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TRANSACTIONS 



OF THB 



PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 



1885-7. 



PUBLISHED FOE THB SOCIETY BY 

TRTJBNER & CO., LUDGATE HILL, LONDON, E.C. 

AXD 

KARL I. TRTJBNER, 8TRA8SBXJRG. 

1887. c^ 



\^V ^/ 



- zy^//. 



HERTFORD : 
PRINTED BY STEPHEN AUSTIN AND SONS. 




CONTENTS. 



PAOB 

I. — Notes on English Etymology. By the Rev. Prof. 

Skeat 1 

II. — Critical Etymologies. By Hensleioh Wedgwood, 

M.A 13 

III. — ^Pili Miscellanies ; Notes and Queries on Pali. By 

the BeT. Eichabd MoBms, M.A., LL.D 20 

rV. — On the Eevised Version of the New Testament. 

By BxvjAXDT Dawsov, Esq., B.A. 59 

v.— Titfn. A Study of Child Language. By Sr. D. 

A. Machado t Alyajiez, of Seville 68 

VI. — ^Notes on English Etymology; and on Words of 
Brazilian and Peruvian Origin. By the Bev. Prof. 
Skeat 75 

VII. — Celtic Declension. By Whitley Stoees, D.C.E., 

Hon. Fellow of Jesus College, etc 97 

VIII.— The Neo-Celtic Verb Substantive. By Whitley 

Stokes, HC.L., etc 202 

IX. — Influence of Analogy as ezplainiug Certain Ex- 
amples of Unoriginal L and R, By Dr. EjiEDEBicK 
Stock, M.A 260 

X; — Sound-Changes in Melanesian Languages. By the 

Eev. E. H. CoDBiNGTON, D.D., etc 271 

XI. — Notes on English Etymology. By the Rev. Prof. 

Skeat, LL.D 283 

XIL — Notes on the Eevised Version of the Old Testament. 

By BsKJAMur Dawsok, B.A. 333 



ly CONTENTS. 

PAOB 

Xm. — Fourteenth Address of the President, to the Philo- 
logical Society, delivered at the Anniversary Meet- 
ing, Friday, 21st May, 1886. By the Rev. Prof. 
Skbat, M.A., LL.D 343 

SUXMAKT or COMTKMTS. 
JKT&ODUCnON .•• ..• .•• ... ..a ,•• .•• ••• ••• 343 

Obituakt. Mr. Bradshaw ; Mr. Waltek Raleigh 
Browne ; ProfesBor Cassal ; Archbishop Tbbnch ; 

XJI* OXVIvJL a. •«• ... ..a .a. ••• ■•« ••. «*• VM,^ 

Report bt the President ; on The Work of the 

Philological Society 348 

The President ; on * Ghost-Words * 360 

W. Ra MoRFiLL, Esq. ; on Slavonic Philology (April, 

1884, to April, 1886) 374 

J. BoxwBLL, Esq. ; on Sontali 380 

Prof. Thurneysbn ; on Celtic Philology 385 

Prof. Terrien db Lacouperib ; on the Languages of 

China before thb Chinbsb 394 

XIV. — The Breton Glosses at Orleans. By Whitley 

Stokes, D.C.L., etc 639 

XV. — Remarks on the Oxford Edition of the Battle of 

Ventry. By S. H. O'Grady 619 

XVI.— On the Derivations of ' Cad,' ' Luther,' * Ted.' By 

H. Wedgwood, M.A 647 

XVII. — The Origin of the Augment By the Rev. A. H. 

Sayce, M.A 652 

XVIII. — On the Place of Sanskrit in the Development of 
Aryan Speech in India. By J. Boxwsll, H.M. 
Bengal Civil Service 656 

XIX. — The Primitive Home of the Aryans. By the Rev. 

Prof. Sayce, M.A 678 

XX. — Notes on English Etymology. By the Rev. Prof. 

Skeat, LL.D 690 

Index 723 

MoirrHLY Abstbacts fob the Session 1884-6 , . . . i-xxii 

Monthly Abstracts for the Session 1885-6 .. .. i-xlvi 

Monthly Abstracts for the Session 1886-7 ., .. i-xlv 

List of Mekbebs (corrected to May 3, 1886) . . . , i-vnr 

List of Membkbs (corrected to October, 1887) . • • . i-vm 



TRANSACTIONS 

OF THB 

PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETir, 

1885-6. 



I.— NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. By the 

Eev. Professor Skeat. 

[Sead at the Soeiity'a Meeting on Friday ^ If or, 7, 1884.) 

LiBtre. In Piers Plowman, B. v. 138, the character of 
"Wrath is introduced, who says, amongst other things, " On 
limitoures and listres : lesynges I ymped ; " i.e. I engrafted 
lies upon limitors and listres, or in other words, I taught 
such meil how to lie. The meaning of limitor is known ; it 
implied a friar who begged within certain fixed limits. The 
word lUfre is explained by the Lat. lector in the Prompt. 
Parv., as said in my Notes, where I have also remarked that 
lector was the name of one of the minor orders in the church. 
I am now told, on excellent authority, that the name lector^ 
in this sense, is not now, nor ever was, a familiar word ; for 
a man can still, as he always could, be appointed to all the 
minor orders successively in one day, and so become a deacon 
at once ; and such a man cares very little for the title of 
fcc/or, which he never uses. On the other hand, lector was 
a name given to what is known in English as a lecturery i.e. 
an occasional preacher ; see the definitions of lecturer in 
Bailey and Johnson. Thus the lidres were the preaching 
friars, mainly (I suppose) Dominicans, who were also called 
Friars Preachers ; just as the limitors were the begging 
friars, mainly Franciscans. This clears up the sense, and 
will be found to suit the passage exactly, the subject being 
the angry quarrels between the friars and the parish 
priests. 

All that remains is to trace the etymology of liatre, I am 
not able to explain the «, yet it seems to answer to the O.F. 
litrBy which is one of the not very numerous words which 
FhiL Tnai. 1886^ 1 



2 KOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — PROF. 8KEAT. 

were derived from a Latin nominative case ; the ordinary F. 
kcteur is from the Lat. ace. lectorem, but litre represents the 
very form lector itself. Littre, s.v. Iccteur, quotes the O.F. 
Hire, from the Dictionary of La Curne de la Palaye, with a 
quotation ; and observes that litre is from the nom. lector. 
On reference to La Curne, I can only find the form listre} 
I have been led to discuss this word because it throws some 
light also upon the word accoutre. Dr. Murray is inclined 
to adopt my derivation of the O.F, coustre from a Low Lat. 
form custor, a by-form of cii-stos; and the formation is exactly 
parallel. As litre is from lector, so coustre is from cusfor; 
to which I may add that so extremely cautious a writer as 
Kluge assumes a Low Lat. cuator without hesitation, as 
being the only form which could possibly have given rise to 
the mod. O. kilstery a sacristan. 

When we consider the final -r« in such words as listre and 
coustre, I suppose that the r is here due to the Latin r; 
though it seems to me not wholly impossible that the Latin 
'Or might have fallen away, and that, in the suflBx -re, 
the r may possibly be intrusive. However this may be, 
I wish to draw attention to the frequent occurrence of an 
intrusive r after t, and especially st, as being a phenomenon 
worthy of more notice than it has perhaps at present 
received. 

"We find, for example, in Piers Plowman, B. vii, 14, the 
word legistre, a legist. This answers to an O.F. legiste, also 
legist re, which is nothing but the Low Lat. legist a, a word 
formed by adding the suffix -ista (of Greek origin) to the 
base leg' of the Lat. leju. Thus the r is merely intrusive. 

Again we find, in Piers Plowman, C. xvi. 85, the word 
decretistre ; this answers to an O.F. decretidre or decretiste, 
from Low Lat. decretista. Examples of decretistre and 
legistre are given in Littr^, both s.v. d^cr^tiste. Here, once 
more, the r is intrusive. And now we are in a position to 
explain the curious word ditinistre in Chaucer's Knightes 

> Littr6*8 quotation is copied from Lacurne, s.v. Hat re. He does not tell us 
why he alters the form to litre ; we must suppose that he considered the « as in- 
or^rnic, as indeed it must be. 



w » . 



XOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — ^PBOF. 8KSAT. 3 

Tale, 1953, which occurs as a rime to regUtre. I remember 
seeing a remark, I think in Notes and Qupriea, that this form 
baffles explanation; and, at any rate, Dr. Morris has not 
explained it. However, it presents no difficulty; the r is 
merely intrusive, and the word is equivalent to a Low Lat. 
diuin-ista, formed by adding -iaia to the stem of diuin^us. 
To those who tell us that we cannot explain the r in this 
word, we have merely to reply that we are not called upon to 
do more than to declare it to be intrusive. 

Once more. Bailey gives the equivalent forms sophist and 
sophister, which he defines as * a subtil cavilling disputer ; 
also a young student at the University of Cambridge.' 
Here we have an O.F. sophiste, or (with intrusive r) sophist re ^ 
and the intrusive r has actually produced an additional 
syllable in modern English, by confusion with the very 
common suffix -er. In precisely the same way we can best 
explain the word alchemister in Murray's Dictionary ; the 
suffix 'Cr is really due to an O.F. alchemistre, which is 
nothing but alchenmte with an intrusive r after the t. The 
word is written alchemistre in three of the MSS. of Chaucer 
which Dr. Murray duly cites. 

Under alchemister^ Dr. Murray refers us to barrister, as 
being of similar formation. I have no doubt that he is 
right, and that barrister really demands, for its explanation, 
no longer a form than a Low Lat. barrista ; and a barrister 
might just as well have been called a barrist, I regret that 
I cannot find the word either in Low Latin or in O.F. ; it 
does not seem to be an early word. 

Our late President further refers us to chorister. This I 
take to represent an O.F. choristre, with intrusive r; it 
means no more than a chorist. Ducange gives the Low Lat. 
choristay and Cotgrave has F. choriste, * a chorist, a singing 
man in a queer.' 

A very curious example is in the word roistering. Pro- 
perly speaking, roister is a sb., from the O.F. rustre, * a 
roister'; in Cotgrave. Rustre is the same word as O.F. 
ruste, from the Lat. ace. rusticum, a countryman, a clownish 
person. See rustre in Littr^. We have since added another 



4 NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — PROF. SKEAT. 

final -er, and talk of a roisterer. It is worth notice that a 
roisterer means no more than a roister; and again, that 
a roister means no more than a roist, i.e. a rustic. Hence 
the final -erer in roist-erer has actually been suggested by a 
mere intrusive r. I accordingly explain the final -er in 
such words as the familiar £. suffix, the addition of which 
was suggested by the occurrence of a final -re in the corre- 
sponding F. words ; but in the F. forms I look upon the 
r as intrusive, 'Stre being put for -ste. 

Another clear and well-known example of an intrusive r, 
after rt, occurs in cartridge, from the F. cartouche. In the 
word partridge^ the intrusive r occurred originally after rd 
rather than rt^ the F. word hein^ perdrix. This leads us to con- 
sider the possible intrusion of r after other letters. Yet I 
must not dismiss the consideration of the occurrence of r 
after t without a passing mention of what is, I think, the 
most astonishing example of all, viz. in the word treasure, F. 
(rSsor, from the Lat. ace. thesaurum. 

The next letter to be considered is naturally d; I have 
already mentioned perdrix. It will be convenient to con- 
sider the letter / at the same time ; Brachet gives us the 
very curious example of fr for / in the F. fronde, a sling, 
from the Lat. Junda, 

I shall first of all take the word philosopher, where ph has 
the sound of /. This is spelt philosofre in Chaucer ; and I 
contend that the r is merely intrusive. It is precisely the 
same word as the O.F. phiiosophe, from the Lat. ace. philoso^ 
phwn. This being so, I am not convinced that Brachet has 
rightly explained the F. cq/fre, E. coffer. He derives it from 
the Lat. cophinum, by supposing it contracted to caphnum, 
after which the O.F. cqfre results by the change of n to r. 
This seems to mo questionable. We find, indeed, an O.F. 
cojin (see Godefroy), whence E. coffin ; but the usual method 
of formation of O.F. words requires the rejection of the 
medial vowel t, and it seems to me that we should hence 
obtain a form coffie, just as the Lat. terminum produces the 
F. terme. We could also obtain a form cofre by the intru- 
sion of r ; and this will give us the E. coffe^\ Under these 



NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — PROP. SKEAT. 

circumstances, it becomes interesting to look for an O.F. 
cqffe; and I find two examples of this form in Godefroy, 
with the sense of a small tub or vessel for containing water ; 
whilst Roquefort explains cqffe as meaning a cofier, a sort of 
vase. Even in the word order, F. ordre, I do not feel quite 
sure that the n of the accusative ordinem is absolutely 
required to account for the r, as is usually said ; at any rate, 
I would say that, if there was really such a substitution, it 
was readily brought about by the ease with which r could be 
sounded in this position. I would say the same of the 
famous word Londres for London^ which is usually derived 
from the Latin Londiniumy with the change of n to r. I do 
not know how old the F. Londres may be ; but it seems to 
me quite as easy to derive it from the A.S. Lunden, and 
to suppose the r to be intrusive or excrescent. As to the 
final 8, I confess that it puzzles me. 

The intrusive r may have originated in England just as 
well as in France. We have an instance in the word 
lavender, M.E. iauendre, from F. iavande; so also we may 
most easily account for provender, from F. provende, 

I have now considered the occurrence of intrusive r, at 
any rate in some cases, after t, d, /, The other letters which 
would be most likely to admit of it are k (or hard c), g, p, 
and b. I am not aware of any examples in English except 
the word jasper, and possibly culprit. The former is a clear 
case; the O.F. j'axpre is formed with intrusive r from the 
O.F. jaspe, which results from the Lat. iaspidem. As to 
culprit, it may possibly stand from cu/pate, for the Lat. 
cuipahm; but it is well known to be a difficult word. Dr. 
Morris also instances the words bridegroom, hoarse, and 
corporal. In the word bridegroom^ we find r intruded after 
^ in a word of English origin. The other two examples are 
of a different character, and due to a misunderstanding of 
the vowel-sound, which led to a vicious spelling. 

But, before concluding this investigation, we must re- 
member that / is interchangeable with r, and we have to 
enquire if there are any instances of intrusive /, especially 
after t, d, /, k, p, or b. Putting aside the intrusive / in 



6 NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — PROP. SKEAT. 

couldy the examples given by Dr. Morris are the following, 
viz. myrtle^ manciple j partkijyte^ principle, and syllable, 

I am not quite sure about myrtle, because there was a 
F. diminutive form myrtil, Low Lat. myrtilltis. But in the 
words manciple, participle, principle, syllable, the / is certainly 
intrusive, and the intrusion seems to have taken place in 
English only. I have at least three more words to add ; 
these are treacle, O.F. triacle, from Lat. theriacum ; cln^nicle, 
O.F. chronique, from the Lat. pi. chronica', canticle, O.F. 
canfique, from the Lat. canticnm. In the last instance, Littr^ 
gives canticle, with intrusive /, as a Burgundian form. I 
have no faith in the suggestion, that the -k in cant'cle is a 
diminutive suflBx ; for the Canticles are called Cantique de 
Cantiqttes in French, and Cantica Canticorum in Latin. 

Andiron. I have given this as borrowed from an O.F. 
andier, the word now spelt landier by coalescence with the 
def. article. This is verified by the occurrence of the six- 
teenth century form laund-iron, which exhibits the same 
phenomenon. In a.d. 1541, *ij. old great laund-irons' are 
valued at five shillings ; Lancashire Wills, Chetham Soc, i. 
128; and in a.d. 1557, 'two launde-irons ' are again men- 
tioned in company with 'one payre of tonges'; id. i. 172. 
Mr. Peacock, in his Glossary of Manley and Corringham 
"Words, quotes " one iyron potte and one land-iyron " from 
an inventory dated 1686. 

Beziqne, a game at cards. (F. — Pers.). Spelt beziqne in 
Ogilvie's Dictionary, — F. besigue (also spelt b^sy) ; Littre. 
It would seem as if the £. spelling with q is due to the 
mistake of putting the common combination qu for the less 
common gu. /9. (Mr. Francis, of the Cambridge University 
Library, kindly points out that the word is Persian.) — Pers. 
bdzichi, sport, a game; Palmer's Pers. Diet. col. 67. Cf. 
also bdzigar, a juggler ; from the verb bdsidan, to play. "We 
also find Pers. bdzi, play, sport ; id. col. 66 ; this accounts 
for the parallel F. form b^y, and thus clinches the etymology. 

Caoutchouc, indian rubber. (Ecuador.) This name for 
what is now called indian rubber is now but little used ; it is 
a clumsy and unfamiliar form, and will probably soon die 



NOTES ON ENGLISH BTTMOLOGT. — ^PROF. SKEAT. i 

out. It is usually said to be of Brazilian origin, and I have 
endeavoured to test this assertfon. In this matter, I have 
received most kind help from Professor Alexander, of Rio 
de Janeiro. He refers me to one of Roret's Industrial 
Manuals, called '' Nouveau Manuel complet du Fabricant 
d'Objets de Caoutchouc ; par M. Maigne " ; also to La 
Condamine, Abr^g^e d'un Voyage fait dans I'lnt^rieur de 
TAm^rique M^ridionale (1745). From the former book it 
appears that indian-rubber has various names among the 
different S. American tribes. The natives of the province 
of Las Esmeraldas (Ecuador) call it /w»r^ ; whilst the name 
caoutchouCy used at Quito, belongs to the idiom of the Indians 
of the province of Mainas, and signifies "juice of a tree." 
These Indians live on the banks of the Marona and the 
lower Pastaza, tributaries of the Amazon in Ecuador, and 
are the near neighbours of the Omaguas. Black's Atlas 
gives the rivers Marouna and Pastaca, flowing down from 
the Andes (in the neighbourhood of Chimborazo) into the 
Amazon. La Condamine says that the "gum, called cnhuchu 
in the parts of the province of Quito which are near the sea, 
is also very common on the banks of the MarafLon," which 
is another name for the Amazon. The net results are (1) 
that the word means " juice of a tree " ; and (2) tliat the 
home of the word is not Brazil, but Ecuador, and in par- 
ticular that part of it near Quito, where tributaries of the 
Amazon flow down southwards from the neighbourhood of 
Chimborazo. As the Amazon is a river of great length, it 
is useful to know that the name is only known near the 
source of that river, not near its mouth. Prof. Alexander 
adds that La Condamine seems to have sent a detailed 
account of caoutchouc and its uses in a M^ moire to the 
Academy in 1738-9. 

Con (1). M.E. cunnien, to taste, try. I merely wish to 
say that, in my Dictionary, I have omitted to add the re- 
ference. It occurs in the Ancren Riwle, p. 114. 

Cnnaudgeon. I have met with this word in Ilazlitt's Old 
Plays, xi. 195, in a play dated 1614. It is known that the 
old spelling of this word was corn-fnuiigin, as in Holland's 



8 NOTES OX ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — PROP. SKEAT. 

Pliny; and I have suggested that mudgin stands for mtidging, 
Le. hiding, from the O.F. mucer, to hide. Cf. M.E. muchen, 
to hide ; prov. E. mouch, mich, to play truant. My object iii 
again alluding to this word is to draw attention to a very 
remarkable passage in Robert of Brunne's Handlyng Synne, 
ed. Furnivall, 11. 6227-6234 : 

" perfore hyt were bettyr here 

Dyspende here jjyng on gode manere 

pan for to lay hyt vp pn mucche [i.e. in hiding] 

0))er yn cofre o]?er in hucche. 

Aueryce, ryche and harde 

Ys a ))efe, a mokerads [var. reading mokerarde] 

"When he mucchep pryuely 

\)9X many man myjt lyue by." 

Here we have mucchen^ vb., to hide up ; mucchfiy sb., hiding, 
and mokerarde, a curmudgeon. Again, in another passage, 
IL 6067, 6068 : 

" Against mokerers wyl y ))repe 
pat gadren pens vu-to an hepe." 
This gives us mokerer, with the same sense of curmudgeon. 
The Prompt. Parv. has : ** muglard^ or nyggard, or pynchar, 
tenax, avarm ; " and Way refers to Cotgrave, who has " mugoHer, 
to hoord, mugoty a hoord, or secret heap of treasure." Sigart 
gives the Walloon words mucker^ to hide, muche, a hoard ; 
muchette, hide and seek. 

All these forms seem to proceed from a base muky some- 
times weakened to mugy or palatalised to much. I have 
hitherto said that the derivation of the O.F. mttcer, to hide, 
is unknown ; but I now find that Kluge gives a Teutonic 
root muky to lurk secretly, which he treats of under meuchel 
as it appears in meuchel-mordy assassination, i.e, secret murder; 
and he adds that there is a Celtic root mug with the same 
sense, appearing in the 0. Irish for-muigthe, hidden, /or- 
muichdetu, a hiding. There can now be little doubt that the 
O.F. muceTy to hide, is from this root, and that all the other 
words above mentioned may be traced back to it likewise. 

Saunter. I have made a guess, in the Academi/y that this 
difficult word is from an O.F. s'auntrer, to adventure my- 



NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — ^PROF. SKEAT. Si 

self. I here note that this form actually occurs in the Year 
Book of the 11-12 year of Edward III. (Rolls Series), p. «19, 
where we find mention of a man * qe sauntre en ewe/ i.e. who 
adventures himself upon the water, or, as we now say, who 
puts to sea. I have already noted, in the Supplement to my 
Dictionary, that the two earliest examples of the E. word 
which I have yet seen occur in the still unpublished edition 
of the York Mysteries, which I hope will soon appear. 

Sausage. It has been kindly pointed out to me by Prof. 
Nettleship that the original Latin form of samage is not 
mlcitia, nor sahicium, but salsicia, a fem. sb. The Ital. form 
is sakiccia^ and the F. saucisse is likewise feminine. The 
sb. sakicia, a sausage, occurs in the Cruquian scholiast on 
Horace, 2 Sat. 3. 229. The adj. sahicim is given by Georges 
in his Latin Dictionary. Prof. Nettleship thinks that the 
sb. sahicia may be as old as the fourth century. I may add, 
that the spelling sausage (with a) is false ; it should rather 
be sausige (with t), as in Cotgrave. Moreover, sausige is a 
weakened form of 8au8ice=F, sat^cme. 

Scan. I have said that, in the phrase to scan a verse, scan 
is short for scand, but I was unable to produce that form. I 
have since found it. In Pinkerton's Ancient Scottish 
Poetry, ii. 267, there is a poem addressed to Miss Maitland, 
and taken from one of the Maitland MSS., in which one of 
the lines ends with — " quho list thy vers to scand,*' It rimes 
with land. The date of the poem is 1586. 

Service tree, a kind of wild pear-tree. (L. and E.) The 
service-tree is a name given to the Pyrus domestica. A better 
known tree of a similar kind is the mountain-ash or Pyrus 
aucitparia, sometimes called the fowler's sercice-tree. It is 
well explained in Ogilvie's Dictionary, where the remark is 
hazarded, that the name is corrupted from the Latin sorbus. 
This idea is, in the main, correct, but it demands a closer 
investigation, since the connection in form between service 
and sarbus is, at first sight, very slight. It can, however, be 
traced, as follows. The Lat. sorbus took, in A.S., the form 
syrf or sgrfe ; for I assume that this A.S. sgr/e is merely the 
Latin word in an English spelling, rather than consider the 



10 NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — PROF. SKEAT. 

Latin and E. words as cognate. The change of to y is 
common in A.S. words, when due to an % in the following 
syllable; it may have taken place, in the present case, by 
analogy with other instances. The final / in A.S. sf/rf is 
curious ; but we find / used to represent a Latin r, as in 
Jers, a verse ; and the use of it for a Latin i, especially at 
the end of a word, is not surprising. We may also compare 
E. salve, A.S. seal/, with the Gothic salbon, to anoint. /9. The 
A.S. Dictionaries do not give the word sf/rf or sf/rfe, with the 
exception of Leo's Glossary, where it is explained wrongly ; 
but it is given, with references, in the Glossary to Cockayne's 
Leechdoms. Cockayne gives it as st/rfe, fern, sb , gen. st/rfan, 
a service-tree, also syrf'treoic as a compound sb., and explains 
it by " Lat. sorhm, pirus domesfica, very rare in England, 
and pirus aucuparia, very common." One reference is to 
Kemble's Codex Diplomaticus, vol. vi. p. 234, No. 430, 
where we find, in a list of boundaries, the expression ' '^onon 
on S& st/rfan,* thence to the service-trees. 7. The M.E. form 
was serf or senie in the singular (which does not occur), 
and semes or serves in the plural. The word is extremely 
rare, and is omitted in the Glossary to Palladius on Hus- 
bandry, but it occurs, nevertheless, in the text ; see the 
E.E.T.S. edition, p. 52, bk. ii. st. 3^^, 1. 227. 

" In Jane, in Feveryere, and Marche in cold 
Erthe, October and November in hoote 
Erthe, is settyng of serves noble holde," etc. 

I.e. it is considered a good plan to plant serves in cold ground in 
January, February, and March, but in hot ground in October 
and November. It follows that serves, or in the Northern dia- 
lect servis, is really a dissyllabic plural ; and a servis-free is 
really a tree bearing serves. In precisely the same manner 
there was a fruit called a quin, and the tree which bore it was 
called either a qain-tree or a quins-tree ; here, also, the plural 
form prevailed, and the tree is now always called a quince- 
tree, the substitution of ce for s being due to ignorance of 
the meaning of the word combined with a laudable desire to 
achieve a phonetic spelling. In Tudor-English, the spell- 
ings servis-tree and service-tree were convertible ; they occur 



KOTBS ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY.— PROP. SKEAT. ll 

in different parts of the same book. In Holland's translation 
of Pliny, bk. xvi. c. 18, we have remarks on "the servis- 
tree " : in bk. xv., the title of ch. 21 is : " Of services, four 
kinds/' where services z= serves-e^ is a double plural, like 
quine'es:=quin'S-es. Mr. Palmer, in his Folk-Etymology, 
suggests the derivation from sorbm, but fails to explain the 
spelling. He supplies, however, a capital quotation from 
Burton's Anat. of Melancholy, Democritus to the Reader, 
p. 69 : " Crato utterly forbids all manner of fruits, as peares, 
apples, plumms, cherries, strawberries, nuts, medlers, serves, 
etc." I think it is now clear that a service-free is a serves* 
tree, i.e. a tree bearing serves, where serves is the plural of a 
word which appears in A.S. as sijrfe, or, in composition, as 
syrf. And I further consider this A.S. syrfe to be merely a 
slightly disguised form of the Lat. sorbus. I think we may 
now entirely reject the derivation suggested by Dr. Prior, 
that service is a corruption of the Latin cnrvisia, beer, because 
beer was made from its berries. Every Englishman knows 
what beer is, and he could easily have called a tree a beer-tree, 
if he wished to be understood by others. Besides, we now 
know that the very fruit of the tree was called serves, and 
we cannot suppose that the beer grew ready made. I may 
add that, in Latin, the fruit was called soi'bum, whilst the 
tree itself was sorbus. Bailey's Dictionary has : " Service, 
a sort of fruit, called also a sorb-apple " ; showing that the 
word sorb was again borrowed from Latin at a later period. 

Set. When we speak of a sei of tea-things, the word set 
is only a peculiar use of the Latin secfa, which we also have 
in English in the form of sept, with the sense of ' following' 
or 'clan.' This I have already said. I now find some 
excellent examples of the Latin secta in this sense. In the 
York Wills, ed. Raine, ii. 102, we find a testator leaving a 
goblet which was one of a set of six : '' lego j. goblet undo 
sunt vj. de secta." He also leaves a flat " piece," i.e. silver 
cup, which had been one of a set of five : " lego . . . j. flat 
peciam undo fuerunt quinque de secta." I believe this use 
of secta is very common. The date of the will is 1444. I 
do not know how old the word set is in this sense ; if it be 



12 NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOIXKSY. — PROP. SKEAT. 

not of great antiquity, it may have been borrowed imme- 
diately from the Ital. setta (Low Lat. secta). 

Spruce. I have shown that spruce is the same as pruce^ 
i.e. Prussian. I now find that, in the York Wills, ed. 
Raine, the words pruce hint and pruce cofer, i.e. Prussian 
chest and Prussian cofier, occur repeatedly, and that pruce is 
very often replaced by spruce. Examples abound. There 
is a striking example in vol. ii. pp. 194, 195, where, in one 
and the same will, dated 1445, we find '' j. cistam vocatam 
a pruce kyste," and just below, "j. pruce coffre"; and 
again, " j. cistam vocatam sprusse coffre," in the last line. 

Tawdry. The usual account of this word is that tatcdry 
stands for 8L Awdrt/, and that Aicdry means Etheldreday as 
she is usually called. I am here concerned only with the 
etymology of this name, which is wrongly explained in my 
Dictionary from a form ^peldryht^ occurring in the A.S. 
Chronicle. This form is incorrect; so also are the forms 
^peldry6 as used in Alfred's translation of Beda, and 
^peldnp in the Laud MS. of the Chronicle ; but they are 
very nearly right. The right form is JEpelprif^^ of which 
^peldn/S and jEpeldrip are easy corruptions. This occurs 
in the Parker MS. of the A.S. Chronicle. " Anno 679. 
Her -ZElfwine wa)s ofslaegen, and Sancte -S))el))ry)) forJ»- 
ferde." Cf. "iESeKry'8 regina," occurring ad. 714, in 
Kemble, Codex Diplomaticus, No. 999. The sense is ' noble 
strength.* Grein gives /ryS,/rySw, strength; Sievers (A.S. 
Gramm. § 269) marks the y as long. This seems to be right ; 
see the articles on pruSr in Vigfusson and in Schade. We 
have the same suflBx in Ger-trude, i.e. * spear-strength,* a 
name not of E., but of O.H.G. origin. 

Teetotum. The etymology is clearly from the fact that 
the winning side of the toy was marked T, signifying ioium. 
Another side of the toy was marked N, meaning iiihU. I 
have to add that I have lately found an allusion to it iiL 
Dunbar's Address " to the king," st. 15, I. 4 : " He playis 
with totum^ and I with nichelL** Sibbald has a note on the 
word, Und refers us to Rabelais, bk. i. c. 22. 



13 



n.- CRITICAL ETYMOLOGIES. By Hensleigh 

Wedgwood, M.A. 

1. Agog; 2. Aloof; 3. Shelter; 4. Screw (an old horse) ; 6. To Ted; 6. 
Gtjll (a dupe) ; 7. Sound (of the sea) ; 8. To Sound (depth). 

{Read at the Soc%ety*t Mteting on Friday, Nov, 7, 1884.) 

Agog. — Explained by Dr. Murray, " In eager readiness, 
expectation or desire, on the move, astir." Yet he compares 
it with Fr. ritre d gogo 'to live like a lord, in abundance,' 
and suggests that perhaps the word may be an adaptation 
of the Fr. en goguea; estre en sea gogu^a 'to be frolicke, 
Hvelie, all-a-hoit, in a pleasant humour, in a vein of mirth ' : 
Cotgr. If agog was an adaptation of the French expression, 
it must have undergone a wonderful change of meaning 
in passing into English. It is not easy to understand 
the temptation to resort to these Fr. terms, as the import 
of the word is fully accounted for by the significance of 
the elements gig, gag, gog, in expressing the idea of vibratory 
or palpitating movement exhibited in numerous words in 
English and German, as well as in Gaelic and Welsh. 

The derivation of a word is commonly to be sought in 
an exaggerated form of the thing signified, and the highest 
degree of eagerness for anything takes efiect in a state 
of nervous excitement that makes it impossible to keep 
still. A person in such a state is said in Scotch to be 
fiiiging fain^ that is, so desirous as to be twitching with 
excitement. A good illustration of such a state may be 
cited from a late novel (' Her Dearest Foe,' p. 489) : " Yet 
I must go soon — I cannot stay, and Fanny is vibrating 
to the points of her toes in her eagerness to take flight." 
In Yorkshire the expression is on the gig. " Oig^ a state 
of flurry. ' He's on the gig to be offl' * In a gig to go.' '* 
— Mid Yorksh. Gloss. E.D.S. The syllables gig^ gag, gog, 
are widely used to convey the image of short abrupt move- 
ments. In English, gog has the sense of wavering or shaking 



14 CRITICAL ETTMOLOOIES. — HENSLEIOH WEDGWOOD. 

iu gogmire 'a quagmire* (Halliwell), and in the frequentative 
goggle, used in the prologue to Beryn in the sense of wagging 
the head : " Then passid they forth boystly goglyng with 
their hedis." A goggle eye is properly a rolling eye. 
Gael, gog ' nod * ; gogach * nodding, wavering ' ; gog-shuil 
* a rolling eye.' Welsh gogiy ysgogi * to shake ' ; gogr * a 
sieve.' Bavarian gigeleUy gighelen * to palpitate, quiver, twitch, 
from tickling, desire, anger,' etc. Es gigkeht mir das Herz 
nach etwas ' my heart is all agog for something, is on the 
gig for it.' Einige gigelen so gewaltig nach dem Ileuraten 
' some itch so after marriage, are so agog for it.' " I 
ha' set her agog to-day for a husband " : Cowley in Murray. 
Skeat, in his supplement, cites from Gascoigne, " Or at 
the least, yt setts the harte on gogge " : sets it palpitating. 
"Perhaps," he says, *' agog z=: on gog^ in agitation, in a 
state of activity." Here he just misses the radical image 
of nervous twitching, but having come so near the mark, 
it is strange that he should throw up the scent, because, 
as he supposes, gog is not a genuine Celtic word ; '^ so 
that this solution also fails." If gog in E. as well as 
in W, and Gael, signifies vibratory movement, what does 
it signify to the etymology of agog, whether the E. gog 
has been borrowed from Welsh or Gaelic, or whether the 
same element in the latter languages has been borrowed 
from the English ? Or whether it may have been inherited 
both by Celtic and Teutonic stocks from a common ancestry? 

Aloof. — Dr. Murray gives rather a hazy account of the 
original metaphor. "From the idea of keeping a ship's 
head to the wind, and thus clear of the leeshore or quarter 
towards which she might drift, came the general sense of 
'steering clear of,' or 'giving a wide berth to' anything 
with which one might otherwise come in contact." 

The metaphorical sense is simply and universally 'out 
of reach.' Being a nautical metaphor, it naturally supposes 
the speaker to be on board a ship, when any object to 
windward of him or on his /oof, will be comparatively out 
of his reach." 

Shelter. — Protection, or whatever protects or shields one 



CRITICAL ETYMOLOGIES. — HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD. 15 

against some injurious action. The simplest, and as it 
seems, a completely satisfactory explanation would be to 
regard the word as a frequentative form of A.S. sciUaUf 
seeoifian (Orein), to shield. But Skeat gives us a history 
of the way in which he supposes the word to have been 
corrupted from M.E. sheid'trume, a compact body of soldiers ; 
A.S. scild-truma, from scild, shield, and trumay a band of men. 
" The corruption," he says, " took place early, possibly 
from some confusion with squadron (of F. origin), with 
which it seems to have been assimilated, at least in its 
termination. Thus sheld-trume soon became scheld-trome, 
ihelirome, she/trone, a/telfroun, the force of the latter part of 
the word being utterly lost, so that at the last -roun was 
confused with the common suffix -er, and the word shelter 
was the result." But this theoretical pedigree is wholly 
without historical support. We have nothing to bridge 
over the passage from sheltron to shelter. Sheltron is not 
known in any other sense than that of a troop or compact 
body of men, nor shelter in other than the sense of pro- 
tection. Skeat indeed, in his Supplement, says that *' we 
actually find the corrupt form jeltron^ but used in the sense 
of shield or shelter in Hick Seorner; Dodsley's Old Plays, 
i. 149. This links shelter with M.E. sheltroun^ past all 
question." The actual quotation gives small ground for so 
confident a persuasion. The passage in Hick Seorner runs : 

Of prelates and priests I am their patron. 
No armour so strong in no distress, 
Habergeon, helm, ne yet no jeltron. 

Here it is manifest that jeltron is the name of some 
particular piece of armour like helm or^ habergeon, and 
certainly does not signify shelter^ as it is interpreted by 
Skeat. It is also an utterly unfounded assumption that it 
is a corruption of sheltron. I know of no instance of an 
initial sh passing by corruption into j\ and it is most 
improbable that a word signifying troop should have been 
used to designate a particular piece of ai-mour. 

Moreover, Skeat quite ignores the fact that the word is 
found in German, certainly not as a loanword from E. 



16 CRITICAL ETTMOLOOIES. — HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD. 

Schelter in Swabia Bignifies the fender or guard of a stove, 
Schmid ; Hchilter-haus (Schmid), schilder-haus (Sanders), a 
sentiners box or sbelter-hut. 

Screw. — A depreciatory term for * a horse,* explained 
by Skeat as ' a vicious horse,' under the foregone conclusion 
that it is the same word with.^Ar^^^^ 'a vicious or scolding 
woman,' spelt screw in Political Songs, ed. "Wright. But 
screw is never used to signify ' a vicious horse.' An 
old screw is a worn-out or unsound horse, usually, says 
Webster, of good appearance, but not able to do the work 
of a sound horse of similar breed and training. 

To Tkd. — To ted hay is to spread abroad the grass which 
has boon laid in swathes by the scythe in mowing. Derived 
by Skeat from Icel. te^juy which he translates *to spread 
niuiiure.' It simply means 'to manure, to dung,* from 
i(f^ 'dung,' and of course includes the sense of spreading, 
which is an essential part of manuring tlie field, but it 
is not specially applied to the operation of scattering the 
manure. Nor is it ever transferred to the sense of spreading 
hay. On the other hand the £. ted is never used to 
signify spreading manure, which should have been its primary 
signification, if it had been an adoption of the Icel. teSja^ 
N. tetlja. How then should the word have been imported 
into E. in the sense of spreading the new-mown grass? 

There can be no reason for iorcing a derivation from 
a Scandina>nan stock when we find undoubted correlatives 
of K. ted in sister- dialects of the Teutonic branch, in which, 
moreover, the word has the more general sense of spreading 
in small portions, without reference to the nature of the 
substance spread. The Bavarian zetten, or zetfe/n, is * to 
strew, to spill, or let fall in small portions.' Verzetten, 
of the Angel Gabriel, 'to let fall the feathers of his wing' : 
Hans Sachs. Har' zetteln, as in E. ' to ted flux, to spread 
out flax thin upon the ground in the process of retting.* 
Eraut zetteln * to strew the sliced cabbage in even layers 
in the cask, in making sour kraut ' : Schmeller. Zetten^ 
in Switzerland, is specifically used in the sense of tedding 
hay : Stalder. Skeat derives these G. forms from O.H.G. 



CRITICAL ETYMOLOGIES. — HEN SLEIGH WEDGWOOD. 17 

zatd, zofd (mod. G. zotte) ' a rag/ and strangely connects 
them with the IceL t^ja by the assumption that "all 
these words can be derived from a sb. of which the Teut. 
type is TADA * that which is spread, a rag, manure.' " 
As if the prominent characteristic either of dung or of 
a rag lay in the fact of being scattered. Nor has he 
the slightest evidence to show of a corresponding O.H.G. 
form signifying dung or manure. I have shown a much 
more rational origin in my Diet, in Swiss zdttern ' to rattle 
like a heavy shower of rain.' Ich hore das wasser zdttern. 
Zdttern^ zdttern, ziittem * to let a little fall at a time, to 
sprinkle.' Low G. toddeln^ 'to trickle like corn from a 
hole in a sack ' : Danneil. 

Gull, to Gull. — ^^ Gull, a dupe. So called from an 
untrue notion that the gull was a stupid bird." — Skeat. It 
would be hard to say whence he gets his authority for this 
assertion. Where did he ever hear a gull spoken of as 
a stupid bird ? In support of his explanation, Skeat 
proceeds : " Thus a person who entraps dupes is called 
a gull-catcher, Tw. Nt. ii. 5, 204 ; and the word is identical 
with Gull (1)," ue. with Seagull. But nothing can be more 
ineffective for his purpose than this citation. Maria, in 
a passage previously cited by Skeat, speaks of *yond gull 
Malvolio,' where the word is plainly to be understood in the 
figurative sense of dupe. Why then should it be supposed 
that when Sir Toby Belch calls Maria his gull-catchei^ that 
the word is to be understood in any other sense than a 
catcher of dupes ? There is nothing in the expression of 
gull-catcher that drives us to the supposition that the radical 
image of catching a bird was present to the mind of the 
speaker. No one ever heard of a catcher of such worthless 
game as seagulls would be, but to catch or take in a dupe 
is a perfectly natural expression. Florio explains the It. 
pij^ione, a pidgeon, as> 'metaphorically a silly gull, one 
that is soon caught and trapanned.' Oull is provincially 
used in the sense of a young bird, and. it is plain from 
the passage in Hen. IV., where mention is made of " that 
ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird," that Shakspere was familiar 
Pliil. Tnuia. 1885-6. 2 



18 CRITICAL ETYMOLOGIES. HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD. 

Witt that sense of the word. Skeat has not a word to 
say against the repeated analogies that I have cited in 
my dictionary in proof of the position that gull in the 
sense of a dupe is a metaphor from the helplessness of 
a young unfledged hird. So Fr. niais * a nestling/ is applied 
to a simpleton ; ' a novice, ninny, witless and inexperienced 
gull': Cotgrave. Fr. bijaune (bec-jaune 'yellow beak'), 
properly a young bird, is explained by Cot. ' a novice, 
a simple inexperienced ass, a ninny.' 

Sound. — A strait or inlet of the sea. Skeat adheres to 
the old derivation from A.S. svnd * a swimming,' indicating 
such a breadth of water as may be swum over. But not 
only is the word applied to channels of water far too wide 
for crossing in that way, but 8und in Icelandic has the 
more general sense of an interval or space by which objects 
are kept apart or separated from each other. In Grettis 
Saga it is said on one occasion that Gretti never pursued 
harder, "en sund var i milli peirra" — ^but there remained 
a distance between them : Fritzner. Var 8und boritt milium 
knarranna ok skei^anna 'a stretch of water was kept up 
between the merchantmen and the fighting ships.' It is 
used in the sense of a lane, alley, narrow passage on land. 
Bu^ar-aund ' the lane between two booths ' ; bc^'av-sund * the 
lane between two walls.' " I sundinu milli husanna ' in 
the lane between the houses ' " : Cleasby. 

Thus the sense would be satisfactorily accounted for by 
a derivation from the element which signifies separation 
in the Icel. word sundra ' to sunder.' Skeat, indeed, 
says that such a derivation is "like deriving tcind from 
tcindowy and, indeed, much worse, since in th^ latter case 
there really is some connection." He does not observe 
that in the latter branch of his stricture he is simply 
begging the question ; and under Sunder he expressly states 
that the word is clearly a comparative form from a positive 
form SUND. 

To Sound. — ^To measure the depth of water with a plum- 
met. Skeat rightly discredits Diez' futile suggestion of 
a Lat. Bubundare, " But," he says, " the Sp. aonda means 



CRITICAL ETYMOLOGIES. — HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD. 19 

not only a sounding-line, but also a sound or channel, 
and it is far more likely that the Fr. sonder was taken 
from the Scand. word 8und 'a narrow strait or channel 
of water.' '' The assertion that Sp. sonda signifies a sound 
or narrow channel is, I believe, a mistake, arising apparently 
from the rendering in Neuman and Baretti, " Sonda ' sound- 
ing, sound, any place in the sea where the ground may 
be reached with the lead and line.'" The meaning of 
the word in Sp., Port, and Catalan is simply soundings; 
the intermediate equivalent, 'sound,' in Neuman's rendering, 
having probably arisen from a vague notion that a sound 
was so called from being within soundings. As the verb 
to found has no equivalent in Scandinavian, and there is no 
equivalent of the Icel. mnd 'a strait or channel,' in Fr. 
or Sp., it is impossible that Fr. sonder should come from 
Icel. sttnd; nor, indeed, is there any intrinsic probability 
in such a derivation, as the comparative depth of the water 
is no part of the conception of a sound in nautical language. 
In early A.S. Glosses (reaching as far back as the seventh 
century) we have * Bolidis, sund-gyrd^' ' Cataprorates, sund- 
linie* * Bolidis, sund-gerd in scipe, vel metrap,'= sounding- 
rod in ship or measuring-rope. — Wright's Gloss., 2nd ed. 
Here it is evident that the element sund- has the fully- 
developed meaning of Fr. Bonder; a rod or a line for 
measuring the depth of the water; .and as we have no 
A.S. verb corresponding to Fr. sonder or E. sound, we are 
led to conjecture that the element sund in these nautical 
terms must have been a borrowed form. 

My own opinion still is that the origin of the Fr. sonder 
is to be found in Breton sounn ' perpendicular.' 



20 



III.— PALI MISCELLANIES;* NOTES AND QUERIES 
ON PALL By the Rev. Richard Mokkis, M.A., LL.D. 

{Sfad at the Muting oftht Saeiety on Friday, Dee. 6, 1884.) 

ATANI. 

This word ia rendered * bed-frame' in the Vinaya Texta, 
part li. p. 63. See Jit. ii. pp. 337, 424. Cf. Mar&thl admit, 
* a metal or wooden three-legged stand/ a term for the two 
cro88-j)iece8 of wood supporting a stool. 

ANDA. 



• . 



Cammanda ' water bag ' ( J&t. i. p. 249) corresponds to 
cammaghataka (J&t. ii. p. 345). Cf. andaka 'round fruit, as 
the jujube-fruit.' Hindi andakd ' one of the bags forming 
a pannier.' 

ATRICCHA. 

" Ayam pana Mittavindako . . . africcAo hutvft '* (J&t. iii. 
p. 206). 

" Gatubbhi atth' ajjhagam& atth&hi pi ca solasa | solas&hi 
ca battimsa, atriccham cakkam &sado | icch&hatassa posassa 
cakkam bhamati matthake" (J&t. iii. p. 207. See J&t. i. 
p. 414). 

"Tasmim khane Sakko lokam olokento tarn atrwchatd- 
hatam . . . disvft,'* etc. (Jftt. iii. p. 222, 1. 8, 26). 

" S& bill atn'cchatdt/a evariipam vyasanam pattl " (J&t. iii. 
p. 222, 1. 6, p. 223, 1. 23). 

Atriccha^iz^ exceedingly covetous ' ; atricchatd=* excessive 
lust ' ; atncchdhata (Jit. iii. p. 222, 1. 26) corresponds to 
icchdhata (J&t. iii. p. 207). 

• This paper appears also in the Journal of the Pdli Text Society^ 1884, 
pp. 69-lOb, under tne heading, ** Notes and Queries.'* 



PALI MISCELLANIES. — REV. DR. MORRIS. 21 

In Jat. i. p. 414, atrkcham is explained by atra atra 
icchanto. There must have been a verb atricchaii, having 
the same sense as anugiijhati (J&t. iii. p. 207, 1. 22), but 
not equivalent to atra+iccAaii, but to ati+icchati (aticchati). 
Bat there was an earlier word, aticchati (see Childers, s.v. 
AticcJiatha)^ and perhaps an r was inserted in order to 
maintain a distinction between two verbs alike in form, 
but different in meaning. 

ANAMHA. 

" Anamha-l^B Sussoni kinnu jagghasi sobhane ti " ( J&t. 
iii. p. 223). 

" Why, pray, did you laugh, beautiful Sussoni, when you 
were crying ? " 

Anamha-k&le is explained in the Com. by drodana-kdle ' in 
weeping- time/ 

" The woman Sussoni was crying over the loss of husband 
and lover, when Indra caused her to burst out into sudden 
and unexpected laughter." 

Ana-mha^ I take to be 'crying,' literally ' un-laughing ' 
(of. abhhdkutika 'smiling,' literally ' un-frowning *), from 
the ^smi^ which in P41i appears as mha, Cf. vi-mhai/ati, from 
smi+vi; umhayati 'to laugh out, roar out with laughter,' 
from 9mi+ud (see J&t. ii. p. 131 ; iii. p. 44). 

antaggIhikI ditthi. 

This expression occurs in the Mah&vagga, iv. 16. 12, and 
the translators of the Vinaya Texts, pt. i. p. 344, leave antaggd- 
hikd untranslated, stating that the meaning is unknown to 
them. 

I have somewhere met with the phrase (spoken of an 
arahat) " na antakdni dharati " = ' he does not hold the (doctrine 
of) the antasJ 

Antaggdhikd ditthi is the (heretical) doctrine of maintain- 
ing or holding the three antas or goals, which, according to 

^ Ana for an is well established, as in ana^matagga, ana-bhdva (see Vinaya 
Texts, pt. lip. 113). 



22 PALI MISCELLANIES. — REV. DR. MORRIS. 

the Sangiti-Suttay are : %akk&yo antOy sakMyasamuddo anto, 
and aakk&yanxrodho anto (see Childers, 8.y. aakk&yo). 

APASSENA. 

Apassena, in apaasena-phalaka, is rendered by the trans- 
lators of the Yinaya as ' a reclining-board ' ; but apassena- 
phalaka corresponds in meaning to dlambana-phalaka (J&t. 
i. 8), and means, we think, ' a bolster-slab.' Apassena = 
Sk. apagrayana has the same meaning as apassaya, used by 
Buddhaghosa in his comment on sattahga (Cullav. vi. 2. 4.) 
as a 'rest' or 'support/ corresponding to Sk. aapagraya^ 
explained by Boehtlingk and Roth as '£opfpolster (an einem 
Lehnsessel) A.V. 13. 3. 8.' 

We actually find apassaya-plthaka = ' a chair with a head- 
rest/ in J&t. iii. p. 235, 1. 23 ; and also kanthakappassaya 
' a bolster or head-rest filled with natural thorns, or with 
artificial iron ones' (J&t. i. p. 493; iii. p. 235, 1. 20). 

There is an interesting passage in the Puggala-Pafifiatti, 
p. 55, in which this is alluded to : 

"So . . . ukkutiko pi hoti ukkutippadh&nam anuyutto, 
kanfakdpassayiko pi hoti kantak&passaye seyyam kappeti, 
s&yam tatiyakam pi udakarohan&nuyogam anuyutto yiharati." 

With this we may compare the following from Jftt. iii. p. 235: 

" Aj ja ekacce vaggulivatam caratha, ekacce kanfhakaseyyatn 
kappetha, .... ekacce ukkutikappadhdnam anuyuujatha, 
ekacce udakogdhanak^mmam karotha." 

Here, for kanthakaseyyam, or kanthasaseyyam, kappetha we 
must read kanthakappassaye seyyam kappetha (see J&t. iii. p. 74). 

Childers gives no examples of gri + apa (see J&t. iii. p. 
425; Thera-Gftthft, p. 76; CuUavagga, p. 175; Suttavi- 
bhanga, i. pp. 74, 76). 

AVHETI. 

Avheti=pakkosat% (J&t. ii. 10, 252 ; Tevijja Sutta, i. 19). 

ALA. 

■ 

Ala *a claw,' not in Childers, occurs in J&t. i. p. 223; 
ii. p. 342 ; iii. pp. 295, 297. Cf. f:icchikdlika=z' a, scorpion's 
claw' (Mah&vagga, v. 2. 3). 



PALI MISCBLLANISS. — RBV. DR. MOBBIS. 23 

ALAYA. 

This word does not occur in Ghilders. It means 'feint, 
pretence/ (V^O ^^' *^(f^dlayam karitvd (J&t. iii. p. 633, 1. ()) ; 
matdlayam dassettd (J&t. iii. p. 533, L 23). 

AVIJJHATI. 

In J&t. iL p. 406, U. 5, 6 &t>\jjhitv& seems to have the sense 
of vidhA ' to arrange, set in order,' with the same meaning 
exactly as sammdahitvd (J&t. ii. p. 408, 1. 26) ; dv\jjh%tvd from 
d-^-ryadh occurs in the same J&taka, p. 408, 1. 7. Of. J&t. i. 
pp. 153, 170 ; Dipavamsa, p. 87. See &vijjhi in Suttavibhanga, 
i. p. 332 ; and compare with Dipavamsa i. 81, and Mah&- 
vamsa i. 43. There is a Vedic y/vidh * to dispose.' 

ASlYATI AND VISiVETI. 

Dr. Trenckner derives dsiyati from Sk. dfydyati^ and agrees 
with Childers in referring visiceti to Sk. vi-gydpayati *to 
uncongeal, thaw,' hence, ' to warm oneself' (Dh. 177), from 
y/gyai. 

The passage in the Milinda Pailha does not bear out Dr. 
Trenckner's explanation of * to be congealed,' nor that of 
Dr. Edward Miiller's 'to cool oneself (P&li Gr. p. 40). 

*' Eaddame (padumam) j&yati, udake dslyati ti " (Mil. Pail, 
p. 75). 

This seems to mean that '* the lotus springs up (or has its 
origin) in the ooze of the lake (where it grows) and in the 
water comes to perfection.*^ 

In other passages, where a similar metaphor is employed, 
the verb pavadifhati, or samvaddhati, is employed, showing 
that the meaning of dsiyati is * becomes ripe,' ' comes to 
perfection, or maturity,' and must be referred to the root grd 
(graif gai^ or frf), the causative of which (grdpayati) would 
with ri give us visiceti, with its proper meaning of ' to warm 
oneself,' etc. 

Cf. '' Yath& mah&r&ja padumam udake j&tam udake sam- 
rad4ham . . . etc." (Mil. Pailba, p. 378; see also Sept. 
ISttttas P&lis, p. 141). 



24 PALI MISCELLANIES. — REV. DR. MORRIS. 

" Yath&pi udake j&tam ^pandeLviksLmpavaddhaii, etc." (Thera- 
G&tha, V. 700). 

The proper term from y/^yai for *to uncongeal/ *thaw/ 
* melt/ would be patisipeii, Sk. pratigy&payatif but we do not 
find this in Pali. The expression sariram sed^ti, however, 
occurs in J&t. i. p. 324, in the sense of to warm the body- 
after being exposed to severe cold, to steam (see Jat. i. p. 52). 

In J&t. ii. p. 68, we find " aggim visicetum^** * to warm one- 
self by the fire,' and at p. 69 a double causative, visivdpeti, ' to 
let one warm oneself before the fire,' and the Commentary 
makes use of an explanatory and similar phrase : *' Aggin& 
. . . jh&pento" (see Milinda Pauha, pp. 47, 102). In the 
Suttavibhanga ii. P&c. Ivi. 3. 1-3, we find vi8ibbefi=visireti 
explained by tappati (Ivi. 3, 3), and visibhana^^msivana (see 
MaMvagga, i. 20. 15). 

Ihundarika. 

" Tena kho pana samayena bhagav& tatth' eva Kftjagahe 
vassam vasi, tattha hemantam, tattha gimham. 

** Manussi ujjh&yanti khiyanti vip&centi : — dhundankd 
Baman&nam Sakyaputtiy&nam dis£l andhak&rd. na imesam disa 
pakkh&yanti ti " (Mah&vagga, i. 53. 1). 

The translators of the Vinaya Texts leave the perplexing 
term dhundarikd untranslated, and ofier no explanation of it. 
Dr. Oldenberg gives from B, a Sinhalese MS., the variant 
reading dhuntdkirakd. This crux occurs again in a similar 
passage in the Bhikkhuni-vibhanga P&c. x. 1. 1. (with the 
variant reading dhuntarikd, an attempt, perhaps, to connect 
it with antarita or antardyika) ; and the Com. explains it by 
tamhddhd. Accepting the Commentator's explanation, ought 
we not to read dhundarikd from the y/hund, with the prefix d ? 

In Bochtlingk and Roth's Dictionary the y/hund is explained 
by samghdte, and this would give to dhundarikd the sense of 
mmbddhd or dsambddhd 'crowded up, blocked up, impassable.' 
The word is evidently part of a stock passage that we find in 
P&li and Sanskrit : '^ na . • . dis& pakkh&yanti dhamm& pi 
mam na patibhanti," see Mah&parinibbana Sutta, p. 22, and 



PALI MISCELLANIES. — REV. DR. MORRIS. 25 

cf. the following passage from the Mah&bh&rata (Virftta 
Parvva 48, v. 18) : 

" Vyakula9 ca di9ah sarv& hridayam vyathativa me 
dhvajena pahit&h sada di94 na pratibhanti me. 

inghIla, INGHELA, 

P&li abounds in variant forms, as mucchati and mmsati, 
lageti and laketi^ etc. So we are not surprised to find 
ihghdh and ihghela as well as ahgdra (see Therl-G&th&, 
V. 386). Cf. Mar4thi ihgala *a live coal.' The change 
from ahg&ra to ihgh&la is quite regular, cf. P&li ihgha with 
Sk. anga (see Journal of the PWi Text Society for 1883, 
p. 84). Inghdla-kkui/d^iangdra'kdiiuyd, but Ghilders has no 
mention of khu in this sense. 

FK-KACETI. 

In J&t. ii. p. 70, ukkdceti is used like tcssincati, ' to bale out 
water.' The English bale, 'to empty by means of bails or 
backets,' helps us to see the origin of this word. It must 
be a denominative from kdca or k^a. Childers quotes, 
Anotatte kdje atth* dnesiim dine dine, 'they brought every 
day eight men's loads of A. water' (Mah. 22). Cf. Anotattoda' 
kam kdjam (Dipavaihsa, xii. 3). 

UTTARIBHANGA. 

This term seems to exclude rice, curry, etc., the four sweet 
foods, and to include flesh, fish, and fowl (Cullav. iv. 4. 5). 

In J&t. i. No. 30, p. 196, it is applied to pig's flesh. In 
J&t i. p. 349, it has reference to dried fish, and in Dhamma- 
pada, p. 171, it is used of the flesh of a cock. 

UPAKT^LITA. 

Upak&lita occurs in the Theri-Gftthft, p. 201, v. 258, as 
equivalent to palisedhika (see J&t. ii. p. 386), but in Jat. i. 
p. 405,^ upakulitd is explained by addhajjhdmaka* 

^ CI upakAtita ssjhdmo sayati, Jdt. ii. p. 134. The Commentary g^ves 
mother reading, upah^ita. 



26 PALI MISCELLANIES. — REV. DR. MORRIS. 

The first must be referred to the y/kU^ * to obstruct ' (cf. 
patikk&la), the second to y/kHtl or kud, ' to singe.' 

UPASIMSAKA. 

« 

" Yathfi. mahftrfl-ja unduro ito c'ito ca vicaranto &h&rft- 
paainisako yeva carati, evam eva," etc. (Milinda-Pauha, p. 
393). Ought we not to read upasihghako, from the root 
8i)^gh (see Jftt. ii. 339) P Upasinghati occurs in J&t. ii. p. 408. 

UPATA. 

" Rajam updtam v4tena yathft megho pas4maye " (Thera- 
Qkthi, V. 675, p. 69). 

MS. A. reads updtam, which seems to be metrically the 
correct reading, the iip°:=upp°, " As the cloud lays the dust 
raised by the wind, etc." 

Dr. Oldenberg refers the word updtam to Sk. updtta, from 
upd'dd, but the sense seems to require uppdtam,^ from the 
root pat. Cf. Sk. utpdtavdta, ' a whirlwind/ and ut-pdta^ 
' flying up.' See Dasaratha J&t. p. 6, v. 9 ; p. 9, 11. 3, 23. 

The usual expression is "rajam Ahatam v&tena." See 
Suttav. P&r. iii. 1. 3, "Seyyath&pi bhikkave gimh&nam pac- 
chime m&se lihatam rajojallam tarn enam mah& ak^amegho 
th&naso antaradh&peti y^ipasameti. 

tTHAD AND tTHAN. 

There appears to be some confusion in Pftli between Man 
' to throw up ' and Ahad * to eyacuate the faeces.' Uhad, 
which Dr. E. Miiller believes to be arahad (Pali Gr. p. 49), 
makes its p.p. Hhata, and not Hhanna (see CuUayagga, viii. 
10. 3). We find the gerund iihacca = Hhadya = vaccam katrd 
in J4t. ii. p. 71, and we have dhanti (lb. p. 73), and uhananti 
(Suttav. P&c. xiv. 1. 2). 

In J&t. ii. p. 355, we find ohaddmase explained by dhadd' 
ma pi oniutiema pi (see ohaneti in Cariya Pitaka, ii. 5. 4). 

^ Upp&tam a uppAtta for uppdtita, cf . patta ^patita in pattakkhandha^ Mil. 5 ; 
Ass. S. 17. UdataB.udatta=S\L, udiirta (from the root ft) is a possible form. 



PAIJ MISCELLANIES. — REV. DF. MORRIS. 27 

Cf. uhananti pi ummihanti pi (Suttay. I. Nisagg. xiv. 1 ; 
II. P&c. Ixv. 1), and omuttenti pi iihadat/anti pi (Dham. 
p. 283). 

ODAHI. 

Odahi migavo pdsam (Thera-G&thft, v. 774)=* the trapper 
set a snare.' Cf. luddo pdsam iV oddiya CTherl-Q&thft, v. 73). 

I do not recollect odahati from avadhd * to set snares/ as 
that is usually expressed by uddeti or oddeti. 

Odahati is ' to put in, deposit,' cf. aranne odahi tnsam (Jftt. 
iii. p. 201). We must, I think, read oddayi for odahi. 

KAMPURI. 

This occurs in the Theri-Gftthft, v. 262 : " Sanha-*<jm/>ttrl 
Ta 6uppamajjitT& sobhate su giv& pure mama." 

The Commentary does not, at first sight, afford us much 
assistance : — *' santhakammudi va suppamajjit& | suttha 
pamajjita santhakam suYa;p^asankh& viya." Here for 
santhakammudi m we must read sanha-kambu-r-iva and 
alter santhakam to sanhakd. The correct reading of the 
text will therefore be aanha-kambu-r-iva, etc., the meaning 
of which is now clear. The Thert's neck was once like 
a smooth shell ; cf. kambuglvA, * a neck marked with lines or 
folds like a shell ' (Dasaratha Jfttaka, p. 12). 

KAMMAKARANA or KAMMAKIrANI, 

In J&taka, iL p. 398, Milinda Pafiha, pp. 290, 358, kamma* 
karana occurs for the ' punishment of evil deeds, inflicted 
upon usurpers, thieves, etc.' (see Milinda Pauha, p. 197, and 
note on Catokka). But as kammakarana usually signifies 
'work, service, duty,' we ought, I think to write kamma* 
kdrand, for kdrand=:' 'pain^ torment, punishment' (cf. E&rana- 
ghara, J&t. ii. 128; and see Ang. Nik. p. 41 ; Notes, p. 113). 

kIlastjtta. 

There are three passages where this word occurs in our 
printed texts as one of the carpenter's requisites. 
(1) In Ten J&takas (p. 26) Prof. FausboU translates it by 



28 PALI MISCELLANIES. — REV. DR. MORRIS. 

* knot/ and further on he explains it by * a black (tarred P) 
rope.' 

(2) It occurs again in Jftt. ii. No. 283, p. 405, " vaddha- 
kissa rukkhatacchanak&le . . . y&sipharasunikh&danamug- 
gare &harati kdh-Buttahotiyam ganh&ti." 

E&lasutta seems to be a carpenter's ^measuring line' or 
'rule,' made perhaps of iron wire, and hence 'black,' cf. Sk. 
sutradhdra, 'a carpenter' (lit. *a rule-holder'). 

Before the carpenter sawed or lopped off the trunk or 
branch of a tree, he put his iron-line round it as a guide in 
sawing or lopping it off accurately (see CuUavagga, p. 317). 

(3) In the Milinda-Panha, p. 413, this act is referred to 
as follows : — 

''Yath& mahftr&ja tacchako kdla-mttam anulometv& ruk- 
kham tucchati evam eva," etc. 

There is a curious passage in the Mah&vastu (ed. Senart, 
p. 17, 1. 9) that closely corresponds to this quotation from 
tiie Milinda-Panha : 

" Tattra tkm nairayik& nirayap&U ftrdravrikse vft varjetvi 
Mla8iitraya9ena taksanti ast&m9e pi sadam9e pi caturam9e 

pi. 

The word occurs again on pp. 5, 12, 20. Prof. Senart 
thinks that k&laaiitra is some instrument of punishment or 
of torture, but from p. 5 it must be a kind of iron rope, 
or wire, for binding the limbs before they were sawn or 
lopped off by axes and hatchets. 

In the Pur&nic accounts of the K&lasiitra hell it is simply 
called 'black' (krishna), and no mention is made of the 
kdlasutra.^ But in Prof. Seal's Catena, p. 61, there is a 
description of this hell that deserves to be compared with 
that in the Mahd.yastu (p. 5, 11. 7, 8), where kdiasutra seems 
to be rendered by * iron- wire ' and sdtrita by ' lashed.' 

"The K&la-Sdtra Hell (= Chinese Heh-Sieh, i.e. 'black 
cord or thread '), so called because the wretches confined 
therein are lashed with burning iron wires, their limbs hacked 

^ See Manu It. 88. Dr. Hopkins explains Kdiasutra by ** Thread of Death.** 



PALI MISCELLANIES. — REV. DR. MORRIS. 29 

with iron hatchets, their bones slowly sawn asunder with 
iron saws." 

Of course the ' burning iron wires ' would cause pain and 
60 become a means of torture ; but we venture to think that 
kalamtta is only the carpenter's ' rule ' or ' measuring line.' 

Just as this article was going to press I have noticed the 
following confirmatory passage in the Pancu-gati-dipana 
(verse 9) : 

'' k41asutt&nu8&rena phftlyante daru v&yato, 
kakkaccehi jalantehi k&Iasuttam tato matain," 
which M. L^on Feer translates in the appendix to his 
Eandjour Extracts (p. 516) as follows : 

'^Parce que, selon un fil noir, ils y sent fendus, comme 
des troncs d'arbre, avec des scies et d autres instruments, de 
Isl vient le nom de k&lasiitra (fil noir)." 



KTJLANKA OR Kt^LKKk. . 

Kulahka in kulankapddaka (CuUavagga, vi. 3. 4) is referred 
by Dr. E. Miiller (Pftli Gr. p. 30) to the Sk.putanka *a roof.' 

The P&li, however, does not mean *roof,' but is applied 
to a log or beam for shoring up an old wall (see the 
Commentator's remarks, Cullav. p 321). 

There is a passage in J&taka, ii. No. 283, that throws some 
light upon kulahka : — 

" Attano thitatth&nassa purato ekam parimandalam &v&tain 
khanapesi, pacchato ekam kullaka'SSLnthknam anupubbanin- 
nam pabbh&rasadisam " (p. 406), '' gantv& A;u/Ma-mukhassa 
tiriyam " (p. 408). 

There is a variant reading kulka, ? kAlaka. 

In the Introduction to the J&taka, kullaka answers to bhitti 
'a buttress.' It is also called Avdta ^ (p. 407, 1. 24). 

Kullaka I take to be for kiUaka; cf. 8k. kiila ' slope, bank ' ; 
kiilaka ' bank, dike, shore.' 

The Eng. dike means ' trench, embankment,' and is the 
same as ditch (cf. Ger. teich * a pond '). The Ditch at New- 



1 i.e dffdta-Uta (see J&t. iii. j. 608}. 



30 PALI MISCELLANIES. — BBV. DR. MORRIS. 

market is an embankment. In Middle Englisli dike is used 
to translate spelunca (see Hampole's Psalter). 

kolIpa. 

This word occurs in Jftt. iii. p. 495, in reference to a tree 
full of holes, sapless and dry, " rukkho kh&numatto huty& 
chidd&vacchiddo v4te paharante " {Ih. pp. 491, 496). 

The Cora, explains it thus: **koidpe ti y&te paharante 

&kotita saddam viya muncam&ne niss&re'' (see Milinda Pafiha, 

p. 151). 

GIRIBBAJA. 

Dr. Oldenberg translates giribbaja by 'dwelling in the 
mountain' (Dipavaihsa, xiii. 16). It seems to mean, how- 
ever, 'a hill-run, a cattle-run on the hills,' cf. ''ekasmim 
yeva gribbaje pannas&lani m&pety& T&sam kappesi " (J&t. iii. 
p. 479), "he made a hermitage right upon the *hill-run,' and 
dwelt there." " ff trtftiff/asenftsane vih&si," etc. {lb. p. 479, 
1. 3). In 1. 5, ^giribbq/am pavesetvA" refers to the elikd that are 
made to turn into the hill-runs and graze there. In line 9, 
" giribbajadvare atth&si " must refer to the entrance of the 
pens on the 'runs.' Cf. vaja 'a pen' (Dh. p. 238, 1. 9), rajad- 
tdra (lb. p. 238, 1. 15). Cf; Mar&thi vraja, 'a village or 
station of cowherds ; ' Hindi vrq;a, * a cow-pen.' ^ 

CATUKKA. 

" Catukke catukke paharant& • . . stsam assa chinditv& 
sariram s&le uttftsetha" (J4t. i. p. 326). 

" Catukke (catukke) kas&hi t&lente" (J&t. ii. p. 123; see J&t. 
iii. p. 41). 

Catukka 'a collection or set of four things.' Childers 
gives only one quotation for its Use in this sense : " sabba- 
catukkam n&m' assa d&pesi" (Dh. 292) 'he caused all the four 
kinds of things to be given him,' viz. four elephants, four 
horses, four thousand pence, four women, four slaves, four 
best villages, etc. See CuUav. 4. 6. 

In J&t. iii. p. 44, 428, 429, we find "sabba-ca^wMa-yanna"= 

1 Cf . Scotch * sheep-raiA?,' a sheep-rww ; Mid. Eng. rajfke, rake * a path.' 



PALI MISCELLANIES. — REV. DR. MORRIS. 31 

'all the four kinds of sacrifices/ viz, four elephants, four 
horses, four hulls, and four men; and in J&t. iii. p. 44 we 
haTO saibha'Catukkena yajitv& = ' offering a sacrifice of all the 
four kinds.' 

Instead of using sabba catukka, * all the four sets of things ' 
could be expressed by the repetition of caiukka, as in the 
passages quoted above, so that catukke catukke t&Jeti or caf caf 
paharati signifies ' to strike all the four sets of blows,' i,e. 
to administer all the four kinds of punishments inflicted upon 
malefactors. The question is, what are they ? Fortunately 
they are not unknown. A full list is contained in the second 
part of the Anguttara Nildiya, II. i. i. and in the Milinda 
Panha, p. 197. For an explanation of the terms used to 
denote these punishments, see Ang. Nik. pp. 113, 114.^ 

The term khdrdpatacahika may be connected with the Sk. 
kshdrai/a * to torment,' by means of kshdra or corrosive sub- 
stances. 

cIleti. 

Childers has no instance of cdleti in the sense of ' to sift.' 
See Mah&vagga, vi. 10, 1, and cf. MarAthl •^Idb^ ' to sift ; ' 
^Idbm ' a sieve, strainer.' 

Caratiy * to graze.' See J&t. iii. p. 479 ; Mah&vam. p. 22, 
I. 9. Cf. M&rathi ^^^, 'to graze ;' %\^i, TT^nT* 'pasture, 
grazing.' 

CHADAYATI. 

This form occurs in J&t. iii. p. 144, and is explained by 
pinetiy toseti. It must be referred to the root chad (Yedic) — 
chand * to please.' 

TATTAKA. 

This word occurs frequently in the J&takas in the sense of 
'dish,' or * bowl for containing food.' There seems to be no 
corresponding form in Sanskrit. It may be connected with 

^ In the erakavatiika and etrakavdiika punishments strips of skin were cnt off 
Uie back (cf. Psalm cxxix. 3 ; and see Notes and Qnehes, No. 251, p. 308, 
Oct. ISlh, 1S84). 



32 PALI MISCELLANIES. — REV. DR. MORRIS. 

■ 

the Mar&thl tasfa ^ a metal vessel to hold water, an ewer/ 
See Dham. p. 356 ; J&t. iii. pp. 97, 538. 

TAMATAGGA. 

^'Ye hi keci Ananda etarahi v& mamam v& accayena 
attadipd . . . tamatagge me te Ananda bhikkhii bhavissati " 
(Parinibb&na-Sutta, p. 23). 

Buddhaghosa says tamatagge is tafnagge, the t in the 
middle being euphonic, and renders it 'the most pre-eminent, 
the very chief.' Prof. Rhys Davids, in his translation of 
this Sutta, has adopted the explanation of the commentator, 
and translates * the very topmost height.' 

Tamos here means ' darkness/ i.e. mental darkness, one of 
the five avijj&s in the S&hkhya philosophy ; tama-t-agge 
must therefore mean * at the extremity of the darkness, 
beyond the region of darkness,' i.e. in ' the light,' in 
Nirv&na, cf. hhacagge *at the end of existence, in Nirv&na': cf. 
^'Imehi kho mah&rija sattahi bojjhahgaratanehi patimandito 
bhikkhu sabbam tamam abhibhuyya sadevakam lokam obh&- 
seti," etc. (Milinda-Panha, p. 340). 

We find in Sanskrit tamah pdre, answering to tama-t-agge : 
"Sa hi devah param jyotis tamah pdre" (Eum&ra Sam- 
bhava, ii. 58). 

For that deity is the supreme luminary existing at the 
extremity of darkness (beyond the region of tamas), i.e. in 
the region of light. 

TAMATI. 

Childers has not registered the y/ tarn ' to choke, sufibcate,' 
but we find in the Suttavibhahga, i. p. 84, uitanto, with the 
various readings vuttantOy uttamanto {lb. p. 272). 

'' So bhikkhu uttanto anassSsako k&lam akisi " (Suttav. 
P&r. iii. 6. 22) : " That bhikkhu, becoming suffocated and 
unable to get hid breath, (through his brethren tickling him) 
died." 

THASOTU^. 

'' Tail ca appativ&niyan ti | tan ca pana dhammam anivatti- 
tabh&Y&vaham niyyanikam abhikkantat&ya thdaoti^ana-^^dL" 



PALI MISCELLANIES. — ^REV. DR. MORRIS. 33 

aamanoharabh&yena (^tc) avasecanijam (ffic) asecakam (stc) 
ao&sittakam pakatiya 'va mah&yasim tato eva ojayaatam | " 
(Theri-Q&thft, p. 181). 

At first sight thd^otu appears to be a blunder for phdsuto, 
bat probably the original reading was thdnaso tUy etc. ' truly, 
indeed'; so that instead of tMsotujantf, we must read fhdnaso 
tu jana°. 

The Commentary explains asecanaka * (Theri-G&th&, v. 55) 
by andsittaka (see my note on dsevakattam, in the Anguttara 
Nik. i. p. 102). 

There is a somewhat similar passage in the Suttavibhanga, 
see i. p. 271, where asecanaka is explained by andsittaka^ abbO' 
kima and pdtekka, none of which words are in Childers ; nor 
has he any mention of upasecana (cf. mamsupasecana) in Sutta- 
vibhanga Sekkhiya, 69, p. 204. See also Cullavagga, v. 19 ; 
Thera-G&tha, v. 842, p. 80 ; J&t. ii. p. 422 ; J&t. iii. pp. 29, 
32, 144, 516. 

DANPA-YUDDHA. PATTALHAKA. 

There is a reference to these terms, which occur in the 
Brahma-j&la-Sutta, p. 9 ; in J&t. iii. p. 541, vv. 112, 113 : 
" datufehi yuddham pi samajjamajjhe/' is explained in the Com. 
by dandayuddha. 

Mitaip (i/AaA*^na=dhaiina-m&paka-kammam. See Sutta- 
vibhanga, I. xiii. 1. 2. 

DISO-DISAM. 

It is well known that dciy as well as ava, becomes o (see 
Ed. Miiller's P&li Gr. p. 12). Is diso disam, in Dr. Olden- 
berg's edition of the Thera-G&thft (p. 63, vv. 615, 616), a relic 
of the Sk. corresponding phrase where duso is^ the ablative 
dtsan, or is it the same as diadvidisam, which we find in the 
Milinda Panha, pp. 259, 260 P ^ P41i has no instances of an 

^ See Milinda Paflhaf p. 406 ; Suttay. Par. iii. 1. 3. 

' Silam Tilepanam se^bain yena y^ti duo disatfi. — (Thera-6&th&, y. 615.) 

Silam set^tio ativclho yena yati diso disat^. — (lb. y. 61G). 

(ndakazjlij uddham-adno ditdvidUatif gacchati. — (Mil. Pa^ha, pp. 269, 260.) 

FhiL Trtas. 18S0-6. 3 



34 PALI MISCELLANIES. — REV. DR. MORRIS. 

ablative case in -o answering to Sk. -as, except 'to (^=-tda), 
and, moreover, it usually treats disd as a fern, noun in -d, cf» 
disdvidisd with Sk. dmdiaaSy Mil. Panha, p. 398 (see also 
p. 251), Sk. dihtnudha with Pftli disdmulha; and Sk. aparas- 
param with P&li apardparam. 

I think we must, with Prof. Fausboll, write diaodisam 
(J4t. iii. p. 491) as one word.^ 

DHAMMASUDHAMMATA. 

For this compound see Thera-Gathft, vv. 24, 286, 479. 

Is the reading dhammem dhammatd, J&t. i. p. 325, a 
mistake, or a various reading for dhammamdhamniatd ? 
(Jat. i. pp. 461, 462 ; Jat. ii. pp. 159.) 

nikhAdana. 

In the passage from Jitaka, ii. p. 405, quoted in illustration 
of Kdlasutta, ' tdsi-pharasuni kfiddana'tnuggare ' is wrongly 
printed for rdsi'pharaau-nikhddana'inuggarey where nikhd- 
dana must be ' a chisel.' It occurs in the Suttavibhanga, i. 
P&r. iv. 1. 3, Sangh. vi. 1. 1. The translators of the Vinaya 
Texts render it by 'spade' (Cullav. vi. 15. 2). 

For nikhddante in the Ang. Nik. p. 113, 1. 3 from bottom, 
read nikhddanena. 

NIDDHUNIYA. 

This term is given as one of the synonyms of makkha 
(Puggala-Pannatti, p. 18). Is it from the root dhvan, *to 
cover,' meaning * concealment,' * hypocrisy ' P 

NIMINATI. 

Nimhiatiy not in Childers, signifies *to barter,' from the 
y/me ; nimimhase ( J4t. ii. p. 369) ; nimineyya (Jat. iii. pp. 
63, 222) ; nimini {=zparivattesi), J&t. iii. p. 63, is written 
niminni {lb. p. 221). 

^ We find disdditam ia a foot-note. 



PALI MISCELLANIES. — REV. DR. MORRIS. 35 

pakkatthIpetva. 

Udakam pdkkatihdpetv& * having caused the water to boil ' 
(Jat i. p. 472). We ought, perhaps, to read pakkatthdpetvd. 
Prof Fausboll gives, in a foot-note, the variant reading 
pakkutthdpettd. There is authority iorpakkutth^ anipakkatthP 
{pakuth), Cf. pakkatthate khlrasmim=^' in boiling milk' 
(Telakat&hag&th&, p. 53, last line), pakkatthitatele (Dham. 
p. 178). In the Therl-Q&th& kuthita is explained hj pakku- 
thita (see v. 604), pakkuthite udake (lb. p. 182). 

Childers has no examples either of the simple use of 
^ktath or of its compounds. See Dr. E. Miiller's P&li Gr. 
p. 41 ; Vinaya Texts, ii. p. 57 ; Suttavibhanga, i. Par. 
iv. 9. 4. 

PANCANGULIKA. 

This curious word occurs several times in connection with 
tree-worship, and is rendered by Childers * a measure of five 
fingers' breadth.* Prof. Fausboll translates gandha-pahcah' 
gulika (J&t. ii. p. 104) by ' five finger-lengths of scent.' 
See J&t. iii. p. 23, where it occurs again. In J&t. iii. p. 160, 
we have the very curious compound lohitapancahgulikdniy 
i.e. ' blood — ^pancangulikas ' made of the human viscera 
(antavatti). At the "Feast of the Dead," a goat brought 
to be sacrificed is washed and ornamented about its neck 
with a pancangulika, which Prof. Rhys Davids calls 'a 
measure of com' (see J&t. i. No. 18, and Eng. Trans, p. 
227). In Wilson's Esmys on the Religion of the Hindus, vol. 
iL p. 171, we read that " Cows and bulls are washed and fed 
with part of an oblation first ofifered to Indra ; being also 
painted and adorned with leafy and flowery chaplets." 

Professor Senart points out the use oi pancahgula in the 
Mahdtastu (p. 269, 1. 14; note p. 579), and thinks that it 
was some kind of ornament, and this view must be correct. 
But what kind of ornament was it P It was probably com- 
posed of shoots or sprouts of five finger-lengths, artificially 
scented, arranged in the form of a hand, and hung round 
some object of worship. 



86 PALI MISCELLANIES. BEV. DR. MORRIS. 

Tumour (Mah&v. p. 193) translates pan(f^ by * ornaments 
radiating like the five fingers.' See Cullavagga, v. 18, 1. 

The Hindus appear to have made decorations or ornaments 
of this kind. ** The Vijahkura is what is known in Mar&thl, 
at least in Konkan, by the name ugavana, or rujavana, 
'young sprouts of corn/ generally of rice or wheat, artificially 
grown under shade and watered with any dye that the young 
blades are required to take. The blades assume the desired 
colour, and after they grow to the height of five or six inches, 
they are put by the women in their hair, like flowers. It is 
also known by the name of aaramra, or dhanya. On the 
dasara holiday it is worn by men of the lower classes on their 
turbans " (Raghuvamsa, ed. Shankar P. Pandit, pt. ii. pp. 58, 
69). 

Could the original expression have been pahcahkuriha ' the 
collection or aggregate of the five sprouts,' corrupted to 
paneangurika, and then to pancahgulika ? 

PATINASIKA, PATISiSAKA. 

These words are not in Childers ; the first means ' a false 
nose ' (J&t. i. p. 455), the second ' a false top-knot.' 

Patiaisakam patmuncitvd (J&t. ii. p. 197 ; Milinda Panha, 
p. 90). 

PATIMANETI. 

Navam patmdnenfo, * waiting for (looking out for) a ship * 
(J&t. ii. p. 423). See J&t. i. 258 ; Cullavagga, vi. 13, 2 ; 
Suttavibhanga P&r. iii. 5, 4; Bhikkhunivibhahga P&r. i. 1. 

We have no use of y/man with prati in this sense in 
Sanskrit, but P&li has numerous examples of forms and 
meanings not to be found in Sanskrit. Childers has not 
registered the meaning of niharati that belongs to pandmeti. 
See J&t. ii. p. 28 ; Thera-G&tha, ii. 53, 59 ; Suttavibhanga 
par. iii. 5, 4. 

PARIPATETI. 

Childers has no example of the causal of paripdtati; but 
see J4t. ii. p. 208, and Milinda-Panha, p. 367, where 
paripdtiyanto = ' being attacked.' 



PALI MISCELLANIES. REV. DR. MORRIS. 37 



PALIPA. 

This word occurs in three passages in our printed texts. 

(1) " UttinnA pankft palipd, p&t&U parivajjit& " (Thera- 
Gath&, V. 89). 

(2) '' Latthi-hattho pure &sim so d&ni migaluddako 
&8&ya, palipd gbor& n&sakkhim p&ram etase" (Theri- 

Q&th&, V. 291). 
The Com. explains palipd by ^ k&mapankato dittbipan- 
kato ca.' 

(3) " Panko ca \Amk palipd ca nama " (J4t. iii. p. 241). 
The Com. explains palipa by ' marsh, quagmire.' 

^^ Palipo Yuccati mah&kaddamo yambi lagg& silkara- 
migad&yo pi sib&pi v&ran&pi att&nam uddharityft gantum 
na sakkonti/' etc. 

Sk. has no form corresponding to palipa. It has, however, 
palva-la = P&li pallala in the sense of * pond, pool,' which 
must be a derivative of a simpler palva (not found in the 8k. 
Dictionaries), to be compared with Greek TnyXov (=7ra\^09) 
iraXico9, Lat. palua (cf. Sk. palala, palita 'mud, mire,' Ir. 
poll * mud,' whence Eng. 'pool'). 

In P&li such a form as palva would become palla or paluva 
or palica (cf. P&li beluva, bella with Sk. baika and bilva). 
P in Pili often occurs as the representative of a Sk. v ; as 
paldpa, c/tdpa^Sk. paldva, gdva; so a Sk. palca would in 
Pali become />a/}j9a. 

The curious form pali-patha (Dh. 73, 432) * a miry road, 
slough, quagmire,' is by Childers referred to Sk. pari' 
patha ; but P&li has pari-pantha in the sense of ' obstacle, 
danger,' so that the first element in palipatha is not pari, but 
pali in the sense of ' muddy, miry.' The Scholiast says that 
palipatha metaphorically denotes ' lust ' and the other klesas, 
and thus corresponds closely to the sense of palipa in the 
passages already quoted. 

The root-meaning of pal seems to be * grey, hoary,' cf. 
Sk. palita ' grey,' paldgni ' bile ' (lit. ' black-fire,' melancholia), 
pal-k'nl^Hindipalakni 'an old woman;' Gr. ttcXXov; Lat. palleo^ 



38 yALI MISCELLANIES. — REV. DR. MORRIS. 

PlTirAMANA, CIKKHASSANTA, ACAMAYAMANA. 

"Ditthapubbo pana tay& mah&raja koci ahin& dattho manta- 
padena yisam p&tiyam&no visam cikkhassanto uddham-adho 
&cayam&iio " (Milinda-Panha, p. 162). 

Of the three participles in the extract quoted above, the 
editor says he " can make nothing.'' 

(1) But may not pAHyamAna be referred to the ^pat 
* to remove/ meaning in the causative * to expel, eradicate ' 
(cf . the use of Akaddhatiy J&t. iii. p. 297) ; or can it be 
referred to the causal of pra+at * to cause to go forth, to 
expel ' P 

The old Sinhalese version renders it by baatcana laddAwa. 

(2) Cikkhassanta must, I venture to think, be referred to 
^kshar ^ to ooze out,' and here signifies ' causing to ooze out.' 

The Old Sinhalese version has sanhin dutcana ladddiva=. 
^causing to run out softly.' 

(3) Acamayam&nay if the reading is correct, must be re- 
ferred to y/camy ' to rinse,' with the causal sense of ' to wash 
out, purge, cleanse.' 

Dr. Trenckner remarks thatj9fl(?c<lcfliw° and Acarri^ mean *to 
resorb,' and must belong to ^cam, though we find them 
written pacc&vam° and Avanf, Here perhaps we ought to 
read AvamayamAnay the caus. part, of Avanf, 

The Sinhalese version does not help us in its substitution 
of ' tenuina laddAwa, unless it means * washing out,' instead 
of * wetting ' or * moistening.' 

The general sense of the passage quoted is by no means 
difficult to make out, if we recollect that there were three 
ways of treating a person who had been bitten by a snake : 
(1) by causing the offending reptile to extract or * resorb' 
the poison ; (2) by muttering spells ; (3) by the use of 
drugs as emetics or purgatives. 

We find some reference to these methods in J&t. i. p. 311 ; 
iii. p. 297 ; Milinda Paiiha, p. 150. 

In the first reference paccAcamati (text has paccAvamati) is 
explained by kaddhati, and in the second AcamAmi is equiva- 
lent to AkaddhAmu 



PALI MISCELLANIES. — ^RBV. DR. MORRIS. 39 

The Milinda Panha extract might be translated as follows t 

" But have you ever before seen, great king, a man who 
has been bitten by a snake expelling the poison by means 
of a spell-verse, causing the poison to ooze out, and [by 
means of drugs] purging himself upwards and downwards.'' 

I now give the corresponding passage from the Old Sifi* 
halese version, by Hinati-Eumbara-Sumangala-IJnn&nse: 
(p. 191 of the 1877 Colombo edition) : 

'^ Maharaj&neni wi§a win&sa karana n&wu mantra pada- 
yakin, wisa baswana ladddumy wisa sanhin duicana laddatcu^ 
wisa (irddh&dbo bh&yayehi ausadha jalayena temana ladddipu 
nayaku wisin dasta karana ladd&wu kisiwik topa wisin 
dakn& ladde dseyi." 

pIlikolika. 

• • 

PilikoUka is equivalent to akkhigiithaka (Therl-G&thft, 
V. 395). The commentary gives pllikd as the first part of 
the compound, but makes no remark upon the second ele- 
ment. Was the original pilikdviUika or pilikdvilika from 
pilika+reilika ? Cf. Sk. ird-vilUka * a pimple.' 

P&li has pilakd *a boil, pustule'; but this is the only 
passage where pilikd is to be found. For dvi^^o see DisO" 
disam. Is the Conmientary right? can the word be referred to 
pUi'kofAaka ? Cf . Hindi kotha^ Sk. kotka * inflammation or 
ulceration at the angles of the eyelids.' 

PUNNAGHATA, 

This term is mentioned in connection with festival decora- 
tions (see J&t. i. p. 62; Eng. Trans, p. 66). Prof. Rhys 
Davids renders it a * well-filled water-pot.' It occurs again 
in the Dipavamsa, vi. 65 ; xiv. 30 : punnaghatam subham 
\thapayantu]y translated by Dr. Oldenberg as 'auspicious 
brimming jars' (Dham. p. 149 ; Mah&vamsa, p. 193). I find 
punnapaUa^purmaghata in the Piltimaihsa J&taka, iii. p. 535, 
where I have translated it by *the flowing bowl, the full 
bowl,' and have added the following note of explanation : 
'^ The full bowl wa& a lucky omen. It sometimes denoted 



40 PALI MISCELLANIES. — RSV. DR. MORRIS. 

a box crammed with presents to be distributed at a feast" 
(Folklore Journal for Jan. 1885). 

PUPPHA-CHAPPA^A. 

Ahosim puppha-chaddako (Thera-QAtM, v. 620). Puppha- 
ehaddako 'a flower-seller, garland or nosegay-maker.' Cf. 
6k. puahpaldva ' a nosegay-maker.' 

Puppha-chadda-kamma is mentioned as one of the * low ' 
occupations in the Suttavibhanga, ii. 2. 1. Chaddaka in 
rUpiyorchaddaka has a difierent signification. 

PONTI. 

This occurs in Therf-Gftthft, v. 422. The Com. shows we 
must read poti 'cloth,' cf. L.'s reading, pothi. But ponti 
might be a dialectic form, cf. Mar&tht bontha=.^ a cloth 
thrown over the head and body as a cloak.' 

BUBBULAKA. 

" Vattani-r-iva kotar' ohitft majjhe-bubbulak& saassukft" 
(TherJ.Gfttha, v. 395). 

The Commentator explains mqjjh^ by "akkhidala-majjhethi- 
tajalabubbalasadisft." 

The only meaning that is given by Childers to bubbuhkd 
IS * bubble.' Cf. Sanskrit budbtida^ * pupil of the eye,' and 
Mar&thi bub&la, bubala, ' the eyeball, the pupil and iris.' 

bha-kIra, ya-kIra. 

These terms occur in the Suttavibhanga P&c. ii. 2. 1 
amongst the * low ' terms of abuse {/iino akkoso) ; cf. 
Mar&thi ca^kdrl, a cant term for 'a backbiter,' and bak- 
bhaka, bakbaka ' gabbling, chattering,' bhupakdra * the 
whoop of monkeys,' bhokdra, a contemptuous terra for the 
mouth or face when distorted by bellowing or yawning. 
The term kdtakotacikd (P&c. ii. 2. 1), another term of abuse, 
is explained by the Commentary as a compound in which 
kdta = purisa-nimitta, kotacika = itlhi-nimitta^ cf. Hindi 
kd(/a=pudefidum virile (compare Tela-kat-g. verse 79). 



PALI MISCELLANIES. — KEY. DR. MORRIS. 41 

BHAKUTI, BHAKQTIKA. 

In the Suttavibhanga I. Sangh xiii. 1. 3. we find bhdkutika' 
ihdkutika 'frowning severely/ and abbh&kutika ^smiling' {Le. 
*not frowning '). 

Dr. E. MiiUer (P&li Gr. p. 11) says hh&kuliz=iSk. bhrukuti 

* eye-brow/ but in the passage referred to it must signify 

* a frown ' ; of. Mar&thi bhrukuti * a frown, contraction of 
the brows.' 

We also find bhakutl=^^k. bhrukuti in J&t. No. 329, p. 99 : 
*^ Cileti kannam bhakutim karoti," spoken of a monkey that 
wriggles its ears and frowns in order to frighten the young 
princes in the palace of Dhananjaya. 

The translators of the Vinaya Texts have wrongly rendered 
''kviyam abalabalo viya mandaraando viya bb^kutibh&ku- 
tiko viya" (Cullav. i. 13. 3) : " Who is this feUow like a 
fool of fools, or like an idiot of idiots, or like a simpleton 
of simpletons ? '* It should be " Who is this fellow (coming 
along) as if (he were) very feeble, as if very sluggish and as 
if frowning severely?" 

Buddhaghosa explains it by sahkutita-mukhatAya ; he 
seems to have got this meaning out of uttdnamukha. See 
note on Sahkutika, 

BHUMISiSA. 

This word occurs in Dipavamsa, xv. 26, and Dr. Oldenberg 
translates it by 'hill.' In J4t. ii. p. 406 it seems to mean 
the highest point of sloping ground. 

BHENDU OR GENDUP 

• • . • 

In J&taka iii. No. 359, p. 184, we find the compound 
" ratta-kambala-6AP7i^w," for which there is the variant read- 
ing " ratta-kambala-^eiiflfw," with which we may compare 
" ratta-kambala:/?//5;y " (Jit. i. No. 12, p. 149). 

Prof. Davids translates, 'a cluster of (red) kamala- flowers ' 
(see J&t. i. No. 72, p. 319). In Thera-Gathft, v. 164, we find 
iata-bheiidu (explained by the commentary as '^anekasata- 



42 PALI MISCELLANIES. — REV. DR. MORRIS. 

nii/i/uho")^ for which we find the variant reading saia-gendu 
(see J&t. ii. p. 334). 

It is quite possible in Sinhalese MSS. to mistake bhendu 
for gendu. The question is, however, which is the correct 
reading P I am inclined to read gendu in all cases, and to 
compare it with gedu-ka ^ a ball.' The meaning of gendu in 
"ratta-kambala-^mJw" must be *a tuft, tufted ball,' or 'cluster/ 
cf . Mar&thi gend(^ * a tufted head of flowers like the globe 
amaranth.' It also signifies ' a knob, a boss of silk or silver,' 
and this meaning seems to explain bhendu (i.e. gendu) in 
bhendti'pilandhandni (J&t. i. No. 93, p. 386). 

Cf. Sinhalese gedi *a ball,' and gedig^ 'an ornamental arch.' 

MAMSAStTLA. 

Marmmtila occurs in the Sasa-Jat&ka. In my translation 
of it,^ I have, in following Childers, wrongly translated it by 
' spit ' instead of ' a bit of roasted meat,' corresponding to 
Sk. Billy am&msa 'roasted meat' (see J&t. iii. p. 220, 11. 13, 
16, 16). 

SUla means a stake, the impaling stake, also a skewer, spit, 
but it also represents a form sulla = Sk. sulya (see J&t. iii. 
p. 220, 1. 16). In fact, Pali aula represents English stake 
and steak. So P&Ii miila stands for Sk. mtila and mulya. 

It is curious to find that Childers omits the very common 
phrase sule uttdseti *to impale' (J&t. i. pp. 326, 499, 500). 

FausboU has mule dvunitvd (J. iii. p. 35, 1. 11), for which 
we ought to read (mmbassa) sule • . . dmnitvd, corresponding 
to appenti nimbdsuiasmim (J&t. iii. p. 34, 1. 26). 

* 

MARUMBA. 

For examples of the use of this term see Mah&vamsa, 
p. 169, 1. 8; Dlpavamsa, xix. 2. Dr. Oldenberg says, "I 
cannot define the exact meaning of marumba. Turnour 
translates this word by 'incense,' which is decidedly wrong. 
To me it seems to mean something like 'gravel.'" It 

* Folklore Journal for Nov. 1884 



PALI MISCELLANIES. — REV. DR. MORRIS. 43 

generally occurs in combination with pdsdna, sakkhara and 
kathala (Suttavibhangaii. P&c. x. 1. 1). In the Milinda-PaDha, 
p. 197/ we find khara * sharp ' ^ applied to marumba. It may 
be compared with Mar&thi muHJtma 'a kind of fissile stone' ; 
Hindi murama * a kind of gravelly soil.' 

MUCCHATI, MUCCHETI. 

Childers quotes muceati in the sense of ' to curdle,' under 
muncati {y/muc)^ but perhaps we ought to read mtwchati^ 
from the yjmurcch. He has no example of y/ mucch^ in the 
Bense of * to tune.' cf. vinam mucchetv&y J&t. iii. p. 188. 

Cf. '' M&silavin&v&dako pi vinam uttama-mucchan&ya mitc^ 
cheicd videsi " (Jit. ii. p. 249, IL 2, 7, 13). 

"Vinam muccheU" (Jftt. iii. p. 188). 

MUTTHASSATI. 

In the first volume of his Dictionary Childers, influenced 
no doubt by the use of the root muh and its derivatives, 
made muttha to be another form for mdlha or muddha. In 
the additional matter appended to the second part of the 
Dictionary he refers it, on account of pamiittha, to the root 
mush. 

The translators of the Yinaya Texts, Mah&vagga, x. 3, in 
a note on pari-muttha (bewildered), also lend their support to 
this etymology of muttha (though Sk. parimmh usually means 
' to steal '), and refer to the Sanskrit mushild'Smriti in Kath&- 
Sarit-S&gara, 66 : — 

'' Atha 'ekad& 'an&p&syaiva samdhiyam askh&lit&nghrikah 
sa sushav&pa Nalah pftna-madena muahi ta'Smritih," i.e. ' Nala 
lost his senses through drunkenness and forgot to say his 
evening-prayer and to wash his hands.' 

But P&li, as far as we can judge from the printed texts, 
does not use mutthassati in this sense. 

' In this passage Avaffa a * whirlpools/ gaggalaka * eddies/ vanka ' bends, 
irindings ' ; but I can make nothing out of eadika. One MS. has vadika, but 
ought we not to read velika * surges ' ? 

^ Is this an error for kathala P 



44 PALI MISCELLANIES. — REV. DR. MORRIS. 

Sail in Buddhist phraseology had acquired for the most 
part a higher meaning than 'senses' or 'involuntary con- 
sciousness/ and denoted ' attention/ that was under the 
control of the will, as seen in such phrases as kdyagatd. sad, 
'meditation on the body/ maranasatim bhdreti^=' to dwell 
on the thought of death/ 8ati'patt/idna^=* earnest meditation/ 
sati'Sdmpajanm =^ mindtulneas and though tfulness.' In fact 
the use of the English mind in the sense of * to remember/ 
and ' to attend/ suggests ' mindful ' and ' mindfulness ' as fit 
renderings of sata aud sati (in sato sampajarino, asancicca 
asatiyd), Mutthasaati^ 'inattentive, unmindful/ is opposed 
to vpatthasati (in the Sallekha-Sutta), 'attentive, mindful/ 
just as muHhd aati (Thera-GSLthft, v. 98, 99) is opposed to 
upatthd sati. " Satim patth&petum "=:'to fix the attention.' 

The correct expression in P41i for * to lose one's senses 
through drink/ is mafini hoti, and visannibhUta = Sanskrit 
Mushita-smriti, 

(1) "Ap&tabbayuttakam -piYiUktimrimbhutd satim patth&- 
petum asakkont&" (J&t. i. pp. 362; see visahhi hotUi, lb. 
p. 361 ; virnhni katrd, lb. p. 269). 

(2) "Yathft bhandam gahetvA madhum pivanto visamtino 
hutv& sisam ukkhipitum na sakkonti" (Thera-Oithft, p. 181). 

" Satim paccupatth&petum asakkonto " is used of a person 
who, through grief on account of loss of wealth, is unable to 
have command over his feelings (J&t. i. p. 353). 

At one time I thought that muttha might be another form 
of mucchiCa, from the root murcch, just as we find ussita for 
ucchtta=ucchrita^ and itthaz=.icchita. Now a form mussati 
does actually occur in CuUavagga, x. 8, in connection with 
the feminine mutthaHsatini} for which we find a variant 
reading muyhati (see CuUavagga, p. 327), which shows that 
there existed some confusion between the two forms. 

The reading pammuttha (Dhammapada, pp. 247, 248 ; 

^ Ta88& mu^^bassatiniyGl gabito-gabito mitssati, 
XJpalaTan^d bad such an unretentive memory that she forgot the Vinaya, 

though it was frequently repeated to her. 

In the Mabavagga we find aati-vepuliapatlo applied to one who had regained 

full possctision of his faculties. 



PALT MISCELLANIES. — BEV. DR. MORRIS. 45 

J&t. iii. 511 ^) seems to be an orthographical error for 
Mmmuttha. Dr. Oldenberg always prints BammuHhay with 
the variant reading pamuttha (Suttavibhahga i. P4c. i. 2. 6 ; 
and pp. 165, 275). 

In the Puggala Pannatti, pp. 21, 25, we find, as a synonym 
of Mtiy the term mmmussanaid, which must be referred to 
a P&li verb mussati, which, as we have already seen, does 
occur. See Sutta Nip4ta, iv. 7. 2. 

On looking over the Dh&tu-manjilsa I find mus ' to steal,* 
and mu9 * to wander [in mind] ' explained by sammose (cf. sati- 
mmmosa,^ Milinda-PaAha, p. 266 ; Sept Suttas P&lis, p. 248 ; 
Puggala Pannatti, iii. 7), tnuldvlmhe. 

This V **«#» * to wander, to be bewildered,* must, we 
Tenture to think, be referred to Sk. mrtsh vergessen vernach- 
lassigen, sich aus dem sinne schlagen (B. and R.). Sk. 
mrishd becomes in Pali mmd, so that there is no difficulty in 
regard to the regularity of its form. In Prakrit we find 
pamhumi, pamhuttha'; pamhaitha^ (R&vanavaha, 6. 12.), which 
Dr. E. Miiller, following P. Goldschmidt, refers to ^smriah 
(Pali Gr. pp. 57, 58). 



RINDI. 

*' Pinayattapahitauggat& ubho sobhate su thanak& pure 
mama 
Te rindi va lambante 'nodakft " (Thert-Gatha, v. 265). 

The editor says, "I am unable to make out the correct 
reading." Dr. Pischel has laid his readers under great 
obligations by his liberal quotations from the Commentary, 
without which no emendations could be attempted. 

The Comment explains te rindi as follows : — 

" ITieriti* va lampantanodakd ti \ te ubho pi me thand 
anudakH ga|itajal& ▼e9ilda9dake thapitam udakabhasin& viya 
lambantL" 



^ A foot-note giyes the reading pamuffha. 
* C£. tamtnoka in this seniie (roggala PannBtd, p. 21) 
> In R&T. xi. 68, iy. 42, 'it is glossed by pramushita. 
« This seems a mispelling for te riti, i.e. te ritti. 



46 PALI MISCELLANIES. ^REV. DR. MORRIS. 

The various readings for te rindi are therUi, theriti, therindi^ 
terindt, therihi, from which we might construct the readable 
te ritf tea lambante, etc. 

But te tittlva is for te rittd iva^ a long vowel being elided 
before iva, Cf. md palujjiti for m& palujje iti (Mah&parinib* 
b&na-Sutta, p. 36; see Childers, "On Sandhi in Pali," 105. 15). 

RittA of course refers to thanakd, and means * empty, dry,* 
and this is supported by the comment, which describes the 
breasts of the Theri as containing no moisture, and hanging 
like dry water-bags at the end of a bamboo-stick {-bhasmd 
in the Com. is a blunder for -bhastrd). 

Ritta and rittaka are common terms for ^ empty ' from the 
root rim (not in Childers). See Theri-Gftthft i. 93, p. 183 ; 
J&t. iii. p. 492. 

LAKUTA. 

Lahuta *a club ' (Milinda-Panha, pp. 367, 368) ; cf. Hindi 
Idkuta ' a stick ' ; Sk. laguda ; Pali lagula ; Mar&thi Idkuda^ 
Idnkuda, 

VAGGULI-VATA. 

See Note on Apassena. 

VagguU'Vata seems to mean the * swinging-penance,' and 
answers to Mar&thi hagdda ' a religious mortification.* 
'^ Swinging by means of a hook introduced under the muscles 
of the back, from a cross piece passing over a post either 
planted in the ground or fixed on a moving cart." 

VAJJHA. 

F<y;*Aa-sAkariyo, t,e. 'barren old sows* (J&t. ii. p. 406, 1. 5). 
The more usual form is vafyha ( J&t. iii. p. 42G ; Suttavi- 
bhahga, ii. p. 70). 

VAMBHETI OR YAMHETI. 

Dr. Oldenberg always prints vambheti (see Suttavibhanga 
Sangh. iii. 3. 1 ; Thera-G&tha, v. 621). 

It is often used in contrast to ukkamseti, as '^ n'eva att&nam 
ukkamseti no param vambheti" (Ahg. Nik. pt. iv.). 



PALI MISCELLANIES. — REV. DR. MORRIS. 47 

Prof. FausboU prints vamhetiy cf. " Parassa ce vamhayitena 
hino"='if one becomes low by another's censure' (Sutta 
Nip&ta, T. 905). ^Ehumsenti vamhenti' (JsLt. i. p. 191). 

In J&t. i. p. 356y 11. 3, 6, 10, vamheti signifies ' to boast/ 
find in Jit. i. p. 359, ramAa=paTikatthita, vikatthita. 

Prof. Senart compares nirvamhani in MahsLvastu, p. 314) 
with vamheti^ and this would doubtless be all right if vri7nh 
* to roar/ or vahgh * to blame/ were the true root, but I think 
the MSS. are in favour of vambh^. In an excellent MS. of 
the Apad&na, in mj own possession, I always find vambh^, 
and not tamh^} 

Professor FausboU also prints mmhdmi for 9umbh° and 
asumhi for dsumbhi (Jit. iii. p. 185 ; J&t. iii. p. 435) ; but 
see dsumbh^ (Suttavibhanga ii. Pac. viii. 1, p. 265), nkumbh^ 
(Thera.G4th&, v. 302). 

VIDAMSETI. 

Just as the roots ghrish and hrish give rise to ghamsati and 
hamsati, so, in later texts, we find vidamseti for the more 
usual vidassetu 

*' Pavittho padipo andhak&ram vidhameti, obh&sam janeti, 
ftlokam vidamseti, rftp&ni p&kat&ni karoti" (Milinda-Panha, 
p. 39). 

Pilandhanam vidamsenti (Therl-G&th&, v. 74, p. 131). 

Cf. &lokan ca dasaessdmi (Dtpavamsa, xii. 31). 

vilIpanatI. 

This word occurs as one of the synonyms of mutthasacca 
(Puggala Pannatti, p. 25), while arildpanatd is that of sati. 
These must be referred to the v^/l, cf. apildpana (Milinda- 
Panha, p. 37). See Dr. Rhys Davids' note on upalapand at 
Mah&parinibb&na Sutta, i. 95. 

VISlYATI. 

"K&mam bhijjatu 'yam kftyo mamsapesi vi8lyarum"(Thera- 
Grkthk, 312). Visiyati is not in Ghilders ; it means ' to be 

\ We flndi?arwMiyiM° in jat. iu. p. 347. 



48 PALI MISCELLANIES. — REV. DR. MORRIS. 

reduced to atoms, to be broken to pieces,' from the root ff »= 
gavy cf, Mahavastu, p. 23 : — 

" Te dftni narakapaift kasya d&ni yiiyBm atra sanjnapaya. 
iD&n& pratyudgacchatbeti t&m praharanti yathsL dadbighatik& 
evam (firt/anti vigiryanti" cf. set/i/am, liseyi/asi, visinna (J&t. 
i. 174 ; Db. 147). 

VEGHA-MISSAKENA.^ 

Tbis IS confessedly a difficult word to deal witb. Dr. 
Rbys Davids says its meaning is not clear, and for it be 
adopts anotber reading. It occurs in tbe Mah&parinihb&na 
Sntta (ed. Childers, p. 22) : 

^'Seyyatb&pi Ananda jarasakatam vegha-mmakena y&peti 
evam eva kbo Ananda vegha-miasakena maiine Tatb&gatassa 
k&yo y&peti." 

Tbis passage Dr. Rbys Davids translates as follows : 

" And just as a worn-out cart, Ananda, can only tcith much 
additional care be made to move along, so metbinks tbe body 
of tbe Tatb&gata can only be kept going with much additional 
care " {Buddhist Sultaa, in " Sacred Books of tbe East," vol. 
xi. p. 37). 

Tbe translator prefers tbe reading of tbe Burmese MSS. 
vekha-miBsakenay and takes vekha to be a sbortened form 
of Sanskrit avekshd * care,' a most ingenious way of getting 
some meaning out of tbe word. Buddbagbosa, bowever, 
gives a different explanation of it. His words are : 

" vegha-missakend ti b&babandbana - cakkabandban&din& 
patisankbara^ena vegba-missakena." 

Tbe commentator evidently understood regha in tbe second 
part of tbe sentence (as it stands in tbe text) in a meta- 
phorical sense: 

^* manue ti jarasakatam viya tegha-miBsakena mafine y&peti 
arabatta-pbala-vegbanena catu-iriy&patb&-kappanam boti 
nidasseti." 

Tbe word seems to be used metapborically, however, in 
tbe following verse, where veghif is an adjective: 

^ See Aeadany, Oct. 4, 18S4, No. 648. 



PALI MISCELLANIES. — REV. DR. MORRIS. 49 

"Ye kbo te vegha^misBena D&natthena ca kammunft manusse 
npanindhati pharusupakkam& jan& te pi tath' eva ktranti 
[9tc] na hi kammam panassati " {Thera-Odthd, ed. Oldenberg, 
p. 20, 1. 143). 

The learned editor offers no note of explanation beyond 
the quotation from the commentary, {^* reghamissend ti va- 
rattakkhandhidin& silftdtsu r^^A^-dsLnena teghamissend ti p&li 
80 ev* attho*'), and refers to Dr. Rhys Davids's Buddhist 
Suttas, 

Looking for the present only to the interpretations of the 
commentaries, it is evident that regha is to be explained by 
'band^' *tie' (bandhana), or by *bit of leather/ 'thong,' 
'strap,' etc. (raratta-kkhan^ddi). According to Buddha^ 
ghosa, an old cart had to be kept from dropping to pieces 
by lashing of the shafts and wheels with pieces of string, 
rope, leather, etc. It seems to have been an ancient usage, 
and still survives, if the following description of " Riding in 
a Dak " is to be relied on : 

"It is interesting to see the nondescript vehicles— crazy 
concerns, with plank trucks, bamboo frames, and not a pin, 
bolt, or scrap of iron about them, the pieces of the rickety 
things all tied together with ropes and strings. With a knife 
we could in two minutes make one of them as complete 
a ruin as Holmes' * One-horse Shay ' " (Our New Way Round 
the World, London, 1883, p. 129). 

We cannot, I venture to think, explain regha-missakena, 
according to the Sumangala Vildsini, both literally and 
metaphorically in one and the same passage without de- 
stroying the balance of the whole sentence, and spoiling the 
comparison intended by Buddha between an old cart and the 
enfeebled body of an old roan. The translation from the 
Pftli already quoted'might be amended somewhat as follows : 

"And just as an old cart, Ananda, is kept going by lash- 
ings of ropes, etc., so methinks the (enfeebled) body of the 
Tath&gatha is only kept up (or supported) by bandages, 
ligatures, etc." 

The body of an old man would need some protection from 
heat and cold, hence the use of a bandhana. The modem 
Phil. Tnuis. 1SS0-6. 4 



50 PALI MISCELLANIES. — BEY. DR. MORRIS. 

Hindas, for instance, protect their faces by the use of the 
d/idthd'bdndhnd, the ''dhlltha" being (according to Bate's 
Hindi Dictionary) ^^a handkerchief tied over the head 
and ears." 

But how about the curious form regha ? What are its 
etymological connections P With Dr. Davids, I unhesi- 
tatingly adopt, for other reasons than his, the Burmese 
reading rekhuy or rather vekkha, and would refer it to San- 
skrit veshka, 'a noose, lasso' (with lasso compare English 
lace and lash). Bohtlingk and Roth give only two references 
for the use of reshka (Qat. Br. iii. 8, 15, and KAty. Qr. vi. 
5, 19). On referring to the second quotation, I find that the 
commentator explains veshka by gald-veshtaka. 

The change of shk to kkh is quite regular, cf. Sanskrit 
nishka and P&li nikkha. Etymologically, vekkha is equivalent 
to vinculum^ and must be referred to the root vik ' to bind,' 
preserved in Sanskrit vesht^ Latin vincirey etc. 

Professor Kern says : '' It seems to me somewhat doubtful 
whether the PsLli word tegha must be considered to repre- 
sent a bad reading. So far as I am able to judge, vegha 
is quite correct as to its form, and admits of a ready ex- 
planation. I would venture to take it as the equivalent of 
Sanskrit vighna^ * difficulty, trouble,' so that the meaning of 
the well-known passage in the Mah&parinibb&na Sutta would 
come to this: 'juelt as an old cart moves with difficulty, 
so does the body of TathsLgata.' Mksakena is here used 
adverbially, whereas veghamissa in Thera-GsLth^, as quoted 
by Dr. R. Morris, is an adjective, meaning, if I am not 
mistaken, ' molesting, troublesome.' 

''Instances of Sanskrit 'i' passing into Prakrit 'e,' es- 
pecially in syllables which are long, naturally or by position, 
are not wanting, e.g. Sanskrit d2)i(ia, but Pr&krit and P&li 
dvelOf dveld ; idr^a becomes edisa, erka ; for Vigvabhit, Vigrd- 
mitra, Vigvantara, P&li shows VessabhUf Vessdmitta, Vessantara. 
In Pr&krit we find penda as a substitute to Sanskrit pinda^ 
and in one of the inscriptions at Barhut Anddhapedika for 
Andthapindika. By a similar process Sanskrit vighna will 
become viggha^ veggha, vegha, or viggha, tlgha, vegha. The 



PALI MISCEfXANIES. — REV. DR. MORRIS. 61 

change of the original vowel sound points to a tendency in 
some dialects to pronounce the 'i' in the manner of the 
English *i/ e,g. in ship, and the Dutch short vowel in the 
corresponding word schip^ the plural of which is sounded 
ichepen, with a lengthened * 6.' 

"There are a few instances of a short *i' passing into 
e — e.g. in Pftli mahesi, Sanskrit mahisthi, veha in veh&gamana. 
The discussion of these cases would be superfluous, as throw- 
ing no more light on the word in question. 

" I have tried to show that the change of vighna into vegha 
may have taken place according to well-established phonetic 
rules. I am, however, not prepared to uphold the theory 
that vegha is necessarily the remote oflspring of vighna ; for, 
in the language of the Zend-Avesta, we meet with voighnd, 
where the particle showed itself in Guna form. It is just 
possible that, along with the form vighna, there existed in 
some Indian dialect another — veg/ma, which would correspond 
to vaighna, except in gender." 

To this I replied that " If we were quite sure that vegha 
has the sense of 'difficulty' or 'trouble' in the passages 
already referred to, then Prof. Eern's suggestion would be 
perfectly convincing. P&li has the word viggha, which 
Childers rightly refers to Sanskrit vighna : and it is quite 
possible, too, for a pr&kritised variant vegha to have co- 
existed along with viggha, for we have nekkha, as well as 
nikkha (from 'niska'), and tnghdla and angdra. But there 
are one or two points that seem to militate against Prof. 
Kern's theory that r^^Afl=' difficulty.' 

" 1. The explanation of the two commentators quoted is 
dead against it. Their interpretation, traditional though it 
be, should count for something. My etymology is based 
upon the remarks of the commentaries, and, if they are 
wrong, my explanation and derivation fall to the ground. 
I venture to think that ' binding ' or * obligatory ' would suit 
the context of veghamissena better than ' troublesome.' 

" 2. The force and appropriateness of the comparison seem 
to be spoiled by the use of vegha in the sense of ' difficulty * ; 
for would there not be a difflculty in keeping up or main- 



62 PALI MISCELLANIES. — REV. DR. MORRIS. 

taining anything that was old and shaky P Why shoiild an 
old eart be specially mentioned P Why not an old bed, chair, 
lamp, in fact anything old and rickety P 

** It is possible to let the reading of the Sinhalese MSS. 
stand as a variant of rekha ^or vekkha. Dr. Trenckner has 
shown that P&li has such duplicates as lageti and laketi^ 
ktguia and lakufa, chagana and chakana,^ paligha and palikha. 
Why, then, may there not have been a vegha as well as a 
vekha ? ^ Perhaps the form vegha was preferred to vekha be- 
cause, as sacrifices were an abomination to the early Buddhists, 
they would not be anxious to preserve that form of the 
word which would remind them of its true origin and con* 
nexion with sacrificial rites. 

" Whether vegha or vekha be the correct form, or whether 
it is to be explained as ' difficult,' etc., must be left for those 
more competent than myself to decide; but Prof. Eem's 
explanation is valuable and suggestive; and he certainly 
proves that a P&li form vegha is a representative of Sanskrit 
tighna.** 

VERAMBA. 

Veramba-vdta seems to mean *a strong sharp cutting wind* 
(see J&t. iii. pp. 255, 256, 484 ; Thera-G&th&, vv. 597, 598). 

The J&taka contains a story of a conceited vulture that 
flew beyond its proper range, and passing through the black- 
wind, got under the influence of the veramba-wind and was 
reduced to atoms (see Dhammapada, p. 163). A variant 
reading gives verambha. The root seems to be rambh or 
lamhh * to roar, bellow,' cf. Sk. rambhd * lowing.' 

SADDHA. 

At p. 84 of the " Journal of the P^li Text Society," for 
188*3, Mr. Bendall requests his readers "to cite any further 
authority for saddha^=graddha " that they may come across. 

1 Cf, Paii laHra (not in Clulders) * a chain attached to a well,' with Maratht 
Uagara (Mil. P. p. 378). . 

' The literary Prakrits hare mekha for megha, and Marathi has regka for 
rekhay showing that gh and kh were unstable sounds, not accurately discriminated, 
and showing a tendency to pass into h. 



PALI MISCELLANIES. — REV. DR. MORRIS. 53 

• 

The following instance is from Prof. Carpenter's transcript 
of the Ambattha-Sutta (i. 27, 28) : " Api nu nam br&hman& 
bhojeyyum saddhe y& th&lip&ke vsL yanne y& psLhune y& ti." 

Mr. Bendall says (Journal, p. 80) that " there must have 
existed a various reading for the words pamuncantu rnddham^ 
We find this in the P&rayana-Sutta of the Sutta-Nip&ta, v. 23 : 
'' Yathi ah{i Yakkali muttasaddho 



Evam eva tvam pi pamuncayaasu saddham.'' 

which is thus translated by Prof. Fausboll in " Sacred Books 
of the East," vol. x. p. 213 : " As Vakkali was delivered by 
faith, so shalt thou let faith deliver thee." 

Mutiasaddha does not usually mean ^' delivered by faith " ; 
that is expressed by aaddhd^vtmutta. 

Dr. Rhys Davids has another rendering of this passage in 
his " Hibbert Lectures/' p. 173. 

SANKUTIKA OR SANKUTITA. 

Sankutika, not in Ghilders, occurs in J&t. ii. p. 68, in the 
sense of 'cowering, squatting with knees up to the nose, 
doubled up with cold.' In J&taka, ii. p. 225, we find 
Btthkutito nipqjijif where a various reading has salnlkutiko for 
9ahkutiko. 

Buddhaghosa, in his comments on bh&kutika bhdkutika, has 
mhkutita 'puckered, drawn up.' Sahkutika seems to be 
correct, and may be compared with ukkutika 'crouching, 
squatting on the haunches,' cf. *'paUkutito patisakki" (Culla* 

sambAdha. 

"Ekacdl apagatavatth& p&katabhibhaccha-«am2>(i(/Aa/Mdnd 
(J&t. i. p. 61). 

Professor Rhys Davids (J&taka, Eng. Trans, p. 81) trans- 
lates the foregoing passage as follows : — " Some with their 
dress in disorder — plainly revealed as mere horrible sources 
of mental distress." But sambddhatthdna signifies ^ private 
parts,' cf. aambddha = muttakarana (Suttavibhanga, iL p. 260, 
Pac ii. 2), pudendum muliebre, Sk. sambddhana. It also 
occurs in Mah&vagga, vi. 22. 1-3 ; CuUavagga, v. 27. 4. 



54 PALI MISCBLLAKIES. — REV. DR. MORRIS. 

HiRAHIRAM. 

HlraMram hnroti signifies 'to cut into strips.' In J&t. i. p. 9, 
^'munja-tinam hirahiram katv&"=' making (three) strips or 
strings out of (the fibre of) munja-grass ' as a girdle for the 
bark-dress of an ascetic. 

In Dham. p. 176, it seems to mean * to ribbons, to strips.' 
Childers gives no etymology. Can it be referred to a Sk. 
Alra=:* strip, band,' cf. Sk. hira^mekhald ? 

HURAM. 

m 

For huram in the phrase " idha v& huram vft " (Kh. 7 ; 
Dham. 4) various etymologies have been proposed. 

Prof. Fausboll (Dhammapada, p. 409) suggests avaram. 
Prof. Eern, according to Childers, ingeniously refers it to 
Sk. aparam. Neither of these explanations accounts for the 
initial h, which here seems to be organic, and therefore 
unlike the h in heiam and heva, that ought to be written 
h* etnm and V eva. 

m 

The editor of the Dhammapada renders huram by * ilHc,' 
and he is no doubt right as far as the mere sense goes, for it 
is opposed to idha 'here, in this world' ; and the phrase **idha 
. . . huram*' is equivalent to *Udha . . . pecca'' *'i'dha . • • 
parahke." ^ 

As paramhi is so often opposed to idha in the sense of 
* in the other world,' it seems very doubtful whether huram 
oan be a prakritised form of aparam. It would not be an 
easy matter to quote any passage in P&li where apara has 
reference to the other or next world. 

Huram is a rare form occurring only, as far as we know, 
in the poetical books, and may after all be an archaic term. 
Can it be referred to Sk. huruk (hiruk), a weakened form of 
an original hurak * out of sight, away.' Cf . Sk. tirlyak and 
mandk with P&li tiriyam and manam. 

* In our own language * here and there ' are used to denote * thie world and the 
next ' ; cf. Hymm Ancient and Modem (225) : 

" Brief life is here our portion, 

The tearless life is there'* 



PALI MISCBLLANIES. — REV. DR. MORRIS. 55 

htjrIhuram. 

Hur&huram has generally been connected with the fore- 
going huram. It occurs in v. 334 of the Dhammapada : — 
'' Manujassa pamattac&rino tanhi vaddhati ni&luv& viya 
80 palavati hur&huram phalam iccham v& yanasmim v&- 
naro." 

Prof. FausboU renders this as follows :— 

"Hominis socorditer viventis libido increscit m&luvft velut, 
is currit hue et illuc f ructum desiderans sicut in sylva simia.'^ 

Prof. Max Miiller renders it thus : — 

''The thirst of a thoughtless man grows like a creeper; 
he runs from life to life, like a monkey seeking fruit in the 
forest." 1 

Gray's version is nearly the same, and he translates hurd* 
huram by ' from one existence to another.' 

The only authority for the renderings *from life to life,' etc., 
is the commentator's explanation bhave bhave (in various 
rounds of re-birth). But this phrase is comparatively a 
late one, cf. ''Das' ime . . . k&yinugatsL dhamm& bhave bhave 
anudh&vanti" (Mil. Panha, p. 253). In the older books too 
the term sandhdcati is usually employed for samsarati (see 
Sept Suttas P&lis, p. 21). 

Prof. Kern looks upon hurdhuram as another form of Sk. 
aparasparam, which we find in P&li as apardparam, frequently 
used with verbs of motion in the sense of ' on and on,' 
'continuously.' But, as Childers remarks, there are very 
great difficulties in the way of this identification. Objection 
too must be taken to Childers' comparison of hurdhhuram 
with phaldphalam, since we have no proof that hura was 
ever employed as a noun in the sense of ' birth ' or ' re-birth.' 
If huram be an adverb, meaning 'yonder,' then huram 
huram like sigham slgham might become hurdhuram, the 
nasal vowel being replaced by a long one, as in sIIm for 
nmha and sdrambha for aamrambha. It is not very clear, 
however, that huram, in the phrase "idha vd huram v4," has 
any etymological connection with hurdhuram. 

^ In the first edition Prof. Max Miiller tranfllatet hur^ by * hither and thither.' 



66 PALI MISCELLANIES. — BEY. DK. MOBKIS; 

The simile in y. 334 of the Dhamtnapada does not quite 
bear out the explanation of 'from birth to birth,' or 'in 
various births.' The monkey in seeking for fruit in a forest 
does not run on continually from one state of life to another, 
but he does run about eagerly, excitedly, and restlessly 
from place to place intent on getting something to eat and 
on satisfying the cravings of hunger. 

The desire or lust of one who lives thoughtlessly increases 
in this world and causes him to go about eagerly and 
hankeringly in search of that, and that alone, which shall 
satisfy his desire ; and we note too that in verses 333, 334, 
' loke ' occurs with reference to tanhd. 

We may of course apply the term 'running' metaphori- 
cally to the thought of the careless liver, cf. " cittam vidhdvati 
ekaggatam na labhati" (J&t. i. p. 7). A good illustration 
of tanhd causing people to run about eagerly in this life is 
contained in J&t. ii. No. 260, "ime satt& udarad&t& tan/id 
vasena vicaranti; tanhd ca ime satte vtcdreti.'* The whole 
story is an excellent comment upon the word now under 
consideration. 

The meaning of hurdhuram might be explained by 'far 
and wide,' corresponding to an older uram uram^ with in- 
organic h ; but it is far more probable that it is of the same 
origin as the Mar&thi ir^jr^ 'regretting, uneasy hankering,' 
and signifies * eagerly, hankeringly.' 

ALLUSIONS TO jItAKA STORIES IN MANtT. 

In Manu, bk. iv. verses 30, 192, and 197, we have allusions to 
the crane and cat as symbols of cruelty and craft, taken, doubt- 
less, from two well-known old Hindu tales. The story of the 
crane is the Baka Jdtaka, No. 38, i. 220. See Eng. transla- 
tion by Dr. Rhys Davids, pp. 317-321 ; that of the cat is 
the Bildra Jdtaka, No. 129, FausboU, i. p. 460. 

There is also a reference to the cat in Manu iv. 195 : 

" Dharmadhvajo sad& lubdha9ch&dmiko lokadambhakah 
vaidsLlavratiko jneyo himsrah sarv^bhisandhakah." 

Dr. Hopkins notes that Medh&tithi, one of the com- 



PALI MISCELLANIES. — REV, DR. MORRIS. 57 

mentatora on Manu, says that some read the following 
Terse from the fourth book of the MahsLbh&rata : 

" Yasya dharmadhvajo nityam suradhvaja ivo 'cchritah 
prachannani ca p&p&ni yaidalam nsLma tad vratam iti.'' 
With the foregoing we may compare the following verse 
from the Bil&ra Jitaka : 

** Yo ve dhammadhajam katvsL nigulho psLpam &care 
vis8&sayitv& bh&t&ni bil4ram nsLma tam vatan ti." 

ONOMATOPOEIAS. 

In J&t. iii. p. 223, we find the carious onomatopoeia ahubd- 
liya * a roar of laughter/ cf . Sk. ftalahald * a shout ' ; hulahuU 

* a joyful shout, or exclamation.' 

Another word of this kind is dadddbha and dabhakka (J&t. 
iiL p. 76) ' the pattering sound made by the falling of a bilva 
fruit on the leaves of a palm-tree/ hence the denom. dadda* 
hhayati (lb. p. 77). Perhaps the yjdahh 'to deceive' has 
some connection with it ; cf. Mar&th! dhah-dhaba ' used of 
the sound of water dashing down from a height, of heavy 
bodies falling rapidly.' 

Kmakin&yati kinikin&yati 'to ring like small bells' {kin- 
iini), see J&t. iii. p. 315. 

Surusura, Oogerly says, ' sucking up food ' ; Ghilders, 

* a word imitative of the sound made when curry or rice is 
eaten hastily,' but gives no reference (see P4t. 22 ; Sekkhiy& 
Dhammi 51 ; Yinaya Texts, part i. p. t)5). In the Sutta- 
vibhanga, ii. p. 197, it is used to represent the sound made in 
drinking milk. 

Kiii ' a splashing sound ' (J&t. ii. p. 363 ; JsLt. iii. p. 225) ; 
' a tinkling sound ' ( J&t. ii. p. 397j. Cf. Sk. kiiakila ' a sound 
expressing joy.' 

Capu capu is used to express 'grunting at stool' (see 
Ehudda Sikkha, xvi. 5, p. 98) ; 'smacking the lips' (PsLt. 
50th Sekkhiya DhammsL). 

Ghurughur&yati 'snoring like a pig' (J&t. iii. p. 538). 
Cf. murumura ' a crunching sound in eating raw flesh ' ( J&t. 
i. p. 461) ; whence the denominatives murumurdpeii, muru- 
murupeti (J&t. iii. p. 134). 

Hukku ' the noise made by a jackal ' (J4t. iii. p. 113). Cf. 



58 PALI MISCELLANIES. — REV. DR. MORRIS. 

Mar&thl huki, hukki, hika ' the cry of the jackal.' Hindi 
hukhuka * sobbing, crying.' 

Kikiy sound made by monkeys (Jftt. ii. p. 71). 

Khafakhafa, * a noisy sound, chattering ' (Mahftvagga, 
V. 63). The translators of the Vinaya Texts render it 
'harsh tones.' Gf. Sk. kimtakhatdyay 'to spring or issue 
forth with a noise.' Mar&thi khatkhata, ' fuss, bother, 
altercation, chattering.' 

Vaggu, 'a sweet sound made by a young peacock ' (Jat. ii. 
p. 439).i 

PARROTS AND HILL-PADDY. 

** The parrots brought nine thousand loads of hill-paddy, 
which was picked out by rats" (Dipavamsa, vi. 1 1, pp. 42, 147 j. 

On parrots furnishing ' hill-paddy,' see J&t. i. pp. 325, 327, 
Mah&vam. p. 22. 

TRACES OF JATAKA TALES IN THE PANJIb. 

In the story of " Bdjd Raa&lu " in R. C. Temple's 
Legends of the Panjab (p. 45), we have a very interesting 
and curious variant of the Suvamiakakkata Jdtaka (Jftt. 
iii. p. 293), in which a scorpion takes the place of the croir, 
and a hedgehog that of the crab in the P&li story. The 
hedgehog kills both the scorpion (Ealir) and the serpent 
(TalJr). See Folk-Lore Journal, vol. iii. pt. 1, p. 243. 

In Wide-Awake Stories we find a very inferior variant 
of the Vdnarinda Jdtaka (Jftt. i. p. 278) under the title of 
** The Jackal and the Crocodile." In the Pftli story it 
is a monkey that outwits the crocodile. In the story of 
** The Jackal and the Partridge" we have a variant 
of the Sxmsumdra Jdtaka (Jftt. ii. p. 158). In the Panjabi 
legend the crocodile is outwitted by the partridge telling 
the crocodile that '' the jackal is not such a fool as to take 
his life with him on these little excursions; he leaves it at 
home locked up in the cupboard." In the Jfttaka tale it 
is the monkey that pretends that it has left its heart behind, 
hanging on an udumbara tree. 

^ Cbilden has no instances of kAjati's=pavadati (J&t. ii. p. 439, v. 130). 



69 



IV.— ON THE REVISED VERSION OF THE NEW 
TESTAMENT. By Benjamin Dawson, Esa, B.A. 

A Paper read before the Philologieai Society on Friday^ March 6, 1885. 

The Revised Version of the Old Testament will, it is said, be 
published immediately after Easter ; it will doubtless engross 
attention. The present therefore seems to be a convenient 
time for ** taking stock," to use a commercial phrase, of the 
Revised Version of the New Testament. The R. V. has 
been attacked from so many quarters, and on so many 
grounds, by critics of so many different schools, that there 
appears to me some danger of correct notions of proportion 
being lost, with perhaps the lamentable result that R.V. 
should hold a false position in public estimation. I propose 
therefore this evening to make a few remarks on the excel- 
lences and defects of R.V. from a linguistic point of view, 
drawing my examples almost entirely from The Acts of the 
Apostles, and chiefly from chapter xvii. Setting aside all 
passages involving doctrinal questions and disputes, the fol- 
lowing proposition may be laid down : The correctness of R.V. 
as a translation has been of gradual growth, the result of the 
elimination of previous errors ; it therefore follows that it is 
die most correct English rendering of the Greek original 
which we possess. 

Firstly, then, let me direct your attention to Acts xvii. 11, 
OuTOi Se fjaav evyeviarepoi t&p iv Oea-a-aXovucrj, The course 
of the narrative is plain and simple. The earlier verses of 
the chapter report the disturbance created by the preaching 
of Paul at Thessalonica ; and the attack made by a party 
of Jews with the mob upon Jason's house, where Paul and 
Silas had taken refuge. The apostles, however, escaped 
capture, and were sent off by night to Berea ; and in the 
most natural manner v. 11 proceeds to compare the Jews of 
the two places. But, oddly enough, this simple passage seems 
to have been misunderstood by Tyndale and Granmer, as well 
as by Luther. By an error in translating they give us this 
somewhat incomprehensible description of the Bereans, — 



60 REVISED VERSION OF N. TESTAMENT. — B. DAWSON, B.A. 

" These were the noblest of byrthe amonge them of Thesaa- 
lonica," "Denn sie waren die Edelsten unter denen «u 
Thessalonich " ; — ^as if the Jews of Thessalonica were being 
described, not those of Berea. The mistake is not made in 
the Genevan " These were more worthy men then they 
which were at Thessalonica," nor in the Rheims version. 
Modifjring A.V. slightly, R.V. now gives us — " Now these 
were more noble than those in Thessalonica.'' How the 
course of the narrative was so misunderstood, I cannot 
explain ; the error, as a matter of translation, is easily 
detected. It consisted in the extraordinary blunder of mis- 
taking the genitive of comparison for the partitive genitive, 
notwithstanding the absence of the definite article. 

This passage is an example of greater accuracy in transla- 
tion in A.V. than in some previous versions. The next 
shows us R.V. correcting one of A. V.'s mistranslations. 

Acts xvii. 14, EvOew: ik r&re rov TIavkov i^aTriareiXav oi 
oBeX^oi 7rop€V€<r0at w; hn rfjv OahjcuTaav^ "And then immedi- 
ately the brethren sent away Paul to go as it were to the 
sea." In thus rendering this sentence A.V. has followed the 
versions of Tyndale, Granmer, and Geneva, and has been 
itself reproduced in " comme pour aller du cdt^ de la mer." 
It is a curious fact, which I may mention in passing, that 
in the argument or '* heading" to the chapter, there is 
evidently some mistake. It runs as follows, ^*v, 13 Being 
persecuted at Thessalonica, 15 he cometh to Athens,** which 
seems almost to imply that Paul was supposed to have xe- 
turned to Thessalonica from Berea; whereas the narrative 
plainly tells us that he went by night from Thessalonica to 
Berea, from Berea to the sea, and so to Athens. In 
Bagster's Cotnprehensive Bible the "heading" is slightly 
changed into, " Being persecuted bt/ Jews from Thessalonica, 
13-15 ; he cometh to Athens," The Commentators have much 
to say on this ay; iirl rrjv OaKaaaav (Acts xvii. 14), and some 
of their comments are very interesting. In Scott's Com- 
mentary we find this note : — 

"They therefore conducted him towards the sea-coast, that it 
might be supposed he wa^ about to embark for Asia." 



BETISED VERSION OF N. TESTAMENT. — B. DAWSON, B.A. 61 

Dr. Adam Clarke in his Commentary says : 
** Tliis passage is generally understood to mean that the disciples 
took Paul towards the sea, ob if he had intended to emharkj and 
return to Droas, hut with the real design to go to Athens. Bat it 
is more likely that his conductors, in order to his greater safety, 
left the public or more frequented road, and took him coastwise to 
Athens. Or, by taking a vessel at that part of the sea nearest to 
Berea, they may have coasted it to Athens, which was quite a 
possible case ; and, as we do not hear of his stopping at any place 
on his journey to preach, it is very probable that he went by sea 
to this city. Though sleights and feints may be allowable in cases 
of life and death, yet there does not appear an absolute necessity 
for any in this case. And, as the text does not necessarily point 
any out, so we need not have recourse to any. I take it for 
granted, therefore, that Paul went by sea to Athens." 

Now it seems almost a pity to spoil such an interesting 

argument, but the fact is that the erroneous translation of 

A^hy **(u it tcere" has caused all the difficulty. The right 

sense is given by Wyclif, translating from the Yulgate, and 

by Luther ^'dass er ging bis an das Meer," also by the 

Kheims ** to go iinto the sea," and finally by R. V. ** to go 

as far as to the sea." The mistake in translation consisted 

in taking eo^ separately as a conjunction or adverb, instead of 

joining it closely with hrl and its ace. rfjp OaXcuro-av. This 

W9 eiri idiom is illustrated in Liddell and Scott's Lexicon and 

Jelf's Greek Grammar, and the meaning in this particular 

passage is conclusively established by Dean Alford (1861). 

AU fear of any recurrence of the mistake is done away with 

by the fact that the Revisers have removed ay; to the 

Margin, and transferred la>9 to the Text. Before leaving 

this part of my subject, the disappearance of erroneous 

translations from R.Y., I may mention the correction of the 

rendering of the well-known phrase, occurring three times 

(Matt. V. 21, 27, and 33), "It hath been said by them of 

old time " A.V. The Marginal rendering " to them " shows 

us that the " tyrant majority " of that Company must have 

carried their point against the better Greek scholars of the 

minority. The words are ippiOrj roU ap^aloi<:, clearly the 

dative of the recipient, the gen. with inro would have given 



62 REVISED VERSION OF N. TESTAMENT — B. DAWSON, B.A. 

the agent. Now R.V. agrees with Wyclif, and Tyndale, and 
Luther, in verses 21 and 33, "Ye have heard that it was 
said to them of old time/' but differs in v. 27 by omitting 
the phrase " to them of old time." 

Although V. 6 distinctly states that ''Jason and certcda 
brethren '' were taken before the magistrates after the attack 
upon his house, in v. 9 A.Y. tells us that they were let go 
after security was taken " of Jason and of the other '' ; as if 
security was required from Jason and one other only. The 
Greek Koi r&v Xoiw&v is rightly rendered in R. Y. '' and the 
rest." There is no question here of mistranslation in A.Y. ; 
the plural must have been intended. Some commentators 
ingeniously, but erroneously, supply brethren from v. 6 ; by 
this rough and ready process they convey the right sense, 
but grammatically speaking in the wrong way, because '' the 
other" seems to be used substantively, not adjectively, in 
this passage. But why does the A. Y. read " of the other ** 
if it means of the others ? It is a question of the history of 
the word other^ and its modem pi. others, Maetzner (iii. 2d0) 
quotes from A.Y. to prove the existence of the pL others^ 
In Cruden's Concordance there are forty-seven references for 
the pi. others used as a substantive, against ten where the pL 
is other. Maetzner would have better shown the date of the 
pi. others by quoting from the Rheims Yersion, which was 
published twenty-nine years before A.Y., and is much more 
modern in its style. The A.Y. ought to be considered 
proof for the early part of the sixteenth rather than, of 
the seventeenth century. But to return to the passage in 
question. The old pi. " the other{e) " was retained from 
Tyndale, Cranmer, and Genevan in this v. 9, although the 
newer pi. others was introduced into verses 32 and 34 of this 
same chapter. Why was it retained P It is clear that other 
might be used as an old-fashioned plural ; but that others 
was the customary plural of other when used substantively in 
1611, is proved by A.Y. itself, in which others occurs 
much more frequently than other, as well as by its frequent 
use in Shakspere and Spenser. When Maetzner quotes 
A.Y. as authority for pi. others, he merely does not give 



BBVISBD VEESION OF N. TESTAMENT. B. DAWSON, B.A. 63 

US the earliest example of its use which might be easily 
found; but if a grammarian quotes A.Y. for pi. other, he 
thoroughly misleads the inquirer. And this, it appears to 
me, is a point which has been lost sight of. The A.Y. is an 
authority when it initiates, but when it retains unaltered the 
words or phrases of earlier versions, it is no authority at all 
for its date, and cannot fail to mislead. If therefore it is 
used at all as an authority for grammatical forms (which is 
natural, being so convenient and accessible as a book of 
reference), it ought to be used with great caution. 

In R.Y. clearness has been gi*eatly promoted by small 
changes made with excellent effect in very many passages. 
As examples may be cited. Acts vi. 14 ''which Moses 
delivered unto us," for "delivered us" A.Y., showing the 
dative ; Acts vii. 4 the substitution of " Ood " for " he " 
(without Capital) of A. Y. removes a momentary ambiguity ; 
Acts xvi. 16, the "As we tcere going to the place of prayer" 
of R.Y. prepares the reader for the encounter in the streets 
better than A.Y.'s " As we went to prayer." And, returning 
to our chapter (Acts xvii.), it might well be suggested that 
V. 6 might have been improved on the same principle. As 
the Apostles were not present, the " these " of A.Y. might 
well have been changed into the men or those men, as a 
rendering of o» • . . oJnot,. 

The passages hitherto cited have gone to prove the 
superiority of R.Y. to other versions in regard to the very 
important point, correctness of rendering, and to establish 
my proposition that it is the most correct English translation. 
The remaining passages will tend to show how much remains 
to be desired. Some of these matters one might think it 
almost reasonable to hope may be attended to ; others again 
are doubtless " past praying for." 

Canon Kennedy, in 1882, published his Ely Lectures on 
the Revised Version. On p. 25 he says, " Its faults (for what 
human work is faultless ?) should be noted with a view to 
correction." In that spirit my few Notes have been made. 
Nor need any one fear being accused of carping at insignifi- 
cant trifles, seeing that Dr. Scrivener in his Authorized 



64 RBVISKD VERSION OF N. TESTAMENT. — B. DAWSON, B.A. 

Edition oftJie Bible (1611), published in the autumn of 1884, 
at the Camb. Univ. Press, amongst other interesting and 
exhaustive details on the grammar of A.Y., devotes about a 
dozen lines (p. 113) to the question whether the interjection 
should be spelt with or without A, when going before 
a vocative case, and when preceding an optative sentence. 

Firstly, then, it may be objected that R.V. has not acted 
consistently with respect to modernizing grammatical forms. 
We have seen that in Acts xvii. 9 the other of A. V. has been 
assimilated in R.V, to the others of xvii. 32, 34 ; but in other 
passages A.V.'s " the other " has been retained as a rendering 
of ol Sk, and of oKKi^Xou^. Now Dr. Scrivener (p. 87, n. 1), 
speaking of " other" remarks, ** that antiquated plural is 
very common in our version." If "antiquated" in 1611, 
what roust it be in 1881 ! Again, in Acts xvii. 18, ol Si 
following TVP€^ is translated by other some in A.V., and the 
phrase is entered as a curiosity by Dr. Richard Morris, Eng. 
Accidence, § 244. Here, again, we have R. V. retaining the 
antiquated phrase other some, when others or some others were 
ready to their hands ! Surely what Dr. Scrivener (p. 116) 
says, when speaking of the A.V. with respect to the use of 
capitals, may be applied to his company of revisers here and 
elsewhere, — " But indeed the practice of our Translators in 
this matter is little more consistent than in certain others.'' 
Dr. Scrivener (p. 104) seems to consider that pou was intended 
as a nominative, a Subject, in such phrases as. Build yoti, 
Num. xxxii. 24 ; Wdsh you, Isa. i. 16 ; Qet you, Zech. vi. 7 ; 
Turn you, Zech. ix. 12. Others explain all these as Com- 
plements, in the dat. or ace, as the case may be. But 
whether Dr. Scrivener's explanation is correct, or the other, 
though of very great importance with respect to A.V., on 
which he has treated so exhaustively, has no bearing on this 
evening's subject, the R.V. Is you nominative or not in 
(1 Cor. xiv. 18) ** I speak with tongues more than you all " P 
If it is nom., it is the only nom. you I have met with in 
£r.Y. If you is not nominative, the phrase does not match 
with " than they," which occurs three times (1 Cor. xv. 10 ; 
Bom. iii. 9 ; Heb. i. 4). In a former paper I ventured to 



BBYISED VBKSION OF N. TESTAMENT. B. DAWSON, B.A. 65 

hope that the you in this passage was merely a misprint, but 
the remarks on you (p. 104) make this explanation doubtful. 
By the help of Dr. Scrivener's notes on an hundred (p. 107) 
I have found one solitary exception in modern editions of 
A.V. to the rule of an hundred ; a hundred occurs in Isa. 
xxxyii. 36. 

In some of the minor changes made in R.Y. it is difficult 
to realize the point of view of the " tyrant majority." Take 
for instance Acts xii. 10, ''They came unto the iron gate that 
leadeth unto the city ; which opened to them of his own ac- 
cord'* A.V. Here R.V. changes his into its, thus seeming to 
recognize the fact that his in A.Y. was the genitive singular 
neuter as well as masculine. On the same principle his be- 
comes its in Matt. xii. 33 and Luke vi. 44. But a different 
mode of treatment is adopted with respect to A.V.'s " When 
his branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves," Matt. 
xxiY. 32, and '* When her branch is yet tender, and putteth 
forth leaves," Mark xiii. 28. These two passages (the Qreek 
is almost identical, not quite) are assimilated in R.Y. "When 
her branch is now become tender, and putteth forth its 
leaves." Here we seem to have Personification, — the fig-tree 
is made a she, and one of her branches an it ; yet in Mark 
xi. 13 the fig-tree is spoken of as it (in R.y. as well as in 
A. v.), and in Rev. xxii. 2 A.V.'s her is changed to its in 
reference to ** the tree of life." But why should the fig- 
tree be personified in these two passages ? Tyndale wrote 
"his" {its not then existing), Wyclif " his " ; but R.V. gives 
us " her." Has the love of Personification so increased as 
to make this desirable in a Yictoriun Revision P In Acts 
xvii. 26 R.V. gives us "for to dwell," Acts v. 31 "for 
to give," Acts viii. 27 "for to worship"; in Acts xx. 30 
"your own selves"; in Acts viii. 36 " unto a certain water." 
In Acts xvii. 27 A.V.'s subjunctive " though he be " is 
turned into an indicative, although there is perhaps no more 
striking characteristic of an antiquated style (which R.Y. 
rightly affects) than the frequent use of the subjunctive 
mood. Such inconsistencies as these must be looked to by 
the Revisers, if they do not wish to lay themselves open to 

Fhil. Tram. 1886.a 6 



66 REVISED VERSION OF N. TESTAMENT. — B. DAWSON, B.A. 

the charge of want of consistency which Dr. Scrivener 
brings, and justly, against A.Y. 

On matters of taste, on the other hand, differences 
of opinion will continue. Some like English begin better 
than French hissing cammence ; some prefer plain love 
to the sneeze-suggesting^c^anYj^ ; "and so ad infinitum^* 
On such matters it is useless to speak. But as an ex- 
planation of the want of enthusiasm in favour of R.y., 
notwithstanding its superior correctness and its greater 
clearness, I will mention two points connected with the 
Esthetics of Translation in which it fails to approach the 
beau ideal. 

1st. The order of words. What an English sentence have 
we in Acts iii. 26 ! " Unto you first God, having raised up 
his Son Jesus, sent him to bless you, in turning away every 
one of you from his iniquities," A. V. The order is the exact 
Greek order ; and it is retained in R. V. Here, perhaps, it may 
be said, the sentence is not an easy one to manage, and the 
wisest course R.Y. could adopt was to let A.Y. alone. Let 
it be so ; although it must be conceded that the same sen- 
tence may be a worse sentence now than it was formerly, 
because sentences have grown shorter of late years, and 
now-a-days two short sentences are thought better than one 
long one. But in Acts iv. 21, R.Y. gives us a different order 
from A. v., and as some think a worse order — worse for two 
reasons, {a) It is the Greek order and (should not this be 
the canon?) good Greek order :=. bad English order, (b) By 
giving such prominence to the **thef/'* R.V. seems to indicate 
the Apostles, the central figures in the scene, so that the 
momentary thought in the mind on beginning the verse is 
that the Apostles are referred to. This confusion is avoided 
by A.V. Acts xv. 30 gives another example of A.V.'s 
order being changed for the worse. 

The second point provokingly disappointing in R.V. is the 
frequent sacrifice of picturesqueness of phrase (a peculiar 
feature in A.V.) for mere verbal accuracy. Look, for in- 
stance, at Acts xvii. 32, " We will hear thee again of this 
matier'* ^= oKovao/JbeOd aov irdXiv wepl tovtov (close enough 



REVISED VERSION OF N. TESTAMENT. — B. DAWSON, B.A. 67 

surely with its italicised mafier) ; this has become in R.V. 
"We ¥rill hear thee concerning this yet again," the Greek 
being oKavaofieda aov irepX roxnov koX iraXiv, Here we have 
a simple example of what it seems to me is the great fault of 
R.Y. The life, the vigour, the animation, the picturesqueness 
of the old translators, these are dwindling away beneath the 
incubus of a Company's majority, which aims at a word-for- 
word representation of the original; — a representation which 
can scarcely be called Translation, it is not Transliteration, 
it needs a new word to designate it, Trafisverbation. 

In a paper printed in our Society's Proceedings, Dec. 10th, 
18d2, recently brought to light once more by the publication 
of the General Index, Mr. Watts assigns to Coverdale the 
invention or creation of the phrase " God save the King." 
What will be the fate of this happy phrase in R. V. of Old 
Testament P In 1 Sam. x. 24, for instance, will Let the King 
lire be promoted from the Margin to the Text P Will the 
Old Testament Company of Revisers consider that Coverdale 
had a right to make the Subject '* King " into a Complement, 
and to introduce a Subject not found in the Hebrew text P 
I live in fear, but console myself with the reflection that 
their power does not extend to the National Anthem, where 
Coverdale will still reign supreme with his " God save the 
Queen," despite of the " Vivat Regina " of the play-bills, or 
the " Let the King live " of the Margin. Mr. Watts further 
claims for Coverdale the glory of the invention of the phrase 
which occurs in Psalm xc. 10 "threescore years and ten." 
What will our revisers do with this phrase, so full of beauty, 
80 rhythmical, so suggestive of the long and weary pilgrim- 
age of life P Will they substitute for it plain Seventy^ as the 
Hebrew text and the Margin would justify P In Acts vii. 
14 " threescore and fifteen souls " has been retained in R. V. 
There is no fear of mistranslation in R.Y. I have shown 
that where A.V. has corrected error, R.V. has adopted the 
correction ; where A.V. itself has erred, R.V. has corrected. 
Bat we shall look in vain for new and original examples 
of such word-painting as " threescore years and ten " in 
any translation made like A.V. and R.V. We have, there- 



68 BEVISED TERSION OF N. TESTAMENT. — B. DAWSON, B.A. 

fore, nothing to look forward to but the gradual formation 
of a kind of dead level of correctness, with all faults and 
all beauties too polished away by cold-blooded aim at Dry- 
asdust precision. 

Note. — The quotations (except A.Y.) are taken from The EnglUh Sexqpla, 

(Samuel Bagster and Sons, 1841.) 



v.— TITIN. A STUDY OF CHILD LANGUAaE. 
By Sr. D. A. Machado y Alvabez, of Seville. 

[Translated from the Spanish by the Rev, Walter 6bboo&, PitsUgOy with the 

help of the Author."] 

TitIn is the name of my youngest son ; high priest, he bap- 
tized himself, calling himself Titin^ parodying the name by 
which he was baptized — Jocu][uin, in memory of his maternal 
uncle and of the day on which he was bom. He calls 
himself Titin, his uncles call him Titin^ his mother and his 

little brothers call him Titin, and THin we all call him 

How has the word Joaquin been turned into Titin ? What 
analogy is there between the phonetic elements of the two 
words P By what process have the aspirated J and q or the 
hard c (the Greek k) passed into the dental i ? What is the 
extraordinary reduction of the diphthong oa into the first t of 
Tiiin ? From the utterance of the infant, who is a aavanty 
because he is the faithful representative of nature, that teaches 
us through him, his father, who is an ignoramus, that 
represents the tiresome and useless accomplishments of a 
conventional and deficient culture, has formed an hypothesis 
which I wish to communicate, if the confutation of the 
gravest errors which it contains could throw any light upon 
what I consider the still obscure problem of the formation 
of child-language, and of the infinite series of unintelligible 
words, preserved at present with such scrupulous fidelity and 
attention by mythographs and philologists of all countries. 
The language of children, as all language, as everything, 
is not formed in a moment, as Genesis tells us light was 
formed, 'lltt *n* — *' Let there be light, and there was light." 



A STUDY OF CHILD LANGUAGE. — SR. ALVAREZ. 69 

Child-language is formed by a series of growths and trans- 
formations, internal and external, which are, as the stages of 
all growth, slow and imperceptible. Already in the cry, 
with which the child salutes its entrance into the world, 
which is the simple result of the change of temperature it 
suffers on emerging from the warm abode in which it was 
into the free air, are the germs of human language. From 
that first cry of pain to the age of three years or thereabouts, 
the child forms for itself its first vocabulary, a complete 
language ; from that moment to that age il will be necessary 
to watch it without interruption every moment, and to go on 
carefully marking all the sounds and all the articulations it 
gives forth. In them philologists and students of phonetics 
will meet with most important materials for their studies, 
and perhaps the key to open important problems. For that 
undertaking, without doubt, is required a series of very special 
conditions — ^time, patience, love for the work, education both 
of the ear and the voice, and modes of writing capable of 
preserving and of being able to reproduce what has been 
heard. 

According to my imperfect observations, or, it may be, 
the fancies that I have formed on them, beyond the crying 
and the first wailings, a union of sounds and perhaps of very 
light articulations, which I cannot decipher or distinguish, 
comes for three or four months, the classic one oi q; . . . j6o, 
with which the mother, the scholar of the infant, encourages 
it to complete the effort to which nature calls it. The first 
indication by which the first perceptible germ of human 
language is shown is, then, not what we call a vowel or a 
consonant, or a monosyllable. That interesting sound, which 
has no recognized signification we know of, and has no other 
origin than the desire of. the mother to help the natural 
attempts of the child to pronounce it, it is not possible to 
discuss with fit linguistic knowledge. It may be allowed us 
to call attention to the strong guttural character (Qreek x) 
of the first consonant employed, and to the a which precedes 
it, and to the 6 which terminates it. From the a to the 6 
there is a real scale of sounds and an infinity of inappreciable 



70 A STUDY OF CHILD LANOUAQB. — SB. ALVAREZ. 

shades of sound bound by the guttural which serres as the 
connecting link. Before pronouncing the aj... j6o^ which 
the mother says to it, the child has repeated a thousand 
times something that may perhaps be represented by an 
ah . . . hdo, ag . . gdo. The aj . . j60y which is, if not the 
first, one of the first of the elegancies of the acquisitions 
— hahilidadea — (artificial works) of the child, is for me a datum 
which leads me to think that the organism does not produce 
in the first stage of life those phonic phenomena which we 
call vowels and consonants. In children, at least in my own, 
I have noticed sounds which I might call gutfuralizations, 
as a kind of ghghgh-gghgghgghy at the end of which I believe 
I always heard, as it were, the sound of a vowel. There is 
in all these gutturalizations something analogous to the 
steps expressed by the Arabic letters, which Glaire in his 
grammar calls 'r^ rj r^ (which here we call jd) and ^ 

and something resembling also the uEolic F, Be that as 
it may, it appears that the gutturals are the first letters 
that are formed in the first months of infant life ; guttural 
letters or forced sounds {efifuerzos)^ I do not know whether 
instinctive or voluntary, conscious or unconscious, which 
prepare the vocal organs for the performance of their com- 
plicated functions. After these first manifestations, which 
have something of the grunt, more or less plain, of certain 
mammals ; which appear movements rather of a reflex than 
conscious kind, and under which at times the plexus of 
phonetic elements seem to show themselves, which have to be 
one day words with a fixed value, such as aghua-agua, succeeds 
a second period, which commonly begins at ten or twelve 
months. 

At that age or somewhat later, according to the degree of 
development, children begin to pronounce isolated mono- 
syllables of a labial kind ; pa-pa, ma-ma, and sometimes nie 
or pe occupies a longer or shorter period in which one is 
wearied making observations without noting any progress. 
The child appears a torpid scholar that makes no effort to 
join syllables. This seems to be the period of monosyllabic 



A 8TUDT OF CHILD LANOUAOB. — 8R. ALVABEZ. 71 



language ; pa and ma^ and ta and te^ which come after the 
teeth are formed, sound dearly, distinctly, with precision, as 
certain notes and syllables of parrots. 

The employment of the monosyllabic labials pa^ ma, ba, 
the last of which is the origin of the infantile sport, which 
consists in the mother or nurse giving b'ttle slaps on the 
mouth with the palm of the hand, making it say, ba baa baaa 
baaa baa baaa^ and the dentals td or t£ is followed by the 
pronunciation of other consonants, whose order of appear- 
ance we have neither sufficient power nor patience to observe. 
In that period, or from the age of eighteen months (onwards) 
they begin, not merely to pronounce a few more consonants 
than those indicated (6, p, m, t), but to repeat monosyllables 
by joining them, e.g. papd — mama — tata. 

My son Pepe, at the age of twenty months, spoke the 
following words : 



1. papa. 


9. fo. 


2. mama. 


10. osa. 


3. tete. 


11. oncha. 


4. tata. 


12. p4. 


5. echo. 


13. m4. 


6. omo. 


14. apa. 


7. oche. 


15. uchacha. 


8. f&. 


16. aba. 



On these sixteen words, which formed, with the exception 
of a slight omission, the vocabulary of my son Pepe, at the 
age of twenty months, I have only the following observa- 
tions to make: by /o he meant to Bajflor; by tata, bota; 
uehacha, muchacha\ aba,agtki; pa, pan; Ocha, Oncha, Concha 
(the name of the maid), and by tete, tio Pepe. C, as one , 
sees, and other consonants, he did not pronounce at all;/ 
was, of those quoted, the last he pronounced, and he had as 
his teacher of that a fine black cat, that scratched him several 
times, at the same time uttering ////> a soimd which he 
pretended to imitate. 

My son Joaquin's vocabulary, at the age of nineteen 



72 



A STUDY OF CHILD LANGVAGE. — 8R. ALVAREZ. 



months, was as 


follows, which I give with the usual meanin 


of the words 


• 
> • 










1. Papd. 






16. cocos. 


• 


mocos. 


2. Mam&. 






17. cocon. 


1 




3. Papa. 






18. cancon. 


1 




4. Nene. 






19. coco. 


Encamacion. 


6. Titin, 


\ 




20. cacon. 






6. Tetin 


( 


Joaquin. 


21. ashon. 


J 




7. Caquin. 


) 




22. mi. 


^ 


Zo 


8. baar. 




bajar. 


23. Tete. 




Pepe y carrete 


9. ca^. 




caer. 


24. no. 






10. Pepe. 




Pepe. 


25. ava. 




silla. 


11. ubi. 




subir. 


26. erd. 




cerrar. 


12. rind. 




orinar. 


27. coca. 




toca. 


13. ahua. 


4 




28. Quica. 




Francisca. 


14. aba. 


agua. 


29. nta. 




sent&r. 


15. abi. 




abrir. 


30. Tata. 




Zapatos. 



On this vocabulary, likewise broken, and the former, we 
wish to make some slight observations : 

Both infants at the age of eleven months pronounced /?, m 
and t ; the one did not pronounce / till he was twenty 
months old, and the other, till he was twenty-two. The 
former pronounced ch in the word eche, leche, and ocha^ 
Concha^ forcing himself to repeat the name of the maid from 
that time. Concha ; the latter in exchange pronounced e 
sooner than the former, being forced to do so by calling the 
girl who had the charge of him, whom he named CocAn^ 
Cancdn and Ashdn (Encamacion). In the language of the 
first, / predominates, and then ch, which is found in the 
* word Concha ; in that of the latter, q or hard c, which formft 
part of the word Encamacion, In the second vocabulary/ is 
wanting^ and instead of it figure c, which was absent from 
the former; soft r; «, which was found in the former only 
in the word oncha ; ah, analogous to the English ah, in the 
words she, short, etc., and y in the place of //, in the word 
silla ^ which the Andalusians pronounce siya. 



A STUDY OP CHILD LANGUAGE. — SR. ALVAREZ. 73 

As to the vowel elements, the second vocabulary is much 
richer than the first, since in it they can be reduced to : 



a-a-o 







a a 




e 


a a 




a 


e e 




uaa 


while in the second 






a-i'O ad 


ei 


00 


aa 


ai 


ao 


ee 


ui 


ea 


• • 

u 


ta 


oa 



On the preceding facts, which must certainly appear as very 
small and prolix to those not interested in such subjects, as 
poor and scanty to philologists, rests that which we should 
have called more than a hypothesis — the explication of the 
word Titbu 

We believe, in fact we can affirm, in view of the above- 
mentioned vocabularies, that into all these infantile words 
both monosyllabic and dissyllabic, there enters but one single 
component consonant, isolated as in pa, but repeated as in 
papa ; children at the period to which we allude say papa, 
mama, iata, but never pata, tapa, mata. In saying Joaquin, 
therefore, to imitate the word, my younger child was under 
the necessity of using some repeated consonant ; but which 
consonant ? Clearly one of those which he pronounced when 
he for the first time formed the word, that is, p, m, or t, and 
not /, n, or soft r, or hard c, or q, which he pronounced at a 
later period, p, m, t, was the fonetic material at his disposal 
when he pronounced that word for the first time. With 
respect to the vowels, it is plain he had to employ the sound 
which dominated in the word Joaquiur that is, i, and in em- 
ploying it, he had to repeat it in the two syllables as was the 
case in papa, mama, and tata, which then formed his whole 
language. Why did he prefer ^ to m and p? In my opinion 
for two reasons; first, because that dental articulation is 
more nearly allied to J and q than the labials b and m ; 



74 A STUDY OF CHILD LANGUAQE. — SR. ALYARRZ. 

I 

second, because t being the letter he had last begun to pro- 
nounce, he used it most frequently. 

I did not mark definitely the day on which he began to 
pronounce the word Titin, but this much is certain that that 
word preceded Tetin and Caquin. 

The words Tetin and Caquhi (the latter being much nearer 
Joaquin than the former) mark two important steps in what 
may be called almost the phonetic biology of a name. 

Tetin supposes a progress over TiVIn, because the children 
(I mean my own) as they say in the first stage of their lan- 
guage tata smipapa and not pata and tapa^ they say tata and 
tete and not tefa and tate. Thus to say Tetin is an advance 
compared to saying Tete and Titin, Tetin was in fact the 
second name by which my son tried to imitate his own name 
and e-in certainly appears nearer oa-in than i-in. JS-in sup- 
poses with respect to i-in a differentiation {diferenciacion), an. 
increase, an advance, imperceptible if you wish, still a step 
towards the end. 

Later, my son, in attempting to pronounce * Encamacion,' 
the name of a young woman that was fond of him, pro- 
nounced c. I remember that during those days he pronounced 
many little words with c; the letter did not fall from his 
mouth in its common use, he said coca instead of tocUf cocos, 
instead of mocos, etc. Then he called himself Caquin, a word, 
which, under the same law as the former, supposes a new and 
more marked step in advance, in that one of the syllables quin 
coincides exactly with the second syllable imitated, and in 
a-in being much more analogous to oa-in than e-in. 

The words cocdn, cac&n, cancon, and also ashdn (Andalu* 
sians pronounce c as 8 and say Encarnaaion in the place of 
Encarnacion) and Quica, in place of Jpyancisca, obey the law 
which we believe ruled the formation of the words Caquin, 
Tetin and Titin, words which I am anxious to engrave on 
tHe hearts of all good mothers, and to turn into a motive of 
study for all the philologists of Europe. 



76 



VI. — NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY; AND 
ON WOEDS OF BRAZILIAN AND PERUVIAN 
ORIGIN. By the Rev. Prof. Skeat. 

{Paper read by the Preeident at the Annual Meeting^ May 15, 1885.) 

At the Annual Meeting on May 15, the President explained 
that the Council had resolved to depart from the usual 
practice, which expected the President to give a summary 
of the chief results obtained by philological research in the 
course of the past year. It seemed to them that it would 
be sufficient to give such a summary biennially only. He 
then proceeded to read the following paper. 

Barge. I have already noted that there is evidence of the 
Egyptian origin of baris, a row-boat, in the fact that there 
is a Coptic word bariy meaning a boat. I have since noticed 
that, in a Dictionary of Old Egyptian by the Rev. H. 
Tattam, published at Oxford in 1835, we find *'barahey 
plaustrum et navigium, baris"; and **berehi, currus." Thus 
the original sense appears to be ' vehicle,' without reference 
to the element over which the vehicle travels. N.B. This 
note really refers to the word baris ; Dr. Murray thinks that 
the connection of E. barge with baris is extremely doubtful. 

Bat (2). I have suggested (1) that bat is the M.E. bakke^ 
and (2) that bakke has lost an /, and stands for blakke. 1 
wish to add that the very word blak, a bat, occurs in Robert 
of Brunne, Handling Synne, 1. 11863. 

Biattleinant. I have suggested that this E. word answers 
to an O.F. bastillement^ from bastir, to build. I now find that 
Godefroy actually gives an O.F. batillement, which he ex- 
plains by a rampart or redoubt. This comes to the same 
thing; for batillement is merely a variant of bastillement, just 
as bati/lter, according to Godefroy, is a variant of bastiller, to 
fortify with ramparts. 

Beef-eater. I am glad to find that Dr. Pegge has long 
ago shown the impombility of connecting the E. beef-eat^ 



76 NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY — PROF. SKEAT. 

with the (imaginary and still undiscovered) F. substantive 
which was fancied to mean a waiter at a buffet or side-board. 
He has written an excellent treatise on the duties of the 
royal body-guard under the Tudor sovereigns, and says 
expressly that the beef-eaters "never had any connection 
with the ancient cupboard or the more modem beaufet^ which 
was always kept by an oflBcer of superior rank, originally a 
gentleman usher, an esquire of the body, etc." See Pegge's 
Curialia, ed. 1791, part 3, p. 31. 

Bewray. For this word, I refer to Chaucer, and Matzner 
has no earlier example than William of Paleme, where, 
however, it is spelt beicrie. But it occurs still earlier, viz. in 
Robert of Brunne's Handlyng Synne, 1. 3621 — "J?at y ne 
wylle telle ne hewrey^^ i,e. disclose. 

Blue. I have given the etymology of this word incorrectly, 
taking it as being of Scandinavian origin. The fact is that 
there are two distinct forms of the word in Middle-English. 
One of these is bio, chiefly in the sense of * livid,' which I 
correctly connect with the Icel. 6/ar, livid. But this form 
is obsolete.^ The other M.E. word, really answering to our 
Mod. E. blue, is blew; it occurs in the Cursor Mundi, 1. 9920, 
spelt bleu in one MS., and blew in the other three. I have 
not found any earlier instance of it. This form of the word 
is borrowed from French, as is obvious from the spelling. 
The Anglo-French form is blu or blew. I have already noted 
that the pi. blus occurs in the Liber Custumarum, p. 129 ; 
to which I have now to add that the sing, blu occurs in 
Koyal Wills, ed. J. Nichols, p. 36, under the date 1360 ; and 
blew in the same, p. 84, under the date 1361 ; and again, in 
Testamenta Eboracensia, i. 198, we find ** un drape de blew 
saye ; " a.d. 1394. Littr^ shows that the earliest O.F. form 
is blot, later bloe, bhu, bleu. The O.F. word is borrowed 
from the O.H.G. bldo, meaning both blue and livid ; cognate 
with the Icel. bldr above. Thus the E. word is not (Scand.), 
but (F. — O.H.G.) . The word is obsolete in Italian, except 
dialectally ; but it is interesting to observe, in connection 

Except in the proT. E. blaeberriet, bilberries. 



NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — PROF. SKEAT. 77 

with the Tagueness with which words denoting colour are 
used, that Florio has " Biauo, a bright, pale yellow colour ; " 
though it is merely borrowed from the same O.H.G. word. 
In fact, Schade notes that the O.H.G. bldo also has the sense 
of the Lat. flauus, and this enables us to identify our blue 
with the Lat. flauiis, to which it exactly corresponds according 
to Orimm's Law. The A.S. forms of the word are very 
scarce. The form bi^o rests only, according to the Dic- 
tionaries, on the authority of Somner. But Wiilcker's 
edition of Wright's Vocabularies has: Blauum^ color est 
uestis^ bleo, 196. 19 ; Color, bleo, 542. 37 ; MyrteuSy bleoreod, 
163. 23 ; MyrteuSy bleoread, musfealu, 448. 9 ; Color , bleoh, 
163. 3 ; Perseus, blsewen, 163. 29. Here bleo really answers 
to M.E. blee, colour, complexion, and the only entry really 
relating to blue is the last. We also have the ace. bkehwene 
in Levit. viii. 7. The ce is long. Note the Low Lat. blaum, 
which is really the Latinised form of the Teutonic or Romance 
word. It brings out very clearly the exact equivalence of 
our blue to the Lat. flauus, I observe that the O.F. bloi 
occurs in the original of the Bomance of Ouy of Warwick ; 
see Zupitza's edition of the Auchinleck MS., p. 6, 1. 69. 

Breast-summer or Bressomer. This architectural term is 
explained in my Dictionary under the word Sumpter, but a 
cross-reference to Sumpter is not given. I have given the 
explanation (in Webster) that a breast- summer is "a summer 
or beam placed breast-wise to support a superincumbent 
wall." I might have added that the word breast possibly 
has its architectural meaning, and refers to a part of a 
column called the breast, or in Latin torus. Bailey, ed. 1746, 
has this term, with the spelling brest ; and, immediately after 
it, the word brest-summer. This use of the term breast is not 
very clear ; the reference may be merely to the position of 
the beam, passing as it does across the midst of the front of 
a building ; but this is a point which will be best solved by 
the slips for the New English Dictionary. I cannot agree to 
the suggestion that the word is from a Belgian bret-sommer ; 
in this hybrid word, bret{t) is High German, and sofnmer 
{=:sommier) is French. Besides, the E. word breast-summer 



78 NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — ^PROF. SKEAT. 

is no novelty ; it already occurs in the Glossographia Angli- 
cana'(l719), and is probably much older. 

Boll. I am rather surprised to find that bull, in the sense 
of jest, appears as early as 1637. In Shirley's play of 
The Gamester, Act 3, sc. 3, we have the following lines: 

" And swear he is the father of all bulk 
Since Adam ; if all fail, he has a project 
To print his jests. 
Wild, His bulls, you mean." 

However, Dr. Morris informs me that this use of the word 
occurs very early, viz. in the Cursor Mundi. I suppose it 
will appear that this contemptuous use of the word originated 
in an English estimate of the value of papal edicts. 

Catgut. The obvious etymology of this word is surely the 
correct one, and I do not quite understand why it has often 
been objected to. The following quotation from Marston's 
play of What you Will, Act 3, sc. 1, is sufficiently explicit : 

" the musitions 
Hover with nimble sticks ore squeaking crowds, . 
Tickling the dryed guttes of a mewing cat" 

Here crowds btq fiddles. 

That harp-strings were made from the entrails of various 
animals, appears from the curious belief as to the terribly 
discordant efiect produced by a string made from the entrails 
of a icolf\ see N. & Q. 6 S. xi. 264. 

Charter. I regret that I have given a wrong etymology 
of this word ; and curiously enough, the account in Littr^ 
seems to be wrong also. The English word answers, of 
course, to the O.F. chartre, found frequently in Anglo- 
French ; see the references in my list of Anglo-French 
words. Scheler rightly explains chartre as modified from 
the Low Lat. chartula, a form of which Ducange gives several 
examples, s.v. Charta. Chartula is, of course, a diminutive 
form. Littr^ merely explains chartre as a variation of charily 
Lat. charta, and supposes that the r is due to confusion with 
F. chartre, a prison ; but he himself gives an example of O.F. 
cartre in the eleventh century. In fact, it occurs in the 



HOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — PROF. 8KEAT. 79 

Chanaon do Boland, 1. 1684, and Gautier notes, in his Glos- 
sary, that the O.F. pi. cartrea = Lat. chartuloB. Professor 
Max Miiller gives the same account of charter in his Chips 
from a German Workshop, iii. p. 175, and cites, as similar 
formations, the F. apdtre (apostolum), esclandre (E. slander, 
from icandalum), and chapitre (£. chapter, from capituluni). 

Chopine, a high-heeled shoe; Hamlet, ii. 2. 447. The 
etymology of this word is concealed by a misspelling. It 
should be chapine, with a, not o ; perhaps the spelling with o 
was due to a confusion with the common F. word chopine, a 
pint-measure. Mr. Aldis Wright, in his note on the passage, 
points out that Coryat uses the spelling chapiney, and that the 
Spanish form is chapin, explained by Minsheu as ' a high cork 
shoe.' He also kindly points out to me that Ben Jonson has 
the plural cit^pini, as if it were an Italian word. In 
Cynthia's Revels, ii. 1, Hedon says, "I do wish myself one 
of my mistress's ctoppini. Another demands, why would he 
be one of his mistress's ciappini ? A third answers, because 
he would make her higher;" etc. But there is no such 
Italian word in the Dictionaries, nor any proof that Ben 
Jonson 's spelling is correct. On the other hand, by looking 
out for the spelling with a, we at once find the word in 
Cotgrave, who has : " Chappins, choppins, a kinde of high 
slippers for low women ; " and in Godefroy, who has : 
" Chappin, Chapin," with a suggestion that it is another 
form of O.F. escarpin. This suggestion is out of the ques- 
tion, as it suits neither the form nor the sense ; for the F. 
escarpins means "pumps, light, or single-soled shooes," as 
Cotgrave tell us. We must set aside escarpin, and the forms 
chopine and cioppini; we then have left the O.F. chapin or 
ehappin, and the Span, chapin. The latter is still in use; 
Neuman gives : " Chapin, clog with a cork sole lined with 
Morocco leather, worn by women to keep their shoes clean ; " 
with various derivatives. It is probable that the word is 
really Spanish, not Italian ; though the remoter origin of it 
is not apparent. It seems worth while to quote Minsheu's 
Spanish Dictionary at greater length. He gives us : ** Chapin 
de muger, a womans shooes, such as they vse in Spaine, 



80 NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — PROF. SKEAT. 

mules, or high corke shooes ; " and again : Chapino alcorqwi, 
a corke slipper, or pantofle." The use of cork points 
especially to Spain as the country where this shoe first came 
into use. In Monlau's Etymological Spanish Dictionary, 
it is suggested that chapin is merely an extension of chapa, 
now chiefly used in the sense of a thin metal plate, but found 
in the Romance languages with numerous senses. Even in 
English it appears in four forms, viz. cape, cope, cap, chape, 
and the original sense seems to have been simply * covering.' 
We may note that the etymology of chopin from Span, chapin, 
and of chapin from Span, chapa, was suggested by Skinner in 
1671 ; and Blount has the spelling chapin. 

Cipres, Cypress (2). I suggested, in my last Supplement, 
that ct/pre%B, in the sense of ' lawn,' may possibly be 
merely another form of crape, O.F. crespe, Lowl. Sc. kirsp, of 
which Jamieson gives two examples besides those which. I 
have quoted from Dunbar, and which he omits. It is use- 
ful to note the varying forms which the words crape and 
cipres assume in old wills. Thus, in the Testamenta Ebora- 
censia, I find such examples as these: "unum [velum] de 
ci/pres,'' a cipres veil, i. 240 (a.d. 1398) ; "flameolam meam 
de crvipo,*' my crape veil, i. 220 (1397) ; " j. flammeolum de 
CTj/fipe,*' one crape veil, i. 271 (1400); **flameolum dekrespe,^' 
i. ;582 (1415); "ij. flameola de cipres," i. 289 (1402). In 
one and the same will, dated 1401, vol. i. p. 280, we find 
" iij. peces flameol', videlicet ij. de serico, et j. de kryspe,^* 
three pieces for veils, viz. two of silk, and one of crape ; and 
in the next line : " Item lego . . . dimidiam pecise de cipers,*^ 
i.e. I bequeath half a piece of cipres. 

On the other hand, owing to the great difiiculty of so 
violent a transposition, it may be better to consider cipres as 
really meaning ' lawn of Cyprus.' Already, in the Romance 
of Alexander (ed. Stevenson), the same spelling sipris means 
(1) Cyprus, (2) cypress-tree; see lines 4600, 5290. The 
word cipres, in the sense of ' lawn,' occurs in Piers Plowman, 
B. XV. 224, in connection with tartarine, a stuff named from 
Tartary. 

Cistvaen. This word should rather, according to Welsh 



NOTES ON BNGI/ISH ETYMOLOOy. ^PROF. SKEAT. 81 

orthography, be written with /, as cisffaen. The account in 
Spurrell's Welsh Dictionary is sufficient. He gives "ctsffaeny 
a British monument, consisting of four fiat stones placed at 
right angles, with a fifth on the top." They thus form 
a stone chest ; and the etymology is obvious, viz. from W. 
cist, a chest, Lat. eista, and tna^n^ a stone (see Dolmen). The 
word ctstvaen is not in Webster ; and Ogilvie, who 
rightly explains it, gives no etymology beyond the Lat. 
cifita, 

Bolmen. This is a name given to stones raised upon two 
others so as to form a sort of table. Sometimes, but not 
invariably, they have holes formed in them. There is a 
note upon this word in Max Miiller's Chips from a German 
Workshop, vol. iii. p. 283, where it is explained to mean 
" a holed stone," and is derived from the Cornish mSn-an-iol, 
lit. stone with a hole, where mSn mean 'stone,' an is the 
definite article, and tol means a hole. The importance of 
verifying such statements appears from the fact that this 
derivation, even though given by so great a scholar, is 
certainly wrong. It is improbable, on the face of it, that 
Englishmen should have had the wit to turn min-an-tol 
into doifnen; it implies a greater familiarity with Cornish 
than most of us possess. The fact seems to be that the word 
was borrowed by us from France, and that the form of it is 
not Cornish, but Breton. It already occurs in Legonidec's 
Breton Dictionary, in 1821, and I copy his article upon it, 
as fully accounting for the word. •* Dolmen, s.f. Autel. 
C'est le nom que Ton donne communement & ces monumens 
en forme d'autel ou de table, que Ton rencontre en assez grand 
nombre en Bretagne, et dont on attribue T^rection aux 
Druides ou k leurs sectateurs. Ce mot est compose de dol 
pour taol ou tol, table, et de m^an ou men, pierre." He also 
duly gives taol, a table, with the note that, except in L^on, 
it is called tdl. The sense is therefore ' table-stone.' Littre 
gives a similar explanation, but calls the word Gaelic, 
whereas I cannot find tdl, a table, in the Gaelic Dictionary. 
I suppose that the Breton taol, a table, is peculiar to Breton ; 
it is marked by Legonidec as being a word of doubtful 

PUl. Trtni . 188M. 6 



82 NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — PROF. SKEAT. 

origin, and it would not surprise me to learn that it is merely 
an adaptation of the Lat. tabula. On the other hand, the 
Breton taol, in the sense of ' hole/ is a genuine Celtic word, 
and occurs as toll in 0. Irish. 

As to the latter part of the word, it is well known to be 
Celtic ; the Breton is m^an, Corn, and Welsh maen, a stone ; 
familiar to travellers in Wales as being found in Penmaen- 
raawr and the Trifaen. It also explains the word cistvaen, 
a term used by some antiquaries. See above. 

Futtocks. I have already given Bailey's suggestion, that 
futtocks ^^ foot-hooks. This is confirmed by the naval use of 
the term breast-hooka^ for which see Phillips and Bailey. 

Oallowglas. A correction of my etymology of this word 
was contributed by Mr. Mayhew to Notes & Queries, 
6 S. X. p. 145. He pointed out the use of the word in 
Spenser's View of the State of Ireland (Globe Edition), 
p. 640, where Spenser is quite right in saying that " Gallogla 
signifies an English servitour or yeoman." In fact, the Irish 
galloglachy which I have explained already as meaning '' a 
servant, a heavy-armed soldier," signifies literally, "an 
English or foreign soldier," being compounded of gall^ a 
foreigner, and dglach, lit. a youth, also a soldier. The 
word dglach appears in 0. Irish as dclachy an extension of 
6Cf young. 

Olanders. The etymology of charter^ from L. chartula 
(see above), gives us the key to the etymology of glanders. 
Scheler notices this, remarking (s. v. chartre) that O.F. 
chart re comes from chartula just as O.F. glatidre comes 
from glandula. Hence glander, like charter, is merely the 
diminutive form. The O.F. glandre is cited by Wedgwood, 
who gives the same quotation as that given by Littr^, s.v. 
glande. " El col nuees glandres out," ue. in her neck she had 
naked glandular swellings ; Life of King Edward the Con- 
fessor, 1. 2612. The Lat. glandul<ie is used by Celsus, in the 
sense of swollen glands ; see Lewis and Short. 

Hurdygordy. I have not found that this word occurs, in 
the usual sense, earlier than the middle of the last century. 
I have explained it as of imitative origin, and have compared 



NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — PROP. SKEAT. 83 

it with the Lowland Scotch hur, to snarl, gnrr, to growl, and 
have quoted Trevisa as using " harryng and garryng " in the 
sense of snarling and growling. I now find that the word 
is of considerable antiquity, in the very sense suggested, to 
denote a disagreeable noise. In the Tale of Cockelbie Sow, 
IL 180-184, in Laing's Select Remains of Ancient Scottish 
Poetry, we find : 

** Rouch rumple out ran 
Weill mo than I tell can, 
With sick a din and a dirdy, 
A garray and a hirdy-girdyJ* 

After making a note of this passage, I found that it is quoted 
in Jamieson. But he explains it by " confusion " or " dis- 
order," whereas it rather means ** a confused noise." It is, 
however, sometimes used adverbially, to mean "in confusion"; 
see examples from Sir W. Scott, quoted in Jamieson. This 
secondary meaning is easily deducible. Curiously enough, 
from the word dirdy or dirdum, meaning " a din," and 
occurring in the same passage, we have hirdum-dirdum^ 
rightly explained by Jamieson as " confused noisy mirth " ; 
and this word is also used adverbially, with the same sense 
as before, viz. " in confusion " or topsy-turvy. We need not 
resort to Jamieson's derivation of hirdum-dirdum from the 
G. hier and dar, here and there ; for dar is not an E. form ; 
neither need we, with him, derive hirdy-girdy from the A.S. 
hirtd^ a household. 

The modem hiirdygurdy is plainly of Lowland-Scotch 
origin, i.e. it was suggested by a Scotchman. 

Jereed, Jerreed (a blunted javelin, Arabic). Byron, in his 
Giaour, has the couplet. 

" Swift as the hurl'd on high jerreed 
Springs to the touch his startled steed." 

He explains it in note 17 to the Poem. It occurs in Zen- 
ker's Turkish Dictionary as jerid^ a branched stick, a rod for 
throwing in a game, p. 355. Also in Palmer's Persian 
Dictionary, col. 168, as jarid, a lance, spear. But the word 
is Arabic, as marked by Palmer; and, in Richardson's 



84 NOTES ON ENGLISH STTMOLOOY. — PROF. SKEAT. 

Arabic Dictionary, p. 505, we find : '*jarid, a palm-branch 
stripped of its leaves ; a tree despoiled of its branches, leaves, 
and bark ; a lance, spear." 

Jew*8 Harp. It is curious to find, in Todd's Johnson, a 
passage quoted from Pegge, in which it is gravely argued 
that the Jews had no such instrument of music, and there- 
fore it has nothing to do with them; whence it must be 
derived from the F. jeu, play, or from jaw, qumi jatcs'-harp. 
But neither will serve ; we should thus only get jeu-harp or 
jaw- harp, without the 8. It is, I think, obvious that it was 
a term of derision, and meant "such a harp as the Jews 
played on in the time of David." I find no early example 
of the word; but Jew^s trump, of similar formation, and 
meaning the same thing, occurs in Beaumont & Fletcher's 
Lover's Progress, according to Johnson, who gives no more 
exact reference. The passage is easily found ; it occurs in 
the first scene in the play. 

Jimk (1). I have explained Junk, a vessel, as being the 
Portuguese ywwco, a word borrowed from Chinese, and I give 
the Chinese form. Professor Alexander, of Brazil, verifies 
this. He says, " The Portuguese junco is, like the English 
vessel, used as the name only of Chinese or East-Indian 
vessels, and is here [t.^. in Brazil] supposed to be an Asiatic 
word. Junco, a rush, Lat. juncus, is treated by the Portu- 
guese as quite a separate word." 

Kilderkin. The etymology of kilderkin from the O.Du. 
kindeken is proved by the fact that the word occurs, spelt 
with an n, even in English. We find it, with an unoriginal 
final d, in the form kinderkind, in Peele's play of Edward I., 
ed. Dyce, 1861, p. 383, col. 1. 

Limehonnd. The etymology of this word is practically 
given in Wedgwood, but we require to see the history of the 
word more clearly. The F. limier, a limehound, in Cotgrave, 
does not really help us ; it is a mere coincidence, due to the 
fact that tha E. limehound and F. limier are independent 
formations from the same source. The E. word is simply 
short for Uam-houndy where liam is the M.E. word for leash, 
thong, or line. The very form liamhound occurs in Turber- 



KOTBS ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — PROF. SKEAT. 85 

viUe's Booke of Hunting, p. 242 (ed. 1575) ; and again, at 
p. 240, Turberville says : '* The string wherewith wee leade 
a Grey hounde is called a Lease, and for a Hounde a Lyame,'* 
See the full explanation in the excellent Glossary to Croft's 
edition of Elyot's Govemour, s.v. lyam, Lyam is a mere 
doublet of the word which appears as lien ^ in Mod. E. and 
in Mod. French. The m is due to the older spelling of the 
latter word. Thus Littre, s.v. li^n, quotes the O.F. liem^ 
which is regularly contracted from the Lat. ligamen. Cot- 
grave, 8.V. Chien^ gives the proverb : " d meschant chien court 
lieny a froward cur roust be tied short," lit. roust have a short 
liam. I roay add that the F. limier, a limehound, is exactly 
represented by the M.E. lymere, with the same sense ; lymere 
occurs in the Book of St. Alban's, fol. e4, line 3, spelt lymer 
at 1. 1. Limier stands for liemier, as shown in Littr^. 

Loom. The M. E. lome is a general word for a tool or 
instrument of any sort. It is therefore worth noting that 
the particular machine now called a loom was formerly called 
a iceb'lome, i.e. a loom for weaving. This word is not noticed 
either by Bosworth or Stratmann ; but there is a good 
example of it in the York Wills, where a Tapeter, or 
tapestry-maker, of York, leaves to his daughter Katherine 
" illud instrumentum, Anglice weblome^ in quo Johannes 
maritus suus operatur." See Testamenta Eboracensia, voj. i. 
p 191 ; A.D. 1393. In the Records of the Borough of 
Nottingham, voL ii. p. 22, under the date of Aug. 27, 1404, 
we find mention of a tcollyn weblome (woollen web-loom) and 
a lynyn lome. So also at p. 70, under the date of Oct. 2, 

1410. 

Loose. I here note that Prof. Zupitza, in an article which 
has appeared in Anglia, vol. vii. p. 152, points out the Scan- 
dinavian origin of this word. He shows that the Scand. 
diphthong au sometimes appears as oo in M.E.; thus Icel. 
gaumVy heed, attention, is gdm {=zgoom) in the Ormulum. 
The mod. E. stoop, a cup, is rather from the Icel. staup than 
from the A.S. st^ap. So the mod. E. loose is from Icel. laits^ 

^ As a law term ; bat it is the same word. 



86 NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — ^PROF. 8KEAT* 

whilst tbe A.S. Uas has given us the M.E. suffix -lees, mod. 
E. 'ksa. 

Menial. This word is, of course, bu adjective formed from 
the O.F. maisnee, a household. But I have not found any 
example of this adjective, in a French form, in the Dic- 
tionaries. I therefore note that it occurs, in Anglo- French, 
in a passage in the York Wills. ''Jeo devyse que touz 
ceaux, qui a moy appendent meignialx en ma maison^ soient 
vestuz en bluw a mes costagez," I will that all those who 
belong to me as menials in my house, be clothed in blue at 
my cost; Testamenta Eboracensia, vol. i. p. 198 (a.d. 1394). 

Occamy. I make a note that this form of the word 
alchemy is not noticed as yet in the New English Dictionary; 
it will be found in Nares. Miss M. Haig sends me an earlier 
example, with the spelling occam^ in Hakluyt's Voyages, 
ii. 229, 1. 3. 

Omifhology. This apparently simple word is likely to 
give a lexicographer a great deal of trouble unless he happens 
to find the clue to the history of its introduction into 
English. In my Dictionary, I have stated, quite correctly, 
that it occurs in Blount's Glossographia, ed. 1674, where it 
is said to be " the title of a late book." This caught the 
attention of Professor Newton, whose profound knowledge of 
the subject enabled him to declare, at once, that the state- 
ment in Blount is, at first sight, incredible, because the very 
earliest book on the subject is that by Francis Willughby, 
entitled, " Omithologiee Libri tres," which was not published 
till two years later than 1674, viz. in 1676 ; whilst the 
English version of the same book, by John Ray, entitled, 
" Ornithology," did not appear till 1678, or two years later 
still; see Bohn's Lowndes, 1864, p. 2939. The puzzle is 
increased by observing that the edition of Blount's Glosso- 
graphia published in 1674 is only the fourth edition ; and 
the same statement is found (as at least 1 believe) in earlier 
editions, perhaps even in the first edition of 1656. 

The solution of the difficulty is that ornithology is used in 
two senses. As regards the scientific use of the word, Prof. 
Newton is, as might be expected, perfectly correct. But 



NOTES ON BNGLISH BTTMOLOOY. — PROF. SKEAT. 87 

that excellent and playful author dear to us by the name of 
Thomas Fuller had already appropriated the word in a 
humorous sense. In Bohn's Lowndes, p. 848, col. 2, we 
find the entry : " Ornitho-logie, or the Speech of Birds, 
also the Speech of Flowers : partly morall, partly mysticall. 
London, 1663, 12mo., with engraved title." Lowndes also 
notes an earlier edition, in 1655, containing 53 pages, besides 
title and dedication, two leaves. The work is anonymous, 
but it is always attributed to Fuller, and may easily be his. 
Observe that the first edition of this book, in 1655, preceded 
the first edition of Blount, in 1656, by just one year ; which 
exactly fits the description of Ornithology as being '' the title 
of a late book.'' I have seen a copy of the first edition of 
the work in the Cambridge University Library, and it is 
certainly not a scientific treatise in the ordinary sense. 

Bivulet. The Dictionaries give us no good account of the 
suffixes in this word. The explanation is, that it is disguised 
by a false spelling. The true form is rivolet, but the o has 
been turned to ti by association with the Lat. rivulus. I find 
this form in the following : " A rivolet of good fresh water '' ; 
1699, W. Dampier, A New Voyage, i. 91. In this form, 
the word is Italian. In Torriano's Dictionary (1688) occurs 
the entry : — " Bkolo, Bivoletto, a rivulet, a rill." Florio 
omits rivoleito, but it was doubtless in use in his time. In 
English, the word occurs in Drayton's Polyolbion, and 
perhaps earlier. In Chalmers' edition of Drayton, it is 
spelt rivulet. The F. equivalent is riverotte, which occurs in 
Cotgra?e. 

Soy. This word is rightly said to be Japanese ; and some 
say it is the name of the bean from which this kind of sauce 
is made. It is rather the name of the sauce itself. In 
attempting to verify this, I found the following entry in the 
Japanese-French Dictionary by M. L^on-Pag^s, printed at 
Paris in 1868. ^'Choi/ou, liqueur qui r^pond au vinaigre, 
mais qui est sal^e, et sert k assaisonner lea mets. On 
I'appelle aussi soutate.'* Richardson refers us, for the 
English form soy, to Dampier's Voyages, but gives no refer- 
ence. The right reference is to A New Voyage, by W. 



88 NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — ^PHOF. SKEAT. 

Dampier, ed. 1699, vol. ii. pt. i. p. 28. Further information 
is to be found in an English-Japanese Dictionary by E. M. 
Satow and I. Masakata, published by Triibner and Co. in 
1876. Two of the entries are as follows. ** Soy, n. shdyu.'* 
** Soy-bean, n. datdzu.'* Hence it is quite clear that soy is 
properly the sauce itself, made from the bean called daidzu. 
The bean has since received the scientific name of DoUchos 
sq/a, where the Latinised form sq/a has been transferred 
from the sauce to the bean itself; thus introducing some 
confusion. It may be observed that the F. spelling 
choyou corresponds, with fair exactitude, to the E. spelling 
shdyu. 

Stoup, Stoop, a cup. Not from A.S. stiap, as given in my 
Dictionary, but from Icel. staup^ as pointed out by Zupitza 
in his article on loose \ Anglia, vii. 152. See Loose (above). 

Tassel (1). I have shown that toKsell must have been 
derived from the O.F. ttissely Lat. taxillus, orig. a small die. 
The O.F. tassel is not found, as far as I am aware, in the 
sense of die ; but the etymology is singularly confirmed by 
the entry " Tessera, tasul," in the Corpus Glossary of the 
eighth century. 

Tattoo. In addition to what I have already said as to 
this word, I may add the following references. **Tattomng, 
or puncturing the skin," Cook, Voyages, 1777, i. 218 ; 
"Punctured, or curiously tattowed" id. i. 308. In a Table of 
Languages at the end of vol. ii. we find: '' Puncturation " 
is expressed by ^^Tdtoo " in the language of Otaheite ; and 
we are directed to sound the a as Ital. a, and the oo as oo in 
good. In vol. i. p. 75, we have a story which I suppose 
illustrates the word. " Mr. Hodges made drawings of most 
of them [i.e. the New Zealanders] : this occasioned them to 
give him the name of Toe-toe, which word, we supposed, 
signifies marking or painting." 

According to a New Zealand Dictionary by W. Williams, 
1852, pp. 148, 304, the word ta means to tattoo ; and is also 
now used in the sense ' to print.' 

Tout. The following passage is, I think, of value in two 
respects. First, it establishes the fact that tout was formerly 



NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — PROF. fSKEAT. 89 

pronounced toot^ thus identifying it with A.S. totian, to 
project, hence to help out; and secondly, it gives a hint 
as to when and where the modern use of the word arose. 
" Sown pease or beans, when they first appear above ground, 
are said in Derbyshire, to foot ; and to tout, in the Canting 
Dictionary,* signifies to look up sharp. Hence, I presume, 
comes tooting at Tunbridge Wells, when the servants at the 
inns go in the evening to look out for the company coming to 
the Wells, and to get their custom to their masters' houses, 
[See] Byrom's Poems,^ p. 5. The word is used by Spenser 
[Shep. Kal. March, 66] in the sense of to pry^ or peepj^ — 
S. Pegge, Anonymiana, ed. 1818, cent. vii. § 64. 

Yankee. Considering the known difficulty of this word, I 
think it ought not to be lost sight of that Tanky was in use 
as a surname more than two centuries since. ''Captain 
Yanky " is mentioned several times by Dampier, who, in his 
Voyages, ed. 1699, vol. i. pp. 38, 39, tells us that Captain 
Yanky joined his [Dampier's] party, because he " had no 
commission, and was afrai^ the French would take away 
his Bark.'* With reference to the verb to yank, mentioned 
in my Dictionary, a correspondent kindly sends me a story 
of an Oxford scholar, who went angling " out West," with 
expensive fishing apparatus, including a costly artificial bait ; 
to whom a native thus spake : '' I'm amazed, stranger, to see 
you slinging a dollar bug at the end of a ten -dollar pole, 
when you might yank 'em out with a wum [worm] and a 
stick." 

Notes upon Words of Brazilian Origin. 

Jaguar. I have received some excellent notes on this, and 
some other words, from Professor Alexander, of Rio de 
Janeiro. He says : '' My authorities are Cabral, an ama- 
nuensis of the Public Library, who had access to the notes 
of our late great Guarani scholar Baptista Caetano ; Amaro 
Cavalcanti, the author of a little work, in English, on Tupi- 

1 Published about 1699. * Published in 1773. 



90 WORDS OF BRAZILIAN ORIGIN. — PROF. 8KBAT. 

Guarani; and General Henrique Beaurepaire, who has a 
practical knowledge of Brazilian." Mr. Amaro Cavalcanti 
has also Tery kindly sent me a copy of his Grammar of the 
Brazilian Language. As to jaguar, I need not quote what I 
have already said in my Dictionary, but I proceed at once to 
give the information furnished to me, premising that the 
sound-symbols employed are mostly Portuguese. 

The following notes refer to jaguar. 

Cabral says : The animal that eats people, or perhaps a 
modification of Guarani tahar^t/ahar, that which seizes : the 
ounce, the dog. A generic name for all animals of the genus 
Felk. With the addition of a prefix or suffix it may form 
the name of many carnivorous animals, even those of birds, 
fishes, and insects. Cavalcanti says: Jagoar is the name 
given by the Indians to animals of the genus Felis, and is 
used also in composition with other qualifying words. Any 
carnivorous animal. (It should be written yagoar, for there 
is no y in Tupi-Guarani.) The radical part of the word is 
pa, a root found in many names of animals ; ^ is a mere 
connecting letter, and ^ar denotes the agent or possessor. 
The doubt as to the exact sense of the word is limited to ya, 
which may mean either the seizing of prey, or the eating 
of flesh.i 

Beaurepaire says : The Indians of Brazil give the name 
of jagudra to the dog, and ot j'agnara-etS or jagunreti to the 
Felia onga (jaguar). Even now in the province of St. Paul's, 
a dog that is worthless for the chase is called by the present 
inhabitants a jaguara. The word jaguar was taken by the 
French from the Tupi, the name generally adopted in Portu- 
guese Brazil being onga pintada (painted ounce). 

I think we may safely conclude that a more correct spell- 
ing of the word is yagoar or yahoar. It seems to be clearly 
a word of general meaning, not necessarily restricted to the 
animal known to us by that name ; and it means either 
* eater ' or * seizor.' In Cavalcanti's Grammar of the Brazi- 

^ This 18 Caya1canti*8 opinion, eTidently founded on Caetano*8 notes. In his 
Grammar, p. 64. be thinks that idu-ara^ a dog, means * one who barks/ and that 
idu is an imitative word. 



WORDS OF BRAZILIAN ORIGIN. — PROF. SKBAT. 91 

lian laDgoage, printed at Rio Janeiro in 1883, p. 159, I 
observe that he tells a story in Brazilian, with a translation, 
one sentence meaning : ** the basket became transformed into 
a panther." For panther^ he writes idudra-eU in Brazilian, 
which seems to intimate that the letter g in yagoar can hardly 
have the hard sound which we give it in English; and again, 
at p. 123, he g^ves ydudra, a dog. I may add that Tupi and 
Ouarani are the most important of the native Brazilian 
dialects, and are very closely related to each other. By the 
expression Tupi^Guarani I suppose we are to understand that 
a word so denoted is common to the two dialects* 

Ipe eao n aiiha . This is a Portuguese spelling of a Brazilian 
word. I have quoted in my Supplement the statement that 
the Brazilian name is said to be i-pe'caa'guen, or " smaller- 
roadside-sickmaking plant.'' This is not far wrong ; for the 
word is solved by Gavalcanti as follows. He says : ipecacuanha 
should be tpe^kaa^gu^nayBB it is spelt in old books. Ipe=. 
iptb^ low, creeping ; kaa, herb, plant ; gu^na, to vomit, i.e. a 
creeping plant that causes vomit. In his Grammar, he 
remarks that letters are often dropped in composition, which 
accounts for the shortening of ipeb to ipe. After making 
further search in his Grammar, I find, at p. 34, that the 
prefix I may be euphonic, as in imura for inura^ wood, such 
euphonic prefixes being in common use. The former ex- 
planation was that i means smaller ; but I doubt if this can 
be right, since Cavalcanti says again, at p. 43, that i, mean- 
ing * small ' is a suffix, and that diminutives are expressed 
by suffixes only. At p. 139, he gives peb, flat, low ; from 
which I should conclude that ipeb is merely the euphonic 
form otpeb. At p. 137, he gives ** kad, wood, leaves of tree ; 
cf. ip^ka'kuanha or pekad-gudnay medicinal herb ; {pi =peb, 
flat, low ; kad, herb ; guana, to vomit)." This clearly shows 
that the initial t is merely euphonic, and can be dropped at 
pleasure. Hence the word may be regarded as fully solved. 
The varying spellings of these Guarani words, such as we 
observe above, where the same person writes kudnha, guana, 
and guina, to denote the same word, is simply due to the 
difficulty of writing down the words at all. The spoken 



92 WORDS OF BRAZILIAN ORIGIN. — PROF. SKEAT. 

sounds are constantly changing, and considerable alterations 
have taken place in these dialects since the time when they 
were first observed. 

Tapioca. My explanation of this word, wholly copied 
from Littr^, seems to be fairly correct. Beaurepaire says 
that in some provinces of Portuguese Brazil the word fipidca 
is still used in its original source. Cavalcanti gives a very 
satisfactory etymology of the word. He says: tipidca or 
fipidca is from tipi, residue, dregs, essence +oc*« or om, to 
draw or take from by force. Hence tipioca means ' a residue- 
essence extracted by force or pressure.* In his Grammar, 
at p. 139, he gives, as one of the root- words of the language, 
the following: "o^=oA, to take by force, to pull, to pluck 
off; and also, [that] which is squeezed out or sprung forth 
[extracted] from one \i,e, a] thing squeezed." 

Tapir. Cabral says: — The largest American pachyderm. 
This name is also given by the Indians t6 cattle, but under 
the form ^(7/^Yra=tapiro similis (like the tapir). Cavalcanti 
says : — Tapir or tapira is a name also given to cattle. At p. 
123 of his Grammar, he remarks that apegdua^ a man, and 
kufihdf a woman, are used to denote gender. Hence tapyra- 
apegdua an ox (lit. man- tapir), and tapyra-kunha, a cow (lit. 
woman-tapir). This information he repeats at p. 40, slightly 
varying the spelling to tapivy instead of tapyra. It is clear 
that the i (Portuguese i) is long, and it is probable that the 
original sense of the word was vague, and perhaps meant 
no more than Marge quadruped.' Beaurepaire says: Our 
Indians termed tapiyra the tapir or anta [by which he must 
mean, termed the tapir or anta tapiyra]. The Guaranis 
called it tapii^ and both in Guarani and Tupi there were 
other names to designate that animal; the word tajnr is 
evidently of Tupi origin. 

Toncan. I have quoted Buffon as saying that this word 
means ' a feather/ which is not satisfactory ; also the opinion 
of Burton, that the bird is named from its cry. Cavalcanti 
is also of the latter opinion. Beaurepaire says: The Gua- 
ranis called the bird tucd^ and it is supposed that the Tupis 
had a similar term, for the word tucano is generally employed 



WORDS OF PERUVIAN ORIGIN. — PROF. SKEAT. 93 

throughout Brazil. Cabral follows the notes of Caetano, — 
who was much esteemed as an authority on Tupi-Guarani, 
and gives a very curious solution. He says : Toucan is the 
French way of writing the Portuguese tucano; and adds, 
with reference to the Guarani ttwa, this remark : The true 
etymology is from /t, nose+cdn^, bone; i.e. a nose of 
bone. 

Now the bill of this bird is so very remarkable that it 
seems hardly possible that it should have been named for 
any other reason ; so that we may be allowed, perhaps, to 
hope that this is correct. I observe that Cavalcanti, in his 
Grammar, p. 143, gives the word for * nose * as iim. Since 
the Portuguese final m is nasal, this is precisely the word 
which Cabral spells ft, 

IfoTES UPON "Words of Peruvian Origin. 

Alpaca. The Peruvian Dictionary (see Condor below) 
gives: *' Pacocha, o [orJP^co, Camerillos de la tierra lanudos, 
y chicos para came," i.e, small sheep of the country, woolly, 
and not very fleshy ; p. 268, col. 1. The prefix a/- is the 
common Span, prefix (of Arabic origin). 

Condor. The etymology of this word, from the Peruvian 
mntur^ I have already given. By way of verification, I find 
that the Cambridge University Library possesses a copy of a 
very curious book, which is no other than a Peruvian-Spanish 
Dictionary of an early date, and I suppose we can have no 
better authority. The title is " Vocabulario de la lengua de 
Peru," by D. Gon9alez, printed in 1608 at "laCiudad de 
los Reyes," the city of the Kings. I am sorry to say I do 
not exactly know what place is meant, unless it is Cuzco, the 
ancient capital. At any rate, it was printed in Peru, after 
a primitive fashion, with peculiar type and ink. At p. 47, 
col. 2, is the entry, " Cuntur^ el aue condor," i,e. the bird 
called the condor. 

Ghianaco (Span .-Peruvian). The term gtionaco is given in 
the New English Dictionary, s.v. alpaca^ in company with 



94 WORDS OF PKRUVIAK ORIGIN. — PROF. SKKAT. 

the alpaca. Pineda's Spanish Dictionary gives : " Gtianaeo, 
a Beast in the West-Indies^ like a great Sheep, in which the 
Bezoar Stone is found." The Peruvian Dictionary gives: 
** Huanacu, carnero silvestre," i.e. wild sheep ; p. 175, col. 2. 
The rendering of the Peruvian h by Spanish g recurs in the 
word guano, q.v. 

Ouano. The Peruvian Dictionary gives : " Huanu, estier« 
col," i.e. dung, p. 176, col. 2. 

Jerked Beef. It is said that this is a corruption of the 
Peruvian name. The Peruvian Dictionary gives : *^Ccharqui, 
tassajo o cecina o cuerpo seco o el flaquissimo," i.e. slice of 
flesh or hung beef or dried body or that which is very weak, 
p. 90, col. 1. Also : " Ccharquini, hazer tassajo o cecina," 
i.e. to make hung beef. And, as a matter of fact, it is from 
this verb that the word is really derived. This is proved by 
the fact that the older form of the word in English was not 
jerked bee/, h\it jerkin beef; the word jerkin being evidently 
adopted as coming nearer than any other English word to the 
Peruvian ccharquini. It should also be noted that these 
Peruvian words are given with Spanish spelling, and that qui 
is the Spanish method of indicating ki. A very early example 
of the English form appears in the Works of Capt. John Smith, 
ed, Arber, p. 63, under the date 1607-9. " Their fish and 
flesh they boyle^ either very tenderly, or broyle it so long on 
hurdles over the fire; or else, after the Spanish fashion, 
putting it on a spit, they turne first the one side, then the 
other, till it be as dri^ as their ierkin bee/e in the west 
Indies, that they may keepe it a month or more without 
putrefying." 

Llama. I have copied, in my Dictionary, the statement by 
Prescott, that " Llama, according to Garcilasso de la Vega, 
is a Peruvian word signifying flock.** I have tried to verify 
this by help of the old Peruvian Dictionary mentioned under 
Condor above. At p. 204, col. 1, I find ** Llama, carnero de 
la tierra," meaning, as I suppose, "the sheep of the country." 
Pineda's Spanish-English Dictionary, 1740, says that the 
Spanish sometimes called the Llama by the name Carnero de 
las Indias, i.e., sheep of the Indies ; and he gives a long 



WORDS OF PERUVIAN ORIGIN. — ^PROP. SKEAT. 95 

account of the animal, copied from Acosta, who wrote a 
Natural History of the "West Indies. 

I also find : " Llamamichic, pastor," i.e. shepherd. There 
are two other entries which refer to the word, and seem to 
(X)nyey the idea that Llama could be used, in a general sense, 
for quadruped or animal. I copy them as I find them. 

Llamacuna, o [t.^. or] manayuyakcuna, todos los animales," 
i.e. all animals. And, just below, '' naurat/cimailama, o 
ricchakcunaliama, toda bestia, o animal terrestre," t.e. every 
beast, or land animal. I conclude that there is no good 
reason for supposing that llama meant 'a flock/ It was 
simply the Peruvian name of the animal still so called, 
and probably meant originally no more than ' beast ' or 
'quadruped.' Llamacuna is merely the plural of llama \ see 
Vicuna (below). 

Oca. Miss Margaret Haig kindly informs me that oca is 
supposed to be a Peruvian Word, and that it designates the 
Oxali% crenata, or notched wood-sorrel, ** a tuberous-rooted 
esculent cultivated in Peru • . . introduced into England 
from Lima in 1829, and [which] was rapidly spread over 
the continent " ; see E. S. Delamer, 1861, The Kitchen 
Gbrden, p. 49. Now the Peruvian Dictionary has the 
following entry: — " Occrt, cierta rayz Uamadaassi de comer,'* 
t.^. a certain edible root so called, p. 262. This is evidently 
the same word, and proves that the supposed Peruvian 
origin is correct. 

Pampas. The Peruvian Dictionary gives " Tampa, pla9a, 
Buelo llano o llanada, paste, 9auana, o campo," i.e. place, 
flat ground or plain, pasture, savannah, or field; p. 273, 
col. 1. 

Pnma. The Peruvian Dictionary gives: ^'Puma, leon,*' i.e. 
lion; "puma puma, o [or] nauraycuna puma, todas las heras;" 
i.e. all wild animals ; p. 293, col. 1. 

Quinine. This is not in the above Dictionary. The qui is 
the Span, qui, sounded like ki. (See my Etym. Diet.) 

Vicuna. This seems to be another name for the alpaca, I 
do not find this word in the Peruvian Dictionary, and suspect 
it to be a corruption. But it is worth noting that the Peru- 



96 



ENGLISH ETYMOLOGIES : INDEX. — PROF. SKEAT. 



viaa Grammar (in the aame volume) tells us that -cuna is 
the common plural suffix of substantives ; and the Peruvian 
origin of the word cannot be doubted. 



Note. — One of the best authorities on "West- Indian words 
is Acosta's Natural History of the Indies, written in Spanish 
in 1590, and translated into French in 1600, and into 
English in 1604. He gives paco and guanaco in bk. iii. c. 
20 ; condor, guano, iv. 37 ; llama, the general name for 
sheep, iv. 31 ; cuschargui^ dried flesh, iv. 41 ; oca, iv. 18 ; 
vicuna, iv. 40. See also Pineda's Spanish-English Dictionary 
(1740). 



Index to the Words discussed above. 



alpaca, 93 
barge, 75 
bat (2), 75 
battlement, 75 
beef-eater, 75 
bewray, 76 
blue, 76 
bressomer, 77 
bull (jest), 78 
catgut, 78 
charter, 78 
chopine, 79 
cipres, 80 
cistvaen, 80 
condor, 93 
dolmen, 81 
futtocks, 82 



gallowglas, 82 
glanders, 82 
guanaco, 93 
guano, 94 
hurdygurdy, 82 
ipecacuanha, 91 
jaguar, 89 
jereed, 82 

J'erked beef, 94 
ew's harp, 84 
lunk (1), 84 
kilderkin, 84 
limehound, 84 
llama, 94 
loom, 85 
loose, 85 
menial, 86 



oca, 95 
occamy, 86 
ornithology, 86 
pampas, 95 
puma, 95 
quinine, 95 
rivulet, 87 
soy, 87 

stoup, stoop, 88 
tapioca, 92 
tapir, 92 
tassel (1), 88 
tattoo, 88 
toucan, 92 
tout, 88 
vicuna, 95 
yankee, 89 



97 



Vn.— CELTIC DECLENSION. By Whitley Stokes, 
D.C.L., Hon. Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford, and Cor- 
respondent of the Institute of France (Acad^mie des 
Inscriptions). 

The objects of this paper are, first, to give a complete set 
of the declensional paradigms of Old-Irish — the Gothic, as 
Schleicher called it, of the Celtic languages — and to put 
under their respective declensions several Old-Irish nouns 
and adjectives which have hitherto been ignored or mis- 
placed; secondly, to state the relics of the Celtic declensional 
system to be found in the British languages ; thirdly, to set 
out the oldest monuments of Celtic speech ; and, lastly, 
with the aid of these monuments and of the laws of Irish 
desiDence,^ to restore the principal protoceltic declensions. 

Old-Irish Declension. 

The process of discovering the true system of the Irish 
declensions has taken a long time. For the native gram- 
marians, being unacquainted with the methods of comparative 
pbilology, and having no access to Old-Irish codices, went 
hopelessly astray;' and (with the exceptions of Bopp and 

^ Most of these have been established by Windisch. in his paper Die iritehen 
^MikuUgetetZitf in Paul und Braune's Beitrage zur Gesch. d. deatsch. Spr. ir. 
204-270. Translated in The Scottish Celtic Jieview, Glasgow, 1881, pp. 28-40, 
8MU6. 

' For instance, the best of them, O'DonoTan {A Grammar of the Irish 

Itmguage, 1845), has, like the old Latin grammars, but five declensions. Of the 

fint his paradigms are bard * poet,' a masc. o-stera, erothdn * streamlet,' a masc. o- 

stem, and fdeach * wilderness,' a masc. (in Old- Irish neut.) o-stem, which passes 

in the plnral oyer to the ^-declension. Of the second his paradigms are eaiileaeh 

'hsg,' a fern, a-stem, feam6g 'aldertree,' a fem. o-stem, and cii%n 'degree' 

t Item in m«n, and he places under this declension the t-stems obair * work,' 

euie *csiisef' etimail *a kind,' anHie *the countenance,' the fem. M-stem deoeh *a 

drink,' the fem. F-stem inis * island,' and the d-stem coill * a wood,' Of the third 

his paradigms are treas ' battle/ a masc. u-stem, aoibhneae * delight,' a masc. 

«-stem, and mailaeht * curse,' a fem. n-stem, and he places under it t-stems such 

as uoHoir ' old man,' gabhdU * taking,' Uanamhain * following,' tr-stems like lair 

'mare,' and Ainmire, masc. n-stems like breitheamh * judge,' stems in men such 

IS greim 'morsel,' naidhm Mien,' and stems in tar such as nthair 'father.' 

brdthair * brother.' Of the fourth his paradigms are eeubha 'defect,' phonetic 

spelling for eatbhaidh (Old-Irish esbaia)^ a fem. t-stera, and he places under it 

masc. »0-stems such as iaegaire 'fisherman,' </-8tems like draoi 'druio,' and ^ stems 

Hke ttine * fire.' Of the fifth his paradigm is lanamha * a married couple,' a 

corroption of the Old-Irish fem. t-stem lanamain^ and he places under it stems 

is n like uleha 'beard,' the ^-stem teanga 'tongue,' the d-stem Jile 'poet,' the 

PhiL Tram. 1885-6. 7 



98 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 

Pictet) foreign writers on the neoceltio languages were 
content to follow their guidance. It is now forty-seven 



y-8tem ri 'king/ and, lastly, participial stems in nt like eara * friend.' He then 




masc. o-stem, mi * month/ a stem in n«, ea&ra 'sneep,* a «-stem, bru *womb/ a ston 
in nd, bean * woman,* a fem. a-stem, eeo * fog,* a ^-stem, ere ' clay,' a <^8tem, 
and cro * hnt/ an o-stem. He classes adjectiTes nnder four declensions. Of the 
first his paradigm is mor 'great,* an o-stem, of the second min 'smooth,' an 
t-stem, of the third geanamhail ' loTely,' also an t -stem, and of the fourth tbma 
'miserable,' an io-stem. Leo {Feriimchrifteny Halle, 1862) follows O* Donovan. 

C. H. H. Wright (^ Grammar of the Modem Irish Language ^ 2nd edition, 
1860) and Bourke(rA« Collegelrieh (?rai»imar,6th ed. 1868) also follow 0*DonoTan. 
Wright's paradigm of the first declension is ball (limb), a masc. o-stem; of the 
second, coe (foot), a fem. a-stem ; of the third, Jigheaddir (weaver), an t-stem ; 
of the fourth, fainne (ring, 0. Jr. ainnt), a fem. ia-stem ; of the fifth, eomkarm 
(neighbour) , a stem in n. He puts the stems in tar and in e under his third declension. 

Molloy {Grammatiea Latino'hibemieaf Romae, 1677) gives oidy one 
paradigm, namely eo«, a fem. a-stem. Edward Lhuyd (Archmloqia Britanniea^ 
Oxford, 1707, pp. 302, 303) copies this paradigm from 'Molloy: says tiiat 
" there are no inexceptionable directions for the Declension of Nouns, besides the 
Authority of approv'a Writers ; and that the Dative and Ablative Plural must end 
constantly in tM;*' and observes that*' there are several Nouns that have no 
Variation of Case, especially in the Singular, as Duine 'A man,' uiege 'water,* and 
such like ; and otiiers whicn in the singular number vary only in the Genitive: as 
fear 'A Man or Husband,' Gen. an fhir^ etc." MacCurtin {The Elementi 
of the Irish Language^ London, 1728) has five declensions, the first to- and tc- 
stems ; the second steins in nn {dema)^ t, d and nt ; the third stems in o (including 
nouns ending in o^A), «, and s ; the lourth stems in a {inghen), the fifth stems in 
t and e (dair), VaUancey {A Grammar of the Ibemo^eeltie or Irish Language, 
Dublin, 1773) follows MacCurtin. His paradigm of the first declension is boghsi, 
a stem in to; his paradigms of the second are dearna,fala, and the /-stem slighe; 
of his third the paradigms Ktefoghmhar^ soighneannj dealoghadh^manach, ianaeh, 
sruthy ranny and the «-stem teach ; of his fourth the paradigms are the fem. «- 
stems inghean, cos, aiudear and tulaeh ; of his fifth the paradigms are five t-atems 
(Joghluidhy fog hail f mtitr, luibh, inis), two ^-sterns {Teamh^ir and dair), aad 
eaiiin, which is, I think, an o-stem. The Rev. Wm. Neilson {An 
Introduction to the Irish Language, Dub)in, 1808, which O'Donovan 
says was the joint production of Dr. Neilson and Patrick Lynch, a 
native of the Co. Down) has four declensions, the first o-stems, the second a- 
stems, the third t-stems, and r-stems ; the fourth stems in to, g, d, and s. Owen 
Connellan {A Practical Grammar of the Irish Language, Dublin, 1844) haa six 
declensions, the first o-stems, the second fem. a-stems, an ft-stem (tm), and an 
ft-stem (beannughadh) ; the third t-stems ; the fourth ^o-stems, /-stems {teine), 
and ^-sterns ; the fifth ^i-stems ; the sixth ^-stems. John H. Molloy {Forus 
Teangan na Gaeilge, A Grammar of the Irish Language, Dublin, 1878) haa six 
declensions, the first o-stems, the second a-stems, the third t-stems, under which 
he puts the mm-stem druim, the fourth to-stems, the fifth ti-stems, the sixth e» 
items. He closely follows Connellan. The most wonderful of all is the Ber. 
Paul O'Brien {A Practical Grammar of the Irish Language, Dublin, 1809), who 
beg^ by stating that " the ancient Irish never inflected their nouns by iermina' 
tions, but by initials,** and, accordingly, has onlv three declensions: the fint 
comprising "all nouns whose genitives begin with vowels**; the second, "all 
nouns whose primitive [he means ' initial *J consonants in the genitive singular 
retain their natural sounds " ; the third, " all nouns whose initial consonants 
require aspiration in the genitive singular." Our wretched lexicographer 
O'Reilly, in the Grammar prefixed to his Irish^English Dictionary, Dublin, 



CELTIC DECLENSI0I9. DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 99 

years since Bopp^ found out that the aspirations and 
eclipses of the modem Irish declension are due to the 
after-action of the old case-endings of the article. Bopp 
and Pictet^ also recognized the consonantal n-stems and 
the noons of relationship in tar. Then Zeuss, in the first 
edition of the Orammatica Celtica (1852), gave (in his 

1821, follows Paul O'Brien in principle and says (p. 4) : <<I think that onr initial 
tariations should determine the numher of our declensions, and I shall call that 
clan of nouns, heeinning with vowels that take no variation in the initials of the 
eases of the singmar numher, hut Are aspirated in the genitive, the first declen- 
doB. The nouns beginning with vowels, that reouire / prefixed to the nominative 
and accusative cases singular, and allow no initial change in the een. singular, I 
shall caU the second declension. All nouns beginning with mutable consonants, 
that suffer aspiration in the nominative and accusative singular, and preserve their 
limple powers in the genitive singular, 1 call the third declension ; and all nouns 
whose initials are aspirable consonants, but do not suffer aspiration in the nomina- 
tive or accusative singular, and are aspirated in the genitive singular, are of the 
fourth declension.*' His paradigpis are, of his first declension an oigh^ 'the virgin,' 
I fern, tf-stem, rectius dgh\ of his second, an t'ia»g * the fish,' a masc. o-stem; of 
bis third atlam < dove,' »igh Qeg. 9Wt] ' sprite,' slat 'rod' ; of the fourth, sop 
'wisp,* an o-stem, and 8ruih\\eg. sruith'] ' a learned [leg. old] man,' an «-stem. 
The «-8tems and consonantal stems are left out in the cold or placed among the 
** heteroclites," of which he gives a list of fifty-one, almost all of which are quite 
leetodar. 

The Highlander Stewart (ElemmtM of Oaelie Orammar^ second edition, 
Edinburgh, 1812) is equally astray. He distributes all his nouns into two 
dsdensions, the first comprehending those in which the last vowel of the nomina'* 
tive is a ' Inroad vowel * (i.e. a, o, or m) ; the second, those in which the last 
Towel of the nominative is a 'small' vowel (i.e. e or i). His paradigms of the 
ioA declension are, accordingly, bard (a masc. a-stem) and eluat (a fem. 0-stem}. 
His paradigms of the second declension are eealgair (a corruption of the masc. 
•i-stCTi eelgaire) and eUis (a fem. t-stem). 

The Manxman, Kelly {A Praetieal Orammar of the Anti§nt Oaelie^ or Lan- 
putf§ of tks Isle of Many usually called Manks, Douglas, 1859), makes five de- 
elouBOiis. Of the first his panu^ms are sooil (eye), ir. «u»7, a fem. t-stem, ease 
(foot), Ir. Mt, a fem. o-stem, this (house), Ir. teg^ an «-stem, baase (death), Ir. 
Ast, a neat, o-stem, hannish (wedding), Ir. btmaisy a fem. t-stem. Of the second 
Ids paiadigms are eaggey (war), Ir. -eoead^ gloyr (glory), Ir. gl6irf and cruimiey 
^lobe) Ir. eruinne, all <;-4-ft-8tems in Manx, making their pi. in 'Oghyn, Of his 
raiid dedension the paraoignis are sourey (summer), Ir. samrad^ a masc. o-stem^ 
moir (mother), Ir. mathairy a tor-stem, feill (fiesh), Ir. feoil^ an t-stem, and 
doom (children), Ir. eland^ a fem. a-stem. Of the fourth declension his paradigms 
tre emgliagh m. (boundary), which seems to be the Ir. ooerlehy a fem. a-stem ; roan' 
iegh (a biul), of which I know not any cognate, eleive (swoid), Ir. elaideb, annym 
fsoul), Ir. anim, an n-stem, keeill (church), Ir. eelly a fem. o-stem, bletn (year), Ir. 
Hisdmn^ an »-stem. His fifth declension is exemplified by doarn (fist), Ir. dom^ 
enm (mast), Ir. erann, kione (head), Ir. eenn^ mae (son), fer (man), bolg (belly), 
kdtagh (cock), Ir. eaileehf modde (dog), Ir. matad, all o-stems, booa (cow), Ir. bOf 
• diphthongal stem, guiy (goose), Ir. gid, a fem. o-stem, and ksyrrey (sheep), Ir. 
Awro, a e-stem. Leo, in the Grammar which he made out of the Manx New 
Testament {Feriensehrifteny Halle, 1847), ffives no paradigms — only lists of sub- 
stantives making their nom. pi. in what he supposes to be the same way, and 
t list of 17 ncrans of which the genitives sg. occur in the N.T. 

^ Ueberdie Keltischen Sprachen vom Gesichtspunkte der veigleichenden Sprach- 
forschung, Berlin, 1838. 

> De 1 affinity des langues oeltiques avec le Sanscrit, Paris, 1837. 



100 CELTIC DECLENSION. — 1)R. WHITLEY STOKES. 

Ordo Prior) paradigms of the maso. and neut. stems in to, 
i, u, the feminine stems in id and d, and also (in liis Ordo 
Posterior) paradigms of stems in n, r, c and d. But he did 
so, apparently, without seeing the identity of these stems 
with the similar stems in the other Indo-European tongues. 
The credit of expressly recognizing this identity, and of 
seeing that Zeuss' Ordo Prior was the vocalic, his Ordo 
Posterior the consonantal, declension, is due to Ebel, who 
in his paper, Celtische Studien 4. Die Declination,^ showed 
that Zeuss' first series comprised io-stems, his second o-stems, 
bis third stems in t and in t/, his fourth feminine td-stems, 
his fifth feminine stems in d and t. He also showed that 
Zeuss' second series comprised tt-stems, r-stems and (/-stems, 
and he saw, by comparison with Welsh, that Jili (poet) and 
traig (foot) were stems in t He also saw that the so-called 
datives pL in ^aib were really instrumentals representing the 
Skr. -abhis, Siegfried then suggested that the non-aspirat- 
ing gen. sg. of Irish fem. d-stems represented a Gaulish 
-e«, which caused the '' legionis secundes Italice^ '' 
of a Latin inscription at Yaison; explained the 
'ea of the gen. sg. of t«-stems as = -eo? in {e.g.) 
^Seo9 (an Indo-European -evos), and the -a of pronominal 
genitives as=Lat. -It^ ; and found in the dat. sg. of the 
neut. m^-declension a trace of the instrumental in '-hi} 
To these discoveries I was able in 1858 to add those of 
c-stems, a solitary ^-stem, participial stems in nt, nominal 
stems in m, and adjectival stems in t. I also quoted instances 
of the locative and ablative singular, explained the t of the 
article, and pointed out the light derivable from the com- 
parison of Gaulish and Ogmic inscriptions.' And in my 
Irish Olosaea, 1860, I gave paradigms of vocalic stems in o, 
io, t, u, a, idf and of consonantal stems in c, g, d, n, men, nl, 
and r. Schleicher, then, in his Compendium der vergl. Oram- 

^ Printed in 1858, in Kuhn nnd Schleicher*8 Beitr'dge zur vtrgUiehendm 
Sprachforsehung, 
> Kuhn und Schleicher*8 Beitrage, i. p. 452, where he compares the Oreek 

s See Kohn and Schleicher's Beitrage, i. 334, 340, 449, 451, 452, 454, 457, 
458,461,464. 



CELTIC DECLENSION.— DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 101 

nuUikf confronted with the corresponding stems in the other 
Indo-European langnages, the Irish consonantal stems in g, 
n, nt, and -tar and vocalic stems in u, i, o, d, iOy and ul. 
Some years afterwards, Ebel discovered that seven Irish 
neuters belonged to the ^9-declension.^ And in 1871 he 
published, in the second edition of the Grammatica Celtica, 

\ paradigms of the following stems, omitting, however^ the 

\ locative and ablative : 

Ordo Prior. — Series I. a, masc. o- stems, b. masc. io-stems. 

* - 

Ser. II. masc. i-stems. Ser. III. masc. u-stems. Ser. lY. 
a. fern, ft-stems, b. fem. ift-stems. Ser. Y. fem. i-stems. 

Ordo Posterior. — Ser. I. masc. d-stems and masc. nt-stems. 
Ser. II. c-stems. Ser. III. tar-stems. Ser. lY. ion-stems 
and ion-stems. Ser. Y. neut. men-stems. Ser. YI. s-stems. 
The diphthongal themes would, he says, constitute a seventh 
series, but of these there is only one sure example, namely^ 
bd^fiov^, bis, from bona, in some of the oblique cases. 

Since 1871, so far as I know, the only advances made in 
ike knowledge of the Irish declension have been Windisch's 
discovery of the instrumental singular in o- and d-stems ; 
Zimmer's explanation of the plural ending -a of the pret. 
passive as the nom. pi. in 'daea of a participle ; Mahlow's 
explanations of the voc. pi. of masc. o- stems, the gen. sg. of 
neat, m^it-stems, and the oblique cases of ben (woman) ; my 
own observation on those neuters ending in -achy -ech, which 
decline in the singular like o-stems, in the plural like «-stems ; 
Thomeysen's discovery of fem. i-stems ; and such new results 
8et forth in the present paper as may stand the scrutiny of 
competent philologists. 

It will have been observed that Ebel gave no paradigms 
of neuter stems in o, to, i and u ; that he omits altogether 
to notice the fem. i-stems and the neuters ending in 
-aeh; that his arrangement of the consonantal stems is 
faulty; that he gives no paradigms of //-stems, i7C-stems, 
/-stems, or mi^stems. Furthermore, though he has (pp. 222, 
253) a scheme of the protoceltic case-endings of the con- 
aonantal stems and the masc. o-stems, he has no such scheme 

> ibid. Ti 222. 



102 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STORES. 

for the other stems ending in vowels. Lastly^ in one instance 
{bith TOO. sg.) his paradigm is incorrect: in his lists, four 
examples, namely, Corpimaqvas, formei, slrid^ arcan, are non- 
existent : some nouns and adjectives, e.g. imm (butter), 
dasian (asperitate, Baaeia), menman (mentis, p. 267), s^tehe 
(uxoris), crann (tree), nieith (fat), Brusccos, are placed in 
series, or under cases or genders, to which they do not 
properly belong; and his paradigms of the flexion of the 
numerals 2, 3, and 4 are insufficient. 

. Windisch (Irische Grammatik, 1879) gives a far completer 
set of paradigms. But his arrangement of the consonantal 
stems resembles Ebel's; he omits the vocative of ti-stems; 
he ignores fem. stems in u and i, neuters ending in -ocA, 
pi. -aige, and adjectives ending in 'amail; he misplaces the 
o-stem Ulaid ^ ' Ulstermen ' with the stems in d. Lastly, in his 
paradigms of the neuter stems in t, t/, men and ea, he inserts 
in the nom. and ace. singular the transported n, which, when 
it does occur, is merely syntactical and due to the false 
analogy of the neuter stems in o and to. 

In the paradigms I have prefixed the article so as to 
exhibit the initial mutations in the case of words beginning 
with vowels and the consonants c, t, g^ d, 6, /, and «. I have 
also used a turned comma (') to denote the vocalic infection, 
or (as Irish grammarians say) ' aspiration ' of following con- 
sonants. And throughout this paper I shall use a horizontal 
stroke to denote a long vowel, and keep the acute accent to 
mark a tonic vowel. 

A. Vocalic Declension. 

1. Masculine stems in 0. 

Example : ball * member '=^aXXo9. 

JPlur. 

in* baill 
inna mball-n 
donaib ballaib 
inna baullu 
a* banllu 

^ The meaning appears to be barbatij cf. Ski,pula 'horripilation/ In Gaulish 
w« seem to hare it m the tribe name Tri-ulatti, Plin. iii. 20. 24, where tri is an 
intensive prefix and uiatti a mistake for ulati {ttiatt?). 





Sing, 


Dwtl 


Nom, 

Oen. 

DaL 

Aee. 

Voe, 


in ball 
in' baill 

don< banll, bnll 
in mball-n 
a' baill 


in da< ball 
in da' ball 
dondib mballaib 
in da* ball 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. l03 

The loc. sg. would be baiilt but this case occurs too rarely 

to justify its insertion in the paradigm. The only sure 

instance is cinn (nom. sg. cenn * head '), which occurs in the 

gloss cinn (gl. capite) Tur. 54, and in the phrases eind ndi 

mis (at the end of nine months), cind bliadna (at the end of 

a year), cinn rehe (at the end of the space), Wb. 4® 11. The 

adv. etir^ itir (omnino), protocol tic entefvi, may be added. 

The peritonic voc. sg. is due to the old ending -«=Lat. ii, 

Gr. -€. The gen. dual points to a protoceltio -5, which 

agrees with Zend -d, Old Slav, -m, Lith. -fi. EbeFs theory, 

that this case has been replaced by the gen. pi., will not hold, 

for the transported n is never found after the gen. dual. 

The datives dual and plural are originally instrumentals, the 

protoceltic terminations being respectively = -abtn, -abts. 

In the nom. plural, the Irish agrees with Greek and Latin 

in using the pronominal -». A trace of the old ending -dsea 

(Yedic dsds, Goth. d8, from dses) is found in the -a of the 

pret. passive, which, as Ebel saw, was originally a participle. 

The vocative -u comes from da, and is only accidentally like 

the accusative -m from dss, ons. 

Like ball are declined arg (hero) ^ipxo^ ; bard (poet) ; bond 
(0ole) = Lat./e«m/ti«; bran (raven) = Slav. vran&, Lith. mma-a; 
hroU (goad); cam (heap of stones); cl6 (nail) = Lat. clavua; 
coll (hazel) =O.H.G. hasl m. ; fer (man) =Lat. vir (Skr. vira) ; 
colomb (dove)=Lat. columbu8\ cul (back)=Lat. culm^ dia 
(god)=Lat. divus (Skr. deva), gen. d(ki\ ech (horse) =Lat. 
equui (Skr. agva)\ eo (yew-tree) =A.S. ir, O.N. yr\ fen 
(wagon) = O.N. vagn\ fescor (evening) =Gr. Fi<nr€po<; \ frass 
(shower) =Skr.f?flr«/«i; giall (hostage) = O.N. gial', glonn (calf), 
gen. gluinn; gort (field)=Lat. hortus, Gr. xo/jto?; lose (fish), 
Gbth. Jtsks ; le8S='p\ex\xa ; lo8c:=\o^6^ ; nett (nest) =Lat. nidus ; 
ore (pig)=Lat. porcm; suan (sleep) =i57n^09; tarb (bull) = 
Lat. taurus, Gr. ravpo^ from rapFty;; tromm (elder-tree), 
gen. truimm; uan (lamb) = Lat. agnus ; and the loan-words 
aingel (angelus) ; apstal (apostolus) ; articol (articulus) ; borgg, 
bare (burgus) ; carmocol ^ (carbunculus) ; call (cattus) ; cercol 

^ From *carmuoeol ssSl Low-Latin *carbnueulut* 



104 CBLTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 

(circulus) ; cl^rech (clericus) ; epscap (episcopus) ; fehuh 
(philosophus) ; fich (vicus) ; Idech (hero)=laicu8; lehw' 
(liber), loc (locus), manach (monachus), mod (modus), mul 
(mulus), pardoB (paradisus), popul (populus), salm (psalmus), 
Benod (synodus), son (sonus), aom (fumus), mg (sucus), trap 
(tropus), ymmun (hymn us). 

It will be seen that all these agree not only in meaning, 
but in gender and declension, with their respective reflexes in 
Latin, Sanskrit and Gothic. The originals of some loan-words 
belonging to this declension are in classical latinity feminine, 
as senod (synodus), or neuter, as corp (corpus), fial (velum), 
idol (idolum), ifurnn (infemum), fempul (templum). But it 
is possible that in the Low-Latin, whence the Irish got them, 
they were masculine. 

To the o-declension belong the following names from the 
Book of Armagh: Duht/wch, gen. Duhthaich ; ErCy gen. 
Hire; Slan, gen. Slain; Fiacc, gen. Feecc, hetter F^icc; Niall, 
gen. Neill; Ulaid (Ulidians), ace. pi. Ultu^ 8**, 1 ; Amolngad, 
gen. ~gid ; Dallbronach, gen. -bronig ; Cairien, gen. Cairtin ; 
Locharnach, Lugar (gen. -air) ; Eogan, gen. Eogin ; Cuilenn 
(gen. -inn) ; Gabrdn, Colomb, gen. Coluimb ; Dall, gen. Daill; 
Feradach, Crondn, Sardn, Fdildtiy Failgnad, Sechnassach. 
Laigen, ace. pi. Laigniu ; Boidmal, gen. Boidniail; Cetgen 
(=Cintugenos) ; Crimt/iann, dat. Crimthunn. 

2. I^EUTER STEMS IN 0. 

Example : dliged * law,* W. dylyed^ dykd, protoceltic dligeio-n. 

Sififf. Dual JPlur. 

Nom, a ndlij|[ed-n in du ndliged inna *dliged, dligeda 

Gtn, in dlicrid in du dliged inna ndliged-n 

Dat, don dugnd dondib ndligedaib donaib dligedaib 

Aee. a ndliged-n in du udliged inna *dliged, dligetha 

Voe. a dligM-n *a dliged, a dligetha 

So are declined arm (weapon), biad (food, pioTos:)^ cenil 
(nation, W. cenetl), cet=^Ija.t, centum, crann (tree) =zW . prenn, 
protoceltic qerno-Uy cognate with Lat. quernus ; ^rd?*=Lat. 
grdnum; fe^A (half); wl/ (beast) =Gr./A^\oi/; *i/(8eed); trian 
(a third), perhaps also iarn (iron). So also the loan-words 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 105 

grdd (gradus), camel (castellum), or (aurum), araigell (fla- 
gellum), kfem (infemum). 

Instramentals sg. are, perhaps, Mun in the phrase mo triun 
araiHu (greater than another third), Brocc. h. 1. 80 ; demul 
(righthandwise) in phrases like dothoet dessiul; and ceneul in 
the adv. in decheneul (gl. bigenere). 

The original ending {-a) of the plural nom., ace. and voc, 
would, according to the laws of desinence, be lost ; and ac- 
cordingly we find s^ tarmorcenn (six terminations), axm aili 
(other arms), membtir (membra), iri-chet (three hundreds), 
G. C* 226=Ved. tri gntd (Windisch), to which may be 
added inna comtherchomrac (gl. conuenticula) Ml. 81, feaa 
(scita), inna gran (Lat. grana) Sg. 184**. Forms in -a are due 
to the analogy of the feminine a-stems, and (e.g.) cenela 
(nationes) may be compared with Ital. le arme, Lat. ilia 
arma (Ebel). 

Whether Irish ever possessed fem. stems in o, like the Lat. 

fagus, Gr. ^17709, is doubtful. Frdech (heather, cognate with 

epcuciy) makes its nom. pi. inna dcercae frdich (gl. uaccinia 

calta), Sg, 49* 10. Etar^ the name of Gaud's wife, seems to 

make 2^air in the gen. sg., LL. 194^ 

3. Masculine stehs in 10. 
Example : die ' companion,* W. cilydd, protoceltic celid-s. 

Sing, Dual Flur, 

^m. in cSle in da chele in cheli 

Otn. in chSli in da chSle inna cSle-n 

I>«i. don ch€liu(-i} dondib celib donaib celib 

Aee. in cele-n in da cbele inna celia • 

Vm. a chgli a cbeliu 

These stems are to be compared with Latin like^//w«, Goth, 
like hairdeis, Gr. aXko^ from aTuo^. 

Like die are declined aictne (tribe), haiie (grandson, 
descendant) =7rat9 ex iraFjo-^, dalte (pupil), daire (oakwood), 
&e (burden), tigeme (lord), uisce (water), and the loan-word 
cutke (puteus). So are declined the participles pret. passive. 
So, too, are declined the following names from the Book of 
Armagh: Ddire, gen. Ddiri; Ldiguire, gen. Loiguiri, Loiguri; 
Machtkene, gen. {Mac€u)machtheni ; Colpde; Ferchertne; Liphe 



106 CELTIC DECLENSION. — ^DR. WHTTLET ST0KE8. 

(the Li£Pey), gen. Liphi; Biaiiine, dat. Blaiiiniu; Laithphe^ 
gen. Laithphi ; Tuirtre, gen. Tuiriri ; Dagre, gen. Dagri; 
Sege, gen. Segi; Taidene, gen. Taidcni; Caithnge, gen. -gi; 
CothirbCy gen. -bi; Cuine, gen. -iii; Cerrige, gen. -^t; Naime^ 
dat. -niM ; Caere, Segene, Coirpre, Maine, Caitne, JSnde, lene, 
Sebuirge, Lugne, Cummdne, and Setne, gen. Se/iat. Dagdae, 
dat. Dagdu, also belongs to this declensioni and Ogina=^ 
Gaul. Oy/Aio^.^ 

4. Neuter steks in 10. 

Example : cri(sfe ' heart/ "W. craidd, protoceltic cradiO'ti : 

cf. KapBla. 

Siftff, Dual JPlur, 

Nbm, a cride-n in dS chride inna cride 

&«»i. in chridi in da chride inna cride-n 

JJat, don chridin dondib cridib donaib cridib 

Aee, a cride-n in da chride inna cride 

Voc, a chride-n a chride 

Sg. VOC. fia briss indiu, mo chride (break not to-day, my 
heart !), Longes mac nUsnig. 

In ba md amru arailiu (it was greater than [any] other 
marvel, amre), we have, according to Windisch, an instra- 
mental sg. of this declension. 

Like cride are declined arbe, orpe (heritage) = Goth, arbi, 
belre (leLngu&ge), fiadnisse (testimony) =A.S. ge^witnesse, tride 
(threeness), Skr. Maya, Perhaps also side (elf), which 
Windisch connects with Skr. sdd/iya, and the loan-word 
caillezzipalliunu They correspond with Latin nouns Uke 
odium, Gr. like ipehnov, 

5. Stems (of all oendebs) in I. 
Example : faith ^ prophet,' protoceltic vciti'S, Lat. voUb. 





Sinff. 


Dual 


JPiur. 


Nom, 


in faith 


da faith 


ind faithi 


Gen, 


ind fathO (-o. -a) 


• 

du fatho 


inna fathe-n 


Dat, 


dond faith 


dib fuithib 


donaib faithib 


Aee, 


in faith-n 


da f&ith 


inna faitbi 


Voc. 


a faith 




afathi 



^ Rhys (Lectares, pp. 293-296) eqnates W. ofydd (written ouit in the Black 
Book of Carmarthen) with Oatnaf "Oyfuos. But could the group offtn become 
ov f Can ofyddy which in Old Welsh means ' leader/ be connected with Ir. ubh 
(sword-point), root pu^ iapunfo f 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 107 

Tliere is one example of a loo. sg. fern. : mebuir (in memoria) 
Wb. 20*, one of a locative sg. neut. : ni domnu ni muir 
(there is nothing deeper in the sea), Sg. Incant., and one, 
perhaps, of an instrumental : is uaisliu cech dull (it is nobler 
than every creature), Ml. 25*. That the -o of the gen. sing, 
was long in the oldest Irish is proved by the form aloo 
'rupis,' which occurs in the Book of Armagh, fo. 20. b. 1. 

Like fdith are declined aig (ice)=:OJN,jaki; aird (point) = 
ap&i<:\ bUain (harvest), protocelt. bogni; Boind, gen. Boindeo; 
bliadain (year), cruim, f. (worm)=Lat. {c)vermts, Lith. kirmia, 
Skr. krmi; cluain (meadow), duil^ f. (element) =Skr. dhuli 
(dust) ^ ; feith (sinew), Lat. vitis ; flaith (kingdom), fochaid 
(tribulation),/(x;Artc<* (reward), liaig (physician) = Goth, fej^^'w; 
gnuis (countenance) ; mi7 (honey) = Lat. mel\ tdin (a driving, 
Uu-ag-ni) ; buaid, n. (victory) ; the loan-word suisl (fustis) ; 
and many loan-words, such as enair (Januarius), proind 
(prandium), beUt (bestia), stair (historia), /i9 (visio), from stems 
m 'to, 'ia, -ian. The infinitive stems in -i (Ved. -at/e) and -ti 
(Lith. and Slav, -ti, Yed. -taye) also belong to this declension. 

To this declension belong the following names in the Book 
of Armagh : Ailill, gen. Ailello ; Fedilmidj gen. Feidilmedo, 
Rdeilmtheo, Fedelmtheo ; For/ailtd, gen. Forfdilto ; Hercaith, 

By analogy to the neut. stems in o, the neut. stems in i 
sometimes take an n after the nom., ace. and voc. sg. Thus : 
muir n-Icht (the Ictian sea) ; a buaid n-oc n- Ulad (0 victory 
of the warriors of Ulster !) LU. 100*. In the nom. and ace. 
pL they have -a or (where the root- vowel is i) -e. The nouns 
rind (sidus) and mind (iusigne) also drop the ending in the 
nom. and ace. plural. 

One or two fem. t-stems have no ending in the gen. sg. 
Thus: ind firinne inna stoir (the truth of the story) Ml. 53; 
tomaili na feoil (the consuming of the flesh) Tain bo Fraich, 
63 ; Tain bd Flid<iis (cattlespoil of Flidais) LL. 247*. So 
the masc. loan-words posit (positivi), superlait (superlativi), 
abbgitir (abg^torii, %,e. alphabet]). 

The neut. t-stems gein (birth) and ttr (land) make their 

^ Fick compaiw Lith. dulket and Lat. fuHgo, 



108 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 

gen. eg. gene and tire. Of these gene may perhaps belong 
to the ^-declension and be=7€i/€09, generis. 

6. MaSCULIKE AlO) NEUTBR STEMS IN TJ. 

Example : bith m. ' world/ W. 6y(/=Gaulish bitu-s. 



Sing, 


Dual 


Flur. 


Norn, bith 


da bith 


bithi 


Gm. betho 


da betho 


bithe-n 


Dat. biuth 


dib mbethaib 


bethaib 


Ace, bith n 


da bith 


bitha 


Voc, a betho 




a bithu 



Voc. sg. 'mi domine Aido^ Book of Armagh, 20a. 1. 
Aido mecc Bricc benibula, Mone's Hymni Latini Medii Aevi, 
iii. 181, where for * mecc Bricc* the MS. has mech Prich. 

A locative sg., congaib kthu Ath Fithot (he sets up with 
them at F.'s ford), occurs in An 18a. 2, and a gen. dual da 
loch occurs in Brocc. h. 20. 

Like bith are declined dth^ (ford), ith (com)=Skr. pitu 
(nahrung),^^ (wood)=O.H.G. vitu, giun (mouth)=Skr. hanu 
(jaw), mug (slave)=Goth. tnagu; and cath (battle) =O.H.G. 
hadu', AS. hec^o: probably also breo (flame; in breo taith- 
neamachy O'Dav. s.v. caindelbra), from *bre8U : the names 
Oingus, gen. Oingusso, Fergm, gen. Fergusso, Boss, gen. Bossa, 
Fenius^ gen. Feniusa: verbal nouns (infinitives) in 'Ud=iii/atu 
and -ad^ayatu ; and the loan-words els (census), /^r« (versus), 
fin (vinum), sens, sians (sensus), and spirut (spiritus). 

Neut. stems in -tf are /ocA=Lat. lacus, suth (fetus) and 
dorus (door), protocelt. dvorestu ; mid=:ifjLidv, recht (right), tes 
(heat). By analogy to neut. stems in o they sometimes 
take n after the nom. and ace. sg., and add -ri, -e in the 
nom. ace. and voc. pi. In one instance, however, there is 
no ending (frisna torus * ad portas,' Ml. 98, but voc. a 
doirsea, Ml. 98). 

Daur (oak), Sg. 38* 9, whence daurauth (gl. quercetum) 
53* 6, daurde (quemus), 38* 10, gen. daro, dara=iW. derw-en, 
and cognate with Sopv, Skr. ddru^ seems to belong to this 
declension. 

^ Cognate with Skr. path^ Gr. irdrosy Lat. poii(t)8. 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — ^DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 109 

Two instances (obscure to me) of the dat. sg. of a niasc. 
w-stem ending in a vowel are don spilrutu ndkm (to the Holy 
Ghost) LIT. 31^, and dia mogha manchuine (to his workingman) 
Laws ii. 22. A nom. pi. in -ea is tri tuimthea gleso in letraim 
dedenach (three dippings of the tool (pen) in the last page) 
Arm. 78a. 2. 

The dat. dual and pi. -ai6, not -uih^ is probably due to the 
false analogy of stems in o and d. In the adverb dih-hnaib (e 
duabus partibus, utrimque) we seem to have the old instru- 
mental meaning. 

Feminine Stems in TJ. 

There seem to have been feminine stems in u. Thus deug 
Tur. 71, later deog^ deoch 'drink/ points to a protoceltic 
deguy but in the oblique cases it has gone over to the fem. 
d-declension. . Examples are : sg. gen. riathar inna dige Ml. 
43, ace. innan-dig (in eorum potum), Wb. 27*. So the w-in- 
fection in triub (tribus), sg. ace. triub Ml. 37', gen. trebe, pi. 
ace. tribu, Ml. 34* 9, points to a protoceltic trebu. Fiad {deer), 
gen. JiadUf and gabul (fork, protoceltic gablu-a P), sg. gen. na 
gabla, dat. gabul, dual gen. da gabul: pi. nom. and ace. gabla, 
seem, at all events in the gen. and dat. singular, to belong 
to this declension. The name Medb generally makes its gen. 
Medba, as if it were an ti-stem ; dat. do Medb, LIT. 65% ace. la 
Medb, 63^, but sometimes in this case (Meidbe), and generally in 
the dat. (Meidb) and ace. (Meidb-n), it agrees with the d-stems. 
The names Buan and Sanier also make their genitives in -a. 
So/er6 (cow), sg. gen. ferba brachtche, LU. 109*. 

7. Feminine stems in A. 

JSxample : tuath ' folk,' W. tud, Osc. tovto, Goth, piuda, proto- 
celtic toutd. 

Sing. 
N(m, intQath' 
Oen. inna tuaithe 
BaL dontQailh* 
Aee. in tQaiUi-n 
Foe. athuath< 
toe. toaith 



Dual 


Flur, 


in dl thQaith 


inna tQatha 


in da thOath 


inna tQath-n 


dondib tQathaib 


donaib tQathaib 


in di thuaith 


inna tuatba 




a thaatha 



110 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITXBT STOKBSi. 

One or two other locatiyes singular of this declension are 
quotable : each conair (in every way, conar) LTJ. 16*, 39^40^ 
tuarcain (conterendo) Sg. 184^ and perhaps the adverbs an* 
echtaivy aechtair (extrinsecus). An instrumental, perhaps, is 
lia turem (more than can be counted). And Windisch thinks 
liarCy ore (quia) is the abl. of uar^ a fem. d-stem ; the gen. and 
abl. sg. coinciding as in Sanskrit. But this is questionable. 
The postposition etar^ etor, in the adv. immanetar, immenetar, 
'invicem'=Lat. intrd{d), is an abl. sg. of this declension* 
So the prepositions echtar=Ijat, extra, and for (aspirating) =; 
Lat. 8-upra, Gr. {nreprj'. 

The non-aspirating genitive points to a protoceltic -es: 
the European as (^co/oav, familids^ gibos) is represented by 
mnd, gen. sg. of hen (woman). The peritonic accusative is 
due to an invasion by the a-declension. I know not what 
case is diis (nom. sing, dias ' duitas '), which occurs with the 
possessive pronouns in such phrases as attaam am-diis (we 
two are), mani bet an-diis funless they two are). 

Like tUath are declined cennadach (province) ; ciall (intellect) 
irzW. pivt/ll; cetach (mantle); cloch (stone) =/ic/}oiw;; cumal 
(she-slave) ; cos (foot) =Lat. coxa ; err (tail, from eraa) = 
ovpa (from opaa) ; faed (cry, W. gwaedd) = Gr. d-FoiBi] ; /erg 
(anger) =Gr. o/yyj;; glass (fetter), frass (shower), Skr. 
varsha, Hi (lova), gen. Iae\ ingen (girl); lam (hand)= 
Lat. palma, irdKafirj, O.H.G. /olma; lece (flag-stone) = 
Lat. planca ; muinter (family) ; run (secret) = Goth, runa ; 
%erc (love)=W. serch^iarofyyi]; tulcich (hill, riJXiy, tvXo^) ; 
and the loan-words almsan (eleemosyna), baislec (basilica), 
hraissech (brassica), cell (cella), eland (planta), clum (pluma), 
conson (consona), corcur (purpura), crock (crux), fedb (vidua), 
fiugor (figura), focul (vocula), gluas (glossa), liter (littera), 
lurech (lorica), mias (mensa), not (nota), persan (persona), 
plan (poena), plag (plaga), Roni (Roma), riagol (regula), 
senisier (fenestra), saiget (sagitta), scol (schola), sillab 
(syllaba). 

To this declension belong the following river-names from 
the Book of Armagh : Dea, gen. Dee ; Muad, gen. Muaide ; 
Boand^ dat. Boind: Slicech gen. Slicicho!, and the wonten's 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLET STOKES. Ill 

names Coigeli, Fedelm. The nom. pi. in -ea : foirrgeay Arm. 
14^ 2, and ace. pi. eoimed (gl. ooronas) ibid. 180^ 2, are 
obscure. 

8. F£tfIN£NE STEMS IN lA. 

Example : soilhe ' light/ protoceltic avalnaatia. 





Sififf, 


Dual 


Plur, 


yom. 


int-soilUe 


in dl Boillri 


inna soillsi 


Gen. 


iniui soillse 


in d& ioillse 


inna soillse-n 


JUat. 


don t-BoilLsi 


dondib soillsib 


donaib Boillsib 


Ace, 


in soillsi 


in dl soillsi 


inna soillsi 


Foe. 


a soillse 




a soillsi 



A locative, perhaps, is Totcuiie, Tlr. 2. Ablatives are 
cobre (cupidine) Wb. 29; /elire (gl. codice), the adverb 
aldne (fully, lit. in, or with, fulness) Fel. Oct, 30, hi sochaide 
(in a multitude) Patrick's h., Maccuil diMane 'M. of (the 
isle of) Man,' Ar. 6** 1. (W. Manaw, Pliny's Monapia^ leg. 
Manaria ?) and de Vertrige, ib. 15* 1. 

The i- in the ace. sg. and nom. and ace. pi. is due to an 
invasion by the t-declension. Like soillse are declined 
Aiibine, aille (praise), Machae (Armagh), erdathe (judgment), 
fertae (grave), iuare (food), Sldne (Slane), Sleibte (Sletty), 
the river-name Succae (=Gaul. Suppia?), and the loan-words 
eaimmse (camisia), felbube (philosophia), pairche (parochia), 
ungae (uncia), usca (axungia). 

These stems correspond with Latin like filia (acie-a, 
according to Schleicher), Skr. like vrqjyd (wandering), ridycL 
(science), and represent Gr. nouns like Soreipa, Gpaaaa, 
Kfirjaaa, respectively from Sorepui, GpoKia, Kprp-ui. 

9. YeKLSUSTE STEMS IS I. 

Ebel (Euhn's Beit rage, i. 180) says that by-forms like 
muing (mane) appear to be l-stems, and at p. 340 of the 
same volume I gave a paradigm, which lacks the dual and 
is wrong in the gen. sg. and nom. pi. Thumeysen was the 
first to show that those fem. nouns, which in the nom. sg. 
resemble t-stems, but which make their dat. and ace. sg. 



112 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 

as if they were td-stems, belong to the t-declension. They 
correspond, in Europe, with. Greek feminines like cXirt? and 
Old-Norse like y/yr=Skr. rrkU.^ 

Example : inia * island/ W. f/ni/s, protoceltic enesfi. 



Sing. 


Dual 


Flur, 


Kom, inis 


inis 


insi 


Oen, inse, inseOi inis 


inse? 


inse>n 


iJat, insi, inis 


insib 


insib 


Aec, insi-n, inis-n 


inis 


insi 


V<>e. inis 




insi 



Sg. Muchatocc Ime Fail Arm. 18* 2, gen. familia Dam-inse 
16* 2, Augustin Imeo Bicce 18* 2 ; dat. in imi^ ond insi, Saltair 
na Rann, 4008, 4009. So is declined JBngit (Skr. brhati), 
gen. Brigtm, Arm. 19* 1, Brigte, Sanctbrigte, Brocc. h. 13, 
15, 95, Brf'gta 35, 43 (Brigtce in the Franciscan copy), Brigte 
89, 103, 104, dat. Bn'gti? ace. Brigli-n (ar sanchtbrigti, 
Brocc. h. 23, la Brigte, 70=/fl Brigtce, Franciscan copy) ; 
meit ' greatness/ (W. maint) gen. meite ; sitig ' wife,' gen. 
sefche, Wh. 10^ ; dat. ace. seitchi ibid., adaig (night), gen. 
aidche, dat. aidchi, G. C. 253. 

We also find the genitives sing, airlise, bliad^u (anni), 
brithe (ferendi) Wb. 25**, cuile (secessus), Arm. 15* 2, fiiile 
(sanguinis) Wb. 2^ fochricce (praemii) Wb. 10^ lubae (fru- 
ticis), Scirte, Arm. 15^ 1, taidchrecce (redemptionis) Wb. 21% 
teabuithe (defectus) Cr. 3^, which come respectively from the 
nominatives airlis, bliadain, brith, cuil, fuil, fochricc, luib, 
Scirit, taidchricc, tesbuith : the datives sg. gruade (leg. 
gruaidi), Liipaiti, maisi, samuisci, which come respectively 
from griMid (cheek), Lupait (name of a sister of S. 
Patrick), mais (mass), aamaiac (heifer).* And the accusa- 

^ Mahlow: Die I^ngen vocale a, e, o, Berlin 1879, p. 146, where the oldest 
flexion of iKwls is thus given: *i\irU iKxiBos *i\xi *i\irTy and AiriSo, Voc 
♦^Air<, •^Air<€s. iKriBwy, iKirTat iKwTs and iKiniaSi where 9 has come from/. 

' cuinncgar dia aruaide gris (it is levied from his ruddy cheek) O'Dav. 64 : dia 
flair .i. Lupati (to his sister, i.e. Lupait) Trip. Life, Rawl. B. 612, fo. 6a 2 : is4 dono 
eeini rotheip Dia aain main (now tnis is the first thing that God severed from the 
mass) Laws, i. 26 : dia n-airbera samuisci eona huUib iardaigib (if he eats a 
heifer with all her . . .) O^Dav. 97. 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLET STOKES. Il3 

tives sing, airlisi^ (septum), bliadni (annum) Cr. 32^ (GF.C.^ 
p. 1050), fell (feriam ; admunter a ,feU ' thou veneratest 
his festival/ Fel. Oct. 2), fuili (sanguinem), Wb. 31^ 
(G.C.* 1040 J, glaisai (pivulum : rodoirt-si intansin hhgon 
na n-erc isin-glaissiy she then spilt the milk of the cows 
into the stream, glaia^ Rev. Celt. vi. 188) : isain monai (Into 
the bog, niom) LU. 62^f/or8tn manai, LIT. 131, 1. 1, raihif 
(forty ' sonum . . . gentilium . . . facientium ratht,' Ar. 6^ 
1), frUin rig ocus m rignai (to the king and the queen, 
*/^am^ = Skr. rajni) Tain bo Fraich, 1. 54, tue tdnai mbo 
a Feraih JRom (he took a driving — tain — of kine out of 
Fir Roiss) LL. 124* 10. PI. gen. rignca (reginarum) Cod, 
8. Paul, quoted Ir. Texte i. 3. 20. 

The loan-^ord trtndoit (Trinity) has gen. sg. trlndoti Ml. 2*, 
2, trlnoite Fiacc h. 42, irinoit Patr. h., the dat. din trindoti, 
Ml. 16^ It may be compared with ccetate (=civitate) in 

OioHsi'Cvetate, Quicherat, 114. The loan-word eclis (ecclesia) 
makes its gen. sg. (Bcilse Wb. 22% but also ecoho, cecolsa, 

(Bceaha. In the name Mag-inis (Lecale), we seem to have a 

genitive like stoiry/eoil, supra. 
There is one example of the loc. sg. of this declension : rdith 

[eon-congab raith Foalascich 'till he set up at Falascach's fort'), 

Tir. 2. 
For purposes of comparison I give from Whitney, § 356, 

the corresponding Vedic forms. 



Sififf, 


Dual 


Plur. 


Nbm. 1UU& 


nadlu 


nadias 


Oen. nadias 


nadios 


nadinam 


Dat. nadle 


nadibhyam 


nadibhyaa 


Aee. nadiam 


nadla 


nadlas 


Toe. n&di 







These explain well enough the Irisb gen. sg. in -e, dat. 
in -t, ace. in -t-n, and nom. and ace. pi. The Irish nom. sg.. 



^ • §eehmall na athgabhala do hreith in-nirliai aireeh aird no eelata (neglecting 
to brmir the distress into the pound of an Aire Ard or the Church), Laws i. 96. 

' I hare only met with tne nom. sing, rtgan. The gen. sing, rigna (in «m- 
M«A na banrigna * the queen's fox/ Franciscan Lib. Hymn. p. 42} seems to come 
from an l-stem. 

Fhil. Tnuis. 18S6^ 8 



114 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 

the nom. and ace. dual, and the by-forms in the gen. (-eo) 
and dat. sg. seem to be due to an intrusion of the t-declension. 
Whether there were Irish masc. stems in I, like Skr, 
rathi'8 (charioteer), is doubtful : the gen. sg. Dunlinge (nom. 
sg. Dunlaing) occurs in the Book of Armagh, fo. 10^*1, 
IS** 1, 18** 1, and ^muiruB huachaeU* (nom. sg. buachail, fiov- 
Ko>uo<;) ibid. fo. 15* 1, and Maccu-Oreccae^ Arm. 6** 2, lustianus 
mac hii Daimine, 9^ 1, Mace Ercaey 14^ 2, Mace RimCf 14' 
2, CorcU'Theimne, 15* 2, • iir OimmcB^* ingen Anfolmithe, 
17* 2, Fergus mdr fnacc Nise, 18** 2 (of which I do not kno\i 
the nominatives). 

B. Diphthongal Stebis. 

Of these there seem to be only three, namely, bo * cow, 
glao, gld 'ball,' and nau, nd * ship.* Olao, gh (=Skr. gldti] 
occurs only in composition with snathe ^ thread.' Nau, ni 
(Skr. nail, 6r. vav^) is quotable only in the sg. nom. {nau 
nd), gen. (naue, noe), dat. (ndi, noe) and the pi. dat. (ndib) 
And bd (Lat. bds) is irregular, forming its nom. sg., dual 
and pL, from a stem bov, dat. and ace. sg. from a stem ban, 
or bona: and its ace. pi. from bd (cf. ace. pi. fiov^ fron 
^fiayv^), £d is thus declined : 



Sin^. 


Dual 


Plur. 


Nom, b6 


diba 


bai, ba 


Om, bou, b5 


da bo 


b5.n 


Dat. boin 


dib mbuaib 


baaib 


Aee, boin-n 


di ba (boin) 


bQ 



The vocative I have not found. Gen. dual: mac da bO 
Corm. s.v. dedel. 

In di (sheep) =3t9, oh, oris, and rdi (a plain) from *rusi 
cogn. with Lat. rus, the diphthong has been produced by the 
regular loss of intervocalic v and «. 

C. Consonantal Stems. 

These may be arranged as follows : 1, guttural stems ; 2 
lingual stems (stems in r) ; 3, dental stems (stems in f, d, nt) 
stems in the dental nasal, n : steins in the dental sibilant «• 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 115 

1. GuTTUEix Stems. 

(a) stems in G. 

Example : cathair ' city,* W. caer, protoceltic castrix. 





Sing. 


Jhtal 


Plur. 


Kmn. 


. cathair 


di chatliraig 
da chathracQ 


cathraig 
cathrach -n 


Gen. 


cathrach 


IkU, 


cathraig 


dib cathrachaib 


cathrachaib 


Ace. 


cathraig-n 


dl chathraig 


cathracha 


Foe. 


a chathair 




a chathracha 



So are declined ail (rock), dair (oak=Lat. tonlr),/d/ (hedge), 
fail (ring), lasair (flame), lettir (hill-slope), Lugaid (a man's 
name), nathir (snake), noill (oath), sail (=salix), Bce (white- 
thorn), tellw'r (earth), Temair (Tara), teol (thief). These 
correspond with Latin nouns like vortex^ Greek nouns like 
if>vKa^. C-stems like aire (temple), ruire (lord), Ainmire, seem 
stems in -iac. And caera (sheep), ceo (mist), gen. ciach, eo 
(salmon), gen. iach, mala (eyebrow). Guana {Coona, Arm. 
13* 1), FiachOy Fiachra, gen. sg. Fiechrach, Arm. 17* 1, tethra 
(scaldcrow), ending in the nom. sg. in a broad vowel, seem 
stems in -de, like Oeopa^, Lat. eddx. 

The name Eochu makes its gen. Echachy Arm. 5^ 2. 
FindubaiVy gen. Findubrec[^h]y Arm. 2J*8. Echnach and Telochy 
Ann. 10^ 2, seem gen. sg. of names belonging to this declen- 
sion. Loan-words ending in r are, from false analogy to 
cathair, lasair, lettir, nathir, often declined like (;-stems. Thus : 
altdir (altare), gen. altorach, mainiatir (monasterium), gen. 
manialrech, saltair (psalterium), gen. saltrach. 

In the gen. sg. these stems sometimes go over to the i- 
declension: thus ail (rock), gen. aeclessia Alo find, Arm. 11^ 1, 
de fonte Alo find, ibid. 11^ 2, Temair, gen. Temro, and 
perhaps the Ogmic Apilogdo} So in the dat. pL caera (sheep) 
makes cdirib. Arm. 17^ 2. 

The dat. dual is not exemplified in the 6r. Celtica : con dib 
failgib dir (with two rings of gold), Chron. Scot. p. 290, is an 
instance. 

^ The name represents the gen.B^.of anlrish^yMf-Zt/yu/,^/?* standing ioiAlbi, 
Bishop Graves, indeed {Tratia. R.I.A. xxvii. p. 33), says that the name is *' the 
Ogham eqaiyalent of Aedhlogodh^** and grounds this assertion on two propositions, 
that ** Irish scribes frequently made p to stand for bh^'* and that ** the English v 
mnetimea took the place of the Irish dh in proper names." The second pro- 
position is irrelcTant, the first is erroneous. P is sometimes written for bb and 
nr noafpirated b, but nerer for bh. 



116 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 

(b) stems in G. 
Example : rl ' king/ W. rhi, protoceltic fix. 

Sing, Dual Plur. 

Norn, tI dS rig rig 

Oen, ifg dang ng-n 

Dat, r!g dib rigaib xigaib 

Aee. rig-n da rig rfga 

Voe, a li a nga 

So seems declined bri (hill), gen. hreg, dat. brig (leg. brig?), 
Brocc. h. 61, LH. (Franciscan copy)=6ri, LH. (T.C.D.), ace. 
brig-n {cingit go brigh, O'Dav.), aco. pi. JBrega, Arm. 2**. 1. 
These stems correspond with Latin, like rig in rfti;,=Skr. 
rdj in Dharma-rq;, and Gr. like (fyXoy in ^\6^. 

The dat. dual is not exemplified in the Gr. Geltica : ar dib 
rigaibh, Corm. B. s.v. lotar, is an instance. 

{c) stems in NC. 
Example : fia m. ' stone,' protoceltic livanx. 

Sing. Dual Plur, 

Norn, lia da liic liic 

Om, liao da liac liac-n 

Dat. liic dib liacaib liacaib 

Aee, liic-n da liic liaca 

This is a dissyllable, as appears from the line bhg don liic 
logmair (a fragment of the precious stone), F^lire, Oct. 5. 
It is, perhaps, cognate with Gr. Xai^yf . 

Dual nom. : eommemdatar in dn liic (so that the two stones 
broke) LU. 69**. An abl. sg. occurs in Sg. 65* 1 : dordnta 
dia dind liac (a god was made of the stone). 

The so-called absolute form of the cardinal 10, the dissyllable 
deac, is a gen. sg. belonging to this declension, and seems to 
stand for a protoceltic digancos, cognate with Goth, tigu and 
(if this mean ' sum of the fingers ') Lat. digitus. 

2. Lingual Stems. 
Example : athir ' father ' =Lat. pater. 





Sing. 


Dual 


Flur. 


Nom. 


int- athir 


in da athir 


ind athir 


Om. 


ind-athar 


in da athar 


inna n-athre-n 


Dat. 


dond athir 


dondib n-athrib P 


donaib athrib 


Aee. 


inn-athir-n 


in da athir 


inna athrea 


Voe. 


a athir 




a athrea 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — ^DR. WHITLET STOKES. 117 

So are declioed the er-stems hrdthir (brother), mdthir 
(mother), perhaps amnair (maternal uncle), and the or stem 
mr^ stuur, fiur (sister), gen. sethar, fethar. The Highland 
pkithair (sister) comes {romjiuur, as pill from fill. 

Teoir^ the fern, form of the numeral 3, gen. teora^n, dat. 
ieoraiby ace. teora, belongs to this declension. The corre- 
sponding Skr. forms are tisras, tisrndm, iisrbhis, tiaras. We 
have also the fem. cethir ' four '= Dor. rerope; and cetheoroz^ 
Skr. ace. catasras. 

The nom. sg. of the er-stems points to a protoceltic 'ir=zgr: 
that of the ar-stem to a protoceltic -dr : cf. <f)pdTap : the 
nom. dual, to a protoceltic ending in -^=Gr. -6, Skr. -a, in 
the dual compound rndtara-pitarau (Mahlow, 89). 

In Middle-Irish these stems pass over to the (2-declension 
(ar ecnairc do mdithre, Fel. Ep. 526), and the c-declension 
(iLpl. sethracha, LU. 2*). Even in Old-Irish uasalathair 
(patriarch), influenced, perhaps, by the desinence of Lat. 
patriarcha^ passes in the pi. to the (^-declension. 

3. Dental Stems. 

(a) Stems in T. 
Example : eing (warrior), Gaul, stem cinget. 

Sing, Dual Flur. 

Nom, ciog da cMngid cmgid 

Gtm, cinged da chinged cinged-n 

Bat, cingid dib cin^E|daib cingedaib 

Aee, dneid-n da chingid cingeda 

Voe, a <£iiig a chingeda 

Locative, probably, cingid \ cf. in-huraid (last year), where 
huraid iB^='7ripvTt, (p)arava(i. So are declined cin (crime), 
eirr (the fighter in a war-chariot), Doath, gen. sg. Arm. 17*. 
1, luch (mouse) ace. pi. lochtha, LL. 207\ 2, nia (nephew) = 
Lat. neposy seir (heel), n. dual dd aeirithy Corm. s.v. pruU; 
traig (foot), W. troedy and the loan-words abb (abbas) and 
mil (miles). 

These stems are the weak forms of n^-stems. 

To this declension also belong stems in -aia^, like ara 
(charioteer), asca (rival) ; stems in 'iat, like fili (poet,=W. 



118 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 

gwyliat seer), l^ne (shirt), digi (guest), %l%ge (road), tefie (fire), 
tenge (tongue), dat. pi. tengthaib, LU. 30 : steins in •td^, like 
coimdiu (lord); stems in 't6t (from -<a^), like hethu (life) = 
fitoTTfi;, dentu (unitas), Uu (thirst) ; and stems in -ntot (from 
^ntdt)y like ddnatu (audacia), foirbthetu (perfectio). 

Locatives sg. of u7^-stems are : tdided remuinn sligid aaethraig 
(let him go before us on a toilsome way), Pref. to F^lire, 
amal doratad Recht tall artkus tenid (as the Law was there 
given at first in fire), LB. 62*. Compare Skr. forms like 
iuhvati. 

The aspiration after abb in abb Thlre dd glaa, note to Fel. 
May 1, tends to show that in protoceltio these stems had not 
the case-sign s in the nom. sg. 

(5) Stems in D. 
Example : drui * wizard,* W. drgw, protoceltic druis. 

Sing, Dual Flur, 

Nom, drui da druid druid 

Oen, dniad da druad druad-n 

Dat. druid dib ndruidib druidib 

^ee, druid-n da druid druide 

Toe, drui a druide 

Ablative, probably drued. So is declined ere (clay)=:W. 
pridd. 

As intervocalic t often becomes d, and as th is sometimes 
miswritten for d, it is impossible to say of several nouns 
whether they are stems in t or stems in d. Thus briuga 
(hospitaler), caur (champion), dui (fool), mi ^sage), sab (chief). 
And as Indo-Eur. dh becomes d in Celtic, some Irish stems 
in d may correspond with Greek stems in 6^ like 6pvi,<i. 

{c) Stems in NT. 
Example cava * friend,' W. car, protoceltic carims. 

Sing, Dual Plur, 



Nom. cara 


da chant 


carit 


Gen. carat 


da charat 


carat-n 


Dai. carit 


dib cairtib 


cairtib 


Aee, carit-n 


du charit 


cairtea 


Voc. a chara 




a chairtea 



These stems correspond with the Latin and Greek parti- 
ciples in -anty -ent, -oi/r, -tevr (xop/et?) and Gothic nouns like 
^jand'8. The numerals for 20 {fiche), 30 {trw/ia), 40 {cethracha)^ 



CELTIC DECLENSION.— DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 119 

50 (cdica, coDtracted from cotcecha), 60 (sesca), 70 {sechtmoga)^ 
80 {ochtmoga)y 90 {nacha) are declined like cara. So are 
hrdge (neck), loclie (liglitning=Lat. lucens)^ namae (foe), tipra 
(well). 8ul (sun), gen. 9ulut (leg. sulot P), is a stem in -ont. 
The u in dtnu (lamb), fiadu (God), and Nuadu points to proto- 
celtic stems in -ont. Echredd, Arm. 10^ 2, Tolat, 13* 2, may- 
be genitives sg. of names belonging to this declension. 

{d) Stems in ND (NN). 

These correspond with Greek nouns like iKfiiv^, gen. 
ikfuvOo^, ireipiv^, Tipw^, The substantives hru (womb), gen. 
hronn : heirp (deer), n. pi. herbind ; oub, ob (river), gen. obann, 
and perhaps ritglu (star) belong to this declension. 

In composition, when the first element is a dental stem, we 
sometimes find it in the nominative sg. Thus : sui-epscop, 
tene-foU (gl. rufus). 

Nasal Stems. 

Of these there are six kinds : stems in on, stems in On^ 
stems in tan, stems in tion, stems in idn, and neut. stems in ^n. 

(a) Stems in -on. 
Example: brithem 'judge/ protoceltic briiemo. 





Smg. 


Dual 


Flur. 


Nom. 


, brithem 


da brithemain 


brithemain 


Om. 


brithemon 


da britheman 


britheman-n 


Lot. 


brithemain 


d!b mbrithemnaib 


brithemnaib 


Ace. 


brithemam 




brithemna 


Vpc 


a* brithem 




a brithemna 



Sg. gen. auide bri(th)emon (gl. tribunal) Arm. IS?** 1. 
Ebel compares such stems with Greek in -fiov^ e.g. rty€fui>v. 

So are declined the masc. ^tre//i=Skr. Aryamt, iro (quern) 
=Skr. grdvan, dulem {cTe9Xov),fechem (debtor), flaitftem (lord), 
oUam (chief poet), and the fern, anim (soul), escung (eel), 
suainefn (rope), talam (earth), and the loan-words bendacht 
(benedictio), mallacht (maledictio). Ctminniuc, gen. Cruincon, 
derucc (acorn), gen. dercon, and Miliuc, gen. Milcon, ace. 
MUcoin, belong to .this declension. Cu (hound, "W. ci), gen. 



120 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 

can, i8=Skr. fvd, gen. ^unaa. The name Dichu and Muirehu 
in the Book of Armagh is declined likewise. 

A case which Ebel doubtfully calls the ablative is ex- 
emplified by ben bis oc bkth brbn (a woman who is grinding 
at the quern), Gorm. 8.y. Cumal, and by dobur di threthan 
(water from sea, nom. triaih), ibid. s.y. Coire Brecain. 

(5) Stems in On, 
Example : dru ' kidney/ W. aren f. 



Sing, 


Dual 


riur. 


Nom, aru 


da firain 


araiii 


Gen, aran 


da Sran 


aran-n 


Dat, Srain 


dib n-amib 


airnib 


Aee, firain-n 


da arain 


firna 


Voc. dru 




a arua 



So are declined Altni^ (a woman's name), Ann ('mater 
deorum hibemensium '), aursu, irsu (door-post), cethramthu 
(quarter), Cruachu (gen. Crochan), Jiadu (witness),* idu 
(birth-pang), lachu (duck), kcco (cheek, Pruss. laygnan for 
laycnan^ Windisch), lutu (little-finger), orrfw, f. (thumb), 
patu (hare), Mumu (Munster), perhaps Lathru de genere 
Lathroriy Arm. 15^ 2. Also, in Mid. and Mod. Irish, the 
loan-word peraa (persona). The Gaulish Kovpuove;, Ptol., 
belongs to this declension. 

Compare Latin nouns like homo, Naso, Gr. like Sal/juop, 
Lith. like akmJ (G. Meyer, p. 268). 

{c) Stems in -ion. 
Example : inge ' nail,* W. emn, protoceltic ingio. 

Sing. l)unl Flur, 

Norn, inge da ingain P ingain 

Oen. ingan da ingan ? ingan-n 

Dot, ingain dlb n-ingnaib ingnaib 

Aee, ingain-n da ingain ingna 

Voe, a inge a ingna 

Compare for the stem-ending N.H.G. hase ex ha^'an. 
Like inge are declined Alba (Scotland, urkelt. Albion'')^ 
lurga (crus), menme (mens), ulcha (beard). 

1 Aco. Bux^, Jiadain, Ml. 48^ 11. 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 121 

(d) Stems in -Wdn, weak 'tin. 
Example : ioimtiu f. ' meaning/ protoceltio tumentid. 





Sinff. . 


Dual 


Plur. 


Nom. 


toimtiii 


dS tboimtin 


toimtin 


%X€ft» 


toimten 


da thoimten 


toimten-n 


Dai. 


toimtin 


dib toimtenaib 


toimtenaib 


Aec, 


toiratin 


da thoimtin 


toimtena 


Foe. 


a thoimtia 







So are declined digthiu (fearing), air-mitiu (honos, cf. Lat. 
mentio), apthu (ejdiium), Maiatiu (Mallaghmast), d&t, Maiatin, 
Arm. 1 0* 2, Foimsiu, gen. Foimseriy Arm. 1 3* 2, Tailtiu (Teltown), 
epeltu (perishing), foditu (endurance), tuiatiu (generation, 
child), and the loan-words coibae (confessio), genitiu (geneti- 
Tus), liachtu (lectio). 

The aspiration of c m foditu chruche (toleratio crucis), Cam.^ 
shows that in protoceltic the nom. sg. had no case-sign -s. 

In the oblique cases the weak form of the suffix prevails. 

Caisiu (sight), protoceltic castid, and the compounds aicaiu^ 
deiesiUy /rescsiu (expectation), imfncaisiu (consideration), 
remdeicsiu (providence), belong to this declension. Its 
instrumental (?) sg. occurs in the gloss caiain aochmacht (well 
able to see), Aug. Sol. 98. 

(0) Masc. and fern, stems in -tan, weak -(fn. 
Example : goba m. * smith,' W. gof, protoceltic gobid.^ 

Sing, 

Nom. goba 
6«n. gobann 
Dat. gobainn 
Aee. gobain-n 
Voe. a goba 

So are declined bara (anger), dema (palm), and the loan- 
word obla (oblatio), gen. sg. oblann. Arm. 77* 1. So Cuala 
mac Breogain diata Sliab Cualann, Rawl. B. 612, fo. 81^ 2, and 
dile (diluvium), gen. sg. dllenn. A group of nouns with -tei in 
the nom. sg. and -enn in the gen., seems to be stems in ion. 
Thus adircliu (comix), iriu (land), and the proper names 

' Cf. the Ganlish names Gohannitio ^Fabricius), Oobannicno, and the British 
' place-name Oobannium. With the^ Wmdisch connects Gr. yo-fi'^6» (I fasten 
' with bolts or nails). 



Dual 


Plur. 


da gobainn 
da gobann 
dib neobannaib 
da gobainn 


gobann 
gobann -n 
gobannaib 
gobanna 



122 CELTIC DECLENSION. — ^DR. WHITLEY STOKBS. 

Airiu, BricriUi JSbliu, Eriu(=W, Iwerddon)^ DerdriUy Ethne 
{Ethniu P), gen. Eifhnend, Goibniu, Ualu. The gen. Huimnonn 
in 'episcopus et antestes Arddae Huimnonn^* Arm. 6^ 1, 
belongs to this declension, but I know not the nom. sg. 

(/) Neuter stems in en, Sn, and m4n. 

Example : ainm * name/ W. enw, protoceltio anmin = Lat. 

nonienf Ghurch-Sl. tm^. 





Sing, 


Dual 


Plur. 


Kom, aee, vce. 
Gen. 

Dat. 


ainm 
anme 
anmaimm 


da ainm 

da anmann 

dib n-anmannaib 


anmann 

anmann-n 

anmannaib 



So are declined dmm =Lat. agmen^ ex-dmen; beim (blow), 
protocelt. benmSn; boim (bit), ceim (step), cindruimm (alveus), 
cuirm (ale, Kovp/iit W, cmrw), deilm (noise), feidm (effort, ser- 
vice), dirim (multitude), dithini (delay), druim (ridge, proto- 
celt. drosmSn, Lat. dorsum), fordiuclaim (swallowing \ip),/uaim 
(noise), ingreim (persecution), gairm (cry), and its compounds 
togairm, etc., leim (leap), loim (sip), naidm and its 
compounds fornaidm (nexus), etc., reimm (course), seinm 
(sounding), sesbeim, sleidm (sanies), sruaim (stream), teidm 
(disease), tomaidm (outbreak), totaim (a falling), iAaim (cave). 
The gen. dual is not exemplified in the Grammatica Cel- 
tica : Inis da drumand (isle of two ridges), Gogad Goedel, 
etc., is an example. 

Imb (butter) =Lat. unguen, sg. gen. wibe, dat. im[m]fw, 
Laws ii. 254, and mtr (bit, protoceltio micri{n)y cogn. with 
afiiKp6<;)f ace. pi. mirenUy LU. IIP, seem neuter ^-stems. 
Arbe (corn), gen. sg. ind arbe, Wh, 10*, pi. ace. na harbhanna^ 
Bk. of Fermoy cited by O'Reilly s.v. Arbha, is a neut. stem 
in en, like Slav, imf, seme, which Leskien refers to enmen and 
simen, and compares (for the ending) with Skr. ndmd. 

Here (as Siegfried showed) the dat. sg. is really an old 
instrumental. As it aspirates {isind anmmaimm chitnidiu : 
hi togarmim frechdairc), it ended in a vowel, and represents 
a protoceltio anmenbi. The double nn in the plural seems 
due to the accent. 



Sitifi. 


Dual 


Gen, tige 
Dot. tig 


da tbecb 

da tbige 
dib tigib 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 123 

In the gen. sg. the -e is from the old ending -ens which 
Mahlow compares with Skr. pUur from *pitar8. In the Book 
of Armagh druim makes its gen. sg. drommo, and the dat. 
is sometimes like the nom. Thus : in Druim moccU'Echach^ 
5^ 2, in Druim lindich, 18^ 2, i Fordruim, ib. 

Neuteb Stems in S. 
Example: teg^ tech 'house,' W. ^y,=T€709. 

P/wr. 

tige 

tige-n 
tigib 

So are declined au, 6 (ear), gen. au^=Slav. ucho^ gen. 
ueHe : dUn (fortress), glenn (valley), glun (knee), gne (form), 
kth (side)=Lat. latus, Idg (reward), mag (plain) = Skr. mahas ; 
onn (stone), gen. uinde = Lat. pondua ; nem^ better neb^ 
(heaven) = Skr. nabhas, Gr. 1/6^09, Slav, nebo ; sal (sea), 
Gr. adko^ ; sliab (mountain) =W. llwtjf? and the compounds 
of teg, such as daltech^ sotech, etc. So, perhaps, baa (good) 
=^6c09> favor, clU (fame)= Skr. ^atas, Gr. /cAiov, cru 
(blood) = Lat. cruar, Gr. Kp€a<: (flesh), and It (colour^ = Lat. 
Ucor, 

In Middle-Irish the fem. <2-stem run (secret) — ^from 
analogy to dun and glun? — passes in the plural over to 
this declension. 

In the nom. and ace. sg. these steins sometimes, by false 
analogy to the neut. o-stems, take a transported n. 

Examples of the dual are: nom. a da glun, LU. 89\ 
a da gUin inadiaid, Talland Etair, LL. gen. cechtar a da glune 
(each of his two knees), LM. 85^ ace. con-demai da kth LXJ. 
63^ : talam isil itir da sliab (low ground between two moun- 
tains), H. 2, 16, col. 107, etir da tech (between two houses), 
Laws ii. 234, 238. 

The isolated gen. sg. Menueh in the Inchaguile inscription 
{Lie Luguaedon macci Menueh) perhaps belongs to a stem in 
fM, and i8=:Skr. manmhaa. 



124 CELTIC DECLENSION. — ^DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 

SXEH8 IN NS. 

Example : mi * month/ W. mis, Gr. fii]p, Ion. fiek. 

Sififf, Dual Flwr. 

Nam, mi (dia mis) mis 

Om, mis (da mis) mls-n 

Dat, mis (dib misaib) misaib 

Aee, mis-n dla mis misa 
Voe. a ml ? 

Dual ace. dla mis ondiu doberthar duit anistn, LU. 131, 1. 25. 

The comparatives in -m (protoceltic -fd«, = Lat. -tor, -ius) 
and -a (protoceltic -ds) were doubtless originally so declined. 
But of these stems no declensional ending appears in the 
oldest MSS. 

There are no stems in neo-oeltic corresponding with Greek 
and Latin labial stems, such as yin^, %aXt;^, KarijXiylr, coekbs, 
forceps. 

Irregular Nouns. 

These in Irish, as in other languages, are mostly noons of 
which two stems exist, or which are declined as if such 
stems existed. The most numerous are neuter nouns ending 
in 'Ch. 

Example: ^tach ^garment.' 

Sififf. Dual Flur. 

A*^' \ 5toch-n da n-Ctacb Staige 

Oen, Staie da Stach (etai^), Stach 

Dat. etacn dib n-Staigib etaigib 

Here the singular conforms to the o-declension ; but the 
plural (perhaps, as Windisch suggests, from false analogy 
to tech) conforms to the d-declension. So in German, nouns 
like grab (ex graba-m) make their plural grabir (ex grabisa, 
grabasa)^ now graher. A somewhat similar case of hetero- 
clisia is Gr. <r/e6ro9> sg. gen. a/eoTov (o-declension) and atcirov^ 
(^-declension). 

According to this paradigm are declined ainech (face, 
honour),^ airenach (forefront), apach (entrails), aslach (temp- 

^ Skr. anika n., 6r. %¥wito (fcor* iwwra iSe^y, IL XY. 320, wbere fiekker has 
fcorci^a}, Mahlow 79. 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — ^DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 125 

tation), aurddraeh (phantom), cohlach (a fleet), ertach (refec- 
tion), ^^^rcA (wilderness), g^thlach (marsh), denach (a fair), 
ordlach (inch), sonnach (palisade), timthach (array), and the 
loan-word domnach (church). And in modern Irish many 
noons in ^ach and -focA, which can hardly have been neuters, 
are declined like itach. Thus bromach (colt), coikach (cock), 
cuUneh (boar), searrach (foal), aionnach (fox). 
I Ard (a height) makes its gen. airdd in Arm., but also arddae. 

Be (woman), sg. voc. be, seems=Skr. jdyd^ Lat. Oqja. 
But it is preceded by the neut. article (atn-be, Saltair 6974), 
and is sometimes followed by the transported n {be n-Anann, 
Corm. ST. Buanann, be n-imroma .i. merdrech, L. Lecain Yoc. 
108). 

Ben (woman) is in the nom. sg. from a stem gSndznQoth. 
qino, O.Bulg. iena: in the gen. dual and pi. from a stem 
gdnd (which we also find in compounds) ; and in the other 
cases from a stem gnd {bnd, mnd)=iSkT. gnd (gen. gnda in 
gndS'pati)^ 0. Bact. ghena, Gr. yvpi], ^avd} It was thus 
declined: 



\ 



Sing. 


Dual 


Plur. 


Nom. b^n 


mnfiiP 


mna 


Oen. mna 


ban 


ban-n 


Dat. mn^i 


mniib ? 


mndib 


Ace. mnfii-n 


mnii 


mnd 


Vac. a' Wn 




a' mni 



The loan-word c<mc (pascha) and its compounds mvichaae, 
mnehasc, make the gen. case, dat. caisc, ace. cai8c{n). 

Duine (homo) forms its singular and dual from a stem 
donio (cf. Ov'tfTo^ P), its plural perhaps from a stem doinio, 
root (fyat =Skr. dhi/ai 'to contemplate'; whence also the 
name Boinus, Euhn's Beitr. iii. 197. 

BS (space) f. makes its gen. ree, ace. re-n ; pi. nom. ret, dat. 
reib. The ace. sg. seems to belong to a masc. or neut. stem. 
Thus : boe Bauid ri mbr foleith (David was for a great space 
<^ time apart), Saltair, 6265. 

^ See Mahlow and Schmidt in Kolin's Zeitschrift, xxy. 129. 



126 CELTIC DECLENSION. — ^DR. WHITLEY STOKES* 

Set (a way, W. hynt, Goth, sinths)^ gen. eg. «e/a, dat. Bit 
and aeit^ pi. nom. Beit and Bitty ace. «^o^t/. 

/Se^ (a treasure) pi. nom. seuity aeoit, and seuti. 

Triath (sea), stem treiton^ makes its gen. trethan from a 
stem iriton. 

Adjectival Stems. 

These all differ in declension from substantive stems in 
having no dual, dual nouns taking plural adjectives (so 
in Welsh — deu was ieueinc — and in Hebrew, Gesenius Gr. 
188). Stems in o make the ace. pi., for all genders, in -a 
(e.g. retu noiba * res sanctas,' Sg. 33*^). And the stems in i 
and u, in certain cases, pass over to other declensions. 

10. AOJECTITAL STEMS IK 0, FEM. IK A. 

Example : marb * dead,' = W. marw, protoceltio marvas, 
marva, fnarvon, Gr. fiavpo<:. 





Mase. 


Fern. 


Neuter, 


Sing. 


nom, marb 


marb 


marb-n 




ffen, mairb 


mairbe 


mairb 




dat, maurb 


mairb 


maurb 




ace, marb-n 


mairb-n 


marb-n 




voe. mairb 


marb 


marb-n 


Piur, 


nom, mairb 


marba 


marba 




ffen. marb-n 


marb-n 


marb-n 




dat, marbaib 


marbaib 


marbaib 




aec, marba 


marba 


marba 




voe. marba 


marba 


marba 



So are declined ard (high)=Lat. arduus ; becc (little) ='W. 
bach; ftofl^flr (deaf)=Skr. badhira; caecA =Lat. caecus; camm 
=Gr. <rKa/il36<:; ciden=Gtoth. hlains; cloth-^Qv. kKvto^\ coel 
(narrow) ; cnn (withered) ; dall (blind) = Goth, dvak ; deed 
(deses) ; deas (right, W. deheu) = Goth, taihsvs ; ere (speckled) 
^^iripKo^; /d8 (waste; =Lat. f?a«/w«; /ir =Lat. vems; garg 
(fierce) =70/yyrf9 ; ger (sharp); gndth:=yv(OT6<; ; /dn =Lat. 
plinus; mael (bald); meldz=iQ[o\ii. milds \ nocht (naked) = 
Goth, naqaths; n6eb=z O.Fers. naiba; dac, 6c (young, W. iouene) 
ziiQoth. juggs ; olc (bad) =0X1709 from 0X709; ruad (red)=: 
Goth, rauds, Lat. rdbtM^ rufuSf «esc=Lat. siccus (from siscus) ; 
sder (noble) = Skr. sutira ; iren (strong) ; tiar (cold)z=W. oer, 
protoceltio ogro-s, and the loan-word amprom = Lat. impi'obus. 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — ^DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 127 

Tana (thin, W. (eneu, protocelt. tenevds) belongs to this declen- 
sion, and i8=Gr. Tava{F)6f;, Like 6/d=Lat. fldvus, and blu 
(alive) =Lat. tlvus, and the future participles pass, in -i, -t= 
Lat. 'ims, it has no case-endings. Adjectives in -ech make the 
dat. sg. masc. and n. in -euch {aittoitech gl. fulgido, Ml. 40^, 4, 
is a scribal error) : adjectives in -ach (from dco) have no 
change in the dat. sg. masc. and n. In the nom. pi. neut., 
uel (low, from ^imlos^ ^indtlos)^ has isle. This, no doubt, is 
due to progressive assimilation. 

Superlatives in -am^^ -ein^ -imem, belong to this declension: 
Thus sg. dat. hin uachtarchoni (in supremo), Saltair, 669, 
pi. n. nessaim, ibid. 534, dat. or comnesstnaib (a proximis 
nostris) LB. 67*, ace. carait immurro a canimamu mar 
noa-earaU fin (gl. proximos hautem ut se ipsos diligunt), 
LB. 67^ 40. 

It is only when used as substantives that masc. adjectives 
have M in the ace. and voc. pi. Correct, accordingly, Gr. 
Celt. 227. 

In the adverb in-biucc (gl. paulatim) we have, according 
to Windisch, the instrumental singular of an o-stem, to be 
compared with O.H.G. mit muatu. Similar adverbs are tn- 
rmbic^ (gl. paulo ante) Aug. Solil. 28, and tn-nephdiliua (gl. 
improprie). And in the phrases creitmech sin as messa 
ancreitmech (fidelis ilia quae est deterior quam infidelis) 
and ind adaig thussech (in the first night) we have, ac- 
cording to Windisch, instrumentals of fem. a-stems. They 
rather seem ablatives, to be classed with 6 menmain naimtinech 
(obnoxio animo) Ml. 65^ 10,/a;i cheill toissech (in relation to 
the primitive meaning), Sg. 67* 9, . 

11. Adjectival stems in 10. 

Example: niie {nuie, Wb. 4^ 29), * new,' = Welsh neicydd, 
Gaulish novids^ novid, novidn. 

' Cf. Gr. ipxafios' 
' Cf. Lat. minimus, 

' Here iu seems to have become i, just as in pin (mouth) for giun : so final -tti 
his become -t in the ^tiyes sg. duini, iigemi^ Wb. 4b 8d. 



128 CELTIC DECI.BNSION. — ^DR. WHITLET STTOKES. 



Mate, 


JVm. 


NeuUr, 


Sing, nom, nue 


nQe 


nGe-n 


gen, nOi 


nQe 


nQi 


dat, naa 


nOi 


nQa 


ace. nue-n 


nQi-n 


nQe-n 


voc. nOi 


nQe 


nQe-n 


Plur, nom. nM 


nM 


*nQe, nQi 


gen. nfle-n 


nOe-n 


nQe-n 


dat. nOib 


nUib 


nQib 


aee, nOi 


nQi 


*nue, nQi 



Adjectives of this declension seem to have an ablative i 
in 'id used adverbially, which Ebel compares with the Gauli 
brdtU'de (ex decreto). Examples are in^bastaid (gl. letalite 
in-doractid (gl. dorice). A fern. abl. sg. is cetne, in tain chii 
tuiste (in the first creation). In the ace. pi. masc. -tu 1: 
been shortened to -t. 

Like nue are declined anme (difficult) =W. anhawdd\ bu 
(yellow) = Lat. badim; doe (slow), protocelt. dausiO'S, ooj 
with O.H.G. tuslc (stultus) : ^ the ordinals cetne (first), tan 
(second) : also the participles pret. passive. Stems in ato, li 
madaezufbdrcuo^, have, in the singular, no change in t 
case-endings. 

12. Adjecttval stems m I. 

Example: maith *good,' W. mad, protoceltic mati-a, ne 
mati. 

Mate. Fern, Neuter, 

Sing. nom. and ) ^^^ ^t^ ^t^ 

VOC. ) 

gen. maith maitbe maith 

dat. maith maith maith 

ace. maith-n maith-n maith-n 

Plur. nom. aee. \ ^^^^ ^^j^^^. ^^^^j^. 
and VOC. ) 

gen. maithe-n roaithe-n maithe-n 

dat, maithib maithib maithib 

So are declined airdirc, erdirc, urdairc (conspicuous), dlax 
(lovely), allaid (wild), angid (wicked), armid (old), bind (me 
dious, from bandi, cf. Skr. bhandishtha), blaith (gentle), br 
(fragile), cennais (gentle), coairy cdir (meet), cruaid (har 
dereoil (trifling), deeming (difficult), demin (safe), dilfm 
(free), diuit (simple), ecmailt (unusual), ecndirc (absent), ic* 
(incongruous), emilt (troublesome), J^nirt (infirm), eanan 

1 Windisch, Kuhn's Beitr. viii. 428. 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DB. WHITLEY STOKES. 129 

(fearless), failid (blithe) fairsing (ample), feuchuir (severe), 
frecndire (present), /M(fomain (deep), /u/e^/»am (volubilis), gair 
(short), garait (short), glicc (cunning), goirt (bitter), indemtn 
(imbecillus), xnmain (dear), inricc (worthy), leir (industrious), 
meduir (jocund), nun (smooth), mithig (meet), dibinn (delight- 
ful), saim (pleasant), sain (different), seim (slender), aochoisc 
(teachable), sonairt (firm), sulbair (eloquent), suthain (peren- 
nis), tais^ (soft), tin^ (tender). Of many of these adjectives 
the corresponding substantives are o- or d-stems, just as in 
the case of Lat. inermis, in/amis, etc. 

Except in the case of compounds of («)amezt7=Lat. similts^ 

adjectival »-stems in the masc. and neut. gen. sg. pass over to the 

o-declension. So sometimes in the gen. dual : fiil dd Sinchell 

futhain (the feast of two perennial Sinchells), Fel. March 26. 

In the gen. pi. of all genders they still keep to the t-de- 

clension : secht cit miled mblaithe (seven hundreds of gentle 

soldiers), Fel. Sep. 18; dd noi miled tnaithe (two nines of 

goodly soldiers), ibid. July 23 ; fil and mor n-ard n-aille (there 

is therein much of delightful assonances, ard fern.), ibid. 

Ep. 83. But in Early Middle Irish we find bind-n as the 

gen. pi. fem. : coinnmed teora rhbliadan mbind (a feast of three 

melodious years), LH. 34^ 2 ; oc cantain saim mbuan mbind 

(a-chanting lasting, melodious psalms), Fel. Feb. 17, note; 

crocni loeg n-allaid (skins of fawns, lit. wild calves), ibid. 

Harch 5, note. In the fem. gen. sg. they pass over to the 

fem. d-declension. 

Bat compounds of (s)amail, such as banamail (womanly), 
barramail (stately), casmil (like), dathamail (comely), ecsamail 
(unlike), feramail (manly) genatnail (lovely), glasamail 
(greenish), sainemail (excellent), in Modem Irish, and there- 
fere presumably in Old-Irish, make the gen. sg. for all 
genders in -amhla. 

By analogy to the neut. o-adjectlves, neut. t-adjectives 
have a transported n in the nom. and ace. sg. Thus is 
dilmain ndo chechtar (it is free to each of the two), inmain 
n-mnm (a dear name). ■ 

^ Cf. the Gftulish name Taxt'tnagulua. 

' Cf. the Oaolish name Tmi-ftnoniaf and perhaps the Old Britiflh IXn-eommiot 

IML Tnuif . ISSM. 9 



130 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY ST0KE8. 

13. Adjectiyal stems m TJ. 

Example : tiug * thick/ W. tew, protoceltio tigu-s, neni 
tigu, Lith. ttngii'8, O.N. thi/kki. 

Jfasc. Fem, Neut$r, 

Sing, fiom, ting ting ting 

gen. tig tige tig 

dat. tiug tig ting 

ace, tiug-n tig-n ting 

voe, tig tin^ tin^ 

P/wr. nom, tigi tigi tigi 

gen. tige-n tige-n tige>n 

dat. tigib tigib tigib 

aee. tigi tigi tigi 

voe. tigi tigi tigi 

So are declined anbsud (unstable), cobsud (stable), diriug^ 
dlriuch (direct), dub (black), fiu (worthy, Skr. tasu), flinch 
{mo\9i) ^follus (clear), il (many=Goth. filu),^ /{iu=^-Xaxu9 • 
hbur (infirm), ocua (near), teo (hot=Vedic tapu), comparative 
teouy Ir. Texte, 190, 1. 30. The forms in the oblique cases 
are mostly hjrpothetical. Mally from maldm-=.ppaZv^ from 
fipaZv^, probably belonged to this declension. With the 
fem. gen. sg. cf. rfieia^ from 17SU9. In cetu (prim6) we seem 
to have the abl. sg. of c^^=:Gaul. cintu. 

Adjectival stems belonging to the consonantal declension 
are rare. I know only tee (hot), an n^-stem,^ and the stems 
in d, bidbu (guilty), indba (rich), and dindba (poor). 

British Declension. 

Before proceeding to the next portion of this paper, 
namely, the oldest monuments of Celtic speech, let us take 
a glance at the British languages. 

Most of the relics of the declensional system to be found 
in these time* worn tongues have been collected by Rh^s, in 
the Revue Celtique, ii. 115, and in his Lectures on Wehh 
Philology^ 2nd ed. pp. 143-153. Siegfried had previously 

^ Tres sonvent t7 est plac6 apr^s le snbstantif : in tomait il (gl. mnlti 
ponderis) Ml. 20*, eotin taidbu il (gl. cnm multa ostensione) Ml. 30^. (Nigra). 

3 Sg.nom. tie, Ld. 62ft te (leg. te?), LH. Goid.^ p. 141, pi. n. 1. teit Wb. 
29« 1 (=tepentes) : dat. -tetib (leg. -telib), Fel. prol. 40. A similar t-stem thth 
{^tepeti-s) also oecnrs: laeht teith, Corm. s.v. lemnacht, and in composition 
trotha Uith'tnilUi, LU. 131, L 32. 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 131 

explained the plurals in -ou, -au, as belonging to t^-stems: 
Ebel had discovered traces in Welsh of stems in o, t, t, w, 
and r; and both Siegfried and Norris had observed the 
dat. sg. in er-bi/n. 

O-stems : sing. gen. duiu^^-dem, Lat. diviy nom. diu, now 
duw=^deit08, nom. pen {=zpenno8, cvennos, 'head'), dat. pt/n (= 
*pennu in the nominal prep., er-byn (against) = Ir. ar-chiunn. 
Ace. peunt/d {qnotidie) ^zpeupn-dyd, Br. bem-dez. Dual nom. 
deu Wydel uonlwm (two bare-soled Irishmen, Choydel bonlwm), 
deu teas penngrych (two curly-headed youths, givas),^ deu uab 
(two sons), and the loan-word deu vul gadarn (two strong 
mules, mul). Plur. nom. guyr (men, =tnVl, sg. gur=ivir)^ 
beird (bards, =6flr(/l, sg. bard), geifr {goatSy= gahri, sg. gafr 
=Ir. gabor,Qavl. gabro-s), meirch (horses, =»wr(?i, sg. march), 
vyn (Iambs, sg.o^i>=Ir. uan, protocelt. ognos), and hundreds of 
other peritonic plural nouns. So in loan-words: sant (sanctus), 
pi. seint (sancti). The Ir. ace. pi. in -t/, protoceltic -ds, Lat. -as, 
Or. 'ov^, is, I think, represented by Welsh plurals in -I, e.g. 
««ri=Ir. saeru (fabros) and the loan-word menechi^lr, manchu 
(monachos). For Welsh 1=6 of. ci, cit, din, giin, rm =Ir. c&, 
cu/, dun, glun, run, Ebel (G. 0. 1087*) approved of this con- 
jecture. Rhys (Lectures 28-30) identifies the plural -» with 
the affix in masc. abstract noims like caledi, trueni, and explains 
this affix as = isya, asya : cpg. aXtjO^ui from aKrjde^rui. But this 
is not convincing. In the British languages, when the tonic 
accent preceded the ^a-suffix, either the suffix became % or 
thtf semivowel was assimilated; but when this accent was 
on the suffix, the semivowel developed a d and then dropt. 
Thus Tofito^ becomes W. Tyud, and diioa (Ir. dile, Gr. oXAo^), 
becomes W. all. But the oxyton Skr. sasyd (seed), andpriyd 
appear in Welsh as haidd (barley), and rhydd (free) ; the oxyton 
6r. y€i09 (new land, ex veFio^) appears in Welsh as neicydd 
(new) ; and the old collectives in yd, represented in Greek by 
the oxyton avOpoKid, Scoped (S<opid Hesych.), fivpfirjKid, veomd, 

^ The instance deu deirw hurrwynnion (two pure white hnllB, tarw, pi. taina), 
cited hy BhH, Zecturet^ p. 151, is an instance of the plural wrongly used for the 
dmU. Tr iijn (the Foru^, which he quotes in the same page as a dual, is also 
a plmil, the y of Oeifi being infected. 



132 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 

{nro8id, ffToLa, and in Skr. by gavyd (a herd of cows), pagtfi 
(a quantity of cords), appear in Welsh as plurals in ^edd 
(Com. -ethf Br. -^3). 

Tlawd (poor, needy) =7X17709, is an adj. belonging to this 
declension. A plural adjective is f/sgeifn, sg. psga/n (light). 

Corresponding nouns in Cornish are margh (horse), pi. 
mergh, and the loan-word sans (sanctus), pi. si/fhs. In 
Breton we have : gaffr (goat), pi. gueffr, and the loan- 
words escop (episcopus), pi. esquep, sant (sanctus), pi. sent. 

FO-stems : ciii/dd (fellow) =Ir. die (protoceltic celid-s);^ 
earennydd (friendship) =Ir. cairde (protoceltic earantid) ; 
defnydd (material) =Ir. damnae^ efydd (bronze) = Ir. umae\ 
haidd (barley) = Skr. sasyd-m, Zend hahya (com);* lleferydd 
(utterance) =Ir. labra\ leguenid, now Unwenydd (joy)=Ir. Idine^ 
Lat. Lavinia : tefcydd (thickness) = Ir. Hge : the adjectiyes 
rhydd=z8kr, priyd, Goth./m-«, rhewydd (lewd)=O.N. Frigg^ 
gen. Fnggjar : hawdd (easy) = Ir. sa (in ansa ' difficult '), neu^dd 
(new)=Ir. nUe, and the ordinals trydydd (third), pedwarydd 
(fourth), protocelt. trityd, qetmryd, cognate with Skr. Miya, 
{ca)turtya. In mynci (hame)=Ir. muineey the -to seems to 
haxe become I, as in the surname Tyfi^zTobyos, gen. Tofilou, 
Ptol. The adjectives oII=:It. uik and arallz=ilT. araik, 
protoceltic dlyo, ardlio, were also originally ^o-stems, the semi- 
vowel here being assimilated to /. 

/-stems. As I does not cause umlaut in Welsh, Cornish, 
or Breton, we cannot expect to find any trace of the t-de- 
clension in the nom. sg. of British stems. Comparison 
with Irish shows that the following probably belonged to 
this declension: bod (being) = Ir. buith, budd (gain)=Ir. 
buaid\ bicyell (axe)=Ir. bmil^ stem Viali\ gaicr (clamour), Ir. 
gdir : gids-g = ves-tis : gwlad (region) = Ir. flmth (realm) ; 
haul (sun)=Ir. fitii/ (eye) ; ^or (sea)=Ir. meifV, Gaul. mor«, 
Lat. nmre\ peth (piece) =Ir. cuit\ prem, now pryf (worm)=Ir. 
cruim, Lat {c)termi8; rhyn (headland) =Ir. rinn\ tir (land) 

1 The pretonio e is weakened in TTelsh to t. Had the e been accented, we should 
have had ewyli or cwyll, 

* The Gaulish aatiay if this be the word underlying Pliny's corrupt " Seeale 
Taurini sub Alpibus atiam vocant.** Here the final « of Alpibut may have caused 
the scribe to drop the initial s of the following sasiam. 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 133 

=Ir. /fr. The ending 'Oedd^ by which all these nouns (with 
the exceptions of budd ^ and pryp) make their plurals,' seems 
to descend from •oyez^ or -oyw^ the proto-Britannic ending of 
the t-stems in the nom. plural.^ Nouns in 'tit (e.g. duiutit) 
correspond with Latin nouns in -tuii, Gothic in ^duthi. The 
noun /»= Ir. luib, which occurs compounded with garth=i 
If. gori in lluarth (garden, Ir. lubgort), pL luird for lu'irth, 
doubtless belonged to this declension. 

Adjectives originally belonging to this declension are ha/al 
=Ir. samail, Lat. similis ; han (gl. alium)=Ir. tain (cognate 
with Lat. Mine, Gh>th. sun^dro) ; hyhfar (eloquent)^ Ir. aulbair ; 
hynerth (firm) = Ir. sonairt ; llwyr (total) = Ir. liir ; Uyfn 
(smooth) =Ir.«/!?»uim; mad (good) =zlr.maith; melya (sweet) 
=Ir. milis, and mynych (frequens) =Ir. menicc. Owyllt (wild), 
perhaps borrowed from A.S. vildy does not change its ^ to « in 
the fern., and therefore, possibly, belongs to this declension. 

Masc CT-stems. A clear instance is Com. maw (servant), 
which K. Williams ^ calls '' another form of mdb^" but which 
is obviously (with the regular loss of intervocalic ^)=Ir. mug, 
Ooth. moguls. The corresponding Welsh word is (as Rh^s 
has seen) in meu'dwy * hermit/ lit. ' servus DeL' Another in- 
itance is briw from bruBU, where intervocalic 9 has disappeared. 
Other British u-stems are braut, brawd (judgment) =Ir. brcLth, 
Gaul, brdtu ; byd (world) = Ir. bith^ GauL bitu ; cat, cad 
(battle) =Ir. cath, GauL catu\ dawn (gift)=:Ir. ddn\ drus, 
now drtps (door), pi. dreasau. Laws L. 8 = Ir. dorua ; gnif 
(toil)=Ir. gnim; gwydd (a wood)=Ir.^, Gtiul. vidu; hencoM 
(old tale), pi. Aencaaaau, Juv. p. 49 = Ir. aenchaa, proto« 
oelL ^etuhcastu ; medd (mead) = Ir. med, Gr. fiiOv ; pryd 
(aspect) = Ir. cruth ; rhaith (rule) = Ir. recht ; tant (string), 
Ir. t^t, Skr. tantu; yd (corn)=Ir. ith^ Skr. pitii; and the 
loan-word Uwch (lacus), 0. Com. pi. lichou, Bodl. 572, fo. 44^. 
Probably also nouns in -awd, e.g. diot (drink), ^dhe, cemaucd, 

' pHmdoeddf kstUoeddf moroedd, rhpno&dd, tirotdd. 
' pi. kitddion, 
' pi. pryfed. 

« The Gaulish and prehiftorie ending of the nom. pi. of the t-stenu was -tf-t>, 
froni -#y-M. Both -c^-«t and -tfy-#f may descend from an Indo-European -ayM. 
* Lui/oom C wrn u krittumieumf p. 248. 



134 CELTIC DECLENSION.— DR, WHITLEY STOKES. 

penatcd, which Rhys connects with Latin nouns like magis- 
trdtus (Rev. Celt. ii. 118). These all make their plurals in 
'Ou (now -au), or, with an intercalated i, i-ou (now i-au). 
This ending may descend from -^v-is or dc-l*, the proto- 
Britannic ending of the ti-stems in the nom. plural.^ The 
proper names OiwrgmtznlT. Fergus^ and Ungust^zlr. Oengus, 
belong to this declension. 

Adjectives belonging to this declension are: agoa (near) 
= Ir. ocus; du (black) =Ir. dub\ giciw (worthy), Skr. vam^ 
Ir. fiu ; and teu, now iew (thick) = Ir. tiug^ where, as in 
Com. maw, intervocalic g has disappeared, and tc represents 
the stem-vowel. 

Cornish w-stems are (besides maw) dagr (tear), pi. dagrou, 
daras (door), pi. darasau. 

Breton tf-stems are dazr (tear), pi. d^zrou^ dazlou, and the 
loan-word speredou (spiritfts). 

Fein. ?7-8tems. A trace in Old-Br. treb, pi. trebou (gl. 
turmae)=Lat. tribus, f. Umbr. tri/us. The corresponding 
W. tref is fem. 

Fem. ^-stems: aicr (hour) ^^Ir. Har; ben=^beima; bydd%n^=. 
Ir. buiden; coes (leg)=Ir. coss, Lat. coxa; delw (image) = 
Ir. delb (protocelt. delva) ; gweddw (widow) =Ir. fedby Lat 
vidva\ gwledd (feast) =Ir. jled\ lldth (rod) = Ir. slatt; Uaw 
(hand)=Ir. lam, heit, palma, Gr. TraXdfjLrj ; mefl (disgrace) = 
Iv.mebul; merch( girl), hith.merga; rhan (part)=Ir.raww; rhin 
(secret) =Ir. run\ rhod (wheel) =Ir. rath, Lat. rota, and the 
loan-words cilcet, cylched (culcita), maneg (manica). To these 
may be added nouns in -ell (ex -ilia) and -es (ex -issa). Other 
nouns (like the loan-word llgthgr m,=^ltttera) seem to have 
gone over to the masc. o-declension ; amser m. (time) = Ir. 
aimser, f, ptcgl I {re&8ori)=lr. ciallt.; serchm. (love)=Ir. «(?rc 
f. ; ton (skin), Ir. tonn f., tud m. (region) =Ir. tuath f. and the 
loan-word gramadeg (grammatica). Nominatives plural of this 
declension are, perhaps, adar (birds), cognate with irrepop 
for Trerepoi/; moch (pigs)=Ir. mucca; plant (children) =Ir. 

^ The prehistoric ending of the nom. pi. of the M-stems seem to have been 
e-is, from ev-i* ; cf. Gr. -tFts (the Epic fipaZttSy titpUs, iifiltrattf, o|^€», iro\cct, 
rax^th otK4ts, K.r.A., Gustay Meyer, GriecA. Oramm, § 353), Skr. Munavtu, 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 135 

elanda\ and the loan-words gem (gem8)=Ir. gemma, llythyr 
(letters) = Ir. litre, and pluf (feathers) =Ir. cluma. 

A trace of masc. d-stems is perhaps to be found in Cymraes 
(Welshwoman) and Cymraeg (the Welsh language). 

Feminine adjectives of this declension are, brech (freckled), 
protocelt. brecca\ gtcen (white), protocelt. vinda (root vid, cf. 
Skr. rinnd, Gr. a-iSvij) ; gwleb (wet), protocelt. vliqva ; fnelen 
(yellow), protocelt. fwi/lmi=Gr. /jLrjXlvr) ; orom (curved), proto- 
celt. crumba ; tram (heavy), protocelt. trumba ; and the loan- 
words ^i/(firma) and sech (sicca). 

Fern, /ii-stems. These fall into two classes. In the first d 
has been developed before the semivowel of the accented end- 
ing ; in the second the toneless id has become i. Examples of 
tiie first class are: anhunedd^hat, insomnia; camedd (curva- 
ture) =Ir. caimme, ace. eammi, Ml. 99* 1; earedd (iniquity) 
=Ir. eaire\ ckdd (left hand) =Ir. cl^ (protocelt. cliydy Goth. 
hlei'duma) ; culedd (leanness) = Ir. coile ; chwerwedd (bitter- 
ness) =:Ir.«er6^; gwirionedd{iT\}t\i)^=:lT,firinne\ guiled,gwyledd 
(bashfulness) = Ir. /ele ; llonedd (fulness — found only in com- 
pounds)=Ir. Idine; llyfredd (cowardice) =iIt. lobre; moeledd 
(baldness) = Ir . maile ; no^M^(/^ (nakedness) =Ir.fiocA^a^; truedd 
(wretchedness) =Ir. troige; irugaredd (mercy) =Ir. trocaire. 
Of these gtoirionedd and irugaredd are said to be masc. But 
if so, they must have been originally feminine. The common 
plurals in -edd may be added, if Khys be right in regarding 
Uiem as feminine abstracts, and in comparing the Old-Bulg. 
hratija (brotherhood) used as the pi. of bratU (brother). 

Examples of the second class are breni (gl. proram), Ir. 
brdine ; celli (grove), from cdldia, cognate with Ir. caill from 
ealdit; gweddi (prayer) = Ir. Jdigde, protoceltic viigadia. 

It is possible that some feminines ending in -» may repre- 
lent Greek stems like pavrla, with the accent on the &, and 
that some feminines ending in -edd may represent oxytons 
like aryvuL 

i-stems : maint, Ir. meit, is an instance of a masc. t-stem. 
Perhaps ynya (island), pi. ynyHoedd, is an instance of a fem 
In riain garedd (delight of ladies) we have a gen. plural=Ir. 
fignae'{u). 



136 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 



Consonantal Stems. 

c-stems : None quotable. 

^-sterns : sg. n. bre (hill), dat. fry^ used as an adverb ; rhi 
(king)=Ir. ri^ GauL rix^ rein, nom. dual dou rig ; Cymro, plur. 
nom. Cymryy gen. Ciioed 6?ywrtt =civita8 Combrognm. 

r-stems : bratcd (brother), pi. hrodyr. In cAwaer (sister) = 
svesr^ pi. chtciorhydd^^svesor-yo, we have addition of a suffix 
used to make plurals to the equivalent of Lat. sordres, Skr. 
srasdras. JUawdr ' mother '= Gaul, mdtr, occurs only in the 
compound fnodr{f)yda/ 'beehive.' The fern, numerals teir 
(three), pedeir (four), belong to this declension. 

^-sterns: ^an (fire) =Ir. ^^n« gen. ^^n^.; %^ (fieldmouse) = 
Ir. Inch, gen. lochad^ and the loan-word ciwed (civitas). 
Oblique cases are represented by utidod (unity), Ir. dintaith^ 
nom. sg. dtn^ti, and troed (foot)=Ir. traigid, nom. sg. traig. 

^sterns: dryt€:=zlT. drui^ (soothsayer, Vdru, Tout. Vtru) ; 
pridd (earth, soil)=Ir. creid, dat. sg., or criid-n, ace. sg. 
of crS, 

it/-stems: ear (friend), pi. carant (Mab. ii. 30, L 3)=:Ir. 
earoy nom. pi. carait; ney (nephew), pi. nyeint ; Nudd^=. 
Ir. Nuada, gen. Nuadat; breuant (windpipe) = Ir. brdgaii, 
dat. sg., or brdgait-n, ace. sg., of brdge; gof (smith), pi. 
go/aint; ugain for ugaint ' twenty,' =Ir. fichit dat. sg., or 
/ichit^n, ace. of Jiehe. Corn, car, pi. kerens. 

nd'Stems: bru (womb)=Ir. bru, gen. bronn» 

maso. fi-stems: ci (hound) pi. cim=Ir. cu, pi. n. eana; 
emn (nail)=Ir. ingin, dat. sg., or ingin-n, ace. sg., of inge; 
gorsin (doorpost) = Ir. ursain, dat. sg., or ursain-n, ace. 
sg., of ursa; safn (mouth), Zend gtamdn; eiin (elbow) = 
Ir. uiiinn, dat. sg. or ut7inn-n, ace. sg. of uilk; Itcerddon 
(Ireland) =^rmit, dat. sg., or Erinn^n, ace. sg. of JSh'ti, 
protoceltic Iterid; ych (ox), pi. ychen^ Goth, auhsans; and the 
loan-words lleydyr (latro), pi. llatron, and lleng (legio), gen. 
pi. lieon in Caer-lleon, Carreg y Ikon. For the dual the nom. 

^ The noun dertct/dd, which Rhys quotes as an oblique case of dryw, seems to 
becsQ.-firet. dorguidf a compound of der, dorsztu-^ar^ and gwydds^guid, a 
deriyatiTe of the root vid. 



CBLTIC DECLENSION. — ^DB. WHITLEY STOKES. 137 

8g. is employed in deu vUgi vronwynnion vrychion (two white- 
breasted, brindled greyhounds, milgi=lT. mllchu). But here 
the infection of the initials of the adjectives hronwynn and 
hrych points to an original vocalic desinence of the noun with 
which they agree. 

Cornish ky (hound), pi. kuen (i.e. kun), and the loan-word 
hder (latro), pi. laddron. Bret, qui (hound), pi. co/i, and the 
loan-word lazr (latro), pi. lazron. 

In Breton anafcon (souls), and gadon (hares), seem to 
belong to this declension, 
neut. n-stems: ynien-yn (butter) =Lat. unguen. 
neut. m^n-stems : anu (name), pi. enuein, Mart. Cap. 1 a.b. 
11 a.a. ; cam (gradus), pi. cemmein; gartn (cry) = Jr. gairm, 
G. C. 821 ; ruim (vinculum), pL ruimmein, Juv. p. 65 ; trum 
(ridge), pi. ar drumain mor (on a sea's ridges), Cynddelw, 
cited by Pugh, 8.v. truman. And in Cornish bram (crepitus 
Tentris), pi. bremmyn ; colm (nodus), pi. colmen ; hanow 
(name), pi. hyntoyn ; bam (blow, Ir. beim), pi. bommyn ; tarn 
(frustum), pU tymmyn* The umlaut here points to collectives 
in -ya. 

a-Btems: din (fortress) = Ir. ^un; glin (knee)=Ir. gliln\ ma 
inctirac-ma (battlefield), Crwynfa^=z\v. Findmag, Gaul. Vindo- 
fMgo9; nef (heaven) =:Ir. nem^ better neb ; ty (house), pi. te^ 
fei=Ir. teg^ n. pi. tige^ Gr. reyeo. Maes seems from *niag'8, 
protoceltic magesoa (Ir. maige) or mageei (Ir. maig), as nos 
(night), from ^nots, ^nocts.^ 

M-stems : mis (month) = Ir. mis, dat. sg., or mis-n, ace. 
Bg., of mi. To this may certainly be added the comparatives 
in aehf ex ass, ans; though I cannot see why, in the 
former case, ns should have become s, and, in the latter, 
tk} 

' Bh^ {JjteturUj p. 32) explains words like eawr (giant), pi. cewri^ maen 
(itone), pL mgmi, as instances of nouns which in the sin^war belong to the o-de- 
deosion, in the plural to the ••declension. This, though improbable, is possible. 
Bat his attempt to explain henyw (female) and Uu in teu^lu (household) =Ir. 
ttfkekf protooeltio Ugo»Umgo», as the geniti?es sg. of stems in «, and equal, respec- 
tirelj, to benssoi and tegetoi^ seems to me a failure from the phonetic point of Tiew. 

' -«eA from om, «»«, seems also in traeh (beyond) = Lat. trant^ but also trawt. 
Tlie pL ending -««4 mplantaeh (little children) is probably an abstract ending, like 
-««M in Goto. ibntuBut Iffimit, So in boetaeh (gloriatio), cyjtddach (comessatio). 
egftUlu^ (amidtiA). 



138 celtic declension. — dr. whitley stokes. 

Old-Celtic Inscriptions. 

Now, to cleave to the great principle of passing from the 
known to the unknown, rather than from the unknown to the 
known, we must, before attempting to restore the protoceltic 
forms of the principal Old-Irish declensions, set out, first, 
the more important monuments of the Old-Celtic dialects ; 
and, secondly, the changes which comparison with cognate 
tongues proves that the desinences have undergone in the 
passage from protoceltic to Old-Irish. 

Of these relics of the Old-Celtic languages the most 
valuable are the Gaulish inscriptions, now about twenty-eight 
in number.^ They may be divided into three groups, the first 
written in North-Etruscan characters, and found in Italy ; 
the second written in Greek letters, and found in Southern 
Gaul, that is, not far from the Greek colony of Massilia ; the 
third written in the Roman alphabet.^ In trying to interpret 
these inscriptions I shall assume, first, that Gaulish belongs 
to the Indo-European family, and, secondly, that its nearest 
relatives are the neoceltic languages. 

I. Inscriptions in North-Etruscan Characters. 

1. The Bilingual of Todi? 

(Letters in parenthesis are not now legible.) 

(ATEGNATO) (ATEGNATO) 

(DRVTEI VRDVM) (DR)V(T)EI VRDVM 

^ ^'Yielleiclit dnd jetzt im ganzen gegen drei Dutzend bekannt (einige mehr 
oder einige wenigcr), in denen gallische Worter nnd Namen mit gidlischen 
Endungen auftreten." — Keltische Spraeheny in Ersch und Griiber's Eneyelt^ddii^ 
8. 144, col. 1. 

' Collections of them are in Roget de Bellognet*8 EthnogSnie pauloUe, 2 6d. 
Paris, 1872 ; Dietionnaire Archeologique de la OauU^ t. 1, Paris, 1875 ; Euhn, 
und Schleicher^s Beitrdge zur vergl. Sprachforaehungy ii. 100, iii. 162-172. 

' Now in the Museo Gregoriano in Rome. Printed in the Corpus Insc. Lat. i. 
262. In Kuhn^s Beitr. iii. 66, Lottner points out the impossibility of regarding 
the non-Latin parts of this bOingnsd as Umbrian. If they were Umbrian, (1) 
they would have been written from right to left, and (2) we should have had 
TnUikns instead of Trutiknoty lokam instead of lokatiy and a nomen gentile instead 
of the patronymic Trutiknos, To these arguments Becker (Kuhn*s Beitr. iii. 180) 
added (3) that the diphthong oi (in Koitia) does not occur in Umbrian ( Voiaienier 
in the Asisi inscription is a mistake for Volaimier) ; (4) that the compounds with 
gnatoa and cfioay the nom. s^. in ia (Koiaia)y the gen. sg. in -i, the verbal ending in 
-u, are distinctly un-Umbnan; and ^5) that the names Ategnatoa and Drutoa 
(Druta) occur in Keltic localities. Tnese arguments are confirmed by the subse- 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — ^DR. WHITLEY STOKES* 139 

(OOISIS (C)OISIS DRVTI . F 

DRVTEI . F. FRATEE FRATER . EIV8 

EIVS (M)INIMVS . LOCAVIT E(T) 

MINIMVS . LOCAV (ST)ATVITQVE 

IT . ET . STATVIT (AT)EKNATl . TRVTIKN(I) 

ATEKNATI . TRVT (KAR)NITV . LOKAN . KO(ISIS) ^ 

IKNI . KAKNITV (TR)VTIKNOS 

ARTVAIXI KOtSIS . T 

RVTIKXOS 

The Latin seems to mean " For Ategnatus (son) of Drutus 
Coisis, son of Drutus, his youngest brother, placed and erected 
a barrow." I conjecture that the aira^ T^ofiivov urdum 
means ' tumulum/ and is a deriv. from ^vardh^ as tumulm 
from ^tu. As the North-Etruscan alphabet had no signs 
for 6 and D, and as ixi represented a sharp «, we are entitled 
to transcribe the Gaulish parts thus : 

Ategnati Druticni camitu artvaas Coisis Druticnos. 
Ategnati Di'uticni camitu lagan Coisia Druttcnos. 

In each of these sentences camitu is obviously the verb 
governing the singular logan in the one, the plural artvasa in 
the other. Coisia Drutictwa are nominatives singular, and 
Ategnati Druticni are genitives. With Coisia compare, for the 
#nding, the names Amadia, Coamia, lunia, Maatucia (Becker, 
fLuhn's Beitr. iii. 348), and, for the meaning, the Skr. kega 
*hair' (for kaiaa), and the names Keaarin, Kegava, The diph- 
thong in Coiaia shows that the non- Latin part of this inscrip- 
tion was not (as Aufrecht and Kirchhoff supposed) TJmbrian.^ 
It occurs in the Gaulish names Coinua, Coinagua, Doiroa, and 
Koipua, Ategnati is the gen. sg. of Ategnatoa, the masc. of 
the fem. Ategnata, which occurs on two Pannonian inscrip- 
tions. It is a compound of the prep, ate^ Ir. aith^ W. ad, 

qnentdiflcorery of kamitus on the Novara inBCiiption, the celticity of which cannot 
possihly he doahted. All thu is ignored hy Mommsen, Corpus Inser. Lat. (1863), 
1. 1. p. 262, where he calls Drutus and Coisis " praenomina Umhra," and also 
hy Eucbeler, in his Vmbriea^ 1883, p. 175. 

1 Campanari has KG ...» Mommsen et, 

' Of the characters of the Norara inscription (No. 2) Mommsen writes (Corpus 
Inscr. T. p. 720} : '*Alphabetum idem atqne aureonim Salassorum et inseriptiotiU 
Tuderiimte \i,e. the non-Latin part of the Todi bilingual], toI. i. No. 1408, 
hodie propnum iudicatur Gallorum probabiliter." He does not say why the 
Umbrians should have used an alphabet ** propnum Gallorum." 



140 CELTIC DECLBNSIOK. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 

and gnaio8:=^GT. yvrjro^ in KctaC-yinjro^f Lat. gnatus in agnatm^ 
co-gnatus. Druiicnos, sg. gen. Druticni, is a patronymic, 
like Oppianicnos, Nantonicn{os)^ Versicnos, Tautisaicnos, infra, 
*Afyn,Kvo<i {Movaapo^ ^Aprlxpov, Murat, p. 643), and Oobanni- 
cnoa ('Gobannilno,' Murat. p. 1384, 4). Dannotalicnai, infra 
No. 2, is the same patronymic in the nom. plural. In the 
first part of these names (DruH-, Oppiani-, Nantoni-^ Fern-, 
Tatitmi'f Arti-, Oobanni-, Danotali-) Pictet and Becker saw 
genitives sg. governed by -cnos. But Flechia, with more 
reason, finds here forms phonetically modified from the 
themes Druio-, Oppiano-^ etc., and compares Lat. coelicola 
from coel(hcola, terrigena from terra-gena. Certainly in the 
Gaulish Maina-cnaa and. Taranu-cnos we have no genitives. 
With 'CnoSf pi. n. -c/toi, the Ir. cenil, W. cenedl, and the Ir. 
yerb ctnim '1 descend,' are connected. So, too, seem the 
Oscan hufrikonosH (' liberigenos,' ingenues), Corssen, Euhn's 
Zeitschr. xi. 417 ; Skr. kand^ kanyd (girl). DrutoB (fem. 
Druta, infra No. 21) is now represented by W. drud 
*hero,* and is=Lith. drutaa 'firm.* 

So much for the nouns in the nom. and gen. Logan is 
the ace. sg. of loga = Old- Welsh lo (in the Llanfechan 
Ogham, Trenaccat lo ' Trenaccat's tomb '), and cognate with 
Ir. lige (bed), laige (to lie), Lat. lec-tua, lec-tica, Gr. \ix^» 
Xoxo^, Goth, lagfa (lay), liga (lie). Artvass, ace. pL of 
artva, is cognate with Gaul. Artemm^ and Ir. art (stone, 
gravestone), arteini (pebbles) Corm., which, with regular 
loss of initial p and metathesis of r, seems = irirpa. For 
the termination compare the Oscan ekasSf tiass, teremnias. 
Camitu, in form identical with the Latin supine in -tu, is 
either cognate with the neoceltic earn (congeries lapidum, 
tumulus), carric (rock), and the Greek xpavao^ (rocky), or is 
a denominative from the stem camo (=Skr. carana, effectio, 
confectio, opus, root kar), thought to be found in the names 
Carnavi, Camonacde, Carnuntum^ Carnuntea, The latter sug- 

1 Name of a 'petra' mentioned in the life of Domitian, Abbot of Siiia 
(SegUBio, in Gallia Tranepadana^, Boll. Inl. i. 63. Artaioa^ an epithet for 
Mercnry {Rev, Celt, ir. IT), ana the name Artoe [ibid. i. 293) may also be 
cognate. 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DB. WHITLEY STOKES. 141 

gestion is Flechia's. But the absence from the neoceltic 
languages of any derivatiye from the root kar is strongly in 
favour of the former. The following -may therefore be given 
as a tentative translation : 

Ategnati Druti filii lapides sepulchrales congessit Coisis 

Druti filius. 
Ategnati Druti filii tumulum congessit Coisis Druti 

filius. 

This sepulchral record may be compared with the inscription 
at Penmachno : ^ Carausius hie tacit in hoc congeries lapidum : 
with the following extract from Nennius, § 73 : " Arthur 
postea congregavit congestum lapidum sub lapide in quo erat 
Testiginm canis sui, et vocatur earn Cabal:" and with the fol- 
lowing extracts from two of the oldest Latin writings of the 
Irish : " Et sepiliuit ilium aurigam Totum Galuum id est 
Totmdelj et congregauit lapides erga sepulcrum/' Book of 
Armagh, 13a, 2 : *' post expleta baptizationis ministeria . . . 
eodem in loco consequenter obiit, ibidemque socii, congesto 
lapidum aceruo, sepeliunt/' Adamn&n's Life of Columba, ed. 
Beeves, p. 63. 

2. The Inscription of Novara.^ 

K(VI)TESASOIOIKEN 
^ TANOTALIKNOI 
> KVITOS 
H LEKATOS 
O ANOKOPOKIOS 
^ SETVPOKIOS 
g ESANEKOTI 
M ANAREVIMEOS 
K TANOTALOS 

KAENITVS 

^ Hiibner, ItiteriptU Brit. Chrittianae^ No. 136. Haddan and Stubbs, 
CoimeiUt L 166. 

' 2>t mm' iaerizione eeltica trovata nel NovareM^ par G. Flechia, Torino, 1864. 
Beriewed by Ebel, Kuhn*s Beitrage, iv. 486. Tnere is a photograph of this 
intcriptioii in the JHetumnaire arehiologique de la Oaule^ t. i. inscriptions 
gaaloises, No. 10, and a cast in the Museum of Saint Germain. Flechia dates it 
abont the middle of the seventh century of Home, say 154 b.c. In the Corpus 




are tiie best piuti of these lections. 



142 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 

That is, substituting medials for dentals where necessary, 
and inserting the omitted letters where there has been 
' singling/ or assimilation and singling : 

Kvi[n]fe8 asoioiken Dannof^liknoi, Kvi[n]to8, Legates^ 
Andokobogto8, Setubogios, Esafidekotti, Andarevisaeos, 
Dannotalos karnitus. Tekoa tou(iu(8). 

" (This sepulchre) the grandsons (?) of Quinta, (who 
were) also the sons of Dannotalos, (namely) 
Quintos, Legates, Andocombogios, Setubogios, 
Exandecottis, Andarevisseos, (and) Dannotalos, 
heaped together. Tecos (being) magistrate." 

Here karnitus (pL of karnitu in the Todi inscription) is ob« 
viously the verb. The nominatives in the commemorative 
part of the inscription are six singulars, namely, Kvitoa^ 
(borrowed from Quintus), Legatos (borrowed from Legatus), 
AndocombogioSy Setubogm, Exa)id€Cotti\ji]y Andareviaseoa, and 
Dannotalos^ and two plurals, viz., DannotalicnoU or sons 
of Dannotalos, and asoioi^ which denotes, perhaps, the 
' grandsons ' of Kvita (Quinta), with the gen. sing, of 
whose name the first line begins. For the dropping of 
n in Kvitos and K{vi)tes compare Lat. Quite in Wordsworth, 
Early Latin, p. 23. As to the patronymic Dannotalicnoi see No. 
1. Asoioiy nom. pi. of asoios, which, like as-an 'blood,* Goth. 
ast'Sy may be a derivative of the root as (werfen, schiessen). 
As there is no suffix -oio, asoios must stand for asovios, with 
the same loss of intervocalic v that we find in loincata, 
loincatius, loincissius, compared with lovincillus. With 
^asovios compare Lexovii, Segoviif and the town-names Segovia, 
Oviwoviov (Vinnovion). The Latin Pacuvius^ Vesuvius, 
Lanuvium, the TJmbr. Krapuvio (later Orabovio), Fisovio 
may also be compared. With Ando-com-bogios cf. the Ando- 
cum-borius of Caesar, Gliick, K.N. 26. The prefix ando 
seems = Skr. adha in adhara, adhama. Setu-bogios occurs, 
latinised, in De Wal, p. 200 (Setubogius Esuggi /.). Like 
AndO'Com-bogim it is a compound of bogios, which occurs 

^ Quintus also occurs in tho place-name Quiniiaeum now Quincieuz (Is^re). 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 143 

in A'brextU'bogiiis, Ad-hogiuSy Tu-bogit^f Ver-com-hogius, and 
18 perhaps cognate with Slav. hogO, ' good/ Skr. bhaga. 
With SetU' cf. Setonins and possibly Nappi-setu, infra No. 
27. Ex-ande-cotti is for -coHiSf as Stimeli^ infra No. 24, for 
Sufnelis. With cottis are cognate Cotfim, CoUos, Melo-cottiuBy 
Afe-coUi, and Com. co^A (old), Br. coz. And-are-visseos, like 
Visionius (Steiner, 800), seems derived from the root vid 
(visseos ex tid-teos) : with the first part of the word cf. the 
coin-legend Annoroveci, Rev. Celt. ii. 95. 

Dantw-talos is a compound of talos (forehead), which we find 
also in Argio-ialus, Carrio-talm^ Dubno-talus^ Ito-taluSy Same- 
taiu8f and W. Tal-iesin. The first element, Danno (if this be 
the true reading), occurs infra No. 18, and also in Danno- 
mants, Danno-rix, Rev. Celt. iii. 165. Dantis and Dano-tale^ 
with a single n, also occur, ibid, 

Tekas toutiu{s) is a nom. absolute. Teko8 in neoceltic is 
represented by W. Uc (in Tecnied * Fair-neck '), now Ug 
*pulcher' (cf. the Latin names Pulcher, Pulcheria), Toutiu{8) 
(=the ToovTiov^ of No. 6 infra) must be a masc. stem in t, 
rf, or n, related Urtouta, Jr. tuathy W. tud, as Goth, thiudans 
(rex) is to thiuda (folk). As the gen. Toutionia occurs 
(Mommsen, Inscr. Helv. No. 284), toutiu{8) probably is a stem 
inn. 

The ken is probably a conjunction, but its etymology is 
obscure. 

3. The Inscription of Voltino (Lago di Qarda).^ 

TETVMVS 

SEXTI 

DVGIAVA 

SAlxlADIS 

TOWEDECAVI 

OBVLDINV TINV. 

fetumuB {filius) Sexti^ Curator SassarenaiSy me addixit 
Obuldino Tino. 

\ Drawn in Mommaen's Nordetrtuki»ehe Alphabetef taf. ii. 17, and in Kuhn's 
Beitrage, iii. 170, No. 16 : " immurato in campanile d'una delle chiesicciuole de* 
mond Cenacensi non molto luiigi da Limone." The first three lines are in Roman 
letten. 



144 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKESL 

The third character of the fifth line (W) occurs in other 
inscriptions in the names RAWEANA, lAWO, LELLAWO, 
SOWILI (Kuhn's Beitr. iii. 205), which must be read 
Eameana, lamo^ Lellamo, Somili. But two of the characters 
in which the last two lines are written do not occur elsewhere. 
They are 1*1, which occurs at the beginning of the fifth, 
or o "^ o» which is the ninth character of the sixth line, and 
letters like arrows in the fifth place of line 5, and in 
the fifth place of line 6. The first of these characters must 
be either a yowel or a consonant. It cannot be a vowel, 
for all the vowels a, $, f, o, u are represented otherwise in 
these two lines. It must therefore be a consonant, not b, 
Cf i, m, n, nor r, which are otherwise represented in these 
lines : it must, in other words, be d, /, g, h, j9, q, r, or t 
Of these t is preferable, as it yields in the last line an 
intelligible TinUy dat. sg. of the name of the deity =£tr. Ttmi, 
and in the penultimate line the intelligible prefix ^=Ir. 
toneless do-. The signs like arrows must then be either 
^» /> 99 ^9 Pf ^f ov r. Of these d is preferable, as we then get 
in the penultimate line the intelligible -decavi. 

Here dugiava (obviously in apposition with the t^-stem Tetu^ 
mus) may be a masc. d-stem, like Ateula, infra ; and cognate 
with dugeonteOf No. 18, and the names Dugitis, Dugenius, a 
woman's name, Dugtavva, Rev. Celt. iii. 167, and see the Corp. 
Inscr. lat. v. p. 512, No. 4887. Sassaris (the D of the inscrip- 
tion is probably to be read r), an adjectival t-stem agreeing with 
dugiava ; to- may be = the Old-Irish accented prepositional 
prefix tu; the WE (i.e. me) may be the infixed pronoun; 
tO'decam, a pret. act. sg. 3 from a verb of which the O.-Ir. 
dodichaim is the neoceltic reflex, and which is cognate with 
Lat. dicOf Gr. Seltc-vvfii, Goth, teiha (nuntio). Obuldinu Tinu 
seems the name of the deity {Obuldinos Tinos) in the dat. sg., 
to whom was dedicated the object on which the inscription is 
found. Tinos may be the Gaulish reflex of the Etruscan 
Tinia, Tina, which corresponded with the Qr. Zeus (Preller, 
Bamiscke Mythologies 1865, p. 165). 

For the omission of a word corresponding with * filius ' 
before the father's name, compare Dotros Segofnari, infra No. 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR, WHITLEY STOKES. 145 

17, Martiaiia Dannotali, No. 18, and in Greek *A\Kij3uiSr}^ 
KXeu/iov, 

4. T/ie Inscription of Verona.^ 

SENOSIPEVKIHKAVOSAQSSIIHSEIMEROKIQOININAQ 

This inscription is written from right to left. The sign 
(like o with a perpendicular tail) here represented by Q^ 
is read by Mommsen and regarded as a mark of inter- 
panction by Cuno. But it closely resembles the Greek sign 
for the koppUf the Semitic guttural qoph occuring in qopiv- 
6i0€v, ^XavqdrmZC y "EqrcDp,^ k.t.X. For ss the inscription has 
the sign (^l), used also in the Todi inscription, to denote 
the sharp 8, which descends from ns. Read therefore : 

Qaninio Qikoremies hiiss qasova khik VepUonea. 

Here Qaninio^ hiiss and qasova are obviously nominatives 
singular, and Qikoremies and Vepisoues are genitives sg. 

Qaninio (like Sosio infra) is a fem. td-stem = Caninia^ 
Steiner, No. 2225, the fem. of Caninins, Knabl, Mitth. d. 
hid. V.f. Steiermark, 4, 197. 

Qikoremies, gen. sg. of Qicoreinio, another fem. ta-stem, 
cognate with Cicaru (Frohner cited Kuhn's Beitr. iii. 188). 
For the suffix compare Artemia, Artemius, G.C. 

Hiiss may represent an earlier piens, pi€n{t)s, a participial 
formation from the root pi='7ra, whence Troo^, Tnyo? 'kinsman.' 
For the change ofp to h compare the Irish haue, Heriu, hihr, 
hetho, honn, huide, cognate, respectively, with Trat?, Iltepla, 
7dXv9, Skr. piiu, Lat. pondus, Skr. padya, 

Qflsova may be the fem. of Cassavus, Gliick, K.N. 85, 105, 
and cognate with the Gaulish casamo, cassamo (gl. adsectator), 
Casatus (Qruter, 643, 1), the Ir. casaim (flecto, verto, from 
qoHdmi), casal (gl. paenula, lacerna, from qastlo) and Lat. 
quasiUus, -um^ ^quas. 

^ On a metal plate found near Verona. Mommsen, Nordetnukitche Alphabete^ 
f. 210, tafel ii. n. 19. Cuno, Ntue JahrbiUher fur PhilologU u, Pddagogik^ 66. 
113 n. 114, M. 227-229. 

' The soand is rendered, Latin-fashion, hy QY in the names Sequano, Quadiates 
(Orelli, 626), and Qtigo, Quordaio ^Steiner, 2817), which last may he connected 
vith W. porth (aujdlium, subsidium), Texguituu (Steiner, 1486). 

* See 6. Meyer, Oriechische Orammatik, 1880, § 191. 

nXL Tnukf. 188M. 10 



146 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY SROKES. 

Khik (leg. kte^k ?)^ a double copulatiye particle, like eti-c 
infra and Lat. at-que, a-c. 

Vepisones, gen. sg. of Vepi-sona, a compound of whicli the 
first element seems connected with the Gaulish names Vepm, 
Vepo, VeponiuSf Veponia ( W. gweb * visage '), and the second 
with 8ono8, Bonios in the names Togisonus, Vegi-saniua, and 
perhaps Tarbeisomus infra, No. 14. 

The following is a tentative translation : 

'' Caninia, a kinswoman of Cicoremia and also a 
follower of Vepisona." 

5. The Inscription of Este.^ 

TARKNO VOSSENO. 

This is only a woman's name. Two fem. a-stems in the 
nom. sg. (Ebel, Kuhn's Beitr. v. 80, note). Three explana- 
tions of Tarkno have been suggested. It may be abbreviated 
for Tarikno 'daughter of Tares' (cf. the names Tapd- 
Bovpov, Brogi'taro8)f a fem. form corresponding with masc 
patronymics in -cnos, like Lrutiknoa supra. It may, secondly, 
be a compound of -kno with the prepositional prefix tar, which 
we have in Tar-con-di-niotua. It may, lastly, be the Gaulish 
reflex of the Etruscan Tarchnm, Here, as elsewhere, we 
must practise the ars nesciendi. As to Vosseno, for the root 
compare Vossis, VoasiuSf Kuhn's Beitr. iii. 405, and for 
the suffix, AdvolenuSf Advokna, Belenua, 

II. Inscriptions in Greek Characters. 

6. First Liscnption of Vaison? 

CErOMAPOC 

OYIAAONEOC 

TOOYTIOYC 

NAMAYCATIC 

EICjJPOYBHAH 

CAMICOCIN 

NEMHTON 

^ >| 1 1 :)>i livth might easily be miscopied by the engraver as >| | Q>| kkik, 
' Anf dem bauche eines thongefaiiBes Ton rother farbe, 0,14 meter boch, 0,70 
brest. Gefanden bei Eate in den von Obizzi veranstalteten ausgrabungen, jeUt 
im mnseum von Catajo (Oberitalien), Kuhn*8 Beitr. iii. 172, 173. 

' Inscriptinn votive grav6e en lettres grccques cnnives sur nne petite dalle de 

Sierre blanche h. pen pr^s earr6e, provenant de Vaison, aujoord^ui au miu^ 
'Avignon, Dictionnaire Arch., Inscr. Ganloises, No. 2. 



CBLTIC DECLENSION. DR, WHITLEY STOKES. 147 

That is : Segomdros Vilhneos, toufius Ifamatisatis, eioru 
Belesami sosm fiemeton. 

'* Segomaros, son of Yillonos, a magistrate of Nemausus 
(Nimes), made for Belesama this temple.'^ 

Here Sego-mdraa (gen. Segoman, No. 17) is a compound 
of the adj. mdros (Ir. mar, mdr * great/ W. mawr) and the 
stem of 8ego8, which seems to have had two meanings, 
(1) 'strength/ (2) 'sagacity.' Sego-s 'strength' (in Sego- 
bt-iga, Sego-dunum^ and in the derivatiyes Segomo, Segovia), 
comes from the root sagh, whence Skr. aahas * strength/ Qr. 
e^w, €xyfM<;, oxvpo^, the Teut. sigis, Sigmar^ and the mod. 
Irish sedh, seadh (strength, Four Masters, a.d. 1568), which 
seems misspelt for segh, seagh. Segoa (sagacity) comes from 
the root Hcig, whence also Lat. sagio, aagax, and Ir. seaghmhar 
(GFaeL seadhmhor * sagax'), which seems exactly the reflex of 
oar Segomaros. 

ViUoneoa {=Villontu8, Qruter 488, 5), like Condilkos, 
LUumareos, JElttsconios, Illiakeos, Tarbeisonioa, and Liscius, is 
a patronymic, formed like Greek 'AttoWcovu)^, Aiovvano^, 
Lat. Mariua, Octavia, and Skr. Kauract/a-s (Bopp, V.G. § 899). 
The father's name, Vilionos^ may be connected with Ir. fell 
* horse,' which points to a protoceltic villos. 

Toutiun (also perhaps in the No vara inscription, No. 2) 
teems nom. sg. of a consonantal stem, meaning some kind 
of magistrate. 

Namauaatis an adj. in -ait formed from Namamos^=. 
Nifiavaofs : cf. dunatis^ randoaaiis, Gaulish epithets of Mars, 
and sinquatis, an epithet of Silvan us. 

JEidru, written ieuru in seven other inscriptions (Nos. 
14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20), is obviously the verb 
of the sentence. It seems to be compounded with the prep. 
«=Gr. iiri, Skr. apt, with regular loss of p. The root 
may he ur * to make,' which Mowat^ finds in the Lat. ur-na 
(of. fictilia from fi-n-go), and which may also be the source 
of Gh*. ip-^i whence Lat urceus. In Irish this root 

* Explication tTune inaeription eiramique gctuloite, Comptes rendos de 1* Acad^mie 
dei lofcriptums, D^eembn, 1S80. 



148 CELTIC DECLENSION.— DR. WHITLKY STOKES. 

« 

apparently occurs, compounded with i=€7ri, in iHrad (gl. 
factum est), Arm. 189^. 1, and in the following forms from 
the Leber na hUidre ^ : mairg iuras inn-orgain sa ! for Lamna 
(*woe to hira who causes this destruction!' says L.), LU. 
87^, iurthar ind orgain (let the ruin be wrought), 88*., 
iiirthar lat ind orgain innocht (let the ruin be wrought by 
thee to-night), 88*., mad mo chomarle dognethe and, ni iurfaithe 
ind orgain (if ray advice had been acted upon, the ruin would 
not have been wrought), 88*. 

Belesamiy dat. sg. of Belesama, a Gaulish Minerva, the 
Belisnma, of an inscription of Conserans (Orelli, 1431 ; 
De Wal, 62).2 

Sosin, also in No. 18 for sosion (as Old Latin alis, alid, 
for a/iusy aliud, and in Umbr. ocrem Fisim *montem Fisium'), 
seems a demonstrative pronoun agreeing with the accusative 
nemeton=Jr, netned (gl. sacellum), and also in Apv-vifierov 
(Strabo), AuyovoTO-ve/Merov and NefierO'/Spi^a (Ptol.), JVe- 
meto-cenna (Csesar) and Nemefodurum, later Nemptodorum^ the 
phonetic equivalent of Nemthor, Fiacc's hymn, 1. 

7. First Inscription of Nhnes? 

TAPTAB : : lAAANOYIAKOS AEAE 
MATPEBONAMAYSIKABOBPATOYDE 

That is: Oartah{os) Illanoviacos dede Mdtrebo Namausicdho 
brdtude.** 

"Gartabos, (son) of lUanoviax, placed (this) for the 
Nemausian Mothers by decree." 

* Quoted by Euno Meyer, Rev. Celt. Ti. pp. 191, 192. From constant associa- 
tion with the noun orgain ^ the verb ittraitn seems to have got in later Middle- 
Irish the meaning *to destroy.' Thus: ro-iurtha^nace aecht mbliadan di ceeh 
hvnthnirniu (a seven-years child was destroyed for every hair), LL. 252*>. So 
O'Clery: iurTur A, orgain. The Old-Insh forms /riM-ieirr (gl. auersabor), 
fritamm-ior'sa (gl. me adficiet), fntamtn'iurat (me adficient) are connected by 
Thumeysen (Rev. Celt. vi. p. 96) with frii-n-otT ^quod inficiet), frit~n-orgar 
(atficitur), fris-oireiia (adversabantur), and seem to be «-futures 6x)m the com- 
pound verb *i'Orgimy the simple stem orgs regularly becoming orx^ on, orr^ and 
even or, 

2 Ce sumom de Minerve pent s*interpreter par beWeota^ de M guerre, en 
fffdlois, et de tama = Scr. samay Gr. 6/aos, Lat. titniUty anc. irl. iamat, amal, etc. 
Cf. le goth. et anc. all. samay et sain dans les composes analogues, arbtits€un^ 
er»am, ratsaniy etc. (Pictet). 

' Sur le tailloir d*un chapiteau, en beaux caract^res grecs d*une ^poqne ancienne 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 149 

Here dede (also in Nos. 8 and 13) is the verb, cognate with 
rl-dfffjLi, Skr. dadhdmi. 

Matrebo Namausicdbo are the datives pi. of the names 
of the mother-goddesses * to whom the object was dedi- 
cated : with 'Obo, cf. the abus of Lat. datives, Wordsworth 60. 

BrdtU'de is a formula (also in Nos. 8, 12 and 13) corre- 
sponding to the Latin *ex imperio/' 'iraperio* or *jussu.' 
The theme of brdtu-de is brdiu^^zlr. brdt/t, W, brawd, and 
the 'de is compared by Pictet with the dha of Zend abla- 
tives such as qa/na'dha (somnio) graoshddha (obedienti&), 
dkhstae-dha (pace). I rather think our de (Jr. di) is = Lat. 
de, here used as a postposition like the TJmbrian -anter, 
•ad, "hum, -en, -tu, and -per in nomne-per, okri-per. 
Similar postpositions occur in neoceltic. Thus Mid. Br. 
boed-er larg (gl. large en viande, boet). Rev. Celt. i. 398, 
tuhen (leg. lech-en) uhel (gl. locua alt [us] in quo), Corn. 
ene9-en (in skin) Meriasek, 3144. Remain the first two 
words, which the analogy of Nos. 3, 17, and 18 leads one to 
regard as the donor's name, followed by the gen. sg. of the 
name of the donor's father, rather than (as Pictet thinks) 
the donor's own name followed by an adjective in the nom. 
sg. m. Gartabos is formed like Arabus, Iniarabus, and the 
place-names Cenabum^ Aballaba, With Illanoviax, cf. Illan- 
msa (Steiner, 1862), and the Irishman's name lilann Find, 
one of the actors in the tale of Deirdre. 

8. Second Inscription of Nimes,^ 

KACCITAAOC 
OYEPCIKNOCA 
EAEBPATOYA 
EKANTENAAA 



qa'on ne pent pas prcciser. — Vietionnaire Areheologique de la Gaule, Inscr 
eauloiees, No. 1 (where it is drawn). Translated by Siegfried, in Kuhn nnd 
ochleicher's Beitrige, i. p. 451. Now '^dans le temple de Diane/* near which 
it was found in 1742. 

^ As to these goddesses, see Yallentin, Bev. Celt iv. 27. 

' For instance : Matronis AJliabus M, Marius Marcellua pro »9 et iuU (x 
iwtperio ip$arum, De Wal, iJe Moedergodhnuft^ p. 88. 

' Also in BratU'tpantium, cognate with Atandu^braiius and Ca»»i'brati%u, 

* d'Arbois de Jnbainville, Mtvue dts Hocie'tea tavantesj t. iy. 6^ s^rie (1^876), p. 



150 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DIL WHITLEY STOKES. 

That is: Casaitaloa Versicnoa dede brdtude eantena La. .. <, 
*' Cassitalos, son of Verses, placed by decree cantetM to La ... ." 

The fifth line has been read MIEINOVII ; but this is 
almost certainly wrong. 

Cam-talos * fair-brow ' (supra, No. 3) : casai from ead-tO 
Veraoa is cognate with Skr. varshtym (upper), Lat. verruca^ 
from verauca. Ion. oipty; (mountain), ^Opi<my:f O. Sax. irriselik 
(* riesig*). As to the formula dede brdtude, see No. 7. Cantena 
is an ace. pi. neut. The meaning is unknown. 

9. Third Inscription of Nimea^ 

ECKirro 

PEIEKO 

NAIAAE 

OC 

That is : Escingoreix Condilkoa, " Excingorix, son of 
CondiUos." 

Escingo-reix is a compound of ex'cingo-a (perralidus) and 
reix (rex). As to the patronymic in -eos, y. supra. No. 6. 

266. £. Emault, BuUetin Mensml d$ la faeulU det Uttrea d$ Poitkrt, F^vrier, 
1885, p. 88. 

^ d'Arbois de Jaboinville, S^ue de» Soeiitdt aavante*, t. iy. 6^ s^rie, 1876. 

^ Revue Celtique. t.T. p. 1 20. The original has disappeared, but a copy by S%uier 
is preserved in the library at Ntmes. In his text he gives KONAEI A AEOCi 
but in his transliteration KovSiAAcoy . M. Emault thinks, perhaps rightly, that this 
inscription is Greek. He also thinks that the inscription of Gargas (Vaucluse) — 
ECKErrAI BAAOOYIKOYNIAI "to Eicinga, daughter of Balovi- 
cunos *' — is Greek, the two words being datives. 

The same may perhaps be said of the letters on a stele in the museum at 
Avignon (i9w//. Soe, Antiquairetf 1879, p. 128). 

OYAAIKIO 
ONEPECT 
AIOYMAI 

** On a tronv6/' writes M. Gaidoz (24 Juillet, 1879), *^ dans une armoire du mus^ 
de Nimes nn fragment d* inscription longtemps neglig^, mais qui est Gaulois, si 
la seconde ligne contient, comme il est probable, le mot toouiiout, Yoici le 
fragment, en iettres Grecques : 

MBATI 

TOOY 

TIM 

Jja seconde ligne est aeule enti^re. La premiere est mutilee par le haut, la troisidme 
par le has." 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLET STOKES. 151 

10. The First Inscription of St.-Remy {Nimea)} 

BIMMOC AITOYMAPEOC 

That is : Bimmos Litumareos, '' Bimmos, son of Litu- 
maros.'' On a stele. 

As to the patronymic in ^eoB, y. supra, No. 6. 

11. The Second Inscription of St.-Memi/.^ 

OYPITAKOC 

HAOYC 

KONIOC 

That is : Uritdcos ( Vritdcos P) Elusconios^ " TJritaoos 
(Yritacos P), son of Elusconos.'' On another stele. 

With Uritacos M. Mowat (Explication, etc., ubi supra) 
connects Urittius, Ate-uritus, Aturita, and refers them all to 
the root ur (facere), which we haye already found in eioru. 
As to the patronymic in -ios, y. supra, No. 6. 

12. The Inscription of Malaucine {Vaucluse)? 

///AOYC/ 

/lAAIAKEO/ 

MACEAOYB 

PATOYAE 

KANTEAA 

That is : . . • lom{os) Illiakeo(s) maselu brdtude cantela. 
" . . . . lusos, son of lUiacos, by order set (these) 
cantela*^ 

As to the patronymic in -eos^ y. supra, No. 6. As to 

^ ' Bevus Celtiquty t. iiL p. 506, citing the Congrii areheologiqu$ d$ Frmuce, 
1877, p. 623-528. 

' £. Ernault, BulUtin memuel dt la FaeulU d$t Lettm d$ PoitUrt, F^vrier, 
1885, p. 86, where the third line is read (from a plaster-cast) MACEAOYB 
•»La 3e ligne/* says M. Emault, "a 6t6 lue, par M. Allmer, MACEAOY* 
et par M. H. de Vule-fosse PACEAOYB (Bulletin ^pigraphique, mai-juin, 
18W, p. 141), puis lACEAOY, P.ttis avec M. fiochetin (DPACEAOY 
i^Ama^ p. 136, 1; 136, 3)." There is an almost iU^ble heUograrure of this 
iDicription in the JGtevue Archeol. for Nov. Dec., 1884, p. 380. 



152 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES^ 

brdtU'de, supra, No. 7. In go-bedbi we shall find a verbal 
prefix go-, and in the verb ma-selu, the ma- is perhaps another 
verbal prefix = the Vedic sma: the root may be that of 
{rriXXco {i'trroKriv), stellen. For the loss of t of. W. seilio 
(fundare), sail (fundamentum), also from y/stal; W. safn 
(OS, oris), Br. stqfi^n (palatum), Gr. arofia, Zend gtaman; W. 
ser-en (stella), Br. ster, Zend gtare; W. sain (son us), aro- 
vo^f y/Htan\ sam (stratum), ^star, whence stenw, aropwfu; 
seff/ll (stare), ^sta-m: serch (love), Ir. sere, Gr. cToprfq : serfyll 
(caducus), y/starb ; sofl-yn (stipula). The ace. pi. cantela 
should possibly be read cantena, see supra No. 8, and infra 
No. 13. It may be cognate with cantm, camb-tos, Thurneysen 
Keltoromanischesi 53. 

13. The Inscription of Colias (Gard).^ 

ZKOAIO 
C P I O Y 
MAN 
E Y A N 
AO////v*/A 
NA/0 A E 
AEBPATO 
YAEKAN 
TEN 

This inscription must have been inaccurately copied. It 
obviously contains the formula dede brdtude, No. 7 supra, an 
accusative pi. canten(a)y Nos. 7, 8, and perhaps 12, and it seems 
to begin with the name {E)xcolios ^ ; but the remainder is 
quite obscure. 

III. Inscriptions in Roman Characters. 

Of these there are fifteen. Let us first take the seven 
containing the verb leurxL 

^ F. Germer-Durand, Bulhtin epigraphique^ 1884, p. 263. Found " & TEnni- 
tage de Notre Dame de Laval, pr^s Colias (Gard)." An oblong stone employed 
aa ** moellon dans le mur meridional de la Chapelle." 

' Cf. perhaps the Gaulish colisatum a kind of chariot, Ir. cul. 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 163 

1^.' Inscription of Vieux- Poitiers.^ 

RATIN BRIVATIOM 

FRONTV . TARBEISONIOS 
lEVRV. 

That is : " Propugnaculum pontilium Fronto, Tarbeisoni 
filius/ fecit." 

The -TIN of ratin (=Ir. raith-n) is represented by a 

monogram in which the I joins horizontally the T and N. 

Brivatiom ('pontilium') is the gen. pi. of a derivative of 

hrita (bridge), in Brita laarae (Pontoise), Samaro-briva, Brivo- 

durum, etc., as u8{e)ilom infra is the gen. pi. of an *u8eilon-=' 

Lat. velum, C{, Latin genitives pi. like Romanom, seatertium, 

procum, paMcium, Wordsworth, 59. The Gauls seem to have 

kept the m in the genitive pi. to distinguish this case from 

the ace. sg. where, as in Greek, the primeval m was weakened 

to n. The prehistoric Irish changed m in both cases to n. 

Frantu is borrowed from the Latin name Fronto. Tarbei- 

9onm is a patronymic, supra No. 6. 

15. Inscription of Volnay} 

ICCAVOS . OP 
PIANICNOS . lEV 
RV . BRIGIXDONI 
CANTALON. 

That is : " Iccavos, son of Oppianos, made for Brigindu 
a canialon." 

Iccavos is connected with Icos, Iccius, Iccianus, Icco, 
Canialon, like nemeton and celicnon, is probably the name 
of some edifice, cognate with the cantus in Canti cantus, now 
Cachan (Seine). Pictet, however, regards it as the ace. sg. 
of *cantalo8, a Gaulish loan from Lat. cantharus. 

^ ** Sur la face nord d'un menhir plants an lieu dit Vieux-Poitiertj pr^s la riYe 
da Clain." — Dictiormaire archiologique de la Oaule^ InscriptioDB gauloises, Nos. 3 
et3 bit. 

* ** Pierre meplate prorenant de Yolnaj, consenr^e an Mus^e de Beaune. L'in- 
leription, gravee en beaux caract^res eur un champ refouille et jadis entonr^ d'un 
cidre, presente encore des refites du mastic rouge qui remplissait les creux dee 
lettres, ce qui permet, quoiqu*elle soit un pen fruirte, de la lire sans hesitation.*' — 
Jhd, Ko. 4. 



154 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 

16. Inscription of Autun} 

LICNOS • CON 
TEXTOS • lEVRV • 
ANVALONNACV • 
CANECOSEDLON- 

^'Licnos Contextos made for AnvaloDO&cos a golden 
chair." 

In its Latinised form Licnus occurs on an inscription near 
Aquileia (Kuhn's Beitr. iii. p. 428), and also as a potter's 
name at Bavai (Rev. Gelt. ii. p. 257), and seems cognate 
with liiccaim, LicaiuSy Licnos^ and the Ir. lecc^ W. llich (a 
flagstone). In con'textoa, as in EpcfS-a-texto-rigi^ No. 23, 
the group XT seems to stand for CHT, as in JEpa^-atexto^gi, 
infra, DIVIXTVS* compared with DIVICTA,' LVXTIIRIOC* 
=Lucferiu8^: PIXTILOS=PICTILOS,« VENEXTOC com- 
pared with Vennectis.^ The root may be teg, whence the 
Irish teg, tech (house), W. ty, the Gr. reyo? and the Lat. 
tego, teC'tum, O.N. thak^ Eng. thatch. In form, then, 
contextos is the Lat. participle contectus;^ but it probably 
had the active meaning of 'protector.' Of the god-name 
An-valofinacos the root must be ml, whence the Ogmic gen. 
sg. Valamni,^^ the Ir. verb subst./<ii7 (there is), and the Lat. 
valere. The intensive prefix an- is the Lat. an (up) in an* 
heh, cognate with Grr. ava, ai^o), and still kept in the neo- 
celtic languages, Ir. an-Jad (storm), Corn, an-auhel (gl. 
prqcella) = AV. en-awel, Br. am-prefan (rubeta). Siegfried 
conjectured that caneco-sedlon meant ' a golden chair,' and 
compared with -sedlon, the Lat. sella (for sedla), A.S. sell, 
Eng. settle, N.H.G. seszel, and W. gor-sedd, Ir. suide^ with 

^ *' Pierre m^plate ayec cadre et champ refouill^ pour rinscription, troavee 4 
Autun, et conserv^e dans le Mus^e archeologique de cette ville." — Jbid, No. 5. 

Cited by Mowat, Jiev. ArcheoL F^y.-Mars, 1878. 

Ibid. 

Hucher, Rev. Celt. ii. p. 100. 

Caesar, BtU. Oail. vii. 6. 

Key. Celt. i. p. 297. Hucher, VArt Gauloite, t ii. p. 162. 

Key. Celt. i. p. 298. Hucher, ioc. cit. p. 155. 

Mowat, Ioc. eit. from the inscription of Nizy-le-Comte, now in the mnsenm 
of Soissons. 

Other Gaulish participles in -to are KcArof , Crestuty Graptue^ Meittu, 
^ Rh^s, £arly Britain^ p. 282, from '* Hooyesmore in the parish of Aglish, 
CO. Cork, Ord. Sheet, 72." 



^ I 



i ^. 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLET STOKES. 155 

eaneco^ the Skr. kanaka ' gold.' Piotet, p. 39, justly objects 
that kanaka is not found in any other Aryan tongue, 
and that it is unlikely that Gaulish alone should have pre- 
served it. The Skr. cognate is, I think, kdncana (gold, 
golden), which Fick * compares with Gr. ianf/c6<;. Dor. Kvaxo^^ 
'yellow,' and Pruss. cucan (kiika-n) 'brown.' The Ir. plant* 
name canaeh, and Gr. /cvfJKo^y are also cognate. 

17. Inscription of Dijon? 

DOIROS • SEGOMARI 
lEVRV • ALISANV 

"Doiros, (son) of Segomftros, made (this) for AHsanos." 
Doiro8 is, perhaps, cognate with Lat. di-ruSf Gr. Sei-po^, 
Zend dcaSiha (fear), root dvi. 

18. Inscription of Alise? 

MARTIALIS • DANNOTALI • 
lEVRV • VCVETE • 80SIN 

CELICNON • ETIC • 

GOBEDBI • DVGIIONTIIO 

VCTETIN • 

IN • ALISIIA. 

" Martialis, son of Dannotalos, made this tower for 
TJcuetis, and the work pleased Ucuetis in Alisea." 

The name Dannotalos occurs also in No. 2. Ucuete must 
be the dative sg., as Ueuetin is the ace. sg., of the name of 
the person for whom the celicnon was made. Cognate is the 
potter's name Ueumus and the place-name Ucetia, If, as so 
regularly happens, these words have lost initial p, we may 
connect them with irvKUfo^, ttvkvo^. As Jacob Grimm and 
Bishop Graves saw independently, celicnon is the Goth. 

^ Bezz^berger's BeitrSftj ii. p. 196. 

* ** Snr le manehe d*une pat^re en bronze tronv6e pr^ de Dijon en 1853, et 
d^poi^ an Mos^ de eette Tille." — Diet, Arehiol. Inscription gaoloises, Nos. 6 
et6 3M. 

* '* Caiionclie aree monlures et qnenes d^aronde trouv6 snr le plateau d'Alise, 

Sort^ d'abord an Mns^e de Dijon, et rapports finalement & son lien d'origine dans 
) petit Mns^ qui j a ft6 constmit sor des fonds donnes par Napoleon III.** — 
Rid, No. 7. 







156 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 

loan-word kelikn, which Ulfilas uses twice for irvfyyo^ * tower/ 
and once for apwyaiov * upper chamber/ Furthermore, soain 
is identical with the aoai^v of No. 6 ; ed-c seems a conjunc- 
tion = at-que ; go-bedhi is a verb with the prefix go = Goth. 
gay and radically connected with W. boddaw * to please/ Skr. 
bhad-ra, hat, fastus, festitms fvoiiifad-tus, fed-twus, Goth, bats, 
Eng. better; and, as Ebel saw, dngeonteo (II, as in many 
cases, stands for E) is a fern, m-stem, from a participle e/«^t'on^, 
formed like Latin sapientia^ Gr. yepovaia for yepoima, and 
Gaulish Brigantia^ Acentia, Segontia, and from the same 
root as O.H.G. iugundi (Ebel, Kuhn's Beitr. v. 80, note), 
Goth, and A.S. dugan. This root, in its Indo-European 
form, must have been dhugh; and dhugh (according to 
Grassmann's law) would be rv^ in Greek, whence rev;^, 
T€i}xo9=N.H.G. Tvgend. 

19. Inscription of Ouiret (D6p. de la Creuse).^ 

SACER PEROCO 
lEVRV DVORI 
CO . V . S . L . M 

Sacer Peroco ieuru dvorico, v(otum) s(olvit) l(ubens) 
m(erito). " Sacer Peroco made (these) porticoes, 
votum," etc. 

Sacer seems borrowed from the Latin. Compare, however, 
the dimin. Sacrillos^ Kuhn's Beitr. iii. 188. Peroco is con- 
nected with the names Penis, Perillus, Peronius, Perulius, and 
possibly Piraco-bruna, Brambach, No. 760. Pictet regarded 
dvorico as an ace. pi. neut., meaning * porticoes,' of a dvoricon 
=Skr. dvarakd-m (gate). He quotes, in support of this view, 
two Latin inscriptions, in one of which (Orelli, 4956) Lucius 
Vallius Solon " porticum ex veto fecit " for Silvanus sanctus, 
and in another (Steiner, 4137) L. Servillius " porticum fecit 
pecunia sua " for Neptune. 

^ Pictet, Nouvel Easai tur les inaeriptiona Oauhiaea^ Paris, 1867, p. 46: 
Bulletin epigraphiqite^ 1881, p. 88, where M. F. YaUentin supposes that Dv9rieo 
is the name of a god in the dat. sg. Drawn, ibid. Planche iz. ng. i. 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 157 

20. Inscription of Nevers} 

ANDE 

CAMV 

LOSTOVTI 

SSICNOS. 

lEVRV 

That is : Andecamulos Toutissicnos ieuru. 

'' Andecamulos son of Toutissos made (this)." 

Here Ande»camula8 is a compound of the prep, ande and 
camulos, the name of a Gaulish war-god, represented, perhaps, 
by the Irish Cumal, gen. Cumail, the name of the father of 
Find,^ and cumal, gen. cumaile (a she-slave). It may be 
radically connected with Gr. xcifA'Pta, aiBijpotcfi'q^y and with 
the Skr. fam (work), and the verbal stems pra-gamat/a (to 
kill), pra-gdmaya (to conquer). Toutissos is a derivative 
of touta (folk), as to which see Nos. 2 and 6. 

21. Inscription of Vieil Evreux} 



. 8 • CRISPOS BOVI 

. RAMEDON 

. . AXTACBITI • EV 

DO CARABITONV 

NIA SEIANI SEBOQQV • 

REMI FILIA • 
ODRVTA GISACI CIVIS SVES 



''II y a 1& un singulier melange de noms propres et de 
mots gaulois et latins, et il est impossible d*en tirer aucun 
sens continu." — Pictet, Essai, p. 49. He conjectures that 
ramedon is an ace. sg., meaning a road, and compares the 
Ir. rdmat, Skr. ranfu, from ram-tu:=zW, crych. Crispos is the 
nom. Aztacbiti is the verb : eu (leg. eH ?) seems the dat. sg. 
of a pronoun and=Lat. ed", . Caraditonu and SehoBBu are also 
datives sg. 

^ Becker, in Kuhn a. Schleicher's Beitrage, iii. 167. 

' Out of Find mace Cumail Macpherson has manufactured his Fingal, 

^ ** Fragment de tahle en hronze existant an Mus^ d'Erreux, et prorenant de 

fooiUes faites an lieu dit Vieil ^vreux,*' — Dictionnaire Arch., Inscr. gauloises, 
2!o. S. 



158 CELTIC DECLBN8I0N.-DR. WHITLET ^KES. 



22. Inscription of Batai? 



VRITVES 



CIHGOS 



That is : wnYw, {vritu ?) JEacingos. "Excingos made (this)." 

Here, if we read uritUf we have a formation from y/ur, 
to make, supra, No. 6. If we read vritu, we have a forma- 
tion from ^ver (whence also Ir.feraim). In either case, the 
formation resembles camitu, No. 1. Ea-cingoa^ is a compound of 
the prepositional prefix ex and cingm (valiant), also in AtS" 
cingusy and cognate with Cingetua^ Cingetorix, Ver^cingetorix. 

23. Inscription of Niris'les-Bains (Allier),^ 

BRATRONOS 
NANTONICN 
EPADATEXTO 
RIGI . LEVCVLLO 
SVIOREBE . LOCI 
TOK. 

That IS : Bratronos Nantonicn[os) Epadatexforigi Leucullosu 
iorebe hcifo-k,* " Bratronos, son of Nantonios, made 
(this) acceptably (P) for Epassatectorix Leucullosos." 

Bratronos is a noun derived from Jrd/^r= Lat. /rater, as 
pntronuH from pater, Nantonicn is an abbreviation of 
Nantonicnos, a patronymic like Druticnos and others col- 
lected, supra. No. 1, meaning 'son of Nantonios.' This 
name occurs, in its Latinised form Nantonius, on an inscrip- 
tion now in the museum at York {Matribus M. Nantonius 

^ On a pateVa^ ** ou assiette k bords ^vbs^, de 19 centimetres de diam^tre." 
B. Mowat, Comptes-rendtu eU V Aead^mie d^s inscriptiattt et belles-hUret, Decembre, 
1880, Eettie Celtique, v. 119, 120. 

^ Also in the compounds £xcinffo-kUi», ExeingO'tnagM, Mowat, Explieaium^ 
etc., p. 9. 

' Rmm* Archeologique^ F^vrier et Man, 1878. Bevtu Celtiqut, y. 116. Oil 
a square block of calcareous stone, now in the museum of Cluny. 

* The last letter ' consiste en un iambage auquel s'appuie un trait oblique, i 
la mani^re da bras sup6rieur d'un K.' 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DB. WHITLEY STOKES. 159 

Orhiotal{us) r. s, L m.), and is a derivative from nanto- 
' valley.' Epass-atexto-rigi is the dat. sg. of a compound of 
rix (rex), like (Marti) Albio-rigi,^ (Marti) Catu-ngi,'^ (Apol- 
lini) Toutio-rigi} The other elements are, first, epasa cognate 
with the Greek stem imraS in linrd^ (cavalry), and the Gaulish 
epo-redicaa ('bonos equorum domitores'), Epona ('mulionum 
dea'), Epamaigmy Epaticctis; Tr. ech, W. ep in ebawl; and, 
secondly, atexio-, from atecto (supra. No. 16), itself a compound 
of the preposition a and iedO', a participle formation from the 
root teg, ** Atextorix pourrait done avoir la signification de 
' chef protecteur,' et subsequemment Epadatextorix celle de 
seigneur protecteur, dieu tutelaire des chevaux ou de la cava- 
lener 

The fourth, fifth, and sixth words M. Mowat reads 
Leuculh suiarebcy locitoi ; he takes Lettcullo to be a dat. sg. of 
Leucullos, a diminutive like CintulluSy Marcellm : he supposes 
that 8u is the common laudatory prefix, and he conjectures 
that ' iuiorebe locitoi' may mean something like ''libenter 
ex voto posuit.^' But, first, Leucullos is an o-stem, and the 
Gaulish dat. sg. of o-stems ends in H, not in 6 ; secondly, in 
neoceltic, and therefore, probably, in Gaulish, the prefix su 
(W. Ay) is found with nouns and adjectives, but never with 
Terbs ; and, thirdly, the last letter of the sixth word is k, not t. 
Leneullo8us doubtless means, and is cognate with, Lat. ltk!U' 
lentus. The Latin name Lucullus, apparently, M. Mowat 
thinks, borrowed from Cisalpine Gaul, like Oalba, Livius, 
PUnius, and Vergilius — ^is also cognate. So is AovKerui, as 
the Emperor Julian^ calls the bright city of the Ilapiaiou 
Non-celtic cognates will be found in Gurtius, G.E. No. 88. 
For the suffix -oso from onao cf. Toldsa, and Lat. Marcelldstis. 
The verb iorebe is certainly cognate with eioypov, ieuru which 

^ Revue des Soci6t^ aaTantee, 6* s^rie, torn. i. (1875), p. 166. 

* Orelli, No. 1980. I hare not yerified this or the last reference. 
' Brambach, No. 1629. 

* MtMopoaoH (ed. Teabner, 1876), p. 438. The spelling Lutetia is due to 
scribal connision of e and t, '*0u pent croire/' says M. mowat, *^que cette 
denomination [Lue^iia] a ponr origine la coaleur claire du calcaire employ^ dans 
It coBstmction du chef-lien des Parisii, on P exploitation des carridres renomm^s, 
de pldtre dont il ^tait entonr^ : comparez Ic nom de rille Alba, tr^s-frcquent, et 
edni de Robnea (ponr Rubriea " la rouge "). 



160 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 

occurs on so. many other inscriptions. As to loeitoky I con- 
jecture it to be a formula analogous to brdtu-de, and to consist 
of the ablative ^ing. of lociton — which, with regular loss of 
p, is=Lat. placitum^^ and cognate also with TrXaf and flach — 
and a -k which I take to be a postposition=Lat. ec (in 
ec-ferOy ec-fatm, ec seprodunto), Gr. ix and which, in neoceltic, 
is found in the prep, ech-tar, W. ^lY^r, =08C. eh-trad (extra). 
For other postpositions see supra No. 7. 

24. Inscription of Beautnont (near Vaison).* 

IVBRON 
SVMELI 
VORETO 
VIRIVS . F . 

" An inbron Suraelis son of Voretoviros made." 

A mixed inscription, all the words, save the Gaulish accu- 
sative, being Latin or Latinised. 

The translation is due to Rhys. Here Sumeli (for Sutnelisf) 
is the nom. sg. of an t-stem compounded (like Su-meionius, 
Steiner, 2875) of the prefix su, and a cognate of the name 
Meii^^ius (Quicherat, Melanges, 368), Ir. mi/is (sweet), W. 
melys, Gr. /liXi, Lat. mel, Goth, tnilith. It seems to occur 
(again without the final s) in the Pyrenaean inscription 
(Kuhn's Beitr. iii. 188), Deo Baicorixi Andossu Piando[s] 
Somili ^f{ecit) v, s. L m, Voretovirius is a Latinised patronymic 
like those explained supra, No. 6. The father's name, 
Voretoviros f would be in Welsh gwaredtcr 'succourer,' O.W. 
gtioretur, from guo (=Gaul. vo in voberg{ensis), roredos, Gluck, 
K.N. 89), and the root ret, whence the Ir. verb foirithim 
(I succour), and the Old- Welsh an-guorit, an-gnoraut. lubron 
may possibly be cognate with Lat. iubar, and mean a lamp or 
candelabrum. 

^ For Gaulish o=Lat. a, cf. mori (sea), Lat. mare and broga$y Lat. margoy 
Goth. mark. 

* ** Autre fragment de cippe en pierre de Beaumont/* A. Deloye, bibL de 
TE'cole des Chartes, 1847-1848, 2>»« s^rie, t. iv. p. 326, No. yiii. Becker, Kuhn's 
Beitr. iii. 167. 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 161 

Pictet regards Sumeii and Voreto (rectius Sumele Voretu) 
as dativeSy and considers that the inscription commemorates 
the making of a vase by Virins for Sumelis Voretos, an un- 
known Gaulish god. 

25. Inscription of Bourges} 

BVSCILLASGSIOLEGASITINALIXIEMAGALV 

That is : Buscilla Sosio legasit in Alixie Magalu, 

" Buscilla Sosia placed (this) in Alisia to Magalos.'' 

Here Bmcilla is a diminutive like Ex-cingilla, OabriHa, 
Vindilla^ and many others, from a root the same as that of 
Lat. fuscNs, Soshf nom. sg. of a fem. 2(2-stem, the second 
name of Buscilla, seems borrowed from the Boman Sosia. 
Legasit y like loga-n supra No. 1, comes from the root leg, log. 
Alixie (x here, as often, replacing s) is the abl. sg. of the fem. 
to-stern Alisio, and Magalu is the dat. sg. of the masc. o-stem 
Magalos, here the name of a deity, is in Livy (xxi. 9) 
that of a king of the Boii. 

26. Inscriptions on three Galloroman altars found in 

Notre-Dame.^ 

These altars are now in the Mus^e des Thermos et de I'hotel 
de Cluny. The first, like each of the others, has four sides : 

12 3 4 

HB- CAESARE- EVEISBS SEXANI VSEILOM 

AVGIOVIOPTVMO 

1UXSVM0(S)V(MM0) 

KAVTAE-PARISIACI 

PVBLICE- POSIERV 

NCT) 

That is: Tiberio Caesare Augmto lovi Optumo Maxsumo 
Sumtno Nautae Parisiaci puhlice posierunt .... 
eurises senani useilom (leg. usellom?). 

^ " Tnicee k la pointe snr le col d'un vase de terre noire h large ouyerture qae 
■on ttfle parait lemonter aa IV si^le de notre dre." — IUvt4s arch^oioyique, vi. 
annfe ii. p. IS49-50, p. 554-666, with facsimile. Found in 1848. In possession 
of M. Ginurdot, Secretary of the Prefecture of the Cher-departments. 

* Drawn in Desjardins* GtographU hittorique et adminUtrativt de la CauU 

Phil. Tnuit. 188M. 11 



162 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLET STOKES. 

This is, as Cuno has seen, a bilingual inscription, the 
Oaulish words, euriaes aenani useihm^ being a 6*66 rendering 
of * nautae Parisiaci posienint.' The word now illegible on 
the second side of the altar was probably the Gaulish 
expression corresponding with * publico.' Eur-i-ses seems to 
be a verb in the third pi. pret. act. corresponding with 
Latin forms like dixere from dic-fiese. The nom. is senan't, 
nom. pi. of senanos (an ancient), a derivative from seno-s^ 
(old, in Seno-gnatOy Muratori, p. 1282, No. 5), cognate with 
Ir. «e;j, W. hen, Lat. sen-ex. Only four letters of the next 
word namely V, I, L, and 0, are now legible. When Mautour 
made his copy, he read (say MM. Mowat and Desjardins) 
VSEILOM. This should probably be useliom, from ^vexellom, 
a gen. pi. (like brivatiom, supra) of the noun *vexellon=ljaX. 
rexillum, and cognate with t^lum from rexlum. Senani usellom 
must mean (as Pictet says) 'anciens des voiles,' a corporation 
of the mariners of the Seine. 

On the second altar are : 

12 3 4 

lOVIS VOLCANVS ESVS TARVOS • TRI • GARANVS • 

Under 1 is a figure of a sceptred Jupiter standing ; under 
2 is a Yulcan with a cape, a hammer in the right hand, 
tongs in the left ; under 3 a male figure with a lifted axe 
hewing branches off a tree; under 4 a bull, with, apparently, 
three forelegs and with three birds (cranes) on his back. 
In these birds Siegfried (Kuhn's Beitr. i. 473) suspected a 
reference to the Vedic Vishnu with the three strides, garan 
in Welsh meaning * crane ' as well as * leg.' 

Here Esus is the name of a Gaulish war-god. An ti-stem, 
as we see from the compound Esu-nertos. The e is long, as 
we see from Lucan's Hesus, 

Here, too, tarvos (Ir. tarbh, W. tarw) i8=Lat. tauruSf 
Gr. ravpo^y from rapFo^, Hence the dimin. Tarvillus, 
Steiner, No. 1484. Here, also, tn garanm means "three 

Romaim, Paris, 1885, t. iii. pp. 261-268 ; BtUhtin ipiqr. 1881, p. 49. On lihe 
third face of the fint altar Desjardins has EVRESES, hut Mowat {Bulktin 
epigraphique, 1883) ^ves EVRISES, which is likelier to he right. 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLBT STOKES. 163 

cranes," tri (It. tri) being the masc. numeral, and garan&s 
(from *garanous, *garanove%?) being the nom. pi. of an 
K-stem. 

On the third altar are : 

12 8 4 

CASTOR (POLLVX) CERNVNNOS SMERT(ULITAN)OS 

Here Cemunnos is over the figure of an old man, with a 

beard, long ears and staghorns, from which hang rings. It 

is cognate with the Galatian Kopvov, Ir. corn, Lat. cornu. 

Compare for the ending Adiatunnus (Caesar), and the fem. Ve- 

sunna, Vibunna. Stnertulitanos (M. Mowat reads SMERT . . . 

but the final -(W must have been recently legible) is over 

a male figure smiting a snake with a club. It is no 

doubt cognate with Mo-smerta, whose name occurs in fifteen 

lapidary texts, Smeriorix, and Smertullus. The gen. sg. Smer- 

tulitani occurs as a man's name in Brambach, No. 891. 

27. Inscription on a Oolden Ring. 

ADIA|NTVN I NENI | EXVE | RTIN | INAP | PISET | V 

That is : Adiantunneni Exvertini Nappiseiu, " Nappi- 
setu (gave this) to Adiantunnena (daughter) of 
Exvertinios." 

The ring is octagonal, belongs to the Roman epoch, was 
foand ''dit-on, dans un de nos d6partements de FEst,'' and 
ia DOW in the collection of the Academic des Inscriptions et 
Belles Lettres. 

Here Adiantunnena is connected with the Gaulish names 
Adiantunnoa, Adianto, Gliick KN. 6, 150, W. add-iant (long- 
ing), Ir. et (zelus), Skr. yatna. Ex-ver'tinios (compounded 
with the two prepositions ex and ver = inr€p) is radically 
connected with Gr. a0€uo^, adiveo^, S0ip€\o<:. Nappi^ is an 
»-item compounded with 9etu. For the pp, cf. the Gaulish 
names Drappes, Luppo, Peppo, Tapponia. The ^aetu is prob- 
ably nom. sg. of a stem in n, whence Setonius, De Wal, 
Myth. Septen. No. 314. 



164 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR, WHITLEY STOKES. 

t 

28. Inscf*iption of Poitiers,^ 

BISDONTAVRIONANALABISBISDONTAVRION 

DEANALABISBISDOXTAVRIOSDATALAGES 

VIMDANIMAVIMSPATERNAMASTA 

MAGIARSSECVTATEIVSTINAQVEM 

PEPERITSARRA 

Bis : Dontaurion anala . bis, bis. Dontanrion deanala . 
bis, bis. Dontautios data/ages. Vim danima. Vim 
spatemam^ asta. Magi ars secuta [est] te, Justina 
quern (leg. quam) peperit Sarra. 

Another mixed inscription, in corrupt Roman characters 
of the 5th or 6th century after Christ. The Celtic words 
possibly mean : " Breathe on Dontaurios : breathe away 
Dontaurios. Thou shouldst convict the Dontaurii. Embolden 
force." 

Don-taurm (ace. pi. Dontaurios) Siegfried supposed to be the 
name of a demon meaning ' Embryo-destroyer,' and connected 
don' with Skr. dhd}ict ' grain,' and taurio with the Aryan root 
tur^ fur ' to wound,' * to destroy.' Anala (blow), de-anala (blow 
away !) are verbs cognate with Ir. audi, W. anadl ' breath,' y/an. 
Compare Rv. 1. 33. 9, translated by Muir: "Thou Indra, 
with the believers, didst blow against the unbelievers ; with 
the priests thou didst blow away the Deisyu." Datalages 
seems 2nd sg. conj. of a verb derived from datalo:=iO,W. 
datl (gl. forum), dataleu (causae, judicia), Ir. ddl, Danima an 
imperative connected with Ir. ddna * bold,' ddnatu * audacia.' 
* Justina' is the virgin of Antioch,* whom, according to the 
well-known legend, the ' magus ' Cyprian endeavoured to 



* Traced on a plate of siher, probably an amulet. Facsimile opposite p. 170 of 
Euhn u. Schleicher's Beitrage, iii. Tentatively translated by Siegfried in a posthu- 
mous pamphlet On the Oauluh Jusrriplitm of Pnitieis^ Dublin, 1863. Prof. 
d*Arbois ae JubainTille's explanation (Kevue Celtique, i. 499) of dontaurion 
(which he reads gontaurion) as s KtvraOpuov is not convincing. Nor can I believe 
in his r0 analabis^Kcd dufoXafiris, eataUipes = KoraXAxcyTpSf and s=8[eiiicet], 

^ Low Latin lot paternam. So the Ir. loan-words »eipar (pepper) and spriidh 
(cattle) point to Low-l^tin »-pip^r, 9-pratda. 

' Tne maker of the spell either supposed Sarra to be Justina's mother, or 
confounded Antioch with Tyre ( = Sarra). 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR, WHITLEY STOKES. 165 

inflame with lust. The words seem a spell against male 
impotency rather than female sterility. 
To these inscriptions may fitly be added some 

Gaulish Coin-Legends, 
From the Dictionnaire Archeologiqiie de la Oauk, 

ABVDOS. ^<w- H4, 1645 (Bitiuig:e8). 

ATEVLA. S. VLATOS. No. 196. 

ATISIOS REMOS. No. lOS (Remi). 

BVCIOS. No. 163. 

CALIACIIIS. No. 168 (Camutes). 

COIOS J?. ORCITIRIX. No. 76 (Aedui). 

CO M M 1 OS . No. 89 (Atrebates). 

DIARILOS. No. 184. 

DIASVLOS. No 149 (Aedui). 

cf. Diablintreiy Gliick, K.N. 93. Here dia seems &s Or. 9td. 

DVBNOREIX. No. 66 (Aedui). 

DVRNACOS. No. 167. 

Lr. dornaeh, 
ECCAIOS. No. 86 (Remi). 
EAKECOOYIZ. -». TASGITIIOS. No. 73 (Camutes). 

EPENOS. -R. 6nHN0C(Remi). 

LVXTI I R lOS. No. 71 (Cadurci). 

Here as iu PIXTILOS infn, the X seems the Greek x» ^nd to 
represent the guttural spirant produced from ehjA subsequent 
t. If so, cf. Ir. luehtaire, 

MAGVRIX. No. 229. 

PICTILOS. No. 182 (Anremi). PIXTILOS- No. 228 (Aulerd). 

RATVMACOS. No. 46. 

SEQVANOIOTVOS (Sequani). 

Seems a compound : tequano'iotvot, Rev. Celt. ii. 276, n. 

SIMISSOS • PVPLICOS • LIXOVIO. £- CISIAMBOS • 
CATTOS • VERCOBRETO. No. 78. 

Here (as M. Mowat saw, £evue Celtique, t. pp. 122, 123) Lixovio and 
Vereobrtto are two nominatires in the dual, the former corresponding 
with Simisso$ and Puplieoty the latter with Cisiamboa and Cattot, 
ZixofHo is probably cognate with the tribe-name Lexovii ; but the 
meaning is obscure. Vereobretot, from vergobretoty with the 
hardening (common in Irish) of g after r, means * judicium exse- 
quens;' cf. O.W. guerg (gl. efficax) and Ir. breth (judicium). 

SVTICOS. A VELIOCA0I. No. 46 (VeUocasses). 



166 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 

TOQIRIX. No. 176 (Sequani). 
TVRONOS. -R. CANTOR IX (Turoiws). 
TVRONOS. J2. TRICCOS. 

VANDIILOS. No. 167 (Caniutea). 
VENEXTOS. No. 144 (Pariai). 

To these may be added ARTOS» ^^^ 0^<- i- 293, RENNO- 
OYI N AOC (Pennovindot), ibid. 297. BELI NOS» *^id, ii. 96. 

LIXOVIATIS, i^id. 100. BOIKOS, CICUTANOS, 

PENNILE,i*irf.iii.249. 

Endlicher's Glossary. 

De nominibm gallicis. 

Lugduno, desiderato montey dunum enim montem. 
Aremorici, antemarini ; quia are ante. 
Arevernus, ante obsta. 

Roth, violentum, Dan, et in gallico et in hebreo, iudiciam 
ideo hrodanus, index uiolentus. 
Brio, ponte. 

Ambe, riuo. Interambes, inter riuos. 
Lautro (for hutru?), balneo. 
Nanto, ualle. Trinanto, tres ualles. 
Anam [leg. Anan, Anian ?] paludem. 
Caio, breiolo sine bigardio. 
Onno, fiumen. 
Nate [leg. Gnate] fill. 
Oambiare, rem pro re dare. 
Avallo, poma. 
Doro, osteo. 

Renne, arborem grandem. 
Treicle, pede.^ 

OoHAM Inscriptions. 

Of these inscriptions the older have hitherto been found 
only in South Wales, North Wales (only one), Devon (only 
two), Cornwall (only one), and Ireland, " in the counties 

> CatalogUB Codd. M8S. Bibl. Palat. Vindob. pars i. Vindobonae, 1836, p. 199. 
The MS. containing this glossary is of the ninth century. Printed and com- 
mented upon in Euhn und Schleicner's Beitrage, ri. 227. . 



CELTIC D^LE29SION. — DR. WHITLBT STOKES. 167 

chiefly of Waterford, Cork, and Kerry." ^ Many of the 
Irish Oghams ha^e been wrongly read: about a third of 
Mr. Brash's readings are inaccurate, according to Prof. Rhys, 
from whom we may expect a critical edition of all the old 
inscriptions in the British islands. 

The Ogham characters with their equivalents in Roman 

letters : 
hdtcq aoati 

I II II, „„ iiiii ' " '" "" " - / // /// //// ///// I II III nil mil 

blrsn mgngilr 

The spirants ch and th are represented respectively by cc 
and tt This points to Britain as the domicile of origin of 
the Ogmic writing. For in Britain (not in Ireland) the 
sound-group cc became ch and tt became th. And p is 
made by a cross placed on, or to the right of, the stem-line. 
Let us begin with four British bilinguals. 

The Bilingual of Trallong (near Brecon). 
(Hiibner, Inscr. Christ. Brit. Ifo. 48.) 

CuNOCBNm FlUUS CUNOCBNI HlC lACIT. 

Ogham : Cunacennivi ilvveto. 
" The grave of the son of Cunocennos.'^ 

Here ilvveto seems = Ir. ilady ulad, protoceltic alceto, cognate 
with Lat. alceus. The -n of the other word is doubtful. 
Bat cf. the second word of the Tregoney inscription : Nonnita^ 
Ercilivi, Ricati^ tresfili Ercilini. 

The Bilingual of Cilgerran (Pembrokeshire). 

(Hiibner, No. 108.) 

Trenegussi fili Macutreni hic iacit. 

Ogham : Trefiaguau maqi tnaqi Trent. 

" (The stone) of Trenogustus, son of (the) son of Trenos." 

> Rlijrg, Celtie Britain, p. 248. ** The Oghams of Scotland need not be dis- 
CQned, as thej leem to be of later introduction, showing traces of the influence of 
manuKript writing on parchment.*' — Ibid. 217, 248. They are found in the 
counties of Fife, Aberdeen and Sutherland, also in the Shethmd Isles. The only 



168 CELTIC DECLBNSION, — DR. WHITLBT STOKES. 

Here Trenagtisu for Tre^mgnsus seems gen. sg. of an ti-stem, 
the final 8 being dropt. So on the Bridell stone (Hiibner, No. 
107) Nettaaagru magi mucoi Bred. Maqi is gen. sg. of 
maqos, whence Jr. mace and O.W. map have descended. It 
occurs, spelt macci, on the Inchaguile inscription : Lie 
Luguaedon maeci Menueh, It is cognate, according to Gliick 
(Rfinos, Moinos und Mogonti&con, 1865, p. 27) with TV", macu^ 
now magu (nutrire), Gr. fidteap, fjuiKp6<;, fir]KO(;, Lith. moku 
(possum), tna^is (potestas), macnus (potens). 

The Bilingual of St. DogmaeVs (near Cardigan), 

(Hiibner, N6. 106.) 

Saorani fili Cunotami. 

Ogham : Sagramni maqi Cunatami. 

" (The stone) of Sagramnos son of Cunotamos." 

Here Sagramni, cognate with (Netta) sagt*u supra and 
Sagarettoa infra, seems to be a middle participle (Gr. -fievo^, 
Lat. -mini), and Cunatami (W. Condaf) to be a superlative of 
the adj. cutw-s. 

The Bilingual of Fardel (Devonshire). 
(Hiibner, No 24.) 

(a) FANONI MAQVIRINI. (b) SAGRAMNI (P) 
Ogham : Svaqquci maqi Qici. 
Rhys conjectures that the svaqq- here i8= W. chwap * quick.' 

Let us now give fifteen of the numerous Irish Ogmic 
inscriptions. 

The Inscription of Whitefield (co. Kerry). 

(Ferguson.) 

{Du)nocati maqi maqi Re . . . maqi mucoi Uddamu 

" (The stone) of Dunocatos, son of the son of Re . . • , son 

of XJdamos." 

Compare the Latin part of the bilingual near Crickhowel : 
Turpilli to tacit puveri Triluni Dunocati. 

trustworthy collection of Irish Oghams yet published is the Faseiadua of Frinti 
from Photograph* of Casit of Ogham luteriptiofUf by Sir Samuel Ferguson. 
Dublin, 1881. 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — ^DR. WHITLET STOKES. 169 

The Inscription of Ballycrovane (co. Cork). 
(Rhys, Lectures, ii. 164.) 

maqi Decceddus avi Toranias. 

" The stone of the son of Doces grandson of Toranis." 

The gen. Decceddas occurs, spelt Decedda, in the inscription 
of Minard, co. Kerry : Maqqi Decedda is on one of the seven 
Ballintaggart inscriptions : Maqi Decceda Olasiconas = Ir. 
Glaschon, gen. of Qlaschu; and on one of the stones at Killeen 
Cormac, Maqi Ddeceda maqi Marin. 

The Second Inscription of Monataggart (co. Cork). 

(Ferguson, pi. iii. fig. 2.) 

Dalagni maqi Dali. 

" (The stone) of Dalagnos son of Dales." 

The Third Inscription of Monataggart. 
(Ferguson, pi. iii. fig. 3.) 

Broenioonas poinetat Trenalugos, 
"(The stone) of Broinio, the penitent (son) of Trenolugus. 



>f 



The Ogham character allows one to read the first word 
Broenienas, It is, in any case, the gen. sg. of a stem in n. 
In poinetat we have, I think, the abbreviated gen. sg. of an 
«^-8tem, borrowed from the Latin poenitens. The poi has 
hitherto been supposed to be the pret. sg. 3 of the verb 
Bubetantive and to occur in another inscription : Corpi poi 
macui Labradi, cited by Bishop Graves, Progs. R.I. A. i. 292. 
But Rh5^s has seen this monument, and reads it Corb^ tnaqi 
Labri'\. 

The Second Inscription of Ballghank (co. Cork). 
(Ferguson, pi. v. fig. 1.) 

Corbagni, 

" (The stone) of Corbagnos." 

This name would be *Corbdn or *Corpdn in Irish. 



I 



170 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLET STOKES. 

The Inscription o/JEmlagh East (near Dingle). 

Bruftccos maqqi Caliaci. 

" (The stone) of Bmscxis, son of Caliacos." 

The name Brmcu-8, gen.Bruscda, is latinised Broscus in Arm. 
9^ 2, gen. Bruaci, aco. Bruscumy ibid. 11* 1. With Caliaci (gen. 
sg of Calidcua) cf. the Gaulish coin-legend Caliaci lis, supra. 

The Inscription of BalUnrannig (Dingle Peninsula). 

Cci^aniini, 

The cc = ch is, as Rhys suggests, due to the vocalic 
desinence of the governing word, meaning ' stone ' or 
*body,* here, as elsewhere, omitted. 

The Inscription of Ardmore (co. Waterford). 
(Rhys, Brash, 247.) 

Lugud^ccas maqi (mu)coi Netasegamanas Dolati bigaisgobi. 

Here, Lugudeccas is certainly the gen. sg. of a c-stem, 
and=O.Ir. Luigdech^ gen. sg. o{ Lugaid. In Nit-a- we have 
a stem in t (=Ir. nia champion) and a connective vowel, and 
-seyamonus (also in the next inscription) is the gen. sg. of 
a stem in mon^ from the root sagh^ supra p. 147. 

The Inscription of Is/afid, Stradbally (co. Waterford). 

(Rhys, Brash, 253.) 

Cunanettas m(aqi) mucoi Nettasegamo^ms. 

Here, Cunanettas is the gen. sg. either of a stem in t {nU^ 
Ir. nia * champion,' gen. niath), or of a masc. stem in d, like 
paricida, tTTTroTa, and Vedic panthd. For Gaulish masc. d- 
stems see infra. 

The Inscription of Killorglin. 
(Progs. R.I. Academy, January, 1885, p. 279.) 

Oaleotos. 

gen. sg. of a stem in t. Cognate with Ir. gal, Gaul. FaKaTTf^. 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — ^DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 171 

The Inscription of Ballytciheen (co. Kerry). 
(Bishop Graves, Progs. R.I. Academy, Jan. 1885, p. 281.) 

Togitacc maqi Sagareitos. 

Here Togitacc should certainly be Togitacci, gen. sg. of 

*Togitacos^ which in Old-Irish would be ^Toigthach^ or (with 

forward- working assimilation) ^Toigthech. Bishop Graves 

identifies Togitacc with Toictheach^ a name occurring in the 

Annals of the Four Masters, a.d. 808. But this would be, 

in primeval Irish, Toccitecon (cf. Gaul. Toccinus), or Tonciteco-s. 

I connect our *Togi'tacoa with the numerous Gaulish names 

beginning with togi-, collected by Gliick in his Keltische 

Namen, p. 71, n. 2 : Togi-rix, Togi-sonus, Togius, Togia^ 

Togionius, Togidia^ TogiacuSp Togiacia. The second element 

of the name, taco-s, may be cognate with the Old- Welsh 

TnmttmftUf Teggd, unless, indeed, this be borrowed from the 

^ i«. As to the gen. sg. Sagarettos^ Bishop Graves 

ys, '* Now I can hardly believe that any scholar 

ion the following etymological equivalence : — 

Sacerdos = Sacerd = (Ir.) Sagart = Sagarettos," 

Jiinks that Sagarettos is a loan-word "of a comparatively 
f period, pedantically disguised by a Greek termination 
... the nominative ending " in -o«. But, first, the Old- 
/rish representative of sacerdos is sacard or sacart (G. C. 61, 
69, 226), gen. sacaird^ and the c in this word did not sink to 
g until after the twelfth century. The inscription must 
therefore, according to Bishop Graves, have been engraved 
after the twelfth century, which is impossible. Secondly, 
according to Bishop Graves, a word with a nominative 
ending is here '^ made to do duty in grammatical regimen as 
a genitive,'' which is unlikely. Sagarettos is the gen. sg. of 
a genuine Irish stem in t. It probably stands for *8agretos 
(the second a being a vowel fragment), and is cognate 
with the Sagramni of the St. Dogmael's bilingual and the 
{Nett€h)sagru of the Bridell stone. The European root seems 
sag (whence, also, irajfj, sagum) : the suffix, ret 



172 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 

The Bilingual of Killeen Cor mac (co. Kildare). 
(M. Stokes, Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii. pi. i.) 

IVVENE DRVVIDES. 

Ogham : Ovanoa avi Ivacattoa, 

" (The stone) of luvenis grandson of Ivocatis " (Eochaid). 

This is the reading preferred by Prof. Rhys, who has 
examined the stone. Others read Uvanos avi JEvacatto9, 
With Ovanos {Uvanos), Lat. juvenis (the gen. sg. of an 
n-stem) is identical. 

The Inscription on Brandon Mountain. 
(Rhys, Lectures, ii. 348.) 

Qrimitirros, 



it 



(The stone) of a priest (' Cruimther '=Low Latin prebiter, 

presbt/ter, W. premier, pnjfder). 



The Inscription of Ballintaggart. 
(Rhys, Lectures, ii. 25, 353.) 

tria maqa Mailagni. 

" (The stone) of (the) three sons of Mailagnos. 

Mailagnos would be Mdeldn or Moeldn in Irish. 



99 



The Inscription of Roovesmore (now in the British Museum). 

(Rhys, Lectures, ii. 187.) 

maqi Ercias maqi Valamni, 
" (The stone) of the son of Ercis, son of Valamnos." 

Following the example of Pictet (Nouvel Essai, etc., 
pp. 80-86) I will now sum up the grammatical results de- 
rivable, first, from these inscriptions and legends ; secondly, 
from the Celtic words which seem to have been handed down. 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 173 

in their original forms, by Greek and Roman writers,^ and, 
lastly, from the Glossary, printed supra p. 166. 



Vocalic Declension. 

Masc. 0-stems : sg. nom. -os : tarros, and the proper 

names Abudos, Andecamulos, Bimmoa, JBratronos, Cassitaloa, 

Caftos, CemunnoSf Cisiambos, Contextos, Cri^os, Dannota/os, 

DiariloSf Diasuhs, Doiros, Euenon^ JEscingos, Iccavoa^ Kvi{n)to8, 

Legates, Licnos, Pictilos, Puplicos, Itatumacos, Remos, 

Segomdros, Simissos, Suticos, Tecos, Turonoa, Vandelos, 

VenextoHy Vlatos, Vritacon : the patronymics in -cnos : 

Dniti'Cnos, Nantoni'Cn{o8), Oppiani-cnoSf Toutissi-cnas, Versi- 

cno8, the river-name *Aovo^ (PtoL), the plant- name odocos 

in Marcellus Burdigalensis. Gen. -i: Ategnati, Dannotali, 

Druticni, Segomari, Sexii, the Ogmic avi, maqi, and the proper 

names Bred, Cunacennivi, Cunatami, Dali, Dolntiy {Du)nocait\ 

Qrici, Sagramni, Svaqquci, Trmi, Uddami, Valamni, and the 

patronymics Corhagni, Dala-gni, Maila-gni. Dat. -fi : Alisanu, 

Antaionnacu, CaraOitonn, Magalu, Andossu, SeboOdu, and 

(if the Limone inscription be Gaulish) Ohuldinu Tinu. 

Voc. [g^nate. Dual nom. -d: vercobrefo. Plural nom. -o/, -i: 

Da{n)noialicn(n, asoioi (P), Senani and perhaps Strabo's BdpSov 

and Arrian's ovipTparyoL (gl. 7roS(OK€i<; /cvv€<;). Gen. the 

Ogmic maqa{m). 

Keuter o- stems : sg. nom. AffovSUucov (Ptolemy) : Kapvov 
TTjp adXTrirfya (Hesych.) ; dat. lautro (gl. balneo) : ace. celicnon, 
canecO'Sedlan, cantalon, iubran ; nemeton (awifyovTO Se etV top 
fcaXovfjLevov Apwep-erov, Strab.), abl. dorb, Lug-duno, tiantd 
(gl. valle), Endl. Gl., and (with suffixed prep.) locitd-k. 
Plural nom. (or ace. ?) tri nantd (gl. tres valles), Endl. Gl. 
aralid (gl. poma) ibid., and many place -names in -oca, e.g. 
Canabiaca, Curmiliaca, Solimariaca, Tasicaca. Gen. useliom (?) 
'velorum'; ace. dvorico, cantena. 
Masc. JO-stems : sing. nom. AHaios, Andocombogws, 

^ Collections of these words are in Diefenbacb's Origines Europaeae, Frankfort, 
1861, and in de Bellogaet^s Eihnoginie Gauioisef Paris, 1872. 



174 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITI^ET STOKES. 

Bacios, Commios, JEiuscanios^ Esandecotti, Luxterios (i.e. 
LuchterioSj Ir. luchtaire), Sefubogios, Tarbetsonios, Olicios (Rev. 
Celt. ii. 412). Lucian's *'07/ito9, Ptolemy's Noovio^, now the 
Nith. For -fo« we find -eos in Andarevisseos, Condt'lleas, 
Illiaceos, Liiumareos, Tasgiteon^ ViUoneos. Whether CWm 
and Eccaios are o-stems or to-stems I catinot say. With the 
latter of. the dat. Bedmo^ Orelli, 1964, Mammahis. Gen. 
Exvertini and Ogmic Cicamtm, avi. Accusative, JDontauHon. 
Dual nom. lixovio. Plural acc. dontaurios (i.e. -fos). 

In composition Jgio-marus, Ounio-rix,^ Magio-rix, Toutio- 
rix, NUio-gennay Novio-magua^ Nerio-magus, Argio-talus, 
Stems in aio : Bedahts. 

J-steras : masc. sing. nora. Corns, Sumelils], the river-name 
fpovTi^ (Ptol.), the plant-names baditis (nymphaea) in Mar- 
cellus Burdigalensis, and ratis (fern, Ir. raith, W. rhed), Ven. 
Fortunatus' vernemetis fanum ingens, Cicero's mataris, are^ 
pennis (derived from arepo-, aporpov, Rev. Celt. iii. 131) : adj. 
namausatis,^ sassaria : gen. the Ogmic Toranias, Ercias, Eva^ 
cattos (leg. -()«), dat. Uctiefe, ambe (gl. rivo) : acc. sg. Ucuefin, 
ratin. Plural gen. britatiom (cf. melhm), Ogmic tria (for 
Man), acc. inter ambes (gl. inter rivos), Endl. Gl. 

Strabo's gloss, Ovdrei^; Sk Upoiroioi kclI <l>v<n6\j6yoi, may 
possibly preserve the Gaulish nom. pi. of vdtis. So Isidore's 
A/pets seems the nom. pL of Alpia. 

Neut. t-stems : sg. nom. perhaps condate (confluence), acc. 
renne (gl. arborem grandem). 

/-stems in composition : Cassi-talas, Mori-cambe, Mori- 
ioHguSy Tati'Cenus (leg. -genus) , (Brambach, 407), Ogri- 
genus, Brogi-mara, Ande-broci-i^ (leg. -brogi-), Cogi-dubnus, 
Epo-redi-rix, Magi-marus, Mati-donnm, Taxi-mag iilus, Teni- 
genonia. 

Z7-stems : masc. sing. nom. Esus, Tetumtis, gen. the Ogmic 
Brusccos (leg. -ds), Trenalugos (leg. -6s), but in Britain 
Nettasagru, Trenagusu: abl. brdtu-de and karnitu, which, 

^ Deo Ouniorigi Satumalii Pauli Jtliua ex voto p{p»u%t). Inscription found at 
Chatclet (Haute-Mame), Qnicberat, Milange8^ 405. 

' Ab Martialis (inscription of Alise) is borrowed from the Latin, I do not cite it 
here. I am not sure whether VelioeaBi is a nom. sg. standing for VcUoeattis, or 
the nom. pi. of an o-stem. 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — ^DR. WHITLET STOKES. 175 

thoagli a verb, is, like the Lat. supine in tu, originally the 
abL 8g. of a stem in u. Plur. nom. Lugoves, garanUa : ace. 
I'amitu8y also a verb, but originally the ace. pi. of an 
tt-stem. 

Neut. ti-stems : onno (from onnii ?) ; vasso in Vasso 
Galatae, the name of the temple of the Arvemi (Greg. 
Tur. Hist. Franc, i. c. 30), is from vassu=Gr. Fdarv, Skr. 
vastu, vdstu. 

As the first element of a compound : JBitu-rix, Belatu- 
eadmSy Bussu-gnata, Catu-sualis, Cintu-gnatuSy lantu-marus, 
Litti'tnara, Lugu-dunum, Matidu-bratius, Matu-genus, Medu- 
getitu, Vitu-durum, Esu-nertus, Iteitu-genus (Kuhn's Beitr. iii. 
198), Itextu-genos,^ Smertu-litantiSf Taranu-ono. 

Masc. d-stems*: Ateula (=Ateura, Rev. Celt. ii. 508), 
dugiacQy and a number of potters' names cited by Pictet 
from Froehner and Steiner.* Verica on a British coin. 
Atepilkif Rev. Celt. iii. 157. Gen. sg. perhaps Oalatae in 
the name (Vasso Galatae) of the temple of the Arvemi : 
ace. 8g. fidpKav (horse, Paus. x. 19) ; n. pi. Belgae, Vokae, 
Celtae (' qui ipsorum lingua Celtae, nostra Galli appellantur,' 
Caesar), Bacaudae (Aurel. Victor). 

Feminine d-stems : sg. nom. Buscilla, qasava, perhaps 
braca^ Cebenna (Plin.), brica (bridge) and Pliny's alauda (lark), 
Ptolemy's BotwtvBa, Buvinda, Ptolemy's Arjova, Biva^ and the 
Abona (Avon) of the geographer of Ravenna. Cumba (valley) 
ziiKv/jifirf, *2)iro«a(=Skr. devana), Celtarum lingua, fons addite 
divis.' Quintilian's reda, Festus' benna, bulga, Jerome's leuga, 
Strabo's iaina, Apuleiua' pempedula (cinquefoil), Servius' amella 
(thyme, from *ampella, cogn. with apis, ifiirk), another plant- 
name Kopva (apyefitovTi) Diosc, Isidore's caterca^ arinca, bascauda 
(basket, also in Martial), Bebronna, betulla (Fr. boule), crotta. 
Some have -d for d like Gr. NiK&y Goth, fwtflj^'t), niiij6 : thus 
Tarkno Vbsseno, and the names Banio, Cobluto, Fremantio 
and perhaps Vitou-surio, cited by Mowat, Bulletin ^pigr. 
1881, p. 56, and the Ogmic ilvreto gen. Kvi[nyes, Vepisones : 

^ Fint pointed out by Pictet, Essai, 56. 

* JUvtu dea S**cUUm SavanUs, 1 TiiL 1878, p. 105. 

' Cabaca, Cacava, Feaa, lusa, Lossa, Lora, Marca, Masa, Rica, Yaga, Yeca. 



176 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 

dat. Beksami, Adiantnnneni : ace. hgan, anam (leg. anan) : 
abl. brio (gl. ponte) : pi. dat. namaiisicabo : ^ ace. artvass. 

Feminine m-stems : sing. nom. Qaninio^ SosiOf dugeonteo, 
camUia^ cervisiay cateia, artemia. Columella's atinia {-ea), the 
river-name l)ruentia (Durance), and Isidore's taxea : geu. 
Qicoremies: ace. the rptfiapKuriav of Pausanias: abl. Alisea, 
Alixie. 

Masculine e-stems may be ake-a (Fick, iii. 28, s.v. elha)^ 
TaicraTq^ (Polyb.), TaKaT7j<iy and 6 fiavuifcrf<;» 

Feminine e-stems Tunccetace^ Moricamhe and perhaps the 
names of the rivers Aniane, Orbione : the mountain Miniate : 
the towns Abailone, Alanthione^ Albarnone, Arelate, Arenione^ 
Bannave-m (ace. for nom.), Confessio S. Patricii, Brivate^ 
Cabilloney Carpentorate, Cerate, Divione, Lerate, ifatiscone, 
Iteiteste, Sigusterone^ Tarascone. 'Menimanii,' Rev. Celt, 
iii. 302. 

Guttural stems : (7-stems : sing. nom. esox : ledpvu^ 
(trumpet, Eustath.) : gen. Illafioviakos, Ogmic Lugudeccaa 
(protoceltic Lagudecos, nom. Lagn-d^x ju-dex) : nom. pL 
perhaps the tribal names ending in vices, cognate with Skr. 
rig, in vigpati, Lith. visz in vhzpata. I3pax&: (Hesych.) : ace. 
pi. Sassigniacas, a corruption of Saxoniacas, now Sassegnies, 
Quicherat 38, **eporedicas Galli bonos equorum domitorea 
vocant" (Pliny, iii. 17, 21, ed. Sillig) ; but the readings 
'ias, 'ioSy 'icoSy also occur, tr-stems: DubnoreiXy Elceaavixy 
JEscingoreix, MagnriXy OrcitiriXy TogiriXy Nvpa^ TroXi? KeXTi^tcij 
(Hecataeus) : dat. Epdiatextorigi, PL n. AXKo-fipoye;, PtoL 
ace. Biturigas^ (Florus and Greg. Tur.). 

jR-stems : sing. nom. perhaps the plant-name /SoKKop 
(Dioscorides), and the river-names Arary Liger : gen. the 
Ogmic Qrimitirros : plural dat. wdfrebo. 

iV-stems: sing. nom. Nappi^efUy Frontu Peroco, Alingu, Bev. 
Celt. ii. 137. Quintilian's caaamo 'adsectator ' and the place- 
nameAballo (Avallon) are Latinised just as Ptolemy's Apafiwv,^ 

1 As to the loss of s here and in matrebo, compare the Lucretian infantibuy 
omnibUf rebti, 

' This and the other examples of the ace. pi. of Gaulish consonantal stems are 
taken from the HeTue Celtique, i. 320 (d'Arbois), ii 403 (Ebel). 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLET STOKES. 177 

Aretseas' aairoov, are Chrecised. Stems in ion : the plant-name 
blutthagio (Marc. Burdig.), and place-names such as Brigantio 
(Brian9on), Cff6^//io (Cavaillon), Divio (Dijon), Vesontio (Besan- 
9on), Fa«iV>(yaison), Jfi>2un(>(Rev.Celt.ii.413) : gen.theOgmic 
BroinioonaSy Olasi-eanas, Segamonas uvams : ace. perhaps 
y€\a<rov€Pf Dioscor, Plur. nom. Kevrpove^ (Ptol.), LingdnUn 
(Lacan), acc. Ceutronas (Tab. Peat.), Lingdnds (Lucan, Tac., 
Eutrop., and Tab. Peut), Pictonaa (Oros.), Santonas (Greg. 
Tur.), Senonas (Ores.), Sexsionas (Greg. Tur.), Suessonas (Itin. 
Anton.), Suessionas (Gh-eg. Tur.) Pictones, Itidonea, (Pi^Sove^), 
Santones, Ambrones, Combennonea (Festus), Kovpuov&Sy Suea^ 
aidnea. Neut. m^n-stems ; curmen, Ducange. 

jf-stems: sing. nom. perhaps toutim: gen. Ogm. Sagarettoa^ 
Oaleotoa. PL Comacatea (Plin.), Caeracates (Tac), Atrebatea 
(CsBsar), and Diablintea : acc. Camitaa (Florus), Atrebataa 
(Oros.), Namnetaa (Greg. Tur.), CurioaoHtaa (Caes.). A 
nom. pi. of a neuter ^-stem perhaps is 'Keyoua-fiara or 
XeiovcfJuiTa^ the Galatian for a kind of mailcoat (Hesych.), 
where leguama in form resembles Xvyurfia. 

CT'&tema : PI. nom. Sikaneetea, acc. -ew. 

iVjT-stems : sing. nom. hiiaa ex {p)ient'8 ? of. Lat. Hbea 
for libenSf Wordsworth, 22: dat. dec Mogonti, De Wal., 
No. 168-171 : pL nom. Tnnovantea (Tacitus) = T/oti/oainr€9 
(Ptol.). 

2>-stems : sg. gen. Decceddaa : nom. pi. druidea (Csesar), 
and perhaps aSe^ ' troSe^, Hesych.=Skr. pddaa: gemmadea 
(''mulieres lucae dominicae linguae gallicae," Gloss. Isid.) 
* caTalry.' 

iS- stems: Clitophon's AovyvBovpo^: (=Dio Cassius' Aovyov^ 
ioww) embodies the protoceltic reflex of the Irish neuter a- 
8tem dun. Ptolemy's OmvS6'fjLaryo<:=:zlT. Findmag,W. Oxoynfa} 
PL nom. Baio-caaaea, Duro-caasea, Tri-caaaea ; acc. Tricaaaaa 
(Amm. Marc.). 

AHa-maria^ Cariia-mandua, and Civia-marua (Gliick, K.N. 

^ The gen. sg. of a word belonging to this declension, ma)r, according to Rh^s, 
Lectures, ii. 398, be in the last word of the Llandysilio inscription : Clotorigijili, 
ftuUini marinilatio ( < of the seaside ' ), where he thinks IcUio is for lateto =\jB.t. 
UtiriM. Ir. lethe. But I suspect we should read C. /. P. Marini latio, eouate iatio 
iritii W. lUid, and translate : '* the clay of Clotorix, son of Panlinus Marinus." 

PhU. Tram. ISSM. 12 



178 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES* 

133), seem to exhibit ^-sterns in composition. But perhaps 
we should analyse thus : Att-smaria, Carti-imandua^ Civi' 
9maru8. 

An /-stem is, possibly, treicle (pede), Endl. GI. In com- 
position we haye /-stems, perhaps, in AriaUdunum and 
Bisal'dunum (d'Arbois, Introduction^ p. 26). Does the Old- 
Irish Feccol (uiri, id est servi Feccol Ferchertni, Arm, 3^ 1) 
belong to this declension P 

The form go-bedbi, which Pictet (Nouvel Essai, p. 86) cites 
as the ablative plural of a stem in d, is certainly a verb. 
The prefix go is perhaps equal to the Gothic ga-, and the 
suffix 'bi, like the suffix -be in iorebe, is equal to Lat. -riY. If 
axtacbiti in the inscription of Vieil-IJvreux be rightly read, it 
seems to embody the oldest form of this suffix. The b here 
is probably written for v (cf. proper abit on the Margam cross). 
In to-me-decavi the v is kept. The root of ax-tac-biti 
is takf to which Fick, i. 588, refers tIktw and rda-ato for 
ra/c/o). 

The other verbs in the Gtiulish inscriptions are : 

anala (blow), d^anala (blow away), danima, imperatives 
act. in sg. 2. The etic, which Pictet explains as an impera- 
tive, seems to me a conjunction, equal to the Lat. atque,^ 

i-euru, ei-atpov 'fecit,' a preterite with the particle -w 
agglutinated as in the Skr. imperative gachatu^ pi. gachantu, 
and Old- Irish ces-u, mas-u, mat-u, 

ma-selu (posuit ?) root stel ? with verbal prefix ma = Skr. 
^ma P and agglutinated u. 

dede * posuit,' a reduplicated preterite, Skr. d-dadhe, root 
dhd, 0e. 

camitu (congessit), pi. caniitus (congesserunt), to be com- 
pared* (as I have done supra) with the Latin supines in tu. 
Vritu (fecit), cf. Ir./eraim, is another instance. 

legasit (leg. legassit), an ^-aorist in sg. 3, to be compared 
with Irish forms in -ais^ Welsh in -as, and Latin in 'tsset, 
Lottner (Kuhn's Beitr. ii. 316) explains the Irish double ss 
as representing the ^-preterite of the root es, which was 

1 Another conjunction seems the khik (leg. kvek?) of the Kovara inscription. 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR, WHITLEY STOKES. 179 

duffixed to verbal stems in ata and ia, like the -sso in Old- 
Latin futura exacta {levasao). The corresponding person in 
the plural is exemplified by etirises, where the -sea is 
(according to Cuno)=Lat. ^sere, from -sese, in, e.g., dixere, 
and the -t- is = the i in O.W. lin-i-aant (gl. lauare). 

datnlagea seems the 2nd sg. conjunctive of a denominative^ 
formed from datlOf as Old- Welsh scamnhegmt (gl. leuant) 
Jav., p. 4, now paga/naani, from scamn, now ysgafn. The 
Ir. denominatives in -aigim, Gr. in -a^to from -07^0), may be 
compared. 
Lastly, a-textO' and con-textoa are participles with an active 
li \ meaning. The root of each is taka^ Fick, i. 589, whence the 
Irish name Taaaach. 

Desinential Changes. 



X£r 



We have now to set forth the changes which comparison 
with the cognate Indo-European languages proves that the 
desinences have undergone in the change from protoceltic to 
Old-Irish. 

A. Desinences with Short Vowels. 

1. -o (Indo-Eur. a), is lost, but infects a following con- 
BODant and breaks a preceding i or ti. 

Examples: Nom. sg. fem. j(a>p'a, equa, Skr. afvd, Goth. 
tMud-a, Ir. tuath (folk). Nom. and aco. pi. neut. fthp-a, ^uyd, 
Ved. f^d, loLtjuga, ^ra»« =Ir. gran (grains) : Ved. atdv-d 
(I will praise), Ir. er-bar (dicam). 

2. -a (Indo-Eur. d) is lost : Trapa, Ir. ar. 

3. -04 (Indo-Eur. -aa) is lost, breaking a preceding t or ti. 
Example : yeyopa^, Ir. cechan (cecinisti). 

4. -^yoa becomes d, 0, a. 

Example: gen. sg. of t-stem TroXe-ea?. Ir. aloo (rupis), 
faiho (vatis). 

^ To eomplete this list of Oaulish yerbal formB, I may add the eaesar (' quod 
Gtlloram liDg;iia <Umt^<0 tignificat ' j mentioned by Serrius ad A en. xi. 743, and 
the urt^emut (el. ante obeta) 01 Endlicher's Glossary. In both cases the 
leading ifl donbtfoL 



180 CELTIC DECLENSION. DR. WHITLBT STOKES. 

5. -e 18 lost, but infects a following consonant and a pre- 
ceding vowel. 

Examples : Voc. sing. TTTTre, eque-=J.T. eich (horses). Nom. 
dual; /LM;Tep-6=Ir. di mdthair; ^epoirr-e, Ir. (dd) eharait; 
Sir-e, Ir. {dd)rig. The numeral irhn-e, quinqu-ey GreLiil. pempe=i 
Ir. cdic (five). The 2nd sg. imperative ^4p-6=Ir. beir^ 2nd 
pi. imperat. <^^peT-6=Ir. berid. The 3rd sg. perf. yeyov-ef Ir. 
cechuin (cecinit). 

6. -tfn (Indo-Eur. -em) is lost, or prefixed to a following 
vowel, nasalizes a following media. It infects a preceding 
vowel. 

Examples: Ace. sg. /m^r-em=Ir. brdthir-n; reg-em^lr. 
rig-n ; homin-emy Ir, talmain-n. The numerals novem^ hn4a 
=Ir. ubi-n ; decern^ SeKa^ilr. deich-n, 

7. -en (Indo-Eur. -en) is treated like No. 6. 
Example: Nom. and ace. sg. nomen=iIr. ainm. 

8. -ens becomes -e. 

Example: protoceltic *annien8z=TT. anme (nominis). 

9. -er is kept. 

Examples : & irirepz^.lv. a athir, Lat. «w^^=Ir. eter, 
etir, 

10. -ea is lost, infecting a preceding vowel. 

Examples : Nom. pi. oTr-e?, Ir. rig (kings) ; if>ipovT'€<;, Ir. 
caraU (friends), /LM;T6p-€9=Ir. mdthair. The fem. numeral 
feoir from tes'^res, Skr. tisras. Second sg. pres., e-^/oe?, 
a-bharas, Ir. -ter, -Sir. 

11. -esa becomes -e. 

Example : genera (from *gen€sa)f T€7€((r)a=Ir. tige (houses). 
j/6^6<7(a)=Ir. nime. 

12. -es^i becomes -i ; bhdvase rl-Oe-aau Ir. beri. 

13. -esi is lost, infecting preceding vowels and following 
consonants. 

Examples : Dat. sg. fiivei, (from *fi€veai), i/€^€t=Ir, nitn, 
T€7a=Ir. tig (house). 

14. -eson (Indo-Eur. -esom) becomes -e-n. 

Example : Gen. pi. laternm (from *lat€8am) ; i/6^€<»v=Ir. 
nime-n (caelorum). 



CELTIC DBCLBNSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 181 

15. ^esas becomes e. 

Example : Gen. sg. Lat. gener-ua (-w), v€^(a")o9=Ir. nime 
(caeli). 

16. ^eiei becomes 'ith, id \ Skr. bhdvate, ri-Oe'TOh Ir. 
berid. 

17. ^eyan becomes -e-n. 

Example: voXe-av, Ir^/ditAe-n (vatum). 

18. -« is losty infecting preceding vowels and following 
consonants. 

Examples : dfiff>i, Ir. inib, imm. Noul sg. Lat. mare 
(from nutri) =:lr. muir (sea). Dat. sg. f. x^Pt> ^^* ^'^^* 
Latin ^tidi = Yedic agmi^ Goth. gihai\ Ir. rainn (parti), 
tuaith (populo). Dat. sg. consonantal stems ; ott-/, Ir. rig ; 
^€poyr-i, Ir. carait; fMfrp-izrzIr. mdthir. Nom. pi. of masc. 
o-stems; Jinro-t, Lat. eque-i^ ^gtii =Ir. etch. 3rd sg. pres. 
indie, act. Skr. bharat-i, ^p€t=Ir. berid, 3rd pL bharani-i. 
Dor. <l>epovT'&, Ir. berit. 

19. 'iasa becomes -e, -a. 

Example : XV^^ (^^- XV^^"^)* ^^* ^^''^> ^^''^ (friend, stem 
earayant), Ibche (lightning, stem locaiant), file (poet, stem 
filiai). 

20. -m (Indo-Eur. -tm) infects preceding vowels, and is 
either lost or transposed to a following vowel or media. . 

Examples : 7r6Xx-v, Troci-v ; Ir. fdith-^, 

21. •is is lost, infecting preceding vowels. 
Examples: iroKt-i;, irocL-^, Lat. ort-«=Ir. oi, faith, 

22. 'it is lost, infecting preceding vowels. 

Examples: Lat. ag-it^lr. aig (in atom-aig), do-beir from 
tu-i^rit; Gr. l-^pe. 

23. -on (Indo-Eur. -o/n) is lost, breaking a preceding 
i or fi, and transposing the n to a following vowel or 
media. 

Examples: ace. sg. Xvkop, vir'Um =zlr. fer^n; gen. pi. 
Lat. div^um^lr. dia^n, reg-um^zlr. rig-n; /rdtr'Um=' 
hrdthar-n. 

24. 'Ontei becomes -tY ; bhavante, Xvovrai, Ir. berit, 

25. 'Onto becomes -at. 

Examples: Skr. bharanta^Ir, {as)berat (efferunt). 



182 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 

26. -08 is lost, the o breaking a preceding i or u. 
Examples : Nom. sg. Ztttto-^, equo-s, equu-8^ Skr, acv€h%^ 

Ir. ech\ Teyo9=Ir. teg, tech; gen. sg. yLM;T/>-09=Ir. mcUhar 
({rom mdthr) ; 07r-cfe, Ir. rig: /icw-09 = Ir. con (hound'sj; 
iroifiiv'O^, Ir. talman, 

27. -u is lost. 

Examples : Nom. sg. neut. fiiOv, comu ; Ir. recht ; iroku^ 
Ooth. filu^ Ir. fV. In the masc. hreo (flame), protoceltic hrem^ 
(cf. Old Norse brasay Eng. to braze) , the -m (after the loss of inte^ 
vocalic a) has formed a diphthong with the preceding voweL 

28. -fin is lost, the n being transported to a following 
vowel or medial; 

Examples: viicU'V, fmctu-m ; Ir. biih^n. 

29. 'US is lost, the u sometimes assimilating a preceding 
vowel. 

Examples: Nom. sing. masc. ve/cv'^, fructu-f, Skr. sUnU'S 
Goth. magU'8=:lT.' mug ; Ir. bithyfiaa. 

30. -ro-« is lost. 

Examples : Goth, taihsva, W. deheu, Ir. (fe«9. 

B. Desinences with Long Towels. 

31. *d8 becomes -a. 

Examples: Nom. pi. Goth, gibds, ihuidos=zlr. tHafha; 2nc 
sing. conj. pres. Lat. ferdSy Skr. bhards, Ir. as bera (efferas 
dicas). 

32. -dses becomes -a. 

Example: Yedic agvdsas (horses): Ir. ro-ceta (cantati sunt) 

33. 'dss becomes -a. 

Examples: Ace. pi. fem. x^P^f equds, Skr. agcds^ Osc. ekass 
riasSf Ir. ranna. 

34. 'dt becomes -a. 

Examples : Lat. ferdt, Ved. bhardt, Ir. (as) -bera (dicat). 

35. -e becomes -i in monosyllables: Skr. dri, Ir. d. 
(two, f.). 

36. 'ir becomes -tV. 

Examples: wanip^lr. athir; ^parrfp^Jr, brdihir, fidrrff 
zzimdthir-. 



CSLTIC DBCI.EMSION. — ^DR. WHITT.EY STOKES. 183- 

37. 'is becomes ?, infecting a preceding vowel. 
Examples: Gen. sg. fern. Skr. agcdt/da; Gaul. Kviln']tds, 

Vepisones ; Ir. rainne. 

38. -i is lost, infecting a preceding vowel. 

Examples : Nom. and ace. dual t-stems ; Skr. avl, kacl ; Ir. 
(dalfaiih (two prophets), {di)iUil (two eyes). 

39. -d becomes -6 and is lost, changing a preceding a to 
atf, and e to tii or eo. 

Examples: ^/>-a>, fero^ Ir. {aB)b%ur (e&ro, dice); Lat. 
meniio; Ir. atr-miiiu (reverentia) ; iTnry, equo :=zlr. each; 
tirb^=Jx. fiur» 

40. -dr becomes -u'r. 

Examples: sordr (from tresdr) =Ir. ^'tir. 
•ds becomes -u^ pL nom. Osc. Nuvlanus, Umbr. Ikuvinua ; 
Ir. pL voc. ballu^ fink. 

41. -oM (from -cm^) becomes -ti. 

Example : Cret Toy?, Heracl. t®?, Att. tou? ; Lat. mrd8= 
h.Hccfiru. 

42. -/d^ becomes ^te. 

Example : 2nd sg. imperative Yed. -vahatdd, Ir. cluinte 
(hear !). 

43. -/a« becomes -tu. 

Example : fiiorr^ (protocelt. Invetds) ; Ir. beothu. 

44. -6 (from -d) is lost. 

Example : Nom. dual : Skr. bdhii (two arms) ; Ir. da mug. 

45. -6«« (from una) becomes -ti. 

Examples: Lat: /rMc/ud; Goth, magun%:=J.T. mogu. 

C. Desinences with Diphthongs. 

46. -ai is losty infecting a preceding vowel : irapai, Gaul. 
ari, It. air. 

47. -oiitM becomes -^; yrepaio^y Ir. tW. 

Protoceltic Paradigms. 

We are now in a position to attempt to restore the principal 
protoceltic declensional forms, so far as regards the nouns 
Bud adjectives. 



184 



CBLTIC DKCLENSION. ^DK. WHITLBT 8TOKB8. 



I. Vocalic Declension. 







Masc. O-stems. 






Example 


: hallo 


* member/ 




Sing, 






Dual. 




Fhtr. 


Nim. ballos 






baUd 




balloi (-1) 


G«H, ballT 






ball5 




ballom 


J>at. balla 






baUobin 




ballobos 


Aee. hallon 






baU5 




ballOas 


ro9. balle 










baUds 


Loe. baUoi (-1) 




baUO 






InUr, 






ballobin 




ballobiB 



Om, dligeti 
I>at. dligeta 
Inttr, 



Neitteb Stems in 0. 
Example: dligeto 'law/ 

dligetS 

dliget5 
dligetobin 



dligeta 

dligetom 

dlig<etobf»i 

dligetobis 



Masc. Stems in 10. 
Example : cilio ' companion.' 



JVbm. cSlios 


cSli5 


cSliT 


Gin. celiT 


cSliO 


celiom 


Dat. c6lia 


celiobin 


oSlioboa 


Aee, cSlion 


c€li6 


cSlioss 


Vpc. celie 




cSlios 


Imt. 




oeliobU 



JITom., ate., ) ^^j.„_ 

Gtn, cradiT 
i>a^ cradid 



Neuteb Stems in 10. 
Example : cradio * heart/ 

cradiO 

cradio 
cradiobin 



cradia 

cradiom 

cradioboa 

cradiobis 



Stems in I. 
Example : rdti m. ' prophet.' 



JVbm. Tatis 
Gtn, Ttttayoa 
J)at. Tati 
uiec, Tutin 
Voe. Tatii 
Jrutr, 



Tat! 

TatajO 

Tatibin 

THti 



Tateyes, T&teis 
Tatayem 
Ttttibos 

T&teyess, T&teiat 
Titeyes, y&teis 
T&tibia 



CELTIC UECLBNSIOK. — DR. WHITLET STOKES. 



185 



Stems is 


u. 






Example 


: bitu m. ' 


world.' 




Sinj^. 


Dual 






Plur. 


Norn, bifcos 


bitQ 






bitaves, bitOs 


Qm, biteTOS, bitOs 


bitayd 






bitavem 


Dat bitQ 


bitabin 






bitubos 


Aee, bitnn 


bitii 






bitQs6 


Tof. bitaTo 








bitOs 


Inatf. 

T? . 


o 


m^0m ^ 


— I 


bitubis. 



Example : ridd * chariot/ 



Norn, rSda 

OfH. r6d§8 

Dat. reds (rSdiP) 

Aef, rSdin 

Voe. rSda 

JU, r6dad 

X<»e. rSde 

Jiit^r. r§da 



rSdg (rtdl P) 


rSdas. 


redo 


rSdam. 


rSdabin 


rSdabos, 


rtde (red! P) 


r^diiss. 




rSdas. 



rSdabis 



II. DrPHTHoyoAL Dbclension. 
Example : bou * cow.' 



Ifom. bons 


bave 


baves 


Oen. boYOS 


bovo 


bovara 


2W. boni 


bovin 


bovebos 


^00. bonen 


buTO 


boss 


J'oe, bou 






Jnttr. 




bovebifl 



III. Consonantal Declension. 

C-STEMS. 

Example : esoe * salmon.' 



Ifom, esox 


esoce 


esoces 


Gm. eeocoa 


esocd 


eeocom 


Dat. nod 


esocebin 


esocebofl 


Aee. esocen 


esoce 


esocess 


Voe. esox 


esoce 


esocSs 


Dulr, 




esocebis 



186 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 



G-8TE1CS. 





Example : 


rig m. ' king.' 


Sittj^. 




Dual 


Nom, rfx 
^091. ri|3^ 
Dat, rigi 
Aee, rfgen 
Voe. rfx 
Inttr, 




rige 
rig6 
rfgebin 
rlge 



Plur. 

ifges 

rigom 

rigebos 

rTgess 

rfg^ 

rfgebu 



E-STEMS. 

Example : mater f. ' mother ' 



Kom. mfitir 


mfitre 


matrefl 


&en. mutros 


matrd 


matriom 


Dat, mutri 


mutrebin 


matrebos 


^tftf. mutren 


matre 


xnatriSn 


Fo^. mater 




mutriSs 


Iruir, 




mfitrebis 



So were declined ater m, * father/ brdter m. *brotl 
svesdr f. 'sister'; and (in the plural) the numerals te8i 
qetrores. 

Here in the dat. pi. and dual we have a connective vo 
(bindevocal), and in the gen. and aco. plur. we have a pasf 
to the t- declension. 



T-8TEMS. 

Example : cinget ' warrior.' 



Jfotn. 
Oen, 
Dat, 
Ace, 
Voc, 

Inttr, 



Sing, 

cinges 

cingetos 

cingeti 

cingeton 

cinges 



Dual 

cingete 
cingeto 
cingetebin 
cingete 



Flur, 

cingetes 

cingetom 

cingetebos 

cingetSss 

cingetes 

cin&retebis 



D-STEMS. 

Example : druid * wizard.' 



Kom, drnis 


druide 


droides 


Gen, droidos 


dniid5 


dniidom 


Dat, dniidi 


druidebin 


dmidebos 


Aec. druiden 


druide 


dniidiess 


Voe. drois 




dmidiSs 


lustr. 




dniidebis 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WniTLET STOKES. 



187 





Stems nr 


NT. 


• 
1 


Example : cariant * 


friend/ 


Sing, 


Dual 




Fiur. 


Kom. earia 
Gen. cariantofl 
Dot, carianti 
Aee. carianten 
Voe, caria 


cariante 
carianto 
cariantebin 
cariante 




cariantes 

cariantom 

carianteboa 

cariantiSsa 

cariantiSs 

cariantebis 




Stems in 


N. 




Example : 


casmon * follower/ 


Cktulish cos 


Norn, eaamS 


casmone 




casmones 


G«n. casmonos 
Dat, casmoni 
Aec. caamonen 
Fm. casmo 
Inttr, 


casmono 

camnonebin 

caunone 




casmonora 

casmonebos 

casmonSss 

casmonebis 



Oen, anm^ns 

Dut. anm6ni 

Inttr, anmenbi 



Neuteb Stems is M£)N. 
Example : anm^n * name.' 



anm^ne 

anm^no 
anmenebin 



anm^na 

anmSnom 

anm^neboa 

anm^nebia 



^"'•":-} tego. 



Neuteb Stems nr S. 
Example : tegos * house.' 



iegese 

Uen. tegesos tegesd 

Dal, tegesi (tegei) tegesebin 
Jnttr, 



mdvoc, , 

Oen, tegesos 



tegesa 

tegesom 

t^esebos 

tegesebis 



Numerals. 

The simple neoceltic cardinal numerals for the first nine 
numbers, the tens, 100, and 1000, are in Old-Irish as follows. 
Of the British I give the oldest forms quotable. 



188 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 



Old-IrUh. 


JFekh. 


Comiih 


1. oin, den 


an 


un 


2. da, d6 


dou 


dow 


8. tri 


tri 


try 


4. cethir, cethri 


petguar 


peswar 


6. coio 
6. sS 


pimp 
cbweeb 


pymp 

Beytn 
eth 


7. secbt-n 


Beitb 


8. ocbt-n 


wytb 


9. noi-n 


nau 


naw 


10. deicb-n 


dec 


d?k 


20. ficbe 
30. tricba 


ugeint 
tnmuceint 


ugena 


40. cetbracba 






60. c5ica 






60. secta 






70. secbtmoga 
80. ocbtmoga 
90. nScba 






100. est 


cant 


cans 


1000. mile 


mil 


myL m 



Breitm, 

unhung 
don, daoa 
Hi 

pCTBT 

Eemp 
ueck 
seic 
eiz 
nan 
dec 

nguent 
tregont 



cant 

mil 



In Irish the nambers between the tens are regularly made 
by prefixing the unit to the genitive singular of. the ten 
to which its value is to be added. Thus den traig dec (11 
feet)y da caih dec (12 battles), di hudir deac (12 hours), 
teora pinginne dSc (13 pence), coic bliadni deac (15 years), 
cetheora Idnamna fichet (24 couples), tri (better teora) bUadna 
trichat (33 years), ddu coicat (52), coic mlli ochtmugat (85 
thousand), d& bliadain nochat (92 years). Twenty-one (and 
31, 41, etc.) things may be expressed either by the nom. sg. 
of the thing followed by the dat. sg. of the ten governed by 
the prep, ar (Jd ar fichit^z* 21 cows,' screpall ar Jiehitzz* 21 
scruples '), or by the ten followed by a conjunction and the 
thing in the nom. sg. {cethorcha is blia€kin=:* 41 years'). 

The tens from 30 to 100 may also be expressed by addition, 
multiplication, or the use oi hanter 'half.' 



Irith, 

30. tri deicb 

40. daficbit 

60. c6ic deicb 

60. trificbit 

70. tecbt ndeicb 

Q^ j cethri fichit 

*"• \ochtndeich 
90 

100*. o5ic fichit 



Wehh, 
degar ngeint 



Cnmuh. 

dek wam-ugens 

den ugens 
(banter cans \ 
(deg ha dugans ) 

try ngons 

(^peswar ugens 
(pager eyance 



Breton, 

don ngnent 

banter cant 

tri-nguent 

dec ha tri-nguent 

penar-ngnent 

dek ha peyar-ngent 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 189 

The numbers above 100 are regularly made by prefixing 
the smaller number to the greater, governed by the prep, ar. 
Thus, a ocht deac ar chet (118), fiche ar chet (120), cdecca ar 
cH (150), cdic ar tri cetaib (305), dl btiadain dec ar mili (1012 
years). We also find the prep, for : e.g. da bliadain fiochat 
for dib cetaib (292 years), and the conjunction octia : a se ocus 
m fiche die (226), a hbendec ocus cethri fichit ocus cdic cet 
(591). Multiplication of fiche (20) and coica (50) is also 
used. Thus secht fichit (140), tri coicait (150), noi fichit (180). 
So in Welsh we have (with the conjunction 'and') chtcech 
marchatcc thrugeint a phum-cant {566 knights), and in Cornish 
we have multiplication by a prefixed number: vi. ugons (120), 
vii. vgons (140). 

The inflection of the cardinal numbers is in some respects 
irregular. In the Irish numerals gender is distinguished only 
by 1, 2, 3, and 4. Thus :— 

1. din, gen. masc. and neut. oin, aine, oena, dat. din, ace. 

Here oena seems =Lat. unius, 

2, da IB dual only, and is thus declined : 

Mase. Fern, Neut. 

Kom, dan, da dl, dia da-n 

tZ: tb-n. dib-n } ^«' »" «<"«J«'" 

Aec, da di, dla da-n 

The form ddu seems to occur as well with nouns (dau mace 
Briuin, Arm. 19 a 2)* as without {ita-ddu coicat ar chet, they 
are, 152). Without a noun we have dau and dd : a dd trichat 
(32) a dd sescat (62), a dS sechtmogat (72), dd ndchat (92). 
Of the fern, dla I have found four examples : dia loit (two 
blankets, lodices), Corm. s. v. Cermnas, Mac Firbis' copy : 
dia prlmfeil (two chief feasts), Fel. May 31, ace. dia mis (two 
months), LTJ. 131*, dvemet a da Ion a dia arainn (its two 
haunches cover its two kidneys). Laws ii. 248. The neut. 
da-n seems related to the Skr. neuter form *dvan in dtandva 
(Euhn's Zeitschr. xxii. 3). The dat. deib-n, dib-n is=an 
Indo-Eur. instrumental *dvdbhin, where -bhin bears nearly 
the same relation to -bhis that •bhydm bears to -bhyas. 

> But here perhaps Dau \b a proper name = Skr. dhava» 



190 CELTIC DECLENSION. — ^DR. WHITLEY STOKES, 

3. Mate. Fern, Keut, 

Nam, tii teoir, teora, teor. tri* 

Oen. tii-n teora-n tri-n 

Dot, trib teoraib trib 

Ace, tri teora, teor tri* 

In the nom. and ace. fern, the form teor is found: nom. 
teor buidne (three troops), Rawl. B. 512, fol. 9* 1, ace. la teor 
mile J Fel. Sep. 1. In the dat. pi. neut. the mark of length, 
is once found : cona trib cetaib, LU. 55*. But this is 
probably a scribal error, as the dat. masc. and neut. is= 
the Skr. instr. tribhis. The tri* of the nom. and ace. 
neut. seems =Gr. rpla, Lat. tria, as the tri of the masc. is 
=T/)€?9, tree. If, however, the omission of the mark of 
length in the neut. is accidental, we should rather compare 
the Vedic tri. 

4. Mase, Fern, NeuU 

Nom, cethir (cetheoir),^ cetheora cethir* 

Gen, eetbeora-n 

Lat. cethcoraib 

Ace. cetbeora cethir' 

Cethri (protoceltic qetvarei^) is found in Middle Irish codices 
used for all genders and cases. But the only instance of it 
in an Old-Irish codex is the ace. masc. etir inna cethri fersu 
(among the four verses). Ml. 58* 11. 

The dat. pi. fem. {cethedraib^z^]s.T, instr. cataarbhis) is 
in LU. 28": oc cluchiu forsna cethedraib uditnib leccdaib 
(playing on the four stone pillars). The neut. nom. (and 
ace. ?) cethir infects : cethir chet * four hundreds.' It 
must therefore have ended in a vowel, which the t pf the 
second syllables shows to have been slender. It may, 
accordingly, be equated with Skr. catvdH, rather than with 
Gr. riaaapa, 

5. Coic aspirates in the nom. and ace. (coic fir * quinque 

viri,' Egerton, 93, fo. 9* 1 : ace. amal bitia coic sutralla 
* as they were five lamps,' ibid. 7* 2 ; cute thseoit^ 2 
Laws, 20). In the gen. it nasalises : la cumail y. mbo 

1 * eetheoira,^ cited by Ascoli (Note irlandesi 29, n. 3) from Ml. 1 18^, seems 
a clerical or typograpbical error for cetheoir=^^kc. nom. eatasrat. 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 191 

(with a cumal of five cows), O'Dav. s.v. derusc: boge 
.0. huinge 'catinus quinque unciarum/ Gorm. But this 
is probably from analogy to the declension of nouns and 
adjectives. 

6. Si in the nom. aspirates in Lobar Brecc {se fotha .x. 
p. 120^), but never in older MSS. In the gen. it nasalises : 
CO cend se mbfiadan dec (to the end of seven years), LU. 29*, 
na it mho * (a reprisal) of seven cows,' Laws i. 66. This, 
too, seems from analogy. 

7, 8, 9. Secht-n, ochi-n, mi-n have no inflection. The -w 
of mht'H and ocht-n is due to the analogy of noi-n and 
dmh-n. As to sechty in composition the nasal is sometimes 
present, sometimes wanting. Thus condid dithetacht inspirto 
^ht .n. delbichsin %8(in)t8ollumun sechtmanach forsi{nd) ceclis 
m,gradich (so that the . . of the septiform Spirit is, in 
the hebdomadal solemnity, on the seven-graded Church), 
Arm. 170^* 2. It is absent in the compound sechtarH 
(septentrio), and the derivative sechtae (septenarius). Com- 
pare the Latin aeptu^ in spptu-ennis. As to ocht, in composi- 
tion and derivatives there is no nasal. Thus forruim 
f.i. rogon) tend (.i. laech) do chrund ochtga .i. do crund gai imbit 
ocht lama (he laid low (slew) a hero with a spear-shaft wherein 
&re eight hands, i.e. a shaft eight hand-breadths long?), LIT. 
7^. So the numeral substantive ochtur (eight persons) and 
the adj. ochie (octonarius), gen. sg. ochtu 

10. deich-n is thus declined : 

iVom. and Ace. deicb-n 

Gen, decb-n aha. deac, deec 

Dat, deicb-n ab$. dechib 

Examples of the gen. and dat. are cethrimne na cumaile 
na ndech tnbo (the fourth of the cumal of the ten cows). 
Laws, ii. 278 : condeich n-uagaib (with 10 virgins), F^l. 
Jan. 27 : iri chit for secht ndechib (370, lit. 300 on seven 
tens), Ffel. Oct. 10. 

The tens, fiche (20), tricha (30), etc., are declined regu- 
larly as stems in nt. 

Cit (100) is declined regularly as a neuter o-stem. 



192 CELTIC DECLENSION. — ^DR* WHITLEY STOKES. 

Mile (1000) is declined regularly as a fern, ia^stem. 

In the British numerals the gender is distinguished by 
2, 3 and 4; but there is no trace of declensioq except ia 
the tens. 

2. Masc. dou, fern, dui, diu. Of the form diu (which is 
regular in Cornish and Breton, spelt dew, deu, di/u, diu, diou), 
an Old- Welsh instance is ithr ir diu ail (between the two 
eye-brows), Martian us Capella, 9^ 2. All these forms sonan" 
tise, and their protoceltic forms must therefore have endedL 
in vowels. 

3. Masc. tri, fem. teir. The aspiration of c and p after tr% 
is due to the protoceltic -8. This 8 is assimilated in ComislL 
forms, such as treddeth (three days), treffer (three fairs)^ 
tremmyl (3000), tremmt/s (three months). See Beunans 
Meriasek, 3895, 2191, 1516, 1491. 

4. M.&8C, peiguar, fem. (pef^ir) pedeir. 

The numerals seith and (oith), wythy though now they 
nasalise, do not do so in the oldest monuments. Thus seith 
blenet (seven years). Laws, i. 2, 3. But they produce the 
vocalic infection : sei/ih ulenet (i.e. vlenet), Laws 2, 1, 1, wt/th 
dratcst (eight beams, ^ratr«^ = transtrum), Mab. 2, 211, and 
point, accordingly, to protoceltic septu, oc(6. Nasalisation 
is found after nau {tmu myUy nine cows, byti)^ and, prob- 
ablv, dec. 

In the British languages the sound-group pd becomes pt, 
and 'pt (passing, apparently, through an intermediate ct) 
becomes th. Hence the Welsh pymthec (fifteen, pimp + dec), 
Com. pemdhack, Br. pemzec. 

The Breton nauntek (19), Mod. Corn, nawnzack, points to 
a protoceltic neventi-decen, where nevenii is an abstract noun 
=the Old. Slav, dev^ti * nine,' literally a ninenesa, 2iend 
navaid. 

In the tens ul^eint (20), trimuceint (30), douceint (40), 
tri'uceint (60), petwar ugeint (4x20=80), we have other 
abstract nouns in -yo {-yd P), ugeint being = a protoceltic 
cicentio-n or vicentia, cognate with Ir. fiche, and the termina- 
tion of tri'muceint being comparable with the dat. or ace. of 
Ir. sechUmoga (70) or ochi-tnoga (80). 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WaiTLET STOKES. 



193 



The ordinals for 1 to 10 are as follows : — 



Oli-JrUK 

. (cStne 

(aile 
(tttDise 

Mr' 



) 



4. 



I cethumad ? * 



\ eethrammad ' 

5. ediced 

6. K88ed 

7. secbtmad 

8. ochtmad 

9. nomad 

10. dechmad 

11. oenmad . . deac 

12. aile deac 

13. tres . . . deac 

14. eetbranimad deac 
Id. coiced deac 

16. Kseddeao 

17. aechtmad deac 

18. ochtmad deac 

19. nomad deac 

20. ficbetmad 
do. ^icetmad 

100. c§Unad 

1000. milmad 



I 



Wehh. 
fkyntaf ) 
(unTet { 

eil 



trydyd 

I peduare 
\ pedwyryd 

pimpnet 

chuechet 

seithTet 

wythTet 

nawret 

decvet 

unvet ardec 

deudecuet 

tredyt ardec 

peduaaret ar dec 

pemdecvet 

UQvet ar pemdec 



Comith. 
kensa 

(nessa I 
secund j 

trysse 

peswere 

pympes 

wheies 

BerthTes 

ethves 

nawhwas 

dekfaz 

edendegvas 

dowdegyas 

tardegvas 

poswardegvM 

pempdegvas 

when degvas 

seitb degras 

eatb degraa 

naw degraa 

igansvez 



Breton, 
quentaf 

eU 

trede 

Tpeuare 

(pederret 

pempet 

nuecbuet 

seizTet 

eizvet 

nauvet 

decTet 



peuardeoret 



canvet 
milfed 



cantret 
milyet 



As to the declension of the Irish ordinals, cHne (first) and 
dide^ tdnise (second), are (when masc. or neut.) tio-stems, 
when fern. I'd-stems. The ordinals in -mad belong to the o- 
declension, but with this peculiarity, that they not inflected 
in the gen. or dat. sg. Thus : 

' Uted only when followed by larger numbers, e.g. oenmad rann Jiehet oh 
^'ifimd (the twenty-first part of hell's eyils). In composition we have also eet^ 
ud the loan-word ^rf#i}-. 

' dede .i. indara^ LU. 14*. In composition we have the loan-word tecund in 
teetuUM (secnndus abbas). 

' in tre»$ tonnaeh di humu^ LU. 24^. In foxlidi tret diil (ablativi tertiae 
dedinationis}, quoted O. C. 309, as an example of the genitive of triSf we have, I 
think, a compound^ trea-diil, as in dorus tn trtenivni (the door of the third 
heaven), LU. 29*, in tre*per»a na deaehta (the third person of the Godhead), 
LU. 31^. In composition the loan-word tert is also used : itert-id Apreil (on the 
third ide of April), note to F^l. Ap. 16. Tertehoibedna (tertiae conjugationis), 
8g. li* 1 ; tertpenin (tertiae personae), 13S*. 

* In the gloss eetnae aceuia inso, aecuia aile on, trie aeeuie anieiu, in eethar aecnis 
i»t Ml. 1 18^, cited by Ascoli, Note irlandesi, p. 29, n. 3, eethar is surely a mistake 
for eelharmad. 

^ In eethrammad eU glain, isin eethrammad rindhV. 24b, iein ehethrammad lou, 
24^. In composition the loan-word quart in also used : quarteobedna (quartae 
eonjugationia), quartOU (quartae dedinationis). 



Phil. Tnuu. 18SM. 



13 



194 CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 

Gen. neut. dorus inotachta in chetramad nime (the entrance 
door of the fourth heaven), LU. 29*. 

Dat. neut. iar cethramad Unthia (gl. anudus quartana die), 
Arm. 177^ 2 ; fera. isin choiced bliadain die (in the fifteenth 
year), LU. 120^; issint-sessed bliadain (in the sixth year), 
LU. 58*; mnt'Sechtmad bliadain dec (in the seventeenth 
year), LU. 29»». 

Ace. conin cetramad ndorus (to the fourth door), LU. 29*. 

For the purpose of the present paper it is unnecessary 
to notice the neoceltic numeral substantives and adverbs. 
I conclude this part of my subject by attempting to restore 
the protoceltic cardinals and ordinals. 





Mase. 


Cardinals. 

Fern. 


Neut. 


1. Norn, 


oinos 


oinm 


oinon 


Gm, 


oinl 


oines 


oini 


Dat, 


oinQ 


oini 


oinQ 


Aec» 


oinon 


oinon 


oinon 



Cognate with the Old-Latin oinosy Gr. oo^ (oneness), 
Goth. ains. 

Mate, Fern. Neut. 

Gen, dva 
Dat, dvabnn 
Inttr. dvebin 

In composition and derivation : dc^. 

Here the theme is dva, the flexions are those of the dual. 
In the nom. masc. and fem. dcau is=Skr. drdUy Lat. dud^ 
Gr. iv(o : rffg=Skr. dve, rfrdw =Skr. *dvam in dvandva, from 
*dvam'dvam.^ The gen. drd is obscure to me. The instr. 
dcebin (to which the Ir. dat. deib^n undoubtedly points) is 
also obscure. The Gaulish nom. fem. {diy drl?) seems to 
have left a trace in Di-s-ottche (Loire) * duae olcae.' 

Mate. Fem, Neut, 



8. 


Nom, 


tri.< 


tesoi-es 


tria 




Gen. 


trTom 


teRorom 


triom 




Dat. 


tribos 


tesorebos 


tribos 




Instr. 


tribis 


tesorebis 


tribis 




Aec, 


tris 


tesorass 


tria 



^ See GustaT Meyer in Euhn^s Zeitscbrift, xxii. 3. 



CELTIC DBCLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 195 

The Qaulish tri in trt garanHs has lost the final 8, In com- 
position frg=the Skr. theme trai/a, whence the gen. trdyandm. 

Mate, Ftm, NenU 

4. Kam, qetvores qetrasores qetvori 
Oen, qetrorom qetvasorgm qetrorom 
Hat. qetrorebos qetrasorebos qetrorebos 
Ifutr, qetrorebis qetTasorebis qetyorebis 
Aec. qetvorusB qetraaorass qetvori 

A theme qetvori (=01d-Slav. eeturt)^ in the nom. and ace. 
(jHtorm^ gave rise to Old-Irish cethri^ used for all genders 
and cases. 

In composition : qvetru (whence Gaul, petru-), Lat. quadru* 
=0. Slav, cetroro, cetvero. 

5. qenqe — Gaalish pempe, Aeol. rd/ixt, 

6. 8Texs=fc{, Zend, khtvaa, 

7. sectasSkr. aaptUj Lat. aeptu, 

8. oct5=Lat. octOy Gr. httrA, Skr. ashfau* 

9. nereiissSkr. novan, 

10. decen=Slcr. d<?fa». 

11. omdeceiis T4it. tin<2^m. 

90. Yicens (gen. yicentos) = Skr. vinqatty Lai viffinti, Gr. FUart. 

80. tricens, trimucens (gen tricentos) = trin^at, triffinta, rptdKoyra. 

40. qetrarocens (gen. qetvaxocenioti) sseatvuringatf Lat. quadragintOy 
TtcrcrdpaMorra. 

60. qenqecens (gen. -centos) ^panciUaty Ttrr'fiKoirra, 

60. srexacens (gen. -centos) ^aexngintay {(^icorra. 

70. sectoamacens (gen. -centos) = j/38o|i^icorra. 

100. centon (n.) =Lat. eeniumy i-Har6py Skr. ^aid-m, 

lOOO. mllo-s. milia (f.), cognate withGr. 5-/xZXof, d-|iiX/a, Skr. i»i#^. There 
is no groand for connecting the latter word with Lat. milUy meiHa 
(Corp. Inscr. Lat. i. No. 551), which Havet thinks is from mlrltj 
and cognate with /i^pioc 



Ordinah. 
The principal Ordinals may be restored as follows : 

1. dntinios, oinometos 8. oct5metos- 

2. alios, dvStios, tanistios 9. nevometos 
8. tnstos, tristis 10. decometos 

4. qetformetos 11. oinometos degancos 

6. qenqetos 12. alios degancos 

6. srexetos 20. vicintimetoa 

7. sectometoe 100. centometos 



196 celtic declension. — ^dr. whitley stokes. 

Pronominal Declension. 

[Noli. — I had here intended to treat of the neoceltic prononnB ; bat find that ' 
haTe at present neither the time nor the knowledge necessary to soWe th 
many problems which they present. The section relating to the pronoun 
of the first and second persons and the absolute forms of the pronouns c 
the third person, will here be giren as a specimen of the way in which 
hope some time to handle the whole of this difficult subject] 

Zeuss and Ebel treat the Irish pronouns under the follow 
ing heads : a. Personal, b. Possessive, c. Relative, d. Demon 
strative, e. Interrogative, /. Pronominal adjectives {others ah 
evetyotiey anyone) ^ y. Pronominal substantives, A. Pronomina 
formulas. This division will here be followed, merely in 
serting under head d the article (in-t, ind, a-n), which Zeus 
and Ebel treat separately. 

The much-abraded forms of the neoceltic pronouns render 
their comparison and restoration a matter of much difficulty 
especially as the only Gaulish pronominal forms whici 
have been found are the demonstrative sosin^ the infixe< 
personal me^ and perhaps the dative sg. f><^=Lat. eo. True 
the tau min ai, in Vergil's lines to Tucca, — Gatalect. Quinctil 
Inst. Orat. viii. 3 : Corinthiorum amator iste verborum 
Thucydides Britannus, Atticae febres, Tau Oallicum, Min 
Al, spinae illi sit. Ita omnia ista verba miscuit fratri — ^hav* 
been explained by Kiinssberg as=O.II.G. du min al, N.H.Q 
du mein alles. But Diefenbach treats the equation wit] 
ridicule. See his Origg. Eur., p. 427, and Euhn's Beiti 
iii. 377. Can they be the names of the Gaulish letter 
t, m, a — ^borrowed respectively from the Shemitic fav, mem 
aleph P I have not seen the explanation which, I under 
stand, Biicheler has given in the Eheinisches Museum 
xxxviii. 507. 



fl. Personal Pronouns. 

Each of these pronouns is found in three forms: 1. absolut 
forms ; 2. abbreviated forms infixed between verbs and thei 
adverbial or prepositional prefixes; 3. abbreviated form 
suffixed to prepositions and (rarely) verbs. 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — ^DB. WHITLEY STOKES. 197 



Pronouns of the First Person, absolute form. 

Sufukr. Dual Plural, 

(ni, osni, sni, 
snisni, snlni, 
sninni, sinde, sinn. 
Crm. muL natliar, nur 

The corresponding Welsh forms are : 

Singular, Plural, 

mi, i ^ ni 

Ncm, { mivi | nini 

minnea, innea ' ninneu 
mi, yI ni 

▼ItI 



Ace, 



Here mi is=Lat. mi, where the long i corresponds with 
the long d of the Skr. ace. md^ just as the e of rijs cor- 
responds with the d of r(^j, The i of the Welsh mi is due, 
perhaps, to the analogy of the other personal pronouns ti 
uid hi. In the emphatic os-mi the os is possibly cognate 
with v^*, xr^v. The s in smi (ol-smi^ *say 1/ H. 2. 16, 
coL 388), is obscure. Perhaps sme stands for an Indo-European 
*amdf ace. sg. of the stem whence the Skr. ace. pi. asmdn 
and the Gr. ififie. Of the genitive I have found the follow- 
ing examples : mui, Sg. 200^ 10 ; genitiu chintig ,\, mei mui 
fgL €fuiov et €fJMovT0v), Sg. 209* 8 ; mutsse (gl. meam) Wb, 
P: innam-muisea A, documenta 1. persona (gl. mea) Wb. 
19*, ad Ghilatas ii. 6 ; mui mo chelmaine ,\, isi mo chelmaim 
dam, Adamn&n's prayer. Lib. Hymn. 28^^ and (with Middle 
Irish diphthongisation of the tonic u when followed by a 
slender vowel) moai mo rose .i. rop Hum mo dare *let my 
sight be with me,' LB. 241*; muin tihai ,\, as team mo 
kalbh * my property is with me/ O'Olery's Glossary. The 
Old Irish mui is properly the gen. sg. masc. of the posses- 
sive pron. mu, just as Lat. mei is the gen. sg. masc. of meus,^ 
The gen. dual ndthar (contracted ndr) is a formation from 
*na, *ndi = Gr. vd, v&i, like the epic voiirepo^. The plural 
ni, like the Lat. nds, represents an Indo-European nds, for 

1 Goideliea, 2nd ed. ip. 173. 

' I know not whether amai (in the common ejaculation y? amai ' woe U me ! ') 
ii to be equated with ifiol. 



198 CELTIC DECLENSION. DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 

which Skr. has the ace. nas, with short a. Sni is obscure 
to me. So are ainde and sinn. 

The Welsh forms are clear enough, with the exceptions 
of minneu and ninneu. Here Ebel sees min-teu (or min-teu) 
and nin-teu. Here min may beziSkr. mdm \me,* but the 
nin in nin-teu is obscure. Can it represent an original ace. 
pi. like *ndn8, the 8 disappearing between n and ^ P As to teu^ 
Hhys suggests that it may stand for ta-ge^ where ge is = the 
76 of eyar/e. 

Infixed Forms, 
Sing, umm (omm), mm, dumm (domm). Plur. un, nn, don. 

The corresponding Welsh forms are : sing, m (not in- 
fecting), pi. n (not infecting). Here umm seems =a proto- 
celtic osmu^ dat. sg. of a stem OHmo^=Skr, aama, and mm 
(which infects) stands for m*b\ urcelt. mibi, formed like Lat. 
tibi^ sibi. The b is provected to p before th in ni-mpthd (non 
sum), Wb. 8^ Dumm is a compound of the prep, tu and 
m'V (z:zmibi)f the i of the prep, sinking to tf as the u is 
toneless. In the pi. un, nn, do-n (ex tu-nn) we seem to have 
the representative of Gr. a/Lt/i€, afifii(v)^ m being weakened 
to n in an atonic syllable. A strange misuse of the possessives 
(mo, ar-n) for the infixed personal pronoun is found in 
Middle Irish.^ 

Suffixed Forms. 

Sing -umm, -mm. Flur, -unn (-omi), nn. 

The corresponding Welsh forms are : Sing, -qf, -of, yfy and 
in the dative m. Plur. -am, -om, -ym, and in the dative -«. 

^ These forms are not mentioned either in the Grammaliea Celtiea or Wind- 
isch's Grammar. Examples are : of mo : \» oen uaib no^mo-mait-nfe^ (it is one 
of you will betray me), LB. 49^, 1. 12 ; of ar-n; con^or-tinoltar (gl. looemur), 
LH. 3* ; raymuidne at degaig (leg. it degaid) tain muir eon-on'n-baiter and (we 
will go after thee into the sea, so that we may be drowned therein), H. 2. 
16, col. 371. So in the Book of I^inster: — 

Dingaib din do chranntabaill. 
Nor-forrai^ do gleo garb gltf. 
Bor-briss is ror-buaicure. 
fTake away thy sling from us. Thy rough, clear fighting destroys tu, 
hath broken us and confounded us.'*) 
We even find dar 'nobis' (a combination of tu and ar) in 0*Clcry*8 Glossaiy : 
no'dar-be-ne .i. biaidh linne. Compare the like use of the possessives to and 
bar^u in atodaimety and do^barn-gair cited infra. 



CRLTIC DECLENSION. DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 199 

Here -umm, ^mm, ^unn, -nn^ are identical with the infixed 
forms above noticed. The Welsh singular forms in/ (an in- 
fected tn) point to primeval amu, dmu^ emu. The hard m in 
the dative points to m*b\ mihi. The hard m in the plural 
poiots to some form like a/Lt/Lte. The dative -n seems to repre- 
sent some form like Skr. nas : but the n may possibly stand 
for ntiy unn. 

Pronoun of the second person. 

Sing. mom. tu. Flur, sib, susL 

voc. a thQ. 

The corresponding Welsh forms are : Sing, ti, redupl. iidi 
emph. titheu. Plur. hui, later chid, redupl. chwichwi, emph. 
chvitheu. 

Here tH is=the Skr. ace. sing, tvd ; sib is a redupHcated 
form=:«ri«fl, W. chwichwi: sissi \sz=sib+sib. The Welsh ti 
is regularly =Ir. tu: tidi is a reduplicated form=^(+^t and 
tiiheu ia=ztit+teu. 

Infixed Forms. 

Singular, -t'-. Flural. -v-. 

Corresponding Welsh forms : sg. th\ pi. ch. Corn. sg. t, 
th, pi. s, gas, ges, gis. Bret. sg. z, pi. oz, ouz, hoz, ho. 

Here, uninfected t stands for tve = Doric re for rFe^ and thi 
British th (z), either is due to the action of the v (cf. Zend 
(hied ' te *), or represents a tt produced by assimilation of the 
f. In the pi. the Welsh ch points to an anlaut sv, repre- 
sented regularly by Ir. r/ written b in the MSS. The sound- 
group sv has at least two representatives in Irish, namely, 
« and V (written b,^), possibly also a third, o, as in eanisin 
(ourselves) = wa-wi-w/i, G.C. 367, cadesin G.C. 367 =^fadesin 
(himself), cadesne, ZU. 24* =:/adesne (themselves) «ra-, and 
possibly in ci'chib-foruireth (*what has led you forth?' 

^ So in the loan-words breib (broTis), loih (loyem), eerbsire (cereyisiarius). 



200 CBLTIO DECLENSION. — DK. WHITLEY STOKES. 

Crowe) LL. 252^ But here perhaps we should analyse 
thus: cichi-b'f., and regard cichi as a reduplicated interrogative 
pronoun. In the Cornish ga^s, Br. o-z, we have a combina- 
tion of preposition and pronoun — gas being an abbreviated 
form of agO'S used as a possessive pronoun : oz, ouz, being a 
combination of tcorth' and z. 

Suffixed Forms. 

Sing. -t. JPlur. b. 

Corresponding British forms are : sing, t. Com. s^ Br. t, %, 
plur. 'fcch, Com. ugh (ygh), Br. uch {pch). 

Some of the Irish forms (e.g. dui-tf uai-t) show the ^-infec« 
tion of the vowel of the preposition. Others (e.g. cenut^ erui, 
friut and iarmut, Ml. 70^, and torut) show the ti-infection, 
In the first case, probably, the / represents a protoceltic tti=: 
Lat. ie, Skr. ted ; in the second a protoceltic trU, which may 
have been originally an instrumental = Zend thwd^ Skr 
tvayd. The plural forms (e.g. dUib, etruiby Uaib) alwayf 
exhibit the i-infection. The b, therefore, points to a proto- 
celtic svi. For the initial vowel of the British forms I have 
no satisfactory explanation. 

Pronouns of the Third Person, 
Absolute forms. 



Mate. 


Fern, 


Neut, 


Sing. Nbm. S, se^ 


hV 5, 8l 


ed,» 


Om. ai 


iu* 


fiiP 


Ace. 


T* 





* for-aef ar-te^ ol-se (naith he) passim ; bid fir <p»w, oUie-tom (erit TeniiD 
aatem, inqnit ille ipse) Ml. cited G.C.* 497, where Ebel mistranslates oi»e9ow 
by * propter hoc ipsom.* Here for {bar is also found) stands for m-oi*. 

* tuead CO ilr hi ianin (thereafter she was brought to land) LU. 40* ; aiheri 
Comgall robo leu hi, ar is *na ferund rMobad hi (C. said that she belonj^ to 
him, for in his land she was taken) LIL 41"; *ro(/iatu tin^ ira^ ol-ui (*thov 
shalt have that, then/ says she) LU. 41*. 

> itt-ht'te fiU an dechnr (this below is their difference) Sg. 201* ; on which Ebel 
founds his statement (6.C. 326) that e is also neuter nom., seems a verbal erroi 
for iihedse, etc. 

* IHe dl an-atn-ai (leave to her, the Church, what is hers), Fothud*s poem, 
pref. to Felire. 

^ rueaat hi eo Teeh Dabeoe (they brought her to Dabeoc's House), LU. 41*. 



CELTIC DECLENSION. — DR. WHITLEY STOKES. 201 

Ibar. Km. C, fat (eat), slat (seat)^ S S 

Oem, ai (ae) 

IkU. lb* ib ib 

Ag€. Ut' 

Of the British personal pronouns the corresponding forms 
are only the sg. fern hi = Ir. si ; and the pi. fci/^ wynt = Ir. e, 
wt. The British possessives ei (his), ei-h (her), exactly 
represent the Irish personal genitives a/, which (as we shall see) 
are weakened in the proclitic possessives to a^ a-h. 

The h which is so often prefixed to some of the Irish 
forms (w hi^ is Aed, it he, hi, hib) is simply due to the follow- 
ing acute accent. As to the aspiration of accented vowels in 
Welsh, see Rhys, Lectures, p. 230. 

Here i stands for a protoceltic eis, Lat. is, Skr. ayam. The 
fern, i i8=Skr. iynm^ Lat. ea. The fern, e is perhaps=Skr, 
^»/'d, with regular loss of intervocalic «. 
wi8=8kr. %ya8. The fern, si is = Skr. syd. 
The neut. ed i8=Skr. idam, Goth. iVflf, Lat. id. The masc. 
gen. di (the toneless form of which aspirates and must there- 
fore have ended in a vowel) is=Skr. asya. The fem. gen. di 
(the toneless form of which does not aspirate or eclipse, and 
must therefore have ended in a consonant other than n) is= 
Skr. asyds. 

The fem. ace. i (only found in Middle and Modern Irish) is 
perhaps only the nom. si with its initial infected. 

The plur. nom. i (in the three genders) =Lat. tV, ei^ eae, ea. 
The form iaf, siat^ protoceltic ei-onto, sei-onto, is obscure to me. 
Perhaps onto is=Umbr. ont, hont. The gen. di is=Skr. 
znasc. and neut. esham. The dat. ib is=the Skr. masc. and 
Beat, instrumental ebhis. 

1 «r.ffM/, oT'Mif ol'tiat (say they) LIT. 3*. et passim ; ol-slat, Trip. Life, RawL 
B. 612, fo. 7*. 2 ; ol-$eat-iow. Ml. 12*. Sg. 20P. LU. 24*. 

* donm hibfaithcib tin. Laws, ii. p. 10, 1. 22 ; i»na hibh »etuib\ ibid. p. 70; and 
(withprothctic/) cotna-fih, dona-Jib, LU. 27». 31»; ianoftih, LB. 117». 1. 23. 

* nnn'iHf»a»ba n§rt Bretan fodmid iai (so that the Brituns* might at last 
o^dlfid them) LU. 3*. 



202 



VIII.— THE NEO-CELTIO VERB SUBSTANTIVE. By 
Whitley Stokes, D.C.L., Hon. Fellow of Jesus College, 
Oxford, and Correspondent of the Institute of France 
(Acad^mie des Inscriptions). 

To express the verb substantive, Latin uses two roots (««,/««), 
English three {es, bu, vas) ; but for this purpose no less than 
ten are employed by the Neo-Celtic languages. The Old- 
Irish verb substantive is made up of forms belonging to nine 
different roots, namely ba, ben, blv, bu, es, gab, t, Id and ral. 
The British verb substantive is made up of forms belonging 
to eiglit, namely ba, ben, blv, bii, es, %, mag and id. 

Ba is Gr. ^a (in e-ySiyi/, fii-fid^, fia-rd^), Skr. gd. Ben is 
Or. ^ap (in fialvta ex fiavjio), Uinbr. Osc. ben, Lat. {g)ven in 
(g)venw, Skr. gan, in d-ganma, a-ganmahi, ganvahi, and 
gaganvaha} Blv is Gr. ^iF (from ^iF, Curtius, G. K No. 
640), Lat. {g)nv, Skr. giv. Bu is Gr, ^v, Lat. /w, Skr. 
bhu, JEs is Lat. es, Gr. €9, Skr. as. Qab (from Indo- 
Eur. ghabh) is Lat. Vhab. I is Gr. I (in i-hai, l-fiePy 
l'(ov), Lat. and Skr. t. Mag represents either an Indo- 
European \ mag, whence yi^a^, mag-nwA, Goth, mikih, or an 
Indo-European V magh, whence fir]')(p<;, Goth, mag (possum), 
Skr. mahat, mahan. The latter root seems the more likely. 
Td is Lat. std, Gr. crq, Skr. sthd, thd (in ut-thdUnn, rk-f/fd).* 
Val (properly * posse ' : cf . mag supra) is Lat. val, whence 
vakOy valulus. From a like root vol, val seem to come, in 
Greek the adj. ovko^ (ex Fokos:) in oiiKaL KOficu *a strong 
(thick) head of hair,' and in Sanskrit the so-called suffix rala 
in, e.g. kr§i'Vala 'peasant,' lit. 'mighty at ploughing,' krsi.^ 

^ Whitney, Grammar, (212, quotes these forms as instaDces of the role that 
final radical m is changed (in internal comhination) to n when it comes before 
m or V. But it seems preferable to assume, with Biihler, that Sanskrit had two 
roots, one gan^^avy the other ^am = Goth, qam {qimau^ gam), 

* Cited by Whitney, § 233, from the Paiicaviuya-Brahraana. 

' Skr. bala kraft, which Curtius, G.£.> 594, puts with Lat. valercy seems to 
come from quite a different root, represented in Church Slavonic by boUj (maior) 
and in Celtic by Irish ad-boL 



OLD-IBISH PHONETICS. 203 

For the use of roots meaning * go ' (ba, ben, t) to express 
'be/ compare in Sanskrit such phrases as aa paFicatvam dgatah 
(he became the five elements, Le. died), mniatdm eti (he goes 
to equality, i,e, becomes equal), Whitney, § 274*, From 
* becoming' to 'being* is an easy step. For the like use of 
a root meaning 'live* (Jir), compare the Plautine employ- 
ment of tivere. For the like use of a root meaning * stand ' 
{td)f compare the Italian atafo. The similar use in Spanish 
(ser) and in Gothic [risan) of verbs meaning respectively * to 
sit ' and * to dwell ' will occur to every one. 

All the forms belonging respectively to the roots ba, biv 
and bu^ and some of those belonging to the roots ea and td^ 
are mixed together in the Grammatica Celtica ; and the chief 
object of this paper is to sort them under their several roots. 
Except in the case of a very few conjectural forms, inserted 
to complete the paradigms and marked with an asterisk, 
examples (with the context) will be given of all forms here 
cited which are not found in the Grammatica Celtica. The 
mark ' is here used to denote the acute accent, and not, as 
ia invariably the case in Irish MSS.,* the length of the vowel 
over which it is placed. A hyphen is here prefixed to forms 
occurring only after conjunctions and particles. 

As Windisch and, probably, other leading Celtologues 
hold that all forms of the Irish verb substantive which begin 
with b are derived from the root bu,^ and as this opinion 
seems to me contrary to the rules of Irish phonetics, I think 
thaty before considering the several roots and the forms 
respectively belonging thereto, it may be well to state and 
illustrate the ways in which Old-Irish treats the proto- 

* ThiiniejBen (Rev. Celtique, vi. 130, note 6) says: "Nous ▼errons cependant 
que Taccent aiga est assez souvent employe pour marauer simplcment la Toyelle 
Umiqiie, mdme devant one consonne simple (surtout oans W.,'* i.e, the Wiirz- 
bug Codex Panliniu). I cannot find a single sure instance of this either in his 
paper or elsewhere. The forms dO'Tt^gmiy do-ri-ffmsam, do-ri-genaat^ which he 
cites, pp. 132-133, seem simply examples of the verbal prefix ri = Lat. pri (in 
pri-dem^ prl-die, prUmus), which also occurs in dO'Vi'ltitet and remi-ri-erehoii. 
A cognate verbal prefix re (whence the prefix rem-) seems also to occur in 
naehan rilie^ etc. 

' Thus in ( 301 of his excellent Irische Grammatik he gives b^u as a present, 
rote (leg. roln) and rabi and bntar as perfects, from Vbhu, So in the Revue 
Celtique, vi. 156, Thumeysen gives bi [bai)^ be (bae) as the post-tonic forms of 
hUf }bu. They really are (aa we shall see) the post-tonic forms of bi, '</biv. 



204 NBO-CELTIC VERB SUBSTANTIVB. — MB. STOKES. 

Celtic (urkeltisch)^ short vowels a, e^ and t«, the long vowels 
d and i, and the diphthongs di^ ei, au, and ou. 

I. acute a 

(1) remains intact : 

(2) followed by a slender vowel (/?, i, t, i) becomes al, e, d, 

I, afi, ol or «l : 

(3) followed by u becomes an or u: 

(4) followed by v becomes (with the r) atm, d or fi : This 

au, d, when (owing to shift of accent) it occurs in a 
post*tonic syllable, becomes u : 

(5) followed by r or / combined with another consonant 

becomes d : 

(6) followed by p becomes aH, u : 

(7) by compensatory lengthening becomes a, and in one 

case (der) i : This d or e, when (owing to shift of 
accent) it occurs in a post- tonic syllable, becomes i : 

(8) by metathesis and crasis with a fragmentary vowel * 

becomes d : 

II. toneless or grave a 

(1) remains intact or becomes o : 

(2) followed by a slender vowel becomes al, e, el, • or ui : 

(3) followed by o becomes o : 

(4) followed by u or u, becomes m : 

(5) followed by vi or rl, becomes (with the vi, ri) eu (eo) : 

(6) followed by p or b, becomes aU or u: 

(7) by compensatory lengthening becomes d. 

III. acute e 

(1) remains intact: 

(2) followed by a slender vowel becomes el or i and 

(rarely) ai: 

^ This paper originally appeared in Eulin*8 ZeiUehrift fir vergl, Sprfiehfor* 
tehwtg, and contained in many places the contractions **urkelt.'* (i.'. urkeltisch), 
and **urir." (ue. uririsch), *pnmeval Celtic,' * primeval Irish/ or * proto-Celtic/ 
* nroto- Irish. I have let tnese convenient contractions stand in the preuent 
edition of my paper. 

' Some philologists call this an * irrational vowel/ others call it tvarabhakti. 
The latter term is objectionable, first, because no one save a Sanskritist under- 
stands it, secondly, because it properly means a vowel -fragment inserted between 
r and a following consonant. But in Irish we have vowel-fragmentti also 
between / and a consonant whether preceding or following. 



OLD-IRISH PHONETICS. 205 

(3) followed by w, becomes iu or eo : 

(4) followed by 8, becomes (with the s) i : 

(5) followed by v, becomes (with the v) fi : 

(6) followed by r or / combined with another consonant, 

becomes ^ or I : 

(7) by compensatory lengthening becomes i,^ and this B 
(a) when (the accent having disappeared or retreated) 

it occurs in a toneless or post-tonic syllable, becomes 
a or f, 
(yS) when followed by a slender vowel, becomes itiif ioi, 
mi {loi)f unless when the lost letter is nasalis sonans, 
in which case the i becomes it. When (the accent 
having shifted) eui occurs in a post- tonic syllable, it 
becomes ♦. 

IV. toneless or grave e 

(1) becomes a or t, or (after infecting a previous vowel) is 

lost : 

(2) followed by a slender vowel, becomes i : 

(3) followed by v becomes (with the v) au, u : 

(4) by compensatory lengthening becomes e, which (when 

followed by a slender vowel) becomes ei. When (the 
accent having shifted) this ei occurs in a post- tonic 
syllable, it becomes t. 

V. acute u 

(1) remains intact : 

(2) followed by a or o, becomes o : 

(3) followed by a slender vowel, becomes either ui or 

(oftener) the diphthong oi (oe) ; for which di (aoi) is 
written in Middle- and Modem-, and sometimes even 
in Old-Irish : 

(4) by compensatory lengthening, becomes Ha or u. 

VI. toneless or grave u 

(1) remains intact, or becomes o or (in sufSx-syllables) 
a or o: 

' In eeol (music] ex eveevh (Rh^, Rer. Celt. vi. 60n : cf. W, piby 0. "W. 
pitpow [leg. pnpaHr]y 6. C. 1056} we seem to have eo ex ^cv. This ed, when 
followed by t, b^mes edi or tut. 



206 NEO-CELTIC VERB SUBSTANTIVE. — MR, STOKES. 

(2) followed by a slender vowel, becomes oi : 

(3) followed by t?, becomes (with the v) d. 

VII. acute d 

(1) remains intact or becomes 6 or i: when (owing to 

a shift of accent) this d occurs in a post-tonic syllable, 
it becomes a : 

(2) followed by a slender vowel becomes di or oi: 

(3) followed by r, becomes (with the r) ao, d. 

VIII. toneless or grave d 

(1) becomes a and (when next after the tonic syllable) is 
sometimes lost: 

(2) followed by a slender vowel, becomes at or i: 

(3) followed by t^ becomes u. 

IX. acute i 

(1) remains intact : 

(2) followed by o becomes e. 

X. toneless or grave i becomes i, e, or a, or (when next 

after the tonic syllable) is sometimes lost after infect- 
ing the preceding vowel. 

XI. acute at 

(1) remains intact or becomes 01 : 

(2) followed by a or o, becomes de or oe. 

XII. toneless di becomes a ; but grave di remains intact 
or becomes oi or (when followed by a) de. 

XIII. acut^ ei 

(1) becomes ta,^ or, in desinence, i: 

(2) followed by a slender vowel, becomes e, ei, ini or J. 

^ In the loan-word ^tn = (tV] I tJnttim, acute u is diphthongized in the same way. 

' There seems to have heen a protoceltic non -diphthongal acute fy which arose 
from reduplication. Old- Irish treats it like ei, Tiz. changes it to To, which, how- 
ever, when grave and followed by a slender vowel, becomes eoi. Thus finmr, 
flMiavy '\/vidy siasair [ged-aar'i), ^ ted, du-diastae (from du'ddchim), ad-riastar 
{adriug), for-diastar {fordingim), du^JTaBtar {dufeehim), miasiar {midiur)^ liat 
ijingim), When grave and followed by a slender vowel we have eoi : o ro^ 
tdiaftoin {do-aa-fonim), Ir. Tcxte, p. 258, 1. 15, urkelt. tu^ex^tvent, where the 
stem is exactly the Skr. perfect stem of ^tvan, 1'he same stem occurs in the 
fem. noun nan (cry), urkelt. Bvena from ^svesvena, '^/sven. This root begins with 
/, not only in the verbs iU'fenimm (testificor) Wb. 22*, do-ds'/enpha, LU. 17*, 
do'dir'fetius (exploravi) Wb. 18<^, but also in the nouns fft (music) ex wento, 
dir-Jttiud (spielen) ; cf. sdlltu, follus, '/svel, and sUan, Jiu, *^8vep. In "Welsh 
hoedi from protoceltic »etlo-n = Lat. tecuium from tielunif ^se, i becomes of. 



OLD-IRISH PHONETICS. 207 

XIV. toneless or grave ei becomes e or t, which in desinence 
(after infecting a preceding vowel) is often dropt. 

XV. acute au 

(1) remains intact or becomes ao or o: 

(2) followed by a slender vowel becomes be or (in loan- 

words) til. 

XVI. toneless or grave au becomes u ? 

XVII. acute ou 

(1) becomes o or ua or (in desinence) u : 

(2) followed by a slender vowel, becomes 61 or ual. 

XVIII. toneless or grave ou remains intact or becomes 
(o or) a. 

Examples. 

I. (1) cdnim (cano), urkelt. cdndmi : 

(2) saigim (adeo), urkelt. sdgidmi, Goth, sokja : atbail 

(moritur), urkelt. atubdlit, Teut. yjqual : maicc (filii) 
ogamic fwdji : air-^ aur-, er-, ir-, urkelt. dri- : aith-, 
aud', ed; ad-y urkelt. dti- : dair (quercus), urkelt. 
dark' = Lat laric- : inge (unguis), urkelt. dngion- : 
mtiir (sea), gen. marOy LIT. 23**, Gaul, won, urkelt. 
iwtfri=Lat. mdre: buide (yellow) = Lat. bddius: baith, 
beit/i, buith (esse), urkelt. bati- : coire (caldron), W. 
jw«V, urkelt. cvdrio-^ Skr. carii, 

(3) baull (membro), ace. pi. bullUy urkelt. balluy ballus : lugu 

(less), urkelt. lagifi{n)8, 

(4) haue, hoa (nepos), urkelt. {p)dviO'S : sHil (oculus), urkelt. 

sdviii'S, cf. Goth, sauil (sun). Where owing to retreat 
of accent the au, d becomes post-tonic : iann-ui (gl. 
abnepotes) Ml. 119^ 

(5) do-dirci (efficit), /diV^ (gaudium). 

(6) popdn (master) borrowed from irdmra^i popp from 

pa{m)pinus. 

(7) dr (slaughter, W. aer), urkelt. dgro-a : andl (breath, 
W. anadi), urkelt. andtla : ddl, 0. Welsh datl (forum) : 
mdl (prince) W. mael, urkelt. mdglo : dl (offspring), 
Ohg. fasely urkelt. (p)d8/o. In foditiu (endurance), 



208 NEO-CELTIC VERB SUBSTANTIVE. MR. STOKES. 

urkelt. fmdd{m)tion', the accent has shifted to the 
first syllable. 
(8) lam (hand), urkelt. {p)ldfna ex pal^md, Lat. palma : 
8ldn (sal-vus) ex mP^no : Idn (full) ex (j))af*no = Skr. 
p&rna : brdge (neck) ex bar^giont^ Lat. gurget- : endm 
(bone) ex can^ma, Ohg. hamma, Gr. Ki^fitf : ad-glddur 
(appello) ex ad-gal^dur, 

II. (1) torann (tonitru, W. taran), urkelt. tarina : athir 

(father), urkelt. at^r. 

(2) cechain^ cechiiin (cecinit), urkelt. cicanit : mogai (ser- 

vants), urkelt. mdgavea : imm (afji^i), urkelt. ambi : 
imhliu (6fixf>a\6<;)y urkelt. ambilion' : indrith (incursus), 
urkelt. ande-ritO' : imb (butter, Lat. tm^t/^n),* urkelt. 
ambin [cf. for the accent Skr. uddn 'water,' malidn 
' greatness '] : cride (KapSia), urkelt. cardio-. 

(3) aloo (rupis), /d///o (vatis), urkelt. {p)dl8at/os, ritayos. 

(4) crdbud (piety, religious practice), urkelt. crdbdtu, which 

Windisch compares with Skr. ti-grambha, 

(5) Eugen, JEogan, urkelt. Avi-ginoa : see G. C. p. 82. 

(6) batiptaiat borrowed from baptkta : pupall (tent) from 
papHio : vball (an apple), urkelt. abdllo. 

(7) dmm (agmen), urkelt. agmin : andl (f. breath, W. 

anadly m.), urkelt. andtla. 

III. (1) berim (fero), urkelt. b^rdmu 

(2) no'beir (fert), urkelt. nu-birit : deich (ten), urkelt. 
e/ecew, Lat. decern : midiur (judicio), urkelt. m^diu-r 
fxiBofiai : bligim (I milk), urkelt. mlSgdmif Ohg. 
meichan : mil (honey), urkelt. mili-s, Gr. pAXtr- ^ : 
ad-gainemmar (from ath-genur), corr(hcraUea (from 
cr^tim, *cred'dim\ praidchas (from predchim, predico). 

(3) do'bmr (affero, do), urkelt. tu-bdru : ^m (dormivit), 

urkelt. sv^stepe : ^oc/m (equos), urkelt. ectUB : ateoch 
(I pray), urkelt. ada-Ucu, 

(4) /««/ (worthy), W. ^M?tf<?, Gaul. r^«!i (in Vesu-avuB^ Vesu* 

mu8, C. I. Lat. V. Nos. 7854, 6002), Skr. cdsu. 

^ The Lat. mely ffen. mellis, seems to come from *medvi (with the common change 
otdto I), and to be cognate with the Old-Irish woman's name Medb = Medva, 



OLD-IRISH PHONETICS. 209 

(5) clu (glory), urkelt. ci^vos-, Gr. KXeFtx:. 

(6) nam-^rpimm : dirge {d^-rige) : tti-diltai {de-luadt). 

(7) el (zelus), W. iant, urkelt. t/^nto, Skr. yatna : set (via, 

"W. /it/nt, Goth. mnth'S)^ urkelt. a^nto-n : cet (primus, 
"W. cynt), Gaul, cintiir : /re» (mighty), urkelt. trixno-8 : 
^ (bird, 0. W. ^'^n), urkelt. (p)Stn0'8, y/pet : «ce/ 
(narratio, W. ch\cedl\ urkelt. scvdtlo-n : V*^^^ = ^ • 
c^we/ (genus, W. cenetl)^ urkelt. cenitlo-n : ml (mensis), 
gen. mtSf urkelt. minSy gen. mimos. Where the lost 
fX)nsonant represented nasalis sonans : cet (hundred), 
W. cant^zi'KaTov : det (tooth), W. dant, Skr. ddnta-s : 
iel (string), W. tant = Skr. tdntu-s. 

(a) cit-a-biat : f droit ul from for-cetlo-n, urkelt. rer- 
cdntlo : dirfitivd (playing) from air-fBtiud, urkelt. 
are-sv^ntitu : 6ac (young) ex bvec^ W. ioiienc, urkelt. 
gor^ncO'8. 

O) et, gen. ^otV, urkelt. pdnfi : set^ gen. seuit, urkelt. 
sinti : fr^n, gen. sg. m. tnimiy urkelt. trixni : e/?, 
gen. ^oi«, urkelt. Stnl : seel, gen, acedil, acetnl, urkelt. 
acr^tli : cenely gen. ceneuily urkelt. cen^tli : tala-fcoiny 
urkelt. tu-ex'Srene (Indo-Eur. -avesvene) : aith-geoin 
(reeognovit), urkelt. ati-gegne^ y/gna^ Skr. jajnau. 
Where the lost consonant represents nasalis 
sonans : cet (hundred), gen. sg. mY, urkelt. 
Cfji/I : hrec (lie, Skr. bhramga), ace. sg. breic^ 
urkelt. brencin : det (tooth), dat. sg. deit, urkelt. 
deqti : meit (greatness), W. maint, urkelt, tnen- 
ti-a : teit-bind (sweet-stringed), urkelt. teiito-hindis : 
treicim (I forsake), urkelt. far-e^dmi, y/e^k : eicen 
(necessitas), urkelt. efipina : con'et€m(g)8aet, Tur. 
133. 

IV. (1) ainm (name, W. amc), urkelt. anmi^n- : tana (thin, W. 
teneu), urkelt. tenevda = ravaFo^ : the prepositions aaa, 
la from ea?, letoa : aiur (sister), urkelt. aveaor : lingim 
(I leap), urkelt. rkngdmi, y/vaig : cingim (I go), urkelt. 
cengdmi : nm (nephew), urkelt. nepat-, Lat. nepot- : 

FhiL Tnuis. 1880-6. U 



210 NBO-CELTIC VERB SUBSTAKTIVE. — ^MR. fiTTOKES. 

a maicc (0 son), urkelt. mdcte : beir {(p^pe), urkelt* 
Mre : berid (^epere), urkelt. b&rete. 

(2) dligid (legis), urkelt. dligetu 

(3) naue^ nue (new), W. newydd^ protoceltic nevids, Gr. 

veio^ : duthracim (I wish), urkelt. de-tii'tarcdmi 
(Thurneysen), ^/tark (Windisch). 

(4) ceimm (gradus), reimm (cursus), urkelt. cengmSn^ 

retmen. After the accent has shifted to the first 
syllable : td'Chimm^ imm-rimm, 

V. (1) sruth (stream), W. ffrwdy urkelt. sfriitu-Sy ^spru. 

(2) arotha (stream's), urkelt. sfrutatos : bond (sole), urkelt. 

bundO'S = Lat. fundus : tb (ex to-Of silent), urkelt. 
tusO'S, Skr. ^tush, 

(3) fo-rui-rmed (was computed), proto-irish vu-ru-rimiato : 

druiy Mid. Ir. drdi. Mod. Jr. draoi^ urir. driiis i/oessam, 
faesam (support, protection), urir. v&'Sestdmo : fokUiu 
(confessio), urir. Hi'Sestdmiion- (cf. v<l>iaTr}fii) : fomn, 
faoimn, urir. rus-sini : fidir, doir, urir. «t5:-n>o-« (Skr. 
suvira, Zend hvira), duriros : impdidach (versutus), 
urir. ambi'Suticos : coemthecht (company), urir. ciim- 
teigtu ; and a host of verbal forms with the three pre- 
fixes ciim {z=:cumo),^ fu {:=inr6) and rd (=Lat. prd). 
Thus, first cum : cSima (conservet), urkelt. cum*'emdt:m 
cOemais (non poteris), urkelt. ni cdm^'eangsi, y/ang : 
focoimlnciar (pertulerunt), urir. vu-cum^ - lelagontor : 
focoemallag'sa (pertuli) Aug. Solil. 2, urir. vu-cum'' 
lelaga : ni coimnactar (non potuerunt), urir. nl-ciim- 
nenanconfor, yjnanc : docoemnachtar (lavarunt), urir. 
tU'C&m^-nenagoutor, ^nag, Skr. nig : dochoimmarraig 
(gl. spoliavit), duchoimmarraig (gl. exuerit) G. C. 874, 
immediately from dH-cum-imm-ar-raigy urir. tu-cuni' 
ambi-aro-rage, with four prepositional prefixes. 

Secondly fu : ni foiret (non efiiciunt), urir. 
'tU'Venonti : na-faerlangtar (non sustinuerunt), LL. 
240*, urir, •tu-ru-klangontor : rofaikad, Ir. Texte 

* Formed (accordinff to Windisch) from tho prefix cu (=Lat. co?) as aummus 
from ^sup'fno and (I think) imus from ^ina-mo. 



OLD-IBISH PHONETICS. 211 

p. 77, 1. 2 (sustinuerit), urir. ru-Hi-lelangseto : ni con- 
foigebat, Ml. 69* 8, urir. -rugegbonto, y/gab. 

Thirdly rii : ad-roi-gegrannatar (persecuti suDt), 
urir. acC-rii-gegrendontor, y/grend^ Lat. y/grad : for-tan- 
roi'Chechnatar (nos docuerunt) Ml. 63^ 1, urkelt. ver- 
tumia-Hit'Cecanonfor, y/can : far-roe-bling (he sprang) 
LU. 19* : CO raeblangtdr (so that they leapt), urir. -rU' 
tlevlenganfar, y/rleng, Skr. sg. 3 vavalga : for-roichan 
(gL institui), urir. rer-rii-cecaHa, of. for'tan-rouchan 
(gl. nos . . . comraonisti) : /o-roi-chlaid (eflfodit), urir. 
tu-rU'Ceclade, yjclad : aro-b-roi-naHc (vos despondi), urir, 
arthsris-rii'nenasca, — nasc from snat-c — icor-rai-mdetar 
(that they broke), urir. -rd-tnemadontor : ad-roi-theach 
(aupplicavi) = ad-roe-tach^ Sanct. 20, urir. ado-rii- 
tetaca : in-roi'grann (persecutus sum), urir. ende-rit-ge^ 
grenda : nad roeglaind (non didicit), urir. -rii-geglende : 
do-roe-madaiff Saltair, 7955, urir. tu-ru-memader, 
^mad : do-rofgii, do-roe-gu (elegit), urir. tu-rii-geguse, 
^gtis : du-rai'mmbetar (obliviscentur), Ml. 77* 12, urir. 
tU'ru-memabatitor, y/men : do-rdi-mless (consumpsi), 
F^l. p. cxl, urir. tu-ru-meltassu : arndom-roi-chliS'Se 
(quod me abstulisti). Ml. 74* 7 : dom-roi-aechiatar 
(mihi succurrerunt), urir. tu-me-ru-segfonfor, 
(4) euanene (pugil) from *ffiffn, borrowed from Lat. 
pugnus : cuala (audivit), urir. ciickte : cuairt (um- 
kreis), urkelt. ciicratxHy y/cur : cul (cuius, properly 
' ring des Hintem '), urkelt. cuclo-a = kvkKo^. 

VL (1) nu, no (verbal particle) = Gr. toneless w : dit-, do- 
(inseparable prefix of dispraise), urkelt. dus- = 81/9, 
Skr. du8' and the corresponding laudatory prefix «?/-, 
«o-=:Skr. «M- : druad, urkelt. druddos : cloth (famous), 
urkelt. clut6'8=:K\vT6<i. So the verbal prefixes /«, rw, 
tu, iid when toneless become /o, ro, do^ od. So in the 
loan-words corcor, corcar, credal, escal, ligordaey Sg. 
109% respectively from Lat. purpura, criduim, Ssculus, 
ligus, ligurts. 
(2) soiscele (gospel), urkelt. su-sctetiio'. 



212 NEO-CELTIC VERB SUBSTANTIVE. MR. STOKES. 

(3) dac (young, W. iouenc), urkelt. puvinco-s = Lat. t«- 
veticus. 

VII. (1) mdfhirt urkelt. mdfer, Lat. mdter : hrdthir z=.^\, 

/rater (W. hraut{r) is = brdiros, bratri or brdtren) : 
mor (great) = urkelt. nidroa : fir (true), urkelt. riro-St 
OHG. wdr, Lat. rents : ri (king), Skr. r^;' (in samrqf). 
In dthach (breeze), urkelt, vdtdcay \/rd, the accent has 
shifted to the first syllable. 

(2) faith (vates), urkelt. rdti-s : wd/r, mdir (magni), urkelt. 

mdrl : mdire^ moire (magnae), urkelt. mdres. 

(3) brao, bro (quern), gen. J/*oon=Skr. grdvan. 

VIII. (1) biathad (/8t6Ti;T0<?), urkelt. bltdtdtoa : nlfodlat (non 
dividunt), urir. nl vuddHonto. 

(2) biathid {^Lorrp-t), urkelt. blvdtdti : tathaim (periit), 

urkelt. tdtdme (Skr. tdmyati) : ibim (bibo), urkelt. 
{p)ibdmi. 

(3) forcongur (praecipio), urkelt. ver-cum' -gdru : cf. yrjpv^. 

IX. (1) it (colour), urkelt. Ifcas, Lat. livor : crlthid (emax), 

urkelt. krttati'Sy Skr. y/kri. 
(2) 6eo, bin, (vivus), urkelt. ifro-«, Lat. {g)vini'8 : e/o- 
^wco, (faciam), from dogniu (facio) : fdthi (vates, ace. 
pi.), urkelt. vails. So when owing to the retreat of 
the accent the I becomes post-tonic : ailithir (pilgrim), 
urkelt. alioilrO'S : berthi (ferendus), urkelt. beretivo-s : 
fognam (servitium), urkelt. vu-gen^imu-s : tuirem, dram 
(numerare), urkelt. tu-rJma, ad-rtma; and the loan- 
words cucenn, enpartain^ ffiuiienn, ola respectively from 
Lat. coqinna, respertina, tnolina, otica,^ 

X. crenim (I buy), urkelt. crindmi, Skr. krindmi : foruirmed 

(was computed), Ml. 74° 20, urkelt. vu-ru-rimiato : 
ainech, enech (face, Corn. Br. enep), urkelt. dnlkvo-^ 
Skr. dnika, 

XI. did (fire) = aWo9, Lat. aedes : likg (calf), Goth, laikan : 

cioen (iniquus), Goth, hlains : den, den = Lat. unm 
from oinos : and the loan-word laeochu = /alcos. 

^ eapartain and o/a point perhaps to Low-Latin ^vesperCina, *6liva. 



OLD-IRISH PHONBTICS. 213 

XII. I have no example of the toneless urkelt. diphthong di. 

Bat the neoceltic diphthong ai arising from the loss 
of intervocalic 8 or 1/ becomes a when toneless. Thus 
di (suus), W. ei = Skr. ast/a, when used as a proclitic 
possessive pronoun becomes a. 

Post-tonic di : dSgrnaini (beneficia), ddgmdifii, cdrnd* 
esM : fordma (illuminat) from ver-sdnnai, 

XIII. fiad (currus), Gaul, rtda^ Ohg. reita : lasc (fish), 
urkelt. disco-a : ad-fided, ad-ftadat (they declare), Skr. 
veda : fiach (debt), urkelt. vSico-a, pi. n. feich, urkelt. 
r^ici : ttaig (medicu8)=Goth. leikeU : ltgitn^^='Kelxfo : 
tei = arei^i. 

XIY. I have no sure example of toneless ei : inna, gen. sg. 
fern, of the article, urkelt. sindeis, is perhaps one. 
Where the accent has shifted we seem to have 1. 
Thus tarn (iron), riathor (cataract), trlan (a third), 
grtan (gravel). Grave ei is exemplified hjfor'tacht, 
cdim-thecht, urir. vir-tcigtay cUtm-teigta : fidchell (chess- 
board) = W. gwyddbwyU : do-imm-lhigim (advenio), 
urir. tu-dmbi-teigo {tiigOy Ir. Uagaim::^<TT€i)(a>) ifuirsire 
(parasite), urir. vdr-aeriO'S {sere *food,' cogn. with 
(7i-T09 : eich (horses), urir. ^(?p^*=Lat. equi : fdthi 
(prophets), urkelt. vdteis, GauL ovareif^, 

X7. ait, d (auris) : gldo-hnathe (a line, lit. a ball- thread), cf. 
Skr. glau : hd (cow), Skr. gau-s, pi. gen. twna[w]-Ja(? Sg. 
22^ 11 : gauy go (falsus), cf. ;^ai)i/09, gue (falsi tatis) : 
ndy gen. naue, nde = Skr. nau, vav^, navis, and the 
loan-words cdis (caus&), c&iM (causativus). 

XTI. maccUf urkelt. mdccaus P and the loan-word Essu (Esau). 

XVII. (1) «/d^, sluag (host), urkelt. sidugo-s : tuath (popu- 
lus), urkelt. tdutay Goth, thiuda : rtuid (red), urkelt. 
roudo-s, Goth, raud-s. In desinence in-diu (hodie), 
Skr. di/6s. 
(2) sldig (hosts), urkelt. sUugei : tuaith (populo), urkelt. 
ioutl, but l^he (lightning), urkelt. l6ucen(t)B = Lat. 
Uicem. 

^ redupl. 8-ixLi, pi. 3, liUit (gl. tmgent), Ml. %^ 14. 



214 NEO-CELTIC VERB 8D BSTAKTIVB.-— MR. STOKES. 

XVIII. sruaim (stream), urkelt. sroumSn. 

We can now lay down with confidence that, in the Irish 
verb substantive, the forms beginning with ba, bd, bi, bH^ 62, 
belong to y/ba : that those beginning with ban^ ben, biun 
belong to ^ben : that those being or beginning with bi, 6*, 
bia belong to y/biv : and, lastly, that those being or beginning 
with bdi, bde, boi, bOe, bo belong to ^bi(. 

I. BA. 

The forms belonging to this root are used as mere copulas. 
When they are preceded by conjunctions or particles, they 
are enclitics. When not so preceded, they are proclitics. 

Present indicative active. 
Sg. *ba,pa,^ -pd-m 1. pi. bamnii, *'bam 

bd-i 2. „ *baithi, *'baid 
beith,bid^\ f*bait, 

'bdy^ 'pa^ > 3. „ I 'bety -bat, -pat^ 
rel. baas ) \ rel. bite,^ bat-n ^ 

These forms when combined with stems of verbs of the 
three series make the so-called (-futures, except in the first 
sg., subjoined form. The b is aspirated, and we have the 
following sets of endings : 

^ atht rO'pa airdere 8a y maith eenco heind aeht oenla for domon (proTided I am 
renowned, it is well though I be only one day in the world), LU. 61\ Bnt here 
perhaps ro-pa is Ist sg. injunctive. 

* ma-heith (si est) Sg. 210» 4, 212* 13, amal bid md-aimser feisin, Sg. 
188* 26. 

' from *baty which occurs in 0'Clery*s Glossary with a suffixed pronoun : 

bath-at .i. ata aige 'she has.' In ba-ioir do-caeh-erhfaidi e\a nochtad each 
trdtha (it is, it were? — proper for every Christian though he should weep at 
every watch), Saltair 8017, 8018, I know not whether the ba is present or 
injunctive. ^ 

* ni'pa dileu duit anl hit Si (non est proprium tibi id quod es), Wb. 5^. 

' ro'biat archuit folid eettid fu-bat arehuit tuift, Sg. 138* 5 ; acht rO'pat 
saint, Sk. 199» 1. 

' Sucn plural relative forms aspirate, and must therefore have originally 
ended in a vowel. I see, accordingly, in the -e the neo-celtic reflex of the Vedic 
ya (for the classical yaniy Whitney, } 5091, the nom. pi. neutr. of the rel. pron. 
yds^ts. The sg. relative forms in -« also aspirate, because (as I conjecture) 
ikej are formed by adding to the secondary ending of sg. 3 a neuter pronoun 
eouivalent to Gr. t6, Skr. idt. For example, bms (qui, quae, quod, est) is from 
*(Hut =bat'\-t6y earaa (qui amat) is from ^carast—carayat-to. Compare, for the 
change of t-t to B-t, tittfesta (flatilis) from tu-in-vet-tiny friss from vrit-tu, etc. 

^ am-batn-erchoissi iiid auetair inua chine (when the authors of the wrong are 
hurt), Ml. 730 9 : am-bat-n-airbirthi biuth. Ml 94<i 10. 



I. THB ROOT BA. 215 

Active. 

^g'f^f/^ \ n ^ fimme^ fimmiy fimmit 

fatty fet ) • P • ( 'bam, 'bem, -/am, -fern 

"fe, be, -fea 2. „ bthe, -fid 
fidy bid \ /fail, fit, fit 

'fa, 'bea, fea ; 3. ,, < fat, -fet, -faitit 

Teh f ass, fess ) \ rel. fite 

Deponential. 

Sg. fer,far, 1. pi. fimmir^ •fammar 

"^f aider, fide 2. „ fide, -fid 

yaider, ) \ *faitir, *fitir, 

'fathar J ' " I 'fatar, -fetar. 

For the use of the present of a verb meaDing ' to go ' to 
express the future compare the French so-called instant 
future ' (Je pais chanter ^ nous allons partir, etc.) 

Injunctive. 

Sg. 'bam, "bamm 1. pL bdmi, 'bam, -ban 
bd, "bd,^ 'pd \ I beithe, bede,^ 

bdt, -pdt ) 2- >' I -bad, 'beith « 

beith, beth,^ bed \ ( beit, bit, bet 

"bd,^ / 3. „ I -bat, -pat 

-i,* 'P ' ^ rel. bete, beta, betan? 

Of the sg. 1 used as an injunctive I have found only 
two instances : Potiphar's wife says to Joseph : tdir rimum 
is-t^ch nar-bdm crimnach (come before me into the house so 
that I may not be fearful), Saltair 3202 : man bamm imeclach 
dia rdd (unless I am afraid to utter it), H. 2. 17, p. 168*. 
Here m (mm) is suffixed to bd = Gr. fi&. Bam occurs as 

^ nir-ba-triUp (thou Bhoaldst not be sad), Saltair 3296. 

• Thk abaolate form occurs in Ml. d5i° 2 eona con-beth, and in the Saltair 
1999, after ama^ surely a grammatical error ! 

> In nl-hba^ Sg. 86^ I, tne M is due to the accent. 

^ In €om ( B (Oft + d)t Sg. 39* 27, the assimilated b is not written. 

• Middle-Ir. bethi, Saltair 1238. 

• ni-htitk^ (gl. ne . . . . sitis), Ml. 46» 10. 

' hetmt'Oeraiaiffthi (gl. irrita non esse), Ml. Zi^ 3; betan-aitherreeh^ Sg. 
32^ 14. 



216 NBO-CELTIC VERB SUBSTAIVTIYE. — ^MR. STOKES. 

a future in the Saltair 851 : bdm rf . . . . fom^gn^fet turf- 
ilaihgily betit ind-dngeilfom'trdig (I will be a king : the many 
angels shall serve me : the angels shall be under my foot), 
inched ham heo . , , . ni-fillub form-thigerna (so long as I 
shall be alive, I will not practise deceit on my master), ibid. 
3187, and Windisch (Ir. Gr. § 205) has nipam (non ero). 
Bed and -bat (-pat) aspirate {bed chuimnechy G. C. 182 : acht 
ropat haini, G. C. 182) : they must therefore have ended in 
vowels. In bipartite questions the subjoined form of the 
third sg. occurs with almost permanent aspiration of the b. 
Thus : in-duit fein fa do-nach ailiu (whether it is thine own 
[or] may-be some other's), Sg. 209^ : imb anacol dom fa-nacc 
(whether I have a safeguard [or] may-be not), Wb. 23*: 
in-roleg fa-nacc (whether he read [it or] may-be not), Sg. 
148» : in-etnate fa-naic. Ml. 43* 17: tw[6] . . . /d, Sg. 12^ 7. 
In LTJ. 98* the aspiration is omitted : ^ Noamfeturmy oke, 
*»w cuil, bd in corrmil, bd in sengdn nomgaib isin creeht* 
(" I know not," says he, " whether it is a fly, or a tick (?), 
or an ant, that I have^ in the wound"). In co-nai-b (ne sit). 
Ml. 31* 9, we have the negative particle nd combined with 
the ( of the same form of the 3rd sg. 

The prefix neb (G. C. 861) is, as Prof. Zimmer suggests, 
a combination of a negative particle ni, ne with this same b. 
Compare the English ne'erdotvell, the German Thunichtgut 
Furchtegoit, That the current spelling nemh» (neamh') is 
etymologically wrong is clear from the form nSp-proinde (non 
prandendi), Wb. 19% which can only be explained from neb 
+ proinde. 

To express ' quicunque ' we have sechi-b, sechi-p and drop- 
ping the labial) saichi, seich (lit. id sit), a combination of 
the demonstrative pronoun saich, sech ^ (urkelt. sa-cre, where 
sa is = Skr. sa, Gr. o, and eve is = Lat. que). In dam (ex 
cia-n-b) Ml. 32* 12, the assimilated b is not written. 

The 3rd sg. was also used to form expressions for ^habeam ' 

^ Lit. * that takes me.' 

' See this exemplified in G. C. 717, 718, where Ehel confounds this pronoun 
with the preposition teeh = Lat. Meeua, There is an Irish adjective »aieh. nsed 
in opposition to maith (good), which, like »ecu», signifies * autrement qu'il ne 
fant, mal.' 



I. THE ROOT BA. 217 

and'non habeam': e.g. nitraib {:=z ni-t-roi-b) adim suidi na 
Idigi (mayst thou not have rest of sitting or lying down !), 
E 2. 16, p. 761. 

Imperative. 

Sg. 1. pi. ban 

bd 2. ,, bad 

bad, pad ^ 3. „ bat 

As id, ban and bat aspirate (na-ba thoirsech *noli tristis 
esse/ ban chossmaili, bat chosmuli (*8imus similes, sint s./ 
G. C. 181, 182), they must have each ended in a vowel. 

Secondary present (' eram '). 

Sg, bin ^ 1 . pi. bemmis, beimmis 

*bet/ia, --ptha ' 2. „ bethe 

beith,^ bith, bid, bad^ 

'bad, -pad * I q I ^^^^* beitis,'^ 

-beth, 'bed f ^" " 1 -btis, -bdis} 



rel. bedn, badn * j 

^ Wb. 5®. Here (as in many other forms belonging to -^ba) the p seems due to 
the accent. So in the Middle-Irish loan-word:! Fdrthalon^^O.'li, Burthalom 

(Bartolom&eus), pfist^bettiaj pitnnann (sheaf, £ng. bundle) ^ ponaire (beans, 

Mhg. h^). The accent also accounts for the similar change of <^ to < in nt tinat 
(Doa fadunt), Wb. 24% and the imperative to7«, MI. 36*. 

^ The spellings nom-bin^ eom'min, nam-miny G. C. 4S5, are hardly due to 
leribal carelessness. The singleness of the n is o?ring to the absence of accent. 
' nl'ptha Idbar (ne sis arrogans), Wb. 5^. 

* This absolute form occurs in Fiacc's hymn, 38 : beith in-geilHus Mdice 
Mdirt (he used to be, or * he was,' in the service of Mary's Son). Other such 
forms are ednaid (canebat), ibid. 30, reduplicated edehnaith, Saltair 2694, f6aid 

(dormiebat), Fiacc*s h. 31, ieeaid (sanabat), ibid. 34, bJaid (erat), F6I. prol. 
139. Leb. Brecc ( = ^, Laud 610). Windisch thinks that we have here the 
middle primary enoing ^td, 

* eo^no'pad ^firdia mae. Ml. 21« 12 ; ro-ppad^ Sg. 111^ 2 ; ni-bbady Sg. 
68* 6; mmni-bbadf Sg. 17** 8; ro-pad fSrr dun techt ^nar-coi-p doehum nime (it 
were better for us to go to heaven in our bodies), Saltair 2730. With a prefixed 
necaliTe and a suffixed pronoun bad becomes bd in Middle-Irish. Thus: 
wwdai ddlam, Urg don-crdunn (thou shouldst not be slow : go to the tree), 
Saltair 1253. 

* ama-'idmnad nceh .... bedn-ieen .... an-gldnad (lest any one should 
think that their purification is necessary), MI. 51* 19 ; doig linn bedn'OcuU, Sg. 
30* 8 ; am^bad n'inl'rfMigth$ (gl. inrettitus). Ml 39^ 19. 

^ FSl. £p. 125 (Laud 610), eia-beitis teeht-tengtha im-gin (though there were 
ieren tongues in my mouth). 

^ In ro-^H'dis (=ro-m'beii8)y Ml. 48<^ 12, the assimilated b has not been 
written* So in airmdis (^atan-betit), Ml. 54* 12, amtis { — an-beCis), Ml. 34* 
10, comiis {^com-betis), Sg. 1^ 2. 



218 NEO-CELTIC VERB SUBSTANTIVE. — ^MR, STOKES. 

As 'bad aspirates (na-bad chotarme 'ne sit oontrarinm/ 
G*. C. 182 ; ni bad kamlaid son, Sg. 4^ 4), it roust have ended 
in a vowel, and doubtless was, in Old-Celtic, batd, where "id 
is = the Skr. secondary middle-ending -td. 

These forms, when combined with the stems of verbs of 
the three series, make the so-called secondary (-futures. The 
b is aspirated, and we have the following set of endings : 

Sg. /ainn, Jinn 1. ^l. femmis, JimmiSy 
feda 2. „ *fithe, 

/ad, fed 3. „ faitia^fitia. 

Future. 

Sg. bi 1. pi. bimmi, bemmit, -bem^ 

*be, bat * 2. „ bethi, -beth * 

bith^ bid \ f bit,^ betit, beiM* 

'bay 'pa I 3. „ | -bat, -pat, -pdat,'' ^bet^ 

rel. bess, bas^ y \ rel. bete,^ beta, bite^^ 

The two relative forms aspirate {bee chobuir, bea chotarmae, 

^ cein bemmiini im^bithaid (so long as we shall be alive), LU., but I omitted 

to note the page and column ; nUruihem cm-t Tg nddmna (we will not be without 
a human king), Saltair 6540. 

^ bat eumaehiach in tdlman (thou shalt be miehty over the earth), LB. 205^. 

' regat lat intan bos furidhe each ret (I wiU go with thee when everything 
shall be ready), H. 2. 17, p. 218. 

^ bet hi mdirb diand-euabair (if ye shall eat it, ye will be dead), Saltair, 1232 : 
cfin hethi for-drving [leg. druimm r] d6muin (so long as ye shall be on the ridge 
of the world), ibid. 2400 : bethi uli .... hir-riehtain Usta lottiph (ye will all 
be needing Joseph), ibid. 30S4 : in-h4d bethi ^Bin-dithrub noehnfor-bim .... 

direhra bUd no itaig (so long as ye shall be in the wilderness ye shall not have 

perishing of food or raiment), ibid. 4062 : ui-bttlhl^brinaig (ye will not be aad), 
F61. prol. 188. 

A phonetically spelt bidy Sg. 187* (ar bid Hmmarti). 

* ar betit lairh do tamla . . . . t eind airge frit^ H. 2. 17, p. 144^, betit ad'- 
huatha ddbail (they will be terrible, vast), Saltair 8158, betit inddngeU fomtrdig 
(the angels will be under my foot), Saltair 853, beitit adcairt 7 ^pacuip dot ehiniui 

(priests and bishops will be of thy kin), Bawl. B. 512, fol. 13^ 1, beitit eo brithf 
ibid. 14* 2. These forms in -^i7, tat (which occur also in the present indicative) 
have not yet been explained. Beit^i (with suffixed pers. pron. of pi. 3) occun in 
Eawl. B. 512, fo. 13t> 1. 

"^ iatsom nipdat duthaine iea-fiUang tria-bithu (they will not be transitory, 
enduring it for ever), Saltair, 8355. A deponential baiir occurs, H. 2. 17, pp. 
129» 149*, 159^ 

^ an-am-bet eeaihi (gl. non discutiendi). Ml. 15<^ 7. 

' ni-ba-eian mbete oea eloinib (it will not be long that they shall be at their 
wrongs), Ml. 28* 10. 

^^ hUardatu inna-dinuire mbife eSm ieind'/dgnam (the multiplicity of the time 
that they will be in the servitude), Ml. 28*> 9. 



I. THE BOOT BA. 219 

MI. 94^ 16, beta thuieriy G.C. 181), asd must therefore, in 
protoceltic, have ended in vowels. The forms fc«-n, beta-n, 
whicli occur in ML 94% 4, 5, are doubtless due to analogy. 

Secondary Future. 

•beinn 1. pi. bemmia 

•betha 2. „ ^-beithe 

•bed, -pad 3. „ -W«, -ptis 

Preterite. 

Sg. bd'sa \ 

'bd, 'bam J 1. pL -bdrnmar 

'b'Sa,^ 'P'Sa / 

Jfl* 2. „ -baid 

bd, -6d* \ 
. _ 4 jo ( bdiir, bdtar ® 

rel. .Jan* 1 " l-batar, -btar, -pfar,'' -bdiir^ 

* Id roffwtf (for ro-m^b-ta) Ml. 49^ 1 3, arramia (for ««i-fo-iN-^-M) Ml. 48^ 9 
'^trrumut Ml. 27*> 8,an-twn<ar Ml. 34^ 10, a-na-m-tar Sg. 6» 12, amtor (aafi- 
A>^} Sg. 81^ 7, the asrimilmted b is not written. 

' ni-mdith rom'ba, a Adam (not good hast thou been to me, Adam !), Saltair 
UOO. 

' mr bo'Jirianu Aenea9, Sg. 43* 1, ro-ba ie-fbrmait (he wai enyying) Saltair 
4640. M^A [for 9eeh'%9 * that Ib*] ba foirbthe, G.C. 717. In baba hua \n Nbe sin 
i^ Chathair Mor (that Noe was a grandson of Gath&ir the Great* s), LB. 240^ we have 
6tthar a reduplicated preterite or (more likely) a scribal error. Ba is used with a 

plrnl subject : ba-^hndaig dib tliia mira mde n-fsrael (the great hosts of the 
ehildren of Israel were thankless for them], Saltair 5519, and see ibid. 5619. 

Another instanee of a singular rerb with a plural subject is s^iss int-ilQaig itma' 
tritkmib Tihe hosts will sit in their ranges), Saltair 8266, where mim is sg. 3 
of the «-nitore of $iudim, 

. * ni^'b dnhumal (he was not unhumble), Saltair 3206 ; rop'fbglainnlid, ro-p 
filmm (he was a teacher, he was a philosopher), Saltair 2702. In Middle- Irish 
tJie combinations ndr{b)^ naehar{h)y nocho'r''b (non fuit) often drop the b. Thus : 
urtfdbr ualkhafer a aoiti (no man of his age was prouder\ Glenn Maskin MS. p. 
8, col. 1. The same MS., p. 7, col. 2, contains tne wonderful form soif {=re»iu 
fm-4k) : dojiafraiff fothri 9olf air a fregra (he asked thrice before he had his 
niswer). In nlp'OU ehainiu rodoth do (this was not fairer which was heard of 
him) LIT. 81^, we seem to have suffixed the Irish reflex of the demonstr. pron. ova, 

* mnir^n-indriue (gl. inuasso) Ml. 18^ 14 ; am-boft'diuteartae (gl. depossita) 
ML 19« 16 ; lit ru^ban^attd (quod non fuit) Sg. 3^ 8 ; mian bn ft-imtragrrad, 
intan bm n-imdireeh (when there was wrestling, when there was mutual stripping), 
HI. 60i>. 

* batar ie^ddrad Idol (they were adoring idols) Saltair 2788, and see ibid. 3245, 
3553, 3885, 4049, 4072, 4088, 5888, 7427. 

' ro-bbatar, Sg. 57^ 1, ro-baior, Rawl. B. 512, fo. 26» 2, rb-ptar tntmnig iar- 
atcib (they were weary along the ways) Saltair 3449. When the interrogatire 
particle inn is prefixed, for ifm^batar we get imtarf Saltair 4659, 4661, 4662, 
4664, ,or imdar ibid. 4663. 

* ni'bdar diind^ig (they were not thankless) Saltair 3550; ro'bdar dimdaig, ibid. 



220 NEO-CELTIC VERB SUBSTANTIVE. — MR. STOKES. 

Present Indicative Passive. 

Sg. bethir^ hithir ^ ) « , f h^tir 
•bether I ^' P'"' t *-betar 

« 

The rare form hetir is found in Ml. 54* 17 : cia-betir (gl. 
pulsentur). 

Secondary Present Passive. 

Sg. 'hethe 3. plnr. *^betis. 

no-m-hethe son, Ml. 39* 19. ictt-gillad di no-bethe dia-reir 
(promising to her that it would be according to her will), 
H. 2. 17, p. 139». 

Verbal noun : baM, beith, biih, buith and, when followed 
by -«, buit} 

In the injunctive forms with e, the e seems due to the 
subsequent slender vowel. 

In the pi. 1 the imperative ban, which aspirates,' and 
must therefore have ended in a vowel, the rn of the toneless 
person-ending dma has become n. 

In the secondary present, bin, when compared with the 
Welsh be-icny appears to be a contraction of *6em, urkelt. 
bedni^ a middle-form, according to Windisch. 

The preterite is almost altogether composed of aoristic 
forms. Thus in sg. 1, bd is=Gr. e-firfp, Skr. a^gdm. In sg. 3, 
bd i8=Skr. a-gdt, Qr. y8^, Lat. -bdi, -bat in the imperfect of 
every active verb.^ A trace of the pristine ^-ending of this 

4051; giahdar^^eiaptar^ ibid. 5781.; amdar lana a .uL bliadna (when his six 
years were complete) LU. 61*. A suffixed relative occurs in amtar m halt (gl. 
snbmcrsis), Ml. 84<^ 5. 

^ is hi fochaidib bithir hi-suidib, Ml. 56^ 15. 

3 ffbuii'sem Se. 216^ 2 : cf. for the deaspiration before a sibilant, eo adeot^M^ 
Ml. 60<^ 6, faittine from faith, baitsi from baith»i-i : eipsi crieh isin domtm in* 
deeh»at'tom, Edinb. MS. XV. p. 4*. I know not whether tnat-coaerach (if ye go 
Tictorious) is an instance of deaspiration or scribal carelessness. For deaspiratioii 
of th after /, » or «, see Windiscn, Ir. Gr } 64. 

' ban-ehSMtnaili friar-tuisteeh oeua friar-»dcari (let us be like onto our leader 
and our priest) Wb. 33^. Ban is also used for the injunctive pi. 1 : eomman 

(sscon^ban) dettimreeht do-ehieh (that we should be an example to every one) Wb. 
31<^. Windisch (Ir. Gr. } 20o) supposes that in ban, -dan we have tue si^ixed 
pron. of pi. 1. But this would have been bann, ^dann, and would, moreover, not 
have aspirated. 

*' In prehistoric Latin 'bat, like Gr. I-/9i}(t) and Skr. a-gat, seems to have had 
an augment, which, as in Greek, was ^'. Here we have an explanation of the 
long e in the imperfects of the third and fourth conjugations. Segebat, for 
example, ias^rtpa-i-e-bnt, lit. * he went ruling,* where a is the stem-vowel and it 
the augment. So audtebat'saudia-\-$'batf lit. * he went hearing^.' 



1. THE BOOT BA, 221 

k is Tisible in the duplication of m in ha mmebul lee (it was 
a shame to her), LL. 249^ and in the h{-=ith) which regularly 
follows ha when it precedes a substantive, adjective or pronoun 
beginning with a vowel. Thus : hd h-irc (it was destruction), 
Saltair 1691, hd h-drd (he was high), urkelt. hat drdvoSf 
hd h'i (he was), urkelt. hat its. In Middle- Irish the ending 
of the «»-preterite passive, proper to roots ending in /, 
i and «, was added to this form. Thus : ron-hds hath (we 
ha?e had death, lit. nobis fuit mors), Saltair 4059 : dochdid 
dia-mraih .... ocus ro-hass ica-othrtis intih cofdta (he went 
to his camp and therein he was long a-healing himself), 
H. 2. 17, p. 163*. With a suffixed pronoun it was used 
impersonally. Thus ropsam (I have been) Rev. Celt. vi. 186, 
where it is wrongly rendered ; ndrhsat firgaeth (that thou 
wertnot truly- wise, nd-ro-hass-at), Saltair 1318; ciapsat gUir 
fri crdhud ngte (though thou hast been zealous at clear devo- 
tion, da-hass-at), Saltair 8807. The pi. hatavy urkelt. ha-ntor, 
with its deponential r, is Gr. fidv (from ySa-m-), Lat. -hd-nt, 
only that the (o is a primary middle ending. 

The verbal noun hith is (as Ascoli has taught us) identical 
with Skr. ^a/i, Gr. ffdai<; (from */3dTi<;), Aesch. Choeph. 452. 
The form beiih given by Windisch, Ir. Texte, i. p. 398, as 
an infinitive, is really a secondary pres. eg. 3, in the absolute 
form. It is correctly translated in Goidilica^ 132. 

The impersonal construction is found with this root. Thus, 
in addition to ropsam, narhaat, ciapsat cited supra, we have 
bid-for-cdsgraig (ye will not be victorious), Saltair 4706, 
nilpyfom-adaltraig (ye shall not be adulterous), Rawl. B. 
512, fo. 99*, narhbar-^ [MS. narhar] dfirc\h'\ridig (that ye 
should not be hard-hearted), Saltair 4842, nth/or- cetludmg 
(ye should not be , . . .), ibid. 4872. 

This verb sometimes takes an accusative : cia heitis sechi* 
tengtha im-gin (though seven tongues were in my mouth), 
Fel. Ep. 125, where tengtha is the ace. pi. of tenge. 
The root ba is compounded with the following prepositions: 

^ This har^ far (pronoimced var)^ nrkelt. avMiro, is = Lat. veater^ just as ary 
irkelt. {n)astroiBszL£it, noater. 



222 NEO-CELTIC VERB SUBSTANTIVE, — MR. STOKES. 

ad'cu : fut. pass. sg. 3, acubether (gL contingetur), ML 53^* 17, 
leg. acubether, a dependent, wrongly used for an inde- 
pendent, form. 

air (Gaulish are, Qr. irapal) : secondary pres. sg. 1, airbinfit^ 
leu etir, Ml. 44« 2. 

ar-a ^ : fut. pi. 3 : arabeiffet-som (leg. arafet-som). Ml. 46*^ 8- 

aiih 'wieder/ 're-' (W. et, urkelt. ati,^ but Gr. eri) : pres, 
indie, sg. 3, uad dithbe (that ebbeth not), Fel. Apl. 15, 
Aug. 12. Verbal noun : dithbe, sg. dat. in-dUhbiu (gl. 
remeat), G. C. 864 note. 

cit-a: secondary pres. pi. 3, cita-m-bitis (gl. sapere), Ml. 29*: 
pret. sg. 1 l<ise citarobasa (gl. sentiendo). Ml. 44^ 22 
{cit, accented cet =iW. cant, Corn, cans, Br. gant, Gaul. 
canta). Verbal noun : cetbaithz=iW. canfod. Corn, canvas, 
/caTdfiaa'L<:. 

ess (Lat. ex, Gr. i^) : pres. indie, pi. 3, esbdt, LU. Ir. Texte, 
p. 529, 1. 3. 

ess-a : inj. sg. 3, esebd, ibid. fut. conna eseba, LU, 35*^. 
Verbal noun esfdid : Bd snitn trd la hErcoil J iasna 
miledaib olchena in mace . , . do isfaid uadib (so Hercules 
and the soldiers besides had grief that the boy had gone 
from themj, Edinb. MS. XV. 5^ 



^ This preposition occurs in compound verbs after the preposition imin, orkelt. 
ambif when tnere is a crasis of the consecutive vowels {imme also written imma). 
It also appears in at least thirteen other Old -Irish verbs, viz. ab-d-numim 
(opto), amnif ar'd'biuy ar'd-cheiaim, ar-d'Chrimmy ar'd'Chuiiintj ar-d-foelftr, 
ar-d'fdimitn y a»8-d-Jiudy ans-d-gninimy *as8-d-guu [asdgu dia^ Ml. 58** 9J, aU' 
d^gmsim^ ^cit'd-bauy eit'a'blUy fo'd-catiimj tarnt'd'/aigimj and t-d-bur used, 
generally, as the dependent form of do-biur. Like the (possibly cognate) Skr. 
a (Whitney, § 1080, Gr. i», K.Z. XXVII. 478), it hardly ever occurs in front of 
any of the other prepositional verbal prefixes. It also seems to occur in the 
nouns ascQy arose (proverb, a-ro-scvo- : cf. mse catha)^ and in the adverb 
a-frifhiisi. It is identical with the British verbal prefix a (G.C. 420, 423, 426), 
with the a in a-ddify a-ddpspy and with the Greek d in 2ATo = &-<rc(ATo (Curtins), 
&-fiiX0aA<J€<r(reiy, Iliad H 753, and the Greek i- (weakened from d-), commonlj 
called the syllabic augment. And it may possioly be the a- in the Gaulisn 
a-lauda (whence Fr. alouette : cf. Ir. luad). So in Greek ^ ( = i) seems to occur 
in i-F*\^(cp and tti\ripa=:i-F\fjpai Dor. afiKripa^k-FXiipay Lat. {v)hra. 

* I write atiy not d/i, because the Old-Irish aith- * re-,' when followod by e or 
g or by never gives rise to ee or epy as it would do if the th were post-tonic. Thus 
we have aith-gne (recognition), ad-gen-na (I recognise), d^i-r-ad-ehiuir (red?mit), 
t'did-ehriec (redemptio), an-do-n-aith-chuirtdar (gl. redeunte), aith-be (re-meat). 
But when we have the other prefix aiih-, urkelt. dti, Gaul, dte, Skr. dti (across, 
beyond, over), we find ^icdid {=zaith'eddid)y icmai {^aith-cum-ai), e'ene * know- 
leige* {=dtth-gne), and epil=dith'bail. 



I. THE ROOT BA. 223 

for (Gaul, rw, Gr. xnrep) : inj. sg. 3, dia-fdrraib [^zzzfar-roi-b^ 
fitidel (if a remnant should be over), Saltair 3919, pi. 3, 
binnacht Brigte ocm-Di fordon-rdbat immalle (let Brigit's 
blessing and God's be upon us together !), Brocc. h. 104 ; 
secondary pres. pi. 3, riasiu fio-forbaitdis, H. 2. 17, p. 
167*; pret. sg. 3, ra-forba, Ir. Texte, p. 567, but ro/orb, 
H. 2. 17, pp. 155% 167*; passive pret. sg. ra-fdrbad, 
ibid. pi. 3, rO'fdrbaidey ibid. ; verbal noun forbcy forba, 
8g. dat. forbu, G. C. 230 ; part. pret. pass. sg. forbthe. 

for^-for : pass. pres. indie, sg. 3 : ho burorbaither in-gntm 
(when the deed shall have been completed). Ml. \b^ 6. 
pret. pi. 3, fororbaide laithi na cainti (the days of the 
lamentation were completed), Rawl. B. 512, fol. 12^ 1. 

for-ro: ss-pret. sg. 3 : forrO'r'b{a)i8 (gl. superavit), Ml. 34° 16. 

imm (= Lat. ambi, Gr. a/i^/, Skr. abhi) : inj. sg. 3 : ciambad 
[= cia-immbad'] lonnbrass digal De (although God's 
vengeance be bitter-great), Saltair 3617 ; pret. pi. 3 : 
ciamt<ir (==cia immbatar) dmrai ilardai (though they were 
wonderful, numerous), ibid. 5800. 

tu^: inj. sg. 3: airndtb, Ml. 17® 8, con-dib (ut sit), con-dipy 
atiidomrdlbse (ut mihi sit=araw-^M-w//i-ro-J-«^), Wb. 10**, 
V. 12, codonroib (ut nobis sit, cO'tU'nn'rd'b')^ Wb. 20, v. 9. 

fu-a: fut. sg. 3 (with suffixed pron.), dabm buan a bithmairg 
(the constant sorrow for it will be lasting), Glenn Masdin 
MS. p. 4, col. 1. 

tthe99 : pass pret. sg. -t&bady Brocc. h. 88, -ihesbad Ir. Texte, 
p. 97, 1. 18. The verbal noun is t^abuithy Z. ^ 881, better 
tiMbaithy sg. ace. tre-thesbatd, Sg. 5* 15. 
(thesa-a : inj. sg. 3 : ni thhaba maith na hordan foirby H. 2. 
17, p. 136^ ; Ahebay LU. Ir. Texte, p. 214, 1. 4 ; perf. 
sg. 3, iisarbae (gl. aberat, tu-ess-a-ro-bae) y Ml. 34° 16. 
tU'for: duforbaithe (gl. ueniretur). Ml. 31® 11; perf. sg. 3, 
dO't-r-or-bai p^ist, Corm. 

^ An ThnmeyBen has pointed out (Rev. Celt yi. 145), iu is the accented and 
primitiTe form of the prep, of which the pretonic form is generally do. (In Ml. 

43^ 27, I find a pretonic to : eoie bliadnai deae to-Wrmiuch.) So in Gaidlsh : 
l^boffiyt, and perhaps to-me'decavi. When in compound veros tu follows foTy 
we get the form fort {fort-giiUm, Wb. A^foirt^be A. giarrfaidh^ O'Cl.) : when 
it follows frith (W. gu>rth)y we get frits (th-d regularly becomes ^, but tt^ 
th't and d^t regularly become m). 



224 NEO-CELTIC VERB SUBSTANTIVE. — MR. STOKES. 

tu-ni : pret. eg. 1, nl rd-thdrha-aa, Ml. 44® 29 ; sg. 3, dardrbai 
(gl. cuia interfuit), Sg. 203* 18, an-dordrpai (gl. et 
ueniens), 106^ 8, domr&rbai .... rHh rordith in sldgm 
(the course which this host ran hath profited me, 
tu-mm-rJU'ro-bai), Fel. prol. 25 ; pi. 3, M-rd-fhorbatar 
m*aithir (in which my fathers profited), Ml. 44® 29; 
verbal noun idrbe (= tit-ro-baio). 

From this root also comes Old-Ir. bdiy bde, Middle-Ir. baa, 
bd .i. maith (good), 0*C1. .i. tdrba (profit), O'Dav. ni bdi lib 
(lit. non bonum apud vos), manducare dominicam cenam, 
Wb. 11* hdre nar'bu b(k la-Iitdeu critein (because the Jews 
did not like belief, lit. quia non fuit bona apud ludaeos fides), 
Wb. 6^. This is compounded with the propositions ady de, 
€HH, fo and iii-ro^ and we have thus abba (rqfail am a nwr^abba 
damsa, indeed I have great cause therefore), LL. 177*; ar 
aba (because) O'Don. Gr. 265 ; ar-apai-dhe (because thereof), 
H. 2. 17, p. 131*; difbe (discrepance, difierence). Ml. 50* 12; 
d4>be mec (i.e. mbecc, a slight dijfference). Ml. 40* 20 ; ^s-bae^ 
^S'pae * inutilis ' (whence ^s-pach), Q. C. 870, 1. 1 ; /u-bae, 
Sg. 26* 8. 

Other derivatives are cobaifhy cuibdhid (concinnitas), de-baid 
f dissension) Ml. 60® 18 (whence debthach^ dephthaigim)^ com' 
chit-baithf forbaide {forbiiide)y foxrbthe. And yet another is 
tig-bae (superstes), where tig (end) seems cognate with arirf-firj 
(punctum). 

Before considering the corresponding forms in the British 
languages, it will be well to see how Welsh deals with the 
acute and the toneless vowels ^, w, d, I, and the diphthongs 
aif ei and ou. 

I. acute a 

(1) remains intact : 

(2) followed by e or % or the vowel y, becomes e or o\ 

(3) followed by the semivowel y (written i) or (in loan- 

words) by I from u (o), becomes the diphthong ex: 

(4) followed by or w (fr), becomes o : 

(5) followed by cs, ct, gs, gr, gl, becomes (with the guttural) 

at, ae. 



THE ROOT BA: WELSH PHONETICS. 225 

(6) becomes d in monosyllables ending in g, d, b : dd^f\ 
chy thy ff\ «(=«^), and n or I not formerly doubled 
or accompanied by another consonant. This d, when 
a syllable is added, reverts to d. 

II. toneless a 

(1) remains intact or becomes e : 

(2) followed by i, becomes e or the vowel y : 

(3) followed by the semivowel y, becomes ei : 

(4) followed by o or u, becomes the vowel y. 

III. acute u 

(1) remains intact : 

(2) becomes ic : 

(3) followed by a, becomes o : 

(4) followed by g, becomes (with the g) ou : 

(5) followed by b, becomes (with the b) u : 

(6) becomes tr in monosyllables ending in g, d, b (=urbrit. 

^> ^9 p)f dd, /; chy thy ff\ 8 (ex st), and n and / when 
not formerly doubled or accompanied by another con- 
sonant. 

IV. toneless u 

(1) becomes e or the vowel y : 

(2) followed by g, becomes (with the g) ou : 

(3) in loan-words, when immediately followed by i, becomes 

etc ; by e^ becomes aw. 

V. acute a 

(1) becomes au (mc) : 

(2) fuUowed by a flexional or derivative syllable, becomes 
6 or i: 

(3) followed by i, becomes ew : 

(4) followed by v or ^, becomes (with the v or g) en : 

(0) followed by the semivowel y, becomes the diphthong at. 

YI. toneless d becomes a. 

VII. acute i 

(1) remains intact : 

(2) becomes the diphthong at. 

Fhil. Tnuif. 1885-6. 15 



226 KEO-CELTIO VERB SUBSTANTIVE. MR. STOKES. 

VIII. toneless i 

(1) remains intact : 

(2) becomes e, i or the vowel y : 

(3) before v, becomes (with the v) iu {t/w) or ui (try). 

IX. acute at 

(1) remains intact : 

(2) becomes oe : 

(3) followed by e or t, becomes ei : 

(4) followed by u, becomes (with the u) yw or etc. 

X. toneless ai becomes aor e? 

XI. acute ei 

(1) becomes ui {tby) or (when followed by another syllable) 

fty : 

(2) in modern monosyllables becomes ai, which (when a 

syllable is added) reverts to ei. 

XII. toneless ei 

(1) remains intact : 

(2) becomes i: 

(3) followed by ro, becomes (with the vd) iu or uw, 

XIII. acute ou 

(1) becomes u : 

(2) in some obscure words becomes uw, which, when a 

syllable is added, becomes ti. 

XIV. toneless ou becomes u. 

Examples. 

I. (1) car (amicus, Ir. cara) : guda (servus, Ir. /osa) : md 
(locus, Ir. mag) : cat (pugna, Ir. cath) : map (filius, 
Ir. mace) : and perhaps cam (curvus), though the 
cognate Gr. axafjifiof; is oxyton. 
(2) glendid (munditia) from glan : heli (salsugo) from 
halen : iechyd (sanitas) from iach : plefityn (a child) 
from plant : rheffyn (corda) from rhaff : cledyf 
(gladius, Ir. claideb) : mor (mare), Gaul, mori, urkelt. 
man : canfod (videre), urkelt. cantobati. 



THE ROOT BA: WELSH PHONETICS. 227 

(3) lliiddiad (occisor) from lladdyy/slad : edifeiriol (poe- 
nitens) from edifar : meibion (filii) from mah : geir 
(verbum) now gair^ pi. geirtau, from ^gdryo : hrein 
(corvi) 8g. Jraii, from *brdnt/a^ a collective : geill 
(potest) from ^gdlyat : guo-deimismtch (sustulistis) 
from vu-ddmyasB'. So in the loan-words hreich 
(braich), reid {rhaidd), yapeit (yspaid), Meir {Hair) 
from brdchium, radius, spdtium^ Mdria, pronounced 
brdchyum, rddyiis, spdiyum, Mdrya. So in dreic (draig) 
from *draci = dracdj lleidr from *latri = latrb, and 
dy-spaidd (eunuch) from ^spadi^spadd, airdZav. 

(4) nodicydd (acus), Br. nadoez, Ir. sndthat and the loan- 
word nwrtholz^*nidr(ulm. 

(5) /&r« = laxua, am-lais (circumsolutus), llaeth (milk) = 
lacU : traeth (littu8)=Ir. tracht : aer (praelium), Ir. 
dr=zaypa : caffael (adipisci), urkelt. cabdglL 

(6) gtcdg (vacuus), tad (pater), cldf (aegrotus), urkelt. 

clamo'8 : gids (glaucus), urkelt. glasto : gldn (mundus), 
but comparative gldnach. 

11. (1) Caratauc=.Caraidco8, Ouas8auc=z Vassaco-a, and the 
loan-words canghell, coJsteil, mantell : but cenauol. 

(2) lemenic (gl. salax), urkelt. lambanico and the loan-words 
kebyiter (capistrumj, aeUic (salsicium). 

(3) meneich from *mdnachia pronounced monachya. 

(4) myrtttwl from tnartulus. 

III. (1) hticc (sus). Tuscois (gl. tuscus). 

(2) llw (oath, Ir. /w^^), sicchy cim, ^r«r^, rft^n, rAM?rf: 
Maelgwn:^Maglo€unoB (but Cynfael=^Cunomdglos)} 

(3) AocA (cheek) from Lat. iucca. 

(4) toil (yoke) = I w^ WW. 

(5) (/i# (dark, black) =Ir. dub, Gr. ru^Xo^. 

(6) pM (obtusus, hebes.) 

rV. (1) ffer (ankle) =0-^1/^01/ : 
(2) poulloraur (writing-tablets), Ir. pdlire=^pugilldre8 : 



^ I tm indebted to Prof. Rh^s for this excellent illustration of the different 
tKttment of accented and of toneless u . 



228 NEO-CELTIC VERB SUBSTANTIVE. — MR. STOKES. 

(3) rhetcin^zntina : cyHtratc€n^=-coiiBtrudtidum, 

V. (1) laiA (hand, Ir. Idm) : paup^lr. cdch : laun {llatcn) = 

It. Idn, Lat. piinus : di-auc (segnis, cf. A^iJ?) : 

(2) hestan'ou pi. of hestaur = sexfdritM : brodyr pi. of 

hrawd) ^ primeval Welsh brat r=if rat rem : toddi (to 
melt, tawdd (molten). 

(3) llewni (to fill) from Ilatrn^=lT. Idn. 

(4) hreuant (windpipe) = Ir. bragat- : breuan (quern) = 

Ir. bro, gen. broon, Skr. grdcan, 

(5) braich (arm) borrowed from Lat. brdchium pronounced 

brdchyum. 

VI. sarhaet (contumelia)=Ir. ndrugud, urkelt. sdragitu, and 

the loan-word Jfurfdfen=-firmdmdntum, 

VII. (1) guir (verus, Ir. /I/), hir (longus) = Ir. «r : iir 

(terra) =Ir. ilr. 
(2) claiar (tepidus), which Davies compares with 'xXJapi^ 
(from aKXiapo^? Rhys), daiar, daear (terra), haiaim 
(ferrum), Ir. larr^^ Gaul, isnrno- : gaem, gayaf (hiems) : 
graian (glarea), Ir. grian : traian (triens), IrJrianj and 
the loan-word ceroenhon (leg. -wot*), pi. of ceroen=. 
carina. In cysttryof^ cantigo, Ig has become try. 

VIII. (1) larntcallon, urkelt. Isarnove/dunos {-veldmnos ?). 

(2) heddwch (pax), Ir. sld : amclredd (untruth), urkelt. 

anvereyd : prynedig (emptus), urkelt. prinatico-s : and 
the loan-word dewin=idivtnu8, 

(3) byio (vivus)=Skr. givd : buyt, bwyt (cibus), Ir. biad= 

Skr. givdtu. 

IX. (1) Atpht=*ALyv(fyro<i : cf. Mod. Qr. rv<f>To^, 

(2) oet (age) aefas, and the loan-word Ebroec. 

(3) cein (bene), Ir cam, urkelt. (8)caim. 

(4) Gryic=:0rdiu8, Mid. W. Ebryw'=zHebrdem^ but /{/(/^tr 

^=.Iudd€U8. 

1 For the lo88 of the final r compare arad (plough) from aratry Ir. arathar, 
and the loan-word tratctt from traustrum. So (as Rh^s ingeniously proposed] the 
comparatives of equality in -ef (6.C. 300) are to be equated with the IriBh formi 
in i-ther oeut and -ither/riy 0*Don. Gr. 371. 



THE ROOT BA: WELSH PHONETTC8. 229 

X. No sure example. Old Welsh caitoir (gl. pube), leg. 
caitoir ? is now cedor : Cynfal is a primitive Welsh 
Cdnmaef, urkelt. Cunomdglos. 

XL (1) pui (gl. quid), Ir. da, Lat. quel : cruitr (gl. pala), Ir. 
criathar : luit (fuscus), Ir. Hath : gwydd (goose), pi. 
gicyddau (Rhys, Lectures, 131) : gwystl (hostage), Ir. 
gtally O.H.G. gUal, and probably, as M. Emault 
suggests, Gaul. Co-gestlus (Rev. Celt. i. 294), Con- 
geistlus (Corpus Inscr. iii. No. 4887). 
(2) No sure example : bai (vitium), pi. beiau, O.W. bet. 

XII. (1) ei (his, her) in the written language. 

(2) I (his, her)=Ir. di, Skr. asyd, asyds. Corn. Ptraw =Ir. 

Ciardn, urkelt. Qveirdgnos. 

(3) diu, duw (god) = Skr. devd. 

Xin. (1) hud (victoria, Ir. buaid), urkelt. b(mdi : llu (exer- 
citus), Ir. sluag, urkelt. slougos : tru (miser), Ir. truag, 
nrkelt. trougos : tut (populus), Ir. tuath, urkelt. touta. 
(2) buwch (vacca), pi. bychod : cniiwch (coma, Da vies), 
cuicch (supercilium, frons contracta) : lluicch (dust), 
rhuwch (cribrum). In the loan-word diluw^zdiiuvtum, 
uw represents uv. 

XIV. tichel (altus), Ir. uasal, Gaul, uxellos, urkelt. ouxeloRy 
from ^onpaelos, cf. Gr. u^Xo?: bugail (pastor) =Ir. 
buachaill, urkelt. bou-cdli-s. 

Now we can lay down with confidence that, in the Welsh 
verb substantive, the forms regularly beginning with be,^ bo 
and boi belong to the root ba ; that those beginning with bi 
and btey belong to the root bip ; that those beginning with by 
and bu belong to the root bu ; and, lastly, that the absence of 
any forms beginning with bw shows that the non-diphthongal 

1 Bnch rare instances of e from u as he-garaf^ an-he-gar, He-ufel^ G.C. 93, and 
htdfomt (enrnt) Ijaws 2. 1 . 4. (rightly written bydant in the same sentence^ must 
be rmrded as scribal errors. He-labar { — It, 8u-ibair), G.C. 93, is Old- Breton, 
not Welsh : ereman, G.C. 93, is Old-Combh. Deil (ifolia, sg. dal'en) cannot 
descend from the urkelt. dula in Gaulish ircfiirc8ovAa (cf. Ir. duille). It is cog- 
nate with 9d^\tt (ex 9(U^»), ea\K6s, and LaUJlot. 



230 NEO-CBLTIC VERB 8UBSTANTIVB. — MR. STOKES. 

forms belonging to >Jhu were, as in Irish, toneless proclitics 
or enclitics. 

The British forms belonging to ^Jba are the following : 

Injunctive. 

Sg. 1. pi. hom^ Com. ^hon. 

hychy 2. „ bocli,Com.*bogh,BT.biliet. 

boi, boet,bo,Gom. bo, bo-va, 3. „ bont, Corn. bona. 

Here bt/ch exhibits an interesting agglutination of a pro- 
noun of the sg. 2, which we also find in the Old Cornish 
injunctive sg. 2 from ^biv^ namely 6ii^[A],^ and in the Old- 
Irish preterite md ro-aellaib (si vidisti) F^lire, July 4. As 8v 
in anlaut regularly becomes chw in Welsh and b (/) or « in 
Irish,^ we may safely say that we have here the neo-celtic 
reflex of the Greek av, or rather of its enclitic dat. (troi) or 
ace. (o-e). The Old- Welsh boi^ (urkelt. baiat /), Mid. Welsh 
boet (G. C. 559) seem optatival forms, the latter with a 
primary ending. The d in sg. 3 and pi. 1, 2, 3 represents 
an Old-Celtic d. Thus bd=bdt, Ir. bd. In the Cornish bo-ra 
from bd-eve we have the reduplicated pronoun «e?-^(f?)=an 
Old- Welsh em-em^ where em, urkelt. imo^ is the Skr. ima, 
which occurs only in the ace. sg. and nom. and ace. dual and 
plural. The Br. bihet (urkelt. basefo) seems an s-aorist, the 
intervocalic 8 regularly becoming h. Cf. Skr. forms like 
dhdsatha (Whitney, § 893). 

In the imperative the only form which can be certainly 
referred to ^ba is boet (sit), identical with the boet of the 
injunctive. 

' In [hyn-bUeauell (gl. aue) 6.C. 1063. Prof. Biihler comparea for the 
agglutination the Kaqmlri fse chhukh (thou art), gatchakh (thou goest). 

' Compare chwt (vos), urkelt. «t*f«, Ir. -ai : chwaer (Boror), urkelt. wtsor^ Jr. tiur 

and^ur .* ehweeh (sex), urkelt. aveks^ Ir. nes- and/^- (in nidr-aesur^ mor'/etur), 
chwant (desiderium), urkelt. avandta, Ir. »ant {y/ wand in {(rF)apZdiw)^ ehtoerw 
(amarus), urkelt svervo-Sf Ir. serb (i.e. serv). Kbys (Early Britain, 301) has 
caution^ us not to confound this Welsh ehw from av ^4th Welsh chw from aev^ 
Ir. ae. E.g. ehwalu (dispergere, dissipare), Ir. aeailim (whence the Lowland 
Scotch to aeah) : chtvail (tale), urkelt. acvtilo-n^ Ir. arel : chwi/du (to Tomit), 
Ir. aeeithimf urkelt. acvetami : cy-chwyn (to start), Ir. aeinuim : ehwyjio (to 
more), Ir. aet'biud, 

' hae-boi (gl. excutiendus erit) G.C. 1056. 



n. THB ROOT BEN. 231 

Secondary Present. 

Sg. bewn, Com. ben^ Br. benn^ 1. pi. bepm, Com. ben, Br. bem-p 

Com. be$, Br. 6«« 2. „ Corn, beugh, Br. 6^cA 

bet. Corn. 6^, Br. 6« 3. „ Com. bens, Br. bent. 

Secondary Future. 

Sg. Br. bihenn 1. pi. ^bihem^p 
bihea 2. „ *bihech 

bihe 3. „ bilJilent 

^ba 18 compounded with the prepositions com-ar (W. 
ct/f-ar) and ta-ar (W. (/ar), and with the verbal stems 
ad(g)na, gwydd (Com. goth, Br. gouz, urkelt. vida) and j)«^w. 

II. BEN. 

I do not think that, as a verb^ this root is ever found in 
Irish uncompounded. The following instances of its simple 
form, which I quoted in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, xxviiL 82, now 
seem to me to belong to benim (I strike), y/bhen : 

fis-pret. sg. 3, benais [MS. ben)] a digbail rib, gan mo 
comairlisi do denam (the loss caused by it, [sciL] not perform- 
ing my counsel, has struck against you) Glenn Mas&in MS. 
Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, p. 7, col. 1 : 

passive pres. indie, sg. 3, benair frUcach n-ae an-ddde-se 
(this pair [of attributes 'generalis et specialis'] is struck 
against, attributed to, each of them), Sg. 28^ 8. 

But it is frequently found compounded with prepositions, 
and then has often (e.g. -tisban 'de-est,' -tdrban 'prod-est') 
merely the meaning of a verb substantive. Thus : 
cii- secondary pres. sg. 3, no-chetfanad (sentiebat), RawL B. 

612, fo. 6^ 1. 
conceit : pres. indie, sg. 2 : lose oceiibani (cum consentis) : cot- 

cit : pres. indie, sg. 2, cotchetbanam. 
de-ru : pres. indie, sg. 3, nudSrban, St. Paul IT. 13. 

* Here, as in the oorreiponding tense and person in Irish, the double n seems 
doe to the primeval accent. Bmn is urkelt. beuni^ just as in Irish binn (for beinn) 
is urkelt brini. In each case the pretonic root-rowel is weakened to «. 



232 NEO-CELTIC VERB SUBSTANTIVK. — ^MR. STOKES. 

for : pres. Indie, pi. 3, « i-r^comarc forbanait a-rinda (its 

finals end in a dissyllable), BB. eited by Atkinson, Irish 

Metric, p. 28. Pass. pres. sg. 3, fdrhanar^ Tr. Teste, p. 

667: hut forbantar, H. 2. 17, p. 134*: pret. sg. 3, r<h 

fdrbanady Ir. Texte, p. 567. 
for (aspirating) = u7r€/w7,«-Mj9ra: pres. indie, sg. l,forfiun (gl. 

anclo), sg. 3, forf^n, Ml. 64®, pass. pres. indie, sg. 3, 

forf^nar, Ir. Texte, p. 667. 
tu-ess : pres. indie, pi. 3, Usbanat (deficiunt), Wb. 11*, nl'ten- 

bamt, Pr. Cr. 62*. 
tu-ru: pres. indie, sg. 3, ni-torban (non prodest), Wb. 12^. 
tu-ru-ru : pres. indie, pi. 73, durorbanat (gl. prosunt). Ml. 

43*»5. 
It will have been observed that, in all these forms, when 
the root-vowel has only the grave accent (nebenton), it 
becomes a. So in Latin, as Mr. Wharton has pointed out 
{Academyy Jan. 24, 1886, p. 67), a radical e when pretonic 
often becomes a. 

y/ben seems to occur uncompounded in the case of several 
nouns. Thus: esbatu, gen. a-esbatad (gl. inutilitatis suae). 
Ml. cited G. C. 869, 870, urkelt. exbSntdt-s, beimm (iter), 
urkelt. benmSn,^ where the e of the pretonic syllable has 
remained intact, owing, perhaps, to the slender vowel of 

^ That this and the other neuter stems in men (6.C. 268-270) were originally 
accented on the suffix seems clear from the reduplication of the n in dnmann 
(nomina), urkelt. enmSnOy eStnenn (leg. cfmmenn) 'passuum/ urkelt. een^mefM^ 
drdmmttnn 'terga,* urkelt. drotmtna [cf. Lat. dorsum], iffmend *saltus,' leg. 
If/nmennf urkelt. vUngm^na, The difference in this respect from Skr. (Whitney, 
§ 1168) is remarkable. So in Hgiennj Hirinn (Hibemiae), Fortrenn (Vertu- 
ridnos?), Unn (mantle), 6lann (wool), tdlann (salt), M^l^nnim (gl. ceno), trinnim 
(gl. sterto) the double n seems due to the primeval accent: Iverydn'Ot (W. 
Itcerddon)y Una (cf. Gaulish Xatea), roidna (W. gwlan), »aldno-9. So in the loan- 
words eehtrdinn^ eucenrty m&lennffnaarulinmy Sg. 67% 17 from extrS/teutf coquiha, 
motTna, maseulTni, words which tend to prove that the accent did not retreat to 
the first syllable untQ after these words had been borrowed, i.e. until after 
Christianity had been introduced into Ireland. This accentual u (if I may use 
the expression) occurs also in Gaulish, e.g. Oobdnni-enos to be connected vriUi Ir. 
goba (faber), gen. gdbann, originally accented like Skr. ukfdn, vibhvdn and cognate 
(according to Windisch) with Gr. yo-fi-^6v. Perhaps also in LemdnnO'if Cebhtna 
and Ardv^nna. So in Old- Welsh eonenn (gl. arundo), urkelt. euraeattinu (Ir. 
ettrehae) and Old-Cornish elinn (novacula), urkelt. altina, and the loan-word 
fruvm =frinuin. 



III. THE ROOT BIV. 233 

the suffix. Bii '^ine unverstaodige oder anrechte That' 
(Windiach, O'Clery's bed A. gnJomh, deed) may also represent 
an urkelt. b^nto-s, a passive participle of ben, accented 
(seemingly) on the root, not (as in 6r. and Skr.) on the suffix. 
I have not found this root in the British languages, except 
in bones (banan), one of the two Cornish forms of the infini- 
tive of the verb substantive. The derivative ending (urkelt. 
d'tu) is the same as that of kerthea, Beunans Meriasek, 543, 
627 (=W. cerdet, pergere), kerhes 9>4, poices 1015, kemeras 
( = W. cymryt sumere, Br. quemeret), gwelas (=W. gwelet, 
videre, Br. guelet) — t in inlaut and auslaut regularly becom- 
ing « in Cornish. Bones occurs compounded with the prep. 
de (Ir. /li, do) in de-vones (venire), G. C. 577. Here in the 
pretonic syllable the root- vowel e has become o, 

III. BlV. 

The forms belonging to this root often retain their original 
meaning, 'to live,' and, unless when used as mere copulas, 
are accentuated like ordinary verbs. Verse proves that in 
several cases (bia ¥(\. Ep. 168, bias March 13, biait prol. 
308, biasu hi pein, LTJ. 115), they are dissyllabic. This alone 
would make one doubt Windisch's theory as to their origin 
from Vbu; but the form biuu-sa, Wb. 16**, where the first u 
is a vocalised v, and the second u is the representative of the 
urkelt. 6 in *i«rd=Lat. vivo, seems to render this theory 
impossible. 

Present indicative active. 

Sg. biuu, bJu, blim^ 1. pi. btmnti, -btam 

U 2. „ Hithe.'bith 

bUd^ biihf bid \ ( blit, biet ^ 

'bit, 'bf, pi ? 3. „ < 'biat 

rel. Jjw, bis ) ( rel. biie. 

The conjunct form of sg. 3 aspirates (ut-bi chon-dumu dO" 
de[ff']gnimaib, Ml. 35^ 17), and must therefore have early lost 
its final t 

1 Him iUUpaid immallefri rig (I am in bed along with a king), LL. 187*. 
> bkt da otareud and, Sg. 198^ 6. 



234 KEO-CELTIC VEBB SUBSTANnVS* ^MB. 8T0KE8. 

Injunctive. 
Sg. biu^^ bio,^ 'bbioy* btamm 1 pL ^bimmi, -btamm 
bibi^ 2 „ •lAiihe*'biid,'bid^ 

'bee, 'bi, bia^ ] ^ " [•^biat, *'bee. 

Secondary Preeent. 
Sg. bfinn 1. pi. "bimmiB 

bith'^ 3. „ bitis. 
I have not found sg. 2 or pi. 2. 

Future. 

Sg. bta'Sa, be^ 1. pL "piam 

biae, bia^ 2. „ -bieid^ ^bied 

bfaid,^^ bteid, bied \ \ biait,^ bteit, l4et 

'be, 'bia, -pia ( ^' '> j 'biat, -piat 

rel. bias " ) ( rel. bete, beite. 

^ eid in-imnidf cid hi'toeumail beusa, Ml. 53^ 8. 

'■* cen niUo-sa for mm, Eawl. B. 13* 2. Hence the Mid.-Ir. Aifo-mm with 
suffixed pronoun, Ir. Texte, p. 391. 

' rO'bbeO'$a fort-liinmu (may I be at Thy hand) F6l. prol. 273 (Laud 610). 

^ guid iar-ftrdul eia-be hi-tot* im-dilffud dot-xmmarboss (though thou be in 
Bilence, pray in a true way for forgiveness of thy sins), Saltair, 1607, 1608. In 
Saltair 2035 we find dirann .... nach-hhiu fri-eite i-fiu (alas, that thou art 
not at market here), erich eoro-bi im iuidhi ie, Ir. Texte, ii. p. 139. 

^ eo-ni-bbe Sg. 199* 4, ro-bbe 169^ 1 (where the bb seems due to the accent) : 
am-b^nnachf ron-bta (may we have their blessing), FSl. Jan. 13. 

^ na'hxd uamnaig (be ye not timid), Saltair 4830. 

' ro-m-bith droit Uty a Maire ! LH. 19* (Goid.» 148). This occurs with a 
suffixed pronoun, b'ttho'tn'na, but I have here mislaid my reference. 

^ In Middle Irish a deponential bxar occurs : blar fitirxdhe dano ie ernaidhe iK 
aithisee, H. 2. 17, p. 128*. 

r 9 9 

^ ba-tuicte amal-b€ae .... co-rXae itit'usee do-brOgait (it is optional how thou 
shalt abide until the water shall reach thy neck), Saltair 1699. noeobtd ntuem 

9 9 

.... aitnn i-pBin darmfsseae (thou shalt not be long here in pain after me), 
Saltair 2043. 

1^ bTaid dch dib ina-th^gdais (each of them shall abide in his dwelling), Saltair 
1952, and see ibid. 5859, 6255, 8201, 8202. 

** each'hieb bbi,fiif bXa* (every saint who has been, who is, who shall be) Fel. 
Ep. 289 (Rawl. B. 512), where the verse proves that bias is not only dissyllabic, 
but accented on the penult. So in the line is barr oir bias fort ehind, LU. 131*. 
In prose : dobirthar dXytU /or-er«A-rain[f»] pietha btas leu (vengeance will be 
inflicted on every portion of sin which they shall have), Ml. 24^^ 2, cindat bias, 
Sg. 40* 16. 

>2 bifiit fot , , , , dirbi imdai drehai&gel (abundant hosts of archangels will be 
under thee), Saltair 836. 



III. THE HOOT BIV. 235 

With infixed pronouns are made forms expressing 'habebo' 
aod 'non habebo/ Thus: sg. 1, manim-be set drhettla (un- 
len I shall have the way of long penitence), Saltair 2086 : 
sg.2, nod-bia (leg. nothia) mo aochraitesea^ H. 2. 17, p. 129^: 
rot'bki'grdd, roUhia on^r (thou shalt have rank, thou shalt 
Lave honour), Saltair 3354 : mt-bia . . . rigdomna mac nisrael 
(thou shalt not have a crownprince of the children of Israel), 
ibid. 6007: with pi. nom. rot-btat Umm dinige (thou shalt 
have honours with me), ibid. 5845, sg. 3, rom-bia mdc .... 
diam-ba cdmainm Sith (he shall have a son, whose name shall 
be Seth), better rambia 4175, rodmbia nim (he shall have 
heayen), ibid. 811. PI. 2, nocho-for-bia dirchra biid no etaig 
(re shall not have perishing of food or raiment), ibid. 4062. 

With suffixed pronouns we find in Middle- Irish the forms 
bid't aithrech^ a Ghtaire (thou wilt be repentant, Guaire), LTJ. 
lie, biaiM, LB. 205^ 1. 43 : is he/ordccaib Patraic ina chm;p, 
oeus bieis [bies^ Eg. 93] ann cubrath (he it is whom P. left in 
his body, and he will live therein till Doom), Bawl. B. 512, 
&L 26* 2, where the suffixed s seems identical with the 
la&ed % in few, etc. 

Secondary Future. 

The only person of which I have found examples is sg. 3, 
^Uirnger\t] d *Abram .... ram-biad iir bithdiless (he 
promieed to Abraham that he should have land ever his 
owii),8alteir 2792. 

Perfect. 

W this tense I have only found sg. 3 and pi. 3. Sg. 3, ro-bbi, 

Sg.45* 1 (where the 66 is due either to reduplication * or to the 

«ccent) : PL 3, ro-bSotar, LU. 62*. When the bi is post-tonic, 

it becomes bi (bai), be (bae). Thus : ni riibi, Wb. 11^ v. 11 = 

t^Hihai, Sg. 7* 3 ; Ml. 20* 4 ; ni-rdbe, Wb. 18* 2 = wi rdbae, Ml. 

28^. So in Middle-Irish : 6 na rdbi ifus in-idech (since the hero, 

Potiphar, was not at home), Saltair 3194; mind i-rdbi tdlhnd 

dirgfnr (a diadem wherein was a talent of red gold), ibid. 

6728 ; CO rdbi in-rianfeth rdblaith (so that the sea-breeze was 

very gentle), ibid. 7616. PI. 3, ' indat-eside asberat^* or 



236 NEO-CELTIC VKRB SUBSTANTIVE. — MR. STOKES. 

Cuchulainn, * nich m6o fil do ?77taib imbethaid oldds robiotar' 

8om dib?" ("Are those," saith C, "they of whom men say 

that there is no more of the Ultonians alive than have lived, 

— (i.e. got their lives, — from them ? *'), LTJ. 62a,* 1. 16. 

Passive pret. sg. hu rubtth a nel impe (when its cloud wai 

around it, the ark), Ml. 82* 11. Verbal nouns: bith, bUhiu. 

Of these forms the most remarkable is the injunctive sg. 1 

biam (W. btci(f), which is used as a future, and which occun 

in TJltan's hymn to Brigit, 1. 8 : Blam-sder ceeh-inbaid lam- 

ndib dO'Ldignib (I shall be safe always with my saint oi 

Leinster), in the F^lire, £p. 165 (Laud 610) : Blarn'raith-u 

dM-rdithsium nod-giba cachdta (I will be surety for th< 

security of him who shall repeat it every day), and in LIT 

61*, biatn cO-sa do imdegail do chethra (I will be a hound t< 

protect thy cattle). This is a middle-form =Gr. fielofAoi (t 

fielofiai why should I live any more? Iliad XXII. 431). Th< 

fut. sg. 2 biae is=Gr. ISerj, Iliad H 131. As to the preterite 

the pi. btat points to an urkelt. blcesonto with middle-ending 

This root is compounded with the following prepositions 

ar : pret. sg. 3 ; hire ari-n-ro-be (quia nobis superfuit), Wb 

29* : Secondary pres. sg. 3 ; dodirchechain Scathach d 

iarum anni ari-dni-hiad (S. then foretold to him wha 

should remain for him), Rawl. B. 512, fo. 117 b. 1. 

ar-a : pres. indie, sg. 3 arahiy Ir. Texte, p. 262, 1. 22, aral 

.i. is ferr^ O'Dav. Secondary pres. pi. 3, arabitis (gl 

instabant). Ml. 43*" 15. 

cit-a: pres. indie, sg. 3, intan cita-m-be (cum sentit), Ml. 36' 

pi. 3, ciia-biat iarum in-cndmai in-fochaid (sentiunt poste 

ossa tribulationem). Ml. 22^ cUa-bfat chliaaa (sentiun 

aures), Sg. 3* 1 : injunct. sg. 3, cita-m-be (gl. sapere). Ml 

36*. Secondary pres. sg. 1, ceta-biinn (gl. sapiebam), Wl 

12®, cifa-m-benn (gl. cum primum sapere uolui), Ml. 44 

etar : pret. sg. 3, ond des tuaithe eter-ar-ro-hm (from th 

laymen among whom he lived, interfuit), Wb. 28' 

Secondary pres. sg. 3 : asbert aide, in elerblad a gnlmu ach 

Used doib co iksferdetad? Asbert each, eter-da-biad, LU. 60' 

^ These occur only in the nominal prepositionB fo-bUh(n), fo-bithin * propter 
G.C. 669. 



III. THE ROOT BIV. 237 

fo\f(hm'hia (gl. vitiare), i.e. quod vitabit, vitiet, Ml. 15* 11. 

fo-ro: pres. indie, pi. i^forfiat son (perficiant hoc), Ml. 23* 19. 

/w: iDJ. pi. 3, /or don itge Britge bit (may Brigit's prayers be 

upon ub!), Brocc. h. 89, a curious instance of tmesis/ 

Fut. sg. 3, issed dinm foi^hia ^ cohrdth (it is a name that 

will abide for ever), Jr. Texte, p. 567 (where it is placed 

under the Yerh forbenim), with infixed relative: in-cech- 

uair for-m-bfa /arn-ddil iaimm diiib ([it is] at every hour 

that ye shall have your share from me), Saltair 3511. 

Secondary pres. sg. 3, forblad a hainm Herind cobrath, 

(that his name Would abide in Ireland for ever), LU. 61^. 

M {in ?) : fut. sg. 2 : im-b^ eirr oengaile (thou wilt be a 

champion of duelling), LIT. p. 125, 1. 13. 
rmi: boah^e remibi boairechaibh (a cowchief that takes pre- 
cedence of cx)wchiefs), Laws, iv. 316, 1. 5. 
iU'for: fut. pi. 3, dofdrbiat (gl. peruenire), ML 27* 10. 

In the British verb substantive the Welsh injunctive sg. 1 
hvijf, Com. beijfj is=Ir. blaniy Gr. iSeiofiai, The Cornish injunc- 
tive sg. 2 (Wic[A], bey, by), pi. 1 {byyn, beyn, been), 2 {byugh, 
heugh), 3 (byns) also come from y/biv, the original long i being 
represented by y and e as in acry/i^, gtcyr, gtcyn, my, but also 
fcre/ys, me. The Welsh imperative sg. 3 bit^ pi. bint, corre- 
spond to the Jr. biith, *6rfl/=Skr. givatu, gltantu. Lastly, 
Cornish makes from this root a secondary preterite as follows : 

1 So 09 rina rindid for au-r-indid rina, FSl. Jan. 12 (cf. at rindid, gl. retulit, 
Ml. 58* 8) : eiaro edtha elii for eia roeloi cdtha, Rawl. B. 512, fo. 25» 2. to ir 
mdt mdehud for romdchad ir mow, O^Dav. b.t. Mas (Mac Firbis* copy). Prof. 
Thumejsen (Bct. Celt. tL 139 note) has noticed another tmesis in Sg. 204* ^ 
it'bialh nom Chomdiu coima, which he renders correctly by ** Que le Seigneur 
me-prterre da jngement ! " But I Tentore to think that this excellent Celtologue 
is wrong in referring the rerb ednna to eonoim * servo,' ^/av. The m would then 
be unaccountable. Cffima stands (quite regularly) for eum'tmaf and is the 
rednplicated a-injunctive of eon-emimy ^jyam. This root occurs in composition 
also with the prepositions air-fu^ di and tu (arf6imim^ ditiu = *di'yam'tion, and 
tb^mim). In e6ima (ex eumetna) the accent is on the first syllable, because eOinia 
if here used as an imp^utive (the verbal vocative). So when the «-injunctive is 
used as an imperative, the accent is on the first or only syllable, e.g. ^nmr from 
amitrffim, Uitr from dodtrieeim, 

' In forbia log fam-imarbos (ye shall have the reward of your sins), Saltair 
1148, and fwbXa fotn-eittire jiin (ye shall have your own hostage), ibid. 3503, 
fwbia stands ioifor^b-bXay where the first b represents the infixed pronoun of the 
second person ploraL 



238 NEO-CELTIC VERB SUBSTANTIVE. — :MR. STOKES. 

Sg. byeuy bean, 1. pi. ^byen 

byes 2. „ byeugh 

bye, bya, bea ^^ H ens 

re-bye, re-bee, re-bea J * " ^ 

^biv occurs in composition with the prep, /lan (= Skr. sam 
and the verbal root gwydd (urkelt. rid to know). Thus hen- 
pych girellz=iO.'GoTn, [A]flM-6f/V?[A] guell (valeas melius) : ky^ 
meint ac a icypwyfi (tantum quantum ego scio, i.e. gwydd- 
btcyf), G. C. 574. 

IV. BU. 

In Irish, as may be expected, no present is formed W 
this root. Here the recent remarks of Prof. Alfred Ludwig ^ 
may usefully be quoted: Anders steht es mit der verbal- 
wurzel bhu. Bei diser ist es klar und unzweifelhaft, dass 
ihre verwendung als wurzel fiir ' sein ' in der bedeutung des 
wachsens, als der altem, ihren grund hat. ' Gewachsen sein ' 
ward als ein ' sein ' schlechthin aufgefaszt, und ' wachsen * 
als ein ' werden ' eine vorbereitung zu einem (relativen) 
'sein.' Daher finden wir in den beiden altesten sprach* 
familien kein praesens discs verbs in der bedeutung sein : 
griech. <f>vw, nach der weise diser sprache, die die einfachen 
wurzeln transitiv faszt, bedeutet : ich lasze wachsen (vgl. 
eng. cottongrower), und erst v€<f>vKa und aor. €<f>vv werden 
als verba des seins verwendet, selbst dise jedoch fast nur 
poetisch. Eine erinnerung an das stadium der concreten 
bedeutung hat das altere Sanskrt darin bewart, dasz es bkA 
im sinne von ' gedeihen, guten fortgang haben' (im gegensatz 
zu pard'bhu wie deutsch wesan, farwesan) ganz gewonlich 
verwendet, obwol daneben * bhavati,' etc., voUig einem ' asti,' 
er ist, gleichbedeutend als regelmaszig vorkommt, ja * asti ' 
u. a. durch die analogen formen von bhu oft glossiert wird. 
So zeigt gegeniiber dem griech. (f>vai^, dessen bedeutung 
ganz allgemein ist, das entsprechende Ssk. bhiitih die an wen- 
dung im sinne 'trefliche beschaffenheit ' dasz namlich ein 
ding das vollkomen geworden ist, was es seiner natur nach 

^ Die mit h' beginnenden formen des verbnm substantivum in den germanischen 
sprachen, aus den Sitzungsberichten der konigl. bobm. Geselbschaft der Wissen- 
scbaften. For a loan of this brochure I am indebted to Prof. Max Miiller. 



IV. THB ROOT BU. 239 

werden sollte. Auch der italische sprachstamm, obwol fa* 
dort schon ganz abstracte bedeutung erlangt, zeigt kein 
praaens, da fimm^ fuiam als aorist za faszen ist. 

In Irish, the only quotable formations from this root are 
(so far as I know) the following : 

Pret. sg. 1, ba aamiaid sain ramaual^sla in farrci co mbdi 
isin phurt (it was thus I swam the sea till I was biding in the 
port), m. 114 ^ 30. Sg. 3, bai, bdi, b6e (Saltair 3169), bdi, 
rel. bdie. Here but and its variants are=rSkr. babhura, and 
the relative bdie is=6^t+-^, urkelt. ^d=Skr. pdt, the nom. 
and ace. sg. neut. of yds. * 

Aorist sg. 3, -bu,^ -bo, -pu^ 'po, pi. 1 ro-bumar, Ml. 43 ^ 6, 
ro-bummar Ml. 62 * 6, -bomtnar. Here bu is = Skr. a-bhat^ 
and buma-r, bummoTy bomma-r (with a deponential ending) is 
=Skr. a-bh&ma. 

As bu (bo) aspirates (nipu sirsan LL. 252% com-bo-chomsolus^ 
FB. 2, ropo thof, G. C. 181), it must at an early period have 
lo8t its final t. Being always used as a mere copula, bu^ of 
eonrse, is toneless. Thus : gor-bo-mdl cach-mdige mdir Idseph 
(so that Joseph was lord of every great plain), Saltair 3431, 
where note also that the c of the toneless co has sunk to g : 
nlr-bu d%n[n\lim la-Dta ndil (it was not despicable in dear 
God's eyes, lit. apud Deum carum), Saltair 4207: nirbo dri- 
chrothail dirmdr (it was not . . . enormous), ibid. 4226. 

Fut. sg. 3, bud amlaid so diAiM dognethi ernaigthi (it will 
be thus, then, that ye will make prayer), L.B. cited O'Don. 
Gr. 442, in form=Skr. bhavate third sg. pros, indie, middle. 

Passive pret. sg. 3, bothy robothy Ir. Texte, p. 398. 

Inf. buith. This might possibly be referred to the root ba. 
Bat as the gen. sg. of the compound ciibuith is cetbutho, Sg. 
25^ 7, we may safely equate it with the Gr. if>vai^ from <f>vTi^. 

Future infinitive both : bdth din i-fdchith (futuros esse nos 
in tribulatione), sg. gen. buthe. Ml. 39^ 5; buithe. Ml. 53^15, 
ace. butt, ML 46« 10, 47« 8, dat. do buith, ML 46« 19. As 

^ In ni-bhu (non fait) Sg. 6* 9 the bh are due to the primeval accent. So perhaps 
in the perf . ro-bMi Sg. 178^ 4 ; but here the bb may represent the old reduplication. 
Prof. Zimmer ^'Vusirobu ans rob6i entstehen, ein mir unbekannter lautUbergung, * 
Tbumeyaen, Deutsche Litteratorz. No. 32, col. 1 162. The form nirbuoy Ml. 8b^ 
4, seems a mistake for nirbo. 



240 NEO-CELTIC VERB SUBSTANTIVE. — MR. STOKES. 

the pres. sg. 1, when suffixed to other verbs, expresses the future, 
so this verbal noun {bothy urkelt. buta^ W. bot^ Com. bos^ Br. 
boiit)y formed from the present stem, also expresses the future. 

Future participle passive buthiy buithl, urkelt. butlvo-s, ba 
buthi, Ml. 29* 8. This, like all other such participles, is to 
be compared with Latin formations in 'ticus. 

The preterite bdi^ bde, with the help of pronouns and 
negative particles, expresses 'habui' and 'non habui.' Thus: 
m-m-bdi (=m-w-6.) admdi [leg. sdmail /a-SSpke (he had no 
rest as to Ziphaei), Saltair 6384 ; nimbbai auidi sdigthi fUd dnd 
didchi doliiid Ddvid (from the night on which D. went he, 
Saul, had not the peace of a sought seat), ibid. 6399; 
nismbdi [MS. nirmbai'\ bin ^ (he had no sin), ibid. 3279 : 
plural m'smbde adere no sdergrad (they had neither freedom 
nor free rank), ibid. 3662 ; rosmbai c&nnach fochetbir (they 
forthwith had buying), ibid. 3544 ; nisgluais, rosmbai inna-tdsa 
/n-rde dd-ldthi (it, the sun, moved not it«elf, they had it 
silent — lit. in its silence — for the space of two days), ibid. 6107. 

The b of the 1 sg. subjoined forms the so-called b- futures 
(e.g. riccub, forchdnub^ b^ndachub, dorimiub) stands for a pre- 
historic -6w, -Jd=Lat. -6o. 

The root bu occurs compounded with cet in the verbal noun 
cetbuith, gen. cetbutho, p. 239, supra. 

In the British languages the formations from ^bu are 
more numerous. Thus : 

Present and Future. 

Sg. b^da/f Com. bt/^qf, Br. bezqf 1. pi. bt/dim, Com. btfjyn, 

Br. *bezom'p 

bydy, Com. by]ythy Br. *bezez 2. pi. bi/dirch, Com. by\etighy 

Br. ^bezit 

byd^ Com. byth^ Br. bez 3. pi. bydant^ Com. byjons, 

Br. *bezont 

These forms all come from an urkelt. stem buya, identical 
with the stem of Lat. /io, the y (according to Rhys' fortunate 
discovery) regularly becoming (/. From the same stem the 

> ace. jA.Jin^f Sanct. h. 7. The double anlant, b, /*, points to an nrkelt. stem tvhi. 
' 0.- Welsh bid in nae [hjen-bid (gl. nulla residit Jut., lit. 'non exit' [hmfydd). 



IV. THE BOOT BIT. 241 

Breton makes an injunctiye which also serves as a future. 
Welsh has a relic of this formation in sg. 1 and 3, and 
Coruish has a trace of it in pi. 2, where Breton uses an 
8-aorist bUieL 

Injunctive. 

Sg. bt/di/,^ Br. bezif, bizif 1. pi. Br. bizim-p 

Br. bezi^ bizi^ 2. pi. byddwch, Com. be\ough 
bydhawt, Br. bezo 3. pi. Br. bezint, bizint 

Imperative. 

Sg. bi/dy Corn, bi/thy Br. bez 2. pi. bydwch^ Corn. be]ongh 

Com. beiens,^ Br. bezet 3. pi. Corn, be^em, 

Br. bezent} 

Preterite. 

Sg. bifu-my bum, Com. 6fi-/ 1. pi. buam, Com. buen, 

buos'tf Com. bus 2. pi. bua-trch, Corn, bu-gh^ 

bit, Com. bue,BT,boueS. pi. buant. Corn, bonsj 

we have ohviously (though somewhat disguised by neoceltic 
agglutinated pronouns) the urkelt. bouo^ bauto, bono, pi. 
bouimo, bouOj bmionto^^Skv, {ba)bhuva, {ba)bhutha, {ba)bhucat 
(ba)bhurimd, {ba)bhura, babhuvus ; and the non-aspiration of 
tn in the W. pi. 1 buam may be explained by supposing that 
in urkelt. bouimo, as in Skr. babhiivimdy the accent was on 
the person-ending).^ 

1 Skene 184, 185, 187, 189, 190, 191 ; on the last page of the Book of Taliessin 
occnn (in a pasBage not read by Skene) a minheu bydif (Kh^). 

' This and the other Cornish imperatives sg. 3, ending in ensy pnn, ana (G.C. 
516) hare not jet been explained. I suspect we have here a neoceltic agglutina- 
tion (to the injunctive s^. 3) of the pronoun which we find suffixed in Ir. tri-it, 
trew'it (per earn), O'CIery's tremhid. The urkelt. stem of this pronoun may 
have been tnti from em-ii. 

3 These represent an urkelt. huydnt-Uf with suffixed u. 

* This is the explanation of the unaspirated m (or double m) in the 1 pi. active 
of Irish verbs, ana of double m in the 1 pi. of Irish deponents such as intiam' 
lammmr (imitamur), faimemmar (audemus). Iom contti[r'\ietnmar'm (cum consu- 
limos). Ml IS* 1. The m in urkeltisch here preceded an accented vowel, and was 
therefore left unaspirated or (what is the ^ same thing) was doubled in writing. 
So we have do-mrndthi, ML IS^' 7, m-mmSrat (non manebunt), Wb. 30^, </u- 
mneitar-ta (gl. metibor), Ml. 78* ro-mm^bdatar^ LU. Ir. Texte 676, do-mm^maid 




preM^ue tonjours marquee.'* Therefore always in the British languages, and 
ot igxnally in Irish, the m of the first person sg. ( = a toneless protoceltic -mi) was 
aspirated. The agreement here with Sanskrit accentuation is perfect. 

Phil. Trau. 1885-6. 16 



242 NEO-CELTIC VERB SUBSTAKTIVE. — MR. STOKES. 

Secondary Preterite. 

» 

Sg. buasswn^ Br. bisenn, 1. pi. Br. ^bisem-p 

Br. bf»f€8^ 2. pi. Br. bisech 

buasseiy Br. bise 3. pi. buassynt^ Br. bisent. 

Here buasa-icn, buassei, buassynt are probably to be compare 
with Lat. fumefn^ fuissfif^ fitment. 

Passive forms are Welsh butcyt ('man war'), byddir^ in; 
byddevy secondary pret. buasid. Cornish be^ {dreihe ma 
fether the tvel, 0. 46). Breton bezer^ part. pret. bed, bezet. 

Verbal noun : Welsh bot. Com. bds, Br. bout, = <f>vai^ froi 
*<^vn9, and also bezout, bezaf, which latter forms, says Ebe 
sometimes signify the fnture. 

This root occurs in composition with the prepositions ar 
cant^ (W. ar-gan, in arganvu 'animadvertit,* 0. Bret, er-cent] 
com^ar (W. cyf-ar), tu-ar (W. dar), han (8kr. sam), and go 
(Ir. for, Gaul, rer, inrip). It is also compounded with th 
verbal stems ad-{g)na, Skr. gnd, and gtvydd (Com. goth, Bi 
gouz, Skr. vid). In Cornish we find it compounded als 
with oar, clew, dreyl, pieu, tal (cf. Br. talvout)^ ty and why 
(Br. hoar). 

V. ES. 

Present indicative. 

Sg. is8 {is) 3. pi. hit,^ it. 

Here iss (0. Welsh . i^s, is) is = urkelt. enti, Skr. dsti, ion 
the t being assimilated, and hit {it) = urkelt. senti, S)cr. sdnti 
A trace of the primeval final vowel of it is visible in th« 
fact that it aspirates {it chethir chet, Q. C. 182). Both form 
in Celtic are toneless proclitics. Hence the assimilation o 
the t in esti, and the change to h, and eventual loss of th< 
s in sentu^ 

1 Cf. the Gaulish coin-legend Ar-canto-dan(o6), Rev. Celtique, i. 293. 

s Saltair 195, 364, 4066. The hU-e in Sg. 45^ 9, with the mark of lengtl 
over t\ seems a scribal error. 

3 So in the case of the toneless preposition and conjunction amai, urkelt 
samala^ as compared with the adjective tdmail^ and the adv. admiid, urkelt 
gdmaliSf tdmniitif Lat. HimiliSy the « is dropped from the toneless syllable. So i] 
the case of the toneless article {»)ind and relative pronoun («}a/}. So in the caa 
of initial / {v) : eb-dilim{bene nutrio) for feb-dilvn : olann (wool), urkelt 
roldna^: orddu (thumb), urkelt. vordd{n)i ^vardh : remtnad (distortion), urkelt 
vrembSiu, vrengvalu^ A.S. wrenean : ess, W. t/eh (* ox*), pi. ychaiN, urkelt. vexoi 

sSkr. ukskdn : ar, or, ol (inquit), ^/ar : alhach (breeze), urkelt. vatica, 'Jva 



V, THE BOOT ES, 243 

To express * qui, quae, quod, cuius, est/ as (see infra) is 
generally used. But in Middle Irish we sometimes find is. 
Thus: ni full define Adaim bin is firr dilh ina-i (of Adam's 
family there is no woman whose shape is better than hers), 
Glenn Mas4in MS. 7'; tre-ldr na cdthrach his Etnath (through 
the midst of the town which is Hamath), LB. 205^ 

The gen. sg. and pi. of the relative pronoun is expressed 
by WW, later assa. Thus issa (gl. quorum), Ml. 90° 3. 

llie ordinary suffixed personal pronouns are appended to 
iM, and we thus get the forms issum (sum), issot (es), i»it 
(sunt). After the conjunction uair the toneless i is lost and 
we thus have orsam Moloch set sSnchais (since I am a wise 
path of story), Saltair 1786. The independent personal pron. 
w^ ia appended to it, and we thus get itsib (estis, lit. sunt, 
voa), Wb. 19^ 

When iss is preceded by the conjunction 6, we get the form 
09 (ex quo est).^ 

When iss or it is preceded by either of the conjunctions 

^ (ci«), * quamvis,' * si,' and nm * si,' the particle u (o) is 

generally suffixed. Thus ces-u, czas-u (quamvis sit hie, haec, 

hoc), masS'U,^ mass-o^ *8i est hie (haec, hoc'), pi. mat-u. 

In Breton, also, this particle is suffixed to iss, and we get, 

accordingly, the form so * est,' G. C. 555, with loss of the 

toneless vowel. It appears to be identical with the au, o 

suffixed in pronominal forms like d-du, ddo (ei), occ-o (apud 

earn), where the reflex of the Zend demonstrative pron. ava, 

6r. av in aino^, has long ago been recognized. 

When iss is preceded by the demonstrative pronoun saich, 
sech, we get the formula sechis * id est.' 

hngim, urkelt. vtengSmif '^vtlg ; and the loan-words iipariain from ^fespertin = 

vetpertJna and Weaf^n = Vtdcani, Here, as in the case of cueenn (coqufnaj, 
multnn (moHna\ we see that Latin loan-words must have been introduced into 
Ireland before the accent shifted to the first syllable. 

^ £bel (Q.C. 488) stran^ly refers to ^/ts the emphatic pronominal formulae 
oi-mi, o$»tu (gl. tate, gl. tutemet), ot-ni. They represent urkelt. ujco-mi, 
fuo'tva, uxO'ftU, where uxo is cognate with uif^G. S^t. In Ir. os-munud, and in 
Gaol. Uzxo'piiluSf Mommsen, Inscr. Conf. Helv. 222, 352, it seems to occur 
cnmponnded with a noun. Urkelt. ea from ps is also, apparently, in W. llachar 
(gleaming, glittering), urkelt. iaxaro-g, Ir. lassair (flame), urkelt. laxarix. Lit. 
i9j*md (flame). 

' Corniptly mn$sa in Middle Irish : masia-thiy Saltair 11 S9. 

' mtuo'fxr, Saltair 3497. 



244 NEO-CELTIC VERB SUBSTANTIVE. — MR. STOKES. 

"When U is preceded by the interrogative pron. ee^ ci, we 
get the forms cit, citne (a contraction of c-it^ind-S)^ Wb. 6*, 
G. 0. 710, 711, and (in Middle-Irish) dtni, Saltair 2347, 
a contraction of c-it-ind-l. 

To m the toneless adverb am (urkelt. Bama) is sometimes 
suffixed. We have accordingly, n-iss-am (not so is), nisam-iin 
diiitsiu (gl. non curaris), Ml. 44^ 23. 

This root es is generally compounded with the prep. <?, 
which has been noticed above, p. 222, note 1. We thus have 
the following forms : 

Present indicative. 

Sg. amm 1. pi. ammi^ 

aiy^ at 2. „ atib,^ adib, athar * 

rel. am * | ' " j rel. ata, atta, afan^ atn.^ 

This and (presumably) the enclitic damm, which will be 
considered immediately, are, so far as I know, the only 
instances in Old Irish of a compound verb having in the sg. 
3 the primary ending. Here amm^-a-smi : ai=a'*Bi : a/= 
a-'bi plus /, a neoceltic agglutinated pronoun of sg. 2 : a« ^ 
=flr-'6//, . with assimilated t : ammi=^a'* smesi vfhere -tn^si is 
=the Vedic masi (Whitney, §548) : atib-^at (sunt) plus nib 
(=5ns-sm, W. chicichici) : at=za'*sdnio, where 'dnio is the 
Skr. secondary middle-ending dnta : at€=.at plus a relative 
pronoun = Vedic yd for i/dui; and, lastly, afan {afn):=at plus 
the relative pronoun (s)a-w, identical with the neuter article 
in the nom. and ace. sg. 

^ The transported n in the isolated ammi, hiulip (sumns gnari), Wb. 14^, is a 
scribal error. 

^ eta do'ai'siu mac (unto whom art thou son P), LL. 187® 31. 

' aiib tid»g treithfir [leg. tiSithfir f] (ye are wretched feeble men), Saltair 
7985. O'Clery, perhaps rightly, explains treith by aineoiach (ignorant). 

* atbar ddmchtnig fen^ Alexander- Saga (LB )♦ ed. K. Meyer, § 70. 

* huare a«n-aquas, nl aqua, tuie and^ Ml. 48® 19. intan atn-nium do'lue, ML 
48^6, asberat asn-dia cloiufylAl. 21° II. an-cum-estigubthi^ 22^ 9. amal atm- 
0ra»c, 66* 13. Kow we can confidently correct the scribal error in Ml. 27** 18. 

Read amal [^a8]ne dorfpeni cechn-dilil (as it is lie that made every element). 

* on-atn-acaiUi (gl. interpellati). Ml. 48* 10. coujitetar fon ata-n-doini mtain 
durochratar (these know that they are human beings when they hare fallen), 
Ml. 910 18. 

' This alwajrs aspirates e (e.g. (u-choimtig^ as-chotarsue^ G.C. 182), and must, 
therefore, in protoceltic, have ended in a voweL 



V. THE ROOT ES. 246 

This last form is not in the Or. Celtica, p. 488, although 
it constantly occurs in the MSS., e.g. it-sib afa-chdmarpi 
Jibraeham, Wb. 19* : ata-Sa (qui sunt minores) Sg. 30. 30^ 
13 : filna ddneu trecenek mdrtre atta-ldgmara le-Dia (lit. sunt 
porro tria genera niartyrii quae sunt pretiosa apud Deum) 
Cambrai homily : nx-fil chiimtHbairt ata n-anmnian sidi (non est 
dubium quin sint nomina haec) Sg. 154^, where the n of the 
suffixed pronoun appears. So in aian-gni/nai (quae sunt 
opera), ML 42^. 21, 23. Here we have the Celtic reflex of 
Skr. Off dm. But the aspiration caused by ata in ata-chomarpiy 
Wb. 19^, and the absence of the transported n in ala-da, 
Sg. 30^ shows that in this form we have a suffixed pronoun 
which originally ended in a vowel. 

All these forms seem proclitics. Thus in Fel. prol. 60 : 
at'i een[d'\e8 mdr-som (they are without age like himself, soil. 
Jesus), where mar stands for immar.. 

The root es also occurs compounded with the prepositions 

Present indicative. 

Sg. 'ta, 'dam^ 1. pi. -tarn, taim-ne^^ "dammit^ 
-dai, -da^ 2. „ -tad, -dad 

'das * 3. „ 'tat, -dat, -dad^ 

rel. 'datae,^ -date^ ^daite* 

These forms are referred by Ebel and Windisch to the 
root id ; but the shortness of the vowel shows that this is 
wrong. Almost all seem enclitics. The t of the preposition, 
therefore, in most cases sank to d, 

^es also occurs, though rarely, in composition with in. 

* dUti'^am ehondele fi'itsuy a Diy ni-ta ferr indaaa eethir (if I am compared 
with thee, God, I am no better than a quadruped), Ml. 91<^ 8. ni-dam der^ 
imaUu{h\ nudam bnidech, Ir. Texte, p. 800. 

2 an-dai'tiUf mad-da, Ir. Texte, p. 800. 

' So in Breton: deux (est). In the Cornish mar-tut ^Br, mnr-deux (si sit), 
th« former $ is from the t of the prep, tu. So in nyn-tut (non est), Br. nt'dnus, 

* FSl. prol. 157, 161 : in'hith tiHtg hi-tdimne : eid na-tire hi-tdimne, 

* oi'dammit fadettin (quam sumus ipsi), LL. (I omitted to note the page and 
oolnmn). 

* ar nudat gleoir .... arm-beo'l (for our lips are not pure), Saltair 1611 : 

m-dat'tlaifhi (they are not tender), ibid. 1571. /fa nat'luibi for maigib (more 
nameroos than are — not for •mfo^— plants on plains), ibid, 935. 

1 in datae (qnam sunt), Ml. 43^ 1 7. A form with a suffixed nasal occurs in 
Ml. 44^ 9 : in-datm'briathra^ indatm-brilayhra. 



246 KEO-CELTIC VERB SUBSTANTIVE. — ^MR. STOKES. 

Thus : pres. indie, sg. 1, ni-rdgsa d6 iair im-siniu hi^iuihtigud 
(I will not go to him, for I am elder in generation), Saltair 
1848; 8g. 2, a Idb, it fdimsid fri-ind (0 Joab, thou art a • • • . 
as to peace), ibid. 6969. Compare ei/ei/u, insum. 

Lastly, ^es is compounded with ro : Thus : rasai (=rof«f 
+ at) glechert fn-ar-Idnles (thou art purely right for our full 
benefit), Saltair •3574. Caraat (what hast thou P lit. quid est 
tibiP) : Carsat cdmairle sin, a ingen? (what is that counsel 
which thou hast, girl ?), Glenn Massain MS. p. 3, coL 2= 
carsat comairle «t/i, a rigan (0 queen), ibid. p. 4, col. 1. 
Compare vpSeifn^ II. A. 70, Lat. praaum. 

In the British languages ^es has yielded the following 
forms : iss (est), Martianus Capella 4. a. b, is. With suffixed 
pron. iaS'id^ ibid. 43. b. b. : Juvencus 81. Mid. Welsh sit 
(leg. 8id)f now apdd, ys-ef and ^sef * that is.' Br. so (e8t) = 
w«-M. With forms of V* • V^-oed^ ys-yd-ynt. Compounded, 
with the prep. . a : oes^za-vts^ Com. eu^ (t/8, es)^ Br. etix. 
With pronouns (actually or originally) suffixed to the verbal 
prefix a are made forms expressing ' habeo/ 

Sg. Br. a-m^eux, Corn, a-m-b-us 1. pi. Br. honn-eux^ 

Br. e-z-euxy Corn, ^th-us 2. pi. Br. ftoz-eux, 

Com. OS-bus 
Br. msc. en-dev-cux. Corn, an-gev-es 3. pi. Br. ho-dev-eux 
fern, he-dev-eux. 

Here in the Com. sg. 1 and pi. 2 there is a combination 
of ^/bu and y/es, just as in Welsh there is a combination of 
^es and ^i in ys-oed, ys-yd-ynt. In sg. 3 we have com- 
binations of the pronoun am with two other pronouns hen- 
(Ir. sen, sin) and he (Ir. si). This pron. am, suffixed to the 
prep. tUy occurs also in pi. 3, combined with the pron. Ao= 
Old Latin sos, Ir. so in etarru^efar-sUf forru=for'8Uf airriu=' 
air^sUy intiu=^ind'SU, seccu:=-sech'Su, This combination of tu 
with the pronoun am is also found (with the initial of the 
preposition medialised) in Old- Welsh rac-d-am (gL sibi), Juv. 
67, urkelt. {p)ranC'tu-amd. Its stem would be in urkeltisch 
ejrfwo=Skr. dma-s * he,' which Whitney (§ 503) says occurs in 
a formula in the Atharvaveda- In pi. 1, the h (if not a 



TI. THE ROOT OAB. 247 

mere scribal stapidity) waa inserted to prevent hiatus : 
h'Onneux for a-anneus^ where onn, Ir. unn (GF. C. 333), urkelt. 
OMHO (onsn^ onnU) seems the dat. pi. of the stem patne and is 
=the Skr. instmmental asmi, later asmibhis.^ Here Celtic 
n corresponds with Skr. m as in Welsh my-n (mens) = Skr. 
mma (0. Bactr. tnana^ O. Bulg. mene). 

VI. GAB. 

In protoceltic there seem to have been two roots, CAB 
and QAB. To the former belong several words in the British 
languages, which begin with c, e.g. W. cajffael (adipisci), caheli 
cael, Br. cafouty Com. cafoa. In Gothio the cognate word 
^han) begins with h. To the other root OAB belong the 
Irish ^diaim, ^a6di/=the Welsh gafael 'prehensio/ the Old-- 
Irish verbal forms im-caibf im-cabthiy in-cebthar : the verbal 
noun imeabdil, Sg. 203* 8, and the adjective CBr'SU-cb-mr 
(acoeptissimam), ML 67^ 8. This root represents an Indo- 
£uropean g/iabh, and is cognate with liatin habeo. The Irish; 
gabaitn often has the meaning * to hav^/ e.g. gabahn greim 
(ich habe nutzen), * to take ' (gaibid cloich n-aiii, gaibit engraie 
Sg. 200^ 10, 204' 7), * to take one's way ' (co/iair being under- 
stood), and with the prepositions /or and/n* * to begin.' And 
in the preterite active, sg. 1 and 3 and pi. 3 (but only in the 
preterite), with or without the help of a pronominal objectr 
suffixed to the prefix ro-, it is frequently iised to express 
'sum,' ' est ' and * sunt.' Thus : ni arthdin mnd dano gabussa 
inWy LTJ. 74* ; cein ro-n-gabus % cdrcair (quamdiu sura in- 
carcere), G. G. 922 (Glenn Mas&in MS. 1*) ; amal ro-n-d-gab 
proximitas in ad (as proximity is [implied] in [the preposi-^ 
tion] aJ), Sg. 217* 2 ; pL 3, amal ro-n-d-gabsat in^optit (as 
they are in the optative), Sg. 190^ 6. 

Zimmer's explanation of such forms (Kelt. Studien, ii. 64, 
note) seems to me both ingenious and probable. ^' Im spateren 
Latein (Beda z. B.) ist nun ease coepi, coepisti, etc., eine 

t Brngnuum, Knhn*8 Zeitschrift, xxTii. 398. The Irish so-called dat. pi. 
in -«$^ cannot be explained from a datire ending 'Obhyoi, which would have 
yielded -^tte in Old-Irish. The ending ai^b represents an nrkelt. instrumental 
Hi-^, Skr. 'C'bhU. llie Gaulish matr't-bo namautika'bo^ however, proves 
that the primeval Celts had a true dative pL 



248 NEO-CELTIC VERB SUBSTANTIVE. — ^MR, STOKES. 

gQwohnliche umschreibung. Dies coepi wurde von den Ircx*- 
• — wie Ir. pian pene=zpoena nnd sians^isSnstM ausweisen-— 
c^i gesprochen und als perfect von capio aufgefasst : dero- 
nach von ir. gaibim=:capio ^ ein rogabus wie coepi verwendet! 
tu, do} So in Old-Irish itself the preposition tU when tone- 
less becomes do. 

VII. I. 

This root occurs in Old-Irish in sg. 3 and pi. 2 and 3 of 
the present indicative active and in plur 3 of the injunctive 
active and secondary present. It is found only in oombina-* 
tion with the pronouns ci, ce and dian (cui), nan (qui, qnae, 
quod non), On, the conjunctions ce, tnd (si) — whether alone or 
followed by the particles nu * or wl — , can (ut), and in (ubi) 
ex isn^ in-san (Thumeysen), and the negative particles ndy 
nl. As iu Attic Greek with etfii, the present has sometimes 
a future force. 

With ci, ce, we have the so-called neuter interrogative 
pronoun cid, ced, which aspirates c, /, and 8 (eid chenel, cid 
folady O. C. 356), and must therefore have ended in a vowel. 
It represents an urkelt. cvi-iti, where iti = Lat. it. 

With dian (cui) we have dian-id (cui est) ; where id is 
urkelt. iti. 

With nan we have nan-d (qui, quae, quod non est), a con- 
traction of nanid. The same form with suffixed pron. of 
pi. 1 : huare ndnd-un-fdnaic, Sg. 26** 2. 

With dn we have id-dn (id est), Mid.-Ir. eddn, LB. 42* 26, 
now eadhon. 

With the conjunction ci we have cid (si est, quamvis, licet, 
sit), urkelt. cve-iii, pi. cit (quamvis, licet, sint) = urkelt. a^e- 
ydnti (cf. Skr. yanti) : followed by the particles wm, ru : ceno-d 

' If Zimmer here means that gaibim (rectius gahaim) is etymolo^cally eqnira* 
lent to eapio^ he is wrong. The Ir. cognate of capio is eacht, ex eartuiy *captut. 

* The tonelessness of the poesessive pronouns explains why the v of *tfr(>f) 
[written /ar(»), for{n), bar{n), bor{u)]f urkelt. vostrottt has not heen provected to 
/. So the toneless var (inquit) {^avar) is written bhar (Glenn Masain MS. 1*), 
and was certainly pronounced like German tear 

3 This particle, which is always toneless, is identical with the Greek toneless rv. 



VII. THE KOOT I. 249 

(qoamna sit), Sg. 29* 17, 192*, ciaru-d (quamquam fuit), 
Wb. 12* = eiarid, Sg. 26* 2. 

With ma we have pres. indie, sg. 3 m&d (si est), urkelt. 
m(l-tVi; with suffixed pronoun mddat (if thou art), H. 2. 17, 
p. 168*; pi. 2 mad^ (si estis, eritis), urkelt. md tte,^ Skr. ithd^ 
liat tYur; pi. 3 mat (si sunt), urkelt, md'p&ntL Secondary 
pres. pi. 8 mafis (si essent), urkelt. md ydnte (Skr. iydte) plus 
a neo-celtic agglutinated pronoun. 

With ma-nu, maru, and ma-ni we have manu-d (si est), 
maru-d (si fuit) and mani-d (si non est), which of course 
aspirates.^ 

With can and in we have con-id (ut sit), (Middle-Ir. conad), 
and in-id (in quo, ubi est). 

With the negative nd : nd-d^ (qui non est), nat (leg. ndih)^ 
6. C. 741, 742 ; cein nadm-bid, Ml. 33* 5 ; huare nadn-digni, 
M. 23* 10. With the negative ni : cinld-fil, M. 30* 2 = cenid- 
M Sg. 46» 15. 
Impersonal construction : cid-e (gl. de quo sint), Sg. 3* 9. 
This root combines with the prep. tu. We have, accord- 
ingly, pres. indie, sg. 3, arh-did, arn-did, Sg. 198* 3, 200» 13; 
con-did (ut sit, donee), Wb. 12*; dian-did (cui est), often 
contracted into diant, nant (from *nandid) 'qui, quae, quod 
QOQ est,' G. C. 743. Injunctive pi. 3 nandat^ (qui, quae non 
rint), where the -at seems comparable with Lat. eant, Skr. dyan^ 
though in the Irish word we have, as usual, a middle- ending 
(anto). 

To the forms cit and mat the pronominal u (o) is often 
suffixed. Thus: ceUu chummascthai (si sunt ea promiscua). 
cei'O thdisegu (etsi sunt ii priores), mat-u he ata horpamin (gl. 



g 



1 is'lib ata a-rogu tra^ mdd'ferr (leg. mad'/err)^ cotoh»ech/!dsr diehostee alailiu 
|«t penes tos ergo electio eius, si -eritis meliores, instituemini alia instittitione), 
^.C. 483. In wat eotcrneh on ehath ta (if ye go victorioas from this battle) tnai 
seems a scribal error f jr Math. 

> That in protoceltic, as in Sanskrit, the 2 pi. pres. indie, act. ended in a rowel 
ii dear enough from the aspiration caused by dioiprid in the phrase dioiprid ehaeh 
(priratis quemris), Wb. 9«. 

* numid^ehrkid (ad t. si non est (quod) creditis), Wb. 13^. manid'eh6maln%d 
tr-ropr^dehad duib (si non impletis quod praedicatum est Tobis), Wb. 18^. 

« This form aspirates : nad ehtmriethar, Ml. 33<^ 10. nad iiuindi, Sg. 25^ 13. 

* This form, of course, aspirates : enifh nandat rA(im«uidigthi aidi len 7 nnd 
UchitX tin/ed (quomodo non sunt composita haec eis et non habeut aspirationem), 
Sg. 201^ 



250 NEO-CELTIC VEBB SUBSTANTIVE.— MR. STOKES. 

si qui ex lege heredes sunt), Wb. 1^ We have already 
found this pronoun suffixed to the pres. iudio. sg. 3 of ^a$i 
and I have proposed to identify it with the Zend demon- 
strative ava^ Gr. ait in av-ro^. 

In the British languages we find in the primary and 
secondary presents a complete set of forms belonging to the 
root t. Thus : 

Present. 

Sg. tcijfy Com. ofy Br. ouf {of) 1. pi. ym^ Com. ow, 

Br. om-p 

trytf Cora. (W, Br. out 2. pi. y techy Com. ough^ 

Br. OHch (och) 

iuy^ ywy Corn, yw, eu, Br. eu (eo, e) 3. pi. int^'^ynt. Corn, yits 

Br. int (ynt). 

Secondary Present. 

Sg. oedicn, Com. en, Br. oann (voan) 1. pi. oedem, Br. oam-p 
oedyi Corn, ea, Br. oas 2. pi. *oedych, Br. af«?A 

Ok/,* o^rf, Com. 0, Br. o^, oa (voa) 3. pi. oedynt. Com. «t«, 

Br. oan^. 

There are also the passive forms : oedit, Br. oat In Welsh, 
Breton, and Cornish this root is compounded with the prep. 
Hi (toneless do), of which the t regularly becomes 8 (g) in 
Cornish : 

• Present. 

Sg. ttc^yf, Br. douf. Com. so/ 1. pi. Br. dom-p 

Br. doud-e. Corn. 808 2. pi. Br. douch 
tiiv, Br. deu (deo). Corn. «6'm?, 80 3. pi. Br. fl?t;<^, dind-y. 

Secondary Present. 

Sg. ioedicn, Br. doan 1. pi. Br. ^doam-p 

2. pi. Br. *doach 
toed, Br. (/oez, Corn. «o, go 3. pi. toedynt, Br. ^doani. 

Corn. *««!«, ^6»iw. 

^ tM-t^ pad-iu itttu guUzt (lit est id qnod est ei patria), JuTencus, cited bj 
Bh^s, Lectures *, 226. 
' enueiu di Sibellae m/ Amn, Martianus Capella, 11^ ^. 
> fM< oid ffuoeeiesetice, ibid. 12* ^. 



VII. THE ROOT T. 251 

In Wekh these forms are always preceded by the verbal 
particle y^= Ir. aithf urkelt. a/t. 

It is also compounded with the prep, pt, Com. es (us^ eg, 
«jf),Bret ed^=zlr. aith, orkelt. aii. 

Present. 

8g, Com. esqf, Br. edojf 1. pi. pdym, Com. eson, Br. edom-p 
Com. eso9 2. pi. Com. enough, Br. edouch 

Gom.u4;y(i/^y)9Br.eefy 3. pi. Com. usom} 

Secondary Present. 

Cora, esen (egen), Br. edoenn 1. pi. Cora, esen 

Corn, esea 2. pi. 

Cora, ese (esay ege, ega) ) s 1 J ^"^* ^*^w*> 
Br. edoa {edo) ) * ^ • ( p^^ ^e/ow^. 

In Cornish and Breton ^i is compounded with a double 
«, «/, and we have Corn, as-ug-y (est) and with prefixed 
negative particle, nt/n'S-ug-y, nyn-g-ug-y (non est), nyn-'s-es-e 
^j/n-g-es^e (non erat), Bret, n-ed-ed-y, nen-'d-ed-y (non est). 

The parallels in Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit to many of 

these forms are obvious. Thus iryf=^ cZ/it, Skr. ^mi : tcy-t 

(with a suffixed neoceltio pronoun) = eZ?, Skr. ^^i, and iu, yw 

(with loss of final t) for tit, try^ =. Skr. ^ti. Here it will be 

observed that in all three persons the root (to use a Skr. 

expression) has guna. Not so in the plural. Here ym, urkelt. 

imds = Skr. tmds, and int, urkelt. ydnti = ydnii. Then in 

the secondary present we have again the ^z/na-strengthening, 

just as in tbe Skr. imperfect sg. Thus Br. oa-nn {^zaia-nn) 

is = Skr. dya-m ( = a -j- aya-m), oaa ( = aw -j- a neoceltic 

assimilated /) is = Skr. dt« ( = a -j- ai»)y oe ( = ait) is Skr. ait 

( = a 4~ ^0* ^^^ (unlike Skr.) the British verb has the 

^ The forms beginning with a^ in Gr.C. 652 are simply tdof, edy, etc., with 
tiis ordinary rerbal prefix a, which, in et'O-ed'ofj occurs as the second preposition. 

< Beonans Meriasek 1264, 1336. kynUk-wont 2366. 

* So dryw (soothsayer) for dt-u^^dtui^dt-vifdjsy 0. Ir. drui, "Rhjs (Lectures, 
226) tries to bring ytr from es-o * made up of the rerbal root es and the pronominal 
element o, as in ^-o.he ' : he also tries to bring oedd from e«c/0<i <u^d tPj(f from 

MtflU. 



252 NEO-CELTIC VERB SUBSTANTIVB. MR, STOKES. 

^t/na-strengthening also in the plaral. Thas oam-p^ = aimi, 
oant = aidnto. The d in W. oe'd-wn, ot-d, oe-d-eniy oe-d-ynt is 
probably, as often, from y, and (e.g.) cwi? is = aiat^ ayai and 
oe-d'Wti is = aiiiniy aiifiini, where the •dni (to be separated 
from the Irish -inn = -dni) remains to me obscure. 

This root is compounded with the prepositions dar (Ir. 
do'dir, iair, urkelt. /M-(jt>)ar« = Gr. irapai), han^ (Skr. Mm, 
Gr. avv), and yr, and with the verbal stem pieu (possidere), 
which is cognate, perhaps, with Lat. qtieo^ qut-ri. See 
examples in G. C. 573, and Rev. Celt. ii. 195, where Rh^s 
compares yr-wyf (I am), yr-aeddwn (I was), with mapeifu and 
irapTjv. 

VIII. MAG. 

This root (probably cognate with Goth, magan posse) does 
not seem to occur in Irish, but is frequently used in the 
British languages as a verb substantive in the pres. indie* 
sg. 3 and pi. 3, thus : 

Sg. W. mae^ Com. ma, Br. ma. PL W, maent, Corn. mon$. 

The verbal prefix y (e) is generally prefixed, and hence 
Thumeysen {Keltoromankches, 30) was led into the error of 
supposing that y mae wMzziym-ae, belonged to the root ag, 
and might be phonetically equated with the Latin ambigit. 

In Breton the following forms seem to exist : 

Sg. e-maoun 1. pi. e-nwomp 

e»maouf, eniedi 2. e^maoch 

e-ma 3. e-mainL 
Passive, e-maur. 

In modern Welsh mae (like taw) has the force of the 
English conjunction that, Rhys, Lectures, 130. 

^ for Mm-p^ni, where the p ia a mere fulcrum inserted hetween the pexwm- 
ending m and the suffix ni. 

' £oel (G.C. 673} strangely supposes this preposition to he a yerhal root or 
theme, and translates it hy oriri ? It occurs after the preposition o. Com. and 
Br. ff, in pronominal forms such as o-hott'Of (a me) =Corn. O'/tau-af, Br. a-A«ii- 
ouf (de me), O'hori'at, Com. a-han-ot (de te), Br. a^han'Ot (ex te), ihhoH^tock, 
Br. a-han-oeh (de vohis), etc., G.C. 380, 381. 



IX. THE ROOT TA. 



253 



IX. TA. 
Present Indicative. 
Sg. tduf tio 






tdi ) o 1 f '^'^^ -^^^^ ^ 
-rfdi, .(/ei^» j ^' P^" { 'idad, -tad 

ta 



s} 2. pi. 

•f/d } ^' P'^* *^^^' '^^^ 
reL -ddm^ -dds rel. -c/d/^. 

The relative forms are commonly used after the com- 
parative : ol'ddas (quam est), ol-ddte (quam sunt) U'daaa, 
(gL quamvis) in-daas. Here the ol seems identical in form 
with the conjunction ol (quia). 

To express ' habeo ' and its other persons, the third sg. of 
this tense in its absolute form is used with suffixed personal 
pronouns. We have, accordingly, the following forms : 

Sg. tdihum * 1. pi. tdifhitmn,^ iathunn * 
tdthut^ 2. i^\. Udithih 

fa^/Au.' h- pi- '«■'*«' ^» 

Here the pronominal suffixes of the first and second 
persons seem, in form, instrumentals : tdihvmm, urkelt. 
(s)tdfi'mdi/d, Skr. {ti)sthdii'mdyd, fdthunn, protocelt. {s)tdti' 
onnd, Skr. {tCj^thdti-amid^ tdthut^ urkelt. {8)tdti'irdi/d, Skr. 
(tCjsthdti-tvdyd. The suffixes of the third person are still 
obscure to me. 

I mar [ s immar] tSm, Saltair 3493. 

• at iia Greie ol dathe {fine Greeks are more than ye are), II. 2. 17| p. 134*. 

In the expressions in iir 'go'dathai (leg. *ga-dathai) *eo$ham (the land for which 
ji are contending), innl ^ga'dathai \o»nam, LB. 206^, the independent is used 
for the dependent form, and the t of the root is sonantised bj the (lost) nasal of 
the relatlTe. 

• eia dian-dat eiUu-tiu ? ol te (* unto whom art thou servant P' saith he), LU. 
71*; ni'dat eoimedaig (leg. eoimetaid) iniU (thou art not a safe guardian), 
BaUleof Moira, 170. 

• F61. prol. 217 (LB.), better taithiumm (est mihi). 
» F61. Julr 24, Hi, est tibi. 

• 'he has,^ Laws ir. 310,= thaithi, H. 3. 18, p. 264. 
' 'she has,* Fel. Feb. 6. 

• Ir. Texte, p. 816, 1. 12. 

• F61. prol. 217 (Laud 610). 
I*" Uthad X Ota Uo, O'Cl GL 



254 NKO-CELTIC VBRB SUBSTANTIVE. MR. STOKES. 

' Non habeo ' and its other persons were expressed by fd 
with the negative particle ni or nico (Middle Ir. noco) and a 
pronoun suffixed to the particle. We have accordingly : 

Sg. nlinthdy nocomlhdy nochonomthd ^ 1. pi. nintd 

nittd 2 2. pi. niptd ' 

3. pi. ntsttty nocosta} 

Optative. 

Sg. tey^ te 3. pi. teeet, tiat? 

Here te for tet = Lat. %tet^ Osc. sta-^i't, Gr. crra-«7(T), and 
teat, urkelt. taianto, is = Lat. stent (from ^sta-ient), except 
as to the person-ending -atUo, which belongs to the middle- 
voice. The 1st sg. was certainly tea, teo (see the compound 
i'teo infra), where the u reflects the -au in Goth, bairau. 

Injunctive. 

Sg. 'tdy 'dd 1. pi. 'tdn, -ddn 
'dd 2. pi. 'ddth 
't,^ 'd 3. pi. 'tdt 8 'dot. 

These forms are used as mere copulas, and are toneless 
proclitics. Hence the sinking of ^ to d.^ The 1st pi. must 
have originally ended in a vowel, as it aspirates {ni-dan^ 
chumachtig, Wb. 14°). Here, as in the imperative bdn, the 
m of the toneless sufflx dma has become n. 

1 nim-tha far'Sdmail g&nnae (I have not the like of you here), Saltair 3481. 
nim-tha luad ar-an-Uar (I have not utterance because oi their multitude), ibid. 

7290. nochomthd Idbra iSnglan (I have not full-clear speech), ibid. 2088. 
nochonomtha'M, LU. 103^. 

' n'ltta nt indit-moide (non est tibi quidquam in quo glorieria), Wb. 2'». 

* nipta fii' dom-d^olaideeht (ye have not anything for my favour), Saltair 1444, 

* tXr Cnnnain nista dar^is an-Scnaig (Canaan* s land they have not in conse- 
quence of their blasphemy), ibid. 4734: noeo-s-ta maith . . . cono-M-ti ail%a 
(they have no good thing until sweat shall come to them), ibid. 1451. 

* co'te mo thorbe-se duib (gl. quid vobis proderoP), Wb. 12^; ca'te imdibe 
crisl? (what may be Chrisfs circumcision P), Wb. 27*: ea-tte didiu far failte-^u 
friiin P (what, then, may be your joy in us P), Wb. 19<*, where for -siu the scribe 

lias -«m ; dilig dam caeh-cin rom'tki (forgive me every crime that I may have}, 
Saltair 7791. 

* (ubera /rib eo-teeet mo bissi-se ^dicat vobis qui sint mores mei), Wb. 9» ; 
ea'teet diuitiae sund (what may * divitiae ' be here P), Wb. S© ; Fantaieo, Muric, 

am-vidnluaig ea-teat? (Pantaleo, Mauricius, what may be their great hosts P), 
F61. Sep. 22. 

' nan-t (nihil esse), G.C. 743. 

8 naiat-bicay Ml. 18* 6. 

' Thumeysen, Deutsche Litteraturzeitung, 9 Aug. 1884. 



IX. THE BOOT TA. 255 

As Ebel remark^ (GF. C. 922), the root id is found in the 
impersonal construction. Thus : ddr-Bldna on-chinaid-ae (we 
are free, lit. sound, from this crime), where ddr^itd-^ar (for 
nary urkelt. 9ta«^ro.=;Lat. nosier) the nom. or ace. of the pro- 
noun of which the possessive ar-n (for narn,^ protocelt. nostron 
=Lat. noairum) is the genitive. In a negative sentence the 
pronoun is suffixed either to the verb or to the negative particle. 
Thus : sg. 1 nudd'tn snimach (I am not distressed), Saltair 2382, 
pi. 1 ni'dd-'r gldin (we are not pure), ibid. 1609. ni-dd'^m" 
idain ' (non sumus idonei), ibid. 3626. Thus again : sg. I 
nim-thd Iddm [leg. Idini] (non sum manus), Wb. 12*, ni-mp'thd^ 
firion (non sum Justus), Wb. 8**. ni-m-da sdtech (I am not 
satisfied), LU. 60** ; ni'm-da mac (I am not a child), LU. 62*. 

It takes the accusative : nin-id airli ami-ban (non est nobis 
oboedientia mulierum nostrarum), Wb. 3P. 

This root occurs compounded with the following prepo- 
sitions : 

ad (cf. Lat. a{d)'Sto : 

Present indicative active. 

Sg. aifdu* at to 1. pi. ait dam 
aitdi 2. pi. attaaith 
aiid 3. pi. aiiaat. 

As aiiaat aspirates {ataat chiinaidi, Sg. 28' 4), it must have 
ended in a vowel, which, doubtless, was that of the secondary 
middle-ending -id. 

The impersonal construction is found: ata-bar ddsachiaig 
fen (ye yourself are mad), Alexander-saga, § 70, Rawl. B. 512. 

Present indicative passive. 
Sg. aiidthar 3. pi. *attdtar, 

* The original n u kept in the gen. dual nathmrf nar, G.C. 325, Ir. Texte, p. 
316 (S.P. ii. lines 1, 14), which is, of course, to he compared with Gr. yottrtpos, 

^ This is a grammatical error for n'idar -idain : cf. ammi n-etUig^ Kupra. 

' From nl'mb'thOf the b heing here (as in sg. 2 of the secondary present of 
V^) provected to /? hy the following tA, prononnccd h. So in imptuide (gl. 
obsimo), Ml. 43^ 10, where the b of the prep, imb has become p before «, pro- 
nounced h. f So in ni-p'tCLy leg. ni-ph-tha f (ye have not), Saltair 1444, tne v 
of the infixed pronoun becomes/ (phj before t.] This mb^ generally written mm, 
represents the instrumental sg. of the personal pronoun of sg. 1. It is a pro to - 
Celtic mihiy in which the sum seems identical with that of Lat. tibx^ sibi, ibi, 

^ inn e^tmad 3/iadain atdu eotindiu. Bawl. B. 512, fo. 14^ 2. 



S56 



NEO-CELTIC VERB SUBSTANTIVE. — ^MR. STOKES. 



ar=:7rapdf Skr. pdrd: pres. indio. sg. 3, artOa (8upere8t)=: 
O. Welsh arta (gl. restat). 

flr-a : pres. indie, sg. 3, aratha (gl. relicuum est), Wb. 10^. 

rfi : sg. 3 dita, Ml. 120* 6 : pL 1, ditaamni, 117*» 9 : pi. 3, ni 
dithat, 113» 2.1 

for : pres. indie, sg. 3 : barr buide /of*'do[^f\'td (a yellow 
head-of-hair is on thee), LU. cited Windisch, Ir. Gr. p. 
119. immad n-ong\jf]alar fortd (there remains abundance 
of lamentable diseases), Saltair 1453. 

imm-ua-ad : A DemuiUy cid *moatai diar-lenamuin (0 Devil, 
why standest thou to follow us P), Saltair 1722. 

in: pres. indio. sg. 1, sechani itioo (super id quod sum') 
Wb 17**.; iiu ic-fntholim immach nan-anmanna (I am 
tending the beasts afield), Saltair 1187. Sg. 2, ani hitdi 
(id quod es ^), Wb. 5^ : mased hitdi ^con-iarair (if it be 
that thou art seeking them), Saltair 3102. PI. 3 : ifai 
ind (/)ascri grotha . . . . t foi^aithmet ind ferta amnd 
hithm indiu (the curd cheeses are in remembrance of 
the miracle to this day to-day), Rawl. B. 512, fol. 21** 2. 
Optative sg. 1 : Afcoch, a noem-Patraic fi[/^arrad ifeo 
(I entreat, O holy Patrick, that I may be along with 
thee), LU. 113^, where ifeo rhymes with beo^ivivus. 

tU'eas : pres. indie, sg. 3, fesfa (deest) Beda Cr. 18, better 
doesta, Ml. 35^, desta, Wb. 26^ 24. Pret. sg. 3, an-di^sta 
[duesta, Eg. 93] dia flr/«[«]om (what was wanting of his 
age), Rawl. B. 512, fol. 13^ 1. Boboi mor mbr6in . . . 
intif Johith testa ttadib an-degthoiscch, H. 2. 17, p. ISo**. 
pi. 3, w annain festdfar Castor ocus PulluiCy ibid. 140*. 

tu'di-ess : pres. indie, sg. 3, wa dudesta nl (si quid desit), Wb. 
25*. au'dudesfa^ am dodesta (id quod deest), Wb. 1*. 26*. 

reyni : pres. indie, pi. 3, remitaat (gl. praesunt), Wb. 25^ 
It also occurs, compounded with cenmi*), in the adverb 

* For these and other unpublished forms from the Milan codex I am indebted 
to Prof. Ascoli's great kindness. 

• Ebel, G.C. renders this by * super id in quo sum.' 
' Ebel, G.ri. renders this by ' id in quo es. 

♦ Apparently = tf<fwwo-f-^f, where «t = (ir. ixl. Other prepositional conpoandB 
with this ei are tVirmi, rrmi {r(tni. Ml. 67^ 11, 73^ 2), sechmiy tarmi^ tremi, which 
come n*pectively from ei-armo-eiy remo-ei^ secomo-ety tarm*ei, tremei. So immi 
is from ambi-ti. 



IX. THB ROOT TA. 257 

eenmithd (unless it is, except), G. C. 706, Mid. Ir. cenmotha, 
Saltair 140. Of this the form cenmd (Mid. Ir. genmd) seems 
a contraction, the aspirated t, as often, disappearing. The 
pL cenmothdt (O. Tr. *cenmithdt) is quoted by O'Donovan 
Gr. p. 266, and occurs in the Saltair, 621, 3417, 3421. A 
contracted form cenmthdt occurs in the same poem, 399. 

It is also compounded with im (urkelt. simiy Lat. aimi-U'S) 
in imtd (leg. imtha) 'so is' Senchas Mar. III. 30, nimthd (not 
so is), F61. prol. 97, 129, 137, 185, pi. nimthit (not so are), 
FeL prol. 77. 

Lastly, this root occurs with reduplication in the verbs 
s^ssaim (urkelt. sistdfm), ar-sissiur, assissiur {=.ad-si8tiU'r), ar^ 
dssufsifir, and the nouns s^ssam (urkelt. mtdmo-s) a standing 
and din^em, tdirisseni (for air-sistem, tu-air-mfem). Here 
the 8 of the original anlaut is preserved in the syllable of 
reduplication, and, in this respect, Irish agrees with Latin and 
Greek {ftisto, {{r)i(mjfii), and differs from Sanskrit {tisthdmi). 
In the fem. noun hiress, iress (faith), urkelt. (p)aramta, a 
similar reduplication seems to have occurred.* In the m of 
the negative prefix in dm-airess the influence of the primeval 
p is traceable. 

The only trace in the British languages of the use of y/(d 
for the verb substantive is the so-called Welsh conjunction 
tatc, as to which Da vies remarks: *TaWy etiam Deraetis est 
idem quod Jfat, Qu6d, quia, quoniam.' So Rhys (Lectures ^, 
130), where, after remarking that mae means 'is' and that 
mat is a proclitic with the force of the English conjunction 
that, he says : * the same use of a verb as a conjunction occurs 
in taw * that,' commonly used in South Wales instead of mat : 
taic is obsolete as a verb.' 

Compounded with ar and with its d shortened in the 
post-tonic syllable, we have y/td in the Old Welsh aria (gl. 
superat). Compounded with ^^ : Com. i/fa^ y towns. 

W. te/t/ll (stare. Corn, seve/, Br. aeveli, sq/ (state = Corn. 
saf), saif (stabit, Corn, sef), sdf (static) f. Corn. «o/, Br. sad 
seem to stand for sestamiallo-, sestama, seatamit, sestamd. Com. 
gaffe (steterat), sefoys (stetisti), sevf/s (stetit), aevt/s (levatus), 
seveugh (state) belong to the same root. 

FhiL Trans. 18SM. 17 



258 NEO-CELTIC VERB SUBSTANTIVE. — MR. STOKES, 

The obscure and imperfect Irish verb documn means 
' which exists/ and is probably compounded of the prepo- 
sitional prefixes tu and con, and the root stan, whence the 
Greek Sucmyvo? = Su<r-<rT?;i/09, lit. *in a bad state/ thence 
'wretched.' Of this ^/8tan the Teutonic y/stan-d may be 
a weiterbildung. 

X. VAL. 

Present Indicative, 

Sg. 1. pi. failmet^ 

fniljeiljel,^fi}juil^\ ^ ^ ifailef,^ filet ^ 
rel. file J * P • ( rel. file. 

This (so far as I know) is the only instance in Old-Irish 
of an independent simple verb having the secondary ending 
in sg, 3. Here fail is = an urkelt. vali{t)y cognate, but not 
identical, with Lat. valet, and failet is = an urkelt. middle- 
form valento. They respectively express the English there is 
(Fr. il y a) and there are. As fail aspirates,® it must have 
lost its final consonant at an early period. The relative form 
file also aspirates when sg.^ and, doubtless, likewise when pi. 
The sg. form is probably = rflr/i(0-yo, the pi. = ra//(/)yd. Ebel 
(G. C. 491) says that these relative forms are not found after 
neuter nouns. Such nouns, he thinks, are always followed 
by fely feil or fil. This is one of the few mistakes made by 
that master. There are five instances of file used with a 
neuter nominative by the accurate glosser of the Sanct Gall 
Priscian.® 

The sg. fail occurs with a dual subject.® It also occurs 

> fifel t^iithar n-ant. Ml. 48° 29. 

^ dotiagat muir go fuil iudj Ml. 45* 12. 

* ni-failmet darth' ainnitein (we are not above respecting thee). Saltair 6320, 
where the independent form is (as often in Middle- Irish) used for the dependent. 

* Saltair 345, 493, 497, 501, 602, 927. 
» ibid. 477. 

• fii fail chumMCugud^ G.C. 182. 
■^ Jile choibnius, (i.C. 182. 

® ainm n-vichnise eeuenil hS'fd jile la Lnitneoiri tarhcsi n-aitherreehtatehfhi 
la Oreeu, Sg. 30»> 6. is dial I femin Jile fair, 93»> 2. ar iaa-td file do hodie, 
140* 3. masu rojile iarnachfU, 148*> 9. taresi indi as in^masjlle hodie, 200*» 3. 

• fail di ehailUg (there are two nuns), Brocc. h. 105. fail (JH^fcil) da retlainn 
(there are two stars), FSlire, March 3. 



X. THE ROOT VAL. 259 

With a neuter pluraL^ All forms are regularly followed by 
the accusative (G. C. 922). Thus: nl-fil aim»ir (there is no 
time, nom. sg. aimser), nl-feil titlu (there are no titles, nom. 
8g. Htol), 

With fail^ as with id, we find the impersonal construction. 
Thus : for-sn-am-fil (on which I am), Corm, s.v, dn ; huair 
uachaUfil-aiu (since thou art not), Ir. Texte, p. 285, L 4; 
inbaid inad-fail, LL. 62*; ci nin-fil (quamvis non simus), Wb. 
16^ ; for-S'dan-fil (on which we are), LL. 201** 63; nnchi-b-feil 
(quod non estis), fil-us (sunt), nU-fil (non sunt), tm-fail, Ml. 
44^ 12 ; airm in-das-fil (the place in which they are), LL. 62*. 

Fail J like id, is used with a negative prefix to express 'non 

habeo.' The prefixes employed are ni and nico. Thus nlm- 

fail bilh inna-hdisleis (he does not neglect me),^ Saltair 2562, 

nichar-fail tldcht na ddgblad (we have neither raiment nor 

good food), ibid. 1560. 

Injunctive. 

Only the 3 &z. fel^ feil, fit is quotable. 

These simple forms, when used as mere copulas, seem to be 
proclitics. 

The root val enters into composition with the prepositions 
ad {aith ?) and iu. 

Pres. indie, sg. 3, atar-fail cen-diiim trin (we are without 
a strong man), Saltair 3761. 

Pres. indie, sg. 3, dqfil Crist cona'soscilu (adest Christus 
cum evangelic suo). This compound is used for the im- 
personal construction. Thus we have con-^um-fel (ut 
essem), con-dat-fil^ (ut esses), da-doUfail^ (es), eon-dih-feil 
(at sitis). 

October, 1885. 

^ fail UU aeeht nimi (there are with Him seyen heayens], Saltair 629. fail 
kit ndi/i'ffradf Saltair 639, where the MS. has, corruptly, .ix. ngraid, 

' Literally : * there is not to me being in his neglect.' 

' XUirm dotrdt .... dt-mdrmaigib con'da*JU . . . fO'bUhphianaib (' it is , 
lot we,' says £ye to the DeyiU Hhat put thee forth from tiiy great plains, so that / 
tboa shoulost be under eternal pains 'j, Saltair 1739. 

* iadotfail fodein tdimdig im^bUhphein (thou thyself art .... in eternal 
' , Saltair 1747. 



260 



IX— llfFLUENCE OF ANALOGY AS EXPLAINING 
CERTAIN EXAMPLES OF UNORIGINAL L 
AND jB. By Dr. Frederick Stock, M.A. 

(Rtadat the Sociity'a Mtetinffy on Friday, Jun$ 6, 1886 ) 

This paper is occasioned by Prof. Skeat's Notes on Etymology 
read before the Philological Society Nov. 7th, 1884, treating 
among other words of the following : — Listre, legistre, de* 
cretistre, divinistre, sophister, alchemister, barrister, chorister, 
roister,, cartridge, partridge, treasure, philosopher, coffer, 
order, Londres, lavender, provender, jasper, culprit, bride- 
groom, hoarse, corporal ; could, myrtle, manciple, participle, 
principle, syllable, treacle, chronicle, canticle. 

Prof. Skeat somewhat incautiously stated in his paper 
(p. 3) that : ' To those who tell us that we cannot explain 
the r in this word (divinistre), we have merely to reply that 
tee are not called upon to do more than to declare it to be 
intmsivey' ^ and again (p. 6), 'But in the words manciple, 
participle, principle, syllable, the / is certainly intrusive.' 

There is throughout the President's paper no due recog- 
nition of the possible influence of Analogy on these words. 

The school of philology, in which I have been trained, 

teaches me in the case of any word or inflexion, whose 

etymology is wanted, first to apply known phonetic laws. 

If this application is unsuccessful, then, and this second only 

in order of application, not in importance, to see if there 

is any evidence or probability of the influence of analogy ; 

and only when both these processes fail to give a satisfactory 

result, and when there is no possibility of onomatopoeia, to 

put aside the word or form as not explained in our present 

\ state of knowledge. 

y It will hardly bo expected from me that I should attempt 

\to give an exhaustive account of the influence of analogy in 

checking or combating or changing the results of purely 

' * The italics are my own. — F. S. 



\ 






\ 



INFLUENCE OF ANALOGY. DR. STOCK. 261 

phonetic development. Analogy works in most cases, if not 
in ally consciously and frequently with apparent caprice, 
whereas organic change takes place unconsciously and 
regularly. Analogy attacks words generally one by one, 
and brings them over by degrees to the dominating or 
favourite form. Organic change, on the other hand, affects 
all examples of the same sound in a dialect at -once. It 
represents indeed a physical change in the organs of speech. 

But analogy working thus in consciousness has such a vast 
field of conditions or environment, that it is impossible in 
one short paper even to attempt to treat the subject ex- 
haustively. The possibilities of analogy are almost as infinite 
as the possibilities of mental operation, and I shall be com- 
pelled to confine myself to a bare suggestion of its most 
important and frequent manifestations. 

The influence of Analogy as affecting words and inflexions 
I take to be a lateral contagious influence of words and 
inflexions already in a dialect upon other words and inflexions 
either already in that dialect or introduced from without — 
deflecting such words and inflexions by their contagious 
influence from the form which would be taken, or which has 
been taken, in the course of organic phonetic development. 
It may be compared with the influence of a society in its 
larger or smaller groups upon the inherited character of 
its individual members ; or with the influence of a contagious 
disease, if this is preferred, on hereditary tendencies. 

This analogical influence manifests itself in the following 

among other conditions. A. There must always be mental 

*^*^^iTOTtr for the incidence of efficacious analogy. This 

may be more or less close and does not admit of 

'' Aon except as greater or less in degree. 

aere may be more or less resemblance in form. This 
sAance again can only be classified as greater or less. 
There may be the influence of numerical preponderance, 

6 number of actual occurrences in usage being reckoned 
^d not the number of words only. One common word 
may influence hundreds of less common words. 

c. There may be the influence of some peculiar fitness or 



262 INFLUENCE OF ANALOGY. — DR. STOCK. 

suitability of the dominating word or words for the vocal 
organs of the speaking population. One form may become 
fashionable or popular. 

d. There may be some special and perhaps fortuitous 
(possibly historical) influence, which determines the potency 
of an analogy, which would not otherwise have been 
dominant.* 

Of course these classes of influences are not mutually 
exclusive. Several of them may, and most frequently do» 
work together ; the only one, which seems to be invariably 
present, being the first influence, viz. mental proximity — 
similarity of idea or of function. 

This A. will work in conjunction with any or all of the 
four marked <?, 6, c, d. I will endeavour to illustrate my 
meaning by examples. 

1. Mental proximity (A) (past tense of the same verb) 
works with similarity of form {a) and some influence of 
suitability (c) or caprice {d) not quite clear to me in 
levelling the persons of the past tense of the verb to ride : 
Anglo-Saxon : ic r/id, ^u ride, he rdd, tcS, g^, hii ridon, now 
running in Modern English 'I rode {=:rdd), thou rodest, he 
rode, we, you, they rode.' I say the capricious influence is 
not quite clear to me, for in German the weak form of the 
same tense of the cognate verb is selected to oust the strong 
forms of the preterite tense of riten, the medieval German 
forms reity rile, reii, rifen, ntet, riteriy being represented in 
modern German by nV^, rittsty ritt, riiten, rittet, ritten. A, a, b. 

Examples of this kind may be multiplied almost in- 
definitely in English, German and French, and doubtless in 
all languages ; the origin may have been ' sheer blundering,' 
but the result is great convenience, and use has established 
and authorized the forms as they are. 

2. Mental proximity (A) (formation of plural) has worked 
in conjunction with numerical preponderance {b) and some 
peculiar suitability {c) in extending one form of the Anglo- 
Saxon plural, the ordinary inflexion for the Norman-French 
plural, over many of the English nouns which previously 
employed a difierent inflexion : e,g, instead of * book * pi. 



INFLUENCE OF ANALOGY. — DIL STOCK. 263 

' beek/ wliicli would be the hereditary representtftive of bdc 
pi. Mc, we have ' book ' pi. * books.' 

Similarly the weak form of the past participle and the 
weak conjugation of verbs generally has extended their 
dominant influence over many verbs originally strong. 
A, 6y e. 

3. It seems to be a recognized fact among the authorities 
that four (I suppose common) Old Slavonic verbs, jesml, 
remi^ dami^ jaml^ have dominated all the first persons singular 
of all the classes of conjugation in the modern representatives 
of Old-Slavonian, so that they now all end in m. A. a, 6, c. 

4. Delbriick in his " Einleitung in das Sprachstudium *' 
instances the curious analogy of ditabus as influencing the 
dat. and abL plural of such words as dea, filia, mula. Del- 
bruck explains this influence as a case of mental proximity 
with fair resemblance in form, in which the analogy of 
duabus (no numerical preponderance) only becomes potent 
under the influence of a fortuitous circumstance, the necessity 
of dissimilation from the dat. and abl. plural of detiSf filitis, 
fnuluSf etc. I can partially parallel this case with an instance 
from Pfalzisch, the dialect of the Rhenish Palatinate, more 
particularly of the villages between and in the neighbour- 
hood of Heidelberg and Mannheim. The literary German 
u is in this dialect i, so that Fuss pi. Fiisse becomes Fuss pi. 
Fiss. The word Fisch would by phonetic development have 
the plural Fisch^ and would not be distinguishable from the 
singular, but there is frequently among the fishermen of the 
Neckar a necessity to distinguish between the singular and 
plural of fish ; and in looking round for an analogy they 
have seized upon Fass^ Fiss^ and its class and have made 
a new singular Disch, so that the declension now runs — 
8g. Fusch, pi. Fisch. 

If any one smiles at this and thinks scorn of such vulgar 
formation, I would remind him of Mr. Ellis's sentence — 

' We that read history, make history, more especially in 
words.' 

By which I understand Mr. Ellis to mean : If we get to 
understand the influences at work in changing language in 



264 INFLUENCE OP ANALOGY. — DR. STOCK. 

untutored idialects now, we have a fair chance of obtaining 
a clue to the influences at work in those good old times before 
Philology was known. Those who call the working of 
Analogy 'sheer blundering' or 'vicious spelling' or by any 
other abusive epithet, seem to assume that, in the formation 
of such words as * syllable ' and * could/ those employing the 
words have a knowledge of the antecedents of these words 
and are, in a word, etymologists, instead of being, as they 
really are, in 999 cases out of 1000, absolutely ignorant of 
the ultimate origin of these words and only desirous of 
collating new words with words already in their possession, 
and of simplifying actual inflexions. 

I now proceed to consider the examples of intrusive r and 
/ treated of in the President's paper, and to strive to give the 
explanation which the President declared to be uncalled for. 
I will first of all dispose of those forms which I do not 
propose to attempt to explain from the point of view of 
analogy. 

Listre. If this word is from lector, the r is not intrusiye. 
R in such a position is regularly retained in French of all 
periods, and it seems supererogatory to suggest its theoretic 
removal in order immediately to reinstate the letter as 
intrusive. 

' pastor ' makes pAtre 

'pejor' „ pire 

' pictor ' „ peintre 
The n probably from the analogy of peindre, or possibly 
the form pincfor existed already in Low Latin from the 
analogy of pingere. 

' traditor ' „ traitre 

* cantor ' „ ch autre 

With regard to the «, although this does not fall within 
the province of this paper, it may possibly have been added 
to exhibit the quantity of the vowel »'. If so, this 8 is the 
result of analogy. 

Coffre, ordre, Landres. I do not propose to explain these 
words by analogy. I consider the n as a possible phonetic 
explanation^ and compare diacre from diaconum. 



INFLUENCE OF ANALOOT. — DR. STOCK. 265 

Hoarse. Prof. Skeat himself recognized this form as 
"due to a misunderstanding of the vowel-sound, which 
led to a vicious spelling," and I was at first inclined to 
explain the Middle English form hors^ now hoarse^ as 
influenced by the analogy of the Middle English hors^ 
the quadruped. But Mr. Sweet tells me that the form hirs 
is to be found in Dutch ; and Dr. Murray instances a form 
hears in Lowland Scotch, so that we are almost compelled 
to give up this explanation from analogy. As I find 
the form hdss in Old Norse and know that an original rs 
frequently appears in Old Norse as m, I am now inclined 
to postulate tha existence of the form with rs in the original 
Teutonic language, either as existing side by side with 
the form without the r, or as itself the earlier form. 

The explanation of this r by analogy falls to the ground, 
and with it the explanation (falsely so called) of the r as 
* intrusive.' 

Fronde, jaspre, I have no explanation to offer here for the 
r in these words, nor for the r in culpriL It is not by any 
means certain that culprit is derived from ciilpatutn. The 
Dictionary examples of culprit are, comparatively speaking, 
few and uninstructive. 

Myrtle. I believe this word to be derived from a Latin 
form myriiUum, through Old French myrtiL 

I now proceed to consider the words in which I hold that 
analogy has more or less exerted its influence. 

Could, Obviously influenced by the analogy of should 
and would. A, a, b. 

Prof. Skeat in his paper (pp. 5, 6) says : " Putting aside 
the intrusive / in could," by which I understand him to 
signify that he regards the analogical influence as too obvious 
to need comment. 

Cartridge. This word seems to have first come into 
English in an architectural sense connected with the curl 
or scroll on the capital of a pillar. It seems to have been 
derived from the French cartouche of the same meaning. 

Being a word introduced and used by workmen, there 
is no wonder that the word should be influenced by the 



266 INFLUENCE OF ANALOGY. — DR. STOCK. 

analogy of known English words, and by popular etymology 
made into carthouse on the one side and into cartridge on the 
other. The introduction of the second r was facilitated by 
the analogy of charier, charfre, for which a form cartre had 
existed in English. 

The ' cartrage ' or ' cartridge/ in the sense of a small 
receptacle for gunpowder, was introduced into English later, 
also from the French, which had it from Italian. The r of 
' charter ' and of * cartridge ' was again efficient in intro- 
ducing an r after the ^, and the popular form cartrage was 
formed with a termination rage appreciated by the common 
folk. But alongside of this form a literary form seems 
to have been maintained from the first with the exact French 
spelling cartouche. 

I do not explain the r of chartre or cartre by analogy 
(Prof. Skeat explains it now from chartula). The termina- 
tions -rage, -ridge, and -house are, however, instinct with 
analogies. A, a, b. 

Partridge. The second r in this word appears in French. 

In explaining perdrix I proceed thus : perdioem allows the 
dr to be transposed, and becomes pedricem. There is evidence 
of this form in French of the fourteenth century pietris. 
Perdiceni and Pedricem might suflFer^ contamination and 
become perdricem. This would give in French perdris or 
perdriz. Or the contamination may have taken place in 
French ; perdiz and pietriz evolving ^^r^m. 

I look upon the spelling perdrix as due to the learning of 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, which discovered 
that the Latin had an x in the nominative case. Perdf%t 
would phonetically have become j)^rdres. The earlier English 
form seems to have been partryche, with a suffix known in 
O.E. heveneriche. The suffix was exchanged for ridge, to 
which it was sufficiently similar to invite analogical change. 
I imagine the form partryche was made from French perdriz 
at a time when the z was still pronounced sharp in Norman 
French perdrits. The contamination is a result of mutual 
analogy. A, a, 

* Compare jecinorit from jceinit and jeeotis (Delbriick). 



IKFLUEKCB OF ANALOGY. — DR. STOCK. 267 

Corporal (noan). Prof. Skeat recognizes this as an ana- 
logical formation in imitation of corporal (adj.). Our 
President does not, however, approve of this analogical 
influence. He calls it ** a misunderstanding of the vowel- 
sound, which led to a vicious spelling." There is some 
excuse, however, for us English in this matter. The 
adjective corporel was in use in French in the twelfth 
century, and the corresponding form corporal in English 
at any rate as early as the fourteenth century. The word 
corps {de garde, etc.) was frequent in French in military 
significations. 

The analogy was bound to be strong in French as well as 
in English ; but stronger in English because of the foreign 
vowel-sound d in caporal and because of the approximate 
inaudibility of the r in corporal at the close of the sixteenth 
century, when the noun seems to have been introduced into 
English (157J^, Digges Stratioticos, p. 84. " The corporal 
is a degree in dignitie above the privat souldior "). 

The noun corporal has met with some favour in French, 
according to Littre, as a variant from caporal, which was 
introduced from Italian in the fifteenth century. There 
seems to have been another corporal in use in English at the 
close of the sixteenth century, possibly in the sense of an 
aide-de-camp, or pergonal attendant of the general — corporal 
of the field. A, a, h. 

Bridegroom. Bridegroom was probably influenced by 
the analogy of the word groom in English when goom 
ceased to have an independent intelligible existence. Chroma 
at any rate seems older in the language than bridegroom. 
The word groom may itself be an analogical formation 
either in Norse from which it may have been introduced 
into English or in English itself. A, a, b (occurrence). 

Lavender and provender I look upon as influenced in 
English by the analogy of lavender, a washerman, and 
provender in the sense of prcebendanus. A, a, b, c. I hardly 
regard this explanation as sufficient. 

Philosopher. Of this word Prof. Skeat says in his 
Dictionary : '' Here the r is a needless addition, as the 



268 INFLUENCE OF ANALOGY. — DR. STOCK. 

French word was philosopher correctly answering to Lai 
philosophus and Qk. ^iXoao^o^:" I look upon this word 
with its, to an English ear, meaningless termination e, as 
attracted to the numerous class of English words denoting 
agents in er, baker, fiddler, harper, etc. A (agency), a, b, 

Trhor. , I think this word was influenced by the great 
numerical preponderance of words in French with initial 
tr^ over those in (6 especially by the great frequency of 
the occurrence of compounds of tram^^tres, and by the 
possible popular etymology of trSsor as 'beyond gold, more 
than gold.' A, not quite clear, probably associated with the 
popular etymology suggested above : a, b^ d {or same as or 
gold). 

The other examples of intrusive r, legistre, decretistre, 
divinistre, sophister, alchemister, barrister, chorister, rustre, 
roister, may be all included under one class. I proceed to 
attempt an explanation of them from the point of view of 
analogy. 

Before the introduction of the termination -iate into French 
from Latinized Greek words in 'kta{m)f such as evangeliste, 
psalmiste, the termination -sire was very common in French. 

1. NostrCy vostre being in very common use were a host iu 
themselves. 

2. Astre from Lat. 'Ostt^m, -astram became a favourite 
French termination. 

3. The two words niaistre and ministre, being also very 
common, formed a point of starting to facilitate the formation 
of doublets in -s^re to the nouns in -ate. 

The words liyiBte and sophists and others were then 
attacked laterally by the analogy of maistre and mtnistre, 
assisted by the words nostre, vostre, and by the French 
adjectives in ^astre. 

I am inclined to think, but I have not been able to verify 
this, that the termination 'isfre and -isier thus acquired in 
Eng. and Fr. the character of an understood termination 
expressing agency, which might be added to other words 
(like '&tre for adjectives), and that we thus get the forms 
barrister, divinistre and decretistre. Such a form would be 



INFLUENCE OP ANALOGY. — DR. STOCK. 269 

likely to become popular in English, because of the existence 
of tbe agent terminations in -aterey formerly feminine. 

Prof. Skeat in his Dictionary says of huckster, " The A.S. 
distinction in gender between the terminations er and sfer 
was lost at an early period, so that the word was readily 
applied to men/' 

The hypothesis of this analogical influence led me to 
sappose that some other words of obvious Greek origin 
might be also influenced by the same analogy. I accord- 
ingly looked up pmlmiste and evangeliste in Littre, and, 
although I could only find the form psalmiste quoted by 
Littre, I found that evangelisire occurs in Ruteboeuf (thir- 
teenth century). 

I am inclined here to make an excursus on the procedure 
in this kind of development. I do not think it has been 
sufficiently elucidated or corroborated by ordinary English 
philologists. The process is the following. 

A termination is developed in strict accordance with 
phonetic rules in the case of one or more words. It is then 
found to be a convenient and useful termination, and is 
applied to other words or roots, which in and of themselves 
would never have developed such a termination. I take as 
an illustrative example the words in -SaTro? quoted by Dr. 
Weymouth in his paper this evening (Accent in Sanskrit 
and Greek, June 5th, 1885), and explained by him as all 
derived from ablatives in -S followed by the preposition dwo, 
and taking on adjective terminations. The real explanation 
is probably the following : 

The termination -Sairo^ was. formed originally in iroS-airO'^ 
and aXXo-S-a7r6-9, in the case of which there is some evidence 
or probability of the ablative forms iroB, aXXoB, There is, 
however, no such probability in the case o{ ^/jbeBairS^y vfjLcBa'rro^, 
TTavToSairS^ or T/jXeBawo*;. The probability is that the words 
Ti7X€8a7ro9, TravroSaTro?, fffieBairo^^ vfxeBaTro^ were formed on 
the analogy of the forms in common use, iroBaTro^, aXKoBaTro^, 
(I do not claim credit for this as an original explanation. I 
cannot find in my notes and papers my authority, or I would 
quote it.) Similarly Wildner in German is formed on the 



270 INFLUENCE OF ANALOGY. — DR. STOCK. 

analogy of Gartner, Bogener (Behaghel), the termination -n^ 
being felt as the suffix. Every one recognizes the influence 
of analogy in cases in which the influence has been very wide- 
spread, as for instance in the growth of the termination 
-issitno in Itah'an, and in the spread of the plural in « in 
English, and of the weak conjugation of verbs. It is just, 
however, in cases like these of the less widely-spread termi- 
nations 'isier, -Bairo^, -ner, that the initial working of analogy 
is most characteristic and instructive, and least frequently 
recognized. 

I now proceed to the cases of intrusive /. 

Syllable. I look upon this / as the result of the influence 
of the common Romance adj. suffix -ahley cuvenabk, reasonable. 
The termination was also well known in nouns, e,g. table, 
stable. A, a, b. 

Manciple, participle, principle, are formed on the analogy of 
disciple, peaple, and helped by such words as temple, 
example, and by the moderate frequency of the termination 
el and le in Old English, as well as in many Romance suflSxes. 
A (nouns), a, b, c. 

Treacle {triacle found in O. Fr.), chronicle, canticle, are 
formed on the analogy of article, miracle, tabernacle, etc. 
A (nouns), a, b. 

I believe I have now gone through Prof. Skeat's examples 
of intrusive r and /. It is quite ^ possible that our President 
accepts the position that these intrusions were caused by 
analogy ; and I am quite certain that he could furnish very 
much stronger arguments and examples to corroborate this 
position than I can. It is indeed most probable that I, 
working only with very ordinary means of reference at my 
command, and not acquainted with the bibliography of the 
discussion of the words, have missed in many cases the actu- 
ally efficient cause of the analogical influence. I feel con- 
fident, however, that there has been analogical influence. I 
accept no exceptions to phonetic laws except such as are 
caused either, firstly, by the lateral influence of analogy, or 
rather by the influence of the language or dialect as a whole 

i Prof. Skeat does accept this position. — F. S. 



SOUND-CHANGES, MELANE8IAN LANGUAGES. OOORINOTON. 271 

or in its grouped parts, upon individual words or forms, or, 
secondly, by tlie influence of onomatopoeia. 

I must apologize to the Society for having presumed to 
attack its President's language. I cannot adequately express 
my gratitude as a student to Professor Skeat for his Dic- 
tionary. No one can over-estimate the gratitude I felt to 
Prof. Skeat for bringing out a Dictionary which reached the 
end of the alphabet in my student period. There are so 
many lexicographical efforts, which have reached the middle 
of the letter A or the end of C, or perhaps have arrived in 
different parts at the middle of the letters G, M, and O 
respectively, that it was an almost unheard-of privilege to 
read what a great modem scholar had to say about a word 
with initial x^ y, or z. 

I must however contend that in our President's Dictionary 
the operations of Analogy have met with scant respect, and 
that in the paper which I have attempted to criticize this 
evening the operations of Analogy have been thrust aside 
when they might at any rate have been investigated, whether 
they furnished a clue to the explanation of intrusive r and / 
or not. 



X. — SOUND - CHANGES IN MELANESIAN LAN*- 
GUAGES. By the Rev. R. H. Codrington, D.D., 
of the Melanesian Mission, Fellow of Wadham College, 
Oxford. 

{Read at th« Societies Meeting on Friday, 19 June^ 1885.) 

1. It is necessary at the outset to define the field occupied 
by those Melanesian languages concerning the sound-changes 
in which I am about to speak. I do not undertake to survey 
all the languages in Melanesia, nor indeed all which are 
spoken in the part of Melanesia with which I am acquainted. 
Those which I am to consider occupy the north part of the 
New Hebrides, the Banks' Islands, the Santa Cruz Group, 
and the Solomon Islands so far as Ysabel. To these must be 
added Nengone, one of the Loyalty Islands (commonly called 
Mare), Fiji, and Duke of York Island, between New Britain 



272 SOUNDCHiiNGES, MELAMESIAN LANGUAGES.—- CODRINOTOIC. 

and New Ireland. For illustration I shall venture further 
as far as Malay and Malagasy, and in the Eastern Pacific 
to the Polynesian languages. 

2. It is very desirable, I think, in the next place, to make 
it understood how very small, generally speaking, are the areas 
which are occupied by each of these Melanesian languages 
and dialects. It is natural, when the names of languages are 
heard, to think of them as occupying some considerable 
space, and the changes therefore of sounds as being met 
with at some distance. But in Melanesia we meet with 
some of the greatest changes within extremely small limits : 
some of the most distinctly different languages occupy a 
very small field indeed. A few examples will make this 
more clear than much explanation. The little island of 
Mota, in the Banks' Islands, has its own language, with very 
little dialectical difierence within itself. Motlav, that is, Great 
Mota, is part of an island seven miles off, with inhabitants 
in every respect identical except in language. A Mota man 
cannot say an A, Motlav is full of them ; a Motlav man 
never uses /?, but mb instead, which is never used in Mota. 
In the same group again, in Yanua Lava, an island twelve 
miles long, there is a district, the greater part of the island, 
in which t drops, and is represented by an almost imper- 
ceptible break ; yet, though this is the greater part of that 
island, the thousand people perhaps who do this are quite 
singular among the natives of that part of Melanesia in 
dropping their t In another island of the same group, Santa 
Maria, there is a small district containing a few villages 
called Lakona, in which the language seems so strange to 
the other inhabitants of the island that it is taken for 
granted that no one will ever learn it. In the New Hebrides 
at Omba, Lepers' Island, the people on one side of a ravine 
use A, which the people of the other side of the ravine never 
use, but always nr/g. I will add only the difference between 
Wango and Fagani in San Cristoval, of the Solomon Islands, 
only three miles apart, yet every h of Wango is /in Fagani. 

3, I must say that I have not been able, except in the 
very narrowest limits, to discover a law of sound-change 



SOUND-CHANGES, MELANESIAN LAIVGUAOES.— CODRINOTOM. 278 

between one language or dialect and another. Mota has no 
h^ as Motlav has ; how then is the Motlav h represented in 
Mota P By «, of course. A great number of words have h 
in Motlav, and a in Mota. But the rule cannot be made^ as 
between Samoa and Maori, that one has h and the other s. 
Many words have 9 in both Mota and Motlav. It strikes 
one as a singular change that in Espiritu Santo n takes the 
place of m in very common words ; but then it does not do 
so in every case ; natan na ima ' eye of the house ' is a door, 
m in the very common mata has become n, in the common 
word ima it remains. In the same way n turns to / in 
Alite, but only in some words ; I to dh in Bugotu, but only 
in some words. One can say that in Lepers' Island every 
k of Lombaha is ngg in Walurigi ; in Saddle Island every 
k in Motlav is ngg in Yolow ; that every Mota p is mb 
in most of the Banks' Islands ; that every h of Wan go in San 
Cristoval is / in Fagani ; that in some dialects t before i is 
palatalised and turns to tch. If the change between any 
two dialects extends so far as to be regular between two 
sounds in each, it is a wide rule for Melanesia ; as when one 
can say, that every g and h of Florida are respectively h 
and 8 in Yaturanga, on the neighbouring coast of Guadal- 
canar. It must be understood then, that generally, as 
between one language and another, changes of sound take 
place in some words, not in all. 

4. Again, I must explain that in using the word Sound- 
change, I am not meaning that in my view there has been 
always historically a change from one sound to another in 
Melanesia. In Florida they say koko, in Bugotu papo for 
* above,' in Florida kukua, in Mota pupua, for ' ancestor.' So 
in Maori an ear is tartnga, in San Cristoval karinga. It 
does not appear to me possible to say that one sound is 
changed from the other, or that one is older than the other. 
But when in Nggao, close to Bugotu, one finds them say /q/b, 
or in Espiritu Santo to say salinga, I think there is a change 
which has actually taken place from p to /, and t to 8. It 
appears to me that one must allow an equal right, within 
certain limits of course, to sounds which interchange, and 
Phfl. Truu. 18S5-6. 18 



274 SOUNB-Cif AN0E8, MELANESIAN LANGUAGES. — OODRINGTOK. 

not contetDplate any genealogy or fixed succession of them 
in time. In Melanesia one meets with natives who read 
and write their own language, and perfectly hear and 
pronounce a distinction between p, b, and v, yet who, as in 
Pentecost in the New Hebrides, use quite indifferently j>^, 
bev, reVt for * to say.' In Fate one finds equally Jisa and 
bisa ' to speak ; ' in the Sesake sentence tava varau e parau qia^ 
the high hill is very high, two forms of the word are given 
side by side. In Santa Cruz it was most bewildering, when 
the language was first being learnt, to find 'ten' for example 
first called naplu and then nopnu, * I ' at one time ninge and 
at another mke, with continual changes of the same kind. 
Of course it occurs to suppose that it is now b and now p, 
for example, because of assimilation to near sounds or by 
influence from them : in some cases this can be found, as in 
the Sesake sentence above ; but on the whole I cannot make 
it out. It follows therefore that one takes certain sounds as 
equivalent without further question ; and I must confess that 
to me no notion of priority between themselves whatever 
attaches to such sounds as b, v, w,f, historically. 

That changes do occur in our own days is very certain, 
more or less permanent, probably, according to circumstances. 
Mr. Fison described to me the invasion of Fiji by p. In 
the same way Mr. Whitmee relates how k forces its way 
into Saraoa.^ There are still in Norfolk Island a few old 
Pitcairn women, who, by inheritance from Tahitian mothers, 
cannot say r but always use /. In the Tahitian of the present 
r alone is used. Many years ago I went to Wango, in San 
Cristoval, with a native of Malanta, who two or three years 
before had known the place. After he had been ashore, he 
told me with surprise that the Wango people were all saying 
/ for h. That fashion has gone by ; it arose from a visit 

* **Tbe introduced p bids fair to drive out the v from the Bau Fijian. I 
have striven against it in vain with my students— they persist in writing pale 
for vale in spite of innumerable scoldings/' 

Mr. Whitmee says of Samoan, *'A person now visiting Samoa would bear 
k used by most of the natives in their ordinary conversation in place of t. But 
this is a recent change, it is difficult to say how this change commenced, but 
its spread has been noticed, and every attempt has been made to arrest it, but 
without effect." 



JSOUND-CHANGESy MBLANESIAN LANGUAGES. CODRINQTON. 275 

some of them had made to Fagani, three miles off, where 
f 18 used, and it became the correct thing to speak like one 
who had travelled and seen the world. These changes, I 
suppose, are always going on, and I see no more reason why 
the Fagani people should not take to their neighbours' 
fS&shion and call their place Hagani, than there was for the 
Wango people taking to the/! 

6. I use therefore the word Sound-change for the varia- 
tions, interchanges, which are the substitution of one sound 
for another with which it has a natural affinity. I will give 
an example in a very common Melanesian word for *^rat/ 
which has three consonants. This is in Sesake kusuwe, in 
Mota gasuwe^ in Lakona wohow^ in Motlav gohaw, in Malanta 
'asuhe, in Wango gasuhe, in Fagani gaaufe, in Vaturanga 
nggasuve, in Save kuzi. These may be arranged to show the 
changes in each consonant. 

knsQwe kusawe kusuwe 

gasuhe (hard g) gohow gosu^ 

nggasohe kuzi gasune 

gasuwe (peculiar g) ... gasufe 

'asnhe ... nggasuve 

wohow 

No one can doubt the identity of the words, though the 
difference between gamfe and wokow is so considerable. 

6. I should mention also by way of illustration some few 
of the changes which occur when Melanesians use foreign 
words, and it will be sufficient to give a few examples of the 
transformation of English words. In Florida they have 
neither/ nor j\ Fiji they pronounce Pindi. They have not 
tr, and substitute their g ; an Englishman named Wilcox 
became GKlikakusu. The Santa Cruz people substitute t for 
both % and h ; the distinction between ' box ' and ' bucket ' 
comes to very little, hakoti and haketi or hanggeti. These are 
alight matters, but probably useful to observe. 

7. I ought to add one thing more; that in one region 
there is an indistinctness which is different from variation in 
sound. In Ulawa principally I believe that they do not 
know whether they sound v ot h^ t or rf, k or g, r or /. Yet 
they have both / and r in their language, and decidedly 



276 SOUND-CHANGES, MELANESIAN LANOUAGES.— -CODRIKGTOli; 

assert that their own island is TJlawa not Urawa, In Wango 
they say that, properly, they have only r and no / ; and a 
man who makes the statement will go on to call his wife 
Laulaha instead of Rauraha. This is worth mentioning, 
but it is outside my proper subject, which I will now 
endeavour to approach in some detail ; premising that I shall 
deal only with consonantal sounds. 

Crutturals. — Changes and Variations ; A;, hard ^, ngky ngg, 
g (peculiar), break ', n//, A, w, 

1. The sound of hard g is rare in Melanesia ; it is heard 
in Wango, San Cristoval, in Anaiteum, where it is written c, 
and in Nengone. In Fiji it is sounded in some words, but 
always written k. The change from k is seen in the Fate 
kari *boy,' Wango gari\ Fate kapu 'fire,' Anaiteum cap. In 
Nengone the suffixed 1st person singular pronoun, very 
commonly ku, is go, 

2. Nasalization of k is very common, and marks the dis- 
tinction of some dialects : in Lepers' Island A:, which is used 
regularly at Tavalavola, becomes regularly ngg at Walurigi ; 
akttj angga ' a canoe ' ; in Saddle Island, Banks' Islands, there 
is the same difference between Motlav and Volow, which 
replaces k with tigg ; ongg for ok ' canoe.' In Santa Cruz k 
and ngg are indifferently used, ko or nggo. In many of the 
languages, however, k and ngg are equally at home, some words 
regularly having k, some ngg ; as Florida has nggan ' boy.' 

There is the much rarer sound of wA*, or ngk, as in 'sinker'; 
it is heard both in Fiji and Pentecost in the word tvaqa, 
tvangka 'canoe' ; and it is not thought worth while to employ 
a distinct symbol for it. 

3. The peculiar sound very common in Melanesia, which 
is here symbolized by g, no doubt is a change or variation 
from k ; iga * fish,* is the common Polynesian ika. 1 cannot 
answer for the sound in the New Hebrides south of Fate, 
in which island it is present, but is not recognized in print 
as distinct ; in Fiji also it is not recognized. In the Loyalty 
Islands the English Missionaries use x for it. In all the 
rest of the Melanesian languages known to me it is present 
and very characteristic : except in a few dialects of the Solomon 



BOUND-OHAMGESy HELANESIAK IiANOUAGES. — OODRINGTON. 277 

lalandfiy where it is represented by a break. It is necessary 
to attempt to describe it as something of a guttural trill, not 
quite the same in all words, and taken sometimes by hearers 
for k, sometimes for g, sometimes for r. It is easy some- 
times to miss it, and in Wango and elsewhere they do not 
pronounce it. As k has become hard g with them, so the 
Helanesian g appears only as a break; Florida bage 'bow' 
gabu * blood/ are in Wango ba*e, 'abu. This no doubt corre- 
sponds to the break left in Samoan by the falling out of k ; 
'a'ao 'hand' is the Melanesian kakau ; but I am not aware of 
any example in Melanesia of the dropping of k. 

4. In Ambrym, Santa Cruz, and Duke of York, ng replaces 
nnmistakeably a common k. In Ambrym characteristically 
the two soands are indifferent, either gene or ngene may be 
said for 'to eat' ; in which no doubt g stands for a remoter k. 
In Ambrym, Santa Cruz, and Duke of York, the suffixed first 
person singular pronoun, almost universally k, becomes ng. 

5. The change between Florida and Yaturanga of g and h 
is certain ; every Florida g is Yaturanga h ; gat, hai * tree.' 
The same change, irregularly, is common enough ; Espiritu 
Santo gau ' tree,' is Motu, New Guinea, hau. And g in this 
wordy as an example, is equivalent to k; it is kau in Sesake, 
as in the Maori rakau ; the change or variation is the 
same as in the same word in Malay and Malagasy, kayu 
and hasto. 

6. In Mota one dialect is fond of replacing the g of the 
other with w ; tagir and taicur ' behind,' and ug and uw ' to 
blow.' To this corresponds the Florida substitution of g for 
the ie which they cannot pronounce ; a Mota word wowut they 
pronounce gogutu. In Mota and Fiji words the change of 
k and w is seen ; Fiji kunteie ' bowl,' kune ' to conceive,' are 
plainly the Mota tcumeto, wune. 

Dentals. — 1. As in the case of the hard ^, the media d 
is not common in Melanesia. There is a doubt in some 
languages whether t or d should be written ; a pure d is only 
known to me in Nengone, Pentecost, Wango, and Bugotu. 
It is most common to strengthen d with n. In the same way 
i is strengthened with n in Fate, and in Tasiko. The close 



278 SOTJND-CHANOKS, MELANE8IAN LANOUAGES. — OODSINOTOK. 

sympathy between n and d, on the one hand, and d and r, on 
the other, causes very interesting transitions from r to «, 
from n to ^, and from r to t The word for * blood/ in 
Malagasy ra, is dra in Malay, dra (= ndra) in Fiji, ndara 
and nara in the Banks' Islands ; so the Polynesian ran is 
Mota naui ^leaf.' In Pak the Mota manui 'nose,' has 
become metigi ; in Mota gina and gita are two forms of the 
same expletive; Malay kita^ Florida gita^ Motlav gind^ the 
inclusive first person plural, come down to the Mota nina. 
In Pak the passage of n to ^ results in the remarkable 
appearance of the Malay panas, Maori mahana, Malagasy 
ma/ana, in the reduplicated vavat ; as the Mota naui * leaf,' 
has become togi in Pak. The common rua * two,' has in Api 
become tua. 

2. There is a modification of t, and less distinctly of d, in 
Lakona and the Torres Islands. The contact of the tongue 
and the teeth or roof of the mouth is incomplete, and a sort 
of vibration follows, which has been written tr. We mark 
it by a change of type ; tatun, ^ man,' in Lakona, tomtom, * to 
think,' in Lo. These words are in Mota tanun and nomnom, 
and in other Banks' Islands tongues tondun, ndomndom. 

3. In a part of Yanua Lava, in the Banks' Islands, t is 
regularly left out ; the Mota matig ' cocoanut,' is me'ig ; 
iautce *hill,' is *o; tit 'star,' ti\ At the beginning and 
end of a word nothing represents the dropped consonant, but 
in such a word as nie^ig there is a certain break. In this 
language t comes in to represent n or nd of the neighbouring 
tongues. In the Solomon Islands also t is dropped; fta'ii 
Wango, pa^u Saa and Nggao, stand for the common word 
for * head ' batu, 

4. There is another change of t which is remarkable, 
because it is the only change in which I have been able to 
see anything of a geographical character. Before i particu- 
larly, but also before u and e^ t turns into tch^ is. This is 
found in Api, Ambrym, Espiritu Santo, Lakona, Urepara- 
para, Torres Islands, and Santa Cruz : the same is probably 
indicated when the sound of j in Anaiteum is said to be that 
of ' te in righteous.' Thus the word which is tua ' two,' in 



flOUlfD-CHAKGES, MELANBSIAN LAN6UAOBS.— OODRINOTON. 279 

one part of Api, is chua on the N.W. coast ; in Ambrym 
a word has been written tiene and chene ; in Espiritu Santo 
tatua * man/ becomes taUua ; in Lakona telinga ' ear/ is 
jelngan ; in XJreparapara t before i and u regularly becomes 
eh^ chichi for titi, qutuchi for Mota gatui ; in Torres Islands 
a word which if no vowel follows it is it becomes ichi when 
t is added ; tafe if the next word begins with i becomes tach. 
In Santa Cruz according to their way of speaking a word 
has indifferently t or eh; tetiki or techiki ; but words common 
elsewhere with t have with them ch; echa 'one/ is e tea. 
To represent this sound we employ j. 

5. Occasionally s appears for a common t\ the numeral 
rat * four' is in Lakona ras ; tava in Wango is the Mota sava. 

6. The most singular change is found in Rotuma oi t to/; 
ta 'man/ becomes /a; talinga ^ ear^* faliang ; tnata 'eye/ mqf\ 
tatu 'stone/ hof. 

Labiah. — In these sounds it appears to me particularly 
inappropriate to speak of change with regard to Melanesian 
languages; p, b, mb, r, w, interchange freely, and, as has 
been said, to some extent are used indifferently. This I take 
to be characteristic of the family of languages. If one takes 
a vocabulary of languages of the Malay Archipelago, such 
as given by Mr. Wallace, one finds a very common word for 
'moon' in the following shapes: Malay bulan, Javanese 
leulan, Saparua phulan, Bouru fhulan, Amboyna hulan^ the 
Malagasy being volana. Under the word 'fruit' there are 
similarly Malay bua, Javanese troicoanj Bouru fuan^ Coram 
vuan, Amboyna huan ; with which correspond Malagasy roa, 
Maori hua^ Samoa fua, A Melanesian vocabulary shows not 
indeed a strict correspondence, but the same sort of variation ; 
rtt/a, triifo, hula^ ' moon ' ; buway vua, tcoa, fua, hua, ' fruit.' 

It is very common in Melanesia to support b with m, and 
sometimes also so to strengthen p ; a labial is kept in that 
way from turning into a semivowel or becoming explosive. 
As therefore the range from p to A is very common, so the 
change from j9 to m is not unknown ; the Florida word maiei 
* place,' is the Bugotu bale, and it may be reasonably thought 
that the Malay j^u/ein^ ' to go back,' is the Mota mulang. 



280 ^Uin>-CHANGES^ MELANESIAN LANGUAGES.— OODBINOTON. 

Nasals. — It has been shown how n and d are connected 
and interchange, and how in this way the same word appears 
with r, tf and n ; as the common word rau ' a leaf/ drau in 
Fiji (iidrau), nau in Mota, togi in Vanua Lava. 

There is a change of n to ng in Melanesia which is not at 
all common; such however is clearly seen in the Florida 
ngara 'blood/ which must be the Mota naray that being 
again, as has been shown, the Malagasy ra. 

In some Melanesian languages the ii sound, as in Spanish, 
is a favourite modification : such is the case in Bugotu, in 
which, for example, the suffixed third person singular 
pronoun, which is almost universally ita, becomes na. 

In Santa Cruz the interchange of / and n is common, and 
like other changes of the same character in that language 
confusing ; but it cannot be taken as a change of n to /. 
Such a change, however, is characteristic of the language of 
Alite, an islet on the coast of Malanta. There the most 
common words which are everywhere found with n have /; 
such as main ' a bird ' for nianUy baila ' large,' for paina used 
a few miles off. This change is of course another form of 
that from n to r ; and in this way d and / come to appear in 
variations of the same word. 

The change of m to n is remarkable in Espiritu Santo. 
There words which are elsewhere very common with m 
appear with n instead; the very common manu 'a bird' 
becomes nanu ; lima * hand,' Una ; niata * eye,' nata. 

What appears to me the most interesting change from tn 
is that to ng. There are in a great part of Melanesia two 
sounds of niy the second being of a more nasal character. 
The breath passes for a little through the nose ; the sound 
is held and delayed a little in the nose before the lips open 
with the sound of m. We now use the change from Roman 
to Italic, or vice rersa, to express this sound in print, but it is 
instructive to observe that natives wishing to express it in 
writing their own language have combined ng and m. Ac- 
cordingly it is found that this m changes frequently to ng; a 
word commonly used for ' house ' in the Banks' Islands is, 
in some form, iina, which is the same with Javanese titna, 



^UHD-OHAKOBS, MBLANE8IAN LAKOUAOBS.— CODRINOTON. 281 

Malay ruma ; and as the m in the latter words becomes m 
in the Banks' Islands words uma, ima, im^ em, so m becomes 
in other Banks' Islands dialects ng, and a house is eng in 
TJreparapara. It is in this way that the presence of two 
forms of the same word in Fiji is to be explained, lima * five/ 
and liga, Unga, * hand.' In the islands where m is sounded, 
the word is always lima, not lima, so that it naturally passes to 
linga. Thus in Maori also rifna is ' five/ and ringa is ' hand/ 

LiquicU. — The interchange or indifierent use of r and / is 
too much a matter of course to be dwelt upon ; the changes 
from them are interesting to y and dh, I only know one 
region in which r becomes y, two islands of the Banks' 
group. In Motlav children never pronounce r, but as they 
grow up they begin to say it ; in a neighbouring district of 
the same island no one says r, every one substitutes y for it ; 
Motlav children and Bun men say yan^ boyos, for ran, boros. 
In TJreparapara (as the island is called at Mota) it is a 
matter of dialect, some use r some y, some say moros, some 
nioyos, some paner, some paney ; their island is Norbarbar or 
Noybaybay. A direct change oi r U> dh 1 only know in a 
very small district of Saddle Island, of which Motlav is part. 
There they said idheaei, inggedh, when their neighbours use 
eresei, ingger. But this is parallel with the change of / to dh, 
which prevails in Bugotu in Ysabel. There a great number 
of words which have / in Florida, and elsewhere, have dh 
instead ; the very common word for house, for example, in 
Florida vale, becomes vadhe, the Florida bolo ' a pig ' is bodho. 
But the word for house is very well known with r; the 
Maori whare. So also the Florida bolo is borb in Duke of 
York Island. Thus the change of r, /, dh^ is very plain in 
that region ; and it is easily seen to extend further ; the Mota 
flora 'yesterday,' is in Florida nola, in Bugotu nodha, in 
Nggao, again, hora. This change also is found in Fiji; for I 
cannot but believe that cagi=.dhangi is the same with San 
Cristoval and Maori rangi, Malay langit, Mota lang, although 
the signification varies between sky, rain, wind, and the 
atmosphere generally. 

SUnlants. — The interchange again of 8 and A is a matter 



282 SOUND-CHANGES, MBLANESIAN LANGUAGES. — OODBIKGTON. 

of course. Both are absent In Santa Cruz and Duke of Tork 
Island. When Santa Cruz people first came to Norfolk 
Island, great amusement was caused by their attempts to 
pronounce the names of the scholars from other islands, 
Sasaka, Wehuhu, in which were these unwonted sounds. 
Changes of « to ch and dh are found ; in Vaturanga Savo 
becomes Chavo ; in Fiji c=(/A often represents « and h in 
other languages. The change to 2 is slight, and found, for 
example, in kuzi^ the Savo form of the word for * rat ' 
given above. 

Aspirates. — The change of A to/ at Fagani has been men- 
tioned. At Lakona and in the Torres Islands there is a 
tendency that way. The most interesting variation is found 
in Florida, where in the greater part of the country h is 
used, but in one district z regularly represents it, and in 
another dh. The negative is thus taho, tazo, and tadho. The 
people who use z and d/i have no diflSculty in pronouncing h ; 
it is merely the fashion in their place to say tazo and iadho, 
a variation which education is already beginning unfor- 
tunately to eflFace. The connexion of h, /, r, w, b, has been 
already shown in the varying forms of the common word 
for fruit, in Melanesia hua and fua in San Cristoval, /ma 
and vua in Malanta, troa in Mota, in Malay bua. So we 
have kaka^ /aka, raka, waka, pakoy for a ship ; and the Duke 
of York iciuaga * food,' is the Fate vinanga, the hinag and 
ainaga of the Banks* Islands. 

It will have been well understood, no doubt, that these 
changes of consonantal sounds in Melanesian languages are 
not exhibited as peculiar and exceptional phenomena. If 
they were such, they would have less value than I suppose 
they have. It is not for me to bring examples of similar 
changes in languages much better known than these to 
philological students, or even in the language which we 
speak ourselves. To bring forward fresh examples of what 
is known, to enlarge a little the field in which philology 
exercises itself, is all that I venture to attempt. 



283 



XI. — NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. By the 

Rev. Professor Skeat, LL.D. 

{lUad at the Soeiety^a Meeting, on Friday, November 6, 1885.) 

Blase, a white mark on a horse's forehead (Scand.). Bailey 
gives " Blaze (in a ITof'se), a white Face/' ed. 1745. The 
word is somewhat older; Ogilvie gives a quotation from 
Cowley, but omits the reference. It may have been borrowed 
from Dutch, but is more likely Scandinavian; from Icel. 
blest, a blaze or white star on a horse's forehead, Swed. bids 
or bldsa, Dan. bits. Cf. Du. blea; O.Du. blesse (Hexham); 
G. Bldsse (Fliigel). The point to which I wish to draw 
attention is, that it is not the primary word blaze^ a flame, 
but a secondary form, which ought to show vowel-change, 
80 that we should expect to find a Mid. E. hies, and a mod. E. 
bless or bleeze. This fact is pointed out by Kliige, who 
gives the G. Bldsse, sb. paleness, also a blaze, as derived by 
vowel-change from the adj. blass, pale, M.H.G. bias, pale, 
bald, orig. * shining,' closely allied to the M.H.G. strong 
neuter sb. bias, a blaze, cognate with A.S. blcese. The sense 
* bald ' in M.H.G. well illustrates the word blaze, as applied 
to marks made on trees by chipping away the bark. The 
word for aflame' is spelt both blase and blese in the 
Promptorium. I would therefore explain blaze, in this 
sense, as a phonetic spelling, in which the a denotes the 
sound of the M.E. e or ee. 

Bluff. I wish to record an early example of this word. 
"When we came abreast of the bluff-head, ... we edged 
away from it " ; 1699, W. Dampier, A New Voyage, iii. 
137. Cf. E. Fries, blujfen, blaffen, in Koolman. 

Bonfire. Whether bonfire is really bone-fire, we may leave 
to Dr. Murray. I make a note of two very pertinent quota- 
tions. In Gelding's tr. of Ovid s Metamorph. bk. vii. ed. 
1603, leaf 87 back, there is an account of a plague ; aud it is 
said of the dead bodies : 

" So either lothly on the ground vnburied did they lie, 
Or els without solemnitie were burnt in bone-fires hie." 



284 NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY, — ^PROF. SKEAT. 

Again, in the first part of Marlowe's Tamburlaine, Act iiL 
sc. 3^ we read : 

" Now will the Christian miscreants be glad. 
Ringing with joy their superstitious bells, 
And making bonfires for my overthrow. 
But, ere I die, those foul idolaters 
Shall make me bonfires with their filthy bones." 

Booty, plunder. In my Dictionary, I have derived booty 
from the corresponding Scand. forms, such as Icel. b^i ; and 
I find that Eluge takes the same view, supposing that the 
word was confused (as it probably was) with boot, profit. 
But I am now quite certain that this view is wrong; and 
that we took the word, not immediately from Scandinavian, 
but mediately or at second-hand, through the French. The 
history of the word proves it. It is not used, that I know 
of, in Middle English, but appears soon after 1500. When 
first borrowed, it had the exact F. form, viz. bittin. Examples 
are given, s.v. buten, in Croft's index to Sir T. Elyot's 
" Governour.'* Palsgrave has both forms, with and without 
the final n. Thus he has : " I parte a butane or a pray taken 
in the war, Je butyne *' ; and again, " Boti/ that men of 
warre take, butin*^ The loss of n occurs again in our adj. 
haughtijj M.E. hautein. Hence our boott/ is from the F. 
butin, explained as * a booty, prey ' by Cotgrave ; and the F. 
butin was of Teutonic (probably of Scandinavian) origin. 
See bottino in Diez. Wedgwood cites Palsgrave, and hints 
that the word is French, but does not say so explicitly. 

Botargo, a cake made of the roe of the sea-mullet (Ital.). 
This word is given by Nares. It so happens that the word is 
mentioned in Habelais in company with "sausages" ; but there 
is no evidence that a botargo was made like a sausage ; it was 
a kind of hard cake. Capt. Smith, in 1614-5, speaks of " dry 
fish, greene fish, Sturgion, Mullit, Caviare, and Bxittargo " ; 
ed. Arber, p. 240. In 1614, he says that "Cape-Blank, 
Spaine, Portugale, and the Leuant, [serve] with Mullet and 
Pxdtargo^^ p. 197. I think the explanation " sausage " is 
due to confusion with the Span, botarga, one sense of which 



irOTES ON ENGLISH BTTMOLOGT. — ^PROF. SXEAT. 285 

is '^ a kind of large sausages *' ; whereas I doubt if there is 
any very close connection. Cotgrave gives the F. pi. form 
hotargues ; Littr^ gives botargue^ and (rightly, as I think) 
says that the word is Italian, and therefore not necessarily 
Spanish. Florio (1598) gives the very form botargo, 'a 
kind of salt meate made of fish vsed in Italy in Lent.' 
Torriano (1688) gives the fern. pi. form botarghe, ' a salt 
meat made of the hard rows of the fish eefah^ i.e. mullet. 
I find no such use of the woi^d in Spanish ; and I think 
therefore that we may safely put the word down as Italian. 
The modem ItaL form is butiarga, explained by Meadows as 
'sturgeons' eggs pickled.' Littr^ refers us to this modem 
ItaL form, but it is better to take the old form botargo at 
once. As to the etymology of the Italian word, I find no 
suggestion. Mahn refers the Span, boiarga to the Lat. 
boiuius, a sausage ; but, as I have said, there is nothing to 
call in the Spanish form. 

I will, however, venture on a guess which seems to me 
reasonable, viz. that botargo may have been named from the 
fish itself. Torriano gives us cefah as the fish's name, which, 
of course, means ' big-head,' from Gk. K€<f)a\ij, Now botta, 
says Florio, is ' a kind of fish called a Millers thumbe, or a 
gull,' and bota is ' a fish that grunteth, called a mole-bout.' 
All that is now wanting is evidence to show that botta can 
mean a mullet ; meanwhile, we find that the miller's thumb 
is also called a bull-head, and that the Ital. botta can even 
mean a toad, no doubt from its swelling itself out ; cf. Lat. 
boiultiSy a sausage, with which I do not deny that there may 
be an ultimate connection. Cf. Du. boty a plaice; Florio*s 
mok-bout (above) ; and E. halibut, which show how vaguely 
fish-names can be used. The G. butte means a flounder. 

Meadows' Ital. Diet, gives a form which throws some light 
upon the suffix also. Besides buttarga, he gives bottarga, 
hottarica^ a sort of cavaire [i.e. botargo\ This suggests that 
botargo was formed from bota by adding the compound suffix 
"Ori-co, which I suppose occurs again in Balearic. 

1 find a note, that in Shaw's Travels we are told that 
mullets are caught remarkably large on the Northern coast 



286 



NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — ^PROF. SKBAT. 



of Africa, in the kingdom of Tunis. This again connects 
botargo rather with Italy than with Spain. 

Box, Christmas. The word box in Christmas box no longer 
conveys any obvious meaning. It was an actual box, made 
of earthenware, in which apprentices collected pence from 
customers at Christmas ; when sufficiently filled, it was 
broken to get at the contents. See the account in Brand* 
Popular Antiquities, ed. Ellis, i. 494. Brand quotes from 
Mason's Handful of Essaies, 1621 : "he never doth good till 
his death ; as an apprentice's box of earth, apt he is to 
take all, but to restore none till hee be broken " ; and in 
another parallel quotation, dated 1642, we find : " like the 
Christmas earthen boxes of apprentices." 

Braid, full of deceit (E.). In a well-known passage in 
All's Well, iv. 2. 73, nearly all the modem editors explain 
the word braid as deceitful, * since Frenchmen are so braid,* 
But the fact is, that the M.E. braid is a sb., not an adjective, 
and means deceit, trick, art, fraud ; and no one has made 
any attempt to show how it can be an adjective, as it obviously 
is, in this passage. The fact is simply, that braid is here a 
contracted form of braided, and braided of course means 
' furnished with tricks, full of deceits,* which is much stronger 
than merely * deceitful.' This contraction of words ending 
in 'ded is familiar to all who have read Middle English 
attentively ; and was long ago noticed by Sir F. Madden in 
his note tol. 347 of Will, of Palerne, which I have reprinted. 
He notices the occurrence of comaund for comaunded, gerde 
for girdedy and adds that it occurs frequently in the Wycliffite 
versions of the Bible. Modern English has spread for the 
past participle, not spreaded ; so also led, not haded ; read^ 
not readed. The same occurs with words ending in ^ted, 
shortened to ^ ; as in a/ight for alighted^ and so on. The 
contraction can take place when t or d \s preceded either by 
another consonant or by a long vowel, but not otherwise. 

Home Tooke actually took braid to be the past participle 
of the verb bray, to pound ; and explained braid to mean 
brayed, i.e. pounded, and so * compounded,' This forced 
meaning is quite unnecessary. 



K0TB8 ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — PROF. 8KEAT. 287 

It 18 material to observe that the form braid for braided 
actually occurs in the pp. of the verb, viz. in Sir Gawayn and 
the Grene Knight, 2069 : " The brygge watz bra^de down," 
ie. the draw-bridge was braided down, let down suddenly. 

It thus appears that Shakespeare has used braid for 
braided improperly ; it should only be contracted when it 
is really a past participle, not when used adjectivally. A 
good early example of this adjectival use of words ending in 
'ed is Chaucer's gatided, i.e. furnished with gauds. Gf. 
beard-ed, hom-ed, gift-ed. 

Build. I have shown that our build is the A.S. byldan^ 
derived by vowel-change from bold, a dwelling. I have 
also considered the A.S. bold as borrowed from the Icel. bdl^ 
a dwelling. But I find another account of bold in an article 
by Sievers on the Noun-suffix -^ra, printed in Paul and 
Braune, Beitrage, v. 529. He says bold is for ^bolp-, by 
metathesis for *bo/>l'Z=A.8. botl, a dwelling (cf. Booth in 
Cumberland and Lancashire). This *bopl' or boil is due to a 
Teutonic ^bo-filo-^ or ^bo-pro-, a form in which we recognize 
the Teut. base bu-, and the Aryan suffix -tra. This brings us to 
the root I have already indicated, but accounts for the suffix 
differently. 

To appreciate Sievers' view, his other examples must be 
examined ; we have a sure parallel in the case of needle, of 
which another form was neeld ; for this neeld certainly 
contains the Aryan suffix -tra. 

Cad. It has not been yet noticed that this term is more 
than 200 years old. Brand, in his Antiquities (ed. Ellis, iii. 
86), quotes an example in which a cad means an attendant 
spirit. Quoting from Osborne's Advice to his Son, 8vo., 
Oxford, 1656, p. 36, he remarks that Osborne compares a 
wife or husband to a cad. Unhappy marriages ** must needs 
render their sleepe unquiet, that have one of those cads or 
familiars still knocking over their pillow." This refers to 
the belief that ghosts disturb sleepers by keeping up a 
constant knocking. I remain of opinion that cad is the 
same word as the Scotch cadie. In Michel's Critical Inquiry 
into the Scottish Language, 1882, p. 183, we read : '* The 



288 NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. PROF. SKBAT. 

cadteSy an interesting class of people, who acted both as 
commissionaires and watchmen, at times lent a helping hand 
to the hangman in the discharge of his duty. Their name 
was originally the same with F. cad^t, which is also English." 
See cadet in Littr^, where the familiar and ironical uses of 
the word are exemplified. A cadt/ who became assistant- 
hangman lent his name to reproach. 

Carnival. I have already shown that Littr^ seems to have 
misunderstood the word carnelevariumy which meant a time 
of feasting, and not of fasting. The mistake arose with 
Ducange, or rather with Charpentier, the writer of the supple- 
ment. He explains Carnelerarmm as a day of fasting ; but 
at once proceeds to give an example in which the term was 
applied to Quinquagesima Sunday, which was a feast-day. 
He quotes a passage beginning : " De ludo Camelevar. In 
Dominica dimissionis carnium " ; etc. Here we see the 
source of confusion. Lent is called dimmio carnium, verv 
properly ; and the Sunday preceding Lent was called the 
" Sunday of the fast." But it always was, and still remains 
true, nevertheless, that " the Sunday of the fast " was itseif a 
feast-day ; and carnekvnrium, taken alone, means precisely 
the same as canieleramen, explained in Ducange as ' a day of 
revelry ' (Bacchanalium dies) ; and as carnelevaley given as 
another name for Quinquagesima. The Lat. /evare means to 
solace, please, comfort ; and all its derivatives partake of this 
meaning. Ducange further refers us to Fitzstephen, where, 
however, the word carnehvaria appears rather to refer to 
Shrove- Tuesday, which was a feast-day also. See the pas- 
sage quoted in Brand's Antiquities, ed. Ellis, ii. 61, note. 
Brand refers to Pegge's edition of Fitzstephen, 1772, p. 74. 
The very same passage is given at p. 214 of Thoms' edition 
of Stow's Survey of London, and his various readings are 
worth notice. His text has Carnivnle, translated by 'Shrove- 
tide * ; but the various readings give the forms Camivaiia, 
Carniievaria, and Carnelerari, The word camivaiia is un- 
meaning, and I believe it to be merely a popular corruption 
of carniievaria, the syllable le being dropped, and the suffix 
'aria turned into -alia. 



'SOTES ON BNGLISH BTTMOLOGT. — ^PROF. SKEAT. 289 

Ci n cl iona. I have showiiy in my Supplement, that the 
right spelling is CJUnchona^ named from the Countess of 
Chinchon, I have now to add that, according to Pineda's 
Span. Diet., Chinchon is a small Spanish town, in the pro- 
vince of New Castile. The town is, in fact, so small that it 
is not marked in Black's Atlas. 

Cobra, a snake. (Port. — L.) In a translation of Buflfon's 
Nat. Hist, 1792, iL 277, the snake is called ' co1}ra di capeih^ 
or hooded serpent.' Cobra is neither in Johnson nor Bailey. 
Webster gives cobra de capello, Ogilvie gives cobra de capello^ 
with cobra di capello and cobra da capello as alternatives. 
Cassell's Diet, has cobra copelkr, cobra capelfo, cobra de capello^ 
cobra di capello, and informs us that cobra di cnpello is right, 
because ct^lla means a chapel, and not a hood. But it is 
important to remark that cobra di capello is not only wrong, 
but impossible, for the simple reason that the phrase is 
Portuguese, and the word di is Italian. The word de might 
stand, as that is the Portuguese preposition ; but the right 
form should surely be do (masculine). Do in Portuguese 
means 'of the'; whereas de only means 'of; cobra do 
capello is ' snake with the hood,' and is correct. 

I have to add that none of these Dictionaries give the 
etymology of cobra ; nor can I find it in Diez or Littr^ ; 
nor, indeed, anywhere else. But it is dimply the Lat. 
eotubra, a snake, used by Horace, Ovid, and Juvenal. Capello 
is the O.F. chapel (F. chapean) ; see chaplet in my Dictionary. 

Coca, a plant. (Span. — Peruvian.) I have already spoken 
of cacao, which is Mexican, and of cocoa^ which is Portu- 
guese. Coca is distinct from both, and is Peruvian. It is 
described in Pineda's Spanish Dictionary, who refers us to 
J. Acosta's Natural History of the West Indies, lib. iv. 
c. 22, p. 252. See also Joyfull Newes out of the newe 
founde Worlde, by J. Frampton, 1677, fol. 101, back. The 
Bpan. spelling is coca, but the Peruvian is ctuia, of which form 
the Span, word is a corruption. This is certain from the 
description by the Peruvian Inca Q-arcilasso, in his Royal 
Commentaries of Peru, bk. viii. c. 15. Rycaut's translation 
speaks ** of the Herb which the Indians call cuca, and the 
PhiL Tram. 18SM. 19 



290 NOTES ON ENGLISH ETTMOLOOT. — ^PROF. SKEAT* 

Spaniards coca*^ I cannot find tbat Mahn has any anthoritj 
for saying that the word is also Mexican. The plant grows 
wild in Peru. 

Contraband. I have marked contraband as Italian, and I 
think the quotation in Littr^ justifies this, as it says the term 
was used by the Venetians in the sixteenth century, and the 
French form is already in Cotgrave. The Spanish form is 
precisely the same, but it is not given in Minsheu (1623), 
and only appears in Pineda's Span. Dictionary (1740). There 
is an early example of it, however, in Howell's Letters 
(Sept. 8, 1623), where he mentions "ropa de contrabando^ 
prohibited goods," Letters, sect. 3, let. 6. Here ropa is a 
Spanish form, the Italian has roba. The form contrabandUta^ 
a smuggler, is certainly Spanish; the ItaL has cantro' 
bandiere. 

Cowslip. I have explained this as originally cow-skp, the 
literal sense being ' the droppings of a cow.' Mr. Magnuaaon 
points out to me that the Icel. word for the flower is kU-reki^ 
i.e. cow-droppings, and that the Icel. word was borrowed 
from the A.S. cii-slyppey the latter part of the word being 
translated in order to preserve the meaning. Odd as this 
may seem, it is matched by the pro v. E. cow-daisy ^ which 
does not mean the flower, but the .circle of cow-dung, also 
called cow-blakCy cow-ciapy cow-plat, cow^shard, cow-sham ; see 
Halliwell. Another prov. E. name for cow-slip is cow-st rippling 
or coto-stropple, lit. cow-dribblings, or the last milk drawn 
from a cow by pressure. See strip, strippings, stroakings, and 
strop in Halliwell. 

Creel, a kind of basket. (Gaelic.) M.E. crel, with long e. 
" A basket and iij kreles " ; Wills and Inventories, Surtees 
Soc, i. 224 ; a.d, 1564. Spelt creill in Laing's Select 
Remains of Scottish Poetry, King Berdok, 1. 25 ; also in the 
Ballad of the Wooing of Jok and Jenny, st. 7. See also 
creil in Jamieson. The etymologies in Jamieson cannot be 
right. It is a Gaelic word, spelt craidhleag by Macleod and 
Dewar, who explain it by 'a basket, a creel.' O'Reilly 
quotes * craidlag, a basket,' from Shaw's Gael. Diet. I 
suppose it is allied to cradle. 



KOTB3 ON EMOLISH ETTMOLOOY. — PROF. SKEAT. 291 

Crow-bar. I give the usual account, that the crow- bar was 
probably named from some resemblance to the crow's beak. 
The old name was simply cratCf without the bar ; see under 
Prise, p. 320. Cotgrave has : " Corbtn, a crow ; bee de 
earbin, a chirurgeon's toole, called a crowes-bill." 

Crowd. The verb to crowd answers to M.E. crouden, to 
posh. The related A.S. word is given by Ettmiiller and 
Leo as ^erSadan, I wish to point out that this form of the 
infinitive is theoretical ; and I entirely fail to discover any 
possible reason why the A.S. infinitive should not have been 
^critdan, in perfect accordance with the M.E. form. There 
are only two examples of the verb in all A.S. literature. 
One gives us erydep as the 3 pers. sing, present, and the 
other gives us criad as the past tense. Both of these could 
easily come from an infinitive *crudan^ precisely as we get 
the 3 pers. sing. pres. byhp^ short for bygepy and the pt. t. 
b^ahy from bugan, to bow. The only related word is the 
O. Dutch kruf/den, to push, given by Hexham; now spelt 
iruijen, by loss of d. Now, precisely as the O. Dutch buygeriy 
to bow, answers to A.S. biigan^ so the 0. Du. kruyden must 
answer to an A.S. critdan. After writing this note, I found 
that Stratmann has already made this suggestion. 

Davit. The etymology of this nautical term is uncertain. 
It is very remarkable that Capt. Smith (Works, ed. Arber, 
p. 793, A.D. 1626) spells it Dauid, and prints it in italics as 
if it were a man's name. He speaks of "the blocke at the 
Dauids ende." Perhaps this is the right solution, though 
we cannot tell what relation this David was to Davy Jones. 
Dr. Fennell called my attention to the above passage. 

DeU. I have wrongly marked this word as 0. Dutch, 
whereas it occurs in A.S., though ignored by the Dictionaries. 
The A.S. form is del^ neuter sb., dat. delle^ also dcelte; this 
del is clearly from a stem ^dal-jo^ and only differs from dale 
in having a different stem. I find pcet del and of pam dcelle 
in Cartularium Saxonicum, ed. Birch, i. 547 ; to deopan delle, 
id. ii. 71 ; and even the compound dellwuda, i.e. a dell-wood, 
id. ii. -^32. 

Doiley. I find a MS. note by Pegge, that ** Doyley kept a 



292 NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — PROF. SKBAT. 

Linnen-draper's shop in the Strand, a little West of Oatharine 
Street" 

Doll. In my Supplement, I have partly come round to 
the view that doll^ as a child's toy, is the same as the name 
Doll, and so short for Dorothy, The great difficulty is the 
want of evidence. It is therefore important to observe — as 
Mr. Symthe Palmer has already done — that Jamieson gives 
the Sc. "dorott/, a doll, a puppet, as ' a dancing daraif/'; also, 
a female of very small size." There can be no mistake here. 
Michel, in his Critical Inquiry into the Scottish Language, 
p. 351, refers us, for an example of doroiy, to "Destiny," 
vol. ii. p. 92 ; and remarks that doroty is from the F. 
Doroth4e, Littr^ gives F. dorotMe as a name for a kind of 
dragon-fly. If this be right, a doll is, literally, a gift of God^ 

Doublet. Note that Halliwell has singlet, q.v. 

Duds, shabby clothes (Scand.). Duds is a prov. E. word, 
in Halliwell. It is introduced as a cant term for clothes in 
Beaumont and Fletcher, Beggar's Bush, v. 1, being borrowed 
from Harman's Caveat, where we find " dudes, clothes " ; see 
Fumivall's edition, p. 83, col. i. Skelton has : " In dud 
frese ye war schrynyd, With better frese lynyd," ed. Dyce, 
i. 121 ; where dud freze is coarse frieze. It occurs in the 
fifteenth century. ** Birrus, vel birrum, i. grossum vesti- 
mentura, Anglice, a dudde*^ ; Wright's Vocab. ed. Wiilcker, 
668. 18. Jamieson has several examples of it. In one of 
these it is spelt dudif<, and I have just quoted dudes. I have 
no doubt that the vowel was originally long. Hence it is 
the same as Sc. doudj a woman's cap ; Devonshire dotod, a 
night-cap (Halliwell) ; and hence also the prov. E. doudy, 
dowdy, ill-dressed, shabbily dressed. The word is probably 
of Scand. origin ; but is only preserved in the loel. cUcSi, 
swaddling clothes. Jamieson quotes the sense '* indumentum 
levioris generis." The prov. E. dudi also means rags ; and 
dudman is a scare-crow made of ragged old clothes. It is not 
improbable that the root is the Aryan dhu, to shake, re- 
presented in Icel. by dyja, dua (pt. t. dicSi), to shake, used of 
shaking spears, or shaking the locks; whence the idea of 
flapping or ragged clothes. With duds we may also connect 



KOTBS ON' ENGLISH BTTMOLOQT. PKOF. 8KEAT. 293 

IceL di(6a, to swathe, wrap up, prov. E. duddle^ to wrap up 
warmly and unnecessarily, to coddle; and the old word 
daddies, bundles of dirty rags, in Pilkington's Works 
(Parker Soc.), p. 212. Wedgwood has already connected 
dueh with the idea of shaking or flapping; and derives diuh 
from the verb dodder or dudder, to shake. The truth is 
rather, that this verb and duds are both from the same 
Aryan root 

DufEiTy a feeble, inefficient person. (Scand.) This slang 
term is really Scottish, being the Lowl. Sc. doic/art, duffurt, 
stupid, spiritless, inefficient. Jamieson illustrates itself 
sufficiently, and rightly connects it with douf, a stupid 
fellow, dow/f dull, flat, melancholy, inactive, hollow, inert ; 
which is nothing but the Icel. dau/r, i.e. the Scand. form of 
£. deaf. A nut without a kernel is called in E. a deaf nut, 
in Scotch a dawf nit The number of related words is large. 
Already in Gothic we find qfdobnan, to become dumb or 
silent, from daubs, deaf ; Icel. dqfna, to become dead (as a 
limb), to become dull (as the mind), from dau/r, deaf; also 
dq/i, torpor, daufleikr, sloth, daufingi, a sluggard, a dufier; 
Du. doof, deaf, dqf, faint, dull, heavy, hollow-sounding, dof, 
the low sound of oars, a hollow sound ; Dan. dov, deaf, 
dote, to blunt, dull ; Low G. doov, deaf, empty, sad, dull ; 
duff, dull-sounding, dim-coloured, etc. The u is shortened 
from ou, which again is from the Icel. au or o, Dan. and 
Swed. 0. The alliance with E. deaf is thus concealed. The 
suffix, in Scotch, is the same as the E. -ard, as in slugg-ard, 
drunk-ard. 

Ease. The etymology of the F. aise is a well-known crux. 
Prof. Mayor has, however, sent me a note to say that the 
Low Lat. form was agius. He writes : " In the Archiv f iir 
lat. Lexikographie, ii. 112, published early in 1885, you will 
find agius, cited from the PoetsD aovi Garolini i. 427. 5 : — 
* agius inter frondentes lauros habitans.' " This is obviously 
a note of considerable importance ; the form corresponds to 
that of ItaL agio, but it is remarkable that the Low Lat. 
agius seems to be here an adjective, not a substantive, and to 
mean ' at ease ' or ' at liberty.' (I ought, perhaps, to add 



294 NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — ^PROF. 8XEAT. 

that I bave not verified the sentence ; it will be necessary to 
make sure that agius does not here represent, as it often doesy 
the Gk. arfU)f;, holy, a saint.) Now supposing agius to be an 
adjective, it seems to me possible that it is, after all, a 
derivative of the Lat. verb agere ; it might mean ' free to 
act.' It is worth noticing that there is an Ital. adj. agetoh^ 
meaning nimble, easy to be done, whence agerolezza, ease^ 
facility. This Ital. agevole is just the Low Lat. ctgibiNs, 
precisely as credevole is the Lat. credihilia. And seeing that 
the Ital. agevolezza, meaning precisely ' ease,' is a mere and 
obvious derivative of agibtlis (and therefore of agere), it 
really does seem extremely probable that agius is another 
derivative of the same verb. The change of sense from 
* free to act ' or ' acting readily ' is not difficult ; for there is 
a verb agiare, to render at ease, to accommodate, from which 
the sb. agio could be evolved. Considering the known 
difficulty of the word, this solution is worthy of examination* 
The difference between agius and agibiiis is merely this, that 
the former has an active, and the latter a passive sense; 
the one is ' acting readily,' and the other is ^ readily done.* 

Moreover, there is no difficulty about deriving a word in 
'iiM from a verb. Roby derives lud-im, a stage-player, fi*om 
ludere, to play ; and exim-ius, select, excellent, from eximere, 
to except, take out. 

Eddy. Examples of this word at any early period are so 
scarce that I make a note of the occurrence of pdi/, an eddy, 
in the Buke of the Howlate, written about 1453 ; st Ixiv. 
1. 827. 

[The bard, being dirty] 

" Socht wattir to wesche him thar out in ane f/dg.** 

Eery, Eerie. The meanings of this word are given by 
Jamieson, who shows that the earliest sense was * timid'; 
hence, affected by fear of the spiritual world, melancholy, 
strange. He refers to Douglas, who has the spelling erg, 
meaning timid; see Smalls edition, vol. iii. p. 166, 1. 1. 
Cassell's and Ogilvie's Dictionaries both refer us to the A.8. 
earhf sluggish, cowardly, but make no attempt to trace the 
word's history. I believe, however, that this is the right 



VOTES ON SN0LI8H 'ETYMOLOGY. — ^PBOF. SKEAT. 295 

aolatioQy and I can sapply some of tbe missing links. The 
AJ&. earh became M.E. ar], arh, are^y ar^, etc., with great 
Yarieties of spelling ; see Stratmann and Matzner. Amongst 
theae yarieties we find three instructive forms. In the Moral 
Ode, L 20 or 19, Dr. Morris (Specimens, part i.) gives the 
spelling Arje for the nom. pi., with the sense ^ slack' or 
'remiss,' from the Trin. MS. The Jesus Coll. MS. has 
Erewe. But the Lambeth MS., as printed in Morris's Old 
Eng. Homilies, First Series, p. 161, 1. 17, has Er^e. We 
next come to an important passage in the Cursor Mundi» 
1. 17685, where we find the precise form and sense required* 
Here the Gottingen MS. has "Joseph, be noght m," i.e« 
Joseph, be not afraid. It would appear that the final vowel 
is dne to the vocalisation of the final guttural ; the final -ge 
of the plural gave a final -^ in the plural, easily weakened 
to -tif, and hence the singidar in -i or y. If this be not quite 
right, the Dictionary-slips will help us out. Meanwhile, I 
think this etymology may be accepted. It is just mentioned 
by Jamieson as a possibility ; but the other etymologies (if 
saoh they can be called) which he suggests, are all out of 
the question. It is certainly not allied to G. Ehre, A.S. dr^ 
honour ; nor to Icel. ogn^ terror ; nor have I any faith in the 
Irish earadh, a refusal, fear, distrust. 

Estreat, a true copy. I have explained this ; it is merely 
O.F. estrete^ Lat. eztracta. But I have to add that Mr. 
Stevenson, of Nottingham, tells me that the M.E. word is 
streete^ and observes that it is in the Prompt. Parv., where 
Mr. Way, who so seldom erred, has quite missed the point, 
misprinted the article, and given a wrong note. It should 
run thus: '* Streete^ catchepoltis bok to gader by mercy* 
ments " ; i.e. an estreat, a catchpoll's book to collect fines by. 

Ezhanst. Exhaust was at first a past participle, as its form 
shows. See Sir T. Elyot, The Govemour, ed. Croft, ii. 59. 

Feeie, Fease, Pheese. The word pheeze in Shakespeare 
is explained by Schmidt as ' to tease ' or ' annoy.' He adds 
that some explain it by ' beat,' others by ' drive.' Webster 
explains it by * to whip with rods, to beat, to worry, to tease.* 
There is absolutely no reason for explaining it by ' to whip.' 



296 NOTES ON ENGLISH BTYMOLOOY.— FBOP. SKEAT. 

The proper sense is ' to drive away/ or * to pat to flight ' ; 
precisely the A.S. f^sian, M.E. fesen ; see /Men in Stratmann, 
who gives ten examples ; and see Nares. The explanation 
' to whip * arose with Heame, who so explains it in a paaaage 
in Srob. of BrHnne's tr. of Langtoft, p. 192, 1. 1, and in 
another passage at p. 274, 1. 14. In both places it obvioasly 
means to put to flight, or diive away. The etymology is 
wrongly given both in Webster and Ogilvie. Webster con- 
fuses it with another modem word /eas^, to unravel. Ogilvie 
separates the two, but refers Shakespeare's feeze to F. fester, 
to whip. I may add that three good examples of /eese^ 
to harass, worry, and hence to punish, occur in the Yori( 
Mysteries. 

The etymology is, accordingly, from the A.S. Jfisian, 
a dialectal variation of /psian^ to drive away. Again, fyeian 
is a by-form of fy^an^ the usual form ; and fy^n is derived 
by vowel-change from the adj. /tf«, prompt, quick. Thus the 
original meaning of feeze ^ as a transitive verb, is to cause to 
be quick, to make any one flee hurriedly. We may explain 
the phrase " I'll pheeze his pride " in Troilus, ii. 3. 215, by 
" I'll drive his pride away " ; or, as we should now say, 
*' I'll take down his pride." The phrase ** I'll pheese you " 
in the first line of the Taming of the Shrew, means, literally, 
"I'll make you run away pretty quickly;" but, in the 
mouth of Christopher Sly, it is a mere vague and unmeaning 
threat. 

Fester, a sore; as a verb, to rankle. (F. — L.) I have shown 
that the verb to fester occurs in P. Plowman. In my 
Dictionary, I have argued in favour of the supposition that 
the word may be English ; and Mahn does the same. Wedg- 
wood refers us to the Walloon s'Sfisterf to become corrupt, to 
smell badly. I have now no hesitation in saying that we 
are all wrong ; and the solution is easy when once suggested. 
It is a French word, and derived, quite regularly, from the 
Lat. fiatiiln. The proof may be seen in Godefroy, who has 
at last recovered for us both the noun and the verb. The 
verb is festriry to fester, as in "la plaie commence a fentrir*^ 
the wound begins to fester ; it also occurs actively, in the 



BOTES OM ENGLISH ETTMOLOGT. — ^PROF. SKBAT. 297 

sense * to cover with wounds/ The verb is derived from the 
Bb.y which is much commoner^ and spelt in various ways, 
such as fistle, festre^ feste^ feake^ f^q^^ etc., meaning an 
ulcer, or festered wound ; as in — '' Moult boins surgiens est 
ki set warir de festre*' i.e. he is a very good surgeon 
who knows how to cure a fester. The form fie%tre also 
occurs, and this may in a measure account for the fact, 
already proved by me, that the former e in E. /eater was 
sometimes pronounced long. The derivation is obviously, as 
I have said, from Lat. fittula, whence also F. fintule, which 
Cotgrave explains as " the running sore called an issue or 
fistula." Fuftula becomes F. festre and £. fester, just as 
chartula gives F. chartre, E. charter^ and the pi. ace. glandulas 
gives F. glandres^ E. glanders. 

The change from i to e is also regular ; with festre from 
fistula compare sec from siccus, fertne from firtnus, etc. ; see 
Brachet, Hist. Fr. Grammar. 

The result is, accordingly, that in the original French, the 
Terb is derived from the sb., and this will give the true sense 
of the word in English. We must take the sb. fester to 
mean " a running sore," and hence derive the verb. At the 
same time, it would seem that it was, in fact, the verb which 
came first into use in England, and still seems to be the 
more important. 

Fetish. We find " Fetisso, which is a kind of god," in W. 

Dampier (1699), A New Voyage, vol. ii. pt. 2, p. 105. Our 

fetish answers to the F. fetiche ; whereas fetisso answers to 

the Port, feitigo, whence the F. word is borrowed ; as already 

explained. 

Feuter, to lay the spear in rest. (F. — Teut.) *' His speare 
he feutred** ; Spenser, F. Q. iv. 4. 45. The verb is derived 
from M.E. feuter, a rest for a spear ; " With spere festened 
infeuter'' ; Will, of Palerne, 3437 (of. 3593).— 0. F. feutre, 
felt, a piece of felt (Cotgrave) ; older spelling /*'//rtf, a rest 
for the lance, of which numerous examples are given in 
Godefroy. (It is remarkable that this sense is not in Cot* 
grave, nor in Littr^, being now quite lost.) The derivation 
seems to show that the lance-rest was lined or fitted with. 



298 NOTES ON ENGLISH BTTMOLOGY. — PROF. SKSAT. 

felt ; in fact, the F. feutre roeans anything made of felt, as a 
hat ; and the same is true of the Span, fieltro. The F. feuire 
also means a kind of packing or padding, and feutrer is to 
stuff or pad a saddle. Thus the E. sb. feuter is simply *a 
pad.' We find also Port, feltro, Ital. feltro^ felt. All these 
are obviously of Teutonic origin; from the word which 
appears in E. as felt ; cf. Du. vilt^ Swed. and Dan. filtf Or, 
filz ; see Felt in my Diet. I have there remarked that the 
A.8. felt has not yet been exemplified ; it occurs, however, 
in Wright's Vocab. 120. 5—" Centrum, uel filtrum, felt:* 
Diez remarks that the r in feltro is excrescent, as is often 
the case (he says) after t. If we have to account for it by 
analogy, no doubt some reason for it can be produced. 

Mahn, in Webster, gives nearly the correct account, but 
further imagines that the word was influenced by the Lat 
fulcrum^ which is quite needless, and in no way helps us. 

Feuterer, a dog-keeper. (F.— Low. Lat. — C.) In M.E. I 
can only find the entry : " Fedorarius, a fetctrer " ; Wright's 
Yocab. 582. 29. Whether this is the same word, is not 
quite certain. The word is tolerably common in Tudor* 
English, and is used by Ben Jonson, Every Man out of his 
Humour, ii. 1, where Cario calls Puntarvolo "a yeoman* 
feuterer^* because he stands holding his dog. It occurs again 
in Beaumont & Fletcher, and in Massinger; see Nares. 
There is a clear example in Massinger's Picture, Act v. sc. 1, 
quoted by Nares and in Todd's Johnson, where " an honest 
yeoman feuterer'' is explained to be "just such a one as you 
use to a brace of greyhounds," etc. 

The word is certainly a corruption of veuterer, and Phillips 
is right in equating it to a Low Lat. reltrarius, though he does 
not tell us where to find this form, which does not seem to 
be in Ducange. The Low Lat. veutrarius occurs in the Close 
EoUs, 5 Hen. III., m. 7 (vol. i. p. 462) ; see N. & a 
6 S. xii. 370. I suppose that veuterer really stands for 
veutrer, by a slight confusion ; it is derived, by adding the 
suffix -er of the agent, from O.F. ventre, later form vaultre^ 
explained by Cotgrave as '' a mungrell between a hound and 
a maistiffe, fit for the chase or hunting of wild Bears and 



KOTES OK ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — ^PROF. 8KBAT. 299 

Boars.'* The mod. F. mutre is in Littre. The oldest O.F. 
form is relire (see Barguy), the same as Ital. veltro, a grey- 
hound (Florio). DieZy Scheler, Littr^, and Burguy all 
deriTe veitre from Low Lat. ace. veltrum ; and they are agreed 
that this is another form of the word which appears as 
rertagus in Martial, 14. 200. 1, and also as vertaga^ vertraga, 
rertagra, all meaning * greyhound ' ; see Lewis and Short, 
^lian says the word is Celtic (see Diez) ; and, in fact, 
Williams' Com. Diet, gives " guilter, a mastiff." A curious 
trace of the Low Lat. word occurs in Wright's Vocab. 812* 
43, where we find : " Hec teltria, a lese of grehowndes." A 
similar etymology is given in Mahn's Webster ; but Mahn 
suggests an alternative etjrmology from G. futterer, one who 
provides with fodder, quite forgetting that E. words are 
seldom borrowed from High German, and that this quite 
fails to account for the diphthong eu. It is notorious that 
terms of the chase are commonly of F. origin. The change 
from initial / to t' is common. The contrary change, from 
p to /^ is rare ; but there is a clear example in the word 
fitcheSy which occurs three times in the A.y. of the Bible, 
and is put for vetches; from O.F. veche, Lat. uicia. All 
students of Dante remember the famous word veltro (Inf. i. 
101). Wedgwood gives the same etymology, but is very brief. 

Fly, in the sense of * coach.' With respect to this word, 
we must not forget that Sir W. Scott, in 1818, spoke of '' the 
ancient Fit/coaches " ; see the beginning of chap. 1 of the 
Heart of Midlothian. 

Furl. I have shown that furl is a corruption of fardle. I 
find an excellent example in Gelding's Ovid, ed. 1603, 
leaf 138, 1.3. 
'^Anon the Maister cryed — 'strike the topsayle, let the maine 

Sheate file, and /arc//? it to the yard.' Thus spake he, but 
in vaine.' 

Wedgwood cites from Bailey the spelling farihel^ with 
the same sense. Cf. " He that should fardle-up a bundle or 
huddle of the fooleries of mans wisdome, might recount 
wonders ; " (1603) J. Florio, tr. of Montaigne's Essays, b. ii. 
c. 12 ; ed. Morley, p. 278, col. 1. 



300 NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — ^PROP. 8KBAT. 

Gambog^. I have called this word a corraption of Cam- 
bodia. It is now obvious to me that it is not an E. corruption, 
but the necessary form of the name in French. In mod. F. 
the name for gamboge is gomme-gutte^ but Littr^ notes the 
adj. gamhodique^ meaning ' belonging to gamboge.' The 
true £. word is not gamboge^ but cambodia, though it is now 
obsolete. This appears from a notice of *Hhe yellow 
purging Q-um, which we thence call Cambodia** This 
follows upon a description of the country of Cambodia^ by 
W. Dampier (1699), A New Voyage, vol. ii. pt. 1, p. 105. 

Oavial, the crocodile of the Ganges. (F. — Hind.) This 
name is given in Webster and Ogilvie, and the English 
CyclopsDdia gives Oavialis as a genus of the Crocodilida, 
including Gatialis Gangeiicus, the Gavial or Nakoo. The 
form gavial is French, and is given by Littr^. Ogilvie says 
it is the name of the animal in Hindostan ; and there we are 
left, to make what we can of it. By help of Prof. Gowell, I 
learn that it is not the Hindustani name, but only a French 
travesty of it (unless the French took it from us, in which 
case it is an English travesty of it). The Hindustani name 
is ghaviydly a crocodile ; spelt with a peculiar r, so difficult 
for a European to pronounce, that v has been substituted for 
it ; see Piatt, Hind. Diet, 1884, p. 934. Piatt also gives 
the Hindi and Bengali forms, which are much the same. 
Some connect it with a certain Skt. word meaning * plate ' ; 
but Prof. Gowell thinks that this connection is only true of 
the Hind, ghariydl, a plate of brass for beating time, which 
may be merely a homonym, and not the same word. There 
are some splendid specimens of gaviah in the South Kens- 
ington Museum. 

Oeck, a dupe. (Du.) The word is well known as occur- 
ring in Twelfth Night, v. 351. Mr. Wright's note is : " In 
Anglo-Saxon gedCy Mid. E. geke, is a cuckoo, and this is 
always said to be the origin of our word ; but the cuckoo of 
real life is anything but a dupe," It is, however, a fact, 
hitherto unnoticed, that geek is not related to A.S. geac in 
any way whatever. In the first place, the A.S. geac did not 
become geke in M.E., but )eke or yeke, more correctly \eek. 



NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — PROF. SKEAT. 301 

It is very rare, but a quotation for it is given by Halliwell, 
p. 951. In Shakespeare, the alliteration in * geek and gull' 
shows that the g was hard. I do not think that geek will be 
found in Middle-English at all. The word furnishes one 
more example of the fact to which I was, I believe, the first 
to draw attention, viz. that the number of Dutch words 
imported into Tudor-English was considerable. The word is 
not E., but Dutch. Hexham's Du. Dictionary (1658) gives : 
" Gecky a Foole, a Foole in a play, or a Sot ; Oecken, to 
Mock, to Flout, or to Jest ; Geckernye^ Foolerie ; " etc. It 
19 precisely the same word as the G. Geck^ with the like 
sense. The G. Geek is quite distinct from G. Ganch, Kluge 
gives the M.H.G. forms gee, gecke^ meaning 'fool ' ; and, as 
cognate words, the Du. gek^ Dan. gjek^ a fool, Icel. gikkr^ a 
pert, rude person. Thus the word is formed on a base gek-, 
which distinguishes it from G. Ganch, Icel. gaiikr, a cuckoo, 
from the base gauk, strengthened form of geuk. It is 
quite true that the Icel. gatikr produced the Scottish goick, 
M.E. gauk and gok, and that gouk sometimes means a 
simpleton ; but this is a mere coincidence and proves no 
relationship. 

Hatchet. The F. hachette is a dimin. of hache. This, with 
Diez and Littr^, I have derived from the G. hacken, to cut. 
I believe this is now doubted. There is an O.F. hapiettey a 
hatchet (Roquefort), and a Low Lat. hapiola, a hatchet. 
These suggest a Low Lat. ^hapia, which would produce the 
F. fern, hache, precisely as the Lat. qpiuniy parsley, has 
produced ache. If this be right, we must refer hache to the 
O.H.G. happa, a sickle, or rather to some by-form of it. Cf. 
also F. happe, a hook, from happa itself. Further light is 
desired. 

Hay. I have given the etymology of hag from the A.S. 
hig, which is the form occurring in the A.S. Gospels. But 
it answers rather to the form heg, which is also found. 
Examples are : " Foenum, heg " ; Wright's Vocab., ed. 
Wiilcker, 278. 30. " Fenile, heg-hus" i.e. hay-house ; id. 
237. 36. It occurs also in jElfred's tr. of Beda ; see 
Bosworth and Toller's A.S. Diet. In Matt. xiv. 19, we find 



302 NOTES ON ENGLISH BTTHOLOOT. — PROF. 8KEAT. 

the 0. Northumbrian heg^ Mercian hdeg ; of. Icel. hey^ Dan. 
and Swed. ho. 

Hobbledehoy, a lad approaching manhood. (F.) Jamieson 
gives this form, and says it is French, but does not fully 
explain it. Halliwell says that hohledehoy occurs in 1540» in 
Palsgrave's Acolastus. He also remarks — " Tusser says the 
third age of seven years is to be kept under Sir Hobbard de 
Hoy." I wish to correct this, as he has quite misunderstood 
the passage. Tusser, in his Husbandry (E.D.S.), sect. 60, 
says as follows : — 

" The first seven yeers, bring vp as a childe ; 
The next, to learning, for waxing too wilde ; 
The next, keep under sir hobbard-de-hoy.*'* 

That is. Sir Hobbard d^ hoy is to be kept under; under- 
standing by the term a lad who is over 14, and under 21 
years of age. I wonder that no one has yet quite hit off 
this phrase. Jamieson suggests that the first part of the 
word is the F. hobrean (in Cotgrave) ; but he forgets an 
important fact, viz. that hobrean must of necessity have been 
spelt hobrel in 0. French, though this form does not appear 
in Littr^. We might suppose hobble to represent hobbrel, 
but we can do still better ; for Godefroy gives the very form 
hobel, "oiseau de proie." Hobrel, later hobreau, is a mere 
variant of this, and means, says Cotgrave, " the hawk termed 
a hobby; also a mungrell, or halfgentleman, one whose father 
or mother were of mean parentage." Roquefort says only 
" a poor gentleman '* ; and see hobereau in Littr^. This 
agrees well enough with Cotgrave's explanation of marmaille, 
which he says means: " young rascals or scoundrels, the frie 
of the vulgar, a troop of lewd, idle, or unprofitable hober- 
dthoies." Hobble, taken alone, is one of low birth, one of the 
vulgar fry. The youthful age of this particular kind of 
vulgar or mongrel scoundrel is implied by the epithet de hoy, 
i.e. of to-day. Hoy is clearly the O.F. hoi (Burguy), now 
spelt hid; the Span, form remains hoy still. The O.F. hoi is 
Lat. hodie, short for hoc die. Hence hobel de hoy is a vile 
fellow of to-day, a young upstart. Hobel is a diminutive 



VOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — PROF. SKBAT. 303 

of O.F. hobe^ a hobby, and is allied to the E. hohhy, a 
sparrow-hawk, a hawk of small size and iuferior kind, whence 
it passed into a term of contempt. It was even applied to 
girls ; for Cotgrave also gives obereau without the initial A, 
and explains it as '' a hobby (Hawke) ; also, a young minx, 
or little proud squalL" See hobbi/ (1) in my Dictionary. 

Hoekday, Hoke-day, the second Tuesday after Easter. (E.) 
For examples of hoke-day and hoke-tide see Brand's Popular 
Antiquities, where there is an excellent article upon the 
subject. The derivation usually given is, as might be ex- 
pected, from the G. hoch Tag, or Hockzeit. Even Mahn 
knows no better. It is little short of disgraceful that Old 
English should ever be derived from modem German ; of 
course, we are not informed by what channel the word 
reached us, nor why the G. Tag was turned into day, or 
the G. Zeit into tide. It is obvious that we must either treat 
the word as English, or, at any fate, as Scandinavian, or else 
give it up. I shall endeavour to show that it is English. 

Our best guide will be the history of the word. In 
modem books, the vowel is treated either as short or long ; 
but it was originally long, and the more correct form is 
hokeday. The shortening of vowels is not uncommon ; a 
gpood example is supplied by rood, which is the same word as 
rod ; here, as in hokeday, the vowel was originally long. 
Brand gives three quotations from Matthew Paris ; in all 
three it is spelt hokedaie ; Matthew of Westminster also has 
hokeday ; so also hokedai in the Monasticum Anglicum, in an 
instrument dated 1363, and in other authorities; all cited by 
Brand. When we come down to a.d. 1450, we find the 
spelling hok'day. Thus the history shows that the old name 
was hokeday, with a long o, and that it occurs in Matthew 
Paris, who died in 1259. This takes us back to 1250, long 
before the period when Englishmen first became acquainted 
with High German. 

We have next to find the meaning. All the extracts 
show that the day was kept as a boisterous whole holiday, 
devoted to sport and rude merriment. I shall assume that it 
meant ' day of sport,' and see what comes of it. 



304 NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — PROF. SKEAT* 

We have next to turn it into A.S. This is eamly done ; 
for the modem hooky though an unrelated word, answers to 
M.E. hok (with long o), and A.S. hdc. Hence the AJS. for 
hokedai must be ^hdc-dceg. Now I take this *h6c to be the 
very word which Ettmiiller gives as the supposed original 
whence was formed, by adding a suffix, the tolerably common 
A.S. hdcor, hdcer^ mockery, derision, M.E. koker, mockery 
(used by Chaucer). And it is at this point that German 
comes in to our assistance, in a very different way from that 
which is in vogue amongst those who derive Anglo-Saxon 
from German. The Old High Qerman has the exact counter- 
part, the true cognate form, of this missing A.S. *hdc. The 
O.H.G. is huoh, variously spelt huahy huh, M.H.G. huochy 
huch, huh, duly given by Schade as meaning originally 
* laughter,' and hence mockery, derision, and (I would add) 
sport. Schade suggests an ultimate connection with Lat. 
cachinnus, laughter, 6k. Kay^d^ecv, Skt. kakh, to laugh, from 
the imitative root kak, to laugh. My proposal is, ac- 
cordingly, to explain *hdcd(Bg as laughter-day, day of fun 
and mockery, and hence to derive hokeday. 

In support of this, let me just say that the day was one 
not merely of sport, but of actual mockery and derision. 
The hoke-tide included hoke-Monday and hoke- Tuesday, the 
latter being also called hake-day. The Monday was for the 
men, and the Tuesday for the women. " On both days the 
men and women, alternately, with great merriment inter- 
cepted the public roads with ropes, and pulled passengers to 
them, from whom they exacted money, to be laid out in 
pious uses." The gist of the sport was to heap derision on 
the unoffending passer-by. At some places the men used 
to " hoc the women on Monday, and contra on Tues- 
day." This is a plain proof that actual mockery, or 
as we should now call it * horse-play,' was the real business 
of the season, as shown by the verb to hoc. 

If this derivation may be allowed, we may at once go a 
step further, and explain the festival once common at harvest- 
home in East Anglia, and known as the hoky, hawkie, hocky, 
or (corruptly) horkey. Here again we start from the form 



1C0TE8 OK ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — PROF. 8KEAT. 305 

hoky, which is simply the adjective of hoke^ answering to an 
A.S. form *h6cig. The connection is proved by the use of the 
word Mck'Cart in connection with this feast. Herrick, in his 
Hesperides, has a poem called "The Hock-cart, or the Harvest 
Home.'* It was also called the Hockey-cart. The long o 
reappears in the spelling Hoacky in the lines in Poor Robin's 
Almanack for August, 1676 : 

" Hoacky is brought home with hallowing, 
Boys with plumb-cake the cart following." 

At the harvest-home, it was usual to distribute cake to the 
poor. This was called the Hoky-cake or Hockey-cake. All 
these particulars are given by Brand. The hoky was not 
necessarily accompanied by horse-play ; but it was incum- 
bent on all to make as much noise as possible, by loud 
shouting and promiscuous singing, a drummer or taborer 
accompanying the hock-cart. 

The connection of hockey or hoky with hock-day or hoke-day 
is suggested by Mahn ; but he refers us, for both words, to 
the G. hoch ! 

A precisely similar variation of yowel- sounds is shown in 
the name of the game hockey^ hawkey, or hookey ; formed in 
precisely the same way from the homonym hdc, a hook ; see 
my Dictionary on the word. 

Hopscotch. The origin of this word, aS' the name of a 
game, is given by Brand, in his Popular Antiquities, ed. 
Ellis, iL 440. It is an unmeaning perversion of Scotch- 
hoppers, which is the old name in Poor Robin's Almanack 
for 1677, where poor Robin tells us '* the time when school- 
boys should play at Scotch- hoppers.'' Why the hoppers 
should be Scotch, we have yet to learn. Perhaps it was 
a Northern game. Jamieson alludes to the game of Scots 
and English, which I suppose was what is now called ' the 
tug of war.' In my early days, the * tug of war ' was called 
French and English. 

Inyeigle. I have shown, in my Supplement, the proba- 
bility that inveigle is nothing but a corrupt form of the late 
M.E. aveugle, to blind, to cajole. My theory of the word is 

FliiL TnuM . ISSM. 20 



306 NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — ^PROF. SKBAT. 

this. The etymology of the F. verb aveugler^ to blind 
{z:z*ab'Oculare), was not obvious, and so it was thought that 
the prefix was not av-, but a-. Precisely the same remark 
applies to the F. avanf, which was certainly misdivided as 
a-vant, as proved by the words vangitard^ rambrace, and ramp. 
Now eih- was a common F. prefix, which had a peculiar 
force, nearly equivalent to E. be- ; so that, e.g. Ootgrave 
translates F. enfrattger by the E. to be-fringe. Hence it 
seemed a much more reasonable prefix to put to a word 
which was to be used to mean ' to befool ' ; so that a F. 
enveugler may easily have been used for avevgkr, and so an 
E. en-veugle for a-veugle might arise, and be further converted 
into invegle or inveigle ; we must remember that F. ateugler 
was also spelt avegler. I should not have adduced this 
speculation, if it were a mere theory ; I rather draw atten- 
tion to it because it is a fact, that such a corruption actually 
took place in Anglo-French. In "William of Wadington's 
Manuel des Peches, ed. Furnivall, 1. 10639, we really find 
the word enveoglir, to blind ; which is an obvious corruption 
of aveoglir. This form is not noticed by Godefroy ; and I 
must observe that this most important book, for which we 
must all be grateful, is extremely imperfect. I constantly 
fail to find in it words that must have certainly existed. The 
mod. E. inveigle is derived from the Anglo-French enreoglir. 
Moreover, this ^singular corruption is not confined to this 
particular word. There are at least two similar examples, 
viz. in the verb to impoverish and in the sb. imposthume. In 
the former case, the O.F. verb was aponnr or appovrir; but 
the Anglo- French forms were enpovrir and empovrir. For 
the references, see Impoverish in the Supplement to my 
Dictionary. Again, the sb. aposteme became apostume, impoa^ 
tume, and imposthume ; see Aposteme in Part II. of the New 
English Dictionary. Here the initial a of the Gk. airo was 
actually turned into im- ; as if from Lat. in. 

Jupon, a kind of overcoat. The jupon is the same as 
Chaucer's gepoun or gipoun, C.T. 75, 2122. In the latter 
passage, Dry den writes Jupon; Palamon, 1304. The F. 
forms in Cotgrave are gippon, jupon, a short cassock ; from 



KOTKS OIC ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — PROF. 8KEAT. 307 

jffppe^ a cassock. The latter is tbe same as Ital. giubba, 
Span, aljuha. Minsheu's Span. Diet. (1623) has: **afjubon 
Mormco, a Moorish eassocke ; aljuba, a kind of long Moorish 
caasocke comming below the knee." The word is Moorish, i.e. 
Arabic. From Arab, jubbat, explained as " a waistcoat with 
cotton qnilted between the outside and lining ; " Rich. Diet, 
p. 494. So Diez, Scheler, and Littr^. Halliweirs additions 
to Nares give an example of the shorter form jupf a petticoat. 

Kelpie, a ghostly water-horse. (Gael.) Jaraieson says of 
kelpie: — "lean form no idea of the origin of this term, 
nnless it be originally the same with ca/f; kelpie being 
described as a quadruped, and as making a loud bellowing 
noise. This, however, it is said, rather resembles the neighing 
of a horse.'* Further light is thrown upon the matter by a 
passage quoted by Brand ; see his Antiquities, ed. Ellis, ii. 
513. Oraham, in his Sketches of Perthshire, 1812, p. 245, 
says : — " Every lake has its keJpie^ or water- horse, often seen 
by the shepherd, as he sat in a summer's evening upon the 
brow of a rock, dashing along the surface of the deep, or 
browsing on the pasture- ground upon its verge." We thus 
see that the kelpie is a kind of horse, that makes a loud 
bellowing or neighing sound, and browses beside a lake. It 
is highly probably that the word is Gaelic. There is a Gaelic 
word which seems to me sufficiently near it to be worthy of 
notice. Macleod and Dewar give the Gael, cnlpach, colpach, 
"a heifer, a steer, a bullock, a colt;" colpa, "a cow or horse." 
Tbe Irish is colpa, colpach^ ''a cow, heifer, bullock, steer, 
colt " ; OTlemy. 

f en n el (1). I have said that a kennel for a dog answers 
to Low Lat. canile. This word is not in Ducange. It 
occurs, however, twice in Wright's Vocabularies, ed. 
Wiilcker, 198. 29 ; and 380. 38. «' Canile, domus cants, 
hunda bus " ; and *^ Canile, hunda bus." 

Kraal, a village, in S. Africa. We sometimes see mention 
of a Cafire kraal. Webster says it is pronounced with the 
oa as a in father, or else like the E. crawl. He calls it a 
Dutch word, but suggests that it was borrowed from a native 
language. It occurs to me to suggest that the word was 



808 NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — PROF. SKBAT. 

probably Portuguese, and that, whereas the Da. kraal mB 
borrowed from a word used by the natives, the natives them- 
selves may have borrowed it from Portuguese; just as we 
find the words fetish and assegai to be of Portuguese origin. 
I therefore suggest the Port, curral, an enclosure for cattle, 
a fold for sheep, the true sense being enclosure. This would 
be a very natural word to apply to the African village ; and, 
in fact, "Webster explains Du. kraal to mean "village, 
enclosure, park." The Spanish form is corral, meaning a yard 
or enclosure, especially for cattle, near a house; and this 
word corral is not uncommon in English books. 

The Span, corral is extended from corro, a ring of people 
formed to see a show ; corro in Portuguese means an area in 
which to bait bulls. Diez thinks that this sb. was developed 
from the Span, phrase correr toros, to run bulls, to hold a 
bull-fight. If so, the etymology is from Lat. currerCy to run. 

Lagoon. I have given this word as Italian, but I believe 
we shall find that, as a fact, we first took this word from the 
Spanish laguna. Thus Dampier says (A New Voyage, 1699, 
i. 241) — " The mouth of this Lagune is not Pistol-shot wide.*' 
And again, in vol. iii. p. 8, speaking of a city near Santa 
Cruz, he says — " This City is called Laguna from hence : for 
that word in Spanish signifies a Lake or Pond.'' Thns the 
English got their experience of the use of the word lagoon 
from the W. Indies, and not (as I supposed) from Venice. 

Lanner, Lanneret, a kind of falcon. (F. — L.) These words 
are given in Nares ; lanner occurs in Skelton's Philip Sparowe, 
1. 565 ; lanret in the Prompt. Parv. Lanneret is merely the 
diminutive form. From F. lanier, * a lanner * ; Cotgrave. 
From Lat. laniariiis, a butcher ; or properly, that which 
tears and rends. The canine teeth are sometimes called in 
E. the laniary teeth. The verb is laniare, to tear, from the 
sb. latiius, a butcher. The root of lanius is uncertain, but 
there is probably a connection with lacerare, to lacerate. 

The et3rmology of lanner is given in Webster ; but I intro- 
duce it here because it enables me to solve the difficult word 
lani/ard. 

lanyard. I have shown that the d in this word is 



NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — PROF. SKEAT. 309 

ezcrescent, and that the M.E. lan}er occurs in the Catholicon 
Anglicum, with the sense of Hhong' ; also, spelt iai/ner, in 
TreYisa's tr. of Higden, v. 369. I might have added that 
the pL layneres occurs in the Knightes Tale, 1. 1646. It is, 
of coarse, the P. laniere, a thong, explained in Cotgrave. 
The diflSculty lies solely in the fact that the origin of this 
F. word is unknown. Littr^ shows that it can hardly be 
from Lat. kma, wool; and it is difficult to see how it is 
derived from Lat. ianiare, to tear. And here he leaves the 
problem, just where I have left it myself in my Dictionary. 
Yet the etymology is really simple enough, when once the 
connection is perceived, Cotgrave gives the pi. lanieres with 
the sense * hawks' lunes,' i.e. thongs for fastening a hawk to 
the wrist. Now the preceding entry in Cotgrave is lanier, 
' a lanner,' where a lanner is a kind of hawk. I submit that 
we have here the missing connection. The hawk was named 
laniarins^ *the render,' from laniare^ to tear; hence the adj. 
laniaria^ scilicet linea, the line belonging to the hawk, a 
thong for a lanner, afterwards extended in use so as to 
include thongs of all kinds. All that we need to alter is the 
order of the meanings as given in Cotgrave. I would take 
laniere^ a hawk's lune, first: and hence deduce the other 
senses, viz. * a long and narrow band, or thong of leather ; 
also, a leathern string to hang keyes at.' Hence lanyard can 
be safely referred back to the verb laniare and the sb. lanim. 
In further illustration of the excrescent d in lanyard, let me 
remark that even the word lanner, a hawk, occurs with a 
final d, " Lanards and goshawks, sparhawks, and ravenous 
birds " ; Lingua (old play) ; in Hazlitt's Old Plays, ix. 379. 

lilt, to sing, to dance, to jerk, to spring. This word occurs 
in Middle-English, though the Dictionaries do not say so. 
Yet it is used by Chaucer in his House of Fame, pt. iii. 1. 133 
(1. 1223), where the Tanner MS. has : " And many floyte 
and liUyng-horne,'' i.e. and many a flute and horn that makes 
lively music, or horn to dance to. Again, in the Houlate, 
St. lix. 1. 761, we find: "the lilt-pype and the lute, the 
fydill in fist." The Dictionaries give no etymology that I 
can find. However, the word is probably Scandinavian, and 



\ 



310 NOTES ON ENGLISH ETTMOLOOT. — ^PBOF. SKEAT. 

allied to our lull, to sing to sleep. Of. Norweg. Ntta^ firfa, 
to sing in a high tone (Aasen) ; Old. Swed. fyUa, to InU 
to sleep, given by Rietz under lulia, which is still used in 
the same sense. Rietz also notices the dialectal Swed. HIbL 
The connection with lull is proved by the Du. luUep^'Pf m 
bag-pipe. Hexham gives the 0. Du. luUen^ *^ to keepe the 
tune in a song ; d^n lul, the resounding in a song ; een luUe* 
pi/pey a bagg-pipe.'' The t in lilt seems to be excresoent, 
or is, in any case, a suffix. The primary sense is to aiDg 
cheerfully, then to play dance- music. 

Lither, pestilent. In 1 Uenr}'' YI. iv. 7, is a passage where 
Talbot sees the body of his son borne before him, and, being 
himself severely wounded, speaks thus of his own death. 

** Thou antic Death, which laugh'st us here to scorn. 
Anon, from thine insulting tyranny . • . 
Two Talbots wingdd, through the lither sky, 
In thy despite, shall 'scape mortality.*' 

Here Dyce says it means yielding^ in which he follows Nares ; 
and he adds that it cannot mean lazy or idle^ as it has been 
wrongly explained. Here he has a fling at Staunton, who 
suggests this explanation. But Staunton is much nearer the 
truth, as will appear. Nares says lither is soft, yielding, 
pliable; the comparative of lithe. He then quotes this 
passage, and four others. In the last passage of the five, he 
admits that the sense is ' idle ' ; in all the other cases he is 
wrong, as the context proves. The second passage speaks of 
^lither legs,' i.e. lazy legs; the third passage speaks of a 
' losel lyther and lasye,' i.e. a scamp who is idle and lazy ; 
the fourth passage speaks of ladies daubing their * lither 
cheekes,' i.e. their sickly cheeks, with paint. Nares also 
gives lUhernesa (with two examples) meaning laziness or 
weakness. The upshot is, that there is not the faintest 
pretence for connecting lither with lithe. They are totally 
distinct words, from different roots. Lithe is A.S. IfSe; 
whereas lit/ier (with short t) is A.S. ly^er. Lither means 
bad, evil, lazy, idle, sickly, and the like. As applied to air, 
it means stagnant, pestilent or deadly ; this is the precise 



VOTES OK ENGLISH BTTMOLOOT. — ^PBOF. 8KEAT. 311 

flense intended in the passage under consideration, and fits 
the ocmtexl The two Talbots will escape from death, because 
they will take wings, and fly beyond the stagnant or deadly 
sky immediately above them, to the regions of heaven. A 
passage in Piers Plowman, G. xvi. 220, is curions. A wafer- 
maker says that he wishes the Pope's bull had power to cure 
the pestilence, and that it would *' letten this lather eir, and 
lechen the syke,'' i.e. hinder or put a stop to this pestilential 
air, and cure the sick. I protest against the usual ex- 
planation of lUheVf adopted by Dr. Schmidt, because it is 
quite uncalled for, and very clumsy. If the % were long, 
then Uther could not mean yielding, as asserted, but must 
mean ' more yielding,' i.e. it must be in the comparatiye 
degree, contrary to common sense. It is true that compara- 
tives are sometimes used in the sense of ' rather ' ; but the 
sense ' rather yielding * is here ridiculous. HalliweU gives 
prov. E. lithy as meaning (1) pliant, supple; (2) heavy, 
warm, as applied to the weather. He does not say how this 
form is pronounced. It is probable that lithy (with long t), 
is allied to lithe ; and that lithy (with short t) is a mere 
error for litheVy i.e. stagnant, muggy. It is much to be 
regretted that compilers of prov. E. glossaries so often take 
pains to conceal the pronunciation of the words. 

Loon (1), Lown. I have shown that the final letter in this 
word was formerly not n, but m. There is a curious con- 
firmation of this in the fact that the O.F. form (borrowed 
from a Tent, source) was lomme. This O.F. word is ignored 
by Burguy, Roquefort, and Cotgrave; but it occurs in Le 
Mystere de Saint Louis, p. 188, col. 1. The passage is cited 
by Michel in his Critical Inquiry into the Scottish Lan- 
guage, p. 371. 

Karchpane, a sweet cake, made with almonds and sugar. 
(F. — Ital.) Marchpane occurs in Romeo and Juliet, i. 6. 9, 
and is well illustrated in a note by Fumess. It is also given 
1^ Nares. The word does not seem to be much older than 
1560. It was borrowed from the O.F. marsepaiHy now spelt 
maasepaiHy which see in Littr^. The French word was bor- 
rowed from Italian. Florio, ed. 1598, has : '^ Mardapane, a 



Sm NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — PROF. SKEAT. 

kind of banquetting meat called a marchpane " ; also spelt 
by him marzapane. Pane is bread, from Lat. aoc. panem. 
The origin of marza is unknown. Mahn guesses it to be 
from Gk. /Lta^a, barley-bread, which may confidently be 
rejected, as that word is the origin of the F. masse^ E. iiwrw ; 
and barley-bread is very different from almond-cake. Another 
guess, is that it is from a maker's name, such as would result 
from turning the Latin Martins or Martia into Italian. This 
is probable, but, from the nature of the case, cannot well be 
verified. That such a thing is possible is shown by the 
English word sallj/'lunn, which is a kind of tea-cake named 
after a woman who sold it. The Ital. form shows that it 
cannot possibly be from the Lat. name Marcus, as suggested 
in Nares. 

Milliner. That the word milliner originally meant a seller 
of * Myllain bonets ' is generally accepted ; see Palmer's 
Folk- Etymology. But I here note that the right reference 
to the passage which proves this, is to The Privy Purse 
Expenses of Henry VIII., ed. Nicolas, p. 337, quoted in 
Croft's edition of Sir T. Elyot's The Qovemour, vol. ii. p. 
19, note h. Here the seller of * MvUain bonets ' is named 
* Chrystopher Myllonere.* 

Minx, a pert, wanton girl. This word occurs in Twelfth 
Night, iii. 4. 133. Mr. Wright, in his note on the line (1. 
114 in his edition), says it is "of very certain meaning, but 
uncertain etymology ** ; and shows that it occurs in Cot- 
grave, s.v. Gadroniiiette, and again, s.v. Obereau, Cotgrave 
calls it *a feigned word, appliable to any such cattle.' In 
my Dictionary, I have suggested a connection with the 
O.Du. minneken, my love ; but I add, that this does not 
account for the x. I have now another derivation to pro- 
pose, in which I have much more faith. I still hold that it 
was a cant word, introduced, as so many were in the Tudor 
period, from the Netherlands. It is precisely the E. Friesio 
minsk, also found in Low German (Bremen dialect), though 
the usual Dutch spelling is mensch, as in High German. 
Koolman also gives the West Friesic minsche^ O. Fries. 
minscha, mod. Fries, minsk, so that there is plenty of authority 



BOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — PROF. SKEAT. 313 

for the vowel i. The point of this derivation lies in the 
precise equivalence of the terms. As to the sense, Eoolman 
explains that all depends upon the gender. If the word is 
masculine, it means a reasonable being ; but if neuter, it is 
applied to the female sex only, though not altogether (as he 
says) in a bad sense ; as teat ml dat minak, i.e. what does the 
creature want P The Bremen minsk is chiefly used of a 
woman, especially if one speaks of her with a touch of 
contempt ; the phrase sik heminsken means to marry, i.e. to 
be-minx oneself. In German der Mensch means ' the man ' ; 
bat diis Mensch means * the wench, the hussy.' As to the 
further etymology, see Metn'ch in Kluge. 

Mob. That mob is a contraction of mobile is most clearly 
shown by the fact that Dryden writes mobile in his Don 
Sebastian, Act i. Sc. 1 ; whereas in Act iii. Sc. 3 of the very 
same play, the word is mob. The date of this play is 16^0. 
Nares points out that it is spelt mob in 1692. Mr. Terry 
observes, in N. & Q. 6 S. xii. 406, that the form mob 
occurs in John Wilson's Belphegor, licensed Oct. 13, 1690, at 
p. 380 of the reprint in 1874. Since then, a still earlier 
example has been pointed out by Mr. A. WalHs, in N. and 
a. 6 S. xii. bOi :—'' Bel fond, sen. The Mobile! That's 
pretty ! "—Shadwell, Squire of Alsatia, 1688, 4to. p. 3; 
whilst at p. 59, Sir William says to the rabble — " Here, 
honest Mob." It is spelt mobile, says Mr. Wallis, in 
the preface to A Satyr against Commonwealth, London, 
1684, fol. Hence the earliest date yet found is 1688. 

Moidore ; see Moy (below). 

l^oy, a piece of money. Nares shows that mo^ is twice 
used by Pistol in the sense of * piece of money ' ; see Hen. V. 
iv, 4. 15, 22. Mr. Wright says that "Douce pointed out 
that moidore was of Portuguese origin, moeda (=moneta) 
d'ouro [money of gold], and that it was unknown in Eng- 
land in Shakespeare's time. He himself derives moy from 
the French muy, muid, a bushel." I do not accept Dyce's 
conclusion. There is no necessity to explain it with 
reference to the particular Portuguese coin called the 
moidore. It is simply the general Portuguese term moeda. 



314 NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — ^PROF. SKBAT. 

meaning " money, coin, or specie " ; Vieyra. This general 
term is far older than the derivative moeda d*ouro. Pistol's 
speech occurs in his dispute with his French prisoner, so 
that nioy is, in all probability, a French modification of the 
Portuguese moeda. That there must have been such a modi- 
fication is obvious from the word moidare itself. I have 
given the usual derivation of moidore from the Port, moeda 
d'ouro, which is the Port, name for that coin ; but I now 
believe this to be a mistake, and that the word was not 
borrowed by us from Portuguese directly, but came to us in 
a Frenchified form. It is clear to me that the syllable -dore 
is precisely the French d'or, a translation of the Port. 
d'ouro. And in the same way, the syllable moi- is a French 
pronunciation of the Port, moeda. The word moidore is not 
in Littr^, but that does not prove that it was never in use. 
I have little doubt that it must have been in use for a short 
time at least, probably about the year 1700. Similarly mo(/ 
or moie may easily have been a French cant term for money, 
modified from the Port. word. There is at present a Brazilian 
gold coin, called simply moeda, worth £1 15$. Id. See Engl. 
Cycl. art. Money, col. 736. 

Mondongus, ill-scented tobacco. (Span.) This curious 
word is somewhat famous for its occurrence in 1. 21 of that 
excellent poem by Philips called The Splendid Shilling, 
written in 1703 ; see Johnson's Dictionary. Bailey says 
that it was applied to anything having an ofiensive smell. 
Mmidungus is a Latinised form of the older term mundungo, a 
name for ill-scented tobacco, used in 1689 ; see Nares. It 
can hardly be doubted that we borrowed the word from the 
Span, mondongo, which properly means hog-puddings or 
tripes, a strong- smelling dish sold to the poor. I find a MS. 
note by Dr. Pegge, in which he refers us to the Life of 
Gusman de Alfarache, 1622, foL, p. 39, and part ii. p. 274. 
Mondongo is probably allied to the Span, mondefo^ the paunch 
of a pig or sheep stufied with mincemeat. And, though the 
suffixes ofier some difficultv, both of these words are almost 
certainly founded upon the verb mondar, to cleanse, to peel, 
to pick bones, from the adj. mondo (Lat. muftdua), clean. It 



KOTBS OK XNGLTSH ETTMOLOGT. — ^PROP. SKEAT. 315 

is rather curious that this Lat. word should have produced a 
deriTative with so widely different a meaning. The spelling 
mundungua may have been due to an association of idea with 
funffUH. 

Ombre. We get a probable date for the introduction of 
this card-game into England from a hint given in Brand's 
Antiquities^ ed. Ellis, ii. 450. " The Spanish game of ombre 
is supposed by Barrington to have been introduced into this 
country by Catharine of Portugal, the Queen of Charles II., 
as Waller has a poem — On a Card torn at Ombre by the 
Queen.'' The title of this poem is incorrectly given ; it 
appears among Waller's epigrams, with the title — "Written 
on a card that her Majesty tore at Ombre." Queen Catharine 
came to England in 1662 ; she ceased to be Queen in 1685. 

One. Already spelt tcon in the fifteenth century. See 
Zupitza's note to 1. 7927 of Guy of Warwick ; and 1. 12 of 
Sir Amadas, ed. Weber. 

Paddock. I have said that paddock, an enclosure, is a 
corruption of parrock. This is proved by the fact that 
" Parrocka" in the hundred of Twyford, Kent, is now 
known as Paddock Wood, where there is a railway station. See 
Archseologia Cantiana, xiiu 128 ; Hasted, Hist, of Kent, 
8vo. V. 286. 

Pall-mall. I have treated this word under Mall (2) in my 
Dictionary. Jn the Supplement (also under Mall (2) ), I 
give the reference to N. & Q. 6 S. vi. 29, where Dr. Chance 
proves, at any rate to his own satisfaction, that the Italian 
paila^maglio meant ball played with a mallet, and therefore 
mallet-ball or ' mail-ball.' But it is at any rate certain that the 
word was not so understood in England. Perhaps wrongly, 
we took it to mean the converse, viz. ball-mallet, or mallet 
for playing at ball. This is shown by a quotation in Brand's 
Popular Antiquities (see Pali-Mall in the index), which gives 
a reference twenty years earlier than any I have as yet 
observed. Brand says, "In a most rare book, entitled the 
French Garden for English Ladies and Gentlewomen to 
walke in, 1621, in a dialogue, the lady says: 'If one had 
paille-matls, it were good to play in this alley, for it is of a 



816 KOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — ^PROF. 8KRAT. 

reasonable good length, Btraight and even/ And a note in 
the margin informs us : 'A paille-mal is a wooden hammer 
set to the end of a long stafie to strike a boule with, at which 
game noblemen and gentlemen in France doe play much. * " 
Brand even gives an earlier quotation, dated 1598, which 
alludes to palk-maille as being a favourite exercise in France, 
and says that it had not, at that date, been introduced into 
England. The game was therefore introduced later than 
1598, and earlier than 1621. Torriano, s.v. Mag ho, says : — 
" also as Pallamaglio " ; but he omits PaUamaglio in its due 
place. In the English index he explains pall-mall as gioco 
di pallu nmglio. 
Paramatta. See Parramatta. 

Parramatta. I have already explained that parramatta is 
a kind of cloth, named from Parramatta, in New South 
"Wales. I have spelt it paramatta hitherto, with one r, as it 
is given in Black's Atlas. But a correspondent who lived there 
for two years tells me that it should have a double r ; also, 
that it is a native name, and signifies ' place of eels.' On my 
asking which part of the word meant * place,' I am told : — 
" It is a safe guess that parra means ' eels,' and matfa means 
* place ' ; for Parramatta is on a river (of the same name), 
and Cahramatla, some ten miles distant, is not. Water in 
Australia, except in rivers, is very scarce." 
Pheeze. See Feeze. 

Pickaback. To carry a person pickaback is to carry him on 
one's shoulders ; see Halliwell. The old form of the word is 
pickapack (Webster) ; or pickpack (Nares). Pick is the old 
form of pitchy and means to throw ; the pack is the pedlar's 
pack. To carry pickpack is to carry in the way in which a 
pedlar pitches a pack, i.e. upon the shoulders. I find an 
example in The Rehearsal (1671), Act iv. sc. 1 — " Pages . . . 
With empty arms I'll bear you on my back. Smith. A 
pick-a-pack, a pick-a-pack," i.e. in the manner of pitching a 
pack. The former fl=on, in. 

Pilcrow, a paragraph mark. (F. — L. — Gk.) A pilcrow is a 
rather common old word, signifying a paragraph, and was 
particularly used of the mark now printed If. This mark 



irOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — PROF. SKEAT. 317 

was formerly used to denote the beginning of a new para- 
graph or section of a book or poem, and is common in MSS. 
It is sufficient to refer to Way's note on the word Pykrnfte 
in the Promptorium Parvuloruin, and to Nares, s.v. PUcrow. 
Wedgwood gives the etymology, but too briefly. Nares 
says : " Minshew supposes it to be corrupted from para- 
graphus; but what process, it is not easy to guess." This is 
quite right ; it is, in fact, a doublet oi paragraph ; and I will 
now show the Aill process, which may well be said to be 
difficult to guess. 

First of all, the Lat. paragraphuB became F. paragraphe. 
This is given by Cotgrave, who has : ** paragraphe, a Para- 
graffe, or Pillcrow ; ... as much as is comprehended in one 
sentence or section." The next form is paragraffe, just cited 
as an E. word from Cotgrave. After this, the middle a was 
dropped, and an excrescent t added at the end. This is 
quoted by Way from the Ortus Vocabulorum : ** Para^ 
graphtis, Anglice, a pargrafte in writing." The next step is 
the corruption from pargrafte to the form pylcrafte in the 
Promptorium. This is rather violent, but we must remember 
that the change of r to / is the commonest of all changes in 
every Aryan language, that the prefixes par- and per^ were 
convertible, and that the change from per- to pil- occurs in 
the common English word pilgrim^ in which per- passes into 
pil* through the F. pel- in pelerin. This shows the precise 
process ; pargrafte became *pergrafte^ then ^pelgrafte, then 
^pilgrqfte^ and finally pilcrafte, with c for g. The change 
from g U> c easily took place when the original form had 
become entirely obscured. After this, a further corruption 
took place, from pilcrafle to pi/crow. This was due to mere 
laziness. The excrescent t was again dropped, giving j^tTitTa/, 
and then the -craf became -crow. Hence we get the full 
order of successive forms, viz, paragraphe, paragraffe, *pargraf, 
pargrafte, *pergrafte, *pelgrafle, *ptlgrafte, pilcrafle, *pilcraf 
pilcrow. Not all of these forms are found, but a sufficient 
number of them appear to enable us to trace the complete 
process ; at the same time, it is highly probable that some of 
these steps were passed over by a sudden leap. We may 



818 NOTES ON ENGLISH ETTMOLOOT^ — ^PBOF. SKBAT. 

assume, as safBciently proved, that pilcrow and paragr^ph^ 
vords used with precisely the same meaningy are meie 
doublets. 

I have already given this explanation of pilcrow in my 
Dictionary, s.v. Paragraph; but as my account, like Mr. 
Wedgwood's, is extremely brief, it seemed worth while to 
draw it out in full. 

Curiously enough, the story does not end here. There 
is yet a third form of this unlucky word. Some people 
dropped the medial -ag- in par-ag-raph^ thus bringing the 
two r's together, and forming paraph or paraf. This also 
appears from the Prompt. Parv., which gives : " Paraf of 
a booke, or paragraf^ Paraphus, Paragraphus." The Old 
Spanish also has paraf o ; see Minsheu and Peroyuall ; the 
modern Span, has parrafo, as well as paragrafo. The form 
paraffe occurs also in the Catholicon Anglicum ; and I take 
the opportunity of pointing out that Mr. Herrtage is wrong 
in identifying this with the F. paraffe or paraphe, given by 
Cotgrave and Littre. The distinction is rather subtle. The 
M.E. paraf aod Span, parrafo are both masculine, and 
represent the Ok. irapdypa^o^f a paragraph-mark ; but 
Cotgrave's paraph e is feminine, and represents the Gk. 
7raparfpa<f>i^, a marginal note. This is why the meaning of 
the F. paraphe is not ' paragraph ' at all, but a flourish or 
subsignature under a man's signing of his name. 

Plot (1), a conspiracy. I have stated my belief that plot, 
in the sense of * conspiracy,' is short for cowploty used in the 
same sense. It may be fairly objected, that this is not 
possible, on the ground that an accented syllable is never 
lost ; so that the short form of cofnplot would rather be 
comp than pht. But I should answer to this, that the 
accent of complot may have been variable, as some examples 
suggest ; at any rate, the verb seems to have been sometimes 
complot^ with the accent on the latter syllable. Shakespeare's 
use of the word is remarkable. In Rich. II. i. 1. 96, we have : 
" That all the treasons for these eighteen years Comploited 
and contrived in this land"; and only four lines lower: 
'* That he did plot the Duke of Gloucester's death." In the 



XOTSS ON ENGLISH ETTMOL06T. — PROF. SKEAT. 319 

same play we have bath words in one line : " To phf^ 
coDtrive, or eomplot any ill/' i. 3. 189. 

It has been suggested to me by Dr. Fennell that plot is 
really short for plat/arm, the use of which word is very 
curious. This I could hardly admit, if it were not that I 
had found plotform used as an oocasioDal variant of it. PhU 
form occurs in Dodsley's Old Plays, ed. Hazlitt, viii. 423, in 
the sense of contrivance ; " A sudden ploifortn comes into my 
my mind." Collier's note says : " In Sir John Oldcastle, by 
Drayton and others, first printed in 1600, it is used with the 
same meaning as in the text, viz. a contrivance for giving 
effect to the conspiracy. ' There is the platform^ and their 
hands, my lord, Each severally subscribed to the same.' " I 
again find phtforme for phiforme in Gascoigne's Works, ed. 
Hazlitt, ii. 304. Nares gives examples involving the phrases : 
" I am devising a platform in my head " — " went and dis- 
covered the whole platform of the conspiracie." We thus 
see that platfortn meant much the same as plot, and that 
plotform was a variant. Platform also meant a ground-plan, 
and I have little doubt that it was confused with the totally 
different word plat or plot, a patch of ground ; this would 
tend to cause the second syllable to be dropped. As at 
present advised, my belief is that the modern E. plot^ a 
conspiracy, is the result of confusion ; and that it was 
influenced by all three words which I have mentioned, viz. 
the verb to eomplot, the sb. platform, and the sb. plot of 
ground. What was the proportional relative eflScacy of 
these three words in producing the new word plot, it is for 
the Dictionary-slips to determine. When the words eomplot, 
platform and plot (of ground) have all been thoroughly 
worked out, we may be confident that the true mode of 
formation of plot, a conspiracy, will appear. 

Porter. That ' London porter ' is so called from being 
drink for porters, who require to use great strength, has 
always been accepted. My object now is merely to supply 
the date. 

In Timbs' Curiosities of London, p. 59, is a useful notice 
of the London Breweries. Timbs remarks that '^ the great 



320 KOTES ON BNGLTSH ETYMOLOGY. — PROP. SKEAT. 

increase in the [brewing] trade appears to date from tlie 
origin of Porter." He then quotes the following: — "Prior 
to the year 1730, publicans were in the habit of selling ale, 
beer, and two-penny, and the thirsty souls of that day were 
accustomed to combine either of these in a drink called 
half-and-half. From this they proceeded to spin 'three 
threads,' as they called it, or to have their glasses filled from 
each of the three taps. In the year 1730, however, a 
certain publican, named Horwood, to save himself the 
trouble of making this triune mixture, brewed a liquor 
intended to imitate the taste of the * three threads,' and to 
this he applied the term entire. This concoction was ap- 
proved, and being puffed as good porters* drinks it speedily 
came to be called porter itself." — Quarterly Review, 1854. 
In the Gentleman's Magazine, November, 1785, p. 958, 
porter is said to have been first brewed by Ralph Harwood, 
at the place afterwards called Proctor's Brewhouse, on the 
East Side of the High Street, Shoreditch. This information 
is repeated in the same, in Part I. for 1819, p. 395, where 
some lines are quoted written by Gutteridge, a native of 
Shoreditch parish. They begin — 

'* Harwood, my townsman, he invented first 
Porter, to rival wine, and quench the thirst," etc. 

It would seem, then, that the inventor's name was really 
Harwood rather than Horwood. 

Prise, Prize, a lever. I have suggested that the phrase 
' to prise open a box ' is due to the use of prise in the sense 
of * a lever.' This sense I took from Halliwell. It is con- 
firmed by the actual occurrence of M.E. prise in this sense. 
We find it in the legend of St. Erkenwald, 1. 70; pr. in 
Horstmann, Altenglische Legende, Neue Folge, 1881, p. 267. 
The story is that a tomb was found, and it was thought 
advisable to break open the lid ; whereupon the workmen 

" Putten prises ]?er-to, pinchid one vnder, 
Kaghtene by ]?e comers with crotces of yme. 
And, were ]?e lydde neuer so large, )>ai laide hit by sone." 
See also Crowbar above. 



K0TB8 ON ENGLISH BTYMOLOGY. — ^PROP. SKBAT. 321 

Beveille. I have shown that the difficulty with this word 
is, to account for its trisyllabic form, the F. sb. r^veil having 
but two syllables. The answer is, that it was adapted from 
the F. imperative plural r^illez, which was taken into 
English as a substantive. The word rendezvous presents us 
with a similar instance. I can quote a passage given by 
Brand in his Antiquities (ed. Ellis, ii. 176), where the 
spelling reveilkz occurs. Brand says : — " In the Comforts of 
Wooing, p. 62 [we read] : * Next morning come the fidlers, 
and scrape him a wicked reveiliez.' " I do not know the date 
of this book. 

Englishmen are commonly not very strong in their French 
grammar ; I have quoted the example of levee in my Supple- 
ment, which appears to be a fem. past participle ; whereas 
the F. lever, with the same sense, is an infinitive mood. So 
here ; reveillez was easily misunderstood as a fem. past part., 
and spelt reveillee accordingly. Phillips, in his World of 
Words, makes another mistake, in supposing it to be the 
infinitive mood. He gives: — " Reveiller (F. i.e. to awake), 
the Beat of Drum in a Morning, that summons the Soldiers 
from their Beds, and is commonly called the Travellt/;** 
which is an obvious misprint for Ravelly. The fact is, 
therefore, that the F. reveillez was familiarly called ravelly , 
and used to mean the same as the F. sb. riveiL This further 
explains the curious pi. form revellies, which I have already 
quoted in my Supplement from Davenant's Gondibert. This 
reveilles is the plural of revelly, and is spelt accordingly. 

Bum. I once thought this word might be of Malay origin, 
as I have suggested in my Dictionary. But in an article in 
The Academy, Sept. 5, 1885, p. 155, Mr. N. Darnell Davis 
gives the history of the word. '' It came from Barbadoes, 
where the planters first distilled it, somewhere between 1640 
and 1645." A MS. "Description of Barbados" in Trinity 
College, Dublin, written about 1651, says — "The chief 
fudling they make in the Island is Humbullion, alias Kill- 
Divily and this is made of sugar-cane distilled, a hot, hellish, 
and terrible liquor." G. Warren's description of Surinam, 
1661 [1667 P], shows the word in its present short form. 
Fbil. Trani. IMM. 21 



322 NOTES ON ENGLISH STYMOLOOT. — PROF. 8KBAT. 

^* Rum is a spirit extracted from the juice of sagar-canes . . • 
called Kill'Devil in New England/' HumbuUian is a Devon- 
shire word meaning a great tumult, and it may have been 
adopted from some of the Devonshire settlers in Barbadoes. 
At any rate, it has probably given rise to our word rum, and 
to the longer name rumhowling, which sailors give to their 
grog. Smollet (1751) has rumbo ; Per. Pickle, ch* iu 
and ch. ix. Blount's Glossographia, 1681, has — ''iitim, a 
drink in the Barbado's (much stronger than Brandy) which 
they otherwise call Kill-d^viL** Rumbullion is clearly allied 
to rumbuatical, boisterous, and to rumpus, an uproar ; also to 
romp and rampage. An older form is rampallion, a term of 
reproach, meaning rather ' a rioter ' than ' a riot.' Gotgrave 
has ramponne, 'a flowt, scoffe, mock,' etc. All are derivatives 
of the old verb to ramp, a French word of Teutonic origin ; 
see Ramp in my Etym. Diet. 

Savannah. I have given the usual account that this is 
a Spanish word, of Gk. origin. The Span, word means 
'sheet,' and was hence extended to mean 'a large plain.' 
But in a Glossary at the end of a late edition of Oviedo, 
Bamna is included among the Ust of Indian words, and we 
are informed that it belongs to the old language of Hayti 
and Cuba. I think this is altogether a mistake. If we 
English call any large expanse of water ' a sheet of water,' 
surely we may allow that the Spanish expression ' a sheet of 
flat land' is perfectly reasonable. We ourselves talk of 
tabk'land. That the word savana is old in Spanish, I can at 
once prove, with Prof. Cowell's help. The pi. sauanas, 
meaning ' sheets,' occurs in verse 1959 of El Libro de 
Alejandro Magno, ed. Sanchez, 1854. This romance was 
written in the 13th century, long before the first voyage of 
Columbus. Richardson gives a quotation for savannah from 
Dampier's Voyages, but his reference is incomplete. I have 
found it in vol. i. p. 87 of the edition of 1699. 

Scroyles, scabby fellows, rascals. (F. — L.) In King John, 
ii. 1. 373 ; and used twice by Ben Jonson ; see Nares. — O.F. 
pi. escroelles (see icrouelk in Littr6), later escrouelles, which 
Cotgrave explains by 'the King's evil.' The term in Shake- 



KOTBB OK ENGLISH ETTMOLOOT. — PROF. 8KEAT. 323 

• 

Bpeare has obtained the force of the pp. escroeUe, i.e. afflicted 
with scrofula ; people are not very particular in their use of 
terms of reproach. Jamieson gives Sc. cruels, scrofula ; but 
Michely in his Critical Inquiry into the Scottish Language, 
p. 157, sayv that it is written eacrollea in the Continuation of 
J. Melvill's Diary, p. 667. Diez derives the O.F. escroelies 
from a Low Lat. *sero/el/cB, pi. dimin. oi scrofula (see Scroflila 
in my Dictionary). Scheler remarks upon the extreme rarity 
of the disappearance of an / between two vowels, and there- 
fore proposes an etymology from the Low Lat. *8crohellcB^ 
dimin. of scrobs, a dike or ditch, with supposed reference to 
the wounds on the skin made by the disease. The former 
view, if it be possible, is more satisfactory, and is adopted 
by Littr^. Indeed, Scbeler himself instances Etienne and 
antienne from Stephanus and antiphon, but says these are not 
precisely similar examples, being due rather to assimilation 
than syncope. He quite forgets that he himself gives the 
usual derivation of bias (F. biais) from Lat. bi/acem, without 
making any difficulty about the matter. 

Sennet, a signal-call played on a trumpet. This word 
does not occur in the text of Shakespeare, and I fail to find it 
in Schmidt's Lexicon. But it is common in the Stage 
directions ; occurring in Henry VIII. ii. 4 ; Julius Csesar, i. 
2 ; Ant. and Cleop. ii. 7 ; Coriol. ii. 1 ; 3 Hen. VI. i. 1. 
Mr. Wright has a note on it, in his notes to King Lear, i. 1 . 
23, showing that it occurs in various forms, such as ct/net, 
Btnet, 9ynnet, signate, etc. In Marlowe's Faustus, ed. Dyce, 
p. 91, it is printed sonnet, by that frequent confusion of o 
with e of which there are numerous examples in Middle 
English MSS. Steevens absurdly derives it from Ital. 
sonata ; others say that the etymology is unknown. In 
1605, the First Part of Jeronimo begins with the words 
" Sound a signate/* printed signet by Hazlitt. In 1602^ 
Decker's Satiromastix has : ** Trumpets sound a flourish, and 
then a sennet" It thus appears that it is diflerent from a 
flourish, and, as Mr. Wright says, " it appears to have been 
a particular set of notes . . which marked the entrance or 
exit of a procession " ; i.e. it was a signal-call, answering to 



324 NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — ^PROP, SKEAT, 

a modem bugle-call. First of all, several trumpets would 
play a general flourish, and then a single trumpet or cornet 
would play a signal-call, to rouse the particular attention of 
the audience at the moment when the actors filed in or out. 
To me the etymology is obvious. It is plainly the O.F. 
sinet, given in Littr6 as an O.F. spelling of signet, which is 
merely the dimin. of signe, explained by Cotgrave as 'a 
signe, mark, token, or note.' It comes to much the same as 
our signal; and is a doublet of our signet The sennet wb^ 
the signal for entrance or exit, and that is all. The spelling 
signate is due to putting a Low Lat. form signatum in place 
of signetum, a very natural mistake, Cf. Ital. segnetto, 'a 
scale, a signet, a small marke, signe, or token ' ; Floria 
The spelling sennet (with e) is due to this Italian form ; ct 
also F. seigner for signer in Cotgrave ; Ital. segnale, Span, 
senaly for signal, etc. The proper spelling is sinet^ of which 
cynei, synnet are mere variations ; signate is a Latinised form, 
due to a misconception ; sennet and senet are, practically, 
Italianised forms ; and sonnet is a mere blunder. Thus the 
sense and all the forms are accounted for. It has nothing 
to do with either sonata or sonnet ; which are quite different 
things, and from a diflerent root. The word from sonare is 
sonance, as in tucket-sonance. Hen. V. iv. 2. 36. 

Shah, the king of Persia. To my article on this word, I 
have to add that the derivation of the Persian shah is known. 
This monosyllabic word is abbreviated from the O. Pers. 
khsdyathiya, the usual word for ^king' in the Cuneiform 
inscriptions. The root is the Aryan ksi, Skt. kshi, to rule ; 
and the sense is ' ruler.' The particular form is explained as 
being formed with the suffix -ya from a sb. khsdyathi, which 
is supposed to have meant 'dominion.' See Schleicher^ 
Indogermanischer Chrestomathie, 1869, p. 153; Fick, i. 305. 
Skellum, a cheat. (Dutch.) In Halliwell's additions to 
N ares, the phrase " a Dutch skelum " is quoted from Coryat's 
Crudities, 1611. This is an excellent example of the intro- 
duction of a Dutch word into English. From Du. schelm^ 
*a rogue, a villaine,' Hexham. Xluge says the Du. word 
was borrowed from G. schelm, a rogue. This is the O.ELG. 



KOTES ON BKOLISH ETYMOLOGY.-^PROP. SKEAT. 325 

9calmo, seelmo^ orig. a pestilence, with the latter meaning of 
carrion ; hence a worthless fellow, rogue, as a term of abuse. 

Spree, a frolic. I haye^said that this word is modem, and 
of Celtic origin ; cf. Irish ^re, Gael, tpraic, vigour, anima- 
tion. I have since met with the suggestion that it is from 
the F. espritf spirit. This I believe to be a pure guess, and' 
to be wrong. The word was formerly pronounced «pray, 
which entirely upsets this notion. I should not be surprised 
if it should turn out that we owe this word to Sir W. Scott, 
Jamieson gives a quotation for the spelling spree from St. 
Kenan's Well, which was written in 1825. But he does not 
notice a very material fact, that in the Introduction to the 
Legend of Montrose, written six years earlier, Scott introduces 
the word with the spelling fpraf/s^ and in an apologetic way. 
Sergeant McAlpin used to indulge in occasional drinking-' 
bouts, after receiving his dividends. '^ After such sprays, as 
he called them, were over, and his temper once more cool, he 
seldom failed to thank God, and the Duke of York, who had 
made it much more difficult for an old soldier to ruin himself 
by his folly, than had been the case in his younger days.'' 
Jamieson derives spree both from Gaelic and from the F. 
esprit ; it did not occur to him that the two derivations are 
wholly inconsistent with each other. 

Stab. I have given the A.S. form as styh. But there is 
also siub^ masc.» dat. stubbe. I find on pone ellen-siub and of 
f>am ellen^stubbe ; Cartularium Saxonicum, ed. Birch, i. 316. 

Swan-hopping. Under the heading stcan^upping, Halliwell 
tells us that it means taking the swans for the purpose of 
marking them ; and adds — '* Upping the swans was formerly 
a favourite amusement, and the modem term stcan-hopping is 
merely a corruption from it." It was not exactly an amuse- 
ment, but an annual custom which was considered necessary ; 
but it afforded amusement to those engaged in it. The 
statement, that swan-hopping was originally stcan-upping is 
constantly repeated, but those who affirm this very carefully 
avoid giving any reason for their belief. The proof is 
practically given in Hone's Every-day Book, vol. ii. coll. 
958-962, where Hone cites a tract dated 1570. In this 



326 NOTES ON ENGLISH BTTMOLOGT. — ^PBOP. SKBAT. 

tracty there is mention of ** the rpping-daies^* in sect. 8. In 
sect. Idy we find — '^ that the swan-herdes . • • shall tp no 
swannes" ; in sect. 14, ''that no person take tp any cignet 
unmarked " • • . and in sect. 28, ** that the maister of the 
swannes is to have for every white swanne and gray vpping^ 
a penny''; etc. Hence this oft*repeated statement is, for- 
tunately, not an invention (as 8uch statements often are), but 
true. Vp = take up, is here used as a verb. 

Tartan. There is a note on this word, too full to be 
neglected, in Michel's Critical Inquiry into the Scottish 
Laoiguage, p. 75 ; where references are given. He gives 
the O.F. form as tirtaine. The ir must have passed into 
er, as in the common word her (M.E. hire)^ after which 
the change of er to ar is in accordance with the almost 
universal rule. The word is at least as old as 1471. 

Ted, to spread hay. (Scand.) I have a few words to say 
in reply to Mr. Wedgwood's criticisms on my derivation of 
fed from the Icel. ^e%ya, to spread manure. His argument is 
that t(^ja simply meant to mannre, without any idea of 
spreading. I might reply that manure is, as a fact, only 
applied to the earth by spreading it. But I would rather 
draw attention to facts which he has entirely overlooked, and 
upon which I did not enlarge because it seemed to me un* 
necessary. If Mr. Wedgwood will consult the Icelandic 
Dictionary once more, he will find that, in the closest 
possible connection with ta^, manure, is the Icel. tc^a^ 
* hay from the well-manured home-field,' as Yigfusson 
explains it. Such is, of course, the true sense of MSa, but 
Mr. Magnusson informs me that it also simply means * hay ' 
(but not * growing grass ' when uncut). In fact, Yigfusson 
at once proceeds to give the derivative to^u^erk, *the 
making hay in the infield,' which of course carries with it 
the sense of making hay in general, and is simply ted^tcork. 
Again, the Norweg. toda means (1) manure, (2) manured 
land, (3) hay, and even aftermath ; the verb tedja not only 
means simply to manure, but to spread manure over, or (as 
Aasen says) sprede gjMael paa. The connection of the verb 
to ted with the Icel. tc^a^ hay, is surely obvious ; and if we 



KOTB8 OH ENGLISH BTTMOLOOY. — ^PBOF. SKBAT. 327 

connect it with ^a, we must needs connect it with t<i&. 
The idea that the original sense of tcfS^ manure, was ' that 
which is scattered/ is not mine, but Fick's ; see his Worter- 
buchy iii. 113; and every field testifies that such is the 
actual condition in which manure is found. Moreover, the 
IceL M6 appears in provincial English as tad^ tath, or feathe, 
manure. The derivative verb is t^ja^ used in Icelandic 
only in the particular sense of spreading manure, prov. E. 
tathe^ Lowl. Sc. taid; but, if it had been wished to express 
the sense of spreading hay (led. taSa), the verb would have 
taken the same form as before ; and the fact of the word 
occurring in prov. E. as ^ is quite enough to show that it 
could sometimes have that sense. All the help that Wedg* 
wood gives us is to quote the cognate High German forms, 
such as zetten, to spread, strew, etc. But these are precisely 
the forms which I have quoted already, and there can be no 
doubt that the German philologists are satisfied of two facts. 
The first is, that ted iaa Low-German form ; and the second 
is, that the High-German zetten is precisely the Icel. t^jd; 
see Fick, iii. 113; Schmeller, Bayerisches Worterbuch, ii. 
1159 ; Schade, s.v. zafjan. Another allied word is G. Zettel, 
the warp of a web, derived by Kluge from zetten, to spread, 
to spread out, to strew; and, although E^uge does not 
explain the root, he has no hesitation in taking the Teutonic 
form of the root to be tad. The prov. E. ted is now used 
also with reference to the spreading of flax ; but the extracts 
already given from Palsgrave and Fitzherbert show that 
it was formerly used of hay* 

Threshold. Sievers has an important note on this word in 
his article on the Noun-8u£5x -tra, pr. in Paul and Braune, 
Beitrage, v. 630. The gist of it is as follows: '^Teut. 
^/freskfh^lo-, 0. Icel. /fresk-oldr, A.S. ^reac-old, ^ersc-old 
(see Grimm's Gram. ii. 232, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, xxiii. 381, 
Fick, iii. 341). The word, being misunderstood, was altered 
l>y popular etymology into various forms, such as 0. Icel. 
presl^oldr^ Icel. fireakjoldry A.S. ^erac-wold, ^ersc-toaW* Thus 
Sievers takes the suffix to be nothing but the Teut. -^/o-, 
put for -%ro-, Aryan -tra. One interesting result is that. 



828 NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — ^PBOF. 8KBAT< 

if this be right, the mod. E. thresh-old is the correct fona 
after all. Compare note on Build (above). 

Topsy-turvy. I have already shown that this word is 
almost certainly connected with the M.£. torvien, to throwi 
and terve, to fall down. This view is strongly confirmed by 
the occurrence of the Lowland Scotch verb our-tyrve^ to turn 
upside down, of which Jamieson gives a capital example 
from Wyntoun. I now find another example in the Buke of 
the Houlate, st. Ixv. 1. 837, written about 1483. We are 
told that the Cuckoo had a fight with a Lapwing (Sc. tuchet) 
and that he '' Tit the Tuchet by the tope, aurtirvit his hedt 
Flang him flat in the fyre, fetheris and all " ; i.e, seized him 
by the top-knot, and turned him topsy-turvy. 

Tucker, a fuller. (F.— 0. Low G.) M.E. (ouker; spelt 
totckere in a various reading of Wyclif's translation of 
Mark ix. 2, where the text hasfullere. In Wright's Vocab., 
ed. Wiilcker, p. 629, 1. 2, the Lat. fulh is glossed by towkere. 
In Piers Plowman, A. prol. 100, the text has tokkeris^ and the 
various readings are tokkeres, towkera^ and toucheria. The 
word is really French, and simply means ' beater ' ; being 
derived from the verb now spelt toquer, given by Littr^ ; 
Cotgrave has "toquer, to clap, knock, or hit against." It 
is still preserved in £. tocsin, which I have duly explained. 
This verb is a mere variant, in fact an older form, of F. 
toucher, to touch ; see further, in my Dictionary, s.v. touch 
and tucket, I quote the Anglo-French toukier, to touch, in 
my Supplement, s.v. touch. This at once accounts for 
toiicheris in P. Plowman, in the sense of tuckers, I have 
only given tucket in the sense of ' a flourish on a trumpet ' ; 
I might have added the phrase ' tuck of drum,' i.e. beat of 
drum. Jamieson gives some good examples of tuck of drum 
under the spelling touk, tuck, to beat ; he quotes — '^ Trumpets 
sound, and drums tuck," Sir W. Scott writes it touk of 
drum, Heart of Mid Lothian, c. xii. In Douglas's Virgil, 
Aen. bk. viii., ' a mychty touk ' means a heavy blow or 
stroke ; ed. Small, iii. 166. 29. The Ital. toccare means both 
to strike and to touch. 

It is usual to derive the F. toucher from the O.H.G. 



NOTES ON BNGLISH ETTMOLOGY. — ^PROF. 8KBAT. 329 

SHcehen. It would seem, howevery better to derive it from 
the cognate Low G. tukken^ to beat^ to touch. See this form 
in E. Friesic and in O. Dutch. In the special case of 
tucker, it can hardly be doubted that the word is ultimately 
of Walloon or Flemish origin, and came to us from the 
Flemish weavers in the time of Edward III. I bring 
forward this word because the Dictionaries say little about it. 
Wedgwood assigns it a Celtic origin ; but a Flemish one is 
far more likely. 

Typhoon. I have shown that this is a Chinese word, mis- 
spelt so as to make it resemble Greek. I have now to add 
that the old spelling (before the Greek etymology was 
thought of) was either touffon, as in Hackluyt's Voyages, ii. 
239, 240 ; or tuffoon, as in Dampier's Voyages, vol. ii. pt. 3, 
p. 71. Dampier says : " I know no di£ference between a 
Hurricane among the Carribee Islands in the W. Indies, 
and a Tuffoon on the Coast of China in the £. Indies, but 
only the name.'' In vol. ii. pt. 1, p. 35, Dampier again 
speaks of the violent storms called '^ Tuffoom" but adds 
{TypJumes) within marks of parenthesis. The account in 
Hackluyt is said to be translated from Italian. Torriano 
^ves the Ital. form as thiphone. 

Vambrace. The etymology of this word, from the F. 
avantbraSf is well known. It appears from Cotgrave, who 
gives : ** avantbras, a vambrace, armour for an arm ; also, 
the part of the arm that extends from the elbow to the 
wrist." Properly, a vambrace ia the armour on the lower 
part of the arm. The companion word is rere-brace, i.e. 
armour for the upper part of the arm, answering to an O.F. 
arere^bras^ which I do not find ; and I suspect that rere-brace 
is Anglo-French only. I find a good example of these 
words in the Testamenta Eboracensia, i. 171 — '' unam loricam, 
Tmum bonum par cerotecarum [^gloves'] de plate, cum ram- 
brace et rerebrace.*' The will is dated 1392. A similar 
word is vampiaie, which see in Nares. 

Watohet, light blue. It seems to be generally agreed that 
watehet means a kind of light blue. Nares gives examples of 
it from Browne, Lily, Drayton, and Taylor; Eichardson, 



330 NOTBS ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOOT. — ^PROF. SKBAT. 

from Beaumont and Fletcher, Hackluyt, Spenser, Ben Jon- 
son, and Chaucer. Levins has wachet, which Mr. Wheatley 
explains by dapple-gray. Phillips says watchet is ' a kind of 
blew colour.' Todd's Johnson cites from Milton's Hist, of 
Muscovia, c. 5, the phrase " watchet or sky-coloured cloth " ; 
also the line : " Who stares, in Germany, at watchet eyes " ; 
tr. of Juvenal, Sat. xiii., which he attributes to Dryden, 
though that satire was not really translated by Dryden 
himself. The most important quotation is that from Chaucer, 
which is probably the oldest. It occurs in the Milleres Tale, 
Group A., 1. 3321, where the Lansdowne MS. has — ' Al in a 
kertell of a liht wachett* The Cambridge MS. has vachet ; 
the Harl. MS. has wachet ; the rest have the weakened form 
waget or wagett. Tyrwhitt derives it from the town of 
Watchety in Somersetshire, for which there is no evidence nor 
discoverable reason. The only other etymologies yet offered 
are those which originated with Skinner ; the first is, from 
A.S. wdd, woad, with a suffix •chet ; the other is, from the 
A.S. wdscedy make weak (or pale), which woidd have tamed 
into weaked. All three suggestions are so bad that I venture 
to make a fourth. My belief is, that the accent was variable; 
it is evidently wachet in Chaucer, because it rimes with set, 
I further think that the word was French, because we have 
the variant waget; because -e^ is a French suffix; and because 
the spelling in the Cambridge MS. is vachet, with r. It is, I 
think, to be identified with the curious O.F. word vacieij a 
bilberry or whortleberry. Littr6 gives this word, with two 
examples, both of the 16th century. In the latter of these it 
is applied to a colour. " Couleur d'hyacinthe ou de mciet," 
i.e. colour of the hyacinth or bilberry. Boquefort defines 
vaciet as a shrub which bears a dark fruit fit for dyeing 
violet ; it is applied, he says, both to the fruit and the dye ; 
and he calls it Vaccinium hysginum. Cotgrave has : " Vaciet; 
the purple or blue Jacinth, or Hiacinth, tearmed by some 
Crow-toes." Plant-names are very vaguely used, but the 
evidence is sufficient to show that vaciet could mean a kind of 
bilberry, used for dyeing a kind of violet or blue. The form 
tachet in Chaucer is older than vaciet, and answers to a Low 



NOTES OK ENGLISH BTTMOLOGT. — PROF. SKEAT. 331 

Lat. ^ffoccetum^ i.e. a oow-berry, from vacca^ a cow. The 
ordinary Lat. vaecinium also means ' oow-berry/ from vaeea. 
It is interesting to find that the word cow-berry is still in use 
in England for a red whortle-berry ; see Halliwell. Britten's 
Plant-names gives nearly 60 names of plants in which ' cow *' 
forms the first element. My proposal is, accordingly, to 
explain watchet as a blue colour obtained from a kind of 
bilberry, and to derive it from an O.F. *vachet, Low-Lat. 
*vaeeetufn, a cow-berry ; from F. fxichey Lat. uaccaf a cow. 
This word tachei is neuter ; closely allied to it is the F. 
vaeheile, feminine, a little cow ; for which see Cotgrave. 

Whinyard, a sword. (Scand. ?) Nares, following Minsheu, 
explains tthinyard as a hanger, i.e. a kind of sword. It is 
not an old word, so far as I can trace it. Minsheu, in 
1627, spells it whinneard; but it is usually tchinyard, as in 
the play of Edward III. i. 2. 33 (pr. in the Leopold 
Shakespeare); and in Eam Alley, 1611, pr. in Hazlitt's 
Dodsley, x. 363. The etymologies hitherto proposed are 
futile, excepting that in Wedgwood, with which I practically 
agree. He takes it to be a corruption of whinger, from the 
verb whinge, allied to whine. The difficulty mostly resides in 
the suffix. If we may take yard to be the usual E. sb. yard, 
then it is best to derive it rather from the primary whine 
than from the secondary whinge. The word yard is so often 
used in the sense of rod, that I do not see why it may not, 
in composition, have been used for a weapon also ; the only 
variation is Minsheu's whinneard, which gives precisely the 
same sound, and may be a phonetic spelling. Cotgrave 
explains F. braquemar as "a woodknife, hanger, whineyard.'* 

Much light is thrown on the former part of the word by 
the Icel. hvinr, a crackling, whizzing, whistling, as of a 
whip or missile, especially used of the sound of arrows or of 
a blow, and (according to Eietz) of a sword. The Icel. hvina 
does not mean to whine (as in English), but to give a 
whizzing sound, as the pinions of a bird, an arrow, shaft, 
gust of wind, or the like. The Swed. verb hvina is used of 
the whistling of the wind, and Dan. hvine is to whistle. In 
English, we have the related word whinny, said of a horse. 



332 NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGT. — PROP. SKBAT. 

t 

We may therefore explain whin-yard as a rod or yard that 
whizzes or whistles through the air. It is rather Scand. 
than E. 

The word uhinger also means a weapon ; for this, Wedg- 
wood cites Moor's Suffolk Glossary. I can find no old 
example of it. Jamieson has it ; and in his earliest instance, 
relating to the reign of James Y., it is spelt whinger. This 
is from the verb whinge^ to whine, which no doubt also meant 
to whiz. Whinge is an extension of tchine, probably Scandi- 
navian, as it may be traced in Swed. dial, hvinka, kvinka, to 
wail, Norweg. ktinke, to whine, wail, Icel. kveinka^ to com- 
plain. This explains its appearance in East Anglia and 
Scotland particularly. Of course it is quite possible to 
consider whinyard as formed from a shorter whinyar ; this 
leads back to the form tchinny-er, substituted for or equivalent 
to whinger. Here, no doubt, the Dictionary-slips will help 
us out. 

Nares's proposal, incautiously accepted by Ogilvie, to derive 
whinyard from A.S. winnan^ to fight, cannot possibly be right. 
This verb and its derivative tcinn, battle, quite lost their 
primitive meaning in the Middle English period. Neither is 
there any reason for supposing that the initial wh is in this 
instance a mere w. 

Whisky. This word is spelt whisquy-beath in Sinclair's 
Statistical Account of Scotland (1791-99), iii. 525. The 
passage is quoted in Brand's Antiquities, ed. Ellis, ii. 286. 
This is a very early instance, and g^ves the word in its full 
form ; Gael, uisge-beatha, water of life, i.e. aqua viUs, 
eau de vie. 

List op Words Discussed. 

The following is a list of the words discussed in the 
preceding notes. N.B. — The words marked (Sh.) are used 
by Shakespeare. 

blaze, bluff, bonfire, booty, botargo, box (Christmas), 
braid (Sh.), build, cad, carnival, cinchona, cobra, coca, 
contraband, cowslip, creel, crow-bar, crowd, davit, dell, doiley, 
doll, doublet, duds, duffer, ease, eddy, eery, estreat, exhaust^ 



NOTES ON ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. — PROF. SKBAT. 333 

feese (feaze, or pheeze, Sh.), fester, fetish, feuter, feuterer, 
fly, furl, gamboge, gavial, geek (Sh.), hatchet, hay, hobble- 
dehoy, hockday, hopscotch, inveigle, jupon, kelpie, kennel (1), 
kraal, lagoon, lanner, lanyard, lilt, lither (Sh.), loon (or 
lown, Sh.), marchpane, milliner, minx (Sh.), mob, moidore, 
inoy (Sh.), mundungus, ombre,' one, paddock, pall-mall, 
parramatta, pheeze (Sh.), pickaback, pilcrow, plot (1), 
porter, prise, reveille, rum, savannah, scroyles (Sh.), sennet 
(Sh.), shah, skellum, spree, stub, swan-hopping, tartan, ted, 
threshold, topsy-turvy, tucker, typhoon, vambrace, watchet, 
whinyard, whisky. 

In a former paper, read, Nov. 7, 1884, the following words 
were discussed : 

(1) listre {under which heading the following words may be 
founds viz. accoutre, alchemister, barrister, bridegroom, 
canticle, cartridge, chorister, chronicle, co£fer, corporal, 
culprit, decretistre, divinistre, hoarse, jasper, lavender, 
legistre, manciple, myrtle, participle, partridge, philosopher, 
provender, roistering, sophister, syllable, treacle, treasure). 

(2) andiron, bezique, caoutchouc, con (1), curmudgeon, 
saunter, sausage, scan, service-tree, set, spruce, tawdry, 
teetotum. 



XII.— NOTES ON THE REVISED VERSION OF THE 
OLD TESTAMENT. By Benjamin Dawson, B.A. 

{A Paper read before the Philological Society^ on Friday, March 6, 1886.) 

It is matter for sincere congratulation that the Revised 
Version of the Old Testament does not grate upon the ear as 
that of the New Testament does. The alterations which, 
have been considered necessary have been made without 
injuring the general flow and rhythm, so that the ear woidd 
find it impossible to detect where they have been made, or 
to determine whether passages read aloud were taken from 
the Authorized or Revised Version. This is as it should be, 
precisely what was desired. Of the improvements in R.V. 
as a translation of the Hebrew text it is not my purpose to 



834 REVISED VERSION OF O. TESTAMENT. — ^B. DAWSON^ B.A. 

speak. He must indeed be a very pessimist who should 
think that nearly three centuries iiave passed without 
increasing the possibilities .and the probabilities of obtaining 
improved renderings of the sense of the books of the Old 
Testament. My object is to compare A.y. and R.y. from a 
linguistic or grammatical point of view. 

Disposing first of all of the hopes and fears expressed in 
my former papers, I have the pleasure to report that the 
Bevisers of the 0. T. have not removed either Coverdale's 
"God save the King'* (1 Sam. x. 24), or his "three score 
years and ten" (Ps. xc. 10). Neither have they interfered 
with such idiomatic phrases as " going to and fro/' " walking 
up and down" (Num. xxvii. 21; Job i. 7). They have 
moreover in man-child (1 Kings xiv. 10) found a euphe- 
mistic phrase more suitable for the ears of an age which, at 
least in speech, is purer than the Elizabethan. 

In so wide a field as 0. T., subjects for comment are super- 
abundant and passages in illustration superfluously numerous; 
the difficulty is that of selection. It will suffice to give one 
or two examples of difierent classes of improvements. Among 
useful changes are tenth-deaU to "tenth parts," chariot to 
" palanquin," wench to " maidservant," looking- glasses to 
" mirrors," printed to " inscribed," moist grapes to " fresh 
grapes," Absalom's place to " Absalom's monument." Rela- 
tionship is more clearly expressed in R.V. than in A.V. in 2 
Sam. xxi. 8, and 1 Kings i. 6. In the natural history improve- 
ments have been made, though too sparingly ; the mythic tint- 
com has become "wild-ox" Ps. xcii. 10, den of dragons "dwell- 
ing place of jackals" Jer. x. 23. Among grammatical 
improvements are " Moses used to take " for took Ex. xxxiii. 
7, " the Egyptians were burying " for buried Num. xxxiii. 4, 
" I saw Absalom hanging in an oak " for hanged 2 Sam. 
xviii. 10. In this connection may be mentioned the correc- 
tion of " seraphim " and " cherubim " for seraphims and 
cherubimSf as the plural of seraph and cherub. This double 
pL form is a noteworthy instance of the vigour and longevity 
of errors. According to Cruden's Concordance, seraphims 
occurs twice, and cherubims twenty-seven times in A.Y., the 



REVISED TSBSION OF O. TESTAMENT. — B. DAWSON, B.A, 835 

sing, cherub thirteen times. And althougli the Book of 

Common Prayer gives us ** cherubin and seraphin " in the 

Te Deum, in the Psalms (Ixxz. 1, xcix. 1) it also gives us 

cherubims, Shakspere has a sing, cherubin^ — ''A cherubin 

thou wast/' Tempest 1, ii. 152, — its pi. cherubins occurs in 

Merchant of Venice 5, i. 62, — " still quiring to the young-eyed 

cherubins." Wyclif also gives us a pi. in -ftyiw, — "on which 

thingis weren cherubyns of glorie" Heb. ix. 5, — and Chaucer 

a gen. sing, in -bt/nea, — " Thatt hadde a fyr-reed cherubynes 

face" Cant. Tales, 1. 626, Prol. Nor are we English alone in 

the blunder, in French the sing, is cherubin, pi. cherubins, in 

Ital. cherubino, pi. cherubinL Once, indeed, for the sake of 

his metre Dante, makes the pi. cherubi instead of cherubini, 

as pointed out by Alberti in his Italian Dictionary. I am 

not aware whether or not the blunder has ever been " run to 

earth," but according to Forcellini it would appear that 

Jerome and Augustine first used the plural as a sing., either 

from inadvertence or on the super grammaticam principle. 

The Yulgate uses cherubim as an indeclinable, but cherubos 

occurs in some Latin versions in Gen. iii. 24. In the same 

way A.V.'s Anakitns is corrected to "Anakim" Joshua xi. 

21 ; but, unhappily, though treating teraphim as pi. in Gen. 

xxxi. 34 and Zech. x. 2, H.Y. makes it a sing, in 1 Sam. xix. 

13, 16, although a sing, teraph is g^ven in English Dictionaries. 

A.y. generally gives teraphim, but in Zech. x. 2 margin, 

teraphims. 

It is a great gain in R.Y. that verse and prose are 
distinguished to the eye. So it is that the division into 
verses has been superseded by that into paragraphs. This 
amalgamation of verses into paragraphs, though generally 
conducive to clearness, may occasionally have the contrary 
effect, because the division into verses sometimes, particularly 
when aided by the %, marks the beginning and end of a 
parenthesis, which is more readily lost sight of when the 
verses are run together. As an example of this I may 
mention Gen. xix. 26, where for no other reason R.Y. is not 
80 immediately clear as A.y. is. This disadvantage might 
easily be removed by some variation in the punctuation, or 



336 REVISED VERSION OF O. TESTAMENT. — B. DAW80N) B.A. 

by the plan, adopted occasionally by theBevisers, of repeating 
in italics any word likely to promote clearness. Thus in 
Gen. xix. 26, Lofs might be inserted, as lah-basheth is inserted 
in 2 Sam. iv. 1, Ah\;ah in 1 Kings xi. 29, to make the meaning 
more readily clear. Some of these old verse divisions were 
peculiar, e.g. the titles of Song of Songs and of Ecclesiastes 
are numbered as v. 1. By leaving a space between w. 1 and 2 
K.Y. indicates the distinction without altering the numbering 
of the verses. 

These are but samples of the very many improvements to 
be found in R.Y. as compared with A.Y. To dwell upon 
these and similar points at greater length would be superfluous. 
It will be more profitable to point out where and how R.Y, 
might be still further improved. 

By the Appendix we learn that the American Old Testa- 
ment Revision Company suggested the substitution of *'a 
for an, my for mine, and thy for thine wherever followed by A 
aspirated." It is surely matter for regret that their sugges- 
tion was not attended to. At the time of the production of 
the A.Y. the use of an or a, mine or my, thine or thy, before 
sounded h, had not settled down to a fixed rule, although it 
was settling, — the n was disappearing, but had not dis- 
appeared ; witness Spenser's an hustci/e, an hymne, a homely, 
etc. ; Shakspere's an hair and a hair (Tempest, 1, ii. 30 and 
/217), an hundred {Rich, II. 4, i. 16), and a hundred (Jul, 
Caes. 1, iii. 23), an humour and a humarous. The Translators 
of 1611 therefore had a perfect right to retain archaic an, 
and where change was necessary, to introduce the more 
modem a. But the Revisers of 1884 were in a different 
position, the use of an at least had completely disappeared 
before h aspirated. They were bound therefore to write an 
always, or never, before h aspirated. In the former case, 
they would have retained a not-unpleasing archaism, like the 
'th for -s in verbs, or ye for you as a nominative, and few 
would have objected; whereas if they had used a before 
sounded h, they would merely have modernized the article as 
the Revisers of N.T. have done. They themselves have 
acted on this principle in substituting its for his where 



RBVI8BD VERSION OF O. TSSTAICBNT. — B. DAWSON^ B.A. 337 

neater. Now it happens strangely enough that at the time 
of the appearance of R.y. there is similar variety as to the 
use of an or a before letters having the sound of 6 (you). 
Here, if anjrwhere, KY. might well have let alone, but this 
is one of the cases where change has been made, at least in 
N. T. Looking about for examples of the dropping of the 
n of an before the sound u, Dr. Murray's contributors not 
unnaturally pitched upon a eunueh^ Acts viii. 27. Oddly 
enough the reference is printed vii. 27, thus forming the 
first erratum in the New Dictionary (p. 2, col. 1). AdHt 
omen ! R.Y. quotations can be of little use to lexicographer 
or grammarian. R.y. cannot prove the use of the Indef. 
Article in nineteenth century, because an high, an hireling, 
an hundred are found in O.T., but a high, a hireling, a hundred 
in N.T. ; and worse still, an holy (Lev. xxiii. 3d) and a holy 
(Lev. xxiv. 9), an home (Job xx. 19) and a house (Ex. xii. 30), 
an husband (Lev. xix. 20) and a husband (Num. xxx. 6), 
stand ready in O.T. to bewilder the student. The increased 
frequency of the use of the compound or periphrastic form 
of tenses to indicate imperfect action might be illustrated 
by such improvements as " was standing " for A.V. 
stood 1 Kings xiii* 1; but it would be a mistake to quote 
R. V. to prove the nineteenth century use of pi. " hosen " 
Dan. iii. 21, of "sith" Ezek. xxxv. 6, *^qfore the harvest'* 
Isa. xviiL 5, " Woe worth the day " Ezek. xxx, 2, " can 
skill," "could skill "2 Chron. ii. 7, xxxiv. 12. Nor will 
R.y. much help in the elucidation of the history of other 
words, because (the Preface explains) only words previously 
used have been allowed to supplant discarded A.Y. words. 
Another suggestion made by the American Revision Com- 
pany has unhappily not been adopted, viz. the substitution 
of are or is for be when Indicative. Here, again, the 
action of the Translators of 1611 is intelligible. Both forms 
were to. some extent in use ; be had not been entirely super- 
seded by ap*e or is, although it was becoming antiquated. This 
is probably the explanation of The Merry Wives of Windsor,^ 

* The edition of The Merry Wive$ of Windewr quoted from is the Stanford, 
edited by Henry B. Wheatley, F.S.A. (George Bell and Sons) ; of the other 
pUyB, the Clarendon Press S^es, edited by William Aldis Wright, M.A. 

FbiL Train. 1SS5-6. 22 



338 REVISED VERSION OF O. TESTAMEin, — B. DAWSON, B.A. 

1, i. 319, where Slender inquires, ** Be there bears i' the 
town P " and Anne Page replies, " I think there are. Sir." 
But as in 1884 be had become exclusively provincial, it ii 
di£5cult to see the justification for, — '^ These he the words 
which Moses spake," Deut. i. 1 ; '* And there the weary be 
at rest. There the prisoners are at ease together," Job iiL 
17 and 18 ; *' And some of the king's servants be dead, and 
thy servant Uriah the Hittite is dead also," 2 Sam. zi. 24. 
And to add to the di£5culty of understanding the matter, 
sometimes A.Y. be becomes R.Y. are, as in Lev. z. 14 
fhey be changed to thet/ are, in Lev. xiii. 19 there be to 
(here are. In the Song of Songs vii. 12, " Let us see if the 
vine flourish^ whether the tender grape appear^ and the 
pomegranates bud /arth^*' becomes, '' Let us see whether the 
vine hath budded and its blossom be open, and the pome- 
granates be in flower." In this passage, if the Revisers 
meant be for an Indie, there is not the excuse of retaining 
antiquated be to avoid needless alterations, because be does 
not occur here in A.y. If, on the other hand, the be is 
Subjunc, why is hath budded Indie. P It is true that this 
mixture of moods may be paralleled from A.Y., for in 
Num. V. 19 and 20, " if no man have,** " if thou hast,** ^ " if 
thou be,** and if *' some man have,** occur in strange prox- 
imity. These are exactly reproduced in R.Y. with change of 
lain to Hen ! The explanation is yet to seek. 

One of the principles on which the Translators of 1611 
acted was the intentional use of synonym and variety of 
expression. They did not wish that one word should be 
dignified by being introduced into the Bible, and another 
degraded by being left out, — one log, as they quaintly put 
it, being carved into an idol, the other thrown on the fire. 
Thus, in Oen. ii. 1 and 2, A.Y. gives us, '' Thus the heavens 
and the earth were finished and all the host of them. And 
on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made." 
Here R.Y. changes " ended " to finished. Some would 

^ In the discussion Mr. Sweet said that the use of the indicative thou hoit 
ride hy side with the suhjuncdve he have was prohahly due to the derire of 
distinctness ; in late West- Saxon the preterite subi. of weak verbs takes the et of 
the indie, in the same way — pif fu hafdeet instead of the older gif ]>i# hetfdt. 



BKYISBD VBBSION OF O. TESTAMENT. — B. DAWSOK^ B.A. 339 

have preferred the change, if necessary, to have been made 
in the other direction ; these French words are unpleasantly 
sibilant to some ears. In Gen. xt. 5, *'Look now toward 
heaven, and tell the stars if thou be able to number them ** ; 
" number ** becomes tell in R.V. Another example of A. V- 
▼ariety of expression is seen in Num. xxxiii. 3 . . ., where 
"removed/' "departed/* and "went from" are used as 
synonymous renderings of one verb, "encamped" and 
"pitched" of another. R.V. gives us "journeyed" for 
remolded, pitched, and went from, and " pitched " for encamped 
and pitched. Opinions may differ as to whether variety of 
expression in a simple narration of daily movements is 
preferable to plain repetition, but there can be little doubt as 
to which principle is likely to produce a classic translation. 
The Translators of 1611 had respect for the English lan- 
g;uagey feared to diminish its vocabulary, thought synony- 
mous words should be treated fairly, studied style, gave us 
variety, and produced a classic ; the Revisers of 1884 want 
by the use of a different word to indicate a difference in the 
Hebrew. The one (the Translators) are thinking of the 
language into which the subject-matter is to be conveyed ; 
the others (the Revisers) are for ever looking back at the 
language from which they have obtained their subject- 
matter. 

The Preface of R.y. gives an explanation of the substitu- 
tion of meal for meat in certain passages. Though there are 
still phrases in common use in which meat means food other 
than flesh, e.g. " green meat," " mince meat," " as full as an 
egg is of meat," yet it was probably wise to remove meat and 
to substitute another word. But when the Revisers retain meat 
in some places and substitute meal in others, they break their 
own rule of using the same English word uniformly as the 
representative of each Hebrew word. The reason they give 
us for the choice of meal as a substitute for meat is worthy of 
note, — "By the alteration to 'meal-offering' a sufficiently 
accurate representation of the original has been obtained 
icith the least possible change of for m^ Now, whatever may 
be thought of meal as a substitute for meat, the reason given 



340 RBVISBD VERSION OF 0. TBSTAMBNT.— 'B. DAWSON, B.A. 

for the choice of the word will appear to some to border on 
the ridiculous — because three out of four letters are the 
same, forsooth I — while others will be of opinion that like* 
ness in form between words of di£ferent meaning is a dis- 
advantage, not an advantage, — to be avoided, not to be sought 
for. If it were, a question of the emendation of some obscure 
passage in which a careless scribe by putting a cross to his / 
had made it into a t, and the sense of the passage was 
restored by changing t into / (meat into meaT), one could see 
the force of the argument ; but that meal is a better sub* 
stitute for meat than (say) foodf because three of its letters 
happen to be the same and none of poor food*8 are, is an 
original but outrageous proposition. 

This explanation is one of the most important sent^ices in 
the whole Preface. It is the key which unlocks the mystery 
of the flaws in E.y. of O.T. The great aim of the Revisers 
seems to have been to minimize their alterations. This aim, 
however, albeit praiseworthy, ought surely not to have been 
their main object ; or, if so, the question of alterations 
should have been approached in a broad, and not a niggling, 
spirit, concerned with classes rather than individuals. To 
alter his Neuter into its was to make a desirable change, 
and the more the instances where the change was necessary, 
the more important was the alteration shown to be; but 
no reasonable man would reproachingly count the number 
of instances as so many changes, they would merely form 
several examples of one change. Similarly, all the a'« before 
aspirated h might have been turned into an^s, or all the arCs 
into a^s, it matters little which. This would have been 
another change, but only one ; nor ought the direction in 
which it was made to depend upon tlie fact that there would 
be eight or ten times as many instances of actual verbal 
change by the one plan of securing grammatical consistency 
as by the other. Again, in the case of substituting are or is 
for be Indie, even if there were some hundreds of verbal 
alterations made, there would still be but one change — the 
disuse of be as Indie. The irregular treatment of these 
grammatical points savours of the ^^ super grammaticam** 



BRVI8BD YEBSION OF O. TE8TAMBNT. — B. DAWSON, B.A. 341 

principle. Bat surely the Eevisers were not super gram- 
fnaUeam ; they did owe some allegiance to the English 
language and its syntax. 

The desire of minimizing the actual number of verbal 
alterations is perhaps responsible for the change of overlived 
into outUved (Joshua xziy. 31) not being paralleled by that 
of overran (2 Sam. xriiL 23) into outran ; remaining overran 
it does not match with outran in John xx. 4, A.Y. and R.Y. 
How is you to be explained in '' It was not you that sent me 
hither** (Cten. xlv. 8) P The rule in A.V. is to use the nom. 
after the verb to be : ** Thy senrant is he " 2 Sam. ix. 2, *' I 
am A?** 2 Sam. xx. 17, "It is /" Matt. xiv. 27. If you 
was oyer used as a Nom. by the Translators of 1611, the 
probable explanation is, that it was introduced as an acknow- 
ledgment of the existence of the new-fashioned you that was 
already fast supplanting the older ye Nom. The same 
principle appears to me the only reasonable explanation of 
the occasional use of to have with to go Num. y. 19, and of a 
hundred in Isa. xxxyii. 36. But when R.Y. follows A.Y. in 
all these yarieties,*— differences which haye lost all meaning 
except from an historical point of yiew, — the disadvantage 
is easy to see, the advantage hard to divine.^ This much is 
certain, it was not the minuteness of the change of you into 
ye that prevented its being made by It.Y., witness "thou 
wast he ** changed to " it was thou " 2 Sam. y. 2, " I have 
giyen** to "have I given** Num. xxxiii. 53, "him" to 
"it** (the ass) 1 Kings xui. 27, "King David did dedicate'* 
to "did King David dedicate*' 2 Sam. viii. 11, "shall" to 
"will** Num. xxxiii. 56; all of which are manifest im- 
proyements. 

On one point, however, R.Y. seems to be particular not 
to follow A.Y. With its usual eclecticism A.Y. gives us 
examples of the use of the Partitive Article in some passages, 

* My paper, I hare been told, *< refers to matters with which the Revisers did 
not oonoem themselvee. Tbey thought it no part of their duty to correct the 
Authorised yersion as a schoolboy's exercise by the help of Lindley Murray." 
But surely Lindley Murrajrisni alone required the cnange of ht into she 
when applied to tne hare (Ley. ii. 6), and of him into it applied to the ass 
(1 EingB ziiL 27). 



342 KEVISBD VERSION OF O. TESTAMENT. — B. DAWSON, B.A. 

but in others introduces some or any: ''I will take of ike 
spirit which is upon thee " Num. xi. 17, " Bring of the fruit 
of the land " Num. xiii. 20 ; but " ant/ of his seed " Lev. xx. 
2, "same of thine honour" Num. xxvii. 20. B..V. omits 
some or any in such passages. 

The number of ambiguous passages has been reduced, but 
there are still many in 'R.Y. which will not convey any 
definite idea to an Englishman's mind. The mixture of 
different numbers in the same sentence is a source of be- 
wilderment, e.g. ye and thou are strangely mixed in Deut. 
i. 20, etc. It may be questioned whether the Revisers have 
been very happy in their arbitrary occasional retention of 
A.Y. orthography, creating an impression of efforts at 
Spelling Reform ; horse-leach, caterpiller, judgement (it might 
spare an e, of which jubile would be glad, to prevent the 
commonalty from making it two syllables to rhyme with 
their *'fac si-mile,**) Some revision of R.V. should take 
place for the purpose of assimilating the usage of O.T. and N.T. 
on various grammatical and other points ; by a comparison of 
Matt. xii. 40 with Jonah i. 17, the whale may still be proved 
to be a fish ! 

The chief characteristics of A.V. and R.V. may be traced 
as the result of what appears to be the distinguishing prin- 
ciples adopted by the various companies. The Translators 
of A.Y. (not distinguishing the different companies engaged 
on different parts) aimed at giving the sense of the original 
in idiomatic English — they desired to make a readable book ; 
the Revisers of O.T. wished with antiquarian fidelity to re- 
produce A.Y. ; the Revisers of N.T. aimed at making their 
English rendering resemble the Greek original as far as 
possible. 



Xni.— FOURTEENTH ADDRESS OF THE PRESI- 
DENT, TO TETE PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 
DELIVERED AT THE ANNIVERSARY MEET- 
ING, FRIDAY, 21ot MAY, 1886. By the Rev. 
Professor Skeat, M.A., LL.D. 



SVMXABT OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE . PAQC 

Introduction 343 | W.'R.'MoRFiLLj'Esq.; on Slavonic 

Obittart. Mr, Bradahaw; Mr, Fhilology {April, 1884, to April, 
WalUr Raleigh Browne; Fro- 1886) 374 



ff»9or Costal ; Archbishop 
Trench ; Dr. Stock 344 

BSPORT BT THB PRESIDENT', On 

The Work of the Fhilological 

Society 348 

The President ; on * Ohoat' 
words* 350 



J. BoxwELL, Esq. ; on Sontali ... 380 
Prop. Thurnetsen; on Celtic 

Philology 385 

Prof. Teurien de Lacoijperie ; 
on the Languages of China before 
the Chinese 394 



Gentlemen, 

Members of the Philological Society, — 

On the occasion of our Anniversary Meeting last year, it 
was thought desirable that I should omit the Presidential 
Address for that time, on account of my re-election; and 
I gladly acceded to the suggestion that my Address should 
be delivered at the end of my second year of office. The idea 
that the President should, from time to time, deliver an 
Address to the Society, recapitulating the work done, and at 
the same time reporting, to some extent, the progress made 
in philological studies, has hitherto been much approved by 
you, on account of its usefulness ; and, in fact, thirteen 
excellent addresses of this character have been delivered to 
you on former occasions by my predecessors. 

The reflection inevitably arises, that an Address delivered 

at the end of two years should, in the natural order of 

things, be expected to be nearly twice as full as one that 

is given annually. I regret to say that this theoretical 

FUL Tnuu. 188M. 23 



344 THE president's address for 1S86* 

excellence is, in my own case, unattainable. My lack of 
leisure has long been chronic, and I fear that any Address 
of mine would still remain extremely imperfect, even if the 
term of two years were increased to ten. I will therefore 
candidly confess at once that the most valuable part of 
my Address is that which, by the help of the ever-ready 
energy of your Secretary, has been very kindly contributed 
by others; and, as for my own insignificant contribution, 
I have nothing to say beyond asking for it a similar in- 
dulgence to that which has so generously been accorded to 
me on other and less important occasions. 

Obituary. 

Before proceeding to offer any further remarks, let me 
say a few words on the heavy losses which have befallen our 
Society since Dr. Murray gave his address in 1884. On 
looking at the list of the Members of Council on that occasion, 
I find there the names of Ilenry Bradshaw, Walter R. Browne 
and Professor Cassal. The name of Henry B&adshaw 
is, to me, that of a dear personal friend; and it must be 
the same to others amongst you. I do not know that he 
ever actually contributed a paper to our Society, but there 
must be many here whom he assisted largely, and who feel 
that their work would have been much more imperfect 
without his help. It is not necessary for me to say more 
concerning one who was so widely known and deservedly 
famous, and whose loss we so sincerely deplore. Speaking 
for myself, and speaking with deep feeling and sincerity, 
I can truly say that all my work has really been his work. 
It was he who assisted me in reading MSS., in hunting 
up the places where they might be found, in tracing varieties 
of writing and spelling, and peculiarities as to locality and 
date. It was he who helped me to trace allusions, told me 
the names of books which would assist me in literary in- 
vestigations, and often himself found both the books and the 
desired passages. It was he who gave me constant assist- 
ance in discussing the rimes and metrical analysis of 



DELIYEBBD BY PROF. SKEAT. 345 

Chaucer's verse; and I own that I was disappointed in not 
finding any mention of my own name in Prof. Ten Brink's 
late work upon the Yersification of Chaucer, because I 
honestly believe there is some excellence in the work which 
Mr. Bradshaw so generously allowed me to call my own. 
"We all know how profusely, I might say how royally, he 
gave his aid. It seems but the other day, though it is really 
more than twenty years ago, that Mr. Bradshaw welcomed 
me as a student at the Cambridge University Library, and 
first began giving me his ready help in the matter of 
re-editing the Bomance of Lancelot of the Laik, which had 
previously been edited by Mr. Stevenson with such strange 
carelessness. I can remember to this day the expression on 
his face, and the occasional remarks, which alike so plainly 
seemed to imply — " I help this man because he seems in 
earnest, but he has a great deal to learn if he ever means to 
come to any good." Ever since that time, for twenty years, 
I have always applied to him in every greater difficulty, and 
seldom failed to advance the question in hand. I am sure 
you will pardon me for taking up your time while I thus 
fully acknowledge my own deep obligations to one whom we 
so much deplore. 

Of Mr. Walter Raleigh Browne, a notice will be found 
in the Minutes of Proceedings of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers (vol. Ixxix. 1884-5, part 1), a copy of which was 
kindly sent to me by Mrs. Browne. He was bom in 1842, 
being the third son of the late Rev. T. Murray Browne, 
vicar of Almondsbury, Gloucestershire. He took the degree 
of B.A. at Cambridge in 1865, on which occasion he gained 
a double first-class, being 19th Wrangler and 10th Classic ; 
and was elected a Fellow of Trinity College in 1867. He 
became a civil engineer, and in 1871 obtained the Telford 
premium for a paper " On the Strength of Lock Gates." 
He subsequently wrote papers " On the Strength and 
Properties of Riveted Joints " (1872) ; " On Railway 
Rolling Stock " (1876) ; and " On the Relative Value of 
Tidal and Upland Waters in maintaining Estuaries" (1881) ; 
besides a series of articles on the theory of Mechanics, a 



346 THE president's ADDBESS fob 1886. 

book entitled ''The Student's Mechanics," and translatioiis 
of Glausius' " Mechanical Theory of Heat/' and Sohwackhofer^a 
"Fuel and Water." He also contributed numerous papers to 
various magazines. He died at Montreal, Sept. 4, 1884, on the 
occasion of his visit to Canada to attend the meeting of the 
British Association ; a sad end to a visit that must have been 
anticipated with so much pleasure. He contributed several 
papers to our Society, especially one on " Scotch and English 
Place-names," and another on " The Origin of Technical 
Terms " ; besides taking great interest in the New English 
Dictionary, to which he sent occasional contributions. We 
must all regret the loss of a fellow- worker at once so earnest 
and so industrious. 

The name of Professor Gassal is intimately connected with 
our Society, as he was a Member of the Coimcil of the 
Society for many years. He passed away after an illness of 
only a few hours, on Wednesday, March 11, in last year. 
Hugues Charles Stanislas Cassal was bom on the 1st of 
April, 1818, at Altkirch, in the Departement du Haut Rhin, 
his father being a solicitor in that place. He studied law at 
Strasbourg, and took the degrees of LL.B. in 1839, and 
LL.D. in 1840, in the University of France. Till 1845, he 
practised at the bar ; but at his father's death in that year, 
he succeeded him in his business as a solicitor. In 1848, he 
was elected Mayor of his native town, and also a Member of 
the National Assembly. After the coup'd*efat in 1861, he 
escaped arrest, was exiled, and came to England in January, 
1852, where he soon began giving lessons in French, whilst 
at the same time he studied Sanskrit under Professor Gold- 
stiicker. He was introduced by Professor Key to University 
College School in 1856, and continued giving instruction in 
French there till within a couple of days of his death. In 
1860, he was elected Professor of French in University 
College, where he remained for a quarter of a century, till 
his death. He was constantly employed as an examiner in 
the French language, and wrote more than twelve books for 
the use of learners. In 1880, he was created Chevalier de la 
Legion d'Honneur by the President of the French BepubUc. 



99 



DBLIVXRED BY PROF. 8KEAT. 347 

He greatly endeared himself to friends and students in this 
his adopted country, and his almost sudden death was much 
regretted.^ There is a short hut important and suggestive 
paper hy him on the subject of French Homonyms, in the 
Transactions of our Society for 1866. 

When we look at the list of Officers of the Society for 
1885-6, we are reminded that Archbishop Trench still 
remained among us as one of our Vice-Presidents. His 
death took place so recently as two months ago, on the 
28th of March. His books on " English Past and Present, 
and on the " Study of Words," and his '* Select Glossary, 
are so widely known, even to many who are not philologists, 
but take an intelligent interest in the study of English, that 
it is needless for me to speak of them at length. The 
student who consulta them will find them remarkably sug- 
gestive and accurate. There is very little in them that will 
hereafter require modification, with the exception of his 
remarks upon our modem spelling, which were originally 
written many years before the appearance of Mr. Ellis's 
great work on Early English Pronunciation, and never re- 
vised in the light of that addition to our knowledge. It is 
necessary to bear this in mind, because irresponsible and 
careless critics are never weary of citing certain passages 
which seem to them a sufficient refutation of any attempt in 
the direction of spelling reform ; the fact being that it is 
grossly imfair to the memory of so good and true a scholar 
to quote opinions which he must have seen reason to modify, 
if his very important duties had left him adequate leisure for 
re-considering them. The most important of his contributions 
to our Society were his two papers " On Some Deficiencies in 
our English Dictionaries," read before the Society on Nov. 5 
and Nov. 19, 1857, and afterwards published as a separate 
work by J. W. Parker. The justice of the criticisms in that 
treatise are well known to you all, and have had a marked 
effect upon the subsequent history of the New English 
Dictionary. It will well repay a careful reading, and I 

1 See the account in The Athemeum, March 21 , 18S5, p. 375. 



848 THE president's address fob 1886. 

think we must all be grateful for such excellent and timely 
advice. He also contributed two papers to our TransaotionB 
in 1862. 

We have also to mourn the sad, sudden, and unexpected 
loss of Dr. Stock, late Member of our Council. Those of 
us who assembled here on the 2nd of April to hear him 
read his paper on the Heidelberg Dialect, and were sorry to 
hear that he was prevented by illness from attending the 
meeting, little thought that his death was even then already 
near at hand. He was a brilliant and promising scholar, from 
whom we hoped to receive much help. Frederick Stock was 
a native of Yorkshire, but educated at Devonport, where his 
father, a Baptist minister, lived for many years. His pro- 
gress in learning was exceptionally rapid. In 1872, at the 
early age of 17 years, he gained the degree of B.A, with 
second-class honours in Mental and Moral Science, at the 
"University of London. In 1879, having already obtained 
his M.A. degree, he proceeded to the degree of "D.Lit.," 
being then only 24 years of age. This coveted degree has 
only been conferred on three others, one of whom is our 
Member of Council, Dr. Weymouth. Dr. Stock had pre- 
viously spent nearly a year at Heidelberg, and had there 
acquired, by the exercise of much patient care, an accurate 
knowledge of the modes of speech of the peasantry in the 
neighbourhood of that town. He has been for the past five 
an Assistant Master of Mill Hill School, where his ability 
and innate worth were much appreciated.^ He will be 
greatly missed at our future meetings, as well as at Mill 
Hill. 

The Work of the Philological Society. 

The papers read before the Society during the last two 
years have been of considerable interest, but they have been 
so well reported from time to time in our monthly Abstract 
of Proceedings, that I need not say much about them now. 
I must not, however, forget to remind you of our especial 

* See T]ie Eendon and Finehley Times, April 16, 1886. 



DELIVERED BY PROF. SKBAT. 349 

debt to Dr. Whitley Stokes for the four very important 
papers which have thrown a lustre upon my term of office, 
viz. his papers on Old Irish Declension, on the Neo-Keltio 
Verb Substantive, and on the Old-Breton Glosses at Orleans, 
and his Notes upon the work by Curtius on Greek Etymology. 
Mr. Lecky has given us three papers, viz. on Irish Gaelic 
Sounds, on the Phonetic Theory of English Prosody, and on 
Irish-English Sounds. We are glad to welcome Mr. Lecky 
as an earnest worker, from whom we hope for much future 
aid. Prince Bonaparte has contributed four papers, viz. on 
Simple Tenses in Modem Basque and Old Basque, on the 
Neo-Latin names for Artichoke, One More Word about 
Artichoke^ and Remarks on certain assertions by M. J. Vinson 
concerning Basque. The Society's work in connection with 
Dialectal and Dictionary work has made excellent progress. 
Mr. Ellis gave great satisfaction in May of last year by 
his Report upon his work on English Dialects, especially 
by his statement that he had been able to resume the 
work after much interruption ; and his very satisfactory 
and thorough Report upon Dialectal Work at our last 
meeting is still fresh in your memory. Dr. Murray has 
given us two Dictionary Evenings ; and it is a peculiar 
pleasure to me to think that my term of office has been 
marked by the actual transference to Oxford of our excellent 
editor and all his valuable material, as this gives us all 
the greatest encouragement, and enables us to hope that now 
at last the steady progress of the Dictionary is assured. 
Mr. Brandreth has also given us what may be called a 
Dictionary Paper, showing us how much may be done in 
the way of preparation of the material before it comes into 
Dr. Murray's hands. At the same time, Dr. Fennell has 
told us something of the progress of his Stanford Dictionary, 
which ought hereafter to make a suitable companion volume, 
supplementing, in certain directions, the great work by 
Dr. Murray. We have also had papers from never-failing 
and well-tried contributors, viz. from Mr. Sweet, a former 
President, on Old-English Words and Etymologies, on the 
Use of shall and tcill^ on the Ruues, and on Ten Brink s 



350 THE president's ADDBE88 V0% 1886. 

" Chaucer Grammar *' ; from Dr. Morris, a former President, 
on Pftli Miscellanies, and a criticism upon the York Plays ; 
and from our Treasurer, Mr. DaWson, two papers on the 
Heyised Version, viz. one on the Old Testament, and one on 
the New. Other papers were written by the late 0. B. 
Cayley, on the Conditions of Onomatopoeia, which has been 
printed in "Modern Thought"; by Dr. Weymouth, on 
Accent in Sanskrit and Greek ; by Professor Postgate, on the 
TJltimate Derivation of Essaf/ ; and by Dr. Stock, on Certain 
Examples of Unoriginal / and r, and on the Heidelberg 
Dialect. A very interesting and curious paper on the 
Melanesian Languages was contributed by the Kev. H. 
Codrington, who has since published an important work on 
the same subject. Dr. Latham sent some Comments relating 
to two languages spoken on the Niger ; Dr. Sattler, a paper 
on the Gender of Animals in English ; Dr. Stenhouse, one 
on Biblical Aramaic; and Mr. Standish O'Grady, one on 
the Cath Finntraga. I have also on three occasions ventured 
to call attention to some difficult English Etymologies, with 
respect to two of which Mr. Wedgwood has offered some 
criticisms. 

I must not conclude this brief sketch of our two-years* 
work without alluding to the pleasure which we have all 
felt in making up to Dr. Murray the sum which he had so 
generously advanced, out of his own private means, towards 
the expenses of the Dictionary ; as well as in sending a 
vote of congratulation to Dr. Matzner, of Berlin, on the 
completion of his eightieth year. 

Report upon " Ghost-words," or Words which have 
NO REAL Existence; by the President. 

Before proceeding to lay before you th,e Reports which 
have been so kindly contributed to this Address by my 
fellow-workers, I shall venture to trouble you, as in duty 
bound, with a few words of my own. In considering what 
subject would be most suitable or most useful to discuss 
on the present occasion, I regret to say that I at once felt 



BfiLIVB&El) BT PROF. SKEAT. 35l 

oonscions that the choice was very much limited by my own 
inability to deal with any subject fully and adequately. I 
was further conscious that, even as regards the study of 
Middle-English, to which I have, upon the whole, given 
most attention, I had little to say beyond what must be 
already extremely familiar to most of my hearers. It thus 
became evident that I could do no more than select some 
one point, and endeavour to illustrate it with numerous 
examples, in the hope that some of the examples may be 
new to a few amongst you ; or, at any rate, that the grouping 
together of such examples may render them more interesting 
than when they have been brought before you, on various 
occasions, from time to time. 

Of all the work which the Society has at various times 
undertaken, none has ever had so much interest for us, 
collectively, as the New English Dictionary. Dr. Murray, 
as you will remember, wrote on one occasion a most able 
article,^ in order to justify himself in omitting from the 
Dictionary the word abacot, defined by Webster as " the cap 
of state formerly used by English kings, wrought into the 
figure of two crowns." It was rightly and wisely rejected 
by our Editor on the ground that there is no such word, the 
alleged form being due to a complete mistake. There can 
be no doubt that words of this character ought to be 
excluded ; and not only so, but we should jealously guard 
against all chances of giving any undeserved record of words 
which had never any real existence, being mere coinages due 
to the blunders of printers or scribes, or to the perfervid 
imaginations of ignorant or blundering editors. We may 
well allow that Ogilvie's Imperial Dictionary is an excellent 
book of its class, and that the latest editor, Mr. Annandale, 
has very greatly improved it ; but I cannot think that he 
was was well-advised in devoting to Abacot twenty-seven 
lines of type, merely in order to quote Dr. Murray's reasons 
for rejecting it. Still less can I approve of his introduction 
of a small picture intended to represent an " Abacot," copied 

^ In the Athenaumf Feb. 4, 1882. 



852 THE president's ADDBE88 FOB 1886* 

from the great seal of Henry Vlt. ; it would have been 
much better to insert the picture under the correct form 
by-cocket 

I propose, therefore, to bring imder your notice a few 
more words of the ahacot type ; words which will come under 
our Editor's notice in course of time, and which I have little 
doubt that he will reject. As it is convenient to have a 
short name for words of this character, I shall take leave to 
call them " ghost- words." Like ghosts, we may seem to 
see them, or may fancy that they exist ; but they have no 
real entity. We cannot grasp them ; when we would do so, 
they disappear. Such forms are quite different, I would 
remark, from such as are produced by misuse of words that 
are well known. When, according to the story, a newspaper 
intended to say that Sir Robert Peel had been out with a 
party of friends shooting pheasants, and the compositor 
turned this harmless piece of intelligence into the alarming 
statement that " Sir Robert Peel had been out with a party 
of fiends shooting peasants," we have mere instances of 
misuse. The words fiends and peasants^ though unintended 
in such a context, are real enough in themselves. I only 
allow the title of ghost-words to such words, or rather 
forms, as have no meaning whatever. 

Instances are not common in modern times ; yet I can 
adduce at least two that are somewhat startling. The first 
is kimef well known to all readers of Sidney Smith's Reviews. 
The original passage occurs in his review on " Indian Mis- 
sions," not far from the end ; and first appeared in the 
Edinburgh Review for 1808. " The Hindoos," he says, 
" have some very savage customs, which it would be de- 
sirable to abolish. Some swing on hooks, some run kimea 
through their hands, and widows burn themselves to death." 
For this statement, he was attacked by Mr. John Styles in a 
book entitled " Strictures on Two Critiques in the Edinburgh 
Review," etc. Sidney Smith replied in a review on Methodism, 
printed in the Edinburgh Review for 1809, where he says : 
" Mr. Styles is peculiarly severe upon us for not being more 
shocked at their piercing their limbs with kimcs ... it is for 



DELIVERED BT PROF. SKEAT. 353 

118 to explain the plan and nature of this terrible and 
unknown piece of mechanism. A kime, then^ is neither 
more nor lees than a false print in the Edinburgh Beview 
for a knife ; ^ and from this blunder of the printer has Mr. 
Styles manufactured this Daedalean instrument of torture, 
called a kinie ! We were at first nearly persuaded by his 
arguments against kimes ; we grew frightened ; — .... but 
we looked in the errata, and found Mr. Styles to be always 
Mr. Styles — always cut oflF from every hope of mercy, and 
remaining for ever himself." The article concludes with the 
jocose remark that, upon the transmission to India of a 
certain order, ** Mr. Styles is said to have destroyed himself 
with a kime" 

Another extraordinary instance is that of the ghost- verb 
to morse. As a substantive, the word is real, and means a 
walrus, for which it is the Russian name ; but as a verb, the 
word is spectral. It occurs, I believe, in all but a few 
editions of Sir Walter Scott's novel of the Monastery, chap. 
X., where we have this sentence : " Ilardened wretch (said 
father Eustace) art thou but this instant delivered from 
death, and dost thou so soon marse thoughts of slaughter P " 
The word has been lately discussed in Notes and Queries, in 
the Sixth Series, ix. 607, x. 34, 97, 195 ; and in the Seventh 
Series, i. 199. The question was definitely settled by Mr. 
Fenwick, son-in-law of the late Sir Thomas Phillipps, who 
possesses the original MS. He says : '' The word nurse is 
very legibly written, and there can be no doubt that it is 
nurse.^* This is a most instructive instance, as proving that 
a false form, if once introduced, can maintain itself through 
countless editions without detection, or at any rate without 
correction. Many readers have supposed it to be excellent 
Lowland Scotch, and it is not a little curious to find that, in 
Notes and Queries, 6 S. x. 97, the reading nwrse is ex- 
plained, upheld, and etymologically accounted for by two 
independent correspondents, who refer it to the Lat. mordere, 
to bite. One explains it as " to prime," as when one primes 

^ Not precisely ; it is the plural kimes that is a misprint for the plural knives. 



354 THE PEESIDENT^S ABDBESS FOR 1880* 

a musket, from O.Fr. amorce^ powder for the tonch-liole 
(Cotgrave) ; and the other by to bite, to gnaw, hence ** to 
indulge in biting, stinging, or gnawing thoughts of slaughter." 
The latter says : ** That the word as a misprint should have 
been printed and read by millions for fifty yeaj^ without 
being challenged and altered exceeds the bounds of proba- 
bility." Yet this very thing has actually happened, and it 
is not so very surprising. Many admire what they cannot 
understand, and uphold all that is paradoxical. It must be 
added that, in a few editions, as e.g. in one printed in 1871, 
the word rightly appears as nurse, a reading which may have 
been due to a slight exercise of common sense. The cor- 
rection is obvious enough to any reflecting mind. I draw 
the conclusion that any ghost-word, if of plausible appear- 
ance, will be greedily accepted and even defended. 

I am not going to say anything now as to the many 
vexed, tedious, and interminable questions which arise as to 
the correct text of Shakespeare; but I think it has long 
been an accepted opinion with all editors that the &mou8 
and inexplicable Uliorxa in Timon of Athens, iii. 4, 112, is a 
mere ghost-word ; it cannot be right as it stands. The same 
may be true of some other words, but I will not raise 
controversy by naming them. But the best examples are to 
be found in editions of Middle English poems, many of 
which were edited by men who had hardly a passable ac- 
quaintance with the language which they professed to ex- 
plain to others. The best examples occur in cases where the 
editor has endeavoured to be faithful, but was unable to read 
the MS. where it presented difficulties. It is well known 
that "VVarton's History of English Poetry contains a con- 
siderable number of examples. In particular, there is an 
excellent note by Price, in the edition of 1840, vol. ii. p. 71, 
where the frequent confusion of n with u is dwelt upon. 
From this note, I extract such ghost-words as the following. 
In a passage from Layamon's version of the Brut, Mr. Ellis 
gives us the verb drinen, to urge, ** from the Dutch dringen" 
It should be — " Ther heo gunnen driuen,^^ there did they 
drive, or go. In the same author, Mr. Turner gives us the 



DELIVEBED BY PROF. SKEAT. 355 

adv. naUe, said to mean headlong. It should he — ''And 
Walwain gon to ualk" and Walwain began to fall ; 1. 2082 L 

In another passage, Mr. Turner has evolved a ghost- verb 
ulen, to howl, past tense ulode^ howled, by supposing u tohe 
a vowel, when it is a consonant. The u is the consonant v^ 
and ulode^ is the dat. case of flood ; the later MS. has flode. 
The line is — " And the leo i than ulode,'' and the lion in the 
flood, 1. 20874. In this case, the form is correct to the eye 
that understands it, but was not so to Mr. Turner. The 
mistake, though curious, is not a very bad one, as there 
really is a M.E. verb houlen, to howl, with initial h. 

In Ritson's King Horn, L 1301, we have : 

" The ship bygan to cronde 
The wynd bleu wel londeJ* 

But londe should be loude^ loudly ; whilst cronde is a pure 
ghost-word. Bead croude, i.e. to crowd, to push on ; cf. 
Chaucer's use of crouden, and the Norfolk phrase ' to crowd 
(i.e. push) a barrow.' Bitson's Glossary gives the verb 
cronde, with the right reference ; but he oflfers no explanation. 
In the same poem, 1. 1485, Bitson prints : 

" Onen o the sherte 
Hue gurden huem with suerde." 

Price rightly alters it to oiierif representing the A.S. v/an, 
above, i.e. "above, on the shirt, they girded them with 
swords.'' Stratmann takes ouow as being all one word, but 
wrongly, for the A.S. u/enan, to which he refers us, is an 
adverb, meaning ' from above ' ; see John iii. 31, in the AS. 
Gospels. Bitson's Glossary quietly drops the word onen, and 
says nothing about it. 

The confusion between u and n is doubtless familiar to 
you, but it is worth while to say that there are numerous 
other ways in which words can be obscured. There is 
hardly any letter in the alphabet which has not occasionally 
been misread as meaning something else. This I shall show 
presently, but I shall first adduce numerous examples from 
various sources. 

The following are taken from Whitaker's edition of Piers 



356 THE president's address for 1886. 

Plowman. I give the references to my own edition of the 
G-text, which is founded upon the same MS. as that which 
he printed. The examples are the more striking^ because 
he himself emphasizes the pains which he took to be accurate 
(see p. xli of his Preface) ;' so that we may be sure that his 
real difficulty was his want of familiarity with Middle- 
English. I group his misreadings according to the changes 
which they exhibit. Some of them may seem extraordinary, 
but they are quite explicable when the MS. itself is examined. 
When, for instance, he takes a capital (7 to be a small «, 
there is really something like a resemblance between these 
letters when c is written on a small scale, in the middle of a 
line. Some of them can be seen to be mere printer's errors. 
It will be understood that I only mention such mistakes as 
have produced 'ghost-words,' or, as we commonly say, 
nonsense. I say nothing of real forms used in the wrong 
context. 

We find then, u for w, in fouky i.e. /onk, a spark of fire, 
7. 335 ; and in reuk, i.e. renk, a man, 8. 8 ; and, again, 
reuke, i.e. renke, 21. 2. iVfor u, as in **how the day roned,** 
explained by ** how the day was foul with rain," i.e. rained ; 
but we must read rotied, i.e. dawned, the word being spelt 
rowide in the Trinity MS. ; 21, 128. There is no verb to rone, 
though we actually find in the same poem the strong past tense 
row, roen, roen^ with the sense of * rained ' ; see my Glossaiy. 
JW for my as in coniseth for comsethy i.e. conunences, begins, 
2. 162; and, again, in conisyngea for comsynges, i.e. com- 
mencings, 12. 95. There is no verb to conise, " to teach, to 
cause, to con or know," as Whitaker explains it, though this 
will not suit the context. In for w?, as in hine for lame, i.e. 
frequently, 13. 121 ; Whitaker evidently takes loine to be 
the French loin, as ho explains it by " long since." Yet, 
however real the form lome may be as a substantive, it is a 
mere spectre when it claims to be an adverb, and must be 
dismissed accordingly. Mior ui, as in dymncde for dyuinede, 
divined, interpreted, explained, 10. 305 ; dymnen is explained 
as meaning * to dream,' but it is a mere ghost- verb. Mt for 
un, as in gramity for graunty, the infinitive of our modem 



BELIYEBED BT PROF. SKEAT. 357 

verb to gprant, 2. 86 ; gramity is explained by Whitaker to 
be a snbatantive, signifying * grief * or ' anger/ but there is 
no such word^ and the explanation will in no way suit the 
context. Mu for um^ as in clamupea for claumpes, i.e. cramps, 
23. 82 ; perhaps a misprint, there being no such word as 
elamupe. Unn for erm^ as in punniteny explained by ' punish/ 
3. 185 ; the right reading is permuten, permute, exchange ; 
there is no such verb as punnite. Ur for ne^ as in forbusur, 
explained by 'furbisher/ 18. 277; the right reading is 
/orbusne, an example. I do not deny the existence of the 
Bb, furbisher, but I do not allow that it can be spelt forbusur ; 
I would therefore relegate forbusur to the abode of ghosts, 
and not suffer it to haunt our Dictionary. C for t, as in 
culde^ 15. 150, instead of tnldey dwelt, as shown by the alli- 
teration. Here, again, we may admit thef reality of culde 
in the sense of ' killed ' ; but we cannot allow it to stand as a 
variant form of could^ which Whitaker took it to be. The / 
in could was not inserted till long afterwards. In 7. 370 the 
common word portours, i.e. porters, appears as porcours, 
explained as * pig-drivers.' Conversely, ^ for c ; as in j/taped, 
said to mean 'topped,' instead of f/coped, a bad spelling 
of ycouped, i.e. cut, as in four good MSS. ; 21. 12. Ytoped 
for 'topped' is a false form; it could only be ytopped^ 
with double p, 8 for a small capital c, as in soket for 
Coket, 9. 328. Coket is a stamp or seal, and secondarily, a 
kind of fine bread marked with a peculiar stamp. Soket is 
explained by * sucket,' which, according to Webster, means 
a sweetmeat. There is another instance where sharter is 
printed for Charter^ 17. 36 ; but this is of small consequence. 
Tt for itf as in watted^ for waitide^ i.e. waited, looked about, 
1. 16. Whitaker's Glossary explains watte by * to wander,' 
and calls it Saxon ; but there is no such verb. Again, 
suteth is put for sitteth, 17. 340 ; but the form is quite wrong. 
Sitteth meant ' he sits ' in the fourteenth century, just as it 
does now. Cc for tt^ as in siicch (1. 62), explained by 'true,' 
as if it were a variant of soth^ i.e. sooth, which it cannot 
possibly be. The right reading is sutth, a variant of sith, 
i.e. since ; other MSS. have mthy seth, seththe, sith, the last 



358 THE president's address for 1886. 

of these being commoiu Another strange alteration ii 
probably intentional, viz. in 17. 191, where the MS. has 
* chepe or refuse/ i.e. buy or refuse to buy ; here Whitaker 
prints cheese y though his commentary has chese^ explained by 
'chuse/ The double a produces an impossible form, since 
the preceding vowel is long. A very awkward misprint, 
though easily made, occurs in 16. 84, where we read that 
Christ ^ polede for man ' ; of course the p was put by the 
printer in the place of the Morn-letter ()?), and the verb 
intended is tholien, to suffer. The verb polien is a mere 
monstrosity. In 18. 118, we are told that priests are not to 
ouerhuppe, not to hop or skip over words in saying the 
service. The word is somewhat common, but Whitaker did 
not know it ; he therefore inserted an «, giving us auershuppe^ 
explained as 'overskip.' XJnfortxmately, this is an inad- 
missible form of ouerskippen, and the resulting ouerahuppe is 
nonsense. 

The mistakes in Wright's edition of Piers Plowman 
are very few; it is one of his most successful pieces 
of work, giving us a very accurate text, and some good 
illustrative notes that must have cost him some trouble 
to gather together. In two places, viz. in lines 961 and 
6186, he has printed maused for mansed, a clipped form of 
amansed, i.e. excommunicated, accursed ; but he has corrected 
this in other passages and in the Glossary. There is no such 
word as mamed. He has, however, produced one very 
decided ghost-word, viz. the verb to houchen. On p. 5 of his 
edition, we read of the pardoner that : 

" He bouched hem with his brevet, and blered hire eighen." 

His Glossary has ' bouchen, to stop people's mouths,' but this 
is followed by a query, to show that it was but a guess. I 
have shown, from the MSS. and other sources, that it should 
be bonchedy i.e. bunched, bumped, knocked, smote. 

There are some singular 'ghost- words' in Crowley's edition 
of the same poem ; they are given in the Critical Notes sub- 
joined to my edition of the B-text. I will just instance 
sangtle in 4. 2 ; this is put for saufftle, or rather aaughtle^ to 



DELIVERED BT PROF. SKEAT. 359 

become reconciled ; cf. A.S. aahtlian^ to reconcile. Beuk (5. 
399), for renk, a man ; this shows us how Whitaker was 
misled as to this form. In 7. 152, Crowley has dimned for 
diuined; this shows us the origin of another of Whi taker's 
mistakes, and warns ns that false forms are very tenacious of 
existence. In 10. 279, Crowley has mauzed for mamed ; this 
shows us the origin of Mr. Wright's mamed. These are 
instances of n for t/, m for ui^ and f« for n ; but in 6. 156, 
Crowley has / for «, and thus gives us abofted instead of 
abosted, i.e. addressed boastfully. There is no such word as 
abo/t in the New English Dictionary ; but the quotation for 
abosted is duly entered under the modem spelling Aboast. 

The history of the distinct poem called Pierce the Plough- 
man's Crede is a little singular. It was printed both by 
Whitaker and Wright from the old edition of 1553. Wright 
pointed out the existence of two MSS., but neglected them 
on the ground that they were mere late copies of the printed 
edition. I discovered that they represented an earlier and 
more correct text, containing five additional lines, and I was 
also enabled to restore the correct reading in about forty 
places. Some of the misprints in the old edition furnish us 
with good examples of ghost-words. As usual, we have u 
for w, as in the extraordinary form couuen for conneii, i.e. con, 
know, line 388; beuen for benen, i.e. beans, 762. Conversely, 
we have n for u ; in 1. 432, the word reufull was misread as 
renfully and actually turned into rentful by a misprint. RenU 
ful may possibly be a true word, but we should hardly 
use it to mean * full of rents or tears ' ; it is quite out of 
place as an epithet of lean oxen, of which it is said that 

" Men myghte reken ich a ryb, so renfful they weren." 

Similarly, in 1. 738, the word rmthe^ i.e. ruth, appears as 
renthe. Further, we have o for e, a very common error ; 
this has given us the spectral adverb monelichy instead of 
menelichf meanly; 108. Many MSS. confuse t with c, and 
especially at with bc ; hence the extraordinary statement 
about a friar who was "arayd in red stone," instead of 
" rede scone," i.e. red shoes ; 738. F and long « are con- 
PhlL Trans. IMM 24 



360 THE president's address for 1886« 

tinually confused also ; hence, in 1. SOS, the old edition telk 
US that 

" the fader of the f reers desoukd hir souleSp'' 

where the alliteration shows us that the MSS. are correct in 
giving us the form de/ouled, i.e. defiled ; ' the father of the 
friars ' being Satan himself. We cannot admit the verb to 
desoul to be good English, unless we find for it some far 
better evidence than this. Y and / (th) are often confused ; 
hence the extraordinary statement in I. 437, that 

" at the londes ende lath a litell crom-boUe/' 

where the right reading is lat/. We cannot admit lath as a 
verb, though it makes a very good substantive. There are 
two examples of misprints that have produced words as 
enigmatical as the Shakespearian uliorxa; these words are 
hetheued and folloke^ 11. 317 and 648. In 1. 317, it is clear 
that the printer meant to print the heued, i.e. the head ; but 
the compositor set up the article the twice, and thus produced 
an extraordinary result in the form the hetheued, i.e. the 
he[the']uedy with an intercalated the. Mr. Wright actually 
gives hetheved in his Glossary with the sense of * head ' ; but 
we now know that such a form is a mere illusion. Of the 
word folloke he could make nothing ; and certainly the right 
.explanation of it is past all guessing. Line 648 runs thus: — 

" Ther is no waspe in this werlde that will wilfuUoker 
styngen." 

Here wUfulIoher is the correct comparative form of mlful, 
which in M.E. commonly meant ' willing ' ; the sense is 
therefore * more willingly ' or ' more readily.' But the 
compositor forgot to repeat the syllable icil^ and neglected 
the final r ; hence the form folloke easily resulted, defying 
all explanation till the right reading was recovered. There 
are a few more strange forms in this poem which I shall 
notice further on. 

In the Kingis Quair, as edited by Tytler and the seven 
editors who copied him, there are a few words which have no 
real existence. Thus in stanza 97 we have the line — 

"And othir moyt I cannot on aviso." 



DELIYERED BY PROF. SKEAT. 361 

Here moyt is substituted for the MS. reading mo y*, i.e. mo 
that; and the meaning is — ''And others besides that I 
cannot tell of.'' In stanza 135, the word sataure appears, 
which Chalmers actually explained by ' satyr ' ! But the 
MS. has fatoure, the same word as faytour, a deceiver, in 
Piers Plowman. The line runs — " Ryght so the fatoure, the 
false theif, I say." Mr. Tytler's transcriber twice mistook b 
for €7, thus producing two* curious ghost-words. One is 
tavartis (st. 110), which is in the MS. tabards, i.e. tabards. 
The other is yrete, which Mr. Tytler supposed to be a past 
participle, meaning * wetted ' ; but the MS. has ybete, which 
is an infinitive mood, meaning * beat.' The passage runs— 

" As of my teris cummyth all this reyne, 
That ye se on the ground so fast ybete" (116.) 

In st. 161, we have the inexplicable word Degontity in the 
lines — 

" That fiirrit was with ermyn full quhite, 
Degontit with the self in spottis blake. 

It is perhaps hardly necessary to say that the right word is 
Degoutit, i.e. spotted, bedropped ; from O.F. degout^ a drop. 
In st. 182, we have the line — 

" Quho that from hell war coppin onys in hevin." 

Hence Jamieson inserts the pp. coppin, elevated, in his 
Dictionary, and derives it from cop, a top. This sets 
grammar at defiance, for the pp. of a verb coppen would be 
copped. The right reading is croppin, a variant of cropen, 
pp. of the strong verb crepen, to creep. War croppin means 
had crept, or may have crept. 

In st. 3, we have foringit, which Jamieson adopts, and 
explains by * banished,* as if from foreign. Such a formation 
is impossible ; the right reading is foriugit, condemned. 

Mr. Stevenson's edition of Lancelot of the Laik has some 
extraordinary and wholly impossible forms. Thus in 1. 1054, 
we have the inexplicable adverb vyt : — 

" The knychtis sheld i>yt frome his hals haith ton." 
The MS. has rt^, which stands for rycht, right. Here r has 



362 THE president's address fob 1S86. 

been misread as v, as again in 1. 700, where vondit, wounded, 
was printed as rendit, said to mean ' rent/ 

In 1. 2279y his edition has the plural substantive ehichingu ; 
the line runs — 

"Whar that al chichingis goith and cumyth son." 

The MS. has almost the same symbol for c and t^ as usual 
in Lowland Scotch ; and this mysterious word is easily 
resolved into thithingisy a bad spelling of tithingia, i.e. tidings. 
The form tithing is Northern, and occurs again in Barbour's 
Bruce; see the Glossary. In 1. 2114, he gives us — 

*' Sche sal thi havin, sche sail thi ned redress." 

The sb. havin is, however, a mere illusion. The MS. has r 
not V, and m, not in ; and the ghostly hacin fades into the 
common harm. 

Even some editions of Chaucer are not free from words of 
this class. When Moxon reprinted Tyrwhitt's Canterbury 
Tales, he added a reprint of Troilus, in which we find the 
line (bk. iii, 1. 775 or 726)— 

" And makon him an hotcne above to call." 

Morris rightly has howve, and corrects to to a; the sense is — 
" And make for him a hood above a caul," i.e. make a fool 
of him, as Tyrwhitt rightly says in his note to 1. 3909 of the 
Canterbury Tales. Strangely enough, in another passage, 
the very same word is misprinted howen in Morris's edition, 
vol. V. p. 20 — " Fortune his hoicen entended bet to glaze," 
i.e. Fortune intended to glaze his hood better for him, i.e. to 
befool him still more. 

In the 9th lino of the Ilevcs Tale, Tyrwhitt gives us : 

** Ay by his belt he bare a long pavade." 

The Six-text edition has no other form but panade, as in the 
editions by Wright and Morris. The word is not in Morris's 
Glossary, though given by Wright. Halliwell explains 
panade as "a kind of two-edged knife," and refers us to 
Wright's Anecdota Literaria, p. 24. I am not aware that 
this word has ever been quite cleared up. The nearest 
known French form is panart, explained by Roquefort as a 



DELIVERED BY PROP. SKEAT. 363 

kind of large two-^ged knife, " esp^ce de grand couteau & 
deux taillans." 

Headers of Chaucer will remember the line in the Knightes 
Tale, which runs thus : 

" Lyk to the estres of the grisly place/' 

The word estt-ea means the passages within a house, as 
explained by Cotgrave and Halliwell, and (more fully) by 
Matzner. Strange to say, this word has been turned into 
e/ters, by mistaking a long « for /. Halliwell actually gives 
*' E/fureSy passages," with a reference to Malory, ii. 376. 
Accordingly, the Globe edition of Malory gives us the 
sentence : ** Pleaseth it you to see the ejlures of this castle?" 
in bk. xix. c. 7. Cf. Notes and Queries, G S. ix. Skinner 
and Bailey both cite the word in the form often ; and so does 
Coles. The error might have been detected by observing 
that the combination ft does not occur in Latin, and is, 
accordingly, not to be expected in French. 

Jamieson's edition of Barbour's Bruce exhibits much care, 
but is not free from ghost-words. I have given a list of 
them in my edition of that poem, p. 776 ; so it will suffice 
to say that his allryn is a mistake for alkijn ; bekne is for 
heleue ; char stands for the auxiliary verb thar ; cleue is the 
adverb cletie ; enchausyt means enchaufyt^ i.e. chafed ; lessyt 
means leffyt^ i.e. remained ; pantener means paid^ner, i.e. 
rascally, ribald ; reuk (as in Whitaker's Piers Plowman) is 
put for renk, a man; skoiturand is for skownrand, modern 
Scotch scminenng, i.e. loathing; the past tense sordid is a 
misprint for fordid ; Syvewarm means Fyseicarin, i.e. Fitz- 
warine ; tyre means eyre, i.e. leather. We may observe that 
these errors turn upon the confusion of u with «, of s with /, 
of c with t, and m with in. Whilst speaking of Jamieson, I 
may observe that I have lately noticed a very surprising 
ghost-word in his Dictionary, viz. panfray in the sense of 
palfrey. It is obviously a misprint for paufray. 

It must be added that Jamieson is, upon the whole, a very 
careful editor. The preceding examples are taken from a 
poem of great length. If we wish to find more copious 



364 THE president's address for 1886. 

examples of errors, we have only to consult the editions of 
his predecessor Pinkorton, especially the two small voliunefl 
of Ancient Scottish Poems, publish^ in 1786. But I shall 
pass over these on the present occasion. 

There are some curious examples of ghost-words in 
Arnold's very useful edition of Wyclifs "Works, which I 
may as well point out. The first is corve, for which we are 
referred to Halliwell. But all that Halliwell says is this : 
" Corve, about the eighth of a ton of coals. Boxes used in 
coal-mines are also called corres" This proves nothing as 
to the occurrence of corre in Middle English ; the word is, in 
fact, illusory. The letter n has been misread as u, and then 
printed v. The passage runs thus: "Alle mensleeris and 
brenneris of houses and comes ben cursed opynly in parische 
chirches." Corns may soimd like a strange plural to modem 
ears ; but it is precisely Wyclif who is the authority for its 
use in the sense of corn-fields. In the translation of 
Luke vi. 1, we find it said of Jesus, that "whanne he 
passide by comes, his disciplis pluckeden oris," or in the 
later version, " eeris of com." ^ Again, the Glossary gives 
us founed, foolish, and at p. 131 of vol. i., we find 
" thcsfounede heretikcs," with various readings /owwyrf,^wrf, 
and foltid. Of course founede and founyd should be fannede 
and fontit/d respectively. The ioTm/oinied is imaginary. 

The third example is tharve, to lack. This is somewhat 
difficult, because we must distinguish, as Stratmann does, 
between the auxiliary verb t/tarf, I need, an old strong form 
with the plural thurvcn, and the derivative verb thame, to 
lack, answering to the Icel. />ama, short for />arfna, now 
only used in the reflexive form /jamask, to lack. Here the 
original / has disappeared before the infinitival suffix -na. 
Consequently, we find in M.E. the forms tharf, t/iurve, and 
thame. Thane is impossible, as shown by the etymology. 
We must therefore alter tharve to thamc^ and read, in vol. 
iii. p. 38 — " Nothing is moore pyne than for to thame the 
sight of God," i.e. to lack, to miss. This appearance of the 

^ Compare Chaucer's line in the Cant. Tales, B. 3225 — " And they brende oUe 
the comes in that lond." 



DELIVERBD BT PROF. SKEAT. 365 

gbost^word tharve in company with the real words tharf, 
thurve, and tharne is not a little remarkable. It is one more 
illustration of the great mistake which an editor commits 
when he prints v for what he imagines to be a fi, though it 
turns out to mean an n. 

The Glossary also has boltie^ to swell out ; this may be a 
misprint, for the text has bolne at the place referred to, and 
bolneden at p. 25, vol. iii. Yet, as Mr. F. D. Matthew points 
out to me, we also find bolneden, an impossible form, at 
p. 15 of the same volume. Again, there is a difficult word 
which at first was read as treryn; the glossary suggests 
that it should be terry n, to excite, provoke, which is certainly 
right. We may just note that treryn is a ghost- word, due to 
the misreading of a contraction. 

The usual confusion of t with c occurs in encorti/f iii. 36, an 
error for encorcif, fatted, as may be seen by consulting 
Brimley's Glossary to Hampole's translation of the Psalter ; 
and again in flocced, iii. 252, an error for flotted, i.e. floated 
about, as may be seen by consulting Morris's Glossary to the 
Alliterative Poems. Mr. Matthew called my attention to 
the latter example, which, however, I first noted in 1871. 

I propose here to call attention to the famous word wayne ; 
for I have now no doubt that, notwithstanding the numerous 
passages in which it occurs, it is purely a ghost-word, as 
Stratmann has already pointed out. The original error 
aeems to be that in L 945 of the Alexander Eomance, as 
edited by Stevenson : — 

" [She] waynes out at wyndou and waytis aboute." 

Unluckily, the passage is corrupt. It is corrected by the 
Dublin MS., which reads : — 

** [She] wayfez vp a wyndow and waytes tharowt," 

i.e. she throws up (or open) a window, and looks out of it. 
Here the spelling with /at once shows that the n should be u 
(=r). With this alteration of tcaynes to wayues, the authority 
for icayyie is gone. The word is very common in this romance, 
occurring at least a dozen times. It is variously spelt tvafe, 
wayfe^ and tcayne, answering to waff^', waif, and tcauff, in 



366 THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS FOR 1886. 

Jamiesoiii and to tcaive, waft^ and wave in modem English, 
though it must be remembered that waive and wave are quite 
distinct words. The senses in the Alexander Romance are 
(1) to live, move, cf. E. wave, waft; and (2) to waive, give 
up, put away, send, transmit, convey, deliver, grant, abandon. 

Into this carefully prepared trap most succeeding editors 
have fallen. Thus Dr. Morris gives three examples of wayne 
in his Alliterative Poems, six in Gawain and the Grene 
Knight, (though the seventh time it is waj/ue), and one in the 
Ayenbite of In wit. He justifies his reading by quoting the 
line in Stevenson's edition. I have myself printed wat/ned in 
"William of Palerne, and justify the reading by quoting Dr. 
Morris. I have also printed wayne once in the B-text of 
Piers Plowman, with a note that the MS. can be read either 
way. In the Troy-boke, edited by Panton and Donaldson, 
we have at least seven examples. That is, there are at least 
twenty printed examples of a word which never existed. I 
fear I must not now detain you with the proof, or it would 
not be difficult to show, by help of the examples in the 
Alexander Romance, that every one of these twenty ex- 
amples of wayne is incorrect, and that, in some at least, the 
sense of the word and of the passage in which it occurs, has 
been much mistaken. There is no such verb as wayne in 
Middle English. 

It would be tedious to add many more examples, as the 
subject is, unfortunately, almost endless ; it is the natural 
result of an utter want of teaching. The unfortimate editors 
have had, for the most part, no instruction in palaK)graphy, 
and have never been taught so much as the most rudi- 
mentary rules of Middle-English Grammar. I can illustrate 
this at once by a word which I lately looked up for Dr. 
Murray. Halli well's Dictionary contains the following entry ; 

** Bewumt^, enfolded, entwined. 

Sithen on that ilke place 
To hang Jewes thei made sokce ; 
That catelle was wo bcgon, 
So bcwtmus waa never non. 

MS. Cantab, Ff. v. 48, fol. 23 [now 24]." 



DBLIVE&ED BT PROF. SKEAT. 367 

Every solioolboy ought to know that no EngKsh past par- 
ticiple ends in us ; and further, that even for an adjective, 
it is a very strange suffix. On looking at the MS., I saw at 
once that the MS. had been misread. The word is not 
bewuntis, but bewunne. The final us is ne. The final e is 
just like other «'s on the same page, and different from the 
«'s. The preceding n might, no doubt be u. This mysterious 
ghost-word turned out to be merely the past participle of 
the verb to beiciiu The whole will become clearer if I state 
that the subject of the sentence is the thirty pieces of silver 
which Judas obtained for betraying his Master. The state- 
ment that " no money was ever so be- won '* will be readily 
assented to. This strange departure from the MS. might 
have been prevented either by careful reading, or by a 
knowledge of Middle English grammatical forms. It aptly 
illustrates the innumerable pitfalls that beset the Dictionary- 
maker who wishes to avoid the errors of his predecessors. A 
word that has been once coined is ever afterwards held almost 
sacred ; it is repeated by one authority after another, till the 
astonished investigator is almost inclined to believe that 
there is something in it. After the word ahacot has been 
proved not to exist, it is still retained, as I have said, in 
Ogilvie's Dictionary, with a picture to show what it was 
like. I must add one more example of a ghost-word which 
I think carries off the prize. This is the word oiceryy occur- 
ring in 1. 362 of William and the Werwolf, as printed by 
Hartshorne. In the MS. the first letter is a stumpy dy and 
the word is dwerp^ a dwarf. 

But our difficulties do not end when we refer to the MSS. 
themselves. We all know that the scribes have something 
to answer for, though they by no means deserve the cutting 
things that have often been said of them. Of their very 
curious freaks, I will just give one example which has come 
under my notice lately, involving the strange phrase chek 
in a ti/de, which is a mere ghost-phrase, and never existed. 

In Octovian Imperator, printed in Weber's Metrical 
Romances, voL iii. p. 230, the stanza beginning with 1. 1741 
is thus printed : 



368 THE president's address for 1886. 

" Down he fyll deed to grounde, 
Gronynge fast with grymly wounde. 
Alle the baners that Crysten founde 

They were abatyde ; 
There was many an hethen hounde 

That they chek yn a tydeJ* 

I have little doubt that the error is the scribe's, and not the 
editor's ; I think this will appear from the investigation. 

In his Glossary, Weber says : *' Chek^ i.e. checked, as in 
the game of chess ; hence metaphorically, killed." This is 
all very well for the sense; but it is disgracefully bad 
grammar. It is quite impossible that the past tense plural 
of the verb to click could take any other form than chekked, 
with the variants chekkcdc, chekkcderiy cftckkid, etc. This 
is therefore not the right answer, neither does it throw 
the least light upon the mysterious phrase yn a tyde. A 
very moderate knowledge of palaeography will solve the 
riddle in a moment. It is obvious that the scribe had before 
him a word containing the letter m, which he first misread 
as tw, and secondly miswrote as yn. We have only to 
substitute m for the syllable yn, and the resulting final line 
appears in the intelligible form " That they chck-matyde.** 
This easy correction restores at once the grammar, the rime, 
the metre, and the sense ; and I do not think we need seek 
any further. There is, as I said, no such phrase as chek yn 
a tyde. 

I wish to draw attention to a peculiarity of spelling in the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, especially in Northern 
MSS., which does not seem to be at all well understood. In 
the Latin MSS. of that period some doubled letters, viz. such 
as possess a long perpendicular down-stroke, are often im- 
perfectly formed. They are indicated by doubling the 
down-stroke only, without repeating the rest of the letter. 
Thus a double p is not written pp^ but 2p. An editor who 
does not know this might mistake the first down-stroke for 
one of those peculiar r'« that come below the line ; and this 
mistake has been actually made, with the ridiculous result 
that the purely modem phrase " look sharp " has been said 



DBLtVERED BT PROF. SKEAT. 369 

by some that knew no better to have been in use in the time 
of Chaucer. I have quoted the passage in my smaller edition 
of Piers Plowman, pref. p. xxx, ed. 1879, from Kiley's 
edition of Walsingham, vol. ii. p. 33. It is the very famous 
passage in which John Balle, the 'crazy priest of Kent/ 
stirred up the commons of Essex to join "Wat Tyler's revolt. 
"Biddeth Peres Ploughman go to his werke, and chastise 
well Hobbe the robber, and taketh with you Johan Trewman, 
and all his felaws, and no mo, and lake acharpe you to on 
heued, and no mo." I am indebted to Mr. E. Maunde 
Thompson, of the British Museum, for the correction of 
this. He tells me that the MS. has not acharpe, but only 
schappe, where the pp is made as I have described. The 
phrase means — " see [that ye] shape (or form) yourselves 
under one head, and not under more than one." Even if 
the MS. really had scharpe, the phrase would have to be ex- 
plained, grammatically, as meaning — " see [that ye] sharpen 
yourselves under one head." The interpretation " look 
sharp" leaves the accusative t/ou without any verb to 
govern it. 

Besides jt7, in which the first down- stroke comes below the 
line, there are three other letters beginning with a long 
down-stroke, but extending above the line. These are 6, h, 
and k. We can at once dismiss h because it is hardly ever 
doubled. There remain b and A*, which, if written on the 
same principle, appear precisely like lb and Ik, and are 
usually mistaken for them. Hence have arisen several 
ghost-words, several of which cause great difficulty. I 
cannot at this moment recall more than three examples of 
/6=ft6. One is galberf, in Jamieson's Dictionary, cited from 
Lyndesay's Works ; it stands for gabbert^ a gaberdine. 
The second is talbert for tabbart, i.e. a tabard, in Gawain 
Douglas. The third is for-gabbed, i.e. scoffed at, in 1. 631 
of Pierce the Plowman's Crede. My noto on the line says, 
**80 in B and C [i.e. in the British Museum MS. and the old 
printed text] ; in A [i.e. in the Trinity MS.] it resembles 
forgalbed." I was saved from error by collation with the 
other texts ; but I should now say that even A is perfectly 



370 THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS FOR 1886. 

correct; for when the scribe wrote what seems to be 
forgalbed, ho meant forgabbed all the same. In L 399 of the 
same poem, I have gone wrong ; I say that A has pctOcey B 
has palk, and C has pahke. Of course I now see that the 
right reading is pakk or pakke, not palk, as I have printed it. 
The line should stand thus. 

" Ther is no peny in my pakke^ to payen for my mete." 

I was induced to print palk^ partly through ignorance, 
and partly because Jamioson's Dictionary gives polk as the 
old Lowland Scotch for a poke or bag. Unfortunately, 
Jamieson's word is as ghostly as my own ; it simply stands 
for poiike, a pouch, the apparent / representing a ti, as will 
appear to any one, who investigates the whole subject to 
the bottom. I will show this presently. We find this 
Ik for kk in wholly impossible cases ; the resulting forms are 
mere ghost-words. I give a few examples. 

The various editions of Gawain Douglas give us the word 
rolkiSf which is rightly explained by Jamieson to mean 
' rocks.' He regards the / as an ignorant insertion. But 
the old Northern word for * rocks ' was not rokia, but rokkis ; 
and rokku is precisely what the scribe intended, though the 
editors have not seen it. 

The Glossary to Dr. Lumby's edition of 'Bemardus de 
Cura rci familiaris * gives us the form speik, to speak. But 
though the scribe wrote what looks like spelk, he certainly 
meant the form to be spekk. He need not have doubled the 
final k ; and if he had only left it as 8j)ek, we should not 
have had presented to our sight the spectral form spelk. 

The same Glossary gives us both wakyr and walkyr in the 
sense of * watchful * ; I have little doubt that tcakkyr is what 
the scribe intended ; but I have further remarks below upon 
this form. Another ghost-word is slalky to slacken, cited by 
Jamieson from Wallace, bk, v. 1. G56, which he informs us is 
'^inetri causae'' or in plain English, a false form made in 
order to gain a rime. The passage runs thus : — 

" On othir thing he maid his witt to wa/k, 
Prefand giff he mycht off that languor slalk" 



DBLIYEBED BY PROF. SKEAT. 371 

The fact is, that the MS. is quite right, but the editors are 

doubly wrong. In the former line, walk stands for xcakk, i.e. 

to wake, to be wakeful, to be on the alert ; and slalk is 

intended for slakky to slacken, as Jamieson rightly explains 

it. But this is not the end of the story. The use of an 

apparent Ik for kk was a piece of laziness that had very bad 

results. The verb to wakey in particular, has a very strange 

history. It was sometimes written wakk, or apparently walk^ 

as we have seen, and rimed with slak. The vowel, originally 

short, as in A.S. wacan, was gradually lengthened, and at last 

coincided with that in the verb which we now spell walk^ but 

which, in Lowland Scotch, was spelt walk or wauk^ the / 

being silent, as in Modern English. Hence the apparent Ik 

was treated as a real Ik ; the combination alk was treated as 

equivalent to auk^ and consequently al was looked upon as 

equivalent to au. Hence the constant use of walk in the 

sense of ' wake ' in the latter MSS., and the three spellings 

of the adjective wakrife^ walkrife,^ waukrife, in the sense of 

' watchful/ Further, owing to the apparent equivalence of 

/ and u before ky we have the astonishing forms golk as a 

variant of gouky a cuckoo, and polk as a variant of pouke, 

a pouch or poke. These forms established the apparent 

equivalence of ol and ou, and led to the surprising word twit 

for nout, i.e. neat cattle, in Gawain Douglas ; and in the 

same author we find clolf for douf, i.e. dull ; chip for doup, a 

cavity, a depth ; hoik for kouk^ to hollow out ; tcolx for wonx, 

variant of wox, pt. t. of wax, to grow ; also walk for wank, to 

wake, walknit for wauknit, awakened, walkryfe for waukrijfe, 

wakeful, and walkynaris for waukynaris, awakeners. Still 

more surprising is the late form cnlpis (and even culppis) in 

the sense of ' cups * ; for this, the only interpretation I can 

think of is that the / is intended to lengthen out the u, as in 

the M.E. coupe, a cup ; for the modem * cup * is expressed in 

Middle English both by coupe, with u long, and cuppe, with 

u short. Modem Scotch has caup for ciip, as in Burns* Holy 

Fair. In the same way, I should explain the form palpts in 

^ The steps are: (1) wakrif: (2) walkrife (^walikrije) : (3) walkrife 
(^ w^ukrifej : (4) UKtuhrift, 



372 THE FBESIDEKT's address FOK 1886. 

GFawain Douglas, the sense of which is * paps,' as indioatiye 
of a pronunciation resembling that of paupis ; in fact» paupU 
actually occurs, viz. in Sir David Lyndesay's Experience and 
the Courteour, 1. 4009. 

One result of this investigation is quite certain, viz. that 
whether ik represents kk or not, we know that the / was at 
any rate, in a large number of words, absolutely silent as a 
consonant, though it affected the preceding vowel. In some 
cases, it stood for kk, but in others it practically signified the 
vowel w. By way of recapitulation, I would say that Ik 
represents kk in the written forms paike, roiki\ spelk, slalk. 
In walkf to wake, the Ik at first meant kk, but practically 
came to represent vk; and the same is true of the derivatives 
vcalknit and tcalkrife, L represents u in golk, polk, nolt, dolf, 
dolp, hoik, tcolx, palpis. Its meaning in culpU is doubtful ; 
this strange form may have arisen from confusion of euppU 
with colph f^zcoupis) or calpis (=^caupis)^ owing to the M.E. 
form being a double one. By way of a moral, I would 
recommend extreme caution to any editor of a Scottish text 
when he deals with a word containing a combination of two 
letters, the former of which is an /. 

I now proceed to make a list of the symbols which, 
in the foregoing examples, have been misread and con- 
fused. The following groups denote the confused symbols: 
h, v; c, t ; d, ; e, o, s; f, «; *, Ir ; m, ui, in; n,u; o, d, 
e; p,/> (th) ; r, v ; s, C, e, /; y, f> (th) . Also mi, un ; mu, 
um; ni, in; rp, pp; tt, it; ur, ne ; unn, enn; tin, rm. 
Also lb, hi) ; Ik, kk. Yqtj few of these mistakes result from 
the misreading of marks of contraction. If I were to add 
examples of this character, the number of ghost-words would 
be very largely increased. Editors seem at times to have 
been sorely puzzled by such marks. Tytler, in his edition of 
the Kingis Quair, usually expands the contractions ; but he 
actually prints qmtme for commune, and qmonly for commonly, 
because he did not know what else to do with the contraction 
for com, which somewhat resembles the letter q. In st. 160, 
the fourth line is left imperfect, ending in the MS. with the 
common symbol S{. By way of eking out the line, Tytler 



BELIYBBED BT PROF. 8KEAT. 



373 



8 here a Q tamed upside down, adding * tHe reader's 
ingenuity must supply this mark of abbreviation ; per- 
it may be for askew or asketcia.* This is the boldest 
ision of a contraotion which has ever come imder my 
e. It has even been supposed that we are to read 
is! 

lubjoin a list of the non-existent words or 'ghost- words' 
li I have now noticed. I include amongst them some in- 
onal but strange forms, such as golk for gouL I also add, 
ery case, the correct form within marks of parenthesis. 



t (a bicocket), 351. 

3d (abosted), 359. 

I (alkyn), 363. 

e (beleue), 363. 

i (benen), 359. 

nus (bewunne), 366. 

den (bolnedcn)y 365. 

ten (bonchen), 358. 

[thar), 363. 

yn a tyde (chek-matyde), 

7. 

e (chese), 358. 

ingis (thithingis, error for 

bingis), 362. 

ipe (claumpe), 357. 

(clene), 363. 
B (comse), 356. 
fng (comsyng), 356. 
Q (croppin), 361. 
s (comes), 364. 
m (connen), 359. 
ie (croude), 355. 

(tulde), 357. 

s (cuupis ? for coupis ?), 
1 372. 

itit (degoutit), 361. 
lied (defouled), 360. 
ede (diuincde), 356, 359. 
(douf ), 371, 372. 
(doup), 371, 372. 
n (driuen), 354. 
lede (dyuinede), 356, 359. 
es (estcres, estres), 363. 
lusyt (enchaufyt), 363. 
tif (encorcif), 365. 
jd (flotted), 365. 



foUoke (wilfolloker), 360. 
forbusur (forbusne), 357. 
forgalbed (forgabbed), 369. 
foringit (foriugit), 361. 
fouk (fonk), 356. 
founed (fonned), 364. 
galbert (gabbert), 369. 
golk (gouk), 371, 372. 
gramity (graunty), 356. 
havin (harm), 364. 
hetheued (heued), 360. 
holk(houk), 371, 372. 
liowen, howne (howue), 362. 
kimes (knives), 353. 
lath (lav), 360. 
lessyt (ieffyt), 363. 
loinc (lome), 356. 
mausod (mansed), 358, 359. 
monelich (menelich), 359. 
morse (nurse), 353. 
moyt (mo J^at), 360. 
nallo (ualle), 355. 
nolt(nout), 371, 372. 
onen (ouen), 355. 
ouershuppe (ouerhuppe), 358. 
owery (dwer)?), 367. 
palke (pakke), 370. 
palpis (paupis), 371, 372. 
panfray (paufray), 363. 
pantener (pautener), 363. 
pavade (panado), 362. 
polien (j^olien), 358. 
polk (pouk), 370, 371, 372. 
porcours (portours), 357. 
punniten (permuten), 357. 
rendit (vondit), 362. 



374 THE president's address for 1886. 

rentful (reuful), 359. talbart (tabbart), 869* 

renthe (reuthe), 359. tavart (tabart), 361. 

reuk (renk), 356, 359, 363. tharve (tbame), 864. 

rolkis (rokkis), 370, 372. treryn (tenyn), 865. 

roned (roued), 356. tyre (eyre), 363. 

sangtle (saughtle), 358. ulode {correct ; u«v), 855. 

satourc (fatoure), 360. ullorxa (?), 354. 

scharpe (schappo), 369. vyt (ryebt), 361. 

sharter (Charter), 357. walk (wakk, later wank), 370. 

skowurand (skownrand), 363. walkrif (wakkrif , ^^waukrif), 

slalk (slakk), 370, 372. 371. 

8ok et ( Coket ) ,357. walknit ( wakknit, /af^rwauknit), 

sordid (fordid), 363. 371. 

spelk (spekk), 370, 372. watte (waite), 357. 

stone (schon), 359. wayne (wayue), 365. 

succli (suttb), 357. wolx (woux), 371, 372. 

suten (sitten), 357. ytoped (yeoped), 357. 

Syvewann (Fysewarin), 363. yvete (ybote), 361. 

Slavonic Philology; from April, 1884, to April, 1886. 

By W. R. Morfill, Esq. 

For the following valuable contribution to this Address I 
am indebted to Mr. W. R. Morfill, whose name must be well 
known to you from his former contributions on the same 
subject. We are extremely fortunate in having the assist- 
ance of so distinguished a scholar, who carefully watches the 
progress of Slavonic Philology with unflagging zeal, and 
who is at the same time so ready to communicate to the 
Society the results of his researches. 

" In the following pages a short account is attempted of 
the leading publications in Slavonic philology during the 
period April, 1884, to April, 1886. 

" In General Slavonic Philology the most important work 
has been the Etymological Dictionary of the Slavonic Lan- 
guages by Professor Miklosich.^ This is a book of the 
highest value, and supplies a desideratum, Slavonic ety- 
mology has not always met with sober treatment, and it 
is to be feared that some of the cherished etymologies of 
Slavists, not too scientific, will be found rudely dealt with in 
this work. Thus the deity Svantovit, about whom so much 

I Etymologisches VTorterbuch der Slavischen Sprachen, "Wien, 1886. 



W. B. MOBFILL, ESQ., ON SLAVONIC PHILOLOGY. 375 

has been written, is treated merely as a Slavonic rendering 
of Saint Vitus, whose cultus is shown to have been introduced 
among the Slavs at an early period. Again, the time- 
honoured derivation of Slav from Slovo is rejected. Miklo- 
sich thinks that the termination inii in Shvenii, etc., shows 
the stem to be the name of a place. He considers that the 
Greek crdXa/809 is a mere variant of (r/c\a/8o9, and thus has 
but cold comfort for M. Sathas, who is so anxious to get rid 
of the Slavonic element in mediaoval Greece, and bases one of 
his most important arguments upon this distinction. Other 
points in this interesting work I have not space to discuss. 
Besides his etymological dictionary, we also owe to Miklosich 
a short Comparative Dictionary of Six Slavonic Languages.* 
This, although a useful book, cannot add much to the Pro- 
fessor's reputation, as it is very short, and by the omission of 
some of the languages does not fulfil the conditions of a 
complete Comparative Dictionary of the Slavonic Languages. 
Slovenish, Slovak and Sorbish, not to mention others, are 
wanting. It is said to have been undertaken at the request 
of a member of the Russian Imperial family. 

" Besides these important works, I may mention the 
survey of the Slavonic family of languages in the introduc- 
tion to the course of lectures given by Prof. Baudouin de 
Courtenay at Dorpat.^ The author is already favourably 
known by his studies of the old Polish language, and his 
works on the obscure Resanian dialect of Slovenish. A 
Grammar of Palseo-Slavonic for the use of schools has 
appeared from the pen of Stoyan Novakovich.^ Mention 
must also be made of the valuable translation of the chronicle 
attributed to Nestor, which has been published by M. Louis 
Leger, who is now professor of the Slavonic languages at the 
College de France : although belonging strictly to the domain 
of history, yet its elaborate linguistic and ethnological 

1 Dictionnaire abr6g6 de six langnes Blares (russe, Yieux slave, bulgare, serbe, 
tch^ue et polonais), Vienna, 1885. 

• Uebersicht der Slavischen Sprachenwelt, Antrittsvorlesiing, Ijcipzig, 1884. 

' Gramatika Staroga Stovenskoga Tezika za srednye shkole kralyene Srbiye, 
Belgrade, 1884 (in Serbian). 

FhO. Tnuu. 1880-6. 25 



376 THE president's ABDBBSS for 1886. 

appendices entitle it to mention here.^ An English trans- 
lation of this interesting chronicle is still a desideratum. 

"Taking the languages in the order in which they are 
generally arranged, we come (1) to Russian. Nothing yery 
noteworthy has heen produced in this language during the 
two years which have elapsed since my last survey. Prof. 
Jagic, who holds the chair of Slavonic philology at St. Peters- 
burg formerly filled by Sreznevski, continues his valuable 
articles in the ' Archiv fur Slavische Philologie/ of which 
the ninth volume has just begun. 

"An important contribution to our knowledge of the 
phonetics of the Russian language is the work of M. V. 
Bogoroditzki on the unaccented vowels in the Russian 
language.^ Prof. Partitzki of Lemberg, already favourably 
known by his German-Ruthenish Dictionary and an in- 
teresting monograph on the poet Shevchenko, has ventured 
on a small volume^ on the many difficulties which beset the 
prose poem on the Expedition of Igor (Slovo o polkon 
Igorev^), a monument of the early Russian language, 
many of the expressions in which have been great cruces to 
scholars. Prof. Jagic in a review of the work does not speak 
altogether favourably of it. E. Zelechowski continues the 
publication of his Little- Russian Dictionary, which has now 
got as far as the letter * S ' ; it is very much superior to 
anything of the kind previously published. 

" (2) Bulgaria. From this country there is nothing of 
importance to communicate. The principality has been too 
much occupied with the struggle for its national existence to 
be able to develope considerable literary activity. The 
Periodichesko Spisanie continues to appear at Sofia, and 
contains interesting articles on Slavonic ethnology and 
philology. 

" (3) Serbian. M. Mariakovich has published in a separate 
form his paper on the Persian, Arabic and Turkish words 

* Chronique dito do Nestor, traduite sur le teite SlaTon-Russe par Louis 
Le^cr. Paris, 1884. 

' Glasnio bez oudarenia v* obstcheroiisskom yazike, Kazan, 1884. 

3 Tenmi miesttza v * Slove o pl'kou Igoruve. Chast Persha (1st part). 
Lemberg, 1883 Cin Little Hussian). 



W. B. MOBFILL, ESQ., ON SLAVONIC PHILOLOGY. 377 

introduced into the Serbian language,^ which was read at the 
Oriental Congress at Berlin, but the book is far from fault- 
less ; part of the subject has been much better treated by 
Miklosich in his ^Turkish Element in the South-East and 
Eastern European Languages/ ' which has appeared among 
the transactions of the Yiennese academy. In the latter 
work many Oriental words besides Turkish are discussed, and 
some interesting derivations are given, among others that of 
the mysterious Bulgarian word khubav 'beautiful,' which is 
shown on good grounds to be of Persian origin. Lord 
Strangford made the unhappy conjecture that it was one of the 
primitive TJralian roots which the Bulgarians had brought 
with them from their settlement on the Volga. The South 
Slavonic Academy at Agram continues the publication of its 
great Dictionary.* This monumental work — which may be 
compared with that of our own language now being pub- 
lished under the editorship of Dr. Murray — has not been 
interrupted by the death of the well-known Serbian scholar, 
Gfj. Danici<5. It is now being carried on by his former 
co-operators. It has, however, only reached its fifth part, 
the commencement of the letter d. Professor Nemanic con- 

V 

tinues the publication of his Cakavish (i.e. Dalmato- Croatian) 
Studies, to which allusion was made in my previous report.* 
The 'Slawo-deutsches und Slawo-italienisches'* of the eminent 
Romanist Hugo Schuchardt must be considered a valuable 
contribution to the study of Slavonic and German dialec- 
tology, but unfortunately the political aims of the writer are 
but too apparent throughout the work. The Southern Slavs 
have not yet learned to regard Prof. Schuchardt as a friend. 
" (4) Slovenish. The yearly publications of the ' Matika 

1 TocabTilaire des mots persans, arabes et tnrcs, introduits dans la langue 
86rbe par Louka K. Mariakovich, Berlin, 1882. 

' Die Tiirkischen Elemente in den SUdost und Ost-Europaischen Sprachen, 
Vienna, 1884. 

3 Rje^iik hrratfikoga ili srpgkoga jezika Na sYijet izdaje jugoslayenska 
akademija znanosti i umjetnosti. 

* ^akaTisch-Kroatische Stndien. Erste Stadie. Accentlehre. 1 Forsetznng. 
Yififnna, 1884. 

* Slawo-dentBches nnd Slawo-italienisches, Ton Hugo Schuchardt. Gratz, 
1885. 



378 THE president's address for 1886. 

Sloyenska ' of Laibaoh, which I have receiyed, deal chiefly 
with historical and antiquarian subjects, and therefore do 
not strictly come within the scope of this notice. The work, 
however, by Dr. Kos, 'Spomenica Tisocl^tnice Metodove 
Smrti * [Memorial of the Thousandth Anniversary of the 
death of St. Methodius], contains some interesting remarks 
on the Palaeo-Slavonic language and its home. 

" (5) Of the Western branch of languages Polish shall first 
engage our attention. A word of astonishment may be 
allowed on the expatriation of the Poles from Eastern Prussia 
and the cynical attempt at Germanizing them made by 
Bismarck. On reading such transactions, it is difficult 
to believe that we are living in the nineteenth century, with 
its boasted humanitarianism. 

"A new grammar of the Polish language has appeared, by 
M. Vymazal.^ The author is a Chekh,^ already favourably 
known by similar works. Last year an excellent new 
review was published at Warsaw, which, in spite of all its 
political troubles, continues to be a great centre of Polish 
literary life. The Philological Studies^ are edited by 
Baudouin de Courtenay, J. Karlowicz, A. A. Kryfiski, and 
L. Malinowski, all well-known names. Amidst other articles 
Nehring writes on the weak vowels used with / and r between 
consonants (the same subject which has been treated ad- 
mirably by Johannes Schmidt and forms a remarkable 
characteristic of the Slavonic languages), and Baudouin de 
Courtenay on the ' pathology and embryology of language.' 
This review promises very well. Among other articles it 
may be mentioned that the work published by Dr. Carl 
Abel, which formed the subject of his Ilchester Lectures, 
is severely handled by Jan Hanusz. The writer augurs 
poorly for the results of Dr. Abel's labours in Coptic, if 
he does not know more of that language than he does of 

* Grammatik der Polinschen Sprache zunachst zum Selbstunterricht. Brunn, 
1884.^ 

* This is the spelling of this word which I have resolved to adopt — just aa the 
French have invont^jd the word tch6que — to escape the ambiguities of diacritical 
marks or such a misleadinff spelling as Czech. 

^ Trace Filologiczne. Warsaw, 1885. 



W. B. MORRILL, ESQ., ON SLAVONIC PHILOLOGY. 379 

Little Russian. But in truth the Slavonic tongues require 
careful study and scientific treatment. 

*' (6) The Bohemian Casopis or Journal appears regularly, 
and contains valuable articles on Slavonic history, ethnology 
and philology. It may be said in conjunction with the 
* Archiv ' edited by Jagic to represent the highest level 
of Slavonic scholarship. 

" The controversy on the subject of the authenticity of the 
Zelenohorsky and Kralodvorsky Rukopis is still being fought 
out in the other literary journals, and Drs. Kalousek and 
Jan Oebauer are in the thick of the fray. The latter in 
conjunction with Masaryk has attacked these documents 
in the Bohemian Athenaeum on the ground that they are 
full of soloecisms, such as could only have been perpetrated 
at a time when the Old Chekh language was but poorly 
understood. Thus the imperfect and aorist tenses are 
constantly confused, etc. 

" (7) Sorbish or Wendish. This small Slavonic language 
(with its two dialects) manages still to protract its existence. 
It is probably too insignificant to arouse the anger of Bis- 
marck. The Casopis continues to be published twice a year : 
in the second number for 1884 we have an interesting article 
by Dr. Pfuhl, entitled 'Some Sorbish words from Altenburg' 
(Nekotre serbske slowa z Altenburga). This is based upon 
an 'Explicatio Nominum Sorabicorum pagorum prsefectune 
Altenburgensis, 1697,' by M. Abr. Frencelius, which is still 
preserved. The question of the nomenclature of the towns 
and villages of Northern Germany is a very interesting one, 
and a great deal has been written upon it lately, not merely 
by Slavs, but by Germans. 

" I may mention one philological work before leaving this 
language. M. George Liebisch ^ treats of the Syntax of the 
"Wendish language in Upper Lusatia (Oberlausitz). It is 
only too clear from his book how much it has been modified 
by German, just as we see the AVelsh syntax at the present 

^ Syntax der Wendifichen Sprache in der Oberlausitz, Ton Georg LiebiBch. 
Bautzen, 1SS4. 



1 



380 THE president's address for 1886. 

day breaking up under the influence of Englisli. Of SlaTonio 
studies in our own country there is hardly anything to he 
said. Among us the Slavonic languages, * aut languent aut 
omnino sordent ' ; an exception, however, must be made in 
the case of the Ilchester Lectures delivered at Oxford, in the 
winter term of 1884, by Mr. Arthur J. Evans, M.A. His 
subject was ' The Slavonic Conquest of Illyricum.' Mr. 
Evans is not only well acquainted with his authorities and 
curiously read in all books relating to his subject, but has 
personally explored the countries of which he treats. His 
lectures, which, it is to be hoped, will be published, form 
a genuine contribution to the study of Slavonic ethnology, 
and will help to wipe away the stain of our profound 
ignorance on these points.'' 

On the Sontali Language. By J. Boxwell, Esa 

We are indebted for the following account of the Sontali 
language to the kindness of Mr. John Boxwell, magistrate of 
Gaya, Bengal. Sontali is one of the Indian languages of the 
province of Bengal ; and perhaps it may give some rough 
idea of the geographical position of the people who speak it 
if I say that they live near the Ganges, at the distance of 
some three hundred miles from the mouth of that river. 

" Sontali is the language of the people called by themselves 
Hor, by other nations Sontals. They have been for genera- 
tions migrating eastwards from the region of the Vindhyas, 
and are now thickest in the Rajraahal Hills. Sontali is 
grouped with the dialects of the Kols and other tribes of 
Chutia Nagpur, not yet fully investigated. 

" The Norwegian missionary Mr. Skrefsrud has written a 
very interesting grammar, but his attempt to shape it on 
Aryan lines has led him into difficulties. The conjugations, 
voices, participles, gerunds, and infinitives of his verbs must 
all be discarded. Wq can use but few of our own gram- 
matical terms, and these with caution. 

"The sounds correspond surprisingly to those of Hindi. 
The principal exceptions are what Skrefsrud calls the semi- 



J. BOXWELL, ESa, ON SONTALI. 381 

consonants h\ c\ f, p\ which used all to be written in 
Bengali with visarga. Their change before vowels into 
9fj\ d, b, proves Skrefsrud right. 

*' The only grammatical genders are animate and inanimate, 
shown in the genitive case-suflBx, and certain verb-forms. 
The masculine and feminine pairs in a and t are obviously 
copied from Hindi. Cases proper do not exist. Case rela- 
tions are expressed by numerous postpositions attached with 
great looseness. With a few exceptions like dapal, reciprocal 
of dal ' to strike/ and rianam, desiderative of nafn ' to get/ 
Sontali uses unchanged roots connected by separable abridged 
pronouns and other particles. The parts of a sentence are 
more closely, and of a word, less closely combined, than in 
Aryan languages. Any word or combination of words can 
be used as a verbal root, which again, with case-suflBxes and 
tense and mood particles, can be woven into the semblance 
of a long compound word. The peculiar character of the 
language can be shown best by analysis of a few sentences. 

1. Met^-en-a-ko, " venerunt.'* 

JE[ec\ verbal root, * come * ; e;», an aorist tense-sign ; a, 
the peculiar ' final ' a, of which there is so much to be said : 
ko, 3rd personal plural abridged pronoun. 

2. Pandu^e hec^-en-a, " Pandus venit." 

Pandu, proper name; e, 3rd personal singular abridged 
pronoun ; hec^-en-a^ as in the first sentence. Paridu-e looks 
like a Oreek, Latin, or Sanskrit Pandas ; but the analogy 
would mislead. 

3. Kuri'ko do-ko hec^-en-a, ''puellaequidem venerunt." 

Kuri ' girl ' ; ko, plural suffix ; do, emphatic particle ; ko, 
as before; hec^-en-a, as before. The plural termination of 
nouns, and of 3rd personal verbs is the same ko, abridged 
form of ako * they.' Even ' termination ' is an inexact word. 
'Abridged pronoun' is the only correct expression. The 
nominative abridged pronoun comes either after the 'final ' 
a, as in (1), or before the verbal root, as in (2) and (3). In 
the latter case it is attached to the preceding word, as here 
to the emphatic particle do. 



382 THE PBESIDBNT's address fob 1886. 

4. HakO'ri aap-kcha^ " pisces capiam." 

Hako * fish ' ; Ay nominative 1st person abridged pro- 
noun ; sapy verbal root, ' catch * ; ko, 3rd plural abridged 
pronoun, accusative, coming between the verbal root and 
'finara. 

5. Pandu-ren hopon iMiotete'e bafwao'en-a, " iIavSvo9 

v*09 tnr €fJLOv eacour), 

Pandu, proper name ; ren, genitive suffix indicating 
animate noun following ; hopon ' son ' ; in, Ist personal 
pronoun ; hotete, instrumental suffix ; e, 3rd singular abridged 
pronoun, nominative ; bancao, verbal root (loan-word from 
Hindi), * save ' ; en-a, as above, aorist and ' final ' a. 

6. Hola-ko hec^-Ien on-ko-do oka-en-a? "What has be- 

come of those who came yesterday P " 

Hola ' yesterday ' ; ko, 3rd pi. nom. ; hec* * come * ; few, 
past tense-sign ; on-ko-do ' they indeed ' ; oka, interrogative 
neuter pronoun, used as a verbal root ; en-a, as above. 

"Son tali has no relative pronoun. The verb of the relative 
clause is without the ' final ' a. This particle has not been 
adequately treated by any inquirer. Skrefsrud renders it by 
' it is,' but he gives no reason for supposing that it has any 
such meaning. It plays precisely the same part with the 
roots jnena and kan^ which mean ' to be,' as with all others. 
It is present in assertions and questions in principal clauses ; 
but is absent from subjunctives, imperatives, and relative 
clauses. As a question is an inverted assertion, I think 
* categorical ' the best term. Hola-ko hec*-len is made up of a 
verbal root, tense-sign, nominative plural 3rd person, and an 
adverb. It implies, but does not assert, that people came 
yesterday. It is impossible to say whether x^^^^^ ^/covre: or 
01 ;^0e9 fjKov is a more literal translation. Neither is exact, 
because in -ko hec^-len there is nothing distinctive of either 
participle or finite verb. It is an incomplete verb, having 
root-meaning, tense, number, and person ; but no power of 
making an assertion. On-ko-do oka-en-a? is 'they what« 
became ? ' 



. J. BOXWELLy £80., OK SONtALt. 383 

7. Am-em la-akaf gadia'Ten^ko hako ba-ko napraV-a ; 

Pan^u-hoteie-ak-ren-ko gi-ko naprak^^a^ ''The fish of 
the tank which you have dug are not large ; those-of- 
that-by-Pandu are large." 

Am 'thou/ 2nd sing, pronoun; eni, abridged from the 
same ; fe, verbal root, ' dig ' ; akat\ perfect tenso-sign ; gadia 
• tank * ; ren^ genitive suffix ; io, 3rd pi. abr. pr. hako ' fish ' ; 
ba * not ' ; A*o, 3rd pi. nom. ; naprak^ ' large/ here taken as 
verbal root ' to be large ' ; a, categorical particle. Construe 
gadia-ren-ko hako * the fish of the tank/ am-em la-akaV ' which 
you have dug/ ba-ko napraV-a ' are not large ' ; PaTyfu-hotete- 
ak^-ren-ko *the- (fish) of-it (the tank dug) by-Pandu/ 
gi'ko napraV-a 'are large.' This sentence, easy enough in 
Sontali, defies solution by Aryan grammar. There is an 
accidental resemblance to the colloquial English ' the tank 
you have dug ' ; but in Sontali there is no relative pronoun 
understood. 

8. Behaj'ko at-a Diko^hopon do; auri-m em-a-ko-re-ko 

ruhei'-aka-m'tahen-a, "The Hindus are very trouble- 
some ; they continue to scold you till you give them 
(something)." 

Behaj ' very ' ; A:o, 3rd nom. pi. ; a/, verbal root, ' to be 
troublesome ' ; fl, categorical particle ; Diko, the Sontal 
name for foreigners. Diko-hopon 'the sons of the foreigners ' ; 
dOf emphatic particle. The second part is very characteristic. 
AuH 'not yet'; -m 'thou,' 2nd sing, abridged pronoun; 
em, verbal root, ' give * ; a 'to' ; ko ' them' ; re 'in,' locative 
case postposition ; auri-m em-a-ko-re iv to3 a€ fnpra) avroU 
Sovvcu. To all this is affixed the nominative ko before the 
verbal root ruhet^ ' scold.' Aka-tahen is a tense-sign, con- 
tinuative ; -m * thee,' object pronoun, inserted between verbal 
root and categorical a; 'ko-ruhet^'aka-m-tahen-a 'they continue 
to scold thee.' 

9. Sodom kombro'akat^'t'in-a'ko, "They have stolen my 
horse." 

TiA is the genitive abridged 1st personal pronoun ' my/ 



3d4 THB PRESIDBMT^S ADDBBSS FOft 1886* 

10. lA'khon am-em marah-a, " Thou art greater than I," 

Marah * great/ is used as verbal root. The comparative is 
involved in in-khon 'from me/ like Hindustani ham'Se. 

11. In-ren-ked-e-a-n, "I have made him mine." 
In-ren, genitive of in ' 1/ is here used as a verbal root, 

12. Ont'C ere-k-n-k/ian, adi-banc'-in dal-ke-a, " If he had 
deceived me, I should have beaten him severely." 

Oni * that (person) ' ; e, nom. sing. ; ere, verbal root> 
' deceive ' ; le, modal sign ; -n, 1st sing, accusative ; khan 
*if'; adi'baric* * very much'; in, 1st sing, nom.; rfa/, 
verbal root, ' beat ' ; ke, modal sign ; a, categorical particle. 

" This sentence shows the superiority of Son tali to Latin 
logic. In Latin there is but one form for the verbs in 
protasis and apodosis of a conditional sentence. 

" Our Aryan languages make additions to the indicative 
stem for subjunctive and optative, as hhavatif bhavdti, bhatet ; 
implying that these moods are something more than in- 
dicative. Son tali, with better logic, relegates subjunctive 
and relative to the incomplete verb in company with what 
are with us participles, gerunds, and infinitives ; and forms 
the only complete and real verb by the addition of the cate- 
gorical a. 

I. Hec* 'len-khan-ko ' si venissent/ 
II. Hola-ko hec'-Ien ' qui heri venerant.' 

III. Hec^'len-ko ' oi fjKovre^i* 

IV. Hec^'Ien-reak^ ' tov rJKCiv.' 
V. Hec^'len-a-ko 'fJKov/ 

" In V. alone is there a complete verb : but in the whole 
five hec^'len has exactly the same force, or meaning : that is, 
it has root-meaning and tense, and nothing else. It calls up 
the idea of something having come, but is unable to make 
any assertion. The difficulty is that in none of our lan- 
guages have we any expression for mere root-meaning and 
time. We must make our word a participle, or a verb, or a 
verbal noun. And therefore Skrefsrud calls hec**len some- 



] 



t)R. TdURMETSEN, ON CELTIC. 3^5 

times a verb, sometimes a participle, sometimes a gerund. 
It is really equivalent to none of these. 

^^Hee^-len-a-ko is equivalent to *venerant ' : but neither the 
parts of the spoken word which make up the whole expres- 
sion, nor the morsels of thought which make up the mental 
judgment, are the same, or even alike. The Sontali sentence 
is a whole not to be resolved on Aryan analogy. By its 
form it first unites the represented ideas into a mental 
picture, and then by a further efibrt aflBrms its reality. In 
negative propositions the negation is part of the complex 
notion. The final assertion is of the reality of the positive 
or negative notion. Pandu-ren hopon in-hotete-e bancao-en calls 
up a picture of Pandu's son saved by me. Then the cate- 
gorical a asserts that this is a fact. 

" Similarly in the first part of (7) the complex notion is 
** the fish of the tank you have dug not large." By cate- 
gorical a this is asserted to be a fact. 

"This pre-eminence of logic accounts for the curious 
interrogatives. We ask, tcho was the founder of Rome ; or, 
what became of the lost tribes of Israel. But in logic we 
admit that the interrogative pronoun, which we rhetorically 
make subject, is properly part of the predicate. Sontali 
makes the interrogative formally predicative, by using it as 
a verbal root. In (6) we might provisionally say that the 
subject is holako hec'len onkodo ' the people who came yester- 
day,* and the predicate okaena? 'became whatp' But we 
can go a step further, and say that the whole complex notion 
is made up of ' the people,' of * their having come yesterday,* 
and of * their unknown state now/ Holako hec*len onkodo 
okaen forms the mental picture which contains ignorance, 
just as another may contain negation. Categorical a predi- 
cates this of reality.*' 

Celtic Philology, 1880-1886. By Dr. R. Thurneysen. 

The following summary of the progress of Celtic Philology 
during the past six years is written by Dr. R. Thurneysen, 
of Jena, well known as an excellent Celtic scholar. His 



386 THE PtlESIDENT^S ADDtlESS tOti 1886. 

** Keltoromanisches ** is a most useful and valuable book, as 
it gives us the latest investigations concerning such Bomanoe 
words as were supposed by Diez to be of Celtic origin. In 
many cases it would seem that the conclusions arrived at by 
Diez cannot be sustained. Dr. Thurneysen's report was 
sent to me in German, and I am much obliged to my friendi 
Dr. Karl Breul, for the translation here given : 

" In spite of the relatively small number of workers in this 
special line, Celtic philology slowly but steadily advances, 
and in the last six years much progress has been made. 
For a detailed bibliography I must refer the reader to the 
Revue Celtique} and therefore content myself with stating 
here, in general, the different directions in which Celtic 
studies have been pursued in recent years. A good review 
of the results which have hitherto been obtained is given by 
E. Windisch in his article * Keltische Sprachen,* in Ersch 
and Gruber's AUgemeine Encyclopaedia der Wisaenichaften und 
Kiinste, 2nd section, xxxv. p. 132 ff. 

" With regard to Old Gaulish, numerous new discoveries, 
which have been especially discussed in various French 
periodicals, afford a more accurate knowledge of the Gaulish 
system of coinage and many details of Gaulish life. Occa- 
sional essays by J. Quicherat concerning questions of Gaulish 
philology have recently been collected.^ Eajren the Gaulish 
Olympus begins gradually to become more distinct. The 
accurate mythological researches of H. Gaidoz should espe- 
cially be mentioned here.^ H. d'Arbois de Jubainville has 
attempted to investigate the Old-Irish mythology as deduced 
from Middle-Irish legends and its connection with the 
Gaulish, but, as he starts from a somewhat uncertain basis, 
the result is rather doubtful.*^ On the other hand, the same 

* Edited, from the beginning, in 1870 (Paris), to vol. v. by H. Gaidoz ; from 
vol. vi. Part i. (1886), oy H. d'Arbois de Jubainville, with the aamstanoe of 
J. Loth and E. Ernault. 

2 Melanges d'Archeologie et d'Histoire, Antiquites Celtiqnes, Bomaines, et 
Gallo-romaines, ed. by A. Giry and A. Castan, Paris, 1886. 

' Etudes de Mythologie Gauloise, i. Le Dieu Gaulois da Soleil et le Sym- 
bolisme de la Roue ; Paris, 1 886. 

* Cours de Litt^rature Celtique, ii. Le Cycle Mythologique Irlandais et la 
Mythologie Celtique ; Paris, 1884. 



DR. THURNETSEN, ON CELTIC. 387 

scholar has thrown full light upon the similarity between 
certain social institutions of the Gaulish and the Irish tribes.^ 
Gaulish names have been treated by Quirin Esser ; ^ Gaulish 
and Breton phonetics, by H. d'Arbois de Jubainville ; ^ the 
declensions of all Celtic languages, by Whitley Stokes;^ 
the relations in which Celtic sounds stand to those of other 
Indo-European languages have been examined by Em. 
Emanlt.* The Romance words which Fr. Diez supposed to 
be of Celtic origin have been carefully sifted by the author 
of this paper,^ before whom H. Schuchardt^ and G. I. 
Ascoli^ had already spoken in detail on the influence of 
the Celtic language on Romance dialects. Ch. Em. Ruelle ^ 
is compiling a complete list of all works and notes relating 
to the Old Gauls. 

" The favourite domain of Celtic philology is Ireland, with 
its ancient language and its rich literature. The numerous 
publications of the last years have furnished much new 
material for investigation. In this way the study of the 
Irish Ogham inscriptions is facilitated by S. Ferguson's 
collection.^® The facsimiles of Irish MSS. published by J. T. 
Gilbert ^^ afibrd a good basis for Irish palaeography. The 
Old-Irish glosses, as contained in MSS. of the eighth, ninth, 
and tenth centuries, are now almost all printed; only the 
editions of the most important glossed manuscripts need be 

^ Conn de Liti6ratare Celtique, i. Introduction h I'Etude de la Litt^ratare 
Celtiqne ; Paris, 1883. 
' Beitrage zur gallo-keltisohen Namenkunde, i. Heft ; Malmedy, 1884. 

' Etudes Gnunmaticales sor les Lang^es Celtiques ; Premiere Partie ; Paris, 
1881. 

* Celtic Decleniion (Trans, of the Phil. Soc. 1885-6, Part I., pp. 97-201). 

* Etudes Comparatives sur le Grec, le Latin et le Celtique, i. : Le Yoyelle 
Br^ve ou ; Poitiers, 1885. 

* Keltoromanisches : Die Keltischen Etymologien im Etymolog. Worterbuch 
Ton F. Diez ; Halle, 1884. 

"^ In the detailed criticism on Windisch*s Korzgefasste Irische Grammatik ; 
Zeitschrift fiir romaniscbe Philologie, iv. 124 ff. 
« Una Lettera Glottologica ; Torino, 1881. 

* Bibliographie g6nerale des Gaules ; Paris, in publication since 1882. 

^^ Fasciculus of Prints from Photographs of Casts of Ogham Inscriptions ; 
Dublin. 1881 (Trans, of the Royal Irish Academy, xxvii.). 

^^ Facsimiles of National Manuscripts of Ireland, selected and edited under the 
direction of the Eight Hon. Edw. Sullivan, Master of the Kolls in Ireland, by 
J. T. Gilbert ; and photozincographed by Henry James ; four parts, London, 
1874-84. 



388 THE PRESIDEKT*S ADDRESS FOR 1886. 

mentioned here, viz. : the Milan glosses to a oommentary of 
the Psalms/ and the St. Gallen glosses to Priscian,^ edited 
by G. I. Ascoli ; the Wurzburg glosses to St. Paul's EpistleSi 
edited by H. Zimmer.^ A great many Middle-Irish texts 
have been made accessible by the facsimile of the Middle- 
Irish MS. * The Book of Leinster,' published by the Royal 
Irish Academy, and provided with an excellent index by 
H. Atkinson.^ Ecclesiastical literature and legends have been 
especially studied by Whitley Stokes, who has published an 
Irish homily on ' The Tidings of Doomsday y ^ and an Irish 
treatise on the Mass,® besides two works which tradition 
ascribes to Oengus C^le-De, namely, a rhymed Saints' 
Calendar ' and the ' Strophic Psalter,' being a biblical history 
in 150 poems.^ The study of the national heroic legends 
has received a new impulse from E. Windisch's Irische 
Texte,^ which are continued in a second series with the collabo- 
ration of Whitley Stokes.^® Some insight into the develop- 
ment of these legends has been afforded by H. d'Arbois de 
Jubainville's very valuable list of all MSS. known to him 
which contain Irish sagas.^^ The date of the MSS. enumerated 
is valuable testimony of the popularity and extension of the 
various cycles of legends at different times. The way in 

* II Codice Irlandcso dcU* Ambrosiana, Tomo i. ; parts 1-3 ; Roma, Torino, 
Firenze, 1878-83 (Arcliivio Glottolofrico Itiliano, vol. y.). Cf. also Note Irlandesi 
Concerncnti in Ispecic il Codice Ambrosiano ; Milano, 1883. 

^ II Codice Irlandcsc dell* Ambrosiana, Tomo ii. part i. : Le CMose di San 
Gallo ; Roma c Torino, 1880 (Archivio Glottologico Ital. vol. vi). Cf. 
Corrigenda and Addenda, by Whitley Stokes, in the Bericht^ der philoL- 
histor. Classe der K. Siichs-Gesellschaft der "NVissensch. 1885. p. 175, ff. 

' Glossa) Hibernica) e Codicibus "NVirziburjrensi Carolisruhensibns Aliis, 
Berolini, 1881. Dr. Stokes is preparing: a new edition of the Wiirzburg and 
Karlsruhe Glosses, which will be published by the London Philological Society. 

* The Book of Leinst^r, sometimes called the Book of Glendalough, publisned 
by the Royal Irish Academy, with Introduction, Analysis of Contents, and Index, 
by Robert' Atkinson, Dublin, 1880. 

^ Revue Celtique, iv. 245, ff. 

• The Irish Passages in the Stowe Missal, Zeitschrift fiir Tcrgleicbende 
Sprachforschung, xxvi. 497, ff. 

' On the Calendar of Oengus ; Dublin, 1880 (Transactions of the Royal Irish 
Academy ; Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i. part i.). Cf. also Rev. Celt. v. 339, ff. 

8 Saltair na Rann; Oxford, 1883 (Anecdota Oxoniensia; Mediseyal and 
Modem Series, vol. i. pt. 3). Cf. Rev. Celt. \i. 06, ff., and 371, ff. 

• Irische Texte, mit "NVorterbuch ; Leipzig, 1880. 

^^ Irische Text<}, mit Uebersetzungen und Worterbuch ; bgg. von Wh. Stokes 
nnd E. "Windiach ; Zweite Seric, 1 Heft; Leipzig, 1884. 

*i Essai d'un Catalogue do la Litteraturc Epiquc de PIrlande ; Paris, 1883. 



DB. THUBNEYSEN, ON CELTTC. 389 

which the older stories were absorbed into the later Ossianic 
legends is shown by £uno Meyer, in his edition of the late 
Middle-Irish tale of ' The Battle of Yentry.' ^ The classical 
subjects treated by Irish narrators have been edited by 
Whitley Stokes and Kuno Meyer, the former bringing out 
the Trojan War,* the latter the stories of Alexander the 
Great * and of Odysseus.* I pass over the editions of smaller 
Middle-Irish texts by Euno Meyer, E. Windisch, Whitley 
Stokes, Gh. Flummer, Th. Olden, and others. Irish 
legendary history has scarcely advanced beyond its dawn ; 
light has yet to be thrown upon nearly every detail. 

" By the above-mentioned publications the knowledge of 
the Irish language has been very considerably promoted, 
and the statements of the Orammatica Celtica and of E. 
Windisch's Irish Grammar can be corrected and supple- 
mented in many ways. B. Giiterbock and the author of this 
paper have endeavoured to facilitate the use of the Gram- 
matica Celtica by an index of the Irish glosses and of the 
words explained in it.^ Certain portions of Irish grammar 
are treated of in various periodicals by H. Zimmer, Whitley 
Stokes, E. Windisch, H. d'Arbois de Jubainville, H. Gaidoz, 
the present writer, and others. May I be allowed to add a 
remark on such grammatical treatises ? As the literary 
monuments hitherto published already show several not 
unimportant differences between Old- Irish and Early-Middle- 
Irish — a matter that, up to the present time, has not suffi- 
ciently been taken into consideration — I believe that in 
future it will be inadmissible and misleading to put forms 
taken from four or five different centuries side by side, without 
remark, as, e.g. Whitley Stokes has done in his paper on the 
Verbum Substantivum,® or to explain Middle-Irish forms by 

^ Catb Finn^^, or Battle of Yentry ; Oxford, 1885 (Anecdota Oxoniensia ; 
MeduBTal and Modem Series, yoI. i. pt. iy.). 

» Togail Troi; The Destruction of Troy; Calcutta, 1882. Irische Teite, ii., 
Heft 1, p. 1, ft. 

' £ine Iriflche Version der Alexandersage ; Leipzig, 1884. 

* Merugud Uilix Maicc Leirtis ; The Irish Odyssey ; London, 1886. 

^ Indices Glossarum et Yocabulorum qua; in GramniaticsB Cclticse editione 
altera explanantur ; Lipsias, 1881. 

* The Old Irish Verb Substantive; Zeit. fiir Tergl. Sprach., xxriii. 66, ff. 
The Neo-Celtic Verb SubstantiTe, Philological Trans., 1885-6, pp. 202-269. 



390 THE president's address fob 1886« 

the original Indo-European, with disregard of the Old-Irish, 
as E. Windisch has happened to do in his treatise on the Irish 
Praesens Secundarium.^ Just as little can I agree with 
H. Zimmer in his endeavour to ascribe to Old-Irish certain 
Middle- and New-Irish phonetic peculiarities. In future the 
leading tendency ought to be, to keep the different periods of 
the language as distinct as possible, and not to confuse them. 
''B. Guterbock has discussed the form which Latin 
loan-words take in Irish ; ^ J. Loth has compiled a list 
of the verbal forms of all Neo-Celtic languages ; * laws 
and effects of the Irish accent have been discovered and 
explained by H. Zimmer* and the present writer.* Irish 
lexicography has made great progress, especially as far as 
Middle-Irish is concerned. In spite of the violent attacks 
of H. Zimmer,® the glossary of E. TVindisch, in his * Iruche 
Texte* takes the first place, on account of the great mass of 
its material. It is supplemented and partly corrected by the 
special glossaries which Whitley Stokes and Kuno Meyer 
have added to their editions. H. Atkinson also has added to 
our knowledge."^ A. W. K. Miller has undertaken a reprint 
of Michael O'Clery's Irish Glossary (1643).® In spite of 
all this our knowledge of the vocabulary of Middle-Irish 
is still very incomplete. In many cases we have, on the 
authority of Irish glossarists, to be content for the present 
with quite general meanings, such as 'deed/ 'hero,' etc., when- 
ever the passages referred to do not enable us to find out the 
exact sense of the word. H. Zimmer has rightly cautioned 
us against having too much confidence in the Irish glossaries, 
especially in those cases in which the modem language gives 



^ Zeitechrift fiir vergl. Sprachforschung, xxvii. 156, ff. 

' Bemerkangcn iiber die Lateinisclicn Lelinworter im Irischen, I. TheO: 
znr Lautlehro; Leipzig, 1882. 

3 Essai 8ur le verbo Seo-Celtique ; Paris, 1882. 

^ Koltischo Studien, 2te8 Heft ; Ucber Altirische Betonnng und Yenkonst ; 
Beriin, 1884. 

* L'Accentuation do PAncien Verbe Irlandais ; RcYue Celt. vi. 129, ff. ; 
cf. 309, ff. 

• Keltische Studien, Ites Heft ; Irische Texte mit Worterbucli Ton K Win- 
disch; Berlin, 1881. 



^ Irish Lexicography ; Dublin, 1886. 
• Bev. Celtiquo, iv. 349, ff.; v. J, ff. 



DR. THURNBYSBN, ON CELTIC. 391 

a better explanation (Eeltische Studien i.). To give only 
one example : ese is generally explained by * water/ on the 
authority of Cormac, who translates it by uisce ; but it means 
a pecnliar kind of water, namely ' swamp ' ; of. Gaelic easg^ 
'a ditch formed by nature, a fen, a bog' (McAlpine). So 
the proper meaning of Old- Irish esc-ung, ^eel,' is 'fen- 
snake/ 

" Of late also the Irish metres have been more closely 
investigated. H. Zimmer considers the Old-Irish rhythms 
to be an Old Celtic and even Old Indo-European inheri- 
tance,^ whilst the present writer thinks he can prove they 
were developed from Late Latin rhythms.^ E. Windisch 
has examined some laws of Middle-Irish versification ; ' 
Whitley Stokes^ and myself^ have investigated the metre 
Rinnard. R. Atkinson^ gives extracts from later Irish 
treatises on versification. It is a pity that, notwithstanding 
their small compass, these treatises have never yet been 
printed, though this would be very desirable, especially for 
the sake of their terminology. Kuno Meyer'' has shown 
us how, in later times, the laws of English metre have in- 
fluenced Irish versification. 

'' H. d'Arbois de Jubainville has several times made the 
state of legal matters in Ireland the subject of his 
investigation ; thus he treats of the law-book Senchus 
M6r^^ of the Irish judicial proceedings,® etc. In 1880 
TV. F. Skene completed his description of Old Celtic Scot- 
land.w> 

" For investigations concerning the Bry thonic Celts, their 
ancient history has also been taken into consideration. 

^ KeltiBche Studien, ii. 165, ff. 
» Rer. Celtique, vi. 336, ff. 

> ReT. Cell. V. 389, ff. ; 478, ff. Berichte der philol.-histor. Classe der K. 
Sachs. Gesellscliaft der Wissensch 1884, p. 221, ff. 

* ReT. Celt. V. 352, ff. ; vi 273, ff. 
» Rer. Celt. yii. 87, ff. 

« On Irish Metric ; Dublin, 1884. 
' Battle of Veniry, p. 88, ff. 

• NouTelle Revue Ilistorique du Droit Francjais etEtranger, 1880 ; p. 167, ff., 
613, ff.; 1884, p. 31, ff. 

» Rev. Celt. vii. 1, ff. 
w Celtic Scotland; 3 vols., Edinburgh, 1876-80. 

PhiL Tranf. 18S6-6. 26 



392 THE president's address for 1886. 

H. M. Scarth describes the reign of the Bomans in Britain ; ^ 
J. Rhys, the Celtic tribes in England during and after the 
Koman time ; ^ J. Loth, the transmigration of Brythonic 
tribes to the Armorican continent.^ The historians Gildas, 
Fseudo-Nennius, Geoffrey of Monmouth, as well as the 
Merlin Legends, have been -studied in several papers by 
A. de La Borderie.* Old Brythonic history has been treated 
by C. J. Elton, ^ and several essays of Edwin Guest on the 
subject have been collected and published.® F. Sacher has 
given a list of the works on Brittany,^ and H. Gaidoz and 
P. Sebillot have given a detailed bibliography of the popular 
Breton literature.® 

** Amongst the publications of the oldest remains of the 
Brythonic dialects, especial mention must be made of the 
edition of several Old Breton glosses, by Whitley Stokes,' 
who was indebted to Mr. Bradshaw for the knowledge of 
the most important manuscript (Orleans Glosses). J. Loth 
has given an alphabetical index of all words of the three 
Brythonic dialects which have as yet been found in old 
glossed MSS.i<> In Robert Williams the Middle- Welsh 
literature has lost an indefatigable editor. He died while 
the fifth part [left incomplete] of his Welsh publications was 
being printed. ^^ In the Cpnmrodor J. Rhys and Th. Powell 
have published some other Old- Welsh texts. The society 
of Cymmrodorian has also issued reprints of Welsh writings 

* Roman Britain ; London, 1883. 

' Early Britain ; Celtic Britain ; London, 1882. 

3 L^Emigration Bretonne en Armorique du v® au vii® Sidcle de Notre Ere; 
Paris, 1883. Cf. A. de La Borderie in the Rev. Celt. vi. 460, ff. 

* L'Historia Britonum attribueo a Neunius, et THistoria Britannica avant 
Geolfroy de Monmouth; Paris, 1883. Etudes historiques bretonncs, 1*^ scrie; 
L'historien et le prophote des Bretons, Gildas et Merlin ; Paris, 1884. 

* Origins of English History ; London, 1882. 

^ Origiues Celticaj ; and other Contributions to the History of Britain ; 2 vols. 
London, 1883. 

' Bibliographie de la Bretagne ou Catalogue gen6ral des ouvrages historiques, 
litteraires, et scientifiques parus sur la Bretagne ; Renncs, 1881. 

® Bibliographie des traditions et de la litterature populaire de la Bretagne; 
Rev. Celtique, v. 277, ff. 

» Old-Breton Glosses ; Rev. Celt. iv. 324, ff. The Breton Glosses at Orleans ; 
Calcutta, 1880, and Zeitschrift fiir vergl. Sprachforschung, xxvi. 425, ff. 
1" Vocabulairo vieux-breton ; Paris, 1884. 
** Purdan Padric, Buched Meir Wyry, etc. ; London, 1880. 



DR. THURNETSEN, ON CELTIC. 393 

of the 16tli century ; e.g. the catechism {Athrataeth Grist- 
nogavl) by Morys Clynoc (1880), and Wyllyam Salisbury's 
Dktionary in Englyshe and Welshe. In the same way the 
Metnie Celtique has given as a supplement a reprint of 
Griffith Roberts' 'Welsh Grammar' of 1567 (Paris, 
1870-83). Old Welsh poetry still continues to remain in 
its mysterious darkness. Let us hope that it will become 
clearer by means of the promised new edition of the old 
literature by J. Rhys (Clarendon Press). The same scholar 
has also taken in hand the explanation of grammatical forms 
of the old poetic language.^ The existing speech in Wales 
has been examined by H. Sweet ^ and Th. Powell* with 
regard to its pronunciation and its borrowed words. The 
Welsh-English dictionary promised by Silvan Evans is still 
very much longed for. E. Ernault treats of the Breton 
language and its dialects in several articles of the Revue 
Celiique.^ 

" We have now arrived at the end of our review, though 
certainly here and there particulars might still be added. 
Perhaps, too, seeing how widely-dispersed are the publica- 
tions which concern Celtic studies, some important essays 
may have escaped my notice, for which I apologize. The 
question may be raised, what are the next problems which 
Celtic philology has to solve ? I should not like to answer it 
in a manner tending to limit research in any way. In every 
domain and in all directions new beginnings or fresh progress 
can be made. No single field is completely tilled, and many 
have not yet been worked at in the least. Every investi- 
gation that is conducted in a methodical and critical way 
brings to light new results which are often in the highest 
degree surprising. The great attraction of Celtic philology 
consists in the very fact that every haul of the net, without 
exception, brings in a rich spoil." 

» Rer. Celt. vi. 14, ff. 

» Spoken North Welsh ; Phil. Sec. 1885. 

• The Treatment of English borrowed Words in Colloquial Welsh, ib. 

* Cf. also his Etude sur le Dialecte de la presqu'ile de Batz ; Saint Brieuc, 
1883 (Extrait des m^moires de Tassociation bretonue). 



894 THE president's address for 1S86« 

For the following conclusions as to the nature of the 
languages spoken in China before the advent of the present 
Chinese, I am indebted to Professor Terrien de Lacoaperie, 
who has made an independent and original investigation of 
this difficult subject. 



The Languages of China before the Chinese. Bt 
Prof. T. de Lacouperie, Ph. and Litt.D. 

Part L The Lata and their Treatment, §§ 1—12. 

I. Data. 

''1. The languages mentioned in these pages are not all 
of them those, or the representatives of those, which were 
spoken in the Flowery Land when the Chinese made their 
appearance in that fertile country some four thousand 
years ago. The Chinese have only occupied it, slowly 
and gradually, and their progressive occupation was only 
achieved nominally during the last century. Some portions 
of the S. and S.W. provinces of Kueitchon, Szetchuen, 
Yunnan, Kuangsi and Kuangtung^ are still inhabited by 
broken and non-broken tribes, representatives, generally 
cross-bred, mixed and degenerated, of some former races 
who were once in possession of the country. Therefore the 
expression pre-Chinese languages of China implies an 
enormous length of time, which still continues, and which 
would require an immense study should the materials be 
available. 

*' 2. Unhappily the data are of the most scanty description. 
They consist of occasional references given reluctantly and 
contemptuously during their history by the Chinese them- 
selves, who were little disposed to acknowledge the existence 
of independent and non-Chinese populations in the very 

^ The only peculiarities of transcription are the following: a, *, i, o as in 
Italian; «='the French ou\ M = the French m; sh = sch All., eh Fr. ; tch = Ueh 
All., ch Engl. 



PROF. LAOOUPERIB ON THB PRE-CHINESE LANGUAGES. 395 

midst of their dominion. Though they cannot conceal the 
fact that they are themselves intruders in China proper, 
thcfy have always tried the use of big words and large 
geographical denominations, which blind the unwary readers, 
to shield their comparatively small beginnings. Such 
indications can be obtained only by a close examination 
of their ancient documents, such as their histories, annals, 
and the local topographies, where, in the case of the annals, 
they have to be sought for in the sections concerning foreign 
countries ; an arrangement somewhat startling, though not 
unnatural when we consider the real state of the case from 
a standpoint other than the views entertained by the ancient 
sinologists on the permanence and the ever-great importance 
of the Chinese nation. But the Chinese, though careful to 
inscribe in one or another part of their records all that 
occurred between themselves and the aboriginal tribes, and 
all that they could learn about them, were not enabled to 
know anything as to the events, linguistical and ethnological, 
which took place beyond their reach. So that displacements 
of the old races, as well as the arrival of new ones, have 
taken place in the regions non-Chinese, now part of China 
proper. Foreign linguistic influences have also been at 
work, and of these we have no other knowledge than that 
deduced from the traces they have left behind them which 
enable us to disentangle their peculiar characteristics. 

** 3. Little attention has hitherto been paid to the ethno- 
logical and historical importance of the pre-Chinese popu- 
lations. Series of short notices from Chinese light works 
or illustrated albums, compiled for the sake of curiosity, 
about the modem tribes, remnants of these populations, 
have been translated into English by Bridgeman, Lockhart, 
Clark, Wells Williams, etc., and into German by Neumann. 
More elaborate notices concerning the ancient tribes have 
been published by Dr. Legge and the lata Dr. Plath, with- 
out, however, any reference to their parentage with the 
modem tribes. But the first who recognized the great part 
played by some of them during the Middle Ages was Prof. 
Marquis d'Hervey de St.-Denys in a short paper read by 



896 THE president's address fob 1886« 

him at the first Congrds des Orientalistes held in Paris ia 
1873. 

" Nothing has been done in the way of tracing out the 
limits of the territories occupied by the different races and 
tribes in former times; so that we shall have to draw the 
information when required from the materials compiled for 
a work still in MS. on China before the Chinese. 

"4. The linguistic materials are very meagre, and any 
grammar is out of the question. They consist only of 38 mere 
lists of words of various lengths. The longest embraces 
242 words, the shortest one word only. Their direct value 
is unequal, inasmuch as their sources are most curiously 
mixed, perhaps more so than in any other linguistic document 
hitherto studied. Some of them are made up of the words 
occasionally quoted in the Chinese records, from where we 
have collected them ; others are lists made purposely by the 
Chinese, and extracted from their local works on topography. 
Others again were collected by European travellers, such as 
Mr. E. Colborne Baber, Father Suchier, M. Hosie, Father 
Desgodins, the late Francis Gamier and others.^ The pre- 
ciseness of the vocabulary of the Lolos of Szetchuen compiled 
by Mr. Baber is the best specimen of all. 

" 5. As to the vocabularies compiled by the Chinese, their 
value cannot be otherwise than indifferent from a scientific 
standpoint, and their use for the sake of comparison, lacking 
in accuracy, cannot in many separate cases be accepted other- 
wise than as provisional data. As a matter of fact, they are 
the worst materials that could possibly be placed in the 
hands of a philologist. Written with the ordinary ideo- 
graphical symbols of the Chinese, they are now read with the 
current pronunciation of the Mandarin language. So were 
transcribed the 14 intended vocabularies of Chinese origin 
which were published some eighteen years ago at Fuhtchou 
by the Rev. J. Edkins. We have not here access to the 
Chinese originals, and are therefore compelled to trust to 
the transcriptions of this zealous but careless missionary and 

* As the references are given further on in every case, it is not necessary to 
quote thom hero. 



PROF. LAOOUPBRIE ON THE PRE-CHINESE LANGUAGES. 397 

scholar ; consequently the original misteikes and misunder- 
standings of the compilers, the slips of the pen of the 
transcribers, coupled with the Chinese and European mis- 
prints, form, when taken together, a not unimportant amount 
of possible errors. 

" 6. But this is not all. There is another unknown quan- 
tity which must not be neglected in our estimates. These 
compilations were made in dififerent times and different 
regions by different people not speaking the same Chinese 
dialect, and we have no information as to the details of 
these peculiar circumstances. The bearing of the dialectal 
characteristics for the region or the time being, in the 
Chinese transcriptions of foreign words and names, has 
neve^: been understood until the present day, and I am 
afraid, excepting in one case, so far as I know, it has never 
been applied. The students of Chinese Buddhism have not 
advanced beyond the pre-scientific methods of Stanislas 
Julien, though much information could be derived from its 
study, coupled with that of the Pralkritic peculiarities of 
pronunciation of the early Buddhist missionaries in China. 
Applied to the ancient geographical notions contained in the 
Chinese records I find it invaluable. But it is difficult to 
get at the proper information. In the present state of the 
Chinese vocabularies of non-Chinese words, we cannot in 
the case of those already published go to the source. The 
difficulty, however, is only temporary, and personal to us 
as far as concerns the present paper. 

" 7. For comparative purposes the range of affinities for 
every word may run within the variants of pronunciation 
offered by the principal Chinese dialects which may have 
been used in their case, namely, the Pekinese, the Old 
Mandarin, and the Cantonese. They may also run beyond 
the phonetic limitations of these dialects, and present such 
letters as r, t?, and the sonants which generally are missing 
in their phonetic systems. Moreover, these dialects are 
affected by wear and tear, and as the age of the vocabu- 
laries is not ascertained, though they are not generally older 
than the twelfth century, there is still present an un« 



398 THE president's address for 1886. 

known quantity of small amount, which, however, has to 
bq taken into account. Therefore the probabilities are in 
these last respects, that the proportion of affinities detected 
in comparing these languages, as shown by the documents of 
Chinese origin, is larger than smaller so far as glossarial 
similarities are concerned. 

II. Methods of CLASSiFicATioir. 

** 8. The means I shall make use of for determining the 
respective places of the native dialects in the general classi- 
fication of languages are their affinities of vocabulary and 
of ideology. The latter is notated with a few figures which 
must be here explained summarily, as well as what is 
Ideology or, better, Comparative Ideology, and its purpose.^ 

"9. It is concerned with the order of words in the 
sentence. The only question with which it deals is the 
order of succession, in which the ideas in different languages 
must be expressed in order to convey the same meaning; 
for the truth is, that languages are unmistakably framed on 
several plans of thought, some of which seem altogether 
inexplicable and unintelligible to our minds. Several of 
these may be explained by a difference of standpoint : one 
language, for instance, considers the word of action as a 
passive qualitative of the object; while another makes it a 
noun expressing the activity of the subject on the object; 
and in the third it is a qualitative of the subject. But all 
these subtleties do not alter the fact that all languages, to 
express a similar statement, make use of different schemes of 
thought, some of which are unintelligible. But where is 
the justification for any of these explanations? Are they 
not de facfo vitiated for this reason — that we ourselves intro- 
duce the difficulty by our own scheme of thought, which is 
but one out of six in existence ? Therefore, we must, for the 
present, confine our aspirations to empirical methods of 
comparison. 

* Cf. my article in the Academy^ 28th Auofust, 1886, and ray book, Ideology of 
LanguagtSy and its Melation to History (London, 8vo., D. Nutt). 



PROF. LAOOUPBRIE ON THB PBE-CHINBSB LANGUAGES. 399 

" 10. Comparatiye ideology does away with the inveterate 
and unjustifiable prejudice of the Aryan school of philology , 
of permanence of grammar, which most of us have been 
brought up to regard as one of the fundamental axioms of 
the science of language. The fact (still unpalatable to 
many) is that grammar does mix, though with greater diffi- 
culty than any other elements of speech. 

"11. In lecturing last winter at University College on 
' The Science of Language with reference to South-Eastem 
Asia/ I ventured to show that comparative ideology might 
be made a useful instrument for ethnological research for 
the genealogical classification of languages, and the history 
of the human mind. With this object in view, I tried to 
reduce the difficulty to the most simple facts, considering 
only the normal arrangement in different languages of 
the proposition, and the respective positions of the noun, 
genitive, adjective, and of the object, subject and verb in 
the sentence. Though inadequate to satisfy precise require- 
ments, and not answering the reality of facts in languages 
where the categories of speech are of different development 
to ours, the grammatical terms may be used for their 
equivalents with the restrictions here indicated. 

" 12. In order to render practical the notation of these 
simple facts of ideology, and to permit their comparison 
on a large scale, I have designed the following formulae : of 
Arabic numerals, 1 to 8 for the minor points of word-order, 
and of Roman numerals, I. to YI. for the syntactical arrange- 
ments. 

" The possibilities are the following : 

" a) For the word-order or separate points of ideology : 

1. Genitive + noun ; 2. Noun + genitive; 

3. Adjective+noun; 4. Noun + adjective; 

5. Object+verb; 5. Verb+object; 

7. Verb+subject; 8. Subject+verb. 

By this distribution all the prepositional cases are marked 
by the uneven, 1, 3, 5, 7, and the postposing by the even 
numbers, 2, 4, 6, 8. 



400 THE president's address for 1886. 

"J) For the syntactical order of the subject, verb, and 
object, six arrangements are met with : 

I. Object+ subject + verb; 
II. Obj act + verb + subject; 

III. Subject+object+verb; 

IV. Verb + subject + object ; 
V. Verb + obj ect+ subject; 

VI. Subject+verb+object. 

" In the arrangements I., II., III. the object precedes, and 
in IV., v., VI. it follows the verb ; should the relative posi- 
tion of the object and subject be taken as the standard, the 
above arrangements would also form two series, namely : I., 
II., V. where the object precedes, and III., IV., VI., where 
it follows the subject. 

" As to the relation between the separate minor points of 
ideology and the syntactical indices, it may not be useless for 
practical purposes to remember that 

5, 7, imply II. only ; 

5, 8, imply I. or III. ; 

6, 7, imply IV. or V., and that 
6, 8, imply VI. only. 

" So that the ideological indices of any language may be 
expressed with five figures only, four Arabic and one Roman. 
Description is carried further with the help of diacritical 
marks and small additional letters, which it would take too 
long to explain the use of here. 

Part II, Aborigines and Chinese ^ §§ 13-19. 
III. Arrival of the Chinesb. 

" 13. The fertility of China, which has earned for the 
country the appellation 'Flowery Land,' and for which it 
is indebted to the Loess geological formation, covering a 
large part of its area, was always for that reason highly 
attractive to the populations wandering temporarily or other- 
wise in the cold and barren lands of Central Asia. When 
the original Chinese nucleus, consisting of about a dozen 



PROF. LA00T7PERIE ON THE FRE-CUINESE LANGUAGES. 401 

Bak tribes from the west of Asia,^ reached the country, some 
twenty-three centuries before the Christian era, the region 
was already inhabited by several races. Altaic tribes from 
the North had come South to the basin of the Yellow River, 
and had fallen in with populations of southern origin. The 
arrival of the Chinese was no more than a repetition of 
previous events, followed by many of the same kind. They 
came, acording to all probability, slowly along the north- 
west route through the modem province of Kansuh;^ but 
they could not pass the southern bend of the Yellow River, 
as they were prevented from so doing by the stronghold 
of former invaders from the north, the Jungs. They were 
compelled to turn northwards, and they then crossed the 
river about the latitude of Tai-yuen, from whence they 
established themselves in Shansi and W. Tchihli, with the 
eastern course of the same river as southern boundary, for 
several centuries. 

" 14. When Shun, the semi-mythical emperor (2043-1990 
B.C.),' whose deeds form the second chapter of the Shu-King^ 
made his famous tour of inspection in the South, he did not 
go further south than was permitted by the bend of the 
Yellow River. The region within this extreme corner (S.W. 
Shansi), whence the natives had been dislodged by his 
predecessor Yao (2146-2043 B.C.), became the favourite 
seat of successive leaders. The sea-shore was not actually 
reached before the beginning of the eighteenth century, and 
the power of the new-comers began only to be felt south of 
the Yellow River under the reign of the great Yii and in a 
limited area, though the river had been crossed before his 
time under the fourth leader, Kao-sin. But we have not to 
relate here the history of the growth, so remarkable, though 
80 slow, of the Chinese nation, and we are concerned with it 

* Some archaic inscriptioiis on rocks in Southern Siberia, near Abalansk, on 
the banks of the upper coarse of the Yenissei, are traces of their passage east- 
wards. These inscriptions, still undeciphered, are written in Chinese of the most 
archaic kind. They were published by J. Spassky, Be Antiqui» guibusdam 
Mulpturi$ et in$criptumibu» in Siberia repariis, Fetropoli, 1822. 

' The burial-place of their first leader in China was near the modem Ning, on 
the common south border of Kansuh and Shensi. 

' According to the chronology built up from the Annals of Bamboo books. 



402 THE president's address for isst. 

only so far as we can find some information concerning the 
languages of the former occupiers of the soiL We are also 
concerned with the Chinese languages only so far as in 
ancient and modem times they show traces of influence of 
the aborigines. 

" 15. The position of the early Chinese emigrants (the 
Bak tribes) towards the native populations was peculiar, and 
explains away many of the illusions long entertained by their 
descendants regarding the supposed greatness of their begin- 
nings. Unlike the other invaders from the North, they were 
civilized. It is now well shown that in their former homes 
in S.W. Asia, west of the Hindukush, the Bak tribes had 
been under the neighbouring influence of the civilization of 
Susiana, an oflshoot of that of Babylon. Through an inter- 
course of some length, they, or at least their leaders, had 
learned the elements of the arts, sciences and government, 
among which the writing, which we are now enabled to 
identify as a derivate of the cursive and not of the monu- 
mental cuneiform style, was conspicuous ^ 

'* 16. Their comparatively high culture when they settled 
in the Flowery Land, and the better organization which 
ensued, soon secured for them a dominant standing and 
position over the native tribes, occupying as they were a 
lower standard in the scale of civilization. Some tribes 
acknowledged readily their supremacy, and were befriended 
from the beginning, while others strongly objected to any 
interference on the part of the new comers. Their names 

^ Cf. T. de L. : Earlj/ History of Chinese Civilization (London, 1880, Sto.). 
The Yh'Kingy in The Athen(eutn, 21 Jan., 9, 30 Sept., 1882. Chiuese and 
Akkadian AJiniiieSy in The Academy, 20 Jan. 1883. Barty Chinese Literature^ 
ibid. 28 July, 1883. The Affinity of the Ten Steins of the Chinese Cycle with the 
Akkadian S'umera/Sy ibid. 1 Sept., 1883. The Chinese Mythical Kings and th$ 
Babylonian Canm^ ibid. 6 Oct., 1883. Traditions of Babylonia in Early Chintu 
Documents, ibid. 17 Nov. 1883. The Oldrst Book of the Chinese and its Authors^ 
in J,H.A.S. vol. xiv. part iv. ; vol. xv. parts ii. and iv. Babylonian and Old 
Chinese MeasureSy in The Academy, 10 Oct., 188o. Babylonia and China, ibid. 7 
Au^., 1886. Beginnings of Writing^ I. § 50 ; II. § 114, etc. Tbis discoverj, 
important for tbe philosophy of history, of the non-indigeneousness of the Chinese 
civilization, and its derivation from the old Chald(co- Babylonian focus of culture 
bv the medium of Susiana, is scientifically established in the above publications. 
However, in order to make it more accessible than it may be in these scattered 
papers, I will soon put forward all the proofs together in a special book, with 
many more facts than those hitherto publijahed. 



PROF. LAOOUPERIE OS THE FRE-CHINESE LANGUAGES. 403 

appear saccessiyely in history in proportion as the Chinese 
advanced either by their political domination or by intrusion 
as colonists. We cannot here enter into the details of the 
inquiry, upon which we have been able to ascertain, in many 
cases with probability, their place in a classification. It 
requires a study of their modem representatives, coupled 
with that of the fragmentary traditions, small historical 
facts, and scraps of information gathered about their racial 
and linguistic characteristics. An exposition of all these 
makes a volume of itself, so that we are compelled to curtail 
our remarks more than the comprehensiveness of the case 
would require. 

IT. CHiyssB AND Aborigines. 

"17. The policy of the Chinese towards the previous 
occupiers of the soil, which was imposed upon them as a 
necessity by the surrounding circumstances, and which has so 
much contributed to the formation of their national character, 
has always been, with few exceptions, strictly followed. 
They have, as a rule, always attempted to befriend them, 
and they had recourse to coercion and conquest only when 
compelled to do so by the aggressiveness of the tribes. It 
must be admitted in favour of the latter that the exertions 
of Chinese officials in later times, where and when they had 
accepted the Imperial protectorate, have often caused them 
to rebel. 

" As soon as they arrived in the Flowery Land, the 
Chinese began to spread individually or in groups according 
to their well-known practice of gradual occupation by slow 
infiltration. It is by this slow and informal advance of 
colonists among the non-Chinese populations of the country, 
and their reporting to their government, that some glowing 
accounts were got up of the Chinese dominion on large tracts 
of country over which they had no hold whatever, 

"18. Should we be satisfied, considering them as repre- 
senting the primitive population of the Flowery Land, to 
take notice of the tribes as they came successively imder 



404 THE president's address for 1886. 

the Chinese ken in proportion to their advance east and 
south, the chief difficulty would consist only in the scantiness 
of information ; but the obscurities and difficulties are com- 
plicated by the continuous arrival of northern tribes. They 
could slip through the scattered settlements and strongholds 
of the Chinese, and those of them who objected to accept the 
Chinese yoke were compelled to go southwards, where they 
could either swell the number of those banished or of others 
who were discontented with Chinese authority, or join the 
independent native tribes. Those among these tribes, recently 
arrived in the country or not, who were settled among the 
Chinese scattered posts and strongholds, or who were in 
proximity to their dominion, used to satisfy the proud 
authority of the Celestial government by an apparent sub- 
mission and acknowledgment more or less sincere of its 
suzerainty.^ 

" 19. They were divided into small principalities, whose 
chiefs generally enjoyed Chinese titles of office or nobility, 
and which occasionally, or better frequently, could form an 
offensive coalition when their independence was imperilled by 
the pressure of the Chinese growth and power. The pressure, 
however, became too strong for them and they had to yield 
before the Chinese advance, though always attempting by 
compromise or open resistance to hold their own ground 
on some point or other, more south or south-westwards. 
Those who objected to absorption were partly destroyed, 
partly expelled, and progressively driven southwards.^ Some 
were removed by the conquerors, and many tribes, now broken 
and scattered away far apart from each other, were formerly 
members of an ethnical unity. Such, for instance, were 
the Gyalungs, now on the Chinese borders of Tibet, whose 
language isolated there presents such curious affinities with 
those of Formosa, of the Philippine Islands and also of the 

^ The relative isolation of the Chinese durino^ a long period resulted from the 
fact that they were encircled by semi-Chinese or non-Chinese states which, 
receiving the outside communications or making them, produced the effect of 
buffers, through which the external influence had to pass before reaching the 
Middle Kingdom. We are kept in the dark ab(»ut many of these communica- 
tions by the disparition or the non-exisk^nce of records of the border states. 

* Cf . T. de. L. , The Cradle of the Shan Racty passim. 



' FBOF. LAOOIJPERIE ON THE PRE-CHINESE LANGUAGES. 405 

Toongthns of Burma, and whose location would seem 
inexplicable, should we not be able to connect it with an 
historical event, as we shall see hereafter. 

" The majority of the population of Indo-China is made 
up of ethnical elements which were formerly settled in China 
proper. The ethnology of the peninsula cannot be under- 
stood separately from the Chinese formation, and the in- 
tricacies of one help pretty often to make intelligible the 
complication of the other. 

Part III, Hie Aboriginal Dialects in the Chinese Language and 

Ancient Works, §§ 20-61. 

v. Thb Chinese Lanouaob affected bt the Aborigines. 

" 20. The succession of races and the transmission of lan- 
guages, two facts which are not correlative, render it difficult 
to follow the linguistical history of any country, and often 
leave open the question of identity of a race always speaking 
the same language. In the present case the earlier data 
are ethnological ; the linguistic information does not exist 
beyond that which we can derive from the influence of the 
native languages on the speech of the Chinese intruders. 

"21. The language of the early Chinese or invading 
Bak tribes was entirely distinct from that of the Aborigines 
of China, excepting, of course, the speech of the Northern 
tribes, which had preceded them in the Flowery Land and 
apparently belonged to the Altaic or Turko-Tartar races. 
It was not with the Altaic division that the early Chinese 
language was more closely connected, but with the western 
or Ugric division of the Turanian class-family, and in that 
division it was allied with the Ostiak dialects. Its ideo- 
logical indices were probably those which are common to all 
the Ugro- Altaic when undisturbed, namely, 1 3. 5. 8. III., but 
we have no texts still in existence continuously written with 
that ideology.^ 

^ Instances of the Ilird syntactical order occur in ancient texts, like surrivals, 
and as such almost always limited to the position oi the objective pronouns 
placed before the Terb. 



406 THB FBESIDENT's ADD&BSB for 1886. 

"22. The modem formula is 1. 3. 6. 8. VI. in all the 
Chinese dialects, but traces of an occasional older one, 
1. 3. 5. 8. I., are found in the more archaic of these dialects, 
such as those of Fuhtchou, Canton, and Tungking; and 
in the Confucian, as well as in the Taoist classics, there 
are not a few survivals of the primitive ideology 1. 3. 5.8. IIL 
The ring of the Chinese linguistic evolution and formation 
is not, however, complete with these three formulae. 

''23. In some older texts there are occasional instances 
of 2. 3. 6. 7. which are very remarkable. The indices 6. 7., 
which show the postposition of the subject, and imply a 
syntax IV. or V., appear in early texts of the Hia dynasty, 
about 2000 b.c, namely in some parts of the Th-King,^ and 
in the * Calendar of the Hia dynasty.' Now the latter was 
compiled at a time when the founder of the said dynasty 
advanced like a wedge into the S.E. towards the mouths of 
the Yang-tze Eiang, which most likely he reached, but from 
whence he was never able to return. The result of this 
advance was for a time an intermingling of the language 
of the conquerors with that of the previous inhabitants. 
As the above calendar, containing useful information, was 
written and diiSused for the sake of the intermingled popu- 
lation, it was necessarily written in the most intelligible 
way for their wants ; and so it happened that the discordances 
it presents with the pure Chinese of the time being, must 
have corresponded to the linguistic features of the region. 
These are peculiar to the Tagalo-Malayan language, and 
cannot be mistaken ; since the most prominent feature, namely, 
the postposition of the subject to the verb, does not appear 

1 I have established, I think, beyond doubt that the Th'king, tho most sacred 
book of the Chinese, is nothing l(«s than a collection of old frapments of various 
kinds, lexicographical, ethnographical, etc., whose original meaning had been lost 
sight of, and which for that reason were looked upon as mysterious, suppofied to 
be imbued with a deep learning and knowledge of the future, and therefore of 
mat importance for divination Through the transformations of writing and the 
ideograpliical evolution which took place after the renovations of 820 b.c. and of 
227 B.C., both resulting in the addition of silent ideographical signs to the phonetic 
word -characters of antiquity, some continuous meanings were sought for in the 
rows of symbols of the sacnd book, but unsuccessful Iv, as shown bv the 2200 
attempts made in C-hina to unravel the mvstery. Ten Jluropean tratt stations, all 
at vanance one with the other, have told tlbe same improbability. Cf. my special 
work, The Oldest Book of t/ie Chinese and its Authors^ London, 1882-83. 



PROF. LAOOIJPERIE ON THB FRE-CHIKE8E LANGUAGES. 407 

in the other formations which have influenced the evolution 
of the Chinese. 

" 24. The postposition of the genitive to its noun, which 
occurs not unfrequently in the popular songs of the Book of 
Poetry, where it cannot possibly be looked upon as a poetic 
licence, belongs to an influence of different origin, and is 
common to the Mon and Taic languages. The same must be 
said of the preplacement given to the object, an archaism still 
preserved occasionally in the S.E. dialects mentioned above. 
And for the postposition of the object to the verb, and the 
syntactical order of the YI. standard, in contradistinction to 
the unadulterated indices of the Ural-Altaic, which it 
formerly possessed, there is no doubt that the Chinese 
language was indebted to the native languages of the Mon, 
and subsequently of the Taic-Shan formations. So that the 
Ideological indices 13 5 8 III., 13 6 7 IV., 13 5 8 1., 
2 3 6-8 VI., and 13 6 8 VI., permit us to follow the rough 
lines of the evolution and formation of the Chinese ideology.^ 

" 25. The phonesis, morphology, and sematology of the 
language bear, also, their testimony to the great influence of 
the native tongues. The phonetic impoverishment and the 
introduction and growth of the tones as an equilibrium to 
make up deficiencies from wear and tear, are results of the 
same influence. In the process of word-making, the usual 
system of postplacing particles for specifying the conditions 
in space and time common to the TJgro- Altaic linguistic 
alliance has been disturbed in Chinese, and most frequently 
a system of preplacing has been substituted for the older 
one. And, finally, in the department of sematology, we 
have to indicate, also, as a native influence on the language 
of the Chinese, the habit of using numeral auxiliaries, or 
segregative particles, otherwise classifiers, which, if it had 
not been altogether foreign to the older state of the lan- 
guage, would not have taken the important place it occupies 
in the modem dialects. 

* We must also mention here the postposition of the adverh to the verb, which, 
contrary to the Chinese habit, is frequently resorted to in the Taoist books. I 
take it as a Taic-Shan infloence, to which, as we know, Taoism was much indebted 
daring its beginnings. 

PhiL Tram. 188M. 27 



408 THE president's address for 1886. 

"26. The Yocabularies which, contrary to the usual habit, 
have not been first considered, here come at one pace with 
the preceding alterations. The loan of words has been ex- 
tensive on both sides, native and Chinese, and reached to 
a considerable amount. 

YI. The AfiORioiyAL Languages in Chinese Hibtobt. 

"27. The written documents of the Chinese concerning 
their early settlements in the Flowery Land are so short 
that it would be surprising to find in them any information 
concerning the languages of the aborigines. The most im- 
portant struggles that occurred between them are noticed 
in a few words, but nothing more. It is only in later times, 
when the records are more copious, that we are enabled to 
draw from them a few linguistic data. 

" 28. In the most valuable chronicle of Ts'o Kieu Ming, 
a young disciple of Confucius, which accompanies the dry 
ephemerides or Tchun tsiu of his master, there is a most 
positive statement that some of the non-Chinese tribes inter- 
spersed with the Chinese in the small area then occupied by 
them, were speaking diflferent languages. The statement 
concerns only the Jung, a race whose tribes had advanced 
into China from the north-west, before and after the im- 
migration of the Chinese Bak tribes. One of their leaders, 
Kin-tchi of the Kiang Yung tribes, took part in a covenant 
between the Chinese princes of the Eastern principalities to 
whom the ruler of the non-Chinese state of Ngu^ had applied 
for help against the encroachments of the State, also non- 
Chinese, of Ts'u.2 It was in the 14th year of the Duke Siang 
of Lu, otherwise 558 B.C. The Jung Viscount Ein-tchi, 
previous to his admission to the covenant, said : " Our food, 
our drink, our clothes, are all diSerent from those of the 
Flowery States; we do not exchange silks or other articles 
of introduction with their courts ; t/teir language and ours do 

* Now Vh in Mandarin pronunciation. Corresponding roughly to the Maritime 
provinces of Kian^-su and IVhehkiang. 

3 Kougbly S. Ilonan, Hupeh, Auhui, and N. Uonan Provinces. 



PROF. LAOOUPBRIE ON THE PRK-CHINESE LANGUAGES. 409 

not admit of intercourse between us and them,^'^ The Jung, 
as a race, apparently belonged to that which is represented 
nowadays by the majority of the Naga tribes. 

"29. Thoagh there is no other allusion to the foreign 
languages of the non-Chinese tribes so precise as the pre- 
ceding, there is no doubt that the other races did not speak 
Chinese. Some of them, like the Jung, were interspersed 
with the thin Chinese population, not as intruders, but as 
occupiers of the soil. They were more or less completely 
under subjection to the Chinese yoke, which they could have 
escaped by migrating southwards as so many of their brethren 
had done. It is to the influence of the intermingling with 
these well-disposed tribes that we must attribute the early 
native influence of foreign languages on that of the Chinese. 
And we have seen that this influence proved to be that of 
idioms proper to the Hon linguistic formation ; an inference 
which other sources of information confirm plainly.^ 

" 30. Those on the borders organized into states, large 
and small, under the Chinese rivalry and influence, were 
more important for the people of the Flowery States. Their 
independence and occasional aggressiveness compelled the 
Chinese to take notice of their languages. While the natives 
settled within the Chinese dominion were in the necessity, by . 
consideration for their power, to learn to speak Chinese, 
besides their own language, as was the case with the Jung 
Viscount mentioned above, those of the outside were in a 
difierent position. We know, for instance, by the Li-Ki,^ 
that during the Tchou dynasty, 1050-255 b.c, or at least 
during the second half of that period, there were in the 
machinery of Chinese government some special interpreters, 
whose title of office varied according to the region with 
which they were concerned. * In the five regions of the 
Middle States (or Chinese principalities) of the Y (or Eastern 

* Tm tehuerif Siang Eung, 14th year, § I. Chinese Classics, edit. Legge, vol. v. 
p. 464. 

« Cf. T. de L., The Cradle of the Shan Race, pass. 

5 Dr. J. Legge has just published a complete tranfilation of this important 
work, which, finally compiled about the Christian era, is made up for the most 
part of older documents. 



410 THE president's ADDRESS FOB 1886. 

barbarians), of the Man (or Southern barbarians), of the 
Jung (or Western barbarians) and of the Tek (or Northern 

barbarians),^ the languages of the people were 

not mutually intelligible, and their likings and desires were 
different. To make what was in their mind apprehended, 
and to communicate their likings and desires (there were 
officers), — in the east called transmitters ; in the south, 
representationists ; in the west, Ti-tis; and in the north, 
interpreters.' ^ 

"31. During the reign of the above dynasty, on the 
immediate south of the Chinese principalities, was the great 
state of Tsu, which had grown into civilization through the 
civilizing influence of its northern neighbours. Yet it 
remained non-Chinese, in spite of its entrance into the sort 
of confederation formed by the Flowery States under the 
nominal suzerainty of the said dynasty. It covered the 
south of Homan, Hupeh, and a waving and ill-defined territory 
all round. Towards the end of the fourth century B.C. the 
chattering philosopher Mencius, speaking of a man from 
that State, calls him 'a shrike-tongued barbarian of the 
south,' and on another occasion he alludes to the languages 
of Ts'i (W. Shantung) and Ts'u as quite different from 
one another.* 

*' 32. It was not, however, the first allusion that was made 
to the language of Ts'u. In the chronicle of Tso, already 
mentioned, in 663 B.C., two words are quoted in support of 
an interesting legend similar to others well known elsewhere. 
The scene is in Ts'u {i,e, Hupeh). 

" A male child was thrown away by his mother's orders 
in the marsh of Mung : there a tigress suckled him. This 
was witnessed by the Viscount of Yun, whilst hunting, 
and when he returned home in terror, his wife (whose son 
the child was) told him the whole affair, on which he sent 
for the child and had it cared for. The people of Tsu called 

^ I have added the information in hrackets, in onler to make the matter dearer. 
Roughly speaking, the Y- corresponded to the Tagalo- Malays, the Man to the 
Mons, the Jung to the Xa^ras, ana the Tek to the Turko-Tatara. 

2 Li-Kiy tr. Logge, I. pp, 229-230. 

3 III. 1,4, 14; III. 2, 6, 1. 



PROF. LAOOUPERIE ON THE PRE-CHIXESE LANGUAGES. 411 

' sackliDg ' tou or nou, and ' a tiger ' they called icu-tu, hence 
the child was called ' Toa-wutu/ and he became subsequently 
Tze-wen, the chief minister of Tsu.^ 

" 33. The nearest approximation to these words are found 
in the Taic-Shan vocabularies, where 'suckle or suckling' 
is called dut (Siamese) , and 'a tiger' is htito, tso, 8u,^ etc. 
The connection here suggested by these vocables is further 
promoted by this fact that a large proportion of the proper 
names of that same State of Ts'u are preceded by tou, which 
seems to be a sort of prefixed particle. This is also a 
peculiarity of the Tchungkia dialect of some tribes still in 
existence in the south-west of China and formerly in Kiangsi, 
where they represented the ancient ethnic stock of the State 
of Ts'u. And this Tchungkia dialect is Taic-Shan to such 
an extent that Siamese-speaking travellers could without 
much difficulty understand it. We shall have again in the 
sequel occasion to speak of the language of Ts'u. 

" 34. On the east of Ts'u were the states of Wu and Yueh, 
covering the modem provinces of Kiang-su and Tcheh-kiang. 
The former, which appears in Chinese history about 584 B.C., 
was conquered by its southern neighbour of Yueh about 473 
B.c.^ As could be expected, the Chinese language was not 
spoken there, and although we have no record dealing with the 
fact, we are made aware of it by the non-Chinese appearance 
of their kings' names. This fact has not escaped the atten- 
tion of commentators, and one of them, Ein Li-ts'iang, has 
remarked that such names as that of Tan-tchih of Yueh 
must be read as one single word, in accordance with the 
syllabic method of the west.* 

'^ 35. On the other hand, it has also been remarked that 
the names of the kings of Wu have decidedly a non-Chinese 

' Cf. TTfo-tehuen, Tchwang Kung, year XXX. ; and Siun Kung^ year IV. 
Ckinete ClasMte*, edit. Lcgge, rol. ▼. pp. 117-118, 295 and 297. 

• Apparently decayed forms. 

* The State of Ts'u warred against the two states for centuries, and finally 
extinguished that of Yueh circa 334 B.C. 

♦ Chinese ClassicBy ed. Leg^o, vol. iii. intr. p. 167, n. 2. The Chinese 
scholar means that no signification has to be sougnt for in each of the Chinese 
tymbolB employed to transcribe these foreign names. 



412 THE president's address for 1886. 

appearance.^ The finals ngu, ngao, etc., are singularly sug- 
gestive of a known adjective meaning 'great/ and postplaoed 
according to the genius of the language which would have 
belonged to the Indo-Pacific linguistic formation. It is, 
again, by the use of characteristic prefixes, that we find a 
confirmation of this surmise. Of course it is only in the case 
of proper names, as common words do not appear in these 
documents. We find Kon prefixed to personal names. Eon 
Nguy^ KoN Tsietif of that region mentioned in Chinese records. 

"36. But the majority of the names are generally pre- 
ceded by ivu, written as in teutu * tiger,' in Ts*u. These * 
prefixed words are the well-known auxiliaries which are 
employed for all living beings in the Tai'c-shan and other 
cognate languages ; they are occasionally used in some lan- 
guages as some kind of articles, but their use is generally 
limited to the case of auxiliaries to the lower numerals. 

Of the languages spoken in the border states of the south- 
west and west, nothing is known during the period of which 
we are just speaking. 

VII. Ancient Chinese "Works on the Old Dialects. 

"37. The gradual absorption by the Chinese of the 
aboriginal tribes interspersed among them, and their pro- 
gressive extension on a larger area, made itself felt by the 
introduction of foreign words here and there into the general 
language, as well as the appearance of provincialisms and 
local pronunciations of some words of their old stock. This 
fact could not fail to attract the attention of a careful ruler, 
jealous of his own power all over the Chinese agglomeration. 
In 820 B.C., during a phasis of revival of power of the Tchou 
dynasty, a wilful ruler, Siuen "Wang, with the help of a great 
minister, tried to ensure for ever the intelligibility of his 
written communications and orders to the various parts of 
his dominion, whatsoever might be the local variations of 
speech in words or in sounds. His important reform, which 

* Dr. Legge, ibid. vol. t. introd. pp. 107, 135. 
^ Cf. Mayers, Chinese ReafJUrs' Manual , X. 277. 



PROF. LaCOUPERIE ON THE FRE-CHINESE LANGUAGES. 413 

baa left for ever its mark on the writing of China, being 
repeated on two occasions later on in accordance with his 
teachings, has exercised, undoubtedly, a great influence on 
the future enlargement of his country by the facility it 
afforded to the propagation of the Imperial orders. It con- 
sisted in a partial re-cast and simplification of the characters 
of writing, in order to give a predominant and extensive 
position to the silent ideographs, suggestive of meaning, 
which hitherto were not much used coupled in one and the 
same groups of signs indicative of sound by syllabic spelling 

or otherwise. 

» 

" 38. The effect produced, which could not be enforced 
everywhere at that time, by impotence of the central authori- 
ty, did not keep up, as was expected, the general language 
on the same level, nor prevent the introduction of foreign 
words : some other means had to be found in order to make 
the central government aware of the new words gradually 
introduced. The records of the time are silent on the subject. 
We only know that the sacred books were explained in the 
various states by special men sent for the purpose ; and we 
also hear of the complaints made against the independence 
shown by these states individually, in their customs as in 
their words. 

*'39. In the Fung bu Vung^ compiled by Yng Shao (second 
century a.d.), it is said that it was the custom for the 
sovereigns of the Tchou (1050-255 b.c.) and Ts'in (255-206 
B.C.) dynasties to send ' commissioners or envoys travelling 
in light chariots ' * yeo hien-tchi she, on an annual circuit of 
the empire during the eighth moon of the year to inquire for 
the customs and forms of speech (or words) used in various 
regions.^ On returning, these messengers presented to the 
Emperor reports, which, at first preserved in the house of 

1 The Rev. Dr. "W. "W. Skeat reminds me here of the words of the poet : 

** where Chineses drive 
With sails and wind their cany waggons light.*' 

— Muton, Parodist Losty iii. 438. 
which, howeyer, was not an allusion to these * light chariots,' still unknown in 
Europe, hut referred to the ordinary * wind burrow * often used in China. 

2 Cf. Mayers, Chineu R,M,, N. 918. 



414 THE president's address for 1886. 

Archives, were afterwards scattered and lost.^ When tbe 
practice began exactly, and what use, if any, was then made 
of these reports, containing as they did so many interesting 
data for the history of the language, are not stated. But I 
have a strong suspicion that one or more parts of the old 
dictionary Erh-ya was made by means of help derived from 
them. 

** 40. The JErh-ya is a work of the Tchou dynasty ; it is 
divided, according to its subjects, into nineteen sections, out 
of which the first three stand apart, because of their lin- 
guistic importance. The first section, Shi Ku, the author- , 
ship of which is attributed, perhaps rightly, in part to the 
celebrated Duke of Tchou, who, by his genius and adminis' 
trative capacities, was the real founder of the dynasty. It 
consists of small lists of words arranged according to their 
related meanings. The second section, Shi-yen, is also made 
up of lists of words, the last of which gives the meaning of 
the others : its composition is generally attributed to Tze-hia, 
a disciple ^ of Confucius. The following section is made up 
of couplets arranged in pairs, with their explanation. This 
class of double-words, which are a characteristic feature of 
the Taic-Shan languages, are frequently met with in the 
popular songs of the IShi-King, or Classic of Poetry ; and 
there is no doubt in my mind that they have crept in there 
through the influence of the native dialects of this family on 
the speech of the Chinese. 

" 41. The purpose of the Erh-ya is said to be a dictionary 
of the Classics, but it goes beyond that, and notwithstanding 
the loss of some parts of these classics, it contains many 
words which do not seem to have ever been used in any 
Chinese text properly so called. They are regional words 
borrowed from other stocks of vocables, and they could be 
expressed in Chinese writing only by the use of homonyms 
as phonetic exponents. When the Evh-ya was annotated by 
Kwoh-p'oh (276-324 a.d.), this great scholar, well acquainted 

* Though apparently made use of by some scholars, but not preserved in their 
integrity and original shape. 
» £. B.C. 607. 



PROF. LACOUFERIE ON THE PRE-CHINESE LANGUAGES. 415 

with the regional words, was enabled to add not a few 
remarks on some correspondence referring to such yocables, 
with many examples, in the said dictionary. There are no 
less than 928 words, or about one-fifth of the general stock, 
which do not appear anywhere else than in the Erh-ya} 
Therefore, it seems to me that, if it is not an ascertained fact 
that the compilers of this work have made use of prepared 
lists of local words like those collected by the yeo hien-tchi 
she, it looks like it and seems very probable. 

"42. But the most important work of its kind, and, I 
think, that which is unique in antiquity, is the vocabulary of 
regional words compiled by Yang-hiung (b.c. 53-18 a.d.). 
The whole title is Yeo hien she tcfte tsiueh tai yu shi pieh ktcoh 
fang yen, generally simplified into Fang yen, and may be 
translated : * The language of former ages from the envoys 
in light-chariots, with regional words from various states 
explained.' This title would show that the author has used 
the lists, or at least some of the lists, made by the envoys 
mentioned above. 

Much attention was paid to local words about the time of 
this author. A countryman of his, Yen Kiiin p'ing, of Shuh 
(Szetchuen), had collected more than a thousand words used 
in dialects. Liu-hiang, the scholar who was commissioned 
to draw up the catalogue of the books preserved in the 

^ According to the Wu King wen tUy the Five Kings, or Canonical books, con- 
tain only 3335 different word-characters. They are the Yh-Kingy Shu King, 
Shi King, Liki and Tchun ttiu. Adding to these the Sze Shu, or Four books, 
namely, the Ta hioh, Tehung ywtgy Lun-yu and Meng tzty the total of words 
reaches only 4764. The ^eat collection of the Thirteen Kings, Shih san Kmg^ 
which, besides the preceding, includes the /-/i, Tchou-li, Hiao-King^ Ko-liang, 
Kufig^yang^ and the Erh-ya, the great total is 6544 different words, including 
those which appear exclusively in the latter. Cf. G. Pauthier, Dietionnaire 
ChinoiS'Atmamite LatiH' Francois, p. iv n. (Paris, 1867, 8vo. Ist part only 
published). The non-existence in the Erh-ua of modem characters found in 
some Taoifit books, such as the Tao'teh-king^ does not imply that these books, or 
the passage where these characters occur in them, have a later origin than the 
Srh'ya. A not unimportant cause may be that this vocabulary belongs to the 
Confacianists, and therefore that a recension of the books of other schools may 
not have been made when its various parts were successively compiled. A more 
important cause is that the Krh-yoy and the said books, were independently tran- 
scribed from their original style of writing, Ta tehucn into Siao'tchuen and modem 
characters. Whence some differences. Much of the obscurity of the Tao-teh-king 

may be explained in that way; for instance, the sjrmbols g and S of the 
original were both rendered by ^ . 



416 THE president's address fob 1886. 

Imperial collection^ and father of Liu-hin, who achieved the 
task (b.c. 7), laboured on the same subject. Lin-lu and 
Wang ju-ts'ai, engaged in similar studies, made use of what 
they called Keng Kai tchi fah, or * General lists.' Yang- 
hiung greatly appreciated these documents, and worked upon 
them for twenty-seven years. During the same time he 
diligently consulted persons of repute all over the country, 
and compiled his work, which contained 9000 words arranged 
by order of subjects in fifteen sections. 

'' 43. It is nothing less than a comparative vocabulary, 
and we must recognize in him a predecessor in the science 
of language. Unfortunately his book has not been trans- 
mitted to us as he left it. As we now possess it, there are 
only thirteen chapters and over 12,000 words. It has been 
augmented by one- third, and consequently these, or at least 
many of these, 3000 words, being additions of instances of 
later times, when many changes had occurred in the respective 
position of several of the non-Chinese tribes, present many 
inconsistencies. A critical edition made by European scholars 
might lead to some better readings and emendations. The 
Chinese themselves have begun the task. , In the Imperial 
edition of the present dynasty, the editors have followed the 
text preserved in the great collection of the fifteenth century 
called Yung-loh ta tien,^ restoring to order and correctness 
the common editions of the work. The most valuable 
commentary was that made by Kwoh-p'oh, the same scholar 
who annotated the Erh-ya and other works. 

Yang hiung was enabled by his eflForts to include, in his 
vocabulary, words from over forty-four regions,^ many of 
which were Chinese only in name, and others not Chinese 
at all, though within the modern area of China proper. 

^ It is a collection in 22,877 books with sixty books of Index, preserved in the 
Han-lin College, and compiled in ad. 1407. It contains long extracts from 
works which have now disappeared, and it has never been printed. Cf. W. F. 
Mayers, Bibliography of the Chinese Imperial CoUcctiom of Literature^ in China 
Review^ vol. vi. Jan. -Feb. 1878. 

' Dr. Edkins, who has written a short notice on this work of Yang hiong, in 
his Introduction to the Study of Chinese Characters^ append, pp. 40-44, to 
which I am indebted for several facts mentioned above, quotes only 24 of these 
regions, out of which he identiHes only seven. 



PKOF. LAOOXJPBRIB ON THE FRB-CHINESB LANGUAGES. 417 

**44. The dialectic regions which occur the most fre- 
qnently in Tang-hivng'a comparatiye yocabulary bear the 
following names, to which I add a short indication of their 
approximate correspondence on the modem map of China : 

1. N.W. 2Vin, inShensi. 

2. N.E. Yen, in N. TchihU. 

3. C.N. Tsin, in Shansi. 

4. C.N. Fmj in W. Shansi. 

5. N.E. Lu, in S.W. Shantung. 

6. N.E. Ten, in S.W. Shantung. 

7. C.N. Tchao, in E. Shansi. 

8. C.N. JTei (anc. Ngu), in N.E. Honan and S. Tchihli. 

9. C.N. Ki, in W. TchihU. 

10. C. Man, in S.E. Shansi and N. Honan. 

11. C. J?b-9i«i, in Honan. 

12. C. Tehen, in C. Honan. 

13. C. Tehau, in N. Honan. 

14. C. Wei, in 8. Shansi and N.W. Honan. 

15. C. I^an Wei, south of preceding. 

16. C.E. Sung, in E. Honan and W. Kiangsu. 

17. C. Tching, in C. Honan. 

18. C. Juh, in 0. Honan. 

19. C. Yng, in C. Honan. 

20. W. Mien, in S. Shensi. 

*' All the above regions were names of States of the Chinese 
confederation, and were Chinese. 

" 46. The following were on the borders and Chinese only 
in partSy or non-Chinese at all : 

21. 8. King, or Hupeh. 

22. 8. Teu, in Hupeh and neighbouring region. 

23. E. Ha'i and Tai (between), in Shantung. 

24. E. Tung Tb%, in N. Shantung. 

25. E. 8iu, in N.W. Eiangsu. 

26. E. Tunghaiy in N. Eiangsu. 

27. E. Kiang and ITwai (between the), in S.W. Kiangsu. 

28. E. Tsing, in N. Anhui. 

29. 8.E. Wu, in Eiangsu. 

30. S.E. Wuhu or Eive Lakes, in S. Kiangsu. 

31. S.E. Hui'ki, in N. Tchehkiang. 



418 THE president's address for 1886. 

82. S. Tan-yang^ in S. Anhai. 

83. S. Tang^ in S. Kiangsu and Kiangsi. 

84. S.E. Tueh, or Tchehkiang. 

85. S. Nan Tsu, Hunan. 

86. S. Siang, or S. of Tung-ting lake, C. Hunan. 

87. S. Zinfff or C.E. Hunan. 

88. S. Nan-yueh, or Euang-tung. 

39. S. JTwet-lin, or \V. Kuang-tung. 

40. 8.W. Shuhf or Szetchuen. 

41. S.W. Th, or C. Szetchuen. 

42. W. Liang^ or N. Szetchuen. 

43. W. Lung-Bif or S. Kansuh. 

44. N.E. ZtfA riV^, N. of Tchihli and others. 

"From the last region of the list, the words which a^^ 
quoted are Korean and may often be still assimilated t^ 
modern Korean words. 

'*46. Some of these regions are specified in history a^^ 
those where removal of populations took place before th^^ 
time of Yang-hiung, and we do not know how many of th^ 
new data, which he was able to gather, and join to his former^ 
documents, were aflFected by these events. We have good 
reason to suppose that they were so affected, otherwise no 
such regions as those of Mien (20) or of Kiang Hwai (27), 
which are virtually included in other names, would have 
been quoted as dialectic centres. 

" 47. And it is rather curious that the region of Mien^ an 
old name of the Han river, in Hupeh, should appear distinct 
from the region of Ts'u in which it was included, as the 
event which made it conspicuous in that respect occurred 
long after the overthrow of the said state of Ts'u by 
its powerful and successful rival kingdom of T'sin in their 
struggle for the empire (222 B.C.). In a.d. 47, some 
thirty years after the death of Yang-hiung, the Luy-tsien 
M&n ^ and other southern barbarians of the Tu moun- 
tains (East Szetchuen ?) rebelled against the Chinese 
yoke ; the rebellion was crushed by a Chinese army, and 
seven thousand prisoners were removed to the Kiang-hia 

^ Eou Han thu. Nan Man tehuen^ Bk. 116. 



PROF. LACOUPERIK ON THE PRE-CHINESE LANGUAGES. 419 

region, on the left banks of the Yang-tze, otherwise in the 
region of the Mien river, where they developed and asso- 
ciated themselves with cognate tribes. Unless a critical 
analysis of the words which appear under that Mien label, 
in the Fang yen, should prove them to be utterly distinct 
from those of Ts'u (which case is not apparent, and not 
likely so to be for the reason that all these tribes were 
kindred), it will be difficult to know whether they are 
interpolations of later date, or data obtained by Yang hiung 
about his time, when the word Ts'u as a geographical 
denomination was no longer in use or was too expansive in 
meaning. 

** 48. The other name of region which we have singled out 
is less open to criticism. It is that of the countrybe tween 
the Yang-tze and the Hwai rivers, which corresponds to the 
south of Kiangsu. In 138 B.C. the state of Tung (or Eastern) 
Jfgou (in Tchehkiang), being repeatedly assailed by that of 
Min-yueh (in Fuhkien), removed a portion of the population 
of the latter, and expelled them to the northern side of the 
Yang-tze in the said Kiang-hwai region. Later on (110 B.C.) 
the same country received, with the help of decked-boats from 
the south, another population or portion of population from 
the Min yueh, at the request of the same Tung Ngou state, 
then an ally of the Chinese, who came to -its rescue and saved 
it from the attacks of its obnoxious neighbour.^ These 
events, which had certainly attracted the attention of Yang 
hiung and others, similarly engaged in seeking for curious 
forms of speech, prove, in all probability, that the entries 
of words under this title were not extracted from earlier 
documents when the region was hardly accessible and little 
known. 

" 49. The probability already put forward that Yang-hiung 
has used, for his compilation, documents of various dates, 
including some lists of the * Envoys in light-chariots,' is 
shown at large by the fact that his geographical nomencla- 

1 Han shUf 8i-nan Man tehwn, bk. 95. Li tai Ti Wang nien piao isien han^ 
fol. 6 and 9^. 



420 THE president's address for 1886. 

ture, always excepting the names of new regions, does not 
belong to the Han dynasty, but to the Tchou dynasty, and 
more especially to the contending states period, namely, 
481-255 B.C. It is shown also by several other facts. He 
makes use of the name of the state of Tsin in Shansi, which 
was destroyed in 436 B.C., and partitioned by the states of 
Wei, Han and Tchao, which also appear in his list. The 
name of the great state of Ts'in in Shensi, which extended 
his power over all the other states in the third century, 
appears as a name for the region of Shensi only, and we 
meet also with the name of Kwan * the gate,' which was that 
of the capital of the state and the neighbouring region in 
the third century. And also the names of Nan-yueh, Kuei- 
lin, Siang, which did not exist before the latter part of the 
third century B.C. 

" 50. All this plainly shows that the words given in this 
remarkable work cannot be considered as belonging to the 
same period, and that their collection represents several 
centuries. Such being the case, the phonetic rendering of 
the Chinese symbols employed in the work is a matter of 
serious consideration. Chinese symbols were attached to the 
rendering of foreign sounds by the successive transcribers 
who noticed these sounds, and, consequently, according to 
their own pronunciation ; and, as this pronunciation varied 
in time, as in space, there is no uniformity of rendering. 
This is made apparent by this fact, that differences of pronun- 
ciation are often indicated by symbols tchose sounds have for long 
been homonymous. However, the best means to start with, 
and subject to the least proportion of ulterior modifications, 
are the sounds preserved in the Sinico-Annamite, the most 
archaic of the Chinese dialects. The only reservation to be 
made, is that the hardening and strengthening which this 
dialectal pronunciation indicates goes perhaps beyond the 
mark, and that half of its strength might be due to local 
peculiarity of the dialect. 

" 51. A few examples will be better than any further 
explanation, and show the average of information which is 
to be obtained from this remarkable work : 



PBOF. LACOUFERIE OK THE PRE-CHINESB LANGUAGES. 421 



it 



* Hu ^ (a tiger) is in Tcheng, "Wei, SuDg and Tsu called 
Li'fu ; ^ between the Kiang and Hwai and in Southern Tsu 
it is called Li-ni,^ sometimes Udu ; ^ on the east and west of 
Ewan it is sometimes called Bak tuJ ^ — Bk. yiii. 

" * North of Tsin, of "Wei, and of the Ho-within, to say 
lam • (to beat, to kill) they utter tan ; ' in Tsu, tarn ; ® in 
Southern Tsu and between the Kiang and Siang, K'e,^ 
Ewoh P'oh's commentary : Now west of Kwan, the people 
say iam^ for ta ^® (to beat).' — Bk. iv. 

" * DzH » (to confer), lai,^^ thu}^ Outside of Southern Tsu 
they say lai; Ts'in and Tsin say thu,* — Bk. ii. 

" • Tieu ^* (to covet) faw,^^ tan}^ Tcheng and Tsu say 
fam.i5— Bk. ii. 

"*F*pn" (a pole), between Tsu and Wei (anc. Ngu), is 
called chu* ^® — Bk. ix. 

'' 52. These examples will suffice to show how the state- 
ments of the Fang yen are arranged, and how far the regional 
forms and the non-Chinese words are intermingled. The 
insufficiency of the glossarial data of the native dialects does 

* ^ '^. Cf. Cantonese: Lofu, Manyak: Lephe. 
^ ^ ]^. Cf. Burmese noH ; Eiranti dial, nyor, 

* jjft jjffj. As in the legend quoted above, and some Taic-Shan words. 

^ f6 SB* ^^* ^^^^ Karen: Bautho, 

^ t^ ^'"> ^^' ^^' ^^*^' 

^ SI ''''"'> ^^^' -^^ ^^^* ^^* Outtihn in Shan and Siamese. 

^ ^ I'off, Sin. An. tham, Cf. Shem^ in Annamite. 

* JK* JT't, Sin. An. Khe, Cf. Kha, in Siamese and Laocian, Kai in Tchung 
Miao. 

1^ fj ia, but was probably (in as suggested by the phonetic. 
^^ ^ yuy Sin. An. dsu, 

^^ IS ^* ^"^ ^^' '^'* ^'* '^'"^' ''^^' 
^' gl ^A'otr, Sin. An. thu. 

^* PP /'oo, Sin. Ann. tieu, 

^' f ff^ ^^''** ^^' '^'^°* ^"'* ^^* Shan, lo ; Annamite /A^m /am. 

^^ SI ^'^w*) Sin. Ann. tan, 

^^ @ ^wM> Sin. Ann. vien, 

^ f I TcAofi, Sin. Ann. ehu, Cf Annamite dieu. 




422 THE president's address for 1SS6. 

i 

Dot often admit of our finding their corresponding words 
to those of Yang-hiung, though the reverse happens not ud« 
frequently ; but we are more often enabled to trace out tbe 
corresponding words or forms of words in the language^ 
cognate to the native dialects. On the other hand, tb^ 
tendencies exhibited by the phonetic equivalents found i^^ 
the examples of the Fang yeriy show themselves corr^'' 
spending to some extent with those existing between tb^ 
reciprocal loan-words in Chinese and the said southern las^-- 
guages. Therefore, the probabilities are, that within Chio-^ 
proper during the slow Chinese conquest, these same equiv^^--' 
lents of sound were caused by the reciprocal influence of tfcm ^ 
ancient Chinese and the native dialects representative of 
antecedent to these languages. 

** 53. An analysis of a large number of the statements 
Yang-hiung's work has shown me some equivalents 

frequent repetition, the most important are the foUowin g 

in the range of initials : 

N.W. and K 2)-, Ds- = i- of S.E. and S. 

N.E. N. and N.W. Tch-Sh- = i- of S.E. 

N.W. and E. i- = K, H, of S.E. and S. 

N. W. and C. Ng- = Jf- of E. 

W. JV- = 2>- of E. 

N.E. Teh' = iT-ofS. 

C. and E. Si-, Dzt- = Ki- of S.E. and S. 

W. K', if- = T- of C. and E. 

N., E., W. F' = /SA-, 8', Tb- of S.E. and S. 

N.C. M' = Sh-y S' of S.E. and S. 

W.C. T", Teh', rs-= P-, B' of S.E. 

"54. Let us compare with the last two of these equiva- 
lents, the following which are frequent between Mandarin, 
Chinese, Sinico-Annamite, and Annamite. It will be 
remembered that the latter is a language of the Mon family. 

Chinese. Sinico-Annamite. Annamite. 

M' = Ds- = M', 2)3- 

P- = r- = T-, Ch', 

P'- = r- = J/- 



OK THE PSS-CHnnSK LASCVAGBS. 4^ 



r<*- = TV- = Tr-,BI- 
L- = SA- = S«- 

K- = a-, Sk-= Sk- 
Jr. = F- = r- 

H-,T-= Hr,So-= V- 

P- = B- = r- 



u 



55. And also the fcJlowing eqaiTalents of most firequeiit 
oocmrence between the Taic languages and the Mandarin or 
Standard Chinese: 

Chinese JT-^JTir-.irir- = F- Taic 

„ Zr-, JST- = K-, JJ- „ 

„ SA-, J-j -=• If „ 

„ Tch^, 5- = 1%., r- „ 

„ P*-, -F-, W' = P- „ 

„ SA-, r«. = Pr- 

„ c/^, iv^ = i\r. 

which appear in the reciprocal loan-words between the two ; 
the proportion of their respective loan-words reach a total of 
325 out of one thousand words which I have compared. 
And these equivalents are also in existence in the broken 
dialects of the natives of China according to their respective 
relationship, as we shall see hereafter. 

" 56. The following list of a few frequent equivalents in 
Cantonese and Mandarin Chinese will prove interesting, in 
parallel to the preceding : 

Chinese JJir-, Kw- = P-, JF-, in Cantonese. 





J- 


= y. 




Lvh 


= K-, H-, 




Lai- 


= T-, S.. 




Li- 


= 8; Sh; Tch; T»-, 




Lo- 


= P"-. F., W; 




L- 


= N- 




T- 


= ', K; 


and others. 






FUl. Traiu. 188M. 





9* 

» 
9* 



28 



424 THE president's address for 1S86. 

** 57. Also that of a few frequent equiTalences with the 
dialect spoken at Tcheng-tu (Szetchuen) : 

Chinese K- {-e, -a, -w) = JTr- at Tcheng-tu. 
„ Kw- = K" „ 



>9 



„ N- = N- (.», -«) 

„ Tch' = SA- „ 

" And a few various ones : * 

Chinese N- = i- at Nanking. 

„ -m = -«w^ „ 

„ -ang = -an „ 

,, «7- = £- at Tsi-nan fu (Shantung). 

F- = «/- in Kweitchou. 

Tch' = r«. at Tientsin (Tchihli), 






Sh- = S- 



S^- = F' in Kansuh. 






«/- = jB- in Szetchuen, etc,* 



^ The Cantonese equivalences ({ 56) have been noticed in perusing Dr. J. £• 
Eitel's Chinese Dictionary in the Cantonese Dialect^ parts i.-iv., Hongkons;, 
1877-1883. The equivalences in § 57 arc extracted from Dr. J. Edkins* best work, 
A Grammar. of the Chinese Colloquial Language commonly called the Mandarin 
Dialect, 2nd edit., Shanghai, 1864, pp. 69-71, 36-37. 

^ When the time comes fur making a scientific study of the Chinese characteiSi 
and especially of the class of those commonly kno^n as ideo- phonetic, which ishj 
far the most numerous (circd 1250 a.d. it included, according to Tai-tung, 21810 
characters out of a total of 24235), these local equivalences of sound, and such 
others which are not given here, will be found of great help in discriminating tiie 
variation of sound, especially initial, in phonetics. Many of the so-called ideo- 
phonetics do not deserve this appellation, and ought to be classified differently, aa 
they belong to distinct systems of making up the characters. There are the com- 
pounds where the two or more characters employed have each a part in expressing 
the sound, I.) by a rough system of aerology and syllabisra as in the oldest 
Ku-wen compound signs, II.) by a juxtaposition of two or more phonetic signs, 
either a) of oiffercnt value in order to express a bisyllabic or trisyllabic word 
afterwards contracted and crippled into a monosyllaSle, or b) of homonymous 
signs explaining one another phonetically, with or without any ideographical mean- 
ing, these types o, b, extending to the intermediarj- period, viz of the late Eu-wen 
and of the Ta-tchuen style ; and III.) the phonetic compounds mnde before and 
after the sixth century of our era, and composed of two symbols which both con- 
tribute to the sound according to \\^q fan-tsieh method, i.e, by the initial sound of 
one and the final of the other. Once all these supposed ideo-phonetic characters 
discarded, and not before, it is possible to study the ideo-phonetic compounds, 
properly so called, and made of an ideographic symbol suggestive of idea addi- 
tional to a character suggestive of sound. But it would c^ a great mistake to 



PROF. LAOOUPERIE ON THE PRE-CHINESE LANGUAGES. 425 

58. Now let us remember that the court language for the 
) being has always exercised a powerful influence in 
la. And as this court language is and always was that 
le capital, it changed as often as the capital itself, which 
not mean unfrequently. For instance, with reference 
le present time, the dialect of Peking became the court 
ict since 1411 a.d., under the Ming dynasty, when during 
reign of Tung-loh the court was transferred there and has 
3 remained since. The Mandshu conquest, and the estab- 
Qent of their sway all over China, did not change this 
t of affairs otherwise than in this way, that it has helped 
tly to corrupt the former language, and that it is this 
ily-decaying form of speech which now has the lead over 
)ther Chinese dialects. Ki, tsi, tchi, are now all tchi ; si, 
re now a medial sound usually transcribed hsi, and so 
1.^ When the If .W. state of Ts'in, the most powerful 
npality of the Chinese confederation, conquered the 
ese parts and some others of the Flowery Land in the 

bluntly the doctrine put forward by some sinologists, that the ascertained 
md of a phonetic gives the ancient sound of the words expressed by its ideo- 
ic compounds. The application of this doctrine thus formulated is simply 
mifl ana antiscicntific. It leads to the grouping of supposed forms of irordls 
hare never existed, and brings forth this chaotic result, exemplified in some 
of a well-known sinologist, of typical sounds having each of them all sorts 
dings, and of any certain thin^ or idea expressed by many of these apocry- 
fpi^ sounds. 'The aforesaia principle is only true when worded and 
ed as follows : Th« ideo-phonetie characters may have their old sound indi- 
y that possessed by their phonetic at the time and in the region of their 
OM, amd in these conditions only. For instance, numerous phonetics with 
1 initial which they have preserved in some ancient, and which exist also 
9 of their later compounds, have produced some compounds expressing 
beginning with a labial during the period of labialization (cf. §^ 58, 59). 
originally dental, have passed for ever to the labial series. Phonetics 
in their compounds such equivalences of sounds as the following : T ~E, 
K = L, K = P, K = M, L=D, L=N, N = D, L = Sh, S = n, etc , but their 
position here is not suggestive of their historical succession. We find, how- 
insitions such as T = « = H=K, K = Tch = S=T, T=Tch = Dj =n=K, 
= F = P, K=Kw = V=M, etc. Some nf these equivalences are easily 
)d by the everlasting degeneration and wear and tear, and some by the 
Teasing, which means a facilitation proper only to its authors as a facilita- 
acme may be an increase of difficulty for others. The regional phonetic 
ces will contribute to the latter explanations. All these do not preclude 
tence which I have been able to disclose of polyphonic characters among 
hich the ancestors of the Chinese civilization nave brought with them 
W. Asia, and also the substitution of characters only bomopbonous 
rily, which often took place in the course of history. 
! is the reason why the use of the Pekinese pronunciation by the European 
and officials in China who write about historical and ancient geographical 
cannot be too strongly deprecated. 



426 THE president's address for 1SS6. 

third century B.C., it brought along with its sway a strong 
current of labialization all over the country. The pronuncia- 
tion was carried from the teeth to the lips. The capital was 
then in Shensi, and remained there during the first Han 
dynasty. The same phonetic influence, with perhaps leas 
energy than in the beginning, was continued until the 
transfer of the capital in Honan, with the establishment of 
the Eastern Han dynasty (25 a.d.). 

" 59. The above tables show that the Taio equivalents and 
also the Annamese are older than those of the Cantonesa 
The Mon-Annam loan-words from the Chinese have kept the 
dental sounds which preceded the labialization, brought in 
by the T'sin and Western Han dynasties. And the Taic, in 
their migration southwards, have preserved the phonetic 
peculiarities which used to characterize the regions of E. and 
S.E. China, where we know them to have been settled. Some 
more information is given by the same tables, concerning the 
multiplication of the written language of China. They show 
that the partial polyphony, or better, the variation of initials, 
which are frequently met with in ideo-phonetio word- 
characters containing the same phonetic element, have arisen 
from the various circumstances in time and region of their 
formation and entrance in the Chinese vocabularies. 

" 60. The Fang-j/en of Yang-hiung is not the only work ^ 
in which some information is to be obtained on dialectal forms 
and regional words. It is the sole work in existence speci- 
ally written on the subject, but occasional indications are 
met with in another important dictionary of the same period, 
the Shicoh wen. Its author, Hii shen,^ who lived in the first 
century a.d., was like Yang-hiung a great scholar, and, in 
addition to the said work, wrote a most valuable treatise on 
the * Difierent Meanings of the Five Canonical Books.' His 
dictionary was only presented to the Emperor after his death, 
namely, in 121 a.d., and the just reward of his labours, a 
shrine among those sages admitted into the Temples of 

* In the I' hat chu tch'in collection nro two works, entitled Suhfang yen^ and 
Suhfaug yen pu teh^ing^ which I have not seen. 

' A hiography of Hii shen has been compiled by Mr. T. Wattere, in his excellent 
Ouide to the TabUtain a Tample of Confucius (^\im^]iz:iy 1879, Sto.), pp. 98-100. 



PROP. LAOOUPBRIE ON THE PRB-CHINESE LANGUAGES. 427 

Confucius, was granted to him in 1875 only, i.e. eighteen 
centuries after his lifetime ! ^ 

**61. The Shwoh'tpen, which contained 9353 words, has 
remained the standard work of Chinese lexicographers, and 
was in fact the first work deserving the name of dictionary, 
as the JErh't/a, of which we have spoken above, was not more 
than a glossary, classified ideologically, without definitions. 
Hu shen collected in his work all the signs of the Siao tchuen 
style (the Small Seal character), which he considered the best 
framed ; and he gave also about 441 symbols from the oldest 
style {Ku-icen) of the writing, which, it cannot be repeated 
too often, has nothing whatever to do with the grotesque 
pictorial signs, long supposed and always quoted wrongly 
as the originals of the Chinese characters, instead of what 
they are in reality, corrupted and fanciful forms.^ Yang 
hiung's Fang yen is not quoted eo nomine in the Shwoh tcen^ 
which, as we know, was compiled some forty years after- 
wards, perhaps because copies of the work were not yet in 
circulation. Hii shen speaks, however, of Yang-hiung in 
his introduction as the author of a sort of vocabulary of all 
the Chinese word-K^haracters known in his time, some 5340 
altogether, entitled the Instructor.* Many dialectal forms 
and regional words are quoted in the Shwoh wen, many of 
which are met with in the Fang-yen, while many others are 
not. It looks as if the author was enabled to make use of 
some of the same materials as Yang-hiung, supplemented by 
later documents. 

^ Chinese scholars value the Shwoh wen highly, and many of them have ex- 
pended great learning and industry in confirming and illustrating its explanations 
and deiivations, which are far-fetched and often worthless, so far as they hear on 
late and secondary forms, intentionally altered, and not on the genuine old forms of 
the word-chaiacters. If anything can he learned from the ancient writing of the 
Chinese on their beginnings, it is only from an anaWsis of the oldest symbols. 
Cf. Terrien de Lacouperie, On the Archaic Chinese JVriting and Texts (London, 
18S2, 8to.), and Beginnings of Writingy §} 46-55 (London, 1887, 8vo.). Dr. 
John Chalmers, author oi an epitome of the K^ang hi tze tieti^ phonetically 
arranged, has published an able translation of a late edition of Hii snen's work : 
^n Account of the Structure of Chinese Characters^ under 300 primary forms ; 
after the Shwoh wan, 100 a.d., and the phonetic Shwoh wan^ 1833 (London, 
1882, 8yo.), where the etymological processes remind us singularly of our owa 
etymologists of the pre-scientific period. 

' Cf. my Beginnings of Writing, I. § 48. 

* M ^ >S ^*^*^ tswun pietif lit. * Teaching collection book.* 



428 THE president's address for 1886. 

^'We have already mentioned the interest displayed 
towards these sorts of words by Ewoh P'oh, the great com- 
mentator of the third century. 

" 62. By putting together all the data contained in the Erh- 
f/ft, the Fang-yen, the Shtcoh vren^ and the commentaries of 
Kwoh P'oh on the first two of these works, and a critical 
arrangement of them by region and by date, as far as it may 
be possible from the succession of the geographical nomen- 
clature, much light would be thrown on the linguistic history 
of China between 500 B.C. and 250 a.d. But such a work 
would require a great deal of time, and somewhat long pre- 
paratory study, to be successful. 

Part IF, The Extinct and Surviving Aboriginal Languagu and 

JDiakcts. 

VIII. Families of . Lanouaobs. 

** 63. A complete survey of all these languages is out of the 
question within the limits of the present work, for two 
opposite reasons. Some are known by mere inferences which 
require long and complicated expositions, as we had occasion 
to show above (§ 23) ; and the data concerning many others, 
deficient and unequal as they may be, would, however, form 
together a mass of a certain length much beyond our possi- 
bility of dealing with in these pages. Therefore we are only 
permitted to examine briefly a few of them, in order to show 
what sort of documents we have available for study, and to 
give a short statement of the facts about the others, together 
with the necessary references. 

** 64. We shall enumerat-e them according to their relation- 
ship with the two great linguistic stocks to which we find 
they belong ; namely to the 1) Indo-Chinese division and its 
two branches Mdn-Khmer, and Tdi-Shan ; and also to the 
Interoceanic division, Indonesian branch, of the Indo-Pa- 
ciFic stock ; and 2) to the Tibeto-Burmese and other divisions 
of the KuENLUNic stock of languages. A prime distinction 
being made between the Pre- Chinese aborigines and the 
Pre-Chineae ; the latter being distinguished from the former. 



PROF. LA00UFRR1B OM TH8 FRE-CHINBSE LANGUAGES. 429 

for the reason that they have entered into Pre-Ghinese lands 
in historical times. (Cf. above § 1.) 

" 65. The fragmentation of tribes from the various original 
raceSy and the subsequent reunion of some of these broken 
tribes into new units hybrid in character, have been of 
frequent occurrence amongst those remnants of the former 
population of the Flowery Land, under the continuous 
pressure of the Chinese growth and extension. Therefore 
several of the following entries are probably provisional, as 
the greater number of the surviving dialects are either mixed 
or hybridized when they are not altogether hybnd. The 
distinction carried by these qualifications is this, that mixed 
implies only a mingled composition of the vocabulary, while 
the two other terms indicate the state of the grammar, which 
is hybridized when a part of it has been altered by inter- 
mingling with a foreign grammar, and hybrid when the 
language is the result of a new unit made up of various 
sources.^ Therefore the languages are classified in the follow- 
ing pages according to the greater number of their affinities. 

IX. The Pbb-Chike8b Aboriginal Mon-Tai Dialects. 

a) Unmixed and Mixed. 

"66. The Pong ^ or Pan hu jg* ^ race was pre- 
dominant in Central China, i,e. south of the Yellow River, 
when the original Chinese or Bak tribes migrated into the 
country. Their leader named Pong, about whom various 
legends cropped up afterwards, was established in the N.E. 
of Szetchuen and in W. Honan, and was friendly with the 
Chinese from the outset. In fact, he helped them against the 
Jungs of Naga race coming continuously from the N.W. 
Many tribes claim to be descended from him, and not a few 
worship and venerate his memory. Their generic name was 
Ngao * powerful,' now degraded into Yao} 

^ For the sake of brerity M. = mixed, hybrid is H., and hybridized is Hd. 

» Or ^z. 

> As already remarked, the present work being exclusiyely devoted to languages, 
all the historical and ethnological researches and demonstrations are forcibly left 
aside. 



430 THB president's address for 1886. 

** The Pan-hu race was a branch of the Hon race from the 
south-west, which had occupied a large part of China before 
the arrival of the Chinese, consequently before the twenty- 
third century B.C. It is from this branch, and as a result of 
their intermingling with Northern, otherwise Kuenlunic 
tribes, that the Taic or Shan-Siamese populations have evolved, 
some of which, migrating southwards in the course of time 
under the Chinese pressure, spread into Indo-China,^ and 
developed into several states. 

" 67. The Pan-hu language is only known through the 
inference to be derived from the dialects of the tribes which 
have sprung from it. Its main characteristic was its ideology 
(2468 VI.), nearly opposite to that of the Euenlunic 
languages (13 5 8 III.). The oldest relics of their speech 
are those which were preserved by the Chinese writers of the 
Han dynasty, notably in the Annals of the Eastern Han.' 
Some older traces exist in former works, and we have been 
enabled to point out more than one in a previous part of 
this paper, but they are quoted only with a geographical 
indication, and we have to draw our own conclusions as to 
the race from whose speech they were quoted ; whilst in the 
present instance the words are quoted with precision as those 
employed by the Yao of the Pan-hu race,' and this makes all 
the diflFerence. These are only a few of them : . 

Puk'kien, i.e. * to tie the hair in a knot.* 

Ttik'ii/iy i.e. * sort of cloth.' 

Tinh'fu {ising-fu), i.e. * chieftain.' 

Eng-tUy used in addressing each other. 

Pien-kia * a 'cross-bow.'* 

TiaO'tsiang ' a long spear.' 

Tcho kou * a dog.' 

Tu pet * a great chief they worshipped.' 

**Puk'kien is undoubtedly the same as the Siamese j>'uA- *to 

1 Cf. below, §§ 116, 117, and The Cradle of the Shan Race, 
« HouIIan Shu, hk. 116. 
' Then in Hunan. 

* The two latter words are not derived from the same source as the others ; they 
are given by B^an ch'eng ta in his Kuei hai yu hetig tchi (twelfth century). 



PROF. LAOOUPERIE ON THB PRE-CHIKESE LANGUAGES. 431 

tie/ and k^on ^ hair/ The tuk-lih cloth was a hair-cloth, as 
shown by the Siamese sakaiat ^ * woollen.' Eng-tu is the 
Siamese en^ *8elf' and tu *!.* Tinh-fu is tsing-fu^ in the 
same language. Pien-kia is given in Chinese notices of 
the Kiu ku Miao of W. Eueitchou of the same race as their 
own term for a cross-bow ; * but in Malay panah is * a bow ' 
according to Crawfurd. 

** Tcho kou finds its correspondent in the Kambodian tch 
ke.^ And as to Tupei, I suppose that tu is the class article for 
proper names and living beiugs, which we meet in many of 
these languages.^ 

" 68. The Yao-jen Jg A» also called Fan-k'oh f ^ ^,« 
were an important people of the Pan-hu race, whose name 
has been preserved with some alteration in their own appella- 
tion. They are now broken up into many tribes, several of 
which come under our notice, because something is known 
of their language. 

*' They have preserved some specimens of an ancient 
writing of their own, which was derived from the old 
Chinese characters, and of which a specimen has lately 
reached the British Museum.'^ 

" 69. The Pan-yao 3[ }|j, also called Ting-Pan-yao and 
Yao-jen^ now removed southwards, are found in Kuangsi 
and Kueitchou. We have only of their language a short 
list of 21 words and the numerals, collected by a French 
missionary,® as follows : father, tia ; ® mother, ma ; son, tonh ; 

1 Cf . Burmese thek-ka-lat. 

' Unless it be the Burmese htoung ^, as in ta-htoung bo * colonel/ krek'httntng 
bo ' general/ in D. A. Chase, Anglo- Burmeae Mand-book, part ill. pp. 61-62 
(Maulmain, 1862). 

3 Miao If an hoh tehiy bk. iv. f. 6-7. These famous cross-bows of six or seven 
feet long, which require three men to string them, appear in a picture of men of 
this tril^, reproduced from a Chinese album on native tribes, by Col. H. Yule, in 
his Mareo FolOj 2nd edit. vol. ii. p. 68. 

* Cf. Lu-tze, degui ; Burmese, tan hkuay ; Mon, to kwi ; Toungthu, httct ; 
Sgo Karen, *i%tn^ htwi ; Pgo Karen, twi, 

» Cf. §§ 65, 70, 106, 108, 100. 

« Luh Tze-yun, Tung k'% aim Uhi, I 8. Ts'ao Shu k'iao, Miao Man hoh tehi^ 
i. 1 ; iv. 14. 

' Cf. my Beginnings of Writing, ii. 176 ; and my article on A New Writing 
from South' Western China in The Academy, Feb. 19, 1887. Also below, § 70 n. 3 

* M. Souchidres, in Be quelquee tribue eauvages de la Chine et de l^JndO'Chine: 
Let Mieaione eatholiquee, Lyon, 1877, vol. ix. p. 126. 

^ The spelling is French. 



432 THE president's address for 1886. 

daughter, min-ftt/e ; man, tou mien ; woman, iou mien ao ; 
male, tou mien ngou ; female, tong niey ; house, nam plao ; 
earth, dao ; water, nom ; fire, teou ; wind, dgiao ; sky, nan* 
long ; dog, teou klou ; cat, tou mi lom ; tree, ti/ dh*eang ; rice^ 
blao ; bamboo, ^y/oo ; hand, pou ; foot, ket sao ; 1, ^(7^ ; 2, y ^ 
3,j90w; 4fplei; 5,pla; 6, klou; 7, «y-a; 8, yet; 9,dou; 10, 
^c^^/? ; 100, ya^ j9tf ; 1000, pat diou. The construction is 
stated to be similar to that of the French (2468 VI.). 
The vocabulary is Mon-Taic, the numerals belong to the 
Mon type. Tou is a visible class-prefix. 

" 70. The Pan-y shan-tze St ti ill "? or * Pan-y hill- 
men,' also called Siao Pan,^ and Mo-tag ^ f^, are known 
in history under the latter name since the sixth century, 
when they were settled in Tchang-sha kiun, Hunan,' i,e, in 
Central China, which was still independent. They are now 
refugees in the mountains of Kuangsi on the Tungkinese 
frontier, and they have been lately described' by a mis- 
sionary, M. Souchieres, who has collected the following 
small vocabulary of their languages: Father, tao/a^; mother, 
c(;i ; son, ton ; daughter, mon cha ; man, tou moun ; woman, 
tou moun ao ; male, 7nan pha ; female, tong niey ; house, sen 
piao ; earth, ngi ; water, no7n ; fire, teou ; wind, cljiao ; sky, 
tou ngong ; dog, tou klou ; cat, tou meou ; tree, ty ngiang ; 
rice, bi/io ; bamboo, tc/iey lao ; hand, pou ; foot, chey sao ; 
1, fl ; 2, y ; 3, joo ; 4, piei ; 6, pia ; 6, kio ; 7, ngi ; 8, yet ; 9, 
dou ; 10, chop ; 100, a pe ; 1000, n diou. The language is 
Mon, but the ideology is not made visible in any of these 
few instances. A determinative prefix or article tou is the 

* Or * Lesser Pan/ as a distinction from the Pan-yao. 

' In the Sui shu or * Annals of the Sui dynasty.* Miao Man hoh tehif i. 8v. 

' De quelgties tribua aauvagea de la Chine et de V Indo-Chine, in Le9 MUsiwu 
Catholiqius^ 1877, vol. ix. p. 114. Speaking of their costume the author says: 
*' lis portent assez volontiers auteur du cou un lichu hrode, auquel lis enfixent 
souvent un autre qui pcnd par devant. Ces fichus sent brod^s, partie en caractdres 
chinois, partie en caractdres bizarres, qui se sent transmis de generation en genera- 
tion, et dont personne ici ne connait le sens. On yoit des caracteres identiques 
fort bien brodes sur le bonnet des enfants/' etc. Would not these unknown 
characters belong to the writing of the Yao jen ? Cf. my notice on A new 
Writing fr(m South-Western China^ in The Acadetnj/, 19 Feb. 1887. The tutu 
of the Beh Miao are perhaps similar to those bits of cloth they wear in front 
Cf. §68. 

* The spelling is French. 



PROF. LACOUPBRIB ON THE PRB-CHINBSE LANGUAGES. 433 

only cliaracteristic of importance. The construction is 
stated to be like that of the French, whence the Indices 
2 4 6 8 VI., and the language is a sister-dialect of that 
of the Pan-yao. 

"71. The Ling Kia Miao |^ JJc "gf, also called Ling jen^ 
of S. Eueitchouy speak a cognate dialect to those of the 
Pan-yao and Mo-yao,^ who understand it. 

X. The Prb-Chinb8b Abokioinal M5n Tai Dialbcts. 

h) Myhridiud and Hybrids. 

"72. TheT'uNG Jen JJ A> or Tchuangjen, belong also to 

the Pan-hu race. One of their chief tribes, the Huang,* 

appears at a very early date in Chinese history, as they came 

in contact with the emigrants when the latter advanced to 

the W. borders of Shantung, where their settlements stood at 

first. Under the Chinese pressure they moved southwards 

and remained settled and independent in the S.W. of Hupeh 

until their subjugation by the state of Tsu in 648 b.c. The 

collapse of their conquerors under the successful attacks of 

the Ts'in in 222 b.c. made them pass under the nominal rule 

of the Ts'in and following dynasties. In 450 a.d. we find 

them in open rebellion with the other aborigines of Hupeh, 

Hunan, and W. Szetchuen provinces. The Chinese armies 

sent to subdue them were repeatedly beaten, and the result 

of a protracted struggle was the acknowledgment by the 

Central Government of a state of things equivalent to their 

independence. The T'ang dynasty repelled them within the 

basin of the Wu and Yuen rivers in Kueitchou, from whence 

they advanced still further south. We know very little of 

their language, i.e. not more than a small number of words. 

"73. Fan Tch'eng-ta, Chinese Resident at Tsing-Kiang, the 
modern Kuei-lin in N.E. Kuangsi, in 1172 a.d., has given in 
one of his works,^ a description of these tribes, and has 
occasionally quoted the following words from their language: 

» Tunff k'i tien tehi, f, 10. 

• Two others were the Wei or N^uei and the Nungs. 

3 Kuei hai yu heng tehi.^Miao Man hoh tehi^ bk« i. ff. 3, 4. 



434 THE president's address for 1886. 

i P Tchu'hu,^ 'chief (elected).' 
H PE Ti'to,^ ' people.' 
^ JJt Kia-nu,^ * slave.' 
SJc T -S"'<5r-^m^,* * servant.' 
B3 T B3 T Tien-ting tien-ting,^ 'servant (of a higter 

grade).' 
J|| fjjf )i$ Ma-tsienpaiy same as preceding. 
^ "J" Tung-ting, * a common man.' 
JffI ^ Ma-ian,^ ' house.' 
H ||g Mei-niangP ' wife.' 

" Out of these nine words, three at least present Anna- 
mese affinities. 

''Nineteen words from the language of the same tribe 
are provided in the Chinese 'Statistical Account of the 
province of Kwangsi ' : ® sky, men ; sun, ta tcu (ngu) ; moon, 
tch*en, loan ; wind, ki ; father, ha ; mother, mi ; elder brother, 
pi; younger brother, nung; elder sister, a da; younger 
sister, a mi; son's wife, p'a; mother's father, ch*ia kung; 
mother's mother, chHa pu ; water, tch'o ; wine, leg ; drink 
wine, keng Ian ; rice, hen ; flesh, no ; I, ku ; thou, meng. 
From this list, the words for mother, elder brother, wine, 
drink wine, sun, etc., belong to the Mon-Annam formation ; 
the pronouns are Siamese-Shan, otherwise Taic. 

" 74. The proportion of Mon-Annam in the two lists com- 
prising together 28 words is ten, or more than one- third. 
The Chinese symbols employed in the rendering of the 
foreign words give them a different complexion from their 
inseparable ideographical meanings, which in such cases play 
the part of popular etymologies. Therefore it is more prudent 

* Cf. tchao * king' or * chief ' in the Shan language of Nantchao (} 103). 
' Cf. Annamite ddy to ' menial.* 

5 Cf. Annamite ffia no * servant.* 

* Cf. thanfff the Annamite appellation for servants. 

* In Ma Tuanlin*8 H'tn hitn t'^ung k^ao^ this expression occurs as Tien tu 
kia ; cf. d'Hervcy de St. Denys, Ethnographic dea peuples etrangera de Matouatilin^ 
vol. ii. p. 259. 

« They are on piles. Cf. Luh Tze-yxm, T'^ung k*i sien tchi, f. 14t>. 
' Cf. Annamite volon ' wife.* The Blue Miao say Mai niang for * father's 
younger brother's wife.* 

s Kuang si Vung tchi; extracted by Dr. J. Edkins, in The Miau-Ui, o.c. 



PROF. LAOOUPBRIE ON THE FRB-CHINESE LANGUAGES. 435 

to consider these symbols as meaningless sigpis and simple 
exponents of sounds only. 

"JPiVi- and Ma- or Met-, which occur two and three times 
respectively, look like definitive prefixes. The ideological 
indices are not all exemplified ; only the first three are 
shown to be 1 4 6, which proves the hybridity of the language 
and displays strong Chinese influence, which has led to the 
altering of the position of the genitive. 

" 75. The MiAO-TZE ^ -^^ of Ta shui tcheng, in S.E. 
Szetchuen, speak a dialect cognate to that of the following 
Peh-Miao of Kueitchou and Yunnan.^ A list of 112 of their 
words was collected by Mr. Hosie in 1882. Numerals and 
pronouns are missing, but the similarities in words are con- 
clusive. Class- prefixes are employed, such as /w-, lun-, tu-y 
and ng-. ' Tea ' is hou cha ; * hot water ' is houtliku ; * cold 
water* is /loulitsa ; ' to light a fire' is chou tou; * to shut the 
door' is ko chung. These instances and some others display 
the ideological indices 2 4 6. 

"76. The Peh Miao |& ffi or * White Miao,' a few 
centuries ago in the centre and west of Kueitchou,^ have 
now partially migrated in the S.E. of Yunnan.' 

" A vocabulary of 148 words was formerly taken by the 
Chinese in W. Kueitchou.* While the numerals and many 
words belong to the Mon-Khmer family, with which they 
prove a deep afl^ity, not a few vocables are Lolo-Nagas and 
Chinese, and an equal proportion, including the pronouns, 
is Taic-shan. Determinative prefixes are in use, such as 
hai^ variously rendered in the Chinese transcriptions by kahy 
ke, kai, kiai, etc., and iu or ie. The latter is common with 
the Seng Miao, Blue Miao, and Hua Miao dialects. The 
only ideological indices which can be perceived are 2 3 6 0, 
where the Chinese influence is felt by the pre-position of the 

^ Notes of a Journey through th$ Provinces of Kueichow and Yunnan ^ p. 31. 

' Miao Man hoh (ehi, iv. 4. 

» A. E. Colquhoun, Across Chryse, L 333, 335, 347, 356, 389, 392, 393 ; ii. 
302. 

* Extracted from the Hing-y fu tchi, or "Topography of the Prefectaral City 
Hing-y," by J. Edkins, A Vocabulary of the Miau Dialscts, 



436 THE FRKSIDENT's address foe 1886. 

adjective more completely than in the Blue Miao and Hua 
Miao dialects. 

"77. The Hua Miao :j|lg "gf according to the Chinese 
descriptions are interspersed all over the province of Kuei- 
tchou and the N.E. of Yunnan.^ European travellers have 
met with some further south in the latter province on the 
borders of Kuangsi.^ A vocabulary of 112 words without 
numerals has been collected in W. Kueitchou at Ta shui 
tching by Mr. Alex. Hosie.* 

** The words to the extent of 25 per cent, are similar to 
those of the White Miao. Prefixed classifiers lu and tUf 
also ng-, are in use. The pronouns and other words are Taic- 
shan and many words belong to the Mon stock. The visible 
ideological indices are 2 J 6 0. 

" 78. The Miao of Yaop'u Tchang, S.W. of Ngan shun 
in Kueitchou, is known through Mr. Alex. Hosie,* who 
collected a list of 110 words, besides the numerals, in 1882. 
Their affinities prove the language to be closely related to 
those of the TF/iife or Feh Miao and Hua Miao, though the 
vocables do not offer any apparent classifiers, which are so 
conspicuous in the other lists of words. But their absence 
may be simply an affair of interpretation. The ideological 
indices made visible are 2 J 6 only. 

" 79. The Leng-ky Miao, or Miao-tze of Leng-ky, in 
the north of Yunnan, were seen by the late Fr. Garnier,^ 
who collected the following thirty- three words from their 
vocabulary : 

"Sun, fchan to; moon, ka ly ; earth, li ; mountain, heou ixio ; 
ioTest,maI^. M.SLn, tst/ n^; woman, /?o; child, to; father, ^«y; 
mother, na ; daughter, ku ; brother, fy. Rice, kia ; cook the 
rice, a kia. House, tchu^\ wood, ke. To eat, lao (kia); to 
drink, /i^oii ; to sleep, tchcou jou ; to run, mou ki ; to come, 

* Miao Man hoh fehi^ iv. 3; iii. llr. 

* A. R. Colquhoun, Across Chryse^ i. 334, 347. 

' Notes of a Journey through the Provinces of Kneiehoxv and TSnan, p. 31. 

* Notes of a Journey by Mr. Hosie through the Provinces of Kueiehow and 
TUnan, pp. 11 and 31 (Parliamentary Papers). Mr. A. Hosie was then H.B.M. 
Consul at Tchung-king in Szetchuen. 

* Voyage d* exploration en Jndo- Chine, vol. ii. pp. 509-617. 



PROF. LACOrPERIB ON THB FRE-CHINESE LANGUAGES. 437 

ya mou te : to cally tchao tchang ; to sit, ta ta; to enter, niao. 
1, t ; 2, aou ; 3, piS ; 4, piaou ; 5, tchoui ; 6, ^^oi* ; 7, ^lan 
cAf ^ ; 8, ilo ; 9, A'ta ; 10, keou. 

** These words evince a strong affinity with the Feh Miao 
and Haa Miao dialects, and the only point of ideology which 
can be perceived is the position of the object after the verb, 
or 6. Class-articles are not apparent. 

" The numerals are interesting ; 1, 2, 3, 4 are cognate with 
those of the Peh, Hua, Seng Miao, Pan-y, Pan-yao, in their 
affinity to the Mon formation ; 6, 8 and 10 also belong to 
the older strata of the group ; 5, with its palatal initial, sides 
with the Hin, Huei, Souc, Ea, Nanhang and other Cochin- 
Chinese dialects of the same formation ; 7 is peculiar, as 
made up of two words, chet the second which is Chinese, 
and hian similar to the Peh and Hua Miao. 

"80. The MiN-KiA tze^ R ^ ^>ov Peh-jin ^ A> now 
intermingled with the other population of the neighbouring 
region of Tali-fu in C. W. Yunnan and the S.E. of the 
Province, claim to have come from S. Kiangsu near Nanking. 
They are much mixed in race, and their language bears the 
same testimony ; we have a vocabulary of 110 words, includ- 
ing numerals, published by Father Desgodins,^ and another 
series of numerals by the late Francis Gamier.^ Chinese, 
Mosso, Lolo and Tibetan words have been adopted instead of 
the original vocables, but the Mon character of the language 
is still recognizable in many words, and the positions of the 
genitive and of the adjective (2 4) are in accordance with 
this indication. 

** Categorical particles are apparently used not as prefixes 
but as suffixes only, somewhat as in Chinese. ICu, K'ou seem 
to be attached to all names of things high or large, de appears 
at the end of words for animals, and qualities. All the 

1 The Min Ida, ' a race with features more European than Chinese/ Alex. 
Hone, Report of a Jottritey through the Provinces of osu'ch^uau, Twinan, and 
Kueiehow, p. 37. Parliamentary Papers, China, No. 2, 1884. 

' Mott prineipaux de$ langues de ctrtaines tribua qui hnbilent lee bord* du Zatt' 
iwnf Kiang^ du Zou-tte Kiung et Irrawaddy (Yerkalo, 26 Mai, 1872), in 
Bullet. Sociiti de Geographies Paris, 6th ser. vol. iv. July, 1875. 

** Voyage d* Exploration en IndO'Chine^ Paris, 1873, fol. vol. ii. p. 517. 



438 THB president's address for isss. 

numerals as given by Gamier are followed by tbe particle 
'pe^ which appears in the vocabulary as suffix of a few words, 
gni-pe * sun/ uan-la-pe * soul/ etc. 

*' 81. The LiAO | j( tribes ^ swarmed out of the centre of 
Szetchuen ^ about the middle of the 4th century a.d. They 
spread all over the province, and in the 9th century were 
still occupying the same centre. Exposed to a regular slave- 
hunting by the Chinese when the latter were enabled to 
take the offensive and to crush their successive rebellions, 
they gradually removed southwards, and extended far beyond 
China proper. They have still some representatives of their 
race, mixed up with the Lolos in south-west China. 

'' 82. The language of these representatives is only known 
to us ^0 nomitie by five words, as we shall see hereafter. 
Besides these we have only a few vocables, quoted here and 
there in the Chinese records concerning them, and extending 
from the 6th to the 12th centuries, as follows : 

1) A-tna a-kai, 'husband.' 

2) A't/ a-teng^ *wife.' 

3) Kan-Ian^ * house ' (always on piles). 

4) Mi'pu, * a fine white cloth.* 

5) Tung fsuaUf ' thin copper boiler.' 

6) Po'fieng, 'chieftain.' 

7) Lang-hOf or Ho-hNg, 'brave man/ with this remark, 

that /w means ' man ' in their language. 

8) r/-^o,» ' People.' 

" The first two words are very striking, and remind us 

' Cf. Terrien de Lacoupcrie, Ths Cradle of (he Shan Haee, p. 33. Their 
various names were formerlv Yeh Ziao or subdued Liao, and Koi Liao^ in the 
niutli century ; and now, T u Liao, divided into Hwa- or ' Flowered,' Heh- or 
» Black,' Feh- or * White,* Ta tou- or * Long-headed,* Pmg iou- or * Flat-headed,* 
7W Liao in Kwang-si and Yunnan. The Kot Lino were also called Kit' or £et- 
Liao, a name which must be kept distinct from that of the Kit' Lao. 

* Their original name was Ma-hu, in the district of FUtig ahan^ Lat. 28** 31', 
Long. 104° 19'. 

^ The 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 come from the Peh she or * Northern Hifltory,* a.d. 
386-681 ; cf. Tai Ping yii Ian Cyclopedia of a.d. 983, bk. 796, f. 4. The sixth 
word comes from the T^nug shu or 'Annals of the T*ang dynasty/ and the seventh 
from the work of Fan Tcheng ta already quoted, where lang-ho only is given, with 
the remark about ho * man.* Ho-laiiff and the eighth word are given by Luh 
Tze-yun, T^ung k'i tien tchi, f. 2, and by Tsao 8hu-Kiao, Miao Man hoh'tehif 
bk. i. f. 5v. Balatig is still the name of a tribe in Indo-China. 



it 
it 



PROP. LAOOUPERIB ON THB PRE-CHINESB LAKOUAOES. 439 

of singalarly similar formations in the Burmese languages. 
Though I do not find an exactly corresponding Burmese 
form, it seems to me that the following examples make clear 
a relationship between the Liao and Burmese languages. Cf. 
Burm. A'kri a-kay *a chief/ a-tH a-p^o *male/ a-mah 
'female/ a-mro a-huoe 'family/ a-mai 'nobleman'; in a-tnii 
a-kay we have apparently a compound of a-mat and of a-kay 
{O'kri a-kay). Kan-Ian, as a name for houses built on piles, 
appears in several instances ; notably in the descriptions of 
the Nan-Ping Man of S.E. Szetchuen, of Lin-y (Annam), 
of Ho-liny (Java). Kan may be the Chinese word for pole, 
pile, cane ]^ Ian ia the same word as among the Tchung 
Miao, as the Siamese reuan, the Shan hten, etc., for * house.' 
Mi'pti and iung-tsuan are Chinese. 

Po-neng is much like the Burmese bitring 'chief, sovereign,' 
but more closely connected with the Siamese pu nam * leader, 
chief.' The Burmese affinity is less probable because of the 
other similarities exhibited in cases 3, 6, 7, 8, and the ideolog}^ 

^'Ko-lang,^ 'chief,' finds its correspondence in the Anna- 
mite ke lam [tan) with the same meaning. 

" Ti-Zo, ' people,' is also Annamite, as we have alread}' 
seen. 

"83. The ideology of this mixed language, as obviously 
shown by these few instances, is not unclear. Should a-mu 
in the first word be 'noble' and the seventh word be ho- 
lang^ the ideology would be Mon-Taic, so far as shown by 
the indices 3 J 6. The last indice is exemplified in the five 
words alluded to above, which I find in Dr. Edkins' * lists, 
without reference of any kind as to which Chinese authority 
he was indebted for them : Elder brother,* hwai ; drink wine, 
%han kan; eat rice, shan ii^; eat flesh, shan nan; younger 
brother, nung;^ younger sister, ktm; father, pa. 

" 84. The EiH-LAO 3t 3^ ^^ *te centre and west of Kueit- 

ffan is in Shan the class-article for houses with stories. 

Cf. Bnrmese Yeh-ring. 

A Vocabulary of the Miau Diaieets. 

Cf. Blue Miao nga ; Eih-lao a-ku ; Miao Tung a k'o, 

Cf . rice — Tchung Miao hau ; T*ung heu ; Yao hai, 

Cf . Siamese nung, 

Phil. Trans. 18S5-6. 29 



440 THE president's address for 1886. 

choa, divided into a dozen of tribes/ and greatly mixed witk 
the.LoloSy speak a language^ only known to as through a 
vocabulary, without numerals, of 87 words collected by the 
Chinese in N.W. Eueitchou,^ and consequently limited 
phonetically by their narrow orthoepy. 

" Out of 35 words which the respective vocabularies per- 
mitted me to compare, 16 prove to be connected with the 
Lolo, including six words in common borrowed from the 
Chinese, while 15 words out of 25 prove cognate to the Mon 
languages, with mere regional differences.* The ideology, 
which has apparently been only slightly touched on, confirms 
the glossarial probability of its original Mon connection. 
Adjectives follow their nouns : chai Hang, * millet '; chai men, 
* rice ' ; chai man, * glutinous rice * ; pu tea, * tiled house * ; 
the genitive precedes its noun : kia hung, * mother's father ' ; 
kia po, ' mother's mother ' ; the object follows the verb : 
nangli, * eat rice ' ; nang ya, ' eat flesh * ; tmng met, * ride (a 
horse)'; ti t'ai, Might a fire'; etc. These instances give 
1 4 6 as ideological indices ; ^ the position of the subject in 
relation to the verb is not exemplified. Class-articles are 
used: a+ before the words of relationship; kai+ before 
the names of parts of the body, and also before other words ; 
none appears for the living beings, and the system has 
remained either undeveloped or has been thrown into 
disorder. 

" 85. The Heh Miao H ®, or ' Black Miao ' tribes, so 
called from the usual colour of their garments, are scattered 
all over the province of Kueitchou ; the greater number of 
them were subdued in 1735, and those who, still independent 
not many years ago, were called Seng Miao ^ "gf, or Baw, 
i.e, untamed or independent Miao, used to be found in the 
western part of the same province. Their language is 
known only through Chinese sources, which give us a few 

» Cf. Miao Man hoh tchi, bk. i?. ff. 9-10. 

• At P'ing yuen. 

' And published from the Miao fang pei lan^ by Dr. Edkins, o.c. 

• The pronouns, wei ' 1/ mu * thou,* w^o, kai * he,' are Mon. 

' As the ideolo^cal indices of the Lolo class are 14 6 8 III., the alteration of 
the second indice is most probably a result of Chinese influence (13 6 8 VI.)- 



PROF. LAOOUPERIE ON THE FRE-CHINESB LANGUAGES. 441 

isolated words collected at first by officials,^ and afterwards 
a small vocabulary of 120 words. 

" The isolated words are the following : 

Ah-mei, * woman.' 

Mh'lang-fang, *a bachelor's house/ ^ by the Pah-tchai tribe. 

Tu-tu, *an embroidered square on the stomach.' ' 

Lo'han, * unmarried man/ by the Tsing kiang tribe. 

Lao-peiy ' woman/ by the same. 

Mei-niang, * wife/ by the f|^ tribe.* 

Tung-men ' those of same name.' 

Ma-lang, 'youngsters.'* 

These words require a few remarks, as they present some 
inconsistency resulting from the broken and intermingled 
genealogy of all these tribes. 

" Ah-mei 'woman/ and tnei- in mei-niang, 'wife/ are 
similar to the Siamese me 'mother, wife/ and to the Laocian 
wie * mother/ while mei-niang has already appeared as proper 
to the Pan-hu race (§ 73). Ma-lang fang is said to be 
literally ' young men's house/ so that we have here a Chinese 
word,yan^, and a pre- position of the genitive. 

" 86. The larger vocabulary which has been published by 
Dr. Edkins is instructive. There we find some of the same 
words as those above quoted: for instance, ami, 'mother'; 
tiing nien, 'friend.' There are two class-articles, or deter- 
minative prefixes : ta- for animals, and kuo-^ ho-, ha-, a-, for 
all that is human, -pei or -pa in the above lao-pei, ' woman/ 

^ Miao Man hoh tehU iv. 6. 

' As among the Tsing Tchung Eia, the Huang and Nung tribes, all belonging to 
the M5n-Tai'c stock. Among the Heh Miao the custom is peculiar to the Fah- 
ichni tribe onlj. The latter' s name is written in the Chinese documents with two 
sjmbolB meanmg the ' eight stockades/ which is the name of a place probably 
derived from the name of the tribe, and in which transcription we may see nothing 
more than a foreign graphical folk etymology. The name Fah-tchai is apparently 
cognate with the Siamese p'w tchai (Pallegoix, Bid, Ling. Thaif pp. 180, 687), 
meaning * the ancients, ^ndees.' As to tne practice of the Bachelor's house m 
eyerr Tillage to stay at night, it is well known in India ; there we find the dekachang 
of the Garos, the dhangar ba»aa of the Bhuiyas, the dhunkuria of the Oraons, 
and also among the Paharias-Malers, the Gonds, the Eandhs, etc. Cf. Col. £. 
D. Dalton, Ethnology of Betigal^ pass. 

» Cf. J 70 n. 3. 

* Luh Tze-yun, Tung lei sien tehi, f. 20. 

B Ibid, f . 20p. 



442 THE president's address for 1886. 

and in te-p^a^ 'daughter/ seems to be a feminine word of 
gender. The numerals are Mon. Tchim nuno, * eat rice/ 
tarn NEi, * carry water/ lieu pu ' ascend a hill/ pe teu * light 
A fire/ indicate the position of the object after the verb. 
Ha^mei-la^ * first day of the month/ where ha is * first ' and 
la * month/ shows a pre-position of the adjective and a post- 
position of the genitive. The adverse position of the genitive 
exemplified in ma-lang fang is also evinced by other instances^ 
so that the ideology of the language is hybridized. The indices 
are J J 6 0. The position of the subject is not evidenced. 

" 87. The Yao min }|^ Jg tribes inhabiting the mountainous 
region of the N.E. Euang-si and N.W. Euangtung provinces, 
in the conterminous prefectures of Euang-yuen and Lien- 
tchou, speak a mixed and hybrid language. We have as sole 
data a vocabidary of 65 words from Chinese sources, and 
extracted from the Kwang si t'ung tchi ^ as follows : 

" I. Objects in Nature. Sky, ngang ; moon, fa ; star, 
kang ; wind, k^ang ; clouds, kia ling ; earth, lie ; road, kwo ; 
fire, tan. 

" II. Man and Family. Man, kuei ; father, pa ; mother, 
mttj man ; father's father, pan ; father's mother, pan man ; 
father's elder brother, pi ; elder brother, Ian pa ; younger 
brother, Ian ti ; husband, kinan ; wife, a ; elder sister, ko ; 
younger sister, liau kuei ; son, tang ; daughter, j»t ; grandson, 
tang sheng ; wife's father, ta ; wife's mother, tu ; wife's elder 
brother, liau shu ; wife's younger brother, tang shu. 

" III. Metals. Silver, yen. 

"IV. Animals. Fowl, kiai; pig, mieti; dog, liang. 

"V. Parts of the Body. Kair, pien pi; eyes, tsi kang 
mien ; ears, tsi kia pa, 

" VI. Food, Eating. Wine, tieu ; rice, hai ; flesh, yen 
yen ; vegetables, ts*ai, wei. 

" VII. Implements, Clothing, etc. Table, t'aitau; bed- 
stead ; fai tsung ; stool, fai hiai ; clothes, au ; petticoat, 
teng li. 

^ A Statifitical Account of the Province of Euang-si, in Dr. Edkins, Tk^ 
Miautai. 



PROF. LAOOUPERIE ON THE PRE-CHINESE LANGUAGES. 443 

** Vm. Agricultuee. Grass, trw. 

" IX. Pronouns. I, ye ; thou, meu. 

" X. Numbers. 1, hi ; 2, i ; 8, kan ; 4, «t ; 5, trti ; 6, Hang ; 
7, hwo ; Syping\ 9, A:un^; 10, shi. 

"XL Verbs. Drink, Aau; eatffiang; sleep, pet; die,fai; 
bury, y. 

" XII. Sentences. Eat rice, yen nun ; take a wife, shau 
Ung ; marry out a daughter, liau pi ; have a son, tung tang ; 
to face the fire, lo tau. 

"88. The glossarial affinities are composite; out of 55 
words, 14 or one-fourth are Taic, and their nearest cognates 
are in the Seng Miao, Tchung Miao, Eih lao, etc., dialects. 
The next elements of importance in the vocabulary are Chinese 
and Tibeto-Burmese. The numerals 1, 2, 3, are similar to 
those of the Nagas of N.E. India, Ehari, Nam tang, and 
Tablung tribes ; 4, 5, 10 are simply Chinese ; 6, 8, and 9 are 
alterations from the same stock nasalized. 

" The pronouns are Mon. Only slight traces of class- 
articles. 

" The ideological indices which can be detected are 1, 4, 6. 
The genitive precedes, and adjectives follow their nouns, and 
the object follows the verb. 

XI. The Pbb-Chixbsb Aboriginal Mon-Eumbb Dialbcts. 

" 89. From internal evidence, which agrees with the fore- 
going facts, the ancestors of the language and civilization 
of the Annamites, and partially also of their race, must be 
sought for in Central and Eastern China. We hear from 
history that the former population of the south, between 
the Kuangtung province and Tungking, both inclusive, 
was generally displaced by, or intermingled with, half a 
million of colonists drawn chiefly from the region of 
modem Tchehkiang and its west, by Jen Hiao in 218 B.C. 

^^90. The traditions set forth at the beginning of the 
Annamite history, however completed they may have been 
subsequently, conceal under a native dress, several proper 
names which read in Mandarin Chinese turn out to be 



444 THE president's address for 1886. 

familiar to us as belonging to Chinese heroes and to the 
aforesaid region of Central China and the South. We can 
only allude here to the matter which we have treated at 
length in Chinu before the Chinese, where we have shown 
as a great probability that they date from the beginning of 
the Chinese Empire, end of the 3rd century B.C. KinA-vnong 
vuong, in Mandarin King-yang tcang, or * King of King-yang/ 
the name of their first legendary king, is borrowed from 
King-yangy the name of a locality in proximity to the capital 
of the Ts'in Empire, Kuan, now Si-ngan in Shensi. He is 
reported to be the son of a Chinese Prince by a girl of the 
race of immortals (the race of Peng or Pan-hu), near the 
ngu lanh, Mandarin Wu-ling, otherwise the 'five mountain 
ranges,' a name given to the mountainous southern boundary 
of the new Empire. The same prince married a wife from 
Dong dinh quan, Mandarin Tung ting kiun, otherwise province 
of the Tung ting lake (in Hunan, N.), and belonging to the 
dragon, otherwise the Lung race, well known in the non- 
Chinese ethnology of the country. The king Lak-long, issue 
of this union, was the first of a series of eighteen rulers, 
the last of whom ended in 257 e.g. At the rate of twenty- 
five years a reign, the highest average possible, these specu- 
lative data lead to circd 800 B.C. as the probable date of these 
beginnings, which therefore would have taken place when the 
state of Ts'u in Hupeh and Hunan S. was in full prosperity. 
" 91. The boundaries of the kingdom of these early Anna- 
mese rulers were, according to tradition, on the east the sea^ 
on the north the Tung ting lake, on the west Pa and Shuh, 
both names for Szetchuen. The second dynasty goes by the 
name of Thiw, in Mandarin Shuh, the name of Szetchuen, 
with one ruler whose reign of fifty years ended in 202 B.a, 
when the third dynasty begins. The latter is no less than 
that founded by a successor of Jen Hiao, Tchao T'o, a 
rebel Chinese general who established his sway all over 
the maritime provinces of the south, extending from Fuhkien 
to Tungking; it lasted with five rulers until 112 B.C., when 
it submitted to the Chinese dominion, which, however, was 
merely nominal in some parts, and not at all established 



PROF. LACOUPERIE OX THE PHE-CIIINESE LANGUAGES. 445 

on the east. It was recognized in Tungking from that date, 
with the exception of three years (39-42 a.d), until 186 a.d., 
when a native king, Si-nhip, ruled for forty years. It was 
this king who introduced the Chinese literature, and pro- 
hibited the use of the phonetic writing hitherto employed 
by the Annamites.^ 

" 92. Two languages are used in Annam. One employed 
by the literati only is pure literary Chinese,* with the old 
sounds of the Ts'in period attached to the written characters.* 
It is the Sinico-Annamite, this very dialect, which, with 
a necessary allowance for decay and self-divergence, rightly 
deserves the qualification of the most archaic of the Chinese 
dialects.^ 

** 93. It is a curious fact that its existence was not, in the 
minds of many scholars, separated from that of the other 
language, the vernacular Annamese or Cochin-Chinese, which 
belongs, as recognized by John Logan, and though full of 
Chinese idioms, to the same family as the Mon or Peguan.^ 

''The Annamite has been largely studied, and numerous 
are the grammars and extensive vocabularies of this lan- 
guage.* We need not enter here into details, and it will be 
sufficient to state that the ideological indices of the Annamite 
are 2 4 6 8 VI. 

^ On this writing, cf. Beginnings of Writing^ i. 44. 

' A short grammar of this lanp^nage is given in Notions pour servir d V elude d$ 
In langue Annamite^ J. M. J. (Tan dinh, 1878), pp. 277-297, and all through 
the work. 

' Cf. the foregoing h 54. 

^ A convenient list nas been made of these sounds : Prononciation figuree des 
Cmractiret Chinois $n Mvndarin Annamite, d'aprcs le manuscrit original du P. 
Lcffrand de la Liraye, Saigon, 1875, Colldgc des Stagiaircs, 420 pp. 

* Ethnology of the Indo-Pacifie Inlands^ part ii. ch. vi. sect. 2. The Mon- Annam 
Formation, pp. 152-183, in Journal of the Indian Archipelago, n.s. vol. iii. 1869. 

* Grammars and dictionaries, combined or separate, have been published as 
follows: Grammars — Alex, de Khodes, 1651; Taberd, 1838; La Liraye; De 
Grammont; G. Aubaret, 1867; Tsuong-vinh Ky. 1867-1884; (J. M. J.) 1878, 
Dictionaries — De Khodes (with Grammar), 1651 ; Pigneaux Tahrrd, 1838-1877 ; 
Morrone, 1838 ; Aubaret (with Grammar), 1867 ; (J. M. J.)« 1877 ; Des Michels, 
1877 ; Kovier, 1880. Dialogues have been published by Ab. des Michels, 1871 ; 
Potteaox, 1873. Scientific notices have been written by W. Bchott, Zur der 
Bturtheilung der Annamitisehen Sehrift und Sprache, in ^q Abhandt. d. k. Akad, 
d. Wiss, Berlin, 1855 ; L. de Rosny, Notice sur la langue Annamiquey Paris, 
1855 ; Abel des Michels, I'rofessor of Annamite in Paris, Les six intonations chez 
Us Annamites, in Eevue de Linguistique, Paris, 1869 ; Du systeme des intonations 
ehinoists et de ses rapports avee eelui des intonations AnnamiteSy in Journal 
Asiatique, Paris, 1869, etc. I leave aside numerous publications on the literature. 



446 THE FRKSIDENT's address for 1886. 

^'94. Three writiDgs are now used in Annam. 1) The 
chn^ nhu ^ JH, pure Chinese characters are used only hy 
the literati; 2) the chu^ nom ^ ll|j^, proper only to the 
Annamite, are compound characters made of two Chinese 
symbols, one ideological mute suggesting the class of objects, 
and another phonetic answering to the vernacular sound to 
be rendered, their total amounting to some nine hundred; 
3) the chu' quoc ngu ^ @ |p > the Roman characters adapted 
to the transcription of the language by the early European 
missionaries.^ As the Annamite is spoken southwards as 
far as Lower Cochin-China, three dialects, chiefly dis- 
tinguished by variants of pronunciation, are recognized, and 
cause a great deal of misunderstanding as to the phonetic 
value of the aforesaid quaint spelling in Roman characters. 
The older pronunciation is that of the north. 

" 95. The Paloukgs, in Chinese Po-lung ^ |p , speak a 
language of the Mon-Talaing family. In the seventh century 
{circ, 660 a.d.) they were settled in Yunnan N.W., and were 
for a short time, after a violent struggle, subdued by the 
Chinese. In the following century they were conquered by 
the Shan Kingdom of Nantchao. They are now further south, 
forming a part of the hill population between Bhamo and 
Yung-tchang, and also along the Shwaili river. We have 
two vocabularies of their speech ; one of 200 words collected 
in 1858 by Bishop P. A. Bigandet,* which examined by John 
Logan ,^ permitted this great scholar to recognize the Mon- 
Annam relationship of the language. Another vocabulary 
of 168 words was collected by Dr. John Anderson * at the 
time of his expedition in S.W. Yunnan. The latter list of 
words is less saturated with Shan words than the preceding. 
The indices of its ideology are 2 4 6 8 VI., which confirms 
the glossarial evidence. 

^ On the advantages and disadvantages of these writings, vid. an interesting 
pnpcr by M. Landes, ^otea sur U Quoc nyu^ pp. 1-22 of Mulitiim de la S&ciete da 
Etudes Indu'Ch if wises de Sotgon^ 1866. 

' A Comparative Voeabtdary of Shatiy Ka-Kying and Fa-laong, in Journal of 
the Indian ArchipehtgOy N.8. vol. ii. pp. 221-229. 

' Notes on Pa-lanng, ibid. pp. 233-236. 

* A Report on the Expedition to Western Yunnan (Calcutta, 1871), pp. 400-409. 
Keprinted in his book, Mandalay to Momien, pp. 464-473. 



PROF. LACOUPBRIE ON THE PRE-CHINESE LANGUAGES. 447 



XII. The Fbb-Chinbsb Tai-Shan Aborioixal Languages. Formatiov. 

. "96. The political unity and the social activity of the 
great native state of Ts'u in former Central China, previous 
to the foundation of the Empire, and south of the various 
Chinese states, have exercised a great influence on the several 
uncouth languages spoken there. They have produced 
forcibly a tendency to uniformity, which has left traces on 
all the languages and dialects which have survived or have 
developed from the same nucleus until to-day. Seven 
centuries, between the ninth and the third century B.C., were 
the length of time during which this tendency was at work, 
and we cannot disregard its import, which cannot fail to have 
been a most serious one, should we not have found proof of 
the fact, nearly at every step in the present fourth part of 
this memoir. 

"97f We have seen in our foregoing §§ 31-33 that the 
language spoken in Ts'u was not a Chinese dialect. And 
the statement of Hiung k'iii, ruler in Ts'u from 887 to 867 
B.C., saying : * We are Man-y {i.e, aliens from the Chinese), 
and we do not bear Chinese names,' ^ is an unnecessary con- 
firmation. The words quoted from Ts'u in the Fang yen^ 
are easily identified with the Hon and Ta'ic-shan vocabularies 
in equal shares, when they are not simply altered Chinese. 
And the most frequent phonetic equivalent is that of k or h 
for a Chinese /, still existing in the modern languages.^ 

"98. The linguistic formation which has been the most 
enhanced there towards its future achievement in the state 
of Nan-tchao (§ 103) is that of the Ta'i-Shan family, which 
had begun before the time of the establishment of the afore- 
said state, wherever the linguistic elements which have 
entered into its composition had been led to intermingling. 
The Kareng elements were not unimportant in Ts'u, and there 
are reasons for believing that the first nucleus of this state 

» She^ki, Ts'u she kia, bk. 40, f. Zv. 
» Cf. 6§ 42-62, abore. 
' Cf. i 66, above. 



448 THE PRESTDENT's address for 1886. 

belonged to their group ; ^ but it was soon left aside by the 
successive encroachments of that kingdom, where the Chinese 
and other Kuenlunic populations soon Tied along with the 
Mon tribes, and became pre-eminent, producing the result 
we have stated. 

"99. Ngai Lao ^ ^, some of whose descendants bearing 
the same name are still found in the S.W. of Annam, were 
ancient tribes of China. They owe their origin to an 
intermingling of races told in a legend which * contains 
the two words, and two words only, that we know of their 
language. 

" 100. In former times the T/, Mou and Tsiii (tribes) * had 
their settlements in the mountains and forests of Szetchuen 
province. A woman of their race named Sha-yh * Grain of 
sand,' who dwelt on the Lao mountain, came once to a fishing 
stream and was touched by a floating log. She became enceinte 
and gave birth to a child after ten months. Having borne 
ten sons, she plunged the piece of wood into the water, where 
it became transformed into a dragon which rose above the 
water, when Sha-yh heard the dragon speak thus in his 
dragon language : * Where are the ten sons that were begotten 
by me ? ' Nine of the sons seeing the dragon became alarmed 
and fled. Only the youngest child, who was unable to leave, 
sat with his back to the dragon. The dragon therefore 
licked him. In the mother's niao (or Bird's) language ' back * 
is kiu and * to sit ' is liitig ; for which reason the boy was called 
Kin-lung? Sha-yh took Kiu-lung with her and went below 
the Lung-shan or * Dragon mountain ' where she settled. 
And later on, the other brothers elected Kiu-lung as their 

* Cf. Tcrrien do Lacouperie, The Cradle of the Shan Raee^ p. 27. 

* Yang shen, in his Tien tsai A*i, i.e. Varieties about Tien (Yunnan), f. 6, 
makes one single name of man of these three names of tribes mentioned in the 
ancient Shan hat King and other works. Tuiii was an equivalent of the name of 
I^a for North Szetchuen. Ti and Mou are well-known ethnic names in the 
west of the same province and they are probably the antecedents of Tai Mou 
name given to the Shans of YUnnan. 

' This account, beginning with the history of Sha-yh, is given in the Hou-han 
shu, bk. IIG, iSt JV"a« 3[an tchuen. A translation was made by Mr. A. Wybe, in 
Bevue de P Extreme Orient, vol. i. 1882 ; cf. pp. 230-231, but this great scholar, 
blind as he was already when he made his translation, could not read the Chinese 
text. 



PROF. LAOOUPERIE ON THE PKE-CHINESE LANGUAGES. 449 

king because of his craftiness.^ Subsequently at the foot of 
the Lao mountain ^ lived a man and his wife who gave birth 
to ten daughters. Kiu-lung and his brothers respectively 
took them for wives, and their posterity was numerous. 
Their descendants used to tattoo and paint their bodies with 
figures of dragons and wore coats with tails.^ They multiplied 
extensively and branched off into numerous tribes and com- 
munities under the rule of smaller kings. 

'* 101. In A.u. 47 their King Hien-lih, who had with him 
six smaller kings, sent troops on bamboo rafts wliich floated 
southwards down the Eiang and Han rivers^ on the Chinese 
frontier against the Luh-to^ barbarians, who were easily 
subdued. But affairs changed for the worse, and in a.d. 51 
Hien-lih and others led 2770 families of his tribe, com- 
prising 17,669 individuals, to acknowledge the Chinese suzer- 
ainty and pay a yearly tribute. It was in the South West, 
however, that the Ngai Lao tribes had attained to the largest 
development, and that they had settled in the West of 
Yunnan, where their political existence was acknowledged a» 
that of a feudatory state in a.d. 69.® In 76-78 a.d. they 
rebelled and advanced eastwards against the advanced posts 
of the Chinese in S. Szetchuen, but they were attacked by 
the Kuen-ming tribes allied to the Chinese and compelled to 
keep quiet, their king being slain in the struggle. We hear 
no more of them in Chinese records and they entered largely 
into the formation of the Nan-tchao state of Yunnan. At 
a certain period of the disintegration of this kingdom,'^ some 



^ This statement occnrs in the extract from the Hou Han Shu^ quoted in the 
Taiping yii Ian (a cyclopedia of 983 a.d.) hk. 786, f. 1-2. The Lung mountains 
here are most prohably the Eiu lung range, which form the northern frontier of 
Szetchuen, and whose name is as usual connected with that of the people. 

' The Lao mountain is identified with Kiueh ngan tang, Tch-ngan fu, in Hupeh, 
at the eastern extremity of the Kiu lung ran^e mentioned in the previous note. 

' Like the Pan-hu race, who, however, did not tattoo ; this practice was in use 
in the maritime provinces of Kiangsu, Tchchkiang, Fuhkien, and still among the 
Laocians and Burmese. The Annamites have given it up since a.d. 1293. 

^ This statement shows that their or at least some of their central quarters 
were then in the Eiu lung mountains, as stated above. 

> Cf. LeU'tai, self name of the Pa-yshans. The Lok-tai of the Siamese, § 113. 

• Their general chief was Liu Mao, with 77 chieftains; they formed 51,890 
families, comprising 563,711 persons. 

^ Probably about 899 a.d. 



450 THE president's address fob 1S88. 

of them moved southwards, and during more than four 
centuries (a.d. 1048 — 1427) they proved most obnoxious 
neighbours to the Annamites.^ Their name and probably a 
portion of this population are still in existence west of the 
Annamese province of Thanh hoa.* 

'^102. The foregoing information, lengthy as it is, was 
necessary t6 explain the actual standing of the Ngai-Lao ia 
history, and as an instance of the fate of many other popula- 
tions who have migrated in full or in part to the south, into 
the Indo-Chinese peninsula. The two words quoted in the 
legend which has grown out of them are the sole remnants 
we possess of their language. They are an attempt by 
themselves to explain in their own tongue a name of their 
mythical ruler which he had derived from the region where 
he was settled. This name was Kiu-lung, which, as I have 
shown elsewhere,' is a variant of that of Kuenlun, and was 
applied by earlier populations to anything lofty. It has 
travelled far and wide, from Formosa to the Malay peninsula, 
with the migration of populations. The parentage of the 
Ngai-Lao is pretty well shown by all their particulars to be 
Ta'ic, and the evidence of their language, so far as exhibited 
by the two words above quoted, confirms this plainly. Kiu 
* back' is still existing in the Tsing Miao kiau kie, where kiau 
is the class-article ; iung * to sit ' is the Tchung Miao lang, 
the Siamese nang, the Shan nang, with the same meaning. 
Besides this scanty data, we find some more in their later 
history, as we shall see directly. 

" 103. Under the heading of Nan tchao ^ ^,* we have 
a few words casually quoted in the Chinese historical notices 
of this state of former Yunnan. 

f/tten, self royal pronoun (cf. Siamese ku-eng, I myself). 
tckung, the servants as called by the king (cf. Siam. 
tarn, humble). 

* Cf. P. J. B. Tnibnfy-Vinh-ky, Cours d'histoire Jnnamite (Saigon, 1876- 
1879, l2mo.), vol. i. pp. 68, 93, 96-98, 102. 105, 178, etc. 

* Hoang Viet dia du ehi (Official Geography of Annam, 1829), Tol. ii. p. 19. 

* In The Science of Language ^ chiefly with reference to S.E. Asia (in the press). 

* Or * Southern Prince.' 



PBOF. LAOOUPERIE OS THE PRE-CHINESE LANGUAGES. 451 

Mng ping, mandarins of the first rank (cf. Slam, hsongy 

to conduct ; p^ou^ army). 
sAtcang, a territorial division.^ 
shwang, land measure =5 men, Chinese. 
to shicang, governor of three provinces (cf. Siam. iahan, 

officer). 
tsong-so, chief of 100 families (cf. Siam. iang-chUy an 

honorary title). 
tchijen kuan, chief of 1000 families. 
tu to, chief of 10,000 families. 
tsia-tu, one of the forty-six governors. 
kien, circumscription (cf. Siam. kwen), 
tchao, prince (cf. Siam. tchao), 
9?ianp*o to, great peace (cf. Siam. sangat, quiet). 
piao-atn, title assumed by the king in 800 a.d. (cf. Siam. 

p'aga, governor; tan, just; san, court of justice). 
ta-yong, elder brother. 
Ta-li, name of a large lake (cf. Siamese fa le, sea) in 

Western Yunnan. 

"With due allowance for the ten or twelve centuries which 
have elapsed since these words have been written, and the 
limitation of the Chinese transcription, the glossarial affinities 
show the language to be thoroughly Ta'ic. The two ideo- 
logical indices visible, 2 4, point to the same conclusion. 

" 104. The social and political concentration and activity 
of the state of I^antchao, lasting several centuries, have been 
after the similar phenomena of the state of Ts'u in Central 
China, the most important factors of the remarkable unity 
of the Taic family of languages. The Nan tchao was one 
of the six states, or Luh tchao, which existed in the west 
of Yunnan after the Christian era; five of them consisted 
of Lao or Laocian tribes, the sixth being Moso. They 
were successively subdued by one of them, Muong she 
tchao, which grew into a powerful state from the sixth to 
the end of the ninth century : though reduced in importance^ 

^ Cf. however Siamese «m, a measure of 20 fathoms or 120 feet ; while the 
•hvMtng would he a measure of 735 yards. 



452 THE president's address for 18S6. 

and disturbed by the intermingling of tribes of other stoda, 
it lasted under the name of the Kingdom of Tali until its 
submission by the Mongols at the end of the thirteenth 
-century. 

XIII. Thb Prb-Chinb8b Tai-8han ABo&ioncAL Dialects. 

a) UnmiMd and Mixtd. 

" 105. The dialect of the Tsing Miao ^ |8f or 'Blue Miao,' 
who inhabit the centre and W. of Kueitchou/ is only known 
through a vocabulary of 195 words formetf'ly compiled by 
Chinese in the south-west of the province.* From European 
sources we learn that their language in the prefecture of 
Kuei-yang has eight tones.^ 

** The numerals, the pronouns, and a large proportion of 
the words show that this dialect belongs to the Mon group. 
Determinative prefixes are largely used, such as fe- for 
anything flat, ti- for anything pointed, lun- for round things, 
ie- for animals. The ideological indices exemplified in the 
list of words are 2 J 6 0. 

" 106. A list of 90 words compiled by the Chinese is all 
that we possess of the dialect of the An-shun Miao 
^ ^ Sr>* namely, the Miao who inhabit the prefecture 
of An-shun in the centre west of the province of Kuei- 
tchou. 

" The affinities are Mon-Tai, with a decided leaning towards 
the Tai, as shown by the numerals and the pronouns, which 
evidently belong to this family. As in all the other Miao 
vocabularies, there has been a not-unimportant absorption of 
Chinese and Lolo words. The use of determinative prefixes 
is revealed by the known fu- before the names of animals. 
Ideological indices, 2 4 6 0. 

" 107. The TcHUNG-KiA TZE Jiji 5jc ^9 also TcHTJNG Miao, 

^ Ifiao Man hoh iehiy iv. 4. 

' Extracted by Dr. J. Edkins, in his Vocabulary of the Miau Dialeett, from 
the Eing-y fu tchi. 

' Rev. iirounton, in China's Million^ 1883, p. 62. 

* In the Uing-y fu ichiy and translated by J. Edkins in his Vocabulary of 
the Miau Dialects, 



PBOF. LAC0T7PERIE ON THE PRE-CHINESE LANGUAGES. 453 

or T-JEN, whose own name is Pu-y,^ speak a Tai* language 
80 closely connected with the Siamese that Mr. Abrand, a 
missionary who had resided in Siam, was soon enabled with- 
out great difficulty to understand them in Kueitchou. The 
Chinese notices about them state that they migrated north- 
wards from the region of Tung, S. Hunan, in the eleventh 
century.^ On the other hand, their traditions say that their 
ancestors were origiiially from the Eiangsi province (E. China), 
and they have kept in great respect the memory of Ma 
Wang.' The latter apparently refers to the same migration 
as that reported by the Chinese, but taken from a more 
eastern point of departure, where the two provinces are 
conterminous. They are now in scattered settlements over 
four prefectures of Kueitchou province, and also in the north 
of Kuangsi. 

**108. We are indebted to the missionaries who have 
furnished the notes with which Mr. E. Lasserteur has written 
the article of the Missions Catholiques, quoted in the foot- 
notes, for s6me grammatical information on the language of 
those of Kueitchou, and to Deka in If'otes and Quenes on 
China and Japan * for eight words of those settled in Kuangsi, 
whom he calls Tchung tze. 

1 £. Lasserteur, De quelqu€$ tribus tauvaget de la Chine et de flndo-Chine, in 
Zgt Miutont Catholiquet (Lyon, 4to.), 1878, t. x. p. 308. 

* At the time of the five dynasties (a.d. 907-959), when Ma yn was king of 
Tsa, they migrated from the goTemment of Yung (Yung kuan). Cf. Miao Man 
hoh tehi, hk. iv. f. 1. The localization of Yung kuan is not identified, but the 
connection of Ma 3rn as the cause of the migration may aid in the solution of this 
little geographical problem. Ma yn ruled over Hu-nan as king of Tsu from a.d. 
90S tul 951 ; and in a d. 928 he successfully attacked King Nan or south of King 
(S. Hnpeh), and in a.d. 941 the Man of Ki tchou (N.W. Hunan) were pacifie<L 
His rule had nothing to do south of the Mci-ling and Xan ling, where the southern 
Han dynasty was established (a.d. 917-971). Therefore, as the migration of the 
Tchnng Ida tze happened during and under Ma yn*s rule, they must have crossed 
westwards along K. of the mountain ranges, S. of Hunan ; and Yunp kuan, some- 
times written also Yung yng, must not be mistaken for Yung tchou, now Nan ning fu, 
in S. Kuanpi. On the wars made by Ma yn, and the dates, cf. Li Tai Ti Wang 
nienpiao, Wu taL Luh tze-yun, wnting circa 1650, says in his T'ung k'i sim 
iehif f. 2 (Hhwoh ling collect, bk. 29), that Ma yn drove away these people until 
Tching-tu in Sze-tchuen. 

3 ** La famille dn martyr Jerome Lou de Mao Eeou pr6tend posseder la table 

fen^alogique de ses ai'eux depuis T^poque de leur emigration du Kiangsi an 
[ongtcheon." E. Lasserteur, De quelquee tribus tauvages de la Chine et de l^Indo" 
Chine, in o,e. 1877, t. ix. p. 149. 

^ Spokmt Language of the Miau t»z and other Aboriginet, in N. and Q., Hong- 
kong, 1S67, Tol. L p. 131. 



454 THE president's address for 1886. 

The words are the following : 

1) no mung 'pork.' 

2) to ma * dog.* 

3) to tcai * ox.' 

4) to pit *duck/ 

5) to mo * pig.' 

6) to hi 'chicken.' 

7, 8) kan ngai * eat rice.' 

** The words 2, 5, 6, and 7 are of Siamese parentage ; 
the categorical prefix to needs no comment, and as kan of 
kan ngai means 'eat/ the object follows the verb. 

" 109. The missionary notice says that in Tchung Kia the 
adjective and the genitive follow the noun, unlike the 
Chinese, and like the Siamese and Annamite. It has no 
declensions nor conjugations, and this usual statement of 
persons unfamiliar with comparative philology goes on with 
the also usual mis-statement that the same word may be 
noun, adjective, verb, etc. ; the position of the words in 
the sentence and the use of particles determinate the con- 
ditions of space and time of the action. There are tones 
and accents which diversify words otherwise apparently the 
same. In Tchung kia frequent use is made of categorical 
prefixes, such as : 

Tu- for living beings : tu wen 'man,' tu-kai 'fowl.' ^ 

Dant' or Da- for objects : dant-tcho ' table.' 

Leg- or kc- for all that is born from, or produced : leg 

sai ' a boy,' leg heng ' a girl.' 
Pw- for reasonable beings: Pu-lia 'the Chinese,' Pa- 
yak ' the brigands,' Pw-//, ' themselves.* 
a- for the proper names. ^ 

"110. Besides these data, there is a vocabulary of Chinese 
origin,' of 234 words, compiled in the S.W. and S.E. 

^ Wliich Deka writes to ki\ as we have seen ; in Siamese tua kai, lo says the 
notice ; in the vocabulary of Chinese compilation, tu kai. 

* Cf. E. Lasserteur, o.c. p. 186. 

' It is one of the vocabularies given by J. Edkins, Vocabulary of the Miau 
JHaleetif from the Hing-yfu tehi. 



PBOF. LAOOUPERIE ON THE PRE-CHINESE LANGUAGES. 455 

of the provioce of Kueitchoa, which agrees with all the 
above statements, without however furnishing any other 
basis for extending our knowledge of the ideological indices 
of this important language beyond 2 4 6 0. 

"111. The T'u-JEN J^ Ai whose settlements extend from 
the east and centre of Eueitchou to the west of Kuang-si 
provinces, also speak a Taic language.^ We have a short 
notice and a vocabulary of thirty- three words from the same 
source as the data about the Tchung-kia, whose original 
speech may have been strongly influenced by them. The 
Chinese notices say nothing of former residences, and their 
name means properly 'aborigines' in its Chinese garb; so 
far it is not an ethnic, and may have no other signification 
than the relative antiquity of residence of these tribes with 
reference to that of the others more recently arrived. Here 
is the vocabulary with its French spelling, and the com- 
parisons of Siamese made by the same author : ^ 



father 


tou'peu 


Siamese pho. 


mother 


tou-niei 


tt 


me. 


son 


tou'hk 


» 


luk. 


daughter iak-sao 


» 


Itik'sao. 


man 


oufj'hon 


>> 


ong- or khon-maniU, 


woman 


lak-mei 


99 


mta. 


male 


tou'tak 


>> 


toua-phu. 


female 


toH-mei 


»> 


ioua-mia. 


house 


an-loun 




• 


earth 


thomh ' 






water 


nam 


» 


nam. 


fire 


foi 


>» 


fax. 


wind 


lom 


99 


lam. 


heaven 


au-boen 






dog 


tou-ma 


» 


tou-ma. 


cat 


tou-meou 


» 


tou-meou. 


tree 


keu-may 


>» 


iou-mai. 


rice 


hao 


91 


khao. 



* Miao Man hoh tchi^ bk. iii. f. 3r, iv. f. 9p. 
' E. C. Lasserteur, o.e. 



niiL Trani. 1SS5-6. 



30 



456 



THE president's 


ADDRESS 


FOR 1SS6. 


bamboo 


keu-tnay 


Siamese 


mai^pkM.' 


hand 


au-mot/ 


>» 


mu. 


foot 


an-ten 


»» 


tin. 


one 


yi 






two 


ngioi 




< 


three 


8am 


99 


8am. 


four 


801 


>» 


ti. 


five 


ha 


99 


ha. 


six 


lok 


>» 


ok. 


seven 


tsit 


91 


chet. 


eight 


pet 


>» 


pet. 


nine 


koou 


>> 


kao. 


ten 


chip 


» 


8ip. 



'' 112. The numerals are Chinese like in Siamese, where, 
however, the first two were preserved from the older state of 
the language.^ 

"Adjective and genitive come after their noun, as in 
Siamese. Nothing is said of the position of the subject, 
nor of the object in relation to the verb, except that the 
construction of the sentence is analjrtical, as in French. 
Only a few names can be used separately without prefixed 
class-articles, such as : 

toU', as in Tchung-kia, Pan-y, Yao-jen, and cognate 
languages.^ 

ong- for *raen,'^ the significance is precise enough to 
save the use of the word hon * man ; * for instance, 
* how many men ' moi ka lay ong, where hon, which 
ought to come at the end of the sentence, is dropped 
because the article is sufiicient and does not permit 
of any misunderstanding. 

fnak- for * fruits.' 

uii' for 'objects.'* 

tt/' for ' woodwork.'* 



1 CL infra, i 117. 

^ In Siamese tua, in Shan to, 

* In Siamese onk, 

* In Shan an. 

^ In Shan hsik. 



PROP. LAOOUPERIE OV THB PRE-CHINESE LANGUAGES. 457 

* 

''The Tu-jen language, says the missionary, gradually 
mingles with those of the Tchimg-kia and of the Miao-tze. 

** The construction is similar to that of the French, whence 
the indices 2 4 6 8 VI. 

"113. The Pai-y^ so called are now chiefly met in the 
south and west of Yunnan, where their name has become 
the generic appellative of the Shan tribes still living there. 
They are undoubtedly, with such transformations in race 
and language as have resulted from subsequent inter- 
minglings, the descendants of the old Pa d people of 
Eastern Szetchuen and Western Hupeh, known to the Chinese 
since 1970 B.C., when *a Chinese envoy was sent to them 
to preside over litigations.'* The link can be traced through 
ages, and has never been obliterated. 

"114. We know nothing of their original language, as 
no specimens have been preserved. We only know it from 
a recent document. It is a vocabulary compiled by the 
Chinese. The teaching of this language along with that 
of the Pah peh aih fn,^ another Shan dialect, was added, 
after 1644, to those previously taught* at the Translatorial 

* Their name is Tariously written in Chinese now-a-days ^ ^ , "Q" Jk > 
^b ^> K ^> 6 ^> «*^- It ought to be written g^ ||. 

2 Tekuh 9hu l^i nien, Ti k'i, 8th year. 

s 7^ "Q* M ^ , lit. ' eight hundred wives,' so called, say the Chinese, 

from the fact that their Tu'f/ts or chief had this number of wives, each of them 
having a separate encampment. They use to tattoo flowers and birds between 
the eyebrows (cf. Luh Tze-ynn, T^unff k*i $un tehi, f. 7«). The legend may 
have resulted from the name, in its Chinese form, and this form may have been a 
play made by the Chinese in transcribing a foreign name. Mr. Ney Elias, in his 
Introductory Sketch of the History of the Shatut in Upper Burma and Weetem 
Yunnan, Calcutta, 1876, p. 3, supposes them to be Karens, but the specimen of 
their language which has come to us, along with that of the Pai-y, goes against 
this view, as it is that of a Shan dialect. The following list shows it plainly : 
/a, heaven ; mo, cloud ; lie, sun ; /eny, moon ; huan^ smoke ; faliny, cloud's 
-colour ; falanft, thunder ; fen^ rain ; naotehanglung^ polar star ; nao, star ; iuklie, 
hail ; lun, wind ; famie, lightning ; mokoun, cloua ; meinuny, snow ; meikan, 
ice ; nankany, dew ; mdt, hoar frost ; lany^ rainbow ; nam, water ; menam, river ; 
menamfa, river of heaven or milky way ; te, spirit ; pi, devil ; iai, mountain ; Ai/, 
fitone ; fia, field ; pnhfnai^ forest ; nuny, sea ; lin, earth ; mettamkuny, lake ; 
pulaichaOf king ; pi, elder brother ; mong, younger brother ; luk, son ; /m, head ; 
na, face ; du, eyes ; leny, red ; lu om, blue ; hien (eny, green ; tehau, white ; 
dan, black ; nyOf go out ; mac, go in ; mi, have ; mau mi, not to have, etc. 

* These were toe Jutchih, Mongolian, Tibetan, Sanskrit, Bokharan, Uigur, 
Burman, and Siamese. Cf. Abel de E^musat, J)e V Etude dee lanyues itranykrea 
-ehez lee Chinoie, Paris, 1811, p. 9 sq. ; and Terrien de Lacouperie, Beyinninga of 

fFrUiny, {§ 109, n. 3, and 175. 




458 THE president's address for 1886. 

Office (of Peking), whicli had been established under the 
Ming dynasty in 1407 a.d. About 1696, by order of the 
great Emperor Sheng tsu Jen, or K'ang hi, a large work 
in sixteen or seventeen volumes was published, giving the 
vocabularies of eight of these languages, leaving aside the 
Jutchih and the Mongolian. Pdre Amiot, the celebrated 
Jesuit at Peking, obtained a copy of this work, which 
he sent to Paris, with a Latin translation and a transcription 
of the vocabularies from the Chinese, written with his own 
hand next to each word. It is from this work^ that the little 
we know of the Pai-y and Pah peh si-fuh dialects is derived. 

**115. The following list of Pai-y words shows the Shan 
character of the language,^ and its close connection 
with that of the other dialect we have just mentioned: 
/a, sky ; mo, cloud ; kangnian, sun ; leng, moon ; lun, wind ; 
liky hail ; fen, rain ; falang, thunder ; naotchang, polar star ; 
nao, star ; huan, smoke ; moUeii, clouds' colour ; famiah, 
lightning ; lung, rainbow ; la, snow ; mei, dew ; tnokung, 
clouds ; nai, you ; ku, I ; 7neng, thou ; men, he ; po, father ; 
00, father's elder brother ; Ink tchai, son ; 7wng tchai, younger 
brother; pi ning, elder sister; nong ning, elder sister's husband ; 
hu, head ; nu, face ; fai, eyes ; lu, ears ; su, mouth ; ting, 
foot; /^«>^, gold ; ngen, silver; Vung, copper; lyek, iron; hien- 
nai, green ; pa, white ; lien, black ; Ian, wine ; kin Kao, eat 
rice ; yang, have ; umtjang, not to have ; kanna, before ; 
kanlang, after ; kanseh, left ; kanhoa, right ; kanneng, above ; 
kantao, below, etc. 

" The above list exhibits all the well-known characteristics 
of the Tai-shan languages, i.e. a large proportion of Mon 
and Kuenlunic words, especially of Chinese. But the only 
ideological indices illustrated are 2 4 6.^ The Pai-y have 
a writing of their own, apparently connected with the old 
Ahom character. A MS. on slips of wood has lately reached 
the British Museum. 

» Biblioth^que Nationale, MS. 986. 

^ Abel Remosat was mistaken when he stated {o.c. p. 12^ that *' les P<r-t et 
Pa-pe-tsi'fou sont des dialectes plus ou moius corrompus de la langue purine des 
Chinois." 

' Cf. my Beginnings of Writing, § 175. 



PROF. LACOUFERIE ON THE PRE-CHINESE LANGUAGES. 459 

" 116. Numerous tribes of the Tai-shan race have migrated 
■early out of the present S. W. boundaries of the Chinese empire. 
Their first chief seat was at Muanglong, on the Shweili river, 
near the modem borders of Yunnan S.W., under the com- 
mand of a leader named K'ullyi. This fact, which is 
recorded in a Shan chronicle preserved in Manipur, coincides 
in a most remarkable manner with the southern advance of 
the Ngai-Lao in the first century before 77 a.d., reported 
in the Chinese annals of the After Han dynasty.^ We 
cannot follow them in their subsequent development into 
numerous states, important and unimportant, in the Indo- 
Chinese peninsula;^ the kingdom of Siam being now the 
most important. 

" 117. Notwithstanding their political divisions, they all, 
Shans, Laocians, and Siamese, speak one and the same lan- 
g^uage divided into several dialects slightly divergent one 
from the other. We cannot enter here into the description 
of their similarities and difibrences, as we should trespass 
the limits assigned to our work. It will be sufficient to 
remind our readers that all the probabilities, the amount 
of which is nearly equivalent to a certainty, show that the 
Tai'-Shan linguistic formation has taken place in historical 
times in Pre-China. It has evolved from the intermingling 
of southern languages belonging chiefly, though not ex- 
clusively, to the Mon type, with Chinese and other languages 
of the Kuenlunic family. The mental crudeness of the 
former has permitted them to preserve their ideology, and 
«ven to impose it partially on several of the Kuenlunic 
languages, such as the Chinese and the Karengs. The Ta'i- 
Shan vocabulary is thoroughly mixed, to such an extent that 
one- third of its words are common with the ancient words 



* Hou Han Shuy bk. cxvi. Cf. Terrien de Lacouperie, The Cradle of the Shan 
Saee, pp. 37, 62 ; Sir Arthur Phayre, History of Burma^ p. 12 ; the British 
Burma Gautteer^ vol. i. pp. 173-176 (Ranj^oon, 1880, 4to.). 

» Cf. Ney Elias, Introductory Sketch of the History of the Shans in Upper 
Burma and Western Tiinnan^ Calcutta, 1876. And besides, Dr. J. Anderson's 
Report on the Expeditioti to Western Yiinnan, Calcutta, 1871 ; cf. also Mr. Holt 
8. Hallett's Historical Sketch of the Shans, pp. 327-371 of A. R. Colquhoun's 
Amofigst the Shansy London, 1885. For a classification of these languages, cf. 
below, §§ 223, 226. 



460 THE president's address for 18S6. 

of the Mandarin Chinese.^ It has given up its fonner 
numerals, keeping only, as usual in such case, the words for 
one and two, and has adopted the Kuenlunic numerals.* 
The language has developed tones originally as a compensa* 
tion by natural equilibrium to the phonetic losses under- 
gone in the everlasting process of intermingling.' Both 
the Siamese and Shan languages have been the object of 
serious works, such as grammars and dictionaries, which now 
permit their scientific study .^ Their ideological standard 

^ Cf. Terrien de Lacouperie, On the Hittory of the Arehaie Writifig and Texti^ 
London^ 1882, p. 8, and Journ, Bny. Aeiat. Soe. vol. xiv. p. 803. I was not 
awaro then that in lhG7 Dr. Schonn had published at Stettin (8to. 24 pp.), 
Das Sinmeaische nud daa Chineaiachej a pamphlet in which he points out a certain 
number of glosKariul affinities between the Mandarin and Hokkien Chinese dialects 
and the Siamese. But t4) be effective, the comparison must bear on the ancient 
forms of the Chinese words, and not on the modern decayed forms. The archaisms of 
the Chinese dialects of the S. W. (Amoy, Hokkien) have misled Dr. Forchhammer, 
of Rangoon, in his Notts wi the Languages and Jnalects Spoken in British Burma 
(1 884), pp. 5-6, to the exaggerated supposition that these dialects present a larger 
number of Shan aftinities than the Chinese dialects of the North. I have just 
seen in the British Burma Gazettrery vol. i. p. 176, a footnote by the Rev, J. X. 
Cushing, in which ho states having recognized many Chinese affinities in the old 
Chinese words. Cf. also § 65 of tlie present work. 

' These similarities, which are the result of intermingling and reciprocal loans, 
have misguided many scholars to the wrong view that Chinese and ISiamese were 
originally cognate. History and grammar show this hj-pothesis to be baselei^ 
The author of The Relation of Chinese to ^ittnuse and Cognate JHaleets^ in The 
Chinese Recorder and Mis>^io)iary Journal, \ol. x. pp. 276-280, 454-460, has mis- 
nnderstotxl the (luestion at issue. 

3 On this question of tones, cf. ^ 237, 238 below, and the works referred to. 
The Siamese tones liavo been studied bv the Rev. J. Caswell, in a special Irtatise 
published in the Sinm Reposiinry. Tlio Shan toncfl are carefully described by 
the Rev. J.N. Cushing in his Shan Grammar. Dr. A. Bastian, in his interesting 
remarks on the Jhd'"Chinfse Alphiibct.s {Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. 1 867) , says: 
**Thc chief, and almost the only difference between the spoken tongues of the 
La(^s and of the Siamese consists in tlie circumstance that the former know nothing 
of the tones— the artificial display of which constitutes the delight of a Siamese 
speaker" (p. 71). In whioh case the Laocians would be like the people of Ligor, 
otherwise Xakhon-sri-Thamniarat or Muang I^akhon, who speat Siamese with 
an even delivm-, without any regard to the tonic accents, or like the Japanese 
with regard to* the Chinese words tlicv have adopted. Rut Dr. Bastian stands 
alone in this respct. The Rev. J. N'. Cushing, who, with his usual accuracy, 
could not luilp making this remark, says nothing about such a striking peculi- 
arity. Francis Ganiiir says ( J'oyngc d'txpiorndon en Ihdo-Chiney ii. p. 405) that a 
Siam« so individual makes himself understood without trouble wherever Jjiocian 
is spoken, and ricr vtrm. Sliould the German scholar refer only to the written 
charaet^^rs, he would be rijiht, as the alphabets used by the Laocians have no tonic 
marks, nor has the Shan alphabet any, while the later Siamese alphabet is fully 
well up in this respect. 

* The iM'st Siamese; grammar is that of J. T. Jones, Grammar of the Siamese 
Language, Bangkok, 1842. Also James Low's Grammar of the Thai or Siamese 
Language, Calcutta, 1S28. 4to. ; D. J. B. Pallegoix, Grommatica iingute That, 
Bangkok, 1850, 4to. ; L. Ewald, Grammatik der T'a'i oder Siamesischen Spraehey 



PROF. LAOOUPBRIE ON THE PRE-CHINESE LANGUAGES. 461 

is 2 4 6 8 YI., and also 2 4 5 8 I., as occasionally in 
Laocian and Shan, which variation of indices shows the 
mixed character of the formation to which they belong. 

XIY. Thb Pbb>Chinb8e Tai-bhan Aboriginal Dialects. 

Hybridis§d and Sybridi, 

" 118. The Lwn Miao ^ "gjf dialect, otherwise that which 
is spoken by the Miao-tze of Lientchou in the N.W. of 
Kuangtung province, is known to us through a vocabulary of 
some 58 vocables, which has been published with care by Deka 
in 1867.^ It may prove useful to reproduce it here : Sun, 
fiai\ moon, /o; rain, bun Inn; water, ng, 7ii; fire, t6; night, 
fpong mang; noon, nai teng; early, tiin td. Man, keng miu, 
tarn ming ; woman, sha miu ; child, a ktii, ho kom ; girl, Uing 
ming ; daughter, tung lung ; son, fam fong. Pork, teng hoi ; 
dog, a ku ; ox, ng ; duck, dp ; pig, teng ; chicken, a kui ; 
hand a p& ; foot, d fau ; ear, a biu; eye, mori teng ; mouth, 
f ti ; rice, a mi ; white rice, tdm p6 ka ; wheat, md p6 ; maize, 
m^ ti ; millet, ma tan sd. Handkerchief, sd chun ; cloth, ti ; 
cotton, md min; thread, sat. Sickle, nt/dni to; plough, i; 
rake, pd; hoe, kd ng. My son, pu na tdn, 1, d; 2, pi ; 
3, pd; 4,pS; 5,pd; 6, to ; 7, i ; 8, i/ik ; 9, i/au, kit ; 10, ch*it. 
Sleep, pui mdn ; sit, hi ; stand, fu ke ; go, 7n6 ; walk, nyang 
chii, yang chu. Eat rice, niem nung, chim nung ; cross by boat, 
kS tang; carry water, tdm nei; cook rice, ehii nong, 

Lieipzig, 1881. Dictionaries: Bietionarium Latinum Thaty ad uaum miasionis 
8i€tmenMi9j Bangkok, 1850. 4to. ; Pallegoix. Dietionarium Liugua Thai she SiatH' 
€nBiSy Paris, 1854, f»l. ; (J. I^yden) A Comparative Foeabuiar*/ of the Barma, 
MalayUj and Thai Languagen^ Serampore, 1810. And for the Shan: J. N. 
CuBhing, Grammar of the Shan Latiguage, Rangoon, 1871 ; Elemmtary Hand- 
h'iok of the Shan Language y Rangoon, 1880; Shan and English Dictionary, 
Rangoon, 1881. Cf. also L. de Rosny, Quelques cbservations sur la langue siamoise 
et eon eeriture, Paris, 1855; W. Scnott, JJcber die eogenann/en Indo-Chinesisehe 
Spraehen insonderheii doe eiameeiitche, Beriin. 1856; D. Ad. Bastian, Sprachver" 
gleiehende Studien mit b'-eonderer Beriickeichtigung der iudo-chinesischen Spraehen, 
Lieipzig, 1870 ; Ernst Kuhn, Uebrr Herkunft und Sprache d'r transgangetiechen 
Volker, Miinchen, 1883, 4to. ; K. Himly, Ueber die eimilbigcn spraehen dee sndbst-' 
lichen Asiens, pp. 281-295 of Techmer's Zeitsehrift fiir Spraehwissenschaft, vol. 
i. Leipzig, 1884. And also Prof. G. von der Gabelentz, Sur la possibility de 
prouver une affinite g^ialogiqne entre lee langues dilee Jndo-Chinoises (IV. Congr. 
Oriental, Firenze, 1878, p. 283) ; Dr. Em. Forchhammer, Indo-Chinese Languages 
(The Indian Antiquary, Jnlj, 1882). Also Brown, Comparison of Indo-Chinese 
Languages, Calcutta, 1837. 

* Spoken Language of the Miau-tsz and other Aborigines, in Notes and Queries 
for China and Japan, toI. i. pp. 131-132 (Hongkong, 1867, 8vo.). 



462 THE president's address for 1886. 

" 119. The more numerous affinities of this Tocabulary are 
common to the Seng Miao, Eih lao, Tsing Miao, and Peh 
Miao. Class-articles, if any, are not apparent, excepting for 
the parts of the body, whose names in several instances are 
preceded by a-. The numerals 1 to 7 are Mon; 8 is a 
variant of the type common to Sheng, Peh, Blue Miao, 
Pan-y, Pan-yao and Long-ky Miao. The numerals 9 and 10 
are mere variants of the Kuenlunic. 

" As ideolog}% the postposition of the object to the verb 
is the only certain point ; the postposition of the adjective 
is also pretty sure, and the preposition of the genitive is 
only made probable. The indices will apparently be 1 4 6. 

" 120. The HoTHA Shan tribes, on the S.W. borders of 
Yunnan, 'a not very tall people,' speak a Shan dialect, 
lately hybridized by Chinese influence. A vocabulary of 
179 words including the numerals and four short sentences 
have been compiled by Dr. J. Anderson of Calcutta.^ It is 
mixed up of words from neighbouring tribes, Eakhyen and 
Li- 80, besides the Chinese. The ideological indices 14 6 
only ore illustrated in the aforesaid documents. 

*' 121. This dialect of the Shan is not the only one in this 
region which displays proofs of hybridism. The Khamti,* 
who have extended into Assam, have been strongly impressed 
in race and language by the Kakhyens or Singphos,' amongst 

' Report on the Expedition to Western Yunnan via Bhamd^ pp. 99-101, 401-409. 

' For the Khamti, cf. William llobinson, Khamti Grammar^ pp. 311-318, of 
Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beiig, 1849, vol, i\iii. ; Kev. N. Browu, Khaudi Vocabulary^ 
pp. 342-349. ibid. ; Pcre Desgodins, Vocabulaire Kham di Mou oua^ in MoU 
principaux d^'s languta de certaiuea iribua qui habitent Us botds du Lan-t$ang 
Kiang, du Lou-tze A'iong, et Irratvadt/y Bullet. Soc. Geographic de Paris, 1872. 
Mr. Edouard Lorgeou, who seems to have known nothing of the Khamtis, wrote 
about the latter some Remarques reiatires au vocabulaire du Mouhoa, p. 2S of 
Bulletin de la Socii-te Acadt'mique Indo-Chinoise, vol. i. Paris, 1881. Major C. 
R. Macgregor has published a vocabulary of 500 Khamti words, along with the 
Singpho Vocabulary which accompanies his Singpho Grammar. 

' For the Kakhyen or Singpho, cf. William Kobinson, Singpho Grammar^ and 
Vocabulary, Jouni. Aaiat. Hoe. Bengal^ 1849, vol. xviii. ; J. N. Gushing, Gram' 
matical Sketch of the Kakhytu Language^ pp. 395-4 IG of Journ. Roy. Asint. Soc. 
1880, vol. xii. ; C. R. Macgregor, Outline Singpho Grammar, and Vocabulary, 
Shilloug, 1887 ; P. A. Bigandet, Comparative Vocabulary of Shan, Ka-kying 
and Palaong, and J. R. Logan, The Kakging, in pp. 221-232 of Journal of the 
Indian Archipelago, Singapore, 1868, x.s. vol. ii. ; Dr. J. Anderson, a Kakhyen 
vocabulary of 250 words, m his lieport, above quoted, pp. 400-408. Also some 
grammatical remarks by Dr. Forchhammer, in Note* on ths Languaget and 
Dialects Spoken in British Burma, Rangoon, 1884. 



PROF. LACOUPERIE ON THE PBE-CHINESE LANGUAGES. 463 

other tribes of cognate stock. Thougli their vocabulary is 
still strongly Tai'-shan to such an extent that it cannot be 
denied, their ideology, following the admixture of blood, has 
deviated from the ideological standard 2 4 6 8 VI. of the 
Tai-shan family, and displays the indices 2 4 5 8 III., which 
show a large adoption of the Kakhyen ideology 14 5 8 III., 
which is also that of the Tibeto-Burman group. 

" 122. The Li Jen 1^ A, also Wu jen B| A,^ of the 
great island of Hainan, are apparently a mixed population 
made up chiefly of refugees from the non-Chinese tribes of 
the Chinese continent. The following vocabulary is due to 
the exertions of Mr. Robert Swinhoe : ^ 

"Heaven, iai/a;^ sun, tsa ran;^ moon, leu fian; star, ta 
plao;^ earth, /an;^ water, nam J Father, pah;^ mother, 
^^y> i>^t P(^i y(i ; ® elder brother, / yong ; younger brother, 
ko Ofig ; elder sister, k*au ; younger sister, Im mig ; son, ta bo 
man; daughter, ta bo p'ai ko. Bird, tat;^^ sheep, ch*i; cat, 
ping naO^ Head,/w uu, dau, tea la ku gan ; eyes, ucha ; ears, 
jfrrt, t^un shay seng sha ; mouth, mofiiy pom ; hand, tatn ; foot, 
k*ok. Eat rice, k*an ka, in fa ; to smoke, lu ju ; tobacco pipe, 
^^aiija. Knife, kitu ka; one bow, tan vat; two arrows, teu 
pun tiek ; man's house, hati po plungao. I, pun,^^ kau or ho ; 
thou, meu ; he, pun ; this, pai ken ; that, pai nei. Many, 
iai; few, to; bad, ^^^A tuy. Sixty years, tumfo tai; morning, 
/eu ; evening, ko /an. Have, du ; shoot, ckeu. Yes, man ; 
no, tcei, 1, van, kit, ch'it ; 2, tow, do, tau ; 3, tm, 8U, fu ; 4, 
fs*o, san^ shao ; 5, pah, ma, pa ; 6, turn, nam, turn ; 7, to, situ, 
ten; 8, ho, du, geu : 9,/an,/efi,/ai; 10, lapoom, pu Hi, fu at; 



> On the Li'Jfn, cf. Luh Tze-yun, T'mw^ kU sien ichi, S. 10-12. 
' Mr. R. S. handed his notes to Dr. J. Edkins, who inserted the words in his 
'Vocabulary of the Miau Dialtcts. 
' Cf. Siamese /a. 

• Cf. Siamese aawan, heaven. 
^ Cf . Siamese daw, 

• Cf. Siamese /u/i, dust. 
"* Cf . Siamese nam, 

» Cf. Siamese /»'«'. 

• Cf. Siamese /7*M j/inp, woman ; #w^, mother. 
*® Cf . hird in Old Chinese and Kareng. 

*^ Cf. Kareng mefiyaw, maing-yaWf cat. 

'^ Cf. Chinese 'j^ . The other pronouns are Tai'-Shan. 



464 THE FRESIDENT's address for 1886* 

11, la pun 1CU ; 12, la puk lau ; 13, la pun piA; 14, lapu i'o; 
16, la pu c/i'i; 16, lu pu ch'it; 17, la pu iu; IS, la pu tau; 
100, lau ran ; 1000, longeen. How old are you P meu pu tola 
hoe pone ? 

*' 123. The glossarial affinities exhibit a Tai-Shan parent* 
age, which cannot be denied, though the language is certainly 
not pure, and shows traces of other influences. In the 
numerals, for instance, which are given in two or three 
series, similarities exist with those of some tribes of Formosa. 
But they are remote, and do not come from a direct relation- 
ship; they are apparently survivals of a former state of 
things, previous to their respective migrations, when their 
various ancestors had relations between themselves on the 
continent. 

"From the above list of words, three of the ideological 
indices may be inferred. They are 14 6 0. Unfortunately 
the fourth indice, that which refers to the relative position of 
the subject and verb, is not exemplified. 

" 124. The Li are reputed to have known the art of 
writing, which they seem to have forgotten. Capt. J. Calder^ 
has found near Yu-lin kan some characters scrawled on the 
walls of a temple, which I think may have belonged to 
the writing of Tsiampa.^ We know that several migrations 
from the latter country to the island of Hainan took place 
in the tenth century.^ In some parts of the island, * the Li 
women carry a piece of lacquered wood, on which are written 
several lines of a ballad ; the writing however is like the 
wriggling of worms, and cannot be deciphered.'* 

** 125. Another list of words of a possibly difierent dialect, 
that of the Loi, has been written down in Annam by 
M. J. Moura,^ from the mouth of a Chinaman, who had 



' yotes on Huinan and its Aborigines, where a facsimile is given. China 
Review^ 1882, vol. xi. pp. 41-50. 

' Cf. my Btffimiings of Writit.g, i. 45, ii. 235. 236. 

' D'Hervey St.-Denys, Ethiiographk dts pittples etr angers de Matouanlin, vol. 
ii. p. 547. 

* B. A. Ilenry, Lingnatn^ or Interior Views of Southern Chinas includifg^ 
Travels in the hitherto Untraveised Island of Jiainaii, LondoD, 1885, 8vo. 

* J. Moura, Le Jiogaume du Cambodge, i. ol3. 



PROF. LACOUPERIE ON THE PRE-CHINESE LANGUAGES. 465 

spoken the language some forty years before, and whose 
memory was not quite safe : 

" Man^ nam ; woman, mbo ; wife, moa ; body, nga ; hand, 
chkean ; finger, sean ; mouth, mok ; leg, hong. Bull, ngeak ; 
bufiSilo, ngak ; horse, hi ; duck, hek. Sky, thoang ; water, tui ; 
fire,yaf ; cold, koa\ hot, nguon. Formerly, koti; to-morrow, 
ma»o ; now, hau ; far, hong ; much, toi. Tree, chheong ; bam- 
boo, thoa\ flower, Ao; house, su ; wax, mac. Beautiful, phia ; 
white, t)iac ; blue, sunm ; great, ^atw^. Buy, peang ; love, 
/on^ ; go, p^an ; be afraid, k^a ; drink, c/i^« ; break, thoac ; 
imderstand, khSan; ask, ^Ao; give, «V>; sleep, nm; go in, 
^a;i^ ; eat, chea. 

" There are many Tai-shan affinities in this list, but there 
are also numerous words which difier from the Li dialect. 
There are no instances illustrating the ideology. 

"126. But the distinction between the Li and the Loi 
is by no means established, and may be simply a local 
difference of pronunciation for the same name ; in the same 
way, the differences of vocabulary may be simply regional 
pecnliarities of one and the same language, unsettled and not 
fixed, as becomes to languages without literature or writing. 

XV. Thb Frb-Chinese Aboriginal Negritos. 

** 127. The languages spoken by the tribes of this dwarfish 
race, which formerly were settled in China proper, have not 
left any modern representative that we know of. Such tribea 
fell in proximity to the Chinese Bak tribes, about 2116 B.C., 
when the latter already immigrated into the Flowery Land, and 
advanced eastwards of the great southern bend of the Yellow 
River. Some tribes of the same race are spoken of in the fabu- 
lous geography of the Shan hat king, a few centuries previous 
to the Christian era, and in later writers, circa 235 a.d., the 
Chinese advanced in the region that is now the S.E. of their 
An-hui province, and met there again some of these dwarfish 
tribes.* We hear no more of them in the Chinese annals ; 

^ I have collected all the available infonnntion on the matter in Chinese sources 
in a special paper : The Fygmiea of the Chinese ; A Contribution to the Study of 
the liegt ito Mace, 



466 THE FRESIDENl's ADDRESS FOB 1886. 

but Friar de Odoric de Pordenone, about 1330, mentions 
them in the relation of his journey. 

" 128. Nothing is said of their language, and no landmarks 
€xist as yet, which may permit us to discover any survival 
of its former influence, if any. Their race has shown 
frequently a great propensity to give up their own language 
and learn that of their neighbours, as they did apparently 
in the Philippine Islands ;^ also in the Shan and Cambodian 
regions. Elsewhere, in the Malayan peninsula, the Mergui 
Archipelago, and the Andaman Islands, their dialects are, 
perhaps, more like one another than could be expected from 
their respective surroundings; but this is not sufficient to 
pennit any inference as to the original characteristics of the 
pristine language of their race. As a matter of fact, the 
dialects spoken by the Negrito tribes still in existence form 
two like groups widely distinct,^ and nothing beyond what 
we recall below shows exactly which of the two groups was 
formerly represented in the Flowery Land. The historical 
probabilities are in favour of the group to which the Kamuks, 
Canchos, and Tjraos^ belong; the latter name, Tjrao^ is but 
slightly difierent from the old appellative Tiao-t/ao, or *Dark 
Pygmies/ of the Negritos of China. But in that case they 
must have had their language strongly modified by their 
Mon-Khraer and Tcham surrounding neighbours. 

* *• The Nc^ito languages of the Philippines appear, judging from the scanty 
fpecimeus in my possession (says tlie eminent I*rot. Georg von der Gabelentz, of 
]x'ipzig), to enjoy grammatical systems very similar in fullness, richness, and in 
the phonetic means employed, to those of their light-coloured neighbours.*' — 
The Langunges of Melanesia^ in Journ. Hog. Asiat. Soc, 1886, vol. xviii. pp. 
489-490. i)r. II. Kern, of Leide, in the Bijdragen tot de iaal- land- en ro/- 
kmkuude van Nederlaudsch- Indies 4th ser. vol. vi. pp. 243-264, claims for their 
language a character thoroughly Malayo-Polynesian, and largely connected 
with tlie Philippine dialects, with certain admixture from more remote members 
of the family. 

2 This is shown by their ideological indices, a) Andamanese, I 4 5 8 I. III. ; 
Silungs, Samaugs, 1 4 5 8 III., and so far like the Papuas of New Guinea. 
b) The Kamuks, Kameits, and Tjrao have the indices 2 4 6 8 VI. of the Mon- 
'I'ai. Should the Negritos of tlie Philippines have the same indices as the 
Tagala, these would be 2 4 6 7 IV., therefore belonging to the second group. 

* A vocabulary collected from the Kamuch has been collected by Mr. Holt 
Ilallet and will soon be published. One from the Cancho has appeared in J. 
Moura, Le Ctwibodge^ vol. i. pp. 439-447 ; and one of the Tj'rou by E. Aymonier, 
in Excursions it Iteconnaiasances, No. 24 (Saigon, 1886), pp. 316-316. 



PROF. LACOUPEKIB ON THE PRE-CHINESE LANGUAGES* 467 



XVI. Thb FaB-CHiNESB Aboriginal Indoxbsians. 

" 129. In the second part of the present work,' we have 
called attention to the striking influence exercised by a special 
stock of languages on certain ancient texts in Chinese 
character, written at a time and in a region where the 
Chinese, in their advance towards the west of China proper, 
had fallen into contact with some native tribes, Indonesian 
in their customs, and therefore, judging from this influence, 
Indonesian also in language. The former population of the 
country has been so completely swept away by the Chinese, 
that no distinct remains have been hitherto pointed out. 
However, we do not despair of hearing of some surviving 
tribe of Indonesians still taking refuge in an out-of-the-way 
comer of the mountains, such as in the Peiling range, west 
of the province of Fuhkien, and having preserved something 
of their older language.^ Anyhow, in the present state of 

> i 23, aboTe. 

* On the sunriving rude tribes of this part, cf. Geo. Minchin, A Race of Men 
and Women Living at Pei-ling, in Notts and Qtteries/or China and Japan ^ 1870^ 
Tol. iv. pp. 121-122. From their reported tradition these seem to belong to the 
Pong race. Rev. R. N. Lion, Notes of a Tour in South Chekiangy in The Chinese 
Rteorder and Missionary Journal, 1875, p. 261. Martini in the seventeenth and 
Marco Polo in the thirteenth century had mentioned such tribes. But nothing 
has hitherto been said of their language. The Rev. F. Ohlinger has published 
u£ Visit to the * Dog-eared Barbarians ' or Hill-People jlj ^ near Foo ehow, in 
1 886 {ibid, vol. xvii. pp. 265-268), who call themselves Sia-bo, and are apparently 
the same as those aescribed by Mr. Geo. Minchin. They claim to have come 
from the Canton province. The following triple list of words, to which 1 subjoin 
the so-called Chinese, and the Hakka numerals, come from the above-quoted 
article: 



Snolish. 


SlA-BO. 


FUHTCHOU. 


Hakka. 


Chinese. 


tea 


teh'6 


da 


ts'a 


tcha 


water 


ssu 


• • 

jut 


shut 


shui 


house 


lau 


tchUo 


tcuk 


u'u{k 


^"66 


shU 


tcheu 


shu 


shu 


earth 


t'i 


de 


Vi 


ti 


heaven 


t^ang 


Vieng 


Ven 


tien 


man 


nging 


noug 


ngin 


jen {njen\ 


sit 


teh'6 


soi 


ts'6 


tso 


Bedan 


k'iun 


gieu 


y» 


kiao 


pen 


bik 


bek 


yut 


pi{t 


paper 


• • 


jai 


tshi 


tehe 


word 


teh'i 


J^ 


s 


tze 


wheat 


ma 


mah 


mak 


mai{k 


cow, ox 


ngaou 


ngu 


ngu 


niu 


bat 


mo 


mo 


man 


mao 


hand 


ssiu 


tchHu 


shu 


shou 


foot 


giok 


k'a 


kyok 


kio{k 



468 



THB president's ADDRESS FOR 18S6. 



oar knowledge, we must be content with the indirect linguistic 
proof here mentioned, besides a knowledge of seyeral di^eda 
membra^ now representatives scattered west, south, and east 
of the former Indonesian dialects on the soil of the present 
China. 

" 130. The geographical position of the Gyarung, common 
on the north borders of Tibet and China, so far apart firom 
their cognates in language, and also their smaller stature 
<;ompared with that of their neighbours, shows them to be 
a displaced population. Let us remember that at the time 
of the leadership of Shun, when the Chinese made their first 
advance into Honan, some tribes hostile to them had to be 
removed to the west,^ and we may accept the Chinese statement 
that they are the descendants of these removed tribes, now, 
much altered by the surrounding influences. The removed 
people were a northern portion of the San Miao, whose 
central quarters lay around the Po-yang lake, and also to 
the north of the Yang-tze kiang. The descendants of these 
Miao now in the S.W. prove in their languages to have 
common features with that of the Gyarung, a name which. 



English. 


SlA-BO. FUHTCUOU. 


IIakka. 


Chinesb. 


mouth 


>» 


teh'oi 


tsoi 


tsui 


field 


Vang 


tcKeng 


fen 


tien 


rice 


wei 


mi 


mi 


mi 


bridge 


kUu 


gio 


k'yau 


kiao 


stone 


sshiah 


sioh 


shak 


sht{k 


vegetable 


teh'oi 


teh'ai 


U'oi 


Uai 


boat 


sshiong 


sung 


t'yang 


tehuen 


Girl 


S. ju niong giang 




Boy S. diang buo giang 




F. bung ngiikjoi 




F. teh'iong 


bu/oi 




II. a-Uyau-moi 




H. a tsyau 


(isat) 




C. ku-niang 




C. tung tu 




•one 


ek 


sioh 


yit 


yiit 


two 


yong 


lang 


nye 


erh, (ni) liang 


three 


sang 


sang 


sahm 


san {sam) 


four 


si 


se 


see 


ne 


five 


ng 


9igo 


ng 


tru (ngu) 


six 


ink 


lek 


Ink 


lu(k 


seven 


teh'ik 


tchUk 


ts'ut 


Ui{t 


eight 


bah 


biak 


paht 


pa{t 


nine 


giu 


gau 


kiu 


kiu 


ten 


hsik 


sek 


ship 


shi(jt 



Nothing is said of the ideology. The words show that this people had giren 
up their own language and adopted dialectal Chinese. 
1 Shu-king, II. i. 11. 




PROF. LAOOUPERIE ON THE PRE-CHINSSE LANGUAGES. 469 

by the way, is said to be nothing else than a Tibetan sur- 
name.^ 

"131. The chief, and so far as I know the only, data on 
their language are those given by Mr. Brian Hodgson in 
1853.^ These consist of a vocabulary of 176 words and a 
few remarks, given at the same time as six other vocabularies 
of Northern Tibet, and also in another paper. The venerable 
scholar, to whom we are indebted for so much material about 
the little-known languages of that region, was struck by the 
complicated system of prefixes and infixes affixed to the 
verb in Gyarung similar to that of the Tagala, and in order 
to show their relationship, in speaking of the Gyarung verb, 
he made use purposely of the statements of Leyden ^ about 
the said language spoken in the Philippines. 

" 132. Owing to its long continuance under Tataric 
influences, the Gyarung has adopted the ideological indices 
of the Altaic class, namely 13 5 8 III., as well as something 
of the phenomenon known as vowel-harmony by the harmoni- 
zation of the prefixed vowel with that of the significative 
vocable. And through the paramount influence of Tibetan, 
it has adopted the Kuenlunic numerals ; though preserving 
its older ones, as is often the case, for special uses of one and 
two. But it has preserved eastern features other than the 
complicated prefixed system. The numeral auxiliaries, or 
segregatives, and the class-prefixes inherent to the former 
state of the language, have not disappeared. 

" 133. They have been strongly assailed by decay from 
wear and tear in unfavourable surroundings, but something 
of them remains, and cannot be mistaken. There is no list 

^ Though perhaps a compound of Gya * foreign,' in Tibetan, and a native name 
Zunp or Mung. 

' Journal of the Asiatic Soeioty of Bengal^ toI. xxii. p. 121, reprinted in 
SeUetions from the Records of the Government of Bengal, No. xxvii. p. J 73 (Cal- 
cntta, 1857); and in his book on The Languages and Literature of Nepal and 
Tibet (London, 1874, 8to.)» part ii. pp. 65-82. And also instances given in his 
essay on the Mongolian Affinities of the Caucasiaus^ in the Journal of the Asiatie 
Society of Bengal^ vol. xxii. pp. 26-76. They display the ideological indices 
13 5 8 III. 

' In his paper still valuable, On the Languages and Literature of the Indo- 
Chinese Nations, in Asiatie Researches, 1808, vol. x. p. 209. Reprinted with 
bibliographical notes by Dr. R. Rest in Miscellaneous Fapers relating to Indo^ 
China (London, 1886, 2 vols.), I., pp. 84-171. 



470 THE president's address fob 1886. 

given of the segregatives, and only one instance is set forth 
by Mr. Brian Hodgson with the statement that they exist 
in the language. But the class-prefixes are largely ex- 
emplified in the vocabulary, yet the compiler has not con- 
sidered them with the attention they deserve. He has not 
seen that the present state is one of disorder arising from a 
decay not balanced by the usual regeneration resulting from 
linguistic surroundings of an identical stock. He has also 
only seen some of them. As a matter of fact we recognize 
four prefixes to nouns i-, t-, 6-, and r-, corresponding in a 
rough way, yet not in all the individual cases, to the A'-, t-, 
P', and /- of the liliao languages of China. In some cases 
the vowel of the prefix has been changed, and even nasalized, 
to match with that of the vocable of signification. In cases 
of an 8 initial to the latter, the t prefix has fused into it^ 
Another alteration is the preponderance taken by the dental 
prefix over the others ; not only superseding the less frequent 
r-+ and i-+ by superaddition and the A--+ altogether, but 
also showing a remarkable tendency to become mere signs of 
parts of speech; the t'+ absorbing all the nouns and the 
k'+ remaining with a more extensive field the prefix for 
adjectives and verbs.^ 

" 134. In glossary the afiinities of the Gyarung are with 
the Miao (Blue) of Kueitchou, the Tayal of Formosa, and 
especially the non-Kareng substratum of the Toungthus of 
Burma, all apparently branching ofi* a long time ago from 
a former common stock. The resemblances are extensive 
with the Toungthus, amounting to 25 per cent, of the 
vocabulary, except this important difierence, that the latter 
under the Sgau-Kareng influence has apparently given up 
the use of class-prefixes. 

" 135. Another remark may be added in winding-up that 
concerns the Gyarung ; the monosyllables seem to be strongly 
objectionable to its linguistic sense, and almost in every 
case where a vocable is diminished to an open syllable by 
contraction or wear and tear, analogy or otherwise, a prefix 

^ Nearly all the adjectiTes exhibit the prefix A:-, while 75 per cent, of the rerbs 
have the prefix /a*. 



PROF. LAC0UFEB1B ON THE PRE-CHINESE LANGUAGES. 471 

is sure to be added. A single syllable in this language, as in 
so many others, does not present a sufficient basis for the mind 
to stand upon and admit from its single sound, the concrete 
meaning generally required by a low standard of mental 
force. These remarks apply to the so-called monosyllabio 
languages of S.E. Asia, at large and in particular.^ 

" 136. The TouNGTHUS of Burma are generally looked upon 
as Karengs for all purposes ; but this handy explanation of 
a difficult problem of ethnology has become insufficient.^ 
Proofs may be adduced to show that their Kareng character 
is not more than a varnish which disappears under the 
pressure of criticism. The Sgau-Kareng affinities are ap- 
parently loan-words of recent date; and the other Kareng 
affinities are words borrowed in common by the Karengs and 
the Toungthus from the Mon stock.' 

** 137. They call themselves Pan-yau (also Pa-o), a name 
which recalls to mind the Pan^yao * tribes, and also Pan-t/u, 
the old name of Canton territory. And they claim Thatun^ 
as their ancient capital, wrested from them by the Mon- 
Peguans ; they declare that its name is derived from Tha-too, 
the word for ^laterite' in their language, and of which mineral 
the hills in the vicinity of this old city chiefly consist. They 
must have come down at an early period, about the Christian 
era, into the peninsula.^ 



^ On the illosioiLs about monosyllabism, cf . below, { 204. 

* On the Tonngthttt, cf. Dr. Ad. Bastian, Joum. Roy, Aiiat, 8oe, 1868. 
BrUUh Burma Oautteer, i. 186-188. 

* Dr. Forchhammer, in Notes on the Languages and Diaieets Spoken in Britieh 
Burma, p. 11. The Rev. C. Bennett, to Rangoon, p. 15, and Mr. P. H Martyr, 
of Myanngmya, p. 16, testify in the same place to the mixed natnre of the 
Tonnffthn dialect in comparison with the Kareng dialects. 

« Ct. above, § 69. 

* Sitoated on a tidal creek opening into the Gnlf of Martaban, and formerly 
an important sea-port. Cf. Sir Arthur Pbayre, History of Burma, pp. 27-28. 
Dr. £m. Forchhammer, in his Notes on the Early History and Geography of 
British Burma, Rangoon, 1883, vol. i. p. 3, claims the P&li name Saddhamanagara 
as the ori^^inal appellatiTe of Thatdn, but this is merely, as in many other instances, 
the grafting of a jPMi etymology upon a foreign and previous name. We hear of 
this port from Chinese sources about the Cnristian era as Ta-tan, afterwards 
cormpted in Chinese phonology into Ta-tsin, and one of the several appearances 
of this geographical denommation. About Ta-tan^^Ta-tsin, cf. Terrien de 
JLaconpene, The Sinim of Isaiah not the Chinese, p. 46 of The Babylonian and 
Oriental Record^ January, 1887. 

* Albert Fytche, Burma Past and Present, vol. i. p. 341. 

PhiL Tnuu. 18S0-6. 31 



472 THE president's address for 1886. 

" 138. Their glossarial affinities with the non-Chinese tribei 
of China are similar to those of Gyaningy with whom the 
large proportion of similar words indicates a close relation- 
ship, though remote in time, as we have seen in a previous 
page (§ 134). 

** 139. The Tayal of Formosa,^ and probably some other 
dialects of the same great island opposite the Chinese coast 
of Fuhkien, are entitled to a place in this survey, not because 
these dialects, ipsis verbis^ were formerly spoken on the 
mainland of Pre-Ghina, but simply for the reason that they 
are made up greatly of linguistic elements which have been 
carried thence to the island. The uninterrupted introduction 
of linguistic and ethnical elements from the Philippines, the 
Celebes, the Liu-kiu islands, etc., have blended, often beyond 
recognition, all the original characteristics. Add to these 
the important Chinese influence always proceeding, also the 
temporary and casual Dutch, Spanish, Malay influences and 
others which, though left undescribed, must never be neglected 
when dealing with uncultured tribes; and we may easily 
imagine that in some cases the relationship of the broken 
dialects of broken tribes must be given up in despair. The 
problems are further complicated like those in question here, 
when the superimposition and intermingling of languages 
take place, for the most part, between dialects and tongues, 
variously derived and diverged from branches of one common 
stock.^ 

" 140. Tn addition to the aforesaid difficulties, we have 
still to mention the defective character of the documents 
which we have to work upon. A dictionary of the Favorlang 
dialect, compiled in the seventeenth century; granmiatical 
notices of the same; a vocabulary with sentences in the 

1 On the Tayal and its group of dialects, cf . M. Gu6rin, Vocabylaire du HaieeU 
Tayal ou Aborighie de ViU de Formoaey in Bullet. Soe. Geagr.^ Paris, 1868, xri 
pp. 466-495 ; L*Abb6 Favre, Note sur la latigue dee Aboriginee de file Formate 
et remarques sur la precedent voeabtUairey ibid. pp. 496-607. Mr. E. C. Taintor, 
in bis valuable paper on IVte Ahorigifies of Northern Formosa {Jfmm. North 
China Branch Boy. Asiat. Soe. 1876, vol. ii. pp. 63-88) has given a vocabularj 
of the Kabaran Pepohwan, and also one of the lukan- Tayal. 

^ All these remarks apply as well to the greater part of the langoagee spoken 
of in this work. 



PROF. LAOOUPBRIE ON THE PRE-CHINESE LANGUAGES. 473 

Tayal dialect ; texts in Favorlang, Sideic and Old Pepohwan, 
with short lists of words from the twenty and odd other 
dialects, form the whole of the material at the disposition 
of scholars for study. ^ 

"141. In the search after the relationship of languages, 
historical information and geographical conTenience must not 
he neglected. The great island of Formosa, in proximity to 
the mainland, could not have received its populations exclu- 
sively from the outside islands. Whatever facilities the 
currents and winds may have given to the numerous migra- 
tions which, willingly or unwillingly, have reached its shores 
south, east, and north, the nearness of its coasts, in full view 
of the mainland, was a sufficient temptation for the inhabit- 
ants of the Chinese coast to venture on the journey. The 
pre-Ghinese tribes of the maritime provinces of China were 
addicted to seafaring,^ and their roving habits were for long 
an obstacle to the Chinese advance. When compelled to 
interfere because of internecine wars between the local 
princes of native states in 110 B.C., the Chinese troops 
withdrew as soon as they could,^ leaving the country * vacant,' 
as they s