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Vb (oC=. 



1880- 1. a 


vh.ii .^M 

II Oil "I''*' ^"'inils, compnrKil with Ihow' oi^^H 

Sj,: ■' French, Englifih, pU. By II.I.H.^H 

PiU-V '- f- f' !Sl>SAP*BTB .. .. 39 

m, TJie Middle Voice in Virpl's .'irwid, Book 6. By 

BejiJ-*mx?' Dawhox. B.A -11 

IV. On a Difficulty in Ruwian Orammur. By C. B._ 

GArtEV, E«q 

v.— Kote* on tbu Mabiin Ltmffiiiigc. By the Rev, Ciuitiici 
iSj^rt-Ka, if. A,, of thp Duivunriticis Uisfdcn to Ccntr' 

VI._The PoliiheB. Ky W. R. Mormu., M.A. 
Vll]_(j„ tjio T>iBtrib»ilion of liuglidi Vlup^ JTninea. By I 

Walter B. ilKonXE. M.A I 

YJU Dar^ ' To fiix'u * nml \-lMrt 'To Put,' By Ptofessor I 

PosTUAXB, if- A ■ • • 

jnj (jy pom Difforfiicus 1ii)tWL-»n the Sppech ov Edinboro 

luwl Lo'ndwU- By T. B. SrwriCB, M.A.Camb. 
X — Ninth Annu»l A«i<ln88 uf tlio I'rcsuknt to tho Philo- 
loiMcnl Societv, dcliveind ot tlie ATiniverBnrv Meeting, 
Fnd«y, 2let Mny. 1««0- By Dk. J. A. Mlbbat. .. 117 

TTi* rRBeii'ifT, «n the Fer* o/ tht PMIokgiMl Seeirly ia ^P 

1S70-8CI - - !■! 

Tt.f> I'ltEBI i»kW'. o" »*"■ ^"*'*" •/'*» IHetimary ^H 

/in''Io"'>''S' *'f"''' *" ^P'H'OS S^trm id OrmMHy by ^ 

Wo/es^T J- **■ ('"^""Ws-) - ... 139 

ir S'WBTTTa M.A.. on Afnmc iKmii/utim* in tA* Arftn 

' r7,fpi-aff>r- ... ... — .- ". _ ^ IfiS 

n Mi»ii»"»> "" '^ •■ ■■• ~ -■ ■■■ — •■• '^^ 

, T 'Tlif cJoiLrinn eonipared with the lUimance Lao- 

IrPMura 1--"^^" p„rt il- Th« Moirlwlogj-. By Str. E. L. 

^^*''"f ^EkrlyEngiUhPoem to the Virgin (ISth ccn- 
Arrmois it. ■^^ ^ -\v''<:lphinan'B phonntir copy of it soon after. ^^ 
t«»y> '"i- j-jijirnTAi-i-. Togotlicr with Notes on th9^«H 
S? 1 ».' T»honetic Copy. By AJ«. J , Elus, F.U.8. .. '« 

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Applicfttbng for admi-sion should bo mndo to tba Honorary Si>crctiiry, 







J.— Sonnil-Xotatjon. By Hkkbt Suscrr, M..V 

iL — On Gitnder. Uy E. L. BaAiinBErH, Rsq 

— Tonth AnnuJ Aillrfse of tlio Pi-ewtU-nt to tie Pluli)- 
Io^caI Souietr, dullvcrod ot the Aauifcrsarr JloDting, 
Pridny, 20th Uay, 1681. fiv Aj^biaxusb J. Ell», 
B.A.,^T F.8.A ' 

I.ADY Minni*»>. II7 Urn I'liMiitiurT ... _. „ 252 

Omittabt. V'r. (/»«r IDii 'Vr. J*i'M. B7 ths PitllirDBKT „, 'iAS 
Tnc W>>aic m' iiiRl'iiii.'>T.iriii)('jiLSac»TT. BytW ruciiTiKTrt ton 

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rrinciplEa, by Mr. n. Swwt. Kr. V. H. Etbiu. Kr. P. 

O. Klwj. Mr. K. Jonw. and lUo PrwitUiul, with Ktuunrlut SOfl 
CoMcLvnov .„ _ 319 

Tj — ^IKatribotioii of Flaoo-Kamos in tlio Scottish Lowlnntla. 

By "WiWEB lt_ fikiiwxi:, M.A 322 

T^ — 8amu Tjatin nnd Ornok Ctyiuologics, und tiic Chaa^c of 

X to tt in UUa. By J. P. PosraAXE. M.A 335 

PPLEMEST— Purlial Ctfrflctions of Euglish SiicUiiig* 

njirowd i,f |jy tlif Philological Society, 1B81 .. pji, l-3« 
UcmXT AesDurT nr Piiciciceii»at> froiu May 16, XB79, tw 

JunoS^. l«8t .. .. pp. l-6ii 

I or MJmtiM pp. !_(( 

bratuirnrji AjcncuM op Amocuhus pp. 1-20 


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THE REV. 4. n. SAYCE. M.A. 


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Ulll 11111.N.W.) TbcSnciciyhv Dpprovedaf«pBrtia)rDhcmeorSpellinKR«torB^ 
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'•'«-•."• ** 

t « » «•. <• 


' • * 

* % % • * e"*! «»•■> 4 


\ /' « ; 1 * . ^ r. ' 

• • 

, • • 

• •• 

'• • 

• • • 



I. — Remarks on some Phonetic Laws in Persian. By 

Professor Chajlles Rieu, Ph.D 1 

II. — On PortugTieso Simple Sounds, compared with 
those of Spanish, Italian, French, English, etc. 

By H.I.H. Prince L. L. Bonaparte 23 

III.— The Middle Voice in Virgil's Aeneid, Book 6. By 

Benjamin Dawson, B. A , 41 

IV. — On a Difficulty in Russian Grammar. By C. B. 

vy A. X JulSt I , JLixJ.*** •■• •■• ••• ••• ■•• ••• ••• iJ L 

V. — Notes on the Makua Language. By the Rev. 
Chauncy Maples, M.A., of the Universities 

Mission to Cental Africa 58 

VI.— The Polabes. By W. R. Moeptll, M.A 74 

VII. — On the Distribution of English Place Names. By 

Walter R. Broa>'ne, M.A 86 

\ 111.— Bare *To Give,' and \-I)ere *To Put.' By J. P. 

A. v/oXvJ-A, 1 M^y jXm, a^A.* ••* ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• %/%J 

IX. — On som Differences between the Speech ov Edin- 

boro and London. By T. B. Sprague, M.A. Camb. 106 
X. — Ninth Annual Address of the President to the 
Philological Society, delivered at the Anniversary 
Meeting, Friday, 2l8t May, 1880. By Dr. J. A. 

-D.. ilL UAnAx ••• *•• ..• ••• ..« .*• ••• ••• 11/ 

Rkpokts BT — 
The President, on the Work of the Philological Society/ in 

M.^ % nJ " 0\J ••• ••• ■•• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ^ * % 

The Vb.esidevTj on the Progress of the Dictionari/ 120 

The President, on ths Philological Society and Spelling Reformy 
(including Report on Spelling Reform in Germany^ by Pro- 
fessor J. H. Gladstone) 139 

n. Sweet, M.A., on Recent Investigations in the Aryan Urspraehe 155 

Dr. Morris, on Pali , 162 

XI. — Sound- Notation. By Henky Sweet, M.A 177 

XII. — On Gender. By E. L. Brandreth, Esq 235 



XIII. — Tenth Annual Address of the President to the 
Philological Society, delivered at the Anniversary 
Meeting, Friday, 20th May, 1881. By Alexaitdek 
J. Ellis, B.A., F.R.S., F.S.A 252 



Ladt Membebs. By the Fkesidbnt 252 

Obituary, Br. Guest and Mr. Nieol. By the President ... 263 

The Work of the Philological Society. By the President 266 
Report on the Dictionary of the Philological Society. 

By Dr. J. A. H. Murray 260 

On the Ihfrotement of English Spelling. By the Presi- 

a/J>XV «■•• • ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• •«• ••• ••• ••• Mv«r 

Specimens of ImproYements of English Spelling upon different 
Principles, by Mr. H. Sweet, Mr. W. B. Eyans, Mr. F. G. 
Fleay, Mr. £. Jones, and the President, with Remarks ... 309 

v^ONCLuSION .. •*• ••• .•• ... ••• «•• ••■ ••• ... •*• uX«y 

XTV. — Distribution of Place-Names in the Scottish Low- 
lands. By Walteb R. Bbowne, M.A 322 

XY. — Some Latin and Greek Etymologies, and the Change 

of Z to i) in Latin. By J. P. Postgate, M.A. ... 335 

XVI. — ^Ifotes on the N of AN^ etc., in the Authorised 
and Hevised Versions of the Bible. By Benjamin 

XfAWSON, Xj.Ok.. ••• ... .•• ta. ••• *•• ... <>4 1 

XVII. — ^Notes on Translations of tliue New Testament. By 

Benjamin Dawson, B.A 352 

XVIII. — The Simple Sounds of all the Living Slavonic Lan- 
guages compared with those of the Principal Neo- 
Latin and Qermano-Scandinavian Tongues. By 

H.I.H. Peince Louis-Lucien Bonapaete 373 

XIX. — On the Bromonsch or Khaetian Language in the 

Orisons and Tirol. By Russell I^aetineax;, M.A. 402 

Appendix I. — The Oaurian compared with the Romance Lan- 
guages. Part II. The Morphology. By Mr. E. 

JLi. JDkANDBETH ... ... ... ... ... ... ••• 1 

"-^Appendix II. — ^An Early English Hymn to the Virgin (15th 
century) and a Welshman's phonetic copy of it 
soon after. By F. J. ]f uhnivall. Together with 
Notes on the Welsh Phonetic Copy by Alex. 
J. Ellis, P.R.S 33* 

Appendix III. — On Neuter Neo-Latin Substantives. By 

H.I.H. Prince L.-L. Bonaparte 45* 

Appendix IV. — Partial Correction of English Spellings ... 65* 



Appkkdix v. — A Bough List of English Words found in 
Anglo-French, especially during the Thirteenth 
and Fourteenth Centuries ; with numerous Eefer- 
ences. By the Eev. Walter W. Skeat, M.A., 
Elrington and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon 
in the University of Cambridge 91* 

Appendix VI.— The Oxford MS. of the Only English Pro- 
clamation of Henry III., 18 October, 1258. By 
the B^v. Walter W. Skeat, M.A. And Errata 
in A. J. Ellis's copy of the Only English Procla- 
mation of Henry III. in Phil Trans. 1869, Part I. 169* 

Appendix VII. — Postscript to Prince L.-L. Bonaparte's Paper 

on Neuter Neo-Latin Substantives 179* 

JLMIIaX ••• •• ••• • •• >•■ ••• •■• ••• ••■ •.• ••• X Ov 

Errata in Me. Sweet's Paper on Sound Notation 191* 

Supplement. — Partial Corections of English Spellings aproovd 

of by the Philological Society, 1881 1-38 

Monthly Abstract op Proceedings from May 16, 1879, to 

June, loo^ ***fiW *** *** *** *** *** *** — 
Treasurer's Cash Account, 188u • ... 5^ 

( „ ,, ,, 1881, will be found at p. 85 of the 

Monthly Abstracts issued in Phil Trans. 1882-3-4, 

Part I. It should be bound in the present volume.) > S*:r 

List of Members (corrected to March 12, 1883) 1-8 

Memorandum and Articles of Association 1-20 

ft3^ In order to avoid future misunderstanding, it should be 
noted that Part III, of the " Transactions " of the 
Philological Society for 1880-1 was not published till 
April, 1883, some months after Part I of the "Trans- 
actions " for 1882-3-4 was issued. In this hst-men- 
Honed Part will be found pp. 67-86 of the ** Monthly 
Abstracts," which rightly belong to the present volume, 
and should he hound in it. 



PERSIAN. By Pkof. Charles Rieu, PI1.D. 

The name which Persians give to their language is, in form 
nt l<>a9t, Arabic, and borrowed from their Miialim conquerors. 
Fars! corner from Ears, the Arabic name of the original scat of 
the Persian empire, the Parsa of the inBcrtptiona of Dariua. 

It may be incidentally noticed that, while adopting a 
foreign designation for their language, the Persians ga^e to 
iheir Eastern neighbours a name of their own making. Hind, 
the Oriental name of India, is derived, by phonetic changes 
peculiar to Persian, from Sindhu, the Sanskrit name of the 
rirer Indus, from which it was subseq^uently extended to the 
country lying beyond it. 

Fars is never used for what we call Persia. It applies 
only to the province which once had Peraepolia, and now has 
Shiraz, for it« capital. Persia in its wider sense is now called 
Iran, from the old Airyana, or land of the Aryas, This last 
name belongs to the Sanskrit-speaking race of India as well 
as to ihe tribes of Iriin, and points to their common origin. 
The western branch, which spreads over the vast extent of 
the Persian empire, and includes, besides Persian proper, 
Afghan, Kurdish, Armenian, and other cognate dialects, may 
be called Iranian. 

Of the earliest forms of that western branch we possess 
but ecanty knowledge. The oldest written documents extant 
belong to two distinct sub- divisions, which may be called tho 
Eastern and "Western dialects of old Iranian, The first of 


these is represented by the earliest portions of the sacred 
writings of the Zoroastriana. Its seat waa Bactria, the 
modem Balkh. Aa the name of Zend, by which it first 
become known in Europe, properly belongs to the aacred 
textj, it is now generally termed Old-Buctrian. 

The second or weatem dialect is the ancient language of 
Persia proper, and is preserved in the inscriptions of the 
Acberaenides, who. following the example of their Aasyrian 
and Bubjlonian predecessors, wore fond of engraving records 
of their conquests on palace walls and rock slabs in various 
parts of their empire. 

Both these dialects exhibit the language of Iran in a. 
stage of development parallel to Sanskrit. In their complex 
grammatical forms, their full terminations, and their vocabu- 
lary, they bear a close resemblance to that language, from 
which they are, however, differentiated by peculiar phonetic 

From these earliest forma of Iranian speech modern 
Persian is separated by an interval of upwards of a thousand 
years. The intermediate stage, which is still more imper- 
fectly known than the first, is chiefly represented by Pehlevi, 
which flourished under the Sassanides. In it were handed 
down the ancient myths and national legends from which 
FirduBi subsequently drew his great epos. We hear also of 
various works of Indian origin translated into Pehlevi, 
especially under Nushirvan, the Book of Sindbad, the proto- 
type of the Arabian Nights, Ealllah and Dimnoh, and others. 

But all that rich literature was overwhelmed, together with 
the Sassanide empire, hy the mighty wave of Muslim con- 
quest, and irretrievably lost. 

Before long, liowever, the hardy roots of native speech 
sprouted forth from under tbe ruins, and soon came to 
bloom again under the Samanidcs, who found in the 
revival of the national spirit a powerful element of political 
independence. The new form of Iranian speech which now 
appeal's in a foreign garb, the Arabic character, is modern 
Persian. From its very beginning it is in all essential 
respects identical with the present language of Iran. 
Eudagi, who is called the father of Persian poetry, lived 


a thousand years ago. FirdusT, who came a little later, 
in ibe latter half of the tenth century, found a language 
already elaborated by several generations of poets, and cast 
it into an imperishable mould, the great national epos. 
From that time to our own we see Persian poetry flowing 
on in an unbroken and ever-awelling stream. 

Nor did prose lag behind, From the chronicle of Tabari, 
translated from Arabic into Persian a.d. 965, the first prose 
work of any extent which has been preserved, it gave rise 
to a vast literature, chiefly historiciil, which for extent and 
continuity will hardly 6nd its equal in any conntiy. 

Persian presenta, therefore, a remarkable, probably unique, 
instance of longevity in language. In spite of some archaic 
phrases, and of a few obsolete words, the early writings just 
mentioned are easily understood by the Persians of the 
present day. After a lapse of nearly a thousand years 
Firdiisi ia no less intelligible, nay more popular, in Persia, 
than Dante in Italy. In England we must come down to 
the time of Spenser or Shakspere to find « parallel case. 

Persian has in the highest degree the analytical character 
common to most modern languages. In fact it may be said 
to have reached the last stage of grammatical bankruptcy, 
and those philologists whoso regard for language is pro- 
portionate to the complexity of their grammatical forms, 
will bo quite consistent if they look upon Persian with 
unmitigated contempt. It has no vestige of cases, no dis- 
tinction of gender, not even in the pronouns, and only one 
bona fide simple tense, all the rest being formed by means of 
auxiliaries. An exception must be made, however, in favour of 
the personal terminations of that tense, the fullness of which 
contrast* advantageously with their more or less complete 
obliteration in most European languages. They are for the 
singular 1. am, 2. i, 3. ad; for the plural I. Im, 2. itl, 3. and. 

Although Persian has, like English, largely thrown its 
grammatical lumber over-board, it has nevertheless some 
claims to our attention. It has played no small part in the 
world's history, and has overflown far and wide its original 
boundaries, partly by conquest, as was the case in India, but 
more generally in consequence of the high degree of elegance 


and refinement to which it has been brought by long culture 
and by the innate taste of the race. Turks and Hindoos haye 
modelled their poetrj- on that of Iran, and Persian has been 
for centuries the language of polite correspondence through- 
out Western Asia. 

Persian is also the living expression of the obstinate 
resistance which the Arian spirit opposed to the invading 
Semitic element. Allhough it had to submit to a considerable 
foreign admixture, it baa succeeded in maintaining the native 
type unaltered in its essential features. In this respect it 
can be compared to English. "What the Roman element, 
Latin or French, has been to English, Arabic has been to 
Persian. Arabic was the language of religion, of law, of the 
school, and, for a long period, the language of the ruling 
class. It filtered through a. thousand channels into the 
vernacular. The great philosophers of the East, Avicenna, 
Al-Gliazali, Nasir ud-Uin Tiisi, and others, all men of 
Persian birth, wrote their serious works in Arabic, and 
resorted to the vulgar tongue only for popular treatises. 
But there is this distinction. While in English the foreign 
element was engrafted, as it were, on the native stem, so aa 
to sprout forth again into something very like home-growth, 
in Persian the Arabic words are simply inlaid like the pieces 
of a mosaic, and never truly amalgamate with the organism 
of the language. This difference is apparently due to the 
greater dissimilarity of the invading language, Arabic 
belonging to an entirelj' distinct stock, the Semitic. 

I now propose to examine some of the most characteristic 
sound changes which gave to Persian its peculiar physio- 
gnomy, selecting such examples as will show a few of its 
points of contact with other branches of the Indo-Germunic 
family. I shall deal only with consonants as being the more 
solid and the most easily grasped element of language, very 
much as a coniparativo anatomist would attach himself in the 
first place to the skeleton, leavmg the softer parts to future 

For this purpose it will be convenient to follow the order 
of the Sanskrit alphabet, as the only one which is rationally 
arranged. Sanskrit, moreover, will be our main point of 


compariBoiiy both as being closely related to Persian, and 
as representingy on the whole, the forms of the parent speech 
more faithfully than any other. 

Persian can no more be derived from Sanskrit than a 
man can be said to descend from his ancle. Bat in either 
case comparison with an earlier example of the family 
type may be foand instractive. When a Persian word is 
traced, for brevity's sake, to Sanskrit, what is meant is that it 
comes from the parent form represented by the Sanskrit word. 


The tennis of this class follows a law which applies still 
more generally to the corresponding letters of the dental and 
labial classes. When initial it remains anchanged, as in ki 
'who?* Sanskrit ka ; kar * to do,' Sanskrit kar ; kdm 
'desire,' Sanskrit kd/na. When medial or final (a final 
consonant, having been at an earlier stage followed by a 
vowel, comes under the same rule as the medial), the tenuis 
has a tendency to pass into the media, k into g. Thus the 
root kar * to do,' when forming the second member of a com- 
pound, appears as gar or gar ; thus dad-gar 'justice-maker' ; 
paigdr {trom. prat i-kdr a) 'contest/ 'battle.' Thus again «u^ 
' grief,' from Sanskrit ^oha; viarg 'death,' from Zend mahrka. 

There are, however, many words in which medial k remains 
unchanged, as ;?flr/A*flr {horn prat i-kara) 'counterfeit,' 'image;' 
pdk ' pure,' Sanskrit pdvaka ; yak * one,' Sanskrit eka. 

There is a large class of words in which final k is 
altogether dropped. It consists of those which in the early 
stage of Iranian ended in aka. From the root band * to 
bind ' for instance, we have the old form handaka ' slave,' and 
the modem batida; from murtaka 'dead' (Sanskrit mrita+ka), 
the modem murda. The final, however, is not completely 
lost ; for it re-appears in the plural, which is formed by the 
termination an (from the old genitive dndm), and we have 
batidag-dn * slaves,' murdag-dn ' the dead.' It re-appears also 
in the abstract formed by the suffix t, as handag-i * servitude.' 

In Pehlevi, words of that class still ended in ag, and that 
termination has been preserved in those which have passed 


from that language into Arabic, as, for instance, -r^^^ ^ ^ 
sample/ a word corresponding to the modern numuda ' some- 
thing shown.' From this it would appear that ^, now pro- 
nounced J, was at that early period still sounded g by 
the Arabs. The same final k has also been preserved in 
Armenian, where we find hreahtak, dialectically hreshdag, 
* angel,* corresponding to Persian ^rwA^a. 

Before speaking of some other changes of k, we must make 
a remark on aspirates. The true aspirates of Sanskrit, k*h, 
g^hy d'h, etc., are entirely wanting in Persian. But that 
language has developed on its own ground a new class of 
aspirates, unknown to Sanskrit, which may perhaps be more 
properly described as breathed letters, namely ^ kh, pro- 
nounced like ;^ or the German eh in noch; 4 ^A= Greek 7 
or the German g in sagen; ^3 a lisped d, like the Greek S or th 
in there (in the modern pronunciation of Persian it is not 
distinguished from z) ; lastly i^, our/. 

There are a few cases in which the Persian breathed 
letters are the direct representatives of the Sanskrit aspirates, 
as, for instance, in ndkhun 'nail,' from Sanskrit nak^ha 
{8vu)(p^, unguis, Bfagel) ; shakh * branch,* from Sanskrit 
gdk*hd. But in most fiases they dev^ope out of inaspirate 
letters, and in obedience to phonetic laws peculiar to Persian. 

One of these new factors is the aspirating power of r, 
evidence of which is found in Greek also. A k followed by 
r necessarily changes into the corresponding breathed letter 
kh. Thus from Sanskrit kram ' to walk,' we have khardm in 
the same sense ; from Sanskrit Art ' to buy,' khar with the 
same meaning ; from the Sanskrit kt*wg ' to crow,' Pers. 
khuros * a cock.' Sometimes, after afiecting that <eh an ge, r leaps 
over the guttural and places itself before it. Thus Sanskrit 
^ukra 'bright or glowing,' would give in Persian, by the 
preceding rule, sukhr, instead of which we have mrkh * red.' 
Similarly, from Sanskrit chakra ' circle,' * wheel,' comes 
Persian charkh ' wheel,' for chakhr, A curious instance of 
transposition in the inverse sense is presented by khtrs ' bear.' 
The Sanskrit riksha leads to a primitive form arksa {apfcro^;, 



The Persian word can only be explained by trans- 
pwition from an older form rik». 

A siliilant has on a preceding k an effect similar to that of 
the r, but which leads, in modern Persian, to a different 
result. Many words in Sanskrit begin with the group ksk. 
In old Persian the corresponding forms show the aspirate or 
breathed guttural with s, i.e. khs. In modem Persian the 
guttural, undermined by the aspiration, has ultimately 
Tanished altogether, and the corresponding words begin 
with »h pure and simple. Instances are found in Sanskrit 
la/lap, old Persian k/isapa, ' night,' modern Persian s/iab. 
From a root corresponding to the Sanskrit ksM ' to rule,' we 
have a word of constant occurrence in the Achemenide 
inscriptions, khiayatiya ' king,' which in modern Persian has 
dwindled down to Shdfi, or. in the emphatic form, Shatiaa- 
ihuh, Regura Rex. A kindred word is the Sanskrit knhnlra, 
from which is derived the name of the ruling caste, knhittriya. 
The corresponding form in old Persipn is khiathra ' empire,' 
which Las very much come down both in sound and in 
meaning in the modern Persian nhahr 'city.' This word 
retains, however, its ancient significance in the compound 
Iran-shahr, the ' Persian empire.' 

It would seem that in the combination under notice the 
initial kh was but slightly sounded, even in oMen times. 
The Greeks dropped it entirely in another compound in- 
cluding the same word, viz. khsathrapaica ' guardian of the 
empire," from which they made their aarpa-n-ijt. 

A third case in which k must change to kh is when it 
comes into contact with the suffis /, which forms the past of 
verbs and some verbal nouns. To Sanskrit bbakti 'division,' 
corresponds hakht 'lot,' 'fortune.' This is only a special 
application of a law which in Persian suffers no exception. 
It may be formulated as follows : When two stops meet, (he 
Jirst changei into the nearest breath. In other words, the 
combinations kf, pt, and the like, are, in Persian, impossible ; 
they are necessarily replaced by kht, ft, etc. The same rule 
obtains in German, where we have Fntcht {rom friic/, Schrift 
from icript, Macht from mag-\-l, haft from hah-\-t, etc. 



M passant, that of all European branches Slavonic alone lias 
klm the palatal in dteiyrr ' four,' a siguiSuant, and not 
isolated, point of contact with Iraaian. 

U ediai ch must, according to a law already noticed, become 
Toiced in Peraiiin, as in panj ' five '=San8krit paticha. But ia 
most cases it undergoes a further change, and beoomea z, 
l^U is owing to a peculiar, and in Persian very decided, 
tendency of letters to slip forward from back to front, Nor 
does it atop there ; for we shall see presently J changing into 
i/, a further step in the sauie direction, the lust stage in a 
journey from the uvula to the teeth. 

As an instance of that normal change of medial ch into z 
we shall take a word which the Cuneiform inscriptions have 
preserved to ua in its primitive form, raiieha 'day,' from 
ruch ' to shine.' This root is widely spread throughout the 
I ado- Germanic area, but in the western branch it appears 
with /, as in XevKot, lux, our own lighl, tiucht, etc. From 
raucha comes in modem Persian roz, and, in the present 
pronunciation, riiz. 

This chango is of some importance ; it affects a large class 
of so-called irregular verbs, the apparent anomalies of which 
are simply the result of the normal operation of phonetic laws. 

There are many roots in Sanskrit, the final of which 
■ppcars sometimes as a guttural, and sometimes as a palatal. 
As a general rule, the guttural is found before consonants, 
mnd the palatal before vowels or semi-vowela. Thus we have 
irom the same root gitk-ia and ^uch-ijali. Native gram- 
marians look upon the palatal form as the real root, and 
give rules to show in what cases it changes into the guttural. 

This is obviously reversing the natural process. Wo 
might 03 well say that the root o[ /acere was fach or futch, 
&s pronounced in/acio, and that it changed into/ac in/acfam. 
The guttural is evidently the original sound, which has kept 
its ground wherever it was protected from change by con- 
sonantal contact. 

In Persian we find also a double form corresponding to 
that original split into k and ch. Bat the two sounds, which 

Sanskrit were still near to each other, are uow wide apart. 


from in, and si ' thirty,' from Iringat. This is probably to ba 
expliiined by an intermediate stage in which the t became 
lisped, very much aa in our three. The th must have 
gradually flattened into s, choking the r at the same time. 
This conjecture fluds some support in the analogy of the 
medial, and therefore voiced, dental, which under the in- 
fluence of a following r becomes lisped, a sound rendered by 
>i (the Greek S or fh in there) as in gu-^r ' to pass,' corre- 
sponding to Sanskrit vt-far, and in dSar or dBur ' lire,' from 
dthar (compare Sanskrit atharvan ' priest '), the first part of 
the name of Aharhdijan, the ancient seat of fire-worship. 
The more usual woi-d for fire, dtiah, is apparently derived 
from a nominative from dfars, and, if bo, would be the only 
Persian word which retains a trace of that case-ending. 

In some words ( i'ollowed by r took in the earlier period 
the form of an aspirated dental which the Greeks rendered 
by e in Midpa-i (Sanskrit Mifra), Miepthdrr^ {Mifra-datta), 
but which in modem Persian is only represented by an k, 
as in mihr 'sun,' which has also the meaning of 'love,' con- 
nected with Sanskrit mitra ' friend,' Shahr ' city,' from 
Sanskrit kshaira, old Persian kUsafhra, is a similar instance. 
Sometimes, even that last remnant of the aspirated dental 
disappears, Aa we find dialect ically s/idr for the last^ 
mentioned nhahr, so we have pur ' son ' from Sanskrit puira, 
and old Persian puthra, occurring in that altered form as 
early as Shahpiir, the Greek Sapor, and again iapar ' wing ' 
from Sanskrit patra. 

Persian throwing off the Sanskrit aspirates, d and dh are 
not distinguishable. Sanskrit dhar ' to hold,' becomes ddr 
with the same meaning, Dhom 'to blow' becomes dam 
'breath.' The roots dd 'to give,' and dhd 'to put,' are 
thrown together. The verb dddan is used in tlie former 
sense (although its present di'h (for didh) seems to point to 
d/id), but some derivatives come under the meaning of the 
latter, aa ddtl 'justice,' 'law,' conceived aa something 'laid 
down,' ddildr ' the Creator,' Sanskrit dlidtar. 

As the final letter of a root, d changes to s before the t. 


wHct forms the past. Sand ' to bind,' which then loses ita 
naal, as in Ssnekrit baddha from bandh, has in the past bmf, 
from had+i. Satl ' to sit,' sfdeo, which in Persian is nlways 
eombioed with the preposition tii 'down,' and thus asaumes, 
u in Sanskrit, the form niihad, makes likewise in the past 
dmAm/. This 1 of the past constitutes the only remnant of the 
original rf; for in the present it is altogether lost. The present 
is derived, as in Sanskrit, from a secondary form sirf (probably 
■ contraction of a reduplicated mad), which with the same 
■ prefix becomes nhlnd ; but the d disappears before the affix of 
f eonjugalion n, so that the actual present form, nhlivi, has 
lost erery trace of it. 

Other verbs with final d are in the same predicament. 
To Sanskrit ^udk ' to wash ' corresponds in Persian what 
we may call the theoretical root skud, with the same meaning; 
but the final d is never seen ; for in the past tlnmt it is 
only represented by s, and in the present aUiiij it vanishes 
altogether, a y being inserted in its place, as we find it in 
pay ' foot ' from pada. In the same wav for the verb which 

Ilus in the past ru«t, and in the present rvt/, we may assume 
a root rud ' to grow,' akin to the Sanskrit tridh. 
The above change of d+i to xt has its exact parallel in the 
Latin comedo, comettum, and, with the further assimilation of 
(, in findo, Jissiim, while the complete abeorptiou of the d 
may remind us of French icjV, seoir, etc. 



P, which as initial remains unaltered, as m pidar 'father,' 
Sanskrit /iiif 17 r ; ;;«r, Sanskrit jiSmn, English/"//; pas 'after,' 
Sanskrit /irtir/id/, Latin^os^ etc., is otherwise liable to changes 
parallel to those of k. As medial or iinal, it changes into 
b, as in bar ' upon,' from Sanskrit vpari, with apocope of the 
initial vowel, ah 'water,' Sanskrit tip; fab 'to heat' from 
Banakrit tap (Latin lepidus, Slavonic Irph/) ; sometime^ also 
r OS in narada ' grandchild ' from Sanskrit napdf, exactly as 
in tureit from nepoa, and ni-ris from prefix ni and the old 
Persian pi» ' to write." 

The aspirating power of /■ shows itself here by changing a 



preceding p into the nearest breathed letter, namely,./. The 
Sanskrit preposition pm, ' pro,' becomes in Persian far. 
FumiAn ' an order,' correspouds to Sanskrit pramdna 
'authority,' firiithlah 'angel,' to Sanskrit presliita 'sent,' 
from pm-kh, old Persian frdk 'to send,' afirin 'to bless,' 
to Sanskrit prl ' to cherish,' with prefix a and the affix of 
conjugation ». 

That change is carried a step further in Armenian, where 
in the corresponding words, firaman ' order,' hrc&hlak ' angel,' 
the aspirated labial has dwindled down to a mere aspiration. 

A similar change ia effected by the ( of the past. Before 
it any labial ending of a root, whether it be originally p, b, 
bh or c, must lake the sound of/. Thus we have idft from 
tab ' to heat,' originally lup ; gufl from old Persian gaub ' to 
say,' gira/i from Sanskrit grabh ' to seize,' rqft from rav ' to go.' 

Persian dropping systematically the A of the Sanskrit 
aspirates, M, whit'h corresponds to <j> in Greek and/ in Latin, 
appears here as simple b. Bliar, ' fero,' becomes btir; b/iu ' to 
be,' Latin /uit becomes bit ; bhrdlar, frater, becomes birddar. 
To Sanskrit bhima ' t«rrible,' corresponds him ' terror,' to 
hliumi ' earth,' bum ; to b/iru (oifipw) ' brow ' abru, etc. 

The same change prevails in the Teutonic family ; but, as 
there it is part and parcel of that general shifting round of 
consonants which is known as Grimm's law, and which is 
utteriy unknown to Iranian, the agreement must be con- 
sidered as accidental. The coincidence, in this special point, 
of the Slavonic languages with Persian is more significant. 
Compare Russian buitff ' to be,' brai'/ ' brother,' etc 

Final b/i, however, is replaced in a few cases by/, ^dbhi 
' navel ' becomes «((/■; rab/i, a conjectural root corresponding 
to v^aivai, icebeti, ' weave,' becomes baf, and the preposition 
ab/ii assumes in compound verbs the form of a/* as a/riis ' to 
light up,' ti/ras ' to raise.' 

When, as a consequence of composition, an initial b 
becomes medial, it changes to r; d-bar becomes dear 'to 
bring,' and ;ja('-6aH(/= Sanskrit pratibaudh, becomes paieand 
' to connect.' 





Semi -VOW EI A 

jiitial y fares in Persian aa Latin./ in the Koman lan- 
guages; it takea the more solid form of t!je soft palatal. 
Sanskrit yucan ' young ' becomes Persian j'lU-iiii, exactly aa 
juvenU passes into giocine. The Indian God Yama becomes 
in Zend Yiina Kshaeto 'Yima the King,' and in Persian 
Jams/lid. To yakril ' liver,' jecui; corresponds j'/yar; to yiidk 
'to strive," Persian ^iM/, frora.;'wrf+(, 'he sought.' In this 
point, the modem languages of India agree with Persian ; 
Hindustani has/d for Sanskrit yd,joban fur //auvana, etc. 

Jl and I are substantially one and the same letter. In the 
early stage of Iranian the former form prevails to the entii-e 
exclusion of the latter, which gradually developed out ol i; 
and, in modern Persian, has become common enough. In 
some cases the change has been effected, or favoured, by a 
following dental, which stopped the vibration of the r, but 
which itself perished in the act. Thus the old Persian 
panianku ' leopard.' appears in the modern form palaiig; 
part/uim ' Parthian,' becomes pathaea, whence by transposi- 
tion pehievi. In the same manner edl ' year,' appears to 
come from sard, Sanskrit garad, ' autumn, year,' and sulAr ' a. 
general,' from sarddr. Independently, however, from that 
combination, the change of /■ to / is frequent, and is evidently 
due to more general causes. It occurs dialectically in words 
which in Persian have retained the r ; for instance, in rae ' to 
go,' which in the Goorian dialect becomes lav. 

It is well known that Sanskrit possesses a vocalized r, 
generally transcribed r, which results from the contraction of 
r with ita preceding or following vowel, in unaccented 
syllables, as in krla from karta, mrln from marla, ffwu from 
grunii. This vocalization of r is only a transitional stage 
leading more or less speedily to its complete extinction, as 
the corresponding forms in Priikrit and the modern tongues 
of India will show. Hindustani, for instance, has ki'a from 
krla, mu'd from inria, s«» from f»*?"- ■'*' '* ^^ interesting 
fact, and one significant of loBg and intimate connexion, 


tbat the same eliminuttoa of r lias taken place in many of 
the corresponding words in Peraian. Thus from kr, the 
contracted form of kar ' to do,' combined with the affix of 
conjugation mi, we have kun, the base of the present tense, 
while the past hard preserves the unaltered root. Again, 
from f_r, the contraction of fru («;Xiiw) * to hear,' with the 
same affix Wm, which here has crystallized in the gunated 
form nnu, we have ihinnH 'to hear.' Sanskrit truhnd ' thirst,' 
which points to a primitive root tars 'dry' (terra for 
tersa, torrens, durr, Durst), appears in Peraian aa iisfina 
' thirsty,' and prxidha ' the back,' aa pus/it, with the same 

A peculiarity of r in Persian is that it appears in some 
cases to change to s/i. This occurs in some verbs ending in 
r before the affix t, which forms the past. Ddr ' to hold ' 
becomes ild'/it, ijumilr 'to depute,' niimmhl ; and even gard 
' to turn,' dropping at the same time its final rf, becomes 
gnslii. It is probuble that the sibilant was at first inserted 
between r and t to facilitate the passage from one to the 
other, and that it ended by supplanting the former. 

Sanskrit r, which seems to have been originally sounded tc, 
as shown by its standing for u in Sandhi, is but seldom rendered 
by Persian i-. This occurs in raz ' to blow,' Sanskrit vd 
'wehen,' and in tarz ' to practise,' from a conjectural root taiy, 
rarff, corresponding to epyov and our own icork. 

Generally initial v, when followed, in Persian, by a long 
vowel, takes the shape of b, as in iurf ' wind ' from Sanskrit 
rata; liint 'twenty,' from Sanskrit rin^ati ; tiro 'widow,' 
from Sanskrit tid/iard; bazdr corresponding to Sanskrit 
ryavakdr ' traffic ; ' bar ' to rain,* from Sanskrit ramh ; 
occasionally also before a short vowel, aa in bih ' good,' from 
Sanskrit ra^u, and hihiskt ' paradise ' (the beat place), from 
Sanskrit mmhthn. 

In most cases, however, r, followed by a short vowel, 
changes into ijn or simple g. It is not a Jillle startling to 
see so exactly reproduced in the far East a change familiar 
indeed, but associated, in most minds, only with those 




Germanic worda which have become naturalized in the Roman 
languages. However, the ao-ciiUed inorganic prefixing ol' 

1 before w, which leada to that transformation, is not 

I confined to any single domain. It is applied in French to 

I Latin worda, as in gmipil from rulpUta, galnitl from vnlent, and 

in Spanish to Arabic words, aa in Oaadalqaivir, from wddi 

al-kcbir, alguazU from al-wusil, etc. 

In the form that change takes in Persian, the only 
trace left of the original w is the m, which in most 
cases clings to the g, superseding the original vowel of 
the word. This is seen, for instance, in gii, which cor- 
responds to the Sanskrit particle vi, and stands to it in the 
some relation as Guglielmo to AVilhelra. We find it in 
gmfir 'to spread out '^Sanskrit v't-atar, gu-mdn ' miscon- 
ception '=Sanskrit ri'inana, and many similar compounds. 
In the same manner from Sanskrit vrka, Zend cerekit • wolf,' 
comes Persian gufg * wolf,' the plural of which giirgdn 
designates a wooded region south-east of the Caspian, the 
Hyrcania of the ancients, a name which the Arabs 
transcribed ^Wv^. probably at a time when they still kept 
to the primitive sound of gimel. Vistiispa, the father of 
Duriua, whose name has come down to us in the cuneiform 
inscriptions, re-appears in Persian aa Gushtasp, and tard, 
the early name of the rose (poSov), still preserved in 
Armenian, would hardly be recognized in its modern 
disguise giif, where / stands for rd. 

Sometimes, however, even the m, that last vestige of the 
original w, disappears, exactly as in French garde from tcarte. 
Thus, from Sanskrit rrt or mrt {rerlo) we have gird in the 
twofold meaning of 'turning' and 'becoming' (German 
Wfrden), and its derivatives, gnrdan ' the turning part,' ' the 
neck,' gard&n ' the revolving firmament,' gird ' round,' ' an 
inclosed city,' etc. The same verb, however, appears in its 
original form i-ard, when it takes a prefix, and r consequently 
becomes medial, as in na-vard ' to roll.' 

A last and curious change of c conaiats in its hardening 
into/). This occurs only when it is preceded in Sanskrit by 
tlie palatal sibilant f, as in agva, equua, Persian nsp, i;rela, our 


own iehite, Persian teptd. Thus again ^ran, tmatv, 
whioh is lost in Fersian, survives in the Afghan spun. 

ani ■ 


To the sibilant juat noticed H, f, corresponds aa a ruli 
the Italic branch k, c, and in the Germanic family the regular 
substitute of the hard guttural, viz. h. It must therefore be 
considered aa a specific Sanstrit modification of a primitive 
k. Its original pronunciation is not accurately known. This 
much is certain, that in Prakrit, and in the modem 
of India, it has sunk into a aimple sibilant, as in Hindustani, 
<fas from daga {8e«a), sou from gnla {fmnov), sir from fi 

This is exactly the course which was taken, apparently at 
a much earlier perio<l, by Persian aiso. It represents Sanskrit 
f uniformly by a sibilant, mostly by s, occasionally by s/». 
The firat is aeen in sad ' hundred,' Sanskrit gafa ; blil ' twenty,' 
Sanskrit n/iCM/i'; sar 'head,' Sanskrit fiVi/s; sir j 'dog,' Sanskrit 
gaktt, etc. The second in shakh ' branch,' Sanskrit foi'/ia; 
ahuiati ' to hear,' Sanskrit grnu, , 

Here, again, a striking coincidence is to be noticed wit&j 
Slavonic, ivhich stands alone among European languages in. 
replacing Sanskrit f by a sibilant. Compare Russian sto, 
aotnya 'hundred,' Sanskrit gala ; ilemty 'ten,' Sanskrit dnga. 

When final, the Persian a from f shares the fate of 
primitive s, that is to say, it changes to h. Thua Sanskrit 
rfflfff ' ten,' becomea dnh, Sanskrit thgnma ' tenth,' dahum, 
Sanskrit pfinchugat 'fifty,' pnnjak. Sanskrit vinaga 'perdition,' 
re-appears in Persian gunuh ' sin,' and Sanskrit dega ' land ' 
in Persian rfcA 'village.' 

The second Sanskrit sibilant sA is a modification of s, 
generally due to the influence of a preceding front-vowel, 
( and «, or to r. We have already seen in the compound 
verb ni-shad from sni/, and in tishna from tars, that it 
developes in Persian in precisely the same conditions. Other 
instances are Sanskrit dm (St/?) ' evil,' becoming dmh in 
Persian dmhman ' enemy ' = Sanskrit dm-jnanas ' evil- 


substitution of the simple media, viz. b for b'h, and d for (th. 
Creation of a new class of breathed letters, kh, f, et«., 

originating mostly by consonanf^il contact. ChaDge of « 
to h, and of the group &ica to khtea. Substitution of z, and 
occasionally il, for Sanskrit A. The second claaa conaisla 
mainly of the softening of the tenuis, when medial, and 
of the changes of initial w to jH or g, of medial eh to a, of 
initial y to J, and o{rd to I, 

The intimate connexion existing between Iranian and 
Sanskrit phonology, as shown for instance by their concurrent 
palatalization of the gutturals in some words, and their 
common substitution of a sibilant, f or s, for k in others, 
would lead us, independently of their close resemblanoe 
in grammar and vocabulary, to infer a continued co-existence 
of the two races, long after the main part of the European 
stock had swarmed away from the common hive. It will 
have been noticed, on the other hand, that Slavonic, alone 
of the European group, participates in several of the most 
characteristic sound changes of Iranian, as, for instance, s for 
Sanskrit f, a for Sanskrit j and /(. It has a fair claim to be 
considered as an intermediate link between Iranian and tlie 
more remote branches of the Indo-Germanic family, a result 
which the geographical position of the race would naturally 
lead us to anticipate. 

In concluding this rapid sketch I have only to remind the 
reader that it does not aim at an exhaustive treatment of the 
subject. This would require a thorough knowledge, which I 
do not possess, of the earlier stages of the language, a 
province which is, moreover, ae yet but imperfectly explored. 
If it succeeds in conveying to those linguists who are unac- 
quainted with Persian some notion of the most striking 
phonetical laws which prevail in that language, and of some 
of it-s affinities with other branches of the Aryan family, my 
object will have been attained. 

FEESOH, ENGLISH, Eto, By H.I.H. Phinci! L. 



Of lie four modern literary languages of the N"eo-Latin 
branch; Italian, Spaiiish, Portuguese, and French, the two 
first maVe use, if not of an almost phonetic orthography, at 
least of such a one that not much more is required to matte 
it perfectly so. The two last, on the contrary, hut par- 
ticularly the French, are quite antiphonetic, so much so, that 
it is no esaggeration to say that Spanish and Portugueaa 
diSi^r almost oa much, in this respect, as Spanish and 
English. Besides, the Portuguese pronunciation, whatever 
may be tlie great resemblance between these two languages 
of Spain, differs from that of the Spanish nearly as much as 
the latter does from the English. Hy object is not to treat 
of the history of the Portuguese sounds, but only to enurae- 
ralp, describe, and classify them. These sounds are given 
as I hear them used amongst cultivated society in Lisbon, 
and as they are generally admitted by Joao de Deus in his 
higlily approved " Diccionario Prosodico," Lisbon, 1878. 

Tlie Table at the end of this paper gives the list of the 

Portuguese simple sounds, and is divided into five columns. 

The first shows my own phonetic notation ; the second, A. J, 

Eijia's ; the third, the usual modem Portuguese orthography ; 

the fourth, the exemplifying Portuguese words; the fifth, 

ibe English translation of the same. It is to he remarked 

that the place of the accent is indicated by the acute accent ; 

ttiat the signs included in parenthesis of the third column 

■re not generally or necessarily in use when the tonic vowel 

not the last letter of a word ; and that Ellis's notation is 

ravs included in parenthesis through all this paper, while 

le usual Portuguese notation is simply in italics. 

I shall now proceed to examine each of the thirty-four 



Bimple sounds, beginning with the Towels. These, as far 
I can deduce from the appreciation of the majority of t 
cultivated and genuine Portuguese of Lisbon, are fifteen in 
number ; and, if any further varieties of them do really exist, 
they are certainly not generally perceived (at least in such 
a distinct manner as to leave no doubt about their existence) 
by the same, according to my opinion, very competent 
judges, whose appreciation ought to be followed, I think, by 
all sober-minded, although minute phonetisla. This will 
account for all differences that may be remarked between the 
sounds admitted in this paper and those of my "List of 
Vowels and Consonants," 

Three of the fifteen vowels may be called guttural (a, 
as) 1, 2, 3 J seven may be qualified as palatal (e, e, e, «A, 
i, lA) 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 ; and five are labial (o,, o, oa, u, ua) 
11, 12, 13, 14, 15. 

1, The first of the guttural vowels is nothing but the pure 
Italian, Spanish and French ri (a), as it is heard in the 
words oiu/^o 'mad,' niHcAficAo 'boy,' and lira ' he will read.' 
The English n (a) in father, or perhaps the a (ah) in aw of 
the fine modern London pronunciation, is the nearest 
approximation to it. This sound, in the usual Portuguese 
orthography, may be represented by a, ha, a a, as in tilto ' 
' high,' hnbil ' able,' regit asflores ' be waters the flowers.' It 
is to be observed, in the last instance, that each of the two 
n's sounds (aj) when the two words are pronounced separately, 
and that two (sej's give rise to one single (a). 

2. The second guttural vowel is the nasal (ai), represented 
by o, am, an, han, a, hn, as in irma 'sister,' campo 'field,' 
canto 'song,' hamealico 'Hanscatic,' ramo 'branch,' hnma 
'pail to put out a fire.' This sound does not exist in Italian, 
Spanish, and English ; and, it is sufficient to say, once for 
all, that no nasal vowels are to be found in these three 
languages. They differ from English vowels followed by 

' The Portni^esp word aUo iioee not differ, tn the pronanciition of the two 
flnl lettern, froni the same ward in Itnlini] or Spaniiih. This I have UEcertsined 
from seTeml Portugneae ^ntlemen eitbvr of Lixbon or not. Therefore 1 consider 
the 1iroBdH>r proniuiFiatiDii of the Porto^ese a uid the PoUdi of tbe Portnguesa 
I ns mere indindualisms. 


7. The fourth palatal vowel (e&) is, only by approximation, 
the nasalization of the preceding, but the French nasal e is 
rather a nasalized (e) than a nasal (c). A kind of nasalized 
(e) may be heard in some localities of Portugal. The 
Portuguese (ba) is represented by em, en, e, he, as in tempo 
' time,' rotto ' wind,' gema * yolk,' hemos ' we have.' 

8. The fifth palatal vowel ('h), represented by e, he, as in 
se ' if,' Hespanhol ' Spaniard,' is very common in French, as 
in cheval ' horse,' but is unknown to Italian and Spanish. It 
resembles the English e in o/w»i.' 

9. The sixth palatal, or rather alveolar vowel (i), is 
represented by i, hi, y, hy, e, as in iiha 'island,' hiipido 
' hispid,' lym ' lyre,' hydra ' hydra,' e ' and.' It corresponds 
to the Italian, Spanish, and French i in diio 'finger,' hijo 
' son,' Ik ' island,' and to the English ee in See, 

10. The seventh palatal, or rather alveolar vowel (ia), 
represented by im, him, in, i, ym, yn, y, hy, e, as in sim ' yes,' 
himpar ' to sob,' Jindo ' finished,' riiiho ' wine,' lymplia 
'lymph,' syndt'co 'syndic,' cynico 'cynic,' hynmo 'hymn,' 
mae 'mother,' is, by approximation, a nasal (i), and does not 
exist in French, but it does in some of its dialects, in Breton, 
and in the Basque dialects of Soule and Roncal, 

11. The first labial vowel (o,), represented by o, ho, oh, o o, 
aa in sol ' sun,' borta ' kitchen- gar den,' Jacoh ' Jacob,' rego o 
prado 'I water the meadow,' does not exist in Spanish and 
English, but it is very common in Italian and French, as in 
coaa 'thing,' botine 'good.' The English o ot not, and that 
of nor, are diiferent labial sounds. It is to be observed that 
each of the two o's in rego o prado sounds (u) when the two 
words are pronounced separately, and that two (u)'s give 
rise to one single (0|). 

' Whatover may he wid to the cODtrnry, my eats Bud ft differenea betwoen 
the so-called ' « muet ' of the Fitmch wIicd it oocurs ftl the end of a nrurd. uud 
the Portuguoao 'e nurdo' eipreeaed by e ("h), fta ia the aecnnd e of itde 'tliirat.' 
This last tound ii not mate, bal only . indiatiiict, and uoDstitates, with tlio 
preoediug d, the second ayUsble of this irord. In the French rode ' mftdsUMid, ' 
un the contrary, the ear pcrceiTeB a moaonyllable. Portuguese grammois wiittou 
by Frenchmeti are earerol ia statin)^ that the fiual lortu^Me t a not »o 
imperceptible lu the Frenuh, and rurtugueBe, generally, admit the mme. The 
QeBtc9t upprnncli lo the ' e eurdo ' ia, I think, the sound of the French e in fhrral 
'horac,' whiili is rcpruseulfd by FiJine by (b), whila the real e mutu in nut 
reprcatntcd at all by ihc saroo phon*'-' 




12. The second labial vowel is (o), and is represented by 
0, ho, oil, as in corte ' court,' Aorio ' garden,' aiiwu ' he loved.' 
It does not exist in Spanish, but it does in Italian and 
French, as io coda ' tail,' mol ' word.' In Eugliah its exist- 
ence is doubtful. At least, I ptTceive uo difference in 
quality between the o in more, which is (o), and the o in 
iome, except in the presence of the aftersound which follows 
the long vowel of the last word. This afteraouad, being 
very rapidly pronounced after tho (o), constitutes a peculiar 
kind of diphthong, resembling the simple sound of the 
French o grare, without being identical with it. The 
Fnglish (o) of more has the intermediate sound as in Spanish, 
the only o of this language, not to bo found in Portuguese 
and French, but only in Italian when the tonic accent 
does not fall on it, aa in bmcheitt ' groves,' derived from 
6o»e/(( ' woods ' or 'forests,' and pronounced with (o,) (Art. 11). 

13. The third labial vowel (oa), represented by S, om, 
kom, on, hon, o, as in acgoM 'actions,' bom 'good,' hombro 
' shoulder,' /«)/i(e 'bridge,' honlem 'yesterday,' donit 'mistress,' 
is rather a nasal (o) than a nasal (o), which is the reverse of 
the French. A kind of nasal (o) however is to be heard, 
dialectally, in Portuguese, resembling French on in mon 

14. The fourth labial vowel (u), represented by «, Aw, o, 
as in Ilia 'moon,' humilde 'humble,' o ' the,' is the same as 
the Italian and Spanish u in mulo ' dumb,' the French oit in 
eou ' neck,' and the English oo in pool. 

15. The fifth labial vowel (ua) is, by approximation, the 
nasalized (a). It is represented by urn, bum, un, hun, it, hu, 
0, aa in wn 'one,' hum (a kind of interjection), /undo, 
'bottom,' Htingaro 'Hungarian,' liiine 'fire,' hinno 'soil,' 
eao 'dog.' This sound does not exist in French, nor in 
Breton, but it is to be found in some French dialect*, and in 
the Basque dialects of Soule and Honcal. 


Of the nineteGU consooauta presented by my table, nine are 
explosive; six, continuous; and four, liquid. The explosive 

J. L 



may be either guttural {k, g) 16, 17j or palatal (nj) 31 ; or 
alveolar (,t, ,d, ,n) 18, 19, 20 ; or labial {p, b, m) 22, 23, 24. 
The continuous are either whishea {ah, zhj 29, 30 ; or alveolar 
(8, z) 27, 28; or labio-dental (f, v) 20, 2G. The liquid are 
either palatal (Ij, r) 32, 3i ; or alveolar (,1, ,r) 31, 33. 

16. The first guttural explosive sound is voiceless (k), and 
may be represented by c, cc, qit, q, ch, k, as in casa ' house,' 
acctamai;ao 'acclamation,' queimar 'to burn,' eqneatre 'eques- 
trian,' chimica 'chemistry,' kUomeiro 'kilometer.' It exiata 
in Italian, Spanish, and French, as in oea 'goose,' corazon 
'heart,' carr^ 'square,' and in the English word cat. 

17. The second guttural explosive sound is voiced (g), and 
represented by g, ijg, gu, aa in Itignrio ' lizard,' aggi-arar ' to 
aggravate,' azougue 'quick-silver.' It exists in Italian, 
Spanish, and French, as iu segn 'saw,' gasto 'expense,' garit 
' glove,' and in the English word go. 

The guttural nasal sound (q), represented in Italian and 
Spanish by w, as in veiigo ' I come,' and in English either by 
ng or n, us in ifoiig a,nA. finger, never occurs in French, nor in 
Portuguese, in which languages it is replaced by the nasal 

IS. The first alveolar exploaive sound is voiceless {,t), and 
represented by (, tl, th, ct, pt, bt, as in (erta ' earth,' atiengao 
' attention,' atheo ' atheist,' ado ' act,' excepiuar ' to except,' 
aiiblil ' thin.' It exists iu Italian, Spanish, and French, as 
in roia ' wheel,' loJo ' all,' ta« ' heap.' This sound is replaced 
in Euglish by the palatal t (t), which never occurs in the 
four other languages. 

19. The second alveolar explosive sound is voiced (,d), and 
represented by (/, dci, gd, as in Dent ' God,' iidilifao ' addition,' 
Emigdio (a proper name). It exisM in Italian, Spanish, and 
French, as in ode 'ode,' doy 'I give,' di 'die.' It is replaced 
in English by the palatal d (d), which is not to be found in 
the four other languages. 

20. The third alveolar explosive sound is nasal (,n), and 
represented by w, nii, nm, ah, gn, as in nne 'snow,' anno 
' year,' damtw ' damage,' itthumano ' inhuman,' amignar ' to 
appoint.' It exists in Italian, Spanish, and French, as in 




cane 'dog,' nombre 'name,' nez 'nose.' It ia replaced in 
Engliah by the palatal n (n), Trhich does not oxist ia the four 
other languages. 

21. The only really palatal exploaive consonant in Por- 
tuguese is (nj), which is not the palatalization of the alveolar 
(,n), but that of the palatal (n). This sound is represented 
by nh, as in sonho ' dreain,' and corresponds to the Italian 
and French gti in deifno, digne ' worthy,' and to the Spanish 
» in eiignmr ' to deceive.' It does not exist in English. 

22. The first labial explosive sound is voiceless (p), and 
represented hy p,pp, as in pne 'father,' oppressao 'oppression.' 
It exists in Italian, Spanish, and French, as in capo 'head,' 
polro 'Aust,' poiio 'door,' and in the English word pea. 

23. The second labial explosive sound ia voiced (b), and 
represented by i, bh, as in loho 'wolf,' ahhailv. 'abbot.' It 
exists in Italian and French, as in cibo 'food,' bwaf'ox,' and 
in the English word bee. This sound is replaced in Spanish 
by the labial, continuous h (bh), as in rabo 'tail.' 

24. The third labial explosive sound is nasal (m), and 
represented by m, mm, gin, as in ma^a 'apple,' tinmcdiaio 
'immediate,' aiigmentar 'to increase.' This sound exists in 
Italian, Spanish, and French, as in rvmo ' oar,' miicho ' much,' 
melfre ' to put,' and in the English wocd me. 

25. The first labio-dental continuous sound is voiceless (f), 
and represented by /, ./f, jiA, aa ia Jilho 'son,' e/fc(7o 'effect,' 

.phrase 'phrase.' It exists in Italian, Spanish, and French, 
a& in acro/a 'sow,' Jtjo 'fixed,' faire 'to do,' and in the 
£nglish word /at. 

20, The second labio-dental continuous sound is voiced 
(v), and represented hy t; as in riii/io ' wine.' It does not 
exist in Spanish, where it is replaced by the labial continuous 
( (bh); but it is common in Italian and French, as in tiva 
' grapo,' tendre ' to sell,' and so it is in English, as in vine. 

27. Thff first alveolar continuous sound is voiceless (s), and 
represented by s, «», c, cc, f, rf, »c, sch, ps, pc, 6s, or, re, as in 
<o/'sun,' osso 'bone,' ceo 'sky,' accenio 'accent,' jrcofa 'grace,' 
ac^ao 'action,' sciencia 'science,' schisma 'schism,' psalmo 
'psalm,' accrpfao 'acceptation,' subilaiicia 'aubstance,' h 


'maxim,' e.xcepto 'except.' In Spanish this sound is generally 
more palatal than m Portuguese, as in sangre ' blood.' The 
alveolar sound exists in Italian and Frenoh, as in casa 
'house,' sapoir ' to know,' and in the English word w, 

28. The second alveolar continuous sound is voiced (z), 
and represented by z, s, n, xh, as in zelo ' zeal,' rosa ' rose,' 
exacto ' exact,' exhalar ' to exhale.' It exists in Italian and 
French, as in rosa 'rose,' chose 'thing,' and in tho English 
word loose. There ia no such a sound in Spanish. 

^9. The first whish is a continuous voiceless sound (sh), 
and represented by x, ch, sch, «,' z, as in xadrez 'chess,' 
chapeo ' hat,' schisto ' schist,' ros tomo ' I take you,' voz forte 
'strong voice.' It does not exist in Italian, except dialect- 
ally, as in the vulgar Florentine and Roman pronunciation 
of the c in roce, pronounced (sh). The regular sound of the 
Italian sc, as iu pesce 'iish,' is, however, near to it, but not 
the same, being stronger, and as if it were a double (sh), 
or (sbsh). Spanish does not know these whish es, but 
French knows the simple (sh), and represcnte it by eh, as in 
cocker 'coachman,' and so docs English, and expresses it 
by &h, as in nhe. The exact sound of the Italian sc (shsh) is 
unknown to the four other languages. When (sh) ia 
expressed in Portuguese by » or s, these letters are followed 
by a syllable or a word beginning with (f, k, p, ,t), or they 
are the final consonant of a period either long or short. 

30, The second whish is a continuous voiced sound (zh), 
and represented by/, g, e,' s, as in jiisio 'just,' gema 'yolk,' 
ros groBseira 'coarse voice,' cos digo 'I say to you.' The 
Italian, except dialectally, as in the vulgar Florentine, 
where the g in Parigi ' Paris,' is pronounced as (zh), instead 
of being pronounced as (,zh) or English j, ignores this 

' Acmrdin? to Joao do Dcua, tbe munds (nh, zh) ma)' be both rcprrtieiiled by 
( and s, nnd f have follcntwl hira in this ■pprecintion. I (iillf admit, howeTer, 
thnt I lia*e met with r«rtiigiie»e, even of losbon. who nre not satLstiai nitli 
tliu. Some, OS BarboEA Leao and tiie Oporto Conunisnion. make the flnal t and = 
alwajB aunilar to (i), or lo a sound bonUv diatinct from it. All the Tortugueee 
I have cnnmlted are not able to hcnr eiieh a (n) sound, except when the Coal * 
and < are fnllowed br a won! or a s}^11nhle hA^nninj' with a vowel. I have met, 
on the eontraiy, witli »!VGral admitting an intennediatc soiind between (»h) and 
(a), and (iih] and (z), and thii ia certianlj the pronimciBlion of manf, although 
not ol ioiii d« Deua. 





Portoguese whbli, as it is ignored by Spanish. The 
French, on the contrary, admits it, as in joiir 'day,' and so 
does English, as in the & in pkasure. "When (zh) ia 
expressed in Portuguese by z or s, these letters are followed 
by a syllable or word beginning with a sound not being (_i, 
t, p, ,t), or a Aowel, If they be followed by a vowel, z and » 
are both pronounced as (z). 

31. The first alveolar liquid sound is {}), represented by 
f, II, as in li'a ' moon,' heU^ ' beautiful,' It exists in Italian, 
Spanish, and French, as in ?nela ' apple,' lumbre 'fire,' hup 
' wolf,' and in English it is replaced by the palatal / (1), 

32. The (Ij) is not an alveolar, but a palatal sound, aa it 
U not a palatalized alveolar {}), but a palatalized English 
(1). It ia represented in Portuguese by l/i, as in _/i/ho ' son ;' 
in Italian, by g!i, or jf/, as in pir/iio ' I take,' piff/l ' thou 
takest ;' and in Spanish, by //, as in hel/o ' beautiful,' Its 
existence in modern, neither provincial nor pedantic French, 
is very doubtful ; and, in my opinion at least, those who 
refuse it a place amongst the modern standard French sounds 
are quite correct. According to this opinion, the words 
hataillon, Jilh, etc., ought to be pronounced as if they were 
written batoyoii, fiye ; and so Rachel, amongst many other 
authorities, pronounced them, even in the most tragic and 
solemn declaraation. Things were difl'erent in Talma's day, 
according to my parents' recoUectiou. The English has not 
this sound. 

33. The first liquid sound, which is the alveolar (j), 
represented by rr, r, rh, rrh, aa in terra ^ ' earth,' rei ' king,' 
rlietorica ' rhetoric,' pi/rrhonismo ' pyrrbonism,' exists in 
Spanish, but not in Italian, French, and English, where it is 
replaced either by the palatal r (r), or by other varieties of 
this sound. 

34. This last liquid sound, as in iiora 'daughter-in-law,' ia to 
be found in Italian, Spanish, and French, as in cuore ' heart,' 

luere ' he dies,' or ' gold,' and in the English word marine. 




The following instances will suffice to show the great 
inconsistency of the modern Portuguese orthography, only 
inferior, in this respect, to the English and French amongst 
Europcfin literary languages. 

1. Jff7c ' mother,' is pronounced (m^Aii), both vowels 
being undoubtedly nasal, as I ascertained several years ago, 
contrary to the general opinion. Therefore the sign of 
Hh nasality ought to estend to the whole diphthong. 

^H 2. Cao 'dog,' is pronounced (k4auA) with two nasal 

^H vowels, but the usual spelling shows only one. 

^H 3. Canlam 'they sing,' is pronounced {k44\tauA), but the 

^H flpelling wrongly teaches {ka-v toA) without the second nasal 

^^L element of the final diphthong. 

^^B 4. Trachea 'trachea,' is pronounced (^tnekci-n:;), but the 

^^1 second element of the diphthong (ei) is not expressed. 

^^B 5. Tvm 'he has,' is pronounoed (,teAiA}, but tern expresses 

^H 6. Tern 'they have,' is pronounced (,teA*^AiA.), but tern 

^^1 only indicates (tfA). 

^^1 7. Area 'sand,' is pronounced (tcr^i'io), but the second 

^^1 element of the diphthong (i'x) is not expressed. 

^^m 8. Axe 'axis,' is pronounced (ak's'h), but the sounds (k) 

^^1 and (s) are not expressed by two distinct letters. 

^^1 9. Ac^ot^ 'actions,' is pronounced (ieeolAsh'), but both 

^^1 vowels being nasal, the sign of naaolity ought to extend to 

^^M the whole diphthong. 

^H 10. Muilo 'much,' is pronounced (miiAiA'^tn), but muito 

^^1 wrongly indicates (mui\tu) without the least nasality, 


^^^ No obligatory quantity exists in Portuguese, Spanish, am 

^^1 Italian, but the case is not tho same with French, and 

^^B particularly with Euglish. Compare tile 'head,' with tHe 

^H 'he sucks,' or the English not with nought. In Italian, 

^^K Spanish, and Portuguese, on the contrary, the words ramo 

^^M ' branch,' and <(/^o 'liigh,' show no appreciable difference in 

^^t the quantity of their vowels, which may be pronounced more 




or le«9 long, or more or less short, according to the hahit or 
tlie wish eren of the moat correct speakers. 

Tonic Accent. 

The Portuguese tonic accent may fall either on the last 

ii sjllable, as in amam ' he will love ;' or on the last syllable but 

one, win amdca ' he loved ;' or on the last syllable but two, 

u in amavamos ' we loved ;' or on the last syllablo but three, 

I as in apprarimdeamonon ' we drew near.' 
The Spanish, besides these four, presents a fifth instance, 
in which the tonic accent falls on the last syllable but four : 
1. amrd; 2, amdba; 3. amubmnoa; 4. acercdbamono» ; 5. 
traigiuemele • let they bring it to me.' 
The Italian, in addition to these five, offers a sixth 
instance, in which the tonic accent falls on the last syllable 
Iwtfive; 1, amerd; 2. amam; 3. amdrmio 'they loved;' 4. 
dtdicaw ' they dedicate ;' 5, didkaiujUnic ' they dedicate 
some to' him ;' 6. didicitnveg/lenc 'there they dedicate soma 
to him.' A seventh, and even an eighth instance of the 

tlUlifln tonic accent occupying the last syllable but six, or 
eren seven, is not absolutely inadmissible, although very 
forced. Such certainly would be, without however being 
lOcoirect, the following : d^dicanresfgliene or didicanotesfgliene 
'usQulIy they dedicate there some to him,' or, to be much 
better expressed in French : ' On lui en d^die lA ;' on account 
of the meaning of the Italian se, corresponding in this word to 
the French on, and which cannot be rendered by the English 
tk'j in the two last instances, as this pronoun has been 
already used to translate the word given in the sixth instance. 
The French tonic accent, according to the appreciation of 
I immense majority of Frenchmen (I am one of the 
Br)i falls always on the last syUable, except in words 
I ('h), which have it on the penultimate ; but the 
ind of ('h) being always suppressed, except in 
constmction with other words or in singing, this exception 
i« more apparent than real. In fact the masculine exact and 
the feminine cjracfe ' exact,' have both the accent on the a, 
d do not differ in pronunciation. 


The English tonic accent presents five instances, as the 
Spanish: 1. defir; 2. differ; 3. difficult; 4. niceasary ; 5. 
nicessarily. Of words having more than one tonic accent I 
am not speaking, nor do I consider an agglomeration of 
words pronounced under one principal accent. 

I am not aware that any non-agglutinative European 
language, except the Italian, is capable of presenting a 
primary tonic accent on the last syllable but five. In several 
agglutinative languages, on the contrary, either of the 
Iberian or of the Altaic stem, as, for instance, in the 
Guipuscoan Basque, I observe : 1. eramdn ' carried ;' 2. d^gu 
' we have it ;' 3. ddrama ' he carries it ;' 4. ddramazki ' he 
carries them ;' 5. ddramazkigu ' we carry them ;' 6. ddramaz- 
kidatzu ' thou earnest them to me ;' 7. ddramazkidatzute 
' you carry them to me.' 

Prosodic Accent. 

For what relates to the prosodic accent, as in Swedish, I 
have not been able to discover it in Portuguese, Spanish, 
French, and English, but I have observed it in some Basque 
localities, as at Irun, and also in some Italian. In fact, the 
two villages of Badia San Salvatore and Pian Gastagnaio, 
both in the actual Province of Grosseto, and using the same 
Tuscan variety, difier only in this, that the Pianesi possess 
the prosodic accent, distinguished into grave and acute, while 
the Batinghiy like the generality of the Italian dialects, are 
without this distinction. The acute prosodic accent of the 
Pianesi is very common in their final atonic vowels, while 
the tonic are commonly provided with the grave. A cele- 
brated hollow and immense chestnut-tree existed in 1835, 
commonly called "II Castagnu bucu,"^ both by the Batinghi 
and the Pianesi, and I recollect very well immediately 
recognizing the last from the first on simply hearing the 
pronunciation of these two words, which was Castdgnu hmiiy 
instead of being Castdgnu btLcu, meaning " Hollow Chestnut- 

* These words, in standard Italian, are "II Castagno bugio" or "bucato," 
bucu being the dialectal participle of bucarcy in the same way that conipro is the 
contraction of cotnprato * bought.' The permutation of the final o in m is common 
in several Italian dialects, in Asturian, in Galician, as it is in Portuguese. 


Tree." The prosodic and the tonic accents are quite inde- 
pendent of each other, and both exist in Swedish as well as 
in Pianese and in the Basque of Irun, and probably in many 
other Tarieties of different languages; so that the existence 
of this accent cannot be received as a primary distinctive 
character either in linguistic or in ethnology. Nothing 
indeed resembles more the prosodic and tonic accentuation of 
such Swedish words as sjungd 'to sing,' JUckd 'girl/ than 
that of the Pianese words Castdgnii biicit. The tonic accent, 
quite independent, I repeat, of the prosodic, occurs in both 
languages on the last syllable but one of these words, and 
nowhere else, while their final syllables are atonic, and 
pronounced with a kind of interrogative inflection of the 
voice, which seems to me to be what distinguishes the acute 
prosodic accent, either tonic at the same time or not. 

In this table, after having enumerated the thirty-four 
Portuguese sounds, I give them physiologically arranged in 
my ordinary triangle, and according to the different organs 
of speech; and I conclude with a specimen of the " Lusiadas," 
firstly, in the usual modern orthography ; secondly, according 
to my own phonetic notation; thirdly, rendered word for 
word ; and, lastly, according to Mr. J. J. Aubertin's poetical 


N.B. — 1^ The first column shows my phonetic notation ; 

the second, A. J, Ellis's palaeotype ; the third, 
the usual modern Portuguese ; the fourth, the 
exemplifying Portuguese words ; the fifth, the 
English translation of the same. 

2^. The tonic accent is indicated by '. 

3°. The signs in a parenthesis of the third column 
are not generally or necessarily in use when 
the tonic vowel is not the last letter of a word. 

4°. These sounds are admitted by Joao de Deus in 
his "Diccionario Prosodico," Lisbon, 1878, a 
work representing the pronunciation of the 




1. a 


a (4) 



ha (h&) 


able \_fl(ncers 


rega as flores 

he fcaters the 

















ramo • 




pail to put out afire 

3. a 


a (ft) 



ha (h&) 



4. Bd 





he {U) 



5. e 





' he (h^) 








he (hS) 
















we have 










9. i ; i 
















10. 1 







to sob 


























ho (ho) 





Jacob [dote 


rego prado 

I water the mea- 







ho (bd) 





he laved 




















14. u 









15. u 























16. k k 

17. g i g 

18. t 

19. d .d 




























to burn 





to aggravate 






to except 




{a proper name) 





22. p 

23. b 

24. m 

25. f 

26. V 

28. z 


30. z 







31. 1 
































































yo8 tomo 

voz forte 



Yoz gro88eira 

V08 digo 







to appoint 








to increase 





















to exhale 




I take you 

strong voice 



coarse voice 

I say to you 










33. r 














34. r 







Inconsistent usual Spelling. 













they sing 











he has 





they have 




















Classified Portuguese Sounds. 


Cj e 
1, 1 

a a - 


0, o 
u, u 









Gutturals . . 




Palatals . . 


- n 

-.1; r 

Whishe^ . . 






Areolars . . 



n, - 



1,-; r 






Labials . . 







Specimen from " The Lusiads,*' Canto. III. 135. 

As filhas do Mondego a morte escura 
Longe tempo chorando memoraram ; 
E, por memoria eterna, em fonte pura 
As lagriroas choradas transformaram : 
nome Ihe puzeram^ qui inda dura, 
Dos amores de Ignez, que alii passaram. 
Vede que fresca fonte rega as flores, 
Que lagrimas sao a agua, e o nome amores. 

Phonetic^ according to my notation. 

Ab fikz du Mud^gu a mort' eskura 

Ldgu tepu suradu memur&rau; 

I, pur m9m6ria et&maf ei foto pura 

Az l&grimaz sur&das trasfurm&rau : 

U nomo Id puzs&rau, ka ida dura, 

Duz amoraz d' In^s, ka ali pr7s&raii. 

V^a ka fr^ska fota fj&g' as fl^Jras, 

Ka l&grimaz sau a kgixa, i u noma am6ra8. 

Word for word translation. 

The daughters of the Mondego the obscure death 

Long time weeping commemorated ; 

And, for eternal memory, into a pure fountain 

The wept tears transformed : 

The name they gave to it, that still endures 

Of the loves of Agnes, that there occurred. 

See what a fresh fountain waters the flowers, 

{see) That tears are the water, and the name loves. 

J. J. Aubertin's poetical translation. 

Mondego's daughters this sad death obscure 
Long time with weeping did commemorate, 
And the wept tears ^ into a fountain pure 
For everlasting record did translate ; 

^ I have been advised by the translator to substitnte "the wept tears** for 
*< all the tears/* 


Thej gave the name ; that name doth still endoze, 
The loTe« of Ignez, which there met their fate ; 
See through the flowers what freshening fountains move, 
Tesrs are the water and the name is love. 

Stad 21 Xoi-nnhfr 1879. 


BOOK 6.— By Benjamin Dawson, B.A. 

Thb similarity of form Diiating between the Middle and 
Passive voices in the Greek verb plainly indicates the ex- 
istence of an iatioiate relationship between these vuiues. But 
wfaal relution it is that one bears to the other has not been 
always slated in the same way. Pliilip Buttmaiin, who was 
one of the greatest authorities at the beginning of this 
century, considered the Middle voice to be the Passive 
osed reflectively, and found it easy to deduce the Jliddle 
meaning from the Passive : " The idea of Passive includes 
in it the case, in which the action that I sufler is per- 
formed by myself" {Greek Grammar, p. 103, English 
translation, 1824). That this view of the subordinate 
rank of the Middle as compared with the Passive voice 
Has no new view, at least ns i'ar as Latin verbs are con- 
•^rawl. appears pretty plainly from the Hame "Deponent" 
T«bB, if, M asserted by the Pnb/ic School Latin Grammar, 
i 00, they were so named " because they lay aside (de- 
pOQunt) i'lissiFC tpeaninij ;" an explanation which, to say 
the least of it, ia quite as probable as Madvig's (Lnfmiische 
Spraehkhre, § 110) " weil sie die active Form ablegen" 
— oecause they lay aside the Actice form. The opposite 
^^* of the matter — that the Passive was an application 
of the Middle, not the Middle of the Passive— was pro- 
pounded by one of the earliest members of this Society, 
ite late Prof. Key, in his excellent Latin Grammar, pub- 
lished in 1846. 1 am not aware that this view of the matter 
iwd been advanced by others in this country before Prof. 
^py; it has been adopted by Prof Sayce — {Introduction ta 
^ Scienee of Languaije, vol. i. p. 178), "The Latin 
^mini is the plural mas. of the old Middle participle," 


and p. 341, "The Passive has been evolved from the 
Middle — TVTTTOficu, 'I beat myself/ passing gradually 
into * I am beaten/ " — and I presume is generally held 
now, at least by members of this Society, notwithstanding 
Dr. Kennedy's guarded statement {Public School Latin 
Grammar, § 36/.), "The Passive, like the Greek Middle 
voice, is often used reflexively ; as vertor, * I turn myself ; ' 
lavor, 'I wash myself.' Some consider this the primary 
sense of the Passive." 

That the Passive voice of Latin verbs grew out of a 
Middle is beyond dispute, if we admit the explanation given 
by Key of the origin of the suffix r of Passive verbs (Latin 
Grammar, § 375), "In Latin a reflective suffix is added 
to a Transitive verb, so as to give it the reflective sense,'' 
and § 876, "This suffix is no doubt the Pronoim se self, 
which, as it is not limited in number and gender, was 
probably at first not limited in person." The same ex- 
planation is guardedly given by Mr. Roby {Chrammar of 
the Latin Langiuige, § 183), " The r of the Passive voice 
is generally held to be for s, i.e. for se, the Passive having 
been originally reflexive," again in § 563, "The r is 
generally considered to be a substitute for 8, the proper 
Passive inflexion being, as is supposed, the reflexive Pro- 
noun se.*' And in §§ 669 and 615, where in the Passive 
terminations eris of the 2nd pers. sing., and ter of the old 
Infinitive, the finals s and r are explained as survivals of the 
Pronoun se* The 2nd pers. pi. clearly stands on a different 
footing, and must have arisen in a difierent way. 

But my object in this paper is practical rather than 
theoretical, and I refer to these matters rather to give 
some sort of completeness to my subject than to support 
any particular theory. I am contented to believe what 
Sanskrit scholars tell us, that Sanskrit shows the Middle 
voice to have been older than the Passive, and further to 
assume — at least till more rebutting evidence is forth- 
coming — that the Latin Passive termination r is a survival 
of se. Now it appears to me that clearness of view would 
be gained by the distinct enunciation of this explanation ; 


DAWSoy, n.A. 43 

toi clearneaa of view is always worth gainiog. What can 
Iw more perplexing to a student thaa such statements as — 
"Some Deponents grow out of Passive verbs ; as gravor, 
/ Hrwlgf, am loth (lit. am grkted) " (Pablk School Latin 
Grammar, S, 3fi/.) ; and " Some Active Verbs have a Depo- 
nant or Middle use in the Passive voice " (§ 60, Obs. 1) ? 
Even Mr. Robj's statement is by no means so definite as 
miglit be desired (§ 548) : " There are two voices, the Active 
snd the Passive (sometimes called Reflexive or Middle). 
Some verbs have both voices, some have only the active, 
except in the third person ; others, called deponenta, have 
' only the passive, but with the signification (apparently) of 
the ictive." This is certainly less clear and definite than 
Prof. Key's way of stating the case (§ 405) : " The verb, 
then, hu two forms or voices ; the simple roice (commonly 
called tlie adiee), which does not take the reflective suffix ; 

I tie nflcdipe roice (commonly called the passive), which does 
take ii." As to any abstract theoretical improbability felt by 
tte iacredulous respecting this explanation, it is disposed of 
^ the fact that such a mode of forming Reflexives is seen in 
&e Scandinavian dialects. Cf. Dr. R. Morris's Engliah 
Amiom, §11. 
It appears to me,' therefore, that clearness of view 
would be gained if Latin Grammars were to make some 
■acb slateraent as this : There are three voices in Latin, 
U in Greek— the Active, Middle, and Passive; the Middle 
nd Passive being alike in form. The Middle was formed 
faim the Active by the addition of the Reflective pronoun 
fc; bot, as Latin prefers ;■ to « between two vowels, amo»e 
bMaoe (ifflort^, and finally amor, by dropping the fiuu! vowel. 
The Middle voice was, therefore, originally reflective in form 
*» *ell as in meaning ; it would have been better named the 
Eefleetive voice ; Middle is a meaningless if not a mia- 
Wsding name. The Reflective meaning appears to have often 
given way to a Passive meaning, so that the Middle form 
got to bo frequently used in a Passive sense. A somewhat 
■mlogous transition has taken place in English (though 
1^ tbe opposite direction), where such Reflective verbs as 


repent me, retire myself^ have become Intransitives, the 
Pronominal Objects being now suppressed ; English pre* 
serves the Middle meaning but not the Middle form^ 
whereas Latin preserves the Middle form but not generally 
the Middle meaning. The Passive, being only a modified 
use of the Middle voice, is not distinguishable from it by 
the form of the word, and is often confounded with it. 
Intermediate between the Active and the Passive voices 
are the so-called "Deponent" verbs, Transitives and In- 
transitives. These would be better named Intermediate or 
Transition verbs. These " Deponents " or quasi-Passive 
verbs look like Passives, but are not so ; they are petrified 
Middle or Eeflective verbs, the Reflective force being retained 
by many. 

Now it may be objected that there is no trace in Latin 
authors of the admission of the existence of a Middle 
voice, or of such an origin of the Passive voice as in- 
dicated above. 'But, though I admit the truth of this as 
a proposition, I should join issue if this fact were used as 
an argument against this explanation of the Middle and 
Passive voices. Neither Virgil, nor Caesar, nor Cicero 
with all his learning, could have given a reasonable ex- 
planation of his own constant omission of an unemphatic 
Pronoun when the Subject of a verb. They had not the 
remotest idea that the personal terminations of the verb 
contained the Pronoun which was the Subject. Their ears 
and eyes had taught them what good Latin was, but not 
why the insertion of a Pronoun as a Subject indicated great 
emphasis. Many a man besides Molidre's M. Jourdain in 
Le Bourgeois Oentilhomme has talked prose all his life 
without knowing it ! And just in the same way, a good 
Latin author would use what is usually called a Passive 
form, with its proper Reflective meaning, without knowing 
that the r stood for 8e; and would not hesitate to use the 
Infinitive, or the contracted 2nd pers. sing, {re for m), 
with this Reflective meaning, although the Object ae had 
totally disappeared from the form he used. Nor can we 
suppose that Yirgil had any other motive than his metre 




popping in here and leaving out there the old final er 
the Infinitive. But besides gaining, as I think, in 
leas by such a way of stating the case, thereby helping 
learner, we should find another practical advantage, in 
the number uf anomalies which have to be 
tabulated. Ttiat many verbs wearing the dress of PasBives 
have a Reflective meaning cannot be denied ; and this 
must be stated somehow or other by Grammars or editors. 
JXadvig says (§ 222), " Den Gebrauch dcs Passiva botreflend, 
iat 2U merken. dass oft, wo im Deutschen ein reflexiver 
Ausdmck gebrauch t wird, im Lateinischen das Passiv 
steht" — a Latin Passive often stands for a German Re- 
flexive. The same remark holds good of the Romance 
languages. In Dr. Kennedy's edition of Virgil we have 
a long list of the "peculiarities of Virgilian Syntax," 
amongst these we find (p. 649), " Verbs used in the Middle 
or Reflexive sense are frequent," again (p. 653), " The Medial 
Object is likewise frequent . . . with Passive verba of re- 
flexive meaning." Smith's Dictionary gives examples of 
the Reflective nae of diflerent verbs. And bo in one way 
or another the difiEculty created by ignoring the existence 
of a Middle voice is met, with more or less success. 

But however great or little might be the advantage of 
a different way of stating the case, I am convinced, and 
hope to show, that the Middle sense may often be traced 
where the Passive is generally taken for granted, and that 
in giving the Reflective signification instead of the Passive, 
the benuty and force of many passages are greatly increased. 
Omitting for the present Participles, I have noted five 
passages in 6th Book of Virgil's Ameid where the Middle 
meaning of the verb is clearly traceable. 

(a) 1, 40, nee sacra moraniur Junm viri. The verb moror 
a so-calie<l "Deponent," sometimes Transitive and some- 
Intransitive, — in this passage it governs sacra j'ussa; 
The men do not dilly-dally over the ordered rites," 
" they do not delay themselves in beginning them." "When 
Horace says (-£/>'*■ Bk. 1, Ep. 15, 1. 6), nam vina iii'kii 
iror iUitia orae — the meaning is plainly reflective, " I do 




t I 




not linger over," " I delay myself not a jot over the wine 
of that shore.'' In Aen. viL 253 — in connubio natae thalamoqu 
morafur — the vero is Intrans. but again clearly reflective 
" Latinus thinks over/' " he delays himself over th 
marriage of his daughter." 

(b) 1. 423, totoque ingens extenditar antro. Here surel; 
the Reflective meaning is clear ; for if Cerberus is stretcher 
(in a Passive sense), by whom, is he stretched P Havin] 
swallowed the meal thrown to him by Sibylla, he stretchc 
himself^ after the manner of dogs, at full length across hi 
cave. It may be objected that after he has stretche 
himself, he is stretched. I admit the truth of this as 
general proposition, but deny that the two phrases can b 
considered synonymous or co-instantaneous. Nor do I se 
why a distinction should not be drawn between extenditu 
when used in a Reflective sense and extenditur when use 
in a Passive sense, precisely in the same way as a goo 
translator would sometimes render acribo " I write," an 
at other times '^ I am writing." If Aeneas and the Sibyl ha 
arrived after the sop had been ithrown to Cerberus, and ha 
been witnesses of the result only, extenditur would be rightl 
rendered by a Passive even though no agent is mentioned 
but as they were present before, during, and after the gulj 
and saw the whole performance, the Reflective sense give 
more force and life to the narrative. Conington's transls 
tion is: "And o'er the cave extended sprawls." Livy 
longius cupiditas gloriae extenditur I claim as an example ( 
the Middle voice, for it may be quite as well, if not bettei 
rendered by "the desire of glory stretches itself too far, 
as by "the desire of glory is stretched too far." 

{c) 1. 652, passimqtie soluti Per campum pascuntur equ 
Under pasco Forcellini remarks "usurpatur tum activ 
positione, praesertim in participio praesentis (et subic 
telligitur accusativus se, etc.), tum passiva." In Quicherat^ 
Latin Dictionary we find both pasco and pascor ; th 
latter he calls the Passive of the former, translating th 
Active /aire paitre, the Passive paltre. Smith's Dictionar 
gives pasco Active and pascor Deponent, represented b 



our "to feed" in its Tmnsitive and Intransitive senses. 
Aineworth's Dictionary gives pa^co Active, ptucor Passive, 
sad jmtcor Deponent. But though lexicograpliers aro not 
igreed as to the best way of entering this verb, there can, 
Isnbmit, be little difference of opinion as to its Reflective 
jense in Virgil's line: "The horses, freed from labour, feed 
ttpmselves upon the plain," or with Prof. Conington : 
"Frw o'er the plain the horses feed." The same phrase 
faKuniw per occurs in Geort/ic iii. 162 : Cetera pnietinliir 
nrida armenta per herb<ig. Here too the senao is plainly 
Reflective, The poet has described how, early in their 
lives, some calves are marked and set aside for hreeding, 
some tor sacrifice, some for the plough, whilst the remain- 
ing iierd are turned loose on to the grass, and they "feed 
themselves along the green herbage." With this passage 
we mav compare Oeorgic iii. 52S, where poicuniur ia joined 
with Bn Ablative of the food eaten. 

((/) 1. 659, unde superne Plurinnis Eridani per silcam 
tokilur oMnts, The Dictionaries do not claim raltor aa 
* Deponent verb; we must therefore look upon t-olritur 
K a simple Passive and translate accordingly, or else we 
must eipluin it ae aorae kind of exceptional reflective use 
of the Passive voice. This is the editors' usual way of 
disposing gf euch passages if they condescend to notice 
Item at all, Dr. Kennedy takes it aa a Passive, giving 
in his Notes the following translation, — 

" WTience from the upper world, the forest thruugh, 
The river ol EridsnuB ii ralleil 
In copious flood." 

But flurely we should act in unison with a poet's love of 
peiwnifying inanimate objects if we were to make Eridanus 
roll Umulf, instead of being rolled, through the wood. The 
Mae verb is applied {Aen. vii. 349) tn a snake which rolls 
or curls itself amongst the folds of Queen Amata'a night- 
drew. Dr. Kennedy givea no note on this passage, so that 
It is unc«rtain whether he takes rohilur as a Passive when 
sppliedto the snake, or with Smith's Dictionary considers it 
•n eiample of the Heflective use of voleor. 


{e) 1. 707, ubi apes aestate serena Floribus insidunt variis 
et Candida circum lAlia funduntur. Here again, as the 
Dictionaries make no sign, a student would natoraUy 
render funduntur " are poured/* or " are spread " ; but 
as we have no causing agent except the instinct of the 
bees, we shall do well to let the bees spread or pour 
themselves around the white lilies. 

These are the five passages I have noted in 6th Book 
of the Aeneid in which a Reflective meaning appears to 
me preferable to a Passive. They might be supported by 
other passages in Virgil, e.g. Aen. vii. 163, exercentur; 217, 
afferimur; 640,induitur SLui accingitur; 673,/eruntur; 784, 
vertitur; 794, densantur; and 802, conditur. But examples 
may be found in other authors. Quicherat, for instance, 
in his Dictionary, quotes from Lucretius foras erumpitur 
as applied to the Wind, and translates il s^^chappe avee 
vioiefwe ; from Ovid lahuntur tempora, translating by le temps 
s'en/uit. But there is no need to confine my examples to 
the poets with their love of personification and preference 
for archaisms of Accidence and Syntax. I will support 
my position by passages from the ordinary prose writers. 

Cicero, de Amicitiay c. 21, " Cavendum vero ne etiam in 
graves inimicitias convertant se amicitiae, ex quibus jurgia, 
maledicta, contumeliae gignuntur." Here the Reflective 
meaning will be at least as good as the Passive, '* from 
which strifes, evil speaking, and insults beget or propagate 
themselveSy" instead of " are begotten.'* Again, in c. 22, 
"multis in rebus negligentia plectimur," "in many things 
we punish ourselves by our negligence," is not inferior to 
" we are punished by our negligence in many things." 
Again, in c. 24, " peccasse enim se non anguntur,'* — I 
should be disposed to translate " they vex or tcorrp themselves 
not that they have done wrong," rather than "they are 
vexed or worried," Again in the same chapter, "melius 
de quibusdam acerbos inimicos mereri quam eos amicos qui 
dulces videantur ; illos verum saepe dicere, hos nunquam." 
Cato's statement is " that bitter enemies often deserve for 
themselves more from some men than those friends do who 



1 to 

seem so pleasant, because tte former often tell them the 
truth, the latter never." Th& verbs mcreo and mereor I may 
remark are claesed together as having the same meaning 
vbether Active or Deponent, though I am not prepared 
say that this argues much either for or against my 
tion. And once tigain in Cicero, de Sfiiedn/e, c. 3, if 

were not afroid of being supposed to have Middle Voice 
the brain, I should be much disposed to give a Reflective 
force to congregatitur, though not a Deponent verb, and to 
translate the proverb pares cum paribus /acUlime congreganiur, 
" equals associate /hemne/res with greatest ease with equals," 
rather than "are aaisocinted." And though I have only a 
strong preference for a Reflective sense for exertentiir in Acn, 
vii. 163, albeit the verb is not a Deponent, I have a positive 
conviction that this must have been Cicero's meaning in de 
Seneeiule c. 14, " quanto studio exerceri in dicendo videbamus 
itiam Bcnem ! " 

ilso in Aen, vii. 506, kic forre armaltis obusfo, a Re- 
itive meaning appears to me more natural, more forcible, 

id more poetic than a Passive one. But be this as it 
may, there is a passage in Caesar (B, G. iv. 32) where an 
important question of army discipUoe and camp arrange- 
ment* seems to be involved. Caesar orders refiqiias co/iortes 
armitri. Now armor is not given in the Dictionaries as 
a Deponent verb. Is it therefore Passive in this passage? 
If so, by whom were the cohorts to be armed P We know 
that arms were stored in public armouries in time of peace, 
but who had charge of the arms of soldiers when in camp 
and off duty ? If, then, the cohorts were to be armed, it 
must have been somebody's duty to arm them, and, poor 
man, no sinecure must his duty have been ; if, on the 
other, band, armari has a Reflective sense, and the cohorts 
were ordered to arm themsehvn, each man would take his 
armour and weapons from the place where he had de- 
posited them. In our times, at least, there is a great 
distinction between soldiers being armed with (say) the 
Mari.iui- Henry rifle, and arming themselres when the bugle 
Hunds the alarm. 

By C. B. Cavley, Esq. 


The subject of thia paper is not any complete aeclion of 
BuasiBn gramniar, but a. somGwIiat minute point, which baa 
sppe&red to me paradoxical and embarrasaing in studying 
the moat approved practical treatise thereon. I refer to a 
cUsa of verbs, in their form compound and derivative (or 
buginning with a certain preposition and ending like deriva- 
tive verbsj, which admit of a double accentuation, and so of 
a double usag^e, not with a casual or nondescript change of 
meaning, like our iad'tcatice, indiealii-e, hut so as to fall into 
two dbtinct categories or aspects, which Gretsch designates 
the incomplete- definite and the complete- indefinite. But as 
tbeae tenna and others seem to require preliminary esplana- 
tons, aad as grammatical explanations arc apt to be most 
embarrassing things when not carefully expressed, I will 
begin by attempting a general survey of the ' aspects ' of 
the verb, especially as they have been at times mentioned in 
tniB Society as an isolated phenomenon in the Slavonic 
IsnguBges, and without any regard to their relations m 
wwparstive philology. 

Tie Word 'aspect' I only use as the conventional translation 
of the Russ nd& (pronounced tit), which, however, means no 
•Dore than ' kind ' or- ' variety.' It is certainly connected 
mth tiditl 'to see,' and this lends a colour to the translation 
**P«t;' but thia affinity le no more significant than that 
01 Ureek elSot, Latin species, which have nearly the anme 
meaning as ' kind.' So there is in Russ a frequentative 
Mpect, 13 in Latin there are frequentative verbs ; and rocito 
""oD' be considered a variety or say aspect of voco. But the 
•"""nislance which gives prominence lo the Russian aspects, 
<"■ *1 least two of them, is that they aeeru required to make a 
^''i^onieQt system of tenses, such aaje/<iis,/umia,^s,/t 



At lea^t, the moat obvious tranalationa oi je fis, je faisais, are 
the preterites of two aspects, tlie incomplete and complete ; 
and each aspect has its own infinitive. This, however, is 
really very like what happens in Latin ; for fadehnm, fed, 
have separate haacs, foci, fee, connected with the root in a 
very uncertain way (compare regebam, rexi), and having 
separate infinitives. Only we do not tT&ai facere, fecme aa 
the infinitives of two verbs, or even of two aspects ; we make 
them tenses of the infinitive, while Russian grammar allows 
it no tenses, which. I think is a more correct view. For either 
facere or feciuxe may relate to tho past or future, according to 
the context ; in fact, we never venture to speak of a past or 
preterite infinitive, and the term present infinitive is equally 
inapplicable. We shall rather find that/(fcfre mostly relates 
to the incomplete action, fecme to the complete ; I mean 
the incomplete or complete at the time referred to by the 
governing verb ; but if this is not always clear, it is for want 
of another distinction which we find in Greek. Here TUTTTeiv 
relates to the incomplete action, Terv^evai to tho complete, 
Ti/^t or Tviretv to the indeterminate or aorist. And this 
word ' aorist ' imports no uncertainty as to present, past, or 
future (for erm^ is decidedly a preterite with trifling excep- 
tions in hj-pothetical phrases), but us to the imperfect or 
perfect action specialized in erirrrrov, rhvipa, iTerv^tv. To 
the above infinitives correspond as many imperative forms, and 
twice as many indicative forma, of which last one in each 
pair is present or perhaps future, and one preterite. So that, 
from a Russian point of view, there is an incomplete aspect, 
inf. Tinrreiti, pres. tutttu, pret. ervTrrou ; a complete, inf. 
TSTv^epai, pres. rirvipa, pret. eTeTV(f>ei.v ; and an indetermi- 
nate, inf. Tinfrai or rirreiv, fut, rv^fn), pret. erv^a or ervirov ; 
and with this plan we may readily connect the subjunctive and 
optative moods and the participles. You will not be surprised 
at my counting rerv^a, ireTiitpeiv as present and preterite; the 
one 18 ftfA TfTw^aw 'I am having beaten,' or what Bishop 
Wilkins calls the present of the copula with the past of the 
predicate ; the other is ^v rervipaK, tho past of both copula 
and predicate. On the other hand, there is some difficulty 

aboQt CO mting Tv^frw in tlie aoriat aspect ; it has a separate 
inGnitive tu-^iv, thougli this makes not so much a real 
tense of the intinitivc, as a kind of iDchoative form. Then 
Tif^ is a future, when analogy requires a present, which 
U what happens in the modern Russian complete aspect, 
perhaps not in the older language. Again, TV^/r&i goes with 
the Doric tv^tw, a contracted form, of which the base is not 
Bunpte Tu^, but -nn^ or the like. I am, however, not 
toclined to believe that tvi^w is a mere corruption of tu^Si ; 
rather there have been two forms confounded, TiApvd a pre- 
sent indeterminate, and -nn^w a future indeterminate. 

In Latin there is evidently an incompleto aspect, but the 
indeterminate and complete aspects are mixed together, so 
tbatyiW is 'I did,' a preterite aorist, or 'I have done,* a 
present complete ; still feceram is always of the complete 
aiipect, /eciise usually so. In Rusa we have I). An incomplete 
aspect, dilall 'to be doing,' voLetv; delalU 'I was doing,' 
dilaiu ' I am doing,' or ' I do ' (unless where ' I do ' implies 
the frequentative). 2). An aspect called the complete, but 
partly including the indeterminate, thus sdelati 'to do ' 
{wairiaat, not -rreiroti^Kivai), adHalu ' I did,' but with a por- 
ticle ie ' I have done ' or ' had done ;' ndilalu ' I will do ' 
(used of immediate futurity, for generally we can express 
futurity by the auxiliary biidu ' I shall be,' and the infinitive 
of the incomplete form). Aa to formation, the complete 
aspect ia sometimes simpler than the incomplete, and thus 
resembles the second aorist rather than the first in Qreek. 
I shall speak presently of verbs like adilaU in which the 
complete aspect is more complex, ^ote that all preterites 
ire declined like verbal adjectives, having gender and 
nnmber, but no personal affixes ; in the modern meaning, 
however, they need not approach participles. 

The frequentjitive verb is conjugated like a defective verb 
of the incomplete aspect ; or it has a preterite incomplete 
\i\x facieham, and a periphrastic future, but commonly no 
present or simple future ; but bUitall from biiUl ' to be,' may 
be considered of incomplete or of frequentative aspect ; 
it is probable that all the frequentative class of verbs, of 


which Aieall, rati, all are common terminations, arose from « 
combiDation of other verbs with this verb aa an auxiliary. 

These Russian frequentatives seem rather to refer to a 1 
broken action than a multiplied one, and hence their \ 
negative phrases, as nikogda ne Mkovalu. ' he never used to J 
talk,' not ' he never often talked.' 

The semelfactive verh is essentially the opposite to ' 
frequentative, and signifies what we get done at one* 
declined like the complete verb, with a simple future, and 
a preterite analogous to feci, jam feci. The usual infix. n« 
reminds us of Gr. vu in ^evywiii ; unluckily the Gr. infix 
seems limited to the present and praiterim perfect tenses, or 
what I have classified as forms of the incomplete aspect, 
while the Russian forms exclude the incomplete aspect. 
Nevertheless, it ia noteworthy that raany of the Ok, verba, 
as t^ir/wfii,, heUvvfitt refer to an act which may be suddenly 

Now, let us consider again that the Infinitive of the com- 
plete aspect is more like a second aorist than a first {i.e. it is 
the form nearest the root) ; and that in Greek many verbs 
have no second aorist, as especially the circumflexed verbs, 
which are regarded as nominals or verbs formed from the 
nouns of other verbs. In Russ there are similar verba, 
though from the absence of accents and long vowels it is 
harder to trace them. But they seem mostly recognisable 
by an exuberance of vowel or diphthong in the desinence of 
the bases, whence they are referred to the last conjugations 
in theoretical grammars, whereas in practical grammars 
these conjugations take a prior place by reason of their 
frequent occurrence. Now there are many cases where these 
secondary verbs furnish the incomplete aspect, as in com- 
pounds imatl or niinall ' to take," wlule the primitive verbs 
(aa Uifl or nlaii for nemtl) furnish the complete aspect. Compare 
Latin video, videbam, videre from a nominal base ; i-idi, vidme 
from a primitive. Sometimes the primitive and secondary 
forms have another application, as I will soon exemplify. 
But there are many nominal verbs which have no available 
primitives ; and hence there are verbs of incomplete aspect 



wlijeh have no complete aspect natiiraUy. But as it is 
praciically necessary to use them for what was done, as well 
as for what icax being done, it is agreed that their compounds 
with certain prepositions shall be used for their complete 
;i^peclA. Thus d^/atl ' to do,' is of incomplete aspect, but its 
compound sdilall of complete ; iliialA is ' he was doing,' 
hot sflilalA 'he did.' Of course the preposition has, or has 
had, a more sjiecial meaning, but it may be an unimportant 
one ; and the use of the two terba in question is not altogether 
unKke that of /«c('o, conjicio in Latin, if I may assume that 
con/ecit would be more easily found than conjiciebat. It is 
to be noted, however, that the compound of the frequentative 
does not assume the complete aspect, but is reckoned of the 
intjomplete, while losing its frequentative character. This 
rule holds of many verbs which are no more used in the 
simple form, and which are considered as very contracted 
jrequentatives, so that their inhnitives do not end in call, 
hut in Intl, etc. Other aspects are occasionally distinguished. 
The term indefinite verb is sometimes used in a broader, 
and sometimes a narrower sense ; but there arc some twenty- 
eight pairs of simple verbs which are called duplicate 
{fugnl'&il), and are said to have a dfjinifc and an indefinite 
aspect. Between these aspects the formal relation is various. 
Sometimes the definite verb is primitive, and what is called 
irregular, while the indefinite is secondary or regular, so 
that it may be called nominal, at least by analogy ; thus 
ite*ti ' to carry,' is definite, nonid ' to carry,' indefinite. 
Sometimes the definite verb is secondary, while the indefinite 
is like a contracted frequentative, as is the case with lomili 
and lomati, ' to break.' But let ua come to their use, which 
is a more interesting point. 

The use of the definite aspect seems to be almost confined 
to affirmations, while the indefinite is required for negations 
and interrogations. This is the less remarkable, because in 
Buss these phrasea, the negative and interrogative, require 
often a peculiar construction even of the noun, so that the 
genitive case, which seems to have a partitive import, is used 
instead of the accusative or sometimes of the nominative. 


For ' I saw not the woman ; she is not at home,' we seem to 
have ' I saw not of the woman ; there is not of her at home,* 

The intention ia, I suppose, to deny more vaguely and com- 
prehensively and show that there is not a particle of truth in 
the assertion that appears to bo combated. There ia the same 
intention in the French negative forms ne . . pan, ne . . point, 
and even in the English not for tie ought ; though these 
strong negations need not have been carried into dry phrasea 
like ' A is not equal to B,' or ' A n'est paa ^gal A B ; ' where 
we do not mean that A is assuredly very far from being equal 
to B. But I come now to the grammatical complexity which 
forms ray proper subject. 

According to Gretach the simple definite and indefinite 
verbs, as tiesfi, nosill, 'to carry,* may be both of the incora- 
pleto aspect. The compound of the definite verb, cnesti ' to 
carry in,' is, as you might expect, definite and complete in 
aspect. The compound of the frequoutative, as riwsivail, is 
indefinite and incomplete. But the compound of the in- 
definite may be complete-indefinite or incomplete-definite, 
or both. Under bii/atl 'to flee,' Gretach givca ten com- 
pounds of one character, indefinite- complete, and the same 
(all but one), with six new ones, as of the opposite character, 
80 that nine are equivocal ; under nosili ' to carry,' he refers 
to the same analogies. But so far as regards the one pre- 
position cHi ' out,' he lays down this rule. When the pre- 
poaition in the infinitive and some other places draws the 
accent to itself, as in viiiiioaitl, the compound is complete- 
indefinite. When the accent in these places remains on 
the verb, as p&inosiil, the compound is, on the contrary, 
incomplete-definite. In the former case you can express 
'I did not do,' in the latter 'I was doing;' that is, the 
fleeing or the carrying or the like. Here is what has struck 
me and others whom I formerly knew, as in theory an 
interesting paradox, and in practice a most troublesome 
perplexity in the Eussian grammar. 

One consideration has since occurred to me. The form 
vfii-nosiii, omitting at present the accent, may be two things, 
1) the verb twaitl with the preposition prefixed, or 2) the verb 





formed from tlie compound noun, whether used or implied 
(I believe it is used in this instauce), vfilms ' an outcarrying,' 
which has the accent on the first syllable and comes from 
tHiaesli, the compound of the primitive and definite verb. 
When the verb lias the complete- indefinite character, the 
preposition is accented ; it is then really attached to the verb 
and has the usual power of turning the incomplete act to a 
complete. When the verb has the incomplete definite cha- 
racter, the preposition belongs to a noun, and haa no power of 
expressing the complete action. But a definite action is 
expressed, because the noun hod a definite character. The 
possibility of this double character of a compound and 
secondary verb may bo illustrated hy the Greek irpoXoyi^M 
and wpoXoyi^futc. Of course they are not related as tvtttw, 
rvTnofiot, because irpoXiryL^a} meana ' I play prologue,' vpoXoyi- 
^fuu 'I calculate beforehand.' The pedigree of one is \eyta, 
TTpoXiya} ' I speak before others,' ■rrpoXoyo'i ' a prologue,' 
vpoXoyi^tt) ; the pedigree of the other is Xeyo*, \6yo<i ' an 
accouut,' etc., Xoyi^of^ai, irpoKoyiKpiuu. They are not sister- 
forms, but second consins, each having a special character 
according to the generation, earlier or later, in which the 
preposition intermarried with the verbal family. And a 
difference of accent, as if we had -TrpoXoyi^ofiat, might easily 
have arisen, but for the peculiar bws of the classic languages, 
which limit the accent to the last three syllables. 

N.B. — In transcriptions of Russian words & represents the 
mute final character i, but Hi the vowel bi expressed by y in 
Polish ; I h modifies the preceding consonant ; but initial la. In, 
etc., are equivalent to (h io) ya, i/a, etc. ; e, e are used, how- 
ever, for le, li (e i); s, z represent the letters m « equivalent 
Io sh and French /. 

the Rev. Cuauscy Maples, M.A., of the Universities 

MisaioQ to Central Africa. 

" Corn* _ 
as bs-^H 
1 »f I'tw • 

The Makua language is classed by Dr. Bleek in his 
parative Grammar of South African Languages " 
longing to what he terms the Middle Branch of the Baati 
family, and in that Branch to the Southern Genua of its 
Eastern portion, under which he includes the dialects of 
Tete, Sena, Lorenzo Marques, luharnbane, Sofdla, Quili- 
mane, Makua, Cape Delgudo, and Maravi, In this list, 
which only represents the collections of Dr. Peters, we shall 
probably have to include the Makonde language, and pos- 
sibly those of the Muvia, the Mweni, the Matambwe, the 
Bonde, and many other tribes in that locality of whosej 
tongues we know as yet little or nothing. Of these dialects, ' 
which are spoken for the most part in the country adjacent 
to the Kiver Rovuma, the Makonde idiom is alone known 
to us through a small vocabulary and grammar printed ia 
Zanzibar in 187G. Its pronominal prefixes very closely 
resemble those of the various genders in Yao, to whioli' 
language it is closely allied. 

If we follow the somewhat simpler classification of Bantu 
tongues given by Friederich Miitler, we find Makua noted 
as belonging to the Zambesi group of the Eastern Branch. 

A question has sometimes arisen. From what language of 
the interior did the Swabili of the coast take its rise? and 
in answer to this Kipokomo, Eishambila, Kiyao, and Xima- 
kua have alternately been fixed upon. To call any one of 
these dialects the mother-tongue of Swahili is as foolish as to 
call Sanskrit the mother of Greek or Latin or German. Just 


M in the ca«o of the Aryan family we must go much further 

i»ck (hna Sanakrit, if we are ever to recover the original 

molher-tongue, so also in the Bantu family it would be 

foolith to look at any two of the multitudinous diftlecta, and 

upon a little specious evidence declare one to have produced 

tbeulher. It is possible that one may stand to the other in 

tne relation of an elder sister, but here the evidence adduced 

IS for the moat part of too slight a character to enable ua to 

come to any dcBnite conclusion. In Swahili the ordinary 

wrd uoir in use for ' to climb ' is ku/miula, but there is another 

word almost obsolete, and at the present time for the most 

pan PonSned to poetry, — kukirea. In Yao, however, the only 

ford used for ' to climb ' ia kiikirera. From this and like 

instances it has been argued, that Swahili is a kind of recent 

dereiopment from Yao. It is said that the accretion of 

Arabic elements into Yao practically brought about a new 

language, namely, Swahili. But according to the principle 

I ilmost universally agreed upon in philology, that a language 

Iiflonnot have a mixed grammar, we find the grammatical 

■ Jtructure of Swahili purely Bantu, and wholly unaffected by 

■■Arabic, which language is ouly responsible for increasing 

1 vocabulary. Moreover, in the very instance cited, the 

c {?) word which has taken the place of the obsolete one 

ii not of Arabic origin, and, eo far as we can tell, may be as 

a the word which has fallen into disuse. The argument, 

9ierefore, by which some superficial observers would derive 

'ahili from Yao, breaks down at every point. As little 

1 be said for Dr. Krapre theory that Swahili originated 

from Eipokomo. 

Before speaking in detail of the peculiarities in the 
phonology and morphology of the Makua tongue, a few 
words are necessary on the subject of its geographical dis- 

The great centre of the Makua tribe lies at the back of 

(-Mozambique. Probably the largest towns this people poa- 

B are to be found much in the same latitude as the 

d of Mozambique, and perhaps from one to two hundred 

iile« iu the interior. The country of the ^lakua is as 


little known aud explored as any part of East Africa, t 
therefore it ia impossible to attempt an estimate of 1 
numbers of tbe tribe. Roughly speaking, the Makuae 
over five degrees of latitude and four of longitude. Tbei 
are many subdivisions of the tribe, all known by their di»^ 
tinctive tattoo marks ; but, as far as has been ascertained, 
the dialectical variations of their language are remarkably 
few and ioaignificant. At Moa&si, which ia 300 miles from 
Mozambique, the people make use of a vocabulary, which is 
almost identical with the Makua spoken thirty years ago at 
Mozambique, and which Dr. Peters has preserved in his 
vocabularies of Mozambique languages. Now at the very 
lowest computation the present Makua inliabitants of Masisi 
must have been settled there forty years ; and if they were 
not there before that time, there ia no reason to believe, that 
they were either located in the neighbourhood of Mozam- 
bique, or indeed much nearer it than they are at present. 
Similarly the Makua of the Upper Rovuraa, further from 
Mozambique than Musasi, speak the language as it is spoken 
at the latter place ; nor do we know that they emigrated 
from Mozambique in very recent times. We have therefore 
the fact of a savage tongue spoken in two places 300 miles 
apart, between which there has been no direct communica- 
tion for at least forty years, and perhaps for four times that 
number, with as little variation as in the English of the 
dialect of Devonshire and Middlesex. It would seem, how- 
ever, that Makua is peculiar in this respect, other Bantu 
tongues often showing very rapid changes in the course of a 
few years, and varying very considerably in different places. 
Thus, to cite Yao as an instance, the dialects of this lan- 
guage at Masasi, Diantyre (L. Shirwa), and Mataka's Town, 
exhibit some very distinct characteristics, and differ mate- 
rially throughout their vocabulary. The strange custom 
known as ukukhnipa, prevalent among the Kafirs, is un- 
known in the Mozambique and more northern groups of the 
Bantu family, so that verbal decay and change arising from 
that source is excluded, while some marked peculiarities in 
the phonology of Makua doubtless contribute to preserve the 




knguage in a comparatiyely atationary condition. It. is 
common now to talk of the Baotu family, under wliich, 
Speaking roughly, all African dialects aouth of the Equator 
(slirnys excepting those of the Hottentots and Bushmen) 
ireolttssed. No doubt the morphology of all these dialects 
is sufficiently homogeneous to allow of such a classification, 
but it must be remembered that the question of a primitive 
Bantu mother- tongue, from which these dialects eepa- 
rated off, is aa undecided one. The parent-tongue theory, 
however convenient for the purpose of explaining analo- 
gies, and reducing discordant elements into their proper 
hsrnioQiea, is at best hypothetical. It will account no 
doubt for resemblances up to a certain point, but it can 
never be the ultimate explanation of all the problems sug- 
gesled by the varying dialects of a family. It is undoubtedly 
true tliat in language the tendency is from diversity to unity, 
wid that the reverse process is an unscientific fiction. Iso- 
lated communities started with isolated languages. Various 
causes combined to break down their primitive isolation, and 
the need arose for a lingua franca. Hence new dialects were 
evolved aa the result of joint contributions from the older 
8iid earlier ones. The Bantu family at the present time 
eshibita this process actually going on. Every dozen years 
Of 80 probably sees the absorption of one at least of these 
languages in two or more of those closely allied to it ; they 
m turn are about to give way, as the advance of civilization 
contributes to the spread of a third, which happens to be the 
"pflten tongue of the civilizing community. Thus it is 
pretly evident, that the days of the Zaramo, Gindo, Sham- 
"■ISi and Kinika idioms are numbered, when we consider 
the proximity of the people who speak these dialects to the 
'^^ahili.gpeaking race, which represents all that there is of 
ndvancement and progress in that part of East Africa. The 
■'•'^tun language alone is sufficient evidence, that the theory 
"IB Bantu mother-tongue will not answer all the questions 
'"S^ssted by a compariaon of the various dialects making up 
we family^ for it possesses a large number of words entirely 
"""■wiatent in any other of the known languages in Bantu. 


No known law of verbal change or transliteration can 
account for these words by showing them to be phonologically 
connected with others in other dialects of the same group. 
This fact of Makua, which, we doubt not, could also be shown 
to be a fact of many, if not most, other dialects in the 
family, refuses to yield to the theory of a " mother- tongue"; 
rather it militates strongly against it. 

The only authorities on tho Makua tongue are, I believe, 
Dr. Bleek, and a grammar of my own recently published by 
the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. In dealing 
with the concord of the noun, I have adopted a different 
classification from that of Dr. Bleck, as being more suited to 
the purpose I had in view in compiling the grammar. But 
the excellent scheme of the author of the Comparative 
Grammar of South African Languages, hy which all the 
nouns in all these dialects fall naturally into one or another 
of sixteen or eighteen genders, must not be disregarded. 
Few theories are more important in the present condition 
of the science of comparative philology than that of Dr. 
Bleek with regard to gender as applied to Bantu tongues. 
In classing Makua nouns I shall therefore follow his 
genders rather than my own classes, and shall en- 
deavour to fi.U in the lacunte, which, by reason of the scanty 
materials upon which he worked, necessarily exist in his 
table of Makua prefixes. It will be convenient to arrange 
the few notes I am in a position to offer on this interesting 
tongue under the three heads of phonology, morphology, and 

I. Pho)toIogij. 

Perhaps the most noticeable feature of the Makua alpha- 
bet is the certain and definite character of the letter r. As 
is well known, this letter ia for the moat part scarcely to be 
distinguished from / in Bantu idioms. Bleek says, " One is 
justified to consider r in those dialects as a sort of floating 
letter, and rather intermediate between / and r than a 
decided r sound." Bishop Steere, writing on the same sub- 
ject in his introduction to a grammar of tlie Shambala 
dialects, says, " I have written throughout / for that pecu- 



My African sound, wLich seems to European ears at one 
time distiactly an /, and at another an r just as distinctly. 
I liBTe found an I sound always understood, but not bo a 
itmag r." The word for 'pepper' in Swahili might be 
ifritlen pilipili or piripiri, or that in Yao for ' tongue ' might 
irilh equal correctness be written run'mi or liilimL Makua 
alone »eem8 to be the exception in discriminating very care- 
fully between the two letters. Indeed, r by the Makua is 
Miwlly strongly trilled, and reminds one forcibly of the 
Frenoh r iu ricn, roi, etc. Where it occurs after a nasalized 
COnsonaDt, so strong is the emphasis upon it, that at first it 
wia supposed a dental d intervened, and but for the fact that 
this letter occurs nowhere else in tho language, would 
certainly have been inserted in words like nrata, nroe, etc. 
The d however is clearly not an integral part of the word ; 
and if we assert that it exists in nrata and nroe, its occur- 
rence must be explained by the parallel cases in the Greek 
iWjM? and the English tlinniler and lender, the insertion of 
the dental in these words being due to emphasis, since their 
etymology will in no wise account for it. 

The following list of substantives exhibits some of the 
more important and well-ascerl-uined variations in the pho- 
nology of a leading language of the Zangian branch and the 
dialect under discussion ; — ■ 








































From this list it will appear that the m/> of Swahili 
comes ^ in Makua, the t becomeB r, the iig becomes k, i. 
hecomes either A or k, the i becomes h or sh. There is 
iastaace of s used alone throuo;hout the language, althougl 
sh ia one of the commonest combinations. Not only does 
represent both the ch and /of languages bordering on it, but 
it seems allogether the sound of which the Makua are most 
fond. The softness of the sh and fh of Makua, these combi> 
nations in each case taking the place of harsher sounds in 
the neighbouring dialects, cootributjjs largely to the general 
sweetness of the language when spoken, while these two 
sounds, together with the frequent occurrence of the explo- 
sive j) and the aspirated /i, form some of the chief character- 
istics of its phonetics. It is impossible to mistake Makua- 
for any other tongue when it has been once heard, so 
striking and forcible are its phonological peculiarities, ThB 
frequent use of t/i by the Makua may be attributed with a 
high degree of probability to their custom of filing theip 
front teeth to a point, while it is not unlikely that the pelelo, 
or lip-ring, may have a great deal to do with similar modi- 
fications in the phonology of the lao^age as spoken by the 
female members of the tribe. 

While / and r are used indifferently by so many of the 
Bantu tribes, the Makua seem to confuse I and n. T 
letter is often made to do duty for the other, and thus the 
common verbal terminations ele and ette are treated as idea- 
tical by them. The Makua speaking Tao invariably fall into 
this error. 

It is perhaps doubtful whether iv in Makua should not 
more properly be written h. Certainly it is no more than a 
serai-vowel wherever it occui's, the more decided tc of Yao 
being represented in Makua by r. Thus, maloic in Makua 
represents the malove of Yao. The letter v also stands for ji 
of other dialects. Thus, the prefix of locality, which in so 
many of the Eastern Branch languages is pa, in Makua' 
becomes ra. Dr. Bleek has an important remark {op. cit. 
p. 37) on the nasalization of consonants in the Bantu lan- 
guages. He considers that " the employment of an initial 


Ilibiat Danl m before all cotiBonants is a recent feature, end 
has evidently arisen from the euppresaioa of some vowel 
(generally u} wliich is etill visible in most cognate dialects. 
Id fuut, a sort of Indistinct vowel sound may still be said lo 
beliMrd with this initial m separating it to aucb an extent, 
from the following consonant, as to prevent its influencing 
or being influenced by the latter." This theory is certaitdy 
borne out by the facU that meet us in the languages of the 
EmIoti Branch. To take as on instance of what Block says, 
the word for 'God' in Makua and Yao, wbicb is Muluku 

»uid Miilmi'jii, it would be impossible to say from a mere 
Wring of these words pronounced by the people tbera- 
•elTeg whether they should rather be written Muhtku, 
•Muknyu, or Mlukii, Mluugu. They are pronounced at one 
time one way, and at another the other, so that as one hears 
the words one is alternately cat-ching and losing the « sound 
■fl«r the nasaL Similarly with such common words as 
"I'm, mti ('man,' 'tree'), which are as often pronounced 
thuh and mvli'. 

The only diphthongs, properly so called, in Makua, are ai 
and ou, pronounced like the English / in *mine' and ok in 
' hour.' 

It is perhaps almost unnecessary to remark that the Eng- 
lish (as in 'go') is unknown in Makua and in South 
Africna languages generally, the o of the vocabularies usually 
standing for the English on in such a word as ' soar,' or the a 
in- water,' 'call,' etc. 

All syllables, and consequently all words, end witb a vowel 
m Bbihu. Even the nasal »i, which sometimes seems to 
•wniplete the word, is never unaccompanied by a vowel drop 
after it, even if that be only the faintest possible u, wbicb as 
a lennina! is generally the lightest sound of all. 

Inslunees of coalescence of vowels are common to most 
of ihese languages ; a with i often contracts inlo c, as in the 
Makna mittio (eye), pL nielho {mailho). Sometimes however 
the a before i simply disappears, as though subdued allo- 
grlner by the stronger sound, as in the Maktia word for 
'looili,' fliVjo, pi, niiiw. The theory that ch {as in English 


As a rule the change in the plural of a noun only aftecta 
the fint part, or pronominal pretix of the word. Makua is 
prolnbly uaique in changing the termination of the plural 
equivalent to the 14th gender. The 14th and (ith (?) 
lieaders of Dr. Bleek correspond to the 5th class of Mukua 
nmmi in my own arrangement (" Collections for a Hand- 
book uf the Makua Language," p. 3), and here it is that we 
find lliB singtdar of euch words as uthakala naaking their 
piurat mott«A«/o, the terminal a being changed into o. As 
i* well known, the terminal vowels in Bantu have nothing to 
do with the prefix or concord of the noun, although they 
play un important part in the modification of the meaning 
ofthaword (Bleek, op. cit. p. 138, note), and arc thus no 
donbt insiancea of the principle of flection at work in lan- 
guages which strictly belong to the agglutinating order. 

There are more nouns beginning with the vowel i than 
Tilh ony other prefix. Dr. Bleek sees in this ) a trace of 
the old article, and compares it with the h and i of Zulu and 
Kafir DouDs, and with the o in Otyiherero, Bunda, Kongo, 
etc. He thinks that in the Kafir species this article had 
onginully the full form of the prefix. It is significant that 
where the singular of any noun begins with the vowel i, the 
pliirj knows no change. It would seem as though there 
Were some intrinsic force in this letter, whether it be ex- 
plained as an article or not, which obviates the necessity of 
»ny change to express a distinction of number. Perhaps it 
would be right to suppose that where the i occurs as the 
initial letter of a Makua noun, the true gender prefix ia 
ouiilietj both in the singular and the plural, and the noun is 
alloffed to stand alone. This supposition harmonizes well 
'nth the fact that the concord of these nouns throughout all 
the parts of speech has no other prefix than this same initial 
'.eicept indeed in the plural, where ch ia found, though this 
""y Terj- likely have crept in by a false analog)', and thus 
Would not be the true formative prefix eorresiwuding with 
'he noun with which it is coupled. The Makua themselves 
l»ugh at the idea of a change in form being thought neces- 
m^ fur the plural of words having the prefix i. 


As would be expected, there are but few adjectives in 
Makua, their places being supplied by a qualifying noun oc 
verb preceded by the preposition o, with its prefix in agree- 
ment with that of the noun qualified. The comparative 
degree is expressed by coupling the two things to be com« 
pared with the particle ni ( = * and,* * with *) — mtu ula 
mulupale ni ule=^' this man is big with that one/ Le. 'this 
man is bigger than that one.' A more common way of 
expressing comparison is by the use of a word denoting ' to 
exceed/ together with the substantive indicating the special 
quality in respect of which the comparison is made. The 
superlative degree is expressed by the use of the adjective or 
qualifying noun in an absolute sense. 

In the relative sentence in Makua, a special tense-form 
alone marks the relation, and this too only when the time of 
the relative action is past or future. If present time be im- 
plied, there is no distinction in the form of the relative 
sentence, and thus the relation can only be determined by 
the context. Where, however, the relative is the object of 
the verb, a very strange usage of the pronoun obtains. 
Thus, the sentence Hhe man whom I saw' would be ex- 
pressed, * the man, he saw, my ' ; or possibly, * the man was 
seen, my' {mtu amonile aka)^ since the active form of the 
verb is in very general use for the passive. 

The pronouns * this ' and * that * are throughout the con- 
cord distinguished by a change in the terminal vowel ; * this ' 
being represented in the various genders by ula^ ala, chiia, 
etc. ; and * that ' by w7iP, aip, chile, etc. A more directly 
specific pronoun is represented by yole in the sense of 
* this one here,' which may be made more emphatic still by 
placing it before, and repeating its last syllable after, the 
noun. Thus, * this very man here ' would be expressed in 
Makua pole mtule. 

The Makua verb, unlike the Yao, possesses no separate 
prefixes or suffixes for expressing the direct future tense. 
Most of the tense relations are expressed by formative pre- 
fixes. A kind of second future is formed with the auxiliary 
verb 'to be,' in the sense of */ shall be doing, loving, etc.* 


Mskaa, lika a kw other languages in tlie eastern Bantu 
group, poAsessea a past impcrrect tense, wliich is expresacid 
bjamlfiiifl. The other suffixes are the e of the suhjunc- 
live mwvl, and the e/e in the relative past tense, both of 
which have caused the suppression of the final vowel of the 
item fBIeek, op. eil. p. 50), The negative conjugation has 
iii Mukua no sufE-xes, all its tense relations being expressed 
bj pre6xes only. In the variety of the verbal forms, and 
the usage of the auxiliary ' to be ' in combination with tliem 
to express niceties and delicate distinctions of meaning, the 
Makna verb may compare not unfavourably with that of the 
Torkiah language. The use of the verb in Bantu reminds 
one forcibly of the Mexican habit of incorporation, which 
bu its analogy ako in Hungarian and Basque. The eub- 
etive and objective pronouns entering closely into the 
ibataaoe of the verb is at least so far an instance of incorpo- 
ition, however little the general type of Bantu tongues 
^forms to that of the American family. It is remarkable 
ia Makua there seems to be a process going on by 
rtioh the objective pronoun in the verbal compound is 
gndually losing its place there, as though it were being dis- 
torered that the meaning is sufficiently clear without this 
iKrtion, Thus, whereas in the kindred dialects such a 
mlence as ' I love my house ' would be expressed ' I — it — 
ie my house,' in Makua the sentence may he expressed 
fsuisely as in English, 'I love my house.' Objective pro- 
ominal infixes are still incorporated with the verb when the 
wa referred to belongs to the first or second gender, but in 
Bl the others, as far as I have been able to ascertain, they 
'S omitted (" Collections for a Handbook of the Makua 
Uguage," p. 51 ). 

A future relative is expressed by the prefix nololux, which 
Wdoubtlese the equivalent of the " talca" tense in SivahilL 
(fwft Steere, "Handbook of the Swahili Language," p. 119). 
"0 etymology of the word is uncertain, but it is probably 
tile rehc of an otherwise unused verb meaning 'to will.' 
Siiice (flia in Swahili is expressed by saka in Yao, and since 
ifore these words, as used in the future relative, un- 




place. This prefix was therefore ia all probability originally 
ideotical with the preposition denoting locality, which in 
Makua is always va. 

The numerals ia Makua reach as far as five, and are then 
counted on as ' five and one,' ' five and two,' etc., up to nine. 
For len there is a distinct word. From ten to fifteen the 
reckoning is ' ten and one," * ten and two,' etc. From six- 
teen to nineteen it is ' ten, add five and one,' ' ten, add five 
and two,' etc. Twenty ia expressed by 'two tens,' thirty by 
'three t«as,' aiity ia 'five and one tens,' one hundred la 
' ten lens.' 

Words espressive of colour in Makua, Yao, and Swahili, 
and probably in most languages of the same branch, aro 
three only. The first denotes all that is dark (black), the 
tecood all that ia light (white), and the third all that is of 
a reddish hue. Yellow would be expressed by the phrase 
'the colour of turmeric,' green by 'the colour of grass,' 
Hue by 'the colour of the sky.' Other shades would be 
(imilarly expressed by their likeness in colour to well-known 

The auxiliary 'to be' is in Makua uka/a, the primary 
Bcsning of which is ' to dwell,' equivalent to kukaa in Swa- 
hili, The abstract meaning attaching to the word ia there- 
fore, as in so many other languages, savage and cultured, 
reached through a sensible idea. Indeed, its transition of 
meaning from ' to dwell ' to ' to be ' (of simple existence) is 
"actly paralleled by our own English ' was,' connected as it 
IS with the Gothic rhan, and more remotely with the Aryaa 
« (ilax Miiller, " Lect. on the Science of Lang.," p. 383). 
The verb ' to have ' is expressed by ukitla, followed by the 
prepoiiiioa «a ' with.' The word by which sin as some- 
thing more than error or mistake [uieonya) is expressed in 
Hakua is iHAaiPi, Now this word means primarily 'witcb- 
cra^' But it appears to be used also for adultery, cursing, 
theft, murder, and other crimes, when it is intended to speak 
of any one of these as sin. The Makua seem to have a 
'*'7 itrong idea of the grievous wrong attaching to the 
[inctioe of witchcraft. In a lesser degree they feel the evil 



describe by adding the word ' about ' in such verbal notions 
K 'to plaj- about,' ' to walk about,' etc. Closely allied to 
thia use of reduplication is that by wbicb tbe idea is con- 
Tejed of the verbal action aa continuous. Diminutives and 
plurals are frequently expressed by a reduplication of the 
»ord which denotes the ordinary and singular notion. 
PiuraU of large objects are rarely expressed by reduplication, 
but wbea the idea b of small things, which, though many, 
ireyet more oft^n thought of collectively as one, then re- 
dnplicatioa is almost invariably employed. Thus, a very 
KibII fruit or vegetable gathered and eaten in handi'uU 
generally has for its name a reduplicated word. Red pepper 
u ihus eipressed ; and such a fruit as currants, if known to 
SasLu- speaking people, would no doubt convey some idea of 
its ffay of growth by reduplication in the name given it by 
them. Large fruits growing singly never have, so far as 
we are aware, reduplicated names. 

My comparatively small acquaintance with this most in- 
teraling tongue, on which the above notes are oflered, must 
be my excuse for their meagreneas. A further kuowledge of 
tbeMaltua people and their language will afford me oppor- 
tunity at some future time' of making some additional 
remarks in elucidatiou of theories broached in these notes. 
It ramaina only to explain the reason why I have almost 
invariably departed from the rule of alluding to tho lan- 
piages mentioned above with the prefix l:i. I have spoken 
oitbeJIakua language as Makaa, and not as Kimnkim; of 

E Tao language as Yno, and not as Kiyao. Tho fact is 
^»l the prefix ki by no means denotes the language only. 
^yoo may mean ' the Yao language,' or it may mean ' Yao 
ff'i fashion, habit, dress, manner,' equally well. Tln- 
oubtedly the fundamental idea at the root of the ki prefix ia 
•bat we should express by ' sort ' or ' kind.' Thus, u Swa- 
™i person would understand by the expression nnsema 
^»whili what we mean by 'I speak the Swahiii sort,' which 
"^Murse in such a phrase would refer to tho language. The 
'wb must decide the paiiicu/ar meaning with which tha 
ffefii ici ia nsed. in the sentence, its general meaning being 



■ I 

" ' 1 7 


always ' sort ' or ' kind.' If we wish to express correctly 
'the Makaa language' in Makua, we must say tnahve gc 
Kimakua. The latter word hy itself cannot mean anything 
else than ' the Makua sort/ The Swahili people themselvee 
observe this rule, and are very clear in their use of the h 
prefix. Since Kimakua is misleading as convejring othei 
ideas besides that of ' the Makua language/ and since the full 
phrase for that expression is too long for constant repetition. 
I have thought it well to drop all prefixes, and allude to these 
languages as Makua, Yao, Shambala, Swahili, etc., using th( 
unvarying ground- form about which there can be no mistake 
In conclusion, I must acknowledge the help I have gainec 
in putting these notes together from the perusal of Pro- 
fessor Sayce's recent philological work, and the interesting 
remarks therein contained on the Bantu family. 

VI.— THE POLABES. By W. R. Morfill, Esq. 

A VERY full account of the ' North-Western Slavs, thei: 
settlements, and relations to the other Slavonic races, hai 
been given by Schafarik in his Slawische Alterthumer. H< 
divides them into three great families. 

1. The Lutitzer or Weleten, who inhabited the countrj 
between the Oder, the Baltic, and the Elbe, called in Sla 
vonic Labe, whence the name Polabe, or people living on th< 
Elbe ; these were again divided into many subordinate tribes 
which need not be recapitulated here, as my paper aims a 
being philological rather than ethnological. The traces o 
some of these peoples may be found in the local nomenclature 
all the north part of Germany being studded with towni 
and villages which carry with them unmistakable proofs o 
their Slavonic origin. 

2. The Bodrizer, also subdivided into many tribes, dwelling 
i':-% westwards of the Lutitzer, in the present Mecklenburg anc 

. £.•; Holstein. 


3. The Sorba or Serbs, in the present Lusatia and Saxony, 
east oflfieSaale: these are now divided into the Upper and 
Lower Sorba, part of whom are under the rule of Prussia — 
the Ifiederkusitzer — their chief town being Kotthua, and 
partly under the rule of Saxony — the Oberluuaitzor — their 
chief town being Bautzen (in Wendish Budysin), which is 
B centre of Slavonic culture, and many hooka are published 
there in tbe Luaatian, Wendiah, or Sorbish language. In 
1845 a Literary Society waa established, which publishes its 
proceedings twice a year. It is in tbe Journal of this Society 
tW we get something like a full reprint of the interesting 
Polflbish vocabularies preserved in MSS., or scattered over 
rare books. And without wishing to undervalue in the 
slightest the great labours of Schleicher, it seems preferable 
to have the words in such orthography as suggested itself to 
the perwa who heard thcra and took them down. These 
Tocabijiiries, etc., are, as in the case of Cornish, the only 
inemoriais which have come down to us. In another respect, 
"I»i the parallel with Cornish holds good, — both these lan- 
gaagesdied out at the beginning of the eighteenth century. 
The vocabularies have been edited and annotated by Dr. 
PfuM, to whom we are indebted for a very complet-e Dic- 
tioMiy, published in 1866, Besides his collections, we have 
two other works on the same subject: — 

^- The Polabiah Grammar of the great philologist 
Schleicher, a posthumous work published at St. Petersburg 
"1 1871, under the care of Leskien. 

*. Hilferding'a " Memorials of the Polabish Dialect " (St. 
Petersburg, 1856), written in Russian. 

Oiiriag the first five-and-twenty years of last century this 
Swvonic language gave its last expiring gasp in the eastern 
collier of the former kingdom of Hanover, and especially in 
tn* circuit of Liichow, which even up to the present time ia 
«JIed Wendland — Wends being the name by which the Slavs 
were of old lime called by the Germans, and the term is still 
applied to the Sorbs and the Slovenes. The language of the 
»'l*r being sometimes styled Wendish causes an unnecessary 
''•"ifuBion with the Lusatians, whereas the Slovenes belong to 

1. HuBsiaa 


the Eastern and the Lusatianfl to the "Western branch of the 
great SlaTonio family. 

Perhaps it may be as well to say here a, few words on the 
olassification of the Slavonic laagua^. Tbifi was began by 
Dobrovaky, and has been adopted (with certain modifications) 
by Schleicher, 

Sottth^Eartbrn Branch. 

{Little or Red Hussiaa. 
White UuBsian. 
. f closely connected with which is the Old 
™ ( Bulgarian or FalGeoalayonic. 

I Servian. 
( Slovenish. 

■Wbstekn Branch. 

1. Polish — with the Kashubiah dialect. 

2. Cech— Slovakisb. 

3. Upper and Lower Lusatiaa. 

4. Polabish. 

The characteristics as given by Dobrovsky are as follows : — 
S.E. WEgTEau. 

raz, razum roz, rozum (cf. rozpravy) 

iz — izdati vy — vydati 

[This, however, does not universally hold good. Thus, it is 
true that for ' edition ' the Kussian would say isdanie and the 
Cech ri/danie, so also sbornik, labor, and Cech vybor; but cf, 
the Kussian cybomi (lit. 'the selected man'):='the village 
deputy.' '] 

pec, moc, iio£ pec, moc, noc 

[This rule is far from being universally true : in Servian 
we have Urn 'black,' as against Bohemian certiij, Rusalan 
cherni. Cf. also Servian Uesta ' a road ' (also Slovenish) with 
Cech ce»la.'\ 

zwiczda hwiezda, gwiazda 

I It would hsTe aleo been betiei to give two fonna of words with the luni 
prefix, than wonla with different prefixe*. 

BT W, R. SIOKFiLI-, ESQ, 77 

[The Cech and Lusatian alone employ tbe /(.] 
gen. ago ego, oho 

dat. omn emu 

pal paiU 

Between the years 1691 and 178G certain vocabularies and 
dialogues in this language were taken down, and it is upon 
these tiiat Sobleicher lias based bis Grammar. Tiio memo- 
rials are all included in tbe following books, which it may be 
»-ell to particularize : — 

1. A Germ an- Wend ish Dictionary, compiled at the end of 
the seventeenth century by Christopher Henning, by birth 
■ Laeatiun, who spent the last forty years of his life as a 
clergyman in the little town of Wustrow (Slavonic, Ostrov), 
near Liichow. The pastor was inducted in 1679, and died 
in the year 1719, aged seventy. His "first collection wa» * 
sccidenUiUy burnt in the year 1C91 ; but he went to work 
again with n brave heart, and finished a second in 1705. 
Mofit of his words were taken down from the lips of a peasant, 
named John Janisch. In the time of Henning the young 
people n-ere already ignorant of the language, and the old 
pMplegaTe their information about it reluctantly, from fear 
of teing laughed at. Divine Service is said to have been 
held in Wendish at "Wustrow even so late as the year 1751. 
Of the materials compiled by Henning, two MSS. remain, 
the first of which is preserved in the Library of the Upper 
Lusatiua Learned Society {Oherlaim/sicfw Gesel/scha/i der 
^immlia/len) at Gorlitz, and the other at Hanover. Of 
one of these a copy was made, which was long preserved in 
tile family of the von Platows, and printed by Count Potocki 
10 his Voyage dans quelque parlies de !a Sasse-Saa-e pour la 
Tfthenk (les antiques Slaves oit Vendes, fait en 1794 par k 
"mle Jean Potocki, published at Hamburg in the following 
Jfw. Thia work teems with mistakes, and is now valueless ; 
" fcelongs to the category of such publications as Maach's 
"Wolsof the Obotrites" (Die Gotiendienstlichen Alterthumer 
^» Olmtritcii), and others of the kind. 

2- Tbe Lord's Prayer, Of this two versions have been 
preserved: one is appended by Henning to hia Dictionarj', 


6. A Collection of Three Hundred Words, printed in 1744 
h liii EamburgiacJie V^'iimchte Bibliofhek ; of no particular 

7. The Lord's Prayer and a Protestant Beiehtformel, or 
Form of Confession, taken down about the middle of last 
centnrj by the Burgomaster Miiller, at Luctow, from the 
dictation of his grandmother, Eramerentia Weling. In the 
iamewuj, the late Edwin Norris telU us that he could re- 
peat the Lord's Prayer and Creed which he had learned 
from the dictation of an aged Comishnian, who had retained 
it in his memory. This Beichtformel has been printed in a 
Tery careless manner iu Potocki'a work previously alluded to. 

8, One Hundred and One Slavonic or Wendish Words, 
with German translation, taken down by a certain Hintz, at 
Luohoff; these are the last remaining fragments of the 
Polabieh Slavs, who, with the exception of the liusatians, 
have been extirpated by the Germans, or mixed up with 
them, leaving only memorials in the bullet-shaped Slavonic 
iKuIl, the provincialisms of here and there an obscure village, 
Bnd (ome names of places. We may compare these dibria 
with the rWi^Hea of Cornish printed by Price, which Prince 
Luoien Bonaparte has shown were collected by Gwavas and 
Toatin, and the gleanings published by Messrs. Jenner and 
I*ch-Szjnna among the Transactions of this Society. 

I have thought myself warranted in giving at some length 
the sources of our information about Polabiah, because the 
wwb in which these vocabularies have been reprinted 
*K in languages which it is not very much the fashion 
to etudy in this country, and therefore the information 
^ he new to some of my readers. As many of these 
Tocibularies were taken down by men but ill -acquainted with 
wy Slavonic language, from the mouths of people who in 
their turn were imperfectly acquainted with German, wo can 
<*sily imagine that many mistakes have arisen. Sometimes 
■Batters were even more complicated, because the only 
"" in which the Polabish peasant understood, besides hia 
'■ti'e Slavonic, was Plntt-Dcutsch. Some amusing ex- 
""iples are given by Schleicher iu his Grammar {pp. 1^, 13), 



wtich Kasbouhish ia the connecting link, Tliis intereaLing 
diaiecl is still spoken by about 111,416 people near Danzig 
(I gi?e the number from tlie recent tables published at 
St Peleraburg by Budilovich). A grammar of Kasboubish 
Im just been published by Dr. Cejnova, which was reviewed 
nmewhat favourably in the last number but one of Jagic's 
^Aivhir, with regrets, however, that the arrangement was not 
more scientific. The Cechiah ia divided into two branches : 
(JBcbiili proper in the restricted sense of the terra, of which 
Siovaldsh is an earlier form, and West Cecbish, I'jz. Sorbish, 
which is again divided into Upper and Lower Sorbisb or 

Three main characteristics justify us in connecting Polabisb 
mth Polish :— 

1. The original combination dj becomes i/z, as in Polish, 
and not s as in (Jecb: ibus, the Old Slavonic chotizlidi be- 
eomes c«u(/si, cf. Polish cuJzy, Ceoh cizi, where the dz seems 
to be an older form than the metathesis which the Uld 
Sliivonic has undergone in zhd (au). 

2. J before at and » becomes dz: thus, riig 'horn,' nom. 
pi. niltai; nuija ' foot,' nom. pi. nudze, Pol. nodze. 

3. The nasals are preserved, and here we get many highly 
interestiug instances: disntigt=.deiiat^' ten;' tfi<m& = Bues. 
^fc'oak ; ' »iffH(/«i=01d Prussian menm, lit, mena, O. Slav. 
"w, Sanukrit tM«rtSfl='meat; ' ffHW=Ru8. jou»=' goose; ' 
«i»i«=Eua, roiika, Pol. r^ka='a band;' junzik=Vo\.jpzik= 
'tongue;' glombok = "Sms. j)/oh6oA = ' deep ; ' s«ffifi = Rufl. 
»M*. Pol, Mi=' tooth.' 

The nccent is free, as in Easboubish, and not on any 
■pwial syllable, aa in Polish on tlie penultimate, and C'ecb 
M the intepenult. These uniform accents are rightly re- 
g«rted by Schleicher as artificial. 

In a abort paper like the present it would be impossible 
for me to aim at anything like a complete classification of the 
•ounds. I shall only notice a few of the more interesting 
Wl«, which appeared striking to me as I looked through the 
Tocabalaries. The corresponding word to the Slavonic knaz. 


knagina * prince/ * princess/ is tgetiangSf igenangtgeeina in the 
original garbled orthography, where we see (1) the nasal, 
(2) the softening of the k before n. The JPolish ksiadz is a 
further form. 

In teelka, tjelkUy the word for 'owl/ there appears to he 
some confusion. The Russian, Polish, and Cech are 90va: 
perhaps the word intended was kalka 'a jackdaw.' 

' Horse' tjuny tjon; Polish, Russian, and Gech k<m. 

'Man' tjarl: this appears to be only the German kerl; 
and I might add that the number of words introduced 
from German is, as might be expected, very great. Here 
again Cornish in its decay furnishes a parallel, as in the 
number of English words introduced into the Miracle Plays. 
In the Lord's Prayer, preserved by Henning, we get such 
a line as — 

Tia Hk komma=' thy kingdom come,' 

which is almost pure Low German ; but in its Slavonic form, 
to take the Western languages most akin — 

Polish : Przyjdz krolestwo twoje. 
Cech : Prijd kralovstvi tve. 
Upper Lusatian : Pfindz k nam twoje kralestwo. 

The tendency to put a tr (t? sound) before many vowels is 
shown strikingly in Polabish, and I here give a few instances. 
In this respect it exhibits more affinities with the Lusatian, 


Wendish, and the Cech, than with Polish. In the former 
language it is a constant characteristic ; thus, cf. worjely Rus. 
Orel 'eagle;* wo^oha^ Rus. o^oba 'person.' We have got 
traces of this, as is well known, in our own dialects — woak 
for ' oak ' — ^Wokingham, Oakingham, etc. 

In many Cech words it is thrust in by the common people 
where it ought not to be found, as any one may easily notice 
at Prague. I might add that in Russian also it is heard un- 
grammatically among the lower orders. 

The following I have noted in the vocabularies : — 
wackenow=wakno^=Ru8. okno — 'window' 

^ I miffht add that I give the spelling of the MSS., the (supposed) correct one 
being added from Dr. Pfuhl and bchleicher. 




voista^^Rus. oost^' mootb ' (cf. hat. osdum) 
voischi=irotsi— oaUio, Rus, pi. oushi='car' 
woDtrik^otrok^^' son ' 
witm=owca=' eheop ' 

As on Uie one hasd we get tlie r soand gratuitously in- 
tA the beginning of words, so at the end of some it 
happean, aa in the word 8a/ii='nigbtiagale,' of which the 
form, according to Schleicher, was t'hva, with which 

may compare the Bussiao to/orei. 

In one of the vocabularies given by Pfuhl I see praditn 
glossed as 'garden.' This is probably for some form like 
pogradin. The root of the word is a verj- familiar one in 
SUronlc. Cf. Russian gorod (by avarabhakli as Johannes 
Schmidt calls it, or polnoglasic), in Bohemian hrad, as in the 
welUliQowa hradtehin and zahra4. The word has got into 
Boumaniau, where it luu become pograda is the sense of 
' charchf ard,' probably aa an inclosed place, 

Wi:dri=' hwu.' This is curious, the ordinary word being 
t^nlv (with alight modiBcations according to the different 
dialecu). We may perhaps compare the Kuaaian ceilro 'fine 

Launs 'moon.' Here Polabish inclines to the Eastern 
branch: if we pronounce the au aa in German, we get a very 
nn-Slavooio sonnd. The corresponding words in Cech are 
"***«!, and in Foliah ksi^zye. The word louiui ts very ancient, 
"w^iiningin the Old Slavonic version of some of the sermons 
of SL Chrysoetom, called the Qlagolita Clozianug, considered 
l>y Kopitar to be aa old as the tenth century. 

i'oym~jv)i,ci=.' beer.' Ordinary Slavonic word, of course 
connecled with biho, Trltia, etc. This ia however quite an 
itQuauol form, and argues a diphthong. The Lithuanian 
gives ns alus, same as the A.S. cj/. The word ol. 


no^'ever, occurs in the Ecclesiastical Slavonic, and also in 
'''6 Modern Slovenish, which gives ua so many interesting 
'onng; und, in keeping with the tendency of the Slavonic 
™?iugie8 to prefii r, we get tol. 
iyoAj=' white.' Rua. bielii, and in all Slavonic languages. 

/ > 1 


Lithuanian baltas (Nesselmann, Wbrterhuchy p. 319), bal 
hnones ' honourable men.' The Welsh gfc^n is used in th 
same way, as Professor Rhys has reminded me. It is ak 
probably the same as our 'bald.' Cf. the expression 'a bale 
faced stag/ i,e. with a white mark on its face. ' 

Jaapke=:jabka^' EL^^le.* Compare Russian yabloko. Let 
obohs, Lit. obolf/8y in Old Prussian (according to Nesselmani: 
tpoblSy where we have another instance of the insertion of th 
IP, Itjaapke is accurately taken down, it would be the onl 
Indo-European form which has been preserved without the 

Joji=' egg.' Cf. German ei, Russian t/aiiso, the last syl 
lable being a diminutive, as in otetz ' father,' Gothic atta. 

Jazmin * barleycorn,'' /(fifrntVi. Russian y^Am^. We mm 
be prepared for an alternation between ts and ch in th 
Slavonic languages, as previously shown. Cf. the Russia 
chernii and the Servian tzm, 

Dubere dan—dobere c?<lw = ' good-day.' The root dobr \ 
^QTY common in Slavonic, and is identical with the Germa 
iapfer and our ' dapper.' 

jF7asser='hair'=t'/<r?«. In Russian by Svarabhakti roto 
plural founded on German analogy. Cf. grab, grdber, 

PiaSy pja8=*EL dog.' Russian jpe«, which Miklosich cor 
nects with pecus. 

T(arw««rt='soul.' 'Rnssian dousha, 

Slim=: ' word.' Russian slovo. A very interesting forn 
because it has been surmised that the o in slovo is only b 
assimilation with v following it. 

/S«fl79fl=' sleep.' Russian sow, root sopn. Cf. spate *1 
sleep,' Greek vttvo^. 

iye/6i = 'love'=Rus. lioubov. Lat. libet. The word loi 
in some of the languages of the Western branch. Cf. Polia 

The syntax at the time when the vocabularies were co 
lee ted already began to exhibit signs of breaking up, an 
was becoming moulded upon the German. We find tl 
same thing occurring with the Welsh language, the synta 
of which is now greatly formed upon English, and expree 
sions condemned by Goronwy Owen in his letters as th 


est liarbarisiDS are in daily uae. We see similar in- 
mcea brought to bear upon Upper and Lower Lusatian, 

h make use of an article contrary to tbc analogies of the 
Ikvooio Lingtmges (with the exception of Bulgarian, where 
i baa also probably been superinduced by the influence of 
iCanrrounding languages). Thus, in Polabish warden was 
NCTDwed to express the passive. So also to express the pre- 
iBrite of the active, 'to have' and 'to be' are used as 
tKuliaries with the past participle, as tms piirdon ' thou hast 
t^'=.inutshi pro'(nH,ja eumarfy=yeiil w(Hi*-Vi='be is dead.' 
The Pastor Mithof, of whom mention has been made in a 
^Reeding part of this paper, tells us the following peculiarity 
if the Wends of his diiy : whenever they spoke German, they 
IKK in the habit of putting an h before words in which it 
did not exist, as haller, haugen, kamman, etc., for aller, atiffen, 
Ambttnann, and of leaving It out in words in which it did, 
like our perverse Cockneyisms. We see sigua of this in tLo 
modem Lusaiian- Wen dish, where Andrew becomes Ufitidnj, 
Adam ffatlam, Annchen Uanka. The odd thing is that tho 

IB confusion is found in Lithuanian, according to Kurscbat 
(>eehi8 Grammar, p. 22). 

With these remarks I conclude my paper. I have already 
Ipoken of the Upper and Lower Lusatians, the last remnants 
•f the Slavs on the Elbe. The Wendish population, accord- 
jing to Dr. Pfuhl in the preface to his Wemitic/iea WorterbiKh, 
■tmottuta to 200,000 ; Budilovich, however, makes only 
86,000 Upper Lusatians and 40,000 Lower. A good work 
*u their historj', with an ethnological map, has been written 
in Polish by Boguslnwski, published at St, Petersburg in 
1861. There is also a full account in the second volume of 
tie Skeiamki Sbomik (Slavonic Miscellany). In order to 
"wke the list of the Western Slavs complete, I will add the 
MoffiDg statistics ; — 

Poles .... 9,492,162 

Cechs .... 4,783,213 
BbvBks .... 2,223,820 


of these poculiariliea seems to point to some 
difference of dialect, or at least to soma difference in the 
fMhlon of forokiag place-names,' 

To test the matter further, the terminations in inff/on and 
ingham Lave been separated from those in Ion and /lam 
simply. The pesulta are striking. The ratio of the endings 
in irijfon to those in ton varies between 4 to 7 in Sussex, 
and 2 to 49 ia South Suffolk ; and it varies widely, and 
to all appearance capriciously, throughout the country. On 
the other hand, very nearly half of the iiiijhiimK are com- 
prised within two counties, Lincolnsbire and Yorksliire ; and 
in llie South and Wost of England the termination is ex- 
tremely rare. These facts may perbupa help to elucidate the 

J-fiF.— With the exception of hn and ham, this is the 
Kramoneat of suffixes. Dr. Murray considers the word to 
have heen Nominative leiili, liii. Genitive ledge, ledlie, and 
to mean 'ground left lying uncultivated.' It is still so 
^^ in Scotland, ' let it"lie lea for a year or two.' On the 
other hand. Prof. Skeat derives /cd A from fro//«i» 'to sbine,' 
nieaiiing 'a clearing, into which light is admitted.' Lnrm, 
in lAiin, he holds to be exactly the same word, the ed corre- 
sponding to u, and the A to c : while the Low German equi- 
valent ig loo, as in Waterioo. 

'^UD, — This still retains its meaning of a passage 
HcroM a river, under which it is a frequent sufEx ; more 
tnan eight times as frequent, it will be seen, as Iriilge or 
""!'?■ This is a striking proof of the scarcity of bridges 
St the time when place-names were iixed. I may venture 
'" point out, in this connexion, how many of onr older 
•^ties owe their consequence to ba%dng been the site of the 
'otest bridge on some important river. London itself is 
'"8 most conspicuous example ; but Bristol, Bridgwater, 
^6ter, Chester, Lancaster, Glasgow, Newcastle, Dublin, 
•^'If I Stirling, Berwick, and Perth, are others which occur, 
"^ nave heen suggested to me. 

ihu. tu fulluw up the luagustioti made above, it mifrlit easA^ be the fiwliiaa 
*all Atfiwi't pmeeasioit AUrrfinKton (it would now be .Vlfredrtown) in one dia- 
"«, ud lilnplj Alfceding (it wooid now be Alfred's) in anotlier. 


conunon alon^ the South coast, i.e. in Kent, Sussex, Ilatnp- 
shire, DorouUhira, and Wiltshire. In the latter a winter- 
bonnie is still the name giren to a stream which is dry in 
soiiinier, Under the form burn, this ending is equally 
commOQ in the Scottish Lowlaods. 

Iji.Vi).— Edmunde (" Traces of History in the Names of 
Places," 2nd ed. p. 246) considers this to be a corruption of 
len 01 lorn (compare German le/in), land held in fee or farmed 
out; he gives as esample Kingeland, formerly Kingslen, in 
Middlesex and Herefordshire, It ia remarkable how many 
tiiDM it lias the same prefix, bnck: There are no leas than 
nineteen Bucklands in Dugdale, of which twelve are in 
Devoii or Somerset. These apparently represent the well- 
known Old English Dockland, i.e. Bookland, or land held by 
written deed. 

COT.~A similar instance to that of Buckland is the 
frequency of Caldicote. According to Mr, Isaac Taylor, 
«if='mud cottage'; and Caldicote was the shelter by the 
wayside osed by travellers, and equivalent to Cold Harbour, 
whith is also common, 

FIELD. — This is a tolerably common termination, but 
specially so iij Suffolk, Essex, Sussex, Hampshire, and Berk- 
shire, In the West country it is now used solely for arable 
'■'Ki, a pasture- field being called ' a ground,' 

CHESTER or CESTER.— This, with its Anglian form 
Ca>liir, is far less common than I should have expected. So 
"""i.v of the old Roman camps have become important 
""118, that the word has become familiar to us. But there 
"^oulj fifty instances in all in the Table. 

SIDE. — This ending is not uncommon in the extreme 
^orth, bm is unknon'n elsewhere. I am uncertain as to its 
ing. iSii/=' spacious' in Anglo-Saxon; but the word 
•^^nis to be a substantive, not an adjective. The list of 
"•meg is as follows : Simonside, Corsenside, Hartside, Hase- 
^*y»ide, Wliiteside, Gibaide, Great and Little Side, Orraaide, 
■■oBiide, Ambleside, Gateside, Amside, Gunneraide, Stone- 
l^rtbside, Hartside. In some of these (Ambleside and 
^side), Dr. Murray informa me that aide is a corruption 


HITEF, and WITM or WATff.— Although I have 
se[)iiral«l these, there are a number of names ending in ith or 
fti wticii may be referred fo either one or other. TTilhe ia 
Old Eogliah^' shore,' or.' haven.' Walh is said to=' ford' 
or ' croiaing.' This aeems to be corrupted into irifh in the 
EostCTii Connties ; certainly Stockwith and Walkerith are 
adjoLTOt ferries on the Trent above Gainsborough. 

I come now to the second group of endings, namely, those 
which are British in their origin. The distribution of these 
is interealing ; hut they cannot be taken to indicate names 
whicLwere originally given by the Britons, and have eur- 
vJTwi from that time; rather it is the words themselves 
forming the endings which were taken up into the Old Eng- 
lish ipeeeh, and were afterwards used in forming place-names. 
This a shown by the following facts :- — ^1. It is usually the 
ttiilinga which are generic, e.g. coinbe^' valley,' pol^' fool ' ; 
but the getuus of Keltic languages is to place such words 
at the beginning, not the end, of a place-name, as is seen 
oy the many words beginning with Cicin in Wales, or Pol 
in Cornwall. 2. In many cases they are combined with dis- 
tinctively English prefixes, e.y. Timberscombe, Nettlecombe, 
AshdoM. 3, The endings themselves have in a few cases 
Bctualiy descended in English dialects to our own times, e.ff, 
lu Devon or Somerset a ' combe ' still raeans a hollow or cleft 
m the hillaide, while about Newcastle a deep narrow valley 
w a ' dene,' and all over England a ' down ' would be under- 
•tooii in the sense of a grassy hill. 

^0A''ori)OTF'^is common everywhere, except in York- 
™^, Lincolnshire, and Cornwall. In Keltic it means 
P™perly 'a hill-fort' (=t/im in Ireland and Scotland), but 
*" Kogliah it seems to have been used, as it is still, simply 
"" 8 hill, without reference to its being fortified. 

"E^'E is supposed to have passed into Old English from 
•"^ Keltic dfn = 'a small valley.' It is fairly common in 
''"rtJiDiiiberland, Durham, and Yorkshire, where, as we have 
•""i the word is still used ; and also in Gloucestershire, 
»b(,Te tile Forest of Dean still retains the title. It is also 


shire, Kent, Sussex, Oxfordshire, and Devonshire. It is only 
fonod onco in Cumberland and once in Yorkshire, 

DALE. — This, the regular Norae word for ' valley,' is 
common in North Yorkshire, Cumberland, Westmoreland, 
and LttDcashire. It is rare in South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, 
and the rest of the Ditnelagh ; perhaps on account of the 
flatness of the country. 

GATE. — It would seem natural that this should oome 
from the Norse ga/a 'a road,' as still used in towns in the 
North. It occurs however rather frequently in Middlesex, 
Kent, Eaaex, and Surrey, As the meaning in these caaes 
isBomevrhat doubtful, I give the list, as follows : Southgate, 
Highgaie, Withygat*, Margate, Kingsgate, Ramsgate, Shar- 
gale, Selgate, Rogate, Eastergate, Reigate, Nowdigate. 

TSORPE. — This is by far the most common Norse ending, 
nest to by. It is at least donhlful whether it is not Anglo- 
Snion, at least as much as Norae. It docs not appear in 
Cumberland and Lancashire, but is found in the following 
conniiea, where bp is absent ; — Buckinghamshire, Surrey, 
OiforA^hire, Gloucestershire, and Staffordshire. In Glou- 
CMlersliire there are several instances, partly in the Vala of 
Serern, and partly on the north-eastern border ; there it is 
MnetimBs pronounced, and even apelt, thnp. 

'fhe foUowing endings, which still remain, are such as 
'pprar to me to be doubtful, or on which further investiga- 
tion is needed. 

"OPE. — The distribution of this ending is perplexing. 
" n tolerably common in Northumberland and Durham, 
wd again in Herefordshire, Derbyshire, and Shropshire, 
■ff- Jiurray informs me it is still used on the Borders for a 
wrrieor combe, and derives it from Icelandic /loj), a small 
""yor inlut. I know a Hope in South Devon, which is a 
"""i huy at the lower end of a wide valley, and answers 
"'"I to thia derivation. Uut the /lopes of the North-east and 
"' flerefordflbire cannot well be thus accounted for, as they 
^"r in districts where Norae words are very rare. Further 
"■veaiigatiou seems desirable. 



amsU oreek or bay. The ending, however, ia more common 
in Anglo-Saxon than in Noree counties, and seems to be 
almost alwaya Engliah. In Beowulf vie ia used simply for 
an abode or lodging, and as a place-name it aeems to indicate 
an outlying habitation detached from the main tun. This is 
ekowa by the very frequent occurrence of the same prefix, as 
ia Hnrdffiek = Herdswick, Berwick =Bere-wick, i.e. 'the 
corD-ifiefc.' Mr. Jeffries, in "Wild Life in a Southern 
Couuty," states that in his district there ia a Wick Farm 
near almost every village. Similarly Taylor mentions that 
thiny funnhouses in the salt marshes of Essex end in irick ; 
and Mr. Shaw gives me four places so ending, all within the 
pariah of Bourn. The ending irich is probably a southern 
variation, bearing the aame relation to leick aa ditch does to 
^kt, ridgt to rigg, and hali-.h to beck. It probably retain'! the 
meaning of ' bay ' in placea where salt is made, as Nantwich, 
Northwich ; but there the f is pronounced long, as it ia also 
in the wykes or creeka of the Lake District. 

WELL. — It has been suggested that this ending is some- 
braes a corruption of the Norso (■i7/e=the Old German leeilcr 

abode.' The ending however is to me clearly an Anglo* 
""^none. It is common in Oxfordshire, Dorsetshire, Essex, 
fifc-iandianot found in Westmoreland and Oumberland. It 
should rather be ascribed to the obvious meaniug of 'a 
spring,' M is certainly the case with the City of Wells, and in 
sucb names as Holywell, Broadwell, Brightwell, Clearwell, 
*!*!■ The termination ville is extremely rare, not reckoning 
of course such cases aa that of Acton Turville, where the 
■^o of ihe Norman family has simply been attached to the 
^on fief. All that I have been able to 6nd, not distinctly 
Komm, are the following : Gunville (Dorset), TeovU 
(Soinwset), Enville (Staifordshire), Longville and Morville 
(■Wop). Ab to these even I am doubtful, since e.g. Enville 
fP^n as Enfield in an old map of the county, 

'^TT. — I do not know the meaning of this ending, except 
'" the form sett, which is conaidered as equivalent to ' seat,' 
•^"iw oases are Harnett and Coasett (Suffolk) ; Brockett and 
Briokett (Hertflj ; Thanet, Chialet, Bromyett (KentJ ; Flashet 




and Hampnet (Sussex) ; Burnet, Hempnett, Pawlett, Watchet 
(Somersetshire) ; Mymett and Luppitt (Dovon) ; Hadnet and 
Kinlet (Salop) ; Artliuret (Caraberlund). 

OCK. — This endiug is not uncommoQ in Wesaex. I pre- 
sume that it is simply equal to ' oak,' which is also found as 
an ending. Some names, as Ma r toe k = Market Oak, seem to 
support this theory. I may mention as instances : — Quantock 
and Chinock (Somerset) ; Hemyock, Dunchediock (Devon) ; 
Breock, Quithiock, Broadoak, Bocarrock, Ladock, Cheviock, 
and Budotk (Cornwall) ; Dymock (Gloucestershire) ; Chid- 
ock and Sellock (Ilerefordshire) ; Euahock and Pendock 
(Worcestershire). The large numher in Cornwall possibly 
points, however, to a. British origin. 

The endings in the Miscellaneous column are of course 
very numerous; a large numher of the names are (hose of 
saints, as St. Neots, St. Ives, etc., and others seem altogether 
irregular, I give the chief endings which appear to possesg 
some regular meaning, adding for the commoner ones the 
total number of instances in which they appear : House, 
Thorne (16), Stang, Slack, Bank, Garth (8), Fell (7), Ell, 
Gill, Castle, End (13), HaugU (6), Home, Bottle, Drum, 
Croft (5), Wold (13), Brook (46), Holt (12), Shaw (14), 
Minster (22), Cross, Heath, Dish or Dilch (7), Bach (7), 
Marsh (10), Beach, Way (8), Hanger (9), Fold (6), Stable (7), 
Mead (5), Grove (6), Linch or Lish (7), Church (38), Shot (7), 
Mond or Mont, Whistle, Win, Acre, Yard, Fosa, Water, 
Lake, Clough, Bold, Market, Colne, Less, Sand, Lade, En, 
Soken, Bush, Lip, Font, Ware, Mill, Hatch, Haven, Huish, 
Ore, Ash, Son, Wall, Scale. 

In concluding ray paper, I have only to repeat that these 
observations are not to be taken as more than suggestions, 
to elicit inquiry on this interesting subject, and to draw 
attention to some of tho facts which are brought out by the 
Table I have compiled. 



DAIiE 'TO give; and j-DERE 'TO VXJT: 
By J. P. PosTGATB, Esq. 

TusKK has been a general agreement amongst philulogurtj ' 
since Pott that ia certain words previously considered to 
be compounds of dare the verb should be referred to root 
UHA'to Bet,' which is seen in Skt. il/id, Gr. Beleai; this is 
a result of the opinion that the meaning of these compounds 
made it impossible to connect them with dare ' to give.' 
This opinion I hope to show ia not m well grounded as it 
Los been supposed. 

Pott '■' allows the following words to be derived from da 
' give ' : dfilo, Irado, proth, veiido. 

He classes as doubtful : addo, dido, perdo, I'udo, circumdo, 
edo, reddo. 

He assigns to DHa ' put ' ; abdo, crt'do, condo {aba- re-coiido), 

He does not mention obdo, pesmmdo, the rare inlerdtto, and 
the quasi-compound aaiisdo. 

Corsseu,' who is the only philologer since Bopp that I 
know of who has given an arrangement of all the compounds, 
takes iiddo and edo to be from root ua. 

So that we see that those who maintain a derivation from 
DHA do not apply their theory to all these compounds of a 
similar form, nor do they agree perfectly about those to 
which they do apply it. 

I shall endeavour to show that there ore very serious 
objections to connecting an;/ of these words with root dha, 
and then to answer the arguments which have been adduced 
in favour of the connexion. 

The theory involves a fatal dilemma, of which the two 
horns are the two invariable rules, (1) that an initial du in 


DARE 'to give' AND t'DERE 'TO PUT.' 

lado- European must be represented by A or /, but not by rf 
in Latin ; (2) that verba in composition keep their initial 

conBonant unchanged. 

So far from rule (!) not holding in the case of dh, it is neter 
transgressed in the case of the aspirates at all ; g and b are 
the regular substitutes for medial gh and bh, but never for 
the same sounds when initial. The exceptions to rule (2) 
are only apparent ; they are such as conaudo (kongkutio) from 
f\ua/io (kwatio). 

Now if we assert— a quite ungrounded assertion — that pen/o, 
condo, etc., wsTe regarded by the Romans as simple verbs, and 
that 80 DH, being medial, could become d, and our first rule 
would not be transgressed, we are met by the fact that, of 
all compounded verbs in the Latin language, these give the 
clearest and most striking proof of their composition, since the 
reduplication, so far from appearing at the beginning of the 
word, is not, as in most compounds, lost altogether, but is 
prefixed aflt-r the preposition to the simple verb. Thus, 
the assumption of a change in the initial consonant, which 
is very improbable for any compounded verb, is doubly 
improbable for these. A Roman who formed the perfect 
of condo by con-di-di {not ' cocondi ' or ' condi ') could hardly 
forget that he was dealing with a compound. 

Again, if to escape this difficulty we assurae that there was 
a simple verb dare ' to put,' we have only Scylla for 
Charybdis. Rule (1) will not allow the d in dare to stand 
for d/i, and we have brought our compounds no nearer 
whatever to the Greek ffe and the Sanskrit d/id. 

Further, the root dha does actually appear in Latin with 
an initial/in facio,^ so that the improbability of there being 
another simple verb with initial d from the same root with 
the same meaning is increased tenfold. To these objectioaa 
may be added others to which Curtiua' has alluded. He 
remarks " that it can hardly be doubted that the Romans 

' Se« CurtioB, No. 309. Conwn raelu to svoid Uie difficulty hj ooanectmg 
idio with root BHA. 'shine' (I. 423 oeqq., &c.), & oonneiion jumj termed harsh 
:....= «f f.^„ ^ y,fj plear in in^o 'put in tha *iil to 

D^JWfcr* tc 





thoug'ht all compounds of -do to be of one origin ; " and 
besides, he notices the fact that the root du, which is a bye* 
form of ria 'give,' ia da-tnf, etc., appears not only in inter- 
du-d'n which i§ admitted to be compounded with da ' give,' 
and addaet which is claeaed as doubtful, but aho in crediimt, 
perdaiiit which are supposed to be compounds of dha. So 
Zend du is both ' to give ' and ' to make.' 

We must now see if the difference in meaning is such as 
to be at all commensurate with the difficulty of separating 
words that other considerations require imperatively should 
be taken together. 

The words in question may he fairly classed thus for the 
advocates of a connexion with dha. 

Derivatives from CA ; main meaning ' to give ' : dedo,prodo, 
irado, eendo, cenumdo, mUsdo, interduo. 

Derivatives from dha or da ; meanings mixed : addo, dido, 
edo, imio^ perdo, reddo, cifcuniilo, pessumdo. 

Derivatives from dha ; main meaning ' to place ' ; abdv, 
condo (abs-condo, re-condo), credo, obdo, nubdo. 

The last words require discussion first. Credo is a great 
stronghold of the dha theory. It is compared with the Sk, 
^ratdadhami = fiflem drai), poiio (drtd/idmi), and the Old Ir. 
crel-im (crel-les qui credit). But it is to be observed that the 
Sanskrit may just as well mean ' do^fidem ' ' as 'ponojidem ; ' 
for da-dii&mi means, inter alia, ' to bestow anything on a 
person, grant, confer, present, give.'* The appearance of 
this meaning in a root which is generally one of ' placing,' 
is an indication of how closely the meanings are allied. The 
Old Irish forms cre/im, etc., prove nothing. The I m crct- 
bas assimilated to itself the initial consonant of the verb 
with which it is compounded ; and this consonant would 
appear in Irish as d, whether the original root was iiA or 
DHA. Credo then may as well mean 'I give trust' as 'I 
place trust,' and at least is no evidence for a form 'dere=. 

> UuhUingk und Uoth. Sanaki. Diet, e 
it* ioe.; e.g Rigr. i. 116, 8, pttumalim 

It is used with the rf 


Thus, if both the senses give and place were found in the 
Latin dan, there is some reason to suppose that for these 
four verbs the meaning of placing would predominate over 
that of giting. 

Baring esamined the cases in which the aaaumption of 
DHA ' to put ' is supposed to be iiecessnry for the explauation 
of tho compoQiid verh, I now consider whether generally 
there is or is not a connexion between the meanings to ' gh-e ' 
and';iii/'; and without asserting that either idea is the 
older— a question wbich we have not sufficient data to de- 
termine ss yet — I venture to think that there is throughout 
language generally a very widespread correspondence in 
their variously ditferentiuted meanings. Yet, though I 
think that it has not been shown that the meaning of ' place ' 
in the root dii came from that of 'give,' I should be very sorry 
to assert that it could not have done so. What the idea 
'give ' is capable of may be seen from an examination of the 
French iloniur, especially in its reflexive and neuter senses. 
One or two instances will suffice. Doiiner^ means 'to be 
taught m, 'fall into' donner dana la piSge; 'to rise,' levin. 
donnf i la tete; 'to open on' tloiiner sur la rue; act. ' to 
mah, cauiie.' donner le feu trop chaud. 

The following are some of the correspondences in the 
development of the two ideas ' giving ' and ' placing ' in 
vanous languages. It will be seen that it is in the region of 
dotBg, making,' that they are most numerous. 

Jn Old High German geben and thitn show similarities of 
use. 'Sicb in die Flucht gebpn' may bo replaced by 'sich in 
die Flucht Miin.' So 'emam die Hand fuon'^gire the hand. 
I have already said that in Sanskrit the same root d/id means 
both to jiliice and to ijire. The same is the case with the 
Zend rfd. Burnouf* notices this inextricable confusion of 
the root in Zend, and he attributes it to the copyists, who 
had «eased to distinguish between the two roots in their two 
meanings. In Ch. SI. dejn. is Lat. /acio {poiio ?), rfaml Lat. 

' See Littr^, Diet. Fran(^ 9.T. doiiner. 

' See Grimm, Dimtecli. Worlcrb. s.v. lAnn. 

' Quoted hj Putt, El. Forsch. Ix. 


d. titio dure ; Tidevai aBdvarov, cf. exornatum dare; rtde- 

vtu aKthaatv, 8teriiere=rfire stragem. So in compounds 
inikri li£€ris=^M( on paper = Germ, etwas zur Papier 
gebm; prorttr* is Ttpohi-iavat 'betray,' 'give tip'; but also 
vpmtdhai ej^iose ; a.\so irporiBevai 'publish,' 'put forth'; 
also TpoTtSivat 'show,' 'set forth,' aiid even = Eng. 

venuizK/o, venrfo, is Greek awoS IS o<r0 a i, but also Eng. 'set 
to sale,' e.g. " both God and state They easily would set 
to sale," Milton, Sainson Ag. 1466 ; so Greek ixdi'tvai.. 

adi/o is ■7rpo<rri07ifi.i adponere, Eng. 'pit/ to' (as opposed 
to 'take /rum,') Ecclea. iii. 14, butaho irporrSiBoini. 

^ois 5Mi«iS(B/i(, Lucr, vi. 42, " primae frugiparos fetus 
mortttlibus aegria dididerunt . , . Athenae ; " but also 
^iSi)tu Aispoiio. 
E'/oLas several meanings which can be paralleled: 

(1) ' exhibit '=Eog. ' sel out'=Greek exd eif ai. 

(2) 'publish ' ^ Eng. ' })ut forth,' ' set out ' = Greek 
"SoOca*, iK9elvai=GeTTa. aaai/eben. 

(3) 'explain'=Eng, 'sel forth '^^expouere. 
(i) 'turn oul'=Eng, 'put out-=eK0eZuai, 

(5) ' utter '=:Eng, ' ffhe forth,' 'set up,' Dryden, 

(6) 'raise'=EDg. 'set up' (esp. in adj. etiitus). iado is 
*f^iu ; but also evBiSoifu, in sense ' put into : ' Eur. 

vpai Sffiaa-i. xevrpov. circunirfo=Germ. umgebeii, but 
Greek trepidfli/au 
Tedilo is used as 

(1) 'restore' — Eng. 'replace,' 'put lack,' but Greek aTro- 
niovat uvahthovat. 

(2) 'yield produce '=Greek airohthovai. avaZi,h6vat. 

(3) 'make cau8e'=:Qreek aTToStSo'iiat. 

(4) ' translate ' = Eng. 'put back,* 'put into ' a language = 

We may add e«Soui'at = Lat. '/)one/-e' = Eng. ' pid out at 
torest,' or in Old Eng. 'put off.' 




Thu it perhaps the meaning ov the word in Iluth i. 10 : 
" Surely we will go back with thee unto thy people " : — 
15 : "Behold, tby siater-in-law is gone back unto her people ": 
— 16: "Thy people shall be my people." 

I wil now, without further preface, note down the points 
which httv struk me, classifying them as far as praclicabl 
wider different heds. 


Fiakfi; This is the word stil commonly uzed, altho being 
gradiialy displaced by buh-her, to denote the man who sels 
meat. The bulcher ia the person who kils the animals, and 
the word in this restricted sens ia clearly analogos to tlie use 
OT the word 'butcher' to denote a military coraander who 
puts to deth a large number ov persons remorslesly. 

Joiner. This word ia commonly uzed in Ediuboro where 
#Brp«i/cr woud bo uzed in London; but over shops we som- 
tintes see the nolis ' home carpeiifer ' in the same way as in 
eaporia we may see the notis ' s/n'p carpenter '. 

taikriahr. In Edinboro this tradesman is cald a 
ftinerai unilcrlaker, a name which seems to indicate the origin 
r the Muihern term. 

Cd-hirer is a person who leti out cabs on hire. 

Gfftngrocir and Jts/imotiffcr ar commonly seen ritn over 
MOpn, each as two distinct words, green grocer and fish 
taonger, and not as singl words, its is the case in London. 
. ■^'''M'l'wwH, This word in Edinboro dos not denote a 
Bioplteepefi but a journeyman or a mechanic. Compare the 

Articls ov Food. 

Oiget of mutton (pronounst Jigut), clearly derived from 
*" 'JWich, is much the same, but not exactly, as s leg ov 

W%=8melt, the 6sh. 

BY T. B. 8PBAGUE, M.A, 109 

Homt. When a large bildmg is erected, generaly with 
a stngl entrance and a Bingl etaircaso, and is divided into a 
number ov flats, each containing two or more rooms, the 
whole bildiag is cald in Edinboro a tenement, and each Bat, 
consisting ov two or three or more rooms, is cald a Aotfs,' 
Thus, ther may be a tenement oontainiug 12 or 16 housea, 
each let to a different person ; and one ov these ' houses ' can 
be bo't or sold like a set ov chambers in the Inns ov Ck)urt. 
The plural is pronounst by som Scoch persons housez, but 
by others in the English manner housez. 

GMr. lu England the fraze ' gable-end ' ov a hous is 
not uncommon, hut perhaps few peepl atach a perfectly 
definit meaning to it. In Edinboro the word ' gnble' is in 
constant uae, to denote the lateral wal ov a house. 

Ti^ltf is the common word for the boundary wal ov a field. 
It may be either a stone dyke or a turf dyke. (I am told that 
il eommonly implies that the stones ar put together without 
mortar, but I cannot eay this from my oen observation.) I 
belie? I hav herd it aplied also to the mre fenee» which ar 
Bow Teiy common in the Hihlands. Etymologicaly It is, ov 
Wars, the same word as ' ilitch ', and I believ that in the 
north or Ireland I hav herd the word ' dUeh ' uzed with 
tench the same meaning as ' di/kp ' in Scotland. 

Stinking Willie is the popular name for ragwort : probably 
IB opposition to this the wel-knoen garden flowr is cald Sweet 

Goima ia the common word for daisy, horte goisan for dog- 

Bnul is commonly uzed ov any kind ov animal, large or 

aal, such as a hors, a dog,' a cat, or a mons ; this being 

Wwistent with the old use ov the word in the classification 

— b««ts, birds, and fishes. 

&o«/-Aj.o(^(.,.= brother- in -law ; and in like way ar uzed 

S^xl-sister, father, mother '. 

'Ti^UBwu mdia known in EnsliBh Cnn 
'"'"JJwtiDg a misunderstanding of mine in b 

' Mr bfltd in Scotlnnd the fniio, a "bouoy weo btajil,'' where an English- 
■»»iniilJu,,^^ pretty litl dog. 

Blf T, B. SrilAGCE, M.A. IH 

Tivfoua. This Is equivulcut to tlic EugUsh word ' timely ', 
uii'titnely notice*. 

To litl. To aiii proceedings means to suspend procedings. 
Compare Latin siJito. In coneclion with this word, Inaay 
mentioD that I was greatly puzld by receiving a request 
from abisnes correspondent in the north ot Germany, 1 think 
Memel, to the efcct that we woud ' nifiircn ' payment ov a 
ctotm, I coud not find the word in my Gorman dictionary, 
and it wag not until I receivd a second letter from my 
correspondent that I coud conjecture that be ment ua to 
delay paying until we herd further from him. 

To feu. Without going into technicalitya as to the feudal 
(yelem, it may sufico to say that to feu a piece ov land is to 
let it upon a perpetual leas. The word, therefore, has a 
dislinclly different meaning from the English word to lei on 
lent. Nevertheles. popularly it may be uzed in the same 
sens, Tiiiia, when I visited a frend at his villa, he told me 
M bad ' feud his gras park to a flesher ', meaning that he 

>d let the field ajoining his garden on a short leas to a 



JVwf/. This is a word the disuse ov which in England is 
leally a matter ov regret. It is in frequent use among al 
8 in Edinboro : ' I shal not need an overcoat to- 
i«v ', etc. 

To niin(;= remember : ' I can't minil where I saw you." 

-To fed a smel is the fraze that woud be uzed in 
Bdiaboro when a Londoner woud hav no alternativ but to 
l^. 1 amel a smel', or ' ther is a smel'. Similarly as regards 
WW sens ov siht : a Scochman wil say, ' I feel that the 
^>«t8cl9 ar tinted*. 

To ttay is commonly uzed where a Iiondoner woud say 
*|p ,11 'be stays at Morningside'=' he livsat Morningside'. 

To Krf, This is a word ov very wide aplication uzed much 
!M the wonl_^ apears to be uzed in America. 'I will sort 

meana ' 1 will put it to rihts'. ' Sort the children before 

sj'reput lo bed.' 



to iiiiliiiboro, when I told a clork to do somthing presently, 
to find that be went away and did it iinedially, 

iiie/yzzprobably : " I shal likely be there,' But Englieli- 
mea aay terij like It/. 

To-dai/, lo-morro. Insted ov 'to-day', the uneducated 
offen My ' the day '. In the aame way, they offen aay ' the 
week ', for ' this week '; ' the month ', for ' thia month '; and 
'themr'.for 'this year': 'I havn't seen you the year', 
liny not lo in these words be a ooruption ov the ? Somtimes 
aiso we hear the fraze * the now ' ; thus, ' I shal do it the 
now', eipressee determination to do it imedtatly. 

Oc nftc. This fraze is uzed where in England 'anew' 
woud probably be employd : ' the work was comenced ov 
new ', it novo. 

ji lit! ago. A Scochman uzes this fraze where an 
Engliahman woud say a litl while ago. 


"^iienr. Ther ia a peculiar Scoch use ov this word : 
KfieiKter I saw it ' =a8 soon aa I saw it. ' I recognized you 
*benner I herd your yoice ', that ia, aa soon as I herd your 


As a general rule, it may be stated that ther is a greater 
™rence in pronunciation between educated reaidenta in 
*Q'nboro than ther is between Engliahmen ov a similar 

'■ Tbis, I think, arises partly from the beds ov familys 
•'■""g com from different parts ov Scotland and retaining 
.lie pronunciation ov their nativ districts. 

Uer ar two elementary sounds in Edinboro speech which 
" not uzed by Englishmen, but ar atil uzed by the Germans, 
"""ely, the German ch and u. The German ck is habitualy 
*™ by fhe educated only in proper names, such as Torpkichen, 
'■^"diUrmuchty, MacLauchlan, etc., and in the special 

BY T. B. SPmoUE, M.A. 115 

The li is not so commonly herd. I Lav generaly 
recognized it ia Scoch songs. It U the eound intended 
to be indicated by the spelling (?«ii/ or ^«(/(? tor good. It is 
dislinctly recognizable in the singing in church when the 
cougregtttion pronounce the word to as tii, 

Ther ar many words comencing with con- or com- in whit-h 
English peepl always pronounce the o as if it were h, such as 
taiifyri, (kum/urt), coimtab/c {/euns/irbl), compnss (ktimpiis), 
hot iher ar many more words in which oM-fashiond Scoch- 
men adopt this pronunciation, such as comproinise (kum- 
prameizl , mnparah/e (kumpunibl), concert (kujtsert)- 

Ocoaionttly, I hav herd pronunciations which thro an 
Uneipected hht upon som spellings aparently anomolos. 
Thus, tbe newspaper boys at the railway stations cal out 
UfuVjflsnpw, pronouncing Review distinctly as three syllabls 
Be-view. I hav herd the word ' two ' pronounst nearly as 
if it wer two syllabls (tii-u), also broad (bro-adj, and buoy 

Ther ar very many cases in which Scoch peopl place the 
■orent in a different position from that usual in London. 
"here Londoners say magazine' (miii/rizeen'), Scoch peepl 
*il eay magazine {mag'azin). So we hav London, commit'tee 
\Jtum\U], Edinhoro, commilee' {kiimttee) ; JvondoD, manure' 
Xntantur), Edinboro, mau'ure (ma'neur) the noun, but 
nwnn're, the verb; London, arith'metic, Edinboro, a'rith- 
loelic. I hav herd in Scotland the words brewery, tannery, 
prouonnstwith the accent on the lastsylabl, brooerea, tanered ; 
suggest, as mi^'e'si', the London pronunciation being 


*oe pronunciation anhoom (assume) is not uncommon. This 

strictly analogos 1« the common English pronunciation 

"*"■ (assure). It seems that the pure pronunciation 

'"' la soficienlly trublaom lo lead lo its being commonly 

8"' rid ov and som other pronunciation substituted for it. 

Thus Cotneys wil say ChooziU (Tuesday) instead of Teuzdi; 

among wel-educaled Englishmen naic/ier (nature) and 

piiehir (picture), etc., ar, I believ, more frequently herd 

"laa milfur and pikteiir. The latter ar certainly more 

FRIDAY, 21sT OF MAY, 1880. By Db. J. A. H. 

TV IWiDisT, (in the (Tor* 
»/ 1*" FkMogirai Sonilv in 
1879-80. 1 

TV PKBBiuSNT, on the frufrfu 
'flii Lulimaiy 1 

Tbi Priwdist, od the PAilo- 
^9^ Setutg and Spitli»g 

B/frntt {mciudnfg Ofeount, hf 
Or. J. H«l.l. OLiuaroNEi af 
t/u Spallinf Itijorm in Gift- 
mmy) 13D 

H. SwEiT.Ewj.iOn rwimr iMCMft* 
galioru in tht Argan tTnpniflhe 159 

Dr. R. MoB&ifl, an FMi 162 

Linai i.m GurrLEMEH, 

Uuioiia or tbx Philolooioa]. Smibti, — 
"HEN the proposal was first made that an Address sbould be 
(lehvered by the President at our Anniversary Meeting, tbe 
inteatioa was that this address should consist of a review of 
Im Philological work of tbe year in our own and other 
eountnea. To quote the opening remarks of Mr. Ellis, in 
'oi2, it wag " considered that it would greatly contribute to 
toe Titaliiy of our Society; and especially increase the interest 
*'fli<'h the new members who have joined ua tiike in our pro- 
'^I'lgs, if the President, on bis retiring, either altogether 
or lor re-election, were to deliver an address, which should 
contain a report of what had been effected in each part of 
■Tflilologj' during tbe preceding year." It was " conceived 
that no President would be able, from his own resources, to 
fwaiah such a report, but that different members of the 
""sty should contribute an account of their own particular 
^'fanchea, and that from these quota the President should 
eiaesvour to construct an interesting general review," In 
"""* or less of conformity with tbe plan, the Annual 


re awa-^H 

ibers, 1><B 

Addreasea of tLe past eight years have, as you are a 
been enriched by Bpecinl reports, not only by members 
by distinguisbcd scholars ouUide our circle, upon the phil*^ 
logical position of various languages, or groiipa of languag-^^ ' 
though we have never reached the ideal of a general revie *^ 
of the year's work at Philology as a whole. On the preseia t 
occasion I have to regret that what I have to offer you will 
depart even more widely than usual from the ideal, for witJ 
few, though signal exceptions, the help both of members t 
foreign scholars has this year failed us ; and if it was nevei 
anticipated that any President would be able, from his ow; 
resources, to give a general view of the Philology of the yearj 
much less could this be expected from one engaged in ■ 
special department, to which every hour is consecrated, i 
who is bound by every tie of duty to restrict hie attention to 
the immediate work of that department, and to subject!, 
directly bearing upon it. In these circumstances I have tO: 
ask the forbearance of the members, while I offer thci 
once a shorter address, and one necessarily more of a specid 
character, than has on other occasions been heard from thit 
chair. Several contributions long promised for the present' 
occasion, the failure of which has been a disappointment td 
me, will, I hope, be ready by nest year, and enable my 
successor to make up for my shortcomings. 

"Work of the Sociktt, 

Of the twenty papers read before us during the past ye) 
eight have been concerned with English Philology, viz, t' 
by Mr. H. Sweet, on the Laws of Quantity, and the Laws 
Stress in Compounds, and of Sentence- stress in mode 
English ; two, also by Mr. Sweet, on Old English Dialects a 
their phonology, along with one on the oldest Knglish Texts 
which resulted in a proposal to print a fac-simile of thi 
Epinal Gloss, in the opinion of Mr. Sweet, one of the olde 
documents preserving English words. In addition to 
Dictionary Evening, at which we had an interesting ai 
animated discussion on the proper limits of inclusion 


K^td to slang, foreign and scientific worda, the treatment 
ot adopted words in which the historicul appearance of the 
varietioB of meaning in English does not correspond to their 
logicn! development und affiliation, and on other points con- 
nected with the Dictionary, I also brought before the Society 
a few ebips irora my Diflionary workshop, in the form of the 
history of the forms and appHcationB of the words Adamant 
tDiDmmml, of Arow, A'Imiral, Adjmt and A((/utc, Anphodel, 
JJfodil, and bnflbdil. Honour, Anottr, Anourn, Adore, and 
Atlom: which, with a short paper by Prof Hkeat, on the deri- 
vation of Bracket, completed our contributions to Engliah. 
Mr. H.Nicol's correction of the etyraologiee of the yrovA^AJfraij, 
Allirt, Badger, Breeze, Cosiife, and Craivn, dealt both with 
English and French, showing how much still remains to be 
done before ihe history of the French words in E(]gliab can 
be correctly written, nod what mistakes pass current in con- 
nexion with these words. All members of the Society will 
join me iu expressing regret, for more reasons than one, that 
the slate of Mr. Nicol'a health does not permit him to be 
here this evening ; and in hoping that he may soon be able 
to Eniali his long-expected work on the history of French 
Bound* in English, the importance of which for the Society's 
Dictionary is very great. In the Romance domain we had 
■l*" in important paper on living Portuguese, by H.I. 11. 
Pnnce L Lucien Bonaparte ; and a continuation of his 
Account of the Rhaeto-llomansch dialects, by Mr. U. 
-Martineaii, dealing with the Morphology of that interesting 
branch of the Romance family. In Latin philology, which, 
"""^ We removal of Prof. Wagner, had disappeared from our 
Tranwctions, we had an interesting paper by Mr. J. P. Postgate 
on the compound verbs in -d/lre and -dire, maintaining the 
^^w that these all belong to the root da give, and none of 
t"*!"! to DHA, 6e, place ; and a suggestive one by our 
Treasurer, Mr. Dawson, on the Middle Voice in Latin, with 
fxm] reference to Virgil's Eneid, book vi. ; also one on the 
■Lalin pronunciation of J consonant, by Mr. E. S. Pearson. 
*f- Cayiej- broke fresh ground by a paper grappling with 
"* mysterious " Aspects " of the Russian Verb, of which he 




furnished perhape the most intelligible account acoeBsible in 
English ; and Mr. Brandreth discussed the comparatiTe 
accideuce of the Gauriuu languages of India, and their 
analogies to that of Romance. These, with a precis by Mr, 
Sweet, of the theories recently propounded by Professor 
Bugge and Dr. Bang, on the origin of the Eddaifl 
Mythologj', completed our studies within the Aryan hori- 
zon; beyond it we had Mr. Gust's instructive paper on the 
classification of the languages of Africa, illustrated by tablw 
and a map; Archdeacon Kirkby'a account of the syllabio 
writing of Cree; Dr. Hyde Clarke's paper "on Etruscan,'*' 
jocularly characterized as maintaining " the general diffusioa 
of Etruscan in minute quantities throughout the universfli" 
An outline of these papers as read lias been presented to th) 
members, through our new plan of Monthly Abstracts of thi 
Proceedings, the popularity of which has been shown by thi 
many inquiries made after them, during a temporary delay is 
their publication. I am exceedingly glad that my proposil 
in regard to them a year ago was acceded to, and I have no 
doubt that, with the year's experience of their utility, the 
Society will be glad to make them permanent, 

I have to express our deep regret at the news of the deatk 
of our colleague, Professor Wilhelm Wagner, of the JohaiP 
neum, Ilamburg, who endeared himself to us during tha 
years of his residence in London, and whose labours in 1 
and Modem Greek Philology enrich our Transactions. Pro£ 
Wagner was on a visit to Italy; he caught a fever at Hercu> 
laneum, which proved fatal, and be died at Ifaples a feV 
weeks ago. With scarcely less sorrow do I refer to 
death of the great Caucasian scholar. Prof. Schiefner, of St 
Petersburg, who contributed the report upon these language! 
to my last year's address. Cut down in the midst of blB 
labours and plans, he leuves a gap not to be soon tilled. 

Pkogkess of the Dictionary. 
In the eloquent address delivered from this chair in 187? 
Mr. Ellis said, " One of our works, for which great collectioi 
have been already made, remains, and may for some tin 


renmin, merely one of the things we have tried to do — of 
conreel allude to our projected dictionnry." The proapeeta 
oftfaigvork, to which Mr. Ellis waa ooiitent to look forward 
ihirly years to come, gem^rously adding, "I epeak for pos- 
t«rily, Ihrnigh I may be allowed like Balnam to ' see it but 
not nigh,' " are somewhat clearer now than they were seven 
3'eiira ago; and it was my privilege last year to call attention 
to llie renewal of the dictionary scheme, and to inform you 
of the measures which had been taken, and the anticipations 
formed in connexion with the work. You remember that 
the arrangements had been finally concluded on the Ist 
of Mttreh preceding, that three years from that day were to 
be devfttfld to completing and arranging the materials, after 
which the delivery of copy to the printer should begin, to bo 
Gontmiied at such a rate as to aim at the completion of the 
whole in the ensuing ten years. You were informed of the 
«ep8 which had been taken to invite the aasietance of the 
general pubho in the reading of the desired books, in response 
to which 165 readers had offered themselves, 128 liad been 
supplied with slips for special books, and 23-1 books Imd been 
taken Dp. I was able also to say that moat of the old materials 
had either reached me or been heard of, that assistanta were 
fully at work with the arrangement of what had come to 
hand, and that permanent work had advanced so far as 
the end oi Jb. By the time the address was printed, I was 
able to add to it a specimen of this permanent work in the 
proposed trealment of the word AddreM. 

" is pleasant to have to say that the anticipations then 
fomed have in most respeets been more than realized. 
In regard to the Reading for completion of the materials, 
tlityhave been so in an eminent degree. During the year 
our reader? have risen to the number of 754, some of whom 
ot fonrae, after reading the one or two volumes offered by 
tiem B8 their contribution to the work, have dropped off, 
wMle others have read 6, 8, 10 or 12, and still continue at 
*wk. Altogether 1568 books have been undertaken, of which 
"" nave been finished; of thereat muny are, we are informed, 
"wrly done, OS we hope a great proportion of the whole 


that language, has impressed mo very deeply. I do not 
hesitate t« say that I find in Americans an ideal love for the 
EDgliah language as a glorious heritage, and a pride in being 
iotimiite n-itti its grand memories, Buch as one does find 
(omalimes in a classical scliolar in regard to Greek, but which 
is rare iudeod in Englishmen towards their own tongue ; and 
from this I draw the most certain inferences as to the lead 
which Americans must at no distant date take in English 
scholarship. When we were considering, a year ago, how to 
re-aolist our friends in the States in the work of which they 
had undertaken an important share at the beginning of the 
Diclioniiry movement, it was suggested in a happy moment by 
one of our Council that Prof. Francis A. March, of Ijnfayetta 
College, Easton, Pa., welt known as an Old English scholar 
and philologint, might be willing, in the interest of the work, 
to recommend it to the attention of his countrymen, and to 
tctasaceiilrefot readers in America, so as to arrange the books 
to be read by each without the loss of time involved in a 
correepondence across the Atlantic. Prof. March most 
kindly acceded to our request, and has taken, in order to 
carry It Out, an amount of trouble and labour, which, if we had 
had any prevision of it, we should have shrunk from asking 
of him. I wish tlma publicly to express our indebtedness to 
Urn, and I am glad that the Council have thought it only 
fitting that work done for us should be recognized by our 
electing Prof, March an Honorary Member of the Society, a 
position which, independently of these services to ourselves, 
ai» Uld English scholarship fits him eminently to adorn. 
There ig another feature of American help to which I must 
"lode, because it contrasts with that we have obtained in 
England— I refer to that offered to the Dictionary by men of 
Academic standing in the States. The numbers of Professors 
in American Universities and Colleges included among our 
teiina is very large; and in several instances a professor 
""* put himself down for a dozen works, which he baa uuder- 
™£entorettd personally, and with the help of his students. 
"S have had no such help from any college or university in 
"Teal Britain ; only one or two Professors of English in this 

124 THE president's annual address for 1880 

country have thought the matter of sufficient importance to 
talk to their students about it, and advise them to help us. 
Among American Readers I have to name three to whom we 
are pre-eminently obliged — the Rev. J. Pierson, of Ionia, 
Michigan, our first helper in the States, who has also sent in 
7650 quotations from important sixteenth and seventeenth 
century works ; Prof. G. M. Philips, of the University, 
Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, who has communicated to us 4,000 
slips, including important rare words collected by him, as not 
found in existing Dictionaries; and Dr. Henry Phillips, 
Secretary to the Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of 
Philadelphia, whose 5,000 slips from fifteen important science 
books are of special value. 

Besides the quotations supplied by reading, several gentle- 
men who had in their possession stores of original material, the 
treasured collection of years, have, since seeing our prospectus, 
magnanimously handed them over to the Dictionary. Thus 
the Rev. Addison Grofbon, of Stockport, has sent us a large 
collection of quotations for words not in any existing Dic- 
tionary made by his late father-in-law ; a most valuable 
collection made by himself, with the intention of being one 
day published, has been sent to us by the veteran Runic 
scholar. Prof. Geo. Stephens of Copenhagen ; and an interest- 
ing set of quotations for words connected with English history, 
old English customs and institutions, by Miss Edith Thomson, 
whose school history in Messrs. Macmillan's series has won 
so high esteem.^ Nor in mentioning how many friends have 
lent or given us volumes to be read, must I forget the name 
of John Wyclifie Wilson, Esq., of Sheffield, who sent us a 
box of some hundred volumes of 18th c. literature, or that of 
Dr. Yeats of Chepstow, to whom I am similarly indebted for 
a series of works on Commerce and Economics, including all 
the Economic works of Miss Harriet Martineau. 

* And since this was written Mr. Fitzedward Hall, who was perhaps the most 
extensive Reader for the Dictionary in former times, and who is one of the first 
authorities upon all points of English usag^e— witness his "Modem English," 
with its arraj of citations from writers of all ages — ^has offered for the Dictionary 
the use of his immense series of quotations, so far as time and labour will allow 
of tib«ir being made ayailable. 


So much for the progress made in completing our materiala. 
The net result is that, whereas, a year ago, I had to say that 
the literature of the present and especially of last century 
was veiy imperfectly represented in our slips, and that good, 
quotations for curamon words were painfully deficient, I have 
now lo state that both deficiencies have been to a great 
eitcDt sapphed ; and in using the materials, the coni'iction is 
forced upon one, that by the time we receive the results of 
the work now in readers' hands, we shall not need to ask our 
friends for further help with the words of general literature, 
but slinll be glad if they will devote theraselvea to the exami- 
nation of scienti6c and technical books, and special treatises 
of any description, not forgetting of course the general 
examiniition of such earlier works hitherto unread as may 
yield early instances of modern words and late examples of 
obsolete, and so help to perfect the biography of one or other. 
To serve as some guide in the latter department, I printed at 
theendof the year a first sheet of special wants, extending as 
tar as Ad-, and containing, first, a list of all words (or alleged 
words entered in existing dictionaries) for which we had 
either no quotation at all. or not more than one ; secondly, 
of obsolete words of which we think there ought to he later 
instances than our last ; and thirdly, of modern words of 
which we think there may be found earlier instances than 
the first yet in our hands. Seven hundred and fifty of these 
Bhects Were circulated ; and though a number of valuable 
corrections and enlargements were received in reply, the net 
weult rather disappointing, showing either that the 
nomber of people who would take a pleasure in hunting up 
such fipecial points was very small, or that not much addi- 
tional information about these words is to be easily obtained, 
which m regard to many of them is certainly true. For the 
first of these lists, as I have stated in the page of explana- 
tions, contains a large number of words — or alleged words — 
lor which we have no hope of receiving quotations, — for 
wbicli, as a matter of fact, our most zealous correspondents 
bave not been able to supply any. and for which the industry 
of Johnwn, Richardson, Todd, and Latham, not to mention 


T, And lastly, General Dictionaries, especially those 
vbich profess to give all the terms used in ttie Arta and 
Sciences. The authority of these is to us altoosC nil. It is 
et" no use for a correspondent to refer me to Weule'a 'Dic- 
tionary of Scientific Terms,' or to any similar compilation. 
Wy unsffer would be, " Thank you : will you search dili- 
gently for the word, where Weale saw it, and when you 
have found it, send me a slip for it ; I want proof of the 
word's use, not of its occurrence in a list, where every thing 
ttat any body has ever said existed, is profesaedly to be 

It is marvelloua, and to the inexperienced incredible, how 
Dictionariefl and Encyclopedias simply copy each other, 
without an attempt either to verify quotations or facts. 
Having lieside us the chief works of this kind in the lan- 
jnage, we are enabled to trace the wholo career of such 
entries from their appearance in Cookeram, Blount, Phillips, 
Builey, or Chambers, to their reckaufiea in the publications of 
the current year. This gives to many terms long obsolete 
the fictitious appearance of being still current: by no other 
process, fur instance, is Ahalienation entered as a word in 
BMxlem Dictionaries, as if it were a current legal or medical 
term, which it seems never to have been in English at all. 
Bo enlries which are mere blunders are ignorantly handed 
down from Dictionary to Dictionary, each writer entering 
tiiera aa boldly and authoritatively as if he really knew of 
their eiiatcnee. Thus, Bacon is very fond of the word 
Aduetitiae [adventke), in the sense of adreiititiom ' coming in 
noo without.' In one instance, in the edition consulted by 
■OT' JohnBOD, either through a misprint, or a mere turned 
letter, makiug the h into an «, we hove aHuentiae. Johnson 
—who, if he had known Bacon's Natural Hintory, in which 
MttuUte with the ordinary spelling occurs dozens of times, 
*"* of merely diving into it for words, would have at 
once Been what Adventine was — insert* it as a word, and 
qaoiei Bacon for it, and from Johnson it has been taken 
"ihoiit acknowledgment or verification by all succeeding 
*™pder3, down to the very ktest. It is manifestly mis- 


lielping, that the Dictionarj will at least be a standard of 
appeal on the question whether auch and such an alleged 
word has eTer been used or not ; which of course ie quite a 
(lifforent matter from the further question whelher anybody 
should use it now. There is nothing in law or ethics to 
prevent any one from using all the words in our lists of 
desiderela if he chooses, and can. 

I ffiay also remind you that some of our most valuable contri- 
biitiong consist of odd slips for rare words noticed hy watchful 
observcra in the coui-se of their daily reading ; this is a form of 
help which we count largely upon members of the Society sup- 
plying, and which, in point of fact, Mr. Fumivall largely does 
supply, But I hope that no one will encourage the slovenly 
habit uf fancying that if he neglects a word when it strikes 
hiiD.somobodyelsewillbesurctopick itup. I neverreadthe 
leuucreof the daily papers without finding some word worth 
extracting; and I do not remember a single instance in which 
anybody eLie has taken the trouble to send the same word to 
toe. The perfection of the Dictionary in its data is the con- 
S«ni of the Society, that is to say. the concern of every one of 
Its mMnberg, und it would be exceedingly satisfactory if a score 
of our members would undertake severally to register the 
words that strike them in the leading Daily and Weekly 
«pen, the majfaziues and scientific periodicals. 

the Work of arranging the old material has gone on pnj'f 
J"*"*, with that of organizing and superintending the reading 
wd arranging iis results. In tbat work we have now 
"dvanwd «g far as the letter S, the largest in the alphabet, 
Me of those, unfortunately, which came to us in chaotic 
•lata. We have discovered an unfortunate hiatus in the 
ihsence nf the original slips and sub-editor's work for Pa-, 
MIending to ^ore than ninety-six pages of the Dictionary, 
winch nre reported as " done " in the statement for 1868 ; the 
Mt^-eililor of tliis section died in Ireland about 12 years ago, 
""* *e can find no trace of what became of his work.' I 

^Jj^^'ln Ab jwbI and persevenince of Mr. E. S. JacksoD, M.A., one rf our 
^^T^WBiitrbcrn traoed, but alas ! nnlv to ditumur that, with llie exotp- 
tm ill^ "^ frtitfmrnla, the wlioli> has appHrentlv pprisliuil. Fur Pa-, tbere- 
' '" 1" Early ami Middle English tiooU miut bt nod oybt again. 


GregoT, 1I.A,, Fiteligo, J; the Rev. A. Fayera, Armley, 
Leeds, beginning of B ; T. Henderson, Esq., Surrey County 
School, Cranleigh, end of B; Alfred Eriebuch, Esq., B.A., 
Chari end of A ; Mr. G. A. Scbrunipf, Tettenhall, be- 
ginning of H.] 

la the time that I hare been able to give to the perraaiient 
irork of the Dictionary, I have, with Mr. Heritage's prepara- 
tory aaiistanoe, been able to advance as far as Al- or to about 
160 pp. of the firat part ; with the diminishing deinanda on 
our time in attending to Readers, it may, perhaps, be possible 
to reach the end of A during the year. 

The paramount consideration that the Dictionary forces 
npon one's attention is the vague and indefinite extension of 
that body of sounds, with their associated ideas, whieh we 
call the Engluth Langutgr, The English language is not a 
square with deSnite sides containing its area; it is a circle, 
hut a cirtle such as Euclid never contemplrttcd, having as its 
centre I point which bath many parts, and nowhere bounded 
bj- any line called a circumference. It is a spot of colonr on 
a damp aurface, which shades away imperceptibly into the 
Burrouuding colourlessness; it is an illuminated area in a 
miQiiight landscape, whose beams practically end somewhere, 
though no eye hath beheld the vanishing line ; it is a 
nehulous cluster in the field of Lord Rosse's Reflector — clear 
and definite and unmistakable at the centre, but whose 
circumference melts marginless into the surrounding nothing- 
ness, and seems to have a margin, only till we try to trace it. 

This in aphenomenon which ia peculiar to a living language, 
M distinct from a dead one, of which, or rather, of pari of 
which, the symbols alone remain to ua — which ia peculiar to 
* gf^at, cultivated, civilized language, as distinct from the 
xan'y idiom of a barbarous tribe, isolated by mutual hostility 
""•n the other barbarous tribes around it. The written 
J^nains of a dead lunguuge must be definite in quantity, and 
" i» merely a matter of time and diligence to include them 
"' in the pages of a lexicon ; the sounds expre§eing ideaa 
"Md by an isolated tribe are limited in number, and may all 
wwllecled and recorded. But the language of a civilized 


nation, the individuals of which are constantly growing i* 
their knowledge of the objects, actions, and customs of othef* 
climes and other times, which objects, actioDs, and custoia^* 
are constantly becoming the subject-matter of new u/piis, an«i 
the theme of new discourse, is constantly adding to th^^ 
eound- combinations, or irords, by which it expresses these nei^^" 
ideas, and which are, indeed, the on/i/ means in existence fo^^~ 
expressing them. And it is not nations as aggregates, bu*^ 
individuals as units, which are constantly receiving thes^^ 
ideas of new things, and new names for them ; it is man by^ 
man that Englishmen get the idea of a boomeranfi, a reredoi, ^fc- 
cauctia, or a lomaio, and find a use for the name of it. Thu^^ 
the English language is surrounded by a vanishing penumbr^fc- 
of French, Italian, Spanish, Turkish, Arabic, Hindustanis^ 
Malay, Zulu, words, some of which are " English " to som^^ 
Englishmen, and undreamt of to others. At which EnglisU^ — 
man's speech does English terminate ? 

And the language of a civilized nation, the members o 
which are prosecuting philosophy, science, art, trade, or sport; 
in all directions, and constantly in these pursuits dlscoverinj 
or creating new objects, and new properties of the old, ' 
be constantly increasing its words for these new proceeds « 
discovery. Some of the words of one special pursuit wilL 
remain for a longer or shorter time unknown to the votaries 
of another pursuit ; none of us know everything, the name*- 
of the things we do not know are not parts of our English, 
hut we should be hold men to make the limit of our ^ 
knowledge, the limit of the English language. The EnglisUa 
language is surrounded by a vanishing border of special 
terms, scientific, technical, slang, dialectal, some of which ani 
English to some Englishmen, and undreamt of by otbei 
At which Englishman's speech does English terminate P 

And a language like English which has well-nigh discarded 
all the aids or trammels of inflection, but expresses its i 
tions between words by position, and accentual subordinatia%J 
possesses a power of creating accentual- group- words or com^j" 
pounds, no-matter-what-you-call-thems, utterly unknown to! 
such a language as Latin. To some Englishmen some < 



tiiese "combiDatioDs" seem to have more m them than the 
mimoftheireleDientB, thoyarecompoimd tcorf^s ,- toother 
Enftliehmen they are only words in grammatical coUocatioaa, 
mkDowa lo the grammarian espoused to Latin accidence, 
wbo ean grasp the relationship of " case " between tmire and 
lal mam, bat not that between sea and sea sail. [See note ou 
Wtpage.] The English language is surrounded by a vanish- 
ing border of loose and quasi compounds. Who shall say 
where groups begin and words lermiaate ? 

There are then three dialinot directions — foreign words — 
apecial worda — compounds, in which the limits of the English 
language are unfixed. I correct my metaphor : it is a 
sphere situated in space of three dimensions, with a definite, 
tangible ceutre, and a surface at no particular distunce from 

t our difficulty is, bow is this in defiuitely-ex tended 
English language to be comprehended by the definite entries 
dictionary ? Clearly, nerer leith mtif/iematiail atcuracij. 
In eTer^roneof these three directions tlie dictionary must 
*lop Knwelifre; the exact limits will always be matters of 
feeling, There will always be some things excluded which 
some people will think had as good a right to be in as many 
ttuDgs that are ; always some things included, which others 
tfamk might have been left out with as much propriety as 
in J that are omitted. Do wetakeaseriesof animals: Horse, 
C^rifl, Mifpopotamus, Ichneumon, Cicada, Salpa, Amoel/ii, 
Agama; or a series of plants : Ro»t, Anentoiie, CatniUia, 
GfTanium, Pelargonium, Memmibryantliemum, Qymnogramuia, 
Ptlytrichnm, Dicraiiuin ; where do the general words end, 
*'"' the technical begin ? Are Hippopotamus and Gfrnnium 
'''"glisb because known to every town-arab ? and are Hippo- 
pciainm and Geranium in themselves more English than 
™'l» sod Dicraitum. Shall we iDserl Ooid, and omit 
^'"minium, or insert Aluminium and omit Mofftiesiuiii, or 
llserl Miigntxiuin but omit Tellurium and Rubidium I The 
"wwera to such questions will be different according to the 
'I8» irith which the answerer starts : if he leans to the 
'bwreiical, and thinks he is responsible for what he gives as 


English, he will draw his line very close : he will include 
Camel^ but look doubtful at Agamai if he leans to the 
practical, he will probably say, " For one person that will turn 
to the dictionary to leam the meaning of Camel, ten will 
turn to learn what an Agama is/' he will incline to be as 
comprehensive as his limits allow. He will say, '^ Agama and 
Camel difiTer in two particulars : the one animal is less con- 
spicuous and less useful than the other, therefore less widely 
talked about : the Agama has been known to Englishmen 
only since they settled in the West Indies, while the Camel 
has been heard of ever since Christian missionaries told 
heathen Teutons of Oriental scenes." Both words were once 
meaningless to Englishmen ; both express a meaning now to 
those Englishmen who need to use them. 

I have dwelt upon these points, because I fancy that the 
idea which I have brought before you is very imperfectly 
grasped by most people. The 'English language' is con- 
stantly spoken of, and written of, as if it were a definite 
number of words and constructions ; and the question, 
whether a particular word or construction is * English,' is 
constantly settled by each man according to his own feeling 
and usage, as if his English were all of English. Then we 
find absurd statements in books, such as that the English 
Language is calculated to contain 100,000 words (when 
50,000 or 200,000 would be just as true), followed sometimes 
by a calculation as to how many of these are of native 
English origin, and this without definition of what is in- 
cluded either under " word " or " English word," so that, 
mathematically put, the question assumes the highly useful 
form of 'What is the numerical ratio between nx^ and y^, 
when X and y are both indefinite quantities ? * 

The historical character of the Dictionary, which aims at 
tracing the formal as well as the ideal development of every 
word from its first appearance in the language onwards, 
often brings up the question, what is a wordy and what is 
merely diform ? Logically y a word is a combination of sounds 
expressing a notion {ytwn^ white y this^ you, ;•««, then)y a 
relation between notions [with, and), or an emotion {pooh /). 


Diatmct combinations of sounds expressing tbe same notion, 
and identical combiaatioDS of sounds expressing distinct 
notions, are logically distinct words. But hkloficalty, tbia 
combination of sounds is in a state of continuous transformu* 
tioQ U8 it ia echoed by f^eneration after generation : aliniMin, 
itlmi/ssm, almetie, ultnesse, a/oies, alms ; locally it sbuws anotber 
traiufoniiatioa as it passes from dialect to dialect : aliege, 
abeggt, abitggf, abedge, abye, were once, at a time when 
English still existed only in diulects, contemporurj 
lU of the O.E. abijconn. These are for.m of tbe 
'Ord, not different tcords. Moreover, bistoricully, the 
relation, or emotion expressed by this changing com- 
binatioQ of sounds is, except in tbe case of the numes of 
unchanging objects fas sun, leater, fool), and not always in 
the case of these {man, tcood, meat), liable to continuous 
change, by the widening, narrowing, or transference of its 
literal application, or by figurative application to something 
else, till it becomes a different notion altogether (see tvicn, 
board, bulk, box, ilraiv, turn, quick, than). Board a flat piece 
of wood, board a table, board daily meals, board a managing 
committee, are historically not distinct words, but teiaev of 
the same word. Historieallg, therefore, a word is oft«u a 
long series of historically and phonetically connected forms, 
with a long series of logically and historically related senses, 
Each word, thus defined, will be treated once in tbe Dictionary 
under jts current, or, if obsolete, its most recent current, 
fotm, which is for our purpose its ' typical ' or recognized 
form, ill other forms {which, whenever necessary, will be 
"^1«i in the alphabetical place with a cross reference to 
their 'typical' form) will here be exhibited in historical 
order; and the various senses will be arranged in tbe order 
in which they seemed to have flowed from the primary 
*°*i low often obsolete. This order will often be different 
from that of existing dictionaries, in which usually the most 
y'P^'tant modern sense is placed first, followed by the others 
•" order of presumed importance, or in no order at nil. 
" m numerous cases two or mote of tiie forms assumed 
V 'fie same original word become differentiated in signifi- 


Udiu, Stlpi. Bt^Ki. Davrt, I. i. 2 :— 

"Ail tbitdsjlong in hii focine and f raking 

Of his grcate antta in figbUng and fraj'-tnaktiig." 
Lumii, Sormoiu, p. 342 (1845) :— 

"Let UB not crack that vre profesa Chriit's name." 

To the latter literary English adheres ; though crack, in the 
•enae of ' boast,' ' brag,' is now mther more at home on the 
race-conree or at Wimbledoa (a crack shot) than in the pulpit 
or the psaltCT. 

There are also instancea in which two original words, 
(laving, or in process of phonul.ic change receiving, the same 
form, and overlapping or coming into collision in their 
meanings, appear in modern English as merely senses of the 
Bame word. Such are a.fii-cl=Fr. afec(er='Lat. ajfectari 
(as, ' he fljfirij ignorance of the scheme'), and n/fee/, formed 
on Lat. affectM, piiat participle of aJficSre (as, ' how does that 
iiftct his character?'), which are treated in existing 
oictionariea as one word. Notwithstanding modern confusion, 
these are historically two words, and in the Dictionary must 
DC kept apart, as much as their respective nouns affectation 
and afflviion. 

Mere difference of construction, however, does not make 
one original word into two, aa when a verb is sometimes 
"sed gfnemliy (aa, 'does your friend ride?'), aometiuteB 
testncted to a. special object {' yea, he rides a donkey '), or 
re»lncled [n its object by a preposition (' he rides on a 
nobby-horse'). The specimen appended to my last year's 
Addrew shows, I think, conclusively, that the division of 
tr<ituitwe aod intramiticp, instead of being a leading one 
running through the class Verb, is historically subordinate 
B«ea to the apeoiol senses. Ellipsis of a refiexive pronoun 
niibia ft transitive construction intransitive, ellipaia of a 
prepusiiion makes this intransitive again transitive, and 
wlipma of an object may make this transitive intransitive 
onceinofg^ without any change in the sense accompanying 
"16 «hange of construction. Note the series : to address a 
'™*rl[ to the king, address yourself to the king, address to 
"•sfling, address the king ; to harangue the crowd, to harangue 
" aa hour. To pick out the transitive constructions, and 


the appropriate title of the great arrival which the season 
coinm«moratea, and by later extension of the Second Advent 
anil the Adrent of the Spirit at Pentecost; only in modern 
(imea hoi it been extended to the advent of any ' saviour of 
society' bringing 'peace with honour,' or the advent of 
Sovember with its fogs and mire. Yet tlio last is the etymo- 
logical, and in Latin the primary meaning. I might similarly 
fliioff bow Agoii'j was at first in English a purely special term 
lorthe"gorrow unto death " in the Garden of Gelhsemane, 
now it became extended to the arlieu/im mortis or denth- 
throwof say one, and lo writhing pain or mental anguish 
generally, besides being used in recent centuries for a public 
conteat, and in society slang for the puiuful attempt at being 
nnnitural. In all these cases, the original or etymological 
dewlopuient of the word is not a fact of the English lan- 
^p; it belongs to the history of the word before it became 
^fliab; the history of the word (Vi English, whether it 
consiats of native developments or of the fresh adoption of 
"eTseuaes (rom a foreign source, must determine the order 
'0 8 Ditlioiiary which deals with the facts of the language. 
"o give AnvENT first with the general sense of ' Arrival,' 
•bence in a special sense ' the coming of the Saviour," and 
M traosference, ' the season of the nativity,' would be for 
English purely fictitious, and while ostensibly logical, really 
"logical. While, therefore, we must give the main place to 
lae logical order of the senses, and never lose sight of it, 
'wre are adopted words in which it will be necessary to 
orraage the meanings in historical order; and even to treat 
"hat seem to be, or are vulgarly taken as, meanings of the 
ume word, as distinot words, by virtue of their independent 

The PniLor,oGicAL Society and Spelling Reform. 

Apart from some important new theories as to the vowel 
system and morphology of the Aryan Mother-speeeh, on 
hich a report will be made by Mr, Sweet, the post year 
las not been marked by any very notable event in the anoaU 


in, m drop oul, or fall airaij, or develop ae paramtes on other 
lettera; they consiat in the gradual alteration of mechanical 
prooeesea, or the abrupt substitution of one process by another 
in tome respect like it, causing simihir gradual or sudden 
chis^ ia the sounds produced, and the words which these 
Mundi compose. These changes, wherein the formal history 
of Ungiiage consists, can be only very roughly represented 
by the best alphabetic symbols ; by the worst they are con- 
cealed or totally misrepresented; wo must have the very 
best poBsibla, if we are to have anything like a Science of 

Nothing could afford a stronger proof of the general failure 
of what are in England called "classical" studies, to train 
nifii'g minds, either to observe facts, weigh evidence, or draw 
deductions, than the impotent manner in which ihe Head 
Masiersof the Public Schools of England have treated the 
>ppeil made to them to read the Latin language as the 
Bomang read it, or as nearly so as scientific investigation 
ahould i-nable them, were not even this outdone by the un- 
diMarbed complacency with which Greek is read in the same 
tbools, not only as no Greek ever read it, but in a way in 
•hieh no language used as a vehicle of human thought ever 

•*lu ihcFW the BctuttI drtafla of iltvelopnionl. I use a for u in but, Le. o on il« 
"J to I ^lai t« notliing}. 



^ Edi;. Hiiap a niaiTeT to the ori^ol than an}' other of the modQii fonnx, 


'.. iU/vp imlv drnnpud ihe inilinl and final towgIb of «1 

'^ tlw wialemporarr populiir Latin ebiicopu'. How few at«pg butwiien inAou 


rei^nrdiag or conveying to aa^ one these dialect facts and 
pli«naiiieDa without a minute analysis of sounds, and an 
accurate notation as its instrument, have ma<ie p/wnetic, that 
i» lo lay tralhfitl, notation absolutely necessary to every 
student of language. And ao philologists who once, accord- 
iog to their lights.' looked askance at proposals to alter tlie 
Bpellings of words which in their " picturesque irregu- 
Isnliea" apoke to them of the dilapidations of centuries, 
have come to see that it is only truthful representation which 
can intnd down true hiaiory, and to nympathize with all 
8it*!mpu, the difficulties of which they certainly know better 
than any one else, to extend this truthful representation to 
eiisling languages. 

Hu'v this lias been already done in Dutch and Spanish is 
well known. Within the lust year also some practical steps 
hare been taken with regard to German. As every one 
tiioire. German is exceedingly well represented in writing, 
ilnioet every symbol or combination of symbols having a 
fii«l value, so that there is hardly any difficulty in reailing 
thfl written language. But there are several cases in which 
the same sound has several signs, so that apelling is by no 
mwitis BO certain ; and tbis is the imperfection for the re- 
moval of which German scholars are now exerting them- 
Mlrea. The following notice of this movement has been 
Mitnhnled by our esteemed member. Professor John Hull 
Glndstone, F.U.S. :— 

"tlwing to considerable divergence in German spelling, 
mwtinga were held in 1854, both at Hanover and Leipzig, 
*iiicfi rexulied in certain modifications of the spelling being 
"lacred obligatory in the Hanoverian higher schools. This 
■■'w followed in 18(i0 by Wiirtemberg, which adopted a 
Mi'Tmed orthography for its elementary as well as its upper 
kWIs; und by Austria in 18(il, and Bavaria in 1866. But 
toe ciiaoges adopted by these several States are not the 

' $c«t]ui 'light' of five-iuid-twentf yean ago, is tlie bam in nliich phooetio 
^tUinj ii ik-prwiaWd bj our own college, Arthbinbop 'french, in liis " Eng- 
Iw I'mI «dJ Preiwut, " Ijecture viii, B chapter which, in the intarcato of «ience 
•■ KeU u of (ducAlioa, we hope to see cauualled, if not reverBsd, bj the author iu 



Aa FirnmaTO. 

New Speli-w 











toiit, todtcn 

tot, taten 



"TheuBeof A as indicative of vowel-lengthening ia only 
retainwi in roots i/UahlfS ; for example : Hohle, Kchle, Mehl, 
StaU, etc. 

"Specific rules concerning foreign words ; thus, the 
sound oa by the French oi : Memoiren, Toilette, etc. The 
Mund a by tlie French e : Appartemeiit, Emballage, 
Peiwioii, etc. 

" Tbese slight reforms in the spelling of the German lan- 
guage are, however, considered by some of the foremost 
lingnistB, Dr. Duden, Dr. Lattmann, Dr. Fricke, and others, 
as very inadequate, and pamphlets by various authorities, 
noiiibly ' Protest gegen die neue Eoichs-Ortho graphic,' by 
One of the People (Bremen, 1880), have already appeared, 
idvocating thorough refoi-m, the exclusive use of the Roman 
latlora, nertttin modifications in the use of capital letters. 
Ajwiition has been presented ki the German Reichstag very 
™»nt!y, of which a copy was laid on the table of the House, 
and also forwarded to each member of the Reichstag, on 
Winlf of the ' Algemeinen ferein fiir fereinfachte deutsche 
rMhfsehreibung,' calling attention to the incomplete and 

i imperfect nature of the recent Government spelling reform, 
iitd demanding further action in the matter, especially the 
periodical adjustment of any discrepancy between pronuncia- 
tion and spelling, whenever such occur and are noticed. 
' "I'here is Utile doubt that ere long further steps will be 
iken by the Government in order to bring about perfect 
muly of spelling among the German people, on the now 
recognised phonetic principle. 

"Notwithstanding the action taken by the Prussian 
kfiuister of Education in advancing on the path of spelling 


connexion with education, and the waste of national resourcps 
incurred in the attempt to make child aft«r child commit to 
memory the 20,000 contradictory facts of our present 
Bpclliu^. You are aware oi' the memorial presented to the 
Education Deportment by 130 School Boards praying for a 
Royal CommiBsion in the matter, of the action of the Social 
Science ABaoeialion in passing resolutions in favour of 
relbrmitioD, and in especial of the use of an alternative 
spelling for the purposes of instruction, of the formation of a 
Spelling Reform AssociutioQ to advance the movement. The 
Association lias recently made a collection ol' proposed 
scliemes of Spelling Reform, aa a first step, it may be 
presumed, towards uniting suffrages, if possible, in favour of 
tliut which seems most practicable. 

llj offa opinion is that, at present and for a long time 
lo come, until indeed the genei-al principles of phonology are 
understood by men of education, no complete or systematic 
scheme of Spelling lieform has the least chance of being 
adopted in this countxy, and I do not think that the 
promulgation or advocacy of such bears any practical fruit. 
I wish it were otherwise, but we must look at facts and 
existing conditions, and at the lessons of experience. And 
the latter seem to mo to afford abundant proof that partial 
sad progressive reforms in accordance with woll-eatahhshcd 
eiisling analogies can be introduced and carried through. 
ilie whole history of written language is the record of such 
gradual and partial reformation. We know for instance what 
wss doneabout 1500 by the systematic application of ca and ee 
to dislinguiat two sounds formerly both expressed by long e, 
and the analogous adoption of oa and oo for the two sounds of 
long 0. And the slightest glance at the orthography of 
aiu tkipere, Bunyan, or a Bible of the seventeenth century, will 
^^■jweven the most ignorant' what an immense amount of 

™ tiio louler-wtitBTB in the daily pnpera, soma of wtiom have lately been 

>g lit Mind lender uf the blind to pBriectinn on tbis point. Witaetu the 

„* P""«» "f » writer in the Dailg iVfwt of 1 Otb September. 1 880. aad his 

lUift 'kj'b "* '■'" "^^ ^^™ Shakespeare, sod Miltoo, i 

tal JM^ tf^"' ^^' pennlty of seeing the wonls of these ui 

^™ JUSW. ii a tapJar re«der of the Daily Nmei, who mi 

i Dryden, and 


largely titers the tarailiar appearance of a word, as 'lalver' 
for '/altier,' bas been, and rany again be, accompIUbed ; and 
I nm canviaced that if a well-considered series of such 
parlial reforms were prepared and recommended in successive 
itagea to the pubtic, a great deal might be done, not merely 
to remove the most glaring anomalies in the spelling at 
present current, but to prepare the public mind ultimately 
fur the conaietent application of phonetic principles. 

It seems to me, therefore, that the Philological Society, 
representing the English scholarship of the country, might 
very properly respond to the numerous appeals made to it 
from Brilain and America, to make some declaration on t.ho 
■nbjeoti by preparing and issuing a list of amended spellings 
wcommended for use instead of those at present employed. 
Mr, Sweet is now engaged on a. work which gives hirn special 
iuoilitiea of comparing whole classes of symphonic words 
with each other and their earlier forms; and I think the 
Society might usefully ask him to prepare and submit to us 
k list of the words, the spelling of which might, with 
advantage, be altered. In any such first lUt I would confine 
iLe alterations almost entirely to the omission of such letters 
as are both unphonetic and unhistoric, and for which no 
w-calied etymological plea can be submitted ; including also 
a few words of which an older form, familiar to all students 
of English hlerature, might well be substituted for the baser 
one at present current. 

For example, let ue recommend the uniform dropping of 
final or inflexional silent e, where it does not serve the now 
recognized function of lengthening a vowel, writing, heat, 
"*i". heaal, hae, seha (cf, the pair self sehi, with wife tcices, 
and the consequent simplification of grammar rules), !iv, lin, 
''"I (thug distinguished from Itee, ttvee), heros, po/atos (like 
^'^1 hmaton), cletird (like clears), eatn (like torn), fasin (so 
oMCinct from lidnten), s/ioicd pairing with shoicn, pratd, piiiu/, 
*"ilready iu /nu/, lain. Along with these let us recommend 
"* "^toration of the historical -t after breath consonants, 
*'"i'n printers during tho past century have industriously 
l*'''oile<i to -ed, writing fekkl, bliaht, picH, drest, miild, like 



Ciim, fHvff, Ivr, ahut, irun, intnder, taunt, could be restored to 
tbeirnutive Engllsli form (O.E. mm, cum, tunge, tu/e. abttfe, 
vunan, tcniu/or, winioil), before Norman caco graph era spelt 
them with 0. Wht-re o Ima passed into the sound of oo, it 
vm s) written in 1611, and ought to be so again in vioot, 
pnet (like proof), Inlionr (IipAoo/) ; wo already write groore. 
Add to ihese, which are some of the obvious points to be 
corrwtcil at once, a more extended use of 2 in the body of 
wnrda, m choun, like frozen, prai'ze, raize, like l/iiise, glaze, 
grain (cf. glm», glazr, grass, graze), without at present 
touclung on the inflexional -s, leats, vai/s, grows, wliicb does 
not pratent a aerioua practical difficulty, and the correction 
of aotne of the worst individual monstrosities, as foreign, 
lonreij/n, aeenl, (gland, geythe, rhyme, scitaort, ache, lUbl, douht, 
ff^f parliament, court, would, sceplic (foren, sovren, sent, 
lland, sythe, rime, ciaors or sisors (etymol. citot, Fr. ciseaux), 
itf. del, doiit, peple, parlument, cort, woud, skeptic (of. 
titlet<m), 8ud we should have a fair beginning which science 
conld support, and only prejudice — yet, alas ! how great that 
*"'j— tould oppose. 

1 tliinlt that if a list of corrections following these 
pnnciples generally were prepai-ed and offered to the 
public on the authority of the Philological Society, it 
would soon commend itself in whole or part to the common 
sense of Englishmen ; its adoption would cure a number of 
lue worst of our present deformities, and, what is far more 
important, it would recall men to a consideration of the 
nnlural function of spelling, breaking down the prevalent 
delusion that the current fashion of symbolizing a word is the 
iW^ itsolf, whose identity is to be preserved at any cost, 
howCTer tiie "pronunciation," as the real word is amusingly 
Cilled, may change; recalling people to the fact that the 
spwling of any word is not a dogmatic, but a practical 
4''wlio[ij and encouraging them to discuss it practically, so 
M to arrive at the best solution, and so secure greater 
improvements in the future. Such a list would probably also 
•Wure the adhesion of the philologists of America, who have 
™^iy recommended for immediate adoption some of the 


almoiijner, almoygnor, and in ten other wonderful ways ? What 
tree history is contained in a series like aitttfiriiim, annurie, 
fl/wa™ (by differentiation from following r, like perfgrtnum, 
peltgritto, pUgriin), alnierie, anlmerie, aumerie (like /alia, 
faaltf, fault), aumt-ff, aumbn/, (like shrmerc, slumber), ambry 
(like e^nujii, chant), and how much would be lost had it been 
conBtantlyirrilten rtrmary or almerij, as we actually sometimes 
see if. ! If any one would see how " etymological " spelling 
boj altncked a devoted word, let him look at the spellings of 
ths word Ambassador, introduced in the fifteenth century as 
Embai»ailour, and becoming with retraction of accent in 
■ixleeath ceotury embassailor, embassader, but which appears 
»l«)wilh the artificial spellings after Fr,, It,, Sp., and med. 
Lnt., aa imbamatour, ambasnatour, avibaaeadoitr, ombaasador, 
a>nb(umlmr, ambaxalour, eiiibasm/oiir, embatsitour, etn- 
iatitour, tmbassetoiir, eiibassi/oitr, enbassijtour, enbasetore, 
mioMafoHr, inbassefour,emba«iatour, embas»ea/oiirc, embu^ytor, 
tinbai4ilour(e), imbamtor, imbwisolor, imbmmlor, imbasodor; 
of which amhaxatotir is the most etymological (coming 
nearest to mid. Lat, ambaetintor, ambaxiator), and embassader 
the moat truly English. The inconsistency of the current 
omWmrforside by side with embassy, and embamage, is obvious. 
Ever since men began to copy and to translate, there has 
been a tendency to imitation of the spelling of earlier times 
or of earlier languages ; the principle that " the spelling 
shows the word " cannot, since 1400 at least, be practically 
affirmed of any one spelling : rather is it true that the icord 
c*" be deduced from the many spellings which since that 
period have been used at the same time for almost every word. 
opelling has regularly lagged hohind pronunciation, for the 
obvious reason that as the hitter changed, it took time for each 
™^<i^ to be recognized as legitimate and respectable, and 
■"^n Went on writing the old form of the word, while they 
™™ around them, and perhaps themselves used, even while 
"pudiaiiug, the new.' With the very best spelling it seems 

^7]" ?nMl varietj of spellinc which one finds in evprr p^entury has mimewhiit 

^""Wriijiinitius nn some of the niinutiic uf EuKliah phouolosy- I should hoI 

** Wtmjy ss onfo I might have done, un what w.u tlia lea/ M.E. forniot 


ntlenmoes. But I have said enough to commend the 
question of spelling reform to the careful coDBideratioii of 
the Society, oa well as to indicate ray own opinion of its 
useful eil«nt, and of the beat mcaiig of introducing it, and 
I have now to call your attention to two branches of 
Philolo^ far I'emoved from these queations of to-day, on 
which reports have been contributed by two of my pre- 
deoewirs in this chair, Mr. Henry Sweet and Rev. Dr. 
iloTTo, to whom my host thanks, as well as the thanks of the 
Society, are due for thus diversifying the bill of fare. 

Recent Investtgatioxs of the Ixdooekmanic Vowel-system. 

"The complete revolution which has been made during 
the last few years in our views on the vowel-system of 
the parent Indogermanic language is, perhaps, the most 
important event that , has happened in the history of 
comparative philology since ita foundation. A strong pre- 
suaptioB in favour of the new views is afforded by the fact 
tW they have suggested themselves apontaneoualy and 
indepoiiiJently to a number of investigators, whose results 
have mutually confirmed and 8ui»pleraented one another. 
These scattered investigations have now been summed up in 
a thoroughly critical spirit by a young Swiss philologist, 
Ferdinand de Satmure, in his Mimoire mr k Si/Mthne Primitif 
de» Voj/tltei ,^,j /^j laiiguen Indo-europ^ennct (Leipsic, 1879), 
where he himself makes further original contributions of the 
highait value. Simultnneously with Sausaure's book there 
■ppesred Friedrich Klage's Beilraege zur geichkhte der 
gfrmaniKlieii conjugation {Strassburg, 1879 J, in which 
•everal of Saussuro'a results are arrived at independently, 
■"""K^a book containing a general sketch of the Indoger- 
luaaio Vowel-system as an introduction to its special subject. 
^"f geaeral purposeu the work is superseded by Saussure's, 
lot earlier essays of Bnigman, Osthoff and others, which 
*f*i6d Qp the investigation, were noticed by me in my 
^^^ for 1878. 
" 'Hen Sanskrit was found to oppose a uniform a to the 


"The KWii stage is confined to unaccented ayllables, and 
ooneuM in the expulsion of the (zo) wherever practicable. 
ThiuSonskrit kdrdim, root (lc:er), appears in the past passive 
participle aa Arfa, with syllabic r. So also ka/p=(k!s[p) has 
the pBrticiple kfpfd. These syllabic liquids are now referred 
to the parent Indogermanic language, instead of being 
reprded as a weakening peculiar to Sanskrit. In the 
European languages syllabic r has been resolved into 
a consonantal (n on -syllabic) r accompanied b)' a distinct 
Towel. The following are the combinations which corre- 
ipond to syllabic r in the chief European languages (Saussure, 
p. 7): 

Greek : ar, a!; ra, la. 
Latin : or, ul {ol). 
Germanic : or, oL 
"The following are examples; Greek er/ra^wi= Sanskrit 
iir^am. from dSrkomai, tarpdmetha from Urpii, li/as(dx^tcrdd'd; 
Latin /ors=iV/i, cord'-='rd, pulsus from pello; Germanic 
iomiias Old English fiorni, from heraii (cp. Sanskrit b'rld) ; 
WJfa. O.E, (F»//"=SansVrit wH-a (originally ici-kd). 

"The original syllabic nasals have been lost everywhere. 
The folloffiog are the sounds which correspond to original 
Bjlmhio II and tit respectively in the different languages : 
Sanskrit: a a. 
Greek : a a. 
Latin : en em. 
Germanic : tin nin. 
, "Eiamples are : Sanskrit laid, Greek latds, Latin tentus-= 
"■^pnnl tntd from the root tivn ; Sanskrit mad, Latin men{li)H, 
wrmanic gamiindiz {O.E. gemynd) from mo-n ; Sanskrit daga, 
^^^dika, Latin decern, Germanic tehun=.d(^km. 

"There remain, lastly, the words with a diphthong in the 
■''>iig forjn, such as Greek etmi, Sanskrit emi, whose weak 
"fill shows the simple vowel, as in the plural imen ("with 
Mlfting of the original accent), Sanskrit imdh, the original 
Anna being (teimi) and (imAs). It is evident that the 
feotmeut of the diphthongic vowel is perfectly parallel to 




Where (b ia flanked with stopped consonatita, the (ib) is 
ntain«d in the weak stage, thus in Greek the weak »kepf6s 
has the same vowel as the strong skiptomai, and the 
Genuauio participle gebinui (,0.E. gijen) retuina the strong 
Towfil of the infinitive gibaii. But if the (a)) can he 
iropped, it disappears without leaving any trace, as in the 
0ODJu>>atioii of the verb substantive : dami, amdsi, sfd, yarn, 
Greek tkheUi from iklio=-sdkho, pi^ithai from tlie root (pset). 
I am inclined to believe that it was originally dropped 
evflrywhere, and only introduced again by the analogy of the 
itrong forms, 

Wb now come to (o), the grailntion of fro). Wherever we 

find ( and alternating in the same root in Greek (and Latin), 

tha Ittiter mast be assumed to he the gradation (steigerung) 

of the former. This vague term is preferable to ' strengtheij- 

ing' or any more precise one, as it does not commit ua to 

•ny theory of the origin of (oj, which is still uncertain. 

(iij occurs in perfects, such as Greek gigona, liidofka, ioika, 

*hose presents have the forma geii, ikrk, {w)eik with the 

normal (ai) ; in Latin we still find such perfects as iefoiuli, 

K/mordi, the hypothetical older presents tench, merdo being 

(o) occurs in a large number of nouns, such as Greek 

|onH, w(1b/oj_ tdnoH, Latin forma. In Sanskrit (o) appears in 

jUb furm of 4 in open, a in close syllables, as in jagiiii/i= 

'^twVgiiioiM,jSnii=-gdait, daddr^a=.dedQrkii. 

"There is also the important alternation of (as) and (o) 

' ^dings, as in Sanskrit and Greek wd'amah, 4kliomEn, 

Hind*, ikhonti, led'alha, ikhete, a^icah, hippos, dpeam, 

fiPW, rifra, hippe. 

" These inflectional alternations of (bb) and {o) are 
•Tidently dependent (partly, at least) on the character of 
•M following consonants, (o) appearing before a nasal. 

There are no traces of such consonantal influeuces on 

tte development of (o) in root- syllables, (oj, unlike the 

tthngand the weak stage, appears also to bo independent of 

oe accent, occurring, at least as far as our present evidence 

in accented and unaccented syllables equally. 

LID tag anH 

160 THE president's ANNUAL ADHREBS FOR I88I).' 

" Many words in Greek ami Latin agree in contaiDing 
a which is evidently quite dietinct from the (fe)-8erie8, for 
it never alternatea with e or o. Examples are dtjo, agr6s, 
ftgcr, ajiv, ah, arod, ardre, laidf, /nevxs, fnuros, tanriie. This 
a alternates with an a, and a comparison with the corro- 
sponding forms of the {K)-aerie3 leada to the conclusion that 
S, represents the strong stage, of which a is a weakeniag'- 
Thus to the Sanskrit d^mi, smm, imi, imah correspond the 
Greek phami (with shifting of the older accent), phnmen. 
The weak n occurs also in the participle phatoi, also in ulafos, 
whose strong form appears in the present /li^/dmi ; Idilio niiA 
&iil/ioii are related exactly as kipo, Hipon, The two stages 
are also seen in palUr and mOttr. 

" The Greek- Latin a appears in the same form in Sanskrit 
where it is distinguished from 0^(3) by retaining its lengi 
io close as well as open syllables, as in ganti from gas, Lati 
car-mfn, easmim. The ti appears sometimes as n, soraelinies 
as I, as in d/ii/i = a (/li (originally formed from an aorist parallol to 
ilathon), pila=-pnlei% s(/iild-=slti(dt. The alternation in ^dsfi, 
ginhmdh is perfectly parallel to that in dwdsfiti, dwix/imdA, 
although the is in the weak forms of tlie two verbs have 
nothing to do with one another. 

" From the pamlleliam between the (a)- and the (Ee)-ser 
Saussure draws the very probable conclusion that d m 
be analyzed into (isj+some consonantal element, which 
writes A, 80 that «/a=(8t£eA), sla(d= {at At&), the a beii 
afterwards changed into a vowel of intermediate quality. 

" The reality of this analysis is strongly confirmed by 
fact that in formations where roots of the (Ee)-soriea develop*! 
the gradation (o), Greek d (=fOA) becomes 6 (=oa), thi 
bimii stands in exactly the same relation to b&ina as kormt 
does to kerma ; compare also phone with poinS, MOrd \ 

" Greek (and Latin) also have an and an c which 
quite independent both of one another, and of the e and 
the (ie)-series. These vowels appear, like the a, only in 
weak stage, the strong one being 0, e respectively, as in (lot6l,\ 


ttf'M, iHdomi, tiifiemi, Tbe evidence for the existence of the 
( Id the parent language is dubious, and Sauasure is inclined 
to luflieve that it is merely a later European development of 
the i of ltd. The o is represented by several words of 
nndtiubted antiquity, such as 6nse, oeulH*, p6m, poiiri, nox, 
mnile. In Sanskrit it appears as short a in open as well as 
elwed syllables, being thus distinct from the representative 
of Greek and Latin o=[o). Thus poais and moiule reappear 
in Saoatrit as pdti and mimi. 

"Stiussure does not attempt to determine tbe real nature 
of the supposed consonantal element* of the root« in (aa*) 
ud (leo), Moeller in the passage already quoted gives 
■ good Lint, suggesting that (a) may have been the ' sonant 
jloHal spirant,' (e) the same voiceless, and (o) the glottal r. 
The distinction between the first and the lust is one that 
,3 csnoot realize, and I would suggest as possible, though, of 
•ouree, purely hypothetical identifications, (A)=tlie glottal r, 
«■ voiced glottal trill, (o) the same labialized,=the Danish r, 
while (k) — assuming its actual existence — may have been (a) 
piliiulized. The deep tone of the first would naturally 
•siwnge a preceding (re) into a, while tbe rounding of the 
Kcood aod the palatal quality of tbe last would as naturally 
■odiff it in the direction of o and e. That the Semitic 
poinl eoosonants — at least the iiin — existed in the Sanskrit 
pronunciation of the authors ol' the phonetic treatises has 
•kh "bown by Mr. Ellis, who assigna to the ' sonant A ' and 
•"» »«ond element of the ' sonant aspirates ' a sound which 
" prwticftliy that of a glottal r (E.E.P. 1134). It may be 
*wi»rked that no consonants are more liable to be absorbed 
""o the preceding vowels than these 'glottids.' Also that the 
"wkenings of (hja), etc., must be explained in tbe same way 
*• "lose of (ffii), etc., (statA) being a shortening of (stati). 

"The general result of tbe investigations here briefly 
•Binaied op is that every syllabic originally contained the 
'"el (a;) either alone, or else in combination with some 
•"""■Towel, and that under certain unknown conditions (le) 
•""^nie [j), while when unaccented it underwent a variety of 

IN fAi.I. l(ju 

papen oa i*/>j'i in the April, May, and Sepleiuber numliers 
of ibe Ctslmi Ii-ietii{ for 1879. 

"3. Declfimon and Conjugalion of P&li Words, in't/i Ahli'iAlit 
Yy&Uyi, or Sj^phnad'onii of ConjugnHoH, by H. Suniaiigala. 
Edit«l by M. Gimaratana, priest, Ceylon, 137^. 

4. Rupamifd, or Vibliaktyurlha Prakaiiiii, edited by 
M- Sutnnnila Teruiinanse, of lladiaiiiwe, Colombo, 1873. 
In the short pretiice to this work, the editor quaintly ob- 
lliat P&li is ' the knguiige of Ma«:adLa, the origimil 
Imi^uage of the world, in which all the Ooda, Brahmas, and 
Suddbw converse.' 

beat work however on Piii grammar published in 
Ceylon k Nimamali, in Sinhalese, by Waakaduwe Siibhuti 
(1876), It is accompanied by n moat valuable preface, in 
wbicb the reader will find almost everything he wants to 
know about Pali grammariana. 

Bat during the last five years P&li scholarship has not 
1 at a standstill. The few lubourei-s in this field of study 
Mve not been idle, and they have contributed much to our 
faiowWge both of the Ptlli language and of Buddhist litera- 
have now a very good and serviceable 
wwfcing dictionary by the late Professor Childers, whose 
"liabU Work was finished some few months before hia 
«* (Joly, 1876). 

'But though only five years have elapsed since the cora- 
ition of this great and important contribution to P&li 
Geography, a new dictionaiy, or at least an extensive 
?plen)ent to the one we already posaesa, is very desirable 
Mveral reasons; — 

"'- Childers's dictionary is wanting in the hiatorical 

■Inietit of words. A number of meanings are heaped 

"felhcr, followed by few or many references, as the case 

""■y bt', but no attempt is made either to connect these with 

w root- meaning, or to establish the various shades of mean- 

i^flp by exact quotations. 

N'ot only is & more scientific method required as 
irds the treatment of each individual word, but also a 
philoaophical arrangement in the alphabetic distribution 


'Arijji, hhikkave, pubbaftgamA akrisafdnam d/ia»it»dnam sam&- 
piUiya mvad^m ahirika'm anoUappain;' which may be thus 
freelj' rendered, ' Ignorance, brethren, is the principal thing 
that leads to the acquiaition of siaful habiU, along with 
ihameleesneas (which manifests itself in outward deport- 
ment) and hardneaa of heart (that renders its poaseasor 
reckless and fearless in committing wrongful deeds).' 

"Pili 19 a sister of Sanskrit, and though a Prakrit dialect, 
Lbs forms that may be compared to Yedic Sanskrit. Thus, 

le Vedic iiro-aliHijn 'more than one day old' may be 

ifflpared to the Pili lero-vansi/co ' more than a year old.' 
Otiilden has not registered this word, but it occurs in the 
SaUipaUhina-mtla, of which I shall have more to say 

"Batuwftn Tud&wa's valuable text of this Sutta, printed in 
Sinlndese characters, wrongly reads tkei-ovagsikdni^ {see the 
HBtatkatliika section), but the learned Buddhist editor cor- 
Mlly eiplains it in bis glossary, and his explanation is 
wnieoutbythe Commentary, which renders titer ovoisikdni 

"PlK sometimes gives us valuable cognates. Thus, the 
•matire of the Sanskrit paribku, is raatchod by the P4Ii 
"f^ paribhacetum,^ 'to round off,' 'to complete.' It is not 
'sp'tered by Childers, but there is a good instance of its 
H ihe Mahdparinibbdna-sutla, p. 8. 

"PUi has many independent formations that are not to be 
~* with in later Sanskrit, as upaldpeti ' to cajole ' ' talk 

*''(cf. Sansk. iipa-vail), npaldpnnam 'diplomacy'^ (cf, Ma- 

!lWrtfl)i6(lna-«MWa, p. 4 ; Milindapatiha, -p. 117 ; Mahdvagga, 
*1I9; Jdt. iL 266), apildpeti, 'to repeat;' apildpanam, 
' {Milindapanha, p. 37} ; samsliiali = osldati ^ 
fcftffl/i (Jdlaka, ii. p. 293, 1. 14). 
*J3at other works have been completed besides the P&U 

fooary we have already noticed. Tbe pandits of Ceylon 

Iliii {■nltf reading U ia more than one Sinhiilcse MS., but the Burmese 
t. hin UrorattikiHi. 

SKakiiX jmrMip sigaJieB 'to maliekiioivn.' 

The duliee of n King" in r4jniiiialipa Smfili, tt. 345-347. 


Depaiy Commissioner, British Burmali, has published two 
lueful and carefully edited little works. The first, published 
at Calcutta in 1875, is entitled 'Analysis and P41i Text of 
the Subodhaiaiikara, or Easy Ehetoric, by Sangharakkhita 

" The author, MoggalUna who is here called the 'pro- 
tected of the congregation,' was a PSli grammarian and 
leiioographer who flourished in Ceylon towards the close 
of the twelfth century.' His work, consisting of five 
chapien, is based upon the well-known Sanskrit work on 
rhetorical composition, entitled the Sahitya-Darpana, or 
ilirrorofCoraposition, by Viswanathft KavirJlja. 

"Moggallftna is the author of Major Fryer's second Pali 
test, the Vuttodaya (Exposition of Metre), published at 
Calcutta ia 1877, This edition contains translation and 
useful explanatory notes. 

"The PItimokkha, the Buddhist office of the Confession 
of Priests, has been edited with translation and notes by 
J- F. Dickson, M.A.. It first appeared in the Journal of the 
Royal Asiatic Society. There is also a Sinhalese text pub- 
lished in Ceylon in 1875. entitled Bhikkim PdU-mokkkam. 

"In vol. xi. of this Journal will be found some interest- 
ing frsgmenta of the late Professor Childers on Sandlii in 

"Or. Richard Pischel has given us this year the AssalA- 
;wis.sutta,2 the third discou^e in the fifth part (Brahmana 
"^l of the second division (MajjhimapafiilSsaka) of the 
*V}l*ima-Nik&!/a. It is accompanied by a short Pdli cora- 
""fiOlary, and an English translation. 

""T. Pischet thinks that the Sutta, in its present form, ia 
not earlier than the third century B.C. The object of the 
discourse is ' to show the indifference of caste.' It may fairly 
w called a variation on the theme proposed in Dhamma- 
ps^'ii, V. 393: — 'A man does not become a brahman by 
«> malted hair, by his family, or by birth; in whom there 
B troth and virtue, he is blessed, he is a Brahman.' 

n the J.R.A.S. 1874. 


nuiwu/ti, with tranelatioa by Gogerly; (6) the At &ndfi!/a 
Mtta, with tranalatioa by Gogerly ; (7) extracts from the 


"The DIt/ha collection of suttaa will, I hope, be one day 
orilically edited by Mr. Rhys Davids, whose thorough 
ksovledge of P&li and of Buddhistic literature is a sure 
guarantee of the work being well done, 

"ffe can only learn what Buddhism really waa from 
the sacred books themeelves, and the late Professor Chiidera 
mpplied a very useful text for Buddhistic study in his 
critical edition of the Mah&pariiiibbaiin-autfa, one of the 
mttaa of the Digha Nikdya. It was originally printed in 
the Royal Asiatic Society's Journal, and reprinted wilhout 
preface or notes in 1878.' The editor intended to publish 

■ commentary to and translation of the text. Mr, Davids's 
translation will appear shortly in one of the volumes of the 
'Sacred Books of the East.' 

"I thinlc thia great sutta must be regarded for the most 
psrt aa a compilation, the only original mutter perhaps 
being that which relates to the period just before the death of 
Buddta, namely, that portion of the sutta that comes 
slier tlie chapter named Al&ravedalia-bhdnrirdra. 

liie very name of thia chapter is suggestive, for we 
•now that the term reilalla was applied to the longer 
wealwes; and the theory of compilation is borne out by 
we fact that several sections of the Mahapanmbh&na-iiuUa 
«f8 fonnd in other parts of the Suita-pitaka. I have met 
Will] the opening parts of the first chapter in the Vajji-cagga 
« the Angnttara-Nikdj/a. A portion of the second chapter 
I havB discovered in the Sa/ipatthdiia section of the SniiyuHa- 
^'^ii/a. In this section (p. 2^^ of Childera's text) there is 

■ ^ery difficult reading, regha-mismkena, concerning which 
^ ooininenlary is silent, and, as it stands, cannot be 

■couraiely translated. The Sanyatta-Nik&ga reading rekha- 
'*"'"' renders us no assistance. It may be a blunder for 
'*3""""»fct«irt. I have come across a part of the third 

h^.^'^T"-i>''l>bdHa Suits lii the. ':«,t<,-pif^k-. The Pfili IflXt. Edited 
/ un i»i„ ^^^^ ^ ^.^ CiiiUeis. Loudon, Triibni^r, 1878. 



chapter (Cliildera's text, pp. 23-26} in the Iddhip&da Bection 
of the Sanyiitta KUidi/a. Mr, Davids informs me that ha. ' 
had already come to the concluaion, before he had beard of 
my discovery, that thia part, to which allusion has just been 
made, formed no portion of the original autta — in fact was, 
quile out of place there. 

"Allusion has been already made to Dr. Oldenberg's 
valuable contributions to Pali literature. He has rendered 
still greater service to P^Ii by undertaking to edit the whole 
of the Vin&ya Pitafca, ' a collection of rules regulating tlie 
outward condition of the saihgha and hhikkhua.' 

"Last year Dr. Oldenberg brought out the MahArar/fj^, 
which deals with numerous particulars relating to tVie 
ordinations, ceremonies, confidential meetinjTB, dresa, fcxx^. 
and daily life of the priests. Thia year this indefatigable 
editor baa given us the Cullai-agga, which relates to disci- 
plinary proceedings, office of the monks, details of the d»-51y 
life of the fraternity, and some account of the sisterhood, etC- 
The volume closes with an account of the CounciU oi 
H&jagaha and Yesili. 

" The eleventh chapter is highly interesting, dealing a^ 
it does with Buddhistic Scriptures. Of course this chapter 
must have been written after the text of the sacred book»_ 
bad been finally settled. 

"According to the learned editor, the germ of the whol 
of the Viiiayapitaka^ is contained in the Pd/imokkha, whiol 
with its ancient commentary was admitted at an earl^ 
period into the Vinayajnlaka. 

" There are some amusing stories in these works wUid 
are evidently related with a view to account for certaiO- 
injunctions made by Gotama. From these little incident^ 
we learn that men liable to military service gained admifc"^ 
tance to the order, malefactors too saved their lives 
seeking a refuge in the priesthood, and even parents allowt 
their children to join the brotherhood, probablv with 
of getting rid of the irksome duty of supporting them. 






"Some of these children were anything but useful addi- 
ons to the order, for they disturbed the brethren, and 
ttred out liiatily for food at the wrong time, and behaved 
[together like the nasly little things their actions proved 
leui to be. Others went about begging, and offended alma- 
ivers by their importunities, forcing them to declare that these 
, tile brats must be the children of the b/iikk/iiiiiU, or nuns. 
"The naughty people who made these remarks were even 
BOflre uncharilable than the author of the Chinese proverb 
respecting priests and nuns: 'The monastery faces the 
nunnery — there's nothing in that — yet there may be.' 

nang s€ng ssii tui cho nil seug asd 

a » tfi w * 

IDU shih yeh yu ahih, 

TIpMi's parents thought that it would bo a very nice 
thing for their little boy to be ordained, because if he tried 
lo learn writing it wouhl pain bis tender fingers, while on 
the other hand counting, painting, etc., would be too. 
liborious for him, but as a brother of the Buddhistic order 
could live a very pleasant and enjoyable life. 
" Dr, Oldenberg'a researches with respect to the gradual 
'growth of the Vinai/apilaka are of the very highest import- 
mce to Pftli scholars. He is of opinion that a careful 
ravestigation of the Sullapilnka would lead to results similar 
to those that he has arrived at. In this he is strongly sup- 
ported by what I have already said of the composite 
character of the Mab&parinihb&nii'mtta. It receives further 
•"pport by B careful examination of another large treatise, 
the Muh&iatipatth&iia-sutta, a useful edition of which, in 
Sinhiieae characters, was published at Colombo in 1874, 
JyBtttawfta TudAwa, the learned editor of the BAldvat&ra. 
'^^ ia also a very good edition in Burmese characters, 
P"''''8hed at Rangoon in 1873, with commentary in Burmese. 
^ have paid considerable attention to this sutta, and have 
''^"liiied about thii-teeu MSS. of it. I have discovered that 

172 THE president's annual A.DDHBSS FOB 1880. 

the Mah&nntipatthdna-suiia of the Digha Nik&ya is identical 
with the SatipaUMna-sulla in the Mnjihima Nikdj/a. I have 
also fouod in the Vihiiahijappakaraiiam, one of the Ahhi- 
dharnma books, a shorter discourse, which shows us what the 
originid sutta was like before it received these numerous 
additions that make up the larger treatise. 

"Among the later additions to tbe original sutta I may 
here mention (1) tbe Amdiapabbam, whieh may be found 
treated more fully in tbe Aminidclha and An&p&naaaH vagga»} 
in the fifth part of the Sunytdia Nik&i/a; (2) tbe IrtyA- 
pidhnpahbam ' ; (3) the Sainpajaimapabbam * ; (4) the D/tdtw- 
pabbarii ; (5) tbe Navmlmthikapahbain^ Even the preface 
to the Saiipallhdna-sulfa is not a part of tho original text, 

"But this is not the place for a discussion of this kind, 
and I must reserve what I have to say with respect to this 
matter until I have leisure to publish a new text of the 
Ma/idsalipallh&na-siiHa from the best MSS., together with 
the suttaa from the S'lmjutta Nikaya and Vibhanga, that 
throw light on the gradual development of the Satipatth&na 
treatise. The results of my examination bear out very 
fully the opinion put forth in the preface to tbe Mafidcagga, 
namely, that 'the earliest form in which these doctrines [of 
Buddha] have been laid down was in all probability not that 
of the sutta as we now have it. These auttas, as regards 
style, show the very greatest resemblance to tbe narrative 
portions of the Vinaya ; the dogmatic doctrines are not 
stated directly, but are put into the mouth of Buddha, and we 
are told of tbe occasion upon which he proclaimed them. . . . 
It will not appear too bold a supposition to assume that tbe 
literature of the Dhamma developed in a similar manner. 
The Buddhist community began with the fixing of the most 

< The sbuls introduced into the An&iapatham of tbe MahiiatipaHhina-uUt» 
is wimtiDg in tbe Andpiliniaali-fiigga. 

' Tbe fuur iriylpalhaii are thus formulaW in tbe Bojjhwiga section (2nd 
vaega] of tbe SaHy«Ha-Nikdi/a ; "kalena gamiuiiim, kSlena tbaaadi, kaJena 
■ajiuiD, kilena Beyyam." 

' This KctJon teems to haTebeen an old comment on tbe meaning of tampiijiii» 
or talo. 






important doctrines such as the four ariifasaecas, the twelve 
nidd/uu, etc., without employing any narrative form. If the 
Bhikkhus, at the time of their assemblies, propounded 
the Dhamma to one another, their discourses probably con- 
sisted of the recital of such dogmatic paragraphs.' 

" While this report was passing through the press two 
valuable additions to Pali literature were contributed by the 
well-known Danish scholar Dr. Trenckner : — 

" 1. Pali Miacellany, Part I, (Williams and Norgate), 
consists of the introduction to the Milmda-panha, with literal 
transhition and a series of most valuable philological notes. 

" 2. The MiUndn-pnuha, being dialogues between King 
Ittilindu and the Buddhist sage Nigasena (Williams and 

"The learned editor fixes its date 'between 100 and 200 
of our era,' and thinks it most likely that the original work 
was in Sanskrit. The language of the Miliiula-panha is of 
course much later than that of the pilukus, but it contains 
many passages that throw much light on the older texts. 
In the second volume of the Jttakas, p. 9, there is the 
following difficult passage : 

" ' Avuso S&riputta, mayaiii pi tarn ekaih panhaih pucch&ma 
amh&kain pi ak^sath karohi, dehi me vinicchayaifa &cedhik&ye 
[Arfthik&i/e^ vS nibbedhikdpe \_>tibhcthik&ije] v& niggahe vi 
patiggahe vfi visese vk pativisese va, etc.' 

" If we compare the above with the Milinda-pmiha, p. 28, 
we see that the variant readings in brackets are those that 
•bould have been taken into the text. (See the Editor's note, 
p. 421.) 

" ' Eatham bhante Nagosena panditi sallapantiti. Pandi- 
t&narii kho mnhfinlja salUpe drpl/ianarii pi kayirati, titbbe- 
thannm pi kayirati, niggaho pi kayirati, patikammaifa pi 
kayirati,' etc. 

" Aeethanam is from the root vetJt, with preposition d, 'to 
twist,' ■ wind,' cf. Sansk. HI'TH ' to twist.' The gloss to the 
old Sinhalese version explains aeethanam by velima. Dr. 
Trenckner suggests 'involution' and 'evolution' as ap- 
proximate renderings of the technical vague terms Avethanath 


[.Vol' tip. 17, 1. E, " Who cnn gra^p the rolHtioaship of caw between nmrt 
ud HliMrw.but nut tliat between arc and ira islt." How early thib pusitiuii- 
|nutite tppouni ia Eaglish, how jirmwlf it rendeivd the Latin iufloiiennl 
— '■■ bBiteU wen on p. 159 uf Dr. Mumii'* Enrlg Rtgliih Sonulin, 

iKiiuti, mir be «i 
III nrin, »W aq 

may hen «, tbat in tbe 12ti> (;., when kdjwtiiei were stiil inflected and tl 
flirniillirriktiiiEiiielied (rum noune, it iros ou adjective but the unifU aoun> loir, 
M, mMr, iHil and diK, that liood in their aimple uninflecled fonni. in n 
pcMtt nLitJon before another noun : " ^e Ure ^et moa wepS far his ajen 
nuue [ill] ia nUe salt water, and iei (ore hit in aemned see water .... te tor 
)et muD lips for laffe of ^isse line, a i-nemaed wella water, for he welleS of 
>t tBtem daB naler of whIIb."] 


Terms Wanted. 

One of the commonest phenomena in tlie history of 
inglisli words is the dropping of an initial toneless vowel 
mually a- e- or i'-. Thus a-down has become doim, a-mend 
Keiid, a-rouitd round, attire lire, a/arum larum, alembic 
umbeck, alone loi\e, estate state, esquire squire, estop atop, 
tmpe Kape, elumim limn, xniong mong{er), iieork work, 
*^^P' '^^PU and thus poeta still make above 'bone, agaimt 
90*1*1, among 'nwng. We want a name for this phonetic 
phenoDienou, and especially a descriptive adjective for these 
Mortened forme, indicating the way in which the initial 
toneless vowel is as it were " let go." The Editor can think 
W nothing better than to call the phenomenon Apkesis 
^roni (jr_ atfurj/u), and the resulting forms Aphelic forms. 
^ "ill be glad if any one can suggest anything better, 
"le terms are required on almost every page of the 
"b also wants a good English word for the French mot 


indicating a word invented for the noace. Many 

'^'^ Words have become famous in themselv 


XI.-SOrXD-NOTATION. By Henry Swkbt, M.A. 

The problem of sound-notation is as old aa ciyilization itself, 

but it a only of late years that tliat of scie)dijic eouDd-notu- 
tioE has become urgent. There is now a general convictiou 
Hating philologisla of the necessity of a general alphabet, 
but wit!) utter discord of opinion as to the means of attaining 
it. Most hold with some modification of the Roman alphabet, 
eacb phoneticiaa employing a modification of his own. Of 
org'ink alphabets, which are based ou a physiological analysis 
of tho actions of the speech -organs, Briicke's and Merkel's 
may be said to have come still-born into the world, while 
Beli'a Viiible Speech attracted great attention at the time, 
■Itbougli giill little known, except by name, ontaide a small 
eirule of his own pupils. 

My objects here are 1) to consider what is the best possible 
modification of the Roman alphabet, 2) to show that such an 
ilpuabet is Inferior to Hell's, and 3) to describe an improved 
and mended form of both. 


Of the two fundamental defects of tho Roman alphabet, 
asmely the arbitrariness of its symbols, and tbeir limited 
number, it is the latter which moat imperatively calls for 
reronn. The former, indeed, being inbcroot in the alphabet 
itteli, can only be remedied by abandoning that alphabet 
iltegether— a contingency which, till comparatively lately, 
DM nanily been taken into account at all, and is still ignored 
V »08t phoneticians. 

^oefioman alphabet can be supplemented in five distinct 

') by adding new letters — j, i, )>. 
*) by diacritics — a, a, fl. 
V by turned letters — a, b, o. 
*) by italics and capitals — a, a, j. 
^) by digraphs — th, dh, aj. 


Digraphi, lastly, hare nothing but convenience to ro- 
oomraend them. They are sprawly, especially when in 
ininulely accurate writing of sounds they develope into fri- 
graphx, and are sometiraeB ambiguous. A diagraph is, 
however, generally written easier and quicker thau a new 
type, and ia often read as easily. 

It i§ evident that all these expedients fall under two main 

1) those which require new types to be cut ; 

2) those which require only the old types ; 

•nd that if the question of reform ia to be mainly guided 
Bj- considerations of typographical convenience, only those 
modifieations can be adopted which full under the second 
Bead, namely the Inst three of those first enumerated, together 
»ith a few out of the first two classes of letters. That it is 
poswoie to frame a iniuutely accurate alphabet without 
nceeding the resources of an ordinary printing-office has 
seen coaclnsively shown by Ellis's Pfi/ipoliz/ie, on which my 
•fn Mrrow Romic is mainly founded. We may in short 
■y that the main result of the manifold experiments made 
m Engbnd up to the publication of my " Ilandbook of 
Fhonelica " was the rejection of the new-type and diacrilio 
systems, or, in other words, the subordination of compactness 
» pneral accessibility. Whatever may be said against the 
lu'ehsh systems, they at least provided every writer and printer 
■ilh (be means of representing the minutest shades of sound 
*ilh the least possible delay, trouble, or expense. The 
importance of this becomes evident when we consider that 
It was mainly the typographical difficulties of the " Standard 
Alphabet" which caused its disuse by missionaries and 
""''cllerg, for whom it was specially intended. Palteotype 
mil Sarroff Romic still continue to be the only approach to 
'■ """erBal alphabet with Roman letters. 

uowever, these principles have met with no favour out of 
^''elsiid, and the latest Continental alphabet— the Swedish, 
noticed in my laat Address {Tram. 1877-9, p. 396 foil.) 
"'""^"s directly opposite ones, being supplemented entirely 
y ne» types, diacritics being employed only for quantity. 



doited letters which are in common use, retaining tlie 
digTBphs (ah) and some others, the Narrow Boraic vowel- 
notation would become practically almost as manageable and 
compact as can be expected from any modification of tbe 
Roman slphubet. lu the conBonants ^ and % would bo 
Bubstituted for (gh) and (dh), etc. Nasalization and palata- 
lization would be indicated by (n) and (J), quantity by a 
aimpie upright stroke (provisionally by i), stress by a poinL 
This method is in every way preferable to the ordinary one 
of placing these marks as diacritics above and below the 
letter modified, which it is besides impossible to carry out 
ransisteally and raioutely in practice. Even if we allow 
only two degrees of quantity and stresB, and four tones, 
whicii ia utterly inadequate, we get eight diacritics, with a 
largo number of special combinations. The attempt to form 
Bew letterg for every variety of nasalized, etc., sounds, is equally 
viaionary, and if italics were limited to the function of 
general modifiers, such digraphs as {an, a/'), etc., would not 
Cause tlie slightest inconvenience, and {sj), at least, is leas 
omaty and soareely less compact than any of the atterapta 
I have swn to combine » and,; into one letter. 

Taare ia, however, a fatal obstacle to tbe general adoption of 
soch aa alphabet for international scientific purposes, namely, 
the impoBsibility of agreement aa to ita details. It ia a 
nstaral consequence of the fundamental arbitrariness of the 
Komun niphabet, whose elementary symbols have no definite 
Kiationg either to one another or the sounds they represent, 
tnat the values of these symbols vary almost indefinitely in 
uUereat languages, and consequently that any general 
*jslem stands in a very different relation to each national 
orthography, which approaches it with special associations of 
Jls Own. Hence such irreconcil cable contrasts as the " Roman " 
•Id " English " values of tbe vowels, and the impossibility of 
igfeeing on a basis even for the rough practical system 
M'"wd for spelling reform purposes. The ridicule which 
P"iiietio spelling invariably e.tcites in uneducated minds, and 
tledistilte with which every phonetician regards uU phonetic 
""'tttiona except the one evolved by himself, are simply the 



TnemoTy, just as th« nine digita of arithmetic may bo com- 
lilned iadeliiittely. TheEe qualities would also ecuure it 
Bgamat arbitrary misapplication. There would be no cross- 
■wociatioas with the ordinary Komaa orthographies. It 
would also be perfectly impartial, every simple souud having 
a simple eign, bo that the English Ik and the Oerman ck 
would be put on a perfect level with k, s, etc. The value for 
scieulific purposes of au alphabet in which every letter would 
be pructically a diagram of the notions by which the sound is 
produced would be incalculable, and the dili'ercnt varieties of 
SBeli a vowel as (a), for instance, would appear in their true 
light, namely, as perfectly distinct sounds, hitherto confounded 
Bimpljf bj- an accident of defective notation. The rationalo 
of sound-change would then become self-evident in most 
caws by the mere juxtaposition of the symbols. 

Tbe objection oftenest urged against the adoption of such 
an alphabet is, that being based on a physiological analysis 
of iheuationsof the organs of speech, each advance in our 
inaljais, fliid each correction of earlier errors, will involve a 
Modification or enlargement of the alphabet. Tbe natural 
SMwer lo tliia is that perfection in all practical matters can 
never be reached without repeated trial, and that long 
espeneuce is required to determine what are the best shapes 
w iLe ieliers— the simplest and most distinct, how the words 
■re lo be divided, and many other similar questions. Also 
that an alphabet in which the facts already established were 
•mbooied on a systematic and consistent plan would itself 
" a most powerful instrument of progress. The question is 
act whether we have arrived at an absolutely perfect and 
Msl analysis of speech -sounds, but simply whether we have 
' sufficient number of firmly- established results to form the 
OMisof an organic alphabet which for scientific purposes is 
in iraproveinent on any possible modification of the Roman 
•Iphsbet. I answer confidently, Yes. An alphabet which 
*"1b stond such tMts as Viiibk Speech was subjected to by 
Mr. £liia and other eminent phoneticians {V. S. p. 23 foil.), 
^ alphabet too whose very structure makes it capable of 
mdefinile expansion and elaboration, must yield at least a 



applictttion to a variety of languages, I see no reason tor 
modilying iU genera! framework. 

The fftct of Bell's vowel-ayatem having hitherto been 
found adequate does not, of course, involve tlmt such will be 
the case twenty, or even ten years hence. Nor is there any 
reason why Visible Speech may not hereafter be rejected 
eatirely in fnvour of some fundamentally different alphabet. 
Rut ihis further step towards ideal perfection will not come 
of il«elf, or be reached by a leap : it must be toiled up to 
slowly and painfully, and as long aa we are hampered with 
makeshift adaptations of the Koinau alphabet, our advance 
will continue to be a mere crawl. 

The first condition of progress is that practical phonetics 
ehould be made a study accessible to every philologist — that 
It should he po/jHii«3ct/ (from a scientific point of view). This 
can oulj' be effected by means of an organic alphabet, which 
teeps the mechnniBm of the sounds continually before the 
learner's eyes, and makes those comparative studies easy 
wbich are almost impossible with the Roman alphabet. The 
popular idea that the Roman alphabet is easier in itself than 
Sf organic one, is simply due to the fact that a word spelt 
phonetically in Roman letters is generally recognizable with 
more or less difficulty even by unphonetic readers, while the 
orgaaic symbols are, of course, utterly unintelligible. But 
toe reco^iiion by eye of such a phonetically spelt word as 
(laiSfl) does not bring with it the slightest knowledge of its 
phoneiio structure. If the reader is told that this same 
*orai(j pronounced (fm'&er) in Scotch, he recognizes it with 
Ihl! greuter ease as " father," but if asked to explain the 
^eteiiee between the (a) of the one spelling and the (o) of the 
■"her, and to pronounce them, is totally at a loss. When, 
hcwflver, he bas learnt these facts, and has associated them, 
lot »ith ibe arbitrary symbols (a) and (a), but with the 
•"■pmic] and j. he has not only acquired phonetic knowledge, 
""' also the means of incessantly recalling it to his mind, 
the height of the symbol being associated with the height of 
"e tongue. Even if obliged afterwards to employ Roman 
fetliift, such a student will be able to do so only by m 


transliterating them into the organic symbols — in short, 
whatever the character he reads, he will always think in the 
organic letters. Of course, such an alphabet as Visible Speech 
has to be learnt, but this really involves only learning the 
meaning of a few fundamental marks and the principles of 
their application, which can be acquired by any one in a few 
hours. To read such an alphabet fluently requires, of course, 
considerable practice, but the student will acquire a perfect 
command of it long before he has mastered the actual facts of 
phonetics embodied in it. The real difficulty is the thing itself^ 
namely, the facts of phonetics, whose difficulties are largely 
increased by a bad notation like the various make-shifb 
Koman-letter ones, and are simply reduced to their natural 
proportions by a rational notation. If non-Sanskritists will 
take the trouble of learning the enormously complex Sanskrit 
alphabet, which gives the key to only one language, merely 
for comparative purposes, the comparative phonetician cannot 
grudge the trouble of attaining the phonetic key to all 
languages, which is besides in itself the easiest of all possible 

These views are not the result of desultory theorizing, but 
of the practical experience of myself and my fellow- worker, 
Mr. H. Nicol. We both studied practically under Mr. Bell 
himself, and have worked with his alphabet ever since, 
employing it exclusively in our private memoranda and cor- 
respondence with one another. We had, however, till lately 
no intention of advocating its general use among philologists, 
thinking that a general Romic system would excite less 
prejudice and do well enough for a time. However, the con- 
siderations set forth have made us change our minds during 
the last two years, and we have been driven by sheer neces- 
sity to have types cut for a reformed organic alphabet for 
our own use. The expense of the undertaking has been 
shared equally between us, but the use of the new types will 
be free to any member of the Society who wishes to employ 
them in any paper printed in our Transactions. 

As I have had more leisure and opportunity for phonetic 
work than Mr. Nicol, most of the modifications of Bell's 


original alphabet have been devised by myself, but ibey have 
ill been subjected to Mr. Nicol'a criticiBma and approval 
hefore final adoption, as also to the criticisms of Mr. Ellis 
and Dr. Murray. 

Bell's Visible Spkech. 

A* Beii-s book {Visible Speech, by Alex. Melville Bell. 
Inaugural Edition, 1867) ' is novr practically iuacoeasible to 
ordinary students, and aa the want of key-words raakea it 
difficult of coinpreheiiaioii to the untrained reader, I have 
tried to make the following ahsti-act of it full and clear 
enougb to supersede reference to it for ordinary purposes, 
wd al the same time as brief as possible, by omitting de- 
tailed eitplu nations of universally-accepted facts of phonology. 
"Wlierevor Bell's views are obscure, or diverge from ray own 
or those of others. I Lave q^uoted his own definitions. 

Bell's complete alphabet la shown in the annexed table, 
''produced by Mr. Ellis's permission, from the one in his 
^rhjEmjIUh Pronunciation, Part I. 

1 2 








c o 








CI n o 







c lo o 

C 1 Q S3 







■ t 

1 { 1 



a 1 Q O 













e 1 n o 








eisi: tis 



* < 





e 1 CO oo 







e 1 so £i5 8 

a" "ffi o" "3 











■ ffi 

Q O 0) B 


i ^ 





12 3 4 



7 8 



f rinnl of the gyatem, m applied to Eogliih, appeared iu a amal 
peeeA >e th, MMiait (l*udon, 1888), wliich ia al™ eat of pn 
is. iaetudinft these two. niaj lie abtaiiuKl ftom Mr. J. P. 
Saleui, Maes.. U.S.A. 







20 Vowels, 



















7 Glides, 








14 Modifiers, 














4 Tones, 



• . 

^G types are reversible, and the consonant ones, being 
square, can be turned in any direction, so that, for instance, 
C» Oi 0» O are all printed from one type. The complete 
alphabet of 129 single letters is, therefore, printed from the 
above 61 types. 

Certain typographical modifications proposed by Mr. Bell 
Himself, and adopt^ in our revised alphabet, will be described 

'^e can now proceed to the detailed descriptions of tlie 
separate symbols. 

Budimentary Symbols {V, 8, 46-49). 

These are defined by Bell as " those which represent the 
elements of interjectional or inarticulate utterance." 

!• 0. When the glottis and the super-glottal passage 
^^e perfectly open, the breath creates no sound in its emis- 
'*®^ A moderate degree of expulsiveness to render the 

miration" audible is implied. [Bell uses this letter 


t't. An exhaustive aspiration from upward preaaura of 
the diaphragm ; — a wheeze. [Hardly correct: a 
wheeze seems to require super-glottal contraction.] 
01. A freotle inaudible aspiration. 

u Glottal closure with dislention of the larj-nx from 

pressure on the conSned breath, and percussive 

emission on opening the passage ; — a cough. 

11, 12, <, >. Whisper or voioe may be produced by air 

goiiig inwards f<) or by breath coming out (>). All symbols 

eioept < and ■ imply emission. Symbol > is used to denote 

ft traositioaal emission from the symbolized configuration 

in pessbg from one position to another. The effect is 

different from the throat -aspiration, 0. Thus from tbo 

•hut position of the glottis (x) we may either open sharply 

upon an utterance of voice (xi) or we may roue ojf ike pressure 

of tke " datch " by interpolating a " breath-glide " (oi). 

[TLis makes > practically ideutical with my (h), both before 

ind after voweh {Hb. § 195-9) and in aspirated stops {Ub. 

13. *". Signifies that the organic separation or recoil from 
Buy symbolized position — which is always implied in final 
elements when the "atop" is not written — does not take 
place. Thus x" is an unfinished "catch," in forming which, 
^ impQlee ceases with the clomire of the glottis. The effect 
« orgaoio " stop " is implied between elements in verbal 
flora binations, such as tl in oufhw. Id in oitldo, etc. ; where, 
'**'*'Wrily, the ( is not followed by organic recoil, as it 
Wuld be at the end of n word. In these cases, of course, 
we "atop" does not require to be written. [These two 
*•»« are distinct. The latter is simply one of absence of 
el"le(*r«(rt-glideintho two words cited). The former means 
'"'"'tion of out-breathing before the recoil, not iihertce of 
***'""■ A stop maintained indefinitely without recoil would 

^^ *'. In verbal combinations of elementary sounds, each 
anient is inseparably joined to the succeeding one. When 
^J element, except the last in a combination, is finished 
"^ependeutjy of wliat follows, the sign of "hiatus" (>) is 




•Oi). Emission stopper (62).' Organic separation without 

■emission. The "stop" (■) Bhowsthat the action is conjunctive 
only; and the "emission-stopper" signifies that the organs 
ire BCparaled after contact, but that the breath is retained 
[There is no reason why this modifier should not be applied 
to olher wJunda as well as stops. In fact, Bell himself says, 
after treatinpof Consonant Suctions, under the head Consonant 
Aelimis ititlioui BrealA (62): "All the consonant configurations 
of every Irind — primary and divided as well as shut — may 
be fyrmed without either emission or suction. If the breath 
willib the month be compressed behind the articulating 
organs while an inner closure is held, a distinct, and in some 
t*s«>i a powerfully percussive effect will be produced on the 
■hnipt separation of the organs. The signs Og and 0/* repre- 
•eni ihe two modes of this mere motion of the organs of 
flteeoh." Bell apparently means to include both the action 
jnat deacribed (Oy) and the clicks (O/i) under the designation 
mere motion of the organs of speech."] 
^*- Suction Stopper (62). Suction and organic separation 
iitliout inhalation. The formation of the shut consonants by 
wction (<) gives rise to a peculiar class of elements. The lip- 
■kut sjTiibol followed by the sign of suction (cx) represents a 
"Nind inierjeotionally expressive of sudden pain ; but there 
^y be suction during the organic contact and separation 
01 ihe organs without ingoing air. For this effect the 
*P*«iiU8igii "suction stopper" is provided. The lip-, point-, 
Hnd front-sliut actions performed in this way, and tlie point- 
Mmlwilh side termination (oti), produce a series of sounds 
W"clit](B" which are very common in intcrjectional or 
fflirticulate utterance, and which ai'e elements of ordinary 
1*Mh in some African languages. Compare also note on the 
Zulu clids (125). [This method of symbolizing the clicks is 
*"J ingenitiua. The air is sucked from between the tongue 
■ J"'^ palate from behind, so that its raoveracnt is necessarily 
|-J'"'"ds,wliioh is expressed by the<, the (■) showing that this 
"Brd movement is not obtained by ordinary inhalation.] 

'*''"« Iki \hr \ml Une of p. 59 sliuuld be ti 


bnalh directed on to the teeth by (the flattened, or even 
swiCBve) tongue. The convexity of the tongue deacribetl 
Bell would convert the English (S) into the Danish {%/), 
'. 5 128. Lastly, division could only produce some variety 
of (1). If we take the symliol literally as ct+o, it can only 
nean a voiceless Italian (// modified by (r). u, the point- 
linded, IB described by Bellas "(having) its apertures over 
the sides of the middle of the tongue, the point being in 
jEontact with tbe upper gum ; tbe front surface of the tongue 
B flatleaed or slightly concave, so that the apertures are 
"irge and productive of but little friction or sibilatiou."] 
*15(69). Point-mixed-divided has the apertures of u (1) 
irrowed by convexity of the tongue, and the breath is in 
(onsequBBce strongly sibilant. [This is, according to Bell 
"T|, the Welsh //, usnnlly identified with a", and the Zulu 
The voiced sound he identifies us the Zulu c//i/. It is not 
ir io what way the sound is supposed to difibr from the 
preceding one. Tlie Welsh // certainly has a strong sibilant 
t^:l, but this can be effected by spreading out tbe lateral 
Igea of the tongue, as well as by convexity of ila front, and 
conjecture that the Zulu dhl is simply such a (buzzed) to. 
Taken literally £|5 ought to represent (1/) — the ordinary 
Xoeh fin belle (lib. § 133).] 

3 (f). Lip-divided is formed by placing the centre of 
the lower lip on tbe edges of tbe upper teeth, while the 
•fMth Lisses through the interstices between tbe teeth or 
"'^een the teehb and the lip. A similar effect of divided 
wmation results from placing the lower on tlie upper lip, 
iMtead of the teeth, and directing the breath over the 
Waen of ihe lips. This peculiarity would be represented 
'lie modifier {=] "to lip" after tbe lip-divided symbol 
t*)' [Bb. 118, 133, and note, p. 213. Bell's own analysis 
*"tfadict3 his symbolization of (f) aa a divided: the true 
%-^inded U the" sound he writes 3>.] 

lhe« errors of symbolization are evidently due to the 
*"*'''[it to uphold the symmetry of tbe system, even where 
SPuund.pkn is defective. It certainly is a defect that 
"1 la no sign for tbe teeth- position, which would enable 




In Bell's nomenclature the place is named first and roice 
lut: Q lip- shut- voice. Consonants of two curves he calls 
'miied,' thus o is ' lip-mixed,' a ' back-mixed.' It seems 
ampler to name both organs : lip-back, baok-lip. Bell calk 
0, ele.p 'shut' consonants, instead of the more usual 'atop,' 
I have also substituted ' open ' for his ' primary.' 

Glides (69-70). 

Bell'a symbolization of the non-syllabic vowels with which 
oiphlhoQgs are formed is the one general feature of bis 
ilphabet which has met with least approval among pfaonc- 

"The primary consonants are formed by the breath or 
TOice iMuing with a degree of friction, sibilation or buzzing, 
through H narrow passage over the back, front, etc., of the 
tongue, or between the lips. When the coafigurative channel 
hm far Bipanded as to remove compression or buzzing from 
the voice, a series of semi -consonant, semi-vowel sounds re- 
"lltB, which we call ' glides.' These elements are oaly trati' 
n'HWiT/ soiiadB. If ihey bad a fixed configuration, they would 
» vowela, and would form syllables ; as even the closer 
wasonunta do when their configuration la held. 

"The ghdes being thus intermediate to consonants and 
Wwds, are appropriately represented by the organic couso- 
Mal curves joined subordiuately to vowel-stems ; thus j^ 
[from f)]. The glides unite with vowels to form diphthongs, 
ordouble sounds with a single syllabic impulse. The vowel- 
^^ (l, i) are now specifically employed by themselves to 
•leiiota wn-ityllahie vowel murmurs," 

Be thus describes a vowel (71) : 
"Voffel is a syllabic sound moulded by a definite and 

"'Dentarily ^ or tense, configuration of the free channel 
, ° "Booth, and creating no oral sibilation or friction in 

finiiBBion. A vowel without a fixed conliguratioa loses ita 

" *uic eifect and becomes a glide ; and a glide with sibila- 

"^ friction in the oral channel becomes a consonant. 

"■"aais, like glides, are merely transitional sounds; 


but their configurations may be held ao as to receive syllat 
impulae, in which case a coneonant without a vowel has t 
effect of a syllable. All vowels make eyllablea." 

This view of 'glides' being intermediate to consonan 
and vowela is the reault of confusion between two distim 
diviBions of sounds, namely, that of syllabic and non-ayllatn 
and that of consonant and vowel. The Inlter is entirely tl 
result of the post/ion of the organs, while the former i 
purely relative, dependent mainly on stress, secondarily a 
quantity (Hh. § 189, 250). Any sound, whether conM 
iiant or vowel, may be either si//!ii!>ic, that ia, a eyllable 
former, or the contrary, An^/ consonant ichaieeer, not merd] 
(1), (n), etc., may constitute a syllable, and any vowel tMJ 
be made non-syllabic without the alighteat modification fl 
the position with which it ia formed. Bell's intermediati 
Bvmbols would be defensible only if glides were formed will 
a degree of friction or closeness intermediate to that a 
consonants and vowels, which is not the case. It ia »!■ 
clear that there must be as many glide- as there are vowa 
symbols, but Bell provides only eight glides to repreJ 
the thirty-six vowela. Thus, the six vowela I, f, [. [, t 
are all represented by the single glide S, Some vowels, s 
as T, have not even an approximate glide to correspond. 

The remaining glide-symbola are really weakened oonii 
nanta, such as ^il, which is a weak (i> (r). 

The following is a complete list of the glide-symbi 
Bell's key-words arc given by him on p. 94 of his book. 

•>. Breath-glide. A transitional aspiration of orgo* 
quality corresponding to that of the adjoining elemexl 
=:a soft effect of c, o, etc, [See p. 193, above. Bell's 1 
word ia the Irish p'aper.'] 

I, Voice-glide, Vocal murmur,=a noo-syllabic effect 
\. [Non-syllabic "l_ (e) implies a defiuite position — the at' 
mixed-narrow, but it is also possible to make a voice-raurK 
in passing from one position to another, of so transieo'* 
character that it cannot be said to have any definite t 
figuration. T ought to be used to denote this sonad oA 
Eey-word, the English crt'cy.] 


I. Kound- glide. Rounded murmur, = a non-syllabic effect 
of \ (o). [Compare the remarks on I. Key-word, American 
and Cockney now. This is rather the ordinary English 

*5m Throat-glide. A semi-vowelized sound of $ (.i), re- 
sembling the vowel j (»). [This comparison is misleading, as 
there is no throat action in j. The key-word given is a 

* peculiar ' pronunciation of are. Bell told me that my own 
pronunciation of the vowel r in hear, etc., was this throat- 
glide, but I believe it is simply a glide-j (<2).] 

*l Back-glide. A semi-vowelized sound of e (j), resembling 
the vowel ] («) or 1 (ui). [Key- word, flre= smooth burr.] 

*J Back-round-glide. A semi-vowelized sound of c {^ic), 
resembling the vowel } (o). [Key-word, ottr=smooth burr 

*J Front-glide. A semi-vowelized sound of d) (j), resem- 
bling the vowel I (i). [Key-words English die, day. The 
sound here is, of course, a glide-I, not I.] 

*]5 Front-round-glide. A semi-vowelized sound of cd with 
lip-modification, resembling the vowel f (y). [Key- word, 
North Irish new,'] 

*6rf Point-glide. A semi-vowelized sound of O) (r), resem- 
bling the vowel I (a). [Key- word English, are. This seems 
to be a compromise between Bell's half-Scotch, half-elocu- 
tionary pronunciation of the English vowel-r as ov (without 
trill), and the ordinary glide-i or j pronunciation.] 

♦Jt Point- round-glide. A semi-vowelized sound of o, with 
lip-modification, resembling the vowel j (S). [Key-word, 
English our.] 

*5e Lip-glide. A semi-vowelized sound of 3 (y8), resembling 
the vowel I (ii). [Key- word, French /ut.] 

•^ Lip-round-glide. A semi-vowelized sound of o (w), 
resembling the vowel i (u). [The combination of 'lip ' and 

• round * is, strictly speaking, a tautology ; by ' rounding ' 
Bell here implies inner rounding {Hb. § 37, 9). Key-word, 
English now, which seems to be generally pronounced with 
glide-l or {, Bell's i.] 

In Bell's nomenclature glide comes last : 51, lip- round-glide. 



lip-modiGcatioa — being the yisible cause of round quality, 
is aaaunied aa representative of the effect. The amount of 
lip-modification corresponds to the degree of elevation of the 
tongue: high Towela have the narrowest, low the broadest, 
tad mid BD intermediate aperture. 

The lips lire drawn arrant the aperture of a lingual vowel in 
order to round its quality; and the resulting effect is sym- 

bolijed by a short line drawn a 

cj-os* the coirel atem. 



back mij-ed front 

Iincli mUfd front 

hi,h. 1, lii 'fy 

1» I » ill 

.* }. \6 {, 

3» \i {> 

la. 13 li ,as 

J 5 i » t '• 

The effects of rounding, not being dependent on the lips 
alouB, is producible — with some peculiarity — without con- 
traction of the labial aperture. The sign of ' inner ' forma- 
tion may be used to denote this mode of pronunciation. 
Thu9l(=oo rounded without the lips. 

Other faintly difierent shades of vowel-sound are possible ; 
aa, for instance, from giving a greater or less than the 
ordinuy or symmetrical degree of lip -modification. Even 
these delicate varieties may be perfectly expressed by the 
inodilierB -close' (n), 'open' (v), 'inner' ()), 'outer' {\), or 
by ' tinted ' symbols. 

In naming the vowels height comes first, rounding last : 
\ mid-iniied-wide- round. 

Linked Symbols (SO), 
"tculiar oral combinations may bo indicated at pleasure 
- "niing two organic symbols with a 'link ' {") between 
"i^ffli to show that they are to be pronounced simultaneously. 
Hot in succession. Thus, t0<O, labialized r, <i°c gutturalized 
•"i etc. ^y (^Q elements may be thus linked, where a 
""glo Bjmbol does not express the whole mechanism of a 
pwuliar sound. Thus the low-back vowel linked to the 
"p-mnsonaat (jio) would show close labial modification of a 
*"<"i[| wLich, when normally rounded, is associated with a 
''f«'l aperture of the lips. 

sot;xi) kotatiun. iiv hexky sweet, m.a. '. 

Revised Organic Alphabbt. 

General Frmoiples. 

In the above exposition I kave abstained as far as possible 
from criticism, only pointing out tbe more obvious errors of 
Bell's anulysis for the reader's guidance. It will now be 
necessary to carry out our criticism in detail, in order to 
justify the alterations proposed. These alterations are of 
two tindg, 1) ihoae which deal with the »hapea of tbe lettfirs, 
2) those which are the result of difference of analym. 

Before entering on the details of the former class of altera- 
tions, it will be as well to make a few remarks on the princi- 
ples of sound- symbol izati on from a purely graphic point of 
view. It is evident that the two main requisites are 
diitiiidu-encis and siniplkiti/, which are, to a certain extent, 
opposed to one another, this opponition becoming more and 
more marked as the number of letters increases. The 
co-eiisleace of such letters as II i in the Roman alphabet, 
"IQ. to a less extent, of o c e, is a sin against distinctiveness, 
while ench letters as g, Sanskrit ■^■=0, or almost any one 
of the German capitals, are equally objectionable from the 
*<!end point of view. Tbe complexity of the Roman 
alphabet ig eaormously increased by its often having per- 
lectiy distinct forms for the same letter according aa it is 
lower case, capital or italic — a a a, g g ff. It is evident that no 
lornis can be more distinctive and, at the same time, simpler 
tlian those on which Visible Speech is mainly based—' O, 
ihe iliatinctiveness of Visible Speech is, however, limited 
y "^ principle of indicating the relations of the sounds by 
' ^freaponding resemblance between their symbols, so that, 

™"f8e, the more closely allied two sounds are, the slighter 

be the difference between their symbols. It has, for 

7^^"=ei been urged as an objection to Visible Speech that 

■''Slinction between narrow and wide is too minute. I 
" ""It believe that it is, but if it were — if the distinction 

*^ii r and X were one which might easily escape a 

•"sory reader — it is of little importance, the distinction 

'*Uig meant for cursory readers, and the objectors for- 



lieigVt as the consonants, thus : alt (Itui), ^t (at), p {sen). 
1 anil I are retuined. 

Glide consonants are indicated by a ToUowing ), thus to) is 
a glide [1), and ai) is exactly equivalent to x. Glideleas cora- 
binntion is indicated by „, thus a^ca is (kl) without any 
glide between the (k) and (1). 

In the consonants it lioa been found impossible to work 
with BeE'a nasals, on account of the difficulty of distinguish- 
ing them from the corresponding stops, especially on a small 
scale. The difEculty lies in combining the three elements 
CJi incompact and distinctive symbols, allowing also for the 
addition of the voice-stroke. After many trials the simple 
remedy suggested itself of omitting the C altogether, com- 
bining the I and i, and indicating the place of the nasal 
by the direction of the i, thus : J (q), L (y), 1 (n), r (m), 
the voice-stroke being added thus : d, L, l, F. These forms 
Rre lefa elegant than the original ones, but are as simple, 
distinctive and self- interpreting as is possible. 

We now turn to those modifications and additions which 
iive heen made necessary by divergent analysis and increased 

Id the consonants a special symbol for ' teeth ' has been 
adopted, namely u, the angle being pictorial of the edges of 
tne teeth. The other organs concerned in the production of 
a teeth consonant are indicated by the direction in which the 
lymbol is turned: upoint-teeth (>),>lip-teeth (f). To indicate 
tbe 'blade' position (Rb. gg 7, 112) the form s has been 
"dopted from Bell's script, being regarded as a special combi- 
nition of ^gj y^ implying an intermediate position, s being 
•"fin as blade, is reversed to syraholize blade-point: S (s), 
''**'^{|). c (3). Those who disagree with Bell's analysis 
"uat rpgarj s as a purely conventional and arbitrary sign, 
""^^ direct from the Homan alphabet, and a as an arbitrary 
modification of it. 

Ine only oae of Bell's ' mixed ' consonants that has been 
™*^u*dig o fand c). The others have been superseded by 
^ ""foduction of uniform modifiers, formed from segments 
" ">« curves for back, front, etc. : < back, \ front, v point, 


tbe lulter Bignifying weak stress, the former strong, ' is, for 
coil fen ience, shortened iiilo a simple poiot, as employed by 
Mr. Ellis, (■) being used for strong, (■■) for extru strong, 
(;1 for half atreaa. To indicate uon-syllabic force on an 
isolated element, these signs are lowered, Q^, the {.) being 
employed in order to prevent confusion with the ordinary 
full stop. Lastly from ' and ' are formed the modifiers : and 
! to ijmlwUze narrowness and wideneaa respectively, sx, for 
iasUnoe, being narrow (w). 

Ttie holder t ia shortened (») to denote half-length, and 
thia luttor inverted (t) is the sign of shortness, instead of 
Bell's arbitrory ('). 

^ bfllween two symbols denotes absence of glide, and ) 
sbows that the procediug symbol is a glide. At first the 
plan of inclosiog the symbol in [) was tried, but this was 
found cumbrous, and only the second half was retained. 

A) Bell's link is appropriated for breath, the sign ♦ Las 
Deen introduced to denote airaultaneousneaa. " ia used aa 
> general modifier to indicate that the preceding symbol is 
Bui to be read literally, but with some implied modilication. 

The following are tbe main principles that have been 
followed in the above alterations and extensions : 1) to avoid 
itolaled symbols, as in the abandonment of Bell's breath-glide 
•nd fflarfc of shortness ; 2) to provide separate modifying- 
syniboU for ail the organic actions ; 3) to make the modifiers 
toinnerthan the correapouding full symbols; 4) glides, etc., 
being made into modifiers by doubling, 

Other symbols (especially those whose adoption requires 
Mrther oonsideration) will be described hereafter. 

In the present imperfect stute of our knowledge of into- 
^^a, Bell's symbols will suffice for general purposes. 

Detailed List of Symbols. 

General Symbola. 

Modifiers naturally follow the letter they refer to. An 

'*l"ion may often be made in the case of fones, which 

8™8ral|y apply to groups of sounds, not merely to single 


■ ■ . . force. Only a few of these are required in ordinary 

writing: (") strong stress, (:) half-strong or medium, and (") 
eitra-Btrong. latermediate degrees can be indicated by (':) 
between strong and medium, (r) between medium and weak, 
etc. Veiy weak (evanescent) would be indicated by {•'), ('), 
weak being hardly ever required. All these denote si/lltibie 
Btrras, the mark being placed immediately after that member 
ef tile syllable on which the stress begins, as in jtCtf 'a 
O'nie.' Jlf'tF ' an aim ' (lib. § 257). Of the corresponding 
marks of nbaolute, or non-syllabic force, (.), weak, is hardly 
ever required, and (.) not very often. The latter migbt ba em- 
flojed ia monosyllables, and also in polysyllables, to show that 
ene member of a syllable is uttered with exceptional force, but 
without altering the general force of the whole syllable as 
compared with that of the other syllables in the group. In 
Komii; {.) must be used for (.), the negative degrees (• .) 
Ijeing left unmarked, 

„ ] ) glidei (retained in Romic). _, denoting glideleas 
oombination, is required in such words as the E. ia__,o (act), 
u digtinguiahed from the normal xao=ia'Di which is the 
French pronunciation. In such combinations as im (nd), QXD 
. (Id), the glidelessness is implied in the juxtaposition of the 
(wmenta. In the vowels it has been found necessary to 
oistinguish syllabic (such as T) from non-syllabic or glide- 
TOffeli (such as i). The term 'glide,' as applied to the 
Kcond element of such a diphthong as ]i (ai), is not absolutely 
^'"J^i, for tbe I can be lengthened indefinitely, if only the 
oonlinuity of stress is observed (Hb. § 201), and it is not till 
*8 begin a new stress on the second element that mono- 
^llabic ]f becomes dissyllabic ]!. The rigorously correct 
™DDilion of / is, therefore, Hon-^ijllahie. vowel, implying weak 
"Km, and generally also shortness and transitional configura- 
™°. on which latter the term ' glide-vowel ' is founded. A 
■WHiwnant 13 generally non-syllabic, hence O- is practically 
iMotical with I. Many of the combinations in which con- 
•onauu appear as 'syltabics' do not require any special 
Barking, as in Opxo (cattle), which can be pronounced only 
" "fe wny. Sometimes, however, a ' syllabic- former ' 



by the stop syiDbol, *i, wbich, if necessary, may be combinod 
in one sjrmbol. Thus ]a*i (nk) without ' recoil.' 
IV C), close, open. These signs must be carefully diBtin- 
oUbed from those of force. A (j) formed with the front of 
lie tongue as near the palate as possible, on, may bo uttered 
nth any degree of force, as also the relaxed (W, which is 
practically equivalent to I (i) or r ((')■ Closeness and open- 
less are, on the other hand, closely related to raising and 
lowemg respectively, mn being practically equivalent to (i>-. 
In the case of the back sounds they are generally more 
»uly related to retraction, 

■ ' (" u)> 'larrore. mde. Occasionally required for con- 
•onanla. Thus a:^the oonsonantized \ or }, in French oui, 
3:=E, w. Also occasionally required for the glides i (a) 
ud I {m), whose narrowness is generally left undecided, 

•-('1} raked, loirered *► (^_) inner, oii/er. [■' raised Danish 
(*)i ]► advanced Danish (a). The normal positions may be 
enipbttaized by employing both signs of either pair, thus 
h the Qonnat French (e). The vertical ond horizontal 
modifiers can be combined, thus [-t (e) raised and retracted 
K lliemme time. These combinations could be effected by 
*sking the horizontal stems of * and r point obliquely up- 
wards or downwards to indicate simultaneous raising or 

" Ut) inrersion, protrusion, dc inverted (cerebral) (t), 
•"(0 formed on the lips. With a lip-sound > may be used 
'« indicate lip-pouting, thus 1^ Scotch or German (u). 
Ifllferent degrees may be distinguished by doubling the 
•ynbols or combining them with * and >. 

I ^ V ) ( {rj, }, r, tf) hack, /ro»i, point. Up, Hp-back modifiers. 
iM last is exactly parallel to 3, implying inner rounding. 
"^ EUlturalized (1), to\ palatalized (r), ]) muffled (a), distinct 
''"''j=]t, A special application of) is to denote abnonnal 
^Pm of Towel-rounding. Thus the Swedish (o) may be 
^"en J), iiQplying one degree more of rounding. Further 
^'"iMions raay be made by doubling the ) or adding A or v. 
. . '*« that ) is written, not ft, because the inner rounding 
""plied in the vowel symbol itself. Defective rounding 




symbolized by adding o to the symbol of the unrounded 
Towel, tlius le^l with low-rounding = Swedish short u 

(Spoken Swedish, p. 8). Absence of inner rounding may 
be emphasized by writing h, and variotiea of inner rounding 
by )', e-, i'. Tlie point-modifier is required in writing vowels 
into which an inverted (r) is incorporated {Hb. § 170), as 
in the Kentish sparrows SD']iKt: 

i (s) blade-modifier. A (t) formed by stopping an (o) would 
be written ot, a position interniediute to (s) and (J), would be 
written St. In Eomic it could be expressed by (Js). 

NIK'' (y, /i, §§, %), stopped, open, divided, mtHateral modifiera. 
" is applied to vowels as well as consonants, as in T", where it 
implies unilateral rounding. The other modifiers are not 
much required, being incorporated in tho ordinary symbols. 
Dt might also be written si. i is also used without ambiguity 
in a wider sense to denote eessalion of breath, etc. (pp. 208, 
210). II may be applied to vowels to denote the converse of 
rounding. In for instaQce=(i) with spread lips, the neutral 
English vowel being emphasized by writing Iiu. 

1 1 (n, r) itasul, trill modifiers. The strong French nasality 
can be distinguished as iv. According to Storm (Englische 
Phitologie, p. t)6) the nasal vowels in Polish assume before 
dentals a dental, before labials a labial character, 
penla B^brmcski, which can be indicated by writing n,, 

*> • 2 ; (bA, h, h), h, //) breath-consonant, utronfj 
glide, or aspirate, teeak breath-glide, voicel breath-glide, breat 
modifier. See p. 206. 

1 I ' : [a, AC, ', (j] voiee-giitle, voice-glide round, weak roi 
glide, roice-modifier. See p. 206. ; may be used to express 
various degrees of vocality, as in c;, g;, as opposed to the 
normal c or e::. 

X 1 (; ;) throat-stop, throat-stop modifier. See p. 206. 

a t * t (i, J, ", ') throat-open eong., throat-open voie9^, 
whisper-glide, lehisper-modifier. See p. 206, ' is added to the 
voiced symbol, thus (n')^i6. It does not seem possible to 
reproduce the distinction between •> and * in the voico and 
whisper series, on account of the obstruction of the breath 
and consequent difficulty of difierentiating the force of iti 





oatgoing. The voiced whisper- glide (»;), if pronounced 
strongly enough to be distinguishable from simple ', becomes 
practically equivalent to the full consonantal e, and hence 
no special symbol has been provided for it. 

It will bo observed that o and its modifications are am- 
biguous, being, in fact, general signs for all throat-actions 
except those which produce voice. The difficulties of 
practical discrimination make it safest to retain Bell's com- 
paratively vague symbols for the present. 


m 1 (m) high-back- narrow. Armenian Is 'the,' 

1 (ru) high -back- wide. 

] (v) raid -back- narrow. E. up. 

] (a) mid-back -narrow. E. and Italian a. The E. sound 
ia nearly Ju : the evanescence of the glide-vowel maj' be 
expressed by writing |]il). 

J (v) low -back-narrow. Vulg. London park, Duf«h /and. 

J (fl) low-back- wide. Sc. man, Fr. d, ji Fr. an. 

I ('i) high -mixed- narrow. Russian y, Welsh u, Sw. 
dialectal i in V'fii/, all fall under this vowel, the first two 
being apparently identical, The last ia apparently re- 
tracted I", the y in Fibi/ being I-o, with outer rounding 
only, distinct from T. But I cannot speak with certainty 
about these Swedish sounds, for which see Lundell, LanrU' 

T (i) high-mixed-wide. 

\ (e) mid -mixed- narrow. American "[ru (earth). Bell 
writes this American diphthong with T, but repeated hearing 
has convinced me that he is wrong. German, etc., unacc. e 
in gabe is, perhaps, sometimes 1,, its shortness making recog- 
nition difficult. 

1, (f) mid-mixed- wide. E. 1^- (eye). 

I (a) low-mixed- narrow. E, x»y (earth). 

I (a) low-mixed-wide. E. cp (how). South Grerraan ioae, 

., seems to have this vowel (a'^ts) rather than \. 


X (i) high-front-narrow. Fr. fini^ Sc. sick, h Porti 

I (t) high-front- wide. E. >fif-r (finny). 

[ (e) mid-front-narrow. Fr. dl6. [* Danish %e. 

{e) mid-front- wide. E. pen. Ft. pire. 

X (sb) low- front-narrow. Sc. men. j} Fr. vin. 

X (cb) low-front-wide. E. man. 

} (u) high-back-narrow. Fr. sou. Sc. book. 1) Sw. ku'i 
h Port. urn. 

i (m) high-back-wide. E. book. 

} (o) mid-back-narrow. Fr. beau. }) Sw. Dan. 9ol. 
Norw. 8oL (Storm, p. 70, note 1.) 

3" (o) mid-back-wide. E. owe, boy. Fr. or. North 
gott. J-j Fr. on. 

J (o) low-back-narrow. E. law, almost ooj«. j) Norw. 
j)v Dan., j)A Sw. ad (see p. 233). 

J {o) low-back-wide. E. not. p Sw. hopp (?). 

1 (ii) high-mixed-narrow. Norw. hus. J> Sw. hui. 
T (m) high-mixed-wide. Vulg. E. dI*3E) (two). 

^ (o) mid-mixed-narrow. 

\ (o) mid-mixed-wide. Fr. dot. 

J (5) low-mixed-narrow. 

I (i>) low-mixed-wide. Sw. dialectal son. 

f (y) high-front-narrow. Fr. lune. X) Sw. y. 

f {y) high-front-wide. Germ, hiitte. 

{ (a) mid-front-narrow. Fr.j^ew. 

•g (d) mid-front- wide. Fr. peur. 

X (cb) low-front-narrow. Sw. hora. \s Fr. un. 

X (q?) low-front-wide. 

Glide- Vowels. 

I (a) voice-glide. E. s?I*i (here). 
J (At?) voice-glide-round. E. s?j« (how). 
These symbols imply a traditional murmur without fis 
configuration. In deliberate utterance the above woi 


ight l>e ^written sf4X» SX4S. I might be written in the slurred 
ronuaciatioQ of against — ^ia|)aso. 

The otiier glide-vowels being simply the full vowel symbols 
}iorteii.ed, do not require to be enumerated* 


(i) tliroat(-open-breath). oia= Arabic hha (?). 

(i) throat-voice. f^=Dan. r. •ia= Arabic ain (?). 

\ (;) throat-stop (glottal catch). Danish * stodtone.' 

c (x) back. Sc. and Germ. hch. 

e (j) back- voice. Middle Germ. tage. e'i(i) = Germ. r. 

(9) front. Sc. hue. Germ. ich. O) Germ. zik/Uig. Ch9 
South Sw. nkepp. 

^ (]) front- voice. E. ges. 

(r) point oi=IceL hr. 

» (r) point-voice. E. red. <Of=Sc. red. o\ Russ. ri. The 
8w. 'thick' / (Hb. p. 214, Storm, p. 24) may be symbolized 
"J ^1 implying an attempt to combine (i>c and co. The 
Japanese r (Hb. § 244) is co)(i). 

s W blade. K kiss. Si is apparently the German s in 
stein. s^Iiu8s. ^1, scSw.kors. 

8 (2) blade-voice. E. is. 
^ (/)• blade-point E. Jish. zy Germ. sch. z\ Polish i, 

(sy blade-point- voice. E. measure. 
^ (» point-teeth. E. thin. 

^ ) point-teeth-voice. E. then. \ir\ Dan. gud. 
^(*)lip. Romaic ^(?). 

ip-voioe. Middle and South Germ. w. 
. ip-teeth. >^ Russ. krovi. 
o / lip-teeth-voice. 
^ ^JJ Wk-divided: 

.i' t>ack-divided- voice. Russian and Polish guttural /. 

h front-divided. 

^ -^ front-divided-voice. Italian gl. 

^ (0 li 


CD (1) point-divided. Icel. hi. CD" Welsh //. 

00 (1) point-divided-voice. English /. oo< Dutch 
French /. 

3 (<^*) lip-divided. 

8 ()8*) lip-divided-voice. 

a (k) back-stop, a^ older E. kind, ao Russ. komna 

a (g) back-stop-voice. 

Q (c) front-stop. Qi>= Russian ti. 

ffl (j) front-stop- voice, mi- = Russian di. 

D (t) point-stop. Di- Fr. Ute. oa Sw. kort. 

© (d) point-stop- voice. 

D (p) lip-stop. >i Germ, p in pfund. 

D (b) lip-stop- voice. 

J (q) back-nasal. 

d (q) back-nasal-voice. E. sing. 

L (n) front-nasal. 

L (ft) front-nasal-voice. Ital. gn. 

1 (n) point-nasal. Icel. hn. 
1 (n) point-nasal-voice. 

r (m) lip-nasal. 

r (m) lip-nasal-voice. 

G {nw) back-lip. Germ. auch. 

G (jir) back- lip- voice. Germ. ange. 

o (Ak) lip-back. E. %ch, 

3 (w) lip-back-voice. E. w. 

Revised Romic. 

The general principles of the Revised Romic notatic 
employed have been already indicated in outline. 

The main distinction between this notation and th 
one used in my Handbook is the introduction of dia 
letters and new types whenever they are already in exi 
italics being restricted as much as possible to the func 



modifier!, which are made as complete as possible, so as to 
ikilitate tlie symbolization of new sounds. Capitals liave 
been eliminated entirely, because they are often not provide*! 
for several founts, and because they do not readily admit of 
diacritical modification ; but they may, when convenient, still 
ie employed to denote special sounds. When it.alica fail us 
HKxlifiera, panctuation and other marks are employed, as by 
Mr. Ellis, though necessarily with frequent deviations from 
bis usage, 

Tlie maia improvement in the vowels has been the con- 
listent symbolizing of the mixed vowels by two dots above 
the corresponding front open, and back round vowels, (a) 
»nd (d) being for the sake of convenience used instead of 
doited (se) and (le). A single dot may be used to denote 
intermediate positions, thus (a)=|]f. (v) and (a) have been 
superseded by (m) and (la), which at once suggest relation- 
iliipwith[u) and («). 

In the consonants the use of 0, 9, f>, 5, t, fi, ^, /, Ji, 5, 
fciken from the Anglo-Saxon, Greek, and various European 
alphabets, and from Pitman's Phonotypy, is self-evident, (x) 
'8 oied in preference to ;^, aa its italic (jr) gives the necessary 
Wk-tnodifier. For the fronts the (c) and 5 of Sanskrit 
•ninsbteratioa recommend themselves, while the turned j is 
convenient for m, being readily associated with (j). The 
»oiMW and front liquids and nasals offer great difficulties, 
^liicli have been more or less successfully overcome by a com- 
bination of turning and dotting, the latter being familiar in 
Mnsknt transliteration. It was impossible to carry out 
eiilier of these methods exclusively, because some liquids, 
*iicb as {w), are not provided with dots, while (n) cannot be 
'nverted, n and 03 offer the greatest difficulty, and the only 
KKme bas been to fall back on italics. 

iJeiaila will be best seen in the following (aa near as 
P*^'''*} alphabetical list, in which turned follow unturned, 

7 nuitalic, modified unmodified, and foreign the nearest 
'^'"e letters. When a turned letter, however, suggests 
"^^iations with some other letter, it follows that letter; 
tliiia (3J follon-B (o). The organic equivalents are 1 



repeated where the symbols are identical in both s 
The forms in brackets are optional ones. 

a = 3 

« = ] 

a = 

V = 
8B = 

• • 

a = 
a = 
b = D 

/9 = 3 
C = Q 

9 = 

i = XB 

« = w [5] 
e = [ 
o = { 

e = l 
f = > 

g = a 

5 = € [7] 
h = o,a 

h = i 
hA = o [h] 
/? = II 
i = X 

t = r 

= T 
= T 

= <D 

J = ^ 
J =ffl 

k = a 

= 00 

= 09 
= U 
= O 

= 8 
= G 

m = F 
m = r 


n = 7 
n = J 
n = 1 
n = L 
g = L 
o = } 

= J 
00 = I 

« = I 

6 = \ 

o = i[5] 

^ = iW 

p = D 

^ = 

q = d 

q = J 

r = <D 

r = f 

r = o 


J = e 

J = 

8 = s 

s = J 

J = e [f] 
t = o 


f =y a, = 3^ 

u = i z = s* 

«*. = 1 ; = X 

ii =1 ; = i[5] 

ti =1 ! =» 

TU =1 J = < 

«» =1 p = ► 

▼ => <{ = - 

^ =1 ) 

t;=) ] 

W = 3 * 

Al = O -I- = « 

w = » t = ' 

X =C § = " 

a: = ( §§ = M 

y = f a» = 3- 

y = f j»» = <w 

z = a a, = 3- 

5=6 jil = ws 

(a)i = » [aa, ai] r+y = (o+fl) 

a- = (irj. §182) 

a- = 3- 

a: » 



o r 



S 8 

a J I o ^ 



D t I D»- t^ 

in , > n, 




r m 


: ^^ 




(0 T 


8 Z 


3/S OW 


> V 




OOi- 1, 




o d 






r m 

'^ the organic symbols are printed from the following 

40 Vowels and Olide-vowels. 
























The following 

key-words will show the Englie 

I now analyse them : 

3 (^) 




3* (ai) 




V' («\) 




!♦ (i') 




I* (05) 




I (a) 




^.-T' («,».) 




ij- (.V) 




-TiX (iia) 




C («) 




Cr, («•,) 




tw: (sBid) 




X («) 




1 («) 




i« («M>) 




i*l («ia) 




Jx, (o/,) 




3*> {oo') 




J* (01) 




I W 








T^® consonants are : 5(h), mfj), (i)(r), w(]'), w(?), s(s), s(z), 
s(D.e(5), D(M), 3(w), >(f), >(v) ; co(I) ; a(k), e(g), D(t), o(d), 

olP). B(b) ; d(q), 7(n), F(m). 


(For key see p. 177.) 

*£»>', -sioIds J^ntofp co[|ro mi'xswxcwxDxss-'LriT 'oMq 
ipTiinjK3'[rsiiX5DrQ-]F imziio. -wis 'ii^i loelnDiaQii 
itatliir]£>[ ajwimelsospviit sCstofxn octiuio) ici»xo^'. 
•Bpjofw ]ai ofsajtcDf3oiwx Frn3x>x oEnXdfo. fJ^sd 

ofsprr aoJd:jiF-jnit.r aliziii^ls Jn. -x^jt 'sxira lu^xDros', 
idIosI Qtisojip-farx tojoelowx ixcoIsIsTawJ: xaexiax^l 
soIfiKj'Qxia', ofBfafsxi rpQusFDrsf sttDali> q]f sofco 
;B]nhoxwi sxtmsi', :d1,«ij o[u3 afsxocD solrozx Oisiaoim Q^iilroi 

iffF' -IKw'trax SFjtco si*acox3fs J*t doIidcds. 

■f\t jMJEfaos bIiu]*', ^xtsocof, -oxoxT sftDx ojofswx dCso 
DjSimoF-jBbr QCfzxix^i'X (oJ^FIT lui^xol^'. sCaxiocoi!', -dx kJj 
■wp sJoaxT ^(oXDfDlarT sIiidIxox oCma', -xt ux™"'^'. ■Ol^-I' satu 
Vopfp DwhMJXiofa sD|>i}faj >j»fx> bJ*^- 

■P*'! oh>-]7EX FCiomcDf >[aasx>wx (uJjfxt ia)>XDto', itrFcoX 
-*«r JtBfDdixcDfirspros sfrDcosxiw-ti mrFlortD i]foi', -Jtaawx 
"PHO fJsSOIf DCtUXObOir QpCDS^XdJi^ >JtF. -wx >J»fi«I4 
Bto, -ahid£i BfiuiiofTwI iCi3:.XQfolD s3ci»', -axT JmoIbX 
^Vl DpoxTijuTa xco^xoIdj-udx qIVx— ' "laXi DJ^iiPexTsr 
fflltteuftoQ^P DHuxoIstDf colrocof, -axs B]*D)colGfn oJiaT 
■fjoioxis-lox (DCr2liX °Jt<^'. -ITofs sDlafa ^JtIiloV fJsscd-Jj']; 

■^i «J*FiT ^co^I^Ibax^D^s■]oMI FCiorofT :>XGat sofdOD 

^IBOCor, -dU UbIj Tffill C0[OX3'— 5. *. >■ 
stoxTKor, -D^ro'Vi awfofas' — a, a, a. 

^mtor, -oV ■DIt7Ii> COCOTS'— 9, B, 3. 

ijwor, -dI^I DxtofcisxT axDiDcos— n, A, a. 
ibymr, -aXt EoXrauips— th, dh, n/ 




•hfosfDur aCrexT. 

•wi ohspr DxcoIasxT atDlocosexa F|^fx>wlia >3nofa)£l8 p 
oxoli', -oia F^ras (uXtoEj ou]9asiF. 

mVauips (o3»socorep ^]y^JQxoax^ >ff^mx^sDx^l)■[;aI ^[^tiJ 
■wiF. -vp scKflftccir, -T SDCaxcofDC^^^Ff imiiDuf xacxtuiti 
i^ioLip sirras -yCrasr >[oxDf 'iDX DwV^'^Ps'. -X"™] sjFotn^aiF 

iftiffllis. -X otramp l3«xsC'>I roeli^aioL wtm IrsrxuxT 

telQIwXil loli D^D', -^^!^8 jot ufaixs Trsfwr. 

(Handbook, p. 117.) 
-ITiii scojjtot ]nsiiD Jiuptuxni'l Djtoe' : 
■wl JKOiD joJX DzC^er^i ffi-CrcDoId DmOrsDX loli', 
-1 QjaDco ^fojscfr sCtiDri Fj;ir oCrs, 
■cii[so 3]i alta aJsoxFEioJai lujoowx aitconj. 
o]f5xcvVsC»>' ; i>ja a]r:>iDr3rT fIi' ? 
-\d cofeturV coV^', -XT uiDsJbzVl? sJt 
-F[|r slrsIW-firF 5[co> Ftra omli ! -sxo wxi', 
-Ewxszlojso i[>i sIifV ^C^sx aC^^ 

uVsco-Vax >Xi^Df^>IFr iVdX'T "Et- 

-t) iJjLi ojbv(^ aixrtjo BtTiiJ8x> oup 
:t^iy:iXWXF sEco^sxt wJsssJi ajtcowxF xoEtoj. 
->j sjjwx cJko uixsio' I*v.f3 C^Is'Cr 
OIfkbdV qIkmj c«[nsiQ-xsDwi >£rDx> ajo. 

■Dio Tx* ^p 3C»- -V^ q}-*-Cji wjj sDt 

-3lw wJaswxJ sItTsd'— -Mi olnnV «}*'— 
(Old) jkofV Fyn^is aoixsotooJVx oiio') 


(D£fDr'|)(D}»(D fipl >|i2)i\i/ }«oex^ oopis 
-IT disicdX 2JC0IS a(Di35TOoi\i/ s]ri sff\ 
:s)XIcdV®^co fiIix»rIi:i>FV QcdIt^is o^kd. 

(d]>03Ssx Doii qJmoq) Doolirsxi oCfdswx xo](D 
-8i\i/ S8}«wX ^Cds. oo}jI soimsx« DCa)£>lx 
-<dI >joD>Li Ftil f|;fx<oIs, -dIoowx 2]03 
colao o]i Dooxa mjoiQ^^jsu^i wi*mcx^ ©jn\ 
-XTOj-wi riiiM/x »C«Dld ai^i^x ©C'- 

French. . 
The following are the vowels : 









J» (««) 
















X' (®«) 








































' Also in 

detU, tete. 

* Also in 



It is doubtful whether the following are to be considered 
as glide- vowels or consonants, but they are here written as 
glide-vowels : 





« (o») 








The consonants are: ci(xr, as in thiatre)^ ^Ks**)* ^(8)» ^(2)^ 
^(/)» ^(3)» >(0» >(v) ; w^(l» as in table), OD^(l) ; a(k), a(g), 
o(t), ©►(d), D^), D(b) ; L^(il, as in f?i^»^), ^►(n), r(in). 

^ FOeal 1 [oj Dlepjj djs i^ ^jP (d^ c[iI. Iod [dC s>jj', fC 

3dIqoIo[ Die sCcoxJS 3b€j*c sjjs foIoDlof }af i', mj-j tIs Jejjs js[ 
sbjj ODi{ (D d3€oo[ dooI dJig', [ ol S^jo JosJ-eoC cfsa3 co3 dj»s4^ 
efsa] od] F^ilFj'jr od[ ml (pCc'jxCes 3i[ (d s^i CqsIsdjjs. 

b majki n et« pulton paz oen dm Ab 5eni. il qU savan, 
m^ savan san speeialite", a moreen k on n vai aple^ aensi' yn 
g^anid abilite pu; s^jtaenz uv3ai5 mnz ytilite okyn', dion nuz 
or^onz ase suvan lie d pajle ply tai;', e ki avet apsojbe 5y8ka 
la paision', 5yska la monomani' le di de^nie^z ane d son 

Le marquis n'^tait pourtant pas un homme de g^nie. H 
4tait savant, mais savant sans sp^cialit^, k moins qu'on ne 
veuille appeler ainsi une grande habilit^ pour certains 
ouvrages sans utility aucune, dont nous aurons assez souvent 
lieu de parler plus tard, et qui avaient absorb^ jusqu'^ la 
passion, jusqu'& la monomanie, les dix demi^res ann^es de 
son existence. 

1 Also in hahiUer^ deuiU 


The North-German vowels are : 









!♦ (ii) 








[♦ (ei) 








i» (Ul) 
















i* (y) 




f (y) 




{♦ (99) ' 








The diphthongs are : ]L{tL%), 3*(aM), }i((n). 

The consonants are: fi(h), c(x), €^(J), 0(9), (o(j), s(8), 

2)(W, >(f), >(v) ; cd(I) ; a(k), a(g), D(t), ©(d), d(p), 

d(q), ^(n), r(m). 

:(D[nI"os«'}* i^rFoX rro|€T3cD 
-3'^aj'I*sp DlcDDfiCe Jda|>-3c°' 

(D3TrfrDle Df#o|€^l^DD3 oUc' 

Cc, a-E7Dlom-3-c3i> -DCea^sfi-fn 
-rTaj-3^lp' cdI»df cdIodX a[n\ 
-If DCea^sfi-f^cDlFJCo a3isD'[€7 2)>[»df' 

-^J'^ 3^1^ ^XsrFSQ-^ScoFCiD cdS*©! 
'£1 iD]£i\r o3ia'[ sirFDFlo dS*©^. 

* Wide in Hanorer. 



:oi s'eiat^u falej moindnj'rain 

-taum 'Iftstn maiUffftn'aine pai'u' 

:deiiii'5s''oi n)an9e mi'tejn'axt 

-anduizm pMlthfj aqgevaxt' 

daniyrbej byije^iiMntpa piij' 

:tjyip s'eiljej fjoml^j Jninstd-uum-iij. 

B3, kanti^d'oxauf "be^gesh'siQ 

-ind'amem liibm liyte gem', 

-Mm bejgijsh'ailemi't gai'stejn Jrveibm' 

-Son alein visnak-valineDt laidn 

-m dainem tauge s'lmtmi^ baidn. 

O sabst du, voller mondeDBcheiD I 
znm letztcDmal auf meine pein, 
den ich so manche mitternocht 
an diesem pult herangcwaclit I 
dann iiber biichem und papier, 
trubeel'ger freund ! erachienat du mir. 
Aeli ! konnt' ich doch auf bergeshoh'n 
in deinem lieben lichte gehn, 
um bergeshohle mit geistern schweben, 
auf wieaen in deinem dammer webeii, 
Ton allem wiaseusqualm entladen, 
in deinem tbau gesuud micb baden ! 

'-''iRRRcnoNs TO Handbook of Phonetics. 

oC^ral of the many errors in my Handbook have been 
y 'directed in the course of this paper : I liere give all 
the MTeotions I am able to make in the order of their occur- 

p. 3. note », read : The usual diacritic C) before the letter 
|0 (* oiodified is occasionally employed to denote breath ; 
BMorea voice-symbol it denotes whisper, thus ('g)=whispered 

M 12, /or 'A read'h. 

'' S 19. I was told by Mr. Bell that in the Glasgow 


28, § 78, 79. Soutbem E. always has [ in end, nor dooB 
»eem to occur in French, except when nasal. I was misled 
tiy the Tcry positive distinctions made by French phoneticians 
tetween 'ouvert' and ' tres-ouvert.' 
5 80. South Q. d is rather n than i*, 

%% 85. 86. According to Storm and Dr. Wulff {E. Ph. 70, 
iiot« '), the Danish long and short open o are opener than the 
KoRe and Swedish ones, the Sw. long sound being closer than 
the Norse, thus giving the following scale for the long sound : 
Ebb. jiv, Norse j), Sw. j>a. Storm thinks that the Norse 
ihort Bound is identical with the North Germ, short o (J), 
the Dan. being decidedly nearer the English sound. To my 
ears Sw, goll ia opener than Germ, gott, and I would write 
theMries: English j, Dan. jw, Sw. jm. 

1 87. Sw, long w=T^. Vulgar English two is often Df>5E). 

S 88, The short E. vowel in room does not appear to be 
ever advanced so far as T, 

S 90. E. ow in follow is rather j than \. 

•"J, \ 93, Germ, short u always wide. 

% 96, 97, French does not seem to have \, escept when 

39. i^ 112, 113, Storm (p, 86) says of the Spanish d that 
wtwten vowels, as in nada, it is usually ID'-, but can be pro- 
nounced w with loose approximation, like the Dan. rf, which 
w the popular Castilian form. The a is quite parallel (=w 
•"■^^?).Slorm, p. 22. 

*2' if 126. Fr. oui=iit according to Storm. 

^3. % 128. The (oi)-8ound of the Danish brod is really 
"e lo tranaition from the deep w to the palatal {t. 

''S 139. French fl)t=j» very dubious. 

I S 212. I believe E. initial g may be Q' as well as a\ 

' S 222. In the aspirated 0°], the full stress of the con- 

'* TBaintained without diminution through the glide ; 

. ^'"c^sion 'separate impulse' is inaccurate. 

, • The corrections in the French sounds are mainly 

"^ to St^i^ . ^.^^^^ p .j3 . ^^.^ ^j p 213 ; que, p. 66. He is 

I bd"^ ** identify the u of M (p. 69} with the Swedish !► : 
® it may be simply f with full rounding, which to a 


L32, The North Germ, eu is oflen }f, bat I i 
hear Ji in Hanover. 

134. I doubt tKia glottal r, wliich U probably oolj an 
individual modification of the regular c or ct. 

135. bihleii, etc., is orcotDi with omission of the \. 

141. Dutch g, especially when initial, le om i to be oAen 
more or leas devocalized. / is cu. 

153, For Swedish see my Spoken Sittiiuk. In Moond 
line of SBQlencea read (dei) for (d*). 

160. Lines 6, 9, omit the accent before (lieqra) sod (tfaqrs), 

163. Dan. j-y in ligr/e has the eaj 
ikke (Slorm, p, 40, note '). 


Handbook of Phonetics (Oiford, 1877). 
Sounds aud Forms of Spoken Swedish (Trans. 1877-8-9), 
Kuseian Pronunciation (Trans. 1877-8-9). 
JohttB Storm : Englische PhQologie (Heilbronn, 1881). 
Minrd Sievers : Grundziige der Lautphyaiologie (Icipzig, 

J-XLondeU: Det Svenska landsmilsaliabetet (StockbiJm, 


^.-ON GENDER. By E. L. BiuaDBETH, Ewj. 

** object in this paper is to consider what is the proper 

Oeaning end use of the term " gender," and with reference 
"^^ to consider languages as consisting of two diviiiona, 
'""^'yi gender languages and genderless languages ; to give 

""^ uccount of the languages falling under these two heads, 
^S my information from such grammara as I could meet 

*"'' i and then to refer to the erroneous notions which are 



ig is subject, however, to many exceptioos. In 
of the second class greater or more striking 
utaral objects, as sun and moon, for instance, are sometimes 
oIae««d with animate beings. When I apeak hereafter of 
gender being expressed by adjectives or other determining 
words, what I mean is that there is a change of form in such 
votAs. It will not be necessary for me to go into details, 
though, in referring to some of the less well-known languages, 
I may occasionally give an example or two. Moat of the 
Isnguagea of the world have not, however, what I understand 
by gender, that is, there is no concord of the other parte of 
■peech in a sentence with the substantive, and these I call 
genderleiB languages. 

To the first class of gender languages belong the Aryan 
unguages with some exceptions, the Semitic and the Hamitic 
languages, the Ghasi of Assam, some of the Central African 
IwigBages, and some of the South American languages. To 
the second class belong the Danish, the Dravidian and 
Kolarian languages of India, the Dhimal also an Indian 
l>ngnage, the languages of the Eastern Caucasus, the Bantu 
Isngaages of South Africa, some of the languages of Central' 
Africa and some of the North American languages. The 
nmaining languages of the world, as far as we know them, 
we what I call genderlesa, notably the Chinese, Tibetan, 
e«ierally all the languages of Further India, the Ural- 
■Allaio languages, the Papuan, Australian and Malayo- 
■rolyncsjan languages, most of the languages of Central 
^"'^^i the Basque, most of the American languages, and 
•""IB of the Aryan languages. 

■'q the gender languages of the first class most male 
"•"gs and many inanimate objects and abstract words 

'^''g to one gender, most female beings and many inani- 
"s objeota to another gender, and these genders are con- 
fidently called, and not inappropriately, masculine and 
,"*"»iae. There is also a third gender, called the neuter, 

*>ioat of the Aryan languages, to which many inanimate 
^J^ts belong, though some animate beings are also included 



mons, others to things. Gender in Romance ia 
by the different kinds of adjectives, as in the 
lauguage-s. Also in the periphrastic tenses the 
participle has oftea gender, which is not the case in the 
lautQiiic group. There are no longer any cases in the 
Bomance languages, though the gender may sometimes 
'be inferred from the terminations of the aubstantivea, but 
luitlier in this group could any complete gender classification 
b« made without the aid of the adjectives. 

The languages of the Eeltic group have the two genders 
Mtuc. and fem., the neut., which is proved to have once 
•listed, having been lost. As in other Aryan languages, 
Wt only animate, but inanimate objects also, are of the masc. 
or fem. gender. Gender is expressed by the adjectives. It 
u also BJgDiGed to a considerable extent by the form and 
meaning of the substantive. The change in the body of 
UiB word [of initial consonant or medial vowel) by which 
pnder ia expressed by the adjective in Keltic, and by which 
Scltio is especially distinguished from the other Aryan 
F0"p8, is attributed in regard to "Welsh by Mr. Rliya 
(Uitures on "Welsh Philology, p. lo5} to the feminine 
Towel-endings which first wrought the change and then dis- 

"""ing the modern Aryan languages of India Marathi 
indGujurati have the three genders masc, fem., and neut., 
*nile Hindi, Sindhi, and Fanjabi have masc. and fem. only. 
"laaimate objects and abstractions of the mind are dis- 
"""iled in the usual indiscriminate way among these genders. 
"Cnder ia expressed by the different kinds of adjectives, and 
'*' oy the substantive in the genitive relation, which takes a 
postposition inflected in the same way as an ordinary adjectival 
^"I'lnalion, The participles in the periphrastic tenses are 
7" "iflected for gender, and to a much greater extent than 
Jw Romance languages ; and it would appear at first sight 
"Inere were some simple tenses inflected in the same way, 
" ™f inslance, Hindi cakgd 'he will go,' ca/egt ' she will 
™ ^t has been proved, however, that gd, gi, are contracted 
r*"'tipleg_ Gender may be known to some extent also by 


BigniScation, Prononns have not always forms corre- 
sponding to the gender of the substantives ; thus, in Arabic 
RMu ' who ? ' is used for rationul belugs, ma ' what ? ' for all 
iiratianal objects. 

The Hamitic languages, including the Coptic, Ethiopian, 
Libyan or Berber, also the Hottentot and the Haussa, have 
two genders, raasc. and fem., like the Semitic, which are 
ejpressed by the article, and by the pronominal suffixes or 
prefiies which may be added both to the adjective and the 
verb; ta in Coptic, nanou-f mnsc, 'good,' limion-n fem, 
'good,' f-tako ' he is destroying," a-tnko ' she is destroyiag,' 
The adjective also in Coptic has some other changes for 
gender, M by lengthening a finul vowel for the fem. The 
gender of substantives is also frequently signified by their 
form. There are also four languages in Central Africa, 
namaly, Silluk, Bongo, Bari, and Oigob, which have their 
genders niasc. and fem., which are expressed by the adjective 
prououns, and, at least in the two last-mentioned languages, 
by pronominal forms which come after the determined sub- 
Mantive, and before another substantive in the genitive 
lelfttion or an adjective, or which are used as an article 
before the substantive, as in Oigob, el soid m. 'a rock,' en 
♦""^ f- 'a Btone,' et Oigob 'an Oigob man,' en Oigob 'an 
Oigob woman.' 

'awe is one language in Southern India which belongs to 
*w class, the Khmi. This language, which has five dialects, 
>* spoken in the hills between the valley of Assam and 
py'ttet. It (jj(g t(po genders, maac. and fem. ; and all 
^aiffiaie objects are classed, some of them with male 
"•"S*! others with female. This classification is made by 
"^"Sof the prefixes m for the masc. gender, ka for the fem., 
*Q'e(i preiises are used with every substantive, adjective and 
'"''■»«, for instance, u-(ii/»ai 'the moon' is masc, ka-angi 
* sin 'is fem. In a sentence we may say u-bgtiai u-bahlta 
J^Sfnai ' the good moon shines ' ; and ka-stigi ka-babha 
'P»!/rnai ' the good aun shines.' 

of the languages of South America also belong to 





irratiomk) did.' In the singular the rational gender is 
further divided into masc. and fem. In some of tbe 
langnagea, bowerer, female human beings are of the 
imlional geader in the singular, though they are still 
ckssed with the male rationals in the plural; while in 
one of the languages, the Oraon, the female human being 
belongs to the irrational gender both in the singular and the 
plural. The plural, however, of the third personal pronoun 
dr refers to female as well as to male human beings ; while 
Mother form abrd stands for irrational objetta only. These 
mnua therefore do not correspond to tbe genders of the 
languuge ; dr, when it refers to men, is of the ralicmal gender, 
when U) women, it belongs to the irrational gender. Gender 
in the Lravidian languages ia also denoted, to some extent, 
hy the terminations of the substantives. In tbe Kolarian, 
another Indinn group, there are two genders, animate objects 
belonging to one, inanimate to the other gender, which may 
therefore be called tbe animate and inanimate genders. 
These languages are expressed, not by the regular adjective, 
hut hy the aubslantive in the genitive relation, which takes 
* diflerent suffix according as the substantive, on which 
it depends, is animate or inanimate, as in the Santali 
bn^age, kora-ren gnga ' tbe boy's father,' kora-reaR orak 

Ine hoy's house ' ; and by the verb which takes a pro- 
lomiaal sofGx, if the subject is animate, but not otherwise, 
"•."Ma-? 'he or she will fall,' miroka 'it will full.' An 
sctive Verb has a second pronominal form incorporated with 
^ " the object is animate ; as, elal-e-a-e ' he will strike him,' 
»it dxla-e 'he will strike (it).' The pronouns have also 

nlerent forms which correspond to these genders. The sub- 

^^live has no sign by which its own gender may be known. 

""o the numerous Tibeto-Burman languages there is only 

** *hich has any claim to be considered a gender language, 

^"y> the Dhimal, which is spoken by a small number of 

J^P'e of that name in the neighbourhood of Darjeeling. 

, "iia language there is a distinction of substantives, as 

7^'^'e and inanimate, made by the demonstrative pronouns 

^■^'this' and udong 'that,' referring to animate, iU and 


the different parta of speech in a sentence; one of these 
luffixea being restricted to human beings, another to plants, 
mother U> fluids. 

la the Algonkin languages of North America, the genders 
ire animate and inauimate; but the classili cation is by no 
means Btrictly maintained on this baaia. Thus, not only 
numaii beings and animals in general will he found in the 
uiimute gender, but also the sun and moon, thunder and 
liglitning, trees, " the various species of fruits, seeds, and 
esculents," the talons of the eagle, the claws of the bear, etc. 
The genders are moBt obviously espreased by the verb taking 
the same plural sufEses as the substautivo when the latter is 
in the objective relation. Thus, in the Chippewa language, 
tae animate plural suflSxea end in A or g, the inanimate in m ; 
M nmtagiug ninejaninuk ' I-love my-children,' ninmgitonHiH 
I'lnuzimujiinum ' I-Iove my-books,' Adjectives also take the 
plnral suffixes of gender in the same way ; as, kwonaudjewe- 
""S 'ehrii-icuij ' handaome women,' kiconnxidjewun-on tohe- 
""""i-nii 'handsome cunoee,' This distinction, which per- 
yaoM the whole language, of all objects as animate or 
"inpunate, ia constantly brought to light also in many other 

loowcooie to what I have called the genderlesa languiiges, 

'" ^hich are included some of the modem Aryan languages 

*aich have lost their gender, as English, Bangali, ITriya, 

'^hm, and all the modern Iranian languages, such as the 

^^«ian, Armenian, Ossetic, ete. Some of the ideas that are 

"•^ected with gender are to some extent expressed in the 

B^'iflerleBa languages ; but they are not in these languages 

preggftj by any concord of the other parts of speech in a 

'*Dce with a substantive. Sex is distinguished in thera 

'e»8 than in the gender languages. This is sometimes 

"^ by the uae of separate worda, but often also by deter- 

"'Qp words, aignifying male or female, being added, and 

o^&eraily these words are different for human beings and for 

^'oiaig in general. Sometimes sex ia expressed by sufEses, 


In tlie foregoinf^ languages, which I have called gender- 
lets, such claasificatioQS aa those I have referred to by means 

of pluralizing particles are never spoken of as genders ; but, 
nol withstanding, all these languages are generally said t« 
kve gender. Names of males are said to be of the masc. 
gender, names of females of the fern., and other names of the 
Beut. gender. Such is especially the case in all the gram- 
mara of the English language that I have seen. I contend 
thnt this is a wholly erroneous use of the term gender. All 
lanpiages distinguish sex by the use more or less of difTurent 
ffords or compounds ; but gender proper is not necessarily 
connected with any distinction of sex, and ia solely de- 
pendent for its complete expression on the concord of the 
adjeciire or verb with the substantive. No such concord 
eiisls in the languages I am now considering ; and there ia 
not only no analogy otherwise to justify the term gender 
l>eing applied to these languages, but the facts of the case 
"* the direct opposite of any such analogy. In those Ian- 
S""g« lo which the term gender properly applies, the names 
of hna^ beings of the same sex are often of diflerent 
genders. Moreover, sex words bear but a small proportion 
to ill the words of a language, and the great mass of the 
iford* in a gender language, which have nothing whatever 
•o do with sex, belong nevertheless to different genders, 
in some English grammars, again, the term gender is 
reslneled to the masc. and fem,, words other than sex 
iforda not being considered to have gender. Besides the 
'ant of analogy to justify the extension of the word to what 

■"ive called the genderlesa languages, to speak of those 
""goagies as having the masc. and fem. genders ia a very 
Wilrnse and useless way of saying that these languages dia- 
'"'B'l'sh Bex. In one school grammar, which is held in 
P^' estimation, I find it laid down as follows: "Sex is a 

'inctio], between things, not between names. Gender ia a 
""fittctiuo hetween names, not between things." Dr. Morris 
""•^ told us of a boy who, in his examination in English 
P^'°iiar, being asked to give some instances of gender, gave 
''"irch ' as masculine, ' chapel ' feminine. It seems to me 


horse and mare^ cock and heUf which are not formed in accord- 
ance with any rules of grammar. In a gender language 
it is useful to inquire how far gender can be inferred from 
the signification or form of the substantive, but in those 
languages which never had gender, or from which gender has 
really disappeared, as from Modem English, to speak of 
words being of the masc. or fem. gender merely because they 
denote male or female beings is, I maintain, a great mistake, 
and must be a stumbling-block in the way of any boy or girl 
going on from the study of English to that of French or 
any other gender language. The history of a genderless 
language would of course show its previous condition in 
regard to gender, if it had gender formerly ; but such 
history would be much more striking if, when the old gender 
had been lost, we ceased to speak of words which merely 
imply sex as having gender. 

A special claim to gender is sometimes set up on behalf of 
English on the ground that sex is distinguished in the pro- 
noun of the third person ; but he and she are only like the 
other substantives in a language ; if these have gender, then 
00 have he and ahe^ but not otherwise. Moreover in lan- 
guages which have the true gender the pronouns of the third 
person often do not represent other substantives in accordance 
with their gender, but have their own special meanings as 
other substantives have. Thus, as before shown, in most of 
the modem Aryan languages of India, there is only one 
form for the pronoun of the third person, though the language 
may have two or three genders. If the pronoun, therefore, 
is the test, we ought to hold that these languages are without 
gender. . In Italian and French some distinction is made 
between persons and things in the pronouns of the third 
person. In Danish, again, han ' he,' and hun ' she,' are both 
of the same gender. In parts of Scotland many inanimate 
things are spoken of as ' she ' by the people, without any idea 
of being poetical. According to the pronoun theory, these 
things, I suppose, would be classed as of the feminine gender ; 
but properly speaking it is merely that the pronoun is in 
this respect used in a different sense from what it is in 


instances as in Iiatin parens and diet, which have different 
meamng§ according as they are of the masc. or fem. gender. 
By the Saoskrit grammariana it would be considered that 
there were two different words in auoh cases. 

Tie foregoing remarks refer only to the facts observable 
in InDguages as we know them ; what was the origin of gender 
is another matler, and not easily accounted for ; but of one 
thing we may be quite certain, that the explanation of the 
originofgenderin the Aryan and Semitic languages, which we 
nanally meet with, that it was owing to a personification of 
all inaninmte objects as male or female, is very far from the 
truth. It is quite incredible that our savage ancestors, if 
lavh they were, should have had such a feeling for poetry. 
This account of the matter seems to be as great a myth as 
Baythiiig hitherto produced by a misunderstanding of lan- 
piage- When new words are adopted by French or other 
padcr languages, their place is assigned thera without much 
lliOQgbt of attributing sex to them ; nor when former neuters 
wcame masculine or feminine in the Romance languages, in 
Whuanian, in the modem languages of India, is it usually 
•opposed that this was owing to the working of a powerful 
imagination. A far better explanation is that of Dr. Bieek, 
"lat gender suffixes or prefixes were originally derivative 
KmseB or prefixes of the substantives by which also the 
Mjectivea and other parts of speech in a sentence were con- 
"^^'w with the substantives. Substantives thus often be- 
^Sw to the same classes without any necessary connexion 
10 their meaning. Only two of these classes have survived 
^ Aryan and Semitic, one including, besides many other 

T^otiveg, most names of male beings, the other including, 
™iaes other substantives, most names of female beings. The 
^^ neuter is generally admitted to be of later origin, and 
*'y a variation of the masculine. 



Wmself pereonaily, instead of merely on paper as I am forced 
to do, tn many distinguished lady philologera at tlie usual 
iDniwreary meeting. 

Obitdaby, Db. Gdest and Mr. Nicol. 

Two serious losses to our Society during the past twelve 
months demand our first consideration. In Dr. Edwin 
Guest, late Master of Gonville and Caiua College, Cambridge, 
ind for many years one of our Vice-Presidents, we have lost 

honoured member, who was, owing to hia continued absenco 
mm London, only a name to most of our existing members; 
wt in the early days of our Society, when he was our 
Onginal Honorary Secretary, and a most active member, he 
*« one of our main-stays. No less than fifteen papers in 
Transactions from 1844 to 1852 are from his pen, mainly 
waring upon English auhjects, which was remarkable then, 
liwause, although English researches have been very familiar 
of late years, our Philological Society was originally 
"Sfisical iu ita tendencieg.' These studies of Dr. Quest de- 
«!oped into his well-known work on Eiig/Uh Eht/l/ims. The 
weorieg of English metre there advanced have been much 
''''pited, especially by our colleague Prof. Slayor (Philol. 
*"ins. 1873-4, p. 624), but the book is a work of great 
•s^esreh npon English metres of early times, and it contains 
'^^ views of the history of English, which, although 
•^iniy superseded by more recent research, are important in 

i wi iiultbled tu Mr. HarrtagB (or the following list of Dr. GaeBt's papets 
•■Wtiikd bi nur TroncactionB : 
fc the Ellipns of tte Verb in English, 1844. 
iWlbnaeof theCoilectire \oun in Entrliiih Syntax, 1S46. 
,n lli> AddiiuIuui Verbs of the English I-anguage, 1845. 
^^ntbe AikomaliM of the Bn^liBb Verb, from Letler-cbangoi, 1846, 
ADiHEnEliih Verbs. 1S46. 
» the Infletioiu of English Yorbi;, IS4G. 
b Out QaaeDtB of tjiagaage, 1M6. 
W Urtboenphical Elpedienls, 1846. 
Ih Ibe Element* of LungaBge. etc., 1B4T. 
Ob Um Ttuuformatioti ol the I.sbials, 1H47. 
Ob the Ongin oi certain A.S. Idiums, 1830. 
Ob Cnrioiu Tmcsia in A.S. and Early English Sptai, 1860. 
Cntain Pordgn Terms adopted by our Anuealors, liil. 
Oh the fiooti of Language, 1S61. 
■^ the Etymoiopj of Stonehenge, 18G2. 



e modification and re-orrangement of Bell's Visible 
i^ieeoli ill that profound paper on " Sound Notation " which, 
nadtonsin 1S78, has, through difficulties of printing, only 
juat no» been completed in type. Almost all Mr, Nicol's 
work related to the phonetic and orthographic part of 
philology,' and hia principal work on Old French Pronuncia- 
i( unfortunately left incomplete. All his papers are in 
the kands of his cousin, Mr. Sweet, and we may feel assured 
dut OB much of his work as can be made available for publi- 
Bstion ffiil appear in due time. One great characteristic of 

r. Nicol's work was minute accuracy. To myself personally 
ihia was often extremely valuable, and the correctness of my 
frauKriptioa of the Prologue to the Canterbury Tales, both 
Bi a aystematisation of the Ilarleian MS. orthography and in 
5«l'i«'Ljpe, in the third part of my Early English Pronun- 
Watura, is greatly due to the time and labour which he be- 
itofed upon it. My remarks on the AVelsh-letter transcript 
flf the Hymn of the Virgin, in the Appendix II. to our 
Transactions for 1880-1, were carefully criticised by him in 
«e of his last studies sent from Algiers, which I hopo to 
make available at a future dale. Altogether we have to 
*iueiit in the early death of our colleague a great loss to the 
■tudy of language which we cannot sufficiently appreciate, 
* he oaly lived long enough to shew what excellent work he 

ight have accomplished had he lived longer. 

Tke Work of the Phiixilogical Society. 

Including to-night, we have had eighteen meetings of 

^^^ Society since our last anniversary, an unusually large 

™''™', nawe had no less than four extra meetings. One 

•*' 'ollowing list of Mr. H. Nicol's papers hne b«on hunisiiiid to me bv Mr. 

!_"?■■ TbcT have not all been printed in oiir Tnmsactioiia, •— "— '■-' 
?J^ Utile idea of f'- ' — -'- ' "- '"^--' =- "- ' 

B of the cutulanC work of Mr. Nicol ii 


1^ ''nmch Labial Vowels, ii„u. 

1^ EiiKlish DerivHtioM, 1878. 
■^'^lleKaglish Ortliogniplij, 1878. 


eileniing over two evenings, how far Welsh in a particular 
districl of Caernarvon, which of course was only a sumpla 
of "hat occurred in other districts, differed from ita very 
pbonetionlly written literary form, both in pronunciation and 
in grammar ; thus bringing another proof forward that if we 
really triiih to penetrate into the meaning and growth of 
languages, we must look behind the conTcntional written 
form into the penetralia of living speech. 

The Rev, Chauncy Maples gave us a very interesting 
■ccoant of the Makua language, one of the Bantu family in 
Eusteni Africa. All such accounts are of great interest to 
philolugista, as they lead the mind to entirely unexpected 
devBlopments of the connection of thought and speech. 

Major van 8omeren sent in a note on the French hunting 
ery hallali, of uncertain origin. 

The Bubject of grammatical forma was taken up by two 
Members. Mr. Brandreth read an elaborate paper on Grara- 
maticnl Gender, which he sharply distinguished from the 
indication of sex, and made to consist entirely ui certain 
mflecrional forms, not necessarily or chiefly connected with 
the sei or absence of sex from wliich they are usually named. 
Hia views gave rise to a lively diacuBsion, as there wiis by no 
"•wu unanimity of opinion. Mr. Sweet's paper on the 
.rarts of Speech gave rise to a still more lively and pro- 
•ofgei diaouaaion. The great difference of opinion expressed 
on these occasions shews how much our rudimentary notions 
on grammar require reconsideration. "We have till very re- 
wMly hem content to be guided by habits acquired at 
cUwical schools, as when Dr. Johnson said that Shakspere 

W Latin enougb to pra/H/na/ime his English" (Boswell's 

"eof Johnson, year 1780, from Langton's reminiscences, 
^ "■ p. 16, ed. 1826). All this is now changed, and we 

"*' that we must inquire, not what men should say, on 

""^ classical analogies, but what they really do say, and 
"oriminate the native development from the foreign 

'"Cation, In applying logical rulea even to grammar 

.""Ve learned that there is no absolute logic in language, 

W each nation bus an inherited logic, which has a 


the But has been already printed. Mr, Spragwe read a 
piper on lome peculiarity^ of Edinburgh speech, and I gave 
an account of the results of my examination of the Dialects 
of ibe Southern Counties of England, which will form the 
firat part of my Phonology and ClasBificatioii of Existing 
English Dialects, I regret very much that family events, 
perfectly beyond ray controul, which rendered it difficult for 
me even to give the indications furnished in that paper, have 
since that time almost eutirely suspended ray work, I have 
not, as I had hoped to do, been able to write out that part of 
my work of which I then gave an account, and, although I 
hate obtained some additional special indicationB respecting 
Mid-LiDcolnshire, through the kindness of the Poet Laureate, 
nhoiras good enough, at the request of our Hon. Sec. Mr, 
Fumivnll, lo go over his " Northern Farmer Old and Now 
Style" with me, and refer rae to a lady now in London who 
Wa one of his chief authorities, I have not properly speaking 
begun my revision of the Eastern and Midland Counties on 
"oich 1 had hoped to read a paper at the end of this session. 
It u one Comfort to me to know that my collections are com- 
plete, with the exception of details as to the lines where 
cerlam dialects break into others, or materially overlap. Mr. 
Thomaa Hallam, who has already helped me so much, has 
™ii nuring the Easter holidays helping me again, on the 
line of division of Southern and Border Eastern to the east 
of Olfordahire, and will help me further on all Midland 
""ilects and their borders, so that if I only live to finish my 
*"f»i the delay will but add to ita completeness. No one 
™ niore fervently than myself wish to go on and complete 
*** wbich has been so long in hand, hut, as is often tho 
™i *ork of enduring interest has to give way to ephemeral 
■"M from which the individual cannot escape, and there- 
"™ ^ can only say. that though I shall never neglect my 

■ " must not be expected until it appears. 

. ' -^lurray gave us a paper on the words Aitle and 

n. "*• and interested ua by an account of his work on the 

irf )""'*''>■• This Dictionary will probably he the work by 

^'^r Society will he best known to future ages. It 



625,035, and the quotations returned as 861,670. The number 
of readers has now risen to upwards of 800, of whom several 
biVB finisbed the help promised by thein. or have ceased to 
read, from inability to obtain access lo the books now wanted, 
vhile 510 are still at work. The slips issued now number 
817,625, and the quotations returned 656,900, or about 80 
per cent. The total number of authors now represented 
in our Reference Index is 2,700, the number of separate 
fork, on account of the indefiniteness of what constitutes 
t aork [which may be a tenth of a volume, or may extend to 
ten voluDiea), is not so easy to give, but at least the titles 
in our Reference Index amount to some 4,500. Members of a 
Watifiticil turn of mind may calculate that tlie weight of 
817,625 Blips, thin paper as they are, is close upon 15 cwt,, 
find the cost of their postage to Readers and back again, 
i'HlOs. ; that, laid end to end, they extend a distance 
of B7 miles, and that, supposing them each to take up 
only half ^ minute of the Editor's time in reading and 
deuling with them, their inspection would occupy 850 days 
of S houra each, or about 3 working years. But as these are 
really only about a third of our materials, and as many of the 
older ones are so badly written, and so incomplete in their 
hiiereaces, as to demand much longer time than half a minute 
^a lor their consideration, it is clear that the mere cursory 
inspection of the slips ia the labour of many years. 

^he actual amount of help rendered by Readers has varied 

**'? widely ; the average all round is 1,000 quotations each, 

* '"de the list is headed by two readers, one in America 

"•1 one in England, with 25,000 each, it is wound up by a 

umber whose contributions have not exceeded a couple of 

undred. U will be my privilege on a future occasion to 

P^*™ record with some minuteness our obligations to our 

lous readers ; at present I desire specially to mention the 

*ing as fy^j. most extensive helpers : the Rev. J. Pierson, 

j^"*' ilichigan, 25,830; Thomas Austin, Jun. (now of 

r"^^ End), 24,545; Mr. Wm. Douglas, 3, St. George's 

about 20,000 ; three gentlemen who among them 

'°Ue a ninth of all the reading ; Dr. Brushfield, of 

^ iloi 



kU ot the Philosophical Tranaactions, 5 volumea at a time, to 
«ad, or at least rapidly peruse for early appearances of 
tcientific wordi. I have specially to record the kindness 
of Col Ardagh, Mr. G. L. Apperson, Mr. C, Gray, and Mr. 

Boiufield, in undertaking the special work of examining 
thew Tolumea, and of Mr. Thomas Austin, Jnn., for managing 
the distribution and collection of the voluraos, besides himself 
reading oae volume. Our gratitude is duo to the Royal 
Societv, for the accommodation thus given; and no leas to 
the Coanoils of several of the Scientific Societies who have 
called the attention and bespoken the assistance of their 
memberB to the Dictionary ; notably to the Council of the 
LinnaesL Society, who gave two pages of the covers of both 
their Journals to an abstract of our Appeal, Directions to 
readers, and model for quotations. In regard to the history 
of scientific words, much still remaiua to be doue : often 
erea in quite modern words, no one seems to know how 
ihey were formed, or what, as words, they mean. Quite re- 
cently 1 applied to several eminent professors of chemistry, 
for the truth as to the etymological formation of the word 
"tfihyl, K to which I found quite contradictory statements in 
hooks oUiming authority, and I applied in vain. I am at 
present in a similar difficulty as to am;/!; if any one can 
'"Pply me with facta (not intuitions) as to what this word 
tteana elymologically, and wherein this meaning suits the 
»^cs! in qnestion, I shall be obliged. 

^^ the alphabetical arrangement of the old slips, we are 
■""^ IB sight of the end, only W remaining to be put in 
*raer. Tjig alphabetical arrangement of the new slips has 
lowed their receipt as closely as practicable, but only in a 
*' cases have they yet been added to the earlier series; the. 

^ "'■"''adding them in successive batches being so enormous, 
'*e shall in moat cases delay doing so till the general 

^ "^8 is finished, and the new slips can be incorporated with 
"'d once for all, except in preparing portions for volunteer 
,_^>lor3, for whom we put everything together up to date. 

a. ^"lanks to the good help of my numerous volunteer mb- 
*"•» considerable portions of the materials Lave been 


returned it up to the end of Hal. The quotations for 
letter J, in the hands of the Rev. Walter Gregor, M.A., 
Pitsligo, are reported as arranged alphabetically and chro- 
nologically throughout, and divided into the senses of words 
as far as Jade. E, which was completed in earlier times by 
Mr. H. H. GibbSy is in the same stage as the parts of G 
executed by him : that is, the recent materials remain to be 
incorporated, and their residts to be applied to modify the 
treatment of the words where necessary. The letter L had 
been finished by its subeditor, Bev. G. Y. Potts, of Ledbury, 
on the earlier plan; he is now busy adding to it recent 
materials, and re-writing his articles in accordance with 
present directions. Mr. J. Brown, of the Grammar School, 
Kendal, is similarly engaged with the portion of Ma which 
he had prepared on the earlier basis, and of which he reports 
Ma to Macu, and Manna to Mansworn, as finished. From 
the gentleman who had the earlier slips for — On, and 
desired to continue his subeditorial work, I have received no 
report of progress ; the materials for Go to Gz, in the hands 
of Rev. W. J. Loewenberg, of Bury, have been arranged 
alphabetically and chronologically, and the subeditor is now 
busy with the subdivision of the words. Gf P, Mr. W. J. 
Anderson, of Markinch, has arranged and returned to me the 
greater part of the portion from Pers to Pin. S I have 
already mentioned as in the hands of Mr. Jacob, to whom I 
have just sent the part from Shape to Skill. In returning 
me his last batch, Mr. Jacob mentioned to me that the divi- 
sion of the meanings of the verb Set^ and the attempt to put 
them in satisfactory order, had occupied him over 40 hours. 
In examining his restdts, with 61 senses of the simple verb, 
and 83 of phrases, like set out, set off^ set down — 134 divisions 
in all — I do not wonder, at the time : I suspect that the 
Editor will have to give 40 more hours to it ; for the lan- 
guage seems not to contain a more perlexing word than set, 
whioh occupies more than two columns of Webster, and will 
probably fill three of our large quarto pages. To it we may 
add hear^ kt, take, cast, put, do, come, go, get, as the heaviest 
words, lexicographically, in the language, to which light and 


thm into vonl-gToups, and put the slips bolonging to each 
Tord-group into chronological order, so that subeditors, who 
are prepared lo give further aid, may start at ODce upon the 
enbdiWsion of the word iuto ita subordinate senses and uses, 
with the knowledge that they have all the materials in order 
before them. 

" In my last statement, I expressed the hope, that with de- 
creaaing claims upon my attention, it might be possible for 
Be lo report the whole of A as now finished. It is a great 
diBappointmeDt to me to confess that this is far from being 
the case, and that the close of the second year finds me not 
yet beyoQd An- ; and that the utmost I can hope is to reach 
ibe end of A this year. The claims upon me in other de- 
pirlmeiils of the work have increased rather than diminished 
during fbe year ; as in the case of each subeditor it baa been 
requisite that I should devote a day or two to finishing off a 
portion of the letter assigned him, as a guide to bis own 
work, as well as examine and make suggestions upon speci- 
mens of the latter, and give a general examination to 
mch portions as he returns. All this is a saving of time and 
rf work eventually, and therefore a proper employment of 
Uiese three preliminary years, but it interferes seriously with 
tiie direct progress of letter A. 

Mucii time is also required for the preparation of our Lists 
wSpecLnl Wants, of which I issued the Second in January 
""t; few have any conception of the many days' work in- 
™»«d in the preparation of one of these, while the reading 
"going on and slips continually coming in, so that our series 
" qtiotutions is growing and changing under our very bands, 
Is we are trying to define its limits. 
I am at the present moment preparing for the press 
■"slenals for more extensive specimens than those yet printed, 
wder to settle the details of typography and arrangement 
*ilhin the general limits of the specimen already accepted as 
I baiia by the Society and the Delegates of the Clarendon 
Pk««. As 1 want also to take advantage of the same oppor- 
iily to settle several outstanding questions of editing and 
lary arrangement, including especially the treatment of 



materials^ I beg him to do so at once. Of the ordinary 
literary words of the present century, I believe we need no 
more instances, and the same may be said of the literature 
of the seventeenth century ; but for the eighteenth century 
we still want literary words, and for all centuries instances 
of the words of science, technology, and special subjects. 
Several of the later publications of the Early English Text 
and New Shakspere Societies are also still to read, and will 
doubtless yield many new facts in word-biography. Let us 
make a united effort to exhaust these and every other avail- 
able source of information, in order that the Dictionary may 
in its completeness realize the dreams of its projectors, the 
hopes of its workers, the expectations which have gathered 
round it, not only wherever the English tongue is spoken, 
but even in those foreign lands where our language and 
literature are the subject of ever- widening study and ever- 
deepening investigation.'^ 

Improvement of English Spelling. 

Six meetings, four of them extraordinary, have been occu- 
pied since our last anniversary with discussions upon the 
improvement of English Spelling, on the initiation of our 
last President, Dr. Murray (Trans. 1880-1, pp. 139-155), 
and the introduction of Mr. H. Sweet. As so much time 
was given to this subject, and as it is one at which I have 
worked for more than half my life, I propose considering 
the action of the Society at some length, making it the 
principal subject of this address. The addresses of the 
Presidents of the British Association have usually assumed 
one of two forms, a brief account of the scientific work done 
during the preceding twelve months, or the elaboration of 
some special subject on which the President has mainly 
laboured. I hope I shall not be considered out of order, 
therefore, in following the latter course on the present oc- 
casion. I have another reason for doing so. The special 
family business to which I have already alluded has rendered 
it practically impossible for me to find time for the long 



in onr Tnuisactioiis for that year, with an introduction con- 
taiuiog a full account of the circumstances which induced 
liilil to bring the subject forward. The great point of this 
piper is the attempted separation of English words into two 
dawes, thoee which have entered it by speaking, and those 
•hidi hiive entered it by writing. Mr. Fry thought that 
tho first should be written phonetically, and that they always 
W been so written in intention ; but that the second {at 
last 60 Ikr as " Latin and Latin-spelt Greek words " were 
I wncwned) " are not and were never intended to be epelt 
1 fboMtically " (p. 41), and that in them, to use Mr. Fry's 
I tn words, " the spelling is governed, and rightly governed, 
|"bj •"storical etymology " (p. 47). 

I On 20 May, 1870, I read my paper " On Qlossic, a new 
iiJBtem of English spelling, proposed for concurrent use, 
"order to remedy the defecia without detracting from the 
Wile of our present orthography." I had previously 
'lwtiir«l oa the sumo subject at the College of Preceptors 
' CD 6 March, and the Society of Arts on 20 April. Tha 
point oa which I insisted was that no attempt should be 
niiiie to alter our present spelling, which to be useful should 
wprMerved in its present practical uniformity, and that a 
"sf spelling should be run beside it, to fulfil those purposes 
»liicb the customary spelling cannot effect, a proposal which 
I understand Jlr, Fry's paper to state in advance (p. 21) 
'^"'^ " hardly be seriously maintained," This Glossic 
iratflin 1 especially explained would be useful for Dialectal 
"nting, I ajQ gi^d ^^ think that its value in that respect 
ws been appreciated by those writers in the English Lialect 
"*"''y. subsequently established, who have taken the trouble 
« lettrning how to use it. I may particularly mention 
*f- Ejfforthy's books on the West Somersetshire Dialect, 
"ipnally read as papers before this Society, in which every 
""***' pliraso is spelled in Glossic, and his careful edition 
" '™ Exmoor Scolding and Courtship, which is interleaved 
^ tne pronunciation thus expressed. Mr. C. Clough 
"•""on's Mid- Yorkshire Glossary has the sound of every 
"" ftnd phrase thus interpreted, and several other con- 


fott(«i upoD Dr. Murray as editor of the Society's Dictionary, 
liMled him to a feeling proverbially resulting from fainil- 
wilj. He has no reverence for our spelling. He sees all its 
ifcortcomings. He sees its changeablenesa. He sees how it 
Iw gradually ceased to be based on a representation of sound. 
He sees bow absolutely contemptible are ita claims for his- 
torical Ptyroology, " Let us improve it ! " he exclaims in 
Bffisit; "let us do as our ancestora did, and alter a bit here 
ud there. It's the only chance we have of doing anything. 
The ignorance of the public is so great as to the meaning of 
orthography, that no system is possible- The evil is crying. 
I*t Hi do our beat to remedy it, even if we can but go a 
lil'lewHy." This is. I believe, a fair abstract of what he has 
Mid eloquently and forcibly, and illustrated clearly and 
•tritingly. It was his eloquent appeal which induced the 
Boeiety to ask Mr. Henry Sweet, whom he himself designated 
Umoit capable of undertaking the troublesome business, to 
oni* up (ome basis for action. Mr. Sweet most kindly con- 
•Mitedto undertake the lengthy and tedious inquiries thus 
'W'W'ilated, and he laid his first proposals before the Society 
•o that they could be discussed on two extra meetings on 9 
Md 16 July, 1880, each of more than three hours in duration, 
illhoagh totally inadequate to a full consideration of the very 
•""plicated subject, when it was agreed to request Mr. Sweet 
" reeast the whole of the proposals, and bring them forward 
*ith additifical corrections, lists, and examples, at the com- 
"wnwment of the next session. This he kindly consented to 
*>. and the discussion took place at two regular meetings 
""■^and ]fl Nov. and one extra meeting on 26 Nov. 1880, 
wen (he Society "approved" of the changes, and asked 
™t they should be embodied in a complete statement, with 
*^ ''8ta of the words affecled. This was done, and at a 
Vcial meeting on 28 Jan. 1881, the complete statement waa 
™i'iaered, and after some changes, principally omissions, 
™ heen made in it, the pamphlet of " Partial Corrections of 
'"■1 Spellings," printed in the orthography suggested, 
^ 'onnally " approved," and ordered to be printed and 
«rci4t(^ Copies of this pamphlet have been put in circu- 


fte votes of those present had been disponaed with, and the 
Thole Society bad been consulted. 

In the Memorandum of the Association of this Society, 
2 Jan. 1879, following the laws of the unincorporated 
fiouiety, it is st-ated that " The objects for which the Associa- 
tion it eatublished are : To investigate and to promote the 
rtniiy and knowledge of the structure, the affinities, and the 
iislory of laDguages. . . . The doing all such other lawful 
,&iagi as are incidental or conducive to the attaiumeut at 
ifliB above objects." Now it seems to rae that an attempt to 
.liter ntttiouttl orthography is not so much a literary and 
^ological question as a great socinl act. It cannot be done 
n England, for example, without the direct co-operation of 
SoTBrnment. But surely ours is a scientific Society, the 
Soject of which is very correctly described in the Memoran- 
duut of Ajsutiation as already cited. And to make it into 

political organisation for the purpose of carrying a social 
nform, however urgent and desirable it may seem to many 
weven a majority of its members, as it does to me, would, 
i cannot but think, be a real withdrawal of the Society from 
IB proper object, and therefore to be deprecated and avoided. 
The reaolntion to which we came in November, 1^70, to 

abitain from recommending any Spelling Reform," seems 
* HiTe been more consonant with the aims and objects of 
Mr Society. 

" nappDus in the present as in many other cases that 
•tx^sl action depends upon scientific knowledge, and the 
■sbirtitioti of this Bcientihc knowledge is naturally u proper 
•"qecl for the investigation of a scientific society. For 
Ui'l'ince, it is of the very essence of philology to examine 
wensiure of speech sounds in different countries as well as 
""i to discover a means of recalling them with tolerable 
We and accuracy, to study the alphabetic modes of expression 
«»lu use, puint out their delects and suggest a remedy. 

'"? on the knowledge thus furnished. Spelling Reformers 

' "ife really political agitators for a very great political 

B*i tar more extensive in its scope than such questions 

" «s Irish Laud Law or British Free- Trade and Protection) 


sre so delighted with this means of distinction that they 
vootd eitend its use everywhere. I^et such persons en- 
dcuvonr to differentiate the first symbol >rir for some of its 
difimnt meanings, iis the air of the atmosphere, oxygen is an 
sir, B geutle air is blowing, that's an old air, this is the air 
mi ihiil tlie accompaniment, a haughty air, " with an air 
«nd grace," air the bed, and so on, all of which are easily 
dijrtinguislied by context and that alone, either in speaking 
or writing. And so on for perhaps the majority of words in 
commoa u§e, for which the various senses are at present left 
unilistingiiiahed both in sound and symbol. Bnt this is not 
•II. The same symbol often stands for different thoughts, 
which have different signs in speech. Thus, in "I will 
premi you with a present if you will lea^l me to the /end 
liiiDfli tlie symbols present and Ifad have each two sounds. 
Me for euch of the separate thoughts expressed, but the 
wnteit alone decides which sound has to be used. This 
Chinese character of our orthography has been ofteu referred 
to M an illustration, but I wish now to insist upon it as an 
Unpuflant practical fact to be duly regarded in all attempts 

to improve our spelling," which, as I conceive them, ranst 
ultimately consist in replacing thought- symbols by sound- 
^mbola, and not in replacing one set of thought- symbols by 
•Bother. The latter is in effect, however much it may be 
OMguised, the result of any " partial corrections " of our 
'^"graphy, sudi as those of which the Society has 

sppmved," and in so fur there is a scientific objection to 
«iM corrections. The ideographic character of our present 
Wthographyis concealed by the fact that it was unintentional, 
WQ hag arisen from a change of sound having gone on 
"thoat a sufficient change of sign. But the reality of the 
""■nge may be made clear by observing that Queen Victoria 
'"'e^it. without much difEculty, be taught how to read out 
^ psge of King Alfred's alphabetically written translation 
" wrrpory's Pmtoral Care- in a way he would probably have 
"ndentood, while it would be hopeless to instruct the shade 
of King iif^ 1^0^ t^ jg^^ g^t intelligibly a page of Queen 
^i^toria's ideographically written Eiyhland Tour. 



wen the latest differs much from the medieval Latin forma 
Trilli wliicb we are acquainted in most of our editions of the 
cb^ics. I am not aware that Government intervened in 
Borne Bs it did in Athens, but I am inclined to take the 
(o-called Bacchanal InBcription, ii.c. 1S6 (No. X. in Itoby, 
Corp.L R. 196. ItiUchl tab. XVIII.), which aeeras to have 
the stamp of Government authority, to mark an accepted 
tbiinge in Latin writing, especially as regards the insertion 
of final m, which was certainly not pronounced in the paiiGe 
or before vowels, though it became effective before con- 
wnanta, at I have endeavoured to establish eleewhere, and to 
itlustrBte by the modern Italian treatment of final d, a letter 
vbiubsW disappeared from the termination of Latin abla- 
tives (Qiwii/i(fl(ire Pi-Qimuriation of Latin, 1874). The point, 
however, to which I wish to direct attention with regard to 
these Greek and Roman changes, ia that the system of 
witiog in each case was intentionally phonetic, and hence, . 
that the changes from one phonetic system to another were 
intelligible at once, as recalling known sounds, and marking 
the hiatoij of the change of sounds, that is, were made in 
the sense of the original institution. In the Greek the 
change was made evidently to improve the instrument itself, 
which wm felt to be inadequate to its task. But such 
» change, even at that early period, required the action of 
Qoverament. The circumstances under which the change 
was made in one sraall state, when even ordinary writing 
WanotacoaiDion accomplishment, and the nation was almost 
coODQed to a single city, having no penny post or printing 
Fwa. are totally different from those under which a change 
would or could be made in the English Alphabet at the 
preeent day, with the millions who are used to read, write 
"iQ priat it, scattered over England, America, Australia, 
Math Africa and India. And again the change, if confined 
" ^itflring the shape of certain thought- symbols, while it 
'^ them after all thought-symbols, would in no wise be self- 
™*'T"*ting, as in the phonetic changes of sound- symbols, 
™"iany respect record the history of the language, 
''hat is a language? Of course there is no more difficulty 


beoome mllying poiata, ooaneoting the various series of 
umid-symbols. Tliua I use a writtea English word, say 
daughter, as a mere thouglit-aymbol, to connect a vaat variety 
or soand-gyinbola which express suuli sounds as at different 
tmm Kod iu diiferent counties were used to express the 
thought thus represented. And in the same way the tbought- 
imhol J!lk 18 connected with dmtghfei- in English- French 
diolionaries. The reader raay bo absolutely deaf-mute, but 
he will connect the th ought-ay in bola, and perfectly under- 
(Uind the relatioa. I know a. living instance. Similarly 
the numerous spellings of ahng, almonry, almond, iimbmsiiflor, 
brought before us by Dr. Murray, are groupuble around 
thesa thought-symbols, and in the indices to the pronuneia- 
tiouof the words of Chaucer, and of the xvith, xviith, and 
ivuith centuries, given in my Early Eitijlhk Pronnnridtion, 
I hmre referred them all fo our modern and well-known 
Hiought-gymboU. Pronounciug dictionaries in which aound- 
•ymbols are connected with thought- symbols ai-e another 
uwtance. In this respect then, as a means of colligating 
many souiid-symbols which express the same thought, 
tlwught-symbols have a philological value. 

A Unguage, then, is a series of significant speech sounds, 
u 'he lense just laid down. But what are those sounds P 
■^fB they the same throughout a district where the same 
''Dguage is currently said to be spoken ? It is notorious 
™' 'tis is very far from being the case, and it ia one of 

* dilficuitiga to ]jg encountered by any proposed phonetic 
Tilling. To mark the earnestness and the pertinacity with 

''h this objection is urged, would make one despair of 

'pojgibihty of phonetically writing any language whatever. 
" t»o persona reproduce exactly the same speech -sounds. 
" '*o auditors exactly hear the same set of sounds at 
•aiDE time from the same speaker. Neither the speaker 
*iyoiie of his audience will attach precisely the same 

■^sptions to the sounds which the first thinks he utters 

'lie others think they hear. Hence of course it is all 

^186 to talk of language at all. There is only one set of 

**»d sounds exciting another set of confused thoughts. 



ciation " to represent the custom of speech so far aa soand 
u concerned. Now in this sense we find that the pronun- 
ciBlion even of the sent of governmeat ia never quite 
nniform. In London, for example, we have extreme varieties, 
some of which may be heard in the legislature itself, em- 
bracing as it does many provinciate, and many, who, to their 
n great credit, have risen from the ranks. The same is 
true now ia Paris, in Berlin, in Vienna, in Rome, in 
Naples, and no doubt was etjually the case in Athens and 
ancient Rome. In Athens, common discourse or SKikemot 
was diatinguished from the rhetorical, pr)TopiKr}, used by tha 
piJTopfs as, first, public sj^eakers themselves, and then those 
wlio by observiug the habits of men most esteemed instructed 
olliers Low to imitate them, and created an artificial pro- 
atioQ. We have the difiereuce now among ue in 
"•ndon, known as colloquial and oratorical pronunciation. 
■But We have very few men indeed who set themselves 
dp as guides to speakers. There is such an institution in 
tte Fretjck Conservatoire, but in England it has fallen to 
the lot of private individuals, not at all recognised by the 
BOTemmcnt. Thus at different times Thomas Sheridan, 
Mn Walker, Sheridan Knowles, Benjamin Smart, Melville 
"™7 Alesiinder D'Orsey, have undertaken this office, and 
aeTera! actors, as Jones, Ryder, and others. Bui how did 
"■ay know how to t«ach ? They were first merely observers, 
wen they became theorisera, and their theories were often 
"™, because founded on the presumed phonetic character 
"^ 'be orthography of their day. This principally deter- 
■med tlieir pronunciation of the weak or unaccented 
•Jluibles^ and clings like a millstone round the necks of 
■"■"irs a^j their teachers and phonetic writers in general. 
° pronouncing dictionary writer most free from this per- 
""'"o ia Sraurt, but the symbols he uses inevitably mislead 
'^der who does not very carefully study his preceding 
in h- ""^ somewhat involved explanations. Mr. Sweet 
J- ^ -danilbook of Phonetics has quite emancipated himself 
«ll such considerations, but our late President, Dr. 
**.>■, ia his lust address, in siMiakitig on " the representa- 


artificial still, and swayed by many traditions, in the pulpit. 
Again in so-called " recitals " there is a species of poetical 
utterance. In tragedy, artificiality, mixed with stage tradi- 
tion, is often carried to excess. All these but the first are 
literary, and the errors, when not traditional, arise from 
forcing pronunciation to agree with what is ignorantly 
supposed to be the phonetic indications of our ideographic 
writing. True, such writing is the remains of a phonetic 
system, but when those letters were used phonetically they 
seldom, if ever, represented the sounds thus attributed to 
them at the present day, as I have sufficiently demonstrated 
in my Early English Pronunciation. Of the above modes 
of utterance, I think that the pronunciation of " genteel 
comedy " is most worthy of respect. But there is also un- 
lettered speech which has grown up naturally in different 
parts of the country, and that, I apprehend, is the only one 
worthy of philological investigation. Being illiterate, it has, 
however, naturally nothing to do with an improvement of 
spelling, which is essentially literate. It has, however, 
a great deal to do with scientific spelling, for it affords us 
the very field we desire, — unwritten languages which we are 
anxious to compare. 

But all the other kinds of English pronunciations just 
enumerated are also absolutely unwritten, and it is at least 
an excellent exercise to reduce them to writing, and contend 
with all those difficulties in synthetically and analytically 
representing the exact sounds used in strong and weak 
syllables, and strong and weak words, with the length, 
pitch, stress, of elements, syllables and words, the variations 
of pronunciation and intonation due to haste, passion, or 
other expression, or logical construction of sentences, which 
Mr. Sweet and myself have at times brought before you. 
The construction of a really scientific system of writing 
speech in reference to such points is of the utmost value to 
philology. Mr. Sweet, following Mr. Melville Bell, has 
designed an alphabet to satisfy most of these, which was ex- 
plained in 1878, and makes part of our present Transactions 
(pp. 177-235). He forms his alphabet, of course, on the 


YAmn. From this tin foil Prof. Fleeming Jenkin and Mr. 
J. A. Ewing have succeeded in obtaining magnified curves 
which they have resolved into their components iiccording to 
Ohm's kw, uod thus found at least aome of the constituents 
of the sounds.^ 

All this is, however, very imperfeiit, and it would seem 
Talueleas for recording and reproducing speech-sounds with 
icciirsc}-. I went with great expeotations, in company with 
Prof, Gruhnm Bell, to examine Mr. Stroh's phonograph, 
and wMWofuIly diBappointed. But in future for 10 March 
h«l, I raid : " A phonograph of a new construction will be 
tried in the New Polyglot Inatituto of Paris, for the purpose 
of teaching pupila the art of pronouncing correctly the 
difficult words of foreign languages." It will be a wonderful 
phonograph if it records them with sufBcicnt accuracy to 
make it worth while t-o listen to it, and if it also teach pupila 
lue art of pronouncing these sounds correctly, it will be 
"fpiy miraculoua! But however much this mode of 
wnimg and reading sounds may be brought to perfection, it 
lill never supersede the physiological studies of phonctists 
and their application to alphabetic writing, and even those 
wU not supersede for many purposes the old judgment of 
the ear, for I have heard many sounds which I have not been 
sble to refer distinctly to any physiological group, and can 
™J Wguely indicate as " lying between " two known 
•wda— ffhfltever that may mean. In connection with this 
'|«rtof my Bul]ject I should like to draw attention to Prof. 
Hevere's excellent work just published {Gruudzuge der 
"*""''* tur Einfuhriing in das Slni/ium der Lautkhre 
■"' >'Klogtnitanisc/te7i Sprachen, Leipzig, Breitkopf, 1881, 
jp. 220), in which he gives an account of all the principal 
"""l phonetic invcstigatioiia, and I must congratulate 
^raiana on having such a conveniently arranged treatise 

port 3, for 

**" 187r-?8, pp. 745-777, plates 34-40, "On the narmonic Aunljati of 
r™i root Soiinib," in etery respect n must valaable cuntribatiDn lovudg oar 
"•Wje of ibii Tery complicated subject. 

288 THE president's annual ADDRfc:SS FOR 1881 

Now it is clear that however useful such investigations 
may ultimately prove to philology, they are far too difficult 
and lengthy to be of any value to those who merely want to 
record and reproduce speech for every-day use. These 
persons ought to be able to speak and combine the sounds 
before they see the sound-symbols. I am speaking of course 
of those who can hear, the deaf-mute must be helped by 
sight, and can be so helped in a wonderfully effective manner 
by Mr. Melville Bell's Visible Speech signs, as explained to 
us 80 clearly by Prof. Graham Bell on 3 Dec. 1880. The 
teacher who knows the physiological actions can always help 
materially, and when there are defects of utterance such 
a teacher is a necessity. There is no occasion for ordinary 
purposes to represent the physiological action by the symbol, 
which may be chosen to subserve other purposes, but the 
writing must be phonetic, that is, must recall sounds and 
those only. 

Now here arises a difficulty, not only in English, but in 
other languages, in which originally phonetic writing has 
become more or less ideographic. The ideographs contain 
parts which apparently indicate an original pronunciation or 
a pronunciation in another language whence the word was 
taken. Hence these parts are cherished as giving a clue to 
the etymology or history of a word. Dr. Murray's ex- 
perience, as he has told you, is that these apparent traces 
have often been ignorant insertions of a late date, and are 
much more frequently misleading than valuable, and must in 
all cases be preliminarily disregarded {nuptxt, p. 152). If we 
wish to look up the history of a word it must be through 
MSS., during a period when, anterior to the invention of 
printing, phonetic writing had not yet begun to fossilise into 
ideographic. And how much of the history of a word could 
in any case be shewn by unphonetic insertions, or be made 
clear by any spelling to any one who did not know it before- 
hand, may be readily appreciated by those who will take the 
trouble to turn over a few pages of Prof. Skeat's Etymo- 
logical Dictionary. Such notions are mere dreams, and are 
generally recognised as such. Yet they leave an impression, 


like other bad dreams, on the awakening sense, and their 
influence was very marked on the partial corrections lately 
"approved" by our Society. It cannot be too often repeated 
or too earnestly insisted on, that no spelling can be etymo- 
logic, which does not in the first place tell us what the 
word is of which we seek the history, that is, does not 
represent the sounds of which the word consists. And in 
tracing the written forms of its ancestors in print or MS. we 
only then have a real history of the word, when we can clothe 
thoee written forms in a phonetic garment. Here, how- 
over, comes in a very important use of the ordinary more or 
less nnphonetic orthography. We require to trace and 
identify each document on the way. For that purpose it 
must appear either in its absolute form, or, where that is 


mconvenient, as is very frequently the case for Asiatic and 
older European, or even Slavonic languages, in a translitera- 
tion, from which we can unambiguously reproduce the original 
^hen deeired. If we follow Moritz Rapp and use only a 
phonetic form, we have no means of reverting to the original 
without an amount of labour which no reader would under- 
t'ko, 80 that our own labour would be thrown away. Besides 
this, the old form is that on which we have worked. The 
phonetic form (in all but living speech, and often then) is a 
oeduction, an inference from conflicting materials, which 
others may interpret differently. We ought therefore to 
give them the means of checking what we say. I have felt 
ooth of thiese defects acutely in using Rapp's books {Physio- 
h^derSprachCy 1836, and Vergleichends Gramniatik, 1852). 
As long as we deal with familiar languages in familiar stages, 
" ^ onough, usually, to employ the ordinary written form, 
out even this is never quite safe, we cannot be sure that what 
w lamiliar to ourselves is so to others, and the only real 
•ocunty will be found in giving a word twice over, once in 
*^istorical and once in its presumed phonetic form, just as 
^®^ Sanscrit grammars give each word in its Indian form 
*°f ^^ a transliteration. 

^» I consider, altogether a mistake to treat the improve- 
^f our orthography as simply a scientific or philologic 



funiliar look of vords eeems to be gratuitously changed. 
I fiad DO oompeusation for it whatever. And I find real 
injuries to tbe history of words by a mixture of the phonetic 
conlrirances of different centuries, which, I learn by re- 
ferring to the rainute book of the Society, I illustrated 
in our disciusion of Nov. 1870, by supposiug a man to walk 
tbout with a wig of James II., covered by Chaucer's cowl, 
«nd topped by a modem chimney pot. A century hence, 
inch changes would seem contrived to make the phonetic 
usages of the past look like those of the present. Result, 
confuaiun worse confounded. 

It k not my purpose to undertake the ungrateful, and to 
Be particularly unpleasant tusk of criticising conclusions 
which it was at the time my duty to register, and not discuss. 
1 baslcn to the social problem, and the part which philologers 
h saoli, are culled upon to take in its solution. 

In our pamphlet discussed on 28th January, and just 
•■iiM, the following are put forward as the " Objects of 
Bpelling Reform," — (I restore the usual orthography of 

') To facilitate the acquisition of English Spelling; 
*) enabling children and adults to learn reading who are 

at present unable to do so ; 
o) MOttening the time spent in learning to read ; 
V faciliiaiing the acquisition of the ordinary spelling ; 
") effecting a saving of national expenditure, and 
^) spreading the knowledge of English among foreign 

Datioas ; 
'/ To remove etymologically misleading spellings." 

("Partial Corrections," etc., p. 4.) 
"*ft aoa. 1 to 5 are purely social. No. 6 is merely inci- 
"'W. aud the last, No. 7, seems to me to be in no respect 
' "M^t of spelling reform at all, except in so far as it 
'""'' be necessarily effected by the method pursued in 
*ngoutNo. 1. 
■•^'yniologically misleading" letters could only be such 
™* those who already knew Latin and Greek and other 

292 THE president's annual address for 1881 

lanp^uages, to think that an English word came from them, 
when this was not the case ; as Ay in rhyme^ 8 in island, and 
so on. Their omission has no interest whatever to the mere 
English reader. The right clue and the full statement can 
be given only in dictionaries, and are beyond the power of 
mere orthography. 

Let us then look the social problem in the face and 
consider how far we, as philologists, are especially called 
upon to contribute to its solution. The evil to be remedied 
is this: 

It is now necessary for an Englishman to commit to memory 
the spelling of every spoken word, and the pronunciation 
of every written tcord in his language which he is called 
upon to write or read aloud or utter puhlicly, when 
learned only from books. 
There is no guide but mere memory. Sound, writing, 
analogy, etymology all fail. Rules for spelling and pro- 
nimciation abound in exceptions. Foreigners have frequently 
declared that they are all exceptions. The hard fact re- 
mains, after aU the fun made of it, that those among us who 
have had most practice and experience are continually at a loss. 
This seems a stupendous assertion, and I determined to put it 
to the test before venturing upon it to-night. I have myself 
been a great reader and writer for more than fifty years. In 
addition to this, I have thought much about pronunciation, 
and have endeavoured to master, not only the history, but the 
practice of pronunciation. I opened Worcester's Pronouncing 
Dictionary at hazard on p. 434, Bohn's octavo edition, 
1847, and took the left-hand column extending from Magot- 
pie to Mailed, Exclusive of mere Indian and Turkish words, 
which Worcester clearly did not know how to utter, I find 
the following five which I did not know how to spell or pro- 
nounce at all ; I add Worcester's pronunciation in Glossic : 
Magydare, the plant magydat*is L., which Worcester calls 
maj'idair and Smart mag'idair ; Mahaleb, a shrub, the 
fruit of which yields a violet d3'e, left unpronounced by 
Worcester ; Maian, a crustacean, W. mai'yun ; Maieutical, 
obstetric, W. maiyewtikul ; Maile, a silver halfpenny, temp. 


Henry V., W. mail. This was pretty well, considering that 
tlie colamQ contained a large number of familiar compounds 
of J/flWand Maidrn. The last four worda are not given by 
Smart, who, na it ia seen, pronounces tbe first word diiferently 
(rem Worcester. None of ihem are in Ogilvie's Smaller 
jfogliah Dictionary, wbcre Cull furnishes the sounds. I then 
Iried the whole of p. 512 of Worcester, from Palmer to 
legrris, with the following result, Imlian icorrls again 
tKfpted. The t marks those words which I pronounced 
Differently from Worcester, and which, therefore, in his esti- 
itioD. I did not know how to pronounce at all. Those 
imarked I know nothing of : f Palmisteb, W. pal'viUier, 
'ia paa-nikler ; fPALMiSTBT, W. pal-nmtri, E. pao-mi»lri ; 
tPAH;iiAL, relating to marshes or fens, W. piileu'dul, E. 
falmdul; Pampeho, a violent wind that sweeps the pampas, 
W. pamprrrroa, no doubt a wrongly pronounced Spanish 
word; PiHPRK, an architectural ornament consisting of vine 
leaves and grapes, W. pnm-per, evidently an erroneously pro- 
nounced French word ; Panada, Panado, food made by 
boiling bread in water, W. ptinnrdu, punardoa, clearly 
Mgiicittd Spanish words ; Pancarte, a royal charter con- 
finaing all his possessions to a subject, W. pitntaa-ri; Pancv, 
land of violet, W. pan'ti, but said to be the same word as 
"^lisi, a kind of violet, which, however, W. calls pan'zi ; 
fASiioEE, an old sort of lute, W. piindca-r; PasikH'r, a kind 
*• liglit infantry, formerly organised as a separate corps in 
tbe AaBtrian service, W. pandoo'r, observe the unaccented 
lyllable is here marked distinct, but was indistinct in the 
rj*5ceding word ; Pandowdy, food made of bread and apples 
mted together, W. pandon'di; f Panegtbic, W. panijifik, 
^fmijerik; Panegvris, a festival, W. ;)«/i<?'fVts. Of these 
™art has only Palmister, Palmistry, Panado, Pandore, in 
«ica he agrees with Worcester, and Panegyric-ul, in which 
4b disagrees with Worcester and agrees with me ; Cull (in 
"gdvie) liiw only Paludal and Panegyric-al, in which he 
*i«agrew with Worcester in the unaccented syllables, but 
"" Way be apparent only, for he never marks the indistinct 
""^^ of unaccented syllahlea, although "Worcester and 


■hegm the fint column of the first number of my Phmietio 
SriM, 6 (TBniiaTy, 1849, with a list of eight foots, which, 
sbridged, vere: 1, that no odq cud tell the souud of a word 
from iU spelling, 2. or the spelling from the souud, 3, that 
menjorising each written word uad its sound, which must he 
separttlely told the learner, is indiepensable, 4. that few can 
read aloiid from any book given them at hazard, or spell any 
.passage read to them at hazard, 5. that few poor children 
leave school able to read with ease, 6. that in 1846 one 
womaa in two and one man in three signed the marriage 
Tegislet with their marks, 7. that a very large number of the 
people of England can neither read nor write, 8. that by 
means of phouetic spelling reading could be taught in from 
one day to three months. And then I concluded by saying : 
■"For these reasons, Reader, we call upon you, and every 
i^tened Englishman, to further the Si-elling Reform." 
Allow me one other quotation, for I wish to shew you that 
oe distinction I drew at the beginning of this address be- 
'eea a scientific and social action in relation to this subject, 
88 been held by me from the first, I entered into the 
lovement m a social work, as a social work I Still hold to it. 
This is the second paragraph of my opening article in the 

' The very origin of our existence as a newspaper is a firm 
nfiinching purpose of warring an exterminating warfare 
jsinst popular ignorance, directed mainly at its most formid- 
we outwork, raised by the ponderous exertions of barbaric 
}w— English Pseud-Orthography, As long as we use the 
W*8 with which this paper is printed [I may now add, and 
•"lofi longerj^ we arc sworn soldiers of Phon-Orthography. 
-'' IS impOBsible to think of educating in these days without 
•"^ help of reading. Lecturers may talk and produce a 
•""■entarjr excitement, they may rouse the mind to action, 
?"" the mind must have wherewithal to act upon, or it will 
"pse into its former listlessness. The written word is the 
'^ pabuiura for the hungry mind. The heart must be 
'"^W through the eye. While the eye is blind to the 
'^'of instruction, ignorance must prevaiL Pseud-Ortho- 


be reproduced elsewhere. In Aug. 1843, wlien the subject 
id not yot burned itself iato ray heart, I commenced with 
ail (ilpbabet requiring no new types, but employing Italic 
and Greek characters. Then having worked with Mr. I. 
Fitman throughout the incubation of our 1847 alphabet, and 
Lading worked that thoroughly, in such numerous publica- 
tions m 1847 to 1849 that my mind required a three years' 
reet from almost all labour, I began in 1856 to Bee that much 
could be done without either new types or a mixture of 
founts, and in ISfifj I invented my palaeotype, which at first 
with any mixture of founts, and was intended for 
English only, but was afterwards enlarged and formed into 
tie scientific instrument for which I have used it in my 
Sarly Eaglith Pronunciiition. In 1870 I found that it was 
powible to print English, not ordy easily, but to a great 
eitent, Buggestively to one who could already read, by means 
of ordinary letters only, without turning, accenting, or mu- 
tilatiii({ any, as shewn in my Gloaaic. I have since invented 
Olber echemes, as my Dimidian, Europic, and Suggestive, all 
with the idea of Spelling Heforra. It is in the formation 
criticism of such alphabets, that men engaged in the 
■tody of language could, if they only would, give great 
Msislance. The task is a very difficult and delicate one, re- 
.■quiring a practical knowledge of printing, as well as a 
owledge of speech-sounds and their combinations, and 
Mqnaintauc© with orthoepy, but on its succeaaful accom- 
'"KQt rests, as I now judge, the fate of Spelling 

I*t UB for the moment cast aside the notion which poa- 
**w too many literary men, of making the beat possible 
Upbabet for the English language, independently of the social 
puoletn. I by no means aak literary men to desist from 
en mveniions, which may at some unknown future date 
"""e highly advantageous. But I wish for the moment 
'*' fegard what might be abstractly the best, if English 
*" unwritten language, but to concentrate attention 
*'iat is practically the best to remedy the social mia- 
""* of our present spelling. It is in referouce to this 


Introduce tlits nev partially corrected spelling into schools ? 
Would they not at once say that it was impossible, that it 
would Dot help children to read present books faster and 
better, and would utterly ruin their orthography ? Garry 
out the principle even to the " ultimate " form exhibited in 
the specimens on pp. •84-"89 of Appendix IV. to our 
Ph. Tr. 1880-1, and it remains merely literary. It could 
not ucl on school-teaching except by descending from the 

» literary classes, and then it would leave the social misfortune 
almost as great as ever. I mean that if, after some coutiiries, 
oarnomic were replaced by this partially corrected spelling, 
and children bad to be taught to read and write it, without 
any regard to another spelling beyond, — the difference in the 
time and difficulty between learning then and learning now 
would be practically inappreciable. A great strain would 
hare been laid on the world of letters, the habits of spellers 
would have been harassed and unsettled for years, and no 
•ocial advantage whatever would accrue. No! the battle of 
ipeUmg reform must not be fought in literature, it must bo 
w»ght in education. We must begin with the school-child 
"> i» ignorant of literature. We must lighten his task by 
inatraajent he can use afterwards, and the gradual use of 
™is inBlrumenl afterwards will, in somewhat more or less 
iDM three generations after its general school use, lead to ils 
■Mperaeding nomic. It is to the construction of such an 
"Wlniment that I invite your attention, by describing the 
wdiliong by which it will have to be determined. 
""' present spelling, which may be regarded as that by cus- 
"i and, through our government inspectors and examiners, 
/'"» established, may, as I have suggested, be aptly termed 
' m both senses of the word vofio^. The orthography by 
"'h Spelling Reform is to be effected, and which is to be 
"'"'■«( with Domic till it supersedes it, I propose to write 
'"'», and call sin drum, from tlie classical word a-vi'Bpa/io-i 
^*^iirring." The settlement of a syndrom I regard as 
♦L*^' real and effective step towards a spelling reform. 
, ^re is no central authority to determine the use of one 
^Ular syndrom, it will probably be necessary to use 


principle on which an alphabet can be consistently con- 
Btracted is the phonetic. But syndrom must not touch the 
delicate analysis and synthesis of complete phonetics. So 
few know or care anything about them, and they are so 
difficult to manipulate, that they would completely engulph 
a syndrom which was built upon them. Only such an 
amount must be employed as children can understand and 
teachers impart. The teachers form the main difficulty, 
children are easily taught — I speak from experience. But it 
would be advisable, after some really phonetic syndrom has 
been accepted, to make the teaching of sounds precede the 
teaching of their symbols. Very young children, in the 
nursery and infant school, may be put through a series of 
exercises, simple, easy and short, but constantly repeated, 
which should make the sounds familiar to the ear, separately 
and in combination, before characters are introduced. Then 
there is no difficulty in fitting one to the other, and syn- 
dromic reading would be commenced in the earliest time. 
I have given an indication of this plan in the Exercises with 
artificial words attached to my Pronunciation for Singers, 
pp. 113-128, but other exercises would have to be specially 
constructed for this purpose, when a syndrom had been 
selected, as I explained some years ago to the Frobel or 
kindergarten Society. All the common foreign sounds con- 
tained in incorporated but not fully anglicised words should 
D® included in such exercises. But of course teachers would 
l^ftve to be taught. This is an inevitable difficulty in all useful 
"^novations. It is my own belief that if this plan of teaching 
^^^nds, and then fixing them by symbols of sound, were 
generally adopted, children of all classes at five and six 

^^d be able to. enter school already able to read and write 
v^drom and read nomic, so that in fact the whole of the 

^^mous time now spent over learning to read and write 

^d be practically saved. 

7»» • Syndrom must be easy for a young child to learn to read, 

^ would otherwise be no call for a syndrom at all. This 

Edition implies the phonetic constitution of the alphabet, 


tMChing to read. It waa not a true syndrotu, as it contained 
NTtnleea new letters (for the sounds represented by the Italio 
Uttets b nomic, fi°el, fad, art, ought, oat, hoot, p«t, high, hot/, 
bw, hut, chest, Win, ifiea, virioua, vmoa, si«j/), but thsse 
were all formed on an English basis, that is, they were 
auggegl«d by combinations of letters occurring in English 
vordg which bad those sounds, as distinguished from a Latin 
basis, ihat is, forms suggested by letters which in Liitin, 
Italitt Bud Spanish, and approximately French and German, 
b«d Boonds generally, but by no means always, closely 
»ppro«ciiiiig to our English sounds, although never actually 
identical with thero. Extensive experiments were made, 
(^iftUy at Dumfries, Haddington, Aberdeen and Edin- 
Wgb, in Scotland, and at Waltham, Massachusetts, in the 
United States, These shewed that the learning to read iu 
that phonetic alphabet materially assisted the pupils of the 
poorest orders in primarj' schools, in learning to read nomic ; 
Mid that in fact that system acted much as what I have 
lemed a syndrom ought to act. The result was that in 1853 
» Reading Ueform Association was started, in which several 
«li»e members of the present Spelling Reform Association 
wk part, of whom I may especially mention the Cbairmaa 
oiit« Executive Committee, our colleague and member of 
the scbool-board, Dr. J. II. Gladstone, and the Honorary 
Seetetaiy, Mr. C. B. Arding. The present Spelling Reform 
Association, I may be allowed to add, was got up entirely 
independently of myself. In 1853, then, it was proposed to 
"« the 1817 alphabet of Mr. I. Pitman and myself entirely as 
* «boo! appliance, forming an introduction to nomic, and 
not Bt all regarded as the instrument of a future spelling 
ntotm, gradually superseding the use of nomic. Nor was 
uiat fllphaljet fitted for such a purpose, on account of ita new 
lettflra, sthicJi materially restricted its use. In the course 
w these experiments it was also discovered that phonetic 
'™"'8 farmed no hindrance to the acquisition of uomic 
•pelung, but that, on the contrary, the best phonetic readers 
"^'"^^ the best Domic spellers. Nomic spelling must 
'^ys be a matter of memory. It can only be acqi 

quired ^^ 


increasing namber of persons who had never been troubled 

with the absolutely unnecessary toil of learning to spell 

nomic. Most of us are accustomed to read the spelling in 

Shakspere's or Chaucer's time, and, where the words are not 

altogether obsolete, we don't find much difficulty in reading 

it at sight. But suppose you were required to produce a 

piece of writing in one of those spellings, would you not 

find it extremely difficult P I only know that most books of 

pretended old spelling contain numerous errors, betraying 

their modem origin to experts, and that when I endeavoured 

in my Early English Pronunciation (Part III. pp. 680-724) 

to write the Prologue to the Canterbury Tales in a systema- 

tisation of the orthography of the Harleian MS., I found the 

task very difficult indeed. There is plenty of reason, for at 

WMt a century to come, why school children who have 

Mwned to read and write syndrom should learn to read 

fiomic, and they will have no more difficulty than you have 

in reading Chaucer where his words are not obsolete, and 

there will be no need at all for such children (unless Govern- 

'ttent insists on their doing so) to write nomic, when every 

wader of nomic can read the children's syndrom with perfect 

^*8e. This then is a condition of success, and it is easily 

fulfilled. People read my Phonetic Neics, with seventeen 

iiew letters on an English basis, at sight. Old ladies — a 

^pital test — read my Glossic at sight and without difficulty. 

™hably those acquainted with foreign languages can read 

l^^h in an alphabet on a Latin basis, with the same ease. 

l>at judging from the difficulties felt by educated children 

m acquiring the Italian and French and German use of the 

▼owels, I doubt whether purely English nomic readers inno- 

^tof any foreign languages — and they may be counted by 

'Onlions— would do so. At any rate I have no experience to 

'• Syndrom must be used to inculcate a received English 
^'^^neiation. One of the great advantages of syndrom is 
7*^ Hen teachers have been taught a received pronuncia- 
^ themselves, they will be able to impart it to children in 




pmnimciation, althougli admissible for letter-nriterB, is 
imprMticable for printers. And when authors found that 
"following copy" in a matter of spelling increased the 
expense of printing materially, they would also discover that 
sucb an idea would be impracticable for all writers who 
meant their words to be printed. 

8. Sijndnm must be extended to give the pronunnkitton of 
iaivrporaieil but not full 1/ anglkiiied foreign leords. Of course 
loose foreig'n words which are thoroughly anglicised in 
prononciation, if not in spelling, that is, those that have come 
to ua by speech or by literature, could both be spelled 
phonetically with ease. The literary words, including Latin 
or Latinised Greek words in their unanglicised orthography, 
all of whiuh Mr. Fry excluded from his plan, are precisely 
those in which the greatest blunders are committed. Such 
worda cannot be said to have any received pronunciation. 
Hence a careful phonetic revision of their forms on the 
principleB already used in similar words that are fully 
incorporated and well known, is highly desirable. But there 
remainaa large number of words which, although admitted 
into moat of our dictionaries, are not yet fully incorporated, 
and sre hence not yet pronounced with what are assumed to 
w English Bounds. Should not the sounds they contain be 
now considered a part of English, and be incorporated in 
syndrom? I think it is highly desirable, for example, that 
the four French nasal vowels in nenl, vin, vont, tm, and the 
Frenoli sounds a and eii, and corresponding German ii, o, and 
tne Germau eh, should be provided with symbols, and the 
Mundg taught to children from tho first. It would not 
wnsibly add to their difficulties, and it would be a very 
sensible assistance to them in after-life. This is, however, 
not an indispensable condition. 

In these conditions I have said nothing of 'etymology and 
history. They belong to an advanced stage, They must be 
^iU^ separately, and. as already stated, cannot in any way 
" Poetically indicated by orthography. But when we have 
^ 'jndrom, that is, a phonetic alphabet of some kind fulfil- 


uniform aooeptationy and its fancied helps to history and 
etymology. To carry oat this scheme would require large 
fonds, years of patient work, and a vast practical co-operation 
of deroted educational pioneers. Who can suppose that 
a great social change affecting many countries and many 
governments can possibly be effected by a few strokes of the 
pen, or a few debates of a learned society P We might as 
well think of talking the Ethiop out of his skin or the leopard 
eat of his spots. If this long exposition serves no other 
purpose, it will, I hope, shew how thoroughly social, and how 
slightly philological is a real Spelling Reform. The only 
points in which a Philological Society, as such, can be of 
uiy real use to it are, first the invention of a syndrom to 
fulfil the conditions laid down, and secondly the settlement 
of a received pronunciation to be expressed by the syndrom. 
Ton will also, I think, sufficiently see why such partial 
collections as have been proposed are, to my mind, entirely 
oeside the point at issue, — ^the education of the people, — and 
can have no good social effect whatever. No one can look 
^'^'oogh the pamphlet that has been issued by our Society 
^thout feeling that the matter has there been viewed in an 
ahnost purely literary manner, with only an occasional 
excursus into the social field. Such proposals are very 
interesting to those who make them. For myself I do not see 
of what public advantage they can be. To my mind the one 
I^tical result of the labours of our Society, on the " partial 
corrections of English spelling," and of the two very able 
JDeu who have been entrusted with preparing the work, 
J* unhappily to prove that such partial corrections are 
impossible; that our spelling to be of use must remain 
®^tly what it is, without any change whatever ; that it is 
l^t literary tinkering, and that our only hope is in such 
* subsidiary orthography as I have just attempted to describe. 

Sfbcdiens of Proposed Impromements in English Spelling 

upon different principles. 

To shew the printed appearance of partial corrections, of 
Tiidroms more or less fulfilling the above conditions, upon 



about t«o feet or more in length to-day, unless Bum mishap 
isocurriag, or it has Buddenly lost its vital energy, for I hav 
carefuly obzervd its rate of increase every week this month, 
'tnd Dot«d it down accurately uu your slate, and I know that 
it hu experienced no variation, barring onse, during a 
dupenttely anoying interval of cold pouring rain. 


!. Glossic, Sy A. J. Ellis, Orthoepy of " Pronunciation for 
SiRfftn." Accent the firet Hi/llable when no accent is marked. 

Aa, fttadljer, ei am shoor dhat -dhat neu braunch ov our 
itaT]a faiverit wuod-bein, which iz groaing neer dhi poast 
lot faar from dhi naurth waul ov dhi gaardn, must beo saif 
» mezheur abou't 'too feet aur moar in lengkth toodai', 
lolw Bum mis-hap' iz okerring aur it haz sudenli lost its 
wtelenerji, faur ei hav kairfuoli obzer'vd its rait ov inkrees 
•ron ffeek dhis munth, and noated it doun akeuretli on yoor 
"^''laDd ei "noa dhat it haz ecsp^errienst noa vairriaishen, 
Mnng wiins, deurring a desperetli anoi'ing iatervel ov 
""^i poarring rain. 

• SuooEsnvE Spelling b'j A, J., suggesting Smart'8 
Ofthoepy to an ordinary reader, taking account of his 
"principles," eapeciaily for unaccented and unemphatie 
xylkhki, such as paragraphs 4, 12, 18, 24, 36 and note. 
■Arxtttt as in No. 2. 

*Qi fahdhur, ey um shoor dhut dhat nyoo branch uv our 

^^2 faivurit wuud-bein, hwich iz grohing neer dhu pohst 

*ar frum dhu north waul uv dhu gyardn, must bee saif tu 

. Wyoor ubout too feet or niohr in length tuday, unl4s sum 

bap iz ocurring or it haz sudenly lost its veitui enurjy, fur 

**aT cuirfuuly obzurvd its rait uv increes evury week dhis 

**-lh, und nohted it doun acyuuraitly on yoor slait, und ey 

^ dhat it haz ecspeerienat noh vairiaishun, bahring wune, 

■^'~Hiriog u despuraitly anoying inturvul uv cohld pohring 


and noeted it douii acueraitly on yoor alait, and I no dhat it 
haz ecflpeeryenst no yairiaishon, baring wuns, duering a 
deeperetly anoying interval ov coeld poering rain. 

7. Victorian, by Mr. F. G. Fleay. 

Ah, faadher, I am share dhat dhat new branch ov our Jorjiz 
b'Torit woodbine, which iz growing near dhe poste not far 
from dhe north waul ov dhe garden, must be safe to mezhur 
about too feet or more in length today, unles sum mis-hap iz 
ocurmg, or it haz sudenly lost its vi'tal enerjy, for I hav 
ca'rWy observd its rate ov increas every weec dhis munth, 
and no'ted it doun acu ratly on yoor slate, and I now dhat it 
haz expe nenst no va ria shon, baring wuns, during a despe- 
wtly anoying interval ov colde powring rain. 

III. Syndroms on a Latin Vowel Basis. 
8. Broad Bomic by Mr. H. Sweet. Compare No, 4. 

&&) fadhoB, ai m shuca dhoet dhaet nyuw bransh oev auoe jaojiz 
leiviBrit wud-bain, whic iz grouiq nio9 dhoe poust not fa froem 
dh(B naoth waol oev dhoe gadn, moes hi seif too mezhoer oebaut 
^^ fiyt ooB mooBr in leqth toedei, cenles seem mis-haop s 
ffikoeriq, or it s soednli laost its vaitl enoeji, fr ai v keoefoeli 
cebzoevd its reit oev inkriys evri wiyk dhis moenth, n noutid 
it daun aBkycercetli on yooe sleit, oDnd ai nou dhoet its ikspioe- 
noenst nou vecerieishoen, bariq woens, dyuoeriq oo despa3ra5tli 
cenoiiq intoevcel oev kould poocriq rein. 

9. EoRopic, hy A. J. Ellis. Mr. Cull's Orthoepy^ to com- 
pare icith No, 5. Accent as in No, 2. 

^i feadhoer, ai am shuur dhat dhdt niu bransh o v aur Jorjez 
leevoent wud-bain, which iz grohing niir dhii pohst not faar 
irom dhii noorth wool ov dhii gaardn, mcest bii seef tu raezhiur 
aoaat tuu fiit in leqth tud^e, cenles sura mis'hap iz okoe'rriq, 
®' It haz soednli lost its vaital enoerji, for ai hav keerfuli 
^^DRBrvd its reet ov inkriis evoery wiik dhis moenth, and nohted 

^*un akiureetli on iur sleet, and ai noh dhat it haz eks- 
pjinenstnoh veeri^eshon, baariq wuns, diuring a despocreetly 
*^oiiq intoerval ov kohld pohriq reen. 



tiiiriiq', -ainita SBdnlt, biBti',t8 vet'itl mddzAiV, -fre(,T keidfaliiub 
m\ii,ls Teijtdr inkm'a evin, wiV'k Si'ai idbiiJ'', -n n«i'ti,di,t 
im »kjanitli,jn j^id Blrt,V, -nd^'i'i •noio'Stit(itai,k sptari'iunst 
mo\■fiai^ eifsfiati, :bRiri,q wsns', :djuur(,qa 'despratlt'itt 
noi'iiq ("nluvlov koo'ltd poiiiriiq rei\xi. 


On these Specimens I wish to make a few remarks, ex- 
clnding Nos. 1, H. 12, which are not suited for use in 
whools to facilitate learning to read, and therefore do not 
belong to Spelling Reform proper. 

Tha difference between an English and Latin Towel Baaia 
'lU be moat readilv seen by coroparing the apelling of the 
following words in Nos. 2, 3, 6 for an English, and Koa. 8, 
S, and 10 for a Latin Basis. 



iniDd.MHf almil 



waoiHMin ilwut 


-uud-bclii Bbout 



w-d-Hm .boot 

xud-bilii iBtwat 

wud-bila nlMut 




vud-bdn ibouc 

The difBoulties of notation by means of Roman letters arise 
from the fuet that there are only Kve Latin vowel-forma 
(vm y ig excluded), while there are six short and six long 
TOwel-sounds in English at the lowest compulation. The 
VeUh have used y and le as vowels, but English habits do 
"I" admit of this except as alternative aigna, us pifi/, noic, 
»fi*re they stand for i, f*. 

, il'lb Uta md English huge* use 
'i '■ 'p ' (nr the »hort rowels in pit. 
'"■^'■W. ewept th«t in No. 8 Mr. 
""« faplnn ' B ■ in 'hffp,' whmli, 
*""". thi^h more <;on4t, i, too 
"j" « dutiuction for a pratlical gpWm 
<" ■nlliu', u the English a la put 
"Kjw liie Udn short rowel, 

u niioeesnry 

llltiJilSealtiea bnrm with tile rowtls 
", •M»4, uMil. The Engliah bturia 
P^'mnnlh,' the Latin ' wnil,' hut 
'' " •IhoIkIfI J aeixaarj to diatinguinh 
'W 1*0 ■oundi. Id Xomic we find 
■Mb^vW, vo(»'n>./''",hutiUthpiw 

tee, 0, f, to wliii'h done the 

sound is sttrihutcil, are 
for other omnmner 
English vowel basis. Huuco n naw 
form is eswntial, and ' wood, wuud, 
wwd,' huTB been proposed, and even 
' wipd,' tha Dutrh ubb of ' u, ob ' hcing 
BuHloffOQa to ' huk. bntic,' bud, took. 
For the LBtin basis, the new form ' oi ' 
tor ' mcpnlh ' h»ji been adciplcd with 
unanimity, becHuiio the German a or 
w or 0, when short, elosely approii- 
mstfs to this sound. 

Bbort D presents nnother dtflienlty 
which hiis gcDErrdlj been ioadequnteljr 
met. The English vowels in uwi., my. 

delivered bt alexander j. ellis, esq. 319 


It is with great regret that I differ in this particular point 
from the majority of members present at different times 
daring oar six evenings' discussion, and especially from my 
two friends whose other work I esteem so highly. But 
I was called upon by my duty of reviewing the subjects 
hroQght before us during last session to pass an opinion upon 
the result of their labours. That opinion was unfortunately 
adverse, and hence I felt it incumbent upon me to assign 
reasons at considerable length. I hope that all the members 
of the Society will take my remarks as an earnest contribu- 
tion towards the settlement of a question which they have 
evidently so much at heart, and which, in its various ramifi- 
cations, both theoretical and practical, has been one of the 
chief occupations of my life. 


At the concluzion ^ of the Adress, Mr. Furnivall said : 

"I rize, as usual, to propoze a vote of thanks to our 

Prezident for his Adress to us to-niht. I am sure that the 

sound scolding he has givn us Partial Spelling-Reformers 

has not alterd one jot the feeling of afection and esteem !' 

which we hav for him and his work. We ar striving for 

the same end for which he has so long and so generously 

stnvn, but we differ in opinion from him as to how that end 

^ ^ be reacht ; and he has to-niht told us how mistaken our 

* • • • 
opuiion 18, just as our previous action told him how wrong 

we thoht his opinion. Sum, if not many of us, who wer 

^th him in 1870, ar against him now, and that all the 

Dior strongly after what he has said this evening. Expe- 

nence has tauht us that in English Spelling, as in the 

^Dglish Constitution, reforms must be gradual, just as 

cornptions hav been ; but Experience has only confirmd 

Mr. Ellis in his opinion that either Reform must be, at 

' The following report of the speeches made after the delivery of the ahove 
iddres, has been fumidhed by the speakers in what is intended to be the partially 
corrected orthography *' approved" of at the sitting of the Philological Society, 
oa 28 Jan. 1S81, of which it therefore gives a more extended exaniple.—A.J.E. 


a wood, is more common in Scotland than England ; the 
tables giving 26 examples in the former as against 14 in the 

Law. — ^This name is very characteristic of the border 
counties, especially Berwick and Roxburgh. It is also 
frequent in Northumberland as used for a hill, but is rare 
further south in England. 

Hill. — ^This word is relatively far more common in Scotland 
than in England, there being 81 examples in the former, 
as against 85 in the latter. The hilly character of the 
Lowlands of Scotland probably explains this fact. 

Land. — This ending is fairly common, and chiefly so in 
Strathclyde. In my former paper I mentioned the suggestion 
that in some cases at least it was a corruption of Anglo- 
Saxon '' Laen." Thus, at least two authors quote Eingsland 
in Herefordshire as having been originally Kings Laen. 
There are some of the Scottish names which seem to lend 
themselves to this derivation, such as Kirkland, Priestland, 
Monkland, Ladyland, Newlands and Boreland. Of the last 
there are several examples, and here the first syllable would, 
I presume, come from Borh, a pledge or security. Of Fing- 
land there are also two or three examples, but the derivation 
I am not able to trace. I do not give these as conclusive ; 
and of course it is easy to ask by what law of etymology 
Land is derived from Laen ; but the answer is that it is by 
no such law, but from the well-known tendency to corrupt 
a word not understood into one which is understood. Of 
this a very recent example may be found in the Laureate's 
last volume, " Fur he ca'd *is 'erse Billy-rough-un, thow niver 
a hair wur awry." 

Side. — ^This is fairly common in Roxburgh, Dumfries, 
Lanark, and Ayr, but rare elsewhere. This seems to point 
rather to a Keltic origin, and the possibility may be 
suggested of its being connected in some cases with the 
Oaelic Siodha= fairy hill. The hill Simonside in Nor- 
thumberland might be thus explained, and one or two of 
the Scottish names seem to point to the meaning of hill. 
In others, such as Woodside, Dunside, and Rigside, the word 


miscellaneoas names. The much larger proportion in the 
Western than in the Eastern Counties is, of course, 
dae to the fact that the latter formed part of the Saxon 
kingdom of Bemicia, whilst the former for many centuries 
belonged to the British kingdom of Strathclyde. The 
boondary-line between these kingdoms, as shown in 
Freeman's map of Britain in the ninth century, divides the 
county of Stirling into two nearly equal parts, passes 
throagh Lanarkshire between the sources of the Clyde and 
Tweed, then turns more easterly to Hawick, and strikes the 
CheyiotB about Carter Fell, midway in Roxburghshire. In 
aoGordance with this the counties of Linlithgow, Edinburgh, 
Haddington and Berwick show a decided Saxon element, 
somewhat resembling that of England. Dumfries, Kirkcud- 
bright, Wigtown, Ayr and Renfrew are distinctly Keltic, 
while the intermediate counties of Lanark, Selkirk, Peebles 
Md Boxburgh have a peculiar nomenclature of their own, 
which 18 no doubt characteristic of what must have been 
a debateable land. 

At the same time, even in the more Saxon counties, the 
endings fall very short of the variety found in England. 
^% the following 13 endings, chiefly Saxon, have not 
appeared at all in my search : — Barrow, Hay, Worth, Grave, 
Here, Cliff, Over, Hythe, Port, Toft, Thorp, Bere, Age. j- 

^pioj Mouth is not found west of Roxburgh, Chester the 
same, Hurst only once, in Roxburgh ; Stow but once in j 

Edmburgh, and once in Lanark ; Stead and Ey not west of 
^xburgh; Beck once in Selkirk, 4 times in Dumfries; 
"ick 13 times, of which only 4 are west of Roxburgh. 

■^ few special remarks may be made on some of the termi- 

^^.— This ending bears a very much smaller proportion 

^ *he total, even omitting the miscellaneous names, than it I 

068 in England. In Peebles there are only 9 examples, t j 

^ oelkirk not one — a fact which certainly seems to demand ^ I 

^P^tion. They are tolerably common in Haddington, > i 

^ ^gaiu in Lanark and Ayr ; but in the latter counties I j 

^y of the names bear unmistakable signs of being » I 


I ■ 


n wood, is more common in Scotland than England ; the 
tables giving 26 examples in the former aa against 14 in the 

taic— This name is very characteristic of the border 
counties, especially Berwick and Roxburgh. It is also 
frequent in Northumberland as used for a hill, but is rare 
farlherMuth in England. 

SiU.—TWii word is relatively far more common in Scotland 
tban in England, there being 81 examples in the former, 
as ai^inst 85 in the latter. The hilly character of the 
Lowlands of Scotland probably explains this fact. 

Land.— This ending is fairly common, and chiefly so in 
otrathclyde. In my former paper I mentioned the suggestion 
tfaat in some cases at least it was a corruption of Anglo- 
Saion "Laen." Thus, at least two authors quote Kingsland 
in Herefordshire as having been originally Kings Laen, 
Tbereape some of the Scottish names which seem to lend 
themseivea to this derivation, such as Kirkland, Priestland, 
Monkiand, Ladyland, Newlands and Boreland. Of the last 
there are several examples, and here the first syllable would, 
I presume, come from Borh, a pledge or security. Of Fing- 
land there are also two or three examples, but the derivation 
1 am not able to trace. I do not give these as conclusive ; 
and of course it is easy to ask by what lavr of etymology 
l^nd a derived from Laen ; but the answer is that it is by 
"0 such h.w, hut from the well-known tendency to corrupt 
ft word not understood into one which is understood. Of 
nwa very recent example maybe found in the Laureate's 
■^ wlume, " Fur he ca'd 'is 'erse Billy-rough-un, thow niver 
* liair war awry." 

oidt. — This is fairly common in Roxburgh, Dumfries, 
""Srk, aod Ayr, but rare elsewhere. This seems to point 
^'"w to a Keltic origin, and the possibility may be 
"SgMted of its being connected in some cases with the 
*J^1'C Siodha= fairy hill. The hill Simonside in Kor- 
'""aberlaud might be thus explained, and one or two of 
r'" Sottish names seem to point to the meaning of hill. 
P*tliers, such as Woodside, Dunside, and Rigside, the word 


We DOW come to the namefl derived from the Norse. The 
main bet to which these seem to bear witness is the existence 
of a single None colony in Dumfriesshire. In this county we 
find 16 examples of Holm, out of a total of 42 ; 4 of Dale, 
out of 13; 12 of By, out of 19 ; 4 of Beck, out of 5, and the 
onlj two Thwaites that I have discovered. This is the more 
remarkable because some Norse forms, notably Dale, Kirk, 
Oate, and Holm^ have certainly passed into the general 
ngwtk of Southern Scotland. The reason of this appears to 
me to require further investigation. Some light may thus 
be thrown upon one ending which presents to me con- 
siderable mystery. This ending is Hope, In England, Hope 
is tolerably common in S. Northumberland and Durham on 
the one side, in Herefordshire, Shropshire and Radnorshire 
on the other, but rare elsewhere. In Scotland, again, it is 
curiously common in Peebles (14 cases), Selkirk (18) and 
Bozburgh (20) ; but in the other counties there are only 10 
^^Euuples altogether. In the hope of tracing its origin in 
the Shropshire district, I instituted a correspondence in the 
"Hereford Times." This did not lead to much result, if we 
except an ingenious suggestion that Hope is a British 
corruption of the Latin Oppidum ! Its meaning, however, 
whether on the borders of Wales or Scotland, is undoubtedly 
^ opening or hollow amongst hills. That this use of the 
word histed through the middle ages would appear from 
* quotation from Gabriel Archer's relation of Captain 
Cteewell's voyage to the north of Virginia (1602), which has 
been furnished to me as follows : " The fifteenth day we got 
*ght of land, which made ahead, being, as we thought, an 
wland, by reason of a large sound that appeared westward 
uetween it and the main, for coming to the west end thereof, 
^® did perceive a large opening. We called it ' Shoal I 

flope.* »' jjjjg meaning precludes a derivation which has j 

^^ suggested to me by Professor Skeat, who connects it J 

^^^ Heap, and gives it the meaning of Hill. A Keltic » 

^^^'^^ation has been suggested from ' Heop,' but the only . j 

"^^ning of this word appears to be ' push,' from which no ; 

^^te sense seems obtainable. The Norse H6p=a bay or j 



I now come to a group of endings which were so rare in 
Eaglund as not to be classified, but appear moro decidedly 
iu Scotland- The first is House, which probably owea its 
irequency to having come into use in the Lowlands as a 
name for tlie laird's residence, correapondiug to hall or court 
in England. Xext is Bank, of which there are 36 instances, 
scattered pretty evenly through the district. It would 
appear that this word has nothing to do with the French 
Banc, but comes from the Norse Back, the side of a hill. 
It thus becomes another instance where a Norse word 
"Ppears to have passed into common use, at least as far as 
concerna the formation of place-names. It is not improbable 
that ' House ' may really be another case of this, as it is, of 
I'OurK, a Norse word as much as a Saxon one. The nest 
Word in the list is ' Brae,' which, like Scar and Crag, is 
Keltic, hut has become part of north country speech. This, 
lioweret. seems to have taken place after the place-name 
period, since all three are very rare as eadiaga to place- 

The next word, 'Shiels,' is not uncommon, but chiefly in 
the eoat and middle of the country, which points to a Saxon 
origin. On the other hand, it is very rare, if not entirely 
absent, in England, It might, perhaps, be derived from the 
Anglo-Saxon 'Scyld,' a shield or refuge, but it is difficult 
w see why it should have come into use for a shelter or hovel 
in Scothuiil alone. It is therefore better to derive it from 
the Norse ' Scale,' a hut, as found in Scaleby, Scale Force, 
S™1m. and other words in the North of England; and it will 
thus form another example of a Norse word which has coiue 
'"'" general use throughout the Lowlands. Cases such as 
Glen Shiel or Sbieldag, in the Highlands, have probably 
» different derivation. 

^e next two words Shaw, and Cleugh, bear a very close 
^tifBrison with Shiels. All three are found chiefly in the 
'°Ho»iiig counties : — Berwick, Peebles, Selkirk, Rosburgh, 
"umfries, and Lanark. All three are wanting in Kirkcud- 
'wight and Wigtown. All may be derived from the Anglo- 


according to their endings, and of which the greater part 
are undoubtedly Keltic. 

Leaving these points to the consideration of others, I will 
pasB on to consider the details of the last, viz. the Keltic 
dement I am, of course, aware that I stand here on the 
brink of a very dangerous controversy, that namely as to 
the presence of a Cymric element amongst the Gaelic place- 
names of Scotland. Into this I cannot enter, but the 
aooompanying Table II., which gives the distribution of 
the commoner Keltic prefixes in the Scottish Lowlands, may 
pOBsibly throw some additional light on the question.^ It 
contains about 35 undoubtedly Gaelic prefixes, forming 
nearly the whole of those which are discussed in Robertson's 
Oaelic Topography of Scotland. Among these, there are 
only two which can be regarded as exclusively Welsh, 
iiiaimuch as they do not appear in the Gaelic language of 
the present day. These are, Aber=the confluence or mouth 
of a river, and Pen = head. The entire absence of such 
distinctive Welsh place-words as Cwm, Cefn, Nant, Tre, Ty, 
Bettws, Bron, Bryn, Pant, etc., is very remarkable on the 
liypothesis of a Cymric element. Thus, the only representa- 
tives of the Cymric element, as far as my investigation goes, 
appear to be the following : Aberlady, Aberlosk, Pennycuick, 
Pengrave, Penkiln, Penbrick, Pencloe, Pintrannet, Pinbain, 
Md Pindonnan, to which may be added the doubtful case of | 

IJau in Lanark,* and of Lyn in Linlithgow. In these 
^^^'^^wnstances it may, perhaps, be worth while to hazard 
the following suggestion : — The old Keltic language was 
clearly very rich in synonymous words, as is shown, for * 

instance, by the fact that the table here given contains no 
less than 10 words signifying a hilL This being so, it is at 
least probable that, in following the fortunes of any one of 
^he Keltic languages, we should find that one or more of 
tnese synonyms might occasionally drop out of use and 






the district may very well be found to reflect the language 
of the Bttbjects, and not of the conquerors. 

In leaving this question, I have only to observe that 
Table 11. brings out very clearly the following points : 
(1) That Ghielic names are exceedingly common in the 
Western or Strathdyde district ; (2) that, though less 
common, they are by no means rare in the Eastern or Saxon 
district; (3) that they are least common in the central or 
border district, especially in Selkirk and Roxburgh, the 
former giving only 3 examples out of 92, and the latter only 
3 out of 317. This is an additional evidence of the 
exceptional character of the place nomenclature in this 
border district. 

It thus appears that, although the eastern part, at any 
rate, of the Lowlands was early taken into the Saxon 
kingdom of Bemicia, this has not prevented a considerable 
namber of Keltic place-names from holding their ground 
in the country. Hence, it becomes an interesting inquiry 
(though more connected with my first paper than with 
this) why the same is not true further south, since it ap- 
pears that throughout the Saxon period, when place-names 
were forming, the country from the Tweed to the Forth 
was practically part of England. It is thus a problem 
worth investigating, not why there are any Keltic place- 
names in England, but why they are so few, when the 
analogy of Scotland would lead us to expect the opposite. 
Therefore if we do find a name which may be more simply 
and naturally derived from the Keltic than from any other 
language, we are justified, I think, in accepting its Keltic 
^po- Taking the Scottish place-names as my guide, 
I have compiled a list of such names ; but this I will not 
attempt to bring under the criticism of the Society. I will 
confine my attention to two special instances. I 

^6 of these is formed by a group of names occurring, in j 

dose proximity, at the extreme S. W. of Gloucestershire, within | 

the angle formed by the Avon and the Severn. These are j 

Brintry (Bryntre), Penpole (PenpwU), Pen Park (Pen Pare), 
^^e» (Halen, salt), Trim (Trym, vigorous). These are all 











BY J. P. P06TOATS, M.A. 341 

The berry then is Hhe eatable/ being one of the primitive 
foods of man. 
In favour of this connexion we have 

(1) The use of the word in passages like Cicero Senect. 2. 5 
in arborum bacis terraeque frugibus, where it means 'eatable 
produce, fruit.' 

(2) The evidence of tradition, which has preserved the 
memory of a pre-Cereal epoch, when man fed on the wild 
fruits of the wood. We can trace this in stories like those 
of Ceres and Ceieus. See for example Ov. Fast. iv. 509, 
where Ceieus before meeting with Ceres is described as 
collecting acorns and mulberries, ille domum glandea ex- 
euasaque mora rubetis portat. 

(3) There is abundant analogy for the passage of meaning. 
Thus ^ifyo9 Lat. figus comes from VBHAG *eat' (in 
ifxtry-etp, etc.) ; ^^ns fidX-avo^ from V GAR, GR A * eat ' 
(Curt. no. 643), with which fidp-ver BivBpa, jSSdp-of SevBpa, 
Spve; (Hesychius), should be also connected.^ 

Basiu m . 

"Basium, which comes from the same root PA, may be con- 
veniently put here. In form it exactly conicides with ^ijacov 
irorrripiov Hesych., which comes from PA in the special sense 
of * drinking.' A kiss is appropriately named from the 
mouth (as in Lat. osculum (dim. of 0.9), Bohem. hiibicka * kiss,' 
from huba * mouth,' Proven9al ac-caissar kiss, cais mouth) : 
or from actions connected with the mouth, e.g, km itself, 
O.H.Q. kmS'jUf is from VQUS taste, Gr. yev-cOf Lat. 
gus-to (Fick I.* 573), cf. Virg. Aen. i. 256 oscula libavit 
natae. For the « in basium between two vowels compare 

CaballuB [ — Kairakevra^ — KatraXi^et — kutto^: — KairvKTo^; — 
KdfirjKo^ — Ka/Saujo^ — /caTrrai— cabus — cabo] . 

For this word I have seen two derivations offered. 

The first assumes it to have been borrowed from the Greek, 

^ For the /W, which s/^.parasitic 7, see Curt. 11. 106, and no. 255: iSlcw 
from root GAS b a precisely parallel case. 

BY J. P. POSTGATE, M.A. 337 

the advocates of a connexion between adeps and aKjeuf>a are 
involved in an eqaal dilemma. For if, as Vanicek supposes,^ 
eadamitaa and Capitodium are late Latin changes for the 
forms in I, this will prove indeed that at one time a d re- 
placed an earlier I, but it will do it at the expense of 
relegating the change to the latest periods in the history 
of Latin and leaving it for an early word like adeps still 
unsubstantiated. On the two other words adduced by 
Corssen, vodeba and Oududia, there is but little to say, ex- 
cept that they are hardly sufficiently supported. The cor- 
rectness of the transcription vodeba is doubtful ; and we find 
GoAi/ius and Go£^u/ius by the side of Gtodudia. The two 
other instances may be shortly disposed of. Dautia is ex- 
pressly mentioned by Festus, p. 68 ('dautia quae lautia 
dicimus et dantur legatis hospitii gratia'), as the oldest form ; 
and there is everything in favour of Fick's derivation of 
it from root DTJ give (bye-form of DA), in Latin (/w-int, 
ad-ei?t^es, cre-(fti-as, Zend dUy give, Lith. cs^r-iau, Ch. SI. 
dafheAiy give. Cadaver for caiaver is a fancy of Bopp's, 
which no one else has adopted. There is every reason for 
connecting cadaver with cado as wr&fia is connected with 

This, then, is the evidence for the change of / to ei? in 
Latin. Six instances of it have been adduced. Of these 
tivo are either late or capable of other explanations, two are 
late and doubtful, and two are not in point. The evidence 
may, perhaps, on the whole, justify us in admitting the 
change when Latin was being broken up into dialects ; but 
it is altogether inadequate to prove it for the Classical, still 
less for the ancient speech to which we have seen adeps 

Further, there are several weighty considerations against 
the assumption of this change of sound for Classical Latin. 
2) is a very imstable sound in Latin; one, in fact, that 

* ** Oadajmtas, late Latin, first in Mar. Vict, in the second half of the fourth 
centmy a.d., p. 2646, Isid. Orig. 20. 3."— Worterb. p. 1086. **Capitolium: 
neighbouring lorm of the later popular speech after the time of Marius 

CtsfiXodinm.** — ^p. 113. 
^ In the Xomanee languages the change is 

rare: vide Diez Gr. i.^ 204. 


was avoided as much as possible. This is shown by several 

(i) it never precedes a consonant in the same syllable when 
it begins a word (see Roby Lat. Grammar vol. i. § 160 ; 
Corssen vol. i. 210) ; hence 

(ii) dv (du) is weakened most exceptionally except in 
Latin to b ; cf. bonua for c^uonus, etc. 

(iii) d changes to r frequently (Corss. vol. i. 238 seqq.), 
r never changes to d,^ 

(iv) d changes to / in the following words :— 

lacrima, Enn. c^acrima. 

lingua (for c^ingua), cf. Goth ^uggo. 

Imr, Gk. Saiyp, Sk. (fevar- 

lautta for efautia. 

licare for c^icare, Ball. Gloss. 

delicatay deei^icata, Fest. 

delicare, make plain : cf. Gr. Beitcwfit. 

baliolusy from baefius 'chestnut-coloured/ Plaut. Poen. 
5. 6. 22. 

cassHa for cassic^, Fest. 

impelimenta for impe^^imenta, id. 

uligo by the side of uei^us. 

Jfovensilea for JSFovenaides. 

oleo by side of odor. 

solium, but sedeo. 

[alipea for aefipes (vide supra)]. 

Corssen also quotes (vol. i. p. 224) from two late in- 

SiXicino for Osc. Sidikinud. 

Golulius for Gofl?u^ius (cf. supr.). 
Lastly we have the change in two words borrowed from the 
Greek which are especially in point, 

TTiixes by ^Ohvaaev^y 

Me\icii8= M7)Blk6<;. 

Finally we must not forget that in this assumed change the 
normal order of phonetic change is reversed. A fricative 

^ With the exception of the borrowed word caduceus for Kop^Kiov where too 
popular etyraolog}' nas been at work. 

BY J. F. FOSTOATE, M.A. 339 

changes to an explosive, a sound requiring less exertion to 
one requiring more. Now this is possible when a language 
is being disintegrated and breaking up in confusion. Not 
so when it is treading undisturbed its path of phonetic decay. 
We may now replace this imtenable connexion by some- 
thing more satisfactory. Adeps (ad-ip-is) then may be re- 
garded as a compound, formed, like eon-tux^ (con-iug-is), from 
a preposition and a root. The latter part of the word is to 
be connected with the words which Fick (Worterb. i.* 16) 
adduces under qpa with the meanings 'sap abundance/ 
oTr6<:^ sap, O.N. a/a sap abundance, the Latin op-es, (>p-imus, 
to which we may add ^-ulae a rich banquet. So adeps, for 
ad-ips, will mean * increased^ or perhaps * adhering fat,' and 
will show an a weakened to i as in adipiscor. 


Gorssen (n. 593) compares this word with prosper- (us) 
and makes it a compound of a and spes (O.L. sper-es) with 
the meaning " hoffnungslos." This etymology disregards 
the fundamental signification of the word, which is * rough,' 
not * kopekss/ and needlessly contravenes the law that 
abstract expressions are derived from concrete, not vice 
versa. It is much better to take asper for a(c)8'per and to 
refer the first part of it to the root AK expanded aks ' to 
be sharp,' which we get in 0^1/9, etc. (v. Curt. no. 2), more 
especially as we have the c lost in a{c)8'tu from the same 
root.' With regard to the "per (for -per-ua), either (1) it is 
from V PAR, give, bring (Curt. no. 366), so that a{c)8'per-ti8 
(for acsi-per-us P) will be the 'prick-causing ' (compare Eng. 
* give a person a prick ') a compound like opi-paru-s, e being 
for a as in puer-per-a. Or else (2) more probably it is a 
corruption of 'ter (in which case <wper=Lith. asz-trvt'S, 
(also aaz'tra-s) Ch. SI. ostrUj sharp; and the Zend astra, 

^ The illustratioii u Mr. Fennell's. 

' Curtius' connexion of iw6s with Lat. auetUf 6r. Etym. n, 63, Eng. tr., 
(abandoned in the last edition) haa always seemed to me exceedingly harsh. 
Unrtius takes opimus for o(b)-pi-ma-B to be connected with wiw irifi4\ri (No. 363} 
(also abandonea in last edition). 

* Compare Corssen, i. 35. 


THE BIBLE. By Benjamin Dawson, B.A. 

On a former occasion I laid before the Society some results 
of an endeavour to answer an apparently very simple 
question : What does an before a word beginning with h 
indicate in the Authorized Version, e.g. " They went into an 
house/^ Mark iii. 19 P Sundry theories occurred to me as 
likely to explain the use of the uncontracted words an, none, 
mine, thine, before words beginning with aspirated h, and 
in testing these theories I had then collected about 1200 
examples of one or other of these words, either in the un- 
contracted form, or in the contracted form a, no, my, thy, 
before words beginning with h, sounded or not sounded as 
the case may be. To these examples I have from time to 
time added such as I have met with, so that the number of 
instances now tabulated exceeds 1500. One result of my 
inquiry is the conviction that no one could safely undertake 
to reproduce correctly, from dictation, any less familiar 
verses of the Authorized Version, if blanks were left where 
these words occur. The chances of success in such an under- 
taking may be estimated from the following statistics : 

Out of 466 instances where the Indefinite Article pre- 
cedes a word beginning with h, there are 414 an^H and 52 

Of 479 cases of words in h being preceded by the Adjec- 
tive Pronoun of the 2nd Person, 286 thine^s occur against 
193 thy' 8 ; 

Of 393 instances of the Adjective Pronoun of the 1st 
Person preceding words in h, it has the form mine 139 times, 
that of my 254 times ; 

The Negative Numeral occurs 65 times, in only two of 
these is it written none, in the other 63 no. 



BT J. F. POSTGATE, M.A. 343 

nfianing of to ^mcaUow! This root is also found elsewhere. 
The yerb Komrto is well known ; it means (1) ' simllow ' 
[d. KofiPtipvov^ and Ko/Sauny;), especially * swallow greedily,* 
(2) * breathe hard,* ^gaep;' compare the Homeric phrases 
KiKa^ijOTa OvfjLOv II. Y. 698, etc. and airb Bk ^v^rjv 
hdvvaaev and the gloss in Hesych. Ki/C7j<f>€' reOvrjKe, i.e. he 
lu8 breathed his last, he has * gasped his soul away.' 

From this root was derived an adjective stem KairaT^jo- or 
KofifjXih in the sense of * panting, gasping/ used also as a 
substantive (compare /caTraXeiira? and Kd^rjko^;) from which 
were formed verbs originally meaning to " drive panting 
animals," whether asses (iowraXci/fl)), or oxen (/caTraXtfo)), or 

In Latin the following clues towards the formation of the 
irord are important, 

crabrones dicti a caho id est caballo Isid. Or. xii. 8. 4. 

cahallm caho equus gloss. Isid. — cabo caballua grandis id. — 
^ sonipes caballus equus id. 

In Latin then there was a form cahus or cabo (for the latter 
form compare trio * an ox ') meaning a " large hack." 

■From this word or from a form cabalus, like the Greek 
one, caballm (compare the first quoted gloss of Isidore) is 
niniinutive.^ If the word is pure Latin, the second a is 
probably due to the influence of the first. If, on the other 
™di the word was borrowed from some Italian dialect, 
which is perfectly possible, and at variance with none of 
the facts as they have been set forth above, the mere circum- 
stance of its being borrowed is sufficient to explain the 
appearance of the a ; compare Ceitamitus for Gr. ravvfiTJBrf^, 
^^ especially andahaia (from oinL^aTrj^ ?), and ala^a = j 

«^. As already seen, it is from the root KVAP, KAP, 5 

*"^» Weakened in Greek and Latin to /ca<^ or Ka^ and caby^ \ 

*^^ nieaning inter alia to * pant* or ^ gasp.* Besides the { 

pjj^j® ^inutiTe has displaced the orig^inal word, as frequently happens in { 

jQ^^. "pfcech. So in Komance avis has jjiven way to avicella (oiseau), and apis 

eogtot^ ^be weakenings of i? to jS and b see Curt. ii. 153, Coiss. i. 128, and \ 

THE BIBLE. By Benjamin Dawson, B.A. 

Oh I former occasioa I laid before the Society some resulu 
of an endMVOur to answer an apparently very simple 
qnntina : What does an before a word beginning with h 
indicate in the Authorized Version, e.g. "They went into nn 
fcfr," Karlc iii. 19? Sundry theories occurred to me as 
V\u]j to explain the use of the uncontracted words an, none, 
iwti'i Ihiiie, before words beginning with aspirated A, and 
in testing these theories I had then collected about I'iOO 
eiwDplea of one or other of these words, either in the un- 
wnliBcled form, or in the contracted form a, no, my, thy, 
before words beginning with A, sounded or not sounded as 
tie rase may be. To these examples I have from time to 
Wadded auch as I have met with, so that the number of 
futancM now tabulated exceeds 1500. One result of ray 
uijuiry is the conviction that no one could safely undertake 
to reproduce correctly, from dictation, any less familiar 
'«iM of the Authorized Version, if blanks were left where 
'"pse woriig occur. The chances of success in such an under- 
infcing may be estimated from the following statistics: 

L'ut of 466 instances where the Indefinite Article pre* 
•^fles ti word beginning with h, there are 414 an'a and 5'ii 

Jl 479 cases of words in A being preceded by the Adjec- 
t"e Pronoun of the 2nd Person, 286 thine's occur against 

Of M3 instances of the Adjective Pronoun of the Ist 
7"»" preceding words in h, it has the form mine 139 times, 

™«Uj'Jo4 times; 
"« Negative Numeral occurs 65 times, in only two of 
™"B it written none, in the Other G^ no. 




173 (imet; wheroas Jo the Authonzed Yt^rsion my lUta show 
5? DDcontracted words out of a total of 203 passaj^-e. 

On the appearaoce of the Keviaed Version of the New 
TMtBmeDt, I was ctiri'ous to see bow this matter was bundled, 
ami WHS glad to find a, eto., invariably used before aspirated A 
aceordingtothe custom of the present duy. I should have said 
a/flwn/ in variably, for, as if this nightmare of mine was never 
inWgotrid of, the Revisers in quoting from Ps. Ixjjc, 9, in 
Mn ii. 17, read " The zeal of ffiiiif house," and in Luke vii. 
44 {though not a quotation) " I entered into l/iine fioune." 

^ith respect to the form of the four words before vowels, 
I have nlso collected many examples ; amongst which are 
mint fjM Bud t/iff ei/ea, both in Job ; mine nfflirtion and tiii/ 
itJUiclion, both in Genesis ; I/tine own and /Ay own. There 
s|ipeara, however, a decided preference for the nasal. In 
Shakspere there is occasionally similar variety, apparently 
for metrical reasons, ili^ oicn and mine omi, my honour and 
wiM hmiiiur. In the Revised Version great affection is 
wiflwn for the forms in n, — thine own, mine own, thine 
flowm, Ihhis elect, etc. But variety is not wanting, thus in 
Malt. xi. 6 Ho„f occasion (unaltered from A, V,), no occasion in 
1 Cor. X. .32: mine amicer in 1 Cor. ix. 3; my oxen in 
jliiltxiiL4. It seems strange that as the Rei-isers were able 
'"come to the determination to modernize the four words 
wfore sounded A, they could not go a step further and use the 
mootm forms before vowels, at least in plain narrative. In 
rhilemon 21 thi/ obedience A, V. becomes thine obedience in 
»■ '■ But this is not the only point on which the results of 
tlip labours of the Revisers have been disappointing to those 
^oolmve moBt stunchlv advocated a Revision, and who, in 
tae mam, are loyal in their admiration of the result achieved. 

lUt the Revisers have acted wisely in seeking to preserve 
a" awhaic style will be generally admitted. Their retention 
^ 'liiB end of the old th in verbs instead of the modern s 

' ooabtleas be geuei'ally approved, although there will 
probably be indifference on the ye Subject and yoii Comple- 
"«eiil dialinclion— a distinction lost in Shakspere and Milton 
visibly," Cmnus, 1. 21(3). A comparison with 

(•■I . 


E}}glhh Language: "That which is right is right, without 
any authority at all, and that which is wrong cannot be 
made right by any authority." A general principle in 
which we should all agree ; the only difficulty is to find any 
other rule than the usage of good writers to determine what 
is right in a matter of language. Certainly not the ipse dixit 
of Lindley Murray, or of Rev. M. Harrison, his favourite 
authorities, nor that of Mr. Moon himself. If the Revisers 
had repeated the emphatic word and omitted the Conjunction, 
this kind of sentence would, I submit, in many cases have 
been greatly improved ; for repetition is often the best way 
of conveying in English that emphasis which is denoted in 
Latin and G-reek by position. Thus I would suggest as an 
improvement of R. V. Luke xi. 27, '* Blessed is the womb 
that bare thee, blessed the breasts which thou didst suck." 
But it is not my business to defend the Revisers against 
Mr. Washington Moon. They will doubtless correct some 
of the inconsistencies pointed out by him, some of those 
mentioned in the Quarterly Review, and some of those 
referred to in my former paper. To please all parties, how- 
ever, would be impossible. The Quarterly Review (p. 7, Jan. 
1882) gives as proof of " what license the Revisionists take," 
their change of " all that he " into •* all that or^," Rom. i. 7, 
of "mine host" into "my host," Rom. xvi. 23; whereas in 
my former paper I objected to the retention of be as an 
Indicative in any passages, and that of the fuller forms an, 
none, mine, thine, before any words beginning with h aspirated. 
The Quarterly Review would, I suppose, have retained an 
house in Mark iii. 19, and a home six verses lower down ; 
but what changes it would have approved of it is not easy 
to divine. Even doing atray with the divisions into verses, 
divisions which so often split sentences into parts and hide 
their connection, incurs its censure. But the very able and 
exhaustive article in the Quarterly Review is studded with 
very curious passages of different sorts, amongst which may 
be classed those condemning the R. V. because of its 
departure from the phraseology of the Prayer Book ! " Our 
whole Prayer Book breathes a different spirit and speaks a 


perfection. Nor need a layman tliiuk it out of his province 
to ay a word on tie subject, for the laity a« a body must be 
more affected by the quality of a translation than the clergy, 
setdnt; tbiit the clergy have their Greek Testamenta to refer 
In, wilL which they are, or are supposed to be, familiar, Aa 
E|]^]i§h IransktioD is for the body gf the English laity. 

A great deul has been written for and against the K. Y. 
-is I have read but little of the discussion, it may very 
possibly happen that some thinjcs may be repeated here 
ahichliaveheen already said elsewhere. Since reading my last 
paper, however, I have seen the bitter and savage attack of the 
QmrM// lUi-tew of October, 1881, on the Text adopted by 
Ihe Rerisere. and that of January, 1882, on the English of 
tbett,V. The first article has been ahly answered in the 
Gontrnpomnj Rerieto of December, 1881 ; and in a tone more 
WDBOiiMt with the feeling of our time. The Qitetrierln 
fleriewer proves too much, — it is impossible to believe him, — 
wid aa to tone, he reminds one of the discussions of the 
Hileenth century, and the style in vogue 300 years ago! 
Jfartin and Fulke bandied such compliments as these in tlie 
fintwath century, — " If you be so blind that you cannot see 
B romparison in the word '.worthy,' at least shore np your 
tyes, and behold it in those words, ' of like or equal value ' " ' 
' i'- 348). The Quarlrrly Reriew of the nineteenth century gives 
'" (P' 9, Jan. 1882), " It is clear, therefore, that caprice — not 
-^ecmig — [jjjg determined not a few of the alterations which 
iioleit us in every part of the present work " — and (p. 21), 

Iheir work is disfigured throughout by changes which 
cwmot the majority of their body alike of an imperfect 
nciiiiiiintance with the genius of the Greek language, and of 
''^^"^^'y » moderate appreciation of the idiomatic proprieties 
of Iheir own." 

Mr. G. Washington Moon, author of The Dean's Etigllah, 
pibliehtd at the beginning of this year a little book called 
*** ■'WMwi' English, in which he adversely criticizes their 

jp*l>cie of tbe einccre and trne TnmalatioaB of tha Holy Smphircs into the 
■* Joague, ogBinst the catils of Greitory Morlin, by Wfllimn Kiilke, D.D., 
"PtaabrakeUaU, Cuubiidge, 11,63 {The Farktr Stitutt, ltt43]. 



Enij'Uh Language: "That which is right ia right, without 
iGj' authority at all, and that which is wrong cannot be 
made right hy any authority." A general principle in 
which we sliouid all agree ; the only difficulty is to find any 
other rule than the usage of good writers to determine what 
is right in a matter of language. Certainly not the ipte dixit 
of Lindley Murray, or of Rev, M. Harrison, hia favourite 
iiilhoritieg, nor that of Mr. Moon himself. If the ReWaers 
W repeated the emphatic word and omitted the Conjunction, 
thi* kind of sentence would, I submit, in many cases have 
bwD greatly improved ; for repetition is often the best way 
of cooveying in English that emphasis which is denoted in 
Latin and Greek by position. Thus I would suggest aa an 
improvement of R. V. Luke xi. 27, " Hlcssed is tho womb 
thai bare thee, blessed the breasts which thou didst suck." 

Bat it ia not my business to defend the Revisers against 
Mr. Washington jfoon. They will doubtless correct some 
(rf Ab iucoQsiatenciea pointed out by him, some of those 
mentioned in the Qitartcr/;/ Itciifw, nnd some of those 
referred to in my former paper. To please all parties, how- 
t^M, would be impossible. The Quarter/i/ Review (p. 7, Jan. 
188i) giTeg as proof of " what license the Revisionists take," 
*eirDhangB of "all that be" into "all that are," Rom. i. 7, 
w "wine host" into " mij host," Rom. xvi. 2'i\ whereas in 
my former paper I objected to the retention of be as an 
iDQioalive in any paaaagea, and that of the fuller forms an, 
Wne, mine, thine, before any words beginning with h aspirated. 
lae (inarlerlfi Review would, I suppose, have retained an 
•""x Id Mark iii. 19, and a home sis verses lower down; 
nut that changes it would have approved of it ia not easy 
wdivme. Even doing away with the diviaiims into verses, 
flivinona which ao often split aentencea into parts and hide 
MOirconuection, incurs its censure. But the very able and 
^''uuMira article in the Qmrterly Rcriew is studded with 

Tcorious passages of different aorta, amongst which may 
^ chiiMed those condemning the R. V. because of its 
-•^"fe from the phraseology of the Prayer Book ! " Our 
•"oie Prayer Book breathes a different spirit and apeak a a 


Tiro, therefore, of tbe essentials of a good translation have, 
I hoJd, been complied wilh ; the Reviseia have shown great 
diMriniinatioG in the choice of their Text, and have doubtless 
niMt^red its meaning. I pasa on therefore to the third duty 
of n troDsIator: To convey the author's meaning clearly in the 
bn^imge iato which he undt:rtukue to translate it. 

In Iransktiou, as in most other things, there ia a Scylla 
md a Chiuybdis, between which safely to steer requires great 
Jail- Let literal, word for word, translation be the Scylla, 
and then jaimty, fly-away paraphrase will be the Cbarybdin. 
There was no probability that the Revisers would sail too 
nesr Charybdis — have they or have they not sailed too near 
Si^IIa? I hold they have ; and that they have in so doing 
•erioiifily damaged, though not perhaps split, their vessel. 
For literal translation to be possible, there must be similarity 
w msiaphor and of construction between two languages. 
1^ me lake a simple illustration. French grammarians 
td] us, "L'e muet se mange devant une voyelle." There ia 
BO difficulty in seizing the idea, nor in turning it into 
Jdiomatic English,^" Silent c is dropped before a vowel." 
Ko sane Englishman would translate it literally and say, 
o''fn( K cak iUelf brfore a roirel, or even ii eaten. Or again, 
mpposea Frenchman to render "il mange ses mots" as he 
"I'f kUicords, might he not he guilty of injustice, slander, 
liW, or what not ? for we all know that many a worthy 
''"iliful nan has a very indistinct articulation, and c/if>v his 
•nrdatnogt wofuUy, but never has to eat them, which is the 
UM B privilege ! Literal translation is then impossible where 
metsphoni difl'er. 

" n often impossible from difference in syntactical con- 

wuction; such for instance as the very common on dil, or 

Wmgl, which cannot be turned into English more closely 

in Ihfij fiiy^ Qp ,7 jg i-pporieii, or report g<iif», where the 

inber or the Voice must be changed. May qitinze jours 

, ""HslBied a fortnight, or does faithful translation require 

1' to be mimicked by fifteen days ? "Why even the order of 

, '''*"^s 08 are frequently used in combination often differs 

"I ''"lauguages! Ought a German's Sals mid Pfvffw to be 



Viniitj Fitir), " They led them in chains up and down the fair 
for HI) example and terror to othera." Examples abound in 
poetry: "She wandered up and down," Wordsworth, Lucy 
Gny; "I wuid about, and in and out," Tennyson, The 
Srook. The aame idiom, with reversed order, is common in 
Qemmn, where it ia rendered more conspicuous by tlieir wiiy 
otputtiag a hyphen at'ler the first adverb, thus: aiu- unit 
eitijlmea (p. 3l)), aui- und etiiziizklien (p. 33), Goethe, 
KnaUnjalire (Pitt Presg Textti). We have an example in 
Lulher'stranelationof Acts 1.21, "ist aus- und eingegangen." 
Howttiis passage is rendered in the A. V. " went in and out 
tmang us," which is unhappily changed in the R. V. into 
? went in and went out among us;" the latter agrees with 
flie Rbeiras, the former with Tyndale. The same two Greek 
Terbs are used in conjunction in Jolin x, 9, and Luther again 
^owa us ihe German idiom referred to, translating " wird 
«D- und auagehen." Here again Tyndale'a "shall go in 
lod Dot," which had been retained in the A. V., is altered 
in the R, V. into " shall go in and go out." I fail to see 
ray advantage whatever ; and if the object was to render 
«• luiiKtwreTai Koi e^eXevirerai as literally as possible, even 
lliis baa not been accomplished, for there ia as much " »hal/ " 
in the second verb as in the first, and there ia no more 
lewnforrepeaUug the "go" than the "shall." We have 
■w'agood Englieh idiomatic' phrase, and have got a trans- 
ation which ia not so literal as Wiclif's " schal go ynne and 
"hal go out." Nor do I believe that the average Eagliah- 
nw wiU now (from the R. Y.) so readily as before (Irom 
we A. V.) get the notion of daily intercourse conveyed by 
l™Greek|Actsi. 21. Cranmer's rendering shows it, "all the 
tjoie that the Lorde leans had all his conueraacyon amonge 
"*• » does the Geneva, " all the tyme the Lorde lesus was 
«""w«aat among us." ' At least it is to be hoped that the 

_1,^ UMlBtJonB (except A. V.) are taken from ; (1) The E'-gli'h Hnapla, 
■T ^ ag lliB m. important Engliah Tronsliitions of the New Toalaraent 
SPV*i T^'ldil 138U, Tyndflle 1534, Crarmer 1S39. Geneva 1657. Bbeini» 
™*iMlionMd IfiU [Sumuil B«g>lir md Sm$, 1S*1) : (2) The Gothio mid 
SrSwrn Gcapeli. in ParaHel Colunms, with tlie Vcrsmiifl ot Wycliffe (1389) 
H'Sr^ (1626). Edited by Dr. Boswortb and Mr. Waring. [John Suuill 


dsTf" And why have tbey adopted this rendering? Not 
Waiue it iTLMt dearly indicutos to the Euglish reader that 
ilip multitude had continuoualy remaitied in attendance 
during partg of three auccesBive daje, — for thia is not a fact ; 
not because in one passage the Ang,-Sax. veraion, made 
nearly 1000 years ago, nsea s Present tense, — for earliest 
English is not intelligible to an average Englishman of the 
present day; not because the French idiom follows the 
Lfllin, which is the same as the Greek, "Je I'uime depnis un 
joarqueje la via dana une promenade," Moliere, Z'^rnrtf, 
i". 3.— which seems to be a rather irrelevant fact; not 
twinse the same idiom may be found in German poetry, 
"DreiJahre sitzt er auf dem Gibchen stein," tJhland, Ernst, 
!■ 1> 48,— for this, too, seems to bear but little upon the 
subject; hut they have adopted this rendering (presumably) 
for a reaaoD as bad as any of those suggested, — because the 
^mk verb is in the Present tense ! For what does it matter 
In Hwige what tense of the Greek verb ia used, and as for 
liis Vicar, he knows, or ought tfl know, that a Greek Present 
haa the meaning of an English Perfect in such sentences. 
The tame construction has been similarly treated in Mark 
'■ 25, where tbe Revisers have not adopted Cranmer'a 
racL-Uent translation, conveying most clearly to the English 
fwler the sense of the Greek text, — " And ther was a certen 
woman, which had bene diseased of an yssue of blonde .xii. 
yeret." Other examples may be found in Luke iiii. 7. 

IV. m. 

'n Milt, xiv. 16 the A. Y. gives us " They need not 
^spTl," which is changed in the R. V. into " They have no 
need to go away." This latter rendering is Tyndale's, but 
"ynomeaQB better as an English sentence, — which is tbe 
»le point of interest in an English translation, — than the 
*• '' And what is more, if for the sake of anybody, — 
yWi lei us say, that he may the more easily re-produce the 
'^^ text from his English New Testament, for who else 
"""Wiuire itP — it was desirable to make the translation as 



"all ffiioe ia thine" would be closer, or Wiclifa "all my 
tliingesbea thine"; nor does it mutch with John xvii, 10, 
niiere tbe R. V. gives "and all thinga that are mine are 
thine, and thine are mine," there boiug no things In the one 
[liissage more than in the other. 

Uelerminatioii to preserve the Greek order of words as far 
as possible (if not further) is apparently the only reason for 
llie change of the A. V. "And wbataoever thou spundest 
nmre, rtea I come again I will repay thee," Luke x. 35, 
inio R, V. " And wliatsoever thou speudest more, I, when 
I come back Bgaio, will repay thee." This separation of the 
Subject from ita verb by an Adverbial clause, so churacteriat io 
ol some languages, but not of English, may be seen in very 
iMoy other passages ; e.g. Mat, ii, 9, " And they, having 
heard the King, went their way " B. V., for " When they 
hod beard the King, they departed " A. V. ; Mark vl. 49, 
" Bm tbey, when they saw him walking on the sea, supposed 
wut ii was an apparition " R. V,, for " But when they saw 
bim Walking upon the aea, they supposed it had been 
a spirit " A. V. : Luke vii. 4, " And they, when they came 
^ Jesus, besought him earnestly " R. V., for " And when 
'nej came to Jesua, they besought him instantly " A. V. 
C/. alto Murk ii. 16, v. 40. 

Another change of order, of a different sort, but merely to 
Slit the order of words in the Greek text, will be found in 
^"tvii, 31. Thia reads in the A. V. " For from within, out 

"IB heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, forni- 

^'on*, mnrdera, thefts, covetouanesa, wickedness, deceit," 

' 'he Subject, because consisting of many words, being 

P "i^w after the verb according to a well-known English idiom. 

order of words, tbe order in all the English 

* s^iong, is changed in the R. V. into " For from within, out 

'oe heart of men, evil thoughts proceed, fornications, thefts, 
nj'irdera," etc. True, this is the order in the Ang.-Sax. 
■^'«on of 995 A.D.. but thia can hardly be the reason for 

* fJuangg^ although even that would be a better reason than 

J*tion of the Greek order ! How can a comparatively 
^^'wcted language succesafuUy imitate the order of words 


(j68 notes on translations of the new testament. 

A. v. into " the footstool of thy feet " R. V. Luke xx. 
and " sheepfold " A. V. {which is Tyndale's) into " the fold of 
the sheep" R. V. John x. 1, in order to represent the Greek' 
text more exactly, then surely the Relutivo inserted in tbff 
A. V. in Mark i. 19 ought not to have heen allowed U 
remain. " He saw James the son of Zebedee and John hii 
brother, who also were in the ship mending their neto," ii 
a correct translation on the principles adopted by thi 
" Translators " of 1611, but the Revisers of 1881 ought on, 
their principles to have given us, — He saw Jamea the son 
Zebedee and John his brother, these also being in the boat 
mending their nets ; or with the Rheims, " and the 
repairing their nettes in the shippe." 

One experiences almost a feeling of surprise that t1 
Revisers should have ventured to translate -n-atna-i roiit TriuBai 
Mat. ii, 16 "all the male children," and wonders if th^ 
would have been so bold, notwithstanding the rotJ?, if tfai 
Rheiras had not set them the example with " all the mcd 

Such deteriorating changes have been made under th 
influence of this determination to imitate the Greek text 
that if the Negatives had been doubled it would scarcely 
have caused surprise. Literal translation requires doubl 
negatives, by what right have the Revisers omitted them 
Mark vt. 5 literally translated is, And he confJ twt there A 
no mightij icork. Happily the Revisers have not elected t 
follow the Greek in this respect ; but if they had determine 
differently they might have defended their proceeding by 
better reason than Greek usage. They might have quota 
from Hamkl — a line which well applies to their method ( 
translation (so-called) — "It is not, nor it cannot come t 
good," or from Latimer's The Phugheis, "nor do not they 
dueties," or "nor no man wyil herkeo." That doubll 
negatives are absent in the A. V. is matter for surprise,- 
perhaps it was due to Tyndale's bold initiative — that ihi 
liave not been inserted in the R. V. is matter for cob^ 

A remarkable example of spoiling a simple sentence 


shown in the change in Luke viL 33, where the A. Y. agrees 
witli all the other Versions. " For John the Baptist came 
neither eating bread nor drinking wine " is a very exact 
tranahtioii of fAifre aprrov iadiap iitfre olvov iriv<ov\ this is 
changed in the R. Y. into '' For John the Baptist is come 
eating DD bread nor drinking wine." WhyP Because the 
B. y. teixt gives /k^ instead of the first lArjre ! But surely 
even this difference might have been better indicated by 
noi eaimg bread and not drinking tcine, or else not eating bread 
nor drkMng wine, 

Lnther is not a translator who is slavishly tied and bound 
to his Greek text ; but his literal translation of ^(o eifu to A 
Kok TO tl (Bev. i. 8, etc.) as '' Ich bin das A und das 0/' 
must have necessitated a deal of explanation to successive 
generations of Germans, for does not happen to be the 
last letter of their alphabet. Wiclif made a step towards our 
present rendering when he wrote '' I am alpha and 0." If 
Tyndale instead of writing '' I am Alpha and Omega " had 
written I am A and Z, this would probably now stand in the 
B. Y. of 1881 ; for A B C has been a household word for 
years, and there appears to be no particular reason for poor 
A and Z losing the honour which of right belongs to them as 
the advance and rear guards of the alphabet, but which 
Tyndale and all his successors have given to Alpha and 

There are, it need scarcely be stated, very many improve- 
ments of a minor character in the R. Y. Of these it will 
suffice to mention a few by way of example. In Mat. v. 1, 
" when he was set " A. Y. is modernized into " when he had 
sat down." In Luke xix. 7, and other passages, clearness is 
gained by the omission of the otl " that," which introduces a 
sentence. Again, in Mark i. 5 the R. Y. gives us *' in the 
river Jordan " instead of " in the river of Jordan " A. V., 
going back to Tyndale. In diflTerent editions of Wiclif it is 
found as "flum Jordan," or *'flom Jordan," or "flood of 
Jordan." Wiclif s flumy however, has given place to 
Tyndale's rimr. SimUarly Wiclif 's "higheth himsilf" 1380, 
and "shal hie himsilf" 1389, have given place to Tyndale's 


smatigst which may be meDtioned those defioiug 
tbe mile human animal, 1 Kings xiv. 10, eUi. 

JlycoBlentioa then is briefly this : (1) That the Revisers 
hiV6 not aiways selected the best of extant ronderings; 
('J} That in their slavish imitation of the Greek t«xt, they 
have removed many of Tyndale's good idiomatic English 
phraiea nnd substituted others having a foreign ring about 
Ihein ; (3) Thai the II. V. might be made still more lit«ral 
vrithonr any damage to its style, such as it is, if that is 
a desideratuin. 

And now, having sufficiently taxed your patience with 
my lomewIiBt disjointed paper, — a criticism of this nature 
mast neeesBarily be disjointed and disconnected, — I will 
briefly remark in conclusion, that I cannot admit that the 
vnnoas poiula I have touched on, and illustrated by one or 
'"'0 Mamples, are unimportant. Such minute points are 
among those niceties of style which form the distinctive 
oitference between the idiomatic ease of the native and 
u* comparative awkwardness of the foreigner, Not one 
™ the Revisers would write such English as they have 
wliectively put forward. Nor would any one of them 
•"■wUte English sentences into Latin or Greek on the 
■oe principles they have adopted in making their Revised 
•urwoii of the New Testament. Niceties are not unim- 
Prtant. Report says that the Poet Laureate is a cormorant 
*>tii respect lo Proofs, that he never tires of polishing 
"'^ re-polishing his works,— it is told of Gibbon that 
"* •pared no pains in bringing his writings to a state 
"perfection, — can it then be said that any point is too 
""inute to deserve the attention of the Revisers ? Certainly 
^ The translation of the New Testament ought to 
■•^ *" good, so perfect, that not only the religious world 
Mould he Ritisfied with it, but that the agnostic and the 
p '* should be bound to admire it as a literary work. 
yle sometimes wrote in an ai'tificial, unnatural, unnational 
Jfi—a kind of German-English, — and many of his 
"Ufers gieatly regretted it, but his audience was com- 
P«»'"ely sniull ; the Revisers give us an uu-EngUsh style. 



although their work ia intGnded for the mass of the peoj 
To accuse the Revisers of ignorance of Greek or of Engl 
or to charge them with carelessness, is to shoot beside the 
mark. It is moreover to insult men who do not deserve 
insult. The Revisers have, it appears to me, erred in the 
goal selected and in the manner of aiming at it. What 
wanted in the R.V. was — the Wisdom of Many in the Wi 
of One ; the wisdom of many to determine the text and ll 
meaning, the words of one to make that meaning clear 
the mass of the people. No system of voting could gi" 
literary homogeneity without an editor invested with soi 
what autocratic powers, and no imitation of the Greek 
produce idiomatic English. 

They have underlaken an impossibility — Literal Trand 
tion ; and that too for the use of the uneducated ! How is 
that Tyndale towers so high above other translators of tl 
BibleP Partly no doubt from natural gifts; but also, I believ 
because he felt — what the Reformers keenly felt, but whil 
our Revisers would seem utterly to have lost sight of— thit 
they were writing for the mass of the English people. K 
the words of that Book, Tyndale felt, were to become house- 
hold words in England, they must bo English, real Engliat, 
— English-English ; not something calling itself English| 
but having a foreign ring about it. Who cares for lb* 
Greek P Those who want Greek have the Greek Text to g 
to. In the Knglish Version we want English, and nolhin 
but English. In the Revised Version we have had tl 
wisdom of many, but we lack the words of one. Is there i 
Tyndale amongst the Revisers? Ivot one be looked for lb* 
outside their body, be he cleric or laic. Such a one niig 
still make the K. V. worthy of the nineteenth century. 








a. «- 












• ■ 






a. 1 



p • * ■■ « 







1 TJ. 

]&I. I 


H.I.H. Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte. 

Thb SlaTonic sounds I intend to compare with the Neo- 
Latin and Germano-Scandinavian belong to the following 
languages : 1. Russian ; 2. Little Russian ; 3. lUyrian, other- 
wise Serrian ; 4. Croatian ; 5. Slovenian ; 6. Bulgarian ; 7. 
Slovakian ; 8. Bohemian ; 9. Upper Lusatian, or simply 
Lusatian; 10. Lower Lusatian; 11. Polish; 12. Baltic 
Slavonioy or simply Baltic. The first six languages constitute 
the first group of the Slavonic branch of the Slavo-Lettic 
family, while the remaining six form its second group. 
Croatian, meaning by this name the language of Provincial 
Croatia, is considered by Dobrowsky and Schafiarik as an 
independent language, but Miklosich only sees in it a Slo- 
venian dialect. The language of Military Croatia, on the 
other hand, every one regards as a mere lUyrian variety. 
The Slovakian also Miklosich considers as a Bohemian dialect, 
but Dobrowsky and Scha&rik raise it to the rank of a lan- 
guage. These two authors, on the contrary, do not speak of 
Little Russian as of an independent tongue as Miklosich 
does. With regard to Baltic Slavonic, represented by its 
only surviving dialects, Slovintian and Cassubian, I shall 
treat it as an independent language, its merely dialectal 
difference with the now extinct Polabian having been shown 
by Hilferding and Schleicher. Whether the White Russian 
dialect is to be regarded as an independent Slavonic tongue 
has not been decided yet, but as no author, at least to my 
knowledge, has spoken of it as being such up to the present 
time, I do not include it in the list. I have followed the 
axiom " Melius est abundare quam deficere," and shall treat 


therefore not of the usual eight but of twelve living Slavonic 
languages, giving the preference to Slovintian over Cassubian 
as a representative of Baltic Slavonic. 

The Neo-Latin and Qerraano-Scandinavian sounds, with 
which the comparison of the Slavonic will take place, belong 
to the following tongues : 1. Italian ; 2. Spanish ; 3. Portu- 
guese ; 4. French ; 5. English ; 6. Dutch ; 7. German ; 8. 
Danish ; 9. Swedish. 

As far as my ears are capable of perceiving their difference 
in an undoubted manner, I reckon 86 simple Slavonic sounds. 
Of these, 19 (a 1, u 10, i 25, j 26, r 31, d 38, n 40, b 46, 
m 48, f 60, V 62, k 54. g 58, n 60, sh 75, zh 77, ts 79, s 83, 
z 85) belong to each of the twelve Slavonic languages, while 
the other 67 are found either in the majority, or in the 
minority, or even in a single one of them. 

Before I begin with the detailed examination of the 
sounds, I wish to call attention to the difficulty which I have 
often met with in discriminating between the sounds (e, o) as 
in bed, more, and (S, 6) as in French sujet, dSvote, on the one 
hand, and the sounds (e, o) and (6, 6) as in French bontS, 
dicot on the other hand. After having given a protracted 
and well-deserved attention to this topic, I have come to the 
conclusion that whenever of these three sounds (e 19, e 20, 
e 22) only one occurs in a language, this one, at least as a 
general rule, is the second (e 20), while whenever only two 
of the three show themselves, these two are the first and the 
third (e 19, e 22), to the exclusion of the second (e 20). 
The same rule applies to (6 4, o 5, 6 8). 

Among Slavonic languages, Lusatian, as the table shows, 
18 the richest in simple sounds. They amount to 56. 
Russian has 52 ; Polish 50 ; Baltic 48 ; Lower Lusatian 
47 ; Slovakian 43 ; Little Russian and Bohemian both 
38 ; lUyrian and Slovenian both 32 ; Bulgarian 31 ; Croa- 
tian 30. 

lUyrian, Croatian, Slovenian, Slovakian, and Bohemian 
possess the vocal (r 16), while the vocal (/ 15) is also found 
in Slovakian as well as in Bohemian. Slovakian, in addition, 
presents (/) and (;•) both short and long. 


Xaaality belongs only ' to PolUli and Baltio, tlie first 
having one nasal and one serai-nasal vowel (e 21, 5 6), ex- 
pressed by f, q, and the second four nasal (a 2, o 7, nil, 
e 21), expressed by ((. ;>, ?(, c. 

Polish words of more than one syllable generally ara 
parosytona. Slovakian, Bohemian, Upper and Lower Lusa- 
tian bave, as a rule, the accent on the first syllable, and 
Jtussian, Little Russian, Illyrian, Croalian, Slovenian, Bulgu> 
riau, and Baltic may receive the accent on any syllable. 

Difference of vowel quantity Ja only observed in Illyrian, 
Croatian, Slovenian, Slovakian, and Baltic. Illyrian, raore- 
orer, not only possessea short and long, but also very short 
and very long vowels. 

The 86 ISimple Sounds. 

Of the 86 Bounda 23 are vowels and 61 are consonants. 
Of these, 6 vowels (S 6, 6 9, y 13, y 14, / 15, and r 16) and 
28 consonants (1 28, rj 32, rz 33, rzj 34, tj 36, ( 37, dj 39, 

^pj 43, p 44, /y"45, bj 47, mj 49, fj 51, vj 53, k 56, kj 57, 
"ksh 67, kshj 68, gzh 69, gzhj 70, tahj 72, dzhj 74, ehj 76, 
>hj 78, tsj 80, dzj 82, sj 84, zj 86) are peculiar to the 

I Blavonic lunguagea, and each of the remaining 19 vowels and 
33 consonants may be found in one or the other of the other 
European languages here considered according to their 

I standard pronunciation. 

Vowels 1 to 17 are termed "hard," and 18 ta 25 "soft." 

PConsouants which are properly semi-vocal, liquid, dental, 
tibial, guttural, palatal or sibilant, are also divided into 
"soft" {that ia, palatalised, moHiUien), being the following 

|29: j 26, Ij 30, rj 32, rzj 34, tj 36, dj 39, nj 41, pj 43, 
B;4a, bj 47, mj 49, fj 51, vj 53, kj 55, A/ 57, gj 59, ;y 62, 
j 64, hj 66, kshj 68, gzhj 70, tshj 72, dzhj 74, shj 76, 

F«hj 78, tsj 80, dzj 82, sj 84, and zj 86, and "hard" being 

■ The nagality of liiuaiao o, V, bl, ndmitled bf Mr. Sweet, is nnC csrCainlf 
genenlly scknowledged bjr BusaUna ; nnd, ru I am quite utiable luyeelf lu bev 
Mcb aanil sounds from their mnaths, I reel obliged to agrt« witb tbem. Tbii 
applies also to the labinliied Riuiiian x of xy^C ' 1"><117<' ' »i>uDd tbi; eiistence 
of vhich, at leut in St. PotersbuTf prunonciiiiian, bnoib rery doubtful to me. 


the remaining 32. A hard Towel is very often preceded by 
a hard consonant, and a soft vowel is generally preceded 
by a soft consonant. 

A. I. Hard Vowels. 

1. (a) is English a in father; French a in rame *oar*; 
Italian a in capo ' head' ; Spanish a in rabo ' tail'; Portuguese 
a in gado ' cattle ' ; German a in machen ' to make ' ; Dutch a 
in tqfel ' table ' ; Swedish a in fara * danger.' Danish a, as 
in ma)ie ' to conjure/ is intermediate between a in calf and a 
in man. Dutch a also sometimes receives this sound. • 

Among Slavonic languages, (a) is expressed in Russian by 
" a," as in saMOiTb ' castle ' ; by " a " in Little Bussian, as in 
KOMapi ' gnat/ and by a in the ten other languages : lUyrian 
zlato 'gold'; Croatian zubace *rake'; Slovenian jawr 'acorn'; 
Bulgarian jagode * strawberry ' ; Slovakian jazyk ' tongue ' ; 
Bohemian labut * swan ' ; Lusatian tnaly * little ' ; Lower 
Lusatian kamen ' stone ' ; Polish biaip ' white ' ; Baltic sviat 
* world.' 

2. (a) is French an in 2)an ' skirt/ and Portuguese a in la 
' wool.' No nasal vowels exist in Italian, Spanish, English, 
Dutch, Swedish, and Danish. 

Among Slavonic languages, (a) is found only in Baltic, as 
in q of Bogq * with God.' 

3. (a) is French a in diable * devil,* and, according to Mr. 
Sweet, Dutch a in man ' man,' and Swedish first a in taga * to 

Among Slavonic languages, {&) occurs only in Baltic, as in 
of JO * I,' and a of gadac * to speak.' (See 4.) 

4. (6) is English a in watch, and, by approximation, 
Swedish d in manga * many,' or Danish aa in tnaatte ' he was 

Among Slavonic languages, I hear (6) in Russian post- 
tonic ** " of KOiOKOJi * bell ' ; in Slovenian of dob * oak ' ; 
in that of the first syllable of Lusatian icono * thing,' and in 
Baltic a or of ja, Jo ' I,' gadrtc, godoc ' to speak,' which are 
also pronounced with (&). (See 3.) 


5. (o) 18 English o in more; Italian atonic o in boschetti 
' groves ' ; Spanish o in come * he eats/ I consider Italian 
tonic in boschi ' woods ' ; Portuguese 6 in avd ' grandmother ' ; 
French o in botle * boot * ; Dutch o in top ' top ' ; German o 
in Oott * God/ as not exactly representing this sound, but 
only an intermediate one, called in Italian o aperto, between 
(6 4) and this (o). 

Among Slavonic languages, this (o 5) is expressed by " o " 
in Little Russian noie ' field.' In the following languages it 
is represented by o : lUyrian noga * foot ' ; Croatian kola 

* wagon ' ; Bulgarian zlato * gold * ; Slovakian omyl ' defect ' ; 
Bohemian zvon ' bell ' ; Lower Lusatian noc ' night ' ; Polish 
morze * sea/ 

6. (o) represents the semi-nasal Polish q, pronounced less 
nasally than French on in bon ' good/ 

7. (o) sounds as French on in bon, different from the nasal 
Portuguese o in ac^oes * actions/ which is rather (at least in 
Lisbon) a nasal (6 8). 

Among Slavonic languages, this sound (o 7) exists in 
Baltic, in which it is represented by 0, as in kspds ' clergy- 

8. (6) is French in dSvot 'devout'; Italian {0 chiuso) 
in coda ' tail ' ; Portuguese 6 in acd * grandfather ' ; German 
o in ohne ' without ' ; Dutch in komen ' to come/ In 
English I cannot hear the sound of Italian chiuso, but only 
that of (o 5) followed by an aftersound, as in home, or with- 
out this aftersound, as in more. 

Among Slavonic languages, (6) is expressed by *'o" in 
Russian, as in OKyni * ransom ' ; in Slovenian by 6 as in z6b 

* tooth ' ; by in Lusatian, as in tcoko ' eye,' and by in 
Baltic, as in store * old/ 

9. (6) is the intermediate sound between (0 8) and (u 10), 
expressed in Lusatian by 6, as in dicor ' court ' ; in Lower 
Lusatian by 0, as in moc ' strength,' and in Polish by 0, as in 
Bog ' God/ 

Swedish and Danish in sol ' sun,' god * good,' are only 
approximation to this sound. 

10. (u) is English 00 in pool; French ou in poule * hen ' ; 


Italian u in buco ' hole ' ; Spanish u in huso ' spindle ** ; Por- 
tuguese u in coruja ' common brown owl ' ; German u in 
pfuM ' pond ' ; Dutch oe in moeder ' mother ' ; Danish u in 
ugle * owL' Swedish has no (u). 

Among Slavonic languages, this sound is expressed by 
** y " in Bussian and Little Russian, as in Mynrb ' man/ 6yebR0 
' stork ' ; and in the ten other languages by u : Illyrian ruka 

* hand ' ; Croatian zuc ' gall ' ; Slovenian ura hour * ; Bul- 
garian kup ' heap ^ ; Slovakian hua * goose ' ; Bohemian duch 
'spirit' ; Lusatian huba 'lip' ; Lower Lusatian suk 'branch'; 
Polish cud 'miracle'; Baltic buda 'I shall be.' In Bohemian 
(u) is expressed also by ti, as in Btih ' God/ and in Lower 
Lusatian also by tc, as in Ijaw ' lion.' 

11. (u) is the nasal Portuguese urn in nenhum 'no ' (adjec- 

Among Slavonic languages, it exists in Baltic, as in tf of 
l^dq (or bq^((j ' I shall be.' 

12. (u) is French u in tu 'thou' ; German u in bruder 
' brothers ' ; Dutch uin u ' you ' ; Swedish t/ in /yra * four ' ; 
Danish y in nyde ' to enjoy.' 

Among Slavonic languages, it hardly occurs in Russian, as 
in H) of JwTTHX^ * Liege/ and some other proper names. In 
the Little Russian dialect of Galicia (ii), expressed by ** o," 
is very common, and often replaces the more general " o," as 
in BOii (instead of boji) ' ox,' pronounced riil. I hear (ii) 
in Polish words in which u is preceded by i, as in dziuva 

* hole,' pronounced dziiira, 

13' (y) is a sound between (ii 12) and (i 25). I observe it 
in Lower Lusatian y of nocy * by night.' It resembles 
English y in pretty, 

14. (y) is Russian and Little Russian w in mli * thou ' ; 
pbi6a ' fish.' It is heard in Polish and Baltic y of hyli * they 
have been ' ; nynia ' now.' 

15. (/). This vowel ex/sts in Slovakian and Bohemian in 
the / of piny ' full ' ; vlk ' wolf 

English / in little is a palatal, and not a dental " vocal / " 
as the Slavonic. 

16. (r). A dental vowel, represented by r, exists in 


IlljriaD prat ' finger ' ; Croatian crt ' garden ' ; Slovenian hrt 
' greyhound ' ; Slovakian ardce ' heart ' ; Bohemian cttrtek 
' Thursday.' 

English vodtl r is the following sound. 

ly. (a). Occasional English u in but, expressed in Mr. 
Ellis's palteotype by " a." 

Among Slavonic languages, Slovenian expresses this sound 
by ( or any unaccenled vowel, as in Jisik 'tongue,' and in 
Dulgarian Cuukof indicates it by H, as in /cut 'angle.' 

II. Soft Vowels. 
iS, (te) is English a in man and Portuguese a in mas 'but.' 
Among Slavonic languages, I bear it only in u of Slovabian, 
A in pat ' five.' 

19. (fi) represents French i in _^!fi/e 'faithful'; Italian e 
i in preti ' priests ' ; Portuguese « in mcl ' honey ' ; German a 
' in bar ' bear ' ; Dutch e in bel ' bell ' ; Swedish d in ran 

' friend ' ; Danish ^ in nae»tvn ' almost.' 

Among Slavonic languages, Russian represents this sound 
by c, t, 3, as in »ena ' woman ' ; ciiHO ' hay ' ; 3X0 ' echo ' ; 
Croatian by e as in cetiri 'four'; Slovenian by e, as in Je 'he 
is ' ; Bulgarian by i, as in bani ' batli ' ; Slovakian by e, as 
in irec ' blood ' ; Lusatian by e, as in teho ' of this ' ; Lower 
Lusatian by e, as in icel^ 'much.' 

20. (e) is English e in bed; French e in rrrrat 'I shall 
see'; Italian e in sellaio 'saddler'; Spanish e in rniijer 
'woman'; Portuguese e in sebo 'tallow'; Dutch first e in 
betfr ' better ' ; Swedish a in dla ' to eat ' ; Danish se in frai 

Among Slavonic languages, Little Russian represents this 
sound by "e," as in Koiieui 'end ' ; Illyrian by e, as in ce/a 
* bee ' ; Bohemian by e, as in reera ' yesterday,' and also by 
e. Lower Lusatian, as in beno ' ventricle ' ; or Polish, as in 
Irrax ' now ' ; or Baltic, as in rzek ' he says," 

21. (e) is French iu in rin ' wine,' ditferent from the nasal 
Portuguese em in tempo ' time,' which is rather {at least in 
Lisbon) a nasal (i 22). 

Among Slavonic lauguoges, this sound exists in Polish f of 


b^ 'I ehall be,' aod in Baltic e of si" (pronounced also 
te) ' one's self.' 

22. (6) is French ^ in 6oH/e ' goodness ' ; Italian e ii 
'apple'; Portuguese e in mesa 'table'; German e in ewiff 
' eternal ' ; Dutch e in ateen ' stone ' ; Swedish e in leda 
lead ' ; and nearly Danish e in bred( ' broad,' In English I 
cannot hear the sound (e 22), but only that of (e 20) followed 
by an aftcrsound, or without this aftersound, as in the first e 
of Khcre. 

Among Slavonic languages, this sound (e 22) ! 
in Russian by e, t, 3 in Tcnepb 'at present'; stKH 'centuries' 
94B.I!, 'edile'; in Croatian and Slovenian by i, as in vidm 
' pail ' ; je ' he eats ' ; by e in Bulgarian rec ' word 
Slovakian by e in dc^ra ' daughter ' ; by e in Lusatian zem/df 
' earth ' ; by ^ in Lower Luaatiao kamin ' stone.' 

23. (fi) is the intermediate sound between (e 19) and (i 25), 
expressed in Dutch by 1, as in ik ' I.' 

Among Slavonic languages, I find it in e of Lusatian irent' 
' faith ' ; in Polish ^ of cki^b ' bread ' ; in Baltic final y tff 
tyby ' of fish.' 

24. (S) is English i in milk ; Swedish i in teivna ' to win 
Danish 1 in spil/e ' to play.' 

Among Slavonic languages, it is heard in Lusatian j/ ot 
ryha ' fish ' ; in Ixiwer Lusatian e of b£</a ' woe ! ' ; in Balti(}' 
y of duohnj ' good.' 

25. (i) is English e in me; French i in if ' yew-tree 'f 
Italian 1 in ilUo ' finger ' or ' toe ' ; Spanish i in ftij'o ' son ' ; 
Portuguese t in i/ha ' island ' ; German i in milch ' milk ' ; 
Dutch t in filel ' title ' ; Swedish i in vin ' wine ' ; Danish ( ia 
Apid ' white.' 

Among Slavonic languages, Russian expresses this sound' 
by n, i, as in nuBO 'bier,' Hipi. 'world'; Little Russian by 
a, i, i, as in H,ty ' I go,' pejoiiifi ' great,' ttio ' body.' Th^ 
ten other languages represent it byi: Tllyrian riba 'fish'; 
Croatian ime ' name ' ; Slovenian «(ii- ' peace ' ; Bulgarian. 
aimi> 'winter': Slovakian FiVa 'fairy'; Bohemian fiVu 'vein'; 
Lusatian Jiga ' fig * ; Lower Lusatian bisa ' daughter-in-law ' ;■ 
Polish godiina ' hour ' ; Baltic ell ' evlL' 


B. Consonants, I. Semi-Vowbls. 

26. (j) represents English y in yet ; French y in rai/on 
' ray,' and, according to modern iind non-pedantic pronuncia- 
tion, French U, ill, U, I in jille 'daughter,' patlle 'straw,' ail 
' garlic,' mil ' millet ' ; Spanish y in hat/a ' beach ' ; German / 
inya'yee'; Dutch _/' in ./oh? 'young' ; Swedieh ,/ and i; in 

I jaff ' I,' gi/va ' to give ' ; Duntsh ,/ in Jent ' iron,' Italian (j) 
I cannot hear in good Tuscan pronunciation, according to 
which this sound, eit.her written/, or more properly « between 
two vowels, sounds (i 26), as in risaifi better than rtsoja 'rice- 
plantation.' The sign J, on the contrary, is more correctly 
used than 1 as replacing two atonic hnal I's, as in rarj (plural 
of rario) 'different,' better than rarii or tan. In Rome, on 
the other hand, and generally in Italy, the sound (j) is heard 
Tery distinctly, even among literary men. In Portuguese 
this sound is not generally acknowledged. 

Among Slavonic languages, Kussian and Little Russian 
have this sound, but no particular symbol for it. It is heard 
in combination with vowels in r, i, 10, for instance in Russian 
tf,T> 'poison,' ic3xb 'passage,' jorb 'south,' pronounced (j'tif, 

I JM, jail), or in Little Russian flisiitiL 'barley,' tboK) 'thy,' 
pronounced {jatiAmiiy-, irnja-). The ten other languages 
express it by j ; Illyrian jmer ' yesterday ' ; Croatian j'liU 

* strong ' ; Slovenian jaiitar ' amber ' ; Bulgarian jablltkit 
' ' apple ' ; Slovakian jrtzero ' lake ' ; Bohemian jaro ' spring ' ; 

Lusatian nujit 'us' (dual) ; Lower L u sati an /ocAf ' hunting'; 
Polish pijifk ' spider ' ; Baltic jiV/ff ' I go.' 

27. (w) represents English u- in ire; Dutch te in maautcen 

* to mew ' ; Danish 1/ or t in soyn ' parish,' nam ' name,' 

Among Slavonic languages, I hear this sound followed by 
(y 14) in bi of rpnGu 'mushrooms,' pronounced, according to 
my ear, not with the simple sound of i>i, as in cbmii ' son,' 
viz. not {gribfi) but (gribicy). The intercalation of (w 27) is 
only heard, as far as I can judge, between u and a preceding 
labial consonant. The Bame occurs in Little Russian, as iii 
liti 'we,' pronounced {iii'ry), not simply {my). In this lan- 
guage, besides, (w 27) may be also represented by j as in 


BOiKii ' wolf,' pronounced (vowk). In Slovakian, u Bometimei 
expre>9es this eound, as in the diphtlioags iu, on of anantenmM 
'to the sign,' rukou 'with the hand.' In Baltic, fiBalljy 
(w 27) IB represented by w as in koIc ' father,' 

II. LiqtJiDS. 

28. (l) is Russian and Little Russian hard A in aouii 
' Lorae,' MOJOiiO ' milk ' ; Lower Lusatian I ia los ' hair 
Polish f in lamae ' to break.' The other Slavonic languaj 
have no (1). 

Whatever truth there may be in attributing a guttural char- 
acter to Dutch /, I cannot hear Polish barred i in Dutch, and I 
have had occasion to hear my opinion confirmed by Russians 
and I'oles in hearing {1 28) pronounced by Dutchmen, or 
Englishmen, or Germans, or Swedes, or Danes, or Frenchmen,, 
or Italians, or Spaniards, or Portuguese. This sound in faot 
is not to he found either in tho !Neo-Latin or in tlw 
Qermano- Scandinavian languages, and it exists in only ■' 
small minority of the Slavonic languages thomaclves. ' 

29. (1) is the common " forward (1) " expressed by / in tho 
following languages: French long 'long' ; Italian n /a 'wiug'j: 
Spanish //•!/ ' law ' ; Portuguese liia ' moon ' ; German licht 
'light'; Swedish ie/ra 'to live'; Danish li/i/ 'sound.' Engli^' 
I, as in /«'/, is less "forward" than this sound, and ao is 
Dutch /, which moreover, at least according to Mr. Sweety 
shows a tendency to gutturality. (See 28.) 

All the Slavonic languages, except Russian, Little Russian^ 
and Lower Lusatian, possess (1 29) ; even Polish, according 
to Srewneskij, whenever / is followed by an e. This sound is 
always expressed by /: Illyrian Ian 'flux'; Croatian /uk 
' leek ' ; Slovenian lai ' lie ' ; Bulgarian iof ' hunting ' ; Slo- 
vakian Meet ' ell ' ; Bohemian olovo ' lead ' ; Lusatian lubf 
'dear'; Polish Maf's ' physician ' ; Baltic /«^(i 'years.' 

30. Among Slavonic languages, (Ij) is Russian and Little 
Russian soft j, expressed by ib, as in co.ib 'salt,' yrijjb 'coal'; 
lUyrian /j in k(/iin ' beak ' ; Croatian IJ in nie/Ja ' flour ' ; 
Slovenian Ij in Ijuhezen ' love ' ; Bulgarian Ij in Ijulkii 




' cradle ' ; Slovakiati /' in vel'mi ' very ' ; Lusatian / in ledzda 
'loina'; Lower Lusatian i; in fy'abra 'liver*; Polish / in 
liw 'cheek.' This eound is not found in Bohemian and 

In Italian this sound is expressed by gl, gli, as in Jiglt 
' sons,' Jiglio ' aon ' ; in Spanish by //, as in »fllo ' seal ' ; in 
Portuguese by Ih, aa in olho 'eye.' In modern good Pai'isian 
French (Ij) is in general no longer heard, having been 
almost always replaced by (j 26), which see. 

31. (r). Thia symbol represents the trilled sound pro- 
nounced, as Mr. Ellis says, with the tip of the tongue rather 
more forward than in English. It ia heard : 1°. in French 
r of bnron 'baron,' properly pronounced (and not with the 
uvula, according to a widespread custom, condemned, how- 
ever, even by those who thus pronounce, of whom I am one) ; 
2*. in Italian r of caro 'dear,' while rr of cnrro ' car,' is 
merely the strong modification of the same, improperly called 
the "double r" sound ; 3°, in Spanish rr and initial simple r, 
as in iomco 'asa,' rpy 'king'; 4°. in Portuguese »t and initial 
simple r, as in ferro ' iron,' ra ' frog ' ; 5°. in German f of 
fuhren 'to lead,' properly pronounced (and not with uvular r, 
a pronunciation condemned by Germana themselves) ; 6°. in 
Dutch r of harrn 'hairs'; in Swedish r of rout 'voice.' 
English trilled r differa from the preceding in being weaker 
and less forward, as in spirit. A similar weakly trilled r 
occurs also in Spanish, as in the non-initial i' of oro ' gold ' ;■ 
in Portuguese non-Initial r, as in nora 'daughtep-in-law' ; 
in Swedish r, as in ara ' glory.' In Danish, according to 
Mr, Sweet, the trilled ria glottal,^ as in gi^re 'to make.' 

Among Slavonic languages, (r 31) is expressed by "p" in 
Russian and Little Russian, as in puua 'fish,' [lofl 'swarm.' 
In the ten other languages thia sound ia indicated by r : 
lUyrian rog ' bora ' ; Croatian rosa ' thaw ' ; Slovenian rdii 

' It teenu that TtsEk doet not ackaoirledee this soand. These are hif voria : 
" r er det nedratilige tivciiBki> eg tjmko r, ikkv dot frsasbe i- af Strubea. Dst 
[DodWgorBlvidtvidesiDgpnAfiunJriiigeriLyden." (Seehis" KslaJiriTniuKBliBre," 
Ik ee.) For 1117 own part I regnrd tWi glottal Daniih r, aa well an Ihe uvular 
rrsnch and German r, m abominable petyersiona, and I find mjaalf in taj good 
ODmpanj' in so thinking. 


'gender*; BvlgmmradM'yn* ; SIoTBldaa nfar 'coffin'; 
Bobemum crei 'ea^'; Lnitian rtmm 'wound'; Lower 
J.4yatuui gora ' moantain ' ; Poliali r^boU 'work*; Baltic 
tcotrok 'boy/ 

32. (ij) is soft n ttid Bmsian or littk Bnssian p& repre- 
•enta it, as in nxfh 'cxar'; loapfr 'tamer/ In Loai^ian 
this floond ia exprened bj r, as in krwmm ' cow-herd' ; in 
Lower Lnsatian by r, as in imim * bath-keeper/ 

33. (rz) is a simple sound, altbou^ often confiised with 
an (r 31) foUowed by (zh 77), a Terj miaeraide sabstitute 
indeed^ It is oidy heard in Bohemian f, as in feka * river/ 
and in Polish and Baltic rz, as in grzmkot ' thunder/ nek ' he 

34. (rzj) is the soft modification of the preceding, cmly to 
be found in Lnsatian, as in rz of skoriic ' to complain/ The 
hard rz of the Losatians, expressed by r , is always pronounced 
(sbj 76), which see. 

m. Dentaub. 

35. (t) represents French t in tas * heap ' ; Italian t in ro(a 

* wheel ' ; Spanish t in todo * all ' ; Portuguese t in terra 
'earth'; German t in tag *day'; Swedish t in taga 'to take'; 
DanUh / in hest * horse/ English t, as in tall, and Dutch t, 
as in tafel ' table/ are not so " forward " as (t 35). 

Among Slavonic languages, this last sound is expressed by 
**t" in Russian and Little Russian, as in Toxe 'also/ totl 'the 
Bfime/ In the following languages it is indicated by t : 
lUyrian trava ' grass ' ; Croatian tri * three ' ; Slovenian irat 

* neck ' ; Bulgarian torar ' load ' ; Slovakian leto ' summer ' ; 
Bohemian potok ' brook ' ; Lower Lusatian tupy * blunt ' ; 
Polish torha ' sack ' ; Baltic sviat ' world/ For Lusatian, see 

36. (tj) is the soft modification of the preceding, to be 
heard in Russian and Little Russian ib of a^aib ' to build/ 

V y 

(VTb 'they are,' and in Slovakian and Bohemian t of tu/pa 
' blockhead,' rtut ' quicksilver/ 

37. (t) expresses the intermediate sound between (t 35) 
and (d 38), which may be heard in Saxon dialectal High 



Grennan, and also, according to Mr. Sweet, in Danish, when 
■i is neither aspirated nor final, as ia nsesteu 'almost.' 

Among Slavonic languages, I observe (( 37) only in 
Lusatian ^, as in taraka 'trumpet.' It replaces (t 35), which 

38. (d) is French d in doux 'sweet'; Italian d in ode 
fode'; Spanish initial d in dohr 'pain'; Portuguese d in 

' all ' ; German il in dach ' roof ' ; Swedish d in din 
r thy ' ; Danish d in den ' the.' English d, as in do, and 
Puteh rf, as in deiir ' door,' are not so ' forward " us (d 38). 
Among Slavonic languages, this last sound is indicated by 
I and Little Kussian j, as in ^asaTii ' to give,' and 
)6ph\A ' good,' and by d in the ten other languages : lUyrian 
|<ftlfj 'day'; Croatian dug 'long'; Slovenian darn 'house'; 
Bulgarian do! ' valley ' ; Slovakian duch ' spirit ' ; Bohemian 
diibren ' April ' ; I^uaalian drabiiik ' horseman ' ; Lower Lusa- 
tian diih ' oak ' ; Polish ditszn ' soul ' ; Baltic doknid ' where.' 

39. (dj) is the soft modification of the preceding, to be 
4)eard in Kussian and Little IluBsian 4b, as in uiijE. ' copper,' 
focnojb 'Lord,' and in Slovenian and Bohemian H, as in 

talrky ' wide,' liabel ' deviL' 

40. (n) is French u iu nea 'nose'; Italian n in cane 'dog'; 
Ipauish n in biieno ' good ' ; Portuguese » in tiome ' name ' ; 

Bermaa n in nac/if ' night ' ; Swedish » in ny ' new ' ; Danish 
I in nyde ' to enjoy.' English n, as in now, and Dutch n, as 
1 niet ' not.' are not so " forward " as (n 40). 
Among Slavonic languages, this last sound is expressed 
[ in Bussian and Little Itussiao, as in nopotrb 'weasel,' 
'■ fiopoEia ' harrow,' and in the ten other languages by n : lUy- 
rian nokai ' nail ' (unguis) ; Croatian nosila ' hand-barrow ' ; 
Slovenian weA'^y* ' something ' ; Bulgarian m'tii 'now'; Slo- 
vakian tiakom ' anvil ' ; Bohemian noc ' night ' ; Lusatian 
nnkop 'retrenchment'; Lower Lusatian no^or 'neighbour'! 
Polish no^a ' foot ' ; Baltic won ' he.' 

41. Among Slavonic languages, (nj) is Russian and Little 
Russian soft "n," expressed by Hb. as in Konb 'steed,' rbub 
' shade ' ; Illyrlan itj in konj ' horse ' ; Croatian nj in lubaiija 

1' akull ' ; Slovenian jy in iijigoo ' his ' ; Slovakiau » in haiiba 


' shame ' ; Bohemiaii A ia o/ieti ' Gra ' ; Lusatian ti in ddnea 
' wash-tub ' ; Lower Lusatian 4 in wcSo ' sky ' ; Polish »! in 
gtat'i 'stop' (thou); Baltic n inj'dbhii ' apple-tree.' Bulgariaa 
has no (nj 41). 

In French, this sound ia expressed by gn, as in liffru 
' line ' ; in Italian by gn, as in lHig?w ' bath ' ; in Spanish by 
?, as in (iiieno 'owner'; in Portuguese by nh, as in toti/io 

IV. Labials. 

43. (p) ia p in English pea ; in French peati ' akin ' ; in 
Italian capo ' head ' ; in Spanish perro ' dog ' ; in Portuguese 
pSo ' bread ' ; in German paar ' pair ' ; in Dutch pnantc ' pea- 
cock ' ; in Swedish panna ' forehead ' ; in Danish lap ' patch.' 

Among Slavonic languages, {p} is expressed by in I^ussian 
and Little Russian, as in nojt 'floor,' pokoh 'room' (chamber). 
It ia /) in Illyrian pupak ' navel ' ; Croatian pes ' dog ' ; Slo- 
venian /»is 'girdle'; Bulgarian pu( 'way' (road); Slovakian 
palica ' stick ' ; Bohemian poreffi ' air ' ; Lower Lusatian pup 
'button'; Polish j)n/eo 'finger, toe' ; haXlio pan "lord.' For 
Lusatian, see (44). 

43- (pj) is tlia soft modification of the preceding, to be 
heard in Rusaian nh of K|rfeitb 'strength' ; in Slovakian p of 
jjhat ' to write ' ; in Bohemian p of plsrk ' sand ' ; in Lower 
Lusatian p of daji ' he baptizes ' ; in Polish p of !.-arp ' carp ' ; 
in Baltic p of pMlo ' hell.' For Lusatian, see (45). 

44. {p) expresses the intermediate eonnd between (p 42) 
and {b 4G), which may be heard iu Saxon dialectal High 
Gorman, and ulso, according to Mr, Sweet, in Danish, when 
p is neither aspirated nor final, as in sp^rgen ' question.' It 
replaces (p 4^), which see. 

Among Slavonic languages, I observe (p 44) only in. 
Lusatian, as in ^ of paick ' spider.' It replaces (p 42), which 

45- {P}) '8 the soft, esclusively Lusatian, modification of 
the preceding, expressed by p, as in sep ' heap.' It replaces 
(pj 43), which see. 

46, (b) is b in English bee ; in French bos ' stocking ' ; in 



Italian Clio 'food'; in Portuguese bom 'good'; m German 
buch 'book'; in Dutcli boom 'tree'; in Swedish bam 'child'; 
in Dunish blad 'leaf.' Spanish 6 differs from (b 46) in not 
being explosive and in being pronouncsd without compres- 
sion of the lips. It is very near to, if not identical, with the 
Dutch and dialectal South German ic. Compare lobo ' wolf ' 
with ica/er ' water ' and icorf ' word.' (See 62.) 

Among Slavonic languages, (b 46) ia expressed by 6 in 
Bussian and Little Russian, as in CparB 'brother,' jyfii 'oak,' 
and in the ten other languages by b: Illyrian brarla 'beard'; 
Croatian bob 'bean'; Slovenian bdben 'drum'; Bulgarian 
biiba ' grandmother ' ; Slovukian bkha ' flea ' ; Bohemian Bih 
'God'; Lusatian fioran ' ram ' ; Lower Lusatiau iwA 'beech' ; 
Polish ri/brt ' fish ' ; Baltic bardzno ' much.' 

47. (bj) is the soft modification of the preceding, which 
may be heard in Russian fit of rpaSb ' rake ' (tbou) ; in 
Slorakian 6 of biely ' white ' ; in Bohemian b of obed ' meal ' 
(repast) : in Lusatian S of ii-ft (or irebjoic) ' of the colts ' ; 
in Lower Lusatian 5 of ruJ> 'cut' (thou); in I'oliah b of 
golob ' dove ' ; in Baltic b of zbiegli * thin.' 

48. (m) is m in English me; in French mare 'pond'; 
in Italian limn ' file ' ; in Spanish moso ' youth ' ; in Portu- 
guese mae ' mother ' ; in German mmui ' mouth ' ; in Dutch 
maan ' moon ' ; in Swedish muitk ' monk ' ; in Danish meik 
' milk.' 

Among Slavonic languages, it is "m" in Russian and Ijiltle 
Russian, as in uynrb 'man,' Hiicn. 'bridge,' and m in tlie 
other Slavonic languages: Illyrian mrac 'ant'; Croatian 
miia ' fly ' ; Slovenian mah ' moss ' ; Bulgarian luoi-e ' sea ' ; 
^ovakian malba ' picture ' ; Bohemian uioifli/ba ' prayer ' ; 
LuBatian mniy ' little ' ; Lower Lusatian mul-a ' wall ' ; Polish 
moc 'strength ' ; Baltic mordare ' murderer.' 

49. (mj) is the soft modification of the preceding, to be 
heard in Russian uh of cent 'seven'; in Slovakian m of 
tnaxo ' flesh ' ; in Bohemian ;*( of med ' copper ' ; in Lusatian 
ift of zern (or semj'a) ' earth ' ; in Lower Lusatian » of kjam 
' fatten ' (thon) ; in Polisli »j of oziuym ' announce ' (thou) ; 
in Baltic m of mice ' to have." 

so. (f) is / ia EnglUh /oe; in Frencb/rtiV/i 'hunger '; in 
Italian Kvofa ' sow ' ; in Spanish fijo ' fixed ' ; in Portuguese 
Jilho ' son ' ; in German fabich ' falsa ' ; in Dutch /oUereit ' to 
torture ' ; in Swedish Jlickrt ' girl ' ; in Danish Jire ' four.' 
Mote: 1°. ThatinGcrmanthiaBoundia very often represented 
by f, oa in rafer ' father,' but the/-aound is generally acknow- 
ledged as correct ; 2°. That in Dutch, v, when it is initial, 
receives a sound that is intermediate between [f 50) and (v 52), 
but in my opinion nearer to the first than to the second. I 
prefer not to give a physiological definition of this Dutch 
sound, or of any other speech sound, in order to avoid the 
risk of announcing aa certain what, in the present state of 
science, I consider as very uncertain, or at least incapable 
of proof. (See 52.) 

Among Slavonic languages, {f 50} is rare, but yet occurs 
in all the twelve living languages. It is Kussian and Little 
Russian ♦ in *ypii ' wagon,' RatTauii ' gown,' and / in the 
ton other: Hlyrian,/e»cr ' lantern ' ; Croatian ./^e4'« 'quick'; 
Slovenian ferketi ' to flutter ' ; Bulgarian tufnuvam ' to 
pluck ' ; Slovakian fia'ska ' bottle ' ; Bohemian pan/ojte 
' slipper ' ; Lusattan fara ' parish ' ; Lower Lusatian fi'ijjot 
' liberty ' ; Polish fukcya ' faction ' ; Baltic szrefte ' prescrip- 
tion.' Note that this sound, when expressed by * or f, 
generally belongs to words originally Non-Slavonic, but b or 
Sb are also used to express it in genuine Slavonic Russian 
or Little Russian woi-ds; as in BTOpiiUh-b 'Tuesday'; jobi 
'capture'; fliepa ' yesterday ' ; poei' ditch.' 

5 1, (fj) is the soft modification of the preceding, to be beard 
in Russian «b of pii«b ' reef (thou) ; in Slovakian / of fika 
'fig'; in Bohemian/of karafidt ' pink ' ; in Lusatian first/ 
of Jifolak ' fifer ' ; in Lower Lusatian /' of flliiik ' file ' ; in 
Polish / of (rqf ' hit ' (thoa) ; in Baltic / of _fi>jlorz or fig/arx 
' wild frolicksome fellow.' 

52. (v) is English v in vine; French v in vous 'you'; 
Italian v in una 'grapes*; Spanish c in ceiiile 'twenty'; 
Portuguese c in veiilo ' wind ' ; standard German te in icoHser 
'water'; Dutch non-initial p in orer 'over'; Swedish c,/i',^ 
in Ft/j 'wine,' /lu/ta 'to have," lif 'life'; Danish v m /lav 



' sea.' Note : 1°. That SpanUli ti,^ not only according to the 
strictest recommendattons of the Royal Spanish Acadoinj of 
Madrid, but also in the opinion of the majority of the first 
literary authorities of Spain, and in accordance with the very 
correct pronunciation of genuine Old Custilians, piirticularly 
of Valladolid or Burgoa, as I have had lately a good occasion 
to verify, ought to be, as it is in fact, carefully distinguished 
from the continuous and non-explosive b, proper to Spanish, 
Baaquc, and South-Weatern Franch Occitanian ; a sound 
■which I have already spoken of.' (See 46.) 2°. That 
German w, in spite of its receiving very generally, particu- 
larly by South Qermana, a sound if not identical, at least 
very near to the continuous Spanish b, is not acknowledged, 
with such a sound, as repreaenting the good standard German 
pronunciation. 3°. That Dutch ic, on the contrary, does not 
represent (v 52), but always the dialectal South German w 

Among Slavonic languagea, {v 52) is represented by b in 
Kussian and Little Ruasian, as in boji ' ox,' BavEi. ' grand- 
eon * ; in Illyrian by r, as in frai ' neck ' ; in Croatian by p, 
as in vura 'hour'; in Sioveniau by v and by /, as in v4ra 
' faitli,' sol ' salt ' ; in Bulgarian by v, as in vadu, ' brook ' j in 
Slovakian by v, as in medreti ' bear ' ; in Bohemian by v, as 
in otiroe ' island ' ; in Lusatian by ic and by I, as in woics 
'oats,' lamk 'breaking'; in Lower Lusatian by re, as in 
walina ' wool' ; in Polish by (o, as in loo/sAo 'army'; in Baltic 
by r, as in vdume ' eighth.' 

53- (vj) is the soft modification of the preceding, to be 
heard in Russian Bb of Eposb 'blood'; in Slovakian c of 
riazat ' to bind ' ; in Bohemian o of riza ' to lodge ' (to stay) ; 
in Lusatian w of cyrkeih {or ci/rkej) 'church'; in Lower 
Lnsatiaa u) of barS ' dye ' (thou) ; in Polish ic of p<tio ' pea- 
cock ' ; in Baltic c of cielgi or eielki ' great.' 

' Continnoiu i inHtasd of Inbio-dentel (r 52) is 
8p«niih tlun uvnlar r instead of (r 31} is to be appri 

* Whntever I might hate said on the coutary id 
Uie pnmunciBtiMi ol the Spaniub », let it be irntum, 

Lo more to be approFed in 
ted in PrcDRh and German, 
my prHtioun writings about 



54. (k) represents Eoglish c and k in i}at and king ; French 
c and qn in corp« ' body,' and qui ' who ' ; Italian c and ch in 
oca ' goose,' and oche ' geese ' ; Spanish c and qii in ca/do 
'broth,' and quego 'cheese'; Portuguese c and jm in cor 
' colour,' and queiinar ' to burn ' ; German k in kalli ' calf ; 
Dutch A- in koning ' king ' ; Swedish k in koinma ' to come ' ; 
Danish k in Scennk ' Swedish.' 

Among Slavonic languages, (k 54) is k in Russian and | 
Little Russian, as in Kopa ' bark,' kojo ' wheel,' and k in the 
ten other languages: Illyrian i'o;;/ 'horse'; Croatian htkoz 
'hen'; Slovenian krnlj 'king'; Bulgarian tils 'short'; 
Slovakian kohyla ' mare ' ; Bohemian krdva ' cow ' ; Lusatian 
khory ' ill ' ; Lower Lusatian konop ' hemp ' ; Polish kqdsiei 
' distaff ' ; Baltic kdme ' stone.' 

55- Among Slavonic languages, (kj) ia Russian soft e, ex- 
pressed by R, as in khtt. ' whale ' ; Lower Lusatian kJ in 
kjacnr ' heretic ' ; Polish k in kielich ' chalice ' ; Baltic A ia 
Kte/ki ' great.' 

In Italian this sound is expressed by ch, chi, as in cet-c/n 
' circles,' cerr/iio ' circle.' It is also found, at least by approxi- 
mation, in Danish ki of ki0» ' ses.' 

56. (k) is the intermediate sound between (k 54) and 
(g 58). In Slavonic, I observe it only in Lusatian, as iu k 
of kara ' car,' and generally in words in which k initial is not 
followed by A, as in {k 54), which see. 

57. (i/) is the soft modification of the preceding, heard ia 
Lusatian kf of kjahor ' boar.' 

58. (g) represents English .17 and 17M in JO and ffMcss; French 
g and gu in gaiif ' glove,' and gii^ ' ford ' ; Italian g and gh 
in segii ' saw," and srg/ie ' saws ' ; Spanish g and gu in gordo 
'fat,' anAgriPiTa 'war'; Portuguese 3 andgu ingraya 'grace,' 
and satigiie ' blood ' ; German g in gam ' goose ' ; Dutch k in 
tho first syllable of dakdtkker ' tiler ' ; Swedish g in gd ' to 
go ' ; Danish g in gtit-e ' gift.' Note that this sound ia rare, 
and never represented by g in Dutch. 

Among Slavonic languages, it is r in Russian and Little 


Russian, as in rope ' sorrow,' rocaojapi 'landlord,' and g iii 
all the otiier languages : IllyrisQ duga ' rainbow ' ; Croatian 
j'o^ 'horn'; Slovenian rfo/jr 'fault'; Bulgarian ^nijtu 'buuk' ; 
Slovakian »trr/ga ' witch ' ; Bohemian gdoule * quince ' j 
Luaatian galgmca 'stentorian voice'; Lower Lusatian gm 
' goose ' ; Poiiah gnlgnn ' rag ' ; Baltic noga ' foot,' This 
sound is rare in Little Bussian, Slovakian, Bohemian and 

59. Among Slavonic languages, (gj) is Hussian soft r, ex- 
pressed by r, as in rujb 'red-tail'; Lusatian g/ in g/aiisor 
{gansor) ' gander ' ; Lower Lusatian gf in g/nrtnar ' gardener' ; 
Polish g in gielda ' exchange ' (edifice) ; Baltic g in witbogi 
' sick.' 

In Italian this sound is expressed by ghi, as in dighiacciare 
' to thaw.' It is also found, at least by approximation, in 
Danish gi of gi9re ' to make.' 

60. (n). This is the naaal guttural sound replacing so 
often (n 40) before (k 54) and (g 58) in almost every lan- 
guage. It is expressed io English by ng and by », as in 
singer and finger ; in Italian by n, as in reiigo ' I come ' ; in 
Spanish by n, as in pongo ' I put ' ; in German by ng and «, 
as in lunge 'lung,' and in'nker 'drinker'; in Dutch hy tig 
and by n, as mjoiig 'young,' and dank 'thanks'; in Swedish 
by ng, by n, and by g, as in ingen 'no' (adjective), apringa 
' to run,' and regn ' rain ' ; in Danish by >ig and by n, as in 
toHg ' long.' French and Portuguese have no (n 60), because 
in these languages (n 40) disappears before a guttural, while 
the preceding vowel becomes nasal : hug 'long,' pronouncwl 
(/o) instead of (Ion) ; Hitgoa ' tongue,' pronounced {ilgiiw), 
instead of [liagiice]. 

This sound certainly is not common among Slavonians, but 
my ear tells me that it exists before (k 54) in all the twelve 
languages: in Russian and Little Kiusian "n" of {iaHKit'bunk,' 
TUBKJfi 'thin,' and in » of the rcmaiuing tongues: Illyrian 
haika 'ham'; Croatian brenka 'cask'; Slovenian sinkovfe 
' finch ' ; Bulgarian briiiiku ' mesh ' ; Slovakian pokanka 
' buck-wheat ' ; Bohemian hoiisenka ' caterpillar ' ; Lusatian 
kiinkanje ' frog ' (a kind of) ; Lower Lusatian wenk ' crown ' ; 


Polish punH 'point'; Baltic Lirinko (a proper name of 

I know very well that graramarians and pbonetiata, whether 
SlaToniana or not, do not mention this sound, but this 
happens, I think, because they suppose that auch a natural 
permutation of (n 40) into [n 60) before a guttural ought to 
be understood as a matter of course. This change of sounds 
under certain conditions seems indeed almost natural to 
human organs of speech, resulting from a general euphonia 
law. In the words I have quoted, I myself hoar (n 60) and 
not {n 40), but I am ready to yield the judgment of my own 
ears to the positive assertion of any Slavonian, who is also a 
phonetist, and has been accustomed to speak his own peculiar 
language from infancy. 

6i. (x) is Spanish j or g in hijo 'son,' and eieige 'ho 
exacts ' ; German ch in nackt ' night ' ; Dutch ch in waciilen 
' to wait,' but only in the mouth of those refined Dutchmen 
who seem ashamed of the much deeper guttural pronuncia- 
tion generally given, even by many literary men, to thia 

Among Slavonic languages, 'this sound is expressed by "x " 
in Russian and Little Russian, as in xopotnia ' good,' myxa 
'fly'; in Slovenian by h, as in pidlia 'shower'; in Bulgarian 
by A, as in hajdiik ' thief ' ; in Slovakian by ch, as in etrnch 
' fear ' ; in Bohemian by ch, as in pkc/i ' sheet-iron ' ; in 
Lusatian by ch, as in chor ' choir ' ; in Lower Lusatian by cb, 
88 in charl ' greyhound ' ; in Polish by ch, but also by A, as 
in kocJiam ' I love,' herhiiln ' tea ' ; in Baltic by ch, as in duck 
' spirit.' Ulyrian (properly pronounced) and Croatian have 
no (ch 61). 

6?, (^j) is German ch in mich 'me.' Among Slavonic 
languages, this sound is heard in Russian "x" of HosasiiBa 
* nun,' and in Lusatian ch of siichi ' dry.' 

63. (7) is standai'd German g in trngcn ' to carry,' and also 
in Dutch, as in goed ' good,' but only for those who wish to 
avoid the much deeper guttural pronunciation generally 
given to this letter even by many refined speakers. It ia 





also to be heard in DbdisIi, but not stronger than in German, 
as in (7 of b^ige ' booka.' 

Among Slavonic languages, this sonnd exists in Russian, 
and may be beard only in soma words, as in r of I'octojl 
' Lord.' 

64. (71) is standard German g of berge 'mountains,' and 
among Slavonic languages this sound is to bo heard in 
Sussian, as in " r " of fuarlA ' good.' 

65. (b) is nearly English h in hand; German h in kerr 
'sir'; and Dutch, Swedish, and Danish h in hoog 'high,' 
Mat 'horse,' fiun 'sbe.' I believe, with the Spanish Anademy, 
in the existence of a Spanish sound of h, but only in its soft 
(otherwise palatalised) and labial modifications, as hierro 
'iron' (see 66), huero 'egg.' In this last word the labial A, 
not {h 65), precedes, I think, the diphthong ue. 

Among Slavonic languages, (h 65) exists in Little Russian, 
where it is very often represented by "r," as in r04T. 'year.' 
This sound is expressed by h in lUyrian bud ' wicked,' im- 
properly pronounced unaspirated by the Servians proper, or 
as (x^l) by other Illyrian-speaking Slavonians; in Slovakian 
holy ' bald ' ; in Bohemian hum ' goose ' ; in Lusatiun hahia 
fir-cone'; in Lower Luaatian hiigel 'coal'; in Polish betman 
commander-in-chief; in Baltic liuja 'egg.' Russian, 
Croatian, Slovenian, Bulgarian, have not this sound, 

66. (hj) is, as I think, Spanish palatalised h in hierro 
iron,' preceding the diphthong ie. 

Among Slavonic languages, I find this sound only in 
Lusatisn /i, aa in doihi ' long.' 

VL Palatals, otherwise Whishes or "Chuixtantes." 

67. (ksh). This sound, intermediate between (k 54) and 
(sh 75), ia, in my opinion, really a simple sound, although it 
may be roughly and very inexactly represented by (k 54) 
followed by (sb 75). in the same way that (tsh 71) is also 
roughly and erroneously appreciated aa (t 35) plit-t (sh 75). 
Both (ksh) and (tsh) are homogeneous sounds, remaining the 
■ame from beginning to end, which is simply impossible if 



they conaiet of (k) or (t) followed by (ah), The great 
difficulty which is experienced (let ua forget tha Sicilian 
Veapera) by Frenchmen, genuine Lisbon Portuguese, Oor- 
mana, Dutchmen, and Danea in mastering the correct pro- 
iinnciation of (tsh 71), ao nutural to Eiiglialimen, Italians, 
Spaniarda, Swedes, and Slavonians in general, proves the 
correctness of this assertion. The very curious sound of (ksh) 
is to be heard, among Slavonic languages, in the best-spoken 
Illyrian, where it ie represented sometimea by c and some- 
timea by tj, as in siiioe. ' yesterday,' tretji ' third.' Tho 
Illyriuna of Slavonia, Military Croatia, and Bosnia, in imita- 
tion of the Slovenians of Civil Croatia or Croatiana proper, 
Slovenians in general, and Bulgariana, pronounce (ksh t)7) 
as (tsh 71), and experience the same difficulty as the Italians 
in pronouncing the first sound. The lUyriana of Dalmalia 
and Servia, on the contrary, maintain the distinction very 
well, as I myaelf witneased in Venice on the 28rd of March, 
1854, when listening to the speech of Illyriana from these 
provinces, who liad assembled for the purpose of letting ms 
hear the pronunciation of their (keh) and (tsh). Observe 
that the sound [ksh 67) differs from (tj 36) as a palatal sound. 
does from a soft (or palatalised monilU!) dental. Lusatian (', as 
in ciiza ' pawn,' on the other hand, is very near to and 
perhaps identical with (ksh 67), 

This sound, wbich never occurs in standard Italian, seeniB 
to exist in the strictly Italian dialect of Tempio in the Island 
of Sardinia. In fact, in !a chjai ' the key,' corresponding to 
Italian la ehiave, the trigraph chj comea very near to and 
perhaps is nothing else but (ksh). Tbe Southern Corsicaa 
and some French dialects, as the Fioard, etc., seem also to 
possess this sound. 

68. (kshj) is the soft modification of the preceding, to be 
heard only in Lusatian, as in <' of cis ' yew.' 

69. (gzh) is voiced (keh), to be heard, among Slavonic 
languages, only in Illyrian, as in dj of kdja ' back,' and in 
Lusatian, as in tH of tiinrz ' rust.' 

The Tempieae trigroph <jhj, as in la ghiesgin 'the church,' 
corresponding to Italian lit cliififi, comes ver)' near to and 




Iperbaps ia (gzh), and this sound ocours ako ia Southern 
I Coraican, Picard, etc. 

70. (gzhj) is voiced (kshj), to be heard only in Lusatian, 
IS IE dz of i/ziw ' wonder,' 

71. (tsh). See (07). This aound, as far sa I can make 
oal, is English ch in chi/d ; Italian c, ci in pece ' pitch,' iiracia 
'red-hot couls'; Spanish ch in mucho 'much'; Swedish k, 
kj, tf in hdr 'dear,' ^/of/c/ 'petticoat,' tjena 'to serve,' French, 

I genuine Lisbon Portuguese, German, Dutch, and Danish, as 
I have already stated, have not this sound. 
Among Slavonic languages, (tsh 71) is indicated by 1 in 
Russian and Little Russian, as in qacL 'hour,' >jyTH 'to hear'; 
by c in lUyrian vecer ' evening ' ; Croatian hiba ' lip ' ; 
Slovenian pai 'well' (adverb); Bulgarian iriin 'black'; 
filovakiun Hovek ' man ' ; Bohemian has ' time ' ; Lusatian 
^o ' foroliead ' ; Lower Lusatian ('ojfrt ' grass ' ; by cs in 
Folisb cap/ca ' cap ' ; Baltic czol ' he knelt.' 

72. (tshj). Soft modification of the preceding, to be heard, 
among Slavonic languages, only in Russian, as in it of nont 

(' night ' ; in Lusatian c of eersticy ' i'resh,' and in Lower 
liuaatian ej of cja ' price.' 
73. (dzh) is voiced (tsh) and, as I think, English J or g in 
jar and gin, the same sound, to my ears, as Italian g, gi in 
ptigina 'page' (of a book), agio 'ease,' when properly pro- 
nounced. French, Spanish, Portuguese, German, Dutch, 
Swedish, and Danish have not this sound. 
Among Slavonic languages, (dzh 73) does not exist in Rub- 
nan, but jx expresses it in Little Russian, as in ;ixaBO|H)iioirb 
(or xaBOponoii'L) ' young latk.' It is also heard in lUyrian 
rfs of (liigrrieii ' leaver ' ; Croatian ilz of rodzak ' relation ' 
(relative) ; Bulgarian rf£ oi poloiize ■ little nest egg ' ; Slovokian 
I t^ of hatlirm ' I throw ' ; Lusatian </£ of , . . . ; ' Lower 
I^XuBBtian ilz of i!hai ' to tremble ' ; Polish di of droztlie 
'dregs'; Baltic rfi: of rf£V(7*io/ ' he withdrew.' This sound is 
I very rare in Slavonic, 

74. (dzhj). Soft modification of the preceding, to be heard, 

I Bmong Slavonic languages, only in Lusatian rfs of . . . . ; ' 

lO word Kihibidu); it 


and in Lower Lusatian dzj of hoMdzJ ' deceive by lies ' 

75. (sh) is English sfl in the; French ch in cfiat 'cat'; 
Portuguese j- or vh, or also (according to Mr. Joao de Deus, 
with wboni I rather agree) s, as in radres ' cliesa,' c/iajteo 
' hat,' lias maos ' of the hands ' ; German sch in sehulUr 
' slioulder ' ; Swedish aj, sk, Mkj, s/j in »junga ' to sing,' then 
' shine,' skjuta 'to push,' atjerna 'star.' 

Observe : 1°. That Italian ac, sci in pesce ' fish,' Inscia ' he 
leaves,' represents a stronger sound, and hears the same 
relation to (sh 75) as Italian ss of raxsa ' trunk ' does to easa 
' house,' or as any Italian doubly- written consonant does to a 
singly-written one in those positions where the singly -written 
consonant is not pronounced as if it were doubly written. 
I maintain then that real (sh 75) does not exist in standard 
Italian, where not (sh), but (shsh) is heard in every position 
in which the sound represented by sc, sci may occur. The 
case, however, is totally different in the vulgar Florentine 
and Ronianesco dialects. In these I distinctly hear the 
sound of English sh or French c/i, in auch words as pece, 
bracia, where c, ci dialectally represent (sh 75), and peer, 
hracia are pronounced (ppe"she, bbra'sha), instead of {pp^'tshe, 

2°, That Spanish has no (sh 75). 

'6°. That in Dutch this sound is not acknowledged as being 
correct, although nj, aa in meisje 'girl,' is frequently pro- 
nounced (sh 75), or even (sj 84), instead of (s 83) plus (j 26). 
After numberless inquiries among neither too refined nor 
too vulgar Dutch speakers, I have every reason for regarding 
this last pronunciation of (s-f-j) as the most generally 

4°. That, according to Eask, the sound (sh 75) is entirely 
foreign to Danish, and I find the opinion of this celebrated 
Danish linguist and most competent judge of the correct 
pronunciation of his own language, followed by the majority 
of Danish grammarians and accurate speakers.' In st of sixl 

iounds nf j, r*. ai, Ih shBrp 
ti Lr. £. C. Rask's Daiiidh 

^^ ma 


'soul,' etc., (all 7q) often is heard, but ibis pronunciation is 
Norwegian, or provincial, or incorrect. 

Among Slavonic languages, Russian and Little Russian 
represent (ah 75) by m, as in luySa 'pelisse,' myHi 'rustling.' 
It is expressed by s in lUyrian h-ohos 'hen'; Croatian si/o 
'awl'; Slovenian him 'house'; Bulgarian s^raii * carp ' ; 
Slovaliianna^ 'our'j Bohemian nioi'Kie 'mulberry'; Lusatian 
turn ' foam ' ; Lower Lusatian si/r ' breadth ' ; by «s in Polish 
azeitx ' shoemaker ' ; Baltic szleaa ' score ' (twenty). 

76. (shj). Soft modification of the preceding, to be heard, 
among Slavonic languages, only in Russian mt, as in Bouib 
' louse ' ; in Lusatian s of sew ' six,' and f of kfiS ' cross ' ; in 
Lower Lusatian s/'of ijam»y 'dark.' 

77. (zh) ia English 5 in /t/eff«Hre; French,/, jr in yo«r 'day,' 
mge 'wise'; Portuguese.;', g in junto 'just,' gpma 'yolk.' 
Italian (except the vulg:ar Florentine dialect), Spanish, Ger- 
man, Dutch, Swedish, and Danish hare not this sound. 

Among Slavonic languages, it is expressed by k in Russian 
:d Little Russian, as in HcaSa ' toad,' wDjySoKi ' stomaoh ' ; 

. edited by Thor. Gadm. Repp. Second editioD. Copenhagen. \&i6, 
jl. 6.} And, B9 I bave quoted the name of the ^at Daniali philulo^t to wluwe 
writings I am indtibted for tbe little I know of Dunish, tliankfulaeia and love d( 
jiutice eorapel me to protest aeaiiut the qualifiiiBtion of dilrttaiiie applied to aueh 
amuter, althoi^b indirectlj-, 1))' Mr. Sweet in Ui» otberwiso valnsble paper on 
Ztanisb prounnciation. piinted in tbe flnt part of the Tronsaotiaiii of our Society, 
1873-4. I read, in fact, at page 95 tbe folloiring worda : " I cannot sar I bare 

I be based, StilT, the 
milUiy «tudy of their works haa been of some serriuB." I mnintain that 
worda cannot be applied to Kask, who, amongrt hia celebrated works, is alao 
u author of the well-known esHay to which Repp refers at paffe 10 of the above- 
quoted Danish Grammar. He eays : " Thuae who wish to see an analysis of the 
pnodii of the Danish aud of tbe principal points of ibi orCboKt^phy, may conautt 
Jbe antlior'a eway: Fonpg til rn tidmikabflig daiiik Hr'itnvnirigtlifit, etc." 
VOopeoliafeii, 18:^6. Thia wotk. of more than three hundred octaYO pages, ia 
VVuTenally acknowledged as a philological masterpiece, BeientitJc, eibauotire, and 
■*- no meana a dilettante work. Far from being such, the mora modem philolo- 
Is hare taken it, avowedly or not, oa the basis of their sometimea more eomplete 
. itisct, which, howerer. are at the game time either abridgments of or aren, 
partially at least, compilationa from Kusk'a work. The difficult aubjuct of the 

'--- Oaniah catth has ahio been tmalai by diis great philologist under the 

"abrupt accent" when it belongs to a long vowel, and "rehoundinK 
rbenit belongs to a short one. It if, however, to Uommel that science]! 
indebted fur a really scient; Re eiplanation of the Danish catch, a subjeot improved 
h V7 U'- Sweet in hu valuable paper above mentiuued. 



by s in lUyrian zinot ' life ' ; Croatian iila ' vein ' ; Slovenian 
xark ' fire-brand ' ; Bulgarian zffrit ' barveat ' ; Slovakian 
zniost ' sadness ' ; Bohemian zekzo ' iron ' ; Lusatian aoA 
* lentil ' ; Lower Lusatian zonop ' hemp ' ; by Polish e in ka/ia 
' frog ' ; Baltic sonit ' wife.' 

78. (zhj). Soft modification of the preceding, to be heard, 
among Slavonic languages, only in Hussian niii, as in poxb 
' rye ' ; in Lusatian i, as iu iida ' silk ' ; in Lower Lusatian 
:J, as in zjas 'to speak.' 


79. (te) represents Italian a in queato zoppo ' this lame man ' ; 
German z in sahn 'tootb.' Eugliab. French, Spanish, Portu- 
guese, Dutch, Swedish, and Daoisb have not this really 
simple sound, not less simple than (kah 67) and (tsh 71), 
which see. The nearest rough and inesact approach to it is 
{t 35) plus (b 83), as in the English plural batn. 

It exists in all the twelve Shivonie languages, and is repre- 
sented by a in Russian and Litlie Russian, as in uwoa ' goat,' 
napb 'czar'; and by c in the ten other: Illyrian imbue 
'sparrow'; Croatian cirfiva 'church'; Slovenian cdm 'price'; 
Bulgarian cr6{ ' blossom ' ; Slovakian cup ' hc-goat ' ; Bohe- 
mian iroc ' night ' ; Lusatian co/,:or ' sugar ' ; Lower Lusatian 
cam;/ ' black ' ; Polish pifc ' oven ' ; Baltic corkn ' daughter.' 

80. (tsj) is the soft modification of the preceding, to be 
heard, among Slavonic lungiinges, only in Russian of iitnb, 
and Little Russian ub of ityneub 'merchant.' In Polish it is 
expressed by 6, as in pitc ' five,' 

The Italian simple sound expressed by z, and preceding a 
diphthong or a final j, has almost always a sound which I 
consider as a pure soft (palatalised) modification of (ts 79), 
but it differs from the Slavonic in not partaking of the same 
whishing character as the latter. This real peculiar Italian 
sound of E in vizio, tizj ' vice, vices ' (perfectly well known to 
Lionardo Salviati, who analyzed it with physiological accuracy, 
although more than three hundred years ago), differs boih 
from Italian z of h zoppo, which is (ts 79), and fi-om {dz 81), 



■wlaich follows. It may be roughly represenled by (t 35) 
plus English voiceless th followed by (j 26), ria. (t+th+j), 
just as (kshj 68) and (tshj 73) may be also roughly indicated 
by {k 54) plu9 (sbj 76) and by {t 3-'i) phis (shj 76). 

8i. (dz). This is voiced (ta), to be heard in the Italian b 
of rosiro zelo 'your zeal,' but^t is not to be found in German, 
which however has (ts). 

Among Slavonic languages, Russian, Little Russian, lUy- 
rian, Croatian, Slovenian, Bohemian, Lower Lusatiao, do not 
possess this sound, but Bulgarian represents it by liz, as in 
polwizi ' nest eggs * ; Slovakian by dz, as in ivtdza ' need ' ; 
Upper Luaatian by dz, as in _ff<l2i/ni/ ' fig tree ' ; Polish by dz, 
as in jeds 'eat' (thou); and Baltic also by dz, as in deed 
' children.' 

82. (dzj) is the soft modification of the preceding, belonging 
exclusively to Polish, as in dz o{ jedz 'go away' (thou). 

83. (s) represents French s, g in sable ' sand,' ma^oit 
' mason ' ; Italian s in casa ' house ' ; Spanish s in sigh 
' century ' ; Portuguese s, f in sebo ' tallow,' graga ' graoe ' ; 
German «, «e in icm ' what,' fiiitze ' rivers ' ; Dutch s in hilis 
' bouse ' ; Swedish s in soia ' to seek ' ; Danish « in sommer 
' aummer.' English s, as in sad, is not quite so " forward" as 
(. 83). 

Observe that Spanish » becomes more or less "backward" 
tmd difierent from English s, according to the nature of any 
other vowel but e, by which it is followed. The first degree 
of a "backwardness" greater than that of English a is 
shown, I think, in the syllable su, as in siiyo ' his, her, hers, 
ita, their, theirs' ; the second in so, as in sol 'sun'; the third 
in sa, as in stil ' salt.' This last I consider to be always the 
Spanish Basque «, aa in satju ' mouse,' seme ' son,' esi ' hedge,' 
iorbalda ' shoulder,' m ' fire,' esne ' milk ' ; while the French 
Basque s of the same words constitutes the fourth and last 
degree of " back ward aesa," and resembles (sh 75) or English 
ah. In the Spanish syllable sr, as in senda ' path,' s appears 
to be English s, and in the syllable si, as in siglo, already 
quoted, we have (a 83), common to the other Neo-Latin and 
Germano-Seandinavian languages. (For the excellent physio- 


logical analysis of Spanish s, see Sicilia's "Lecciones de 
Ortologia y Prosodia." Madrid, 1832. Part I. p. Iti6, etc.) 

Among Slavonic lunguaj^es, (b 83) is represented by "c" 
in Bussiuu and Little RuBeiun, as in cajo ' grease,' cyxii 
'dry,' and by » in the ten other languages: lllyrian wkno 
' cloth ' ; Croatian sir ' cheese ' ; Slovenian sail ' fruit ' ; 
Bulgarian siVo 'sieve'; Slovakian stVta 'sulphur'; Bohemian 
snmi'ce ' female ' ; Lusatian sobofa ' Saturday ' ; Lower Lusa- 
tian snriia ' roe-buck ' ; Polish sam ' alone ' ; Baltic v/echa ' it 

S4. (sj) is the soft modification of the preceding, only to 
be beard, among Slavonic languages, in Itussian and Little 
Russian cb, as in ULicb 'height' (lop), rycb 'goose.' In 
Polish it is expressed by i, as in spiewak ' singer.' 

85. (z) is English s of zml; French z of zone 'zone'; 
Italian s of rosa ' rose ' ; Portuguese z of zimbro 'juniper ' ; 
German s of "ie ' they ' ; ' Dutch a of zoiu/er ' without.' ' 
Spanish, Swedish, and Danish have not this sound. 

Among Slavonic languages, (z 85) is represented by "3 " in 
Ilussian and Little Russian, as in 30JOTO ' gold,' ayCi. ' tooth,* 
and by z in the ten other languages: lllyrian ziaija 'serpent'; 
Croatian zid ' wall ' ; Slovenian zvon ' bell ' ; Bulgarian simi 
' winter ' ; Slovukian i:oza ' goat ' ; Bohemian Jezero ' lake ' ; 
Lusatian zeipal ' inflammation ' ; Lower Lusatian iroz ' wagon ' ; 
Polish kaziiiiie ' sermon ' ; Baltic zli ' evil.' 

86, (zj) is the soft modification of the preceding, only to 
be heard, among Slavonic languages, in Russian and Little 
Russian ah of jfei. 'climb' (thou) ; Kuaat 'prince.' lu Polish 
it is expressed by d, as in hojakn ' fear.' 

Final Observations, 

1°. For the appreciation of the Slavonic sounds I have 

availed myself exclusively ^ of works of Slavonian gromniar- 

' I find DO difforvuce in flonnd betwran OenDatt inidnl i fnlluvtd hj a lovrel, 
na in lu, and ■ tHtween two vnwel*, as in hitu ' hare,' at Xraat ia Ihv pmiralh 
reteived standsni OennBii pronunciBtion. My «ari< oblige me to apply ibe same 
I'liMrvstion lo tha ao-cailed hnlf-voiced Dutch • of tanin; which I I'onaider 
iiieatiml with i of iritm ' to be.' 

' This word " eiclimvelj' " refera imly to priutad worits, and by uo means ei- 



lana and pbonetista, giving tte preference to those who are 
generally acknowledged as the moat competent juflges in 
their particular dialects. For the lllyrian language I have 
given the preference, well deserved in my opinion, to the 
Dalmatian over the Servian pronunciation and orthography, 
and I have followed Stephanowitsch only when the Servian 
variety agrees with the Dalmatian. For the latter I have 
myself collected numerous observations among Dalmatians in 
Venice, and I abide by them. 

2°. I have done the same for the Gerraano-Scandinavian 
dialects, giving the preference to the South Germans for 
German, and looking upon Dutch, Swedish, and Danish 
phonetists aa the best judges of the physiological definition 
of the suunds of their own language. I have tried also to 
avoid, as much aa possible, vulgar, individual, and sometimes 
indistinct pronunciation on the one hand, and pedantic, 
adected, and sometimes aristocratically grimacing utterances 
on the other. 

39. For the Xeo- Latin languages I have acted more inde- 
pendently. Two of thom, French and Italian, are equally 
native to rae, while of the other two, Spanish and Portuguese, 
the first I have spoken from my youth, and the second when 
I was yet far from being an old man. These circumstances 
embolden me to state, notwithstanding the authority of such 
a phonetist as Prof. Storm of Christiania, that several of his 
appreciations of Neo-Lutin sounds, particularly the Spanish 
and Italian, appear not to be in accordance with the judgment 
of Neo- Latin ears in general, as, for instance, his appreciation 

II inveati^tiaai I bnve so often hud occoBinn to mako aiDoogtt 
Ihe QKtJTei whose IsDguages I have iinderUlieii to eiamine. Without pretendiug 
■a hsve mastered aU these iangnagea, I cutuiider my ean to lie as capabln of 
judging ot the impreBdon that aoniida produce on them as aaj cither human ean. 
These sounds I hsve apprecisted and compared every time it has been pnAtiblB for 
me to cuiuult the nativts themselres, and, at a g:eneral rule, with nardlj any 
eimption, 1 have found the closest s^nHiment between the judgment of mv own 
em and ike apprectatiouf of native phonntistit. The case has aot biws quile the 
Mine for the spprcviatiuns of foreini, when disagreeing with those of nnlive, 
pbonetists. The only sounds of which I cannot spent li^ nwjilu btb tbe BulgBriaD, 
the Lower Lusatiau, and tho Baltic. Individuals of all the other oatiDuulitin. 
cilber Sluvoman, or Gemuno- Scandinavian, or Xoo- Latin, I hare heard and con- 
united very often and in iar<;e uumbera, often mar« tbaD a hundred, and nerer 1h> 
tluin half a dozen native speakers. 


• • »* • 

of fi^Miiitiit s ana Itelian votoed «, m tlwj sre pronoinMidd hf 
the majoiity itf ocnrreGt tpeaken in (Md OasCile «nd Tmcmaf^ 
4^. The aobjeot of my paper, as itatitie promieeB, liiiim|^ 
a detailed eomparieofe of "the Slavonic witii tbe Koo-ljBfui 
and 0ermaiio-Soaiiditiafiaii eouadbt a sabjeU^ at iif aa I 
koowy never treated before. I bave not treated istk^t 
aalyeotSy eooli as the history of 4ihe Bdnnde, tbdir rdMbii to 
thoee of C&ardi SlaTonic, their permntetion8» ete. I tiioaid 
have then only repeated what* is or oaght to be perfeoify' 
weU known to any Itngnist qualified fer dieonsaing Slavoiiie 
langttagea in general, or, in other words, what eneh sten ak 
Dohrowahy; Hanka, Schaffiirik, Miklonch, ete.» have already 
pnUiahed hi their immortal woika. 




PAOS • 9A9M 

Gboo&apht 402 Pbonouns 436 

Phonology 406 Akticlb 439 

Pronunciation op Lbttees .. 406 Words derived prom Pro- 

U.I8TORT OF Rhjbtian Sounds : nouns 440 

Vowels 410 Verb: Conjugation 441 

Consonants 418 Noteson the Conjugations 446 

Grammar 428 Peculiar Verbal Forms... 452 

Substantives 428 Non-I^atin & Obscure Words 453 

Adjectives 432 Peculiarities of Vocabulary 458 

Numeral Adjectives ... 435 Books 459 

Abbreviations. — R. Romonsch. 0. or O.L. Oberland. E. Engadin. U.E. 
Untei-EngaHin. O.E. Ober-Enfi^din. H. Heinzenberg. En. Enneberg. 
O.H.S. Ooerhalbstein. T. Tirolese (esp. Gardena^ from Yian and Gartner). 

Pronunciation.— 5 =tBh. 8= sh. 


The district in which the Rhaeto-Roraanic language is spoken 
comprises a large but irregular part of the canton of Biinden, 
otherwise and in modern parlance Graubiinden or Grisons. 
It may be most conveniently understood by starting from 
the capital of the canton, Cuera (Germ. Chur), which is 


rntnated in the valley of the Bliine, six miles below the con- 
(,fluence of the Vorderrhein and the Htnterrhein. The 
Torderrhein flows in a nearly straight E.N.E. course from 
B source ia a turn near the St. Gothurd mountain (not fur 
1 Anderraatt) for about fifty-five miles, till its confluence 
Mt Reichenau with the Hintorrhein, Its wide and populous 
I Valley is locally called the Oberland, and ia one of the chief 
districts where tiie Rhrotian tongue is spoken. The Hintcr- 
rhein rises in a glacier near the St. lieniardino Pass, and 
flows first nearly K.N.E. and then N, to the confluence at 
Keichenau. Its valley is much narrower and less populous 
b than the Oberland, and the population is very mixed in race, 
Kor at least in language, many villages being quite German; 
its western side in the lower part of its course is called the 
Heinzenborg, and is another district of the Rhietian lan- 
guage. The various side valleys between the Vordep- and 
the Hinterrhein are of course to a large extent Rhcotian. 
Following up the Ilinterrhein for about ten miles from the 
confluence, we reach the point where it is swelled by the 
Stream Albula, flowing from the S.E. About eight miles up 
■ the Albula is Tiefenkasten, and the mountains which stretch 
Ifrom hence southwards, on the east of its southern afiluent 
(called the Oberhalbsteiner Rhein, are called Oberhalbstein ; 
1 this district again the Rliajtian tongue is heard. East of 
l^be Oberhalbstein, in the upper part of the glen of the 
lAlbula, N.W. of the Albula Puss, lies Bergiin, the chief 
place of another region of the Rhietian language. All these 
^^istricts lie in the region watered by the Rhine and it« 
' sffluents, but, us has been seen, they reach to the very sources 
of the streams, and descend no lower than the confluence of 
the two great Rhine rivers, Cuera being quite German. 
I The Rheetian language is also spoken in the large district 
W'ot the Engadin or upper valley of the river Inn, whiuh, 
^although the Inn after a long N.E. course ultimately flows 
into the Danube at Passau, is nevertheless separated by one 
of the chief ranges of the Alps from the more northern dis- 
trict whose water feeds the Rhine. The Inn rises close to 
Ithe Maloja Pass, about thirty-five miles south of Cuera, and 


it immediately takes the direction which it follows during 
its whole course iu the Eugadiu, or ia Switzerland, viz. N.E. 
The Inn was in Latin Oonua, and in Rom. Oen or Ea ; and 
the first syllable oF Engadin ia undoubtedly the name of the 
river ; the second probably means ' valley,' but is an etymo- 
logical puzzle. The Engadin is divided into the Upper, 
from the source of the Inn for fifteen miles to Samadeu, and 
the Lower, from this place, where the river falb rapidly, 
fifty miles or rather more, to Martinsbruck, where is the ■ 
political frontier between Switzerland and Tirol, and at the j 
same time the eastern limit of the Rljtxtian tongue. The ] 
language spoken in the Oberland, and the Rhine districta J 
generally, is known as Romonsch, i.e. language of the 1 
Romans; that of the Engadin is called Ladin, which pro- 
bably denotes Latin.' The dialect of the Upper Engadic 
ia distinct from that of the Lower. Both are literary ; these 
two and that of the Oberland are the only dialects that have 
any old literature, and they have had a certain amount of j 
books for three centuries. 

But we cannot limit the scope of our survey to the valleys I 
of the Orisons, although for the present I cannot venture to ' 
say much of districts beyond that region. Dialects which ■ 
are recognized as forms of the same language are spoken 
elsewhere — in places strikingly remote from the Orisons 
centre. There are several such districts in Tirol. First and 
foremost, the Valley of Oardena (to give its Ladin name), 
Ger. Orodeu, a very small valley whose stream falls into the 
Eisack from the south about half-way between Botzen and 
Brixen. Essentially the same dialect is spoken in the small 
valleys of Badia and Ampezzo, a little to the cast, but 
curiously separated from each other and from the valley of 
Oardena by high mountains; that of Ampezzo has gained 
notoriety of recent years among travellers by the Dolomite 
mountainB that surround it, and by the proximity of Titian's 

• Similnrlj Ihe Old Caatilian Bpanuh a tennod iirfi 
TOwel* srmielimui besoniH d, n fadenv>=tiiUHB, but 
mruns ' quick,' Wiiiar ■ to hiuteii ' ; tWe BppiiroiiUy ariieB from . . 
tbe inuUigRnce and qnkkDesa of the Lutia-aponking nee; ladiit is uwd 


Aud I. 



rthplace, Pieve di Cadore, But the same dialect is spokea 
r to the west, in the Nonabergthal (Val di Non}, and ita 
upper portion, the Sulzberg (Val di Sole), the stream from 
which flows into the Adige ftotu the north-west, about ten 
miles north of Trent. It is spoken in other very email 
valleys near V, Gardena, espceially Fassa, Buchensteia or 
Ijivinalongo, and Enneberg or ilarubia, the most northerly, 
Finally, a very similar dialect is spoken in a large district in 
the extreme east of Italy, in Friuli (Furlo), about Gorizia 
(Germ. Gorz), and Gradiaca, twenty-five to thirty miles 
N.W. from Trieste. 

Bausch, who hus published an account of the Homonsch 
literature, gives the following table, showing the mutual 
relations of the various dialects : — 

Badio- Noiu- 
tisch berguch 
(Biidia) (Val di Nan) 

(V.d'Am- (tttldi 
peizo, Sale) 
B uchenxteiniMh. 

I must limit myself mainly to the two literary branches of 
the Rbffitian language — the Romonsch of the Obcrland and 
the Lodin of the Engudiu, Of these we have printed docu- 
ments for more than three centuries — historical, territorial, 
and political. There are newspapers still published in 
them, and school-books, as well as Bibles, catechisms, etc., 
^UQ abundance; less frequently native poets publish verses; 


and a few very creditable philologists make our path easier 
— notably Otto Cariscli, without whose admirable little 
diotiotiary I should have been sorely at a loss, and Zaucaria 
Pallioppi, who has done muuh for fixing the orthography 
of the Upper Engndiu dialect, and would have done much 
more for the cornpariaoa of hia language with the cognate 
Lutin dialects, had he not been ent off by an early death. 

The other dialeots. especially those in Tirol and iu Friult, 
are not literary at all, unless some few occasional tittempts at 
verses in the latter, especially a translation of Virgil'i 
Georgics by Zuau Josef Busiz of Gorizia (1857) — experi- 
ments by educated people — may be considered to viudicat«' 
for them this character. 


mHiiciadon of the /elfers 

>f the alphnhet. 

The dialects to be considered here are ; 1) Oberland in the 
section Obwaldisch (sopra selva, suraelvisch) in the Vor- 
derrhein valley, subdivided into the Catholic of Disentis and 
the Reformed of llanz; 12) Engadin, subdivided into Oberen- 
gudin aud Uiiterengadin. In these dialects books have beea 
written for nearly three centuries, and systems of spelling 
obtained currency. The other dialects, being nearly destituts 
of literature, have no recognized systems of orthography, aud 
need not detain us here, where it is not necessnry to do more 
than to define the pronunciation of the chief letters or com- 
binations wherever that might be doubtful. But I shall say 
the least possible on the subject, and refer the student to 
Carisch's Gtamnmfixfhe Formciikhre, pp. 105-115, and the 
preface to his Tmrhen-Wortcrbueh, for the Oberland, to 
Pallioppi's Oftogrtijia et Ortoe/m for the Oberengadin, and 
to Schneller, Die rutrumuchen Volkimundarten in Sudlirol for 
the TirolesB. 

The vowels ff, e, i, o, it are used as in Italian ; but in two 
or three gradations. Pallioppi recognizes in O.E. three — weak, 
firm, and long. The weak vowels are weaker than in Italian, 
and thus in unaccented final syllables a and e are nearly 







Fiderttical, and in O.L. some write es^en, some esaan:=»unnia 

F(Cari8ch Gr. p. 71, 148), and in O.E. rmdam and renf/en» 
would sound alike (Paliioppi, p. 0), The other Towela when 
weak are almost identical in O.E. The modified Towels «, 6, 
a, borrowed from German, are used in O.E. and pronounced 
as in German. The Latin diphthongs le, is are also found, 
especially in O.E., but apparently pronounced as e, ci. Many 
diphthongs aro used, especially ai, au, ei, eu, if, uo, on. In 

JP.E. ai and riu are equivalent to a long e and a respectively, 
f I understand Palljoppi rightly (p. 30). But in general the 

ptwo sounds of each diphthong are distinclly heard. 

All ihe consonants of the Latin alphabet are used ; except 
that /■, T, and y are scarcely employed in modern orthography, 
and the German «- is as foreign as in other Neo-Latin lan- 

|guage& There is no peculiarity lo be noted in the usage of 
the letters 6, d, /, m, p, q, t, v. 
C has the hard sound of /t- before a consonant or a, o, «, and 
■t the end ; before c and i generally the sound of Germ, z (ts). 
|But the Latin c before e, i, and the diphthongs ae, oe (which 
were early transformed into the simple e), was softened here 
as in other Neo-Lntin languages, and not only before those 
Towels, but frequently before the others as well. This softened 
c is described as not identical with either of the Italian soft 
sounds c or i;, but midway between them ; the Engadin 
dialects wrote it as ch (like Sp., ProT., and Fr.) ; c/u, c/iasa, 

Ithiiern. In the Oberland the practice bad grown up of 
initing ch for the hard sound of c, even before the broad 
frowels [chnr for car) — a practice which is now given up; but 
it was thereby rendered impossible to use vh for the soflened 
fe. The Oberlanders chose the combination ty for the latter, 
imd wrote i'ji for chi, etc, ; but cAi is often used, as lichhr 
(which in Italian spelling would be liciar, the i' serving only 
to indicate the soft sound of c and not being pronounced as a 
Towel), f)ec//ieii = 'Lat. peeten ; yet c/i also maintains its place 
to indicate the hard c before i and e, as in cftinn, c/iiciT, c/iierp ; 
but IseA is also used, as facha/ir = cellar. A simple c before e 
and ( is sounded in O.L. as well as E. as £ (ts), as in ceder 
\ (Lat. cedore), ckil, Celcruia. 


Q" is Similarly softened, as in Italian, before e^ t, o, and m. 
The soft sound is variously indicated in the O.L. by ig (which 
unfortunately is used also for the softened c, so that letg 
'marriage' (Lat. lex, legis) may be confounded with letg 
' bed ' (Lat. lectus), though differently pronounced) ; by gi 
at beginning and ig at end of a syllable, e.g. maig, matg=> 
May, paig, pa/^= pactum, giegia (Germ. Geige), gig^ gitg 
(Lat. diu) ; and at the end of a native word by g alone, e.g. 
lig * bed,' Ihg * marriage,' mag. The hard g before the soft 
vowel is expressed by gh^ and in words of German origin by 
^, as leger= Lager (if, as I suppose, the g is hard here). In 
the Engadin tg and ig are not used, but in native words g by 
itself is soft at the end, and at the beginning gi is used 
before UyO^ u\ the hard g before these vowels being indicated 
by gh. 

In connexion with these sibilant sounds the combination 
Bch must be considered. It is used for the Germ. Bch^ 
Fr. chy It. BC, The only cases that give any difficulty 
are those in which the ch as explained above (=tsh) are 
preceded by «. In the O.L., when tg was used for cA, 
no confusion arose, because schani has its sch to represent 
the single sound of Ger. Bch^ and astgiar, stgisa can only 
be pronounced as-tgiar, s-tgisa, stg representing two sounds. 
In the Engadin, where ch is used for the soft c, the com- 
bination Bch might mean either Ger. sch or s+ch. In the 
latter case the old books effect a distinction by writing Bck 
with a following $, as sckiusa ; the modern spelling retains 
Bch, and nothing but the inserted i remains to indicate the 
pronunciation s+ch, as schiusa, schiampar. This latter spelling 
is also adopted in modern O.L. books, which produces the 
above-mentioned confusion. To avoid the confusion it must 
be noted that sch before an i which is a root- vowel or accented, 
as also in words of German origin, is in most cases a single 
sound = Ger. sch. Where a word in either dialect ends in sch 
and the ch is to be softened, Carisch recommends the spelling 
schg, as hoschg for bosch, though he does not always observe 
this orthography in his dictionary. 

L and n are sometimes liquidized as in Italian gl and gn. 



This liquid sound is esprcaaed now in both dialects by t/l 
and gn, though they were formerly written /j and ng. The 
I combiiiiition t/l, however, haa this liquid sound ouly before i 
rBnd u, and ut the end of a word. The combinations gl tind 
W,gn occur also where each letter has its separate sound ; but 
I this is generally obvious from the etymology. 

N at the end of a word has often a naaal sound very 
Klike the French, resembling m rather tban n ; in the O.L. 
I rarely, and chiefly in the termination of adverbs in mein 
I (Fr. meiit), beiit bene, etc., and this sound was often 
■ indicated by ng. In the Engadin the nasal sound is 
much more frequent, and affects the final n, and the »i 
before the affixes « and a, as bitn, buna, buns; and in diminu- 
tive and augmentative forms it is even written as m: bun, 
Ibumin; paun, patimel, paumuii. It is sometimes indicated. 
hj nch. 
H, BB in roost of the Xeo-Latin languages, is generally 
Bilent in all the dialects, and the Latin A is consequently 
(especially in the mo<lern spcllitig, which aims at being 
phonetic], usually dropped, as in Italian. But it is retained 
in writing where it is useful for the purpose of distinguishing 
different words, as in many forms of the verb lo have, as well 
aa in some other words, as O.L. hum, E, Aom=homo. In 
words of German origin it is probably aspirated in 0,L., as 
A(?(j;(?/= kegel, /(«^'W«/-= barren, aa well as in all words where 
it represents a j or k, aa hazla-=.\i. gazza, Arirfa^kreide, 
A»r«e/< = kranzli, /iniO(/=krug. In O.E. it is used aspirated 
at the end to represent Lat. c: flHHA=amicu8, vih=vicu8, 
L aptA=8picum (apeak). It is also aspirated in interjections 
B ha, ah, aha. It is also used for diacritical purposes in 
Rthe combinations eh, gh. 

3 lias generally the force of a consonantal i, or English y. 

^Occasionally it seems to have a soft aspiration ; Pallioppi 

lays it has this in O.E. at the end of ziij, siij, etc. ; and in 

rO.L. perhaps it baa in Janima (also written enHio) = Lat. 


R ia said by Carisch to be pronounced in O.E. as ^r or er 
I Itefore /, o, and ti, e.g. in i>, rir, cor, ur ; but the correctness 



of this pronunciation is doubtful, as Pallioppi does not 
notice it. 

S has generally the usual sharp sound, especially at the I 
beginning before voweb, and aft«r the prepositional prefixes ; ( 
and the soft sound (English z) in the middle between a long J 
and a weak vowel, and at the end of a word. Before ft'.J 
consonant, however, the South German pronunciation like «A I 
is very common in both dialects, utid then the spelling 9ch iw 1 
often used, except where the « is a prefix derived from Lat- I 
fix or liU. In O.E. monosyllabic words Carisch says that I 
final « after k is pronounced as tjx or x, e.g. in nuit, rus ; bu^ | 
Pallioppi knows nothing of this peculiarity, 

Z is pronounced either as fs or as ds. 

UisTORY OK Rhj;tian Sounds. 
As this language in all its dialects is Neo-Latin, my work 
under this head consists mainly in pointing out the process 
by which the original Latin words have assumed their present 
forms, which is made most evident by taking each letter of J 
tlie alphabet in succession. Each dialect might be dealt I 
with separately, but a clearer view will be obtained of ths. 1 
dialectic differences and much space will be saved by taking -1 
them together ; and enough will be effected by the notice of 1 
the principal dialects, especially those in which books hava f 
been written. As a rule, therefore, I limit myself to the | 
dialects of the Oberland, the Tipper and the Lower Engadin 
including occasional notices of the dialect of Grodon, repre- 
sentative of Tirolese Bomonsch, and perhaps of Furlan 
{dialect of Friuli). The phonology has been exhaustively 
treated bv Ascoli, to whose large work every student inns(> | 
refer for a fuller exposition. The spelling is by no nieana | 
fixed ; I think it safest to follow Carisch for the Oberland and 
Lower Engadiu, and Pallioppi for the Upper Engadin, and I 
have not space to notice the obsolete orthography of the old j 
books, though I have no doubt that these are well wortt ) 
studying, since besides different modes of representing the I 
same sound they sometimes (though perhaps not very fre- 4 
quently) preserve older pronunciations. 


The general principles on which the Latin originals have 
been modified may be summamcd as follows, 

1) Latin terminalions are generally dropped. Thus; — 
MS, am of 2nd and 4th deciinalions are absolutely lost, e.g. 

I ^gi filius, fffaU gradtis, i/rauii grenuni ; to which there is an 
1 exception in the case of participles in tiis preceded by a 
Towel, as these lose the * only, the preceding vowel forming 
a diphthong wiih the previous one after the loss of the /, as 
O.L. l"</m TJ.E. Iu</d 0,K. lu<ld laudatus (of which the feni. 
is O.L. liiilmlii); but besides this, the O.L. retains the s of 
adj. in the predicate, e.g. bum bonus, ludniin laudatus. 

, CJ( (root in i or e) and neuf. e are lost, e.g. O.L. gi E. di 
' dies, O.L./ojHW O.E./n/rt fames, O.L. n'lebel E. nobel nohilis, 
[ O.L. H<tv O.E. iiee navis, O.L. mar O.E. mer mare. 

e of verbs in infia. -are, etc.; O.L. and U.E. amar O.E. 
omhr amare; and in 2 pi. imperat. •ale: O.L. nmeit U.E. 
[ antat O.E. amk antate. 

of verba in 1 sing. : O.L. amnra U.E. atimca E. 
amaiva T. amove amahum ; O.L. amatis E. ameas T. ame/me 
I amossem; but sun retains n for m of sum. 

t of verbs in .3 sing, and pi. : ama amat, amfin amant, etc. ; 
I also in subst., O.L. c/iiau U.E. c/icii O.E. c/io T. (i/e caput, 
[ liat. a of fern, subst. and adj., and of 2 sing, imperat. of verba 
D -are, is retained. 

2) Latin unaccented first syllables are often lost, e.g. 
I martu ' lover,' quasi (a)morosus, chitar (ac)cusare, gnir (ve)iiire, 
r^cAnr, It, (la)8ciar, kin (vo)lumu8, »tad (ae)8ta9, stimar 
I Cae)stiniare, u/ia (aeq)ailibrium, etc. ; and the prefix cc or dU 

ia abridged, as in Italian, into s, e.g. slender extendere. 

3) An unaccented vowel in the middle, before or after the 
\ accent, is often lost; e.g. XJ.E. pc/id O.K. prAd {Q.h. puceaii) 
^ peocatum, E. nte (O.L. mdi) vitellus, U.E. rnal O.E. t-nel 
I (O.L. canal) venalia, O.L. deritcher (to judge) dirigere, O.L. 
' drelg E. drett (right) directum, U.E. chonf O.E. chanf (O.L. 

conie) cannabis. 

4) A consonant (especially rf) between two vowels often 
drops out and causes their contraction into one, e.g. rir 
ridere, v^r videre, gir dicere, ier sedcre, tschantar, nchanlar 


(to set, causative from the preceding) quasi 8o(d)entare, O.L, i 
aniaii amaft)u9, O.L, ca, E. cha caaa. 

5_) When two consonants come together, assimilation of the 
first to the second often tak-is place, e.g. O.L. domi E, lianii 
damnum, O.L. dunna U.E. duonnn O.E. donna domiaa, O.L. 
pissii-r E. pmh; It. pensiero from Lat. pensare, mvssar 
monatrare, diess dorsum, rfffro»(s) (behind) de nvorso, uffonf, 
ajfon infansi 0,L, pechien U.E. pelten O.E, pctlan pecten, 
cai/fir (to find) captare. 

6) But the letter u instead of being aaairailated is fre- 
quently dropped, as O.L. peis pensura (weight), O.L. pasar 
O.E. pser pensare, U.E. bragii- O.L. bragir plangere. 

7) A final consonant of the stem of a Latin word is oftCTi 
dropped, as the c in words in icuit, O.L. snlvodi O.E. *»leeM 
(savage) silvaticus, viaifi, viai'g (voyage) viaticum, arvadi 
herbaticum, niiedi, meidi medicus. 

Special changes will be noticed under the letters subjected 
to them. 

A long and accented represents Lat. a in all the dialects, 
in the root- syllable, as also in terminations such as -ant' 
impeif., -nr infin. It stands for mi in U.E. pnc paucua. 

A short and accented represents Lat. a, especially in, 
jnonosyllables : far facere, O.L. faig E, fatt factum, /at 
(but also fer) faba, O.E. fain O.L. fumm fames; the vowel' 
a is preserved especially before double consonants (Aacoli)^ 
thus before nrf : grand, diitiianda, /rara fratrea (of which th^ 
sing, is/rir). 

A short and unaccented stands frequently for Lat. a in O L 
and E., both in particles, as n, ad, fa, and in unaccentec 
syllables, as larar lavare, Iridin (rapid) lalinus, fnrr^r Febru- 
arius, E. famaigl famulus, niadir maturua. But in O.L. it is 
the favourite vowel, which stands for other short vowels, via, 
1) for e : da de, ga se, danir denarius, par per, parvenda 
praebenda, sagir securis, harbeUch verves, tardtjd Veritas ; 
especially beibre r ; and this occurs also in U E. ; da^ett 
AeMght, pac/iiaduor (later pcfiadir) peccator, panieufzgia poeni- 
tenlia; 2) for i: ancHiiarf inclinare, and most words ci 
pounded with in, lalomcha bilanx, mkadi silvaticus, vendat 




Tendis; rIso in E, cntchino vicmuB, uraglia auricula; S) for 
: hanur honor, paltrun It, poltrone, pantim It. pontone ; 
4) even for «: ramiir rumor, Ascoli observea that the 0,L. 
loves the sequence a — u or u — 4 for Liit. o — 6, aa canuticher 
cogooscere, rrwunaichienscha recognitio, 

A is prefixed to many words to which it does not originally 
belong [a prosthetic) in E., which loves more ample vocaliam. 
Thus in O.E. ahifi O.L, lig lex (marriage), alver OL. lecar 
levare, aldar O.E. ladnr laetare cf. laetaraen (to dung), 
almentar O.L. iamenter lamentnri, amarp O.L. mare (atitf) ; 
and in the U.E, pronouns an se, am me, al te, ans nos, tM vug. 
- £! long nnd accented, represents primarily the Latin lon^ 
e: as in O.L, ilulir dolere, lemir timere, Ihj (E. lett) lectus, 
ffindeva vendebara; chiefly in O.L., aa O.E. has in moat cases 
U.E, often «'. An open i represents Lat. tonic 
lessariiy long) e, ae, oe, as O.L. Hg (U.E. lai, O.E. 

iy) [marriage] lex, fehcha faeces, lev (E, leiv) iBvis, era 
(E. eira) eram. E tonic also stands frequently (especially 
before r in O.L., but in O.E. and Tir. before other letters) 
for a, aa O.L. pir par, jmmh' pomarius, drtiikr denarius, 
tschnler cellarium and other words of this formation, grev 
(E. greiv) gravis, Ihger Ger. lager; O.E, ira (O.L. ara) arat 
(but inf. arSr because unaccented), pija pagat (but pajSr), 
tuhidi (O.L. salvadi) silvaticus, n^f navis ; Tir. kra apia, iga, 
aqua, ami amare. E tonic is sometimes produced by con- 
traction of two syllables, as O.L. n^r (E, nair) niger, er (E. 
eir) ager, Tir. en (O.L. era) area. E accented or after the 
accent often stands for Lat. i short or before two consonants, 
in various dialects, as : O.Jj.feriu firraus, metier mittere, lenn 
(E. lain) lignum, nieniler (E. minder) [boy] minor, /icsc (E. 
peach) piacis, derscher [judge] from dirigere, el ella, ille ilia, 
aenimei simul, enfrar intrare, O.E. tern timeo, Tir. uredla 

B short and unaccented represents Lat. e, though a or i are 
also used, often in the same word, as O.L, geeimd U.E. 
tegond O.E, seguond aecundus, segar sugar siar fU,E. sgiar, 
O.E. sger) [to mow] secare, ancers (E. iuvers) Fr. envers. 
: unaccented e in verbal terminations often 


stands for Lat. a or e, aa dmore, -tris amabam, -baa, yet 
drudra amabat, ameiie amate. 

I long and accented in O.L. generally represents Lat. 
long u, where £. has u, e.g, nalira natura, Jimm fumus, in 
U0U8, ti tu, miliar mutare, mil mutus, ,f)-itg (E. friitt) fructua, 
pU (D.E. plii O.E. pu) plus, pick pitg (E. piitt) punctum, 
yirnr jiirare, c/tisnr accusare, bfit [sheep] brutus. I tonic, 
long or short, represents Lat, i in all dialects, e.g. O.L. Jirc 
(E. fix) ficus, fffl filius, Jibla (U.E. fuvla, O.E. fivla) fibula, 
figiaf ligaro, ignii' (E. gnieu) nidus, im imum, fig (U.E. vich. 
O.E. vih) vicus, riu via, mif minis, tizzun titio. I, especially 
when short, may arise from Lat. e in special cases, as O.L/ 
nivel (E. Duvel) nebula, /)iss/cr (E. pisaer) It. pensiero, from 
Lat. pensare, anigl anellus, m'ng venio, irom aeramen. I 
unaccented represents Lat. ff, aa O.L. piiir (E. patir) pati, 
rischun raschun ratio ; or e, as pirir (E. perir) perire, pigiur 
pejor, rfwi»«( daemon ium, gigitin planus. It even stands for 
Lat. o, through the Engadin o, in O.L. tim E. tossi [poison] 
toxicum. A long i is frequently produced by contraction, as 
pit- pejor, rir ridere, gir dicere, t^ E. di dies, 

O appears, when accented, and especially in monosyllables, 
as rep rescnta live of Lat. o, in O.L. aa well aa Engad., though 
in the former ie is also used, sometimes in the same word; 
/oss fossa, cor cor, corn {also O.L.chiem) cornu,/t)//follis,'6op 
(E. bouv) bos, fioig {E. nott noat) nox, O.E. nonch (O.L. 
iiuuscli) [bad] noxius, E. twss (O.L. nieaa) noster. Mora 
rarely it stands for Lat. u, as nozza (O.E. noazzu) nuptiae ; 
and in O.E, for Lat. ait as /rod (O.L. fraud) fraus, lod (O.L. 
laud) lauB. But it is very commonly used, chiefly in O.L. 
and moally before m and <i, for Lut. a ; grand graadis, Jtomma 
flumma, /orii/n fames, domi damnum, coiiibra (E. chambra) 
camera, o/ma (U.E. orma, O.E. oarraa) anima, conir (U.E, 
chonf, O.E. chanf, H. coven) cannabis, ijivxs griess (E. gross) 
crassus, romonsc/t romanus; and in participles O.L. ludond 
(E, -and) laudandus, ladont (E. -ont) laudans; the U.E. part. 
in ond is even used where Lat. has -endus ; reiidond (O-L, 
vendend). Also for Ger, a in fopa f. wappen n. In (occ 
(O.E. tcich) we liave probably Ger. stiick. lu O.E. a long 6 





regularly stands for al before a coDsonant, as oter (O.L. auier 
U. oter) alter, hdd (O.L. bauld U.E. baut) Ger. bald, ffod 
(O.L. giiault uault uaut, U.E. guaut vaut) Ger. wald and 

When short and unaccented, o generally stands for Lat, o, 
as in the prefixes com, con, and pro ; but may represent other 
ToweU, e-g, e (before r) in U.E. oraiic O.E, oeaisg (OX. 
uvesc'bg) epiacopus, E. doea'ir (O.L, duver) dobere. 

TT accented represents Lat. «, e.g. in nusrh nux, critech 
crux, ctign (E. cuoign) cuneus, umhlig umbilicus, umbrira 
ambra, ttaziuu natio (and ao other words of this form) ; and 
also Lat. 0, as iiuh nos, niim (E. nom) noinen, eudiach (U.E, 
cudesch O.E. cudasch) [book] codex, ura hora, hum, urn (E. 
horn) homo, mur [mulberry] morus, cutt cos, crttnita (E. 
eurunna) corona. But it must be remembered that the 
normal course is for Lut. « long or before two cooaonanta 
to become i: Jtmm fumua, Jist fustis. U unaccented stands 
for various vowels, chieHy for Lat. o : nmlar notare, culier 
(E. culer) coUiire, ciiikt, -tr conauere, ciirrir cooperire, urar 
orare, nutc/ier (O.E. noacher) nocere, cm-iit (E. cusdrin) con- 
sobrinus, nuci/l (U.E. ui ovi uvi uvil, O.E. nuvigl) ovile, 
ubadir obedire. Also for Lat. n : nttdar natare, buguar (U.E. 
bugniar, O.E. bagner) balneare; for an: ludar laudare, 
uttclii m. (E. utschiSJ [bird] aucella, wUr audire, itretglta 
(E. uraglia) auricula, tuba Ger. taube, etta [u accented] 
Cauda; for Lat, i": ujfont affbii (U.E. uffant, O.E. infaunt) 
infans, affiern unjiern (O.E. iofiern) infernum, unviern (E, 
invieni uviern) [winter] hibemum, uffiar, inflare, sumigliar 
[resemble] quaai similiaro; evon for e before v or m: 
UK«chg, tteic/ig (U.E. ovaisc O.E. ovuisg) epieeopus, durer 
(E. dovair) debere, dumandar demandare. U or gu are also 
used for the German *p : nim (E, guiaa) weise, iial [stream] 
perhaps welle, vajfen m. waSe (., vault guault wald. In Tir. 
V stands at beginning for Lat. unaccented ri, if, aa uni venire, 
■vlei velle, udei videre, udu visus, ud6ce vidt, min vicious, ught 
or tifighe vigere, 

XT scarcely occurs in the O.L. or Tir,, or indeed anywhere 
except in the Eagudin, where it represents Lat. u : tin uoua. 


aiiur suiur sudor, O.E, pul/rtsch U.E. pahch pulex, O.E. r!ud 
TJ.E. nalu It. Telluto (velvet), etc.; alao in U.E. participles 
of the form imii It. temuto, gnii (for vegnii) It, veauto. 

O in the Engadin represents Lat, o, generally modified by 
a short i, c, or n in the next syllable, which disappears in the 
Romonsch word, e.g. ehor corium, fogl folium, bogl botelluB 
[bowel], 7»ce/populus, !'0(/ [empty] viduus, gib '^acns, fd [fire] 
focus, 16 locus, and O.L. ogl oetdiis, apparently the only 0-L. 
word that has this sound. From Lat. u in ploigia pluviu, In 
Tirolese o represents Lat. e chiefly before I, e.g. mid! mal,, 
boH belluB, ucol [bird] aucella and similar dlmiuutives; p6 
pes, liocer lepus, Uaiip Joseph, rofi reficere.j'o ego. 

Ai occurs very rarely in O.L. for Lat. a-i or a : mni magis 
(It. mai), tait, Gfer. dachs (It. taaso), puis [immediately]* 
passim? In O.E. and TJ.E. it represents Lat. long or short' 
e accented, where O.L, has e or ei: avoir habSre, rntr v4ra8^. 
Anicel flebilis, fiiin vCiiit, bain bene, O.E, avain* U.E. harain, 
habemus; and TJ,E. mat me, at end of word where O.E. has 
e. In O.E, it represents Lat. 4 accented in verbal forra^ 
where O.L. has a or ei, U,E. ei or ai: hidaiva (O.L. -ava 
tr.E, -eiva) laudabam, hidains (O.L. -ein U.E. -ain) laudamus; 
whereas we have a in liilan laudant. In O.E. it also repre- 
sents Lat. ( lengthened by the accent ; baicer bibere, tiiiulsch 
tingo (whereas tetidncliaim tingimus, tit tinctus), teiidatnt 
vendimus, pail pilus, sain sinus, and in the Lat, combinationa 
int, inc, ing, imp, ist, ign, as ainira [from entrer], intrat, 
uaimcha vincit, cumainza (It. coniincia) oom-initiare, iaitv 
lignum, pain pignua. 

Au in O.L, represents Lat. an, where E. often has o : f 
paucua, aura [weather] aura, aur aurum, Iniir taurua, j-aas 
raucus ; also for o in nausch [bad] (O.E. nosch) noxius. It 
is also used in O.L. to express a long drawn out pronunciatioa 
of a, Lat. a, before n (sometimes spelt ou) : maun manua, 
vaun vanus, paun panis, taun sanus, cMaiin canis. Au in 0,1^ 
also arises from a followed by /, which is often dropped ; hero 
O.E. has fl : aulscher algere, auler alter, ault (U.E, aut, 0,E. 
6t) altus, can chiau (U,E. cheu O.E. chO) caput, cauld (U.E. 
chaud O.E. chod) culidus. Au in terminations of participlei 




arises from adu, the d of which is retained in tbe fern. : 
deputau (O.E. depute) deputatus; f. deputada. In O.L. 
eaura (H. uhiora U.E. chavra O.E. chevra) oapra, the u ia 
aeen to be a TocaL'zatioD of t, and this from Lat. p. 

Ei {also e) acoented represents in O.L. Lat. long e, ae, oe, 

and even short e, where E. has ai ot ei: eeiv {E. saiv) sebum, 

I also sepes, pleic (E. plaiv) pleba, treia (E. tre) tres, teih 

(E. taila) tela, ateila (E. ataila} slella, teina ateina (E. vaina) 

vena, /ctw (E. fain) foenum, peina (E. paina) poena, tackeina 

(tschaina) caena, reU (E. rait) rete, bciu (E. bain) bene; on 

the other hand let (E, leiv) ISvis./c^/fl (E. feiata) festum, lid 

{E. leid) iaetuH, Tir. serein aerenns. Ei in O.L. alao repreaenta 

Lat. i, lengthened by the accent (E. ai] : peirer (E. paiver) 

piper, pfil {E. pail) pilus, neiv (E. naiv) nix, pi'isc/i pix, win 

(E. sain) sinus, m( (E. satt) sitis; and in Tir. ciia ilia; also 

occasionally Lat. a, as in verbs ladeiii (U.E. Indain O.E. 

, ludains) laudamus (yet liidava laudabam), and in Tir. ameis 

I aniatis ; and in E. ffretv (O.L. grev) gravis. 

£a in O.L. occasionally represents Lat. o in monosyllables : 
I Jituff (E. fo) focus, leug log (E. \o) locus, leimg (E. lung) 
1 longus. It also stands for Lat. w, as meiir (E. miir) mus, neu 
[ (E. niid) nndus, creit (E, crii or criid) crudus, sen (E. sieu) 
[ 8UUS, ten (U.E. tais, O.E. tieu) tuus, dieua deits (E. dieu) 
I deus; but in all these except the first there is a following 
I. Towel (the d being dropped out) which may afi'ect the pro- 
1 nunciation; and this ia the case in the participles where it 
I stands for idu, iu : veiideii (O.E. vendieu, pronounced vendia, 
I U.E. vendu) venditus (fem. veodida), and in reii (U.E. vaidg 
I O.E. guaivd) viduus. A similar contraction is found in U.E. 
[ tu (O.L. iou O.E. eau) ego. 

Ia is found aa a digraph vowel in O.L. alone, representing 

I Lat. tonic e before /, r and s, as bial bell U (E. bell) bellus, 

tiara terra, tiann lienn (E. term) terminus, viarm vierm 

J (E. verm) vermis, viaspra (U.E. veispra, O.E. vespra) vespa, 

I jiial (E. pell) peltis, antult (pi. of ani) anellus. 

le represents in O.L. alone Lat. tonic o, but o often returns 
' before the plural s: cliiern pi. corns (E. cbuern) cornu, c/iUrp 
. pi. corps (U.E. corp O.E, chiierp) corpus, ckierc (E. corvj 



corTus, iee pi. <tfs (E. 6v) ovum, ieli (E. 6H) oleum, teas (E, 
iiaa) oa ossis, iert hortus, ierfait (E. orfan) orphanua, nitbet 
(E. Dobel) nobilis, tiier f. noea (E. nouv) dovus, ttirss (E. noss) 
aoster, pieivi (E, pcivel) populus, ^jwtpA pi. /joj's (E. piiercL) 
porcus, mn (E. son) Bomnus, siemi (E. gomi) soinnium ; also 
for Lot. u in diember numeroa, chieinbel cumulufl. It also 
stands (like ia) for Lat, tonic e: fera (E. faira) ferrum, miezs 
(E. mezz) medium, tschierv (E, tsclierf) cervua, vierm (E. 
verm) vermis, wwrfi medic us, tschiel (E. tscliel) coelum. 

Oa is used, especially in the old ortbograpliy, in O.E., for 
('*) accented, as in oas (OX. ozz U.E. hoz) hodie, noassat 
(O.L. noz?^s) nuptix, noati nott (O.L. iioig) nox, coalwhen 
{O.L. cotacheu) coccinus. 

Ou is used in E. for Lat. o accented: nouv (O.L. niev) 
novus, rouda (O.L. roda) rota, cour (O.L. cor) cor, faura 
[hole] unused Lat. fora (whence forare), 

Uo is used often ia O.E., and less frequently in O.L. for 
Lat. u before two consonants or a double cons. : O.L. tuorbi 
turbiduB, fuor turria, O.E. baoglia (O.L buglia) [pap] fr. 
Lat. bulla (see Diez b.t. boUa), O.L, iuorta [tart] torta 
(Diez), O.E. /mom (O.L. tuss U.E. tosa) tuasis, rwoi fof 
ruofla (O.L, rutta) [route] via rupta (Diez), O.L. and O.E. 
puolcra pulver. 

TJnacceuted short Latin vowels very frequently go out 
altogether in Romonsch, especially immediately before the 
accent, as O.L. zaiiur dishonor, zavrar separare (but zeivra 
s^purat),/ri'»Nii farina, E. tgar aecurus, E. nutrus aaioTosu% 

H ia aspirated only in O.L. in some words of German, 
origin, where it stands for cA or t, as O.L. bi/iir (E. bacli^r) 
becher, b/ihtr (E. blicbir) bleicben, biirhar brechen, heigfl 
(U.E. cliejel) kegel, hrizer (U.E. kriizzer) krcuzer, hriiog 
(U.E. croja) krug, hriila (O.E. crida U.E, cruida) kreide; 
but in O.E. occasionally at end of words of Latin origin for 
Lat, c, where O.L. has g and U.E. either has ch or drops it, 
e.g. O.E, rih (U.E. vich O.L. vig) vicus, spUi (O.L. spig) 
spicura [point], amih (U.E. ami O.L. amig) amicus, inimih 
(U.E. iuimi O.L. uuauiig) inimicus. (But it is used in tha 


various dialects mucli as tn Italian and French without any 
aspiration at the beginning of certain words, and notably 
parts of the verb habeo, to distinguish between words that 
are pronounced alike, thus O.L, hit hiii, el lin U.E. eu ii'/iai, 
el lia O.E. tail hi; d ho habeo, Imbet, O.L. hum um E. horn 
homo, O.L, 012 U.E. hoz O.E, oaz hodie, O.L. honui-ar hun- 
drar TJ.E. hoiidrar O.E. ouorer oiulrer honorare.) 

R genemlly stands for Lat. r. But it is very often, when 
nnaccented, transposed with the following vowel, both wlien 
it is preceded by a consonant and at the beginning. This 
transposition is not unknown to the Engadin dialocls, but is 
far coninionor in the O.L. : e.g. pamchun (E. praschun) 
[prison] prehensio, prirmacera (E. priimavatra) priinum ver, 
ianntnt [very large] tremendus, tarmetter tra n ami tier e, cai- 
par (E. crapar) [burst] crepare, carntiana (U.E. craslian O.E. 
crustiaun) [man] christianus, parrenda (E. pravenda) prae- 
benda, palnrchiar [to think] pertractare, E. arijordar reoordui-j, 
E. arUchaicff (O.L. ratscheiver) reuipore; it occurs chit-fly 
before the accent and not in the accented sj'Uuhle, as AscoU 
cites par/archiacan pertractabant but partracbta pertruclat, 
eardienscha credentia but cretta id. criin credunt. R some- 
times disappears, especially before s (perhaps through assimi- 
lation) even in an accented sjUuble, as O.L. dkxs E. dons 
dorsum, datos de avorso, givsum gioium ijiu ijid deorsum, O.L. 
bucc liticca (E. brich) [not, of doubtful origin] ; in Tir. and 
Furlan at the end of the infinitive forms, as Tir. ami, audi, 
and in Tir between vowels, as ea area, sia (Ft. acie) aerra. 
It is occasionally wrongly inserted, as in prus [pious] quasi 
piosns. It not frequently stands for i or n, as O.L. bargir 
tJ.E. bragh- plangere, O.L. ylhrnri O.E. alimeri animale, 
.TJ.E. ormn O.E. oaniia (O.L. olma) unima, O.L. barmier E. 
h'trmbr bene mortuus, O.L. barcuu (E. balcun) It bulcone, 
OJj. cvrl^ (also cuni'i) cullellus, E, aohiiirpel (U.E. sohianpel) 
■calpellum; Tir. mredl [sun] solcllus. 

Ij generally represents Lat. /. But before a dental, al, 
fsppciaily when accented, becomes in O.L. (generally) diil, in 
U.E. ail and in O.E. 6, as L. aidi 6lt U.E. ant O.E. St 
aitus, O.L. akar U.E. auzar O.E. uzpi- 'altiare' [to raise 



higher], O.L. auler O.E. oier alter, O.L. aaUcher algere, O.L. 
bm!d U.E. bant O.E. b&d Ger. bald, O.L. gHatiU uauli mat 
U.E. gtiaiil vaui O.E. god Ger. wald. At the end of m. or n. 
Lat. words in -eliits -ellum, -ell drops its /, though the syl- 
lable is accented, e.g. O.L, vrnli U.E. vadi rile O.E. rdi 
vilelluB, O.L. Uchuni E, tucherrk cerehellum, O.L. vasc/ii 
thchi E. vasche vasculura (or rather vascetlum), O.L. cnsd 
castellum ; and, from a change of gender, O.L. utuc/il E. 
utsc/ii (It. UGcello) aucella dim. of avis, O.L. gi'ari giud 
schuri U.E. giri O.E, giird scapula (or rather acapella). The 
/ is preserved in the pi. hy the inflexion g, thus tadi, pi. 
radials. It is also preserved by the Bnul vowel of feminiaes 
in ella; and in monosyllables as O.L. mel U.E. meil O.E. 
meigl mel, mal malus niHlum, O.L. hegl E, bogl It. budello 
(bowel) ; and in representations of Latin words in -Uliis, as 
O.L. jiiei-el E, pocel populus, E, credit/ credulus, O.L ckiembel 
cumulus, and in -alls, -His, -alius. But it is occasionally 
dropped after another consonant, aa in O.E. pit (O.L. pH U.E. 
plii} plus. In aHM('H=aliqu'unu8, atich has its « from aa 
original /. In the reverse direction / stands for Lot. n in 
O.L. olma (U.E. orma O.E. oarma) anima, O.L. glimari O.E. 
alimeri animul ; but these are exceptional forms, 

N generally remains unchanged from the Latin. But 
occasionally it stands for Lat. /, as in O.L. citnti (E, curt^] 
cultelluB, U.E. Khhnpel (O.E. schiarpel) scalpellum ; and foP 
Lat, m in E. nen'ber (O.L. member) membrum. It is rarely 
transposed, as in the Heinzenberg form coven (O.L. toniv- 
U.E. chonf O.E. chanf) cannabis. N is inserted before 
another consonant in O.L. tinvkrn E. inciern (uviern) biber- 
num (winter), probably from a mistaken analogy with words 
commencing with prefix in ; the n in O.E. daiiit digitus, O.L. 
unfrir oflerre, seem instances of the nasalization of a double 
cons, {ni for it of O.L. dett). N appears to be prefixed with- 
out meaning in O.L. nutill O.E. imcigl (U.E. uvil nvi ovi 
ui) [cowhouse] ovile, and perliaps in O.L. minder unde, and 
in other words derived from relative or interrogative particles. 
In the verbal termination of 1 pers. pi. as O.L. ludei'n 
laudamus it stands at Ihe end for Lat, m. It is said that n 



18 used in some phrases to avoid hiatus ; thus in U. E. eti n'kai, 
eu n'haia (I have) prea. iodic, and subj. But the n is not 
used in the other persons, though tit, no, and to end in vowels, 
end iii always did ; nor is the n used even after eu ia other 
tenses {eu aveka), nor in other verbs {eu eira I was) ; so 
that this explanation is as inadequate as it is improbable, 
and this n must be regarded as anomalous till a satisfactory 
explanation can be oflered. Giiin (down in), ein (up in), rin 
(off to) are compounded with the prep, in : giit en, si eti, ri en ; 
and the same preposition appears also in nua (where)=in 
obi ; narond, otherwise anavont (forwards), navend or dacend 
(away), el«. 

M is almost always the Latin m, and there is little to be 
said of it. If O.L. cvmbfl or cumbet (elbow) is cubitus, it ia 
an instance of *» being used for nasalization. An original m 
ia assimilated in O.L. donn E. ilmin damnum. 

S generally represents the Latin a : even in terminations, 
it is in O.L. and E. the universal plural inflexion of nouns, 
and in verbs is retained to indicate the 2 pers. sing., and in 
O.L. and O.E. the 2 pers, pi., and in O.L. is retained in 
adjectives and participles from the Lat. m. sing, bonus, 
laudatus; so also in pronouns, L. nua nos, rm vos. It 
stands occasionally for Lat. x, as £. »iiv^ saxum, O.L. lim, 
E, tbiti toxicum, O.L. queism U.E. cossu O.E. eoagsa coxa, 
O.L. fraiswH fraxinus. It is frequently, especially at the 
beginning, pronounced, as in Swiss German, as ach ; in these 
cases it should, according to Carisch (Taschen-Wurterbuch, 
p. xxii), be written with » where the related languuges have 
* (arattir, nUtifar), esp. where it is privative like the Lat, and 
Jt. dia (sjbiitreivel), or euphonic or augmentative {smattnhchn), 
'whereas in cases where it corresponds to It. g or Fr. y, hch 
should be written. B seems often to be pre&xed, as in Tir. 
tcotza [bark] cortex, s/ti/ labium. 

Scb, pronounced as in German, is used especially before i 
where the Lat. has a, e.g. O.L. sehivia)' sc/iular E. schitvlar 
Bibilare, O.L. schuber [clean] sobrius, O.L. eciie (It. se) si, 
O.L. sehi [yes] E. giS (It, si) sic. Also for Lot. y, as in 
O.L. lischica U.E. aschit-a O.E. ahchiva [lye] lixivus, O.L, 

K O.L. //.: 


nausch O.E. nosch noxius. Also for Lat. z, as in sehigliui 
zelosus. Also for Lat. soft c, as in O.L. diesch E. desch 
decern, O.L. rischin E. vschin vicinus, O.L. cudisch XJ.E. 
cudesch O.E. cudasch codex-icisy O.L. liscfient U.E. laschantio 
[idle] (cf. Fr. loisir) from licere ; for Lat. t softened before 
f, as O.L. schumber (E. tambur) timpanum ; for Lat. at, as in 
O.L. vaschir viacher (E. vestir) vestire; and finally in O.L. 
for Lat. soft g orj\ as in O.L. achumcher (U.E. jonscher O.E. 
giundscher) jungere, O.L. achumiah (U.E. dschemblins O.E. 
dschimels) gemelli. 

Z has the two sounds which it possesses in Italian— 
is and dz. It has the former where the Latin has t fol- 
lowed by t or ^, as O.L. vezz vitium, O.L. prezzi prizzi 
(E. pretsch) pretium, O.L. tiez abies-etis, O.L. vanzar "ab- 
ante-are," XJ.E. guz O.E. aguz (O.L. gitt) acutus, and some* 
times when the Latin has d^ as miez mezz medium, O.E. 
rez video, vezzaat vides, O.E. aezzer sedere (though possibly 
rather from Ger. aitzen). At the beginning z is probably 
very frequently pronounced with a c/, as in Italian; as a 
prefix it represents Lat. dis, ae, and perhaps ex, which is, 
however, also written a, as in Ital., both in O.L. and in E. 
forms: O.L. zanur (E. disonur) dis-honor, O.L. zavrar 
scparare, O.L. zarclar sarculare, O.L. zundrar [to curse] dia- 
honorare, O.L. zund zond zuond [very] for z-avunda, 
z-avonda, z-avuonda (i.e. " more than enough," avunda, etc. 
= enough), O.L. znctider excudere. In other words z at 
beginning represents Lat. «, as O.L. zarva sorbus, O.L. zavnn 
(E. suvrin) sobrinus. Besides these, z (but never tz) is the 
Ger. z, as zig zug, E. zemhcr [timber] zimmer, O.L. zvinghiar 
zwingen. It must also be noted that s, as it represents Lat. 
t before i or e^ also sometimes, as well as c, stands for the 
Lat. soft c, and that some words are spelled indifferently 
with c or s, e.g. eivkel or zirkel circulus. 

Tsch, used both in O.L. and in E., has nearly the same 
sound as is expressed in both by chy and in O.L. also by fg, 
and in E. also by c as in Italian. (For the history of this 
confused orthography see Carisch, Taachenw. pp. xvii-xxii, 
and Pallioj^pi, Ortograjia, pp. 37 sqq., 47 sqq.) Tsch gene- 



rally stands for Lat. e before i and <■, as: O.L. hcAurei E. 
Ucherri cerebellum, O.L. Ucboec co^us, O.L. ticliiere E. 
tscherf ce:T\\ia, O.L. tuchmchpad E. fsc/iisp caespes, O.L. tsr/ifrt 
cerlus, O.L. tschrndra cineres, O.L. coischru coccinus, O.L. 
ttchimmii It. cima {inina) ; but in E. ch stands for Lat. c 
(hard) also before other vowela, aa chiirn cura, ch'unnr accusarc, 
elior churom corium, c/thniia cunae, c/iiil cuius, where O.L. has 
ch pronounced hard before >', aa c/iira chkar etc. It also re- 
presents Lat, ti, which must have been early pronounced like 
C {of. ocium, otium, etc.), as in O.E. emanc/mr [forget] It. 
dimenticsre, O.E. brs-c/iia O.L. biesc hirschtg [sheep] bestia. 
Ch is used, by a sort of cissimilation, for Lat. ct, where the 
Engadin dialects generally have an assimilation into tl, aa 
O.L. luehuir (U.E. luottar O.E. lotler) Inctari, 0.l4.patarcliiar 
[think] pertractare, O.L. pecliien (tJ.E, petten O.E, pettan) 
pecten, O.L. pinch pintg E. pUschen [little] puuotum (It. 
, piccolo). 

J, sounded as y, represents the Latin i belween two 
vowels, as in U.E. snja sim, but can scarcely be considered a 
distinct consonant. Lat. initial^ generally becomes here, as 
in Italian, gi. 

X is scarcely used, except in derivativeB from Lat. with 
prefix ex, in faxtir, etc. ; otherwise Lat. x generally becomes 
gs, as in gass aaxum. 

P represents the Lat. p in all positions ; but in a limited 
I class of words the Lat. p becomes r, b, or/. P is soroetimes 
added at the end after m, as O.E. amp (O.L. om) hamus. 
In words of German origin it is often the old Iligb German 
p, superseded in the modern literary language by b, aa in 
O.L. pitr U.E, paur bauer, O.L. pindell (E. binde) seidenband 
i.e. biindel. 

B is Lat. b in the great majority of cases, as O.L. bi binl 
btll E. bell bellus, O.L. bop U.E. hov boiiv O.E. boiip boa, O.L. 
bi'fsc biesc/ifjj (m.) U.E. bestia O.E. beacbia [sheep] beslia, 
O.L. bien bein E. bain bene, O.L, barba barba, O.L. brntnch 
brachium. It sometimes stands for Lat. r, aa in O.L. btir- 
bfiarh botieh vervex, O.L. cahgia nnt-gia E. chabgia [cage] 
cavea, O.L. btujieiid, 'jitgicnd E. gugeitd [gladly] voleudo 


fprobably, rather than gaitdendo ; cf It. gabbia and j^ggia, 
both from cavea). But the reverse change is also freqaent, ] 
see below under V, B also sometiraes represents Lat. p, aa 
in O.L. bargir U E. brmjir 0,E. sbrngir plangere, L. kerga- 
minn pergaraentum. It ia inserted euphonicitlly between 
and r or /, as in O.L. combra E. chambra camera, O.L. cumber 
Ger. kummer, O.L. iremb/ar treraulure from tremulus, O.L. 
chiembei E. combel cumulus, O.L. diimbrar U.E nombrar O.E. i 
i/(uw6;w_(ad}numerare, O.L. truntbel Ger. trommel. It may J 
be noted that Lat. b at end after m is dropped in O.lj.plumm 1 
£. ploin plumbum. 

r almost always represents Lat./, as in O.L. fegt E. fagl I 
folium, O.L.yWn E../nm foenum, O.L. Jinim E. fum fumua, J 
O.L. ufTont nflbn U.E. tifunt hifaul O.E. infnunt infans. | 
Exceptionally it stands for;), as in /«/" lupus ; or for b, bb 
U-E, choiif O.E. cfianf (O.L. coniv II. coven) cannabis cf. j 
Ger. hanf ; and even where Latiu has g, in f/ii/^jugum. 

V represents the Lut. v chiefly at the beginning, aa in O.L. 
v&iler U.E. mrf'r O.E. reder vetus, O.L. raun E. ran vanus, 
O.L. lir E. voir videre and verus, O.L. casM cisc/ti E. 1 
Ffpic/ii vascellum, O.L. grec E. gret'r gravis, O.L. lee E. leiv 
levis, O.L. krar U.E. alrnr O.E. alrer levure (intrans. rise), | 
O.L. larar lavare. Between vowels, and elsewhere in the 
middle, and sometimes at the end, it represents Lat. b, as i: 
all imperfects, e g. rcndcra vendebam, O.L. nuireuel E. amu- 
raivel [amorabilis] and all adjectives with this very common 
ending, 0,L. nrir E, avair habere, O.L. ciivel cubile, O.L. I 
miivei [cattle] mobile, O.L. tihei E. niirel [cloud] nebula, I 
O.L. ruver [oak] robur, O.L, eirer E. aker ebrius, O.L. e 
iarva O.E. miri-a (U.E. erha) herba, O.L. sarra sorbus, O.L. I 
rfurcr E. dorair dehere, O.L. iucmr, E. larurar laborari, U.E, 
etna O.E. fivna (O.L. jammo, emna) hebdoraaa, O.L. guHv 
ulie angnlic E. gunlie aequilibriutn, Tir. })rme presbyter. 
In the same positions it also very frequently stands for Lat, 
p, as in O.L. piecel E. pocel populua, O.L. pierer piper, O.L. 
(ten' fh-i lepidus, O.L. necs U.E, hcIi- (O.E. neif) nepos, O.L. 
snrir E. sacair sapere, O.L. zari-ar separare, O.L. ginvi gmti 
Bchufi U.E. gk-e O.E. giici scapulua, O.L. siieun sapo, O.L. 



currir oooperire, O.L. umerhel operculum, OX. v'lrrn vipers, 
E. porer (O.L. pauper) pauper, Tir. iea apis. In gionir to 
play, of which another form ia gittgnr, » seems to spring from 
g ; the Lat. original has c, jocare. V seems to arise some- 
what similarly out of qit in U.E. eida (also aglia) O.E. 
aivla (also aigla) aquJla. It stands for the vowel u occasion- 
ally ; certainly in svnrin disorder, which is for dis-norden 
(uorden, nrden^ordo). V stands for _/' in gror, Ger. graf. 
An original ri, re or vo, especially at beginning, is in Tir. 
generally vocalized into u : mlei videre, uni venire, 

C hard (=k} almost always represents the Lat. hard c. 
Occasionally it stands for Lat. r, as in O.L. /urc U.E. locc 
O.E, htorh laxus. In German words it seems to stand for 
g, but really represents the old High G. A: cumacb gemach. 
Before J its sound ia denoted in L. by cli, as in chiembel, 
ehierr. The original Lat. c in terminations like km and 
aticrts is dropped, aa in L. tniedi medicus, 0,L. mfraii O.E. 
mlredi [savage] silvaticua, O.L. arvaili herhaticum, O.L. 
viadi O.E. rifdi [voyage] viaticum, O.L. tUii E, tMni 
[poison] toxicum, O.L. biudi [grandson] It, abiatioo. 

Qll generally represents Lat. qii at beginning. Elsewhere 
It generally stands for CO, as in O.L. quinau U.E. giiind O.E. 
I guin6 [brother-in-law] cognotua, O.L. qiii'iifar (It. contare) 
computare, O.L. guilttir [to fancy] also computare, O.L. qii4r 
(U.E. coscher O.E, coseher) coquere, O.L. qiiema coxa. The 
lat, qti may be dropped, or become gii or i-, or retain only 
M, as in O.L. a»a U.E. am npua O.E. ova aqua, O.L. iial 
vgual aequatis, O.L. wtt U.E. tell qiiHt [received, settled] 
quietus, O.L. hHv giiUv nnguUv E. gitalio [even, equal] 
aequilibrium, O.L. evlti U.E. eicla (aglia) O.E. aitla (aigla) 

Q hard generally represents Lat. hard g, as in O.L, gree 
E, greh- gravis, O.L. groiid O.E. grand grandis, O.L. gula 
gula, O.L. daguolt U.E. gott O.E. gtioft gutta. But it also 
frequently stands for Lat, hard c, as in O.L. grnx* crassus, 
O.L. gafl E. giali cattus, O.L, phgar plicare, O.L. cngnr 
(U.E. cbigiar chiar O.E. chajar) cacare, O.L. biigada [wash- 
ing] It. bucato, O.L, gromma gramma (It. crema) cremor, 


O.h. pa^ar (TJ.E. pajar O.E. pajer) pacare, O.h./eug (E. fii) 
[fire] focuB. Gu occasionttlly stands for qu, as in O.L. ungual 
f/KU^ aequalis, O.L. gufiK (see under V) aequUibrlum, and foP 
f/u, as O.L. mitguoU tnaguoigl U.E. mizguaigl O.E. miguoigl 
medulla, and for fo, as O.L. angular [steal] iuvolare, volare. 
G is sometimes dropped between two vowels, as O.L. /au 
O.E. fo fugua, O.L. niar from the other O.L. form ergaf 
eagar [mow] secare. G or gu represents w in words of 
German origin, as O.L. gtvsx gn'ess U.E. grois gross (pro- 
bably from German, as craaaua gives grass), O.L. guault 
(uault uaul} "U.E. g)ia)i( (vaut) O.E. god wald, gewalt, O.L. 
gurbir [obtain by favour] werben, O.L. gmndvl winde, O.Ij. 
gunJfi-H (naffen) waffen. 

G soft, pronounced as in Italian (written at end also ig, ig, 
eh), generally represents the Latin soft g. as O.h./ngir O.E. 
fuggir fugere, O.L. kgier U.E. legere (O.E. Icr) legere, O.L, 
miiginr megier O.E. miiggir mugire, O.L. leg letg (U.E. lai) 
O.E, a/aig [marriage] lex, O.L, girar [journey] girare, O.L. 
gips U.E. gip O.E. gm gypsum. Quite as frequently it 
represents the Lat.y, which scarcely ever remains unchanged 
at the beginning : O.L. girar U.E. giirar O.E, giirer jurare^ 
O.L. gul (U.E. jiiat) O.E. giint Justus, O.L, giginn (U.E. 
jejiin) jejunus, O.L. giuven (U.E. juvenl juvenis, O.L. gianfar 
U.E. Jf'iilfir jentare, O.L. pigiiir {E. pejer) pejor. Sometimes 
we have soft g where the Lat. has it hard, as L. ligiar {E. 
liar) legare. Very often, only not at the beginning, it stands 
for Lat. hard or sof^ c, or for et : as O.L. rig (U.E. vich 
O.E, vih) vicus, E. ngiir Heinzenherg sigir securia, 0,L. gitt 
igifl U.E. gtis, O.E. agiis acutus, O.L. iaig, O.E. hll lac, O.L. 
leg O.E. lelt lectum, O.L. mnger (U.E. majer) O.E. meger 
macer, O.L. pn'gel (E, prievel) periculum, O.L, pai'g pa/g E. 
pack pactum, O.L, olg och olg U.E. olt O.E. oac// octo, O.L, 
nagin E. iiig'un nee unus, O.L. giaci, giuri (schuvi) scapulua 
(with apocope of «), O.L. ueschg ucaclig O.E. ovaixg cpisuopua. 
G sometimes stands for d with i or e following, as in O.L, gi 
(E, di) dies, O.L. gir (E. dir) dicere, O.L. giavet (E. diavel) 
diabolus, O.L. nigiwh (risch, U.E, radisch O.E, rtsch) radix; 
and for ti, as in O.L. viagiar quasi " viaticare," O.L, gig yitg 




diuttnua. It ia inserted between two vowels, where the U.E. 
inserts » or / as in O.L. aeigi -gins etc. f U.E. saju -jast) subj. 
pres. of esier, O.L. hngi -ijinn etc. O.E. Iiegia etc. (U.E. eu n' 
haia -iast) do. of ater; O.L. ameregta subj. fut. formed by 
means of ar^r j and lo O.L. added to the end of certain verbul 
inflexions after ;, as in vegniij el imperat. 3 sing, 'let him 
become,' hagig el ' let him have,' habeat. 

T almost always represents the Lnt. t: as in O.L. arment 
E. artnainl arnientum, O L. artar U.E. hrrfar O.E. erter 
Iiereditare (dropping rf), O.L, li E. Hi tu, O.L. trek E. fre 
trea. T at end and ti bettveen vowels aro often produced, 
especially in tite Eugadin dialect, by assimilation from ct, pi, 
nt, eto., as U.E. iuollar O.E. hlter (OL. Inchiar) luclari, 
U.K. pellei, O.E. pet-tan (O.L. pechien) pecten, E. /all (O.L. 
faig) factum, E. (li-eit (O.L. dretg) [right] directum, E. traC 
(O.L. traig traiuh) tractuB, E. lei (O.L. l^g) lectus, E. tM 
(O.L. teg) tectum, O.E. tit tinctus, E. ut (O.L. itg) unutua, 
O.L. scritt scriptus, 0,L, ruli roll O.E. ruol ruptus, O.L. 
dett (E. daint) digitus. In Tir. II may stand for cl, as in tli 
pi, flereg clavis, pill It. piccolo. 

D always at beginning and often at end, and frequently 
after I, n, r, is from Lat. il, as in O.L. da tie E. da de, O.L. 
rf(M E. ditoK duo, O.L, dir E. dur durus, O.L. and E. ard 
ardeo, O.L. cardun E. chardun cardo, O.L. grand E. grand 
grandis, O.L. /mrf E. /m/rf frigidus, O.L. bauld (U.E. baut) 
O.E- bid Ger. bald, O.L. pidra pedra E. pidira pediculus. 
But between two vowels generally, and before and after 
another consonant and at end very frequently, it represents 
Lat. i: as in O.L. viidi U.E. vadi ffe O.E. vdi vitellus, O.L. 
tider U.E. ceidcr vetus, O.L. mndir E. mad'ur maturus, O.L. 
»tad O.E. sted aestas, O.L, anvi'dar E. invidar invitare, O.L. 
nadal [Christmas] natale, O.L. pader, O.E. i>fder [Capuchin] 
pater, O.L. vartid E. tirtiiil virtus -utie, O.L. veider E. raider 
vitpum, O.L. ludra Intra, E. peidra petra, O.L. lid laetus, 
O.L. lad O.E. led latus ; and so in all pass, participles ending 
in Latin in alim, Hiis, we have in fem. O.L. and U.E. ada ida 
(>,E. rda idi. D is inserted euphonically between « and r 
(just as 6 is between m and r) in O.L. iiiiudtr [less, worse] 


minor, O.L. and Tir. mender E. minder [youth] minor, £.■ 
cuidrin {O.L. cuarin) consobrinua. In O.L. dambrar [to 
count] d looks as if it stood for « of nuinfrare, aa we have 
U.E. nombrar O.E. inumbrer ; but it is probably derived from 
adnumeraro, and iben O.L. diemher [number] is derived from 
the verb. It must be observed that the original d is very 
frequently dropped: 1) between vowels, often causin] 
traction of two Towels into one, aa : O.L. ciia cauda, O.L. fd 
r.E. fai (feda) O.E. fh fides, O.L. ver E. raiV videre, O.L. 
crir E. erair credere, O.L. s^r sedere, and in piss. part, 
maso. where (/ (preserved in feni.) is from Lat. t : O.L. luda»i 
for -adu U.E. ludd for -ado O.E. htdo for -ado laudatus, au3' 
similarly O.L. teineu U.E. tmii O.E. fmicii timitus, O.L. 
vendeu etc. venditus, O.L. senteu, U.E. senfi O.E. sentieU 
sentitus, and 3) at the end, as: O.L. pnleit E. prtlu palus,! 
O.L. creu E. crii crudus, L. neu (E. niid) nudus, O.L. ptt- 
E. p^ pes, O.L. iiepi tepidus. On the other hand, d appears 
to be euphonically added to prevent hiatus, at least in dad 
for d(t — dud uffont (childisli). In most other cases which are 
BO treated by Komonsch grammarians the d seems otherwise 
explicable: in ad for a the d is the original final cons, of tha 
preposition; in ora d'Omat (out of Omat) d' is the prep, dt, 
as we see in the expression or (our) da seiin (out of his wits). 
In Tir. dl stands for cl, gl or f/, especially as representing the 
terminations -cuius, -gu/us, -tHhui, e.g. tirfdlu auricula, wdl 
oculus, odln [needle] aculus from acus, auredl [sun] aoliculus, 
todia vetula, oxdia ungula. These forms must be older than 
the corresponding Italian orecchia occbio vocchia onghit 
which drop the /, or the French oreillo soleil ceil vieillt 
which drop the e, I or g, German words are similarly- 
treated, as spibdl spiegel, chiodl kegel. 





The substantives are as a rule formed from the ateta 
(generally identical with abl. sing.) of Latin words. A 
vowel i, 0. and a at the end of the stem is cut off, and thus 




we have 0, bov E. boae bos, bucca bucca, 0. /eitg E, Ji focus 
(fire), /runi frons, 0. fomm O.E. fam famis, 0. chiern coniu, 
O- /"? /'■''j E. fruU fructua, 0. grev E, greie gravis ; in 
ctz vitium the Lat. ii becomes z. Fat; ffv fuba, being masi;., 
must be derived Irom a hat. fabuin or/iibui which is the origin 
ot/fcbiilttm orfabulm and 0. bmc sheep, also masc, must come 
from a m. or n. form of bestia ; whence the consonantal ending. 
In other similar cases the masc. gender suggests a similur 
explanation, as in Jbxs Lat. foasum, It. foaao, there being 
also fossfi Lat. id. ; crest m. hill, cresfa crista cock's crest ; 
O. palm m. and pnlma f. "palm of the hand" Lat. palmus 
and palma respectively. The s of neuters like ii-mpus, being 
radical, ia retained sometimes in 0. though not in E. : 0. (empg 
E. temp ; but lost in O. pegn TJ.E. pain pignus. A C in the 
Lat. stems in ico, an I frequently in those in el/o, hIo, and 
a d sometimes in those in ido do or (/, are dropped : 0. tmi 
E. tmu tosioum, 0. sa/rndi O.E. sc/nv/i sllvaticus {savage, 
'wild), 0. tiiictli medicus, 0. cadi V.E. rudk rde O.E. rdi 
vitellus, 0. gittci schud TJ.E. gke O.E. yiiti acapulus, 0. 
Uchurti E. taeherre cerebellum, O. pnleu E. palu palus, 0. 
crexi E. crii crudus, O. nen nudus, 0. tiert tici tepidus. 

The nouns are all of masc. or fern, gender; the Latin 
neuters becoming masc. as iu all the Neo-Latin languages. 
The original genders are for the moat part carefully pre- 
served, and any exceptions arc due to special causes. Latin 
abstract masculines in or like dolor, honor, accommodate 
themselves here, as in most Neo-Latin languages, to the 
fem. OS the proper gender for abstracts, 0. dalur E. dohir, 
0. hamir TJ.E, honor O.E. onin: Latin feminines of the 
2nd and 4th declensions are generally converted into mas- 
culines from analogy, as 0. mann U.E, matt manus, O. Jicc 
E. fix ficus, 0. u!m ulmus. 0. mar O.E. mer mare is fem., 
like Fr. mer. German borrowed words sometimes are of a 
different gender from their originals, as spor m. spur f,, 
vopa f. wappen n. 

The inflexion of substAntives consists solely in the forma- 
ticm of the plural from the singular. The Latin case-endings 
have disappeared, except the s of the nom. sing., which is 



relaiiied in a few words, chieHy if not solely m tlio Oberland 
dialect, to wit : 0. iJieiut hfu» Diu E, LImi deiiB, O. funds fuitH 
U.E. fotui O.E. faon» fundus, 0. gi» (esp. in days of the 
week, lindiKhgin lunae dies, etc.) E, di dies, O. iievs U.E. neis 
O.E. tie{f nepoa (nephew), 0. ne/n navis (Aacoli) ; to wliioli 
may be added neuters in u« [where the a is properly radicul), 
as 0. temps E. temp tetnpus, 0. mciyia E. mmit minus, O. ' 
pent pegn peigii U.E. paiit pignuB. The most important 
instance of the retention of the nom. « is in the Adjective, 
which see. The piural is formed from the singular in words 
of both genders alike by the addition of s, as in the Latin 
3rd, 4th and 5th declensions ; thus agreeing with French, 
Spanish and Port., but differing from Italian. E.g. O. peim ! 
peinas E. paina painas poena, 0. Jmg ffugt E. fo fm focua 1 
(fire), 0. maun mauii-i U.E. wan wans manus, 0. iarar larurt i 
labor, 0. dretg drett/s E. drett dveUn directum (right), tvnck 
tmcbs vox. A few words form the plural in itn, as inatta J 
matfaiim girl, 0. leug log logem locus, 0. danita dunaun^ I 
domina, 0. fiitin hitmem homo (in the last case the Latin f 
accounts for the «), A few other irregularities occur, aa I 
0, hoc boa bos, 0. rezz fezz vitium. In the Tirolese dialects 
the plural is not formed so uniformly, and the t of the Lat. J 
2nd declension is retained in certain cases. In the dialect i 
of Gardcna the plural is formed by the addition of 99 to J 
singulars in m p r and some in c s and c/i (i.e. k), e.g. uem I 
uemea homo; / being changed into v, e.g. ve/ neves ovum; 
and a dropped before es, e.g. dra dees grandmother. Nouns 
in a/i in oii and uu add «, e.g. mdrt tmiis manus ; those in 
e unaccented add s, e.g. pire pkrtia patres ; those in s change 
it into J, e.g. mtis miis face, those in z change it into c, e.g. d 
mdiiz mane et«er; those in I and a few in ch change thess 1 
into tff, as mimf musatg ; several in c and a are the sam 
pl, as bril brachium, pkl piscis. Those in er change this | 
into ri: liber lihri liber, pdsler pdstri pastor; those in / or Iti 
drop this before t, as uco/i ucoi m. aucella (dim. of avis, bii-d) ; 
except when a consonant precedes /, e.g. 'I pill, i/)iV/iil piccolo. J 
The insertion of a nasal (u) is commoner here than in ths J 
RLactian Romonach; e.g. mutt mtiltom boy, multa mutttinaX 


pA, ^ ^om fiVms, fia fdSi filia, oma omdiii mothers, sor tardiis 
mror, feHua /eiiiidm feniinu. Thore are other inificeUaneoua 
lirregularitiea, e.g. bd buen bos. biinrh bds It. bosco, etc. 

Besides the ordinary plurals, there is a considerable wealth 
I of words ending in a, formed from or on the pattern of Lat. 
neuter plurals. These have their nearest analogy in Italian, 
where, however, we find the regular plural form existing as 
well: e.g. anelli anella anelli, bracd bracda brachia, bitdelli 
budrlla bowels, calcagni cakngna culcanea, carri carra carra, 
castelli caslella id,, cigli ciglin cilia, eorni coma cornua, diti 
dita digilt, Jilt fiia id., /riitti /ni/lii fructus, /twi /u-^ti fusi, 

Ipiiioec/ii -c/iia knees, grUli gn'/fa cries, lubbri labbva labia, 
9eiiznoii ~le sheets, trynibri membra id., tiinn inuva muri, ossi 
ptsa id,, poiiii poma id., uoci uoca ova, etc ; but some have no 
plural except that in a, as niujlia miles, moggia hogsheads, 
pfija pairs, Hiaja bushels. These Il-alian forms, from their 
termination in a, are treated as fein., but are recognized as 
plurals, and consequently take the f. pi. article le, being, as 
Prince L. L. Bonaparte has shown, the only Neo-Latin forms 

»of the kind that remain really plural in modern tongues. 
Similar formations exist in olher languages, which are now 
tera. sing., e.g. ra 0i0\ia, Lat. lib/iih Ft. la bible, It. /« 
bibbia, Qer. die bihcl. The Roraousch derivatives from neuter 
plurals, on the other hand, are collectives in sense, but 
grammatically fern, sing.' The following are the chief 
I instances of the singular and collective forma: 0. tseh iiclia 
Mtium, pom pumma poma, 0. frig frichia E, fratt frufta 
■uctus, 0. prau prnda pratum, 0. bi-alnch bratscka brachium, 
. iets OSS osm os, 0. crap crapjm stone, 0. lenii lenna E. lain 
Mftaina lignum, O. mcil meila malum, O. ptr pera E. pair paira 
jnrum, 0. p^r pera par, 0. priniiii priinma U.E. priimbla 
O.E. priiniia prunura, 0. fegl figlia folium, 0. fav fev faca 
faba, 0. (/*■// delta E. daii-t daiiila digitus. The majority of 
these forma are from Latin neuters. There are also many 
. nonna from Latin neuter pi., which scarcely exist in 

432 ROMONSCH on HH.ETIAS language. — R. MAKTINEAU. 

singular, such as 0. marmglta 'E. miravaglia mirabilia, 0. 
muag/ia mobilia; canaylia (Fr. cauaille] is probably a Low 
Lilt, canalia from canis. Yian does not notice any similar 
forma in Tirol. 

The formation of derivative substantives should be noticed 
here, -om, -am, and esp. 0. -imm, £. urn, are terminations 
denoting a great quantity, and secondarily a contemptuous 
feeling of tiijly, etc., e.g. 0. letmoni tJ.E. inhwm O.E. linom 
(much wood), cf. It. legname, probably from a Lat. lignamen ; 
O.L. iroin tT.E. arom O.E. aram It. rarae Lat. aeramen, 
-ntum; mimm laughter; 0. zarc/imin E. sfrc/iim weeds, fr. 
zarelar It. sarchiare, cf. sarchiello from a Lat. sarriculum 
from sarrire ; 0, biscMom E. behUam much cattle ; 0. siernimm 
E. sternum straw for cattle, from 0. stianier E. eUmer 
sternere; tnrJahimm fr. larla/iar to mock. The origin of 
these forms is probably to be sought in a multiplication of 
the Latin forme in wen beside those in menlurn (the latter 
becomes 0. ment E. niaint), of which even in classical 
Latin we have many instances : fundamen and -turn, munimen 
and -turn, ornamen and -turn, tegumen and -turn, scdimen 
and -turn, stramen and -turn, perhaps omen and omentum; 
foramen, voliimen, stamen, etc. The It, legname seems to 
point directly to this origin. Diminutives are formed in 
R. -eti -eita, U.E. -in -iima, O.E, -ign -igtia, atigmentatives 
in -MM -una, and with an idea of contempt in -w/scA -ainehai 
e.g. regl old man, regUeti good old man, veglign nice little old 
man, t-egUaUch horrid old man, veylnin big old man ; and 
similarly from the fem. reglia; from carai'gl, barba, grand, 
eatell, buolt, etc. But there is not so great a profusion of 
these forms as in Italian. 


Ebaetian masculine adjectives are formed from the Latin 
exactly like substantives, and thus generally come to end 
in a consonant. Sometimes, however, a final consonant ia 
dropped, which causes the Rhaetian adjective to end in a 
vowel ; thus 0. ncii nudus, creti crudus, sakaiH O.E. »ulcedi 


silvaticus (savage). And the o which ends the stem of the 
Latin second declension, though dropped in all pure adjectives, 
is retained in the passive participle in -ata^ which becomes 
O. au IJ.E. d, 0.£. o, while the fern, (-a^a) retains the dental 
and becomes O. and IJ.E. ada^ O.E. eda^ e.g. 0. deputau -ada 
IJ.E. deputd 'Oda O.E. deputo -eda (dda). This is the case also 
when other vowels precede the t in Lat., as 0. vegnieu U.E. 
gnu from venire, but not when a consonant precedes, as acritt 

The feminine adjective is formed from the masc. by the 
addition of a : to this there are no exceptions. Thus 0. cauld 
-a calidus, freid -a frigidus, hun bunna bonus, verd -a viridis, 
grev -a gravis, neu -a nudus, atau atada [status]. The dis- 
tinction between the Latin declensions (between stems ending 
in 0, 1, and a consonant) is entirely obsolete here, though not 
in Italian, which distinguishes between the forms caldo-a 
(pi. -i -e) and verde -e (pi. -i -i), fugace -e (pi. -i -i). An 
unaccented termination el or er drops its vowel : 0. lagreivel 
•via E. allegraivel •via enjoyable, 0. mager magra macer ; and 
an aocented in or un has its consonant doubled : scadin -tuna 
eyerj^ bun bunna bonus ; not however the long vowel of the 
Engadin un. The fem. adjective preceding a substantive 
beginning with a vowel drops it>s vowel a to avoid hiatus: 
O. da biaW antschatta of good beginning. In Tirolese 
(Gardena) a final k and /become respectively ^^t and v before 
the fem. a ; er loses its vowel ; d and t regain the d they had 
dropped, and become ida, ida ; and the fem. a is dropped as 
above to avoid hiatus. 

The a of the Latin nom. sing, is preserved in the masc. 
adjective in the Oberland dialect when it stands in the pre- 
dicate and refers to a substantive : igl prau ei verds the field 
is green ; quel pomir ei maracha that apple is rotten ; ioii aun 
aadulana I am satisfied ; but not when it stands with its 
substantive, as in hundreivel hum honorabilis homo, igl prau 
verd the green field. This nominative «, I believe, is retained 
in no other Neo-Latin language, except occasionally in 
substantives (Fr. Charles, Georges, etc.) which is the case 
also here, as we have seen. It is a direct inheritance from 


the Latin, and is one of the many proofs how completely the 
Ilomonsch is Latiu in its formation; for the principle of 
giving an inflexion to a predicative adjective and denying it 
to au attributive one is the very reverse of the German usage, 
which has "daa Feld ist griiu" and "das griine Feld." It is 
not found in the Engadin or other Romonsch dialects. And 
in the Oberlund it is not need when the adjective refers to no 
substantive or person : thus we say iijl ei caiiM it is hot, 117/ ei 
hiiiidfeircl it ia honourable. Here the adjective ia in Latin 
neuter, and therefore destitute of the ending s. This is 
another indication of consciousness of a neuter gender, besidea 
the neuter pronoun e(=id and the collective substantives ia 
a mentioned above. 

Of the formation of the plural of adjectives there is nothing 
to be said, as it is identical with that in substantives : except 
that in the Oberland dialect passive participles which in tha 
masc. sing, preserve the Lat. as ", form their plurals in tha 
old Latin way, by changing the u into 1: slaii{s) slai, cegiiitt{a) 
tfijiiii, deputaii{») lieputai, 

A few adjectives have here, as in other Latin languages, 
independent forms of comparison, as follows: R. bun T. boHr 
0. megliei' E. meglder T. mhur bonus; 0. namch (mal) E. 
nonch T. rie, 0. pigiur E. pz-jerT. pioc males, noxius, reus; 
0. pinch pintg E. piUchvn T. pill, mhwr T. mender 
piccolo; 0. and U.E. gronU O.K. and T. grand, O. magiur 
T. masfr grandis; O. tcliliet sehlialt O.E. nchktt, 0. mender 
schlecht. Also the following words, which are rather to be 
regarded as substantives of quantity or as adverbs, than as 
adjectives: 0. bear hiar U.E. blir O.E. bgh- T. truep. O. 
pli U.E. plu O.E. pii T. plu much ; 0. pane U.E. pac O.E. 
poch T. pvek, 0. meiiis E. main T. mdncul little ; 0. bien 
bein E bain T. beii, 0. meglier E. tnegl bene ; 0. mal E. and 
T. me/, O. pir E. pix male. There are a few comparative and 
superlative forma, which from their signification can have no 
positive, e.g. prinr, priim, nmprimm (the latter, from imprimis, 
being used as an adj. in O.), pofteriiii; pottrem, etc. ; also E. 
il minim the least. The comparative and superlative of other 
adjectives is expressed in the usual way by prefixing yi/i, iyl 




pii, etc. The Latin superlative forma are retained in many 
words (as also in Italian, more tlian in any other Neo-Latiu 
language, beiliesimo, etc.) to express a high, not the highest, 
degree: 0. cariisem, E. charischem carisaimus, E, buiiischem 
very good, 

I give the chief Numeral adjectives for the sake of their 
phonology, as they are always interesting from this point of 
view. Cardinals : 

, I T. uiu 

( i. O. m. ?« 
i O.n.S. eati 

d'Ld ■! 

8. 0. 

























Hi, nu 

dMch, dii>r& 





IS. teMg, -icS 







' ihuAall 








The numbers from 11 to 16 are formed by prefixing the 

[ unit* to ten, 1 + 10, 2 + 10, etc., and those from 17 to 19 by 

prefixing 10 to the units, 10+7, etc.. agreeing herein with 

French and Italian. The further numbers 20, etc., are 0. 

veign (rpinc/i), trenta, qiimvnfa, Uchnnronta, tisanfa, tinloiita, 

ochionin, noeonta, Ischivnt, with variations in the other dialects. 

I The moat noteworthy points in the formation are the apocope 

I of the unaccented first syllable of decem in the Oberland 17, 

18, 19 ; and the retention of the vowel of the second ayllabla 

I of decem in O. gia-siat, tcke-nit and T. dose-sdll, and of octo 

in 0. ochi-oiila. 

Ordinals : First 0. and O.U.S. muprimm E. prum ; Second 


0. dusarel 0. and O.H.S. secimd sccumhvel U.E. wffond gegoa- ^M 
dacel O.E. MijHond ueguondevel T. licond ; Third 0. lien ^^ 
terzarel etc. All the later niimbera are formed in -avel, -ere/ ^| 

(Lat. -abilie), except tsclikntmir, literully centeuarius. ^| 







I. I. 0. ,o 

U.E, <■( 
O.E. fii 
T. JO 

.. *«i. 2. TTiau. li 3. He, She, It. fl, eVa, ri ^| 

1. We. n. 


...« 2. Tou. ..". 

' AccQ-intiTe. 

3. They, th, fH« 
t.U. eUai 

a, iilti 

1. Me. 0. 



»!<■> «fl. mi 1 

Thw. tfi ta, li 
Uii rtf, f 
li (f. f 

1. Us. 0. 




noui NOW, nil 

Yoii. vut rut 
toll", roz 

to I'O, vi 

3 «. Hini 


. 0. and O.H.S. el igl, f 

E. tl igl 

T. il 7 


/. Her, .«« It 
,11a la 
eila U 

3, .-.. Them. 0. and O.H.S. lU it, 
E. </. iU 
T. it- 

/. Them, ell"! te. 
,ll«, lot 

The formation of these pronouns is sufficiently obWous. ^M 
The accusative has two sets of forms exhibited abov& ^H 
The forms in the first column are the strong one* ^M 
employed when the pronoun is emphasized or governed by m ^M 
preposition, and free to stand anywhere. The forma io the^f 
second column are the weak onea used when the pronoun ^| 




fitaiids without emphasis immediately before the verb (or in 
the case of an imperative verb in the Oberland dialect, 
immediately after it). Their formation is interesting, as 
exhibiting the tendency when the accent is removed 1.) to 
assume a, i for ei in 0. ; 2.) after loss of internal vowel to 
assume prosthetic a : am, tif, mis, as. The French moi, me, 
etc., correspond in usage with these distinct forms. 

These same Accusative pronouns are also used in a Dative 
Bense ; the strong forms being preceded by the preposition a, 
li, a mei ; a ti, a tei ; a nus ; ad el ; ad els, and the 
es being prefixed to the verb. Only in the 3rd pers. 
masc. is there any difference between ace. and dat. (as in 
Fr. between le and lui). The dative is as follows: 

u Td him, O, gli /. To ber. , 

L. Tu them, i/« /. To tbpm. I 

The reflexive pronoun ia : strong, 0, wi E. se T, sf ; weak, 
O- «a, s' E. «', 's, as T. se, s', for both genders and numbers. 

The personal pronoun, when subject of a verb, is usually 
expressed in the Romonsch dialects (as in French) ; but in 
the Tiroleae Romonsch (as in Italian) it is not necessarily 
expressed with those verbal forms which in themselves 

^1 sufficiently indicate the person. 

^M The Emphatic personal pronoun Er/omei ipse, etc., is ez- 

^K pressed thus : 

^^K NoM. Ace. Sou. Ace. 

^B Sinjular. Flural. 

^H ' 2! (. (1= { ^'- ""J latm ' I (f. -a) nu^ tutru 

e same, iezz being 

There is also Ifzs, -a, pi. ihezz, fasezzn 
evidently formed from it/l ezt. To determine the origin of 
these peculiar forms we must note the most obvious one, the 
E. stesn, which is clearly identical with the It. iatesso, and 
therefore with iste ipse. Here the ss has arisen from ps of 
'ipse. This makes it probable that the zz of the 0. has the 
tme origin, so that nwzz is me ipse, sasezz sese ipse, etc. 
The existence of separate fern, forma mezza, etc., makes this 



expIuDBtioa probable. The olher E. form sress ia more diffl* 
outt to explain ; if the v springs from a labial it may be: 
ipse, in which case the double s ia inorgaaiu. In tbU i 
the Latin met, which yields, as Diez shows, Old Port, medtt^ 
Prov, medeU, meteis, meileps (^met ipae), aud superl. sme/tasu 
(=semetipaiB3imus), It, meilenimo, does not enter into thlj 
Ibrmatioii of these Romonsch words, and is only detected 
0. medem the same, Ven. medemo, It. medesimo. 

These proaouns.are formed as usual from the personal, ai 
Lave diatiuct forms for fern, and pi., except that of tho Srft 
pers. pi, 

The Tirolose (Glardena) emphatic form used in the predicat 
("thia ia mine") is uik mia, lie lia, sie- sia ; iiusi ridsta, vA 
vdsla, sie sia. 

Theee pronouns are formed on the model of the Italian 
questo, quello ; for the latter there is, however, a distinct form 
tichell (apparently from Lat. ecce, while qtiello is from ecco), 
which is the only word for " that " known in Tirolese. 
They have distinct neuter forms, which is especially note- 
worthy, as the neuter ia nearly extinct ia this lauguugt 

This: O.L. oHftt, -la; -I', -l/u 
U.E. ?»H(, .(« ; -«. -/« 
O.E. y«ii'.<, 't- : -U. -lai 


In T. l-en m,8. is used before cons. ; sfa aometimos for keslit 
before subst. 

That: O.L. Itehrll, tUs. 
ttekell, bU. 

T. kiU,-lk; kii. 

As substantive : 

Who? t. and pi. m. and (. O.I,, chi, Igi 

■i'. Ai' 

"Wlut? n. O.L. thUi, Igii 
E. the 

T. Ifi 

Aa adjective (before subst.) : 
WliBtf 7«"/, -U; -/j, -la) 
What a r ' in Titulose iBiu. to unf t. to una T 

f^ The definite article, though formed from the Latin ille, 
which also furnishes the 3rd pers. pronoun, is never identical 
with the str'ong forms of the latter, but only with the weak 
forms used as ace. and dat. before the verb. 

O.L. i;j (chi«llf befoiB TtrwDls), In, T/ ili, tat 

U (ehioflr before oooi.} 
u.E. sg, a,{\ u, r ; iu, 'it,iat 

F As aabject or object of the verb ia used : 

Who, which: O.L. ea. Neular (id qaod} : cKieu, Igii. 
E. rhi cht 

Also, for greater definiteneaa, and after prepositions : 

In U.E. che, eh' is sometimes found aa accusative for cM. 



The Tirolese plural forms are remarkable, as refaining the 
Latin foriuatioa of illi, illae, and consequently resembliag 
the Italian i, le. Forms having tbe signification of gen., 
dat. and abl. are produced in all tbe dialects by prefixing the 
preposilioaa liii {tie), a and da; but tbey need not be exhibited 
in detail. 

Tbe Indefinite Article is identical with the numeral 'one^4 
except in the Tiroleae fem., where from the loss of the at 
una becomes iitf. 

Words derived from Pronouns. 

T. la ii {in d-li) Itt 

The forms for ' here ' and ' there ' correspond to the It. qua 
e la, and are probably from ecco bac and iliac ; though it ia 
worth consideration whether coh, co, are not from eoco alone, 
understood in the sense of ' here,' and /ou, lo, from illo, 
formed on the analogy of ecco to denote ' there.' 

Kow: O.L. u... own Than: O.L. lur, Ima 

E. u«»f (uld inuio} E. Mmra 

The former words appear to be from hora ipsa, as the Old 
Sp. enora is from ipsa hora ; the Old It. wso may perhaps be, 
as Diez says, from ipsa ac. bora. The latter words would 
seem to be from ilia hora, tbe E. form having the prefixed 
a so common in that dialect; unless this E. ullura compared 
with It. allora forces ua to treat them all as=ad illam horam. 

Whtre 1 Hiin, inm ^iMion : cur, ctua Still, 1 O.L. amie, ntmc 

now I £. auHcha 

The first is la-ita, which would bo in It. in ove, Lat. in 
ubi ; the second, c'tira, qua hora ; the third appears to be= 
Wall, ince and It. ancbe, anco ; and all these may, according 
to Diez, bo derived either from adhuc with inserted nasal, or 
frotn banc (for ad banc horam). But I question whether the 
final couBonantB of banc would be preserved without a vowel 
following; and the E, final a is probably original, being, 
perhaps, the remnant of the word hora itself; and thia bura 





would account also for tha o of It. anco and the o-e of Fr. 
enc-ore, which also preserves the r ; moreover the double 
Towel at the beginning would be best explained by assuming 
ad banc horara, or perhnps adhuc horae. 

A great many pronominal words are formed by the prefix 
O.L. nnz!!, U.E. insa, O.E. iinza any, like the Lat. ali in 
aliquis, aliquot. The comparison of the various forms makes 
it nearly certain that the an, in, iin, is=unu3, and the z<i, zi, 
aa, Bubj. pres. of the verb to be (like It. sia in qualsisia), which 
in Romonsch is O.L. seigi, U.E, vfja, O.E. sefi. The words 
produced thus prove the power of independent formation 
in the language. The words which receive the prefix are 
interrogative (like aliqiiis, aliquaniio) : cAj=:who, fo=how, 
cura or c<l=when, n/(a=where. 


O.L. WBorfi ■ 

U.E. iiuaehi 

Some, imy (pi.) 

Anjhow : 

: O.L. a^iichiii 
U.E. msacM 
O.L. {a»)at6 

D.E. .-n.wa 


Anywhere ; 

The prefix ati may be omitted in O.L., at least in those 
I forms where it is put in brackets. The prefix rarza, rrrza, is 
possibly from Bomonscb mri aide, which is probably from 
\ Ijat. vertere. 

Every (adj.) ; mincAi* 

Scadin (cf. It. oada uno) is probably=qui8que ad unum. 
Minchia, probably=omne ehe seigi. The only similar Tirolese 
words that I have found are tsakil anyone, and ts4ke anything. 


The conjugation of the verb is baaed upon the Latin, and 
]ia8 very much the same innovations as the other Neo-Latin 
languages have adopted; but it has many interesting pecu- 


liarities vhicli mitrk it us an i n terpen den tly developed lan- 
guage, and ita various dialect-s differ in some imporlant points 
among tbcmselveB. It is, however, not neceasury to exhibit 
any but the O.L., O.E., U.E., and Grtideu (Tirolese) dialecta. 
The Latin four conjugations, distinguished by the vowel io 
the infinitive, are recognizable here also; but the second and 
third arc generally identical, differing only in the length of 
the vowel in the infinitive (aa in Italian). Generally verba 
of enuh conjugation in Latin belong to the same in RomonBch 
but some are transferred by contraction into another, e.g. dir 
or (/'> (4th)=dicere; riV=ridere; fH«!'c=conBuere. 

The simple tenses and moods, which chiefly concern us, 
are the Indicativk Present, Imperfect, Perfeel (histon'cal); 
SuBJtiNmvE Present, Impnfeet, Perfect (condilional) ; Im- 
ruRATivK 2nd person ; Inpixitive present ; Participles 
active and pHseive| ' These are as follows in the regular 
of the 1st conjugation. 

O.E. ««, ■tttt, 

T, im-*, -ti, 

Imperfect: O.L. mt-avt, -r«wi 

Imp«ifeat: O.L. tm-avi, 

',. and T. wuitinf;, 


IsFiif. n.L. aiH-ar Part, at 

ini-au(i}, f. -ada; pi. m. -ai, 

Besides t.hese forms, which are derived from correaponrling 

IS, the Engftdin and Tirolese dialects have a Future 

^written in one word, formed like the future of the olher Neo- 

AtiD laDguiiges by attaching the present of the auxiliary 

^to have' to the infinitive. This is the present of the verb 

> have : 

O.E. kai hmi, ia ; Asmih, ioeail, ham 

- ~ - aiiaiHt, armi, haun 

T. hi. 


Accordingly we hai 

The O.E. has a Fut. Subj. ; 

a-ner-^ia, Vj.aX, -rfjrifl; -^ians, -igias, -l/ian 

There are also compound forms produced by tneans of the 
xiliary verb ' to hare ' thus : 

Snbj. ION knpi amau 
('/h Atpia ame 

I had loied, Ind. O.L. hu aap 

U.E. (H mtie 

O.E. tau oro. 

T. jS an m 

K'ltwll have loved, Ind. U.E. eu aeon 

' O.E. «<. aum 

.,■ (-««[.■]) »: 


The Oberland dialect poasesses no simple future like rtie 
U.E. araar^, but expressea the same idea by a form com- 
pounded with the preeeut of the verb to come, thus ; 

1 shun lore. lod. io« «?« -d amor; Subj. i,u vtgnig ad »mat 

1 ahull have bred. iou rcj/a ad aver amau ; isu Ttgnig. etc 

To hB sboul to loTc, fftirida«iar 

Being aboul la Ioto, s"'"'^ ■"' """f 

The BBiae forms are used also in the Engadtn dialects, 
where, however, the meaning ia not quite simple future, but 
rather "I am going to^; " thus U.E, eu vegn ad amar, eu gnai-i 
ad amar. 

The Passive verb is formed by an auxiliary, there being no 
simple verbal form with a passive sense extept the participle 
(iniau. The auxiliary generally used is the verb ' to come 
in the O.E. Pnllioppi, while acknowledging that this verb is 
the most frequently used, wished to banish it in favour of 
'to be ' ; in Tirolese ' to be ' I'a actually chiefly employed. 
The participle attached must agree with the subject in gender 
and number; and the peculiarity of the O.L. dialect, in 
retaining the Latin nominative muse, termination e in aa 
adjective forming the predicate (see above), comes into play 
here. The present tense is therefore as follows, for " I am 
loved," etc. 

ft, -ada 

\am-i, -ida 


It is unnecessary to give at length the conjugation of verba 
derived from the Latin second, third and fourth ; the point* 
in which they differ from the above can be shortly indicated. 
The tirat or n-conjugation has so far overpowered the othera 
that the vowel a is substituted in many of their forms for 
their original e or i (e.g. Pres. ind. renda, n-udaa, renda; 


senfa, sentas, senta) ; and therefore I shall mention only those 
forms which differ from the corresponding ones in amai\ 
though the reader would expect others also to be different. 
I take the representatives of Lat. vendere (3) and sen tire (4). 

Pres. ind. : (3) has venden in O.L. 3 pL, and rend in T. 3 
B. and pi. ; (4) sent-in, -is, -en in O.L. pi., sent-iny -ity saintan 
in U.E. pL, aent'ins^ -its, saintan in O.E. pi. ; sent in T. 3 s. 
and pi., sent'ion, -ieis 1 and 2 pi. 

Iraperf. ind.: (3) has vende-ra etc. in O.L. ; (4) senti-va 
etc. in O.L. U.E. and O.E., senti-ve etc. in T. 

Perf. ind. : (3) has in O.L. a tense identical with the 
Engadin formation, in lieu of the peculiar O.L. tense used 
in amar : vendet, -ettas, -et; -etten, -ettas, -etten; (4) has a 
similar form in O.L. U.E. and O.E., sentit or sentitt etc. ; 
but for 'iiten 1 and 3 pi. a few verbs have the other Perfect 
form 'innen (like aniannen). 

Fut. ind (4) has its suffixes attached in O.E. and T. to 
the stem sentir, 

Pres. subj. (4) has in pi. O.L. sent-ian, -ias, -tan, and in T. 
sent'tonse, -ieise, -e. 

Iraperf. subj. (3) and (4) O.L. have the suffixes attached 
to the stems vetidev- and sentiv- respectively. 

Perf. subj. (3) and (4) have the suffixes attached in O.L. 
to the stems vendess- and sentiss- respectively ; (3) has in T. 
1 and 2 pi. the forms vend-essan -essais^ and (4) has in T. all 
the suffixes attached to the stem sentiss-. 

Imperat. (3) has in 2 s. O.L. the form vendi, and in T. 
vend; in (4) it is in O.L. sent-i, -i; -i/j, -t(^), -ian; in U.E. 
saint-a, -a; sent-ain, -it, saintan; in O.E. saint-a, -a; sent- 
in, -t, saintan ; in T. sent ; sent-ion, -ide, e» 

Infin. (3) in O.L. U.E. and O.E. render^ in T. vender; 
(2) O.L. savdr, U.E. and O.E. sacair, T. savisi; (4) in O.L. 
U.E. and O.E. sentir, in T. senti. 

Part. act. (3) in O.L. tendend, in U.E. tendond; (4) in 
O.L. U.E. and O.E. sentind, in T. sentian. 

Part. pass. (3) in O.L. vend'eu{s), -ida; -i, idas ; in U.E. 
vend- a, -tula; -tits? iidas; in O.E. vend-ieu, -ida; -ie us, idas; 
in T. vend'U, -uda, -ui, -tides; (4) in O.L. sent-et({s), -ida; 


-i? ida»; in U.E. «cn^({(i), -rWa; U»? idas; id O.E. scnZ-iVu, 
-iiia; ieas, idas; in T. aenl-i, -ida, -ii, -ides. 

The Latin second conjugnfion has no independent existence 
in Rliaetian, most of the verbs belonging to it being merged 
in the third. The loug e is howevtr preserved in the 
infinitive in the Engadtn and Tiroleae diulects, where wb 
have U.E. and O.E. (mair (timere), T. udei (videre) ; and in 
O.L. without diifcrence of spelling : leiiiii; but vender. 


The regular verba have an identical form for the 1 and 
3 pers. singular in ull the diulects, except in the pres. ind. 
of U.E. O.E. and T., imperf. iud. of T., and perf. subj. of 
T. In the O.L. and U.E. dialecU the 1 and 3 pers. plural 
have identical forms, except in the pres. ind. and subj. and 
iniperat. In T. the 3 pers. sing, and pi. have always 
identical forms. 

In the formation of the Rhaetian forms from the Latin, 
we observe the general principles, which apply to other parta- 
of speech as well, that 

1) final unaccented vowels' are dropped, except a. 

2) final m and t of inflexions are dropped. 
To come to the explanation of special forms: 

pRKSENT iNn. — 1 s, O.L. niiia : final a doubtful, often 
pronounced am; the « shows the power of the root-vowel ia 
maintaining itself, as it does also in T, in the weakened form 
I? in dme. There ia another O.L. form frequently used, amel, 
of doubtful origin ; explained by Carisch as for aiiia el, where 
cl is the accusative pronoun, and consequently correctly 
employed only in trans, verba (to which, however, it ia not 
limited in popular speech), so that siiiidei—aam ia incorrect. 
Siiirzinger explains it as probably 3 pers. of the verb with 
el for subject, from which it was transferred incorrectly to 
I pers. ; I cannot approve this, as it seems to be alwayi 
used as 1 pers. 2 s. -ast Engad. in all tenses, of which the 
t remains moat persistently in O.E., is explained satisfactorily 
by Siiirzinger on the evidence of the older books to have the 


nom. pr. tii attaclied ; in the old language this form occurs 
only where the subjective pronoun is required to follow the 
verb. Similarly -ains, -atis, the O.E. form for 1 pi. in all 
tenses, is proved by him to stand for -ain nus. The 1 pi. 
form -ain E., -ein O.L., on T., represents -amus. If the 
final 8 of -ains were that of the Lat. -amus, we should 
expect it to be retained in O.L. and not in E., witness 
the participle O.L. amauft, TJ.E. and T. amd, O.E. amo. 
2 pi. TJ.E. -flY, O.E. -at«=Lat. -atis, of which the one 
retains the «, the other the t In 1 and 2 pi. O.L. ein, ei's (in 
old books eitu), there seems to be a simple phonetic change of 
a into e, as in T. dme^ dmes, anieis (of which, notwithstanding 
the general predilection of the O.L. for a, there are instances 
in similar contractions, e.g. w^w^^'rmmagister) ; it surely 
cannot be treated as produced differently from the almost 
identical Engadin forms, as Stiirzinger suggests, either 
through adoption of the subjunctive form as indicative, or 
as imported from the 2 or 3 conjugation into the first, 
contrary to the general tendency of the language. The 3 
pi. -an (-en) in all tenses is formed regularly from -ant (-ent) 
by dropping final t. In T., where 3 pi. is always like 3 s., 
it is an open question, as we have no old books in this dialect 
to guide us, whether the nt is dropped, or whether the 
original 3 pi. became obsolete and was replaced by 3 s. ; but 
the analogy of the other dialects and of the Fr. aiment 
(where nt is dropped in pronunciation), and the improbability 
of the loss of 80 frequently used a form as 3 pi. argue for 
the former, though IStiirzinger would probably advocate the 
latter course. 

Imperf. ind. — Lat. -abam becomes O.L. -ava, U.E. -eiva, 
O.E. -fliVrt, T. 'dve, as b becomes v especially between vowels 
(Jav for faba, cavaigl for caballus, fetra for febris) ; but v is 
dropped in T. am-da (more common for -ova)^ -an, -dis. 

Perf. ind. — This tense, which in Latin is formed in various 
ways, is formed in two distinct modes in Rhaetian. The 
original mode is preserved in the modem language in O.L. 
only, and there only in the first conjugation. It comes from 
the Lat. perf. in -avi. 1 s. formerly -at, now d; 3 s. -d. 1 and 



3 pi. -annen, from -ariimis, -di-unt. The Italian -amino, -arono, 
compared with Old Fr. -umes, -arent or -erent, Sp, -ames, 
-aroD, give the explanation. Lat. -avimuB loses the i, and r is 
assimilated, hence It. -amrao, and Engad. -attim, -anti. Lat. 
-arunt, losing its I, becomes It. -arono; and further losing its o 
becomes Engud. -am, whence by assimilation of r -aim. This 
latter process is found almost identically in It. ; in cantorono 
and cantonno for the modern cantarono, and in Dunte'a levorsi 
for levorn-si {see Diez), Thus I and 3 pi. hoth amve at the 
accented inflexion -a/in ; but this does not look like these per- 
sons ; wherefore -en is in both cases added, giving us -atmm. 
Certain O.L. verba of 4th conjug. have 1 and 3 pi. formed in 
this way in -innen. The second person is not found in the 
ordinary O.L. language in either sing, or pi. The following 
form of perfect is found in certain old Engad. books, but is quite 
obsolete: tJ.E. -ai, -anch, a, [-(wcAew] (2nd conj. -exchen], [-aacAes,] 
•nun ; O.E. a, -ui, o, -asc/ieii, -inches (for -awhes), -aun. Here 2 
s, and pi. are explicable from Lat -asti, -astis (It. -asti, -aste), 
and 3 pi. from Lat. -arunt, -a(r)un. Only 1 pi. is anomalous, 
and must apparently be explained as Stiirzinger does — that 
amaschen supplants an older correct form, being itself im- 
properly deduced from the 2 pi. amasches, just as in the verb 
'to be' egches estis gives rise to e'.chen sumus. These rare Per- 
fect forms are found (with the proper change of vowel) in 
the other conjugations. We now come to the other form of 
Perfect, which obtains in the Engadin dialects in all conju- 
gations, and in O.L. in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4tb. The accented ■ 
syllable -elt is added to the root in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd conj., 
suppressing the a of the 1st, producing arnrlt, teii'letl ; i 
4th the I of the root overpowers the e of the affix, and we ] 
have seuiilt. These forms serve for 1 and 3 sing. They 
are remarkable and appear difficult of explanation ; but Diez 
has interpreted them satisfactorily. The only Lat. verba ttat ] 
have anything similar are do i/cdi, and »to ateti. Their | 
perfects are in Italian diedi or detti, desti, diedo die or dette; 
demmo, deste, diedero or dettero ; stetti, st«al.i, st^tte ; 
steramo, steste, fitettero. The forms with tt appear here only 
in I and 3 s. and 3 pi. In these very persons many Italian 



"verba in -ere have similar secondary forms, thus vend-ei 
-etti, vend-e or -ette, vend-erono or -ettero. These 

■ latter Airms, which depurt altogether from the Lalin 
loriginal, must be produced by the mistaken analogy of the 

■ two verbs liare and flare, in which the forma in it are correct. 
Elf this is so in Italian, wo cannot but assign the same origin 
|to the Rhaetiau forms. But the Uhaetians have gone further 
I than the Italians, in taking anted for the stem of the entire 
1 tense and forming all the persons from it. Only 1 and 3 s. 
I However can be regarded as thus developed ; tlie tense is 
linSected like an imjicrfect, just as the Lat. fai is conjugated 

1 0.h.Juv -a, -ast, -a, -an, -a», -an, precisely like the imperf. 

Future i»d, — The terminations of the O.E. tense do not 

I toccurately reproduce the vowels of the verb ' to have' ; these 
I have given place to a uniform o, which is correct in 3 a. amer- 
\ d (from ^o=habet), and 'A pi. ameron, where o is a modifica- 
tion of ai4, but not in the other persons. But this is a 
Tnodern inflexion of the tense, striving after regularity by ex- 
tending the of 3 s, to the other persons. Pallioppi f" Con- 
Ljugaziun," p. 13) says that he knows old people who inflect 
rthe future thus: anuir-i, -ei/, d; -tiiiti, -ais, -arm; and these 
I forms are found in the older books {Sliir. p. 26). In U.E. 
I the only irregularities are the weaker vowels natural to a 
I polysyllabic word, in 1 b. nmnr-d I and 2 pi. -in, -ai, where 
I a replaces ai. In T. the r, lost from the ordinary infin. date, 
1 ia here preserved through the following vowel, diner-i. The 
I vowel of the infinitive inflexion undergoes a weakening 
Lthrough loss of the accent, in IJ.E. 2 conj. -air, and 3 conj, 
J -pr, both into -ar ; and in O.E. 2 conj. -air, and 3 conj. -er, 
tboth into -er; in both dialects the 4th conj. retains its -tr. 

Pbks. 8i;bj. — Of the Lat. conjugations all but the first 
I have the vowel a : am, as, at, etc. ; and this vowel is adopted 
I in the Engadin forms ama, rendu, aninta {from geittir ; for 
I even in the 4th the radical i is dropped before a). It is 
I obvious that the 1st conj. was here forced into analogy with 
I the others, and that the Lat. amem is not represented at all. 
[ The O.L. dialect follows a different course, which ia less easy 



to trace. It adde i to the root aa sign of tte subjunctive, j 
aud forma am-i, -ias, -i, -eirm, -eias, -inn, and the verbs of I 
the other coujugations aut exactly like thia. Thia agrees I 
strikingly with the Italian first conjugation : am-i, -i, 
-iamo, -iuto, -ino. Aa all the conjugations are Infiected alike, I 
it is obvious that 1) the difference between Lat. amem and i 
moneam, vendom, sentiVi'n, is obliterated ; 2) the Lat. amem 
is not the original of O.L, ami, etc., since the Lat. e would 
be dropped, not changed into i, ia; 3) the O.L. forms must 
be based on the Lat. 2nd and 4th conjug., where earn and 
iain might become ), through dropping am, and preserving 
the previous vowel OS belonging to the stem; senti-om. lu | 
the Lat. 3rd conjug., which has its pres. subj, in -am 
(vendam), several of the commonest verbs (facio, capio, jacio, 
aapio, rapio, quatio, fugio, patior, morior) have the vowel i, 
which gives a subjunctive form /wow, etc. ; and this is quite 
sufficient reason for the O.L. dialect to treat it in the same 
way as the 2nd and 4th conjug. The O.L. Ist eonjug. ia 
then made to conform to the pattern of the others. It might 
be supposed that in I and 2 pi. O.L. am-eiaii, -eias, the t 
was from the vowel e in amemus, araetia; hut this is not , 
possible, since we have the same vowel in the third conjuga- 
tion : veiuhinn; it must be due to the same phonetic change I 
of a into e which gives us flH(etn=amamus. It is remarkable \ 
that the old O.L inflexion for I and 3 s. was -iij as well as I 
-i; this consonantal form Carisch regards as correct before a 1 
vowel to prevent the hiatus, but it is found in some old books 
equally before vowels and consonants. The soft g appears to 
be due to a Lat.y inserted to prevent a hiatus in faciam; 
facijam, whence after dropping am, -ij and -i(/. We have a I 
similar process in Italian, where maior is hardened into I 
maggiore ; and in O.L., where has^^hahea (showing that the I 
Lat. i is dropped altogether), yet subj. Art£/i'fl«=habeas; iii 1 
U.E. hainxt. The Tirolese forms show no peculiarities; 
represents the a of the Engad. ; and in 1 and 2 pi. -on^ne, I 
eis-e, the additional termination is properly an additional 
{nominative P) pronoun, apparently derived from the reflexive 
se, which is used in that dialect in the inverted forms, i 




.NEAU. 451 

those !□ wbich the i 
Gredner Muiidart, pp. 7 

followa the verb. (See Gartner, 
'6, who is not very clear ) 

Imperf. 8UIU, — The O.L. ditttet-t alone, and that only in 
modern times, has formed a aubjuactive from the imperfect 
aniaea (Lat. aniabain), — a form unknown to Latin and to all 
the other Neo-Latin languages. It ariees simply by afExing 
the subjunctive terminatious of the present to the stem of 
amae-a, ttndi-v-n, sentic-a; in 1 and 2 pi. the loss of the 
accent causes the affix to be -ian, -its, instead of -eian, -eiits. 
The older books in this dialect use the perfect subj. in the 
same sense. 

FKKFEcrr SUBJ, — This tense serves as a past subj. and as a 
conditional. Qrutnninriatis call it conditional, or 'ind Iniperf. 
sabj. {mm, vendM being the 2nd Imperf, ind ) As I have 

Iatled amd, vmilrit, Perf. ind. (from Lat. perfect), I venture 
call this perf. subj. It is formed regularly from Lat. plup. 
obj. amasscm. The O.L. has two i'orms: 1} ain-aas, -atirg, 
aaa, etc., and 2) am-am, -maim, -and, etc. ; the former used 
■ a Conditional, and the latter as a past subj., bein<2; formed 
rom it precisely as imperf. subj. from imperf. ind., and 
being, like impi?rf. suhj., confined to this dialect. 

Future subj. — The O.E. bus a subjunctive future formed 
by attaching the prcs. subj. of ' to have,' hegia, to the infin. : 
ameregi-a, -ait, -a ; -aiiH, -ris, -in. 

Imperative, — The 2 s,, which in lat oonj. is in all dialects 
amit, ends in the other conjugations in O.L. in i and e] but U.K. 
and O.E. have n, wbich appears to be formed by imitation of 
the 1st oonj. The 2 pi. diifers from pres ind. much as in Lai. 
amate from amatis; tJ.E. -tti {or at), O.E. -i, O.L. -ei ; the 
T. -e'le alone retains the Lat. dental as d tlike the fem. part.}; 
1 pi, drops the s of pres. ind., -ain. The 3 a. and pi. are 
taken from pres. subj. 

Infinitive, — The T. alone drops the r, except in 3rd conj., 
wliere it is hntthr. The long e of Lat, 2nd conj. becomes ia 
U.K. and O.E. -air, and in T. «, and the d of the 1st in O.E. 
and T. i. 

PARnciPLK, Airr, — ^The forms in -ond, -and, -end, -ind, T. 
an, can be used as gerunds, and are derived from the Lat. iu 


-undutn, etc. : they are not inflected. There is also a derivatirs I 
from the part, in -ana, -ens: am-ont, -onta, chiefly uaed « 
nomen agentis " a lover." 

Pahticiple, pass. — The most noteworthy points are that I 
the t of the Lat. fern, is in all dialects d; and that the m. pl>.f 
in O.L, and T, is formed by the alBx t, while the Engad. 
forms have the usual pi. affiic s. 

Peculiar Verbal Forms. 

The Latin sign of Inchoative verbs sc, common in Italian, I 
is common here, especially in verbs of the 4th cunj. in O.L. 1 
It there appears in the form Kcha, and is limited to the Pres^.l 
iud. 1, 2 and -3 s. and 3 pi., Pres. subj. throughout and Imperat'fl 
2 and 3 s. and 3 pi., thus: (flurir) Ind. fluri-velta, -Kcha^M 
-achit; [-H, -1,] -teliiiii; Subj. -ichi, -nchias, -ac/ii; -gc/iefca^M 
-te/ieias, -schian; Imperat- flun-seha, -i ; [-«, -t,] -aehiam. 
In the other conjugations Carisch says that this Hchn is eitbef 
not allowable or not necessary to a recognised Romonscb: 
Terb, but used in newly imported words to give them ) 
thoroughly native appearance, as accept esclm, calcUlexchtt, 
This is true also of the Ist conj. in U.E. There the forma arerj 
let oonj. centtireneAf 4th conj. fiiiveich. 

Causative verbs can be formed by attaching the ayllable.l 
ant, ent, to the stem of the fundamental verb. This i 
formation employed chiefly by the Rhaetian people anda 
rarely found in any other Neo-Latin language, nor in LatiaS 
itself. But the Latin principle of making causative verbi 
of Ist conj. from adjectives and substantives (jurare from jua, 
gravidur« from gravidus, levare from levis) might be applied 
to participles, so that from serkiia sitting we should have 
Hedentare to make sitting, cause to sit, set down. In old 
Latin we have indeed such a formation in praesentare from 
praesens. The Romonech gives us the following inataacea ; 
O.L. kvar E. rilc-ar, -er rise : laranlar, alranl-ar, ~er rouse, J 
wake. /««rflow: luanfar vaelt, O.L. niovef E. moufer 
(intr.) : O.L. muantnr U.E. muventar O.E. moranter inovol 
(tr.), O.L. iiiU'schar E. imlic/i-ar, -er escape ; mikc/ianiarm 


fnutschant-ar^ ^er help to escape, nagarhe drowned: nagantar 

drown. O.L. plidar (from pled word, Lat. placitum) O.E. 

plader speak: plidantdr address (make to speak), passar pass: 

passantar pass (the time), vargar hasten on : vargantar send 

on. O.L. pinr E. perir perish : pirant-ar, -er destroy. O.L. 

quencher (part, cuscheu) be quiet or silent : cuschantar pacify. 

schiupar burst : schlupantar make to burst. O.L. sSr E. szer 

(part szent) sit : tschant-ar, -er T. aenU set. temSr fear : 

tementar frighten, turnar return: turnantar Beni, back. O.L. 

durmir E. dormir sleep : O.L. andurmentar, E. indurtnenz-ar, 

-er, T. {i)ndurtnenM send to sleep. And as from It. spavento 

fright (from Lat. expavere) spaventare, apantare (Fr. ^pou- 

ranter) frighten ; so U.E. spivir dread, O.L. spuantar, E. 

spavenUar, -er^ T. Ipaventi frighten. 

The limits which I am obliged to observe to prevent this 
article from assuming the proportion of a regular grammar 
— and a comparative grammar too — warn me not to enter 
on the subject of irregular verbs ; nor do I think it necessary 
to say more on verbal formations, e.g. of perfect and participles. 
They conform to and illustrate the general phonetic rules ; 
but it would lead us too far to go into details on a subject 
which Pallioppi found large enough to require a separate 

Non-Latin and obscitre words in Romonsch. 

The construction of the Romonsch language has been 
proved to be Latin, and to agree in its general principles 
with that of the other modem languages based on the Latin, 
at the same time that an independence of French and 
Proven9al on the one side, and of Italian on the other, is 
maintained, which makes it impossible to class it as a dialect 
of either of these. The vocabulary also, so far as it has been 
here exhibited, is seen to be fundamentally Latin — so much 
80 that any words not obviously Latin must be regarded 
either as obscure words of such antiquity that their origin is 
not easily settled, or as later importations. ' These latter are 
chiefly German and Italian — the German predominating iu 


the Ebine valleys and the Oardena and Fasea Talleys, and 
the Italian in the Eiigodin, South Tirol, and Friuli. The 
German words are either new importations not yet accliin*^ J 
tized nor Bubjected to any change, or old words changed ii 
pronunciation, and having dei-ivativea formed froi 
according to the laws of Romonsch, not of German, gramniuvj 
Of these latter only is it necessary to speak, and a list o 
specimens of German words, to show how they are treatod^J 
is all that I shall attempt. 

O.L. tike E. niJzz sub. nutzen, with R. derivatives nisziar 
V. nutzen, nizzekel nutzlioh. O.L. g'lauU uauft tiaiil tJ.I 
gitaut rant O.E. ffoil m. wald and gowalt ; also O.L. gaiiUa 
f. gewult. O.L. bnuld U.E. hm,t O.E. h&d bald. O.L. 
mnmigcl mangel, with derivatives O.L. mimglar O.E. man- 
gier mangeln, O.L. niungloiizn, tiiiinglai/tcnt ermangelun^ 
O.L. wungkiefl O.E. mnuglus mangolnd. O.L. IM list, wtA 
derivatives IMi listig, lintiadad listigkeit. O.L. tuba (fia 
colomb) taube. O.L. luce m, tticke. O.L. baniet 
[burning heat] from root brennen. O.L. lulnr erlauben, witB 
derivative O.L, luhienneha U.E. lubfiiaeha erlaubniss. OX.B 
aehaniar O.K. achinayer sohonen, with derivatives O.L. 
schan&sf TJ.E. ackauiii ac/ianiamaint O.E. Khinag schonDng. 
O.L. scuc'l O.E. achiefd schaden, with derivative verb O.L.;- 
scacdar U.E. schiacdar O.E. achiaider schaden leiden. 
schlisU gchlialt O.E. whlelt (nosch) schlecht, with derivativei 
O.L. schlialtadfvl (HE. nauschdad O.E. noschded) achleclK 
tigkeit. O.L. htrof m. (U.E. chasti, O.E. chastih) strafe 
with derivalives O.L, sirujiar (E. chasti-ar-er) slrafen, O.I 
itrufiader (E. chaati-ader -eder) boatrafer, etc. O.L. grad (B 
drett) gerade. 0-L. gro»s grivsn U.E, grois gross, 
derivative O.L. angroa»ar (U.E, iinplir O.E. ingravidevil 
Bchwangern. O.L. grub grob, with derivative O.L. grobadc 
E. grobtzza grobheit, etc. O.L. grmim U.E. gn'mmus, adjj 
grimmig, with derivative O.L. griitiiniiidml U.E. gi-imm 
grimm. O.L. giacischar U.E. giaci'mrlinr O.E, giavuitcht 
wiinschcn, with O.L, giariac/i giiictKcliitmetit E. giaTuichamaii^^ 
wunsch. O.L. fore O.E. toch stiick, with (ocean gro 
sLiick, !ohii kleines siiick. O.L. lo/l [bold, brave] prob. tolil 



0-L. la glieut leute. O.L. dura daube. O.L. bifiir E. bndiir 
becher. O.L. blaie/t TIE. nbinch 0,E. Mech bleich, with 
derivatives 0,L. b/i/iir E. l/k/iir bleiclien, O.L. bliliunz E. 
hlkhniis bleiclier, etc. O.L. bruin// O.E. ctintab (by apocope 
for bucustub?) buchetabe, with derivative O.L. biiKliar bust' 
ginr U.E. bimlnlgtar O.E. c.mtahger buclistabiren, O.L. huob 
(E. matt) bube. and O.L. bitoba (E. matta) miidcbeu. O.L. 
jiur IT.E. paur buuer, with dimiii, pitraiikel and collective 
piiraijlia. O.L. 711'sa ptzzn spitze. O.L. pitter bitter, with 
O.i,. pittrdiind E. pi'trezza bifterkeit. O.L. ijunffen viffen 
waffe, O.L. ropa wappen. O.L. gmv (U.E. cont O.E. cunt) 
graf, with O.L. groxa (E. oootesaa) gralin. O.L. handrkir 
(E. impedir) hindern. L. Amoi/ U.E. eroja krug. O.L. 
hrida U.E. crniila O.E. criiin kreide. O.L. hari-iar -egiar 
{E. peraeverar) barren. O.L. \fer (E. zeli) eifer, with 
(lerivBlive O.L. ij'ri (E, zelus zelaiit) eifrig. O.L. mitgnn 
(E. atonimi) mugen. O.L. ulruba U.E. scrucira terauf O.E. 
sr/'or «(?ru/'scbraube, with verb ficrurnr, etc. 

In Ladin books words identical with Italian may be found 
in numbers diilering with the laate of the writer, on which it 
is difficult to decide whether they are foreign or not; this 
difficulty arisea mainly from the similarity of form and of 
inflexion between the two languages. I do not, therefore, 
attempt to give a Hst of imported Italian words. 

Alter we have marked off all ihe words obviously of Latin, 
German, and Italian origin, we find a very curious residuum 
of words that for the present defy analysis — not nocessarily 
of very distant origin, for some words are so curiously 
changed by apocope and letter-change as to look very unlike 
their parents, and yet are clear enough when explained (e.g. 
O.L. jamina, entiia U.E. eina O.E. eirna [weekj hebdomas, 
damehinr a! imaginare, and wirelar disgelare), but yet of 
doubtful, and possibly often of recondite source. It is 
desirable to give a list of the more important of these, to 
tempt the skill of philologists who possess the means oi 
throwing light on them. O.L. bfnr biar U.E. hiir O.E. bgh- 
much, many. — O.L, guda U.E. guida Jnda O.E. gcda tim? 
three times). This ia perhaps for angiadu from It, 



Bnilure (with gi for d as in gir=dicere), but very doubtfull; 
so, aB andttre does not appear to be (lie root from wliicb U 
R. verb lo go \a ever formed. It may be formfid by apocnpe 
from trgnd'i, wbich would be (aa in Prov., Old Sp. and Old 
Port.) from Vfs (Lat. vices), c becoming ^ aa in ffatt catlus. 
But neither explanation is at all certain. — O.L. bucc bt 
Heinzenb. bi/g bkh bichia E. brich not. This, like many nej 
tive wonia, e.g. Fr. point, mie, is certainly a substantive den< 
ting "[not] a crumb" or something similar. The Engadb 
form with the ;■ is undoubtedly the older. BtondcUi 
forms brie, hrica, and hrig, as belonging to the West Lumbal 
dialects, and denoting bricciolo 'a crumb,' in Mantuan bh 
and oonnecia them with Grael. briicndh breakage, Bret 
brina, Fr. verb biiser, Ger, brorken. But Diez (a. v. It. brii 
'a tile') takea A.S. brke 'a broken off piece ' as the origi) 
Eug. brick, Fr. briqiie ; It. bricrolino and bricciolo 'a crumb 
being diminutives of it. — L. laviinia ' avalanche,' G«< 
Swiss Itirine, iantiie, certainly not Germ., but borrowed from 
Romonsch, perhaps Lat. labina (In Isiilorus, who says eo 
called because it mukes walkers slip, i.e. labl — a definition 
which seems rather to indicate lying slippery snow, or soft 
treacherous ground, and which, raoreovei', looks like a mere 
guess in the interpretation of a foreign word). We have 
also Prov. larancn, which shows that the word is not limited 
to Switzerland, and It. Inca, used at Naples of a torrent. 
This last Diez derives from lavare; but though this maybe 
right, the other words may with greater probability as to 
form and meaning be derived from labi, because the avalauche 
falU. The Fr. aciiltiiehe or -aiKjo, and It. ralanca (probably 
borrowed from it) can scarcely be formed by transposition 
from the other words, but may come from avaUr to go down 
{t val). — O.L. crnp (for wbich E. has sass, peidru) stone, 
with derivatives carpaujl crnpe/t little atone, O.L. car/inn 
earpuigl E. crapim great stone, O.L. ciirpiin E. crapiu stony, 
etc : very obscure, — }lalt ' boy,' mitta (pL mattaunH) ' girl.' 
The It. matfo is ' mad,' ' eager,' whence rn/iliiiccio ' a great 
fool,' 'droll fellow,' nmmalHre 'to go mad.' The Engadin 
dialect has alao "laltir, smatUr, ainmiitiir 'to be augry,' 'to 

ipa " 



E eager for aomelhing.' Tlie Romonscli mail ntatla can 
rc^ly be connected with these, unleaa it« fundamental 
meaning; be denirniui, and it refers to the period of youthful 
lit»/i ; which seems unlikely, as it is the ordinary word for 
(little) boy and girl. The Sardinian dialect lins iimccit ' ailly,' 
«m Lat. macciia id. in Apuleius; and the connexion between 
bambo ' ailly ' and bmnbino ' baby,' would justify the 
iDmbination of ideaa which otherwise would seem strange; 
mly the phonetic change of cc into tt is very questionable. 
IThe tt most commonly arises, as we have seen, from ct ; and 
jliis suggests mnr/ux, an obsolescent participle, familiar in the 
ihrase marie cirtitte 'increased in virtue,' from the root of 
Btagnua, magia. Thus mafl would describe the boy as 
•oicing. This seems aati 9 factory ; and the only reason for 
jpting it without hesitation is that the Tirolese 
■Oardena) diiilect distinguishes 'I mdtl 'fool' from '/ mutt 
pL multoiiH ' hoy,' and /a inittta pi. wultdiis ' girl,' and seems 
^uit to show that the origin of the two is distinct. If the 
)pis the original vowel, which in the Oberlund changes into 
t through the predilection for a, then we must refer to Sp. 
(HIcAh-cAo ' boj',' -cha 'girl,' which may be from Basque 
rauletin) mouthioo — only the mode of connexion is not 
bvious; can it be prehistoric extension of Basque language? 
Or — another poasibility — in Gipsy language tnolt is said to 
B a gii-/, from whicli probably it has been adopted in English 
lang for a prostitute. On the whole, mndus seems the 
■obable prototype of matt, mutt 'boy,' whilst Tir. ii\dti 
ffool,' It. tnatto 'mad,' ammattiro 'go mad,' E. ma((/r, etc,, 
Eto be angry or eager,' have another and a common origin, 
br which maltm, malm 'drunk' in Petronius (probably 
Wrrupt pronunciation of mudidus) has been suggested, with 
frery doubtful wisdom. — O.L. »ainadn samtulra miimda D.E, 
lamettn *«)«/« ' hard snow ' (whence the place-name Samadeu) : 
VTery curious and obscure. — O.L, tmltar 'to listen.' — O.L. 
flodra U.E. floudra O.E. iffioudra f. ' fodder.' Is it Ger. 
Futter with / irregularly inserted, and if so a neut. pL 
treated as f. P I think so. There is also a regular form 

I O.L./e«t/-m. ; besides O.L. /cf/cu E.jfoder 

' oats,' which 

458 Ro>io^scH or rhjbiias lasgoage. — a. marti.vkau. 

must be tlie same word, — O.L. brtit E. briill 'daughter-in- 

When all the phenomena of the language (iucluding' 
obscure words such us the above) have been considered, thsl 
oouelui^iou arrived at must be that it is based entirely on thft' 
later Latin, and that bo large a portion both of iti§ grammatical 
systein and of its vocabulary is covered by tbis as to leave 
scarcely any room for more aucient elements. Thus the 
fubled connexion of these RhtetJaiis with Etruria is not 
enforced by the evidence of language. The utmost that 
we can allow in this direction is a community of a few local' 
names. Thus Ardetz^Ardea, Zeruetz^Cerneto, Tusis, iit 
It. Tosaoo, originally Tuscia ? and so recalling the Tuscans. * 


Bomonsch has been shown to be one of the ^eo-LatiBt 
languages. Now these languages, however much they differ 
ill details of vocabulary, agree remarkably up to a certaift 
point in the use they make of Latin words even in pervertinj 
them from their original meaning, and in rejecting cortaiit 
words and Bubstituting others. Thus i/le becomes a dednittt' 
article, uniis an indefinite, stare lakes the place of essi^, vaiifrti 
and other verbs of tie, de denotes the genitive, ad the dativi 
case, etc, Romonach differs very strikingly from the oth^ 
languages in some of the uses it makes of the parent Latin, 
Tliose peculiarities that belong to its grammar {e.g. the use 
ol' tho verb renirc in the formation of the passive) have beeo 
aheiidy exhibited. It U desirable to give a list of words' 
denoting overy-day things, which are derived from a source' 
distinct from that of corresponding words in the other 

Man may be expressed by O.L. hum iim E. hom homo, 
but more often by O.L. carsd'ann U.E. crastiiin O.E. crastiauni 
properly Christian, from which there are even derivatives' 
like cor k(i'«H'H7'At(/= humanity (not Christianity). 

Bo)/ and Gii-l are tnatt and matta Tir. mutt and mutt9 
(see above). Boy also O.L. mender U.E. minder. 


Father is O.L. hob E. hap ; grandfather O.L. tatt, 
Sad is sometimes mal (which, however, is rather sharp, 
cunning) but better O.L. nausch O.E. nosch noxius. 
Much is O.L. bear hiar U.E. hlhr O.E. hgkr. 
Very is 1) O.L. zmid U.E. zond O.E. zuond (for z-ammda 
* more than enough'). 2) 0,\j. fig ^,fich. 3) ^mw. 

To Speak is 1) O.L. plidar E. plader, derived from O.L. 
plaid E. joZefi? placitum. 2) O.L. nischanar U.E. rad^chu-nar 
O.E. -w«r, derived from O.L. raschun E. rischun ratio. 
Marriage is O.L. /e?^ Z^/// U.E. /at/ O.E. a/flr/^ lex. 
J5oo/»: is called in most languages of Latin origin by de- 
rivations from liber. Here there is not a vestige of liber, 
and * book ' is O.L. cudisch U.E. cudesch O.E. cudasch codex ; 
Wallachian has carteay from a third source. 

Church is elsewhere called by derivatives from ecclesia. 
Here it is O.L. haseilgia E. baselgia basilica ; also in 
Wallachian biserica. Perhaps the influence of the great 
Basilica of Milan may have produced this result; or this 
language may have been formed before the word basilica 
was technically limited to certain churches of the highest 

Table is not from tabula, but O.L. meiaa E. maisa mensa. 
Week is not from the Latin septimana, but from the Greek 
e^Bo/id^ : emna, evna. 


Otto Carisch, (1) Grammatische Formenlehre der deutschen 
und rhatoromanischen Sprache (O.L. and U.E.). Chur, 

(2) Kleine deutsch-italienisch-romanische Worter- 
sammlung (O.L. and O.E.). Chur, 1848. 

(3) Taschen-Worterbuch der rhaetoromanischen 
Sprache in Graubiinden, besonders der Oberlander 
und Engadiner Dialekte. Chur, 1848. 

Matthias Conradi, Taschenbuch der Romanisch-Deutschen 
(und Deutsch-Romanischen) Sprache. 2 vols. Zurich 



. Pallioppi, (1) Ortografiaet ortoepia del idiom romauntsch 

d'Engiadiu' ota. Coira, 1857. 

(2) Lu Coiijugaziun del Verb nel idiom romauntsch 
d'Enjifiadiu' ota. Saracdan, 1868. 
J. A. Biililer, Grannnatica elcmentara dil lungatg Rhato- 

ronioii^ch (O.L.) Pt. 1. Cuera, 1864. 
Groden, der GroJnor und seine Sprache. Von einem Ein- 

heimischen [dem Curaten J. A. Vian]. Bozen, 1864. 
Theodor Gartner, Die Gredner Mundart. Linz, 1870. 
(Christian SchncUer, Die romanischen Volksmundarten in 

Sudtirol. Bd. 1. Gera, 1870. 
Jakob Stiirzingcr, Ueber die Conjugation im Katoromanischen. 

Inaugural-Dissertation. Winterthur, 1879. 
J. Ulrich, Rliatoromanisehe Chrcstomathie. Bd. 2 (Engadin). 

Halle, 1882. 
F. J. Stalder, Die Landcsspraclien dcr Sehweiz. Aarau, 1819. 
Ascoli, Saggi Ladini (pp. 556) 1873, forming vol. 1 of his 

Archivio Glottologico Italiano. % 
J 5. Carigiet, Raotoromanisches Worterbuch, Surselvisch- 

Deutsch. Bonn and Chur, 1882. 





I>-A.KT II. 




H. = Hindi. 

P. = Poujabl. 

8. = Sindhi. 

G. = Gujarat!. 

M. = ilariithi. 

0. — Ofiya. 

B. = Bangali. 

It. = Italian. 

Sp. = Spanisb. 

Port. = Portuguese. 

Prov. ^ Proven 5ul, 

Fp. = Frencli. 





Taut II. 

By Me. E. L. BRiNBHEiH. 

POn this subject the latest authoritioa are the third volume 

I of Mr. Beamee's Grammar, which givca a very complete 

[ accouDt of the Qaurittn verb, and Dr. Iloernle'a Grammar 

l-of the EasterQ ITindi, of which, by his kindnesB, the proof- 

I sheets of a great part have been sent me. This work is 

I also a comparative grammar of the Guuriaii languages in 

general. It is, it aecms to me, a moat valuable work, and 

throws a great deal of new light on the origin of many of 

the grammatical forms. Dr. Hoemle now calls the languages 

treated of ' Gaudiuu ' instead of ' Gaurian,' as we have 

'Dravidian' instead of ' Dravirian.' 

With regard to the gender of nouns, the Skr. and Lat, hod 
three genders, the masc. fcm. and neut. In S. P. and G. 
among the Gaurian languages there are only two genders, the 
masc. and fem. G. and M. retain all three genders of the 
8kr., while the two Eastern languages B. and O. have lost all 
distinction of gender. In Romance also there only are two 
genders, masc. and fem,, except in Sp., where an adjective 
expressing an abstract idea and used substantivally has the 
neut. gender. 

As a rule, the subst. in all the gender languages retain 


the gender which they had in Skr. or Lat., and the neut. 
becomes niaao. in S. P. and H,, and in Romance. To some 
extent the gender may be gathered from the termination of 
Bubat, Thus, generally, « in S., and o in S, and G., together 
with the corresponding a of the other Gaurians, denote 
masc. auhst. ; a in S., and also i in S. and in Gaurian, 
generally are fem. in worda which do not imply sex. E is 
generally the sign of the neuter in M., w in G. So also in 
Romance subat. which terminate in o are usually maac. and 
those which terminate in a (French mute e) fem. 

There are, however, aeveral exceptions to the rule that 
the Buhst. in both modern groups retain the ancient gender. 
The most remarkable of the exceptions in Gaurian is that of 
several subst. in %. I has become typical of the fem. gender 
in Gaurian, and marks the fem. of adj., as it also did of 
several adj. in Skr., though a waa the usual fem. ending in 
Skr. /, derived from the Skr. fem. suffix iM, the use of] 
which was greatly extended in Prakrit, where it became id 
or Magadhi ie, is the termination of many subst. in Qauriao. 
A preponderating number of fem. subst. in i being thus' 
created, several subst. ending in i in Gaurian, of a different 
origin, which were masc. or neut. in Skr., have become, by 
the attraction of the larger mass, fem. in Gaurian; as Skr. 
rih-at/iix m. ' sale,' S. rikiri f. IT, bikri f. ; Skr. caiiri/am n. 
' theft,' S. and H, Iwi f, A part similar to that played by 
i in making fem. subst. in Gaurian has been played by a 
in regard to masc, subst. in Romance. Fem. of the 2nd Lat. 
declension, and of the 4th which is merged in the 2nd, have 
become maac. in Romance ; as Lat. portkus. It, porlico, Fr. 
porche, etc. ; the only exception being tmiiuis. It. majw, Fp. 
main, which has preserved ils original gender. Many subst., 
again, have been adopted into both groups from other 
languages, and had to be fitted with genders as best they' 
could. A great number of words from the Persian, which 
is genderless, have been adopted into Gaurian. The gender of i 
such words has been settled to some extent by their termina-, 
tions. In Romance most words received from the Germaii 
have refiiined iheir gender, neut. becoming masc. 




In Skr. there are often two forms of the same word, the 
Becoad having a dimiautive or pleonastic suffix, from which 
last the modern word is derived; as has been proved by 
^oernle; thus Skr, ii/dlm aud iydlakas 'wife's brother,' S, 
'«fi/o, H. adla ; Skr. kilas and kUnkaa ' a worm,' S. Mro, H. Jiird ; 
Skr. kshuri and ki/iui'ikd 'a knife,' S. and H. i/iuri. Thia ka 
suffix is extended also to subst. which did not have it in Skr. ; 
as, Skr. 6hedt 'a ewe,' H. b/irri ; Skr. sknndkaa ' the shoulder,' 
S. kandho, H. kmlhd ; and still more frequently to adj , as Skr. 
gaiiras, i, ' pale,' 8. goro, l, H. gord, i ; Skr. kdnas, d, ' one- 
eyed,' S. kano, i, 11. kdnd, i. If these words had been 
rived from Skr. primary forms, they would have ended 
ither in a consonant or in a short vowel. 13. and 0-, as tho 
, do not add the suffix to the adj. The diminutive 
xes are great favourites in the aame way in the other 
lup ; as Lat. f rater and /ralerca/us. It. friitello ; Lat. apU 
id apicula, Fr. abeille; Lat. aiiulas and anellm or aniieUtts, 
anello, Fr. anneau; and new formations, as It. ato/o, 
rffiola, Fp. aoleil, aommeil, and adj., as It. parecchio, Fr. 

In the Indian group it is to tho nom. of tho Skr. that tho 

if the modem subst. is, in moat instances, to be referred. 

lubst. however, belonging to the class of Skr. consonant 

ibst. are sometimea derived from the same stem as that of 

le ace, and not from the nom., where there is a diHerence. 

'Thus, subst. of this class admit to some extent of a special 

COmpariBon with the ace. formations of the Romance. There 

are, also, subst. in both groups, and especially in Fr. among 

Lv^e Romance languages, in which the whole final syllable 

nas been lost, an entirely new form being thus given to the 

nhibst. Of tho five Lat. declensions, the traces of three, 

' namely, the 1st, 2nd, aud 3rd, are more or less preserved in 

the derived languages, and it is, as the rule, from the Lat. 

ace. that the modern subst. is said to be derived ; but in It. 

the nom. has had more influence than iu the other languages 

both groups the final s or /" of the nom. or ace. sing, form 

.ppears; except that in Old Fr. and Prov., where there 

both a nom. and an oblique form, the s is retained in tho 


uom. form. The stem vowels are always retained in S., dropped, 
generally, in the other Gaurian languages, though > and k 
are occasionally retained. XJ ■= Skr. a, however, is preserved 
in old H. and in some of the dialects. In Romance the stem 
vowel is, generally, dropped in Fr. and Prov., retained in 
the other languages. The a, however, of the Ist Lat, decL 
ia preserved in Prov., while in Fr. it becomes mute e. The 
dual of the Skr, has disappeared in Gaurian, as it had 
previously done in Prakrit, 

The plural of subst. in hoth groups is still formed to S 
considerable extent by flexion. Thus, in S. masc. snbet. in 
« have a in the pi. form ; fern, in a, « or w ; maac. in o, d ; 
fem. in »', u and i, in, u and tyli. In H. masc. in a have e; 
fern, ending In a cons, e ; fern, in i and k, iyA and uS. In 
P. masc. in a have c ; fem. ending in n cons, in ; fem. in i 
and u, ia and ud. In G. masc. in o have do; neut. in u, ao; 
all other subst. add o to the sing. In M. subst. ending in ft- 
cons., if femv, have a or i, according aa they are derived from 
Skr. sterna in « or i, if neut., e ; masc. in d, t ; neut. in 2, i ; ■ 
fem. in i, yd; neut. in }, ye; fem, in u, vd; neut. in 6, r3. 
In B. the pi. form is in ard or era, restricted to rational 
beings. The rd is a modern affix, and not derived from any 
pi. form of the Skr. In 0. the pi. ia formed with mdne for 
animate, and tmhi for inanimate objects. This is a compound 
form, and the pi. sign is thought by Hoornle to be probably 
from Skr. mdnara 'man.' There are also compound forma 
in the other languages in addition to the flexion forms. 
Thus log 'people,' is often added colloquially in H. to form 
the pi. of rational beings. The flexion forms are generally 
considered to be derived from Pr. and Skr. pi. ; as, S. maso. 
M, pi. a from Pr. o, pi. & and Skr. as, pi. as; S. fem. V, pi. ih, 
from Pr. /, pi. h, and Skr. is, pi. ayas. Hoernle, on the other 
hand, finding that, with the exception of the M. fem. and 
neut. nouns, the nom. pi. forma of each language are 
identical with the oblique forma either in the same or some 
other Gaurian language, says there can be no doubt that 
these so-called nom. pi, forms are elliptic phrases which 
must be filled up by supplying some collective noun, as log 



* people/ gan * troup/ etc. No doubt all the Gaurian pi. 
cannot clearly be traced to Skr. or Prakrit pi. forms, but I 
question whether Hoemle's theory will be accepted as a 
satisfactory solution of the difficulty. 

In It., in the first two declensions, the pi. is derived from 
the Lat. nom. pi. Subst. of the Ist decl. in a, which are 
usually fern., have e in the pi. ; but if the subst. is masc, it 
has «. Subst. of the 2nd. decl. in have t, if the subst. was 
masc. in Lat., but often a if it was neut. Here, al$p, as in 
the case of the fern, and neut. subst. in M. mentioned above, 
the different flexions, by which these subst. were distinguished 
in the ancient languages, which t^re no longer shown in the sing., 
have been preserved in the pi. In Fr, Sp. and Port, the pi. ends 
in B derived from the Lat. ace. pi. The accompanying table ^ 
gives a few examples of the foregoing remarks relating to both 
groups, showing the subst. both in jtheir sing, and pi. forms, 
though, as above stated, there is a difference of opinion as to 
whether or not the pi. flexions in Gaurian are to be referred 
to the Skr. pi. These examples may be thus classed : — 
I. Subst. derived from Skr. and Lat. subst. with vowel 
stems. 2. Subst. derived from Skr. and Lat. subst. with 
consonant stems. 3. Subst. which have suffered apocope of 
their original stem suffixes or final syllables. 

Besides the nom. forms, the Gaurians have also an oblique 
form. In S. masc. in u have a in the obi. sing. ; masc. in 0, 
e ; all subst. in I and u, ia and ua ; in the pi. the forms are 
more numerous, viz. a, ^, awi, uni^ iani, uani, which are to 
some extent indiscriminately used with any subst. In H. 
rnasc^ in a have e in the obi. sing., d in the obi. pi. ; all 
other subst. have d in the obi. pi. added to the nom. sing. 
In P. masc. in d have e in the obi. sing., id in the obi. pi. ; 
all other subst. have i in the obi. pi. added to the nom. sing. 
In G. masc. in and neut. in & have a in the obi. sing., and 
there is no obi. form at all in the pi. distinct from the nom. 
form. In M. masc. and neut. ending in a cons, have a obi. 
sing., d pi., fem., e or i sing., 3 or f pi. ; masc. in d, neut. 
e, yd sing., 3 or ya pi. ; masc. in i, neut. 1, yd sing., 1 or yd 
pi. ; fem. in i, ye sing., ya pi. ; masc. in u, neut. u, vd sing., 

1 See next page. 




NoH. mna. 

No*. PL. 

Noil. BWU. 

NoM. ft. 

« = .. 

8b. fiar-oi'mSD' 


Lst <»H<W 


8. luir-H 


It. «»n-o 


O.H. N«r-u 

■W. 1 rm-« 

H. nar 

Fr. <■» 

8kr.yr<A-™ii. 'lionae' 

Ijlt. lign-im 


M. jFAor 

It. kgn-0 


Skr.yiAi-a (. 'tongue' 


hxt nw-a 

(^■.«) , 

S. Jiih-a 


It. r».fl 

H. j7W 


Fr. TM-ir 

M. jm 




Lot. turr-ii 

S. Wi«-i 


It. toT--. 


H. bhit' 


BV. (wr 


M. Mm( 



Skr. i-ai 'voice' 


Ut. iw-» 


B. Ms' 


It. rwr--* 

Skr. piii • town ' 





H. i,«r 


Fr. jfeBr 


Skr. rwrfnti (p.) 'weopiBg' 

Lat. nA«-. 


[ac«. rMi^i»>(-ain^ 

(itcc. r>(fe«(-«n) 

6. ri4<t»d.<, 

It. r.d«(.. 



Fr. Hunt 


H. ™f-5 

Bkr.iAor(5' husband' 


Ui nxfor 


8. *Aoi(5r-B 


It. emlar-e 


H. iAot^r 


Fr. chaulcur 


Skr.pila 'tflthsr' 


Lat. ^dter 





Pr. j«« 



Skr. roja '\iBg- 


At. «J^ 
t. re 

H. ™ 


Fr. rs, 


Skr. ffAr"-™-' butter' 

Lftt. ful-im 

K jAi 

Ft. J™ 

Bkr.j'cvdt 'world' 


Lat. *erpnw 

8. j«a« 


t. wrp* 


H. j,y 




LaL elatieum 


B. kan4o 



H. x^a 


Fr. j/*i 



Lat. formiea 


H. ».amT 


Fr. /™™i 

fmnmt j 

I 'Walacbian. 

* Compare thme fomu, It. anni and legna, JS.pbha, bhint', tudghare, in which 
the oriftmal distinctioa of termination is prGserr^ in the pi., bnt not in the nag. 

' The i is oocaaionallf retained; aa. H, inuhi 'a sage ftom Skr. nunu; ir ii 
treated like i ([enerally dropped; aa, H. «« 'a mother-in - Uw ' from Skr. 
■'•vhVui; but oocBiionallj retained ; as, H. laru 'a tree' trom Skr. lanit. la 
Romance Ibi> u aulwL paat into the 2nd decl. : as. Lat. /rwriu, iL/nlla, pl./r»r((. 

* The stem, as pruaerved in the pi., alone admits of cumuarison ; '' ' ■• 
iiaur-a, Yi./nn-i. 

on ; thiu aien 8. ^H 



^^B or ca pL ; fern, in u, re sing., f « pi. ; all subst. ia i and u, 
^Hl and & sing., 1 and u pi. In all other cases ia the languages 
above referred to the obi. form ia the same as the nora. It is 
generally considered that B. and 0. have no obi. forma, all 
the additions which indicate the relations of eitbst. being 
classed aa postpositions. Hoernle, however, ia of opinion 
that the e in e-r gen. sing, and in e-le lac. sing, of subsl. 
in B. is of similar origin to the obi. forms of the other 
languages above referred to. It is clear, also, that the 
compound pi. in 0. has an obi. form in an ; as, for instance, 
ghar-inaii nom. pi. ' houses ' ; ghar-iiidiiaii obi. pi. 

The different forms of the obi. in Gaurian are considered 
by Hoernle to be all derived ultimately from the Skr. genitive 
suffix sya m. yd* f., pi. nAm m.f., or from the strong form 

K/fi/a ra. kayos f., pi, kdndm m.f,, with elision of k in the 
oderns. To see this we must study all the intermediate 
rms preserved in the different kinds of Prakrit. It wilt 
not be necessary, however, to go into these details for ray 
purpose, as beyond the fact of there being a uora. and obi. 
form in most of the Gaurian languages and in two of the 
^munce, and the uae to which they are put, there is not 
nuch else to compare, in regard to these forms, between the 
^wo groups, the obi. in one group being derived from the 
n the other from the ace. of the parent language. 
LOne or two examples of comparison with the Skr. will be 
^•afficient for the Gaurian group ; as, Skr. naras ' a man,' 
. sing, narasi/a, gen. pi. nardiidm; S. nam, obi. sing, 
lara, obi. pi. nara; H. nar, obi. pi. naro; M. nor, obi. 
Tiard, obi. pi. nara. Skr. Jihvd 'the tongue,* gen. 
^ sing, jihi-dffds, gen. pi. jihrdnani; S. jihka, obi. pi. jibha; 
i S-./M, obi. pl.Jibfio; 'H.jlbh, obi. sing. jWie, obi. pi. jifiAa. 
iamrakas 'copper,' gen. sing, tamrakasi/a, gen, pL 
tatnrakdndm ; S. Uhno, obi. sing, lame, obi. pi. lama ; II. 
f-^ba, obL sing, iabt, obi. pi. fdhS. There is, however, in 
some of the Gauriuns, a second form of the obi. which 
usually takes no postposition, and is restricted generally 
to the expression of one relation of the subat., which is 
[derived by Hoernle from a diHerent form in Prakrit of the 



Skr. gen. Thus in M. there is the general obi. sing, iall 
& = Mg. Pr. aba, as naF& given above, and there is a specif I 
obi. in as = Pr. asm, which has become the dative, as nara» ^ 
' to a man.' There are also relics of the old inflected inst* ' 
and abl. case in M. and S., and some relics of the old loo. J 
in most of the Gaurians. 

In the Romance languages it is only the Old Fr. and I 
Prov. that have an obi. form distinct from the noni. form, f 
The obi. form is derived from the Lat. ace,, and this is the I 
form which the subat. has taken in modem Fr. The two I 
cases are preserved in aubst, belonging to the 2nd and 3rd J 
declensions; as Lat. anntis, ace. annum, pi. anni, aCG. annoi; 
Old Fr. and Prov. aim, ace. an, pi. an, ace. an» ; Lat. pastor, .! 
ace. pasforem, pi. paitores ; Old Fr. pat/re, ace. pasieiir, pi, I 
paiteni-s ; Prov. p/wli-f, ace. panior, pi. ptisfors. In Old Fr. j 
and Prov., as in Old H., the case particles were not so \ 
rigorously employed as in later times; but were often i 
omitted where the relation of the aubst. could be gathered 
from the context. 

In both groups, in their present state, the old relatione of , 
case are, generally, expressed by particles, which are directly i 
connected with the subst. governed by them, and in Gauriail I 
with the obi. form of the subst., and which usually follow th« J 
subst. in one group, precede it in the other. Several other I 
relations of the subst. are eiEpreaaed in the same way. Thesa 1 
particles are prepositions or poatpoaitioos proper. Other -I 
relations of the subst., again, are expressed by particles I 
which are connected with the subat. by means of a cas 
particle, usually the gen. particle. These are prepositions o 
postpositions improper; being of the nature of adverbs, and I 
many of them can be used as such, that is, attached to the 
verb witliout affecting the case relation of any subst. The 1 
following are inatances from H and Fr., as dco 'dieu,' tUo ko 1 
' a dieu,' deo par ' sur dieu,' dco ke pan ' pres de dieu.' The ] 
reason of the particles preceding the subst. in one group and 1 
following it in the other is that in Lat. there were pre- I 
positions, which by a alight change and extension of their j 
though they have also preserved their ancient 1 



prepositional force, Trere ready to take the place of the case 

flexions. In the late Lat. of the inscriptions, where the cases 

I were in a state of confusion, they are found exercising this 

I function. The prepositions principally used for this purpose 

[ in the modern languages are rfn and ail, and in It. a 

compound preposition da corajiosed of de and ad. In, cum, 

per and pit) are also occasionally employed to express soma 

I of the old relations of case. On the other hand, in Skr, the 

I prepositions do not appear to have been so well tilted by 

(previous use and meaning to the required purpose. It was 

essary therefore to have recourse elsewhere for case 

particles to take the place of the lost cases, and accordingly 

subst. in the Skr. locative case were often made use of to 

this end. The usual position of siibst, in an Aryan language 

bis after the aubst. dependent on them; hence they became 

I postpositions. Prepositions in Skr., however, frequently 

f follow the subst. which is governed by them. 

Of the case particles employed in Qaurian, the dat. 
l particles, 8, kfie, H. kJto, are probably derived from the Skr. 
|loc. kakabe 'at the side.' The loc. particle S, and H. m2 
I unquestionably derived from the Skr. loc. madhye '■in the 
I'lnidst.' About the origin of the abl. and instr. particles in S. 
IjtAa, II. sfi, there appears to be much doubt. Tlie particle 
I which marks the gen. relation is distinguished from the 
\ others in that, in the gcndor languages, it is inflected like 
an adj., in fact by it the subst. in the gen. relation is made 
into an adj. which agrees in number, gender, and case with 
the subat. on which it depends ; as 8. piu jo p'tlhi, H. bap 
/id beta ' father's son ' ; S. ptn.Ji dhia, H. bap kl heii ' father's 
daughter.' The H, kd, ki, ke, is in all probability derived 
from the Skr, past part, krila * made,' Pr, kera, while the 

»^.jo,ji,je, and the P. da, dl, df, are considered by Iloernlo to 
lie identical with the H. past part, rfiyd ' given.' The case 
particles differ to a considerable extent in the different 
languages, and are not all of a common origin, but each 
language sometimes provided for them, independently of the 
others, out of its own resources. 
^^ Besides the case particles, to the class of prepositions or 


postpositions proper belong in the Romance group most of' 
the old prepositions ' and compounds of prepositions, and also 
some particles formed from subst. and adj. In the Gaurian 
group ibis L'tass is not so numerous as in the Romance, and 
coneisfa principully of particles formed from subst. and adj., 
sometimes of tbe old prepositions. A few instances of this 
class in both groups are as follows : S, iii ' for ' {Slcr. laMAt 
'obtained'), Fr, pour; S. so/m 'according to' (Skr. sadriia 
' like '), Fr. se/on ; S, pari, H. par ' upon ' (Skr. upari), Ifc. 
sopra, Fr, sur; S. re 'without' (Skr, rile), It. senza; S. »i 
Skr. aam), H. samet ' with,' Fr, avec. It. eon ; S. ild ' towards,' 
Fr. vers ; H. par, Skr. pare loc. ' at the further aide '), Fr, 
outre; S. bkari 'against' (Skr. bhara 'supporting'), Fr. 

The other class, that of the prepositions or postpositions 
improper, is very numerous in Gaurian. The particles of 
this class are mostly derived from subst., in both groups. 
Some, however, that were prepositions in the ancient 
languages also require a case particle to connect them 
with the subst. The following are a few instances of this 
class of particles in Gauriun with their equivalents io 
Romance: S, kha age, H. ke age (Skr. loc. agre'm front'), 
It. daranti a, Fr. au demnt de; 8. yepaae, It. ke pits {?ik.T. pdrivt 
loc. 'at the side'), li. presso di, Fr, pris de; S. je vicce, H, 
he ble (Skr. rrit 'be,' 'dwell'), It. in ntezzo di, Fr. ail milieu 
de; Skr. khh poe, H. ke pdche (Skr. adj. loc. paice). It 
di^rtro a ; S. je heihe, H. ke nice (Skr. adj, loc, nice), It. sotto a^ 
Fr. au dessous de; S. j'e bdhari, K. ke bakir (Skr. caAit)^ 
It. /itore di, Fr. hors de. 

Several prepositions and postpositions do not absolutely 
belong to either of the above classes, but may be used in botlt 
classes, some limes in the same, sometimes in different 
languages. Tbe postpositions so called in Gaurian do not. 
however, always follow the subat. S. re ' without,' H. bin 
' without,' for instance, may either precede or follow the 
subst., and in poetry many of the postpositions are used. 
either before or after the subst. governed by them. 

Next, I proceed to give some account of udjectivca in tha 




two groupa. Adj., when inflected, are genernlly declined 
like subst. In Quurian the termination o or a is niaac. ; and 
and d are changed to i in the fern. In S. adj. in h have 
also gender, and change it to « or i in the fern. Id II, and 
G. the adj. has, of course, besides uiasc. and fern., the neut. 
termination. In S, and P. the adj. agrees with the subst. in 
nuraber, gender, and case, and in the other hinguages also, 
but with some exceptions. Thus, in H. and G. the adj. does 
not take the obi. form of the subst. in the pi., but that of the 
obi. sing., and also in II. the nom. fern, t is unchanged in the 
noin. pi. Further in M. the usual obi. ending is t/d sing., 
ya pi. for all genders. In B. and O. the adj. is unchanged. 
la Romance, gender is distinguished as in Lat. in adj. 
derived from Lat. adj. in m, a; as It. buarw, biwna ; Fr. boii, 
bonne, With these terminations £}■ and era are confounded ; 
as. It, nero, nera. Many adj., however, which did not 
distinguish between the niase. and feni. in Lat., make the 
distinction in Fr, ; as, fort,fortf, etc. In the Astnrian Sp, 
dialect, I am informed by Prince L Bonaparte, the adj. has 
a nout. form, when used substantively, and also when used 
i predicate of a neut. pronoun ; as, bomi ra., bono f., but 
hiojjo n. ; as, lo hono 'the good,' and h que ye bono 'that 
I -which is good.' In Sp. also the neut, form of the article is 
'Used with the adj. raised to the quality of a subst.; as, /o 
hueno. In Old Fr. and Prov., again, according to DJez, the 
; adj. has a neut. form, when it is the predicate of a pronoun 
' used in a neut. sense, or of an entire sentence. Old Fr. bona 
hone f., bon a. The following is a specimen of an adj. in 
teach group : — 


iuthkat IKahkTji 

With reference to the remarks made above about the obi. 
■ form of the adj. in Gaurian, we have, for instance, obi. sing, 
jS- and P. rare cjhore, H. bare ghore ' magni eqni ; ' obi. pi, S. 



tare ghore, P. taria ghorid ' magnoruin equonim,' but H. 
bare ghoro. Both tlie Skr. and Lai. adj. are compared by 
flexion : for the comparative degree Skr. it/am» and iaras, Lat. 
tor; for the superlative, Skr. lainai and I'l/ilhas, Lat. imut 
and ismnita. The modern languages have, in principle, in 
both groups renounced such flexion. In Gaurian the com- 
parative degree is expressed by simply adding the ablative 
particle to the subat. with which the comparison is mode, the 
superlative by the employment of the pronoun signifying 
'all' followed by the ablative particle. The Romance for 
the comparative makes use of what was already occasionally 
employed in Lat., a periphrastic formation by means of' 
adverbs. The signification of superlative is given by placing 
before the comparative the definite article. 

As regards the numerals, in S. and M. alone in Gaurian ia 
there any distinction of gender, and that only in the first 
numeral in S., viz. htkht m., /likka f., and in M. in the 
special forms for two, three, and four ; as doghe m., doght f., 
doghe n. 'two.' In the Romance languages itniia alone is 
subject to flexion in all the languages ; as. It. mho, una ; Fr. 
M», une ; duo in Port, only ; tre& only in Old Fr. and Prov., 
ducenCe, irecend, etc., exclusively in Sp, and Port. Mi7/e has 
a pi., viz. milti, in It. only. The following is a comparison of 
the first decade in each group : 

Skb. S. H. Lat. It. Fi 


(stem tfalui) 



(gteni Mint),) 
(rt.,id ..Br-...) 





Iq Oaurian each aumeral is subject to phoDetic diaage, oa 
if it was an iudepondent word. Tbere ia no help givea to 
the memory by using the numerals, up to nine, of the first 
decade unchanged in tlie other decades, aa is the case 
generally in t)ie European lauguages ; so that it is a eon- 
eiderable tax on the memory to learn the numerals in the 
Gaurian languages. Thua in H., for instance, for ' vingt un,' 
instead of bis ek, we Lave ekla, from Skr. ck/iniiiiuii; for 
•vingt deos,' instead of bis do, we have baU, from Skr. 
dtdmmmtii for 'vingt aept,' saidis, where the long d is 
•apposed to bo owing to the Skr. oxytone sapid as compared 
with ek/i ; for the same reason athdis 28, but pacia 25. Por 
19 the Skr. has ekonnmrniati ' twenty lesa one,' Lat. tmde- 
viginii, which is preserved in M. ekuiinmu, Old 11, aguim; 
but the more common abbreviated form Skr. iinaviniiati 
appears in H. unis, S. imirlha. 

The ordinal numbers are declined exactly like adj. in both 
groups. The following are examples. The first ordinal has 
undergone great change iu Gaurian. 

Skr. prat?tainai 

S. paharyfi 

H. pallia 

Skr. Ifit'yai 

It. guia-la 

Old Fr. quart 

Lat. Hptim 

The modern H, ll-srd 'third,' and also du-srd 'second,' are 
formed by the addition of the suffix srd, as the modern Fr. 
deux-iiine, troia-iime, by the addition of thne = esiimi^. 

The article, which plays such an important part in the 
Komance languages, was unknown both to Skr. and Lat. 
The first numeral is used as the indefinite article in both the 
modem groups, though not to the same extent in Gaurian as 


in Romance. Gaurian, however, has no definite article, 
though tlie demonstrative pronoun is occasionally osed, as 
iife was in late Lat. 

The pronouns in both groups have a nom. and an obL 
form, the latter being apparently from the Skr. and Lat. gen» 
though in Romance also, in some instances, from the Lat. 
ace. and dat. The first and second personal pronoun in each, 
group may be thus compared; 

Ibt Pkusosal PnONOUN. 

A«m, Ann 

The forms given above as H. are Braj forms. In High, 
H. the obi, forma are miijh, hij'h, and are from Pr. majjha, 
litjjhn, from which a dat. is formed in High H. mtijhe, tujhe, 
and from the pi. ham, turn, a dat. !iat>ie, hcmS. High H. 
also has mm for nom. sing, Ist pers. pron., though ho occurs 
in most of the dialects ; M. in the same way has mi for the 
nom., 0, >H!i, and B. mui ; all originally obi. forms. The 
obi. form is also sometimes used in Fr. for the nom., as la 
moi qui lin. 

The reflexive pronoun in Gaurian, as S. pana, H. dp, etc., 
is derived by a remarkable phonetic change from the Skr. 
reflexive pronoun dlntd ' self,' occ. dlmdnam. The reSexive 
pronoun in Romance, as It. se, Fr. soi, is from Lat. se, aibt. 

I. pi. r 

m, Pr. I 

rived in Gaurian. 





The Skr. posBessive pronouns mailit/a tind tcadlya are not 
found in 0»urian. The possessive pronouns in most of the 
Gaurian languages, as H. merd, G. maro ' my,' H. iei^d, G. tdro 
'thy,' are probably formed by incorporating the Pr. kera (Skr. 
past part, krifa ' made '), before referred to, with elision of k, 
with the obi. form of the pronoun. The possessive of the 
reflexive pronoun, as II. apiid, M. dpld, is referred to the Skr. 
possessive dfitin/as 'own,' These possessive forms are used 
as the gen. of the subst. pronouns. In S. the gen, relation 
of the subst. pronouns, as of the subst., is expressed by the 
postposition Jo, and the genitive is used as llio possessive 
pronoun. In Old Fr. also, as in most of the Gaurian lan- 
guages, possessive pronouns are formed by attaching a sufi&x 
io an obi. form of tlie subst. pronoun ; as, mien, ticn ; other- 
wise the old Lat. possessive survives in the modern languages. 
The possessive pronouns are declined like adj. in both 
groups ; as, H. me-ra, me-n. Old Fr, mi-en, mi-eniie; H. ie-rd, 
te-ri, Old Fr. (i-eii, ti-enne ; H. apnd, apni, It. »uo, sua. 

The demonstrative pronouns are used for the pronoun of 
the 3rd person in Gaurian. S. M. and some dialects of H. 
distinguish gender in the demonstrative. The other lan- 
guages do not make the distinction. Thus we have Skr. - 
, aj/tim m. ' this,' S. !ii m. and f., /liu m. Ma f., H. i/cb (dial, i) ; 
•^r. gen. sing, asyw ; obi. sing, P. ih, H. is (S. fiina or ina) ; 
^Bkr, nom. pi, ime, S. fil, he, H. ye; Skr. gen. pi, dndm for 
uhdm, S. hini or ini, H. in. Hoemle, however, derives the 
modem near demonstrative from the Skr. iijat (or Ved. itat), 
Pr. e ' so much,' and also with regard to all the simple 
pronouns, except the personal, he thinks that in most caoe* 
"the forms which are now used as simple pron. were origin- 
ally those of pron. adj. of quality or quantity," In Romance 
^ic and M have not been able to maintain themselves, but ilU 
has be<en preserved, and is now used exclusively as the pron. 
of the 3rd person. We have thus from Lat, ille, ilia, It. 
rgii, ella, Fr. il, eUe ; Lat, illiut. It. and Fr. lui m,; but 
It. lei f., Fr. elle f. ; Lat. ilti, illae and illo», illat. It. egli-tia, 
eBe-no, Fr. il", tllct; Lat. iUorttm, It. toro (Fr. leur conj. 
form). Sp. has also a neut. fonn, viz, il m., ella C, ello n. 

^m forin). 



BeBides the above forms there are also in Romance con- 
junctive forms of the pronouns attached to the verb, which 
express the ace. and dat. relations. It is only the S, among 
the Gauriaiis that has such forms ; they are always suffixed. 
They cannot be used either before or after the verb, as is 
generally the case in It. Sp. and Port. Both iu S. and is 
Homance these conjunctive forms are for the moat part, 
abridgments of the absolute forms. Compared with It. thftJ 
forms are in the sing. S. me, It. mi; S. i (with elision of (V 
It. li; S. SI, It. dat. ^U, h', aec. lo, il', in pi. S. «, It. 
cd, It. ft ; S. ni. It. dat. loro, ace, gli, h'. In S. there is only] 
one form, whether to express the dat. or ace. relatio 
whercuB in Romance, as shown above, tliore is for the 3i 
pers. pron. one form for the dat., another for the aoo., 
relation. Also in S., except with the past part., only oni 
conj. pron. can be suffixed to the verb. The followinj 
few instances of the way in which the pronominal suffixes 
are used in S, as compared with It. ; as S. dln-mi ' give me. 
It. da-mmi; S. d'tn-i. It, diano-fi; S. dini-ra. It. diatio-m. la 
8. the pronominal suffixes are also used with nouns and 
particles, but not nearly to the same extent as with verbs. 
The fusion of the particle and pronoun might be compared 
with that of the preposition and article in Romance, but the 
conjunctive pronouns cannot be used with prepositions 

The relative pron. in Gauriati has both a sing, and pLi 
form in all the languages ; gender is distinguished in S. ant 
M, only. The simple interrogative pron, Skr. kiK, ka, kad 
(the original neuter form), has in Gaurian a pi. form either 
in the nom. or obi, ; gender is distinguished in G, only. In 
the Romance descendants of qui, quae, quod, no distinction of 
either gender or number has been preserved. Thus we have \ 
rel. pron. sing, Skr. i/na m. yd f., S.^o m.jaf,,; pi, Skr. J 
ye, S, yp, H, je. Inter, pron. Skr, k<i». Old H. ko, B. ke, I 
High H. kautt comes from a derivative form of the original I 



ler "^^ 


Lat. t 

. It. chf, Fr. 

Lat. ' 

, It. Chi, ] 

T"r. qui ; both forms without flexion for gender or number in J 
Romance. The Gauriaus have also an obi, form for the reL ] 


and inter, pronouns generally derived from the Skr. gen. ; 
as H.jw from yasytty kis from kasya; "pl.jin from ydndm for 
yeshdm^ kin from kdndm for keshdm. These pronouns, how- 
ever, Hoemle would derive from Skr. ydvat, Ap. Pr. jeva, 
and Skr. kiyat (Ved. kivat), Ap. Pr. keva. It. Prov. and Old 
Fr. have the Lat. dat. cut for their obi. sing, and pi. The 
Gaurians have also an interrogative used in a neuter sense ; 
as S. chd, H. kyd, from Skr. kim (Vedic kad), which corre- 
sponds to the Fr. quoi from quid. 

Skr. kldriSas m., kidriSi f. 'of what kind?' supplies the 
common interrogative in S. and P., as S. keho, kehi ' which ?.' 
Lat. qualia, which is connected with kidrisas by change of d 
to /, is interrogative in Romance; as. It. quale, Fr. quel, 
quelle. With the article it is relative ; as. It. il quale, Fr. 
lequel. Again, kldniasi *qualis' becomes, S. kiharo 'of what 
kind ? ', H. kaisd ; and Skr. tddriias ' such like ' becomes S. 
teho, H. taisd ; and Lat. talis, It. tale, Fr. tel. Skr. kiydn m. 
kiyati f., with stem kiyant (Ved. kivant) *how much,' becomes 
S. ketaro m. ketari f. (ra, rl pleonastic), H. kittd m. kittl f. ; 
and Lat. quantum, quanta, It. quanta, quanta, Old Fr. quant, 

I now come to the verb. The Skr. and Lat. verbs appear 
in the modem groups, subject of course to the usual phonetic 
modifications; as, Skr. pathdnA *I read,' S. parhH, H. parho ; 
Jjat. lego. It. leggo, Fr. li(8) ; Skr. pari-veshydm * I offer 
(food),' S. par'Osid, H. par-osd ; Lat. pro-video, It. pro-wedo, 
Fr. pour-wifs). There are not, however, nearly so many 
prepositions joined with verbs in Gaurian as in Romance, nor 
are they used for new formations in Gaurian as in Romance. 
Other verbs again are of a secondary kind, derived from 
nouns or participles or otherwise not directly representative 
of the ancient verb; as, Skr. pariiayanam 'cognizance,' 
H. pahbdn-nd * to recognize ; ' Skr. pravishta * entered,' H. 
paith^nd *to enter;' Lat. festum, Fr./iter; Lat. tract us, Fr. 

As regards derivative forms, in Gaurian a causal may be 
formed from a simple verb by an addition to the stem. This 
formative is generally d in S. H. B. and 0., dv in G., du in 


P., an in M. ; as, S. kar-anu, H. har^nd ' to do ' ; S. km-i-K 
H. hara-na 'to cause to do.' The modern formatiTe i 
derived from the Skr. causal formative apt, which, howeTer,] 
is much less used in Skr. than the t formative. The desidervfl 
tive and intensive forms of the Skr, verb are not found in^ 
the modem languages. These meaniugs are expressed i 
the moderns by adding an auxil. to the principal verb; as, 
H. pbelind ' to throw,' phekd Sahna ' to desire to throw,' 
phlk deiia ' to throw away.' The Lat. derivative forms have 
generally been preserved in Romance, but with less precision 
us to their meaning, and they often take the place altogether 
of the simple forms ; also new formations are very n 
aa. It. mare, Fr, user (fi-equeniative form) ; It. mam 

Fr. obtcitrcir (inchoative forms), 

The verbs have been remodelled to a great extent in both 
groups. In Skr. the verbs are di\-ided into certain classes 
according to the nature of the stem with which the present 
and three other tenses or moods and a participle are turmed 
the remaining tenses taking the terminiitious on a difiere 
system. In one of the classes the root alone is the s(giii,1 
but in the others the stem is formed with certain additions 
to the root. In Gaurian, as the rule, all parts of the verb 
are derived from the same stem which is sometimes formed 
by incorporating a class auflV of the Skr- Thus we have 
Skr. cinomi (stem cinii, H being the root and nu the suffix of 
the 5th class) 'I gather,' S. china. It. cimi ; Skr. past part. 
cUai 'gathered,' but S. chinio, H. etna. All the modem 
■verbs, however, are held to he derived from a stem with a 
for its final vowel. Thus with reference to the above instano^ — 
we shall have to assume a form Hiidnii instead of iinotiti ■■ 
the origin of the modern forms. The forms of the modenfl 
verb will be given in detail further on. In derivation, how-" 
ever, other stems are frequently changed to what appears to 
be that of the 6th class ; as, Skr. pislidmi for pinashmi 
' I grind,' S. plfia, H. pUu. What are called the irregular 
verbs in Gaurian are the least so in regard to their origin. 
In these verbs the past participle, instead of being formed 
from the present stem as in the regular verb, is derived froi 










the Skr. past part. pasa. ; as, Skr. karomi ' I do,' S. kara, H. 
karii ; Skr. kritaa ' done,' S. kilo, also kio and kitijo, H. h'ya ; 
Skr. prapUami ' I enter,' S. piha ; Skr. prackhlaa ' entered,' 
S. pftho. These irregular verba are numerous in S., while 
there are very few of tlaem in H, 

The distinctions which characterize the Ijat. conjugations 
are more or less preserved in Romance, but many verba 
change their conjugation in passing from Lat. to Romance; 
as, Lat. timsire, Fr. tou^ser, etc. What are usually called the 
irregular verba in Romance, to which Diez has given the 
name of strong, while the regulars ho ternia weak, are 
mainly distinguished by having the accent on the radical 
syllable of the 1st and 3rd pers, sing, of the perfect, and to 
a considerable extent also on the radical syllable of the past 
part., while in the weak verbs the accent is on the flexion. 
The former, as regards their origin, are not less regular than 
the latter. The ao-called regular and irregular verbs, there- 
fore, are alike in both groupa so far as the regular verb haa 
one kind of participle and the irregular another ; but the 
Oaurian verbs cannot be closaed as strong and weak, for the 
participle is always accented on the root syllable. "Weak 
verbs in Romance are such aa, Lat. canfo, It. canto, Fr. 
chant{e)\ Lat. cantafm, It, caidato, Fr. ckanii; strong, as 
Ijat. dico. It. dico, Fr. rfw; Lat. dictus, It, deilo, Fr, dit. 
Many of the Lat. strong verbs, however, have become weak 
in Romance. 

The original tenses preserved in Gaurian are the pres, 
idic. and the imperative, in all the languages, the fut. in 
Old H. and G. It should be noted, however, that the pres. 
indie, haa become the pres. subj. in S. H. and P., though 
colloquially, it is frequently used in its original sense. In 
the literary form of these languages a new prea. formed with 
the pres. part, has taken the place of the old pres. In 
Romance more old tenses have been preserved. The pres., 
imperf., and perf. indie, have been preserved in all the 
languages, the pluperf. in Sp, Port, and Prov. Of the 
subj., the pres, and pluperf. have been maintained in all the 
languages, and the fut. anterior in Sp. and Port. The first 


tense of the imperative has also been saved in all tlu 
languages. The following ia a comparison of the ] 
indie, in both groups, taking likh 'write' for the Gaurian,] 

and canio for the BontaDce, as esaniplcs : 

. 1 likh.5mi 

Present iBuicATrrE. 
ScfDHi. Hindi. Latin. 
likk-d llth'U atnl-o 

1 Ulih-atht 

The Sfer. Ist sing, -ami is best represented by the O. -(rf.J 
The II. S is referred by Hoernio to an Ap. Pr. form aw 
The Skr. 2ud slug, is unchanged in the Old II. likhasi. Thtfj 
3rd sing, in Old H. is UkUi. The Skr. 3rd pi. remains iiU 
0. -aiifi. Regarding the e of the Ist sing, of such verbs 
Fr. chaiitc, it is hardly necessary to remark that this ia a ■ 
modem addition and does not belong to Old Fr. The same 
remark applies to the s of the 1st sing, of the other con- 
jugations previously instanced. The 2nd sing, of the Skr. 
imperative ia alone preserved in S. H. and P., and the sing, 
only of the Lat. pros, imperative in most of the Romance 
languages, the pres. indie, in both groups taking the place , 
of the old pi. In Sp. and Port., however, the old pi, 
preserved, and in the rest of the Gaurian languages both the.B 
2Ed and 3rd pi. of the old imperative are preserved — thus : 


There ia also a precative or respectful form of ths I 
imperative in some Oaurians which is generally referred to> J 
the Skr. precative ; as, 2 sing. Skr. likh-t/us, S, lifih-iji, 
Ukh-iye. Hoornle, however, thinks that these ar« i 
passive forms, but used actively. 

In Old n. and G. the simple fut. derived from the SkE, 



fut. is, for instance, Skr. Ukh-Uhijami, Old H. likh-ihau, G-, 
lakh-U. Instances of the other simple tenses retained in 
Romance are, the iraperf. ; as, Lat. canlabam. It. canlava, 
Ft. c/ia>ilai{s) ; perf., Lat. cantaci, It. caniai, Fr, ckantai; 
pres. subj., Lat. cmitem. It. canle, Fr. chant^e); the pluperf. 
Bubj., Lat cantmaem, It. cantasii, Fr. chantaase ; the pluperf. 
indie, in Sp. Port, and Prov. only, as, Lat. canturam, Sp. 
cantara; and the fut. anterior in Sp. and Port, only, as, 
Lat, can/aiv, Sp. caniare. The Skr. infinitive in turn, which 
is identical with the Lat. supine in luin, has disappeared in 
Chiurian, as have also the Lat. supines in Koraance. In 
place of the Skr. infinitive, the modern infinitive, which is 
declined like a subat., is formed by two different sufiixes, the 
characteristic letter of one being p (li), of the other n. The 
former is found in B. O. GF. and in Brnj ; the latter in 
High H. and in S. P. and M, These forma are derived by 
Hoernle from the two forms of the Skr. fut. part, pass., the 
t (i) form from the part, in tati/a, the n form from the part. 
in aniija; as, Skr. tikhUaryti, Braj likhibnu, Skr, likliamya, 
L S. Ukhanii. The functions of the Iiat. supines, which, aa has 
L been stated, are wanting in Homance, are, generally, 
I discharged by the infinitive. The pres. of the inf. has been 
I preserved; as, Lat. caniare. It. can/nre, Fr. chanter. The 
r pres. part, has been preserved in both groups, aa Skr, stem 
f. Ukhant, S. likkando, H. Ukhatd ; but generally with the value 
} of an adj. in Romance, Lat. cantanlem. It. caiiianle, Fr. 
' cAantant. The rule of the pres. part, in Romance generally 
jvolves on the gerundive, which is preserved in its abl. 
form; as, Lat. cantando, It. cnntaiulo, Fr. chantaut. The 
past part, has also been preserved in both groups ; aa, Skr. 
iik/iilas, S. Hkhio, H. Ukhd; Lat. cantafus, It. cantata, Fr. chants. 
The part, of the Skr. fut. paas. in taeya, from which, as 
bas been observed, the inf. in some of the languages is 
derived, has been preserved also in its part, sense in S. G-. 
and P.; as, S. likhibo, meaning 'being written.' The con- 
junctive part., as it is called, which is common to all the 
Gaurians, is believed, in most instances, to be derived from 
I the Skr. indecl. past part, in ya ; as, S. likhl, Old II. likhi, in 



later H. likh, the final t having been dropped. Id aonie, bu£ 
not in all the languages, the pres. and fut. part, are used as 
tenses without the addition of any suffix or auxiliary verb. 
The old Skr. inflected passive voice, lost in most of the 
Gauriau languages as that of Lat. has been in all th« 
Homance, has been preserved in S. ; in P., where, however, 
its use is exceptional, and in the Miirwari dialect of II. The 
suffised y, which forms the passive in Skr., becomesy or {j va 
S,, i in P., y in Marwari ; as, Skr. Ukh-yate ' it is written/ 
8. likh-ije, P. Ukh-U. 

The places of the lost tenses, or such additional tenses OS 
are required by the modern languages, are supplied in both 
groups by a periphrastic formation with an auxiliary, which 
is sometimes incorporated with some form of the principal 
verb, while in other cases the periphrasis consists of the full 
forms of a part, and an auxil. separately written. The 
auxil. verbs in most of the languages in both groups 
are also principal verbs, capable of being separately used, 
in fact frequently so used. The auxil. used in the active 
voice in Gaurian are derived from the Skr. as ' esse,' 
and Pr. ach of doubtful origin, but according to Hoemls 
perhaps from an inchoative form of as, Skr. Wu 'fuere,' 
il/id 'stare,' rrif ' vertere,' gain 'to go.' In Romance 
the principal auxil. in the active voice is /labpo, la 
some of the languages lenere is also used, and in some again 
with intransitive verbs esse. For the periphrastic passive 
the sole auxil. in Gauriao is from the Skr. yd ' to go.' In 
Bomanco the auxil. is eae, and besides esse, stare is also 
employed in most of the Romance languages for the peri- 
, phrasis of the passive. In Gaurian some of the auxil. are 
not met with as principal verbs in all the languages, the 
same is the case with s/tire in Romance. Thus S. thiamt 
from Skr. stha, and It. slare, both exist as separate verbs 
in all their tenses, but in H. and Fr. they are no longer 
separate verbs. In Fr. we have as a substitute 4lre debout, 
literally ' to be on end,' while in II. ' to stand ' is kbdra /lonttf 
literally 'to be propped up' (H«r(j=Skr. ikahdlius).^ 



Of tlie contracted periphrastic forms there is in S. what 
Trumpp calls the aorist, formed from the past part., and 
^bat appears to be the remains of the pres. tense of the 
Skr. as 'to be/ incorporated with it, in which the masc. 
and fem. gender are distinguished; as, haliu-si masc., halichsi 
fern. ' I went,' but this formation only occurs in the case of 
intrans. verbs ; in B. and 0. also a perf. tense formed from 
the part, in ta, and the pres. tense of the verb dchi * I am ' ; 
as B. likhiy-dchi pronounced likhedhi *I have written.* 
There are, however, other tenses in Gaurian, which are 
formed from a part, and suffixed terminations which re« 
semblei generally, the personal terminations of the old pres. 
indie, from which they are derived by Hoernle, though 
Beames apparently regards them as specially those or a 
remnant of the old Skr. subst. verb as * to be.' Thus we 
have in M. a definite pres., in which gender is distinguished, 
formed from the pres. part., as M. lihit-o masc, lihity-e fem. 
* I write ' ; also in M. a perf. tense formed from the past part. 
in aid with the same suffixes. A 2nd perf tense, formed in a 
similar way from the past part, in al or i7, occurs in B. and 0. 
Of similar construction again is a past subj. tense in M. B. 
and 0. formed from the present part. 

The future tense is formed in several ways in Oaurian. 
In Old H. and Q., as before pointed out, it is the old Skr. 
fut. after the usual phonetic changes. In S. the fut. is 
formed by adding to the pres. part, the same terminations 
derived from the subst. verb as ' to be,' as for the aorist ; 
likhandu-si masc., likhandia-si fem. ' I shall write.' In B. and 
O. the fut. is made by suffixing to the old fut. part., which, 
as before mentioned, has become the infinitive in these 
languages, what appear to be the personal terminations 
referred to in the preceding paragraph ; as 0. likhib-i * I 
shall write.' In H. and P. the fut. is formed by adding the 
past part, gayd ' gone ' contracted to gd^ which agrees in 
number and gender with the subject of the verb, to the old 
pres. indie, which, as before explained, has become the 
subjunctive; a.s, H. Ukho-gd m., likho-gi f. *I shall write,' 
literally ' I am gone that I may write.' In M. the future is 


formed on tlje eame principlo by adding the past part, el 
' coroe,' contracted to I, to the pres. iudic, ; as, /ihe-l ' he shall 
write.' In all the Itoinaace languuges the fut, la fcrnidd 
from the inf. and the pres. tense of /labeo contracted into one 
word; as, It. canler-d, Fr. chaiiter-aL The other tenses of 
the contracted kind in Romance are the conditional in all 
the languages, aa Lat. canlare habebam. It. can/ert'a, Fr. 
chanicrais, and a second conditional tense belonging to It,, 
only ; as, Lat. canlare hahui. It. canlcrei. 

Other tenses in both groups are formed with a part- and! 
an auxil, verb, not contracted together in the manner of tha 
last- mentioned class. The participial member of the codq* 
pound tense, in most of the Gaurian languages, agrees with 
the subject, whereas in Koraance snch agreement only take* 
place where esse is used aa the auxil. The order of ths 
words is also generally different in the two groups, fot 
whereas the part, comes first in Gaurian, in IlumancQ tbo 
auxil, is the first member of the compound. 

The perf. in Gaurian may thus be compared with th« 
periphrastic perf. in Romance, which has almost superseded. 
the old perf., the tenses being formed in both groups witl^- 
the perf, part, and an auxil, verb— I give lirat an example, 
of an intransitive verb ; as, S. halio dhiya m., halt ahiya f., 
H. cald liU m,, eali hu f., 'I have gone,' from Skr. 6alila», d, 
'gone,' and asmi 'I am'; If. sono andaio, sono andata,FT. 
Fr. suia all4, suii allie; also with luibco; as. It. ho dormito, 
Fr, ai dormi. Again, the pluperf. may he compared ; ae^, 
S. halio /losi, H. tfa/d t/td ' I had gone ' (here the S. /losi is th»| 
aorist of huanu 'to be' from Skr. bhii, while H, tha ia from' 
Skr. sthitaa past part, of stha 'stand,' Lat. status. It. staloi 
Fr, eli) ; It, era anilato, Fr. elais a!!e, and with habebam{ 
as, It, aceta dormiio, Fr, avaia dormi. Also a past future ; as, 
S. halio Aupdusi, H. ia!d hugd; It. iaro andato, Fr, serai alle, 
and with habeo; as, It. acr6 dormito, Fr. niirai dormi. The 
auxil. verbs are in the modern fut. tense in both groups. 

In the compound tenses of the transitive verb formed witb 
the past part, there are import-ant differences of constructioq 
not only between Eomauce and Gaurian, but also between 

aeritU tm Utan, wha 
la iettfrm moLOma 



^»Z iki 

aiinnle fewLi mia.lL. w»mmw tiam lamimam 
MdiQFr.«bt^»rtwtd^J^fll" i/m 
Ben atk^-ieii mt^^ m^ ^tL ^k i 
ik»'Lr bv^^Mi^tf «K'I«»-M«lfe 
tmit.liUm,w\iahAw^hifm^t^b^rm^Bt.i ' ym 
oaed in an Ktnv ^h^ aaA otfi 'ifc* ita^'mimAm ^ 

dimmtOM " -T' I'n i - '" .' *" ' \. 

is IB the nam. ^ dK ^K. Jift ■ ^ » i^w ndk «iM^ 

from the Skx. » 
mtmcL ThepH 
mmnj. la H^ H- A» | l| iFirii w»iJfcJ«»tfc» 

obliqiw finm; 
also ia the I 
except S. Ia OU H, ^mmwnr, ife | 

rare! J fbood. Tkr* m ■■biTiit ka< *£ t 
Waatern Gwnin. We m^j ak» kj- m m & MMi U« 
mi CUm Aif *m to Ike kttcr bj- ne k ^ beea writtn.' 
where ci</Ai hu the dttt. part i cl e Ui; aad the *«rb is osed 

inipersonallj in the 3rd maaB. o^ 

There are aUo other teaaM ia both gnape fanned in the 
same war with the paet pert, aad aa aaziL ; thoi^ they 
may not all so exactly eorrtmpaoA in neaaing sa tboaa 
instanced abore. In Gaoiiaa aevnal teases are formed &om 
the prea. part, andao auxil. rerb; as, H. kakte hai 'they are 
saying' (OldFr. »onl tiisanz); and those languages that have 
the fut. part, turn tt to acconnt in the same way. In soiu« 
of the GBuriiiQ langosgea, again, a pres. indie, is formed by 



using the old pres. indio. with Bome auxU. verb ; as S. 6'Wl 
tho, liraj likha hu 'I -write.' The 8. tho = H. thd is con- 
tracted from thio, past part, of thlanu 'to be,' Lat. s/nrf. 
Further, there is a periphrastic part, in each group ; as S. 
likhl kare, H. likh-ktir ' having written," It. avendo canfato, 
Yr. ityant chan/^. 

In all the Gauriaa languages, except S,, and occasionally 
P., the passive signihcation is rendered by the past part, and 
an ausil., derived from the Skr. yd 'to go,' which is con- 
jugated like any other verb in the active voice. In IlDinance 
the passive is formed also from the past part, and tho auxiL 
esse, Skr. as. Besides esse, slare, ire and venire are also 
employed in Homance for the periphrasis of the passive. In 
both groups the auxil. verb expresses by its form the personj 
number, tense, etc, while the part., besides giving ths 
meaning, retains its rights as an adj., that is, it has gender,, 
number, and case (nora.) ; as, H. lik/id jde m., Ukhi jde f. ' it 
ia written;' pi. likhe jde m., likliijde f. 'they are written 
P. likhid jdre m., likhl Jdce (., pi. likhe jdn m., iik/iia j'dn f. j. 
It. i canialo, i cantata; eoito cantati, sono cantate ; Fr. eU 
chanle, est chanf^e ; sont chanter, nont cliantees. In B. and 
0. the part, any more than the adj., ia not inflected. WTiea 
the part, of the auxil. verb is used, it is inflected also ia 
Oaurian and in It. ; but not in the other Bomance languages}^ 
as, H. Ukhi gaiji hai t ' it has been written,' It. ^ si 
cantata, but not Fr. itie. 

In G^aurian many verbs are intransitive or transitive 
according us the vowel of the root is short or long, Sucl| 
intransitive verbs, if translated into English, would oft«B 
take the passive form ; as, H. kulnd ' to be cut,' kdfud 
cut,' jiiliid 'to be beaten,' pilnd 'to beat,' lipnd 'to be 
Bmeared,' lepnd ' to amear.' These transitive forms appear 
to be derived from the ordinary Skr. causal, whiuh is formed 
by intensifying the vowel of the root, and by the addition of 
final I. This i often enters into the conjugation of transitive 
verba in S., as, S. mai-u 'die,' mdri 'kill,' tnurd 'I die,' mdria 
'I kill.' But there is, properly speaking, no such thing as 
a transiiivc distinguiahed from an intransitive conjugation ia 



THE caubia::^ and the bomasce languaoes. "jg 

thia or any other Aryan langiinge, and accordingly Trumpp 
gives a long Hat of transitive verbs in S. which do not take i, 
that is, which are not causal forma. The suffix ( is met with 
in M. also. In Romance the reflexive voice after the loss of 
the organic passive has become of great importance, and 
t«ii takes the place of the passive ; as. It. iV libro non at 


As regards adverbs, many of the old adverbs have been 
'Served in both groups, and many have been formed from 
oblique cases of eubst. In Gaurian there are many 
Adverbs derived from the oblique cases of pronouns. In 
Romance there are many formed of subst. combined with 
prepositions. The moat remarkable phenomenon, however, 
of the Romance languages was the adoption of the ablative 
lentf. It. iiien/e, Fr. ment, aa a general grammatical mark of 
le adverb. Nothing of this sort was effected in Gaurian. 
In Skr. and Lat, a word could genernlly be placed in any 
part of the sentence, but the loss of case flexions in the 
modem languages of both groups requires greater order in 
the arrangement of the words. In this order the two groups 
sometimes in accord, but more frequently this is not the 
Thus, in both groups, nouns of number precede the 
iveming aubst., and bo do adj. pronouns, and also the 
ibject precedes the object. On the other hand, the adj. 
iedes the subst. in Gaurian, follows it, as the rule, in 
;omance. In the periphrastic tenses the auxil. comes before 
the part, in Gaurian, after it, usually, in Romance. The 
infinitive precedes the verb on which it depends in Gaurian, 
'follows it, usually, in Romance. The adverb precedes the 
|rerb in Gaurian, follows it in Romance, The verb, again, 
Trhich 18 the central point of the sentence in Romance, is 
"placed at the* end in Gaurian. The relation between two 
eubst. IB frequently signified by position in Gaurian, the 
dependent subst. coming first, where in Romance it would 
be necessary to use a prep. ; as, K.jannm bhiiii, Fr. Heu de 
namance ; II. ndc ghar, Fr. mile de danse. 

A comparison in any detail of the syntax would take up 
I'too much space, I may, however, give a few points of 



agreement between the two groups, where they can !» ■ 
briefly stated, and with these I will conclude mj paper. Tha 
pronoun of the 2nd person, tti, is restricted in both groups 
to the language of love and extreme familiarity, or of 
contempt, and is used also in addressing an infenor. The 
p!., as n. turn, Fr. voii«, has taken the place of the sing, to a 
great extent, and Fr. does not go beyond foiia, but the other 
languages push thetr obsequiousness still further; as M. 
dpan, H. dp; It. tv »ignoria and elh, Sp. usted. In some of 
the Gaurian languages, especially in Ibe Eastern languages, 
the pi. of the 1st personal pronoun is often used for the sing., 
a use which in Romance rather belongs to the language of 
Princes. The reflexive pronoun in Gaurian, the S. puna, H. 
dp, etc., is the reflexive for all three persona, whereas the 
Ilomance sc refers only to the 3rd person. The distinction 
between the possessive of the reflexive pronoun and the 
genitive of the personal pronoun — the Lat. mils and ejus — ia 
carefully preserved in Gaurian, and among the Romance 
languages the literary It. is said to be the niost scrupulous in 
this respect; as, H, vih apite lidp ko deb/ie. It. egfi rede stu> 
padre; H vah uske b&p ho dekhe. It. fgli vede il pmlre dt /m»; 
but the Fr. tl roie son ptre is equivocal. The rest of the 
languages also are often negligent in this respect. On the 
other hand, when the reference ia to the possession of eeveral, 
suH-s gives way to the demonstrative itlorrim in all the 
Romance languages, except Sp. and Port. ; ss, Fr. ila tvient 
leur pere. 

The ace. relation in Gaurian is sometimea expressed by 
the dat. particle. In H., as the rule, this is the case when 
the object is n rational being. The ace. in Sp. is also 
expressed by the dat. particle a, when the suhst. denot«s a 
person, then an animate being in general. Thus we say in 
n. bap bete ko dekhe, Sp. el padre re al hijo. The government 
of nouns by prep, and postp. has already been referred to. 
Adverbs are also placed under their dependence; as, H. 
yaha talak, Yr.jusqu'ici. Tlie infinitive in both the modem 
groups baa many more functioua to perform tlian in the 
ancient languages. Among these functions, in its quality of 




eubst., it can be used in all the relations of case, and is even 
inflected like a noun. Its use, however, in Fr. in these 
respects is more restricted. The following are a few 
examples of the application of the inf. in both groups; as, 
H. mania nab fed bhdg hai, Fr. niourir est le sort tie tons; H. 
pdp ihorim b/iii/d kai, Fr. quitter le p^chi e»t bon ; H. tiiai ek 
iij mdgne dyd hu, Fr. je euis renii demander une chone ; and as 
a substitute for the part. fut. pass. ; as, U, anb iiidunso ko 
mama hai, Fr. ioua les hommei onl d mourir ; or with a prep, 
or postp. in both groups ; as, H. klione ka dar, Fr. crainte de 
perdre ; H. pine ko dena, Fr. doinier d boire ; H. kothi bvcne 
ko, Fr. maison a remlre ; H. par/me ko kathin, Fr. difficile A 
lire ; II, bind delihne kisiko, Fr. sans toir persoiuw ; and, 
again, where it is used completely as a noun ; as, H. is per 
ka girnd. It. il cadere di quest' aibero ; 11. gliord dekhne par, 
It. al redere il cacallo. In these two laat-mentioned uses of 
the inf. Fr. is unable to follow the other languages. 

As before remarked, the present part, in Romance only 
retains its adjectival value. The gerundive in its ablative 
form has encroached on the former domain of the present 
part., while in Gaurian the present part, retains its verbal 
value; as, 8. einghandd ncani, but It. gemendo Vfngono ; 'S., 
tnai rd/'d ko ghore par car/itd dekbo, but Fr. je roie le roi 
montant d chetal. The past part, is used in the same way in 
iMth groups ; as, ghore par carhi rah at hai, Fr, vtoiifie stir 
vn e/ieeal elle est venue. Besides the present and past part. 
there is also the conjunctive part, in Gaurian; as, H. 
tab log bagh dekhi bhagne lag^, in Fr. tou» les hoiiimes 
t^i/atit le tigre comtnencetit d ftiir. The present and past 
part, in Gaurian and the gerundive and past part, in 
BoQtance are also used in an absolute sense, a con- 
struction which is favourable to brevity of expression 
and avoids the creation of separate clauses witli relative 
pronouns or conjunctions. This construction In Romance 
corresponds to the ablative absolute in Lat. Thus we have 
S. mfi ruande rdti piha-i, Fr. moi pleurant passe la nuit (toi) ; 
H. deo mtk rahte mai hjd diro, Fr. Dteu &ant avee (moi) que 
craim-j'e; S. tejani retliei dosu jjehi dari dlyo, It. eeduti i dottori 



I'amico entriindo alia (mia) porta tvniie ; H. ba/i&( din We rdfs 
p/iir giiye, It. pmiaii molti di ii re aiM nuovamenle. This 
use of the past part., however, is not found in Fr. It is 
remarked by Diez thnt of all the modern languages of 
Europe the English is most in accord nitb the Komance 
usage in the foregoing respects. The personul pronouns are 
not generally required in either group to express the person 
of the verb, but they are often added for emphasis or for no 
apparent reason. Modern Fr. is an exception, as in this 
language it is only in the 2nd sing, and Ist and 2nd pi. of 
the imperative that the pronouns can be dispensed with. 




(16th CENTURY) 


Mels|inan's p|)onetic qpg of it soon after: 






(MARCH, 1880) 


Notes on tf)e SHelsf) ^fjonetic Copg 


ALEX. J. ELLIS, F.R.8., 


1 ' 


^11 tiFavlo tEuglislj ?t[gnm to lijc rivgiii. 

[Ilr>'(nrrl MS. ilV. Ir,i/ 3S.] 

O tnightie Lodic, our leading / tu liauu 
Ht heaven, oar aliiiliiig, 

\^lto till' ferwUi eiiffliwthig 
IB Bi'tlL' II linujcliB vs to brhig. 

Ytiu wanno tLia wtlh bligse, the bltssing / of Ood 
fur your good abearing 
where you beut (or yo»r iriniiiDg ; 
fliiine ([ueone, & yoitr sninne is king. 

Owe fOTG&ders fader, our feeding / our pope:, 
on yuitr pappea hod sucking : 
in facitven bliase I had this thing, 

nttriiilniinco v.'thont eiidiiL;,'. 

We secnc the bright qiieene ■with cunniiiK / & blis! 
the blossonie fruit« hearing : 
I would, 03 oulJ as I sing, 
winno yo»r looc, on your lavinge. 

l^ueeue odde of our God, our guiding / nioJer, 
ninyden iiotwithstamlingo : 
who wed Bucli w/lli a ricli ring, 
as tiod woud this good weddinj;. 


lle][>e VB pray for va prefemng / our soules ; 
uasoile vs at ending ! 
make nil that we fall to ffing 
your souuea live, our siiincs leaving. 


[Hengxcrt MS. 294, j^cige 287.] 


Omichdi^ ladi : our leding // to liaf 
at hefn owr abeiding 
yntw ddei ifest everlasting^ [p. asp] 

i set a braynts ws tw bring./ i 

Yw wann ddys wyth blyss dde blessing // of God 
ifor ywr gwd abering 
hwier yw bynn ffor ywr wynning 
syns kwin and ywr synn ys king./ 8 

OwT flforffaddyrs ffaddyr, owr ffiding // owr pop 
on ywr paps had swking 
Yn liefn blyss i liad ddys thing 
atendans wythowt ending./ 12 

Wi sin dde bricht kwiii wyth kwning // and blys 

the blosswm tfrvwt bering 

ei wowld as owld as ei sing 

wynn ywr lyf on ywr laving IG 

Kwin od off owr god owr geiding // mwddyr 

maedyn not wytlistan( ling 

hw wed syts wyth a ryts ring 

as god wad ddys gwd Aveding 20 

Help Avs prae for ws preffcrring // owr sowls 

asoel Avs at ending 

mak awl ddat avi ffawl tw ffing 

yAvr synns lyf owr syns leving./ 24 

The RubricJitor has corrected tlie c(>pyif*t's t of iHirhti (o d. 

■At we may the <iaj of dying / k 
oar in-housling ; 
u he may taku vs, waking, 
to bim in liis niightie wing. 2t 

H%h.t hit tooke / me ought to toll, 

out Gouk^ of hell / tu soiles of sight. 

wee aake with booke / wee wisho w*'lh litll, 

to heaven full well / to limie oiir flight, H 

all dcedoa well done, 

Vabide deo boone, 

a god made troue, 

a good mcetc wright ; H 

and sny HO soon?, 
and north and noone, 
and ennne & moone, 

& so none luight. 4(' 

as soone as pride / is nowe Bupprust, 

fak sealu is best / hix si>iile is pii^'ht : i'2 

I tell to you, 

08 Bome doe ehowe, 

as Dowe I trowe, 

we vse not right. 4G 

a boy wj'th his bowe, 
his Iooke« is slowe : 
howe may [you] knowe 

him from a knight 1 50 

The trueth is kitte / that earth is cast ; 
the ende* be last / the hanJii* be light. 
god sctte it / good as it was, [iwtsBi 

the rule doth passe / the worlde huth pight.> 54 
' I suppose the 8-line sttiiiza, I. 5'J — CM, nhonM fullow bere. 


Ls wi mae dde dae off owr deing // resef [p. S89] 

owr saviowr yn howsling 

as hi mae tak ws waking 

tw hym yn hys michti wing / 28 

licht hyt twk // mi ocht tw tel /// 

owt sols off hel /// tw soels off hicht :/ 

wi aish. wyth bwk // wi \nsh wyth bel /// 

tw hefn ffwl wel /// tw haf on ^icht./ 32 

AP dids wel dywn // 

tabyd deo bwn // 

a god mad trwn // 

a gwd met wriclit 36 

and se so swn // 
and north and nwn // 
and synn an mwn // 

and so non micht./ 40 

8 swn as preid // ys now syprest 

hys sel ys best // his sol ys picht 42 

E I tel tw yo // 

as synn dwth shio // 

as now ei tro // 

wi vws not richt 46 

a boy withs bo // 
hys lokes is s[l]o ' // 
how mae yw kno // 

hym ffrom a knicht 50 

de trvwth ys kyt // ddat ycrth ys kast // [p. »»] 

dde ends bi last // dde hands bi licht./ 
God set yt // gwd as yt was // 
dde rvwl dwth pass // dde world hath picht. 64 

MS. Awl, with TV underdotted. ' a later / is overlined. 


A pvettie thing / we pray to thest, 

that goo<l behest / that god behighl. 
He he was ttng / into his feoste 
that euer shall leat / wt'th diueroe light. 
Tlip world away / 

it is no nay / 

it is iiighe night, 
as ould, I Buy, 
I was in fay ; 
yelde a good may, 

would God I might. 
Aware we wonld, 
the stnnes wo sould, 
& be not hould 

ID a bant hight«. 
And young & ould, 
w(th him they hould, 
the lewea hna sould, 

that JesuB highlc 


O trusti Criate / that werst y crowiie, 
ere weo die dowue / a readie dight, 
to thanke to thee 
at te roode tree, 
then went all wee, 

they nowe to light. 
to grannt agree, 
:imen with mee, 
that I may see 

thee to my s^ht. 

A Welshman's copy of the hymn. ♦SO 


A preti thing // wi prae to thest // 

ddat gwd bi-hest // ddat God bihicht // 

and hi was fl&ng // yntw hys fTest // 

ddat ever shal lest // wyth deivers licht./ 58 

dde world away // 

ys dynn as day // 

yt ys no nay // 

yt is nei nicht / 62 

as owld ei say // 
ei was yn ffay // 
eild a gwd may // 

wld God ei micht / 66 

Awar wi wowld // 
dde syns ddey sowld // 
an^ bi not ho wld // 

in a bant hicht./ 70 

and y wng and owld // 
wyth hym ddei howld // 
dde Dsivws* has sowld // 

ddat Dsiesws hicht / 74 


O trysti Kreist // ddat werst a ki-own // 

er wi dei down // a redi dicht 76 

Tw thank tw ddi // 

at dde rwd tri // tp. m] 

dden went all wi // 

ddey now tw licht./ 80 

tw grawnt agri // 
amen wyth mi // 
ddat ei mae si // 

ddi two mei sicht./ 84 

' atidy with d underdotted. ' first Dsiewt in MS. 


(13) I 

Our lucke, our king / our lockc, our key, ' 

my God I yray / my guide vpright, 
I aeeke, I ring ,' I sliake, I eay, (iHfsa.bHicS 

I weaie away / n werie wiglit. OO. 

ageinst I goo / 
my fivndw me fro ; 
I found a foe / 

wi'th fcnde I figljl : D4 

I sing allBo / 
in irelth & woe ; 
I can no moo / 

to quoene of m^ht. 98 

Jenan ap Ilyiklorch ap Jeunn lloyd ai kaiit. 
medd eraill Jein/n ap hoiwH Swrdwnl.' 

' Tlint is, "Jeunn ap Bycldirch ftp Jeiuin Lloj'd ssji); ir, 
Bceoriling to uiatlier. Jeutiii np Hnupl Snrdwat." Meaorng, 
tbnt JeuHD op Kydderch, kc, or Jeuan a[i Howcl, &&, ww 
author of ttie poein. 

Thedc wen well known Bards of the 16th eeotary. The 
forivii'T wai a aienilipr of the greatciit family in Curdtgaoahire, 
nowrepreaentedby SirPrj'eerrrsc, Bnrt, — H"i, W. E. W^HHt. 

A Welshman's copy of the hymn. *4l 


Iwk owr king // o^?r lok owr kae /// 

mei God ei prae // mi geid ^ vpricht./ 

ei stk ei sing // ei siak^ ei sae /// 

ei wer awae /// a \viri wicht./ 90 

agaynst ei go // 

mei ffrynds mi flfro // 

ei ffownd a ffo // 

wyih ffynd ei fiVicht 94 

ei sing also // 
yn welth and wo // 
ei kan no mo // 

tw kwin off micht / 98 

? y alterd to r. * shiak, with h vndvrdotttd. 



witli a. sound of tto After it, it may be 
difficu.lC to say; I tliink not. V, r, is 
some tines used, as in Salesbury, but 
is a.1mray8 replaced by / in modem 
"Welafi. W, tiw, hood, always a vowel, 
but foTming a diphthong with the 
follo^ring vowel, and then very like 

English ie and useti for it. WY. 7r/th ; 
Y, always a vowel, but used both for 
consonant and vowel in rich written 
rytt. YW in modern Welsh is am- 
biguous, but is hero always used for 

le pronunciation thus given agrees as a rule with Salesbury's, 
'W'hiclx it confirms. But there are clearly some errors, though it is 
<iiffi>cixlt to say who is to blame for them. In the following I give 
tlio xrximher of the line, the present reading in Roman, and the probable 



1 xnichdi, michti. 2 our, owr; see 

3 ywatWy nntfv ; 67 yntw is properly 

for into, 4 i, i*. 7 hwier, hwer ? 

l>yMi, ^tnt? 8 synn, <^w». 11 i, e/. 

1* tlie, 4W<?. 16 1yf, /7P/. 17kwinod, 

*''^* '»«'*«?ci = queenhood ? 19 sy ts, veU^ 

me«.iiiwi^ /.AJcA as GiU marks it, but 

9^€!^ may be right, as there may have 

^*^«* t^^fvo sounds. 20 wad, wonld ; see 

X" *^ ^ 24 synns, sii^ns; see v. 8. 25 

~*JP»» ^eihiff, 30 sols, soicU ; hioht, 

^** 31 aish, aisk ; sh must be an 

JTr*?** ^or $h because th is not found in 

®*^ ; atJc occurs in Gill, but aUtk 

\^^^ ^^«ve been intended, as Sales- 

2^*^ '^^'' rites ai for a in several words. 

" '^•" ► mr, 83 dywn, dwn. 34 

tabyd, taheyd = t'abide. 39 synn, 
stvnn, 41 syprest, strprat, 42 sol, 
8owL 43 EI, EI. 44 synn, swm ; 
shio, siOy in 89 siakJi was once wrongly 
written. 51 yerth, ertk ; the sound 
yerth is possible but highly dia- 
lectal ; we find now in Shropshire 
yar = hair, yai-b = herb, yerth ^ 
earth, yed = head, yep = heap, and 
this county may have been the model 
for a Welshman's English at that 
time. 60 dynn, rf/rw. G5 eild, ield. 
66 wld, icoirld; see v. 15 and 67, but 
it may be used for wwld = woold, as 
w disappears before a following w in 
Welsh, see 66 wld. 84 two, tw, 86 
vpricht, rrjf7'ic7it, 94 ffricht, ^c/<^. 



to the pronunciation marked there is nothing out of the way, 
suppose those y*s just noted to be errors for ir. 

jjjj , Kreist, giving the modern pro- 

UQ ^ * *^ tion of Christ, is curious ; I have 

^j *'"*«2r xvith century authority for 

jm ^^^rd. Observe the guttural CH 

3g ' ^^- michti ; 30, 84 sicht ; 29 ocht ; 

j^:«j/^*'»cht; 40, ee micht; 42, 54 

beWi ^ ^ knicht ; 52, 58 licht ; 56 

_^ Jl^*>t; 62 nicht; 76 dicht ; 88 

ui^r^^'fcfct, 90 wicht. The KN in 49 

th: '• ^knicht.andWRin36wricht. 

:|^y^ ^«i 12 wythowt ; 13 wyth ; 47 

i(v 1?^ but DD in 3, 72 ddei ; 5, 11, 

Bl ^^® ' ^ itorffaddyrs ffaddyr ; 13, 25, 

oa* ^^, 64, 59, &c., dde; 17 mwddyr ; 

dd\ .^' 56, 58 ddat ; 68, 80 ddey ; 77 

» 79 dden. For the vowels, ob- 

««^^^ E in 1 leding: 36 met = meet 

proper; 42 sel = fcal. The Y in 92 
Ifrynds, and 94 ffynd = fiend ; Sales- 
bury and Gill haye/i'inds, but Sales- 
bury has apparently /t'wrf, as he cites 
that as example of e having the Welsh 
sound. The Y in 75 trysti = tinisiy 
agrees with Salesbury who identifies 
it with Welsh «. The W in 4 ws, 
10 swking, 17 mwddyr, is regular, 
as also in 20 gwd, 23, 28 tw, 29 twk, 
54 dwth (whence 33 dywn should bo 
dwn), and long in 34 bwn, 37 swn, 
38 nwn, 39 mwn, 78 rwd ; and in 
35 trwn = throne^ we have Sales- 
bury's sound. VW in 14 flfrvwt = 
fruit; 46 vws = vse; 51 trvwth ; 54 
rvwl : 73 Dsivws represents, I believe, 








* * 



I. HaUan. 

1', Standard Tuscan *i$ 

2*. Italian Dialecta ...... «61 

Tuscan and Boman . ' . . *51 

Condoan and Northern Sardinian . ^52 

SioQian and Soathem CalalniKi *53 

Northern Calabnan *S4 

Neapolitan *56 

Yeuetiaa ....... *56 

II, Sardiitiim *57 

IIL Genoese *57 

IV. Oallo-Italie *5& 

V. Romatuse . . '. *59 

VL Other Neo-Latin LaTigvagea *64 



By H.LH. Prince Louis-Lucien Bonaparte. 

Although it is perfectly true that the Latin neuter gender, at 
least as a distinct grammatical form, has almost disappeared 
from the greater number of the Neo-Latin dialects, it is not the 
less undoubtedly true that this gender still keeps a strong hold 
on several of them. I admit that this happens exceptionally in 
some of these dialects, but in others it occurs regularly. This 
is the case, for instance, with the Spanish Asturian adjectives, in 
reference to which see my Note in the "Academy" of the 
27th of March, 1880, p. 236, and also my " Observaciones com- 
parativas sobre la pronunciacion gallega, asturiana, castellana y 
portuguesa," preceding my edition of the Gospel of St. Matthew, 
in the Galician dialect, by J. S. de Santa Maria. London, 1861. 

The languages in which 1 have observed substantives possess- 
ing a neuter plural termination, distinct from both the masculine 
and feminine, are : 1. Italian, and, in a greater or less degree, all 
or nearly all its true ^ dialects ; II. Sardinian ; III. Genoese ; 
IV. Gallo-Italic ; V. Komanese. 

^ I look npon the dialects of the greater portion of the island of Sardinia 
(all bnt the extreme north), the Genoese, the Gallo-Italic dialeots occupyin 
the greater portion of Northern Italy, and the Friolano, as Non-Italian. 



This language, as well na the LB.tin, poaaeasca the plural a 
termination to such an extent, that it would be iacoQBistent 
to recognise neuter substantives in Latin without at the same 
time acknowledging them in ItaliaiL There are more than one 
hundred auoh iu the latter, and more than half of these belong to 
the modem langiia;i;e. 

According to the majority of Italian GrammarifuiB, tlie fol- 
lowing Bubstaotirea oecur only with the termination a :' emtinaio-a, 
ctntinaro-a (*c«t(«ifirtMni-a"weielit of cne bnndred pounds") hundred ; 
ditola pi., a BpeciBB of edible mualiroom ; migliaio-a, migliaro-a \milli- 
ariwoHi "mile") thousand ; miglio-ci (mtlle-millia "thousand") mile ; 
Ttiillt-Jiiila {mille-millia) thousand ; jnoggio-a (jnodiwnh-a) ameAcnieci 
com nenrly eqim! to a bnahel ; paio-a, paro-a (jaar-paria) pair, couple ; 
3taio-<i, slarim (_* textarium-a) bushel ; vbero-a, antiquated, (uSctwi) 
woman's breast ; uov<ya (iwum-a) egg. 

A much greater numl>er have a masculine as well as a neuter 
termination, but those preceded by an asterisk iu the following 
list, are either more conunonly used with the termination i, 
or else have antiquated neuters in a. An exceedingly ranall 
number have also the feminine termination e : anell(Mra {aneUvt-i) 
ring; 'bi»ogno-i-a (• ftwonium-a) want; hraccio-ci-cia (frrocAntm-a) 
arm ; budeUo-i-a {^"hudellut-t) gut ; calcagno-i-a {adcaneut-i ; -itm-a) 
heel ; carro-ir^ (carrug-i ; -uTn-a) cart ; easttllo-Ara (caeUllumrO) castle ; 
etrvello-i-a ( cerehdlum-a) brain ; cifflto-gli-fflia (cilvu7n-a) eye-lash ; 
*cogno-i-a {congiui-i ; •-itm-a) Florandne meaaura of ten burela ; col- 
UUo-i-a {eulUUus-i ; "-uw»-o) knife; * comandam^nto-ira { *c<wi- 
maidamcrUuitt'a) command; * conjino-i-a (confinis-a "borderer"; 
eimjiniam^) border; eomo-i-a {comus-i ;'u-a) horn; cKoio-oi-ota 
(coritu-i ; 'Umro) leather ;' demanio-r^^-nia (dsmoni-um-a) de^il ; ditd- 
lo^-t ('digitetlut-i " the little linger ") arm-pit ; ditt>ir<i (diffUu»-i ; 
•-um-a "toe"l) finger; toe; * divUamento-iHi {* devitammtum-a) 

■ Low Lutin wordg an preoeded by hi uteiialc. 




devioe ; *JtuUUa4^ {'faMeUumro) fagot ; falo-i-a (faiiu-i ; -vm-a) 
fate •,Jilo-i-a (Jilu»~i ; -ui»-a} thread ; fondamenlo-i-a (/imdamentumra) 
foundation, in a proper aon«e ; *foro-i-a (*/onu-i) hole ; fmto-i-a 
(/ouv»4 "digged"; '/osrum-a) ditch [ ^mo-»-o (fitmis-i ; *-um-^) 
spindle ; gttttyi-a, the last ia a tnodemiBm, (gtetng-i ; 'Um-a) exploit ; ffi- 
tutcrAio-ehi-chia {*geniicijitii-i; •-um-a) kiiee ; 'gomito-i-a (cnbitui-i; 
-«m-^)elbow;jTWB<tt(>-i-a{*yran*/ii«-4;*-«nt^) grain ;jrrKfo-t-a(*yut- 
ritur-iu "wormB* noiae") ory; git»<Ao-»ei-*cia "husk"; labhro-iHi or, 
»ther poetioally, lahbia {Inbrum-a ; lahiunt-a) lip ; Ifffno-i-a, the last means 
"fire-wood", (/^nm-a) wood, timber; lennwlo-i-a (linieolu7a-a "little 
piece of linen cloth") aheet, bed-shoet ; *l«^o-i-a (Ifctiu-i ; -i 
bed ; *manttUo-i-a ('mantelbu-i - -«m-a)oloak ; 'i/iarirtlo-i-a ("viar' 
ttUut-i) hammer; wiemfcro-i-a-'e (*»iem6n*M ; -um-a) member, limb, 
in & proper setme ; *mom«n(o-w( (Tnompntum-a "moment") a meosura 
monaateiyjmwro-i, o(a hoiiae;-a,eBpeciaUy ofa town (tnunu-i i*-^ 
wall ; ono-i-Or't {*oisu*-i ; -am-o) bone ; pe<vaio-i-a (/wwadw-ss; -ww 
-a) sin ; 'pelo-i-a {pedilum-a ; -ut^uii) wind emitted from behind 
' piaciToento-i-a (' pladmenlum-a "action at law ") pleasure 
pomo~i-a-e, the last ia poetioal, (pomus-i ; -unm) fruit of any trci 
good to eat; quadrello-i-a ('qaadreHiui-i) dart; fuo-i-a [ri»at-iit 
laughter ;aacAH:Ai-«a((acciM-i) sack; *iacramento-i-a{iiacrammtvm-a] 
sacrament; *gtu»o-i-a (saxvni-a) stone; *se>itimeHlo-i^t C»eniime)t- 
lui»-a}9eaaB\* idco-cAi-m{iiU(niihi} furrow -J* araccio-ci-<^(*»traci^ 
tag; ttrido^i-a "shriek"; *miolo-i-a ('tolua-i; -am-a) ground 
*tale7Uo-i-a {* talentuin-a " wish ") talent ; *felaio-ai-aia {'telariu*4 
" weaver"; •-uwi-a) loom; *liiorio, *t<irlo-i-a "yolk"; vrlo-i-a 
"howl ;" * vscio-tci-tcia (ottium-a) door; *v<uo-i'a {*vamu-i ; -j 
TCBsel, pot ; 'mveUo-i-a (voKelliu-i " sepulchral um ;" ' vasellum-a 
" vessel, ship ") small vessel, pot ; 'verbo-i-a (verbjim-a) word 
9txtiguygv^ia {negtigium-a) trace ; mttimmto^-a (ve^ftmenlvm-a) vest- 
Blent ; * vitio-i^-tia (vUivtnra ; "-tM-i) vice ; etc. 

Several antiquated neuters end in ora and are imparisyllabio 
in the plural, as in Latin is " pectua-ora " : iigo-glii-gora (ucjm-mvi) 
needle; arco-dii-eara {arcut-us-*Qra) bow, (or an arrow; borgo^hi 
-yora {* Wrffu»-i) borough; camjM-i-ora (campiti-i) held ; canio-i-ora 
(•faw/uj-u*) aide ; cvrpo-t-ora (corput-ora) body; dono-i-ora, the last 
Is atill in caa in the lense ol " paraphernalia ", (dimuiii-a) gift ; elmo-i 


■fira{* elmii,t-i)\ieixaet; foTTW-i-ora {fomiu^; ''a.m-a "tlio part oftlie 
bouse where the oven is") oven ; fuoco-cki-oara {'/iKut-i; *-iim-a) 
fire ; grada-i-ora {<p-adas-m-*ora) atep ; loffo-gUi^ora (fanUHM) 
lake ; lato-i-ora (la/un-era) aide ; lito-i-ora (lUiui-ora) shore ; 
luogo-ghi-gara (loeun-i-a) place ; nertio-i-ora (ntrinu^ ; •ttmwm-o-ortt) 
nerve ; nodo-i-ora (nodui-i) knot ; name-i-ora (nomen-ina) name ; 
■ nouii ; <rrio-i-ora {hortut-i) kitchen-garden j pale<HAi-cora (*pattvm-a) 
Btage, scaffold; piano-i-^^a {*planum-a; -Ht-i "plain," ndjectiie) 
plain ; rami/-i-ora (ramut-i) branch ; »etuo-i-or<t (nenfiu-ut ; -uix-a 
"thought") sense ; euoTUM-ora {mnus-i) sound j lempo-i-ora, (the Lut 
it Btill in uflo in Iho sense of " days" in "omber-dftys"), time ; et«. 

The following substantives have In addition to the masculine two 
neuter plural terminations : frutto-ii-a-ora, tha Ust was and the last but 
one is still use J. only in tlio aenaa of " product of a tree or of certain plants", 
(/rudus-i ; *-um-a) fruit ; gratio-i-it-ora, the last waa used only in tha 
sense of " com ", anil the last but one is still used only in the sense al 
"grain ", B weight, (♦j/r/iniM-i ; groMum-a) corn; gruiu, a wei^; 
prato-i-a-ora (*pratit»-i; -um-a-*om) meadow ; pugno-i-n-ora (pugntu- 
i) fist ; teiio-i-a-ora {'(erfiM-i; -ttm-a) roof; *(t«i>-t-a-ar« (*linwn-a) vat. 

These instances show tliat neuter plural terminations may 
exist in Italian but not in Latin, and that the Italian neuters in 
ora seldom possess this termination in Latin. Has this been, 
always the ca^el There is at least room for doubt. In fact, do 
not *bundora, corpora, 'fundora, latere, "nweoro, "poiara, 'pro- 
tora, *rivora, *ro7icora, lempora, point to aueh Latin plurals 
as burgora, campora, loeora, etc. singulars of which were not the 
masculine, but the hypothetical neuters bwgiu, campiu, loau, «ta 
belonging to the imparl syllabic third declension 1 Of the Low- 
Latin lacora, tectora, tealdora, I do not speak, because instances 
occur of the use of the accusatives tectorat, etc., which compel 
me to look upon teclora, etc as feminine singulars. These words 
nervora, pratora, poiora, etc Du Cange calls " Longobardica ". 
May not all these strange neuters in ora, belonging to the Italian, 
be relics of some ancient Italic tongue, or, is it not possible that 
High-German has had something to do with them, neuter plurals 
in er being so common in this language) ' 

> Qerman influence in Neo-Latin plural inflectionB might be suspeottd in 




These are not gonerally bo rich in neuters as the atandard 
Tuscan. Some varieties however belonging to the Tuscan fiunily, 
and particuUrly the language commonly epoken among the peasants 
of eome districts of the territory of PiHtuiit, as well as the Sicilian, 
the two Calabrian dialects, and the Neapolitan, still present some 
terminations in ora (ura, ira) and make a common use of other 
plurals in a. Nerucci (see his " Saggiu sopra i parlari remacoli 
della ToBcana". Milano, 1805., p. 19.) quotoB the following in- 
stances as still in use in the variety which he calls " Montalese ", 
belonging to his sub-dialect of Pistoia : praia, dita, fmtta, etc. 
and tells us that of the two plurul terminations i and a, the 
aecond is constantly preferred. He quotes also prdlora, drcora or 
Avola, rdmora, piffoora, otc. aa still emplu}'ed. In this variety 
I have myself heard, without going in search of them, the words 
prata, pniiora, and p&ffnora. 

In the Roman dialect neuteiB in a exist, but they are certainly 
not numerous. 1 find, fur instance, centinaro-a , deCo-a, corres- 
ponding to the Tuscan (Italian) dito-a ; detella pi (it. dilola) ; 
.mUettino-a-i ; mHjaro-a, for vtiffliaio-a; mHjo-a; mtUe^mila; paro-a, 
always replacing the Tuscan paio-a ; ovo-a-i ; os«o-a^, and ora (lat. 
Aora-ae) hour; orecckia (lat. avri<mla-m) ear; Tuela (lat malvm-a) 
Apple, and some others used aometimea in the plural as well aa 

certain easea. In tho Italian prononna eglino, tllcno, ' i!ii, ill«,' tor ■ they ', 
having the Binguloia egli, tlta, ■ille, ilia,' [or 'he. Hbe.' where does the n ooma 
froin r This sound ie also very common in ancient and modern Qermanio 
languages as a plural termimition ; and a^ a regular plural teriDliULtioD it ia 
Mill met with ia the dialects of ' Valle Meaolcina' and Val Pregnglia (Grisona 
of Switzerland), which, according to mj own views, decidedly belong to the 
WHtcm branch of the Lombard family ol the Oallo-ltatic hwguage. Aiooli 
(■ee " Arohivio (ilottologioo Italiaao," vol. 1. p. 'J6y and 21i) ^ves seveial 
inatonceB, as litllen Un ^thmien t'ertn liiiteii ciintn (Valle Mesolcina), and Ian 
tbta; in Ian ealliean cumpoj/iiia (Vol pRigoglia), corresponding to the Italiui : 
] ttUte U ilaiuf eraTW lulte piftte ; ie rote ; jielU cattivf compagnU ; word tor 
'> aU the rooms weia all fnll ; the roses ; m the bod cc 


in the singulftr. These three instanceB never ooour in pure 
Italian, whose plurals are ore, orece/iie, melt. The real plural 
feminine terminatioa e ofteu roplacoa the Tuscan neuter n in 
Roman, as in braeeio-ce; buddlo-e; ginaeehio-e ; labro-e; etc., but, 
although derived from Latin neuters in a-, these plurals in e 
are really feminines belonging to irregular substautivoB having 
a masculine singular aud a fcminina plural The plural termina- 
tion a ia the real character of the Neo-Latin Daut«r. 

The Northern Cereican, belonging like the Roman to the 
TuBcan branch of the Tuscan family, does not in general seem 
to possess neuters in a, but, as in Roman, replaces them by 
feminines in e \ anello-e ; corno-e ; dinoccliio-e ; dito-e ; lahro-e ; 
tamenlo-e (lat lamentum-ii, but himeato-i in Italian, and not 
lamtnte corresponding directly to the Latin lamenta); membro-t; 
mig(io-e. ; ouo-e ; tlaghio (it. rtato) -« ; atrido-e ; etc. 

The Southern CorBicau, according to my opinion, belongs to 
the Sardo-Coraioan branch of the Tuscan family, whose dialects 
are not to be confounded with those of the Sardinian language. 
In this dialect, on account of the constant permutation of final t 
Into I obtaining in Southern Corsiean, 1 tiud no substitution 
of e for a ; and, although no neuters seem to exist in it, still I 
have met with two exceptions which are perhaps mere localisms. 
They consist in the plurals pecura and pret-a, and correspond to tiie 
Latin peeora and presbyteri, and to the Italian pecore and prtU 
whose singulars are pecug and prabyter, and peeora and preU " ewe, 
priest". — " Piansinu par doglia amara Li pecura cu I'agnelli"; 
Hal. " Piansero per doglia amara Le pecore con gli agnelli " ; The 
ewfi and the lambe -wept from bitter gorrow. — " Cantaja cu 1' altri 
preta Li cosi di U missali " ; itaL " Cantava con gli altri preti Le 
cose de' messali " ; He uias singing with the other priat» The tJtingt 
of the mxiaali, (See " Novelle Storiche Corse di Giovan Vitc 
Grimaldl Bastia, 1855., p. 250.) 

The Northern Sardinian dialects of Tempio and Sassari, par- 
ticularly the first, are nearly related to the Southern Corsiean and 
belong to the Sardo-Corsican branch of the Tuscan family. They 
observe the permutation of final e into i, and the only plural neuter 
I have been able to discover in them is middi-miiia, Temples^ and 
millimila, S 


The Sicilian dialect is fond of its neuters : arcurcki'eura ; canna- 
roziu-a (it. gargarozzo4) throat ; cirUinarvra\ cUrolu-a (it. cetriuolo-i ; 
lat. '^cUrolus^) cucumber ; coccm-a (it cocco-chi ''scarlet grain"; lat. 
coccumra " id." ; -««-t " shrub producing the scarlet grain ") berry ; 
comu<i ; corpuri-a or colptir4ra (it. colpo-i ; lat. ^colpu9^ blow ; 
eugmirii (it. condoj ; lat. cuneus-i) wedge; cumicchvura (lat comi- 
CM^tfffira) little horn ; cumiolitra (it. comtolo-i; lat ^comolium-a) dog- 
wood tree ; cutugnt^-a (it cotogno-i ; lat. cotoneun^-a ; -ttis-i " belong- 
ing to a quince *') quince, quince-tree ; dinocchiura ; JUvra ; fusu-a ; gig- 
ghivra (it ciglio-gliglia) ; granvra, a weight ; granmziHijdim, otgranu ; 
gUvitu-a ; fidUu-a (it. dUo-ira) ; jomu-a (it. giomo-i ; lat. diumum-a 
**a day's provision"; '^jomus-i) day; labbrw-a] lettvrir^ra ) lignura; 
limolvra ; locu-chircura or -chira ; migghiaru-a ; rtvigghvura ; mUli-mUa or 
milia ; multnura; mumentu-a ''moment"; mt^n^a; nnomt^^ra ; or^tt 
-*-wra; omim^^; ovu-a; parw-a; j»tr<««^^(it jo^tt^rtb-^*; lat ^peritisus-i) 
hole ; />ic^ii^, piritttra (it *joeto-i-a) ; piru-a (it pertM, ; lat. 
|9frumra "pear"; -iw-t) pear, pear-tree; jE^rwnt^a (it. pmno-i 
** prickly shrub " ; lat prunumra " plum " ; -u9-%) plum, plum-tree ; 
pugnu^ ; puml^^ " apple, apple tree "; ramvrirura ; rimra ; «ac(ru-a ; 
wirvmtHi (it servizio-^ ; lat ««nri^tiem-a " service ") business ; 9onu 
-ir^ra; strumu-a (it. gtromo-i', lat *gtrundtiis or *^rwn<i«-t) piece 
of round hard excrement ; tizzuni-a (it tizzone-i ; lat titio-ones) fire- 
brand ; voBceddvr^ (it vascello^ ; lat *vasceUti84 "sepulchral urn"; 
*-MiWra " hive ") vessel, ship ; vistUvrira (it V€stito4 ; lat. *i««<i<?«-i) 
garment ; rrar^w-a ; vudeddvra ; etc. These instances show that 
although the Sicilian is less abundant in substantives with neuter 
plurals in a than the standard Tuscan {alias the Italian language), 
yet it presents, more frequently than the Tuscan, exclusively 
neater terminations, some of which are not even to be found in 
the standard language itself. 

The two branches of Calabrian dialects, one of which, in my 
judgment, belongs to the Sicilian, and the other to the Neapolitan 
family, are generally used, the first in " Calabria Ulteriore I.," 
and the second, in two distinct groups, in " Calabria Citeriore " 
and "Calabria Ulteriore II." Neither of them is in lack of 
neuters, and among those not to be found in Tuscan or in Sicilian 
generally, I have been able to collect several, of which the 
following are examples : 1°. Southern Calabrian : citcuddu-a (sicil. 


cvcwMu^ "oocoon") hftil-stoue; ferru-a (Bicil. frrm-i; it. /mv-i 
lat. ferrmn-a; '-iw-i') iron infltrument ; JUefta-a (aicil. jUettv-i \ 
it. fiUtto-i "fine thread"; lat "jifettum-a "net") loin ; furyiiiv^ 
(mcH. /iirffarv-i ; it folffore^ "lightning"; lat. fulffvr-a "id.") 
n kind ol fire-worka ; magammOttt-a (aicil. mtrdmma-i ; it. Maonutio^ 
"Mahomet"; lat. jtfuAowM(«8-i " id.") devil ; muntuni-a (sicil miat- 
iutti-i; it mimtvM-i; lat. * ntufo-vne*) ram; mustaiKilu'a (sicil 
mutfajso/u-E, it. moxtaeetnolo-i) a kind of colie ; tlimantt-a (sicil. jtfm. 
ffii'nu-t ; lat, 'tumintu-i or 'iMTMmmwM) a meaeaie tot grain, etc. ; 
venu-i-a {aicil. wr«(-t ; it. verto ver»iu-i) verse ; etc. 

2°, Northern Calabrian: u^^ nni^il-a-tipparlaineiUa (sicil 
afparta mCT>^a-t ; it. appartamento-i^ lartmentfi ; capu-i-ura (iticiL 
capa^; it oapo-t ; lat copirf-idi) hta. ; ficatii-a (aicil. /Uatu-i; it 
ffffoio-i; lat. fieatum-a *) liver; j lartMi (sicil yranrtnt-i ; it. 

' FI liv pig fattened oritli figs.'" bat, &9 

lb tt logiqiie Jo la Luiguo froncuse." 

larodlaa Elnpirieua for " lirer " 
QOJ. f ome Neo- Latin names exprefl^ng 

this geni L«M ouojuj' ttraa J^tatvm, Jt ts cqiiall; impasBible to 

den; th«. ..._ ^sui uiBjurity of tbem are not derived dir(>ftl; from it, bat, u 
Die?, and Littr6 remark, from fl-'il'tm. \f'c)l wn rAA i-nrmpii'jii ot i;,'.ifuBi. 

The lii?t author iLinks tliiit./i.;('.'.., -.I'.i.l. ■■.. ■ ■> ■ iii :1.. C . -, I , ..;, had 

pTobabl; tbe Brat i ahort, and was derived directly from the h^pothelio 
fleatum, this opinion being confiimeil b; the pUoe occupied by the accent <rf 
the Milanese /{depA. Tbe Ixxr Latin doliixu, prorifui, rodtiu, ro^(iw> wen 
probablj propaioiytona according to the aama philologist, bnt he doea not 
quote an; living Ungnage confirming the view that these words derived from 
dolalui, provattti, vocatu4, rogatui, had really the aooent on the Stat syllable, 
ae DieE quotes /^il, Venetian ; figiv, Sardinian ; Jicdt, Wallochian, in support 
of the opinion that these words are derived direotl; from jScdium. I am 
happ; however to be able to give an insliuice showing by a Uving language 
that roj7truj is noleaa aproparoiytan than j;gil,/i;Ati, and Jicdt are oiytona. 
This is the Italian word rSgito, derived from TogSto, participle past of rogdrt, 
" to legalize a document," and meaning " legalization of it by a notary." If 
rogdlu be the origin of rSgito, fieitum most be that of fScatu, Morthcm 
Calabrese. It seems then that the comerouB names for the liver belou^ng 
to Keo.Latin dialects, and with which the root fic<i» haa something to do, 
may be divided into two classes : the hrat oompriaing words derfred ditectl; 
from /ieutum {ficdtum) ; the second, much more niuneroas than the first 
composed of words directly derived from ficdtura {ficatum) and only in an 
indirect manner from /icif lum : I. FicJ>tcu: Venetian, ^^,j!9aA; Soathem 
Sardinian, fig!tu ; Frinlano, fijid ; Gardena Bomaneee, /vja ; Upper Enga- 
dineBomancae.^B; Wallachiani^eiit ; Entzo Waltachian. -jficdt. TheOenoeae 


gratMLXo-i \ lat. grijmiriumra) granary ; gi^upurv/ra (sicil. gruppvri ; 
it. grupp(M, ; lat. *gruppu94) knot ; mustazzu-i-a (sicil. mustazzu-i ; 
it. sntMtoocMH^) mustache ; peramientu-peramerUa (sicil. pidamentu-i) 
foundation ; sterUintt-a (sicil. trUigtinu-i ; it. inUstino-i-e, the last is 
aatiqiiated; lat. tn^Mtinum-a ; irUMtinus-i ** inward ") gut ; gtuozzu-a 
(siclL tozzu^ ; it. tozzo-i) bit of bread ; i«>rf ^^-i-orfa (sicil. ortvriyara ; 
it. offo^i-ora ; lat. Aor^iM^') ; vestUu-a (siciL vistUu^i-a ; it. vestito-i ; 
lat.*ve^«^iw-t); etc. 

The Neapolitan dialect is not without its neuters : aco-ororoche ; 
anidUHmeUe-annella'y carcagno-a-e; carro-a; cervidlo-cervellorcervieUe, 
ceUevneUo-cellevrellarcellevrielle, cereviello-cerevellorcerevielle ; cetrulo 
-eeirolare<etrtUe ; ctglio-a-ceglie ; comeciello-camecellche (siciL cumi- 
eeddu-i; it. eomicello4; lat. comicellu7n-a) little horn; cotugno 
-catogna-e} creatidmmolO'Cres^mola-e (siciL crisommula-i ; lat 
chrpsamelumrii, a kind of quince) apricot, apricot-tree; cuqjero or 
eu6ruH:^'erar€6ire-c&iere ; cucrrto-corna-e-cuorne ; denucchio-deriocchiu 
-^■denucchie ; detillo-detellore (sicil. jiditeddu-i) little finger ; cftfe or 
jideto^ pL (i«<a-« or jedeta, ghiedeta; fumo-foma (lat fumus-i); 
futuro-f Ota-fuse; grcmo-Ore; gdveto or t^o, pi. goveta-e; lemulo-len- 
eola ; Hgno-Ugnore ; migliaro-a ; miglio-a ; mille-milia ; milo-mela-t 
(it. wie^t ; -a-« " apple " ; lat malum-a "id."; iw-t) apple, apple- 
tree ; muqj(Hmqja (lat modium-a) ; muro-a ; niSrevo^nereva, nievero 
-nSvera, nierwHMrva ; niespolo-nespola-e (siciL nispula^; it. nespolo -i; 
-Ore "medlar"; lat. mespilMmra "id."; -t«-t) medlar, medlar-tree; 
9»i{(2eco-ndc2fca (siciL nodu-i ; it nodo-i-ora) ; pagliaro-a (siciL /w//- 

figamtUm and the Monagasqne figaritou are diminntives* of /^a, unused. 
n. FfcATUM : ^^ido, Cassel Glosses, and the following : Italian, /(?flrafo ; 
Axetino, figheto ; Boman, /^dt'co ; Northern Sardinian, figgatu ; Sicilian, 
yicotu; Northern Calabrese, id., and /icata in the plural ; Tarantino,/^f<*c/i^ ; 
Abmzzese, fiUehe^ f€ttechi^ f€chete ; NeapoUtan, f€cato ; Central Sardinian, 
fidigu ; Spanish, higado ; Asturian, figadu ; Galician, fegado ; Portuguese, 
figcLdo ; Mentonese, figatu ; Piemontese, fidich ; Milanese, fidegh ; Berga- 
mABOO, fideeh ; Bresciano, /i^at ; Pavese, fidmch ; Piacentino, fidagh ; 
Modenese, fidegh ; Bolognese, /^^^t ; Bomagnuolo, /<^e;af ; Catalonian, /<ft^e ; 
Ptoivencial, /?<ie«, ^t^^ ; Languedocien, /(?«c?i€ ; id. Central, fiche ; id. 
Western, fige ; Gascon, /tUr/g ; Upper Beamese, Mge ; Bearnese, hiye ; 
Taadois, /?t;o, fidzo ; Ancient French, /ci«, /oi<j, /<fe, /oy«, ^ (this last, 
although of the xiii^ century, is not given by Littr6) ; French, foie ; Lorrain, 
fimi; Walloon, /(rt2t« ; Namurois, /ff^ ; Bouchi,/. 

*K6 FRiKCE Lonis-LUotEff bor!! 

ghiaru^; it. pagliaio-i " rie^ of straw"; kit. 'p/iiea 
" fan " for wionowing) hut oovered with etraw ; paro-a ; ptdantifnto 
'pediitnerUa ; pereaoeo-pereocorcke (siciL varoocu -ehi " apricot, aprioot- 
tree"; it o/6icoBco-cA» "apricot-tree"; -a-e "apricot"; Int. prmeoqmaa^ 
" eariy ripe ; " -va-i " id,") a kind ol aprioot and aprioot-tree ; perUim 
'pertona-t ; pJdelo,pirtlo, plrUo-pediia ; piro-pera^ ; pmtio-a-e ; pimio^ 
ponit-a ; W*o-a ; ttentino-a-e ; rtrunjtHi^roiija ; ««>rvo-iorra-e (uicil 
lorbori; id. , Catania, jorHO-t ; \i. »orbo-i ; -a-e " wsrh" ; \ai.. torbwoira 
" id." ; -w-i) Borb, service-tree ; tetaro-a ; tUleeo^elleca, tetelitra {it 
diteUixi-e) ; t'iiminiolo46mttwla ; vorzo-otiora-6Hola ; «0Mo-««aa ; mwi 
-<«ia ; vodidla^vodellr-a ; wacoio-a-ce or raexio-a-ct; vruSccuilo-wiariola, 
verv&ceioio'ver6cciola, vclvoreelo-veloccela (1 lat. viidlam^ ; -us-i) yolk : 
etc. It is to be noted : 1°. That both tiio feminiiiQ and masoulioe 
terminations in e, or only one of them, may acoompauy tho nenter 
ill a, as iu denuceJiio, cregtiSmmolo, cuorno ; 2°. That terminations in 
a are sometimea replaced by the feminine in e eicliiaively, as it 
happens in Koman and Northern Coraican: easliella-caiUlle ; lavnx: 
tiempa-tempore, iu the senso of " days " itt " ember-days " ; tvoao 
-toiie; vntogno-vrogne " shell " (of the Tritons, Venus, etc.); 3°. That 
in Neapolitan, aa well aa in Northern Calabriao, the rule of diph- 
thongal peniiutation frequently occura.' 

The Venetian dialect is exceedingly poor in neuters ; eenUnir^; 
dio-i-a J (it diio). Dea is only used in the senae of measnre ; mih'-a or 

* The permnlation of < and a tonio into t> and uo takes pUce both in 
Neapolitan and Nortbem Calabrian according to rales quite indepeudsnt ol 
LaUn quantity. In fact, although these two diphthongs ate generally 
derived from short Latin t and o, these vowels vei7 often prodooe no dijdi- 
thong at all, but remain unahanged. With regard to the Northern Calabnan, 
I hare already given these rules in my " Osserrazioni aul pennutaineato ddle 
Toc&li e de' dittonghi del dialetto calabreBe," prefixed to my edition of the 
Gospel of St. MatUiew in this dialect b; R. Luceute. London, 1862. Snfflee 
it to recall : 1". That vinio, vSnit ; prapheta : bonui, bKiti ; laeerddtem, taetr. 
dutei, give rise to the diphthongs it and uo in tii^jnu, tTidni ; pruJUU : baAw, 
JiiHfni ; laeerduiftu, lacerdtufti, because the first vowel of the syllable following 
the accent is either i or u ; 2°. That vinit ; prophila, eamelai : bSna, MlK. 
produce no diphthongs in vSne or vfna ; prufda, cavtilt : b6nu, Wne, beoanis 
the first Towel of the syllabla following the accent is neither t nor u. The 
rules tor the Neapolitan are not exactly the same as tor the Northein 
Calabrian, on aocouut of three other permutations peculiar to the first dialeot. 
In fact, atonio i is generally replaced in NeapoUtan by atonic e, while atonic 


miara; mio-a (it miglio) ; ph'-a (it. paio) ; sth'-a (it staio). In v6vo or 
tuSvo or dvo—v^vi or vt«6vt or 6viy vdve or tmdtw, the termination in is 
feminine, and replaces the neuter in a. Vdve orvudve, with the open o, 
now means only '^ roe, fish-roe", among fishermen, but in the year 1521, 
according to Boerio, it was used for vovi or fnt6vi, with the shut o^ 
in the general sense of ''eggs". Tempori ''ember-days" (it 
gMoUro Umpora), although corresponding to an Italian neuter, is 
only a plural masculine in Venetian, on account of its termination 
in «. (Ck)mpare it with Wallachian pi. feminines in ur% as piepturt, 
Umpuriy derived from sing, masculines: piept, timp, "breast, time"; 
with the Abruzzese detere, tettere, plurals of dete^ "finger" or "toe" ; 
teite, "roof"; and with the Tarantino ac^ddiri, pirtdnri, scmdcchtri^ 
plurals of acyddOf pirttuo, scinucchio^ " bird, hole, knee".) 

IL Sardinian. 

This language, which forms the transition from Italian to 
SjMuiish, ofiers hardly any instances of neuters. I am only able 
to find the following in the Central or Logudorese dialect : miUi 
-fnua > paivrpajas ; tempus-4empu8, but temporas occurs in the sense 
of "ember-days". 

The Southern or Cagliaritano ofiers only : mtHi^milla ; tempu&- 

III. Genoese. 

This language, according to my views, is intermediate between 
Italian and Gallo-Italic. It difiers from almost all the true Italian 

Of at least in writing, is substituted for atonio u, I say ** in writing ", because, 
for my own part, I think the difference between Neapolitan atonio and 
Northern Calabrian atonic tx to be orthographical rather than anything else, 
both these symbols being pronounced as u ; and this in spite of the contrary 
assertion of a distinguished NeapoUtan writer who, avowedly, laboured under 
the rather curious influence of Calabrian antipathy. Besides these two per- 
mutations there is a third, but not so regular, consisting in a subsequent 
change of ie and uo into tonic t and ii, sometimes taking place, and some- 
times not in the masculine, while the neuter and feminine remain unaltered, 
as is shown in anielh sing, masc., annella pi. neut, anelle^ pi. fem. ; cre- 
gudmrnolo-cretdmrnola-e ; milo (for mielo) -mela-e ; denucchio (for denuocchio) 
denoecMa-e and denucchie (for denuocchie) pL masc. ; cuonw-coma-cuome ; 
eta These instances also show that Neapolitan e produces the diphthongal 
changes only when it corresponds to Northern Calabrian i. 


diflleota m poHnaing the sounds o;, y (French u), and ng or guttura] 
»in "finger" which may occur between two vowels, as well as in 
baving the "umlaut" in tho plural, ag. »/«wrp» " sword "; /arfeti 
-fariaii "furbelow"; villan-vill^i "peasant". These pennutatioas 
fkie not to be confounded with the diphthongitl, proper to the 
Neapolitan, Abruzzese, Tarantino, Northeru Calabriau, and otlier 
Sonthem dialeots, or derived from it. It differs, on the other 
hand, from Oallo-Italic, in never allowing any of its words, except 
in Uentoneae, to end in the sounds, p, b, f, v, t, d, i, z, tk, ih, ts, di, 
tdt, ekh, k,g,aji happens so often in all the other Non-Italian dia- 
leote of Northern Italy (im I consider them) with the exception 
of the Venetian. But this, neither being in possession of the 
Bonnde, bb, y, and medial ng, nor presenting the " uml&ut ", is 
flvidentljr a real Italian dialect. 

Genoese neuters are very scarce : miggid-miggiwa ; miggivra ; 
•uUe-n^ or fmilla ; pd-patea {it paio); tentand-eentaa^a, but the 
plural feminine termination e replaces in several wordtt the neuter 
plural a ; brauu-i, when it meana a certain measure, and tiroMe 
otherwise; earcatjau-e; servellit-i, in the figurative sense, and KrvAle 
otherwise; comii-i', when it means a certain instrument or a part 
of the anvil, and eome otherwise; diu^ (it. dito) ; eitvu-e (it. now); 
Jigu^he ; lierfure (it. laJAro) ; o«»u-« ; ph-»egu-ghe (it. petca) peaoh ; 

IV. GaUo-Italic. 

The Gallo-ltalic language is very poor in neuters, and the 
Piedmontese as well as the Lombard family has none or hardly 
any. The Emiliau family Is somewhat richer. 

I only find in Piedmontese proper mia ; mila ; tniliaja ; paira, 
in hoth numbers ; in Milanese, ftratz-a, when it means a certain 
measure, and brazn or better brasci, plur. of braec, if it have the 
sense of " arm " ; mia or my ; miara or miera or miie ; para, in 
both numbers; in Bergamasco, mia; mela or tnele or mUe (it. milU), 
in both numbers ; miir-a ; per-a. 

The Buloguese presents : brazi-a ; edr-cara (it. carro) ; did-a ; 
meirmeja; Ttull-a; miar-a; par-a; titUunar-a; and the Ronu^uolo: 
br(uz-a ; earr-a; di-dida; m^-a ; mil-milla; mi$r-a; pir-a; nnMr-a; 


V. Romanese. 

Plural neuters in a such as we find them in Italian, exist in 
Romanese, as a rule, only in appearance. In fact they occur very 
seldom and only by way of exception.^ That substantives ending 
in a, corresponding in meaning to plural Italian neuters of the 
same termination, and even derived as these last from Latin 
neuters, exist in Komanese, no one can doubt ; but this cor- 
respondence is of course unable to render plural and neuter what 
in Romanese granmiar can only be a feminine collective of the 
singular number ; just in the same way that it is imable to transform 
into a plural neuter the Italian word legna, a feminine coUective 
singular in this phrase : la legna i umida^ ^* the wood is damp." This 
▼erj Italian word le^^na, however, may also be a real plural neuter in 
this second phrase : le legna sono umide, having the same meaning 
as the first; and the Italian word legne may also be a plural 
feminine in this third phrase : le legne sono umtde, having the same 
meaning as the first and second. In the first instance, Ugna 
agreeing in gender and number with la, i, umtda, can only be 
a feminine collective substantive of the singular number. In the 
third instance, legne agreeing in gender and number with le, sono, 
umtde, can only be a regular plural feminine, whose singular is 
the collective legna ; but in the second phrase, legna agreeing in 
number with a plural article, a plural verb, and a plural adjective, 
and having the termination in a which never belongs to feminine 
or masculine plurals, can only be a plural neuter, notwithstand- 
ing the feminine forms le, sono, umtde. In fact, the neuter gender, 
in Italian, only exists "morphologically" in substantives, the 
neuter form for article and adjectives being always the same as 
the feminine. In Romanese, on the contrary, substantives in a, 
without excepting the collective, agree generally with singular 
articles, adjectives, and verbs ; and, having no other form than 
the feminine, can only be considered as belonging to the feminine 
gender in the singular number, in the same manner as the Italian 

' As in Dan. v. 5. Italian : Uscirono delle dita di man (f uomo ; Oberland 
Bomaneae : Vanginen nou navojit delta cT iin maun da caratiaun ; Lower 
Engadine : Vennen aura dainta d^man da Croatian, ** Came forth fingers of a 
man's hand.*' 

4 1 

'>-» -.'..M.-ju •.'^■■.'•-Lr.:.;D» fnci 

f/r .,j''>s '>i-:»**>s. •.c* real }."linl 2»j'-.::«^ *\i zLt Ikso' And tke 
V,.. :^t.T* ».i^.lir i»ci-:L.rLj» --^f iLc f vrairr : GezL n. 5-1. Lemg 

^ \.:.'jLy /<ukia f^rwuL. "Tht krzoA of iui faftuii vei 
t'.r',r,'jL' — Pt. T1ZT.L 17. Z<f br^ima dihjii tmifi mrvMM A (P^-) 
r-y/A ; /^y-vtr f^uak^iizA : La br*jtJ^Jui daU msAen^ taim (ni^) « 
yA' < T'U/j/jL ^ Ytth irzLA of tL^ ir/i£*A ijjaH be opiken.^ — ^Ia. u. & 

^ *..'.'/.} a jwii/Jifir. ^V:zt^ ikmui tL*Il judze^' — £1. xxx. 35. Z€ 
hf'j/y.ifi di Farn/AkA, ^ind/ramMO 'plor.i : Oberiaod : Za ftnrfflefta ^ 
far^i/, «<» (kiiiis^) a mrdar; L. ¥L La ^/raUsAa da Farao armdar^ 
'*..i.'Z.,. ''Tliearms of Ph&nu>fa aLaII fkJl dovn.'' — Ia. iL & Cd 
<//>^ /> l//r dita hnnwf ^plar.; y^itto ; L. E. ^koi c4ia /sr iloMla ha 
f *, !. z^ ) fal. '' That vhich tl*eir ovn fingeis iuire made.^— *Boin. xiL 4. 
I'^-r^M^Aht^ nrr//m^. in uh isUJUO cr/rpo oMam wuJU WktemibnL, t imlU U 
r/t/'frJ/ra n/m ft/xnno ^plur.y una tMdtJnma operatkme^ Oberlaiid: 
I'arcf^^ 4^/ n«4 vtin enUn in churp ^t^ara nemhrOj mio iutia ia membru 
hi ^niri^.y Wvyi Ut •mndti^ma larur ; Upper VngmAm^ : Perdke 900 
n*u avains in tin e^/rp hj^ra mend/ra^ mo no twatta ta wnembm 
/to ^filt^L) la vujUma funrziun ; L. £. Perdu^ mo nai* m 
XMt^iu r//rjt hivain W.ra vum^jra^ e twA la mtmJtnxi nmn ha 
Htui mf/lAinma fjjMiraiiun, ^ Yor as we hare many memben in one 
(y/Jv, arid all tiicni^jC'rH have not the Bame office". — 1 Ccxr. xiL 22. 
Anzt, Tfi/Ato jna n^.r^snarui cht CaUre Mf/n (plur.) U membra dd eorpo^ 
rh^, jMii//ruj ^plur,; e*Mere U jAu deUJi; Oberiand : Mo bearoni ei 
(fwu'tC.) *iutlUi ntmf/ra dUg chierp, ca jtara (sing.) pUfeiwla^ er neeeB- 
Maria ; L'. K, Ami r/udla membra del ccnp, ehi pera (sing.) la pA 
fMlUf aln (hiuit.) la jni necewaria ; L. E Jitn, hler plu neeeuaria 
CO C antra ain (wiw,^.) la TfurrJira d/d cor/>, chi para (sing.) euer la plU 
fhhi.a, " Nay, much more those memlK'ra of the body, which seem 
to \}*'. more feeble, are necessary". — 1 Cor. xii. 25. Aeciocchi^ nan « 
fi/i. diAMerurum nel c^/r/xj^ ami U membra (Miano (plur.) vna wu- 
f/jnu/ia cura V une per V altre ; Oberiand : Far ca ei aeigi bueea dii- 
HtuHLun enten ilg chierp, m/n ca la nernl/ra liagi (sing.) parinnameng 

R U)ma-i,DcrHs 

lepna is also Bingular in the collective aense of the first phrase, 
ftlthougii not in that of the second. 

A few biblical quotations from tlie three usually written 
Bomiuiose dialects, compared with the Italian, will show the dif- 
ference between the real plural neuters of the latter and the 
ooUectivo singular femiuines of the former : Gen. il. 24. Lr tiu 
braeeia si son (plur.) rinfumtie ; Oberlaud Homaucse : Sia bratttJia 
ei (sing.) /achia /erma. "The arma of hie hands were miwle 
strong." — Pa. ixsvii. 17. Le braccia degli empj saranno (plur.) 
rofte ; Lower Engadiue : La hratseha dal» sMleraU vain (sing.) a 
gtur ruolta. " The arms of the wicked shall be broken." — Is. u. 5. 
Ze mie bracda ffiudicheranno (plur.); L. E. Mia bratscha vain 
(sing.) a jiidichar. " Mine arms shall judge." — Ez. six. 25. Lt 
braeeia di Farao)ie caderanno (plur.) ; Oberland : La brattcha da 
Farao ven (sing.) a airdar ; h. E. La braUcha da Farao entdarH 
(sing.). " The arms of Pharaoh shall fall down," — Is. ii. 8. CH 
ehe le tor dUa hanno (plur.) fativ ■ L. K Quai ehia lur dainia ka 
{aiug.)fat. " That which ttieir own fingers have made." — Rom. siH. 
Ptrcioechi, nccotne in tin iitetio eorjio abbiam molte membra, e t-uite U 
membfa non haniio (plur,) -una medexima. oftraiione ; Oberland: 
Parekei too nv* vein enten in chierp btara nembra, mo tittta la nembn 
ha (sing.) biwea la mademma lavur; Upper Engadine : Perde mo 
nut avains in tin corp b</era membra, mo no tvoUa la menJfra 
ho (sing.) la medema funcziun; L. E. Perc&e, teo nut in itit 
itUts eorp havain blera membra, i tuol la membra nun fia (sing.) 
.Una medemma (peraiiun. " For as we have many membera in one 
body, and all membera have not the same office". — 1 Cor. xil 22. 
Ami, molto piit necetsarie ehe faltre ton (plur.) le membra del eorpo, 
ehe paiono (plur.) ettere le piit deboli; Oberland: Mo bearont ei 
(aing.) quella nembra dilg chierp, ca para (sing.) plifeivla, er neeet- 
taria ; U. E. Ana gvella membra del eorp, cki pera (sing.) la pH 
dtbla, ait (sing.) la pii necesaaria ; L. R Ami, bier pla necetmma 
CO tavtra au (aing.) /a memfrra dal corp, eki para (sing.) etter lapK 
deUa. " Nay, much more those membera of the body, which seem 
to be more feeble, are neeeaaary". — 1 Cor. xii. 23. Aecioechi non n 
tia diMention nel eorpo, ami le membra abbiaiw (plur.) vna mt- 
detima cura V wie per V aitre ; Oberland : Par ca ei teiffi btuxa dit- 
tensiun etUen Ug ekitrp, mo ca la nembra- hagi (sing.) parinnameng 


quiiau V in par V auter ; U. E. Accid nun saja ilngUna discordia nel 
eorpf mo eke la membra pisserescha (sing.) in concardia V iin per 
r der'y L. £. Acid cki nun saja dahat in il corp, ami haja (sing.) 
la membra tuotta Una medemina ckiira V iin per V auter. " That 
there shotdd be no schism in the body; but that the members 
flhoiild have the same care one for another". — 1 Cor. xii. 26. B, 
«f pure an membro patiwey tuUe le membra compatiscono (plur.) ; f, 
we Mn membro i onorato, tutte le membra ne gioiecono (plnr.) insieme ; 
Oberland : A scha in nember andira, andira (sing.) tuUa la nemhra 
aneembd cun el; a cur in nember ven hundratiSy sa legra (sing.) 
tuUa la nemhra cun quel; U. E. E scha tin m^ember patescha, schi 
eampategi^ {Bing,) tuotta la membra ; e scha iin member vain anuro, 
wchi ^ aUegra (sing.) tuotta la membra cun quel ; L. K ^ scha pur 
an member patescha^ 9ch\ compaiescha (sing.) tiu>t la membra ; h %ch! 
On member aia honvrdj schl s^aUeigra (sing.) tuot la membra in- 
aemmd, ''And whether one member suffer, all members suffer 
with it; or one member be honoured, all members rejoice with it". 
This last biblical passage demonstrates with the greatest lucidity 
thai, while membro and membra are in Italian respectively a singu- 
lar and a plural, nember and nembra, or member and membra^ are 
both singular in Bomanese. 

Garisch (see his Romanese grammar printed at Coire in 1852, 
p. 136) calls these Romanese substantives ^* Kollektiva oder 
Neutra in Plural mit der Endung in a," and he says some lines 
lower and in the same page : '' These norms have naturaUy no 
pluraL" The real fact however is that meila, the collective 
singular form for " apples ", has its proper grammatical plural in 
M, meilas. The case is the same with com, and coma its collective 
form, each having its true plural, corns and comas; the same 
occurs with schanugly schanuglia, schanugliasj etc. In Italian, on 
the contrary, ginocchia^ coma, etc., are themselves plurals. 

As instances of '' CoUectiva " in a, in which the Romanese 
dialects of the Grison family abound, I give the following, pre- 
ceded by the ordinary non-collective singulars, and analogous to 
the Italian plurals of the same termination.^ 

^ The Bomanese language, without reckoning as such the Friulano, which, 
for certain reasons, I prefer to regard as an independent Neo-Latin language. 


Oborland RomsiieBe : arvegl-anfeglia, "pea"; atscJi-a, "thrend 1 
a skein"; begl-bfglia, "gut"; iiew, bieschn^h, "animal, beaBt" 

very mnch in tha some way as I considt^r Catalonisn independent o( 
Modam French Occitanian, may be divided into two families : Tbe flnt A. 
oompriBeB tlie Griaons BomnneBe, which Eobdividea into two brandies; 
11. The Oberland bniDcli, to which belong as two distinct dialects : 1. Tbl 
Upper Silvan, commonly called Oborland Bomanese, and 3. The Lowtf 
Silvan or Oberhalbntein dialect, with their primary and secondary groups d 
Bnbdialects and larieties; fi. The Eugadine branch, presenting only one 
dialect: The Engadine Jtomaneee 3., divided into tlic Upper and Lower 
mbdialccta witli their TarietieB (that of Miinater belongs to the Inst). Tbe 
RMond or Tyiolese family B. of tbe Bomanese comprises but ODe branch 
y., u)d two dialects: 4. and £. Tlie Eastern Tyrolese 4., comprises two sub- 
dialects: the Ladin, variously spolieu at Oardena, Marubio, Abbadia, Fhbb>, 
Upper Val di Fiemme. and Livinal-tungo ; and the Upper Bellnnese, com- 
prising the varieties of Ampezzo, Oltrechiusa, Comelico, and also, in my 
opinion, those of Cadore, Vajont, and Sacile. The Western Tyrolese 6., is 
spoken, in different varieties, at Val di Bumo, Val di Sole, Vol di Non, and 
abo, as I hold, at Lower Val <li Fiemme, and Tal Cembra. According to 
this clasaiS cation, the Bomanese langanec includes two families, three 
branches, and five dialects. Although I am aware tliat in a tew particolsia 
I diSer from the great Italian philologist and first authority on BomRiicse, 
ArooU, I ooDflider these amoll divergenoea of very little importance ia them- 
■elves. In fact, suffice it to say that in zoology likewise there are slight diiler- 
ences of classilleation even among the moat celebrated natiiralisla. Primary 
or aecoodary importance given to certain characters is the main eanse of sneh 
difference of views, to which is also to be added the greater or leas power of 
disregarding national feeling, a power with which even scientific men are not 
always sufficiently provided. I am aware that it will sound strange to Koith- 
em and Non- Venetian Italian eara to assert that what is neither Tuscan, nor 
Roman, nor Corsican, nor Sicilian, nor Neapolitan, nor Northern 
nor Venetian, is not, linguistically speaking. Italian ; bat, if such he the 
the only doty o[ real science is to respect what ia true. 

With regard to Bomanese orthography, it mast be noted that there 
it a want of uniformity. I have therefore giveo the preference to that orthlK 
graphy which, while imitormly representing tbe sounds, doea 
■ome time generally admit whatever is not in use in one at least of tbf^: 
Orisons dialects. The consonants, digrami, trigrams, etc., of the followini. 
syllables ore to be pronounced so : 1°. ca, ke, ki, en. cu ; ac, rft, ik, oc, Wi 
u A ; S*. ga, ghe, ghi, go, gu ; ag, tgh, igh, og, ug, as hard g ; 3'. ehia. olUC,. 
eh(, eMo, eMu ; aieh, eieh, ieh, oUh, uich, as a sound between k and ek| 
4*. da, ce, d, CIO, ci'u ; atmh, lUeh, ftfcA, ots(h. tiUeh, as eh ; 5°. gia, g<, g^] 
ffio, giu ; aig, eg, ig ; erg, irg ; ag, Ug ; ttchg, iickg ; oig, vig, as j ; fi 
It, if, 10. lu, as M 1 7°. iclia, iche, tclii.tcko.ichu; aich. elch. imh, oteh, 
■a tk ; 6°. tea, MCt. ici, tco, tea, as tka, i-ehf, t-chi, iko, iku ; S*. glia, gkt] 
fit, glio, glia ; agl, egl, igl, ogl, vgl, as the Italian gli ; 10", gUi, ghU,.gi " 




— biesea ; — biedchrchiay " cattle " ; blieck-bloccay " block, log " ; 
braUehraf " arm " ; butaischray '' stomach from black cattle " ; 
ea$witschray " hemp-stalk " ; ciurvt^ervtalay " brain " ; cochiel-coichla, 
** coal ;" com, chiem, chiuemrcomay " horn " ; crapp-a, " stone " ; 
cro», erie9-€romy "peel, paring"; dett-Oy "finger; toe"; farcagl 
'fareofflia, " slit hemp-stalk " ; figl-fegliay "leaf" ; fistaig-JUtagiay 
** wood-path over a steep declivity " ; frichrfrichiay " fruit " ; 
fru9tr<^ " piece " ; gamiUchray " little grain " ; gmneiver-gxaneivroy 
"juniper"; gripp-a, "rock"; te««, osa-ossdy "bone"; isch-ay 
"door"; lennrdy "wood, timber"; mal^-ay "apple-tree"; meil-ay 
** apple"; nUgliader, magliadery "eater"; — migliadiroy "devouring 
insects " ; nemJber-nenibray " member, limb ; " nerVy niervy gnerv 
-ffttorvOy gnerva^ nervdy "nerve, sinew"; ognrUy "alder"; j9^r-a, 
pair, couple " ; pSr-a, " pear " ; prau-praday " meadow " ; prtmmra, 
plum " ; pum^-a, " firuit-tree " ; pumnuiy " fruit " ; pugn-Uy 
** fist " ; rommra, " branch " ; rugn-ay " itch " ; schanugl-schanugliay 
**knee"; schierp-ay "implements of agriculture"; sdrcUsch-ay 
** rags " ; spinatsehray " thorn " ; sth'-ay " bushel " ; schuldau 
"WchvJdaddy " soldier " ; ov, iev-ovay " egg " ; voBcHXy msM-^challOy 
^ implements for kitchen, cellar, etc." 

Oberhalbstein Romanese^: armaint-ay "neat"; blocc^; cervl- 
cervela; figl-figliay " leaf"; pomm-a\ praprada; premm-a "plimi"; 
suldd-^ukhda ; vaschi^vasckela. 

Upper £ngadine Romanese (see note 8) : agn-a, " alder " ; 
arv€Lglrarvaglia ; bogl-boglia ; bos^chrbos^chuiy " tree " ; chuem-coma ; 
dUUfU^ " finger; toe "; fogl-foglia ; friitt-ay friia ; ginaiver-ginaivra ; 
laitiray " wood, timber " ; magledar^magliadiira ; member-membra ; 
ds8-08sa ; pair-ay "pear " ; pomhr-ay "apple-tree " ; pommray "apple " ; 
mogn-a ; schnuoglschnuoglia ; sudd-sudada. 

Lower Engadine Romanese (see note 8) : arbagl-arbaglia ; 
utaiZ-a, "apple"; mailer-a wuddrsvdada. 

The Romanese dialects of the Tyrolese family have no " Col- 

glOy glUy as gl ; 11". gna^ gne, gni^ gnoy gnu ; agn^ eguj ign, ttgn^ ugn^ as the 
Italian gn ; IT. ang^ eng^ ing^ ongt ung^ as n// in mangle j finger^ stronger y 
bungle ; 13^ gg, as a strong j ; 14°, 15°. acKch and «V^, as sh-ch^ s-ch^ giving 
to eh the Romanese sound. 

8 Instances already given are not repeated when they are exactly the 
same in this dialect. 


leotiva" in a, but the variety of Livinallungo, belonging to the 
Ladin Hubdialect of the Eastcro Tyroleae, presents two real pli 
neuters in a : pkiii'pickd, " ein " ; pri-prit, " meadow '" 

VI. Other Neo-Latiii languages. 


Spanish, Portuguese, Friulano, Occitaninn, Catalouian, Modem 
Occitaniau of France, Franco -Occitanian {Asooli's " Franoo- 
ProTenzalo "), French, and Wallachian have no neuter pliimJB in 
a; and, from all that has bet i upon this subject, ic appears 

clearlj- that Italian is the only r Latin language which has pre- 
served plural neuters directly aerived from the Latin, (not to 
be confounded with Romanese " Collectiva"), in sufficient number 
to justify its claim to the poBsossiou of three regular plural termi- 
tions : i, e, and a. 


To Prince L. L. Bonapabtb*s Papeb on Nbutbb Neo-Latin Sub- 
stantives: Tbansactions of the Philological Society fob 
1880-1, Appendix HI., P. 64. 

In the work bearing the title " Vita di Cola di Rienzo", printed 
at Bracciano in 1631 and written in old Northern Calabrian of the 
fourteenth century, these plural neuters occur : adtUteria (it. adul- 
teruMJ ; lat. adulterium-a) adultery ; capora (it. capo-i ; lat caput 
'iia) head ; casamenta (it casamento-i ; lat. ^casamentumra) large 
house ; edijicia (it edijicio-cf ; lat. wdificiumra ; adificitu-i " con- 
cerning the edile '*) edifice ; Jicora (it. fico-cM ; lat. Jicus4^) fig ; 
lenora f (it. elmo-i-ora ; lat *elmu3'i) helmet ; mtdinora (it. *mulino 
'i-a; lat. *molimiS't; *-um-a) mill; oliveta (it oliveto-i; lat. 
olivetum-a) grove of olive-trees ; pcUazza (it pcUazzo-i ; lat pala- 
tium-a) palace ; pecora (it. pecara-e ; lat. pecus-ora " cattle ") ewe ; 
pecorella (it. pecorella-e) ewe; aonnora (it sonno-i "sleep"; lat. 
samnu8-i " id"; *sompnu7nra) dream; steccata (it steccata-t) enclosure 
made with palisades ; tavolata (it tavolato-i ; lat tahvlatumra ; -na-i 
" boarded ") floor. 

The following may also be added in their places : 1**. Standard 

Tuscan : *beneficiO'CJ'Cia {beneficium-a) benefit ; *ca8telletto-i-a 

(*castelletumra) small castle; * cerchio-chj-chia (circultu-4', *u7nra 

** ornament of the head ") circle ; *muni7nerUo-ira (monumentum-a) 

monument ; *o7fi{cidio-dj-dia {liomicidium-a ; -*U8-i " fine for murder 

or manslaughter ") murder, manslaughter ; *omamerUo-i-a {oma- 

mentum-a) ornament; mondo-i-ora (mundus-% "world"; -um-a 

" women's ornaments ") land, country, region ; pegruhi-ora (pignua 

-ora-era \ *jngnum-a " honorary right ") pawn ; sesto-i-ora {sextus-i 

"sixth"; -umra "id.") one of the wards in which Florence is 

divided ; sogno-i-ora {somnium-a) dream ; vento-i-ora (ventus-i) wind. 

— 2*. Sicilian: sonnu-i-ura-ira (it. sonno-i "sleep"; lat somnus-i 

"id."; *8ompnum-a "dream") sleep; dream. — 3". Neapolitan: 

chirchiO'Cliierchia-e (sicil. ctrculu-i "circle"; it. cerchio-chj-chia 

"id."; lat circulus-i "id."; *um-a "ornament of the head") hoop 
for tubs. 


Trans. 1880-1, p. 40, 1. 3— /or longe read longo. 

Pbocsedinqs, No. 11, p. 41, lines 17 and 18 from bottom— transpose the 
iPords formerly and still. 





Nglish spellings. 






Notes to serve as a basis for Discussion at the Special General 

Meeting op the Philoloqical Societt, on Friday, 

July 9th, 1880, at 8 p.m. 

Oeneral Principles. 


It is necessary to begin with those reforms which are most 
likely to be generally accepted by those who are not 
opposed to reform generally. Hence all changes involving 
further disputed changes should be avoided. Thus, by 
dropping the g^ reign becomes phonetic without further change, 
but the dropping of the g of sign opens up the general 
question of the representation of diphthongic t — sine, sein^ 
sien, sain, etc. 


The prejudice against phonetic spelling is mainly the 
result of a dislike to unfamiliar forms. Traditional associa- 
tions are disturbed less by omissions than by additions or 
substitutions of letters. But even universally accepted 
principles will excite prejudice if they involve changes in 
more than a limited number of words. 


English spelling generally obscures (as in the H of right), 
and often directly falsifies etymology, as in island. A purely 
etymological reform of our spelling would be at the same 
time a partial phonetic reform. Such an etymological reform 


cannot, however, be carried out consistently and coraplet*!/. 
It 18, besides, generally agreed among pbilologista that 
etymological spelling really defeats its own aim by obliterol- 
ing the development of the language, and that the only true 
liidoriml spelling is a purely phonetic one. An appeal to 
etj'mology baa, however, two practical uses: 1) it affords a 
basis I'or agreement which may be either wanting or require 
confirmation, as in the restoration of the Tudor feeM for 
fii^M; and 2) it gives the principle of limitation sought 
above (§ 2). 

The etymological charaotor of phonetically omitted «= 
changed letters is of three kinds, correct, incorrect, a«3 
neutral. The k of initial kn- is always etyraologicaL'^ 
correct, the s of kland is etyraologically misleading, wh» 
final e is altogether neutral, having no etjTnological val ~* 
whatever : it is mere chance whether the e of such a word 
name corresponds to an older vowel (O.E. nama) or is merc^ 
a sign of lengthening as in life. "We should, even from 
purely etymological point of view, be as justified in rejectiK= 
the unpronouuced e in live as the s of islanii. 


The omission of the h in debt, etc., is etymological 
necessary, in spite of Latin debitum, because i/ebt is derivi 
from the Old French dele, not from debitum. 

Phonetic changes sometimes give different words the san:^:* 
form, when they are distinguished for the eye in the presec;:* 

spelling. In most cases they are fully distinguished by tl"» ^^ 
context, as in ^eent and nenf, inn and m. "When like-sounci" 
ing words do not cause any ambiguity in speech, they do &*^ 
still less in writing, and if they do cause ambiguity i*^ 
speech the ambiguity is equally a fault in writing, whio** 
may have to be read aloud, and is in all cases hut 


reflection of tbe spoken language. The distinctions between 

like-sounding words in the existing spelling are mostly 

useless, and some words distinct in speech, such as row (verb 

and 'series *) and row (noise) are confounded in writing. It 

would be impossible to carry out distinctions consistently in 

such cases as/ell^l) pret. oifall, 2) 'make to fall/ 3) *hide,' 

4) 'mountain,' 6) 'cruel/ and hundreds of others. These 

are defects not of spelling, but of the language itself. 


It has often been suggested that instead of reforming 
spelling, we should reform pronunciation. But it is 
impossible to control pronunciation without phonetic 
spelling. If, for instance, we had written akedule from the 
first, there would have been no dispute about the pro- 
nunciation possible. 


There are some practical considerations unconnected with 
pronunciation : 1) the elimination of irregularities of spelling; 
2) the saving of time and space. Thus the ie of field, etc., 
is not phonetically misleading, but its change into ee would 
get rid of the greatest difficulty of English spelling, the 
distinction between ie and ei. Again, such a change as ./' 
for ph is not of much phonetic importance, but it would 
considerably shorten such a word as philosophy. 

The basis of an immediate partial reform will therefore be : 

1) The omission of silent etymologically useless letters ^ 
whenever it does not invoke further disputed change. This 
would apply to such reforms as Hand for island and sovren for 

The next two changes can be applied only partially : 

2) Restore older phonetic spellings, as feeld for field, ake 
for ache. 

3) Eliminate irregularities and unphonetic spellings hy con- 
sistently extending forms already in use, as in ov for of, in for 
inn, traveler for traveller. 

70* partial correction op english spellings. 



Final and inflectional or derivative e has no etymological 
value, and should be omitted wherever practicable, and 
restricted to its actual function of lengthening a preceding 
vowel. It is not required in the following monosyllables: 
are (pron. as in far^ not as in fare)^ bade, have (but kept in 
behave); were; give, live (kept in alive), vineyard; gone. 
Also in the inflections Uvea, lived, etc. 

In the following words the original u is restored at the 
same time : above, come, dove, love, some, 'Some {handsome, 
etc.). In done, glove, none, one the o is historical. 

e after s lengthens the preceding vowel, but the s itself is 
sometimes voiced, as in to close, sometimes breathed, as in 
close aj. When s has a consonant before it or a double 
vowel or diphthong, the e makes the s breathed, as in tense, 
goose, contrasted with pens. After th it lengthens and 
voices, as in breathe contrasted with breath. It cannot 
therefore be used to lengthen a vowel before breathed th, 
whence tlie anomalous spellings both, loth, {be)troth, truth. 
The only escape from these difficulties is to carry out 
consistently the present inconsistent use of z, and to intro- 
duce dh, writing cloze, close ; tern, goos, penz ; breadh, breth, 
bothe, etc. 

e flnal is not required after vowels and diphthongs, as in 
due, virtue, hoe, shoe, eye, owe. It is, however, often required 
in inflected forms of words with a simple vowel before the e, 
as in dues. 

Inflectional e has already been dropped in the noun- 
inflection cs when not pronounced. The unmeaning Jamei 
or JamoHS should be written in full Jameses, and the useless 
(') dropped everywhere. 

The omission of the e of looked involves a return to the 
older lookf. The shortening of doubled consonants may be 
carried out consistently : ebd, chaft, tugd, culd (but palld, see 


\>e\ow), foinrf, aiopt, erd^ croat, buzd. Length-marking and 
hiBS-marking e must be retained, as in chafed, chanced, pickt 
may be Bborteixed either into pict or pikL 

e may be omitted after / in cattle, treble, feeble, etc., but 
must be retained in able, bible, etc. -re should be written -er, 
as is already done in (gas) meter, except after c and g, as in 
acre, ogre, centred will thus be distinguished from hatred. 

It may be omitted in a variety of liquid endings, as in 
driven, drivel, contrasted with enliven, libel. Also after 
consonants in promise, purpose, active, brimstone, etc. But 
not in purchase and other a- words, where the final e gives an 
t-character to the a. It cannot, of course, be omitted after c 
or ^, as in crevice, image. 

Derivative ei, as in foreign, forfeit, might drop either the e 
or the »• It seems simplest to drop the second vowel both in 
ei and the ou of labour, as has already been done in many 
wordsy such as error, height should be written hight. e is 
not required in yeoman : in jeopardy and people the eo is 
partly historical. 


has the etymological value of simple e, which preceded it 
in Middle English, and the a can be omitted in : breads breadth, 
breakfast^ breast, breath, cleanly, cleanse, dead, deaf, dearth, 
death, dread, dreamed, earl, earn, earnest, earth, endeavour, 
feather, head, health, heard, hearse, heaven, heavy, jealous, lead 
sb., leaned, learn, leaped, leaven, leather, meadow, meant, measure^ 
pearl, peasant, pheasant, pleasant, -ure, read prt., ready, realnu 
rehearse, search, spread, stead(y), stealth, stoeat, thread, threat, 
treachery, tread, -fe, treasure, wealth, weapon, weather, yearn, 

The analogy of hark justifies us in omitting the e of hearken, 
heart, hearth, thereby restoring frequent Tudor spellings. 


for ee is more or less unhistorical, and the older ee should 
be restored in : believe, bier, fiM, fiend, lief, priest, shield, thief, 
yield, wield \ also in French and other words, such as : brief. 


•--'i-.iXTji'F :? ^'^---t^-^- 

.- V w.#-i. J**-^-. ;i#:T* •^itf^. *«^, 

, .. .,v> f:f^.-;":>. :■;••-;.->-. •■;.•-••. ^I'-'T. Tiir^n. £itti^m%<^ 

'. >•* »->.L *->rrf -iio*:;.* f . f-:-r^. />.:. i:-:*., Mi'^izi-, MMfi, 
' ;•':>?''. vsfA.'.y, srv'*', *'jrj^'*:f^'i , '/."»:• -i, 'C^yr'.L ok^ gties with 

7>.«r r"f:rrj::r-.i::-.- -or U ntiih cc-rj^sei w::a -<t, which 
:.'.>;.: r>; fc-jV!*»::-r.AC for ;: "srh^re tiere i* a rerbal b&se, as in 
■!^r<//f<,'c/r,^AtOfj rwt*.r7c*:r, also pperLaps in ari-j^. 


'irop* rh-e 'ir^hi-.toric o :n throMjh and i^o'i'ij, and restores the 

f^,.iffi:f,H>, -f<y, ro'KKt,, d'AkhW:, ff.ur'^^, joMrh'ji^ -f 7. ./'^z'^^ lalso 
■A : . ♦ ♦/ :i y ./ > ^ ^ , >«'>>//- i'-' /i , < CO'/ rg^ , i* v :/-' '• , iroul U . o »i is more or 
.' - •, \.W/jr\fiix\ in : nhonyh ^?^, t-uowjh, tough. In roughs ^utherlff^ 
i-.O'Ofunif Hou(/o€ark, it answers to O.E. long m. Where on 
ix:,^-A<:rh to O.K. long u, and is sounded as in thou, or as in 


icou/h, eould (which, however, loses its I), it must be pre- 
llerved. For labour, etc., aee under ci 


after g in English words is unetyraological, and is not more 
itequired in ffws^, attest, guild, guilt, than in get, give, etc. In 
'fereign words the « of guinea, guitar, etc., is required to keep 
the g hard. T!ie u of gunrnntee and guard ia Old-French, 
bat the parallel gage has lost its u. 

The ue in tongae is useless, and the hiatorical tung should 
be restored, ue is equally useless in catalogue, decalogae, 
demagogue, dialogue, eclogue, epilogue, harangue, monologue, 
myilagogite, pedagogue, synagngm. It ia already omitted in 
derivatives, such as dn-nagoijixm. ague and argue may ba 
|di8tinguished from plague, etc., by dropping the e. ue in 
•Cinque-Ports is no more required than in einque fin cards) 
Or the French dug, and there is no reason why q alionld not 
l>« iiaiil also in burlesque, grotesque, and mosque. If silent a 
■Were dropped everywhere after q, conquer could be distin- 
g-uished from conquest. The u of antique, etc., would then be 
dropped also. 

is etymologically wrong in l/igme and rhijtne, whose /jes are 
^IsD wrong. J/ final in city is an isolated archaism, and the 
general nsa of i should be carried out here also. We thus 
^et the regular ciii, citis, carri, caiTid, sli, stili. eg in money 
should also be simplified to i. y would thus be restricted 

ti it* etymological value of Greek u. 

y, w 

in diphthongs are nnhistorical, and they ought to be made 
Uniform with their. In the case of ow a useful distinction 
knight be made between the regular nau> and the exceptional 
^now by writing the former non, as in thou, and keeping the 
other unchanged. So also medially io mould, etc., as already 


Final double vovels. 

Historical final oo should bo extended to catioe, do, «Aw, 
thus distinguishing them from doe, etc. The ec of be, hf, mr, 
gfic, the, we, ye, might also be restored oa the analogy of thtf, 
when these words are emphatic. 

Consonanta. ■'* 

I doable % 

fbb, add, odd, inn, buit, should follow the general analogj'^ j 

and drop their last consonant, doll should follow the analogj^ J 
of Hal, pal, and the other consonants, but hall, roll, etc., ma^^ ^^ 
keep the doubling for the sake of distinction, which must l>^^^ 


restored in appal, etc. So also full may keep, while dull lose 
its second /. -ss must be kept till s and s are regulated, 

II in unaccented syllables should follow the analog)' of tli_ 
other letters, trateling being thus distinguished from rebellinf^^ 

Medial consonants may be doubled where necessary, as \w=z 
teamen, coming, hring. 

In pick, etc., either the c or the k may be dropped. Th 
analogy of public, etc, and of tic speaks for the former, I^r 
mimicking the k cannot bo dropped. 

should be dropped in the un-French spellings debt, 
subtle. In debtor the t muat be doubled (detter), which ia ai 
older spelling. In final mb the b has no historical value 
bomb, crumb, dumb, lamb, limb, numb, plumb, succumb, tAumb 
Doubling in plumber. 

The misleading c of mice, hence is no more required ttumi 
in mouse, dense. The difficulty with the medial a of iey cac^ 
only be met by regulating the use of s and a. 


For ache the verb>form ake should be written ; of courset 



where the old noun ache fwith diesyllabic plural) occurs in 
poetry, it should bo ao written. The spelling itnefMr is 
entirely wroag: the word should be written anker. The A 
in chamomile, clioler, cholera, school, xlomach (write s/tiiiuic) is 
a late, pedantic insertiun. For choir tho alternative phonetic 
spelling quire should be revived. 

The late and useless ( in critfch might be dropped as in 

^should follow the universal analogy and be written or; 
it was only tho insignificance of the word which prevented 
it from being written oce. ojf might at first retain its second 
I .y^ to prevent confusion with the old of. 

The jr is a late insertion in feign, foreign fwrite forei 
s<3vereign {aorrm), which has not been mode infeini. 


h should be omitted in ghonl, aghast. 

The erroneous gh in high, night, etc., can be restored to its 

*^ isforicaily correct form by simply omitting the g wherever 

*-«ie combination is silent. Where it has the sound of ./l full 

Sl^Ji may be provisionally retained, and by omitting at the 

^^«iine time historically and phonetically useless vowels the 

spelling of these very difficult y/i-worda may be made 

**-pproximately phonetic. The following are examples of 

t]ie main classes of alterations thus obtained: straight 

K-siraiht) : laugh [lagh), draught (draglit), daughter {daithter) ; 

^ighi {eikt) ; high {hih), night (niht) ; trough (trogh), rough 

^rugh), plough (jplouh), though (thoich), through (Ihruh). The 

'two pronunciations of slough would be distinguished -as slouh 

and xlugh. For unhistorical delight the older dellte should be 



Initial h in heir is often dropped in Middle E. and Old 
French. The h of rhyme is as erroneous as the y : the word 
should be written rime. 

should be dropped in cauld. 

in receipt is a modem insertion. 


for V in nephew is utterly wrong. In Stephen for Steven it 
is late and pedantic, and in phial for vial it has corrupted the 
pronunciation. If / were substituted for ph everywhere, as 
in Italian, Spanish, Danish, and Swedish, a letter would be 
saved, and the etymology would not be obscured. 


See under u. 

For quay the older phonetic key might be restored. 


The necessity of carrying out consistently the distinction 
between 8 and z has often been noticed above : there is no 
more or less reason for z in frozen than in chosen, z would 
also be written in pleasure, etc., where the u changes it to zh. 

s is etymologically wrong in search, which should be written 
cearch, and wrongly inserted in aisle (He), demesne, island. 


The c is erroneously inserted in scythe (sithe), scent, while 
the s is equally erroneous in scimitar and scissors. When 
sceptic is pronounced with hard c, it should be written skeptic, 
as this pronunciation is a purely Greek one. 

K0TE8 FOR D1SCU8SI0X. *77 


stency demands dh for the voiced sound. 
\ is not more required in Thomas^ Thom{p)8on, than 
The pedantic Thames and thi/me should be brought 
Terns and time. 
hortened eighth should be written eightth, 


be dropped in tchole and tchore. 




OF Tiiii Philologi 1 


THE Obkkbal llEEre^T'* 

ox FUSAT, 

■IE FoKMEK Notes, 


p. 68* (§ 6). Tht ow a a rly complete list of tb^^ 
distinctive BpeliiDgs ifl me ted iu the F. N. whic "^^ 

would be lost by the changea uisoi ed : — bade (bad), hretp^^"^'^ 
(bred), heard (herdj, teail (led), retKi red), weather (wether^^^ ' 
/(^c(c( (hart), hiey (beer), frieze (freez;, son (sun), done (dnii)^ -^ 
ytiiYrf (gild), im (iu), tcW (but), plumb (plum), Myw (time^- ^^ 
rhyme (rime), quay (key), scent (sent), kHoU (faole). onior^^^ 
(union) would cause confusion of pronunciation. 

The number of undistinctive apellinga in the exiatin^^ 
spelling is large : in Matzner'a grammar they take n^^ 
nineteen pages. The following are examples of three word# 
confused under one spelling : — ear, mew, mean, march, last, 
and many others. Sometimes, as in lay, port, punch, sound, 
four originally distinct words are confounded. It need Boarcely 
be observed that these levellings cause far less difficulty than, 
the various meanings of one and the same word, of which, 
almost every verb and particle in the language affords aa. 

70*. e. The instances given are those in which the e 


ibIlovB a short vowel, but there are many words in Tvbich 
■It is Buperfluously added after r, z, s preceded by a long vowel 
or a consonant: 

"V^. acliiete, believe, deceive, grieve, heave, leave, thieve, aeave ; 
(^fV~Mr(, curve, /lake, nerve, revolve, serve, solve, starve, steerve, 
ft€-^^te, ra/ce.. 

^S, baise, breeve, broaze, freeze, gauze, ooze, seize, sneeze, 
*^«<^e»^, tchecze; bronze, furze. 

^*. wane, geese, goose, house, incrense, release; coarse, curse, 
"^■^^ ^t, else, horse, immense, remorse, sense, irorse; became, bruise, 
- ^^^^^^^e, ease, noise, pause, please, rouse ; cleanse, parse. 
K -^^Jso in (we. 

B inconsistency demands the restoration of e in such words 
*^ ^hosl, tnosf, distinguished from lost, as in haste, paste, 
" * ^ *"- inguished from hast, past. 

^* '3'1. Add Itopard, where the en is historical. 
^^. The ie is historical in French, hut it was not intro- 
.*-**^*id into the English spelling of French words before the 
"**^*^^ of Caxton. Add the following words: — achieve, chief, 
"* *-'^^>Jne/, niece, pier, reprieve, retrieve, 
"^ -J.*, o. Add work. 

^^", w. The following examples will show the arhi- 
^*-*"ine3s of the present use of oxi and oic: — bounce, doubt, 
^*^ '**'■, foul, house, loud, lout, mouse, ounce, our, pounce, round, 
*'^**-'~, tlinti, iFonnd ; dough, mould, moulder, moult, poultice, 
^^**^//y, shoulder, smoulder, though, brow, bratcze, cow, crowd, 
' *^*<~er, fold, goirn, hoiel, note, shower, vow; blow, bowl, flow, 
i* *"02«, growth, knows, low, own, slow, thrown. Sometimes two 
^^''ds of different sound are confounded, such as bow, rote, 

The abandonment of final g would get rid of many spelling 

^^raalies, and simplify the rules of grammar, aa in city, 

***^s; carry, carries ; Percy, Percy's ; valley, valleys ; money, 

Monies; boy, boys; soliloquy, soliloquies; shy, shyly; dry, 

*^i/i dryness. 

'^4'. double conss. Tliere are many words beginning 
'*itU unaccented prefixes in which the analogy of Latin 
Words like accuse, commit, immure has led to an unhistorical 


doubiing of the following consonant. Sueli words as aceoaat, 
accustom, allow, nlli/, arrange, arresf, arrive, atfack, and many 
Others were taken straight from O. French, where they bad 
single consonants, the doubling being a later etymologicul 
fancy. In such words as affront and affair (from a /aire) it 
is based on etymological ignorance, as also in the native 
English words arciirserl, affiird, affright. Equally erroneous 
is the d in adjourn, aii/usi, which in adeice has corrupted the 

e. The number of words with c for etymological s ia 
considerable. Examples are : — ace, adeice, bodice, dace, deac^. * 
erpeiice, fleece, hence, invoice, ice, mice, oitce, peace, pence, re*-'' 
(running), Hre, since, scarce, source, thence, thrice, twice, to*^''' 
ichence. Initial c is generally historical, but it is not bo '*^ 
cinder and cesupool. 

g, gh. The A. in burgh{er) is useless. In draft tm-** 
historical / is already in use. In through silent gh is of*-'*'^ 
dropped, gh is unhistorical in haughty and sprightlij. 

76*, B. The retention of s=z is the main obstacle to "•^"^ 
regulation of silent e. It also confuses a number of wo:»^ "** 
such OB the nouns and verbs ahime, encase, grease, house, mo-M. ^'*'t 
re/use, and the adjectives and verbs close, disuse. 

General Results of the Former Discuss 

It was understood that the results of the discussion w 
to be only provisional. 

The general principles were accepted, but with occasio** 
modifications. No. 6 (distinctive spellings) provoked m.*^ ' 
discussion, but was passed by a large majority. However, * 
the subsequent discussiou a strong feeling was shown in favo*' 
of distinctive spellings. 

Of the changes themselves, the following more iraportao'' 
ones were passed unanimously, or nearly so : — 

I) dropping of silent e, and of ( and u oi forfeit, Inboar, 
etc., and of the o in peoph, etc. The question ot 
e after s and ih was reserved, together with some 
minor details. 


h) general extension of ::. 

c) use off/A. 

tl) restriction of // and ir to their functions as 

consonants, except where y is etymological 

in Greek words, 
V} substitution of et for ie. 
*if) and of M for o and ou in certain words. 

fh) of/ for g/i in latii/h, etc. 

to omission of the b in /imh, etc. 

J) omission of nnetyraological and unphonetic 

consonants in the following words ; deit, 

douit, suJitle ; fei^n, foreign, sovercifjn ; 

gAost, agAast, burgA(er) ; r^yme; cou/d; 

receipt ; demesne, island ; scythe, SL-ent ; 

t^yme ; whole. 


^J" *Tje following specimens are intended to show roughly tho 

^^^king of the changes under discussion, and to allow their 

^parison with earlier spellings. The italics indicate diver- 

^|^*it forma which are independent of the spelling. In I. all 

.^ changes, both ultimate and immediate, are carried out, 

the other two only the latter — of course, in both cases 

^tbin tho limits prescribed by the general principles, no 

hange being made which would involve further disputed 

^Qanges. Of the original texts the first two are from Arber's 

'"^prints, the third from the First Folio : — 

I. — Caxton. 

Ghauntecler cam forth and smote pyteously his handei 
and his fetheris, and on eche aide of the byer wenlen tweyi 
Borouful hennea ; that one was call<;d Cantart and that olhet 
goode henne Grayant; they were two the fayrest hennefl that 
were bytweno Holland and Arderue. Th/ae heunes baro eche 
of them a brc«nyng tapre whiche was longe and strayte, 
Thi'se two hennea were Coppens swaters. And they cryed so 
pitously alas I and wcleaway 1 for the deth of her dere 
Buster Coppen. Two yonge hennea bare the byere, which 
kakled so henyly, and wepte so luwde for the deth of Coppen 
their mof^er tliat it was ferro herde. Thus cam theytogyrfre 
fofore the kynge. And Chanteoleer t/io seyde : " Mercyful 
lord ! my lord the kynge ! plese it yow to here our com- 
playnte, and abhorre" the grete scathe that Reynart hath 
don to mo and my children that hiere stonden. It was bo_ 
that in the bcgynnyng of Appryl, whnn the weder is fay 
as that I aa hardy and prowde, because of tlie grete lynaf 
that I am comc» of, and also badde, Sor I had viiij fayr soasl 
and seucn fayr doughters whiche my wyf had hatched, aiq 
they were alle etronge and futte, and wente in a yerde whict 
was walled round aboute, in whiche waa a shc/dde, where 
were six grete dogges whiche had totore and plucked many 
a bcestis skyn in suche wyse as my chyldrcn were not aferd ; 
on whom Reynart the theef had grete enuye because they 
wore BO sure that he cowdo none gete of them. How wel 
oftymes hath thia fcl theef goon roundc abouto this wal, and 
hath leyde for vs in auche wj'se that the doggea haue be sette 
on hyra, and haue hunted hym away ! And ones they Iffp 
on hyra Tpon the banke, and that coat hym somwhat for his 
thefte : I aaw that liia skyn smoked ; neuerthelea he wente | 
Ilia waye, God amende it ! 

Ohantikleer kame forth and smote piteusli liiz handz 

and biz fedherz, and on each side ov dhe beer went twain 
sorrowful lienz ; dliat one woz kalld Kaotart and dhat odher 
good ben Krayaut ; dhei wer to dhe fairest henz dhat 
5wer between Holland and Ardem, Theze henz bare each 
ov dhem a burning taper which woz long aud strait. 
Theze to henz wer Koppenz sisterz. And dhei kried bo 
pit«usli alas ! and welawai I for dhe deth ov dheir dear 
sister Koppen. To yung henz bare dhe beer, which 

lOkakld so hevili and wept ao loud for dhe deth ov Koppen 
dheir modher dhat it woz far herd. Dhus kanae dhei togedher 
before dhe king. And Chantikleer dhen said ; " Meraiful 
lord ! mi lord dhe king ! pleaz it you to bear our kom- 
plaint, and abhor dhe great skathc dhat Keinard hath 

Iddon to me and mi children dhat hero stand. It woz ao 
dhat in dhe beginning ov April, when dhe wedher iz fair, 
BZ dhat I az hardi and proud, bekauz ov dhe great lineage 
dhat I am kum ov, and also had, for I had viiii fair aunz 
and seven fair dauterz which mi wifo had hacht, and 

20 dhei wer all strong and fat, and went in a yard which 
woz walld round about, in which woz a ahed, wherein 
wer six great dogz which had totom and plukt meni 
a beasts skin in such wize az m\ children wer not afeard ; 
on whom Reinard dhe tlieef had great envi bekauz dhei 

25 wer ao sure dhat he kud non get ov dhem. Hon wel 
ofttimez hath dhis fol thecf gon round about dhis wall, and 
hath laid for us in such wize dhat dlie dogz hav been act 
on him, and hav bunted him owai ! and onea thei lept 
on him upon dhe bank, and dhat koat him sumwhot for biz 
KflOtbeft: I sau dhat his akin smoked; ncvordheles he went 
hiz wai, Ood amend it ! 


II. — Sib Thomas Moore. 

I am almoste ashamed, righte wel beloued Peter Giles, to 
end vnto you this boke of ye Utopian com men wealth, wel- 
niegh after a yereB space, whiclio I am sure you looked for 
within a, raoiietb and a halfe. And no marueil. For you 
knewe woU ynough that I was alreadye disbourdened of all 
the laboure and studye belongyngo to the inuentiou id this 
worke, and that I bad no nede at al to trouble my brainea 
about the disposition or conueiaunce of the matter : and 
therfore had herein nothing els to do, but only to rehearse 
those thinges whiche you and I togethers hwrd maiskr 
Raphael fcl and declare. Wherefore there was no cause 
why I shuld study to set forth the matter with eloquence : 
forasmuch as bis talke could not be fine and eloquent, 
beyngc fii-sto not studied for, but suddeiu and vn pre meditate, 
and then, as you know, of a man better sene in tbe Greke 
language then in the Latin tonge. And my writynge, tha 
□iegher it should approcbo to bia homely, plaino, and simple 
speche, so muche the niegher ahuld it go to the trnelh : 
which is tlie onelye marke wberunto I do and ought lo 
directe all my trauail and study herin. I graunte and con- 
fease, frende Peter, myselfe discharged of so muche laboure, 
hauinge all those thinges ready done to my bande, that 
olraooste there was nothinge left for me to do. Elles either 
the inuention or the disposition of this matter mygbte hsue 
required of a witto neither base neither at all vnlearned^ 
both some time and leasure and also some studie. But if 
it were requisite and necessurio that the matter ehoiilde ulio 
hsue bene wrytten cloquentlie, and not alone truclye : of u 
sueretie that thynge coulde I haue perfourmed by no lyrac 
nor studye. But now seynge all these cares, stayes, aoiM- 
lettes were taken awaye, wberin elles so muche laboure and 
studyo sboulde haue bene employed, and that there reraayaeA 
no other thynge for me to do, but onelyo to write playneho 
the matter us T b«rd it spoken : that indcede was a tbyng® 
lightc and easye to be done. 



I am allmost ashamed, right well beluved Peter Giles, to 
send unto you dhis book oy dhe Utopian commonwelth well- 
nih after a yearz space, which I am sure you lookt for 
widhin a month and a half. And no marvel. For you 

Skneu well enough dhat I waz allredi disburdend ov all 
dhe labor and studi belonging to dhe invention in dhis 
wurk, and dhat I had no need at all to trubl mi brainz 
about dhe dispozition or conveiance ov dhe matter : and 
therefor had herein nothing els to do, but onli to rehers 

lOdhoze thingz which you and I togedher herd Master 
Rafael tel and declare. Wherefor there waz no cauz 
whi I should studi to set forth dhe matter widh eloquence : 
forazmuch az hiz talk coud not be fine and eloquent, 
being first not studid for, but sudden and unpremeditate, 

15 and dhen, az you knou, ov a mai^ better seen in dhe Greek 
language dhan in dhe Latin tung. and mi writing, dhe 
niher it should approach to hiz homeli, plain, and simpl 
speech, so much dhe niher should it go to dhe truthe : 
which iz dhe onli mark whereunto I do and ouht to 

20 direct all mi travail and studi herein. I grant and con- 
fes, frend Peter, miself discharged ov so much labor, 
having all dheze thingz redi don to mi hand, dhat 
allmost dhere waz nothing left for me to do. Els eidher 
dhe invention or dhe dispozition ov dhis matter miht hav 

25 required ov a wit neidher base neidher at all unlcrned 
both sum time and leisure, and also sum studi. but if 
it wer requisit and necessari dhat dhe matter should also 
hav been writn eloquentli and not alone truli : ov a 
sureti dhat thing coud I hav performd bi no time 

30 or studi. but nou seeing all dheze cares, staiz, 
and lets wer taken awai, wherein els so much labor and 
studi should hav been emploid, and dhat there remaind 
no odher thing for me to do but onli to write plainli 
dhe matter az I herd it spoken : dhat indeed waz a thing 

35liht and eazi to be don. 

1 1 1. — Shak espea r. 

Not a aoule 
but felt a feaaer of the madde, and plaid 
Bome tricka of desperation ; all but the mariners 
plung'd iu tlie foaming bryne and quit the vessel], 
then all afire with me. The kings sonne Perdinand | 
with haire vpstaring (then like reeds, not baire) 
vas the 6rst man that leapt ; oride, " hell is empty), 
and all the di'uels are hcere." 

I heard thee speak me a speech once, but it waa neU^' 
acted, or if it was, not aboue once. For the play *" 
remember pleas'd not the million : 't was cauiarie to tn® 
generall, but it waa (as I receiu'd it, and others, wbos^ 
iudgemont in such matters cried in the top of mine) •*" 
excellent play, well digested in the acteaes, aet downe with ** 
much modestie as cunning, I remombcr one said there ^*'*'* 
no Ballets in the lines to make the matter saaoury, nor no 
matter in the phrase that might endite the author of affecta- 
tion, but cal'd it an honest method. One speech in i* * 
cheefely lou'd : 'twas ,£neas tale to Dido, and thereabout of 
it especially, where he speaks of Priame slaughter. 


Not a soul 
but felt a fever oy dhe mad, and plaid 
sum triks ov desperation ; all but dhe mariners 
plunged in dhe foaming brine and quit dhe vessel, 
dhen all afire widh me. Dhe kingz sun Ferdinand 
widh hair upstaring (dhen like reedz, not hair) 
waz dhe first man dhat lept ; cried, " hel iz empti, 
and all dhe devilz ar here." 

I herd dhee speak me a speech onse, but it waz never 
10 acted, or if it waz, never abuv onse. For dhe plai I 
remember pleazd not dhe million : twaz caviare to dhe 
general, but it waz (az I receivd it, and odherz, whose 
judgment in such matterz cried in dhe top ov mine) an 
excellent plai, wel digested in dhe scenes, set doun widh az 
15 much modesti az cunning. I remember one said there waz 
no Ballets in dhe linez to make dhe matter savori, nor no 
matter in dhe fraze dhat might endite dhe author of affecta- 
tion, but calld it an honest method. One speech in it I 
cheefli luvd : twaz ^neas tale to Dido, and dhereabout ov 
20 it especialli, where he speaks ov Priamz slauhter. 















kitogists, ever 

jeto-Soxon for 

py, it might be 

•il, of turning 

ItWnrdB as were 

[ But this does 

I exception,' I 

■ires references 

rIisIi words in 

Mgleoted Anglo- 
















■"■ has rightly been the habit of English etymologists, ever 

since the days of Elizabeth, to turn to Anglo-Saxon for 

^ "cidation of native English words. Similarly, it might be 

P'=^ted that the habit should have prevailed, of turning 

■^1 glo- French for elucidation of such words as were 

^^^ed at an early period from French. But this does 

*«em to have been the case. "With one exception,' I 

^<*t. aware that any list exists, which gives references 

*nG occurrence of common modern English vorda in 

-*^ Tench records. 

'-ymologists have to a great extent neglected Anglo- 
^licli forms, and considered only the continental French 
**^^ as given by Littr^, Burguy, Eoquefort, Bartsch, and 
^I's. But it is surely a good plan to consult a source of 
^i^ation which can easily be referred to, and is so fuU 
*1teresting, curious, and early examples of words still la 
•"^ttion use, as well as of some others now obsolete. 

inf ^ '''*' ^ ^^- AtkinBon's edition of the Vie de Seint Auban. I am furlher 
^^^Tnai that Godefroi's Dictionary of Old French incliidei Aaglo- French tornu, 

^ >■. in ihis respect, excellent. But It vill ba long before it is completed, and 

J lisi may 8erv« ai a stop-gap (oc a tiniB. 



Not to enter upon questions relating to phonetics, the 
advantages which may he expected to accrue to us from 
consulting the year-books, statutes, and romances written 
in Anglo-French are as follows. 

1. We at once find the clue to many peculiar spetlingfl. 
Thus, to take an easy exiimplo, the word hour appears in 
Burguy in the forms ore, eure, lire, hore, /ware; but, as far 
as I have yet been enabled to examine the authorities, I have 
seldom found, in the later Anglo- French, any other form than 
hours, in perfect agreement with the spelling of the word in 
Chaucer, and corresponding to the modern spelling in all hut 
the loss of final e. 

2. We thus obtain very early examples of many Frenck 
words. Not only do we find them already in existence before 
the date of their introduction into English, but we may: 
occasionally ^d earlier examples than any given by Frenck 

3. We gain some notion, in many cases, of the antiquity 
of numerous English words sHU in common use. Take, for 
example, the word usage. Here the form tells us nothing; 
it might have been introduced at any period. But when wt 
find it repeatedly occurring in the Year-hooka of Edward I.f^ 
we may feel tolerably confident of finding it used in Englisk. 
in the early part of the fourteenth century. In this case, v 
actually find the word in King Alisaundcr, I. 1286 ; but it 
obviously a great convenience to be able to tell, a priori, that, 
the word is likely to be found in Middle English. 

Were these all the advantages to be gained, they ought to 
suffice to make us turn our attention to the information to be 
thus obtained. But there is yet a fourth advantage to be 
expected, respecting which I have some remarks to make. 

It has already been pointed out, by Mr. Ellis and others, 
that our modem English system of spelling is based rather 
upon a French than upon a native model. We may 
assume that, during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, 
many scribes were naturally better acquainted with French 
than with English. Many of them were actually em- 




ployed in copying out, not only yeor-booka and statutes, 
but romancea and political Hongs. Many poems in English 
were tranalated, more or leaa closely, from the French ; and 
it was in the regular course of things that any one who 
intended to earn hia living by working as a scribe, or who 
desired to read (and perhaps to produce) poetry, must hava 
paid attention to the writing out and the spelling of French 
before he came to consider how to spell English, Mr. Ellis 
notices, for G:£ample, how the digraph oit came into use at 
that period, "when the growing use of u for (yy) or (i, e) 
rendered the meaning of ii uncertain." ' In this instance 
it is highly important to remember that the symbol oil 
(for I am speaking oii/ff of sijinhoh, not at all of the 
ifound* which they represent) was a Freneh symbol, and 
was brought into uae by scribea who first of all learnt 
lo trriYc in French, whether tliey had learnt to speak 
French before English or not,' One thing is certain, that, 
whereas we find the symbol o« in the French of France, no 
such symbol was known to Anglo-Saxon scribes. We should 
especially notice, as Mr. EUia and Mr. Payne have already 
noticed, that the symbol ou was used for English words, such 
as lioiii (house), oure (our), and the like, just as much as in 
I .words of French origin. 

■ Again, Mr, Payne says^ that "the Normans added ai, 

Pbh ail, eu, oi, oil, and ut, with transpositions of some of 

'them, to the English vowel-store." Without stopping to 

discuss the precise accuracy of this statement in every 

particular,^ we may at once accept it as regards most of the 

' Earlj' Hug. FiDDimciatioa, i. 41R. 

* AaUr. Hlbsap— "The English langnage was ignored [at this time] bj Iha 
antiloritieB. and woa onlj used by or tor ' lewd men." But there was a cmain 
amotiDt of education amonjcat tlie prieato. who ware the chief writera, and nba 
MTcd the language from falling intt the helpleaaaeas of the peBeast dialogue." — 
EarWEng. Proo. i. 418. 

> On the Gorman £iement in English; Tran^. of the Phil. Soc. 1868-9, 
p. 38fl. 

' I haTB double as to ai, ci. 'We find bt daiet in the A.S. Cbron. an. 113T, 
where dtciei arose from dayt, bj the nse of iri for it). This may account for diti 
[hIso 4ai) in I.ayamon, without anj French influence, So also st r 
ban ba«u put for t^. 


digraphs ; and, to go a step further, we know that some 
of these combinations were used in English words, as 
e.g. in M.E. dam (King Horn, 1315), deio (id. 1370). But 
I am rather surprised that Mr. Payne has taken no notice of 
what seema to me a most characteristic feature of French 
spelling, namely, the frequent use of y for i in these very 
digraphs, viz. in ay, ey, oij, wj, all found both tu Old French 
and in Middle English, and all unknown to Anglo-Saxon. 
We find the A.S. ding becoming liivi, dai in Layamon; hut 
juat as the influence of French begins to be felt, it paased 
into the form day, and has so remained ever since. When we 
look at the form presented to the eye by such modern woi 
BS day, key, home, we at once perceive how much the speUin| 
of the English language was influenced by the habits 
French scribes. 

Another peculiar use, not noticed by Mr. Payne, is that off 
w, in the digraphs ev, ow ; that these are not uncom 
Anglo-French, may be seen from the Year-books of Edwari' 
I., where the words rieic and allow appear aa t-e.tce and aloiceri 
We still use ew and ow in these very words ; and we hai 
extended the use of ow and ew to English words, writing 
and knew for the Early English noit and kiieit. 

Whilst speaking on this subject of changes in our spelltn] 
we must by no means omit that very unfortunate and mo 
insidious habit, noticed by Dr. Murray as well as by myself 
of altering the forms of French words ao as to bring thei 
nearer to their Latin originals. These two facts regardin( 
our spelling should be taken together ; and may be stal 
thus, in the form of canons. 

1, The modem spelling of English words, whether of 
native origin or borrowed from the French, is mainly due 
to French usage. The beginning of auch changes dates from 
the thirteenth century. 

2, The spelling of English words, chiefly those of French, 
origin, has been affected by the whims of scribes and 
pedants, whose thoughts ran upon etymology in such 
manner as to induce in them a wish to insinuate the Lstia,, 




original wherever they could do so. This was particularly 
the case, in English, during the fifteenth and sixteenth 

These two canons hy no means suffice to explaia the 
luliar vagaries of English spelling. But they are the 
most important ones that can be stated with regard to auch 
variations as are merely grnphic. 

A few particulars may well bo given here, though to 
some they are already well-known. We owe to French 
the letter r, wherever it occurs. It was at first Wflnted 
for the considerable number of words beginning with p 
which are of French origin ; but it was also used to replace 
the A.S. / in such words as ^ue, drive, ri-ace, grace. It may 
be said that the word fre was usually spelt with the symbol 
ti, and appeared as fine ; but this makes no difference, since 
this use of H for v is French also. I may here remark that 
I can only find three modern words beginning with v that 
are of native origin. These are raiie, i.e. a weather-cock, 
rat, and rLeen, Shakespeare, however, employs the word 
ri)iew€d in the sense of mouldy, which is pure English, 

A large number of words beginning with^' are French, the 
sound of the French^' being unknown to Anglo-Saxon. But 
we also find j in a few English words, viz. in jaw and jotel, 
which are modifications of ehaic and chowl. 

Again, the symbol ch is French. It was at first wanted 
for such words as chief and chapter ; but it was also employed 
in such words as child and tench. 

So also the symbol qu is French and Latin ; the A.S. 
symbol was cie. The symbol z is extremely rare in A.S., 
only occurring in a few proper names of Latin, or rather of 
Greek origin ; but in French it is very common. 

We may also claim as French the extended use of k. 
This is not common in A.S. MSS., though some scribes use 
it ; but it was extremely common in Anglo-French, espe- 
cially in such words aa ki, ke, which are now spelt, in 
modem French, with qu; as qui, que. Now the scribes had 
vitiated the force of the English c, by employing it as the 


represmtative of the «-sound in cidj (M.E. cUee) ; thoj 
therefore naturally had recourse to the Bymbol A', whid 
remained hard even before the vowela e and >', Hence eudl-j 
spelliuga as kin, ken, kind. 

Another French spelling la in the use of final -ee, aa ia J 
absence. This was employed for such English words i 
fience, pence, mice, twice. 

It here occurs to mo to suggest that a very good and ■ 
useful book might he written upon the subject of the sffmMt 
used in English MSS. and books. I should like to see « 
complete and careful account of all the graphic expeilientt 
which our scribes and authors have at any time made use of, 
with full particulars as to chronology and forms of letters. 
I think that the history of English etymology and the history 
of English pronunciation would largely benefit by the existence 
of such a volume as I have described ; and I hope that this 
suggestion may lead to some practical result. It might be 
called a History of English Symbols as distinct from ftj 
History of English Sounds. I 

But to return to the collection of words which, by thtt:! 
kindness of the Philological Society, ia here printed. liM 
is intended only as a very rough list, and does no more tbui>fl 
break the ground. Some one with more leisure ought to goj 
over a large number of texts which I have neglected, antm 
add to the list till it is nearly half as long again. At thaJ 
same time, I think I have made a good and sufficient begin- " 
ning, and have cleared the way by rendering it unnecessary 
to adduce more examples of the early use of common words. 
It is precisely for these common words that the ordinary 
glossaries fail us. Thus Kelham's Norman- French Dictionary J 
gives no references, and is therefore useless. Mr. Luard'a J 
Qlossary to the Life of Edward the Confessor only professes J 
to explain the less common words, and there is an almost 1 
total absence of references, Mr. Riley's Glossaries 1 
references, but he only deals with such words aa present I 
particular difficulty. Hence, when we want to Jind an T 
example of the actual occurrence of an English word in a J 



Anglo-French text, there is no book (by an English editor) 
known to me, except Dr. Atkinson's Vie de St. Auban, which 
is of any use in this respect. In particular, the valuable Year- 
books and the Statutes of the Realm, with their definite dates, 
have been completely neglected for all purposes of philology ; 
and this is what induced me, out of very shame for our back- 
wardness in this matter, to make such a collection as may, at 
any rate, serve as a stop-gap for the present ; whilst, at the 
same time, I sincerely hope that some one else will carry on 
the work by adding many more examples, and will alao, if 
necessary, verify ray references, though I believe they will 
be found to be generally correct.' 

One point I cannot help noticing, since it has been forced 
upon my attention ; viz. that spellings which we are likely 
to regard as purely modern freiinently occur in French 
texts, and prove to be nearly six centuries old. As exaraplea 
of some such forms, I may notice thnt the following words 
occur, with their present modern English spellings, not far 
from the year 1^00. Some of them we should of course 
expect to find, but others are somewhat surprising, either for 
their form or for their early use. 

Abatement, acceptable, accountable, acre (a law-French spell* 
ing of an E. word), action, adamant, advent, affection, affirma- 
tive, affliction, affrai/, agate, alien, allowance, amour, apostle, 
archer, artnour, arn'eal, art, article, artijicer, ascemion, assent, 
assise, augurer, araunl. 

Of course many words dififer slightly in the suffix, as when 
we find acqnifer, to acquit. Neglecting the suffix or some 
some unimportant letter, we find such words as acquit, agist, 
ttmott, air, alb, alienation, allege, allegory, allow, allotrable, 
'amend, amendment, amends, annuity, annul, archery, assign- 
ment, assuage, attach, attempt, etc. 

Some words I have noted as occurring in Middle English, 
though now obsolete. Such are amenuse, to diminish, apert, 
open, evident, etc. Words occurring in Chaucer, such as 

' I ha™ neglented Wace's 
one ought cectaiulj lo auuaii 

« som< 


contek, strife, ciiofe, cittern, las, heap, and the like, have i 
special interest. 

Some words I have noted as occurring in the Statutes, 
which are not French words at all, but English. 1 have 
already mentioned acre. Another such word is heriot, which 
is merely a law-French spelling of the A.S. heregeatu. So 
also slioti'nkaring, i.e. shotten herring ; deye, a dairy -woman- 
Such references may prove useful. I remember searching 
for the word icharf, and not succeeding in finding any 
instance of it earlier than in Fabyan's Chronicle. But it 
occurs several times in our statutes, and I have therefore* 
made a note of it. 

With these few words of preface, I subjoin the List. I"^— 
may be described as a list of modern English words of whicfci^" 
equivalent forms are found in certain Anglo-French texts 
including a few Middle- English words of especial interest — 
I give the Old French forms precisely m they occur, witt — = 
marks to shew the part of speech, wherever necessary. Thu»- 
ahnndoime is the Ist person of the present tense iudicative^^s 
and so also is ahandun ; hut abartndone is used as a pas -^ 
participle in Langtoft. The abbreviations used for this par- ~~ 
pose are the usual ones; adj., adjective; adv., adverb; if—— 
confer, i.e. compare ; /., feminine ; m„ masculine; pi., plural — 
pres. pt., present participle; pp., past participle passive; pr. t— 

present tense, singular, 3rd person (unless 1 yi. or 2 p. i -■ 

added) ; pr. pi., present tense, plural, 3rd person (unless 1 ^^^ 
or 2 p. is added) ; pt. %., past tense singular (with the sam — ^ 
limitation) ; pi. pi., past tense plural ; «., substantive; v — 
verb in the infinitive mood. 

In the references the following abbreviations occur. 

A.B. — Annals of Bm-ton ; pr. in Annales Monaatici, ed. Iuftr«3-^ 
1864. The words cited are from pp. 446-453, which contain* 
the Provisions of Oxford, a.d. 1258, 

Be.— Bestiary, by Philippe de Thaun; pr. in Wright's Popular 

Treatises on Science. 1841. Cited by the line. Date, former 

^B half of the twelfth century ; before a..i>. 1 150, 



S.R. — Statutes of the Realm, pr. by comniand of Oeorgp III, in 
1810. Cited by the page, eviry quotiition being from the firtt 
volume, which ends with the Statutes of Edw. III. In many 
cases, the exuet dute is marked against the reforenee. 

V, — Vie do Seint Auban, ed. B. Atkinson; London, 1876. This 
Tolumo contains a cuucordunue (with references) of all the wonla 
occurring in the poc>m ; so that it i» unaeuesBBiy to add any 
NforencB, Date, before a.d. 1250. 

T.a. — Tear-bnoks of the R*ign of King Edward I. ; year* xx and 
x\i, Ed. A. J. Horwood, Record SerieB, 1866, Cited by the 
page. Date, 1292-1293. 

T.i, — Year-books of the Reign of King Edward I. ; years ixx and 
xxxi ; by the same editor, 1863. Cit«d by the puge. Bate, 

T.e. — Teiir-books of the Reign of King Edward I. ; years xxzii and 
xxxiii ; by the same editor, 1864. Cited by the page. Dote, 

Both dates and esplanations are insortod between marks of paren- 
thesia. Thus, s.v. Abased, the pp. nbeBsec is noted as occurring 
S.R. 157 (1311), r.B. In StatutMof the Rdiilm, vol. i. p. 157, 
in a Statute of the year 1311. Again, s.v. Abaab, tha pp. Jim. 
esbaie ia noted as occurring with the sense " astonished." 

Abandon, abandonne, 1 pr. i. 

SL 161 ; abandun, E.G. 2139; 

Y. ; abaundoue, pp. L. 486 ; 

a'abandune (is abandoned), 

E.C. 361. 
Abased, abeesec, pp. S.R. 157 

(1311); pi. abessez, S.R. 26 

(1275); abassee, pp./. (lower- 
ed), Cre. 1105. 
Abasement, baissement, S.R. 185 

Abash ; ef. esbtue, pp. ftm. 

(astouiehed), E.G. 1488. 
AMte, abatre, v. (beat down), 

E.C. 475; (abate), Y.a. 15; 

abatu,;jp. Y.a. 159 ; S.R. 49 

(1278); Y. 

Ahat«mairt, BbstemeDt,T.a.249; 

Abbess, ahhesse, T.e. 437. 
Abbey, ahbeie, E.C. 390; abeie, 

L.yf. 1 ; abbeyes, pi. S.R. 26 

ABC, abece, i. (alphabet), E.C. 

2194; Abecede, 2201. 
Abetment, abbettement, ». Y.*. 

Abetting, abet, «. S.R. (1286 F); 

Y.a. 313; abette, Y.J. 401. 
Abettor, abettour, T.i. 621 ; 

nbettour8,pi.8.R. 166(1311). 
Abjuration, abjuroeion, i. T.e. 

515; abjunitiuns, pi. S.R. 211 


^Hjbommnble, nbhommable, iiilj. 

Accrued, pp. acru, To. 415; 

^KL.A. 368. 

ucrue, E.C. 4025; acrest, pt. 

^^boumled, abundayt, pt. ». L. 

1. Y.a. 21; acresteia, /wi. s. 

S.R. 156(1309). 

^■bridged, abregge, pp. S.B. 365 

Accnstomed, acustumcs, 

^■(ISei); abreggcz, pi Y.a. 

S.R. 155 (1309). 


Acquaintance, aquevutaiice, s. 

L.C. 217. 

^BS'-e- 31. 

Acquire, aoqncrra, t>. L.C. 20. 

HOroacli, set, mis abrochc, L.C. 

Acquit, acquitor, r. S.R. 103 

^ 304. 

(1285); 158 (1311) ; Y.rt. 

Absent, abwnte, adj. L.A. 44. 

361, 363. 

Absenta himself, so abaonte, L. 

Aeqiiittances, nequltanccs. ». pi. 


S.R. 163(1311). 

AbBolution, absolucioiin, L. 162; 

Achieved, achevast, pt. ». euhj. 

absoluelun, E.C. 560. 

Q. 6446; Bchovee, pp. /. 

Abundance, babimdance, Cre. 

(finiahed), E.C. 2372. 


Achievement, achevement, F.S. 

Acate (bujmig), acate, ». S.R. 

44 (b. 1272). 

331 (1353); 380 (1363); 

Acre, acre, #, Y.a. 3, eto. 

acntea, pi. (purchases), L.C. 

Action, action, S.R. 47 (1278); 


186(1322); action (action at 

Accepted, accept*, pp. L.C. 463. 

law), Y.8. 19. 

Acceptable, acceptable, ttiij. Bo. 

Adamant, adamant, t. So. 1438 ; ■ 

89; L.A. 204. 

aimant, 1440. 

^^tccesaoiy, accepsori, adj. Y.e. 

Addition, adieion, Y.a. 25. 

^^385; accessone, s. Y.a. 161. 

Adieu, adeu, Y.a. 3; a deu, Y.e. 

^^Becompaoy ; cf. acumpainne, 


^KtPP- (jointMl as a companion). 

Adjoining, adjoinauntz, pr»s. pt. 

^' y. 

pi. L.A. 512. 

Accomplish, acomplir, r. P.S. 

Adjourn, ajoment, pr. pi. sw^'. 

126 (b. 1272); acuiapli. pp. 

8.B, 62(1281). 

L.C. 193; acompUoe, pr.a.tubj. 

Adjoummont, enjornement, i. 

L.A. 369. 

Y.a. 117;ajornenient,Y.ff.379. 

Adjudged, ajnggc, pp. Y.i. 449 ; 

L.A. 48. 

agiugge. Y.b. 79. 

Acconi (agreement), a. aconj, 

Adjust; cf.ajastement,*. [addi- 

Y.a. 129. 

tion, not adjuatment], S.R. 

Accordant (Trith), acordaunt, »»■. 

134(1299). Sm Ajouat. 

pt.Y.c. 185; V. 

Accosted, acoatez, pp. (lit. placed 

.. Y... 47. ' 

WE Bide b7 side), L. 108. 

^Kecoant, acounte, s. S.B. 32 

i8tm,pt. s. Y.a. 375. 

^■(1275); 158(1311); acunte, 
^H, 135. 

AdminiHtratJon (to a will), ad- 

mini straoioun, a. Y.a. 375. 

^Hecoautable, accountables, pi. 

Admonishes, amoneate, pr. ». 

^■^8.B. 851 (I3ST). 

E.C. 3659; S.R. 28 (1275). 

^■fncouoted for, acountez, pp. pi. 

Adnullation, adnnllaoion, S.R. 

^V 1.0.222. 

816(1351). ^_ 



Adultery, adulterie, a. Y.a. 

Advance, ayancer, r. (^aiM.), 

E.G. 4085. 
Adyancement, ayancement, P.S. 

316 (b. 1307). 
Advantage, ayantage, 8. S.E. 156 

(1309); Y.fl. 27. 
Adyent, adyent, <. Ore. 1553 ; 

ladyent, S.R. 29 (1275). 
Adventure, aventure (incident), 

8. E.G. 2588. 
Adversary, adversarie, S.R. 217 

( 1 305 ?) ; adversaries, pi, L. G. 

Adversities, adversites, pi, S.R. 

352 (1357); adversitez, L,h. 

Advice, avis, 8, (object), P.S. 

275 (b. 1307) ; lavis, S.R. 193 

Advised, avisez, pp, pi. S.R. 52 

Advowson, avueson, «. Y.a. 77 ; 

avoueson, 409 ; avoesons, pL 

S.R. 293 (1340). 
Affair, afairc, 8, (business, work), 

E.G. p. 11 ; affaire written 

for a faire (to do), L.C. 466 ; 

afferes, pL L.i. 390. 
Affection, affection, L.^. 392. 
Affeered, affirez, pp. pi, (said 

of amercements), S.R. 352 

(1357). Gf. foer (-value), 

L.G. 304. 
Affiance, affiaunce, P.S. 282 (b. 

Affinity, affinite, 8. Y.e. 341 ; 

S.R. 29 (1275) ; afflnitee, 

L.A. 284. 
Affirm, afermer, v, Gre. 580 ; 

affermcr, Y.a. 25 ; afirmees, 

pp. pi. S.R. 139 (1300) ; 

afformaunz, pr. pt. S.R. 217 

Affirmative, affirmative, 8. Y.h. 

Affirmative, affirmative, adj. 

{masc.) Y.a. 229. 

Affliction, affliccioun, L. 266 ; 

afflictions, pi. G. 4302 ; affile- 

ciuns, E.G. 731. 
Affray, affrei, S.R. 185 (1322); 

affray, L.A. 312; afflrai de 

la pees, S.R. 258 (1828); 

af&ayes, pi, 223. 8m Fray. 
Afloat, a flote, Y. 
Afraid, effree, pp. H. 422 ; 

effreie, 445. 
Agates, agates, 8. pi. G. 4890. 
Age, age, 8, Y.a. 59 ; S.R. 29 

(1275); eage, Y.«. 315 ; aage, 

A.B. 474. 
Agist, agiste, pr. «. tubf. Y.e» 

Agistment, agistement, «. Y.0. 

23, 39. 
Agistors, agistours, f. pi. 8.B. 

161 a311). 
Agreeable, agreable, Y. 
Agreed, se agrea, pt. 9. Y,e. 69. 
Ague; cf. agues, adf, pi. (sharp, 

acute). Be. 369. 
Aid, aide, 8, S.R. 30 (1276); 

L.G. 227; eyde, Y.a. 271. 
Aid, aider, t^. L.G. 219 ; aidant, 

pr88. pt, Y.a, 37. 
Air, aier, 8. E.G. 739 ; airsi 

2088; Gre. 1283; Y. 
Aivers (beasts), avers, 9, pi, 

(beasts), S.R. 31 (1275) ; Ym, 

77, 287 ; (goods), Y.*. 37. 
Ajoust ( add), ajoustre, v, S.R. 

279 (1336). 
Aketoun, aketoun, Jj.h. 428. 
Alas ! alias, int^'. E.G. 790. 

Gf . se alasse ( « gives up, 

ceases), E.G. 4492 ; cf. alasse, 

pp. (fatigued), Y. 
Alb, albe, Jj.h. 344. 
AlieuB, aliens, 8. pi. S.R. 137 

(1300); E.G. 916. 
Alienated, alyena, pt. 8. Y.a, 

Alienation, 8. alienacion, 8. Y.I. 

7 ; alienacioun, Y.e. 35. 
Allege, alleger, v. S.R. 270 

(1335) ; allege, pp. Y.h. 7. 




Apparel, aparailer, v. (prepare), 

E.C. 2167 ; apiiraillez, pp. 

(put in reiMlinew), S.E. 29 

Apparent, apparant, aJJ. L.A, 

204 ; apparaunt heyr (heir 

apparent), Y.o. 445. 
Appeal, eppel, ». 8.R. 80 (1276); 

flpol,Y.a.3I3;arcle,Y<;. 171. 
Appeal, apeler, c Y.o. 313 ; 

apele, pp. h.W. 3 ; apellc, 

Y.C. 171. 
Appears, apert, pr. ». E.C, 2101; 

appiert, L.C. 459 ; apparut, 

pt. ». Y.a. 381. 
Appearance, apparaunee, t. S.R. 

48 (1276); apparence, Y.«. 

Appondett, spent, pr. *. belQUgB, 

S.R. 138 (1300). 
Appertain, apertiegnent, yr. /j/. 

S.R. 303 (1344); apurten- 

aunt«s, pr. pt. pi. 8.B. 

158 (1811); apurtenans, pi. 

Y.a. 45. 
Applies, npplye,_pr, ». (lit, joins 

trith), L. 218. 
Appottianed, apporcione, pp. 

S.R. 298 (1341); aporcionez, 

pi. S.R. 259 (1328). 
Appraise, preiser, v. S.R. 822 

Appreciation, appreciaoion (ap- 
praisement), S.R. 371 (1362). 
Apprentice, apprentiz, ». L.A. 

286; aprentiz, 124. 
Approacli, aproohier, c. P.S.235 

(b. 1307); aproce, pr. s. E.C. 

1264; approohayt, p(. «.L.60. 
Appropriating, appropriant.^M. 

part. Y.a. 383. 
Appropriation a, appropiiacions, 

pl. 8E. 386 (1364). 
Approve, approevent, pr. pl. 

S.R. 310 (1351); approvees, 156(1300). 
Appurtenance, apurtenaunce, L. 

438; aportanances, pl. Y.a. 

Arable, arable, adj. Y.i. 187. 
Arbaleeter (crosBhow-inaii), oX- 

blaster, L.i. 122. 
Arbitrament, arbitrement, 8. It. 

374 (1362). 

Arc, ark, *. (bow). S.R. ^ « 

(1285); arc, Cre. 726. 
Archangel, archangele, Be, 11^* ^. 
Archer, archer, G. 2814; arch&»:-e. 

pl. S.R. 278 (1336). 
Archery, archerye, P.S. ^ 536 

(b. 1807). 
Aresoned (qnestionwl), areaom-*^ h 

pp. L. 98. 
Arctt« (lav to one's charp^-^s), 

arettcr, v.L. 396; L.i. 6; iixr-«=t- 

tez, pp. (acouBed), L.i. 4; ■*^. 

retttr, ii. (to lay to om:»-^'3 

charge), P.S. 184 (b. 1307" Z>- 
Argoil, ai^oil, «. L.A. 225. 
Argument, argument, V. 
Arm, armer, v. S.R. 255 (13i2 '^h 
Armour, armour, L.i. 4^^^' 


97 (1285); armeure, 8.E- 

(1285); arraures, pl. & — 

258 (1328). _ 

Anns, armeB, .. pl. S.R. ^^ 

(1275); Y.O. 37, 175. ^. 

Arraign, arener, p. Y.h. o^^ ' 

aresne, pp. 505. S.B. S^ ^ 

(1340); arreinoB, ^;. j»(. L* — 

460. ^3 

Arrange, arenger, v. P.S. ^^ 

(b. 1307). 
Array, arayer, t. L.C. 77. -^ 

Arrayera, arraiours, ». pl. S ^ "^ 

278 (1336). ^i 

Arrear. in, en arere, S.B. ^ "'^ 

(1276?)i anere, Y...5. ^ 

Arrears, arreres, i. pl. Y.b. V* _ 
Arrerages, arrerages, *. pl. (^ 

rears), S.R. 48 (1278). _ . 

Arrest, areat, ». S.R. 132 (1293 >' ' 

arrest, L.A. 421. ... 

Arrest, orester, r. S.R. 29 (127^-''' 

arestc, jj^. Be. 1443. 



Arrival, arrival, 8.R. 273 (1335); 

arivail, 132 (1299). 
Arrives, arive, pr, s. E.C. 4331 ; 

arrivetz, pp. pi. 8.11. 132 

Arson, arsnn, «. (fire, conflagra- 

tion), Y.a. 375 ; arsons, pi. 

8.R. 96 (1285). 
Arsouns, arzons, «. pi. (saddle- 
bows), L.C. 80. 
Art, art, *. 8.R. 279 (1336); 

(means), Be. 320. 
Articles, articles, pi. P.8. 231 

(b. 1307) ; L.C. 220 ; L.A. 

Artificer, artificer, 8.R. 367 

(1361); artificers, pi. 312 

Ascension, ascension, S.B. 197 

(b. 1327) ; ascenciun, 97 

Asew (dried np), assewe, pp. 

(dried np), Y.a. 417. 
Assailed, assailist, pt. s. P.S. 

284 (b. 1307). 
Assailers, assaylonr, pi. L. 480. 
Assart, exsarta, sb. pi. (Lat.) 

(redeemed lands), L.C. 660. 
Assault, assalt, «. G. 2014; P.S. 

284 (b. 1307); L.4. 82, 90. 
Assay, «. /issai (of victuals), 

L.C. 303; asay, 8.R. 132 

Assay, asayer, v. 8.R. 31 (1275); 

assaie, pp. 132 (1299). 
Assayers, assaiours, s. pi. 8.R. 

132 (1299). 
Assemble, assembler, 9. G. 3188; 

assemble, pp. L.C. 221. 
Assembly, assemblee, s. E.C. 

1615; assemble, L.C. 221; 

assemblees, pi. 8.B. 124 

Assent, assent, 8.B. 158 (1311); 

L.C. 220. 
Assessor, assessour, accessor, «. 

L.O. 281. 
Assign, assigne, i. Y.a. 233 ; 

assignZj pi. 67. 

Assigned, assignfe, pp. pi. S.R. 

98(1285); Y.a. 143. 
Assignment, assignement, 8. Y.c. 

Assise, assise, «. S.R. 36 (1275) ; 

Y.a. 3, 83 ; (of bread), L.C. 

Assoil (pardon), assoile, pr. 8. 

8uh;. Jj.C 199; asaolZf 

P.S. 275. 
Associated, associez, pp. pl.T.S. 

297 (1307). 
Assotted, asoti, pp. Y. 
Assuage, ' assuager, v. S.R. 186 

(1322) ; se asuaga (is re- 
lieved, said of illness), E.C. 

p. 20. 
Assumption, assumpcion, S.R. 

186 (1322). 
Assurance, asseurance, S.R. 300 

Assure, asseurer, v. L. 48. 
Astronomer, astronomicn, G. 

Attach, attacher, v. Y.a. 17; 

attache, pr. 8. (fastens), L.C. 

150; atachez, pp. pi. S.R. 

27 (1275). 
Attachment, attachement, *. Y.c. 

15; S.R. 37(1275). 
Attainted, ateint, pp. Y.a. 3 ; 

ateinz, pp. pi. S.R. 27 (1275). 
Attaint, a. ateinte, Y.a. 111. 
Attempt, attempter, v. S.R. 304 

(1346); attemptez, pp. pi. 

L.A. 508. 
Attend, attendre, v. S.R. 217 

( 1 305 ?) ; atendre, attendre 

(abide), 36 (1275). 
Attires, attyre (equips), L.J. 

126; attire, L. 374; atirez, 

pp. S.R. 103 (1285). 
Attorney, *. atome, attorne, Y.a. 

83; attomez, pi. S.R. 35 

Auditors, auditours, a. pi. S.R. 

104(1285); Y.e. 427. 
Augurer, augurer, L. 242; augu- 

rours, pi. L. 4. 




Baptised, baptize, pp. E.G. 2049; 

baptizez, Be. 980. 
Bar (of a court of justice), bare, 
9. L.C. 28 1 ; barre (opposition), 

Y.C. 49. 
Bar, bairer, v. Y,h. 57 ; a. 

Barators,barettours,|i/. S.B. 364 

Barbels, barbels, $.pl. L.A. 689. 
Barber, barbour, barbier, «. L.A. 

Barbican, barbecane, L.^. 288. 
Baret, barat, $. (deceit), E.G. 

Bargain, bargaine, $, S.R. 331 

Bargainod, bargana, pt. 8. L.A. 

Barges, barges, $, pi. L.5. 58. 
Baron, baroun, P.S. 127 (b. 

1272) ; baron (husband), Y.a. 

Baronage, bamage, S.B. 158 

Barony, baronie, S.B. 298 ( 1 341 ); 

barunies, pi. E.G. 4465. 
Barrels, bariles, s. pi. S.B. 342 

(1353); barilz, E.G. 940; 

bariles, s. pi. L.A. 382. 
Barren, baraine, adj. Gre. 847 ; 

barainne, E.G. 2633. 
Barse, bars du meer, «. (a fish), 

L.A. 234. (Lat. harcium, 

L.G. 118.) 
Base, bas, adj. (low), Y.a. 301, 

y.*. 395; (lowly), E.G. 1289. 
Bases (of pillars), basses, 8. pi. 

E.G. 2300. 
Basil (leather), bazene, 8. L.G. 

83 ; bazeyne, 84. 
Basin, bacin, «. E.G. 2777 ; 

bacins, pi. 2775 ; basyns, pi. 

L.G. 459. 
Bastard, bastard, L. 372. 
Bastardy, bastardie, 8. E.G. 770 ; 

Y.b. 271. 
Bataunt (quick), bataunt, adf. 

08 adv. Jj.b. 38 ; batant, V . 

Batter, batre, v. (to beat), P.S. 

320 (b. 1307). 
Battery, baterie, *. (beating), 

S.R. 48 (1278). 
Battle, bataile, 8. Y.c. 291 ; 
joindre batayle (join battle), 
Y.a. 15. 
Bawd, bawde, 8. f. L.A. 259 ; 
baudz, adj'. (fierce), E.G. p. 
23, 1. 17. 
Bay, baee, *. (gap), Gre. 38. 
Beak,bek,L,ft.72; bee, Be. 1157. 
Beasts, bestes, 8. pi. Y.a. 9, 243. 
Beauty, beute, *. E.G. 8840. 
Beaver (animal), bevere, *. Be. 

Beef, bef, 8. (ox), Y.a. 245 ; 

heofs, pi. S.R. 27 (1275). 
Beg, begger, v. L. 248. 
Bench, banc, «. S.R. 139 (1300). 
Bend (in heraldry), bende, L.^. 
434; bendes, pi. S.R. 219 
Benefice, benefice, S.R. 293 
(1340) ; (benefit of a statute), 
Y.fl. 171. 
Benefit, benefiz, *. Y.c. 25. 
Benignly, benignemcnt, L. 330. 
Benison, beneicon, G. 1060. 
Beryl, beril, Be. 1472; berilz, 

pi. G. 4888. 
Besiege, assegcr, v. P.S. 289 

Bestail, bestaill, S.R. 262 (1330). 
Bestial, bestial, adj\ V. 
Bever (drink), beivre, G. 5868 ; 
beveres, *. pi. G. 5994; 
beifres, A.B. 451 ; beyfres, 
454. Gf. beyvre, v. (to drink), 
P.S. 140 (b. 1307). 
Bezonian ; cf . besoinos, adj\ 

(needy, indigent), N. 489. 
Bier, bere, G. 6376, 6387 ; E.G. 

4636; bierre, K 947. 
Bigamy, bigamie, S.R. 302 

Bill (in law), bille, *. P.S. 231 
(b. 1307); Y.b. 107; L.A. 



BUleta, billettcB, ». pi. S.R. 338 

Bittern, tutor, *. L.C. 304. 
Blaine, blame, a. P.8. 137 (b. 

1307); E.G. 3904. 
Blame, blamer, e. P.S. 137 (b. 

1307); bliiamcr, Cre. 58. 
Blanth, blanchir, v. (grow 

while), v. 
Blanclisbed, blnndist, pt. ». G. 

269; bkndb, i: (eoothe), E.G. 

Blank, blanc, ndj. (white). Be. 

107; blank, L. 114. 
Blank cbortors, blunnches chor- 

tres, S.R. 162 (1311). 
Blanket, blanket, S.R. 381 

Blazon, blosouti, blazon, t. L.C. 

Blenitsbod, blemiz, pp. pi. S.R. 

292 (1340). 
BIomiahgblemiBoment,!. (breacb ), 

S.R. 123 (1297). 
Blond, blnnd, adj- T. 
Blue, blus. adj. pi. L.C. 129. 
Board, on, en bord, E.G. p. 6, 

Bohance, bobance, i. (be 

L.i. 338. 
BoQ, boillir, p. N. 174; boil- 

Iflunt, pret. pt. L.h. 443. 
Bond, bondes, pi. adj. 8.E. 294 

(1340). See below. 
Bondmen, bundes, pi. S.R. 211 

Bonny, bone, adj'. fern, {di'tiyt- 

labie, fair), P.S. 137 (b. 1307). 
Boot«, botes, *. pi. S.R. 312 

Bordure (in heraldry), bordure, 

L.i. 430. 
Borough, burg, t. S.R, 28(1275); 

burgh, 97 (1285) ; burk, 8.P. 

310 (b. 1307); bourgz, pi. 

L.C. 284. 
Borsholdcr, borgheealdre, i. S.R. 

223 (b. 1307). 
Botches, bocea, i. pi. E.C, 1981. 


Bouk (trunk of the body), buc, 

0. 4470. 
Boult, bulter, p. L.A. 705. 
Bound, bunder, v. (to fix liiniti>), 

L b. 332. 
Bounds, bonndes, s. pi. S.B.- 

144 (1305); bundes, 83.J 

138 (1300); bondes, T.o. 71. 
Bounty, bounte, a. P.S. 241 

(1307); bunted, Be 
Bourd, burdent. burdeient./w.jil. 

(tut), L. 174. 
Boweia, bowel, >. pi. P.S. 322 (h, 

1307); buele, ». Be. 319, 

321 ; V. 
Brace ; cf . braces do mcer (anm..! 

of the sen). 8.B, 339 (1353). 
Branches, bmuncbes, t, pi. Li 

Brand, brand (aword), G. 5664 ; 

brandz, pi. E.G. 277. 
Brawn, brauns, «. (jtl?) Q. 277. 
Brays, hrait, pr. ». Be. 21; 

brayer, v. (to cry as on infant), 

Y.(i. 39. 
Brazil, brasille, *. (dye), L.A.,| 

224. J 

Breach (gap), breclie, t. Ciofl 

675 ; (breach), Be. 57. 1 

Brenty, brevete, *. S.R. 128 

Brief, ». bref (writ), T.a. 3; 

(=Lat. brtv»), T.o. 25; brief, 

S.R. 31 (1275). J 

Briefly, brovement, G. 6293. I 
Broached, abroche, pp. L.C. SSifl 
Broker ; cf. abroke, pr. t. tuif.4 

(act as broker for), L.A. 288. 
Brokers, abrocours, *. pt. S.R. 

103 (1285). Cf. Lat. ahro- 

eariut, L.A. 269. {Set L.C. 

Brown, brun, adj. V. 
Bruise, bruseroy, ftit. tvij. P.S. 

233 (b. 1307) ; bruiBeiat,>r, t. 

Be. 658. 
Buckler, bokeler, a. L.C. 383; 

bokeller, L.A. 274, 1. I. 
Buckles, buelcB, G. 5001. 







Sudge (for}, boge, S.R. 380 

Puffet (blow), buffe, *. P.8. 231 

(b. 1307). 
Buglea (oicen), bugles, ». pi. G. 
■ 3810. 
^ Bull (papal), bulle. ». Y.e. 357; 

E.C. 1643 ; L.i. S. 
Ballion (mint), billon, S.R. 273 

(1335) ; billion, id. 338 

(1353). .[Other eopiei kavB 

bullion, bullions ; see Wedg- 

Bnrdoun (Btaff), burdun, V, 
Burgages, burgages, s. pi. S.B. 

165 (1311). 
Bui^eona, burzune, pr. ». (buds), 

Cre. 52i ; burjunent, pr. pi. 

'gesses, burgeya, i. pi. S.R. 

34 (1275) ; burgois, L.C. 


Burgber, burger, L. 176. 
BumiBhed, burni, bruni, pp. V. 
Busb, buehe, ». (firewood), L.A. 

2S8; Y.4. 429. 
Bushel, buBselle, a. L.A. 267. 
Businesa ; of. bosoigues, a. pi. 

(wiuitB,DeedB, business), QloBs. 

Susses (shipe), busces, pi. L.i. 

46; busce, t.fein. 54. 
But, buter, v. V. 
But, but, f. (intention, aim), 

E.C. 1602. 
Butcber,bocher,8.H. 351(1357); 

L.C. 412; boueher, L.A. 279. 
Butchery ; cf. bocheries, «. pi. 

butchers' markets, L.C. 304. 
Butler, botiller, ». L.C. 4S6 ; 

8.K. 192 (1323). 
L Button, butun {a bud) ; ne Taut 

un butun (is not worth a 

button), V. 

iddie, cadace (worsted), L.i. 

, cage, L. 8; kage, P.S. 
283 (b. 1307). 

Caitifis, caitif, *. pi. (wretches), 

Be. 807. 
Caldrons, chaudrons, s. pi. S.. 

479; caudrona, 1035, 
Calendar, kalfnder, *. Cre. 436, 
Cancelled, chauncolez, S.R. 188 

Ciinelle, conelle, >. (cinnamon), 

L.A. 224. 
Canine, canyn, L.J. 100. 
CanvasB, canevace, ». 8.B. 368 

(1361); canevas, L.A. 225. 
Cape, chape, *. O. 3887. 
Capital, capitale (chief), L. 380; 

capital (belonging to the head). 

Capitals (of pillara), chapitraus, 

$. pi. E.C. 2300. 
Capon, uhapon,, 378 (1363); 

chapoun, L.C. 305. 
Caps, cappcs, «. pi. L.A. 225. 
Car, chars, «. Be. 154. 
Carcase, f. carcos, L.C. 304 ; 

carcois, 192. 
Card, carte. S.R, 338 (1353). 
Cardinal, cardinal, ». P.S. 288 

(1307); oardinales, pi. 276 

(b. 1307). 
Carfax, carfeux, ». (four crosa 

roads), L.A, 465. 

S.R. 26 (1275);if&o kark(=. 

charge, load), L A. 224. 
Carnal, camel, adj. Be. 88. 
Carol, caroto, *. (dance), P.S. 

297 (1307) ; karole (dance), 

L.6. 252. 
Carpenter, carpenter, S.B. 312 

(1351); carpenters, pi. L.A. 

Carriages, cariages, *. pi. (loads), 

S.R. 27 (1275); 293 (1340). 
Carrier, cariour, *. S.E. 335 

Carrion, caruiue, (. Be. 1293. 
Carry, carier, c. 8.R. 193 (1323); 

Y.(i.275; karyo, pp. Y. a. 415. 
Carts, charettes, a. pi. Y.e. 275, 

S.B. 27 (1275). 

I (. S.E. 156 (1309); 

L ; cases, pi. L.A. 

chaaee, N. 1413. 
chaatelcyn, «. 3.B. 
Ceih7 jocchepole, S.R. 314 

Cate; cf. chate (=sale). S.K. 

353 (1357). 
Cathodral, catbedmlcB, adj. pi. 

8.E. 123(1297). 
Cause, cause, «. Y.a. 93; jil. 

caaees, S.R. 188 (1323). 
Ciiuseway, chaucee, *. V. 
Cautcle (deceit), cautele, S.R. 

279 (1336). 
Cave, cave, E.G. 1871. 
Cease, ccssent, j^r. pi. S.R. 1£B 

Cedar, cedre, L.i. 430. 
Cell, eelle, i.P.S. 144 (b. 1307); 

L-i. 224. 
Cellar, eeler, T. ; celers, pi. 

L.A. 477. 
Cemetery, cimitere, *. L.A. 229 ; 

CoDBures, censures, pi. 8.B. 296 

Certain, certcin, S.R. 33 (1275); 

certeyn, T.e. 23. 
Certainty, cert«inet«, s. L.A. 

Certifications, certifications, pi. 

S.R. 258 (1328). 
Certified, certefie, pp. Y.a. 408 ; 

certifiez, pi. S.R. 52 (1281). 
Cetewale, cetewale, «. L.A. 

Chafe; cf. eschafemnt, /«t. pi. 

(will grow warm), Be. 621. 
Chain, chaine, G. 2338 ; clieines, 

pi. S.R. 380 (1363). 
Chair, chaiere, (. (throne), L.C. 

18; chayere (seat), L. 142. 
Chalice, cl^ce, L. 490. 
ChalleDge, choleugo, ». S.R. 37 

(1276) J chalange (claim), 

t.W. 62 ; Y.«. 73. 

Chollonge, chalange, pr. ». fui/". 

S.E. 49 (1278); cbaltsaga. 

pt. ». Y.a. 43. Cf. caluninia- 

vemnt (^challenged), 

(Lttt,) L.C. 297; .« Y.o. 47. 
ChftUencer, chalangeur (claim- 
ant), L.W. 47. 
Chamber, chambre, L.W. 15; 

Y.a. 321. 
Chnmbedaina, chaumberleyns, S.R. 158 (1311). 
Champaign, champaigne (coun- 
try), H. 402. 
i lampion, champion, S.H. 37 

(1275); 6.2984; champiun. 

E.G. 527. 
C .aneeUor, ehaunceler, ». S.B 

99 (1285); cbanceler, P.S. 

804 ; Y.e. 429. 
Chancery, chanccrie, a. Y.e. 341; 

chaimcelcrie, 297 ; S.R. 37 

Chandeliers, chandeliers, pi. 

(candleBticis), N. 590. 
Chundler, chaiuideler, ». L.A. 

Cliitngp, chiiiingc, s. (oichange), 

S.R. 132 (1299). 
Change, changer, o. Y.a. 3S. 
Channel, chanel, V. ; chaneux, 

pi. L.A. 260. 
Chanson; cf. chancona, t. pi. 

(sing,), I.e. 217. 
Chant, chaunt, t. (song), P.S. 

125 (b. 1272). 
Chant, chaunter, v. Y.a. 265; 

channtanta, pr. pt. pi. B.B. 

373 (;i362). 
Chantries, cbaunt^riea, pi, S.B- 

287 (1340). 
Chapel, chapele, L.'W. 1 ; E.G. 

1921; Y.a. 407. 
Chaplain, chapelein, «. L.C. 219. 
Chapters (articles, clanset), 

chapitres, S.R. 212 (1286f). 
Ctiapters (of a book), capitles, Cre. 87, 105. 
Chapters (meetings), chapitrei, 

S.R. 367 (1361). 


Chapter [of acathedral), chapitre. 

Chereril, cheveril, *. (tid 

«. r.a. 9. 

leather), L.C. 63, 306. 

Chapter-house, chapitre, s. E.G. 

ChevisBiice, chevisamico, ». (busi- 

2308 ; chapter, 2311. 

ness, adrancement), P.S. 232 

Charge, charge, i. (care) 8.R. 

(b. 1307). 
Chief, chief, adj. 8,E. 33 (1275) ; 

26 (1275). 

Chargeable, chargealile, S.R. 350 

*. (leader), P.S. 186 fb. 1307). 


Chief (in heraldry), chef, L.i. 

Charged, charge, pp. 8.R. 46 


(1278); charget (Med), Be. 

Ciiioftain, cheveteigne. Q. 44; 


cheTetayn, L. 300; choven- 

Cliarity, charite, ». 8.H. 39 

U^yns, pt. L.A. 370. 

(1276); karit«, Be. 1313. 

ChannB, charraes, pi. V. 

L.A. 333. 

Chamel; cf.charael, ikJ;'. (carnal, 

Chine, eachyne, ». (back), P.8. 

corporal), V. 

233 (b. 1307). 

Charter, chartrc, *. 8.H. 37 

Chirograph, cyrographe, 8.E. 

(1275); Y.<i. 5. 

211 (1286?). 

Chaae, *. chace (enclosure), T.3. 

Chisel, chiselent, pr. pi. (cut 

247; 8.E. 144(1305). 

out), L.C. 83. 

Chaae, chacer, p. (drive), Y.o. 

Chivaliy, chivalrie, 8,B. 230 

9; (hunt), Be. 46. 

(14th cent.} ; chevalerie 

Chaete, caste, adj. Be. 125S; 

(knighthood), P.8. 61 (b. 

chaste. E.C. 1100. 


Chirauchee, chivauchc, ». S.R. 

L.C. 22; chostier, «. P.S.231 

185 (1322). See Chevauohee. 

(b. 1307). 

Choice, cheys, t. 8.B. 298 

ChastiBeraent, chaatiement, S.R. 


325 (1352). 

Christian, Criaticn, 8.B. 221 

Chastity, chastete, ». E.G. 29, 



Chronicles, cronicles, ». pi. G. 

Chattela, chatele, L.W. 30 ; S.R. 


224 (b. 1307); chattel, i. 

ChryaoUte, crisoUte, «. Be. 1471. 

L.W. 3. 

Cinque ports, eink porta, S.R. 

Cheer (countenance), chere, L.J. 



CireumciBed, circumcis, V. 

Chemise, ehemyae, L. 488 ; 

Citations, citacione, pi. 384 

^■^ chemise, V. 


^■Bieriahed, cherirent, pt. pi. 0. 

Cited, citet, pp. Cre. 60. 

^m 5734 ; cherissait, pi. I. luhj. f 

Citizens, citems, *. pi. S.R. 34 

m G. 6268. 

(1276); citeseyns, 381 (1363); 

Cherry, cerise. .. E.G. 3334. 

citezeins, L.A. 268. 

Chestnut, cheataine, t. L.A. 

Citole, cytole, *. (lyre), L.C. IB ; 


and see Glossary. 

Chevalier (knight), *. eheraler, 

City, cite, jr. S.R. 28 (1275). 

Y.o. 133. 

Claim, clame,..T,8. 231. 

Chevanchee, chovauchee, t. (pro- 

Claim, cleiment, S.B. 45 

cession on horseback), L.C. 

(1278); cleyme, pr. ». Y.o. 

_ 226. 8tt Chivauehee. 




Clamour, clamour, 8.E. 347 

(1354); L.A. 462. 
Claret, clare, G. 4032. 
Clause, claoBe, Y.a. 81, 181, c. 

Clear, cler, ad/. E.G. 635; Be. 

ClergeoDB, clergeons, pi. (little 

acholara), L.J. 418; cf. L. i. 6. 
Clergy, derge, S.E. 293 (1340) ; 

clergie, P.a. 127 (b. 1272). 
Clerk, clerk (scholar), T.a. 279 ; 

8.n. 27 (1275). 
Client, client, L.A. 570; clyens, 

pl. L.A. 473. 
Cloak, cloche, S.R. 381 (1363) ; 

eiokes, pi. L.A. 49, 
Clock ; cf. cloko (bell), G. 2728; 

de la clokke (o'clock), L.A, 

CloiBter, cloister, L. 96 ; elos- 

tres,K E.C. 2185. 
Cloeo, cIoB, t. (enclosure), Y.a. 

247;T.<i.477; S.R.31(1275). 
Closed, close, pp. f. S.R. 102 

(1285); cloH, m/Be. 332. 
Cloture ; cf. closture, s. fencing, 

enclosure, Y.e. 65. 
CloTe, clone de gilofre, s. Y.e. 

Cloves (name of a weifiht], 

clous, t. pi. L.C. 63 ; fclavos, 

*. pi. (Lilt.) (weights), L.C. 

Coadjutor, coadjutour, Y.e. 131. 
Cooets, costez, a. pi. (sides), E.C. 

Coat, cote, «. L.C. 226, 
Cookcted (sealed), cokettez, pp. 

pi. S.R. 289 (1340). 
Cockets, cokettes, pi. S.R. 340 

(1353). 5m above. 
Cod (fish), cod, S.R. 356 (1357). 
Codnet, «. (a kiad of net for fish), 

LC. 116. 
Coffer, coffer, ». Y.i. 187 ; cofre, 

e. 207. 
Cofferer, coferer. ». L.h. 346. 
Coffins (baskets), coffyns.L.i. 14. 

Cognisance, conisaunce, ».(kiion''> 

ledge), L.C. 226. 
Coif; cf. coyfer, «. (coif-makort 

proper nami), Y c. 481. 
Coin, coyng, coyn, ». S.£, 218 

(1284f); coign (stamp), "" 

Collateral, collat«rale, adj. Y.t. 

Collation (to a living), collacinn, 

S.R. 293(1340); aadietY.e. 

213, 215. 
Collation, collacioun, a. (commUl 

meal), P.8. 140 (b. 1307). 
College, college, S.R.318(1351 
Collegiate, colcgiale, ad/', f, S.I 

381 (1363). 
Collusion, collusion, S.R. 3' 

(1275); Y.«. 251. 
Colour, color, ». Ore. 12IS; p 

colour (under colour of), Y. 

Colpoun, colpoun (slice), L,l 

, columpnos, a. pi, I4 


Combat, combatir, p. P.S. 28 

(b. 1307); cumbatre, Y.K 

Combatant, combatant, pf 

(tishtiog), Be. 17. 
Comet, comet*, G. 1433. 
Comfort, contort, %. Be. 1077, 

cunfort, E.C. 3687. 
Comfort, conforter, v. L.I 

219; oumtorto,/»r. «. E.C. 81 

comfortez, pp. pi. S.K. 


Command, comaad, 1. Q. 5792 
Commandment, comaundemoii 

«. S.R. 27 (1275). 
Commence, cumencer.e.Cre. 201 

comeace, pr. Jt. S.R. 29(1279 
Commencement, comencem 

8 R. 260(1328); Y.e. 25, 
Com mission, eommiasion, E 

158 (1311). 
Common, comun, adj. S.R, 1$ 

(1311); commun, 26 (1275' 



Common people, comon poeple, 

L.C. 380. 
Common, in, en comon, Y.a. 27. 
Commoners, comonors, s. pL 

Y,h. 5 ; comuners, L.A. 269. 
Commons, commune, 8, P.S. 182 

(b. 1307). 
Commune, communer, v. L.^. 6. 
Community, communalte, a, L.C. 

64; comunaltez, ^/. S.R. 165 

Companion, companiun, «. A.B. 

448 ; compaynun, Y.a, 149. 
Company, cumpainnie, V. ; com- 

paigme, L.C. 217. 
Compass, compasser, t;. S B. 320 

Compassion, compassion, S.E. 

396 (1377). 
Compel, compeller, v. S.B. 375 

Competent, competent, adj\ 

(sufficient), L.A. 48. 
Complain, complaignent, pr, pi, 

1?. 851. 
Complaint, compleynt, i, L.A. 

Complices, complices, s, pi, (ac- 
complices), L.A. 517. 
Complied with, complye, pp. L.i. 

Composition, composicioun (a- 

greement), Y.^. 275 ; compo- 

sicion, S.R. 354(1357). 
Comprised, compris, pp. Y.h. 

139; e. 207. 
Compulsion, compulsioun, S.B. 

296 (1341). 
Conceal, conceler, r. S.B. 29 

(1275); concelee, pp. L.C. 

Concealment, concelement, L. 

96; S.B. 96(1285). 
Conclusion, conclusion, S.B. 133 

(1299); Y.a. 361. 
Concord, concord, «. S.B. 169 

(1313); Concorde, L. 496. 
Concordance, concordaunce (a- 

greement), L.^. 138. 

Concurrent, concurent, adj. Cro. 

1282, 1410. 
Condemned, condompnec, pp. f. 

L.A. 205. 
Condition, condicion, *. (rank in 

life), L.C. 190. 
Conditional, condicionel, adj. Y,c. 

67; fl. 261. 
Conduit, conduyt, *. L.C. 66. 
Coney, conyng, conil, S.R. 380 

(1363) ; conyn, L.C. 305 ; 

conis, J9/. Y.a. 139. 
Confections, confitures, *. pi. 

L.A. 588. 
Confederacy, confederacie, S.R. 

334 (1353). 
Confederators, confederatours, 

pi. S.B. 299 (1344). 
Confess, confessor, v. P.S. 305 

(b. 1307); confesse, pp. (ex- 
amined), S.B. 214 (1290?). 
Confession, confession, N. 1533 
Confessor, confessour, L. 280 

confessor, N. 1512. 
Confirmed, conferme, pp. S.R 

136 (1300); confirma, pt. s 

Y.h. 97. 
Confounded, confounduz,/?/. S.R 

385 (1364); confunt, pr. s 

(confounds). Be. 850. 
Confraternity, confratemite,L.C 

Confused, confus, pp. E.G. 840. 
Confusion, confusioun, L. 20 ; 

confiisiun, E.G. 533. 
Conge d'elire, conge do elyre, 

L.b. 126. 
Congregation, congregacioun, L. 

234; congregacions, pi. iS.R. 

367 (1361). 
Conjured, conjurez, pp. L. 

Conquer, v. conquerc, Y.a. 113 ; 

conquerre, Cro. 611; con- 

querant, pres. pt. P.S. 59, 60 

(b. 1272). 
Conquest, cunquest, s. L.W. 

{title) ; conqueste, S.R. 225 

(b. 1327). 

XI 6* 


Conscience, conscience, P.S. 126 

(b. 1272); L,A.204. 
Consent, consentent, jw. pi. S.R. 

29 (1275); conBentir, v. E.C. 

Consequence, conaequena, *. 

(condusion), T.i. 95. 
Consequently, par consequens, 

Y.O. 181. 
Conaervfttors (of a river), con- 

BervfttonrB, ». pi. L.A. 508. 
Considering. coEaideniiit, pr. pi. 

S.R, 810(1351). 
Consolation, consolaciun, T. 
Conspiracies, conspiracies, pi. 

8.R. 259 (1328). 
ConspiratorB, conRpiratonrs, ».pl. 

S.R. 139(1300). 
Constable, cunestable, t. Y.e. 15 j 

S.R. 28 (1275). 
Constitution, ». constitucion, 

S.E. 107(1290). 
Constrained, constreints;, ^. j/. 

S.R. 3GB (13G1); constreint, 

I. A.B. 449. 
Consultation, consultaeion, S.R. 

398 (1377); Y.4. 443. 
Contek, contok (debate), S.R. 

33 (1275); T.i. 107; con- 

teke (dispute), Y.«. 33. 
Contempt, contempt, L.A. 202, 

494; contemptz, ^/. a. S.R. 

312 (1351). 
Contention, contencon, 0. 4882, 

4704 ; contencioun, L. 460. 
Continue, continuer, ■>, S.R. 367 

(1361); continua,y(.ii.T.i», 7. 
Contract, contract, *. Y,o. 261, 

c. 185; oontrat. Y.a. 203. 
Contrariety, contrariouaete, <. 93. 
Contrarious, adj. contrariouB 

(eontriidictory), Y.a. 343 ; 

contrariuB. L. 54. 
Contrary, contrarie, adj. Y.5. 

Contrary, contrarye, t. Y.e. 1 69 ; 
L.A. 462 ; Y.a. 63 ; contrarie, 
Y.a. 217. 

Contravening;, oontrerenant, pr. 

pt. 104(1285);cotttrevenanl 

pi. S.R. 259 (1328). 
Contribution, contribution, S. 

224 (b. 1307). 
Contrived, eoatrovee. pp.f. N. 

controve, pp. m. L,6. 200. 
Controller, countrerolleour, 

S.R. 133(1299). SwCount 

Controveray, controvorsyo, 

Contumacy, contumacie, *. Y. 

Convent, cuvctit, ». E.C. 1761 

Convention (agreement), con 

vencioun. L.i. 26. 
Converse, converse, ». L.A. IIS 
Conversion, conversioun.L.i. M 
Converted, converti, pp. Ba. 4i 

cunverti, pt. *. B.C. 2045. 
Convey, eonvayer, L.i. 42 j ( 

veio, pt. I. V, 
Convicted, convict, pp. L.A. 204 
Convocation, convocacioim, I 

Copy, copie, s. S.R. 389 (13S8 
Cords, eordes, *. pi. N. 24i 

L.A. 237. 
Cordwainors, cordewanera, 

L.C, 83. 
Comer, comere, «. L.C. 160 

comers, t. pi. S.R. 368(1361 
Corodiea (*o in E. vertion), eta' 

dies, I. pi. 8.R. 256 (1327). 
Coronation, coronacion, 8.B. 8' 

Coroner, coruncr, ». S.R. S 

coroner, 29 (1276). 
Corporal, corporelo, adj. 8, 

296 (1341); corporal, J 

Corpse, cera, *. (body), S.R. 

(1285); core, Y.o. 31; f™ 

mortea,^ /, (corpses), 8.B. 

Correcters, corecters, pi. 8.R. 




Corrwtion, correccioun, j. L.A. 

Corrupt, corupt, adj. L.A. 465. 
Corruption, comiptiim, «.Be.392. 
CorsaiDt, corsajnt (holy body), 

L. 392. 
Cosioage, cosinage, a. S.K. 36 

Coat, cuflt, #. 8.E. 26 ; A.B. 452 j 

const, 8.E. 27 (1275). 
Costly, coustouaes, pi. /. S.E. 

278 (1336). 
Cotton, cotun, Y. ; cotoun, L.i. 

428 ; eotoiuiB, L.A. 224. 
Couch, cuohur, v, (to lie down), 

i£e. 757 ; cuchez, pp. (re- 
clined), E.C. 982; cochana, 
pr.pi.jil. Yji. 135. 
Council, conseil, t. 8.R. 26 

(1275); councylle, L. 488. 
CoDnsel, cunseil, f. L.W. 10, 
Counsel, oonBoitlcnint, /ut. pi. 

8.K. 126 (1297). 
Counsellor!, couseillerB, pi. S.B. 

255 (1327); cunseilers, A.B. 

Count, couate, *. (carl), P.S. 127 

(b. 1272). 
Count (in law), cunte, *. T.fl. 

141 ; counts, L.C. 261. 
Count, verb ; cuate, pr. ». Y.a. 

69 ; counta, pt. t. Y.a. 157. 
Countenance, countenance, S.K. 

398 (1377). 
Counter- en rolled, counteroullez, L.A. 190. 
Counterpanes (quilts), coiltes 

point«s, pi. V. 
Counterplead, contrepleder, r. 

8.R. 326 (1352); contrepleda, 

pt. *. Y.a. 5. 
Counter-rolls, contrc-roules,, 

8.R. 29(1276). 
Countervail, countrerulent (are 

equivalent to), L.i. 204. 
CountesB, contesse, G. 6100 ; 

cuntesse, Y.a. 56. 
Countour, ». (pleader), L.C. 

Oloos.; and tea pp. 28(J, 281. 

Country, cuntree, «. E.G. 1068; 

Cre. 49. 
County, count*, ». 8.H. 44 

(1276) ; contez, pi. 32 (1276). 
Coupled, couple, pp. Y.e. 251. 
Couplet (of verse), cuplo, E.C. 

Courage, curage, t. (heart), 

Cr. 826; corage, S.E. 252 

Course, COOTS, *. L.A. 395; curs, 

Y.i. 41 ; Cre. 129. 
Court, court. S.E. 33 (1275); 

curt, L.W. 24; court (court 

of law), Y.a. 43 ; curt, Y.a. 3. 
Courteous, cnrteia, O. 5506 ; 

curtflis, 6850 ; curt«Ue, /■ 

8,R. 132 (1299). 
Courtesy, eurteiaie, G. 6096 ; 

cortesie, Y.a. 115. 
Cousin, cusin, cosin, t. S.E. 47 

(1278) ; cosin. Y.a. 15 ; 

couByn, L.C. 469. 
Covenabia, cuvonable, adj. (be- 
fitting), E.C. 2436. 
Covenant, ouuenant, L.W. 23 ; 

covenant, S.E. 27 (1275); 

Y.a. 139. 
Covers, covere, pr. *. E.C. 2307; 

cuaerle, pp. /. (covered), L.W, 

Covert, pp. (fim.), coverte, said 

of a woman, To. 21. 
Covert, sr Cover, covert, a. mate. 

(cover, underwood), Y.c. 261. 
Covertly, covertement, adv. S.E. 

126 (1297), G. 2261. 
Covets, cuveite, pr. *, E.C. 180; 

coveitee, pp. /. H. 695 ; 

coveita, ^i. *. N. S21. 
Covetous, cuveituB, adf. E.C. 

223; Be. 582. 
Covine (counsel), covine, S.E. 

162 (1311). 
Coward, cuard, G. 5619; coward, 

L. 194. 
Coy (quiet), coy, o^'. P,8. 305 

(b. 1307). 
Crab (fish), crabbe, i. Cre. 496. 


Craren ; cf . cmvaunter, t. (over- 
throw), L. 394 ; oravaunte, 

pp. 40C, 484 ; aeravaatad, 

pt, s. (ovGrcame), Be. 248; 

andtMh. 298. 
Creator, Creatur, G. 3176; Ore. 

Credence, credence, S.S. 342 

Creditor, crcditour, S.B,. 337 

Crested, creatiiz, pp. pi. Be. 

Crevice, crevaee, *, Bo. 1495, 
Crier, criour, L.A. 49; criurs, 

pi. S.E. 34 (1275). 
Criminal, criminal, adj. Be. 

831 ; V. 
Crisped (curled), croapiz, V. 
Crocodiie, cocodnllea, ». Bo. 310. 
Croft, croft, ». Y.e. 169; G. 

2830; o»rf*M8.R. 218 {r.l.) 
Crook, croe (hook), H. 866, 

878; crook, L.A. 335. 
Cross, cros (o» E. form), G. 

Crown, «. corone, Y.a. 113; 

coroune, L.C. 217. 
Crucifixes, crucifixe, Q. 3270. 
Crucify, crucifier, v. Y; cruci- 

fiaet, pt. ■. lubj. Be. 93. 
Cmel, cruel, arij. V. ; L.C. 25 ; 

cmele, P.S. 233 (b. 1307). 
Cruelty, cruelto, i. P.S. 233 (b. 

1307); cniault«, L.C. 24. 
Crupper, cropoim, «. (buttocks), 

P.S. 233 (b. 1307). 
Cry, cri, *. L.W. 4 ; S.B. 29 

(1276); crie, Y.o. 208. 
Cry, cryer, v. Y.o. 39. 
Cryatal, cristsl, V. 
Cubebs, cubibea, ». pi. L.A. 230. 
Cue, CUB, jr. (taQ). Cre. 516. 
Cui8be8(leg'piecei"),quiBerK, S.R. 

231 (14th cent); cf. quiuaes, 

I. pi. (thighs), 6. 217. 
Cull (collect), coiUer, e. S.R. 1 92 

(1323); ciiillir (gather), Be. 

774 ; coilli, pp. K.C. 537. 


Culpable, culpable, iwJf'.L.A.a 
Cup, cupe, ». E.C. 3283, 3289j 

cupcs, pi. G. 3809. 
Care, cure, t. (heed), E.C. 9S3j 

(cure), 981 ; cures, jj/.( reasons), 

Cre. 440. 
Cured, curcz, pp. pi. L. 208. 
Curfew, coeverfu, ». S.R. 

(1285); couverfou, L.A. 275 

covrefeu, 276 ; enrfen, 639. ' 
Curious, curius, adj. (BimouB)i 

E.C. 2486. 
Curlew, corelue, *. L.C. 804. 
Current (time), courrant, j 

pt. S.R. 386 (1364). 
Currier, couroour, L.C. 94 ; 

ri'oura de quirs, pi. S.R, 

Curry; cf. cuorei, a. (treatniFii^ 

E.C. 3535. ^" 

Curtain, curtine. G. 3942, 
Curtained, cortinee, pp. fa 

L.C. 226. 
Curtilages, curtilages, «. pi. S.B 

221 (1276)?). 
Curved, cunez, pp. pi. Be. 19, 
Customs, custumea, ». pi, L.l 

{litle); S.R. 28(1275); con 

tnmoB, Y.e. 245. 
Customs (tolls), coustutnes, i.f 

Y.fl. 133; custumes, S.R. IB 

Cutler, eotillere, *. L.C. 185. 
Cygnet; cf. ciaue. ». (swan), B 

Cypress, cyprcace, L.J. 430. 

Dabs (fish), dabbes, $. pi. L.j 

Dace (fish), darcea, j. pi. L.( 

Dais, dois, t. {rimts with palfl 

=paleiH), E.C. 3360. 
Dalliance, daliaunce, a, (in 

ference), P.S. 320 (b. 130'^ 

Dalliance, dayler. 
Dally; cf. daiks;, dailies, 
pi. (deal ye), L.i. 202. 

L. i; 


Dallj'iiig, dalyement, h.h. iG ; 

dnliage, L. 8, 220. 
Damage, damage, ». L.W, 4; 

8.R. 27 (1275). 
Dnmage, damagur, v. V. 
Same, dame, ». [lady), S.E. 29 

(1275^; Y.». 63. 
Damnation, dampoaciauii, L. 

Damsel, damoyacle, L. 248 ; 

dancel (young man). G. 1920. 
Dance, diiunce, i. L.C. 227; 

dances, y/. EC. I2I6. 
Dnrraigu, darnjintr, v. (dis- 
prove), L.C. 469 (=Lat. dia- 

ralionare). See Derein. 
Dart, dart, ». G. 2807; EC. 

795; EC. 4567. 
Date, date, >. S.R. 191 (1323); 

(period), T.e. 73. 
Dates, *. pi. dates (fruit), L.A, 

Djubera. daubours, *. pi. L.C. 

99 (=Lat. dfalhaloros, id. 

Dauuted, danta. pL ». 0. 3201. 
Dean, dean. ». 8.R. 294 (1340); 

deen, Y.i. 199. 
Debates, debates, (disputes), 

Y.i. 487; debate, S.R. 252 

Debonair, debonairo, E.C, 238. 
Debniised, dobrusa, pt. t. (tore 

up a deed), Y.n. 65. 
Debt, det, «. Y.a. Ill; dctte, 

67 ; debt, L.A. 204. 
Debtor, dettiir, ». S.R. 53 

(1283); dctter, Y.c. 75; det- 

tuTB,/*/. S.R. 32(1275). 
Decayed, dechey, pp. Y.n. 417. 
Decease, deces, ». Y.i. 313; 

e. 293. 
Deceit, deceit, t. S.B. 162 

(1311); deceytfi, 34 (1275). 
DoceiTe, doceivre, v. N. 1150. 
Declaration, declaracion, B.R. 

161 (1311). 
Declared, desclare, pp. S.R. 158 

(1311); declare, L.C. 468. 

Deolbe, in. en decline (to ruin), 

P.S. 242(1307). 
Declines, decline, pr. ». (sets as 

the Bun), Cre. 1160. 
Decollation, decoUacion, S.R. 

184 (1321). 
DecrcBso, lioscreB, i. S.R. 162 

(1311); descrees, 158(1311). 
Decrease, decrere, p. E C, 567 ; 

decreiseeat, pr. pi. Be, 919. 
Decree, decre, t'. L. 488. 
Doduits (pleasures), deduiz, «. 

pi. G. 6243. 
Defamed, diffamea, pp. pi. S.R. 

380 (1364). 
Default, defalto, *. Y.a. 303; 

dofBulte, Y.b. 5 ■ defaute, 

Y.a. 7; defalt, L.A. 185. 
Defeasible, defesablc, adf. Y.i. 

Defeated, defait, pp. S.R. 187 

(1322); defet, Y.fl, 39; de- 

fctez, imp. pi. Y.i. 303. 
Defective, defectif, «. L.A. 337. 
Defence, defence, S.B. 327 

(1352); defense, L.W. 47; 

defena, S.R. 255 (1327). 
Defend, dcfende, pr. >. tub;. 

L.W. 14; deffendu, pp. Y.a. 

29; dcfendre, r. L,C. 199. 
Defendant, defend aunt, i. S.R. 

48, 49(1278). 
Defenders, defendres, *. pi. L.C. 

Defer, deferrir, v. E.C. 3737. 
Defied, defiat, pt. ». G. 2682 ; 

defye,^. ». (defies), L. 178. 
Defile ; cf. dcfulcnt, pr. pi. 

(maltreat), E.G. 3727 ; defo- 

hatt, (treading down), 

Y.e. 431 ; defulez (trodden 

under foot), E.C. 4609. 
Deforces, deforce, jir. *. Y.c. 105. 
Degree, degree, S.R. 218 (h, 

1327); degrez, jD^. 36(1275). 
Deigned, deigna, pt. i. H. 953 ; 

deingne, j5r. ». E.C. 4489. 
Deity, deitot, *. Cre. 612; deite, 

L.b. 444. 



EsBoin, GBsoigne, *. (oxcuRe), 
8.R. 49 (1278); essone, Y.*, 
447, Y.C. 13, 95 ; casoyne, Y.8. 
13; assoyne, Y.a, 13. 

Essoin, eesoincr, v. Ye. 123; 

EBtabllsh, uBtablir, p. S.R. 158 

(1311); establi,/y». 45(1278); 

eatahiix, pp. pi. L.C. 166. 
EatablialuneDt. eHtablissement, «. 

(decree), S.R. 98 (1285) ; le- 

stoblicomeiit, L.C. 284, 
Estate, eslat, i. (rank), S.R. 126 

(1297); Y.fl. 13, 179. 
Estimation, estimacion, S.E. 337 

EstoTers, CBtovora, pi. (pro- 

TisJons), S.E. 46(1278); Y.c. 

Estrange, cstranger, r. (mako a 

slnmgor of), Y.a. 17. 
Estreat, ». estrote, L.A. 506 ; 

estretos, pi. S.R. 32 (1275); 

Y.o. 237 ; estretea, pi. L.A. 

318. Cf. cztrEtctarum, s&. pi. 

(Lat.), L.C. 434. 
Erongolist, len-iiiigylist, S.R. 3-15 

Evasion (escape), eTasionn, L. 

64 ; evasiouDS, pi. P.S. 269 

Evidence, evidence, Y.h. 181 ; 

evidences, pi. L.b. 396 ; L.A. 

Evident, evident*, / S.R. 339 

Esamination, examinacionn, i. 

L.A. 517; Y.o. 269. 
Esamine, examiner, p. L.C. 225 ; 

eiaminez, pp. pi. L.A. 370. 
Example, essample, «. Be. 623. 
Excellent, exceUente, /. S.R. 

376 ^1362). 
Exception, excepcion, S.R. 37 

(1275); Y.a. 17, 215. 
ExcsRS, excesse, «. S.B. 313 

(1351) ; lexcesse, L.A. 334. 
Excessive, excessive, S.R. 380 



Eschange. cschannge, i. Y 

389; L.C. 190; eschanffe*. 

pi. 8.R. 273(1335). 
Exchequer, escheker, i. S.R. 3i 

(1275); escliekkcre, Y.a.»5; 

cscbeker, L.C. 194. 
Excuse, excuBer, v. Y.fl. iSS; 

escuser,!'. S.R. 96(1285). 
Executed, execute, pp. /. 8- "K. 

367 (1361); esecute, pi. »-49 

Execntioa, esecadon, i. S.B. 37 

(1275); Y.e. 7. 
Executor (to a ^rill), execntoui". 

y.a. 375 ; exceuton, !>'■ 

Exempt, exempt, pp. Y.o. 1®'* 
ExhibitioB, exhibicioun, i. S-B' 

45 (1278). 
Exile, ». exH. L.C. 25. 
Exile, to, exiller, v. Be. 7301 

exiliar, P.S. 301 (1307). 
Expand, espandre, v. E.G. 1 * ,' 
Exploit, esplait, *. P.S. 3^^.' ' 

espleit, 185 (b. 1307); KCP^* | 

(gpc-ud), S.K. 289 (I3'*Y,V 

cf. usplfitat, pt. s. (prevail^*''' 

Ci«. 487. 
Exposition, exposiciun, i. «-'■'*' 

1222. ^ 

Express, expresse, a^'. f. J-" 

210- ^- i. 

Expressed, expresse, pp. ^' 

191 (1323). -^ 

Expressly, expressement, ^*'' 

191 (1323). ^^ 

Exsequies (funeral), exseqi**^^ 

449 ; extendu2, pi. 217. 
Extent, estent, *. L. 102. ,^^ 

Extortion, extorsion, S.R. ' ^ 
(1316); extoraions, pi. t*' 
199. ^^ 

Ewer ; cf. ewere, ». {proptr "^^ 
- water-bearer), L.C. 6^^^ 
^Ito ewe— water, Yji. 41' ' 
eweret, adj. ( working by wsb^' 
as a mill), Y.c. 367. 





Fervent, forvent, adj. L.ft. 388. 
Festival; ct lesfcival, adj. (fes- 
tive), T. ; jourB festivalx 

(festivals), L.A. 199. 
Fetys, feitiK, adj. (wall made), 

E.C. 1943. 
Feudal, fectdal, adj. L.i. 388. 
Fever, fevre, *. E.C. 3636; 

fevres, V. 
Fevoriah, fevoniB, adj. E.C. 

4432, V. 
Feyntise, foyntiso,*. (cowardice), 

P.S. 126 (b. 1307). 
Fierce, fere, adj. E.C. 134, 203; 

feres, i)M!o. 1317. 
Figs, figes, I. pi. L.A.. 224. 
Figure, figure [symbol), P.S. 

301 (b. 1307); figures, pi. 

Cre. 440. 
Filed (put on a file), en filaoe, 

L.A. 18S. 
Filly; cf. fillye, ». danghter, 

L. 4; fillie, S.K. 48 (1278). 
Final, final, adj. S.R. 283 

(1340); fjTittl, L. 496. 
Fine, fin, $. S.R. 31 (1275); 

«. ftm. Y.e. 287 ; fines, pi. 

S.R. 191 (1323). 
Finish (end), finissent, pr. pi. 

S.R. 189(1322); fiiiist, p(. «. 

P.S. 125 (b. 1307); finiz, 

pp. Cro. 883. 
Firm, feme, adj. 0. 4467 ; L.C. 

167; ferm. A.B. 455; V. 
Firmament, finnament, E.C. 

740; Cre. 1224; V. 
Fish-wliar^ i. fishwharf, I.C. 

Fitz. fiz (son), S.E. 47 (1278); 
Y.a. 47 ; Cre. 632 ; fitz, P.S. 
127 (b. 1272). 

Flame, fiambe, >. £.C. 4234; 
Be. 1400. 

Flaah (pool) ; cf. fiaschiz, pp. 
(gushed forth), V. (P). 

Flat, flat, adj. (flat on the 
ground). E.C. 3154; (head- 
long?), 1336; cf. flat,«. (de- 
Htruction), E.C. 1394. 

Flattorera, flatres {var. rtiiiinst 

flaters, fiittiers), L. 44. 
Fletcher, fleceher, *. (annw- 

maUer). L.A. 732, 
Floated, flota, pt. «. E.C. 13M; 

[cf. flot=wave, i<l] 
FlockB, floekes, ». pi. (wools), 

L.C. 115. 
Flour, #. flour, L.A. 265. 
Flourished, flori, pt. t. E.C. 

2250, 3274 ; floriscnt (ftuur- 

\s\i), L. 108. 
Flower, flur, i. Q. 6340; fimir, 

P.S. 243 (1307); fluw,^/. Cre. 

Flum (river), floum, L.i. S8. 
Foils (loaves), foilles, S.K. 319 

(1284?): foillez, L.C. 226. 
Foiaon, foiaun, «. (abimdana), 

EC. 2126. 
Folly, folic, ». G. 2622 ; Bb. 

65; folye, Y.i;. 401. 
Fool, fol, ». L.C. 22 ; (ii^ot). 

Y.i. 51; Cre. 767; cL i<^i 

adj. fooliah, L.C. 280. 
Foolish, fole, adj. L.C, 280. 
Foolishly, folement, adt. Yj. 

Forbarrefl, forbarre, pp. (^ 

burred), Y.a. 59. 
Force, force, .. L.W. IB; Y-"- 

37; S.R. 30 (1275). 
Forcible, forcible, adj. E.C. !"■_ 
ForcloBed, forcioH, pp. (*' 

eluded), Y.e. 253; Y.d. 22&"- 

Y.i. 317. 

Foregoer, ioigoer, S.B 


(1362). [4»E. »(W.] _5 
Foreign, forein, at^. S.B. -^ 

(1275); *. (foreigner), I"*^ 

130. ^-. 

Forest, foreste, *. S.R. 97(128*> 

L.C. 197 ; forest, Be. l**^ ' 

E.C. 2905. 
Forestere, foresters, pi- B-** 

144 (1305); 255 (1327). 
Forestallers, forstalloon, /*■ 

S.E. 314 (1361). \A* B. 



Habitation, habitacioan, L. 418. 
Hackney, hakenev, S.R. 288 

(1340;; bakenui, P.S. 297 

Haddock, baddok, ». L.A. 234. 
Hamlet, bamelet, «. Y.a. 25, 185; 

bamele, Y.<?. 407 ; S.R. 210 

(1286?); hamel, 327 (1352). 
Hxmap, banap, «. (drinking-cap), 

S.R. 102 (1285) ; banapes,/»/. 

T.f. 317. 
Hanse (company), haans, «. L.C. 

Hapertas, bapertas, «. (a staff), 

L.A. 225. 
Hardy, bardi, adj. (bold), S.R. 

35 (1275); E.G. 160; Y. ; 

baitliz, E.G. 25 ; Cre. 222. 
Harness (armour), bemeys, S.R. 

231 (14tb cent.) ; bemois, 

bamois, L.G. 469. 
Harnessed, bemeyse, pp. (orna- 
mented), Y.*. 187. 
Harp, barpe, «. L. 148. 
Harp, barpent, pr.pL L. 176. 
Harrow ! barro ! inter/, E.G. 

Hasanlours, #. pi. (dice-players), 

L.A. 259. 
Haslet {Kentish), bastclez (roast 

meat), L. 244. 
Haste, baste, «. L.A. 384. 
Hasten, bastent, pr. pi, E.G. 

3579 ; baster, r. S.R. 44 

(1276); bastir, r. E.G. 990. 
Hasty, bastife, adj\ (quick), L.G. 

379; bastive,/. A.B. 453. 
Hauberk, bauberc, #. E.G. 4538; 

bauberg, S.R. 97 (1285) ; 

biiubercs, pi. L.W. 20. 
Haunt, bauntont, pr. pi. (fre- 
quent), L.C. 281 ; hanntey pp. 

H. 128; bauntauns, pres. p. 

L.C. 228. 
Havtm, lijiven, S.R. 353(1357). 
Hay*;, s. (hedge), Y.a. 9 ; bay, 

Y.h. 173. 
Herb, bcrbe, *. Be. 781 ; (grass), 

Y.*. 297. 

Herbage, ». berbage (grass), Tui. 

63 ; Y.4. 281. 
Herbergages, «. pL (lodgingB), 

L.C. 458. 
Heir, beir, S.R. 48 (1278); heyr, 

Y.a. 13; beyrs^ pL S.B. 32 

Heresy, bercae, O. 1117; Y.». 

167 ; eresie. Be. 495. 
Heriot, «• beriet, Y.a. 213. 
Heritage, beritage, «. (heinhip, 

succession), Y.a. 1 1 ; S.B. 33 

Hermit, beremite, H. 495 ; 

ermite, Be. 628 ; hermite, 

E.G. 554. 
Heronsbaw, heronncel, «. L.C. 

Herring, harang, S.R. 358 

Hideous, bidus, adj. E.G. 945 ; 

beilus. Be. 16; bidoose,/. H. 

Hides (of land), bides, pi, L.W. 

HUary, St., byllary, 319. 
Hinderlinge, s. (a term of ra- 

proacb), L.C. 646. 
History, estorie, «. 6. 1949, 

2234; bestoires, j?/. E.G. 4497. 
Hoardings, burdys, «. pi, L.A. 

Hobelers (borsemen), bobeloufB, S.R. 278 (1336). 
Homage, bomage, «. Y.a. 81 

bomages,/?/. S.R. 221 (1276?) 
Homicide, bomicidc, «. (man* 

slayer), P.S. 236 (b. 1307) 

V. Sec below. 
Homicides, bomicides, «. pi, 

(munlers), S.R. 96 (1285). 
Honesty, bonesteo, #. Be. 1314 

bonostez, pi. L.G. 216. 
Honour, bonour, s. L.G. 148 

bonur. S.R. 39 (1275). 
Honourable, bonurable, adj\ £.C 

Honoured, bonuraynt, pi, pi, L 



Lechery, leccherye, L. 86 ; 

lecherie, Ore. 259. 
Leet, lete, s, f$m, Y.a. 297 ; h. 

399; letes, pL S.E. 342 

Legate, legat, L. 488 ; E.G. 

Legions, legioons, pi. L. 72 ; 

legions, E.G. 4223. 
Legists (lawyers), legistre, *. pL 

E.G. 1647. 
Leisure, leisir, G. 2925. 
Leopard, lepart, G. 4348 ; leopart, 

S.R. i40 (1300); leopardz, 

pi E.G. p. 23; leoparz, G. 

Leper, lepre, s, L.A. 259. 
Leprosy, lepre, L.^. 22. 
Leprous, leprus, adf. E.G. 4431 ; 

Lesson, lescoun, L.^. 36 ; lesson, 

342 ; lescons (readings), G. 

Lessor, lessour, i. S.E. 48(1278) ; 

Y.e. 115. 
Letter, lettre, *. S.R. 53 (1283); 

Y.a. 205. 
Letters patent, Icttres patentes, 

L.G. 675. 
Lettrure, lettrure, «. (learning), 

P.S. 234 (b. 1307). 
Leverets, leveres, s. pi. (hares), 

G. 6239. 
Levy, lever, v. S.R. 285 (1340) ; 

L.G. 195 ; leve, pp. S.R. 28 

Libel, Hbell, 398 (1377); libel, 

Y.e. 409 ; lybel, Y.h. 443. 
Liberties, libertees, a. pi. L.A. 

Library, librarie, *. (collection of 

books), Gre. 16. 
License, license, S.B. 302 ( 1 344) ; 

licence (leave), L.A. 517. 
Liege lord, seignour leige, S.R. 

278 (1336); seignour lige, 

S.E. 182 (1321). 
Liege men, homes liges, pi. L. 

204 ; homme lige, a. li.h. 192. 

Lieutenant, Heu-tenant, s. 

(deputy), S.R. 131 (1299). 
Limit, Hmite, «. S.R. 370 (1361). 
Limited, limite, pp. S.R. 382 

(1363) ; Y.c. 301 ; Hmitez, 

pi. S.R. 36 (1275). 
Line, line, «. Y.h. 337 ; lingne 

(line of descent), S.R. 36 

Lineage, linage, s. Be. 627. 
Lineal, lineale, adj. Y.a. 229. 
Ling(fish),Hng, S.R. 356 (1357). 
Lion, Hun, s. Be. 825; V.; liuns, 

pi. E.G. 621. 
Lioness, leonesse, V. 
Liquorice, lycorys, 8. L.A. 224. 
List (of cloth), list, S.R. 260 

(1328); liste,S.R.314 (1351); 

L.G. 126. 
Lists (bounds), listes, S.R. 193 

Litter (of hay), Htere, S.R. 262 

Livery, liveree, «. (delivery), L.G. 

458 ; liverees, pi. (liveries), 

S.R. 155 (1309). 
Lizards, lesardes, Be. 1144. 
Loach (?), lochefissh, S.R. 355 

Lodeship (a ship so called), lod- 

ship, S.R. 356 (1357). 
Lodge, loger, v. E.G. 3492. 
Lodges, logcs, G. 5511. 
Loos (repute, fame), loos, «.L.A. 

Lorimer; cf. lorein, «. (a bit), 

L.G. 79. 
Loyal, loial, adj. V. ; L.G. 215 ; 

loials,i?/. S.R. 132 (1299). 
Loyally (truly), loialment, adv. 

L.G. 124. 
Loyalty, loialtee, #. L.A. 371 ; 

lealte, P.S. 127 (b. 1292). 
Luxury, luxurie, s. Be. 566. 
Luxurious, luxurius, adj'. Be. 


Mace, maces, $. pi. (spice), L.A. 


r. — PBOF. SKEAT. 


8.R. 262 (1330) 
pi. P.S. 233 (h. 1307). 

Menace, manacer, v. 8.B. 306 
(1346); manaca, pt. i. Y.e. 

363 ; 


pr. . 

3.R. 35 



Y.O. 21 ; montiun, E.C. 596. 
Mercery, nicrcorie, «. L.A. 225. 
BlerchamliBe, marchaundise, *. 

L.C. 62 ; merchaundiBQZ, pi. 

Y.c. 51. 
Herchuit, marcliant, ». Cro. 226; 

mercbaimt, L.A. 263; mar- 

ehaunz.p;. S.R. 98 (1285). 
Merey, merci, ». 8.R. 30 (1275) ; 

Uerited, merito, pp. Be. 498. 
Merle, merle, ». (thrush), P.S. 

236 (b. 1307). 
Merlyng, «. fa fish), L.A. 234. 
Mesol (leper), mese!, L.i. 22; 

-mesele, fm. E.C. 2625. 
Mcxne, writ of, bref de meen, 

Y.e. 417. 
Mess (dish), mease, 8.E. 279 

(133G) ; mes, pi. G. 5592 ; 

meese, L.C. 472. 
Measago, message, L.C, 197 ; 

L. 8. 
HeBBcnger, niGfisnger, i. P.S. 243 

(1307) ; messBgo, 8.R. 102 

(1285); messanger, L.4. 210. 
Meseiiagc, meeuage, s. Y.a, 219 ; 

mesuagio, S,R. 224 (b. 1307). 
Mest«r, mester, «. (need), S.R. 

28 (1275); P.S. 289 (1307); 

Y.b. 503 ; mestier, S.R. 29 

Metal, metal, S.R. 132 (1299); 

L. 258 ; metals, pi. 285 

MctropoJitan, melropolitnno, L. 

168; metropoiitan, L.b. 396. 
Mich ; cf. miiwCT, e. (to hide), 

EC. 996 j muccr, L. 230. 

Mliners, minoura, t. pi. L.i. 84. 
MineTer, raenovcr, S.R. 381 

(1363) ; meniTer, L.A. 283. 
Minister, ministre, i. (offlcer^i 

S.R. 33 (1275); ministwa, p^- 

(servants), P.S. 314 (b. ISOT^ 
Minister, miniatrer, e. 'L.b. 6- 
Minstrel, menestral, L. 1**' 

niynatrals, pi. L.A. 458. 
Minstrelsy, mynstralcye, i. t* -^' 

Mu-acle, miracle, E.C. 1350 j 3c- 

1331 ; V. 
Mirror, mirrear, t. Cre. 1 1- *®' 

MisailTenture, mesaventur*^ »■ '■ 

S.R. 49 (1278) ; A.B. 47 *^- ■ 
Mischance, mewhaunoe, L. -f-*'- 
Mischief, meschief, i. (troit"*-^^'^)' 

S.R. 98 (1285); Y.e. t«- -^5 1 

meachef, T.A. 366. 
Miscreant, mescreaut, adj. ^_^i>^- 

believing), Crc. 1196; \"- 
Mis-caBO, meesayse, «. P.S. ^ 

(b. 1307). . 

Misericord, ». (a small iag^^'*^'' 

LA. 475. 
Misprision, mesprision, S.R— ^_ ° 

(1340); mesprisons, jj/. — •'-^.' ^ 

508 ; mesprisiouD, L.h. ^-^ ' 

mcsprisun (ill-nsage), V. _ 

Mistery (trade), mister, L. tK- -~ ■ 

S.R. 311 (1361); meis-*=^ "'^' 

Mitre, mitre, S.R. 218 (12 
Mockery, mokerie, *. P.S 

(1307); mokerj-e, L.i. 3» ^"^ 
Mocking, mokaunt, pre». p^ — 

Modifications, modificacions^ -* 

S.R. 384 (1364). ^ , 

Moiety, moyte, a. Y.i. * "^ 

meyte, Y.a. 219. 
Moil ; cf. muiller, v. (to *" 

Be. 1345 ; moille, pr~ 

(weta), E.C. 1984 ; 

pp. (wetted), G. 4714. 
Moistened, enmoistoB, ff- 

P.S. 147 (b. 1307). 



^bedienc«, obedience, S.B. 320 
(1352); y.i. 491. 
^Jbedient, obedient, L.*. 208. 
Cbcisunec (obedience), obeiB' 
saunce, 8.E. 221 (1276?) 
obeiaaunec, L.C. 675. 
Obey, obeier, v. S.R. 2fi8 (1340) 

obeir, E.G. 2398 ; V. 
CZlbliitions, oblucionnz, g. pi. Y.S. 

<IDbligati(jn, obligacioun, L.i. 61 

oblieacion, S.R. 53 (1283). 
^^bligatory, obligittore, ad/'. Y. 

dUblige, obligent, pr. pi. S.R. 54 
(1283); obligor (to bind by- 
obligation), V. Y.a. 101 ; 
obliea, pt. >. Y.a. 67. 
^^^bscnre, obscure, adj. V., S.H. 
158(1311}; L^. 399; ob3cura, 
pi E.G. 2784. 
^^bscnred, obature, pp. Be. 130 

obscuree, /*in. Gre. 1216. 
^^biequies, obsequies, *. pi. L.C. 

C>bgtacle8, obstacles, «. pi. L.A. 

Occident, Occident (west), G. 

878; E.G. 1772. _ 
Occupation, oecupaeion, S.R. 45 
(1278) ; occupacioun, " 

Ocean, oecyane, L. 12. 
Odour, odour, ». H, 75 ; odur, 

E.C. 2U93; Be. 956. 
Offence, ofienae (violation), S.R. 
160 (1311); offensea, pi. 44 
(1276); offences, L.A. 517. 
Offend, offendre, p. S.H. 38 
(1275) ; offendu, pp. L. 240. 
Offer, offre, «. G. 4329. 
Office, office, *. (duty), S.R. 29 
(1275) ; offyz (buainees), Y.a. 
397; L.C. 191. 
Officer,officiet,T.fl. 205; officere, 

L.A. 314. 
Oier tt teriniwr (to bear imd 
detennine), S.R. 44 (1276); 
L.C. 690. 


OU, oUle, ». E.G. 220S; oille 

dolive (olive oil), L.A. 224 ; 

olie. Be. 435 ; oile, N. 636. 
Ointment, oignement, N. 645 ; 

uignement. Be. 1100, 
Olive, olive, L.A. 230, 
Omission, omission. Y.a. 317. 
Omnipotent, omnipotent, P.S. 

301 (b. 1307). 
Onions, oynouns, *. pi. L.A. 238 ; 

L.G. 64. 
Opinions, oppiniona, pi, S.R. 165 

Oppression, oppressloun, ». L.G. 

380 ; opprGBsions, pi. S.R. 

157 (1311). 
Or (gold), oor, S.R. 298(1341); 

or. L. 172; V. 
Ordain, ordeiner, p. S.R. 157 

(1311); ordeinnor (to piit in 

array), E.G. 4553; onleine, 

pp. S.R. 45 (1278). 
Order, ordre, «. Cre. 129; (re- 
ligious order), Y.a. 21, 
Ordinance, ordinance, S.R. 313 

(1351) ; ordoaaacea, pi. 158 

Ordinary, ordinarie, f.(i.s. ruler), 

Y.a. 205. 
Ordure, ordure, L.A. 271 ; Be. 

745; V. 
Orgulous (proud), orguyllus, L. 

54; orgullous, 204; orgoiLIus. 

E.G. 4284. 
Orient, orient, i. E.G. 1863 j Be. 

695; V. 
Oriental, oriontcl, V. 
Original, original, «. Y.c. 5; ode. 

Original, original, adj. S.R. 46 

(1278); Y.a. 73, 347. 
Orphan, or&nin, orpbanin, adj. 

V. ; orienina, t. pi. L.W. 9 ; 

orpbanyns, L.C. 21. 
Orison, orcison, N. 937 ; orai- 

8«n, v.; uiviznns, pi. Be. 

Orpiment, orpymont, t. L.A. 


OsB (ta dare) ; cf. as, u^. 

(daring), E.G. 4199. 
Ounces, unces, i. pi. O. 1556. 
Onat, ouster, v. L.C. 690 ; ous- 

tier, 367; ouates, pp.Y.a. 113; 

OQstets, pp. pi. S.E. 159 

Outrage, outrage, s, F.S. 235 

(b. 1307); L. 222; outrages, 

pi. S.R. 269 (1335). 
OutrageosB, outraiouHe, adj. 

8.R. 34 (1275) ; Y.i. 383 ; 

outraguse, fern. 198 (b. 

Outriders, outriders (*<V), pi. 

8.JI. 284 (1340). 
Overt, overt, adj. open, Y.e. 13; 

overtes, J)?, {patent), S.E. 124 

Overture, ». (an opening), L.A. 

478, 508. 
Oyer, *. oyer (liearing), T.a. 73. 

See Oier. 
Oyes (hear ye), oyoz, S.E. 21 1 

(128f>?); Y.i. 117. 
Oysters, ». pi. oysters, L.A, 244 ; 

cf. Oistregate (Oystergate), 

L.C. 367. 

Packed, packes, pp. pi. 8.B. 

3S8 (1361). 
Packers, pakkera, ». pi. S.E. 341 

Packing, ompakkure, i. S.E. 334 

Pagans, paiena, *. pi. Cre. 239. 
Pages, pages, *. pi. S.E. 288 

Pails; of. paeles(?), *. pi. H. 

1018, 1036; paols (pans), 

L.A. 261. 
Pain (trouble), payne, L. 52 ; 

pain, L.i. 256; palue (penalty), 

S.E. 96 (1285). 
Pains, took, se pena, pf. «. Q. 

2143; N. 372. 
Paint, peynt, *. L.C. 80. 
Paint, peignum, 1 pr. ». Be. 


Paint«r, peyntonr, », L.C, 80. 
Painting, painturo, t. Be. 53, 

Palace, pnlcis, N. 1056; B.C. 

Pule, paie, adj. E.G. 3327 ; pales, 

m. V. 
Palfrey, palfrey, L.C. 458 ; pal»- 

freis, pi. L.W. 20 ; palefr<»i». 

P.S. 140 (b. 1307). 
Palm (tree), paliae, L.J. 430. , 

Pullet; cf. paillete, i. (stra**"^*^ 

fie. 451. ■ 

Palmer, palmer, L. 332; p»'^*'"Tl 

mcTa, pi. E,C. 3483. 
Palsy, palacin, N, 1464; paJ-*' 

zin, 1490. 
Pan, pan, >. N. 179. 
Pane (of cloth), pan, G. 38C>0 ; 

panes, ^/. (skins, ua of rabbi*^'^-'' 

L.A. 330. _ - 

PaneI(of jury), panel, S.R. iS^" 

(1340); Y.a. 405. 
Pannage, panuge, *. T.i. 1- ^■^-* ' 

panage, Y.a. 63. . 

Panniers, panyers, a. pi. I-* - ■^" 

Pont, pantoiaer, v, T. --• 

Pantiy, panetrie, L. 334; ^*--'"f^' 

461 ; cf. panuet«r (senescto^^^-'iw 

168. ' 

Parage, parage, ». (ra 



Paralytic, paraletica, adj. pi. 
Panimount, adv. (more), E^' 

Par amur (for love), E.G. 2^t- 
Parcol, partcle, •. (part), '^''^ i\ 

11; paroeles, S.E. 31 (la^T^j 
Parccnory, pareenerie, t. "S"^ Ij 

465 ; Y.e. 231. See ParfaC^ _g 
Parchment, parcliDmyn, i. E^ '-y 

236 (b. 1307) ; parcheioin,^^ -7, 
Panlon, paidoun, t. S.E. ^^ -) 

(1336); P.S. 241 (130^^ -^ 

pardun, Cro. 296. 
Pardoned, pardone, pp. L. 3' 

perdone, Y.a. 231 ; panjon 



Pecumary, pecuniere, a3j.f. S.R. 

366 (1361). 
Pedaille ; cf . pittaile (foot- 

soldiere), P.S. 293 (b. 1307). 
Peer, per, ». (oqunl), E.C. 4032 ; 

peor,L.C.148; pera,^;. L.W. 

23 ; xiiperes, P.S. 297 (1307). 
PeU (skin), pol, G. 29Hj peUe, 

L.A. 466. 
Pelibt, pelote, ». (bitU), E.C. 579 ; 

Bo. 860. 
Peltry, peletrie, *. L.A. 225. 
Pelure, pelure (fur-work), 8.E. 

380 (1363); L.A. 279. 
Penul. pemlea, pi. B.B. 384 

Penance, peaoijre.V.; C.E.3753; 

(punislmient), Y.i. 501, 503. 
Pending, pendaunt, prsit. ft. 50 (1278); (pendant), 

L.*. 70. 
Penitence, penitence, ». G. 4086. 
Pens, pennea, *. pi. (f'euthers), 

Bo. 1187. 
Pennon, pen on (fcatber of n 

erosabow-tolt), G. 4424. 
Pension, pencion, $. Y.b. 159; 

Pensive, peneifa, G. 3767 ; E.C. 

715; pensis, ^^. T. 
Pent«coHt, Pentecost, 8.E. 107 

Pentioee, pentiz, «, pi. L.A. 27 1 ; 

appentices, 288. 
People, people, 8.E. 197 {b. 

1327); L.C. 81, 84, 687. 
Peradventure, paraventnre, L.C. 

Perch, perche, $. (pole), L A. 

260 ; perches, pi. (peroboB of 

land), Y.4. 117. 
Perditiun, perdicionn, L. 292; 

perdiciun, G. 1000; EC. 

4508; V. 
Peremptory, peremptorie, xdj. 

Y.«. 245; percmtori. Y.A. 1 15. 
Perform, porfumir. v. E.C. 2174; 

porfamyr, L.i. 222 ; par- 

foumye, pp./. Y.rt. 361. 

Peril, peril, 8.E. 28 (1376); 

porvl, L.i, 194 ; perils, ?■ | 

L.C. 199. ^ 

Perilous, perillouBe, adj. f- ■ 

488 ; periluso, adj. f. E. 

Perished, periz, pp. pi. S.B.- ' 

(1275); periz, yp. E.C. **" 

periase, pr. ». mhf. E.C. 
Perjured, panura, adj. noat 

3244; paifure, pp. V. 
Perjury, pstrjure, i. E.C, 3^ 

perjurie. Be. 1310. 
Permit, pormetre, v. 1 

Perpetual, perpetnele, adj. ■ 

302 (b. 1307) ; peip<?* 

Y.O. 45. 
Perpetuity, perpetuete. 

Porrye (jewellery). porrye,lj-' 
Persevere, perseverer, e. L** 

Person, persone, n. 8.R- 

(1275); 271(1335); Y.ii.2* 
Personal, pereonol, adj. Y.o, "" 

Y.4. 145. 
Pestilenoe, pestilence, S.E. 3U 

(1351); E.C. 3400. 
Petition, peticion, S.R. 

(1336); petitions, pi. 8.S 

163 (1311). 
Petty, peti, adj. (small), Y.S. S; 
Pew, pui. «. (a stage, platfonl 

etc.), L.C. 216, and Gloss, 
Pewter, peutro, *. " " "' 

Phantom, fentosme, i. (drean^ 

E.C. 2757, 2762. 
Pheasant, fesaunt, t. L.C. 304 
Piece, piece, *. S.E. 99 (138S' 

pece, L.C. 63 ; (=Lat. jwtril 

L.C. 119; pieces, pi. If . 1<K 
Pier, piere, t. (atone), S.E. 14 

(1300); L.C. 61; Be. 347, 
Pierce, percer, v. L. 208 ; 

pr. ». tubj. S.E. 218 (12'84i 
Pigeons, pygouns, m. pi. Lw 




(of cloth], kind of cloth, 

pyles, «. pi. L.A. 225. 

Igiim, peliyn, L.i. 100 ; pele- 

riu, T. 
^grima^, pUrymage {»io), L. 


KOan, pilar, *. pi, E.C. 2298 ; 
' piliers, L.C. 16. 
I^lory, piUoty, T.fl. 113; pU- 
' lori. 137; pilori, L.C. 284. 
^cbbeck, PjTicebek {proper 

namt: proh. in Lincolnahire), 

Y.C. 127. 
Hpe (of wine], pipe, 8.R. 331 
• (1353); pipe (a roll), L.A. 

Steons, pitus, adj. (Idiid), E.C. 

1950; pytous, h.b. IIB; pi- 

teus, V. 
^tcously, pitousement, L. 258 ; 

pytousetnent, 386, 
*i^, pyte, L. 232 ; pitee, P.S. 

185 (b. 1307) ; pited, Bo. 

Plaee, place, T.n. 417; (piece 

of ground), Y.4. 299. 
Plain, plaines, adj. pi. (smooth), 

Be. 1488. 
Plain, plain, «. {flnt ground), G. 
^L 767:pleinue,E.C.4o86,4601i 
H^plaine. L.i. 376. 
■ 266 (1330). 

Plaintiff, pleintif, i. S.B. 31 

(1276); Y.b. 269. 
Plaintive, pleiiitifs, adj. (miser- 

ahle), V. 
Planeta, phmetea, «. pi. Ore. 

Plaster (for walls), piastre, «. 

L.C. 99; L.A. 333. 
Plasterers, plnstrerB, ». pi. L.C. 

99 ; L.A. 288, 
Plat« (of metal), plate, 8.K. 273 

(1335); (bullion), L.C. 190; 

(silTCr plate), S.B. 132(1299). 
Plea, plait, ». L.W. 24 ; plai, 

8.E. 33 (1275); L.C. 177; 
t play, T.«. 25. 

Plead,pleder,p.Y.«.17; T.e.21; 

plaider. Ore, 62 ; pleidez, pp. 

pi. 8.K. 36 (1275) ; plede, pp. 

Y.a. 429. 
Pleadore, pledoura,*, pi. L.C. 281 . 
Ploaflant. pleysant, adj. P.S. 138 

(b. 1307). 
Please, pleise, pr. t. tutg. L.C. 

226 ; pleso, L.C. 379 ; please, 

L.C. 459, 462. 
Pleasure, pleisir, t. L.W. 38 

pleysyr, P.S. 139 (b. 1307). 
Pledge, plegge, a. 8.R. 31 (1275). 

Y.a. 89;plege, L.W. 3; A.B. 

475, 483; N. 747. 
Plenteous, plentif, adj. (nume- 
rous), E.C. 4130. 
Plenty, plcnte, «. Bo. 519, 524; 

P.S. 145 (h. 1307). 
Plover, plover, L.C. 192, 304. 
Plunges, se plunge, pr. t. Be. 

I. (lead), 

Plumb-line ; cf . plui 

B.C. 2307. 
Plume, plume (feather), V. 
Ply, plient, pr. pi. (bend), E.C. 

4644; aepliereit(wouldband), 

L,i. 390. 
Poignant, poignantes, pi. f. Q. 

2915 ; poinnante, ting. E.G. p. 

23, 1. 4 ; puignante, pr. pt. 

fern, (stinging), Cre. 542. 
Point, point, t. P.S. 137 (b. 

1307) ; poinz, pi. S-R. 26 

(1275); points, L.C. 189. 
Poise (weigh), peisent, pr. pi. 

8.R. 218 (1284?); poise, pr. 

s. i&id. ; poisez, pp. pi. 390 

Poiae ; cf. pois, «. (weight), S.B. 

132(1299); peise (a balance), 

Cre. 532. 
Poison, puson (vm-iow reading 

poison), L. 128. 
Poitrels, peitrols, G. 6385, 
Polished, polyo, pp. L.k 382. 
Poor, pover, L. 50 ; povre, L.C. 

18; povers, pi. P.S. 186 (b. 




Pork, pork, ». (pig) P.S. 23B 

{1). 1307) ; porkB, pi. L.C. 

Poipoise, porpcis, G. 446 ; piir- 

peys, L.A- 236. 
Port, porte, *. (gate, door), E.C. 

82; E.C. p. 11; portea, pi. 

S.B. 97 (1285). 
Portal, portal, ». (gateway), V. 
Portraiture, pitrtrailure, i. E.C. 

Ports, port^, s. pi. (eea-poria), 

8.R. 132, 133(1299). 
Porters, portoura, «. pi. S.R. 

341 (1353); porter, pi L.i. 

Portion, porcioun, L. 20 ; T.o. 

289 ; porcion, Y.S. 459. 
Posed, pose, pp. (piacetl), G. 

FoBaession, poBseBsinn, T.a. 61, 

207; 8.E. 36 (1275). 
Possibility, possibilite, *. T.J. 

Postorn, posterne, G. 6165. 
Pot, pot, L. 294 i pottes, pi. 

L.A. 232. 
Pottage, potages, pi. 8.B. 279 

(1336); potago, » L.C. 227. 
Pottle, potel, S.K. 321 (1832); 

potelle, L.A. 266. 
Poulterer, poleter, 8.B. 351 

(1357); pulletera, pt. L.A. 

Poultry, poletrie, *. L.A. 231 ; 

pultrie, ib. 
Ponst«, *. (powor), Be. 1132; 

poestc, Cre. 232; L.W. 47. 
Poverty, poverty, ». 8.E. 53 

(1283); L.C. 17,224; N. 84. 
Povraille, poverail, *. (poor 

people), P.S. 183 (b. 1307). 
Powder, poudre, ». L. 62 ; puldre 

(dust), Be. 325. 
Power, pouer. T.a. 187, 263; 

8.B. 35 (1275); poer, 28; 

power, L. 22 ; L.A. 280. 
Prairie, praerye (meadow), L. 

164, 190. 

FnuBG, preiser, e. 0. 8641 ; 

preiBez, pp. 140. 
Prar, praier, », Be. 735; preud, 

p't. ». 724. 
Prayer, proiere, a. E.C. 653. 
Preaeb, precher, r. V. ; L, 104 ; 

P.S. 146 (h. 1307); Q. 1070. 
Preachers, prechoun, t. pi. P.S. 

146 (b. 1307). 
Fn^bends. provendes, t. pi. 8.B. 

256 (1327). 
Prebendary, provender, L. 428. 
Precedent, precedent, pr. pt, 

(antecedent), T.e. 33. 
Precept, precept, *. 8.R. 328 

(1352); Cre. 303; L.A. 48. 
Precinct, purseinto, Y.a. 205. 
Precione, preciua, adj. Bo. 223. 
Predecessor, prideceasor, Y.a. 

133; predecessour, 51, 413; 

predeeeasUTB, pi. 8.R. 45 

Predications, prcdicacions, «, pi. 

G. 1052. 
Prejudice, prejudice (in legal 

aeaae), Y.o. 75, 241 ; 8.E. 

39 (1275). 
Prejndicial, prejndiciel,T.6. 167; 

I.e. 451, 459 ; prejudjoielst 

S.E. 325 (1362). 
Prelacy, prelacie, *. P.S. 312 (f 

1307); E.C. 864; piolade^' 

pi. S.R. 293 (1340). 
Prelate, prelat, #. S.R. 27 (1275), 

prelaz,pl. 26 (1275). 
Prerogative, prerogative, «. 8.R. 

322 (1352); prerogatyf, adi. 

T.a. 57. 
Prescription, preecripcioun, *. 

T.c. 263;prescripcion,Y.ff.69. 
Froaent, prcaent, adf. L.W. 88 ; 

S.R. 36(1275); Y.«. 99. 
Present (gift), prcaent, ». T. ; 

L. 328 ; presenz, pi. G. 3831. 
Present, at, du present, S.R. 

397 (1377). 
Present (to bring), preaenter, «. 

S.R. 293 (1340); Y.i. 269; 

(give), V. 





Piegeatment, prescntement, t. 

L.C. 380 ; presents menta, pi. 

S.R. 164 (1311). 
Press (throng), preaae, b. E.C. 

3467; L.i. 90; K. 1309. 
Prest (ready), prest, adj. V. ; 

preste,/. E.C. 1616. 
PreaumptioD, s. presumpciou, 

T.e. 57. 
Prey, praye, i. L, 44 ; pruie, 

Cre. 669. 
Price, pris, *. S.a. 298 (1341) ; 

L.C. 192. 
Primacy, primacio, ». P.S. 311 

(b. 1307): primaoye, L. 170. 
Primate, primat, i. 8.R. 126 

(1297); L.J. 2. 
Prime (hour), prime, ». Cre. 123 ; 

Y.8. 493, 
Trince, prince, V.; L.C. 217; 

princes, pi. 0. 745 ; E.C. 

Principal, principal, a^. Y.a. 

93; *b. 161. 
Principality, piiiicipalte, 6.B. 

345 (1354). 
Trior, prior, Y.ii. 45 ; priour, 

Y.i». 49, 207 ; prioiirs./i^. S.B. 

170 (1313). 
Priority, priorite, S.R. 191 

(1323); priorete, Y.i. 37. 
Priory, priorie, s. L.C. 149 ; 

priorye, L.J. 142. 
Prison, prison, 8.E. 28 (1275); 

Y.J. 499; priaone, Y.a. Ill; 

prisun, v. ; prisoun, L. 430. 
ftuonei, prisoun, L. 424 ; pri- 

souns, pi, 404 ; prisonz, Y.J. 

497 ; prisnner. E.C. 1429. 
■privation (deprivation), priva- 

duna, P.S. 313 (b. 1307); 

privacion, Y.e. 423. 
Rivilege, privilege, S.E. 28 

(1275); E.C. 558. 
rrivileged, privilege, pp. S.B, 

221 (1276 ?). 
■Irivitica (secrets), privetez, pi. 

L.J. 158. 
F Pri\'y, adj. privc, Y.a. 15. 

Privy, *. prive ostel (explained), 

Q. 4417. 
Privy seal, privo seal, S.E. 166 

(1311); privea seal, 296 

Prize, priso, a. (a thing taken), 

b.R. 28 (1275) ; (catch of 

fiah), E,C. 2l24j (prize), Be. 

Proceed, procedcr. v. L.A. 183. 
ProcfBs (in law), procea, t. Y.a, 

49 ; L.A. 47. 
Procession, piocesaioon, L. 172; 

proceaaiun, V, 
Froclitiuation, proclamacioan, t, 

L.A. 432. 
Proctor; tee Procurator. 
Procurator, procuratonr, L.S. 

424 ; procuratours, pi. L.C. 

676 i L.A. 423. 
Procures, procure, pr. t. S.R. 104 

(1285); procurent, or. W. 29 

Procurement, procurement, S.B. 

183 (1321). 
Profeaaed (aa a member of a re- 
religious order), profes, pp. 

>«. Y.fl. 21. 
Profiers, profres, ». pi. L.C. 281. 
Profit, profit, t. L.C. 148 ; Y.e. 

231; S.B. 26 (1275); A.B. 

Profitable, profitable, S,B. 391 

(1369); profitablea, pi. 26 

(1275); A.B. 478. 
Profound, parfund, adj. (deep), 

G. 3416 ; profound, L.i. 406 ; 

parfounde, P.S. 232. 
Profundity ; cf. parfounditez, 

pi. L.J. 324. 
Progenitors, progenitours, pi, 

S.E. 261 (1330). 
Prohibition, prohibicion, Y.a. 91 ; 

Y,i. 239. 
Promiae, promesae, *. S.E. 211 

(1286?); L.J. 270; E.C. 

1248; V. 
Promised, proraia, pp. L.C. 197 ; 

priimis, 1 p. pr. g. V, 


Promoters, promotcurs, s. pi, 

L.A. 425. 
Promptly, promptemcnt, S.R. 

387 (1364). 
Pronounced, pronuncie, pp. S.R. 

268 (1330); Y.a. 239. 
Proof, prove, «. S.R. 348 (1354) ; 

pruve, E.G. 3096 ; pruf, 3320. 
Propense, purpense, L.W. 2. 
Proper, propre,/i/^'.(fit), L.C. 218. 
Proper person, propre persone, 

S.E. 211 (1286?). 
Proporte, «. property, Y.h. 31 ; 

propertes, pi, (particulars), 

L.*. 122. 
Prophecy, propliccie, «. P.S. 310 

(b. 1307); E.G. 3806; V. 
Prophets, prophete, G. 1434; 

prophetes. Be. 87. 
Propositions, proposicions, pi. 

S.R. 385 (1364). 
Prosecution, prosecucioun, «. 

L.A. 427. 
Prosperity, ^rosperito, S.R. 397 

Protection, proteccioun, L. 146 

proteccion, S.R. 131 (1299) 

protexion, Y.o. 87. 
Protestation, protestacion, S.R 

188(1322); Y.h. 421. 
Prove, prover, v. L. 60; Y.h 

271 ; prove, pp. P.S. 241 

(1307) ; provez, pp. pi 

(tested), L.G. 285; provera, 

fut. s. Y.a. 69. 
Provenders (prebendaries), pro- 

vendres, S.R. 293 (1340). 
Province, province, S.R. 302 

(1344) ; Y.*. 327. 
Provincial, provyncial, adj. P.S. 

147 (b. 1307). 
Provisions, provisions, pi. S.R. 

316 (1351); provisiouns (sti- 
pulations), Jj.b. 140. 
Provisors, pro^dsours, pi. S.R. 

318 (1351). 
Provost, provost, N. 519; P.S. 

278 (b. 1307); L.b, 226; 

Y.h. 199; prouost, L.W. 2. 

Prowess, pruesce, L. 72; pra- 
essc, E.G. 817. 

Proxy, procuracio, #. L.A. 428. 

Psalm, psalme, N. 625. 

Psalter, saltor, #. Ore. 1222; 
saltorii, Be. 724. 

Putf-bread, pouf, 8, L.A. 353. 

Pullet, pullet, 8, L.A. 466. 

Pulpit, pulpit, L.*. 306. 

Punished, puniz, pp. S.B- 26 
(1275); L.G. 283. 

Punishment, punissement, «.L.C. 
283 ; punyssementZy pL S JL 
104 (1285). 

Puny (lit. younger), adf, pune, 
Y.a. 83; Y.*. 427; puisne, 
Y.c. 317; pusnez, E.G. 244. 

Purchase, purchas, 8. Y.a. 39, 
177 ; purchaz, S.R. 38 (1275). 

Purchase (obtain), purchacer, 
V. L.W. 14; purchase, pp, 
Y.a. 7 ; purchace, pp. S.B. 86 

Purchaser, purchaser, «. Y.0. 
161 ; purchasour, 59. 

Pure, ad/, pure, Y.a. 45 ; L.J. 
406; P.S. 126 (b. 1307). 

Purfle, purfil, #. S.R. 381 (1363). 

Purgation, purgacioun, «. Y.«. 
397 ; purgacion (clearing), 
S.R. 28 (1278). 

Purged, purgez, pp,pl.(cleaxed)9 
L.A. 458; purgee, f^. P.S. 234 
(b. 1307); purgez, pp. i. V. 

Puriiication, purificacion, S.B. 
255 (1327). 

Purlieu, puralee, 8. (perambula- 
tion), A.B. 473 ; S.R. 144 
(1305); purale, L.*. 318; 
pouralee,L.G. 197. SeeThom- 
son's notes on First Forest 
Charter of Henry III. (1829), 
p. 354. 

Purloin ; cf. purloigne, pp. (pro- 
longed), L.C. 166; purluinnee, 
pp./. (removed), Crc. 10. 

Puq^le, purpre, L. 180. 

Purport, purport, S.R. 354 
(1357); Y.c. 173. 




Remain, romeinilre, v. S.R. 36 
(127&); E.C. a86G; remnint, 
pr. 8. Ore. 917; remameDt, 
pr. pi. mhj. (may remain), 
A.B, 472 ; rcmuynent, pr. pi. 
L.C. 62. 

RcEuoiudcr, remoindre, «. L.A. 

remaimder, v. (send 

bock), P,S. 313 (b. 1307). 
Bemedy, remedie, *. S.R. 28 

(1275); T.I. 427; Y.e. 231. 
Heinember, remembrer, t>. S.R. 

124 (1297). 
Hemembrancc, remembranee, 

E.C. 2579; Cre. 307; V. 
Remissioii, remissiun, T. 
Remitted, remis, pp. S.R. 188 

Remnant, remennnt, L.W. 47 ; 

Y.e. 29.^; E.C. 1040; Tpme- 

naunt, S.R. 38 (1275). 
Remount, remunter, v. (rtascond), 

E.C. 2098. 
Remove, c. remoever, L.A. 457 ; 

Kmovez, pp. pi. L.A. 50. 
Rentibk, rcBnabIe,ai^'.( eloquent), 

E.C. 1602; A.B. 476. 
Render, rondre, c. S.R. 47 

(1278); P.S. 290(1307). 
Renewed, renoTelo, pp. S.R. 346 

Reney (deny), reniuast, pi. pi. 

tuif. G. 2901. 
RenowB, renun, «. E.C. 891 ; 

renonn, L. 160; L.C. 23. 
Renounce, renuncyo, pr. ». ttihj. 

T.i. 497. 
Rent, rent, *. Y.e. 43; rente, 

Y.a. 5; S.R. 158 (IGll). 
Ront-charge, ». reat- charge, L.A. 

Renunciation, renunciacion, S.R. 

318 (1351). 
Repair, repeirent, pr. pi. L.C. 

191; repeiraint (went), P.S. 

277 (b. 1807). 
RepaBBcd, reposaez, pp. L.i. 


Repeal (recoil), repel, 

252 (1327). 
Repealed, repellait, pt. 

317 (b. 1307); repcle, pr. «. 

L.i. 352. 
Repent, repentir, r. L.i. 64 ; ee 

repent (he repents), L, 4!20; 

me repent (I repent), Cre. &*>. 
Replenished, replenye, pp. f. L 

218; replenis, pp. S.R- 131 

(1209); replcni, ^r V. 
Rcpleyicd, replevi, pp. S.B- 

(1311); Y.O. 13. 
Reported, reporte, pp. 8.K. 

Repose, repoB, ». 0. 4050, 413«j 

P.S. 144 (b, 1307); Be. 3*- 

E.C. 983. 
Repose, reposer, p. Cre. 205 ; 
Reprisals, represaillea, (. ;f . S 

339 (1353). 
Reproach, reproce, ». E.C. 1 3fi8i 

L.i. 396 ; repruwbs, L.C. 38I_. 
Eeproofs, reproves, pi. 8-Et- •* 

Reprove, reprover, ». L. 

112; repruver, Cre. 64 

prove, pp. E.C. 3308. 
Repugnant, TDpungnaDt.;r^^ 

Y.r.311; repugnant, Yfr-^-n- 
Request, requesle, ». E.C. 3 » ** ' 

L.C. 202; V. ^g 

Require, requer, 1 pr. t. Jf 

314 (b. 1307) ; reqoerfr*' ^m 

». E.C. 2346. 
Here ward, rere-warde. L. 
Rescue, rescos, t. Y. 

Rescue, rescure, r. V. ^ 

Resembles, resemble, pr. s. ^ 

219 (_1284?); E.C. 3567 ^ 

Hemblat, pt, t. Be. 254. 
Reservations, reaervBciona, 

S.R. 317(1351). 
Reserved, reserve, pp. L.C, ^ 

L.A. 495. 36 

Re Bident, resident, aij;'. L.A.-;^ b. 
Residue, eorome residue, ^^ "^ 


lQen>r ^^1 




River, rivere, / G. 2968 ; L.C. 

304 ; ryvere, L. A. 288 ; rivers, 

pi. L.A. 506; S.R. 315 (1351). 
Boast, rost, s. (roast meat), L.C. 

227; roste, P.S. 301 (b. 1307). 
Rob, robber, v. S.R. 164 (1311) ; 

robbez, pp. L. 44. 
Eobber,robeour,S.R. 159(1311); 

robberes, P.S. 236 (b. 1307). 
Robbery, roberie, «. S.R. 32 

(1275); Y.i. 517, 519; L.W. 

3; roberye, Y.e. 319. 
Robe, robe, s. V. ; Y.a. 201 ; 

robes, pi. S.R. 145 (1305). 
Roberdesmen^Roberdesmen, S.R. 

268 (1330). 
Rocks, roches, pi. L. 154. 
R^ll, roule, *. S.R. 88 (1276); 

Y.a. 5 1 ; A.B. 475 ; roules, 

pi. Y.a. 181. 
Romance (language), Romantz, 

E.G. 154; Romanz, G. 6443. 
Rote (lyre), rote, V. 
Rouncy (horse), runcin, V. 
Round, rund, adj. V. ; E.C. * 

2293 ; rounde, L.h. 174 ; 

ruunt, Be. 860. 
Roundly, roundomcnt, adv. li.h. 

172; L.A. 459. 
Rout (band of men), route, L. 

78 ; rute, E.G. 2954 ; V. 
Route (way), rute, «. P.S. 287 

(1307); Be. 41. 
Rowol, rucle, 8. (small wheel), 

Gre. 1163. 
Royal, roial, adj, P.S. 234 (b. 

1307); rcial, Bo. 637. 
Rubbish, robouse, robous, 8. 

L.A. 579, 581. 
Rubric, rubriche, L.5. 176. 
Ruby, ruhi, V. 

Ruin, ruine, 8. E.G. 1394; V. 
Ruins, in, en ruyns, Jj.b. 14. 
Rule, reule, 8. Gre. 979. 
Rule, rculer, v. S.R. 351 (1357). 
Rumour, mmour, L.A. 462. 
Russet, russet, S.R. 381 (1363). 
Ruwel-bone (m Ghaucer) ; cf. 

real (rock-crystal), Y. 

Sack, sao, 9. P.S. 183 (b. 1307); 

sak, S.R. 160 (1311); LJL. 

226 ; saks, pi. L.A. 226. 
Sacrament, «. (oath), E.G. 3599 ; 

y. ; sacremenz, pi. S.R. 126 

Sacrifice, sacrifise, «. Ore. 346; 

sacrifice, V. 
Sacristan, secrestoin, N. 1400; 

secrestein, E.G. 1998. 
Safe and sound ; cf . sein et sauf, 

N. 923. 
Safe conduct, sanf condnyt, 8.B. 

281 (1337). 
Safeguard, sanve garde (safe 

keeping), S.R. 53 (1283); 

L.A. 45, 220. 
Safety, Sauvete, 9. P.S. 233 (b. 

SafEron, saf^ran, s. L.A. 224. 
Sage, sage, adj. E.G. 136 ; Ore. 

439 ; sages, pi. S.B. 136 

Saints, seinz, 8. pi. L.W. 13. 
Salamander, salamandre, «. Be. 

Salary, salarie, 8. L.A. 48 ; 

saleire, L.G. 222. 
Salmon, saumun, 8. pi. E.G. 

2129, 2178; salmuns, pi. G. 

445 ; salmons, L.A. 507. 
Salmon ; cf . saumuncel, «. (little 

salmon), E.G. 2179. 
Salt-cellars, salers, *. pi. L.G. 

Salvation (safety), salvacion, S.R. 

275 (1336); salvacioun, L.5. 

288; L.A. 457. 
Sanctity, seintete, 8. E.G. 2027. 
Sanctuary, saintuarie, S.R. 298 

(1341) ; seintuarye (holy 

relics), L. 424. 
Sanguine, sanguines, adf. pi. /. 

(bloody), G. 3142. 
Sapphire, 8. saphire. Be. 1466; 

satires, pi. G. 4887 ; safirs, V. 
Sardines (gems), sardines, G. 

Sardius, sardius, 8. Bo. 1470. 



Sardonyx, sardonix, s. Be. 1469. 
Satisfaction, satisfaccion, 8.E. 

887 (1364). 
Sance, sawes [jnc]y S.R. 279 

Savage, salvage (wild), G. 198 ; 

Be. 897 ; savage, P.S. 234 (b. 

1307); E.C. p. 4; sauvages, 

pL Y.a. 247. 
Save, 8auve,'j9r<^. L.C. 151. 
Saved, pp, save, Y.e, 467; savez, 

pi 8.B. 141 (1300) ; sauvez, 

pi. 89 (1275). 
Saviour, saveor, G. 951. 
Savours, savoure, pr, s. Y.e, 

Sawyers, sawyers, «. pi. (-S»^.), 

Scandal, eschandre, «. (insult), 

£.G. 4321. iS<?0 Slander. 
Scantling, escauntiloun, s. (di- 
mension), L.A. 278. 
Scarce, escars, adf. pi. (niggard, 

sparing), Be. 602; escliars, 

L.C. 18. 
Scarcity, escarcete, «. P.S. 186 

(b. 1307) ; escharcete, L.C. 23. 
Scarlet, scarlet, S.B. 330 (1353); 

escarletes, pL G. 2149. 
Scavage, escawenge, s. L.C. 62 

{see Gloss.) ; scawenge, L.A. 

Scents, sent, pr. s. Be. 198 ; V. 
Sceptre, ceptre, G. 6025; E.C. 

Scholar, escoler, s. P.S. 126 (b. 

1272); V. 
School, escole, «. S.B. 103(1285); 

E.C. 904 ; L.C. 283. 
Science, s. escience, 9. Cre. 111. 
8corch,eschorchent,^. p/. (strip) , 

E.C. 3747 ; escorchez, pp. 

(flayed), L.h. 300. 
Scorned, eschami, pt. s. H. 936 ; 

Scorpion, scorpiun, Cre. 540, 
Scot (payment), escot, «. S.B. 

221 (1276?). 
S<K>t and Lot ; see L.A. 269. 

Scourges, escurgies, pi. V. ; es- 

corges, Jj.h. 430. 
Scout ; cf. escoute, j^.f. (listens), 

E.C. 2154. 
Scripture, escripture, «. E.C. 

1741; Be. 270. 
Scriveners, escri veins, ». pi. Cre. 

Scroll, escrouet, S.B. 190 (1322) ; 

escrouez, pi. Y.h. 75. 
Scullion, scuiler, s. E.C. 992. 
Seal, seal, «. S.B. 53 (1283); 

L.C. 66; scale, L.C. 148; 

seaul, Y.a. 467. 
Sealed, seale, pp. L.C. 284. 
Search, sercher, v. S.B. 274 

(1335) ; L. 112 ; cerche, pr. e. 

S.B. 219 (1284?); serchez, 

pp. pi. L.C. 80. 
Search, serche, s. S.B. 274 

(1335); Y.h. 425. 
Searchers, serchours, pi. S.B. 

274 (1335). 
Season, seisone, /. S.B. 322 

(1352); saisun, Cre. 354 

seson, Y.e. 373; seisons, pi 

G. 5372. 
Second, secund, S.B. 257(1328) 

Cre. 957; secunde, E.C. 161 
Secret, secrei, e. G. 3638. 
Secular, adf, seculer, Y.a. 133 

as sh. 59. 
See (episcopal), see, L. 68; sie 

G. 1139; se (throne), E.C 

2055, 2285. 
Sege, sege, *. (throne), E.C 

Seignor, seniour, s, L.W. 52 

seynur, Y.a. 49. 
Seignory, seignurie, *. (lordship) 

S.B. 131 (1299); seynurie 

Y.a. 461. 
Seised of, seisi, pp. Y.a. 3 

seisir, v. (to be seised of), S.R 

285 (1340). 
Seisin, seisine, s, S.B. 36 (1275) 

Y.a. 3. 
Seizable, seisable, adj. S.B. 368 




Seize, seiser, v. L. 362. 

Sell, selle, a. (saddle), L.C. 

Semblance, semblance (appear- 
ance), G. 1982; V. 
Semblant, semblant, s, (coun- 
tenance), E.G. 635 ; V. 
Senator, senatour, L. 70 ; sena- 

tur, 76. 
Sendal, cendal, *. L.C. 148 ; 

cendale (Gloss.). 
Seneschal, seneschal, S.R. 137 

(1300); Y.a. 395; senescal, 

L. 172. 
Sense, sens, «. (intelligence), 

E.G. 15, 56; Ore. 241. 
Sentence (doom), sentence, It.h, 

34 ; E.G. 560 ; sentences, pL 

S.R. 123 (1297). 
Sej)ulchro, sepulcre, «. V. ; E.G. 

3484, 3514; Be. 141. 
Sepulture, sepulture, *. (tomb), 

V. ; E.G. 441 ; (burial), Y.h 

339 ; E.G. 2279. 
Sequestered, seqestrat, pt, s 

Y.3. 159. 
Sequestration, sequestre, 8. L.A 

Seii", sorf, s. (servant), Bo. 1331 

.serfs, Jj.b. 388 ; serfs, J^^- S.B 

221 (1276?); E.G. 006; Y. 
Scrj2:eant, serjaunt, s. S.ll. 34 

(1275); Y.a. 423; serjant, 

Y.a. Go ; serjcant, 69. 
Serjeant-at-arms, serjeaunt as 

arnies, P.S. 280 (b. 1307). 
Serniun, sernioun, L. 234 ; sermun 

Cre. 7 ; V. ; sermon, PS. 147 

(b. 1307). 
Serpent, serpent, Cre. 730 ; ser- 

penz, j)l. 0. 1991. 
Serried, sarre, pp, L.5. 312; 

serre, Y. 
Servant, servaunt, «. L.A. 209 ; 

servant, Y. 
Ser^'e, servir, v. G. 2110 ; Y. 
^Service, s. serviee, Y.a. 133 ; 

S.R. 33 (1275); services, pi. 

Y.a. 45. 

Session, session, 8.B. 390 (1368); 

sessions, pL 313 (1351). 
Sever, severoms, 1 pr. pL (ex- 
clude), S.B. 126 (1297); 

severe, pp. Y.a. 471; oeverer, 

V. 387. 
Several (separate), adf. aeveial, 

Y.a. 93. 
Several, several, «. S.R. 37 

(1275); Y.e. 151. 
Severally, en severale, Y.o. 91. 
Severalty, severalte, «. Y.3. 845 ; 

Y.^. 237. 
Severance, severance, Y.e. 393. 
Shalloon, Chalouns, «. (Chalons 

cloth), L.A. 225; Chalons, 

Sheltrouns (squadron8),cliiltroDS, 

pi. L.b. 312. 
Shocks of com, schokes, «. pi. 

Y.C. 409. 
Shop, shope, «. S.R. 141 (1300); 

L.A. 205. 
Shotten herring, ehotenharang, 

S.R. 354(1357). 
Siege, siege, *. L.C. 149 ; sege, 

G. 3110. 
Sign, signe (portent), G. 1437. 
Signification, signiiicacion, «. 

Y.c. 309. 
Signifies, signefie, pr. 8. Y. ; 

G. 1720 ; Cre. 279 ; signifiad, 

pt. 8. G. 1965. 
Silence, silence, Be. 143; cilence, 

P.S. 143 (b. 1307). 
Simnels (cakes), simcnels, *. pL 

G. 130, 137. 
Simony, simonyc, L.J. 346. 
Simple, simple, adj. Cre. 634 ; 

Y.b. 3; Y. 
Simple man, simples homme, 

S.R. 369 (1361). 
Simplicity, simplicite, 8, E.C. 

1053; simpleto, G. 3815. 
Single, sengle, adj. L.A. 211. 
Singular, singuler, adj. L.C. 387. 
Sire, sire, P.S. 232 (b. 1307); Y. 
Site, syte {variou8 reading sit;, 

8. L. 112. 


a 59 

Skirmish, eskermir, p, (to fence), 

L.G. 282. 
Slander, esclanndre, «. S.R. 34 

(1275) ; L.C. 83 ; esclandres, 

E.G. p. 15. 
Slavine (pilgrim's dress), escla- 

vine, V . 
Slices, esclicnns, (splinters), 

E.C. 276. 
Smelt, 9. smelt (fish), L.C. 116. 
Socage, sokage, X*^* 91 ; socage, 

Y.«. 133. 
Soil (land), soyl, #. Y.a. 247; 

soil, Y.^. 53. 
Soiled, saolees, jifp. pi. (satisfied, 

filled wiUi grass). Be. 527; 

saul, adj, (satisfied), Y. 
Soils, soille, pr. s. E.C. 1 983 ; V. 
Sojourn, sojourner, r. S.R. 277 

(1336); sojomer, P.S. 304 (b. 

1307); sujumer, V. 
Sojourn, sojourn, ». L. 36 ; 

sojum, G. 3048 ; sojour, L.G. 

63, 64. 
Solace, solas, «. Y. ; L.^. 26 ; 

solace. 426; solas, P.B. 145 

(b. 1307); L.C. 219. 
Solace, solacer, 9, P.S. 142 (b. 

Soldan, soldan, L.&. 92. 
Soldiers, soldeiers, pi, G. 5352 ; 

soldiers, 5826 ^ soudeier, «. 

(hired workman), L.C. 79. 
Sole, sole, ad/, fern, (alone), Y.^. 

187 ; Y.«. 21 ; soul, adj. 

Sole (fish), soel, L.A. 244. 
Solely, soulement, adw. S.R. 379 

(1363); solement, Y.0. 427. 
Solemn, solempne, «e^'. S.R. 28 

(1275); Yfl. 471. 
Solemnly (publicly), solempne- 

ment, adv. Y.a. 397. 
Solemnity, soUempnitee, «. P.S. 

244 (1307) ; sollcmpnete, L.b. 

Soler (upper-room), soler, Y. ; 

solairs, pi E.G. 2900. 
Solitary, solitarye, adf. L. 176. 

Solution (explanation), soluciun, 

8. Cre. 1137. 
Somer (beast of burden), sumer, 

Sorcery, sorcerie, ». G. 2760 ; 

sorcerye, P.S. 306 (b. 1307). 
Sorrel; cf. sor, adf. (red, as a 

herring), L.A. 235. 
Sort (kind), sort, S.R. 298 

(1341); Be. 108. 
Sot, sot (foolish), adj. H. 256. 
Soudan (sultan), soudan, L. 328. 
Sound, soner, r. L. 458; sonir 

(to ring bells), P.S. 244 

(1307); suner, V. 
Sounds, souns, 8. pi. (bells), 

L.A. 515. 
SoTereign, soverein, 8. S.R 31 

(1275); 96(1285); suverein. 

E.G. 1332; Y. 
Sovereignty, soTcrainte, L.^. 222. 
Space, lespace, S.R. 329 (1353). 
Sparpled (dispersed), esparplye, 

pp. L. 144 ; asparpiUez, pp. 

pi. E.G. 4600. 
Spawn; cf. espandre, v. (to 

shed), Y. 
Specifies, specefie, pr. 8. Y.h. 

161 ; especefie,^r. 8. 8ubj. Y.a. 

343 ; especefie, pp. L.A. 466. 
Spender, despcndeour, 8. L.G. 

Spiccrie, ». spicery, L.A. 224. 
Spies, espyes, h.h. 58, 92; 

espies, G. 1841. 
Spine, espine, 8, (thorn), E.G. 

Spirit, espirit, ». S.R. 126 

(1297); spirit, Be. 450; spiriz, 

Cre. 1206; espiryt, Lh. 94. 
Spiritual, espiritual, adj. Y.h. 

Spirituality, espiritualte, *. Y.h. 

Spouse, espuse, *./. E.G. 3883; 

espouses, 8. pi. f. L. 320. 
Sprats, sprottes, 8. pi. L.A. 236. 
Squash; cf. esquessir, 9. (to 

crush), E.G. 260. 



Squires, esquiere, «. p?. P.S. 127 

(b. 1272). 
Squirrels, esquireus, *. ;*/. L.A. 

Steliility, estabiUto, t. V.; Be. 

1443; (foundation). 738. 
Stable, estAble, ae^. S.R. 169 

(1313) ; I.*- 146; L.C. 66. 
Stage (position), estage, L. 222 ; 

(plftttorm), estago. O. 6006. 
Standard, eatandanl, L. 476 ; 

E.C. 46U. 
Standard (of weight), estendard, 

S.R. 321 (1352). 
Standard a ( measures) , estand- 

Hrdz. S.R. 2S5 (1340). 
Stank (pool), lostang, n.Y.e. 303 ; 

CBtun}{, Y.a. 41 5 ; i^stoak (dam 

of a mill), YJ. 451. 
Stnple (of waree). estaple. S.R. 

A^'l [^Statute of Siapla,] t.n. 

1353i eatapleB,^;.269(132S). 
Stature, eetnture, L.b. 440; (coa- 

dition), L.C. 225. 
Statute, atatut, S.R. 39 (1285) ; 

T,o. 31 ; eetatut, S.R. 97 

(1285); L.C. 220. 
Stencilled, estencille, pp. L.b. 

Sterling coin, esterling, ». S.R. 

132 (1299); 299 (1343); 

L.i. 172; I.e. 189. 
StewB, estouvea, i. pi. L.A. 277. 
Stockfish, stokfisBhe, S.R. 355 

Stole, eBtole, I. P.S. 243 (1807). 
Stop up, estoper, v. Y.J, 23 ; 

estuper, Be. 784 ; estope. pp. 

Jj.b. 98 ; estopez, pp. pi. S.R. 

246 (1325.) 
Store, eator, «. S.R. 288 (1340); 

P.S. 141 (b. 1307); L.C. 385. 
Story ; c£. estorer, v. (to found, 

lit. build up), L.C. 218 ; E.C. 

p. 19, 1. 13. 
Story, estoyre, «. (hiatory), P.S, 

137 (b. 1307). 
Stour, estur (batUe), G. 1893 ; 

E.C. 4220. 

StoTeT, eaforer, ». (sustenanw), 

Y.fl. 19, 21. 
Strains, esb^int, pr. t, L. 188. 
Strait (narrow), ostroiti, a4j. pi. 

L.A. 508; L.C. 117; cstiuit, 

*. P.S. 292 (b. 1307); oatnute, 

»./. S.R. 132 (1299). 
Straitly, eBtreitemeiit, aJv. L.C. 

Strange, estrange, adj. L.VT. 

23 ; Y.O. 89 ; S.R. 184 

Strangle, cetrangler, v. Be. 1286; 

esti-angla, pt. g. S. 1090 ; 

eatrangle, ^. E.C. p. 15. 
Stray, i. Btroy, L.C. 434, 486. 
Strife, estrifs, E.C. 289 ; estiif, 

L.C. 21 ; V. 
Studies, eetudyc, pr. I. L.}. 

Study, estndie, «. (reverie\ E.C. 

1296; eetiude, E.C. 3369. 
Stuns, estuno, pr. i. E.G. 280. 
Sturgeon, Btiirioun, *. L..K. 382. 
Subdued, subdua, pp. S.R. 339 

Subject, suget. adj. E.C. 1712. 
Subjection, subjeccion, S.R. 292 

(1340); siibjeceions, J)/. Y.b. 

489 ; subjecciuQ, V. 
Subjects, subgiz, «. pi. S.E. 308 

(1346); subgia, L.C. 21. 
Submission, ». Bubmiesion, Y.B. 

Subprior, suppriour, L.J. 126. 
Subsequent, Bubsequente, tdi. 

Subsidy, subside, S.R. 299(1344). 
Substance, substance, Y.e. 41. 
Subtlety, sotiltee, S.R. 395 

(1373); Butilitet, Cre. 531. 
Subtly, Buttlement, a^. Cre. 

Suburb, Buburbe, S.R. 97 (1385); 

Y.fl. 25. 
Subversion, Bubyersion, S.R. 800 

(1344); Bubversioun, L. 184. 
Successors, BucceBsours, $, pi. 

S.R. 290 (1340) ; L.A. 419. 




Saccour, succour, L. 302 ; souc- 

cour, 4; soccours, 16; soccour, 

70; sucun, G.5821; Ore. 724; 

Bucur, V. 
Succour, Bucure, v. Y. 
Sudden, 8odeyne,S.R.255 (1 327); 

sudeine, E.G. 3257. 
Suddenly, sodeinement, S.E. 187 

Sue, Buire, 0. S.R. 27 (1275); 

sure, Y.«. 473. 
Suffer, Boeffrir, v. (permit), Y.^;. 

Sufferance, suffraunce, «. Y,a. 

417; 8u£rance, £.0. 4269. 
Suffice, suffisent, pr. pi. S.R. 

221 (1276?). 
Sufficient, sufficient, adJ.Y.e. 33; 

suffisantes, pi. S.R. 188(1 322). 
Sugar, zucre, s. L.A. 224. 
Suggestion, suggestion, S.R. 321 

(1352); suggestioun, P.S. 274 

^b. 1307). 
Suit (ut law), sute, 8. Y.a. 223 ; 

soute, 69, 79 ; suite, S.R. 27 

(1275); siute, syute, 8. (Lat. 

8ectam\ A.B. 472, 480. 
Suit (of clothes), suyte, 8, L.C. 

226 ; cf. Lat. 8eeta, 476. 
Suitors, sutors, 8. pi. Y.h. 501 ; 

Y.e. 339; suitiers, S.R. 35 

Sum, summe, 8. S.R. 53 (1283); 

L.C. 221 ; V. ; sume, Cre. 

Sumach, symak, 8. L.A. 224. 
Hummit, sumette, 8. Y,c. 69. 
Summon, somoundre,r. L.C. 177 ; 

Bommonez, imp. pi. S.R. 46 

(1278); somunz, pp. Y.a. 9. 
Summons, somons, 8. Y.c. 69 ; 

L.C. 123; somonz, Y.a. 13; 

Bomonse, «./. S.R. 29 (1295) ; 

Bomonses, j?/. L.C. 221. 
Sumnor, orSummoner, sumenour, 
i ^8. pi. Jj.W. 47. 
Supper, sopere,* S.R. 279 ( 1 336) ; 

floper, L.C. 227 ; P.S. 140 (b. 

1307) ; super, E.C. 3538. 

Supposes, suppose, pr. 8. Y.a. 

35 ; Y.e. 19 ; supposee, pp*f. 

S.R. 320 (1352). 
Surcease, surseer, v. S.R. 300 

(1344); Bursesent, surscisent, 

pr. pi. 8uhj. S.R. 49, 52 

(1278-9). See below. 
Surcease, sursise, 8. L.W. 50 ; 

{aho sursera «> Lat. supcr- 

sederit), ibid. 
Surcharge, surcharge, 8. Y.c, 45, 

227 ; sourcharge, S.R. 191 

Surcharged, surcharge, pp. Y.e. 

Sur-coat, surcoto, 8. L.C. 226. 
Sure, seur, adj. S.R. 53 (1283); 

E.C. 2234 ; V. ; scure, /. L.C. 

Surety, seurte,*. S.R. 30 (1275) ; 

Y.^. 463 ; L.C. 167 ; suretee, 

L.A. 187. 
Surfeit, surfet (outrage), H. 772; 

lj.h. 326; surfait, L.&. 294; 

(annoyance), P.S. 292 (b. 

Surgeon, cyrogen, surrigicn, 

sirogen, L.J. 158; cyrogen, 

surigicn, 104. 
Surmounts, surmounte, pr. s. 

L.C. 16 ; surmunte, E.C. 385 ; 

surmunte, pp. Be. 746. 
Surname, sumun, 8. Be. 1080; 

sumouns, pi. S.R. 378 (1363). 
Surplus, surpluis, 8. L.C. 222; 

surplus, E.C. 4215. 
Surprised (took by surprise), 

surprist, pt. 8. P.S. 280 (b. 

1307); susprifl, jE?/7. L. 468 ; V. 
Surquedry (pride), surquidoryo, 

L. 178; surquiderie, E.C. 

Surreptitious, surreptice, S.R. 

334 (1353). 
Surround, suroundent, pr. pi. 

(overflow), L.5. 324; surundc, 

pp. Y.e. 331 ; V. 
Sursanure (wound), sursaneure, 

:N. 1112. 



Survey, surveer, r. 8 R. 285 

(1340); L.C. 195; surveier, 

L.A. 512. 
Surveyor, surveour, «. Jj.h. 402 ; 

surveours, pi. L.C. 126 ; S.R. 

289 (1340). 
Survive, survive, pr, ». subj, Y.a. 

59; Y.*. 867; pr. 8. S.R. 

224a (b. 1327) ; survivent, pr. 

pi. L.b. 150. 
Suspected, suspecte, pp. S.R. 

163 (1311); Buspectz, pi. 

L.A. 312. 
Suspended, suspendu, pp. S.R. 

49 (1278); L. 410 ; L.C. 

Suspense, in, en suspens, S.R. 

328 (1352). 
Suspension, suspencion, s. Y.c. 

Suspicion, suspeciun, s. S.R. 29 

(1275); 97(1285); suspecioun, 

L.C. 283. 
Sustain, sustenir, v. S.R. 26 

(1275); 100(1285); sustener, 

Y.fl. 49 ; sustenu, pp. V. 
Sustonanct*, sustenance, Y. a. 351 ; 

S.R. 224 (b. 1327); susten- 

aunce, S.R. 221 (1276?). 

Table, tabic, S.R. 133(1299); 

273 (1335); V. 
Taches ; cf . tacbes, 8. pi. (pegs), 

Y.c. 53. 
Tailors, taillours, pi. S.R. 312 

Tally, taille, L.A. 214; tayle, 

Y.a. 69 ; tailles, pi. S.R. 319 

Tainted, teint, pt. 8. E.C. 2611 ; 

Talent (wisb, desire), talent, V. 
Talons, talouns, 8. pi. (lieels), 

P.S. 321 (b. 1307). 
Tanners, tannours, «. pi. S R. 

Tant aniunto {i.e. that is tanta- 
mount to), Y.a. 31 ; tant 

amount, Y.b. 335. 


Tardy, taidif, adj. (late), 

873, 877. 
Targe, targe, «. L. 22. 
Tarry; of. targerunt, fiU. 

(they will delay), 

larger, v. V. 
Tas, tas, 8. (stack, heap), 

Taste, r. taster, L.A. 359; {r. 

written tasters), 316. 
Tavern, taveme, 8. S.R. 

(1285); L.A. 272. 
Tavemers, tavemers, 8. pL 

Tawny, taune, adj\ L.C. 129 
Tawyers, 8. pi. (Eng.) tawy( 

L.A. 720. 
Tax, tax, *. S.R. 289 (1840). 
Taxer, v. to tax (in law), 

247 ; taxe, pp. S.R. 48 (127 
Taxation, taxacion, S.R. 

(1361); L.C. 198. 
Taxers, taxours, pi. S.R. 2 

Teal, tele, ». L.A. 466. 
Temper (mortal*), temprer, r. 

Tempest, tempeste, G. 196 

tcinpestos, pi. E.C. 349 

tempestez, Cre. 568. 
Templars, Templers, /?/. S.ll. 1 

(1321); L.C. 689. 
Temple, temple, «. L. 32 ; L. 

110; y. 

Temple-Bar, Tcmple-barre, S.R-^^ 

349 (1354). 
Temporal, temporale, adj. Yi " 

87 ; t^»mporal, Y. 
Temporalities, temporalitees, pl^ 

S.R. 255 (1327). 
Tempted, temptez, pp. Be. 568. 
Tenancy, tenaunce, 8. Y.c. 27. 
Tenant, tenant, «. Y.a. 223: 

Y.b. 311; tenaunt, S.R. 36 

Tended towards, tendi, pt. 8. V. ; 

tendant, pres. part. Be. 1566. 
Tender, tendre, adj. Y.a. 29; 

L.b. 118. 






Vicar, vicaire, Y.a, 413; vicare, 

L.b. 212 ; Y.h, 255 ; vikeres, 

pi. S.R. 287 (1340). 
Vice, vice, s, KC. 689. 
Victor, victor, li.b, 60. 
Victory, victorie, «. P.S. 125 (b. 

1272); Cre. 625. 
Victual, vitaiUe, #. S.R. 27 

(1275); L.C, 192; vitailles, 

pL 262 (1330). 
Victuallers, vittailers, s. pi, S.B. 

282 (1340) ; vitaillers, L.A. 

View, view (sight), L.A. 182 ; 

vewe, Y.a. 67, 73; S.R. 192 

(1323); veuo, Y.a. 165 ; vue, 

E.C. 2784. 
Vigil, vigile, $. Cre. 952. 
Vigour, vigur, $. Cre. 456. 
Vigorous, vigrus, adj. E.C. 284. 
Vigorously, vigorousement, L. 

302 ; H. 869. 
Vile, vil, adj. Be. 842. 
Vilely, vilement, L. 438 ; L.C. 

Vilein, #. vilein (peasant), Y.o. 

57; villein, S.R. 228 (1324?); 

vyleyn. Y.a. 41 ; P.S. 138. 
Vill, vile, i. (farm, or town), 

Y.a. 25. 
Villain. See Vilein. 
Villainy, vilanie, «. G. 3760. 
Vine, vigne, s. Be. 864. 
Vintage, vendenge, S.R. 331 

Vintners, vynters, s. pi. S.R. 392 

(1369); Vineter, 8. {proper 

name), Y.b. 301. 
Viol, viele, V. 

Violence, violence, E.C. 2432. 
Violently, violenment, S.R. 386 

Virgin, virgine, G. 3753 ; Cre. 

524 ; virgne, V. 
Virtue, vertu, S.R, 157, 158 

(1311); V. 
Virtuous, vertuous, adj. H. 155. 
Visage, visage, V. ; L. 190 ; faux 

visages (masks), L.A. 647. 

Viscount, visconte, e. (sheriff), 

S.R. 28 (1275); viconte, Y.^. 

7 ; viscunte, A.B. 455 ; vis- 

countes, pi. L.C. 130. 
Vision, a^'i8iun, «. E.C. 631 ; V.; 

avision, N. 585. 
Visit, visiter, v. L.C. 224 ; L.^. 

Vivers (victuals), vivres, i. pi. 

S.R. 269 (1335). 
Voice, voice, L. 260; voiz, Be. 

970; E.C. 1487. 
Void, voide, adj. /. Y.b. 299 ; 

Y.c. 185 ; L.C. 199. 
Void (leave), voider, v, V. ; S.R. 

162 (1311); L. 164; voyder- 

o\inty fut. pi. Jj.C. 168. 
Voidance, voidance, s. S.R. 293 

Vouch, voucher, v. S.R. 36 

(1275); Y.b. 337; vocher, 

Y.a. 3 ; Y.b. 7. 
Voucher, s. voucher, Y.a. 229; 

vocher, 29, 49. 
Vow, vuu, E.C. 1094, 1232 ; 

wu, V. ; avou, L.b. 88. 
Vow, voer, v. N. 806 ; vouait, 

pt. i. P.S. 316 (b. 1307). 
Voyage, vayage, L. 94 ; veage, 

G. 4733; veiage, E.C. 1519. 
Vulture, vulturs, V. 

Wadmal, wadmal, e. L.A. 225. 
Wafers, wal'res, e. pi. L.C. 473. 
Wage (prize), wage, 8. L. 222 ; 

gages (wages), pi. S.R. 137 

Waif, waif (strayed creature, 

said of a man), E.C. 3204 ; 

wajrf (waif), L.C. 434, 486 ; 

weifs, J?/. L.C. 151. 
Wainscot, weynscotte (Dutch ?), 

L.A. 238. 
Wait (watch), guaitcr, v. L.W. 

28 ; G. 629 ; wayter, L. 448; 

gueitcr, E.C. 459. 
Wait, wayte, 8. (watchman), 

L.A. 646 ; geytes, pi. L.A. 








.18 OCTOBEB, 1258. 





Unfortunately, his early death left much of liis wort 

On making enquii'ieB lately nt the Bodleian, I found tD* 
the matter appeared to be forgotten, nor could any account o* 
it he found in Mr. Turner's published work. I had rays^*^ 
forgotten the name of the book which he showed me, lliouS 
I rcmeinhered the general appearance of it. After awlii'-*^" 
Mr. Madan suggested trying a. book by Dr. Ingram, wU^^^ 
we at once found it. In the Memorials of Oxford, *^lT 
J. Ingram, D.D., President of Trinity College, three voluiX*^'^ 
octavo, 1837, vol, iii. p. 5, we read as follows : — 

" But a singularly curious document in the same languis^^'^ 
[ho had just been speaking of the latest portion of tt»^ 
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle], lately discovered in the archi-*-'^^ 
of the city by Mr. Joy, throws some light on the tranM»-*^~ 
tions which took place here in the memorable oonl^^^^ 
between King Henry III. and his rebellious barons, . — 
The King issued a public writ or proclamation addres»^*"** 
to his loyal subjects in every county," etc. 

He then gives a facsimile of a small portion of the M£=»— » 
with a transcript of it, and a Modern-English versic*** - 
Fortunately, Dr. Ingram had edited the Anglo- Sai<^**^ 
Chronicle, and understood the language. His print of ** 
is tolerably accurate, much more so than the singularly !>****■ 
versions of the Huntingdonshire proclamation which we^a 
printed by Mr. Ellis's predecessors, and have been reproduc* 
by him in his elaborate edition. 

On enquiry at the town-clerk's office, every facility i^* 
afforded me, and it was not long before we found it. Tb^ 
MS. appears to have been at some time much creased »** 
one place by folding it up, so that many letters whit^** 
Dr. Ingram read correctly (unless he took his readings ito*" 
the other MS.) are at present entirely illegible, though tD* 
MS. is DOW properly flattened out and well mounted. 

It consists of a slip of vellum twelve inches long and fi*"^ 
and three-quarter inches broad, folded over lengthwaysi *' 
the bottom, to the depth of half an inch. The strip o*" 
vellum by which the seal was attached is still fastened '" 





deadliche foon. (8) And for J'et we willen ]?ei Jis beo 
Btedefest and lestinde . we Bendeu jew )iis writ open . sened 
wij" vre aeel . to healden ainoa[ii]ge8 !e[w iu hor]d. 
Witnease va seluen set (9) Lunden' \ieae Egtetenjie day on 
Jie MonJ'e of Octobr' In J)e two andfowertijj'e jear of Tre 
cruni/fge A[n]d J>ia wea don setforen [vrje sworen redesmen 
Boneface (10) Archebiachop on Kanterbur'. Walt' of Cante- 
low . Biaciiop on wirechestr'. Sim' of Muntford eorl on 
on L[eir]uliestr'. Ric' of Clar' eorl on Gloiichestr' and (11)_ 
on Hurtford . Hog' Bigod eorl on Northfulk' and Mareschi 
on Engleneloand'. Perrea of Sauueye Will' of fort eorl oDil 
Aubemarl'. loh' of Piece' (P}' eorl on (12) Warewik . loh'f 
Geffrees sune . Perres of Muntfort . Ric' of Grey . Rog' i 
Mortem'. lames of Aldithel' and Ktforcn ojre inoje." 

There are two forms of g ; the usual ;/ ia left in roman type ffl 
the Middle- En gli ah j (for y or gh) ia duly noted. There is ■ 
mark over i in four cases only — viz. in the word in, 1. i 
8!rerie>t, I. 4 ; leen'en, 1. 5 ; and tnoge, the last word. 

The chief gain is the correction of inoge for moge, as printed 
by Mr. Ellis. It is interesting to see that Prof. Earle has 
already made this correction, aa may be seen by consulting 
his print of H. in hia work upon T/ie Philology of the English 
Tongue. Of course the plural of mog would have been moget, , 
and the final e shows that a plural at^ecdve ia require 
Compare menn inoghe, Ormulum, 79^12 ; ofire treoa . . inoght 
Ormuliim, Homily, 1, 13 ; ofeere houses t/noire, P, Plowmaa'H 
Crede, 215. Ingram prints it as "mo/ige," but the marlC^ 
above the word ia the uaiial very fine hair-line above the i, 
not a short thick stroke above the o. Probably this fine 1 

' The query after " riem' " merely ineBTia that tha word is indistillct ; hat £ 
do ant thidk it can poudhly be '■ I'liva','' as Dr. IngniiD priulvd jt. One at tt 
rGHdeni of TAe Acailtmy look it to mean that I vouted iuIuntuitioiL abonl tl 
pvnon here referred to, vhich wu not the caee. 

I may odd here that, in rA» Acadimy of Miiy 13. I gave u list of the »u, 
from the original which are to be found in Dr. Ingmm'a prinlai copy, w 
Eoemed needless to npiodnce liere. The moat important of them ore these 
4 ; on [after trtatn] . it is indietinnt, but I read in, na in H. Line G ; naaM 
(false form). LineT; muete (quite wrons) j treowj^e (ogunat the teiue) ; law 
(0. has f.nn, and no vowel but e or o will bt in : H. bu ifoou). line 9 ; ■ larg* 
cross in place of And : I read A.d, and U. baa And. Line 9 ; iewoTen (but nu 
Bweren). Line 12 \}asi nord) ; nionge. 



raij be detected in H., now that we know we are to look for 
It must also be observed that the notice And al on po 
ilche icordcn, etc., does not appear in 0. at all. 

It has thus been shown that we have really too copies of 
tbis Proclamation — viz. H. [the Huntingdonshire copy), and 
and 0. (the Oxford copy). "We also leam, from a note at 
I the end of H., that copies " all in the like words " were 
" sent into every other shire over all the kingdom of England. 
and also into Ireland." The facts, that this note doea not 
appear in 0., and that it forma no proper part of the docu- 
ment, show us that the particular copy on which this note 
has been made is the very one that was retained in London 
(where it still is) as a record of what was proclaimed. 

As a large number of copies had to be made, it is probable 
V that they were multiplied in the usual manner — viz. 
I by employing some official to dictate the words of the 
proclamation to a number of scribes at once, who wrote them 
down to the best of their ability, each man according to his 
own fashion. As it was especially intended by Simon de 
Montfort — for it is to him that we may fairly attribute the 
notion — that the proclamation should be thoroughly under- 
stood by the people, we may be sure that all the persons 
employed were, on this special occasion, conversant with 
English. But, as there was at that time no one dialect 
which was conaidered as being the best for literary purposes, 
each scribe was personally responsible for the spc/iiiit/ and 
infiectious which it pleased him to use, though he had no 
power over the actual wording};. For the purpose of exhibit- 
ing the variationa between H. and 0. in the simplest manner, 
[ J shall assume that the person dictating used the Southern 
L dialect, sufficiently represented by H., while the scribe of O, 
1 was best acquainted with Midland Engliab, and consequently 
I altered some (but not all) of the Southern forms to anit his 
I own ideas. This theory is only assumed for convenience; the 
I facts remain the same, however they are to be accounted for. 
If we now collate the two copies, we find, first of all, 

' Mr. E11U ho-q since detected thia etrokc ; gee his reiuark^ on p. 17B*. 


certain variations which are purely graphic, and of no 
linguistic significance. Thus, in H. we have Henr^, but in 
0. Henri ; with other variations of no consequence. 

Besides these, we have the following readings of H., where 
the figures between marks of parenthesis refer, as before, to the 
numbers of the lines in 0. : — 

(1) hise ; ilaerde ; (2) Huntendon'schir' ; ])aBt (passim) ; 
rsodesmen ; dsel ; beo]> ; (3) habbe]> ; gode ; loande ; to 
foreniseide ; (4) stedefsest ; ilestinde ; sende ; stedefaestliche ; 
(5) isetnesses; imakede; makien; to foren iseide; rsedesmen; 
dsel ; (6) biforen ; done ; )}an ; o]>e ; done ; foangen ; loande ; 
(7) ilet ; ifoan ; (8) stedefoDst ; iseined ; halden a manges ; 
(9) ))ane ; jeare ; idon; isworene ; (II) Marescal. 

It remains to sort out these variations so as to show clearly 
to what they amount. We may at once dismiss the reading 
Ifuntendon*schiy, since this varied for every copy. We 
cannot be sure that H. twice has done where O. has don, 
because in both places O. is hardly legible. There is but one 
real variation of wording — viz. that biforen in H. becomes 
toforen in 0. 

But all the other variations show a most surprising 
regularity, and are not without instruction to those who are 
interested in orthography and grammar. 

Orthographical differences are as follow : — 

O. puts e for ce in twenty-three instances — viz. in ikerde^ 
ficet (fourteen times), rcedesmen (0. redesmen, twice), dml 
(twice), stedefcBst (0. stede/est, thrice) ; cende. 

O. puts for oa in foangen ; but, contrariwise, oa for o in 
o/)e. Also oa for the second a in a-manges. 

O. puts e for ei ; in sened for iseined. Also ea for a ; in 
healden for halden. Also e tor a\ in fiene for fiane. Also sch 
for ac ; in Mareschal for MarescaL 

Grammatical differences are as follow :— 

O. drops the final e of a grammatical inflection in seven 
instances. Of these, two are plural endings — viz. hise and 
iHWorene ; and five are datives singular — viz. godcj loande 
(twice), ojyey and ^eare. 

Again, 0. drops the Southern prefix t- (A.-S. ge^) in ten 


itances — ^viz. tseide (twice) , ilestinde^ tseitnesses, imakede, 

f, ifoan, iseined, idon (once), iaworene. It may further be 

narked that it retains the prefix in seven instances — viz. 

'etinge^ ikrde, ileawede, ichosen, idon (once), isetd, iweraed; 

t it nowhere inserts it. 

Again, O. has J>at for />an in the construction bi pan ilche 

^ where /an is the dative of the definite article. 

Lastly, O. has three unmistakeable instances of Midland 

ammar as distinguished from Southern — viz. in the forms 

9fi9 habben, and maken, as compared with beop, habbep^ and 


I venture to submit that all these variations follow much 

ore regular laws than might, perhaps, have been expected. 

he spelling and grammar of Middle English are less 

ipridous and chaotic than they are generally believed to be. 


ERB*Ti nt AtEXAirnEK J.'s copy op the ostr Ekolish Pro- 
cwiuiiow OP Hehby III. a the Phuolooicai. TttAsaAcnos- 

1B68-9 Part I. 

£nglhh Veriim. 

Piige 23, line 2, for "Will' r»ad Will', aithout a dot to thf t. 

„ line 3, for Warewik' read Worewik, without a niari of con- 
„ line 5, for Aldithel rsorfAIdilliel', wi'/A « mari nfcontraetion. 
* „ line 6,/or nioge read inoje. Error discovered on 19 June 
1882, the da-sh over tbe i being extremely faint and 
Hom, and practically invisible to the naked eye. Cut 
out all said about mo^e pp. IS, 120, 121, etc. 

In tlis Introduction. 

Page 8, note laat line, riad Sir Harris. 
„ 11, line 2 for Comitss read Comitat*. 

Fimch reraian. 

I'ago 3S, line Sfar Tu^ read tii^. 

„ line 5, for ki read kf ; and in other cases where a dot 
occurs over i, read i leil/ioul a dot. 
Page 20, line 7, and p. 22, 1. I, for et read tt, denoting on expanded 
„ 22, line S/or de fort read de forz. 
„ line 4, for Warrewyka read Warrewyk' totlh marl of eat- 

All the above, except the one marked *, were corrected in my 
Early Engliih Pronuneiation, pp. 501-5, A paper had been printel 
in 1869 containing these corrections (except *), but seema to 1>»'* 
been accidentally omitted in binding the Transactions. Prof. Skeat ' 
valuable and interesting paper on the preceding pag;e8 affords me 
means of publishing them. 

22 June 1882, Alesandeb J. Ellis. 

I J 

• ir 








{Philological Transactions^ 1880-1, Appendix HI.) 






{Phihlogieal Transactions, 1880-1, Appendix III.) 

Pkof. p. Meteb, at p. 63 of Volume XI. of " Romania," 
expresses himself as follows on the subject of the above 
paper : *' U n'y a dans cet article rien de bien nouyeau, et le 
prince B. ne tient peut-6tre pas assez de compte des recher- 
ches ant^rieures sur le mfime sujet ; toutefois il est de fait 
que ses collections d'exemples sont beaucoup plus riches que 
oelles de ses devanciers. Mais k la fin, je lis ayec ^tonnement 
un paragraphe ainsi con9u : ' Spanish, Portuguese, Friulano, 
Occitanian, Catalonian, Modem Occitanian of France, Franco- 
Oooitanian (Ascoli's Franco-Pro venzale), French, and Walla- 
chian have no neuter plural in a/ Que le fran9ais n'ait pas 
de neutres en a, cela est assez naturel, puisque Va latin post- 
tonique s'affidblit en e, mais il en a en e, ce qui revient au 
mdme. Le prince ignore-t-il que mille, et en anc. fr. charre, 
paire^ etc., sont pour la forme, des neutres latins P £t en 
proY. il ne manque point de ces neutres terminus en a tout 
comme en italien ; voy. Mussafia et Tobler dans ' Jahrbuch 
fur rom. Literat. viii. 127-8, ix. 116-7 ; De Wailly, BibHo- 
thique de PEcole des Chartes, 6* s^rie, iv. 367-70, etc/ " 

Mr. Meyer will perhaps allow me to make a few remarks 
on this criticism: 1^ The sole object of my paper was to 
shew plural substantives in a in the greatest number of the 
Neo-Latin dialects in which I had been able to ascertain their 
existence, either by verifying them in the places where they 
are in use, or by examining carefully (contrary to what Mr. 
Meyer implies) not only previous researches on the subject, 
but also numerous works (some of which are very scarce), as 



(By C. B. Catlbt, B.A.) 

Ab this Tolnme contaiiu four separate paginations, it should be understood 
that numbers preceded by ' A' refer to the five Appendices, * P' to the Monthly 
Abstract of Proceedings, and * S' to the Supplement. 

X.B.— Pa^M 67-86 of the Uonihij Abatracta are not included in this Index. 

Accent, in Portu^^oese, etc. 

prosomo, 84 

— — tonic, 33 

jideptt etymology of, 335 

Addresses, Annual. See President's 

utf/V-ay, P 16 
Airica, the languages of, Mr. B. N. 

Oust, P 36 
jlieUf historic spellings of, P 39 
Algonkin genders, 245 
A^o- French, English words in, a 

rough Ust by Kct. W. W. Skbat, 

A 91 

introduction, A 93 

- list of abbreviations. 

A 100 

list of words, A 102 

Aryan Ursprache, recent investigations 
in, reported by Mr. H. Sweet, 

primitive vowel, its varieties, 1 56 

•*!©•' series, 156 

weakening of its combinations. 


« gradation" resulting in 

« 0," 159 
— «a" series, 160 
summary, 161 

Jeper, etymolo^ of, 339 

Attire^ P. 17 

Authorised and revised versions of the 

Bible, the JVof an, etc., in, 347 
Aievedo, Senhor O. de» Portuguese 

read by, P. 12 

Baeoy etymology of, 340 
JBmd^er, P 17 

Bank, in Scotch place-names, 329 
Bantu genders, 244 

Bantu languages, P 7. P 8, mother- 
tongue theory of, 61 
Baeiumj etymoloey of, 341 
Bautzen, vocabuuuies of Polabic, 74 

Batkbs, Mr. Herbert Morton, the 
psychological method in its appli- 
cation to language, P 62 

BxLL, Prof. A. Graham, on Visible 
Speech in teaching the deaf, P 42, 

Bell, Mr. A. M., visible speech 
alphabet, 187, revised by Mr. II. 
Sweet, 203 

Bonaparte, Prince L.-L., on Portu- 
guese simple soun^, 23, P 12 

— ^— on neuter 

Neo-Latin substantives, A 46 aod 
P 41 ; Postscript, A 179. 

the simple 

sounds of all the living Slavonic 
languages compared with those 
of the principal Neo-Latin and 
Germano-Scandinavian tongues, 

on Polabish 

and Cassubian, P 38 

B&AKD&BTH, Mr. £. L., on the 
Gaurian compared with the 
Romance languages, part 2, Mor- 
phology, A 1, P 24 

on Gender, 

236, P50 

JBreeze, P 17 

Bbowne, Mr. Walter E., the distribu- 
tion of English place-names, 86 
and slip, and P 39. 

■^— — ^— on the distribu- 
tion of place-names in th£3 Scottish 
lowland, 322 and P 61 

studies in English 

Patronymic Surnames, P 53 
Buddhist literature, etc. &ee Pali, 162 
Bushman. See Hottentot - Bushman 

languages, P 7, P 8 
Bushmans, a newly-found language of 
the, Miss Lloyd, P 43 

Caballue, etymobgy of, 341 

Caseubian langun^, F 38 
CauFBsiaa laa^nges, gender in, Sj4 
CiYLBY, Mr. C. B., un a iliHituitj in 
Bosaiaii'giaminar, E>1, P 31 

dmu, etrmologj oU 345 

Clakkb, Mr. Hyde, on Ihe EtmBcan 

<Siug/i in Scotch plaee-names, 329 
Compouuda, Engluh, itieaa in, Mr. E. 

Sweet, P Qi 
Ciwticv, P 17 
Oi-arm, P 17 
Cne languid, and (mcci?w[iil nie of 

the Hjllabio alphabet in leauhing 

it. Uey. Arclidaacoo Kikkby, P 29 
Cpbt, Mi. It. N., on tbe laoguagca of 

Alriea, PQ 

Danish, a gender hinguage ? 242 
' ■«■« to put. I' 
le and P Ifi 
preriouB Tiewa of the reats da, 

iha, how distributed in Latiu, 99 

■ phonetic objection to dha, 99 

• snpposai ni-cesaity of dividing 

the compoiind terhs bjr Uieir mean- 

ing, 101 
-- — ■ ■ connexion bt^tneen the two 

meanings, 103 
Dtmdi, Mr. Hhya, his report on Pilli 

c<nnpletcd,I62, IBS 
Dawbon, Mr. Benianiin. the middle 

Toice in Virgil's MaeiA, book 6, 

41, and P 32 
. r notes on the 

If of an, etc., in the authoHiied 

tranalBtionB of the New Tcata- 
ment, 352 
Dc«t, the, tooght by Viaible Speech, 


apelliBg, 1 
Elub, Mr. A. J., notes on Welih 

Ehooetic copy (of an eatlj Bnglith 
ymn), A 42 

errata in bia 

" Henry the Third'a Proclama- 
tion," A 178 

President'i Ad- 

dreaa, 1881, Lady-members, 3£2, 
26d, SpelliDK ImpioTemeatH. 2(9, 
Specimens ol proposed («» Spdl- 
iiigD, Speciiaeua of ImpruTfld), 
30!1, 3td, Conoluaion, 319. St 
Beport, 1881 

— specimen* of hi< 

tbe Sonthern Conntiea of E 

English compound*, fltross in. P 4 

di4lect!. •«• souuils ami dtakMi 

etymologies, Mr, H. Swan. 

sonnds and dinlecla, Mr. 

Sweet, P 1 3 and P 27 
texts. Mi. H. Sweet, on % 

oldest, P 9 
words foimd in Ang^o-F 

SuAnglo-Freneh, A 91 and 

hislorical nol«a. Dr. j>.| 

A. H. MUBRAT, P 39 
BnlumiHe. histeriu forms, P 40 
Er flnal in Seotcb pluve-nsmm. Szn 
Etruscan langoage, Mr. Hrda Clwi* 

on, P 2 
Etymolo^os, English, Mr. H. Sybm 

— -. — English, of the Southern 
eomitiee of England, Mr. A. J. 
Ellis, P 43 

■ — Ilalinn, and neuter nib* 

stantivtsin them,A4T, A 61 

Dictionary of Puli, Dr. Cbildem, 16-2 

Sti Society's Diotionarj 

DrBvidian genders, 242 

Mr. T. B. Spkagcg, lOG and 

Faoshijll, Prof., Pali teita, 188 
Fleav, Mc. F. J., sperimen of im- 

pmred (Tivtorian) spelling, 313 
Fulii-iXaba languages, P 7 
FpftHiTALi, F. J., an enrlj En^M 

hymn to the Vii^n, with a WeWi- 

man's phonetic copy, A 33, not« 

by A. J. Ellis. A 42 

_ n and RomiQW laDguagett com- 
pared, Mr. E. L. fiiuKiiuETU, 
", 1, andP24 
- latest lutboritira, A 3 

Duan aad other parts of Epeech, 


. order o[ wotda and sjmtai, 

A 29 

Gender, Hi. £. L. Bbamubrth on, 
235 and P 60 ; raeanbg of tha 
term, 235 ; gendor lon^^usges, 
fiiBl-claas, 237: gender langoai'eA, 
wcond class, 212; ^eaderlees 
luigaages, 246 ; position of 
English langiiuge, 246 

rational and irrational, 242 

Genders, in Welsh, of Engiisb WQrds, 




Gloanc Spelling. Mr. A. J. Ellis's, 

specimea, 311 
Greekn, Mr. H. Nicol, r65 
' phonology. Mr. H.SwEBToa 

■ lome points in, I' 66 
■lOluolla, Ah Komonsch and Ehaetian 
I kiignage,Mr.RnsseilMABTiNEAn, 
402, and P 22 and P 55 
Oae(t, Dr. Edwin, obitnar; notiiie, 
2G3, and F. 41, list of contribu- 

SaHati, flie Prencli hunting pry, Major 

fiomerOD, 267 and P S4 
Hamitic kogWee, P 7 
Saugk in Scotch plwre-na 

Iniliau Isngnages, Render in, 239 
Irunian bmncb of langusK^, 1 
Italian dialects, neuter lubstantiTes in, 

A 47, A 61, A 179, P 41 
— - -. standard, neuter BuhatantiTes, 

A 46 and F 41 

Keltic languages, gender in, 239 
EiREUv, Bev. Areudeacon, on the Crea 
langua^, and nsL' of the ayllabie 
uharacler in leBi^hing it, F 2B 
Emck in Soolch plece-namee, 330 

L and d in Latin Etymologies, Hr. J. 
P. PusTQXTB, 336 and P 62 

Latin and Greek etymoloEiea. and tbe 
change of L to D in Latia, Mr. J . 
P. PusTciATB, aaS and P 62 

verb, middle roice, iu, Mr. B. 

DavBon, 41 and P 32 

L1.0VU. Mi», books coUeclcd, P 7 

Letter on a new Bushman lan- 
guage, P 43 

Makna Innffuage, Ber. Chadnct 

MvlFLEHon, as and P 36 
how classed, and on 

^B — collated with nun- 

^^m tingdoucDpy, A 17* 

^ Mr. A. J. Etua'a 

^^B copy, errata in. A 178 
^^BSBilld language, origin of tbe deuumina- 

^BSistory of English words, notes by Dr. 
^B J. A. U.^DHRAY, P a9 
^^tSottental-Basbman langnngoB, P 7, 
Boim ia Scotch plaeo -names, 320 
Hymn, an early EnglLsb, with a Wdab- 
man'a phonetic copy, Mr. F. J. 

V*LL, k 33 

IS by Mr. A.J. Ellis, A 42 

SwahiU, S 

- its geographical di«- 

' theory of a Bantn 

mother-tongue, 61 
Makua documents, 62 

phonology. 62 

morphology, 60 

Bcmalologv, 10 

Maplis, Kev. Cb'admct, M.A., notes 

on tbe Makua language, oB and 

P 36 
MABTiNXAtF, Mr. BrsaELi,, on tba Bo- 

monsch and Hbictian language in 

the Grisuns and Tirol, 4U2, P 22, 

P 66 
Middle tuiee in Virgil's sLtth MastA, 

Mr. B. D*n-HON, 41 and P 3-.! 
in the theory of the Latin verb, 

■ — pBssagea exemplifying it, 46 

verba referred lo, 50 

Milinda paQba, Dr. Trenckner, 173 
eitid, 164, 166, 174 

Hoaua, Dr. E-, an PiM, 163 
Mdbbay, Dr. J. A. H., Preaidenfa 
Address tor 1879, Bbrtract of, P 1 

President' a 

AddnsB, IBBO, 117, F 34 : on the 
Society's work in 1879-BD, 117: 
on tho progress of the Suciatj's 
Bicttonarf, 120 ; Dictionary 
'WnntB, 171; on tho Society and 
tho Spelling Eoform, 138; speU- 
ing in the Unital Slutea, 146 ; 
Pcorisiooal Suggestions, 149 

ciety 'a Dictionary [reportfor 1881), 

Evening, P -IS 
Uythology, Scnndinavion, Mr. 
Sweet on, P 10 

GnUo-italiiin. A 60 

GanoMo, A 67 

HomnncBe, A 69 

other Nco-Lntio langoages, 

A 64 
■ odditions lo the paper, 347 

Nat in Scotch ptace-nuoies, 330 
New Testnment, notett on 'TranslBtions 

of, 352 
NicoL, Mr. n., English etymologies, 

in Prof. Skeat'a Dictionary, P 16 
on Greek ti, P 66 


Palaeotypa, Mr. A, J. Ellis's, apoct- 

men, 316 
Paii, Dr. K. Morris's report, 162 

' report of 187S supplemented, 1B2 

important diotionarv by Prof. 

Cbildera, 163 

critical editions, 166 

aindhl in, 107 

Part* of Speecb, Mr. H, Sweet on, P 

Feraiui langnAge, Prof. C. Rtev on, 
name and antiquities, 1 ; literature, 
2 ; chBTOoleriatioa, 3 : wuDd 
clian^, 6 ; their gndiul appear- 
ance, iO ; and reLatton tn 8Ia*iniie 
Bound changes, 23 

Phonology. Su Creek Phonolorj, P 

Pischel, Dr. E., Pfili teita, 107 

Place-names, in the Scottish lotrlandx, 
Mr. Walter B. Prdwsb, SXJ, 

diagram described. 323 

■ special ' ' "* 

Saion, 323 

— endings of donbt 

Negro languages. P 7 

Neuter Nco-Latin substantive*, Prineo 

L. L. BoNAPAJtTE, A 46, 179, and 


introduction, A 48 

Italian {standard Tuscan), A 49 


origin, 328 

Cleugh, 329, Sr, 328 
Oill, 330, i/ui^A, 331 
Eeuf. 320, Xnoik, 330 
Jffu, 330, Och, otk, 3tS 
Bhaui, 329, BhUU, S29 
■ >, 338 

wbich peculiar to S 

land, 339 

conclusions, S30 

Keltic elen 

dlMusBed. 331 
Place-name!, English, Mr. W. '. 

Bkowhe on, SO and slip, and P 11 

- doubtful, 9fi 
. mis<^11a neons, 

grouped in the table, S8 

liartteulars. 98 
Polabes. the, Mr. W, B, MoRnuan, 

74, and P 36 
in Schoftrik's claaafioatiiiB 

of the north-weat«m SI*Ti, 71 
Polabic vociibulariee at Baatien, 74 

language, history of, 7B 

poaition among SlaTonio !•»• _ 

ffunces, 70 ~ 

clittracteristios, 76 

literature, 77 

critioiBm of documenti, 1 

position among Weat SUraoil 

language*, P" 

I Polabic reUlivlu to Foliub, BO 

words sad aoiinda of, 81 

eyotai, 81 

Ics, 8S 


iguage. by 
Prince L.-L. Bonapaktb, P 38 

Polaritj. in laneniige. Sa Faycbolo- 
gii;al QiHthod, 1> 62. 

Portngntse, simple soiujds, Prinoe L.-L. 


orthography, 23, 32 

Bouniu Ruamed, 24 

tabukted, 36 

. (ixeniplilied with 

traulated passnges. 40 

cjiuintity, 32 

accent tonic, 33 

1 prosodic, 34 

Greek etymolo^flB, und the ohaogA 

of L to in Latin. 33S and F o2 

PrsBidenfsAddreea, 1879, abstract of,Fl 

1880, by Dr. J. A. 

H. McBHAV, 117 and P 34.— 
1881, by Mr. A. J. Ellis, 252 
Paytbolozicol method in htasimgH, Mr. 
H. a. Bfl)-nes, F 62 

Qotntity and 3eQt«nce Btress in En- 
glish, Mr, H. Sweet, P 2fl 
Qnnntitj in Portnguese, 32 

Beporta, 1880 :— 

G1.AUST0KK, Dr. J. Hall, on 
the spelling Bcform in 
Gennanv, 13S, P 34 
Motmia, ^r. B., on Pdli, 162, 

P 34 
Swm, Mr. H., an recent 
inveMigation in the Aiyoli 
UraprBChe, 155 
Beport, I8S1,— 

MvtuLkT, Dr. J. A. H., on the 
Society's Dictionary. 260 
Serimd nraion of the Bible. Ste 
AuthorJKed and revised versionB, 
Bhstiiii, ft Bonionacii and 
Bud, Prof. Chasles, remnrks un 

■omB phonetiu luirs in Femiao, 1 
Bonumce uujniages, the Ganrian com- 
pared with, A I and P 24 
BoaiG, Hr. H. SwBsr'e, spccimBo of 
broad, 313 

narrow, 314 

Bomonich and IthirtiBn langungeH 

Maetinbav, 402, F 23, P 55 

RomoaBch Topography. 402 

Phonology, 406 

Gromnur, 428 

'■ Booke, 469 

Bnsainn grammar, a difflculM' in, Hr. 
C. B. Catlbt, 61 and P 31 

TErb, the aspects of, 51 

comparatively re- 
garded, 52, 57 

describod, 66 

how fur anoma- 
lously formod, 51; howaooanledm 
eompunnd verba, 56 ; note oa tbe 
tnmscriptiona, 57 

Snndhl m tbe Fali langnage, 167 
ScundinaviaD inytbolo^, Mr. H. 

Swbet'b report, P 10 
Scbafarik on Slaionic langnages, 74 
Scotch dialects. Sie ^Minboro Had 

LondoD speech, t06 and P 35 
Semitic longnaireB. 107 
ShaK, in Scotch place-namea, S29 
Siuli. in Scutvh place-names, 329 
Simple aounda, PurtiiguMe, 23 

- Slavon 


Sinhalese works, 163 

cliaracter, 165 

Skeat, Rev. W. W.. a rough list of 

English words found in Anglo- 

Fninch, A 91 

the only Engliah proola- 

■' L of Henry III., A 171 

Slavonic languagea. the simple sonnib 
of all U10 living, compured with 
thoae of the principal Neo-Latin, 

tongues, Prince L..L. Bo^fAPAKTB, 

English Philology, P 19, J 

discnsaed, P 81 

SOHEREH, Major van, on the French 


Sound □ 

otation, Mr. Hiiniit Sweut, 

177 ; Etrata, A 191 
Blpliabot, the lloman, how best 

modiJlHi, 177 

of Ml-H Taihh Speech, 187 

ra vised organic, 203 

revised Phonic. 218 r avmbolii, 

genendlist, SaS; keT-nurda, 223; 

BpecimEini, 224 ; in French, 228; 

GEtrman, S30 ; eonectioDe to 

HandbDok of Phonetice, 231 ; 

works quntod, 23o 
South Amcninu knguagefl, gander in, 


— — pnrtial corrections of English, 

Notes for DiKUwion. Qtb July, 
1880, A 67 ; Fnitber Notes, Gth 
and ISth November, A 78; Work 
for the eniuinv Meetingik A 8 1 ; 
SpecimanB [archaic and reformed), 
A 83 ; Partial CorrectioDB ap- 
proved br the Societr, 8 1, whetv 
see Special Index. 8 34 ; Wurki 
of Retereoce. 8 3 ; GonenU Prin- 
ciples, 8 4; Dotails, 8 13; 
Appecdii, 8 33 ; Index, 8 34 

Spelling-relomi, a nieetiag. P 46 

in Germany, report by Dr. 

H. Glaostomh, 139 

in United Stntes. P 46 

Spellings, specimena of Improved {Sft 
President's Addresi), by Hr. A. J. 
Ellis, Qloeeic, 311; Si^estiva 
[llirea schemes), 311; Europie, 
313 ; Pnlffiotypo, 3Ifi 

Mr. W. H. EvAsa (proid- 

inale), 314 

Mr. F- G, Flkak (Victorian), 

Mr. E. Jones, popular, 312 

Mr. H. Sweet, Komic, brond, 

313; Do.noVjSii; on tradilional 

hasii, 310 
Stit^Bs, laws of, in English compounds, 

Mr. H. SWEBT, P 4 

in sonteneos in English, P 26 

Snbhnti,'Waskaduwe,Paii grammarian, 

hiH Namsmals, 163 
Buttas. 6'm Pali, Dr. B. Hokbib on, 

critical editions, ]6a, 167, 368, 

169, 171 
Swahili Isnguflge, aail Makun, 63 
Sweet, Mr. H., on recent inresti^- 

tioo in tlia Aryan I'rsprachu, loo 
Sound-notation, 177 ; 

IBBT, Mr. H., specimens of improved 

anelling, Homic (brond), 313 *, 

Iloniic (narrow), 314 ; ImlitloiwV 

bans, 310 
on the Uwt nf rtr^ifc- 

in componnds in English, P ■* 
on the oldest Eas;! i^\. 

teita, P 9 
reports on 8i'>i"«-^iJ- 

navinn mythology, P 10 
on Qunntily B».-^nd 

Sentence Elress in Engliili, P l^S.^ 

English sounds and dialects, I^ a 
I., i' 13 ; Purt 3, P 27. 

guago, Mr. £. S. PaiBsos, I* ■^' 

Teutonic langnages, gender in, iZ-^*"' 
348 — , 

TeitB, the oldest English, M«"- 

SWBET, P 9 _^ ,( 

r*, the English, Mr. H. Swibt, *1=J, 

Tirol. Sn, Komonseh and ^'"^5^. " 

langnagos, Mr. BusslLl, M.*-*^ SLJ 

NK4P. 402 and P 22. P 6S „ H 

Tbkhckjieb, Dr., Pali edition, 1 7^ ■ 

United States, spelling reform ia, I" * * 

Visible Speech alphabet, Mr. »**^ 
ViI4.H Bkll'b, 187 fl- 
revised by Mr- 

Prof. GunAH Bkll. 2fl» „„ 
ice in the Latin verb. <1 und f '*/. 
■ eiflinples of *^' 

spoken North, Mr. H. 8 

P 46 and P 4H 

IFUi in Scotch plnre-DBmo, H' 

;■? 3. J/ r. 



P - ■ 









Aphoovd op by the Philological Society. 

This statement is printed in the spelling recomended by the 
Society^ as a specimen. 

For ful details, arguments, and statistics, the following 
works, among others, may be consulted. 

Henry Sweet: HUtory of English Sounds, Philological Soc. 
Trans. 1873-4, also publisht separately by Triibner, 1874 
(out of print). 

George Withers: T/te English Language Spelled as Pro- 
nounced, Triibner, 1874. (Givs statistics and rezults of 
experiments in teaching to read with fonetic spelling.) 

Max Miiller: On Spelling Reform, Fortnightly Review, 
April, 1876. Keprlnted in ' graduated fonotypy,' by Isaac 
iPitman, Bath. 

Spelling Reform, Report of the Conference and Public 
Meeting held at the Adelphi, on May 29, 1877. F. Pitman, 
London. (Givs a convenient summary of the hole question.) 

Henry Sweet : Handbook of Phonetics^ including a popular 
exposition of the principis of Spelling Reform. Oxford 
(0. P. S.), 1877. 

J. H. Gladstone: Spelling Reform, from an educational 
point of view ; second edition, 1879. (Givs statistics.) 

The Spelling Reformer and Journal of the English Spelling 
Reform Association. (Issued monthly sinse July, 1880; 
pnblisht by F. Pitman, London.) 


The EngUsh Spelling Reform Association was founded in 
1879, in order to colect, arange, and distribute information 
on the subject of Spelling Reform, by coleeting works on the 
subject, instituting and waching experiments, and promoting 
lectures and public meetings in conection with it. (Secretary, 
John Fenton; Offices, 20, John Street, Adelphi, W.C. 
Annual subscription, five shillings.) 


Objfxts of Spelling Reform. 

Theze can be stated only breefly here. For details and 
statistics see the works enumerated abuv. 

1) To facilitate the acquizition of English spelling; 


2) enabling children and adults to lem reading who ar 

at preznt unable to do so ; 

3) shortning the time spent in leming to read ; 

4) facilitating the aquizition of the ordinary spelling; 

5) efecting a saving of national expenditure; and 

6) spreding the knowledge of English among foreiners. 

7) To remoov etymologicaly misleading spellings* 

History of Spelling Reform within the Phtlological 


Spelling Reform was at first a purely filanthropic mooT- 
ment, opozed by nearly al filologists, both within the 
Society and outside of it, on etymological grounds. Bat a 
change of opinion gradualy came about, so that in 1869 the 
Society apointed a comittee to report on the possibl improov- 
ment of English spelling (Trans. 1870, p. 19 foil.), and 
authorized Messrs. Ellis and Fry to print specimens of their 
propozed reforms in the Transactions (1870, Part I.). The 
partial reform then advocated by Mr. Fry may be regarded 
as a forerunner of the scheme now adopted. The question 
was further discust at two meetings in November, 1870. 


to cum to an agreement. The general opinion was that it 
would be better to wait til a complete scheme of reform had 
been agreed on by foneticians than to atempt to introduce a 
partial one. 

After the successful iotroduction of partial reforms in 
America, many apeals wer made to the Society to take sum 
practical steps to forward the moovment. So the then 
Prezident, Dr. Murray (editor of the Society's great English 
dictionary), took up the subject in his retiring adress on the 
2l8t May, 1880, and laid down the general principls on 
which an imediate partial reform miht be based, and gave 
exampls of the changes he would sugest. Theze propozals 
wer favorably receevd, and a motion was past unanimously, 
asking Mr. Sweet to draw up notes to serv as a basis for 
discussion. Mr. Sweet acordingly drew up a statement of 
the general principls indicated by Dr. Murray, and the 
changes sugested by them, which wer discust at two meetings 
on July 9th and 16th, 1880, the votes being taken only as a 
provizional expression of opinion. Mr. Sweet then drew up 
sum further notes, which wer discust at three meetings, on 
November 5th, 19th, and 26th, the rezults of the meetings 
in July being at the same time revized and confirmd. 
Mr. Sweet was then authorized to prepare a statement of 
theze rezults, which was finaly adopted at the special general 
meeting on January 28th (Mr. Sweet's notes form Apendix 
IV. to the Trans, for 1880-1). 

History of English Spelling. 

The Anglo-Saxons lemt the use of the Roman alfabct 
from the Celts, in whoze orthografy the letters stil retaind 
the pronunciation they had at the time of the Roman 
colonization of Britain, and improovd it by substituting the 
Runic iff for u{u), and ]> and % for tk. The A.S. spelling 
was, of course, holely fonetic, there being no tradition to fall 
back on. It retaind y in its original fonetic value, = French 
fi, and distinguisht the close e from the open (e. 

After the Conquest the Old English orthografical system 


was superseded by the Norman Frencli one, which, agaii 
was afterwards modified by that of Farizian French. 
different Old French orthograSes wer all fonetic aplications' 
of an unfonetic basis, the original Roman pronunciation of 
many of the letters having been much changed. Thus, the 
sound of Latin ;/ was reprezented by u, which was besidee stil 
uzed to denote the sound of Latin ii, which, again, was also 
reprezented by o, when long also by on, whense the change 
of erly Midi English ciime, hits into the later come, kom{t), 
and the prezent confuzion in now, know =- erly Midi E. 
mi, knou. By the loss of the digraf if, French (and 
consequently English) orthografy coud not distinguish 
from close e, so that 0. E. /i^r and Jxer wer confuzed un( 
her, ihcr^ tho the sounds stil continued distinct. 

Towards the end of the Old French period etymological 
spellings began to show theraselvs, becuming common in 
the latter half of the fourteenth century, such a word as 
deie having a silent b inserted into it, to show its origin from 
the Latin debita. Theze etymological spellings of French 
became common in English spelling about the time of 
Caxton, whense such spellings as debt in the prezent English. 

Nevertheless, English spelling continued to be, in prineipl, 
mainly fonelic up to tho seventeenth century. We find in 
the contemporary text of Shaksperc such spellings as mkl, 
eride, bin, lie, for mked, crtrd, been, I will, and even / for ayf. 
The introduction of ea and oa to distinguish the open &onL 
the close vowels in such pairs as sea, nee, moan, moon, mfl 
also a purely fonetic Tudor innovation. I 

Meanwhile great changes in pronunciation wer going (H^i 
while the spelling was becuming more and more fixt. During 
the Tudor period close e and o, as in gee, moon, had change^ 
to their prezent sounds ; in the course of the seventeenth 
century many other changes wer made, and a number of 
consonants were dropt, reuniting in the prezent divergence 
between sound and symbol. 

But in spite of the traditional character of the orthografy. 
important reforms wer made. One was the introduction of 
ea and oa, alredy mcntiond ; another was tho diiferentio- 



tion of u and v, by which such spellings as " reuiue vs, saue 
▼8 from euil, leaue vs not vnto ourselues/' wer reforrad to 
"revive us, save us from evil, leave us not unto ourselves ; '* 
also the gradual restriction of y to its function of consonant 
(except in Greek words), by which myght became might, the 
reform being stil left incomplete in such words as might y^ 
O.E. mihtig, mihti; and lastly the dropping of useless c and 
simplification of dubld consonants in farre, souie^/ar, sou/y etc. 

Even sinse the seventeenth centu