Lexicography has been engaged in en- 
deavouring, by efforts almost as various as they are nu- 
merous, to grapple with the difficulties and perplexities of 
our language, embarrassed by its own evergrowing riches. 
—And yet there still remains a desideratum, notwithstand- 
ing all these exertions. — 

The Dictionaries of which notice has been taken, are as 
f oUows : — 

17™ Century. 

John Minsheu Guide into the Tongues . . 1617 

Henry Cockeram English Dictionary 1632 

Thomas Blount Glossographia 1656 

Edward Phillips New World of Words . . . 1657 

Stephen Skinner EtymologiconL.Anglicanae* 1671 

[♦ Skinner died 1667.] 

John Wilkins Dictionary append, to Essay 1668 

Elislia Coles English Dictionary 1677 

18™ Century. 

Nathan Bailey Dictionarium Britannicum 1726 

Benjamin Martin L. Britannica Reformata . . 1749 

Samuel Johnson English Dictionary 1755 

John Ash ditto 1775 

Thomas Sheridan ditto (for Pronunciation) 1780 

George WiUiam Lemm . . English Etymology 1783 

John Walker Pronouncing Dictionary . . 1791 

19" Century. 
George Mason Supplement to Johnson , . 1801 


Henry John Todd .... Johnson's Dictionary, en- 
larged and amended . . 1818 


Noah Webster English Dictionary 1830 

Charles Richardson .... New English Dictionary. . 1835 

In the great majority of these, the alphabetical arrange- 
ment prevails; but in some few there has been an endeavour 
to introduce a more philosophical method. Skinner made 
a rough attempt at classification, by separating into five 
different sections as many different sorts of words ; adopting, 
however, the alphabetical arrangement in each of the sec- 
tions, — Lemon ranged the Greek derivatives in one division, 
the Saxon derivatives in another; each set alphabetically. 
Soo^A collected together words of kindred meaning, how- 
ever dissimilar in form; giving the reader the assistance of 
an Alphabetical InA&n, ^Richardson broke in upon the or- 
dinary alphabetical arrangement, by marshalling each troop 
of immediate derivatives under the banner of their primitive. 

The Etymological Classification of the entire language, — 
the collection of the words into families , according to their 
genealogies, — does not appear, however, to have been hither- 
to attempted. Instead of grouping the words together ac- 
cording to their natural affinities, our Dictionaries have 
usually arranged their vocabularies after the order of the 
alphabet. This arbitrary system, which insulates each in- 
dividual word, and cuts it off from the light which might 
be shed upon it by its analogues, possesses a single prac- 
tical convenience, which has always recommended it to fa- 
vour. This sole advantage is derived from its peculiar fa- 
cility of reference. As this benefit is undeniable, and as 
the long and general prevalence of the alphabetical arrange- 
ment is attributable to it, it cannot be heedlessly cast aside. 
— At the same time , the superiority of the plan of etymo- 
logical grouping, both in reference to the practical and the 
philosophical study of the language, is at once so great 
and so manifest, that, if such a work could be really 


accomplished, it would be difficult to OTerestimate its 

The language, like the soil, of England, is compounded 
of several strata, which have become, in the progress of 
time, confusedly and curiously mingled; and it demands no 
little care and labour to discriminate the various formations, 
and to detect the traces of each particular stratum amidst 
the vestiges of the rest. If the English were entirely a 
self-formed language, evolving all its complex terms from 
a few simple primitives, according to a brief code of in- 
variable laws , an acquaintance with that code would in fact 
be a knowledge of the language itself; and a ponderous 
dictionary, mustering its vocables by tens of thousands, and 
multiplying its interpretations and examples "with pitiless 
accuracy", would be superfluous. If all our derivatives were 
formed in the same simple manner as goodness from good, 
our language, in its whole extent, might be easily and 
speedily learned. But it is not so. The English language 
of the present day is the composite result of the gradW 
accumulations of many centuries, or to speak more cor- 
rectly, thousands of years, looking at its connection with 
the original languages of the Indo-European stock; whilst 
its variegated materials have been drawn, though in different 
proportions, from every quarter of the globe, and subjected, 
in their transitions, to modifications in almost endless va- 
riety. Hence the advantage of a clear exposition of the 
genealogies of its several families of words, whose affinities 
are so often disguised and obscured by the changes and 
corruptions of time. 

But the very facts, which render such a work desirable, 
also render its execution proportionally difficult. Even in 
the present advanced state of Philology, it would not be 
possible to exhibit the pedigree of every word, or to solve 
all the etymological problems which our complex language 
suggests. Although, however, some portion must therefore 
be left (at least for the present) in darkness or doubt, it 
is believed, nevertheless, that the bulk of the language may 
be effectively dealt with in the manner proposed. 


Key, Esq., M.A. 

lu my paper on Latin Diminutives published in the volume 
for 1856, tiie question was raised, whether in such words 
as ar-at-ion^y mon-it'ion'y the syllables aty it, were not in 
themselves elements of the words, so as to leave the letters 
ion alone for the concluding suffix. In suggesting the en- 
quiry, I had already a strong feeling that the result would 
be in favour of the view. But I should have been unwilling 
to weigh down a paper already sufficientiy heavy by enter- 
ing upon a new discussion, even if I had been prepared 
with a suitable body of evidence, which was scarcely then 
the case. I have since examined the matter with some care, 
and take this opportunity of recording the argument. 

The words in ion seem to divide themselves into two 
classes, the feminine nouns always standing in immediate 
relation to verbs , and corresponding in meaning to our ab- 
stract substantives in ing\ the masculines, on the contrary, 
having always a concrete meaning. The first class out- 
number the others in a ratio exceeding 20 to 1. But again 
each class may be convenientiy subdivided. An enumera- 
tion of the words in Forcellini gives me for the feminine 
abstract nouns in aUo, as aratioj 1321 ; where the t, follow- 
ing rf, ^, or c (c*), has been softened into an 9 (^), divim 
(infleaid), 277; 660 for those in tiouy where no a precedes, 
as actio; and lasfly 25 formed direcfly from the verb by the 
addition of ton. This fourth division consists of: 


























Of these five have sister forms with an intermediate it qr 
«, paction-, coerdUon-, lection-, rection-, caption-. Five others 



(marked *) have only verbs of the a-coujugation to stand 
beside them, although they themselves bear no trace of that 
letter, and it seems not improbable that they have been 
formed from simpler verbs. For the existence of such 
simpler verbs we have evidence for two in the forms necuit 
beside necare^ lictor beside Ugare. Our legal friends must 
not be permitted to infer from their own habits of writing 
that postulio is only an abbreviation of postulatioj rebellio 
of rebeUatio, I have ventured to include talio in the list, 
partly because of its gender, and partly because I would 
refer it to an obsolete Latin verb taU 'cut', the parent not 
merely of the Italian tagliare and Fr. tailler , but also of the 
Latin nouns tdUa and taleola. Communion- too comes not from 
the adjective communis but from a verb com-mun-i-y or rather 
an obsolete com-mun- 'share together'; I say mun- rather 
than muni', looking to such words as the subst. mun-es- 
(nom. munus)^ 'a part', and translate it 'to sh^re' not 'to 
fortify', for munire viam is strictly only 'to divide' the 
business of making a road between a large number of la- 
bourers. In fact mun-y or to take an older form moen-^ is 
the Latin representative of the root seen in the Greek itiotQ-a 
and ^leiQo/iiai] the n and r interchanging in these words 
as they have done (though in opposite directions) in mencs 
and ^lovog, mdra and ^lovi]. 

As the masculine nouns are of a more diversified character 
in respect of meaning, and some very rare, not to say doubt- 
ful, I give the list with translation and authority. The 
words, as in the last series, are in alphabetical order look- 
ing to the final instead of initial letters. 

grandioti', one who likes great 

things, Senec. 
ludion-, a player, Liv. 
adagion-, a proverb, Varr. 
sublingion-, sc. coqui, under-licker 

(invented in jest? by) Plant. 
pugion-, a dagger, Cic. 
slrulhion-f niQov'fKay- (a sparrow), 

ostrich, Vopisc. 
BamhiUion'y one who lisps, Cic. 

{lahion-) or labeon- , one with big 

lips, Verr.-Flacc. 
bibion-, a kind of fly, Afran. 
gobion-f a gudgeon, Juv. 
senecion- A, Afran., dim. of senex, 

senecton-Bj groundsel, Plin. 
nutricion-y a foster-father, Inscr. 
homuncion-, a mannikin, Cic. 
cocion-t a higgler, Laber. ap. Gel. 



JamaHon-, a calf, Lampr., cf. Jn- 

albeilion-? tegmen capitis, SchoL 

ap. Jut. 
ardelion^^ a busy-body, Mart., 

tingilion^? genus Testis breTioris, 

piimi/tofi-, a dwarf, Lucr. 
papilion^, a butterfly, Ot. 
opilion-, a shepherd, Plaut., also 

some bird, Paul, ex Festo. 
vfi/ion-, a shepherd, Virg. 
vespertiHun- y a bat, Varr. Pliu. 
Ballion-f a name, Plaut. 
cahallion-y a hippocampus, Veg. 
Subballion-, a name, Plaut. 
belUon-, a daisy, Plin. 
tabellion-f scriba publicus, Ulp. 
Hbeilion', a book-man, Varr., a 

poor bookseller, Stat. 
rubeUion-, a (red) fish, Plin. 
celiion- = cellarius, Inscr. 
eircumcellion^ , a Tagrant - monk, 

porcelHon-y a kind of worm, Aurel. 

(pellion-), a skinner, Plaut. 
ceniipellion- , second stomach of a 

stag, Plin. 
vispellian- or 1 a poor-man*s under- 
vespiUon-y J taker. Suet. 
Aiellion-, a cognomen* 
maieUion', a little pot, Cic. 
sielHon-y a lizard, Yirg. 
truUion-, dim. of truUeum, a wash- 
hand basin, Plin.-Yal. 
polioH' ? A, qui arma polit. Digest. 

50. 6. 6. 
polion- B, = 7ittTQ0ffay<^y Glos. 

duplion^y the double, XII tab. ap. 

toculion-y usurer, Cic, cf. toxo^ 
curculion-f weeTil, Virg. 

mti/ton- A , a mule-driTer, Varr., 

muHon- B, a kind of gnat, Plin. 
coarmion-y fellow-soldier, Inscr. 
iifitofi-, the rlTer so called. 
lanion-y a butcher, Paul. Dig. 
tenion- , a packet of six , Aug. ap. 

Minion-, the riTer so called. 
quinion^y a packet of fiTe, Tertul. 
sannian- , a buffoon, Cic. ; cf. sanna. 
gubernion- = gubernator, Isid. 
pernion-y a chilblain, PHn. 
lernion-, a packet of three, Gell. 
quaiernion-yihe number four, Capell. 
lavernion~y a thief, ap. Fest. 
union- y unity, Hier.; a fine pearl, 

scipion-y a staff, LIt, 
pipion-y a young chirping bird, 

t)ipion-y minor grus, Plin. 
vulpion- y a sly fox (as an epithet), 

tcopion-y the stalk of a grape, Cato, 

Varr.; cf. scopae, twigs, a broom. 
mascarpion- ? Petr. 134. 
scorpion- , a scorpion , Caes. Plin. ; 

a plant, Plin. 
farion-y a salmon-trout, Auson. 
Unebrion-^ a skulker, swindler, 

Afran. Varr. 
bacrion-y a ladle, ap. Fest. 
lucrion-y a money-grubber, ap. 

Fest.; and as surname, Inscr. 
adulterion-y an adulterer. Labor. 

ap. Non. 
litterion-^ a pedant, Amm. 
irion-y a siliquose plant, Plin. 
mirion-y a distorted person, Acc; 

a wonder (with contempt), Ter- 
morion- y an arrant fool. Mart.; a 

dark gem, Plin. 
quairion-y four on the dice, Isid. 


t^mthtridn- , Charles* Wain, as a 
pi., Plaut., Cic. ; as a sing., Yitr. 

M^lHdfi-, an actor, Cic; cf. hister, 

(eurion-), head-officer of a curia, 

(dbturion-), head bf a decuria, Cie. 

hnguHon-, long-shanks. 

(jmrpuHdH-'), epithet of JoYe, Inscr. 

^iiirtdtt-, a name in Plaut. 

Mrii^ii-, Colnm., orl a shoot or 

turgion-, Plin. Val. ) sprout. 

frion-, three on the dice, Isid. 

Sdti&ion^f a name in Plaut. 

(centurion")i head of a centuria, Cic. 
asion-, a kind of owl, Plin. 
obdf ion-, a sweet-heart, Plaut. Gell. 
Falassion- , God of marriage, Liy. 
pusioH", a little boy, a pet, Cic. 
Hftott-, a fire-brand, Yarr., Cels. 
(quiikqwBirtidn-) = neut ad-log, ap. 

(restion-), rope-seller. Plant. Suet., 

and as a surname on coins. 
huiidn- or 1 bittern , Auct. Carta. 
buteon- J Phil. 
Clifton-, wood-louse. Marc. Empir. 
ignatian- ? an idler, Yerr. ap. Gell. 

I have here given every word that I find with the termi- 
nation in Forcellini, knowing at the same time that in some, 
placed between parenthetic bars , nothing more than 6n signi- 
fying 'man' is the suffix, the i belonging to the preceding 
element of the word, as in cuHon" from curi-a-y restion- 
from restd'y 'a rope'. A suspicion too exists that the same 
suffix belongs to some of the unmarked words, yet for many 
of these I should claim the three letters ion^ as homunc-ion-, 
amca-ion-^ ptcs-ton-, and others which are contemptuous ap- 
pellations of men, as toculion-, 'oulpion-f ienebrion-, lucrton-, 
litteriofi'. Yet with all deductions made, there are full 
fifty for which we may claim a suffix ion. 

But what is its meaning? This is a question that may 
be answered with some confidence, as we have the authority 
of the ancients in favour of the view. Prise. (3. 618) says 
that senedon- is the dim. of senexy and Festus that mateUzon- 
is a dim. of matula; and the doctrine is supported by the 
meaning of the words homundon-y pumtlion-y ptmon-. It also 
accords well with words which denote insects or worms as bi- 
hion-y papilion-, porceUidn-, curculiori-y mulion-B, cution-; 
small birds &c. as opilion-, vesperttlion-^ pknon^y mpion-y asion-y 
hution-; fishes as gobion-^ cahallion-y rubellion-y farton-; 
plants as senedon-y belUon-^ irion-; instruments as pugion-y 
matellidv^y trullion-^ scipion-y bacrion-y tition-. 

I have thought it the more necessary to dwell tipon the 
pbtitet of this suffix, from a fear that the Italian augimeh- 


tfttives in one, as lupone, ^a great wolf V may have a tendency 
to mislead the student, as they formerly misled myself. 
The risk moreover is the greater, because the Roman cog- 
nomina Nasofi-y Capiton- seem to invite the translation 'Big- 
nose, Big-head \ But a proper examination of this suffix 
wiU show that 'man' rather than 'great' is the idea ex- 
pressed in it. Thus caujhon-- is the exact representative of 
our chap-man, the first element being the verb which is seem 
in kauf-en and ver-kaxtf-en^ 'to buy and sell'. Again fo-on-, 
pav^on- are the 'man-' i.e. 'male-lion', 'male-peafowl or 
peacock', Naa^on- 'the man with the nose'. Nay this an 
is our very word matu But to establish this I must collect 
what I have written on the subject in several papers of our 
Proceedings ; and in doing this , I would first protest against 
the doctrine of Sanskrit scholars who persist in connecting 
the Greek avcQ- with the Sanskrit nerty as though the a of 
avBQ' were but a euphonic addition. That this doclrine is 
illfounded, follows at once from the fact, that the old Greek 
language assigned a diganuna to the Greek noun, writ^ 
ing Fav-Bi)- (Dion. Hal.) in which word Fav alone is 
radical, being, as I contend, a variety of ftav, in other 
words of the noun so familiar among ourselves. Thus the 
/i is preserved in more than one Greek derivative. For 
example beside ^le^-avSQag we find ^va^i-^ictvdQog; we 
have it again in noi^piBv- (from ncov = pecu = Germ. meh\ 
i.e. 'sheep-man or shepherd'; and thirdly in noi-itiavcoQ^ 'shep- 
herd', as compared with aTvy'txvcoQ. In tracing the root 
from Greek to Latin, we must remember that v is apt to 
be supplanted by a Latin m, as in neuter nominatives, sin- 
gular accusatives , and plural genitives , and ^d^ov- = hum-(H 
(cf. %a^iai). Similarly &v of avirj^ii appears as dm in dm^itto 
(it' 'let go' being an older form of the vb. i- 'go' which 
is preserved in it-er^ corn-it- Ac), and so av-eQ- in its first 
syllable is represented by horn' of hom-on- (h silent). Nay, 
as the Greek also prefixed a t^; in some dialects to av-BQ-, 
so the Italians now write and pronounce uom-o. Lastly this 
word horn appears in old French in the formation of a vir- 
tually impersonal verb horn dit^ now written on dit^ so that 


the final n once moro^ returns, and gives us the root in the 
very form which it wears as a suffix in the Latin caup-on-. 
Moreover this French horn ^man' tells us that the essential 
part of homon- resides in the first three, not in the last 
three letters of the word. But we must not omit to point 
out our root in its fuller and more distinct form, as seen 
in the noun ne-mon-y corresponding with much accuracy to 
the German nie-mandf a word by the way which exhibits 
the mute dental so familiar in the Greek avd-Qog^ Ava^-i- 
(.lavd'Qog &c. Then again we find all three varieties of the 
same root in English, 1. in man with its provincial variety 
mon^ 2. in 'one says', where one is pronounced with a non- 
written M?, corresponding to 'man sagf, 'no one' correspond- 
ing to the just quoted nie-mand and ne-mon-, so that the 
word 'one' in these two phrases is not our numeral, but 
a corruption of man; and lastly, although the phrase 'one 
says' is pronounced with a i^?, the w is not heard in the 
provincial phrase, it would do un (one) ffood to see it In- 
deed the very mode of writing 'one says' without a symbol 
for the pronounced w is alone evidence that when and where 
this writing was first adopted, the w was not pronounced. 
I have said that one the numeral is a different word from 
that seen in 'one says'. This however need not prevent 
me from availing myself of the evidence which the numeral 
also off'ers as to the triple letter change of m, w, and zero, 
at the beginning of words. Thus the neuter, that is, the crude 
form of the Greek numeral appears in the several shapes 
of inev (the particle so-called), Fev, and hr. The same change 
is seen in the forms, fiovog 'alone', and ovog 'the one on 
the dice'. In the paper on Latin Diminutives we had again 
the three examples, merc-^ FeQy-ov or work^ and aqy-ov. 
Another example is Mar of Mara and the reduplicated Ma- 
mer-s^ war in our own language, and vor in Ma-vor-s^ Aq 
in the Greek Aq-bo-, As the Greek words l?yit/t, 'I let go', 
and £l(.u^ 'I go', are akin to each other, and also to the 
Latin mit- (mitto^ 'I let go'), we have again an example of 
a root dropping an initial m. But though ' man ' was the 
first meaning of the Latin suffix on in caup-on- &c., and 


although this idea explains the limitation of le-on- and pav-an- 
to the males, yet undoubtedly the syllable ultimately comes 
to signify great size, simply because the male is commonly 
the larger animal, and hence the abovementioned Italian 
augmentatives in one. The French on the other hand, in 
the nouns limagon^ poisson^ rayon, pennon, r atony teton, 
mamelany manchon, tison, leoron, have diminutives which de- 
rive their suffix in all probability from the Latin. 

But to return to our Latin feminines in ion of abstract 
power. I would first give reasons for believing that ion 
must be regarded as the suffix of ar-at-ion-, mon-it-ion-, 
as well as of opin-^on- , which of course leaves the elements 
at and it for independent explanation; and I hold that the 
suggestion given in the paper on agh (§ xxvii) is well 
founded, viz. that these words should be regarded as cor- 
ruptions of ar-ac?-«wt- , mon-ic-ion- , SO that ac (id) represents 
the suffix agh (^igh)^ as there discussed. The case of 
ar-at-ro- must of course be determined on the same prin- 
ciple, and hence this word is of identical formation with 
lav-ac-ro-. But the strongest confirmation will be found in 
the consideration of such words as ar-at-or-y mon-it-or-, 
for so I must divide these words, when I look at the Keltic 
terms for agents. Take for example the Welsh bad 'boat', 
had-wr (= bad-oor) 'boatman' ; barf 'beard', barf-tor 'barber' ; 
pryn-u 'to buy', pryn-wr 'buyer'; car-out 'to love', car-wr 
'lover' ; clywed 'to hear', clywed-ur 'hearer' ; pechu- 'to sin', 
pechrod 'sin', pech-ad-ur 'sinner' , i. e. the exact analogue of 
the Latin pecc-at-or. Similarly the Gaelic has mort 'to 
murder', mort-air 'murderer'; tagair 'to claim', tagr-air 
'claimant' ; rannaaich 'to search', rannsach-air 'searcher'. And 
these Keltic words are the more trustworthy, as the two 
languages enable us fully to analyse them; the tor of the 
Welsh being, as is well known, only an abbreviated form 
of givr^ gwir 'man', and the Gaelic air, oi fear 'man', 
two words , which so evidently represent the Latin vir. The 
Breton suffix is all but the same, viz. our ^ eur, or er (Le- 
gonidec, Gr. p. 45). The doctrine is again confirmed by our 
own, or more strictly speaking Teutonic, suffix of weav-er^ 


bak-ei^y saU-or, nail-oTy and indeed the French tcdU^eur^ 
brass-^eur. At the same time it is readily admitted that a 
Roman no longer conscious of the origin of the suffix or, 
and feeling that the language abounded in the names of agents 
ending in tor^ may have been misled to create new forms 
in tor^ as ttiough it were really a simple suffix. Of course 
all that is said, must apply to the Greek nouns, such as 
tt(.iT]T'f](), ano-atctT-riQ , oLx^rjT-rjQ and oix-t^T-fOQj (^r^T-tiQ 
and ^tjT'COQ, and I say this, though ftilly aware that Ihe 
statement runs counter to received notions. At the same 
titne I must admit for the Greek the same saving clause 
which I have just admitted for the Latin. Of course the 
evidence that in ar-at-^rum and ar^t-or at is an element 
independent at once of the root-syllfeble and of the final 
suffix, leaves little doubt that in ar-^at-don- too the sating 
must be the case. 

Having thus given my reasons for believing that ar-ae-im- 
and opin^ion- have a suffix ion in common ^ I have now to 
consider what is the power of this suffix. To say that it 
is of equal power with our own ing of verbal substantives 
or with the suffix of infinitives, is no doubt to say the tmth^ 
but yet is unsatisfactory, and this for two reasons. In the 
first place, as the stem of the verb already denotes tiid 
very same thing, the action in its most abstract form, with- 
out any of the accidents of persons and times, the addition 
of an abstract suffix was wholly superfluous. In the second 
place no explanation is satisfactory in the analysis of words 
which does not leave us in the possession of a tangiblCj 
physical idea. But if all that has hitherto been written on 
the affixes which are said to constitute abstract verbals, be 
unsatisfactory. We may well fall back on that material signi- 
fication of ion, which is found in the concrete maseuHiie 
nouns, and ask ourselves, whether the idea of 'little' may 
not also belong to the fenrinines. Such an explanfttioti 
would at any rate agree with the formation of our own 
language, where ing is at once the suffix of our abstract 
nouns, Sis dancing^ and of our ^minutives, ^^ farthing. 

Again the Keltic languages have a variety Of ihfinitives, 

BT T. rtEWITT KEY, ESQ. 281 

Which perplexes their pttmmarians. Thus to take the Breton 
we have 1. o or rather ah, for as the Norse ver-a, to be, 
is proved to have lost a final n by the Gothic vis^an and 
German wes-en^ so biz-a, to be, has standing beside it 
W-ttn of the Treguier dialect. Now this an may well be 
compared with the an of Gaelic, and the en of German 
dimilintives. 2. t, rMi, which would seem to have grown out 
of ek (rid^ek^ Welsh rKed-egy to run); but be this as it may, 
in either case we have a diminutival suffix; 3. el found in 
dome 13 irregular Breton verbs, and again familiar to our 
ears as carrying in it the notion of little; 4. out, Welsh 
od, ed, yd^ Which affords less distinct analogies; and 5. the 
base-stem of the verb, which, as we have already said, is 
Well entitled to act as an abstract substantive , notwithstand- 
ing the horror with which it deems to have affected Legonidec. 
"D eist encore", says he, "des verbes dont Tinfinitif est 
absolurii^nt semblable k rimpiratif. Je remarquerai que 
c'est un abus; mais cotome il est consacr6 par I'usage, j'ai 
cm devoir donner ici une liste des verbes qui sent sujets 
k cette diifecttiosit6." 

But it may be objected to the proposed interpretation of 
the suffix, that 'little' is a limitatioti of the idea utterly 
at variance with that generality, which the suffixes of 
ploughing and araUon- are intended to denote. The just 
dhsWer Seems to be that generalities are precisely what 
eiarly language does nbt intend to deal in; they belong to 
the highest stages of knowledge, not to that early condition 
Whefe the material wants of inan's nature claim his exclusive 
att^ntibn , so as to confine his thoughts to particulars alone. 
A metaphysicijln may amuse himself with definitions of time 
in all its vagueiiess, and With problems about eternity; by 
thid nntiltor^d savage titile is only considered in its sub- 
divisions , iind tims the verj^ words emt)loyed for the general 
idea, tempus and tJQa, when examined, are found to denote 
sihiply a Injlterial Utaiit. Thtis amftim- meant, not all the 
jJlbughing that ever was or is or will be , much less all the 
plonghlhg that ail itiidgitiatiie iniiid can conceive; but, more 
ihtfelli^bly, i bit of plbUgMng. This desire to limit ei- 


pression is one of the most active causes which has led to 
the development of diminutival suffixes. And the abundant 
use of the partitive particle de in French is only another 
example of the same principle. ^Donnez moi du pain, il 
est difficile de ....'. On the other hand the non-importance 
of the power I am assigning to the suffix of verbal abstracts, 
will account for the indistinctness of meaning which soon 
attached to it, and the consequent oblivion of its original 

fiut there still remains the enquiry as to the formal origin 
of the suffix. I will propose two theories. The Greek lan- 
guage possesses a patronymic suffix in the very form «ow, 
with a variety of quantity, as Kqoviojv, KQoviovog, and 
KQoviiovog; and a patronymic seems a very good foundation 
for a diminutive. Nay our own ing is thought by some to 
have had a similar origin. Another view is to suppose that 
opin-ion- may have been the corrupted form of an older 
opin-ig-Ofi' like or-ig-on-. In this case we shall have some- 
thing very parallel to such a German form, as i^er-em-ig-ung^ 
where the g for many Germans is a silent letter, and to 
what is seen in the coexisting Latin nouns pulegium and 
puleium 'fleabane', from pulec- 'flea'. 

In the series of words un-ion-j dupl-ion-, tr-ton- and 
tern-ion' y quatr-ion- and quaiem-ion' j quin-ion-^ sen-ion-^ 
the suffix is not out of place, if the units which enter into 
them are regarded as small, which on the face of a die is 
of course the case. 

The thought of these words has led my mind to a con- 
sideration of certain adverbs connected with the Greek nu- 
merals, in which the syllable ax occurs very generally; 
and in such a manner as to raise a suspicion of its identity 
with the ax (= agh) which appeared so prominently in my 
former paper. I find in Hoogeveen just forty-four words so 
formed as xQiaxig, TezQaxig &c., diaaaxig, TQioaaxig &c., 
together with others from more general adjectives of num- 
ber, as nolXaxig, anaviaxtg^ rooaxig. In the cases of 
nollaxig and anaviaxig;, I am the more disposed to place 
a hyphen after, rather than before the x, because my theory 


about adjectives in o leads me of course to claim for them 
a final guttural, as noklox- or nollox-. But I wish to 
satisfy others as well as myself, and so will not rely on 
this argument alone; but the instances of dig (= dv-ig) and 
TQ'ig (=T€()-tg), and the Latin bis (=rfM-w), as also our 
own twice, thrice, all support the view that to the suffix of 
these adverbs ig alone belongs. In the Latin ter, qttater 
the final is has been dropped after the r, just as for puerusj 
linterisy paters, videharis the habit was to write puer, linter, 
pater J videbare. 

The series of feminine nouns inov-aS-, dv-ad- &c. are 
identical in meaning with the series union-, trion- &c.; and 
so suggest the idea that the sufKx ad- is of like power 
with ion-. The same idea is implied in the terminations of 
the French quatrain, sixain, dizain; dizaine, quatorzaine, 
cinquantaine, centaine, and of the Italian duetto, terzetto &c., 
and of our own triplet, and perhaps twain and tunn. But 
the very form of /.inv-ad- leads to the same conclusion, 
when placed beside such words as: xpax-ad- or ipex-ao-, 
'a crumb or morsel', ovx-ad-, ^^oA-ad-., in which, no doubt, 
ad is a substitute for ax or ay under the influence of the 
preceding gutturals x and x- But the employment of ad 
seems to extend beyond this limit as in dlad- 'a band', 
Xi^d^ad' 'a small stone'. And as with form, so with mean- 
ing. In the words ^mv-ad-, dv-ad- &c. the idea expressed 
in the first element, overpowered that which belongs to the 
suffix, and hence this suffix was finally employed without 
reference to its original power in the formation of such a 
word as fivQiad-. 

Is it a mere accidental coincidence that in the forms 
quadr-affin-ta, quinqu-agin-ta, we have the very syllables 
which presented themselves in so many Latin words, im- 
agin-em, vor-agin-em, ferul-agin-em , ole-agin-eusf Nay the 
more correct form in on, corresponding to im-ag-on-, vor- 
ag-on-, appears in the corresponding Greek words t^aaaQ- 
ax-ov'ta, nevT-ax-ov-ia, accompanied too by the form ax 
which was preferred in so many of the Greek diminutives. 
One advantage of this theory is that it leaves in the last 


syllable ta, something very analogous to the ty of our own 
fcr-tyj Jif'tyf zig of the German vier-zig, fut^f-zig, and ti 
of the Sanskrit ahaah-ti, sapta-ii &c. 

fietarning to the simple numerals, a difficulty presents it- 
self in the fact that the Sanskrit pc^nchan, saptan^ ashtan^ 
namn, daaauy end in an, wh^reas the explanation above 
suggested for newax-ig, emax-ig &c. assumes that navza, 
ema and so on, have lost a guttural The argament frp^i 
the Sanskrit seems confirmed too by the Latin forms ay^tem^ 
nov€7ny decern; and similar forms in the Teutonic family, 
as our own seven ^ nine, ten. Two solutions of this diffiicnlty 
present themselves. A diminutive in ax (like the 6;a^lic 
€u:h) may well have coexisted with another in av, corre- 
sponding also to a Gaelic sufiix of precisely the same form. 
Or what seems more probable, the compound suffix agony 
may by the loss of the g have been compressed to an. Thi3 
is not a mere unsupported conjecture. It is precisely what 
has taken place in the passage of the very numerals we 
have been discussing from Latin into French and ItaU^, 
as quinqu-agm-tay It. cinqu^an-taj Fr. cinqiP-an^te. A similar 
loss of a / (or x) ]]^as taken place in the same compound 
suffix, as seen in vezQa-uiv compared with leTQ-ax- 'grouse'. 
It was implied too in the suggested derivation of qucaemr 
ton- and such forms from a theoretic quatem-^g^on-. Again, 
the long diphthong o? rather vowel-sound in diz-ame and 
our own tw-ain are well accounted for, if deduced frcmi ia 
form like agon or agin; just as the plant purslane would be 
in keeping with a Latin portulagon-. S^ also the Fr. reioifi 
accords with regina, and our own rain with Germ, reg^n. 



line 7 


- 23 


- 8 


- 10 


- 3 


- 2 


- 7 



from the bottom read e/egisti for (fegisti. 
. top - baba-n^ for baba-n. 

- nuya for nuja. 

- bottom - me for mt. 

- top > read Samo^^edic for Samojedic. 

Page 38. Add to the languages that have a nasal in the first person 
the following three North- American families: 
I. Shoshoni in 
II. Lutuami no 
^_- f Chocta unno 
'{Mushogee unni. 
Page 39. 40. Add to those languages that have nasals in both persons : 
XX. Kasi Kumuq na 'I' ina 'thou\ 

This language is generally included in the following family 
of Caucasian tongues, but careful comparison of their 
vocabulary, especially their numerals , convinces me that 
it is independent of it. 
XXI. AvARiAN. Amug (we) mish (you) mush 
comp. (I) dun (thou) mun. 
XXII. Mosquito, sufQxes of the verb and also possessive: 
1. ne(,e) 2. ma 

compare yung *r man *thou'. 

Also the Mandan has me ^I' ne Uhou', 

but from many coincidences in their vocabulary this language seems to 
be only a branch of the Sioux -Dakota (no. XV.). 

Page 40. 42. 43. To those languages that have a nasal in the first 
and h in the second person , add : 

VIII. WaUatpu (North- America) ina *r ki *thou% 

other authorities give in-ing ni-ki, 

where the IN, NI must be a prefix. 

Page 58. The substitution of a demonstrative particle for *my^ occurs 
also in Old Irish, where sa, se is first an enclitical addition to the first 
person, like the Greek yt, but evidently connected with the demonstra- 
tive se *hic\ Thus me-sse ^€ya)-yt\ But in the following examples, 
which I owe to the kindness of Mr. Stokes , it stands alone in the sense 
of a pronoun possessive: 

mathir-se a mathir sem *my mother was his mother*. Zeuss, 
Gramm. Celt. 930. 


diangalar fuatl-te Mangnor urinae meae*. lb. 926. 
dentar triall bertka-sa 'let an attempt be made to tonsare me\ 
literally *of my tonsariog\ Preface to Fiac*s hymn in the 
Liber Hymnomm. 
Whether the sa of the Old Irish is etymologically connected with the 
Armenian s (spoken of' in the text)— both these are Indogerman lan- 
guages—I am at present unable to tell. 


Page 144, 



» i> 



jt y) 



, 146, 



, 147, 



. 148, 



• . 149, 



» » 



» » 



» 160, 



H Ji 



9 n 




for quadrantaia read quadranlal. 

„ Greek read great, 

„ wken read wkere. 

» prefering read preferring, 

„ ottivbi^ QdV.y Q(tJ read Qaiycj^ ««!', ^ad, 

„ Qaivo), oayy Qa&aiytOj QaHanauiy read QttiviOj &>c, 

« gouiont read gouiout. 

,f believe read belief, 

„ rarielies read varietiet. 

„ rulerckange read interckange, 

„ dysgu read nysgu. 

. tandem read tantum. 



A, the mark of the Italic Imper- 
fect, foand in Keltic, 18-36. 

Adams, Dr. E.; on the Vernacular 
Names of Insects, — the Lady- 
Bird, p. 84-7; the Cock-chafer, 
p. 87-90; ih^Rote-chaftr, p. 90, 
91; theSfa^-^Mf/e, p. 91-2; the 
Glow- Worm, p. 92-4; the Red- 
Dettl, p. 94; the ^i«m-roto, p. 95; 
the Straddle-Bob (fee., p. 96. 

, on the names of Spiders, 

216-227; aHercop <fec. 217, cob 
(-web) 218, spinner 219, araine, 
220, (gossamer 221), staggering 
bob 222, shepherd 223, ftetfior, 
tainci 224, wolfamd hunier 225,&c. 

Affixes in Hungarian,— verbal, 99 
-116; nominal, 117-124. 

, not pre-posi- 

tions, modify the radical, 123. 

African languages; the pronouns 
of the first and second Persons 
in, 36-38, <fcc. 

agh, the Keltic suffix, as occurring 
in Latin, Greek, <fcc.— Prof. Key's 
supplemental Paper on, 273-284. 

Aristotle, on his use of fioyns and 
ngi^fiog, 13. 

aration-, meaning of, 28. 

aQtBjuoi, on the meaning of the 
word, by Prof. De Morgan, 8-14. 

Ash's English Dictionary; notice 
of, 266. 

AcFBBCBT, Dr. Th.: Some Latin 
and Greek Etymologies, ~<i(ii/ct<, 
yXttvxog, ykvxvg, IIoXuJtvxf}(;y 
14-16. On the original form of 
fjtty 16. On the derivation of 
pollex, 17. 

Bailey's English Dictionary; notice 
of, 264. 

beetles, on the names of; by Dr. 
E. Adams, 84-96. 

Blount's Glossographia, 1656; no- 
tice of, 261. 

Booth's English Dictionary; notice 
of, 268. 

Bopp's derivation of hanfs (one- 
handed) disputed, 140-2. 

BChlbr, Dr. (j.: on the Hindu God 
Parjanya, 154-168. 

capra; on words derived from it 
as the name of a catapult or 
battering engine, by H. Wedg- 
wood, 1-8:— £. capstan, 2; crab, 
3; cable, 3-5; cablish, 6; ealiver, 
7; carbine, 7-8. 

carpet, on the derivation and mean- 
ing of, by H. Wedgwood, 77. 

Gockeram, 1632; notice of his Eng- 
lish Dictionarie, 261. 

CoLERiDQB, Herbert; on the Scan- 
dinavian element in the English 
Language, 18-31. 

; report of Hints towards 

the explanation of some hard 
words and passages in English 
writers, 67-74. 

; specimens of the Dia- 

lects of some of the South Sea 
Islands, communicated by, 82-3. 

Derivations of words &c.: — 

abet, 129. 
alter ^ 218. 

bait, bate, 129. 
belfry, 4. 
bell, peal, 80. 

bottled (slider) 

cable, 3-5. 
cablish (wind' 
falls), 6. 



DeriyationSy English, eoniinMed, 

ealiver, 7. 
eaptian, 2. 
enr^tfie, 7. 
carpet^ ll-B. 
eaich, 81. 
ckampy 79. 
chapman, 277. 
ehai, 80. 
co5-ioe6, 218. 
eocik-roacA, 88. 

corbel^ 73. 
coti^A, 79. 

cuiiard, 72. 

dowlas, 73. 

eddicrop ( spi- 
der), 218. 

enltce, 131. 

-er=inan, 280, 

earctie, 131. 


148, 150. 
fife, 79. 

gottamer, 221. 

Aare, to attack, 

harass, 132. 
Aarr, to snarl, 

Aarry, 132,134. 
hatter, 218. 
Aeal, 134. 
hot, 131. 
Aiirry, 82. 

tnct/e, 131. 
'ing, 280. 

tr», 132. 
irritate, 133. 
t<tn^/aff, 149. 

/a«A, 82. 

mangle, 2. 
mangled, 6. 
mayAem or 

matm, 6. 
morrow, murk, 


ocii6 (Somer- 
set), 88. 

one, lift, = man, 

fierttoiy, 127. 
plank, 138. 
firn</ 75. 
prute (0. E.), 

pride, 75. 
pirot! 75. 
pt*^, 79. 

fpt</^, 219. 
stir, 133. 
f«m, 12. 

tar on (a dog), 

tease, 131. 
lAtn^ ((Ae, do), 

tiny, 79. 
Im, to hiss, 130. 
tranquil, 138. 
truc/ye, 76. 
«rti», 74-7. 
twain, 283,284. 

wig, 127. 

And see Mr. Coleridge's list of 
Early English words from Old 
Norse, p. 26-30; and hard words 
and passages in Early English 
writers, j). 67-74. 

Derivations continued. 


ira, 132. 

ad= ayn, 150. 
-agin-ta, 283. 
ar-at'ion, 280. 
-at', 'it', 273, 

-6am, 31. 
Boreas, 80. 

ciere , citare, 

communi', 274. 

dulcis, 15. 
duntaxat, 136. 

excitare, 131. 

Aojftj, 130. 

incitare, 131. 
tn«%o, 132. 
-ton; words in, 

limen, 145. 
lis, 133. 

miin t-, 274. 

om-tl^o, 277, 

-on-, 277. 
opin-ton, 280. 
-or, 279. 

pollex, 17. 

-rifare, 133. 
riora, 133. 
ro6-iir, 147. 

tilillo, 131 n. 
ftfto, 131. 

tribw, 143. 


-«J-, 283. 
-ax-, 282. 
tt^ijo, 277. 
aQi&fiog^ 8-14. 
«-y«^-o, 148. 

ykavxog, 15. 
ylvxvg, 15, 

&rjf4og, 143-5. 



/u«, 16. 

IloXv^evxi}; , 

rf and n; Prof. Key on the Con- 
vertibility of, 145-50; spider 
= spinner, 219. 

Danish influence on English, 22, 25. 

Demonstrative, the original, 61. 

drifxog (tithing); Prof. Key on the 
derivation of, 143. 

Dictionaries, English; Mr. D. P. 
Fry on, 257-272. 

Dogs,— on words derived from the 
setting on of Dogs, by H. Wedg- 
wood, Esq., 128-134. 



dulcis, on the derivation of, by Th. 

Anfrecht, 14. 
dunlaxat; Prof. Key on, 1.36-8. 

English, on the Scandinayian ele- 
ment in, by Herbert Coleridge, 

, some hard words and pas- 
sages explained, p. 67-74; — 
tk^ne 67, spa/e, mitrempe^ ttare^ 
68, me, graueik, tchindei 69, 
morefij ma, ichrogen suet 71, 
kaylewey, eolomy, pitterii 72. 

Etymological grouping of words in 
a Dictionary, arffaed for, as 
against alphabetical, by Mr. Fry, 
257-260, 271-2. 

Finno-Tartaiian languages; / and 
ihou in, 45. 

Frisians ; the Northern infinitiye in 
a not due to them, 25. 

Fry, Danbt P.; on the word tkan, 

; on some English Diction- 
aries, especially one proposed 
by the late A. A. Fry, 257-272; 
specimen of Mr. A. A. Fry's 
etymological grouping, 257-9. 

Fdrriyall, F. J.; on an unregis- 
tered sense of the word thing 
and its base the^ 125-6. 

Galla language; on Coincidences 
between it and diiSerent European 
languages, by H. Wedgwood, 

ylvjcvCf ykavxoSf on the deriyation 
of, by Th. Aufrecht, 14. 

go betf — words derived from the 
cry, 129. 

good and bonus; on the relation 
between the words, 149. 

Greek; the change of n and d in, 

Greenlandish forms for / and thou, 

Guest, Dr.; his assertion that no 
traces of Danish are to be found 
in our MSS. or dialects, contro- 
verted, 26. 

k<tnfty Gothic, one-handed; Prof. 
Key on, 140. 

Hungarian; on its Verbal Affixes, 
97-116; and its Nominal Affixes, 
116-124, by F. Pulszky, Esq. 

J far richer in verbal af- 
fixes than any of the Arian lan- 
guages, 100. 

, its compounds with fei, 

half, (half-handea, -witted, &c.), 

/, in African languages, 36-7. 

i and here connected, 62. 

Indo-European languages; / and 
Moil in the, 49-52. 

Insects ; on the Vernacular Names 
of, by Dr. E. Adams, 84-96. 

-ton; list of Latin words in, 273-6. 

; meaning and origin of, 276 


Irish Glosses, from MSS. in Trin. 
Coll. Dublin of the end of the 
14th, and the 1st half of the 
15th centuries, 168-215. 

Johnson, his derivation of spider; 

— spy-dor, the insect that watches 

the dor (beetle), 219. 
; notice of his Dictionary, 

1747; p. 263, 265. 

Keltic languages; traces of the 

Italic Imperfect in, by Dr. C. 

Lottner, 31-4. 
Key, T. Hbwitt; on the derivations 

of duntaxaty tranquillus, and si 

(si dis placet), 136-40. 
; on the derivation of the 

Gotluc hanfs, one-handed, 140-2. 
-; on the derivation of the 

word dtijuogy 143-5. 

; on the Convertibility of n 

and d, 145-150. 

; a supplemental Paper on 

the Keltic suffix aghj d;c., as oc- 
curring in Latin, Greek, and 
other related Languages, 273-84. 

Krit and Taddhita affixes defined, 

Lemon's English Etymology, 1783; 

notice of, 266. 
Lithuanian God Perkunas = Hindu 

GodParjanya, 164; tale of, 165. 
LoTTNEB, Dr. C. ; on Traces of the 

Italic Imperfect in the Keltic 

Languages, 31-4. 




LoTTKER, Dr. C. ; on the Forms and 
Origin of the Pronouns of the 
First and Second Persons, 34>66. 
Corrections of, and Additions to, 
this Paper, 285-6. 

fjia\ on the original form of, by Th. 

Aufrecht, 16. 
mOf tni, or nOj ni, the roots of the 

pronoun /, in African languages, 

Martin's English Dictionary, 1748 

-1749, noticed, 264. 
Mezzofanti, Cardinal ; Mr. Watts on 

Dr. Eusseirs Life of, 227-56. 
; Mr. Pulszky's account 

of his interview with, 252-3. 
Minarelli's list of 114 languages 

known by Mezzofanti, questioned, 

Minsheu; notice of his English 

Dictionary, A.D. 1617; p. 261. 

n and d; Prof. Key on the Con- 
yertibility of, 145-50. 

numerical; on the logical use of, 
(Socrates numerically different 
from Plato), by Prof. De Morgan, 8. 

Parjanya, the Hindu God; Dr. G. 

Buhler on, 154-68. 
; etymology of the word, 

, identified with Perku- 

nas, a Lithuanian God, 164. 
periwig and toig ; the derivation of, 

Phillips's New World of Words, 

1657; notice of, 261. 
poison; spiders named from, 217-8. 
pollex; on the derivation of, by 

Th. Aufrecht, 17. 
JloXvdtvxriq; on the derivation of, 

by Th. Aufrecht, 16. 
Pronouns of the first and second 

Persons ; on the forms and origin 

of, by Dr. C. Lottner, 34-66, 285. 
Pdlszky, Francis; on the Verbal 

Affixes in Hungarian, 97-116. 
; on the Nominal Affixes in 

Hungarian, 117-124. 

-; his account of his inter- 

view with Mezzofanti in 1833, 
p. 252-3. 

r, irr! — words derived from, 132. 

Richardson's English Dictionary 

noticed, 269. 
Runaway, a misprint for Rumorer, 

in Shaispere's "That Runaway's 

eyes may wink"; 135-6. 
Russell, Dr. ; Mr. Watts on his Life 

of Cardinal Mezzofanti, 227-56. 
; his oversight about Mr. 

Watts's papers needs correction, 


Scandinavian words in English, 

Semitic languages; / and thou in, 

Sheridan's Dictionary, 1780; notice 

of, 267. 
f i = so , in ti dii placet, 139. 
South-Sea islands ; specimen of the 

Nengone, Mai, Gera, Baaro, and 

Maori dialects of, 83. 
s|>ace, notion of; relation between 

it and the pronominal notions, 

Spiders ; Dr. Adams on the names 

of, 216-227; which are generally 

taken from !• poison, 2. weaving, 

Swift's letter on English, noticed, 


than, Mr. D. P. Fry on, 151-4; 
its change from then probably 
occurred hetween A. D. 1668 and 
1678, p. 153. 

Theiner, Dr. A.; notice of his 
sketch of Mezzofanti, 241; trans- 
lation of part of it, 253-6. 

thing and its base the; on an un- 
registered sense of, 125-6. 

thou and there connected or iden- 
tical, j61. 

tranquillus; Prof. Key on, 138. 

trus and begone; on the phrase, 
by H. Wedgwood, 74. 

Ir.'— words derived from, 130. 

|5.'— words derived from, 133. 

Veda , the Rig- ; translation of its 
3 hymns to Parjanya, 156-8. 

Walkers Dictionary, 1791; notice 
of, 267. 

Watts, Thomas, Esq.; on Dr. 
Russell's life of Cardinal Mezzo- 
fanti, 227-56. 



weaTing or spinning; spiders named 
from, 219. 

Webster's Dictionary, 1830; notice 
of, 269. 

Wedgwood, Hbnslbioh ; on Words 
deriyed from the Latin Capra 
as the name of a Catapult or 
Battering-Ram, 1-8 (£. captian, 
crab, cable, cablithf ca/tver, 

; on the phrase Urut 

and begone\ 74-7. 

on the deriyation and 

meaning of the word carpet^ 77-8. 
; on Coincidences be- 
tween the Galla and different 
£aropean languages, 78-82. 

WsDawooD, H. ; on the Words Wig 

and Periwig, 127-8. 
; on words deriyed from 

the Cries used in setting on of 

Dogs, 128-34. 
; Shakspere's "That Ru- 

nawayt eyes may wink ", 135-6. 
Welsh ; change of n into d in, 150. 
foig and periwig; the derivation of, 

Wilkins, Bishop; his use of then 

and than, 152. 
Wri^t, Mr. T.; his opinion that 

there is no Scandinavian element 

in English, refuted, 18-30. 


Jcmuary 13, 1859. 
Professor Malden in the Chair. 

The Rev. George Smale, fl. Hueks Gibbs, Esq., and Bassett 
Smith , Esq., were balloted for and duly elected Members of the 

The following present was announced, and the thanks of the 
Meeting were voted for the same: — 

Suffolk Surnames (Boston U. S. 1858); by N. J. Bowditch, Esq. 

Resolved that Thos. Dyer, Esq., be readmitted a Member of the 
Society without payment of another admission Fee, on his return 
from a lengthened absence on the Continent. 

The Papers read were — L ''On words derived from the Latin 
Capra in the sense of a Catapult or Battering Engine"; by H. 
Wedgwood, Esq.— XL "On the word «(Md|uoff"; by rrofessor De 


January 27, 1859. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of Westminster in the Chair. 

Nicholas Trubner, Esq.. was balloted for and duly elected a 
Member of the Society. 

Mr. Fomivall announced that the Early English Glossary by 
Mr. Coleridge, being the first Index of the Dictionary Committee 
promised in their proposals, was accepted by Messrs. Trubner 
& Co. for publication, and also that Mr. H. Wedgwood's Ety- 
mology of the English Language was to be published by the 
same firm. 

The Papers read were — I. "On the verb to be''; by Professor 
Goldstncker. — II. "On the Verbal Affixes in Hungarian"; by F. 
Pulszky, Esq. 

February 10, 1859. 

Thomas Watts, Esq., in the Chair. 

The Papers read were — I. "On the etymology of the verb 
to beg""; by Prof. Goldstncker. — 11. "On the Noun -Affixes in 
Hungarian''; by F. Pulszky, Esq. 

February 24, 1859. 
F. Pui.szKY, Esq., in the Chair. 

The Ven. Archdeacon Otter was balloted for and duly elected 
a Member of the Society. 

The following present was received, and the thanks of the 
Meeting returned to the donor: — 

Local Etymology; by R. S. Charnock, Esq. 

The Papers read were — I. "On some Latin and Greek Ety- 
mologies (pollex, dulcis, yivxvg, and ^w)"; by Theodore Aufrecht, 
Esq. — II. "On the forms and origin of the pronouns of the first 
and second persons. Part I."; by Dr. C. Lottner. 

March 10, 1859. 

F. Pulszky, Esq., in the Chair, 

Professor Whittard was balloted for and duly elected a Mem- 
ber of the Society. 

The following presents were announced, and the thanks of 
the Meeting returned to their respective donors: — 

Uijvala dattas, Commentary on the Unadisutras; by Th, Aufrecht, Esq. 
Elements of Latin Pronunciation and throe Papers; by Prof. Haldeman, 
English Grammar and Dictionary ; 1 hjUydeClarke, 

Handbook of comparative Philology; i Esq 

On Cold Harbours and Topographical Nomenclature; J ^' 

The Paper read was — "On the forms and origin of the pro- 
nouns of the first and second persons, Part U."; by Dr. Lottner. 


March 24, 1859. 

Thomas Watts, Esq., in the Chair. 

The following present was announced, and the thanks of the 
Meeting voted to the donor: — 

Philological Essays, by the late Rev. R. Gamelt; by his son the Editor. 

The Paper read was — "Words beginning with /, w, n, r, have 
been generally truncated"; by Prof. Key. 

ApHl 14, 1859. 
Professor Goldstucker in the Chair. 

The Rev. T. C. Wilks was balloted for and duly elected a 
Member of the Society. 

The following present was announced, and the thanks of the 
Meeting returned to the donor: — 

The Madras Journal of Literature and Science ; by the Madras Lit. Soc. 

The Paper read was — *'0n the Scandinavian element in the 
English language"; by H. Coleridge, Esq. 

April 28, 1859. 
Professor Key in the Chair. 

The Rev. Jac. Richardson Major was balloted for and duly 
elected a Member of the Society. 

The Pap^ers read were — L " On Coincidences between the Galla 
and different European languages"; by H. Wedgwood, Esq. — 
II. "On the derivations of Carpet and Trusse''; by H. Wedgwood, 
Esq^—III. "The answers to the Dictionary Comniittee's queries"; 
by H. Coleridge, Esq. 

May 12, 1859. 

Hensleigh Wedgwood, Esq., in the Chair. 

The Rev. Jonathan Eastwood was balloted for and duly elected 
a Member of the Society. 

The Paper read was — "On the names of Insects, part II."; 
by Ernest Adams, Esq. 

May 26, 1859. (Anniversary Meeting,) 

The Treasurer's Cash Account, as approved by the Auditors, 
was read and adopted. [See last page.] 

Mr. Fumivall stated that the Collector had not yet sent in 
the subscriptions collected by him, and that Messrs. Bell and 
Daldy's account for the past year had not been received; and 


that the proof of the third half sheet of the Society's Trans- 
actions for 1859 had been received. 

The following Members of the Society were elected its officers 
for the ensuing year: — 

President— The Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of St. David's. 

\^ice~Pre8%d^ftt8 » 
The Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of London. (Bloomfield.) 
The Right Hon. Lord Lyttleton. 

E. Guest, Esq., LL.D., Master of Caius College, Cambridge. 
Professor H. H. Wilson, Oxford. 

Ordinary Members of Council. 

Professor Maiden. 

J. M. Norman, Esq. 

Rev. J. J. S. Perowne. 

F. Pulszky, Esq. 

Rev. A. P. Stanley. 

Whitley Stokes, Esq. 

The Very Rev. The Dean of 

Thomas Watts, Esq. 
H. D. Woodfall, Esq. 

Ernest Adams, Esq. 
P. J. Chabot, Esq. 
Herbert Coleridge, Esq. 
Rev. J. Davies. 
Rev. Dr. B. Davis. 
Sir J. F. Davis, Bart. 
E. B. Eastwick, Esq. 
Th. Goldstiicker, Esq. 
Rev. Dr. Hawtrey. 
J. P. Hicks, Esq. 
R. G. Latham, Esq., M. D. 

Treasurer, — Hensleigh Wedgwood, Esq. 

Hon. Secretaries, — Professor Key; F. J. Funiivall, Esq. 

The Papers read were — L " On the plural of the word Mussul- 
man, with some thoughts on Flexion m general"; by J. M. Lud- 
low, Esq. — n. "On an early English verb, the, to do, the base 
of the word thing''; by F. J. Furnivall, Esq. 

June 9, 1859. 
Sir J. F. Davis, Bart., in the Chair. 

Robert B. Pencock, Esq., and C. J. F. Taylor, Esq., were bal- 
loted for and duly elected Members of the Society. 

The Papers read wer^ — L "On the phrbse Balance of Power''; 
by Lothair Bucher, Esq. — IL "On the Gaulish Inscriptions"; by 
Whitley Stokes, Esq. 

June 23, 1859. 
Hensleigh Wedgwood, Esq., in the Chair. 

There being no Paper, Professor Key made some remarks on 
Mr. H. Coleridge's new Glossary, and Mr Furnivall read some 
extracts from Robert of Brunne's 'Handlynge Synne' or trans- 
lation of William of Waddington's 'Manuel des reches'. 

The Meetings of the Society were then adjourned till Novem- 
ber 10, 1859. 


Nove7nber 10, 1859. 

Hensleiqh Wedgwood, Esq., in the Chair. 

The following presents were annoanced, and the thanks of 
the Meeting voted to their respective donors: — 

An English Hindustani Law and Commercial Dictionary; hyS. W.Fallon. 

Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, Vol. X. ) The Smithsonian 

Smithsonian Reports. ) Institute. 

Journal of the American Oriental Society ; by that Society. 

Geographical Terms considered as tending to enrich the English Lan- 
guage; by Rev. A, Hume. 

Program to an Essay on the framing of Words, j TheBaronC.DircA- 

The Phonetic Journal, No 32. 33, Vol. XVIIL \ neck- Holmf elds. 

Comparison of the French and Spanish Language; by M. de Morentin. 

Proceedings and Papers of the Kilkenny Archeological Society; by the 

Vergleichende Grammatik, 2d Vol. 2d Part; by F. Bopp; by the Author. 

The Papers read were — I. ** Report on the Societv's Proposed 
Dictionary"; by Herbert Coleridge, Esa. — 11. "An essay on 
English Dictionaries , and the Method of tne late Mr. Fry's Pro- 
posed Dictionary"; by D. P. Fry, Esq. 

November 24, 1859. 

Professor Key in the Chair. 

Wm. Gee, Esq., Sam. Griffith, Esq., Charles W. Franks, Esq., 
and Francis Reilly, Esq., were balloted for and duly elected 
Members of the Society. 

The following presents were announced, and the thanks of 
the Society voted to their respective donors: — 

Englische Grammatik in Beispielen; by Dr. Cad van Dalen. 
The Reviewer reviewed; by Rev. R Whiston. 

The Papers read were — 1. "On words derived from Cries used in 
setting on of Dogs"; by H. Wedgwood, Esq. — 11. " On the deriva- 
tion of Wig or Periwig''; by H. Wedgwood, Esq. — IIL "Canones 
Lexicographici"; by Herbert Coleridge, Esq. 

December 8, 1859. 

The following present was announced , and the thanks of the 
Meeting voted to the donor: — 

A Dictionary of English Etymology Vol. I. A— D; by H. Wedgwood, Esq. 

Resolved — I. That a Committee be appointed to draw up a set 
of Rules for the guidance of the Editor of the Society's new 
English Dictionaryr 


11. That the Committee consist of: — 

The Very Rev. The Dean of i Thomas Watts, Esq. 

Westminster. I F. Pulszky, Eso. 

Professor Key. I H. Wedgwood, Esq. 

F. J. Fumivall, Esq. | Professor Goldstucker. 

III. That the Committee be authorized to print the Rules drawn 
up by them, to circulate the printed Copies among all the 
Members of the Society , and to appoint one of the Society's 
nights of Meeting for a special discussion of the Rules by 

The Papers read were — I. "On Bopp's derivation of hanfa''\ 
by Prof. Key. — XL "On a corrupt passage in Shakespeare's Romeo 
and Juliet"; by H. Wedgwood, Esq.— III. "On the Hindu God 
Parjanya'"; by Dr. Buhler. 

December 22, 1859. 
Sir J. F. Davis, Bart., in the Chair. 

Copies of Part I. of the Society's Transactions for 1859 were 
laid on the Table. 

The Papers read were— I. "On the names of Spiders"; by 
Ernest Adams, Esq. — 11. "On the date of the change of then 
into than''; by Danby P. Fry, Esq. 

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